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BAEDEKER'S guide books. 

Belgium and Holland, with 5 Maps and 13 Plans. Second Edition. 
1871 As. 

The Rhine and Northern Germany, with 23 Maps and 38 Plans. 
Fourth Edition. 1870 6 s. 

Southern Germany and Austria, including the Eastern Alps, with 
18 Maps aim '20 Plans. Second Edition. 1871 :"> s. 

Northern Italy, as far as Leghorn, Florence, and Ancona, and 
the Island of Corsica, with 6 Maps and 27 Plans. Second Edition. 
1870 5 s. 

Central Italy and Rome, with 3 Maps and Plans. Third 
Edition. 1872 b x. 

Southern Italy, Sicily, and excursions to the Lipari Islands, 
Tunis, Sardinia. Malta and At.h«ttis- with 6 Maps and 7 Plans. 
Second Edii 

Paris and N 
Second Edit 

Switzerland , 
Tyrol , w itl 
Edition, wii 
1870. . . 

The Traveller 

French and 



und 19 Plans. 
5 s. 

Italy, Savoy and the 

Panoramas. Fourth 

own to the spring of 

.... 5 s. 6 d. 

in English, German, 
1870 ..... 3 .<. 

Belgien und I. ** s- ^ h F~V>~%/' ■ ■ ' ™ r - ^0 Sgr. 

Deutschland u flage. 1871. 3 Thlr. 

Mittel- u. Non , 1871. 1 Thlr. 20 Sgr. 

Oesterreich, Suu- ii . itobi.uouwvu.mmiu. » ioi/.cuiite Aufl. 1870. 2Thlr. 
Sudbaiern, Tirol und Salzburg etc. Vierzehnte Aufl. 1870. 1 Thlr. 

Ober-Italien. Fiinfte Auflage. 1870 1 Thlr. 20 Sgr. 

Mittel-Italien und Rom. Dritte Auflage. 1872. 1 Thlr. 20 Sgr. 
Unter-Italien, Sicilien etc. Dritte Auflage. 1872. 1 Thlr. 20 Sgr. 

London nebst Ausfliigen nach Sud-England, Wales u. Schottland. 

Vierte Auflage. 1871 1 Thlr. 20 Sgr. 

Paris und Nord-Frankreich. Siebente Auflage. 1870. 1 Thlr. 18 Sgr. 
Rheinlande. Sechzehnte Auflage. 1871. ... 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Schweiz. Dreizehnte Auflage. 1870 1 Thlr. 22 Sgr. 

Conversationsbuch. Zwanzigste Auflage. 1870. ... 1 Thlr. 

.lajmary 1872. 




MONEY-TABLE (comp. p. XIV). 

Approximate Equivalents. 

Lire. Centesimi. 

Dollars. Cents. 

L. St. Shillings. Pence. 


5 (= 1 soldo) 
25 (= 5 soldi) 
50 (= 10 „ ) 
75 (= 15 „ ) 
- (= 20 „ ) 


























2>| 2 

93| 4 



7>| 2 



9»| 4 


2>| 3 

9 3 U 









With 3 Maps and 9 Plans. 

Third Edition, Revised and Augmented. 



All Rights reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 

CHAUCER, 1380. 


The object of the present Handbook, like that of the 
Editor's other works of the same description, is to render 
the traveller as independent as possible of the services of 
guides, valets-de-place, and others of the same class, to 
supply him with a few remarks on the progress of civili- 
sation and art among the people with whom he is about 
to become acquainted, and to enable him to realise to the 
fullest extent the enjoyment and instruction of which Italy 
is so fruitful a source. 

The Handbook is, moreover, intended to place the tra- 
veller in a position to visit the places and objects most 
deserving of notice with the greatest possible economy of 
time , money , and , it may be added , temper ; for in no 
country is the traveller's patience more severely put to 
the test than in some parts of Italy. The Editor will 
endeavour to accompany the enlightened traveller through 
the streets of the Italian towns, to all the principal edifices 
and works of art; and to guide his steps amidst the ex- 
quisite scenery in which Italy so richly abounds. 

With a few trifling exceptions , the entire book is fram- 
ed from the Editor's personal experience, acquired at the 
places described. As, however, infallibility cannot be at- 
tained, the Editor will highly appreciate any bond Jide in- 
formation with which travellers may favour him. That al- 
ready received, which in many instances has been most 
serviceable, he gratefully acknowledges. 

The Maps and Plans, the result of great care and 
research, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The division of the Plan of Rome into three 


sections will be found very convenient , entirely obviating 
the disagreeable necessity of unfoldung a large sheet of 
paper at every consultation. The inexperienced are recom- 
mended, when steering their course with the aid of a plan, to 
mark with a coloured pencil, before starting, the point for 
which they are bound. This will enable them to avoid 
many a circuitous route. For the benefit of those who de- 
sire to become more intimately acquainted with the country 
than the limits of the present work admit of, the admirable 
Sii2>plementary Sheets of G. Mayr's Atlas of the Alps (for 
Central and Southern Italy) may be mentioned. They are 
most easily procured in Germany (price, mounted, 2 dollars 
each). For Naples the map of the Real Officio Topografieo 
(Naples, 1835) will be found useful. 

Altitudes are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 
0..304S metre = 0,971 Paris, ft.). 

Distances are given in English miles. The Italian 
'miglia' varies in different districts. Approximately it may 
be stated that 1 Engl. M. = 6 / 7 Ital. migl. = l l / u Roman 

Railway, Diligence, and Steamboat Time- 
tables. The most trustworthy are contained in the 
' Guida-Orario vfficiale di tutte le strode fen-ate d' Italia 
contenente anche le indicazioni dei Piroscafl (steamboats), 
Corrieri, Diligeuze , etc. , with map, published at Milan 
(price 40 c). 

Hotels. In no country does the treatment which the 
traveller experiences at hotels vary so much as in Italy, 
and attempts at extortion are probably nowhere so outra- 
geous. The asterisks are therefore to be received as in- 
dicating those hotels which the Editor believes to be com- 
paratively respectable, clean, and reasonable. The average 
charges stated in the Handbook will at least enable the 
traveller to form a fair estimate of the demands which can 
be justly made. 


Introduction. Page 

I. Travelling Expenses. Monetary System XIII 

II. Period and Plan of Tour XV 

III. Language XVI 

IV. Passports and Custom-houses .... XVI 
V. Public Safety. Beggars XVII 

VI. Intercourse with Natives . XVIII 

VII. Locomotion . XX 

VIII. Hotels XXIV 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's etc XXVI 

X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc XXVII 

XI. Postal Arrangements XXVIII 

XII. Calculation of Time XXIX 

XIII. Climate. Mode of Life XXIX 

XIV. Chronological Table of Recent Events .... XXX 
Historical Sketch of Italian Art XXXIII 


1. From Marseilles (Genoa) to Leghorn (Civita Vecchia and 
Naples) 1 

2. From Florence to Rome (by sea) via Leghorn and Civita 
Vecchia 8 

1. From Civita Vecchia to La Tolfa 11 

3. From Florence to Rome by the Maremme 13 

1. Piombino and Populonia 14 

2. From Grosseto to Rusellse 15 

3. Orbetello. Monte Argentario 15 

4. From Montalto to Vulci 16 

5. Corneto 16 

4. From Leghorn to Volterra 18 

1. Monte Catini. La Cava. Lagoni di Monte Cerboli . . 21 

5. Elba and the Tuscan Islands 21 

6. From Florence to Rome by Siena, Orvieto, and Viterbo . 23 

1. From Poggibonsi to San Gimignanol 23 

2. From Asciano to Torrenieri. Monte Oliveto Maggiore . 30 

3. Monte Pulciano. Pienza 31 

4. Excursions from Viterbo. Castel d'Asso. Norchia. Tos- 
canella. Bomarzo 38 

5. Caprarola 39 

6. From Konciglione to Monterosi by Sutri 39 

7. From Siena to Perugia (and Rome) by Chiusi ... 41 

8. From Florence to Rome by Arezzo, Perugia, and Foligno 42 
From Florence to Arezzo and Cortona 42 


Route Page 

From Gortona to Perugia 48 

1. From Perugia to Narni by Todi 54 

2. From Perugia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber . . • 55 
From Perugia to Foligno by Assisi 55 

3. Bevagna. Montefalco 59 

From Foligno to Rome 59 

4. From Narni to Otricoli 64 

From Borghetto to Rome by Civita Castellana and Rignano 66 

5. Falerii 66 

6. From Civita Castellana to Home by Nepi 68 

9. From Bologna to Rome by Ancona (Fakonara) and Foligno 68 

1. From Kimini to San Marino 71 

2. From Pesaro to Urbino 72 

From Fano to Foligno and Rome via Gubbio ... 74 

10. From Trieste to Ancona 77 

11. From Ancona to Rome 78 

1. From Fabriano to Sassoferrato 80 

2. From Ancona to Foligno by Civitanuova, Macerata, To- 
lentino, San Severino, and Camerino 81 

12. Rome . . 83 

Arrival. Consulates. Money. Bankers. Hotels. 

Private Apartments. Restaurants 84 

Cafes. Gratuities. Baths. Physicians. Chemists. Booksellers. 

Teachers £5 

Studios. Permessi. Export of works of art 86 

Shops. Theatres 87 

Church Festivals 88 

Popular Festivals. Carnival. Street-scenes. Promenades. 

Fiacres and Omnibuses 90 

English Church Service. Post and Telegraph Office. Cigars. 

Vetturini. Railways. Steamboats 91 

Collections, Villas, etc 92 

Diary 93 

Preliminary drive 94 

History of the City of Rome 94 

Topography 103 

I. Strangers' Quarter and Corso 106 

'Piazza del Popolo. English Church. : S. Maria del Popolo 107 

"The Pincio 108 

Villa Medici 109 

SS. Trinita de' Monti. Casa Zuccari 110 

Piazza di Spagna. Propaganda. S. Andrea delle Fratte . Ill 

"Fontana di Trevi 112 

The Corso. S. Carlo al Corso. S. Lorenzo in Lucina . . 113 

Palazzo Chigi. "Piazza Colonna. Piazza di Monte Citorio . 114 

s Dogana (Temple of Neptune). Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna . 115 


Route Page 

S. Ignazio. Collegio Romano. -Museo Kircheriano . . . 116 

S. Marcello. S. Maria in Via Lata 116 

'Palazzo Doria 117 

*SS. Apostoli 118 

-Palazzo Colonna 118 

Piazza di Venezia. Palazzo di Venezia. Palazzo Torlonia 120 

S. Marco. Monument of Bibulus 120 

--Gesu 121 

'Villa Borghese 122 

II. The Hills of Rome. Quirinal, Yiminal, Esquiline . 124 

"Fontana del Tritone. S. Maria della Concezione . . . 124 

'-Villa Ludovisi 125 

Gardens of Sallust. "Villa Albani 126 

'Palazzo Barberini 129 

Piazza di Monte Cavallo. Palazzo .della Consulta . . . 130 

"Palazzo Apostolico al Quirinale 130 

'Palazzo Kospigliosi 131 

S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo. S. Bernardo 132 

Piazza di Termini. S. Maria della Vittoria. Porta Pia. . 133 

Villa Torlonia. S. Agnese fuori. S. Costanza .... 134 

Railway Station. Thermte of Diocletian. 'S. Maria degliAngeli 135 

Campo Militare. S. Pudenziana 136 

S. Lorenzo in Pancperna. *S. Maria Maggiore .... 137 

S. Antonio Abbate. 'S. Prassede . . . . ' . . . . 13S 

Porta S. Lorenzo. "S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura .... 139 

Arch of Gallienus. S. Eusebio 140 

S. Bibiana. Temple of Minerva Medica. -Porta Maggiore 141 

'S. Croce in Gerusalemme. Amphitheatrum Castrense . . 142 

S. Martino ai Monti. *S. Pietro in Vincoli 143 

III. Rome on the Tiber 144 

Mausoleum of Augustus 144 

'Palazzo Borghese 145 

"S. Agostino 148 

S. Luigi de' Francesi 149 

Universita della Sapienza. Piazza della Rotonda. "Pantheon 150 

t; 8. Maria sopra Minerva 152 

Palazzo Madama. 'Piazza Navona 153 

S. Agnese. 'S. Maria dell' Anima 154 

*S. Maria della Pace. Palazzo Vidoni 155 

'S. Andrea della Valle. Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne . . 156 

Palazzo Braschi. Piazza di Pasquino. Chiesa Nuova . . 157 

'Palazzo della Cancelleria. S. Lorenzo in Damaso . . . 158 

'Palazzo Farnese 158 

'Palazzo Spada alia Begola 160 

S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini. S. Carlo a' Catinari . . 161 

Palazzo Costaguti. Palazzo Mattei 162 

S. Maria in Campitelli 162 

Ghetto. Colonnade of Octavia 163 

Theatre of Marcellus 164 


Route Page 

IV. Ancient Rome 164 

*S. Maria in Araceli 165 

-"'Piazza del Campidoglio. Palazzo del Senatore .... 166 

Tarpeian Rock. ! 'Tabularium 167 

'"Forum Romanum. "Temple of Saturn 16S 

Colonnade of the Twelve Gods. * Temple of Vespasian. 

Temple of Concordia 169 

'Triumphal Arch of Septlmius Severus 169 

Rostra. ''Column of Phocas. Basilica Julia 170 

"Temple of Castor and Pollux. "Career Mamertinus . . . 170 

"Temple of Faustina. *SS. Cosma e Damiano .... 171 

"Basilica of Constantine 171 

S. Francesca Romana. "Triumphal Arch of Titus . . . 172 

Temple of Venus and Roma. ""Colosseum 173 

"Triumphal Arch of Constantine. "Thermee of Titus . . . 176 

Forum of Nerva 177 

Accademia di S. Luca. Forum of Augustus 178 

"Forum of Trajan 179 

The Palatine 180 

Farnese Gardens. Palatine Museum 181 

Palace of Caligula. Domus Tiberiana 182 

Palace of the Flavii 182a 

Temple of Jupiter Victor. Palace of Commodus and 

Septimius Severus 182c 

Paedagogium. S. Tevdoro 183 

"Janus Quadrifrons. S. Giorgio in Velabro. "Arcus Argen- 

tarius. "Cloaca Maxima. S. Maria in Cosmedin . . . 184 

"Temple of Vesta. "S. Maria Egiziaca 185 

Circus Maximus. The Aventine 186 

Protestant Cemetery. "Pyramid of Cestius. Monte Testaccio 187 

*S. Sabina 188 

S. Alessio. S. Maria Aventina 189 

Porta S. Paolo. ,: S. Paolo fuori le Mura 190 

Via Appia. "Thermse of Caracalla. SS. Nereo ed Achilleo . 192 

S. Cesareo. S. Giovanni a Porta Latina 193 

"Tomb of the Scipios. Arch of Drusus 194 

The Cselius. S. Gregorio. SS. Giovanni e Paolo . . . 195 

S. Maria in Domnica. S. Stefano Rotondo 196 

S. Clemente 197 

SS. Quattro Coronati 200 

"S. Giovanni in Laterano 200a 

Gregorian Museum 201 

Villa Massimo. Villa Wolkonsky 204 

Collections of the Capitol 205 

V. Quarters of the City on the Right Bank .... 210 

Ponte S. Angelo. Castello S. Angelo 211 

"Palazzo Giraud. Ospedale S. Spirito 212 

""Piazza di S. Pietro 213 

*"S. Pietro in Vaticano 214 


Route Page 

Cimiterio dei Tedesclii 220 

Longara. "S. Onofrio 220 

;1: Villa Farnesina 221 

'Palazzo Corsini 222 

Trastevere. S. Pietro in Montorio 224 

"Villa Doria Pamfili 22G 

Isola di S. Bartolommeo. Ponte Eotto. S. Crisogono . . 228 

"S. Maria in Trastevere 229 

S. Cecilia in Trastevere. Ospizio S. Michel e 230 

The Vatican 230 

Sala Ducale. Sala Regia. "'Sixtine Chapel. Pauline Chapel 232 

'""Raphael's Loggie 234 

"•Raphael's Stanze 235 

"Cappella Xiccolina 238 

Museum of Statues. Galleria Lapidaria 239 

"Braccio Nuovo 239 

"Museo Chiaramonti 240 

""Museo Pio-Clementino 241 

"Raphael's Tapestry 246 

"Museo Gregoriano of Etruscan Antiquities 247 

Egyptian Museum 248 

""Picture Gallery 249 

"Library of the Vatican 250 

The Catacombs 253 

13. Environs of Rome 253 

A. Short Excursions in the Campagna 259 

From the Porta Portese. Grove of the Arvales. Magliana . 259 

From the Porta S. Paolo. Tre Fontane 260 

From the Porta S. Sebastiano. Via Appia. Domine Quo Va- 

dis. S. Sebastiano 261 

"Circus of Maxentius. "Tomb of Csecilia Metella .... 263 

Temple of the Deus Rediculus. Grotto of Egeria. S. TJrbano 264 

From the Porta S. Giovanni. Via Latina. Porta Furba . . 266 

From the Porta Maggiore. Torre Pignattara. Tor de' Schiavi 267 

From the Porta S. Lorenzo. From the Porta Pia . . . 268 

From the Porta Salara. Fidense 268 

From the Porta del Popolo. Acqua Acetosa 269 

From the Porta Angelica. Monte Mario. Villa Mellini. Villa 

Madama 270 

B. Longer Excursions from Rome to the Mountains and 

the Sea 271 

The Alban Mountains 271 

Frascati 271 

Grotta Ferrata 273 

Marino 274 

Rocca di Papa. Monte Cavo 275 

Palazzuola. Lago di Albano. Alba Longa 276 

Albano. Castel Gandolfo. The Emissarius. Ariccia . . 278 


Route Page 

Genzano. Civita Lavinia. Velletri 279 

Nemi and its lake 280 

The Sabine Mountains 280 

Tivoli 280 

Subiaco 284 

Palestrina 287 

Olevano 289 

Genazzane 290 

Monte Gennaro 291 

Valley of Licenza 291 

The Volscian Mountains 291 

Cori 292 

Norma 293 

Segni _ 294 

Etruscan Towns 294 

Veii 294 

Galera 296 

Bracciano 297 

Ceere ... 298 

The Sea-coast of Latium 299 

Ostia. Castel Fusano. Tor Paterno. Pratica. Ardea . . 299 

Porto. Fiumicino. Isola Sacra 301 

Porto d'Anzio 302 

Nettuno. Astura 303 

Index 304 

List of streets in the plan of Rome 312 

List of Maps and Plans. 

1. Map of Italy, facing title-page. 

2. Plan of Marseilles, between pp. 2 and 3. 

3. Plan of Siena, between pp. 24 and 25. 

4. Plan of Perugia, between pp. 48 and 49. 

5. Plan of A n c o n a , between pp. 78 and 79. 

6. Large Plan, and 

7. Key-Plan of Rome, at the end of the volume. 

8. Plan of Ancient Rome, between pp. 164 and 165. 

9. Plan of the Forum Eomaniim, between pp. 168 and 169. 

10. Plan of the Vatican, between pp. 230 and 231. 

11. Map of the Environs of Rome, between pp.258 and 259. 

12. Map of the Roman Campagna, between pp. 270 and 271. 


R. = Room, B. = Breakfast, D. = Dinner, A. = Attendance, L. = 
Light. — r. = right, 1. = left; also applied to the banks of a river with 
reference to the traveller looking down the stream. — N., S., E., W., the 
points of the compass and adjectives derived from them. 


are employed as marks of commendation. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree $ 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 


From the earliest ages down to the present time Italy has 
ever exercised a powerful influence on the denizens of more nor- 
thern lands, and a journey thither has often been the fondly 
cherished wish of many an aspiring traveller. At the present day 
this wish may be gratified with comparative facility. Northern 
Italy is now connected by a direct 'iron route' with the southern 
portion of the peninsula, as far as Naples and Brindisi , and the 
approaching completion of a great network of railways will soon 
enable the traveller to penetrate into the interior of provinces 
hitherto untrodden by the ordinary tourist. Prior to 1860 the 
peninsula possessed but few railways , and these of insignificant 
extent, and exclusively of local importance. Rapidity of locomo- 
tion is not, however, the sole advantage which has been attained 
since that period. A single monetary system has superseded the 
numerous and perplexing varieties of coinage formerly in use ; the 
annoyances inseparable from passports and custom-houses , with 
which the traveller was assailed at every frontier, and even in 
many an insignificant town, have been greatly mitigated; and 
energetic measures have been adopted in order to put an end to 
the extortions of vetturini, facchini, and other members of this 
irritating class. While those in search of adventure and excite- 
ment will miss many of the characteristic elements of former 
Italian travel, those who desire the more rational enjoyments de- 
rived from scenery, art, or science will not fail to rejoice in the 
altered state of the country. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Monetary System. 

The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the travel- 
ler's resources and habits. Generally it may be stated that the 
expenses need not exceed those incurred in the more frequented 
parts of the continent. The average expenditure of a single tra- 
veller may be estimated at 25 francs per diem , or about half 
that sum when a prolonged stay is made at one place. Travellers 
acmiaintpd with thp i»"™'™ •>■"* habits of the country may sue- 


ceed in reducing their expenses to still narrower limits. Persons 
travelling as members of a party may effect a considerable saving. 
Where ladies are of the party the expenses are always unavoidably 
greater ; not merely because the better hotels, and the more com- 
fortable modes of locomotion are selected, but because the Italians 
regard the traveller in this case as wealthier , and therefore a 
more fitting object for extortion. 

In the Kingdom of Italy the French monetary system is now 
universal. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi. 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 10 silbergroschen = 35 German kreuzer = 
60 Austrian kreuzer. The silver coins in common circulation 
are Italian pieces of 1 and 2 fr., and Italian or French 5 fr. .pieces; 
gold coins of the Italian or French currency of 10 and 20 fr. are 
the commonest (those of 5 and 40 fr. rare). 

Since the introduction of a paper currency during the [war 
of 1866. at a compulsory rate of exchange, gold and silver almost 
entirely disappeared from ordinary circulation. This at first gave 
rise to great confusion, as not only the principal banks, but the 
different provinces and towns issued notes of their own, which could 
not be realised beyond the limits of their respective districts. 
This state of matters has , however , now been remedied to a 
great extent, but as the relative values of banknotes and the 
valuable metals still differ, the traveller should endeavour to 
familiarise himself with the present rates of exchange. The notes 
of the Banca Nazionale, for 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100 francs, 
and upwards are current throughout the whole of Italy. The 
principal banks also issue notes of ] /2 f f - > which cannot however 
be readily realised except within the district of their issue. Thus 
at Rome and in the environs the papal notes and those of the 
Banca del Popolo, at Naples and throughout S. Italy those of the 
Banca di Napoli, and in Sicily those of the Banca di Sicilia are 
confined to local circulation. Gold and silver are worth 5 — 6 per 
cent more than paper; those therefore who make a payment in 
gold are entitled to decline receiving banknotes in exchange, un- 
less the difference in value be taken into account. The traveller 
who changes gold for banknotes at a money-changer's should take 
care to stipulate for notes of convenient value and of the bank 
of the district he intends visiting. The purses employed in most 
other countries are of course unsuitable for carrying large bundles 
of notes ; one of those adapted for the purpose may be purchased 
in Italy for I1/2 — 2 fr. , in addition to which a strong pouch for 
copper wiil be found serviceable. 

In some parts of Italy the former currency is still employed 
in keeping accounts , and the coins themselves are occasionally 
seen. Thus the francesconi and crazie of Tuscany , the scudi 
and bajocchi of the former States of the Church, the piastri and 
grani of Naples, and the uncie and tari of Sicily. An acquaintance 


with these now nearly obsolete currencies is, however, not essential 
unless the traveller diverges from the beaten track, in which case 
the necessary information will be afforded by the Handbook. 

The traveller should, before entering Italy, provide himself 
with French Gold (one napoleon = 21 — 21 ^ fr. in paper), which 
he may procure in England , France , or Germany on more ad- 
vantageous terms than in Italy. Sovereigns (equivalent to 26 — 28 
fr. in paper) are received at the full value by most of the 
principal hotel keepers , but this is not the case in the less 
frequented districts. Circular Notes, which may be obtained at 
the principal English banks, will be found convenient for the 
transport of large sums. 

II. Period and Plan of Tour. 

The season selected , and the duration of the tour must of 
course depend on the traveller himself. Suffice it to remark 
that the colder months are those usually preferred. The ma- 
jority of travellers bound for the South cross the Alps in Sep- 
tember and October , and arrive in Rome about the beginning 
of November. Rome is the favourite winter-residence of strangers 
until the Carnival, but at the commencement of Lent the city is 
deserted by many for the gayer scenes of Naples. At Easter it 
is again inundated by a vast concourse of visitors , who flock 
thither in order to witness the sumptuous ecclesiastical pagean- 
try of the 'Holy Week' , and depart as soon as their curio- 
sity has been gratified. Some then proceed to Naples, Florence, 
or other parts of Italy ; the majority , however , prepare to quit 
the country before the commencement of summer. In this vast 
and ever-varying influx of travellers the English element is always 
greatly predominant. 

No month in the year can be pronounced absolutely unfavour- 
able for travelling in Italy, but the seasons recommended are the 
late autumn months (Sept. 15th to Nov. loth), and April and 
May. The rainy winter months should , if possible, be avoided 
for the commencement of a tour, and may be most profitably 
spent in one of the larger cities, of which Rome offers by far the 
most numerous and varied attractions. June, July, and August are 
hardly less unfavourable for a tour. The scenery indeed is then 
in perfection , and the long days are hailed with satisfaction by 
the active traveller; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom 
fail to exercise a prejudicial influence upon the physical and 
menta energies. This result is not occasioned so much by the inten- 
sity , as by the protracted duration of the heat , the sky being 
frequently cloudless , and not a drop of rain falling for several 
months in succession. The first showers of autumn , which fall 
about the end of August, again commence to refresh the parched 


The Plan of a tour in Italy must be framed in accordance 
with the object which the traveller has in view. Florence, Rome, 
and Naples are the principal centres of attraction ; the less fre- 
quented districts of the interior, however, are also replete with 
inexhaustible sources of interest. In order to obtain a more than 
superficial acquaintance with Italy, the traveller must not devote 
his attention to the larger towns exclusively. The farther he 
diverges from the beaten track , the better opportunities he will 
have of gaining an insight into the characteristics of this fasci- 
nating country. 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of the Italian language at home will be amply repaid as he 
proceeds on his journey. It is oy no means impossible to travel 
through Italy without an acquaintance with Italian or French, 
but in this case the traveller cannot conveniently deviate from 
the ordinary track, and is moreover invariably made to pay 'alia 
Jnglese', by hotel-keepers and others, i. e. considerably more than 
the ordinary charges. A knowledge of French is of very great ad- 
vantage, for the Italians are extremely partial to that language, 
and avail themselves of every opportunity of employing it. For 
those, however, who desire to confine their expenditure within 
reasonable limits, a slight acquaintance with the language -|- of the 
country is indispensable. 

Nowhere more than in Italy is the traveller who is ignorant 
of the language so much debarred from the thorough enjoyment 
of travelling, and from the opportunity of forming an independent 
opinion of the country, its customs, history, literature, and art. 

IV. Passports and Custom-houses. 

On entering the kingdom of Italy, the traveller's passport is 
rarely demanded ; but it is unwise not to be provided with one 
of these documents , as it may occasionally prove useful. Re- 
gistered letters, for example, will not be handed over to strangers, 
unless they exhibit a passport as a guarantee of their identity. 
In the remote districts, too , where the public safety demands a 

t ^Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in four Languages (En g lish 
French^ German, and Italian) with Vocabulary etc. 1 (20th Edit.) will be 
found serviceable for this purpose. With the addition of a pocket-diction- 
ary , the traveller may safely encounter the difficulties of the situation. — 
In addressing persons of the educated classes 'lei', with the 3rd pers. sing., 
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 3rd 
pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' by those 
only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode of address 
employed by the Neapolitans^, but is generally regarded as inelegant or 


more rigorous supervision , especially in thn southern provinces, 
the traveller who cannot exhibit his cedentials is liable to de- 
tention. — The Italian police authorities will be found uni- 
formly civil and obliging. 

The examination of luggage at the Italian Custom-houses 
is usually extremely lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the articles 
especially sought for. Each traveller is , however, allowed a hun- 
dred cigars free of duty. Luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods' train, if it can be avoided, and then only through the 
medium of a trustworthy goods' agent, to whom the keys must 
be forwarded. As a general rule it is advisable, and less expensive 
for the traveller never to part from his luggage, and superintend 
the custom-house examination in person. — The 'dazio consumo', 
or municipal tax levied on comestibles in most of the Italian towns, 
is of course seldom paid by ordinary travellers. An assurance by 
them that their luggage contains nothing liable to duty generally 
suffices to prevent detention. 

Y. Public Safety. Beggars. 

Italy is still frequently regarded at the land of Fra Diavolo's 
and Rinaldo Rinaldini's — an impression fostered by tales of 
travellers, sensational letters to newspapers, etc. The fact, how- 
ever, is, that travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly 
attended with greater hazard than in any of the more northern 
European countries. At the same time the traveller may be re- 
minded of the danger of seeking quarters for the night in in- 
ferior or remote inns in large towns. Rome and Naples are deserv- 
edly notorious in this respect. Even in the most secure districts 
temporary associations of freebooters are occasionally formed with 
a view to some predatory enterprise, but the attacks of such bands 
are directed against wealthy inhabitants of the country, who are 
known to be travelling with large sums of money , and seldom if 
ever against strangers, with whose resources and plans such ma- 
rauders cannot easily be acquainted. Strangers, however, espe- 
cially when accompanied by ladies, should not neglect the ordinary 
precaution of requesting information respecting the safety of the 
roads from the authorities, gensdarmes ('carabinieri' , generally re- 
spectable and trustworthy), etc. 

The Brigantaggio, strictly so called , is a local evil , which 
the traveller may always without difficulty avoid. Owing to the 
revolution of 1860 it had increased in the Neapolitan provinces to 
an alarming extent. The Italian Government has done its utmost 
to suppress this national scourge , and its efforts have in a great 
measure been crowned with success; but the evil still resembles 
a conflagration which has been imperfectly extinguished, and 
from time to time bursts forth anew. The demoralisation of the 
inhabitants of the southern provinces is still deplorably great, and 


the brigandage there is not only fostered by popular discontent 
and a pretended sympathy for the Bourbons , but is actually car- 
ried on as a speculation by landed proprietors. These 'gentry 
frequently equip and harbour gangs of banditti , with whom they 
share the spoil; or they at least aid and abet them, on condition 
that their own property is respected. The evil is moreover favoured 
by the mountainous character of the country, into the remote re- 
cesses of which troops cannot easily penetrate. The most notorious 
districts are now the Basilicata and Calabria. Sicily has also of late 
years been much infested by brigands, especially the provinces of 
Palermo and Girgenti ; but even in the most dangerous localities 
those who adopt the ordinary precautions may travel with tolerable 
safety. Weapons cannot legally be carried without a licence. For the 
ordinary traveller they are a mere burden, and in case of a ren- 
contre with brigands only serve greatly to increase the danger. 

Mendicity, countenanced and encouraged according to the for- 
mer system of Italian politics , still continue to be one of those 
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
Begging in Italy is rather a trade than a genuine demand for 
sympathy. The best mode of liberation is to bestow a small don- 
ation, a supply of the smallest coin of the realm being kept ready 
for the purpose , or else to decline giving with — 'non c' e 
niente', or a gesture of disapproval. A beggar, who in return for 
a donation of 2 c. thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, 
was on another occasion presented with 50 c. , an act of liber- 
ality, which , instead of being gratefully accepted , only called 
forth the remark in a half -offended tone: 'ma sign ore e molto 
poco ! ' 

VI. Intercourse with Natives. 

Travelling in Italy differs essentially in some respects from 
that in France, Germany, Switzerland, etc., chiefly owing to the 
pernicious practice of bargaining which is almost universally pre- 
valent. The system of fixed prices is, however, being gradually- 

The traveller is regarded by landlords , waiters , drivers, por- 
ters, and others of the same class, as their natural and legitimate 
prey. Deception and imposition are regarded as very venial of- 
fences by Italians of the lower class, who oiew a successful attempt 
as a proofs of superior sagacity. The traveller , therefore, who 
submits complacently to extortion is regarded with less respect 
than he who stoutly resists the barefaced attempt upon his credu- 
lity. Among the Swiss Mountains the judicious traveller knows 
well when to make the tender of his cigar-case or spirit-flask; 
in this country such amiable manifestations are only calculated 
to awaken a further spirit of cupidity and discontent. 

On the principal routes, and especially in Naples, the insolence 


of this mercenary fraternity has attained to such an unexampled 
pitch, that the doubt not unfrequently presents itself to the tra- 
veller's mind whether such a thing as honesty is known in Italy. 
A more intimate acquaintance with the people and their habits 
will however, satisfy him that his misgivings apply to the above 
classes only, and not to the community generally. 

In Italy the highly pernicious custom of demanding conside- 
rably more than will ultimately be accepted is universal; but a 
knowledge of the custom, as it is based entirely upon the presumed 
ignorance of one of the contracting parties , tends greatly to mi- 
tigate the evil. Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should 
be carefully consulted. In other cases, in which an average price 
is established by custom , the traveller should make a precise 
bargain with respect to the service to be rendered, and never rely 
on the equity of the other party. 

Those individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, 
or to their own honesty, or who, as rarely happens, are offended 
by the traveller's manifestation of distrust, may well be answered 
in the words of the proverb: 'patti chiari, amicizia lunga' . In 
the following pages the prices, even of insignificant objects, are 
stated with all possible accuracy; and although liable to constant 
fluctuations , they will at least often prove a safeguard against 
gross extortions. The Editor ventures to offer the homely hint, 
that the equanimity of the traveller's own temper will greatly 
assist him if involved in a dispute or bargain , and no attention 
whatever should be paid to vehement gesticulations or an offensive 
demeanour. The slighter his knowledge of the Italian language is. 
the more careful should he be not to involve himself in a war of 
words, in which he must necessarily be at great disadvantage. 

It need hardly be observed that the representations of drivers, 
guides, etc., with whom even the inhabitants of the place often 
appear to act in concert, are unworthy of the slightest reliance. 
Thus in Naples the charge for a single drive is 60 c, and yet the 
driver would find no difficulty in summoning 20 individuals ready- 
to corroborate his assertion that the proper fare is 5 fr. In such 
cases the traveller may generally implicitly rely on the data in the 
Handbook. Where farther information is required, it should be 
sought from fellow-travellers, gensdarmes, respectably dressed per- 
sons present, occasionally from landlords, but seldom or never 
from waiters. 

Caution is everywhere desirable in Italy ; but, if exaggerated, it 
may be construed as the result of fear or weakness on the part 
of the traveller , whose best safeguard is often his own self- 
confidence; and it must be admitted, that, the preliminaries once 
adjusted, the trustworthiness exhihited by members of the frater- 
nity in question is often greater than at first anticipated. 

An abundant supply of copper coins should always be at the 


traveller's command in a country where donations trifling , but 
very frequent are everywhere expected. Drivers, guides, porters, 
donkey-attendants etc. invariably expect, and often demand as their 
right, in addition to the hire agreed on, a gratuity (buona mano,. 
mancia, da bere, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), varying according to cir- 
cumstances from 2 — 3 sous to a franc or more. The traveller need 
feel no embarrassment in limiting his donations to the smallest 
possible sums. Liberality is often a fruitful source of future an- 
noyance and importunity. Half-a- franc bestowed where two 
sous would have sufficed may be fraught with disagreeable results 
to the injudicious traveller; the fact speedily becomes known, and 
other applicants make their appearance, whose demands it becomes 
utterly impossible to satisfy. It may be laid down as a rule, that 
the exercise of a certain degree of parsimony, however repugnant 
to the feelings of the traveller , will tend essentially to promote 
his comfort and enjoyment. 

The demeanour of the stranger towards the natives must be 
somewhat modified in accordance with the various parts of the 
country through which he travels. The Italians of the north re- 
semble the inhabitants of the south of France, and those of Italian 
Switzerland. The character of the Tuscans is more effeminate, 
their language and manners more refined. The bearing of the Ro- 
man is grave and proud. With all of these, however, the stranger 
will find no difficulty in associating ; and acts of civility or kind- 
ness will not be misplaced , even when conferred on persons of 
the lower ranks. With the class of Neapolitans with whom the 
traveller generally comes in contact the case is entirely different, 
and one is tempted to believe that they designedly conspire to 
embitter one's enjoyment of their delightful country. It is to be 
hoped, however, that a better era is dawning under the present 
regime, and that the 'policy' of honesty will at length begin to. 
penetrate the Italian mind. 

VII. Locomotion. 

Railways. The principal lines with their respective rami- 
fications are four in number : Ferrovie dell' Alta Italia, Romane, 
Meridionali, and Calabro-Sicule, each of which belongs to a differ- 
ent company. The greatest speed attained by the trains is ex- 
tremely moderate. 'Si cambia convoglio' means 'change carriages'. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his 
luggages if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against the possibility of imposition. No luggage is allowed free, 
except what is taken by the passenger into his carriage , which 
must not exceed 20 kilogrammes (about 44 lbs. Engl.) in weight. 
Travellers will therefore find it desirable to limit their 'impedi- 
menta' so as to be able to avail themselves of this permission. 


Porters who convey luggage to and from the carriages are suf- 
ficiently rewarded with a few sous, where there is no fixed tariff. 

In the larger towns tickets may be obtained at the agent's 
office before going to the station. In consequence of a law passed 
on Oct. 1st, 1866, a tax of 5 c. must be paid on each railway- 
ticket. It is a wise precaution to be provided with the exact fare 
before taking tickets. 

The most trustworthy information respecting hours of depar- 
ture, fares, etc. is afforded by the 'Indicatore Ufficiale delle strade 
ferrate', etc. (see Preface), with which the traveller should not 
fail to provide himself. The local time-tables of the Tuscan, Ro- 
man, and Neapolitan lines will also be found useful, and may be 
procured at the railway-stations for a few sous. 

Through-tickets and excursion-tickets at considerably reduced 
rates are issued at many of the principal towns in Germany and 
Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, and each 
passenger is allowed 55 lbs. of luggage free. Excursion-tickets 
to the principal towns in Italy and back, available sometimes lor 
50 days, are issued in Italy at a reduction of 45 per cent. Farther 
particulars will be found in the time-tables, or at the 'agenzia', 
or office of the railway. Tickets from Italy to Switzerland, Ger- 
many, etc. must be partly paid for in gold. Travellers about to 
cross the frontier in either direction are strongly recommended to 
superintend the custom-house examination of luggage in person. 

Steamboats. A voyage on the Mediterranean or Adriatic is 
almost inseparably connected with a tour in Italy and Sicily, irre- 
spectively of the fact that the latter can be reached by water only. 
If the vessel plies near the coast, the voyage is often extremely 
entertaining; and if the open sea is traversed, the magnificent 
Italian sunsets, which light up the deep blue water with their 
crimson rays, present a scene not easily forgotten. Rough weather 
is not very often to be apprehended in summer. 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the 
office of the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's 
name and destination, the name of the vessel, and the hour of 
departure. Fares, duration of voyage etc. are stated in each in- 
stance in the following pages. Family-tickets for the first or second 
class , for not fewer than three persons , are issued by all the 
companies at a reduction of 20 per cent on the fare, but not on 
the cost of food. A child of 2 — 10 years pays half-fare, but in 
this case must share the berth of its attendant. Two children are 
entitled to a berth for themselves. The tickets of the Messageries 
Maritimes are available for four months, and the voyage may be 
broken at the passenger's discretion. It may here again be 
remarked that the rival French companies Fraissinet and Vale'ry 
reduce their fares from 20 to 30 per cent according to circum- 
stances. At the same time it should be borne in mind that these 


ve^sels usually stop to discharge their cargoes during the day, and 
proceed on their -voyage at night. 

The saloons and berths of the first class are comfortably 
and elegantly fitted up , those of the second tolerably. Pas- 
sengers of the second class have free access , like those of the 
first, to every part of the deck. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 100 kilogr. 
(_= 2 cwt.), second class 60 kilogr. (= 135 lbs.), but articles 
not intended for the passenger's private use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is included in the 
first and second-class fares (except in the vessels of the Florio Co.). 
The difference between that provided for first and for second-class 
passengers is inconsiderable. Dejeuner a la fourchette is served 
at 10, consisting of 3 — 4 courses, tolerable table wine, and 
coffee. Dinner is a similar repast between 5 and 6 o'clock. At 
7 p. m. tea is served in the first, but not in the second-class. 
Passengers who are too ill to partake of these repasts are furnished 
with lemonade, etc. gratuitously. Refreshments may of course be 
procured at other hours on payment. 

Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12 — 24 hrs., 
more if the passenger has made unusual demands upon his time 
or patience. 

Embarcation. Passengers should be on board an hour before 
the advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance to 
the steamboat (usually 1 fr. for each pers. with luggage) are 
fixed by tariff at all the sea-ports, and will be found in the Hand- 
book. Passengers should therefore avoid all discussions on the 
subject with the boatmen, and simply direct them to row 'al Va- 
ticano", 'alia Bella Venetia', or whatever the name of the vessel 
may be. En route, the boatman generally makes a demand extra- 
vagantly in excess of the tariff: "Signore, sono cinque lire!' — to 
which the passenger may simply reply, 'avanti' ! On arriving at 
the vessel, payment should not be given to the boatman until the 
traveller with all his luggage is deposited or. deck. The wild 
gesticulations of the boatman , who has perhaps calculated upon 
the credulity of his passenger, but receives no more than his due 
(which is ample remuneration) , may be enjoyed with malignant 
serenity from the deck , as on that 'terra sacra' disputes are 
strictly prohibited. 

On board the passenger gives up his ticket, receives the 
number of his berth, superintends the stowing away of his lug- 
gage , and finally repairs to the deck to observe the progress of 
the vessel as it quits the harbour, of which a fine view is gene- 
rally obtained. 

Diligences. Corrieri are the swifter conveyances which carry 
the mails, and accommodate two or three passengers only at high 
fares. , Diligenze. the ordinary stage-coaches, convey travellers with 


tolerable rapidity, and generally for the same fares as similar vehicles 
in other parts of the continent. They are in the hands of private 
speculators, and where several run in competition the more expen- 
sive are to be preferred. When ladies are of the party the coupe 
('/3rd dearer) should if possible be secured. The drivers and 
ostlers generally expect a trifling fee (a few soldi) at the end of 
each stage. 

Vetturini. The communication between many towns is main- 
tained by Vetturini, who convey travellers neither very comfortably 
nor rapidly, but at moderate cost. Inside places cost somewhat 
more than those in the cabriolet. The driver receives a trifling 
lee, the ostler 1 soldo; for the removal or replacement of lug- 
gage 2 soldi. The ordinary tourist will rarely have occasion to 
avail himself of a mode of conveyance rapidly becoming obsolete. 
The vetturini are generally respectable and trustworthy, and show 
no less zeal for the comfort and safety of their employers than 
in the care of their cattle. With three horses and a vehicle to 
accommodate six passengers 35 — 40 M. are daily accomplished. At 
midday a halt of several hours is made. The vetturini also en- 
gage to provide the traveller with hotel accommodation, which, 
when thus contracted for , is considerably less costly than when 
the traveller caters for himself. In this case it is advisable to 
draw up a carefully worded contract , to which the vetturino af- 
fixes his signature or mark. This should also be made to include 
the gratuity ftutto compreso) ; and , if satisfaction is given , an 
additional fee may be bestowed at the termination of the journey. 
The entire vehicle, or the interior only, may be engaged. It should 
be distinctly arranged before starting, where the night is to be 
passed , where breakfast and dinner taken. The agreement con- 
cluded, the vetturino gives the traveller a small sum as earnest- 
money (caparra), by which both parties are bound. 

A single traveller may also bargain with a vetturino for one seat, 
the charge for which varies. The back-seats are 'i primi pusti', 
which are generally secured by the first comers, who are first 
consulted with regard to the arrangement of the journey. For a 
single traveller a written contract is hardly necessary. A previous 
understanding should, however, be made with regard to the gra- 
tuity ; and a separate room fstanza separata) at the inns should be 
stipulated for , otherwise the traveller will run the risk of being 
• ompelled to share the apartment of his travelling companions. 

Besides the above-mentioned conveyances , carriages may be 
hired everywhere (with one horse about 65 c. per Engl. M.). 

Fedestrianism. An Italian never walks if he can possibly drive; 
to him it is an inexplicable mystery how walking can afford 
pleasure. The remark has been frequently made to the Editor: 
'lei e signore e va a piedi? 1 ' In the more frequented districts, 
such as the vicinity of. Rome , the inhabitants are accustomed to 


this mania of strangers , who may wander in the Campagna , and 
among the Sabine and Alban Mts . without exciting much sur- 
prise. Excursions on foot in other parts of Italy also possess 
their peculiar attractions , and among other advantages that of 
procuring for the pedestrian the enviable reputation of being a 
pittore, or needy individual from whom little is to be extorted. 

Prolonged walking-tours such as are undertaken in more 
northern climates, and fatiguing excursions, will be found wholly 
unsuitable to the Italian climate. Cool and clear weather should 
if possible be selected , and the sirocco carefully avoided. The 
height of summer is totally adverse to tours of this kind. 

A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro, Neapol. ciucio ; Sicil. vet- 
tura , applied to both animals) , between which the difference of 
expense is inconsiderable, often affords a pleasant and inexpensive 
mode of locomotion, especially in mountainous districts, where the 
attendant (pedone) also acts as a servant for the time being. A 
previous bargain should be made, tutto compreso, a gratuity being 
added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VIII. Hotels. 

The idea of cleanliness in Italy is in arrear of the age j the 
brilliancy of the southern climate perhaps in the opinion of the 
natives neutralises dirt. The traveller will not, however, suffer 
much annoyance in this respect in hotels and lodgings of the 
best class. Those who quit the beaten track, on the other hand, 
must be prepared for privations. In the villages the pig (ani- 
mate nero) appears as a domestic animal , and privileged in- 
mate of the houses, to which the poultry also have free access. 
Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected , as affording less 
accommodation to the active class so hostile to repose. Insect- 
powder (polvere di Persia, or Keating's) or camphor somewhat re- 
pels their advances. The zanzare, or gnats, are a source of great 
annoyance, and often suffering, during the autumn months. Win- 
dows should always be carefully closed before a light is introduced 
into the room. Light muslin curtains (zanzieri) round the beds, 
masks for the face, and gloves are employed to ward off the attacks 
of these pertinacious intruders. 

In all the more frequented places good hotels of the first class 
are always to be found, the landlords of which are often Swiss 
or Germans. Rooms 2'/ 2 — 5 fr., bougie 75 c. — i fr., attendance 
1 fr., table d'hote 4 fr., and so on. Families, for whose reception 
the hotels are often specially fitted up, should make an agreement 
with the landlord with regard to pension (8 — 10 fr. each). The 
charges have risen in some respects since the introduction 
of the compulsory rate of exchange in 1866. Strangers are 
expected to dine at the table d'hote , otherwise the price of the 
room is raised , or the inmate is given to understand that it is 


'wanted'. French spoken everywhere. Cuisine a mixture of French 
and Italian. 

The second-class inns are thoroughly Italian, rarely very clean 
or comfortable ; charges about one-half the above ; no table d'hote, 
but a trattoria will generally be found connected with the house, 
where refreshments a la carte may be procured at any hour. These 
establishments will often be found convenient and economical by 
the voyageur en garijon, but are of course rarely visited by ladies. 

In hotels in the Italian style, especially in the smaller towns, 
it is advisable to institute enquiries as to charges beforehand. If 
exorbitant demands be made, they may be generally reduced without 
difficulty to reasonable limits. An extortionate bill may even be 
reduced although no previous agreement has been made, but this 
is never effected without long and vehement discussions. 

The best hotels have fixed charges. Attendance, exclusive of, 
boots and commissionnaire , is charged in the bill. This is not 
the case in the smaller inns , where 1 fr. per diem is usually 
divided between the waiter and the facchino, or less for a pro- 
longed stay. Copper coins are never despised by such recipients. 

Hotels Oarnis are much frequented by those whose stay ex- 
tends to 10 — 14 days and upwards, and the inmates enjoy greater 
quiet and independence than at a hotel. The charges are moreover 
considerably more moderate. Attendance about 1/2 fr. per diem. 

Lodgings of various degrees of comfort and accommodation 
may also be procured for a prolonged residence. Here, likewise, 
a distinct agreement respecting the rent should be made before- 
hand. Where a whole suite of apartments is hired , a written 
contract should be drawn up with the aid of some one acquainted 
with the language and customs of the place (e. g. a banker). 
For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, 
linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, etc., 
will generally suffice. 

A few hints may [be here added for the benefit of the less 
experienced : 

If a prolonged stay is made at a hotel the bill should be de- 
manded every three or four days, by which means errors, whether 
accidental or designed, are more easily detected. When the tra- 
veller contemplates departing at an early hour in the morning, 
the bill should be obtained on the previous evening, but not paid 
until the moment for starting has nearly arrived. It is a favourite 
practice to withhold the bill till the last moment, when the hurry 
and confusion render overcharges less liable to discovery. 

The mental arithmetic of waiters is apt to be exceedingly 
faulty, though rarely in favour of the traveller. A written 
enumeration of the items charged for should therefore be re- 
quired, and accounts rejected in which, as not unfrequently 
happens, 'colazione, pranzo, vino, etc' figure in the aggregate. 



Information obtained from waiters, and others of a similar 
class can never be implicitly relied upon. Enquiries should be 
addressed to the landlords and even their statements received with 
considerable caution. 

IX. Restaurants and Cafes. 

Restaurants (trattorie) are chiefly frequented by Italians, 
and travellers unaccompanied by ladies. Dinner may be obtained 
a la carte at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m. , for H/2 
— 3 fr. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2 — 4 soldi. The diner 
who desires to confine his expenses within reasonable limits should 
refrain from ordering dishes not comprised in the bill of fare. 

The following list comprises most of the commoner Italian 
dishes : 

Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Scinte , or minestra , soup with 
green vegetables and bread. 

Onocchi, small puddings. 

Riso con piselli, rice-soup with 

Risotto, a species of rice pud- 
ding (rich). 

Maccaroni al burro, with butter ; 
al pomidoro ., with tomatas. 

Manzo, boiled beef. 

Fritti, fried meat. 

Arrosti, roasted meat. 

Bistecea, beefsteak. 

Coscietto, loin. 

Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Testa di vitello, calfs head. 

Fegato di vitello, calf's liver. 

Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 

Costoletta alia minuta, veal-cutlet 
with calfs ears and truffles. 

Patate, potatoes. 

Quaglia, quail. 

Tordo, field-fare. 

Lodola, lark. 

Sfoglia, a species of sole. 

Principi alia tavola, hot relishes. 

i^unpfti,mushrooms(often toorich) . 

Presciutto, ham. 

Salami, sausage. 

Polio, fowl. 

Pollastro, turkey. 

Vmidi, meat with sauce. 

Stufatino, ragout. 

Erie, vegetables. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Fave, beans. 

Fagiuoli, French beans. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Senape, hot mustard. 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Giardinetto, frutta, fruit-desert. 

Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 

Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a spe- 
cies of pastry. 

Fragole, strawberries. 

Pera, pear. 

Pomi, mele, apples. 

Persiche, peaches. 

L'va, bunch of grapes. 

Limone, lemon. 

Portogallo, orange. 

Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Pane francese, bread made with 
yeast (the Italian is made 

Formaggio, cheese. 

Vino nero, red wine; bianco, 
white ; asciutto , dry ; dolce, 
sweet; nostrale, table-wine. 


Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices. Cafe' noir (caffe nero) 
is usually drunk (15 — 20 c. per cup). Caffe latte is coffee mixed 
with milk before served (20 — 30 c); or caffe t latte, i. e. with the 
milk served separately, may be preferred (30 — 40 c). Mischio is 
a mixture of coffee and chocolate (15 — 20 c). considered whole- 
some and nutritious. The usual viands for lunch are ham, sau- 
sages, cutlets, and eggs (uova da here, soft; toste, hard; uova al 
piatto, fried). 

Ices (gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the 
cafes (30 — 90 c. per portion) ; a half portion (mezza) may always 
be ordered. Granita, or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons ; aran- 
ciata of oranges) , is especially in vogue in the forenoon. The 
waiter (bottega) expects a sou or more, according to the amount 
of the payment ; he occasionally makes mistakes in changing money 
if not narrowly wa'ched. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the 
larger cafe's, English rarely. 

Valets de Place (sercitori di piazza) may be hired at 5 fr. per 
diem, the employer previously distinctly specifying the services 
to be rendered. They are generally trustworthy and respectable, 
but implicit reliance should not be placed on their statements 
respecting the places most worthy of a visit, which the traveller 
should asce:tain from the guide-book or other source. Their ser- 
vices may always be dispensed with, unless time is very limited. 
Travellers are cautioned against employing the semali, or commis- 
sionaires of an inferior class, who pester the stranger with offers 
of every descrip'ion. Contracts with vetturini, and similar ne- 
gotiations should never be concluded through such a medium, or 
indeed any other. Interventions of this description invariably tend 
to increase prices, and are often productive of still more serious 
contretemps. This remark applies especially to villages and small 
towns, whether on or out of the regular track. 

X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open till noon, and usually again from 4 to 7 
p. m. ; some of the most important, the whole day. Visitors may 
inspect the works of art even during the hours of divine service, 
provided they move about noiselessly , and keep aloof from the 
altar where the clergy are officiating. The verger (sagrestano, or 
nonzolo) receives a fee of 1/2 fr. or upwards , if his services are 

Theatres. The representations in the large theatres begin at 
8, and terminate at midnight or later. Here operas and ballets 
are exclusively performed; the first act of an opera is usually 
succeeded by a ballet of 3 or more acts. Verdi is the most po- 


pular composer. The pit (platea) is the usual resort of the men. 
A box (palco) must always be secured in advance. — A visit to 
the smaller theatres , where dramas and comedies are acted , is 
particularly recommended for the sake of habituating the ear to the 
language. Representations in summer take place in the open air, 
in which case smoking is allowed. — The theatre is the usual 
evening-resort of the Italians, by whom during the performance of 
the music profound silence is never observed. 

Shops, rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price demanded should be offered. The same rule 
applies to artizans, drivers, and others. 'Non volete ?' (then you will 
not?) is a remark which generally has the effect of bringing the 
matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should never be made 
by the traveller when accompanied by a valet-de-place. These 
individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 per cent of the 
purchase-money, which of course comes out of the pocket of the 

Cigars in Italy (Sicily excepted) are a monopoly of Govern- 
ment, and bad; those under 3 — 4 soldi scarcely smokable. The 
Sicilian cigars are cheaper , but not better. The same remark 
applies to the Maltese cigars. 

XI. Postal Arrangements. 

The address of letters (whether poste restante or to the tra- 
veller's hotel) should , as a rule , be in the Italian or French 
language. Postage-stamps are sold at all the tobacco-shops. 

Letters of 15 grammes (*/2 oz.) to N. America 55 c. ; Ger- 
many, Austria, Holland 40 c; Russia 70 c, Sweden 60 c, Den- 
mark 50 c, Norway 65 c. ; letter of 10 grammes C/3 oz.) to France 
or Belgium 40 c, Switzerland 30 c, Spain 50 c, Greece 60 c; 
letter of 7y 2 grammes (y 4 oz.) to Great Britain and its colonies 
60 c. — Registration fee to Switzerland, Germany, Austria 30 c ; 
Scandinavia, Russia 40 c ; America, France, Netherlands 50 c; 
gland 55 c. 

Letters by town-post 5c; throughout the kingdom of Italy 
20 c. prepaid, 30 c. unpaid. Registration fee 30 c. 

In the larger towns the post-oifice is open daily from 9 a. m. 
to 10 p. m. (also on Sundays and holidays). 

Telegram of 20 words to Great Britain 9 fr. , France 4, 
S. Germany 4^2 > N. Germany 6, Switzerland 3, Austria 3 or 4, 
Belgium 5, Denmark 6'/2> Russia 11, Norway 8^/2, Sweden S fr. — 
To America 10 words 50 fr. 

In Italy, 15 words 1 fr. , with special haste 5 fr. ; each ad- 
ditional word 10 or 50 c. — Registered telegrams may be sent 
at double charges. 



XII. Calculation of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused 
in all the larger towns, but is still almost universally employed 
in the country, especially in Sicily. The ordinary reckoning of 
other nations is termed ora francese. 

The moment of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 
'half past 23 o'clock'; the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after 
which it is '24 o 'clock' , or the close of the day , when 'Ave 
Maria' is rung. The following hours are usually termed 'un ora 
di notte', 'due ore di notte', etc. This troublesome mode of cal- 
culation would necessitate a daily alteration of every time-piece 
in the kingdom , but it is thought sufficiently accurate to alter 
the hour ol Ave Maria by quarter of an hour about once a fort- 
night. The following table shows the Italian compared with [the 
ordinary hours. 

* . 

<8 . 

By Ita 

. time 

d? *" 

By Ital 

. time 









O CJ co 





< ° ~ 



< ° 

Jan. 1—12. 




July 1—12. 












Febr. 1—15. 

181 2 

61 12 

5i( 2 

Aug. 1—15. 


4ij 2 

7i| 2 



6i| 4 




43| 4 










March 1—5. 




Sept. 1- 5. 











63( 4 


17i| 2 

5i| 2 

6i| 2 



5i| 2 

61 2 






17«| 4 



April 1—10. 


5'( 4 

63( 4 

Oct. 1-10. 



61 4 

1L— 20. 









163 |4 







May 1—15. 

16i| 2 

4i| 2 

7i 2 

Nov. 1-15. 


61 2 




41 1 4 






June 1—30. 




Dec. 1—31. 




XIII. Climate. Mode of Life. 

Travellers from the north must in some degree alter their 
mode of living whilst in Italy, without however implicitly adopting 
the Italian style. Strangers generally become unusually suscep- 
tible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be well 
supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Carpets and stoves, 
to the comforts of which the Italians generally appear indifferent, 
are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect is an absolute 
essential for delicate, and highly desirable for the robust. Colds 
are most easily caught after sunset, and in rainy weather. — Even 
in summer it is a wise precaution not to wear too light clothing. 
Flannel is strongly recommended. 


Exposure to the summer-sun should as much as possible be 
avoided. According to a Roman proverb , dogs and foreigners 
(Inglesi) alone walk in the sun , Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas , and spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to 
protect the -whole eye are best) may be used with advantage when 
a walk in the sun is unavoidable. Repose during the hottest 
hours is advisable, a siesta of moderate length refreshing. Win- 
dows should be closed at night. 

English and German medical men are to be met with in the 
larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not enjoy a very 
high reputation in the rest of Europe. German and English che- 
mists , where available , are recommended in preference to the 
Italian. It may, however, be a wise discretion, in the case of 
maladies arising from local causes, to employ native skill. For- 
eigners frequently suffer from diarrhoea in Italy, which is gener- 
ally occasioned by the unwonted heat. Ice and rice are two of 
the commonest remedies. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor 
may also be mentioned. In such cases, however, thorough repose 
is the chief desideratum. 

XIV. Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. 

22. Charles Albert enters Milan. 

22. Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

May 15. Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. 
('Re Bomba'). 

29. Radetsky's victory at Curtatone. 

30. Radetsky defeated at Goito ; capitulation of 

July 25. Radetsky's victory at Custozza. 
Aug. 6. Radetsky's victory at Milan. 

9. Armistice. 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. 

25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Febr. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. 

17. Republic proclaimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. 
March 16. Charles Albert terminates the armistice (ten- 
days' campaign). 

23. Radetsky's victory at Novara. 

24. Charles Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto on July 
26th); accession of Victor Emmanuel II. 

26. Armistice; Alessandria occupied by the Aus- 

31. Haynau conquers Brescia. 

April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 


April 11. Reaction at Florence. 

30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 
May 11. Leghorn stormed by the Austrians. 

15. Subjugation of Sicily. 

16. Bologna stormed by the Austrians. 
July 4 Rome capitulates. 

Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. 
22. Venice capitulates. 
1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. 
June 4. Battle of Magenta. 

24. Battle of Solferino. 
July 11. Meeting of the emperors at Villafranca. 
Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma , Modena, 


22. Annexation of Tuscany. 

24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. 
May 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

27. Taking of Palermo. 
July 20. Battle of Melazzo. 
Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. 

18. Battle of Castelfldardo. 

29. Ancona capitulates. 
Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. 

21. Plebiscite at Naples. 
Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities , Umbria , and 
the two Sicilies. 

1861. Febr. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of King of 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. 
July 5. Cession of Venetia. 

20. Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 12. Occupation of the States of the Church by Italian 
20. Occupation of Rome. 

Italian Art. 

An Historical Sketch by Professor Springer of Bonn. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in 
Italy is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of 
art. • Even those whose ordinary vocations are of the most prosaic 
nature unconsciously become admirers of poetry and art in Italy. 
The traveller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of every- 
day life, that he encounters their impress at every step, and 
involuntarily becomes susceptible to their influence. A single visit 
can hardly suffice to enable any one to form a just appreciation 
of the numerous works of art he meets with in the course of an 
extended tour, nor can a guide-book teach him to fathom the 
mysterious depths of Italian creative genius, the past history of 
which is especially attractive; nevertheless a few remarks on 
this subject will be found materially to enhance the pleasure and 
facilitate the researches of even the most unpretending lover of 
art. Works of the highest class , the most perfect creations of 
genius, lose nothing of their charm by being pointed out a! 
specimens of the culminating point of art; while, on the other 
hand, those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest 
when regarded as necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, will hardly be deemed a superfluous adjunct to a work 
designed to aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible 
amount of enjoyment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two gnat epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of classic antiquity, and of the 16th 
century, the culminating period of the so-called Renaissance. The 
intervening space of more than a thousand years is usually, with 
much unfairness, almost entirely ignored. But this interval not 
only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first epoch, but gradually 
paves the way for the second. The erroneousness of the view, 
that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can be thoroughly 
appreciated, may here be demonstrated. This opinion dates from 
the period when no precise distinction was made between Greek 
and Roman art, when the connection of the former with a parti- 


cular land and nation, and the tendency of the latter to pursue 
an independent course were alike overlooked. Now, however, that 
ue are acquainted with more numerous Greek originals, and have 
acquired a deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art, 
an indiscriminate confusion of the Greek and Roman styles is no 
longer to be apprehended. We are now well aware that the 
highest perfection of ancient architecture is visible in the Hel- 
lenic temple alone. The Doric order, in which majestic gravity- 
is expressed by massive proportions and symmetrical decoration, 
and the Ionic structure, with its lighter and more graceful cha- 
racter, exhibit a creative spirit entirely different from that mani- 
fested in the sumptuous Roman edifices. Again , the most va- 
luable collection of ancient sculptures in Italy is incapable of 
affording so admirable an insight into the development of Greek 
art as the sculptures of the Parthenon and other fragments of 
Greek temple-architecture preserved in the British Museum. But, 
although instruction is afforded more abundantly by other than 
Italian sources, ancient art is perhaps thoroughly admired in Italy 
alone, where works of art encounter the eye with more appro- 
priate adjuncts, and where climate, scenery, and people materially 
contribute to intensify their impressiveness. As long as a visit to 
Greece and Asia Minor is within the reach of comparatively so 
few travellers , a sojourn in Italy may be recommended as best 
calculated to afford ins. ruction respecting the growth of ancient art. 
An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by the circumstance, 
that in accor dance with an admirable custom of classic antiquity 
the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not again arbitrarily 
abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually reproduced. Thus 
in numerous cases, where the more ancient Greek original had 
been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies; and even in 
the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative talent is 
still rellected. 

The non - scientific traveller will hardly be disposed to de- 
vote much of iiis attention to the works of the earliest dawn of 
art, to the so-called Cyclopean walls, constructed of polygonal 
blocks of stone (as those of Pyrgi, Cosa, Saturnia, but more com- 
monly met with in Lower Italy), or to the artistic progress of the 
mysterious Etruscan nation (manifested in their tombs , cinerary 
urns, implements of metal, and mural paintingsj; but the eye 
will not fail to rest with interest upon their magnificent golden 
ornaments, their beautiful designs engraved on metal (bronze- 
mirrors: the finest engraved design handed down by antiquity is 
on the Ficoronian cista in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome), and 
their numerous painted vases. The latter not only disclose to 
the observer a wide sphere of ancient artistic ideas , and prove 
how intimately a love of the beautiful and graceful was associated 
with the pursuit of a mere trade, but at the same time present 


one of the earliest instances of artistic industry. Although most 
of these vases were discovered in Etruscan tombs, they are not 
all to be regarded as specimens of Italian workmanship, lor many 
of them were imported from Greece, where they were systemati- 
cally manufactured, originally perhaps at Corinth, and subsequently 
at Athens (vases with red figures). 

The artistic dependence of ancient Italy on Greece was not 
confined to this single, and comparatively subordinate branch of 
art, but gradually extended to every other department, including 
those of architecture and sculpture. This supremacy of Greek in- 
tellect in Italy was established in a twofold manner. In the first 
place Greek colonists introduced their ancient native style into 
their new homes. This is proved by the existence of several 
Doric temples in Sicily, such as those of Selinunto (but not all 
dating from the same period), and the ruined temples at Syra- 
cuse, Girgenti, and Segesta. On the mainland the so-called Temple 
of Neptune at P;estum, as well as the ruins at Metapontum, are 
striking examples of the fully developed elegance and grandeur 
of the Doric order. But , in the second place , the art of the 
Greeks did not attain its universal supremacy in Italy till a later 
period, when Hellas, politically ruined, had learned to obey the 
dictates of her mighty conqueror, and the Romans began to com- 
bine the refinements of more advanced culture with their political 
superiority. The ancient scenes of artistic activity in Greece 
(Athens for example) became re-animated at the cost of Rome ; 
Greek works of art and Greek artists were introduced ; and osten- 
tatious pride in the magnificence of the booty acquired by victory mer- 
ged, by an easy transition, into a taste for such objects. To surround 
themselves with artistic decoration thus gradually became the univer- 
sal custom of the Romans, and the foundation of public monuments 
came to be regarded as an indispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 
deficient in originality compared with the Greek, yet their au- 
thors never degenerate into mere copyists , or entirely renounce 
independent effort. This remark applies especially to their Archi- 
tecture. Independently of the Greeks, the ancient Italian na- 
tions, and with them the Romans, had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting , and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms, the column supporting 
the entablature. Moreover the sphere of architecture became ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct 
edifices witli spacious interiors, and several stories in height. No 
precise model was afforded by Greek architecture, and yet the 
current Greek forms appeared too beautiful to be lightly dis- 
regarded. The Romans therefore preferred to combine them 
with the arch-principle, and apply this combination to their new 


architectural designs. The individuality of the Greek orders, and 
their originally so unalterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, 
and divested of much of their importance; that which once pos- 
sessed a definite organic significance frequently assumed a super- 
ficial and decorative character; but the aggregate effect is always 
imposing, the skill in blending contrasts, and the refinement of 
the directing taste admirable. The lofty gravity of the Doric, f 
style must not be sought for at Rome. The Doric column in the 
hands of Roman architects lost the finest features of its original 
character, and was at length entirely disused. The Ionic column 
also, and corresponding entablature, were regarded with less par- 
tiality than those of the Corinthian order, the decorative surnp- 
tuousness of which was more in unison with the artistic taste of 
the Romans. As the column in Roman architecture was no longer 
destined exclusively to support a superstructure, but formed a 
projecting portion of the wall, or was merely of an ornamental 
character, the forms in which the enrichments were most conspi- 
cuous were accordingly the most appropriate. It is, moreover, intelli- 
gible that the graceful Corinthian capital, consisting of slightly 
drooping acanthus -leaves, was at length regarded as insufficiently 

t Those' unacquainted with architecture may without difficulty learn to 
distinguish the different Greek styles. In the Doric the shafts of the co- 
lumns (without bases) rest immediately on the common pavement, in the 
Ionic they are separated from it by bases. The (lutings of the Doric co- 
lumn are immediately contiguous, separated by a sharp ridge, whilst those 
of the Ionic are disposed in pairs, separated by broad unflutcd intervening 
spaces. The Doric capital, expanding towards the summit, somewhat resem- 
bles a crown of leaves, and was in fact originally adorned with painted re- 
presentations of wreaths; the Ionic capital is distinguished by the volutes 
(or scrolls) projecting on either side, which may be regarded rather as an 
appropriate covering of the capital than as the capital itself. The entabla- 
ture over the columns begins in the Doric style with the simple, in the 
Ionic with the threefold architrave; above which in the Doric order are the 
metopes (originally openings, subsequently receding panels) and triglyphs 
(tablets with two angular channels in front, and a half channel at each end, 
extremities of beams, as it were), in the Ionic the frieze with its sculptured 
enrichments. In the temples of both orders the front culminates in a pe- 
diment. The so-called Tuscan, or early Italian column, approaching most 
nearly to the Doric, exhibits no decided distinctive marks; the Corinthian, 
with the rich capital formed of acanthus-leaves, is essentially of a decora- 
five character only. The following technical terms should also be observed. 
Temples in which the columns are on both sides enclosed by the projecting 
walls are termed 'in antis' (antce = end-pilasters); those which have one ex- 
tremity only adorned by columns, prostyle ; those with an additional pedi- 
ment in the rear, supported by columns, ampbiprostyle ; those entirely sur- 
rounded by columns, peripteral. In some temples it was imperative tluit 
flie image of the god erected in the eella should be exposed to the rays of 
the sun. In this case an aperture was left in the ceiling and roof, and such 
temples were termed liypyethral. Temples are also named tetrastyle , hexa- 
style, oct.istyle, etc. according to the number of columns at each end. — A 
most attractive study is that of architectural mouldings and enrichments, 
and of those constituent members which indicate superincumbent weight, or 
a free and independent existence. Research in these matters will enable the 
traveller more fully to appreciate Ihe strict harmony of ancient architecture. 


enriched, and was superseded by the so-called Roman capital (first 
used in the arch of Titus), a union of the Corinthian and Ionic. As 
an impartial judgment respecting Roman architecture cannot he 
formed from a minute inspection of the individual columns, so 
the highest rank in importance is not to be assigned to the 
Roman temples. The sole circumstance of the different (pro- 
jecting) construction of their roofs excludes them from com- 
pari.-son with the Greek. Attention must be directed to the 
several-storied structures, in which ttm tasteful ascending grada- 
tion of the component parts, from the more massive (Doric) to 
(he lighter (Corinthian), especially attracts the eye; and the vast 
and artistically vaulted interiors, as well as the structures of a 
merely decorative description, must be examined, in order that 
the chief merits of Roman art may be recognised. In the em- 
ployment of columns in front of closed walls (e. g. as members 
of a facade), in the construction of domes above circular interiors, 
and of cylindrical and groined vaulting over oblong, spaces , the 
Roman edifices served as models to posterity , whose work- 
manship has often fallen short of the originals. No dome-building 
has yet been erected which will bear comparison with the simple 
and strikingly effective Pantheon , originally a pertinent of the 
Therma: of Agrippa; nor does there exist any edifice so sumptuous, 
combining so varied an aggregate of structures , and yet bearing 
so harmonious and monumental a character, as from their ruins 
we presume the Therma: of Caracalla and Diocletian to have been. 
Boldness of design, skill in execution, accurate estimation of re- 
sources, consistent prosecution of the object in view, and practical 
utility combined with imposing splendour characterise most of the 
Roman fabrics, whether destined for public traffic like the basili- 
cas of the fora, to gratify the popular love of pageantry like the 
amphitheatres, theatres, and circuses, to commemorate the achieve- 
ments of the living by means of triumphal arches, or to preserve 
a reminiscence of the dead by monumental tombs. Finally it is 
worthy of note that architecture resisted degradation longer than 
any other art, and does not betray palpable signs of declension 
until the commencement of the 4th century, after having con- 
siderably earlier attained its culminating point under the Flavii. 
The history of the Art of Sculpture among the Romans, 
which moreover never evidenced their national greatness in the' 
same degree as architecture, is of briefer duration. Two different 
methods of investigation may here be pursued. Those who pos- 
sess sufficient preliminary information, and do not shrink from an 
arduous although interesting task , should examine the numerous 
statues representing gods and heroes in accordance with the Greek 
models, of which we possess written records, and compare them 
with the descriptions. In the statue of Zeus from the house of the 
Yerospi, and in the bust of Otricoli (Vatican), the lineaments of 


the Olympic Zeus created by Phidias will be sought for, in the 
statues of Hercules their derivation from the ideal of Lysippus, 
in the Juno Ludovisi, and the other head of Hera in the Museum 
at Naples , their descent from the Juno of Polyclete* ; whilst the 
discus-throwers of Myron, the Amazons of Phidias, Ctesilaus, etc., 
the Ares and Apollo of Scopas, the statues of Venus by Praxiteles 
and others will be recognised in their imitations and slightly vary- 
ing copies. By these means a correct judgment will be formed 
with regard to the position of the individual work in the develop- 
ment of ancient art, and the relation of the later sculpture of the 
Romans to that of the earlier Greeks will be well understood. 
By this systematic criticism the science of archicology has of late 
years arrived at brilliant results; it has proved that a series of 
Greek works, once regarded as irrecoverably lost , still survive in 
their copies , and it has correctly explained other misinterpreted 
sculptures (e. g. the Apollo Belvedere). The amateur , however, 
will probabl> prefer to adhere to the course which was formerly 
enthusiastically pursued by the scientific, and be satisfied with 
contemplating the mere artistic beauty of the sculptures , irre- 
spective of their historical significance. This aesthetic mode of 
investigation is justified by the fact that the sculpture of anti- 
quity presents to our eye a harmonious whole, in which the same 
principles and the same bias of imagination almost invariably 
recur. Strongly marked as the distinction is between Greek and 
Roman views of art, and between the earlier and later develop- 
ment of the art of sculpture , yet the existence of numerous 
common elements , and the voluntary subordination of the later 
artists to the once established type cannot be disputed. This will 
be rendered clearer by an example. A universally predominant 
ideal of the Madonna, on which the images of medieval and mo- 
dern art are based, cannot possibly be discovered. Between the 
Madonnas of Raphael, and Our Lady of the old German and Dutch 
schools , not the faintest resemblance can be traced ; were the 
former lost, their character could never be divined from the latter. 
In ancient art, on the contrary, the image of a god, even of the 
later Roman period, continues to exhibit the distinctive character 
of the original ideal, and often serves admirably to throw light 
upon defects in the earlier images; moreover every plastic work 
of antiquity, whether remote or more recent, faithfully embodies 
for us the precepts of sculpture, and teaches us the treatment 
of the nude, the disposition of the drapery, and the just 
standard of expression and movement. Whether the areliwolo- 
gical or resthetical interest be placed in the foreground, opportu- 
nities will always present themselves for an examination of the 
characteristic features of Roman sculpture. This art developed 
itself most freely between the reigns of Augustus and Hadrian, 
flourishing contemporaneously with the most brilliant period of 


the Empire, and constituting its artistic adornment. Aptitude in 
imparting a living and attractive character to allegorical represen- 
tations, as is well exemplified by the charming group of the Nile 
(Vatican), is not to be regarded as a peculiar feature of Roman 
art so much as the strikingly individualising stamp expressed in 
portrait-busts and statues , and the realistic element from which 
the creation of historical reliefs has emanated. Specimens of this 
faithful and detailed historical representation, which however occa- 
sionally deviates from the plastic standard, are afforded by the trium- 
phal arches of Titus and Constantine (reliefs partly transferred from 
the arch of Trajan), and the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aure- 
lius. As late as the time of Hadrian a new ideal was sought in 
Antinous, but after that period the art rapidly declined, although 
even down to the latest era of the Empire groat technical skill 
was still frequently exhibited. The most interesting of these later 
works are sarcophagus-sculptures , owing to their almost encyclo- 
paedic richness in representations , and the extensive sphere of 
ideas which they embrace. They constituted the most important 
school of art for subsequent generations, whence their historical 
significance ; but the same cannot be said of the later monumen- 
tal architecture, although it now exhibits the most diversified and 
attractive picture of the artistic life of antiquity. The ruins of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii prove more forcibly than any record, 
how universally art was applied in the ancient world , and how 
even the humblest implements were ennobled by artistic forms; 
they form an inexhaustible mine of decorative enrichments, and 
refute the prevailing idea that an entirely subordinate rank is to 
be assigned to ancient painting. As they were not rescued from 
oblivion till the 18th century, they exercised no influence on the 
art of the middle ages or the Renaissance, while on the other 
hand we no longer possess the decorative paintings of the Roman 
Thermae, which wrought so powerfully on the arlistic imagination 
as lately as the 16th century. 

In the 4th century the heathen world, which had long been 
in a tottering condition, at length became Christianised, and a 
new period of art commenced. This is sometimes erroneously re- 
garded as the result of a forcible Tupture from the ancient Roman 
art, and a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. But 
the eye and the hand adhero to custom more tenaciously than the 
mind. While new ideas, and altered views of the character of the 
Deity and the destination of man were entertained, the wonted 
forms were still necessarily employed in the expression of these 
thoughts. Moreover the heathen sovereigns had by no means been 
unremittingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions 
did not take place till the 3rd century), and the new doctrines 
were permitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise them- 
selves in the midst of heathen society. The consequence was, 


that the transition from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a 
gradual one, and that in a formal respect early Christian art pro- 
secuted the tasks of the ancient. The best proof of this is 
afforded by the paintings of the Koman Catacombs. These, form- 
ing as it were a subterranean belt around the city , were by no 
means originally the secret and anxiously concealed places of re- 
fuge of the primitive Christians, but constituted their legally- 
recognised, publicly accessible burial-places (e. g. the catacombs of 
Nicomedes and of Fl. Domitilla), and were not enveloped in in- 
tentional obscurity until the periodically recurring persecutions of 
the 3rd century. Reared in the midst of the customs of heathen 
Rome, the Christian community perceived no necessity to deviate 
from the artistic principles of antiquity. In the embellishment of 
the catacombs they adhered to the decorative forms handed down 
by their ancestors; and in design , choice of colour, grouping of 
figures, and treatment of subject, they were entirely guided by the 
customary rules. The earlier the date of the paintings in the 
catacombs, the more nearly they approach the ancient forms. Even 
the sarcophagus-sculptures of the 4th and 5th centuries differ in 
purport only, and not in technical treatment , from the type ex- 
hibited in the tomb-reliefs of heathen Rome. Five centuries 
elapsed before a new artistic style was awakened in the pictorial, 
and the greatly neglected plastic arts. Meanwhile architecture had 
developed itself corumensurately with the requirements of Christian 
worship , and , in connection with the new modes of building, 
painting acquired a different character. 

The term Basilic a- Style is often employed to designate 
early Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The name 
is of great antiquity, but it is erroneous to suppose that the early 
Christian basilicas possessed anything beyond the mere appellation 
in common with those of the Roman fora. The lalter structures, 
which are proved to have existed in most of the towns of the 
Roman empire, and served as courts of judicature and public as- 
sembly-halls, differ essentially in their origin and form from those 
of the Christian church. The forensic basilicas were neither fitted 
up for the purposes of Christian worship, nor did they serve as 
models for the construction of Christian churches. The latter 
are rather to be regarded as extensions of the private dwelling- 
houses of the Romans, where the first assemblies of the commu- 
nity were held , and the component parts of which were repro- 
duced in ecclesiastical edifices. The most faithful representative 
now extant of the architectural character and internal arrange- 
ments of an early Christian basilica is the church of ,S. Clemente 
at Rome. A small portico borne by columns leads to the anterior 
court (atiiumj, surrounded by colonnades and provided with a. 
fountain (cantharus) in the centre; the eastern colonnade is the 
approach to the interior of the church, which usually consisted of 


a nave and two aisles, the latter lower than the former, ami se- 
parated from it by two rows of columns, the whole terminating in 
a semicircle (apsis). In front of the apse a transverse space 
(transept) sometimes extended; the altar, surmounted by a co- 
lumnar structure, occupied a detached position in the apse; the 
space in front of it, bounded by cancelli or railings, was destined 
for the choir of officiating priests , and contained the two pulpits 
(ambones) where the gospel and epistles were read. Unlike the 
ancient temples, the early Christian basilicas exhibit a neglect of 
external architecture , the chief importance being attached to the 
interior, the decorations of which , however, especially in early 
mediaeval times, were often procured by plundering the ancient Ro- 
man edifices, and transferring them to the churches with little regard 
to harmony of style and material. Thus the churches of >S. Maria in 
Trastevere and >S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura each possess columns of 
entirely different workmanship and materials. Other instances of 
a similar transference of columns are afforded by the churches of 
iS. JSabina, S. Maria Maggiore, etc. The most appropriate orna- 
ments of the churches were the metallic, objects, such as crosses 
and lustres , and the tapestry with which papal piety presented 
them; while the chief decoration of the walls consisted of mosaics, 
especially those covering the background of the apse and the (trium- 
phal) arch which separates the apse from the nave. The mosaics, as 
far at least as the material was concerned, were of a sterling mo- 
numental character, and contributed 10 give rise to a new style 
of pictorial art; in tliem ancient tradition was for the first time 
abandoned, and the harsh and austere style erroneously termed 
Byzantine gradually introduced. Some of the earliest mosaics 
(composed of fragments of glass) are in the church of S. Puden- 
ziana , dating, like those of S. Costanza and the Baptistery of 
Naples, from the 4th century, while those of S. Maria Maggiore 
and S. Sabina belong to the 5th. The mosaics in the church of 
SS. Cosma e Uamiano in the Forum (date 526—530) are re- 
garded as the finest compositions of the description. 

Christian art originated at Rome , but its development was 
greatly promoted in other Italian districts, especially at Ravenna, 
where during the Ostrogothic supremacy (493 — 55'2), as well as 
under the succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture was zealously 
cultivated. The basilica-type was there more highly matured, the 
external architecture enlivened by low arches and projecting but- 
tresses, and the capitals of the columns in the interior appro- 
priately moulded with reference to the superincumbent arches. At 
Ravenna the occidental style also appears in combination with the 
oriental, and the church of S. Yitale (dating from 547) may be 
regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. The term 
•Byzantine is often totally misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages , everything in archi- 


tectiire that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth , ill-proportioned 
forms, is designated as Byzantine; and it is commonly supposed 
(hat the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal and 
unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style, as well as the idea 
that it exhibits no other characteristics than unsightliness and a 
clumsy, lifeless character, is entirely unfounded. The forms of 
Byzantine architecture are at least strongly and clearly defined. 
While the basilica appears as a long-extended hall , over which 
the eye is compelled to range until it finds a natural resting- 
place in the recess of the apse, every Byzantine structure may be 
circumscribed with a curved line. The aisles, which in the basi- 
lica run parallel with the nave, degenerate in the Byzantine style 
to narrow and insignificant passages ; the apse loses its intimate 
connection with the nave, and is separated from it; the most 
conspicuous feature in the building consists of the central 
square space , bounded by four massive pillars which support the 
dome. These are the essential characteristics of the Byzantine 
style, which culminates in the magnificent church of S. Sophia, 
and prevails throughout oriental Christendom , but in the West, 
including Italy, only occurs sporadically. With the exception of the 
churches of S. Vitale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the 
edifices of Lower Italy alone exhibit a frequent application of this 
style. When baptisteries and mortuary chapels are styled Byzan- 
tine on account of their circular form, this is no more justifiable 
than the popular classification of the whale among fishes. External 
points of resemblance must not be confounded with fundamental 

The influence of the Byzantine imagination on the growth of 
other branches of Italian art appears to have been no greater. A 
brisk traffic in works of art was carried on by Venice, Amalii, etc. 
between the Levant and Italy; the position of Constantinople re- 
sembled that of the modern Lyons; silk wares, tapestry, jewel- 
lery were most highly valued when imported from the Eastern 
metropolis. Byzantine artists were always welcome visitors to 
Italy, Italian connoisseurs ordered works to be executed at Con- 
stantinople, especially those in metal, and the superiority of By- 
zantine workmanship was universally acknowledged. All this, 
however, does not justify the opinion that Italian art was entirely 
subordinate to Byzantine. In the main , notwithstanding various 
external influences, it underwent an independent and unbiassed 
development, and never entirely abandoned its ancient principles. 
\ considerable interval indeed elapsed before the fusion of the 
original inhabitants with the early mediaeval immigrants was com- 
plete, before the aggregate of different tribes, languages, customs, 


and ideas became blended into a single nationality , and before 
the people attained sufficient concentration and independence of 
spirit to devote themselves successfully to the cultivation of art. 
Unproductive in the province of art as this early period is , yet an 
entire departure from native tradition, or a serious conflict of the 
latter with extraneous innovation never took place. It may be 
admitted, that in the massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the 
churches of Upper Italy, and in the art of vaulting which was 
here developed at an early period , symptoms of the Germanic 
character of the inhabitants arc manifested, and that in the Lower 
Italian and especially Sicilian structures , traces of Arabian and 
Norman influence are unmistakeable. The pointed arches of the ca- 
thedral of Amalfl, and those in the cloisters of the monastery-churcji 
of Ravello, the interior of the Cappella Palatina at Palermo, etc. 
point to Arabian models ; whereas the facades of the churches at 
Cefalu and Monreale , and the enrichments of their portals recal 
Norman types. In the essentials , however , the foreigners con- 
tinue to be the recipients; the might of ancient tradition, and the 
national idea of form could not be repressed or superseded. About 
the middle of the 1 1th century a zealous and promising artistic 
movement took place in Italy , and the seeds were sown which 
three or four centuries later yielded so luxuriant a growth. As 
yet nothing was matured, nothing completed, the aim was obscure, 
the resources insufficient; meanwhile architecture alone satisfied 
artistic requirements , whilst attempts at painting and sculpture 
were barbarous in the extreme ; these, however, were the germs 
of the subsequent development observable as early as the 11th 
and 12th centuries. This has been aptly designated as the Ro- 
manesque period, and the then prevalent forms of art as the Ro- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages, notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their relation of 
daughtership to the language of the Romans, so Romanesque art, 
in spite of its rude and barbarous aspect, reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of medieval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party- 
conflicts , loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, and education entered a broader and more enligh- 
tened track, — whence a taste for art also was awakened, and 
esthetic perception developed itself. When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the lat'er the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 
are unquestionably the more organically conceived, the individual 
parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 


the subordination of all other aims to that of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness is not here the chief object; on the 
other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rythm and symmetry more active. The cathe- 
dral of Pisa, founded as early as the 1 1th century, or the church 
of S. Miniate near Floience, dating from the 12th, may be taken 
as an example. The interior with its rows of columns, the moul- 
dings throughout, and the flat ceiling recal the basilica-type ; whilst 
the exterior, especiall) the facade destitute of tower, with the 
small arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours of 
the layers of stone, present an aspect of decorative pomp. But 
the construction and decoration of the walls already evince a taste 
for the elegant proportions which we admire in subsequent Ita- 
lian structures; the formation of the capitals, and the design of 
the outlines prove that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely 
forgotten. In the Baptistery of Florence (S. GiovanniJ a definite 
Roman structure (the Pantheon) has even been imitated. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit breathes throughout the mediaeval archi- 
tecture of Italy; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote 
object; the ideal which they have in view, although perhaps in- 
stinctively only, lies in the past; to conjure up this and bring 
about a Renaissance of the antique appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of de- 
tail. What architecture as a whole loses in historical attraction 
is compensated for by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the north possesses structures of greater importance in the history 
of the development of ait, Italy boasts of a far greater number 
of pleasing works. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely ignore 
its influence, although incapable of according an unconditional re- 
ception to this, the highest development of vault-architecture. 
Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature and perfected con- 
dition. It did not of necessity, as in France, develop ilself from 
the earlier (Romanesque) style, its progress cannot be traced step 
by step; it was imported by foreign architects (practised at Assisi 
by the German master Jacob), and adopted because in consonance 
with the tendency of the age; it found numerous admirers among 
the mendicant orders of monks and the humbler classes of citizens, 
but could never quite disengage itself from Italianising influences. 
It was so far transformed that the constructive constituents of Gothic 


are degraded to a decorative office , and the national taste thus 
became reconciled to it. The cathedral of Milan cannot be regarded 
as a fair specimen of Italian Gothic , but attention should be 
directed to the mediaeval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, 
as well as numerous secular edifices , such as the loggia of the 
Lanzi at Florence, and the communal palaces of mediaeval Italian 
towns. An acquaintance with true Gothic construction , so con- 
tracted notwithstanding all Us apparent richness , so exclusively 
adapted to practical requirements, can assuredly not be acquired 
from these cathedrals. The spacious interior inviting, as it were, 
to calm enjoyment, whilst the cathedrals of the north appear to 
call forth a sentiment of longing, the predominance of horizontal 
lines, the playful application of pointed arches and gables, of 
finials, canopies, etc. prove that an organic coherence of the dif- 
ferent architectural distinguishing members was here but little 
regarded. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, the towers 
immediately connected with the facade, and the prominent flying 
buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edifices — 
whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not the 
sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the spectator to 
pronounce a lenient judgment, but a feeling that Italian architects 
pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could be re- 
conciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and natural 
features of Italy. Gothic lost much of its peculiar character in 
Italy, but by these deviations from the customary type it there 
became capable of being nationalised. This was the more infalli- 
bly the case as at the same period the other branches of art also 
aimed at a greater degree of universality, and entered into a new 
combination with the fundamental trait of the Italian character, 
that of retrospective adherence to the antique. The apparently 
sudden and unprepared-for revival of ancient ideals in the 13th 
cent, is one of the most interesting phenomena in the history of 
art. The Italians themselves could only account for this by attri- 
buting it to chance. The popular story was that the sculptor 
Nicola Pisano was induced by an inspection of ancient sarcophagi 
to exchange the prevailing style for the ancient. We are, however, 
in a position to trace the course pursued by Italian sculpture 
more precisely; we conjecture that Nicholas of Pisa was sti- 
mulated by the example of Lower Italy, where during the Hohen- 
staufen sway a golden era of civilisation was developed; we more- 
over know that this inclination towards antiquity was by no 
means confined to Italy, but was equally active at an even earlier 
period in the north (e. g. in the ancient district of Saxony); ne- 
vertheless Nicola Pisano's influence was instrumental in inaugura- 
ting a new epoch in the development of Italian imagination. His 
sculptures on the pulpits in the Baptistery of Pisa and the Ca- 
thedral of Siena introduce us immediately into a new world. Their 


obvious resemblance to the works of antiquity does not alone arrest 
the eye ; a still higher interest is awakened by their peculiarly 
fresh and lifelike tone , betokening the enthusiastic concentration 
with which the master devoted himself to his task. During the 
succeeding period (Pisan School) ancient characteristics were placed 
in the background, and importance was attached solely to life 
and expression (e. g. reliefs on the facade of the Cathedral at 
Orvieto). Artists now began to impart to their compositions the 
impress of their own peculiar views. Art, moreover, became moTe 
interwoven with the public taste , which had already fully mani- 
fested itself in poetry also. From this period (14th century) there- 
fore the Italians date the origin of their modern art. Contem- 
poraneous writers who observed the change of views, the revolution 
in sense of form, and the superiority of the more recent works 
in life and expression, warmly extolled their authors, and proclaim- 
ed how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding 
generations began to lose sight of this connection between ancient 
and modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to con- 
nect Giotto di Bondone (1270 — 1336), the father of modern Ita- 
lian art , with Giovanni Cimabue , the most celebrated represen- 
tative of the earlier style (Cimabue is said to have watched Giotto, 
when as a shepherd-boy he relieved the monotony of his office 
by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand , and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence). But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Home and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimahue 
and his pupil Giotto possessed numerous professional brethren, 
and that the composition of mosaics, as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors , pointed out the Roman and Tuscan 
mosaics as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sienese 
master Duccio, who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 
ful and the expressiveness of his figures , to his merited rank. 
At the same time, however, Giotto is fully entitled to rank in 
the highest class. The amateur, who before entering Italy has 
become acquainted with Giotto from insignificant panel-pictures 
only, often arbitrarily attributed to this master, and even in Italy 
itself encounters little else than obliquely drawn eyes, clumsy 
features, and cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his 
style, will regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be 
at a loss to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugura- 
tor of a new era of art, and why the name of the old Florentine 
master is only second in popularity to that of Raphael himself. 
The fact is, Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect 
work of art. His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, 
the enthusiasm which he aroused in all directions, and the de- 
velopment for which he paved the way, must be taken into con- 


sideration, in order that his place in history may be understood. 
Even when, in consonance with the poetical sentiments of his age, 
he embodies allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, 
or displays to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, 
he shows a masterly acquaintance with the ait of converting what 
is perhaps in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking, life-like 
scene. Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful 
reality to his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures 
may fail to satisfy the expectations , and even earlier masters, 
such as Duccio , may have surpassed him in execution , but in- 
telligibility of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised 
in art by Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous co- 
louring employed by Giotto in place of the dark and heavy tones 
of preceding masters, enabling him to impart the proper expres- 
sion to his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century , and succeeding 
generations constituted a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can be formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture , of which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of broad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
boasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, almost every 
town in Central Italy during the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works, however, 
are preserved in the Churches of S. Croce and S. Maria Novella 
at Florence (in tiie latter the t'appella degli Spagnuoli is espe- 
cially important). Beyond the precincts of the Tuscan capital the 
linest work of Giotto is to be found in the Cappella dell' Arena 
at Padua, where in 1303 he executed a representation of scenes 
from the life of the Virgin. The Campo Santo of Pisa affords 
specimens of the handiwork of his pupils. In the works on the 
walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot fail 
to lie struck by their finely-conceived, poetical character (e. g. 
the Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials 
of Jcib), or their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Rai- 
nerus, and of the Martyrs Kphesus and Fotitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence conti- 
nued to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of 
art. Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atmos- 
phere, which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence and 
refinement. We are, however, now in a position to offer a soun- 
der explanation. The fact is, that Florence did not itself produce 


a greater number of eminent artists than other districts. During a 
long period Siena successfully vied with her in artistic fertility, 
ard Upper Italy in the 14th cent, gave birth to the two painters 
d'Avanzo and Aldighieri (paintings in the Chapel of S. Giorgio in 
Padua) , who far surpass Giotto's ordinary style. On the other 
hand, no Italian city afforded in its political institutions and public 
life so many favourable stimulants to artistic imagination, or 
promoted intellectual activity in so marked a degree, or com- 
bined a love of enjoyment with dignified principles so harmo- 
niously as Florence. What therefore was but obscurely expe- 
rienced in the rest of Italy , and manifested at irregular inter- 
vals only, was usually first realised here with tangible distinct- 
ness. Florence became the birthplace of the revolution in art 
effected by (iiotto, and Florence was the home of the art of the 
Renaissance, which began to prevail soon after the commence- 
ment of the 15th cent., and superseded the style of (iiotto. The 
word Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a revi- 
val of the antique. It must be admitted that ancient art now 
began more powerfully to influence artistic taste, and that its study 
was more zealously prosecuted. But the essential character of the 
Renaissance by no means consists exclusively, or even prin- 
cipally, in the imitation of the antique; nor must the term be 
confined merely to art, as it may be said to embrace the entire 
progress of civilisation in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. 
How the Renaissance manifested itself in political life , and the 
different phases it assumes in the scientific and the social world, 
cannot here be discussed. It may, however , be observed that 
the Renais.-ance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'huma- 
nists', who preferred general culture to great professional attain- 
ments, who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the gol- 
den age of great men, and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work, and 
the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. Personal educa- 
tion , individual taste leave a more marked impress on the work 
of the author than was ever before the case; his creations are 
pre-eminently the reflection of his intellect; his alone is the re- 
sponsibility, his the reward of success or the mortifiation of 
failure. Artists now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their 
works to be examined and judged as testimonials of their personal 
endowments. Mere technical skill by no means satisfies them, 
although they are far from despising the drudgery of a handicraft 
(many of the most eminent quattrocciitists received the rudiments 
of their education in the workshop of a goldsmith), the exclusive 
pursuit of a single sphere of art is regarded by them as an in- 
dieation of intellectual proverty, and they aim at mastering the 
principles of each different branch. They work simultaneously 


as painters and sculptors, and when they apply their abilities to 
architecture , it is (Itemed nothing unwonted or anomalous. A 
comprehensive and versatile education, united with refined per- 
sonal sentiments, forms their loftiest aim. This they attain in 
but few instances , but that they eagerly aspired to it is proved 
by the biography of the illustrious Leo Battista Alberti , who is 
entitled to the same rank in the 15th century, as Leonardo da 
Vinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and morally 
healthy, keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, and possess- 
ing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the artists of the 
Renaissance necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodi- 
ment with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and 
joyous love of nature seems to pervade the entire epoch. In 
accordance with the diversified tendencies of investigation, artistic 
imagination also strives to approach her at first by a careful 
study of her various phenomena. Anatomy, geometry, perspective, 
and the study of drapery and colour are zealously pursued and 
practically applied. External truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct 
rendering of real life in its minutest details are among the ne- 
cessary qualities in a perfect work. The realism of the represen- 
tation is, however, only the basis for the expression of life-like 
character and enjoyment of the present. The earlier artists of 
the Renaissance exhibit no partiality for pathetic scenes, or events 
which awaken painful emotions and turbulent passions ; their pre- 
ference obviously inclines to cheerful and joyous subjects. In the 
works of the 15th century strict faithfulness, in an objective 
sense , must not be looked for. Whether the topic be derived 
from the Old or the New Testament, from history or fable, it is 
always transferred to the immediate present, and adorned with 
the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine national 
type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs, visiting Elisa- 
beth after the birth of her son , or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. This transference of remote events to the present bears 
a striking resemblance to the naive and not unpleasing tone of 
the chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, by no 
means terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise 
displayed by the contemporaneous art of the north. A super- 
ficial glance at the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one 
to recognise the higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected 
groups of dignified men, beautiful women, and pleasing children, 
occasionally without internal necessity placed in the foreground, 
prove that attractiveness was pre-eminently desired. This is 
also evidenced by the early -awakened enthusiasm for the nude, 
by the skill in disposition of drapery, and the care devoted to 
boldness of outline and accuracy of form. This aim is still 
more obvious from the keen sense of symmetry observable in all 
the better artists. The individual figures are not coldly and 

Bjedekek. Italy II. 3rd Edition. d 


accurately drawn in conformity with systematic rules. They are 
executed with refined taste and feeling; harshness of expression 
and unpleasing characteristics are sedulously avoided , whilst in 
the art of the North physiognomic fidelity is usually accompanied 
by extreme rigidity. A taste for symmetry does not prevail in 
the formation of the individual figure only ; obedience to rythmical 
precepts is perceptible in the disposition of the groups also, and 
in the composition of the entire work. The intimate connection 
between Italian painting (fresco) and architecture naturally leads 
to the transference of architectural rules to the province of picto- 
rial art, whereby not only the invasion of a mere luxuriant na- 
turalism was obviated , but the fullest scope was afforded to the 
artist lor the execution of his task. For to discover the most 
effective proportions , to inspire life into the representation by 
the very rythm of the lineaments, are not accomplishments to be 
acquired by extraneous aid; precise measurement and calculation 
are here of no avail; a happily organised eye, refined taste, and a 
creative imagination , which instinctively divines the appropriate 
forms for its design, can alone excel in this sphere of art. This 
enthusiasm for external beauty and just and harmonious propor- 
tions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
A veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious longing for fame caused the Italians of the 15th 
and 16th centuries to look back to classical antiquity as the era 
of illustrious men, and ardently to desire its return. (Subsequently, 
however, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appropriate 
resource, when the study of actual life did not suffice, and an 
admirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and sym- 
metry. They by no means viewed the art of (he ancients as a 
perfect whole , or as the product of a definite historical epoch, 
which developed itself under peculiar conditions ; but their atten- 
tion was arrested by the individual works of ant quity and their 
special beauties. Thus ancient ideas were re-adniitted into the 
sphere of Renaissance art. A return to the religious spirit of 
the Romans and Greeks must of course not Ik; inferred from the 
veneration for the ancient gods during the humanistic period; 
belief in the Olympian gods was extinct; but precisely because 
no devotional feeling was intermingled, because the forms could 
only receive life from creative imagination, did they exercise so 
powerful an influence on the Italian masters. The significance of 
mythological characters being entirely due to the perfect beauty 
of their forms, they could not fail on this account pre-eminenfly 
to recommend themselves to artists of the Renaissance. 

These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
idea of the significance of the Renaissance. Those who examine 
the architectural works of the 1 5th or Kith century should refrain 
from uiarrini! their enjovment by the not altogether justifiable 


reflection , that in the Renaissance style no new system was in- 
vented , as the architects merely employed the ancient elements, 
and adhered principally to tradition in their constructive principles 
and selection of component parts. Notwithstanding the apparent 
want of organisation, however, great heauty of form, emanating 
from the most exuberant imagination , will be observed in all 
these structures, from the works of Brunelleschi (1377 — 1446) 
to those of Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518—1580), the last 
great architect of the Renaissance. The style of the loth century 
may without difficulty be distinguished from that of the 16th. 
The Florentine palaces (Pitti, Riccardi, Strozzi) are still based on 
the type of the mediaeval castle. A taste for beauty of detail, 
coeval with the realistic tendency of painting, produces in the 
architecture of the 15th century an extensive application of graceful 
and attractive ornaments, which entirely cover the surfaces, and 
throw the true organisation of the edifice into the background. 
For a time the true aim of Renaissance art appears to have been 
departed from , anxious care is devoted to detail instead of to 
general effect; the re-application of columns did not at first ad- 
mit .of spacious structures, the dome rose but timidly above the 
level of the roof. But this attention to minutiae, this disregard 
of effect on the part of these architects, was only, as it were, a 
restraining of their power, in order the more completely to master, 
the more grandly to develop the art. The early Renaissance is 
succeeded by Bramante's epoch (1444 — 1514), with which the 
golden age of symmetrical construction commenced. "With a wise 
economy the mere decorative portions were circumscribed, whilst 
greater significance and more marked expression were imparted 
to the true constituents of the structure , the real exponents of 
the architectural design. The works of the Bramautine era (High 
Renaissance) are less graceful and attractive than those of their 
predecessors, but superior in their well defined, lofty simplicity 
ami finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter been com- 
pleted in the form originally designed by Bramante, we should 
be in a position to pronounce a more decided opinion respecting 
the ideal of the church-architecture of the Renaissance. The cir- 
cumstance that precisely the mightiest work of this style has been 
subjected to the most varied alterations (for vastness of dimen- 
sions was the principal aim of the bold plans of the architects) 
teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which so 
commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form, that of a Greek cross 
(with equal arms) with rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, 
possesses concentrated unity, and that the pillar-construction re- 
lieved by niches presents an aspect of imposing grandeur; nor 
can it be disputed that in the churches of the Renaissance the 
same artistic principles are applied as in the universally admirei!' 



palaces and secular edifices. If the former therefore excite less 
interest, this is not due to the inferiority of the architects, but 
to causes altogether beyond their control. The succeeding gene- 
ration of the 16th cent, did not adhere to the style establish- 
ed by Bramante, but never reduced by him to a finished system. 
They aim more sedulously at general effect, so that harmony 
among the individual members begins to be neglected; they 
endeavour to arrest the eye by boldness of construction and 
striking contrasts; or they borrow new modes of expression from 
antiquity, the precepts of which had hitherto been applied in 
an unsystematic manner only. Throughout the diversified stages 
of development of the succeeding styles of Renaissance archi- 
tecture, felicity of proportions is invariably the aim of all the 
great masters. To appreciate their success in this aim should 
also be regarded as the principal task of the spectator, who with 
this object in view will do well to compare a Gothic with a 
Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove to him that 
other elements than harmony of proportion are effective ingre- 
dients in architecture ; for , especially in the cathedrals of Ger- 
many , the exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form 
without regard to measure, the violation of the precepts of rythm, 
and a disregard of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to 
the closed cannot fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled 
amateur will thus be convinced of the abrupt contrast between 
the mediaeval and the Renaissance styles. Thus prepared, he may, 
for example , proceed to inspect the Palace of the Pitti at Flo- 
rence, which, undecorated and unorganised as it is, would scarcely 
be distinguishable from a rude pile of stones, if a judgment were 
formed from the mere description. The artistic charm consists in 
the simplicity of the mass , the justness of proportion in the 
elevation of the stories, and the tasteful adjustment of the win- 
dows in the vast surface of the facade. That the architects tho- 
roughly understood the :csthetical effect of symmetrical proportions 
is proved by the mode of construction adopted in the somewhat 
more recent Florentine palaces, in which the roughly hewn blocks 
f rustica) in the successive stories recede in gradations , and by 
their careful experiments as to whether the cornice surmounting 
the structure should bear reference to the highest story, or to the 
entire fac;ade. The same bias manifests itself in Bramante's imagina- 
tion. The Cancelleria may justly be regarded as a beautifully orga- 
nised structure; and when, after the example of Palladio in church- 
facades, a single series of columns superseded those resting above 
one another, symmetry of proportion was also the object in view. 
Every guide-book and every cicerone points out to the traveller 
in Italy the master -pieces of Renaissance architecture which he 
should inspect. Of that of the 15th cenlury the Tuscan towns 
afford the finest selection, but at the same time the brick struc- 


tures of the cities of Lombardy, which display a taste for 
copious and florid decoration, should not be overlooked. An ac- 
quaintance with the style of Bramante and his contemporaries 
(Peruzzi, San Gallo the younger) may best be formed at Rome, 
although the architecture of the 17th century is most characteristic 
of the Eternal City. The most important works of the middle and 
latter half of the 16th century are also to be sought for in the 
towns of Upper Italy (Genoa, Vicenza, Venice). In Venice espe- 
cially, within a very limited space, the development of the Re- 
naissance architecture may conveniently be surveyed. The funda- 
mental type of the domestic architecture here continues with little 
variation. The nature of the ground afforded little scope for the 
caprice of the architect, whilst the conservative spirit of the in- 
habitants gave rise to a definite consuetude in style. The nicer 
distinctions of style are therefore the more observable, and that 
which emanated from a pure sense of form the more appreciable. 
Those wdio by careful comparison have discovered the great 
superiority of the Bibliotheca (in the Piazzetta) of Sansovino over 
the new l'rocnrazie of Scamoz/.i, although the two edifices exactly 
correspond in many respects, have made great progress towards 
an accurate insight into the architecture of the Renaissance. Much, 
moreover, would be lost by the traveller who exclusively devoted 
his attention to the master-works which have been extolled from 
time immemorial, or solely to the great monumental structures. 
As even the insignificant vases (majolicas, manufactured at Pesaro, 
Urbino, Gubbio, and Castel-Duvante) bear testimony to the taste 
of the Italians, their partiality for classical models, and their en- 
thusiasm for purity of form, so also in inferior works, some of 
which fall within the province of a mere handicraft, the peculiar 
beauties of the Renaissance style are detected , and in remote 
corners of Italian towns charming specimens of a prolific architec- 
tural imagination are discovered. Nor must the vast domain of deco- 
rative sculpture be disregarded, as such works, whether in metal, 
stone or stucco, inlaid or carved wood, often verge on the sphere 
of architecture. 

On the whole it may be asserted that the architecture of the 
Renaissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern 
life manifests its greatest excellence in sumptuous secular struc- 
tures, cannot fail to gratify the taste of the most superficial obser- 
ver. With the sculpture of the same epoch, however, the case is 
different. The Italian architecture of the liith and Kith centuries 
possesses a practical value for us , and is frequently imitated at 
the present day; the painting of the same period we believe to 
have attained its highest consummation; the sculpture of the Re- 
naissance, on the other hand, does not appear to us worthy of re- 
vival, and cannot compete with that of antiquity; and we are 
wont to regard its position as subordinate in the sphere of art of 


tli at age from latter opinion, however, is erroneous. The plastic 
art, far. Theciijoying a lower degree of fa\ our, was rather viewed 
l>y artists as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. Sculpture 
was the first art in Italy which was launched into the stream of the 
Renaissance, in its development it was ever a step in advance of 
the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed the advantage 
of most clearly embodying the current ideas of the age , and of 
affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened love of 
art. It is probably to be ascribed to the intimate connection be- 
tween the plastic art of the Renaissance and the peculiar national 
culture, that the former lost much of its value after the decline of 
the latter, and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural 
works, in which adventitious historical origin is obviously of less 
importance than general effect. In tracing the progress of the 
sculpture of the Renaissance , the enquirer at once encounters 
serious deviations from its strict precepts, and numerous infringe- 
ments of iestlietieal rules. The execution of reliefs constitutes 
by far the widest sphere of action of the Italian sculpture of the 
loth century. These, however, contrary to the precepts of im- 
memorial usage, are executed in i pictorial style. Ghiberti, for 
example , in his celebrated (eastern) door of the Baptistery of 
Florence, is not satisfied with grouping the figures as in a paint- 
ing , and placing them in a rich landscape copied from nature. 
lie treats the background in accordance with the rules of per- 
spective ; the figures at a distance are smaller and less raised 
than those in the foreground. He oversteps the limits of the 
plastic art, and above all violates the laws of the relief-style, 
according to which the figures are always represented in an ideal 
space, and the usual system of a mere design in j rofile seldom 
departed from. So also the painted reliefs in terracotta by Luca 
della Robbia do not quite coincide with the current views of pu- 
rity of plastic form. But if it be borne in mind that the sculp- 
tors of the Renaissance did not derive their ideas from a pre- 
viously defined system, or adhere to abstract rules, the fresh and 
life-like vigour of their works (especially those of the 15th cen- 
tury) will not be disputed, and prejudice will be dispelled by the 
great attractions of the reliefs themselves. The sculpture of the 
Renaissance adheres as strictly as the other arts to the funda- 
mental principle of representation ; scrupulous care is bestowed on 
the faithful and attractive rendering of the individual objects; the 
taste is gratified by expressive heads, graceful female figures, and 
joyous children; the sculptors have a keen appreciation of the 
1 eauty of the nude , and the importance of a calm and dignified 
flow of drapery. Fidelity of representation, however, becomes for 
them a source of poetry in a higher degree than for their con- 
temporaries in art. Actuated by a sense of the value of person- 
ality, as true disciples of the humanistic precepts, they do not 


shrink from harshnes.. »>f expression or rigidity of form; and by 
imparting the impress of tlieir individual senilis to the intractable 
exterior, tliey approach to the verge of the sublime. A predilec- 
tion for bronze-casting accords with this inclination lor the cha- 
racteristic. In this material, decision and pregnancy of form are 
expressed without restraint, and almost, as it wore, spontaneously. 
Works in marble also occur, but these generally trench on the 
province of decoration, and seldom display the bold and unfettered 
aspirations which aie apparent in the works in bronze. It is re- 
markable that the reformatory character of the earlier sculpture 
of the Renaissance is confined to form alone, whilst in the selec- 
tion of subjects tradition is invariably followed. Most of these 
works have been executed for ecclesiastical purposes. The 
best museum of Italian sculpture of the loth century is constitu- 
ted by the external niches of Or San Michele in Florence, where, 
besides Donatello the principal master, Ghiberti, Veroeehio, and 
others have immortalised their names. These with other statues 
on church-facades (the best specimens of the second generation 
of sculptors of this period are perhaps the works of Rustici and 
Sansovino in the Baptistery of Florence), reliefs of pulpits, organ- 
parapets, altar-enrichments, church-doors, etc. form the principal 
sphere of plastic activity. The most admirable specimens of the 
earlier Renaissance sculpture are to be found in Central Italy. 
Resides Florence, the towns of Lucca (where Civitali wrought), 
Pistoja, Siena, and Prato should be explored. At Rome (S. Maria 
del Popolo) and Venice (school of the Lombardi, Bregni, and of 
Leopardo) the monumental tombs especially merit careful exami- 
nation. We may perhaps frequently take exception to their in- 
flated and somewhat monotonous style, which during an entire 
century remained almost unaltered, but we cannot fail to derive 
genuine pleasure from the inexhaustible freshness of imagination 
so richly displayed within these narrow limits. 

As a museum cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculp- 
ture of the 15th century, so a visit to a picture gallery will not 
afford an accurate insight into the painting of that period. Sculp- 
tures are frequently removed from their original position, as has been 
the case with the Florentine churches , which of late have been 
deprived of many of their treasures, while mural paintings are of 
course generally inseparable from the architecture. Of the frescoes 
of the 15th century of which a record has been preserved, perhaps 
one-half have been destroyed or obliterated, but those still extant 
are the most instructive and attractive examples of the art of this 
period. The mural paintings in the Church del Carmine (Cap- 
pella Brancacci) at Florence , executed by Masaccio and others, 
are usually mentioned as the earliest specimens of the painting 
of the Renaissance. This is a chronological mistake, as some of 
these frescoes were not completed before the second half of the 


loth century; but in the main the classification is justifiable, as 
this cycle of pictures may be regarded as a programme of the 
earlier art of the Renaissance, and served to maintain the signi- 
ficance of the latter even during the age of Raphael. Here the 
beauty of the nude was first revealed, here a calm dignity in the 
single figures, as well as in the general arrangement, was for the 
first time faithfully pourtrayed ; and the transformation of a group 
of indifferent spectators in the composition into a sympathising 
choir, which as it were forms a frame to the principal actors in 
the scene, was first successfully effected. It is, therefore, intelli- 
gible that these frescoes should he still regarded as models by 
the succeeding generation, and that, when during the last cen- 
tury the attention of connoisseurs was again directed to the beau- 
ties of the pre-lfaphaelite period , the works of Masaccio and 
Filippino Lippi should have been eagerly rescued from oblivion. 
A visit to the churches of Florence is well calculated to con- 
vey an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of 
painting. The most important and extensive works are those of 
Domenico Ghirlandajo : the frescoes in S. Trinita (a comparison 
with the mural paintings of Giotto in S. Croce , which also re- 
present the legend of St. Francis, is extremely instructive; so also 
a parallel between (rhirlandajo's Last Supper in the monasteries 
of S. Marco and Ognissaiiti, anil the work of Leonardo), and those 
in the choir of S. Maria Novella, which in sprightliness of con- 
ception are hardly surpassed by any other work of the same pe- 
riod. Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Oozzoli's char- 
mingly expressive scenes from the Old Testament on the nor- 
thern wall of the Campo Santo of Pisa, forming genuine biblical 
genre-pictures, then Filippo Lippi's frecoes at I'rato, Piero della 
Francesca's Finding of the Cross in S. Francesco at Arezzo, and 
finally Luca Signorelli's representation of the end of the world in 
the Cathedral at Orvieto, present the most brilliant survey of the 
character and development of Renaissance painting in Central Italy. 
Arezzo and Orvieto should by no means be passed over, not only 
because the already-mentioned works of Piero della Francesca anil 
Luca Signorelli show how nearly the art even of the lf)th cen- 
tury approaches perfection, but because both of these towns afford 
an immediate and most attractive insight into the artistic taste 
of the mediaeval towns of Italy. Those who cannot accomplish a 
visit to the provincial towns will find several at least of the prin- 
cipal masters of the l:>th cent, united in the mural paintings of 
the Sixtine Chapel at Rome, and by studying the pictures in the 
gallery of the Florentine Academy will obtain a general idea of 
the development of Renaissance-painting. At the same time an 
acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never suffice to 
enable one to form a judgment respecting the general progress of 
art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly touched vibrate 


powerfully in Tipper Italy. .Mantegna's works (Padua and Man- 
tuaj derive their chief interest from having exercised a marked 
influence on the German masters Holbein and Diirer. The Uni- 
brian school, which originates with Gubbio, and is admirably re- 
presented early in the loth century by Ottaviano Nelli, blending 
with the Tuscan school in Gentile da Fabriano and Giovanni da 
Fiesole, and culminating in its last ami greatest masters Peru- 
gino and Pinturicchio , also merits attention, not only because 
Raphael was one of its adherents during; his first period, but be- 
cause it in fact supplements the broadly delineating Florentine 
style, and notwithstanding its peculiar and limited bias is impres- 
sive in its character of lyric sentiment and religious devotion (e. 
g Madonnas). The fact that the various points of excellence 
were distributed among different local schools showed the necessity 
of a loftier union. Transcemlaiit talent was requisite, in order 
harmoniously to combine what could hitherto be viewed separately 
only. The loth century, notwithstanding all its attractiveness, 
shows that the climax of art was not yet attained. The forms 
employed, graceful and pleasing though they be, are not yet lofty 
and pure enough to be regarded as embodying the noblest 
conceptions. The figures still pre-ent a local colouring, hav- 
ing been selected by the artists rather because sensually at- 
tractive, than because characteristic and expressive of their ideas. 
A portrait style still predominates, the actual representation does 
not appear always wisely balanced with the internal significance 
of the event, and the dramatic element is insufficiently empha- 
sised. The most abundant scope was therefore now afforded for 
the labours of the great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael 
Angelo Buonarotti, and Raphael Hanti, by whom an entirely new 
era was inaugurated. 

Leonardo's ( 1452- -1519) remarkable character can only be 
thoroughly understood by means of prolonged study. His compre- 
hensive genius was only partially devoted to art; he also directed 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely 
different nature. Refinement ami versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations; a division of human power, a parti- 
tion of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were, his entire personality into the scale in all that he 
undertook. He regarded a careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than a comprehensive culture of the mind; the vigour 
of his imagination aroused the application of his intellect also, 
his minute observation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies, in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 


an , especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 
obliterate all trace of the latter. But few of Leonardo's works 
have been preserved in Italy, and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period , when he wrought under 
Verocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lorenzo di Credi, 
is the fresco (Madonna and donor) in S. Onofrio at Home. Se- 
veral oil-paintings, portraits, Madonnas, etc. fin the Galleria Sciarra 
at Koine) are attributed to his Milan period, although careful re- 
search inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. The best in- 
sight into Leonardo's style, his reforms in the art of colouring, etc., 
is obtained by an attentive examination of the works of the Mi- 
lan school (Luini, Salaino), as these are far better preserved than 
the original works of the master, of which (his battle -cartoon 
having been unfortunately lost with the exception of a single 
equestrian group) the Last Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie at 
Milan is now the only worthy representative. Although this in 
its damaged condition may be termed the shadow of a shadow, 
it is still well calculated to convey to the spectator, who has 
been prepared by the engravings, an idea of the new epoch of 
Leonardo. lie should first examine the delicate equilibrium of 
the composition, how the individual groups are complete in them- 
selves , and yet simultaneously point to a common centre , and 
impart a monumental character to the work : then the remarkable 
physiognomical fidelity which pervades every detail, the psycholo- 
gical distinctness of character, the dramatic life, together with the 
calmness of the entire bearing of the picture. He will then com- 
prehend that with Leonardo a new era in Italian painting was 
inaugurated, that the development of art had attained its perfection. 
The accuracy of this assertion will perhaps be regarded by the 
amateur as dubious when he turns from Leonardo to Michael 
Angelo (1474 — 1563). On the one hand he hears Michael Angelo 
extolled as the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance, whilst 
on the other it is said that he exercised a prejudicial influence 
on Italian art, and was the precursor of the decline of sculpturo 
and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel the doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with the perfect, the pro- 
foundly significative, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, biographical studies alone afford an explanation of these 
anomalies , and lead to a just appreciation of Michael Angelo's 
artistic greatness. His principles do not differ from those of his 
contemporaries. Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to 
the nude, and treats the drapery in many respects differently 
from his professional brethren. Rut, like them, Ins aim is to in- 
spire his figures with life-like expression, which he endeavours to 
attain by imparting to them an imposing and impressive character. 
At the same time he occupies an isolated position, at variance 


with many of the tendencies of It is age. Naturally predisposed 
to melancholy, concealing a gentle and almost effeminate tempera- 
ment beneath a mask of austerity, Michael Angelo was continued 
in his peculiarities by adverse political and ecclesiastical circum- 
stances, and wrapped himself up within the depths of his own 
aKsorbing thoughts. His sculpture especially bears testimony to 
the profound sentiment of the artist, to which however he sacri- 
fices symmetry and precision of form. His figures are thus con- 
verted into anomalous types , in which a grand conception , but 
no distinct or tangible thoughts , and least of all the traditional 
ideas are apparent. It is difficult now to comprehend what hidden 
sentiments the master embodied in his statues and pictures, which 
often present nothing but a massive and clumsy form, and appear 
to degenerate into meaningless mannerism. The deceptive ef- 
fect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best exemplified by 
some of his later works. His Moses in S. Pietro in Vincoli is of 
impossible proportions; such a man can never have existed; the 
huge arms and the gigantic torso are utterly disproportionate ; the 
robe which falls over the celebrated knee could not be folded as 
it is represented. Nevertheless the work is grandly impressive; 
so also are the monuments of the Medicis in S. Lorenzo at Flo- 
rence, in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary moulding of 
some of the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices the accuracy 
of constituents in order to enhance the aggregate effect , in the 
contemplation of which we forget to examine the details. Had so 
great and talented a master not presided over the whole , the 
danger of an inflated style would have been incurred , the forms 
selected would have been exaggerated, and a professional coldness 
apparent. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, desirous of faithfully 
following the example of the master's Last Judgment in the Six- 
tine, succeeded only in representing complicated groups of unna- 
turally foreshortened nude figures, whilst Eaccio liandinelli, 
thinking even to surpass Michael Angelo, produced in his group 
of Hercules and Cacus (in the Piazza della Signoria at Florence] 
a mere caricature of his model. 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of Pieta, (in 
>St. Peter's) occupies the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence) likewise do not transgress the customary 
precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of Michael 
Angelo's earlier period are rare ; the finest , whether conceived 
during his youthful development, or his maturer years, is unques- 
tionably the ceiling-painting in the Sixtine. The architectural 
arrangement of the ceiling, and the composition of the several 
pictures arc equally masterly ; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 


Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind ; lie under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation , which he conceived as motion in the prophets 
and sibyls. Notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the 
fundamental intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great 
variety of psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in 
distinct characters. Finally, in the so-called ancestors of Christ, 
the forms represented are the genuine emanations of Michael 
Angelo's genius , pervaded by his profound and mystically ob- 
scure sentiments, and yet by no means destitute of gracefulness 
and beauty. 

Whether the palm be due to Michael Angelo or to Raphael 
( 14SB — 10*20 ) among the artists of Italy is a question which for- 
merly gave rise to vehement discussion among artists and amateurs. 
The admirer of Michael Angelo need, however, by no means be 
excluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. We now know 
that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 
each master in his peculiar province , than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
obstructed the progress of the other, and that a so-called higher 
combination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was snch, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted, was entirely exempt from his influence; 
but the true result of preceding development was turned to ac- 
count, not by him, but by Raphael, whose susceptible and discri- 
minating character enabled him at once to combine different ten- 
dencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his predeces- 
sors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of profound 
personal sentiment, but his imagination was so constituted that 
he did not distort the ideas which he had to embody, in order 
to accommodate them to his own views, but rather strove to iden- 
tify himself with them, and to render them with the utmost pos- 
sible fidelity, In the case of Raphael, therefore, a knowledge of 
his works and the enjoyment of them are almost, inseparable, and 
it is difficult to point out any single sphere with which he was 
especially familiar. He presents to us with equal enthusiasm 
pictures of the Madonna, and the myth of Cupid and Psyche; in 
great cyclic compositions he is as brilliant as in the limited sphere- 
of portrait-painting; at one time he appears to attach paramount 
importance to strictness of style, architectural arrangement sym- 
metry of groups, etc., at another one is induced to believe that 
he regarded colour as his most effective auxiliary. His excellence 
consists in his rendering equal justice to the most varied subjects 
and in each case as unhesitatingly pursuing the right course 
both in his apprehension of the idea and selection of form as if 
he had ne^er followed any other. In each period of hi s develop- 


ment worthy rivals trench closely on his reputation. As long 
as he adhered to the I'mbrian School, Pinturicchio, and to some 
extent the Bolognese goldsmith Francia, contested the palm with 
him, and when lie went over to the Florentine School (1504) 
numerous competitors maintained their reputation by his side. 
Leonardo's example had here given a great impetus to art , and 
his works had yielded an insight into a new world of ideas and 
forms. Without entirely quitting local ground, the artists of Flo- 
rence became familiar with the loftier spheres of imagination, and 
proceeded far beyond the original goal of life-like fidelity of re- 
presentation. It is hardly necessary to direct the attention to Fra 
Bartolommeo (1467 — 1517) and Andrea del Sarto (1488—1536); 
those who visit the Pitti Gallery only may form an adequate idea 
of the styles of these masters ( the altar-piece in the cathedral of 
Lucca by Fra Bartolommeo, however, should not be overlooked); 
but other Florentine painters of the 16th century deserve more 
notice than usually falls to their share. It is commonly believed 
that all the gems of the Galleria degli Uffizi are collected in the 
Tribuna , and the other pictures are therefore passed over with 
a hasty glance; yet on entering the second Tuscan room the 
visitor encounters several highly finished works, such as the 
Miracles of St. Zenobius by the younger Ghirlandajo ; nor is the 
enjoyment and instruction afforded by the portraits of artists, 
most of them by their own hands , to be despised. There is 
nothing unintelligible in the fact that Raphael did not at once 
rise above all his contemporaries in art during the first period of 
his development. The enthusiastic admirer of Raphael will be 
still more unwilling to admit that even in his Roman period 
(1508 — 1520) his then matured qualities, especially his charming 
gracefulness of representation, were most successfully cultivated by 
another master. This was Razzi or Sodoma, who has been most 
unfairly treated by the biographers of Italian artists. His frescoes 
in the Farnesina and his numerous mural paintings at Siena, 
where he spent the greater part of his life , are worthy rivals of 
Raphael's works of the same description, and even surpass them 
in the colouring. But, whilst Sodoma, like all other rivals of the 
master of Urbino , vie with him in a single branch of art only, 
the latter excels equally in all. Raphael's versatility, therefore, 
constitutes his principal merit. 

Several of Raphael's most celebrated easel-pictures are distri- 
buted throughout different farts of the world, but Italy still 
possesses a valuable collection , together with the three works 
which correspond to the terminations of the three distinct periods 
of the master's development (Nuptials of Mary, at Milan, at the 
close of the Umbrian period ; Entombment of Christ, in the Gall. 
Borghese, at the close of the Florentine period ; Transfiguration, in 
the Vatican, at the close of the Roman period, left uncompleted by 


Raphael), as well as a great number of portraits, anions which the 
so-called Foniarina in the Barberini Gallery derives a still higher 
interest from its subject. The amateur, moreover, should on no 
account omit to see the St. Cecilia in Bologna, and the Madonna della 
Seggiola in the Pitti Gallery. The latter is a characteristic specimen 
of Raphael's Madonnas, which are by no means calculated to awaken 
feelings of devotion. The fundamental ecclesiastical idea generally 
yields to feelings of a less elevated character; and maternal hap- 
piness , the bliss of unsullied family-life , or the perfection of 
female beauty are the predominating features. In Italy only, or 
rather in Rome (the mural painting in S. Severo at Perugia is a 
solitary specimen of his earlier period), Raphael's merits as a 
fresco -painter can be appreciated. Like all the great Italian 
painters, his finest productions have been in this province of art. 
The highest rank must be assigned to his works in the papal 
chambers of state in the Vatican. In order to understand them, 
the spectator should on the one hand bear in mind that fresco- 
painting is never entirely divested of a decorative character, and 
on the other keep in view the peculiar position of papacy at the 
commencement of the 16th century. In the Palace of the Vatican 
the same courtly tone, the same taste for pleasure and enjoyment 
as in the residences of other Italian princes are exhibited; se- 
cular views here met with a willing reception , and humanistic 
tendencies especially appear not to have been repugnant to the 
dignity of the Roman court. All these qualities are more or 
less apparent in Raphael's frescoes; the courtly tone is repeatedly 
assumed, even the refined compliment paid to the patron of the 
artist is not disdained, the ceremonial representation not excluded, 
and personal allusions are not less frequent than political. We 
must finally remember that Raphael was always compelled to 
employ with discrimination the space at his command, and to 
distribute his decorative paintings appropriately on walls and ceil- 
ings, and that the limits imposed on him could not fail fre- 
quently to hamper his movements, and oblige him to alter his 
plans. His theological and philosophical erudition, exhibited in 
the Disputa and the School of Athens, his address in combining 
the most disconnected subjects, such as the expulsion of Ilelio- 
dorus from the Temple, and the retreat of the French from Italy, 
and his unvarying success in the treatment of all the complicated 
series of subjects in the Stanze are sources of just astonishment. 
Raphael is, moreover, worthy of the highest admiration on account 
of his discrimination in selecting what was capable of artistic 
embodiment from a heterogeneous mass of ideas, and on account 
of the energy with which he asserts the privileges of imagination 
and his sense of the beautiful, thus rendering the most intract- 
able materials obedient to his designs. This is must strikingly 
exemplified in the picture which represents the <on lUiar.i i icm of 


the Leonine city, the so-called Horgo, or rather, in accordance at 
least with the design of the donor, the extinction of the lire by 
means of the papal benediction. No spectator can here detect 
the unreasonableness of the demand that a miracle should be ma- 
terially represented. Raphael transfers the scene to the heroic 
age, paints a picture replete with magnificent figures and lifelike 
groups , which have stimulated every subsequent artist to imi- 
tation, and depicts the confusion, and preparations for flight and 
rescue, accompanied by the corresponding emotions. The painting 
does not perhaps contain what the donor desired, but on the 
other hand is transmuted into a creation inspired by imagination, 
and suggested by the most versatile sense of form. Raphael 
executed his task in a similar manner in the case of the cele- 
brated frescoes in the first Stanza, viz. the Disputa and the 
School of Athens. Although he was not precisely desired to 
illustrate a chapter in the history of ecclesiastical dogmas (deve- 
lopment of the doctrine of transubstantiation), or to produce a 
sketch in colours of the history of ancient philosophy, yet the 
task of representing a mere series of celebrated philosophers and 
propounders of church doctrine could possess but little attraction. 
By interspersing ideal types amid historical characters , by repre- 
senting the assembled congregation of belie\ers in the Disputx as 
having beheld a vision , which necessarily called forth in each 
individual evidences of profound emotion, and by emphasising in 
the School of Athens the happiness of knowledge and the plea- 
sure of being initiated in the higher spheres of science, Raphael 
has brilliantly asserted the rights of creative imagination. 

After these observations the amateur scarcely requires another 
hint respecting an impartial examination of Raphael's works. If 
he directs his attention solely to the subjects of the representa- 
tion, and inquires after the name and import of each figure , if 
he feels bound to admire the versatility of the artist, who derives 
the different forms from remote provinces of learning and abounds 
in erudite allusions, he loses the capability of appreciating the 
special artistic value of Raphael's works. He will then perceive 
no material distinction between them and the great symbolical 
pictures of the middle ages; nay, he will even be tempted to 
give the latter (e. g. the mural paintings in the Cap. degli 
Spagnuoli, in S. Maria Novella) the preference. These unquestion- 
ably comprise a wider range of ideas , aim with greater boldness 
at the embodiment of the supersensual, and may boast of having 
cultivated the didactic element in the most comprehensive manner. 
It is a matter of doubt to what extent Raphael's scientific know- 
ledge was based on his intercourse with contemporaneous scho- 
lars (as such, Castiglione, Bembo , Ariosto , etc. have been 

ntioned), or whether he was entirely independent of these. 

In the former case the merit of versatility would be due to these 


savants; but in the latter, had Raphael independently recollected 
all the recondite allusions which the paintings in the Stanze are 
said to exhibit, his artistic character would not thereby be more 
clearly revealed to us; his intellect, not his imagination, would 
have been exercised. Raphael's pictures will not only be enjoyed 
in a higher degree, but a better insight into his character and 
greatness acquired, if the attention be principally directed to the 
manner in which the artist, by the power of his imagination, im- 
parted a living form to ideas in themselves devoid of life , in 
which he distinguished the various figures by a marked psycho- 
logical impress , so that the bearers of historical appellations at 
the same time appear to the spectator as actual human charac- 
ters, and in which he skilfully produced an equilibrium of move- 
ment and repose in his groups, and not only devoted attention 
to beauty of outline , but effected a happy reconciliation of pro- 
found intellectual contrasts. It must not, however, be imagined 
by those who undertake such an investigation, that their task and 
its interest will speedily be exhausted. Numerous questions still 
present themselves to the enquirer : by what motives Raphael 
was actuated in the entirely different colouring of the Disputa and 
the School of Athens; how far the architectural background of 
the latter contributes to the general effect; why the predominance 
of portrait-representation is in one part limited, at another (Juris- 
prudence) extended: what considerations gave rise to the various 
alterations in the compositions which we discover by comparison 
with the numerous sketches, etc. Unfortunately the condition of 
the paintings in the Stanze is little calculated to produce pleasure 
in their examination ; and we cannot now without difficulty ap- 
preciate in the Loggie the ancient magnificence of this unique 
decorative painting, or in the sadly disfigured tapestry recognise 
the culminating point of Raphael's art. A clue to the details of 
the composition of the latter is indeed afforded solely by the car- 
toons, now preserved in the Kensington Museum; but the designs 
at the base, and the marginal arabesques, partially preserved in 
the original tapestry, contribute materially to convey an idea of 
the festive impression which these representations, originally des- 
tined for the Six-tine Chapel, were intended to produce. 

Raphael's frescoes in the cheerful Farnesina present an ap- 
parently irreconcilable contrast to his works in the Vatican. The 
latter bear the impress of religious fervour, aspiration to the 
sublime , a tendency to serious reflection , whilst in the former 
the art of the master is dedicated to joyous scenes, and every 
figure beams with pleasure and innocent happiness. But even 
the frescoes of the Farnesina are a characteristic manifestation of 
Raphael's genius. Ife derived his knowledge of the myth of Cupid 
and Psyche from the well-known work of Apuleius, which was as 
eagerly perused in the 16th century as during Roman antiquity. 


No author of ancient or modern times ran boast of a more charm- 
ing illustration than that of Apuleius by Raphael , although the 
subject is somewhat freely treated. In Raphael's hands the 
myth acquires a new form. Well aware that his task was the 
decoration of a festive hall, Raphael has studiously avoided every- 
thing of a sombre character. Psyche's sufferings are placed in the 
background; her triumph alone occupies the artist's attention. 
The confined limits of the hall appear transformed into stimulants 
of the artist's sense of form. He embodies the myth in an 
abridged form, suggests many scenes in a superficial manner, yet 
without omitting any essential point, and thus without constraint 
contrives to render the historical compatible with the decorative. 
Harmony in conception and design , symmetrical precision , and 
capacity of concentration in adhering strictly to the subject, 
without admixture of personal caprice , — all genuine attributes 
of Raphael, — are as distinctly observable in the frescoes of the 
Farnesina as in those of the Vatican. The ceiling -paintings in 
the principal hall are far inferior in execution to the so-called 
Ualatea in the adjoining apartment; but the contemplation of 
both works affords enjoyment of the highest order, a repetition 
of which is longed for by every spectator. 

The traveller cannot duly prepare himself north of the Alps 
for a just appreciation of the works of Leonardo, Michael Angelo, 
and Raphael; however familiar he may imagine himself to be with 
them, he will be forcibly struck by the new light in which they 
appear on their native soil. The case is different with Correggio 
and Titian , who are frequently extolled in the same breath as 
heroes of art, and elevated to equal rank with these three great 
masters. An approximate idea of Correggio's merits may easily be 
formed in the galleries of the north , but some peculiarities will 
be detected for the first time in Italy. He will be discovered 
to tend to a naturalistic bias ; it will be observed that not only 
his treatment of space (perspective cupola - painting) is devoid of 
delicacy, but that the individual characters possess nothing beyond 
their natural charm. Correggio cannot be regarded as a perfect 
and comprehensive character, embracing as it were an entire world, 
but merely as an attractive colourist , who highly matured one 
branch of his artistic education, but totally neglected the other. 
Giorgione and Titian , the great masters of the Venetian school, 
cannot, on the other hand, be duly appreciated as artists of the 
Renaissance except in Italy. These are not mere colourists, they 
arc not indebted exclusively to local impulses for their peculiar 
art; the joyous and festive seenes which they are unwearied in 
depicting are a true emanation of the culture of the Renaissance 
(Titian's connection with the 'divine' Aretino is in this respect 
very suggestive); the happy individuals, rejoicing in the soft 
delights of love, whom they so often represent, remind one of 


the ancient gods, and afford a clue to the manner in which the 
revival of the antique is associated with the Renaissance-period. 
Correggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently regarded as models by the Italian painters of the 17th 
century, and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, were not the entire post-Raphaelite 
period usually overlooked. Those who make the study of the great 
cinquecentists their principal object will doubtless be loth to exam- 
ine the works of their successors. Magnificent decorative works 
are occasionally encountered (those of Giulio Romano at Mantua, 
and Perino del Vaga at Genoa), but the taste cannot but be of- 
fended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial profes- 
sionalism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas which they embody; they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and finally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste for beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their techni- 
cal skill is not the result of mature experience , slowly acquired 
and justly valued : they came into easy possession of great re- 
sources of art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. 
The quaint, the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their 
taste; rapidity, not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. 
Abundant specimens of this mannerism are encountered at Rome 
and Naples (cupola of the cathedral at Florence by Zuccaro, 
frescoes in the Roman churches of S. Maria Maggiore and S. Pras- 
sede by d'Arpino , in S. Stefano by Tempesta , etc. J. The fact 
that several works of this class produce a less unfavourable im- 
pression does not alter the general judgment , as it is not want 
of talent so much as of conscientiousness which is attributed to 
these artists. The condition of Italian art , that of painting at 
least, improved to some extent towards the close of the 16th 
century; a species of second efflorescence, known in the schools 
as the 'revival of good taste', took place, and is said to have 
manifested itself in two main directions, the eclectic and the 
naturalistic . But these are terms of little or no advantage in 
the study o' art, and the amateur is recommended entirely to 
disregard them. The difficulty , however , of forming a fair 
judgment is not thereby terminated. Down to the close of the 
preceding century the works of Bernini, Guido Reni, Domenichino, 
and even of Carlo Dolce and Maratta were in high repute. Scaf- 
foldings were erected in the Tiber in order to afford an opportu- 
nity of inspecting Bernini's statues on the Ponte S. Angelo more 
closely, and travellers indulged in unbounded admiration of the 
paintings of the 17th century. At a later period a reaction took 
place; under the influence of the modern 'romantic' period the 
public became averse to fluent beauty and easy gracefulness of 


foTDi. Censure of the 17th century and the barock style was 
hailed as a sign of the revival of better artistic taste. At the 
present day the bias of the preceding period has again become 
a subject of investigation, and Bernini's architecture is now less 
frequently stigmatised as 'barock'. The Italian art of the 17th 
century has already become a constituent of modern art, and the 
estimation in which it is held is there tore often dependent on 
the fashion of' the day. The safest course to be pursued here 
also is that of historical investigation. The principal monuments 
of the architecture of the 17th century are the churches of the 
Jesuits, which unquestionably produce a most imposing effect ; but 
the historical enquirer will not easily be dazzled by their mere- 
tricious magnificence. He will perceive the absence of organic 
forms , and the impropriety of combining totally different styles, 
and he will steel himself against the gorgeous, but monotonous 
attractions of the paintings and other works of the same period. 
The bright Renaissance is extinct, simple pleasure in the natural 
and human obliterated. A gradual change in the views of the 
Italian public, and the altered position of the church did not fail 
to influence the tendencies of art, which in the 17th century 
again devoted itself more immediately to the service of the church. 
Devotional pictures now became more frequent , but at the same 
time a sensual, naturalistic element gained ground. At one time 
it veils itself in beauty of form , at another it is manifested in 
the representation of voluptuous and passionate emotions; classic 
dignity and noble symmetry are never attained: Allori's Judith 
should be compared with the beauties of Titian, and the frescoes 
of Caracci in the Palazzo Farnese with Raphael's ceiling-paintings 
in the Farnesina , in order that the difference between the 16th 
and 17th centuries may be distinctly comprehended ; and the en- 
quirer will be still farther aided by consulting coeval Italian poe- 
try, and observing the development of the lyric drama or opera. 
The latter especially furnishes a suitable key to the mythological 
representations of the School of the Caracci. Gems of art, how- 
ever, were not unfrequently produced during the 17th century, 
and many of the frescoes of this period are admirable (the Aurora 
of Guido Reni in the Pal. Rospigliosi , Life of St. Cecilia in 
S. Luigi , Life of St. Nilus in Grottaferrata , paintings on the 
cupola and vaulting of S. Andrea by Domenichino, etc.). Beau- 
tiful oil-paintings by various masters are also preserved in the 
Italian galleries. Besides the public collections of Bologna (St. 
Jerome by Ag. Caracci , Slaughter of the Innocents and II Pal- 
lione by Guido Reni), Naples, and the Vatican and Capitol (Guer- 
cino's Petronilla) , the private galleries of Rome are of essential 
importance. The so-called gallery-pieces, figures and scenes de- 
signated by imposing titles, and painted in accordance with the 
prevailing taste of the 17th century, were readily admitted to, 


and indeed most .ippropriately placed in the palaces of the Roman 
nobles, most of which owe their origin and decoration to that age. 
This retreat of art to the privacy of the apartments of the great 
may be regarded as a symbol of the universal withdrawal of the 
Italians from public life. Artists, too, henceforth occupy an iso- 
lated position, unsustained by reliance on a healthy national cul- 
ture, exposed to the caprices of amateurs, and themselves inclined 
to an arbitrary deportment. Several qualities, however, still exist 
of which Italian artists are never entirely divested ; they retain a 
certain address in the arrangement of figures , they uphold their 
reputation as ingenious decorators , and understand the art of 
occasionally imparting an ideal impress to their pictures; even 
down to a late period in the 18th century they excel in effects 
of colour, and by devoting attention to the province of genre and 
landscape-painting they may boast of having extended the sphere 
of their native art. At the same time they cannot conceal the 
fact that they have lost all faith in the ancient ideals, that they 
are incapable of new and earnest tasks. They breathe a close, 
academic atmosphere, they no longer labour like their predeces- 
sors in an independent and healthy sphere, and their productions 
are therefore devoid of absorbing and permanent interest. 

This slight outline of the decline of Italian art brings us to 
the close of our brief and imperfect historical sketch , which , be 
it again observed , is designed merely to guide the eye of the 
enlightened traveller, and to aid the uninitiated in independent 
discrimination and research. 

1. From Marseilles [Genoa) to Leghorn (Civita 
Vecchia and Naples). 

Steamboats. Those who travel for pleasure, especially when accompanied 
by ladies, should invariably select the vessels of the french Messageries 
31 ari times on account of their superior organisation, punctuality, and 
comfort (comp. Introd.). The subjoined data are only designed to convey 
an idea of the usual routine, as alterations usually take place every spring 
and autumn. On these occasions the Company issues a new edition of 
their '■Livrtt des lignes de la Me'diterrane'e et de la Mer Noire 1 , which may 
be procured at the offices gratis, or may be written for by prepaid letter 
addressed '.4 V Administration des Messageries Maritimes'. 
Messageries Maritimes (Office at Marseilles , 16 Rue Cannebiere ; 
at Paris , 28 Rue Notre-Dame des Victoires) : every Monday evening 
at 8 to Civita Vecchia direct, arriving on Wednesdays at 5 a. m. 
— From Civita Vecchia to Marseilles every Thursday at 12 noon, ar- 
riving on Fridays at 9 p. m. 

By the vessel bound for the Piraeus and Constantinople , direct to 
Messina every Saturday in 64 hrs. 

By the vessel for Alexandria , to Messina direct on the 9th , 19th, 
and 29th of every month at 2 p. m., returning on the 3rd, 13th, and 
23rd of every month at 4 p. m. 

By the vessel for Syra, Smyrna, and Alexandria, to Palermo 
and Messina direct on the 8th, 18th, and 28th of every month. 

The company's vessels have for the present ceased to run to Genoa, 
Leghorn, Naples, and Malta. 
Besides the Messageries the following companies despatch vessels to 
the Italian ports (Genoa, Leghorn, Civita Vecchia, and Naples): 
Marc Fraissinet pere et fils (Office at Marseilles, 6 Place Royale): 
steamers every Sunday and Wednesday at 8 a. m. to Naples via Ge- 
noa, Leghorn, and Civita Vecchia; every Monday at 8 p. m. to Nice, 
Savona , Genoa , and Leghorn ; every Friday at 8 p. m. to Cannes, 
Nice, Genoa, He Rousse (Isola Rossa) in Corsica, and Calvi, also in 
Valery freres et Comp. (Office at Marseilles, 7 Rue Suffren): every 
Monday , Wednesday , and Friday at 9 p. m. to Naples via Genoa, 
Leghorn, and Civita Vecchia. 
Peirano Danovaro et Comp. (Office at Marseilles, 7 Rue Beauveau) : 
every Wednesday at 10 a. in. to Genoa; thence to Leghorn and Naples 
on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday at 9 p. m. - 
Average passage from Marseilles to Genoa 18—20 hrs., from Genoa 
to Leghorn 9 hrs. , from Leghorn to Civita Vecchia 12 hrs. , from Civita 
Vecchia to Naples 12 — 14 hrs., from Naples to Messina direct in 20 hrs., 
from Messina to Palermo in 9—10 hrs. — From Marseilles direct to Leghorn 
in 24 hrs., to Civita Vecchia in 30 hrs., to Messina in 64 hrs., to Palermo 
in 53 hrs. — From Leghorn to Naples direct in 28 hrs. , to Palermo in 
38 hrs. — From Naples to Palermo direct in 20 hrs. 

Fares (comp. Introd.): from Marseilles to Genoa, 1st class 76 fr., 2nd 
class 58 fr; to Leghorn 1st 98 fr., 2nd 71 fr. ; to Civita Vecchia 1st 110 fr. , 
2nd 77 fr.; to Naples 1st 181 fr.. 2nd 12S fr. ; to Messina direct 1st 167 fr., 

B,edeker. Italy II. 3rd Edition. 1 

2 Route 1. MARSEILLE? Hotels. 

2nd 12*6 fr. ; via Palermo 1st 195 fr., 2nd 132 fr. ; via Leghorn, Civita Vecchia, 
and Naples (i. e. the entire circuit, comp. Introd.) 1st 250 fr., 2nd 174 fr. ; 
to Palermo direct 1st 220 fr., 2nd 154 fr. ; via Leghorn etc. and Messina 1st 
260 fr., 2nd 184 fr.; to Malta direct via, Messina 1st 253 fr., 2nd 1S3 fr., via, 
Leghorn etc. and Messina 1st 274 fr., 2nd 199 fr. 

All the above vessels start from the Bassin de la Joliette at Marseilles; 
embarcation and landing are therefore unattended with expense. An om- 
nibus conveys passengers gratis from the office (p. 1) of the Messageries 
to the vessel, where the 'facteurs' are forbidden to accept gratuities 

Marseilles, the principal sea-port of France, termed Massalia 
by the Greeks, Massilia by the Romans, an important place even 
at an early period of antiquity, and now a city with 300,000 
inhab. , is the capital of the Department of the Embouchures of 
the Rhone , and the depot of a brisk and flourishing trade with 
the East, Italy, and Africa (Algiers). 

Hotels. 'Grand Hotel du Louvre et de la Paix (PI. a), a very 
extensive establishment, facing the S. , containing 250 bedrooms; ' ; Grand 
Hotel de Marseille (PI. b); Hotel de Koailles (PI. c) , Rue de 
Koailles, all in the Cannebiere-Prolongee, and fitted up in the style of the 
great Parisian hotels; rooms from 2 fr. upwards, table d'hote at 6 p. m. 
5, B. li/z, A. and L. 3 fr. ; * Hotel du Petit Louvre, Rue Cannebiere, 
R. 2 fr. ; Hotel du Luxembourg (PI. e). Rue St. Ferreol 25, R. 3, 
L. and A. l'|2, D. 4 fr. ; 'Hotel des Colonies, Rue Vacon ; Hotel des 
Ambassadeurs, Rue Beauveau, R. ltjs fr. ; Hotel des Princes (PI. 
g), Place Royale; Hotel d'ltalie (PI. k), on the quay; Hotel de Rome 
(PI. i) , patronised by Rom. Cath. clergymen. — The atmosphere of the 
town in summer is hot and oppressive. Those who contemplate a sojourn 
of several days during the warm season are therefore recommended to select 
the "Hotel des Catalans (open from May 1st to Oct. 31st), in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the sea-baths (PI. E, 6) , and near the former Residence 
Impiriale (p. 6) ; the situation is delightful , and the house spacious and 
comfortable ; omnibus to and from the station. A small establishment, some- 
what more distant, is the "Hotel Victoria, situated at the extremity 
of the Cours du Prado, at the point where it approaches the sea ; there is 
a good bathing - place near it', and the house is recommended for a pro- 
longed stay. 

Restaurants. Dela Cannebiere; Roubion (a la Reserve) beau- 
tifully situated on the new road La Corniche; Hotel du Luxembourg 
(Parrocel). Bouillabaisse, good fish. Chablis, Graves, and Sauterne are the 
white wines usually drunk. 

Cafes. The following attractive cafes are in the Cannebiere: de 
France, de l'Univers, Turc, Bodoul (Rue St. Ferre'ol), etc., all in 
the showy Parisian style. — Munich and Vienna beer at the Cafe Alle- 
m a n d , also in the Cannebiere. 

Post Office, Rue de Grignau. 

Bookseller. Veuve Camoin in the Cannebiere, with reading-rooms 
(25 c. per day). French newspapers, Galignani. etc. 

Carriages are of two descriptions. First, the voitures du service de In 
gare , destined for the conveyance of travellers to and from the railway- 
station , and posted there only. The passenger on entering receives a de- 
tailed tariff, in which even the driver's name is stated : one-horse carr. 1 fr. 
25 for 1 pers., for each additional pers. 25 c. ; two-horse carr. 1 fr. 75 c, 
for 1 pers., for each additional pers. 25 c, for a drive at night 25 c. more; 
each article of luggage 25 c. ; if the traveller fail in obtaining accommo- 
dation at the hotel, 25 c. more for driving to another. Secondly, the voi- 
tures de place (fiacres): one-horse 1 fr. 50 c. per drive, 2 fr. 25 c. for the 
first, and 2 fr. for each succeeding hour ; two horse 2 fr. per drive , 2 fr. 
50 c. for the first and 2 fr. for each succeeding hour. From 6 p. m. to 6 

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History. MARSEILLES. 1. Route. 3 

a. m. one-horse 1 fr. 75 c, two-horse 2 fr. 50 c. per drive. — Omnibus 30 c, 
each article of luggage 25 c. 

Steamboats. To Aj actio once weekly in about 26 hrs., fares 30 and 
20 fr. ; to Algiers 3 times weekly in about 50 hrs.', fares 95 and 71 fr. ; to 
Civita Vecchia and Messina see above. 

Boats in the Ancien Port at the extremity of the Rue Cannebiere : 
l'J2 fr. for the first, 1 fr. for each additional hour. In fine weather a de- 
lightful excursion mav be made to the islands of Ratonneau, Pomegues. and 
the Chateau d'lf (p. 6). 

Sea-Baths, handsomely fitted up, in the Anse des Catalans, on the E. 
side of the town , below the conspicuous former Residence Impiriale ; also 
warm sea-water baths, douche, vapour, etc. for gentlemen and ladies. Ad- 
jacent is the large "HCtel des Catalans (see p. 2), with restaurant. Omnibus 
to or from the baths 30 c. 

Consuls. British, American, etc. 

English Church Service performed bv a resident chaplain. 

Theatres. Grand Opera (PI. 41)', W. of the Place Royale, and 
Theatre du Gymnase (PI. 42), in the Allee de Meilhan, both good. 
There are also two smaller theatres frequented by the humbler classes. 

Massilia was a colony founded about B. C. 600 by Greeks from Pho- 
csea in Asia Minor, who soon became masters of the sea, conquered the 
Carthaginians in a naval battle near Corsica, and established new colonies 
in their neighbourhood, such as Tauroeis (near Ciotat), Olbia (near Hyeres), 
Antipolis (Antibes), and iftcaea (Nice), all of which, like their founders, 
rigidly adhered to the Greek language, customs, and culture. Massilia 
maintained this reputation down to the imperial period of Rome, and was 
therefore treated with leniency and respect by Julius Csesar when conquered 
by him B. C. 49. Tacitus informs us that his illustrious father-in-law 
Agricola, a native of the neighbouring Roman colony Forum Julii (Frejus), 
even under Claudius found ample opportunities for completing his educa- 
tion at Massilia in the Greek manner, for which purpose Athens was usually 
frequented. The town possessed temples of Diana (on the site of the pre- 
sent cathedral), of Neptune (on the coast), of Apollo, and other gods. Its 
government was aristocratic. After the fall of the W. Empire Marseilles 
fell successively into the hands of the Visigoths, the Franks, and the Sara- 
cens, by whom it was destroyed; in the 10th cent, it was restored and be- 
came subject to the Vicomtes de Marseille; in 121S it became independent, 
but shortly afterwards succumbed to Charles of Anjou. In 14S1 it was unit- 
ed to France, but still adhered to its anciept privileges, as was especially 
evident in the wars of the Ligue, against Henry IV. In 1660 Louis XIV. 
divested the town of its privileges, so that it retained its importance as a 
sea -port only. In 1720 and 1721 it was devastated by a fearful pestilence. 
During the revolution it remained unshaken in its allegiance to royalty, and 
•was therefore severely punished. In 1792 hordes of galley-slaves were sent 
hence to Paris , where they committed frightful excesses. It was for them 
that Rouget de I' Isle , an officer of engineers , composed the celebrated 
Marseillaise: 'Allons, enfants de la patrie', which subsequently became the 
battle-hymn of the republican armies. 

The town contains few objects worthy of special mention. The 
harbour whence it derives its commercial importance , is one of 
the most interesting points. Since 1850 it has been extended 
to four times its former size, notwithstanding which there is still 
a demand for increased accommodation. In 1853 the Bassin de la 
Joliette was added to the Ancien Port, and is now the starting- 
point of most of the steamboats. The Bassin du Lazaret, d'Arine, 
and Napoleon were next constructed. It is now proposed to form 
two new docks and an entrance-harbour (avant-port) , which will 
render Marseilles one of the greatest sea-ports in the world. 
About 20,000 vessels, of an aggregate burden of 2,000,000 tons. 


4 Route 1. MARSEILLES. Consigne. 

enter and quit Marseilles annually. The annual amount of 
customs-dues exceeds 60 million francs (i. e. 2,400,000 l.~). 

The old harbour is long and narrow. Its entrance is defended 
by the forts of St. Jean and St. Nicolas. 

Near the former is the * Consigne (PI. 6 ; entrance by the 
gate ; fee 50 c.) , the Office of the Intendance Sanitaire (quaran- 
tine authorities). The large saloon contains several good pictures : 
Horace Vernet, The cholera on board the frigate Melpomene; 
David , St. Eoch praying to the Virgin in behalf of persons sick 
of the plague, painted at Rome in 1780; Puget , The plague at 
Milan , a relief in marble ; Gerard , Bishop Belsunce during the 
plague in 1720 (see below); Tanneurs, The frigate Justine return- 
ing from the East with the plague on board ; Guerin, The cheva- 
lier Rose superintending the interment of those who have died of 
the plague. 

A few paces farther N. is situated the Cathedral , a new 
edifice , constructed of alternate layers of black and white stone, 
in a mixed Byzantine and Romanesque style, recently erected on 
the site of the ancient church of St. Lazaire , the removal of 
which had become necessary. 

On the N. side of the Ancien Port is the church of St. Victor, 
dating from 1200, with a crypt of the 11th cent. The towers 
were erected in 1350 by Pope Urban V. , who was once abbot 
of the monastery. — To the E., opposite the centre of the Ancien 
Port, is situated the new Residence Imperiale (PI. E., 5), which 
however was never occupied by the late Emperor. In the vicinity 
are the sea-baths and the Hotel des Catalans. 

La Cannebiere , a broad street , intersects the town from W. 
to E. , from the extremity of the Ancien Port to the centre of 
the town where the ground rises. In this street, a few paces 
from the harbour, stands the Bourse, with a portal of Corinthian 
columns , and adorned with the statues of (r.) Euthymenes and 
(l.)Pytheas, two natives of Massilia who distinguished themselves 
as navigators in the 4th (?) cent. B. C. To the latter we are 
indebted for the earliest data with respect to the length of the 
days in the different northern latitudes and the ebb and flow of 
the tide. The opposite Place Royale is used as a fish-market. 

A short distance further, on the 1. , the Cours de Belsunce 
is reached , a shady promenade generally thronged with foot- 
passengers , at the S. extremity of which stands the statue of 
Bishop Belsunce, 'pour perpetuer le souvenir de sa charite et de 
son devouement durant la peste qui desola Marseille en 1720'. 
This intrepid prelate , during the appalling plague which carried 
off 40,000 persons, alone maintained his post and faithfully 
performed the solemn duties of his calling. Prom this point the 
Rue d'Aix ascends to the Arc de Triomphe, erected originally to 
commemorate the Spanish campaign of the Duke of Angouleme 

Museum. MARSEILLES. 1. Route. 5 

(1823), now decorated with sculptures by Ramey and David 
d' Angers of the battles of Marengo , Austerlitz , Fleurus , and 
Heliopolis , and bearing the inscription : 'A Louis Napoleon Mar- 
seille reconnaissante' . The railway-station is situated to the N. 
of this point; the cemetery adjoins it. 

We now return to the Cannebiere. Opposite to the Place 
Belsunce opens the Cours St. Louis , continued by the Rue de 
Rome and the Cours du Prado, which is 2 l /% M. in length. At 
the S. extremity of the latter is the Chateau des Fleurs, a small 
park with fish-ponds , affording various kinds of entertainments, 
a poor description of 'Tivoli'. 

The following pleasant drive of several hours is recommended, especially 
for the afternoon and evening: Frome the Porte de Rome or the Place Cas- 
telane (both PI. E , 2) up the Cours du Prado , passing the Chateau des 
Fleurs; then down to the coast, where some charming views are ob- 
tained, and by the Chemin de Ceinture to the village of Endoume; hence, 
skirting the Anse des Catalans (baths and hotel p. 3), to the Promenade 
Bonaparte. The stranger may now either return to the town, or ascend on 
foot to the r. to the church of Notre Dame de la Garde (see below). 

To the 1. in the Cours St. Louis, at the entrance to the narrow 
Rue de la Palud, is a fountain, adorned with an insignificant 
bust of Pierre Puget , the celebrated sculptor , who was a native 
of Marseilles. 

At the E. extremity of the Boulevard de Longchamp rises the 
handsome new * Musee de Longchamp (PI. 34), designed by Espe'- 
randien , and completed in 1869. It consists of two extensive 
buildings connected by an Ionic colonnade, in the centre of which 
is an ornamental fountain. The r. wing contains the Musee 
d'Histoire Naturelle, the 1. the Musee des Beaux Arts. The latter 
is entered through a vestibule adorned with frescoes from the 
history of Marseilles. 

Principal Saloon. To the r. of the entrance: Jos. Vernet, Har- 
bour; Murillo , Capuchin; Spagnoletto, St. Peter; Salvator Rosa , Hermit 
regarding a skull ; Langlois, Bishop Belsunce. On the opposite wall : Hol- 
bein, Portrait of a young man (retouched) ; Snyders, Still life ; Guercino, 
Hector taking leave of Priam ; Rubens, Wild boar hunt ; Schalken, News- 
paper reader; -Flem. School, Portrait of an old man. To the 1. of the 
entrance : Ruysdael, Landscape. — The adjoining room on the r. contains 
works of the Provencal School; that on the 1. modern pictures. In the 
latter : " Philippoteaux , Farewell repast of the Girondists, on the eve of their 
execution; Curzon, Female weavers of Neaples; Ary Scheffer, Magdalene. 

At the back of the Museum are pleasant grounds, which extend 
as far as the Zoological Garden (adm. 1 fr.). 

The Old Museum in the Boulevard du Musee now contains 
few objects of interest. 

*View. The finest survey of the city is obtained from the 
church of * Notre Dame de la Garde (PI. F, 3) , situated on an 
eminence to the S. of the old harbour. The old chapel and fort 
of Notre Dame have been removed , and the church has been 
erected on the site of the latter in the same style of architecture 
as the cathedral (p. 4). It contains an image of the Virgin and 

6 Route 1. TOULON. From Marseilles 

numerous -votive tablets presented by persons who have survived 
the perils of shipwreck or disease. The terrace in front of the 
church affords an admirable survey of the extensive city, occupying 
the entire breadth of the valley , the innumerable white villas 
(bastides) on the surrounding hills, the harbour and the group of 
barren islands at its entrance, with the Chateau dlf, where Mira- 
beau was once confined (see below), and a portion of the Mediter- 
ranean ; to the E. extends the sea with its barren and rocky 
coast. The prospect is still more extensive from the gallery of 
the tower (154 steps) , which contains a bell weighing 10 tons, 
and is about to be crowned with a gilded figure of the Virgin. 
The church is reached in */ 2 hr. from the old harbour, by se- 
veral different paths , and finally by steps , a somewhat fatigu- 
ing ascent. Here the full force of the Mistral, or piercing N. W. 
wind, the scourge of Provence, is often felt. 

Departure. The vessel slowly extricates itself from the 
Bassin de la Joliette and emerges into the Avant-Port. To the 1. 
above the lighthouse rises the former Residence Impe'riale (p. 4), 
surrounded with pleasure-grounds ; beyond it Fort Nicolas. Notre 
Dame de la Garde on the more distant height long remains a 
conspicuous object. The view of the town of Marseilles itself is 
by no means imposing. The vessel steers towards the S. ; to the 
1. the Batterie du Phare, adjoining the Anse des Catalans and the 
baths (p. 3). To the r. the islands of Ratonneau and Pomegues; 
then the Chateau d'lf, described in Dumas" novel Monte Christo ; 
to the 1. the rugged coast, presenting a picturesque appearance. 

At 10. 45 a. m. (Marseilles having been quitted at 10. 30, 
the Cap de la Croisette is pasted, Marseilles gradually disappears) 
and the steamer directs its course towards the E. At 11. 20 a 
rocky basin is traversed ; 1 hr. later the vessel passes between 
the lies de Calseraigne, and shortly afterwards affords a view of 
the town and bay of Cassis. 12. 20 , to the 1. in the sea the 
Rockers de Cassidaine with a lighthouse , beyond which are the 
bay of Lecques and the small town of La Ciotat. After passing 
the Cap Notre Dame the steamboat nears 

(2 p. m.) Toulon, the principal naval depot of France, sur- 
rounded by barren mountains and commanded by forts, the strong- 
est of which are La Malyue , Aiguillette and Ballaguier, and the 
Fort Napoleon, surnamed 'le petit Gibraltar. The latter was 
defended by English troops in 1793 , but was compelled to sur- 
render to the French under the command of Buonaparte, lieutenant 
of artillery, then 23 years of age. 

(3. 30 p. m.) The steamboat steers between the lies d'Hyires 
and the mainland. Porquerolles, the first of these islands, is de- 
fended by the Fort du Qrand Langoustier. To the 1. in the bay 

to Leghorn. GENOA. J- Route. 1 

rise the Salines d'Hy'eres in tenace-like gradations; in the back- 
ground the wooded heights of the Montagues des Maures. The 
rocky character of the landscape has disappeared. To the r. the 
islam! of Portcros is next passed; then the long lie du Titan, 
or du Levant , with two forts , the last of which rises from a 
rocky prominence. To the 1. Cap Benat, in the distance Cap 
Carmiret. The vessel now proceeds in the direction of Leghorn 
and gradually leaves the coast, which however still continues 

The following morning at (3 o'clock the steamer nears Genoa, 
the forest of masts in the harbour of which may be distinguished 
with the aid of a telescope. Then to the r. the island of Cor- 
sica, afterwards that of Capraja (p. 21 J; 8. 45 a. m., the islet 
of Gorgona (p. '21) rises abruptly from the sea; to the N. the 
coast of Spezia with its lofty mountains. After Gorgona is passed, 
Elba (p. 21) becomes visible in the distant to the S. — 10. 15, 
Leghorn is sighted, the Apennines become more conspicuous (to 
the r.). and (11 o'clock) the harbour is entered (landing p. 9). 
A visit to Pisa (comp. Part I. of this Handbook) is strongly 
recommended to the traveller, and may easily be accomplished by 
railway it the train departs in time (by carriage not to be re- 
commended). About 0, sometimes 7 p. m. , the steamer again 
weighs anchor and proceeds on its course to Civita Vecchia 
(,ee p. 11). 

From Genoa to Leghorn (Civita Vecchia and Xaples). 

The Ital. Mail Steamers (comp. p. 1 and Introd.; fares and average 
passage see p. 1) of the Societa R. Jlubatino e Comp. start daily (Saturdays 
excepted) for Leghorn at 9 p. m., and on the evening of the 5th, 15th, and 
25th" 'if every month for Naples and Mussina via Leghorn (arriving at 
Naples on the Sth, 18th, and 2Sth. and at Messina on the 9th, 19th, and 
28th 'f the month); those of the Societa Peirano on Mondays, Wednesdays, 
Fridays, and Saturdays at 9 p. m. for Leghorn and Naples. The vessels of 
the French Compwjnie Fraissinet leave on Mondays and Thursdays at 8 p. 
m. Those "f the Compagnie Valiry on Sundays at 8 a. m. (comp. p. 1 and 
Introd.) for Naples via Leghorn and Civita Vecchia; also on Wednesdays 
and Fridays at 8 a. m. for Leghorn , and twice monthly for Palermo 
and other Sicilian harbours. The French Messageries have discontinued 
touching at Genoa. — Boat to or from steamer 1 fr. for each pers. , incl. 
luggage. — Travellers arriving at Genoa by sea, and intending to proceed 
thence by railway, avoid trouble and annoyance by at once booking their 
luggage for their destination at the harbour, immediately after the custom- 
house examination. For this purpose a facchino of the douane (20 c). 
distinguished by a badge, should be employed, and not one of the unau- 
thorised and importunate bystanders. 

Hotels at Genoa, all externally unprepossessing. Hotel Feder, 
formerly palace of the admiralty. K. 3 fr. and upwards, B. 1>| 2 , D. inc. W. 
at 5 o'clock 4, L. 1, A. 1 fr. ; Hotel d'ltalie, R. from 2'j 2 , D. inc. W. 
3 1 -, L. 1, A. 1 fr. ; tjuattro Nazioni; Hotel de la V ill e, R. from 
2>j 2 . D. inc. W. 4.1 ! 2 , L. 1 , A. 1 , omnibus l'; 2 fr. — Hotel Royal; 
'Croce di Malta; Grande Bretagne; Hotel de France; Pen- 
sion Suisse, R. 2, D. 3, A. l'ij; "di Genova, by the theatre Carlo 
Felice, etc. 

8 Route 1». SIGN A. 

For a description of the town and its sights see Part I. of 
this Handbook. 

As the vessels for Leghorn and Civita Vecchia generally start 
at night, the charming retrospect of Genoa 'la superba' is lost, 
unless indeed the beautiful picture is illumined by moonlight. 
The steamer pursues its course within sight of the coast, which 
from Genoa southwards to Spezia is termed Riviera di Levante, 
passes the towns of Nervi, Recco , Rapallo (sea-port with shrine 
of the Madonna di Montallegro) , Chiavari , and Sestri a Levante, 
and after a run of about 6 hrs. nears Porto Venere and the island 
of Palmaria, at the entrance to the bay of Spezia. In the back- 
ground rise the Apennines. As Leghorn is approached the island 
of Gorgona (p. 21) appears to the S. ; arrival at Leghorn see 
p. 9; excursion to Pisa see p. 9. Passage to Chita Vecchia 
see p. 10. 

2. From Florence to Rome (by sea) via Leghorn 
and Civita Vecchia. 

From Florence to Rome the traveller lias a choice of different routes. 
The shortest and most agreeable is by railway via Foligno. Two other 
routes are via Leghorn and Civita Vecchia, one by sea, the other by rail- 
way, traversing the Tuscan and Roman 'Maremme'. The cost of each is 
about the same ; the land-route is the shorter by a few hours, but far more 
fatiguing. A selection between the two must depend on the season, the 
weather, the traveller's inclination, etc. The sea-voyage is very pleasant in 
favourable weather. The vessels keep within view of the coast; they 
generally weigh anchor in the afternoon , pass between the island of Elba 
and the Punta di Piombino in the evening, and arrive at Civita Vecchia on 
the following morning. Average passage about 12 hrs. 

Offices of the different steamboat -companies (comp. Introd. and p. 1) 
at Florence: Comp. Fraissinet, Comp. Valery, Societa Rubattino, Menage- 
ries Maritimes (corner of the Via della Farina), all in the Piazza, della 
Signoria ; that of the Societa Peirano in the Piazza S. Margherita, adjoining 
the Badia. 

Fares from Florence to Leghorn: 1st class 10 fr. 25 c, 2nd 7 fr. 5 c, 
3rd 4 fr. 90 c. ; from Leghorn to Civita Vecchia 1st cl. 45 , 2nd 34 fr. 
(comp. p. 2 and Introd.). Railway-fares from Civita Vecchia to Rome : 1st 
cl. 10 fr. 95 c, 2nd 7 fr. ; 1st class alone tolerable, 2nd bad and not recom- 
mended to ladies. 

The line skirts the N. bank of the Arno, passing the Cascine 
and numerous villas. Beyond stat. S. Donnino the valley of the 
Arno expands. Stat. Signa with its grey pinnacles and towers is 
celebrated for its straw-plaiting establishments. The line intersects 
undulating vineyards, crosses the Ombrone , which falls into the 
Arno, and enters the defile of the Oonfolina which separates the 
middle from the lower valley of the Arno. Stat. Montelupo is ap- 
proached by an iron bridge across the Arno. Beyond it the Villa 
Ambrogiana is visible on the v.. founded by Ferdinand I. on the 
site of an old castle of the Ardinghelli. Then, crossing the small 
river Pesa, the train reaches 

LEGHORN. 2. Route. 9 

Stat. Empoli (described in Part I. of this Handbook), a small 
town (6000 inhab.) with antiquated buildings and narrow streets, 
situated in a fertile district. Here the line to Siena (R. 6) di- 
verges to the S. The following stations are S. Pierino, S. Romano, 
and La Rotta. To the r. rise the Apennines; to the 1. on the 
height San Miniato dei Tedeschi , a small town which the Emp. 
Frederick II. in 1226 appointed to be the seat of the Vicar 
of the empire. Stat. Pontedera lies at the influx of the Era 
into the Arno, where the road to Volterra (p. 18) diverges. Stat. 
Cascina on the Arno, where on the day of S. Vittorio, July 28th. 
1364, the Pisans were defeated by the Florentines. Stat. Navacchio : 
to the r. the Monti Pisani with the ruins of a castle on the sum- 
mit of Verruca. 

Pisa , with its cathedral , baptistery , and Campo Santo , see 
Baedeker's N. Italy. 

The railway from Pisa to Leghorn traverses flat meadow-land 
intersected by cuttings, and near Leghorn crosses the Arno-Canal. 

Leghorn, Ital. Livorno, French Livourne. 

The vessels generally anchor in the inner harbour (Porto Vecchio or J/— 
diceo), but sometimes in the outer harbour (Porto Nuovo). The different 
charges for landing are: from the Porto Nuovo 1 fr. for each pers., li|j for 

1 pers. with ordinary luggage (trunk, carpet-bag, hat- box), 30 c. for each 
additional article; from the Porto Vecchio 50 c. for each pers., 1 fr. for 1 
pers. with luggage ; children under 8 years free, others half-fare. Payment 
is made to the superintending official, and not to the boatmen. — Facchino 
with ordinary luggage between the railway-station and the wharf, or to any 
other part of the town, 1 fr. ; for a box alone 80 c, hat-box 20 c. (according 
to tariff). 

Hotels. -Hotel Vittoria e Washington, on the harbour and 
canal, R. from 3—4 fr. upwards, D. at 5 o'clock 3'la fr. ; *Gran Bretagna 
with Pension Suisse, near the harbour, Via Vittorio Emanuele 17, R. 
from2fr., good table d'hote at 5 o'cl. 3'Ja fr. ; Hotel duNord andHotel 
d'Angleterre, both on the quay ; lies Britanniques, Via Vit. 
Emanuele 33; besides these there are numerous smaller hotels, most of 
them in the Rue Vit. Emanuele. 

Restaurants. Giappone; Giardinetto; Pergola, all in the Via 
Vittorio Emanuele ; Ghiaccaio, Piazza d'Arme. — Beer at Meyer's, 
Via Ricasoli 6, and Via de' Prati 1. 

Cafes. -Vittoria, Piazza d'Arme; Post a, opp. the post-office. 

Post Office corner of the Corso Vitt. Eman. and Piazza Carlo Alberto. 
— Telegraph Office Via de' Lanzi 5. 

Sea Baths. Casino e Bagni di Mare and dello Scoglio della 
R e g i n a , both outside the Porta a Mare. Bath with boad and towel 1 fr. ; 
season from the middle of June to August. 

Theatres. Regio Teatro degli Avvolorati, in the street of that 
uame; Regio Teatro dei Floridi, Via S. Marco 9, etc. 

Carriages. Per drive in the town 85 c. , outside the town 1 fr. TO c. ; 
per hour 1 fr. 70 c. , each additional 1/2 hr. 60 c. ; to or from the station 
i fr. ; from 1 to 6 a. m., for a drive in the town 1 fr. 15, outside the walls 

2 fr. 80, per hour 2 fr. 25, to or from the station 1 fr. 80 c. ; small articles 
of luggage 10 c. , trunk etc. 40 c. The facchini of the railway transfer 
luggage to and from the train gratuitously; a trifling fee (10 — 20 c.) may 
however be bestowed. 

Consulates. Great Britain: Alex. Macbean Esq., Via della Madonna 12; 
American: John Hutchison Esq., next door to the Victoria Hotel. 
English Church, resident chaplain. 

10 Route 2. LEGHORN. From Florence 

As late as the 16th cent. Leghorn was a mere village (in 1551 
the population amounted to 749). For its present importance it 
is indebted to the Medicis , who attracted hither the oppressed 
and disaffected from every country, Roman Catholics from Eng- 
land , Jews and Moors from Spain and Portugal , and merchants 
from Marseilles who sought to escape from the civil war. Mon- 
tesquieu therefore termed Leghorn the 'master-piece of the Me- 
dicis dynasty'. Population 99,500; seafaring and other tempo- 
ra y residents, 3000. 

Leghorn , a well-built . entirely modern town , contains few 
objects to arrest the traveller's attention, and may be sufficiently 
explored in a few hours. The Harbour, where extensive improve- 
ments are now in progress , presents a busy scene. The inner 
harbour (Porto Vecchio or Mediceo) cannot accommodate vessels of 
great draught of water ; a second (Porto Nuovo) was therefore con- 
structed during the present cent, to the S. of the former, and 
protected by a semi-circular molo. On the harbour stands the 
Statue of the Grand-Duke Ferdinand I. by Giovanni delV Opera, 
with four Turkish slaves in bronze by Pietro Tacca. 

The Corso Vittorio Emanuele (formerly Via Ferdinanda) is the 
principal street. Proceeding from the harbour, it leads to the 
extensive Piazza d'Armi with the cathedral , the Palazzo Comu- 
nale (or town-hall), and a small royal palace. From this point it 
then leads to the Piazza Carlo Alberto , formerly Piazza dei due 
Principi, with the colossal Statues of the Grand-Dukes Ferdinand III. 
and Leopold II., with reliefs and inscriptions. 

Departure. On quitting the harbour, the steamboat com- 
mands a beautiful retrospect of the town. To the W. the island 
of Gorgona rises abruptly from the sea. The vessel now proceeds 
in a S. direction, and the island of Capraja soon appears; in the 
distance the dark outlines of Corsica. To the E. the coast con- 
tinues visible, to the N.E. the Apennines. The steamer then 
threads its way between the island of Elba (p. 21), with the 
Porto Longone and the islands of Palmaiola and Cerboli, and the 
Punta di Piombino (p. 14), a beautiful passage. The retrospect 
of the small rocky islands, furnished like the numerous promon- 
tories of the coast with lighthouses , is particularly picturesque. 
Somewhat later the island of Pianosa is passed ; farther to the S. 
Giglio and Argentaro with the beautifully-formed Monte Argentario 
(p. 16), rising immediately from the sea; farther off is the small 
island of Giannutri. 

The coast becomes flat. Civith Vecchia, situated picturesquely 
on an eminence, soon becomes visible in the distance. 

Arrival at CivitaVecchia. The traveller orders his luggage to be 
placed in one of the boats in attendance, bestows (unless dissatisfied) 1 fr. 
on the steward, and is speedily conveyed on shore. On landing, a wooden 
gate is passed through , and on the 1. by the outlet the fare for conveyance 
i^n shore is paid. The tariff is >j 2 fr. for each pers. : for a box from the 

to Rome. CIVITA VECCHIA. 2. Route. 1 1 

steamboat to the station 1 fr. ; travelling-bag or hat-box '| 2 fr. The railway- 
station is situated in the vicinity, outside the town. One-horse carr. to the 
stat. ']2 fr., two-horse 1 fr. All the above charges are the same for embar- 
cation. Travellers from Rome who spend the night at Civita Vecchia pay 
for a box from the stat. to the town 40 c. , thence to the harbour 25 c, 
from the harbour to the vessel i ' l -- fr. , travelling-bag half these charges. 
Omnibus from the station to the town 25 c. 

;f time permit, the traveller may obtain a glimpse of the town before 
the departure of the train. He need not accompany his luggage to the sta- 
tion . 

Civita Vecchia (* Orlandi at the entrance to the town, ex- 
pensive, dinner may be ordered at a fixed sum; Europa, more 
moderate; *Railway-Restaurant), formerly the fortified sea-port of 
the States of the Church -with about 8000 inhab., the ancient Cen- 
tum Cellae founded by Trajan, and sometimes termed Portus Tra- 
jani, was destroyed by the Saracens in 828, but in 854 the in- 
habitants returned into the 'ancient city. The entrance to the 
harbour, in front of which a small fortified island with a light- 
house is situated, is defended by two strong towers, which have 
lately been restored by the French. Visitors are permitted to in- 
spect the Bagno, where the galley-convicts are at work. 

The town contains little that is interesting. The traveller may 
speii'i a leisure hour in walking on the quay, the archaeologist 
in inspecting the inscriptions and antiquities in the ante-room of 
the Delegazione della Folizia, or in visiting the shop of Bucci, a 
dealer in oldbooks, in the Piazza. 

A good road leads from Civita Vecchia to the volcanic mountains of 
La Tolfa and the loftily situated village of that name , in the vicinity of 
which are extensive mines of alum. The scenery is picturesque , and the 
locality interesting to geologists. Some mineral springs, with the ruins of 
ancient baths (Aquae Tauri) are situated about 3 M. from Civita Vecchia. 

A diligence runs 3 times weekly in 7 hrs. to Viterbo (p. 36), alternately 
by Corneto and Toscanella (p. 88), and by Monte Romano and Vetralla (p. 38). 

The Railway from Civita Vecchia to Rome (express 
in '2, ordinary train in 3 — 4 hrs.; fares see p. 8; views to the 
r. till Rome is approached, when a seat on the 1. should if pos- 
sible be secured) traverses a dreary tract , running parallel with 
the ancient Via Amelia near the sea-coast as far as Palo. On 
clear days the Alban and Volscian mountains are visible in the 
distance, and still farther off the promontory of Circeii. The first 
stat. Santa Marinella possesses a mediaeval castle rising above a 
small bay, in the garden of which a date-palm flourishes. Stat. 
Rio Fiume ; then the picturesque baronial castle of Santa Severa 
(_stat.), formerly the property of the Galera, afterwards of the 
Or?ini family, now of the Hospital Santo Spirito at Rome. Here 
in ancient times was situated Pyrgos or Pyrgi, the harbour of the 
once powerful Etruscan city Caere, formerly termed Agylla or the 
'circular city' by the Phoenicians, with whom the town carried on 
a flourishing trade. It is now Cervetri (p. 298), and is situated 
on the height 6 M. farther to the 1. Next stat. Furbara. The 

12 Route 2. PALO. 

solitary towers on the shore were erected during the middle 
ages for protection against the dreaded Turkish Corsairs. 

Stat. Palo (poor railway-restaurant), with a chateau and villa 
of the Odescalchi, occupies the site of the ancient Alsium, where 
Pompey and Antoninus Pius possessed country-residences. Relics 
of antiquity now scanty. Stat. Palidoro, on the river of that name, 
which rises on the heights by the Lago di Bracciano. The line 
now approaches the plantations of Maccarese (stat.) to the r., be- 
lieved to be the ancient Fregenae, situated near the mouth of 
the Arrone, a river which descends from the Lago di Bracciano. 
The Lago di Ponente or Stagno di Maccarese is now skirted. 
Stat. Ponte Galera, beyond which the line runs in the vicinity 
of the Tiber. 

Beyond stat. Magliana (p. 260) a more unbroken view is obtained 
of the extensive Campagna di Roma and the Alban Mts. (at the 
base of which glitter the white houses of Frascati, p. 272), and 
of the Sabine Mts. in the background; in the foreground the 
handsome Benedictine monastery of S. Paolo fuori le Mura with 
its sumptuous new basilica. To the 1. is disclosed a view of Rome, 
the Aventine p. 186), the Capitol (p. 167), and Trastevere (p. 224). 
The train crosses the Tiber by a new iron bridge and slowly ap- 
proaches the walls of Rome, of which the S. E. side is skirted. 
Above the wall rises Monte Testaccio (p. 187) ; adjacent is the 
Pyramid of Cestius (p. 187) with the cypresses of the Protestant 
cemetery ; in the vicinity, the Porta S. Paolo, farther distant the 
Aventine with S. Sabina (p. 188). The line then traverses gardens 
and unites with the railway from Naples. The Porta S. Sebastiano, 
approached by the Via Appia (p. 191), is visible. The latter having 
been crossed , the Lateran (p. 199) appears with the numerous 
statues of its facade ; then the monastery of S. Croce in Gerusa- 
lemme (p. 142) , with lofty Romanesque tower. The train now 
enters a tunnel beneath the aqueduct of the Aqua Felice and 
passes the Porta Maggiore (p. 141), which is crossed by two an- 
cient water-conduits. The line then intersects the city-wall; to 
the 1. a decagonal ruin , usually termed a Temple of Minerva 
Medica (p. 141), two stories in height. A view is next obtained 
of £. Maria Maggiore (p. 137), a handsome edifl.ce with two 
domes and a Romanesque tower. To the r. insignificant remnants 
of the ancient Wall of Servius, discovered and destroyed by the 
construction of the railway. The train enters the station at the 
N.W. extremity of the town, opposite the Thermae of Diocle- 
tian, and the traveller is now in the Imperial City (p. 83). 


3. From Florence to Rome by the Maremme. 

This is one of the most direct routes between Florence and Rome. The 
train leaves Florence at 9. 10 a. m., arr. at Leghorn 11. 30 a. m.; dep. 
thence at J 2. 5 a. m. , arr. at Civita Vecchia 7. 50 p. m. , at Rome 9. 50 
p. m. Fares from Leghorn to Rome 36 fr. 45, 27 fr. 40, 22 fr. 30 c. ; from 
Florence to Rome 47 fr. 30, 31 fr. 70, 22 fr. 60 c. 

The direct route from Florence to Naples is via Foligno and Rome 
IR. 8). 

This route is coincident with the ancient Via Aurelia , constructed by 
jEmilius Scaurus, B. C. 109. During the present century the Tuscan go- 
vernment caused a road to be constructed here , in order to benefit the 
coast-district. Although the most direct route, it is of greatly inferior im- 
portance to the others. This tract of country is by no means destitute of 
picturesque scenery, and the traveller who desires to explore it may devote 
a few days to the journey. Owing to the malaria , however , this is not 
practicable between June and the end of October (comp. p. 15). During 
that period the majority of the inhabitants remove to the mountainous di- 
strict of Siena. Even in October entire villages are still deserted. — Views 
always on the right. 

From Florence to Leghorn see p. 8; Leghorn p. 9. 

The Maremme train runs for a short distance on the Pisan 
line (p. 9) , and then diverges to the S. It runs inland as far 
as Cecina, where it approaches the coast, commanding fine views 
of the sea with its promontories and islands. Soon after Leghorn 
is quitted , a view is obtained of La Madonna di Monte Nero, 
situated on one of the hills which intervene between the railway 
and the coast. This celebrated place of pious resort , especially 
revered by seafaring men , possesses an ancient picture of the 
Virgin brought from the East in the middle ages , with which a 
variety of legends are connected. 

Stations Colle Salvetti, Acciajolo, Orciano, Acquabuona. The 
adjacent villages are all of recent origin and contain nothing of 
interest ; they testify, however, to the rapid improvement which 
has taken place during the present century in this formerly so 
dreary district. The line crosses the Cecina, the ancient Caecina; 
the family of that name was settled in this district, as is proved 
by numerous inscriptions at Volterra. 

Stat. Cecina (halt of 8 min. ; indifferent cafe'), where a branch 
line to Volterra (see p. 18) diverges. The village of Cecina, 
situated in the vicinity, is of modern origin. 

The line now approaches the coast. The loftily-situated, ancient 
Etruscan Populonia becomes visible on a chain of hills projecting 
into the sea; beyond it the island of Elba (p. 21). Stat. Bambolo, 
then stat. S. Vincenzo, with a small fort and harbour. Stat. La 
Cornia, on the small river of that name; to the 1. on the height 
lies the small town of Campiglia, with a ruined castle and Etruscan 
tombs of no great interest. 

14 Route 3. PIOMBINO. From Florence 

Piombino and Populonia. On the arrival of the last train from 
Leghorn a diligence runs in about 2 hrs. from La Cornia to Piombino, re- 
turning thence at noon. A forenoon suffices for a visit to Populonia. 

Piombino is a small town (poor inn) situated at the S. extremity of a 
wooded promontory, which on the land side is bounded by a flat district. 
A weather-beaten tower on the harbour commands a magnificent prospect 
of the sea and the neighbouring island of Elba (in front of which rise the 
cliffs of Cervoli and Palmaiola), of S. Giglio and the coast, and Corsica in 
the distance. 

Piombino originally belonged to Pisa, in 1399 became a principality of 
the Appiani, in 1603 was acquired by Spain, and finally by the family of 
Buoncampagni-Ludovisi, from whom it was wrested by Napoleon in 1805 in 
favour of his brother-in-law the Corsican Felix Bacciocchi. In 1816 it was 
restored, and till 1859 remained under the Tuscan supremacy. 

The mail ferry-boats maintain the communication between this point 
and Porto Ferrajo, starting from Piombino at noon daily , from Porto Fer- 
rajo in the morning. The duration of the passage depends on the state of 
the weather and other circumstances (comp. p. 21). 

About 6 M. from Piombino, at the N. extremity of the peninsula, is 
situated the ancient Populonia, the Etruscan Pupluna. A shorter route 
through the woods should not be attempted without a guide. The town 
with its mediseval castle, situated on a lofty and precipitous eminence , is 
a conspicuous object from all sides. Once a prosperous seaport , it suffered 
greatly from a siege by Sulla; in the time of Strabo it had fallen to decay, 
and is now a poor village. In ancient times the iron of Elba was smelt- 
ed here. The old town-walls may still be distinctly traced, and are espe- 
cially well preserved on the side towards the sea; they consist of huge 
blocks, approaching the polygonal style. The views towards the land and 
the sea are striking and extensive. Several vaults , erroneously said to be- 
long to an amphitheatre, and a reservoir may also be mentioned as relics 
of the Roman period. The Etruscan tombs in the vicinity are objects of 
no great interest. 

The district now begins to exhibit the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of the Maremme : a world of its own, consisting of forest 
and swamp, uncultivated, and in summer poisoned by malaria. 
During the Etruscan period the Maremme were richly cultivated 
and possessed several considerable towns: Populonia, Vetulonia, 
Busellae, Cosa. On the decline of agriculture in Italy and the 
conversion of the farms into pasture-land , the desolation of the 
Etruscan coast- district made rapid progress; for in this fiat dis- 
trict, where the water easily becomes stagnant , high cultivation 
is alone capable of keeping the poisonous exhalations in check. 
Even Pliny describes this district as unhealthy. In the middle ages 
the desolation was still more complete ; during the present cen- 
tury, however, under the wise administration of the grand-dukes 
of Tuscany, much was done to counteract the evil by the drainage 
and rilling up of swamps and the establishment of new farms ; but 
the evil is still very great. Charcoal-burning and in winter cattle- 
grazing are the chief resources of the inhabitants , all of whom 
withdraw to the Tuscan hill-country in May, when the malaria be- 
gins. A few only of the more densely peopled localities enjoy a 
tolerably healthy atmosphere. Those of the natives who are com- 
pelled to remain suffer severely from fever, and their gaunt and 
emaciated countenances distinctly betoken the curse of the district. 

to Rome. GROSSETO. 3. Route. 15 

Stat. Follonica near the sea , a small but industrial place 
which is deserted in summer , possesses considerable smelting- 
foundries for the iron from Elba. Beautiful view towards the sea : 
to the r. the promontory of Piombino and Elba, to the 1. the 
promontory of Castiglione with a lighthouse , and the small, gro- 
tesquely shaped island of Formica. On an eminence inland rises 
Massa , one of the largest villages of the Maremme , with about 
4000 inhabitants. The line again quits the coast in order to avoid 
the Promontory of Castiglione. 

Stat. Potassa. Farther to the 1. an ancient chateau is visible ; 
to the r., at the mouth of the small river Bruna, is situated the 
small fortified harbour of Castiglione della Pescaia. Here , as in 
the other seaports of the Maremme , wood and charcoal form the 
principal exports. 

Stat. Monte Pescali. 

On the hills to the 1. (not easily distinguished from the railway) are 
situated the ruins of Rusellae , one of the 12 capitals of the Etruscan con- 
federation. The place has been deserted since the middle of the 12th cent, 
and is thickly overgrown with underwood. The walls , in most places ac- 
cessible, consist partly of horizontal layers, partly of polygonal blocks (6 — 
8 ft. high, 7—12 ft. long). They are usually visited from Grosseto. The 
route is by the sulphureous Bagni di Moselle, 5 M. distant, whence the ruins 
are reached in 1(2 hr. 

To the 1. stat. Grosseto (*Aquila), the fortified capital of the 
Maremme, a cheerful little town with 3000 inhab. The cure' Chelli 
possesses a collection of Etruscan antiquities. 

Around Grosseto and in the direction of Castiglione extends a plain of 
considerable magnitude, in ancient times a lake (the Lacus Prelius of Cicero), 
which gradually became shallower (Palude di Castiglione and di Grosseto), 
and by its exhalations formed one of the chief sources of the malaria. 
By means of skilful drainage, and by conducting hither the deposits 
of the neighbouring rivers , the government has succeeded in almost entire- 
ly filling up the morass and converting it into a valuable pasture , 15 M. 
in length. 

A short distance beyond Grosseto the Ombrone is crossed. The 
line skirts the wooded Promontory of Talamone; towards the S. 
the imposing Monte Argentario (see below) becomes visible. 

Stat. Talamone, where a beautiful view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village lies at the extremity of the promontory and possesses 
an anchorage sheltered by the island of Giglio and the M. Argen- 
tario. The creek has been greatly encroached on by alluvial de- 
posits. Here, B. C. 224, the Roman legions landed and signally- 
defeated the Gauls who were marching against Rome. 

The line crosses the small river Osa, then the more important 
Albegna (ancient Albinia), at the mouth of which salt-works are 
situated. Stations Albegna, Orbetello. The horizon is bounded by 
M. Argentario (1765 ft. J, on the N. side of which lies the har- 
bour Porto S. Stefano. 

On the arrival of the train an omnibus (1 fr.) starts for Orbetello (poor 
inns, the best is the Trattoria del buon Gusto, or Saccoccione), l l |2 M. dis- 

16 Route 3. CORNETO. From Florence 

tant, a visit to which will amply repay the lover of the picturesque and 
the archaeologist. M. Argentario, an isolated promontory, is connected with 
the mainland by two narrow tongues of land, thus forming a large salt- 
water lagoon. Into the latter a third promontory projects, at the extre- 
mity of which the small fortified town, with 3000 inhab., is situated. Be- 
yond its remarkable situation the place contains nothing of interest, except 
the polygonal walls on the side towards the sea , which testify to the great 
antiquity of the town, although its ancient name is unknown. An embank- 
ment has been constructed from the town across the shallow lake , which 
abounds in fish, to M. Argentario. A carriage-road leads to the N. harbour 
Porto S. Stefano , and to PorC Ercole on the S. side. The mountain culmi- 
nates in two peaks, on one of which a monastery of the Passionists is situat- 
ed. The ascent is extremely interesting, and is accomplished from Orbe- 
tello in 2 — 3 hrs. (with guide). The "view embraces the coast of Tuscany 
and the surrounding district as far as M. Amiata, and the sea with its 
numerous rocky islands as far as Sardinia. If time is limited, the first and 
lower eminence , 3 \i hr. from Orbetello , commanding a picturesque view of 
the coast, should be visited. — Orbetello is also the most convenient 
point from which an excursion to the interesting ruins of the ancient Cosa, 
the present Ansedonia, 4'|2 M. distant, may be undertaken. — It is likewise 
a suitable starting-point for a visit to the ancient towns of Salurnia and 
Sovana, about 30 M. inland. 

On an eminence to the r. beyond Orbetello lie the ruins of 
Cosa , an ancient Etruscan town , deserted as early as the 5th 
cent, (see above). The polygonal walls with their towers are 
admirably preserved. A beautiful prospect of the sea and coast 
is enjoyed hence. 

The line next traverses the Roman Maremma ; the scenery is 
unattractive. The Fiora is crossed, and stat. Montalto reached 
(halt of 25 min.), a poor village. 

From Jlontalto the traveller may ascend by the bank of the Fiora to 
the ancient Ponte delta Badia and the site of Vulci, where since 1820 most 
successful excavations have been made , and thousands of Etruscan vases 
etc. discovered. 

Beyond Montalto the country becomes more undulating. The 
line crosses the small rivers Arrone and Marta, the outlet of the 
Lake of Bolsena. Stat. Corneto. The town with its numerous 
towers is loftily situated, and conspicuous from several points of 
the line which passes at its base. A visit to this interesting place, 
unfortunately inconvenient to the passenger who travels direct 
from Florence to Rome , requires 4 — 5 hrs. The excursion is 
generally made from Rome. 

Corneto (Palazzacio , in a palace of the Vitelleschi dating from 1437, 
bargaining necessary. Agapito Aldanesi, a well-informed old man, is the 
custodian of the tombs; fee for 1 pers. l>|a tr., for 2 pers. 2 fr., for a party 
more in proportion) , a small town of antiquated appearance and loftily 
situated, commands fine views of the sea with M. Argentario and the neigh- 
bouring islands. The interiors of the Romanesque churches have been sadly 
modernised. The town arose at the commencement of the middle ages after 
the decline of Tarquinii. A genealogical tree 'a) fresco' in the Palazzo Co- 
munale professes to trace the origin of the place to a remote mythical era 
— a striking instance of the disregard for history often manifested by simi- 
lar small towns. At the extremity of the principal street (II Corso), near a 
spot on the town-wall termed 11 Belvedere, an interesting survey is obtained 
of the bleak environs. On the stony hill opposite (Turcinna), separated from 
Monlarozzi, the hill of the tombs, by a ravine, lay Tarquinii, anciently one 

to Rome. CORNETO. 3. Route. 17 

of the 12 Etruscan capitals, and remarkable for the influence which it exer- 
cised on the development of the national religion of Etruria. It participated 
in the war of the Etruscan confederation against Rome, but was com- 
pelled to sun-under after the Samnite war and to receive a Roman colony. 
The town continued to flourish during the empire, but subsequently del 
clined and was devastated by the Saracens ; it was, however, inhabited til— 
1307, when its last remnants were totally destroyed by the inhabitants of 
Corneto. No ruins are now visible save the scanty vestiges of walls and 
foundations. Of its seaport Graviseae a few fragments on the r. bank of the 
Marta, life M. from its mouth, still remain. 

The principal interest attaching to Corneto is derived from its tombs, 
which are scattered in great numbers over the hill where the town itself 
stands. This Necropolis of the ancient Tarquinii was accidentally discovered 
in 1823 by Carlo Avvolta, a native of Corneto, who whilst digging penetrated 
into a tomb, and through an aperture beheld a warrior extended, accou- 
tred in full armour. The influence of the air caused the body to collapse 
after a few minutes' exposure. The unsophisticated discoverer subsequently 
described the spectacle as the happiest moment of his life. Even in ancient 
times the tombs were frequently plundered for the sake of the precious 
trinkets they contained, and modern excavations have despoiled them of 
every moveable object which remained, so that the empty vaults alone are 
now left. A visit to them is nevertheless extremely interesting to those 
who desire to form an idea of the civilisation, art, and religion of the 
Etruscans; and for this purpose the tombs of Corneto , the paintings in 
which are in the best state of preservation, are well adapted. The painting 
of the chambers is peculiar to the towns of southern Etruria, and indicates 
a particularly close relationship to Hellenic art. The Tumuli which exter- 
nally distinguished the tombs have in the lapse of ages been entirely de- 
stroyed ; the subterranean chambers now alone remain, of which the follow- 
ing are the most interesting : 

1 . Grotta delta caccia del cignale (boar-hunt) , or Grotta Querciola. The 
paintings, copied in the Museo Gregoriano, are much faded; they represent 
a banquet with music and dancing, and a boar-hunt. - — Opp. to the latter : 
: '2. Grotta del Convito funebre, or del Triclinio, also containing the represen- 
tation of a banquet. The men here, as in all the others, are sketched in 
outline on the walls in dark red, the women in whitish colours. — 3. Grotta 
del Morto, small; scene of mourning for the deceased and of dancing. — 
*4. Grotta del Tifone, more extensive, supported in the centre by a pillar, 
on which are Typhons, winged genii of death terminating in serpents. The 
sarcophagi bear Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions , a proof that they 
belong to a comparatively recent epoch. To the r. on the wall souls es- 
corted by genii ; beneath Charon, with the hammer. — 5. Grotta del Cardi- 
nale, the most spacious tomb of Tarquinii, supported by 4 pillars, opened 
in the last century; colours almost entirely faded. — l'|2 M. from Corneto 
is : 6. Grotta delle Bighe ; a copy of the paintings is preserved in the Vati- 
can. — In the vicinity : 7. Grotta del Mare, small , with sea-horses. — * 8. 
Grotta del Barone, so called from the Hanoverian ambassador by whom it 
was opened, contains warlike games, riders, etc., partly in the archaic style; 
colours well preserved. — 9. Grotta Francesca or Giustiniani , with dancers 
and races, much faded ; copies in the Museo Gregoriano. — 10. Grotta delle 
Iscrizioni, so called from the numerous Etruscan inscriptions , with warlike 
trials of skill. 

Toscanella is now best visited from Corneto, see p. 38. 

The railway skirts the foot of the hill of Corneto. Farther to 
the r. the traveller perceives the insignificant Porto Clementino, 
entirely abandoned in summer on account of the malaria. The 
horizon is bounded inland by the mountains of Tolfa, which yield 
an abundant supply of alum and sulphur. The line then crosses 
the small river Mignone, at the mouth of which is situated the 
Torre Bertaldo (where according to a legend an angel refuted the 

B^deker. Italy II. 3rd Edition. 2 

18 Route 4. VOLTERRA. 

doubts which St. Augustine entertained respecting the Trinity), 
and soon reaches Stat. Civita Vecchia (halt of 10 M.). 
From Civita Vecchia to Rome see p. 12. 

4. From Leghorn to Volterra. 

Railway from Leghorn to Cecina in li| 2 hr., fares 5 fr. {20 , 4 fr. 20, 
3 fr. 15 c. ; from Cecina to Saline in li| 4 hr., fares 3 fr., 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 80 c. 
From Saline to Volterra diligence in 2 hrs., fare 1 fr. 

A visit to Volterra, interesting on account of its antiquities, may be 
most conveniently and inexpensively accomplished from Leghorn, and com- 
bined with the continuation of the traveller's journey to Rome, if luggage be 
left at Cecina. — From Pontedera (p. 9), a stat. on the line from Florence 
to Pisa, Volterra is reached by carriage through the valley of the Era in 
5—6 hrs. ; from Poggibonsi (p. 24), stat. on the line from Empoli to Siena, 
by a hilly road in 3—4 hrs. 

From Leghorn to Cecina (Maremme Railway) see p. 13. Our 
line here diverges and ascends on the r. bank of the Cecina, 
traversing a district remarkable for its mineral wealth. Stations 
San Martino, Casino di Terra, Ponte Ginori, and Saline, the ter- 
minus , in a bleak situation where the malaria prevails in sum- 
mer. The extensive salt-works in the vicinity supply the whole 
of Tuscany with salt and yield a considerable revenue. 

The road from Saline to Volterra ascends. The country pre- 
sents a peculiarly bleak aspect. 

Volterra (Vnione; Nazione), the ancient Volaterrae, Etruscan 
Velathri, one of the most ancient Etruscan cities, now containing 
5000 inhab. , an episcopal residence, loftily situated (1602 ft.), 
commands in clear weather charming prospects , extending to the 
heights of Pisa, the Apennines, and the sea with the islands of 
Gorgona, Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. The environs are dreary and 
desolate; the effect of the rain on the soft and spongey soil is 
most prejudicial to agriculture. 

Volterra was one of the 12 ancient confederate cities of 
Etruria, and was so strongly fortified that during the civil wars it 
withstood a siege by Sulla's troops for two years. It subsequently 
became a Roman municipium, but gradually fell to decay and was 
totally destroyed in the 10th cent. It was re-erected under the 
Ot'aos, but does not now extend to one-third of its ancient magni- 
tude. In the middle ages it was a free town , until it became 
subject to Florence. 

Among the Antiquities the ancient *Town Walls, once 6 M. in 
circumference, of double the extent of those of Fiesole and Cor- 
tona, are especially worthy of notice. Their dimensions (40 ft. 
in height, 15 ft. in thickness) and construction of horizontal 
layers of sandstone blocks (panchina) are best inspected outside 
the Porta S. Francesco and in the garden of the monastery of 
Santa Chiara. One of the ancient gateways is also still in exis- 
tence, the *Porta alV Arco, 22 ft. in height. The corbels are adorned 
with almost obliterated heads of lions, or guardian deities of the. 

VOLTERRA. 4. Route. 19 

city , imitated on an urn in the museum which represents the 
battle of Thebes. Another gateway, outside the Porta Fiorentina 
termed Porta di Diana, has been much altered. Outside the same 
gate, below the burying-ground, is situated the ancient Necropolis, 
about midway on the slope of the hill, at the place which is now 
termed S. Marmi. A number of the curiosities in the museum 
were found here, but the tombs have all been reclosed. 

The Piscina , outside the fortifications , a reservoir resting on 
6 columns, is only accessible by permission from the bishop, and 
is reached by means of a long ladder. 

The Thermae, near the fountain of S. Felice, are of Roman 
origin. Traces of an Amphitheatre near the Porta Fiorentina. 

The *Museum in the Palazzo Pubblico in the piazza is the 
most interesting object which the town possesses. The hand- 
some edifice , begun in 1208 , completed in 1257 , is unfortu- 
nately somewhat modernised ; the exterior is adorned with mediae- 
val coats of arms. 

The museum , established in 1731 , greatly enriched by the collections 
of the erudite Mario Guarnacci in 1761 , contains in 10 rooms a valuable 
collection of inscriptions, coins, bronzes, statues, vases, etc., and upwards 
of 4000 cinerary urns. A few of the latter, 2 — 3 ft. in length are com- 
posed of terracotta and sandstone, but most of them of the alabaster of the 
environs. On the lid the greatly reduced recumbent effigy of the deceased, 
the sides adorned with reliefs ; traces of painting and gilding distinguishable 
on some. The collection is admirably calculated to afford an insight into 
the customs, faith, and art of this remarkable people. The representations 
on the urns are partly derived from the peculiar sphere of Etruscan life, 
partly from Greek mythology. From the former, parting scenes are the most 
frequent; the deceased, equipped as a rider, is escorted by a messenger 
who bears a long sack containing his good and evil deeds, or is accom- 
panied by Charon with the hammer. The flowers which are often ob- 
served, when half in bloom, denote the youth, when completely opened the 
riper age of the departed. Sacrifices and funeral-processions occur fre- 
quently, as well as banquets, races, contests of skill, etc. Greek mythology 
has supplied an abundant selection of subjects, e g. Ulysses with the Si- 
rens and with Circe, the abduction of Helen, death of Clj temnestra, Orestes 
and the Furies, the Seven before Thebes , Polynices and Eteocles , GMipus 
with the Sphynx , CEdipus slaying his father , Rape of Proserpine. An 
austere bias is exhibited in the choice of subjects and in their treatment. 
A certain degree of technical perfection has been attained, but the realism 
of art has been carried so far that ease and harmony are almost entirely 

The Sala della Magistratura contains a Library of 13,000 vols., 
ivory carving, diptychs, etc. On the wall the Annunciation, a large 
fresco by Orcagna, greatly damaged. 

The *Cathedral, consecrated in 1120 by Pope Calixtus II., 
enlarged in 1254 by Nicola Pisano , restored in the 16th cent., 
the facade dating from the 13th cent., is remarkable for the rich 
marble decorations and sculptures of the interior. The * Oratorio 
di 8. Carlo in the S. transept resembles a complete picture- 
gallery, containing works of Luca Signorelli, Leonardo da Pistoja, 
Benvenuto da Siena , Filippo Lippi, and Daniele da Volterra. 


20 Route 4. VOLTERRA. 

The chapel of the Virgin is adorned with a fresco by Benozzo 

S. Giovanni, in the vicinity , of octagonal form , supposed to 
date from the 7th cent. , occupies the site of an ancient temple 
of the sun. The entrance - archway and the capitals of the co- 
lumns, decorated with animals and birds, as well as the fine arch 
of the high -altar, are by Balsimelli da Settignano (16th cent.), 
the octagonal font by Andrea di Sansovino (1502), and the cibo- 
rium by Mino da Fiesole (1471). 

.5. Lino, a church and monastery , founded in 1480 by Raf- 
faele Maffei, contains the tomb of that scholar with a recumbent 
statue by Silvio da Fiesole. 

The churches of S. Francesco, with the Gothic chapel of the 
Confraternita della Croce di Giorno of 1315 , S. Agostino, and 
S. Michele (of 1285) also contain frescoes and pictures worthy of 

The Citadel consists of two portions , the Cassero or Rocca 
Vecchia , erected on the ancient town- walls in 1343 by Walther 
de Brienne, Duke of Athens, and the Rocca Nuova, built by the 
Florentines after the capture of the town. At the same time they 
constructed the prison II Mastio for the incarceration of political 
offenders , into which the mathematician Lorenzo Lorenzini was 
thrown as a suspected individual in 1682 by the Grand -duke 
Cosmo III. and where he was confined for 11 years. The citadel 
has been converted into a house of correction and may be visited 
with permission of the Sotto Prefetto. 

The Casa Guarnacci, opposite the church of S. Michele, with 
its three towers , the oldest dating from the 13th cent. , is an 
interesting edifice. 

The Casa Ducci bears the Roman epitaph of a boy of 5 years, 
probably a member of the family of the poet Persius, who was 
born A. D. 34 at Volateme. 

In the Casa Ricciarelli , Daniele da Volterra , the celebrated 
pupil of Michael Angelo, was born in 1509 (he died at Paris in 
1567). The house still belongs to the family of Ricciarelli, who 
possess the artist's *Elias. 

The alabaster-works of Volterra are celebrated, and afford oc- 
cupation to nearly two -thirds of the population. The ordinary 
descriptions are found in the vicinity , the more valuable in the 
mines of La Castellina, S. of Leghorn. A visit to the work-shops 
is interesting , and suitable objects for presents or reminiscences 
of Italy may be purchased here far more advantageously than at 
Florence or Leghorn. 

In the neighbourhood of Volterra , in the valley towards the 
E., is situated the Villa Inghirami, with the rocky labyrinth termed 
Le Buche de' Sarazini. About 3/ 4 M. to the N.W. of the town, 
between the churches of S. Giusta and La Badia, lies a deep 

LA CAVA. 4. Route. 21 

ravine which has been comparatively recently formed by the action 
of water and continues to increase in extent , termed Le Baize. 
Several buildings have already been undermined and destroyed, 
and the celebrated abbey of San Salvatore of the order of Camal- 
doli is now threatened with the same fate. It was founded in 
the 11th cent, and possesses Doric cloisters and several treasures 
of art: *St. Romuald by Domenico Ohirlandajo , frescoes by, etc. 

A pleasant excursion may be made to the copper - mines of La Cava, 
near Monte Catini, ll 1 ^ M. from Volterra. The road leads by the eminence 
of La Bachetona to Monte Catini on the summit of the Selagite, a mountain 
of volcanic origin ; the square tower of the old castle commands an ex- 
tensive prospect. The mines have been worked since the loth cent. , and 
the operations have been successfully conducted since 1837 by an English 
firm (Sloane and Hall). M. Schneider, the director (a German) readily 
affords information respecting the extremely interesting geological pecu- 
liarities of the locality, and admits visitors to the mines. A red species of 
rock, resembling porphyry, here known as gabbro rosso, of which a number 
of peaks , such as Monte delV Abete , Poggio alia Croce , and Monte Massi, 
consist, has been upheaved at a comparatively recent period through the 
surrounding sand and limestone. 

The view from "Monte Massi (2028 ft.) or from Poggio alia Croce 0| 2 hr. 
from Monte Catini) extends from the heights near Massa and Carrara to- 
wards the N. to Monte Amiata on the S. , and embraces the sea with the 
islands of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 

From Le Saline a walk of 3 hrs., by the village of Pomarance, may be 
undertaken to the borax -works of Count Lardarello, the Lagoni di Monte 
Cerboli, where 300 persons are employed , an establishment of great interest 
to experts. In 1856, 4>|2 million lbs. were prepared and exported to England 
fnr the use of potteries and glass-manufactories. Count Lardarello possesses 
eight other similar establishments , all situated between the sources of the 
Cornia and Cecina, a fact which appears to indicate one vast common recep- 
tacle of these gaseous emissions. 

5. Elba and the Tuscan Islands. 

A visit to Elba, strongly recommended to the scientific and admirers 
"f the picturesque, is most conveniently accomplished from Leghorn. A 
small steamboat (Societa Rubattino k Comp.) runs thence in 7 hrs. to Piom- 
bino and Portoferrajo, starting every Sunday at 10 a. m. (fares 13'|2, 9 l |2, 
or 6 fr.) and returning to Leghorn at 8 a. m. on Mondays. Every Wednes- 
day at 8 a. m. to Gorgoua.. Capraja , Portoferrajo , Pianosa , Giglio, and S. 
Stefano (the N. harbour of M. Argentario). From Porto S. Stefano Thurs- 
days 3. 30 p. m. , and from Portoferrajo Fridays 8 a. m. to Leghorn by 
Capraja and Gorgona. Another means of communication is afforded by 
the mail-boats which run every morning from Portoferrajo to Piombino 
and correspond with a diligence to the Maremme-line , thus shortening the 

Half-an-hour after the harbour of Leghorn has been quitted, 
the cliff Meloria comes in sight, near which the Pisans were 
defeated in a naval battle by the Genoese in 1283, and thus de- 
prived of their supremacy. Farther W. Gorgona, inhabited by 
fishermen, sterile, and affording pasture to wild goats only. Be- 
tween the latter and Elba lies Capraja ( 'island of goats', so 
called by the ancients also) , with 2000 inhabitants , and produ- 
cing wine. 

22 Route 5. ELBA. 

Elba, Lat. llva, Greek /Ethalia, consisting of an imposing 
mountain-group, is reached from Piombino in l 1 ^ nr - ^ ne Torre 
di Giove, situated on the highest point, serves as a landmark to 
sailors. The vessel rounds the Capo della Vita and enters the 
beautiful bay of Porto Ferrajo , enclosed amphitheatrically by 
mountains. The island was celebrated in ancient times for its 
iron ore ; in the middle ages it was subject to the Pisans , then 
to Genoa , to Lucca , and to the Appiani of Piombino , and was 
finally presented by the Emp. Charles V. to the Grand- Duke 
Cosmo I. of Florence, who in 1548 fortified the harbour of Porto 
Ferrajo. As the name of the town indicates, the export of iron 
and its manufacture constitute the principal occupation of the in- 
habitants (22,000), others of whom are supported by the tunny 
and sardine fisheries. Elba has acquired a modern celebrity as 
the retreat of Napoleon, after his abdication, from May 5th, 1814, 
to Feb. 26th, 1815 , after which he again embarked on his last 
and desperate venture. A few days later (March 1st) he landed at 
St. Raphael near Fre'jus. The small palace occupied by the emperor 
is still shown at Porto Ferrajo, on the height above the harbour, 
between the forts Stella and Falcone which were erected by Cosmo 
I., and command a view of the bay in front, and of the sea in the 
direction of Piombino in the rear. It is now the residence of the 
governatore , and contains reminiscences of its former imperial 
occupant. The cathedral, theatre, arsenal, etc. of which the island 
boasts contain nothing which requires comment. After the fall of 
Napoleon in 1815 Elba was restored to Tuscany , in the fortunes 
of which it has since then participated. Length of the island 
about 18 M., breadth Q 1 /^ M., area 152 sq. M. ; it contains two 
fertile valleys , but lofty and precipitous mountains predominate. 
Monte Capanne, the highest point, near the village of Marciana, 
is upwards of 3000 ft. in height. The coast towards the main- 
land of Italy is less abrupt, and produces wine and fruit of re- 
markably fine quality, especially in the environs of Capoliveri, 
where an excellent quality of Aleatico is grown. Most of the vil- 
lages, e. g. the picturesque stronghold of Porto Longone, founded 
by the Spaniards, are situated on the coast. Rio, where the iron- 
mines are worked, lies more inland. The yield of ore is still 
abundant, and in ancient times formed a source of wealth to the 
Etruscans. The strata containing the ore lie on the surface, and 
are recognised at a distance by the reddish- black appearance of 
the hills. 

Between Elba and the mainland are the two small islands of 
Palmaiola and Cerboli. 

To the S. lies Pianosa, the ancient Planasia , which, as its 
name indicates, is perfectly flat, the place of banishment of Agrippa 
Posthumus, grandson of Augustus. To him are referred the con- 
siderable Roman remains still existing in the island. Farther S. 

POGGIBONSI. 6. Route. 23 

rises Monte Cristo, consisting of granite - rock , 6 M. in circum- 
ference. It contains numerous springs, and the ruins of a monas- 
tery destroyed by pirates in the 16th cent. Nearer the coast 
is Giglio, Lat. Igilium , containing a village and vestiges of Ro- 
man palaces. 

6. From Florence to Rome by Siena, Orvieto, and 

Viterbo , 

Railway from Florence to Orvieto in 7'|2 hrs., tares 24 fr. 25, 17 fr. 25, 
12 fr. 50 c. From Florence to Siena in 3'|2hrs., fares 9 fr. 40, 7 fr. 30. 5 fr. 
40 c. ; from Siena to Orvieto in 4 hrs., fares 14 fr. 30, 10 fr, 5, 7 fr. 15 c. 
From Orvieto the line (lately opened as far as Baschi, a few miles beyond 
Orvieto ; no inn) is in course of construction to Orte (p. 65) on the Tiber, 
a station on the line between Borne and Ancona (R. 11). Since the open- 
ing of the railway Florence -Foligno- Rome, the former diligence communi- 
cation between Rome and Orvieto has been suspended, thus rendering this 
route more difficult, although opportunities frequently offer for driving 
to Viterbo and thence to Rome. Carriage from Orvieto to Rome 40 fr., 
to Orte via Viterbo 20—25 fr. Unless the traveller has a particular desire 
to see Viterbo , it is better to return from Orvieto , either to Florence or 
Chiusi , and proceed thence to Perugia (R. 7) ; or he may drive to Poggi- 
bonsi and thus reach the Maremme Railway to Rome via, Volterra and 
Saline (p. 18). 

From Florence to Empoli see p. 9. Passengers to Siena change 
carriages here; halt of 23 min. 

The line to Siena traverses the fertile valley of the Elsa, on 
the r. bank of the stream. To the r. on the height S. Miniato dei 
Tedeschi, picturesquely situated, and possessing a lofty mediaeval 
tower. Stat. Osteria Bianca, beyond which a fruitful valley is 
traversed. Stat. Castel Fiorentino; the town, on the height to 
the 1., is the principal place in the Val d'Elsa. 

Stat. Certaldo ; the town on the hill to the 1., was the native 
place of "the poet Giovanni Boccaccio , who died here , Dec. 1st, 
1375, at the age of 62. Until 1783 his tomb was in the church 
of S. Michele e Oiacomo (La Canonica); it was erected in 1503 
and adorned with a statue of the poet, who held the 'Decame- 
rone' in his hand. The monument was subsequently removed and 
the bones scattered. The house of Boccaccio was restored in 1823 
by the Countess Carlotta Lenzoni- Medici, and fitted up in the 
antique style. The remains of his monument were also brought 

Stat. Poggibonsi ; the town (3500 inhab.) lies to the r. From 
this point to Volterra in 3 — 4 hrs. (comp. p. 18). Carriage 10 fr. 

S. Gimignano, which may be reached in 2 hrs. from Poggibonsi, is an 
ancient, loftily-situated town, possessing a number of lofty square towers 
and presenting a thoroughly mediaeval aspect, whence its appellation '$. Gi- 
mignano delle belle torri'. The * Palazzo Pubblico of the 14th cent, contains 
a large fresco by Lippo Mernmi of 1317, restored by Benozzo Gozzoli in 1467; 
also several ancient pictures by Taddeo Barloli, Filippino Lippi, etc. Adja- 
cent to the latter is the Torre del Comune, the loftiest of the 13 towers 
(175 ft.), erected 1298. The largest of the three bells dates from 1328. The 
double towers of Ardinghelli are of the 13th cent. 

24 Route G. SIENA. From Florence 

Of the 36 churches which formerly existed here, the following should 
lie noticed: 

La Collegiata of the 11th cent., altered in the 15th by Giuliuno da Ma- 
jano, contains frescoes (badly preserved) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena (1356), 
Barna di Siena, and Giovanni daAscanio (1380). " Martyrdom of St. Sebastian 
by Benozzo Qozzoli (1465). * Chapel of S. Fina with altar by Benedetto da 
Majano , frescoes by Dom. Ghirlandajo , pictures by Benozzo Gozzoli , Piero 
di Pollajuolo, and <S. Mainardi. Chapels of S. Gimignano, della Purificazione, 
della Concezione, all adorned with frescoes; likewise the sacristy and ora- 
torium of S. Giovanni. 

S. Agostino, erected 1280 , contains frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli, S. Mai- 
nardi and Bartolo Fredi. 

S. Girolamo, S. Giacopo (of the 11th cent., church of the Knights 
Templar), S. Lorenzo in Ponle, and the church of the monastery of Monte 
Oliveto, 3 M. distant, also contain good pictures. 

Beyond Poggibonsi the line begins to ascend considerably. To 
the r. Staggia with a mediaeval chateau ; farther to the r. the an- 
cient and picturesque chateau of Monte Riggioni ; then through 
a long tunnel (3 min.). 

Siena. : "Albergo Beale (PI. a), formerly Arrne d^Inghilterra; 
A qui) a Sera (PI. b), more unpretending, near the cathedral, R. 2 fr. ; 
Scala (PI. c); Caffe Greco, by the Casino de' Xobili. — Carriage from 
the stat. to the town, one-horse l'ja, two -horse 2 fr. , after sunset 2 and 
2i| 2 fr. ; smaller articles of luggage free. — When time is limited the tra- 
veller may engage one of the ciceroni who offer their services, and some of 
whom are well-informed ; fee 2—3 fr. according to circumstances. 

Siena, the ancient Sena Julia, or Colonia Julia Senensis, is said to have 
been founded by the Senonian Gauls and converted into a Roman colony 
by Augustus, whence it derives its arms the lemale-wolf and the twins. Of 
Etruscan antiquities there is no trace. The town attained the culminating 
point of its prosperity in the middle ages , after at the commencement of 
the 12th cent, it had become a free state , and having banished the nobility 
had united with the party of the Ghibellini. Farinata degli Uberti and the 
Ghibellini from Florence were welcomed in Siena, and on Sept. 4th, 1260, 
a great victory over the Guelphs was gained near Monte Aperto (6 M. distant). 
The nobility now returned to Siena, but the city kept a jealous watch over 
its privileges and increased to such an extent that it numbered 200,1100 
inhab. , and vied with Florence in wealth and love of art. At length the 
supremacy was usurped by tyrants, such as (about 1500) Pandolfo Petrucci 
(whom Macchiavelli represents as a model of a tyrant), by whose aid the 
Jledicis of Florence gradually exercised an influence and linally obtained 
the sovereignty over the city. During this period , under the Grand-Duke 
Cosmo I. , the savage Count of Marignano devastated Siena with fire and 
sword, and cruelly massacred the population of the JIaremme, in consequence 
of which the malaria obtained so fatal an ascendancy in that district. 

The School of Painting of Siena is remarkable for its delicacy and pathos, 
pervaded with a deep sentiment of devotion , and is no mean rival of that 
of Florence. The most illustrious names of the 13th cent, are Diotisaku, 
Guido and Ugolino da Siena, and Duccio di Buoninsegna. The, most celebrat- 
ed master was Siinone di Martino, who died in 1344, the friend of Petrarch. 
Among his pupils were his brother-in-law Lippo Memmi, Pietro und Ambrogio 
Lorenzetti, and Barna di Siena. Somewhat later (15th cent.) Andrea di Vanni, 
Taddeo Bartolo, and Jacopo Pacchiarotlo. After a short period of decline in 
the 15th cent., Gianantonio Razzi, a contemporary of Raphael, surnamed 11 
Sodoma (1480—1549), distinguished himself above bis predecessors. He was 
born at Vercelli , was a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci , and subsequently set- 
tled in Siena. His works are remarkable for their earnestness and tender- 
ness of expression. His contemporaries were Domenico Beccafumi of Siena, 
surnamed Meccherino, and Baldassare Peruzzi (1481—1536), especially distin- 
guished as an architect. 

Eii, »; lf /„, 

to Rome. SIENA. (i. Route. 25 

Siena, with 23,000 inhab., possesses a university founded in 
1203, an archbishop, several libraries and scientific societies, a 
thriving trade and manufactories , and is one of the busiest and 
most agreeable towns in Tuscany. The climate is healthy, the 
atmosphere in summer being tempered by the lofty situation ; 
the language and manners of the inhabitants pleasing and pre- 
possessing. The pronunciation of Italian is here purer and less 
guttural than in Florence. The town is situated on undulating 
ground ; the streets are for the most part narrow and crooked, 
but contain a considerable number of palaces and handsome chur- 
ches, in the architecture of which fas is rarely the case in Italy) 
the Gothic style predominates. 

The handsome *Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. formerly named del 
Oimpo from some verses of Dante (Purgat. 11, 134), forms the 
central point of the town. Its form is that of an elongated semi- 
circle, in some degree resembling an ancient theatre. Here the 
popular assemblies and festivals of the ancient republic took place. 
Horse-races are still annually held here (II Palio) on Aug. 15th. 

On the diameter of the semicircle of the piazza stands the 

* Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 17), or Town-Hall, erected in 1293—1309 
from designs by the Sienese architects Agostino and Agnolo. In 
front of it is a small chapel of the Virgin (Cap. di Piazza) with 
damaged frescoes by Sodoma, built after the cessation of the great 
plague of 1348 which is said to have carried off 80,000 persons. 
The frescoes in the interior of the palace merit inspection (custo- 
dian 1/2 — 1 fr.). The beautiful chapel is adorned with frescoes 
from the life of the Virgin by Taddeo di Bartolo; the *altar-piece 
a Holy Family by Sodoma. The beautifully carved choir-stalls are 
by Dornenico di Niceolb (1429). The contiguous vestibule contains 
a iresco by Taddeo di Bartolo, in which are represented in quaint 
juxtaposition St. Christopher, Judas Maccabsus , and six states- 
men of the Roman republic. Here is the entrance to the Sala 
del gran Consiglio, or delle Balestre, which contains large frescoes : 

* Madonna and Child under a canopy borne by saints, by Simone 
di Martina (1315); opposite *S. Ansano, *S. Victor, and B. Ber- 
nardo by Sodoma. The Sala dei Priori with * Events in the life 
oi the Emp. Frederick I. and of Pope Alexander III. by Spinello 
Aretino , and a Madonna by Matteo da Siena (14S4). The Sala 
del f'oncistoro is adorned with ceiling-paintings by Beccafumi from 
Roman history , and with portraits of 8 popes and 39 cardinals 
who were natives of Siena. The Sala dei Nove or della Pace is 
decorated with frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (1337), represent- 
ing 'good and bad government'. In the Sala del Sindaco is a 
*fresco by Sodoma, the Resurrection. Above the palace rises the 
tower, della Mangia, begun in 1325, finished after 1545, which 
commands an extensive panorama (fee V2 f r 0- 

The *Fonte Gaja, a fountain adorned with bas-reliefs in marble 

26 Route 6. SIENA. From Florence 

(damaged) of subjects from the Scriptures , executed by Jacopo 
della Querela, who is therefore surnamed delta Fonte, has been 
conveyed to a place of safety, and a copy by Sarrochi erected on 
the same spot. A subterranean conduit conveys hither the most 
excellent water, the merits of which were extolled by Charles V., 
from a distance of 18 M. 

From the Piazza the visitor ascends to the cathedral , passing 
the Loggia di S. Paolo, the hall for the sessions of the commercial 
tribunal, erected in 1417 , now Casino de' Nobili. To the r. in 
the cathedral-square is a royal palace, to the 1. the archiepiscopal 
palace ; opposite to the cathedral is a hospital , the Spedale di 
S. Maria della Scala. founded in 832. 

The **Cathedral, occupying the most elevated position in the 
town, commenced in the 11th cent., stands on the site of the 
older church of S. Maria Assunta , which is said to have super- 
seded an ancient temple of Minerva. In 1339 it was intended to 
erect a much more extensive edifice, of which the present cathe- 
dral was to have been the transept; but after the plague of 1348 
the design was abandoned, and (1355) the present structure erect- 
ed. The *Facade, constructed in 1270 — 1380, a combination of 
the pointed and circular styles, is adorned with red, white, and 
black marble, and numerous sculptures representing prophets and 
angels by Jacopo della Querela of Siena (1368 — 1442). The cam- 
panile was erected by Bisdomini. 

The interior contains clustered columns with beautiful capitals; at the 
extremities "' circular windows. Above the arches of the nave are placed the 
busts of the popes down to Alexander III. in terracotta. Two large co- 
lumns at" the door (of 1483) support a graceful tribune, with 4 bas-reliefs: 
Annunciation, Nuptials, Exaltation, and Assumption of the Virgin. One of 
the basins for the consecrated water was executed by Jacopo della Quercia. 
The dome is an irregular hexagon, with small columns. The "pavement is 
unique: dark grey marble inlaid on white, shaded with lines, with repre- 
sentations from the Old Testament : Moses, Samson, Judas Maccabseus, So- 
lomon, Joshua by Buccio; the sacrifice of Isaac, Adam and Eve, Moses on 
Mt. Sinai, etc. by Beccafumi ; the emblems of Siena and the towns allied 
with it, Hermes Trismegistus, Socrates and Crates, the Sibyls, etc. by less 
celebrated masters. (Some of these are covered by boards which the visi- 
tor may cause to be removed.) The choir contains beautiful 'carving from 
designs by Bartolo Negroni , named Riccio , completed in 1569 , and inlaid 
work (tarsia) by Fro, Giovanni da Verona. A '-tabernacle in bronze by Lo- 
renzo da Pietro (1472); octagonal ' pulpit; reading-desk of white marble by 
Nicola Pisano, his son Giovanni, and his pupils Arnolfo and Lapo (1266). By 
the columns of the dome are two poles of the flag-waggon (carroccio) of the 
Florentines, captured at Montaperto in 1260, and on an altar near them the 
crucifix which the Sienese carried with them on that occasion. The two 
chapels in front of the entrance to the choir contain the two halves of a 
" picture by Buccio di Buoninsegna : in the chapel of the Eucharist the life 
of the Saviour in 27 sections , and (in the chapel of S. Ansano) the Ma- 
donna and Child with saints, of the year 1311. For this work the artist 
received the sum of 3000 ducats. In the chapel of St. John a * statue of 
the saint by Bonatello, and font by Jacopo della Quercia. The 5 small fres- 
coes are by Pinturicchio. 

In the 1. aisle is the entrance to the -Library (libreria), formerly Sala 

to Rome. fSIENA. 6. Route. 27 

Piccolominea, erected (1495) by order of Card. Francesco Piccolomini, after- 
wards Pope Pius III., and (1502—1506) adorned with ten -frescoes by Ber- 
nardino di Betto of Perugia , surnamed Pinturicchio , a fellow-pupil of Ra- 
phael under Pietro Perugino , representing scenes from the life of the cele- 
brated sEneas Sylvius Piccolomini of Siena (or Pienza), born 1405, subsequently 
Pope Pius II. (1458—1464). In the interior another fresco of the coronation 
of his nephew Pius III. (1503), who reigned 27 days only. Raphael is said 
to have assisted in the execution of these frescoes , but apparently only in 
the drawings and cartoons ; the colouring is admirably preserved, especially 
in that to the r. by the window, representing the journey of ^Eneas Sylvius 
to the Council of Bale with Cardinal Capranica. On the ceiling mythological 

The 29 choir-books contain beautiful * miniatures by Ansano di Pietro, 
Liberate di Verona , Girolamo di Cremona, etc. A few modern monuments, 
as that of Giulio Bianchi by, and the anatomist Mascagni (b. 1752 
near Siena, d. 1815 at Florence), by Ricci. 

To the 1. of the door the monument of Bandino Bandini , with Christ 
and angels after the resurrection, an early work of Michael Angela. Farther 
1. the !: Altar dedicated to the Piccolomini family with statues of SS. Peter, 
Pius , Gregory , and James (?| by Michael Angelo. St. Francis , begun by 
Torrigiani, completed by Michael Angelo. 

In the r. transept the Chapel of the Chigi , erected by Alexander VII. 
(Fabio Chigi of Siena , in 1648 papal nuncio at the conclusion of the Peace 
of Miinster, Pope 1665 — 67), sumptuously decorated with lapis lazuli, 
marble and gold, and statues of S. Jerome and Mary Magdalene (said origi- 
nally to have represented Andromeda) by Giov. Bernini of Naples (1598 — 

In the rear of the cathedral and beneath the choir is the an- 
cient Baptistery , now the church of St. John the Baptist, with 
Gothic * facade and beautiful brazen *font, with sculptures by 
Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello. and Jacopo delta Quercia; and frescoes 
of the 15th cent. 

Opposite the facade of the cathedral is the * Pellegrinajo. a 
hospital with the church of S. Maria della Scala. On the 1. of 
the beautiful entrance hall is a *room with frescoes by Dom. 
Bartoli (1440—1443) and other masters (fee i/ 2 ft-) 

iS. Agostino was completed by Vanvitelli in 1755. 2nd altar 
r., * Crucifixion, by Pietro Perugino; chap, r., * Slaughter of the 
Innocents, by Matteo da Siena, and a statue of Pius II. by Dupre ; 
altar-piece, *Adoration of the Magi, by Sodoma. 

S. Domenico (1220—1465), in .the nave r. *chapel of S. Ca- 
therine of Siena with frescoes by Sodoma. Altar-piece, 1. Legend 
of the Stigmata, r. Vision of the Saints: 1. wall, execution of an 
infidel. Last altar r., *Adoration of the shepherds by L. Signo- 
relli. 2nd chap. 1. of the high-altar, Madonna by Ouido da Siena 
(1221?). 2nd chap. r. Madonna by Matteo da Siena (1478). 

S Carmine (S. Niccolb), a beautiful brick-structure, with tower 
and cloisters by Baldassare Peruzzi, now a barrack. 

S. Coneezione (dei Servi) : 4th altar r. , Slaughter of the 
Innocents, by Matteo da Siena. Behind the high-altar: Madonna 
by Giov. di Pietro (1436). 

S. Francesco, completed 1236, now dilapidated and despoiled 
of most of the pictures. 2nd chap. 1. of the high-altar two 
frescoes by Lorenzetti, formerly in the refectory. Adjacent is the 

28 6. Route SIENA. From Florence 

* Confraternith di S. Bernardino. (Keys to be had of the 
bastiere Giuseppe Fineschi, saddler, in the Piaggio di Provenzano, 
fee J fr.) On the 1st floor, oratory with frescoes: *Mary visiting 
the temple ; *Annunciation, Visitation, *Assumption, and Corona- 
tion of the Virgin by Sodoma ; the others by Pacchiarotto and 

Confraternith di Fonteyiusta (1482) with a fresco by B. Peruzzi: 
Sibyl announcing to Augustus the Nativity of Christ. 

S. Spirito, facade by Bald. Peruzzi (1519). 1. chap, r., altar- 
wall with frescoes by Sodoma; in the cloisters the Crucifixion, a 
fresco by Fra Bartolommeo (Vo fr.). 

Two Oratories in the * House of St. Catharine of Siena, daugh- 
ter of a dyer and fuller (in fullonica) deserve special mention. 
Born in 1347 , a nun at the age of 8, and celebrated for the 
visions and inspiration alleged to have been vouchsafed to her, 
she prevailed on Pope Gregory XI. to re-transfer the papal throne 
from Avignon (1377) to Rome. She died in 1380, and was cano- 
nised in 1461. The lower oratory contains pictures from the life 
of the saint, by Sodoma, Pacchiarotto, and Salimbeni. The upper 
contains the miraculous crucifix, a work of Giunta da -Pi'sa(v), from 
which Catherine , according to the legend , received her wounds. 
The floor here is beautifully inlaid ( J /2 fr- )• 

The Istituto delle Belle Arti (PI. 9, in the Via della Miseri- 
ccT'iia near S. Domenico) contains a valuable collection of pic- 
tures, principally of the older Sienese school, formed at the com- 
mencement of the present century from the works of art procured 
from suppressed monasteries and from the Palazzo Pubblico, and 
subsequently enlarged. Admission gratis, 9 — 3 o'clock daily, ex- 
cept on holidays , when access may be obtained for a gratuity. 
The interest attaching to this collection is especially of a histo- 
rical nature. 

At the entrance reliefs of little value. The first section contains pic- 
tures of the old school of Siena. 1 — 5. in the Byzantine style; 6. Madonna, 
tiy Guido da Siena. The following unknown. 18. S. Francis , by Margari- 
tone d'Arezzo; 20 and 21. Chamberlains of Siena , Diotisalvi Petroni (1264); 
2l. Madonna with 4 saints, Duccio di Buoninsegna; 43. Madonna with 4 
saints. Sim-one di Martina (V); 4S— 52. hv Arnbrogio Lorenzetti (49. Annun- 
ciation, 1344); 54, 56— 63. by Pietro Lorenzetti (about 1330); 70. Crucifix, 
Nir.old di Segna (1345); -94. Madonna, Lippo Memmi. — 113. Madonna, Mino 
del Pelliciaio (1362); ia.V-136. by Taddeo di Bartolo (1409) ; 139—144. by Gio- 
vanni di Paolo (1445); 145. 8. Bernardino, Pietro di Giovanni; 146—153. by 
Sano di Pietro (1479); 160. Madonna and Saints, Neroccio di Bart. Lanii 
(1476); 175—179. by Maiteo da Siena (1470); 209. Madonna appearing to Ca- 
lixtus III., Sano di Pietro; "211. Christ about to be scourged, al fresco, 
from the cloisters of S. Francesco, by Sodoma; 224 and 225. two frescoes 
with beautiful frames (JEneas departing from Troy, Liberation of captives), 
Luna Signorelli; 245 and 246. Death and Coronation of the Virgin, Spinelto 
Aretino (1384); 302. Nativity, Francesco di Giorgio. — In the centre of the 
following large saloon the celebrated marble-group of the "Three Graces, of 
Greek workmanship, found in the 13th cent, at the foundation of the ca- 
thedral. "336. Descent from the Cross, Sodoma; "333, 334. Christ on the 
Mt. of Olives and in Paradise , frescoes by Sodoma ; 347. Madonna Becca- 

to Rome. SIENA. 6. Route. 29 

fumi; 346. Judith, Sodoma; 358. Fall of the angels, Beccafumi. — The 
following apartment contains upwards of i'JO pictures of different schools, 
among which: 26. Copy of Raphael's Madonna della Perla (at Madrid); 
36. Five morra-players, Caravaggio ; 39. Portrait. Morone ; 45. Holy Family, 
Pinturicchio ; ::: 53. Portrait, Schongauer (7); 54. Portrait of Charles V., 
German School; 63. St. Catharine of Siena with the wounds, Beccafumi; 
71. Same, by Sodoma; 73. Portrait, German School; 85 — 87. "Nativity, So- 
doma; 91. St. Catharine, Fra Bartolommeo ; 99. Mary Magdalene, same 
master \ 103. Brazen Serpent, Paliiia Giovine ; 105, 106. Pietas and Madonna, 
Sodoma. — The large saloon of the casts of ancient statues contains the 
seven original cartoons of Beccafumi from the history of Moses, executed in 
mosaic on the pavement of the cathedral. Here , too , are specimens of 
wood-carving , an art in which Siena surpassed all the towns of Italy. In 
the 15th and 16th centuries the family of Barili excelled in the art ■, at the 
present day the workshop of Giusti , near the monastery of S. Domenico, 
merits a visit. 

The Palaces of Siena are more interesting on account of their 
architecture than their collections of objects of art. Most of them 
were designed by the architects Agostino and Agnolo (about 1300). 

The *Palazzo del Magnifico (PI. 14), near the cathedral, was 
erected in 1504 for the tyrant Pandolfo Petrucci , surnamed il 
Magnifico; decorations in bronze on the exterior by Cozzarelli and 
Mazzini. Palazzo Saracini (PI. 19). Palazzo Buonsignori (PI. 12), 
in the Gothic style , with facade of brick. Palazzo Piccolomini 
(PI. 15), with two halls painted by Bernard van Orley , who 
abandoned the school of Van Eyck for that of Raphael. Palazzo 
Piccolomini, now del Governo, with handsome loggia, begun in 
1469, with the inscription : 'Gentilibus Suis', i. e. for his relations. 
In 1859 the great Archives (Director Cav. Bianchi) were placed 
here. They form one of the largest collections in Italy, and con- 
sist of 30,000 parchment documents dating from 814 downwards. 
Interesting specimens of records, the hand-writings of celebrated 
men, miniatures, etc. are arranged in glass-cases. Palazzo Pollini, 
ascribed to Peruzzi . with frescoes by Sodoma : Susanna, Scipio, 
Burning of Troy, Judgment of Paris. Palazzo Tolomei , erected 
by Tozzo in 1205. 

The Fonte Fullonica, near the Palazzo Piccolomini, was erected 
in 1249. 

The early-Gothic Fonte Branda (PL 8). at the S. W. base of 
the hill of S. Domenico, dating from 1198, was praised by Dante 
(Inferno 30, 78), and after it the nearest gate is named. 

The University (PI. 22) is in the Via Ricasoli, not far from 
the Piazza ; in the vestibule is the monument of the celebrated 
jurist Niccolb Aringhieri (1374), with a bas-relief representing the 
professor in the midst of his audience. 

The Library (PI. 6), in the spacious hall of the Accademia 
degli Intronati, is reputed the most ancient in Europe (in the 
17th cent. Siena possessed 16, and in 1654 even one for women), 
and contains 40,000 vols, and 5000 MSS.; among the latter the 
* Greek Gospels, formerly in the chapel of the imperial palace at 
Constantinople, of the 9th cent., magnificently bound with work- 

30 Route 6. ASCIANO. From Florence 

manship in silver ; * Treatise on architecture by Francesco di Gior- 
gio, with sketches and drawings by the author; Sketch-books of 
Baldassare Peruzzi and Giuliano da Sangallo. 

The Citadel, constructed by the Grand-Duke Cosmo I. , rises 
at the N. extremity of the town, contiguous to La Lizza, the fa- 
vourite promenade of the inhabitants , and occupies the site of 
a fortress founded by Charles V. in 1551. 

Near Siena is the Franciscan Monastery U Osservanza, erected 
in 1423, where Pandolfo Petrucci, who died in 1512, is interred. 

From Siena a pleasant excursion may be made to the neighbouring 
castle Bel Caro (carr. 1 fr.), whence there is a splendid view of Siena and 
the surrounding country. On the ground-floor a frescoed ceiling, Judgment 
of Paris , by B. Peruzzi . who also painted the chapel , now undergoing 

The train backs out of the station and is transferred to an- 
other line of rails, on which it passes Siena on the N. side. It 
now traverses the hills which form the watershed between the 
Ombrone and the valley of the Chiana, and passes through 6 tun- 
nels. This district is one of the bleakest in Italy; grotesquely 
shaped hills of sand, barren and rugged mountains, interesting to 
the palaeontologist alone. 

Stat. Asciano is reached; village to the r., l 1 /^ M. from the 
railway, with several beautiful churches. 

A railway is in course of construction from this point to Grosseto (p. 16), 
the capital of the Jlaremme . and is now open as far as the second stat. 
Torrenieri (18>|2 31., one-third of the entire distance). This line is of little 
importance to the ordinary traveller except from the fact, that the first sta- 
tion (two trains daily, fares 1 fr. 35 c, 1 fr., 75 c.) S. Giovanni cTAsso (Stella 
d'Oriente, tolerable) is only half an hour's walk (to save time a guide had 
better be taken ; one-horse carr. also procurable) from the Benedictine mon- 
astery, now dissolved, of Monte Oliveto Maggiore near Chiusure, with cele- 
brated " frescoes by Luca Siynorelli and Sodoma. Entrance to the mon- 
astery-court to the r. of the church. The r. wall, except the first picture 
(by Sodoma) and the last (by Riccio), is painted by L. Signorelli, the other 
three by Sodoma, of whom this is the earliest-known and perhaps most im- 
portant work. The scenes commence, on the wall opposite that painted 
by Signorelli , with the departure of S. Benedict from his father's house. 
— This line, when completed, will enable the traveller conveniently to com- 
bine a visit to Siena with the direct route to Rome through the Maremme. 

Stat. Rapolano, reached in 10 min.; the village (on the r.) 
possesses baths which are frequently visited in July and August. 

The country becomes more attractive; several villages on the 
hills to the 1. Then stat. Lucignano ; the mediaeval village lies on 
the hill to the 1. The higher cultivation of the soil indicates the 
proximity of the charming valley of the Chiana. To the 1. in the 
distance the chain of the Apennines is visible above Cortona. 

Stat. Sinalunga or Asinalung a ; village on the r., where Gari- 
baldi was taken prisoner on his march to Rome, Sept. 24th, 1867. 

From this point the traveller may proceed in 3 hrs. through the luxu- 
riant Valley of the Chiana to Cortona, and thence by the Trasimene Lake to 

to Rome. CHIUSI. <S. Route. 31 

Perugia (see p. 49). This route is far more attractive than that by Chiusi; 
a visit to Cortona is also extremely interesting. One day more , however, 
is necessary [quarters for the night at Camuscia (p. 46), or Cortona] to visit 
the extensive and well-conducted farms (fattorie) oiBettole, Foiano, Crete, etc., 
which are situated on this route. 

Stat. Torrita, beyond which the lofty Monte Pulciano is visible 
to the i. Stat. Salarco. 

From Salarco the picturesque town (2000 inhab.) of Monte Pulciano, 
with mediaeval walls, may be reached in 1>|j hr. The principal church, S. 
Biagio, was erected by Sangallo ; the Palazzo Buccelli contains Etruscan and 
Roman antiquities. The full-bodied wine produced here enjoys a high re- 
putation. Here in 1454 the erudite Angelus Politianus was born , the con- 
fidant of Lorenzo the Magnificent and preceptor of his children (d. at Flo- 
rence 1494). — About lO 1 ^ M. from M. Pulciano is situated Pienza , birth- 
place of Pope Pius II. (./Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini) and his nephew Pius III., 
who embellished the town with sumptuous edifices, e. g. the extensive Pa- 
lazzo Piccolomini. 

To the r. the Monti di Cetona become visible , with which 
M. Amiata (5300 ft. J, the highest point of the Tuscan Apennines 
is connected. To the 1. extends the long Lake of Monte Pulciano; 
beyond , and connected with it by a canal , the similar Lake of 
Chiusi. The exhalations from these lakes render the neighbour- 
hood unhealthy in summer. 

Stat. Chiusi , town on the height to the r. Carriage (V 4 hr. J 
1 fr. for 1 pers. ; to the r. of the road are the small catacombs 
of S. Caterina, to the 1. a Roman tomb. 

Chiusi (Leon d'Oro, no fixed charges ; landlord offers Etruscan 
relics for sale at exorbitant prices. Travellers are cautioned 
against making such purchases at Chiusi. where the manufacture 
of spurious 'antiquities' is much in vogue), the ancient Clusium, 
one of the 12 Etruscan capitals , frequently mentioned in the 
wars against Rome , and as the headquarters of Porsenna. The 
town was fearfully devastated by the malaria in the middle ages, 
and now scarcely numbers 3000 inhab. The walls are mediaeval; 
a few relics of those of the Etruscan period may be disting- 
uished near the cathedral, outside the Porta delle Torri. A walk 
thence round the town to the Porta Romana affords pleasing 
views of the S. portion of the Chiana Valley, Citta della Pieve, 
the mountains of Cetona, to the N. the lakes of Chiusi and Monte- 
pulciano, and the latter town itself. 

Beneath the town is a labyrinth of subterranean passages, the 
object of which has not yet been precisely ascertained. The 
Etruscan tombs in the vicinity have yielded a rich spoil, con- 
sisting of vases , bronzes , mirrors , sarcophagi , and especially of 
cinerary urns, most of them of terracotta, a few of alabaster and 
travertine. The Bishop , Msgr. Ciofl and Sgr. Mazetti possess 
valuable collections of these objects. 

The Cathedral (8. Mustiola) consists almost entirely of frag- 
ments of ancient structures ; the 18 columns of unequal thickness 
in the interior, and the tomb of S. Mustiola are derived from a 

32 Route S. ORVIETO. From Florence 

similar source. The walls of the arcades in the cathedral-square 
hear numerous Etruscan and Roman inscriptions. 

The Etruscan Tombs are numerous ; four of the largest com- 
pete for the honour (probably without reason) of being the Mau- 
soleum of Porsenna mentioned by Pliny and Varro. The tombs, 
situated in isolated mounds, are generally closed. As they are 
scattered and at some distance from the town , the visitor may 
consult the guide (Zeppotoni can be recommended, 3 — 4 fr. per 
diem) respecting the time to be devoted to each. The most in- 
teresting are: the Deposito del Poggio Gajelli, 3 M. to the N. E. 
of the town, much damaged; Deposito del Granduca, 2 l j i M., 
and Deposito della Scimia, 3 / 4 M. to the N. E.; Deposito de' Dei, 
2 1 / i M. (now filled up), and Deposito dei Monachi, l^M. to the 
N. W. ; * Deposito del Colle , with mural paintings. The Tombs 
of the Early Christians (near S. Caterina and S. Mustiola) may 
be glanced at in passing (the custodian must be summoned 

From Chiusi to Perugia, see R. 7. 

The Railway proceeds through the Chiana Valley to stat. 
Carnaiola or Ficulle ; village 3 M. distant , on the hill to the 1. 
The line next follows the valley of the Paglia, an impetuous 
tributary of the Tiber, which in rainy seasons frequently occasions 
great damage. The formation here consists of tertiary sandstone, 
whilst at Orvieto the volcanic district begins, of which the central 
point is the lake of Bolsena (p. 34). 

The station lies at the base of the hill occupied by Orvieto. 
The corriere starts hence after the arrival of the 3 p. m. train. 
A long and winding road (omnibus 1 fr.) ascends to 

Orvieto (the principal hotel delle Belle Arti, formerly much 
complained of, is now improved; Aquila Bianca, unpretending; 
the Caffetiere Agostino lets comfortable apartments ; bargaining 
as usual) , situated on an isolated tufa rock , 765 ft. above the 
Paglia, 1327 ft. above the sea-level, the Urbibentum of Proco- 
pius , termed Urbs Vetus in the 8th cent. , whence its name. 
In the middle ages it was a stronghold of the Guelphs which 
often afforded an asylum to the popes, and is now a small town 
and episcopal residence. 

The * * Cathedral . one of the most magnificent specimens of 
Italian Gothic, consists, like those of Florence and Siena, of alter- 
nate blocks of black and white marble ; the facade richly decorated 
with mosaic and sculptures, the interior with frescoes and statuary 
of the 16th cent. Founded in consequence of the 'miracle of 
Bolsena' (cornp. p. 35), the edifice was begun in 1290 by Lorenzo 
Maitani, and continued till the end of the 16th cent. Pope Nicho- 
las IV. laid the first stone. The *Facade is said to be the 
largest and most gorgeous 'polychromatic' structure in existence. 
The lower portions of the pillars are adorned with * bas-reliefs by 

to Rome. ORVIETO. 6. Route. 33 

Giovanni Pisano , Arnolfo , and other pupils of Nicola Pisano, 
representing Scripture scenes: 1st pillar 1., from the creation 
down to Tubalcain; 2nd, Abraham, genealogy of the Virgin; 3rd, 
history of Christ and Mary; 4th , Last Judgment with Paradise 
and Hell; above are the bronze emblems of the -1- Evangelists. 
Above the principal portal a Madonna under a canopy, in bronze. 
Above the doors and in the three pointed pediments are modern 
* mosaics on a golden ground: Annunciation, Nuptials of the 
Virgin, Baptism of Christ, Coronation of the Virgin. 

The interior, of black basalt and greyish - yellow limestone (from quar- 
ries in the vicinity), is in the form of a Latin cross, 295 ft. Ions;, 109 ft. 
broad and 122 ft. high. The windows pointed, upper parts filled with stained 
glass. The nave is separated from the aisles by 6 arches supported by columns 
liti ft. in height, above which is a gallery adorned with rich carving. The 
framework of the roof is visible, and was formerly richly ornamented. 
At the sides of the principal entrance, r. St. Sebastian by Scalza, 1. St. 
Pellegrino. Immediately to the 1. a fresco of the "Madonna and St. Cathe- 
rine, by Gentile da Fabriano. Before this stands a marble "font, the lower 
part by Luca di Giovanni (1390), the upper by Sano di Matteo (1407). In 
front of the columns the statues of the 12 Apostles, by Mosca, Scalza, Toli, 
Giovanni da Bologna, and other masters. On the high altar the *Annnni'.iata 
and Archangel , by Mocchi. In the choir frescoes from the life of the Vir- 
gin by Ugolino d'jlario and Pielro di Fuccio; the tarsia (inlaid wood-work) 
in the choir by artists of Siena of the 14th cent.; altars on either side willi 
-reliefs in marble: 1. Visitation of Mary , executed by Moschino when 15 
years of age, from designs by Sammic/teli of Verona; r. Adoration of the 
Magi, by Mosca. 

In the r. aisle the Chapel of Ike Madonna di S. Briiio , with a miracu- 
lous image of the Virgin and a Piefa by Jppolilo Scalza. The 'Frescoes 
here, by Luca Signorelli and Fra Angclico da Fiesole, are celebrated. On the 
ceiling: Christ as Judge, and prophets, by Fra Angclico; apostles, 'signa ju- 
dicii', patriarchs and doctors, virgins and martyrs, by Luca Signorelli, partly 
from tin; drawings of Fiesole. The pictures on the walls are entirely by 
Signorelli. On the wall of the entrance: Announcement of the end of the 
world by Sibyls and prophets, rain of fire; on the window-wall: Summons 
to Judgment, archangels beneath. On the 1. : Arrival of Antichrist (in the 
corner portraits of Luca Signorelli and Fra Angclico) and Paradise; r. Last 
Judgment and Hull. (These admirable frescoes of Signorelli bear no mean 
comparison with those of Michael Angelo in the Sixtine chapel at Rome.) 
Iteneath these pictures are.: r. the portraits of Cicero, Ovid, and Horace, 1. 
Seneca, Oante , and Virgil, surrounded by medallions representing scenes 
from their works. On the r. wall , in a niche behind the Pi eta of Scalza : 
-Entombment of Christ by Signorelli. Opposite, in the R. aisle, is the 
Cappella del Corjierali , containing the large silver shrine (400 lbs. in weight) 
by Cgoiino di Vieri of Siena, with brilliant enamel representing the Passion and 
Easter Sunday. Modernised frescoes representing the 'Miracle of Bolsena' 
(p. 35), by Ugolino. Altar 1., Madonna by Filippo Memmi. 

Opposite the cathedral , No. 30 , the * Opera del Dwomo (if 
closed apply to the sacristan of the cathedral). In a room on the 
first story are preserved: * Designs for the facade of the cathedral 
and a pulpit (which was never completed) on parchment; a beauti- 
fully carved reading-desk; a precious *Reliquary by Ugolino du 
Siena; a * Magdalene by L. Signorelli (1504); two specimen- 
frescoes by Signorelli, portraits, one of himself. 

S. Giovenale (if closed, visitors knock at the door r. of the 
facade, whence access can be obtained to the older church at the 

B/uiiKKEK. Italy II. 3rd Edition. 3 

34 Route 0. BOI.SENA From Florence 

back), a basilica with nave and two aisles, open roof, and remains 
of old paintings (1312 and 1399). 

S. Domenico contains (in the r. transept) the monument of 
Cardinal di Brago, by Arnolfo (1282). 

Near the dilapidated Fortress a celebrated fountain, * 11 Pozzo 
di S. Palrizio, begun in 1527 by Sang alio , completed in 1[>40 
by Mosca, partly hewn in the tufa rock, partly consisting of 
masonry. Visitors descend by a flight of 250 steps, and quit it 
by another of the same height (fee i/ 2 — 1 fr.). Near the fountain 
a fine view is obtained of the valley of the Tiber and the 
Umbrian Mts. The Palazzo Comunale and several towers have a 
mediaeval aspect. 

A short distance beyond Orvieto the former frontier of the 
States of the Church is crossed. The main -road from Orvieto 
to Montefiascone (l8 1 /2 M.) traverses a somewhat dreary district 
on the E. side of the Lake of Bolsena, which is partly con- 
cealed from view by the surrounding crater-wall. 

About 14 M. from Orvieto a road to the 1. leads to (4% M.) 
Bagnorea , situated on a hill surrounded by ravines , the ancient 
Balneum Regis. The modern village is connected by a narrow 
strip of land with the older Civita , which, owing to the gradual 
erosion of the earth, is threatened with slow but certain destruction. 
The situation of the village is strikingly peculiar and picturesque, 
and especially interesting to geologists. 

A far more interesting route than the above-mentioned is that 
by Bolsena , about 2'/^) M. longer. From the mainroad the tra- 
veller diverges to the r. and descends to the lake, the vast crater 
of an extinct volcano which formed the central point of a wide 
sphere of volcanic agency extending as far as Orvieto. 

The Lake of Bolsena, the ancient Lacus Vulsiniensis, 910 ft. 
above the sea-level , is 28 M. in circumference , and abounds in 
fish (its eels are mentioned by Dante, Purg. 24, 24). Its form is 
circular, and the banks, especially towards the W., are bleak and 
deserted, owing to the malaria, which, confined in the basin of the 
lake, is not easily dispelled by the wind. The monotony of the 
surface is relieved by the two picturesque islands, Bisentina and 
the rocky Martana. On the latter Amalasuntha, Queen of the 
Goths, only daughter of Theodoric the Great , was imprisoned in 
534, and afterwards strangled whilst bathing, by order of her 
cousin Theodatus, whom she had elevated to the rank of co-regent. 
The church in the island of Bisentina (formerly a monastery, now 
private property) was erected by the Farnese family and em- 
bellished by the Caracci. It contains the relics of St. Christina, 
a native of Bolsena. 

Bolsena (Hotel in the Piazza) is a small town situated below 
the Roman Volsinii (birthplace of Sejanus , the favourite of Ti- 
berius), of which fragments of walls, columns etc are still seen. 

to Rome. MONTKFIASCONK G. Route. 35 

It was one of the 12 capitals of the Etruscan League, and after 
various vicissitudes was at length conquered and destroyed by the 
Romans. The spoil is said to have comprised 2000 statues. Its 
wealth has been proved by the discovery, in the vicinity, of nu- 
merous vases, trinkets, statues, etc., among the latter the statue 
of an orator, termed 'l'Arringatore', now in the museum at Florence. 
The present town contains inscriptions , columns , and sculptures 
of the Roman municipiiim which superseded the pjtruscan city. 
The ancient site is reached in a few minutes by an antique cause- 
way of basalt. Among the ruiiis is an amphitheatre, worthy of 
special attention, now converted into a vegetable-garden. Beauti- 
ful views of the lake. 

The triple church of S. Cristina possesses a facade embellished 
with bas-reliefs from an ancient temple , and a sarcophagus with 
the triumph of Bacchus. 

The 'Miracle of Bolsena', the subject of a celebrated picture by Raphael 
in the Vatican , occurred in 1263. A Bohemian priest , who entertained 
doubts respecting transubstantiation , was convinced of the truth of that 
doctrine by the miraculous appearance of drops of blood on the host which 
he had just consecrated. In commemoration of this, Pope Urban IV., then 
present in Orvieto, instituted the festival of Corpus Christi. 

From Bolsena the road ascends on the bank of the lake through 
woods to (6 M.) 

Montefiascone (Aquila Nera, outside the gate) , a town with 
2600 inhab. , situated 1800 ft. above the sea-level. The un- 
completed cathedral of S. Margareta , with octagonal dome , was 
one of the earliest works of Sammieheli. Near the gate , on the 
road to Viterbo, is *S. Flaviano, a structure of 1030, restored by 
Urban IV. in 1262 , in the Gothic combined with the circular 
style. In the subterranean chapel the *tomb of the Canon Jo- 
hannes Fugger of Augsburg, with the inscription : 

Est, Est, Est. Propter nimium est, 
Johannes de Fuc, D. mens, morluus est. 

It is recorded of this ecclesiastic that, when on a journey, he 
directed his valet to precede him and to inscribe the words 
'Est, Est' on the doors of the taverns where the wine was of a 
superior quality. The good canon relished the produce of Monte- 
fiascone so highly that he never got any farther. The best mus- 
catel of the district is still known as Est Est , and may be pro- 
cured for 1 fr. per flask. 

The traveller should not omit to ascend into the town for the 
sake of the magnificent view : N. the lake of Bolsena as far as 
the chain of M. Amiata , E. the IJmbrian Apennines, S. as far 
as the Ciminian forest, W. as far as the sea. The extensive 
plain of ancient Etruria with its numerous villages may be sur- 
veyed from this point ; the conjecture that the celebrated Fanum 


36 Route 6. VITERBO. From Florence 

Voltumnae, the most sacred shrine of the Etrurians , stood here, 
has much in its favour. 

The old high -road from Siena to Rome, little used since the construc- 
tion of the railway to Orvieto, leads by Torrenieri , Radicofani , Acquapen- 
dente, S.Lorenzo, Bolsena, and Montefiascone, where it unites with that above 
described. From Siena to Montefiascone is a distance of 84 M. Monte 
Amiaia is sometimes ascended from Radicofani. Acquapendenle was for- 
merly the papal frontier -town. The route is picturesque, but in other re- 
spects uninteresting. 

From Montefiascone to (14 M.) Viterbo the road traverses the 
somewhat bleak and unattractive plain between the Ciminian 
Forest and the Lake of Bolsena. Midway, near the Osteria della 
Fontanella , a portion of the ancient Via Cassia lies to the r. 
About 2 i J2 M. farther, '/ 4 M, to the 1. of the road, are situated 
the ruins of Ferento, the Etruscan Ferentinum , birthplace of the 
Emperor Otho. In the 11th cent, it was destroyed by the in- 
habitants of Viterbo on account of its heretical tendencies, for the 
Ferentines represented the Saviour on the cross with open eyes, 
instead of closed, as was thought more orthodox. Such at least 
is the account of the chroniclers. Among the extensive mediae- 
val, Roman, and Etruscan remains, a Theatre of a peculiar and 
primitive construction, with subsequent additions, deserves spe- 
cial notice. 

About 2 M. farther is situated Bulkame, a warm sulphureous 
spring, mentioned by Dante (Inferno, 14, 79), still used for baths. 

Viterbo (Tre Re, unpretending, zudAngelo, both in the Piazza), 
situated in the plain on the N. side of the Ciminian Forest, 
1700 ft. above the sea-level, was the central point of the exten- 
sive cession made by the Countess Matilda of Tuscia to the papal 
see , the so-called patrimony of St. Peter, frequently mentioned 
as a residence of the popes, and as the scene of the papal elections 
which took place here in the 13th cent. The town, surrounded 
by ancient Lombard walls and towers, an episcopal residence with 
14,000 inhab., is termed by old Italian authors the 'city of hand- 
some fountains and beautiful women'. The objects of interest 
may, however, be seen in the course of a brief visit. 

The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, occupying the site of a temple 
of Hercules, contains the tombs of the Popes John XXI., Alexan- 
der IV., and Clement IV., a few pictures of little value, etc. At 
the high-altar of this church, in 1279, Count Ouido de Montfort, 
the partisan of Charles of Anjou, assassinated Henry, son of Count 
Richard of Cornwall, King of the Germans and brother of Henry III., 
in order thereby to avenge the death of his father who had fallen 
at the battle of Evesham in 1265 when righting against the latter. 
Dante mentions this deed and places the assassin in the seventli 
region of hell (Inferno 12, 120). In front of the church is the 
spot where in July, 1155, Pope Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Break- 
speare, an Englishman) compelled the Emperor Frederick I. , as 
his vassal, to hold his stirrup. Adjacent is the dilapidated Epii 

to Rome, VITERBO G. Route. 37 

copal Palace of the 13th cent. The hall is shown in which, by 
order of Charles of Anjou, the Conclave assembled in 1271 and 
elected Tebaldo Visconti of Piacenza Pope as Gregory X., and in 
1281 De Brion , a Frenchman , as Martin IV. On the latter 
occasion Charles excited a tumult and caused the roof to be re- 
moved in order to compel the cardinals to proceed with (he election. 
Here, too, is the apartment in which, on May 16th, 1277, 
John XXI., a Portuguese (elected here in 1276), was killed by 
the falling in of the ceiling. 

The church and monastery of <S. Rosa contain the remains 
(a blackened mummy) of that saint , who was born here in the 
13th cent. She urged the people to rise against the Emp. Fre- 
derick II., was expelled by the Ghibellini, and after the death of 
the emperor returned in triumph to Viterbo. 

8. Francesco, a Gothic structure, contains (in the 1. transept) 
a * Descent from the Cross by Sebastiano del Piombo (design by 
Michael Angelo) and (r.) the *Tomb of Adrian V. (de' Fieschi 
of Genoa, elected July 11th, died Aug. 16th, 1276, at Viterbo), 
with recumbent effigy. The church of the Osservanti del Para- 
diso also possesses a picture by Seb. del Piombo, the Scourging, 
and on the exterior a fresco (Madonna and saints) ascribed to 
Leonardo da Vinci. 

S. Maria delta Verith contains a *fresco by Lorenzo di Oiacomo 
of Viterbo ( 1469), representing the Espousals of the Virgin, with 
numerous portraits introduced as characters. 

In front of 8. Angelo in Sparta, a Roman *sarcophagus bears 
an inscription to the memory of the beautiful Oaliana (1138), in 
behalf of whom, like Helen of old, a war was once kindled be- 
tween Rome and Viterbo, in which the latter was victorious. 

In the court of the * Palazzo Pubblico are five large Etruscan 
sarcophagi with figures and inscriptions. The hall of the Acca- 
demia degli Ardenti possesses frescoes by Baldassare Croce, pupil 
of Annibale Caraccl. In the Museum Etruscan and Roman anti- 
quities and paintings; also the 'decree of Pesiderius, king of the 
Lombards', and the Tabula Cibellaria, forgeries of the infamous 
Annius of Viterbo, a Dominican of the monastery outside the 
Porta Romana, who died at Rome in 1502. 

The most remarkable fountains are : Fontanel Grande, begun in 
1206; one in the market-place; that in the Piazza della Rocca, 
of 1566, ascribed to Vignola; and one in the court of the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico. 

The Palazzo 8. Martino , property of the Doria Parnfili , con- 
tains a magnificent staircase 'a cordoni', by which a carriage may 
ascend , and a portrait of the well-known Olympia Maldachini 
Pamfili, sister-in-law of Innocent X., who reigned 1644 — 55. 

From Viterbo a number of remarkably attractive excursions, especially 
interesting to the antiquarian, may be made to the ruins of the surrounding 
Etruscan towns. 

38 Route 6. TOSCANELLA. From Florence 

The farther the traveller deviates from the main route, the more miser- 
able do the. inns become. The principal places can be reached by carriage, 
but some of the excursions must be performed on horseback or on foot. 

The volcanic nature of the district, betokened by the profound ravines 
and fissures of the rock, and the dreary desolation which prevails, combined 
with the proximity of the graves of 2000 years' antiquity, tend to awaken 
a sentiment of awe. 

Castel d'Asso, popularly known as Castcllaccio , 4 3 |4 M. to the W. of 
Viterbo, may be visited by carriage (one-horse carr. there and hack 5 fr., 
fee 1 fr.) or on foot (guide necessary; lights should not be forgotten by 
those who purpose exploring the tombs). Passing the Bulicanie, the roail 
traverses a moor and leads to the valley , which contains a succession of 
Etruscan Tombs, hewn in the rock. The fronts of these arc architecturally 
designed, and bear some resemblance to the rock-tombs of Egypt. The 
numerous inscriptions in an enigmatical language have bidden defiance to 
all the efforts of modern research. On the opposite hill the picturesque 
ruins of a mediaeval castle ; scanty remains of an ancient village, probably 
the Castellum Azia of Cicero. 

The traveller may from this point proceed to Velralla, 9'|2 M. from Vi- 
terbo and communicating with it by diligence, in the vicinity of the Roman 
Forum Cassii. A carriage-road gradually ascends thence to (14 M.) Sulri (p. 39), 
and leads to Rome. On certain days the diligence runs from Viterbo to 
Corneto and Civita Vecchia by Vetralla and M. Romano (comp. p. 11). 

From Vetralla a bridle-path, traversing a bleak moor, leads in l'fe hr. 
to the necropolis of Norchia (with guide), similar to Castel d'Asso, but more 
imposing. Two of the tombs manifest a bias to the Hellenic style. Adja- 
cent are the picturesque ruins of a Lombard church ; in the 9th cent, the 
village was named Orcle } ancient name unknown. 

A similar locality is at Bieda, the ancient Blent, a miserable village, 
4i[a M. from Vetralla, with rock-tombs and two ancient bridges. Scenery 
strikingly grand. 

Toscanella (Inn at the gate), the ancient Tuscania, a small town 14 Jl. 
from Viterbo , reached by the diligence to Corneto 3 times weekly (since 
the completion of the railway it is better to make this excursion from Rome 
via Corneto, sec p. IT). The walls and towers impart a mediaeval aspect to 
the place, which contains two noble Romanesque structures of that epoch: 
■ S. Pietro, on the height, with crypt and antique columns, and on the ex- 
terior fine sculptures. Smaller but even more interesting is ~~S. Maria. Both 
churches now disused. On the hill of S. Pietro stood the ancient citadel. 
Etruscan tombs in the vicinity. 

"Campanarfs small garden, situated in the lower part of the town, em 
bcllished with sarcophagi and other relics, and containing an imitation ofa« 
Etruscan tomb, is an extremely interesting spot. The sarcophagi , with the 
life-size portraits of the deceased framed in the living green, produce a 
profound impression, and the traveller will nowhere acquire a more accu- 
rate idea of the contents ojf an Etruscan tomb than here. Sign. Carlo Cam- 
■panari , as obliging as he is well-informed , has with his father conducted 
many of those extensive excavations which have filled the museums of Eu- 
rope with Etruscan vases, goblets, mirrors, etc. — From Toscanella to 
Corneto 16»|a M. 

Interesting excursions may also be made to the E. into the Valley o/ 
the Tiber. The road to (lli| 2 M.) Bomarzo leads by the Dominican monas- 
tery of the Madonna delta (Inertia, designed by Bramante (l 3 \t M. from Vi- 
terbo, handsome quadrangles worthy of a visit), and Bagnaia with the now 
deserted Villa Lanle, erected by Vignola (1 3 | 4 M. from the monastery; a visil 
to both occupies about 3 hrs.). The route by Ferento (p. 36) and Le Qrottt 
is more interesting and not much longer ; from the latter a guide necessary; 
both routes inaccessible to carriages. 

Bomarzo, a village in a remarkably picturesque situation on a precipi- 
tous rock near the Tiber; opposite to it lay the ancient Polimartwm, vtben 
considerable excavations have been made. From Bomarzo to Orte a beau- 

to Rome. SUTRI. 6. Route. 39 

tiful route of 9'|2 M., on wliich, near Bassano, is situated the small Laghetto 
di Bassano, the Lcccttn Vadimoitis, celebrated in ancient history tor the signal 
victories of the Unmans over the Etruscans, li. C. 309 and 2K3, and described 
by the younger Pliny (Epist. 8, 2U) with its floating islands; at the present 
day, however, it is greatly reduced in extent. 

From Viterbo the ancient Mons Ciminius, nuw usually termed 
Munte di Viterbv , is slowly ascended. The culminating point 
(2673 it.) of the road is attained in l'/ 2 — 2 lira, at the post- 
station I'lmposta ; the summit of the mountain is 3200 ft. above 
the sea-level. These, wooded heights , now clothed with heath 
and brushwood, intermingled occasionally with oaks and chestnuts, 
were regarded as an insuperable barrier for the protection of 
central Etruria, until the Consul Q. Fabius, B. C. 308, success- 
fully traversed them and signally vanquished the Etruscans. The 
road is lonely , and piquets of gensdarmes , who effectually 
watch over the public safety, are encountered at intervals. The 
culminating point commands an admirable *survcy of the plain 
towards the N. , as far as the chain of Cetona and M. Arniata, 
and W. as far as the sea. A more imposing view is soon dis- 
closed , towards the IS., of the vast Campagna di Roma; E. the 
long chain of the Umbrian and Sabine Apennines as far as Pa- 
lestrina and the Alban Mts. ; then the sinuous course of the 
Tiber and the isolated Soractc, and, in clear weather, the dome 
of St. Peter's and the distant Volscian Mts. Beneath lies the 
small Layo di Vino, the Lacus Ciminius (1486 ft.), the E. bank 
of which the road skirts , of circular form , surrounded by wood, 
and doubtless an extinct crater (similar to the Laacher See in 
the Rhenish Province of Prussia). This entire range is of vol- 
canic origin. In the centre of the ancient crater rises the beau- 
tifully wooded Monte Venere. According to a tradition of antiquity 
a town, overwhelmed by the lake , may be distinguished beneath 
the surface. 

Midway between I'lmposta and Konciglione a path to the 1. leads through 
a beautiful wood to (1>| 2 M.) the chateau of Caprarola, of pentagonal form, 
surrounded by a rampart and fosse , erected by Vignola for Cardinal 
Alexander Farnese, nephew tjf Paul III. (1534 — 49). The saloons and other 
apartments are adorned with frescoes, representations from the history of 
the Farnese family, allegories, etc., by Federigo , Oltaviano and Taddeo Zuc- 
chero, Tempcsla, and Vignola. A magnificent prospect is enjoyed from the 
upper terrace of the PttUi:ziwlo, a tasteful structure (by Vignola) situated in 
the grounds. 

Beyond the Lago di Vico, with its miserable village, the tra- 
veller soon reaches Uonciylione (Posta , Aquila Nera , both good), 
a beautifully situated little town, with ruined castle on the height 
(1300 ft.), on the verge of the extensive Campagna di Roma, 
a plain which stretches hence S. to the promontory of Circeii near 
Terracina, E. to the Sabine Apennines, and W. as far as the sea. 

From Ronciglione to Monterosi by the main road is a distance 
of 8 M., by Sutri V/ 4 M. farther. 

Sutri, the ancient. Etruscan Sutrium, frequently mentioned in the papes 
of history as the ally of Rome in the wars against the Etruscans, from 

40 Ro-uU (I. LA STOUT A. 

whom it was wrested by Camillus, B. C. 365 (Clamtra Etruriae), converted 
into a Roman colony in 383, is most picturesquely situated on an isolated 
volcanic ridge. The deep ravine contains numerous Etruscan tombs , and, 
on the S. side, fragments of the ancient walls. Of the 5 gates 3 are an- 
cient, two towards the S., and the Porta Furia on the N. side (said to be 
so named because once entered by M. Furius Camillus), now closed by 
masonry. Outside the Porta Komana at the foot of an eminence , near the 
Villa Savonelli and shaded by dense forest, is situated an admirably pre- 
served "Amphitheatre, hewn in the rock, dating from Augustus, erroneously 
regarded by some as Etruscan. The rocks above contain numerous tomb- 
chambers, one of which has been converted into a ''church, where, accor- 
ding to the various local traditions, the early Christians celebrated divine 
service. A legend attaching to the Grotla (T Orlando, near the town, describes 
it as the birthplace of the celebrated paladin of Charlemagne. 

A bridle-path leads in '2 hrs. from Sutri to the Lake of Bracciano and 
Trerignano (p. 297). 

The road from Monterosi to Home (28 M.) is almost entirely 
coincident with the ancient Via Cassia, which led by Sutri, Bol- 
sena, and Chiusi to Florence. Sette Vene, an *inn 3 M. beyond 
Monterosi, is recommended in preference to the latter as a halt- 
ing-place. About 3 M. farther the brink of the crater is attained 
in which the somewhat unhealthy 'village of Baccano (*Posta) lies ; 
in the vicinity a mephitio pond, to the W. the two small lakes 
of Martignano (Lacus Alsietinus) and Stracriacappa. Traces of 
ancient drains (emissarii) are distinguished on the 1. side of the 
road. Immediately beyond Baccano the road ascends and traverses 
the S. extremity of the crater, whence (better from one of the 
hills to the 1.) in favourable weather a beautiful panorama of 
Rome and its environs is enjoyed. E. the chain of the Umbrian 
and Sabine Apennines, snow-clad in winter and spring, the Tiber 
winding through the plain ; from a lower point of the road appeals 
the summit of Monte Oennaro, the ancient Lucretilis (comp., how- 
ever, p. 291), at its base the eminences of Monticelli and Sant' 
Angelo; more towards the S., the opening whence the A nio issues, 
with Tivoli, and still more distant the precipitous rocks on which 
Palestrina, the ancient Pneneste, stands. The broad plain of the 
valley of the Liris extends between the Apennines and the Volscian 
range. Nearer the spectator are the Alban Mts., now Monte Cavo, 
and the towns of Frascati, Marino, and Castel Gandolfo. The dome 
of St. Peter's, appearing above the low ridge of Monte Mario, is 
now all that is visible of Home. 

The road descends gradually to the Osteria del Fosso , on the 
verge of a ravine through which a branch of the Cremera (now 
Valchetta) flows , a river celebrated as the scene of the defeat of 
the three hundred Fabians by the Veientines, July llith, B. C. 477. 
The mountain-slope , which is skirted on the ]., was the site of 
Veil, once the rival of Home, conquered at length by Camillus in 
390. The precise position which it occupied is not visible from 
this side (see p. 294). 

La Storta, last post-station before Rome is reached. The Cam- 
pagna retains its bleak aspect, relieved only by an occasional 

PONTE MOLLK. fi Tionlr. 41 

dilapidated tower of the middle ages , the remains of a Roman 
tomb or a miserable farm-house, and betrays no symptom of the 
proximity of the ancient capital of the world, until after an angle 
at the 7th milestone the dome of St. Peter's and the castle of 
S. Angelo become distinctly visible. To the r. Monte Mario, 
clothed with cypresses; opposite the traveller the heights of Frascati 
and Albano, to the 1. the plain of the Tiber, beyond it the Sabine 
Mts. Between the 4th and 5th milestones, to the r. of the road, 
on a dilapidated basement, stands a sarcophagus with a long in- 
scription, commonly termed , although without the slightest foun- 
dation, the Tomb of New ; for the inscription (at the back, facing 
the line of the ancient road) expressly records that it was erected 
by Vihiu Maria Maxima (probably about the close of the 2nd cent. 
after Christ) to the memory of her father P. Vibius Marianus and 
her mother Regina Maxima. 

The pleasant valley of the Acqua Traversa (ancient Tuliri), 
in which Hannibal encamped when retreating from Rome, is now 
entered, a height witli villas and farm-houses is traversed, and the 
traveller descends to the tawny Tiber. The river is crossed by 
the Ponte Molle , which occupies the site of the ancient Pons 
Milvius, or Mulvius, constructed B. ('. 109 by the Censor M. Mm\- 
lius Soaurus. Here, in the night of Dec. 3rd, B. C. 63, Cicero 
caused the emissaries of the Allobrogi, who were in league with 
Catiline, to be captured. Here, too, Oct. 27th, A. D. 312, Maxentius, 
who had been defeated at Saxa Rubra by Constantine under the 
auspices of the labarum or sign of the cross, was thrown into 
the river and drowned. The present bridge was almost entirely 
rebuilt in 1815 under Pius VII., and embellished with statues of 
Christ and John the Baptist by Mocchi, and a species of triumphal 
arch. In May, 1840, one of the arches was blown up, but shortly 
afterwards restored. Beyond the bridge, on the 1., stands a chapel 
erected by Pius II. on the spot where he met the procession with 
the head of St. Andrew, which was brought from the Peloponnesus 
in 1462. The load, now straight and tedious, and enclosed by 
garden - walls , leads to the Porta del Popolo. Arrival in Rome, 
p. 83. 

7. From Siena to Perugia (and Rome) by Chiusi. 

This is a favourite land-route between Florence and Rome, as it com- 
bines Siena (and Orvieto, compare p. S'i, R. 6) with Perugia and a tour 
through TJmbria (R. 8). It is necessary to perform part of this route by di- 
ligence, but the traveller has the advantage of visiting the most interesting 
towns uf Central Italy. The country is admirably cultivated and produces 
a very different impression from the bleak and melancholy route from Or- 
vieto tu Rome. Inns generally good. 

On the arrival of the train from Siena and Florence at Chiusi a dili- 
gence starts from the stat. at 1. 25. p. m. for Perugia, arriving there in 
7 hrs. and departing again on the following morning. When necessary two 
diligences run daily (enquiry should be made at the railway-station at Siena). 


Fares: interim 8, coupe 9 IV. ; 35 lbs. of luggage free; for overweight 15 c. 
per lb. 

Ascending from the, valley of the Chiana, the traveller reaches 
(1 hr.) Citt& della Pieve, where horses are changed, a loftily 
situated town (1800 ft.) , birthplace of Pietro Vannucci in 1446, 
surnaraed Perugiiio because he afterwards became the founder of 
a new school of painting at Perugia. He was the master of 
Raphael, and died at Perugia in 1524. His native place possesses 
some of his finest works. Thus in the oratory de Disciplinati, or 
S. Maria dei Bianchi , the * Adoration of the Magi. Two letters 
from the artist at Perugia are shown relative to the price of this 
fresco, reducing it from 200 to 75 ducats. The remains of the 
Crucifixion, another fresco by Perugiiio, are still seen in the 
church of the Servites f outside the gate, towards Orvieto); in the 
cathedral (interior modernised) the Baptism (1st chap. 1.) and 
"'Madonna with saints (Peter, Paul, Gervasius, and Protasius) in 
the choir, date 1513. In the church of S. Antonio a picture of 
St. Antony with S. Paulus Eremita and S. Marcellus, all by 
Pietro Peruyino. 

The road intersects the chain of hills which separate the 
Chiana Valley from the Tiber, passes through extensive woods, and 
commands fine views of the Chiana Valley, and, in some places, 
of the Trasimcne Lake towards the N. At the small village of 
Tavernelle (midway) horses are again changed. To the I. on the 
height is the much-frequented shrine of the Madonna di Mongio- 
vino. With the aid of auxiliary oxen the diligence slowly ascends 
to Perugia. 

A far more picturesque route from Sinalunga by Cortona and 
the Trasimcne Lake to Perugia requires an additional half-day, 
see p. 49. 

Perugia, and thence by Spolcto to Rome, see pp. 55and follg. 

8. From Florence to Rome by Arezzo, Perugia, 
and Foligno. 

This is the most interesting, and since ttie completion of the railway, 
the shortest and cheapest route from Florence to Rome. If the traveller 
desire to visit the principal points, 4—5 days are required: 1st, Arezzo and 
Curluna; 2nd, Perugia; 3rd, Assisi and Spolelo; 4th, Terni and the water- 
falls , in the evening to livmc ; but this is reckoning very closely , and 
Spello and Foligno are passed by. — From Florence to Rome two trains 
daily (express starts in the night.) in 12—16 hours; fares 39 fr. 90, 31 fr., 
22 fr. 70 c. 

Prom Florence to Arezzo and Cortona. 

Railway to Arezzo in 3'| 2 (express 2'1'a) hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 70, 7 fr. 15, 
and 5 fr. 55 c. ; to Cortona (from Florence) in 4'J 2 hrs. ; fares 11 fr. 50, 9 h. 
40, and 7 fr. 35 c. Those who wisli to see Arezzo and Cortona and arrive 
at Perugia in one day, bad better leave in the afternoon or evening for 
Arezzo and there pass the night. 

MONTEVARCHI. 8. Route. 43 

From the central station near S. Maria Novella the train 
describes a circuit round the town to the Porta S. ('voce, where 
travellers who reside in that neighbourhood may join it. The 
line intersects the valley of Florence on the N. bank of the Arno; 
the valley contracts; Fiesole to the 1. on the height long remains 
visible. Stat. Compiobbi. The surrounding heights are barren, 
the slopes and valley well cultivated; to the 1. is seen the 
mountain chain of the Pratomagiio , on which the monastery of 
Vallonibrosa lies, and which bounds the upper valley of the Arno. 
Stat. Pontassieve, at the influx of the Sieve into the Arno. From 
the valley of the Sieve mountain-passes cross the Apennines to 
Korli and Faenza. From this point Vallonibrosa and the Casentino, 
or upper valley of the Arno, are usually visited. In crossing the 
Sieve the train commands a beautiful glimpse of the valley to the 
1. ; farther on a small tunnel is passed through. The line crosses 
to the 1. bank of the Arno; beautiful view to the r. and 1. as 
the bridge is crossed. The valley contracts. To the r. stat. Rignano. 
The fortress of Incisa is a conspicuous object from a distance. 
The train passes through another tunnel and reaches (r.) stat. 
Incisa. Here the river forces its way through the limestone rock, 
whence the name of the village. On the r. stat. Fiyline. In the 
environs, and also near Montevarchi and in the plain of Arezzo, 
bones of the elephant, rhinoceros, mastodon, hippopotamus, hyaina, 
tiger, bear, etc. have frequently been discovered, often erroneously 
believed to be remains of Carthaginian elephants of (he train of 
Hannibal. Collections at Florence and Arezzo. 

Stat. S. Giovanni, a small town to the 1., where in 1402 the 
celebrated painter Masaccio was born (d. at Florence, 1443); 
also Giovanni da 8. Giovanni, one of the best fresco-painters of 
the 17th cent. Pictures by the latter in the Cathedral : Beheading 
of John the Baptist, Annunciation, etc. The chapel to the r. of 
the high-altar in the church of S. Lorenzo contains a Madonna 
formerly attributed to Masaccio. 

To the 1. stat. Montevarchi (Locanda dTtalia , in the main 
street , Per gli Ortaggi ; names of streets here always introduced 
by 'per') , a small town with 9500 inhab. The loggia of the 
principal church in the piazza is embellished with a richly sculp- 
tured terracotta-relief by delta Robbia. Opposite is the house ol 
Benedetto Varchi, the Florentine historian and independent favou- 
rite of Cosmo. 

Views as far as Arezzo on the left. The train ascends, pass- 
ing through four tunnels, to stat. Ducine ; the village is close to 
the line on the r. Four more tunnels in rapid succession ; r. 
and 1. large embankments , often supported by walls. Stations 
Laterina and Ponticino, beyond which the train gradually ascends 
to the level of Arezzo, visible to the 1. from a distance. 

Arezzo (Inyhilterra, Victoria, both in the Via Cavour, li. 

44 Route ft. ARKZZO. From Florence 

'2— 2i/ 2 fr. ; Cafe. Italia, Corset ; del Conslanli, Via Cavour), the 
ancient Arretium , the seat of a bishop and a prefect , is a clean 
and pleasant town with 10,000 inhab. , in a beautiful and fertile 
district, abounding in historical reminiscences. 

Arretium was one of the most powerful of the 1'2 confederate cities of 
Etruria, and (like Cortona and Perusia) concluded peace with the Romans 
in the great war of 1'.. C. 310, after which it continued to be an ally (if 
Rome. In 187 the Consul C. Flaminius cnnslructed the Via Flaminia from 
Arretium to tSononia (Bologna), of which traces are still distinguishable. In 
the civil war Arretium was destroyed by Sulla, hut was subsequently colo- 
nised (C'olonia Fidens Julia Arretium) and agidn prospered. Its manufactures 
were red earthenware vases of superior quality, and weapons. The town 
suffered greatly from the Goths and the Lombards, and at a later date from 
the party - struggles of the Guelphs and Ghibellines. In the 14th cent, it 
was for a time subjected to the dominion of the Tarlati, in 1337 tempora- 
rily, and in the 16th cent, under Cosmo 1. finally to that of Florence. In 
1799 an insurrection against the French broke out here, which was sangui- 
narily avenged. 

Here C. Vilnius Mtxcenas, the friend of Augustus and patron of Virgil 
and Horace, scion of the ancient ami originally royal family of the Cilnii, 
was born; also Petrarch, Vasari, Cexa/pini the botanist, Spinello Aretino the 
painter, Pielro Aretino the satirist, (litido Artlino founder of the modern 
school of music, Leonardo Areliuo historian of Florence , Margarilone pain- 
ter and sculptor of the 13th cent., Count Vitlorio Fossombrone the statesman, 
and Pielro lienvenuli, painter of the chapel of the Medicis at Florence. 

Leaving the station , the traveller follows a broad new street 
leading to the Via Cavour. Turning to the r. in the latter, he 
soon reaches a small open space adorned with a Monument to 
Count Fossombrone (p. 46). Here , too , is situated the church 
of S. Francesco, decorated with frescoes by Pielro delta Francesca 
and Spinello Aretino (the latter recently discovered under white- 
wash). The Via Cavour forms a right angle with the Torso 
VUtorio Emanuele , the principal street, which ascends from the 
gate to the cathedral-square. Ascending this street, the visitor 
perceives to the r. the interesting church of 

*S. Maria delta Pieve, said to have been erected at the com- 
mencement of the 9th cent, on the site of a temple of Racchus; 
tower and facade of 1216. The latter is very peculiar, consisting 
of 4 series of columns, distributed with extraordinary incongruity. 
Ancient sculptures over (he door. The interior, now undergoing 
restoration, consists of a nave and two aisles and a dome. Above 
the high-altar * St. George by Vasari ; r. an altar-piece by Pietro 
Laurati in sections, Madonna surrounded by saints; both of these 
are temporarily placed in the liadia. 

Higher in the street, 1. is the Palazzo Pubblico of 1332, sadly 
modernised ; in front numerous armorial bearings of the ancient 
Podesta. It now serves as a piison. 

Somewhat farther the Via dell' Orlo diverges to the 1. , near 
the entrance to which a long inscription indicates the house in 
which Francesco Petrarca was born, July 20th, 1304. His parents, 
like Dante, the victims of a faction, were expelled from Florence. 
The visitor now proceeds to the not far distant 

to Rome. AREZZO. 8. Route. 45 

* Cathedral, a fine specimen of Italian Gotbic, begun in 1177, 
with additions of 1290 ; facade unfinished. The interior contains 
stained glass * windows, dating from the beginning of the 16th 
cent., by Guillaume de Marseille; the middle window in the choir 
is modern. In the r. aisle is the* Tomb of Gregory X., of 1276, 
by Maryaritone. This indefatigable prelate expired at Arezzo, 
Jan. 10th, 1276, whilst returning from France to Rome, after 
having proclaimed a new crusade. On the high-altar marble 
sculptures by Giovanni da Pisa of 1286: Madonna with St. Donatus 
and Gregory, and bas-reliefs from their lives. In the 1. aisle is 
the tomb of the poet and physician Hedi (d. 1698). Near it is 
the chapel of the Madonna del Soccorsu with two altars of the 
llobbia school. Farther on, the *Tomb of Guide Tarlati di Pietra- 
mala, the warlike bishop of Arezzo, the work of Ayostino and 
Aynolo da Siena about 1330, from the design of Giotto, as Vasari 
conjectures, in 16 sections, representing the life of this am- 
bitious and energetic prelate, who, having been elected governor 
of the town in 1321, soon distinguished himself as a conqueror, 
and afterwards crowned the Emperor Louis the Bavarian in the 
church of S. Ambrogio at Milan. These events, as well as his 
death in 1327, are all represented here. 

In front of the cathedral , the marble statue of Ferdinand de 
Medicis, by Giovanni da Bologna, erected in 1595. In the cathe- 
dral-square (No. 1) is the Palazzo Comunale, adorned with nume- 
rous armorial bearings. 

Opposite the Palazzo Pubblico a street, containing the Loggie 
erected by Vasari , soon leads to the Piazza. In the centre a 
monument to Ferdinand III., erected in 1832. Contiguous to the 
tribune of S. Maria della Pieve is the * Museum, in the cloister 
of the Fraternitu della Misericordia, with handsome facade in the 
Gothic style, of the 14th cent. On the first floor the museum 
and library. It closed, visitors ring for the custodian at the door 
opposite the entrance. 

1,'sjt and 2jnd Rooms. Minerals and fossils ; among them a stag's-head 
found in the Uliiana Valley not far from Arezzo. 3rd Room. By the wall 
of the entrance antique and modern bronzes. R. wall : Roman inscriptions 
and reliefs. On the wall of egress: antique utensils in bronze. In the cen- 
tre : ,: mediseval and antique saals. 4th Room: majolicas, in the centre an 
antique vase, Combat of Hercules and the Amazons. In the cabinets, cine- 
rary urns and other vessels in red clay (vasa Arretina). 5th Room: 
Etruscan cinerary urns. In the centre several antique vases; on one of 
them the 'abduction of Hippodamia by Pulops. 

At the extremity of the Corso , near the gate , the Via dell' 
Anliteatro leads to the church of S. Bernardo; in the sacristy a 
fresco by Spinello. From the corridor to the 1. are seen in the 
garden the insignificant remnants of a Roman amphitheatre. 

Some of the other churches also possess objects of interest, 
as L'Annunziata , a fresco by Spinello Aretino , over one of the 
doors ; S. Bartolornmeo, a fresco by Jacopo da Casentino ; S. Do- 

46 Route 8. CORTONA. From Florence 

menico , white-washed frescoes by Spinello; the monastery della 
Croce , a * Madonna by Luca Signorelli; in the refectory of the 
Badia di 8. Flora, in the Via Cavour, the Banquet of Ahasuerus 
by Vasari. 

In the Strada S. Vito (No. 27) is the House of Vasari, in its 
original condition, containing works by the master. 

Beyond Arezzo (to the r. a beautiful retrospect of the town, 
from which the cathedral rises picturesquely) the line, as well as 
the highroad, skirts the chain of hills which separate the valleys 
of the Arno and Chiana from the upper valley of the Tiber. Pass- 
ing through a tunnel, the train crosses the plain in a straight 
direction to stat. Frassinetlo and Castelfiorentino , the latter si- 
tuated on a mountain ridge ; farther on , the dilapidated fortress 
of Montecchio is seen to the 1. Somewhat farther Cortona becomes 
visible to the 1. in the distance, loftily situated on an olive-clad 

The luxuriant and richly cultivated Valley of the Chiana , at 
a remote period a lake, was until the middle of the last century 
a noisome swamp. The level was raised and carefully drained, 
the brooks being so directed as to deposit their alluvial soil in 
the bottom of the valley. This judieions system was originated 
by Torricelli and Viviani, celebrated mathematicians of the school 
of Galileo , and carried out by the worthy Count Fossombrone, 
who combined the pursuits of a scholar with those of a statesman. 
The Chiana, Lat. Clanis, which once flowed into the Tiber, now 
falls into the Arno. 

Cortona (*Albergo della Stella , to the 1. at the entrance to 
the town , clean ; Casa Nuti ; omnibus from the station to the 
town 1 fr. each pers.), a small, loftily situated town, above the 
Valle di Chiana and not far from the Trasimene Lake, commanding 
a beautiful view of both, is one of the most ancient cities of Italy. 
It appears that the Etruscans, immigrating from the plain of the 
Po, wrested the place from the Umbrians, and constituted it their 
principal stronghold when they proceeded to extend their conquests 
in Etruria. Cortona was one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria, 
and with them shared the fate of being converted into a Roman 
colony. After various vicissitudes and 'struggles it came under the 
dominion of Florence in 1410. Among the artists of whom Cor- 
tona boasts may be mentioned Luca Signorelli (b. 1439, d. at Flo- 
rence in 1521), and Pietro Berettini , surnamed Pietro da Cor- 
tona (b. 1596, d. at Rome 1669). 

The ascent from the inn at Camuscia occupies upwards of 
% hr. (pedestrians follow the old road which intersects the carriage- 
road several times); the road passes 8. Spirito on the r. and leads 
to the low-lying S, gate of the town ; thou a long and straight 
street; to the 1. 5. Agoslino, with a picture by Pietro da Cortona; 
farther on, a handsome palazzo of the Kith cent , now the Guar- 

to Rome CORTONA «. Route, 47 

dia Nazionale ; the Piazza with the Municipio is then entered. 
To the 1. lies the small square of the Palazzo Pretorio, in which 
there is an ancient mazocco. On the first floor of the Palazzo 
Pretorio the Accademia Etrusca, founded in 1726, possesses a 

* Museum of Etruscan Antiquities (gratuity), the principal orna- 
ment of which is an Etruscan * candelabrum (lampadario), circular 
iu form, and destined for 16 lights; on the lower side in the 
centre a Gorgoneion, around which a combat of wild beasts, then 
waves with dolphins , finally 8 ithyphallic satyrs alternately with 
IS sirens , between each lamp a head of Bacchus. An encaustic 
painting on lavagna-stone, 'Polyhymnia 1 , said to be ancient. Re- 
markable Etruscan bronzes, a votive hand with numerous symbols, 
vases, urns, inscriptions, etc. The Ponbuni Library, in the same 
building, possesses a fine MS. of Dante. 

From the Palazzo Pretorio the street to the 1. descends to the 

* Cathedral , a handsome basilica , ascribed to Antonio da San 
Gallo, altered in the 18th cent, by the Florentine Galilei. In 
the choir a Descent from the Cross, and ^Institution of the 
Last Supper, by Luca Signorelli. To the 1. of the choir a Greek 
sarcophagus , representing the contest of Dionysius against the 
Amazons , erroneously supposed to be the tomb of the ill-fated 
Consul Flaminius (p. 48). — Opposite to the cathedral is the 

* Church of the Jesuits (al Gesu) , containing two pictures by 
Luca Signorelli , the Conception and Nativity, and three by Fra 
Angelico da Fiesole, the Annunciation and *t\vo 'predelle', repre- 
senting scenes from the life of the Virgin and S. Domenico. 

From the Piazza del Municipio the street leads direct to 

S. Domenico, dating from the beginning of the 13th cent. ; on 
the 1. wall an altar-piece, the Coronation of the Virgin by Lorenzo 
di Niccolb (1440), presented by Cosmo and Lorenzo de Medicis ; 
r. near the high-altar a *Madonna with four saints and angels 
by Fra Angelico. 

Somewhat higher in the street is the Compagnia S. Niccolb, 
containing a restored fresco , Madonna and saints, and an * altar- 
piece, the Body of Christ with angels and saints, by Luca Signorelli. 

Having explored the town with its precipitous streets , the 
visitor may ascend to the * church and monastery of S. Margherita, 
a Gothic structure by Nicola and Giovanni Pisano, commanding a 
line *vie\v, especially from under the cypresses in the garden. 
The *Tomb of the saint (in the high-altar) is of the 13th cent.; 
the silver front with the golden crown a gift of Pietro da Cortona. 
Among the pictures the following merit inspection : Dead Saviour, 
by Luca Signorelli; S. Catharina, by Fed. liaroccio ; Conception, 
with saints, by Vanni; Madonna and saints, by Jacopo da Empoli. 
The visitor should not omit to ascend somewhat higher to the 
dilapidated Fortezza (trifle to the porter), from the walls of which 
the view is completely uninterrupted , except in the rear, where 

48 Route 8. LAGO TRASIMENO. From Florence 

it is bounded only by the mountain-chain, — a most noble pro- 

In returning, the archaeologist may inspect the ancient Etrus- 
can * Town Walls , composed of huge blocks , for the most part 
well preserved. Even the gates may still be distinguished. Be- 
sides these, there are several less interesting objects: ancient vault 
beneath the Palazzo Cecchetti; near S. Margherita remains ol ' Bo- 
man Baths, erroneously termed a 'Temple of Bacchus' ; outside the 
gate of S. Agostino an Etruscan tomb, the 'Grotta di Pitayora . 

The connoisseur of art may (by presenting a visiting-card or 
passport) possibly procure access to the private collection of Sign. 
Ulisse Colonnese in the Palazzo Madama, near the Municipio (p. 47): 
beautiful half-length picture of St. Stephen and a Nativity by 
Luca S'njnorelli, a picture of the German school, and two Italian 
of the 15th cent. 

From Cortona to Peruyia. 

Railway in li| 2 hr. ; fares 4 fr. SO, 3 fr. 90, and 3 l'r. 10 c. 

The train leaves Cortona , and in i j i hr. reaches stat. Bor- 
yhetto-Tuoro on the 

Lago Trasimeno, the ancient Lacus Trasimenus. The lake is 
30 M. in circumference, and in some places 8 M. in breadth, 
surrounded by wooded and olive-clad slopes, which as they recede 
rise to a considerable height. The lake contains three small 
islands , lsola Muygiore with a monastery , Isola Minore near 
Passignano , and lsola Polvese towards the S. ; on the W. side 
an eminence abuts on the lake, bearing the small Castiylione del 
Lago. Its shores abound with wild-fowl , and its waters with 
fish (eels, carp, etc.). The brooks which discharge themselves 
into the lake gradually raise its bed. The greatest depth, formerly 
30 — 40 ft. , is now 20 ft. only. A drain (emissarius) in tlie 
15th cent, conducted the water into a tributary of the Tiber, 
In ancient times the extent of the lake appears to have been 
less considerable. A project for draining it entirely is at present 
zealously canvassed. 

The reminiscence of the sanguinary victory which (June 23rd , B. C. 
217) Hannibal here gained over the Roman consul C. Flaminius imparts a 
tinge of gloom to this lovely landscape. It is a matter of no great diffi- 
culty to reconcile the descriptions of Livy (22, 4 et seqq.) and Polybius (3, 
83 ct seqq.) with the present aspect of the lake. In the spring of 217 Han- 
nibal quitted his winter-quarters in Gallia Cisalpina, crossed the Apennines, 
marched across the plains of the Arnus, notwithstanding an inundation, de- 
vastating the country far and wide , and directed his course towards the 
S-, passing the Roman army stationed at Arezzo. The brave and able con- 
sul followed incautiously- Hannibal then occupied the heights which sur- 
round the defile extending on the N. side of the lake from Borghetto to 
Passignano, upwards of 5 M. in length. The entrance at Borghetto, as well 
as the issue at Passignano, were easily secured. Upon a hill in the centre 
(site i if the present Torre) his principal force was posted. A dense fog cover- 
ed the lake and plain, when in the early morning the consul , ignorant of 
the plan of his enemy whom he believed to be marching against Rome, 

to Rome. PERUGIA. 8. Route. 49 

entered the filial defile. When he discovered his error, it was too late: his 
entire 1. flank was exposed, whilst his rear was attacked hy the hostile ca- 
valry from lloiguetto. No course remained to him hut to force a passage 
by Passignano, and the vanguard of UUHJ men succeeded in effecting their 
tigress (1ml on tin-' following day were compelled to surrender). The death 
of the consul rendered the slill more disastrous. The Komans lost 
I5,t)00 men, whilst the remaining half of the army was effectually dispers- 
ed ; and the Roman supremacy in Italy began to totter. The slaughter con- 
tinued for three hours. From Ihe Gualandro two small brooks fall into the 
lake. One of these, crossed by the road, has received its appellation San- 
'j,ninetlo in reminiscence of the streams of tdooil which once Mowed into the 
lake here. 

The line skirts the lake, passes through a tunnel, and at stat. 
I'litsiijnano reaches the issue of the defile where the battle took 
place; it again passes through a short and a long tunnel, and ar- 
lives at stat. Mayione , a borough with an ancient watch-tower 
ol' the period of Fortebraceio and f-iforza. The line once more 
passes through a long tunnel and reaches stat. Ellera. On the J. 
Perugia is visible, picturesquely situated on the heights. 

Perugia. Omnibus from the railway-station to the town 1 fr. , gene- 
rally well-filled; so no time should be lost in securing a seat. : Alhergo 
del la Posta (PI. a), or Grande Pretagne, a tew paces from the dili- 
;:< ncc-office, li. 3 fr. and upwards, J). 3'|a, A. i|», L. '|» fr. ; accommodation 
not always to he had without previous notice. — ; Alhergo del Trasi- 
iiirnn (PI. f|. lately removed to Via ilei < ablerari , Piazza del Sopramuro, 
of the 2nd cl.', P.. 2. lb 'Ji| 2 fr. ; Corona (PI. d) , not far from the Corso, 
with tolerable accommodation, 11. l'| 2 fr. — Trattoria del Progresso, Via 
Nuova 31-, several others in the Corso. Cafes: * Baduel (PI. e) , Tra- 
.<i/nrito, both in the Corso. (Siovanin Saih-hi is recommended as a valet- 
de-placc, amateurs however are cautioned against purchasing his 'antiqui- 
ties'. Perugia is well adapted for a stay of some duration; apartments mo- 
derate, 2 rooms well situated about 30 Ir. per month. 

Diligences (Office, Corso oS(: To C/iiitsi (p. 31) daily at 5 a. m. , fare 
.S fr., coupe fr. To Vitlit di i.'aslello (p. 55) daily at S a. in. To Gulibio 
tp. 7fi), route ol 26 M. through a bleak, but not uninteresting hilly district ; 
corriiTe daily, diligence twice weekly. 

I'truijiit , beautifully situated mi the heights (1600 ft.) above 
the valley of the Tiber, commanding extensive views, capital of the 
prmince of Unibria , and residence of the prefect and a military 
commandant, is built in an antiquated style, and consists of two 
distinct portions : the upper part of the town , with numerous 
palaces of the 1-tth and loth centuries, the Corso, cathedral, etc.. 
above which rises the foit, destroyed in 1848 arid 1859; and tin- 
lower town connected by walks witli the upper. The town, with 
a, population of 10,1)00, boasts of a bishop, a university, numerous 
monasteries and churclie-, and a considerable traffic 

Perusia was one of the 12 Etruscan confederate cities, and not, less an- 
cient than Corlona , with which and Arretium it fell into the hands of the 
humans, li. C. 31(1. It subst'qiiently became a inunicipium. In the war 
Ixluccn Oitavianus and Antony, who in the summer of 41 occupied Pe- 
rusia, and alter an obstinate struggle was compelled by the former to sur- 
render (helium I't iiisinnm), the town suffered severely, and was finally re- 
duced tu ashes. It was subsequently rebuilt and became a Human colony 
under the name of Augusta Pertma. lu the 6lh cent, it was destroyed by 
the Culh Tolila alter a siege of 7 years. In the wars of the Lombards, 
Cuelphs, and Chitiellihes it also suffered greatly; in the 11th cent, it acquired 

B.tUKK h 

50 Route 8. PERUU1A. trvm Florence 

the supremacy over nearly the whole of Umbria, but in 1370 was compelled 
to surrender to the pope. Renewed struggles followed, owing to the con- 
flicts between the powerful families of Oddi and Baglioni. In 1416 the 
shrewd and courageous Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone usurped the su- 
preme power, whence new contests arose, until at length Giovanni Paolo 
Baglioni surrendered to Pope Julius II. Leo X. caused him to be executed 
at Borne in 1520. In 1450 Paul III. erected the citadel , l ad coercendam 
Perusiuonim audaciam\ as the inscription, destroyed during the last revo- 
lution, recorded. In 1708 the town was captured by the Duke of Savoy, on 
May 31st, 1S49, by the Austrians, and in 18G0 by the Piedmontese. 

The Umbrian School of Painliny, whose works are most numerously en- 
countered at Perugia, developed itself under the influence of the new phase 
of religious life which emanated from Assisi, unaffected by the realistic ten- 
dency of the Florentines, lievery, longing, and profound devotion are the 
characteristics which they most successfully represent, and which repea- 
tedly recur. This was the case even with the older masters whose pro- 
ductions were more original, as Gentile da Fabriano, Benedetto Bonfigli, 
Giovanni Santi, Raphael's father, and Mccold Alunno da Foligno. This 
bias of art attained its climax in Pietro Vannucci of Citta della Pieve 
(p. 42), surnamed II Perugino, who, though a pupil of Bonfigli, was entirely 
devoted to the Florentine style whilst resident at Florence , but after his 
removal to Perugia followed the Umbrian tendency, to which he thence- 
forth systematically adhered. Next to Perugino in importance ranks Ber- 
nardino Pinturicchio (1454 — 1512), then the Spaniard Giovanni, surnamed Lo 
Xpagna. Other pupils of the great Umbrian master were Giannicola, Tiberio 
d'Assisi, Adone Doni, Eusebio di S. Giorgio, the two Alfani, and Raphael. 

On the site of the former Citadel rises an extensive new 
building, which is about to be fitted up as a Palazzo Comunale. 
The piazza in front of it commands a magnificent prospect, em- 
bracing the Umbrian valley (or valley of Foligno) with Assisi, 
Spello, Foligno, Trevi, and numerous other villages, bounded by 
the principal chain of the Apennines from Gubbio onwards; then 
the Tiber and a portion of Perugia. By the citadel is an ancient 
gateway with interesting sculptures , bearing the inscription Co- 
lonin Vibia; underneath, Augusta Perusia was formerly inscribed, 
but removed on the construction of the citadel. 

In the Corso is the *Palazzo Comunale (PI. 12), 1282—1333, 
an Ital. Gothic structure , marred by modern alterations , with a 
handsome entrance adorned with the arms of the confederate 
towns. In the group of animals over the principal entrance (No. 118) 
the griffin represents Perugia, and the wolf overcome by it Siena. 
Passing through the principal gate , and ascending to the third 
story, the visitor reaches (1.) the Sala della Prefettura, decorated 
with damaged frescoes from the history of St. Herculanus and 
St. Louis of Toulouse , by Bonfigli. On the ground-floor is the 
*Sala del Cambio (exchange, now disused; custodian, to be found 
at No. 103 in the Corso, fee i / 2 fr., best light in the morning), 
adorned with frescoes by Pietro Perugino : r. sibyls and prophets ; 
above , God the Father ; 1. heroes , kings , and philosophers of 
antiquity; among them a small portrait of Perugino, by himself; 
opposite, the Nativity and Transfiguration. On a pillar to the 1. 
the portrait of Perugino. In the execution of these frescoes, 
especially the arabesques on the ceiling, Raphael is said to have 

to Rome. PERUGIA. 8. Route. 51 

assisted. They were painted in 1500, and Perugino received a 
remuneration of 350 ducats from the guild of merchants. An 
altar-piece and frescoes by Gian. Manni in the adjoining chapel. 

The Corso terminates in the cathedral square. In front of the 
cathedral rises a * Fountain, consisting of 3 basins, adorned with 
a number of biblical and allegorical figures in relief, executed by 
Nicola and Giovanni da Pisa in 1277—1280. The statuettes of the 
central basin are by Arnolfo di Cambio. 

On the other side of the cathedral is the Piazza del Papa, 
so named from the statue in bronze of Julius III. by Vincenzio 
Danli (1556). 

The * Cathedral of S. Lorenzo (PI. 11), dating from the close 
of the loth cent., is an unfinished edifice of imposing, but heavy 
proportions. The chapel in the r. aisle contains Baroccio's master- 
piece (covered), a * Descent from the Cross, conveyed to Paris in 
1797, but restored in 1815. Painted window above by Constantino 
da Rosaro and Fra Brunacci, a Benedictine of Monte Casino (15(35). 
In the 1. aisle the Cappella dell' Anello, which till 1797 con- 
tained the celebrated Sposalizio of Perugino, now in the museum 
of Caen in Normandy. In both the chapels are beautifully carved 
seats. On the r. by the high-altar a marble sarcophagus contain- 
ing the remains of Popes Innocent II., Urban IV. and Martin IV. 
The winter-choir contains an altar-piece by Luca Signorelli : Ma- 
donna with SS. John the Baptist, Onuphrius the Hermit, Stephen, 
and a bishop receiving alms. In the library precious MSS. are 
preserved, as the Codex of St. Luke of the 16th cent., gold on 
a purple ground. 

Opposite the cathedral , No. 10, is the Palazzo Conestabile, 
with a small galle'ry containing frescoes by Perugino (brought from 
the Pal. Alfani), S. Rosalia by Sassoferrato, and a ** Madonna by 
Raphael, a small circular picture of his Perugian period. 

From the rear of the cathedral the Via Vecchia descends to 
the * Areo di Augusto, an ancient town-gate with the inscription 
Augusta Perusia. The foundations date from the Etruscan period, 
the upper portion from that subsequent to the conflagration. From 
this point the direction of the walls of the ancient city, which 
occupied the height where the old part of the present town stands, 
may be distinctly traced. Considerable portions of the wall are 
still preserved. 

From the Arco di Augusto the visitor proceeds to the 1. to 
the University (PI. 29), founded in 1320, now established in a 
monastery of Olivetans suppressed by Napoleon (custodian, cor- 
ridor to the 1., No. 19; fee V'2 — 1 fr 0- Jt possesses a small 
Botanic Garden, Scientific Collections, a Museum of Etruscan and 
Roman Antiquities, and a Picture Gallery. 

The Pinacoleca on the basement-floor, formed (since 1863) from the spoils 
of suppressed churches and monasteries, is an invaluable aid in the study 


52 Route 8. PERUGIA. From Florence 

of the ITmbrian School. 1st Room : at the entrance No. 185 and follg., 
Angels, by Bon/mli ; 1. 164. St. Sebastian, Pertigino; 151. Madonna, School 
of Siena; 153. Annunciation, Siuibahlo Jhi; frescoes from S. Giuliano and 
IS. Sc\cro, the finest a l'iet.i, In Ilie 1. Miniatures of the 14th and 15th cen- 
turies. -- 2nd noom: r. 206. Madonna and Saints, Lenozzo (iozzoli ; 207. Ma- 
donna and Sainls, Fwren.o do Lorenzo; 209, 210, 212, 214, 227, 228, 233, 
234. Miracles of St. llernardino of Siena, masttr vnknovii; 220. Miracles 
id' St. Nicholas of Rari, J-'iesole ; 221, 222. Annunciation, same muster ; 216, 

223, 229. Madonna with sainls, same master; 236. Madonna, Rajihael (.V); 
237. Circumcision , J'trutjuio; 247. Adoration, same master; unnumbered. 
The Lord's Supper and Ascension, same master; Madonna with saints and 

lueilella', Domenico Jlartvli. — 3rd Room, nothing worthy of mention. — 
4 ill lloom (corridor): Pictures of the school of Siena. — 5th Room (form 
crly a church) contains the principal works: 1. St. Bernardino of Siena, 
ISonfigh ; 2. Transfiguration, I'eruyiiio; 4. Madonna and saints, livccali do 
Caimrino; 5. Madonna and sainls, Dom. Alfani; S. Adoralion of the Magi, 
liusebio eta ,S. Uionjio ; 23. Adoration of the Shepherds, l'eriujino; 25. Ilia- 
donna, SjHi'jiHi ; 30. Altar- piece by Pinlnricchio , Madonna and saints; 
35. Madonna, Penujino; ! 39. Adoration of the Magi , (tliirlandajo (V); 41. 
Baptism of Christ, J'erugino; 411. I-iuiette: God tie- Father and angels, 
Sjiatjiia; 51. Annunciation, lionfiijli; 59. Madonna, Alfaiet '; 75. Annunciation, 
A/ceotti Aiunno. 

The tirsf floor contains the Antiejuai ion Museum. On the staircase and 
in the passages Etruscan cinerary urns and Lat. inscriplions. Contents of 
the rooms similar. In the 1st Room the longesl Ktruscan inscription known, 
consisting of 45 lines, as yet undeciphorod, and ancienl Etruscan sculptures. 
2nd Room: niediaval coins and other objecls. 3rd lioom : ancient bronzes, 
among which are bronze and silver plates, found in JSIO, appurtenances of 
a chariot, or as now thought, from a tomb. 4lh Koom : lerrarottas and 
several painted vases. Lid of a sarcophagus: IH'ath seizing his victims. 
5th Room: cinerary urns of terracotta with (races of painling. in the 
centre a sarcophagus of terracotta, with sacrificial procession. 

The other scientific collections arc of liltle value. Two of the corri- 
dors contain casts of ancient and modern sculptures. 

From the Piazza del Papa the visitor soon leaches the chapel 
N. Strew (PI. 14), formerly a monastery of the order of Vamal- 
doli , now a college, containing Raphael's lirut * fresco (greatly 
damaged), of 1505: God the Father (obliterated! with ■! angels 
and the Holy Ghost; beneath, the Redeemer and the saints 
Maurus, Placidus, Benedict, Bomuald , Lanrentius , and Jerome. 
The painting resembles the upper portion of Raphael's Disputa in 
the Vatican. Inscription: Raphael de Lrl'i'iia Ifnm/iio Ociariana 
Stephano Yolaterrano Priori Sanctum Tr'mitnltm Amjdas astantes 
Sanctosque, A. D. M. J). V. At the sides, lower down, 
St. Scholastica, St. Jerome, St. John, St. Giegory the (neat, 
Boniface, and Martha, by Pktro l'eruijino. 

The traveller next reaches the Piazza del Sojiramuro , rest- 
ing on extenshe foundations, between the two hills on which 
the fortress and the cathedral are situated. 

From the Piazza del Sopraniuio he proceeds to the Fortezza, 
and descends thence to the suburb of S. Domenico. 

S. Domenico (PI. 7), "with a lofty and now partially removed 
campanile, was erected in lOo'i on the site of an older church built 
in 1304 by Giovanni Pisano, of which the choir with a Gothic window 
(1411) now alone remains. 4th Chapel with ciiiqiiecento deco- 

to Rome t'KRUGIA. 8. Route. 53 

ration. In the 1. transept the * Monument ( l>y (iiovtmni I'isano) of 
Pope Benedict XT., wlio fell a victim to the intrigues of Philip IV., 
and died after partaking of poisoned figs, July 6th, 1304. 

Farther on, near the Porta S. Costanza, outside the Porta S. 
Pietro, the traveller readies the church of * S. Pictro tie' 
(PI. loj, a basilica with IS antique columns of granite and marble 
and a number of valuable pictures (entrance in the 1. corner of 
the first court). Tn the r. aisle the (4th) chapel of St. Joseph: 
:!: Munument of the Countess Baldeschi , from drawings by /•>. 
Orerbeck; above the sacristy: Saints, copies by Xaxso ferritin. 
In the Sacristy !> Saints, by Prruyino (which formerly surrounded 
the Ascension by the same master, removed by the French, now 
at Lyons); Holy Family, Pitrmeggitinin/t ; * Jesus and John, copy 
from Peruginn, by Raphael. The choir-books contain fine minia- 
tures of the Kith cent. In the 1. aisle, by the first altar : Pieta, 
Perugino. \i. of the '.2nd Altar: Adoration of the Magi, by Atlrme 
I>oni , assisted, it is believed, by Raphael whose portrait is said 
to be here recognisable. In the Cappella del Snyraniento frescoes 
by Vasnri; Madonna, an altar-piece by Lo Spagna, much damaged ; 
Judith, Xtissnftrrtito. At the end of the 1. aisle: Madonna and 
saints by JPmfigli (1469). * Choir-stalls in walnut, carved by 
Stefano da Bergamo from designs by Raphael (153f)). A planted 
terrace is now reached, whence a magnificent * prospect of the 
valley of Foliirno and the surrounding Apennines is obtained. 

Besides the above (if time permit), the traveller should inspect 
the following churches (most id' the paintings with which they were 
formerly decorated have been removed to the Pinacoteca): 

S. Agrtese ( PI. 4~), with two chapels adorned with paintings by 
Perugino (not easily accessible). 

S. Angela (PI. 6), a circular structure with 16 antique columns 
in the interior, resembling S. Stefano Rotondo in Rome, and pro- 
bably dating from the Kith cent. ; fresco of the period of Giotto. 

"'■ ('onfTaternil.ii delta O'iustizia di 8. Bernardino (PI. 17), with 
very tasteful facade by Agostino Fiorenlino (1461). Near it 

S. Francesco tlei Convert tun i i (PI. llj. A wooden receptacle in 
the sacristy contains the remains of the Condottiere Braccio Forte- 
braccio , slain at the siege of Aquila,. June 5th, 14'24, a few 
months after his rival Sforza had been drowned in the Pescaia. 
Raphael's Entombment of Christ, now in the Borghese Gallery 
at Rome (p. 146), was originally painted for this church. 

Private Collections : 

Palazzo Baldeschi (PI. 21"), in the Corso, containing Raphael's 
* drawing for one of the frescoes of Pinturicchio in the library of 
the cathedral of Siena (see p. '27J : yEneas Sylvius as bishop at 
the betrothal of Frederick III. with Eleonora of Portugal. 

Palazzo Donini (PI. '24), with two drawings by Perugino, 
Madonna by the same, etc. 

54 Route S. TODI. From Florence 

Palazzo Penna (PI. 27), with an extensive gallery, containing 
pictures by Perugino , Salvutor Horn, Luca Slynorelli, and other 
celebrated masters. 

Collection of Avv. Ronrualdi (Via del Bufalo 5, not far from 
the Albergo della PostaJ , comprising bronzes , coins , cameos, 
drawings and pictures by An. Caracci, Peruyino, etc., is about to 
be opened as a museum. 

The Libreria Pubblica (PI. 3), containing 30,000 vols, and 
MSS., such as Stephanus Byzant. of the 5th cent., St. Augustine 
with illuminations, etc. 

The House of Peruyino is in the Via Deliziosa, Mr. 18. 

The Necropolis of Perugia , discovered in 1840 , lies on the 
new Roman road, mar the Ponte S. Giovanni. The *Tomb of 
the Volumnii, l Grotta de' Volunni', by the road, recognised by a 
group of cypresses, 3 M. from the town, one of the finest, though 
not most ancient of N. Etruria, was first discovered. It consists 
of 10 chambers, hewn in the coarse-grained tufa rock of the hill; 
in front inscriptions in Etruscan and Latin. Here a number of 
cinerary urns , with portraits and various kinds of decorations, 
wero found. The tomb is well-preserved. The urns, lamps, and 
other curiosities may be inspected at the neighbouring villa of 
Count Baglioni, where the custodian is to be found. 

Those who travel by carriage may combine this visit with 
their onward journey ; otherwise it must be undertaken from 
Perugia. Pedestrians in going may select the old road, quitting 
the town by the Porta 8. Pietro; in returning, the new road to 
the Porta Costanza. 

From Perugia to Narni by Todi. Distance 49 M. ; communica- 
tion by corriere. Before the opening of the railway between Foligno and 
Rome this road, being the shortest route between Perugia and Rome, was 
the scene of a very brisk traffic. Its importance is now merely local, as 
it is far interior to that by Foligno and Terni in natural attractions and 
historical interest. 

Perugia is quitted by the Porta Costanza; the road to Foligno soon di- 
verges to the 1. It descends rapidly into the valley of the Tiber, which it 
crosses near Ponte Nuovo, 7 M. from Perugia. For a distance of about 18 M. 
the road remains on the 1. bank of the Tiber, then ascends to 

Todi (Posta, at the gate), the ancient Umbrian Tudor, a loftily situated 
town with 4 — 5000 inhab. ; the mountain is so abrupt that the upper part 
of the town is not accessible to carriages. Its ancient importance is beto- 
kened by the fragments of walls and the extensive ruin of a Temple, or Ba- 
silica, usually styled a temple of Mars. Although poor in treasures of art, 
the town possesses several edifices of architectural interest, among which 
are the Cathedral and the Town Hall in the piazza. " S. Maria della Consola- 
zione, in the form of a Greek cross , with lofty dome, is a masterpiece of 
Bramanle (dome often ascended for the sake of the splendid panorama). 
S. Fortunato, with handsome portal. Todi was the birthplace of the poet 
Jacopone da Todi (d. 1S06), author of the 'Stabat mater dolorosa'. 

From Todi to Narni 23 51., by the villages of Rosaro, Castel Todino, and 
Han (ienmie. About l'|2 M. from the last, on the ancient, now abandoned 
Via Flaminia, are the interesting ruins of the once prosperous Carsulae. 
From San Oeminc (0 1 |s M. from "Kami) the road gradually descends to the 
beautiful valley of the A\r«- As the river is crossed, a good survey may be 

to Rome. CITTA DI <S. Route. 55 

obtained of the : bridge nf Augustus. Travellers may here alight icump 
p. 64) and ascend in a straight direction by the bridle-path, while carriages 
describe a long circuit to the Porta Ternana. 

Narni see p. G4. 

Frnm Perugia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber (diligence 
daily at 8 a. m. to Citta di Castello). The road goon crosses the Tiber and 
ascends on its left bank to Fralta, or Umbci tide, a small town IS'feJl. from 
Perugia. In the church of S. Cruce a Descent from the dross by Luca 
Siijnurelli. Valuable collection of'majolicas at the house of Sign. Dom. Ma- 
varclli. At. Fratta the road crosses to the r. bank of the river, and shortly 
afterwards re-crosses by a ferry to the 1. bank, traverses a luxuriantly cul- 
tivated district, and reaches (13 M.) 

Citta di Castello, with G0U0 inhab., occupying the site of Tifcrtiitm Tt- 
bcriuivitt, which was [destroyed by Tolilas. In the 15th cent, it was under 
the dominion of the Vitelli family, subsequently under that of the Church. 
Raphael resided at the court of the Vitelli, but the pictures by him which 
were formerly here have been sold, among them the Sposalizio in the Urera 
at Milan. The f'nthedrtil (St. Floiidus) is of 1503 , from a design by lira- 
iiiantt:; beautiful carving in the choir. In S. Cecilia a Madonna by Litea 
Si'/itorelli. The Cvttfritternita delta S. Trinita possesses two procession-tlags, 
the designs of which are ascribed to Raphael. 

Palazzo C'omunale in the Gothic style. Four palaces of the Vitclh. 
Palazzo Ma/iciiii, with fine paintings, among them a "Nativity by Luca 
Sigiiorelli; a small * Annunciation by lla'phacl. 

From Citta di f'aslello 8 M. to Borgo *S\ Sepolcro , formerly pertaining 
to Tuscany, a small and cheerful town. The churches contain several pie- 
fui'es by Pielro della F'raticcsca, who was born here. 

Reads lead from Borgo S. Sepolcro to Arezzo (p. 43), and across the 
Central Apennines to Uriiania and Urbitio. From Porgo S. Sepolcro the 
Source of the Tiber, near the village of Le llalze, may also be visited. 

From Perugia to Foligno by Assist. 

Railway to Assist in 1 hr., fares 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 95, 1 fr. 55 c. ; from 
Assist to Sjiello 1 fr., 75 c, and GO c. ; from Assist to Foligno 1 fr. 50, 1 fr. 
15 c. , 95 c. ; from Assisi to Spolelo 4 fr. 40, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 40 c. Foligno is 
unattractive. On the other hand a visit to Assisi (p. 50'), for which 3—4 hrs. 
suffice, should on no account be omitted. 

The line runs along the heights on which Perugia is situated, 
passes through several tunnels, and, beyond stat. Ponte S. (iio- 
ranni , crosses the Tiber, which in ancient times formed the 
frontier between Etruria and Umbria. Then across the Chiascio 
to stat. Bastia, and a short distance farther stat. Assisi. The 
town is picturesquely situated upon the hill. Before ascending to 
Assisi the magnificent church of **'. Maria degli Angeli (about 
'/j M. W. of the stat.) should be visited; it was erected by 
Viynola on the site of the original oratory of St. Francis, the so- 
called Portiuncula. After the damage occasioned by the earthquake 
of 1831 the nave and choir of the church were re-erected; the 
dome, however, had not suffered. Beneath the latter, in front of 
the oratory, the *Vision of St. Francis, 'Mary with a choir of 
angels', alleged to have been witnessed by the saint in 1121, a 
fresco by Overbeck, 1829. Farther on, to the r. . is the hut in 
which Francis expired , Oct. 4th. , 1226 , with inscription and 
frescoes by Lo Spagna , representing the followers of the saint. 
The other parts modern. 

56 Route 8. ASSISI. From Florence. 

A beautiful path leads from S. Maria degli Angeli to Assisi 
in '/.) lir. The services of the guides who importune travellers at 
S. Maria dejrli Angeli and at Assisi are entirely superfluous. 

Assisi (Nuovo Albergo del Subasio , next to the monastery of 
S. Francesco; Leone, near the Piazza, good), a small town and 
episcopal see, the ancient Umbrian Assismm, where P. C. 4G the 
elegiac poet Propertius, and in 1698 the opera-writer Pietro 
Metastasis (properly Trapassi , d. at Vienna in I7S'2) were born, 
stands in a singularly picturesque situation. 

It is indebted (or its reputation to St. Francis who was born here in 
1182. He was tlie son of the merchant Pietro Bernardone, and spent his 
youth in frivolity. At length, whilst engaged in a campaign against Perugia, 
he was taken prisoner and attacked by a dangerous illness. Sobered by 
adversity, he soon afterwards (1208) founded the monastic order of Franris- 
anis, which speedily found adherents in all the countries of Europe, and 
was sanctioned in 1210 by Innocent. III., and in 1223 by Ilonorius III. Po- 
verty and self-abnegation formed the essential cbaiacteristics of the order, 
which under different designations (Seraphic Brethren, Minorites, Observiin- 
tes, and Capuchins, who arose in 152GJ was soon widely diffused, and still 
•"lists. St. Francis is said to have been favoured with visions, the most 
important of which was that of 1224, when Christ impressed on him the 
marks of his wounds (stigmata). From the 'apparition of the crucified 
seraph' the saint is also known as Pater 

St. Francis expired Oct. 4th, 1226, and in 122S was canonized by Gre- 
gory IX., who appointed the day of bis death to be kept sacred to his me- 
mory. He wrote several works, especially letters which display talent, and 
was one of the most remarkable characters oi' the middle ages. Ilanfe 
(Paradiso 11, 50) says of him that he rose like a sun and illumined every- 
thing with his rays. 

Having reached the town, the visitor proceeds to the 1. to the 
Monastery of the Franciscans, which, reposing on its massive 
foundations on the verge of (he hill, has long attracted the atten- 
tion. Passing the church, the visitor enters the monastery, now 
dissolved, and requests one of the few surviving monks, to act 
ns guide (I fr. or more). The monastery was founded in 12-S, 
it is believed, by the Fmp. Frederick II.; with the exception of 
several frescoes in the refectories, it contains nothing of interest. 
From the external passage a magnificent *view of the luxuriant 
valley is enjoyed. 

The two Churches, erected one above the other , are objects 
of far greater interest. A third, the C'rypt, with the tomb of the 
saint, was added in 1818, when his remains are said to have 
been re-discovered. The lower church was erected in P2J8 — 32, 
and consecrated by Innocent IV. The style is Ital. Gothic; the 
architects were Jacopo d'Alemanvia, also named Lapo by the Ita- 
lians, and the monk Fra Filippn da Campel.lo. 

The 'Lower Church, used for divine service, is always accessible; en- 
trance by a side-door on the terrace, in front of which is a vestibule of 
1487. The interior is low and obscure. To the r. a tomb, above it a vase 
of porphyry, said to be that of John de Brienne , King uf Jerusalem, who 
in 1237 entered the order of St. Francis: or that oi' Hecuba of Lusignan, 
Queen of Cyprus (d. 1243). Opposite the entrance is the chapel of the Cru- 
cifixion. To the r. in the nave, the chapel of St. Louis, with frescoes by 
Adone Doni (1560). On V~~ "■•••**** .>»;!;„<» "nronhets and sibyls, by Andrea 

to Rome. 


8. Route. 57 

del Inurquo of Assisi. The chapel of S. Antonio di Padua, \vi(h frescoes liy 
Giotliuo, is entirely modernised. In lie cl.apol of S. Maddalcna frescoes by 
Buffatmarco [ 1320) , representations from the 1 i I > ■= of the saint. In the S. 
transept frescoes by Tad.deo Gaddi and Giocanni da Jfi/ano. The high-alt;ir 
st;uiil,s on the spot where tin- remains of St. Francis lay. The lour triangles 
of Ihe vaulting above are decorated with frescoes liy Ciiotto: Poverty, <'bns- 
tify. Obedience, and Ihe praises of St. hranris. 

In tlie. N. transept frescoes by Pum'o Copanita , pupil of Ointto, reprc 
sen tiny, St. Francis receiving tlie stigmata. '1 he small altar of St,. John un- 
fortunately conceals io some extent, the Crucifixion , by P/r/ro ('arallini, 
painted for Walther de Tirietine. Duke of Athens, whilst, captain of the Flo- 
rentines (1342). The figure on the mule, with golden accoutrements, is said 
to represent Walther. At this point is the entrance to the sacristy , to the 
r. of which is a Madonna with St. Cnihartne and other saints, by ho S/xiana 
(1510). The sacristy contains handsome cabinets of the 17th cent., in which 
(before Ihe spoliation of I7H7) the treasures of the church were preserved. 
Among the relics' are the 'veil of the Virgin 1 , a beneiiid ion in the hand- 
writing of St. Francis, and the rules of his order, sanctioned by llonorius Hi., 
which Ihe holy man always curried with him. His portrait over the door, 
painted soon after his .death, is attributed to Giuula da Pisa. Farthei' on 
in the church, to (lie 1. , Is (lie pulpit, adorned with a Coronation of (he 
Virgin, ascribed to Fra Martina, pupil of Simone di Martino. P.eneath the 
music-gallery, 'St. Francis receiving the stigmata, a fresco by Giotto. The 
last chapel to the N. is dedicated to St. Martin; scenes from his life by 
Simone di Martina. 

The stained windows of the lower church are by Any clef to and Pielro 
da Giibbio ami Bonino tfAxsisi , those of the upper church more than a 
century later. 

The Cryjd. was constructed in the Ituric style, harmonising liltle with 
the two churches, in ISIS, al'ter the relics of the saint had been discovered 
in a rude stone coffin. It is approached by a double staircase. 

The l')ipi-r Glfurch, the simpler of the two, is opened on the occasion 
of great festivals only, but may be visited by the stranger accompanied by 
the sacristan. It is in the.- form of a Latin cross, with niches for Gothic 
windows, transept, and tribune. The W. side has a handsome wheel-window 
and beautiful pediment. The ceiling and walls of the nave are adorned 
with * frescoes by Cim<di)w and Giotto (f'W) of events from the life of St. 
Francis, those above are from the Old and New Testament, by Gintabiie. 
Frescoes in the transept by Gun/la da Pisa (about I'JiYil, injured. "Choir- 
stalls carved and decorate'! with figures by bomeriira da S. Xeverino (about 
I ■I 0(f). Papal throne, of red marble of Assisi (by Fuvrio), erected by 
Crogory IX. 

On quitting the upper chinch and emerging on the space in 
front of it, the traveller, may follow the street ascending thence 
in a straight direction, which will load him to the Piazza. Here is 
situated the beautiful fragment of a -''Temple of Mintrva, consisting 
of (> columns of travertine, con\erted into a church of >S. Maria 
tUifu Minerva. Ancient inscriptions immured in the vestibule. Ad- 
jacent to the church is the entrance to the ancient Forum, which 
corresponded to the present Piazza, but lay considerably lower. In the 
forum a Basement for a statue with a long inscription (fee '/.? fr.|. 

The Chiesa Nuoca occupies the site of the house in which 
St. Francis was bom. 

The Cathedral of S. Rafino . in the upper part of the town, 
named after the first bishop ( f 2-i0j , dates from the first half of 
the Vhh cent., the crypt from 10l«S. Facade ancient; the interior 
entirely modern. Entrance r. of the church (25 c.J. 

58 Route S. SPELLO. From Floren,* 

From the cathedral a broad , unpaved road to the r. leads in 
a i'ew minutes to the church of <S. Chiara, near the gate, a line 
Gothic structure by Fra Filippo da Vcimpello (1253. unfortunately 
altered afterwards), now undergoing' restoration (if closed, visitors go 
round the church to the 1. and knock at the door at the back). 
Beneath the high-altar are the remains of S. Clara, who, inspired 
with enthusiasm for St. Francis, abandoned her parents and wealth, 
and died as first abbess of the order of Clarissines which she had 
founded. A handsome crypt of different coloured marbles has 
recently been constructed about her tomb. On the arch above the 
high-altar frescoes by Oiottinu; those in the lateral chapel on the 
r. are attributed to Giotto. 

In a ravine of the lofty Monte Subasio (3844 fi.J, in the rear 
of Assisi , is situated the hermitage delle Carcere, whither St. 
Francis was wont to retire for devotional exercises. 

The drive from Assisi to Spello is very beautiful (one-horse 
carr. 4 — 5 fr.). Ily train it is reached in 13 mill, (express does 
not stop). To the r. of the road as the town is approached arc 
the ruins of an amphitheatre of the imperial period, but they are 
not visible from the railway. 

Spello, a small town with '2500 inhab. , picturesquely situated 
on a mountain-slope, is the ancient Ilispellum (Colonia Julia 
Hispellwn). The Porta Veneris by which the town is entered, with 
its three portrait-statues, as well as portions of the wall, are an- 
cient. In S. Maria Magyiore, r. of the entrance, an ancient cippus 
serves as basin for consecrated water. To the 1. the Cap. del 
Sagramento with *frescoes by Finturicchio (1501), 1. Annunciation 
(with the name and portrait of the painter), opposite the visitor 
the Adoration, r. Christ in the Temple; on the ceiling, the Sibyls. 
L. of the high-altar Pieta, r. a Madonna by Peruyino. Above the 
altar in the sacristy a Madonna by Finturicchio. 

S. Francesco (or Andrea'), consecrated in 1228 by Gregory IX., 
contains in the r. transept an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, by 
Finturirrhiii (1508) ; above, a letter to the painter by (I. Baylione. 

Among other antiquities (lie 'House of Propertius' is shown, 
although it is by no means certain that the poet was born here. 
In the Pal. Comunale and the church-wall of S. Lorenzo, Roman 
inscriptions. The upper part of the town commands an extensive 
view of the plain, with Foligno and Assisi. Numerous ruins 
occasioned by the earthquake of 1831 are still observed. 

The line to Foligno crosses the Topino and reaches stat. 
Foliyno (halt of 25 min., good refreshment-room). About 1/2 M - 
from the stat. is 

Foligno (*Posta; *Albergo di Oius. Barbacci, R. li/ 2 fr. ; *Croce 
hianca; Trattoria Stella d'Oro. One-horse carr. from the stat. to 
the town for 1 pers. with luggage 40 c), near the ancient Ful- 
yinium, an industrial -tewu with. 13,000 inhab., .md an episcopal 

to Rome. FOLIGNO. 8. Route. 59 

residence, situated in a fertile district. In 1'2S1 it was destroyed by 
Perugia, in 1439 united to the States of the Chinch, and in 18I>0 
again separated from them. The earthquake of 1<S;3 1 occasioned se- 
rious damage; those of 183'J, 1853, and 1.S54 were less destructive. 

Foligno also boasts of a school of painting akin to that of 
Perugia, the most distinguished master of which is Niccolb Alunno, 
or da Foligno. 

Beyond its pleasant and attractive exterior the town possesses 
little to arrest the traveller, who should therefore , if possible, at 
once proceed on ids journey to Spoleto. 

In the Piazza is the cathedral of 8. Feliciano with (iuthic 
facade of the 15th cent., interior renovated. 

8. Anna, or delle Contesse, with dome by Bramante, formerly 
contained the celebrated Madonna di Foligno by Raphael , now in 
fehe Vatican. 

8. Niccolb; in the chapel r. of the high-altar is a fine altar- 
piece and a Coronation of the Virgin with 'predclla' by Niccolb 
Alunno. — S. Maria infra Portas, with frescoes by the same master. 

La Nunziatella , with a fresco by Perugino , the Baptism of 

The Palazzo del (joverno is adorned with frescoes by Ottaviano 
Nelli (in the old chapel). Palazzo Comunale, a modern building 
of the Ionic order. 

About 6 M. to the W. is Bevagna on the Clitumnus , the ancient Me- 
vania of the Umbri, celebrated for its admirable pastures, with remains of 
an amphitheatre and other antiquities. From Bevagna (or from Foligno di- 
rect 7 M.) the traveller may visit the lofty Montefalco , a small town with 
several churches containing a number of fine paintings ; thus, S. Francesco, 
with frescoes from the life of the Saint by Jienozzo Gozzoli (1422) ; in the 
chapel good frescoes by various masters. The churches thir llluminata, S. 
Leonardo, and S. Forlitnalo {_ 3 \t M. from the town, on the way to Trevi) also 
contain objects of interest; charming views of the plain from the height. 

At Foligno the line unites with that from Ancona (see K. 11). 

From Foligno to Rome. 

Railway. From Foligno to Rome 3 trains daily in 7 — 8 hrs.; fares 
19 fr 75 14 fr. 60, 9 fr. 75 c. A fourth train runs as far as Narni only, 
in 3 hrs. ; fares 7 fr. 50, 5 fr. 25, 3 fr. 75 c. 

The railway, as well as the high-road, intersects the luxuriant, 
well-watered valley of the Clitumnus , whose Hocks are extolled 
by Virgil, and proceeds in a straight direction to 

Stat. Trevi. The small town, the ancient Trehia, lies pictu- 
resquely on the slope to the 1. The church of *La Madonna delle 
Lagrime possesses one of Perugino's finest frescoes, the Adoration 
of the Magi. The church of S. Martino , outside the gate, also 
contains good pictures by Tiberio d'Assisi and Lo Spagna. 

The small village of Le Vene, on the Clitumnus, is next passed. 
Near it, to the 1. , a small ancient * Temple , usually regarded as 
that of Clitumnus mentioned by Pliny (Epist. 8, 8), but probably 
not earlier than Constantine the Great, as the Christian emblems, 

60 Route 8. .SPOLETO. From Florence 

tin- vine and the cross, on the facade testify. The temple, now 
chinch of N. Salvatore, lies with its rear towards the road; it may 
easily be reached on foot from Trevi in 1 hr. Near Be Vene the 
abundant and clear Source of the Clitumnus, beautifully described 
liy Pliny, wells forth from the limestone-rock. On the height to 
the 1. the village of Campello. On the way to Spoleto, to the 1. 
in the village of S. Giaromo, is a church with frescoes by Lo 
Spni/nii, of l:>'2(>; beautiful road through richly cultivated land. 

Spoleto (Posta; Albcryo Nuovo ; from the stat. to the town 
'/.j M., two-horse carr. 1 fr.), the ancient Spolelimn, said to have 
been an episcopal residence as eaTly as A. f>. f>0, now an archi- see with 11,000 inhab. , is an animated town , beauti- 
fully situated, and containing some remarkable antiquities. 

In 1'. C 242 a Roman colony was established here, and in ''17 the town 
vigorously repelled the attack of Hannibal when on his march to I'ieenum 
alter the battle of the Trosimenc Lake, as Livy (22, 9) relates. It subse- 
quently became a Homan muuicipiuni, suffered se\ r erely during the civil 
wars of Sulla a.nd Marios, and again at the hands of the Ijoths , after the 
fall of the W. Empire. The Lombards here founded a duchy las in Bene- 
ventnm) in 570, the first holders of which were I-'uroald and Ai-iolf. After 
the fall of the Carlovingians ijii/do of Spoleto even attained the dignity of 
Emperor, as well as his son J.atiU'rrt , who perished while hunting in S98. 
Innocent IJI. and Gregory IV. incorporated Spoleto with the States of the 
Church about 1220. The Castle of Spoleto, erected by Theodnrie the Great, 
restored by Narses, and strengthened Oy 4 towers by Cardinal Albornoz, now 
a prison, fell into the hands of the Piedmonteso Sept. 18th, 1860, after a 
gallant defence by Major O'lleilly, an Irishman. 

The town is built on the slope of a hill, the summit of which 
is occupied by the old castle. Vscoiding from the principal street 
in the lower part of the town, where the hotels are situated, the 
traveller first reaches a gateway of the lioman period, termed 
Porta tfAnnibale, or Porta delta h'ttya, in allusion to the above- 
mentioned occurrence. Beyond it the Piazza is crossed; then an 
ascent to the 1. to the Palazzo F'ubbliro , containing several in- 
scriptions, and a *Madonna with saints by Lo Spagna. The street 
to the 1. leads to the loftily situated 

Cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, erected by Duke Theodelapius 
in 617, but frequently restored; on the facade (13th cent.) 
5 arches with antique columns, a frieze with griffins and arabes- 
ques, at each extremity a stone pulpit; above the entrance a 
large mosaic, by Solsermis (l'207j of Christ with Mary and John. 
Interior renovated in 11344. In the choir :,: freseoes by Fra Filippo 
IJppi , completed after his death by Fra Diamante in 1470, 
Annunciation, Birth of Christ, and Death of Mary; in the cupola 
her Coronation ami Assumption (unfortunately damaged). The 
winter-choir is embellished with carving by Pramante and paint- 
ings by Lo Spagna. At the entrance to the chapel, on the 1. of 
the choir, is the tomb of Fil. IJppi, who died here in 1469 of 
poison administered by the family of Lucrezia Buti, a noble Flo- 
rentine. Although o monk he had succeeded in gaining the 

to Rome. SPOLETO. c? Route. 61 

affections of this lady and abducting her from a convent. The 
monument was erected by Lorenzo de Medieis; the epitaph is by 
Poliziano. Opposite is the monument of an Orsini. The Baptistery 
contains frescoes in the stvle of (,'iulio Romano; on the Hunt of tra- 
vertine, sculptures from the life of Christ. In the adjacent chapel 
are the remains of some frescoes by 1'hituricchio. — The Piazza is 
believed to ha\e been the site of the palace of the Lombard dukes. 

The other churches are of inferior interest. >s\ Ijomenico (dis- 
used) contains a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration . attributed to 
Cfiulio Romano. *£. J'ittin, outside the Roman gate, is a Norman 
edifice ; facade adorned with sculptures. 

Some of the churches contain relics of ancient temples; thus 
in that del Croce/isso, outsile the town, fragments of a temple of 
Concordia (V); columns etc. in <S. Andre i and N (fuidaiw; rem- 
nants of a theatre; a ruin st\ led 'Palace of Thcodoric", etc. None 
of these, however, claim special attention. 

No one should omit to visit the Fortress, or the opposite Monte 
Luco, for the sake of the view. The fortress being a prison and 
somewhat unattractive, the visitor will probably prefer the latter. 
A short distance before the entrance to the prison is reached, 
the path ascends to the r. , issuing by a gate which here forms 
air entrance to the town, where to the 1. polygonal foundations, 
remnants of the ancient castle-wall, are perceived. Outside the 
wall is a profound ravine, spanned by the imposing "Aqueduct 
iltlle Tony, which serves as a bridge, uniting the town with Monte 
Luco: a brick structure resting on 10 arches, 200 ft. in height, 
aird '2'M. jds. in length. Its construction is attributed to Theode- 
lapius, ord duke of Spoleto (004). A window midway affords a 
view. To the 1. on the height is perceived the monastery of <S. 
liiitliano; beneath, <S. I'ietro, above which the Capuchin monastery, 
shaded by beautiful trees. Moiitc Luco is densely wooded, and 
possesses a number of hermitages, roost of which are converted 
into country-residencrs. The road ascends rapidly near the aque- 
duct. After 1(1 min. a nioie unbroken prospect is obtained, 
embracing the fortress and town, and the spacious valley. — The 
summit is attained alter a fatiguing ascent of I-/2 ur - Towards 
the 1. is a lofty cross, whence an unimpeded panorama is obtained 
to the N. and E., of the valley of the Clitumnus with Trevi, Fo- 
ligno, Spello , and Assisi ; then Perugia and the Central Apen- 
nines near Citta di Ca-iello and (Jubhio. In the other directions 
the view is intercepted by the mountains in the vicinity. To- 
wards the \'\. these are overtopped by the rocky peak of the Si- 
billa, snow-clad until late in the summer-, l.'oturning to the r. 
the traveller passes the poor Capuchin monastery of iS. Maria 
delle (iruzie, an ancient resort of pilgrims. The monks (at pre- 
sent 1'2 iir number), who live in great poverty, are extremely 
courteous to strangers , but accept no donations. 

62 Route 8. TERNI. From Florence 

Quitting Spoleto , the train ascends during 1 lir. on the slopes 
of Monte Somma (4023 ft. J to the culminating point of the line 
(2230 ft.), passes through a long tunnel, and reaches the fertile 
valley of the Nera. To the 1. lies 

Terni (Kuropa; Angleterre; *Tre Colonne), the ancient In- 
terimina , where (it is believed) the historian Tacitus and the 
emperors Tacitus and Florianus were born. Remains of an amphi- 
theatre (erroneously styled a '■Temple of the Sun') in the grounds 
i >f the episcopal palace, Roman inscriptions in the Palazzo Pub- 
blico, palaces of the Umbrian nobility, etc. are objects of interest. 
Agreeable promenade on the ramparts, whence the beautiful Nera 
Valley is surveyed ; 1. Collescipoli, r. Cesi, opposite the spectator 

From Terni a walk of l 1 /'2 hr. to the celebrated ** Waterfalls 
(Le Cascate, or La Caduta delle Marmore); one horse carr. 3 — 4, 
two-horse 5 — 6 fr., and according to circumstances an additional 
gratuity. The traveller should not fail to be provided with an 
abundant supply of the copper-coin of the country. At the different 
points of view contributions are levied by the custodians (not above 
3 — 4 sous); then gates require opening (1 — 2 sous), in addition 
to which a host of beggars and guides sorely try the patience. The 
pedestrian is cautioned against engaging a guide before Papigno 
is reached, to which point the high-road is followed. 

Descending from the Piazza by the Strada Garibaldi, the tra- 
veller soon reaches the gate and crosses the Nera. The high-road 
to Rieti , traversing gardens and olive-plantations , is followed for 
3 / 4 hr. , the valley of the Nera attained , and a road on the 1. 
entered. The highest eminence above the river is crowned by 
the ruins of an old castle. The road affords fine views of the 
mountain-group of Terni, M. Somma, and the rocky heights of the 
Nera Valley. Papigno stands on an isolated rock, surrounded by 
ravines , in a remarkably picturesque situation on the 1. bank of 
the Nera. The carriage-road leading round Papigno is followed; 
at the gate the stranger is subjected to the importunities of guides 
and donkey-drivers. The services of a guide are by no means 
necessary, but may be accepted as a protection against farther 
molestation. Guide '/ 2 — 1 fr. ; donkey about the same ; bargain- 
ing , however , necessary. The carriage-road is followed , but its 
windings may occasionally be cut off by footpaths; then through 
the ravine and across the Nera. Beyond the bridge, the garden 
of the Villa Oraziani (Castelli) is entered immediately to the r., 
and an avenue of lemon and orange-trees traversed; the farther 
end of the garden is shaded by cypresses. Lofty rocks rise above 
the narrow valley, forming a striking contrast to the luxuriant 
vegetation of the garden (gardener 10—15 c). The path skirts 
the verge of the impetuous Nera, shaded by evergreen oaks. After 
about 10 mill., the broader path terminates, and the moistness of 

to Rome. TERNI. S. Route. 63 

the atmosphere betokens the proximity ol' the fall. A narrow 
footpath is followed in a straight direction, finally ascending rapidly. 
Where it divides, a few pares to the r. lead to a projecting rock, 
whence the lower fall is surveyed. The ascent to the 1. leads to 
a small arbour, where the finest view of the central fall is obtain- 
ed (fee 20 c). 

The Velino, which here discharges itself into the Nera, is so 
strongly impregnated with lime that its deposit continually raises 
its bed. In consequence of this the plain of Rieti (1390 ft. ) 
is frequently exposed to the danger of inundation. Tn ancient 
times Marcus Curius Dentatus endeavoured to counteract the evil 
by the construction of a channel (B. C. 271), which, although 
altered, is to this day in use. The rising of the bed of the river, 
however, rendered new measures necessary from time to time. 
Two other channels were subsequently excavated, the Cava Beatina 
or Qregoriana in 1417, and the Cava Paolina by Paul III. in 1546; 
these, however, proving unserviceable, Clement VIII. reopened the 
original 'emissarius' of Dentatus in 1598. In 1787 a new cutting 
was required, and another has at the present day become necessary. 
The regulation of the Velino-fall has long formed the subject of 
vehement discussions between Rieti and Terni, as the unrestrained 
descent of the water in rainy seasons threatens the valley of 
Terni with inundation. The height of the upper fall (1274 ft. 
above the sea-level) is 50 ft., that of the central or principal fall 
is stated at 5 — 600 ft., that of the lower, down to its junction 
with the Nera, 250 ft. ; total height 8 — 900 ft. ; according to other 
measurements, however, only 5 — 600 ft. in all. In volume of 
water and beauty of adjuncts these falls cannot easily be sur- 
passed. The footpath continues in the valley of the Nera. Re- 
tracing their steps, visitors enter the first path to the 1., cross- 
ing the Nera by a natural bridge, beneath which the water has 
hollowed its own channel. Where the path divides , the gradual 
ascent to the 1. is to be selected. The surrounding rocks (in 
which there is a quarry) have been formed by the incrustations 
of the Velino. The channel on the r. (Cava Paolina) is full in 
winter only. The division of the cascade is here surveyed ; the 
central fall , in the spray of which beautiful rainbows are occa- 
sionally formed, may be approached more nearly. A farther ascent 
leads to a small pavilion of stone on a projecting rock (fee 
10 — 20 c), whence a beautiful view of the principal fall and the 
valley of the Nera. Another point of view is the garden of the 
first cottage which is reached (20 c. ; flowers and petrifactions of 
the Velino offered, 10 — 20 c. more); view of Terni. The traveller 
should now descend immediately to the high-road (having pre- 
viously ordered his carriage to meet him here), instead of return- 
ing to Papigno as the drivers prefer. The entire excursion occu- 
pies at least 3 — 4 hrs. 

64 Route 8. NARNI. From Florence 

If time permit, the excursion may be extended (3 M.) to the 
beautiful Lake of I'iedilugo. The Velino is crossed, and the lake 
attained in '/-2 !"'• 5 its indentations are skirted, and the village 
of Piedilut/o, with its ruined castle reached in '/•> lir. more. Boats 
may be hired at the *inn; the opposite bank, where a fine 
echo may be awakened, is most frequently visited by water. 

Cesi, loftily situated, 4% M. to the N. of Terni , possesses 
remnants of ancient polygonal walls and interestinjr subterranean 
grottoes of considerable extent, from which a current of cool air 
in summer, and of warm in winter issues. 

From Terni a pleasant route by Rieti, Aquila, Popoli , and Solmona 
leads to jYaples. To Kicti 23 M., diligence every alternate day. From Rieti 
to III line by the ancient Via Snlara, diligence three times weekly in 10 hrs. 
(9 fr.) This route, is, however, inferior in interest to the following, and is 
seldom selected by tourists. 

From Terni to Narni 8 M., one-horse carr. 5 fr. 

The railway intersects the rich valley of the Nera. To the 
r on the hill Cesi (see above), 1. Collescipoli, then 

Narni (*Posta), the ancient Umbrian Narnia (originally JVe- 
qiimuni) , birthplace of the Emperor Nerva , Pope John XIII. 
(90;) — 72), and of Erasmus of Narni, surnamed (fattauielata, the 
well-known 'condottiere' of the ifith cent. It is picturesquely 
situated on a lofty rock on the A'tir, now iXira (whence its name), 
at the point where the river forces its way through a narrow 
ravine to the Tiber. The old castle is now a prison. 

The Cathedral of Narni, dedicated to tit. Juvenilis the first 
bishop (369), erected in the 13th cent., is architecturally inter- 
esting. The Monaxtcri) of iht ZwcoUtnti contains the * Coronation 
of Mary by Lo Sjmyna, one of that master's finest paintings, and 
long believed to be the work of Raphael. 

From Narni fo Perugia by Todi see p. 54. 

From Narni 31. to the ancient and beautifully situated Umbrian moun- 
tain-town ot Amelia, Lat. Amelia (inu outside the gate), mentioned by Ci- 
cero, with admirably preserved ; walls in the Cvrlopean style and other an- 
tiquities. The road, hleniical with the Via Flaminia, now traverses a well- 
tLiltiva.ted district. 

7 M. Otricoli, a village near tin- site of the ancient Dliiculum, the 
frontier-town of Umbria, where numerous antiquities, among others the ce- 
lebrated bust of Jupiter in the Valiran, have been discovered. In descend- 
ing from Otricoli the geologist will observe in (he direction of the Tiber 
the lir.-it traces of the volcanic deposits which recur so frequently in the 
Cainpagna. The towering summit of Soracle becomes visible to the 1. 

The road passes the small episcopal town of Mmjliano , said to derive 
its name from ManJius Torquatus, now belonging to tiie Sabina , and leads 
to the 1. to the Tiber, whirl, is crossed by the handsome, f'oittc Mice, con- 
structed by Augustus, restored in loN'J by Pope Si\l us V. , formerly the 
approach from Umbria to Ktruria. 

A small steamboat runs twice weekly from this point (or from Porta della 
Rosa, 15 M. farther down, when the river is low) to Pome in 8 — .10 hrs., 
affording the traveller a convenient, although not very comfortable oppor- 
tunity of becoming acquainted with the banks of the. river, which will be 
found interesting. 

The train quits Narni on the r. bank of the iS'era and ill a 
lew minutes reaches the * P-rithic of Augvttus lor the Via Fla- 

to Rome. ORTE. 8. Route. 65 

minia (p. 75), which led hence to Bevagna (p. 59). The arch 
on the 1. bank is 64 ft. in height ; of the other two the buttresses 
alone remain. 

It may be best surveyed from the new bridge which crosses the river 
a little higher up. Beneath the remaining arch a fine glimpse is obtained 
of the monastery of <S. Casciano. By the carriage-road from Narni to the 
bridge is a drive of 'J* hr. ; the far more picturesque route is on foot, de- 
scending by the somewhat precipitous bridle-path in */« hr. 

The road continues to follow the magnificent valley of the 
Nera , with its singularly beautiful plantations of evergreen oaks, 
passes through two tunnels, and then by a chain- bridge (not far 
from the influx of the Nera) crosses the Tiber, which was for- 
merly the boundary here between the Kingdom of Italy and the 
States of the Church. 

Stat. Orte, the ancient Horta, loftily situated on the bank of 
the Tiber , contains nothing of interest beyond its picturesque 
situation. This will be the junction of the line now described 
with that from Florence by Siena and Orvieto. 

The line descends the valley of the Tiber on the r. bank, 
affording pleasing glimpses of both banks. To the r. the lofty 
and indented ridge of Soracte (p. 67) becomes visible. On the 1., 
on the other side of the river , lie S. Vito and Otricoli (see 
above). To the r. stat. Galese; farther on, high on the 1. bank, The next stat. Borghetto is commanded by a ruined 
castle on the height to the r. The Tiber is crossed here by the 
handsome Ponte Felice (see above) which formerly served as a 
link of communication between Rome and the N. E. provinces. 
From Borghetto via Civita Castellana by the old high-road to Rome 
see p. 66. 

Beyond Borghetto Civita Castellana becomes visible for a short 
time. The line crosses to the 1. bank of the Tiber. Stat. Sti- 
migliano and the following stat. Montorso are situated in the 
mountainous district of the Sabina, which produces abundant sup- 
plies of oil. The country is here extremely attractive, but cannot 
conveniently be visited by the traveller without letters of intro- 
duction, on account of the paucity and poverty of the inns (toler- 
able at Poggio Mirieto only). To the r. the Soracte is seen. 

Next stat. Passo di Correse. The name is a corruption of 
Cures, the ancient Sabine town, birthplace of Numa Pompilius, 
the ruins of which are in the vicinity. 

The train continues its route on the 1. bank of the Tiber to 
stat. Monte Rotondo ; the town, 2^3 M. higher, possesses a castle 
of the Orsini , now the property of the Piombino family, com- 
manding beautiful views of the Sabine Mts. The village was 
attacked by Garibaldi on the 26th Oct. 1857; 2 M. distant is 
Mentana (p. 268), where he was defeated by the Papal and 
French troops, and compelled to retreat. 

B>edekek. Italy II. 3rd Edition. 5 

66 Route 8. CIVITA CASTELLANA. From Florence 

The line follows the direction of the ancient Via Salara 
(p. 64; to the r. on the hill the site of the ancient Antemnae) 
and crosses the Anio (p. 268); to the 1. the Sabine and Alban 
Mts. ; Rome with the dome of St. Peter's becomes visible. A 
wide circuit round the city is described , near Porta Maggiore 
(p. 141) the so-called temple ol Minerva Medica (p. 141) is passed, 
and the central-station entered near the Thermae of Diocletian 
(PI. I, 25). Arrival in Rome see p. 83. 

From Borghetto to Rome by Civita Castellana 

and Rignano. 
From Borghetto (p. 65) the road ascends (4 2 / 3 M.) to the 
picturesquely situated Civita Castellana (Posta ; Speranza, in the 
market-place), which may best be visited from this station. Here 
lay Falerii or Falerium Vetus, the town of the Falisci, conquered 
by Camillus B. C. 396; Etruscan and Roman antiquities in the 
environs. A lofty bridge, erected in 1712, carries the road across 
a ravine, 120 ft. in depth, into the town. The bridge was over- 
thrown by an earthquake a few years ago , and has not yet been 
completely restored. This necessitates a circuit of 4 1 /-2 M. The 
ravine may, however, be crossed on foot by the robust pedestrian 
(not recommended to ladies). — The Cathedral of S. Maria dates 
from 1210; the Citadel, erected by Alexander VI. in 1500 from 
a design by Sangallo , enlarged by Julius II. and Leo X. , was 
last employed as a state-prison. Civita Castellana contains nothing 
to arrest the traveller except its picturesque situation. The deep 
ravines by which it is enclosed testify to vast volcanic convulsions. 
They contain scanty remnants of ancient walls and numerous 
Etruscan tombs hewn in the rock, especially near the citadel. 

Interesting excursion to the ruins of Falerii (pronounced Falleri) , 3 M. 

Near the citadel the Ponte del Terreno is crossed to the 1., where tombs 
honeycomb the rocks on all sides, this being the more direct route to Fa- 
lerium Novum or Colonia Junonia, founded by the Romans about 240, situated 
in the plain, 3 M. to the N. of Civita Castellana. Etruscan and Roman tombs 
are here seen side by side. The town was nearly in the form of a triangle; 
the walls are well preserved, protected by strong square towers and pene- 
trated by gates , one of which on the W. (Porta di Giove) is still in good 
condition. Another gate towards the S.E., the Pjrta del Bove, is also worthy 
of a visit; near it the theatre of Roman construction. Also the piscina and 
what is regarded as the forum, in the rear of the theatre. 

At the Porta di Giove, within the walls, is the " Abbadia di S. Marin 
of the 12th cent. In the nave antique columns ; in 1829 the roof fell in, 
but the damage has been repaired. The adjoining building contains in- 
scriptions, statues , etc. , the result of excavations made here. An amphi- 
theatre has also been recently discovered. One of the men at the farm- 
buildings may be requested to act as guide. Picturesque views from the 

Rome can be reached in one day from Civita Castellana. 

to Rome. RIGNANO. 8. Route. 67 

This route, corresponding to the ancient Via Flaminia, is 33 M. in 
length, but nearly 5 M. shorter, and moreover less hilly, than that by Nepi. 
At the same time it affords a convenient opportunity for visiting Soracte 
(3 — 4 hrs. suffice). Those who travel with a vetturino alight 2 M. before 
Eignano is reached, where the> horses may be fed. Travellers in the oppo- 
site direction order the carriage to meet them 2 M. beyond Rignano. One- 
horse carr. from Rignano to Civita (9 M.) 6—7 fr. ; guides offer their services 
for the ascent of Soracte, but may well be dispensed with. 

The road descends at the E. end of Civita Castellana to the 
deep valley of the Treja , which it gradually again quits. 2 M. 
from Rignano (7 Irom Civita) the road ascends to the 1. to the 
Soracte; pedestrians may alight here, whilst those who prefer it 
continue their route to Rignano and there obtain horses, donkeys, 
or a light conveyance (in which half the distance only can be 
performed) for the ascent. 1 M. farther is the church de' Santi 
Martiri, with Christian catacombs. 

Rignano (* Posta), a small place which boasts of a few Roman 
relics. Here Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia and their brothers and 
sisters, children of Cardinal Roderigo Borgia (Alexander VI.) were 
born. The environs are in many respects interesting to the anti- 
quarian and naturalist. 

Soracte, mentioned by Horace (Carm. I. 9 : Vides ut alta stet 
nive candidum Soracte) and Virgil (^En. 7, 785: Summi deum 
sancti custos Soractis Apollo), is now termed Monte di S. Oreste. 
the word Soracte having been erroneously written S. Oracte, and 
thence corrupted to S. Oreste. It is a limestone-ridge, descend- 
ing precipitously on both sides, extending 3—4 M. from N. W. 
to S. E., and culminating in several peaks of different heights. 
On the central and highest summit (2230 ft.) stands the church 
of S. Silvestro. On the slope which gradually descends towards 
the S. E. the village of S. Oreste is situated. Thus far the road 
is practicable for carriages, but walking or riding is far preferable. 
Leaving the miserable village to the r., the path ascends gradually 
to the 1., and in ^2 nr - tne monastery of S. Silvestro is reached, 
founded in 746 by Charleman, son of Charles Martel and brother 
of Pepin. The monks live in a very humble style; refreshments 
should be brought for the excursion if required. The summit, 
with the church and a small disused monastery, may now be 
attained in a few minutes. In ancient times a celebrated Temple 
of Apollo occupied this site. 

The **view, uninterrupted in every direction, embraces: E. the 
valley of the Tiber, the Sabina, in the background several snow- 
clad peaks of the Central Apennines, among them the Leonessa ; 
S. the Volscian and Alban Mts., then the broad Campagna, Rome, 
the sea; N. the mountains of Tolfa, the Lake of Bracciano, the 
Ciminian forest, the crater of Baccano, and numerous villages. 

Pedestrians , returning from the monastery, may descend by 
a direct path, which, although somewhat precipitous, is consider- 
ably shorter than that by S. Oreste. 


68 Route 8. NEPI. 

Beyond Rignano the road ascends slightly. After 4 M. the 
dome of St. Peter's becomes -visible. Midway between CivitSt 
Castellana and Rome is the osteria of Castel Nuovo , where the 
vetturini usually halt for a few hours to rest their horses , if no 
stay has been made at Rignano. As the district and the neigh- 
bouring village of Castel Nuovo are unattractive, a halt at Rignano 
is in every respect preferable. Beyond Castel Nuovo the road 
gradually descends to the valley of the Tiber. Remains of pave- 
ment and a few tombs indicate the course of the ancient road. 
About 16 M. beyond Castel Nuovo, 7 M. from Rome, the road 
descends to Prima Porta, where the ruins of the imperial Villa 
of Livia or ad Oallinas is situated. Here in 1863 the beautiful 
statue of Divus Augustus (in the Vatican) was found. The ex- 
cavations have since then been continued. One of the rooms 
with * mural paintings merits a visit. Near Prima Porta lies Saxa 
Rubra, a station on the ancient road ; in the plain, on the bank 
of the river, the defeat of Maxentius took place, A. D. 312. The 
road hence , remaining in the vicinity of the Tiber, is extremely 
picturesque. On the opposite bank lies Castel Giubileo, the an- 
cient Fidenae. The road soon crosses the Valchetta , the ancient 
Cremera , which descends from Veii and was the scene of the 
well-known defeat of the Fabii. 3 M. from Prima Porta is situat- 
ed a remarkable rock-tomb of the family of the ISasones. 2 M. 
farther Ponte Molle is reached , where the Via Flaminia and Via 
Cassia unite, see p. 41. 

From Civita Castellana to Rome by Nepi. Travellers are 
occasionally compelled to take this longer route, when that above described 
is under repair. This is in fact the regular post-road , which at Monteroii 
unites with that from Siena, Orvieto, and Viterbo. 

From Civita to Nepi , partly through forest , 8 M. A shorter route, for 
pedestrians or riders only , leads by the interesting Castel S. Elia , a resort 
of pilgrims. 

Nepi, the ancient Etruscan Nepete or Nepet, subsequently Colonial 
pensis, is a picturesquely situated little town, residence of a bishop, sur- 
rounded by mediaeval walls and towers. Venerable Cathedral ; Town Hall 
with Roman sculptures and inscriptions. In ancient times it was a place of 
importance, but is now in a decaying condition , principally owing to its 
destruction by the French in 1799. Falerii is 6 M., Sutri 7 M. distant from 

The road now traverses a bleak volcanic district , and a short distance 
before Monlerosi is reached unites (4 2 |3 M.) with the road from Siena to 
Rome. From Jlonterosi to Rome see p. 40. 

9. From Bologna to Rome by Ancona (Falconara) 
and Foligno. 

An express train runs daily from Bologna to Rome in 17 hrs., halting 
for l'|2 hr. at Falconara- Ancona. The other trains are also convenient. 
Fares 56 fr. 40 , 42 fr. 55 , 30 fr. 35 c. From Bologna to Ancona 4 trains 
daily in 5-7 hrs. ; fares 22 fr. 45, 18 fr., 13 fr. 50 c. 

From the railway-station on the N. side of the city , outside 
the Porta Galliera , the line runs parallel with the high-road in 

FORLI. 9. Route. 69 

the direction of the ancient Via jEmilia, and as far as Forli 
traverses fertile plains in nearly a straight direction ; in the dis- 
tance to the r. the spurs of the Apennines. Stat. Mirandola and 
Quaderna. Stat. Castel S. Pietro , on the Sillaro , with a castle 
•erected by the Bolognese in the 13th cent. 

Imola (S. Marco) , on the Santerno , the Koman Forum Cor- 
nelii, an ancient town with 10,916 inhab. and seat of a bishop 
(since 422), incorporated with the States of the Church in 1509, 
was the birthplace of St. Petrus Chrysologus , Archbishop of Ra- 
venna (d. 449). His tomb is in the cathedral of S. Cassiano, 
where the remains of the saint of that name also repose. 

The line crosses the Santerno and soon reaches stat. Castel 
Bolognese, an ancient stionghold of the Bolognese, constructed in 
1380. Branch-line hence to Ravenna. Then across the river Senio, 
the ancient Sinnus, to 

Faeuza (Corona; Posta), a town with 17,486 inhab., on the 
Lamone (ancient Anemo) , the Faventia of the Boii, celebrated for 
its pottery (whence the term ' fayence , ~) , and containing consider- 
able silk and weaving manufactories. Among the churches the 
cathedral of S. Costanzo deserves mention; it contains a *Holy 
Family by Innocenzo da Imola , and bas-reliefs by Benedetto da 
Majano. The Capuchin Monastery , outside the town , possesses 
an admirable picture by Guido Reni, a * Madonna and St. John. 
In S. Maglorio a * Madonna , attributed to Oiorgione , more pro- 
bably by Girolamo da Treviso. By the latter a fresco (1533), 
Madonna with saints , in the Commenda (in the Borgo) , where 
there is also a Collection of Pictures by native masters , such as 
Bertucci etc. 

The *Palazzo Comunale was in the 15th cent, the scene of 
the murder of Galeotto Manfred; by his jealous wife Francesca 
Bentivoglio; the grated window in the centre, where the deed 
was perpetrated, is still shown. 

In 1782 the Canale Zanelli was constructed from Faenza to the Po di 
Primaro near <S. Alberto, in order to connect the town with the Adriatic. 

A good road leads from Faenza to Ravenna (diligence 3 times weekly), 
and another by Marradi and Borgo S. Lorenzo to Florence (corriere daily; 
diligence 3 times weekly in 12 hrs. ; office, Corso 68). 

The line intersects the plain in a straight direction; the La- 
mone is crossed ; then the Montone, which falls into the Adriatic 
not far from Ravenna. 

Forli (Posta), the ancient Forum Livii, a well-built town with 
17,723 inhab., was till 1848 the seat of the cardinal-legate. 

The * Cathedral of S. Croce contains a chapel of the Madonna 
del Fuoco ; in the dome * frescoes by Carlo Cignani : Assumption 
of the Virgin. A Ciborium from a design by Michael Angelo , a 
casket of relics of the 13th cent., and the sculptures of the prin- 
cipal door of the 15th cent, are worthy of notice. 

S. Girolamo contains a * Madonna with angels, by Guido Reni; 

70 Route 9. RIMINI. From Bologna 

in the 1st chapel to the r. frescoes by Melozzo and Palmezzano. 
— iS. Mercuriale possesses a * painting by Innocenzo da Imola, 
sculptures of 1536, and several good pictures by Marco Palmez- 
zano , an artist of this town. On a house adjacent to the 
'spezeria', or shop of the druggist Morandi, are remains of fine 
frescoes by Melozzo da Forli (about 1470). The Pinacoteca con- 
tains good pictures by Marco Palmezzano, Fra Angelico , Lorenzo 
di Credi, etc. The * Piazza with the Palazzo Comunale and other 
edifices deserves a visit. The Citadel, constructed in 1361, now 
serves as a prison. 

A road leads from Forli on the 1. bank of the Ronco to Ravenna (about 
15 M.). Another through the Apennines by Rocca S. Casciano and S. Bene- 
detto to Florence; diligence 3 times weekly, corriere daily at noon. 

The line to Rimini crosses the .Ronco and passes stat. Forlim- 
popoli, the ancient Forum Popilii ; to the r. on the hill Bertinoro 
with its productive vineyards ; then via Polenta and across the 
Savio (Sapis) to the town of 

Cesena (*Posta or Leone Bianco), with 8000 inhab., charm- 
ingly situated. In the Piazza is the handsome * Palazzo Pubblko 
with a statue of Pius VI., who was born at Cesena in 1717. In 
the interior a * Madonna with saints, by Francesco Francia. The 
Capuchin Church possesses a line picture by Guercino. The "Library, 
founded in 1452 by Domenico Malatesta Novello, contains 4000MSS. 

On an eminence , */2 M. distant, stands the handsome church 
of *8. Maria del Monte, a work of Bramante, and a Benedictine 
monastery. Productive sulphur-mines in the vicinity, towards the S. 

The line crosses the stream Pisciatello, which bears the name 
of Vrgone in its upper course and is here identical with the cele- 
brated Rubicon crossed by Caesar in his march against Rome. On 
the road between Cesena and Savignano stands a column bearing a 
decree of the Roman senate , threatening to punish those who 
should unbidden venture to cross the Rubicon. Montesquieu re- 
garded this as genuine, but it is doubtless of modern origin. 

Before Rimini is reached, the five-arched *Bridge of Augustus, 
one of the finest existing ancient works of this description, crosses 
the Marecchia, the ancient Ariminus. Here the Via ^Emilia united 
with the Via Flaminia which led to Rome. 

Rimini (* Tre Re) , the ancient Ariminum , a town of the 
I'mbri and a Roman colony , belonged during the exarchate to 
the Pentapolis Maritima. It is situated on the estuary of the 
Marecchia and Ausa, possesses 17,000 inhab., fisheries, and silk- 
manufactories, and has recently come into notice as a tea-bathing 
place. The * Porta Romana , of travertine, and adorned with 
sculptures, erected, as the inscription records, to commemorate 
the completion of the road by the Emp. Augustus, deserves parti- 
cular attention. Near the Cappuccini are the supposed remains of 
an amphitheatre. From the stone Basement in the market-place 
Caesar is said to have harangued the army after the passage of 

to Rome. PESAEO. 9. Route. 71 

the Rubicon. The old harbour of Rimini at the mouth of the 
Marecchia, now filled with sand, is employed by numerous fishing- 
boats only. The following churches are interesting: 

*S. Francesco (Duomo, Tempio dei Malatesta), of the 14th 
cent., in the Ital. Gothic style, restored in 1420 from designs 
by Leo Battista Alberti. The chapels contain several fine sculptures 
and frescoes. 

S. Giuliano, with altar-piece by Paolo Veronese, and an ancient 
picture by Lattanzio della Marca. — <S. Girolamo, with *picture 
of the saint by Guercino. — The Palazzo del Comune possesses 
an altar-piece by Domenico del Ghirlandajo, and a Pieta by Gio- 
vanni Bellini (about 1470). The Palazzo Diottoleri also contains 
several fine pictures. The Library, founded in 1617 by the 
jurist Gambalunga, contains 23,000 vols, and MSS. The dilapi- 
dated Castle of the Malatesta , now the citadel , still bears traces 
of the roses and elephants of the family escutcheon. From the 
history of the Malatestas Dante derived the episode of 'Fran- 
cesco da Rimini' in the 5th canto of the Inferno. 

In the Castello di S. Leo , 18 51. to the W. of Rimini , the notorious 
Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo) died in confinement in 1794. From S. Leo 
a bridle-path, much frequented by fishermen, leads to Florence by Camal- 
doli and Vallombrosa, traversing picturesque ravines. 

A somewhat shorter excursion may be made to the ancient republic 
of San Marino, the smallest in the world, said to have been founded in 
an inaccessible wilderness by St. Marinus at the time of the persecutions 
of the Christians under Diocletian. This diminutive state braved all the 
storms of mediseval warfare, and even the ambition of Napoleon. It retained 
its ancient constitution till 1847 , when its senate was converted into a 
chamber of deputies. The precipitous rock in a bleak district on which 
the town (1000 inhab.) is situated is reached by one road only from Rimini. 
The village of Sorgo at the base is the residence of the wealthier inhabitants. 
A cavern, through which a perpetual current of cold air passes, is an ob- 
ject of curiosity. The celebrated epigraphist and numismatist Bartolommeo 
Borghesi, born at Savignano in 1781, was from 1821 until his death in 1860, 
a resident at S. Marino , where he arranged and described his admirable 
collections, and received visits from foreign savants. 

Beyond Rimini the line skirts the coast, passes 8. Martina 
and S. Lorenzo . crosses the streams Marano and Conca (the 
Crustumium Rapax of Lucan) , and reaches stat. La Cattolica, 
so called from having been the residence of the Rom. Catholic 
bishops during the Council held at Rimini in 359. The line 
crosses the Tavollo and passes the Villa Vittoria, situated on the 
1. side of the road to Rimini, once occupied by Queen Caroline 
of England when Princess of Wales. Crossing the Foglia , the 
ancient Isaurus or Pisaurus, the train now reaches 

Pesaro (Leone d'Oro; Italia; Caffe Nazionale, and della Piazza), 
the ancient Pisaurum (19,900 inhab. J, capital of the united pro- 
vinces of Pesaro and Urbino, and formerly appertaining to the 
Pentapolis Maritima. It was a Roman colony as early as B. C. 184, 
was destroyed by Totilas, and rebuilt by Belisarius. It was sub- 
sequently ruled over by the Malatesta family, then by the Sforza, 

72 Route 9. URBINO. From Bologna 

and later by the della Rovere , dukes of Urbino , under whom, 
especially through the influence of Lucrezia d'Este , it became a 
great centre of art and literature , and was Tisited by Bernardo 
and Torquato Tasso. In 1621 the town was annexed to the States 
of the Church. 

Pesaro was the birthplace of the celebrated composer Gioacchino 
Rossini (b. 1789. d. at Paris 1868), the 'swan of Pesaro'. A 
bronze statue (on the traveller's r. as he quits the station) was 
erected to him in 1864 by two admiring friends. Baron Salamanca 
of Madrid, and M. Delahaute of Paris. The monument is also 
visible from the railway. 

The ancient palace of the Dukes of Urbino , with a magni- 
ficent hall, is now the seat of the authorities. In front of it are 
marble statues of Rossini and Perticari. 

The Foglia is crossed by a Bridge of Roman origin. 

Among the churches may be mentioned: S. Francesco, with a 
* Coronation of the Virgin by Giovanni Bellini ; S. Cassiano, with 
a St. Barbara by Simone da Pesaro ; S. Giovanni de' Riformati, 
with a badly restored altar-piece by Guercino. 

The Biblioteca Olivieri contains 13,000 vols, and 600 MSS. 
Adjacent to it is a small Museum of Antiquities. The Ospizio 
degli Incurabili possesses an attractive collection of majolica- 
vases ; in the Palazzo Astico are the Marmora Pisaurensia , de- 
scribed by Giordani in 1738. The treasures of art of which 
Pesaro formerly boasted have long since been transferred to Rome 
and Paris. 

Near Pesaro is Monte S. Bartolo, where the Roman dramatist L. Attius 
is said to have been born and to be interred. Beyond it lies L'Imperiale, 
once a favourite villa of the dukes , erected by Leonora Gonzaga , praised 
by Tasso, and adorned with frescoes by Raffaele del Colle, but abandoned 
to decay since the 18th cent. In the vicinity is the church of the Girolami- 
lani, with an unfortunately damaged picture of St. Jerome by Giovanni 
Santi. One of the finest prospects in the environs is obtained from an 
eminence behind the monastery. 

An excursion to Urbino may most easily be accomplished from Pesaro. 
Diligence daily at 7 a. m. from Urbino to Pesaro in 5 — 6 hrs. , returning 
on the arrival of the afternoon trains (fare 2 — 3 fr.). The road leads through 
the valley of the Foglia, which falls into the sea at Pesaro, to Montecchio, 
and then gradually ascends by the brook which falls into the Foglia. 

TJrbino (Italia) , the ancient Urbinum iletaurense , deriving its name 
from the neighbouring Metaurus , lies on an abrupt cliff , surrounded by 
barren mountains. The town (8000 inhab.) boasts of a university with as 
many professors as students. Its monuments and historical associations are 

In the 13th cent, the town came into the possession of the Afontefeltro 
family, and under Federigo Montefeltro and his son Guidobaldo in the 15th 
cent, attained to such prosperity as entirely to eclipse the neighbouring 
courts of the Malatestas at Rimini and the Sforzas at Pesaro. Federigo 
Montefeltro, who distinguished himself as a condottiere in the feuds of the 
loth cent., in 1474 married his daughter to Giovanni della Rovere, a nephew 
of Si.xtus IV., and was in consequence created Duke of TJrbino. In this 
capacity he acquired a well-merited reputation as a patron of science and 
art, and Urbino was styled the 'Italian Athens'. His example was followed 
ty his son Guidobaldo I. , zealously seconded by his duchess , the beautiful 

to Rome. URBINO. 9. Route. 73 

and accomplished Elizabeta Gonzaga. Guidobaldo was in 1497 expelled by 
Caesar Borgia, but after the death of Alexander VI. returned in triumph to 
Urbino , where he was visited during three festive days by his relative 
Julius II. (who now became Pope 1503—13), while on his route to Bo- 
logna. On this occasion the latter became acquainted with the youthful 
Raphael Santi , who (born March 28th, 1483, at Urbino) at tirst studied 
under the guidance of his lather, the master Giovanni Santi, subsequently 
under the celebrated Pietro Vannucci (Perugino) at Perugia, and in 1504 went 
to Florence to perfect himself by the study of the works of Leonardo da 
Vinci and Michael Angela Buonarotti. On the death of Duke Guidobaldo in 
1508, Julius II. summoned Raphael to Rome to decorate the Stanza della 
Segnatura with frescoes. Under Julius and his successor Leo X. Raphael 
acquired the reputation of the greatest painter of the day, and died April 
6th, 1520. For the development of his genius, however, "he was in a great 
measure indebted to the munificent patronage of the court of Urbino. Here 
Count Balthasar Castiglione wrote his 'Cortegiano', the ideal of a courtier; 
here, also, the erudite Polydorus Vergilius resided , and the artist Federigo 
Baroccio , who distinguished himself at Rome as a successful imitator of 
Raphael, was a native o! Urbino (b. 1553) , where he died in 1612. In 
1626 the duchy wes incorporated with the States of the Church, when 
Urban VIII. persuaded the last and childless Duke Francesco Maria II. to 

The town still contains much that recals its pristine splendour. The 
"Ducal Palace, erected by Luziono di Lauranna in 1468 by order of Federigo 
Montefeltro, was at that period regarded as the finest structure of the de- 
scription in Italy , and is still a most interesting example of the early Re- 
naissance, remarkable for its symmetrical proportions and the rich decoration 
of its halls, windows, buttresses, chimney pieces (by Francesco di Giorgio and 
Ambrogio Baroccio, ancestor of the painter of that name), etc. On the stair 
tLe statue of Duke Frederick. The library of the palace and other collections 
were transferred to Rome. The corridors contain a considerable collection 
of well-arranged inscriptions from Rome and the Umbrian municipia, estab- 
lished by the epigraphist Fabretti. 

The " Cathedral possesses good pictures, by Federigo Baroccio, of St. Se- 
bastian and the Eucharist, by Timoteo della Vile of St. Martin and Thomas 
a Becket, with a portrait of the duke. 

S. Francesco contains pictures by Giovanni Santi, a Madonna with St. John 
the Baptist, St. Sebastian, St. Jerome, and St. Francis, with three kneeling 
figures of the donors, members of the Ruffi family (not of the family of 
Raphael, as was formerly believed); St. Rochus and Tobias by Timoteo della 
Vtie: also monuments of the princes of Urbino. 

S. Francesco di Paola, with two pictures of Titian , the Resurrection and 
Eucharist. — S. Giuseppe with a "Madonna, by Timoteo della Yite , and (in 
the oratario) a copy of Raphael's Sposalizio", by Andrea Vrbani. — The 
Oratorio of the Confraternity di S. Giovanni is covered with paintings by 
Lorenzo da S. Severino and his brother, of the school of Giotto , History of 
the Virgin and John the Baptist. — The college near S. Agata contains an 
interesting picture by Justus van Ghent, a pupil of Van Eyck, of 1474. — 
In the church of ' S. Bernardino , 3 ; 4 M. from the town , are the tombs of 
the Dukes Federigo and Guidobaldo; in the sacristy 13 painted panels, by 
Antonio di Ferrieri (1435), and the Dead Christ by Giovanni Santi. 

Raphael's House is indicated by an inscription over the door. On one 
of the walls is seen a Madonna with sleeping Child , long regarded as an 
early production of Raphael, but ascertained to have been executed by his 
father Giovanni Santi. It is proposed to erect in his native town a monu- 
ment worthy of the great master, for which purpose a committee has for 
some years existed. 

In the Theatre, formerly celebrated for its decorations by Girolamo 
Genga, the first Italian comedy was performed. This was the Calandra of 
Cardinal Bibbiena (or rather Bernardo Divizio of Bibbiena in the Casentino, 
b. 1470, d. at Rome 1520), the friend of Pope Leo X. and patron of Raphael. 

From the height of the Fortezza an interesting - survey of the sterile 
chain of the Apennines may be made. 

74 Route 9. SINIGAGLIA. From Bologna 

From Urbino to Fossombrone (p. 75) diligence daily in 3 hrs. 

From Pesaro to Ancona the line skirts the coast, occasionally 
approaching within a few paces of the sea , of which a pleasant 
view is afforded. 

Fano (*Il Moro ; Tre Re), the Fanum Fortunae of antiquity, 
a cheerful little town , surrounded by ancient walls and deep 
fosse, as a watering-place more unpretending than Rimini. 

The principal curiosity is the * Triumphal Arch of Augustus, 
embellished with columns by Constantine. The harbour, once 
celebrated, is now insignificant. 

Churches : * Cathedral of 8. Fortunato , the four recumbent 
lions in front of which formerly supported the pjllars of the 
portico. In the interior the chapel of S. Girolamo (the 2nd to 
the 1.) contains a monument of the Rainalducci family; nearly 
opposite (4th to the r.) is a chapel adorned with 16 frescoes by 
Domenichino , once admirable , now disfigured by restoration. In 
the chapel of the sacristy a Madonna with two saints, by Lodovico 
Caracci. — S. Maria Nuova possesses two fine paintings by 
Pietro Perugino. — «S. Paterniano , with the Espousals of the 
Virgin by Ouercino. — S. Pietro, with frescoes by Viviani; in 
the chapel of the Gabrielli the Annunciation by Ouido Reni. 

The Collegio Folfi contains David with the head of Goliath 
by Domenichino, and copies of his frescoes in the cathedral. 

From Fano to Gubbio and F o 1 i g n o see below. 

Beyond Fano the line crosses the river Metaurus, celebrated 
as tl.e scene of Hasdrubal's defeat (B. C. 207); then, a short 
distance before stat. Marotto, it crosses the Cessano, and reaches 

Sinigaglia (Locanda della Formica), the Sena Gallica of the 
ancients, with 10,500 inhab. The town was destroyed by Pompey 
during the Social War between Marius and Sulla, and also suffer- 
ed frequent devastation during the middle-ages , so that it now 
presents quite a modern appearance. Pope Pius IX. (Conte Mastai- 
Ferretti) was born here (May 13th, 1792); also the celebrated 
singer Angelica Catalani (1784, d. at Paris July 13th, 1849). A 
fair which has been established for 600 years, is held here from 
July 30th to August 8th annually. 

Stat. Case Bruciate. The train crosses the Esino and reaches 
stat. Falconara, where the line branches off to Rome and Ancona. 
For the description of the town and continuation of the journey 
see R. 11. 

From Fano to Foligno and Rome via Gubbio. 

The high-road which connects Rome with the Valley of the Po traverses 
the Vmbrian plains of Terni and Spoleto, and then ascends the valley of 
the Topino and the Chiascio , until it reaches its culminating point on the 
Apennines. Descending on the E. side of that range it follows the course 
of the Metaurus to its mouth at Fano , after which it skirts the coast and 
leads >> T . to Bologna and the valley of the Po. It is identical with the an- 
cient Via Fl a mi met, constructed E. C. 220 by the Censor C. Flaminius 

to Rome. FOSSOMBRONE. 9. Route. 75 

(who subsequently fell at the Battle of the Trasimene Lake , see p. 50) , in 
order to secure the possession of the district of the Po which had been at 
that time wrested from the Gauls. This road is still one of the most im- 
portant channels of local traffic in Central Italy, but since the completion 
of the Apennine Railway from Bologna to Florence, and the recently opened 
line from Ancona to Rome (R. 11) , has been little frequented by tourists. 
It is , however , replete with natural attractions , and affords the traveller 
an opportunity of becoming acquainted with several towns which merit a 
visit on account of their monuments and historical associations. The most 
interesting points are Urbino , Gubbio , and the route across the Apennines 
from Fossombrone to La Schieggia. 

From Bologna to Fano railway in 3 3 jt hrs. ; fares 17 fr. 30, 13 fr. 85, 
10 fr. 40 c. From Fano to Fossalo (54 M.) corriere daily in about 10 hrs. 
From Fossalo to Foligno railway in 2 hrs. ; fares 4 fr. 60, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 30 c. 
From Foligno to Rome railway in 7—8 hrs. ; fares 19 fr. 65, 12 fr. 50, 9 fr. 
70 c. — From Fano diligence twice weekly to Perugia by Schieggia and 
Gubbio ; thence diligence twice daily to Foligno (see p. 58). 

The road to Foligno , the ancient Via Flaminia , leads on the 
N. bank of the Metaurus , the fertile valley of which is well 
cultivated, to Fossombrone, 17 M. distant. About 1 M. from the 
latter, near the church of S. Martino al Piano, was once situated 
the Roman colony ot' Forum Sempronii, of which but scanty remains 
now exist. After its destruction by the Goths and Lombards, it 
was superseded by 

Fossombrone iPosta), long under the dominion of the Mala- 
testa family, until under Sixtus IV. it accrued to the States of 
the Church. It is now a prosperous little town with 4500 inhab. 
and silk-factories , charmingly situated in the valley , which here 
contracts , and commanded by a castle on the height above. An- 
cient inscriptions on the cathedral , in the Seminary etc. may be 
inspected. From Fossombrone to Urbino see p. 74; the road di- 
verges to the r. at Calmazzo, 2 M. from Fossombrone. The Via 
Flaminia here crosses the Metaurus, which descends from the 
valley near S. Angelo in Vado from the N., and follows the 1. 
bank of the Candigliano , which at this point empties itself into 
the Metaurus. The valley soon contracts; to the r. rises the hill of 
Pietralata, occasionally named Monte d'Asdrubale. Here according 
to the popular tradition , the memorable Battle of the Metaxirus 
was fought, in which, B. C. 207, Hasdrubal, whilst marching to 
the aid of his brother Hannibal with 60,000 men, was signally 
defeated and slain by the consuls Livius Salinator and Claudius 
Nero. This was the great event which decided the 2nd Punic "War 
in favour of Rome. The valley now becomes still more confined. 
At the narrowest portion, where the rocky walls approach so near 
each other as to leave space for the river only, is the celebrated 
*FurloPass (Furlo from forulus = passage, the ancient petra in- 
tercisa), a tunnel 19 ft. broad. 16 ft. high and 40 yds. in length. 
The originator of the work was the Emp. Vespasian , as the in- 
scription preserved at the N. entrance records (Imp. Caesar. Au- 
gustus. Vespasianus. pont. max. trib. pot. VII. imp. XXVIII. 
cos. VIII. censor, faciund. curavit.). A short distance beyond it 

76 Route 9. CAGLI. 

stands the small church Badia del Furlo. 9 M. from Fossom- 
brone, at the confluence of the Candigliano and Burano, is situated 
the village of Acqualagna. The road crosses the Candigliano and 
thenceforward follows the 1. bank of the Burano. From this point 
to the lofty Cagli about 6 M. At the foot of the hill on which 
the latter is situated, an antique bridge, consisting of huge masses 
of rock, crosses a tributary book. 

Cagli (Posta , in the Piazza , charges according to bargain), 
a small town with about 3000 inhab. , occupies the site of the 
ancient borough of Cales or Calle. S. Domenico contains one of 
the greatest works of Giovanni Santi, Raphael's father, a Madonna 
with, saints, al fresco. The angel on the r. of the Madonna is 
said to be a portrait of the young Raphael. There is also a Pieta 
with St. Jerome and Bonaventura, by the same master. S. Fran- 
cesco and S. Angelo Minore also possess good pictures. 

From Cagli to Cantiano 6 M. ; in the church della Collegiata 
a Holy Family by Perugino. 

Hence to La Schieggia 8 M. The road ascends considerably; 
culminating point iipwards of 2400 ft. Schieggia is an insigni- 
ficant place , deriving its sole importance from the roads which 
here converge. On Monte Petrara, in the vicinity, stand the 
ruins of the celebrated temple of Jupiter Apenninus , whose 
worship was peculiar to the Umbrians. Several bronzes and in- 
scriptions have been discovered in the environs. The strange- 
looking Ponte a Botte (a cylinder above an arch), which here 
crosses a ravine, was constructed in 1805. Picturesque oak- 
plantations in the neighbourhood. 

At La Schieggia the road divides : the ancient Via Flaminia 
descends to Foligno , another to Gubbio and Perugia. Descent 
from Schieggia to Gubbio 8 M. ; from Gubbio a route of 13 M. 
back to the Via Flaminia (2 M. above Gualdo Tadino , p. 81), 
so that the digression by Gubbio ior those proceeding to Foligno 
does not amount to more than 6 — 7 M. Another road leads (8 M.) 
from Schieggia to Fossato (p. 81). A single traveller without 
luggage may obtain a seat in the post-conveyance from Schieggia 
to Gubbio. 

Gubbio (Locanda di Spernichia) is situated at the base of 
Monte Calvo, in a valley surrounded by mountains. The town 
('6000 inhab.) presents an entirely mediaeval aspect, and the 
proximity of the Apennines imparts to it a more severe character 
than that of most Italian towns. 

The ancient Iguvium , mentioned by Cicero and Caesar , ex- 
tended farther towards the plain. It was destroyed bj» the Goths, 
was in 1155 besieged by the Emp. Frederick I., became an in- 
dependent state , subsequently belonged to the duchy of Urbino, 
and with it finally accrued to the States of the Church. A branch 
of the Umbrian school of painting flourished here, of which the 

GUBBIO. 9. Route. 11 

principal representatives were Sinibaldo lbi, Ottaviano and Tom- 
maso Xelli , and Nucci. Majolica-painting also attained a high 
degree of perfection here. 

The * Palazzo del Comune, an imposing edifice erected in 
1332 — 1340 by Mntteo di Giooantlli of Gubbio, surnamed Gatta- 
pone, is at present disused. *View from the tower. 

The * Ducal Palace, by Luciano Lauranna , the architect of 
the palace at Urbino, is constructed in a similar style. 

The * Cathedral of 8. Mariano e Jacopo Martire contains fine 
pictures and carving; a Madonna with !■>. Ubaldo and S. Sebastian 
by Sinibaldo lbi. 

S. Maria Novella , with a Madonna by Ottaviano Nelli and 
frescoes by Gentile da Fabriano. The other churches (S. Pietro, 
8. Francesco, S. Domenico) also contain valuable pictures. 

The collections of the Marchese Rangiasci-Brancaleoni in his 
palace in the upper part of the town, comprising pictures, anti- 
quities, etc., merit a visit. 

Outside the town are numerous ruins, among which a theatre, 
excavated a few years ago , appears to date from the republican 
period. Amidst its ruins the * Eugubian Tables, now preserved 
in the Palazzo Municipale, were found in 1440. They are of 
bronze and bear inscriptions, 4 in Umbrian, 2 in Latin, and 1 in 
Latin and Umbrian , which have long baffled the investigation of 
the learned. Their language as well as contents have given rise 
to the most conflicting doubts , which according to the works of 
Maffei, Lanzi, Lepsius, Aufrecht, and Kirchhoff have not yet been 
solved. The characters are read from r. to 1. 

The celebrated miniature-painter Oderisi, termed by Dante in 
his Purgatorio (11,80) Tonor d'Agobbio', was a native of Gubbio 
(d. about 1300). 

The road to Perugia (23 M.) first traverses the plain of Gubbio 
and then a bleak , uninteresting , hilly district , until it reaches 
the valley of the Tiber at Busco. It then crosses the Tiber near 
Felcino, and ascends to Perugia, which i enters by the Porta del 
^ole. Perugia, and from Perugia to Foligno, see p. 49. 

The direct route from Schieggia ;o Foligno follows the grassy 
valley of the Chiascio as far as the small town of Sigillo. Sta- 
lactite-cavern in the vicinity. 3 M. farther is Fossato, a station 
on the Rome and Ancona line. Hence to Foligno see p. 81 ; from 
Foligno to Rome p. 59. 

10. From Trieste to Ancona. 

Steamboats of the Austrian Lloyd (Office in the Tergesteo, Via 
del Teatro) once weekly (Tuesdays at 4 p. m.) on their route to Greece 
and the Levant; average passage to Ancona 15 hrs. Fares 1st cl. 17, 
2nd cl. 12 florins Austr. currency (1 fl. = 2>l 2 fr.); food extra (D. exc' 
W. 1 fl.). The vessels are clean and well fitted up, the service regular. 
Embarcation without additional expense at the Molo S. Carlo. — Italian 

78 Route 10. TRIESTE. 

vessels of the Societa Peirano Damovaro e Comp. leave every Monday at 10 
a. m. via Venice (where they stop l'|2 day) for Ancona, arriving there early 
on Thursday. 

Trieste. Hotels. Hotel de la Ville, formerly Hotel Kational, 
R. lif 2 fl., L. 40, B. 70, A. 40 kr. (10 kreuzers = 2'j 2 d. Engl.); "Grand 
Hotel; Victoria Hotel; Hotel de l'Aigle Noir; Hotel de 
France, good restaurant, beer; Albergo Daniel (Eliseo), tolerable 
restaurant, beer. 

Cafes. Hotel de la Ville (see above); Specchi, Piazza Grande; 
Caffe al Vecchio Tommaso, near the Hotel de la Ville. 

Restaurants, see above; also Toni, Zum Tiroler, both in the old 
town. Solder's Garden below the fort, beautiful view of the town and 
sea, music 2—3 times weekly. 

Carriage from the station to the town, one-horse 50 kr., two-horse 1 fl., 
at night 20 kr. more ; in the town '| 4 hr. 30—45 kr. , >| z hr. 50-80 kr., 
3| 4 hr. 75 kr. or 1 fl. 10 kr., 1 hr. 1 fl. or 1 fl. 30 kr., every additional i| 4 hr. 
20 — 30 kr. ; luggage 20 kr. ; drive in the town for 1—2 pers. usually 30 kr. 

Description of the town and its objects of interest see Part I. 
of this Handbook (Northern Italy). 

As the harbour is quitted a retrospect of the charming situation 
of Trieste is obtained. To the N. appears the chateau of Miramax, 
once the property of the ill-fated Emp. Maximilian of Mexico. 
To the S.E. the undulating, olive-clad coast of Istria; in the bay 
Capo d'Istria with an extensive house of correction. On an 
eminence the church of Pirano , supported by arches ; the town 
(9000 inhab.) with its saltworks is picturesquely situated in a 
bay. Here the Venetians conquered the fleet of Frederick I. and 
took his son Otho prisoner. 

The following points now become visible in succession: the 
lighthouse of Salvore ; Vmago ; the chateau of Daila, property of 
the Counts of Grisoni ; Cittanova ; Parenzo , with remarkable ca- 
thedral, a basilica of 961 , a town where 600 years ago the cru- 
saders generally made their first halt; on an island the watch- 
tower and deserted monastery of S. Niccol'o ; Orsera , once an 
episcopal residence, situated on an eminence. In the distance to 
the E. rises Monte Maggiore (4672 ft.). The vessel gradually 
leaves the coast behind; Rovigno, a place of some importance, is 
the last point which is faintly distinguished. 

Early on the following morning the Italian coast is approached; 
on the spurs of the Apennines the towns of Pesaro , Fano , and 
Sinigaglia become visible ; the vessel soon enters the harbour of 
Ancona (see below). Landing or embarcation 1 fr. for each person 
with luggage. 

11. From Ancona to Rome. 

Railwav in 13'| 4 hrs. ; fares 33 fr. 95, 24 fr. 65, 16 fr. 85 c. ; to Foligno 
(14 fr. 20, 9 fr. 95, and 7 fr. 10 c.) in 5 hrs., where a halt of '| 2 hr. is made. 
Ancona (La Pace, near the harbour, table d'hote 3'ls fr., omnibus 
1 fr. , facchino 50 c. ; Vittoria, Strada Calamo , with 'trattoria, R. and 
L. 2, A. i( 2 fr. ; Caffe del Commercio, near the theatre, 1st floor; 
Caffe Dorico, opp. the Exchange; 'Birraria e Caffe Glaenzer, in 

' ,j^ A? :,r v JZd .Wagner, Dorm 
..Tit alii OTie della-F^rrt 

ANCONA. 11. Route. 79 

the Corso Vittorio Emanuele ; Austr. Lloyd Office , Contrada del Porto 30 ; 
Post Office , Str. Calamo ; Fiacre from the station i fr. , incl. luggage , at 
night l'|» fr.), the Ancon of the Greeks, i. e. 'elbow', from the 
form of the promontory, whence to the present day an elbow 
forms part of the armorial bearings of the town , is beautifully 
situated between the promontories of Monte Ciriaco and Monte 
Conero , or M. Guasco , and possesses an excellent harbour. It 
is the residence of a military commandant, and has a population 
of 46,000, of whom 6000 are Jews. As Ancona is a free harbour, 
luggage is examined at the gates on departure from the town. 
Ancona is celebrated for the beauty of its women. 

Ancona was founded by Doric Greeks from Syracuse , whence it was 
termed Dorica Ancon by Juvenal (Sat. IV. 40). Subsequently a Roman colo- 
ny, it was furnished by Trajan with an enlarged quay. In the middle ages 
it repeatedly recovered from the ravages of the Goths and others, and in 
1532 came into the possession of Pope Clement VII. through the instrumenta- 
lity of Gonzaga. Ancona is also frequently mentioned as a fortress in the 
annals of modern warfare. Thus in 1796 it was surrendered to the French, 
in 1799 to the Austrians, in 1805 to the French again ; in 1815 it was ceded 
to the pope , to whom it belonged till 1860. In 1832 — 38 the citadel was 
garrisoned by the French (under the Perier ministry) , in order to keep in 
check the Austrians, who were in possession of Bologna and the surround- 
ing provinces. In 1849 the town was the scene of many excesses , and on 
June 18th was re-captured by the Austrians. On Sept. 20th, 1860, after the 
Battle of Castelfidardo, it was finally occupied by the Italians. 

On the old quay the marble * Triumphal Arch, erected A. D. 
112 by the Roman senate in honour of Trajan on the completion 
of the new wharf, as the inscription records, is still standing. It 
is perhaps the finest ancient work of this description which is 
preserved to us. Traces of the bronze decorations with which it 
was once embellished are still distinguished. 

The new quay, constructed by Pope Clement XII., also boasts 
of a triumphal arch , from designs by Vanvitelli , but far inferior 
to the above-mentioned. The harbour is defended by several forts. 

The * Cathedral of S. Ciriaco, dedicated to the first bishop of 
Ancona , stands on a lofty site , once occupied by the Temple of 
Venus mentioned by Catullu3 (36 , 13) and Juvenal (IV. 40), 
and contains the magnificent columns which once appertained to 
the ancient temple. The structure was begun in the 10th cent., 
the facade is of the 13th. The foremost columns of the beautiful 
Gothic portico rest on red lions. The octagonal dome is reputed 
the oldest in Italy. A crypt in the r. transept contains the * Sar- 
cophagus of Titus Gorgonius, Praetor of Ancona, and some Christ- 
ian Antiquities ; in the other transepts are the tombs of St. Cyria- 
cus, Marcellinus, and Liberius. Within a house in the vicinity, scan- 
ty remains of a Roman amphitheatre. The churches of S. Francesco 
and S. Agostino possess Gothic vestibules , and that of S. Maria 
delta Piazza, built in the Romanesque style, is also well worth 
notice. The Loggia de' Mercanti (Exchange), designed by Tibaldi, 
has a Moorish aspect. The Palazzo del Governo contains a smali 
picture-gallery. In the Piazza di S. Domenko stands a marble 

80 Routt 11. FABRIANO. From Ancona 

statue of Pope Clement XII. (Corsini, 1730 — 40), the especial 
benefactor of the town. 

From the piazza of the theatre the new and well paved Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele ascends E. to the spacious Piazza Cavour, in 
the centre of which rises a colossal statue of the count, erected 
in 1868. 

The train runs on the rails of the Ancona and Bologna line, 
which with the old high-road skirts the coast (r. a beautiful re- 
trospect of the town and harbour), as far as stat. Falconara , si- 
tuated on an eminence to the 1. Here it diverges S. "W. into the 
valley of the Esino (Lat. JEsis), which it soon crosses at, stat. 
Chiaravalle, a small town with 3500 inhab. The following stat. is 

Jesi, now one of the most prosperous manufacturing towns of 
the province, the ancient ALsis , where the Emp. Frederick II., 
the illustrious son of Henry VI. and Constantia of Sicily, and 
grandson of Frederick Barbarossa, was born on Dec. 26th, 1194. 
The cathedral is dedicated to the martyr S. Septimius, who was 
the first bishop of the place in 308. Jesi was also the birthplace 
of the composer O. Spontini (b. 1778, d. 1851). 

The valley gradually contracts ; the line crosses the river twice. 
Stat. Castel Planio. Beyond stat. Serra S. Quirico , near Monte 
Rosso , the mountains approach so nearly together as barely to 
leave room for the road, which here passes through a wild ravine, 
freqi.ently endangered by falling rocks. The railway penetrates 
Monto Rosso by a long tunnel , crosses the river repeatedly, and 
at length reaches the pleasant valley of 

Fabriano (Leon d' Oro ; Campana) , a prosperous town with 
7500 inhab., remarkable for its paper-manufactories, and situat- 
ed in the vicinity of the ancient Tuficum and Attidium, towns long 
since destroyed. The Town Hall contains ancient inscriptions; the 
Campanile opposite bears an absurdly extravagant inscription with 
regard to the unity of Italy. The churches of S. Niccolb, S.Bene- 
detto, S. Agostino , and S. Lucia, as well as the private houses 
Casa Morichi and Fornari, contain pictures of the school of paint- 
ing which flourished here. Gentile da Fabriano, the greatest master 
of the school , is remarkable for the softness and delicacy of his 
style. The Marchese Possenti possesses a collection of objects in 
ivory, which well merits a visit. 

From Fabriano 10 M. to Matelica, a town with 4000 inhab. ; the church 
of S. Francesco contains an altar-piece by Melozzo da Forli , and the Pal. 
Piersanti a small picture-gallery. From Matelica to Caraerino 3 M., to San 
Severino 12 M. 

From Fabriano a good mountain-road (9 M.) leads by the picturesque 
La Oenga to the lofty Sassoferrato, situated in a fertile valley, consisting 
of the upper and lower town , with 2000 inhab. , and possessing interesting 
churches and pictures. Giambattisla Salvi , surnamed Sassoferrato , wm 
born here in 1605. He afterwards became celebrated as an historical pain- 
ter under the guidance of Doiuenichino and Guido Reni at Rome, and was 
especially noted for the beauty of his Madonnas. He died at Rome in 1685. 
His works show that he had carefully studied the older masters, especially 

to Rome. MACERATA. 11. Route. 81 

Raphael. S. Pielro contains a Madonna by him. In the vicinity are the ru- 
ins of the ancient Senlinum, where, B. C. 296, the great decisive battle took 
place between the Romans and the allied Samnites , Gauls , Umbrians , and 
Etruscans , on which occasion the consul Decius heroically sacrificed him- 
self. The Roman supremacy over the whole of Italy was thus established. 

Beyond Fabriano the line skirts the brook Giano , leads by a 
long tunnel through the central chain of the Apennines to Fossato 
(routes to Schieggia and Urbino see p. 76), and enters the broad 
■valley of the Chiascio. To the 1. on the height the -village of 
Palazzolo, r. Pellegrino; farther on, 1. Talazzo, S. Facondino, and 
stat. Gualdo Tadino (to Gubbio see p. 76), a small town with 
7000 inhab., near which, about 2 M. from the railway, lie the 
insignificant ruins of the ancient Tadinum. Here in 552 Narses 
defeated and slew the Ostrogothic king Totilas, in consequence of 
which he soon afterwards gained possession of Rome. The church 
of S. Francesco contains an altar-piece by Niccolb da Foligno, of 
1481. The cathedral possesses a fine rose-window; in the sacristy 
pictures by Niccolb da Foligno. 

The line now gradually descends to stat. Nocera, an episcopal 
town, occupying the site of the ancient Nuceria , a city of the 
XJrnbri. In the vicinity are mineral springs, known since 1510. 
The narrow Val Topina is then entered, the brook crossed several 
times, a tunnel passed through, and the train descends by Ponte 
(entesimo to 

Foligno, see p. 58; hence to Rome see p. 59. 

Before the completion of the Ancona and Rome line, the mails were 
forwarded by the Ancona and Brindisi line as far as Civitanuova (in l'la hr. ; 
4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c.) ; thence by corriere to Foligno in about 10 hrs. 

As far as Recanali see Part I. of this Handbook. The line crosses 
the Potenza. Stat. Potenza Picena, named after a Roman colony the ruins 
of which have disappeared. On the hill, 4 M. distant, lies Montesanto. 

Stat. Porto Civitanuova is at the mouth of the Chienti; the town lies 
1 31. inland. 

The railway is here quitted. The road ascends the fertile valley of the 
Chienti, affording views of the rocky summits of the Central Apennines, 
snow clad until late in summer. The Sibilla (7100 ft.) group first becomes 

Macerata (Pace; Posta), a flourishing town with about 20,000 inhab., 
capital of the province of Macerata, picturesquely situated on the heights 
between the valleys of the Chienti and Potenza, possesses a university, an 
agricultural academy, etc. 

In the Cathedral a Madonna with St. Francis and St. Julian , ascribed 
to Perugino. In *S. Giovanni an Assumption of the Virgin by Lanfranco.' 

The Palazzo Municipale and the Pal. CompagnoM contain inscriptions 
and antiquities from Helvia Ricina, a Rom. colony, situated on the 1. bank 
of the Potenza , 3 M. distant. — Macerata also possesses a triumphal arch, 
the Porta Pia. 

Outside the gate, on the road to Fermo, is a handsome building for the 
national game of the pallone ; 3| 4 ji. farther the church of the Madonna 
della Vergine, designed by Bramante. 

The learned Giovanni Crescimbeni , founder of the Roman academy of 
Arcadians, was born here in 1663 (d. at Rome in 1728); likewise in 1552 
the zealous missionary Matteo Ricci (d. at Pekin in 1609). 

A good road leads from Macerata to Fermo (about 6 M.), crossing 
the Chienti and Tenna, and skirting the base of Mont" Olmo, birthplace (in 

BiEDEKEB. Italy II. 3rd Edition. g 

82 Route 11. TOLENTINO. 

1732) of Luigi Lanzi, the erudite archaeologist and connoisseur of art, who in 
1807 was elected president of the Accad. della Crusca at Florence (d. 1810). 

6 M. from Macerata (3 M. from Tolentino) is the village of Vrbisaglia 
the Roman Urbs Salvia, with extensive ruins, amphitheatre, walls, baths, etc. 

The Rom. road continues to traverse a fertile tract on the bank of the 
Chienti, on both sides of which , not far from Tolentino , Joachim Murat 
King of Naples , was defeated by the Austrians under Bianchi , May 3rd 
1815. ' 

(12 M.) Tolentino ("Corona), the ancient Tolentinurn Picetmm, on the 
Chienti, with 4000 inhab., possesses a remarkable Gothic gateway, and was 
formerly strongly fortified. The town-hall in the Piazza contains a few an- 
tiquities. The cathedral of -S. Niccolb di Tolentino is entered by a Gothic 
vestibule. In the interior rich carving on the ceiling and frescoes from the 
life of St. Nicholas, by Lorenzo and Jacopo da San Severino. The chapel of 
the saint contains two paintings, the conflagration of St. Mark's at Venice, 
and the Plague in Sicily, ascribed to Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese respec- 
tively. The environs are picturesque, and command fine views of the 

Here the learned Francis Philelphus, one of the first scholars who studied 
and promoted the dissemination of classical literature, was born in 1388. 
On Feb. 19th, 1797, a treaty between General Buonaparte and the ambassa- 
dor of Pope Pius VI. was signed , by which the latter ceded the Bomagna 
with Ancona and Avignon, with the reservation of the legations of Bologna 
and Ferrara, to the French, as well as a number of works of art andMSS., 
which were partly restored in 1815. 

From Tolentino to San Severino 6 M.; the road traverses the 
chain of hills which separate the valley of the Chienti from that of the 
Potenza. San Severino, which arose after the destruction of the ancient 
Septempeda , contains 4000 inhab. In the church del Caslello frescoes bj 
Diotisalvi d Angeluzzo, and altar-piece by Aiccold da Foligno (1468); in the 
sacristy of the Duomo Nuovo a Madonna by Pinluricchio. S. Lorenzo standi 
on the site of an ancient temple. Inscriptions and antiquities in the town- 
hall, and at the residence of the Conte Servanze-C'ollio. 

From San Severino 10 M. to Camerino (diligence daily, 1 fr.), the an- 
cient Camerinum Umbrorum, situated on an eminence at the base of the 
Apennines. It was once the capital of the Umbrian Camertes , who during 
the Samnite wars allied themselves with Rome against the Etruscans. It ii 
now the chief town of the province, with 5000 inhab., a university, andfas 
early as 252) an episcopal residence. The cathedral of S. Sovino occupies 
the site of a temple of Jupiter; in front of it stands the bronze "Statue of 
Pope Sixtus V., of 1587. The painter Carlo Maratta, the last of the once 
celebrated Roman school, was born here in 1625 (d. at Rome in 1713). 

From Camerino 6 M. to La Muccia on the Roman road; other roads 
lead to the small town of Matelica and to Fabriano. 

The Roman road proceeds from Tolentino on the 1. bank of the Chienti, 
through a pleasant district and numerous plantations of oaks, to Belforti, 
the post-stations Valcimara and Ponte della Trave , and (18 M. from Tolen- 

La Muccia (Leone), the usual halting-place of the vetturini. The moun- 
tain slopes are studded with small villages on both sides. At Gelagno the 
road begins to ascend, the district becomes barren and bleak (the vetturini 
here procure the aid of oxen). The passage of the Apennines from La 
Muccia to Foligno occupies about 6 hrs. by carriage. Serravalle lies in i 
narrow ravine; above it rise the ruins of an old castle, l'fe M. farther are 
the sources of the Chienti (p. SI). The road now ascends to the grassy 
table-land of Colfiorilo (Locanda di Bonelli), 2884 ft. above the sea-level, 
skirts a small lake, traverses a grove of oaks, and descends ,'omewhat abruptly 
by Case Nuove and Pale to Foligno. Above Pale towers the lofty Sasso di 
Pule, one of the last spurs of the Apennines. In descending, the road affords 
a beautiful 'view of Foligno and the charming valley of the Clitunno. The 
road follows the course of the brook, and »|a M. from Foligno reaches the 
Via Flaminia, which leads to Fano by the Furlo Pass. From Foligno to 
Rome see p. 59. 


12. Rome. 

Arrival. Carriages with one horse for 1 — 2 pers. 80 c, for 3 pers. 1 fr. ; 
after dark 20 c. additional. Small articles of luggage free , trunk 50 c. ; 
facchino 25—40 c. — Police-office (Questura) Piazza di S. Silvestro in 
Capite (PI. I. 16). 

Embassies and Consulates. There are two classes of diplomatic agents 
at Rome, those accredited to the Italian government, and those accredited 
to the Papal court. The offices of two of the former class alone need here 
he mentioned : English Consulate, Palazzo Poli , in the Piazza Poli 
(PI. I, 19); American, Via di Capo le Case 52. 

Honey. In Rome, as in the other parts of the kingdom of Italy, francs 
(lire), soldi, and centesimi (1 lira = 20 soldi = 100 c.) are current; but in 
ordinary traffic accounts are kept in soldi, to which the traveller should 
accustom himself. The exchange value of banknotes (papal as well 
as Italian) and is somewhat below their nominal value ; but in ordinary 
business they are received at their full nominal value. Travellers, there- 
fore, who are provided with gold, may advantageously change it for paper 
at a banker's, or money-changer's. Besides these new coins, the old silver 
pieces of 1 scudo (generally Spanish pieces of 20 reals) are still in circula- 
tion: 1 scudo = 5 fr. 20 c. = 104 soldi. Half- scudo pieces are more 
common. Two-paolo pieces (papetti), = 20 bajocchi = 2H|2 soldi, are 
now rare. The old copper pieces of '(2, 1, 2 papal, and 4 bajocchi have 
been called in since the annexation. 

Bankers. Spada Flamini & Co., Torlonia's Successors , Via Con- 
dotti, Palazzo Torlonia; A. and R. Wedekind, Palazzo Chigi, Piazza 
Colonna; Schmitt, Nast and Co., Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesi 34; 
Theoph. Linder, 9 Via Condotti. Money-changers: Corso 204, Via Con- 
dotti 19a, 92, etc. 

Hotels. The best are in the Strangers* Quarter , between the Porta del 
Popolo and the Piazza di Spagna: "Isole Br itanniche (Pl.a) in the Via 
Babuino, Piazza del Popolo; Albergo di Russia (PI. b) in the Via Ba- 
buino: Albergo di Londra (PI. c), a large establishment in the Piazza 
di Spagna; A lber go di E urop a (PI. d) in the Piazza di Spagna; Albergo 
di Brighton (PI. e), Via S. Sebastiano, below the Pincio; "Albergo 
d'Inghilterr a (PI. f), Via Bocca di Leone; 'Albergo d'America 
(PI. g), Via Babuino; Albergo di Washington (PL h), corner of the 
Via Carozza and the Via Bocca di Leone; "Albergo di Roma (PI. i), 
Corso 128; Albergo d'Allemagna (PI. k) , Via Condotti 87, 88; 
"Albergo Costanzi, Via S. Uiccold da Tolentino, new and expensive; 
Albergo della Citta, Via Babuino 196. In all the above the charges 
are about the same: R. 3 fr. and upwards, table d'hote 4—6 fr., B. (comp. 
p. 85) l'|2, A. 1 fr. — Less pretending: Albergo di Vittoria (PI. 1); 
Albergo e Pensinne dell'Uni verso, Via Capo le Case 56; Albergo 
di Minerva (PI. m) , formerly Palazzo Conti; Albergo di Cesari 
(PI. n), Via della Pietra , rooms only, no food or refreshments provided in 
the house, bargaining necessary. For travellers of moderate requirements: 
Albergo degli Tre Re, Via S. Marco; del Sole, Piazza del Panteone. 
When a prolonged stay is made , an agreement with regard to charges had 
better be previously made with the landlord. Breakfast and dinner often 
better and always less expensive at a cafe or restaurant. At the follg. 
'pensions' 10—12 fr. a day is charged for board and lodging: Pensione 
del Globo (PI. r), Via S. Niccolo da Tolentino 50; di Suez, same street 
So. 21; Albergo Anglo-Americano, Via Frattina 127; Albergo 
della Pace, Via Felice 8. Mme. Tellenbach , Piazza di Spagna 51, 
pension from 9 fr. ; Miss Smith, same Piazza No. 93. — French spoken at 
all the hotels. 

Private Apartments. The best are in the vicinity of the Piazza di 
Spagna and the Corso. /. P Shea, Piazza di Spagna, and Karl Pochalsky, 
Via del Corso 455, can be recommended for making arrangements. The 
most expensive, and often the least sunny, are those in the Corso, the Piazza 
di Spagna, and the Via del Babuino. A northern aspect should be stu- 

84 Route 1-2. ROME. Restaurants. 

diuusly avoided, and a stipulation made for stove, carpet, and service 
(stufa , tapeti, servizio). llent of two well-furnished rooms in a good loca- 
lity 70—150 fr. per month; for a suite of 3 — 5 rooms 100—300 fr. Artists 
generally reside in the V. Felice, Quattro Fontane, and that neighbourhood. 
In the Forum of Trajan, the Via di Kupe Tarpeja, and the Via delle tre Pile, 
apartments with a sunny aspect may be obtained, conveniently situated 
with regard to the old part of the town. Rooms may be procured in al- 
most every street in the strangers' quarter, where notices and placards are 
frequently observed. Those who engage apartments in the Corso should 
come to an understanding with regard to the windows for the Carnival. — 
Firewood at Ficchelli's, P. di Spagna 87, 11—12 fr. per mezzo passo.— 
Rome does not yet possess a directory ; an unknown address may be ascer- 
tained at the* 1 police- office. — The Gazette des Etraugers is a useful journal 
published at Home, staples and Florence. The Roman Times (published 
every Saturday , single number 20 c.) contains a list of the principal at- 
tractions , adresses of artists , names of visitors;, and other information. 
The Journal de Rome (5 c.) is also intended for the use of visitors. 

Restaurants (Trattorie). Handsomely fitted up: Nazzari, P. di 
Spagna 81, 82; "Spillmann, V. Condotti, 10 and 12; "Alia Sal a delle 
Colonne, Corso 116 (table d'hote with half-bottle of wine 3'la fr.). Good 
French cuisine: Bedeau, Via della Croce; Dufour, V. della Mercede35; 
Sauvan, Via S. Sebastianello, on the Pincio, 16; Rock, Piazza di Spagna 
27 ; these establishments also supply families with dinners at their own 
apartments, for 2 pers. 4—6, 3 pers. 6— 8fr. — The Cafe Roma (see below) 
is also a good restaurant. — Less pretending, but well spoken of, Falcone, 
Piazza di S. Eustachio 58, near the Pantheon (Ital. cuisine); Trattoria 
Piemontese, Via Cesarini 20, in the Piazza Gesii (excellent cuisine); A 1 i - 
bert, in the Vicolo of that name, not far from the Piazza di Spagna; Lepre, 
Via Condotti 80; 'Carlin, Via Felice 1; (ienio, Via dueMacelli; Gab- 
bio ne, Via del Lavatore 40, by the Fontana Trevi ; Tre Ladroni, Via de' 
tre Ladroni 47 (off the Corso, between Nos. 248 and 249); Tre Re, Via S. 
Marco; Torre tta_, Via della Torretta 1, near the Palazzo Borghese. The 
waiter of a restaurant is called cameriere, in an osteria bottega. Attempts 
at imposition may be frustrated by asking for a written account. The best 
restaurants contain a lista or bill of fare ; generally, however, the waiter 
enumerates the viands verbally. The following are a few of the average 
charges: Zuppa 4—6 soldi, maccaroni 10 s., fritto (also half-portions) 10 I., 
pork (cinghiale, majale), beefsteaks (bistecca), roast beef (costata di manzo), 
etc., 'in umido' (with sauce) 12 s., pudding (dolce, paste) 5 — 10 s., wine 
4 — 5 soldi per x |2 foglietta. The waiter receives a donation of 2— 4 s. 

The Osterie (wine-houses, comp. Introd.), where good wine of the 
country (6—10 s. per foglietta) and occasionally other refreshments (osteria 
con cucisa) may he procured, are numerous, but of a very unpretending 
description. They may, however, be visited by those who desire an insight 
into tlie character of the lower classes. The most popular are those out- 
side the gates, on Monte Testaccio (p. 187) etc., which attract a most motley 
assemblage of customers on Sundays and holidays. A few of those in the 
city may be mentioned: Via Monte Catino 16; Gen zano, Via di Pietra67; 
Caccia Bove, Via di Caccia Bove 9, near Piazza Colonna; Campanella, 
in the Marcellus Theatre (No. 35); Palombella, Via della Palonibella 2, 
near the Pantheon. Wine of Orvieto 18 s. , Montefiascone ('Est est', comp. 
p. 35) 30 s., Aleatico 25 s. Foreign wines in the first-class restaurants, and 
at the following establishments: Morin, Piazza die Spagna 42; French 
wines, Via Frattina 116; Aragno, in the Corso and Piazza Sciarra; 
Corso 207, 194, etc., etc. 

Beer (birra), generally brewed and sold by Germans : Via de' dueMa- 
celli 74, Via di S. Giuseppe 23 etc. Vienna beer sold at the cafe's; also by 
the liquoristi , and at the depots Vicolo dei Greci 29 , Via Bocca di Leone 
60, Via della Carozza 30, etc. 

Cafes. The best are: Cafe di Roma, Corso 120; Cafe Greco, 
V. Condotti 86; Cafe d'ltalia, Corso 154; Cafe Parlamento, Corso 203; 
Venezia, Piazza Venezia; Cafe Nazionale, corner of Corso and Via delle 

Cafes. ROME. 12. Route. 85 

Convertite. Other cafe's in almost every street ; coffee generally good ; sent, if 
desired, lo private apartments. *-Cafi forte\ which is usually placed before 
the stranger, is distinguished from that usually drunk by being served in 
better porcelain, and charged for at double the ordinary price. Charges : coffee 
without milk (caffe nero), with little milk (ombra di latte), or much milk 
(molto latte) 3 — 4 s. ; mischio and aura (coffee with chocolate) 3 s. ; chocolate 
6 s. Breakfast at a cafe' 6 -8 s. ; at an hotel 20 — 30 s. Bread and butter (pane 
al burro) 4 s., egg 3 s.; ices (gelato) or 'granita' (granulated ice), >ja portion 
5, whole portion 10 s. Cool beverages : Limonata and Amarena. — English 
Baker, Via del Babuino 100; German, Via Belsiana 57. 

Gratuities. As the demands made on strangers in this respect are gene- 
rally exorbitant, the following averages should be noticed. In the galleries 
for 1 pers. 10 soldi, for 2—3 pers. 15 s., for 4 pers. 1 fr. ; regular frequen- 
ters 5 soldi. To servants and others who open doors of houses, churches, 
gardens, etc. 5 s. ; if other services are rendered (guidance, explanations, 
providing light, etc.), l \2 — 1 fr- — At the restaurants the usual fee to the 
waiter is 2 s. ; at the osterie and cafes 1—2 s. 

Baths at the hotels. Also in the Via Belsiana 64, Via Babuino 96, Via 
Ripetta 116. Bath 2 fr., gratuity 5 s. 

Physicians. Those who are attacked with fever, or other malady occa- 
sioned by local causes, are recommended to call in the aid of a skilful Ita- 
lian medical man. 31. Nardini, Pal. Doria in the P. Venezia (hour for 
consultation 3 — 4) is most successful in all cases of fever. Dr. Erhardt, 
Mario de' Fiori 16; Dr. Taussig, Via del Babuino 144; Dr. Hoyer, Via 
Babuino 35; Dr. Valentiner (in Rome from Nov. 1st. to Apr. 30th), Via 
Sistina 46; Dr. Dan tone (oculist), Via dell' Angelo Custode46; Dr. Held 
(homoeopathist) , Palazzo Poli. — Surgeons: Foliciani, S. Carlo al Corso 
433; Mazzoni (accoucheur and operator) Mario de' Fiori 89. Well known 
American dentist: Dr. Bur ridge, Piazza di Spagna 93. 

Chemists: Sinimberghi, Via Condotti 64— 66 ; Borioni, Via del 
Babuino 98; Cesanelli, Via del Marforio 87. 

Booksellers. Loescher & Co., Corso 346, 347, corner of Piazza 
Colonna; Spithoever, 84 and 85 Piazza di Spagna; Monaldini, Piazza 
di Spagna 79, 80; Pi ale, corner of the P. di Spagna and the Via del 
Babuino ; English, as well as other books may be obtained of these four. 
Fratelli Bocca, Corso 117, largest stock of Italian books; Gallarini, 
Piazza di Monte Citorio 19, Italian literature and second-hand books. Reli- 
gious works and music , Via di Propaganda Fide 6. Rare old works may 
be purchased at Gallarini's, or at Ferretti's, Via Celsa 10, in the 
Piazza Gesii, where extensive book-auctions also take place. 

English Reading-Room atPiale's and Monaldini' s (see above). 
Books may be consulted or read in many of the public and private libraries, 
but are not lent out. Scientific books may be obtained at the Archaeological 
Institute (p. 167); permission to use them maybe procured of the secretaries, 
Prof. Henzen and Dr. Helbig. Bookbinders: Schmidt, Via Marroniti 10; 
Olivieri, Via Frattina 1. — Newspapers very numerous, 5c. per number. 
The Opinione and Liberia are the government organs, the Capitate radical, 
the Osservatore Romano (10 c), Voce delta Verita, etc. clerical. Newspapers 
for visitors, see above. 

Teachers of Italian: Barghilione, Vicolo del Mancino 270, upper 
floor; Ambrosi (speaks French and a little German), to be enquired for 
at the Archa;ological Institute on the Capitol; Sprega, Via Cestari, 13. 
For ladies; Mile. Losser, Via Calabraga22; Mile. Mastrozzi Tauber 
Via Frattina 99 (speaks French). Terms 2 fr. per hour and upwards. — 
Information as to numerous others may be obtained at the principal book- 
sellers. Teachers of archaeology, ancient languages, etc., may be heard of at 
the booksellers' or at the Archaeological Institute. — Teachers of Piano : M. 
Bretschneider, Corso 437. Singing: Mme Par isotti-Ciceroni (noted 
alto), Via della Carozza 28; M. Mustafa (of the Sixtine Chapel), Via S 
Lucia della Tinta 29; Burghi, Banchi Vecchi 58. Violin, Ramacciotti 
Palazzo Pamfili, Piazza Venezia; Pinelli, Piazza del Popolo 3. ' 

Studios. Sculptors: Achtermann, Via de' Cappuccini 1- Amici 
Vicolo del Fiume 6 c. ; Brandt, Ripetta 39: Galetti, Quattro Fontane 

86 Route 12. ROME. Studios. 

107; C4alli, Piazza Pia 89; Gerhard, Passeggiata della Ripetta 33; Gia- 
cometti, Piazza Barerini 41; Jerichau, Piazza del Popolo 3; Kopf, 
Vicolo degli Incurabili 9; Matthiae, Vicolo del Vantaggio 1; M tiller, 
Pass, della Ripetta 17; Pettrich, Via Basilio 74; S chub ert, Vic. del 
Fiume 67; Schulze, Via Puriflcazione 14; Steinhauser, P. Barberini 
12; Story, Via S. Niccolo da Tolentino 1; Wolff, Quattro Fontane 151. 

Painters: Alvarez, Via Flaminia fuori Porta del Popolo 18 ; Consoni, 
Palazzo Campanari , Ripetta; Corrodi (water-colours), Via dell' Angelo 
Custode 30; Corrodi Brothers, Vicolo dei Greci 32; Dreber (land- 
scape), Passeggiata della Ripetta 35; Gunk el, Vigna del Papa Giulio, 
outside the Porta del Popolo ; Lindemann-Frommel (landscape) , Via 
del Babuino 39; Martens, Quattro Fontane 53; M filler (water-colours) 
Piazza Barberini 60; Overbeck's Studio (C. Hofmann) Via 20 Settembre 
43 (Sundays 11— 1); Podesti, Via di S. Claudio 86 ; Riedel, Via Margutta 
56; Romako, Palazzo Venezia;' Rossi, Via S. Niccolo da Tolentino; 
Seitz, Via Cappuccini 1 ; L. Seitz, Via di S. Basilio 20; Siraonetti, Pal. 
Altemps ;Vanutelli, Passeggiata della Ripetta 28; Vertunni (landscape), 
Via Margutta; Valles, Villa Malta; Wider, Via del Babuino 39. 

Those who are desirous of studying, drawing, or copying in Roman 
museums or private collections must procure a Permesso, for which appli- 
cation must be made through the traveller's ambassador or consul. For the 
papal museums the necessary permission is granted by Monsgr. Pacca 
(maggiordomo of the pope) at his office in the Vatican (in the court of 
the loggia, under the arcades to the 1., 9 — 1 o'cl.), the written application 
having been left there a day or two previously (separate permessi re- 
quired for the museums of the Vatican and Lateran , the Vatican picture- 
allery , and Raphael's Loggie ; each permesso at present available gfor 
4 months). In the case of private galleries application must be made to 
the proprietor (in French, if the applicant prefer), stating at the same time 
precisely which picture it is intended to copy , as well as the size and 
description of the copy. In some collections copies of the original size may 
not be made. Respecting this and similar regulations , information should 
be previously obtained from the custodian. The following is a formula of 
application to the Monsgr. Maggiordomo, and which may be also employed 
in framing a similar application to a prineipe or marchese, the address being 
made conformable to lay instead of clerical rank. 

Eccellenza Revma, ( 

11 sottoscritto che si trattiene a Roma con lo scopo di proseguire in questa 
capitate i suoi studj artistici (storici etc.) si prende la liberta di rivolgeni 
con questa a Vra Eccellenza Reviha pregando La perche voglia accordargli il 
grazioso permesso di far degli studj (dei disegni, delle notizie, etc.) nel Museo 
(nella Galleria) Vaticano. „_ 

Sperando di essere favorito da Via Eccelenza Revma e pregando la di 
gradire anticipatamente i piu sinceri suoi ringraziamenli, ha fonore di pro- 
teslarsi col piu profondo rispetto 

di Vra Eccellenza Revma 
Roma li . . . . _ Vmmo Obbmo Servitore 

A Sua Eccellenza Revma N. N. 

Monsignor Pacca 

Maggiordomo di Sua Santita. 

The export of works of art, modern or ancient, is liable to super- 
vision , to regulate which a new law is contemplated. Sign. Pietro Rosa, 
President of the commission for the supervision of antiques, is said to pro- 
pose the entire prohibition of the export of ancient works of art. Smaller 
objects, however, which are packed with the traveller's ordinary luggage, 
usually escape notice. 

Shops. Photographs (of statues, pictures, architecture, etc.): Loescher 
(p. 85) ; S p i t h oe v e r (p. 85); M o n a 1 d i n i (p. 85) ; C u c c i o n i, Piazza di 
Spaga 43: Condotti 18; Robert Macpherson, Vicolo d'Alibert 12; 
Ninci, Piazza di Spagna 29. Less expensive, but occasionally not inferior: 
Bencini, Ripetta 185. Photographs from drawings, Christian antiquities, 

Theatres. ROME. 12. Route. 87 

ornaments, etc. : Simel li, Via di S. Sebastiano 6. Portraits: Alessandri, 
Corso 12; Le Lieure, Piazza Mignanelli ; Falcetti, Piazza di Spagna 9; 
Rux, Via Felice 114; Sommer & Behlesfsee above). — Engravings: at 
the Stamperia Camerale, Via della Stamperia6, near theFontana Trevi : 
M a g g i, Corso 329. — Colours and Drawing-materials : Dovizielli, Via 
del Babuino 136; Cuccioni, Piazza di Spagna 43; C.hiaparelli, Via del 
Babuino 92. — Paper: Eicci, Corso 211, Piazza Colonna; Ajntonelli, 
Corso 229, Piazza Sciarra. — Casts: Leopoldo and Alessandro Malpieri, 
Corso 54 and 51. — Engraver: Odelli, Via della Stamperia Camerale 67. 
— Antiquities: Castellani, Piazza di Trevi 86; L. Depoletti, Via del 
Leoncino 14; Martinetti, Via della Fontanella Borghese 36; Guidi, 
opp. the Thermse of Caracalla , Via di P. S. Sebastiano. — Imitations of 
ancient bronzes: Hopfgarten, Via due Macelli 77; smaller works, Ron- 
rich, Via Sistina 105. — Gold ornaments: the celebrated Castellani, 
Piazza di Trevi 86, who also possesses an interesting collection of an cient 
golden trinkets, and executes imitations from Greek, Etruscan , and By- 
zantine models; Ansorge, Via Condotti 2. — Cameos: Saulini, Via 
del Babuino 96. — Mosaics: Francescangeli, Via del Babuino 133; 
Gallandt, Piazza di Spagna 7; Barberi, Piazza di Spagna 98; Corra- 
d i n i , Piazza di Spagna 92. Jewellery, cameos, mosaics, etc. may also be 
purchased at moderate prices in the Stabilimento Piazza Borghese 106. — 
Roman pearls: Rey, Via del Babuino 122; Bartolini, Vicolo d'Ascanio 26, 
2nd floor. 

Clothing. Materials formerly dear and bad, but great improvement 
has taken place of late owing to increased competition. Gentlemen's Clothing: 
Guastala e Todros, Corso 335; Magazzino Livornese Corso 318, 
(moderate). — Tailors: Schraider, Piazza di Spagna 29 ; Evert, Piazza 
Borghese 77; Brassini, Corso 137. — Hatter: Miller, Via Condotti 16. — 
Dress-mater : V. Nanni, Via S. Isidore 26. — Shoemakers : Brugner, 
P. Barberini60; Ziegler, Capo le Case 46; J esi, Corso 129; Miinster, 
Corso 162. — Milliners: Clarisse, Corso 166 (the best); Borsini Du- 
pres, Corso 172. Less pretending: Pica- relli, Corso 316; Quattrini, 
Via Frattina 91 (straw-hat-warehouse). — Ladies' Dress: Bos si, Corso 64; 
Panseri, Corso 155; Massoni, Corso 307 (Pal. Simonetti). — Roman 
Shawls: Bianchi, P. della Minerva 82 (also other Rom. silk wares);; 
Amadori, Via Con- dotti 72. — Gloves: P. di S. Lorenzo in Lucina 4 A.', 
Via della Vite 10. — Opticians: Ansiglioni, Corso 150; Suseipi, Corso 
182; G e r b o 1 a, Corso 420. — Watchmakers : Reiffenstein (from Geneva), 
Corso 233 (Piazza Sciarra). — Small Wares etc.: Cagiati, Corso 250. — 
Lamps etc.: Fauci 11 on. Via di Propaganda 25. — Cigars. Travellers 
crossing the Italian frontier are allowed 100 cigars free of duty. The 
Italian zigari forli (1 s.) and zigari scelti (l 1 ^ s.) are hardly smokable. 
The Spaccio Normale , the government depot , Piazza Mignanelli 22 , is the 
best shop, where good foreign cigars may also be purchased. 

Music etc. Instruments: H. Spithcever, in the Monastery of S. Carlo 
al Corso (437), who also keeps an extensive musical lending-library; Stabil- 
mento Musical e, Via Frattina 121; Marc h i sio, Via Frattina 135. Ita- 
lian musical lending-library, Corso 140 and 80. —Strings: Serafini, 
Via Tor Argentina 32 and Piazza Capranica. 

Theatres. The largest is the Teatro Apollo, near the Ponte S. 
Angelo. Teatro Argentina, Via di Tor Argentina , and Teatro Valle, 
in the Sapienza, for operas and dramas. The smaller T. Capranica, 
Piazza Capranica, Metastasio, near the Via Scrofa in the Via d'Ascanio, 
and Vail et to (near the Teatro Valle) are for operettas and comedies. 
Summer-performances (about 5 p. m.) in the Mausoleum of Augustus, 
Via de' Pontefici, in the Ripetta (dramas, comedies) ; also in the Pol i team a 
in Trastevere (comedies and singing). Three different companies : the first 
(luring the months of autumn and winter till Christmas, the second till Lent, 
the third after Lent. Boxes are generally let permanently, and visits paid 
and received there. Ladies frequent the boxes only, gentlemen the pit 
(plaiea). Particulars about prices etc. are published in the hand-bills. 

88 Route 12. ROME. Church Festivals. 

, Church-Festivals. Details are contained in the Diario di Roma (60 c.) 
and V Annie Liturgique (4 fr.), published annually. The best work on the 
ceremonies of the Holy Week and their signification is the Mawu.aU delle 
cerimonie che hanno luogo nella settimana santa e nelV ottava di pasqua al 
Vaticano (1 fr., also a French edition). Admission to the Sixtine Chapel, as 
well as to St. Peter's on great occasions (to the reserved part), is accorded 
only to gentlemen in uniform or evening- dress, to ladies in black dresses, 
and black veils or black caps. Gentlemen stand ; seats are reserved for 
ladies , but are only to be obtained by card during the Easter festivities, 
and on account of the great demand should be secured some time previ- 
ously by application to a consul or banker. Overcoats are deposited in 
the cloak - room of the Sixtine Chapel (i| 2 fr.). The concourse at Easter 
is generally immense. The Pope officiates in person three times annually: 
on Christmas-day, Easter -day, and the Festival of St. Peter and St. Paul 
(June 29th) ; four times annually he imparts his benediction : on Holy 
Thursday and Easter-day from the balcony of St. Peter's, on Ascension- 
day from the Lateran, and on Aug. 15th, the anniversary of the 'Assump- 
tion of the Virgin', from S. Maria Maggiore. The most sumptuous cere- 
monies are those of the Holy Week, from Palm Sunday to Easter -day, the 
most important of which take place in the Sixtine Chapel , accompanied 
by the music ('lamentations' etc.) of Palestrina and other old masters. The 
Pope is also present at a number of other festivals, on which occasions the 
papal band (cappella papule) performs. The following are the principal festivals: 
January 1. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 3 p. m. 

— 6. Epiphany. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 10 a. m. ; at 4 p. m. 

procession in Araceli. 

— 17. S. Antonio Abbate (PI. II, 25, near S. Maria Maggiore), bene- 

diction of domestic animals. 

— 18. Anniversary of foundation of the chair of St. Peter , Cap. Pa- 

pale in St. Peter's, 10 a. m. 
February 2. Candlemas. Cap. Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m. — Illumination 
of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 198). 
On Ash- Wednesday and every Sunday during Lent , Cappella Papale in 
the Sixtine at 10 a. m. The Lent sermons in Gesii (PI. II, 16) , S. Maria 
sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16), and other churches are celebrated. Others are 
preached in the streets towards evening and in the Colosseum (on Fridays). 
March. Every Friday at 12 the Pope repairs to St. Peter's to pray du- 

ring the confession. 

— 7. St. Thomas Aquinas, in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

— 9. S. Francesca Romana (in the Forum). 

— 16. Festival in the chapel of the Palazzo Massimi (PI. II, 17) in 

commemoration of a resuscitation by S. Filippo Neri. 

— 25. Annunciation. Cap. Papale in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16) 

Holy Week. 

Palm -Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m. Consecration of 
palms and procession, then mass. At 2 p. m. confession in the 
Lateran (PI. II, 30). 

Wednesday. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 3 p. m., Tenebrse and Mi- 
serere. The music does not commence till about 1 hr. before 

Holy Thursday. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 10 a. m. Towards noon 
the benediction 'Urbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. Then 
washing of feet in St. Peter's , immediatelv after a dinner to 
twelve pilgrims in the loggia of St. Peter's. Cappella Papale 
in the Sixtine, 3 p. m. Tenebrse and Miserere. 

Good Friday. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 9 a. m. (music by Pales- 
trina). At 3 p. m. Tenebrse and Miserere. 

Saturday. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 9 a. m. (Missa di Papa Mar- 
cello, by Palestrina). Baptism of converted infidels and Jews 
in the Lateran. 

Church Festivals. 

ROME 12. Route. 89 

Easter-Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. ni. The pope ap- 
pears in the church at 10 o'clock and reads mass. The eleva- 
vation of the host (about 11) is accompanied by the blast of 
trumpets from the dome. The pope is then carried in proces- 
sion from the church, and about noon imparts the great bene- 
diction 'Urbi et Orbi' from the loggia of St. Peters. After 
sunset illumination of the dome of St. Peter's , 1 hr. later 
torches are substituted for the lamps (comp. p. 219). 

Easter- Monday. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 9 a. m. About 8 p. m. 
'girandola' on the Pincio. 

Easter-Tuesday. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 9 a. m. 

Saturday in A lb is. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 9 a. m. 

April 25. Procession of the clergy from S. Marco (PI. II, 16) to St. Peter's 
at 7. 30 a. m. 

Mav 26. S. Filippo Neri. Cappella Papale in the ( :hiesa Nuova, 10 a. m. 

Ascension. Cappella Papale in the Lateran. Gre:-t benediction from the 

Whitsunday. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 10 a. in. 

Trinity. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 10 a. m. 

Corpus Domini (Fete de Dieu). Procession of the Pope and clergy round 
the piazza of St. Peter's, 8 a. m. 

June 1, 17, 21. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine in commemoration of Gre- 
gory XVI., and the accession and coronation of Pius IX. 

— 24. John the Baptist. Cappella Papale in the Lateran, 10 a. m. 

— 28. Eve of St. Peter and St. Paul. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 

6 p. m. 

— 29. Dav of St. Peter and St. Paul. — Forenoon, Cappella Papale in 

St." Peter's. Evening, girandola on the Pincio. 
July 14. S. Bonaventura, in S. S. Apostoli. 

— " 31. S. Ignazio, in Gesii. 

Au». 1. St. Peter in Vinculis, in S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23). 

— ' 5. S. Maria della Neve, in S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 

_ 15. Assumption of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria Mag- 
giore (PI. II, 25), 9 a. m.; great benediction from the loggia. 
Sept. 8. Nativity of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria del Popolo 
(PI. I,' 18), 10 a. m. 

— 14. Elevation of the Cross, in S. Marcello (PI. II, 16). 
Oct 7. S. Marco, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 16). 

— 18 S. Luca, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 20). 

Nov. 1. All Saints' Day, Cappella Papale in the Sixtine , 10 a. m. and 
3 pm. . 

— 2. All Souls' Dav. Cappella Papale in the bixtine, 10 a. m. 

— 3. Requiem for' former popes. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 

10 a. m. 
4. S. Carlo Borromeo. Cappella Papale in S. Carlo, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Requiem for deceased cardinals in the Sixtine. 

— 7. Requiem for deceased singers of the Cappella papale in the 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10). 

On the 4 Sundays of Advent, Cappella Papale in the bixtine, 

10 a. m. 

— 22. St. Cecilia. Cappella Papale in S. Cecilia in Trastevere (p. 230). 

Illumination of the Catacombs of Calixtus (p. 256). 
23. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 198). 
Dec. 8. Conception. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 3 p. m. Proces- 
sion from Araceli (PI. II, 20). 

— 24. Christmas Eve. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine ,8 p.m. To- 

wards midnight, solemnities in Araceli, about 3 a. m. in S. 
Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 

— 25. Christmas Day. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m.; eleva- 

tion of the host announced by trumpets in the dome. 

— 26. St. Stephen's Day. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 10 a. m. 

— 27. St. John the Evang. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine, 10 a. m. 

— 31. Cappella Papale in the Sixtine; after which, about 4 p. m., 

crand Te Deum in Gesii (PI. II, 16). 

90 Route 12. ROME. Popular Festivals. 

Popular Festivals (which have lost much of their former interest): 

Epiphany (Jan. 6), celebrated in the evening near S. Eustachio (PI. II 
13) : array of booths and prodigious din of toy-trumpets. 

The Carnival extends from the 2nd Saturday before Ash-Wednesday 
to Shrove-Tuesday, and consists in a daily (Sundays and Fridays excepted) 
procession in the Corto, accompanied by the throwing of bouquets and 
comfits, and concluding with a horse-race. The last evening is the Moccoli- 
(taper) evening, the tapers being lighted immediately after sunset. A win- 
dow in the Corso is the best point of view; most animated scene between 
Piazza Colonna and S. Carlo ; balconies there are in great request and dear 
(as high as 600 fr.); single places are let on the balconies fitted up for the 

The October Festival , formerly celebrated , now comparatively insigni- 
ficant, takes place during the vintage-season, and consists in singing , dan- 
cing , and carousals at the osterie at the gates (e. g. on the Testaccio); at 
the Villa Borghese tombola and dancing. 

Street Scenes. The 'Spanish Staircase' (PI. I, >20) is the focus of fa- 
vourite artists' models, most of whom are Neapolitans. Their costumes are 
a well-known subject of photographs and pictures. 

The C'ampagnuoli are among the most singular apparitions in the streets 
of Rome , but are less frequently seen than formerly. They pass a great 
part of their lives on horseback , whilst tending their herds of oxen , hor- 
ses, etc. Their equipment usually consists of a low felt-hat, wide, grey 
mantle, leathern leggings, and spurs; and they carry 'il pungolo', or an 
iron -pointed goad, for driving their cattle. The peasants of remote moun- 
tain-districts, wearing sandals (whence termed ciocciari), and with swathed 
feet and ankles , also present a most grotesque appearance. The favourite 
haunts of the country - people are in front of the Pantheon (PI. II, 16) and 
the Piazza Montanara (PI. II, 17) below the Capitol; but the formerly so 
characteristic street-scenes have become much rarer under the new regime. 
The pifferari (bag - pipers) of the Abruzzi, attired in faded brown cloaks, 
pointed hats, and sandals, who used to become most conspicuous towards 
Christmas , and wander from morning to night in pairs , from one image 
of the Madonna to another, the elder with the bag -pipes, the younger 
with a species of clarinet or red-pipe, have recently been prohibited from 
playing before the Madonnas. 

Promenades. The most frequented is Monte Pincio (PI. I, 18), where 
a military band plays on Sundays and Thursdays, two hours before sunset. 
Of the villas the most popular is the Borghese, to the r. outside the Porta 
del Popolo. With regard to the other villas , information is contained in 
the paragraph on that head. Within the walls the space from the forum 
to the Porta S. Sebastiano and on the other side as far as the Lateran and 
S. Croce. Monte Testaccio (PI. Ill, 13). Environs (see R. 13). Points of 
view on the 1. bank : Villa Medici (PI. I, 18), Basilica of Constantine (PI. II, 
30), Monte Testaccio (PI. Ill, 13) ; on the r. bank ; S. Pietro in MoDtorio 
(PI. II, 13), Acqua Paola (PL II, 12), S. Onofrio (PI. II, 7). Fine views are 
in fact commanded by almost every elevated spot. 

Fiacres and Omnibuses. Comfortable one-horse conveyances are to be 
found in every piazza. Tariff: drive in the town for 1—2 pers. 16 s., for 
3 pers. 1 fr. ; per hour (1—3 pers.) 1 fr. 70 c. ; after sunset per drive, 
1—2 pers. 1 fr., 3 pers. 1 fr. 20 c. ; per hour (1—3 pers.) 2 fr. 20 c. Two- 
horse : drive in the town for 1 — 5 pers. 1 fr. 50 c. ; per hour (1 — 5 pers.) 
2 fr. 20 c. ; after sunset per drive. 1 — 5 pers. 1 fr. 70 c. ; per hour 2 fr. 70 c. 
Small articles of luggage free , box 50 c. For a drive within 3 M. of the 
gates one-horse carr. 2 fr. 20 c. per hour, after sunset 2 fr. 70 c. Two-horse 
carr. 2 fr. 70 c. per hour , after sunset 3 fr. 20 c. For longer distances no 
tariff, bargain with driver necessary; the charges by time within the walls 
serve, however, as a standard. The charge for a drive on the Corso, in a 
two-horse carr., during the afternoons of the carnival-week is not fixed by 
tariff. Each vehicle is provided with a tariffa in Italian and French. Om- 
nibuses: from the Piazza del Popolo (PI. I. 18), from S. Maria Maggiore 
(PI. II, 25), and from S. Giovanni in Laterano (PI. II, 30), to the Piazza 
Gesii (PI. II, 16), and thence to the Vatican (PI. I, 4). Also from the Piazza 

Steamboats. ROME. 12. Route. 91 

del Popolo to S. Pantaleone (near Pal. Braschi, PI. II, 13), and thence to 
S. Francesco a Ripa in Trastevere (PI. III. 15). These vehicles run pretty 
regularly every 10 min. ; fare for the whole trip 4, lor half 2 soldi. Other 
lines are proposed (e. g. from the Piazza Gesii through the Longara to the 
Vatican). From the P. di Venezia omnibus every 1/2 hr. to S. Paolo fuori 
le Mura (p. 190), fare 6 s. On Sundays and holidays, after 2 p. m., omni- 
bus every 1 (2 hr. between Ponte Molle and P. di Popolo (p. 106), and from 
the Piazza di Termini to S. Agnese fuori le Mura; fare 6 s. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain. Church on 
the 1., outside the Porto del Popolo. 

Post and Telegraph Offices. Post Office (Piazza Colonna, in the former 
Military Casino, p. 114)) open daily from 8 a. m. to 9 p. m. ; rates of post- 
age, see Introd. , p. XXIX. Letter-boxes in the town cleared four times 
daily (last time at 8 p. m.). Letters must be posted before 5 p. m. in order 
to be in time for the evening mails. Poste restante letters are obtained 
(after 12 o'clock) at the section indicated by the initial letter of the ad- 
dressee's name, which should be written in large and distinct characters. 

Telegraph Office (open day and night) , Piazza di Monte Citorio 127. 
Charge for a single telegram (20 words) within a distance of 100 kilometres 
(62i| 2 M.) 1 fr. 20, to more distant parts of the kingdom 2 fr. 40 c. — To 
France 4 fr., N. Germany 6 fr., S. Germany 4 fr. 50 c, to Switzerland 2 fr. 
or 3 fr. (when over 100 kilometres), to England 9 fr. 

Vetturini, in the Piazza della Stelletta and Via dell' Orso, in the Cam- 
pana, Via della Campana 20, all in the Via Scrofa ; also Monte Citorio 124, 
whence omnibuses run daily to Tivoli and Subiaco. Written contract neces- 
sary for tours of several days (comp. Introd.). 

Railways. Lines at present in use to Civita Vecchia (R. 2), Naples, 
Frascati (R. 13), and Foligno and Ancona (R. 11). Time-tables (Orario, 
50 c.) at the otfice, Piazza di Monte Citorio 128 (PI. I, 16), where every 
information may be obtained, and at the booksellers'. 

Steamboats. The small vessels which ply on the Tiber cannot be relied 
on for punctuality on account of the frequent variations in the state of the 
river. Inquiries should be made in the post-office buildings, at the entrance 
of the Piazza Madama, immediately to the 1. on the ground-floor. 

Steamers from Civita -Vecchia to Naples , Leghorn , and Genoa. Those 
of the Messitgeries Maritimes have ceased to ply since the Franco-Prussian 
war. The other companies are the Italian Compagnia Florio, the French 
firm Valery Freres et [Co. (office for both: Rosati, Via Condotti 91); and 
the French firm of Fraissinet (Sebasti , P. Nicosia 43). Information as to 
the other Italian steamboat lines may be obtained of M. Freeborn, Via 
Bocca di Leone 79. Goods-agents: Caldani, P. di Pietra 38; Tombini, 
Piazza S. Luigi dei Francesi. Goods' agency, Corso 185. 

Principal Attractions, which should be visited by those whose 
time is limited. 

Churches: St. Peter's (214), S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 199), S. Maria 
Maggiore (p. 137), S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (p. 139), S. Paolo fuori le 
Mura (p. 190), Sixtine Chapel (p. 232), S. Agostino (p. 148), S. Clemente 
(p. 197), S. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 142), S. Maria degli Angeli (p. 135), 
S. Maria in Araceli (p. 165). S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 152), S. Maria della 
Pace (p. 155), S. Maria del Popolo (p. 107), S. Maria in Trastevere (p. 229), 
S. Onofrio (p. 220), S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 143), S. Prassede (p. 138), S. 
Trinita de' Monti (p. 110). 

Palaces: Palazzo della Cancelleria (p. 158), Farnese (p. 158), Giraud 
(p. 212), di Venezia (p. 120). 

Ruins: Forum (p. 168), Colosseum (p. 173), Imperial Palaces (pp. 180, 
182), Cloaca Maxima (p. 183), Therms of Titus and Caracalla (pp. 176, 192), 
Pantheon (p. 150), Theatre of Marcellus (p. 164), Forum of Trajan (p. 179), 
the so-called Temple of Neptune (p. 115), Pyramid of Cestius (p. 187). — 
Catacombs of S. Calisto (p. 256). 

Museums of the Vatican (p. 239), Capitol (p. 205), Lateran (p. 201), 
Villa Ludovisi (p. 125), Albani (p. 126), Borghese (p. 123), Palazzo Spada 
(p. 160). 

92 Route 12. ROME. Collections. 

Pictures: Raphael's Loggie and Stanze (p. 234), the Farnesina (p. 221), 
galleries of the Vatican (p. 249) and Capitol (p. 207), of the Palazzo Borghese 
(p. 145), Barherini (p. 129), Doria (p. 117), and Sciarra (p. 115). 

Promenades: Monte Pincio (p. 108), Villa Borghese (p. 123), Pamfili 
(p. 226), Via Appia (p. 191). Views from the Belvedere of the Villa Medici 
(p. 109) and from S. Pietro in Montorio (p. 224). 

With regard to the visits which may best be combined the plan should 
be studied and the annexed lists consulted. 

Coll'ections, Villas, etc. 

X. B. Those within angular brackets in the following were temporarily 
closed in January, 1872. Intending visitors should make enquiry as to the 
possibility of access. 
*Albani, Villa (p. 126), antiquities and pictures, Tuesdays, with 

permission, obtained at the Palazzo Torlonia (p. 120). 

* Borghese, Palazzo (p. 145), picture-gallery, Mondays, Wednes- 

days, and Fridays 9 — 2 3 / 4 o'clock. 

* Borghese, Villa (p. 123), garden daily, except Mondays; statues 

in the casino Saturdays, in winter 1 — 4, in summer 4 — 7 o'clock. 
*Barberini, Palazzo (p. 129), picture-gallery, Mondays. Tuesdays, 
and Wednesdays 12 — 5, Thursdays 2 — 5, Fridays and Satur- 
days 10 — 5 o'clock, closed at dusk in winter. 

* Capitoline Museum (p. 207), daily 10—3 (fee). 

* Colonna, Palazzo (p. 119), picture-gallery daily, Mondays. Thurs- 

days, and Saturdays 11 — 3 o'clock. 
Conservatori, Palace of the (p. 205), picture-gallery only, same 
time as Capitoline Museum, see above. 

* Corsini , Palazzo (p. 222). picture-gallery. Mondays, Thursdays, 

and Saturdays 9 — 3 o'clock. 

* Doria, Palazzo (p. 117). picture-gallery, Tuesdays and Fridays 

10— 27-2 o'clock. 
Farnese , Palazzo (p. 158), frescoes by Ann. Caracci, Fridays 
12 — 2 o'clock, but admission not always granted. 

* Farnesina, Villa (p. 221), on the 1st and 15th of each month, 

10-3 o'clock. 
Kircheriano, Museo (p. 116. ladies not admitted), collection of 

antiquities. Sundays 10 — 11 o'clock. 
Lateran, Collections of the (p. 201), daily 9 — -4 o'clock. 
S. Luca, Accademia di (p. 178), daily 9 — 3 o'clock. 
*Ludovisi, Villa (p. 125), collection of ancient sculptures, Thurs- 
days , in- winter only, with permission obtained through am- 
bassador or consul. 
[Massimo, Villa (p. 204), frescoes, at present not accessible.] 
[Massimi alle Colonne, Palazzo (p. 156), best time 9 — 11 a. m.] 
Medici, Villa (p. 109), collection of casts, daily, except Satur- 
day, 8 — 12 o'clock, and afternoon till dusk.] 

* Palatine, Excavations of the Imperial Palaces (p. 180),, Thurs- 

days and Sundays. 

* Pamfili, Villa Doria (p. 226), garden, Mondays and Fridays, 

two-horse carriages also admitted. 

Diary. ROME. 12. Route. 9 

[Quirinale, Palazzo Apostolico al (p. 130), has not been accessible 
since the Italian occupation.] 

Bospigliosi, Palazzo (p. 131), picture-gallery in the casino, Wed- 
nesdays and Saturdays li — 3 o'clock. 
* Sciarra - Colonna , Palazzo (p. 115), picture-gallery, Saturday 
11 — 3 o'clock. Not always accessible. 

[Spada alia Regola , Palazzo (p. 160), antiquities and picture- 
gallery, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays 10 — 3 o'clock.] 
** Vatican Collections (p. 239) accessible daily, but since the Italian 
occupation not without a permesso obtained through an ambas- 
sador or consul. Besides the permessi mentioned at p. 86 
for artists and scholars, there are two classes of permessi for 
ordinary visitors: 1. For Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, the pic- 
ture gallery, and the Cappella Sistina (accesible 8 — 11 and 
'2 — 4 o'clock) , admitting a party of 4 persons. 2. For the 
Sculptures (accessible at the hours just mentioned, but closed 
on Mondays and Thursdays 2 — 4) , also admitting 4 persons. 
In the latter case visitors enter the palace on the W. side, to 
reach which they must go round the whole of St. Peter's, and 
then pass between the Vatican gardens and the Vatican to the 
gate under the Sala della Eiga (PI. 17; see p. '245). 


(To be compared with the preceding alphabetical list). 

Daily, except Sunday: Vatican Collections 8 — 11 and 2 — 4. 
Capitoline Museum (p. 207) and Palace of the Conservatori 
(p. 205) 10—3. Collections of the Lateran (p. 201) 9—3. 
Academy of S. Luca (p. 178) 10 — 3. Galleria Colonna (p. 119) 11—3. 
GalleriaBarberini(p.l29)Mon., Tues.. and Wed. 11 — 5, Thurs.2— 5. 
Frid. and Sat. 10 — 5. — Villa Borghiese (p. 123), except Mondays. 

Mondays : Galleria Borghese (p. 145) 9—3. Villa Pamfil: (p. 226). 
[Galleria Spada (p. 160) 10—3.] Galleria Corsini (p. 222) 9—3. 

Tuesdays: GalleriaDoria (p. 117)10— 12i/ 2 . Villa Albani(p.l26). 

Wednesdays : Casino Rospigliosi (p. 131) 12 — 3. Villa Torlonia 
p. 133). [Villa Wolkonsky (p. 160). Galleria Spada (p. 205) 
10—3.] Galleria Borghese (p. 145) 9—3. 

Thursdays: Imperial palaces on the Palatine (p. 180). Villa 
Ludovisi (p. 125). Galleria Corsini (p. 222) 9—3. 

Fridays : Galleria Doria (p. 117) 10 — 2y 2 - Pal. Farnese (p. 159) 
12—2. Villa Pamrili (p. 226). Galleria Borghese) p. 145) 9—3. 

Saturdays: Galleria Sciarra (p. 115) 12 — 3 (in winter). Casino 
Rospigliosi (p. 131). Antiquities in the Casino of the Villa 
Borghese (p. 123) , in the forenoon. [Villa Wolkonsky (p. 205). 
Galleria Spada (p. 160) 10—3.] Galleria Corsini (p. 222) 9—3. 

Sundays: Farnesina (p. 221) 10 — 3. Museo Kircheriano 
(p. 116) 10—11. Catacombs of S. Calisto (p. 256) and S. Agnese 
etc. (p. 257). Overbeck's studio 2—4 (p. 86). 

94 Route 12. ROME. History. 

Preliminary Drive. The stranger should engage a vehicle 
for 2—3 hrs. (tariff, p. 90) and drive down the Corso as far 
as the Piazza di Venezia, through the Via di Marforio to the 
Forum , past the Colosseum , through the Via di S. Giovanni 
in Laterano to the Piazza in front of the church, commanding a 
fine view of the Alban Mts. ; then through the Via in Merulana, 
passing S. Maria Maggiore, through the Via di S. Maria Maggiore, 
Via di S. Lorenzo in Paneperna, Via Magnanapoli, across the 
Forum of Trajan through the Via di S. Marco, Via delle Botteghe 
Oscure, across the Piazza Mattei with handsome fountain, through 
the Via de' Falegnami, Piazza S. Carlo, Via de' Pettinari, by Ponte 
Sisto to Trastevere , through the Longara to the Piazza di S. 
Pietro, then through Borgo Nuovo across the Piazza Pia, past the 
Castle of S. Angelo, over the Ponte S. Angelo, through the Via 
Tordinone etc. in a straight direction back to the Corso. 

History of the City of Borne f. 

As the more remote history of Italy is involved in much obscurity, so 
also the origin of the city of Rome is to a great extent a matter of mere 
conjecture. It was not till a comparatively late period that the well known 
legend of Romulus and Remus was framed, and the year B. C. 753 fixed as 
the date of the foundation. In all probability, however , Rome may lay 
claim to far greater antiquity. We are led to this conclusion , not oniy by 
a number of ancient traditions, but also by the recent discovery in Latium 
of relics of the flint-period, an epoch far removed from any written records. 
The Palatine was regarded by the ancients as the nucleus of the city, around 
which new quarters grouped themselves by slow degrees. Here Romulus is 
said to have founded his city, the Roma Quadrata of which Tacitus (Ann. 
12, 24) states the supposed extent. Modern excavations have brought to 
light portions of its wall , as well as a gateway and the street of Victoria 
which pertained to the most ancient settlement (see pp. 180, 182, 185). After 
the town of Romulus on the Palatine, a second, inhabited by Sabines, sprang 
up on the Quirinal , and the two were subsequently united into one com- 
munity. Whilst each retained its peculiar temples and sanctuaries, the Fo- 

t Works on the history and topography of Rome , especially of the an- 
cient city, are extremely numerous. On the revival of science many scho- 
lars devoted themselves with the utmost zeal to antiquarian research; thus 
Poggio (1440), Flavio Biondo, Lucio Fauno. The most important of the ear- 
lier works is that of Nardini ('Roma antica', 1660 ; 4th ed. by Nibby, 1818), 
The following are the most eminent Roman writers on the subject of the 
present centurv : C. Fea , 'Nuova Descrizione di Roma Antica e Moderna', 
1820 ; Canina, ' 'Indicazione Topografica', 3rd ed. 1841 ; also Nibby, 'Roma 
nell' anno 1S38\ 3 vols. , 1843. — The most exhaustive German work on 
the subject, and one which has generally formed the basis of all subsequent 
investigations , is that commenced under Niebuhr's auspices , and con- 
tributed to by Platner, Bunsen, Gerhard, Rostell, and Urlichs (3 vols., Tu- 
bingen 1830—42). Subsequent discoveries have been made by W. A. Becker 
('Topographie', Leipzig 1843), L. Preller and other learned archaeologists. 
The article on 'Ancient Rome' in Smith's Diet, of Greek and Roman Geo- 
graphy (also pub. separately , 1864) affords a clear and intelligent view of 
the subject. — Mediaeval Rome has been treated of far less frequently- 
The standard works on the subject are perhaps those of Gregorovius (6 vols., 
Stuttgart, 1S58 — 65) and Reumont (3 vols. Berlin, 1S67). both extensive 
works of great merit. 

History. ROME. 12. Route. 95 

rum, situated between them, and commanded by the castle and the temple 
of Jupiter on the Capitol , formed the common focus and place of assembly 
of the entire state, and the Forum and Capitol maintained this importance 
down to the latest period of ancient Rome. The rapid growth of the city 
is mainly to be attributed to its situation , the most central in the penin- 
sula , alike adapted for a great commercial town and for the capital of a 
vast empire. The advantages of its position were thoroughly appreciated 
by the ancients themselves , and are thus enumerated by Livy (5 , 54) : 
'flumen opportunum , quo ex mediterraneis locis fruges devehantur , quo 
maritimi commeatus accipiantur, mare vicinum ad commoditates nee expo- 
situm nimia propinquitate ad pericula classium externarum , regionum Ita- 
liae medium , ad incrementum urbis natum unice locum'. The Tiber was 
navigable for sea-going ships, as far as Rome, whilst its tributaries, such as 
the Anio, Nera, Chiana, and Topino, contained sufficient water for the river 
vessels , which maintained a busy traffic between Rome and the interior of 
the peninsula. The state of these rivers has , however , in the course of 
ages undergone a complete revolution , chiefly due to the gradual levelling 
of the forests on the mountains, and at the present day the lower part only 
of the Tiber, from Orte downwards, is navigable. 

Whilst the origin of the capital of the world is referred to Romulus, 
its extension is attributed with something more of certainty to Servius Tul- 
lius. Around the twin settlements on the Palatine and Quirinal, extensive 
suburbs on the Esquiline and Cselius , as well as on the lower ground be- 
tween the hills, had sprung up; for not only were numerous strangers induced 
to settle permanently at Rome on account of its commercial advantages, but 
the inhabitants of conquered Latin towns were frequently transplanted thi- 
ther. Out of these heterogeneous elements a new civic community was or- 
ganised towards the close of the period of the kings , and its constitution 
commemorated by the erection of the Servian wall, considerable remains of 
which are still extant. This structure, which was strengthened by a moat 
externally and a rampart within , is of great solidity. It enclosed the 
Aventine (p. 185), the Cselius, Esquiline, Viminal, Quirinal (p. 130), and Ca- 
pitol and is computed to have been about 7 M. in circumference. Whilst 
care was taken thus to protect the city externally, the kings were not less 
solicitous to embellish the interior with handsome buildings. To that pe- 
riod belongs the Circus in the valley between the Palatine and the Aven- 
tine (p. 185), and above all the Cloaca Maxima (p. 183), destined to drain the 
swampy site of the Forum , and still admired tor its massive construction. 
This vigorous and brilliant development of the city under the kings of the 
Tarquinian family in the 6th cent. B. C. came to a close with the expulsion 
of the last king Tarquinius Superbus (509). 

During the first century of the republic the united efforts of the citi- 
zens were directed to the task of establishing themselves more securely in 
the enjoyment of their new acquisitions ; and in this they succeeded, although 
not without serious difficulty. It was a hard and bitter period of probation 
that the nation had to undergo in the first enjoyment of its new liberty, 
and it was not till the decline of the Etruscan power that Rome began to 
breathe freely again. After protracted struggles she succeeded in conquering 
and destroying her formidable rival Veii (369), a victory by which the Ro- 
man supremacy was established over the south of Etruria as far as the Ci- 
minian Forest. Shortly afterwards (390) the city, with the exception of the 
Capitol , was taken and entirely destroyed by the Gauls. Although this ca- 
tastrophe occasioned only a transient loss of the prestige of Rome , it pro- 
duced a marked effect on the external features of the city. The work of 
re-erection was undertaken with great precipitation; the new streets were 
narrow and crooked, the houses poor and unattractive, and till the time of 
Augustus, Rome was far from being a handsome city. Her steadily increa- 
sing power, however, could not fail in some degree to influence her archi- 
tecture. During the contests for the supremacy over Italy, the first aque- 
duct and the first high road were constructed at Rome by Appius Claudius 
in 312 (Aqua and Via Appia, p. 191); in 272 a second aqueduct (AnioVetus) 
was erected. Down to the period of the Punic wars Rome had not extended 
beyond the walls of Servius Tullius ; but , after the overthrow of Carthage 

96 Route 12. ROME. History. 

had constituted her_ mistress of the world, the city rapidly increased. The 
wall was almost everywhere demolished to make room tor new buildings, 
so that even at the time of Augustus it was no longer an easy matter to 
determine its former position, and new quarters now sprang up on all sides. 
Speculation in houses was extensively carried on, and it was by this means 
that the Triumvir Crassus, among others, amassed his fortune; for rents 
were high, and the houses of a slight and inexpensive construction. These 
insulae, or blocks of houses erected for hire, contrasted strikingly with the 
domus, or palaces of the wealthy, which were fitted up with the utmost 
magnificence and luxury. Thus, for example, the tribune Clodius, the well- 
known opponent of Cicero , purchased his house for the sum of 14,800,600 
sesterces (i. e. about 130,525 I.). During the last century B. C. the city 
began to assume an aspect more worthy of its proud dignity as capital of 
the civilised world. The streets , hitherto unpaved , were now converted 
into the massive lava -causeways which are still extant on many of the an- 
cient roads (e. g. Via Appia). The highest ambition of the opulent nobles 
was to perpetuate their names by the erection of sumptuous public buil- 
dings. Thus in 184 M. Porcius Cato erected the first court of judicature 
(Basilica Porcia) in the Forum, and others followed his example. Pompey 
was the founder of the first theatre in stone (p. 161). Generally, however, 
the structures of the republic were far inferior to those of the imperial 
epoch , and owing to this circumstance but few of the former have been 
preserved (Tabularium of B. C. 78, p. 167; tombs of Bibulus, p. 121, and of 
Csecilia Metella, p. 263). 

The transformation of the republic into a military despotism involved 
the introduction of a new architectural period also. Usurpers are generally 
wont to direct their energies to the construction of new building^ , with a 
view to obscure the lustre of the older edifices ; and to obliterate the asso- 
ciations connected with them. Csesar himself had formed the most exten- 
sive plans of this nature, but their execution was reserved for his more 
fortunate nephew. Of all the ruins of ancient Rome those of the buildings 
of Avigustus occupy by far the highest rank, both in number and importance. 
The points especially worthy of note are the Campus Martius with the 
Pantheon and the Thermfe of Agrippa (p. 150) , the Theatre of Jlarcellus 
(p. 164) and the Mausoleum (p. 144), the Basilica Julia (p. 170), and the 
Forum of Augustus with the Temple of Mars (p. 178). No fewer than 82 
temples were restored by Augustus ('templorum omnium conditorem ac 
restitutorem' as he is termed by Livy), who might well boast of having 
transformed Kome from a town of brick into a city of marble. During the 
republican period the ordinary volcanic stone of the neighbourhood was the 
usual building material, but the marble from the quarries of Carrara 
(discovered about 100 B. C, but not extensively worked till the time of 
Augustus) and the beautiful travertine from the vicinity of Tivoli were 
now employed. The administration and police-system of the city were also 
re-organised by Augustus , who divided Rome into 14 quarters (regiones), 
adapted to its increased extent. A corps of watchmen (vigiles) , who also 
served as firemen , was appointed to guard the city by night. These and 
otherwise institutions, as well as the magnificence attained by the city 
under Augustus, are depicted in glowing terms by his contemporaries. His 
successors followed his example in the erection of public edifices , each 
striving to surpass his predecessors. In this respect Nero (54— 68 displayed 
the most unbridled ambition. The conflagration of the year 64, which 
reduced the greater part of Rome to ashes , having been ignited , it is said, 
at the emperor's instigation, afforded him an opportunity of rebuilding the 
whole city in the most modern style and according to a regular plan. For 
his own use he erected the 'golden house', a sumptuous palace with gar- 
dens , lakes, and pleasure-grounds of every description, occupying an ex- 
orbitant area, extending from the Palatine across the valley of the Colosseum, 
and far up the Esquiline (p. 173). These and other works were destroyed 
by his successors , and well merited their fate ; the fragments which still 
bear the name of Kero at Rome are but insignificant. 

The Flavian dynasty, which followed the Julian, has on the other hand 
perpetuated its memory by a number of most imposing works, above all the 

History. HOME. 12. Route. 97 

Colosseum , which has ever been regarded as the symbol of the power and 
greatness of Rome , the Baths of Titus on the Esquiline (p. 176) , and the 
Triumphal Arch (p. 172) erected after the destruction of Jerusalem. Under 
Trajan, architecture received a new impetus, and indeed attained the highest 
development of which the art was capable at Rome. To this the Forum of 
Trajan , with the column and the reliefs , afterwards employed to decorate 
Constantine's arch, bear the most eloquent testimony. Under Trajan, indeed, 
the culminating point both of art and of political greatness was attained. 
Thenceforward the greatness of the empire began gradually, but steadily 
to decline. Although under the next emperor Hadrian this downward ten- 
dency was apparently arrested, yet the monuments of his reign, such as the 
temple of Venus and Roma (p. 173) and the castle of S. Angelo (p. 211), be- 
"gin to exhibit traces of degeneracy. The same remark applies also to the 
time of the Antonines. They were remarkable for their excellent qualities 
as sovereigns , and their peaceful reign has frequently been regarded as the 
period during which mankind in general enjoyed the highest degree of pro- 
sperity. Tradition even still associates the hope of the return of the good 
old times with the equestrian statue of the good Marcus Aurelius. This, 
however , was but the lull preceding a storm. The great plague under the 
latter emperor was the first of a series of fearful calamities which devastated 
the empire. Throughout an entire century civil wars, incursions of barba- 
rians , famine , and pestilence succeeded each other without intermission. 
Although Rome was less affected by these horrors than the provinces, it is 
computed that the population of the city , which at the beginning of the 
2nd cent, was about 1'|2 million, had dwindled to one-half by the time 
of Diocletian. A constant decline in architectural taste is still observed; 
hut, as building always constituted an important feature in the policy of 
the emperors, the number and extent of the ruins of a late period is con- 
siderable. To this epoch belong the column of Marcus Aurelius (p. 114), 
the triumphal arch of 8eptimius Severus (p. 169), the sumptuous Baths of 
Caracalla (p. 19'2), the Temple of the Sun of Aurelian (p. 119), and the 
extensive Thermse of Diocletian (p. 135). 

After the Punic War the walls of the city had been suffered to fall to 
decay, and during nearly five centuries Rome was destitute of fortilication. 
Under the Emperor Aurelian, however, danger became so imminent that 
it was deemed necessary again to protect the city by a wall against the 
attacks of the barbarians. This structure is to a great extent identical with 
that which is still standing. The latest important ruins of antiquity bear 
the name of Constantine the Great, viz. the Basilica (p. 171), Baths (pp. 120, 
130), and Triumphal Arch (p. 176). The two former were, however, erected 
by his rival Maxentius. Constantine manifested little partiality for Rome 
and ancient traditions ; the transference of the seat of empire to Byzantium 
(in 330) marks a decided turning-point in the history of the city, as well 
as in that of the whole empire. Rome indeed was still great on account of 
the glorious past and its magnificent monuments, but in many respects it 
had sunk to the level of a mere provincial town. No new works were 
henceforth undertaken, whilst the old gradually fell to decay. According to 
the statistics of this period Rome possessed 37 gates, from which 28 high 
roads diverged, 19 aqueducts, 3 bridges across the Tiber. There were 423 
streets, 1790 palaces, and 46,602 dwelling-houses. Among the public struc- 
tures are mentioned 11 Thermae, 856 bath-rooms, 1352 fountains in the 
streets, 423 temples, 36 triumphal arches, 10 basilicas, etc. When the gran- 
deur and magnificence suggested by these numbers is considered, it may 
appear a matter of surprise that comparatively so few relics now remain ; 
but it must be borne in mind that the work of destruction progressed 
steadily during nearly a thousand years, and was not arrested till the era 
of the Renaissance, but for which even the monuments still extant would 
ere now have been consigned to oblivion. 

The introduction of Christianity was unfavourable for the preservation 
of heathen temples and statues, and the inroads of the Goths (410) and 
Vandals (455) were totally subversive of the wealth and taste necessary for 
the maintenance of these monuments. The Roman bishops largely employed 

98 Route 12. ROME. History. 

the columns of ancient temples in the construction of their churches ; and, 
as their pontifical power increased, these buildings were either greatly 
altered, or entirely superseded by more sumptuous ediiices. S. Pudenziana, 
the erection of which is attributed to Pius I., is believed to be the oldest 
church at Rome. S. Maria and S. Cecilia in Trastevere are said to have 
been founded by Calixtus I., shortly after which S. Alessio and S. Prisca 
were erected on the Aventine. The large basilicas of the Vatican and La- 
teran, S. Paolo and S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura, S. Croce in Gerusalemmc, 
S. Agnese outside the Porta Pia, and S. Pietro e Marcellino near the La- 
teran are all ascribed, most of them probably erroneously, to Constantine, 
subsequently to whose reign innumerable churches and monasteries sprang 
up. Although the city had suffered severely from the contests of the Greeks 
and the Goths, during which Vitiges demolished the aqueducts, the Greeks 
hurled the statues of Hadrian's Mausoleum upon the advancing Goths, and 
Totilas partially overthrew the walls, yet the following centuries, the 7th 
and 8th, proved still more destructive, when famine and pestilence, con- 
flagrations and inundations involved both Rome and its inhabitants in utter 
ruin. Leo IV. encircled the 'Leonine city' with, a wall, and erected other 
useful structures, which indicate a renewed period of prosperity ; but the 
ravages of the Saracens in the city and its environs soon prevented farther 
progress. When at length these barbarians were finally subdued by John 
X., the city was repeatedly besieged and captured by German armies during 
the contest for the imperial crown; and subsequently, in consequence of 
incessant, civic feuds, the entire city was converted into a number of distinct 
fortified quarters , with castellated houses , in the construction of which 
numerous monuments of antiquity were ruthlessly destroyed for the sake 
of the building materials they afforded. The temporary re-establishment of 
peace was invariably followed by new scenes of devastation, as when the 
Senator Brancaleone dismantled no fewer than 150 of the strongholds of 
the warlike nobles. The constantly increasing civic and national dissensions 
at length compelled Clement V. in 1309 to transfer the seat of the pontifical 
government to Avignon, where it remained till 1377, whilst Rome was 
successively governed by Guelphs and Ghibellines, Neapolitans and Germans, 
Orsini's and Colonna's, and for a brief period (1347) Cola di Rienzi even 
succeeded in restoring the ancient republican form of Government. This 
was an epoch of the utmost misery, when poverty, war, and disease had 
reduced the population to less than 20,000 souls ; but a more happy era 
was inaugurated by the return of Gregory IX. to the city. After the 
termination of the papal schism (1378—1417), the new development of the 
city progressed rapidly, aided by the vast sums of money which flowed 
into the papal coffers, and by the revival of taste for art and science 
promoted by Nicholas V., Julius II., Leo X., and others. In 1527 the city 
was fearfully devastated by the troops of Charles of Bourbon; but it gra- 
dually recovered from the blow, its population again increased, and many 
churches and palaces were restored or newly erected by the popes, their 
cardinals and favourites. In 1798 a republic was established for a short 
period at Rome, and from 1809 to 1814 the city was under the supremacy 
of France. A republican form of government was again declared in 1849, 
in consequence of the events of the previous year, but on April 12th, 1850, 
Pius IX. was restored by the French. The city was then garrisoned by 
15,000 French troops, who were withdrawn in December 18GG, in accordance 
with the convention of Sept. 15th, 1864; but were recalled after the Gari- 
baldian hostilities of 1807, and were quartered in the environs until the 
breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. On Sept. 20th of that 
ye;ir the Italian troops marched into the city, after a bombardment of five 
hours. The States of the Church are now incorporated with the kingdom 
nf Italy, of which Rome is now once more the capital. 


ROME. 1-2. Route. 99 



Rom. Emp. 

1'opes t. 


Rom. Emp. 



Julius Casar 


Gordian III. 



Philip the 


Cifcsar Octa- 


vianus Au- 



A. 1). 



Gallus and 

Cornelius, 251. 







Lucius I., 252. 



St. Peter, 42. 



Stephen I., 254. 





Martyrdom of 


Sixtus II., 257. 

St. Peter. 


Dionysius, 259. 



Linus. — Cle 





ment, 07. 


Claudius II. 



Felix I., 209. 






Cletus, 73. 





Anacletus, 95. 














Carinus and 





Evaristus, 95. 


Cajus, 283. 


Alexander I. ,109. 






Marcellinus, 295 


Sixtus I, 117. 




Telesphonis, 127. 

Chlorus and 





Hyginus, 138. 



Pius I., 142. 




Marcus Au- 

Amicetus, 150. 

the Great. 



Maximin II. 

Marcellus I., 304 


Sotcr, 102. 



Eleutlierus, 171. 





Eusebius, 310. 


Victor I., 185. 


Alelchiades, 310. 




Sylvester I., 314 

Didius Ju 





Constantine U . 

Julius 1. 












Zepliyriiiiiss, 198. 




Maori tins. 

\'£ 9" 



Calixlus I., 217. 


Valenti- ° ■? 
man 1. \ z p 




and f.Sw 


Urban I., 222. 

Valens. I.j; .-„ 


Pontianus, 230. 



Anterus, 235. 


Damascus 1. 


Fabianus, 230. 




Gordian I. 


Valentinian II. 

and II. 












f The dates of the popes down to Constanline are uncertain, havi 
been handed down by vague tradition only. 

100 H„uu 13. 




Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp 



Anastasius I. 


Justinian II. 

John V. 


Innocent 1. 




Theodoaius II. 


St. Sergius I. 




John VI. 


Boniface I. 


John VII. 


Constantius 11. 





Coclestinus I. 

Bardanes 711. 



Anastas. 11.713. 



Sixtus III. 


Leo the I sau- 

St, Gregory 11. 


Leo 1. the Gnat. 

rian 718. 




St. Gregory III. 






Leo and Majo- 


St. Zacharias. 



Stephen 11. 


Lib. Severus. 



St. Paul I. 





Stephen III. 




Hadrian I. 





St. Leo III. 




Louis the 


Romulus Au- 




Stephen IV. 


Felix II. 


St. Paschalis I. 




Eugene 11. 


Anastasius 11. 





Gregory IV. 






John I. 


Sergius II. 


Felix III. 


St. Leo IV. 


Justinian I. 

Boniface II t- 


Louis 11. 

Benedict 111. 

|528 -565). 


St. Nicholas J. 


John II. 


Hadrian II. 


St. Agapitus 1. 


John VIII. 


St. Silverius. 


Charles the 





Pelagius I. 


Martin II. 


John III. 


Charles the 

Hadrian III. 


Benedict I. 



Pelagius 11. 


Stephen V. 


St. Gregory I. the 







Phocas 602. 



Boniface VI. 


Heraclius 610. 

Boniface III. 

Stephen VI. 


S. Boniface IV. 


Romanus I. 




Theodoras II. 


J'.oniface V. 

John IX. 


Honorius I. 


Louis the 

Benedict IV. 




John IV. 


Leo V. 


Constans II. 

Theodoras I. 



St. Martin I. 


Sergius HI. 


St. Eugene I. 


Anastasius III. 


Constantino III 

St. Vitilianus. 


Conrad I. 

(d. 668). 






John X. 


Donus I. 


Henry I. the 


St. Agathus. 



St. Leo II. 


Leo VI. 


St. Benedict II. 


Stephen VII. 

•f Thus far all the preceding popes have been canonised. 



12. Route. 101 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



John XI. 


Clement III. 


Otho 1. 

Leo VII. 


Henry VI. 


Stephen VIII. 


Coelestine III. 


Martin III. 


Otho IV. 


Agapetus II. 


Innocent III. 


John XII. 


Frederick II. 


Leo VIII. 


Ilonorius III. 

Benedict V. 


Gregory IX. 


John XIII. 


Coelestine IV. 


Benedict VI. 


Innocent IV. 


Otho II. 

Donus II. 




Benedict VII. 


Alexander IV. 


Otho III. 

John XIV. 


Urban IV. 


John XV. 


Clement IV. 


Gregory V. 


Gregory X. 


Sylvester II. 


Rudolph of 


Henry II. 



John XVII. 
John XVIII. 


Innocent V. 
Hadrian V. 


Sergius IV. 

John XX. 


Benedict VIII. 

or XXI. 


Conrad 11. 

John XIX. 


Nicholas III. 


Benedict IX. 


Martin IV. 


Henry III. 


Ilonorius IV. 


Gregory VI. 


Nicholas IV. 

Clement. II. 


Albert I. and 


l>amasus II. 

Adolph of 


St. Leo IX. 



Victor II. 


St. Crelestine V 


Henry IV 


Boniface VIII. 


Stephen IX. 


Benedict XL 


Nicholas 11. 


Clement V. 


Alexander II. 


Henry VII. of 


Gregory VII. 

Luxembourg . 



Louis of Ba- 


Victor III. 

varia and 


Urban II. 

Frederick of 


Paschalis II. 



Henry V. 


John XXII. 


Oelasius 11. 


Benedict XII. 


Calixtus 11. 


Clement VI. 


Ilonorius II. 


Charles IV. of 


Lothairc of 




Innocent VI. 


Innocent II. 


Urban V. 


Conrad III. 


Gregory XI. 

of Hohen- 



Urban UI. 



Boniface IX. 


Co'.lestine II. 


Rupert of the 


Lucius II. 



Kugenc III. 


Innocent VII. 


Frederick I. 


Gregory XII. 



Alexander V. 


Anastasius IV. 



John XXIII. 


Hadrian IV. 


Martin V. 


Alexander III. 


Eugene IV. 


Lucius III. 


Albert. II. 


Urban III. 


Frederick III. 


Gregory VIII. 


Nicholas V 

102 Routt 1 1> 




Rom. Emp. 



Rotn. Emp. 



Galixtus III. 


Clement VIII. 


I'ius II. (iEncas 
Sylvius, Siena). 

(Hippoiyt. Ahlo- 
brandini of 


Paul II. 



Sixtus IV. 
(Francis de 
Rovere of 


Leo XI. (Alexan- 
der Medici). 
Paul V. (Camillo 






Innocent VIII. 


Ferdinand 11. 

(.Toann. B. Cibo 


Gregory XV. 

of Genoa). 

(Alexander Lu- 


Alexander VI. 


(Roder. Borgia). 


Urban VIII. (Mat 


Maximilian I. 

l'eo Barberini). 


Pius III. (Fran- 


Ferdinand III. 

cis Piccolomini 


Innocent X. 

of Siena). 



Julius II. (Julian 


della Roverc). 


Alexander VII. 


Leo X. (John dc' 

(Fabio Chigi of 


Charles V. 


Leopold 1 . 


Hadrian VI. 

(of Utrecht). 


Clement IX. 
(Giul. Rospig- 


Clement VII. 


(Julius Medici). 


Clement X. 


Paul III. (Alex- 

(Emilio Alticri). 

ander Farncsc). 


Innocent XI. 


Julius III. (Joan. 
Maria de Monte). 



Marcellus II. 
Paul IV. (Gian 
Pietro Caraffa 


Alexander XIII. 
(Pietro Otto- 

of Naples). 


Joseph 1. 


Ferdinand I. 

1 1691 

Innocent XII. 


Pius IV. (Joan. 
Angelus Medici 

(Ant. Pigna- 

of Milan). 


Clement XI. 


Maximilian II. 

(Giov. Franc. 


St. Pius V. 


(Ghislieri of 


Charles VI. 



Innocent XIII. 


Gregory XIII. 
(Ugo Buon- 

(Mich. Ang. (to 

compagiii of 


Benedict XIII 


(Vine. Maria 


Riirtuljm II 


J 585 

Sixtus V. (Felix 


Clement XII. 
(Lorenzo Cm 


Urban VII. 




Benedict XIV. 

Castagna of 

(Prosp. Lam- 




Gregory XIV. 
(Nic. Sfondrati 


Charles VII. 
of Ba.varia. 

of Milan). 


Francis I. 


Innocent IX. 


Clement XIII. 
(Carlo Rezzo- 

Facchinetti of 

nico of Venice). 


Ulfi&LLuscph II. 

Topography . 


tl>. Route. 103 


Rom. Emp. 



Iiom. Emp. 




Clement XIV. 
(Giov. Ant. C.;i n- 
ganelli of Ei- 


Pius VIII. 
(Franc. Xav. 
Castiglione of 


Pius VI. (Giov. 
Ang. Braschi). 


Gregory XVI. 


Leopold 11. 

of Helluno). 


Francis 11. 


Pius IX. (Gio- 


Pius VII. (Grc- 
gorio Barnaba 
Chiaramonti of 

vanni Maria 
Mastai - Ferctti 
of Sinigaglia, 
born 13. May, 


dclla Genga of 

1792, Cardinal 
1839, Pope 16. 
June 1846). 

Rome is situated (41° 5' 54" N. lat., 12° 29" E. longit., 
meridian of Greenwich) in an undulating volcanic plain , which 
extends from Capo Linaro , S. of Civita Vecchia, to the Promon- 
torio Circeo , a distance of about 85 M. , and between the Apen- 
nines and the sea, a width of 25 M. The city is built on both 
sides of the Tiber , the largest river in the Italian peninsula, 
14 M. from its influx into the Mediterranean. The prospect from 
one of the hills of Rome — and no city is more replete with 
ever-varying and delightful views — is bounded towards the E. 
by the unbroken chain of the Apennines, which rise at a distance 
of 10 to 20 M. In the extreme N. towers the indented ridge 
of Soracte, occupying an isolated position in the plain, and sepa- 
rated by the Tiber from the principal range of the Apennines. 
Farther E., and still more distant, is the Leonessa group, which 
approaches the Central Apennines. Considerably nearer lies the 
range of the Sabine Mts. The summit at the angle which they 
form by their abutment on the Campagna is M. Gennaro , the 
Lucretilis of Horace; the village at the base is Monticelli. Farther 
off, on the slope of the hill, lies Tivoli, recognised by its villas 
and olive-gardens. More towards the S., on the last visible spur 
of the Sabine Mts., Palestrina, the Prameste of antiquity, is 
situated. A depression, 4 M. in width only, separates the Apen- 
nines from the volcanic Alban Mts., above which a few peaks of 
the distant Volscian Mts. appear. On the E. spur of the Alban 
Mts. lies the village of Colonna. The following villages are Rocca 
Priora and Monte Porzio ; then the town of Frascati below the 
ancient Tusculum. The highest peak of the Alban Mts. is M. 
Cavo, once surmounted by a temple of the Alban Jupiter, now 
by a Passionist monastery. On it lies the village of Rocca di 
Papa , loftily and picturesquely situated , beneath which , towards 
the plain, is the town of Marino. The village, with the castle 
farther to the W. on the hill , is Castol Gandolfo ; the mountain 

104 Route 1:>. ROME. Topography. 

then gradually sinks to the level of the plain. Towards the W. the 
sea is -visible from a few of the highest points only. On the N. 
the eye rests on the Janiculus, a volcanic chain of hills approaching 
close to the river, beyond which the horizon is bounded by moun- 
tains also of volcanic formation: towards the sea, to the 1. , the 
mountains of Tolfa, then the heights around the lake of Bracciano 
with the peak of Rocca Romana, the Ciminian Forest (now usually 
termed the mountains of Viterbo); the nearest point to the r. is 
the crater of Baccano, with the wooded height of M. Musino. The 
plain, enclosed by this spacious amphitheatre of mountains, and 
intersected by the Tiber and the Anio , which descends from Ti- 
voli and falls into the former l!/ 2 M. above Rome, contains a 
sprinkling of farms and villages , but is far more replete with 
witnesses of its former greatness and present desolation in the 
innumerable and extensive ruins covering it in every direction. 

The wall by which Rome of the present day is surrounded is 
about 12 M. in length, constructed of brick, and on the exterior 
about 50 ft. in height. The greater portion of it dates from 
271 — 274, having been begun by the Emp. Aurelian , com- 
pleted by Probus, and subsequently restored by Honorius, Theo- 
doric, Belisarius, and several popes. The city is entered by 12 gates 
(several of earlier date are now walled up). Of these the most 
important is the Porta del Popolo, whence the grand route to N. 
and E. Italy issues and crosses the Tiber by the Ponte Molle, 
J ] / 2 M. from the city. Receding from the river, follow: Porta 
Salara, Porta Pia, Porta S. Lorenzo (road to Tivoli), Porta Maggiore 
(to Palestrina), Porta S. Giovanni (to Frascati and Albano), Porta 
S. Sebastiano (Via Appia), Porta S. Paolo (to Ostia). Then upon 
the r. bank of the Tiber : Porta Portese (to Porto), Porta S. Pan- 
crazio, Porta Cavaleggieri, and Porta Angelica. 

The Tiber reaches Romes after a course of about 220 M., and 
intersects the city from N. to S. The water is turbid (the 'flavus 
Tiberis' of Horace) and rises fo a considerable height after con- 
tinued rain. The navigation of the river, by means of which the 
commerce of imperial Rome was carried on in both directions, 
with transmarine nations as well as with the Italian provinces, is 
now comparatively insignificant. The Tiber enters the city not 
far from the base of M. Pincio and describes three curves within 
its precincts: the first towards the S. W. , skirting the quarter 
of the Vatican, the second to the S. E. , bounding the Campus 
Martius and terminating at the island and the Capitol , and the 
third to the S. W., quitting the city by the Aventine. 

On the r. bank of the Tiber lies the more modern and smaller 
portion of the city. This part is divided into two halves: on the 
N. the Borgo around the Vatican and St. Peter's , encircled with 
a wall by Leo IV. in 851 and constituted a separate town; on 
the S., lying on the river and the slopes of the Janiculus, Tras- 

Topography. KUMK. li'. Route. 105 

tevere , which from a very remote period has formed a tete-de- 
pont of Rome against Etruria, and was under Augustus a densely 
populated suburb. These two portions are connected by the long 
Via della Longara , constructed by Sixtus V. The banks of the 
Tiber are connected by means of 5 bridges : Ponte S. Angelo 
near the castle of that name , below which the new suspension- 
bridge Ponte Leonino crosses from the Longara ; then from 
Trastevere the Ponte Sisto ; another traverses the island , the 
portion from Trastevere to the island being termed Ponte S. Bar- 
tolommeo , thence to the 1. bank the Ponte de' Quattro Capi ; 
finally, below the island, the Ponte Rotto. 

The more ancient portion of the city, properly so called , lies 
on the 1. bank, partly in the plain which extends along the river, 
the ancient Campus Martius, and partly on the surrounding hills. 
Modern Rome is principally confined to the plain , whilst the 
heights on which the ancient city stood are now to a great ex- 
tent uninhabited. These are the far-famed Seven Hills of Rome. 
The least extensive, but historically most important, is the Capi- 
toline, 161 ft. above the sea-level, in the vicinity of the Tiber 
and the island; at the present day it forms in some degree the 
barrier between ancient and modern Rome. It consists of a nar- 
row ridge extending from S.W. to N.E. , culminating in two 
summits, separated by a depression: on the S.W. point, towards 
the river, stands the Palazzo Caffarelli, on that to the N.E., to- 
wards the Quirinal , the church of S. Maria in Araceli. Conti- 
guous to the Capitoline, in a N.E. direction, and separated from 
it by a depression which the structures of Trajan considerably 
widened, extends the long Quirinal (157 ft.). On the N. a valley, 
in which the Piazza Barberini is situated, separates the Quirinal 
? rom the Pincio (175 ft.), which, as its ancient appellation 'collis 
liortorum' indicates , was occupied by gardens , and not regarded 
is a portion of the city. E. of the Quirinal , but considerably 
less extensive , rises the Viminal (170 ft.). Both of these may- 
be regarded as buttresses of the third and more important height, 
the Esquiline (188 ft.), which, forming the common basis of 
;hese two, extends from the Pincio on the N. to the Cselius. 
Its distinguishing feature with regard to modern Rome is the con- 
spicuous church of S. Maria Maggiore; with regard to ancient 
tome, S. Pietro in Vincoli and the ruins of the Thermae of Titus, 
vhere it approaches the Quirinal, Palatine, and Cffilius. S. E. of 
the Capitoline, in the form of an irregular quadrangle , rises the 
solated Palatine (170 ft.) , with the ruins of the palaces of the 
:mperors , and on the low ground between these hills lies the 
indent Forum. Farther S. , close to the river, separated from 
he Palatine by the depression in which the Circus Maximus ex- 
ended, is the Aventine (155 ft.), with the churches of S. Sabiua, 
v Balbina, etc. Finally, E. of the latter, the long-extended Cae- 

106 Route 11>. ROME. Topography. 

lius, with S. Gregorio and S. Stefano Rotondo, in tlie low ground 
between the Cselius, Palatine, and Esquilinc is situated the Colos- 
seum; farther E., by the city-wall, between the Cffilius and Es- 
quiline, the Lateran. 

By far the greater portion of the area enclosed by the walls, 
inhabited during the imperial period by l 1 /^ — 2 millions of souls, 
is now untenanted. On the Palatine , Aventine , Caelius , Esqui- 
linc, and the entire region immediately within the walls, once 
densely-peopled streets are now superseded by the bleak walls of 
vineyards. The modern city is divided into two halves by tie 
Corso or principal street, which runs from N. to S., from the 
Porta del Popolo to the Piazza di Venezia in the vicinity of the 
Capitoline. The E. half, at the base and on the ridge of the 
Pincio and Quirinal , presents a modern aspect , and is the prin- 
cipal resort of strangers. The W. half, on the bank of the Tiber, 
consists of narrow and dirty streets, occupied by the humbler 

According to the Annuario Pontiflco (Rom. government-almanac) 
of Easter, 1867, the population of Rome amounted to 215,5Sli 
souls , of whom 6227 were clergymen , 494f) nuns , 4(150 Jews, 
457 Protestants and 7360 soldiers. To these numbers must be 
added the numerous and ever-varying influx of visitors, of whom 
upwards of 25,000 congregate in the city at Easter. 

An intimate acquaintance with the most interesting points in 
Home cannot bo acquired during a brief visit. The appended 
description is, however, so arranged as to enable even those 
whose stay does not exceed a week or a fortnight to visit the 
most celebrated places in the most convenient manner possible. 
Rome is especially adapted for a winter-residence (October to May), 
on account of the mildness of the climate , while the Carnival 
in spring forms an additional attraction. In summer the heat 
and malaria banish great numbers of the inhabitants , whilst in 
winter thousands of visitors from all countries flock to the city. 
The Artists' Association (German), to which non-professional men 
arc also admitted (in the building adjoining the Fontana Trevi; 
entrance , Via della Slamperia 4 ; subscription 8 fr. per month, 
or 32 fr. per annum), is a favourite rallying-point for artists. 
With the exception of the theatres, Rome affords little oppor- 
tunity for modern gaieties, a deficiency for which, however, its 
monuments of antiquity and treasures of art, ancient and mo- 
dem, abundantly compensate. 

/. Str angers' Quarter and Corso. 

From the N., not far from the Tiber, th» city is entered by 
the Porta del Popolo, constructed in 1561 by Viynola, the inner 

Piazza del Popolo. ROME. 12. Route. 107 

portion embellished by Bernini on the occasion of the entry of 
Queen Christina of Sweden, and deriving its appellation from the 
neighbouring church of that name. At the gate is the handsome 
*Piazza del Popolo (PI. 1, 18), in the centre of which rises an 
Obelisk between four water-spouting lionesses, which, after the 
defeat of Antony, Augustus caused to be brought from Heliopolis, 
placed in the Circus Maximus (p. 185) and dedicated to the Sun. 
It was removed to its present position by order of Sixtus V. To 
the r. of the gate is the church of S. Maria del Popolo (sec 
below), opposite to it the former Barracks of theOendarmi Pontifici. 
Towards the W. the Piazza is bounded by an arched wall with Nep- 
tune and Tritons , opposite to which is a similar structure with 
Minerva and river-gods. On each side of the latter is an approach 
to the Pincio (p. 108); adjacent to it on the r. is the hotel Isole 
Britanniche. Three streets diverge from the piazza on the S. : 
to the r. the Via di Ilipetta, parallel with the river, prolonged by 
the Via Scrofa which leads direct to the post-oflice (p. 150); in 
the centre the Corso (p. 112); to the 1. the Via del, 
leading to the Piazza di Spayna (p. 111). Between the two 
latter streets stands the church of S. Maria in Monte Santo, to the 
r. adjoining it, that of S. Maria de' Miracoli , both dating from 
the latter half of the 17th cent. , with domes and vestibules, 
designed by Kinaldi, completed by Bernini and Fontana. Outside 
the gate, to the r. is the Villa Borghese (p. 122), to the 1. 
the English Church, a yellowish grey building with three doors 
sheltered by roofs. 

*S. Maria del Popolo (PI. I, 18), said to have been founded 
by Paschalis II. in 1099 on the site of the tombs of the Domitii, 
the burial-place of Nero which was haunted by evil spirits, was 
under Sixtus IV. in 1477 re-erected by Baccio Pintelli , the in- 
terior subsequently decorated by Bernini in the baroque style. 
It consists of nave, aisles, transept, and octagonal dome, and con- 
tains numerous works of art , especially handsome monuments of 
the 15th cent. 

The 1st Chapel in the r. aisle, formerly delta Rovere, now Venuti, was 
painted l>y Pinturicchio; 'altar-piece, Adoration of the Infant Christ; in the 
lunrltes, life of St. Jerome; 1. tomb of Cardinal della Rovere, r. that of 
Cardinal di Castro. In the 2nd Chapel: Assumption of Mary, allar-piece by 
C Maralia. 3rd Chapel, painted by Pinturicchio: above the altar, Madonna 
with four angels, 1. Assumption of the Virgin, in the lunettes, scenes from 
the life of Mary, in the predellc representations of martyrs in grisaille; r. 
tomb of Giov. della Rovere (d. 14S3) ; 1. recumbent bronze figure of a bishop. 
In the 4th Chapel marble-sculptures of the end of the 15th cent, above the 
altar: St. Catharine between St. Antony of Padua and St. Vincent; r. tomb 
of Marcantonio Albertoni (d. 1485), 1. that of the Cardinal of Lisbon (d. 1508). 
In the r. transept, on the r., tomb of Cardinal Podocatharus of Cyprus. 
Near it is a door leading into a passage at the end of which is the sacristy, 
containing the former '" canopy of the high-altar of Alexander VI. of the 
year 1492, with an ancient Madonna (of the Siencse school) and two beau- 
tiful tombs, 1. that of Archbishop Rocca (d. 1482), r. of Bishop Gomiel. — 
In the 1st Chapel in the 1. aisle, 1. and r. of the altar, two ciboria of the 

108 Pincio. ROME. The View. 

15th cent., 1. tomb of Card. Ant. Pallavicini (erected 1507). By a pillar 
near it the baroque monument of a Princess Chigi, by Post (1771). The 2nd 
Chapel was constructed under the direction of Raphael by Agostino Chigi 
in honour of St. Mary of Loreto; on the vaulting of the dome eight "mo- 
saics by Aloisio delta Pace (1516), from Raphael's cartoons, the Creation of 
the heavenly bodies : the sun, the moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, 
Saturn, who, conducted by angels, perform the circuit of the universe; in 
the lantern an emblem of God the Father, surrounded by angels; altar- 
piece, Nativity of the Virgin, by Sebastiano del Piombo, the other pictures 
by Sah'iati. Bronze relief at the altar, Christ and the Samaritan woman, 
by Lorenzetto; in the niches 4 statues of prophets: at the altar, 1. Jonah, 
r. Habakuk ; at the entrance, 1. Daniel, r. Elijah. Beneath are -Jonah by 
Raphael, and Elijah by Lorenzetto, designed by Raphael; the others by Bernini. 
In the 1. transept the tomb of Cardinal Bernardino Lonati (15th cent). In tile 
choir (not accessible during service; sacristan usually shows it and opens 
the chapels; >|-2 fr.) "ceiling- frescoes by Pinturicchio : Madonna, the 4 Evan- 
gelists, and the 4 Fathers of the church, Gregory, Ambrose, Jerome, and 
Augustine. Beneath are the * tombs of the cardinals Girolamo Basso and 
Ascanio Sforza by Andrea Sansovino, erected by order of Julius II. The 
same pope is said to have caused the two line stained glass windows to be 
executed by Claudius and William of Marseilles. 

The church gives a title to a cardinal. In the adjacent Au- 
gustine monastery Luther resided during his visit to Rome. 

Ascending the *Pincio (PI. I, 18) the visitor encounters in 
the lirst circular space two columns (columnae rostratae), adorned 
with the prows of ships, from the temple of Venus and Roma 
(p. 173); in the niches 3 marble statues, and above them captive 
Dacians, imitations of antiques. Beyond these, farther up, a 
large relief. 

The projecting terrace at the summit commands a magnificent ,! Vie* 
of modern Home. Beyond the Piazza del Popolo with the buildings above 
described, on the opposite bank of the Tiber, rises the huge pile of St. Pe- 
ter's, contiguous to which is the Vatican to the r., in the vicinity the city- 
wall. Of the chain of hills which here bound the horizon, the point planted 
with cypresses to the r., where the Villa Mellini is situated, is Monte Maiio. 
To the 1. of St. Peter's, close to the Tiber, which, however, is not visible 
from this point, is the round castle of S. Angelo, so called from the bronze 
angel by which it is surmounted. The pine-grove on the height to the 1. 
of the castle belongs to the Villa Doria-Pamfili. Farther to the 1. , on the 
height, the facade of the Acqua Paola, decorated with a cross. Between the 
spectator and the river a labyrinth of houses and churches. The following 
points will serve as landmarks. The two nearest churches are: that with 
the two towers to the r., S. Giacomo in the Corso, that with the dome to 
the 1., S. Carlo in the Corso ; between the two appears the flat dome ol 
the Pantheon, beyond which a part of the Campagna is visible. To the 1. 
of this, on the height in the extreme distance, rises the long, underrated 
side of a church, behind which a tower appears: the church is S. Maria 
in Araceli, and the tower belongs to the senatorial palace on the Capi 
toline. On the r. side of the Capitoline lies the Palazzo Caffavelli (res' 
dence of the Prussian ambassador), in front of which the upper portion 
of the column of M. Aurelius in the Piazza Colonna is visible. Adjaceil 
to the Capitoline on the 1. is the bright-looking Villa Mills (now belonginf 
to a nunnery), shaded by cypresses , on the Palatine. Farther 1. a low 
brick-built tower on the Quirinal, the so called Torre di Nerone. To tb« 
extreme 1. and less distant, the extensive palace on the (^uirinal. 

The Pincio, the collis hortorum, 'hill of gardens', of the ancients, 
probably derived its name of Mons Pineius from the estates of the 
Piucii situated here in the latest period of the empire. Here 
were once the celebrated gardens of Luruilus and at a late date 

Villa Medici. ROME. Belvedere. 109 

Messalina, the wife of Claudius, celebrated her orgies here. It 
is now a favourite promenade , where a military band plays on 
Sundays and Thursdays, two hours before sunset, attracting a 
considerable audience of all classes in carriages and on foot. The 
walks are shaded by plantations and groups of trees, and adorned 
with busts of celebrated Italians. To the r. , at the foot of the 
lofty wall which serves to support the hill, lies the Villa Borghese 
(p. 122), with its extensive and shady grounds. The dilapidated 
grey building on Monte Mario, below the Villa Mellini, is the Vila 
Madama. On the E. side a large portion of the city-wall is visible. 
Adjoining the public grounds is the garden of the Villa Medici. 

Following the carriage-road, and passing a large antique granite 
basin, the visitor reaches an obelisk, which Hadrian erected to 
the memory of Antinous in Egypt. It was subsequently brought 
to Rome, and erected here in 1822. Proceeding in this direction, 
the footpath (above) and the carriage-road (below) command an 
ever-varying *prospect. The public grounds are closed by a gate. 
before reaching which the visitor will observe to the 1. the white 
Villa Medici with its two corner-turrets, now the seat of the 
Acade'mie Francaise; in front of it is a fountain, shaded by ever- 
green-oaks, whence a celebrated view of St. Peter's is obtained, 
especially striking towards evening or by moonlight. 

The Villa Medici (PI. I, IS), erected in 1540 by Annibale Lippi 
for Cardinal Ricci da Monlepulciano, next (about 1600) came into 
possession of Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici, and subsequently into 
that of the grand-dukes of Tuscany. In 1801 the French transfer- 
red thither the seat of their academy of art, founded by Louis XIV. 
Entrance to the garden, to which visitors are readily admitted, 
by the gate to the r., or by the staircase to the r. in the house. On 
the tastefully decorated garden side of the villa ancient reliefs 
have been built into the walls. The r. wing contains a collection 
of casts (open daily, except Sundays, 8 — 12, and in the after- 
noon till near sunset) , comprising many from statues etc. not 
preserved at Rome, e. g. from the Parthenon of Athens, museum 
t )f the Louvre, etc. , which are valuable in the history of art. 
Adjoining the wing is a terrace, by the front-wall of which stand 
■asts of the Niobides; entrance by the side-door, opposite the 
nuseum of casts, which if closed will be opened by the porter 
5 s.). Skirting the balustrade , and traversing the oak-grove in 
c, straight direction, the visitor ascends 60 steps to the *Belvedere, 
.jvhence a charming *panorama is enjoyed. To the 1. of the villa 
Jiie grounds with pleasant, shady walks. Most of the statues with 
which they are embellished are modern. 

■' The avenue ends in the Piazza Trinita ; to the 1. rises the 
Ijhurch of SS. Trinita de' Monti. The obelisk in front of it, a con- 
spicuous object from many points, is an ancient imitation of that in 
le Piazza del Popolo, and once adorned the gardens of Sallust. 

lit* SS. Trinita de Monti. w.nun. • .im Zuccari. 

SS. Trinita de' Monti (PI. I, 20), erected by Charles VIII. 
of France in 1495, plundered during the French Revolution, was 
restored by Louis XVIII in 1817. 

Left, 1st Chape] : Cast of the Descent from the Cross, by Achtermann. 
2nd Chapel : on the 1. an altar-piece al fresco, Descent from the Cross, 
by Daniel da Volterra, master-piece of the artist. 3rd Chapel : Madonna, by Veil. 4th Chapel : St. Joseph by Lanrjlois. 6th Chapel : Christ, 
the Wise and Foolish Virgins, and Return of the Prodigal, an altar-piece 
by tfeitz. — Right, 3rd Chapel : Assumption of the Virgin, Dan. da Volterra. 
5th Chapel : Presentation in the Temple, Adoration of the Magi, Adoration 
of the Shepherds, a work of the school of Raphael. Gtb Chapel: Resur- 
rection, Ascension, Descent of the Holy Ghost, school of Perugino. — In 
the transept, which is supported by Gothic arches, paintings by Perino del 
Vaija and F. Zuccaro. 

The church is open on Sundays before 9 a. m., and in the 
evening during Vespers ('/2 nr - before Ave Maria), when the 
nuns usually perform choral service with organ-accompaniment. 
When the church is closed , visitors ascend the side-staircase on 
the 1., and ring at a door protected by a roof. 

The convent connected with the church has since 1827 been 
tenanted by the Dames du Sacre Cceur (instructresses of girls). 

The piazza is quitted to the I. by the broad Via Sistina, pro- 
longed by the Via Felice and Via delle Quattro Fontane, by which 
the traveller descends in 5 ruin, to the Piazza Barberini (p. 127), 
traverses the Quirinal and Viminal, and in 20 min. more reaches S. 
Maria Maggiore on the Esquiiine (p. 137). To the r. is the small 
Via Gregoriana, leading to the transverse Via Capo le Case. Be- 
tween the Via Sistina and Via Gregoriana is situated the Casa 
Zuccari , once the property of the family of the artists of that 
name (on the ground-floor paintings by Federigo Zuccaro). At 
the beginning of the present century the house was occupied 
by the Prussian consul Bartholdy (whence ' Casa Bartholdy'), who 
caused one of the apartments to be adorned with *frescoes from 
the history of Joseph by the most celebrated German artists then 
at Rome. (At present accessible on Sundays 11 — 12 o'clock. 
The house being a private dwelling, the hour is liable to varia- 
tion. Porter 1/2— 1 fr.) 

On the long window-wall: 1. Joseph sold, Overbeck; r. Joseph and 
I'otiphar's wife, Veil. On the short window-wall : Ueei ignition of the brethren, 
('ornelius. In the lunette above: the Seven lean Years, Overbeck. On the 
second long wall : 1. Joseph's interpretation of the dreams in prison; r. 
the Brethren bringing Jacob the bloody coat, both by W. Schadom. On 
the second short wall : Joseph's interpretation of Pharaoh's dream, Cornelius; 
in the lunette above, the Seven Years of Plenty, Veil. 

The long 'Spanish Staircase' (PI. I, 20) descends from S. Tri- 
nita by 125 steps. It was constructed by Specchi and de Sanctis 
in 1721—25, and was until within the last few years a favourite 
resort of beggars, who are now more equally distributed throughout 
the city. The members of the fraternity with their picturesque 
costumes who still frequent this locality especially towards eve- 
ning, afford favourite models for artist- 

Piazza di Spagntt. ROME. S. Andrea dille FratU. Ill 

The long Piazza di Spagna (PL I, 17), the central point of 
the strangers' quarter, is surrounded by hotels and attractive 

In the centre of the piazza is La Barcaccia (barque), a tasteless 
fountain by Bernini. To the 1. is the Column of the Immacolata 
PI. 1, 20, i), erected by Pius IX. in commemoration of the 
loctrine of the immaculate conception of the Virgin, promulgated 
tor the first time in lSo-i; on the summit of the cipolline column 
stands the bronze statue of Mary; beneath are Moses, David, 
Isaiah, and Ezekiel. 

Beyond is the Collegio di Propaganda Fide (PI. 1, 19, 1(1), 
founded in 1(562 by Gregory XV., and extended by his successor 
Urban VIII. (whence 'Collegium Urhanum'), an establishment for 
the propagation of the Rom. Catholic faith, in which pupils of 
many different nationalities are educated as missionaries. The 
printing-office of the college was formerly celebrated as the richest 
in type for foreign languages. A public festivity is celebrated 
here at the beginning of every year, when short speeches in the 
lifferent languages taught are delivered by the pupils ; permessi 
jhtained through an ambassador or consul, or on personal application. 
Adjacent, to the 1., is the Piazza Mignanelli, where (No. 22) the 
Spaccio Normale is situated; to the r. is the palace of the 
Spanish ambassador, whence the piazza derives its name. 

Immediately opposite the Spanish Stairs is the Via de' Condolli, 
containing numerous emporiums of jewellery, mosaics, antiquities, 
photographs, etc. It terminates in the Oorso, opposite the spacious 
Palazzo Ruspoli (p. 113). 

From the Piazza di Spagna the Via del Babuino leads N. to 
lie Piazza del Popolo (p. 107), opposite to which street, to the 
. of the Propaganda, is the Via de' due Macelli, and to the r. the 
Via di Propaganda. If the latter be followed , the church of 
5. Andrea delle Fratte (PI. I, 19) is reached at the corner of 
;he next transverse street, the Via di Capo le Case. It was erected 
mder Leo X. by La Guerra, the unsightly' dome and campanile 
}y Borromini; the facade was added in 1826 by Valadier in con- 
sequence of a bequest by Cardinal Consalvi. 

The pictures of the interior are mediocre works of the 17th cent. ; the 
wo angels by the tribune , by llcrnini , were originally destined for the 
iridge of S. Angelo. In the 2nd Chapel on the r. is (on the r. side) the 
uonument of Lady Falconet by Miss Hosmer ; cm the last pillar to the 
'., in front of the aisle, the monument of the artist It. Schadow by E. 
Volff. In the 3rd Chapel to the 1., by the r. wall, is the tomb of the accom- 
'lished Swiss artist Angelica Kaiill'mann. The eminent nrchreologist Zoi ; ga 
s erroneously said to be interred in this church. 

, At the extremity of the Via di S. Andrea delle Fratte the 
larrow Via di Nazareno is entered to the 1. On the 1. is the 
'ollegio Nazareno (in the court several ancient statues), founded 

112 Fontana di Treri. KUMK. Corso. 

by Card. Tonti (1622) for the education of destitute boys. Oppo- 
site is the Pal. del Bufalo. Then to the 1. the Via delV Angelo 
Custode (in which, immediately to the r., is the small church of 
SS. Angeli Custodi) and Via del Tritone lead direct to the Piazza 
Barberini (p. 124). 

To the r. is the Via della Stamperia, so called from the ex- 
papal Printing- Office situated in it (r.). Adjacent to the latter 
is the extensive royal Engraving Institute with warehouse, where 
the office of the minister of commerce is also now established, 
No. 4 is the entrance to the German Artiste Association (p. 106). 

The visitor now reaches the * Fontana di Trevi (PI. I, 19) 
(derived from 'trivio' , there having been three outlets for the 
water), which vies in magnificence with Acqua Paola. The an- 
cient Aqua Virgo, now Acqua Vergine, repaired by Nicholas V. in 
1450, and subsequently by Pius TV., Pius V., and Gregory XIII., 
which issues here, was conducted by M. Agrippa, B. C. 27, to 
supply his baths at the Pantheon (p. 151) from the Campagna, 
chiefly by a subterranean channel 14 M. in length. It enters 
the city by the Pincio, not far from the Porta del Popolo. Tra- 
dition ascribes the name to the fact of a girl having pointed out 
the spring to a thirsty soldier. The Fontana Trevi in its present 
form, erected near the Palazzo Poli, was completed from a design 
by Niccolb Salri; in the central niche Neptune by Pietro Bracd, 
at the sides Health (1.) and Fertility (r.) ; in Iront of these the 
large stone basin. On quitting Rome, the superstitious partake 
of the water of this fountain, and throw a coin into the basin, in 
the pious belief that their return is thus ensured. Opposite is the 
church SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio , erected in its present form, 
with an unsightly facade, by the well-known Card. Mazzarini. 

The Via di S. Vincenzo terminates in the Via della Dataria 
(1.), which leads to the Quirinal (p. 130). From the Fontana 
Trevi the busy Via delle Muratte leads to the 1. to the Corso. 

The Corso. 
The Corso, which once connected the Capitol with the Vk 
Flaminia, leads from the Piazza del Popolo , which it quits be- 
tween the Via di Ripetta and Via del Babuino, to the Piazza di 
Venezia , and is now the principal street of Rome , with nu- 
merous shops and enlivened, especially towards evening, hy 
crowds of carriages and pedestrians. The Carnival is celebrated 
here, and the street throughout its entire length is thickly strewn 
with sand for the horse-races. From the Piazza del Popolo to 
the Via Condotti is a distance of 750 yds., thence to the Piazza 
Colonna (p. 114) 520, and thence to the Piazza di Venezia 610 
yds., i. e. a total distance of 1880 yds., or upwards of a mile. 
From either side diverge numerous streets and lanes , which to 

i!?. Carlo al Corso. ROME. S. Lorenzo in Purina. Ho 

the r. lead to the crowded purlieus on the bank of the Tiber, 
and to the 1. to the now partially uninhabited hills of the city. 

The first part of the street as far as the Piazza S. Carlo is 
less frequented than the other portions. On the r. between the 
first and second transverse streets is the Pal. Rondinini (PI. ], 
17, IS); in the court an unfinished Pieta by Michael Anyelo. 
On the r. , beyond the third transverse street, stands the church 
of <S. (liaronii) in Augusta, or degli Incurabili, with facade by C. 
Maderno. It belongs to the adjoining surgical hospital , which 
extends as far as the Via Kipetta and accommodates 340 patients 
(founded IHHS, enlarged 1000). Nearly opposite, on the 1., is the 
small Augustine church of f/ e Maria, with facade by Rinaldi. 
In the Via do' Pontettci , the third transverse street from this 
point to the r., is situated the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 144). 
The Piazza ft. Carlo is next reached. Here to the r. is S. Carlo 
al Corso, the national church of the Lombards; and the resort 
of the fashionable world , with a tasteless facade. It was con- 
structed in the 1 7th cent, by Lonylii and Pietro da Cortona. The 
ceiling-paintings of the interior are by (jiacinto Brandi. At the 
high-altar is one of the finest works of Oirfo Maratta : the Virgin 
recommending S. Carlo Borromeo to Christ (the heart of the saint 
is preserved under the altar). 

On the opposite side, the Cafe and Alberya di Roma. Im- 
mediately beyond, the Via de' (.'ondolli diverges to the 1. to the 
Piazza di Spagna (p. 111); its prolongation to the r. , the Via 
delta, Fontanetla, leads to the Palazzo Borghese (p. 14. r )) and the 
bridge of S. Angelo (p. 211). On the r. is the spacious Palazzo 
Ruspoli (PI. I, 19), built in 1586 by Amanati. 

To the 1. the Via Boryoynona and Via Frattina diverge to the 
P. di Spagna. Opposite the latter street is the Piazza, di S. Lo- 
renza in Lucina (PI. I, 16) with (1.) S. Lorenzo in Lucina, an 
ancient but frequently restored church. The campanile, with new 
roof, is now the sole remnant of the original structure. The 
church, with the adjoining monastery, has since 1 600 belonged 
to the Minorites, who have given it its present form. The portico 
is supported by lour columns; at the door two half-immured me- 
diaeval lions. In the interior by the 2nd pillar to the r., the 
tomb of Nic. Poussin (d. 1600), erected by Chateaubriand; above 
the high-altar a Crucifixion by (htido Reni. 

Farther on, to the r., somewhat removed from the street and 
concealed by other houses , is the uncompleted Pal. Fiano. In 
front of it in the Corso (see inscription on opposite house , No. 
167, which records that Alex. VII. levelled and widened the 
Corso in order to afford space for the horse-races) a triumphal 
arch of M.^ Aurelius stood until 1665 ; some of the reliefs are 
now preserved in the palace of the Conservatori (p. 205). 

R/Edukku. Italy II. 3rd Edilion. g 

114 Pal. Chigi. ROME. Piazza Colonna. 

li. Pal. Teodoli (385) ; oppSsite to it the Via delle Convertile 
leads to the Piazza di S. Silvestro with the old church of S. 
Silvestro in Capile. 

R. Pal. Verospi (374) ; then , at the corner of the Piazza 
Colonna, the extensive Pal. Chigi (PI. I, 16), commenced in 1526 
by Oiac. della Porta, completed by C. Maderno. 

On the first floor are a few antiquities (Venus by Menophantus, Mer- 
cury with new head, Apollo) and a small picture-gallery of no great value, 
comprising a few works of Garofalo, Caracci, Domenichino, Albani, Dosso 
Dossi (St. Bartholomew with the apostle John and others in a landscape), 
and two ascribed to Titian. An ante-chamber contains a fine marble vase 
with a relief: Eros tormenting Psyche. In the study of the prince (not 
always accessible) , a relief in palombino : Victory of Alexander the Great 
over Darius at Arbela. — The Bibliotheca Chisiana contains valuable MSS., 
access to which is obtained by permission of the Duca di Campagnano 
(Palazzo Chigi, ground-floor). The applicant must be provided with a re- 
commendation from his consul or ambassador. 

The handsome * Piazza Colonna (PL I, 16) is bounded on the 
r. by the Pal. Chigi, opposite to which is the Pal. Terrajwli 
(with the Cafe Colonna) ; in the Corso is situated the Pal. Piom- 
bino ; opposite the Corso the Post- Office (the former papal Guard- 
house and Military Casino). The ancient Ionic columns adorning 
the facade of the latter were found at Veii (p. 295). In the centre 
of the piazza stands the *Column of Marcus Aurelius, embellished 
like that of Trajan, with reliefs from the wars of the emperor against 
the Marcomanni and other German tribes on the Danube. It con- 
sists of 26 blocks , besides the basement and capital , and is ap- 
proached by steps. Sixtus V. caused it to be restored in 1589, 
and ascribed it, according to the then prevalent opinion, to Anto- 
ninus Pius , by whose name it is still frequently designated. On 
the summit a statue of St. Paul. The four large candelabra were 
presented by the city on the occasion of the illumination on April 
20th 1870, the twentieth anniversary of the restoration of Pins IX. 

Adjacent to the Piazza Colonna (to the r. , beyond the 
post-office) is the Piazza di Monte Citorio , on the r. side of 
which stands the spacious House of Deputies (PI. I, 16, 14), 
formerly the Police-Office. The design of the building by Ber- 
nini was afterwards modified by C. Fontana. On the first 
floor, in a niche in front of the staircase, is a group represent- 
ing Apollo and Marsyas, of the 16th cent. On the opposite side 
of the Piazza the Railway, and to the 1. on the S. side the Tele- 
graph offices. The Obelisk in the centre of the Piazza was brought 
by Augustus, like that in the P. del Popolo (p. 107), to Rome, 
where it served as the indicator of a sun-dial. It stood till the 
9th cent., was afterwards overthrown, and under Pius VI. res- 
tored and erected here. The elevation of the Piazza towards 
the N. is due to the unexcavated ruins of a vast ancient edi- 
fice, perhaps the amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, erected under 

Dogana di Terra. ROME. Pal. Sciarra. 115 

The next lateral street to the r., the Via di Pietra (descend- 
ing from Monte Citorio and turning to the 1.), leads from the 
Corso by the Locanda Cesari to the Piazza di Pietra. Here is 
situated the * Dogana di Terra; immured in the facade are 11 
Corinthian columns of a temple , which once possessed 15 in its 
length and 8 in its breadth. The style is mediocre , not earlier 
than the 2nd cent. The edifice is sometimes, but without suffi- 
cient authority, termed a Temple of Neptune. 

The traveller next reaches the oblong Piazza Sciarra, with 
the * Palazzo Sciarra-Colouna (PI. I, 16), the handsomest palace 
in the Corso, erected in the 17th cent, by Flaminio Ponzio, with 
a portal of more recent date. It contains a small but choice 
^Picture Gallery (on the ground-floor, entrance from the court by 
the first door on the 1.) , inherited to a great extent from the 
Barberini collection (open in winter on Saturdays 12 — 3 o'clock; 
Y2 f'r.)- Catalogues provided for the use of visitors. 

1st Room : chiefly landscapes, some of them very unfavourably lighted. 
2. Locatelli, Landscape; 5. Botti, Sunset; 12, 13. Brill, Landscapes; 24. Gau- 
denzio Ferrari, Allegory termed the 'Old and New Testament', but probably 
a vision of the heavenly Jerusalem; 26. Botti, Waterfall; 27. A. Sacchi 
(figures) and Gagliardi (architecture) , Festival in the church of Gesii ; '30. 
Claude Lorrain, Landscape with sunset; 47. Brill (?) Landscape; 51. l)ome- 
nichino , Diana and nymphs (a copy). Among the freely restored antiques 
in this room the following merit inspection: Wounded Amazone (entrance- 
wall), sarcophagus with Muses (window-wall), archaic ivory statue (window- 
niche on the r.). — 2nd Room, containing the most valuable works: 3. 
Raphael , The Fornarina , a copy by Giulio Romano ; 5. Fra Bartolommeo 
and Marietlo (recognised by his device of two entwined rings with a cross 
at the lower corner on the 1.), Holy Family; 6. Guido Reni, Moses with 
the Tables of the Law; *7. Titian, Portrait, the so-called 'Bella di Tiidano'; 
,; 8. Raphael, 'Violin-player', 1518; 9. Perugino, St. Sebastian; 20. Guer- 
cino, St. Jerome; '"11. Lucas Cranach, Holy Family and angels, 1504 (some- 
times shifted); 13. Ag. C'aracci, 'Conjugal love'; 14. A. Bronzino, Female 
portrait ; 16. Pordenone (not Giorgione), llerodias with the head of John the 
Baptist; 21. Innocenzo da Imola, Holy Family; 24. Elisabetta Sirani, Cari- 
tas; '25. Titian, Madonna; "26. School of Michael Angelo, Madonna; °29. Old 
Netherlands School, Death of Mary ; 30. School of Perugino, Madonna with 
SS. Lawrence and John; 32. Titian, Family portrait; 38. Schidone, 'Et in 
Arcadia ego' ; 39, 4S. Guido Reni, Magdalene ; "40. Caravaggio, The gam- 
blers, one of the master's finest works; "43. Luini (not Leonardo), Vanity 
and Modesty; 46. Can. d'Arpino, Ecce Homo; 47. Pietro da Cortona, St. Bar- 
bara. On the window-wall, without number: Raphael, Transfiguration, a 
copj by Carlo Saraceni. This room also contains some mediocre antiques. 

The Via del Caravita , the first side-street on the r. , leads 
to the Piazza di S. lynazio , on the principal side of which is 
the Jesuit church of S. Ignazio (PI. II , 1(3) , with facade by 
Algardi (1685). Interior overladen; paintings on the vaulting, 
dome, and tribune, and the picture over the high-altar by the Padre 
J'ozzi, by whom the chapel of St. Lod. Gonzaga, in the aisle to 
the r. , was also designed. (The perspective of the paintings on 
the ceiling and dome is correctly seen" from a circular stone in the 
centre of the nave.) Adjacent is the Collegio Romano (PI. II, 16) 


116 Alusto KircherUmo. KUMK. S. Marcello. 

(from >S. Ignazio the Via di S. Ignazio to the 1. , or from the 
Gorso the side-street to the r., leads to the Piazza del Coll. Ro- 
mano , in which is the principal entrance) , formerly a much- 
frequented Jesuit establishment , where the higher branches of 
classics, mathematics, philosophy, etc. were taught, and degrees 
conferred. The building, erected by B. Avianati , now contains 
the Liceo Ennio Quirino Visconti, to which the principal entrance 
leads , the apartments of the few Jesuits who are still suffered 
to remain, and the Museo Kircheriano , founded by the erudite 
Athanasius Kirclur, born 1601, in 1618 a Jesuit and teacher at 
Wiirzburg, subsequently professor of mathematics in the Coll. Ro- 
mano , celebrated for his mathematical and scientific discoveries 
(d. 1680). The museum, accessible (not to ladies) on Sundays, 
10 — 11 o'clock (director Padre Tongiorgi), is interesting to archaeo- 
logists only. Entrance in the Via dell Collegio Romano 216, 
by the door facing the visitor, and then to the 1. by a stair to 
the 2nd floor; a spiral stair at the end of the corridor to the 1. 
must then be ascended. 

A small room opposite the entrance contains Christian antiquities, in- 
scriptions, lamps, vases, copies of pictures from the catacombs, etc. At the 
beginning walls of the corridor , the mosaic pavement of which is an imi- 
tation of the ancient style , is an ancient bronze seat inlaid with silver. 
On the walls are terracottas, reliefs, and small statues. The cabinets con- 
tain lamps, vases, statuettes, bronzes, etc. To the 1. at the end of the cor- 
ridor is a tablet in a black frame with a caricature of the Christians scrat- 
ched upon it: a man with the head of an ass affixed to a cross, with two 
men at the side, and the words iAtiufiivof w/Jctc i)to>' (Alexamcnos wor- 
ships God) , found on the Palatine. On the r. at the end of the corridor 
is the room which contains the principal treasures of the museum. The 
glass cases in the middle of this room contain a valuable "collection 
of ancient Rinnan coins (cast), some of them unstamped ('ics rude'). In a 
glass-case in front of the window of the shorter wall, the ,:, l<'icoronian Cista 
(so called from the former proprietor), discovered near Palestrina in 1774: 
a cylindrical vessel (toilet-casket) with admirably engraved designs (arrival 
of the Argonauts in Bithynia, victory of Polideuces over king Amycus). 
The feet and figures on the lid are of inferior workmanship; on the latter 
the inscriptions: 'Novios Plautios Romai med (Romse me) feeid', and 'Din- 
dia Malcolnia med flliai dedit'. It dates from the 5th cent, of the city. 
The silver goblets in the cabinet by the 1. wall arc also interesting (1. by 
the window) ; they were found at the mineral spring of Vicarello (Logo di 
J-tracci ano) , and bear a description of the stations on the route from Cadiz 
to Eome. The cabinets on the r. contain a great number of ancient 
bronzes and mirrors; in those on the 1., by the entrance- wall, are wea- 
pons of Hint etc. 

In the Corso, beyond the Piazza Sciarra, to the r. is the 
Palazzo Simonelti, in which the bank is established. Opposite is 
the church of S. Marcello (PI. II, 16), in the small Piazza diS, 
Marcello, mentioned as early as 499. The interior of the present 
structure was designed by Jacopo Sansovino , the poor facade by 
Carlo Fontana. 

The 4th Chapel cent; ins paintings by Prrino del Vaga, completed after 
his death by Dan. da Volterra. and Pelletjriuo da Modena, and the monu- 
ment (by Rinaldi) of the celebrated Card. Consalvi , minister of Pius VII, 
whose memoirs, written with great fidelity, have lately been published. 

S. Maria in Via Lata. ROMR Pal. Doria. 117 

Paintings of the tribune li.v Oioe. Batiista da Novara, those of the 2nd Cha- 
pel to the 1. by Fed. Zucchero. 

The church and the adjoining monastery are the property of 
the Servi di Maria, or Servites. 

On the r. is the small church of S. Maria in Via Lata, men- 
tioned as early as the 7th cent. , but in its present form dating 
from the 17th; facade by Pieiro da Cortona; from the vestibule 
a stair ascends to an ancient chamber in which tradition alleges 
St. Paul and St. Luke to have taught. 

Adjoining this church is the 

*Palazzo Doria (PI. II, 16) ("formerly Pamfdi), an extensive 
pile of buildings, and one of the most magnificent palaces in 
Rome; facade towards the Corso by Valvasori, that towards the 
Coll. Romano by P. da Cortona, and another towards the Piazza 
di Venezia, by /'. Amati. The handsome court, surrounded by 
arcades, is entered from the Corso (No. 305). To the 1. is the 
approach to the stair ascending to the * Picture Gallery on the 
1st floor (entrance p. il'2; catalogues in each room; fee '/j ft'-)- 
This, the most extensive of the Roman collections, comprises 
many admirable, as well as numerous mediocre works. 

1st Room, also copying-room, to which the finest pictures in the col- 
li ition arc frequently brought. Antiquities: four Sarcophagi with the 
hunt of Mrleagcr, history of Marsyas, Diana ami Endymion, and procession 
of B:,cehus. Two fine circular altars, duplicate of the so-called Diana of 
Calm in the Louvre, archaic statue of the bearded Dionysus, and a number 
of statuettes. Pictures: 23, 35. Landscapes by imitators of Poussin; on 
the wall of the entrance, "Madonna, Marioito Albertinelli. — 2nd R. : an- 
cients busts , a centaur of pietradura and rosso antico (modernised); 5. 
Circumcision , (lior. Bellini (/) ; 7. Madonna with saints , Basaiti; 15. St. 
Antony, School of ifantetjna; 35. Birth of Mary, Pisanello; 21. Sposalizio, 
I'ixanetlo; 23. St. Silvester before Maximin II., Peselino; "28. Annunciation, 
l-'il. Lippi; 29. Leo IV. appeasing a dragon, Peselino; 33. St. Agnes, Guer- 
rino; 37. Magdalene, copy from Titian (original in the Pitti at Florence) •, 
3D. Hoy playing with lion, Titian. — 3rd R. (sleeping -apartment);: 9. Ma- 
donna, Sassoferralo. — 4th R. : ' ! 1G, 32. Landscapes, Brill; 34. St. John, 
i'aravaggio. Antique bron/.es etc. in frames. Near the window a bronze 
jar with curious chasing (comparatively late): a recumbent river-god, of 
pietradura. — 5th II.. 17. Money-changers disputing, Qnintin Messys; 25. 
St. Joseph, Onercino; 27. Landscape, Domenichino; 31. Landscape, Poussin. 
In the centre: Jacob wrestling with the Angel, marble group of the 
school of Bernini. — Cth R. : 5. Holy Family, S. Botticelli (?)[; 13. Ma 
donna, Maralla; 30. Portrait of a boy, Spanish School. The contiguous 
raised passage - cabinet contains several small Dutch pictures and female 
portrait- busts by Algardi. -— 7th R. : 3, 8. Landscapes, Salv. Rosa; 19. 
Slaughter of the Innocents, Jfazzolino. — 8th R. : 17. Madonna, hod. Ca- 
T'lrri ; oo gt_ Sebastian, by the same. In the corner :; 'marble head of Se 
rupis. — 9 th R. : several interesting ancient portraits. — 10th R. : Still life 
etc. — The galleries are now entered: to the 1. is the — 1st Gallery 
3. Magdalene, An. Cararci ; 8. Heads, Qnintin Messys; 9. Holy Family, Sasso- 
/,-rrato; 14. Portrait, Titian; 15. Holy Family, A. del Sarlo; 16. Creation 
of the animals etc., /Ireinjhel ; 20. The three Periods of Life, a copy ot the 
original at London, Titian; '25. Landscape with the flight to Egypt, 01. 
I.nmiin; '26. Mary visiting Klisabeth, Qarofalo ; 32. Repose during the flight 
into l'-gypt, Saruceni; 38. Copy of the Aldobrandine Nuptials (p. 252), Poussin; 
50. Holy Family, a copy from Raphael by (I. Romano. — 2nd Gallery 
(chiefly remarkable for the admirable portraits it contains): 3. Faun, Rem- 

118 SS. Apostoli. KOME. Pal. Colonna. 

brand!,; ! 6. Madonna, Fr. Francia; 13. Christ in the Temple, Mazzolino; '-14. 
'Bartolus and Baldus', more correctly Navagero and Beazzano, portraits hv 
Raphael; : 17. Portrait, Titian; 19. Portrait, Rubens ; 21 . Portrait, Van Dyck(?j. 
Oopposite, hetween the windows, '-25. G. Bellini, Madonna; on the 1. 24. 
Heads, Giorgione; 26. Sacrifice of Isaac, 6-VrJromd van der Eckhoul (erroneously 
attributed to Titian); ::, 40. Herodias with the head of the Baptist, Porderwne; 
50. Portrait of a monk, Rubens; 51. Portrait, Giorgione; *53. Johanna of 
Arragon, after Raphael, Flemish school; 61. Adoration of the Child, Garo- 
falo; '69. 'Unfinished allegorical painting, Correggio; 78. Holy Familv 
older Dutch School; beneath it a female ''portrait, ascribed to Holbein; 80.' 
Portraits, Titian. The adjacent room (generally closed) contains a number 
of 'seicento' works. — 3rd Gallery: 1, 6, 28, 34. Landscapes wilh 
historical accessories by An. Carracci; 5. Landscape with Mercury's theft 
of the cattle, Claude Lorrain; 11. Portrait of Macchiavelli , Bronzitw; 
"12. 'The Mill', CI. Lorrain; '23. Landscape with temple of Apollo, by 
the same (two most admirable landscapes of this master); beside No. 18 
two small pictures of the old Hutch school; 26. Portrait, Mazzolino; "27. 
Portrait, Giorgione; 31. Holy Family, Fra Bartolommeo ; 33. Landscape with 
Diana hunting, CI. Lorrain. Adjacent is a small Corner-cabinet: 1, 
Portrait, Lucas v. Leyden (?); ~2. Portrait of Andrea Doria, Seb. del Piombo; 
3. Clianetto Doria, Bronzino; "'5. Innocent X., Velasquez; "6. Entombment, 
Rogier v. d. Weyden. The 4th Gallery contains statues of no great value, 
most ofethern greatly modernised. 

On the 1. side of the Corso, opposite the Pal. Doria, is the 
Pal. Salviati , the side-street bounding which , as well as the 
preceding and the following, lead to the Piazza di SS. Apostoli, 
with the church of that name, where to the r. the Pal. Colonna 
is situated ; on the narrow side is the adjoining Pal. Valentini 
with a few antiquities (the pictures it formerly contained have 
been sold, and are now in England). On the other longer side of 
the piazza is the Pal. Buffo to the 1., and the Pal. Odescalchi; 
facade of the latter by Bernini. 

*SS. Apostoli (PI. II, 19), originally founded by Pelagius I. 
in honour of St. Philip and St. James , was re-erected under 
Clement XI. in 1702, and is now undergoing repair. The vestibule 
by Baccio Pintelli, which is all that remains of earlier date, con- 
tains (on the 1.) the monument of the engraver Giov. Volpato 
by Canova (1807). and (on the r.) an ancient * eagle with chaplet 
of oak-leaves, from the Forum of Trajan. 

In the r. aisle, 3rd Chapel: St. Antony by Luti. In the 1. aisle, 
2nd Chapel : Descent from the Cross by Franc. JUanno. At the extremity, 
to the 1. over the entrance into the sacristy : "'Monument of Clement XIV. 
by Canoea, on the pedestal Charity and Temperance. In the tribune, with 
altar -piece by Murutori (said to be the largest in Rome), are the monu- 
ments erected by Sixtus IV. to his two nephews , the Cardinals Eiario, 
that of Pietro (d. 1474) on the 1. and that of Alexander behind the 
altar and partially concealed by the organ. On the vaulted ceiling of the 
tribune, Fall of the Angels, a fresco by Giov. Odassi, in the baroque style. 
but of striking effect. The former church was decorated by Melozzo da 
Forli; a fine fragment of these frescoes is now in the Quirinal (p. 131), 
others in the sacristy of St. Peter's (p. 218). 

In the adjoining monastery (now the War Office), the pas- 
sage adjacent to the church contains a monument by Mich. Angelo 
and the tomb of Card. Bessarion. 

*Palazzo Colonna (PI. II, 19), commenced by Martin V., 
subsequently greatly extended and altered, is now almost entirely 

Pal. Colonna. ROME. Garden. 1 19 

occupied by the French ambassador; a number of rooms on the 
ground floor, containing interesting frescoes, are therefore inacces- 
sible. In the 1. wing is the approach to the *Picture Gallery, sit- 
uated on the first floor (daily 11—3, except Sundays and holi- 
days). Opposite the entrance is a painted cast of a colossal Me- 
dusa head. A large hall containing family-portraits is first entered, 
and thence three ante-rooms adorned with Gobelins, in the second 
of which are four ancient draped statues; in the third a small 
ancient statue, belonging to a group of playing girls. In the gal- 
lery itself the pictures are not numbered, but are furnished with 
the names of the artists. 

1st Room: On the wall of the entrance: Madonna, Fil. Lippi; same 
by LucaLonghi and S. Botticelli. L. wall: Sladonna (much damaged), Luini; 
Portrait, Oiov. Sanli (father of Raphael); Crucifixion, Jacopo d'Avanzo; two 
Landscapes, Albano; Madonna, Giulio Romano; same, Gentile da Fabriano (t). 
Wall of the egress: Holy Family, Parmeggianino; same, Innoc. da Imola; 
:: two Madonnas surrounded hy smaller circular pictures (eroneously attrib. 
to Van Eyck), of the later Dutch school. — 2nd R: Throne-room with fine 
old carpet. — 3rd R. : Ceiling- painting hy Battoni and Luti (in honour of 
Martin V.). Entrance-wall: St. Bernhard, Giov. Bellini; Onuphrius Panvi- 
nius, Titian; Holy Family, Bronzino; Poggio Bracciolini, Girolamo Trevi- 
sani. L. wall: "S. Jerome, Spagna; Rape of Europa, Albano; Madonna, 
Domenico Pulego; Bean-eater, Ann. Caracci; "St. Jerome, Spagna; Madonna 
with saints, Paris Bordone. Wall of the outlet: Lor. Colonna, Holbein (?); 
Portrait of a man, P. Veronese; Holy Family, Bordone. Window- wall : 
Cain and Abel, F. Mola; Madonna, Sassoferrato; St. Agnes, Guido Rent. — 
4 th R. : 'Eleven landscapes by 67. Poussin, some of that artist's finest works, 
all well worthy of careful examination , although not all favourably hung. 
Entrance-wall : Architectural picture, Canaletto ; Landscape, Crescenzo d'Ono- 
frio. Opp. the windows: Huntsman, Berghem; Landscape, Claude Lorrain(t); 
Chase and cavalry skirmish, Wouvermatu (f); Metamorphosis of Daphne, 
Jf. Poussin; a large cabinet with ivory carving by Franc, and Bom. Rein- 
hard. — V. Gallery with ceiling -paintings by Coli and Gherardi (Battle of 
Lepanto , Oct. 8th , 1571 , which Marcantonio Colonna at the head of the 
papal army assisted in gaining). On the walls mirrors painted with flowers 
(by Mario de' Fiori) and genii (by ('. Maratla). Statues here of no great 
value, most of them modernised" Reliefs built into the wall under the 
windows (r.) : Head of Minerva ; Wounded man, borne away by his friends ; 
Selene in the chariot (archaic style). L. wall : Assumption of the Virgin, 
Rubens; "Fed. Colonna, Sustermanns ; Christ in hell, Crist. Allori; Adam 
and Eve, Salviati; "Don Carlo Colonna, equestrian portrait, Van Dyck; 
Martyrdom of Emmerentia, Guercino; Family - portrait of the Colonnas, S. 
Gaetano. R. wall: Double portrait, Tintoretto; Pastoral scene, N. Poussin; 
Madonna rescuing a child from a demon, Niccolb Alunno. — VI. In the 
raised room, from 1. to r. : Card. Pomp. Colonna, Lor. Lotto; Portrait, 
Moroni ; Narcissus , Tintoretto ; "Madonna with St. Peter and the donor, 
Palma Vecchio , Rape of the Sabine women, and opposite to it the Recon- 
ciliation, Ghirlandajo ; Madonna with saints, Bonifazio; Lucrezia Colonna, 
Van Dyck; Temptation of St. Antony, Hieron. Bosch; "Angels in glory, 
with four busts, Tintoretto; Portrait, Moroni da Brescia; Pompeo Colonna, 
Ag. Caracci; Giac. Sciarra Colonna, Giorgione; Franc. Colonna, Pourbus. 
In the centre a column of red marble with representations from a cam- 
paign in relief (Renaissance). 

The beautiful * Garden of this palace (entered through the 
palace , or from Monte Cavallo , Via del Quirinale 12) contains 
several antiquities, fragments of a colossal architrave, said to have 
belonged to Aurelian's temple of the sun , and considerable por- 

120 Pal di Venezia KOME. 8. Marco. 

tions of (he brick-walls of the Thermae of Constantine which once 
extended over the entire Piazza of Monte Cavallo. The terrace 
commands a good survey of the city. 

At the extremity of the Corso, on the r., with portal towards 
the Piazza di Venezia, is the Pal. Bonaparte, formerly Rinuccini, 
erected by de' Rossi , where Madame Latitia, mother of Napoleon, 
died , Feb. 2nd 1806. The Corso terminates with the Piazza di 
Venezia, which derives its appellation from the * Palazzo di 
Venezia (PI. II. 16), one of the most imposing of modern Rome 
It was built by (Uuliano da Majano for the Borgias in 14l>5, 
presented in 1560 by Pins IV. to the Republic of Venice, with 
which it subsequently came into the possession of Austria , and 
is now the residence of the Austrian ambassador. The extensive 
court with arcades is, with the exception of a small portion, 
uncompleted ; so also a second court to the 1. of the other. 

Opposite the side-entrance of the above is the Pal. Torlonia, 
formerly Boloynelti, erected about 1650 by C. Fontana, occupying 
the block as far as the Piazza SS. Apostoli, and the property of the 
banker Prince Torlonia, Duke of Bracciano. It is lavishly decorated, 
and contains among other works of art Canova's Raving Hercules, 
but is not accessible to the public. Permessi for the Villa Al- 
bani may be procured on the ground-floor, to the 1. 

From the Piazza Venezia the visitor proceeds in a straight 
direction through the narrow Ripresa dei Barberi, so named be- 
cause the 'Barbary' horses formerly employed in the races of 
the Carnival were stopped here. On the 1. (No. 174) is the 
Pal. Nipoti, inhabited by the dowager Queen of Naples until 
her death. The first transverse street to the 1. leads to the Fo- 
rum of Trajan (p. 179). To the r. the Via S. Marco, passing 
under an arch of the passage which leads from the Pal. di Ve- 
nezia to S. Maria in Araceli , brings the visitor to the Piazza di 
San Marco. Here to the r. is S. Marco (PI. II. 16), incorporated 
with the Pal. di Venezia, a church of very ancient origin (said 
to date from the Emp. Constantine), re-erecied in S33 by Gre- 
gory IV. , adorned in 1455 by Bernardo di Lorenzo witli fine 
vestibule and probably witli the ceiling of the nave, and finally 
embellished according to modern taste in 1714 by Card. Quirini. 

Roman and ancient Christian sarcophagi and inscriptions are built inlo 
the walls of the vestibule. St. Mark in relief, above the handsome inner 
principal portal. The interior is approached by a descent of several steps. 
With the exception of the tribune and the beautiful ceiling, all the older 
portions have been disfigured by restorations. The tribune with handsome 
pavement (opus Alexandrinum) lies a few steps higher than the front part 
of the church. The mosaics (in the centre Christ, 1. the saints Mark, Aga- 
petus, and Agnes, r. Felicianus and Mark escorting Cregory IV.) date from 
the period of the greatest decline of this art (about 833j. In the r. aisle, 
1st Chapel : altar -piece by Pahita (iiorine , the It'Surrei-lion. 3rd Chapel: 
Adoration of the Magi, iVuialln. At the extremity by the tribune: f Pope 

Pal. Altieri. ROME. Genii. 121 

Mark, an admirable ancient picture, perhaps by Carlo Crivclli. In the 1. 
aisle, 2nd Chapel: altar relief, Greg. Barbadigo distributing alms, by Ant. 
d'Este. 4t.h Chapel : St. Michael, Mold. 

In the Piazza, to the 1. in front of the church, is the so- 
called Madonna Lurreziu, the mutilated marble bust of a colossal 
female statue (priestess of Isis) which carried on conversations 
with the Abate Luigi near the Pal. Vidoni (p. 156), similar to 
those of Pasquin with the Marforio. 

The Via di S. Marco terminates in the Via Araceli, which to 
the 1. leads to the Piazza Araceli (p. 164) and the Capitol , and 
to the r. to the Piazza del Gesu (see below). 

From the Piazza Venezia the Ripresa de' Barberi and its con- 
tinuation the Via di Marforio lead by the N. E. slope of the 
Capitoline to the Forum and the Arch of Severus (p. 1(51)"). The 
name is derived from Forum Martis (otherwise Forum of Augus- 
tus). The celebrated statue of Marforio which formerly stood in 
this street, opposite the C.ircer Mamertinus, is now in the Capi- 
t.oline museum (p. '207). Beyond the second transverse street, 
the Via delta Pedacchia , which connects the Piazza Araceli with 
the Forum of Trajan, is situated on the 1. the (long since built 
over) Monument of C. Publicius Bibulus , to whom the ground 
was granted by the senate as a burial-place for himself and his 
family in recognition of his merits ('honoris virtutisque causa', 
as the inscription records), dating from the latter years of the 
republic. This point must accordingly have lain outside the walls 
of Servius, which extended immediately beneath the Capitol. 

From the Piazza Venezia the broad Via del Gesu leads to the 
r., past the Pal. di Venezia: on the r. are Pal. Bonaparte (p. 120), 
Doria (p. 117), and Grazioli. Then Pal. Altieri with extensive 
facade, erected in 1670, bounding the N. side of the small Piazza 
del Gesu. The Via del Gesii ascends past this palace to the Piazza 
della Minerva (p. 15!?.), a walk of 5 min. Opposite the church, 
adjoining which is the cloister of the Jesuits where their general 
resides, the busy Via de' Cesarini leads to the r. to S. Andrea 
della Valle (p. 156) and to the bridge of ,K. Angelo (Via Papale). 

*Gesu (PI. II, 16), the principal church of the Jesuits, is one of 
the most sumptuous in Rome. It was built by Vignola and Giac. 
della Porta by order of Card. Alessandro Farnese, 1568—70. 

In the nave 'ceiling- painting by Jiaciccio , by whom the dome and tri- 
bune were also painted, one of the best and most life-like of the baroque 
works of that period. The walls were covered with valuable marble at 
the cost of the Principe Aless. Torlonia in 180IO. On the high -altar with 
its 4 columns of giallu antico : Christ in the Temple, by Capalti; on the 
1. the monument of Card. Bellarmino with figures of Religion and Faith, 
in relief; on the r. the monum. of P. Pignatelli, with Love and Hope. In 
the transept to the 1. : "Altar of St. Ignatius with a picture by Pozzi , be- 
neath which a silvered relief of St. Ignatius is said to be concealed. The 
silver statue of the saint, by Le O'ros, which was formerly here, is said to 
have been removed on the suppression of the order in the previous cen 

122 Villa Borghese. ROME. Casino. 

tury. The columns are of lapis lazuli and gilded buonze ; on the archi- 
trave above are two statues : God the Father, by B. Ludovisi, and Christ 
by L. Ottoni, behind which, encircled by a halo of rays, is the emblematic 
Dove. Between these the globe of the earth, consisting of a single block 
of lapis lazuli (said to be the largest in existence). Beneath the altar, in a 
sarcophagus of gilded bronze, repose the remains of the saint. On the r. 
and 1. are groups in marble; on the r. the Christian Religion, at the sight 
of which heretics shrink, by L. Gros; on the 1. Faith with the Cup and 
Host, which a heathen king is in the act of adoring, by ThioAon. Opposite 
in the transept, on the r. the altar of St. Francis Xavier. 

The church presents the most imposing spectacle during the 
'Quarant'ore' (two last days of the Carnival), when it is brilliantly 
illuminated in the evening. During Advent and Lent (generally 
at other seasons also) sermons are preached here at 11 a. m. 
often by the most talented members of the order. 

Following the Via di Araceli, to the 1. of the Piazza di Gesi, 
and passing the cloister, the visitor reaches (in 5 min.) the 
Piazza di Araceli, in front of the Capitol (p. 164). 

Villa Borghese. 

The *Villa Borghese (PI. I, 21), immediately to the r. out- 
side the Porta del Popolo , founded by Card. Scipio Borghese, 
nephew of Pius V. , subsequently enlarged by the Giustiniam 
gardens and £he so-called villa of Raphael (which with a large 
portion of the plantations was destroyed during the siege of 1849), 
is accessible daily , Mondays excepted ; the Casino with the col- 
lection of antiquities on Saturdays only, 1 — 4 o'clock in winter, 
4 — 7 in summer. The beautiful and extensive grounds are justly 
in high repute as a promenade, and are in October the scene of 
popular festivities, the Tombola, races, etc. The gardens contain 
a number of ancient statues and inscriptions. 

On entering , the visitor should select the footpath which skirts the 
carriage-road on the r., and leads to an Egyptian gateway (8 min.); thence 
in a straight direction, passing a grotto with antique fragments (1.); then 
to the 1., either in a straight direction, in which case the closed private 
gardens of the prince lie on the 1., as far as an artificial ruin of a temple, 
and then to the r. ; or the first footpath to the r. may be selected, leading 
by an avenue of evergreen oaks to a small temple, and thence to the 1., 
by a similar avenue, to a circular space with a fountain (10 min.). From 
this point the carriage-road leads to the Casino, which is also connected 
with the same spot by beautiful, shady footpaths. 

If from the Egyptian gate, instead of the path to the 1., a straight 
direction be pursued, the remains of Raphael's villa will be reached (on 
the 1.) in 3 min., and in 3 min. more an arch with a statue of Apollo, 
whence the road turns to the 1. and leads to the Casino. 

The Casino formerly contained one of the most valuable pri- 
vate collections in existence, which at the instance of Napoleon I. 
was transferred to the Louvre. In consequence, however, of re- 
cent excavations , especially near Monte Calvi in the Sabina, 
Prince Borghese has again established a Museum which contains 
several objects of great interest. Visitors are provided with cata- 
logues by the custodians (!/•> fr.) 

Villa Borghese. UOMK. Antiquities. 1 2o 

I. Vestibule: Two candelabra; on tin' narrow walls two reliefs 
from the triumphal arch of Claudius in the Corso near the Pal. Sciarra, 
which was removed in 1527. Several sarcophagi; to the 1. by the wall of 
the egress, one with a harbour, lighthouse, and ships. — II. Saloon with 
ceiling-painting by Mario Rossi. On the floor mosaics, discovered in 1835 
near the Tenuta di Torre Nuova, with gladiator and wild beast combats. 
L. wall: 3. Colossal head of Isis ; 4. Dancing Faun, beneath it a Bacchan. 
relief; 5. Colossal head of a Muse (?). wall: 7. Tiberius; 8. Meleager; 

9. Augustus; above, a raised relief of a galloping rider (M. Curtius?); 
* 10. Priestess; 11. Bacchus and Ampclus. B. wall: 14. Hadrian; 16. Anton. 
Pius; colossal busts. Entrance-wall: 18. Diana. — III. (1st Room to the r.) : 
in the centre, * Juno Pronuba, found near Monte Calvi. Left wall : 4. Ceres; 

5. Venus Genetrix. Opp. the entrance: 8. Belief: Sacrificial prayer (of 
HesiodV) to Eros; 11. Belief of the Bape of Cassandra. B. wall: 16. Statue 
with drapery. Entrance-wall : 20. Greek relief from a tomb. — IV. In the 
centre : Amazon on horseback contending with a warrior. Entrance-wall : 

2. Pan ; 4. (and 17., opp.) Sarcophagus with the achievements of Hercules ; 
on the cover : Reception of the Amazons by Priam ; 6. Head of Hercules ; 

7. Pygmsea. L. wall : 9. Statue of Hercules. Wall of the egress : 15 Her- 
cules in female attire. Window-wall: 21. Venus; 23. Three-sided ara with 
Mercury, Venus, and Bacchus. — V. Room: In the centre, Apollo. L. wall: 

3. Scipio Africanus ; 4. Daphne metamorphosed into a laurel. Following 
wall: 7. Head of a Mainade; 8. Melpomene; 9. Genre-group; 10. Clio. E. 
wall: * 13. Statue of Anacreon in a sitting posture, perhaps a copy from a 
celebrated work of Cresilas at Athens ; 14. Lucilla, wife of L. Verus. En- 
trance-wall : 16. Terpsichore ; 18. Polyhymnia. — VI. R. : Gallery with modern 
busts of emperors in porphyry. In the centre a porphyry bath, said to have 
appertained to the mausoleum of Hadrian; 3. Diana, restored as a Muse; 

8. Diana ; 22. Bacchus ; '■' 29. Statue of a Satyr in basalt ; 32. Bronze statue 
of a boy. (By the second door of the entrance-wall the upper story is 
reached.) — VII. B., with columns of giallo antico and porphyry, on the 
floor ancient mosaics. L. wall: "2. Boy with bird; 3. Bacchus; *4. Captive 
boy. Wall of the egress : 7. Recumbent Hermaphrodite ; 9. Sappho (doubt- 
ful); 10. Tiberius. Entrance-wall: "13. Roman portrait-bust (said to be 
Domitius Corbulo); * 14. Head of a youth ; 15. Boy with Hydria; 16. Female 
bust. — VII. B. : In the centre: ''Portrait statue of a Greek poet, perhaps 
Alcseus. L. wall: 2. Athene; 4. Apollo (archaic style). Following wall: 

6. Figure from a tomb; 7. Candelabrum with Hecate. R. wall: 8. Nymph; 

10. Leda; 15. jEsculapius and Telesphorus. — IX. R. : In the centre: 'Satyr 
on a dolphin, a fountain-figure; 3. Isis; 4. Paris; 8. Female statue, im- 
properly restored as Ceres ; 10. Gipsy woman ; 13. Venus; 14. Female figure 
(archaic); ,! 16. Bacchante; 18. Satyr; 19. Hadrian; 20. Satyr. — X. R. : 
:: 1. Dancing Satyr, erroneously restored (he originally played on the flute); 
2. Ceres; 3. Mercury with a lyre; 4. Dancing Satyr; 3. Satyr reposing, 
after Praxiteles; 9. Pluto with Cerberus; 14. Periander; 19. Dionysius 
enthroned. The beautifm ceiling-paintings in this room by Conca should 
not fail to be inspected. 

On the upper floor a large saloon (fee 'j-i fr.) contains three early works 
of Bernini: .ffineas carrying Anchises; Apollo and Daphne; David with the 
sling. The ceiling-paintings are by Lmtfranco, the 5 '"Landscapes on the 
1. wall by Phil. Jlackert. In one of the following rooms the recumbent 
statue of Pauline Boiyhcse, sister of Napoleon I., as Venus, by Canoea. 
other apartments contain modern sculptures and numerous pictures, which 
with a few exceptions (e. g. Portrait of Paul V. by Cariivaggio in the 2nd 
room) are of little value. The balcony commands a fine view of the gar- 
dens and the citv. 


II. The Hills of Rome. 

Quirinal. Viminal. Esquiline. 

The following description comprises the E. part of Rome, which 
extends over the three long, parallel hills of the Quirinal, Vimi- 
nal, and Esquiline, and adjoins the Corso and Strangers' Quarter, 
but is almost entirely occupied by vineyards and gardens, especially 
towards the walls. 

From the Piazza della Trinita on the Pincio, running in a S. 
E. direction as far as the church (visible thence) of S. Maria 
Maggiore on the Esquiline, a street, 1 M. in length, bearing the 
different names of Via Sistina, Via Felice, and Via delle Qualtro 
Fontane , intersects this quarter of the city. It is termed Via 
Sistina as far as the first transverse street (Via di Porta Pinciana), 
Via Felice thence to the Piazza Barberini, and Via delle Quattro 
Fontane in the remaining portion. From the Pincio to the Piazza 
Barberini is a descent of Q4 M., and thence an ascent of i j i M. 
to the summit of the Quirinal, where this line of streets is inter- 
sected by a street (Via del Quirinale and Via di 20. Settembre, 
formerly di Porta Pia) which extends in a straight direction along 
almost, the entire ridge from the Piazza di Monte Cavallo to the 
Porta Pia. From the Quirinal the street then descends, traverses 
the Viminal , and finally ascends the Esquiline near S. Maria 

After the Piazza della Trinita is quitted, the first transverse 
street reached is the Via di Capo le Case, which descends; its 
prolongation to the 1. is the Via di Porta Pinciana, which ascends 
to the gate of that name (closed 1803), and in which (1.) the Vil- 
la Malta, once the property of King Louis I. of Bavaria, is situated. 

The Via Felice now descends, passing »S. Francesca on the 1. 
and S. Ildefonso on the r. , to the extensive Piazza Barberini. 
In the centre the *Fontana del Trilone , by Bernini, a Triton 
blowing on a conch. On the r. one side of the Palazzo Barbe- 
rini (p. 129) adjoins the Piazza. As the Piazza is ascended the 
Via di S. Nkcolb di Tolentino leads to the r. , under the name 
Via di S. Susanna, to the Fontana and Piazza di Termini (p. 133); 
to the 1. the Via di S. Basilic leads to the Villa Ludovisi (t> min.); 
and through the Porta Salara to the Villa Albani (1 M.). 

The avenue to the 1. at the extremity of the Piazza ascends 
to (on the r.) S. Maria della Concezione (PL I, 23), or del Cap- 
pw'cini , which , with the contiguous cloister, belongs to the Ca- 
puchins. It was founded in Ki24 by Card. Barberini. 

In the interior, over tlie door, a copy of Giotto's Navicella (in Hie ves- 
tibule of St. Peter's, p. 215) liy Jlcvetla. In the 1st Chapel (r.) "St. Michael, 
a. celebrated picture by (/«<</" Ti.-ni; in the 3rd, mutilated frescoes by Do- 
me iiirhi 110. At the high-altar a copy of an Ascension by Lavfraiieo , vtm 
destroyed. Beneath a stone in front of (lie steps to the choir reposes the 
lounder of the church, Card. Barberini t'hic jacet pulvis cinis et nihil'); o" 
Ibe 1. (he tomb ol Alex. Sobhsky, son of John III. of Poland, who died in 

S. Isidorn. ROME. Villa Ludovisi. 125 

1714. The hist chapel contains (1.) an altar-piece by Sacchi; in the tirst, 
one by Piefro da Curtona. 

Beneath the church are four mortuary-chapels (shown by one 
of the monks, if desired), decorated in a ghastly manner with 
the bones of about 4000 Capuchins whose remains are deposited 
here. Each of these contains a tomb with earth from Jerusalem. 
In case of a new interment the bones which have longest remained 
undisturbed , are employed in the manner alluded to. On All 
Souls' Day (Nov. 2nd) these \auli.s are lighted up , and visited 
by numbers of people. 

The Via di S. lsidoro ascends hence to the church of S. Isi- 
doro, founded in 1<>'2'2. 

If the Via di S. Jiasilio be ascended in a straight direction 
for b mil), (the first part only is inhabited), it will lead the visi- 
tor to the entrance, on the r., of the 

**Villa Ludovisi (I'l. I, L'liJ, erected during the first half of 
the 17th cent, by Card. Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XV., and 
subsequently inherited by the princes of Piombino (accessible on 
Thursdays in winter ; permessi obtained through ambassador or 
consul). The grounds were laid out by Le Notre. 

From the gateway (!) — 10 s. on leaving) the visitor proceeds 
to the r. to the first Casino, containing valuable ancient sculptures. 
Catalogues may be purchased of the custodian ( 1 /2 > r -)- 

1st linuiu: 1, 3, 7, 42, 40, 48. Statues; by the en trance- wall, to the r. 
20. Head of Juno, very ancient ; IS. Candelabrum in the form of a twisted 
tree; 15. Sitting: statue of a Roman, by Zenon; ?f). Female draped limine; 
31. Tragic mask, mouth of a fountain in rosso antico. — ■ 2nd R. : :; 28. 
Group of a barbaiian, who, having killed his wife, plunges the sword into 
his own breast fr. arm improperly restored), Pergamenian school (the 'Dy- 
ing Gaul 1 in the Capitol also belongs to this group). R. of the entrance: 
: 55. "Warrior reposing (Mars V), probably destined originally to decorate the 
approach to a dnur; 51. Statue of Athene from Antioch; 47. Cast of the 
slalue of jEscbines at Naples; 46. ISust, name unknown; above it "45 Head 
of a Medusa, of the noblest type; 43. Rape of Proserpine, by Rernini ; above 
it, 42. Judgment of Paris, the r. side restored according to Raphael's plan; 
:: 41. 'Juno Ludovisi', the most celebrated and one of the most beautiful 
heads id' Juno; 30. Mercury, in the same position as the so-called Germani- 
cus in Paris. L. of the entrance : c l Mars reposing, of the school of Lysip- 
pus ; : 7. Theseus and ;Ethra (or Telemachus and Penelope, commonly call- 
ed Orestes and Electra), by SlemUtos, pupil of Stephanos; "9. Youthful 
Satyr; 14. Dionysus with a satyr; 15. Head of Juno; 21. Bronze head of 
Marcus Aurelius. 

To the 1. of the gateway a path leads by a wall with a hedge, 
and then past a mound with pavilion, in 4 min. to the second 
Casino (dell' Aurora) (fee 5 s.), which on the ground-floor contains 
a ceiling-fresco of *Aurora by (luercino, on (he first floor a *Fama 
by the same. The staircase (containing among other curiosities an 
interesting ancient relief of two Cupids dragging a quiver) ascends 
hence to the upper balconies, whence a magnificent *view of Home 
and the mountains is enjoyed. 

Several paths lead from the Casino to the city-wall , which is 
skirted by beautiful avenues of cypresses and other evergreens. 
Ancient sculptures are distributed ip tu Kciinds; e. g. by the 

126 Oar/lens of Sallust. ku:vii.. Villa Albani. 

city-wall a large sarcophagus with representation of a battle, pos 
sibly that of Alex. Severus against Artaxerxes, A. D. 232. 

From the Villa Ludovisi the Via di Porta Salara (PI. I, 27 
leads between the walls of the villa on the 1. and vineyards o) 
the r. in 8 min. to the Porta Salara. Here in ancient times la; 
the magnificent Gardens of Sallust, the historian, subsequent] 
the property of the emperors. They also comprised a circus, oc 
cupying the hollow between the Pincio and Quirinal , which an 
united farther up near the gate. Where the view is uninterceptei 
to the r., considerable remains of the enclosing walls are observe! 
on the Quirinal opposite. 

The Porta Salara, seriously injured by the bombardment of Sept. 20tli 
1870 , is undergoing restoration. The removal of its two gates brought t< 
light a well preserved ancient monument , resembling that of Bibului 
(p. 121) in style. On a pedestal consisting of two layers of peperine blocks. 
4 3 |4 ft. in height, rises a cube about 15 ft. in height and 12 ft. in width! 
Its walls consist of peperine blocks with immured pillars of very hard tra- 
vertine resembling marble , resting on a plinth of slate. The interior is 
formed of concrete. In front was the inscription on a tablet now removed. 
To the r. of this monument are the foundations of a second of similar cha- 
racter. Between the two is the pedestal of a tomb-cippus of travertine 
(now in the Capitoline Museum, see p. 207). 

The Via Salara leads from the gate, skirting the Tiber within a 
short distance of its bank , to the Sabina. 8 min. walk beyond 
the gate lies (on the r.) the 

*Villa Albani (see map p. 258; Tuesdays, with permission 
obtained by sending visiting-card with opplication to the office, Pal. 
Torlonia, Piazza Venezia 135, p. 120, ground-floor 1.), founded in 
1760 by Card. Aless. Albani and decorated with admirable works 
of art; the building by C. Marchionne. Napoleon I. transferred 
294 of the finest statues to Paris , which on their restoration in 
1815 were sold there by Card. Giuseppe Albani, in order to avoid 
the onerous expenses of transport. In 1834 the Counts of Castel- 
barco became proprietors of the villa, and caused the arrangement 
of the statues to be altered. The villa has recently been pur- 
chased by Prince Torlonia, who has transferred several of the best 
antiques to his (piivate) museum in the Longara. Some of them 
have been re- placed by casts. 

Three paths bounded by hedges diverge from the entrance; 
that in the centre leads first to a circular space with column in 
the middle , then to a fountain whence a comprehensive view is 
obtained: 1. the Casino with the galleries on either side ; opposite 
is a small building with cypresses on one side, the so-called 
Billiard-room; on the r. in the crescent is the 'Cafe'. The finest 
*view from the terrace is obtained near the side-stair-case, farther 
to the r., whence, to the r. of the cypresses, S. Agnese and S. Cos- 
tanza appear in the centre, above which rises Monte Gennaro, with 
Monticelli at its base. (Most favourable light towards evening-) 
1. Casino. Vestibule. In the niches: Tiberius (V), L. Verus, Tra- 
jan, M. Aurelius, Antoninus I'ius, Hadrian ; in the centre a female portrait 
stalue silling (Faustina); circular Aia with Bacchus, Ceres, Proserpine, am 

Villa Albani. ROMK. Casino. 127 

3 Horse, another with female torch-bearer and the Seasons; sitting female 
figure (perhaps the elder Agrippina). By the pillars on the 1. and r. are 
statues : on the 1st to the r. Hermes ; 5th 1. female , r. male double statue ; 
7th r. Euripides. Now to the 1. : a. The small Atrio della Cariatide, 
containing two canephori, found between Frascati and Monte Porzio (bas- 
kets new). In the centre a Caryatide , by the Athenians Criton and Mco- 
laus (the names engraved on the back), found in 1766 near the Csecilia Me- 
tella; on the pedestal a so-called 'Capaneus struck by lightning, b. Gal- 
lery (to the 1.), containing statues: the third to the r. Scipio Africanus, the 
third to the 1. Epicurus. 

In the small central space in the corridor is the approach to the 
Staircase on the ].; in front of the stairs, 1. Eoma sitting on trophies 
(in relief). In a room behind the stair a relief of a butcher's shop. On 
the staircase reliefs: on the first landing, r. Death of the Children of Niobe, 

I. beneath, Philoctetes in Lemnos (?) ; on the third landing, above, two dan- 
cing Bacchantes. Upper floor (when closed, visitors ling, ija fr.): I. Room: 
In the centre Apollo on the tripod, with his feet upon the omphalos. L. of 
the door : Statue of a youth by Stephanos, pupil of Pasiteles. Opposite : 
Cupid bending his bow, probably a copy from Lysippus. — On the r. is the 

II. Saloon: (on the ceiling Apollo, Mnemosyne, and the Muses painted by 
Raph. Mengs). In the niches of the entrance-wall :: 'Pallas and Zeus. Re- 
liefs (over the door) : Apollo, Diana, Leto in front of the temple of Delphi 
(ancient victory- relief). Then to the r., youth with his horse, from a tomb 
near Tivoli; 1. Anton. Pius with Pax and Roma. The eight fragments of 
mosaic at the sides of this door, and that of the balcony, and in the 4 cor- 
ners are nearly all ancient. By the 1. wall : 1. Two women sacrificing, r. 
Dancing Bacchantes. By the window-wall : Hercules and the Hesperides ; 
Daedalus and Icarus. From the balcony a beautiful view of the Alban and 
Sabine Mts. — III. In the first room to the r. of the saloon, over the chim- 
ney-piece : -Mercury conducting Eurydice back from the infernal regions. 
By the entrance-wall, Theophrastus ; window-wall, 1. Hippocrates ; wall of 
the egress, Socrates. — IV. 2nd R. : Pictures: On the wall of the en- 
trance , on the r. : Pinturicchio (?) , Madonna with SS. Laurence and Se- 
bastian on the 1., St. James and the donor on the r. ; 1. of the entrance, a 
lunette by Cotignola : Dead Christ with mourning angels. R. wall : Mccolb 
Alunno, Altar-piece : Madonna and Saints (of 1475). On the wall of the 
egress : "Picture in 6 compartments by Pietro Perugino : Joseph and Mary 
adoring the Infant Christ, Crucifixion, Annunciation , Saints (of 1491). — V. 
3rd R. : Wall of the entrance, on the r. : Van der Werff, Descent from the 
Cross. R. wall: Van Dyck , Christ. Opp. the entrance - wall : Salaino , Ma- 
donna, adjacent to a small copy of Raphael's Transfiguration. — VI. First 
room to the 1. of the saloon; over the chimney-piece the celebrated '-Relief 
of Antinous, from the Villa of Hadrian , the only object in the collection 
which was brought back from Paris. — VII. 2nd Room from the entrance 
on the 1.: flute-playing Pan; ancient Greek relief from a tomb. L. wall: 
'Greek relief in the best style, a group of combatants , found in 1764 near 
S. Vita. Beneath it: Procession of Hermes, Athene, Apollo, and Artemis 
(archaic style). By the window to the 1. ancient statue of Pallas, found near 
Orta ; on the r. ancient Venus. Wall of the egress, on the 1. : Greek tomb- 
relief (greatly modernised). — VIII. 3rd (corner) Room. Entrance - wall , to 
the 1. : Holbein , Portrait, 1527; Raphael, Fornarina, a copy; "Oiulio Romano, 
;oloured designs (in oils on paper) for the frescoes from the myth of Psyche 
n the Pal. del Tc at Mantua. The cartoons of Domenkhino , and several 
ither pictures formerly here, have been removed to a room on the lower 
loor, which is at present closed. — IX. 4th R. : In front of the window: 
Esop, perhaps after Lysippus, the head of beautiful workmanship. In the 
nche in the entrance- wall, Apollo Sauroctonus, after Praxiteles. Opposite 
^arnese Hercules in bronze. Window wall on the r., a small statue of Dio- 
;enes. Wall of the egress, 1., a small 'relief representing the Apotheosis 

l if Hercules; on the pillars at the sides a record of his exploits is inscribed 
(resembling the Tabula Iliaca in the Capitol, see p. 206). — X A room 
;vith pictures of inferior value. - XI. Room with Gobelins. - Returning to 
,.he circular saloon the visitor now descends to the lower corridor. Here at 

128 Villa Albani. ROME. Biyliardo. 

the extremity t.<> the 1., corresponding to the Alrio delta Cariatide, is the 
I. A trio delta Giunone, containing two canephori , as in the corre 
spending room. In the centre a figure said to represent Juno. II. Gallery, 
In the tirst niche a "Bacchante with Nebris, in the second a Satyr with 
the young Bacchus. Some of the statues by the pillars are line , but arbi- 
trarily named. — In a straight direction: III. Stanza della Colonna 
(antique columns of variegated alabaster, found at the Marmorata). On the 

1. a 'sarcophagus with the Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis. Above four sar- 
cophagus-reliefs: on the 1. Ilippolytus and I'hailra. Over the egress: Rape 
of Proserpine. On the r. Bacchanalian processiuu. Over the entrance: 
Heath of Alccstis. — IV. Small room: I'.eardcd Bacchus. — V. Stanza 
(telle Terracotte. By the 1. wall, close to the entrance, 146. Greek tomb- 
relief; 147. Greek votive relief. Beyond the door: 157. Love-sick Polyphe- 
mus and Cupid ; 1GI . Diogenes and Alexander. Opp. the entrance, 164. Da> 
dalus and Icarus, in rosso antico. Beneath, 16o. Ancient landscape -picture. 
On the r. wall, 171. Mask of a river-god ; 1. IGO. Bacchus pardoning the 
captive Indians; to the r. of the mask, and on the entrance- wall , several 
line reliefs in terracotta. — VI. R. : In Hie centre, Leda with the swan. 
VII. R. : Above the entrance-door, Bacchanalian procession of children, from 
Hadrian's Villa; 1. statue of a recumbent river-god; r. Theseus with the 
Minotaur, found near Genzano in 1740. — VIII. R. : Belief in the first 
window to the 1. : The god of sleep. 

Hence by an avenue of oaks, with columns from tombs (cippi), to the 

2. Biyliardo (generally closed; if desired, the wife of the custodian, 
to t>e found here, or at the cafe, opens it; 1 \>2 IV.), containing a few unim- 
portant antiques. In a niche in the vestibule, a cast of a Greek relief: 
probably Hercules, Theseus, and Peirithous in the lower regions. 

3. Caji'. In the semi circular hall : I. statue of Alcibiades (a cast);! 

2. Statue of Mars; b. Statue of Clirvsippus; 3. Apollo reposing; 5. Caryatidc. 
In the centre an Anteroom is entered lo Hie 1. Here in the section 
to the r. : in front of ttie middle-window, Iris; 1. Theseus with ilithra, a 
sarcophagus -relief. In the section to the 1.: In front of the middle- 
window Marsyas bound to tile tree; on the 1. a relief of Venus and Cupid. 
Also several statues of comic actors. In Hie Saloon , in the niche to the 
I. of the door, Libera with a, fawn. Beneath, mosaic with meeting of 7 
physicians. Corresponding to the latter, to the r. of the door, mosaic of 
the liberation of Ilesione by Hercules. R. of the balcony-door, Ibis of rosso 
antico; Atlas, bearer of the universe; 1. boy with comic mask; colossal 
bead of Serapis, in green basalt. The balcony commands a pleasing view. 
Visitors now return to the semicircular hall. Here to the 1. on the first 
pillar which stands alone, a statuette of Neptune. Near it a Caryatide, r. 
on the 3rd pillar a mask of Poseidon. Nearly opp., to the 1., the 6th figure, 
ancient Greek * Portrait-head (styled Pericles, perhaps rather Pisistratus); 
1. 4. Statue (called Sappho, possibly Ceres); r., the last small statue, 

Before the hall of the Cafe is entered, a stair to the 1. descends to a 
lower part of the garden. On the basement of the building several fragments 
of sculpture are walled in, and a few Egyptian statues arranged in a hall. 
In the centre: Ptolenueus Philadelphia, of grey granite; r. the lion-headeil 
goddess Pascht; 1. statue of a king, in Mack granite; several sphynxes. On 
a fountain in front of the hall : reclining Amphitrite ; 1. and r. two colossal 

Numerous antique statues are distributed throughout the gar- 
den, among which the colossal busts of Titus on the 1. and Trajan 
on the r. , below the terrace in front of the Casino, deserve 

The visitor may now return by the avenue of evergreen oaks, 
which is entered by an arch at the extremity of the 1. gallery ot 
the Casino. In the centre of the avenue a colossal bust of the 
(ierman savant Winckelmann, the intimate friend of Card. Albani, 
the founder of the villa, by E. Wolff. 

Pal. Barberini. 

ROME. S. Andrea. 129 

As the Via delle Quattro Fontane is ascended fTom the Piazza 
Barberini, on the 1. is situated the 

♦Palazzo Barberini (PI. I, 22), begun by Maderno under 
Urban VIII. , completed by Bernini. The principal staircase is 
to the 1. under the arcades; built into it is a Greek * tomb- 
relief; on the landing of the first floor, a *lion in high-relief, 
from Tivoli. A number of mediocre ancient sculptures are distri- 
buted throughout the courts and other parts of the building. At 
the r. extremity of the arcades a winding staircase ascends to 
the picture-gallery (Mon. , Tues., Wed. 12V 2 — 5 , Thurs. 2—5, 
Frid., Sat. 10 — 5 o'clock; in winter closed at dusk). Catalogues 
for the use of visitors. 

1st Room: 9. Pieta, Caravaggio; 15. Magdalene, Pomarancio; 19. Betro- 
thal of St. Catharine, Parmeggianino. — 2nd R. . 30. Madonna, after 
Raphael; 35. A Cardinal, Titian {.'!) ; 48. Madonna, with St. Jerome, 
Francia (?); 49. Madonna, Innoc. dalmola; *58 Madonna, Qiov. Bellini; 63. 
Portrait of his daughter , Mengs. — 3rd R. . 73. Portrait, Titian (?) ; 76. 
Castel Gandolfo , CI. Lorrain; 78. Portrait, Bronzino; "79. Chiist among 
the doctors, painted at Venice in 5 days in 1506, hy DUrer ; *82. Portrait 
of the so-called Fornarina, so frequently copied, unfortunately marred by 
restoration, Raphael; 83. Lucrezia Cenci, stepmother of I'eatrice, Gaetani; 
84. Anna Colonna, Spanish School; *85. Beatrice Cenci, Quido Reni; 86. 
Death of Germanicus, N. Poussin; 88. Wharf, Claude Lorrain; 90. Holy Fa- 
mily, And. del Sarto; 93 Annunciation, S. Botticelli. 

The winding staircase leads to the principal saloon of the pa- 
lace on the next floor, embellished with frescoes by Pietro da 
Cortona. A door to the r. leads hence into the saloon of the 
sculptures, containing (among a number of unimportant ancient 
and modern works) an admirable *statue by a Greek master, near 
the wall opp. the em ranee, representing a woman with one arm 
akimbo. It was formerly supposed to be a nymph, a Dido, or a 
Laodamia; but according to the most recent explanation, it re- 
presents a supplicant for protection at an altar. A twig formerly 
grasped by the r. hand has been broken off. 

The Library of the palace (Thursdays 9 — 2 o'clock) contains 
7000 MSS., among which are those of numerous Greek and Latin 
authors, of Dante, etc., and a number of ancient bronze cistas. 
Librarian, the Abbe' Pieralesi. 

The Via delle Quattro Fontane now leads to the summit of 
the Quirinal , on which a street nearly 1 M. in length extends 
from the Piazza di Monte Cavallo to the Porta Pia. At the four 
comers formed by the intersection "of these two main-streets, are 
four fountains erected by Sixtus V., who caused the construction 
of the former street, whence its appellation. 

The Via del Quirinnle is now entered to the r. At the corner 
on the 1. is the small and unattractive church of S. Carlo. Farther 
on, to the 1. 8. Andrea, by Bernini, with the Noviciate of the 
Jesuits. To the r. some buildings connected with the royal palace 
are passed, and in 4 mln. the visitor reaches the Piazza di Monts 

ByKDEKEE Italy II. 3rd Edition. <) 

130 Piazza di Monte Cavallo. HOME. Quir'mah 

Cavallo (PI. II, I'd) (named fiom the two statues), with the Obelisk 
which once stood in front of the mausoleum of Augustus and was 
erected here in 1787, a Fountain with ancient granite basin, and 
the two admirable colossal **Horse Tamers in marble, once an 
ornament of the Thermae of Constantine in the vicinity. They are 
frequently mentioned in history, and have never been covered or 
required excavation. The inscriptions on the pedestals, Opus 
Phidiae and Opus Praxitelis (which during the dark ages were 
believed to be the names of two philosophers, who, having divined 
the thoughts of Tiberius, were honoured by the erection of these 
statues in recognition of their wisdom) , are purely apocryphal, 
the groups being works of the imperial age, copied from originals 
of the school of Lysippus. 

Opposite the Royal Palace stands the Pal. of the Consulth, 
erected under Clement XII. by del Fuga, where the tribunal of 
that name, charged with the internal administration of (lie Papal 
Sates, was formerly established, at present occupied by the For- 
eign Ministry. Farther on, to the 1., is the Pal. Iiospigliosi (p. 131). 
The gate on the r. enters the garden oi the Pal. Colonna (p. 114). 

The piazza commands a fine view. In consequence of the 
construction of new streets at the railway-station the piazza has 
been extended, the houses in some places removed for the con- 
venience of carriages, and steps constructed for foot-passengers. 
The new Via delta Dalaria passes the Pal. delta Dataria, erected 
by Paul V., on the r. . and descends in a straight direction to 
the Corso, while the first transverse street to the 1. (Via di 
8. Vincenzo) leads to the Fontana Trevi (p. 112). 

During recent excavations extensive fragments of the walls of 
the Thermae of Constantine were discovered , and beneath them 
older walls of solid blocks, which appear to have belonged to those 
of Servius Tullius. 

The *Palazzo Apostolico al Quirinale (PI. 1, 19), begun un- 
der Gregory XIII. by Flaminio Ponzio, continued under Sixtns \ • 
and Clement VIII. by Fontana, and completed under Paul V. by 
Maderno, has frequently been occupied by the popes in summer 
on account of its lofty and salubrious situation (Pius IX. resides 
in summer at the Castel Gandolfo in the Alban Mts.). Here the 
last conclaves of the cardinals were held , and the name of the 
newly elected pope proclaimed from the balcony of the facade 
towards Monte Cavallo. Pius VII. expired here in 1823. On 
Sept. 20th, 1870, the palace was taken possession of by the 
Italian government, and is now the residence of the king and 
the crown-prince. It is therefore not at present accessible to 
the public. 

In the court , to the r. under the arcades , the staircase 

Quirinal. ROME. Pal. Rospigliosi. 131 

ascends; on the landing is immured: *Christ with angels, fresco 
by Melozzo da Forli , transferred hither in 1711 fiom the old 
church of SS. Apostoli. The stair then ascends to the r. to the 
Sala Regia, decorated with frescoes by Lanfranco and Saraceni, 
where the custodian is generally to be found. 

Adjacent is the Cappella Paolina, erected by Carlo Waderno, not at pre- 
sent shown. It is decorated with gilded cornicings and copies (in grisaille) 
of liaphael's Apostles in S. Vincen/.o ed Anastasio alle tre Funtane. On the 
r. are situated, a suite of the pope's piivate apartments. In the 4th a 
JMadiinna, by Lor. Lotto, and a Last Supper by F. Baroccio. The 5th, 8th, 
and 9th contain interesting Gobelins. In the 10th, mosaics on the lluor from 
Hadrian's villa. In the 14th, a Ceiling- painting by F. Overbeck (1859), to 
commemorate the llight of Pius IX. in 1848: Christ eluding the pursuit of 
the Jews who endeavoured to cast him over a precipice (Luke IV. 28, 29). In 
the 15th views from the Vatican. Towards the garden the Royal Guesl- 
c/i<tmber, which has been occupied by Napoleon I., Francis I. of Austria, 
and in 1801 by Francis II. of Naples. In the 17th apartment, pictures. On 
the r. wall : Peter (said to have been completed by Raphael) and * Paul, 
Fra Bartolommeo; St. George, Pordenone ; window-wall: St. Bernhard, JSeb. 
del Piombo; St. Cecilia, Vanni. In the Audience-saloon (19th apartment) 
the frieze consists of a cast of the '"Triumphal Procession of Alex, the Great, 
a work by T/iorivaldsen, ordered by Napoleon I. for the decoration of this 
saloon. After 1815 the original became the property of the ^Marchese Som- 
mariva, and is now in the Villa Carlotta near Cadenabbia on the Lake 
of Como, formerly a residence of that nobleman. Another chamber con- 
tains: John in the wilderness, a copy from Raphael. In the small chapel 
dell' Annunziafa an '"Annunciation, altar-piece by Guido Reni. In the apart- 
ment adjoining the Sala del Consistorio, "Views of the interior of the ancient 
basilicas uf St. Peter, St. Paul, S. Maria Maggiore, and S. Giovanni in La- 
terano. In the Sala itself: Madonna, a colossal figure by C. Maratta; "Ma- 
donna with St. Peter and St. Paul, surrounded by cardinals, by an unknown 
master of the 15th cent. 

The garden was tastefully laid out by C. Maderno. The long 
passage to the r. in the court in front of the staircase is entered, 
and access obtained by the first door to the 1. ('/ 2 fr-)- The terrace 
by the palace affords a pleasant view. At the opposite extremity 
a hot -house and an aviary, containing many rare and beautiful 
plants and trees. The walls are adorned with a few antiques. 

*j?alazzo Rospigliosi (PI. II, 19), begun in 1603 by Card. 
Scipio Borghese, nephew of Paul V., on the ruins of the Thermae 
i of Constantine, afterwards became the property of the princes Ros- 
pigliosi of Pistoja, relations of Clement JX. Here are preserved 
frescoes from the Tlicrmai. a beautiful CI. Lorrain (temple of Venus) 
and other treasures of ait, accessible only by special permission 
of the prince. The Casino, however, is open on Wednesdays and 
.Saturdays, 10—3 o'clock (i/ 2 fr.). Under the arcades on the 1. 
adjoining the palace the visitor turns to the 1. and knocks at the 
door which is approached by steps (5 s.). Several small statues 
in the garden. By the external wall of the casino are placed 
ancient sarcophagus-reliefs (Hunt of Melflager, Rape of Proserpine, 
etc.). By the door to the r. the visitor enters the 

Hall. Ceiling-painting by Guido Reni: Aurora strewing flowers before 
the chariot of the god of the sun, who is surrounded by dancing Horse, the 
master's finest work. Opp. the entrance is placed a mirror, in which the 


132 5. Silvestro. ROME. S. Bernardo. 

painting may be conveniently inspected. On the frieze landscapes by Paul 
Brill, and on the narrow sides, Triumph of Fauna and Cupid (from Pe- 
trarch's poems), by Tempesta. R. wall : Statue of Athene Tritogeneia with 
a Triton ; "Portrait, Van Dyck. In the centre a bronze steed from the Thermic 
of Constantine. 

In the room to the r., opp. the entrance, the Fall of man, Domenichirw. 
On the 1. wall : ; 'Vanita, Lorenzo Lotto (name at the foot, on the r.). On the 
r. wall: "Portrait, Dutch School; Venus and Cupid, Domenichino; "Holy Fa- 
mily, Luca Signorelli. On the entrance-wall : Samson, L. Caracci (?). In the 
room to thel.. entrance-wall, over the door: Pieta, Passignani; Andromeda, 
Guido Reni; Portrait of N. Poussin (at the age of 56), a copy of the original 
in the Louvre ; 1. wall : Bearing the Cross, Dan. da Volterra. In the corner 
a bronze bust of Sept. Severus. On these two and the following wall: 
Christ and the Apostles, 13 pictures, attributed to Rubens, probably only 
partially by him ; Domenichino, Triumph of David. 

A short distance farther in the Via del Quirinale , to the r., 
is the church of S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo (PI. II, 19), erected 
at the close of the 16th cent. , and possessed with the adjacent 
monastery by of the fraternity of St. Vincent of Paula since 1770. 

In the dome four oval frescoes by Domenichino: David dancing before 
the Ark, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Judith , Esther and Ahasuerus. 
In the second chapel to the 1., two landscapes by Polidoro Caravaggio and 
his assistant Maturino: 'Betrothal of the Infant Christ with St. Catharine', 
and Christ appearing as the gardener to Mary Magdalene. 

Beyond this the Vicolo delle tre Cannelle diverges to the r., 
and a short distance farther the Via Magnanapoli descends r. to 
the Forum of Trajan. 

At the corner of the Via Magnanapoli and the Via del Quirinale 
is the Palace of Card. Antonelli. — Opposite is the small church 
of S: Caterina di Siena of the 17th cent. Behind it, in the ad- 
joining monastery, rises the Torre delle Milfcie , erected about 
1200 by the sons of Petrus Alexius , commonly called Torre di 
Nerone, because Nero is said to have witnessed the conflagration 
of Rome from this point. Another similar and contemporaneous 
tower is the Torre dei Conti, near the Forum of Augustus, to 
which the Via del Grillo directly descends (p. 178). It was erected 
under Innocent III. (Conti) by Marchionne of Arezzo, but a con- 
siderable portion was removed in the 17th cent. 

Turning to the 1. from the Via del Quirinale the visitor reaches 
S. Maria Maggiore (p. 137). 

From the Quattro Fontane the Via di 20 Settembre (formerly 
di Porta Pia) leads to the Porta Pia (3/ 4 M.). The corner house 
on the r. is Pal. Albani, erected by Domen. Fontana, subse- 
quently the property of Card. Albani, now that of Queen Christina 
of Spain. 

In the Via di Porta Pia on the r. are the two uninteresting 
churches of 8. Teresa and 8. Cajo. About l / t M. farther, on the 
r., somewhat removed from the street, is S. Bernardo (PI. I, 22), 
a circular edifice which originally formed one of the corners of 
the Therms of Diocletian, converted by Catherine Sforza, Countess 
of S. Fiora, into a church. The vaulting is ancient, but like the 

Piazza di Termini. ROME. Villa Torlonia. 133 

Pantheon was once open. In the subterranean chambers under 
this building a large quantity of lead was found. 

On the opposite side (1.) of the street is the ancient church 
of 8. Susanna, modified to its present form in 1600 by (\ Maderno 
at the instance of Card, liusticucci. Paintings on the lateral walls 
from the history of Susanna, by Baldassare Croce ; those of the 
tribune by Cesare Neblia. 

To the r. extends the Piazza di Termini (PL I, 25) with the 
railway - station and the Therma; of Diocletian (p. 135). At the 
corner is the Fontanone deli Acqua Felice, erected by Domen. 
Fontana under Sixtus V., with a badly-executed copy of the Moses 
of Michael Angelo by Prospero Bresciano, who is said to have died 
of vexation on account of his failure ; at the sides Aaron and 
Gideon by Giov. Batt. della Porta and Flam. Vacca; in front 
four modern lions. The Acqua Felice was conducted hither in 
1583 from Colonna in the Alban Mts., a distance of 22 M., by 
order of Sixtus V. 

To the 1. the Via di S. Susanna descends to the Via di 
S. Nicolb di Tolentino, which leads to the Piazza Barberini. 

At the corner to the 1. stands the church of S. Maria della 
Vittoria (PI. I, 23), so called from an image of the Virgin, 
believed to have been instrumental in gaining the victory for the 
imperial troops at the battle of the 'White Mountain' near Prague, 
afterwards deposited here, and in 1833 burned. With the exception 
of the facade, the church was designed by C. Maderno. 

In the 2nd Chap, on the r. , an altar-piece (Mary giving the Infant Christ 
to St. Francis) and frescoes by Domenichino. In the 1. transept the notorious 
^roup of St. Theresa by Bernini. In the 3rd Chapel on the 1. , the Trinity 
by Quercino, and a Crucifixion attributed to Guido Reni. 

The street now becomes deserted; about 5 min. before the gate 
is reached a street to the 1. diverges to the Porta Salara and the 
Via del Macao to the' r. , terminating near the Tailway-station. 
Farther on, to the 1. is the Villa Bonaparte, r. Villa Torlonia. 

The Porta Pia , memorable in the events of 1870, was de- 
signed by Michael Angelo in 1564, and commenced by Pius IV. 
It subsequently fell to decay , but was restored by Pius IX. in 
1861—69. On Sept. 20th, 1870, the Italians directed their 
Dombardnient chiefly against this gate , and soon succeeded in 
making a breach on the 1. side of it, through which they entered 
the city. The damage done on that occasion has since been 
repaired. On the external sides are 2 statues , St. Agnes and 
St. Alexander by Amatori. To the r. of the gate is the old 
Vorta Nomentana, closed since 1564, which led to Nomentum. 

From the gate an unimpeded view is obtained to the 1. of 
the Villa Albani and the Sabine Mts. To the r. is the entrance 
,o the Villa Patrizi , with pleasant garden and beautiful view 
finest from the steps of the small summer-house and from the 
neadow. Permessi obtained by sending an application with a 

.134 S. Agnese fuorile Mura. ROME. S. Costama, 

visiting-card to the Pal. Patrizi . Piaz. 8. Luigi de' Francesi 
p. 150). 1 / 4 M. farther, on the r., the Villa Torlonia (see map 
p. 258; accessible on Wednesdays 11 — 4 o'clock, except in sum- 
mer when the prince resides here; permessi obtained at the Pal. 
Torlonia, Piazza di Venezia), with pleasant gardens and artificial 
ruins. This road, the ancient Via Nomentana , commanding un- 
interrupted views from various points, leads to (l'/4 M. from the 
gate) *S. Agnese fuori le Mura, on the 1. , which still presents 
many of the characteristics of an early Christian basilica. Con- 
stantine founded a church here over the tomb of St. Afjnes, 
which Honorius I. (625 — 38) re -erected. It was altered in 
1490 by Innocent VIII., and restored by Pius IX. in 185G. 

The gate leads into a court, where through the large window 
to the r. a view is obtained of the fresco, which was painted in 
commemoration of the escape of Pius IX. on April 15th, 1855. 
The floor of a room adjoining the church , to which his Holiness 
had retired after mass, gave way , and he was precipitated into 
the cellar beneath , but fortunately was extricated unhurt. On 
the farther side of the court, on the r., is the entrance to the 
church, to which a staircase with 45 marble steps descends (on 
the walls of the stair are numerous ancient Christian inscriptions 
from the catacombs). 

The church is divided into nave and aisles by 16 columns of breccia, 
porta santa, and pavonazetto, which support arches; above these a gallery 
with smaller columns. The Tabernacle of 1614 is borne by 4 fine column! 
of porphyry; beneath is the statue of St. Agnes, of alabaster; on the high- 
allar a restored antique. In the tribune "mosaics of the 7th cent. (St. Agnes 
between the Popes Honorius I. and Symniachus) and an ancient episcopal 
choir. To the r. in the 2nd Chapel a beautiful altar, inlaid with mosaic; 
above it a * relief of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence, of 1490. In the 1. aisle 
is an entrance to the catacombs (p. 257). Over the altar of the chapel a 
fine old fresco: Madonna and Child. 

Beneath the gateway which is entered from the street, on the 
r., is the approach to the apartments of the canons (visitors ring 
when the porter is not at hand; 5 s.). In the passage of the 
first floor are remains of frescoes of 1344 , among them an 
* Annunciation. An apartment fitted up for the reception of the 
Pope contains a head of Christ in marble, formerly in the church, 
a mediocre work of the 16th cent. , erroneously attributed to 
Michael Angelo. The same porter keeps the keys of the neigh- 
bouring church C/2 fr.) of 

S. Costanza, originally erected as a monument by Constantine 
to his daughter Constantia, re-erected in 1256. The dome is 
supported by 24 clustered columns in granite. In the vaulting 
of the entrance are ancient * mosaics of the 4th cent, with genii 
gathering grapes. The porphyry sarcophagus of the saint, which 
formerly stood in one of the niches (now in the museum of the 
Vatican , Sala a Croce Greca) is similarly adorned ; the mosaics of 
the niches are of later date. 

Thermic of Diocletian. ROME. S. Maria degli Anytli. 135 

Witli regard to the catacombs which may be visited here, see 
p. 253. — Route from >S. Agncse to the Campagna see p. 268. 

We now return to the Piazza di Termini. To the 1. by the 
Fontana is an establishment for poor children, and an asylum for the 
deaf and dumb. Opposite is the Railway Station, whence a 
new street is now being constructed to the Via delle (Juattro Fon- 
■taiie, in consequence of which the piazza will be considerably 
enlarged. Opposite the station are the Thermce of Diocletian 
(PI. I, 25), once the most extensive in Rome, constructed by 
Maximian and Diocletian' at the commencement of the 4th cent., 
by means, it is said, of the compulsory services of Christians, 
who imprinted the sign of the cross on the bricks. 

Within these is situated the church of *S. Maria degli Angeli, 
converted from a large vaulted hall into a church by Michael Angelo, 
at the desire of Pius IV. The present transept was then the 
nave, the principal portal was in the narrow end on the r., and 
the high-altar placed on the 1. In 1749 Vanvitelli entirely dis- 
figured the church by these inconsistent alterations. 

A small rotunda is first entered. The first tomb on the r. is that of 
the painter Carlo Maratta (d. 1713). In tin* Chapel Angels of Peace and 
Justice , by l\'ilvidi. The first tomb on the 1. is that of Salvator Rosa 
(d. 1673). In the Chapel, Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, altar-piece 
hy Arrigo Flamingo. 

The great transept is now entered. The niche on the r. in the passage 
contains St. Bruno , a colossal statue by Jloudon ; in the chapel on the 1. 
the "Delivery of the Keys, altar-piece by Mnziaiio. The transept (formerly 
nave) is 30S ft. long, 90 ft. high, and 95 ft. wide. Of the 16 columns 8 are 
of oriental granite. — Most of the large pictures here and in the tribune 
were brought from St. Peter's, where they were replaced by copies in mosaic. 
In the r. half (on the pavement the meridian of Rome, laid down in 1703): 
on the r., Crucifixion of St. Peter by Ricciolini ; Fall of Simon Magus, after 
F. Vanni (original in St. Peter's); on the 1., " St. Jerome among the hermits, 
Muziano (landscape by Brill); Miracles of St. Peter, Buglioni. On the narrow 
end: chapel of IS. Niccolo Alhcrgati. In the 1. half: on the 1., Mass of 
St. Basil with the Emperor Valens, Subleyras; Fall of Simon Magus, Pomp. 
Baltoni; on the r., Immaculate Conception, P. Biatic/ri; Resuscitation of Ta- 
bifha, P. I'ostanzi. At the narrow end: chapel of St. Bruno. 

In the tribune (one of the monks may be requested to act as guide 
here and in the monastery) : r. Mary's first visit to the Temple, Eomanelli; 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (fresco), Domenichino; 1. Death of Ananias 
and Sapphira, Pomarancio ; Baptism of Christ, Maratta. The choir con- 
tains two monuments (1. Pius IV., r. Ant. Serbelloni) by Michael Angela. 

A door to the r. leads hence into the first court of the ad- 
jacent Carthusian Monastery, from which the * second court, 
embellished with 100 columns (white-washed in 1870), and de- 
signed by Mich. Anyelo, is entered. The beautiful cypresses in 
the centre are also said to have been planted by the great master. 
Permission to inspect the other chambers »f the Theruia:, which 
are employed as military magazines, must be obtained from the 
commandant, in the Piazza Colonna. They contain nothing to inter- 
est the traveller, and were moreover greatly damaged by a Are in 
1864. The most interesting portions, to the summit of which the 

136 Wall of Servius. ROME. 8. Pudenziana. 

■visitor may ascend (comprehensive survey) , belong to the mon- 
astery. The principal structure of the Therma; was enclosed by 
a wall, which is partially concealed in adjoining buildings, as in 
the prison at the corner of the V. Strozzi and Piazza di Termini, 
and partially exposed to -view, as in the garden of the monastery 
of S. Bernardo. The corners on this side consisted of two circular 
buildings, one of which, the present church of S. Bernardo (p. 132), 
still exists. The other belongs to the prison. 

Within the precincts of the railway-station the Wall of Servius , inter- 
sected by the railway , may be seen. A 'lasciapassare' should be procured 
from the inspector of the station (capostazione); best time 9 — 11 a. m. 
Other antiquities are also preserved here. Above is a sitting statue of 
Roma, beneath which lie several small ancient chambers. 

In a line with the railway-station the Via Strozzi descends to 
the r. in'o the Via delle Quattro Fontane, not far from S. Puden- 
ziana (see below). 

Ascending by the station to the 1., the road to the r. leads to 
the Porta S. Lorenzo ( J / 2 hr.). Proceeding thence in a straight 
direction between two pines, and then through a gateway, the 
traveller reaches (in 10 min.) the Campo di Macao, or Campo 
Militare, the camp ol the Pra:torians of imperial Rome. It was 
originally established by Tiberius , but destroyed by Constantine 
so far as it lay without the town-wall , from which it projects in 
a quadrangular form. On the narrow end to the 1. and the long 
side, traces of gates are still distinguished ; the wall was skirted 
by a passage, beneath which small chambers are situated. It has 
again been devoted to military purposes , and the large , newly- 
erected barracks impart unwonted life to the place. Popular 
recreations, horse-races, etc. occasionally take place here. 

Prom the Quattro Fontane to S. Maria Maggiore is a walk of 
10 min. The Quirinal is first descended ; to the 1. is a newly 
constructed street to the railway-station. The Virninal, hereof 
insignificant height , is now traversed. In the valley between 
the Viminal and Esquiline, in the street to the r., is situated 

S. Pudenziana (PI. II, 25; open till 9 a. m. ; custodian to 
be found in the adjacent monastery, Via Quattro Fontane 81), 
traditionally the most ancient church in Rome, erected on the spot 
where S. Pudens, who with his daughiers Praxedis and Pudentiana 
entertained St. Peter, is said to have lived. The church is 
first mentioned in 499, and has since been frequently renewed; 
the last complete restoration was in 1598. The portal supported 
by columns on the facade is ancient. 

In the pillars of the aisle in the interior the marble columns which 
originally supported the waB' are still to be seen. The mosaics in the tri- 
bune (4th cent.), Christ with S. Praxedis and S. Pudentiana and the Apostles, 
above them the emblems of the Evangelists on either side of the cross, are 
regarded as the oldest Christian remains in Home , but have been greatly 
modernised. The dome above the high-altar was painted by Pomarancio. 

S. Lorenzo in Paneperna HOME. S. Maria Mayyiore. 137 

The aisles contain remnants of an ancient mosaic pavement. In the 1. aisle 
is the Cappella Gaetani, on the altar of which is an Adoration of the 
Magi, marble-relief by Olivieri. At the extremity of this aisle is an altar with 
relics of the table at which Peter is said first to have read mass. Above it 
Christ and Peter, a group in marble by G. B. delta Porta. 

Beneath the church are ancient vaults in a good style of 
architecture, to which the custodian conducts visitors if desired. 

The Esquiline is now ascended, whence the back of S. Maria 
Maggiore is visible ; a second main street intersecting the hills 
here diverges. From the Forum of Trajan it ascends the Quirinal 
under the name of Via Magnanapoli; to the 1. diverges the 
Via del Quirinale (p. 129); in a straight direction the church of 
S. Domenico e Sisto, erected about 1640, is passed on the r., and 
theVilla Aldobrandini, which after belonging to numerous different 
proprietors is now in possession of Prince Borghese, on the 1. (access 
seldom granted ; beautiful grounds and a few ancient sculptures). 
In the Via Mazzarina, the next lateral street to the 1., is situated 
on the r., opposite the Villa Aldobrandini, the church of S. Agaia 
alia Suburra, originally erected in the 5th cent., now remarkable 
only as containing the tomb of Johannes Lascaris , .author of the 
first modern Greek grammar. In a straight direction the Via di 
S. Lorenzo in Paneperna ascends the Viminal , the elevation of 
which between the Quirinal and Esquiline is here most marked. 
On the highest point, on the 1., stands the church of S. Lorenzo 
in Paneperna (PI. II, 22), the spot where St. Lawrence is said 
to have suffered martyrdom. It is ancient, but greatly restored. 
The street then again descends, and ascends the Esquiline under 
the name of Via di 8. Maria Maggiore. 

In front of the choir of the church, which is now approached, 
stands one of the two Obelisks from the mausoleum of Augustus ; 
the other is on Monte Cavallo (p. 130). The piazza in front of 
the church is embellished with a handsome Column from the basi- 
lica of Constantine, placed here and furnished with a bronze figure 
of the Virgin by Paul V. 

**S. Maria Maggiore (PL II, 25) is also termed Basilica Li- 
beriana, and S. Maria ad Nives, because, according to the legend, 
it was erected by Pope Liberius (352 — 366) in consequence of 
simultaneous dreams of the Pope and the Roman Patrician Johannes, 
on the spot where on the following day (Aug. 5th) they found a 
miraculous deposit of snow. In 432 it was entirely altered by 
Sixtus III., enlarged by Nicholas IV. in 1292 by the addition of 
the tribune with its mosaics, and restored by Gregory XIII. in 
1575 according to the taste of that period; the campanile was 
renewed in 1376. The dimensions of the interior are 120 yds. 
in length, and 50 yds. in width. 

The five arches of the Facade by Fuga (1743) correspond 
to the five entrances of the church , the last of which to the 1. 
(Porta Santa) is closed. The vestibule contains the statue of 

138 8. Antonio Abbate HOME. 8. Prassede. 

Philip IV. of Spain on the r. ; on the 1. is the approach to the 
loggia with the mosaics of the original facade of the 13th cent. 
(The door is opened by a verger.) Above in the centre Christ' 
on the 1. the Virgin, St. Paul, and St. James; on the r. John, 
Peter, and Andrew. Beneath, on the 1., the dream of Pope Liberi- 
us and the Patrician Johannes; on the i\, the meeting of the two 
and tracing of the site of the church on the newly-fallen snow. 

The interior is a basilica with nave and two aisles. The architrave 
adorned with mosaic, is supported by two Ionic columns, aliove which, and 
on the triumphal arch, are mosaics of the 5tli cent, (restored in 1825), those 
on the arch representing "New Testament events, those on the walls events 
from the history of the patriarchs and prophets. In front of the triumphal 
arch is the high-altar, consisting of an ancient sarcophagus id' porphyry, said 
to have been the tomb of the Patrician Johannes, and containing the re- 
mains of St. Matthew and other relies ; the canopy is borne by four columns 
of porphyry. In the apse of the tribune are * mosaics by Jacopo da Turrita 
(I '295): Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, near whom are Pope Nicholas IV. 
ami Card. Jac. Colonna. 

At, the beginning of the nave are the tombs of Nicholas IV. (d. 1292) 
on the 1. , and Clement IV. (16G9) on the r. , erected by Sixtus V. and Cle- 
ment X. respectively. First chapel in the r. aisle: Baptistery with fine 
ancient font of porphyry. Farther on is the Cap. del Crocefisso with 10 co- 
lumns of porphyry, containing live hoards from the manger (whence termed 
i'lipjH'tltt del Present') of the Infant Christ. In the r. transept is the sumptu- 
ous ■' Xij'tene Chapel (undergoing restoration) , constructed by Fontana ; the 
altar in the r. niche is an ancient Christian ;;; sarcophagus ; opp. to it, on the 
1., an altar-piece (St. Jerome), Ribera\ on the r. the monument of Sixtus V., 
the statue of the Pope by Valsotdo ; on the 1. Pius V. by Leonardo dn Hava- 
na na; in the 'Confessio' in front of the altar a statue of S. Gaetano, tiy 
Bernini, and an altar-relief of the Holy Family, by Cere/tiiw da PUtrasanta 
( U80). At the extremity of the r. aisle the Gothic monument of Card, (,'im- 
salvi (Gunsalvus, d. 1229) by Giov. Cosmos. In the 1. aisle, 1st Chapel (of 
the Cesi) : Martyrdom of St. Catharine, altar-piece by Girol. da Sermoneta; 
on the r. and 1. two bronze statues to the memory of cardinals of the family. 
2nd Chapel (of the Pallavicini-Sforza), said to have been designed by Mich. 
Angelo : Assumption of Mary, altar-piece by G'ir. Scrmoncta. In the 1. tran- 
sept, opp. the Sixtine Chapel, is the Horijhese Chapel, constructed by Fia- 
minio Ponzio in 1611 , and also furnished with a dome. Over the altar, 
which is sumptuously decorated with lapis lazuli and agate, an ancient and 
miraculous picture of the Virgin, painted (almost black) according to tra- 
dition by St. Luke, which was carried by Gregory I. as early as 500 in 
solemn procession through the city, and again by the clergy in I he war of 
1860. The frescoes in the large arches are by Outdo Rrni, Lavfranco, &■ 
i/oli, etc. The monuments of the Popes (1.) Paul V. (Camilla Borghese, d. 
1621) and (r.) Clement VIII. ( Aldobrandini, d. 1605) are by pupils of Bernini. 
The crypt contains tombs of the Borghese family. 

To the 1. in the Piazza di S. Maria Maggiore is the chuicli 
of <S. Antonio Abbate, with portal of the 13th cent. The interior 
is uninteresting. S. Antonio is the tutelary saint of animals, and 
in front of the church from Jan. 17th to Jan. 23rd domestic 
animals of every description are blessed and sprinkled with holy 
water. On January 23rd the Pope and many persons of the higher 
classes send their horses here for that purpose. 

To the r. in the Tiazza is a side-entrance to 

*S. Prassede (PI. I, 25), dedicated in 882 by Paschalis I. to 
St. Praxedis, daughter of St. Pudens with whom Peter lodged at 
Rome, and sister of S. Pudentiana. It was restored by Nicholas V. 

Porta S. Lorenzo. ROME. .S. Lorenzo fuori. 139 

about l-i.'tO, again in ls;VJ, ami finally in ISGO. The church is 
generally entered by the side-door. 

The nave is separated from tin- two aisles by 16 columns of granite. 

The mosaics (Olli tent..) deserve s] ial inspection. On the triumphal 

arch Hie new Jerusalem guarded liy angels, Christ in the centre, towards 
whom the saved are hastening; on the arch of the tribune the Lamb , at 
the sides the 7 candlesticks and the symbols of the evangelists ; lower down 
the '."t elders (interesting as showing the mode in which the art was obliged 
to accnnimodale itself to the spaces allotted to it; thus, in order to follow 
the curve of the arch, the amis of the foremost elders in the middle and 
upper rows gradually increase in length); on the vaulting Christ surrounded 
with saints (among them Peter. Paul. Praxedis, and Pudentiana). On either 
side of the tribune are galleries. The 3rd chapel in the r. aisle is the 
Chapel of the Column, (ladies admitted on the Sundays of Lent only; the 
sacristan opens the door when desired). At the entrance are two columns 
of black granite with ancient entablature. The interior is entirely covered 
Willi mosaics on gold ground (about the Kith cent.), whence the chapel is 
sometimes termed Or/u del I'aradiso. On the vaulting a medallion with 
head of Christ, supported by four angels. Above the altar a Madonna between 
the saints Praxedis and Pudentiana. To the r. in a niche, the column at 
which Christ is said to have been scourged. The 4th chapel contains the 
lomb of Card. Cetti (d. 1474). At the extremity of the r. aisle the Cap. del 
Crnri fi.txo contains the tomb of a French cardinal (d. 1286). In the 1. aisle 
by the entrance-wall is a stone-slab, on which St. Praxedis is said to have 
slept. The Cap. di 8. Carlo liorromeo (the 2nd) contains a chair and table 
used by the saint. Cap. Agittti (3rd) contains paintings by the Cav. d'Arpino. 
The marble spout of a fountain in the nave indicates the spot where St. 
Praxedis collected the blood of the martyrs. 

The Confossio (keys kept liy the sacristan) contains ancient sarcophagi 
with the bones of the sister saints Praxedis and Pudentiana on the r. , and 
those of martyrs on the 1. The altar is decorated with fine mosaic of the 
13th cent. Above it an ancient fresco of the Madonna between the sisters. 
The entrance to the catacombs was formerly here. The sacristy contains 
a Scourging by Chtlio Romano. 

Several streets run E. and S.E. towards the walls from the 
Tiaz/.a 8. Maria Magg ore. That to the 1. passing S. Antonio 
soon divides again, and leads to the 1. in 10 min. to the 

Porta di S. Lorenzo (PI. II, 32), constructed by Honorius 
against an arch , over which according to the inscription the 
three aqueducts Mania, Tepula, and Julia passed. The arch 
stands on its original site, while the gateway occupies con- 
siderably higher ground. It derives its appellation from the 
basilica situated outside the gate, and stands on the site of 
the ancient Porta Tiburtina , which led to Tivoli. The road 
(Via Tiburtina) is bounded by walls, and does not afford views 
of the Sabine Mts. until the church is reached, 3 / 4 M. from the gate. 

*S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (see map, p. 258) occupies the 
spot where Constantine first founded a church, which however soon 
fell to decay, on the burial-place of St. Lawrence and St. Cyriaca. 
In [)7S Pelagius II. again found the remains of St. Lawrence, 
and erected a church, which Honorius III. restored. Under NicholasV. 
and Innocent X., and finally under Pius IX. in 1864 — 70, the 
church has undergone extensive alterations, and is now at least 
partially freed from the patchwork by which it was formerly dis- 
figured. In the piazza in front of the church is a column with 

140 S. Lorenzo fuori. ROME. Arch of Gallienus. 

a bronze statue of St. Lawrence. The front has been recently 
embellished with paintings resembling mosaic, representing the 
founders and patrons of the church: Pelagius II., the Emp. Con- 
stantine, Honorius III., Pius IX., Sixtus III. and Hadrian I. The 
vestibule is supported by 6 ancient columns, above which is an archi- 
trave with mosaics (S. Lorenzo and Honorius 111.) , and contains 
retouched frescoes of the 13th cent., two tombs in the form of temp- 
les, and two rude christian sarcophagi. The door-posts rest on lions. 

The interior consists of two parts. The first and more modern , which 
to a great extent dates from Honorius 111., consists of nave and two aisles, 
separated by 22 antique columns of granite and cipolline of unequal thick- 
ness, and plain entablature, above which rise a gaudily painted wall and 
open roof. On the capital of the 8th column on the r. are a frog and a 
lizard, supposed on doubtful grounds to have been brought from the colon- 
nade of the Octavia, where two sculptors Batrachos (frog) and Sauros (lizard) 
are said to have adopted this method of perpetuating their names. The 
pavement, opus Alexandrinum, dates from the 12th cent. Under a mediaeval 
canopy to the r. of the entrance is an ancient ,; sarcophagus with repre- 
sentation of a wedding, in which in 1256 the remains of Card. Fieschi, 
nephew of Innocent IV., were placed. In the nave are the two elevated 
'■' anibos , that to the r. for the gospel , near which is a wreathed cande- 
labrum for the Easter candle, that to the 1. for the epistle (12th cent.). On 
the triumphal arch are modern paintings (resembling mosaics) of the Ma- 
donna and saints. At the extremity of the 1. aisle a staircase descends to a 
chapel and the catacombs. By the Confessio 7 steps descend into the second 
part of the church, the structure of Pelagius II., the pavement of which is 
considerably lower than that of the upper church. The entrance was form- 
erly on the opposite side. 12 magnificent fluted columns of pavouazetto with 
Corinthian capitals (those of the two first are formed of trophies, on the 
benches in front of them are mediaeval lions) support the entablature, which 
consists of antique fragments and bears a gallery with graceful smaller co- 
lumns. On the triumphal arch, of which this is the original front, are 
restored mosaics of the time of Pelagius II. : Christ, r. St. Peter, St. Law- 
rence, St. Pelagius; 1. St. Paul, St. Stephen, Hippolytus. The canopy with 
modern dome dates from 1148. By the farther wall is the handsome epi- 
scopal throne. — The space below, containing nothing of interest, was 
formed in the course of the restoration of 1864. 

The handsome old * Court of the Monastery (usually closed ; 
application may be made to one of the monks in the church) 
contains numerous fragments of sculptures and inscriptions immured 
in its walls ; in the corner to the r. of the principal entrance is 
the lid of a sarcophagus adorned with the triumphal procession 
of Oybele. The church is adjoined by an extensive churchyard, 
consecrated in 1837, and considerably enlarged in 1854, from the 
upper part of which there is a beautiful view of the mountains 
and Campagna. A handsome Monument, with a group of St. Peter 
and a kneeling knight, was erected here in 1870 to commemorate 
the Battle of Mentana. 

Where the "Via di Porta S. Lorenzo diverges to the 1., the 
Via di Eusebio proceeds in a straight direction. Immediately to 
the r. it is joined by the Via di S. Vito, where the church of 
that name lies (PI. II, 23), and the Arch, erected in 2C2 in 
honour of the Emp. Gallienus by a certain M. Aurelius Victor, 

Minerva Medira. ROME. Porta Maggiore. 1-11 

'on account of his bravery, surpassed only by his piety', is 
also situated. The architecture is simple, and in the degraded 
style of the age. 

Farther on in the principal street, on the r., is S. Oiuliano ; 
on the 1., standing back from the street, the church of .S\ 
Eusebio (PI. II, 28), re-erected in the last century, with the 
exception of the campanile. The ceiling-painting , the glory of 
St. Eusebius, is one of the earliest works of Raphael Mengs; the 
high altar-piece by Bald. Croce. 

The street now divides; to the 1. diverges the Via di S. Bibiana, 
to the r. the Via di S. Croce, between which the Via di Porta 
Maggiore pursues a straight direction. Between the first and last 
of these are seen considerable remains of a water-tower of the 
Aqua Julia or Claudia, in the niches of which the so-called 
trophies of Marius , now on the balustrade of the Capitol, were 
formerly placed (p. 166). The ruin is termed Trofei di Mario. 

To the 1. in 5 min. the traveller reaches S. Bibiana (PI. II, 31), 
consecrated as early as 470, re-constructed in 1625 by Bernini; 
to the 1. by the entrance is the stump of a column, at which the 
saint is said to have been scourged to death. The church is 
open to the public on Dec. 2nd, the anniversary of the Saint. 

The interior contains eight antique columns; above these an- frescoes 
from the life of the saint, on the r. by Ciampelli, 1. hy Pietro da Corlona, 
now defaced. The statue of St. Bibiana at the high-altar is by Bernini. 

Opposite to the church , to the r. in the Vigna Magnani is 
the so-called Temple of Minerva Medica (PI. II, 32), the pic- 
turesque ruin of an unknown ancient edifice, a decagon with deep 
niches in the walls , formerly covered with marble beneath and 
stucco above. It must have appertained to some sumptuous 
establishment, as a number of ancient statues have been found 
in the vicinity. One of these, the Minerva Giustiniani of the 
Braccio Nuovo in the Vatican (p. 240), has given rise to the 
otherwise unfounded appellation of 'Temple of Minerva'. In the 
middle ages the ruin was termed Le Terme di Oalluccio, a name 
conjectured, without the slightest historical authority, to be a 
corruption of 'Gaius and Lucius Csesar'. But the vaulting did not 
fall in till 1828. 

The Via di Porta Maggiore leads in 18 min. from the church 
of S. Maria to the *Porta Maggiore (PI. II, 35), formed by two 
arches of the Aqua Claudia, over which the Anio Novus flowed 
through a second conduit. The inscriptions record the construc- 
tion of the aqueduct, 45 M. in length, by the Emp. Claudius, 
A. D. 50, and its restoration by Vespasian and Titus. The gate 
derives its appellation from its imposing dimensions. Two roads 
diverged hence: to the 1. through the now closed arch the Via 
Labicana, to the r. the Via Praenesiina. Between the two, in 
front of the gate, the * Monument of the Baker Eurysaces, erected 
in the form of a baker's oven towards the close of the rrpublic, 

142 SI. Croce in Gerusulemme. ROME. AmphUlt. Castrensc. 

was discovered in 1838, during the removal of the more recent 
fortifications of Honorius. Hence to the Campagna see p. 267. 

From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) S. Croce, 
passing under the arch of the Claudian aqueduct, and skirting the 
wall on the inside. From S. Maria Maggiore to this church by 
the Via di S. Croce is a walk of 20 min. 

*S. Croce in Gerusalemme (PI. II, 36), once termed Basilica 
Sessoriana, because the Sessorium, probably an ancient court of 
judicature, once stood here, is said to have been erected by St. 
Helena in honour of the cross found by her. As early as 433 it 
served as a place of meeting for a council, it was re-constructed 
under Lucius II. in 1144, and under Benedict XIV. in 1743 
entirely modernised. (Facade by Oregorini^) 

The nave of the church was originally borne by 12 .antique columns 
of granite, of which 8 only are now visible. An ancient sarcophagus ol' 
basalt beneath the high-altar contains the relics of St. Anastasius and Cue- 
sari us. In the tribune are modernised 'frescoes by Pintnricchio, the Finding 
of the Cross. The church contains numerous relics , among them the 'In- 
scriptions on the Cross'. 

To the 1. of the tribune a stair descends to the lower church, where 
on the 1. is an altar adorned with a relief in marble (Pietii) ; at the sides 
are statues of Peter and Paul of the 12lh cent. On the r. the chapel of 
St. Helena. On the vaulting are mosaics attributed tu Bald. Peruzzi, repre- 
senting the 4 evangelists. In the centre Christ. In the arch over the en- 
trance, on the 1. St. Helena, r. St. Sylvester; over the altar, on the 1. St. 
Peter, on Ihc r. St. Paul. The altar-statue of St. Helena is <m exact copy 
of the Barberini Juno in the Sala Kotonda of the Vatican (p. 245), with the 
exception that a cross has been substituted for the sceptre [in the right hand, 
and a nail of the cross for the vase in the left. (A monk may be requested 
to open the door of the chapel.) 

The monastery belongs to the Cistercians. The Library, 
although despoiled of some of its treasures, is still of great value, 
and possesses many MSS. of the Fathers of the Church. Visitors 
readily admitted. The monks are obliging. 

Adjacent to S. Croce in the direction of the Lateran , in the 
vineyard of the monastery, is situated the *Amphitheatrum Castrense 
(PI. II, 36), of which a portion of 16 arches only, now incorpora- 
ted with the city-wall, still exists. The structure is of brick, of 
which the Corinth iancapitals and other decorations are also compos- 
ed. Date of erection uncertain. — On the other side of S. Croce is 
an apse with arched windows and the beginning of the contiguous 
walls, which are conjectured to have formed part of a Temple of 
Venus and Cupid , or a Nymphaeum of Alexander Severus , or a 
Se8sorium or hall of assize. 

From S. Croce to the Lateran is a walk of 5 mi». 

From S. Maria Maggiore the Via in Merulana leads to the r. 
to the Lateran (in */4 nr -)- 1'he first transverse street to the r. 
is the Via di <S'. 1'rassede (with the church of that name, see p. 138), 
which under different names leads through a comparatively well- 
peopled quarter to the Forum. The Via di S. Vito to the 1. 
leads to the arch of Gallierms (p. 140J. 

8. Mtirtinn ai Monti. HOME S. Pietro in Vincoli. 14.5 

The second side-street to the r. leads to 

S. Martino ai Monti (Pi. II, 26), also termed 88. Silvestro 
e Martino, erected by Symmachus about 500, renewed by Sergiusll. 
in 847, and by Leo IV., and modernised in 1770. 

The interior (a basilica with roof of straight beams) contains 24 antique 
columns, the r. aisle six ''frescoes with representations from the life of 
.Elijah by 0. Poussin. In the 1. aisle six smaller '"frescoes. Also two 
pictures. representing the interior of the old Lateran and Church of St. Peter. 
The presbj teriuni is 11 steps higher; beneath it the lower church. From 
the latter a large, ancient vault is entered, probably once belonging to Thermse, 
but at an.early period converted into a church. The vaulting bears traces 
of very ancient painting. 

The Via di S. Pietro in Vincoli is now reached , leading to 
the r. to the church of that name , while its prolongation , the 
17a delle Sette Sale skirts the vineyards of the Esquiline and 
terminates near N. Clemente (p. 197). 

If the latter be selected, the entrance to the so-called Sette 
Sale (I'l. II, 26) is reached immediately to the r., in the Vigna, 
No. 10. These seven, or rather nine chambers, running parallel 
with each other, appear to have served as reservoirs lor the 
Thermaj of Titus. The celebrated group of the Laocoon (p 242) 
was found in the vicinity. Other and still more imposing ruins 
in the vigna probably formed part of the same bathestab- 

*S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23), not far from the Thermse 
of Titus (open before 11 a. m. and after 3 p. m. ; when closed, 
visitors ring at the door to the r. adjoining the church) , was 
founded by Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian III., about 442, whence 
also termed Basilica Eudoxiana, as a receptacle for the chains of 
St. Peter which had been presented by her to Pope Leo I., 
and was restored by Pelagius 1. and Hadrian I. Vestibule sub- 
sequently added by Baccio Pintelli; the whole now modernised. 

The nave and aisles arc separated by 20 antique Doric columns. To 
the 1. of. the high-altar is Ihe monument of Pietro and Antonio Pollajuolo 
(d. 14!)!S). The 1. aisle contains the monument of the erudite Card. Nicola us 
Cusanus (from Cues on the Moselle, d. 1465). Above it a relief: Peter with 
keys and chains, on the 1. the donor (Nic. Cusanus), r. an angel. On the 
2nd altar to the 1. a mosaic of the 7th cent, witli St. Sebastian. At the ex- 
tremity of the r. aisle the monument of Pope Julius II. with the 'Statue 
of Moses, by Michael Angeto, one of his most famous works. The monument 
was originally destined for St. Peter's, and intended to be a most, imposing 
work, consisting of upwards of 30 statues. (The Uflizi at Florence contain 
M. Angelo's designs for this work , drawn by his own hand,) Owing to 
various adverse circumstances the portion here preserved was alone comple- 
ted. (Two statues destined for this monument are at the Louvre.) The 
statues of Moses, Kachel , and Leah (as symbols, on the 1. of meditative, on 
the r. of active life) alone are the work of the great master; the grouping 
only of the remainder was from his design. The figure of the pope (who 
is not interred here) by Maso del Bosco is a failure ; the prophet and the 
sibyl at the side are by Raf. da Montelupo. 

Adjacent is the entrance to the sacristy. A cabinet here with * bionze 

doors (by the Pollajuoli, 1477) contains the chains of St. Peter, which are 

exhibited to the pious on Aug. 1st. The Speranza by Outdo Reni which 

was formerly here, was sold and sent to England some years ago. The 

court of the adjacent cloister of the canonici regolari, planted with pome- 

144 Via di Ripetta. ROME. Mausoleum of Augustus. 

granate-trees , and adorned with a fountain by Antonio da San Gallo, was 
constructed by Giuliano da San Gallo. 

The piazza in front of the church is adorned by a handsome 
palm-tree. To the 1. (then , where the street divides , to the 1. 
again) the Thermal of Titus (p. 176) are reached in 5 min. The 
street in a straight direction descends to the Basilica of Constan- 
stine (p. 171), whence the above church is usually visited. On 
the r. lies the church of 8. Francesco di Paola with the monastery. 
In front of it a picturesque view is obtained. 

III. Rome on the Tiber. 

That portion of the city which extends W. from the Corso 
as far as the river, uninhabited in the most ancient times, and sub- 
sequently converted into magnificent grounds by the emperors 
(Campus Martins), is now densely peopled. The character of this 
quarter is essentially mediaeval : it consists of a network of narrow 
and dirty streets and lanes , enlivened by the busy traffic of the 
lower classes , and rarely intersected by great thoroughfares. 
Although the topography of these purlieus is occasionally puzzling, 
and their aspect unattractive , they are replete with highly inter- 
esting churches and palaces , and are strongly recommended to 
the notice of those who desire an acquaintance with medieval 
Rome, and an insight into the characteristics of the citizens. The 
following description commences with the N. side. 

From the Piazza del Popolo the broad Via di Ripetta skirts 
the bank of the river and the small harbour , where its name is 
changed to Via delta Scrofa, and in 16 min. leads to the Piazza 
S. Luigi de' France^ (where the post-office is situated), near 
which on the r. the Piazza Navona, and on the 1. the piazza of 
the Pantheon are situated. 

After 4 min. a modern building with numerous windows is 
seen on the r. It was erected by Gregory XVI., and contains a 
number of studios and a collection of casts belonging to the 
academy of St. Luca (p. 178). The gate of this edifice leads 
to a quiet quay, planted with trees, where the barges and 
steamboats which ascend the river lie. Pleasing view of the 
opposite bank. 

Proceeding hence to the 1. , the traveller reaches in the 3rd 
transverse street, the Via de' Pontefici 57 (r.), the entrance to the 

Mausoleum of Augustus (PI. I, 17; fee J / 2 Ir -)> erected by 
that emperor as a burial-place for himself and his family, and in 
which most of his successors down to Nerva were interred. On a 
huge substructure, which contained the mortuary-chambers, arose 
a mound of earth in the form of terraces , embellished with 
cypresses , surmounted by a statue of the emperor , and envi- 
roned with a park. In the middle ages it was employed by the 
Colonnas as a fortress. At the present day a small day-theatre, 

SS. Bocco e murunv. HOME. Palazzo Borghese. 145 

occasionally also used as a circus , is fitted up within the pre- 
cincts of the structure. A few only of the tomb-chambers are 
still preserved. 

To the 1. in the Via di Ripetta the traveller next reaches the 
church of SS. Bocco e Murtino (PI. I, 14), erected in 1657 by 
dc Bossi, the facade with its two pairs of Corinthian columns in 
I8!!4. Immediately beyond it, on the r. , is the Harbour of the 
Bipetta, constructed**^ jCAement XI. in 1707. The height attained 
by the water during inundations is indicated on the two columns 
on the arched wall. Ferry 1 soldo. Bathing-establishment on the 
opp. bank in summer. On the 1. the small church of S. Giro- 
lamo dtyli Schiavoni (PI. I, 15). Farther on, to the 1., a bath- 
establishment, not recommended. 

The Via della Scrofa , as the street is now termed , is soon 
intersected (about 9 min. from the Piazza del Popolo) by a main 
street, which quitting the Corso opposite the Via Condotti leads 
(o the Ponte S. Angelo under different names, and forms the 
most direct communication between the strangers' quarter (Piazza 
di Spagna) and the Vatican. The church of S. Trinity de' Monti 
is \isible*flti'e"' greater part of the way, forming the termination of 
the street. From the Corso to the Piazza Borghese with the 
celebrated palace of that name (4 min.) it is termed Via della 
Fontanella Borghese; thence to the Via della Scrofa, Via del 
Clementino, on the 1. side of which are the Vaserma de' Vigili, or 
guard-house of the firemen , and the adjacent back-buildings of 
the Palazzo di Firenze , formerly the residence of the Tuscan 
amb^sgadoj;, now that of the Minister of Justice. 

The *Palazzo Borghese (PI. I, 16), begun by order of Card. 
Deza in 1590 by the architect Mart. Longhi the Elder, came 
through Paul V., who caused it to be completed by Flam. Ponzio, 
into the possession of the Borghese family. The principal facade 
(with respect to the construction of the court) towards the street 
bears the inscription : Bonitatern et disciplinam et scientiam do- 
WiflfnT) ; the more imposing lateral facade is towards the Piazza 
Borghese. The * Court is on the basement and first floor sur- 
rounded by arcades, consisting of arches resting on clustered 
columns. Beneath these are three ancient colossal statues (a Muse, 
an Apollo Musagetes , and a portrait-statue); at the extremity of 
the r. passage a fragment of the statue of an Amazon , in the 
centre of that to the 1. the entrance to the ** Picture Gallery 
(open Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays 9 — 2 3 / 4 o'clock; fee !/ 2 fr.). 
It is arranged according to the schools, and contains many admi- 
rable works. Catalogues in each room. The apartments are 
artistically decorated. 

1st Room: works principally of the school of Leonardo. "Decorations, 
in grisaille and gold, by Carlo Villain. "\. Madonna, Sandro Botticelli; 
2. Madonna, Lorenzo di Credi; 8. Vanita, Sen. of Leonardo ; s 17. BcceHomo, 

BjsDEKiiK. Italy II. 3rd Edition. jQ 

146 Palazzo Borghese. ROME. Picture Gallery. 

same ; 26. Madonna , same ; 27, 28. Lauraand Petrarch ; 30. Ecce Homo, Peru 
gino (?) ; 32. St. Agatha, Sch. of Leonardo ; * 33. Christ when a boy, Sch. o 
Leonardo; 34. Madonna, Perugino (a copy); -35. Raphael when a boy, b" 
Timoteo della Vile (according to Passavant ; by Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, accordin| 
to Crowe and Cavalcaselle) ; 43. Madonna, Fr. Francia (?) ; 45. St. Catharine 
after Raphael; 48. St. Sebastian, Perugino; 49, 57. History of Joseph, Pin 
turicchio ; "54. Holy Family, one of the finest works of Lorenzo di C'redi ; 56 
Leda and the swan, copy of the celebrated picture , Leonardo; 61. St. Antony 
Fr. Francia (?) ; ~ 65. Madonna, Sch. of Leonardo ; 67. Adoration of the Child 
Orlolano; *69. Holy Family, Pollajuolo. — 2 n d B| : numerous pictures b> 
Garofalo, of which the finest only are enumerated. 4. Portrait, copy froii 
Perugino; 16. Madonna with St. Joseph and St. Michael, Garofalo ; 7. Madonn; 
with two saints, Fr. Francia; "9. Christ mourned over by his friends, Garo 
falo; "18. Portrait of Julius II., an admirable copy from Raphael; '21 
Portrait of a cardinal , Raphael ; - 24. Madonna with St. Joseph and St. Eliza 
beth (Mad. col divino amore), Raphael (original at Naples) ; " 26. Portrait ol 
Ciesar Borgia (?) , Raphael; 35. Madonna, Andrea delSarlo; ""38. Entomb- 
ment (1507), Raphael, his last work before going to Rome, ordered by Ata- 
lanta Baglioni for her chapel in S. Francesco de Conventuali at Perugia, after- 
wards purchased by Paul V. The predella which belongs to it (Faith, 
Hope, and Charity) is in the Vatican Gallery. 39. Madonna di Casa d'Alba, 
an old copy, Raphael; 40. Holy Family, Fra Bartolommeo ; 43. Madonna, 
Fr. Francia; 44. Madonna, Sodoma; *51. St. Stephen, Fr. Francia; 58. 
Adoration of the Magi, Mazzolino; "65. Portrait of the so-called Fornarina, 
a good copy of the original of Raphael in the Pal. Barberini , perhaps by 
Sassoferralo; 68. John in the wilderness, after Raphael. — StiE" : 1- Christ 
bearing the Cross, Andrea Solario; "2. Portrait, Parmeggianmo ; 5. Christ 
risen, Aless. Allori, attrib. to Mich. Angela; 11. The Sorceress Circe (?), 
Dosso Dossi; 13. Mater Dolorosa, Solario (?); 15. Madonna, Scarcellino; 22. 
Holy Family, Sch. of Raphael; 24. Madonna with angels, Andrea delSarlo; 
~28. Madonna, by the same; 35. Venus with two Cupids, And. del Sarlo(>); 
37. Portrait, unknown ; '* : ' 40. Danae , one of the finest easel-pieces of Cor- 
reggio; 42. Portrait of Cosmo de' Medici, Bronzino; 46. Mary Magdalene, 
alter Correggio's original at Dresden; 47. Holy Family, Pomarancio; "48. 
Scourging of Christ , Sebasl. del Piombo (the same piece is in Pietro in 
Montorio as a fresco); 49. Mary Magdalene, And. del Sarto. — J,th B.: this 
and the following rooms principally contain works of the Bolognese 1 'school 
(that of the Caracci) and the 'naturalists' (Caravaggio etc.). 1. Entombment, 
Ann. Caracci; "2. Cumsean Sibyl, Domenichino; 4. Head, Lod. Caracci; 10. 
Rape of Europa, Cav. d'Arpino; 14. Entombment, Sch. of the Caracci; "16. 
Sibyl, Guido Cagnacci; 18. St. Francis, Cigoli; 20. St. Joseph, Guido Kent; 
29. St. Dominicus, Ann. Caracci ; 33. Martyrdom of St. Ignatius, Luca Gior- 
dano; 36. Madonna, Carlo Dolce; 37. Mater Dolorosa, by the same; 38,41. 
Annunciation, Furino; 39. Neptune, Ribera; 40. St. Jerome, by the same; 
42. Head of Christ, Carlo Dolce; 43. Madonna, Sassoferralo. — jjjj^h} 
*11, 12, 13, 14. Four Seasons, landscapes with mythological accessoTOl, 
Franc. Albani; '15. Diana and her Nymphs practising with their bows, Do- 
menichino; 21. Liberation of Peter, Francesco Mola; 22. Psyche borne aloft 
by nymphs, copy from a picture in the Farnesina; 25. Christ bewailed by 
angels, Fed. Zuccari; 26. Madonna with St. Anna and the Child Jesus, Cara- 
vaggio; 27. Venus, Varotari (il Padovanino); 20. Battle, Cav. d'Arpino; 
29. Landscape, Sch. of Poussin. — 6th. R. : Mater Dolorosa, Guercino; 2. 
Female half-figure, by the same; : 3. Portrait of Orazio Giustiniani, Andrea 
Sacchi; 5. Return of the Prodigal, Guercino; 7. Portrait of Gius. Ghislieri, 
Piet. da Cortona; 10. St. Stanislaus with the Child Jesus, Ribera; 12. Joseph 
interpreting the dreams in prison, Valentin; *13. Three periods of lifei 
Titian, a copy by Sassoferralo from the original in London ; 16 , IT. Iai"i 
scapes, Franc. Grimaldi; 18. Madonna, Sassoferralo; 22. Flight of M&m 
from Troy, Baroccio; 24, 25. Landscapes in the style of Poussin. — 7 th Ey 
the lower part of the wall is principally decorated with mirrors , on which 
Cupids (by Ciroferi) and wreaths of flowers (by Mario de' Fiori) are pTfintal 
The niches in the upper part of the walls are occupied by 16 ancient portrait 
busts, some of them greatly restored. In the centre is a table of irregular 

Palazzo Borghese. ROME. Picture Qallery. 147 

mosaic composed of stones of every variety , some of them extremely rare. 
— 8th R. : containing a number of small objects of art and curiosities. 
Entrance-wall: 96. Orpheus with the animals in a landscape, Brill (?); ' :: 90. 
Female head, a drawing of the Sch. of Leonardo ; 86. Mater Dolorosa, Mar- 
cello Provenzali. Window-wall : By this and the wall of the egress are 12 
small bronze antiques, among them two Minervas, two Dianas , Juno , Her- 
cules, and Harpocrates. 38. Landscape, Franc. Viola. Wall opp. window : 
4 Madonna, Giulio C'lodi; 91. The Graces, Vanni; s 88. View of the Villa 
Borghese in the 17th cent. Opposite the door of egress the visitor obtains 
a view of the banks of the Tiber beyond the fountain below. To the 1. a 
passage adorned with landscape-frescoes leads to the 9th R. , where several 
frescoes are collected which have been removed from their original sit- 
uations. The most important are * three from the so-called Villa of iia- 
phael , which formerly stood within the grounds of the Villa Borghese 
and was removed in 1849 (p. 122) : 1. Nuptials of Alexander and Roxana 
from an extant drawing by Raphael, which was based on the description of 
a work of yEtion (Lucian , Herod. 5). A similar picture by Sodoma is in 
the Famesina. 2. Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona. 3. The so-called 
'iiersaglio de' Dei' (shooting contest of the gods) , from a drawing in the 
Brera at Milan bearing the name of Mich. Angelo. These three were pro- 
bably executed by Raphael's pupils. Some of the other paintings are from 
the Villa Lante. The balcony reached from this room affords a pleasing 
view of the Tiber and its banks as far as Monte Mario. Returning to the 
mirror-room and selecting the door to the 1. in the opp. wall, thu visitor 
enters the 10 th R. , principally containing, like the following room, works 
of the Venetian school: 1. 'Portrait, Moroni; *2. Cupid equipped by Venus 
(erroneously called 'the Graces'), Titian; 4. Judith, said to have the features 
of Titian's wife, Sch. of Titian or Giorgione; 6. Cupid and Psyche, Sch. of 
Ferrara; *9. Portrait, Pordenone; "13. David with the head of Goliath, 
I'ietro delta Vecchia ; 14. John the Baptist preaching repentance, Paolo Vero- 
nese; "16. St. Dominicus, Titian; 19. Portrait, Giac. Bassano; *-21. 'Amor 
sagro e prufano' (earthly and heavenly love) , one of the greatest works of 
Titian; 22. Concert, Laonello Spada; 34. St. Cosmas and St. Damianus, 
Venet. Sch.; 35. Family scene, probably the nativity of the Virgin, Venet. 
Sch. ; * 36. Madonna, an early work of Giov. Bellini. — 1 1 1 h R. : 1. Madonna 
with Adam and St. Augustine , Lor. Lotto (1508) ; 2. St. Antony about to 
preach to the lish, Paolo Veronese (?) ; 3. Madonna, Titian (?); 9. Portrait, 
Moroni; 11. Venus and Cupid on dolphins (unfinished), Luc. Vambiaso; 14. 
Last Supper, And. Schiavone ; 15. Christ among his disciples and the sons of 
Zebedee with their mother, Bonifazio; 16. Return of the Prodigal, by the 
same; 17. Samson, Titian; 18. Christ and the adulteress, Bonifazio; 19. Ma- 
donna with saints etc. , Palma Vecchio (?) ; 20. Venus and Cupid , Paolo 
Veronese^'); 23. Portrait, Pordenone; 24. Madonna, Schidone ; 25. Portrait of 
himself, Titian (3 copy); '27. Portrait, Giov. Bellini (or Antonello da Messina); 
31. Madonna ami St. Peter, by the same; "32. Holy Family, Palma Vecchio; 
33. Family-portrait, Licinio da Pordenone ; 39. Portrait, Giov. Bellini. — 1 2 th R.: 
Dutch and German masters. 1. Crucilixion, Van Dyck (?); "7. Entombment, 
by the same; "8. Genre picture, D. Tenters; 9. Genre picture, A. Brouwer; 
15. Mary's visit to Elisabeth, Brabant Sch. ; 19. Portrait (said to be of Louis VL 
of Bavaria), Dttrer (?) ; 20. Portrait, Holbein; 21. Landscape and accessories, 
Wouverman (?); 22. Cattle-piece, Potter (?); 23. tjuay, Backhuyzen; 26. Cross- 
ing the ice, in different shades of brown, perhaps by Berchem; 24. Portrait, 
Holbein (?); Portrait, Van Dyck; -'35. Portrait of himself, Perugino; 37. Por- 
trait of Pirkheiiner (?) , Durer ; 41. Lot and his daughters, Gherardo delle 
Nolti; 44. Venus and Cupid, Lucas Cranach. In a small cabinet (which the 
custodian does not open unless desired), are a number of less important 
Italian pictures of the 14th and 15th cent. 

From the Via della Scrofa to the Ponte S. Angelo is a walk 
of 10 min. by a street separated from the river by a single row 
of houses only, and of which the name frequently changes. 

It soon reaches the Piazza Nicosia , where in the corner fa 


148 Palazzo Oalizin. HUMifi. S. Agostino. 

the 1. the recently erected Pal. Oalizin, built to some extent on 
the plan of the Pal. Giraud near St. Peter's (p. 212), is situated. 
Farther on in the Via della Tinta, on the 1., is the small church 
of S. Lucia, mentioned as early as the 9th cent. In the Via di 
Monte Brianzo , dell' Orso, and dell' Arco di Parma there are no 
buildings worthy of note. 

From the last mentioned the Vicolo of the same name di- 
verges, in which the Pal. Lancelotti, erected under Sixtus V. by 
Franc, da Volterra, subsequently by C. Maderno, is situated. The 
portal was designed by Domenichino. The court contains ancient 
statues and reliefs. 

The Via di Tordinone, or Tor di Nona , so termed from the 
prison-tower once situated here , is now followed. To the 1. the 
Vicolo de' Marchegiani diverges to the church of S. Salvatore in 
Lauro, erected by Ursini in 1450 , entirely reconstructed under 
Pius IX. in 1832, with the adjacent court of a monastery. At 
the extremity of the Via Tordinone , on the r. , is the Theatre 
of Apollo (p. 87), restored by Valladier in 1830. 

The street terminates in the Piazza di Ponte S. Angelo, 
whence three others diverge. The Via in Panico leads with its 
prolongations to the Piazza Navona (p. lo3), the Via del Banco 
di S. Spirito in the centre to the Piazza Farnese (p. 158) and 
the Via Paola to the Ponte Leonino and to the Via Giulia which 
skirts the bank of the Tiber. The place of execution, now near 
the Ponte Rotto (p. 228), was formerly here. 

If the Via della Scrofa be followed, passing the Pal. Galizin 
on the r. , the 4th transverse street on the r. (at the 1. corner, 
Via della Scrofa 70, is the palace of the general-vicar, where 
permessi for the catacombs are obtained, 11 — 12 a. m.) leads to 
the Piazza di 8. Agostino. 

*S. Agostino (PI. I, 13), erected by Baccio Pintelli in 1483 
at the instance of Card. d'Estouteville, protector of the Augustine 
order , on the site of a former oratorium , was the first Roman 
church with a dome. The facade and spacious staircase are said 
to have been constructed of stones from the Colosseum. The 
interior , in the form of a Latin cross , was lately restored and 
adorned with frescoes by Ougliardi. 

On the entrance -wall a Madonna and Child, by Jacopo Tutti, pupil of 
Sansovino, surrounded by numerous votive offerings. In the 1st Chapel on 
the r. St. Catharine by Vmusti; in the 2nd Nucci's (free) copy of the lost 
Madonna della Rosa ot Raphael ; in the 4th *Christ delivering the keys to 
Peter , group by C'otignola. By the 5th Chapel is the monument (the second 
to the 1.) of the erudite Onofrio Panvinio (d. 1568). The r. transept con- 
tains the chapel of St. Augustine with an altar-piece by Guercino: St. Au- 
gustine between John the Baptist and Paul the Hermit. High-altar decorated 
by Bernini; the image of the Madonna is said to have been brought iron 1 
the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople and painted by St. Luke. In" 16 

8. Apollinare. ROME. 8. Luigi de' Francesi. 149 

chapel on the 1. of this , the remains of St. Monica , mother of Augustine, 
are preserved ; altar-piece by Oottardi. 

The 2nd Chapel in the 1. aisle contains a 'group in marble (St. Anna, 
Mary, and Jesus) by Andrea Hansovino (1512). In the 4th, St. Apollonia, 
altar-piece by Muziuno. In the nave, on the 3rd pillar to the 1., ''Raphael's 
Prophet Isaiah, holding a scroll with the words from Is. XXVI., 2., painted 
in 1512 , but unfortunately retouched by Dan. da Volterra, and now much 
injured. In the execution of this work the great master is said to have 
been influenced by that of M. Angelo in the Sixtine Chapel. 

The neighbouring monastery, at present occupied by the Marine 
Minister, contains the Bibliotheea Angelica (entrance on the r. of 
the church), comprising 90,000 vols, and 30.000 MSS. , of which 
complete catalogues have been formed. Admission daily, Thurdays 
and holidays excepted, 7'^ — H 3 /« »■ m. 

Proceeding from the Piazza di S. Agostino in a straight 
direction under the archway , the traveller reaches the Piazza S. 
Apollinare, then the Piazza Tor Sanguigna and Via de' Coronari 
(continuing to follow the narrow street in a straight direction), 
leading to the Via in Panico and the Ponte S. Angelo (8 min.). 
This is the nearest way from the Piazza Colonna to the Vatican. 

In the Piazza S. Apollinare is situated the Seminario Romano 
(PI. I, 13), a species of grammar-school, with the church of 
8. Apollinare , the present form of which was imparted to it by 
Fuga under Benedict XIV. To the 1. over the altar in the inner 
vestibule is a Madonna by Perugirto. Opposite the church is the 
Pal. Altemps of the 16th cent. , possessing a handsome double court 
with arcades , the lateral colonnades of which are closed with 
masonry, and containing a few ancient statues and other relics. 

Prom the Piazza S. Apollinare the Via Agonale leads S. to 
the Piazza Navona (p. 153); from Tor Sanguigna, S. Maria dell' 
Anima (p. 148) and della Pace (p. 155) are readied to the 1. 

In the direction of the Vatican (3 min.) the Pal. Lancelotti 
(p. 148) lies on the r. ; a short distance farther is the side- 
entrance to S. Salvatore in Lauro (p. 148). 

The Via della Scrofa leads to the small, but much frequented 
and busy Piazza di S. Luigi de' Francesi. Here on the r. is 
situated S. Luigi de' Francesi (PI. II, 13), consecrated in 1589, 
having superseded a succession of earlier churches. Facade by 
Giac. della Porta. It is one of the better structures of its period ; 
the interior also is decorated with taste and judgment. Some of 
the pictures badly lighted. 

R. aisle, 1st Chapel: St. John, altar-piece by G. B. Naldini. 2nd Cha- 
pel: "frescoes from the life of St. Cecilia, one of the most admirable works 
of Domenichino; on the r. the saint distributes clothing to the poor, in the 
lunette above she and her betrothed are crowned by an angel ; on the I. the 
saint sutlers martyrdom with the blessing of the Pope, above she is urged 
to participate in a heathen sacrifice ; on the ceiling, admission of the saint 
inlo heaven; altar-piece, a copy of Raphael's St. Cecilia (in Bologna) by 
Outdo Reni. 4th Chapel, of St. Remigius: altar-piece The Oath of Clovis, 
by Giac. del Vonte; frescoes on the r. , Campaign of Clovis, by Girolamo 
Sicciolante (da Sermoneta); on the 1., Baptism of Clovis, by Pellegrino da 
Bologna. 5th Chapel, del CrocirJsso: on the 1. the monument of the painter 
Guerin, on the r. that of Aeincnnrt tq tm^i "-= writer on art. 

150 Vniversith della Sapienza. ROME. Pantheon. 

Over the high-altar : "Assumption of Mary, by Franc. Bassano. L. aisle 
1 st Chapel : St. Sebastian , altar-piece by Massei ; on the r. and 1. modern 
frescoes ; by the first pillar on the r. the monument of Claude Lorrain 
erected in 1836. 3rd Chapel of St. Louis: altar-piece by Plantilla Bricci 
who is said to have designed the architecture also; picture on the 1. by 
(iimignani. 5th Chapel, of St. Matthew : altar-piece and pictures on r. and 
1. by Caravaggio, 1. the evangelist's vocation to the apostleship, r. his death. 

Opposite the church is the Palazzo Patrizi (PI. II, 13), where 
permission to -visit the Villa Patrizi (p. 133) is obtained, adjoining 
which at the extremity of the piazza is situated the Senate House 
(formerly the post-office) in the Pal. Madama (PI. II, 13), with its 
principal facade towards the piazza of that name (p. 153). 

The Via delle Poste descends in a straight direction past the 
senate-house. Opposite the latter, to the 1., in the small Piazza 
S. Eustachio, is the Palazzo Giustiniani (PI. II, 13), erected by 
Giov. Fontana. It formerly contained a valuable collection of pic- 
tures and sculptures ; most of the former are now in Berlin, the 
latter partly in the Vatican and partly in possession of Prince 
Torlonia ; the reliefs immured in the court and passages of the 
ground-floor alone remain. On the opposite side is the Pal. 
Maccarini, designed by Giul. Romano, on the r. is the back 
of the 

University della Sapienza (PL II, 13, 25), founded in 1303 
by Boniface VIII., and after a rapid decline re-established by 
Eugene IV. (Entrance Via della Sapienza 71.) It attained to 
its greatest prosperity under Leo X., in whose honour mass used 
to be celebrated on the Friday of the Carnival, and a panegyric 
pronounced in the church. Additional grants were accorded to the 
university by Leo XII. and Gregory XVI. , and it now possesses 
live faculties (theology, philosophy, law, medicine, philology) and 
a staff of 42 professors and lecturers. The present edifice was de- 
signed by Oiac. della Porta, the church (S. Ivo) by Borromini in 
the form of a bee , in honour of Urban VIII., in whose armorial 
bearings that insect figures , and provided with a baroque spiral 

The street to the 1., like the two preceding cross-lanes, leads 
to the Piazza della Rotonda (PI. II, 16). Above the large foun- 
tain erected by Lunghi under Gregory XIII. , Clement XI. caused 
the upper extremity of a broken obelisk to be placed. This 
piazza generally presents a busy scene , and affords the stranger 
opportunities of observing the characteristics of the peasantry. 

Here is situated the church of S. Maria Rotonda , or the 
** Pantheon (PI. II, 16), the only entirely preserved ancient 
edifice in Eome. The statues, however, and architectural deco- 
rations have been added by modern taste, notwithstanding which 
the huge circular structure with its vast colonnade presents a 
strikingly imposing aspect. The walls , constructed of admirable 
buck work , were originally covered with marble and stucco. The 

Pantheon. ROME. Tltermae of Agrippa. 151 

ground in the vicinity has gradually been so much raised that 
the pavement of the temple , which was formerly approached by 
an ascent of Ave steps , now lies below the level of the piazza. 
The portico consists of 16 Corinthian columns of granite, upwards 
of 38 ft. in height; the tympanum formerly contained reliefs, and 
the roof was embellished by statues. Eight of the columns are 
in front; the others form three colonnades, originally vaulted 
over , terminating in niches , in which the colossal statues of 
Augustus and his son-in-law M. Agrippa stood. The latter, 
according to the inscription on the frieze (M. Agrippa L. F. Cos. 
tertium fecit) , caused the edifice to be erected B. C. 27. The 
central colonnade leads to the entrance, still closed by an ancient 
door strongly secured by bronze plates , in order to diminish the 
weight of which the upper portion is replaced by a railing. The 
interior , illuminated solely by the aperture in the centre of the* 
dome, produces so beautiful an effect that even in ancient times- 
it gave rise to the belief that the temple derived its appellation 
of Pantheon (to this day not satisfactorily explained) from its 
resemblance to the vault of heaven. The seven large niches iu 
the interior contained statues of Mars , Venus , C;esar, etc. The 
fretted ceiling of the vault , which consists of concrete , was 
decorated with stucco; the entire roof was fevered with gilded 
bronze tiles, which the Emp. Constans II. caused to be removed 
to Constantinople in 655; under Gregory III. they were replaced 
by lead. 

The temple was connected with the Thermae of Agrippa, the 
ruins of which lie in the rear, and was once believed to have 
originally appertained to them , and to have been converted into 
a temple at a subsequent period. The name Pantheum was how- 
ever used as early as the year 59 A. D. It was restored by 
Domitian , Trajan, Septim. Severus, and Caracalla; the names of 
the two last are inscribed on the architrave of the portico. 

In 610 the Pantheon was consecrated by Pope Boniface IV. 
as a Christian church, under the name of S. Maria ad Martyres. 
In commemoration of this event the festival of All Saints was 
instituted and celebrated on May 13th, subsequently on Nov. 1st. 
A. palace , a cathedral-chapter, and a cardinal's title were after- 
wards attached to the church of S. Maria Rotonda, or La Eotonda 
as it is commonly termed. Under Urban VIII. (Barberini) the 
two campanili were erected by Bernini, the 'ass's ears' of the 
architect as they have been derisively named. The same pope 
removed the brazen tubes , on which the roof rested , from the 
portico , and caused them to be converted into columns for the 
canopy of the high-altar, and cannons for the defence of the castle 
of S. Angelo. This Vandalism gave rise to the complaint of 
Pasquin : 'Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini'. Pius IX. 
has caused the church to be judiciously restored. 

152 Raphael's Tomb. ROME. S. Maria sopra Minerva. 

In the first Chap. 1. by the high -altar stands the simple monument of 
Card. Consalvi (1757 — 1824), state-secretary of Pius VII., by Thorwaldsen. 

On the 3rd altar on the 1. is Raphael's Tomb (b. Apr. 6th, 1483; d. Apr. 
6th, 1520). The inscription on the wall with the graceful epigram: 
Jlle hie est Raphael, timuit quo sospite vinci 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori. 
s by Card. Bembo. 

A lengthy inscription beside it announces that Raphael's remains were 
placed in a new sarcophagus in 1833. Statue of the Madonna on the altar 
here by Lorenzetto. 

The Pantheon is also the last resting-place of other celebrated artists: 
Ann. Caracci, Tadd. Zucchero, Bald. Peruzzi, Perino del Vaga, and Giov. 
da Udine. 

A visit to the interior by moonlight should on no account be 
omitted, hut the sacristan must be informed some time previously; 
admittance is then obtained in the evening by the door at the 
back of the sacristy, Via della Palombella 10. 

From the Piazza of the Pantheon the Via de' Pastini leads 
to the Piazza di Pietra (p. 115); or the ascent to the 1. at the 
beginning of the street, leading to the Piazza Capmnka, with 
the small theatre of that name, and Monte Citorio (p. 114), may 
be preferred. The Via del Seminario leads to S. Ignazio (p. 115). 

Descending to the 1. by the Pantheon, the Via della Minerva 
leads to the Piazza della Minerva, where the church of S. Murk 
sopra Minerva lies^on the 1., and the Hotel de la Minerve (p. 83) 
opposite the traveller. In the centre stands an elephant in marble; 
on its back a small obelisk has been placed fby Bernini], which, 
with that in the Piazza della Rotonda (p. 150), is said once to 
have been erected in front of a temple of Isis formerly situated 

S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16), erected on the ruins 
of a temple of Minerva founded by Pompey, is the only Gothic 
church at Rome , and was probably begun about 1280 by the 
builders of >S. Maria Novella at Florence. In 1848—1855 it was 
restored and re-decorated, and contains valuable works of art. 

By the entrance- wall , on the r. , the tomb of the Florentine knight 
Diotisalvi (d. 1:82); in the 1. aisle, on the 1., that of the Florentine Franc. 
Tornabuoni, by Miiio da Fiesole (?); above it the monument of Card. Giac. 
Tebaldi (d. 1466). To the r. of the altar in the 3rd Chapel , *St. Sebastian, 
by Mino da Fiesole. On the altar: head of Christ, by Perugino. In the 
5th Chapel is (r.) the monument of the Princess Lante, by Tenerani. In the 
r. aisle, by the pillar between the 3rd and 4th chapels is an outlet with at 
ancient Greek sarcophagus (Hercules taming the lion). In the 4th Chapel, the 
'Annunciation, a picture on a golden ground (in the foreground Card. Giov. 
a Torrecremata recommends to the Virgin three poor girls), painted to coin- 
memorate the foundation of the charitable institution of S. Annunziata, 
erroneously attrib. to Fiesole; on the 1. the tomb, of Urban VII. (d. 1590), 
by Ambrogio Buonvicino. The 6th Chapel (Aldobrandini) contains paintings 
by Alberti, over the altar the Last Supper by Baroccio ; monuments of the 
parents of Clement VIII. by Oiar. della Porta. In the transept a small 
chapel on the r. is first observed , containing a wooden crucifix attrih. to 
Giotto; then the " Caraffa Chapel (with handsome balustrade) , painted by 
Filippino Lippi ; on the r. Thomas Aquinas, surrounded by allegorical 
figures; on the wall at the back the Assumption of the Virgin; altar-fresco, 
the Annunciation with a portrait of the donor Card. Cnraffa; sibyls on the 

Palazzo Madonna. ROME. Piazza Navona. 153 

vaulting by Rafaellino del Oarbo; on the 1. the monument of Paul IV., 
designed by Pirro Ligorio , executed by Oiac. and Tom. Casignola. By the 
wall, adjacent to the latter, the tomb of Bishop Guiliel. Durantus (d. 1296), 
with a Madonna in mosaic by Giov. Cosma. The first chapel by the choir 
contains an altar-piece hy 0. Maratia. The second is the Cappella del tlo- 
sario ; altar-piece groundlessly attributed to Fiesole ; on the r. the tomb of Card. 
Capranica (about 147(1). The choir contains the large monuments of the two 
Medicis, (1.) I.eo X. and (r.) Clement VII., designed by Ant. da San Gallo; 
that of Leo executed by Raf. da Monte Lupo, that of Clement by Giov. di 
Baccio Bi(jio; on the pavement the tombstone of the celebrated scholar Pietro 
Bembo (d. 1547). In front of the high-altar is Mich. Anyelo's ""'Christ with 
the Cross (1527), unfortunately marred by bronze drapery. On the 1. by the 
choir is a passage to the Via S. lgua/.io; on the wall the tombstone (first 
on the 1.) of Fra Beato Angelico da Fiesole, who died in the neighbouring 
monastery in 1455, with his portrait and the inscription : Hie jacet Venera- 
hilis pictor Frater Johannes de Florentia Ordinis praedieatoruni 14 LV. In 
thel. transept is the Chapel of S. Domenico, with 8 black columns, and 
he monument of Benedict XIII. by P. Bracci. Adjacent, to the r. , is the 
entrance to the sacristy and the library. 

The adjoining Dominican monastery, at present occupied by the 
Minister of Finance, contains the Bibliotheca Casanatensis (entrance 
to the 1- by the church , first door to the r. beyond the court), 
the most extensive in Rome after that of the Vatican , com- 
prising 120,000 vols, and 4500 MSS., accessible daily 8— 11 and 
It/., — "i^l'i o'clock. (The afternoon hours vary according to the 
time of sunset. J 

From the Piazza della Minerva , passing to the 1. by the 
church, the Via del Pit di Marino leads in a straight direction to 
the Piazza del Coll. Romano (p. 116); from the Pie di Marmo the 
Via del Gesti diverges to the r. , leading in 3 M. to the Piazza 
del Gesii p. 121). 

From the Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesi (PI. II, 13) a short 
street between the church and the post-office (or the traveller 
may pass through the buildings of the latter and turn to the r.) 
leads to the Piazza Madama, where to the 1. rises the facade of the 
Palazzo Madama (PI. II, 13), so called from Margaret of Parma, 
(laughter of Charles V. , by whom it was once occupied. Pre- 
viously and subsequently it was in possession of the Medicis, 
afterwards Grand-dukes of Tuscany, who in 1642 caused it to be 
altered (by Marocelli) to its present form. The Italian Senate 
now holds its sessions here; one entrance is from the Piazza 
di S. Luigi, the other from the Piazza Madama. On the balcony 
facing the latter the winning numbers of the Lotto are drawn 
on Saturdays at noon, a proceeding which attracts a crowd of 
spectators. A short sidestreet leads hence to the 

*Piazza Navona (PL II, 13), the largest in Rome after that of 
St. Peter , where , as its form still indicates, the Circus or Sta- 
dium of Domitian was formerly situated. The appellation is said 
to be derived from the contests, agones (corrupted to Navone, 

154 S. Agnese. ROME. S. Maria dell' Anima. 

Navona), which took place here. Of the throe Fountains that on 
the N. is unattractive ; not far from it is a trough consisting of 
a large ancient basin of Pentelic marble ; the largest in the centre 
was erected by Bernini under Innocent X.; at the corners of the 
mass of rock , the different parts of which represent the four 
quarters of the globe, are placed the gods of the four largest (?) 
rivers, the Danube, Ganges, Nile, and Rio della Plata, executed 
by pupils of Bernini; the whole is surmounted by an obelisk, 
formerly in the Circus of Maxentius , and originally erected in 
honour of Domitian. The other fountain is adorned with masks, 
Tritons , and the statue of a Moor by Bernini. The piazza was 
employed as a market-place from 1447 to 1871, and was resorted 
to by a busy concourse of peasants, market-women, hawkers, etc.; 
but the vegetable market is now held in the Campo di Fiori. The 
singular custom formerly prevailed of laying this piazza under 
water for the amusement of the people (annually in August), by 
preventing the escape of the water from the fountains. 

On the W. side stands the church of S. Agnese (PI. II, 13), 
the interior of which is in the form of a Greek cross ; campanile 
by C. Rinaldi, facade by Borromini. In order not to be distressed 
by the aspect of the latter , the Nile on the great fountain veils 
his head, as Bernini used to maintain. 

Over the principal door is the monument of Innocent X. by Maini; 
to the 1., in the chapel of the transept, is a statue of St. Sebastian, into 
which an ancient statue has been converted by Maini. Beneath the dome 
are eight columns of 'cognatello'. The old church was in the side -vaults 
of the Circus where the saint suffered martyrdom. Two chapels with an- 
cient vaulting still remain. 

To the 1. by the church is the Pal. Pamflli (PI. II, 13), also 
erected by Rinaldi , now the property of Prince Doria. Opposite 
to it is the dilapidated national church of the Spaniards, S. Gia- 
como dei Spagnuoli, of the 15th cent. 

The Via di S. Agnese, to the r. by the church, leads to the 
Via delV Anima on the r., where on the 1. side *S. Maria dell' 
Anima (PI. II, 13) is situated (open till 8'/ 2 a. m., on holidays 
till noon ; when closed , visitors go round the church by the 
Vicolo della Pace on the r. and ring at the first large door on 
the 1., the entrance to the German Hospice. Immediately oppo- 
site to this is S. Maria della Pace). The name is derived from 
a small marble-group in the tympannm of the portal : a Madonna 
invoked by two souls in purgatory. This is the German national 
church, connected with the Hospice, and was completed in 1514. 
Facade by Oiuliano da Sangallo ; according to some , Bramanti 
designed part of the architecture of the interior. 

The central window of the entrance - wall formerly contained stained 
glass by William of Marseilles, now modern. In the r. aisle, 1st Chapel: 
St. Benno receiving from a fisherman the keys of the cathedral at Meissen 
(Saxony), which had been recovered from the stomach of a fish, altar- 
piece by Carlo Saraceni. 2nd Chapel : Holy Family, altar-piece by Gimig- 
nani; monument and bust of Card. Slueius. 4th Chapel: altered copy of 

S. Maria della Pace. ROME. Palazzo Vidoni. 155 

Michael Angelo's Pieta in St. Peter's, by Nanni di Baccio Bigio. In the 1. 
aisle , 1st Chapel : 'Martyrdom of St. Lambert , C. Saraceni. 3rd Chapel : 
frescoes from the life of St. Barbara, Mich. Coxcie. 4th Chapel: altar-piece 
(Entombment) and frescoes by Salviali. 

In the Choir: over the high -altar, "Holy Family with saints, by 
0. Romano, damaged by inundations; on the r., "monument of Hadrian IV. 
of Utrecht (preceptor of Charles V., d. 1523), designed by Baldassare Pe- 
ruzzi , executed by Michelangiolo Savese and Niccolb Tribolo; opp. to it that 
)f a Duke of Cleve-Julich-Berg (d. 1575) by Egidius of Riviere and Nicolaus 
of Arras. 

The Hospice connected with the church , which from 1815 to 1863 was 
under Austrian management, has again become a national German institution. 

*S. Maria della Pace (PI. II, 13), erected by Sixtus IV. 
(1484) and Innocent VIII., was restored by Alexander VII., and 
provided by Pielro da Cortona with a facade and semi-circular 
portico. The church consists of a nave only, and terminates in an 
octagon with a dome. 

Over the 1st Chapel on the r. are "'"Raphael's Sibyls, painted in 1514 
by order of Agostino Chigi who erected the chapel , skilfully freed from 
Restorations' by Palmaroli in 1816; seen best 10 — 11 a. m. Prophets in 
the lunette above by Tim., della Vile. At the sides of the 1st Chapel on 
Hie 1. monuments of the Ponzetti family, of 1505 and 1509 (which should 
be compared with the heavy decorations of the 2nd chapel on the r., executed 
half a century later); fresco altar-piece by B. Peruzzi: Madonna between 
St. Brigitta and St. Catharine , in front the kneeling donor Card. Ponzetti ; 
saints above the niche by Bagnacavallo. To the 1. beneath the dome, the 
entrance to the sacristy and court (see below). Over the first altar on the 1., 
Adoration of the Shepherds by Sermoneta. The second altar, with handsome 
marble-work partially gilded, is of the 16th cent. The high-altar is adorned 
with an ancient and greatly revered Madonna. Over the adjacent altar to 
the r. , Baptism of Christ, Sermoneta. Over the niche , Mary's first visit to 
the Temple, Bald. Peruzzi. 

It is the custom for newly-married couples to attend their 
first mass in this church. — The *court of the monastery, with 
arcades constructed by Bramante by order of Card. Caraffa in 
1504, merits a visit; by the r. wall the tomb of Bishop Bocciacio 
(d. 1437). Entrance through the church, or Arco della Pace 5. 

From the portal of the church the Via della Pace and the 
Via in Parione lead in a straight direction to the animated Via 
del Oovervo Vecchio. The latter with its prolongation under 
different names forms the most direct and frequented route be- 
tween the Piazza del Gesil and the Vatican (distance from Gesu 
to the Ponte S. Angelo 18 min. walk). 

From the Piazza del Gesu the Via de' Cesarini is followed, 
leading to the Piazza delle Stimate on the r., with the church of 
that name (PI. II, 16) and the opposite Pal. Strozzi (PI. II, 16) 
(the prolongation of the street leads to the Piazza della Minerva, 
p. 152); the Piazza Strozzi, named after the palace, is then 
entered on the r., then the Via di Tor Argentina, which to the r. 
leads to the Pantheon ; on the 1. is the Teatro Argentina. The 
Via del Sudario now leads direct to the church of Andrea della 
Valle, which is already visible. 

The corner-house (No. 13) before the church is reached is 
the Palazzo Vidoni (PI. II, 13), formerly Caffarelli and Sloppani, 

1 56 S. Andrea della Valle. ROME. Pal. Massirni alle Colonne. 

originally constructed from designs by Raphael : on the staircase 
a few ancient statues (L. Verus, Minerva, Diana). In one of 
the rooms is preserved the celebreted Calendarium Praenestinum 
of Verrius Flaccus, being five months of a Roman calendar found 
by Card. Stoppani at Prseneste. This palace was once occupied by 
Charles V. (access not easily obtained). ■ — On the side of the 
palace towards the church is the so-called Abbate Luiai, a muti- 
lated ancient statue (see p. 121). 

*S. Andrea della Valle (PI. II, 13), begun by P. Olivieri in 
1591 on the site of several earlier churches , was completed by 
C. Maderno ; facade from drawings by Eainaldi. The interior is of 
symmetrical proportions , but unfortunately partially whitewashed. 

On the r. the 2nd Chapel (Strozzi) contains copies in bronze of the 
I'ieta (in St. Peter's), and the Kachel and Leah (in S. Pietro in vine.) of 
Michael Angela. On the 1. the 1st Chapel (Barberini) is adorned with several 
marble statues by JUocchi (St. Martha), P. Bernini (John the Bapt.), Stall da 
Bracciano (M. Magdalene), and Amb. Buonvicino (St. John). At the extremity 
of the nave are the monuments of (1.) Pius II. and (r.) Pius IV. by Sic. 
della Guardia and Pietro Paolo da Todi. In the dome : Glory of Paradise, 
by Lanfranco ; beneath, the "Evangelists by Domenichino, one of his finest 
works. By the same master, "paintings on the vaulting of the apse. In 
the girding- arch: John the Bapt. , St. John, and St. Andrew pointing to 
Christ ('this is the Lamb' etc.); in the vaulting itself, on the 1. the 
Scourging of St. Andrew ; then the Vocation of Peter and Andrew by 
Christ ; on the r. , St. Andrew beholds and adores the cross to which be 
is about to be affixed ; beneath, 6 allegorical female figures ; the extensive 
lower frescoes by Calabrese (martyrdom of the saint) are of no great value. 

The Via de' Massirni is now followed, reaching after a few 
paces, on ihe r. No. 17, the 

Palazzo Massirni alle Colonne (PL II, 13, If), a fine structure 
by Baldassare Peruzzi. The facade is constructed in a curve, 
following the direction of the street ; the glimpse obtained of the 
double court is strikingly picturesque. 

A roovi on the first floor contains the celebrated statue of the '""Discw- 
tlirower, a copy of the bronze statue of Myron, found on the Esquiline in 
1761, one of the most interesting antiques in Rome, almost perfect and far 
better executed than the inaccurately restored duplicate in the Vatican. 
Visitors are not always admitted; Ihe most favourable time is 9 — 11 a. m.; 
the staircase to the r. in the colonnade in the court is ascended to the first 
floor, and application made to a servant (1 fr.) in the anteroom. The pas- 
sages and saloons of the palace 1 contain several other ancient statues, in- 
scriptions, etc. — Permessi tor the Villa Massimo (p. 204), formerly obtained 
on leaving a visiting-card here, are now granted in exceptional cases 
only, on written application accompanied by a recommendation from the 
traveller's ambassador or consul. 

On the second -floor is the chapel of <S. Filippo Neri , who is said to 
have resuscitated a child of the family; open on March 16th. 

Within the buildings connected with this palace the Germans 
Pimnnrtz and Schweinheim (p. 286) established the first printing- 
office in Rome in 148.'), where Apuleius, Augustinus de Civitate 
Dei, and other works were published, furnished with the name of 
the printers and the addition of : In aedibus Petri de Mtiximis. 
The Massirni family claims descent from the ancient Maximi, and 
their armorial bearings have the motto ' Cunctnndo restiluit'. 

Palazzo Braschi. ROME. Chiesa Nuova. 157 

To the 1. the Via de' Baulari leads to the Pal. Farnese 
(p. 158), which is visible from here. The small Piazza S. Panta- 
leo is next reached, with the small church of that name on the r. 
In a straight direction is seen the spacious 

Palazzo Braschi (PL II, 13, 27), erected by Morelli at 
the close of the last century, is now occupied by the Minister 
of the Interior. It contains a fine * marble staircase and a few 
ancient statues. The rear of the building adjoins the Piazza 
Navona (p. 153). 

Passing the palace the traveller reaches the Piazza di Pasquino, 
which derives its appellation from an ancient group of statuary 
placed at the obtuse corner of the Pal. Braschi. This was an 
admirable, but now sadly mutilated work of the beginning of 
the imperial age , and was so named from the tailor Pasquino 
who lived in the vicinity and was notorious for his lampooning 
propensities. It was once the custom to affix satires and ebul- 
litions of malice to this statue (the answers to which used to 
be attached to the Marforio, p. 207), and to refer them to the 
slanderous tailor, whose name is perpetuated in the term 'pas- 
quinade'. The group represents Menelaus with the body of 
Patroclus , at the moment when in the tumult of the battle he 
looks around for help. Duplicates of the group are in the Loggia 
de' Lanzi and Palazzo Pitti at Florence, fragments in the Vatican 
(p. 243). 

The Via del Governo now continues to be followed. After 3 M. 
the Via in Parione diverges to the r. to the church of S. Maria 
della Pace. Then, on the r., is the Pal. del Governo Vecchio, which 
was long the seat of the tribunals of justice and police. No. 124 
on the opposite side is a small , tastefully constructed house in 
the style of Bramante (1500). The Via della Chiesa Nuova 
diverges to the 1. and leads to the piazza of that name, with the 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10) (S. Maria e S. (ireyorio in Vallicella), 
erected by S. Filippo Neri (for the order of Philippines founded 
by him), and completed in 1605. Architecture by Giov. Matteo da 
Citth di Castello, interior by Martina Lunghi, facade by Euyhesi. 

The interior , dark and unfavourable for pictures , is richJy decorated. 
The ceiling of the nave, the dome, and the tribune were painted by Pietro 
i hi fortona. On the r., 1st Chapel: Crucifixion, Scip. di Oaetano ; 3rd Cha- 
pel, dell' Ascensione: altar-piece by Muziano. On the 1., 2nd Chapel: Ado- 
ration of the Magi, Ces. Aebbia; 3rd Chapel: Nativity, Duranto Alberli. 
4th Chapel: Visit of Elisabeth, Baroccio. In the transept, on the 1., 
Presentation in the Temple, Baroccio; Peter and Paul, statues in marble 
by Vnlsoldo. Here, too, by the tribune is the small and sumptuous 
chapel of S. Filippo Neri, beneath the altar of which his remains repose. 
Above is the portrait of the saint in mosaic , after the original of Guido 
Rem which is preserved in the adjoining monastery. In the transept , Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, C'av. d'Arpino; John the Bapt. and St. John, statues 
in marble by Flaminio Vacca. Over the high - altar, with its four columns 
of porta santa, a Madonna by Rulens; on the r. *SS. Gregory, Mauras, and 
Papia, on the 1. "SS. Nereus and Acliilleus, also by Rubens. 

In the Sacristy (entered from the 1. transept), constructed by Marru- 

I 58 Pal. delta Cancelleria. ROME. S. Lorenzo in Dumaso. 

celli , on the vaulting : Angel with instruments of torture, by Pietro da Cor- 
totia. Colossal statue of the saint by Algardi. 

The adjoining monastery, erected by Borromini, is of irregular 
iorm , but remarkable for the massiveness of its construction. It 
contains an apartment once occupied by the saint, with various 
relics. — The valuable Library founded by S. Filippo Neri, and 
gradually enriched by rare MSS. , is not generally accessible to 
the public. 

From the Piazza della Chiesa Nuova the Via de' Filippini 
leads to the r. to the Piazza delV Orologio, whence to the 1. the 
Via dei Banchi Nuovi diverges to the Via del Banco di 8. Spirito, 
The latter leads to the Ponte S. Angelo. 

The Via de' Baullari , opposite the Pal. Massimi, leads to 
several interesting palaces in the best style of the Renaissance. 
Somewhat removed from the street , immediately on the r., is a 
small, but tastefully constructed edifice, the *Palazzetto Farnese, the 
architect of which is said to have been Baldassare Peruzzi. 

The next street to the r. leads to the piazza named after the 
*Palazzo della Cancelleria (PI. II, 13), designed by Bramante, 
and one of tlie finest structures in Rome. Within its precincts 
is the church of S. Lorenzo, originally erected near the theatre 
of Pompey. The elegant facade (with portal subsequently added 
by Bonn. Fontand) consists of blocks of travertine from the Colos- 
seum. The columns of the double *court, surrounded by arcades, 
are ancient; the graceful capitals are decorated with roses, that 
flower being prominent in the armorial bearings of the founder 
Card. Riario. In this palace in 1848 Pius IX. convoked the par- 
liament which was to deliberate on the reforms to be undertaken 
in the States of the Church. On Nov. loth of that year the 
minister Count Rossi was assassinated on the first landing of the 
staircase. This is the only palace in the interior of the city 
which the Italian government still permits to be occupied by thi 
ecclesiastical authorities. 

To the r. of the palace (entrance to the r. from the court) 
is situated the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (PI. II, 13), 
which has the above-mentioned facade in common with the palace. 
It was also designed by Bramante (originally erected by Darnasus I.), 
and is bounded by arcades on three sides. The pictures were 
destroyed during the revolution of the previous century , and the 
architecture alone continues to be an object of interest. At the 
extremity of the r. aisle is the monument of the ill-fated Count 
Rossi, by Tenerani. 

The Piazza della Cancelleria is adjoined by the Piazza di 
Cumpo di Fiori , a focus of commercial traffic , and the latter 
by the Piazza Farneae , adorned with two fountains. Here is 
situated the 

*Palazzo Farnese (PI. II, 14), one of the finest in Home, be- 

Palazzo Farnese. ROME. 8. Maria di Monserrato. 159 

gun by Paul III. (Alex. Farnese, 1534 — 45) when cardinal, from 
designs by Anton, da Sangallo , continued under the direction of 
Michael Angelo, and completed by the construction of the loggia 
at the back towards the Tiber by Giac. della Porta. The building 
materials were taken partly from the Colosseum and partly from 
the theatre of Marcellus. This palace was inherited by the kings 
of Naples, and since 1862 has been tenanted by the ex -king 
Francis II. The threefold *colonnade of the entrance was designed 
by Sangallo, the two lower halls of the court by Mich. Angelo, 
after the model of the theatre of Marcellus. The court contains 
two ancient sarcophagi. The celebrated antiquities once in this 
palace are now partly in the Museum of Naples (Farnese Bull, 
Hercules, Flora) and partly in England. Visitors are now ad- 
mitted to see the frescoses on Fridays, 12 — 2 o'clock. 

A room on the 1st floor (entrance by the first door of the 1. 
arcade in the court; then, at the top of the staircase, through 
a glass-door to the 1. , and along a passage to the end) is em- 
bellished with * frescoes by Annibale Caracci, his finest work, 
consisting of mythological representations with rich architectural 

Ceiling. In the centre: Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne; 1. Pan, 
offering goat's wool to Diana; r. Mercury with a trumpet bringing the 
apple to Paris. — On the vaulting of the ceiling, to the r. of the entrance : 
1. (above the door) Galatea suirounded by nymphs and Tritons ; 2. Luna 
embracing the sleeping Endymion; 3. Polyphemus playing on the syrinx in 
order to gain the affections of Galatea. Above this, Apollo carrying offHya- 
cinthus; 4. Hercules and Omphale, the latter with the club and lion's skiu; 
5. Aurora in her chariot embraces Cephalus, whom she has carried off (this 
and No. 1. are by Lodovico Caracci, from the designs of his brother An- 
nibale); 6. Anchises removing the cothurnus of Venus; 7. Polyphemus 
hurling a rock after Acis, who escapes with Galatea. Above this, Ganymede 
carried oh* by the eagle of Jupiter. 8. Juno, encircled with the girdle of 
Venus, approaches Jupiter. — In the round reliefs (window-wall, from 1. 
to r.) : Leander and Hero ; Pan pursuing the nymph Syrinx ; Salmacis 
embracing Hermaphroditus ; Cupid seizing a Faun; Apollo flaying Marsyas ; 
Horeas carrying off Orithyia ; Eurydice conducted back from the infernal 
regions ; Rape of Europa. — On the narrow ends of the saloon : Perseus 
petrifies Phineus and his companion with the head of the Medusa; Perseus 
on Pegasus hastening to the relief of Andromeda (said to have been almost 
entirely executed by Domenichino). — Over the niches and windows are 
eight smaller paintings (from 1. to r.): Arion on the dolphin; Prometheus 
educating man; Hercules slaying the dragon which guards the apples of 
the Hesperides ; Hercules delivering Prometheus on Caucasus ; Icarus pre- 
cipitated into the sea ; Callisto bathing ; the same nymph metamorphosed 
into a bear; Apollo receiving the lyre from Mercury. — Over the prin- 
cipal door, a girl caressing a unicorn, the emblem of the Farnese family, 
executed by Domenichino from A. Caracci's designs. Other apartments which 
are. not accessible contain several works of A. Caracci, Daniel da Volterra, 
Salviati, Vasari, and the two Zuccari. 

From the Piazza Farnese a street (Via di Monserrato, Via de' 
Banchi Verchi) leading to the Ponte ,S. Angelo contains several 
churches. The third on the 1., »S. Maria di Monserrato, is the 

160 Pal. Spada alia Regola. ROME. Monte di Pieth. 

national Spanish church, connected with a hospice, erected in 
1495 by Sangallo; the first chapel on the r. contains an altar- 
piece by Ann. Caracci. 

The Vicolo de' Venti, to the 1. opposite, leads to the Piaaia 
di Ciapo di Ferro. No. 13 on the r. is the 

*Palazzo Spada alia Kegola (PI. II, 14), erected about 1540 
by Card. Capodiferro under Paul III. (in imitation of a house built 
by Raphael for himself), and since the time of Urban VIII. (1640) 
in possession of the Spada family. It contains an interesting col- 
lection of *antiquities (on the ground-floor, */ 2 fr.) and pictures 
(1st floor, i/ 2 fr -)i °P en Mond. , Wed., and Sat., 10—3 o'clock. 

Antiquities: In the 1st Room by the long wall; sitting "statue of 
Aristotle, with the inscription: APJ2TH . . ., on the 1. side of the basis, 
formerly erroneously interpreted as Aristides (the square O having been 
mistaken for I), copy from a celebrated Greek work ; r. arm and 1. leg 
new. — In the 2nd R. eight fine "reliefs, found in 1620 in S. Agnese 
fuori le Mura, where they formed part of the pavement with their faces 
towards the ground. Entrance-wall: r. 65. Pfedalus and Pasiphae; 1. 72. Paris 
as a cowherd. Window-wall: 66. Wounded Adonis; 67. Ulysses and Diome- 
des carrying off the Palladium. Narrow end : Endymion ; Perseus and An- 
dromeda, casts from the originals in the Capitoline museum. L. wall: 
68. Paris taking leave of Cftnone ; 69. Hypsipjle finds Opheltes, who lad 
been entrusted to her, killed by a snake; 70. Amphion and Zethus ; 71. M- 
lerophon watering Pegasus. Besides these : busts, small statues, etc. 

In the upper story a Colossal Statue of Pompcy, found under Julius III. 
(1550J in digging the foundations of a house in the Vicolo tie 1 Leulari. The 
upper portion was in the ground of one proprietor whilst the legs were in 
that of another. As both parties laid claim to the statue the judge directed 
that it should be divided! The pope, however, prevented this by purchas- 
ing the statue for 500 scudi, and presented it to Card. Capodiferro. The 
head, although of a detached block, belongs to the original. The work is 

The Picture Gallery (provided with catalogues) is reached beyond 
a room containing frescoes of little value. 1st Room: 3. Madonna, 
Bolognese Sch.; 7, 12. Portraits, French Sch.; 10. Card. Patrizi, Camuccini; 
22. Portrait, Caravaggio; 40. Julius III., Sc. Gaetano; 56. Madonna, SA 
of Francia. — 2nd R. : 1. Astronomer, Seb. del Piombo; 6. Still life, Bmdin; 
9. Landscape, Breughel; 10. Judith, Guido Reni; 12. Landscape, G. Pwm: 
18. Visitation of Elisabeth (greatly damaged), And. del Sarlo; 45. Chral 
and the scribes, Leonardo da Vinci (a. copy from the original in England). - 
3rd R. : 2. St. Anna and the Virgin, Caravagyio; 4. John the Bapt., Raphael, 
a. copy of the tribuna at Florence ; 15. Landscape, Breughel; 24. Dido'f 
death, Guercino; 26. Design of the ceiling-painting in Gesii, Baactio; 
29. landscape, Salvator Rosa; 31. Portrait, Titian; 40. "Portrait, Jforoni; 
48, 49. Hod the Father, and Bearing the Cross, Marco Palmezzano ; 51. Card. 
Paolo Spada, Titian (?); 60, 70. Landscapes, Salv. Rosa; 63. Abduction rf 
Helen, Guido Reni; 67. Cavalry-skirmish, Borgognmie. — 4th R. : 4. Card. 
Bernardo Spada, Guido Reni; 9. Paul III., after Titian; 10. Portrait (1511), 
German Sch.; 15. Laughing angel's head, Caravaggio; 18. Portrait, German 
Scli.; 26. Christ in the garden, Get: Honthorst; 30. St. Cecilia, Caravaggio; 
31. Card. Fabricius Spada, Maratla; 44. Madonna, And. del Sarlo (Oi 
54. Portrait, French Sch. 

Proceeding in the same direction from the Piazza Capo di 
Ferro the traveller reaches the Piazza de Pellegrini; on the 1. is 
the rear of the former Pal. Santacroce (PL II, 14), now a Monte di 
Pieth, or money-lending establishment, instituted in 1539, and es- 
tablished here since 1004 (some of the numerous pictures pledged here 

S. Giov. de' Fiorentini. ROME. S. Carlo a Catinari. 161 

are of great value). On the r. the church of 8. Trinith de' Pel- 
legrini, erected iu Mill; high-altar adorned with the Trinity, by 
Ouido Reni. The neighbouring hospital is destined principally for 
the accommodation of pilgrims. 

Hence to the r. the Via de' I'ettinari leads to the Ponte Sisto 
(|>. 224), the street to the 1. to the Via de' Giubbonari (see below). 
At the extremity on the r. is the small church of S. Salvatore 
in Onda (PI. II, 14), re-erected in 1684, on the 1. the Fontunone 
<li Ponte Sisto, constructed by Giov. Fontana untcr Paul V. 

In a straight direction, from the fountain, near the river, runs 
(he Via del Fontanone, prolonged by the Via Giulia, constructed 
by Julius II., and leading (in 12 min.) to the Ponte S. Angclo. 
To the 1. in the latter street, opposite the garden of the Pal. 
Farnese, lies the small church of S. Maria della Morte , or dell' 
Orazione, erected by Fuga about the middle of the previous cen- 
tury, and belonging to a burial -society. Then to the 1. Pal. 
Falconieri, built by Borromini, where the picture-gallery of Card. 
Fesch was formerly established; farther on, on the same side, the 
(^arceri Nuoci , a prison founded by Innocent X.; then (No. 66) 
I he Pal. Sacchetti (PI. II, 10), originally erected by Antonio da 
San Gallo as his private residence. At the end of the street, 1. 
S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini (PI. II, 10), the stately national church 
of l he Florentines, designed by Sansovino and Giae. della Porta, 
and begun at the commencement of the 16th cent. Michael Angelo, 
at an advanced age, took an active part in its erection ; the facade 
was added by Aless. Galilei in 1725. It contains nothing worthy 
of mention except a picture (St. Cosmas and St. Damianus at 
the stake) by Salvator Rosa in the chapel of the r. transept. 

Near the church an iron-bridge (1 soldo), constructed in 1863, 
crosses the river to the Longara (p. 220). The Via Paola leads 
from the church to the Ponte S. Angelo. 

In the Piazza di Campo di Fiori, towards S. Andrea della 
Valle, once lay the Theatre of Pompey. In the court of the Pal. 
Righetti, Piazza del Biscione 95 , the bronze statue of Hercules 
(p. 245) and substructures of the theatre were discovered. 

From the Piazza di Campo di Hori the animated Via de' Giub- 
bonari leads to the Capitol and the S. quarters of the city. After 
2 min. it expands into the Piazza S. Carlo a Catinari. On the 
1. the church of S. Carlo a Catinari (PI. II, 14), erected by S. 
Carlo Borromeo at the beginning of the 17th cent. The form is that 
of a Greek cross; beneath the dome, paintings by Domenichino. 

In the 1st Chapel on the r., Annunciation, by Lanfranco. In the tran- 
sept to the r., Death of St. Anna, Andrea Sacchi. Over the high-altar, 
Card. Borromeo in the procession of the plague at Milan, P. da Cortona; 
tribune decorated by Lanfranco; the other paintings are of little value. 

Opposite is the Pal. Santacroce, facing the Piazza Branca (r. ). 

BjEDEHER. Ttalv TT. 3rd RHilirm AA 

162 Palazzo Costaguti. ROME. Palazzo Mattel. 

The street now divides: to the 1. the Via de' Falegnami leads 
to the Piazza Mattel, or Tariaruya, named after the graceful Fon- 
tnna delle Tartarut/he (tortoises), erected by (iiac. della Porta in 
J 585, and embellished with the figures of four youths. 

Immediately to the r. , Piazza Mattei 10 (another entrance 
Piazza Costaguti 16), is the 

Palazzo Costaguti, erected about 1590 by Carlo Lombardi. 
Of the ceiling -paintings on the 1st floor access to the following 
only (porter '/., fr.) is permitted: 1. Hercules bending his bow 
against Nessus, Franc. Albanl ; 2. Apollo in the quadriga, to which 
Truth raises herself, discovered by Time, Domenlchino (greatly 
retouched); *3. Armida with Rinaldo in the dragon -chariot, ad- 
mirably coloured, by Guereino. The paintings not shown are 
by the Car. a" Arpino and other good masters. One wing of the 
palace (formerly Boccapadnlf) was long the residence of Poiissin, 
and still contains works by him, but is not now accessible. 

Adjoining the piazza on the 1. is the 

Palazzo Mattei (PI. II, 17, 27), originally an aggregate of 
separate buildings which occupied the block between the Yia di 
S. Caterina de' Funari and Via Paganica. Of these the hand- 
somest is the present so-called palace (principal entrance V. di 
S. Caterina de' Funari 32, side-entrance No. 31), erected in 1616 
by Carlo Maderno, and one of his finest productions. In the pas- 
sages of the entrances , the arcades, and the lateral walls of the 
court a great number of ancient reliefs are immured; among 
those in the court, r. Mars with Rhea Sihia and Apollo with the 
Muses; 1. the Calydonian hunt and Rape of Proserpine; in the 
portico, Sacrifice of Mithras, Apollo with the Muses, Bacchanalian 
procession, all from sarcophagi. The statues in the court and niches 
on the stairs, some of them greatly modernised, are of no great 
value. The decorations of the ceiling on the staircases, in stucco, 
are well executed. 

The picture-gallery is now greatly reduced in extent; the 
frescoes do not merit special mention. 

Then in the Via di S. Caterina de' Funari, on the 1., the 
church of S. Caterina de' Funari (PL II, 17), erected in 1564 
by Giac. della Porta, with a singular-looking tower, situated within 
the area of the ancient Cirms Flamlnius. The interior contains a 
few unimportant pictures by Nanni, Venusti, Muziano, and Agresti. 
The adjoining convent of Augustine nuns is an educational estab- 
lishment for girls. 

The street terminates in the Via fielfml, which to the 1. leads 
to the Via di Araceli (p. 121), and to the r. to the Piazza di 
Campitelli, beyond the next corner. Here on the r. stands S. Maria 
in Campitelli (PI. II, 17), erected by Rinaldi under Alexander VII. 
for the more worthy reception of a miraculous image of the Vir- 
gin, to which the cessation of the plague in 1(i5G was ascribed; 

Ghetto. ROME. Colonnade of Octavia. 163 

a smaller church of the same name, mentioned in the 13th cent., 
formerly stood on this site. The architecture of the interior, with 
its handsome projecling columns, has an imposing effect. Beneath 
the canopy over the high-altar is placed the miraculous Madonna. 
In the 2nd Chapel on the r. , the Effusion of the Holy Ghost, 
by Lara Giordano; in the 1st Chapel on the 1. two monuments 
resting on lions of rosso antico. In the r. transept the tomh of 
Cardinal Pacca by PettrirJi. — Opposite the church is the Pal. 

The street in a straight direction from the piazza leads to the 
Via Tor do' Specchi at the loot of the Capitoline, that to the 1. 
to the Piazza Araeeli (p. 104), r. to Piazza Mootanara (p. Iti'lJ. 

From the Piazza di S. Carlo a Catinari the Via del Pianto 
leads to the r. to the Piazza Giudea or di S. Maria del Pianto, 
called after a church of that name. Adjoining this piazza on the 
r. is the Piazza Ccnci, where on the 1. in the corner, the Syna- 
gogue, and on the r. the 

Palazzo (tnri-Bolognetti (PL II, 17) are situated. In the latter 
once resided the ill-fated Beatrice Cenci, executed for the murder 
of her father, a man of execrable fame. Her portrait, which is 
of questionable authenticity, is preserved in the Pal. Barberini, 
and is a favourite subject for reproduction with the Roman artists. 

From the Piazza Giudea the Pescheria (fish-market) , which 
presents an animated scene on Friday mornings , leads to the 
Colonnade of Octavia. Between the Pescheria and the Tiber lies the 

Ghetto (PI. II, 17), the quarter allotted by Paul IV. to the 
Jews, who in ancient and mediaeval times occupied a quarter in 
Trastevere, formerly closed by a gate. It consists of several streets 
parallel with the river, and connected by narrow lanes. The same 
pope enacted lhat the Jews should wear yellow head-gear, and 
pay unusually heavy taxes; amongst other oppressive exactions, 
they were compelled to provide the prizes for the horse-races at 
the Carnival. The traveller may explore these purlieus for the 
sake of observing ghe marked oriental type of their occupants, 
who with their characteristic industry seek to counteract the 
disadvantages of their social position. The Via de' Fiumari, 
the nearest to the river, leads to the Ponte de' Qualtro Cupi 
(see p. 227). 

Near the Pescheria are situated the interesting remains of the 
Colonnade of Octavia, erected by Augustus on the site of a similar 
structure of Metellus (B. C. 14 ( J) and dedicated to his sister. 
Under Titus it was destroyed by a conflagration which raged in 
■ this quarter of the city, and was subsequently restored by Sept. 
Severus and Caracalla in 203, as the inscription records. The 
colonnade enclosed an oblong space, within which temples of 


164 Theatre of Marcellus. ROME. Piazza Araceli, 

Jupiter Stator and Juno stood. The modern additions which for- 
merly marred the effect of the ruins have been removed. 

Proceeding in the direction of the Pescheria from the colonnade 
the street reaches the Theatre of Marcellus (PL II, 17, 5), com- 
menced by Caisar, completed B. C. 13 by Augustus and named 
after his nephew. The twelve arches still standing on the exter- 
nal wall of the space for the spectators are now occupied by smiths 
and other artizans as workshops. The lower story, partly filled 
up, is in the Doric, the second in the Ionic style, above which, 
as in the case of the Colosseum , a third probably rose in the 
Corinthian order. It is said to have accommodated 20,000 specta- 
tors. The stage lay towards the Tiber. In the 11th cent, the 
theatre was employed by Pierleone as a fortress. His descendants 
yielded possession to the Savelli, whose palace (opposite the Ponte 
Ouattro Capi) stands on a lofty mound of debris within the theatre. 
In 1712 it was purchased by the Orsini ; in 1816—1823 the 
historian Niebuhr, when Prussian ambassador, resided here. 

The external wall adjoins the small and busy Piazza Mm- 
tanara , a frequent resort of the peasantry of the Campagna. To 
the 1. a street leads to the Piazza Araceli, to the r. the ani- 
mated Via della Bocca della Verith to the piazza of that name 
(p. 183). Immediately to the r. in the latter street, standing back, 
is the church of S. Niccolb in Carcere, recently restored, con- 
taining in the interior and on the external wall- ancient columns 
which appear to have belonged to three different temples, those of 
Spes , Juno Sospita , and another. Visitors may descend and 
examine the foundations of these temples, which have been ex- 
cavated; sacristan 1 /2 fr- 

IV. Ancient Rome. 

This portion of the description comprises the S. part of the 
city, commencing with the Capitoline, and extending E. as far as 
the Lateran: i. e. the hills of the Capitoline, Palatine, Aventiiie, 
Ciclius, and the S. slope of the Esquiline. The imposing monu- 
ments and ruins of classical antiquity, more of which are daily 
brought to light by the ^excavations , impart to this , the (now 
almost deserted) principal quarter of the Republican and Impe- 
rial city, its characteristic aspect. A number of ancient churches, 
extremely interesting to students of Christian architecture, as 
well as the imposing collections of the Capitol and Lateran , also 
attract numerous visitors. The description begins with the Capitol. 

From the Piazza Araceli (PL II, 17) three approaches lead 
to the Capitoline Hill: 1. the lofty flight of steps (124 in num- 
ber), constructed in 1348 (principal entrance generally closed, 
see below), to the church of S. Maria in Araceli, whence the ap- 
pellation of the piazza below. To the r. the Via de' tre Pile ascends 

-LlXyh qeooi 

AnsT -v Ed. ffagne. _ 

Pal. Caffarelli. ROME. S. Maria in Araceli. 165 

to the Pal. Caffarelli, erected in the lGth cent, by Ascanio Caffa- 
relli, a former page of Charles V., now the residence of the Prussian 
ambassador, and occasionally of members of the royal family of 
Prussia. In the garden ancient substructures of massive blocks 
have recently been excavated, appertaining perhaps to the temple 
of Jupiter. 

*S. Maria in Araceli (PI. II, 20). The usual entrance is from 
the piazza ol the Capitoline by the stair to the 1. (in the rear 
of the Capitoline museum), and then to the 1. from the first 
landing. Over the door here is an ancient mosaic , representing 
the Madonna with two angels. The church probably occupies the 
site of a temple of Juno Moneta , and is mentioned as early as 
935. Fa<;ade unfinished. The interior is disfigured by modern 
additions. The nave is supported by 22 ancient columns, most 
of them of granite , varying greatly in style and dimensions ; on 
the 3rd to the 1. the inscription : A cubiculo Auyustorum. The 
church derives its appellation from a legend that Augustus erected 
an altar here to Christ, with the inscription : Ara primoyeniti Dei, 
which is pointed out in the 1. transept beneath the altar (restored 
in 1835) of St. Helena with its circular canopy, where this saint 
is said to be interred. 

Dy the wall of the principal entrance, to the 1., is the tomb of the 
astronomer Lodovico Grato (1531), figure of Christ said to be by And. Ban- 
xoi'ino; on the r. the -monument of Card. Lebretto (1465) with partially 
preserved painting. In the r. aisle, 1st Chapel : :: frescoes from the life of 
St. Bernhardin of Siena, by I'iiittiricchio, restored by CamucctHi. Frescoes 
on the ceiling attrib. to Franc, da Citld di Castello and L. Shjnorelli. The 
5th Chapel (of St.. Matthew) contains good pictures by M-uziano. In the 
2nd Chapel of the 1. aisle a manger (presepe) is fitted up at Christmas, 
i. e. a gorgeous representation of the Nativity in life-size, with the richly 
decorated image of the Infant Christ (it tanlo bambino), which constitutes 
the principal ornament of the church. It is believed to protect those in 
imminent danger, is frequently invoked and revered, and is conveyed to 
the houses of those who are dangerously ill, on which occasions passers-by 
kneel on its approach. During the week after Christmas, 3—4 o'clock 
daily, a number of c-hildren from 5 to 10 years of age address their pe- 
titions to the bambino. In the transept, on the r. and 1. by the pillars 
of the nave are two *ambos from the former choir, by Laureitlius and 
Jacobus Cosntas. The Chapel on the r. belongs to the Savelli ; on the r. 
and 1. (the latter originally an ancient sarcophagus) are monuments of the 
family, of the 13th cent, (of the parents and a brother of Honorius IV.). 
liesides the canopy already alluded to, the 1. transept contains the monu- 
ment of Mattlueus of Aquasparta (d. 1302), the prineipal of the Dominiea-i 
order mentioned by Dante. In the choir, to the )., the monument, of Giov. 
Hatt. Savelli (d. 1489). Over the high-altar, prior to 1565, was the Madonna 
of Foligno by Raphael, ordered for this church, but now in the Vatican 
Gallery. The donor, Sigismondo Conti da Foligno, is interred in the choir. 
The present altar-piece is an ancient picture of the Madonna, attributed 
to St. Luke. 

The adjacent cloister (reached by the continuation of the 
staircase from the piazza of the Capitoline) has since 1251 be- 
longed to the Frati minori Osservanti di S. Francesco. It is at 
present partially occupied by soldiers. In the passage beyond the 
second of the two handsome courts a broad staircase to the r. 

166 Piazza del Campidoglio. ROME. Pal. del Senatore. 


.■lids to a chapel and corridor , both commanding magnificent 

* views of Rome , especially of the Quirinal , Esquiline , Cxlius 
Palatine, and Formn. The library, established in 1732, is acces- 
sible by special permission only. 

The central asphalt-stairs lead to the far-famed **Piazza del 
Campidoglio (PI. 11, '20), or square of the Capitol. The design 
of the whole is duo to Michael Angela, and its execution was 
begun in 1536 by Paul 111. ; the palaces of the Conservator] and 
Senators were already in existence, but their facades were alterd. 
At the foot of the steps ( Cordonnata) which lead to the Capitol are 
two handsome, water-spouting Egyptian lions in basalt: above, the 
celebrated groups of Castor and Pollux, said once to have adorned 
the theatre of Pompey. At the sides of the balustrade are the 
so-called Trophies of Marius, from the water-tower of that name 
of the Aqua Julia near S. Maria Maggiore (p. 141") , and the 
statues of the Emp. Constantine and his son Con-tans from the 
Therm* of Constantine on the Quirinal; on the r. the first ancient 
milestone of the Via Appia (on the 1. a modem counterpart). 

In the centre of the piazza stands the admirable bronze 

* Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius (161 — 181), once gilded, 
and originally placed in the forum near the arch of Sept. Severus; 
in 1187 it was erected near the Lateran, and, as the inscription 
records, transferred hither in 1538. For its excellent state of 
preservation it has been indebted to the popular belief that it 
was a statue of Constantine, the first Christian emperor. Beyond 
it is situated the Pal. del Senatore, re-erected by Boniface IX. 
on the site of the ancient Tabularium, and provided with its hand- 
some flights of steps by Michael Angelo, under whose directions, 
it is believed, the facade was constructed by Giac. delta Porta; 
the river-gods are those of the (r.) Tiber and (1.) Nile; in the 
centre a fountain, above which is a sitting statue of Rome. The 
palace contains a spacious hall for the solemn meetings of the 
senate, the offices of the civic administration, an observatory, and 
dwelling-apartments. The campanile was erected by Gregory XIII. 
to replace a former structure, which like the four corner-towers 
(one of them towards the forum, on the 1., is still recognised) pro- 
bably belonged to the edifice of Boniface. The roof, embellished by 
a standing figure of Roma, commands a fine view, but the ascent has 
of late years been prohibited. The great bell is employed to con- 
voke the senators , to announce the approach of the Carnival, and 
the death of a pope. 

The two palaces at the sides were erected in the 17th cent, 
by Giac. del Duca with some deviations from the plans of Mich. 
Angelo; on the r. the Pal. of the Conservatory (p. 205) (with 
guard-house below), and on the opposite side the Capitoline Museum 
(p. 207). The staircases with three-arched halls at the sides of 
i-hese palaces were erected by Viynoln ; that to the 1. by the 

Capitol. ROME. Tarpeian Rock. 167 

museum leads to the church of S. Maria in Araceli and the con- 
tiguous Franciscan monastery; that to the r., on the opposite 
side, to Monte Capri-no, where the Archaeological Institution (p. 85) 
and the Protestant hospital are situated. Descent to the Forum 
on either side of the Senatorial Palace. 

The Capitol, 100 ft. above the sea-level, formed the central 
and principal point of ancient Rome. The depression between 
its two culminating points , i. e. the present piazza of the Capi- 
tol , was occupied by the asylum which, according to tradition, 
Romulus opened for the reception of the exiles of the neigh- 
bouring tribes. On the height to the 1., on the site of S. Maria 
in Araceli, stood the Temple of Juno Moneta , and the Arx , or 
citadel id the strict sense, a term commonly employed to designate 
the entire hill. 

On the Tarpeian Rock, the height to the r., best seen from 
the garden of the Casa Tarpeia (custodian, Monte Caprino 130) 
or from the Via Tor de' Specchi (between Nos. 37 and 38), lay 
the Temple of Jupiter Cupilolinua. The precipitousness of the 
ground has ho\ve\er been greatly diminished since ancient times; 
moreover the precise situation of the rock from which the con- 
demned were hurled is still involved in some doubt, so that a 
visit to this spot may well be omitted. 

Of the buildings which in ancient times covered the Capitol, 
some imposing remains alone are preserved where the Senatorial 
Pal. stands (entrance by the gate in the narrow wall to the r., visit- 
ors ring at the first deer ; if the custodian is not at hand he may ge- 
nerally be found in the upper story, where the offices of the civic 
administration are established). This edifice was the * Tabularium, 
erected B. C. 7S by the consul A. Lutatius Catulus for the reception 
of the state archives, and resting on the massive substructures which 
surround the hill. It consisted of a five-fold series of vaults, the 
last of which towards the Forum was an open hall, long employed 
as a salt magazine, with half-pillars in the Doric style, as seen 
from without. The blocks of stone have been much corroded by 
the action of the salt. From this point there is a beautiful *view 
of the Forum , the form and situation of which are distinctly 
traced. The custodian points out an ancient staircase which 
descended hence to the Forum, where, to the 1. of the temple 
of Vespasian, the archway where it issued is recognised. A few 
architectural fragments from the neighbouring temples and other 
buildings are here preserved. 

Descending from the piazza of the Capitol on the r. by the 
Senatorial Palace , the traveller enjoys from the lower extremity 
another good * survey of the Forum. The excavated portions consist 
of two different divisions. The smaller to the 1. below contains 
among other relics the temple of Saturn, to which the 8 unfluted 
columns belong, the 3 columns of the temple of Vespasian, the 

1 68 Forum Romanum. ROME. Temple of Saturn. 

arch of Septim. Severus, and immediately below in the corner the 
colonnade of the 12 gods. The second division comprises the 
column of Phocas , the Basilica Julia, and the temple of Castor. 
Beyond these, to the 1., is the temple of Faustina now converted 
into a church , then the huge arch of the basilica of Constantine 
the Colosseum, the arch of Titus , and to the r. the gardens of 
the Palatine. 

Here on the S. W. depression of the hill (Clivus Capitolinml 
the Sacra Via descended to the ** Forum Romanum, which ex- 
tended as far as the temple of Faustina. It formed the focus of 
political and civic life , the scene of popular assemblies , judicial 
proceeding's, commercial negotiations, and public amusements. Near 
the temple of Faustina stood an archway , the Arcus Fabianus, 
dedicated in B. 0. 123 to Fabius Maximus, conqueror of the 
Allobrogi. This formed the S. boundary of the forum, which was 
about 690 ft. in length. As this limited space became more and 
more inadequate to the requirements of the vast city, the entire 
business of which was here concentrated, attempts were made to 
supply the deficiency by the construction of basilicas and secon- 
dary fora. Few spots in the world have a history like this, which 
has witnessed the legal and political development of every possible 
phase of public life. Under the emperors it soon came to be 
regarded as a venerable antiquity and an appropriate site for 
honorary statues and triumphal arches. To this period most of 
the extant ruins belong , whether of edifices then erected or re- 
stored only. In the middle ages it sustained many a rude shock 
during the contests of the nobles , and at length , as its present 
appellation Campo Vaccino indicates, became a pasture for cattle. 
The excavations, begun early in the present century, are zeal- 
ously prosecuted under the superintendence of the Cav. Rosa, 
and will probably lead to new and interesting discoveries. The 
visitor descends by the carriage-road. 

The first edifice , of which 8 granite columns are still stand- 
ing on a basement 16 ft. in height, is the * Temple of Saturn, 
originally consecrated under the consuls Sempronius and Minucius, 
B. C. 491 , and restored by Munatius Plancus about 44 B. C, 
where from the most ancient times the ^Erarium Publicum (trea- 
sury of state) was established. The inscription : Senatus populus- 
que Bomanus incendio consumptum restituit refers to a later 
restoration undertaken hastily and without taste. 

Below the Tabularium, of the upper gallery of which one arch 
only now stands, in the angle formed with it by the street, lies 
the Schola Xantha with the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods 
(deoricm consentium) , whose images Vettius Agorius Pratextatus, 
the priHt'eetus urbi and one of the principal champions of expiring 
paganism , erected here, A. 1). H(>7. The entire structure was 

£Mm mwx* 


Temple of Vespasian. ROME. Arch of Sept. Severus. 169 

destined for the accommodation of the public scribes and notaries ; 
the name Schola Xantha is derived from a certain Fabius Xanthus 
who had previously restored it. In 1858 the ruin was considerably 

To the r. of the latter the Tabularium is adjoined by the 
Ruin of the Three Columns , or * Temple of Vespasian , erected 
under Titus , restored by Sept. Severus. The inscription ran 
thus : 'Vivo Vespasiano Augusto Senatus populusque romanus im- 
perator Caesar Severus et Antoninus Pii Felices Augusti restituerunt.' 
Of this a poriionof the last word only is preserved. The columns and 
entablature bear testimony to the superiority of the workmanship. 

Farther on, to the r., also adjoining the Tabularium in the 
rear, is the Temple of Concordia, founded B. C. 388 by M. Furius 
Camillus, re-constructed and enlarged by Tiberius, B. C. 7. It 
was dedicated to Concord to commemorate the termination of the 
protracted struggle between patricians and plebeians. The smaller 
projecting rectangle of the raised substructure was the temple 
itself, whilst the larger edifice behind, extending on both sides 
of the temple (ascent to Araceli on one side}, was the senatorial 
assembly-hall, the threshold of which is still recognised. 

In front of the temple of Concordia , on the opposite side of 
the street (clivus Capitolinus) , rises the * Triumphal Arch of 
Septimius Severus, with three passages. It was erected in honour 
of that emperor and his sons Caraoalla and Geta (Caracalla after- 
wards caused the name of his brother whom he had murdered to 
be obliterated), A. D. 203, to commemorate his victories over 
the Parthians, Arabians, and Adiabeni, and was surmounted by a 
brazen chariot with six horses, on which stood Severus, crowned 
by Victory. Above the arch are figures of Victory, at the sides 
crowded representations from the wars of the emperor, on the 
bases of the half-columns captive barbarians, all testifying to the 
degraded condition of the sculpture of that period. In the middle 
ages the arch was temporarily converted by the ruling powers 
into a species of castle, and was deeply imbedded until extrica- 
ted by Pius Vll. in 1803. 

The arched wall by the arch of Severus is the remains of the 
imperial Rostra, or orator's tribune. At its extremity was the 
Umbilicus urbis Romae, or ideal centre of the city and empire, 
the remnants of which are recognisable. At the other extremity, 
below the street, are a few traces of the Miliareum Aurewn, or 
central milestone of the roads diverging from Rome. 

From this part of the excavations a passage leads from the 
arch of Severus under the modern street to the second division. 
It is generally closed on holidays, but if notice is given on entering 
the excavations it will be opened (5 s.). 

To the 1. rises the * Column of Phocas, erected in 608 by the 
exarch Smaragdus in honour of the tyrant Phocas of the E. Roman 
empire , and taken by him from a mmc a... .;<>„* edifice. Beside 

170 Column of Phocas. ROME. Career Mamertinus. 

it are basements which were employed for similar honorary columns 
and fragments of other structures. 

On the opposite side is the pavement of the Basilica Julia, 
commenced by Cassar and completed by Augustus, once a magni- 
ficent edifice consisting of five adjoining halls. The pillars have 
been reconstructed in accordance with the ascertained ancient 
style, and partly from the original fragments. The greater part 
of the pavement is also modern. These basilicae , the first of 
which (Basilica Porcia) was erected by Oato the Censor on the 
opposite side near S. Adriano, served to draw off a portion of the 
traffic, from the limited space of the forum , and were employed 
as courts of justice , commercial meeting-places, etc. Several of 
these lay on each side of the forum. 

Beneath the Basilica runs an antique and still partially visible 
channel by which the water from the Forum was conducted to 
the Cloaca Maxima (p. 183). 

By the Basilica Julia, in the direction of the Palatine, are 
three columns from the *Temple of Castor and Pollux, which 
was erected after the decisive victory over the Latins 'at Lake 
Regillus (B. C. 49(5) and subsequently re-erected by Tiberius. 
They are of Parian marble and the most perfect of those extant. 
The substructure of the temple, with its lofty flight of steps on 
the E. side , has been brought to light by recent excavations 
undertaken by the Cav. Rosa. To the r. by this temple once stood 
the ancient Regia, or royal palace, subsequently the official resi- 
dence of the pontifex niaximus, the site of the present church 
of S. Maria Liberatrire ; behind it was the Temple of Vesta. 
Caesar's remains were burned by the people in front of the Regia. 

We now return to the excavated portions of the forn'm. Passing 
to the 1. of the arch of Severus, the traveller reaches the small 
church of 8. Giuseppe de' Falegnami to (he 1. at the entrance of 
the Via di Marforio , by the steps ascending to Araceli. Beneath 
it (entrance adjoining the stairs, 1/2 fr.) is the * Career Mamertinus, 
one of the most ancient structures in Rome. It was originally 
the excavation of a well (Tullianum , whence traditionally attri- 
buted to Servius Tullius), and subsequently served as a prison, 
where Jugurtha and Catiline's accomplices perished. It consists 
of two chambers , one beneath the other , of very ancient con- 
struction; the vaulting of the lower is formed by the gradual 
overhanging of the side walls. It contains a spring, which, 
according to the legend, St. Peter, who was imprisoned here under 
Nero, miraculously caused to flow in order to baptize his jailors. 
The building is therefore termed S. 1'ietro in Carcere. 

Nearly opposite stands the church of SS. Luca e Martino, 
erected on the site of an ancient building. Passing it the Via 
Bonell.i leads to the Forum of Augustus (p. ITS). Farther on is 
the church of S. Adriano with its unadorned facade, uninteresting 

Temple of Faustina. ROME. Basilica of Constantine. 171 

like the last-mentiniied, and also occupying tlie site of an ancient 
edifice, perhaps the Curia Hostilin, which was subsequently re- 
erected under the name of Curia Julia by Cesar and Augustus, 
and employed as an assembly-hall by the senate. 

The route is now continued on the 1. side of the forum, 
where humble workshops now occupy the site of sumptuous palaces 
and temples. Of the * Temple of Faustina, within which the 
church of 8. Lorenzo in Miranda has been erected , the portico 
(with 10 columns of cipolliuo, 6 of which form the facade) and a 
portion of the eella are still standing. It was dedicated by An- 
toninus in l-H to his wife, the elder Faustina, and re-dedicated 
to that emperor himself after his death. The first line of the in- 
scription T)iro Antonino et divae Faustinae ex S. C. was then added. 

Adjacent is the church of *SS. Cosma e Damiano, erected 
by Felix IV., having been incorporated with an ancient circular 
temple (possibly of the Penates"), to the portico of which the two 
cipolline columns half projecting from the ground to the r. of 
the church, in front of the Oratorium della Via Cruris, probably 
belonged. The level of the pavement was so much raised by 
Frban VIII. on account of the humidity of the soil, that an upper 
and lower church were thus formed. The entrance, with the 
columns of porphyry and bronze doors, is ancient. Behind this 
church were found the remains of an ancient plan of Rome (now 
in the Capitoline Museum, p. '208J, fragments of which were also dis- 
covered in .1867— (58. 

Tlie church is entered by the rotunda. t >n the triumphal arch and in 
the tribune are interesting "mosaics of the 6th cent, (freely restored about 
IG60; best light towards evening); mi the triumphal arch the Lamb with 
the Hook and seven seals, according to Revelations IV. ; adjoining these 
the seven candlesticks, lour angels, and two of the symbols (angel and eagle) 
of the Evangelists. The arms with wreaths under them belong to' the groups 
of the 04 elders. These mosaics were originally destined for a larger arch, 
and have been cut smaller at the sides and below. In tlie tribune: Christ, 
to whom the saints f'osmas and Oaniianus are conducted by Peter and Paul ; 
on the 1. side St. Felix with the church, on the r. St. Theudorus. Beneath, 
Christ as the I.amb, towards whom the twelve lambs (apostlesl turn. 

The lower church (entrance to the 1. in the tribune; the sacristan acts 
as guide, ']■• fr.) is unattractive. It contains the tomb of the saints Cosnias, 
Hamianus, and Felix, an ancient altar, and somewhat lower a spring, said 
to have been called forth by St. Felix. Near it a niche with remains of 
paintings of the 10th cent. 

The three colossal arches of the *Basilica of Constantine are 
nest reached. They were long supposed to have belonged to Vespa- 
sian's temple of Peace, which however was entirely burned down 
under Commodus. Nearly on the same spot Maxentius erected a 
basilica, which was afterwards altered by his conqueror Constantine. 
The entrance originally faced the Colosseum, subsequently the Via 
Sacra. It was a basilica of three halls with vaulting of vast span, 
which has served as a model for modern architects, as, for example, 
in the construction, of the vaulting of St. Peter's, which is of equal 
width The only column of the interior which has been preserved 

172 S. Francesco, Romana. ROME. Arch of Titus. 

now stands in front of S. Maria Maggiore. The traveller should 
on no account omit to ascend to the summit of the ruin in order 
to enjoy the magnificent ** Panorama of ancient Rome. The route 
is as follows. The street between the Temple of Faustina and 
S. C'osma e Damiano is followed to the end; then to the r. by 
a lane , and to the 1. by the Via del Tempio della Pace into 
the Via del Coliseo. At the corner here, immediately to the r., 
is No. 61, an institution for poof girls (visitors ring; 1 fr.), 
from the garden of which the stair ascends. The aperture by the 
staircase affords the best view of the Colosseum, to the 1. of which 
are the Thermae of Titus on the Esquiline ; to the r. the circular S. 
Stefano ; nearer, S. Giovanni e Paolo with the new dome, both on the 
Cadius. Beyond the Colosseum the Alban, and to the 1. the Sabine 
Mts. To the S. the Palatine with the ruins of the imperial palaces 
and two monasteries, and the opposite bank of the Tiber with the 
Villa Pamrlli. Towards the W. the Capitol, to the r. of which, 
between the domes of two churches, Trajan's column is visible; 
above the latter M. Mario; farther to the r. the Torre di Nerone 
and the Quirinal. Towards the N. the church of S. Pietro in Vin- 
coli with its magnificent palm, and >S. Maria Maggiore, recognised 
by its two domes and Romanesque tower, both on the Esquiline. 

Towards the close of the forum rises the height anciently 
termed Velia, where, adjoining the basilica of Constantine, and 
partially occupying the site of a temple of Venus and Roma (see 
below), the church of S. Francesco Romana with adjoining cloister 
is situated. 

S. Francesea Romana (I'l. II, 23), or 8. Maria Nuova, stands 
on the site of an older church of Nicholas I. founded about 860; 
it was re-erected about 1216 under Honorius 111. after a con- 
llagration, and was finally modernised by Carlo Lombardo in 1615. 

On the r., 2nd Chapel: (r.) monument of Card. Vulcani (d. 1322) and 
that of the papal commandant and general Antonio Rido (d. 1475). 3rd Cha- 
pel: Miracles of St. Benedict, altar- piece by Subleyras. In the tribune mo- 
saics of the 12th cent. (lately restored): in the centre Madonna, 1. SS. John 
and James, r. Peter and Andrew. Over the high-altar an ancient Madonna, 
traditionally attrib. to St. Luke , which is said alone to have escaped de- 
struction in the conflagration. To the r. of the apse : monument of Gre- 
gory XI., who transferred the papal residence from Avignon to Rome (d. 
1378), with relief by Olivier i. Here on the r., immured in the wall, arc 
two stones on which Peter and Paul are said to have knelt when they 
prayed for the punishment of Simon Magus. In the Confessio a group ot 
I he saints with an angel, by Meli. Under the tribune (closed; the sacristan 
escorts visitors with a light, if desired) is the tomb of the saint, and over the 
altar a marble relief bv Bernini. On the 1. wall of the sacristy a Madonna 
with four saints, by Sinibaldo, a pupil of Perugino , date 1524. The sacri- 
stan now shows a court behind the church, with the well-preserved western 
apse of the Temple of Venus and Roma (fee 'ja fr.). 

On the summit of the Velia, by the Palatine, rises the 
* Triumphal Arch of Titus , erected in commemoration of his 
victory over the Jews, and dedicated to him under his successor 
Domitian in SI, as the inscription towards the Colosseum records: 

Temp, of Venus and Roma. ROME. Colosseum. 173 

Senatus populusque Romanus divo Tito divi Vespasiani filio Ves- 
pasinno Augusto. The arch is embellished with fine reliefs. On 
the exterior, on the same side as the inscription, is a representa- 
tion of a sacrificial procession on the frieze. On the inside, Titus 
crowned by Victory in a quadriga driven by Roma; opposite, the 
triumphal procession with the captive Jews, table with the show- 
bread, and candelabrum with seven branches. In the middle ages 
the arch was converted into a small fortress, crowned with pinnacles, 
and strengthened by new walls. When these were removed under 
Pius VII., the arch lost its support, and it became necessary to 
reconstruct it, as the inscription on the other side informs us. 

The street now descends, passing a number of nameless ruins 
on both sides, to the Colosseum. On the 1. is the double apse of 
the Temple of Venus and Roma, erected by Hadrian in 135, and 
restored by Maxentius in 307. This was the largest and one of 
the most sumptuous temples in Rome , with ten columns at the 
ends, and twenty on each side. There must evidently have 
been two temples under the same roof, with entrances from the 
Colosseum and Capitol and adjacent cell* , so that there was a 
niche on each side of the central wall for the image of a god. 
One half is now within the precincts of the monastery of S. Fran- 
ccsca Romana (p. 172), the other towards the Colosseum is open. 

On the descent hence to the Colosseum the remains of an 
extensive square Basis of masonry are seen to the 1. below. Here 
once stood the gilded bronze Colossal Statue of Nero, as god of 
the sun, surrounded with rays, and 117 ft. in height, executed 
by Zenodoros by order of the emperor himself, when after the 
conflagration (A. D. 64) he erected his golden palace with lavish 
splendour. The latter fell to decay soon after the emperor's death 
(in 68), and the statue was removed thence under Hadrian to the 
above-mentioned basement. In the space occupied by an artificial 
lake in the gardens of Nero, Vespasian founded the Amphitheatrum 
Flavium, which was completed by Titus in the year 80, and 
usually (since the 8th cent.) named after the former colossal 
statue of Nero the 

** Colosseum (PI. II, 24), Ital. II Coliseo, the largest theatre, 
and one of the most imposing structures in the world. On its 
completion it was inaugurated by gladiatorial combats, continued 
during 100 days , in which 5000 wild animals were killed , and 
naval contests represented. 87,000 spectators could be accommo- 
dated within its walls. 

It was restored by Alex. Severus, as it had suffered from a conflagra- 
tion under Macrinus. In 248 the Emp. Philip here celebrated the 1000th 
anniversary of the foundation of Rome with magnificent games. In 405 gla- 
diator-combats were abolished by Honorius as inconsistent with the spirit of 
Christianity, but wild-beast fights continued down to the time of Theodoric 
the Great. In the middle ages the Colosseum was employed by the Roman 
barons, especially the Frangipani, as a stronghold. In 1312 the Annibaldi 
were compelled to surrender it to the Emperor Henry VII. , who presented 

171 Colosseum. KOME. The Exterior. 

it to the Raman senate and people. In 1332 the Roman nobility again in- 
troduced bull-fights. Alter this period, however, the destruction of the Co- 
losseum began, and the stupendous pile began to be regarded as a species 
of quarry. In the 10th cent. Paul II. here procured the materials for the 
construction of the Pal. di S. Marco (di Venezia), Card, ltiario for the Can- 
celleria, and Paul III. (1534—49) for the Pal. Farnese. Benedict XIV. 
(1740—58) was the first to protect the edifice from farther demolition by 
consecrating the interior to the Passion of Christ, on account of the fre- 
quency with which the blood of martyrs had there flowed, and erecting 
small chapels within it, where sermons are still preached on Fridays by a 
Capuchin. The following popes, especially Pius VII. and Leo XII., have 
averted the imminent danger of the fall of the ruins by the erection of huge 
buttresses. The stairs in the interior were restored by Pius IX. 

The Colosseum is cons: meted of blocks of travertine (bricks 
have also been employed in the interior), which were originally 
held together by iron cramps. The numerous holes hewn in the 
stone were made in the middle ages, for the purpose of extracting 
the then very valuable iron. The external circumference of the 
elliptical structure measures 1900 ft., or upwards of one-third 
of a mile, the long diameter 658 ft., the shorter f>f>8 ft., height 
202 ft. Above the arena rise the tiers of seats intersected by 
steps and passages , most of which are now in ruins and only 
partially accessible. 

On the exterior the preserved N. E. portion (towards the 
Esquiline) consists of 4 stories; the 3 fifst are formed by arcades, 
the pillars of which are embellished with half-columns of the 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd stories 
respectively. A wall with windows between Corinthian pilasters 
constitutes the 4th story. Statues were placed in the arcades of 
the 2nd and 3rd stories, as appears from the repiesentations on 
ancient coins. At the extremities of the diameters are the 4 triple 
main-entrances , those towards the Esquiline and Ctclius for the 
emperor, the others for the solemn procession before the com- 
mencement of the games, and the introduction of the animals and 
machinery. Towards the Esquiline are seen traces of the stucco- 
decorations, which were restored under Pius VII. and once served 
as models for Giov. da Udine, the pupil of Raphael. The arcades 
of the lowest story served as entrances for the spectators, and 
were furnished with numbers tip to LXXX. (Nos. XXIII. to LIV. 
still exist), in order to indicate the stairs to the different seats. 
Below, on the exterior, are two rows of arcades, then a massive 
substructure for the seats. Every fourth arch contains a staircase. 
A portion of the tiers of seats is still distinguishable, the foremost 
of which, the Podium, was destined for the emperor, the senators, 
and the Vestal Virgins; the emperor occupied a raised seat 
(Pulvinar), the others seats of honour. Above the Podium rose 
3 other classes of seats, the first of which was allotted to the 
I- nights. In the last division were the humbler spectators, in a 
colonnade, on the roof of which sailors of the imperial fleet were 
stationed for the purpose of stretching sail-cloth over the entire 

Colosseum. ROME. The Interior. 175 

amphitheatre to exclude the burning rays of the sun. Apertures 
are still seen in the external coping, and beneath them corbels, 
for the support of the masts to which the necessary ropes were 
attached. Beneath the amphitheatre were chambers and dens for 
the wild beasts , and an apparatus by means of which the arena 
could be laid under water , all of which it has been necessary to 
fill up, the level of the ground having been so low as to en- 
danger the ruins. 

Although one-third of the gigantic structure alone remains, 
the ruins still produce an overwhelming effect. An architect of 
the previous century estimated the value of the materials still 
extant at 1 '/._> million scudi, which according to the present value 
of money would be equivalent to at least half a million pounds 
sterling. Thus the Colosseum has ever been a symbol of the 
greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the <Sth cent, to a prophetic 
saying of the Anglo-Saxon pilgrims of that age : 

'While stands the Colosseum. Rome shall stand, 
When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall, 
And when Rome falls — the World !' 

Those who desire to explore the ruins are strongly recommended 
to ascend to the upper» stories (the custodian is to be found 
on the r. side of the entrance from the Forum, 5 — 10 soldi; but 
his services may well be dispensed with). A steep wooden stair- 
case of 56 steps ascends to the first storey. Of the three arca- 
des the inner should be selected and followed to the 1. for the 
sake of the survey thus afforded of the interior. Over the en- 
trance towards the Palatine the modern staircase of 18 sieps as- 
cends to the 2nd, and then to the 1. direct to a projection in 
the 3rd story. The *view from the restored balustrade to the 
r. in the 4th story, to which another flight of f)5 steps ascends, 
is still more extensive. It embraces the (Melius with S. Stefano 
Rotondo and S. Giovanni e Paolo; farther off, the Aventine with 
S. Balbina, in the background S. Paolo fuori le Mura; nearer, 
to the r. , the Pyramid of Cestius; to the r. the Palatine, to 
which the arches of the Aqua Claudia approach. 

An indescribable impression is produced by the moonlight- 
effects in the Colosseum, or when it is illuminated by torches or 
Bengal lights, a scene which may occasionally he witnessed on win- 
ter-evenings, and is strongly recommended to the traveller's notice 
if an opportunity presents itself. A permesso is not now required. 
The Flora found among the ruins of the Colosseum once com- 
prised 420 species, which were collected by an English botanist, 
but most of them have unfortunately disappeared under an over- 
zealous system of purification. 

Retracing his steps and quitting the Colosseum by the same 

176 ,4r<7i of Constantine. ROME. Thermae of Titus. 

gate , the traveller perceives on the 1. in front of the edifice the 
so-called Meta Sudans, the partially restored fragment of a magni- 
ficent fountain erected by Domitian. Farther on, to the 1. between 
the Ccelius and Palatine, rising above the Via Triumphalis which 
here united with the Via Sacra, stands the 

* Triumphal Arch of Constantine (PI. II, 24), the best-preserved 
of these structures , erected after the victory over Maxentius at 
Saxa Rubra, near the Ponte Molle, in 311, when Constantine 
declared himself in favour of Christianity. The inscription is as 
follows : Imp. Caes. Fl. Constantino Maximo pio felici Augusto 
Senatus Populusque Bomanus , quod instinctu divinitatis mentis 
magnitudine cum exercitu suo tarn de tyranno quam de omni ejus 
factions uno tempore justis rem publicam ultus est armis arcum 
triumpliis insignem dicavit. The arch has three passages , and is 
adorned with admirable sculptures from a triumphal arch of Trajan, 
which stood at the entrance of Trajan's Forum. The age of Con- 
stantine would have been incapable of such workmanship. The 
following are from the arch of Trajan : the captive Dacians above 
(7 ancient; one entirely, and the heads and hands of the others 
are new); the reliefs (facing the Colosseum), to the 1. : 1. Trajan's 
entry into Rome, to the r. of which : 2. Prolongation of the Via 
Appia; 3. Trajan causing poor children to be educated; 4. Trajan 
condemning a barbarian ; on the other side, to the 1. : 5. Trajan 
crowning the Parthian king Parthamaspates ; 6. Soldiers conducting 
two barbarians into Trajan's presence; 7. Trajan addressing the 
army; 8. Trajan sacrificing; the 8 medallions beneath these reliefs 
represent sacrifices and hunting-scenes; on the narrow sides two 
battles with the Dacians ; beneath the central arch, the vanquished 
imploring pardon , and Trajan crowned by Victory. The contrast 
between the condition of art in Trajan's and that in Constantine's 
age is exhibited by the smaller reliefs inserted between the me- 
dallions , representing the warlike and peaceful achievements of 
Constantine. In 1804 Pius VII. caused the ground to be lowered 
to its original level. 

On the opposite side, a few hundred paces from the Colosseum 
(in the Via Labicana, 1st door 1., fee 1/2 fr - i the via della Pol- 
veriera here ascends to the 1. between walls in 5 min. to S. Pietro 
in Vincoli, p. 143), are situated on the Esquiline the 

*ThermEe of Titus (PI. II, 26) O/2 fr.). Maecenas once possessed 
a villa here, which was afterwards incorporated with the golden pa- 
lace of Nero. On the site of the latter, in the year 80, Titus has- 
tily erected his sumptuous Therms , which where greatly altered 
and enlarged by Domitian, Trajan, and others. The ruins occupy 
an extensive space, and are scattered over several vineyards. The 
smaller portion only is accessible which was excavated in lolo. 
The earlier structure of Nero is easily distinguished from that of 
Titus. The long vaulted parallel passages first entered belong to 

Fora of the Emperors. ROME. Forum of Nerva. 177 

the Thermae They form together a semicircular substructure, the 
object of which is not clearly ascertained. Most of the chambers 
beneath, which were filled up by Titus in the construction of his 
baths, and re-excavated at the beginning of the 16th cent., be- 
longed to the golden palace of Nero. A series of 7 rooms is first 
entered here; to the 1., near that in the centre, are remains of 
a spring. Traces of the beautiful paintings , which before the 
discovery of Pompeii were the sole specimens of ancient decoration 
of this description, and served as models for Giov. da Udine and 
Raphael in the decoration of the loggie , are still perceived. 
Colonnades appear to have existed on both sides of these rooms. 
A passage leads hence to a bath-room. To the 1., at a right angle 
to this suite, are a number of small and unadorned rooms, pro- 
bably the dwellings of the slaves; to the 1. again, opposite the 
first suite, is a passage once lighted from above, the vaulting of 
which was adorned with beautiful frescoes still partially visible. 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of S. Luca. 

On the route returning hence to the forum, in the plain to 
the N.E. of the forum of the republic, were situated the Fora of 
the Emperors, erected by their founders rather as monuments and 
ornaments to the city than for practical purposes. The chief edifice 
in these fora was always a temple. The Forum Julium, the first 
of the kind , was begun by Caesar and completed by Augustus ; 
the second was constructed by Augustus ; the Temple of Peace 
(p. 169) of Vespasian is often mentioned as a third, another was 
founded by Domitian ; and finally, the most magnificent of all 
these structures, was the Forum of Trajan. They are here enume- 
rated in order from the Temple of Peace , which probably lay on 
the site of the basilica of Constantine, to the Forum of Trajan, 
as they all adjoined each other within this area. 

Adjacent to the Temple of Peace lay the forum founded by 
Domitian and completed by Nerva, whence called the Forum of 
Nerva, sometimes also Forum Transitorium from being intersected 
by a principal street. Here stood a temple of Minerva, taken down 
by Paul V. in order to decorate the Fontana Paolina on the Jani- 
culus with the marble , and a small temple of Janus. Remains 
of the external walls exist in the so-called * Colonacce, two half- 
buried Corinthian columns, with entablature richly decorated with 
reliefs (branches of art, weaving, etc., which were specially pro- 
tected by the goddess ; oasts of them in the museum of the Aca- 
demie Franchise , p. 109); above them an attic with a Minerva. 
Passing through the 1. arch of the basilica of Constantine , and 
ascending the street (V. Alessandrina) on the 1. , the traveller 
reaches this ruin at the corner of the second cross-street to the 
r., and will here be enabled to form an idea of the grandeur 

I 78 Ace. di S. Luca. ROME. Forum of Augustus. 

of the original structure. The following cross-street is the Via 

Near the Forum, Via Bonella 44, is the 

Accademia di S. Luca, a school of art founded in 1595, the 
first director of which was Federiyo Zuccaro. Open daily 9—5 
o'clock. Visitors ring or knock at the principal door. 

Immured in the passage of the staircase are a few casts from Trajan's 
Column (disfigured with whitewash). On the first landing is the entrance 
to the collection of the competitive works of the pupils (usually closed; the 
custodian of the gallery opens the door if requested). 1st Room: Discus- 
thrower reposing, in plaster, Kessels. 2nd R. : r. of the door, Christ on 
the lit. of Olives, drawing by Seitz. 3rd R. : Reliefs by Thorwaldsen and 
C'anova. In the back part of the saloon the casts of the JEginetan sculptures 
are at present placed. 4th R. : Ganymede giving water to the eagle, 

Another stair ascends to the 

Picture Gallery ('|-.> fr.). A small ante-chamber (with engravings etc.) 
leads to the 1st saloon, lighted from above. Entrance-wall: Landscape, 
Berchem; Wharf, Tempesta; Madonna and Descent from the Cross, old Dutch 
Sch.; Venus crowned by graces, Rubens; Madonna, Van Dyck; St. Jerome, 
Titian ; Wharf, Jos. Vernet. Short wall : two Landscapes , 0. Poussin. Se- 
cond wall: Scribe disputing, /libera; Venus, P. Veronese; Portrait, Van 
Dyck (?); Portrait, Titian; Vanity, by the same; Coast Landscape, Claude 
Lorrain; Wharf, Jos. Vernet. On the second short wall, busts of Betti, 
Tenerani, and Thorwaldsen. The saloon is adjoined on one side by a small 
room, principally containing portraits of artists ; among them, on the pillar, 
Virginie Lebrun ; above, Byron ; another row occupies the upper part of 
the r. short wall; to the r. Angelica Kauffmann; below, by the entrance, 
Concert of cats, by Salvator Rosa. On the entrance-pillars of the 2nd saloon : 
Architectural design, Canaletlo; Madonna, Maratta; on the back of this pic- 
ture there is a "copy, by Marc Antonio, of the first design of Raphael's 
Transfiguration (figures nude ; original supposed to have been lost). L. wall: 
Discovery of the guilt of Calisto, Titian (usually covered); Fortuna, Guido 
Reni ; ! Boy as garland-bearer, fresco by Raphael; Lucrezia, Guido Cagnacci; 
Venus and Cupid (al fresco), Ouercino. Short wall: St. Andrew, Bronzino; 
Portrait, Venet. Sch.; Cupid, Guido Reni; St. Luke painting the Madonna, 
beside him Raphael observing him, Raphael (only partly executed by hiin; 
originally an altar-piece in St. Martino); Portrait, Tintoretto; Tribute- 
money, after Titian. R. wall: Bacchanalian dance, Poussin; Hebe, Pelle- 
grini; Galatea, copy by Giulio Romano from Raphael; Wharf, J. Vernet; 
Susanna , P. Veronese ; Bacchus and Ariadne , Guido Reni. 

Round the upper part of this saloon is a double row of portraits of 

The permission of the director is necessary in order to obtain access 
to the collection of casts for the purpose of study. 

The Via Bonella is terminated by an ancient wall with a 

In front of the latter, to the 1., are three beautiful and lofty 
* Corinthian columns with entablature, which belonged to one of the 
sides of the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus 
(PL II, 20). The forum was enclosed by a lofty *wall of peperine 
(grey volcanic, rock), of which a considerable part is seen near the 
temple, and especially at the arch (Arco de' Pantani). This wall 
was adjoined by the back of the temple which Augustus , when 
engaged in war against Ciesar's murderers, vowed to erect. 

Between this and the ancient republican forum lay the Forum 
of Caesar with a temple of Venus (ienetrix. Scanty remnants of 

Forum of Trajan. ROME. Trajan's Column. 179 

the external wall of tuffstone are seen to the 1. in the court of 
No. 18 Vicolo del Ghettarello, which diverges to the r. from the 
Via di Marforio between Nos. 47 and 46. 

The traveller now ascends to the 1. through the Arco de' Pan- 
tani by the huge wall which now forms part of a nunnery, and a 
short distance farther descends to the 1. by the Salita del Grillo 
[in the court No. 6, wall of Trajan's forum, see below) to the 
busy Via Campo Carleo, the prolongation of the Via Alessandrina, 
whence immediately to the r. the Piazza della Colonna Trajana 
is entered. 

The Forum of Augustus was adjoined by the * Forum of Trajan 
(PI. II, 19), an aggregate of magnilicent edifices, designed by the 
architect Apollodorus of Damascus (111 — 114). In the portion 
excavated in 1812 (keys kept by a barber, P. della Colonna Tra- 
jana 08) four rows of columns, the foundations of which were 
then discovered , are iirst encountered (fragments of columns 
were also found here , but it is not certain whether they belong 
to those which stood on the spot) , being part of the five-hailed 
Basilica Ulpia , which lay with its sides towards the end of the 
present piazza. Between this Basilica and the Forum of Augustus 
lay the Forum Trajani , of the S.E. semicircular wall of which 
a portion is still seen in the Court of No. 6 Via della Salita del 
Urillo. two stories in height ; the chambers of the lower were pro- 
bably shops. In the centre of this Forum rose Trajan's equestrian 
statue. On the other side of the basilica stands **Trajan's Column, 
124 (or incl. pedestal and statue 158) ft. in height; diameter 12, 
at the top 1 1 ft. ; entirely covered with admirable reliefs from 
Trajan's war with the Dacians (which can be more conveniently 
examined on the cast in the Lateran), comprising, besides animals, 
machines , etc. , upwards of 2500 human figures , each averaging 
2 ft. in height. Beneath it Trajan was interred, on the summit 
was placed his statue (now that of St. Peter); in the interior a 
stair of 184 steps ascends. The height oi the column at the 
same time indicates how much of the Quirinal and Capitoline 
must have been levelled in order to make room for these build- 
ings. Moreover to this forum belonged a temple, dedicated to 
Trajan by Hadrian, a library, and a triumphal arch of Trajan, all 
situated on the other side of the column. Some of the reliefs 
from the last mentioned were taken for the arch of Constantino 
(p. 176). 

On the N. side of the piazza are two churches, that on the 
r. del Nome di Maria, erected in 1683 after the liberation of 
Vienna from the Turks, restored in 1862; that on the 1. S. Maria 
di Loreto, erected by Sunyallo in 1507; in the 2nd chapel a 
statue of St. Susanna by Fiammingo, high altar-piece of the 
school of Pemgino. 

Three connecting streets lead hence to the Piazza SS Apostoti 


180 Palatine Sill. ROME. Farnese Oardens. 

(p. 118). Ascending to the r. the Via Magnanapoli leads in 
16 min. in a straight direction to S. Maria Maggiore (p. 137); 
to the 1. it leads to the Piazza di Monte Cavallo (p. 130). The 
street to the 1. leads to the Piazza S. Marco, or if it be quitted by 
the first street to the r., the Piazza di Venezia (p. 120) is reached. 

The Palatine. 

Velabrum. Forum Boarium. 

The Palatine Hill, situated on the S.W. side of the Forum, 
rises in the form of an irregular quadrangle. In ancient times it 
was bounded on the N. side, towards the Capitol , by the Vela- 
brum and the Forum Boarium (p. 184); on the W., towards the 
Aventine, by the Circus Maximus fp. 185); on the S. , towards 
the Caelius, by the Via Triumphalis and the Via Appia (now Via 
di S. Gregorio). The Palatine is the site of the most an- 
cient city of Rome, the Roma Quadrata, remnants of whose walls 
have been brought to light at five different places, thus affording 
us an opportunity of tracing the situation of these venerable for- 
tifications with tolerable precision. The wall appears to have en- 
circled the entire Palatine hill about half-way up its slopes, and 
to have been penetrated by gates at three places only. The sit- 
uation of two of these, the Porta Mugionis or Mugonia, and the 
Porta Romana or Romanula has been ascertained by the most re- 
cent excavations. Tradition places on this hill the dwellings of 
its heroes Evander, Faustulus, and Romulus, and many celebrated 
men resided here at a subsequent period , such as the Gracchi, 
Cicero, Mark Antony, etc. ; but the emperors at length took pos- 
session of the entire area and erected their private residences on 
it. The chief of these are the palaces of Tiberius, Caligula, the 
Flavii, and Severus, the vast ruins of which present a most im- 
posing appearance even at the present day. The Palatine re- 
tained its magnificence for a comparatively long period , and was 
subsequently the residence of Byzantine generals and German 
kings, but was at length suffered to fall to decay. 

The Palatine is now occupied by two religious houses (5. Bo- 
naventura , opposite the arch of Titus , and the Villa Mills , now 
occupied by nuns of the order of St. Francis de Sales), by three 
vigne ( Vig/ia Nussiner on the N. W. side, Vigna del Collegio Inglese 
at the S.W. corner, and the Vigna di 8. Sebastiano on the S.), 
and finally by the Orti Farnesiani, extending over the entire N.E. 
portion of the hill. The different parts of the hill, with the ex- 
ception of the sites of the convents and the last-named Vigna, 
have been explored at various times by means of excavations, 
the most interesting and extensive of which were conducted by 
the architect Comrn. Pietro Rosa in the Farnese Gardens (pur- 
chased in 1801 by Napoleon III. from King Francis II. for 250,000 
fr. ). The Vigna Nussiner was presented to the city by the 

Palatine Hill. ROME. Museum. 181 

Emperor of Russia in 1857 , after he had caused excavations to 
be made in it during the preceding eleven years under the super- 
vision of Vescovali. Important discoveries have also been made 
by the Cav. Visconti since 18(36 in the Vigna del Collegio Inglese, 
which was purchased by Pius IX. Since the incorporation of Rome 
with the kingdom of Italy and the purchase of the Farnese Gai- 
dens by the Italian government (in Dec. 1870, for a sum of 
650,000 fr.) these various excavations have been entrusted to 
the sole management of-M. Rosa, who has caused the different 
parts of the ruins to be connected by paths, thus rendering them 
conveniently accessible (on Thursdays and Sundays from 10 o'clock 
till dusk). No fee. Entrance from the Forum, opposite Constan- 
tine's basilica. The ruins may be inspected in the course of an 
afternoon, but their imposing character coupled with the beautiful 
and varied views commanded by the Palatine render them well 
worthy of repeated visits. 

The excavations of the * Farnese Gardens are first entered. 
Notwithstanding the great difficulties which attended the pro- 
secution of the work- , such as the removal of rubbish 20 ft. 
in depth, very important discoveries have been made here. The 
character of the ruins brought to light has not yet been precisely 
ascertained in every case, but they convey a striking idea of the 
structures with which the Palatine was once covered. M. Rosa, 
on whose researches the following description is based, has drawn a 
map of the entire region, which is reproduced photographically and 
exposed to view at different points (it may be purchased at Loscher's 
bookshop, Corso346, for 3 l /. 2 fr.). The streets, temples, houses, and 
palaces are everywhere furnished v ith notices of the most important 
passages in ancient literature supposed to relate to them. The 
success of these attempts at identification is, however, necessarily 
doubtful in many cases , and a number of the names must be 
legarded as mere matter of conjecture. 

After ascending the first stair to a point below the dwelling 
of the director , the visitor turns to the r. and enters a small 
* Museum, where the most interesting objects found during the 
excavations, either in the originals or in casts, are collected. 

In the centre , near the entrance , young Bacchus led by a 
nymph; statue of a youth in basalt; torso of a Venus Genetrix. 
To the 1. , by the posterior wall , cast of a Cupid in the act of 
pouring out wine (original at Paris, found in the Nymphasum of 
the Flavian palace); on the r., torso of a satyr by Praxiteles; 
three female busts of nero antico. Lett row: *head of ^Escula- 
pius , perhaps belonging to the torso with the .snake on the r. ; 
female portrait-head; on the r., head of dead barbaiian; 1. heads 
of Nero and Drusus. By the 1. wall lamps and other antiquities. 

182 Palatine Tlill. ROME. House of Tiberius. 

Specimens of the different kinds of stone found among the ruins. 
By the r. wall coins, glasses, objects in ivory, fragments of stucco, 
brick-stamps. Among the terracotta fragments by the wall of the 
entrance two *reliefs with representations of mysteries should be 

The visitor should now descend the stone stairs to the r. to 
the Clivus Victoriae, the ancient pavement of which is visible on 
both sides. This street originally led to the Forum on the r., 
through the Porta Romana , but was afterwards entirely covered 
by the structures of Caligula. To the latter belong the huge sub- 
structures and well preserved vaulting which here strike the eye. 
If the traveller descend the Clivus Victoriae to the r. to the Fo- 
rum, he will perceive above Mm, about 45 paces to the 1., the 
beginning of the bridge which Caligula caused to be thrown over 
the Forum to the Capitol, in order to facilitate his intercourse with 
the Capitoline Jupiter, whose image on earth he pretended to be. 
The bridge gradually ascends towards the Forum ; by the second 
paved way diverging to the 1. a fragment of the original marble 
balustrade is still standing. Returning hence and ascending the 
narrow stair , the traveller reaches the bridge , which he follows 
to the farther extremity, passing various fragments of mosaic 
pavement. The purpose of the rooms on the 1. is not yet preci- 
sely ascertained. On emerging, we proceed to the 1. along the 
slope of the hill, which affords a series of tine views. Imme- 
diately in the foreground lie the slopes of the Palatine. In front 
of the temple of the Dioscuri rises the church of S. Maria Libe- 
ratrice with extensive walls adjoining it , occupying the site of 
the temple of Vesta and the Regia. Farther distant is the an- 
cient circular church of <S. Teodoro, also erected on the foun- 
dations of an ancient structure (perhaps a temple of Romulus). 

The remains of opus reticulatum on the 1. belong to the pa- 
latical edifices of Tiberius, which extended to the W. of the pa- 
lace of Caligula. At the extremity of the last slope the traveller 
reaches a wooden stair by the inscription 'Domus Tiberiana!, and 
descends past the Auyuralorium , a lofty square platform on the 
r. where the auspices were consulted, and the back of the palace 
of Tiberius on the 1., to a private *dwolling excavated in 1869, 
which appears to have survived the destruction of all the other 
douses of the kind. It is believed to have been the house of 
Tiberius Claudius Nero, the father of Tiberius, to which his mo- 
ther Livia also retired after the death of Augustus, in order to 
marry whom she had been divorced from her first husband. The 
passage on the 1., once built over by the structures of Tiberius, 
descends to the house. 

A flight (if six steps descends to the mosaic pavement of the vaulted 
Vestibulum , whence the quadrangular Atrium is enlered. Adjoining u R ' 
latter are three chambers opposite the entrance. The mural'paintings here 

Palatine Hill. ROME. Flavian Palace. 182 a 

will bear comparison with the linost of those discovered at Pompeii. The 
lirst on the r. in the central room represents Io guarded by Argus, while 
Mercury approaches to release her, the second represents street-scenes; on 
the wall opposite the entrance are Polyphemus and Galatea. The central 
pictures represent large windows whence a view of mythological scenes is 
obtained. The admirable perspective is best observed in the picture of 
Galatea when seen from the entrance of the Atrium. The two smaller paint- 
ings in the corners above, representing sacrificial scenes, afford a good idea 
of the ancient style of pictures, which like the mediaeval altar-triptychs could 
be closed by two folding shutters or wings. By the 1. wall are leaden water 
pipes with inscriptions from which the history of this house has been 
gathered. The walls of the chamber to the r. are adorned with magnificent 
* : garlands, from which masks and other Bacchanalian objects depend between 
the columns; the walls of the room to the 1. are divided into brown sec- 
tions edged with red and green, above which are light arabesques between 
winged figures on a white ground. Adjoining the r. side of the atrium is 
the Triclinium , or bedroom , recognisable by the inscription , with walls 
painted bright red. The two large central paintings represent landscapes, 
that on the r. the attributes of Diana (large indented crown, stag's and wild 
boar's heads). On the entrance-wall are two glass vases with fruits. — At 
the back of the house are situated the unpretending offices (bedroom, store- 
room, etc.), which are reached by a small wooden stair to the r. as the 
triclinium is quitted. 

Returning through the vestibule to the passage and following 
it to the r. to the end, where a well-preserved head of Venus in 
marble stands upon a Corinthian capital, the visitor will perceive 
the continuation of the passage to the 1., leading to the residence 
of the director. At the beginning of the circular vaulting consi- 
derable remains of the stuccoating is still seen. Beyond these first 
arches a second subterranean passage is reached on the i\, with 
vaulting and pavement in mosaic (fragments only extant), leading 
(finally by steps) to the Palace of the Flavii, the most important 
part of the excavations of the Palatine. About twenty paces in a 
straight direction from the mouth of the passage the spacious Ta- 
blinum is reached, the ancient imperial residence properly so call- 
ed. Domitian, by whose father Vespasian the palace was erected, 
constituted it the chief seat of the Roman government, and made 
those arrangements which are still traceable in the ruins. The 
disposition of the apartments is that of an ordinary Roman dwell- 
ing (Atrium, Tablinum, Peristylium, etc.), but on a much larger 
scale and without offices. Crossing the tablinum and proceeding to 
the E. verge of the plateau (in the direction of the basilica of 
Constantino) we reach an oblong anterior court with three rectan- 
gular projections, the site of the Atrium, and once surrounded 
with columns. This was the station of the guards of the palace, 
and also served as an antechamber for audiences etc. — From the 
central projection a view is obtained in a straight direction of the 
scanty remains of the temple of Jupiter Stator, the foundation of 
which tradition ascribes to Romulus, and which was situated near 
the Porta Muyionis. Remains of a substructure of tufa blocks 
(two of which bear Greek names), belonging to an ante-Neronian 
restoration of the temple, have recently been brought to light. To 
the r. of this a part of the ancient basalt pavement of the Via 

182 b Palatine Hill. ROME. Flavian Palace. 

Nova is observed, and farther distant in the foreground near the 
inscription 'Roma Quadrata', are remains of the wall of this 
the most ancient city , constructed of regularly hewn blocks of 
tufa. — Adjoining the atrium are three chambers, the most S. 
of which is the Lararium, or chapel of the Lares or household- 
gods. On a pedestal at the extremity of the chapel is a small 
square altar in marble with figures of the Oenius Familiaris and 
the Lares. The former stands in front with covered head ; the 
latter are represented at the sides in the typical style common in 
Pompeian works of the kind, with boots, a short chiton, a rhyton 
or drinking-horn in the raised hand , and a situla or pitcher in 
the other. The second apartment is the Tablinum already men- 
tioned, which in private dwellings was the principal sitting-room. 
It was here employed as a throne-room, and here the emperors 
granted audiences. This extensive hall, with its large semicir- 
cular apsis which was occupied by the throne , and its eight 
niches alternately round and square, containing still extant square 
pedestals, was originally entirely covered. An adequate idea of 
its magnificence can hardly now be formed , when it has been 
deprived of its decorated ceiling, when the walls have lost their 
marble covering, the niches their statues , and the pedestals the 
colossal figures which once occupied them. The third apartment, 
that on the N., is the Basilica Jovis, where the emperor pro- 
nounced his legal decisions. The semicircular tribune was se- 
parated from the space allotted to the litigants by a marble screen, 
a fragment of which still stands here. The latter space was 
bounded on each side by a narrow colonnade , some of the 
bases of which and one entire column are preserved. — To the 
W. of the tablinum is situated the Peristylium , two-thirds of 
which only have been excavated (one-third on the S. side is 
covered by the court of the adjoining convent of the Salesian 
nuns) , a vast square garden fw sq. yds. in area, originally sur- 
rounded by a colonnade. Its imposing dimensions and a few 
traces of its marble covering (giallo antico) are now the sole in- 
dications of its ancient magnificence. The open space in the 
centre was originally occupied by fountains, trees, and flowers. 
At the N.W. corner a stair descends to two subterranean cham- 
bers (perhaps bath-rooms), showing traces of stucco decorations 
and painting. The carefully hewn blocks of stone observed here 
probably belonged to a still more ancient structure. — Opening 
on the peristyle along its entire width was the Triclinium, or 
dining-hall (Jovis Coenatio), whence the diners could enjoy a view 
of the fountains and trees of the garden. In the semicircular 
apsis on the W. wall most of the original marble and porphyry 
covering of the pavement in still extant. The remains of the 
pavement and covering of the wall on the N. side are more 
scanty. Adjacent to the latter is the Nymphaeum , or fountain 

Palatine. ROME. T. of Jupiter Victor. 182 c 

saloon , containing an elliptical basin , in the centre of which 
rises a fountain covered with partially preserved maTble slabs, 
and once employed as a stand for plants. The other smaller 
chambers which extend along the N. side of the palace are of 
inferior interest, and their purposes are not yet ascertained. The 
same may be said of the chambers adjoining the back of the 
dining-hall on the W. The visitor next enters a colonnade, the 
six cipollino columns of which (two entire, the others partially 
preserved) rest on foundations of peperine dating from the repub- 
lican epoch, and visible from above through the broken pavement. 
The following-room, as the notice informs us, is conjectured to 
have been the once celebrated Palatine Library. The next, with 
slightly rounded niche and seats along the walls, is supposed to 
have been the Academia or lecture-room. 

From the academia a few steps descend to the flight of steps 
by which an ancient temple is approached. This was the temple 
of Jupiter Victor, erected in consequence of a vow made by Fa- 
bius Maximus at the Battle of Sentinum (B.C. 295) 5 26 steps 
in 5 different flights (on the 4th landing is a round pedestal 
with an inscription) ascend to the nearly square substructure of 
the temple, the great age of which is indicated by the stumps 
of columns of peperine, originally covered with stucco. Opposite 
the S.W. corner of this temple (and exactly opposite the inscrip- 
tion Hum Fabius Maximus'^) a recently constructed passage de- 
scends, connecting the imperial ruins on the S. side of the Palatine 
with those above described. Before visiting these ruins, we may 
proceed about 50 paces farther to a flight of steps discovered in 
1870, which formed the ancient approach to the Palatine hill 
from the Circus Maximus. The steps are hewn in the natural 
tufa rock and are flanked by solid masonry constructed of huge 
blocks of stone without mortar, obviously of very great antiquity. 
The destination of the structures on either side is still involved 
in obscurity. 

We now return to the above mentioned path recently con- 
structed, descend as far as its first turn towards the 1., and then 
proceed for 3 min. in a straight direction along the height, pass- 
ing several unexplained ruins and the gardener's house below the 
Villa Mills , the beautiful cypresses of which peep down from 
above. Beyond the house a small flight of stone steps and then 
a wooden stair are ascended to a plateau bounded on the E. and 
S. by the imposing ruins of palaces chiefly constructed by the 
emperors Commodus and Septimius Severus. In magnitude and 
picturesqueness these ruins surpass those of the Farnese Gardens, 
but are of inferior interest owing to the obscurity in which their 
arrangements and purposes are involved. The excavations under- 

182 c? Palatine. ROME. Palace of Commodus. 

taken here at the instance of Pius IX. during the last few years 
have brought to light a considerable number of the lower cham- 
bers of these palaces and edifices. Turning to the 1. on the pla- 
teau past a wooden balustrade towards the white hut of the cus- 
todian we reach a second and more extensive space in the form 
of a stadium, i. e. of oblong shape with a rounded extremity 
towards the W. Opposite us lies the convent of S. Bonaventura 
with its palms towering over the wall ; on our r. are remains 
of later imperial structures erected above the lower lying build- 
ings, and on our 1. rise the white convent walls of the Villa 
Mills. This plateau was originally enclosed by a colonnade, con- 
sisting of pillars of masonry covered with marble, with half- 
columns in front of them. To the 1. as the plateau is entered 
the remains of these pillars together with the semicircular water- 
basin in front of the apsis are visible below. Other relics of the 
colonnade are also observed farther on. The colonnade was ad- 
joined by three apartments , covered by the imposing apses of a 
subsequent structure. The third of these still possesses traces of 
mural paintings and a portion of its mosaic pavement. In the 
large central chamber the point of divergence of the vaulted ceil- 
ing is distinctly traceable. Several more fragments of the pillars 
of the colonnade are seen beyond this, on both sides of the path, 
and we at length reach the E. side of the structure at the ex- 
tremity of the plateau. The variegated marble covering of the 
half-columns is here particularly observable. To the r. in front 
of the wooden door is an ancient stair which descended through 
a painted passage to the colonnade. Turning hence towards the 
S.W. and passing the back of the apsis (the lofty proportions and 
fretted vaulting of which should be observed), we enjoy a beau- 
tiful view to the >S. and proceed between insignificant remains 
of buildings and (keeping to the r.) across a paved bridge to a 
plateau commanding a most admirable *view in every direction. 

Towards the E. tower the ruins of the Colosseum , nearer are five 
arches of the Aqua Claudia which supplied the Palatine with water; more to 
the r. (SO are the churches of S. Giovanni e Paolo, the Lateran, in the fore 
ground S. Gregorio, and above it S. Stefano Rotondo and the new casino of 
the Villa Mattei. Still farther to the v. appear the ruins of the Therm* 
of Caracalla (two towers beyond which to the 1. belong to the Porta S. 
Sebastiano), and S. Balbina; then towards the W. the white tombstones of 
the Jewish burial-ground on the site of the Circus Maximus, which occupied 
the valley between the Palatine and Aventine; beyond them the Pyramid 
of Cestius , and in the Campagna S. Paolo fuori le Mnra ; then the Avcn- 
tine with its three churches, and finally St. Peter's. 

Returning hence across the bridge and descending to the pla- 
teau above described (the passages and chambers here are desti- 
tute of decoration and comparatively uninteresting), we next de- 
scend a wooden stair and then a lower stair by the gardeners 
house, and passing a kitchen-garden arrive at a series of cham- 
bers lying on the W. slope of the Palatine, below the verandah 
of the Villa Mills. These are believed to have been the Paedn- 

Palatine. ROME. S. Teodoro. 183 

yogium , or school for the imperial slaves, who like those of all 
the wealthier Romans were educated with the utmost care. A 
colonnade of granite columns (one of which is still extant), the 
marble entablature of which is now supported by pillars of ma- 
sonry, lay in front of these apartments. Their walls are covered 
with writing (ariif/iti, done with the stilus, or ancient substitute 
for a pen), consisting of names, sentences, sketches etc., similar 
to the performances of mischief loving schoolboys of the present 
day. The well-known caricature of the Crucified , now in the 
Museo kirclieriano (p. 116) was found here. One of these scrawls, 
'Corinthus exit de predagogio", furnished a clue to the destination 
of this building. 

On the 1. wall of the third room is the sketch of a mill driven hy an ; under which is tile inscription, 'labora asrlle quomodo ego laboravi el 
proderit 1ibi\ The tigure of a Roman ^soldier is also scratched on the wall 
iiiTe. On the posterior wall one ol* the most conspicuous names is Felici, 
in large letters both Greek and Uonian. On either side of the central se- 
micircular chamber with a square niche is situated a small irregularly shaped 
chamber; that, on the r. is adorned with mural paintings (of Fortuna etc.). 

Quitting Ihese rooms by the gate, the visitor proceeds in a 
straight direction for about 200 paces to an altar of travertine with 
an ancient inscription ('sei deo sei deivae sacrum' 1 etc.), dedicated 
to the unknown God. Some 60 paces beyond it is seen the most 
considerable fragment extant of the ancient wall of Roma Qua- 
dratn constructed of blocks of tufa without mortar , placed alter- 
nately length and breadth-ways. Adjoining this is a grotto, sup- 
posed to be the Lupercal to which the she-wolf is said to have 
sought refuge when driven from the twins by the shepherds. A 
stair ascended from this grotto to the plateau of the hill, termi- 
nating at the point indicated by the inscription ' Supercilium sca- 
larum C'ari . About 250 paces farther the visitor passes the church 
of S. Teodoro and reaches the Porta Romana and the ('lions Victo- 
riae. As an appropriate termination to the excursion the visitor 
is recommended to ascend the terrace by the director's house, 
whence a charming survey of the chaos of ruins, the city, the 
Oampagna, and the distant mountains is enjoyed. 

From the Monastery of S. Bonaventura (approached by the 
street in the valley, adjoining the arch of Titus) the (Uclius and 
the Colosseum may be well surveyed. The palms of the monas- 
tery-garden are celebrated. 

Quitting the Forum, skirting the slope of the Palatine past 
the church of S. Maria Liberatrice , which stands on the site of 
the temple of Vesta, and traversing the Via di S. Teodoro, the 
traveller first reaches (1.) the church of S. Teodoro, lying low, 
and somewhat removed from the street. It is mentioned for the 
first time under Gregory the Great, and probably occupies the 
site of an ancient temple. In the interior (open on Friday mor- 
nings till 9 o'clock) a Christian mosaic of the 7th cent, is preserv- 

1 84 S. Giorgio in Velabro. ROME. Cloaca Maxima. 

ed. A little beyond it the street divides : to the r. it descends to 
the ancient Velabrum, a quarter or street which extended through 
the Vicus Tuscus to the Forum, and was prolonged through the 
Forum Boarium to the river; in a straight direction it leads to the 

* Janus Quadrifrons , an edifice with four arched passages, dating 
from the later imperial age , destination unknown , possibly a 
species of exchange ; above it once rose a second story. 

To the r. of this is S. Giorgio in Velabro, founded in the 
4th cent., re-erected in the 7th, and often restored subsequently. 
The portico, according to the inscription, dates from the 13th cent. 
The interior is a basilica with aisles, 16 ancient columns, and a 
venerable tabernacle. The frescoes of Giotto, with which it was 
once adorned, have disappeared. (The church is rarely open ; visi- 
tors knock at the door by the church to the 1. behind the arch.) 

Adjacent to the church is the small *Arcus Argentarius, de- 
corated with worthless sculptures, which, according to the inscrip- 
tion , was erected by the money-changers and merchants of the 
Forum Boarium (cattle - market) in honour of Septimius Severus 
and his family. This forum must therefore have stretched from 
this point as far as the Tiber, an extensive space and the scene 
of the busiest comim rcial traffic. 

Proceeding through the low archway of brick , opposite the 
above arch , and passing the mill , the traveller arrives at the 

* Cloaca Maxima, one of the most ancient structures in Rome, 
founded under the Tarquinii for the drainage of the Forum and 
the adjacent low ground. It is the earliest known application 
of the arch-principle in Rome, and has defied the storms of more 
than 2000 years ; two thirds of the depth are now filled up. A 
basin was formed here, into which springs were conducted in or- 
der to facilitate the flow. In the mill (5 soldi) the continuation 
of the cloaca towards the Forum is seen, and from the Ponte Rotto 
its influx into the Tiber. It is constructed of peperine with oc- 
casional layers of travertine; at the influx, of peperine alone. 

Continuing to follow the street beyond the Janus and turning 
to the 1., the traveller reaches the Piazza della Bocca della Verith, 
which occupies a portion of the ancient Forum Boarium , with a 
fountain in the centre. Here to the 1., at the foot of the Aven- 
tine, stands the church of S. Maria in Cosmedin, or Bocca delia 
Verith, so called from the ancient mouth of a fountain to the 1. 
in the portico, into which, according to the belief of the middle 
a^es, the ancient Romans inserted their right hands when binding 
themselves by an oath. It occupies the site of an ancient temple, 
10 columns of which are immured in the walls (3 on the 1. side, 
the others in the anterior wall), probably the Temple of the Three 
Deities (Ceres, Liber, and Libera), which was founded in conse- 
buence of a vow during a famine , B. C. 497 , or according to 
others a Temple of Fortune. The nave is also supported by 20 

8. Alessio. ROME. S. Maria Aventina. 185 

ancient columns. The church, which is said to date from the 
3rd cent. , was re - constructed by Hadrian 1. in the 8th (from 
which period the beautiful campanile dates), and was subsequently 
often restored. The beautiful opus Alexandrinum of the *pave- 
rnent in the interior merits inspection. In the nave remnants of 
the ancient choir are preserved , on the r. and 1. two handsome 
arnbos and a candelabrum for the ceremonies of Easter. Canopy of 
the high-altar by fieodatus (13th cent.). In the apse a handsome 
episcopal throne of the same period, and an ancient Madonna. 

Opposite the church, on the Tiber, stands the small and to- 
lerably well preserved circular *'l'einple of Hercules Victor (?) 
(now 8. Maria del Sale), formerly regarded as a Temple of Vesta, 
consisting of 20 Corinthian columns (one of those next to the 
river is wanting), insufficiently covered by a wooden roof. 

A short distance hence up the stream, immediately to the r., 
is a second small and well preserved *Temple (converted in 880 
into the church of £. Marin Eyiziacii) , with 4 Ionic columns at 
each end , and 7 on one side ; the once open portico has been 
closed by a wall. It has been known by a variety of different 
appellations (e. g. Temple of Fortuna Virilis), but was probably 
dedicated to Pudicitia Patricia. The interior contains nothing 
worthy of note. On the other side of the transverse street is 
situated the picturesque mediaeval *House of Crescentius (10th 
cent.), commonly known as the Casa di Rienzi or di Pilato, con- 
structed principally of ancient fragments. The long inscription 
which it bears has given rise to a great variety of interpretations. 

Here the Ponte liotto crosses to Trastevere (p. 228), where in 
ancient times the Pons .-Emilius stood , having been constructed 
B. C. 181. After frequent restorations the two arches (5 in all) 
nearest the 1. bank fell, and the bridge was never reconstructed, 
whence its present appellation. Within the last few years, however, 
an iron chain-bridge has been thrown across the gap (1 soldo), 
and affords a picturesque view : on the r. the island of the Ti- 
ber, in form resembling a ship; 1. the Aventine; beneath, the 
influx of the Cloaca Maxima, and extensive embankments which 
protect the banks against the violence of the current. 

If, in proceeding from the Forum through the Via di S. Teo- 
ioro, the Janus Quadrifrons be left on the r., the traveller soon 
-reaches in the Via de' Fenili , at the corner, the church of 8. 
■Knastasia, mentioned as early as 449, frequently restored. By the 
'buttresses of the interior the ancient columns are still standing. 
ii the 1. aisle the monument of Card. Angelo Mai. Beneath the 
"hurch are substructures belonging to the Circus Maximus, and 
/till earlier remains of the walls of Roma Quadrata. 
i ! >jj The Via de' Cerchi is followed to the 1., running between the 
Palatine and Aventine, where, as its name suggests, the Circus 

186 Aventine. ROME. Marmorata. 

Maximus was situated, which was originally instituted by the 
kings, subsequently extended by C&sar and furnished with stone 
seats, and finally more highly decorated by the emperors. The 
limits were in the direction of the Forum Boarium ; in the centre 
ran a wall (spina) longitudinally , which , connecting the mete 
(goals) , bounded the course of the racers. With a few trifling 
exceptions the walls of the circus have entirely disappeared; its 
form is best distinguished from a higher point, as from the Pa- 
latine. Within its precincts, at the base of the Aventine, the 
Jewish burial-ground is situated. 

The Via de' Cerchi soon after divides , leading to the 1. to 
the Via di S. Gregorio (p. 191), and to the r. to the Via di Porta 
8. Sebastiano (p. 191). 

The Aventine. 
Monte Teslaccio. S. Paolo fuori. 

The Aventine, anciently the principal residence of the Roman 
f'lobs and subsequently densely peopled, is now entirely deserted, 
being occupied by monasteries and vineyards only. At its base 
lies the Porta S. Paolo , leading to the celebrated Basilica of 
that name, adjoining which is the Pyramid of Cestius with the 
Protestant Burial-ground and the enigmatical Monte Testaccio. 
The main street skirts the base of the hill close to the river, 
whilst others rapidly ascend the hill. The principal route is descri- 
bed first. It commences at the Via dclla Salara from the Piazzi 
dellaBocca della Verita (p. 184), and passes 8. Maria in Cosmedin; 
by the church a street diverges to the 1., leading (to the r. where 
it divides) in 10 min. to 8. Prisoa (p. 189). 2 min. farther, at 
the small chapel of St. Anna , the street ascends in 5 min. to 
the three adjacent churches (p. 188). 

The main street then continues between houses and walls ot 
no interest and (under the name of Via della Marmorata) reach- 
es the Tiber in 6 min. from the Piazza Bocca della Verita, skirt- 
ing the river for about 2 min. To the r. a pleasing retrospect 
of the Ponte Kotto and the Capitol. The ' large building on the 
opposite bank is the Hospital of S. Michele , in front of it the 
small harbour where the steamboats to Ostia and Porto lie. The 
Marmorata, the landing-place and depot of the unwrought marble 
of Carrara, is next reached. In the course of the excavations 
begun here in 18G7 the ancient quay has been discovered. 

After following the foot-path by the river for 8 min., two raised land- 
ing-places with! inclined planes to facilitate the removal of heavy weights 
are reached. Rings for mooring vessels are still visible. Numerous blocks 
of wrought and unwrought marble were found in the vicinity, some of 
them of a rare description and great value; many still bear the marks ot 
Ihe fpiarry, numbers, addresses, and other inscriptions. 

From the Marmorata the street proceeds between walls and 
through an archway of brick (Arco di S. Lazaro). After 6 min. the 

Protestant Cemeslery. ROME. Pyrdmid of Cestius. 187 

street from the three churches on the Avon tine descends from the 1. 
(no thoroughfare). Opposite, on the r., the large gateway (No. 21) 
leads to the Prati del Popolo Romano, which enclose the Protestant 
cemetery and Monte Testaccio. On the 1. a powder-magazine is 
passed, the Pyramid of Cestius and the old burial-ground being 
left to the 1., and in 3 min. the gate of the Protestant Cemetery 
is reached (PI. Ill, 16) (custodian present from 7 a. m. to 4^4 
p. m. ; Y2 f r 0- The smaller and older burying-ground for non- 
Romanists , laid out at the beginning of the century, adjoining 
the pyramid and surrounded by a ditch , is now disused (the 
custodian unlocks the gate if desired). 

In 1825 the present area, since doubled in extent, was set 
apart for this purpose. It is a retired spot, rising gently to- 
wards the city-wall, affording pleasing views, and shaded by lofty 
cypresses, where numerous strangers, English, American, German, 
Russian, etc., are interred. Amongst many illustrious names the 
eye will fall with interest upon that of the poet Shelley (d. 1IS22), 
'cor cordium'. His heart only was buried here; his remains were 
burned in the bay of Spezia, where they were washed on shore. 

The *Pyramid of Cestius, originally situated in the Via 
Ostiensis, was enclosed by Aurelian within the city-wall. It is 
the tomb of Caius Cestius, who died within the last thirty years 
before Christ, and, according to the inscriptions on the E. and W. 
sides ('C. Cestius L. F. T'ob. Epulo. Pr. Tr. PI. VII. vir Epu- 
lonum'), was pnetor, tribune of the people, and member of the 
college of Septomviri Epulonuin , or priests whose office was to 
conduct the solemn sacrificial banquets. The inscription on the 
W. skle beneath records that the monument was erected in 330 
days under the supervision of L. Pontius Mela and the freedman 
Pothus. Alexander VII. caused the somewhat deeply imbedded 
monument to be extricated in 1663, on which occasion, besides 
the two columns of white marble, the colossal bronze foot, now 
in the Capitoline Museum, was found. According to the in- 
scription on the basement, it appears to have belonged to a colossal 
statue of Cestius. 

The Egyptian pyramidal form was not unfreuuently employed 
by the Romans in the construction of their tombs. That of 
Cestius is constructed of brick and covered with marble blocks; 
height 117 ft., width of each side of the base 93 ft. The interior 
(17 ft. in length, 14 ft. in width) was originally accessible by 
ladders only ; the present entrance was made by order of Alexan- 
der VII. (key kept by the custodian of the Protestant cemetery). 
The vaulting exhibits traces of painting. 

Traversing the meadows, the traveller next proceeds to Monte 
Testaccio (PI. Ill, 13), the summit of which is indicated by a 
wooden cross. It commands a magnificent **panorama: N. the 
city, beyond it the mountains surrounding the crater of Baccano, 

188 Monte Testaccio. ROME. S. Sabina. 

then the isolated Soracte with its five peaks. E. the Sabine Mts. 
in the background the imposing Leonessa, in the nearer chain 
M. Gennaro, at its base Monticelli , farther to the r. Tivoli. 
Beyond this chain the summits of M. Velino above the Lago Fucino 
are visible. S. of Tivoli appears Palestrina. After a depression 
above which some of the Volscian Mts. rise, follow the Alban Mts. : 
(in the buttress farthest E. is Colonna, beyond it Frascati, higher 
up Rocca di Papa, M. Cavo with its monastery, below it Marino 
finally to the r. Castel Gandolfo. The most conspicuous objects 
in the broad Campagna are the long rows of arches of the Aqua 
Claudia and the Acq. Felice towards the S., and the tombs of the 
Via Appia with that of Caecilia Metella. 

M. Testaccio, 170 ft. in height, is, as its name signifies, 
entirely composed of the remains of broken pottery. When and 
how this hill was formed is still an unsolved mystery. The popular 
belief was that the vessels in which subjugated nations paid their 
tribute-money were here broken, whilst the learned have assumed 
that potteries once existed in the vicinity, and that the broken 
fragments together with other rubbish were here collected to be 
used for building purposes. Others have connected this remark- 
able hill with the Neronian conflagration , or with the magazines 
situated here on the Tiber near the harbour (emporium). It 
existed prior to the Aurelian wall, and remnants of temples found 
there date from the first centuries of the Christian era. It is now 
honey-combed with cellars , in some of which wine is purveyed, 
and attracts pleasure-seeking crowds on holidays. 

A visit to the three adjacent churches on the Aventine may 
conveniently be accomplished in going or returning from S. Paolo. 
On the route from the city thither the traveller first reaches 

*S. Sabina (PI. Ill, lfc>J, erected under Celestine I. by Petrus, 
an lllyrian priest, in 425, and restored in the 13th, 15th, and 
Kith centuries, has since the time of Innocent III. belonged to 
the Dominicans. It is usually entered by a side-door; if closed, 
visitors ring at the door to the 1., and proceed through the mon- 
astery to the former portico, now closed, and the principal portal 
with handsome carved doors, probably of the 12th cent. The 
interior, with its 24 ancient Corinthian columns of Parian marble 
and open roof, has well preserved the character of an early basi- 
lica. It probably occupies the site of an ancient temple. 

On tlie entrance-wall , over the door, an ancient inscription in mosaic 
with the name of the founder; on the 1. a figure emblematical of the Ecclesia. 
ex < ircumcisione (Jewish Christians), on the r. that of the Eccl. ex Gen- 
tihus (Pagan Christians). 

On the pavement in the centre of the nave is the tomb of Munio da 
Zamora, principal of the Dominican order (d. 1300), adorned with mosaic. 
In the chapel of St. Poininicus, at the extremity of the r. aisle, the "Ma- 
donna del Rosario with St. Catharine, an altar-piece by Sassoferrato , re- 
garded as his master-piece. Other paintings (by Ziirrht'ri and others) are 
of no great value. 

5. Alessio. ROME. S. Maria Aventina. 189 

The handsome court of the adjoining monastery is embellished 
with upwards of 100 small columns. The garden commands a 
fine *view of Rome with the Tiber in the foreground. 

S. Alessio (PI. Ill , 18) (when closed , visitors ring at the 
door to the 1. beneath the portico) is an ancient church with an 
entrance-court. The date of its foundation is unknown , but it 
was re-consecrated by Honorius III. after the recovery of the 
relics of the saint in 1217. In 1426 it came into the possession 
of the order of St. Jerome, to which with the neighbouring mon- 
astery it still belongs. The interior was modernised in 1750, 
and again recently. 

The 1. aisle contains a well and a wooden staircase belonging to the 
house of the parents of the saint, which formerly stood by the side of the 
church. Two small columns adorned with mosaic in the choir are, accord- 
ing to the inscription , the remnants of a work of 19 columns by Jac. 

A small piazza is next reached. The green door on the r. side 
contains the celebrated key-hole through which St. Peter's is seen 
at the extremity of the principal avenue of the garden. Visitors 
ring in order to obtain access to the church of 

S. Maria Aventina, or del Priorato (PI. Ill, 18). The ad- 
jacent monastery is a priory of the Maltese order. The church, 
founded at a very remote period , was restored by Pius V. and 
altered to its present unsightly form by Piranesi in 1765. On 
the r. of the entrance is an ancient sarcophagus, on which Minerva 
and the Muses are represented; among them is the deceased 
(head unfinished); the remains of a Bishop Spinelli were after- 
wards placed in it. Also a statue of Piranesi, and the tombs of 
several members of the Maltese order (Caraffa , Caracciolo , Seri- 
pando, etc.) of the 15th cent. Fine view of the opposite bank of 
the Tiber from the garden. 

Beyond S. Maria in Cosmedin the Via di S. Sabina, and after- 
wards (1.) the Via di S. Prisca traverse the Aventine, terminating 
opposite the Porta di S. Paolo. Midway stands the church of 
8. Prisca (PI. Ill, 21), usually closed , founded at a very remote 
period, but in the 17th cent, entirely modernised. The ancient 
columns have been incorporated with the modern masonry. 

The Vii/na Maccarani, opposite the church (the vigna is tra- 
versed in a straight direction as far as the extremity, whence the 
main path to the 1. is followed), contains a fragment of the vene- 
rable Servian Wall, excavated on the slope of the Aventine. It 
consists of large blocks of tuffstone; the arch seen here belongs 
to a much later period. In the latter period of the republic the 
wall , as the ruins indicate , was disused and entirely built over. 
Another, but more imperfect fragment may be seen in the vigna 
on the other side of the street, below S. Saba. 

Below S. Prisca, towards the gate, the street ascends to S. Saba 
(PI. Ill, 28), a church of great antiquity, but almost entirely re- 

190 Porta 8. Paolo. ROME. 8. Paolo fuori. 

erected in 1465. To the 1. in the portico an ancient sarcophagus 
with representation of a wedding and Juno Pronuba. The interior 
contains 14 columns, some of granite , others of marble, with 
mutilated capitals ; the walls of the nave bear traces of painting. 

About li/ 2 M. from the Porta 8. Paolo (PI. Ill, 16), ancient- 
ly the Porta Ostiensis, is situated the celebrated church of S. Paolo 
fuori le Mura, with an important Benedictine Abbey. About mid- 
way on the unattractive route a small chapel on the 1. indicates 
the spot whore , according to the legend , St. Peter and St. Paul 
took leave of each other on their last journey. (Omnibus in the 
afternoon every half-hour from the corner of the Pal. Venezia, 
at the back of Gesit, 6 soldi; fiacre i 1 ^— 2 fr.J. 

** S. Paolo fuori le Mura, founded in 388 by Theodosius and 
Valentinian II. on the site of a small church of Constantine, 
renewed and embellished by numerous popes, especially Leo III., 
was, prior to the conflagration of the night of July 15th, 1823, 
the finest and most remarkable church at Rome. It was a basilica 
with double aisles and open roof; and 80 columns of pavonazetto 
and Parian marble, adorned with busts of the popes, supported 
the architrave. It moreover contained numerous ancient mosaics 
and frescoes , and in the Confessio the sarcophagus of St. Paul, 
who , according to tradition , was interred by a certain Lucina 
on her property here. The front towards the Tiber was approach- 
ed by a colonnade , and in the middle ages an arcaded passage 
connected it with the city. 

Immediately after the fire , Leo XII. commenced the restora- 
tion, which was presided over by Belli, and afterwards by Poletti. 
In 1840 the transept was consecrated by Gregory XVI., and in 
1854 the entire church by Pius IX. Unfortunately the ancient 
basilica has been superseded by a modern, and in many respects 
unsightly fabric. The dimensions, however, of the interior (410 ft. 
in length) and the materials of which it is constructed are im- 
posing. The principal portal towards the Tiber is still unfinished; 
the present entrance is either from the road on the opposite (E.) 
side, or by the portico on the N. side. The former, at the back 
of the campanile, should be selected. 

The small space first entered contains a colossal statue of Gregory XVI., 
and a few frescoes and ancient mosaics rescued from the fire. To the I. is 
the entrance to the Sacristy, which contains several good oil-paintings. 
Over the door the Scourging of Christ (attrib. ,to Signorelli), on the r. a 
Madonna with SS. Benedict, Paul, Peter, and Justina. Then 4 single figures 
of the same saints. In a straight direction from the entrance-hall seve- 
ral chapels are reached, containing a few ancient but greatly restored fres- 
coes. To the 1. in the last is the entrance to the court of the monastery, to 
the r. that, of the church, the transept of which is first entered. We begin, 
however, with the nave, which with the four aisles is borne by columns of 
granite from the Simplon. The two yellowish columns of oriental alabaster 
at. the entrance, as well as the four of the canopy of the high-altar, were 

8. Paolo fuori. ROME. Via Appia. 191 

presented by the Viceroy of Kgypt to Gregory XVI. Above the columns of 
the nave and aisles, and in the transept, a long series of portrait-medallions 
of all the popes in mosaic (each 5 ft. in diameter) have been placed. Between 
the windows in the upper part of the nave are representations from the life 
of St. Paul by Gagliardi, Podesti, Consoni, Balbi, etc. The windows of the 
external aisles are filled with stained glass (apostles and Fathers of the 
church). On the sides of the approach to the transept are the colossal sta- 
tues of St. Peter and St. Paul; the 'Confvssio, or shrine, is richly decorat- 
ed with rosso and verde from the lately re-discovered ancient quarries in 

On the triumphal arch 'mosaics of the 5th cent, (constructed at the 
instance of Galla Placidia, sister of Honorius and Arcadius) : Christ blessing 
in the Greek fashion (comp. the picture in the lower church of S. Clemente, 
p. 1SJ8), with the >24 elders of revelation. On the side towards the transept: 
Christ in the centre , 1. Paul, r. Peter. Beneath the triumphal arch is the 
high-altar with "canopy by Arnolfus and his assistant l'etrus (1285). — 
Transept : in the tribune "mosaics of the commencement of the 13th cent., 
Christ (resembling the figure on the arch) in the centre, on the r. SS. Peter 
and Andrew, on the 1. Paul and Luke. Under these are the 12 Apostles and 
two angels. Beneath , the modern episcopal throne. To the 1. by the apse 
the (1st) Chapel of St. Stephen , with statue of the saint by Rinaldi , and 
two pictures (Stoning oi St. Stephen, by Podesti , and the Council of high- 
priests, by Coghetti). (2nd) Cappella del Crocifisso: in front of the mosaic 
beneath , Ignatius Loyola and his adherents pronounced the vows of their 
new order, April 22nd, 1541. On the r. the (1st) Cap. del Coro, designed by C. 
Maderno, spared by the fire. (2nd) Cap. di S. Benedetto, with his statue by 
Tenerani. By the narrow walls of the transept : 1. altar with the Conver- 
sion of St. Paul by t'amuccini and the statues of St. Itomuald by Stocehi, 
and St. Gregory by Laboureur ; r. altar with the Assumption of the Virgin 
by Podesti, and statues of SS. Penedict and Theresa by Baini and Tenerani. 

The Monastery of the church has belonged to the Benedictines 
since 1442. It possesses a beautiful * Court of the 13i,h cent, 
(entrance see p. 190; visitors apply lor the key in the sacristy; 
'/■2 fr.), containing numerous ancient and early Christian inscrip- 
tions from the neighbouring, now inaccessible catacombs, and a 
few fragments of ancient and mediaeval sculptures , among them 
a large sarcophagus with the history of Apollo and Marsyas. The 
monastery is richly endowed, but the situation is $o unhealthy 
that it is deserted during the summer. The principal festivals 
of the church are on Jan. 25th, June 30th, and Dec. 28th. Oppo- 
site the church a poor osteria; the taverns, however, on the 
road 1/2 M. farther are favourite popular resorts. Visit to the 
Tre Fontane see p. 200. 

The Via Appia within the City. 
Thermae of Caracalla. Tomb of the Scipios. Columbaria. 
From the Arch of Constantine the Via di S. Gregorio between 
the Palatine and Csslius is followed. After 5 min. ft. Gregorio 
(p. 195) lies on the 1. ; then the Via de' Cerchi (p. 185) diverges 
to the r. and skirts the Palatine. A short distance farther the 
street proceeds in a direct line over the Aventine, below ft. Saba, 
to the Porta S. Paolo. The Via di Porta S. Sebastiano is now 
entered to the 1. Here was anciently situated the Capuan Gate 
(Porta Capena), whence the Via Appia issued. At the extremity 
of a rope-walk a street ascends on the r. to the church of 8. 

192 Thermit of Caracalla. ROME. '. 8S. Nereo ed Achilleo 

Balbina (PI. Ill, 23), situated on the slope of the Aventine, an 
edifice of considerable antiquity, with open roof, hut moder- 
nised and destitute of ornament (visitors ring at the gate on the 
r. of the church). The adjacent building is fitted up as a Re- 
formatory for youthful criminals. The old tower (ascended by an 
uncomfortable staircase) commands a fine *view. 

From the street a view is obtained of the Ca?lius with the 
Villa Mattei (p. 196) and S. Stefano Rotondo (p. 196) to the 1. 
The Via delle Mole di 8. Sisto, diverging to the 1., leads thither. 
The turbid streamlet Marrana is now crossed. Immediately to 
the r. the Via Antonina leads to the ruins of the ** Thermae of 
Caracalla (or Antoninianae) (PI. Ill, 23), 4 min. from the Arch 
of Oonstantine (visitors ring at the gate to the 1., V2 fr.)- They 
were commenced in 212 by Caracalla, extended by Heliogabalus, and 
completed by Alex. Severus : 1600 bathers could be accommodated 
at once. The magnificence of the establishment was extraordi- 
nary. Numerous statues (among them the Farnese Bull, Her- 
cules, and Flora at Naples), mosaics, etc. have been found here. 
Bare as the walls now are, and notwithstanding the destruction of 
the roof, the technical perfection of the structure is still apparent. 
The entire establishment was quadrangular in form, and surrounded 
by a wall, with porticoes, race-course, etc. The destination of all 
the chambers cannot now be precisely ascertained. The most 
important only are here enumerated. A spacious oblong is first 
entered, once surrounded by columns (peristyle) ; scanty remnants 
of mosaic pavement. To the 1. a large saloon is reached, which 
appears to have been fitted up as the Calidarium, or hot-air bath. 
By the last pillar on the r. a new stair has been constructed, 
ascending by 98 steps to the roof, which affords a magnificent 
* panorama of the Campagna and of ancient Rome. From the cali- 
darium a second peristyle is entered, corresponding to the former, 
and containing remnants of mosaic-pavement. The semicircular 
Exedra now leads hence to the Tepidarium or warm bath, situated 
in the centre, adjacent to the calidarium. L. of this is the Fri- 
gidarium, or cold bath, a large round space, the vaulting of which 
has fallen in. A small stair by the wall here affords a survey 
of a part of the grounds which surrounded the baths. In this 
direction the stadium was situated. Other remains of the therms 
are scattered over the neighbouring vineyards. In a closed room 
in the Calidarium (which the custodian shows, if desired) are 
preserved several fragments of architecture and sculpture found 
in the Therm Ee (e. g. a head of Marsyas , head of Apollo, torso 
of a Cupid, similar to that in the Galleria delle Statue, etc.). 

The main street is now regained. L. the public arboretum; 
some distance farther, r. the church of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo 
(PI. Ill, 26), standing on the site of a temple of Isis, founded 
at an early period, restored by Leo III., and almost entirely re- 
constructed by CarcL-Jl«aaius at the close of the 16th cent. 

S. Cesareo. ROME. Tomb of the Scipios. 193 

The interior exhibits the characteristics of an ancient basilica. At the 
extremity of the nave is an ambo on the 1., supposed to be of great age, 
transferred hither from S. Silvestro in Capite ; opposite is a marble cande- 
labrum for the Easter-candles, of the 15th cent. Above the arch of the tri- 
bune are fragments of a mosaic of the time of Leo III., freely supplement- 
ed by painting: Christ between Moses and Elias, in front the kneeling 
Apostles, r. the Annunciation, 1. the Madonna. 

The opposite church of S. Sisto , restored by Benedict XIII., 
contains nothing worthy of note. Adjoining it is the collection of 
the antiquity-vendor Guidi , who has commenced to excavate the 
Thermae of Caracalla opposite. The remains of an ancient dwelling- 
house with numerous paintings have already been discovered. 

Then to the 1. the Via delta Ferratella diverges to the Lateran, 
passing a small temple of the Lares. 

Somewhat farther , on the r. , S. Cesareo , a small but re- 
markable church, mentioned before the time of Gregory the Great, 
and finally restored by Clement VII. 

In the centre of the anterior portion of the church are two altars dat- 
ing from the close ol the 16th cent. ; at the farther extremity, to the 1., 
the old pulpit with sculptures : Christ as the Lamb , the symbols of the 
Apostles, and sphynxes; opposite, a modern candelabrum with ancient basis. 
The inlaid screen of the presbyterium and the decorations of the high-altar 
are nudigeval. The tribune contains an ancient episcopal throne. 

The piazza in front of the church is adorned with an ancient 
column. Here the Via di Porta Latina, the ancient Via Latina, 
which traversed the valley of the Sacco and terminated at Capua, 
diverges to the 1. The old Porta Latina is now closed. Near 
it to the 1. (5 min. walk from S. Cesareo), beyond the former 
monastery, is the church of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (PI. Ill, 
29), erected by Celestine III. in 1190, and effectually modernised 
by restorations in 1566 , 1633 , and finally by Card. Rasponi in 
1686. The 4 antique columns in the portico and 10 in the in- 
terior are now the only objects of interest it possesses. 

To the r., nearer the gate, an octagonal chapel of the 16th 
cent. , occupies the spot where the saint suffered martyrdom. 
The adjoining vigna (formerly Vigna Sassi) (key kept by custo- 
dian of the church) contains, immediately to the 1., a columbarium 
(see p. 194), interesting on account of its decorations in stucco 
and colours , the so-called Tomb of the Freedmen of Octavia. A 
stair, partly modem, descends to a niche decorated with plaster, 
below which is a cinerary urn with shells and mosaic. Beneath is 
the vaulted tomb , r. an apsis with painted vine-wreaths and Victo- 
ries. Here and by the wall are several aediculae, or cinerary 
urns in the form of temples, with inscriptions and representations. 
The vigna commands a pleasing view of the city. It may be 
traversed, and quitted by an egress to the Via di Porta S. Se- 
bastiano. At the outlet is the tomb of the Scipios (see below). 
Those who approach the vigna by the Via di Porta S. Sebastia- 
no reach on the 1. by the cypress (Vigna Sassi, No. 13) the ce- 
lebrated *Tomb of the Scipios, discovered in 1780 (}/ 2 fr.). A 

B MUF.h J 3 

194 Arch of Drusus. ROME. Porta S. jSebastiano. 

model only of the ancient sarcophagus of peperine-stone , which 
Pins VII. caused to be removed with the fragments of the others 
to the Vatican (see p. 241), is now here. In this sarcophagus 
reposed L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, Consul B. C. 297, the eldest 
member of the family buried here. The bones of the hero 
which had been found in a good state of preservation, were in- 
terred at Padua by Quirini , a Venetian , and are therefore with- 
drawn from the gaze of the curious. Here, too, were interred 
the son of the latter , Consul in 259 , many of the younger 
Scipios , the poet Ennius , as well as members of other families 
and freedmen. The tomb was originally above the surface of the 
earth, with a lofty threshold; the interior was supported by walls 
hewn in the solid tufa-rock' It was probably injured, or at least 
altered during the imperial age, when freedmen were interred here. 
Over the entrance-arch in the interior traces of a cornice are ob- 
served, and above are Doric half-columns. 

The adjacent Vigna Codini, No. 14, contains three admirably 
preserved * Columbaria. These were tombs capable of containing 
a large number of cinerary urns, and derive their appellation from 
their resemblance to pigeon-holes (columbaria). They were usually- 
constructed by several persons in common , or as a matter of 
speculation, and the single recesses could be purchased, or in- 
herited. The names of the deceased were inscribed on marble 
tablets over the niches , on which their mode of acquisition of 
the spot was occasionally also recorded. Two of these structures 
are very similar : a steep stair descends into a square vault, sup- 
ported by a central buttress , which as well as the external walls 
contains a number of niches. The third, discovered in 1853, 
consists of three vaulted passages , in the niches of which aedi- 
aulae and small , sarcophagus-like monuments are immured. The 
cdjoining dark passages were destined for the interment of slaves. 

The gate is 25 min. walk from the arch of Constantine. Im- 
mediately before it is the Arch of Drusus ; for it is probable that 
this now much mutilated monument is the arch erected in honour 
of Claudius Drusus Germanicus , B. C. 8. It is constructed of 
travertine-blocks, partially covered with marble, and still possesses 
two marble columns on the side towards the gate. It terminated 
in a pediment , until Caracalla conducted over it an aqueduct to 
supply his baths with water, the brick remains of which seriously 
mar the effect. 

The marble blocks of the Porta S. Sebastiano , formerly Porta 
Appia, appear to have been taken from ancient buildings; it is 
surmounted by mediaeval towers and pinnacles. With regard to 
the Via Appia without the city, see p. 261 . 

8. Gregorio. ROME. 8. Giovanni e Paolo. 195 

The Caelius. 

This once densely peopled hill is now deserted like the Pala- 
tine and Aventine. 

If from the arch of Constantine the Via di S. Gregorio be 
followed, or the public grounds above it to the 1., the Piazza di 
S. Gregorio will be reached. Here to the r. is situated 

S. Gregorio (al Monte Celio) (PI. Ill, 24), on the site of the 
house of Gregory the Great's father, originally founded by that 
pope himself and dedicated to St. Andrew. In 1633 it was re- 
stored by Card. Borghese, who caused the stair, colonnade, portico, 
and facade to be constructed by Giov. Bait. Soria. The recon- 
struction of the church was commenced in 1725. 

In the entrance- court, decorated with pilasters etc. of the Ionic order, 
beneath the portico: 1. monument of the Guidiccioni of 1643, but with 
sculptures of the 15th cent. ; r. monument of the two brothers Bonsi of the 
close of the 15th cent. Over the high-altar : St. Andrew , altar-piece by 
Balestra. At the extremity of the r. aisle : * St. Gregory , altar-piece by S. 
Badalocchi. Beneath it a *predella : the Archangel Michael With the apos- 
tles and other saints , attrib. to L. Signorelli. Here to the r. is a small 
chamber preserved from the house of St. Gregory, containing a handsome 
ancient -seat of marble and relics of the saint. Opposite, from the 1. aisle, 
the Cap. Salviati is entered. In front of the altar on the r. an ancient 
and highly revered Madonna , which is said to have addressed St. Gregory ; 
1. a "ciborium of the 15th cent., disfigured by re-regilding. The sacristan, 
if desired (i| 2 fr.), now conducts visitors to three "chapels lying somewhat 
removed from the rest of the church , and connected by a colonnade. To 
the r., Chapel of St. Silvia, mother of Gregory, with her statue by C'or- 
dieri; above it in the vaulting of the niche, a fresco by Guido Reni, 
greatly damaged. In the centre the Chapel of St. Andrew ; over the 
altar: Madonna with SS. Andrew and Gregory, painting in oils by Roncalli ; 
on the r. Martyrdom of St. Andrew (a copy in the Lateran, p. 204), 
Domenichino ; 1. :! St. Andrew, on the way to the place of execution, be- 
holds the cross, Guido Reni, two pictures which formerly enjoyed the 
highest celebrity. To the 1. the Chapel of St. Barbara with a sitting 
statue of St. Gregory in marble, said to have been begun by Michael 
Angelo, completed by Cordieri. In the centre a marble table with antique 
feet, at which St. Gregory is said to have entertained 12 poor persons 
daily. According to the legend an angel one day appeared , so as to form 
a thirteenth ! 

An ascent to the r. , between fragments of ancient walls , is 
now made to 

S. Giovanni e Paolo (PI. II, 24), which has existed since the 
5th cent. The portico, mosaic-pavement in the interior, and archi- 
tecture of the apse are of the 12th cent. The church contains 
little that is worthy of mention. Visitors are shown a marble 
slab, railed in, on which the saint was beheaded. 

The adjoining cloister is the property of the Passionists. Be- 
neath it are spacious ancient vaults. Visitors ring at the door on 
the r. in front of the colonnade of the church, and are escorted by 
a monk. The vaults, which are only partially freed from rubbish, 
were formerly believed to be substructures of the Temple of 
Claudius ; it is now supposed that they were connected with the 
Colosseum, and served as dens for the wilH beasts etc. By the 


196 8. Maria in Domnica. ROME. S. Stefano Rotondo. 

upper door of the monastery gentlemen may obtain admittance to 
the * garden , whence there is a beautiful prospect of the Forum, 
Colosseum, Lateran, S. Stefano Rotondo, etc. (5 — 10 soldi). 

The street flanked by walls is now ascended farther to the 
Arch of Dolubella and Silanus , erected A. D. 8, of travertine 
through which an aqueduct appears to have passed. 

Somewhat farther, on the r., is the portal, embellished with 
mosaic , of a former hospital , which belonged to the insignificant 
church of 8. Tommaso in Formis (PI. Ill, 24) situated behind it. 
The interesting mosaic, representing Christ between a Christian 
and a Moor, was executed in the 13th cent, by two masters of 
the Cosmas family. 

To the 1. is the descent to the Colosseum , r. is the Piazza 
della Navicella , so called from the small marble ship which 
Leo X. caused to be made from the model of the ancient original 
formerly in the portico of the church. The church of S. Maria 
in Domnica, or della Navicella (visitors knock), one of the most 
ancient deaconries of Rome , was re-erected by Paschalis I. in 
817, to which period the columns of the nave and the tribune 
belong ; the portico was erected by Leo X. from designs , it is 
said, by Raphael. 

The nave rests on 18 beautiful columns of granite; above, beneath 
the ceiling, a frieze painted by Giulio Romano and Perino del Vaga (in 
grisaille; genii and lions in arabesques), afterwards retouched. The arch 
of the tribune rests on two columns of phorphyry; the mosaics date from 
the 9th cent., but were considerably restored under Clement XI.; above 
the arch Christ between two angels and the apostles, beneath are two 
saints ; in the vaulting Madonna and Child imparting blessings , on either 
side angels, Paschalis I. kissing her foot ; beneath all the figures flowers 
spring forth. 

(No. 4, adjoining, is the entrance to the once celebrated Villa 
Mattel, with a few antiquities, charming grounds, and fine points 
of view.) 

Opposite is S. Stefano Kotondo (PI. Ill, 27) (visitors proceed 
to the r. in the Via di S. Stefano, through the first green door 
on the i-., and ring a bell on the r. under the portico). 

It is interesting on account of its construction, and, although 
greatly diminished in extent , is the largest circular church in 
existence. It was erected at the close of the 5th cent, by Simpli- 
cius , and subsequently gorgeously decorated with marble and 
mosaics. It then fell to decay, and was restored by Nicholas V. 
In the original edifice the present external wall formed the central 
row of columns, whilst another wall, decorated with pilasters, 
34 ft. distant, now perceived at a considerable height around the 
church , formed the circumference. Nicholas V. excluded the 
external wall, and closed the intervals between the central columns 
with masonry, with the exception of a few receding chapels. The 
roof is rudely constructed of wood. The old entrance was on 
the E., the present portico was erected by Nicholas; here to the 

S. Stefano Rotondo. ROME. S. Clemente. 197 

r. is the ancient episcopal throne, from -which Gregory the Great 
delivered one of his homilies. 

To the 1. of the entrance an altar-niche with mosaic of the 7th cent.; 
farther on, to the 1. a chapel with (1.) a well-executed monument of the 
beginning of the 16th cent. Most of the 56 columns are of granite , a few 
of marble. The lateral walls bear frescoes of fearful scenes of martyrdom 
by Tempesta and Pomarancio (much retouched). In the centre a canopy 
of wood. 

If the Via di S. Stefano be followed farther, it leads by the 
extensive fragments of masonry of an ancient aqueduct in 5 min. 
to the vicinity of the Lateran (p. 199). 

*S. Clemente. The Lateran. 

From the Colosseum three streets run in a N.E. direction, 
to the 1. the Via Labicana to the Thermae of Titus (p. 176), r. 
the Via de' Quattro Santi to the church of that name , uniting 
with the following near the Lateran , and finally between these 
two the Via di S. Giovanni in Laterano to the (12 min. walk) 
Piazza of the Lateran and the Porta S. Giovanni. 

If the latter be selected it leads in 5 min. to a small piazza, 
where on the 1. is situated 

S. Clemente (PI. II, 27) (side entrance from the street usually 
open ; if not , visitors ring at the principal door under the por- 
tico), which in its original form is one of the best-preserved 
basilicas of Rome, and has received additional attractions in conse- 
quence of recent important excavations. Beneath the present 
church the original structure, which St. Jerome mentions in 392 
as occupying this site, has thus be; n brought to light. Hadrian I. 
decorated it with paintings, still partially preserved. It was almost 
entirely destroyed in 1084 on the entry of Robert Guiscard, and 
in 1108 Paschalis II. erected on its ruins the present (upper) 
church, for which he made use of all the available portions (e. g. 
the choir and ambos) of the lower. It was afterwards fre- 
quently restored, finally with considerable taste by Clement XL, 
who however unfortunately added the unsuitable ceiling. 

An anterior court surrounded by a colonnade and paved with 
fragments of marble (giallo and verde antico), is first entered 
from the principal gate in the Via di S. Clemente, beyond which 
the visitor reaches the church. The latter consists of nave and 
aisles, but, like all genuine basilicas, is destitute of transept. 
The nave with its flat ceiling is separated from the aisles by 
antique columns, and contains the * screen of the choir and the 
ambos from the lower church, with the monogram of Pope John VIII. 
(key kept by the sacristan). The canopy with 4 columns of pa- 
vonazetto dates from the time of Paschalis II; in the tribune an 
ancient episcopal throne, restored in 1108. Mosaics of the tribune 
of the 12th cent. On the arch in the centre: Bust of Christ 
with the symbols of the 4 evangelists, 1. SS. Paul and Lawrence, 

198 SS. Quattro Coronati. ROME. Cap. di S. Silvestro. 

beneath them Isaiah, lower down the city of Bethlehem , r. SS. 
Peter and Clement, beneath them Jeremiah, lower down the city 
of Jerusalem. On the vaulting : Christ on the Cross, with John 
and Mary surrounded by luxuriant wreaths , beneath which the 
13 lambs. On the wall of the apse Christ and the apostles, 
restored by means of painting only. On the walls by the tribune 
monuments of the close of the loth cent. In the chapel at the 
extremity of the r. aisle a statue of John the Bapt. by Donatello's 
brother Simone. L. of the principal entrance the Cappella della 
Passione with * frescoes by Masaccio , unfortunately retouched, 
one of the finest extant works of this master. On the arch over 
the entrance the Annunciation. To the 1. near the entrance St. 
Christophorus. On the wall behind the altar a Crucifixion, on the 
1. scenes from the life of St. Catharine : above , she refuses to 
worship a heathen idol; she teaches the king's daughters in 
prison; below, she disputes before Maxentius with the doctors; 
an angel breaks the wheels on which she was to be broken; her 
execution. The paintings on the window-wall , greatly damaged, 
probably refered to St. Clement. 

The Lower Church has been excavated within the last tew 
years (sacristan , who attends visitors with a light , !/2 ft-)- 
In order, however, to obtain a distinct idea of the original struc- 
ture , which has been considerably marred by subsequent alter- 
ations, the visitor should repair to the church on Nov. 23rd, or 
on Feb. 2nd, on which days the lower church is completely illu- 
minated. The entrance is from the sacristy (in the r. aisle), on 
the walls of which hang copies of the frescoes in the lower 
church, and plans comparing the upper with the lower part of 
the edifice. 

A broad marble stair (with inscriptions on the walls from the 
time of Pope Damasus) descends to the vestibule in which the 
nave and aisles of the lower church terminate. The aisles alone 
have remained in their original condition, while in the nave ad- 
ditions of three distinct periods are observable. The newest are 
the buttresses constructed during the recent excavations for the 
support of the upper church , and recognisable by their white- 
wash. The older additions consist of the wall between the co- 
lumns of the r. aisle, and the lateral wall on the r., both built 
on the occasion of the erection of the upper church, the former 
for the support of the external wall above , the latter to sus- 
tain the r. row of columns above. The most ancient alterations 
were made at a period when the lower church was still in use, 
and consist of masonry built round the columns of the 1. aisle, 
and (like the outer walls) adorned with *frescoes, some of which 
are in excellent perservation. Apart then from the subsequent 
alterations the church was a basilica with nave and aisles , and 
a semicircular apse corresponding with that above; the 1. aisle 

S. Clemente. ROME. 199 

corresponded with the 1. aisle of the upper church, while the 
nave was as wide as the nave and r. aisle of the upper church 
together. The ceiling was borne by 16 ancient columns of gra- 
nite and marble. Seven of those in the r. aisle are still in 
their places, while those in the 1. aisle are still partially concealed 
by the masonry. 

The Frescoes date from different periods, between which 
about five centuries intervene. We begin with the vestibule. 
Immediately to the 1. by the stair is a female head with nim- 
bus, believed by De Rossi to date from the 5th cent. Farther 
on, under the first arch on the 1., *Christ blessing in the Greek 
mode, with first, middle, and little finger extended (as in the old 
mosaics of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, p. 191), between the arch- 
angels Michael and Gabriel and SS. Andrew (1.) and Clement 
(r.). Before him kneel SS. Cyril and Methodius. The figures 
in this , as well as in the following scenes , have their names 
attached. Opposite (on the r.), a Mother finds at the altar of 
St. Clement her child who had been swallowed up by the sea 
and thrown on shore a year later. Under it the family of the 
donor grouped round the medallion portrait of St. Clement. To 
the r. is the dedication : In nomine Domini Ego Beno de Rapiza 
pro amort beati dementis et redemptione anime pingere feci. 
On the r., farther on, the Transference of the relics of St. Cyril 
from the Vatican to S. Clemente in the reign of Pope Nicholas, 
with the dedication : Ego Maria Macellaria pro timore Dei et re- 
medio anime rnee haec pingere feci. At the end of the vestibule 
on the r. is the entrance to the 1. aisle. Over the door of the 
latter are three badly preserved frescoes , of which that in the 
centre appears to represent the resuscitation of a child. Two 
only of the frescoes at the end of this aisle are distinguishable : 
on the posterior wall in the 1. corner St. Cyril before the Emp. 
Michael ; on the lateral wall a Youth baptised by St. Methodius. 
The nave is now entered through the arch in the r. wall. Here, 
immediately to the 1., is a *fresco in three sections, one above 
the other. Half of the uppermost, the Enthronement of St. Cle- 
ment , is des;royed. That in the centre represents St. Clement 
celebrating mass ; on the r. Theodora converted to Christianity 
and her husband Sisinius struck with blindness ; the smaller 
figures on the 1. are those of the donor Beno and his wife. Be- 
low it is the dedicatory inscription. The lowest represents Sisi- 
nius causing a column to be bound instead of St. Clement (11th 
cent.). The lateral surfaces of this pillar are also adorned with 
frescoes (1. St. Antony, Daniel in the lions' den ; r. St. Egidius, 
St. Blasius), but the adjoining wall precludes their being in- 
spected. Farther on towards the vestibule, on the same wall, 
is another and larger * fresco in three sections. The highest, 
now half obliterated, represents Christ, bptween Michael and St. 

200 SS. Quattro Coronati. ROME. Villa Campana. 

Clement (l.J and Gabriel and Nicholas (r.J. In the centre are 
three scenes from the life of St. Alessius, placed one above the 
other as in the case of scenes on Roman sarcophagi: a. Ales- 
sius returns unrecognised to Rome as a hermit; b. Pope Boni- 
face I. blesses the dying man; c. The betrothed of the dead 
man recognises his corpse. The lowest of the three frescoes is 
of a decorative description with flowers and birds. At the end 
of this wall are three scenes from the life of Christ. Next to 
them, on the wall of the vestibule, on the r. the Crucifixion, on 
the 1. the Assumption. Over the latter Christ borne by four 
angels; at the corners St. Vitus (r.J and Leo IV. (l.J with the 
inscription S. Dom. Leo IV. P. P. Ro , and the square halo 
with which living persons were usually represented (9th cent.). 
The frescoes of the external wall of the r. aisle are almost enti- 
rely obliterated. A niche in this aisle contains a scene of Mary 
with Jesus. On the arch above Christ (beardlessj, with figures 
of angels and saints on either side. 

Beneath this church ancient chambers and substructures of 
tuffstone have been discovered, the latter probably of the repub- 
lican period. The descent into these chambers is at the end 
of the r. aisle, where an altar of Mithras has been fonnd. S. Cle- 
mente gives a title to a cardinal, and belongs to Irish Dominicans. 

A transverse street opposite to S. Clemente leads to the Via 
de' Quattro Coronati, and to the (on the 1. sidej church of 

SS. Quattro Coronati (PI. II, 27J, dedicated to the saints 
Severus, Severianus, Carpophorus , and Victorinus, who suffered 
martyrdom under Domitian for refusing t» make images of hea- 
then gods. The date of the foundation is very remote ; the ma- 
terials were probably partially derived from some ancient structure. 
After its destruction by Robert Guiscard it was rebuilt by Pa- 
schalis II. in 1111 , restored under Martin V. by Card. Alph. 
Carillo, and subsequently partially modernised. 

The church now possesses two entrance-courts (when closed, 
visitors apply for admission to the r. under the entrance of the 
first court, i/ 2 fr.J. On the r. , beneath the hall in front of the 
entrance to the second court, is the Cap. di S. Silvestro, conse- 
crated under Innocent IV. in 1246, containing valuable, although 
somewhat unattractive ancient paintings from the life of Con- 
stantine and a still more remote period. The second court still 
contains ancient columns and traces of the entablature. The tri- 
bune is decorated with baroque frescoes by Giov. da S. Giovanni. 
The nunnery comprises an establishme ntl'or the education of orphans. 

To the r., farther on in the Via di S. Giovanni, is the Villa 
Campana , which formerly contained a valuable collection of anti- 
quities, now in Paris and St. Petersburg. 

To the r. , at the entrance of the spacious and quiet Piazza 
di S. Giovanni in Laterano, is situated a large hospital for women, 

Scala Santa. ROME. S. Giovanni in Later ano. 200a 

accommodating about 600 patients (obstetric department connected 
with the Sapienza). The Via in Merulana then diverges to the 1. 
to S. Maria Maggiore (p. 137). Opposite is the octagonal baptistery 
of S. Giovanni in Fonte ; farther on, the church, and before it 
the palace with the museum. In the centre is the Obelisk erected 
here in 1588 by Sixtus V. , once placed by King Tuthmosis in 
front of the temple of the sun at Heliopolis, and brought to Rome 
by Constantine. 

The gate to the 1. opposite the projecting palace is the 
entrance to the Villa Massimo (p. 204). Facing the spectator is 
the Scala Santa, 28 marble steps from the palace of Pilate at 
Jerusalem, brought to Rome in 326 by the Empress Helena, and 
which may only be ascended on the knees. The two adjoining 
flights are for the descent. The chapel at the summit contains 
a picture of the Saviour , traditionally attributed to St. Luke. 
Beneath are two groups in marble by Giacometti, Christ and Judas, 
and Christ before Pontius Pilate. 

In the corner to the 1. the street diverges to the Villa "Wol- 
konsky (p. 205). The Piazza di Porta S. Giovanni is now entered, 
where , especially in front of the church and to the r. by the 
city-wall , a charming prospect of the mountains and Campagna 
is enjoyed. To the 1. by the Scala Santa is a tribune erected 
by Benedict XIV. with copies of the ancient mosaics in the tri- 
clinium of Leo III. — Beyond this a survey is obtained of the 
row of arches of the Aqua Claudia. An avenue leads hence in 
5 min. to S. Croce (p. 142). The Porta S Giovanni, named 
after the church, was erected in 1574 (hence to the Campagna 
see p. 266) , superseding the ancient and now closed Porta Asi- 
naria (a short distance to the r.). 

*S. Giovanni in Laterano (PI. Ill, 30), 'omnium urbis et orbis 
ecclesiarum mater et caput 1 , was , after the time of Constantine 
the Great, the principal church of Rome. It was overthrown by 
an earthquake in 896, re-erected by Sergius III. (904 — 911), 
and dedicated to John the Baptist. In 1308 it was burned down, 
but was restored by Clement V., and decorated by Giotto; again 
altered under Martin V. (1430), Eugene IV., and Alexander VI., 
and modernised by Pius IV. (1560), by the alterations of Borro- 
mini (1650), and by the facade of Galilei (1734). 

The Facade by Aless. Galilei is the best of this description 
in Rome. From the central upper loggia the Pope pronounces his 
benediction on Ascension-day. To the 1. in the portico is an 
ancient statue of Constantine the Great, found in the Thermae 
of that emperor. Of the 5 entrances the Porta Santa on the r. 
is closed ; that in the centre possesses two bronze doors with 
garlands and other decorations. The portico is 33 ft. in depth 
and 174 ft. in width; the church 408 ft. in length. 

The nave, which is flanked by double aisles, is supported by 12 pillars, 
the work of Borromini, partially enclosing the ancient columns ; in the 

200 8. Oiovanni in Laterano. ROME. The Interior. 

niches the 12 apostles, of the school of Bernini, above them reliefs by Algardi 
Over these are the figures of 12 prophets. The ceiling , said to have been 
designed by Michael Angela, is more probably by Giacomo della Porta. To 
the r. and 1. at the extremity of the nave are the only two ancient granite 
columns now visible. Beneath, in front of the Confessio, is the 'monument 
in bronze of Pope Martin V. (d. 1431), by Simone, brother of Donatello. In 
the centre of the transept, which is raised by two steps , is the • Canopy 
(about 1390), a beautiful work lately restored, with greatly retouched paint- 
ings by Barna da Siena, containing numerous relics, especially the heads of 
the apostles Peter and Paul. Beneath it is the high-altar (altare papale) 
at which the pope alone reads mass, containing a wooden table from the 
catacombs which is said to have been employed as an altar by St. Peter. 
The transept was restored under Clement VIII. by Giac. della Porta (1603) 
and adorned with frescoes. Here to the 1. is the great Altar of the Sacra- 
ment, with four ancient columns of gilded bronze , which once belonged to 
the original basilica. The (generally closed) chapel of the choir, to the 1. by 
the tribune, contains a portrait of Martin V. by Scip. Gaetano, and an altar- 
piece by the Cav. oVArpino. The tribune is embellished with "mosaics 
either originally executed, or perhaps ancient workmanship restored by 
Jacopo da Turrita (1290) ; the Saviour enveloped in clouds ; beneath, at the 
sides of a cross, 1. the Virgin, at whose feet Nicholas IV. kneels, St. Francis, 
St. Peter, and St. Paul, r. John the Bapt., St. John, St. Andrew, and other 
saints. To the r. in the transept two fine columns of giallo antico. An 
egress here leads to the piazza of the Lateran. The passage ('Portico 
Leonino\ because constructed by Leo I.) entered to the r. behind the tribune, 
is embellished on either side by mosaic tablets, the subjects of which relate 
to the construction of the church; farther on, r. the kneeling figure of a 
pope (10th cent.); to the 1. in the centre an altar with ancient crucifix, on 
sither side statues of Peter and Paul (10th cent.). Farther on, r. the en- 
trance to the Sacristy, the inner bronze doors of which date from 1196. In 
the first chapel on the 1. an Annunciation by Seb. del Piombo (?); in the 
last chamber, the cartoon of a Madonna by Raphael. On the 1. at the 
extremity of the passage is a handsome marble sanctuarium (about 1500); 
near it the Tabula Magna Lateranensis, or list of relics. Objects of interest 
in the aisles : at the back of the first pillar on the r. in the nave , 'Boni- 
face VIII. between two cardinals announcing the first jubilee (1300), by 
Giotto. The 2nd chapel on the r. belongs to the Torlonia family, and ii 
richly decorated with marble and gilding ; over the altar, Descent from the 
Cross by Tenerani (a custodian opens this and other closed chapels, '(2 fr.). 
The 3rd chapel belongs to the Massimi , constructed by Giac. della Porta, 
with the Crucifixion , an altar-piece by Sermoneta. Farther on in the r. 
aisle, the monument of Card. Guissano (d. 1287). The 1st "chapel on the 
1., that of And. Corsini, designed by Galilei in 1734, contains ancient columns 
and a large vessel of porphyry from the portico of the Pantheon, in front 
of the bronze figure of Clement XII. (Corsini , d. 1740) ; the walls sump- 
tuously inlaid with precious stones. Beneath the chapel is the burial-vault 
of the Corsini, with a "Pieta by Bernini (?). During the excavation of the 
latter the antiques, now in the Pal. Corsini, were found. 

The sacristan conducts visitors to the 1. from the last chapel 
into the interesting * Court of the Monastery (12th cent.) with 
numerous small columns, spiral, and decorated with mosaic. Various 
fragments from the old church are placed in the passages. Visitors 
return through the church and quit it by the egress to the r. in 
the transept , leading to the portico ; this front dates from the 
time of Sixtus V. The hall to the r. beneath contains a statue 
of Henry IV. of France, by Nic. Cordieri. 

The door of the court is now entered to the 1., the steps in 
the court to the r. are descended, and a door on the 1. between 
two immured columns of porphyry, with antique architrave, leads 

Lateran. ROME. Baptistery. 201 

to the octagonal * Baptistery for S. Giovanni in Fonte), where 
according to tradition Constantine the Great was baptised. It 
assumed its present form by slow degrees , finally under Gre- 
gory XIII. and Urban VIII. The Borgia Chapel is first entered, 
where over the door to the Baptistery a Crucifixion , a relief in 
marble, is perceived, date 1494. The Baptistery contains 8 large 
columns of porphyry, with ancient architrave of marble, alleged to 
have been presented by Constantine. In the centre a font of 
green basalt. Frescoes by A. Sacchi, Maratta, etc. On the r. an 
oratorium of St. John with bronze doors of 1196; statue of the 
saint by Landini. Adjoining this door is the entrance to the 
Oratorio di S. Venanzio, with ancient mosaics of the middle of 
the 8th cent. On the 1. the oratorium of John the Bapt. , with 
bronze statue of the saint by L. Valadico (after Donatello), 
between two columns of serpentine. The bronze doors, presented 
by a Bishop Hilarius , are said to have belonged to the Thermae 
of Caracalla. 

The residence of the popes from the time of Constantine 
until the migration to Avignon adjoined the Church of S. Gio- 
vanni. Under Clement V. the palace was burned down, and not 
re-erected till 1558 under Clement V. , from designs of Bom. 
Fontana. As it remained unoccupied, it was converted by Inno- 
cent XII. into an orphan-asylum in 1693. In 1843 Gregory XVI. 
here established a collection of the heathen and Christian anti- 
quities for which the Vatican and Capitoline museums no longer 
afforded space. This Museum Gregorianum Lateranense has 
since then steadily increased in extent and importance. On the 
basement-floor are 16 rooms containing ancient sculptures; the 
first floor is principally occupied by Christian antiquities. 

The collections are accessible daily 9 — 4 o'clock. The entrance 
is by ;he portal in the piazza with the obelisk; visitors ring on 
the r. in the passage , when the custodian is not on the spot. 
There are neither catalogues nor numbers , but the custodian 
(1 fr.) is well informed . A good scientific German catalogue was 
published by Benndorf and Schone at Leipzig in 1867. 

The inspection begins on the r. under the arcades of the 
entrance- wing. 

1st Room: principally sculptures, formerly preserved in the Apparta- 
menti Borgia of the Vatican. Entrance-wall: relief of the Abduction of 
Helen ; tomb - relief (warrior's farewell) ; priest of the oracle of Dodona 
(fountain-relief). L. wall : two pugilists , termed Dares and Entellus (in 
relief); bust of II. Aurelius; Trajan (head restored by Thorwaldsen) accom- 
panied by senators (relief from Trajan's Forum) ; in front of the latter a 
statuette of Nemesis. R. wall : sarcophagus-reliefs of Mars and Rhea Silvia 
(the latter being a likeness of the deceased woman), Diana and Endymion ; 
Adonis; Diana and Endymion. In the centre a mosaic with pugilists, from 
the Thermce of Caracalla (see 1st floor, p. 203). — 2nd R. : interesting archi- 
tectural fragments, especially from the Forum of Trajan. Fragments of a 
•frieze in the centre of the walls of the entrance , the egress , and that on 
the r. merit inspection. — 3rd R. : bv the entr?.nce-wall a statue of yEscu- 

202 Lateran. ROME. Museum Gregorianum. 

lapius. E. wall: "Antinous (head new), found at Palestrina. Wall of egress: 
child's sarcophagus with scenes of pugilism. In the window several well- 
wrought feet of tahles. — 4th R. : on the entrance-wall 'Medea with the 
daughters of Peleus, a Greek relief. On the board above (numbered 762) a 
beautiful small head of a female satyr. Statue of Germanicus. R. wall: 
'statue of Mars. Wall of egress : copy of the reposing satyr of Praxiteles. 
On a cippus : "bust of the youthful Tiberius. In the first window : basis of 
a column from the Basilica Julia. In the centre a beautiful basin of luroac- 
chella (a species of shell-marble). 

The passage is now crossed to the 

5th Room. R. wall: Roman portrait-bust; statue of Priapus; a Muse; 
statue of Priapus ; '"cinerary urn with representation of a cock-fight. In the 
centre: sacrifice of Mithras (found near the Scala Santa); stag of basalt; a 
cow. — 6 th R. : collection of sculptures from Cervetri , the ancient Caere, 
probably found among the ruins of a theatre. Entrance wall: 1. circular 
altar with Pan and two dancing women. Then a colossal portrait-head (per- 
haps Augustus); r. statue of an emperor, head new. R. wall : draped statue; 
colossal sitting statues of Tiberius and Claudius, between them the younger 
Agrippina ; toga statue (perhaps the elder Drusus). Wall of egress; statue 
of an emperor ; bust of Caligula. In front of it : relief with representation 
of the deities of three Etruscan cities (Vetulonia, Volci, Tarquinii). On the 
pillar between the windows: female portrait-statue (perhaps Drusilla). In 
the centre, two sleeping figures (from a fountain); altar with representation 
of sacrifice. — 7 th R. , r. wall: -dancing Satyr, found near S. Lucia in 
Selce, possibly from a group by Myron ; Marsyas endeavouring to pick up 
flutes thrown away by Athene. By the door : (r.) head of Paris (?) ; (1.) bar- 
barian monarch. L. wall : Apollo. Opp. the entrance : "" Sophocles, one of 
the most beautiful ancient portrait-statues in existence , found at Terraci- 
na in 1838. The desire to exhibit this statue in an appropriate locality 
contributed in a great measure to the foundation of the Lateran museum.— 
8th R. , entrance-wall: 1. "relief of a poet, with masks, and a Muse; r. sar- 
cophagus with the C'alydonian hunt; above it small head of a sleeping 
nymph. L. wall : Meleager slain by Apollo. In the centre : "statue of Po- 
seidon, found at Porto. — 9th R., containing numerous architectural frag- 
ments brought to light by the excavations in the Forum and the Via Appia. 
Entrance-wall : sarcophagus - relief with masked Cupids bearing garlands. 
Wall of egress, to the 1. by the door: small head of Victory. In the centre: 
triangular ara with Bacchanalian dances. — 10th R., chiefly sculptures 
from the tombs of the Haterii, on the Via Labicana near Centocelle, found 
in 1848. Entrance-wall: male and female portrait- busts; between them 
relief of a large tomb, with powerful lifting -machine adjacent. R. wall: 
relief of the laying out of a dead woman, surrounded by mourners. Wall of 
egress : relief with representation of Roman buildings, among which the Oo- 
losseum is distinguishable. Above it a relief with Mercury (broken), Ceres, 
Pluto, and Proserpine. In the centre : Cupid on a dolphin. 

A second passage is now crossed to the 

11th Room: The sculptures were principally found in the tombs on 
the Via Latina (p. 266). Entrance-wall: 1. sleeping nymph, from a foun- 
tain ; r. Bacchanalian sarcophagus ; then statues of Liber and Libera. K. 
wall : several statues of the bearded Bacchus ; sarcophagus with the Seasons; 
Ephesian Diana; Sarcophagus with Adonis. Wall of egress: sarcophagus; 
Greek tomb-relief (farewell-scene). In the centre : large sarcophagus wiuj 
triumphal procession of Bacchus. — 12 th R. , entrance-wall: 1. T ? utlira ' 
Hercules ; r. sarcophagus with the history of Orestes (death of ^gistneus 
etc.). R. wall: large sarcophagus with Cupids bearing garlands. Inen a 
head of Augustus. *Boy with a bunch of grapes. In the corner batyrs. 
Wall of egress: "sarcophagus with the destruction of the Children of Kiooe, 
found in the Vigna Lozzano Argoli in 1839. — 13 th R., en trance- wall : reliei 
of a Titan fighting; "portrait- statue of C. Latins Saturninus (m ™» 
marble). Wall of egress : relief, Pylades supporting the exhausted Orestes. 
In the centre : oval sarcophagus of P. Cajcilius Vallianus, with the represen- 
tation c>f a funeral-banauet. Then a three-sided " candelabrum - stand witn 

Lateran. ROME. Christian Museum. 203 

Piuto, Neptune, and Persephone. — 14th R., entrance-wall: r. a small gronp 
in relief, possibly Orpheus and Eurydice. L. wall : unfinished statue of 
porphyry. Opp. the entrance : statue of a captive barbarian , unfinished , in- 
teresting on account of the visible marks of measurement made by the 
sculptor. Beneath , sarcophagus of L. Annius Octavius with representation 
of the preparation of bread ; adjacent is the inscription : Evast, effugi, spes 
et fortuna valete .' Nil mihi vobiscum est, ludificate alios. By the door of egress, 
casts of the statues of Sophocles (7th R.) and the yEschines at Naples, inter- 
esting for comparison. — 15 th R. and the following are devoted to the 
yield of the new excavations at Ostia. In the glass- cabinets under the win- 
dows are lamps, terracott«s, fragments of glass, ivory-articles, etc. On the 
pillar, mosaic from a niche, with Silvanus ; on each side fragments of slabs 
of terracotta. Wall of egress: r. Sarcophagus with Tritons and Nereids. 
Then 1. a "small female head, probably of a nymph; head of Alexander. 
Above, to the r. by the door, head of Atthis. — 16 th R. : r. lead pipes from 
ancient aqueducts. Pictures from a tomb near Ostia with representations 
of the lower regions. In the centre the * statue of a Recumbent Atthis, 
found at Ostia in 1869, interesting on account of the traces of gilding oiv 
the hair and the crescent. 

The * Christian Museum was founded by Pius IX. and arranged 
by the Padre Marchi and the Cavaliere de' Rossi. Entrance in 
the rear . to the r. in the court (l/ 2 fr.). In the first hall a 
statue of Christ by Sosnowsky ; in the wall 3 mosaics : that in 
the centre of Christ , Peter , and Paul from the lower church of 
St. Peter; the two others from the catacombs. 

In the large corridor of the staircase a "collection of ancient Christian 
sarcophagi, chiefly of the 4th and 5th centuries , with representations from 
the Old and New Testament. R. by the narrow wall; two statues of the 
Good Shepherd ; large Sarcophagus with reliefs of the Creation , Miracle of 
the loaves, Raising of Lazarus, Adoration of the Magi , Daniel among the 
lions. Moses striking the rock for water, etc. On the staircase : (1.) 1. Mi- 
racle of Jonah ; 2. Christ's entry into Jerusalem. At the top (I.) 4. The 
Good Shepherd among vines, with genii gathering grapes. Farther on , a 
canopy with two columns of pavonazzetto and an interesting sarcophagus. 
Above, on the wall of the staircase, the manger and adoration of the Magi. 
Beneath, translation of Elijah. Above, on the narrow wall, 'sitting statue 
of St. Hippolytus, upper part modern, from the catacombs near S. Lorenzo 
fuori le Mura; on the chair a Greek inscription recording the saint's 
achievements and an Easter-table. The door on the 1. leads to the upper 
arcades, the opp. door to the rooms with the collection of pictures (see oe- 
low). The posterior walls of the three open arcades exhibit a systemati- 
cally arranged (by the Cav. de' Rossi) selection of ancient. Christian "'inscrip- 
tions, an invaluable aid in the study of Christian antiquity. They are dis- 
tributed with respect to the arches thus: 1st— 3rd. Elegies" on martyrs etc. 
of the age of Damasus I. (366— 384); 4th— 7th. Dated inscriptions (238— 557) ; 
8th, 9th. Inscriptions of doctrinal importance; 10th. Popes, presbyters, 
deacons: 11th, 12th. Other illustrious personages; 13th. Relations, friends, 
etc.; 14th— 16th. Symbolic and other records; 17th and follg. Simple epi- 
taphs from various catacombs. 

The Collection of Pictures (entrance see above) com- 
prises in 2 rooms copies of pictures from the catacombs of 
S. Calisto, SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, S. Sebastiano, etc. The 3rd 
contains some sadly injured frescoes (of the 12th cent.), trans- 
ierred hither from S. Agnese fuori le Mura. The visitor now 
enters to the r. the properly so called 

Picture Gallery. 1st Room, by the entrance-wall : ancient "mosaic 
pavement of an unswept dining-room (asaroton) , by Heraclitus , found on 
the Aventme in 1833. Above it Rt ™« ,.<■ =— y 3n cartoon bv Giulio Ro- 

204 Lateran. ROME. Picture Gallery. 

mano. L. wall: Christ and Thomas, cartoon by Camuccini. Between the 
windows : Descent from the Cross , rough sketch in colours by Dan. da 
Volterra (the finished fresco is in S. Trinita de' Monti, p. 110). The door in 
the r. wall enters the — 2nd R., entrance-wall: Annunciation, Cav. cTAr- 
pino. R. wall : George IV. of England , Lawrence. In the r. corner is the 
door to a stair ascending to the gallery of the adjoining saloon, on the floor 
of which is the extensive "mosaic with 28 pugilists, found in the Thermae of 
Caracalla in 1824. It bears obvious indications of the decline of art in the 
age of its production. The door in the 1. wall of the 1st R. enters the - 
3rd R. , entrance-wall: '"Madonna with the saints Lawrence, John the 
Bapt., Peter, Francis, Antonius the Abbot, and Dominicus, by Marco Pal- 
mezzano of Forli, a pupil of Melozzo (1537). In the corner: Madonna with 
saints, by C. Crivelli, altar-piece of 1481. L. wall. *St. Thomas receiving 
the girdle from the Virgin, with predella, by Benozzo Gozzoli (erroneously 
attributed to Fiesole). Wall of egress : Madonna with John the Bapt. and 
St. Jerome, Palmezzano (1510). — 4th R. , entrance - wall : Portrait, Van 
Dyck (?) ; "Madonna, C. Crivelli (1482) ; Madonna, master unknown ; Sixtus V., 
Sassoferrato. L. wall : two modern Gobelins from the pictures of Fra Bar- 
tolommeo in the Quirinal. Wall of egress : Christ with the tribute money. 

— 5th R., r. wall: Entombment, Venet. School. Opp. the entrance: Holy 
Family, And. del Sarto. L. wall: Assumption of the Virgin, Cola delta 
Matrice (1515). — 6 th R. , entrance-wall: Baptism of Christ, Cesare da 
Sesto (?). L. wall: St. Agnes, Luca Signorelli; Annunciation, Fr. Francia; 
SS. Lawrence and Benedict, Luca Signorelli. Wall of egress: Coronation of 
Mary, Fra Filippo Lippi. Window-wall: "St Jerome, tempera- picture by 
Giov. Santi, Raphael's father. — 7th R. 1. : altar-piece by Antonio da Mu- 
rano (1464). — 8 th R. , containing a large copy in oils of a fresco by Do- 
menichino of the Martyrdom of St. Andrew, original in S. Gregorio (p. 195). 

— 9th R. : a number of casts by Pettrich from subjects derived from the 
life of the N. American Indians. 

Several apartments on the 3rd floor of the palace contain a 
*cast of Trajan's column, to which the custodian (usually engaged 
except before 9 a. m.J conducts visitors when requested. 

The *Villa Massimo (PI. II, 30) is not at present accessible 
to visitors. The grounds aTe neither extensive nor particularly 
interesting, and the antiquities are of little value ; but the casi- 
no contains some valuable frescoes from the great Italian poets, 
painted by German artists. 

The antechamber contains a few mediocre ancient statues and chests 
with beautiful carving (Renaissance). The Central Room is then entered, 
adorned with representations from Ariosto by Schnorr , completed in 1827. 
Ceiling-painting: Nuptials of Ruggiero and Bradamante and celebration of 
victory. Entrance-wall : the Emp. Charles hastens to protect Paris against 
Agramant. In the lunette above: Archangel Michael, I. victorious combat 
of Rinaldo, r. Roland's contest with Agramant. L. wall, to the 1. : the sor- 
ceress Melissa causes Bradamante to behold her posterity , r. baptism of 
Ruggiero. In the lunette above: Melissa triumphing, beside her the magi- 
cian Atlas, Ruggiero's foster-father, and Alcina, 1. Marlisa, r. Bradamante. 
R. wall: "Angelica aud Medoro. In the foreground: Roland on the 1., sad 
and mournful, r. in a s ate of frenzy. In the lunette above: St. John with 
Astolph, who brings back from the moon Roland's lost reason, 1. Brada- 
mante, r. Zerbino. Window - wall , between the windows: Saracen ner ^ s - 
Above, 1. : Dudo conquers the Saracens by sea, r. conquest of Biserta. The 
room on the r. contains representations from Dante. Pictures on the walls 
by Koch. Entrance-wall : Dante threatened by a lion, leopard, and she-wolt, 
finds Virgil his guide; r. Tartarus, with Minos, the judge of the infernal 
regions, surrounded by the damned. Opp. the entrance : gate of purgatory, 
guarded by an angel. In the foreground: boat with souls about to do pe* 
nance, conducted by an angel. On the window-wall : purgatory with those 

Villa Massimo. ROME. Villa Wolkonsky. 205 

undergoing penance for the seven mortal sins. On the ceiling : representa- 
tions from Paradise by Ph. Veil. Room on the 1. with pictures from Tasso 
by Overbed and Fiihrich. Ceiling-painting: "Jerusalem delivered. Window- 
wall: Call of Godfrey de Bouillon by the archangel Gabriel. Above: Sofronia 
and Olindo at the stake, delivered by Clorinda. Opp. the entrance : Godfrey 
chosen as commander; construction of machines for the siege of Jerusalem; 
Pierre of Amiens encourages the warriors. On the extreme r. the portraits 
of Prince Massimo and the artist (Overbeck) are introduced. Above: ~Er- 
minia coming to the shepherds, all these by Overbeck. L. wall : r. meeting 
of Rinaldo and Armida. In the centre : Tancred in the enchanted wood, 
these two last by Fiihrich 1 1. death of Gildippe and Odoardo. Above: Ri- 
naldo and Armida on the enchanted island. Entrance-wall : Godfrey de 
Bouillon at the Holy Sepulchre. Above : baptism of Clorinda by Tancred, 
her death. The 'predelle, in grisaille, which run beneath the pictures, also 
represent scenes from 'Jerusalem Delivered'. From the central room a 
flower-garden, commanding a beautiful view, is entered. 

Villa Wolkonsky (PI. II , 33), accessible on Wed. and Sat. ; 
the street to the 1. by the building adjoining the Scala Santa, 
pursuing a straight direction beyond the 3rd arch of the aqueduct, 
leads to the entrance-gate (*/2 &•)• T ne tastefully laid out grounds 
are intersected by the Aqua Claudia , on and near which various 
antique fragments are immured. Several Roman tombs of the 
period of the first empire have lately been excavated here. Fine 
*view of the Campagna and mountains, especially towards sunset, 
from the roof of the small casino, to which the gardener conducts 
the visitor if desired (fee l/ 2 f r 0- 

Collections of the Capitol. 
With regard to the buildings see p. 166. The objects of in- 
terest here are preserved in the two lateral palaces , that of the 
Conservatori (r. in ascending) and the Capitoline museum (1.). 
The latter is accessible daily frooi 10 to 3 o'clock. Fee (optional) ^J^ii. 
In the palace of the Conservatori the picture-gallery only is at 
present accessible (10 — 2 daily), as the other apartments are oc- 
cupied by the offices of the syndic. Entrance to the 1. in the 
court, up the stair, then by a door on the 1. adjoining the iron 
gate of the Museo Etrusco. The visitor passes through three of- 
fices and reaches a corridor where a bell must be rung on the 1. 
at the fifth door, which bears the inscription Oalleria Comunale. 

Palace of the Conservatori. 

On the r. of the central door is the entrance to the 7 rooms of the 
Protomotheca, founded by Pius VII., a collection of the busts of celebrated 
Italians. In the 1st Room a few foreigners, among them N. Poussin, Raf. 
Mengs, and Winckelmann. 2nd R. : musicians and statesmen. 3rd R. (large 
saloon) : poets, scholars, artists. 4th R. : artists of the 14— 16th cent. 
5th R. : artists since the 17th cent. 6th R. : modern poets and scholars. 
7th R. : monument of Canova. 

The principal door enters the court, where r. by the door is a statue 
of Ccesar, 1. Augustus. By the r. wall of the court : hand and limbs of a 
colossal figure in marble, 1. colossal head in marble, high-relief of a pro- 
vince on the pedestal. Adjacent is the cinerary urn of Agrippina, wife of 
Germanicus, which in the middle-ages was employed as a measure for 
corn; inscription: Ossa Agrippinae M. Aarivvae f. divi Augusti neplis uxorit 

206 Capitol. ROME. Pal. of the Conservatori. 

Germanici Caesaris Matris C. Caesaris Aug. Germanici principis. In the 
centre of the hall opp. the entrance: statue of Roma; at the sides statues 
of barbarians in grey marble. L. in the corner: colossal bronze head, r. 
''horse torn by a lion. By the entrance-wall farther on, to the 1., statue 
of a Bacchante ; opp. the stair, a modern columna rostrata with the genuine 
fragment of an inscription composed in honour of C. Duilius, the victor at 
Mylae, B. C. 260, and renewed under Tiberius. In niches on the landing 
of" the staircase, 1. Ceres, r. Urania (inaccurately restored). Here in the 
small court four * reliefs are immured from a triumphal arch of M. Au- 
relius, found near S. Martina in the Forum : r. sacrifice in front of the Ca- 
pitoline temple; on the long wall, entry of the emp., passing the temple of 
Jupiter Tonans, pardon of conquered enemies, and his reception by Roma 
at the triumphal gate. In the passage above, two reliefs from the triumphal 
arch of M. Aurelius (in the Corso near Pal. Fiano), which was removed 
under Alex. VII. in 1653; 1. apotheosis of Faustina, r. sacrifice in front 
of her temple (still standing). Visitors now ring at the door opposite the 
stair (ij 2 fr.) and enter the large saloon decorated with frescoes by the 
Caval. d'Arpino: combat of the Horatii and Curiatii, and other scenes from 
the period of the kings. By the entrance-wall: marble statue of Leo X., 
by Giac. del Duca; on the r. wall, r. , that of Urban VII. by Bernini. 
Wall of egress: bronze statue of Innocent X. by Algardi. — 2nd R. (r.): 
pictures by Laureii, monuments of the generals Marcan^onio Colonna (by 
the en trance- wall), r. Alex. Farnese, 1. Rospigliosi, Aldobrandini, Bar- 
berini. — 3rd R. : scenes from the Cymbrian war; celebrated bronzes. In 
the centre : so-called * Capitoline Wolf, with Romulus and Remus, in the 
early Etruscan style, perhaps that erected B. C. 296 by the ^Ediles Cneius 
and Quintus Ogulnius. An injury on the r. hind-leg is alleged to have 
been occasioned by the lightning, by which according to Cicero the group 
was struck during the consulship of Manlius and Cotta, B. C. 65; the twins 
are modern. Wall of egress : 1. bust of Michael Angelo, said to have been 
executed by himself; r. expressive "head, supposed to represent L. Junius 
Brutus, who expelled the kings and became first consul ; the eyes renewed. 
Entrance-wall: boy extracting a thorn from his foot. — 4th R. : fragments 
of the "Fasti Consulares, lists of the Rom. consuls, found in the 16th cent, 
(smaller fragments in 1S18) near the temple of the Dioscuri, and probably 
once immured in the Regia. By the walls statues of Socrates, Sappho (?), 
Alcibiades (?), and Diogenes (?), with modern inscriptions. On the column 
in the centre, Hadrian. — 5th R. . several small antiques. Entrance-wall: 
female head in bronze, serving as a jug; two ducks. Wall of egress: head 
of Medusa by Bernini. — 6th R., senatorial hall: paintings on the frieze 
from the life of Scipio Africanus, attrib. to Ann. Caracci; on the walls 
tapestry, woven in S. Michele. — 7 th E.: Sodema's frescoes from the llrst 
and second Punic wars. The cabinets contain Rom. weights and measures. 
Adjacent, on the r., is a small chapel with an '"altar-fresco (Madonna), 
probably by Pinturicchio. 

Visitors now retrace their steps through the 1st R. to the passage. By 
the short wall is the entrance to the Museo Etrusco (of which the custodian has 
the key ; permesso necessary from the Marchese Cavaletti, whose palazzo is 
near S. Maria in Campitelli, PI. II, 17), an interesting collection of vases, 
terracottas, and bronzes from Etruria and Latium, presented to the city by 
A. Caslellani in 1866. The door to the 1. at the extremity leads to two 
rooms (restored in 1870) with lists of modern Rom. magistrates ; thence a 
passage is entered, and a court, to the 1. in which is a door with the 
inscription Galleria de" Quadri, leading to the 

Collection of Pictures (established by Benedict XIV.). Visitors 
ring and ascend a stair in a straight direction to the 1st R. (catalogues for 
the use of visitors). 

1st Room, r. wall: 2. Redeemed spirit (unfinished), GuidoReni; 6. St. 
Cecilia, Romanelli; 8. Landscape with M. Magdalene, Caracci; 9. M. Mag- 
dalene, Albano; 13. John the Baptist, Guercino; 14. Flora, N. Poussin (copy 
of the picture in the Louvre); 16. M. Magdalene, Guido Reni; 20. Cumsean 
Sibyl, Domenichino. Narrow wall : 26. M. Magdalene, Tintoretto; 27. Pre- 

Capitoline Museum. ROME. Bronzes. 207 

sentation in the Terapie, Fra Bartolommeo ; 30. Holy Family, Garofalu: 
34. Persian Sibyl, Guercino. L. window-wall: 41. Orpheus, Poussin; 42. Good 
Samaritan, Palma Vecchio (?); 44. Madonna, Gaud. Ferrari; 49. Landscape 
with St. Sebastian, Domenichino ; 50. Madonna and saints, S. Botticelli (?) ; 
54. Coronation of St. Catharine, Garofalo ; 61. Portrait of himself, Guido 
Reni; Madonna and saints (a copy), P. Veronese. Entrance-wall : 76. Apollo, 
Polid. Caravaggio ; 78. Madonna and saints, Fr. Francia, 1513 ; SO. Portrait, 
Velasquez; 87. St. Augustine, Giov. Bellini; "89. Romulus and Remus, 
Rubens. 2nd R., r. : 98. Holy Family, Mantegna; '-100. Two portraits, 
Van Dyck; 104. Adoration of the Shepherds, Mazzolino; 105. Portrait, Titian; 
*106. Two portraits, Van Dyck; "116. St. Sebastian, Guido Reni; 117. Cleo- 
patra and Octavian, Guercino; "119. St. Sebastian, Lod. Caracci; "132. Por- 
trait, Giov. Bellini; *134. Portrait of Michael Angelo, perhaps by Marco 
Venusti; 128. Fortune-telling gipsy, Caravaggio; 136. Petrarch, Giov. Bel- 
lini (?); 137. Landscape, Domenichino; 139. St. Bernhard, Giov. Bellini (?). 
Short-wall: 142. Nativity of the Virgin, Albano; * 143. S. Petronella raised 
from her tomb and shown to her bridegroom, Guercino; 145. Holy Family, 
Giorgione (V). L. wall: 157. Judith, G. Romano; 164. Madonna, Garofalo; 
180. Christ and the adulteress, Titian; 186. Holy Family, Carpi; 199. Death 
and Assumption of the Virgin , Cola delta Matrice. Entrance-wall : Virgin 
and angels, Paolo Veronese; "224. Rape of Europa, Paolo Veronese. 

Capitoline Museum , 
commenced under Innocent X. , extended under Clement XII.. 
Benedict XIV., Clement XIII., and Pius VI. The works carried 
off by the French were restored with few exceptions to Pius VII. 
The collection is considerably less extensive than that of the 
Vatican , but is replete with admirable works. (The catalogue, 
published in 1843, is now out of print. Fee i/ 2 fr-: opt.onal.) 

Above the fountain in the centre of the court is the "Marforio (suppos- 
ed to be derived from 'Forum Martis'), a colossal river-god holding a shell, 
representing probably the Rhine or Danube, erected in the middle ages in 
the Via di Marforio opp. the Career Mamertinus, where it was employed 
as a vehicle for the sarcastic answers to the interrogatories of Pasquino 
(see p. 121). At the sides two Satyrs from the Forum of Trajan, and several 
sarcophagi and busts. L. of the entrance in the lower hall: 3. Colossal 
Minerva; 4. Leg of Hercules with the Hydra, belonging to No. 32: 6. Sar- 
cophagus with Bacchanalian representation. On the 1. at the extremity is 
the entrance to the 

Room of the Bronzes. In the centre an itnfortunately mutilated 
horse of admirable workmanship, excavated in 1849 in the Vicolo delle 
Palme in Trastevere. By the entrance-wall : bronze implements, a foot with 
shoe, tripod, measures, balance, etc. Wall of egress : 3. Three-fold Hecate ; 
14. Vase found near Porto d'Anzio, presented by King Mithridates to a 
gymnasium. Long wall : * 5. Boy employed in sacrifices (Camillus) ; 16. Re- 
mains of a bull, found at the same time as the horse. In the 2nd room : 
1. Ephesian Diana, on the walls inscriptions; in the 3rd R., in the centre: 
tomb-cippus of A. Sulpicius Maximus, a boy of lli| 2 years of age, who ac- 
cording to the inscription worked himself to death after having gained the 
prize over 52 competitors for extemporising in Greek verses. Some of the 
latter are placed on each side of the statuette of the youthful poet. It 
was found in 1870 near the Porta Salara (p. 126). Inscriptions ; two sarco- 
phagi : 4. with representations of the Calydonian , and 8. another hunt. 
Returning to the hall, 1. on the narrow side: 9. Province in high-relief. 
Farther on, to the 1., several mediocre female draped statues. 

R. of the principal entrance: r. 20. Diana; 21. Young Hercules; 22. 
Luna; 26. Mercury; 1. 25. Cyclopean Polvphemus with one of his victims 
(improperly restored); 1. 28. Hadrian as a priest; r. 29. Sarcophagus with 
the Calydonian hunt; r. 30. Jupiter; r. 31. Colossal Mars (legs modern); 
6i. Hercules with the Hydra. Adjacent, to the r. , is the entrance to 
three rooms containing inscriptions and several interesting sarcophagi 

208 Capitoline Museum. ROME. Stanza del Fauno. 

In the first, 1. ara , which stood in the market-place of Albano till 
1743, with archaic representation of the exploits of Hercules ; also a few 
insignificant busts. In the second , r. 4. * sarcophagus with battle between 
the Romans and Gauls ; the commander of the latter commits suicide (per- 
haps Anerostus, defeated B. C.2'J5 near Pisa); 1. 14. cippus of T. Statilius Aper' 
at his feet a wild boar (aper). In the third a largei "sarcophagus (for- 
merly regarded as that of Alex. Severus and his mother Mammsea), with 
scenes from the life of Achilles: Achilles among the daughters of Lycome- 
des, 1. farewell of Deidamia, r. arming of Achilles; on the back: Priam 
begging for the body of Hector (found with the Portland Vase of the British 
Museum near Porta Maggiore). L. of the door: 4. sitting statue of Pluto. By 
cthe r. wall, 3. ancient mosaic: Hercules attired as a woman, spinning* 
Cupids chaining a lion. — The visitor now returns to the hall. 

In the walls of the staircase are immured the fragments of the marble 
Plan of Rome, an important topographic relic, executed under Sept. Seve- 
rus, found in the 16th cent, in SS. Cosma e Damiano. Portions of the 
pieces found have been lost, but supplemented from the extant drawings 
(these portions are indicated by asterisks). On the landing of the stair two 
female statues, groundlessly designated as Pudicitia and Juno Lanuvina. 
Visitors ring on reaching the top, and are first ushered into the 

I. Room of the Dying Gladiator, containing the finest statues in the 
museum. In the centre: 1. "'Dying Gladiator, representing a mortally 
wounded Gaul ; a Greek work of the Pergamenian school, found in the 
Gardens of Sallust together with the group of barbarians now in the 
Villa Ludovisi (p 125). It is a work of profound interest and unrivalled 
excellence. The right arm is a restoration by Mich. Angelo. The visitur 
will readily recal the exquisite lines by Byron: Childe Harold, Canto IV., 
140. — 2. (r. of the door) Apollo with lyre. K. wall : 3. Faustina, traces of 
gilding on the head ; ' 4. Head of Dionysius, erroneously taken for a wo- 
man's (Ariadne's); 5. Amazon; 6. Alex, the Great; 7. Demeter. Wall opp. 
the entrance: Head of M. Jun. Brutus, the 'tu quoque Brute' of Caesar; 

10. Priestess of Isis ; 11. Flora from the villa of Hadrian. L. wall : "13. An- 
tinous from Hadrian's villa; "15. Satyr of Praxiteles, the best of the ex- 
tant copies ; 16. Female statue bearing a vessel. Entrance-wall : 17. Zeno, 
found in 1701 in a villa of Antoninus Pius at Civita Lavinia. 

II. Stanza del Fauno. On the walls reliefs, inscriptions, etc., among 
them the Lex Regia of Vespasian (black tablet on the wall r.), whence 
Cola di Rienzi 'the last of the Tribunes' once demonstrated to the people 
the might and liberty of ancient Rome. In the centre 1. Satyr (Fauno) 
of rosso antico, raising a bunch of grapes to his mouth, from Hadrian's 
villa, placed on a remarkable Altar, dedicated to Serapis. Window-wall: 
5. Colossal head of Bacchus, on a circular ara with rostrum, and the in- 
scription ara tranquillitatis, found together with the Ara Ventorum (No. 6) 
and the Ara Neptuni (So. 2) at Porto d'Anzio, where they were employed 
by sailors for offering sacrifices. Wall of egress : 8. Head of Mercury (?); 

11. Sarcophagus with relief of Luna and Endymion; 4 10. Head of Juno 
Sospita; 13. Boy with mask of Silenus. R. wall: 15. Small Minerva; 17. 
Mars. Entrance-wall: 20. Statue of Hercules; 21. Boy struggling with a 
goose, copy of a statue by Boethus, excavated near the Lateran in 1741; 
5 26. Sarcophagus with battle of Amazons, on the corner (23) the "head of 
Ariadne crowned with ivy. 

III. Large Saloon. In the centre : Jupiter, in black marble (nero antico), 
found at Porto d'Anzio, on an altar adorned with Mercury, Apollo, and 
Diana, in the archaic style. 2. and 4. " Two Centaurs of bigio morato, 
by Aristeas and Papias, found in Hadrian's villa in 1736; 3. Colossal statue 
of the youthful Hercules, found on the Aventine; it stands on a beautiful 
altar of Jupiter, embellished with representations of his birth, education, 
etc.; 5. jEsculapius, of nero antico, on an altar representing a sacrifice. 
Window-wall: 6. Portrait-statue restored as Hygeia; 8. Apollo with lyre; 

Capitoline Museum. ROME. Basts of Emperors. 209 

9. M. Aurelius ; 10. Amazon ; 11. Mars and Venus, found near OstiaJ; 13. 
Athene. Wall of egress : 14. Satyr ; 15. Apollo ; 16. Minerva ; 17. Colossal 
bust of Trajan with civic crown. R. wall: 21. Hadrian as Mars found 
near Ceprano ; 23. Gilded statue of Hercules, found in the Forum Boa- 
rium. The two columns adjoining the niche were found near the tomb of 
Csecilia Metella. 25. Amazon; 26. Apollo; 27. Mercurr; 28. Old nurse, 
probably from a group of the Children of Niobe : 30. Ceres (?). Entrance- 
wall : 31. Colossal bust of Anton. Pius; 33. Hunter with a hare; 34. Har- 
pocrates, god of silence, from Hadrian's villa. 

IV. Room of the Philosophers. On the wall valuable "Reliefs, five 
from the frieze of a temple of Neptune; over the entrance-door, death of 
Meleager ; sacrificial implements ; on the wall of the egress, an Archaic 
Bacchanalian relief by Callinmchus, etc. In the centre the sitting consular 
'statue of M. Claudius Marcellus (?), conqueror of Syracuse, B. C. 212, 
from the Giustiniani collection, formerly in the Museo Chiaramonti. Also 
93 " busts of celebrated characters of antiquity, to some of which arbitrary 
names are affixed. 1. Virgil ('?); 4, '-5,6. Socrates; 9. Aristides the orator; 

10. Seneca (?) ; 13. Lysias (?); 16. Marcus Agrippa; 19. Theophrastus ; 20. 
Marcus Aurelius; 21. Diogenes the Cynic; 22. Sophocles (not Archimedes); 
23. Thales; 24. ^Esculapius; 25. Theon ; 27. Pythagoras; 2S. Alexander the 
Gr. (?); 30. Aristophanes (?) ; 31. Demosthenes; 33, 34. Sophocles; 35. Al- 
cibiades (? certainly not Persius); 37. Hippocrates; 38. Aratus (?); 39, 40. 
Democritus of Abdera; 41, 42, 43. Euripides; 44, 45, ::, 46. Homer; 47. Epi- 
menides; 48. Cn. Domitius Corbulo, general under Claudius and Nero; 
"49. Scipio Africanus, recognisable by the wound on his head which he 
received when a youth at the battle of Ticinus, whilst saving his father's 
life; 52. Cato the Censor; 54. Minerva; 55. Cleopatra (?); !S 59. Arminius, 
erroneously named Cecrops; 60. Thucydides (?); 61. jEschines ; 62. Me- 
trodorus ; 64. Epicurus ; 63. Epicurus and Metrodorus ; 68, 69. Masinissa ; 70. 
Antisthenes ; 72, 73. Julian the Apostate ; 75. Cicero ; 76. Terence, according 
to others C. Asinius Pollio; *82. ./Eschylus (?). The names of the busts 
by the window-wall are unknown. 

V. Room of the Busts of the Emperors. Reliefs by the entrance-wall : 
over the door, I.Mercury, Hercules, Graces, Nymphs carrying off Hylas; ' H. 
Endymion asleep, beside him the watchful dog; 'F. Perseus liberates Andro- 
meda (these two belong to the eight reliefs in the Pal. Spada, p. 160). E. 
(above the door of egress) : sarcophagus-relief, Muses (a cast, original in 
London). Then more reliefs ; B. triumph of the youthful Bacchus, A. circus 
games, Bacchanalia, D. Calydonian hunt (the latter modern). The collection 
of the emperors' busts is one of the most complete in existence; the names 
are for the most part verified by coins. In the centre: -Sitting female 
statue, believed to be Agrippina, daughter of M. Agrippa, wife of Germani- 
cus and mother of Caligula. The numbering of the busts commences in 
the upper row, 1. of the entrance- door. 1. Julius Csesar; 2. Augustus; 
3. Marcellus, nephew of the latter (?); 4, 5. Tiberius; 6. Drusus the elder; 
7. Drusus, son of Tiberius; 8. Antonia, wife of the elder Drusus, mother 
of Germanicus and Claudius ; 9. Germanicus ; 10. Agrippina, his wife ; * 11. 
Caligula, in basalt; 12. Claudius, son of Drusus; 13. Mcssalina, fifth wife 
of Claudius ; 14. Agrippina the younger, daughter of Germanicus, mother 
of Nero ; 15. Nero ; 17. Poppsea (?), Nero's second wife ; 18. Galba ; 19. Otho ; 
20. Vitellius (?); 21. Vespasian ; 22. Titus; 23. Julia, his daughter; 24. 
Domitian; 26. Nerva (modern?); 27. Trajan; 28. Plotina, his wife; 29. 
Martiana, his sister; 30. Matilda, their daughter; 31, 32. Hadrian; 33. Sabina, 
his wife ; 34. JSlius Caesar, his adopted son ; 35. Antoninus Pius ; 36. Fau- 
stina the elder, his wife; 37. M. Aurelius as a boy; 88. M. Aurelius, more 
advanced in life ; 39. Faustina the younger, daughter of Antoninus, wife of 
Aurelius; 41. Lucius Verus ; 43. Commodus; 45. Pertinax; 50, 51. Septim. 
Severus; 53. Caracalla; 57. Heliogabalus ; 60. Alex. Severus; "68. Maximin; 
64. Gordian Afr. ; 65. Gordian; 76. Gallienus ; 80. Diocletian (?) ; 82. Julian 
the Apostate. — Visitors now enter the 

VI. Corridor, where on the narrow side, to the 1., No. 76. a beautiful 
marble vase on archaic 'puteal with the 12 gods: Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, 

B^DEKEn. Italy II. 3rd Edition. 14 

210 Capitoline Museum. ROME. Boom of the Doves. 

Hercules, Apollo, Diana, Mars, Venus, Vesta, Mercury, Neptune, and Vul- 
can. Then, the back of the visitor being turned to the window: 1. "73. 
Head of Silenus; 1. 72. Trajan; 1. ''71. Pallas, found at Velletri, exactly 
corresponding to the statne (No. 114) in the Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican; 
1. 70. M. Aurelius, as a boy; r. -69. Bust of Caligula; 1. 66. Augustus- 
1. 64. Jupiter, on a cippus with relief: Claudia Quinta drawing a boat 
containing the image of the Magna Mater up the Tiber; r. 61. Venus ■ 
r. 56. Female draped statue. (The door opposite leads to the Venus-room.) 
L. 55. Head of Apollo; r. 59. Antinous; 1. 53. Psyche; r. =48. Sarcophagus 
with representation of the birth and education of Bacchus ; r. 44. Selene; 
1. 43. Head of Ariadne. Here and in the following compartments, on the 
r., are immured the inscriptions from the columbarium of Livia (found in 
1726 near the church of Domine quo Vadis). B,. 40. Niobide ; 1. 39. and r. 
38. Venus; 1. 37. Marble vessel with Bacchanalian representations; r. 36. 
Copy of the discus-thrower of Myron (Pal. Massimi alle Colonne, p. 156), 
incorrectly restored as a warrior; 1. 33. Flute-playing Satyr; r. 32. Muse; 
1. 29. octagonal cinerary urn with Cupids in the attitudes of celebrated 
statues ; r. 28. Sarcophagus with the rape of Proserpine ; r. 26. The child 
Hercules with the snakes ; 1. 22. Archaic relief, a lute-player (?); 1. 20. Old 
woman intoxicated ; r. 16. Sitting draped statue. Opp. the entrance into 
the Room of the Doves: 1. ''13. Cupid bending his bow (after Lysippus); 
r. 12. Flute-playing Satyr; 1. 9. Recumbent lion; r. 5. Silenus; r. 3. Septim. 
Severus; 1. 2. Faustina; 1. 1. M. Aurelius. 

VII. Room of the Doves, so called from the "mosaic on the r. wall: 
Doves on a fountain-basin, found in Hadrian's Villa near Tibur, copy of a 
celebrated work, mentioned by Pliny, by Sosus of Pergamum. Beneath, a 
sarcophagus: Prometheus forming man, whom Minerva inspires with life 
(in a style showing the transition to the Christian period of art). Farther 
on, a mosaic and several masks. Under them : " 69. Sarcophagus with 
Selene and Endymion. The busts 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51. on the narrow wall 
are particularly good. In the 2nd window by the 1. wall, 25. the Man Tablet, 
a small relief in palombino, a soft species of marble, with the destruction 
of Troy and flight of ./Eneas in the centre, and many other representations 
from the legends of the Trojan war, explained by Greek inscriptions, 
probably designed for purposes of instruction, found near Bovillse. In the 
centre : girl protecting a dove, instead of the snake it was most probably a 
dog or some such animal in the original mosaic. 

VIII. Adjoining the gallery is the Venus Boom, which is shown to 
visitors before leaving, containing the - Capitoline Venus, unquestio- 
nably the workmanship of a Greek chisel, supposed to be a copy of the 
Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles, found in excellent preservation immured 
in a house of the Suburra. L. , Leda with the swan, a mediocre work; 
r. e Cupid and Psyche, found on the Aventine. 

V. Quarters of the City on the Right Bank. 

On the r. bank of the Tiber are situated two distinct quar- 
ters : towards the N. that of the Vatican; farther S., Trastevere. 

The ancient Etruscan city of Vaticum is said once to have 
stood on the Vatican Hill, whence the name is derived. Under 
the emperors, gardens and monumental tombs, and the circus of 
Caligula and Nero, which was subsequently superseded by the 
church of St. Peter, were situated here. In order to protect the 
latter, Leo IV. (852) erected a wall round this portion of the 
city, the Civitas Leonina, which with its vast church and the 
neighbouring palace is surpassed in celebrity by no other spot in 
the world. 

Ponte 8. Angelo. ROME. Castello.S. Angelo. 211 

The river is crossed by the five arches of the Foute S. Angelo, 
erected by Hadrian in order to connect his tomb with the city, 
A. D. 136, and named after him Pons JElius. The bridge com- 
mands a pleasing view of the Pincio with the Villa Medici. 

At the approach to the bridge Clement VII. erected sta- 
tues of Peter by Lorenzetto, and Paul by Paolo Romano, on the 
site of two chapels formerly here. The 10 colossal statues of 
angels, formerly much admired, were executed from Bernini's de- 
signs in 1688, and testify to the low ebb of plastic taste at that 
period. One angel (fourth on the r. , with the cross) is errone- 
ously ascribed to Bernini himself; the two executed by him for 
this bridge are now in S. Andrea delle Fratte (p. 111). 

From the bridge to St. Peter's is a walk of 8 min. The bridge 
leads direct to the Castello S. Angelo (PI. I, 10), the huge mo- 
numental tomb erected by Hadrian for himself and his family (Mole- 
Hadriani), after the example of the mausoleum of Augustus, the 
tomb of Caecilia Metella, etc. It was completed in 140 by Antoninus 
Pius. On a square substructure arose a cylinder of travertine, 
externally covered with marble, of which no trace now remains; 
on the verge of the summit stood numerous statues in marble. 
The cylinder was probably surmounted by another of smaller 
dimensions , on which a colossal statue of Hadrian was placed. 
The head in the Sala Rotonda of the Vatican is supposed to have 
belonged to this statue. According to others the pine -apple in 
the Giardino della Pigna of the Vatican (p. 241) formed the 
culminating-point of the structure. The ancient entrance is seen 
in the court opposite the bridge. A passage gradually ascended 
thence , winding round the building in the interior . and then 
diverging to the central tomb-chamber, which is now reached partly 
by other approaches. This was the la^t resting-place of Hadrian 
and his family, where the now empty niches for the reception 
of the urns are still seen. A sarcophagus of porphyry is said to 
have been found here, the cover of which is employed as a font 
in S. Peter's. Many of the following emperors also reposed here; 
but, when the Goths under Vitiges besieged Rome, the tomb was 
converted into a fortress , and the statues on the summit hurled 
down on the besiegers. Gregory the Great, while conducting a pro- 
cession to the Castello S. Angelo to pray for the cessation of the 
plague then raging, here 'beheld the Archangel Michael sheathing 
his sword', in commemoration of which Boniface IV. erected a 
chapel on the summit, S. Angelo inter Nubes , afterwards super- 
seded by the marble statue of an angel by Montelupo, and in 1740 
by the present bronze statue by Verschaffelt. Subsequently to 923 
the edifice was always employed by the party in power as a strong- 
hold to intimidate their adversaries, and on the possession oi which 
the subsistence of their sway depended. Since the time of Inno- 
cent III. it has been in the Bower nt tho popes, and here in 


212 Pal. Oiraud. ROME. Ospedale 8. Spirito. 

1527 Clement VII. sustained a terrible siege, on which occasion 
Benvenuto Cellini asserted he had thence shot the Constable 
Bourbon. The outworks were constructed by Urban V., and about 
1500 the covered passage which leads hither from the Vatican was 
added. In 1822 the interior was freed from rubbish. The fort 
has lately been strengthened, and is now strongly garrisoned (en- 
trance immediately to the r. by the sentinel). Permission to visit 
it must be obtained at the office of the commandant, P. Colonna, 
side-building; a sergeant ('/-i fr.) acts as guide. The visitor is 
conducted through several gloomy dungeons in which Beatrice 
Cenci , Cellini, Cagliostro , and others are said to have been in- 
carcerated ; a passage with 80 large boilers in which the oil 
thrown on besiegers was formerly heated ; former apartments of 
the popes; a saloon with frescoes by Raphael's pupil Perino del 
Yaga. The view from the summit is remarkably fine. The Giran- 
dola (p. 89) was formerly burned here. 

The Castle of S. Angelo is adjoined by the Piazza Pia, whence 
four streets diverge to the W. : 1. by the river the Borgo 8. Spirito, 
r. Borgo S. Angelo; between the latter and the city-wall lies a 
quarter consisting of small and dirty houses. Then, in the centre, 
from the two sides of the fountain, erected, like the two adjacent 
facades, by Pius IX., the Borgo Vecchio (1.) and Borgo Nuovo[l.) 
lead to the Piazza Rustkucci. The ordinary route to the Vatican 
is by the Borgo Nuovo. 

To the r. in this street is the church of S. Maria Traspontina 
(PI. I, 7), erected in 1566; farther on, to the r., in the Piazza 
Scossa Cavalli , is the handsome *Pal. Oiraud, erected in 1506 
by Bramante for Card. Adriano da Corneto , now the property of 
Prince Torlonia, who in an adjacent building possesses a valuable 
collection of antiquities (e. g. the so-called Vesta Giustiniani, not 
accessible). By the small fountain in the piazza is the insigni- 
ficant church of «?. Giacomo (PI. I, 7). In a straight direction the 
Piazza Rustkucci is reached, forming (260 ft. in length) a species 
of entrance-court to St. Peter's. 

The Borgo S. Spirito, is>uing from the Piazza Pia, terminates 
under the colonnades of the piazza of St. Peter. To the 1. in this 
street, by the river, is the spacious Ospedale di 8. Spirito (PL I, >), 
established by Innocent III., and comprising a hospital, a lunatic- 
asylum, a foundling-institution (accessible 2 — 4 p. m. ; permesso 
obtained at the office of the administration , or in the library), 
an establishment for the reception of girls and aged and infirm 
persons, and a valuable medical library (open 8 — 12 o'clock). Th e 
three departments first mentioned can accommodate 1000, 500, and 
3000 persons respectively. The military hospital is opposite. 

Farther on , 1. the church of S. Spirito in Sassia (PI. I, 'h 
erected by Antonio da S. Gallo under Paul III. , the facade by 

Porta S. Spirito. ROME. Piazza di S. Pietro. 213 

Mascherino under Sixtus V. It pertains to the adjoining hospital 
and possesses nothing remarkable , except a bronze ciborium on 
the high-altar. 

Then follows on the 1. the Porta S. Spirito , from which the 
Via della Longara leads to Trastevere (p. 224). 

A short distance from the colonnades , on the 1. the small 
church of «S. Michele in Sassia , erected in the previous century, 
the last resting-place of the artist Raphae. Mengs. 

The ** Piazza di S. Pietro is a square wiih an elliptical space 
in front, enclosed by the imposing colonnades of Bernini. Its 
length as far as the portico of the church is 11.198 ft., greatest 
breadth G25 ft. The colonnades, erected by Alexander VII., consist 
of four series of columns in each, of the Doric order. Three 
covered passages are formed by 284 columns and 88 buttresses, 
on the roofs of which are placed 126 statues of saints in the 
style of Bernini. The cost of the construction amounted to 
850,000 scudi ; the pavement, laid down under Benedict XIII., 
alone cost 88,000 scudi. The whole presents a strikingly imposing 
aspect, and forms an appropriate adjunct to the largest church in 
the world. The great Obelisk in the centre of the piazza, brought to 
Borne by Caligula and placed in the Vatican Circus , is the sole 
monument of the description which has never been overthrown. 

Tender Sixtus V. in 1586 this huge monument, estimated by Fontana to 
weigh nearly one million pounds, was removed by means of rollers from 
its original position, and on Sept. 10th erected under the superintendence of 
Domenico Fontana on its present site. Representations of this extremely 
difficult undertaking are frequently seen. It is related that Fontana in the 
construction of his machines had omitted to make allowance for the ten- 
sion of the ropes produced by the enormous weight, and that at the criti- 
cal moment, although the bystanders were prohibited under pain of death 
from shouting, one of the 800 workmen, the sailor Bresca di S. Eemo, ex- 
claimed : 'Acqua alle funi !' (water on the ropes), thus solving the difficulty. 
As a reward, his relations (of Bordighera near S. Remo) were granted the 
privilege, still enjoyed by them, of providing the palm-branches on Palm- 
Sunday for St. Peter's, which are then prepared and plaited by the nuns of 
S. Antonio Abbate. 

On the pavement around the obelisk is placed an indicator of 
the points of the compass. At the sides are two handsome Foun- 
tains, 46 ft. in height, that next to the Vatican erected by 
Maderno, the other under Innocent XI. On both sides , between 
the obelisk and the fountains , round slabs of stone indicate the 
centres of the radii of the colonnades, of which each series of 
columns appears thence as one. At the sides of the steps leading 
to the portico of St. Peter's (see p. 215), the statues of St. Peter 
and St. Paul, executed by Mino del Regno under Pius II., for- 
merly stood. They are now at the entrance to the Sacristy (p. 218), 
and have been replaced by Pius IX. by works of De Fabris and 
Tadolini. To the r. at the extremity of the colonnades is the 
entrance to the Vatican (see p. 231). The visitor passes the Swiss 
guard and ascends the broad staircase on the r. 

214 The Vatican. ROME. St. Peter's. 

**S. Pietro in Vaticano. 

St. Peter's, like S. Giovanni in Laterano, S. Paolo, S. Croce, S. Agnese, 
and S. Lorenzo, is said to have been founded by the Emp. Constantine at 
the request of Pope Silvester I. It was erected in the form of a basilica 
with nave, double aisles, and transept, on the site of the circus of Nero, 
where St. Peter suffered martyrdom, and contained the brazen sarcophagus 
of the apostle. It was approached by an entrance-court with colonnades, 
and surrounded with smaller churches, chapels, and monasteries. The in- 
terior was sumptuously decorated with gold, mosaics, and marble. At Christ- 
mas, in the year 800, Charlemagne received the Roman imperial crown 
from the hands of Leo III., and numerous emperors and popes were subse- 
quently crowned here. In the course of time the edifice had at length be- 
come so damaged that Nicholas V. determined on its reconstruction, and in 
1450 commenced the posterior tribune, from the design of the Florentine 
Bernardino Rossellini. Half-a-century later, in 1506, Julius II. recommenced 
the tardy operations, and entrusted the execution of his plan to the eminent 
Bramante (fionato Lazzari from Urbino). His design was a Greek cross, 
surmounted by a dome in the centre over the tomb of St. Peter. Under 
Leo X. Raphael deviated from this design by substituting a Latin for a 
Greek cross, having with Giuliano da San Gallo and Fra Gioeondo da Ve- 
rona succeeded to the supervision of the works after the death of Bramante 
in 1514. From 1518 to his death (1520) Raphael was sole director. Diffe- 
rent designs were again made by Baldassare Peruzzi (to 1536) and Antonio 
da San Gallo (to 1546), under whom the work progressed slowly. Michael 
Angelo (to 1564) returned to the Greek cross of Bramante ; the great dome 
was now to be surrounded by four smaller ones and a "portico with pointed 
pediment ; he erected the drum and left a precise model of the dome, in 
accordance with which (after the interval during which Barozzi da Yignola, 
till 1573, and Pirro Ligorio had conducted the work) Giac. della Porta (to 
1604) and Domenico Fontana executed the work in 22 months with the aid 
of 600 workmen. The formidable difficulties which the construction pre- 
sented, and the beauty of the outlines, render it a marvel of architectural 
skill. The facade only was now wanting, when Paul V. directed the archi- 
tect Carlo Fontana (to 1629) to prolong the nave towards the front, and thus 
complete the Latin cross. Bernini finally erected one (].) of the two pro- 
jected campanili, which however was afterwards removed, as the substruc- 
ture appeared inadequate to the weight. Under Alex. VII. Bernini added the 
great colonnades at the sides of the facade, in order to enhance its effect. 
The new church was consecrated by Pope Urban VIII., Nov. 18th, 
1626, on the 1300th anniversary of the day on which St. Silvester is said to 
have consecrated the original edifice. The interior was filled by Bernini 
with the sculptures of his contemporaries, the buttresses covered with 
marble of different colours, and niches, which destroyed the massive effect, 
were formed in the principal pillars. At the end of the 17th cent, the build- 
ing expenses of St. Peter's had amounted to upwards of 47 million scudi 
(about 9»J 2 million pounds), and the present annual cost of its maintenance 
is 6000 pounds. The new sacristy , erected by Pius VI. , cost 960,0011 sc. 
(about. 180,000 pounds). 

The result of these various vicissitudes is that S. Peters is 
the largest and most imposing, although not the most beautiful 
church in the world; its area amounts to 212,321 sq. ft., whilst 
that of the cathedral at Milan is 117,678, St. Paul's at London 
108,982, St. Sophia at Constantinople 96,497, and the cathedral 
of Cologne 73,903 sq. ft. Length externally 651, internally 629 ft; 
height of nave near the entrance 162, width 93 ft. Width of each 
aisle 35, total width 209 ft. Breadth of transept 220 ft. Height 
of dome from the pavement to the lantern 429, to the cross on 
the summit 465 ft.: diameter 148 ft., i. e. 3 ft., less than that 

St. Peter s. ROME. The Facade. 215 

of the Pantheon, which doubtless served Michael Angelo as a 
model. The chuich contains 290 windows, 390 statues, 46 altars, 
and 748 columns. 

The Facade of St. Peter's by Carlo Maderno, with 8 columns, 
4 pilasters, and 6 semi-pilasters of the Corinthian order, is 379 ft. 
long and 152 ft. in height. It is surmounted by a balustrade 
nearly 6 ft. in height, with statues of the Saviour and apostles, 
19 ft. in height. The inscription runs thus r 

In. Honorem. Principis. Apost. Paulus. V. Burghesius. 
Romanus. Pont. Max. A. MDCXIJ. Pont. VII. 

Over the central of the 5 entrances is the *Loggia in which 
the new pope is crowned, and whence he imparts his benediction 
at Easter to the concourse assembled in the piazza. 

The Portico, the ceiling of which is magnificently decorated 
with stucco, is 236 ft. in length, 42 in width, and 68 in height. 
At the extremities equestrian statues , r. Constantine the Great 
by Bernini , 1. Charlemagne by Cornacchini. At the entrances 
are antique columns of pavonazzetto and African maible. Over 
the interior of the central external entrance * St. Peter on the 
sea, termed l La Navicella', a mosaic after Giotto, formerly in 
the entrance-court of the earlier church , unfortunately consider- 
ably altered by Marcello Provenzale and Fr. Berretta. A copy of 
the original is preserved in S. Maria della Concezione in the 
Piazza Barberini (p. 124). Of the 5 doors of the church that 
on the extreme r. is termed Porta Santa, indicated by a cross, 
and is only opened during the year of jubilee (the last was in 
1825). The great central entrance, with the brazen doors, which 
Eugene IV. caused to be executed in 1447 by Ant. Filarete and 
Sim. Donatello after the model of those of S. Giovanni at Flo- 
rence, is only opened during the highest festivals. The Christian 
subjects represented on the doors contrast strangely with those 
on the surrounding arabesques, such as Phrixus and Hella on the 
ram, Europa on the bull, Ganymede carried off by the eagle, etc. 
The two side-doors are those usually employed. 

The portico unfortunately detracts greatly from the effect of 
the whole, and, even when the spectator is not in the immediate 
vicinity, conceals a considerable part of the cylinder of the dome. 
The effect which Michael Angelo intended the latter to produce 
cannot be appreciated except from a distance. 

Interior. On the pavement of the nave , behind the central door , is 
a round slab of porphyry on which the emperors were formerly crow- 
ned, and beyond it stones on which are inscribed the length of St. Paul's 
in London, of the cathedral of Milan, etc. On each side, as far as the 
dome , are four pillars with Corinthian pilasters ; above these a sump- 
tuous entablature, which bears the arches extending from pillar to pil- 
lar and the gorgeously fretted and gilded * vaulting of the ceiling. The 
niches of the pillars here and in the other parts of the church contain ba- 
roque statues of the founders of various orders. The pavement, like the 
walls, consists entirely of marble, inlaid from designs by G. della Porta 

216 St. Peters. ROME. The Interior. 

and Bernini. By the fourth pillar to the r. is the sitting statue of St. Peter 
in bronze, on a throne of white marble beneath a canopy, a work of the 
5th cent., brought by Paul V. from the monastery of S. Martino. The r. 
foot is almost entirely worn away by frequent contact with the lips of de- 
votees ; in front of it two large candelabra. 

The dome rests on four huge buttresses, the niches of which beneath 
are occupied by statues , 17 ft. in height , of (r.) St. Longinus by Bernini 
and St. Helena by Bolgi , (1.) St. Veronica by Mocchi and St. Andrew hy 
Duquesnoy ; above them are the four loggie of Bernini , whence the greatest 
relics are exhibited on high festivals, on which occasions the loggie may 
be entered by none but the canons of St. Peter's. Above these are 4 mo- 
saics of the evangelists after the C'av. tf Arpino , of colossal dimensions. 
The pen of St. Luke is 7 ft. in length. The frieze bears the inscription 
in mosaic : 

Tu es Petrus el super hanc petrain aedifcabo ecclesiam meam et tibi dabo 
claves regni caelorum. 

The 16 ribs of the vaulting of the dome are decorated with gilded 
stucco; between them are 4 series of mosaics. In the lowest the Saviour, 
the Virgin, and the Apostles. On a level with the lantern, God the Fa- 
ther, by Marcello Provenzale, after the Cav. cVArpino. 

Beneath the dome rises the Canopy, 98 ft. , with the cross 101 ft. in 
height , borne by four richly gilded spiral columns , constructed in 1633 
under Pope Urban VIII., from designs by Bernini, of the metal taken from 
the Pantheon (p. 151). Under the canopy is the high-altar, consecrated in 
1594, where the pope only reads mass on high festivals. It stands imme- 
diately over the Tomb of St. Peter. The Confessio, constructed by C. Maderno 
under Paul V., is surrounded by 89 ever-burning lamps. The descent is by 
a double marble stair. Doors of gilded bronze, dating from the earlier 
church, close the niche which contains the sarcophagus of the apostle. 
Between the stairs the "statue of Pius VI. in the attitude of prayer, by 

Beyond the dome the nave is continued and terminates in the tribune, 
containing the tasteless bronze Cathedra Petri of Bernini, which encloses 
the ancient wooden episcopal chair of St. Peter. On the r. is the monu- 
ment of Urban VIII. (d. 1644) by Bernini; 1. "that of Paul III. (d. 1549) 
by Gugl. delta Porta, probably under the supervision of Michael Angelo. 
Above is the figure of the pope pronouncing his benediction ; beneath nn 
the r. Prudence, on the 1. Justice, the latter now draped with bronze. Two 
other figures belonging to the group are now in the Pal. Farnese. Beneath 
the two founders of orders here and the two next in the nave, Pius IX. 
eaused to be engraved the names of the bishops and prelates who on Dec. 
8th , 1854 , accepted the new dogma of the immaculate conception of the 

The visitor, having traversed the nave and surveyed the stupendous 
dimensions of the fabric, now proceeds to examine the aisles and transepts. 
St. Peter's possesses few pictures ; those formerly here , some of which are 
now in the Vatican Gallery, are replaced hv copies in mosaic. 

Right Aisle. Over the 'jubilee-door' St. Peter in mosaic, placed here 
by Clement X. in the year of jubilee 1675. The (1st) Chapel delta Pteta 
contains an admirable early work of Michael Angelo: "Mary with the dead 
bodv of Christ on her knees. Adjacent, to the r. beneath the arch, is the 
monument, of Leo XII., erected by Gregory XVI., by De Fabris; 1. cenotaph 
and bronze relief-portrait of Christina of Sweden, daughter of Gustayus 
Adolphus, and a convert to the Romish faith. The 2nd altar is adorned with 
the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian after Domenichino. Beneath the next arches 
are the monuments of (r.) Innocent XII. by Fil. Valle, and (1.) the Countess 
Mathilde of Tuscany (d. 1115) by Bernini, executed by order of Urban VII. 
who had transferred her remains from Mantua hither. On the r. the (ord) 
Chapel of the Holy Sacrament, closed by an iron gate, contains an altar "P^ 
by Pietro da Cortona ; r. the finelv executed ! * monument of Sixtus IV. (d. 1484) 
by Ant. Pollajvolo (1493). Here Julius II. (like Sixtus, of the della Kovere 
family), who was the first to continue the construction of the church after 

St. Peters. ROME. The Interior. 217 

Nicholas V. , is also interred. Under the next arch , r. the monument of 
Gregory XII., the rectifier of the calendar (d. 1585), by Camillo Rusconi; 
1. the unadorned sarcophagus of Gregory XIV. Opposite, over the altar by 
the principal buttress , is the Communion of St. Jerome , after Domenichino 
(original in the Vatican). E. the Gregorian Chapel , erected under Gre- 
gory XIII. from the design of Michael Angelo , at a cost of 80,000 scudi ; 
here to the r. is the "monument of Gregory XVI. (d. 1846), by Amici (1854); 
beneath it is the tomb of St. Gregory of Nazianz (d. 390). Under the follow- 
ing arch, r. the tomb of Benedict XIV. ; 1. altar with the mass of St. Basi- 
lius, after Subleyras. 

The Right Transept (where the OEcumenical council held its ses- 
sions) contains by the tribune three altars with pictures by Caroselli , Va- 
lentin, and Poussin , representing the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus. The pro- 
longation of the r. aisle is now entered. Beneath the arch: r. "monument 
of Clement XIII. (Rezzonico of Venice, d. 1769) by Canova; the figure of 
the pope and the two lions are worthy of inspection ; 1. altar of the Navi- 
cella, with Christ and Peter on the sea, after Lanfranco. Then the Chapel 
of the Archangel Michael, on the v. the "Archangel, after Guido Reni ; in a 
straight direction, Burial of St. Petronella , after Guercino. Under the (1.) 
following arch : r. monument of Clement X. ; Raising of Tabitha by Peter, 
after Costanzi. The principal tribune is now passed, and the 1. aisle en- 
tered. Here , immediately on the r. , is the monument of Alexander VIII. 
(Ottoboni of Venice, d. 1691), by Arrigo di S. Martino; 1. Healing of the 
lame man by Peter and John, after Mancini; farther on, r. the altar of 
Leo I. with marble relief by Algardi (about 1650), representing the Conver- 
sion of Attila. Facing the visitor is the Cappella della Colonna, containing a 
highly-revered Madonna from a pillar of the older church. Beneath the al- 
tar ;n ancient Clni tian sarcophagus (on the front Christ and the apostles), 
containing the remains of Leo II. (d. 683), Leo III. (d. 816), and Leo IV. (d. 
855). Turning hence to the 1. the visitor first perceives on the r., over the 
small door (of egress), the unattractive monument of Alex. VII. (d. 1667) by 
Bernini. Opposite is an altar with an oil-painting (on slate) by Fr. Vanni, 
Punishment of Simon Magus. 

The Left Transept, with tribune and 3 altars, is next entered. It 
contains confessionals for 11 different languages, as is indicated by the in- 
scriptions. By the pillar of S. Veronica, beneath the statue of S. Juliana, 
is an elevated seat, whence on high festivals the grand-penitentiary dis- 
penses absolution. Over the first altar on the r. St. Thomas, by Camuccini ; 
in front of that in the centre, the tomb of the great composer Palestrina 
(1520—1592), whose works are still performed in St. Peter's; altar-piece, 
Crucifixion of Peter, after Guido Reni; 1. St. Francis, after Domenichino. 
The portal to the r. under the following arch leads to the Sacristy; above 
it the monument of Pius VIII. by Tenerani. From this point the effect of 
the dome, tribune, and transept collectively may best be appreciated. Then 
the Clementine Chapel, erected by Clement VIII. (1592—1605): beneath the 
altar on the r. reposes Gregory I., the Great (590—604); altar-piece after 
Andr. Sacchi; facing the visitor the -monument of Pius VII. (d. 1823), by 
Thorioaldsen, erected by Card. Consalvi; 1. Death of Ananias and Sapphira, 
after Roncalli. The visitor now turns to the 1. and perceives beneath the 
arch on the 1. the mosaic copy of Raphael's Transfiguration, four times the 
size of the original. Opposite, to the r. the 

Left Aisle is entered. Here under the arch on the r. the monument 
of Leo XL (d. 1605) by Algardi, with a relief of the recantation of Henry IV. 
of France; 1. monument of Innocent XI. (d. 1689) by C. Maratla , with relief 
of the delivery of Vienna by King John Sobieski. The great chapel of the 
choir, gorgeously decorated by della Porta with stucco and gilding, contains 
the tombstone of Clement IX. (d. 1721) and two organs. Here on Sundays 
ceremonies accompanied by beautiful musical performances frequentlv take 
place ; ladies only admitted when provided with black dress and' veil, 
gentlemen also in black (evening-dress). Beneath the arch, to the r. over 
the door, is the temporary resting-place of each pope during the interval 
between his decease and the erection of his monument; 1. the "monument 
of Innocent VIII. (d. 1492), by And. and Piet. Pniiajuolo. Then on the r 

218 St. Peter's. ROME. The Sacristy. 

an altar with Mary's first visit to the Temple , after Romanelli ; adjoining 
this to the 1. is a point whence the entire depth of the church may be sur- 
veyed, as far as the chapel of St. Michael. Under the arch , to the r. over 
the door which leads to the dome, the eye of the English traveller will rest 
with deep interest upon the monument of Maria Clementina Sobieski (d. 
1735 at Rome), wife of Charles Edward the young Pretender , and to the 1. 
the tomb of the last of the Stuarts, by Canova (1819), with busts of 'James III.' 
and his sons Charles Edward, and Henry , better known as Cardinal York. 
In the last chapel on the r. is a font consisting of the cover of a sarcopha- 
gus from the mausoleum of Hadrian. Over the altar , Baptism of Christ, 
after Maratta. 

The Sacristy (entrance by the grey marble portal on the 1. 
immediately before the transept is reached ; it may be visited 
most conveniently at the same time as the grottoes, 9 — 11 a. m.), 
erected in 1775 by Pius VI. from designs of C. Marchionne, 
consists of 3 chapels in a corridor adorned with ancient columns 
and inscriptions. At the entrance the statues of (r.) St. Peter 
and (1.) St. Paul, of the 15th cent., which formerly stood in the 
Piazza of St. Peter. The central chapel, Sagrestia Comune, octa- 
gonal in form, is embellished with 8 columns of bigio from the 
villa of Hadrian at Tibur. A guide ('/ 2 ft-) is here found to show 
the others. L. the Sagrestia dei Canonici, with the Cap. dei Canoni- 
ci, altar-piece by Franc. Penni (Madonna with SS. Anna, Peter, 
aud Paul), opposite to which a * Madonna and Child by Giulio 
Bomano. Adjacent is the Stanza Capitolare, containing *pictures 
from the former Confessio , by Giotto (Christ with a cardinal. 
Crucifixion of Peter, Execution of Paul), and * fragments of the 
frescoes by Melozzo da Forli from the former dome of SS. Apos- 
toli (angels with musical instruments and several heads of apostles). 
On the r. the Sagrestia de Benefiziati , with altar-piece by Mu- 
ziano, the Delivery of the Keys. Contiguous is the Treasury of 
St. Peter's ,. containing jewels, candelabra by Benvenuto Cellini 
and Michael Angelo , the dalmatica worn by Charlemagne at his 
coronation, etc. Over the sacristy are the Archives of St. Peter's 
with ancient MSS., e. g. Life of St. George, with miniatures hy 
Giotto; also a few classical authors. The treasury and archives 
are not always accessible. 

The Sagre Grotte Vaticane hardly now merit a visit (per- 
messi granted by Msgr. Teodori in the sacristy on Sunday mor- 
nings; ladies require special permission from the Pope; sacris- 
tan i/ 2 &.). The y consist of passages with chapels and altars 
beneath the pavement of the present church (entrance by the 
pillar of St. Veronica, beneath the dome). The most interesting 
of these, however, the 'Grotte Yecchie', have not been accessible 
since 1867. 

The 'Grotte Nuove' only are now shown. Here are preserved 
numerous reliefs of the 15th cent, from the tombs of the popes, 
among them a Madonna with St. Peter and St. Paul by Mino da 
Fiesole. Reliefs from the tomb of Paul II. , Hope, Faith, Charity, 
and the Last Judgment. On the 1. side, by the sides of the 

St. Peter's. ROME. The Dome. 219 

entrance to the shrine, marble * reliefs, representing the martyrdom 
of Peter and Paul , from the tombstone of Sixtus IV. Opp. the 
entrance of the shrine the large * sarcophagus of the prefect 
Junius Bassus (d. 359), with admirable sculptures from the Old 
and New Testament, found here in 1595. The Confessio, or Shrine 
of St. Peter and St. Paul , situated in the centre of the circular 
passage, is sumptuously decorated with gold, jewels, etc. Over 
the altar, consecrated in 1122, are two ancient pictures of 
St. Peter and St. Paul. The sarcophagus of St. Peter (formerly 
in the catacombs on the Via Appia , then in the Lateran) has 
been preserved here since the 15th cent. 

The ascent of the Dome is permitted on Thursdays 8 — 10 a. 
m. ; visitors apply at the sacristy. Eight flights of broad steps 
(142 in all) ascend to the roof. The walls bear memorial-tablets 
of royal personages who have performed the ascent. On the roof 
a number of domes and small structures are seen, some of which 
serve as dwellings for the workmen and custodians. One of the 
octagonal chambers in the pillars which support the dome con- 
tains a *model of the church by Michael Angelo and his prede- 
cessor Ant. da S. Oallo , for admission to which a separate per- 
mission must be obtained through an ambassador or consul ; here, 
too, a model of the ancient throne of St. Peter is preserved. The 
dome rises 318 ft. above the roof, and is 652 ft. in circum- 
ference. The huge hoops of iron are here seen, by which the 
dome was strengthened in the 17th cent., being then considered 
in a dangerous condition. The gallery within the dome affords 
a striking view of the interior. An easy staircase ascends be- 
tween the external and internal walls of the dome to the * Lan- 
tern . whence a view of the entire church and its environs , and 
in favourable weather of the Campagna from the mountains to 
the distant sea, is obtained. A narrow iron staircase, admitting 
one person only at a time , ascends to the copper ball on the 
summit, which can contain 16 persons, but affords no view. 

The coronation of the new pope, as well as the canonisation 
of a new saint, always takes place at St. Peter's. At Christmas, 
Easter, and on the festival of SS. Peter and Paul (June 29th), 
the Pope used to celebrate high mass here in person, but has not 
officiated since the Italian occupation. The most important of 
the other festivals have already been enumerated (p. 88) , the 
remainder will be found in the Roman calendar. On Easter-day 
and June 28th the dome, the facade, and the colonnades were 
under the papal regime illuminated in the evening by 4400 
lamps, throwing the lines of the architecture into singularly pro- 
minent relief; and iy 4 hr. after sunset this illumination was 
exchanged with great rapidity by 400 workmen for a blaze of 
torch-light. This remarkable spectacle, however, will probably 
never again be witnessed. 

220 Cimeterio dei Tedeschi. ROME. 5. Onofrio. 

Ascending by St. Peters, to the 1. beyond the colonnades, 
the visitor reaches (on the 1. before the sacristy is reached) the 
Cimeterio dei Tedeschi, the most ancient Christian burial-ground 
instituted by Constantine, and filled with earth from Mt. Calvary. 
In 1779 it was granted to the Germans by Pius VI. Near it is 
the church of >S. Maria della Pitta in Campo Santo. 

The visitor may now quit the cemetery by the egress on the 
r. , and walk round St. Peter's in order to acquire a distinct 
conception of its vast proportions. 

In the second street ascending to the 1. behind the colonnades 
is situated (1.) the Palace of the SS. Ufficio , or seat of the 
Inquisition, now converted into barracks. That tribunal was 
established in 1536 by Paul III. by the advice of Card. Carafla, 
afterwards Paul IV., and this edifice allotted to it by Paul V. 

The Long ara. 

The Borgo is connected with Trastevere by the Via della 
Longara, % M. in length, constructed by Sixtus V. The Borgo 
is quitted by the Porta di S. Spirito , begun by Ant. da San 
Gallo. Near the gate the steep Salita di San Onofrio ascends to 
the r. (then to the 1. where the street divides) in 5 min. to 

*S. Onofrio (PI. II, 7), on the slope of the Janiculus, erected 

in 1439 by Niccolo da Forca Palena in honour of the Egyptian 

hermit Honophrius ; adjoining it is a monastery of the order of 

St. Jerome. The church and cloister are approached by a hall 

borne by 8 columns, where in the lunettes are frescoes from the 

life of St. Jerome by Domenichino , protected by glass. If the 

church is closed, visitors ring at the door of the monastery (r.), 

through which access may be obtained. 

The 1st Chapel on the 1. , restored by Pius IX. , contains the tomb of 
the poet Torquato Tasso (by de Fabris, 1657) , who died in this monastery 
in 1595. In the 3rd chapel the tombstone of the linguist Card. Mezzofanti 
(d. 1849). The 2nd chapel on the r. contains a Madonna, altar-piece by 
Ann. Caracci. At the extremity of the r. wall: monument of Archbp. Sac- 
chi (d. 1502); in the lunette a Madonna by Pinturicchio. The tribune con- 
tains restored frescoes, the upper attributed to Bald. Peruzzi , the lower to 
Pinturicchio, probably both by Peruzzi. They are unfortunately much injured 
by retouching; thus the raised arm of the child has been entirely spoiled. 

Ladies are not admitted to the monastery. A passage on the 
first floor contains a **Madonna with the donor, a fresco by 
Leonardo da Vinci. The cell is still shown in which Tasso re- 
sided, when about to receive the laurel on the Capitol, and died 
April 25th, 1595. It contains his bust in wax, taken from the 
cast of his face , his autograph , etc. In the garden (ladies may 
enter by a side-door) of the monastery, near some cypresses, are 
the remains of an oak (destroyed by lightning in 1842), under 

Palazzo Salviati. ROME. Villa Farnesina. 221 

■which Tasso was in the habit of sitting. Admirable *view of the 
city, and retrospect of St. Peter's. 

Those desirous of proceeding hence to Trastevere may in 
descending select the shorter and steeper road to the r. 

To the r. in the Longara is the extensive lunatic-asylum 
ereced by Pius IX., with long inscription. 

Farther on, 1. the new chain-bridge (1 soldo) ; on the opposite 
bank S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini (PI. II, 10). R. the extensive 
Pal. Salviati with handsome court; the pictures formerly here 
are now for the mo>t part in the Rorghese Gallery , Prince Ror- 
ghese having inherited the palace and sold it to the government, 
who have established the civic archives in the building. The 
adjacent garden, skirted by the street, was converted by Gre- 
gory XVI. in 1837 into a Botanical Garden (visitors ring at the 
small door on the r.), which belongs to the Sapienza (see p. 150), 
and contains many rare and beautiful trees and plants, the skeleton 
of a whale (64 ft. long) , skeleton of a crocodile , etc. About 
10 min. walk from the Porta S. Spirito is situated the small 
church of S. Giaeomo alia Lungara , said to have been founded 
by Leo IV. , altered in the 17th cent. The adjoining convent 
is occupied by nuns who have been reclaimed from a career 
of vice. 

About 5 min. farther, 1. opposite the Pal. Corsini, is the 

* Villa Farnesina (PI. II, 11) (admission on the 1st and 
15th of every month, 10 — 3 o'clock, i/ 2 f r 0> erec ed in 1506 by 
Bald. Peruzzi for Agostino Chigi, the property of the Farnese fa- 
mily from 1580 until lately, and now that of the ex-king of Naples. 
This small palace is one of the most pleasing renaissance-edifices 
in Rome, simple, and of symmetrical proportions. Owing to the 
work of restoration now in progress the upper story with the 
celebrated frescoes , especially the Nuptials of Alexander and 
Roxana, is inaccessible. The principal space on the basement- 
floor was originally an open hall , but is now closed with large 
windows in order to protect the paintings. The ceiling was de- 
signed by Raphael (1518 — 1520), and deeorated by his pupils 
G. Romano and Franc. Penni with ** 12 representations from the 
myth of Pysche , beginning with the short wall to the 1. , and 
continued on the wall opposite the entrance. 

Raphael adhered to the charming fable of Apuleius, which may be 
briefly related as follows. A king had three daughters , the youngest of 
whom, Psyche, excites the jealousy of Venus by her beauty. The goddess 
accordingly directs her son Cupid to punish the princess by inspiring her 
with love for an unworthy individual (1). Cupid himself becomes enamoured 
of her, shows her to the Graces (2), and carries her off (this is the best 
preserved of the paintings). He visits her by night only , warning her not 
to indulge in curiosity as to his appearance. Psyche, however, instigated 
by her envious sisters, disobeys the injunction. She lights a lamp, a drop, 
of heated oil from which awakens her sleeping lover. Cupid upbraids her 
and quits her in anger. Psyche wanders about filled with despair. Mean- 
while \ enus has been informed of her son's attachment, imprisons him, and 

222 Villa Farnesina. ROME. Palazzo Corsini. 

requests Juno and Ceres to aid her in seeking for Psyche, which both god- 
desses decline to do (3). She then drives in her dove-chariot to Jupiter (4), 
and begs him to grant her the assistance of Mercury (5). Her request 
is complied with , and Mercury flies forth to search for Psyche (6). Venus 
torments her in every conceivable manner, and imposes impossible tasks 
on her , which , however , with the aid of friends she is enabled to 
perform. At length she is desired to bring a casket from the infernal re- 
gions (7) , and even this , to the astonishment of Venus , she succeeds in 
accomplishing (8). Cupid , having at length escaped from his captivity, 
begs Jupiter to grant him Psyche; Jupiter kisses him (9), and commands 
Mercury to summon the gods to deliberate on the matter (ceiling-painting 
on the r.). The messenger of the gods then conducts Psyche to Olympus 
(10) , she becomes immortal , and the gods celebrate the nuptial-banquet 
(ceiling-painting on the 1.). In this pleasing fable Psyche evidently repre- 
sents the human soul purified by passions and misfortunes, and thus fitted 
for the enjoyment of true and celestial happiness. 

The garlands which surround the different paintings are by Giov. da 
Vdine. The frescoes , having suffered from exposure to the atmosphere, 
were retouched by Maratta. The blue ground, which was originally of a 
much warmer tint, as is apparent from the few portions still unfaded, was 
most seriously injured. The whole nevertheless produces a charming and 
brilliant effect owing to the indestructible beauty of the designs. The felicity 
with which the scenes have been adapted to the unfavourable spaces is 
also remarkable. 

The 'ceiling of the adjoining Loggia towards the garden, which was 
likewise formerly exposed to the open air , was decorated and painted by 
Baldassare Peruzzi (representations of Perseus and Diana). The lunettes 
contain scenes from the Metamorphoses, the first Roman work of Seb. del 
Piombo. The colossal head in the lunette on the 1. lateral wall is said to 
have been drawn by Michael Angelo in charcoal , whilst in vain seeking 
Dan. da Volterra who was also engaged here, but is more probably by Pe- 
ruzzi. On the entrance-wall Raphael, in 1514, painted with his own hand 
the "Galatea, borne across the sea in a conch, surrounded by Nymphs, 
Tritons , and Cupids , one of the most charming works of the master. 
The Polyphemus adjoining, to the 1., was painted by Seb. del Piombo, 
but was" afterwards almost entirely obliterated , and badly restored. The 
landscapes are erroneously attributed to G. Poussin. The restorations 
which the two rooms have recently undergone have only been partially 

Opposite is the * Palazzo Corsini (PI. II, 11), formerly the 
property of the Riarii, purchased by Clement XII. for his nephew 
Card. Neri Corsini in 1729, altered by Fuga, and in the 17th 
cent, the residence of Queen Christina of Sweden, who died 
here, April 19th, 1689. A double staircase ascends from the 
principal portal to the 1st floor, where the Picture-OaUery is 
situated (admission on Mond. , Thursd. , and Sat. , and also on the 
days on which Villa Farnesina is accessible, 9—3 o'clock l /o fr -i 
the custodians are well-informed and obliging). Among a large 
number of mediocre and inferior works are a few pictures of rare 
merit. Catalogues in each room. 

1st Room. 1, 5. Landscapes, Bloemen (Orizzonle); 2, 4. Landscapes, 
Lovatelli. This room also generally contains a small Holy Family by Bal- 
toni. By one of the walls a well-preserved ancient sarcophagus with sea- 
gods, from Porto d'Anzio. — 2 n d R. : 4. Holy Family, Bassano; 12. Ma- 
donna in a glory, Eliz. Sirani; 15. Landscape, G. Poussin (?); IT, 19. Land- 
scapes with cattle, Berghem; 20. Pieta, Lod. Caracci. On the walls a num- 
ber of ancient heads, some of which merit examination. — To the r. is tn^ 
3rd R. : 1. Ecce Homo, Guercino ; 4, 5. Wharf, Peters; 17. Madonna, Ca-\ 
ravaggio ; s 23. Evoninc T,and«r.ane. Both : 26. Madonna, Ffa Bartolommeo ; 

Palazzo Corsini: ROME. f Porta Settimiana. 223 

43j, Martyrdom of two saints, Saraceni; |4. Julius II., after Raphael; 50.. 
"Philip II. of Spain), Titian; 55. Kitchen-scenes, Dutch School ; 61. Holy Fa-) 
mily, Vasari; .52^ Vanity, Saraceni; 84. Cavalry skirmish, Borgognone ; $S. t 
Ecce Homo, C. Dolce. — 4th R. : "11. Herodias, Guido Rent; 16. Madonna, 
by the same; 22. Christ and Mary Magdalene, Baroccio; 27. Heads as stu- 
dies , Lod. Caracci ; 35. Four heads , Parmeggianino ; 40. Portrait of his 
daughter, Maratta; 41. Female portrait, after Raphael, copy of that in the 
Tribune at Florence ; 43. Madonna, Maratta ; 44. Hare, A. Diirer ; 47. Land- 
scape with the judgment of Paris, designed by Raphael, Poelemburg (?) ; 
also 11 small pictures from military life, erroneously attrib. to Callot. This 
room likewise contains «,n ancient marble chair with reliefs , found near 
the Lateran. On a table stands the "Corsinian vase in silver , with repre- 
sentation of the atonement of Orestes in chased work. Two emblematical 
marble statuettes, Hunting and Fishing, by Tenerani. — 5th R. , where 
Christina of Sweden is said to have expired : Decorations of the ceiling of 
the school of the Zuccheri. 2. Holy Family, Perino del Vaga; S JA. Annun- 
ciation, Maratta; 20. Polyphemus and Ulysses, Lanfranco; 23rjladonna, 
Franc. Albano; 44. Holy Family, designed by Michael Angelo, Marc. Venusti. 
— 6th R. , containing an interesting collection of portraits, most of which 
are worthy of notice: 19. Male portrait, Holbein, much retouched; "'20. 
Mons. Ghiberti, 0. Romano ; "22. Old woman, Rembrandt (?) ; 23. Male por- 
trait, Qiorgione; 26. Portrait, Span. Sch.; "32. Portrait, Van Dyck; "34. Na- 
tivity of Mary, after Durer's woodcut; '-'43. Cardinal, Germ. Sch. (erroneously 
attrib. to Diirer) ; 47. Portrait of himself, Rubens ; 50. Card. Alex. Farnese,^ 
Titian (?). — 7th R. : -11. Madonna, Murillo; "13. Landscape, G. Poussin;* 
21. Christ as a boy in theTemple , L. Giordano; "22, "23, "24. Descent of 
the Holy Ghost, Last Judgment, Ascension, Fiesole; 31, 32. Landscapes, N. 
Poussin. — 8th R. . 6. Landscape, Claude Lorrain (?); "7. Landscape, G. 
Poussin ; 10. History of Niobe, design in the form of a frieze , Polidoro da, 
Caravaggio; 11. Holy Family, N. Poussin; 12. St. George, Ere. Grandi; 13»I 
La Contemplazione, Guido Reni; "15, 21, 23. Landscapes, G. Poussin; 24. St.^ 
Jerome, Guercino ; 25. St. Jerome , Ribera. This room also contains two ' 
marble busts, portraits of members of the Corsini family. The adjoining! 
cabinet contains pictures of the older Florentine and Sienese schools, most; 
of them of little value and badly preserved. 23. Madonna, Gher. Stamina ; 
26. Madonna, Spagna. — 9 th R. : 2. Interior of a stable, Tenters; 8. Pieta, 
Lod. Caracci , sketch of No. 20 in the 2nd R. ; 9. Innocent X. , Velasquez 
(copy of the picture in the Pal. Doria, p. 118); "28, 29. Battles, Salv. Rosa; 
30. Female heads, Giorgione; 36. Portrait, master unknown; 49. Madonna, 
Gherardesca da Siena. In the adjoining private apartment, opened by the 
custodian if requested : ancient mosaic of two unmanageable oxen with a 
plough and their driver; two ancient portrait-statues; also a bronze relief 
of the Rape of Europa, attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. 

The Library of this palace (entrance from the street by the 
last door on the r.) , founded by Card. Neri Corsini , one of the 
most extensive in Rome, is open daily (Wednesdays excepted) for 
four hours before Ave Maria. It comprises (in 8 rooms) a number 
of MSS. and printed works of great value, and a Collection of 
Engravings, one of the largest in the world. 

The spacious and beautiful * Garden extends behind the palace 
on the slopes of the Janiculus. The heights command an admi- 
rable *view of Rome. 

A short way beyond these palaces the Via della Longara is 
terminated by the Porta Settimiana (PI. II, 11), a gate in the 
older wall of Trastevere, preserving by its name a reminiscence 
of the gardens of Septim. Severus which were situated in the 

224 Trastevere. ROME. S. Pietro in Montorio. 


This quarter of the city is inhabited almost exclusively by the 
working classes, among whom well-built and handsome individuals 
of both sexes are often encountered. The inhabitants of Trastevere 
maintain that they are the most direct descendants of the ancient 
Romans, and their character differs in many respects from that 
of the citizens of other quarters. 

Trastevere is connected with the city by three bridges, the 
most N. of which is the Ponte Steto (PI. II, 11), constructed by 
Baccio Pintelli under Sixtus IV., in 1473. and named after that 
pope. It occupies the site of the Pons Aurelius , destroyed in 
the 8th cent., and commands an interesting view. 

To the r. the Via di Ponte Sisto leads in 3 min. to the Porta 
Settimiana (see above), outside of which the broad Via delle 
Fornaci ascends to the 1. The latter leads in 5 min. to the 
point where the ascent becomes more rapid, and whence a carriage- 
road winds up to S. Pietro in Montorio, the Acqua Paola, Porta 
S. Pancrazio, and Villa Pamfili. After an ascent of 3 min. more, 
by a direct footpath, the traveller arrives at 

S. Pietro in Montorio (PI. II, 12), erected in 1300 by Fer- 
dinand and Isabella of Spain, from designs by Baccio Pintelli, on 
the :pot where St. Peter is said to have suffered martyrdom. 
The campanile and tribune were almost entirely destroyed during 
the siege of 1849. 

The 1st -Chapel on the r. was decorated 'by Seb. del Piombo with fres- 
coes from Michael Angelo's drawings : Scourging of Christ (of which there 
is a small duplicate in the Gall. Borghese), adjoining which are St. Peter 
on the 1. and St. Francis on the r. ; on the ceiling the Transfiguration; on 
the exterior of the arch a prophet and sibyl. The 2nd Chapel (Coronation 
of Mary on the arch) was painted by pupils of Perugino. The altar-piece 
of the 5th Chapel, Paul healing Ananias, is by Vasari. The high-altar was 
once adorned by Raphael's Transfiguration. The last chapel on the 1. con- 
tains an altar-piece by Dan. da Volterra (V), Baptism of Christ; in the 4th 
an Entombment by a Dutch master; the altar-piece and ceiling of the 3rd 
were painted by pupils of Perugino ; in the 2nd are sculptures of the school 
of Bernini ; in the 1st St. Francis by G. de' Vecchi. By the wall near the 
door, the tomb of St. Julian, archbp. of Ragusa, by 6. A. Dosio, 1510. 

In the court of the monastery rises the * Tempietto , a small 
circular structure with 16 Doric columns, erected in 1502 from 
Bramante's designs , on the spot where the cross of St. Peter is 
supposed to have stood. The interior contains a chapel with a 
statue of St. Peter, and beneath it a second chapel, an opening 
in the floor of which indicates the spot where the cross is said 
to have stood. 

The piazza in front of the church (197 ft.) commands a 
magnificent **view of Rome and the environs, which may be 
admirably surveyed from this point. The more important places 
are here enumerated in order from r. to 1. , except where the 
contrary is stated. S. the Tiber , crossed by the iron-bridge of 
the railway to Civita Vecchia ; beyond it the extensive basilica of 

Trastevere. ROME. S. Pietro in Montorio. 225 

S. Paolo fuori le Mura. Then a portion of the city-wall, in front 
of it the green Monte Testaccio , the cypresses and tombstones 
of the Protestant burial-ground , the pyramid of Cestius, and the 
Porta S. Paolo. Nearer rises the Aventine, its base washed by 
the Tiber (not at this point visible), with the three churches of 
S. Maria del Priorato, S. Alessio, and S. Sabina. Beyond are the 
Alban Mts., with Mte. Cavo on the r., and Frascati 1. (comp. 
p. 103) ; in the foreground on this side of the river is the 
hospital of S. Michele, and in the immediate vicinity the extensive 
new tobacco-manufactory. On the Caelius , the Villa Mattei and 
S. Stefano Rotondo , above which , on the extreme spur of the 
Alban Mts. , Colonna; between this and the Sabine Mts. near 
Palestrina , the more distant Volscian Mts. Then the Palatine, 
with the ruins of the palaces of the emperors (the papal excava- 
tions) and the beautiful cypresses of the former Villa Mills, above 
which rise the statues on the facade of the Lateran. Next, the 
Colosseum, the three huge arches of the basilica of Constantine; 
then the Capitol with the Pal. Caffarelli, the tower of the sena- 
torial palace , a portion of the facade of the Capitoline Museum, 
and the church of Araceli; the two domes and campanile above 
these belong to S. Maria Maggiore on the Esquiline. Farther on, 
near the cypresses, the spacious papal palace on the Quirinal, in 
front of which, near a bright-looking dome, rises Trajan's column; 
more towards the foreground the church del Gesu with its dome, 
beyond which is the M. Gennaro. Then on the Pincio, the most 
N. of the Roman hills, the bright Villa Medici, and to the r. of 
it S. Trinita de' Monti , rising with its two towers above the 
Piazza di Spagna ; farther to the r. the casino of the Villa Ludo- 
visi. Nearer, not far from the Tiber, rises Pal. Farnese with the 
open loggia. To the r. of it the spiral tower of the Sapienza, 
farther r. a portion of the dome of the Pantheon , concealed by 
the dome-church of S. Andrea della Valle, to the r. of which the 
column of M. Aurelius in the Piazza Colonna is visible. Again 
to the 1. on the height are the wall and the Passeggiata of the 
Pincio with the two dome-churches of the Piazza del Popolo. Then 
near the river the Chiesa Nuova, beyond it the indented ridge of 
Soracte. On this side of the Tiber the castle of S. Angelo, 
beyond it the heights of Baccano. By the chain-bridge stands 
S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini. Farther off, M. Mario with the Villa 
Mellini; finally at the extreme angle to the 1. rises the dome of 
St. Peter's. In Trastevere, at the base of the hill, is situated 
the church of S. Maria in- Trastevere , the bright campanile to 
the 1. of which belongs to S. Cecilia. 

Descending from S. Pietro in Montorio in a straight direction, 
passing through the Vicolo della Frusta on the r., and entering 
the Via de' Fenili on the 1., the traveller reaches the Piazza di 
S. Maria (p. 229"). 

B * 15 

226 Trastevere. ROME. Arqua Paola. 

The street which continues to ascend the hill leads in 2 miu. 
to the Acqua Paola (Piazza del Fontanone). The precipitous old 
road (now used by foot-passengers only) leads from the loot of 
the hill, passing several mills diwen by the aqueduct, which it 
then reaches to the 1. (5 min.). 

This aqueduct is the ancient Aqua Trajana, 35 M. in length 
supplied by the Lago di Bracciano (p. 297). It had fallen to 
decay, but was restored by Fontana and Maderno in 1611 under 
Paul V., who caused the great fountain to be decorated with the 
divided columns from the Temple of Minerva in Trajan's forum; 
the massive basin was added under Innocent XII. The view is 
much more obstructed by the surrounding buildings than that 
from S. Pietro below , but is worthy of notice on account of the 
various objects more distinctly seen hence (thus the Pantheon). 

The main road, continuing to ascend, reaches after 5 min. the 
Porta di 8. Pancrazio , on the summit of the Janiculus, adjacent 
to the ancient Porta Amelia. It was taken by storm by the French 
under Oudinot in 1849, and renewed in 1857 by Pius IX. The 
surrounding walls and gardeners' dwellings had suffered serious 
damage on that occasion. In a straight direction the entrance to 
the Villa Pamfili (see below) is reached hence in 3 min. 

From this gate to the Porta Portese (p. 259) is a pleasant 
walk of 1/2 nr '! DU * n °t recommended in the reverse direction. The 
walls, restored in 1849, are skirted ozi the exterior for 12 min.; 
the road then descends, and soon reaches a circular plateau affording 
a charming *view of the Campagna and the deserted S. quarters 
of the city. From a second plateau lower down the view extends 
over the modern city as far as the Pincio. The road leads hence 
to the gate in 10 min. 

The *Villa Doria Pamfili (PI. II, 9), accessible on Mondays 
and Fridays to pedestrians and two-horse carriages (5 soldi as the 
grounds are quitted ; carriages more in proportion) , is situated 
3 min. walk from the Porta S. Pancrazio on the summit of the 
Janiculus , commanding an extensive and uninterrupted prospect. 
The undulating grounds were skilfully laid out by Algurdi, by 
order of Prince Camillo Pamfili, nephew of Innocent X. The pre- 
sent proprietor is Prince Doria. This is the most extensive and 
delightful of the Roman villas, and is termed by the Italians Bel- 
respiro. Considerable damage was occasioned by the siege of 1849. 

From the entrance the carriage-road passes under a triumphal 
arch and leads in 8 min. to the entrance of the Casino. Here 
to the r. is a terrace affording a beautiful *view of (r.) the 
Campagna, (1.) M. Mario, and 8t. Peter's, between which Soracte 
bounds the horizon. 

Visitors ring at the door to the 1. (}/■> fr. on leaving) in order 
to obtain access to the *('asino (built by Algardi). The external 
walls are adoi""' 1 with rpliefs (some of them ancient) and statues. 

Junkulus. UOME. Villa Doria Pamfili. 227 

The vestibule contains several fine female statues. In the 
rooms a few antiques: in the 1st, r. Cybele, riding on a lion; 
in the 3rd a female statue , in style resembling the ^Ethra (or 
Penelope, or Electra) in the Villa Ludovisi. The balcony of this 
room affords a pleasant survey of the flower-garden. In the circular 
billiard-room the statue of an Amazon etc. 

The rooms of the 1st floor contain views of Venice by Hein- 
tius, of the 17th cent. The staircase ascends to the platform of 
the villa, where a fine *panorama is enjoyed of the grounds and 
environs. The sea is said to be visible in cleaT weather. 

From the Casino the visitor proceeds to inspect the * Colum- 
baria (r., among the trees), discovered in 1838, and situated on 
the ancient Via Amelia. One of them is well-preserved, and con- 
tains some interesting paintings (Prometheus delivered by Hercu- 
les, Death of the children of Niobe, etc.) 

The stair by the Casino descends to the flower-garden, where 
the camellias are particularly fine ; permission to visit it must be 
obtained of the Principe (Pal. Doria, in the Corso). 

The road by which the Casino has been reached turns to the 
1. skirting a meadow, carpeted in spring with anemones. In its 
centre stands an ara, with representations of the gods, and Ant. 
Pius sacrificing to the Penates. Alter 5 min., where it inclines 
to the r. , a beautiful *view is obtained of the Alban Mts. and 
the Campagna ; it then proceeds in numerous windings, at first 
skirting the celebrated grove of pines, to a pond with swans 
(10 min.), and along the bank to the fountain by which it is 
supplied (5 min.). The Casino may now be regained either by 
the direct path, or by the carriage-road, which leads in 4 min. 
to the hot -houses (r.), and the pheasantry (1.), containing 
beautiful silver-pheasants. On the road-side (1.), 50 paces farther, 
a monument was erected in 1851 by Prince Doria to the memory 
of the French who fell and were interred here. 

The island in the Tiber (Isola Tiberina, or di 8. Bartolommeo) 
was once traversed by the Pons Sublicius, the most ancient means 
of communication between Rome and its suburb on the Janiculus. 
At the present day it is crossed from the Piazza Montanara (p. 164) 
by the Ponte de' Quattro Capi (PI. II, 17) , so named from the 
four-headed figures on the balustrades, constructed B. C. 62 by 
L. Fabricius, as the inscription records. Pleasing view. 

On the island immediately to the r. is the church of S. Gio- 
vanni Colabita (PI. II, 17), which, as well as the neighbouring 
monastery and hospital, belongs to the Brothers of Charity (who 
readily receive strangers who have fallen ill). Farther on, to the 
I., is a small piazza, embellished in 1869 with a monument to 
h.S. John, Francis, Bartholomew, and Paulinus. Here, perhaps 

228 Ponte S. Bartolommeo. ROME. Ponte Rotto. 

occupying the site of an ancient temple of jEsculapius, is situated 
the church of S. Bartolommeo (PL II, 18), erected ahout the 
year 1000 by the Erap. Otho III. in honour of St. Adalbert of 
Gnesen, and erroneously named S. Baitolommeo. The emperor 
had desired the Beneventans to send him the relics of that 
saint, but received those of St. Paulinus of Nola in their stead. 
The present church is uninteresting; facade by Lunghi, 1625. 
The interior contains 14 ancient columns ; in the choir, remains 
of an early mosaic. In the centre of the steps leading to the 
presbyterium is the mouth of a fountain of the 12th cent., of 
the sculptures on which the figure of Christ with a book in the 
hand, and the heads of the two side-figures are still distinguished. 

In the small garden of the monastery (entrance to the r. by 
the church) a portion of the ancient enclosure of travertine is 
seen , which imparted the appearance of a ship to the island. 
An obelisk represented the mast. The figure of a snake hewn on 
the bow of the ship is a reminiscence of the story that the 
Romans, when sorely afflicted by the plague, sent for ^Esculapius 
from Epidaurus B. 0. 293, and that a snake, a reptile sacred to 
the god, concealed itself in the vessel, and on reaching the har- 
bour escaped to this island , which was dedicated to ^Esculapius 
in consequence. 

The island is connected with Trastevere by the ancient Pom 
Cestius (Gratianus), now Ponte S. Bartolommeo (PL II, 18), erected 
under Augustus, and, according to the lengthy inscription on the 
r. side, restored by the Emperors Valentinian and Gratian. Plea- 
sant view to the 1. The establishment of the wooden mills in 
the river in the direction of Ponte Sisto dates from the siege of 
Belisarius, when the Goths destroyed the aqueducts, thus render- 
ing the mills on the Janiculus useless. In a straight direction 
the Via della Longara leads to the vicinity of the 

Ponte Eotto (PL II, 18), probably the ancient Pons Mmiliw, 
built B. C. 181, which after frequent destruction from inundations 
was not again restored after 1554. A chain-bridge (1 soldo) now 
supplies the place of the missing arches (comp. p. 184). 

From this point to the 1. to S. Cecilia (see p. 230). To the 
r. the traveller follows the Via della Lungarina and its straight 
prolongation the Via della Lungaretta. After 6 min. a small piazza 
is reached, to the 1. in which is the side-entrance to S. Crisogono, 
a basilica with aisles, a portico, and straight beams, of the 12th 
cent., frequently restored (for the last time in 1626). It is in- 
teresting on account of its fine old mosaic pavement, and ancient 
columns, especially the two of porphyry supporting the triumphal 
arch , which are the largest in Rome. The ceiling-paintings of 
the transept are by Arpino. The mosaic on the wall of the tn- 
buna represents the Madonna between SS. Chrysognus and James. 
In 1866 and 6Z. an .excubitorium _of the VII. cohort of the vigiles 

S. Maria in Trastevere. ROME. 8. Francesco a Ripa. 229 

(a station of the Roman firemen) was excavated near the Piazza 
di S. Crisogono; a small mosaic-paved court-yard, with a well 
in the centre, and several rooms with small mural paintings are 
shown. On the walls are numerous inscriptions of the 3rd cent. 

Immediately beyond the church in the principal street is the 
gaudily-painted hospital (for cutaneous diseases) of <S. Gallicano, 
presided over by a professor of the Sapienza. 

After 9 min. the Piazza di S. Maria is reached, with a foun- 
tain, and the church of 

*S. Maria in Trastevere (PI. II, 12), said to have been founded 
by Calixtus I. under Alex. Severus , on the spot where a spring 
of oil miraculously welled forth at the time of the birth of 
Christ. It is mentioned for the first time in 449, was re-erected 
by Innocent II. (1140), and consecrated by Innocent III. in 1198. 
The present portico was constructed by C. Fontana under Cle- 
ment XI. in 1702. The edifice is now undergoing repair. In 
front are mosaics of Mary and the Child, on either side the small 
figure of a bishop (Innocent II. and Eugene III.) and 10 virgins, 
eight of whom have burning, and two extinguished lamps, a work 
of the 12th, largely restored in the 14th cent. The portico con- 
tains the remains of two Annunciations, one attributed to Caval- 
lini (entirely repainted), and numerous inscriptions ; by the lateral 
wall on the r. is a Christian sarcophagus with representation of 
Jonah, and the tomb of the librarian Anastasius. 

The interior contains 22 ancient columns of unequal sizes ; some of the 
Ionic capitals were formerly decorated with heathen deities, but these were 
removed during the restoration of the church in 1870. The ceiling, de- 
corated with richly-gilded stucco , was designed by Domenichino. The oil- 
painting on copper in the centre, a Madonna surrounded by angels, is by 
the same master. The chapels contain little to detain the traveller. On the 
last pillar (r.) of the nave are two ancient mosaics of skilful workmanship, 
one of which represents aquatic birds. The transept lies 7 steps higher ; 
by the latter an inscription Font olei, indicating the alleged site of the spring 
of oil. In the transept on the 1. are the tombs of two Armelini and an 
ancient Christian relief of the annunciation to the shepherds. Opposite is 
an altar erected to St. Philip and St. James by Card. Philip of Alencon, 
r. his tomb (d. 1397) ; 1. tomb of Card. Stefaneschi (d. 1417) with recumbent 
statue by Paolo Romano. The mosaics of the arch , restored by Camuccini, 
are in the form of a cross : Alpha and Omega , below the symbols of the 
Evangelists ; r. and 1. Isaiah and Jeremiah. On the vaulting Christ and the 
Virgin on thrones, 1. St. Calixtus, St. Lawrence, Innocent II., r. St. Peter, 
St. Cornelius, Julius, Calepodius ; beneath, the 13 lambs and representations 
from the life of Mary, after Vasari by Cavallini; in the centre of the wall 
a mosaic bust of Mary with St. Peter, St. Paul, and the donor Stefaneschi. 
The sacristy contains a Madonna with SS. Rochus and Sebastian , attributed 
to Perugino, and a fragment of ancient mosaic (ducks and fishermen). 

The Via del Cimiterio and Via de' Fenili lead hence direct 
to S. Pietro in Montorio (p. 224). The Via di S. Francesco de- 
scends to the 1. to the piazza of that name, in which the church 
and monastery of S. Francesco a Ripa are situated. St. Francis 
resided in the latter for some time. The church was built in 
1231, and modernised in the 17th cent. The last chapel on the 1. 
contains the recumbent statue of St. Lodovica Albertoni by Bernini. 

230 S, Cecilia in Trastevere. ROME. Ospizio di S. Michele. 

From the Ponte Rotto the Via de' Vascellari to the 1., and then 
the Via di S. Cecilia to the r. lead to 

S. Cecilia in Trastevere (PI. II, 15), originally the dwelling- 
house of the saint, founded by Paschalis I., entirely reconstructed 
by Card. Franc. Acquaviva in 1725. It is approached by a spacious 
anterior court, adorned with an ancient vase, and a portico rest- 
ing on 4 columns of African marble and red granite. 

The columns which formerly supported the nave were in 1822 replaced 
by buttresses. To the r. of the entrance is the tomb of Ferd. Adam (d. 1398). 
The beautiful high-altar in pavona/.zetto was constructed by the Florentine 
Arnolfo del Camtrio in 1283; adjacent is an ancient candelabrum for the 
Easter-candle ; beneath the high-altar the * statue of the martyred S. Cecilia 
by Stef. Maderno. The tribune contains ancient "mosaics (9th cent.): the 
Saviour on a throne with the Gospel, r. St. Paul, St. Agatha, and Paschalis; 
1. St. Peter, St. Cecilia, and her husband St. Valerianus. In the 1st Chapel 
on the r. an ancient picture of Christ on the Cross; the 2nd Chapel, some- 
what receding from the church , is said to have been the bath-room of St. 
Cecilia , the pipes of which are still seen in the wall. The opposite door 
leads to the sacristy, the vaulting of which is adorned with the Four Evan- 
gelists by Pinturicchio. In the last chapel on the r. of the altar: Madonna 
with saints, a relief of the 15th cent. ; on the r. wall are preserved the re- 
mains of mosaics of the 12th cent, detached from the facade of the church. 
Descent to the lower church by the tribune. The neighbouring convent be- 
longs to Benedictine nuns. 

In the direction of the gate, the next transverse street to the 
r. leads to S. Maria dell' Orto, designed by G. Romano in 1512; 
facade 1762. The interior is overladen with stucco and gilding. 
Adjacent is the government tobacco-manufactory, erected in 1863. 
The street to the 1. leads to >S. Francesco. 

The transverse street to the 1. from S. Cecilia leads to the 
Ripa Grande with the harbour for the river-vessels ; pleasant view 
of the Marmorata and Aventine. To the r. stands the extensive 
Ospizio di S. Michele, founded in 1689 by Tommaso Odescalchi. 

After his death it was extended by Innocent XII. , and combined with 
other establishments, now comprising a work-house, reformatory, house of 
correction, and hospice for the poor. Invalids of both sexes are here provi- 
ded for, and other indigent persons are furnished with work. Poor and 
orphan children are instructed in various trades and arts; boys are after- 
wards discharged with a donation of 30, girls with 100, and if they become 
nuns with 200 scudi. The establishment possesses several churches, spacious 
work-rooms, and apartments for the sick; the revenues exceed 50,0000 
scudi annually. 

At the end of the Kipa Grande is the Dogana, passing which 
(on the r.J the traveller reaches the Porta Fortese, whence the 
road to Porto (p. 299) leaves the town. 

The Vatican. 

This, the most extensive palace in the world, was originally a dwelling- 
house for the popes, erected by Symmachus near the anterior court of the 
old church of St. Peter, and subsequently gradually extended. Charlemagne, 
when in Rome, is believed to have resided here. This building having fallen 
to decay during the tumults of the following centuries, Eugene III. erected 
a palace near St. Peter's, which was greatly enlarged by Nicholas III. The 
Vatican did not, however, become the usual residence of the popes until 
after their return from Avignon, when the Lateran was deserted. After the 
death of Gregory XI. the first conclave was held in the Vatican in lo7b, 


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The Vatican. KOMK. Cortile di S. Damaso. 231 

vvlrich resulted in the schism. In 1410 John XXIII. constructed the covered 
passage to the castle of S. Angelo. In 1450 Nicholas V., with a view to 
render the Vatican the most imposing palace in the world , determined to 
unite in it all the government-offices and residences of the cardinals. The 
small portion completed by him, afterwards occupied by Alexander VI. and 
named Tor di Borgia, was extended by subsequent popes. In 1473 the Six- 
tine Chapel was erected by Sixtus IV., and about 1490 the Belvedere, or 
garden-house, by Innocent VIII. Bramante, under Julius II., united the 
latter with the palace by means of a great court, which under Sixtus was 
divided by the, erection of the library into two parts, the anterior court and 
the Giardino della Pigna. The Loggie round the Cortile di S. Damaso were 
also constructed by Bramante. In 1534 Paul III. founded the Pauline Chapel, 
Sixtus V. the Library and the present residence of the popes, which last 
was completed by Clement VIII. (1592-1605). Urban VIII. erected the 
Scala Regia from Bernini's design , Pius VII. the Braccio JVuovo for the 
sculptures, Gregory XVI. the Etruscan Museum, and Pius IX. has closed the 
fourth side of the Cortile di S. Damaso by covering and reconstructing the 
great staircase which leads from the arcades of the piazza into the court. 
Thus the palace now possesses 20 courts, and is said to comprise 11,000 halls, 
chapels, saloons, and private apartments. 

The works of art in the Vatican are accessible daily, 8 — 11 
and 2 — 4 o'clock , except on Sundays and high festivals (per- 
messo necessary, see p. 93; fee V2 fr-> frequent visitors 5 
soldi). On Holy Thursday all the collections are open to the 
public during the whole day. Artists and scientific men who 
desire to sketch or take notes in the museums and library must 
address a written request for permission to the maggiordomo (best 
through the medium of their consul or ambassador) (p. 87). 

The principal approach to the Vatican is at the extremity of 
the r. colonnade of the Piazza of St. Peter, ascending immediately 
beyond the Swiss guard by the staircase , which was originally 
open , but covered by Pius IX. This leads to the Cortile di 
S. Damaso, a court which derives its appellation from the foun- 
tain of St. Damasus erected here by Innocent X. It is bounded 
on three sides by the Loggie of Bramante, formerly open, but 
now closed with windows for the protection of the frescoes. On 
the r. is the wing occupied by the Pope ; on the 1. a door with 
the inscription Adito alia Biblioteca ed al Museo leads to the stair 
which ascends to the Loggie of Giov. da Udine (extensively but 
judiciously retouched) on the first floor, and those of Raphael on 
the second (p. 234). The first door to the 1. in the loggie of 
the first floor leads to the Sala Ducale and the Sistina. By the 
door at the extremity facing the visitor the Galleria Lapidaria 
and the Museum of Statues (p. 239) are entered. At present, 
however , this principal entrance is only used as an approach to 
the Library (p. 234). The Sixtine Chapel is reached from the 
entrance by passing the Swiss guard, ascending the Scala Regia 
in a straight direction , and passing through a door to the stair 
on the r. Here on the first floor is a side-entrance to the 
chapel, indicated by a notice. The stair just mentioned ascends 
to the Stanze and Loggie of Raphael on the 2nd floor (p. 250), a 
visit to which can thus conveniently be combined with the Sistine. 

232 The Vatican. ROME. Sala Regia. 

Sala Ducale. Sala Regia. ** Cappella Sistina. 
Cappella Paolina. 

The Sala Ducale, constructed by Bernini, is decorated on 
the ceiling with frescoes, and beneath them with landscapes by 
Brill. The opposite door leads to the 

Sala Regia. [This hall forms the -vestibule of the Sixtine 
Chapel, and on the occasion of ecclesiastical festivals in the latter 
is approached by the Scala Regia, the magnificent staircase 
ascending at the end of the corridor to which the arcades of the 
Piazza of St. Peter lead to the r. (by the equestrian statue of 
Constantine, by Bernini). The Scala was constructed by Ant. da 
San Gallo, and restored by Bernini under Alexander VII. The 
round vaulting is supported by Roman columns.] The Sala Regia, 
originally destined for the reception of the ambassadors of foreign 
powers, was designed by Ant. da Sangallo ; cornicings of the 
ceiling by Perino del Vaga, over the doors by Dan. da Volterra. 

The mediocre frescoes of Vasari, Salviati, and the Zuccari, according to 
the titles inscribed beneath, represent (on the window-wall, r.) scenes from 
the Night of St. Bartholomew (the inscription Strages Hugenotlorum etc., 
which was once under them, has been obliterated). On the wall (the door 
in which leads to the Sixtine) opposite the entrance , the alliance of the 
Spanish and Venetians with Paul V. , battle of Lepanto in 1571 ; on the 
narrow wall, Gregory VII. acquitting Henry VI. (door to the Pauline), con- 
quest of Tunis; on the entrance-wall, Gregory XI. returning from Avignon, 
Alex. III. absolving Fred. Barbarossa. 

The ** Sixtine Chapel was erected under Sixtus IV. by 
Baccio Pintelli in 1473; length 132ft., width 45 ft., 16 windows 
on each side above. Beautifully decorated marble screens enclose 
the space set apart for religious solemnities. The lower part of 
the walls was formerly on festive occasions hung with Raphael's 
tapestry; the upper part (with the exception of the wall of the 
altar) is decorated with interesting frescoes by Florentine masters 
of the 15th cent. 

They represent parallel scenes from the life of Christ (r.) and Moses (1.), 
beginning at the altar, and meeting on the entrance-wall. Lett: 1. (by the 
altar) Moses with his wife Zipporah journeying to Egypt, Zipporah circum- 
cises her son , attributed to Luca Signorelli ; 2. Moses kills the Egyptian, 
drives the shepherds from the well, kneels before the burning bush, Sandro 
Botticelli; 3. Pharaoh's destruction in the Red Sea, Cosimo Rosselli; 4. Moses 
receives the Law on Mt. Sinai, Adoration of the calf, by the same; 5. 
Destruction of the company of Korah, and that of the sons of Aaron, S. Bot- 
ticelli; 6. Death of Moses, L. Signorelli. Adjoining the latter, on the en- 
trance-wall : Contest of the Archangel Miohael for the body of Moses , by 
Salviati, now entirely repainted. Right: 1. Baptism of Christ, Perugino; 
2. Christ's Temptation, S. Botticelli; *3. Vocation of Peter and Andrew, 
Horn. Ghirlandajo; 4. Sermon on the Mount, Cure of the lepers, C. Rosselli. 
Then on the entrance-wall : Resurrection of Christ, originally by D. Ohir- 
landajo, renewed by Arrigo Fiamingo. — On the pillars between the win- 
dows 28 popes by S. Botticelli, not easily distinguishable. 

The ""Ceiling, decorated with perhaps the most magnificent example 
of the pictorial art ever produced, was painted by Mich. Angela in 22 months 
(1508—11). The fundamental idea of the work is the preparation of the 
world for the Advent of Christ. In the centre of the ceiling are seen the 
Creation, Fall, and Deluge, with the sacrifice and mockery of Noah; around 

The Vatican. KUiWK. Sixtine Chapel. 233 

are the figures of the prophets and sibyls , who predicted and proclaimed 
the Messiah's Advent, and the ancestors of Christ who expected him. These 
the principal pictures are combined by a judicious architectural arrange- 
ment so as to form an exquisite whole , enlivened moreover by numerous 
accessory figures, relief-medallions, children as bearers of entablature, etc., 
and worthy of the most minute and repeated inspection. In the centre of 
the ceiling (seen from the altar) are the following 9 sections: 1. God the 
Father separates light from darkness ; 2. Creation of the sun and moon ; 
3. Separation of the land from the sea ; 4. Adam inspired with life •, 5. 
Creation of Eve, who turns towards the Lord in an attitude of adoration; 
6. The Fall and Banishment from Paradise; 7. Noah's thank-offering after 
the deluge; 8. The Deluge (this was painted by Mich. Angelo first, and, as 
it afterwards appeared, with figures of too small proportions); 9. Noah's in- 
toxication and the derision of his sons. 

On the lower part of the vaulting are the ** Prophets and Sibyls 
in earnest contemplation, surrounded by angels and genii. 

To the 1. of the altar: 1. Jeremiah, in a profound revery ; 2. Persian 
Sibyl, reading; 3. Ezekiel with half- opened scroll; 4. Erythra-an Sibyl, 
sitting by an open book; 5. Joel, reading a scroll ; 6. (over the door) Zacha- 
rias , turning the leaves of a book ; Delphian Sibyl , with open scroll ; 
8. Isaiah, his arm resting on a book, absorbed by divine inspiration; 9. 
Cumaean Sibyl, opening a book; 10. Daniel, writing; 11. Libyan Sibyl, 
grasping an open book ; 12. (above the Last Judgment) Jonah sitting beneath 
the gourd. 

In the pointed arches and lunettes of the vaulting are the ancestors of 
the Saviour in calm expectation. In the 4 corner-arches : on the altar-wall, 
r. the Israelites in the wilderness with the brazen serpent , 1. king Ar- 
taxerxes, Esther, and Haman. On the entrance-wall, 1. David and Goliath, 
r. Judith. Nearly 30 years later than this ceiling Michael Angelo painted 
on the altar-wall the "Last Judgment, 64 ft. in width, completed under 
Paul III. in 1541. Careful and protracted study alone will enable the spec- 
tator to appreciate the details of this vast composition , which is unfortu- 
nately blackened by the smoke of centuries, unfavourably lighted, and par- 
tially concealed. To penetrate into the religious views and artistic designs 
of the talented master is a still more arduous task. On the right of the 
figure of Christ as Judge hover the saints drawn back by devils and sup- 
ported by angels , on his left the sinners in vain strive to ascend ; above 
are two groups of angels with the Cross, the column at which Christ was 
scourged, and the other instruments of his sufferings ; in the centre Christ 
and the Virgin, surrounded by apostles and saints; beneath the rising dead 
is hell, according to Dante's conception, with the boatman Charon and the 
judge Minos , whose face is a portrait of Biagio of Cesena, master of the 
ceremonies of Paul III. , who had censured the picture on account of the 
nudity of the figures. Paul IV. , who contemplated the destruction of the 
picture on this account, was persuaded, instead, to cause some of the figures 
to be partially draped by Dan. da Volterra. Clement XII. caused this pro- 
cess to be extended to the other figures by Stef. Pozzi, whereby, as may be 
imagined, the picture was far from being improved. 

j-t. Most of the solemnities in which the Pope participates in person, espe- 
cially those of the Holy Week, take place in the Sixtine Chapel (see p. 88). 

From the Sala Kegia a door to the 1. enters the Pauline 
Chapel (admission from 7 i / 2 to 9 a. m.j, designed in 1540 by 
Antonio da Sangallo, and named after Paul III. , who was then 
on the throne. Here also are two frescoes painted by Michael 
Angelo when of a very advanced age : 1. the Conversion of 
St. Paul r. the Crucifixion of St. Peter ; the other pictures are 
by Sabbatini and F. Zuccaro , the statues in the corners by 
P. Bresciano. The chapel is employed on the first Sunday in 
Advent for the exposition of the host during 40 hrs. , when, as 
well as on Holy Thursday, it is brilliantly illuminated. 

234 The Vatican. ROME. Raphael's Loggie. 

Raphael's **Loggie and **Stanze. *Cappella Niccolina 
(di S. Lorenzo). 

The same stair which ascends to the Sixtine Chapel on the 
first floor also leads to the Loggie of Raphael on the second 
■which are entered at the back. The following description 
supposes the visitor to approach by the principal entrance (p. 231), 
at present temporarily closed , and it therefore begins with the 
loggie. The reader is therefore requested to turn to the Stanze 
at p. 238 and to make use of the description in the rewerse 
order. Before reaching the Stanze the visitor traverses two rooms 
with indifferent modern pictures ; then a saloon decorated re- 
cently by Podesti, by order of Pius IX. with frescoes relating to 
the promulgation of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 
of Mary. The door in a straight direction leads to the Stanza 
dell' Incendio. 

The ** second story of the loggie , protected since 1813 by 
glass-windows, was adorned from Raphael's designs and under Ms 
supervision by Qiulio Romano and Oiovanni da TJdine. The de- 
corations consist of stucco-work (in which the influence of the 
specimens of this work found shortly before in the Thermae of 
Titus is recognisable), of ornamental painting, and of pictures on 
the vaulting composed by Raphael. (The first ceiling was painted 
by O. Romano, the others by other pupils of Raphael, Franc. 
Penni, Perino del Vaga , Polid. da Caravaggio, etc.) Each of 
the 13 sections of the vaulting contains 4 quadrangular frescoes, 
which are together known as 'Raphael's Bible', and display a rare 
fertility of invention and gracefulness of treatment. 

The representations of the 12 first vaults are from the Old, those of the 
13th from the New Testament. The subjects (beginning to the r. of the 
stair) are as follows : I. (over the door) 1. Separation of light from dark- 
ness; 2. Separation of land from sea; 3. Creation of the sun and moon; 
4. Creation of the animals. II. 4. Creation of Eve ; 1. The Fall; 2. Ba- 
nishment from Paradise; 3. Adam and Eve working. III. 1. Noah building 
the ark; 2. Deluge; 3. Egress from the ark; 4. Noah's sacrifice. IV. 1. 
Abraham and Melchisedek ; 3. God promises Abraham posterity ; 2. Abra- 
ham and the three angels ; 4. Lot's flight from Sodom. V. 1. God appears 
to Isaac; 3. Abimelech sees Isaac caressing Rebecca ; 2. Isaac blesses Jacob ; 
4. Esau and Isaac. VI. 1. Jacob's vision of the ladder; 2. Jacob and Rachel 
at the well ; 3. Jacob upbraids Laban for having given him Leah ; 4. Jacob 
on his journey. VII. 1. Joseph relates his dream to his brethren; 2. Joseph 
is sold ; 3. Joseph and Potiphar's wife; 4. Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dream. 
VIII. 1. Finding of Moses; 2. Moses at the burning bush; 3. Destruction of 
Pharaoh in the Red Sea; 4. Moses strikes the rock for water. IX. 1. Moses 
receiving the tables of the Law ; 2. Adoration of the golden calf, Moses 
breaks the tables ; 3. Moses kneels before the pillar of cloud ; 4. Moses 
shows the tables of the Law to the people. X. 1. The Israelites crossing 
the Jordan; 2. Fall of Jericho; 3. Josuah bids the sun stand still during 
the battle with the Ammonites; 4. Joshua and Eleazar dividing Palestine 
among the 12 tribes. XI. 1. Samuel anoints David; 2. David and Goliath; 
4. David's triumph over the Syrians; 3. David sees Bathsheba. XII. 1. 
Zadok anoints Solomon; 2. Solomon's Judgment; 4. The Queen of Sheba; 
3. Building of the Temple. XIII. I. Adoration of the shepherds ; 2. Thf 
wise men from the East; 3. Baptism of Christ; 4. Last Supper. — Of the 

The Vatican. UUMK. Raphael's Stanze. 235 

stucco-decorations the. charming small reliefs in the arches of Ithe windows 
of the first section may he regarded as a good specimen. Here to the 1. 
above, Raphael is first perceived, sitting and drawing, beneath is a grinder 
of the colours. Lower down a number of the pupils busied in executing 
the master's designs, and below them Fama who proclaims the celebrity of 
the work. On the r. an old bricklayer is seen at work, and a similar 
figure in the r. curve of the 2nd window , both apparently portraits. The 
whole taken collectively affords a charming picture, of the life and habits 
of the artists during the execution of the work. — The two other arcades 
of the storey, decorated in stucco by Marco da Faennt and Paul Schor, and 
painted by artists of the 16th and 17th cent., are far inferior to these loggie. 

The ** Stanze of Raphael were decorated during the reign 
of Julius II. and Leo X. (1508—1520). For each of the fres- 
coes the master received 1200 ducats. When enlered from the 
loggie the order is as follows : Sala di Constantino , .Stanza 
d'Eliodoro, Camera della Segnatura, Stanza dell' Incendio. They 
were seriously injured during the plundering of Home in 1527, 
but were restored by Carlo Maratta under Clement XI. They 
are here enumerated chronologically. 

I. Stanza della Segnatura, so named from a judicial 
assembly of that designation which was held here. Its decoration 
was undertaken at the instance of Julius II. by Raphael in 1508, 
at the age of 25, and completed in 1511. The sections of the 
vaulting of the apartment had already been arranged by Sodoma. 
On the 4 circular and quadrangular spaces Raphael painted alle- 
gorical figures and Biblical and mythological scenes , which in 
connection with the paintings in the large lunettes are symbo- 
lical of the four principal spheres of intellectual life. 

I. Ceiling Paintings. 1. Theology (divinarum rcrv/in notilia) , a figure 
among clouds, in the left hand a book, with the right pointing downwards 
to the heavenly vision in the Disputa beneath; adjacent, the Fall of man; 
2. Poetry (numiue afflatur), crowned with laurels, seated on a marble, throne 
with book and lyre; adjoining it, the Flaying of Marsyas ; 3. Philosophy 
(causarum cognitio) , with diadem , two books (natural and moral s