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Full text of "Plant associations and related botanical inventory of the Beaverhead Mountains Section, Montana"

Plant Associations and 
Related Botanical Inventory 

of the 
Beaverhead Mountains 

Section, Montana 



Prepared for 

United St^.tea Depattment of the Interior 
Bureau of Land Management 

P.O. Box 36800 
Billings, Montana 59107-6800 



Submitted by 

Stephen V Goopet, Catherine Jean, 

and Bonnie L Heidel 



Decembefpl??? 




Mil ^ I « n A 



Natural Heritage 
Program 



Plant Associations and 
Related Botanical Inventory 

of the 

Beaverhead Mountains 

Section, Montana 



© 1999 ^fDnlalla N:i1ui^1 Herllai^e rrnipram 



Sri3[c LEhniy T^ujIJiDg ^ PO Bgic :[>hS[H] - ISJSZiiJ SiiLhA^riuc - H c leu . M T S^Hi^lh- LSnO - 4fK^-444- 3004 



BLM Agreement N Limber 1422E930A960OI5 
T*ak Onilcr M u m bcr 16 



1 hiN dccumrnt should be cited as fallows: 



Cooj^r, S V_, Icin. C ind H L_ HciidcL. I999_ Flint aA.^c»cnlicin*i and related botanical 
jnvcnloij" of lhc BcBvcrhcfld Mounlain^ Scrlion, MontanB Unpublished report to the 
Bureau of Lb nd MBnagen^ent. Montana MatunJ HenlBge Program, Helena. 235 pp. 



Table of Contents 



Exccal^cSumniBr^ iv 

Introductloii l...l...l...l...l...l....l...l...l...l. l.-..^. ^mm^,,^ ^..^ l...l...l....l...l...l. ^ l...l...l...l... I 

Shid^vArcB 3 

CkmBlc arkJ rclilL^parBmcLcrn 2 

Physiography and rrliltd parBmctcji 2 

SubH«:1ionD«»criptioiK 5 

Mftbods 10 

Commumlj Ei:i>lo^;y DataCollcclK>n 10 

Commum ty EmLogy DitaAnaLy^is 10 

BolBny: Flint SpctLcs of SpcciiLConcrrn ] L 

Taionomic Corwidcritions 12 

RcmltsBnd l>bic-i».iDa J4 

Community Ecology 14 

Lark±TC*pcsofS]gmflcint Ecological Imcicit 17 

Plan! 3pcc]c^of apccialConccm 26 

Concluwons bixJ RccommcndatioiTi 30 

IhECh^UcBtba: 4:DncfptsBndii^uniptiDnsL...L...L...L...L...L....L...L...L...L...L...L....L...L...L...L...L...L....L...L...L...L...L. M 

ThrNBlional VcgctationCla.'3i]ricition 3L 

PI Bnt .\hsoc] a1 ions of lb? Bca> crhc*d Moon! aj ns 3 n. tion: VcgcUlionkcj bixJ dene riptLons 3 J 

Ust of 1h? vcgcl Bl]on key 54- 

]nstnjcliore> 54- 

CivcBlH when L£>ingkcy^ 55 

K?> to Ph^'sfa^iuniic I'jpcfill.lfcfDnnCBLti^Tlc^)....^...^...^....^...^..^...^...^...^...^...^...^..^...^...^....^...^..^. J7 

Vccctuthm ClBfnJ4:athNn: D L^scTiptlons of f^p^s 76 

Nccdic-lcivcd Evergreen For«it> 76 

NccdLc-lcBvcd Evcigitcn WcxxJLarkii S9 

MonlBncorBoicalCold-drcLdixiu*! E^rcs! ?B 

ShmbLaret IM 

DwBif-Shrublantfc i ncluHing D w arf-3 buub E-fcrbacmjiK 126 

HcrtiHzcaub Vcgclilion Lacking a S]gmficint ShrutwTrcc Component _ 142 

LItcraCurcCICcd t&f 

Append kcs 

Appendix A FLorBof thcEeavcrbicBiJMountaLre>Sccl]on 194 

AppcixJi^E: NiturBl HenlBgeGlobB] RBnk Def]niliore>inclTbcLrHodLflcni 220 

AppcDdifLC: PlBnt .\Hsoc]a1ionsof lh?Bcaverhc*d MoijnlB]ns3«.tLon 221 

Appendix D Plan! Assffl. latw^ ns PnjxipBl and Sub^tanl] b1] ng Rcfrrences 230 



rndrx to Dc«r1ptlDiKDfT^vpc? ...243 

FiguiE I. Etavcrbicid Mountains Slixjy A rci, Mi>n1 Bna 4 

Figure 2_ Eca>crhc*d HounlajnsSKtLon andSubw^^tionEoundancs M^^ntariB 6 

Figure ?. L{KBl]oiKnf SclcclGLubaLLy Rbi? bixI BxEMnp] bt>' Flint Assoc] Bl]nrL'f^ Be Bvcrhtad MounlBiiSi 

Sci:1]on ]6 

Figure 4_ Luc a1 ions of P] ant Spccicsof Spec] bI Concern EcavciticBdMoLuitainsScclion 27 

JaUcE 

Tabic ] Syixmymy of dominant Bnd irkJicator p] Bnt species for 1hc Etavcrticid Mountai ns Scclion ] J 

Tiblc2_ DiMnbutionof communi1> lypcsby lifcform and^jLobiL rBnk 15 

Tibic 3 State BixJ regional endemic p] ant species in Ihc BcB>erhead Mounl ajns S ec tion 19 

TBblc4 Globally rare plant specicsLnlhcBeB>tdicad MoijnlB]n*i ScttLOJ] 26 

Tiblc5 State or gLobaLLy r^re planti kjxiwnonly fiom the B ei^'crhcad MounUins Section 29 



JJ 



Acknowledgements 



ThF4uthi>rH^rBlcfully ac: Izno^^ Itd^t the 
financial a:£^]'>Lanct piuvidcdby IhcUSDI 
BiutaLio^ Land MariBgcmtnt |BLM| wc 
C'>pcci4ll> Bpprcc Late thr cffoits of E n an 
Hockc11 ELM range roiricn'Bl]oni^t,Dil]nrt, 
\^T^]n helping i£i LocbIc anJ Bccfs^ fltld si tc^ 
Bixl for piuvLd]iig barkgiT>unc1 LnformatLcm on 
'>Lich ">■ tc^. BninibtO'fbiBTrd hi'^cxti^n.^Lvc 
knowlrdgr ornngeLanJ ccrHiV^terrh nf ihc 
ccoregLon; should tbu^tk>cumcnt conlB]n Bny 
misj nlE^rprctatLoiSi oflhr^t 'fy'>tern.'i Ihc blame 
n-^lH nquaixzlj w]1h the aulhori. The USDA 
For«il Service, par1]cijLirly Annie Gieenc of the 
BeavcrbicBdNBl]onB] E^rcst incUohn C Bi^tli of 
1hcR-l Regional Offit^c were generous in 
'>iipp]yinf pk>t inform Bl]on in appn^firiBlc 
ditabahc^ 

Prcccdingccologiith/botam^ti at IhcMonlBna 
NBlural Hcntagc ProgrBm wlxi Laid Ihe 
gioundwoTl for this publication jh terms of plot 
&ampLinf , data ledixtion aixl ariBlysis include 
Peter .Rebuff- A]]stair Me ALpinc, Li^aRoc, Jim 
VbixJciIkjiM, bixJ Bonnie HcHfcL Rob DrVeLiee 
w as iiTilnimcnl aJ in secun ng fiuxJ i ng for these 
CBily efforts and nerved both is Ihe pn miiy 
field ecoLogLSI inddm anilysl. Bonnie Eieidel, 
Peter -Rebuff Ken S^x\^w J]m VBixJeitioisI and 
Lisa Roe provided > al UBbLe sssislBncein 
voucher ■ipec]men identiflc aticm MBigairl 
Beer. John HiiTibaw- Cedn^n Jones Scott Lcc- 
CbiBdde DebbieCKJvcr Katbiy JujisUnd Dianj 
^chwib ire ifipieciatenl for the] r comcienl ioik 
effoTtsinda1aen1ry,quilil> conliol s]]de 
scanning bikJ tbie ni> n ad support Bcl]>ities tbiBl 
contdbLTted to thcsdccuirh^nl 



iii 



Executive 
Summary 

Thii pnh^LC rcpcENCKK a l^i m p rrlic hn i^ c cffi^n rifi 
jJcnLjf} jnd LJL^cumcni all f^uk ^DBmuniljK cvpc^ 
pjcsrnL La Ike Zvlnhidajia ^l^Ajl^b fife he Bca^crfcca^l 
\]LMJj]ljjfts pALM^^kinjI ScciLDn Ttic kLlilI^ jrra a 
a a c4.DTC^kia dcfjBci] b;K E^ ^ Bji]c} 4hal dtlrDLJi 
fnhB Liic CcnLcnniaL \l4HiB4ajkT Niiiulk 4hf Red Rock 
].jkci NjLjihB>] ^'jldLifc Refuge iJi ^HKich^Acdcin 
\]ujil>jia. wcNl [D Ike Cfi ru IJ1C nLa L ]3i^ Jtt jIuji^ chc 
]$cj\cThcjLl \]4Hiidajfts jmI LncLidc^ [he bcaLliAalcn 
L>f liic I^rn\crhcaLl Ma^liNun and CLirlii FL>Tk RivcT 

OurjDal ffirchu pnh^cL was Nh CHhBpilc c^l^Io^jk 
pliri duii ^aLiLJacc umd refine ckkLjb^ pLjB4 
aKKDcbJuiin l;Kpc^ ^nd 4.1:1m Sjbc riKcjn inLu j bciiV 
cLiMLll^jIkia EhhILoia iJig Ike NaciujiaL Vc^cIjLhhb 
Clii£if»ra[ luj] SLandjn] Wc [jpf^d j MinhcT \>f 
pTcykiLu jmI fiEL^oiJig dLidic^. tnc\ Lfindii^lcd 
cxccnKi^c pljK CHhBmLiJiJ^ Kurvc}! 4luriB^ L^^^ 
fickJ ^^j^^n The mull 1^ j cbi^ifkaLiuB dfi^u- 
jDcnLjBg 173 planL CDm jdubeicn jb chc Bca^crkcad 
\]LMJJriajfts Sc^Lon nf XDUIkwcKL Z\44hidaBi. 

Thii ^laNiifjLaciun k>^ 4KrEC m ajn r cf>B po nc idK 
'^s^fi^^f f^ ^j CDmp]cLc ]k[ 4hf 27 J plaoi JNiuLiaciLMii 
'A Ilk KLacc ^mI ^LcibaL HcrJa^c rjnLx IkaL luftcL 
I lie IT cfi [uc i-L ac ILM1 k[j4uk The nc4.uj]l] 4.LMn|HhBcnL \s 
a lI iL Kfico m LOJ^ pljB4 j^n^ulkia kc ;k ^ ^f^ n ivnl b^ 
pii} ijih^ nfi m ic L^pc TKc Lc^ k JcrjB^cd jcc[>nliiig 
|[> [he NalKiru] VcgccjciiMi ClaKKifiLalKin using ribc 
cfiEucpL f>f fDm4. wLM^dbnd NhnjbLiMl ^mI 
licEtuccLOJi vcgccjriLDn ^mI io^Lidci a MinbcT af 
ncwl^ idcnLjfjcd ^cgcrialkia l}pcN The Lluid 
cfiniponcB4 cnnKiNk fif ^[jn^lajiliYcd 4lcic ripe ilmii fi^T 
]JD ptjil j^^^K lalnhn^ 

The mukN uf Ikn iluJ^ unLkru-OTc chc FiLfjl] 
djycmt} fif pLiidK aod ^c^^^lkia LjpcN jb tlm 
Tc^kia dF MiMildna Dh'CT liaLFul tlic 4tfD pLjB4 
aKKUcbJLfinN jdrnliftrd fi^T Ike UsAz 4hf Mfinijaa 
(J 7^ I wcrr 4lih4.'ujn c nLcd lf> ficcur wlIIijb chc 
BcavcThcjd MnHiid^iEu Sclciuji Tha 11 cipccii]!^ 
unpcENNJh r ^i^ca LhaL 4 be lu^Lon 4.i:i m p jiicn Icu 

liian u nc-[c ^4 K ■:■ I Liic dale k Nrial Ijn^l Jiua 

OfLiicKC 4SCi pbjil aLMhLiaLjihfts jJK[ 4hvcr25'~r 'aoce 
natcd G3 L>T iu^kci (Kfimc Lc ni j[ l^ c Lv ). iadL^jLjB^ 
nBgci.v idc/g |[>ba L lurMy dt ijd|^ji]bcj]I TKc ami 
cfi 01 mujiEV di^cu mc 01^41 (lanknl G I h '■^ax 4rJrAiiJT^Lr 
r/n^i<d.r umn t ws^^fut Nliiublaoil E4him1 in a UBf Lc 
]L>cjriu:in jL Big Mudd^ CiecL Sumc [>f Ike 
cfim mujiJLC^ njiVcLl ax jJDpcTdcd (Gl] ficcur in 



bi^lNhBUrulK uj Jiparuj] tszts jmI jie j[ gj^^LcNL 

rixlii finm 4.cdajB j^avin^ prj4.lkcK w, ccd% and ia 
JDHC coici 4»HvcnLon if\ jj^rjLulIu CE Oikcix L^ccur 
■K iiD>]l pj4ckcN in jLpiJic L>T lujfk KLibjIpinc 
c av Lm aoLC idK and ^tz Mrf pjilKulaKv Ikiualcjicd 
Yc^ n acC he r 4»H Qiu n itjK- ^^^ttjuj {iSTcr(?f/A\uj J 
^jVf/L^m h/iTfcrfcr, dccuin ia Llic Ccjilcnnial SjMlkiELi 
aod rT]»rs fin a nacura] du4luibaa<.c j^^imc 
jnjiJiljjBcd b} iniDal- ut Firu-Lnducnl bkii.vau£x. 
O^cr^imc Kfimc C4hni mu n ri lck v, lI] dc4.rTJNC in laak 
ax add LiJUfta I K[ J Mk jie di24.u^crEd ^l]jk4ritLcr4 
jnav bccoBC LmpcriLnl akd LnccEaa^ ia raak due cd 
]u4^ uf habiiac l>t Ike iacrcaic L>f nuicHux 'aouIi. 

]a jddiiJihB [o ptinl ^'4hB oiu n il ks Ikn liud^ ahu 
jdcnLjficd J JD pLjB4 Npccici fif ^Lcibjl l>t liotc 
ipc^Ei] <.unLcrn rihal DC4.ur in [be Bcaicrfccad 
?^LMjnlJini Scc^Lun Tlii^ rcpie^cnli 30^ uf all 
ipc^Ei] ^ ujH.cn] ', aiLuUr pLjB4 Npccjci backed ia 
\lunlana. jnd ia^hKlci -L L^ of alL Ikh^^ rihoJ aiu 
glnlu l]^ K ignjfjLa [tf {G l-G J I. Muii uTlIickc ficcur 
un >L fiac 4hr BfHT kicatiujiT na BI.M jdninLi^cjud 
puh]H. tndi Tkc Bcj^crlicjd Sc^lifin aLxu jupparii 
JK ptinl NpccjcN riha^ jie cadcmii cu 3.4f>idana furcur 
nu*]! he IE eLncI [hji CEpmEnLi 3 L'^ fif MfinLana n 
EadcmK. pLjid NpEcki TkE lu^kiax gEulugJLjl 
divEntf} , vrilkjl lELiEf and IkE unjtfUE iaicnEC^Lun 
FjelR^ akd GuLI (fif Mc:c»ru) lifira Lrj4.1:i ax -i^cU 
ax IkE u^ E liap fi f Kc Y Eial llurnLjL ElEoicidK Explain 
IkE djyEmljK ^f ptidK J ad ^c^eIjLjdb f-UBOiunilm 

FiaalLv %i± bndiEapEN 4>f EACcplkiaa] c4.ulugJLaL 
ij^BifiEnnrE 'aece jdEnlifjEd, bjs^d upoa chE 
djh EmI} jnd Efindilkiax ul vc^ELaLjihB 4.un]BuaL£iu 
jcpiE^^nlEd jmI aic dcscTibEd in chu cEp^iri Thr;K 
jnEhjdE BannucL, Dlu-kiail A Rubb- Lcdfu rd . 
CEnlEnnial \lfHiidajK JL ^ullzy. CcnlEnnial 
i^ndlijILx, Juhnx[>n GuIl h- D ee r C j ajr^ a CiuEk.and 
?^uniiun Lite %VE[lanLlN an^l ]$>ld;K M^Liiriain. 
Ej^Ii iacLidci BLM tiMb^ax weI] ai crihriEypci uf 
piib]K L^A ncnkip 

The BEayErKcjLl ?^fHiB4ajv Srcii[>n k IkE fiixl bi^E 
ECLME^uii n J I unil in ^-li^idana 1.V1LI] j eu m piE kEnijyc 
Vc^ElJtJUB C]aNNjfjLa4Lon Eumpjkd ia j Ningk 
duLumcB4 Thu lEpurt icflEc^x uur LuriEoi 
Vni^'ii IelIjc. anLl ii b^ nu niEJK cickaui^Lvr 
AdLlilkiaa] xurvc} 'f^i>wy k nEcdEd Nh b^rici 
duLumcnc LiiE £ilL>bj|];K impEnLcd pLnid c4hBaLund[c^ 
■ ad Ll> pnhh kJc bcMci jafi^Tm ac ii^n cu axxui in chcir 
Efi axcFL ac iL>n jnd ■aBagcBcid Tkciu u Mh4t a acEd 
ffi r add J Lo na L in^EnLiMV jod LiucuBcidal ki a ul ^nud 
quaLiljK. rrpiExcidalivc 4.U m niLiaLiJEN , and ^i^jaill^anl 
]anLlKcapEK ThExc aiuai, na<i LkE ]iBLilEd iEKfiun.EK 
LliEV HipfHhil acE L>f EunNidEr3b]E En>ki^Lrjl vakiE 
a ad a IE ^.vurih nun^ing Lo oiaiEHatD LbEiT ecdId^ihI 
iiLir ckmE^ri 



XJJ 



I ntroduction 



The BcB>crhtad MoijnlB]nh Sfctianin 
■^utbiwc^tcmMonlBnai^i complex phy^icil 
CUV] runmtnl ^uppoTtin^ adi^tiM: laixkcapi: 
thil 1^ rcflrctfd in Iht niuiibcr and 
phys]opjximy of riBluraJ planl(.ommijm1]c^ A 
c] BHsifLC ation of Ihrv comniLiJiLtirs fjvf^ land 
rrnnagcrs, iKirarcbcn bixJ intcrcslcd c]1 izciti a 
■^tatt^Mdc pcripcc! ivc of commLuiLty 
db>1 ribLi1]on 4nc1 Mfi atLon Thispcripfctivc i^ 
CTiKial when idtnLi fyin^ i mjxjTlint irea.'f for 
conhcrvatLun aixJ for miki ng nound 
rrnnagcmcnt presL nplions or picdicliore> 
rtgarding futui? dnired coDd]1ion:£ of 
Monlana'"^ natiuil hcritaf.c_ Thi!i projcci 
publicilionrcprc^nlHont mi]c'>tonc in Ihc 
coLuyc of dcvclopi ng b comprchciTiivc 
clBHsifLcatLunof MontariB'^ plintcommLinLCLCTi. 

Thii piujcc! crtt3ca> orn 1o prov idc a 
compil Bl]on and dr% n pl]on of pLinL 
communil]C'> WLlhin tbic Ecavcrbic sd Mountai ns 
S«1ionlEVIiDMS>Jnsouth\^m Montana. [L 
constitutes 1x^1 h an upulilt of pro lolis ^iDdjc}! 
ajxJ HcnriLnB] rcporl formrcrU plani 
comjnunily bikI botamcBl survey ^^'otI 
conduclcdby IhcMontariB NatLuiL HcrilAgc 
PrDgjim IMTNHPJ- The Bcivcrtead 
MoLuitiLiK 5cc1]on !"> in rco region defined by 

within 1bc Middle Rocky Mountain 3 teppc- 
CcinLfcrDL£> Forest- Alpine Me ackjw Pio> ince_ 
Tht MonlBna jxjTiionof thjs scclion is in lira 
ofs<jmc7^350,(XX)4cies We choose Iht 
ecorcgion for i pilot cffon in developing a 
compichensive comiTiuni1> ciissil]CBl]on 
btcauhc I) anecoregion]scKpeclcdlobe a 
meim ngfuL ccologic al urn! fonbc 
cl Bssific aticui of [ilajil conimuni1]ef:. 2) 
EVHDMS has been inlcnwvtLy SBmpled for 
coniiTiuiii1> cl Bssific ation purposes anJ 3| Ihi^ 
are* poaicsses b x^raLthof plant commum1> 
diversity and ]s pivotal tj our nndeis! and i ng oF 
the states nilurBl resources 

Scleral preccdi ng M TN HP efforts hBvc 
conccntra1cdonlbe]nvcntory of BLH lands 
within 1beD]llonRes<ju[re AreB fRAl_ to a 



Itiscr c itlenl 1be He Bdh^ aleiH R A and 
penpherally IheGimel R\. These L^f Forts hivc 
emphasinKd lociling, sampling Bnddcscnbing 
11 whBl appeared 1o be piTMOusly iindescnbKl 
communities and 21 common conimijm1ics]n 
f.oiKl tj efLeeiient condi tio n (itlatively fite of 
disturbance) 3j hBbiUls e^pec ted to hBTtor 
^ensili>e enJangercd or Ihre Bicned pi ml 
species We hB>e bLso attempted li> seek out 
and incluilediU not generated by theMTNHP. 
bul TBlher pmdiKed by other rel] able sources 
jiDnh a.s the U S_ForcM Service's ECODATA 
plob>1fiom Region 1 and Ihe Be averhead 
N ationil Foie^ir Bnd plot^ ^lom cl as^ific atio ns 
already in use, such as Ihjse of U. S ForesI 
Senjce reseajchpen»onnel,e_g R D Pflsler 
fPfisterelal 19771 andW F-Mueg^er 
fMueggler Bnd Stev^art I9&31 andlheMonlBna 
Riparian/ Wetland ^ssoci Blion f H ansen el al 
i9^5} In mBiiy casKi the vegetation types 
(habitat 1>pesorclimBX plani a^isnc lationst 
defined b> IheFoieM Service and other 
researchers consli lii1c injUaJ attempts at 
claiihihcBlion however, these c I a^Ciificilions 
ackJ 1 heir imbedded vegelBliontyp^i hBve 
w ilhstood Ihe lest of lime Bnd beenshiTwn to 
effeclively psTtilion the larubcipe into unit^of 
comparable biologic jKilentiil. 

More recently their h*i been bu impetus lo 
crea1eana1ional vegetation cl as^ific ation 
fLoucki l?9ftl a cl Bssif ic ation fociTied irauTT 
o n exLsli ng vcget4tii>n thin on pi>ten1iBl nBlural 
vegetation (as has beenlhecfic inMontanB). 
The imlial effort m this reg Bid has been 
'InlemBlionaJ clasiificition of ecologicBl 
communities: Tcirestrial vegetation of Ihe 
Umted States Volume LTheWilionBl 
Vege1 Blion C laKjficilion Sjslem: 
developmeiil, status aixl applic atuiEi" 
GrossmBncUL |I?9S| BDd Volumes The 
N ationil V egetation Cl a.'Ciiric atio n 5^lem Ll^1 
c\ types'" Andenonel al iy?S_ Bo1h these 
volumes ire pmdiK Is of The N Blure 
Conservancy Bnd their sUled purpose ifi to 
serL'c as useful implements For making on-the- 
giound coisier^ ilion arkJ n^souice minBgement 
decLsioiTi- The Feder^lGeogTiphic Data 
Commillee- Vegetation Subcommillec (cm 
which all federal agencies iir reprtsentedl his 
pmdiKctl adffl-umenl "Nalitmal Vegetation 



CLa*s>iljcBlJon3tinc1irc1, June 1^7'" which. 
inxi ng other 1 hings jiubscribcN lo thcT>"C 
Nfllional VcgclBl]onClis^Lfication^aLLra^l 
BcccptLcig b]] the bucriR. h]c bI levcl'> Ihat Ircat 
phys]opjxi my (Mnjclurc incl appc ajincc of 
vcgclBl]Dni and reitn ing J LKJgcmcm only on 
1 ht flon^tLciLLy dcfliKiH lcvtb>, alliance bixJ 
plint fihociilion prnclinganBl>?ib>and b rcporl 
fium thcEcoLo^Lcal Society of Amcnca 

To make a c] BK^iflt. ation iZicfuJ amcamof 
Hon^i^wbiBl uncquivccally and objectively 
]denLi ^> ing 1 axonomic unit^ miKl be pn^vidcd 
]n the formoFa key. Ln thtsrtporl we hivc 
BLljpled the N a1 lonal Vc^elBl]on CI sssif legation 
hierarchy and jL^ key^, il Least down to Ihc 
FormBl]on level A1 thenoiis1]c LeveL> 
l^lhBDLdncI plBnt Bssoc] Bl]onJ ¥^ have botb 
BLkipled. as orig]iiaLLy 4.onhlnKlcd^ ind 
nxKlifLed the tey*i of pie^^etling e^^ologtsl^ 
rese Bic heri_ DicholomoL£> key^ bitdliI 
e] BHsifu. atLonh but Ihey anz the ^^indow h>lhc 
el BMiifu. atLO n BixJ^iixere atten1]on han been 
piLdlociptunng the c: I a.'^ificato ry ]deal^ of olu 
pietlecewiois, w hi le *i]inLil taneouslj 
'>yiithe'>izi ng incl i ncorpc rating Mis]ghts gained 
] n SLilHiequent SBUifi 1 1 ng Thi'> re^ul ti ng 
e] BHSifit. ation wi1h ilH «.4.oni[iBiiyjiig vegetation 
key and de^cn[11 ions of pi ani assn. tat lonb will 
beuhefLJ ror1he]dcntificBlionof [ilBiit 
communily 1ype^ (icferred to more foimaJ ly b> 
1 heir I BXODLiinic '>tatL£> «i piBnt bssoc] BlJons| . 
e'>peci4ll> 'tcns]1 1> e ones bjxJ nBlural ireas 
where majngeiTK^m prei»cnp1 ions need 
BdjiKting to mBintamhBbLtit mLiks ,\n 
]iTip<m4nt fuDLtLon of lhecLis^il]LBl]on is to 
Hcr\c as B sunogile For Ihc cilegjn^ation of 
env]mnmenlB] VBnition; it bL»o serF cs as a 
refereixe syslcm for h Bhcl I ne momlonngof 
eiiv]ioninenlBl impa4.t^ aixJ vegetation 
rraiBvcry. 



study Area 



ThL^ rcpcTi i^ f tncriltd from natLuiL plint 
cominunilifs SBiTifilcd or in ^lOmc maimer 
ckKumcnltd IQ 4J<:c ur w]1hLn ihcMonlina 
poniDFi {Figui? ] I of Ihc BcB>crhrad Moun- 
L[iins3cctk>n (EVHDMSj and rcfcrcixctl as 
M3J2E]nEaLLcyttal i\*^94]. Tt^MonUna 
pDr1]on aLonc compn*iti j L£>t over 7 jTiCO .000 
ariT^ and logdhrr wilh br Blm:)'>t cquBll> large 
cxfiBiSiC inca.^t-(:cnlral Id aJxi roi7i1]1 ulc the 
largest Scclion wilhin the MitldLe Rocty 
MoLuitain Sitppi: - ComfcnjiK FoitM- Alpine 
Mc«tiw Province (M3J2_BB]lcy c1 li. 19941_ 
The MonUna portion of EVHDMS encom- 
piHtC^ VLrtuiii^ bIIo^ BeivcTficad aixJ Silver 
Bow CoLintLKi, ^Lightly moi? 1hin the weMcm 
hiLf jxjnion of M BlJl^on County . tbicsoulbcm 
hiLfof PowclLCoumy, bixJ iLI butlhc north- 
cmmosl porUonol Deer ijidgc CDLlnti■ 
^F]SLlJT: 1) 

Climate and rdated 
parameters 

Al I of the slixJy ajci experiences, wilh local 
vinatioisi ajxJ [icnnulBlion^. aconlini^nlBl 
chmile w]th(.old relalivciydry w]ntcr^ w]1h 
the monllTi of grc a1e>t prec] pimion bc]ng H ay 
ajxJ June. 1 1 LsicDol dry countiy ^bici? 
sa^cbnr:h-grBHS communilics cover lhc> alleys 
and forest> ire lesIrK ted to higher elev Bl]Drb 
M CHil of thi'> rco rrgion hoi ]n 1 hr riireihaclow 
of Oirgon's B lue M OLintaLre> andtenli^l 
Idaho s high nxium ajn mis^ meaning it 
rrccLve> leaser imount> of pm.Lpjtationfiom 
Pac]fic !ili>rm ^y^tcms Ihan olher Montana 
ecorcgLons to Ibe DDTlh Averse annual 
piet I pil Bl]on varies fn^m over 5n inches at 1be 
Pioneer Moun! B]n's cm>1 lo between S and 16 
I nchcs ihroughont 1 he bulkof thesluily Bi^a 
(sec*ibeels 3 and 4 in RoH>irkJ Hunter 1976) 
Summcis arc rel Bl]vcly dry w]1hoiugrBphjc ally 
generated precipitation cvent>^moislijrc source 
often being rurthwiml flowing Guif^lcimiir 
nnshcs] having tbie]r giratest firquencj bixI 
impact on any^^hcre]n MonlBna_in1l>ese 
southwestern nxiuntaj ns_ The avei^ge length 
of 1be fie*ze- free se ason vaneji from Ic^s than 



30 days 1o ini>i^ than 70 days at highes! ind 
lowes! elevBl]oiK, respccliveiy iJieeFigun: 13 
inMontagnecl al i^S2>. 

The seventy of c I imi1e is attesled lo the 
relBl]vely nanow foiesled zone, lower limber- 
line bejng il ft,0(>0 Id 7^Ki feel inci the upper 
at 9,300 to9_530feel_ 1 n fac t, Ihe driest of 
rBngessoiithof D]llonhave forest rcslncled to 
norl h-t Being slopes and ravines bixJ SBgebrUkh- 
gr^ss communi ties extenJ up Ihn^ugh what 
would conventionally be the foiesled Mjb Blptne 
zone The fact 1hat thiuuglxiiH tbs ecorcgion 
^r^?j/T y^jFrJd'j L^fL^^ (PondeFM>apine|]sreplBced 
by ^jCT/L^tJjj/^j^ FJTi-TJjorr fDougiasflr^ and^or 
f^rfui'ijf6'xrffs (limber pinej at lower treeh ne 
alsoiMes1s1o acoldclimBle_ The presence of 
LjAM\i}a^iii (subal pine I Bic h^ b1 upper Inzehne 
in the AuBconda-P] nlUr R anges ]s quj1e 
poss]bly lcs1]mony li> 1he high snow lo*d 
cxperiencetl by Ihese rajilhemnKHil-ranges 
wi tbn 1 his ecoiTg]on Olher obserL'Bl]ons 
could be made w]th regard to ^pec]cs di^lribu- 
tion oMensibly correlBled w]1h chmitic piram- 
eten>bu1 the above c iled lie Ihe nxist salieni in 
distingujsh]ng th]setoitg]on 



Physiography and related 
paramaers 

The stiidy arei cncorr^asses *ppiuMmBlely 
7,050 COO milhon ac res ind rBnges in elevation 
fiom 4.500 fl_ on Ihe Eeaverhe*d R]ver bI 
Silver Star lo 11 I54ft_ b1 thesummilof 
Tweedy Mtn_ in the East Pionrer R BngE, 
encompasiing no less thin nine dislinci 
mountain ranges This Bita s diven»e topogra- 
phy, high rehef ajxJ climatic van Bbility give 
nse whcnoverlB]noni biu Bd spcclrum of 
pirenl mBlenil types ringing Fiom inlncive 
and ex tn£i]ve vxjIc Bnic^, c BlcireoiZi andnon 
c ale Breous *iedi menlary. co ajse-gjiinetl 
mel Bmoiphic, b11 teitures of valley fill sedi- 
ment, lo Bn BbujxJBnceor unique envimnmenb 
TheEis! Pioneer, Tobacco Rool, Pi nil bf, 
B eavcitic Bd_ Gravelly. SnowcresI, Tendoy and 
Centennial RBngeshave aJl eipenenced 
Pleisi™.ene aJ pine gl ac] Bl]on (M ontagne 1972) 
and Ind By suppon eTleiK]ve Blpine communi- 
ties. Be^'oixJ the Aboveobservalions there ]s 



Figure 1. BCT^/erhead M ountains Setlion Study Area, Montana 




1 1 LtLc1 Ii4t c: Lin h[^ '>aid tbiBl ippliE^s to incl 
dtsU n^utshni the whQlcBVHDMSn.oiTgion_ 
Th? ]DL rcdiblc di> ciMl> of Ibc pbiy*iicil laniJ- 
scapr 1^ rcfl«.tcd by thcfBd thai lhtsccl]on 
com aj ns eleven ^ub«c tLoiTi fFi^urc 2^, more 
thininy olhcr^rction witbun tht "ttatejht 
clirfizrtru.i^'> imong ^ubscf 1]oiK orr bficd 
largely on gcologjcil or gcornurphoLogic 
cnlcna^ Ihat !"> they art c^ompniicd of mouni Bin 
rinses or apgregatLons lherci>F ind the inlcr- 
vcm ng val leys This d]>er5Lty b> be-^t ad- 
dircicd by coiTikfcnng the eleven ^liteicetions 
pie^enlcd billow in ilph Bbeti4. al ordi:r«xonl- 
mg h> IhL'ir subnet tion dr^Lgnilmns {small easj^ 
letter trail I n^;1hL"CBpLtilE J Thtsc bncF 
dcscnplions hive iir^ciy been abslraclcd from 
Nc^scrclal {[9^7] 

This setting also sufipc [!"> hi^h > ascul ar pi Bnt 
species di^crsily ]n Icims of 1otal numbern 

eixkniLsm^ ind bio^fo^raphic clrment>. 
Ccunly flDristic]nfoTinationi'inol aviiliblefcr 

EeavrrticBd Bnd adjoim ng co unties^ but li ie 
core>LdciTd litcly ltiBl the majonty of the over 
2,203 !ipK les bdJ Uxabclox^ tht spec]c^ level 
documenltd in southwrslcni MonUna occur in 
thL" stLidy Area Thi^ i^i based on ^tate flon^tic 
I nfoimal ion initially compiled by [>om |19M|_ 
augmcnlcd below 1hc species level indtross- 
rcfercixetl to *i1 b1c Jicclor by the U S Forest 
Scrvu-e (Pierce 1^97). The h^t of planK in 
southwestern coiintLcs represent roughly SO^ 
of 1he V ascul ar [ilBnt s[iec]cs in 1he state 

Thediveise flor^oflheBeBverhcad MountBins 
ecoregLon i!i m Bde up of !ipe^:]es 1hat hive Iheir 
c^enteraofdislnbution in the Ro<: ky Mountai n, 
Grcil E asm or Great F] Bjn*i ^Mth fewer !i pec ]es 
piesen! IhaHreccnleicd jn the Snake River 
Plains CokimbjB Plateau, Vincouven an, 
Eorcil, Bnd Arclic regions lEieLde] et b]_ l?93l 
This does ni>t include Ihi: ^^idcspreMJ native 
species wHh DLi apparent centers of dislribu- 
tion And Iht non-nBl]vt species. ]l FollowslhAt 
the high flonsilic diven>i ty iscondixive to 
pioducinf the notable comnium1ydiven>ity 
found for 1hc ccoregion. 

rnMtlil]on to these widel y-d]stri buted ^pec]es 
thcie ire IS Montana p] an! specjes of ci>nccrn 
piesen! inlhis region thai are*ilBleorirgional 
endemics, i e., leslncted in thei r woriniwidc 



dislnbulionlo an ai'ci thai is half the si/e^ of 
Montana or ]ess_ This tal I y of encfcmic spec]es 
i!i among 1be highcs! in Ibe state Itwas 
piev]ou.sly rejxj ned Ihat sonthwfsleni Montant 
hislhc highrst levels of eru5em]sm in Montana 
CLcs]cb]4'?5j_ Wble infomntion on Ihes1a1e 
flora ind the Eciveitiead Mountains ecoregnn 
are too pre] i minary for quan1]1 a1 ivc analysis, 
the ecoieg]on has state s]gni he ance in sheer 
DiimbeDk of spec les aixl leveJs of cndcmi^m. 

Subsection Descriptions 

M332E a Continental Divide 
Uplands 

This snlsiection is composed of block faiiHed 
mountains (Ihe Be a>erbead MounlaiiTiof 1he 
E iMerroot R angej comprised of a variety of 
Igneous sedjmen! ai>' ind mel*iedi mentiry 
i~cc ks. inc] udi ng Hxise ot theBouJder 
Eitholilh Elev ations range fmm 5_300 to 
10,2(K3 tee! whereas prec]pitition evidences 
aboul a1hiee-fo]d range, fiom 10 1o JO]nches 
The jxjientiil vegelalion ranges fium fnolhill 
pr^ineil lowest eleva! ions, 1o /^m-r/L'itJTJ/^j^ 
t^6'f?Zf6'ih |[>oiigl as fir] fores! ^currently nic*»dy 
f\fUiS tf^rtfL?^ ftMikjminatedl, lo ilp]ne meadows 
and barrens The pn maiy natural dislurbinces 
are fire anJ miss wis1] ng Land iKe]s varied, 
divided among livestock grajin^, mining 
timber harvesi, recrea! lonal lac andnievelop- 
mcnt. 

M332EbEa^ Pioneer 
Mountains 

M (JsUy (. ale anxius subs1 rales f I argely lime- 
stone) compnse Ihe bloc h-tiul led mountains il 
the soulhem end ^^hereis at norlhern end 
inUiKive volcamcs moMly gr^nil]cs pirdomi- 
ime_ Th]ssubsectioneiKompasses the moM 
vertical relief |fmm 6 fXK3 to I ] J 5(3 fee1^, 1he 
highest elevations and Ihe most iiea wilhin the 
alpine zone (elevatioiTi above appiofLimately 
9,4(X)feet|. N^eininnuaJ precipitation ^ ines 
fiom 1 1o 40-1- ] nchcs Po1cntnl>ege1a1ionis 
donunated by Douglas fir and Weslem spnJcc- 
f]^ forests w i th abunJanI lip me me^Jnx^'sand 
bineisi at 1he highesl elev al]ons, fra^menls of 
fcxjihill pT^ine ex tend upslope IS parh-likc 
inclusions in a nK»il]> forestenl land^ape. Fitt 



Figure 2. B«va"head Mountains Sedion and Subsedion 
BoundariE^ Montana 



In- 



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f ^k. ■ ( .1 /mh:j&<' ^ r- 



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\^^hc pnniBry nLiLuraLdbilurbiiK-canJlliE^ 
current dLuiiLnajit I and u^ ]'^ ]] v cMcx k fjizing^ 
fbl Lowed by timber harvL^I anLlnxrcaUon 

M332EcDe^odgeValle/ 

Thi*i LrUcnrejiiLanL" vbIJcv ha*. kjriTiL^ jn Tcr- 
ti aryHAlimcnUr^' rocL^ bixJ been '>Lil»iequL'ntly 
filled w]1h both Teniir^' and Quaternary 
dcfKHiJlH Elo atLons range fmm bayins b1 
appiT>;timatcLy 4 -KX) feet, where "^al t- affec Led 
vegelBUonlypesireiKJlBble lu6_C>00feel 
where polential vegeUlKtn li "^apebrnsh steppe 
(predDuiLnButLy mounlBiu big SBgebn£>h- 
domiuatenl^ bikJ fcxjl hiii'i [i riine lincluding 
nMnnint rough fe^c^ie | Fesfuca campeiini] 
pramcy Mean annual piec i [i]1 Bl]on r^nge^ 
fium 1 1 1o l6]DLtie^ A^rKuJluie Bnd Live- 
■^tock grajjng iie 1he prctti minani Lannluhcs 
wjth urbBii^uburban development growing in 
importance 

M332EeWest Pioneer 
Mountains 

Thbi nu^LiJ]tam ma.^ hiscoiSiiderBbLy Ll's^ 
vertical reLief |5 5LhJ io 9,5C>0 feetj and appcBis 
an Bd]'>.^ected planar '>urfaee ra1 her 1han j igged 
peaki> when comp Bied k>M_lJ2Eb it ]^ 
notabie for 1 1^ 1 1 ttuLi>f iciL diversi ty, ]ix Ludin^ 
volcajiLCTi (granilics), metamorpliic {grKMiisand 
pliyiiiler, sedimentary aixJ me1 BhenlimenUr^' 
pireni milenaL FyjIentiaLvegclBUon ranges 
liuin iTH>LinLain bjg '>a^ebiiKli-J:)mmBled '>teppe 
on llie iDwerslD[ie'> lo DougLaii-f i r at nx>nUne 
cle> atLons to Western "^pnKe-rLr fores! it the 
highest ele> Bl]ons elevalions w]1hin thi^ 
"f Libseclion are iFbLifficienl to support Blpinc 
^egeiiiion. 

M 332E g Anaconda M outitains 

This "iubsecnon IS c tiBi^c teri7_cd by block 
fiultetl mountains composed pnmBnLyoF 
gr^nul ar [ilutonic m<.l:, iTH>stLy mon/cmite bikI 
f r^nodion te ind BUeredby alpineglacialion, 
which has cieated numeioiiscL*>sic U-shaped 
viLleyy KianHed w]lhgl4ci4L tilL Bnddnft 
Elevations rBnge fmm6 000lo 10 900 Feel, 
with the hjghest jxjnions of the r^nge receiving 
I n excess oF 4<? inches annual precipiUlHtn. 
Polential ve^eUlionis pnmBriiy [>ougl as-f]r i n 
the lower nxi nunc ind Weslem spruce- fire 
forest ]n1 he upper mi^ntine anJ subaLpinc 
zones wi1h diven»e aLpinecommuniliesrepie- 



MMUcd Pas! wiLdfires hivc left most of 1 he 
rin^ecloibed w]1hseraJ kidgepole pi ne [frmis 
^Y^fc7^ ^L^^) fores! s Among EVHD MS subsec- 
tions this one is notable for bolh ex tensive 
heath-d:)mmBled ilpme commum1]es /reflect- 
ing Ihe subsec tion's Bcidic parent milenals and 
high piec I [i]1 a1 lonj and numerous stands of 
l^fffxha^ill |subaJ pine Uic h^ b1 the highest 
forested ele^ ilions generBlly on locky, ex- 
posed subsUdlcs. 

M 332E h Beaverhead M ountains 

Thts siibsiX tion, whic h tikes J1 nujne Iroj]] the 
Hpinc of moun1 BJiSi thBl tra^eise its length, is to 
a greiler dcgiee than other nee! ions compnscd 
of mela-sedimem ajy R>cks (mostly argiLliler 1hat 
hive beenbLiick FBulted and subsequently 
modified b> BlpineglBC]Bl]on_ ELevBl]ons 
\m\2c fiom6 ffiX)tD 10_ftOO .^s Vf ith Ihe other 
sec tioisi, jKilcnIiil vegetation ranges ^lum 
Dou^lis-fi r foiesis in 1he nx>nUne li> Western 
E[iniLe-fl r in 1hc nxmUnc losubaJpine zone to 
aJpine meadows aixJ barrens Bbo>e Bpfiiuxi- 
miteLy^_5(KX)feet Ltdifteis fiomolher 
subseclions in having greater annual pi~eeipita- 
tion |20 to 40 pLin ] nches| mJ consoqueii1l> a 
pieponderBixeof Ihe UndscBpe ]s fbrcsled 
Thepnmir^' nBlural dislurbance is F]re_ Timber 
hirvcs! ind, 1o alcsherexlent, hveslock 
^r^7jng4nd mining are the primary land uses. 

M 332E h SoLithwesl M ontatia 
IfitermontaneBagnsard Vall^s 

Thjs 1 Bixihc ape is characlcrized by mleimont- 
anebasiisi andbroxJ valleys Ihal have formed 
in aJ I uvi um. gl ac i al deposib> and Tertiary 
volcanic milenals- Elev Blions range fiom 
4,7CXi to7£i(K3feel and 1 he dr^i nBge densi ty ls 
low. Mean annuBl prec i[i] tation ranges fiom? 
to 21 ]DLhes ibout 10^ of ^^bch fills is snow. 
Tvlixhof the Red Rocks Basin BixlB]g Hole 
VBllcy hivecryic temperBlurc regimes because 
of lheir high base cle^ilionsind cold B]r 
pondi ng, Ihis LS ind]stinc1]onh>lheremB]ixler 
of 1he Hec1 ion where the temperature n:gj me is 
simpLy fnf hJ The prednminBnt jxjIentiiL 
vegclBl]onissBgebnEhs1cppe t any oF the Ihree 
subspcc ics of .-^ rff^rrrir^j r^dfrtftr Fj^ 4S weLL a.^.^_ 

ajxlsleppe (djminated by Fe'iiiic^f f^hhtyet^sfi 
[IdBbD fescue I 3nd I' seAiditt oej^n^ja sprctiiij 



(blucbLiixh ^^ buzil^rflKS I J. Tbu^ [inmary mturil 
db>1 urti BiK-c^ ETC ncxxlin^ andfiic Anlhmfio- 
grmc inllucnccs irc livf^hK k ^r^^i ng^ igncuL- 
Uir^MncI utIh BJi^uburbin d:> tLu pmcnl wi tbi biBy 
piodL^|]nn [in>b4bly constituting lhcs]iiglc 
largest rcplaccmcn! of niliv^ vcgcUlion with 
] nliodiKcd '>prcii:s and grcBlcst Bllcrition of 1hc 
]ajx[M.apL' 

M332EkRuby/ TobaccoRoot 
M ountdins 

Both rangf^ compnii]iif. [hi^ kntfccapc arc 
fiul t block mountai ns. ho^^cvcrlhL" lower (to 
9M^ feci J, ungl^ciilfd Ruby Ringc i^ pnmB- 
rily |] mcslonc w ith some quarU-i tc w he rcis the 
higher |to I O^OQjflBciBlly sculpted andnure 
dbihec ted Tob Bcco Root Range has abn^ader 
spcclnun of rack exposed, inc I udi ng gnei^, 
gr^nile, '>an{ktont,qLiBrt^Lti:. ind limestone 
For 1 ht SLibstclion as awhile annuBl [irecipita- 
1 ion Tinges fmm LJ to J5 inches JixJgmg by 
vrge1 Bl]Dn pattensi alone, the Rub^ Range ]"! 
considcribly dner Ihan thL" Tob bcco Root 
R ange w i1h stc ppc ^'c actition exicnding higher 

sagebnzihl fi a '>ignLficBJit shiub sitppc 
componEm! ind hBving BgrcilcrcKlenlof 
SLibaL[i]ii[^ parks anJ V LrtLiB]]> no sub Blpine fl r 
^■^fird^T ffTTrr^i ^jj^J rcpiTSEmled- The Tobacco 
Root Range has abundanl al pine mcado^^ Bnd 
birrcns above 9,5C>0 feet as well as eMcnsivc 
Weslem spruce— fir subaLp]nc forests audit 
lower cicvatioiTi Dougi as-fLr forests The 
pnmBry natural dislorbince is fire. PasllBnd 
use 4.enlered oiiinini ng bix1 timber harvesi but 
today 1 1 vcstock grB/in^ anJ rccreatjon aic 
precimneiit 

M332EnGravdfy/ Snowcrest 
Mountains 

Bolh Tinges are c hBr^c tenzed by block fauJied 
mountai ns composed of B VBnety ofdejwsitetl 
milenals, ]ixlLidingshaJe siilstone ind sand- 
stone, extrus]ve vole anuis arc vcr^' lo<.B]]zed 
Bo1h TBngeshave bIso bccnsigniflcBntly 
modified by giiciition and raass wasling. The 
teiramat thecrestof IheGra^eilj Range ]s 
very gentle for a irajuntaj ni>us sel1]ng iod 
SLipporLs the ith>sI e Mensivc and Bccessibic 
aJpinelerTB]ii'A']1hinlheSeclion- Ble>Bl]ons 
nngc Tram 5.1tOQlo JO,64}0 feel. Mean Annual 



piec I pil Bijoo ranges J lojn I4h> 3^) plusinchHi. 
Bo1h ranges lie in rB]i7ihado^^?i of iixi untai ns Id 
the west so thBl lower 1imber]]ne isreiilivcly 
elevated anJ nxnjntai n gr^ssl Bnis ind 
shiubiands ire well i~cprese nied oo w arraer 
aspcct> Ihat wouJd be forcstetl Lo^vettercii- 
milic regimes Polential fores! vegetation ]s 
Dougifi-fir at lower lirabcTline which gives 
WB> tj Weslem spnjce-fi r fores! at higher 
eloations- Nciriy puic s1 ands of whi teb Brk 
-pine iffrntj {fihiiiAftiii) are not uncomnxm on 
WBimer-d rier exposures bI upper treci]ne The 
pnmBT^' natural dLS1ijrb4iK.cs Brefire Bnd mass 
wasting Islomp I andforms ire ibond^m ly 
evuicnt in the sedimentary jxjnionof the 
Gravelly Ringe]. L ivesi™. k griring andmimng 
are the piedonun^m iind uses 

M332EpBlacktail Mountains 

Thjs block iBulted range is compiiscdoJ a 
vinety of igneous, senlimenUr^' art] meUmor- 
phic locks; al pine glaciation has i mpat. ted onF^' 
the range's highesi points. ElevBl]onsr^nge 
fiom 6,9fX) lo ?,5iXi feet ThLS is i (.ompir^- 
tiveiydry subsection a1 tnbiH able 1o its 
ninshadow pos] tion ]n lhe lee of higher 
mountai ns lo Ihe wes1 ind southwest, mean 
annual prec i pi1 Bl]Dn ranges ^lom l4lo2^) 

I nches, ifejut 5!3 ^ falling assno^^ The fLeric 
nature of this sobsec tion isbomeoiH in lhe 
vegelBl]on w hich is prednminBntly grissl and 
and shrub steppe on all bii1 iK^rth-fac i ng slopes 
of higher eieva! ions PotenliBl foiest > ege1 a- 
tion Ls[>ouglas-firar limber pine, cxcepi at the 
highes! elevBl]ons on cool exposures where 
Weslem spruce- f]r Forests are found Alpine 
turf ind cushion piint conununilies ire very 

I I mi1ed, found on Ihe highesi ndgehnes. Land 
use IS pietJonunanHy 1 1^ eslock griring w i th 

ti mhcr hBR'cst And m]ningcDnsideiedancillBJ^'. 

M 332E r Southan Beavahead 
Mountains 

ScdinKNil ar^' mclBmoTphic (especially 
quailziler Bnd igneous locks thil hBvebe^n 
blo<. k fiul ted L hir^c lenze this subsection 
compnsedof the Centennial, Tenttiy and 
Southern B eiverfiead M ountains Bnd Liruk 
Peate (considered parlot the Tentfcij Range bj 
some). Alpineglac]a1]on4ndeMensivc ma.*?! 
wasting have sigmficinlly al tered 1he 1 Bml- 



a 



■fl-iipt (^iLijnp^ Bnci tanh llo^^^*! ai^c tsfwcj B]]y 
OLdcnt I n snJ] mcntajy mattn b]^ on the flanks 
orih^Ccnltnniil Rin^tr EloatioiSi raii^c 
fium 7,003 feet Bl the upper fringe> of vaJ leys 
w]thin^ulF«ctLonM3_12Ej to almcHil L],200 
Fed at EiyhleL^nMilc Peak i n the Be Bverbcacl 
KU^LUitiLns M Lich of Ihi: ] anJ*^ api: i^Lhirac- 
terizcd by mountain graK>]ami> [Fi'Jtm^f 
TL^j/E^td^ur T-iikiminatctl, ]dahi> fi^fl. Lie^ and 

dominated, nxnjnlajn big sBgebni't h) wi th 
eloatioiTi above appn^T]mit[rLy9 400 fed 
charar1eri/cd by al pin:: grBssLincIs and tuif , 
cizihion pLan1 (.omnium ties bikJ e i^lEMKive 
FciifieLHi^ Bnd bBiiens_ TheeTleirii>e]]mi:s1one 



SLilMilratts ai^e diuughly _ tending not 1o "^Lipport 
forest Dou^i^s-fLr ind limber pi m: [f\f7Ais 
Jf6'^ffij)cor^i\iu.^^ the poten1]al fori:sl "^ne"^ il 
lowcreievatLoiTi andondrier^Ltes- Western 
"ipiuLe-fl r forcsl prcd:jmi nBle at higher eleva- 
tions and Engel mBnn !ipnKe [I^i^ea 
d^rj^ d^^rttrrt^Ejjf seems lo be fivorcd over \hiei 
kfircTCiArjta on Ihe ck tens]ve c bIc Bieoiii sub- 
strates This subsec1]on primanlj onieolian 
depDS]1s Bnd o1 her '>ubstrates on Ihe flunks af 
thcCenlenmB] Moun! B]iri, tti asls the mosi 
extere>ivc development of aspen [f^t?pitiiu 
ireiJ\Aiftyiii6"i] The pnmary natiuil dis1 urt Bnce^ 
ajT F]ir and mass wasling- Livestock ^raj_i ng 
and rec reilion conslilute 1he majo r I and uses. 



M ethods 



Community Ecology; 

Data Collection 



OngiriBl field ^ampLinf by 1ht N^onlBna 
NBlural HL'nta^c ProgrBm w bh ronduclnJ in 
thrfc phases bii]iilIi4I [ihaiit wbh centered nn 
ten arcis wUh Bcrca^c > ir>']ng from 5(3 to 
2,4<>n *L re>, sclcdcd hy pcryonncl of the 
EiucaLiof L and M iriB^^nicjit andsBmplcd by 
R DeVcLicc |l9?2i_ General dKwrn p1]oiK of 
CBch of Ihrw 1cn '^licii inclixlcd awiKi^mcnt of 
thtir biodivcis] ty SLf.niru. anc[^^ cunrnt ind p«i1 
lajidiKC BixJ MJf^f^lHl conscn' Bl]on 
rrnnagcmcnt nMtt> A «(.ond pha.^c of flrLd 
sampLin^; w an condudcd by S_ Cooper and P_ 
LcHt^B f intere>ivc m L'^94_>cr> ]imi1ciJ]n 
1995 inci L9?6l based on rcci>nnaissBncc 
I nfbimation col Let ted b> Lti]CB, J 
VBixJcitioiM arkJE Htid^l in 1 he courye of 
invenloryLn^ k>r thrtiltncd and cnJingercd 
"fficcich in IheCentE^nniil Valley and Ihe 
Tcncloy R^n^t and sijrTOLiJxJ]ng val ley lantfc. 
A Ihird Field He a.son w an onJertakcn in ]^9S to 
explore llxme lem Bining ">■ te^ or ] BniM: apf^ 
thil his iKJl rcccivetl co>erB^^ ]n tht preceding 
ytan bixJ h> ]dl re ase Ihe sampl i ng of uru5er 
docnmenlcd plBnt ishociilions 

I n c Buh of Ihe^e Biras sampling eenlcTrd on 
putative TBie or proioiiily urkJKjnbcd 
corrununilics and on eoKimon eommLinLtLe^ in 
good lo excel lenl cond]1]on fb Bsed on s1 bixJ Bid 
Tinge crilcni] TomLnimiic the conFoiiJxJ] ng 
I nfliicixe of d]^tLiji>ance |man-LnLlLiccdl on 
vcgd Bl]on pa1 LeriK, Breas ] nltit-Lvclj ^;ra7_cd, 
herbicide treatenl^ iiKchinicaJly dislnrbrd. 
ajlifLCLilly seeded orimgalcd were iwt 
sampled- Floti were establ i-^bicd w]1 hin 
ponions of s1 BDLis Ihat BppcBred biomogenKHZi , 
both in vegetation comjxjsitLon BixJsile 
F4clon> Wilhi n a ^jLven arci an attempt was 
m** tosBmple the vegetation charac1eiis1ic of 
different I bikIhc ape pcsLtionsor at Ieis1 1 aplnre 
thecommuni1]esdislinctly difFeienI in 
composLtii>n occLunng w]1hin i ciR^umscribetl 
topograptiy Plot se]ecl]Dn fociEKl on exisUng 



iJ ajxls of vegttitK>n w i tbi the obj «. tive o \ 
drscnbing tbieconipos]1]onof ser^Lis weLL is 
mature vcgel Blion. however, bias towiinl more 
mature stages Ls impLicil thiungh thL^^lection 
of uixJisLuifred sites. 

Within CBch 375 m^lused thiough 19921 or L/ 
10 acre plot Cr*d]i respec tivcly of J5_S ft bixJ 
37_J ft ) aLL ^ iscuLar spec les were recorded and 
Iheir heigh! indcanopy cover iDaLibenmire 
l959)estLmBled using i 1 2 diss sc Ble. Abiotic 
SI te information, iixLuding cle>ation_ ispect, 
slope pirem mBlcniL,lBDdfonn, slope posilion 
ind emsii>n c hirac Ic rxstics, was ilso reei>n5ed 
for all plots Onl> IheiniliBl 52 plot sample of 
DcVctice 119921 syslcmatically collretEcl 
informilion necessary 1o detennine soil 
subgroup and w Bier hi>lding t apicily from b 
2i!l-in(.h d^'p reconnaiK>ajxe soil piL 

All plot mfbnnation Wis collected DFi Commu- 
nity Survey Foims and entered into EC A_D_3 
(E^ologicil C laK>ificilion And Descnplion 
S^lem), the evol ulionB ly descendenl of 
ECODATA|USD\ I9S71 a USDA Forest 
Sen'icecommnmly sampling pickB^ Inihe 
eouiseoflhe 1 99fl field season, lOttnew plots 
were Added Id IhcECADS databise. 



Community Ecology; Data 
Analysis 

Plot diti was Bcquired fn^mUS Fores! Sen-ice 
Region 1 and combined wi1h IhL" MTWHPplot 
data Speciescompc^iHon ind cover dBlB for 
eichplol ^^as then compared 1o existing 
clissi fie Blion schemes to dcleimine the 
community type assignmenL A number of 
plots did CK^t fil any exislingplBnt association 
descnplion within M ont ani or elsewhere . in 
ivhic h c ase t hey were net iside tor 
ci>nsideralion as represenli ng new or unique 
communities. Plot dBtB wei~e not subjected to 
ngoroin objective ImuHivanBte^ Bnalysis 
Ttnughlhis isixit iHcienlificilly ngonnis 
pm<.ess Forlhelimiledniimberof plots that did 
nol fi t. this ci>nsli tilted Bncfficienl appn^ich. 
The VBiiousileratiorei in the software and 
databise slruclure ^inationh of ECODATA 
indECADSl iswell as the changing plint 



10 



'^yrA:}nyiny incl iti bcinngonlhf databahc 
picsf n1cd B Lo^is1]c impishc il Lbu'> 1]nir^ wr 
wcrr unabli: to niBishaLL aJI Ihr pLo1 da1 a ind 
pF>iJLJCL" ■^yjithc*>i*i and cons1 BDL y/cnvcr 1 abl^i 
foraLLlht plint ishociBl]on^ wUh^odplol 
diti [nslcBd. \^t biBvc prrxJ LiCfd Ihcs^ iBbL^^ 
FbrthcploldBlB(.o]]cc1ciJjn field «a.'«jn ]^9fl 
The following *iKtLon describes lhc proccw> wc 
hive follnwenl Lnlhcpa.st foririBl^/Ln^ourplol 
dAtabBikC. 

AniLysbi c^onslilutcd a rombLnBl]on of oidi na- 
tion li> drfl. n be ^cncril p b11ciik of ri>mmLinL- 
Lic^ jh ]rl4lH>n toenvLcxmmcnLal ^rBdienl and 
c] BK^ific atLon 1o ahccrlB]ii bixJ dcn^ nbe comniLi- 
nily iypQ>_ 

Objective cl asi]ficAtiDn wb^i accomp]]'>bied 
LiS]ii^ t^vo-wiy indicilQr sp«. ic4> Bnalysis 
CTW]NSFAN,H]ll 1 97ybl wbiereai STRATA 
iUSD\ Fores! Sen ice) w as employed 1o 
■iLibjcc tLvc]> b]]™. ate plots lo commLuiLty types 
bfiedon vc^tationsirrulanl^ yaLiics is weLL as 
^Libjet tLvdy j>crt:c]ved simiUn ties anddiFfer- 
eixes insilc f anion and In^atments. Old] na- 
tion w as pcrfuimctl usi n^; dctrcndaJ (.orrcspi>n- 
derb:canilyyLstUE€ORANA-HLll]979aJ- 
S pe4. les (.over V Blues for eicbi plol coitililutcd 
the inpuldBlB_ BolhTft'lNSPAN and 
DECORANA Brc based on the iTHIhcmiliciL 
stralcgy (i c_, reciprntal ivcrigi ng, H]]] I979i, 
b> Bnd tbiiTi affonJ direc t companson bc^frci^n 
the rcsulb> of the l^vo Icchniques No dm 
LrBnsrorniBl]ons wci? cinploycd bixJ aLL def aull 
options inTWENSP.^N Bigonlhm were uhcd, 
cxccp! thai pscLKtispccics riil levck wcre^tt b1 
0,5 BJxJ 20 pcicenl cover All def BuLt optioiTi 
were cmployctl when ninmng lheonJLnBl]on 
aJgorilhms To reduce vinatio n (bctadLvcr- 
SLtyJ when ninmng o rdi nBl]ons dalasets were 
^tra1iF]cdby LifrfDrm wi tbi L percent CDmbinctl 
cover of trees or shrubs ^ufficienl to place 
plots wi tbn 1 hese Lifefonn ^luups Fortn 
dominatetl plots were not sep Bitted fn^ni 
^r^miDD]d-dominated_ Furlher reduction in 
beti diversity andresuLtin^clanlj of vegclB- 
tionpattems was achieved by separBl]nglhe 
obviously moisl to wet-site plots ^lum those of 
uplajxls 

G]ven Ihe existence of numeiuiii accepted 



c I ass]ric4tioiis and ixil w anii iig h> create 
unnecessary confusion, we were conservative 
I n recognizing new corrununily Ijpcs 
TWENSPAN Wis pBilicularly effective in 
pi>in1] ng h> par1]cijUr plots Ihat wei? placed in 
TWENSPAN clashes t hit diffcnxJsigmricintlj 
fiom those c ategones Ihey would be placed in 
existi ng clissi I ]c Bt]oiK or followi iig ex I'^ting 
keys TWIN3P\N IS also efficientlyem- 
ployed ]n constructing keys, ]_e_ looking for 
diBgrvrvilic spec]es irKl defining appropnBte 
cover values at whic ti to make ttie breaks 
belween community types. Ordination in 
addition to helpjng i^]ne Ihe classification. 
TSiistetl in describing Bnd intcipreling general 
pillemso^ vegetation corrununilies aruj 
environment. For example DECOR\E^.A 
exlr^cts the dDminanI compositionil gr^ient 
fiom ttiespeciesditi milm. The env inn n men- 
tal conliol^ of these composi tional gradients 
are then ]nterpitted b ased on companhoiTi with 
the abiotic site data 

Botany; Plant Spedes of 
Sped a Concern 

Lcc ations of Plants of 3 pec] aJ Concern 
piTV]ousl y tt<K. undented ^MthinEeaverheBd 
MounUms Sec tion were quened rn^mlhe 
Heritage Piogram E lologic aJ Corthcrv ation 
Database (BCD) and the]r biological diven>]t> 
signific ance summarized Key elements of 
pi ant species biodj>i:rMty sigruficince were 
identified in thn^e categories: 

1. Globally imperi letl or > uJnerablo ascul ar 
plant species i ncluiling sUle andiegional 
endemics art] species otherwise >uJnerablc 
on a rBngew]de b«]s This corresjicixt* 
withglobaJ ranks G I -G.I uhed by The 
NatuiT Colbert incy and network of 
nilural henUge pnigT^ms 

2. V asc uJ ar pUnt elemenLs Ihat occ ur in thu> 
region of Montana to the exclusion of all 
olher regions ]n the stite These are 
spccjes for which the Eeaverheid 
MounUiib Section ecoregion represents 
their onJy corthcrv atio n opporlurut les m 
Montana 



II 



3. ^^ on1 ana pLim sp«. Lf^ of "iptciil c^oiKcm 
[>ccLijnng]n aggrcgate> w]thiiHhc itpjon 
TTgardLfTih of tbic]r ^ob b] rankorMalc 
db>1 ribLi1]on alhird Ic^cL of conservation 
pnorily TbKiC arc spw: ics 1hit occlit in 
pitlcmik of overlapping distnbLition^ 
collectively itflec! I ng coiTicn" Bl]on 
pnontLKi- 

We did nol coixJix t new fieidwoit bul dirw 
hcavjly Fium setoDd ar^' soLucei tosjnIbcMic 
HvaiLible botamca] 1 1 tcra1 urc. '^|Tec]C'> 
documentation, and many ye an> of Muily into i 
cobiesive lam^icifie [i]c1iJie Are as wilhm the 
Bcavcrtieid MoLinla I ns Seclion biB>e been the 
centerof many plan! surveys SI ncL" thcsUrt of 
IhcMonlanaNalural Hcntage Program and the 
stadof Ihe bolany [iio^ram in Ihe Bureau of 
LantI Manige]ncn1 — HonUnaOfFjce. Results 
fium these s1ixJ]cs ha> c already been processed 
aseiemenlocenrrence data and s> n1 he?i]zed as 
species si alizi and biology ]nforma1]on in BCD, 
as well as L nsss-irfereneed in a supporting 
bibliograpbiiL ditibasc 

Each species is ranked by a sUnd4rd]zed set of 
cnlcna Bach plure where 4 M on1 ani pUnt 
species oF spec I al concern bias been 
docuinenled is i^ened to as an element 
occujience record, and many oFlhe^e are 
ranked in eortsidcnn^ such F4clon> is 
population numbers ind threats. The point ls 
1h4l all of Ihis I nfoTmation piovidcs 4 bis]sfor 
we]gbii ng Ihe species and ccc unenLes together, 
bet^veen agencies, ind witbiolher ecoregions. 



Taxonomic Considerations 

PlanlscientiF]c names used jn thisreporl 
^eneriLly correspond to Ihose fourkd ]n minuils 
of1he Mom ana flora fEooth l950.Eoolh and 
Wright, [>om I^S4jor the regional manual of 
high reptile "Flora of 1 he PaciF]c Nonhwest" 
(Milchcock ind CionquLSI [916] HovFCVcr, 
where Ihere is adiscirpanLy belween any of 
these refeiences and Kailesi (1994) we hive 
I ncorpoT^ted the Karlesz tiTonomic Ireatmcnt 
to maintain coisiislency ^ilh other states and 
current 1 axonomic reseajch This h*>resuJted 
in I ncorjxjntinf unl amiLiir-soundi ng nimes for 
"^n^e di^minanl and indicilor spec]cs. 
pirtu-uJaily Ihe gras-^es of 1he Tnticeac 
i/i^toi?'\fwi andOiJFJdu in Ihe lr^]1ional 
senseVThus ^^eslern^^biealgrasK,]jsted as 
\^r^}pvrt?n jmrltrii in Hitchcock indCiuDLiutsI 
11976) and as Oh-mdu j^rrrJ/ajj m Dom 1 L 9S4), 
h*i become ftfji^^^ nrjji uwrJ^rr fKarlesz 
]994J_ Useof commonnamesmay be 
piefei^ble for such conlraverynL or n>ercijri al 
gioups- espec] aJ]y For eiseof communicition 
in infoimal sitiia1]orw Table ] presents 1he 
synonymy for corrunon dom]nanl art] indicator 
species erkzountered in the Beiveitiead 
MountiiiKSec1]on we hiveilso1ried1o 
coRsislenlly lisl synonyms in Ihe ve^ etition 
keysbm have removed ttiemfiom the tieidin^ 
of Ihe plani a^ciociation descrip1]ons 
Synonymy is also provided in 1he Eea> erhe»d 
^^ ountdins SecUon flonstic lisI ^Apfiendjx A). 



12 



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Results and 
D iscussion 

Community Ecology 

Of tbic4S0 [ilBiit BKSOLJ [L1 ions idi^nLi f icd for the 
whole of MontariB, over half (57 %1 occur wiltni] 
the EcavcrticBd MountaLre> Scc1]on Isce Appcn- 
cJiK \) Givcmhat thb>Scclioncomfiiis«>]c^'^ 
thinonr tenlhnflhc state '>lotaL]BDd irea tbus 
CDnccntra1]onoFcommunity d]venLty b> very 
high- There arc i'i¥o major ]rasi>ns for tb^ 
Fi n>t, Ihe Be Bverhcad MounlB]iri Section has 
received greater atten1]on in lerras of field 
■iampLing, of bolh plants bixJ vegetation. 1han any 
olher section inMontanB. when more en> iron- 
menK Bre exploretl, more commum ty typcN an: 
ckKomenled Secondly is noted in 1he descnp- 
tion of Ihe sl udy areU his lef ion e^hib i ty thL' 
^leatest geologic Bid ivei^Hy in 1h?^lale the mos1 
vertical relief anJ 1he nmqu^ intersec tion of 
Pac]f]c arkJ Gulf |ot Mexico] Monn IrBcks, es 
well 4S the overlap of several flori^lic L'iemcnK 
The fiiilher effecis of ^i^ciilion and pcn^iicul 
cl] miles hBve resul lenl i n ^iliong en> ironmenlal 
grudienty thil dnve spec le^ soTlin^ and produce a 
high d]>erHity oF commum tieN Thtstseiempli- 
fiedby upland "^hiublBiid ^or dwarf -^hrublBixJ^ 
types 3 hnibl Bixt> 1> fic^ bit nxj re tljverse here 
thin ebte'A' here inMonUna because of the mBny 
"f a^ebruhh I Bx a present a.s conununily LlLmiinBnts 
oriDd]CBlorE (ill subspecies of .-^^^^rriirL'^ 
inii67rtaI{A as well bs \. r^/^jjJdr^_ ^_ l^^^ ftj/K jj^ct, 
\ {frhiis^Aifa^^p longilobi-.^ ?r^jvtr,.^ canti^A. 
j:€^aiijTdi^ ^ A. Jn^iiiti^ End, \ SLO^^ii^rum) 

TIk MonUna Mituril Eieni Bge Piof r^m tr^c ks 
thediven>ity of pUnLs. BnimBKind nBlurBl 
communi1]e'>1[ilBnt as'^oc] Bl]ons| at lxj1 h '>tate 
ajxJ global 'tCBle'> Species and communi1]e'> ire 
given status nnJ^s thBl reflecl their conserv ation 
stati£> based on ran ty/ex ten1 , condil]on treixl^ 
ajxJ lhreBb> Appendix E gives anexplanilionof 
the Natural Hentage Global Ranks. Table 2 
illi£>trBle'>lhedislnbulion of global rBnksinlhc 
Ecaverheid sec1]on by lifeform gioup_ 

Ju>t over 25*^ of Ihc plan1 associilion'> in 1he 



Beaverhead SectH>ii aie ranked Gj and 
higher, indicating i^ngewide vulncrib]lity or 
impenlmenl. Min^ oflhese rBnkjngs Bie 
co™>idered iincerlBjn Idenotetl "^") becai£»e 
ihey arc based on hmiledinFormilion. ^s 
more siu-reys are coixJik ted . so me will hkely 
prove lo be le^s rBie1hincunen1data 
iDd]CBle_ Olher types will likely prove moie 
iKipenled. as we come to be11er iindeisUnd 
streuies aixl threib to Iheiu- 

The s]ngle p I ani a^sioc i ation ranked G I is Ihe 
A t ^tTfmif^f i {fii^f / £^ fntn c ffu^r^n shjubUnd. 
Thjs Bssoc] Bl]on w as dnc umenlcd from 4 
single Ice ation b1 B]g Muddy Creek in1hc 
BVHDMSon anele^iled UndfoTm ibove 4 
seep-spnng area at G620 ft elevation 
EiMj\Aii InAcfnc^fuhis ^r^ f^ty^A neyu^xsii are 
ibto FoiiJxJ in Ihe shrub undentofy 

Seven percent (1 9 ) of Ehe 277 asRcciilion'^ 
ire rinJM!d G2 linclud] ng G2'' ind G2G31 or 
higher. A numberDfG2plan1 associations 
occur Bssmill or large patch commum1]e^ 
This rink is j i£>li I ]ed^ dj1 so miKh on nun^ber 
of occurrences, bul on Ihieats Comniiinilis> 
par1]cul4rly luxJer 1 hreat from grBZ]ng 
prBC1]ces inc I uJe among olhers Afl6't^fsia 
<.afiij / lATMrnii iifr£.'re}ii^ A ^JTL'/ciJJL'^^tf ^sp 

spp \ndenIti\ij/L.iin6't6^fi \r\eTT\iisa 
^jT^crrPjftr /f^ieifxiortju^gfrentr ii?N.akf^ Af I^rtr- 

ianc€vyi{Altti ^r^ ErtMimis iunii^isss — E 
af?tyit\{Ahn. These s Bmc communities also 
bear lesser 1 hreals fiom cullivation |lype 
convePiion), nDT]oi£i weeds^ bixJ roMk 

Foreiample livestock ind assiKiatetl 
igncultural practices have dem^nslrably 
reduLenl the ac re age of some np anin 
shrublan±i siK h as.-^^^^rrrir^j J^TJd^z^frr^Jssp. 
Fn A-TJJ^ftr / 1.^^ ^JTJ/T ^T^M-'^tTj T. Thc deep- 
soiled npaiiin lerraces ind valley ho11om 
landforms thil support Ihis pi anl ishoci Bl]on 
have receivetl eiH>mxiiri p ast hvesloc k 
pressure. Muzhof thc area has beencon- 
verledm agncuHuraJciops. Thesesame 
productive bolli>mJ aixls ire pn me h4b]tat for 
4 hoslof aJien and native increaseis; the mos1 
igf revive among wbch are f r^^j jtr^j^f^ruf 



14 



Tobt 2. D ui rftiLii lEM] a f 4»b qlu n lif L}|ic:£ hy \AcUnm j^cuup jeuJ ^IlI^jI ank_ 



4K^lahxlE>cl «l LbE 

^^4 blL4E4 «a piHT. ItL 
Ideii ia4 IejE pticjiDlD^T 1 


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273 



blurgra.'Ci^, Fh^6^ffjr prti\i.^i6' Itimolhyr^ flrrtmru 
ffK'ffr7\i i>inx»otbi brume) und Jifiicifi b^fiiitiii 
(Baltic, ntshl 

Wbulc wc«t> Bit core>idciKJ pcitiaps the 
^leatc^t ihrcat lo biodivcniily w]lhin Ihi^ 
ccoregLon (BixJ tbuougbmiil the w«i1cin U. S J, 
none of Ih^iC !ip«:]e> bit core>idcred wc«t> 
aJl hough Lt i^clcBnhit they have "^LgnLncanlly 
aixJ Lrrcven>ib]> mJix«J bicxJjvcnUy wilhin 
this fl-o^j-slcin I'otri?taIi'fisf'i i-^pcrhip^ tht 
FTHV^t senoiE Ihieat Iq native (.ommum tics, *> lI 
pi vcifshes broMJ rcu logic al implHixJc, ih vrr^' 
aggrcw>ivc and loLerBlQ> intensive ^raj_i ng [1 
oen thrcilciK "^mc of 1hc iix>st biuBdly 
db>1nbulcd 4nc1 :£eemiiig]> hcc uie eo miriLini ti^s. 
pirliLulBrLy those of mcsjc env i n^nmL^nL^ 
where foriiTilBixe D6"iihtrij\pifac'£tiprlt?iti 
(luflcd hiirgr*s>J iscunently iclomiiianlor 
I ndi4. alorspcc ics. 

Aranthrrgrotq^ of commtinHirs coreiidercd 
impenlcd |G2 BncI greater) those of aJ pine ind 
high "iLibiLpi ne eiivi n^nmcnts whic h occlu onl y 
in rcs1ncledenviKinmenb>_ Et Bmp Ic^ jjx Lutt 

FeiliKa kjiigir art] C^fiifOf?^ fj^^rlejisia^nj / 
C£^t6f^i?iA}ioiifs (Figure _1^ These eommuni- 



tLe?i occur a.s smaJ I paU.hL'SLnhabilBLslhat Bie 
highJ> n.'slricled it least in Monlana Given 
the djfTu. lJ1> of bcccss_ inventor^' of the^c 
types i-^sIlLL liiTiJlcd Thrie communilics bit 
not cspct laLLy thrcilenctl, Hxnigh ]i veslct k 
^r^zing,pamciiLirly sheep with their prefer- 
ence for foit>s couJd adven»e]y i mpat t cominu- 
nity composi! ion 

One^hibiii^ inifienled {02^ communily 1hat I't 
known fiom relatively thorough surveys is 
Ehyntn iiAff^^'of^Uis /I'^iiJc6^f{f ^lij'itakf This is 
a seriL commiini1> thil occur* only in the 
Centennial S BndhiLls fFLgure 4j, where il is 
sustained hy aniirnL- Bnci/or rire-induzed 
bio^^'outs at iTguLir inter> lis. Wilhoul this 
disturb Bncc le^ime the (.ojnniiini ty would 
suzcced 1o .-^ r^f^rrrir^j r^icfc-rt^tr Fj^ spp_ ?^ ^L^Jtrj/flta 
/ S\ifX{f cofj^ali^ OT A r^cfcvEPtrr^ ssp_ wrm-^^JFr^j / 
F^ilAira rcftj^r^jf^nrf- art] i1s compLement of 
sensitive species could be Lost fium theeccsys- 
tcm (LesicB ind Cooper J 99 5l_ 

M any other community lypes in the 
E eave iticBd Seclion iiT r^nJzed "G'^ indicBling 
thBl no TBnlz has yet been assigned This ^mup 
IS m Bde u[i of several shiubi Biid types thBl we 
piojxme eievali ng li> b tnnomiii nime (.-^ rPiiJTJ- 
jjj^ ?^ ^L'JcuJL'^Ptr f t^ \^fi^ana / Fesfiica 



15 



Figure 3- Locatfons of Select globally rare and otemplary plant 
asfiodations Beavahead Mountains Section 




_Bflre_£an[nunLCus. 

4 ElpTTiLf iDncGnlatuG - Pkk] dzIq hoddQ 

W ArlEiTPSja ca n^ ^ L^rn^ arj5 reus Sh*ijB and 



Fieirepl jftf C[TTniriu iiiliKi 






16 



ShnibLirkJj «i ^^tLL il^ b few- ncw'ly dtfLncd 
conunLuiLty lypcs f£j ^j^rrrri ^ L'^^TFKJ Jdu - BnyiJ\Ais 
aiiofj^ahfi E-[crb*L«Jus Vegetation) ind a 
coLipLc of inthiuprogcnic communilics (/"cmj 
y^^tf rt" rtf J J Hciin arcoLUi Vc^cl Bl]onJ_ 

The hifh ghibiL rBnki> is^i^ncd to ^omc 
communil]C'> 4IC prob BbLy ouldatcd bjxJ ncciJ 
rcvi-^Lon. Et Bmplc^ iDL I lk3c .-^yflru w^djT-^p 
iiy2tt£^kf (Sitlzi alder] Sijff\ amu^A / F^xi'i ^tyt2ttif\ 
biilofloides End ,\Met^fJia Uif?amta / Fi.^i^ti{A 
r{!u^iiX6^is\s^ illof whicbiarcbioadlydi^lnbulnJ 
|4cn)'>s "^^MzraL "f tatf^) bixJ iic under no [iBrticu- 
]aj tburit For I iL^tancc, ^un'cjTi Hbvc shown 
A HFTJjJH>p_f^rtrr^jftf p_ a to be b vcr^' con- 
^p]ciKiiri, ]ong-pcrib>1] ng iiKJ^lly *icral commLi- 
nily lypc in nortbiwcslcm MonUna occurring 
]n the "^ubiLpi nt zone whcrt logf ]iig operal ions 
h^viz 4. auhcd SO]] compaci ion A I though il ie 
ooreiidcrablj less t^ommon typc]n the 
BVHDMS.il L£i not impenled on a stitc or 
gk>b4l bis]"! 

The MonUna Mituril Hen1 age PR>gi^m ilso 
assigns *i1 Bic ranks 1o Lommunily types, ipply- 
] ng Ihe fic tois in Append]^ B il agitate level 
AppcixJiM A iixli^Jes a complete li'>t oF c un^nl 
'>tate rinks for comniiiJiilics in Ihe Beaverhead 
section The fol Low] ng r^nk qiiB]]flcis arc uhed 
w]lh 3- rinks only A- Acc]dcn1 b] or l asuBl in 
Ihcstitc, infrequeni andoulsidc hsub] range. E- 
Exo1]cesUbli^hed in thcstitt bixJ community 
mmed ForsB]dexo1ic P- PolcntnL thil element 
Ipl ani Lommuni tyr occ ujs in Ihe s1 a1e bul no 
cxUnt or histonc occurrences ]Tported R- 
Reported to occur in Ihe s1 b1c but withou! a 
b*i]^ for accepting or itjccting the rejxjr1_ 

In OUT analysis of plot rcconii for 1his piojec t 
we idcntifietl thitcplanlcommumlieslbijijght 
to br inMoutanB but which had not previously 
been documcn1ed_ These are -^fTfjnj jrcr 

AM6't^fsIa UidL'^^trta ^-pp It i{i^r\£^kf f 
F i^tiiortTegfrena if?i<.£^Ia and I'ift ihia 
Ir2£i67r\akf/I*j^i{hr^x6'gii6'r2{A T/^"i^jftr These 
lypescBniEW be gi ven ^tate r^nks. 

SifLglobBllj significanlcommumlj types (GI- 
GS rBnksJ have as1a1e r^ntof S'* These 
r ^ K iiiA^ Fiic t T F fi-^iia h t r r ia^ii£^ f ra^ Feu Hkh 
rdu^i(}£^isrs - Dunifhtfria inl6ft mtv^cr. 



hMJ\e^yi£i6'i. S^fiix hroLhy cafjx^f / C^fr^:^ 
fT^j«^Jj Jj J. Af Icfrtrii£^ Injx^ff Ifkf / 

i<h"^rrrrj i dj]f J d^u Fonhese types our in-statc 
knowledge oflhe '>tatus ind dislnbulJon is 
fr^gmenl Br>' and we rccL^mmend additional 
efforts to loc ate occurreixes, tc1h tj beUer 
LkKumeiil their dLslnbuUon and '>talus anJlo 
assist in their conscrv Alion. 

Forcommunily 1ypc^1hat b]t considcird rare 
]n Montana (51-SJ) but w]despi~e sd Bnd^e4:ure 
gk>biLly 1CM-G5^, the Hen! Bge Pn>gra m *ieeks 
lo documenl LocBl]ore> whcrc thc> cxisl in 
exemplary, high quality coixJjl ion Some of 
1hcsc Loc Bl]ons_ 4S weLL as llxmc sijppor1]ng 
exceLLem ^iBDLi^or assemblages of globally 
^igniflcanl types. Bit disci^ed bclow_ 

Landscapes of Significant 
Ecological Interst 

The idenl]fic4lion of I Bixtc apes h arbon ng 
concentralions of plants im mils and commu- 
nilicsof high conse[^4lion> Blue facilitates 
conhf ryatiou pUnmng by bnugingiMentioulo 
B]r4*i of rcpreHciHBlJ>e or unique c hBi^c tens- 
lies The Nature CoifterFincy i*icunently 
pursuing "ecoregionBl plBnmng" for 1he M idille 
Rockies-Blue Mountain Ecoregion thai in- 
cli3dH> Ihc Beaverhe*d MoijnlB]iri Section 
This plBnn]ngefFo[1 le I les on compuler modnb 
BixJ actuBl b]oli>gic4l dm 1o pir^immiouhly 
'>elect 4 portfolio of pclentiil conservation 
^ites_ The goal of 1his pi ajini ng ]^ lo prolecl 
biological diveisily Ibn^ughcoisienjlion 
pUnning- The jxjrtfoho of ^1 tes w] 1 1 be 
screened b> outside ex perts ( agencies, ac a- 
demia etc ) to deled ern^r^ofom]^sion and 
commission When the TNC efforts ire 
complele annmberof polentialconservalion 
'>ites witbn 1he Beaverhead Monnl aj ns Sec tion 
w]ll have beenidenlified ind '>hBied with 
Bgenc]e'> ki facilitate future considcratio n of 
lhcsesHes_ 

Obsen'BUons bdJ f le Id ^iluilies by The Mon1 ina 
Nalural Hentage Frogram have ele> iled Ihc 
]mpoTt4nce of natural landscapes ]n 1hc 
EVHDMS ThLshnef^kclchof Unciscapcs 



17 



bdJ thcj r biLxJjy^^nLly sj^ni I jc BIK.C is an I m1 1 lil 
cfToTl c b]] I ng iMcnLLun 1o pnonly I bikIh^ a]>r^ iii 
IhcEVHDMS Th&tlBndM^apKiScrFi: ay a 
fbc Lis for condiKl I ng fLiilhtr^ilc sIixIjcs incl 
miy prov]iJc the impetus for fulurc iXireicrL- b- 
1 ion EMScmrnts or'^ficcjB] agency d[:s]^na1 ions 
such as \rcaofCril]CBl Environmental Con- 
ccmlACECJorEolBnu-al Intcrcs! Area Thc^c 
lajHfccapc areas si>mc of which Bit B]rc*dy 
imnBgfd for special purTCHCs c.g SlilcGaiiic 
N^ Bnaf emciH ArcB^ piovidc a bioBdsncd 
perypccUvc 1o mBna^ciy and I Bnc1 owners bs1o 
1he biQlo^ju. aL Ireiiurcs Ihey biBvc under the] r 
Bcgis and jnay piT>mott BppretLalLon aixl 
Bp[iiT>pn4te ^Icwiidship 

Bannack Landscape 

Lo^^aUoai The lincisc Bpe ciKomp asse^ tbc 
undeveloped ndgc systtnis bixJ Grasshopper 
Creek > alley mind ad|Qi mug B BnnBck 51 Ble 
Parh-lhc hislonccapilBlof M on1 ana Tern lor^' 
located aboLiI 2i!) milcssoLilh^^esI of D]llon It 
]s m^deupof Eurciuof LanJ MBna^emcnl 
|B LN^ ) 1 Bixls^ And stiEc lands Ihil arc mBna^cd 
by BLM- 

EnvlroBiuciil] Bannac^k lies at Ihe hearl o F one 
oflhe major h meslonc^Lljlomi tc fonnalioisi^ or 
N^ BdL^»n gioup fonnatioisi^ m !»ulhem N^ on- 
lain Theconlict zones bet^^ecn this wdimcn- 
1ajy group of formatLons and j^ncous inlrusion^ 
Bre often nch m preciuLis minerals^ and Ihc 
hisloncal BBnnBckse1llement on Grasshopper 
Creek marked MonUna's first mijorgokl 
dtscDvci^'- The^illcy waslhehiibof pas! 
placer mi mng, anJis Bn Bi~eaofconcentrBlcd 
pil mining activi1> 1oday_ Mivsl of the sinioiind- 
inguplBixis Bremidc npof Tcrtury basin 
H^Mlimenls. 

Bannack li sunounded by a major north -soul h 
ndgc vb11c> system at 1he Houtticm end of the 
Pioneer MounlBiiTi, nesllcd in 1he steeply 
dtssec ted G rasshopper Crecb vaJley_ There is 
over I .(KX)foot relief within! he l,OCO Kre 
Parl^ And ttic snnoundmg upUnds nse hun- 
dreds ol feel higher Along Ihe lid^e to the m^rtti 
BixJ soii1 h_ They arc all pirt of extensive foot- 
hills made up of j Bgf ed onlciu ps, nigged 
hills ACkJ lolliEig plAins 



^ ccetatloivXXher BloloekBl Feuturesi 

Onlsl Bixlmg eiBjnples of the wkkspiead 

j^rrcrr^j shrubl and f mountain mBhogany// 
bliK bunch wheal^ra.'^ir cover the VAlley 
slopes. Limber pines are scattered Blon^ the 
ndge ontc rops bixI Dongl as fir wcxxf lAnJ 
CDVcisIhe highesi spi ne of the ndgcs Sige- 
bnish steppe pre^ ills Ihroughoii! irejstof the 
Brca,HinminBledby \t\£.'ij\ljia Oi^^cjiIi^Iti vtrt 
vaj^vafiij/f^s6^fiiofOi.^gfiirntr ipical£^ shniblBixl 
TmounlBin big-SBge / bl uebunch w heatgnss). 
A1 Ihe PBrt enlnnce , coAise b11 uvi al 4ieposib> 
Bre dominated bySJifx^fcofj^al^A f needle art] 
lhread^ra*s>J ^nd I*i€ii{hro6'^ncM{A jjxfc^fta 
(b\ uebunc h w heatgr4ss|. 

This rugged Uncisc Bpe pn^vides tiBbiHt for one 
of highesl concenlr^tion of state ind regional 
endemic pUnt species in soiUh^eMem Mon- 
1ana^ jixliKJing some of 1he iBigest kruwn 
population*! for fo ur of Ihem rTBble 3j None 
of 1hese ^k>b bI1> rire plants have siles Ihat ire 
piolecled in MonUna and Iheir low-elevation 
populatioisi as found in Ihe Bannack arei am 
vulnemble. We ni>te Ihat n^jme of Ihem are no 
longer 1r«.ked but have beeninj>«J to Ihc 
WBlch list- tticy air relBli>ely secure in Ihe 
state Ihanks to places like Bannack. The 
mi|on1> of Bannack's endemic species ire 
located in Ihe moiinl Bin mitiogBny shnibl and 
b4 Ihe valley's edge 

There is also b histo nc record of Ti-Ti Trt-jji^jpr 
^d'jHJrjdJTJj fLemhi Penstemon) fiom 1hc 
Grasshopper Valley in Ihe Bannack arei^but il 
IS jxjssibly exIiJitatetl- Twi> moi? species thai 
Bre penpherBlGreat B asm species 1hit weir 
once coiTiidered rBre in Montana air present in 
the Bannack are B \refwna ^nrgrf ind 
F€^ihociJLlm simpioiiii. 

The full scope of biological si^nificBiKe 
hinges on Ixjnndiry delimitation. The BBnnBck 
Biri IS assumed lo mcluile a1 Ieis1 one mile to 
1he nonh and northeast of Ihe PbiI The Cold 
Spnng Creek tj the easi art] Henne berry 
Ridge to the soulheast repre^enl l^^^o of the 
1 arger occurrences of A fP^tr jlt^j/t ic^jx^iixi^i^i 
|B I ttcnool M 1 1 kvetc h J in Mon1 Bna The 
hi iciowavc Tower ba Ihe north represents the 



13 



Tabic i StEtc md TrgjanaL endemic pknl ^pccjcs iei the Bannock Ltndscafc 



SfKCLEX 


ClHDBIIB niHC 


SpKk:^ Sbtux 
CiwDHtnli 


l> IxirlbHllhn n Dd dIiimId dce 






]?klLfrixri hClkMzkJ] 


i: ijf luHUI ljikL mt 


hlufiJaiu brjc pi»fv taLkiiii -.^kc nj 1 
l3ajTULk 




r#J ^rirHJ^J T 


i:^tu jd \] Li:^ L^^ti 


i: lj^IlhuI ijrHij mt 


L^l <ij l3ajzuLk 






I^thLUj I nkL4lJ[:rpihd 


."^Id^nidrHt 


Minu tukHK 




irJ/rmjdjrirn 




i: cf luHUI ljikL mt 


ecu ori br^^d h^iA tk^Tuyn] i 
pi»fiu^kHK ' 




'^'jii 1 r flLf IJIL'^'IHU 


J1^^lr^ Hliu^la 


Ki'f IlIHUl-JIKklllL 


Ciri-j ^^ri br^^M li>u ^ki~j£kiii 




^fnit 1 rJIFFTJd 


Chk^izj] S J jt 


i: cf luHUI ljikL mt 


ecu Dr tar^ ti4 [iof« Lai \\xv. 






].VT^u<H]^ ] jrks|iur 




C^cu Df tar^ tii n^r* ^1 ^^^^ 




Mrnci/Dix atA Mi^orfii 


\] u<ik ty jki^ izr 




PiKijnJ Jl BjniM± 




Osv^jfTM T r-iWjrnvH Tiv 


CHH^nncd Elccpnxi 




hliMkc.irLi 





OEily ^>tnsiti I'c pi HnE conhcryatLon ^1 tc on tKc 
D]]]on Airaof BLH, w]1h ancxcLosLuc ajT>und 
pad of 4 ri-TJTri-TJi^JFr ^6'tn^uejisii (Lcmbu P[rre>tc- 
mjnl popul H]on rcprc^nUn^ another iTgional 
endemic 

A]] of the !ipcc ic^ foLuxJ inlhc B annatk arc* 
occurcLtfwhei^on the linciscBpF bul the 
Bannack arei reprenciils Ihc hifhm coixcnlr^- 
1]Dn. and'>i^nificajit I argc popuJ Bl]on£ for four 
dI Ihc iT^cked endemic '>ptcin. 

CDnditlDn^'Diiu:r>^1k>n VbIuf D«ipitcib 

hiMory ay BiicBTlyhubforcTpkirilionand 
se11lcment inN^onlBna the ndgf^ out^id^ of the 
lown^itcind mining ^it«i arc sinprx^i ngLy 
intact The piuxinii ty of high biix1i>cn>i ty 
s]gnif]CBixc nc]f hbonng a hi'fh>nc ^cttlcmcnl^ 
ghosi town^ ind "f tite pirlz; ^^ithiLlof]!^ 
conlcmporBiy rccrcition and intcritre1]>t 
values, offcis Sipcc] aJ «Jix ation opjxj rlum! ics 
on top of 1bc conhcrv ation ^ iLu?_ 

TheGrBHihoppcrVBlJey is ajiHjng Ibc few 
pi aces where s[)oMrd knapweed [C6^Uatirea 
fjractfi^ys^A) ^ ^ '>p[^cics thBl coukJ '>pn:ad 
Ihn^ughout 1hc ] BDiiw. ape, ispresent inBciv- 
L^rhciJCounlv Diligent wecdconliu] cfforLi 
have been cfkcl]>c 1o dilc Notjols weed 
invAS]on from Ihr > iLLcy ind ^lom spread by 



vehicles or ^Kk k ponies amajorpotcnIiBi cfuti! 
lo bI] ot the globaJly rBre plintspccici in ttus 
4i?a 

The majon ty o F invcnlory wxjrk has been 
concem TBled on [ilBiit '>pecies in BBiinBck 51 ale 
PbHc bahenl on aslixly forMonUnaDefiBTlmenl 
of Fish, Wild]] Fe andPBiis |Vand?rhon>t 
1995) SUHK-^mvey VF-oit for the BLM 
conduclcdon some of the regional cixJcmu. 
species his en1 B]]ed VIS] L^ 1o thi'>4nd ad|oin]ng 
■leBfi Wc note 1hat pUnt ]nforniBl]on is 
incomfilde bixJ thai intonnitiononinimBls 
indonpLanK-ommiinitics^till neechio be 
*d:1ri."^2»cJ lo assess con^erL- Bl]on val ues_ 

Blacktail & Robb-Ledford 
L andscape 

l.Dcalk^n: ■\LkB]]CrcL-k ind the East Fort of 
B I acktiiL C reek WBleishenls impieciseLy define 
lhi!i lamircape boundary 1 1 covers the 
benchlands bixJ foi>thj] K on Ihe wesi flank of 
IheSixiwcrcsl RBn^e to include iLI of the 
Blacktail State W]k1lifeN^4nagenientATrfi 
ISWMA) BixJ appnjKimBlel> Ihc Houthem half 
of Robb-Ledford (SWHAl hence the plBce 
name 

Environment: This LaruiscifieLSLonifiTisedof 
lu]]] ng beix hJ BDii> nitjsllj nunlletl wjlh 



19 



BDLLfnl aLLiivium liiid unckT] Bjn by sj^Ji niciitar> 
fonnatLons witbiabiupt nd^c^incl hogbacks 
mure pKimincnl appmat^hin^ the 3no\^Tre>t 
Range There iic ilwj outc FDp^, cctnfLgured 
] nlo promi ncnt '>piie^ inplBcch of cn>^ian 
rcs]^tan1 unique scdimcnUr^' mBlcnils_ Fiupcr 
funcnomngfint^ second and 1 hiid onl^r 
steams aLon^ wilh nLiJi>?miK «cps arkJ 
"ifinngs. arc al^Q found i n this ] aixkc ape. 

\cectuth»ivX>1htrl{lDL(^kBlFca1ur?5i Tbus 
] ajid^ ape c ajiit 1o our attcn1]on lhrougbi^]nip]c 
rcco nnaj^int^c. dri> ing 1 hiuuph wc noted 
lociLi/cd iicay Ih4t appcajedil adi^Uncclubc 

weedy mi:jni:>cuJ turcs or pi an1ed jntroduced 
gray^ics- U pon c Lo^>tr Lnspecl]on wc found 
ex4.4!^ing]> pnxluctivc fjfi^l anct: dDuiinated 
by highly [iBlBlBbL^ native fjiminoLd^sucbi^i 
SiifX£^ nLhtirdj<xfu\ (Rlc biBidwjn\ ncedLegr4w>l . 
SiifX£^ oi\.iii6^iia^ij Iweslem needL^pj*s>J, 
ErofJTiis cxinffi^^ifi frnounlainbiome|_fl_ 
anofj^ahfi {nndding biDmc), andEfiiTiJjj 
JnjfJn i {fttiAii (be Bided wh?atgra*s>J_ These 
gr^*^] BDLi^ repeal i n Landscifie [K%]1]on^ where 
aecumuLatLon, e]1her nKJL^lure |sdliw or ground- 
WBler), «o]ian rrnlenali or tcH h arc dep^MJlcd 
aJong tDehlopeN]n lees of hiLls anJ dj nh- ind 
eant f*L ing sLo pl^ of rB> ine^ Bncldrix^^s- Soils 
BjedL'L'p ind nearly roct-free. The t^omposilion 
oflhrse nch grass] BDLis js omqu^ in b Land- 
scape w heie grassLmJh are ncBTlyilwiys 
ckjminatcd by Fejtiic^f l£itihoi.^2sij Cldahj 
fcseuel ^Jt^dJ^jjLTi-^j^Ei-'^Ttf f^njJ^ (bLiicbujxbi 
wheatpjissj anJ PiAiiOfxymm jfjtjpJnV Iwcslem 
whL^atpjissJ or £fi ^rrrrj J^FK tvjftf rj/T, (tbct- 
sfijke wheatfjfisj. It apficBred Ihat l]yeshKl: 
graj_i ng Wis o F Low intens]1> m the v]c]nHyof 

1 Hl^c pj*isl ajxJs, IhLiuph I IVCS1CX. b griring is b> 
no means total ly ab^enl on 1hcsL' SWM \ lanch 

Bcsidrs Ihj^e grassLandh prev]oiisLy mentioned, 
lhis UndscBpe iixln5n a wid^divcriil> of 

1ypcs, Ihe majonlj of which appear to be in 
high ecok>gicil condil]on- Olhergjissland^ 
r*nge fiom fj^j^ ^j/^1 ^/j?j jmr j/zjr ^western 
whcatgjissj anJ O^ FJTJ/T ^rarJn ^ LTJ/Jjjf (beiided 
wheatpjissj found on heB> y soils at lower 
slope jwsitions lo 5ft^ t^j^rrtf Fj^ 
FieitiiortTeg^rena if?Ii£^^ti and C{Akffj[agrt}Ji\i 
fnt?iikfii6^isrs |pl ai ns leedgrass] found on s Bndy_ 
thin-Hoil . or roc ky Bnd warm a.specb>_ 



S hniblincis w ithi 11 this UnciscBpe ire less 
diverse bul inclDde bghquilily cx-cunencesof 
Ariemfsia tnA^kftB^^]> i^fd'rartL'^ linminaled 
cormnunilies is well bs some uncommon state 
communil]es inclixJ]ng Anemisii fJTJfrrr^j^L'^ 
ssp_ i^i6'\^ii{f - S}fjrfxht?tnarjtt?j ot6^fx^uiiiJ / 
EtofJTiis ctiniiiA^tn anJ.-^_ Jjt JfFrr^^L'^ ssp_ 
vaj^vu^uj -S. f?r^xpiif^Aii / F6fiUica \d£^^iiX6ffisri 
End A ^JT JdTjr^jftf ssp_ tvjfd^_h"tfjjL'^ - S ot6^yjx^uirn 
/ Ei'\iJ\Ais O^Kiiyctrnfifi. These Ihree shrub] ands 
Bre not Tire bul are rarely found north of ED or 
NV_ Sc Bl1ered /"^Jjtjjftrj JnrmjjfLTjJd'j (tiembling 
aspen) gmves iie bIho found bul grazing hid 
significanlly ]mpBC1ed1hefew examjned. The 
quaJity and compcsi tion of 1hc npan Bn stnng- 
cn>hasnLi1 beenexamjned bul willows Bpficir 
healthy and ikjI overly biowned. 

Coiulfllon^'oiiacr^ alioa V ulues ThislunJ- 
Kcape IS notable ^or its represcntatio n of 
relilively i n1 bcI gra*isl and-shrubland eci>sy li- 
tems thai iiehighlychBT^ctenstir for this 
cf oregion and pre^minBntly in goed to 
excellen! eco]og]c b] cond I tion The Bieahas a 
^ew road and BgncullnrB] imparls siKh as the 
creition of Hc attenzd ]ntroduced-grass hay 
meadowTi- AUhjugh our reconnaissBnLe wis 
minimB] npanBn >egelilH>n seemed hulc 
impacted by livestiKk. HBbitats loiind inlhis 
lanthcape are replicated in nuinei~oiis places 
aeKFCi the eco region yel thislandscape his 
both unique communities, not found elsew heic 
in Montani and co mmuni ties thBl hBve reached 
their nLiilhemmosI eileiTiion. We suipec t Ihat 
pisi mBnagemem is the unique asfied of this 
land^ape and Ihat Ihese conununiUes ov^e thei r 
piesence to maniging for gimc Tether thin 
strictly l]>eslock_ 

Caitmnial Mountain^ Vallq^ 
DivtrgtyGradiait 

LdcbUdo] Thjs ] andsc ape isdescnbcd as b 1-2 
mile-wide swilh Ihat extendi Iioki the s^nilh 
shore of U pper Red Rock L Bke n^juthw Bid ind 
upslopelo theConlinenlBl Div]de b1 the crest 
of 1he CenlenniBi Ringe. ]l includes linds 
minBged as wilderness by 1he Red Rctk Lak^ 
NBl]onal Wildhfe Refuge ind an S^icie 
Reseirch Natural Area |RNA^ alsoun*r 
USF^'S managemeiiL A portion of 1he Brca 



20 



miriB^I by Lhi^ Bui^Buof LanJMBna^EMncnl 
IS dnignBlcd is tbic Ctnt^ nniaL N^ountains 
WLUfcinc"^ Stuily \rca ExpcnmcnUl ^ranii n^; 
Linit^ Bn: Bdmi nistcrtd by the AfrKuJUiral 
R«icart:h Service 

EnvlroDiiiciil] This linds^ b]>f spins an 
CDLinnoiK CUV] runji>^n1 bI fjid]ciit \rDTTs aquBUc 
bcdsonlhc nouthshoit of Upper Rwl Rock 
LBkclQ Blpinc tLuxJri on HcdimcuUr^' substrBlcs 
m the vjc]nLty of Taylor arkJShtcp Hounlajns- 
Thbi soulh ficc of Ihc Ccnltnniil Rin^t is 
I ajgcly t^omposrtl ol l ak arci>Lis subslrBlcs 
(prcLlLiJiiLnBiitLy M aclm^m limcstonE^j ^vilhsomc 
outc rops of quartzi tc inci cMiusLvc voLcamcsis 
¥^iz]] AnnuaL pm.ipilBl]ono^ 2U I inches b1 a 
nearby valley locilionfLBtcvicw at 6,7(K3 fcclj 
woLild mBtclhiJi the wettest of EVHDMS 
viLlcys NL'ir lb? crti1 oF the range annual 
piec I pi1 Bl]on IS e^pK ted to exceed 5i.) inches 

NbIui^I fire inlhrformof underburji*! in the 
f^typithii pj 6^rtttUxfdci-^n%\ riBlcd sl Bnis ind 
stanul- rcpl at I ng ]n 1 h[r upsLopc h>rcstcd lancl- 
s(.apL\ js 1b? major nilurB] d]stLiji>ancc w]th 
avalanches running a close second on 1 his sleep 
ajxJsDLiwj 1eiTain_ Windthjow isp^jssibly a 
F4cli>rLn the Lower-cle^ ilion wcttarki forests 
Bjound the Lake'fi majgin. 

VcE^lBthin^lherRlDb^kBlFraliiTTETtK 

diveisj ty of conununiliL^ i:ncijnipa*s»i:iJ by this 
^r^licnt wonJd be among lhc^;[eBlesl]n1 he 
state BixJ nioslof the Ln>en1oried po[1ion]s 
known li> be ]n good conditio n_ \i the Lowest 
elevatio ns along Ihe south shoir of Upper Retl 
Roch^ LBke^ Ihcre are unexplored BqiiBl]c bci±i 
in theshBllo^^ wbIchi (personal communication 
John PieiteJ followetl b> emergent Cctpva 
iiincttial£^ fbeabcd nedgej and C {fij^fafitii 
|w4ler nedgel- S]1es ] Bcki n^ piolonged inunda- 
tion ire dLiminalcd by Ca^iAfntrgroiIfs 
tifrttrJd^urf lb] ueji>i n1 reedgrissl ^DdC.sincl^f 
|nanuw-spibed reedgrasif which quickly ^ive 
WB> 1o ijfri iwillow>-tlominated t:onimunil]es 
and I'of?AihtJ Jm-rjujfojJd'j Hiemblin^ aspnnl 
gloves The undeigrowth of /" U-^jrii^ordej- 
dominated sUncIs range fn^m welUnd-asiCC i- 
Bled graminoii±i OnLluLlin^ aJI Ihe ibove-cilcdj 
1o mes]c and welland fisociited shrubs 
^Conms ien<.€£^ | red-os]er dogivoodj^ .5^z j 



bty^M^ui [Booth willow I S ^ir\ena*iij \Gcycr 
wilk>w |_ E>enspcties charBdeiislic of up- 
lands, C{Al{f?j[agyt?^^i rttb^s{6^is f pine grass] 
Carxm gir\en felk sedge] irkd ^ m^j'r^jj d^ ^jj^^t 
i^fhiis (common snow berryr c an be found in Ihe 
undeigrow th of r Pj d^JWd^V^tr^ra-Hinini niled 
sUncIs Well-developed starttii of subirngated 
I'ft'e^f £Trj^jHL'djjrtjj fEngelmann spruce) Bie 
also found J ust inland fiom 1 he lake's mii^in 
The ele> ation ^r^ient 1hen a*Tcend*i Ihmugh 
sigebrush-dom]natei:1 t:ommunil]es pnncipallj 
-^rtfmjjrcr Jn" Jtrrrj^jL'd H>p i^i6'\-{fii^ / Fesiiic^f 
iiitilioi^i'iij f mountain b]gsa^ebnKh/ Idaho 
fesc uer found J ust below lower Ireeline 

At lower elcva1ions_lBlescral loold-gmwth 
foiests are domi niled by f^seifxiolnfji^f 
me^U^sii (Douglas-fi r> w]1h /"jrtrrjy^d-jrVj J 
(I I mber pi nc) cmrf ^rc"HJ tn£ riFJTj^rtFrjV aspn- 
mBTy ishociiles. ThepuUliveclimaT tree 
spec: les on ill bul1he>ery lowest elevations is 
^ftjcij yj^TjVt^TTry^j fsubalp I ne f]r| Given Ihe 
cujienl I n1cn*iive moose biuwsingon thislii^e 
species BixJ the fire return intervaL il will never 
become an imjxjiUnt comjxjneni of these 
sUnds PBilicularly d:j1 able for the]rexlremc 
age t>JiXi yeBHi^ and chariclenslic open 
Klnjclure iie old-gniwth sUnds of frmi T/fF-nft j 
on ¥^ aim ex posures. On highly exposed si tes 
w ith Ihi n SOI Is^ ;^^x>d co ndi tion ^j^-t/l^ 
r^x6'gii6'r2a jf?Ii{A^ti |bl uebunc h wheatgrissl 
sUndsdnminBle the grf>sl and habil bI. The very 
hjghcst ]xjj iib> in Ihe grBdiem have received 
only cursoiy exBminBl]onbul are reputed to 
hBiinorgocd eiBmplesof ilpine tujf w]th 
CtJFt'A njj^T^jT T (curlj sedgej md C^jj^t 
ei'i rt w Jd^f IKobresi a-hhe Hedged communilies. 
The alpine ilso i ncludes fel If lelds of iifij^ 
ooau/rj I muss c Bmp]on] and /"/e/^^^ jtd^^vTPr^j^LT 
[cuJiHun phJox I and snowbed communi ties 
w hcie 5ibba^Aa fxrocztfjrb6f9rj |cieep]ng 
sibbBldiaj ind G'jj^t jit^jt^wjij | black Bipine 
sedge I die ]mportanl components. 

The only kDLiwn exUnt occ urrencc of 
Whipple's beaidtongue l^tvuJd^JHWJj 
wlnfii?i6^Amis] has been dec umenled fium 
av Blanche chute ninoul anzosmlhis arei 
(CuJver ]S92). This area s BbundBnt B>alanche 
eludes and I bIi£i slopes ai~e potenlial habilBl for 
dw Iff gulden wc«l (/i{ffxfoi?£Af?fttn ntrmtj)^ 



21 



which IS tiH>w n only fninnnhi'^lQrjcBlLollcc- 
1ion on slopes n^juth of R«J Rocb Lakes. 

CoDdHloii^'oiiscr^aUDn^BliKi P«>1 LLm]>Fr 
cutlin^ h OS been '>f>Qi Bdu. J4r^cl> i:orL'>titLi1]ng 
high ^T^]ii^ i>^ Lar^t Dou^lis-firror buiklin^^ 
Gri/in^ his occurrtJ 4l v Br>']iig intcns] tic^ b1 
1he lower cloatLoiSi and may havceBiscd 
Homc comjxj^i tLonaL iraKliHc ation ^oAr?€fmii{?- 
■:k>miiiat^ ^Uncls. ThccoixJitionnf linds 
liikIlt \RS inanBgcmcnti'> unknot n^ but it 
mighl be a^^sunicd thil ancxcriicnt i^toidof 
\jsc coutd be obtAkncd. 

Tfe ex Lren>?Ly broacl pj*d]cnt of imvitLy high- 
CDCkJilion commuml le^ rc[iresent^1 by Ihi^ 
I ajidsc apt ^r^ient cons1 1 Lu1e'> a supcrl b\iyc 
example of H^jutbiweslcm N^onUna envimi> 
menls bixJ the communities they supjxjil- 
Thtre is no compirabie ^rad]ent djw untfcr 
pioleclionof any kinJ 

Caitmnial Sandhills 

LqcbUdo] ThcCentenimi Sandhilk occur in 
the nonhcasl comer of Ihc Centennial Valley, b 
bioMJimugh at the hcuJof IhcRenl Ruck 
River- The VBlley finer lies atft_5{K3 to6_fiOO 
feel with theCcnIcnnial Houn! aj ns abiupliy 
rising 1ocB_ LO^CXB fcelon thesoulh bixJ 
^r^inf more gcniiy ]iito Ihc Gravelly bixJ 
S HQWC rest R angcs on Ihc north ThcCtnlen- 
niii SanJhj]]^ BrefoujxJ in 4 bBnc1 L-2miLfs 
wide andc*_? miles long on Ihc ixulh side of 
the Upper arkJ Lower Red Rocks LBkes_ The 
ownership tsdividenl among pri>ile_ Bureau of 
Lind Manigemcm ind US Fj^h and WiLdl 1 1 e 
Service wilh lhc fiisl two nBmcd holding nxi^t 
of 1hc land En temri of a core»erv able Land- 
is. apL' It mighl be [iniilent 1o incluile the adjB- 
cent wellandi (lo 1he edge of Lake J on 1h? RimI 
Rock Likes NBl]onB] W]]dlife Refuge. Thi^ 
I and is bolh fragiL' andpn^bBbLy coi7il]1iJles 
priniBi^' or alterrntive habiUI tor some spec les 
ajxJ MjfipcT^ unique wel I and CO mmuni ties as 
well. 



(ci J 0,000-12,00(3 EP| At1hislimewi1h1he 
WBnin^ of coLd and pluvial c I imBle'> Ihe iBkcs 
reliraLetl, expos]ng JihoirLincs Prc>aiLin^ 
wjnckfiom the southwest have blown finer 
milenals fBr to theeasi anJdnfled the Less- 
mi>bi]e^4nd to the northeisl where it has 
Formed primary dunes with low Tidies running 
southwest- DLi nheast, parillehng the pieviiling 
wjnck 3 upen mjxmetl on 1hcse older ntlges are 
blowout or [iBribolic dunes thai ire ellipsoidal 
toclon^ Ble U-^hipctl and y.)-6i.) feel b^ 
Leewinil *ilopes are sleep |3(3-60^ slope), 
while w I ndw anJ slopes are mora gently slop] ng 
and ohen tew]-, c Tiler- or In^ugh-shaped 
Shapes of iDd]>idu4l dunes ire modifienl Fiom 
pirabi>lic ^hipes by sliong cio^s wi n* and 
differential gn^wthof ^tabil]7]ng vegetation 

Vccetuth»n^>1lierlllDL(^kBlFea1uTTEThe 

CenlenmB] Sindhill^ are unique for hivi iig b 
concentration of both seiTiiUve plan1 species 
BJxJ planlcommum1]cs The highly r^nketl 
communily lypes include ibD^e Ihatcompnse 
the lon^-termstib]corclimBX>egelBl]onsuEh 
as A r?^j[iif{f Inii6^Ua\£^ sj>p. tf rL^JcuJ^jftr /5ftjAJ 
ctyTT\£^Iti [basin big SBgebruj>h V needle-ind- 
thieadl,.-^. PJTL'JtrjJL'^ftr ^p J^iJf JzPtrr^j / F-t^ftrt^ 
fduh(X6^isf'i [basin big ^ Bgc bn£>h V Idaho fes- 
cue]. \m.^j\Ii\tr ^tip^r^l^f / F. lii^flio^isii [three- 
tip Jiigebrush / Id Bbj fescue] ajxl \. inpar^iiij/ 
Siifx^f iOfr7tr\£^ I thjee-1 1 p sigebrush / needle- and- 
threadl The5andhilL>4b>o incluile higt^> 
dis1] nclive ^eral CO mmunities, ]DLluding 

Igreen T^bbilbnzih / needle- BDd-lhreMJ] and 
Eh ^rrrrj kfiic 6yyialifi / riiaci-'ii^ A^jf JL^^Ptr | weslem 
wheatgTiWi / silvcrleaf phace] I a] and Ijl-^ fjtj/j 
y^L'^VKJCtTJj (yellow wildrycj hert>aceoi£> vegcli- 
tion Thedonuninceof ^ Jr: J^^ePj^J^j H>p 
JnJ£TrPuJ^ /aJonf with VBnibleamounlsor.^ 
In Jd^rPj^J^ H>p. vase'i ltjj^j) on upland meltings, 
such as Ihe '>tabi]]/ed dunes is aumques]1u4- 
lionixi! seen elsewhere in MonlBna \. 
Jr: Jd^rPj^J^j *isp. P^ TL'/t-TJJ^jftr ]n M on1 Bna ind mosi 
of 1he ] ntermoun! B]n WesI is almoM invanably 
confinenl to dninagew ay'> ind alluvial flits. 



Env Ironniciil] The'>andhj]ls Bre'>mBl], 
^enenlly s1 abilired dunes 1hat formed when 
sand*i dep<M>] tetl in the b asi n^ of Red Rocks 
Lrflkes, piobibly in Ihc Ule Pk'LhlLXcne 



Four plan! spcc]e^ considered rBre]n Montana 
occur in the Centennial SBDJhillsfLe'>ica4nd 
Shelly ]9?iy \'itrti^tiiiis cct^ffj^N-iis kur L^^TddJ 
ipainled milk- vetch, G4TJ/S 1 1 and i?j?i jo P^ra 



22 



pafffiiti \^f fiitihtyenifi (IdaJxi pBlc tvcnmg- 
pn rmow, G5T4QV3 1 J cnrcur only ]n thcCcn- 
Icnnial S EndhiLls and 1hc '>andhi]L> of SQUIhi^aiil- 
cmldBho. Cn^PmafJKjJ-tTJL'fli'^T (FtndLLT ^ 
CTyplBntbiB^G4VSI J L^'^[1HI^c]> diMnbultd 
ariu-ei mix bi of western North \mcric4^ buL i^i 
known fmm onl> 1wo M on1 Bna i™. atioiTi- 
L^\-mitiJl£^\^it'6^ri fycLLow w iLdryc- G4/S H 
on. Lus in sajxJy "^ 1 1 ]ngcncriL at:nve> the 
nonhwcMcm U S_, but in Monlana ccc LUi onL^' 
in lht CcnItnniBi Sandbulls 

ZJXilopjcBl raril3e> found only bicit a n Mom ana 
orrrtonfed a.^ncw 1o1hcCtn1cnmaJ ViLlcy_ 
butoccumng moic comjixuiLy lo 1ht "wiJlh 
incLuilc thcGrcBl Biwn po<:l:ct rTH>Lhc. blBct- 
tailcdjat^krabbit Bnd Preble'"^ ^buc^^ 

Cowl Hh>n^'oim:r^ aUoa V uUics Thi^iEi 
unique s]tcb> ^iTlu^ob tbiccoinbinilionof 
^rology andhifhLy ranked biologu.al ftatLiir^i. 
TbDuph lhb> b> I he second ] argent ^and dim? 
complex in 1ht '>tatc. after tbic Medicine Lake 
Sandhil]'> in Icrms of ib> general lyf.cxxf1o 
ex4.eLLs:n1 ranget-oixJition. ibundinceof 
demenl'^ bixJ Lac k of threats the C enlenni al 
S andhilL> UncttC B]>e ha.*^ b significinl ly higbier 
rinlzin^ as a ronserval ion ">■ te Noxioid weed 
thieat:^ are at Ihis tinie virluaLLy ml ind tbie 
nituril [iiocesses /fiie aixJ grBJing of botbi 
I ajge ind diniLmjIive herbivore^l Ihat main- 
tained Ihc senl condilions n«.e?i4r>' fonhc 
pLTpL'luation of vanous species and commiini- 
Lic"^ are present ind (. apible of bei ng mampu- 
Ia1cd bor ronsen" Bl]on purposes Themo^t 
"^LgnLrLcanl tbueit 1o thi'> Uncisc Bpe \vould be 
lajid^ape bngmentation ind tbic cc^ilion of 
file or nKxhimc b] d]'^tLii1>ance 1 hit would allow 
succcssLonaL processes 1o proceed li> Iheir 
eixlpoinl andeliminBlc tbic "^en^itive scr^ 
sfiecics and eomniLiJiLties. 



Johnson Gulth-Detr Canyon 
Creek- Prairieto PeakGraclimI: 
(Tendoy Mountains) 

Lo^^bUdiu Tbic boLuxJ Bnes of tb'> ] Bixihc ape 
are curnzntLy ill-dcfined but encompishes b 
w Bleisbcd-basetl anzB tbiBl s1ret4:bie^ from near 
the roadbead inTI ]3,RI2^^^ Section ] J tolbe 



creslob the TenJjy Mountains in Ibevw-imty 
T12S.RI0W- Section 7- It would inclixJc 
B Lueaii of L and M anB^mcnt as well as [invatc 
la™k B1 Lowest elevaticiiri,w]thstite parcel"^ bI 
mid elevations and US Fores! Service hokling> 
on Ibe higher ndges and crests 



EnvlroHiiciil] ThiseLevBHon transecl ri'^es 
fiujn6,2CW feet b1 Ihe ciinniieixe of in ephem- 
eral "^trc am dr^i mug Lower Johnson GoLch wilh 
MediLine Lod^e Creek to appn^iamiteLy 9_390 
a1 IheciesloftheTeixJoy Mountains. This 
trBnsec t '>p4ns p[ei:k>minan1]> CBlcirc^^uh pirenl 
milenals llimesloner^ inclixJ] ng 4. ak areoi^i 
aJluvial indcolluviB] fill matenBL> ^ituBledin 
the rBiiTihadow of the B eiverhead M ounUins 
to the ^^esM his CO untry a-^ very dry receiving 
between S ind ^Ofl-'Sl iixhesof prctipjtation 
per year, but Livery typical ]n terms of climjle, 
as well fi geoLogicaL "s nbslT^te bixJ geomor- 
pholo^v_of mixhof the BVHDHS_ 

VceetiitiDn^>1herlflDL(^kBlFea1ure5i The 

vege1 BUon eLemcnls iMK"ompaysed b> thj^ 
lajxlM.ape are [inman]> upl and range conunn- 
nilies 4f r^ss] and ind shiubUndr Bnd wocdlBiicE 
with Forested typ« |rjfrrJr>rjrrj^ tr ^rrerrji-^rr- 
ckjminated) rcslricled h> motkrBlc hj sleep 
north- ficin^ sLopcs The rangi^l and conuniini- 
ties are the eLemcnls of Fra. us 1hey iiepie- 
dominanlly ] n good or better etologjc bI coixh- 
tion A t k>^vest elevations there are high 
qua] I ty e^imples ot Af I6't^fsla Uitlenl^fia ssp. 
y^jiTvUfiiJ- arkd.^ Jr:;^'' ^^ J^J tJonunated commu- 
nilieson thegentLe to sleep s]dcslopes A 
Ir2ii67riaI{A ssp_ tf ^L'/ciJJ^jftr ]s fourkJ ]n 
dr^inigew'B^ and other Blluvial positions En 
som? locations ZJ:■^ jjijjf tTFr^raij J has been 
cxhj biling a 1rend of ] ncreasing coverage both 
in a.'SiiK I ation w]1 h bisin big sagebnish ind as a 
gr^sslBnd 4.o-domin4ntor indicator species 
flierkJ osleiTiibl y due to deferred grBzing w hen 
It ismosi vulnerable I peisonBlcommumcBHon 
Brian Hocte1t]y A veiy incompLete reconnais- 
sance has no1 4syc1 levcBledA ^E^tLY^ commu- 
nilies but they iiecxpecled Atmidli>lhe 
highesi le aches of the subilpi ne w as found a 
nearly complele an^y of the community types 
\nvolv\ng Feiiiica fii^htyenif I and \. Jndenta^ 
"^p. i^fS6^tmtr as domi n BntVdi a^nn^Mic sp«. les; 
themi>re mcsic colleclingposilJonssuppi>ned 



23 



^nu-fm^fttiAii ,\. fj J Jd^rr^ Jl^^ ap_ i^i6'\-{fii^ / F. 
TL^Jti/E^td^ur T / tjd^njFrjj/JH M Jtvtjjjf J jjijj^rr . A_ 

nyfniij InAcfniiAfthii tmd F \{kj^iiX6^is\i / Ctrrcx 
'mfjxoide^A. Eiccllcnt cxampL^i of Blpinc turf, 

niiK'jtffi and Carxn. ^y^ritr^fei a.'&ot i atioiTi CBp 
the (. res1 oF the r^ngc High quality CTBmp]e> of 
Cen xxctrfi?Aii ie£irjoiitn-6orn2n^\^ commLuiLliei 
Bft prc^cn! _ irkzlixli ng Ibc Homcwhil rBit |G31 
C. i^ifofufi / F. iii^fhox^sij. Anok1-^iuwlh 
|>J!}Oycjrs| f^lnrtijiin.iiii {\imbcz p\nc} ^i^nd 
iprcdumLriBlclj T )f6fxr^fs / JAimfX6't Ais iot^tmf- 
prij) occupin> ttic ^«]l-fac]iig slopes ]ii £cc1]on 
35 4nc1 on Ihr Di^Tlh-f^cLiif ^Lopfs within tbu'> 
^amc SctlLon ajrcxrtLLtnl ciamplc^of lilc 
hcvb] ^iBncis poli^ntially donuniltd by Ficen 
errg^man^ui lEn^rLmann spruce). 

Coiulflk^ii^'oiiatr^ bUdu V allies ThLS]S4 
pnnic Larbicipc for rcprcHcnlin^ a w]dc 
divciwly of high-qual Lty rangcl and commLuiL- 
1 ic^. iiK. I uding ^fT^lincis "^hrublBixi^ anJ 
wiHKllinct>_ The i^L'v BUonaJ range rcpri:scnled 
CDLomp assts aLL buHbcnxKt fLcne of soul h- 
wc'>tcmN^onlBnaplanleomniijm1ie'^ bikJ 
J iK'luilfs a '>mni fjL But Buxiunto^^ubilpinc 
gra>;^] BiKb> 4nc1 al pinr lud" f bighi>m '>hccp 
pnpulatioisi arc noted to frequent these bfh- 
elevatLO n gr^Si] Bixl^J. Gr^zi ng intcnsi ty 
reduction or chingc ] n ti rrung oF l£»c on some 
of Ihc encompis^>ed allolmcntsha.'f osleiSiibLy 
resulted in ratovery ]n ^omc communily 1ype^ 
^L^h as1bc resur^ciKC of ZJ:■^ jjijjf HiTJJd'rfjjf 
Iba.'f in wild TycJ LnsomcdrBina^ewiy icca- 
liorei 



M orrison Lake Wetlands to 
Baldy Mountain T ranged 
fBeaua"head Mountain^ 

LoeBUou: Thj'> I bikIh^ B]>c eixomp BS.S4!S mijor 
por1]Dre>of Secliorei2[. 22, 2J and24of RBnge 
12 West BixJ TowiTihip L4 South art] touJd 
] ncorjxjrilc jxj r1]ore> of adjoini ng sec1]oiK ]f 
wBleisbcd boundane^ iic lEcd lOHfct]nclhc 
^Ltc it "Stretches from tlicMoinson LaJzc 
WctLinds cmbciikfctl in the fl at*i cast of ihc 
Bca^ erhe^d R angc to Ihc ci^sl of the range it 



EakJ> M ountain. Ow iiL^islii p i*i pnniimlv by the 
U_ 3 Fore-it Scrvu.c\^i1h basil p]B]n Bcira^e 
undtr Bureau of LbixJ Manigemtntronlio] 
By inc^ludi ng pn> ate ] BDLi^ wilhin S tctmn 19 4 
^ieaterd]veryLty oF^ihrubland-icouJd be 
eixojnp as-wtl- 

EnvlroDiiieiil] This traiisecl rcpre-^'nts wilh 
theexrep1]onof theHoiTiM>n L ake WetLartii 
a Lindhcipe in leLatLvely good eondi tLO n and 
highly1yp]CB]of the BVHDM3 ecoiegion- The 
MornH^jnLikc We1]Bixt> Bit HomewhBl atypi- 
lb] bee Bu*ie "^ulhwestern M ontani his rela- 
tively few well BDii> (only Ihtjse of Cenlenm aJ 
VBlleyVRed Roct Labe^ could be considered 
extensive) FromlhecBlciieoinc^olluviBl and 
aJluvial nil of 1 he gem ly roLLing FIbK bI S.20D 
Feel the tranhccl nses abruptly li> 10 773 b1 
Baldy ^^ouutaLnou 1he Coutineutal Divide 
This whole Irinset t j^ se1 in cilcireoiK pirenl 
material pred^minintly limestone ind lying Eo 
the east of Ihe Continental Divide il is in 
■^n>ew hBl of a i^ire>h Bcbw of the BeivciticBd 
Mountain-i Combi mng i ^ulsili^te 1lnt weBlh- 
eis to shallow well-drained hoj]^ wi1h a dry 
elimilic regime fosleis an eilremely di>' 
enviionmeni ay derejied by i "Strongly com- 
pir3iedorlniixated foresled/one_ The 
Morn^^jnLibe WdlBixis Brecompn*iedol a 
giDup of al Iziline fen^ man>hes meui^x^'s ind 
temporary pi>nck inleispersed in amatnit of 
shjiib-!ileppe_ M iny of the wetlantii are less 
thifiiiiicie Moinson Lake "supports no 
en>ergen1 vegetation, onJ> aquBlic^_ twwever, 
jus1 e*ilof the labe is a ^pnng-kd mire wi1h a 
floali ng-mit peatland 

YceetiitiDivX>1herlflDl(^bLBl Values This 

lanJ^apc IrBn^ecl his been inventoried in 
piecemcB] fashion, the Hoinson LaJ^e Wet- 
I Bixl^ having been documenled by Lesi4.a 
ri?90) aixJ Ihe ilpineLommumlies having 
received aone-diy sampling by S_ V Cncper 
and F_ Le^ic a (CiKjper and Le^iea l?97) 
Cooper and Lesica aJ^o dffl. umcnled n^jmc 
ripanBn Bnd upland vegel a1 ion in 1he > ic im ty of 
Indian Ci~eek asil passes thiough Section 24 
The ibove-ciled boUnie aJ/eeologicil explom- 
tions support 1 his Uncisc Bpe as 4 pnmeiepie- 
Si^nlBUonol the western pi>[1ion of B V HDM S_ 
The ilpine-^ubilpine pUnt associations iruzlucle 



24 



C£^t6f^intpt?i£i^r lldflbLi fchcut /Canadian 

ni^K'^Ofi CwhLt-[MJry4s / c uriy scdgc^ dwirf- 
"ibuub hcrbBccous D.ot-^f?ft^aia/ftyi\gt?t2iffjr 
yryri?anifn fwhilc dr>' an / al p]nc bislort] dw Bif- 
"^biiiiblind hcrbBccoLis Sij^i\ an.\iL£^ / 

Anii:ri(:an bis1ort| dwaif-'t hiublind andScr/jA 
giuiKU 4f Ibieoik w]llowr dw arMhnib] bikL 



^n-a-Lcavcd pondwccdj, .^w^jfliT/njf crtv^r^fri / 
/frpfxifns vrttgani Ishort- awn foi^Uil / cammon 
rrnic ^IbI]^, nnd M'l nxxphy^hffjr sprctiUit^ - 
RanrtncttiAis Ui^tiA^^fi (spibcd witcr-miLfoil — 
while walcr-buttcn. up an aquatit: lypc) 
ScvrraJ of Ihc ibovc-nainfd coinmuni tif^ hive 
not been doc u men led 1o on. lu c l-a^^^ bicir ] n the 
cforcgion andiiequilc pc>H>]bly CDii±>U tulc 
unique cummuni ty cIcmenK 



The IjniLled portio n of up^lopc lindscBpe wi1h 
Lreestk^niMiint Bppeiml Lo be o]d-^iuw1h 
woodlind "^tinds ^Mtbi f jd^^^fd^jL'^ mdirzrffr^ 
(T>Dugl as- F]r) dLuniriBnt BTV^f\frii'iJf6'xiffs 
il]mbcr pine] wcLL rcprcncnlcd *> 4 hcve] 
spcciQ>_ The higher cLcv Bl]on s] tc"^ were only 
cursorily IE ted andippcired to bcquileopcn 
wi th ^r^-Ftf tTJ£ t^^rttrrtFNV |EngcLmBnn*ipnxcJ 
dominani and hc a1 tcred /"^^zj/j crJ^r^Yri/Jr j 
(whitebBrk[i]ne| A (.omplcte m^onnibi^ance 
of 1hc forested porlion i^ ncccwiiiy and wouJd 
be expected lo piodiiccold-pjuwlhsUncisoF^ 
{iihfi^fuil^ t^iven thit old-growth /".jjitvEird^jjj 
exists Bl Lower e]e> itionsj- Pji-^i^hlsAi^a- 
dominated old-growlh foresi vegetation on Ihe 
fl Bt> lo 1he wc^t of Hoinson L ake i-i c I aHiificd 
as Fii iXA ^ja^^/jJi^JFrrtrr /Si^i6^Jo 
i\rejxI{Afr\hfJof\tti fEngelmann spruce / Roc ky 
M oiintain bullen^eetll- i comiTH>n foie^t type 
of cilcireoib "^uhslriles only found insoulh- 
wc^tem MonUna 

LcsacB f 19901 coined ncwcommuruty nimes^ 
largely b ased on dLmiinajxe by Uyer, For 
wdl ajxl/aqiiBl]c communi ty type^ ^ound in tbic 
Morn^onLabcs Well and The-^ conununilies. 
1 heir names incivi>r comfKHi]1]on biBveno! been 
^liteiequently c n^*isw Blked tolheNVCSor 
HBnhenelaL {[9S5} Le^ic a desc n bed Ihe 
fol Lowing commuml les C^fr^:^ ifinctti^A^^f - 
DcscfiiJt^pir^f { 6'sprloiti (beaJzed !iedgc — t lifted 
hairgraHif- C_ iiltii AifaJa / F^xI^Afr^ty^ tVwa 
y^-^ TdJjL'd^j/T (beaked sedge y fennel-Leafed 
po ndwee d ] f^r r^ jj^ft 1 1 ftAii^tiJJorihi fii^h / 
Jitntin btiiUuis l>ihrubby cinquefoiL / B bIhc 
ni£h) . Sa^f \ hrachv6 {^rpa / Carex ic frjxoni6^f 
Islw r1- fruited w iLLow V C an Bdi an "^ingle-sp i ke 

a£to™jjijc/i>u fcommon !ipi kesedge — slender- 



Tbe ^hnjb-^teppe upl BDi> Bre nxxJeralely to 
heavjlj ^ra/jd and ctiBr*. tenzed by .-^ FViim j^rt 
Jn" JerrPj^J^j H>p vut^i l^^jj^ j-domi nit ed types, 
piedominanlly.^ fn"Jf?rr^jL'd ssp viAi6f\-tma/ 
Feilifia lii^fhit^mi f mountain big^agebnch/ 
rdaho fescue^ wi tti mi nor incl usjon-i of ^rPiiJTJ- 

(eirly Low SBgebnj-^ti V Idaho fescue) ind quite 
pociibl y o ther ^hrub steppe 1ypes Ln the 
ripan an env]ionmenl Z^'jFJdu ^ j^^j d^u /bis]n 
wildr^'e) appcBied to be niak]ng 4 comcbac k in 
\ JnJd^F^j^J^j ssp_ P^TL'/t-T J JL^dPtr Stan* where 
piolecled fn^m grBzing- Willow commumUes 
wen: ni>t cl aw>if letl ttj type but ippeired to have 
received p4sl haidizie by tdh ckjmesl ic slock 
and w iLd unguUles. 

Wilhin tb^ 1 BDi»c ape onJy the Morrj^onL^te 
WetLirkJswereefLplicitLy in> enLoned for 
species ranted as sensitive b> MTNHFandIhe 
fol Low]ng were Vour^^Ai^tiii-^gr^fJoffnty^a^ 
,\iInAgahfi {ff gxxphyJJiiir .^ilragah^ fepiateAUr 
Gjj d^^ jtL'^^ n L^^jj^ ssp lii^fffita^ Gejilf{fii£^ 

CondflkMi^oiiaer^ bUdu Values The Lower 
elevations oJ Lhj'> Iran^cc L ha^ e been Livestock 
gnzed For dec Bdes c aus]ng mos1 damage Id the 
well ajxis when: driwd^wn zones tiBve been 
Lrimplcd Biidcon^pBclcd Bnd ^veedv spec les 
I nlr>duced, inc I uding ^^jl^^ y^^trr^j] jr J (KenLucky 
bluegrasi^, Taraxtn.-}im off\CTfUJ^6' (dandeLion) 
and Ihenoxiou*! ^veetl Citiuffsr C'{fii{fii6^is^ 
CCan*dB ttiistLe] Gri/ing i nleiftilies were very 
high at lhe1]nieof wellBnd^ile>i'>itation Bnd 
conlinuenl abuv couJd n^suLl in loweied ^pec les 
diven>ity andlhc intnxJuLtion Bnd fBC]litation 
of exo1]c^ GrBiingcouLdhave a direc! delele- 



25 



nuLb jJTifi QL'1 on thi^ mn^ C fMirniAfias^^ 
\tiisifot^ bcciiEC J1 IS bolh hifliLy poJalabLEi aixl 
-SLNzcpCiblc Id f rozj nf Wr h jvc nol c buzckcd 
1 hr gfo/j ng ircciRfc fn^jn Ihc U 5_ Forcsl 
Scrvtccranrwi^hb us Lo ho'^ IhcnwunLam 
gnisiljiki& may biBvc l^cf n Lmpxtftt, Vuyra 
cunory CMminaLLonlhcy appeared to noCIo 
h*vc been advcn»c]> impacLcd. The coreiidcr- 
BhLc LJL^ tJM r>' L"if ^ c^i^l nl]un ty p& andscnMl]^r 
AficciiTS present and und^r Ihreal from Erijin^ 
gives impel Lis for [x>nsidcnng 1his an LmpnrlDnt 
conserv itLQ n SLtc While 1hcre might possibly 
be more appropnUc LinjilscBpeN Forconscrva- 
Uon. IhisoiK wci fun^nnif^l ut Ihis time 
bKiLtseil biBS icl atLViz]> moreeMstin^ jnformn- 

llOIL 

Plant Species of Special 
Concern 

Tbt Beoverhtad McuniHin^ See [ten harbocE 
41^ |l9>Drjll [tie globally rorr M ontani 
¥Ecular[i]aiils[iecjc&lhat Bnrlnurkc^l by 1he 
MDnlBnaNBlurB] Htnluiic Proerim These 
aperies ire listed in Tu hie 4 (belnh^) aiidUieir 
dbJ nbLi1]oiK show n in FlgLur 4 Thi-^conccn- 



iTDlJunof nJobaJJ> rBie pLanL"^ js ann^nf the 
highest in Ib^ Male jml ineludesseveroJsl Blear 
regional cjxlcmics- The Beiverhcad Moun- 
tains Section his jmong I he highest levels of 
pljnt endrmism jn the "^tate^ I fl of the 57 Ibaj 
|3I "^ peircDll are of coiKerv' Jlia n coixeni. 

In BJ:lj1]on hT 1be Mon1 Biia pLan1 s]>K les of 
■^peL'iBlcoixemlhit air I islcd belo v" . iheieiie 
le^rr^l iTwre regional endemjji^ f^-g-. 

izrid r^^LtFjpjtTKAL? ^Ejj JJ^j^^r^ J on 1be state "watch^ 
11*^1. These are found pnmBnIy oronl> jn thL^ 
arraof MonUnaaiiLl areof ]imi1eddti>1nbut3Dn 
bul nc^l offic tally tracked by the MoDtani 
NflluraJ Hen to^e Pnjgi^nL 

Whal El the conseiMlion s1 a1 lis oJ ttie*^ 
globilly nre s]>K les " \lmost all are on 

BECDcy sens] ti% e sfienies lisLs Foursficeics aic 
ffdttncled lo alpine orsubalfiinc habilUs 
wiUioLd idrnti f I able Ihre al:^ rC/in j^tJ^jn^FJjr 

species are knjjwnonlv fn3mhisli>ne reeorda 



Tibk 4. Crlohally r^wz planl apceics in lhc BcBvcrhcad Mountains section 



1 sx i> vriiic Mh[E 




■ ■k Y^K 


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P3 kiiJiJ ^4 Ll: I Ljl4ii 


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BICijrTfHi^ MLL\-j[Lti 


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Tq*rT-l ^ 1 J. ^Tl-panfcy 


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U^mhi I3lj jj'^hii i^u e 


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NfillfTv ei4Mn Tlirl^^mdj* 


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Spcrb eIhI irt bukJ-BfeL'nl ore kiuwn tum^ptsiri pafnblkvHDE cJrvDE^mbehnp a^he ofiiJ AubBfilnt ■id are 
rfbihrlv \ulnEnhLE Sp^lELihoE of c AHi^rld: cd Ib\ t a ilpilfkanJ m oAkir ^CTCf 3TI ] of IcLiI □rcnrrecu.t rHrrtiifi 
<si E]]^l-ndKlibi^^d bndi. 



26 



Figured- L ocati ons of P I ant Sped es of Special Concan, 
Beaverhead MountainsSed:ion 




Q f1 «Tir^ift < ^^l ^ #rli^n ^KU^fr^ l^filint Tfi^i^i^ 



Tinnnr vitcnuv ii. mji 



27 



BJxJ ftxziKrti suhf ty\ art iiarommcndctl inlhc 
ircah fiom wbuchlhcy wcrcon^iriBllj krejwn 
iM^^nidairca ^liskaBa.'tin Hr^aJ. Th^irniajn- 
ang I JflobaJly rBrc -species IboLd-faLctl m 
T Bbic 4| s1 ajxl fi tbicmosl imfiortani corslTf 4- 
1ion pnontics fonhis ScttLon. TcnoF tbic« 
'>[icciQ>havr a1 Ins1 l/Jof aJl Ihtir Montana 
rccoRtionBLM hokJ]ng^ |4s1ciisk«J in Tabic 
4) 

Twrnty-CLght species IhatiitgLobaLLy rare 
ore Lu on E LM-adimni'^ttrcd lantfc m tbu^ Brca 
^bold-f iced in Tiblcs 4 and 51 Alloflh? 
globilly nrc sp«. L4!s on 1ht w Blch list bje^ al*^ 
onBLN^ Lark±i_ FortLinatcLy . some or rrnny are 
not under Lmmedi ate 1hrc a!"^ Tbu-^a^ixi! Ii>^a> 
1hil no conserva! ion i^ needed- ConlinLicd 
vigi I ancc for rejK loiE weed*i li an imjncdaBle 
BixJ far-reaching need foriniLntaininf [ilBiit 
diversity ingenerBl. 

MBny of the globally rare spcc]e^ wc are 
reporting here for the E eivcitic ad Scc1 ion 
represent ne^^ Lv Hi:>cumenlci:1 additioiTi to the 
^tateflorB -ajme of 1 hem disLXJ vercd as recenHy 
as 1 Bst year New spet les djHcovene^ ire Bttled 
1o the Montana plBnt '>peeicsof sfieciBRoixern 
list if Ihey arc a native spet les kixiwnfram 
fe^^erlhan^ IocbIjocw^ in natural habu at. 
w]thoul ev]dence of Bdvcntive behav]or ]ix1j- 
CBlcdby increasing LiJxJer unnilurBl condiHons 
W Bny of the new retoitb> Bre fiom lower 
eloations. so Ihe remotene^^ of 1bc species' 
habitat is inadequile explanation for their not 
hiv] ng been discovered earl ier_ The leLatively 
1 ajge number of ne^^ species leflecK Ihe 
flonstie diversi ty as well as the incompleteness 
of basic flonstic sun-ey 

There are ilso a hi^h number cf S Ealc-nie 
plants thil are restnt-ted to Ihis areBuf Mon- 
lani Ten percent |JJr of iilKlontaniMscnUr 
piint species of spec] b1 (.oixern occur exclu- 
sively 111 thjs reg]on ind rw olher p Bits of the 
state (Table 5. Figuie4l ThLS includes 10 of 
1he^k>biii> riiespcties noted above. 

WhBl IS the consen" Bl]on s1 atus o f the *iUle-raje 
species lestnt ted to this Bn.^a'' Again. th]s 
question CBn be Bnswered only irkJiretlly. 
MBny are on a^enc^ sensitive species hsts. 



Only Ihrce oJ the *ipctjes Bie resUicled lo Blpine 
or subal pine habi1 b1 (Et ^mA hrtfmiii. £j I^ ^j on 
f6^ofj[i.^nn, tfrtrf Otl ^j L^jtJT ^r^^ r Where threjt> 
are^eneriiij low_ Three are tnownonly fn^m 
hisloiK reco Rti f Ccr/^jf^r^jj rjjf fij jJFKY^rrrtrfr 
/fttjxfc7fx{ffx^tn f^f^i'i^ ^fttK ^/j^j ji ^j^j/^jtatr] _ and 
theiefore cinnot be pnjiecled Focused sur- 
veys for these Ihree spet les are recommereied 
I n (:onj unc tion w]1 h conserv ation and manage- 
ment activities taking pi Bce in the three are as 
fiom which Ihey were ongindiiykmwn {Red 
Rock Vb11c> southoFLimi, CenlenmBl Moun- 
tains. andEigEiole Valley neBrMelmse] The 
remai ning 22 species Ibold-faLctl in Table 5) 
represeni the setondir^' conserF ilion prion! ic^ 
h>r this region Eighleen of these 22 !ipec les 
h^ve at least one-lhinJ of IheirN^onlBna refolds 
on BLM- admi nistered imis. 

Altogether^ tol bI of aboul 1.10 Montana plant 
species of !ipe^: I al concern occur in 1he 
Eea^erhesd Mountains This includes globally' 
riie species, Mile-ran: spccjes 1hat are re- 
stnt^lcd to this jxjr1]onof Montana, ajxJs1a1c- 
rire species thai are m^re broxJ ly distnbuted in 
the sUle_ Thei r preseixe may represeni well- 
developed hab]1a1 habitat extremes rire 
hib]1a1 orunckKumenled habilil.lnsome 
me*iurc. these spcties at:t asisunogate for 
KlentiFyinf unusual plani assn. latio ns and 
eM.ep1]onaJly high quahly conditions- 

The 6S0 known occ urreixes of ihese species 
are not T^m^mly dislnbulcd icioss 1 he land- 
scape but are veiy restriLlcd (Figure 4J_ The 
pitlems of aggregation ^all into general c atego- 
ries by ele^ ition range and hab]1 a1 sItul tiire 
VAlley wetland, foothills- nxmtine wetland, 
sand dunes, and foiithills-nxintine grissl u nd^ 
and shrubl and^_ These aggregales ol raix: 
species, and ihc spec if ic habiui condil]ons ihat 
re pnzsent, suggest i th]idse1of coiftervilion 
pnoril]es for Ihis region. 

Ey anal^Hiing thedistnbuliono^ all the nie 
Epecies niesc n be lor this section. ]1 would be 
po^ible1o]denliF> places on BLM larnii 
where Ihei r co-occurrence would pnjvidc 
opporlumticslo piulecl many species in a^re- 
^ite This inaJys]s ci>uld emphasi/e those 
^loupso^ hj^her conscrvAlion pnonty, and 



2S 



wuuJd Flx u^ un DCL'umzncc^ kno\^ n lu 1^<^ of 
hif h quil Lt^' IrcprcAf nlcd by ka \orB qLiaJit> 

r^nkk [Lniuld al^o include I jmls man jgcd by 
oIIk r If i^nc ic^ JQ > irki J n^^mnaL mipcr 
pnonly Ai Lcs for rarr pi int cor7tfl~^atiGn 

Fi n il]y_ whi Ic 1hcrc biB.^ bctn cxIriKLVi: bot*ny 
work c^cr Ijr^c ircBH of Ih? Bca^ trhrMl 
MDiniluns ccxurgLcii^ J1 ls CH^t cxhausU^ e: djxJ 



pin^iikM:pn mc^rt 1hananiniLLaLdaEi'>fL bjx^ 
prcLLrrunjr> i nfonna Lien for rriBiia^irmcnl and 
coiKtrv" Jlki n oJ this rMn^mtl y dj% crsc ] luxJ- 
scapc- This region, bK auhc of Lte bu^ h conlnbli- 
LLfinlo pljnl dL^'iZi?i]1y a1 bn^lh 1hf gCrrb iL and 
Kl jlc sc alcs^ in^nlK Mjini f ic ant cJTciTl Lox^Jid 
bcllcr undE^ratindLiif bulb Lhc dtsLnbLdJon ind 
coiKcrv' Jlk] n m^cds c^r 1 hr rai^fkirB. 



Tiblc 5 Si ale orgFobAll^ rare planLs kno^nONLY fiom thcBcavcrhcDd Mountains 
Scetioa 



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fiojrufM idis^if i/iiT^omLT 


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51 



29 



Condusionsand 
Recommendations 

Thi*i i!i the f]n>t ccorcgion «c tion ]n M on1 Bna 
1o hivc i compirhciKLVc Vcf.c1 Bl]on C] aHKifu. a- 
1ion a*ihtmbL«J inlo a Mngic Hi:>cumcnt Thii 
piDjccI [iioMcks B^napshut of planlcomnium- 
lic^]!! thL"Etavi^iticBiJMi>untaLre>5ccl]onarkJ 
Ihcir^tatus ]l rcflwrtsourirurrcnl tiH>wl^gc 
Bixl b>by no rriL^irw cxbiBUhlivc WhiLt 1bcrc is 
potcnIiBi to utik/f Ihcdataiitl ForiTK^iT bl3- 
vinccd bdJ comp rchcns]>c BnaLywNof the 
> cgc1 Bl]on rommLini ty wcixiw biBvc B!iilb>f4c- 
1or>' vegetation commLuiLty 4. La^iMflciliQn for 
imriBgemcnt^ monitonng and conscn' bUdr 
objectives. 

The proj K t goaJ wis to rompi Ic ecology plot 
diti^ validBle anul refine c;^istingpLan1 a^ihocLi- 
1ion1y[ie'> Bnc1coiiib]iie inh> b new l La^iufici- 
1 ion following theNBl]onal Vegc1 BUon CI ansLfl- 
CBl]onSlBndBid Tbiet-La^iSJ^icmonbiBHlhree 
inijor coin[)oneiib> l| a ]]st of PI But A^isuc i a- 
1 lon^ for B eivcrheacl M ounUirei Section ]ii 
MonlBna, 2j the Key to Flint ^s™>c] Bl]ons, 
BixJ, J> P] But A'k'^u^:] a1 ion dz's n pliore> 

TheMTNHP Bcqiurcd iLI known ecology plot 
diti "vt^^ cx4.cp1 for thil of the Montana 
WetLanJ aixJ R]p4riaii RL'^eii^h ProgrBm^ind 
ijlil]/ed Ihe inaten aJ for 1 his anB]y?iL'> All plots 
lh4l(:ouk1 be "^ubsl Bntiiled by alegaJ location 
df^cnp tor were sssLgncd to 4 pUnt ishociilion 
lypeind mapped into GeogrBpbc [nfoTmalion 
5ys1eni. OtbierpUnt sshoci Bl]ons were Bcliled 
1o the EeaveitieBd]]'^t based on distnbutioji 
df^icnplions compleled by olher aulhuni, 
pnmBnlyHinsenet b]_ (]955j_ 

The Key 1o Plan! .^sscc tattons is a die hoto- 
mous tey thil identif ics pbiyriiogixunu. vegelB- 
1ionlypesiELng1henew NBl]onB] VegelBl]on 
C La*iS]ficilion_ The key ]nL"Lu:les e> er>' major 
vascular plant ^loop o r Life ^orm encoonte red in 
IheEVHDMS The key incombinilion VFith 
IhepL^m iHsocLition descnptions piovidesi 
very po^^erful Ice] fortheadEnlificBnonof 
plint (:ommunjtie±L 



TheMTNHPprepiietl l_K3 plBnt BSKOc]Bl]on 
dnicnptioisi bixJ incluckd jh ihis l I a.'^]fic4liDn. 
This piujec! piov]dcd the raw maleriBl to 
develop dozens of new Lommuni ty desi^riptiorei 
(Chir^cterizilion AbstrBclsJ and to s1 bixJ Bidjze 
over LCB of our older dcscnp1ioiK_ bI] of wbch 
¥^]|| be inainl aj ned fi pBTt oflhe MonlBna 
NBlural Hentage FrogrBin data system. These 
communily dKTcrip1]ons provide the b4S]sfdr 
Lio^w Biking w]1h other classifltation efforts, 
siich as rangel and SI tes L urrentLy employed by 
the ELM Bnd NRCS The process of ex amin- 
ingplo1dBlB, re> lew ing, edi ting bixJ prepanng 
new pUnt commiinity nt-a. nplK>ns ha.^ pro- 
vidrd the frimewort forourfulure revbjonof 
commiinHy i^nks_ 

Imhe Futioe we pi an to develop a Web-based 
field gmdelhil can piodiice c iirreni piBnt 
as.'^oc] a1 ion di^tnbotion inip:^ ilong wilh 
communily dcNcripl]ons ind 1 heirconserva! ion 
V iLues S lich prodncls shjoLd be val uible m 
conhervation pUnning when one need^ a spatial 
rcpresentition of rire or high qnaJ] ty commu- 
nily elemenls ^uchmap piuduLls couJd we]] 
serve ] ajxl managers is they deil with land- 
scape diven>ity andpinjxj]nt opportumtieMo 
minBge for, or promolc, communily diveisily, 
as well ay prolecling eT]sting ] BDLihc apes w ith 
concentrations of valuable frarer elemenls. 
I ncluilin^ commijm1]cs p]ant bdJ ammal 
■species The piTHipec I for piodnc] ng onhne 
locations of sample plots on US Geolog]c al 
Sur^'ey ] 24 ,CKKi scile mips (or meaningful 
aggregal ions, siich AS 1 .250,0OLl qoxljAnglcs) 
IS ]n sighl. 

OurneM phase of communily eci>logy in 
Eeav erhe Bd Moonlai ns S L'c tion w] 1 1 benefit 
from thisinaJys]s Addi tional siiTL-ey tj beller 
locate Bnd identify conherv atio n opjxj noml lea 
for the globaJ ly i mperj]ed pUm communi tie?i is 
needed There is iddilionB] needio invenlory 
for gcod qiiB]] ty, representative commumtics, 
ajxJ s]gmfic4nt I Bndsc Bpey B^emplBi^'com- 
munil]es4nd I and% apes of significani eio]Dg]- 
cb] inleresi ireimporlanl hentige forN^onlBna 
ajxJ \vonh manBging 1o i~elBin 1]>eir natural 
charictcr 



30 



Classification: 
concept^ and 
assumptions 



The National Vegetation 
Classification 



Th? I]^t of fi I an! a.'CrfK i atioiTi For BcBvcrhcad 
MoLiJit4Lns5cc1]on tbic]r df^icnp Lioib uxJ tbic 
BEi:ompan]cd vcgclBl]onkc> i"^ a prcxJix t of Ibc 
MonlinaNBluraJ Heritage Progrim Ths 
HcriUgc program network bian worked 
cccpcralivcly wilh The Niturc Conscn-ajxy 
fTNC^ by fioEt develop] ngi National 
Vegetation C LaKJ Flcilion S tandanil frcworked 
UNESCO ]y7-1andDiiscoLletil-]^&4jtbiBl 
WBH Bceeptcd as the Frimew'ork to beidedby 
aJ]feder^LBgerb:]e^(FGDC L?y7| The 
NBl]onal Vef eUlion C La^ih] r]c Bl]on S tandard 
(NVCSj \ii hieraruhicaL BDd(.omb]im non-^lics 
at the Lowest ]c>el^ ( bs.^oc] Bl]ons Bnd alLianceh) 
and physiognomy and broad etologjcBl 
rnndifiers b1 the highest levels of the h]crart:hy_ 
Physii>gnomy pertaire> 1o 1 he phys]c bI fcBlures 
of 1bc vege1 Bl]on i_e foirs! v^ herbateoiE 
vegelBl]on Thi^ appn^ach allow>lhc 
charaeleiislics of vegetition piMcr™> lo be 
n^fereixetl al jniJtip]c*ipatial h^^bIcs The upper 
levels of the beriit hy were Bdupted fi a 
nitionil sUndird b> ScereHry oflhe Fntenor, 
Bruce Eabbit in [^7 The Honslic leveb>of 
the Vegetation C I a^iS]flc4liDn in the Unilcd 
Slates IS t^urrently in b review drah phi^e 

The physiognomu-^lnjclural levels of the 
NVC3 hivc pnwen useful in mappi ng 1hc 
nitnril and Hemi-nBloraJ vegetation of the U S. 
111 order to asse^KS 1 he conser> ition ^IaIie of 
species ind their hibj tats a.'iparlo^ tbieUSGS 
Gbp Anily^L*! FnjgrBm |GAP) The 
flonsticiLly based uniti^ B]|]ajice^ andplanl 
assoc] a1]ons^ ha> e pio>en mix bi moie di fficul t 
to define, tti1hconccptiiB]]> bixJ irkJividually. 
foreTBmple. whil constilutes 1he defining 
p*rameleis of 1 he .-UfE^j fairoLi^rpa / Vncn" ji?(^fjt 



sii^jy^Aniftn lorcst pLan1 a*s»ociilion'* There arc 
several concepLs aixJ fisumpl]ore> \vor1h 
mentioning here. AH hough we have set out 1o 
conform to theconventioiKof theNVCS and 
lis approach to c I asjficilion there is one very 
Eigniflcanl poin1 in Ihe ippiu Bch whic h ha^i nol 
been incorporBled to any exten! in our work or 
thil of our pn!dccessois, Ihat i'> Id descn be 
eMS1]ng vegetation, rather 1han poten1]B3 
vegclBl]on MoMof the vegetation 1ypes 
Irc4ledwi1hin our work andlh^meofour 
piedeceshori were core>ideied potenlial nalural 
vegclBl]on lypes Ihibitat lypcs Jd^riu 
DBubcnnure 1969] and named tor the c Limax 
pUnt fihociilion- Thj'> remB]ns a diMiix I 
dniwb4cborhBDd]CBplo theMTNHP_ 

To]]]us1rile A veiycommonpLanl aK»ociition 
(climax) in western Montana ih.U^fj 
^^iroc£^rpa / CirfrU}fua iifujft?ra^ Hc\^ru is the 
forest canopy dom]nated by \ ^{AifOiurjt^f. The 
most common *ieral oveiMory cinminanl (often 
monospec]fic> for tbs 1ype is I'ffUis ct?nlt?f ftr 
A1 Ihis poin1 in 1 1 me thciehii never been a^_ 
ct?n^of^{f/C ttiifjfot^f pi Bnt ishoci Bl]on 
recognized Rilher, foresters/ecoLogtsIs ha^ e 
IreiledlhisLoixJition as Bf conlof kf izovcr 
typeoFihe \. iasI^xct7ti?£A / C. iifujft?rti h^-bnuX 
type Irecogniiing 1 he sites pi>tenlJB] to support 
\ kfifo<.arjta, Ihis being the di Bgnoslic species 
for thesenes Level) andapphed Bslruclural 
dcscnplor |SBy jwle or mBlure s]7_e l LassV 
They hBve ib»o recognized the sile's polenliBl 
tjsnpp^jrt B V Bnety oF ujxJeign^w th domi nintSj 
uwng Ihe presence of C_ ufu/hyr^ as an 
indicator of a padicuUren^iionmeiiUl regime. 
TheNVCS wouJdtreite anew plan! 
assoc] a1 ion based o n exts1 1 ng I^inrti coiilot kf- 
dominalcd sUnds in Ihiscaseone would hBve 
to envision an asoc i ation named I^.coniorlQ/ 
C. jJFNfTonu 

There are many Mgnific ant jKi]nt> Co be 
ajiJresheiil i n l I a.'^ifyi ng seril forest >egel Bl]on 
if we Bie1o adhere to dcsc nbe exisl] ng 
vegelBl]ononl> ])Lti we consider bH s1 ages of 
aseie bixJ assign e^ch 4 piBnt Bssoc]a1ion 
nime ordescnbcscr^l communities with 
struclurB] and ci>m]xjsi tionil ] abels si^h bs 
seedling^apling si Bgc wi1h Ai 6'r ^i{Ahtttit\ 
dominam in the tillesi Uyerof b poten1]B] 



31 



2) bLiw doHi one iJi*»cnmi inlc ainQngc*nopy 
^pccin> IFor pLuposc^ ot *i^i^ning1ypcnamc| 
whcnlhcrc is no clc Br expressed i:k>m]nancc? 
j^ 1hc t^hnicc based on dominance or the 
specie's I rkJu. ator vilue'^ and4lgivcn1hat 
^Li:ccsj>ion j^ BLomplcx Iijnc1]onof mBny 
] nlerac ting van BbLe^ thil determ]ne what 
'patbiwB>" B dj'>tLiitcd stanJ wj] I iBke and 1 hit 
for a given envi mnmem vegetal ion wi]] m^re 
or Ic^s converge to a dynamjc M BbLe cnt1jxj]nt, 
do we continue lolr^'k wbia1 Ihisendpoml 
mighl be wbicn we colled inibrmatmnonficrAl 
ptcilii^ 

AIto wai1hD3tingKChatlheNVCSscpara1e> 
^buublind fnjm shrub hert>accoL£> lyp«> by 
db>l] ngutshinf ashnjbl>[ie«i biBving'^hiiib 
cover ^iraterlhan 25^ While thi'>i'>4n 
BTlificiil disl] nclion ]tcreBla>someconfLiS]on 
bee auhc our loc al shrubl and cLis^i he b1]oik^ 
pnncipalLy Mucg^crBDd Slev^art lL?SOl_ 
recogni7jz shrubland lyfics is having cover 
fiuillcienl to convey a "shrub by ispec t"_ whic h 
ihcy conceived of as being 5*i or greater 
CBraupy cover Fn thtsitpon we biBvelreated 
most of Ihe ^fTcmd jrtr fj jVJf?rr^j JL^^-dormnated 
1ypes as shrub La mil f as w as ctme by Mucgulcr 
bdJ Slcwirtj but 111 fac1 iLirKusl iK^ncof Ihc 
sampled sUndsmcel Ihc N V€S shrubl and 
cnlcna 

Another clsssifical ion quBndir^' ^^as whil lock} 
w]th vegetation umts-lemicd phases by 
vinoiTi rcHC ajrhers (Ff isler el aL 1977 
MueggLerind Stewarl L9W3, HBnsenel al 
1995 CncperclaL ISST^nJ-nol tracked bj 
Ihc HcTllaee lYoEranK in Ihc N VC units" 
CoisiderBbLe in^ormilionconceniing 
cnv]rDnmen1-vegetation reLitionshifi't could be 
fbrfeiledl>y not reco^nizi ng phases of pi ani 
asKucj a1 ions_ Thuy. \^ Hhi n tb"^ maniTrcnpl we 
h^veeLevBlcd phases lopL^m f>hoci4lions 
where inlorm4lH>ii issulficienl hidjso ^n 
1 he vcgel a1]on teys Ihat follow some phases 
h^viz been designiled ind their charBclensl]cs 
BredL^cnbed w]thin1hepLan1 assocntionof 
which Ihey arc a comjxjnen1_ A pnme example 
|from DnTlhv^estern M ontan^l of the informil- 
]on Ihat woiJd be otftcured by not trBcting 
phases IS to coiTiider selccled phases of ?^ 



AhlL'j fcfi\oi arjttf / Cl\frtwutf li^rfiorti pi anl 
association The Wt^rcJ«rf^_Jf J7t/£ tpk-u and 
X^tyjxhUiw^ t^i^fx phases Brecnv]n>nn>enlBlly 
dtslincl, the M-J-t'^ J ddjrrtdir phase occurring on 
cncl Aspects at higher elevatioiTi andlhe Y 
I6^^\ phise occurring on Houtheily ispec Is and 
extenLlin^ liom the lowesi lo highesi elections 
a1 which C t rj^JJ^ J J l7 co-occurs ThcAratia 
f^i^fAiUifUi phase occurs on vctv distinct 
pi>sitions in Ihe UndscBpe. botlomlBnds mj 
toe-slope seep Bge Breas. These d]ffe[ent 
phases not onJ> hivcdjstinci flori, bii1 di I fer 
signiflcanlly ]n1heirpiTxluctivily Osascdon trce 
site ] nde^r^ Ihe lR\: speciE^s thai lie ex peeled lo 
be mjjorscr^l ctiminanls. fuel mndclsind F]re 
regime. Thus we woiJd piujxme Ihat 1he three 
phases nimcd above be IreBlcd as Ihree d]stincl 
pUnl assoc] B1 ions; .^ fL^urr^^ ^jj^ / C j/^Ej/^yra — 

J6'rnigifr6^ / C. iiX2\)fortr^ End \. t£^iioc^rjx^ / C. 
ifiifJfot^f—X. r^jatr^ 

A nalural question ]s why. if phises repn-^ent 
dis1 1 ncl flonstic composi tioisi BDd 
env]mnments Ihey were not Ircitcd *i plBnt 
assoc I atioisi in the fin>t place These 
cl Bssific atioisi were ] nili Blly pn^moled AS a 
bixm lo minBgement and Ihe reseirc hers 
inluited thBl man4gen> would m^l wan1 a lot of 
complexity (loomanyhabilBl types or plant 
assocjalions reco^nizetlf Bnd phases were at 
thit time a wiyot Irackin^ the complexity of 
vcgd Bl]on/envj mnmeni relationships 
Occasionally phases hB>e been ere Bled b 
recognize re^ lonil Flonstic permutatioisi of b 
comnmn type l1 shj uld be Dj1ed 1 hit the 
env]mnmenlBl r^ngeofoncof the phases of \ 
kfiroc£^rpa / C. iiffipr/ra n%3y bejusl asgrcBl as 
thil enco mpa.'^icd by apar1]cularplanl 
assoc] a1 ion wi1h no phises. s bv .■^_ Vtr u^t^w^y^j / 
Gaiiiitn inJionffsroTA i^JNX^^fjMj/V^cfnrrtm 
c^ipiltriiim il IS enccedjngly diff ic ull to 
mefiui~e all the ph>sicaJ par4meten> of a 
vegelBl]on tvpe'senv]iT>nmenl which is 
precisely why hibitat lypesorplBnt 
assoc]a1ions hive been emb r^ced issurn>f4tc 
I ndic atois of en^ iiunment. 



32 



Plant Associations of the 
Beaverhead Mountains 
Section; Vegd^on ke/ 
and descriptions 

Wc hivc docLopKl a dkhoUmoiK key lolhc 
vcgclBl]on lypcs art] prcpiretl wrincn 
dnicnp! loiK for approKirriBlcly 50^ oF the 
plint isM)ciBl]on^1totalof 27J^Dcrumnf m 
thcEcavcrticBiJHcBdMountaire>Scclion_ The 
ap[in>achoriht MonlBnaMilurfl] H-^ntagc 
PrDgrim has "bcca to incorporate Ihc 
c] BMiifLC atLO ns or lypc dchc nplion^ oF oiIkf 
rrscBicbicri inlo our monMzncomfi bsslci^ 
(.] aHKifLL atLon; thj^ i^ hcL bu*iC the wort ot our 
predLTKS»orE his been peer irv]cwcd bjkI found 
to br sc Len1]f]c Bl]y Ti^iu Lis as wclJ ^ 
aninciitly ipplkiblcby mina^rrs Usually^ 
but iK^I alwa>'s tbic^c c Lassi he Bl]ons of rc^ionil 
and/or pbiysk>pjxijnLc lypcs |cf_ Phsttrct aJ 
]977of foreMcdIypcson nBl]onaJ fores! 
holdinp*>l hB>c bc^n t: rossw B]k«J withllxmcoF 
ncLghbonng states or pio> inccs so tbiBl a wcst- 
widr BixJ cvizntLiB]]> natLoniLclassLfu-atLoncin 
be constructrd Though b pijqx>r1cd natioinL 
c] assifu. atLon of pi ani a.'^n. latio ns bios been 
published IntematLonilclassLficationoF 
ccoLo^jiraL ri>mmLiJiLtics Tcircstnal venF^tatLon 
of 1b? United SIbIcs \nderso n ct il_ |I9?S 
Volume l]> il Ls i mjxjTlint 1o note Ihat Ihis is 
more alLstingof lypcsil tbic plant association 
level ajxJ nol a formal iBXODjmy Wilhout b 
formal taxonomy {key 1o pUnt BShociilions| 
thei? is K) coisiislcnl w a> one cin iden1]fy i 
piece of >e^emK>n on thepjuund. OnccingD 
to all 1he disparale onginB] soLijres forB type's 
descnp! ion bm oflcn even t tie hc so Lores do not 
aJwBj^s tiBve B "wort]ng tey" ttiBlcanhc 
convemcntly ind consislently employed to 
diffcrenlialeone vegelBl]onlypefiom another 

Oneof Ibecniicil pointsof icommunily's 
doicnfi tion IS how it diffen> from those 
CDmmunil]eslo which it ]s nxist closely related 
Icilher flonslicilly or env]ionmen1 Blly] 
Vegetation keys b1 the allnncc and plan1 
assiK] a1 ion levels areshorthBixJ mean^of 
dtscnmmiling among vcgeUtion lypcs 
Though 1 he TNC cUims to have produced i 
nitionil vege1a1ionelissificBl]on | \nder-.i>n e1 
bI l^S>infict atlheilhBixe and plBnt 



assiicj a1]on levels ] t IS K^lhi ng jDi^re Ihini 
laondiy Ils1 withnoconvenienl way of 
identi lying the vegelBl]onwilh which one is 
dealing and for this reason c annot be 
effectively employed Thus, we deemed it 
impcrilivelhat >egelBl]onkejTi be deve lopetl 
for this irp^mso that usec^ of IhL' classification 
would not feel stymied in 1ryi ng 1o put names 
on ind undeisUnd vegetation lypcs However, 
these kejTi are pcitiaps a weak lint jn this 
report becauhclhey have no1 enjoyed a critical 
analysis but rilher have been pieced logelher, 
I ncoriKJi^ting F]n>1 thtjse ke js fiom ongi nil 
sources These kcvs hive ilso not been tested, 
excepi wilh existing plot diti ]n an office 
setting ltshi>iildhe appreciated thai some 
fraction of Ihe >egelal]oneTlBnt on Ihe 
landscape will DJt key to a par1]culir plant 
conununily 1>pe_ This is beciuhc 1he 1ype may 
be unique tiedh> a particularsubslrale type for 
example, and was not sampled in the iirFenlor^' 
piocess For efflc lency s amph ng is slritified 
by major env]ioninenlil paranicleis leaving 
literally hundreds, ]f nnt Ibi^usaixis of squire 
miles of this eeoregion un>Lsi1ed 
.Mlematively. Ieids]nlhe key could have 
inidvertenllj Icflgipslhnjugh which cer1a]n 
types have faJlen_ 

The key to Ihe vanous physiognomic 1ypes wis 
des]gned1o be in accord with the Mationil 
Vegetation Cla.ss]F]cal]ont>"VCl and its 
concepts of forest woodland shrub I and_ etc 
In other woids- above the nons1]cally bised 
Alliance aixJ Flint .^shociilion levels we have 
I ajgely subscribetl tj the NVC trca1men1ot 
strnclurc and cover to define iinib> fn^m Ihe 
highes! levels |Oiderl ill the way down lo 
Fonnalion. 

The keys wilhi n v annus physiognonuc lypes. 
say wondl ajxis or shrublarttii, are bisedon 
flonstic comjxjsition_ Theflonstic 
ccnnposition is weighlenl by canopy cover ih 
defined by Daubenmire1l?5?l_regiidlessof 
the life form being tallied. Daubcnmire's 
c BDjpy cover is conceived to be the veTlicil 
piojeclion of a imaginary polygon about 1 he 
outermost penmeter of i plint scinopy and 
expreshed as afrac1]onot thelotal plot ii^a 
sampled Ihisconcept of cover his largely been 



33 



BcccpL<Ml in tbic ^^i.^^lE^rnUS-paiULulirly in 
MonlBna 

Wt have tncd to capluic Ibc ]iri]gbitH bdJ ^cxkI 
Hc icncET of our prcdK:e>son> wbj have t:on- 
^tructcd tcys to vanoL£> camjxjncnlH [c g jicil 
forest or ilpmc tyj>ni> of Ihot^d Bl]on ot 
Houtbiwc^tcm Mi>n1 Bna baHin^; our kcj^*! on 
1hi:iri to tbic ^xlcnt ]XJ'>Mblf A ^]gmlic4nt 
number of plint bhsoc] Bl]on^ have bccnntwly 
dnicnbcd or idcnl]flcd s] ncc ihKiC preceding 
hL^y^ wcit wriUcn Wc hivc intcrc b] Blcd ihr^c 
plint fihociilion^ iK^I trcBlcdby pirviom 
works into our keys baMxl on thL" pnncjplts tbia1 
guidnJ our piednrcTihor "> key coi7iln^1]on {at 
least as ^^ c ]nltrpn:tcd thci r ctfbrlsl_ 

In general, keys wnttcn for Montana 
vcgctBl]Dn. rcganJLras oF the donunan! Lifcform, 
h*vc been ^tnx tiucd li> idcn1]fy firyl the wettest 
ormo'>l cnviionmenUlly umqnc ^ilcs {3S 
reflected in thei r Linique Hora), or 1he nnEl 
^biBde loLcranl (in the c ase of forested 
BlhaiiccsJ- Thcorderprogre^scs to aK»JXLations 
^L^ccsj>Lve]> drier, or less tictl to !ipcc i he Mie 
eDndiliore>or^uppoTlingless^hade toler^m tree 
"ifiecies. 

The >ef eUlion ke> ]s b tool tbiBl functioib besi 
whencon^b]iied WLlh4>egelBl]on4ieM.nption. 
A forTnB]]zeiJ bixJ bghJy reviewctl dcscnption 
of B plant as!uc I ation ]n a global conlext is 
referred lo is a Commnm ty C har^ctenzation 
Abs1r*ct (CCA) The pnxluclion of c Bref ul]> 
edUedCC.^s i!icri1]CB] inlumlo piodLje]ng 
useful Holistic level cLissi he b1]oik Very few 
of 1hese abs1 r4cb> ha> e bL^n prudixetl to dale 
BixJ we hiveprov]ded the few CC _^s thai iir 
applicable ttj tbieEVHDMS_ The pUnt 
BS'wc I ation dr% n plions ^^ ilhi n this reporl 
eonstLtute in impiirlBnt sounze of ] nfoTmal ion 
for the fiHure s> nthesLS of CC As_ 



Use of the vegetation ke/ 

Instructions 

I) Seek B homogenous s]1e_ Homogeneily 
(en^ iionment and hLsh>ry of izie) Bixlihe 
vegelBl]on cover ii? pnmiry comidenlions in 

plot let atLon selection The pLo t bei ng invento- 
ried ind c I asi]fied sbLi uld be irpresenlative of 
thestinul ay b ^^ hole, ]f not, Ihen relocite the 
plot and rc-cs1]mite pLin1 rover (tbujioughLi" 
reconnoiler a M aixJ before tal:]ngapLot 
samplej- 

a^Nole thilenvimnmen1aJgr4dient> 
are often sleep aixJ Ihat 1hesi/eof 
homogeneous ve^eUlion typ^ maybe 
extiemely resliicled 1< IOm^,espE 
c]a]]y m aJ pine en> iionment^. 

b) Homogenei ty tsiTKHsl e4S]]> ap- 
pr^i'ted IS an irea sup por1]ng 4 pirticu- 
J ar sui te of domi nant^E and subordinate 
iodic atorsi pec ies_ 

2) .^eeuralely ]iJen1] Fy and estimate r*nopy 
cover for ill indicator spee]es iiied in 1he key- 
In the fbl lciw]ng key and mam bcdy of 1ext the 
c BDLipy coverage (c-c J concepi employed s 
thilof Daubennure (l^-Wj; a verlicaJ projec- 
tion about 1he oulermost penmeter ol apLanI s 
caDjpy expressed as a fr^clion of tbie area 
■sampled- The following terms are applied 
when rehiring 1ospec]es in 1 he leads of the 
vege1 al]Dn ke>^_ 

PiTscnt: li^ce to ] 00^ c anopy coverage (c c_) 
\ er^us AbBcnt: 0%c_c 

Com^An: species with L^ormoiee^ versus 
Searce: having Le^islhan l%cc. 

Well rep rest Hied : species wilhil lea.st 5^c c_ 

versus Poorlj reprewnied] less tbian 5^ c c_ 



Abundant: species bia>ing 25*^^ orgrealercc. 
versus Not Vbunduui: spec les having less 
thin 25% c c- 

Rcprodiiciiic Siiecc^ull> : Gc neral I y alLeasI 
10 seedlings or sipl I n^ per acre andnol 
confined to miciosites. 



34 



dffi BUficntt (unuhual ly ^paryc) due 1n htavy 
^razjng bruw^ing, or clcHicd cinopy Migc of 
forest vcgrUlion *iiKt:c^iDn aclju*!! the key 
downwinil to rctlcci the reduced t: Bixipy rover 
(r_g_" well itprcientctl" vmuld beci>me "(.om- 
rnon"! 

4) ]f Hcvertly d]stLijt>ed or early ^>trBl condi- 
tioift are encountered, 1h? p_ b_ Cb1 LeaM ai 
regaRfc ]w tenlidl vrgel a1 ion. espec] B]]y forested 
CDndiliochJ L^ bes1dc1eTniineJby cxIrapoLatin^ 
rrjjnihe nearest reLativclj undisturbed matiue 
"^tanJ w]1h "ii nu] ar site conJilions ("fLope, 
aspecl, elevation, ind ^oils| 

^) The following key is d]cbLi1omoiE, all 
cnleni for one of 1he two choicer of OBch 
couplel rnuhl be satisfied looblB]n aconet t 
dL'termination 1NOTE There ire many 
CDiipleb> where one on thethoiee^ Leacislo Bn 
"urkJefined or 'undcsenbed" vegelBl]on lype_ 
There aresoerBl reasorei fonhis the most 
obvious one beinf it thil ni>t bH IheUndscBpe 
hfi been]iiveiitoried bikJ there e;^is1 many 
permutatioiTiof site bixI vegetation composi- 
tion 1hat have not been tfcsc nbed_) 

6) Identify' Ehelireformgioupuhing'KF.TTa 

Pb Y'iiaCXD^IC TtPLS (LiFEFCiLU ChTEC[>- 

wMsy 

7| Within thcconec! lifeform follow Ihekey 
literBhy to identify aj in Ihe cise of forest bdJ 
WDodUnd vegetation 1he senes for B]]]ajxel 
level and Ihen piogre^ to the plant association 
|p i_l '^^ b] imhecaseof o1herl]feforTre> 
^njbLandh, gfLLS^I Biids c\l ) the key wj]] 
idenlif^ plan1 assiK i atioisi direc tly. 

5) Consult 1h[MBbLe of conlent^ to obtain Ihe 
pigc number for the physiognomic lypes_ 
PlanI a.'SrfK. I ationh areoKlered alphabel]CB]]y 
wi thin ]]fefoim (c g fores! *ihnjh I and, dw Bif 
shiubUnd, elc.| 



Caveats when using keys 

1) This key is ^.enerBlly stnjclured to identify, 
wi thin ]]fcfoiin lypes. the wettesi sHes fiist jnd 
piogre^ses to !iiKcewiively dner s] tes 

2) ]n applying the key lo^clual field coixJ] tioie 
the cover defimt ions cj ted above mighl need 
adjusting to the next lower eover^e c I aa, e_g 
"w'e]] represented" becomes 'common." Thi^ 
miy benccc-^iry w hen t he c losed c Braupy 
stape of Forest ^ucces^ion obt B]ns orwhen 
^rajj ng pressure his altered commumty 
com]Ki'>i tion 

3) ] n Ihe c ase of early successional stages. 
piftit. u] BTiy w ilh lef iid to potent] ally forested 
sites, the current ^tandci>mjxj^itionmiy no! 

"key out" to ad»icnbed plani a^sioc i ation, t hb 
isbecaiihc Ihe ke>'s iie ]n tended for use with 
relilively mBtnre vegetation. 1 1 is Ihe intenlion 
of Ihe N ationil V egetation Cl a.'Ci]ficition 
Standard [NVC) Kj treBl all ex iMing vegetation 
types, inc I iKJing serB] si Bges, IS d]sc rete plant 
assoc I ations, but this ]iilenlion has not been 
realized fur any appreciable areB in Ihe western 
US See \mDetil.Cl9S5. l?S6l Sleele 
|l93EiorHBnhenel al [19*^5} for ipprj Bches 
dealing wi th c I a^Ciifieation aixJ desc nption of 
serB] vegetation; Hansen et il. Ciy?5. pBges 24- 
27 ind Figure Jj is p bHicuI arly helpful ]n 
explajninf terminology such is p] Bnt assoc]a- 
tion>en>itsronimiinily type bixJ habiUt type 

4r To djsc nminate shrubl and£ |includiEig 
d\^ art -shrub] BixisJ fn^m "non-shrubla™k" we 
hive included theNVC appmach in normal 
typefice buMntcldfacelype wehave inclmicd 
an aJtemativeselof leads which should be 
followed Bl thjs t]me . The boldface leads are 
necessBiy bcc Buse of the significant discrep- 
ajxy between theNVC cnlena for a shrubland 
[k\ leasl 25* c anopy cover of shrubs) > er^us 
the crilena employeti by M ueggler and S tew biI 
|l 9flti V the mi>st Buthon tativc guide lo i^ngc- 
landlypesinN^onlBna Bnd the souire whi^se 
key Ihe MonUna Matujil Hent Bge Pn>^ram has 
BdhcTTd li>]n the pist Muegglennd Ste^^ait 
|l 9 &!Ii) dist] nguLsh a ~shrub] and ispec t x^hich 
the^' define bs having wood> plants comnxm, 
with at ]e ast 5% c anopy cover It should be 



35 



ix>Lcd LbiBl bftJ^d on ivcrBgc canopy 4.ovcr u^ 
1hi: "^biiiib t-omponent, none of Ihcshrubland 
typc"^ c] BHSLf icd b> MurgjjIcrarkJStcwBJl 
would qualify an ^hrubLarkii by NVCcntcna 
I n otbicr wor±> v]TlualLy aLL tht upland 
"f biiiiblincis ^^xj uld be clfi^Lf idil by Iht NVC is 
^biiub hi:rb BctoLis {l c. a Irmptr^te or subpolar 
fr^'^ilBnd ^^ Lth 4 sparse shrub ] Bycr). Wchavc 
insufhcjcnt resoLirrcs at 1his time li> follow the 
NVC nxni^L whu. bi ^^uuLd dL^tLngiiisbi bc1wccn_ 
fbrcTBmplc. an .^^ fd^m? jjVj inA^Iaia/FeiUica 
TL'^j/E^td^ur J S hnibLand and in \. UidL'^^tria / F. 
TL^Jti/F^td^ur T S hrub Hcrtjarcous l> pc tbic only 
diffnrre.c bclwccn these types m]gbil be the 
c Bnopy cover of _^_ ind€t2^{fta Wc Midu.atc jn 
the wri11cndcscnp1]onfor1hcpLan1 assocntion 
whether 1 1 j"^ considciKJ ashjublindor-^hjiib 
herbiccfu*! t^-pc b^- Ihe NVC_ 

5) Tlie keys *nd pl^nt assoc] Btionlypc dene rip- 
tions arc arrin^cd by dceieasLn^ "^i/c of 1 he 
dominanl kfefomi bix1 ^^ithin 1 1 fcform Ihi: 
upland SI te^ etc pl«:ed first followed bj 
wdland^npinan types. The oider of pre^ientB- 
tionof plani a.'doc i ation descnpl ions ]'f BlpbiB- 
bcticiL w]1hLn dominant Lifeforms. 

fi)OiKe BslBnd biBsbeen kevixl \ai phnl 
as:£o<: I ation, Ihe dcbc riptboa of Eoid siaach§- 



tion mui not txbt hi thh d<ic umeiits bo I 
references to Ihe i^^amii^t^a. includJnf Ihe 
h^st sources for Hs fkHrlpUon^ ^1 ill h4: found 
In ippcndh: D. 

7)SoFneplanl a.*soc i atioin wi f F key oul in both 
upland ind wetl and keys bee ause a| Iheir 
hAb]tat eondi tLoiSi are kiuwnlospBnIhat 
riiree, b] field pcisonneL nny be unf arm 1 1 ar 
w]lh the f]ne jxj] nb> of ascen B]nin^ wetl and 
cnlenabo tbiBl by ]ncLu:linf si>me cssenli al I y 
well and associations fthil to lhe omnilialed 
appe Br as opl ajxJ lypes^ in the upUnd key^ 
these types wi I L be correctly kJenhficd Id pi 2nt 
assoc]BlJon_ 

Sr The dk hotomtm^ kc 1 bonLj b conve- 
nience ior klentifiini^ plant a^nccbalionK / 
community t>pes^ it biut the ch^ncatlonE 
ValUntc ^'ourdi'1erniJnntHNiivh> CDinpa rhij; 
^ e^clatboai'dtc c harac terlhtlch 'w ith pjnhiu- 
elers of phinl asoctatbon descripliom; be 
especially a^^'arc tJiat vegetation compobf tion 
and c nT J ro iiinenta I Hii^ncTil hhiih cies^Tibed 
come tra m simpicd sites an J pe m^nai 
olKcrvalion and aimosi ceiiaini^ do not 
include ail the site^ (tlH: tolai rai^c of 
en^ ire nmentfil over ^^ hich tJic t^pe i^ found. 



36 



Key TO Physiognomic Types (Lifeform Categories) 

The le Bds b« low are Blighlly sIlBredorrewofded tcfu 1he Naicnal Ve^lBliDnClassi1ica1icn |NVC| ^1h 
4^ lollowing e xcBplicn ToddtcrimmBle ohrubland^ OnG3udmgdwart-^hrublandB>lrorn "non- 
fihrublandfl" we have included th^ NVC sppioach in noma I lypaface but in boldface 1ype we have 
included sn alternative Bet of lead^ which Bhould be fo I lowed at thiB lime f Bee 84 under "CavBBiB 
whan UBdng keys" ^ra campdetB explanation). 

The utfanalE NVC dBseiicationunldesignaledlnlhe phyeio^icinic ke^below le subclaaa once 
phyBio^iDinic 1ype ie ct t rmire d conlinue wi1h1he S eriea cr Aliarce Level Key^lof kiresleand 
wocdends and Icr 1 he s^ubJarxJB e1c godireclly lolhe plani sssocialicn keys which are errsnged in 1 he 
UlowTig orckr , shnj blends dweri-ElrubJends-^esslends-peremal lorb ve^lalicn nDnvaecuiar 

1. Trees Idecicijou b or e ver^een) dcminani wilh b1 Ieae1 25"^ oancfuy cover or rarely Iceb lhBn25% il 
Ihe cover o1 o1 he r lik hurms (ehrub dwerl-s^ub herb, nonvescular) is leee lhBn25%and1ree cover 
exceeds Ihe combined cover o1 1hese olh>er lilelofms 2 

1_ Trees nc1 daninanl- 1 heir cover lesslhan ?5*t and Mless 1fun 2S°ii Ihsn the ccmhned cover ololhET 
lilelccms le ^ealenhsn IhialoUhe csncpy tees 3 

2. Tree crowns a1 Ieae1 perielly overlapping kKming&O t> 1 00% cann^^ cover FOflEST 

a Evef^een tves Incn-^ ciduous conkrel pre sen1 and re prcducfng successluir^ 
fici fees per sere minjmuml and nc1 conine d 1o microsiles ifiole Ihisl si closed 

canopy sfe^ 1here maybe noevicfen^e o1 reprodudion b^ an^ coriier speciesl 

EVE BG BE EN FOB EST 

b Eve r^een 1rees abseni o r Mpresenl Ihtenresric^d humicrosilesandnml 

reprodjcingsuccesslully lunl ^i11^ specimens ^ re rally ^10 rees Vacre> 

DECIDJOUSFOflEST 

2_ Tree crowns usually nol lou c h(ng_ Iccming 2510 60^ csnopy cover. _ -WOODLAND (see a & b belowj 

a Ever^een rees Inon-deciduous con k re| preseni and reproducing successLlly flOlreesper 
acre minimum) and no1 conlined 1o micf osiles |no1e Ihsl b1 "closed cancpy sl3^ Ihere may be no 

evidence a1 repf odj dicn by any ccnier species? EVERGREEN WOODLAND 

b Evergreen reesabsenlor ilpresenl Ihien resrided lomicroeitsandnol reproducing su ccessL II ^ 
«jnlMhy apectmens ^nerally ^ 101rees^ sere) DEC ID UOJS WOODLAND 

3. Shrubs generall ^ gre Bte r 1hanO 5 m 1bII wi1 h incividuals na1 touc hing 1o overlspping and canopy 
cover ^ealer than 25"^: s hrub csncoy cover (unccfnmcciiyi msy t>e less Ihisn 25% i1 1 hie csnopy 
cover o1 DlhierEle 1crms Idwsrl-s^ub herbs, nonvssculsrs) is less Ihsn 25% and e iccee ^ d by Ihal 
ollhe shrubs I N B. 1>by killo^vwig Ihvs lead oriy shrub communiHes ^1h s size pcleniel peeler 
1htan1lie1o1dwsr1-shrul^ will be kKjnd. 2? scene 1ypes ccnsidered shru blends priof 1o NVC will now 
be kKjnd in shrub herbaceous vegelBion:alis1o1 dhvaii-stiru b species used tack ine planl 
assodelions ^11 be kiundinlhe killo^nglead i^4] 5HRUBLAN[>£NVC DEFINITHNt 

3\ Shrubs generslly g res ler than Dj5 n tall and presenting, in the aggregate, a shru bland aspect 
with at lea si 5% canopvcovar SHRJBLAN[>1Definition currently u^ed by MTNHP> 

3. Hot as abcve i e shrubs eilhier less Ih^nO 5 m 1all or 1 heir combined cove r lesslhian 25% ... 4 
3' Not as above <3'1; shrubs either less than Oj5 n tailor in the agg regale no I praa anting a 

shrublsndaBpect, theif canopy covarlass 1han 5% 4 



4. Dwarl-s^ubs Issnividuals cc clumps wiiha po1en1ial heighlless 1hanO 5m| ^ne rally kifming 

25% Of ^ea1er canopy cover [laxainiuct Artemts^ afbuscvia ilcw sa^tiush) , ^ B\ba9caiBS^ fwr^kiba 
4eafl^ kHV sa^bfijah? A :?CfVB ItJac^ sa^bnjshl , A p^^nA^ l^rdkxil sa^bnjshl , A inde:?^^s^ 
if)^emv?^e/?£vs l^^yonrg lig oa^tiush) A iP03^i^ f^[Iee-ip sa^tfus^i} Atncfiex^j(t?enfG3r&^r3 
CasB.'^fp^ inemn&aia Mer^r^ mcun^n hea1^r| Dxyss octope^}3 Chvh^ ^yss) K3}u?ib 



37 



UKiAn^hlmin. Pbn^jhyftori^B^\3f^iy-((h i,s[iubtff ^rx^s\ci\f !^^'x s^ci^dB iQIp^rf ^llcwl S. C3:?d(^ t[)o^y 
wllcw>.££^^sjlana iBoiTatl vAcH^, S.^r3i:^y^^jp^tel~'>1-^td^^llcw> S ^ucb I^bucojs ^llcwl S. 
pian:foi]a 'jar nufrr^LS ici^Bji p^BrelesI vAch^ S. r^f c^^ Cstcwa^IId^I 1 hough an u ncofnmon cond ion. 
dMarl-shrubcov^rmav b& le&B Ihan 25"^ bu I e xc&e c^ig Ihe cofnbined cover o1 Ihe o1her likkinnE 

preaeni la^uba herbrs. nonvBscu lara) which is l^ss Ih^n 25'% 

DWARF-SiBUBLftHD fNVC delinllion) 

4' Dwarf-^hrub^ (b^ individuaJi orDlumpo with a potentisl height laoi than 0.5 ml forming b 
^hrublBRdaopect wilh at leaot 5% canopy cover 1 see hsiol dwarf- ah rub Bpecie^ in lead 4 
aboval DWARF-SHHUBLANDrDafinition cuiiantty uied by MTNHPt 

4. Hot as abcvB dwarl-B hnib cover less 1 ban ZS'b: graminacfa kirbB or ncnvasoilara ccna1i1ute Ihe 
difninam canopy cover Ihcugh tees and^hrub^ may b« prezenl and have b 25"^ canopy cover . 5 

4' Not a^ above |4'); dwarf-fihrubcovarm9uffiDie4^t to preaent a BhrublandaBpact canopy c ova r 
Iefisthan5% 6 

5. Herbs fgraminc^cfe fofba krnB^ dofninani uauall ^ consi U ing a1 Ieas1 25% cancfuy cover in Ihe 
unusual cate where herb cancpy cover is leaa 1hen25% Msiil exceecfa 1he cover ol eachol Ihe 

o1 fK r li fe IcnnE preaeni 6 

S_ Herbs nolcfcminanl in1he agyegale consiu^rig less 1 ban 25*t canape cover 7 

ti. Perennial g~amincid va gE lalion ccnamu IE a a1 Jaaa1 5a%c]11he to^ herbaceciia cancpy cover. . . . 

GRASSLANttS 

fi. OlltH laJal heiboceous covar pararrial TBTTiincii^ corFStitulE less 1 ban 50% and ccnvertel ^ 

paranrial lorbs ^ncludng btarwuis end lemE^ ccna1i1ut mcce 1han 50% canopy cover 

PEBENHIALFOBB Vegetatcn 

7. Hcnvascular vegebicn Ibrycohylea lie bent algae} generally compcise a1 Ieaa1 fS'b canopy cover: 
inunuBual inBlancea nonvaacular cancfuy cove r maybe leaa Ih^n 25'% where i1 exceecfe 1he cover of 
eachoUhe other lifelccma pceseni areaa diminBte d b^ crua^n&e Ikctune ahculdbe placed in 1he 
Sparsely Ve^fcled Class NONVASCULAB VEGETATON 

7. Hoi as abcvB S 

B. Ve^lalionis acaltred cc nearly abBen1:1oUl ve^ b1icn cove r fexcludngcruslose lichena 1he cover 

o1 whch often laresceedE 1 0%> i& ^ re rally 1-1 0^*1 

SPARSE VEGETATCN 

B. Ve-iKlalion cover IS leaa 1han 1*t NOB-VESETATEH 



33 



Key TO Evergreen Forests and Woodlands 
[Includes Upland and Wetland Types] 

K&y lo Series Level 

[series are arranged alphabellcally following this key. k^y based brgely on Pl^mr^tal 

(1977). Slaayelal (1985). Hansen elal (1995)]: &arescom[Hrabl& lo NVG AllBnw L9V^I if 

only pol9nltalv^g9lalon wera acUressed] 

1. Abies ia3\0C3fpa laubalp^ne irB>pre3en1 and repcDcijdrpg BucceBBlull^inol ccniined 1d microsiles . . 
jfl fi^es fff a IOCS rpff S arte* 

1. A }3s.'Cfcajp3 BbB^rW cr nol repcocijdrpg Eucce bbIuII ^ and i1 presenl coniredlomicro&n&s 2 

2. PiceB (spfucBl spp Imosi^ P ^rr^rmffiirrr^ IBigelmsrin ^pf ucf | bu1 includng hybrid swarmB of P 
w}geJms:?ni\ x P giavca (w^^ &pcuce)] prfsenlandrBproducingsuccBsslullv. . .Pice^ app. Sanei 

2_ Pre^flspp abseni or no! re pccdudrpg succe &&1ull ^ of ccnlined fc microaileE 3 

3. Pnusd£?^i:^dj/La fwhlEbarf^ pine) pcesfnlarxJreproducingauDCBSsfully A ^sjQcarp^ (subalpne 
ir^and Prcea (spnicej Epfn maybe pceseni wi Ih mcce than 1 seeding&>'saplin^ bul Ihe^ara 
stjnted umhrilly apecimena Pintts B^btcMuiisS^neB 

3_ P sit>\C3u{fsshs^nto{ no! re producing successL II y 4 

4. Pn £j% ffexJfi^ dimber pine> preaeni and repcocijdng eucceeelully Hhoug h e p^sodcally > andoltn 
sharing 1 hris s1a lua wi1h FBevdotBtjgB me^z\es^\ |Douglaa-1ir^ Pmus fJexfftsSsne^ 

4_ P fJeA^i^rs ab&enl Of nol re prcducing succe &&1ull ^ 5 

5. Fseudcftsuga merrzi^sji fDou^aa-irJ pceseni and reproducing successL II y 

Paeudolsug^ m enz lea jj S arLea 

S_ P J77errziefliiflt5ei7fccna1repfodjcing3uccBss1ully 6 

5. Ftnt^ co:?lojt3 ilcd^pole pine>occurnngin virlually pore sUrKfa nolneceaaarily repccdudng 

lac>:ing evidence a& fc climas pclen^al Ppnns coj] (ortffSaries 

6_ P con ror^ abrsen! or rxrt f apfoduwng auGcafiitilly 7 

7. Pm £j% p Oil dero^a ^nderosa pine> preaent reproducing au cceaafully |1 hough mainiy e p^sodcallyj 

nolaccidenbl cc confined 1omicroEJlea PinuB pondarooa Sane* 

7_ P pOi7H^fDS5 abeen! or accidental S 

S. Jun^e ru5 sfop LT^ordJiT? (Rocky Mountain ^jnper? 1he irxficatedsit dcminanl hai^ng oancf]y cover 

g~eatr l^nor ec^al to that [^ Cefcocaipus tedfMfUB £cu rl-lea1 mcunbin m a hc^ny) 

JuniperuB sccp^Xorufn Senet 

S_ J_ flcopd^of LTjn nol 1 he indcaled site Eiominant 9 

9. Cercocd/pua tedtfoJ\vs* fcud-le af mounlafn ma hc^n^> Ihe indicalEdaMe difninanl 

Cercocffrpufl fe Jrfo ^jus S ene* 

B_ C_ ^ec^fofr4Jfl rrtH Ihe indcaledaile dcminani 

Fora H T Q r woodla nd Series rAlliance>BH yet unrecognfzed tor the Beavediead MounlairrH Seclion 



'CenTdcarpts recffe^uEts ccTBctfed a s^b ri rno&l tc¥as botlTixe ■A^tTi e xperierce In 1 ^ <^a1 ^anmay 
cc¥iBJC^r il a tee: ^ve have mduc^d il ri bclh Hie woodand and trealliey and 1^ s^Uand ke y 



39 



Ab^es /asiocarpa (subfilplne fir) Series 
Key Id Plant Assoc ialjons 

1. SitBal cratx>ve Ihe coldlimils ol Psetjdotsvga (ne:?zt^3u ^Dcaa^bs-^) and also meeling cne ol 
ktllDwing crileriB 

B. Pmtrs ^dnjca ufis 1w ^lebBrk pinel ^v^ll rBpfeBBnledaa Bilher B&ral or climax ccmponenl 

b. idJZLTi^h^rc^cDC^.'j Ismoolh WDodrush) pfSB^m nol relaled toirucraBilBs: 

c Rfbes mcfHtgw^um Oncunbin ^:x>se b« rr^> presenl 

d_ SUrxJa b1 upper limte'line g'O'.'nV" sHinltd 1ree heigh! nol mu Dh e xcee ring 50 ft 

UPPER SUEA^Pr\Ei "IVEEnLlNEHABITATS Iead#16 

1_ Hoi Bs ahcvB 1 

2. Ledum gianduJosum {Labradcr 1e b| ^vellrepfeBBnlBd JalleBSI 5% car<»p^ cavert 

Abtes fasjocsfpff Ledum gfefYdufcfSum p b 

a One cc any cooibinatian a1. 1 he Idlowmg spBcies well repcesentd: CaiamsgroB^ C3n&de:\3is 
buepnl reed^aas). C Ets\c^ O^rrow-spike d reed^ase^ S^:?ec}0 Jr^rr^^j~is farro^eal 

^Dundsell C^femsgrosJis c^nadefYsts phasa 

b Not as above C c-3n3oe:\3is, C slficta, S. tnB:?gtf}&f^ po{x\y repreaenled um^r^owlh 
ma^be variously difninaled b^ Vaccf^^tum 3copBnv(n {g~{KJS^ whcrleberry) V cespMosum 
(dwarl huckleberry) Lv^na^aboreaivs (hvinllower) Cornea c-3n3de^a\s fliurchtMrr^l 
Caiamagroat^a rtjbescens Ijiirte^ass) , or Carex geyer^ {elk se dge) .iedu/n glsf^dufcfa^m phasa 

2_ L gfandt^oflUJTT poorly re pceae nfe d 3 

3. CEi^r7?a ^osIls carra dei7srs ihJue fiinl reed^assl or C sf^icZa Oie rrow-spike reed^aaa) al[]ne or in 

combinalion well repcesentd Abi^s ^aaiocerpa yCafffmsgroBtis c^nedensta p a 

a Vaccf:?{vm ce^i ro^t/m Idwarl huckleberry) ccfnmon V&cciniufn c^epitoB^m phasa 

b V c^apft^tsum BUBiue Csfffmsgn^sJis csnedensra phasa 

3. C caradensie and C £rfjc&_ain^y orlfKircombinedcover pocrly repreaenled 4 

4. StreoioQus ampiexsfcftfus (hvieled sUlk) S^nec\^ r^jarr^Ln^rrs larrowleal ^ourxieel) MJ^etfa pentsndm 
live- Blame ned mjtra WEX1} cofnm[]fi either indvidually cc Iheir c[]fnb4ned cover (andnol centred 1o 

micraaitesk Abies festoc^rpe / Streptopiis Ewpfexifofi^B p a 

a lienzses^ fefrtjgtnes ffoofs tiucUeberry) well repcesentd MefYziesfs ferrugme^ phasa 

b Ki fesrug^ea pQO\\y repcesenlEd Streptopus ^mpfextfohua phasa 

4. The atx>ve -list d 1ccbs. alcne or 1he ir ccmbire d cover, having less 1^n I'b cover 5 

5. Cai\ijm tnfiortjm |awee1scen1edbiedetaw> andy^c^e^ rvbra d>ane be rr^> ei1 her eingly cr Iheir 
combined cancf]y cove r a1 least 1% Abtes f^si^cerpa "Gafium triilorttm p. a^ 

6_ C tftfJoftfm ^nd A. rubra ain^y or combir>ed cover leaalfranl't 6 

6_ Weoziesifl fexTugf^^ea ftacJe liuc*Jeberr yl well represented 

Abi^s Xaaioc^rpa / M^nzieafe f^rrugfiieap^. 

5_ W_ fen-dJjA^ejpcorl^repcestnfed 7 

7. LiJirTa e^ bcj~e^^r£ 11winlDwer> commcn Abtes Sasiocerps s Unnses boresita p a 

7_ L bo^ejfrs scarce S 

B. Vacc^fum ce^^ro^trm Idwarl huclJeberry) common Abies f&stCfC^rpe . V^ccmtum cesp^t^sum p. a 
S. V ceapttoaum 3CR\ce 9 

9. Aintisytfidfsssp sinuata |Si1ka alder) wellrepreeenled 

Abtes fagjocsfpa "Alff^s viridrs Hsp. siff^Etsp a 

fl_ A fjmia aap_ am ua& pcorly repcas^nlE d 10 



40 



10 Xerophy^tjm t^s73x fliearfl^asl commcin Abies fffssocsrpff y Xerophyllum tenex p a 

10 X rww^6CBfce 11 

11 V3cc}nfum membfsnsceu^P [b\g huckleberry fcirmeri^ V gt^viare l^cbe huckl€t>trfyj in wealern 
Mcnlsna and rxKlhem kfaho] well repfeBenled. . .. Ahi^s iasiocerpa/ ^eccimiim giobuierep^, 

11 V J7T em6 fan flcet/m peer I y repreaenled 12 

1Z VBCcJpfum 3copsrtun}[^CAM3^ whorHeberry includng ^ myx^ilvB Idwarlblberrvlj well repcesentd. .. 
Ab^es ^ff a JO ca rpe / Vff CH7m rujiT scopffncim p a 

12 V scopaffum Jand V JTPyrtiWugl pcori ^ repf esentd 13 

13 7^flJicJrdJJ77 ocwdei7CaJe (weslernmeadDwrue) cr f fefrdiefj {Fender s meadowruel well repfe&enltd 

Abies iestocBrps v7hafj4:tn/m occidenlut^p^, 

13 7_ ccJdw?^ Je poofly repf e Eenled 14 

14 Ciem&tG C0j£r/n6»/?a var c^ivufbisna f^ofmerly C psevd^tsipff^B RcKi^iy Mounlainclemaisk cr C 
cordJJTTbiQrra var t^nutlobs (kvmerly C ferrtrJfdt^ matled pu rple virgns-bowerj pceaenlcc Pa7us 
fl^xiits flimber pine> cofnmcn lailesinvanaU^wilh calcareous aubslrale^l 

Jlbied iMsioc^rps s CXenf^tis cc^cim^^^na var co fcin] b^^n ^ p a 

14 C CD Jtr/nt^Ji a var cofdJiTTJu-^rra and C ca^unT^Larr^ var. Zerrtjvlct^abBenland P fJe^^Ecarce. . . 15 

15 C&ianmgfostis r4iba^cerr.s ^ne ^ess> well repreaenled 

Abtes f^9iocerpB / Cffiemsgrostts mbescefYS p a 

15 C rd^eflcerrs pcKcly repcesenlE d 16 

15 Csfex gsye,'\ felk Bec^J well repfesenled Abi^s fes^ocarps Csrex geyeri^ a 

15 C_ geyenpcofl^repcesenlEd 17 

17 Am\cs corH^foJjfl ( he arleal arnica) untfe rgrowl h domiranl _ Abi^s iasiocerpa 'Arnica cofdjfo^ja p a 

17 A cofH^foAifl nol 1 he undergrowl h dcmiranl 

Undelii^^ planta^BocialionB within Abfes ^ffaioc^fpff S^ne^ 

IS Abies ia3\ocsfpB laubalp^ne ir^ and P\ce3 (spnice> spp scarce or. if ccmmon Ihenunl^ifly 

spedmefFS P.V7dJ£ ^dn icauAs 1w ^lebark pinel Ihe indcaled dofnina n1 tee a I pco^cled lcri~pg1erTn slabla 
sfele Pinus ^ibicBuifs Series 

IS Hoi as ahcvB 19 

19 Timbierline habilalE Abies iaB\eu&fpB laubelp^ne Frt and Pic^a (spnice) spp slunled Pmus ce/?Jerb 

ilodgepde pirej acarce Menzfes^ f^rfugin^B Ikiols huckleberry} abaeni 

PifYus efbiceuXis -Abtes issiocerps ^ a 

19 Hot as aix]ve . 1cf eat envirormanlE wjlh^. isBsocafps Bt\e^3t^O Jl at malunl^ 20 

20 LtfzuiB giabfslB var. J?^rc^cc i7^Ji C^kh^Ii ^^qc^u!^ Fwnsft^^ hi'tVcEv^h^ ccrnmcn 

ilf^ies las^ocffrpa f Luztfia gfsbreJe^Bi htJchcockii^ a 

20 L giBbf3^ var hftcbcockfi suBrue ccn1ined1cisnow{fepcBi1icnmicf[>silea 21 

21 VBCcipfum Bcepsnum (^ouse whcrleberry ircludng V myfltUt^ dwarlblberryl well repfeBenled: 
Pn£j%d£?^i7ddjjLS (wlitbarf^ pine) persitirpg even re pccducvig well inio longlerm alable sUle due 1o 
open canopy na lure of Bland alru dure 

AbiBS iesiocerps -Pintts sibfcsufis ^ Vaccif^i^nf acepffnum p.a 

21 NotasahcvB 22 

22 Ri^es moi7Jigerrt//7r {mounlain gMJsebierTyJ pcese nl and no! rele galed lomicrosifeE 

Alues fesioc&rps Fibes wontig^num ^ a 

22 R. mw^t^genum EbBsnt Undelined plant a^BocialianB within Ab^es ^^ajocafp^ Sarie^ 



41 



Cercocarpus feditolius (cur\-\e3^ mountain mahogany) Series 
Key to Plant Associations 

1_ F&a Jtrta Jc^f] D^iTsrs <kfe he fescut) well repcesenled of 1he dDminanl g-aminad 

Cercocarpcjfl fedifofiuB ^F^sJuc^ pJjftoffrraFfl p a. 

1_ F i^^ow^s^ pocrly repreaenled Bnd nol 1he cfcminani ^-aminoid 2 

2. Fseudo^Qegr\ef\a sp\c3ts iblu^bunc h wheal^BssI or Oryioz:fS{s hyme{foido3 (Indan ricQg~aBB) ItiBir 

individual cc ccmtHned cover Dcns1i1u1e 1he domiranl ^BmincHdE 

Cercocjfpus ledifcffi^s ' Ps euJoj'oejn e na spJtJJff p b 

2. P ^i4;^2^Bnd O hymeniifdeE indvidually cc 1heir ccmbme d cover, nol 1he difninBnl gramincii^ . ... 
Und^finBd Cercoc&rpus fac/^^ J^cis-do m i hb led plant BtHODiation .'community lype 

Juniperus scopulorum {Foc\y Mountain Juniper) Series 
Key to Plant Associations 

1. CoUcnwocd <Pap4J^dJfl &pp J specie & wellrepre&BnlBdor Camt/s 5^ rrcfla (red-Dsier dogwocxft Foa 
prBfaiisrs IKBnIuckv l:lue^Bsa)or ^^rad^sra^a/?rfara Iredbp bIboA albal singly ct comtHned 
cover cofnmon riparian ^i Ie b Jufiip^fits 3copwtor\im . C^jfius stQfoiwf^r^ p b 

1. Cotlcnwocd IPapjj^dJd Bpfn ) Bp^cieepoody rppreBenlBdand C sfa^a/^^far^, P pr^ferr^is. and A 
sJflJonr^ja ^ Bin^y of 1 hEjr conbunad caver, scarce 2 

2. Cercacflfpug JenD^fo Jitrs Icurl-Faal mou ntBin ma hoganyj well repce^enfed 

Junfper^B Bcopulorum CercocErpus ledifofiuB p^B^ 

2. C. ^adfafrufl poccly represented 3 

3. AfSemis^ n^vB back BBgebfiJBh> welirepreBenled . .Juniperus scopuSorum ArJemisiB nov^ p a 

3. A noL^apcoflv repcesenled 4 

4. Aflemis^ tndents^ bg^agebfijah. UEually aubapeciea L^^-aey^rra or V\de:\t3tB) well represenled 

Juf^tperus Bcopuhmm /ilrtem^aja JndefYtstff p a 

4. A tjda;?^ a pcofly rapcBsanlE d 6 

6. Fseudcffoegnef'B sp\cats Hcrmerly Agf^yron apfc-Bttjm bJuebunch wheat^ass} well reDreaenled cr 
Ihe dcfnir^nl ^aminoid Juf^tperus Bcopuhfum / Ps e£/da I'aajn e ns spicst^ p a 

5. P Bp fcatB pDO{\f repcBsenfedof no! Ihe dcminanl^aminad 

Undefined plant afiftDciation4»)witKin the Junip^rus acc^pij Jerum S eriet 



42 



Pices (spruce] spp. [predominantly P. engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) and A 

engeimanniix P, gfauca {white spruce) hybrids] Senes 

Key to plani associations 

1. E^^uts^tum srvens^ flield hccBBlail) atxjncfani Pic^M 4pp ^ Equisetunf srv^nse p b 

1 _ E flfvense no! abundanl 2 

2. C&f^x df^exwB laoll-lBavBd Bfd^) well r^pcBs^nlEd Ptc^s Bpp ■ C^rex dtsp^rma p a 

2_ C_ di^ermapiKxIy repcBsenlEd 3 

3. C&ia(T)BgfO£t\s c3nBde:?s\s ^us firW re&d^BssI C 3V\c^ (r^rrow-spk^d r&e dgraBB^ cr Senecfo 

iTion^iifaj^ (arrowlBalgroundB^U cofTimcn eilheralcne orin ccfnbnBlon 

Prces Hpp C^ffffnagroBtis c^nsdensrs p.a^ 

a_ C. ca:?Bdens& C airfcis and S. trifl/^gtiVjfjfl &cBrcB 4 

4. Comtjs s^rtc^B {kKmerly C sJ^loi^r/^ hb. red-osiBr dog^ocd) or ^.t?ua incarra OnmnUin alder^ 
common Ppees ^pp ^ Co m us sericeff p b 

4_ C_ a^j^c^j scarce 6 

S_ Two oil ht IcJIotHirpg mciEl-Bite fccbrs pf e eenl or one or more ccmmcn Strep loo vb Brnptexifolms. 
Iclaspng-le BVB d 1wis1e d BlBlk> CaU^m tnfiortjm laws &l3ce nied biedstBW> Aetata fi^ra ibareberr^> 

Pjcea app. "Galium triflorum p b 

6_ Not BS ahcvB 6 

N B SitBB abova thifl leva I in tha kay are usually wetland b and/araBtociatad wilh riparian faaturei 

4. L\nf?a es bore&tfa i^wmfuti^ri commDn Picea « p p . / iiFTn^ea bore^^fa p. a. 

4_ L boresifs scarce & 

6. PI]ya]CBjp ua niB Ji^ceuB {moJIow nnebar1<) well rapfe&anl&d 

Pices Bpp. ^Physe campus mafi^jceus p.a^ 

6_ P JTTflJi^Jce US pccri ^ repreaenltd 6 

G. Kia^nthemtim sSeiis^m (kKmarly Sm^cATa Eteiiata alarry Solomcns aeBl>or ThaUc^tiuf ccidontsie 

Jwesltm meadfffcVTuel ccmmon Picas spp / MffisfyJhemum areJJarcim p a 

6_ W 5feJ!fa/4jm and 7 o ccjde/? la fe scarce 7 

7. Sei7e i7J0 £}rep [Bi7thjYQ^^us TRm^iy Mounlain bullerw&e dl preaenl unttr^owlh^nerall^d&pauperalB 

Pices app. / San e^ifo atrapt^nthifcffi^s p a 

a Paevdatatjga meoz\ea}\ |Douglaa-1ir} Dcmmon Paeudotauga nenzieaii phaBa 

b P /7r&iiziesjiacarca.ai1esabove lis elevalicc^l limits Pice ^ Bpp phaBa 

7. S 5^^ biiihj^0jj£/s abrsem. und&r^owth vanous Undefined pj '&. within Pices app. Saries 



43 



Pinus sfbicjulis{yihHeb3fk pine) Series 
Key to Plant Assocblions 

1. VsccJpfum 3c<}f^rtum f^ous^ whcrl^bBrry) well repcBsentd n^l nece bbbiiI ^ dofnir^nl under9~Dwth 
specJBS in 1hs prcBBnce d1 hig h coverage s o1 various h&rb^ usually As:?ica iat:roiia IbfoadlealamcaJ 
or^. cord}fcfha (tuarl-lBal amicB> PifY^s sfbic^uXis ^ V^ccimiim Bcopsrium p a 

1_ V flccfiaf^LTiT] poorly repre Eenled 2 

2_ C&f^x g^yef\ |elk ebc^I well repfasenled Pmus afbicsufis ' Csrex geyerf p a 

2- C gey^ n pcof I ^ repcesenfe d 3 

3. Jvnjperi^ c^mmun^ Icofnmon ^niperl ^sfja^Jcrs rn^&r {weedy milkve 1c h| . of Strepherdta 

caj^ad^nsJB ICanada buHsloberry^ well repcBsentdof dofninanl eilhersngly crcoJIedively .... 
Pinna ^^bicBu^fB /Jtiffip^rus cominui^tB ^ ^ 

3. Hoi BS ahcvB 4 

4. Fe^f£/ca Jc^hoeiT^rs 4 kfa ho kscue) ccmmon Pmus ^fbtcsufis ^ F^stucs tdah^^nsiap^. 

4. F i^^04/?s^ BcsrcB Undefined p.a >./c t >. within the Pinus fflb^csultsS^ne^ 

Pinus conlorlj (IcxJgepole pine) Series 
Key to Plant Associations 

1. CaiawBgfJstis carr^ densrs ihJue fiinl reed^eeel or C stnc^ Oiarrow-spihe reedg~aBB) ein^y of l^ir 

combined cove r wellrepreaenled 

RknuieDnlartB.'CBlarn^grcitUicBn^demitc: t^iBe^ b&low] 

a VBCc^fum c^apft^tatfm (dwsrl hucUeberry) preseni having a1 leasl 1% cencoy cover .... 

Vffcciniiifn cespitosum phsBB 

a V ce^rlosLrm scarce tie ving less 1 hen 1% CBf^msgrcfSJis consdensts phaBB 

1. C cdiTe de/?ss and C sf^jcz^. poorl y repceeentd eilher indvicijall^ or 1 heir combined cojer ... 2 

2. VBCcinfum cespft^tBtjm idwBr] huclJeberry) common .. Pmejs cont^it3 / Vaccfnfum cespit^aum^A. 

2. / cespstcfsum acarce 3 

3. L JiiTd e^ £>eij~e9^ 41 winlDwer> common Piffus c^f^JortB / Linnses borsB^fs p b 

3. L inorejfis scarce 4 

4. XeropbyUtfm tw^&x i1}ear9~aBB^ well repreaentod Pmus coiit^it^ / Xercphyfittm t^naxc.t 

4. X re/w^poccly represenfed & 

6. Vacuum BCi^pBfitfm l^c*iae w hof lie he rr^> wellrepreaenled 

Pinus CO J] forts / Vaccm rujiT sc^pffriufn c. t 

5. V scopar^om pcoriy repre Eenled 6 

fi ThBi\ctrijm ocwdei^Cale (weslernmeadcwnie) cr T" ferrdJefj <Fe rxier s meadow rue) well repcesenled . 
Piffua c^ffJofta / ThaixctruifY occideatMi^ct, 

6. T c c J dej^^fe and T fenderi poof I ^ represenled 7 

7. Ca^md ^aaHa rijbe^cerr.a ^ne ^ass) weJ repreaenled 

PiffUB cof^JortB / CfflsmsgrosttB mbeBceffSD.t 

7. C fubeaceiTspcofly repcesenfed S 

a. Caf^x peye:i felk &e€^l well repfesenled Pinus coftJorTj Csrex geyenp a 

a. C. gff/err poof I ^ repcesenlE d 9 

B. FurshfB V{de:\t3ia {anlelope billerbm & h> common Pin us cof^toit^ PursbiB tndeffJsts p a 

44 



B_ P ffJde/i Ca 25 scarce 10 

10 C&f^x ross}\ fRoea ebc^J well represenltd or 1 f^ untfergrowlhdomiranl 

Pjnus coftJorTj 'CjfeATJ'osaJj p a 

10 C. foaHjr poori ^ repf e Eentd or not 1bE undEjgrowlh dominant 11 

11 ^iTTi^a c^rdMJa (heBrlealamcB) cr ^s&a^ Jt/s m^er <we edy milkve Ichl weirrepfe&enltd ell her 
sirpgly or Iheir ccmtHned cover Pinua coftJor(a Arnica c^rdifcffis d_ t 

11 A ciJfdfcAaarxl^- miB^fpoofl^repre&enled alcne orlhtirccimtHntdcover 

Und^finad Pin i^a con rorta-dcm mated lyps 

Pinus tfexifis (limber pine) Series 
Key to Plant Associations 

1_ Cercocflfpua JPH^fo Jit/s <curl-lea1 mou main ma ho^nyj well repce^enfed 

Phtns ffdxihs .' C ff f c e c fl ;jJ4J s fddtf^Itvs p b 

1_ C_ ^cPfofwigpoccly represenled 2 

2. JunJip^rvB cjfnmun^s (common ijniper>or J ^ojYfw?IaJia jcfBepirpg ijnperj well repreaenled .... 
Pinus f^eitfis /Jun^peruB confmuffisp a 

2. J. commtmts and J. hjfizont3{:E pocM\y repreaenled 3 

3. F^attjca c&mpestf}3 Ifccmerly Festvca scahfelJa, rough fe&cuel common 

PiffUB fiexifis 'Fas rue ff Bcsbr^ff^ p a 

3. F. campaa&ia Bcaf ce 4 

4. F^BttJca ^c^^aeiT^rs (kfa ho k^cue) well repcesenled . . . Pinua ^e jrp^ia / Fasliica irf ^ ^aai] sia p a 

4. F liH^ow^s^pocrly repreaenled & 

6. Fseudcffoe^efJa sp\c3ts Hcrmerly Agfopyron Bpfc&Wm bluebunch wTiEBlgrBss> well repreaenled . . 
Pinus ffextfiSf Agr^pyron spicsJufn p b 

5. P fiorca 25 poor I ^ repcesenled Undafinad p b 't within Pmus fiexihsS^ne^ 



45 



Pseudotsugs menz/esiV (Douglas-fir) Series 
Key lo plant associations 

1. Habdata en Bl&ep slopes l^enerslly -- 4D<%1 compose d o1 u rstaUe Bubslrsles tcm graver !□■ 

TDch snd lacking schI d&velcpnienl urx^r^owlhcsnopy cover sparB^ snd sps tail ^ quile vsrisble . . 
Pseudotsugs m^nztesti ' Screa ^ a 

1. Not Bs above eUbs wilhEcma acil develcpfnent dua toslahtijly at aubatrale urx^ rgrowlh cover more 
urikimi re lecUng lack o1 microailes 2 

2. Comtjs s^rtc^B Ae d-oaie r dogwcodh Salix app IwiIIdws. e xceping S. Bcovier^s^a Bcouler willow) 
Ac^^B fubrB tbarebierry} Fob pmlens^ ^Kenticky blue^assl or EqdJJdeJ4jrn ajverr-s^ (field hcrse1ail> 
cofTimcn individually cc 1hair ccmb^na d cover . . . -Pseudo tang a monztesti / Comus sericesp a 

2. Above La1ed Efx cja a considE re d incivjciiaUy cc Ihalr ccfnbnad cover, acarca 3 

3. Gifes wUhalleasloTPE of 1he hullowing vh^ iland alfi'lbules pf a Ben1: hy^ophylic ve^iaiicn we (and 
hyc^dc^y hy^ic bc^Ib Uncla^Bifiad Wetland oi Rjpanan Sitei 

3. SileE lacking an^ ore o1 1he above -listed we Hand a1tib*ilBS 4 

4 VBCcinfum cespft^tBtfm (divarl hucklebierryj ccmmon 

Pseudotsugs men^resjj. V^cctf^tuuf ceBpit^sum p a 

4_ V cespttoBum acarce & 

6. ^inrra e^ £}OJ~e^^rs 11winfiDwer> cofnmcn Pseud^to^ga weffziesif ^ Linffses bore^ftB p a 

fi_ L bo re^is acarce 6 

6_ Fftyflocajpua maJvacedAS {mallow rirpEbarkl welFrepfe&enled 

Pseud^to^g^ mefYzieoi* / PhyBocsrpua m^fv^cet/sp a 

5_ P JTTflJL^Jce L^ pccri ^ represenled 7 

7_ VBCcJpfum m emtrajwce Lrm (tag huckleberry kirmerly V gJobtfJBfe] wellrepfe&enled 

Pse^doJsugs menzjeajj Vjctmjujir mejir 6f ff n j cecim p a 

7_ V JTTP jntranace tr JTT pocriy Tapreaanlad S 

S_ S^mpherrcarpos jflu us (comm en snowt>erryJ well represenled 

Psifud^Jougff meffzi^si* "Syippi^oricarpoB afbuB pra^ 

B_ S jIh ljs poori ^ repf e Eenled 9 

9. C&ian^gfost\B rvb^BcerxB ip\ne ^ass> well represenled 

Pseud^Js^g^ wefYzi^oi* / Cff^smsgroottB mbescefYS^ a 

9_ C_mbeacerB pcof ly repcasenlE d 10 

lO C&f^x peyefi felk eec^l well repfes*nled Paecidofsuga m^nz^esft Csrex geyeri ^ a 

10 C ge/^ n pcof I ^ repcesenfe d 11 

11 SpsvBeB betuM^i^ |a^ny-lea1 spiraea) wellrepreeenled 

PB^udotsuga in^nziearf / SpiTBoa beJufifoiia Pra. 

11 S betui{foJ\B pocrly repreaenled 12 

12 AfcSoBtsphyl^tB LTva-iAnar UmkinrnA} weL je prese nte d 

PBOudotsugs m^nztesti / Arctost&phyloo uvs-cirsj p a 

12 A Ljva-trraj poccly re pcese nfe d 13 

13 Junpe rdjs cemmun-a (common ^niperl or JtiV7pef lts f] ur Jzurr^^^ |cre epng jj ripe rl Ihe under^^nwlh 
d[]fninan4 Ps^ud^Jsug^ meffzi^oif "JuniporuB o^nfmuffisp a 



46 



13 J_ coj7rj77tjT7is and J_ f] ijf Jzorr&^;£ rc1 Ihe underyow! h dcminante 14 

14 Sywph^rfcafpos ^reophfjtjs ^^T\CAMn^A\n Bnowb&ny) well repcesenfed 

PB^ud^JBugs wenzieB** s Symph^ricsrp^s ore^phil^s ^ a 

14 S Dfeopf]jydJS pocfiy raprtBentfld 15 

IB AmicR c^rdMJa (T^ Bridal amicB> cr Aniw^nana /acemo^d ^Bc^me puBBy-loeB) 1h& domfnenl 

uncfar^owlhBp^cies Ps^udotsug^ nf&nzieB^t s ArfYic^ cordtfoita p a 

IB HBhtier A cornD^^oA^ ncc A racemosa Ihe dccn inani u rxler^owth spadBS 16 

16 Carcoca^puB Jf H^^o Jitrs 1curl-l€a1 mou main ma hogBnyJ cc Junip^rus scop uhf urn ^Rocky Mounlain 

ijnper) cr Iheir comtnned cover well repcesenfed 17 

16 C_ ^ec^fofrua and J scmpt/Ju^L/m poof I ^ rapf e Eanltd 18 

17 Cefcocfl^p4Jfl JeH^folit/E <Gurl-lea1 mou nia in ma hcflan}"! having gre ale r cancpy cove r 1 han JLh7pe:Lrs 
scoput^rum (Rocky Mounlain ^jnper? . . . Pseud^tsu^^ meffziesii / C^rcocMrpus ^edTfoiiuB p a. 

17 C. ^cPfofrua having le&a cancpy cover Ifran J BcopuUtfum 

Pseud^Jsugff weffzieBii/ Junfperus Bcoptihrump ^ 

15 Fesft/cff c&mpeBtf}3 Ifccmerly FeBtuca scah relJB. rough fe&cue) common 

J^B^ud<}JBugs m en zjflflM / Fes JEJCff scebfeflff p a 

IS F. cfljnpeaS^ acarce 19 

19 Fe^ft/c^ jc^^oerfsi^ 4 kMho 1&ac4je) common . .Ps&ttd^Isug^ mefYzi^sii "F^sJuc^ tdsh^&nstB p a 
19 F i^^ow^i's EcarcB 20 

2D Pseudjfjegnefia spicB^ (kcme riy A^c^yjnrr f^^cffhr/rr, bluBbunc h wh^at^a be? well f e preae r^ d . . 

Pseud^Jsugff wefYziesi* / Ps^ud^r^^gnens Bpicata p a 

2D P ^r4;^2^ poor Iv repces^nled Undafmed p^ ot Ihe PseudcfJsugs menzieaij Series 



47 



Key TO Deciduous Forests and Woodlands 
Including Upland AND Wetland Types 

IbaB&d lar^ly en Hansen el al 11996) ^ Mu^g^er f19&S?] 

1_ Fopi:Jt^3ngt^tfoi\a Inarrcyrtleal collonwocKft and P ba^ssmsfer^ BBp. V\chocafpa (farmerly P 

Iffchocs^pa black coUcnwDod} alone cc 1heir ccmb^ne d canopy cover, al If asl 25% cc Ihe dcmlnanl 
lilalccm a 

1- P &nguBt)fcf{f& End P tafeaj77ifeja ssp trf^ihocBfpa wi1h ^ 26"* canopy cover andnol 1he cfcminanl 

species. . . . P r^emo^oide^ trembling aapen^ damineni and having a1 leaai 25% cover, ain^y or in 
comtHnalion wi Ih P 5frp4Jfllifu^5 of P batsan^ff^ra 11 

2. PopdjJus Jua^s^rn^fer^ BBp rj~ic/i ocarpa blAdi cotlDnwocd) wi1h9~eatr cancpy cover Ihan P 

sngtJBUM^ InarfD^^eal collonwoocft 3 

2. P bBJ3Bm\fef3 Bsp tr\{:hoc&fpa hai^rpg less canopy cover Itien P Si^gusJifoAa 7 

3. Site rec^ni^deposiled alluvial bar cc overllow reach wilhaeedling and sapling size classes 1cl>h 

<B □ in > {fciminaling Pop^f^s bslsam^f^rff asp. trichiiGsrps ■ Reoent Alluvial Barp a 

3. P r^jc^ocd^p^represenledb^pde cc maLjre size claaaes 4 

4. Shrub apecicB having a I le asT 1 5% cancpy «nre r cc Cjmv3 3«rfc^B Ire d-osie r dogwcod. Iccmerly C 
sroJoi7r/^ja> Dcmmcn & 

4. Shrub species living less Ihan 1 B% canopy cover and Comussej^c^j scarce 6 

5. Coirrt/sserrcea <red-oaierdcflwoodJ cccnmon 

P. bafasnfif^rs iBp. tricbocsrps 'Cofnusserfceff p a 

£. C d^^ceff scarce : LTfxier^owlh ma^ be dccninaled by an^ cccnbiraicn o1 Symphoncs^oB aibtjs 
{wesfe m snowberr^> S uccfH^rrteJAS |commonsnotHtierr^> Peaa ifoodsr^lwoodsrosel cc Rasa 
sc\Ci:JBf^ Ipf ickl ^ rose } . . P bslssm^f^rff HBp. tnch {> Gsrps / Symphoncsrpos ^ccid^ntshs p a 

6. Pd^ p^a J^iT^rs ( Ke nU cky blu eg~aaa) Pea pa J us Ins 1k>w I blue^ass^ or Agrostis altts |redlDp> 
abcinc^m cr dicninaling 1 ^ un<^r^ow1h P. b^Js^mff^rs Bsp. Jnch^csrpff "Poo pr&tensts p a 

G. Hoi as abcve Undafinad p a within P bffls&mfferff B^p Trrchec^fpeSane^ 

7. PopuJt^ an§t^UfoJ\a Inarrowieal collonwoodj see ding cr sapling size dassea |cbh ■■ 5.0in.l 
dicninale recenlly deposited alluvial bars Popttitts sngusUf^I^s f ReDeiit Alluvial Bar p a 

7. P Bngv3i}fcf{f3 po\s cr mature size classes dominate Ihe site re^rdess olsubslrale S 

a. Shrub apecies living a sin^e or Dccn b^ned cancpy cover o1 25% cc Cof^^ua sercea |red-osier 

dijgfcvooifl a1 leasl common 9 

H. Shrub apecies living less than 1 5% canopy cover 10 

9. Comtjs s^nc^a Ire d-osier dc^wood) cccnmon . . . P^puiua ^f^gusJifoff^ ^Corous sJc^onif^r^ p a 
B. C£^j~ic^a scarce: urxJer^DWIh ma ^ be dccninaled by any cccnblr^icn o1 SysTyphoncajpoa aibt^ 
JwaslE m snowberr^> S occKferrSJjs Icommonsnotntierr^) Peaa ifoodar^lwoodsrosel cc Rasa 
acicub^.^ iprickl y rose ^ Popo^us angtistiMis yS/mphorfcffrpos occtdenJaffe p a 

10 Poa pfale:?s\s (K^nlucky btvegrsaa) P^ta palustrfs (f^wt biuegrass) or Agrostvs a:bs |redlop> singly 
or com tens d cover, abuncfant, or drHTWsm 

p4]p[jf[js BngtfsJifoIis y P^& prsJeffsis p.a^ 

1D Notes abcve Undelinad p a. within Pepu^iis af^giiBUfoh^ S^ne^ 

11 Caia(T)agfO£t\s carra dei7srs ibJue film reed^assl or C atncta Oiarrow-spike reed^assl.sin^y orin 
combinalion well repcesentd Pepulus trewufoides Csf&fnsgrcfBtis c^nsdensra p a 

11 C. caiTd d«/?Siis or C a^cb. e i1 his r ain^ y or 1 his ir combined canopy cojer poofly represenled ... 12 



43 



12 Sb}Jx I'fcVillciwl spp Coirrt/s s*rrcefl <re d-oaie r dogwtMxft ^ fri t/s irrcafra Imounlainalcferl or Psunus 

vw:^iana (common chcAec he rfy> ind^dj ally or combire d carcp^ cover well repfe&enled _ _ _ _ 
PopuXus Jrem^Ioidesy Cofnus sericesp a 

12 SbIJxb^^ C Bencea A. tncsns.^nd P ur^jarr^ indviduallv cc cccn b^ned cover, poofl^ 
reprflsenled 13 

13 Any twoolIhE kilFowing ^pede^ common a»1 conf nedlo mFcfoariE b) cc sny sir^e one wef 
repreeenled AngeUca arguia ^Bharplcclhar^elicsl. O3mojh:z3 occsd^n^ivs ^weslernsweel-cicelyh 
Hefsctetjm JanaSum |cow parsnip) Ac^^a rubra ibanebierryj cr CaiMjm tf\fiortfm laweebcentd 
b«{fa1rBw} P^pufuB trenfuf^id^s '0Bfn<}ff\iz3 04:cj4fen f^^rs p a 

13 HdI bs abcve ccnsidered indvicijall ^ all o11he above zpecieepocrly repfesenled end ae pairs no1 
mcce Ihanacarcfl 14 

14 One Of more members o1 1he Ull 1ccb grcup prominenl Iheir eingle cr combined oanopy cover b1 
leas! Iiyt A^BtBch^ tJsVcsfotfB (sin^rig re He) _ ^sfer ei^ge^/ndrt"." lEn^lmsms Bs1erl_ DeSpt\^\ijm 
occiderrZ^^e |we 3lem larkspur) Hackeiia ^or^d^n^ {showy stickeeecjl H^racieam ianBttjm |cow 
perBf^l- M^rtena^ cJt^^ OncunUin bluebell^ Qsmofhtza CfCC{de:?^}}B Chves1ernswee1-dcel^>^ 
S^:?ec}o serfs Itsll txj llerwee dl _ \/B{^r\an& occtdw^isJis (western valenanl 

P opticus tremiihtdesi' la 1 1 forb p a 

14 Nosin^e cne o1 Ihe abcve species cran^cQmbina1ion1hereolccns1i1uing 1 D% cs r<»py cover . .15 

15 G cnEidered singly cr in any ccmb^r^icn an^o1 Ihe Icllowing specie e having s I le bsI lO^cancfuy 
cover r^aJJctrdJJT? reodJerjIFenclers meadohVTue) T occrn^i^bJe £wesTernmeBiiDwnje> Oam^rhiza 
c^i^s^lweslemsweel-cicely) O. depa^era^ bunl-tuilsweel-dDel^) Gesamvn} viscoB}BB\mum 
4&icky ^rsnuml Popufua tr^wufcfides 'Tt\afictrufn fef^dferip a 

15 Ncne oil he sbove-iisled species, sin^^ or in any combinalion lolsiing Iff* cover 16 

15 CaianmgfCfStis rvb^Bcens ip\ne ^ESs>or C^r^^ ^ye^j r^minsnl 1 heir irxJivicijal or ccnibned cover 

alieasl 10% Popufus tr^muford&B / Cs^smagrostta mbeaceffap a 

15 Neilher C rubeaceiTa ncr C gey^j^ ncr 1 heir combined cover exceedng 10% 17 

17 8ron?u9 c^rATdfus ancu nbln brome } B anomatva iTioddrpg brome). EJymtfa gisuci^ Iblue wildyet. 
Elymus trachycaulvs iliearctd w hea1g~ass) St\pa occi^ejibfislwestrnneede^ass) sicne or in 

any combinalion ccmpri&ing alieasl 10* cancpy cover 

P^pufua tremufoides 'Bromtis cariffBtuap a 

17 NrMas abcve ain^^or in combinalion Ihe above species comprise less than 10% cover . ... IS 

IS Poa pffl Jenars ( Ke ntf rity bhieg^aa) cftifnirsles Ihe undergrowlh 

Popu^EJS Jremuioides "Pos prst^nsisp a 

IS P pr^feosj^nol Ihe unct r^owlh domina n1 . . Undefined p a witlijn Populus JremuIoideaS^ne^ 



49 



KeytoShrubland Plant Associations 
Including Upland AND Wetland Tvpes 

[baB&d Isr^ly en Hansen el al 1995 Mue^er and Slewar1 1950] 

1. SiteB wnhalleaslore o1 1he killowing wellandaltibules: h^cfr'ophylic ve^blicn h^ic acila 

WBlland h^d-ologv - - BB€ KEVTOWETU^HD ^ RiPAniAN SHRJBLAN[>CaHUUNITIES~ 1cJlDVriinglBad49 

1. Si1eBlBC>:ingan^ci1 Ihe welsndaltibulBS Itsled above Z 

2. Fe:?^hyJt€}doB fJofibvndB (E^ubby cinque hnil Icnnerly Po2err£ifi^ fj~£/Jrco£3> well repr^aenled Idtn 
parHBlly cb&curedby luEh herbaceous ve^lalicn o1 her s hru btiy lai^amay bie well re preae nte d as 

2_ P flGffbiXf^ pooff/ repreBBnled S 

3. C^re^ £/Jrri7Lr^^b dieakedaedgel C aAe^o^esfawnedBec^). C ^e^rc^r;^ i]ntia1edaed^> C. 
aquBStha (wa1er sed^ i , sir^y cc comb ned cove r alleaal 10% 

Pentffphyffcfides ffcfribuf^da / Csr^x utricuffftff p a 

3. C. uificuJalB C BthefGdes.C \^es^c&f}a and C aqdj^^^^ pccrly repreaenled Bingly cc ccfnbned. . .4 

4. Desch&mps^ cesp\tosa |1ut1ed hair^aaa) common, cc oniy preaeni assca1tredin<jvidual&un^r 
inlenaive gazing regmea Pentsphyfloides fl<}rib{inds Deschsmpsts cesprJos^ p a. 

4_ D ceBp!to3a scarce & 

6_ Fasft/ca C3mpestf}3 (rough fe&cue fcrmerl^ F Bcabf^iia) common, or ccily pcesenl a& scaHered 

irxividuala wnhinlensive gazing P^ntsphyfloideB flor^bunds . FestucE Dampe^triB p a 

6_ F_ cflJTrpefltTLS scarce 6 

5. Fa^ft/ca Jc^hofiT^i^ fkfa ho kBDue^ well repcesentd foriy commcn wMhinlenaive ^azingl 

PenrspJpyflordes florjfrunds /Festucs fdsbcfeffais p. a^ 

5. F i^^04/?s^ pocrly repreaented (or acarce un^ier inte naive gazing regime^ 7 

7. Pora/?JrAb OL'.v^ Ts heep cinque k»r> ccmmcn Ihe dcmlnani o1 a ds paupera t un^rgrowlh BubBtatE 

maybe watr-Eccu re d a rxJ eroded 

PefYtsphyUcftdes ffcfribuf^ds PotentiNs oi^ms p a 

6. P ninna scarce andnol Ihe unckr^orflh rkiminanl 

- ... Undalinad PE^f^p^yfJojdas ^rj£uj]4Jf-dom ineted vegalalnn 

B. AfSemisra c&:\b (silver tagebruBh) Iievir>ga1 Ieas1 1 0% cancpy cove r {olher ^ rJe mis^ 1a ;ca may ba 

S. A cana having leaa linnl CHli ocjver 14 

9. ^ e/mus cn ef edjs {Icnnerly EJyj77dJS CA^e^e us. ^anl or basin wild^^e) well repcesenfed (or common 

undEr inlensive spcinggrazirpg regme} AitefnisiM csf^^ /L^ymus cifY&reuB ^ a^ 

B. L CA^ere us pcof ly repcesenled 10 

ID PoBBecundB 1SarK±iergsblue^a&B orJ^lhal porlionollhe la xon 1ccme rl ^ knohvn as Poa 

rre psdejisjd [Nevada Uue^aaa] cr P jurrci^o.'Aa |a Ikali Uue^aaa]? cr C^re^ or^e gr^Ci.'js |clu tiered 
feldsed^^ ccmmon Bingly or ccmbned cover Aitemtsia csf}^ y P^s B^cufYd^ p a 

10 P ne\^sde^3\s P jd^^cr^lia and C prjejfjci^^ scarce irrfvidjall ^ or any ccrnhna^cn 11 

11 Pasccfiyj^JT? sj77itf3w Hccmerly ^ jfopyj^rr smrlhJi we&lern whealgfa&E> cc Efk'^ua i^j^ceo^Jtrs 
4kKinerly A dBByaischyu^P Ihick-spike whea1^ass> wellrepreaenled 

Artemiafa c^na / p3acopf rum smith ii ^ a 

11 P sj77Jtf3wand E Jan ceo-fa/dja poccly repreaenled 12 



50 



1Z ElhBr Fescues idahoenais {kJaho fe Bcue ) cc Etymus tmchycBtJ^us flKarctd w heal^ass) well 

raprflEBnled {ccily ccmmon under grazingi see b i b below 

B F j^fi De/?s^ well repre aenled J/Teinjsrff c^ns / FesJucs idffho^nsisp a 

b F i^f] Dw?s^ pocfiy repre aenled Bnd E_ ffjcfiyc^trjtrs well repfeeenled 

Arteintai^ c^ns s Eiymus U^chycMutuB p. a. 

12 F i^^ow^s^snd E_ /fjc4yi:5djlt/s pccri ^ repf esenled 13 

13 Ether Sijpa com^^ (re ede -a nd-l ^ead^ or Poa pcBlersis (Ke ntu cky blu e^ass) well repces^ntd . .. 

See a a b below 

a St^a cc iTfBis w€il\ re prese nted and P pr^Zensj^ poof ly repcese nt d 

Artemisia cans /SJtps coin^tap a 

b S. co/Twtepoody repfeeenledand P p ra tense's wel\ represenled 

Aft^mfsis csffB /P^M prBtensisp^. 

13 S comats^nd P pra JeiTsrs both poody repre eenled 

Urdefined p^ wilhin ilnem Jsra cdj]a b llunce 

14 Aflem\a\a tndenta^ssp Iffden^is fBesinbigsa^bcush^ eilher eingly cc its combined cover wi1h A 
Sffde:?iata Bzp. vaseya:?a iVase y or mounlain big sa^ bcus hj well repreaenled lolher Aft^mfsm ^RXB 
may bie presenll and i^rcottatus vefm\c^:iBtv3 IblaciL gre ase wocd) scarce (shculd S. vefm\Ci:iBSva 
be cammon Ihen lead J^ 7 2j 1& 

14 A ts}d^nia&v tnd^ntais o\ Ha c^imbned cover whPr A ^'dejibbasp. issff/mw pocrly reprea^filed 
and S. yennrcu^ r4ja acaf ce 1S 

15 R hzomalooB wheat^assea EJ/ittus ^ceci.b Jd^ 11 hc^-epike wheal^aaa brmerly Agrcpyfi^ 
H^SKS^c4_K4jml or PascoD/^Lrmamjtfpr^lwesfem whealja&& Iccmerl^ ^ smJ^fi ccfnmcn 
irxividually Of Iheirccmbvied cover . . Arlemisis JndefyJstff v. trid^ntsts 'Pffsc^pyrum smithit ^ a 

15 E iance^iatua End F^siropy^triT? sit? Jtl?^ cc o1 her whea1^ass«a scarce 15 

15 F^attjca ic^h^effats ^l^hD ^suue) well repcesentd for cciiy conimon fl inlenclve grazing a faclorl. . 

ArJenfistff tndcf}\3\s\ trid^ntstE s F^stucs iiJff h oei] a la p a 

16 F_ i^^ow^s^ pocrly repreaenled 17 

17 Stpa com3ta {neede -a^pd-l^¥ead^ cr S spax^ea Iporaipire -^a&e? well represenled 

Aitemtsis JrnJenfffJa v. tndenJsJs SJrpff c^djtt ff ?a p .a . 

17 S. com^&arxf S. ^wrtej poof ly re pcese nfe d 

. Undalinad p^. within AitemtsJs trtdenJ^ts v tridwYtsts Allunce 

IS AfSemisra tndenta^ssp vaaeyan^ i|n cu main big sagebfushi well repfeeented 19 

IS A tfid^n^tszzp VBseydiTjpcccI}" represenled 27 

19 ^ f //TtLTS en e^eus Hcnnerly EJyi77dJS CA7er^ us. t^aain or gjani wilc^yej well repcesentd (only cccnmcn 
unckr inlensive grazing regmel . . Jrteinjs^ff tridcf^taJa HBp. vasey^fY^ ■' L^ynfus cifY^re^s p a 

19 L CA7^r^ us pcof ly repcestnled 20 

20 F^attjca C3mpestf}a Hccmerl^ Festvca szah relJa. r^iugh kBcueJ cccnmon foriy aa ecallered pJanb 
wilhintenEive gazing) Au^misia rrnJenlfffff ssp ^as^ysna ^FcBtuca sc^breffB p a 

20 F_ cflJTtpefllrLS scarce 21 

21 Symph^rfcafpos ^reophfJt^ t^T\CAMn^A\n ercwbierryj well repcesenfed 22 

21 S ufei:ipf]jfdj£ pocfiy repreaented 24 

22 8ron?usc^rA7dr4Jd ilncunUinbromeJ 8 dJiornd^4Jd |ncd<Jrpgbrofne) or B iner/TtJ^var ptJS7\peJi^nva 
^JxJ mpelly brome 1 well repcestnfe d_ ind "^dj ally cr combined cove ra^ 

. . ArJenfisi^ tridef^J^Js asp. v^seysffB —Symph^ric^rp^ts ore^pl^iXus / Br^mus carmffliis p a 
22 8 c^riV7^r4Jd B arr^rTTa.'usarxJ 8 Anernr'^var pLrmpelf^/?4Jdpoorlv repcesentd indi^djally or Iheir 
combined cover 23 



31 



23 FflflftH» Jcfef] ffWTfls fltfe ta fc Ecuel wcll repcescnlEd (only ccfnmcn under inlensive graiingl 

Artenfist^ tridentsta ssp. v^seysf^^ - SyTifphcfricsrpCfS oreophrfus "Festucs fdshcfSffsis p.a^ 

23 F. \dat\ow}s^ poQr\y repreaenled 24 

24 PasiTupyrtriTT sjTTjtf?^' (weEl&rn w heal^ass) of Efyrnt^ }3nceoiatv3 H^ck-apikB wheal^BssI wbII 
reprflBBnlBd indviduallv cc Iheir ccmbvie d coverage Fest^c-3 i03ho^"E}E |lda ho 1escu e> pocrf y 
reprflBenled AUemfsis \rtdent&tff B^p vsB^yEns ■' Pssc^pyrufn smithii^ a 

24 P si77itf?^~and E IsnceoialuB pGcx\y re presumed ind i^dj ally or combined 25 

2B Feaftrca Jc^^of iTsrs (kMho kBcue) well repcesentd {only ccfnmcn under inlensive grazing re ^me> 

AUemfsis \ridentfft& a^p wssey^ns 'Fest^cs Jd^Aoensjs p a f^Ha^ btkiw in r pnpc^Mf 

BodiiaEitn ns ol Ihu EUMi^ntun^, tkvAlu^ pka3»ta the p-B-kvcLiind deliniEiQ kcw p as. 

2& F_ li^^ow^s^ pocrly rapreBantad 26 

a Fascopyrum Bm\ih}\ rhveslern whaal^BssI or EJyr^dJS ^n cf oCb f4Jd rrPvck-spika wheBlgr3ss> wall 

repraeenled J JrtdefYtfftff B^p ^^sey^na /F fd^h^^nsis — P ssc^pyrufn smithii^ a 

b HdI asahcve: Stfcta uccn^rri^^rE <we elem re ede y a^^l or SfiCd :icf]5f dsoi^w <Ric hartfeon s 
naeda^ass) cofnmon. . . A trideffJ^Js Bip v^aay^na/F. fd^h^ensis —Sdps ^ccid^ntB^ts p a 
c. No1aB above E^mua tmctrycsutvB ibaardad w hes lg~aee? Bfomus ^a^A^^ft/s Imcunlain brofne) or 
8 BncfmatvB Incdc^ig brofne } ccmmon ind i^iIj ally or in any ccfnbna Ion: of G^fsnfum 
\^fsccfStss:mtjm i3^\cky ^rarium> Fot^nt^ia gia:?du{osa (e^cky dnquelalj or Pole:?lt}}& gmcfhs 

J&lendar cinque knl> preaenl 

A Jrtdentfftff Bsp vasayana 'F J4f ^ h aai] a la - Garaj]mrT] \/fsco3issimum p a 

d Hoi asabcva. Pseud^roe^er^a apfCR^ fUua txj rcK w healgraBB^ well re|xaaentd ^acijce 1o 

commcnun<fer inlen&Na grazing re gmatj 

A. tr^denrsJs BBp vffaeyffna/F_ riJsftoansra- Ps^udoro^gnena spicst& p a 

e Hoi asabcva: P spsca^ pccrly rapreaanlad. . undefir>ed A tridwrtsts ^^^ v^aayjo^ vegetation fypa 
26 FseudcffCfegnef}Bsp\c3ts |1[]rmarly Agf^yron apfc&ttjm bluabunch whealgrass) wall represented 

^eri^ca to common u nek f intnsiva grazirci ra^maal 

Artemisia \ndefYtst& B^p v^sayanj f Ps^udoro^gneriB spicffta p a 

26 F ^K^Z^acarca Ur^defined^unreoorded Af^emisfff tnd^ffrtsts sap v^aey^n ^ vegelal » n 1yp« 

27 Aflemisra n^vB back eagebfueh) wellrepreeenled lolher ^ rJar7?isv^ ta :ca maybe preaenl even well 
repreeenled) 28 

27 A i7D L^fl pcof ly reFcas^nled 30 

25 Fadf£/ca Jcb^oaiT^rs (kMho k^cue) well repces«med Ailemisis nov^ ^Fesfuc^ fdsh^ensfs p a 

2S F i^E^oa/^iE pocrly rapraaanled 29 

29 FseudcffCfegnef}Bsp\c3ts Ibluebunc h w heal^aasl or Oxyzoctsfs hyrnenoid^B llndan rica^aaal 

commcn individually cc Ihair Dcmb^na d cover . . . AitemtBis fYo^s / Ps^udoroegneris spicfftsp a 

29 A ^tcatum arxJ O hyme^rofdes BLBruB Undalinadp a wilhin ilnamis^^ j]avd Alliance 

30 Carcaca^pua JanD^^o Ji£/5 4curl-leEl mou main ma hoganyj well repcaaentd 31 

30 C. ^adfafrud poccly repraaenled fardby pcpulalionalruclure rcl likely loircreaeal 33 

31 Fa^ft/ca J ckh a a i7£i% 4 kk ho kecue^ well repcaaentd foriy commcn Minlenaivelv ^azed^ 

Carcac^fpiis ^a4f jf ofjt/s / Fasliica J4f ff h o ai] a la p a 

31 F i^^0a/?s^jx}crly rapraaanlad (or Bcarce wilh^azingl 32 

32 Fseudcffoe^efJa sp\c3ts lUuabuncTi w heal^aasl or Oxyiop^ts hyufenoid&B Trndan rlce^^aa) 
irpdjidual cccombnad cojer Iha dcfnir^nl ^aminoida 

Cercocsrp^s fedif^fius / Ps^udoroegneris spicfftsp a 

32 P ^raabandO hymem^tdes sngly cr combined cover noli he dominani ^amircids 

Undafinad p. a within CsrcocffrpuB fedif^fius Alliance 



52 



33 AfIen?]Sia ^dents^ssp y/yomf^gens]S rWyccn ing b^g as^bnia h> well repreaenled 34 

33 A tftd^n is t3 33p LV/ommpejisflfXHxIy repreaenled 35 

34 E^mus ^i7c^ di^Zl/s {lhck-spik€ wheBlg~a3s) cc PddC0pyr4jri? ^mrjfrir (wBslern wheat^BssI 
irxivicijalLy Of Ihfijr combined caver common 

Jrtemrs^a trid^ntBts sop wyomifygefYstB / Elynfus IsffcecffBtus p a 

34 E -farrce j^tua End P flJTTJtf? JJ ECBrce 3& 

35 FseudcffCfegnef}Bsp\cats Ibluebunc h w heal^aasl well repre denied Icnly ccmmon wi Ih inle rsi ve 
g~azing) AUemisxa Irtdefflsl^ Btp w/cmingeasis f Pseudcrcegneria spic^ta p a 

35 P Bpicats ijioofly repf e eenled) 

Undefined p^ wilhin JlrTemjsrj £r^iJ^nrffrff ^^p wyo/nJh^fJiaJs Allunce 

35 AfSemiB^ ir]pBfUts llhree-lipsagebcush) 1he dominsnl Bhrubspp {^ rJ^ mis^ spp) 37 

35 A ff^r/r^ nol the dominani ehrubspp 40 

37 Fe^ft/c^ Jc^J?of i7£i% fkfa ho kBDue) well repcesentd foriy commcn undE r intensive gazing) 

Artem^flja rnpffrtjfff ^FesJuca rds^oenars p a 

37 F_ K^^oensiflpocrly represenled 3S 

38 E^mua [fli7ce Di^firs (Ihick-spke wf^Bljase Iccmerly Agfopyro:? ds^y^^chyuu^ or Ps3copyfV(n 
ir7rJtf7r^ {wesfe m wheBljase Iccmerly Agropyro:? Bn^fltrw) individually cc in comtnnalion com men and 
Ihe dcmirani ^Bmino^de Ar^enfisfff tripantJs y Efywus fsf^cecfffft^B p b 

38 E ^frceH>[a rus and P £r7?iS4jj irxJividuall ^ of 1heir combined cover poori ^ repfe senled and neither 
being 1he dcminam ^aminacfe 39 

39 FseudcffCfegnef^3p\catB Ibluebunch wheal^aaa tomierly Agropyr^tn sp\C3tvmi wellrepreeenled 
Icniy ccfnmon under inlenaive ^azingl and excepting Poa secvn^h 45anct»erg s bluegrassk 
constitutes the ^minant ^amin^id Aft^fntsis JripsftitB / Pseud^ro^gnens spic^t^ p b. 

39 P ^rcjtepcofly repcesenfe d_ not the daninant gramincid 

Undefined p_ a_ within Jrtemrsjs JiYpsrJjts Alliance 

40 Rhus SfHobatB lakurh-bushaumac. tcnnerly R Bfomahca) well represented bs aca tie red pate he a or 
Ihe dcmiranlafwub 41 

40 R_ InJcJua^ pcody repre Eented. nol the dominant sJrub 43 

41 Fea^trca Jc^Aoe^Tdis ncMho 1e scue ) well repceaenlEdof domfnant ^am'noid 

Rhus triJotxBtB / F^stucB id^h^^nsiap a 

41 F i^f] Dei7Sfi pocrly repre aented nol dcmirani graminoid 42 

4Z Fseudcffoegnef^ 3p\c3ts Ibluebunch wheat^assl common of dcm inani graminc^d 

Rhus tnlob^ts s Ps^udorosgneris spicffts p a 

42 P ^rcffb acarca or not Iha dnninanl ^HTT^inord 

Undaiinadp a wilhin /Ihijs ^rom^jc^ Alliance 

43 Chfys^t^^amnus YGCtdffhrus l^een rabhitKU s h> well repf e sented or t he daminent Birub 44 

43 C. ytscfdtfl^rus pocir\y represented or noM he dominant shnib 45 

44 Stp& comstB Ineede-and-t^ead^ ccmmcncr Ihe dcminani herbaceous apeciea 

ChryBoJhffmnuB \/isGfdfflorus SUps comsta p a 

44 S. ^THimab acaf CB . not the diminant herbaceou s species 

Undefined CA^so^ ffumt/s Vi^cidi^Dnja-dominated vegalainn lyp« 

45 SBrcobatvB ^ermicdAb/us Ijilack ^aaaewDod) weL lapreaanted (valley Iccaicna wjthaaJine ei~ 
alkaline schIsI 45 

45 S L^flf/TTJCti^hrs pocdy repreaenled 49 



33 



4fi Dis^ch^Js ^tca& ffccmerl^ D s^^is iniand BahgrHBB^ well represented ilJBuair^ alksli 1b1 ccnciicnB 
prevail k»f eicample sail b tllof escencBl Ssrcobstus ^^rnficufstus y Dtstichlts spicaJs p b 

46 D_ ^jcfl ^ pocrly repreBenled liata U1 candlior^ various 47 

47 ieymt^c\nefev3 Itccmerlv Elymua cinereus. basin or ^anl wikfr^t) common 

SsrcobaJus \/ermic\jffftu3 ^Leynfus ciff^reuB p a 

47 L CA7e™ ua acarcQ _ not 1he cfcminanl ^^minoid 4fl 

46 Pasci^yj^JT? sj77itf3rj fwealern w healyaaal of Elyrnt^ f^nceoiatvB UrtDk-apike wheal^assl 

irx£ jiduall ^ Of 1 he ir combine d covBr Ihe domirenl ccmpcnenl ol herbaceous ve^lalion 

Sffrccfbstus vermfc^I^tus/PsBc^pyrum smithii^ a 

4fl P sjTTJtfjw rral Ihe cfcfninanl herb Untfe irw d^ rrecordtd p a _'G 1_o11ht £^ rcnriM Ji/s verm^cui^ius alliance 

49 U~K^%iedljrTepcned BtvuUard l^pe ^? O r Eee "K^yto Div a n r -SHnuc l a h d Pl^nt A::::a[iH.iiaH::^bcLUDiK^ 

Url jn[> Mnn Wetl^hd Typl::" Cir ^ XIi "E^1 lead "Kly td "Wltl^hd ■ RjPH.r;iH.N Si*iwlamd Co h hu h ir iti 

Keyto Wetlj^nd ; Riparian Shrubland CouMUPfiT^ES 

lEct^tmc Key Fiirhugh ^^LbaJjiHnt cf DJpnrK hatnlata Aticfc dwfDti cf prast-st d-vubs |lcr exaiipJe ik^bi^ip J:t« wx\\ Kipr^:xin\cd ) 

1_ ^fijBpp {willow speoesl wi1h a I le aat nyt cancpy cover 2 

1_ SbIJx^pp liavirfl less 1 han 1 Ct canopy cover 28 

2. SbJw g^yef\B:?s 4Geyer willaw> S bouAJi (Bco1h willow} S. dftjmmo:?d)B{fB 4Dm mmond willow) ex S 
}ute& lye How wilirsw) wi1ha1leasl 10% cancpy cover ind "^cIj ally or combined 3 

2. Above iialed willow speciea indvicijall ^ or ccmbire d leee Ihan 1 0% cancpy cover 16 

3. ^J\v fdjfea (yellohV willow) wilh ^ealer campy cover Ihan S dfvmmcf^rdfBna {Dru mmord willow> or 

Ihe combirtd cover ol 3. g^yef^na {Geyer will[3w>and S Jn ootfprj <Eoo1h willow! * 

3_ S itJt^B ha^ngless canopy cover than S t^Lrm/Trofrdj^rrfl or ccmhned cover ol S jflyerjand 

S dJODtFjw 6 

4. C&f^x tJlffcufs^ flie ake d ae dgel C ves^csf^ ^nlaled Bedge) C s^^rod^B |awnedsed^> C. 
^c^uaJi^jd Iwalersed^} cr C ^4/?Jrc4J^rcs flenlil-hiit aec^l-irxi'^djally crinany ccmb^naicn well 
repreeenled 15% or ^ealer car>op^ cover} Sshx lutes /Csr^x utnctfists p a. 

4. The atx>ve lialed Csf^x app either indvidually cc in any ccmbiraicn tia^r>g less Than 5% covef 5 

5. Csian^grcfStis carra dei7srs ihJue fiinl reed^assl C Binc^ (rarrow-spike d ree dgraee} cc 
Desch&mps\a i:e^ifcs^ Hulled hair^aaa) . ind ^^lij ally cr in ccmbirdicn Iievir>ga1 least 5% canopy 
cover Ss^tx ^ut^s / Cafsmsgr^stis csf^ffd^nsiap a 

E. C. CB:?3dens& C a^c^and D ire^ifos^ indvicij ally or 1 heir combined cove r less Ihan 10% .... 
S&hx filter Plant Aaaoctation fa cfe iaull commu ril^k 

G. SbJ\x dfummonJ:£BnB { Dru mmond willohV> with a ^ea ter ca rxipy cover Ihan Ihe individual cc combined 
cover d\ S. i^oojftir and 3. g»ye,'iB:?a 7 

e. S dfvmmcfnd^Bna 'Hilh less cover Ihan Ihe combined or indvidual co^^r ol £. Jn aofi^r^ and 

S geyefiBna 9 

7. Caf^x tflffcula^ flie ake d ae dgel C ves^csf^ ^nlaled Bedge) C s^^rod^B |awnedsed^> C. 
^c^ua/r^Aa Iwalersed^} cr C ^/rc4J^rcs flenlil-hiil aef^LirKJi^djally crinany cccnb^naicn well 
repreeenled <5%carpapy c^ver> Saitx rfrum ra on rf^an ff / Csrejr u Jfjcufs Iff p a. 

7. The atx>ve lialed Care^app either indviduallycc in any cccnbir^icn tie ^r>g less 1 han 5% cover S 

S. C&ian^gfostis carta dei7srs ihJue fiinl reed^assl C a£ncb (r^rrow-spike d ree dgrasB) cc 

Desch&mps\a i:e^ifcsa Hutted hair^aaa) . ind ^^dj ally cr in cccnbir^icn tievir>ga1 least 5% canopy 
cover SsJfx drummoffdi^ns Csf^msgr^Btis csnsdenstB p^. 



34 



H_ Nol BsahcveUhe above lis1ed&ptGie& eilhtrain^y or 1htir combined canopy cover less than 5^ 

Sfflix drt^mmondisn^ Plant AaBODtation |a ck bull cofnmuri1y> 

B. £b Jl^ £}O0 Chji (Boolh ^^IIdw) having a1 Ieaa1 aa much canopy cover a& S geyef}BnB i'Geyer willow) . 10 
B_ S £>e]Qth^ having leaa cancpy cover 1jan S. gey^rfBHB 12 

1D CBf^x tflffcul^^ flie ake d ae ligiel C ves^csfia <inla1ed Bedge) C s^^rod^B |awnedsed^> C 
^c^uaJi^jd Iwalersed^J cr C ^«/?riC4J^j~es flen1il-hii1 aef^l-irKJi^iijally crinany ccmb^neicn well 
repreEBnled <5*t carxipy cover) Ssftx boothii/Csr^x uJfJcrjfsJff p^a^ 

10 Hcne o11he above lisle d CdJ~e^spp .eilher indvicij ally or in any ccmbnalion. e itcee dng 5% cover. 11 

11 C&ianmgfostis carr^ dei7srs ihJue fiinl reed^assl C 3V\c^ (r^rrow-spike d ree dgraBB^ cc 
D&schamps^ ce^jfo^^ |1u had hair^aaa) . ind i^iIj ally cr in ccfnbiraicn tievir>ga1 leasl 5% canopy 
CDvar Sffhx bo^thri / CafBmsgr^stis can ff efei] s is p a 

11 Not aa abcve 1^ above lialedtp^cieB eil^rain^^orlheircombinEd ^ = ncp> ODh'e"ess IhEn 5% . . 
U ndef ined S j/Jx bcorAJJ-dontnalad p^. 

1Z C^reA" £rJr^i7Lr^^ flieakedaedgel C ves^ira^^ ^nlaled Bedge) C aS^^rode^ |awnedsed^> C 
^c^ua/rJ^ Iwalersed^J cr C ^e/?JiC4J^j~cs denlil-hiil aef^l-irKJi^djally crinany ccmb^neicn well 
repreBenled 45% or ^ealer car>op^ cover} Ssfix geyerisf^s / Csr^x ^tricufst^ p 3. 

1Z All 0I Ihe abcve-lisled Ca^e^spp.wilh individual cc ccmbned cover leBB Ihan5% t3 

13 Csiau^gfCfStis carra dei7srs ihJue fiinl reed^assl or C stf\ctH Oiarrow-spike d ree d^aBB^ well 

rapreBBnled 15% or ^ealer canopy cover? ei Iher irxividuall ^ or in combinalion 

S^fix geyeri^ns 'Caf^wsgr^stis c^n ^^ferra la p a 

13 Not as abcve : 1 he above lisledapecieB e 1I her sin^y or in ccmb^ne icn poorly repreBenled Icancpy 
cover Jess than fft) 1 4 

14 De3chBmps^ ce3p\tosa Hutted hair^aaal well repcesentod {>5% cancpy cove r1 : if eHb ^azed 
inteneively ce^Jiosa re ed cniy be ccmmcn l^ealer Ihan 1%| 

SbIix geyen^ns Deschsmpst^ cesptJos^ p. a^ 

14 D_ ce^^toaa pccrl ^ represented <^ B"*! cancpy cove r) 1& 

IB G cnsidered singly crinany ccmb^nelon Ihe IcJIowirig prima ril ^ da1urbar>ce associated species 
difninate Ihe herbaceous layer Pi3a pr^terT.s^ ^Kenlucky bluegraBB? P pafdjsr:jd flowl blue^ass). 

PhJeum pmS^ns^ |1imo1h^> Agsostfsstolcfnifes^ iTedtopJ or J dA7C4Jfl balUct/s {Eallic ruah) 

S^fix geyensf}^ ■ Meaic grarrunoida p a 

15 tlone ol the above-Ealedspecjes. ain^^ or in any combination dcmirdle Ihe herbacecua la^er . . . . 

Undalinad Sa Jrx jeyejYflftff-dom mated p_ a. 

16 Cancpy cover ol S3{:x piB:?fM^ l|:lBnelea1 ^wllow) or S. comn^uts^ fum^r^een willowl.cc Iheir 
combined cove r ital leaal ICt 17 

16 S pianfi^i\a[x S a^mmtJiats Iheir ind'^d^alorcombinEdcover fsFeaa 1hanfO% 19 

IT C^re^ ^H^tj^ ^'frs (wa t r aec^J or C utr\cviBt3 ibeakedaec^) well represented, indvidually crin 

combinalion Safix piBnifoXis /Csr^x BquaUfisp ^ 

17 C aqu^ t\{:E End C Lrrr^cLn^a pcorl ^ represented 18 

IS C&fex n^bms^iBns^ INebraskased^^ cc C. stmtjls^ (Bh^l-beaked^edge) well repcesentd. eilher 

irxJividuall ^ or in combinalion Sa^ix pXsf^tfoh^ "Carex nebrsscensts p a 

IS C o eJura seen sjd and C ^imui^^ pcorl^ represented, indvidually cc in combirdlicn 

Undalinadp a wilhin Sa Jrjr pJdJ]jf0 Jw or S. comm£/r^r^ a llianceB 

19 SaJix csndJda Ihoary willow) liBvir>ga1 leasl 1 0^ canopy covai 20 

19 S c3ndfdB hai^rg less Ihan 1 0% cari&p^ cover 22 



33 



20 C3f^x tJlffcufs^ disked aec^Bl of C an^u^fiTrs Iwb t r sec^&l.or any combna Ion d1 Ihe 1wo well 

repreEBnled Sfflix csffdids ^C^rex utriculBtB p a 

20 C. f^tairats End C a qdj^fi^^ pocrly repreaenled irxJivicijall ^ ar in combna Ion 21 

21 C&f^x Jas^CfcaipB (slander se ligel C ianvgJn^tsa fwcollv aedge). orC bijxbstjmi\ TBu xbg um b s«dgE ^ 
WBllrBpreBBniBd irxividually of in an^ comtHnalion Saitx candids / C^rex fssi^carp^ p a 

21 Hot as above : Bbove listed sedges pcof I ^representd-indviduall}' or in any go™ bi "a fen 

Undefined p. a^. within 2 j^ix n^en^'^f a lliance 

22 SbJ\x ffoJfw (Woif s willoivj having a1 lead 1D% canopy cover 23 

22 S ffoJ^ wnhleaa 1tien nyt cancpy cover 2& 

23 C&f^x tfSffcula^ die ake d aa dgel C \/es^cBf}B <inla1ed Bedge) C ^S^erode^ |awnedsed^> C 
squBltliB |wa1ersed^^ cr C. Iw^Stcuiara flenlil-hiilaec^el.corgickredBingly of in an^ cofntHnalicn. 
wellrepfe&enled Ssfix-wolfii "Carex utrfcufBtB p a 

23 Any 0I Ihe abcve-lis1edapecieB considE re d ain^ ^ or in any cofTibnalion. poof 1^ repcesented ... 24 

24 De3chBmp3^ ire^itcs^ Hutled hair^aaal of Juncti&bBlSfcvB TBalfcrushl or Ihelr ccfnb'ne d cover 
ivellrepreBenled accepts. ce3p:tc3a rz cccnmcn |1 "b or ^ea1er canopy cover) where grazing la 
inlenaive Safix w^tfii / DeschampsiE cegpjtosa p a 

24 D. cespft^tsao^ J.baltfuusu^ 1 heir ccmbvied cover pcxxly repre Benled 

Undefined p. a. within Saitx wo ^frj a l]ia nc a 

25 frid i^cliaF nco f^Jjj ^lon-vrillow) ap^cfea living a ^e ate r canopy cover 1fnn any indvidual SbJw 
specjea 2B 

25 l^i^djai Sb}}x 3pBC\ss ivnhgrealeroancfuy Ihanany indvicijal ncn- ^^j^ Bp« cies 26 

26 ^J\x hobb^s^a IBebb^llow) wilh^eater canopy cover 1 han any 0I he r S^^;^ species 

S^Xix bBbbisff^ ^ E 

26 S bebb]B{fa having less canopy cover Itienany other Safsx sp^c\eB 27 

27 ^J\x ^xfgua fsandnar i^llow) having 9~e a Ie r cancpy cover 1 han an^ olhe r ^fr>:speciea 

Safix exigu^ p^a^ 

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Undelmad Saftx ^pp -dominated riparian-wetland tite lypa 

2S Betuis nana Jlcnnerly B gf^ndvioaa txigbrch) having a1ieaBl 1D%car<»py cover 29 

2S S nfliTfl JnvjngleEB Ihan 1 Q'S* canopy cover 30 

29 C&f^x tflffcul^^ flie ake d ae dgel C ves^cafia |nfa1adBedge) C ^S^erode^ |awnedsed^> C 
sqvahf'B Iwaler sed^ } cr C tenticwiasts den^l-hilaad^Lirxi'^djall}' crinany ccmb^naicn well 
repre&enled <5*t carxipy coverj BeJufe nsnff "C&rex utricuffft^ p^. 

29 AUDI ihe above-listed Ca^f spp. wilh indvicijal or ccmb^ne d canopy covers leaa Ih^n 5"^ 
Undeljnad p a. wjlhin 3. ruj] dalliance 

30 KaJm^ m\cf^hy{}3 {small-leaved laurel} having a1 leasl 10% cancpy cover 31 

30 K JTPicrep^/rt^ havingleaa ll^n 10% cancpy cover 32 

31 C&fBX acjptflitfvm {HcJms Rocky Mcunbin Sa[lge}or C nfgffcans Hilac^ alpire sed^? cc Iheir 
combined cove r well represented K^Xmis micr^pbyHs C^rex s^iopuiorufn p. a 

31 C acopuJoftjm^ C oj^jcanscc Iheir ccmhne d cover pcorl ^ represented 

Undefined K. m^crepA/JJe-domrinatad p^a^ 

32 Betvis ecci^en^^.'s Iwa ler or rfver birch) having a 1 leasl 10% cancpy cover arxf wi1 h the ^ealest 
cover [^1he UlleBlvege1a1ion layer B^tula occtd&nt&ho p a 

32 B DccfH^niJ^.'E hflvingle&& Ihan10% cancpy cover 33 



36 



33 At^tfSfTTcanB Jmcuniain arffer^ having a1 leaBl 1 0% csnopy cover and with greate e1 carcp^ covBr in 
fclle&1 layer J^nua jftcjoff p b 

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laycj 34 

34 Peff^hyJtoidoB fli^f^vnds lElrubb^ cinquelcir. 1cnner1y PoferriTT^ /j~£rJrc4haa> Tmvlng si Is bsI 1D% 
canopy«]ver 3& 

34 P fJofrf?dA7H^ ha Wig less 1han 10% canopy cover 37 

35 CareA" £r/r^i7LrJ^b flieakedsec^l C aifie^o^esfa^vnedBBC^). C ^e^rc^ns i]n1la1edsed^> C. 
sqvaSfliB |wa1ersed^^ irxJividuall^of in an^ cofnbinalion hajingal lea^1 10% cancpy cover .... 

Pifntffphyffcfides ffonbuf^d^ / Csr^x uffjccj^eje p a 

35 C. utncuJaiB C attrefCfdes. C ^es^iT^rja and C aqdj^fi^.'s pccrly repreaented Bin^y cc ccfnbned. . 35 

35 D&3chBJ7\ps^ cesp\toB3 Itutled hair^aeel of JtmctisbalUcus {Baltcfush) or Iheir ccmbinQ d cover 

wellrepreaenled undsr inlensive gazing ce^p^fe^a m ay be ccii^ common 

Pen tapJ]yJfo /des fhribunds 'Descftempape c^eapproaff p. a. 

35 D. ce^^reaaarxJ J b^thcvB pocx\y repcesenfed 

Undefined p a withm PefrJsphyUcftdes ^Dn6undeal1ianca 

37 Af/ej77Lsa iTSfra (silver Eagebmsh) welirepretenled 33 

37 A cen^pcofly repcesenled 42 

33 L e/mLTS en e^eus 41cnnerly EJyi77us CA7ej~e us. ^an1 or beam wild~^e) well repcesenled (or merely 

c^immcnundET intensive spring gazing re gme| Artemfsis csf^ff /Leywus cifYere^s p a 

38 L CA^ere us pcofly repcesenled 39 

39 Fo3 Becunda iSanttergs blu e grass, coraicfenng ceil ^ 1 ha1 pcrlionoUhe laxonlccmerly known aa 
Pdj /?evd deiTSiS I Ne va sa bluegrassjof P /unt/^efia [alkali blue^assjl . of Carex pjaegjac}i\s 
1clustred1ieldsedge>commcn singl}' cr Iheir ccnibned cove r .Aft^mfBia csfr& Pea sec^fYd^ p. a. 

39 P 5ecu7^arpd C pre e^ra i7jfis scarce indvidually or any combnaion 40 

40 Pflscopy ftr J77 sj77itf3w Hccmerly ^jrepy ™rr smrjftji we&lem whealgra&&> cc E(k^us ^/^ceo^Jtrs 
Uonnady A i^dys&cf]yLrm Ihick-apike wheat^ass> welirepfesenled 

Artemists cans / Pss copy rum smithiip, a^ 

40 P sj77itf3wand E ^Ji cecfa/djs poccly represenled 41 

41 Ether Fea^ca jdaheerra^ (Idaho leBcue) cc Etymus trachycatjius diearckd w heal^aaa) well 

repre&BnlBd {redjce 1o oriy comm en un<fe r intensive ^azirpgl se€ s i b below 

a F i^ii oe/?s,'s well repre senled jlrTeinjapff c^na s Festu^^a id^ho^nsis ^ a. 

b F i^f] oe/^s^ pocfiy repre senled and E JfJcJ^ycatrJtiS well repfe&Bnled 

Jrteinjapff c^ffna/E^ymua fr^chycMu!u3 p a 

41 F i^^oe/?s^ and E /fJcfiyiTadjJus pccri ^ repf esenled 

Undeiinad p a within ArJem^sis cai] ^ a I Jia nco 

42 ^rcobatva ^ermiCdJ^Jus Hilac^ ^ease wood^ well repreaenledccil vege1a1iondepaupera1e 1hen Ihe 
shrub layer dmminenl S vermJctjV^ft/s o11en no1 a hru b layer difninanl (e xpect ^^Zem^sAa of 
C^fKsea^mo us app 1 43 

4Z S ^er/rrJctTibhrs pocrly repre Benled cr. i1 depauperate ccndicns obtain Ihen rc11he s^ubla^er 

ctminart 46 

43 Dis^chha BpfcatB i^niand Bsll^aBB tccmerly DfsUchtfs stnc^] ^veli repf e sented laLali lalscondions 
prevail SMrcobstua v^rmicu^sJus / DfsJich^ts sJrtctB p a 

43 D. slnc^ pocfiy repra aenled 44 



37 



44 Leymus aneseiJE ^icnn^i\y Etymijs Cf^ereus.b3z\r\ wild~ve} well r^pcBs^nlEd QecijcBd b cr^y 

common uncfe r inlensivB ^azing^ SsrcobaJus \/ermiculBtua ^Efymus cin^reus^ a 

44 L CA7er^ ua pcof ly repcasenled 45 

45 FsBcopyruiTf 3i7ffthi\ Isyn ^ E^upyrcn am^ihir. we alem w healyaBBl of Elymtis iBnceoJaSua (Byn_^_ 
ihsysiBchyum, Ihc^spke wh^Bl^BBB^ 1he difninBnl campcneni o1 herbBceoia la^^r 

Sarcofrfffus verm^cuJarua Pffacop/rura sm^'^jVp a 

46 P s/TrJtfpi^Bnd E_ i^j? i7eo.fa/dJS rol Ihe dcmir^nl undertow! h compcnenl 

Unde scribed SsrcobsJus \/ermicuf^tua p a. 

4fi Ber4jCB cccid&rrZ^^rE IwB ^r birc h^ having a1 If eb1 15% canopy cov^r and C:cna1i1u1ing1he ^BalBa1 

canopy cover in1 he lalleal la^er E^tula Cfcctdentahs p a 

45 B CfCCfdentstfs ^^ngl#BB Ihanl 5% canopy cover or ml havrigltie (^afeslcanc^ cover ^1hn 

Ihe lalleslalraUm 47 

47 Aint^ tncsna fmcunlain aLfkr) having a1 leaBl 1 5% cancpy caver a nd having 1 he ^ealeal cover ol 
Ihe tallesl layer preaeni Jfriua incanff p a 

47 A y?cas}a having leaa Ihen 15% cancoy cover or wiThoulIhe ^ealeat cancpy cover in Ihe bile el 

sralum 4fl 

46 ShepherJ:^ argent eB 11 hi^ny bu Iblcbe rryl hai^ng a1 leaal 1 5% canopy cove r a nd compf isfng Ihe 

g~e a IE el canopy cover o1 Ihe lalleelalralum Shepherdis ffrgef}\e& p a 

46 S 3fge:?tes having leaa Ihan 15% cove r o r nml ex ^b4 ing Ihe ^ealesl canopy cover among spe cies 
of Ihe uppermoelslralum 49 

49 Rcfsa i^oods^j Iwocda rose) of R acfcviaris ^cUy rosf) of any ccmbnaionoi Ihe Iwo havingal 

leael 1 5% car<»py cover and 1 hey comprise ^ealest cover in Ihe lalleslve^lalion layer 

floaff woodajj p.H. 

49 R woDniaiiand R sc\Cijta,'\s cr an^ combinalion ol 1 he Iwo having less Ifran 15% cover or nol 

compnsirg Ihe ^e atesi car<»p^ cover in 1 he uf^rmoal vegelaicnla^er BO 

5D ^rnp^orM^^g^os occideo ^A% {west m snowberry) or S ^fnt/s Iccm men enowberry) l^ir in^vidual 

or combine d cover 9~e alE r l^n 15% and hai^ng Ihe 9~ea1ee1carcp^ cover in Ihe lalleal la^er 

SymphortcsrpCfS occid^ntsfis p a 

60 S occiden &^^ and S albus cc Iheir combined cover leaa 1liant5% o r nol compnsing Ihe great el 
canopy cover in Ihe lallesi vegela^cn layer 51 

61 Site haling at leaat one oilhe fcllowing we iand crilena pceseni hydropP>y4c vegetaton. hyciic boIb 
welland h^d~ology Undefined ripanan-watbnd p b 

51 Sue nolexhriblingany ollhe above-lieled wellandcntena Upland 5 it& 



58 



Key TO Dwarf-Shru BLAND Plant Associations 
Including Upland AND Wetland Types 

|[>ifflrl-BtnAK las mdi^djBJa cr durrp^ vii1h a potnial ^ighri Ibbs l^nn D 5 nfl ^T^TBfly krmirg 25% cf g^aler 
DsncpY covcf (iaxHriduc^ Af1ew*SiBSfb\Jsc^'i<y^sBgEfbruB[b,A B\bti9Cijias;^ Ich^^^i:^ ^arl y low SB^bnjBhl , 
A noi^ i\:AB^SB^\yuzti A Nn^fi^^ ibrdfcol sa^bnjshj A tr\den&^s^ v;>w7nn^?/?d's iV^ycnwig b^g 
sa^tiush) A ^,':par(i^ i^fw€€-ips3^\yuzh} At^piex g^rc^en ^^t^k^\ b B3\t:A^sh\ C^EStooe {Pexten5t3:?3 
|MEfferE"mDL"^ima"f^rl Dryas oc\ope^}s i:^h^ [^fEm^^ Kalrno intcroohytia fEmall-lea'/ed laurel^ ^yiVoctice 
ei7pejtifff:/7ns ijed ^.ctjnlan-iitaihj . P giBPc!d\\t}^,'a fyefcw iiEunrt>ltalHi Fe"i3oy:yu0iO^s ,'^Cf'^iy:(h i,s[iubtf^ 
cnfiet^l), ^fi^ arcUca faJprv mIIcw>. £ 4;andc^ Kioar^ wllcw>. £ f^^sjlana iBoiTatl vAh^ S. ^raci^yca^:^ 
fepKTt-tiJiled ^llcwl £ g^4x;s l^auccua vAcHv) S-p^ifoAavHr J7^?Jiica£difflrl[ianEleal'A^llcw>. S. j^cui^A 
(aicHV ^^llcw»: Ihiugh jn urKxiTimc¥i c<¥idicn d^^arl-atn^ cover mey b^ leE^ 1 ^hti 25% txj1 axcf &drg t^ 
{xmbred cowf o1 1tit oltiEf liletnns pesam ^tn^K ^rte. nCTT^HBOjIar^) wtich la las t^Hn 25%] 

1_ SBlixspp {willow spedesl wi1halleas1 10% cancpy cover 2 

1_ SBhxBpp having less 1 han 10% canopy cover 14 

2. ^J\x pfsntfcfha var mon\C3 Idwarl planeleal willowl 1he dofnir^nl Saifxspp 3 

2_ S pi^/^^fofa var_ mon Jca noM he dDminanI SaliA'app 4 

3. C&f^x ECCfp^}cffU{P (Hchis Rocky ^C4^n'^in SEdge^ well re preae nted and difninating 1 he ^rbacecua 
lay^r (Ihcugh Des^hamps.'3 ceEpi\os3 Lu1ed hair^assl allains Ihs a1a1usaa well) 

SbIix pfsffitcffis ^sr. monies "Carex scop^Iorum p a 

3. C dCDpuTo^tr/TT pocrly repreaenled and nol 1he hert^acecus la^er dcfnir^nl 

Undatjnad Saffx ptaniioUff uar. J7UJ]JCd-clomiJut«J vegalBlnn lype 

4_ SaJix csndJda Ihoary willow) Ihe dcminani S^tfxspp & 

4_ S cjji t^t^ no M ht linminanl Sali^'spp 7 

6. C&f^x tflffcuia^ 'besked Bs\^y C Blt}efGdesiBta^dBBA^)-0 ^e^rc^r^ i^nflaledsed^F- ^ 
squBStliB |wa1ers^d^^ well repreaenled (cover ^ 5%| .... Ssfix csf^dtd^ / Csr^x utric{ifst& p a 

5. Hcne oHht above-lisled species well represenled indvidually cc in combination 7 

5. C&f^x ias^Cfcaips (slender ae^el C huxb&umu tBi^xbaum s aec^l.or C Jantjgtnosa |wocJ^sed^> 

wellrepreeenled {cover -^ 5%} singly of ccmb^ned Sahx candidB / C^rex fssi^carp^ p.a^ 

G. C. ^aiocBfpB C buxb3ij(n{f C ^i^Li^vp^^dpcofly repcesentd.ain^^or ccfnbiredcover 

Urdetined Sfffu' ffjn d^dj-dom I rjated vegetatcin lype 

7. SbJ\x bf&chyc3:p3 Is horl-tui fe d willowj 1fK dcminani feJj^app S 

7. S d>fjcf]yi73ipa noM he domir^nl species o1 SbJ\x 9 

a. C3fex tJlf:cu}3^ flie ake d ae dgel or C sqtjatiifs iwB^\ aec^el well repfe sensed sin^y or comthned 

cover SsfiK br&ct\yc3rp& Carex utricuffftff - C^rex &q^^tilts p a 

B. S £>r^Gf]ycai7u nol 1 he damEnent ^jLvspp Undefined ^a^ijf brffdaycarpj-dominated vagaialnn lyp« 

B. SbJix reUcuiats (snow willow) Ihe dcfnir^nl S^^;^spp: Dry^s ci^fope^^^ (wht d~^aa) nol abundanl. 10 
B. S reStcviats no^ 1he dcfninani Sali:^ spp D. oclopelala may beabuncfani 11 

10 Cs{it}3 {^losep3)a (elkslipmarsh-man^ld^preaenl |olt n a bo rxlanl^ bol nol necessarily dofninairpg 
a d verse kxb la^er S&ltx rettculsJ^ y Csfths lepJosep^fa p a 

10 C. ^ep/o^epa^ nol present Undalinad Sfff^j ^e^J^^t/f5f j-domi nated ve^alalnn lyp« 

11 ^J\x BscUc-3 (Arclio willow? Ihe dcminani ifeJiA'app 12 

11 S afcitcsna\ Ihe djuiunanl fe^^xspp 13 



S9 



12 Po Jy po/? 4J m £i A3 for Jo I rf&s (Amencan bislcclj cc FoJygos7um vn^ipBruu? lalpire tna1or1J Einglv cc 

combined COV3 r WBllrapreBenlBd Ihcxj gh Bccn Bwtie I e phem Bral a rxJ dm inulive dlen conHtxj 1ing 
Ihe mos1 fcurb cover Sfflix arctics P^fygon^m bfotortoides p b 

12 P dus/ortofH^s and P. yn^ipBrum poci\y reprtaenled 

UndBfinedS. jrcl^c^-don inated vegelBlion lyp^ 

13 SbJ\x g}BiJC-3 (glaucous willowj IhE dDminanI &Jia'bfp uncfe rc^o^% 1** variable _ _ _ Ssfix gf^uc& p a 

13 S giatjca na1 dDminaling 1 he Bhrub la^er Undef iFied ^jJjxKlominate^J veg^^^vsn lype 

14 KsJm^ m\cf^hy{}3 {small-leaved laurel^ having a 1 leasl 10^ cancpy cover IB 

14 K J77icfep^yrt^ having leaa ll^n nyt cancpy cover 16 

15 Csf^x scoptjlcffvm {HcJme Rocky Mcunbin s«d^ ^ cr Csf^x :?:gf:c3nE Iblac^ alpir>e Bedge) well 
repreBenled singly cr in ccmb^r^icn Kff^iff mtcrophyffE "Carex scop^Iorttm ^ a 

16 C. scopuJoftjm End C i^^rrcjjis pocrly repreaenled &ir>glv cc in combinalio" 

Undefir>ed ^^Jm^^ mh^jvphyj^^ ve^etaten lype 

16 nylfodoce empetrrfojTnrs <re d mounlaFn-heath) cr P giandtfJsftom (^elFow mounlain-he ath> 

cbninalinglhe &hrub la^er ain^^or inconcerl 1 hiE ir carxipy cover generally abundani 17 

16 P empeSftfcffm}3 End P ji^/?ddj/iffoja noli he &lTub-layer€timinan1& nol abundani 18 

17 Anre/?rra^id }Bn&^ {woolly puss^-1c« a) common Phyflod^ce ^mpeJnforwis "Af^Jef^f^sris Isf^st^ p a 

17 A .brra^ scarce Undefined PJ?yJfo i^ ce emperf^^/iTTis-dom i r^ated vegetation lyp« 

IS CossHipe i77ej^errdL3i7a IMerlena mountain heather) domir^ting the shrub layer t9 

18 C. mer/effsajw not the shru b-la^er dcmiranl 20 

19 Csf^x psy3o:\is fPay^cns^d^) ccfnmon CsBstope fnertefyatsffs / Csrex psysof^ts p a 

19 C pay-acirTis scarce Undefiiu^J C ffssid pe in erfen sun ^ vegetation typ« 

20 DxyBS€ct^e^}3 (whit i±^as| ae Ihe shfub-la^er dcfnir^nl ^r>erally abundant 21 

20 D_ crop eteJj not the slinit>la ^er dcminani 23 

21 Relatively mesic sitea ol pcot cted sicpes gjing the impreBeicnol nearly total vegetaicn covera^ 
JlurlaiteeJ Fofyg^tnvm vwyfctartjm |alp<ne hstortj P b:Et^vto:d^3 (American biatcrl) Z.^dei74Jfl 
efe^iTS (glaucous death-cam as| ard QKylf^}3 l^j^ci^^ fsticky crazy weed) ccfnmon either ein^y cc 

in any cccnb^neicn Oryss ^ct^petB^s / Polygonum vi\/tpsrum p ff. 

21 Hd\ as above P vw^fCfBrtfm P btsSoxtCffdes Z elegarxB and O. vrsf^i^ acarce ve^ btcn coverage 
variou e bu I not sparse 22 

22 Sparsely ve gE tated eites o1 e xpoaed poaitiors i|id^ tops, a hcu Iders. aacUes. e 1 1 with OryaB 
ocfope^^ occurring in [fetirct clumps o1 higN^ variable coverage usually eurrccinct d b^ bare 
g^undor^avel i|cck pavement) cccnmccil ^ occurfing Iccb-la ^er components inclu de Phiox 
ptf}\^in3^ (oia hicn phiox^ Oxytr^fs campeslf}s lalerKkr craz^weerJ^ M\:\i^fl^ obtus^Joba (Arcic 
sandwort) Oovgias^'a (noniB:?s IRocky Mccintain Dcu^asia): Caj~e^ ^^n esfr^ {curly eedge) arxlC 

ejyjidrH^e^ 4Kotces4a-Lka aed^) ciominBle Ihe sparae ^anunoid la^er 

Dry&s DcJopeJffJa ^ Csrex rupestris p.a^ 

22 Not as abcve Undalined f>y ffs o croperfffj-dom i r^ted ve^elalnn lyp« 

23 Any o1 Ihe IcIlowingapecieB wel repreaented cr consi Lj ting the d^arl-shrub layer dicninant.^r^^le^: 
^^c^e^i IGarr^iera ealEsage ^cfmedy ^ /?4Jf^f^rj/, ^jfemr£:Aa^d:i£/s{^4J^ ilowsagebruehl.^ sibuscuJa 
ssp Jarr^o^H^ (early low sagebfxiah> A i^^l"^ ibacksagebruehl A pe i^ r;frd^ iliirdlool aa^ brus h^ 

A tfiden tsts 3sp Lf/omirr^osAS IW^omingbg eagebrueh) A rr^^^rti^ Ithree-tipsa^bcush? ... 51 
23 N[^ as abcve : none ol the named speciea well re prese nte d cc ccnsiluting dwarl-e hnib laye r 

dicninanJ 24 



60 



24 P?i7^f]yJrciJdes fJofJbunda 4B]T4jl:4)y cinquekul Icnnerly Poten^ia trtJStco3B) wsf rspresented laitEn 
psrHBlly cti&curBdbv luBh herbaceous ve^lalicn o1 her s hf u bby laxEmsy b« well re press nie d as 
well) 25 

24 P fJi3r^u74^ pood ^ repf e Een^d UndelinBd dwHrl-shrub vegelalnn type 

2B C^re^ £rJr^i7Lr.'^^ flieekedaedgel C aifie^o^esfewnedEec^). C ^e^rc^r^ dnfla1edsed^> C. 

sqvBl\}}3 |wa1ersed^> sirigly cccombned cover elleeel nyt 

Pentffphyffcfides ffcfrib^f^d^ / Csr^x utricuffftff p. a^ 

25 C. utncuJaiB C. athefodes. C \^es.'C3f}a end C aqmU^ poofJy repreeented Bin^y cc ccmbined. . 26 

26 Desch&mps^ cesp\tosa Hutted hair^ass) common, cc oniy preseni esscaltredirxividuelBun^r 
inlensive ^ezingregmeB PentuphyHoidoB floribunds ' Deschsmparff c&sprJos^ p a^ 

26 D ce^rfoflfl scarce 27 

27 Jiinciie £>d^c£rs IBaltc me h) weL lepreeented end dcfninaling 1 he herbececuB le^er 

Pentffphyffcfides ffcfnb^f^dff / Juffcus bshicuB p a 

27 J fajfJicd^ powly repreeenled end not IhE he rt^ace aj & le ^er dcmiranl 28 

2S Fesft/cff c^mpestf}3 (rough fe&cue fcrmerl^ F scabrefi^J common, or ccily pcesenl a& sca11ered 

irxividuale wnhinlensive gazing Pef^JsphyNo^des fhrtbundu vFeafi^cacenpe^trifi p a. 

2S F cfl/TrpeslTLS scarce 29 

29 Fa^f£/4^ Jc^Aoe^Tdfi |lcM ho fescue t weJI represent d foriy commcn wMhinlensive ^azingi 

PenJffp^yWojdea ffcfrib^fydff Fearucff rds^eenars p.^. 

29 F. j^^0e/?s^ pocrly repreaented |of Bcarce under inlenaive gazing regime? 3D 

3D Potw^tfJiB ^v\nB fsheep drpque 1al} ccmmcn 1he unct r^owlh dominanl o1 a depauperala 

urK^r^owlh Bubalrata ma^be wa1er-acouredandercded 

PefYtsph/lfcftdes ff{>ribuf}ds PoJenfjJJs ei^ms p a 

3D P o^TTTfl scarce and no! Ihe urrtfer^owlh d&minani 

... Undalinad Pentfl^y^jdes fhvr£un4f»<iarn ineted vegalalnn 

31 Atpfex garc^en fGarc^iers aallsage kxinerly A nMstlJi^ well repcesenled or 1 hs r^hvarT-shru b layer 
cfcrninam 32 

31 A ^fcherrpcofly repcesenfedarxJ rc11he dwarl-Ehfub la^erdcmiranl 33 

32 OryzepsAS ^y me/? e ides 4 hii an rice^ass) common or 1 he herbacecua la ^er dccn inani 

AJTtpfexgfffdneriy fy^o pa rs J] ymen o ^des p a 

32 O ^> men J K^s scarce andnotlhfi he rt^aca co e laye r domiranl 

Undflf J ned J Mpfe AT ganJn ef/ vegetation type 

33 Ar/ei77La»pec^2irid^ ilnrcfelcclsagebfushl well representedorlhe [ir^arl-shniblayar E^minenl . .. 34 

33 A pedBUffdB poccly re preae nied and noli he rihvarl-shnib laye r dominant 35 

34 Fe^f£/4^ Jc^J^ee^fas 4 kMho Is &cue) common . . . Artenfistff pedfftifidff FesJuc^ tdshcfensts p a 

34 F. i4^^0e/?s^ Bcarce Unde1 ined j^^eiTTia^ff peiJjfrfjc/^ vegetatisn lype 

35 AfSemiB^ BfbvBctjfB ilow aa^ brush? cc A BfbuBctjlB Bsp. Toi^^^e^ learly low sagebrush) well 
repre&enledorihe dwarl-Efrub layer dominania 36 

35 A BfbtJB€viB and A ^rti t/sf u^ ssp Jcrr^jf^td pocrly repre Benled crnoll^ dhvarT-shru b layer 
daninanls 41 

36 A BfbtJBCuiB BBp io:?gJi€tfB (early low sa^ bcusli) well repcesenlE d arxJ dominate Ihe dwar1-ahrub 
layer 37 

36 A BrhtfBcu^ asp Sc^^gJicbs poorly repreaented and nol 1 bs E^^arT-sliru b layer rlsmmenl 39 



61 



37 F esWca idshj^ffsts ^k^h3 iBBCue) well repc?s«nlEd {oniy ccmmcn i1 grazing inTenBUy Ib hghl 

Artemisia srb^Bcuf& b^^ f^fygil^b^ "F^sJuc^ tdsh^ensts p,3. 

37 F. i4^^0w?s^ pocrly represented |of bcbicb in 1he pretence olinlenaive gazing 3& 

38 E^Tnus [fli7c^ o^firs (Ihick-spke wheal^aBB Iccmerly Ag^opyro:? J:^sys^chy^n^ of PsBcopyfum 
s/7r^tf7i^<wesfem wheBtrra&B ]cxru€\\y Agfopyro:? Bmfltw^ indvidually or in comtHnalion well 
rBpre&en1edand1he dommBnl ^-amincids 

Au&fnisia ErbuBGuls 3Bp. fongffcfbs / Elymus Isfrcecfffft^s p a 

3& E .brrceob rus and P sittjII? JJ, irxljviduall ^ of 1 he ir combined cover poofl^repreBenlBd andnol Ihe 

difninam ^aminc4{fe undefined Aitemfsis sriKiBcul^ bb^ fcn^Jo^ff wgetBtcu) type 

39 FaaftM^ Jc^Aoff nfifi (JcMtiQ leacue ) well re pease ntd Ona^be ccii ^ common ^1h intensive grazing) 

j^rTejiTJfirff srb\JBC{if& "Festucs ^dshoefYSfs p.a^ 

39 F n^^ow^s^pocrly repreaented 40 

40 P.s^Lr^DrD^^e^ja^icab Hiluebunch whaa1g~aaa hurmerly ^^j~opyroii ^ic^rum) well represenled . ... 

ArJemisis srb^scuf^ Pseu^Soro^gnen^ spicstA p a 

40 F ^rc^Zapoofly repcesenled Undalinad j^rTeiiTja^ff jrbtfscuJ^ V€^e1a1 en lype 

41 AfSem\3\a V\dent3^s3p wy^mfngenBis rWycfning big aa^ bnia hj well re prese nfe d and Ihe dwarl- 
shfub layer daminani 42 

41 A tftden tst3 Bsp. LV/omm^Jisj^ pcccly re prese nied cc rc11he dwarl-Bhrubla^er domir^nt . ... 44 

42 E^mus [ai7c^ Di^firs (Ihick-spke whealja&& Iccmerly Agropyro:? ifasy-ste iT^ydjjTfl or PsBcopyrvm 
iTTrjtfptf {wesfe m whealgra&& Iccmerly Agropyro:? 3(nflt\\^ individually cc in combinalion ccmmcn and 
Ihe drxniranl ^aminoids . . Ar^enfista tndef^JaJs H^p. wy^mmgensis /Pssccfpyrum smithii^ a 

42 E .brrceo^ rus and P smMbiJ irxJividuall^or 1heir combir>ed cover poor I ^ repre Benled and na1 Ihe 
ctcninam graminacfe 43 

43 PseudcffCfegnef^3p\cats IbluebcinDh wheal^aaa kKmerly Agropyr^tn sp\C3tvmi wellrepreBenled 
^wiiy cccnmon under inlenaive ^azingl and excepling Poa seajmi^ ISanctierg s bluegrass> 1he 
cbninam gramincid . . .il^remjaia tridefyJ^ts BBp. wyof¥\mgef}9i3 r Ps^{idor<}egnena spic^t^ p a 

43 P Bpicats poo{\}f repcesenfe d. no! 1he daninanl graminiad 

Undefined ArtemBJj rj/denrffrff lip. wyomm^pw^a^vegelHTwn type 

44 Anemvsrs tnpa^t:ts |1f¥Be-1ip Eagebru&hl Ihe dcmirflnldwar1-&lTub 45 

44 A ff^wf/ifi no1 1 he domir^nl dwarl-&hnib 4fl 

45 Festtjca ic^hoef?stsi\^[)C} kBcuel well repcefienled for^y CExnmcn under in1en&lve grazlngi 

Aitemisia rrips rtjf ff / Eea Fejcj rJ^^eenars p. a^ 

45 F. ii^^oe/?s^ pocrly repreaenled 46 

46 E^Tnus [ai7ce Di^firs (Ihick-spke whealja&& Iccmerly Agsopyro:? ifasy-s S c^yijJTfl or PsBcopyrvm 
&r7rjtf7tf {wesfem wheal^aEE Iccmerly ^^'cpyrai^sm.'/^irt individually cc in combinalion ccmmcnand 
Ihe drxniranl ^aminoids jlrTainjapff triparltJ^ ^ Efymus fsf^cei^f^tuB p a 

46 E .brrcee^ rus and P smMbJ} irxJividuall^or 1heir combir>ed cover poorl ^ repre tented and na1 Ihe 
ctcninam ^aminacfe 47 

47 PseudcffCfegnef^3p\c3ts Ibluebcinch wheal^aaa kKmerly Agropyr^tn sp\C3tvmi well repreaenled 
4[]nly cccnmon under inlenaive ^azingl and excepling Pos secvn^h IBanctierg s bluegrass> 
constlules 1he liominanl ^amir^nd Aft^fntsis JripsftitB / Pseud^ro^gnen^ spic^t^ p a 

47 P Bpicats poa{\}f repcesenfe d. no! 1he daninani graminccd 

Undefirwd Artem^jTJY|Mfrifj-dominjfedTjeBetHlksnlype 

4fl Aflemis^ n^vB back Bagebfuah> well repreaenled and 1 he domrianl dwarl-Bhmb 49 



62 



A noL^apcoflv repcestnled and rc1 Ihe dGmirflnldwBr1-&hfub 



49 F£eudQfQegnef^3p\cs^ Iblu^bunc h w heal^B^s kinriBrly A9~opvTcn Bp^calumJ cc Oryzops^ 
t\y(ne:?^\des (fric^n nee ^ass) sin^y or in ccmb^na ten common of 1he ^minanl ^aminoidB 
excepling Po^ seconds CSan[fl>ergs blue^BssI . . ilrlf m^s i^ n o v^ Pa et/do I'Otffrn ? n^ epicsta p a. 

49 P ^rca^Bnd O hymem^fdes singly cr ri ccmb^naicn scarce andnDtltu difninBnl gramincic^ . .. 

UndBfinsd j4rT«jnja^> n^vA-domireted v^g^tatisn type 

60 RB-en^rdwarl-B^ub key BlbBgirnngleadandrB-evalualB 1he Btlecb ol^Bzingcn da^ioBic 
specJBS Bee ne:^1 lead 1 1 Bland remains unclassifiable on se ccnd pass. 

50 Urxlelined dhvarl-stinib types should be accumulaled ^re' 



63 



Key TO Grassland Plant Associations 
Including Upland and Wetland Types 

h Bcldic¥i1a ve^bic¥i 1yp«3 clifTwiatd by merriKfs oll^ Pdac^b^ I^be^be-I we ^ncliide hem ccfrmun^es 
dinwiabd by mBrrbfs oll^ bntfes Jurcac^EB tushbrrd^ irdudrg Jl/pc^^ ^pp|ruBh] Luzuias^ |waxhjsh|l 
Cyp^rHceae fsec^ iamly. mdudrg C^rB^ ^f>. I^^^^I C>pBruB^]p l^in^BJ Dij{\ch'un7 3ni?(A^c^i:m 
|cUchum| Beochaf*ss^ IspkematiJ Enc^ortjvn 3f>. I^^*^*^^'^ ?^^- ^i^^"^^^ ^PP |kctfB3a| &'JDL£Efp 
|liMi&h]. T}T}tBC«3B icalbil iknMy T}phas\^ |ca1bilB| Jinc^rucBBB (arrow ^asB kmdy imiJudrg ^i^^a 
aciS[ijdB£ ftD^VBnrg {fjfl^^^in) and ^ngVoci^.YT 3t>. [^rrcw ^bsJ^. Hoi included bb "^Bmrrad lypeB bfb VB^UUcn 
iy^B rBm«J k¥ menitem o1 1(x 1e'"^ a"c iE ^^ alliBS" irducfrig Bi^i^e ^ce eb fhix^B^I kmilyl LyoifxdacBBB ^ub 
moDB lanlyt- i>farde»:£BB VEf]fiE'\^'Cf 1 la^^lyh ^Nc^cGSBceaB i^ap^ ^rnbrrdvl Pd^Txxfac^BB itrnfarrdy), 
SBlagrvllBceaB ^[Alb mces brrdyl ItitsB tiEft»c«ctJB. ncvi-^afnmd ^o^k bfb kurd urx^r iiyt^ 

1. SitE ranging tcfn tmpcTBril}' lloodBd bpermariBnly sa1urBlBd includBsall wb lands (andaomB 
nB ar-WB larx^l w he tb in a ^aminoid is 1 he 1irs1 dBai^~alBd da^ioslc spBci^s sUbb dofnir^lBdby cc 
suppof 1ing as a da^iDsic Uxcn any o1 ItiB k^JlowingapBciBa 

A :gr^s I's s^^}^ n:^ef^a l| b dtpl 

Br^^i^ i"Brm's jsmocrth ItciiibI 

CBiBH^^'^s^.'s i^najxns^ ItJuBpm tbb^be^} C st^ic^ IrerrcA'-sp^kBd tbb^be^} 

C^TB^ ^Br^ ilCdiMTib a SB c^ I C ^qi^bfiB (hVB^r E^d^l C ^^^r^oes^wredsBC^} C buxb&unftt 

^Hixtoum s SBdgEl C i^L^rrosuB (hViKJIy E^d^l C i3E\0C3JD3 t^Brfkf\ sb^^) C ^^nUc^rcs dBnII-tuit 

SBC^J C JJJTTO^ ^niid B«^>. C ii^r^sc^nsis Ih^traska E^dg^l C pfBB^ac^lis (duslBradfiBldsBC^} C 

3Ciipvk>fvm fhktaa Roch^ Uiuntan sbc^^ C d'TTtj^^ ^ hcf 1-teakBd bbi^? C ^Jincvia^ ^akedsed^). 

C v^s^car^a inflated E^cfcpl 

DBSf-K^rps^ ce^:\02a ^tui1Bd ^rg'asE-l 

D\3i\c^\}*s^\ca^ i^rriand E^I^BE^J 

EJaoc^TariB afrc^j^nB i|~eBdB spk€-iush) E p^^dfimBfccnrncnspkeaBC^^ F. qu7quBf^ra ncrmef^y E. 

^4>ci^^. tw-lowBrad sp^kB-njB ho E roE^e^i^^ iteakBd EpkB-rushJ 

Gtycw^ horea{\s i|~mtiEfn marwia^asa} 

HordetJfT^jd^tvm linx^l bafteyl 

Jt^cus ba}ticuE (BEi\ic mshO 

J-^/mus inBrBiiS fkmiBriy Eiymus cvpbj^us. tfian ^Itty&f 

f^sc^yroTT} sm\Hvf fweslem whea^g^assl 

Pha)af^sf\j\d}f?3c^a Iraad careryg'assl 

R» praZensiB f KBnhidc^ UuB^BE^? P D^lnEi^nE lio^ UuB^'asE-l 

SnrpuB ^cjjfus ChHTC^^m bjInjB hO S. ^en^emcf:?tant [km^iif ^vshdts softilEm tulmaTft 

^a.'0QO.'4is a:,'o:deE iaIkaJi sacaiixil 

Tj/pha spgiJ9iifcfi}3 tTBTTG^AeB'^d ca.na\\] fkpfiB i^ri^DJJ^ (uxTmcn catlailj 

1. SilEEC^Br Ihian i^ scribed above croccurnngal Ihte hvgtiBSI b Ib valiors oUhe subalp^nB zone labcve 
Ihe diElribLi^anol Fseuoois^ga n7Bn^i^^ii|Doug1as-1ir] asadima:^ spe dibs and aMhe upper 

ds Irtxj 1 or^ limFis o1 Arterr^iSia r.'iOBn^^aap /aseyan^ ilnou nia in big aagebcush) and ^^i1h1he 
excBplionol D^BchampBia cespstosa Huflad hdir9~aaa} in IhB su b-alpne -'alpire nol au ppcring any o1 
ItiB abo^B-liBlBdapeciBsaa dofnir^nla cr da^ioslc spp 

S&& IcJICAing ae-cfcil y.ilh SUbheadr^ {jn^-AflMG ID-UN] pj IN H.T E D Cdnnuhitie:: Uplp-hd::^ He h -lu e^^ lpi^t e , and A.PIPIE 

Note Leeds 2 Ihrough 1Q kayta wetland pbnlEBBOcktuns wilhCBrerBpp (BedgeBjasdEgnoslE ipeciAi 

2. C^re^ apo iBBdgiB apeciea) IfslEdTn^l ndvidually or ItiBir ccmbviB d canopy cover a1 IbeeI 25% or 
ItiBse laxadDminam 3 

2_ Csre^ app having Ibss Ihian 25t siriglB of ccmhire d covBr and rc1 daninanl 11 

3. C&f^x tJlffculs^ fl}B akB d BB dgel C ves^csf^ ^nlalad SBdge) C s^^rod^B |awnedBBd^> 

indviduall^or IheircombiredcovBr alleasi 2S^ Csrex uJrtcuXsJs p. a. (seB a b^c) 

o Cj'vx iiqu3t\l'z \vfiL¥s- ixd^) C /^JT^z-L^ins ^lan^l-Fnil :;ed^h ^rd ^s:xi :^i3es rKiviiljDJIy i>~ in ainiHrcL^i>n hcivwig 

1=^ fun !^'o oh^ C VDX uhmJzib phu:;t 

b CLzLTs: ^^dzl^x a-»d C twjk^td^mi.sr^y w ixrntrKd. al Itasl vidl reprc^»ibL_ ._ 

Gwcx ai^flsphu:;^ 



64 



w^Kmav\zd ti^KT as 3i^« :q:«ci=:^ ^ few eb^bbJ zjjvct 

De^^d-unfiaa ce:^ti=3 phu:;t 

3. C. utncuJaiB C. \/es^cafiB. Rnd C. s^erodes nivicijally or Itu ir ccmbirpB d cov&r. leaa 1h3n2S%. . 4 

4. C&f^x &qtia^t& ^WB^\ bbA^)- &pefts rCoJumbls seiige>and C JenhcuJafSB i1enil-1nji1&d sed^) 

as indvicijBl species cccombned hai^rpg b1 Ieas1 2 5 "b canopy cover .CsreK ffpuatjVrs p a (s&e a & b^ 
a Ju7CdJd baJact/s {Baltic nis h> and ^bss spedBS bs lone Bp« cie b or in ccaibna Ion having iBas 

Ihan S°ii GBncpy cover Carex aqval{}}B pf^s^ 

b J ba fficdjs or ^EBB specJBS hBving a1 IbebI 5% canopy cover . . . Desch&mps\a cesp\tosa pf^s^ 

4. C.aquBSftfs C aper^. Rnd C. Jao r^i7Ln^rrs. indviduBlly cc combined tie'^rpg less than Z5% cover . . 5 

5. C&f^x i\mcfsa Imudsec^el hai^ngat least 25"^ canopy cover Curex fimos^ p b 

4_ C. IfmoES having less then 25% canopy cover 6 

G. C&f^x iascfcaips (slender sedge) C ^nugJn^tsa twooWy sedge), and C bt^xbaumh IBuxbsums 

s^d^J irxJividuall ^ Of in any combination having at leasl 25% cancoy cover . C^rex fffsi^carp^ p b 

G. C ia3\oc-3fpa C ianvgy?^ysa. 3W^ C btjxbav^nff nividuallv of in combination having leaa tt^n25% 
canopy onver 7_ 

7. C&f^x 3\mviat3 Is hcrt-b« aked se d^> ^vingalleast 25% canopy cover . . . . Csrei Bimu^st^ p a 
7_ C.atmu^^ having leas than 25% canopy S 

H_ C&f^x Ecoptjlcffvm (HcJms Rocky Hcu nUin std^ J having 25% or ^^afer cancpy cover 

Cffrex SGop^Iorttm ^ a 

B_ C_ flcopijJoftrjTr having lass Ihan 2B% canopy covar 9 

9. Car^x n^fBscens^ if^ebr^skR s^dg^) with a ^eater cancp^ cover Ihanany other inciM duel sedge 

spades Cur^x n^bruscefYs^s p a 

B_ C_ o eJujasceosjfl having less canopy cover than other eedge Bpe cie e pre aent to 

to Site with at leasl ore oi the k^llowing wetland attibutes pre eent: hyi±oph/tic ve station hydric soils 
wetland h^d^ology Unc laa a if led walb nd or riparian tite 

10 Sit lac^Lkig an^ oi Ihie atuve IrslE d we Hand aitibutes .... Uptand a ila £ Be« second hem of lead Jtt ) 

^te Lead^ 1 1 IhrooghSS kay to wetland (or nea r-walb nd) plant a^^oc lalnna wherein Carex ^pp. are not tha 
diagnostic apacieB 

11 Typha iBhf^fta Tcommon ca4tail> or T Bngvst\fofia {rarrow-leaved cattail) indvicijall ^ or t heir 
combined cancpy cove r at leaat Z5% o r corstitu ing Ihe dcmirdnl je station. . Typhs IsUfolt^ p a 

11 T iat'fcftfB 3nd T ai^gusJifoJja ha "^ng less t han 25% canape cover and not ccnt^luting the cfcminant 
vegetaion t2 

12 ScirouB ^ctrldJd rharcfaiem bulm &Ti) or S. ^befS}aemon^n\ rfccmerly S. ^s Ti^us. solbTe m hutnia h> 
irxividuall ^ Of in combination ccnstitute Ihie dcmireni ve^laticn Sctrpus actttus p a 

12 S dCdjr4JdBnd S C^6emaen?0i7^i7i. indvidually cr in combir^icn nol the dominant specie & . . . 1 3 

13 Pfta^ns jrdA^rfin^cej ileedcararygfaee) ha Jing 25 % cancpy cove r ccie Ihe dcmiranl apeciea . . .. 
Ph^fsrfs ^rundmsce^ p a. 

13 P afundtnacea hai^rg less than 25% carcp^ cover and not the dcfninani species 1 4 

14 E^^uts^tum f{uv\atfJe fwatr horsetail} ^ving al leasl 25% cancpy ccis Ihe dcminani species .... 

EqujsfllEJjn fiuviMlii^ p. a. 

14 E fJuvaS'fe ha "^rfl less than 25% canopy cover and not the ctminant spedes 15 

15 Efe ccf]a^^ palu Btis (common spike eed^J cc E a4»i7Lr^iTS Ire ede spike -rush? individually or in 
combination having 25% cancpy cover or ccnstitute Ihie dominant specie e. Efeochsris pfflusJrta p a 



6S 



1B E pBJt^siffs End E. SGiGtjiBfiB individuals^ Of inconcBrI wiThlBss 1^n 25%CBnopy cover and rc1 

ctminsnl 16 

16 E^ochafvs qv\nqvef{^rs i]cnnBi\y Eleochanspavcfft^ra lew-lloweredBp^ke-rush) and E rost^iia^ 
4lH Bked spike -niB h> nivicijaJly oi jn ccmbmalion, inving25% csncpy cover cc Dcnsiluling 1 he 
ctminsnl species Efeochsris fl u jft gueflo fa p a 

16 E pBuctft^fs End E ^os J^J^ b having Is BB Itien26% CBncpy cover BndnoMhe ^minanl spe cies . 17 

IT Gtyc^r^ bore^tfs Inorlhern mama^aBB) ^IhBl leBSI 25% oancpy cove r cr Ihe dcfnir^nl ^Bminoid . 
GXy^^Tt^ bore^^fB p a 

17 C bor^j^s liB "^ng less 1 hBn JB't canopy cover Bndnol Ihe cfcminanl ^-aminoid 18 

IS C&ianmgfostis carr^ i^i7srs ihJue fiim reed^BssI or C Et,'\cta Oib rrow-spike d ree ligraBB^ indvifijally 

orinccncerl- having a1 lea&l 25*t CBn&py cover of ccnBliluingIhe domiranl ^aminoidB 

Ca^ffm jgf OS Jjs cflj] 5 den firs p b 

IS C. CB:?Bdens&^nd C stftc^ having leaa Ihan 25% cover. injiivjdualJy cc combined , and nol Ihe 

ctminanl graminacfe 19 

19 Deschsmps^ cesp\tosa llutled hair^aaa) having a1 leaal 15% canopy cover and ccnaliluing Ihe 

ctminanl gramincid Oesch^mpsta caapjJosa p.a^ 

19 D. ce^fUtBB having leaa 1han T 5% cover and aa nol Iha dominanl ^ainincuJ 20 

20 Junc4js bd fJiCi/s {Eahic niah) Ihe dcminani gramincid 21 

20 J iwfficdjs nal the domiranl ^aminoid 23 

21 C&f^x pf3egf3C\}}3 Iclualered ieldsed^^ cc Muhie:?besg^ nc^s^ds4/?;s |ma1 mu hiy) . ind ^^dj ely or 
c^imbined cancf]y cove r wellrepreaenled Juffctis b^Mcus -C^rex prsegrac^itB p b 

21 C. pm^gmcfiiB Rnd M fichardaonis 1 ^ ir incividual cr combined covera^ . pcof I y repcesentd . . 22 

22 Junc4js bd ffict/s 1 Baltic ruah> virlually a monoep^cilic dominant other specieB characterietically 
hai^rg less than 6% cover ^nerally occurring en ccntinuousl^llooctdcc saturated acila otten 
cl~awdah^n icnes o1 Immc envirormentt 

Juffcus bskicuB p. Bl 

22 J. b^yficdjs nmt a mcnoep«ci1ic dominant other ^aminc^cfe and forbs occupying t he eite. though they 
may not be aa dominant as J baiUcus. UndalinadJuncuB be He u^ vegalalnn type 

23 D^^chhB BpfcatB i^niand eall^aee tccmerly D Birf^iia) having at leasl 1 5% cancpv cover or 
difninating t he ^aminnid layer OtBtichfis spicst^ p a^ 

23 D.3p}catB having leBB lhan15%cover and not the ^aminoid layer dominant 24. 

24 Leymus anefei^ l^ant wilctye. tccmerly Efymua iT^ajvus) wel lapreaanted Icharacterjatcally en 
lEmpcrarily cr se asonall ^ llaocfed eites 26 

24 L CA7ej^ us pcof ly repcasenled 26 

26 PvccJp^itfB nu^{}fs:\a (Nu Halls alkaE^assI or P. d)3&ns |we eping a lkali^ass> or Pos secun^h 
45ancft}ergs blue^ass tonnerly P^ta iunctfcftfB alkali blue^aeej their ind^^djalof combined 
covera^ well repfeeentedof dcminani L^ymus cinareus- Pucctf^ellts nut\sfl*sff& p a 

26 Hot as above P. nut&lhana P nD^terrsand P secd^?^ pccri ^ repf esented and not cfcminant 

Undefined L^ymtts cinereus vegelation lypa 

26 Pucc^^itfa nvttstlm^ra 1Nul1allsalkali^ass> well repreeented or dcminani alkaline seeps cc lata . . 
PucGineflisnutlatXisn^ ^.E. 

26 P ffutisitfana pQO\\y re pcese nfe d and not dccninam 27 

27 ffn oro^ D^4js sr^Dfdes {alkali saca ton> well repreaented cc Ihe dcm inani graininad typically en 
seasonally loocfe d alkaline Beeps cc alluvial 11a Is Sp^r^bof^B siroideB p a 



66 



27 S arf DK^s poofly repre EBnled and no! 1he itminsnl graminad 2B 

2S Rasiropy^triTT si77itf?^~ IweslBm w hBa1g~ass k^fm^rl^ Agrooyfon smithfb well repc&sentdor dDminanl 
9~amincid charadBriBlic of baBinBorswalQEoralluviBl lalB lusually wi1h heavy- txlur^d soils) . . . 

Psacopfium sinithxif alluvial flat p. a. 

2S P flJ77itf3w fXHxIy re prtaented and nol 1 he dDminanI yamir^nd 29 

29 P<}a3ecundB 15anct3ergsblue^3ss. Icrmerl}' Fob jtmc\foJ]B of P secunda^Bp jd^c^ofis alkali 

blue9~aBB^ well re pcese nt d and {fciminBnl o1 ^amricHd laye r cofnmunil}' c h^ra clerHtc o1 ses penally 
orlempofaril^llDrxtdBlluvial 1la1s Po^ aetund^ p. a. 

29 P £ecdA7iK pccrl ^ repf estntd and no! cfcrninanl g-amincid 30 

Hate At lefldSD begins b SBCInn of WBib nd lor naar WBib nd) vsgetBtion typs^ c haiBcterizBd by inlroducsd 
giBrninokd^. 

30 Po& paii^tf\3 flowl blue^BssI hBi^nga ^BalBr canopy cover 1tien olher irxividual herbacecus 
spedea Poa psfustriscA 

30 P pd JusJtas oanopy cover leBB Ihan 1tie I o1 cUhe r hBrbaceoia Bp^ciee 31 

31 Agrosl^ sloJoTwfem Qedlcfn) having a ^eak r canopy cover than Ihalololher indvicijal herbaceous 
spedea Agrostis stofof^tferBD.t 

31 A srefci7r/e na cancpy cove r lesslhan Ihalololher herbacecua Bp^ciee 32 

32 Hjfdeumjii^Wm (1oj4tajl t^arley) ha'jriga ^ealer ccnopy covar Ihon 1tia1 o1 o1 ^ r indi^djal spedes . 
Hordeum jubaJufn c_ t 

32 H_ /4iwhr/Fr canopy cover less 1 han Ihalololher herbacecua species 33 

33 Bremus A^erm^ 4amooth brofne ? having a 9~e a t r cancpy cover 1 han Iha1 ol olher individual apeciea 

Bromus ineriniac. t 

33 B A7errn^ cancpy cover leBB Ihan 1tialo1o1her herbacecua Bp^ciee 34 

34 Pcd p^a J^iT^rs 4 Ke nU cky blua^aaa) ) having a ^ealer canopy cover Ihan other ni Jidual 
hertMceou E spedes Poepfff?enarsc_ t 

34 P pfjiensjfl cancpy cover leaa 1han 1 f^1 o1 o1 her herbaceous apeciea 3& 

35 Site & posseaaing a1 a minimum cne o1 Ihe Icllowing we land cri^ria hyctophylic vegetaicn welland 

hyc^clc^y hyi±ic &c4le U re la a &]f led or u nrepc rtecf werra nd or riparian ^ite 

4&ee also fHpenan [hinwianc^ T^pes olUintane [h^r^enelaJ 1^a| lo ic^nUly and ^EJiiibe Ihesi^l 

35 Si1ee lacking all o11he above-died welland cnlena Upbnd^ite 



GRAMimiD-DOMItJATED COMMUNITIES, UP LAPf DS , FPf C L U DIFfG 

VjIj^mus High-subalpjne and Alpine Environments 



1. Siteran^ng tccn mc4sl u pJancfe loaeaaorall^ aaluraled lalBandaeepe ilndudng|jrisdic1iordl 
wellandej domina t d by any one oHhe following spedes Junct^bath^ivB (BaNcrush) 
Desc/i^mosi^ cesp\tosa Hulled hair^aaa). Casex pm^gmcfiis (dustered field aec^l. ft^^t^nbergia 
ftchard3o:\is Onat mu^y^ H ofde am }vb3ttjm |1ox1ail t^arleyl. Leymua i7v?ere£j% 1gan1 of baain 
w^ldrye> P^scopyrvm 3m^i\ |wea1ern wheal^ass). Pu^cirreJIia nutisJi^s^a INullairealkali^aaa), P. 
H^tefTfl |we eping alkali^ass) 2 

1. Sue e filer 1 han ctscfibed above or occurring a1 highe e1 e le valiors olsubalpine zcne ^above 

dslnbuficn o1 Ps^tjdotsuga n?er7^raaiY fDcu^as-ir) ae dimax species, upper dslnbuficn o1 ^rfemis'^ 



67 



Iffde^ IB^ B3p. vas^yana |mctj nUin big sagebf ush]) upward inb alpine and ^1h1^ exceplional D 

ce^p^ro^^ in 1 hE Buk>-ElpinB -'alpine nml supfiof 1ing sny oUhe sbove lisled 

spedes a&ctminanis 1& 

2. DeschBmpa^ ce3p\tosa Hutted hair^asB) well repcesenlsd toniy cccnnmn j1 gazing inlen&jvs) 3 

2_ D c^^^roaa pccri ^ repf a Eenled & 

3. Pctw^lf^ d\yera\foJ\a fd verse-leaved dnquelcil) ccmmonor PtrieumsipJpum falpine imolhy^ and 
Tfisetvu} aptcalun} Ispike 1ri&etum^ pces«nl Ps^tjdoroeg^er^ Epfca^ ^uebun^h whealgraBB^ na1 
preaenl hig h auba Ipire la alpine mead^wE . . Oescb^mpsfff cesptJos^ ^ Pc^fenlilfj d tv^ro Ho lia p a 

a_ F divers^ef a scarce P ajjint/mand T spic^ft/m ab&en1: habilala vanaia 4 

4. C^re^app 4aad^ apeciea e g1 wellrepr#&en4edor the dofninanl ^aminDid&along wi1h D 
c^apft^tsB D^sch^mpsis {leapit^aa - Csr^x tpp, 

4. Hoi as above Carex app. na1 Ihe dcfninani graminacfe aee a ^ b below 

a Fe£f£/4^ jc^h Of i7£i% IkM ha kBcue) wall repcasentd ^or orJ ^ common unct r intnsive gazing} 

Fes?ucj jJaAoansja - Das^smpsrff oeaprroaff p a 

b F. t^htro^naJa pGcx\y ra press niad flhe Idlohvirci 1yi]a repraBenlBlar^l}' loweralavalionsitB bo 

we1 lasuppof! f .^^oenas ye1 no1 fcrmal wa Hands) 

Oeschfffnpsis c^spitoaB p a Tat described by Han^an etal [1B95]t 

B_ Junc4Jfl iwfjicdjs {Baltic ruah) la wall ra press niad 6 

B_ J_ iw/JicdJS pocrly rapreaantad S 

G. Caf^x pfaegf&c\}}a |clua1ered ields^d^J cc Muhie:?befg^ rtctrafcis^tnfs I|na1 mu hiy) . ind i^dj aly or 

combined well repfa&enled Juncua bafUcus-C^rex pr&^grsctfiap b 

6_ C. pja^gmcfJiS RFid M nchardao^ws ind "^dj ally or combined covar ^vell repfasented 7 

7. Jiinc4Jd ta ffiC£/£ IBalHc ruahl virtually a mcnoep^cMic dominani among 1 he kw apeciaepfeaani |^5> 
ctieractrisicall^ol drawdown zcnes o1 lamnic envirormenle ilndudas^al Iha mos1 ^pauparat 
sbnda incofpccaladin Hanaanel al |1B95]) Jcinoiis As^rrcusp a 

7 J ^fficdjs nDl a mcnospa Di1ic d^»minan1 o1 he r ^aininacfe andlccbs occupying 1^ site 1hc4igh1heir 
canopy covar ma^ba leaa 1hdn1ha1 o1 J.b&lltcva llnclirdea mosloUhe J fnaJr^irus commu ri1^ 1ype as 
conceive d o1 by Hanaanalal |ia95]| Juncu^ batticuB p. a. 

5. Dia^chlia Bpfcata ilrJand eallg~aee forms r1^ D alnc^^ having a1 Ieas1 1 5% canopy cover of 
d^»minBling 1 he ^aminoid la ^er Otatichfis spicsJa p a 

3. D.aptcats ^vinglase Ihan 1 B'b canopy cover andnol 1he d^»minan1 ^amincid 9 

9. Leymuscinesei^ l^anl wilctya.lccmerly Efymua i7A7ereus> wel rapreaanled |charac1eria1ically en 

fempcrarily cr se asonall ^ Hoocfed Ej1es 10 

B_ L 4WTefe us pcofly repcas*nled 11 

ID Pvcc}n^i{f3 nv^{}fa:\a (Nu Halls alkaE^assI or P d}atana Iweepingalkali^ass^or Pi>a aecun^h 
IBanctiergs blue^ass kinnerly P^ta ^vncsfotfa alkali bJue^aeeJ 1heir ind i^dj al or combine d 
covera^ well repf e eented or dofninani L^ymus cin^reus- PuccfneXits nutJsflisff^ p a 

10 Hot as above P Ji uJ^^-'jarra P n^terraand P s*cdA7iE pcori ^ repfasenled and no1 dominani _ _ _ _ 

Undefmsd L^ymua cmereus vegelat4on lypa 

11 FuccJp^St^ nv^{ka:\a INu Italia alkaE^assI ^vell repfeeentedof dcfnir^nl alkaline seapa cc Ia1a . . 
PucGineflis n^tJaflisf}^ p. a. 

11 P ffutiait.'ana pQO\\y re pcese nfe d and no1 dcminani 12 

1Z ffn ore^ D^4ja ar^Dfdea {alkali saca 1on> well repreaenladcc Ihe dccn inani graminad typically en 

seasonally loocfe d alkaline seeps cc alluvial lab Sp^r^bi^fua siroidea p a 

12 S ai^DiH^as poof ly repre senled and not IIg cbiinanl gramincid 13 



68 



13 PflsccfiyftrjT? flJ77itf3w Iwealem w healyaaa Iwmtri^ Agrooyron smJ^fJ} well repcesenfedor dDminanI 
g~amincid charadBriBliD of baBinBorawale&oralluvjBl lalB {usually wi1h heavy- txlur^d soils) . . . 
PsBCCfpyrufn smithii: alluvtaJflat p.a^ 

13 P flJ77itf3w poccly re preaenled and noM ht daminenl yamir^nd 14 

14 Poaaecunda IBancftiergsblu^^ass. Icrmerly Poa iancifoJm of P.aecundaBBp jd^c^ofis alkali 
blueg~asB} well re pcese nt d and {fciminani o1 ^amricHd laye r cofnmunily c ^ra cleristc o1 s^a scnally 
or tempof aril ^ llooctd alluvial 11a Is Pob aecufyda p a 

14 P £ecdA7da poof I ^ repre senltd and nol dDminanl g-amincid 

-Saa laadRSO in Ihe initial portion ol 'Ke YToC^nA::^LH.NDTrPE9^URL^nD mnd V^t l ^ nn " that IreatB walbndB 

IB Gonvnuntie B o1 lighsubalpinE 1o alpine silea ^ re rally abov€ 5.50011 crilocDumng lower Ihen 

aaaociafed wilh wincfewe pi a houlders andnd^B 40 

IB Not asabcve.ccfnmuni^a olelevalicna generall ^ coreick red Id li€ below Ihe u pper subalpine . 

TDU gtiiy le as Ihen S 500 tt at Ihs Lattuda andin thia climate regme 16 

16 B ron? us 49 rATd r4Jd i|n cu main brome ^ cr 8 ^nomaiuE Inoddng brome } well representd indi^djally 
orcollecivel^ (o1 her ^aminc^cfe maybe difninanl) . . Bromus csrinatus - Brcmits an^mMtuB p. a^ 

16 8 c^r.vTa rud cc B arrom^.'us poorly repces^nt d. individually cc collecUve ly 17 

17 Slipa rfuhBrds^tni\ (Ric^rdscna neede^aaal abunc^nt |ofi y welF repf e aenled i1 ^a zing inlE nsivB| .IS 
17 S ^cf]ard3eii7r^ nol atxj ncfam land poody repre senled in 1 he pcesen^e o1 gazing) 19 

15 Fa^ft/c^ Jc^hofiTSi^ fhfa ho kscue) well repcaaenlEd jor common 1 1 gazing int rsi vel : Ha t? fitFok^wig 
p^ la-^y rcpJoics ^ x5o}w>rjK\z - S. mn^m^onff p a SUps rfchardsonri - Fe3\uc& tdshoenstB p a 

IS F. j£^^0a/?s^ pocrly repreaenled Undalined Srip^ a^ ^j^on i^ ve^etaTisn lyp« 

19 FftsJt/cff c&mpestfis flccmerly F sc&breiiB rough lescuel well represenled (only ccmmcn under 

intenaive g-aiingl 20 

19 F cajT^esins pccrl ^ repres*nled (cr scarce untfer ^azingj 22 

20 Fe^ft/c^ Jc^hofiTsrs (kfa ho ksDue) well repcesentd. Ps^udoroegn&r^ apfCB^ fbrmeriy Agmpyrw? 
sp\C3tB Uuebun^h wheal^aeej ilpreseni ^Ihleeecover Ihan F fdah^e^rais 

FesJucff cainpeatr^fl -Fasrcjcff Fdsftoenars p a 

20 F. \dat\ow}s^ |l[^ ho leacu e| pcod ^ repf e senled P spicatn Qilu ebunc h wheat^ass) commcfi cral 
leasl equal in cover to F. t<ht\o^nsJs 21 

21 PaeudcffCfegnef^3p\catB Hcrmerly Agf^yro:\ 3p:c-3ttjm bluebunch whea1crass> cccnmcn (reduced 

ta Ecatlered in[ividuala wilhinlensive gazing) . FestuGS csnfpesJrts - Ps^udoroegneris spicatB p^. 

21 P ^H^^m scarce Undafinad.'un reported p.a /c t withm F^stucB c^inpeatns a Nianc a 

22 Fe^f£/ca Jc^^ofiTSi^ fkMho kecuej well repcesentd for orJ ^ common u nckr int reive gazing} . . 23 

22 F i4^^0e/?s^ pocrly repreaenled |or scarce under inlenaive gazing) D ce^i rc^a a bse n1 . ... 27 

23 Pot^nlf^ d\yer3\foi]a fd verse -lea ved dnque 1c4l^ C&fex 3C\fpo}d^a (Canadansin^e-sp^ke sec^J. C 
ftUfcftfB nhread-leavedsedge>or Phleum aip\:\tjm lalp^ne imolhyj Iheir ain^e cr combined cove r 
commcn sit a a1 higher reachea o1 eubalpine ei^lendng b alpine e ;ct ndng lowe r en cold ei^posed 
silea linckjd^:: t^n klucgglcr £ S^^srlOSBO^ ^P^^ ^ djrwrrs's - Cjrey ^ar^zrmdrj p.3 lTiyixif>=3z«d^ ^irpd f 
ti;j^wycn:ii7-C3r^x n\ifaap^ (vEfifwdhJ FffsJuc^ id^^oenars; PotentiSIs diversif^iiB p a 

23 P di'ersv^of^ C scirocJdee C f\{fM\a P ^d^^m t/m scarce either fnd^dual dt combined cover silea 
nolo1 alpine 1o high subalpine cc nol e xpoaed cc colder I h an prevailing cftri ale 24 

24 Cera:?tvm viBCOBJBB\mvm (sfcky ^ramuml Pcfle:?t\{}B gf&cffsB Islenckr cinc^efcil) pces^nl and-'or 

8 ron? us carATd r4Jd ilnctj main bf ome> , 8 &ncfm&{v3 Incdcing brome ) cc Bymustrach^caulus (lonnerly 
Agropyf^tn ca/?A7um heartfed whealyassl common indviduallv cc ccmhned 



69 



FestuGS jdahoej]flja - Etywus tr^chycsulus p a 

24 HolBSBhcVB 25 

2& Rflscijpyj^rT? £j77iS4;j ffcVtalBrn whealyass) or Efyrnt^ fsnceoiatvB Hccme riy ^ jropyj^rr da^y^^chytfm 

Itvck-spke whEBl^EEBj, lti£lr jnciijicliBL ar ccfnbtnE d CQVBr. commDn 

Featu^i-s ^dshcfSfYSfs / Pascopyrum smrrh^r pj 

2B F siTTjtf?^' and j^ 4^sysl^c^_K4jn? Ihslr fncivlduB I cr combined cove r scarce 25 

26 FseudcffCfegnef}Bsp\c3ts Hcrmerly Agf^yron apfc&ttjm bluebunch wh^Bl^B&B^ ccmmcn faccepi 

merely pfeBenlunckr imEnsive ^Bzngre^me) Festucs fdahoeffsfs - Ps^ud^r^^gnen^ spicffJa p b 

26 P ^iCB^^BCBrce U ndef I ned-'unm ported FesJuca id^howrets ve^^taUsn lype 

27 Pflsccfiyj^JT? sj77itf3;j fwealern w healyassl of Efymtfs fsnceoiatvB Hccme riy ^ jropyj^rr c^ayatec^ytrm- 
Ihick-spke wheBl^BEeJ Iheir indi^djal or ccmbired cover, common 28 

27 P smi^tf^nd E. i^iii7eei.b /us scarce eicceplin Blancfe where P aptcsis well repreaenled 3D 

25 PasiTopy^triT? si77itf?^~ (wealern w heal^assl a rearl}' mcnoBp^cMic dominanl o1 genie 1lab and 
botlomlanda wi1hiine-1e:^1ured 1h»ea v^) soils PsBcopyr^m a jitjIA fj ^ a 1 1 uvia I llatf p a 

2S P £J77ii^;j rc1 "flrluallv 1he only apeciesol impcrlance sues includngmore ll^nline-lEi^lured 

botlcmlarxte 29 

29 E^Tnus ^i7c^ oi^Zlj^ flhck-spike whea1g~aaa) common and uau ally {fc^minanl compcne n1 oleady 

s«ral alages on aandy subrsrates Efymus Isf^c^o^stus / Ph^ceft& hsstat^ p a 

29 E^mus ia^cfid^fus 3€af c« and^cc no4 dannam 

Undahnad P_ sjiTjtfi j/ an lior E ^ffncflof j?us veBatatcii lypeB 

30 Fseudcffoegnef^ 3p\cats Ibluebunc h w heal^asal well represen^d Icniy ccmmon under inlenaive 
9~azing cc where badand ccndicna era hgh cover of e xpose d su bs1ra1e . usua lly ^avel exis^l ..31 

30 A ^H^tirmpoody reprflaemedlEW scarce with^azin^ 36 

31 Rhzomalrxjs whsal^Essfs prircipally EJymus ^rrcee^ r4ja (Ihick-spike whea1grass> and 
FsscopyrtfiTf BiTfiihfi (wesiem w healyaaaj common. Carex ste:?ophyiia usually preaeni 

P seurfo fo ejj] e fjff spjc^ff ?ff -Pffacepynim sm^rfijVp a 

31 Rhrizomalcus w^al^asses acarce: C srenc^hyJ^ u sually abse n1 32 

32 BoutefcfUB gmcfi\s ibue grama> wellrepreaenled Paeudofeej^err^ spicsJs - BoutefcfU^ grscflts p a 

32 B jfjcj^w poExly repre senled 33 

33 Oryzepsjs ^yme/?eides 4 hdan rice^ass) pfesen1:ai1esei1herbadands wi1hna1urally Imosl^k 
eroded CO nd tana or exceasively ri'ained sand^ schIs 

Pseudoroegf^&ris spfcstM - Oryzopsis hym^noides p.a^ 

33 O ^ymen DK^s abrstm. ai1es nol as atxjve 34 

34 Rid^ a hcu Iders or conve xiHes ei^poaed 1o pre vailing win^ fuauall^^lhscd ^lalionand much 
60%+ e xposfd subrsrate) a1 or below 1he upper aubalpire zone oia hicn plants fe g ErtSnchfum 
nanum Dougiaa^ mcfn&na. Towns^ndia spfn | or ccmpad kirbs 1e.g Oxytroofs cauTpeatrts 
Sferro Jus ^c^ LT^^ ^Iccme riy Hsplop^ppva acatj}}a]) doming 1e 1he urx^r^owlh ^amin^d compcneni 
fer re [ij ced re la i ve lokirba 

J^aeudoroegneria apicBtM /Custiicn Plants pra^ 

34 Hoi as ahcve 36 

36 Po&aecunda 15arK±»erg s blu e^a bb^ preseni usually ^amin^d 2nd in anporUrce 1o 

PaeudcffCfegnef}a£p\cata Ibluebunch wheal^ass): Stips comata Oie ede-and-1 hreadl or S spast^a 
^pcrcu pvie -grass) ma^be corepicu cu b compcne nia en lower alluvial slope s and t>enc he s and valley 
bolbms Pse^dcfTCfegfY^rtff spicsJs -Pos secunds p a 

36 P 5ecu7{^absenl rc1aa above . . . Undef i r>edi'u nre pc rted Paetri^ i^ e^ erj^ a^^jfj vegalalnn lype 



70 



35 S^& com&tB Ineede -arxJ-l ^ead^ cr S spaces rpDFOip^ne ^bssI ancibr BfMstefjuB gyBcJtis buB 

g-amaj 1he €fcminan1graminci(fe 37 

35 S CGmais S ^sr/ea and B ^^cr^jsnol Ihe dcm inani graminacfe 39 

37 Psi}rsJ\^tfm Sw}v\fiorijm Hccmerly Psofst^a f?i7djjffci^a. sle rxJer-llDwer&d Bcur1-p« b> preaeni uauBlly 

Ihe dcfninanl fccb in [^ pBup€ rs le VBgebicn subrstBle sandy 

SJjpff c^nfBtB / Ps^rBfidiunf ?enujWofum p.^. 

37 P rw?4JlffordJJ77 Btae nt 30 

36 BoutefcfUB gmcfi\s if^ue grama> cccnmcn Stips comsJ^ - BcfU\ef^u& grsc^fisp a 

3& 8 ^^ci^^ scarce UndBlinad ^ unre[>anad Sli[>a conala vegalalnn lyp« 

39 DiB^ch}}3 Bp\cat3 i^cxrus\\'/ D BtrtciB inland BsllgraBB^ ccmmon usually 1he difninanlgfaminadin 
salt-arslkBli-alkcledsjts DisUcbfis sp^cffts p a 

39 D. sptcsts poarly rgpfeBgnlBd, may not bie 1he dDminanl 9~amincid 

UndBlinad .' unmpcrted hBrbacBou^ p^ i^ I. k>r BouthwB^lBrn P^ 

Hots Irom laad 40 to 66 Ihe vagetBtin n typBi traalBd are of ^ubalpinB to b Ipine Bnvironrnenls^ bolh WBib ndB 
BndupbndB 

40 Stands dcfninaled b^ ^Bminc4{fe 1^3 bbb^ Badges rushes e 1c J 41 

40 Stands nol yamir^Hd-domina ltd bul ralherby Icfbs 

see -KEV TOPEflEMNIALFonB VEI^ETATDN INCLUDING UPLAND AND WETLAND TYPES 

41 We land Biles ^1hB llofisticcofnpoBitranand^crsoils-'hy^i^og^meeirpg we land en Ie rfa 42 

41 Site & nol wellandB nol meeling wellandcfileriB 44 

42 Wafand Biles dcfninaled by Ca r^x sf ep Lr^erdjn? (Holm a Roc^^ Mou nia in se [^e> C a qu^fi^ Iwa ler 
sed^^ C Jeji r^i7Ln^riis ilenlil-tui I ae ligel erC spexts fCdumbiased^? singly cc in conibinalicn . 43 

42 Sue nol dofnir^led by any cccn b^na ion o1 Ihe abcve-lis1edapecieB 

Undefined G ram inoid-domina led Watland 

43 Silecfcminaledb^ C^rex Ecupt/.'ur um (Hchis Rocky Hcu nUin se d^> 44 

43 Silfl nol domiraled by C Ecopufofvm 46 

44 C&llh& l^l€B&p&)a felkslv>marsh-mari^dl or Senecfo cy:T^B}3f:cf\deE |1ew-leave d ^cuncfee I) 

singly cc combined ^vell repfe tented and dB^~K>a1ic tofba Ca re^ s^DpciPo rcim s CsUha Xeptosepffis p b 

44 C. ^ep resepj-fa and S. cymJusi^r^orH^s poori ^ repf e Eenled 

Undefined C^5re>acc^pulcrujiTV«^elHbDnType 

46 Site B ckfTunated b^ Of having grealer cancf]y cover ol Carex s^mtjfs^ iB hcrl-beake d ae dge> Ihanan}' 
ollwrain^e ^aminoid Csrex sfwuf&t^ p a 

46 Site E ctminaled b^ graminacfe olher Ihan C s.'mtj}3ta 45 

45 C&f^x &qtjat}i{s ^WB^\ aec^el.C Jent\ctfSafiB I]enil-1rui1sed^^ of C ^per^ (Cclumb^a bbc^/. ain^y 

or in ccfnbna ion dcfninanlof well represenled Carex squfftiXis p. a. {see a £ bbelow> 

a Graaa ^hojb a or i^^^cus 5aJ^us (Boltjc f UBii|. oJcne or in combna ion. pcof ly repcesent d . . . 

Csr^x squsJrfis PhaBB 

b Graaa Bp«cieEandJ.^aJr^i7us alcne of in combinalion poccly represenled 

i7ea ch empsjj cespit^ss PhaBB 

45 C.Bqu&S^fB C. ^/reu Cares, and C ao^j^. ain^y orinccfnbneion pccrl ^ represented and no1 

cfcfninanJ 47 

47 Snohvbed ccfnmun iea |ai1eB wi1h^ea1eraccumulBliorg olsnow Ihan olher lanc^cap^ poBilicna 
and^cclatflf mallotj ol snow> 4fl 



71 



47 NdI BnowbedsilBa mlcheraclBrizedby sbove Bvers^ snow ^pcsilionor lab mellofl 51 

A3 Si1eB where snowiB VBr^ long-peraisling ilon^r 1 h^n any olher VBgelaledposiicnJ and Caf^x 

n\gr\ca:?s flilack slpne sec^l Ib difniriGnl and usu ally Bbundanl C^rex ntgricsf^s p a 

4fl C_ Jij^jcarra acBf CB _ no! lie canopy dj^nj nam 49 

49 Snofcvbed ailes oIlE n wi1h depaupe FB IE hErb cover wUh JtiV7CdJS HDV4jminoji t^^ {Dnimm cnd"E rua h) 

Ant^nnariB }3P3^ {woolly pussy-1ce &? and-'or S}bha}d\a procun^enB Icreepng sibbaldaj pcBs^nlarxJ 
difninam Juf^cus druwnfCff^dtffn^ s AfyJefYf^ffrfs Isf^st^ p a 

49 Snowfae d aitBS bu I not aa abcva lacking J. druuffn^tndtf.A. i^/?dband S. p^0C4jmJ:i err^ as docn inanb . 
SO 

60 Juncuspar^yj IParry a ru&h| Ihe dcfnir^nl ^aminoid wi1h En§e,'o:\ Ufs}nv3 (Bear River fleabane) 
comm en and Gcnsisle mlv 1he daminBnl kirtu lh«igh Dover ae Idom exceeds 5t 

JuncuB parry* / Engeron ursifYus p.a^ 

EO J-paff/irol Ihe dcmiranl ^aminoid and E djnsirrt/s nol dcmiranHGcb 

Undalrinad Snowbfid Site* 

51 Ebidff cbnlnated by otpe or combiraiicna of 1he hullowingaix graminacfa Oes^tramps^ ce^ttosa 
nuftad tnir^a&B? Festtjca id^Ji oei^&'E i li^ he leacue). Festvca k\:\gf} |spike-1escue.1ccmerl^ 
HespefochJoa king^QT Leucopoa kv^gt^ BfomvB meriTPis vai ptJS7\pei{^nu3 rfofmeriy B 
ptfJ7\p^ihanu3 pumpelly brcfU€].JtJ^ctJsba}tfcus fBalicrush) of Ca^ex ohtuES^ ihJunlsedger- - - 5Z 

61 Stands nol dofniraled by any cne.cc ccnibna ion. ci1 1 he above listd^aminoid species ... 59 

62 Desch&mps^ cespitosa Hutled hair^aaa) well represented. 1 he dofninent ^aminad ol mciE4 te wet 
meadawa S3 

62 D c^^^reaa pocri y represented and rc1 Ihe dcminani graminad 66 

63 CBlihB {^loEep&)a £elkslv>marsh-mari^dl and^cc S^:?ec\o cys7\tfaiBr\otdBS fkw-llowered 
g~aundsel| ain^y or in ccmb^ne ion well represented or dccniraing the kirbla^er ol wet meadDwa 

Desch 5 JiTpsjA cespit^sa Caftha fepJosepaf^ p a 

63 C. ^ep Je^epa^ a rxJ S. cymbaiancffdes. alcne or ccmbvie d cover nol domir^nt and poorly repre rented. 

54 

64 Potw^lf^ d\yejB\foJ\a (d verse-lea veddrpquelcilj ccmmon 

Deschampsfa cesptJosff /P^JeffJifla di\/erBrfoftff p a 

64 P divers^eia Ecarce UixJehned Deacrt ffjirpa^ff ^wapjfosff vegetalBJi type 

66 FBStuce i^hjeffsts(^{^[<}iBBCu^). Carex oblusats ihfun1aed^> or BromtfB fnermfB ^/rk 
pujTTp^itfBnus ^mpell y bf cfne . Icrmerly B ptjmpeJi^nus\ or any ccmb^naicn of the Ihree 
well repreaented cr cofnpnsirpg Ihe dcfninani gra minc^cfe B5 

SS Neilhter F fdaho^ns^ C obluEs^ncx B Lnermis var.p£//7ipfjj'^/?iiscc any combnakonat Ihe t^ee 
ctminating t he yamircid compcnent 57 

65 Pet^nlftJa d\yer3\foJ\B (d verse-leaved drpquelcilj ccmmon 

Festucff ^dsfioeftsrs/PeJeftJjJJj djversrfo^rff p a 

55 F druers^ef^ Ecarce Undefined Fesrii^a id^Ac^^^a^ ve^atatton type 

57 Faah/ca ^.v?^ {spike teacue hurrnedy Hespefochioa i<\ngf} of Levcopoa i<\ngfA thE ^amirpoid with 

g~e alE at coverage in rather dEpauperat communities 5S 

57 F Ainjwnat the indcated dominBnt 

Undefined G ranirwd-dom ineted vegalalnn lype 

5S OA'ylrops ca ri?p e^lTJS {Blender crazy wee dl pre Bent and charactenatic forb 

FestuGS kfngft Oxytropis canfp^sJrts ^ a 

5S O campesffja not preaent Undelji^ed Fes?uca A^o j^r vegatatjon lypa 



72 



59 TurF cofTimu rii&s fcommonl}' c h^ra clenzed by snabundanc^ ol dwsrl. iibf c4is-rcclBd ^amincnds. 
usually C^r^^Bpp |se^e spBcies] buHccbrsmay dofninale BcniB slBnds> difninanlgraminci^ wilh 
irrfjidual cc comhned cover eKceedng 15*t includng Carex e{y:\o:de3 IKctire&ia-likt &edgtl C 
^L^fs^^lcurly Bfdge) C s^^poid^^ ICanadansingle-spike seiige> C phae^ceon^ia (^nh^Rd 
s«d^> C.3ibcfn\gr3 fliJack-arxJ-whte-acBlBds^d^J C strata {t^BA^^neds&^gB}. FesSuca o\^in3 

<E hE ep leacu el _ and C^i^nw^us/is p Lnpdjjascens Ijairple reedyasBl fiO 

69 Not ^Bmircid-dofnir^led or having reduced 1o1al f<50<%| canopy cavBrsge frofn iur1 cofnmuriiBS be 
cfesCTibed above 66 

50 Mnsl turlsita wMhore cran^cDmbinalicnoH^ killowing C^re^Epp laec^ apecieE^ dofnir^nl C. 
sf^jpoidf^ ICanadansingle-apike se^e> C pha eo cephaia (dunhas^ ^Bdg&).C ^£H^r7i^-a ^lilac^- 
and-w hi fe -scales se dge) C ats3^ ItJackene d aecigel 61 

60 Dry lurlaMeE l^adng 1o cushon plani anvirormenlE wi1 h rmic h mDre cpan a1ruc1ure> wnhona cc any 
combinalion ol 1 he IcJIOiVing Epe Die & ctminanH Carex ,'[^estffsicui\y Eedgt) C ety^rofdea 
(Kotcesia-like sed^> C obtuES^ ^unl sedge) F^atuca ovirra (Eheep leacue), CaJamagrostfE 
ptjfpurascens Ipurple reedy aaaj 63 

51 Ceum fCfSS^} iRoBB E averFsl common luauafy wef repreaented and the domriant Irxb) : aubalralea 
ncocalcareou E C^rexscirpotdea ^Geuw r^ssii^ a 

51 Ge um fCfSS^ scarce olherlccbs dcmiranl 62 

5Z Fot^nSf^ d\yejB\foJ\a fd verse -leaved drique lal^ andi'or Phhx pijJv\nsta Icushon p No:^) dcmirdnl 

and^cc DExnmcn CafeATScjj'pejrfee/PeJeftJrfJa djL^efsrfo^re p a 

52 Hot as above P. di^e^aj^A^ arxl P p lihvu Iff scar oe and nol dcmir^nl 

Undalined noitl a Ipine lurl vegalalnn lypeB 

53 Turi nearly ccnlinucKJS Carex r4^ esfns {curly Eed^) C ^tvaaia Hilunlsed^J and Caiamagf^tsiis 
ptjfpvrascens Ipurple reedyaaa) nol domir^nl cc codcmir^nl yaminoidE k»fbEa mincc compcne n1 . 

Csrex efynoides ^ a 

53 Turlpalch^. C rupestfvs, C ^tvaaia cr CaiamagfCfStis pvrptjf&s^i^ns ^\p\e reedgraEE? dominani 
yamincHds ^1h cpenngs 1ccb dcmirdled and much exposed y ave I/rock subEtale exisling 64 

54 CsiamagfCfSlrspufpums^i^ns ipurp\€ reedg~aaa) well repcesenledor domir^nl yaminoid 

C jfa m eg fesJjfi purpureficens - Csrex r^pesJna p a 

54 CpLnpdJjasfeospocdy repreaenledandnot 1bE dDminam^amLncid 65 

56 C&f^x rix^eatfJa feu rF^ ae [ige> or C obtt^sata tJunlaec^el Ihe domiranl ^aminoid weirrepreEenied 
Fotent\}ia OL^vw fs heep cinque knl> cr Fhfox pu{\y,y?ats feu e hicn phlo:t> com'^ en i^diJidually cc 

combined uauall^lhe dominani knba Csr^x rup^sJns s Pot^ntilfff ovina p a 

56 F jytna and F puivm^ia singly cr combined scarce and no1 Ihe dccninanHccbs 

Undefined ■' unreDordad Ca^ejf fijpea frrs vag ataTio n type* 

55 Fod> Ermine led 1u r1 communilie E ran^rpg tcm cknae ^ne rally ccniinuccis plan1 cover loEcmewtial 
open plani cover charadenzed by ^vell-dEtibu1edclumpEo1erec1 hurbE Ihco gh cus hion planlE ma y 
be dccninam see ''KE/ TO PERENNIAL FORB VEGETATKH TVPES, UPLAND AND WETLAND" 

55 Mere like cushicnplani Ihan luri cccnmuniea inhered tccbssparEe andoisFicn pJanb dcmirani 

andcc Ihere e xialE much e xposed su brsrale 

see KEY TO P6RENNIALFORH VESETATON TYPES UPLAND AN & W ETLJ^HD " 



73 



KEYTOPEnENNIAL FORB VEGETATION 

Including Upland AND Wetland Types 

We includB ^re as lifb-clinwiatd l^pes venial en l>pes named tr me rrbfs oil ^ ^rr^and "^mslliB^ 
Irc^rf^ Ez^ii^E^CEiE ^hifseteil brriyl LyHifKciact a& ^ii^jb mcs? 1= "il s'l Var^'Ea^eae \p^^:^\'\'Cf\ lamlyj 
Clulic^c^sacE aE 'crap^ trnbrrdyl FcAyixxiaZ^Be l^rnzam >■ Sela^rtllaceae ^spke iThi^skmilyi inaddhcnio 
myriad ^'1^1 miti ies e g. AslEfac^se Pd^mcnaceae. €b. 1tit conf^x^m apec^ea ol whch are trBci^croJIy Il>xjgh1 
Dlaakvcs Nnt tncliided are merrtefs oll^ R»c«ae i^asaes) €¥ rnemt^m o1 1tit iamiliea Lknaceae iluahiamily. 
irdiicfrig ^4xrcu9 qp^iush]. L4iZ£j^ sjip |^^o:>±ijatifi Cyp^mceae ^ec^ iamily. mdudrg Car^^app |aec^] 
C^ejiE 3T>. I^lir^le]. I7£jfii:^r^u7r^^4XN^'ta4]?£jYi? |{Uchum| Eteoch^nss^ [EpkBrnah] Eri^h^ruT] ^ip [cDftan 
^^as]. Kj^fSiS sjip Ikctreaal Sc^Tussjip [biAush]. T^phac^ae icalbil hnMy Typnas^ [c^mjla] 
uknagrsceae ^rrcw ^as brrd^ irducfrig ^i^^^ s^ik>jde£ llowenrg qjillwcf 1| ard fjj^oc^in Efp [arrcwgaE^li 

1. SnaBran^ng tcfn masluplancb lo lempof aril ^ llocded lo perm anenlly Icc^dof aaUraled: 

diminaledb^ having one ol1h»e killowing da^osic apeciea pcasanl A:\g&{\ca afguts fstierpbolh 
an^lica> cr AngeUca dBvy3om\ {Dawson a angelica) Eq^}3etijm fitj\yf3t\{^ |wa1ar hccaabill. P^rrrassAa 
ftJ7\ttf^iB 11rin^dgrass-ol-parnaaaas} 3en^c\o JrAarr^^JTS (arrowleal g~oundsel> SalicofnfB rvbf& 
{red^Bssworll 2 

1. Hoi aa abcva : anas ctier 1 han dascf it>ed atx>va orocGumngal higha s1 a la valicna ol1^ subalpina 
zone fabova dalnbulonol F^eudoisugB J77arr;redir | Douglas-1ir] aa climaicapaciea a1 upper 
dslnbuicn o1 ^^rem/sja tr{de:?^iB s-sp L^^^ayarra [mounlain big aa ^ brua h J^ upward inio the a^na 
zona & 

2. E^^Lnsafirm fluv\BtfJe fwatr horsalail^ abundani {having a I la aa1 25% cancpy cova r 

Eflujsercjm ffuvisUfe p a 

2_ E fluvafiiJe nol ahu ncbnl canopy laaa Ifen 25* 3 

3. Sai^acJo JrBojdAfafjfl farrowlea 1 buHerweed of ^oun<feall well repf asenled or any 1wo ol Ihe fcllowing 
spaciascommon S Iff^ngviarvs Pjirrasi-j funbrr^S (tin^d^ass-ol-ParnaaaasJ Ang^ifca 3fg^tB 

4s ^rploolh angelica) A ^^^fso/^rJIDawacns angelica) S^nec^o trisffgufBrtB p a 

3. Hoi aa abova S. V\an§tj}3f's pocx\y ra presa nia d and all combinalions ollwool Iha abova-lialad 
spadas ara acarca lesa Ihan S't canopy covar 4 

4. SBUcomtB fvbm aad^aaworl) having a ^aaler can^p^ covar Ihan any o1 her indvidual ^rt^acarxjE 
spadas SsXicorf^iB rufira p a 

4. S rtjbrs having a leaaar cancpy cova r 1 ^n any olhar indvidjal herbacaoua apeciea 

Undalinadorunda^cnbed parennial lorb-dom ineted vegalalnn lyp« 

E_ Geum fCfSS^} iRoBB B avarsl aa aracl kifb dDminanI or Go-domiranl 6 

6_ C JT3SSJJ pease nl naldaninanl-casptiSB and redjced in aize 9 

5_ &eGl tarb 7^foJJtrj77pa^/^<Parry a Dioverl daninanlof co-daminBnl in Iccb layer 

Geuin rcssii-Trit^Xiitffi psriytp.B? 

6_ T psffyiabaeni cr no! dcmiranl'GO-dominant 7 

7_ Cuahicnplani Tfifotfum nanum Idwarl clover) dGmiranl'GO-domk^nl in bfb layer 

G^um Tcsati -Trif^fitim nMoump.B? 

7. 7_ j?an Lfm nol dcmir^nlGO-dominent S 

S_ Cos Picn plani Tfifjlfum daayphyStum (whip-rool Glover) EinminBnt^cES-dDfninanl 

TfjfoJjum dsBYphyllufn - Geum rossttp.B? 

B. T d^^yp^y^^LTiT] no I d cm i ran L^GD- dominant Unda^cnbed; undalinad lurl connunity lypea 



74 



B. F^lli^ld IhighiiE^&e of Bxpos^drcckl orcuBlionplanI Bnvironnen1& |expo&Bd ^nd-blastd 

posiicns uauBlly nd^ cfBSIs Bicfie shculd&rBandsactlBs) cuB^cnplanb ran^ Irom adifninBnl 
asped o1 Dcmmunily 1oaligh(^ ^uhofdinale 1o e re d1 fccbrs 10 

9. SneBnoHelHields ncrcuB^cnplanlccfnmuni^a raltier lti£ ^ inclLiciQ Blesp, BLlherciy or welalapes 
wilha hghdt^ee olexpc&ed &ub&tBfe <>70't> 14 

ID CushicnplBnlcommunilies wherein Geum roES}\ (Ross s avBHS^arxJ/cr Minusftia obSi^ssiobB Hccmerly 
Ar^s^ar^ obtusiloba ardic BBndwcr1>are cccn men cc difniriBnlB o1 Ihe 1ccb layer Iwhichisollen 

cfepauperBle wi1h Bcatlered piBnIs) 

Gaum ro flsrj - il faj] a fja o btusr/abff p.a^ 

10 Hehtier G ross^nor M o£H?us^o£Hfl cammon ncr bfblB^er dominanta 11 

11 McderBlely ^ns^ single iar pJBnl cove r Dlpc[>sra1e and CBspilosa kKba ^aminoid compcnenl 
cfepauperBle _ wUh fl^ fox pti^i^A'wS (ais hicn phloxj and Tsstot.'um <hsyphyiitjm Iwhip-roolGlciverJ 
providng mof e c c Itienolhar kKbB Phlox puXvif^^t^ - Trtfohum dffsyphyffuin p-a.' 

11 NdI bs ahcvB neilhtr P ptrJvA'wtencc T ossyphyltumlhe moslimpcrlanlcushonplBnls _ _ _ 12 

1Z Scaltredmiiclure of Br^cl and cu & lion planls andgraminci^ wilh Ant^n:?BnB m\Cf^hy{}a i|[>s^ 
puss^-lc^B^ Bndi'of Ax^em^\B scopul^rum (Rocky Mounlain BBge ^vorll . alcne or in cccntHnBion. 
hailing ItiB ^eBleBllccbcovBr Afft^ffffBrta fntcrophyffff - AitemtBis scopufcfrunf p. b. 

12 CuaNcnfJanlcommunilies^lhreilhtr^ mscrophyiia nw A scoo^ior^m no{ ccmtana^cnE o1 Ihe 

Mo damina (ng 1 he Icrb layer 13 

13 C us hicn planls difninani a&p« c1 0I ccfnmunilieB wilh jarying ccmbir^icna 01 1^ Ihree speciea 
PhJoK mutitft^vB <many-lowere d p Nosl _ Tri^itum n&num {dr^arl cloverj end ErtSnchfum rrarrtrjT? Ipale 
alpine Icr^ 1-me -nol) Fcoi^dng Ihe mapfily of cancpy cover 

Ph fo AT mu Jfjflara- Tf jIJo fum J] an urn p_B.^ 

13 None ollhe above Ihree species, aicne of in combinBlion pcoi^dng the domir^nl Bspeclol 
vegelaion cover UndBlinsdCu^hion Plant VagetBtionTypeB 

14 SitcE W1I h predifninanly nof1 hert^ fl xpoBures. moderate 1d aleep sfopes wflha dgh ds^ee lalleasl 
T5%>o1 exposed subslrale 0I whchmcce 1hanSD%is schI cc^avei soils moisl loaaU rated 
IhrcKjg hou I growing eeaacn vegelaive canopy cover is m uc h recijced nol e iccee dng 40% bul wilh 
no charade nslic apeciea assembla^ Aipirva FeilfiekJ ^HoibI 

14 Site E resl ae above 15 

IB Shte? w1fi unlof miy stE ep |>4C%h oflen unliable alopea 0I aoutheaal T^cugh we Bl-facfng 

exposures: 0I Ihe large amcunlolexpceedeubelralE |>55%^ abcul EO'bieg~avei Eiymus Bcr^nen 

4k]nnerly Agrooyfon s^sjb:?er\ spreadng wheal^ass) la usualy Ihe one sp^ciee wilh dgher 

covera^ and ccnslancy in 1 de nyp« " 1 han 0I he r pas Alpine FellfiakJ ; Dry 

IB StiE s nol as ckscfibed above . . . Undefi r>ed co m m un rty ty pe^ ol S uba Ipine and Alpine EnvironnantB 

' T^lenus and Smlh (ISG^ 



73 



Vegetation 
Classi cation: 
Descriptions 
of Types 



Needle-leaved Evergreen 
Forests 



Abies !£^skM.iJtu£^ /Ar7jic£^ tjvj JifiVJcr Foit^t 

fABILAS / ARNCORJ ^ubaLpjnc fir/ 

hcBi tic [if arnica 

Naturs] H crltafi.' Ci^nstrvBtlDn 
Etank- 05 / S5 



Env IrDDmcnl- Thi*^ i*^ b mBjnrcommuiiLty 

type in 1hc dncr rm^unUin ringf^ of Montana 
ciHt of the Con1] ncn1 aJ Divide, c^prciilly on 
c bIc BiToiTi "^ubslrilcs rBnpjn^ into noilhwcM- 
ciiiWyom]np^ ]| li acornjnon,dis1nbulcdon 
"iitKi dncr Ihan LhcwiL" "^LipiKjrtin^ .^f j 
kfiro<.{Arjta / Th^fiic?) d^FJT oi ^ iii67r\a^6' and 
ocLLunng Bl^cncrB]]> higher cIcvatioiK, 
usuaLLy tranw tionaL 1o 1bc nxi]^ttr/(.okfcr .Ujt^t 

Tlwuph nx>i^ prcv Blent on Dnithcily cxpo- 
■iLimi It ]s found on all aspects and d[rgrcrs of 
■iLopc The olKErrF cd elevation Tinge w as 
TJfB Kj 8,900 f1 . butlhc acluiL rBngc is no 
doubt broader 

Vccctuthm- Ljmiled JatamJTeconnajssince 
observations indicile Fiinu i o^rUxr^a anJ 
f^s6Ttiioiirtji{f fncffZJ^ff ind bH admixtures 
dominate hct^I isl^gcs bixI [ien>]st 1o neir 
c]]mAxconditioi7i. \hiei iasu}c^rf}£^ rndTj^^j 
^rg^mtm^ui ai~e ^encrill^ slo^^ to reestablish 
fol Low]ng disturijance W Btst high -"KJ-yc aT-old 

^/?j^j K[iec]mens Brem^l uniKUB]. Fimis 
aihfi^fuilj IS "^ attercd 1o abundani in the 
highcs! eLevBl]oneTBmp]csof this lypc_ 

Uixleignjwth is generBlly nomcwhil 
depBupeTite depend] ng on degree ot tanopj 
oloEuie, but even young standi miy have Lfss 



Ihan 5^ cover Afiifi^fiot^hJ^xfAiA is the 
diagnostic fbrt>1b> defBoLtr. othen>4.oninionly 
occumng iie ^i rr>^^ m-^ JJ^?JL■^ .\sl6't 
<:<xfisf?iiiiiti , ^nd Oimf?rhfz^ ^iif^ef IS fs or 
ii6fpaiffX6'nAl{f. I n early serB] s1 BD[is 5ftt7t/Ef^rfja 

SytnphoncrrriMi ^xn.^ti?iiffifi are oflen well 
lepiesenL^ butnii^cline to sc attered jdJ iMdiiBls 
■s the liee canopy 4. Lo^es 

OUier Studies This is 4 cominiin type east of 
lhcContinentaLD]>L^LnMonUnaand]Ls BT^ak 
cxLenI I ncTeases ^^ Lth Ihe inc reise in calcareous 
snb-^tralcs IncentrBl Idiho (Steele el al I9SL) 
il IS aconunon type on quirtzj te ind nuxed 
volcinic^ w hich is ibto thecaseinnLiTlhwesl- 
em W>-omLn^ (Slcele et aJ L9S31 ^hs^ 
iajuxc{ffi?a / \tfut-a t-^xnifJol\tr is purpoTled to 
Dcc ur Bs far south as Colorado 

Element Code- C EG Lm029S 
F^IUDB;Aua»r-99-La-]6/S.V Ccopcr, 
MTNHP 



Abies f£^sr^M.atp£^ / Cafamagrostix 

^{firtrifex2\r\ Fotcs! 

(ABILAS/CALCAWlsubilfiLncfir/ 

bLucjoinl rccdgTiss 

Nahiral Heritai^ Cunwr^abon 
Etank- <w5 / S5 

EniiivnmEnI- ^h^ifj firtrtxi^fs^Q/ 
CiIii^^r\iIf^^^^sIiJ LniiaJef\jri forest ishociilion is 
bn^adly dtslnbnlcd near ind east of Ihc 
Continental D]>Lde and js muaJ ly conf]ned to 
smiLI restnded BTeas thBl pccdy draj ned or 
sub-iiTi^ Bled SI tcs 1 hi! hive surface wa1eT 
dunng latespnng BDd eady summer. These 
s]Lcs often bonder on sireams ind wet lonmisl, 
JufiLii'i- or CfTFt'A-dominateiil spec]es meadows 
Wheie impeimeBbLe layers direct wileno the 
surtBce Lbs 1ype can occur on mountain slopes 
In genera] Ihe stand size oF \hii.^i iiAsIortrfjx^i / 
C^fiaxn^fjinx'iJh ii^ffiAdexjsfi BTesmBllcT thin can 
be del I nealed on L 24 JXK3 sc ale maps, except ■& 
inclusions or b component of b complex 

VcFclalion- ThecooL, wel condi1]ons reslnci 
IhelieeflorB to pTcdommBntLy three spec]es 
^j^^j fspnKe^ IS usnaLLy Ihe ninminBnt species 



76 



m niBlurc li> oLd-gmw tbi s1 :ijxlj> bjxJ pcrsj-^ti a*i 
a mi nor cLima^ ur (:o-cl I m Bx '>ptcif^ ^^Lth 

jtinc) cflcn ]s 1 hr m Bjor scril ^|kc ics m 
younger ^tantfc Pimfi afhit-uiffri l^^biitcbirt 
pincj L^ aniinorcomfx>ntnt sshoci Bled w]1h 
dncr biummoc ks in hightr i:LcvBl]onslBixl^ 

rccd^raEi J or C_ jfjT^ J^ i ndu. ator ■ipcc]ei for 
lhL' type b> Ihc dDmLciBiit gr^miiKj]d^ gcncrul I y 
ore Lun ng w]1 h ^rtatcr than 5ft canopy cover 
BixJ ivcrif] ng iiuund 20^-^ S^i6fCfo 
^riuf^jlifitrtJi ( BUcmati^ c ]Dd ic alor^pcc icsj , 

afjrfxf6f\fJoi\tn ^¥¥.\ Dt?£i^-tr\hct?n j£'Jfrirvi 
core>tLtLi1c the bugh-consl ajK y forin component 
lhil 1"^ BWHK I atcd wi th tbic^c wet ^Lt«i_ 

grncriLly ishocijInJ wilh merely nxi]'^t ">■ tf?i^ 
fllho biB>e hi^h coiKtaru:> bdJ may bi: well 
rcpr&cnt«J_ In1hr R«J R™.ki>LiteN^Ml 
cxprtsj>ion of 1hi*i typL^ ^hrutei arc a minor 
component except w here /Irfiff Vj^^ du^rt" bikJ 
Vtiitffuttit\ f^ujtL'd^TrrFJT which niB> BllB]n 
BbiiJxJ Bixe on hummer, ks 4nc1 rB]'tei:1 arcis 
'>LiiiounJLng tree bisci 

Only Ihe Ctii^Amti^ roilfj c {fii{fii6'fis\s ind 
GaiiiiJTi iMjIoMffj[ pha.sf^ h^vc been id^nl]flcd 

]n the Centennial Range ind VaJle^ in^cnerBl. 
The G IripotJit^ phise reprcNentn in eqtiill^ 
mQi'^t but slightly warn^L^rmicRKlimBlc ay 
denoledby the preseixe of G_ ItlJI^xnifr^ and 
Af?ae{f mhra 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLO003O0 

Edttlon/ Author- ?9-]L-t6/£.V. Cooper, 



on1lie iH>i1h-lBcin^MontanB portion it js ales^ 
prevB]cnt1>pefn^ni6WlO to at least S,S{XJ fl 
on w BTin ex pofin'es. ]l i£>u4lly grades to.-^AfCf 
j£^ifocarjx{f /A nPLa fordijixfii^ <2TAhi6'^ 
^{Aiforarjx^f / 7/j^jfrrfj jj^rr ocmiefUtiie on cooter 
exposuies BixJeiL^ls incomplex mosaics with 
Ahii.^1 i£^ifoctifjx{f / C^fr^x g^i.^n 1hat cccayion 
the qucslion as to whBl factois mBy difFeirnl]- 
ate Ihese lypes 

VcfetBtloii- Descnp1]onofthj^1ype comes 

fiom nud-'^TB] s1 BDLb> 1hat hive a mixed 

c anopy nljminBiKe spLH belween f^seifxiolnfjicf 

hAifocarjx^f and ^ji £u tvE^^VjJi^j^rrtrr ire slow 1o 
reestabli'>h on Ihese diy bilcK Fiixifi £^fhn:aifiri 
ocoun> sc Bl1cnx1 it the highest elevatioiTi of 
this lypc. 

Thcunder^FJWIh j^l>p]CBl]> ctiminated in 
younger ope n "^Uncls by a near sw Bid of 
Cakifjragtoi^'i Mfh6"m'}2s i£>uilly Accompan- 
ied by Car6ix jiffv^n . ^¥¥.\ the forb^ Thtriu trttit\ 

c'oii'ipfcifiis Bixl \n2\t-tr ctyrdffofr^f etc 
c hir^c tenstic al Ly piesent though pec riy 
rcpresenled- (excepti ng .^ ctyrdifo^f^ff Inotcl«- 
slinds o r thojic in Ihe "clowd canopy" stage C 
nihx^cejis miv be reduced toscBHeied palchcs 
orevenpoorlj represenled Inopenseral 
condil]oiK Shei?h^f ^fiu i u^zul'Jctjtj j and 
Jifiif^^jti ^ofnfnrtxjfi Tn^y be well lepresented. 

Soils- Veiy Limilenldm prec I uJe SBying muzh 
aboul thjs 1ype other 1han to observe Ihat ]t 
occurred on rtiyoLile "^nlMilrites in the 
Centennial R ange north fl ank bul alsoi^i 
known fiom nedimenl Bi^' sijb'>trBles on llu 
Eoulh flank 



mbe'ff. frt T Fonsi 

lABILAS/CALRUHl^ubaLpincfir/ 

yunc gw^HS 

Natural H trltafc Comervatlon 

KBnk-a4Cp5/33 

Envlrosaieiit- .-itrd'j lasiocar^ / Cirlam^r- 
jrrjjrrj yubeuetn fores! is common on the 
Honth-fac I ng flink of 1he Cenlenni bI Ringe but 



Olhtr Studies- Abr^s iasNxc^frfT^A / 
Cakifj^ag yoilr s mhe^i i.^is ih Bcomini>n type 
fmmcenlraLMonlBna iPTLSIcre! il. 1977). 
where ]1 occurs on calcareous '>ubslr^tes^ to 
nodhern Utah ^MBukA Hendeison I9S4| And 
cenlr^l ColorBdD IKarmokovad aL 19SSV It 
occun> asfar^^cs! as the easlcm fl ank of 1hc 
C «iC4des jn W*ihington and Oregon 
IWiLLiinv^BDil Smith 1 9^0. W 1 1 1 1 ams ind 
L]llybndge I9fl5) and is prev Blent ] n O regDn\ 
BliK Mountains rJohnson& Simon L9n7> 



77 



Ekmtnt Code- CEGE_O0030l 

Edition/ Author- 99-] L-L6/5.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



A hie^ fa t^^u f ^a / Cat ex gcvx-^ri Fuwuti 

(ABiL^^S/CARGEYlsubalpLncfir/ 

cLk "icdgc 

Nntiir^l HrrltG^t Comrrvatlon 
Rank-U3;S: 

Env Irouniciil- The Abrei tasNK'ari?^^ / C^jj 6'\ 

^ir\£.'n Fores! is 4 minor 1> pc IhroiighouHh? 
CenlcnmB] RBn^t but ^ainsgrcBlcr prominence 
]n the G reiler Y eliow^lone^ encomfi BSSLiig 
Home of Ibc dne-^t SLtKi witbun the.^/?j>T 
kfi\a<.{Arjtti Hcnc^ S ampLed siles ranged fioni 
T^iXi toflfi(K3f1_, but Ihclov^er portion of 1 his 
nnf e c^ould be eTlcixJed considerably bfieJ on 
rcconnai^ Bre.e observa! ions_ 3topn>ofaJI 
degrees of I nclination are incluiledind aspects 
rAnfefium [inmaiily e sst- tbu^ ugh sou III- lo 
westficin^- Tbs 1ype ofien grades lo 
F i6Ttiioiirtjia JHd^E^rf frj / Ctr rcA £^:■^ ^ft or 
C^jffTFJTj^£ ^Y>T?r J Hdbd^K d^u on yet dner flower 
e]e> ationf SI tes ^nd \o Abrei iasuxc^frfT^A / 
T/iijfi6\niT)\ tym^it^JiJiAfe or. \hf £ti iasN}carf}£^ / 
Anuca conhjofra fores! o n moisler cxposujrs_ 

Vcc^tutioii- S ampted s1 BDLis w eie holhlite 
ni4tui~e and e Briy seT^t and Ihus enLompishenl 
inuLhMriabil]1> ]n'^truulure and compos] tion 
The ]owerctevBl]on examples of Ihis type bit 
dominated thiuoghoul their exislence by 

bixJ I'ti6^f 6^iji6^t^aiinrr only slowly 
establishing- Ljjn^-liYcd f^\fuis ct?iiIof la miy 
bLso form neBily pure "^tand*! on 1 his lype, but 
1he LtsoaL condLlH>n is to occur nil ^ed wilh 
f^i6^t£ioiitt^ti. 3 Uncis f mm bgher elevations 
often biBve ^. ^uuVt^Yr^if^j esUbl ishi ng 
] mmenliilely following disturlnBixe bul F 
fr^cffz^ciff jsslill 4 mijor component Fiiufi 
tiihf^auiij forf yfd"^JrT)cinilsD be amBjor 
long-lived ncril component 



Ahies faifoiurjttf / Cat6'x ji6^eM Forest Bre 
mostly lyp]fied by the ck^mj nince of C^rt-i 
J^:■^^FT with only Hi^atteredfortK- Inopcn 
slancb C gev^n may approach asword-likc 
covei^ge. Forbscommonly present ]n m]™:ir 
Bnxi unt^E ] ncluile Jli^firr^rafn ty^ ^ l£i^r\af6f, 

JoiioLeifi Bnd \n2\c'a ct?rdlfi}ffa. I nearly- lo 
mid-Hcril cond]1]ony S^ie^t^n^rdla c^fii^fxiefisf t 
End JAifrifX6'nis ioi^imams am usually' well 
rtpresented- 

Soife Wry lim]1ed jnformBl]onfor ihisCyjw 
] ndic ales J I iKcury prel en:n1 1 al I y on ram- 
c bIc Breou*! "^ubslriles which agrees wUhlype 
descnptions I n>m o1bcr ire as We found it 
exclusively on rhj^ol] te or V Biious foimy of 
cxtnisive igneous ]n theCenlennial Range and 
olhen> (Steele e1 il_ 19S_1 Sleeleel il_ 19SI, 
BixJ Alexander et b1_ l^Sft] il^o rcjxjil it from 
>olc anic "^lilsilrites thai weatherloolher than 
fij>e-1cxtured substrates Only incentral MT 
hfi It been reporled fiom c ale an!oi£i substrales 
|Pris1eretil-iy77j- 

Othcr Sludkv- Abrei iasuK ari?£^ / C£^r6f^ 
^ir\en E^res! isiecoidcd as 4 mjixir typc]n 
central MonUna ranges (Pfisteret al_ [977] as 
a major 1ype within the gr^m tics of central 
Idaho s B athi>l I th md occurs IS a minor type ■& 
fiFHOuthas nonhweslem Coloridn (Hoffman 
and Alexander l^SO] ind Utah. .Across its 
nnge It appears a.'QiOC i atenl wi th volcamcs of 
>4rioiK kincis botheTlnciiveind mlnisive. 

Ekmrnt Code- CEGL0003rH 

Edition/ Author- 9y-ll-l6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Abi6f^ !£^^t^M.atp£^ / RffM-'^^m^mh^efutm 

Fomsl 

lABILAS / RIBMONl subalpjnc fir/ 

mounlain gooseberry 

Natural H eritafc Ci^RzrvBUon 
Ranhr G5 / S4 



Because weircogmze fort]-nchcond]1]ons as 
convey]n^ 4 higher moisture stilus aixJ 
belonging lo preferenliilly n^cogmzed plant 
assocj a1 ions, Ihi: undergrowlh condi tioisi in 



EnvlroB^nl- .-itrf J I^KUtcafiy^f /Rihes 
^jj rjjr Jrj^jEtj m FoiesI is found wilhi n the upper 
subalp]nc zone, generilly beyond 1bc l]mit>of 
ri6Tt£ioiitt^a^ and well wilhin an environment 



73 



-w'hcrc\n f^ffUih cfil?mutiii IS in im[)orL:iiil ^[^riil 
component Wc notctl tbus1>pc«i Low 4s7 500 
flonstccp^ rH>r1h- 1 Bcin^ slopes lod cxltndinf 
to upper Forest ]]nc (ciira S^tB ft Jan the 
CcrUcnmB] Rinse's B ig Table KloiuiUin. 
FfLstcrct aJ {\977] noledlhLS type extending ttj 
9,0m ftjn the b^jbicr pi>r1 ion of Ihc Ccnlen- 
niils. \\ upper e]e> atLons of I ts disl nbul ion 
\hli'^ f{fi\oi{Arjiti/Rfhci if\ofriiji6^^it^ Forest 
ocLUJT^on aJl aspccti but seemed to be a^iso- 
c] i1ed w] th slopes biB> mg ] a1c SDDW rclcisc 
This type gcnei^LLy grfldcs to \hi6'j kfifocurj^ti / 
,\nu<.ij ior£ifjoi\tr and \!?Ai^i i^Aiioctrfjx^f / C^r^x 
g€^en at lower eleval ions and lo .-^Ar^j 
^^iroc£^rjta f V^^c^iiium j<.<}paniim on more 
moi^t SLlcs- \\ bgbicst elevatioiTi pjovcs of 
\hiej f^fifOiarjMf/RIb^s fj[Ofiii^eMttit\ (on north 
slopes or depressioisi) form amosB]c wilh 
Arl6't^fsiaiff{l^ikfItiY^r kUTtn j^^ej^ -dom]natci:l 
"^hiubUncIs or FesUfi a iii{flioejisIi-A^n%\ niled 
^ra.'^iUncis. 

V ccetuthm- O nl> older. ] Ble-mBlure lo 
dL^ atlcnl slantk wen: sampled iod Fiom their 
struclurc we jnfer ttiBl Ihc eirly ser^l Ute 
species ire ^j^du ^j^/?j^^d^yjj ind.^'^j 
kfiroc£^rjta and lo b muL ti Icskct degree ^r^-Fcr 
6^r^^fntmfui and even rjc^j^A^rTUj^ tr FJTi-TJCJiTrr 
(Ibjugh ]deillv Ihese sites are abi>ve the cold 
1 1 m]ts of /*n:-T/L'itJjj/£j^J_ WittisUnd birak-up 
(heavy mortality in r aibrcxiuJfs ^ndA. 
^^irociArjMf a1 150 1o 2(K3 yeiis, or older] b 
second flush of. ^ ^^ifo<.arjtB ^r^ f^ 
6f9r/[^man*ui is estibl istied .^s remarked b> 
Ff]steret aJ i\^77] these sites are apparently 
iinfBvorable for fjudu ^ ^j?rr^m^j_ 

Standi wi th c lo^ed c anopies arequile depaup- 
erate, bDwever withcinopy openings Rif^ci 
jHr>rtJr£i-TJdd?jT IS common to wel I reprci»ented . 
usually in opening thai appear to rcce]ye 
greater Know dep<M>] tion 1han the mBjonty of 
thesCarkJ E^rbs w i th a consislent presence 
I ncluile f} f oia je^i u^ni^f^ .^ij^filr^iiAjiiAvcic 6^n , 
and ^nifc^ cordijo^ii^. Thebgherele^ilionsof 
ELM Centennial hi>ldings iiru^ed 4S sheep 
ringe w hich may accouni for 1 he greater than 
expcded cover of r^tL^^ >jj rtPtTJjj J anJ Icaier 
anj:j unls of forbs- 

Solk- \ll sampled stBnct occ urred on TcTii Bjy 



volcBniLS which weather I iili>nulnem-poor, 
ac]dic med]uin-1cxtujcdsoils_ Thcgiound 
surface had less than ID^-^ exposed loc k or ediI 
and morelhaoSO^ htter 

Other Shidles- Tbs lype was originally 
dcwnbedfium Utah by PTister (19721 and 
documenled for H<juth-cen1ril and soul hwcslem 
Mom ana by PfLsleretiL |I977J andidjaceni 
ChBlhs Bnd Open Nod hern Riickics Sec tioiii 
bySlcelcet b1_ fl9Sll_ ll is spor^licilly 
dts1ribii1ed bciuss western Wyoming and heit 
evideoLes some dcp ajlure fmm the lype, e_g 
the imjxjiUnccol ser^l T ny^^of^tr^ asopp^jsed 
to the lac b of lbs species dene nbed above for 
southwestern M T_ The eastern c;tliTm]1y of 
dts1ribii1]on IS Colorado |Langenheim 19621 
and lo Ihe south, Hontheni Uuh lYuur^blood 
andMaiik I9S5J- 

EkmrnC Codr- CEGL0003JI 

Edition/ Author- 99-1 1-16/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Forest 
(ABILAS/THAOCC)subil pine fir/ 

western mcidownic 

Natural H crltace C i^mervBtlon 
Rank- G4/ S3 

EnrlroH^nl- Abrei iasi^jcarixo / Jh{rfrclnitj\ 
txiCi{i£r}Uff£ 4comnx>n pUnt ishociilion m 

norlh^^eslem Wyoming and ex ten* b1 le*il as 
fki as Ihe nLiTlh-f«. ing FlBnk of the Centennial 
Range ]n M on1 Bna, ] I has ni>l been doc umenled 
Fium areis fanheriKJith 1 1 occun> on cool, 
mi>isl slopes of al I de^ i?e?i of ]nclination bikJ 
pnmBnIy on north- to c ast- Facing aspects The 
sampled elevBl]on range W4s7-I0{j1o S,2CXi ft , 
but in TTConnajSiince wfi noted hioccura.'^ 
low as7,lC0 ind as high as S .-KM) fl_ .Ujj^j 
kfi\c7^{Arjt^ / Tii^fiif?) iffJT oi iiii67riafe grBtfcs 1o 
\hiej f^fifoi arjt^ /Anifi^fiOf {fijt?ii£^ or 
Ci^fafjrag rt?Jiri f iib6'i<.6ffis on w Bimer, dner 
exposures 

\ccetutloii- The sampled siBncis in Ihe 

CenlcnmBl RBn^e were pnmBrily of lite-seraJ 
to old-growlh condi lion*i wi th long-lived fSKi-h 



79 



yean] I*jx^ii{hljiiga ^JTi-jJCJi-irr . or on. aiiunBlly 
rrPNJf tf^fr?^ ftr, dnmLnBl]ng Ihc upper canupy 

IcBHt camjixm^ iziual ly abunJaiH 3^ uncltiMory 
pole inci "iap]] ng-sizcd t^omponcnK At 1hc 
highcstcLcvBl]niKof lhi!i typc/'n^rn {fihl^^uthi 
CBnbc Bn ]mportan1 !icraL comjKi ncn1 lbs 
] mportartc of ^ ^■pjjJl^^Jl'^ alsoippciry to 
] ncica.^c w]1h ] ncicayLng do atLon_ Based on 
B^ of brc ast- height corc^ ]t ippciry extensive 
starkJ- rcpl ac I ng fires on. Luinil LS2-nnc1 24Sh- 
ycary Bgo. Fi rc-scirrcd ]Dd ividuib> were no1 
found w itbu n stands , only on TnJ^elinc^ where 
stem deiEiily IS 3cifi and fuel Loading is light 



el 4l. 0^"^^i plots may also better fit the 
dcscnptionof Ihis type 1han that of \hii^i 
kfiroiiArjMf/AffUiaioriir/oiiti^ where 1hey were 
^Fjupcd Cole 1 1 982) h*idcscnbed a vciy 
sinular type for the Blue Mountains oV 
norlh^^eslern Oregon 

Coiunu'iils- CiMlc grilling ] n thislypc his Led 
where uintjpy cover IS reduced, 1o the in1ro- 
diKl ion of lot al I y deiTie p Bichcs of ^^Jtr 
prtiJeniij andlr^mpLinf of native vegetation 
where surf Bccs reiuiin moist juto mid-li> 1 Ble- 
sujnnier. soil toiupBclion aruj hummocking ire 
evident 



UixJeigrow Ch cover IS stiT>ngly dependeni lijHU 
1 ree c anopy cover, open Minds ha> e a nearly 
com I nuijus torb cover and closed generBlly 
younger stanth hive scillerenl forbs li>tal ing 
less th*n5^.^ cover. Tii{fiif?Mffjro<.ii£i^r\a^6'. 

are ckjminanl but 1he1wo ForegD]ngspp. niusi 
be B1 lefil wel L- represeuled fcommon in closed 
c BDi^py s1 BixlsJ to be di agnostic for the type 
Ol her fort>s w] th relBUveLy hi^h cons1 bjk y are 
Ai^irf6f^IaJia\^'iie*ii Ailer ^r^^fr^anmi bixJ 
Etylhrt?nrifm ^ra^iiiijlomm. C^Akffj^agr^rsUs 
tAihejii^i.I^otiprtrJetJin and C^fr^x g^'^i mi^ 
the only gi^nunoicis ^Mlh even moderate 
constancy Bnd v]Tlually never itUin Ihe sw ard- 
like cover they typically do in o1her associa- 
tions. To! bI !ihrub co> er seldom exceeds 5^ 
but L(Xfi\t-cf {f ttJa^ieji'iij , S'l jji^j Jr^jJT^w^ j^j j 
or^opfriius bixJ Strep!rerd?a c^ii^e^isfs Bre 
presen! ^^ilhil least 50 % cons! ancy. 

Sotk- Ten] Bi>' eMncive voLcan]c^. 
prei:k>minanll> Tfiyol i te. dDmi nile miEhoflhe 
nonhflinkof theCenlcnnial Range mJ all of 
1he sample pLote were located on this substrate 
whicbi has weilhered lo deep well-drajncd 
siiteili^tes. Tbs 1ype has bLso been ixilcd on 
senlin^em BTy ^ubstrBles pnmaiily SBnistonc 
We suspect CBlcBrroussubslrBles ire 
effectively drier and suppoEl^jjTJJiL'^jTh .-^firff 
f^ircc£^rjta /A nifi'^i fof dsfixtii^ or. Mxies 
Iairoc£^t pa /Jaxifp^ m LOfmsrimri. 

Other Studies- Tbslype was I iis1 dcsc nbed 
for rejrtbiweslem Wyom]ng ind c astern Idaho 
bySleeleet b1. fl9S3j and a portion of Pfistcr 



Element Code- CEGLO00338 

Elditbu/ Author- ^-]E-L6/^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



/ EcjUj jhi-'ftNFE trrvi^rt .Si? Fores! 

IP[CEA/EQUARV| snrncc /csjmmcm 

horsctijL 



Natural H trltace C onRrvuthm R^nk- 

"EnylrouMMi^jvi- fui'^f/ Eq\iijcf\iin ur^^'jrj^ tsa 
mi|or v^elLand 1>pe wUhin the ^rtvtr series, 
beinf piesem thmugbioiH the [ nlemiountiin 
Wesl.1 hough little BppnjpnateLy ^^et hab]lBl is 
presciU insonthwfsleni Montana- PBlchsi^e 
itfuilly dDfs nol exceed 4 few ten1 hs of an acre. 
rrc€u/ £cj«tf JdVd^FJT afi^^iix^ generiLly iiccurs on 
fl Bl !iiles SDL bi as sub-irrigated terraecs seeps 
fen margins bixJ toeslopes thil receive 
sufflc ien1 !iubsurf Bce flow 1o be con! i nuniiily 
saturated orneirlywj S tarkding water may be 
presen! weLL]nlo summer 

\ ccetuthm- 5 lands Bre charBclens1]c ally 
dominated by mature^ m^l infrequenlly old 
giowlh SI ze ^ji ^j ^Mthi lowdensilj ofohen 
scveieli" suppressed !i pec I mens in the 
undcislory Sc altered .U^^j ^L'urLX^rrjfr Bnd 
rrfmi ct?x2lryflti are often present on raised 
niicios]tes |windlhi~ow hunimi:>cks| mJ miy be 
generally dislnbuled on dners]1es wilhin the 
1ype but these spec ics never c reile adnminBnt 
aspect 



80 



The wcMcstor yoLinge>t cxampLci of this lypL" 
have 5tryjA "ipp- (oflcni /M^fi/?jVjFr^j J pir^cnt biH 
rTH>rc typically Crtmru ^i^nrcti^ Rif^^i imifilre 
3nd Ss-f^^iioncafjxiM a^htn arc the only shrutv^ 
present £c^«JdVd^FJT LT^vtTJTi^ IS dupjiQ^tLC tor 
this lypc, ficqurnlly w]1h minor coverage . 
cspcciiii^ Dns]lc'> wilh b tbiick caipctof 
biyi>phy1cs ,\ Uiiy ofotbicrobligBlcor 
tiCLJtativc hycliupbij t^i, c_g S06'pt^xpttJ 
afjrjx^exfjoiritj , ^^jj j]trjjrL7_ft^rr/?ncrr^j .Senevno 

"f tK^uJd (^anfiTTn Ihc h> dmp hy tic: natuic Dflhcsc 
Elks 

Soik- Tbic only sjlc simfilcd for SQi Is was 
developed on fl nc-ttilured aJluvium BixJpjvcn 
the lantfccape fKHii1]onof o1bcrs]1CN ixiled ]n 
reconnaisi BiKC vanoiis lextui^s of Bi]iJV]um 
would be tfLpcctcd- GcneriLly b tbck mit of 
mor biumus is CTj>K t«J (uplo I S cm 1hick^: for 
the sampL«J s]1c biunius w as only ttcmlhick. 
but Ihi: upptrsoil honzcns Bre 3}s^ nch with 
Digdiuc mateiiAl. 

O C tit r Studies- Tbs ishoc] BUon or the vcr^' 
sirrularf ^'ta^^VjJi^j^rrtrr V £c^^jfdVd^?jT tr^it-TiT^'- 
h«i been LlL»cijnieiit«J from Ihc cis1 slope ot the 
Cascades in Wasbnglon {Will] bus Sl 
Lillyhridge l9SJ-W]]]iams and Lilly bndgc 
]9WJ and Oregon 1Ko>aLcbk ]9S7j.cBstlD 
MonlBna |PfLS1erctil_ 1^77 Hinhenctfll. 
1995J andHoiJththn>ii^;hW>-oininf (Slccle ct 
Bl- L?S3j li>]dBlx.l3tccLceHL l^SL^, Utah 
|PBdgel1ct aJ L^S"^) BndCuLorido (Conper bixJ 
Caltrel] 19901- 

CoDimcnts- This assnc i atinn is [i BTliculariy 
sus^cplible to 1 1 vestock/w I Ld] 1 1 e Irimphng 
1 hiouglxiijt thc^FJwingscison. rcsiJl]ng 
dima^^ I nclude cit jxj wd "^libslrite bixJ 
consKqitnl crosjon los"^ of ve^cUlion and 
] iilnx]iK:1 ion oL weedh. 

EkmenC Codr- CEGL00O40fl 

Edition / A uthor- 99- n - 1 6 / ^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



c{ffi{fdex2\f^ Fores! 

IFICENG/CALCANI SpnjccyBlucjoJnt 

rccd^ras"^ 



NatuntJ HcTllact ConELrvulion Kank- 
04/ S3 

Env IroDiHciil- The frcen efff^ eftj\ jjz^jj r / 
C{Altifj[ag rty^t\s i ^j^ej^l'^-tjtj t t^ommunily o<:cijm 
a1 low lo high e]e> ations in the nK^unl Binh 
thiougbjut M on1 ana [1 is generally restnt:1cd 
to Hb! to genlly sloping sites wi th pncr 
dr^i nige. siE h as fen aixl Uke marginF;^ 
toeslopes mJ lo\^ sliram and river terr4ccs_ 
Soil tcTloie vanes from s] 1 1 1o sandy Lo Bin with 
■^mc redox ci>ncen1 rBl]ons pre^enL This 
conununily Ls iKuaJly temporanly FlcKHJcd tn 
the spring, and standi hive a high water table 
year lonnJ SUnds lie characlenzed b> a Urge 
anxiun! of mu. ro- tjp^jgriphy stemming lium 
wi ndthiuwn spnice. .\dj at^ent we11er 
communilies inc I udt Sct/ja dntiJ\iJ\ofr£irtmtr or 
Ee^rtiiA ^ kfii^fiifos^f shrub] Bixis_ or Caret! sp 
dominate HbIs Adja4.enldnercommunitie?i 
Bje lisnaLLy upl Bnd conifer forests dnmj nited by 

(liinsenet b]_ L9951 

Raitce- This ccmimuni ty is [iTr?ient in Mon1 ana, 
Idaho. Utah andWyonung. 

VccttBthm- The oveisloiy is dominated by 
spiun: ir\£}.\hfes ^{Aifo<.arjt{f miy ilso be 
piesen1_ There is Lowcovera^eof shrubs, 
aJlhi>iigh the diversity oF shrub species present 
isfiirLy high C{fhw\{A^r^x'itimA?raA^'iI^ and' 
or CL-^ytriJi^j^ ^TtTPj J j^JTi r^j domi nite 1he gmund 
layer O ther associ Bled species inc I ude CtrreA 
ifincttial^A , J^j J^L'Jcjj^ ty i u^zul'Jl-tjtj j , and E^pirielum 
l7^ vtT J Ji^ (Hansen ct aJ L995) 

Similar CommuaHks- \ oungbLoodet kl. 

(l9^KlL'scnbcd BsimiLir community for 
western Wyomi ng Bnd Jinkov'sky-Jones |L997) 
for SDUIheaslem [diho. Si>me UtahslBnclsin 
Padgett el aL 1L9S9| whu.hare(.L*isified as 
Coffiji^f /C^jfcTJTi^j^ ^Y^jPrf i {AfraA^2sIj have 4 
Frir€u ejigi^hsrij^uxii - duminalcd ovenilory 



Siicce^k^n- Hansen et b1. (] 99^| suggests [hBl 



SI 



1 he f J a^a/CahffJTiJg ^y^t^f j ^ ^j^r^jdi-ra u j 
communily i^ b litt "vrBl phisc of Lbic \hii.^i 
f^iroc£^rjta^Ctii{Afntr^ roilfi i u^hjA^sIj habi1 b1 
typcdrscnbrdby Pfisilrrd iL_ |I9T7) Gap^in 
the Fore>t lhit arc c rcilcd by dastLuinncni !iIK h 
an wiixUhn^w arc tlomi nilnJ by ^hnjb'> '>Lich bs 
\h7Ais J ^r^ L'^Fr^ and 5ifl\x Jj if?j[fj[^}fuif{iJi{i. 

Manapcincnt- T] mbcr piodiKtivily in this type 
j"^ iTHKleraLc lohigh_ BccBiiiCof high water 
labL^i windthnnw follow ing harF cs1 l an be a 
piobLcm a.s c bh SO]] damage iTsul ti ng fnum 
hirvcs1]ng ind "^itt preparation, 1]min^ of 
icUvLlia> t^ LFT^HJTlAnt la ivujd LiamBgc 

Pal atabihty of Cai^Afr^agroiifi can^€?mi is 
moderate Id high, bixJ foliage is most pal atabic 
when young However, wc1 coDd]1ioiK dunng 
1 his lime pcncd make hoi] suscefilible to 
dimBgefioni Iives1n<.k. irioelsofulili/ilHin 
of C^jftrjji^j^ ^Y^T^jf i ^j^Ej^L'/tTJjj J Miv high tor Long 
period*!, pKxiLJCIion of Ctiiat^^fjinMlii 
rcr^frJd^ur J cin dec 1 1 ne (HfliZicnel al t?95) 

Other SLiidles- InMontanB and Idaho ffcsa 
giaifca Bnd f^rc^ti ^rgcifntinml hybrids ait 
common, 1hiK, lumping both "^pccjcs logclher is 
pr^cti4.al for c] Bssifu. alK^n pLiipoHes iHaLL bixJ 
HBnheniy?"? Hinw.Nii:tB]- L9S-^1 Thelypc 
here repiTsenly "^tand*! donu nited by ^ 
67rg^fr7an*ui orf rtvtr hybrids 4s dene ribed by 
Phstcretal fl977l StecLecUL |l9ttl| bixJ 
MbuI: andhcixlcisanlJi^S4|. 

Element Code- CEGL000356 

Edition/ Auttnr-?9-]0-IS/ J GiecnLcc, 
MTNHF 



/ Gat mm ifffloniin Forest 

(FICEA/GALTRIf En|dmann spruce t 

Ewcctsccnicd bcdslraw 



Natural H trltafi^ C onRrvutloii E^nk- 

G4/S4 

EnvlroB^nl- f j\ ^^F /G^/rrrr^ Isiftonftn is 
LisoaLLy associated wilh benches Bnd terraces 
boi~denng n[i BTiin reac hes "^eep areas Bnd 
iTHii-^l Ltjeslopes- fn^m Ihe k>west forested 



elevations to Ihe jnKlsnbBlpine /one [ii 
southwestern M T the obsen-ed rin^e w ay fium 
7,40n to fl400fl_, considerably extending the 
rin^eLiLctl C2,SiXi-7 050fl_)by IheMonUna 
Rip anin^ Well Bnd A^rfKiation |E~[anhene1 al 
\^95). ]nlhe>icimtyof thcdrierTendoy 
Range. /"rtdVF /G{AhiffjrInpt?nitn hisawide 
elevationiL rin^e, bii1 in Ihe Centennial Range 
1 1 o<.c uis only at lower IreeLine Upslope anj^ 
higher elevalion^ wuh comparable 
env]ionmenb>. ]tgives wiy %oAbr6'sftiJitK^rpa 
/.^iijffa mhr^ Enolher woRfc, b1 Ie*i1 in 
Boulhwestem M on1 Bna_ Ihis type ls pre^enl only 
beyond the^ro^r^phicaloreco]og]CB] Limits of 
,\hl6'j i^Aifocufjxa. LnoiusHiily Biea/^k^d^ / 
Gtiiiiitn InJIonifn has very ] i mi1ed acreage as]1 
was railed ]n reconnaissBixe 1o on. lu onl y as a 
nirn^w stn nger in kiesLope positions or on very 
nirn^w stre Bnri]de leir^ccs These siles are 
consideird to receive greater than average 
iTH>islurc due 1o siibsurf*Le fk>w hut mosi siles 
prjbablj winJd iH>Lbeci>nsidcred 
jurisdictional wetLan±i. 

VccelBlhin - We have followed the nBming 
conven! ion of Pfisler et bI. (1977^ andperpet- 
uitctl by Hansen el il. C]9?5i by refemn^ to 
^rfflu bI the genus level recogm/]ng Ihat most 
oriheN^onlBnapopulBl]ons Bre hybrid swarms 
off giaifiaxF 6^rji6^t^{fii*ui. Cuisory 
observ ations of cone s]ze . scaLe morphoLogy 
ajx1 len^lh of Ihe free sc Ble indiciled Ihat ^. 
£Trj^ ^^ncrta^zjj 4. hirac Len> were preni^mi nint Ln 
the por1]nns of Ihis p.a wi1h higher moLstuir 
Etatifi TiHi^tu genera] ly dom]nates acLosed 
milure canopy bixJ other Bge c] asses arc poorlj 
repre^enled Fi^t£it?titt^tr fr7^rzj^^i\f indTr^NJi 
c^mlof^^f are i mjxjiUnt seril spec]es on the 
dner [lortion of Ihis habitat 

Undeign^w Lh LoverBge js highLy vajiiblebul 
generiLly Ihe dia^DListic spec les GtrhAifr7 
Jriflonit^ ^c^tfi^A tiihf^f and 5^j ^-y^Pr^^Jcrj 
^fj[fx^6'\fJoi\ttJ areonLy present, seldom even 
common and onJy Bppioach well represented. 
Ol her mtnst-si te spec les wi th mcdei^tc 
constancy Bre W-c^yk Jt^^^rr ^L'^jj^j^rrjji _ Siwr Jl^ktij^j 
iJL'iiiJkf , A/d'ftftaf j^ c JJ^fL■^ a^iii Ct^jj^rr 
moi.T^xpfnfiAifn and on d]stujtci:1sHesf by cattle) 

OsTT\crfuzf^ c!hi€nsis and Tarajxacam qffrcTfn^fe 



K2 



(on dj'f tLiifKnl ^ilQ>J ufl[^n Brc -w^]] i^pTc^^n\c<}. 

Rttf^ttJ paryijff?nii arc the only !ihrub^ cijre>i*il- 
cntLy prc«nMhi>ugh only S. ^jf^^/T ]^ ever wcLL 
rcpr&cnicd Some ^i tc^ support b ncBily 
conHnuDin I ayrr of bryopbiy ta, but otbicri biBvc 
only aitolidlBycrorLLtlcr 

Soik- Alluvial and col I uviaL dtpcffiiK irc the 
picdDm]nan1 Mjb^trBlc^ they arc dcnvcd fium 
ihccDunlr^' rock incl f cncrill^ '>iLty inlcxtLU? 

DChtr Sludfics- I'f^ 6^f ^rg^fntmfui / Guffiffn 
Inji^xnit^i w BH rLr\t dsrcnbcd by PTiilcrclaL- 
(1977) ail ccc uiri ng fiom centra] MT 
HoutbiwBRl rcBching jL^grcalc^t BbLuxJBixcin 
IhcGaJlatm Nat Forest v u. Lm1y_ Eti^ilso 
comjix>n I n northx^ cilcm Wj^oming (Steele tt 
bI. L9G3j BnclccnlT^L Idaho (Slcclcct bI. I9S]| 
rccugni?^ hcic by tbic SBinc '>uiliz of i ndic ator 
species. thoLigbnp pircnily piuc r \?7igi^?j[afiml 
populatiuiZi dQminatc Ihnc cxtra-M T sj toi 

Co nunc Ills- This type b> cspcc I al ly ^tKccpl]bLe 
1o livestock IrampLingdiniagccBiiy in1hc 
glowing ^cison w bicimoj]'> bi? '>atur^tcd 
dimagc^ I ncluilc vegetation dr^truclion and 
scvcir hLunmffl. kjiif. mJ v^ccd ]nliodLicl]DiL 

Ekmrnt Code- CEGL00(>4(W 

Edhlon/ Anchor- 99-] L-Lfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTWHP 



/ Sexjecfi? ^tf eu fairih ff\'}ffii^ Forest 

(FICE.^ / SENSTR) -ipnicc / Roclcy 

Mountain butlcr^ccd 



Nntnnt] H crltacc C onRrvuthm E^nk- 

G4/S4 

Envlronnicnl- Thi^ i^ tbic dncs1 of f re tu scries 
lypc"^ jdcniihcd for MontariB. Wuhin the sou1h- 
wc^tcm M on1 an* study arcB as is true rcganJ- 
] ng ibi overall dLS1nbu1]on it n.4.LiJsoiiLy on 
CB]cBm:iussnbstrBlc'> Ihusil Ui arc4l]> exten- 
sive only in 1 he TcDiioy ind Ruby ranges, 
where il ^^a^i sampled ind noted in ie<.onn Bi'>- 
'>ance. Bolh ranges are also jn arainshMkiw 
further ex acert>a1 1 ng s] te seven ty_ Els elevation 



nn^ev/as lium 7,6C>ttlo S,SCW ftwjlh 
^eneriiiy coo] fipects and steeper s]opes 
piei:k>m]nating. S ites often have considenb le 
exposed Hoi] , grive] ind nx.k wilh]itternol 
nuK h exceed]ng -K3^ . alternilively. HjmE sil^ 
hive bryophyte cover^e exceeding 40ft_ 
Adj4cen1 s] tcs w] th yel drier regimes iiew]1 bin 
the f^ieifiioliifji^ it\6'X2Zf^sii or ^rPNJ j/fdin Jr j 
■^ncs or otc asionalLy in open F-eu^rrt^ 

Jri J^rrPj^J^j-domi niled complex; moisler '>i tes 
occupy icstnctedenvironmenL^ within! his 
mountain rBn^e. 

Vccetuthtn- SerB] tiee di^mi nBnts on 1his 
assiKiation Bre ^m-r/L'itrTJ/^j^ FJTi-rJCJf ur and 
f\miij^6'xi^fj and here they ^Ieslow^Iuw]ng_ 
f rfflu ls slow toeslAbli!ihon these dn^ughly 
■^ites and ]s cquiiiy slow giowi ng Seventy of 
site]s bIso reflected incinopystnjclnre, which 
usually nines no! exceed ffiJ^ and often \^ 
ajound 40-5n ^-^ espe^: i al ly wheie nattrral 
morlBi]1> hfi renxi>cd c anopy dDminanb. 

The undergrowlh Ls general ly Low in coverage, 
not exceeding 30"^, even when canopy 
■^truclurc is quite open Comjwsi tion c bu be 
qui tediveise with mBny of the constslcntiy 
piesen! spct les draw n Fiom the adjBcent 
grB'^lBmLis siKh 3sI'oix^iIiiia£ir\^rsiJ^ia^ 

S-vX2lhv ni prfui{ft\J\{kj..\ii\6't2?r{AM{f fnrt-rojxhviia^ 

None oF the ujxJeignnw th spec les assert 
dominance in terms of cover, even 1]ie 
diagnostic &j]fnr> ilreplax2l^ujt?ini'i Only 
Anu<:a ior£ifjoi\tri'^ -wcl] repic^nled OnstEEp 
north- f*L ing slopes bryophyte cover may be 
sulsilBntial, exceeding 2i!)%. 

Soib ^s noted above all exampiesofttuslypc 
occined on calcaieoici sulsilrates usually 
limeslone Limestone weBl]>ec^ 1o as]]1y 
Icxiure but these si>i Is have much ex posed 
gravel andiock, incombinalJoniKua]ly 
exceetling 20^-^ 

Other SLudkf^ This lype was fiisl identified 
byPTisleret bI_ (1977) forMonlBna El has ni>t 
been recognired elsewhere, 1 hough the podion 
of Pi6 £VJ i'fiji£.'fit\{ftmr\ /AnrN.a 6 ot {frJtyiiUr 



83 



which iKc^uri on c bIc Brfouh ^ul:isLrBlc'> in 1h[^ 
AteiBidka BixJO^^L Creek Ran^^of 
nDr1h^^4!Mcrn WytJiiii ng ind "^LipportHi 
iIri.^xI{A?r\hfJofrrti , i^ viituaJ ly idcnUc il. 



^pccie>pcr l/IO Bcrc Ctir^K ^'oiiif Lilbcnxi^t 
BbLuidant !ipccje> bixJ ^Mtbi CtrreA £jn t^rr. 1bc 
only ^rarruDLi]i:ls encountered /"d^rf^f^rtr^ 
iT^irtj T w as Ihe only fo rtuzonsiEtcm ly present 



Ekmrnl Codr- CEGLO0O414 

EdtClon/ Author- ?9-]E-t6/5.V. Cooper 

MTNHF 



(FlNCON/CARRO[) lodgcrolc pjnc/ 
Roes sedge 

NbIueb] Hcrlb^ C tMnrrvBHon Elank- 

G5/SP 

EnvlroBncnl- Witlun ^hc Dillon R. \. lhis 
communi1> i\ ippirenlly rfslnclcd to pccoLiir 
pireni milcnaK, possibly hydiolhcnniLly 
b] tered vole Bnics- ^d JEWJ iT^n J^j J^ / C^j £ J ruurr 
wasDLilcd as >ery ^[obI] s1 ajxis (mosHy < 1 
Bcn^j 4l "tattered, lo^^ gradLcnt valley locilions 
SLunjuncfctl b> b mosB]cof \M6ft^fsia 
Inii67rtaI{A- and /"« Jd« j^ d Jcr/K?4TJjj j-domj nited 
sbiiiiblinds/^r^^ Bixls The noils ire ]]gbit- 
coLored bu^jhJy n^fle^: li vi^, > irlLnllj wilbijut 
struclure but well drBinctl and have vcwy LiMlc 
]ncor7tirit«Jorganic mBl1cr_ Wc siKpcd tbiche 
SLilsilT^tes^ Bsislyp]CBl for hydn^lhermaLLy 
b] tered substrates^ ire nxirt a(:]dic thBrnbuseo^ 
1 ht sunounJing nn^tlincis, theactufll 
composLtK>n for Ihcse parent milcnals hivenol 
been Lonf I rmcd b> pcrsojTi ^Mtbi gcok>^icil 
cxpcitthC- 

VcEetafloii- Tree t^anopics are open 140-70"^ 
covcrl Bnd do nun a ted by f^\mii t-t?nIof la bixI 
r\fmij^6'\ifn These I lees were the only Kpcc]cs 
noted to be repreducin^. \Hbjuphlhcsesilcs 
Bre well wilhin r^nge of other comfcis, need 
dispersal, irejst paj1]cuLarly r^xni^huuga 
dnfrrzr^irr , none ha^ e been able tu colonize 
Ihescsilcs This niB> bedueli>1he unusual 
nature of the subslnle and Ihe f«. 1 1 hil tbs 
cnv]ronnien1 is outside Ihc climatu. w]Ddo^^ of 
species BEScc lated w I tti subiipi nc condilions 

The undergrowlh Ls >ery sp BHie ^combined 
covernot exceeding 5^ J with exiremely low 
species d]veraHy_generaJly Fewer 1han five 



Soik- Eicept for 5-20^ fiUcr, IhesurfBce ie 

exposed soil w I tti I ittie ] nco rpoT^ted organic 
metier ie?iul ting ] n aiK^Ubly light-colored and 
n:netlivesuri«e There is vuluallv ikj piufile 
develop menHndsoj Is Bre well drBiiKtl. 
Expeclcdiow pH values Bnd pertiB]^ peculiar 
micronulnent ind nulnent levels strrmgly 
condilion the vegetation leEponEe 

Other bliidic«- ^j jjdu t^j?rrort^j / Ctjn^T fojfdj ie 

described bs in uncommon communily 1ype 
from the Ycl lowslone re^K>n si>iHh^v anJ 1o the 
Wind River Rin^e (Steele et aJ [9^3t ]n the 
\ ellowslone region 1 1 supports onl> hc altered 
f^\misfi6'xilf'i [orl'.iAlhmufiii) and is 
BssiKJ a1cd w]1 h extrusive vole anic^ Cnx>stly 
itiyolitel Ihat weilher to a coan»e-1cxtujed 
excess] vely-drBinetl subslnle, much hke 1hose 
1h4l 1 1 n.c upies wi tbn our sluily Brea 

This plBnt Bssoc] Bl]on may reqmre a special 
recogni tion, e_g_ ^rprjjf cxmlryfta / Ctir^x roisii- 
hydrolhermii siles as 1 he sutdlrite ]s ho 
unusual as lo consti tute a umgue enviremment 

Element Code- CEGL000i44 

Edition / A ulhor- ?9- 11 - 1 6 / 5. V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Fseiiilf^'^i^a iiienzi^^if /Amici^ caniifoHa 

Forest- 

|PSEMEN/ARfJCOR> Doug[*s-nr/ 

hcadlcif BrnicB 



Natural H crltafe CcrtsTrvalion Etask- 

G4/54 

EnvirDDmcnl- ^ jf j^dn JTJd£ □ menzi^su / Arnrca 

t {^^(ifJ^^}f^ occup]es Ihe coolesl-driesi eijxjsuies 
supporli ng 1he rjtT/Jr>rTJ/£ tr senes in 
HouttiwestemMonlBna on moderate 1o steep 
slopes w I ttinorlh- 1 hrrjugh e ast-fac I ng aspects. 
The sampled range v^asftaX) Id S,053 ft bul 
1he upper eievational limits ire ex peeled Id be 
Hon^e^^tiBl greater. f^i6Ttiioiiitga ^rterFzinri / 



S4 



,\f *u<:ij i-or^h/oiiij is ofttn rujicdio extend 
com I niK^mLy rcx^m '>lo|K lK)l1onv>. jikI abovi: 
locslopc^ k> near ntl^ "^bhiLJdery or Kj gr*lc kj 

o^fi^j JnVjjj on up^lopc fw^i tLoiTi- Tbu^lypc li 
generally net in b Larb±TC4|K whcrt dni:r 
cxposijre> BTcAf^^mil^A r^ictvEftrr^j or /"f f Jd« j^ 
rL-Jti/E^td^urj-dominatctl rBn^tlincis Lhuugh there 
irny be b riBirow bordcn ng fnngc of open 
F s6^t£ioiirtgcr- or f^\fuisjf6':u^f T-dom]nat«J Fore>t 
w]th bunchgr^Si uixlcigiowth. 

VcEttHlhm- Forrst canopy cover is f rncnlly 
grc a1cr than Wl-70^ . dorrunated by 
F s6^tiioiirtji{f jHd^EiFffrr wUh minor amoiints. 
usually Icsslhan 10^ (. ani>py cover, of /"^rtrri 
J^6'^fhj ^nd Jw^fX6'nii icofxifi^xnitn Scattered- 
stunted LCkJividuals |lermed ^mdenUls"^ of 
Ahiej ^{AifOiurjx^f Dz I*i^6^f irk3u.atc b trBiK]1]on 
lo thr moislcr-ccc]erenv]ronn>i:nK 
characlcri/cd by these spec ieN]n late 
succE^ssiunal s1 Bgc^- 

Undeigmwthis nonnilly tfcpiLipcrale. 
especiill^ ]n stanch appmachinglate^erB] to 
old-growth s1 a1 LIS- The shrub com jxjncn! is 
very spBn»e w ith only ffj^j VTftujn jjfjtj/™ ind 
SMJ\pfr{m£ ^j^>T or6^ti?h\fifi consislcntly 
rcpre^enlcd .-^ ^ ^f^rrri^^j J^Jd^z^trr^j ste lelons Brc 
pre^em in younger si Bncis indiciling the^e s]1cs 
miy pa.*^ thiough a Heral si Bge dnminBled by 
1 his spec icN BDd o1 her r^ngeland conijxjni^nls 
fr^tfj rtf JVL^jtf appeBn> to be Ihc n:p:jst constan! o f 
grumi™:i]d*i but i-^ ni>t well reprc^enled Fort> 
diversity is mudrratel y d]vene wi1h 1bc 
diigno^tic Anrli a i onb/oh tr generaJly well 
n^prcHenleJ li> ibunul Bnt bdlI ^^rr^'j]^r^jr:^j 

AilHA^ahfi ij\Ij^ , ftyJenlf^^^A £ f {uiiii hB> ing 
high const4nc> Er^'ophylemJ he hen 
combinctl cover generBl]> eM.eetLs3ti^ art] 
ninsishi^h as^O^ plus 

Soik- A^r sampled stBnct occ urred on 
CBlcBiecnzi (]] meslone^ subslntes , but Ihis type 
WBSDLiledon volciniLS iii thetouneof 
reconna iss Bre.e These malcn a]"^ weilher to 
loims 1o sill loanb and have little 1<]U%] 
exposed lock, gravel orMnal. 

Coainiciit^ S ampled s1 ands had all been 



entered e i Iher I or cleirc ulUng or silv a^e; 
presiurcon these s1 anis 1o piu>i^ limber and 
fuel for the mi n]ng mdiKtiy ^^as ver^' intense in 
lhe I alter dec ades of ] SCX) sindopemng 
decad&of l90Crs- 

Other Sludk^ /" Tf jjrtj^TJj^^j ij\enu^sii /A rmca 
c^rdif^xffiA has been identified on a vanetyol 
pirenl milenalsforcenlral and southweslem 
Momana (Pfislerelal l977Where]1ts 
considered toodr^' tosupjxjil CiAkffj^agyt^Jiri 
mheneni Dz C^r^:^ g^'^n land their 
comparably named /" T^jjcftjfuj^^j J7id^?^^>jjT 
sencs plan1 a*isocntionsJ_ Tbs lype eMeixis lo 
norlhvveslem Wyoming (Sleeleet a]_ l?S3l ind 
east centra] Idiho (Steeled aJ I9S1> where 
1wo phases arc rccognEEcd. 

Element Code- CEGLO0O427 

EdlCion/ Author- ^^Ml-lft/S-V- Cooper, 
MTNHP 



tit be^'eff r Fo rest 

fPSEMEN/CALRUBl Dou|las-fir/ pine 

S"ss 

Natunt J H 4:rlt3ce C c nRrvuthm Etank- 

G5 / S3 

Env IroQiuciil- fifj^^cUdr;;^ JTTd'^rzrffrr / 
C^^u m^^^ rrj Tfr J yt{bescef\f ls in uncommon lype 
DnBL\^ hold]n^. documented only from the 
Madison Co v]C]nilyon relaUvely warm, nwisE 
slopes at 5,900 ft upwaid lo nd^e (. res1s This 
type Wis nol found in 1he Tendi>y Rin^e and 
noted only as Fi^pjnen1s]n theCenlenmaJ 
Range and v]C]nily. bul re asons tor ils absence 
were not ippirenl. 

^ c£etutloii- The treecani>py isiKually ckjsed 
■nd domi nited b> Fi^t^hJitt^tr fr^^rz^eirr . 
F\miijl6':uffs and JAimjx6't jj j icoftrti^xnim may 
be we]] representctl, buHKua]]y they occur jiiil 
IS sc a1 tered iDd]yiduils These sites are 
acccssib]c and ^enerilly support only necond- 
giowlhslands 

DepenJingoncinopy densily and o1]icr factora 
lhe undeigiuwl h c an range fiom a]murianl 



85 



^w ard of C al amign»ilb> ^Trfif f^ d^u art] C^j^fT 
f^^en w Ltbi is^iDciiltd fu rfn to dcpaLiprrBlc 
corkJiliorw whi^rc C tJihi.'it-i.^is occurs in ihin 
pitches Bnci forb^ BrcHcarrc. Fortffl ^Mthhiph 
frequency Bnc1 tbiBl arc occasionally well 
rcprcHcnIcd inci lk3c \n2\ctnor£i\Joirti^ 

Solb- Tbs type has been drc umcnicd from 
l>i>th ^ranj1 iL anJ c bIc Breouh "^Libslrilfs ^^ itbi 
sandy andsiLty k>ains There is I ittlc exposed 
yj]] or ^i^vclrtw. k; litter ind br^'ophylcs 
contribiilc mosl pjound cover- 
Other Sludks- f" 'ii'ifiio^iifji^f tn67rzfeiff / 
C{Afafj[iJgrty^i\i Mfh6"i^6'fii ]'i such 4 cormnun 
BixJ bn>adlydislnbulcJ[ilanl association in 
MonlBna1hit Foiupha.'ws biBvebccn rccopjii7jd 
rcn«. ling dif Fcitn! gcDgjjphicil inniiciKCN bixJ 
ccoLogicaL cnnJilions Likewise for [diho 
|Slcclcet b]_ I^Sll Wyoming (Slcclcct b]_ 
19S.TJ. Wfihington (Diubcnmire bixJ 
DBubcnmjrc 1 96 S] on i nio noutbicm U tibi 
|Maiik ajidlitndtc^ii 1 9 S4j geographical and 
ecological disU nctions biB>c been rccogni/ctl at 
the phase level oflhc AUkOei Blaon. 

Element Code- CEGLO0O429 

Edition/ Author- ?9-]E-L6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



siibslrates- RRLNWLR ex pre^sjons ijf ^/jd' 

type quHe L learlj differ fiom the type at Iflige 
by ] Bcti ng HerBl /"r^Ej/j /vt^EcferrtJ^j- His 
unkno^^ n how ri^t£it?\iitgti ^rttrjzm-^rr / 
Jw2\jM.^ttn 6 Of j[fj[Ufu I ^f ih^ RRLNWLRdiffeii 
from olher comparably diy /" t^j^j^ jjj^^ !ienes 
types, such fi f^i6^fiioiiifji{f jwdir^rc^irr / 

m^rz^ciff/Anrii£^ iot£ir)t?iia All the^e types 
BIT considered Ice d ry to f J j/^^ J wr? Carx^x g€^'en 

canlo^^^f, CKcepI whenacid-weathenng 
adnlr^te^ ai~e involved) 

The tree c BIB py cs relatively open grading to 
t hi! of wondUnd [<(^^ liee c*nopy cover)- 

S hort-st atuied ri^t£it?\Jttgtr fjr€t2zi^Jii 
dominates bH develo pmenUl stages ind TrENJi 
J^6'\ffl^ IS a mi nor assffl. iate_ L^pec I al I y on 
c bIc BieoiTi siibstrilcs the Refuge Centennial 
Valley and much of soiithwcstem H T aie too 
cold lo support rjjjdu poii^fxT^Ju as a 
component spec ics 

\ cgetatloii- .^j ^'Jljj JL-^t/Ei^r^j Edwj-j/r3r and 
Jitnrpenti oofmsriifui donu nitL" the 
undergrowth, where SfXfr£^ctr hL'UiffJof\tr ]s often 
well re p res en tent . BothlhegrBminoidind forb 
layers are dcpauperile wi th the only even 
mnderately constant spec les being F«ft^a 
r^Jtj/E^td^Ejrj, Ctiti.'xtoi'iii, Gah^ifn btyrea^€r 



^ ^ u jj^??rrFr rs Forrst 

(PSEMEN/JUNCOMl Douglas-fir/ 

common junj[^r 

Naturu J H crltace C Dnsrvatlon Rank- 
G4/S4 

EnvlroH^nl- This is a very minor type of 
small stBDJsi/e on the Red Rrx-ksLake 
NationaJWildhfc Refuge fRRLMWRl InlKJlh 
the Beaverhead N^ounlains Seclion and in 
central MonUna whereishas beenprevioiisly 
]nvenloned, ]t is one of Ihe w armest and driest 
pUnt ishoc] atjons ]n the fjtJE^rjJjj^; u series. 
On the RRLM\VR_thLS type occ ujietl at the 
loxverfortst margin on^^jutherly or weslerly 
exposuceson both c ilcareoiK btkI volcanic 



Element Code- CEGLO0O439 

Edition/ Author- ^-]E-t6/^.V. Cooper, 
MTNHP 



ffftrhm i?E(s Forrsi 

(PSEMEN/FHYMAL) Ct-uglis-fir/ 

nj ncbirk 



NbIueb] Heritage C cnfierv at Ion Rank- 
G5 /S5 

EnvlroK^nl- ^ T^j^f^H^ JjEr;^^ jTTd'^rzrffrr / 
f /j h it^L u rjjjr J ^jjj^/twt f j^ J IS a common forest 
typeof IheGimel Rcsourre A re* but is a 
minor type wilhin the Dillon R.A It ]s found 



S6 



pnniBnIv ijn*i1i^tp nortbiwc^L IhriJii^jbi rejrtbi to 
CBHt-f*L ing "iLopKi- S lopKi often ha>t a 
biyophylcy lichtmriKriKlnJiocky LLmc^tonr 
■^LilMili^tc 1 hit vcigQ> on uiTiUblc Thii typc]s 
Dcc aiiionill^ fbuncl to cMtnd c^onti nujuhly 
fiom toc-*ik>pcs o r driina^^ tc tttJiiK up1o 
slope ^houJdcn Mo^t of Ihi^ type ]^ found 
bcLow6_t>!}0 fl_, 1bc ii>cijmcnt«J ot:cijrrcnt:e> 
bcin^ below 4fi(K3 ft L1 w*i rK^t«J li>^;rBdc1o 
f s6^tiiotirtji{f jwd^E^rffrj /Scree of ilccpcr. 
rtK kicr jxj^LtLons art] Pjeii^hJiiiga m^iz^eirr V 
SvTT\p!r{mL£^rfKys or^f?p!ritiis (or 5 afhAii)Q€ 
^ f dt tiio ? J r r J L^^ F JTi-T J J f J J r / C^ j Jl^^ fj^ag rt?^iri 
nihei<.^^tu on warmer cxpoburcs. 

Vcc^ iBfhiii- /"f^rd^Pjrrjn ^rr^Frzurirr donunitcs 
the ini>stly closed canopj fium strfl] Ihroiigbi 
old-grow tbi sl B^^ wi tbi /"r^Ejj T ^t^zJd^n'jfL'^ and 
Jttnrp^nti it'OfXifit?nit^ coiTii^tcnlly rtpreientctl, 
their cover gencTillvDJl eicccdi ng 20 ^-^ /"_ 
^xfiii6'nM{f perib>ls ]nto Ihc old-piow th sti^c 
repnxJuL ing where cinopy g^ps are SLifTu. lenUj 
lajgc- 

TIk uru5ergrowlh !"> dDminBlcd by shrubs^ iviih 

LisoaLLy bcjn^ ibondinl ^¥¥^S'\it\p!r{tM^afpos 

^il{i67r\affj and fld'j ftf^ r T J d'^-TJT conwsttn! ly 
common to well itpresicntcd. Ctii^Am^jinMlIj 
J jj/^ji i-ia J ]^ lbc onJ> gr^mirej]d w]lh high 
core>tancy, bul in soiilhwcMem MT L*. ki> 1hc 
high covcrBgclhat di*il]ngutsh[!i a phase of tb^ 
association Smiiaafnj il6^kfiti Bnd.\sl6'r 
fr^f^jrtfNJf ha> c bgh cons! Bixy and Bit often 
BbLindanl; /f6^u hct ^f jMjrviJS^xra ind Dripomm 
frarJn i L^^^^/JFJ arc coiTiistcnlly prcicnl hui 
poorly represcnied 

Sotk- All c^imples of rjeirJ^rjcrjcr ^nenzifurr / 
Ffn j^j^ury^jf fsrafy^fi e}i t ]n souttiweslcm 
Monlana weit ixHcd for c ale areous substrates 
llhui Ls not 1nie Ihmughout ]ts miich biouler 
geographic rangcj_ I n degree of devclopmcnl, 
lock and gravel conteni and dep1h soils lie 
highly van Bble, some steep norlh- 1 icing sHes 
verge on being scree si1esbu1 an intact ncBily 
com I niK^us bryi>phy1e layer indicBlesUllle 
movemeni (such habiUlcondilionsilso obtain 
I n c astem Wfihingto n and no ithem Id Bhoft- 



f^h'\\o{ttti?Ais ^rrtryiYJttr/j isoneof 1he pUnt 
Bssocjalions reeogni?^ in ttie Daubenmires 
|I96S^ pionccn ng work of fo res1 c la*s>i Tic Blion 
I n ea.steni Wfihingto n and norttiem IdBbn. 
Now 1 his p] anl assoc i ation {or regional 
permulatLoiTi thereof) is reeogni7_cd fium as fir 
west AS LnleiiorBnlish Colombia (BrBumBndl 
BixJCun-Bii ]^92) and theOkinoganof 
Washington Sla1c ^Llliims bixJ Lillybndge 
19SJJ toisfarsoLilh asnorlhern Utah (MBuk 
bixJ Henderson 19 541- 

Coainicnts- E eing biu sdly distn buted^ There is 
muLh noristicdiven>ity within thislype. It also 
mini ^esLs 1 he phenomena of faclor 
compensation in a rem Brk Bble fishion. in Itie 
nx>ist c 1 1 m Blic regime ol northern IdatKJils 
found only on w anner ex pojiures. soulh-ficing 
slopes and in the mix h diier i~egi mes o ^ cenlral 
BndsDiilhwcslcmMontanB on steep northerly 
exfHHiures 

ElemenC Code- CEGLO0O447 

Edition/ Autlur- 99-] l-L6/^.V. Cooper, 
MTNHP 



Forrsi 

IPSE MEN /SFI BET) Doiiglas-tir/ whJlc 

spiraea 

Natural H crltace C onfiervuthm R^nk- 

EnvlroH^nt- ^ jf jd^H? Jjdr;^^ mef\z^sfrr / 
Sf^r^{7t^Q hi'UfhJefIra incited as b miraur typein 
Monlana iPTislerel il. ]977) and noithwcstern 
Wyoming |Sleeleet4l. I9SJJ bulonihe 
nonhem f] Bnk of the Centenni al Range il is an 
importam lype. It is found along with 

tAiheiii-^i^^i lower Umbedine Bnd generBlly on 
Diher ttiBn norlh-f Being slopes. Ifoneines ttie 
Bppioat: h of Steele let b]_ l?S3l who recognizes 
1he I ndiL ator I mportance of 31 ^Jd^yj/r^jj^ Iwdl- 
represenled) to begreiler ihin Ihat of 
C^fcTFJTj^^ dY>T?rf J ddbd^Tt^^Ef ttien many of ihc 
w Bimer. c aJc BreoiB eijKisures at lower 
e]e>ationsf<7.000ft_l would be idcniifled as 



M7 



cjthcr the Cafcftjragrtyjt\i rttbtric'6^n or SfXfta6^f 
b^ii^ffoff^f phages of /" Tt^jjrtj^fd^^^j jTii^rtlTd^jj J / 
SjxfnA6rr he?iiiIf^xff{A. |Wc biBvc followed the 
N^onlajia Bp[iK>[u.h thil trc bIh '>Laiicbi wi th C^ 
J Aih£.'Ji i^i nr C^ff d^T ^ ^^n dDini riBncc *> 

hi.^ii^ffoff{f borders on vb11c> i™. atLOJTi or parks 

^p tvjfd'_hY^jjL'^-tJorrunat«J ^ra*s>l BixtJ 
^hjiiblinct>_ Nonh-fBcin^ slopes adjoini ng lbc 
viLLcy ire somc1]mi:s suITlc Ltn1l> moisl to 
support 1hc f^ii i.^a en^£.'iT)\£^fmrf or Abi€^ 
f{isro<.i^T|^tI series. 

VcEttHdon- The tree stratum ]^ icually 
dominated by f*. ^rrtrjji'Jrr \^ilh b m]Djr 
componem of fnrusjf6'xiffj^ cspet tatty on 
c bIc bitous !iubstrBtc^_ or ^r^jrr/jj j trcfntti^xf^li^i 
b1 Ihc lower fnngcs of Ibc 1ypc . or /"_ jJi^jEITd'TjV 
mixed witbi^r^zj/j t-t?nIofIti on volcinit: 
^titeilritcs- Spir^^A b^ttiiJt?ii{A is a major 
componem isalox^ shrub taycr 1 hit somcttmcs 
]nctu:Jcs bgbi coverage of ^^jrJrj jpr^rrtr 
^rri J TjjjT Tfj andBtFftd^m rep6^rj andlbc 
picscrkzc of .^FJTrfj^HHi^d'r cr^rtrjoircr (hcBvily 
biowsed] ind Jwji^j Jr^jj?^ L^^j^tT pnTfj^^jT Jjj J 

vrrgrmaf^ and jjjioj /ej^l'^ fJrj7j]7] jj j compnse 
1he Foriss tbiBl arc mos1 prcdtttablj reprcsi:ntcd 
1 n 1bc nmdit cfLprcsston of 1his type the 
gr^minoid eomjKmenl is rruntmaJ wilh onJ> C. 
tAiheiix^i^ C_ jt7 F^7 _ ind ^mj rtf jrojcr 
core>islcntty prescn1_ 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGL00O457 

EdHlon/ Aullwr- 99-1 [-tfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



ore^Ji?h r^jj_T Fores! 

IPSEMEN / SYMOREf Douglai^fir/ 

ntouiHain snowbcrry 

NatuniL Hcjllacf ConKrvutloii Kank- - 
G5fS3 

Envlroaniciil- rsifud<?Iiitj[{r mef\z^effr / 



exposures, nKjdcrBlc to sleep stopcs wttbi 
northwest- Ihrou^h soti1 heasl-f at:]ng fipects 
The^ampl^ range w*i 633010 S.050ft_btit 
4 he upper elevation limits ircexpecled lobe 
GOfDcw biBl greater. i1 oflen WIS noted li> extend 
ooEtfinurnKty from midj>lopc li> near ndgc 
^hoiJders Thtslype is generally set jn a 
1 andK ape where drier ex jw^ures ^rcAM6't^fsIa 
^r2ii67rtaI{A or F-f jPfk ^f rL'/ti/z^ttvur j-dnminated 
nn^eUnds though 1here may be a narmw 
bnrUenng fn nge oF open Pji-^i^huuga- or 
rrPNJfJffJifrj-dominated Forest wUh b unchgr4w> 
unJer^iowlh 

^ ccetuthtn- F i6Ttiioiirtji{f mcfrzj^^i\r donu nites 
Bttowtl tree Mritum w herei n f r^FJ/Ty^d'^r^r J and 
Jttn\^'tttJ 'mti?Aihyntit\ ire eons]sten1ly picsen! . 
usuatty no! exeeed]ng 2(3^ LO>er All Ihe 
'>taruih we sampled hid been enlered at Home 
1ime I n tbie p ast for c leareuttin^ or '>alvAge 
logf inf. \bundint sketetoiSi of .^F fd^rrr jj^ 
^r2ii67rtaI{A in younger sUncIs inJicite a^er^ 
'>tagc piobibly dom]nated b> thisindolhcr 
rinf elind spceies. 

Undeigrowtbi lencis to be depiiiperate in 
number of spec]c^ and Lovera^ wj1h nonet 
pitlemof dom]nanee: we ixiled nhnibs or 
^ramiDLi]dh or fod»i Lootd beil^mmint 
SMJ\pfr{mi£^tp^y'iiz 100 "^ core>tanl but nekksni 
e>en wett represented, other highLy corailant 
'>hiiibs inci ude ^jA^j ^^F'CT/j/1 und Jifiifp^M^ 
cf?TT\TT\Ai?7lj. F6"ituc'{f onni6^UaiIj and^otf 
fmrJeniij and^_ ?rffWJT^j are coiTitstenlly 
piesen! somelinKS well represented, \r7uca 
ct?tdipxff{A,5oi\d{A^{nmfitit{fiif{Alti^ \'i\ragaiiii 
m\s6'r ^ndl^hfox tmfilr/fof^f hive a high 
core>taney and are Oi:c4S]onBlly wel I 
represented- Eryophyle and hcbencover varies 
w]dety from 3(3*i pi us to vi d uitly none the 
vinabihly osleisiibt^' based on lime '>i nee the 
lastdisturbanec. 

or^?p!ritiis wasfouixJonty on t^aJcareous 
SLiteili^tes- Atmos! Ln> in ably Ihrse nub*ilrates 
we Blber li> SI 1 1 loims or loams Suifat^cnhave 
less tbiBn5^ exposed fra> el, i~n.k anJsojl 
(combinedl _ Ihey are covered w]1h litter or 
b lyo p hy I es/1 ] (. he re> 



ss 



Other Sludks- f^itrtt£ity\itt^tr JHd^rzrfjrr / 
S^\If\f^^r^^^fi{fri?^x\ tyr^xplifiAis i^ \^ry biuBdly 
dtslribLilcd, ranging FiT>mcast of 1hcCa*TC*dc^ 
to nonhcailcm Wishing li>n (WlLLi^itk bixJ 
Ullybrid^c L?S3, 1955^ andsoulh to Blue 
M OLUitain^ of Oi^on Uohnhon bixJ Simon 
]9S7j_ 1 1 c^pcnciKC"^ b Lar^ci:ltstnbLi1]ongap 
m rH>[1hi:rii [dabio and \^ fslcm MonUna bul 
thi:n in Ihc cxfiBibivcciLcarcom '>ul»ilrate^ of 
southwestern M on1 Bna ]1 rcsLiJgcs]n 
importance. Tbu-^lypc b> tnown Fnjmtcnlr^L 
IdahQ ISICL-Lcd il. 19SI J. western WytJimng 
(Sicclcet b]_ I9S31 indColor^kt (Jobinsun 
19S7J tosoLilhcrn Utah 0" oiingbLood ind 
MBuk L?S5| BixJ northern New Mcxlcq 
(MuldAvin L?94| It b> found on other thin 
lbIcbit^^izi subsides in regions c]ub>]dc 
southwestern Montana. 

EkmenC Codr- CEGLO0O462 

EdMhin/AuCtur- 99-] t-L6/^.V. Cooper 



Meedle-leaved Evergreen 
Woodlands 



Abie^ !£^srfM.iJtu£^ /Jufii^teni^ c'^.imt?uinh 

WoodLind 

(AQlLAS/JUfJCOM)iubalptncfii/ 

common junj^F 

Natural H crltace Ci^m^rviitlDii E^nk- 

EnvlroH^nl- T1lL^ i^ a very cvmrnon pl^nl 
as.su<:j a1 ion. LdcntifLKJ fiom thedneruK^unlBin 
rin^n> of eastern O regon and Washjng1nn_ 
CBStwaRl]nto Montana inul Wyommg bihI 
south IS far a^ New Mexico and Anzona 
Wuhm the contei! of the relBl]>eLy mcsu., 
^eneriLly rejrth-fat: mg flink of 1he Cenlenniil 
Range, ^h^i'j J^fSii>iQ^f^{r / J\itr\jtemi tomimtrnj 
represents habitits expeneiK ing gicater mots- 
tuiT stress lhin other comnx>n \ f{fi\oii^rpa 
types hav]ng either western mc4d:jwnjE 

grt?Ji\i Mfh6'Sieni)QT shiny-Leat *ipLrae B 
(Sprt{fi.^a h6'lifirjt?tia} as 1hc diagiEstu. specics- 
On Sheep MounlBinRNA Ab\^iia'iNxc{ffi?£A / 



JttxArjM-'tyn ^^j^jtfjtjj^ej j was enciiiintered on 
WBimer eijwsuies flhose w]1h a wesleily 
component), and Bbove7,S00 ft . though il is 
c Bpable of occiiiTing a1 much lower eLevBl]ons 
HgenerBl]> grades to .-^firff Vtru^t^w^j^j /flJ^-^ 
^rrr^aJr^i-TJd^FJT (nxmn! aj n gooseberry J or1o 
Ahiej kfiro<.£^rpti / Th^fiN. if ddPJT oi i j Jerrr^^d' and 
Ahiej kfifocijrpa / A mfca fordifix^I^^ of moistcr 
env]ionments_ 

Being a woodi and- lire c Bnopy cover IS gener- 
B]]y below M^ ind tree fornuppnjiches 
sliinted" w ith he]^hls birely cxcced]n^ -K3 feel 
B1 moiTlhin 350 >ean> of ige /"r^ dv^ d^Ej^- 
mcTJiHJj (EngtLmBnn spn3cel ^¥¥A.\hf€s kfifo- 
carjx£^ are present nxistLy in Ibe sapLingf 
seedling Layer. Ibju^h sc altered miturc and 
oLd-gn^w th /"r^^v^ f?rjt^^rTtfrt?rjj are typically 
piesem IS well. This assoc] Bl]on is il the dry 
extreme of .-^fird'fftrjjr^i^j^dislnbulion and 
this species piubablj w]]l ne^er achieve canopy 
dominance Thecanopy ckjmmanl inmoslof 
these ^Uncls is f^i6^fiioiiifji{f jwd^E^TFiPj 
|[>oiigl as- F]r) Ihtju^h /"jjarri JJ^^t/j j Climber 
pinej IS a major component ]n pate hes 

Vccetutloii- Jifiif^^ytn iofmsrii^ui Icommon 
junipcr^iii^minBles Ihc undergrowth its cover 
gcncriLLv exceeding lO"^ The ^r^mjixi]d 
elemcn! isespec]aJI> dL^paiiperile with only 
^VECctyof I'oiJ r6fjf6'\{f (ixniJing bl uegrBss] ind 
C^jd^^ rtyiiff fRosssedgeJ \sti.^f iofnjxfiifn'i 
(showy asterj is the only fort> cons]sten1]y 
i>cciiJTing well repirsentetl;.^ txmsprcitiu^ 
rty\6'n^^f{A grtfi-iiii fsLender c I nquefoi h . bixI 
Se^ttit\ ^trrtrt-Tt^L'^^j/jJH Unccle Bvetl stoncc ropl 
were noted as 1 he piev ilcnl fort>s consislentLy 
piesen! thmiighoii! these dner woodUnd 
env]ioninents_ 

Element Code- CEGL00()9 19 

EdUion/ Author- 99-] L-L6/S-V- Cooper 



Cer<.fjc anxiis ic^fffr^i rjj t / Fc^iitcQ 

r{!a!i{?en^f^ Woodland 

(CERLED/FESlDAlcurL-lcaf moumain 

mahoganv / Idaho fescue 

Natura J Heritage C c mervutlDii E^nk- 

G3/S2 



89 



Envjronnical- Tbic only ckx LUTK^rHcd 
occLUTcncc lorH<Juthwa>1ciiiMonlBnaKDn 
^\ccp rc'>Klual mounl aj n '>LcipH at tLirv a1 ions 
iiound 6iXK5 FccL The lotal cover of hoi] 
gr^vtl^ ajxJ lockiziually CTCCHfc40^-^ bixJ Ihc 
HO]] surface is ■5tab]c wUh ran cv]dcrtc of 
Bccclcratfd cros]on- PBrrnI matcnBL>4ic 
gruni1]c anJ ho]]h bit L\toTthcnb> anJ btt 
moderately deep Bnci vci^'robbly. Tcilures 
viry fiom LoBmy SBixb>1osarkJy k>ajns_ The 
Hoj]*^ BIT DLiix: aJc Breo Lis and iJieir ivajlable 
wBlerhold]ii^ca[iBcilJCH4rc]o^^ due tolhc 
coarse Hoi] tei! tires and ibundint coan»c 
frapn>[:nts TbuH assoc]Bl]oncanbceTj>K.tei:1on 
olher, CHpcciilly citcarcotis^ [1 ajEMit materiB]^ 



G2Q / S2'' 

Environniciil- The lypr occurs on [i]b1cbis 
ajxJ restdoit mountai n slopes at c]cyattain 
between 550(3 and HXXHeet Tlie lotiL covers 
ofHoi] pj^vc] andiotk averages 70^_ The 
SO]] surface is Homcttma> unstable because of ■ 
lack of Bcfcquate vegeUlion cover- 
Soils Aie generally ^JialLow orvcr^' fihaltow 
(i.c .lil]itc| ind arcdcnvcd ^lum igneoicior 
sedimen! Biy parent maten aJs bdJ fc Blure sliong 
to v]oten1 cftcrvBicence TeMurcH>ary fiom 
sandy to bits tos]]t ]oams and arcfj4ve]ly to 
very gravcl]> AvBi]Bbte WBlcrJulding 
CBpatity VBnesfiom low to medium- 



Af^ acent C Dmniunmes- The Cx-^fctK afpiis 
fffLJjfj'tJjjj J //"f f Jjiccr jcftj^r^j^nrf ind Cie^iJoiirtJ 
/rjini{hf^x6'gii6'r2{A if?Ii{Alti types areecologic- 
B]]y stmi I ar arkJ inleigr*dc_ Of the two types, 

]nsLighl]y more tcik HitLiBl]ons The rjeirJcpJ- 
jjj^^j FJT£7]3J^TJj / /" f£itrhty£t2in type may be 
fbuixJon adjicem more mesk siles that ire ]chs 

racky Bnd biBve deeper sojL> 

VcEetadon- C^ri-^xc{?riNis i€^dffofrtti and 
Fiiytiioytx:^ frena if?i<.{Ala ^fr^ abundanL 
FeiliK-iJ lii^fhitsniii cover generaJ ly exce«t> 
5^_ Olher spec les 1 hit an:generBl]> piesen! 
w] th cover exceedj ng 1^-^ lTV.[[M^cAt^^mIf{f 

ajxJ^^jtf T^JFrJ/^rjN" Erotnrti rttr^jjjj^re may te 
abimdajil wheie surface dintuTtiBixe Jias 

OCC UTTcd thfOUgll gT^7.l Ug 

Other Studies- Tbus 1> pe bias been piev]OLisLy 
descnbcd fiom DLi rllieiLstLTn O rcgon (JohiTion 
and SimLin ]?S7j and centra] Idaho ^SchUllerer 
IS12). 

Element Code- CEGLO0O9fi2 

Edtthin/ Author- ?9-]E-L6/£.V. Cooper 

Junipefii^ 'urt^xiiloninj /Ariemf^fQ 

irr^fenTtrkf Woodland 

IJUNSCO/ARTTR]) Rocky MoumaJn 

junij^r / big sagebrush 

Natuntl H crlt^ce C omervutloii E^nk- 



V ccetutlon- /crizr^tn^ J j< 47ytJd^^j'C4 n is the only 
tree spec]CH pnzHenL Spct les exceeding 5 ^ 
cover in the mxJcignjwth Lnc]ixJe \t\6'TT\Ijia 
Ir2ii67 r tali A Ojxi fiilA ^ j y^ j fyt k ^ j ? r r /IL■^ 
f^i6Ttiiortyegtrena jj^"^ ^jftr, \nilf^ iofrj^fsela , 
BtMAi^^tMAiif ^ttiiliii. On j^Jrf M"™£TW>rL'fc3 . and 

Adjacent Communities- The \M6't^fsIa 
Jn" j£T r \akf / /" Tf j j c^ j j o f ^ h ^n ^f ip r cala 
communily 1>peoflcncKcuison sdjacenl le^ 
roc ky HI tes w I th deeper soils. More leric (oril 
least lockierj si1es wilhsiiTii]arHOj]s featiue the 

cornmimity lype_ 

Other Studies- Tbs 1> pe has ixi1 been 
piev ioL£>ly descTibenl but hfi been reported as a 
pociibleljpe LnColorBcln and Wyormng 
(Bourgen^n arkd Enge]kLng I994j_ 

Element Code- CEGLO00743 

l-klltloii/ Author- ?9-]E-t6/S-V- Cooper 

Jiifi^em^ 'iL-{?IMthxtitm / C^'t^fxtrrjxiis 

!i^drjfxi ht t Wood I and 

(JUN SCO /CERLEDf Rocky Moumain 

J unipc r / mo ii n tai n m ihog a ny 

Natural H trltafe C omervatloii E^nk- 

Env Ironnicnl- This 1>pe occurs predDminanlly 
on sleep dip s]opes and residual mountain 



90 



■iLojKi aLc]c>atLOJisbc1wccji55C}ttincl65LKJ 
IccL The iQtal covcrof SO]] pjivcl ind rntk 
LisuaLLy txc^ccdh 50^ anJiht soil '>urfa(:iz b> 
often LUSil BbLcbH aiisc dF a ] Bck of Mfequatc 
vc^d i1]on cover 

V ccDtuthtn- Jd^jir^j^ du j^^^/J^jj ddPJT iR thr only 
Lrcc "^pccjc^ prcHcnL AbundBnt C6'r£:ci-arjMn 
^dv^_/r>yj jj J charBclcnniei 1 he unclL^r^iuwIh Other 
species Ihatiie generally present w] th cover 
exceeding [% include \neTT\iiiaJffgiA^, 

iprcalQ . and O^yzp^sii hvfjrenoiiies 

Soib- PAienI m4lena[^ are piedi>m]nan1]> 
quailzile or 1 1 mestonc ind'^iK aje^eneriiiy 
Oi1hent>inc1 arcshaJlow (]] thief BixJpjivelly 
to vcr^'slony Teilurcs vary fiom LoBmy SBixt> 
to loBiKi. Mo'>t of lhe'toii'> exhibit strong and^ 
or > Lolent effervescence. Available ^^ater 
holding c ap^cLly i'> mostly Low due 1o the 
coane^oii te^lnres^ ibundinL coarse 
frapmenlH and shiiio^^ dep1h 

Af^ acent C Dmniuamts- The Jifiiip^nfi 

^6^fiJ(xilAii/f^ieifiiotoi.^jlfiL^naiprca\i^ n^ff are 
ccoLogLeaLLys]miiirBDd inlergrBde Of the t^^^o 
types,/ icc^fxifi^xnit^ /C. ii'iir/^fiittj occujiy in 
sLighily nwre mes]c*i]1ijatLcire>_ The/_ 
'iiOf?Aih?tttTT\ / \r1eTT\iiia fj? Jtrir^jftr and ^_ 

ad jo I n J_ Ji ^xpii^ot d^FJT / Cf j coci^rjnti ^6f{fijt?ilii'i 
ondnersiles- Ihc I'si^iditroejixj^J^f 'ip\cti\a/ 
BtMAi^^tMAi^f grtfiliii type i^ often foioxlon 
adjicen! Lesjiiucky and lewi ^teep *i]1cs 

Other Studies- Tbu-^ljpc bias bee n d esc n bed 

only forMonlBnalChaffEE J9SI1_ 

Element L odr- CEGL000744 

Edhlon/ Author- 99-] L-Lfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Jifiirpefii^ '^ t}j?if f OFif fff / F^^i£iort?egx2et ia 

zt?rc'a7ti Woodland 

(JUNSCO/AGRSP[l locky mountain 

juniper/ blue bunch whcilgrai-^ 

Natuntl H trlt^cL' CciKenutloii E^nh- 



Environuiciil: [ n i:a.sti.Tii Montana tbu'> 
conununily 1ypc Ui comnKjnJy bound in lo^^ 1o 
moderate relief Id]] I ng up] Bixls IS ^^eLL as]n 
bifland 4ri~oyos/draw>. oflen occ um ng 
fldjicenl hy JAfmf^£^itf Ji o^\i!<?MtfR / Orrzftf?iii 
Ie^ J7i^rtr;^"jff bii1 on warmer eijwsuie^ (rani 
strictly nod h-FBcing^ with tbiesimc ini:>der4le to 
steep slopes En eastern MTlhreeoJ the four 
sampled siBiKis \^eie on c ak areous sub^trate^. 
though tbs h t is nol conhncd to Ihese 
EubslT^tes inlhis region It ]ias also been 
jreonfcd for 1lie E VH DM S ctcumngon rocky, 
pnmBnly volcanic subslrBles wilh lhinsi>ils; 
subslT^te condilions here appear to be the 
determining bBclon>]n]ls occurrence- Etis 
pnmBnly ishociiled ^^ ilh lower tnzehne 
pi>sitions ind slope andispect Breonly weak 
determining b4clon> E n eastern A-l T_, /j/^EJjtd'njj 
'iiOf?Aift?niTT\ /I'seAiditroi.^ji^ii^n^f sprctiJ^A bL»o h*i 
more exjKmetl so 1 1 Bnd roct loflen exceeding 
^^■f I than the a^ciociate^l Jii*uf?enis 
s£OfXiiff?ni/7i f Oryzx^fxsii hyfjr€Jioid€s^ . The 
same siluation often obtains in weslem MT 
wJiere bare soil Bnd exposed rock iKuaJly 
constHute6(3ff plusof tticsubslrile andhHeris 
never more than 30^-^ Bnd adjBccnlshniblind 
types often tiBve more deve]oped, deeper hoiLs 

VccetBtlon: As k resull of the ubiquili>its past 
cutling for fer^]ng. si Bnds of Jifiifp^t ifi 

'iiOf?Aiftyniij\/fsi'ifiiotoi.^jlMentripit-a\£^ in 
eastern MT arc rBllieropen, will: coverage of S 
tj I2fl tall yrwary^^/T t^ ^jy^jfwrrrjji not 
exceeding 50^; inBV]iDMS the tree canopy 
are aJso quile open fBl misl ippio aching 30^ 
CBnupy eo>erJ_ We speeuJ a1e Iree cover^e 
ckics nLi1 much exceed these figures due to 
1 1 m]1 Bl]ons of s] te fac tois_ The h]gher coverage 
of shrubs fuplo20 ft ^r>rAtK^mif{fItJii6'fiitr\{A 
and .-^.y^ r^jc^ comb] nedj thBl arerepor1ed]n 
norllieaslern MT as opposed lo southeislem 
MonlBna (Hinsen and]iofFman l?SS|]s bIho 
a11nbiilBble1oserB]cond]tions_ EnBVE-[DMS 

^?j^dUcff>TJj T, Bnd C yrm^irjfoytn hBveIhe 
highes! cojTil BnLy but compnse lea thBn5ft 
cover in the iggregite The undeigiowth \s 
dominated by grBminoitfc, chief among w]iich 
and di agnosi ic ot the ty^n is Fieit£it?r^xegii€na 



91 



iprctifiA always wtll rcprcscnlcd (-K3^ ivc_ 
cover in cailcmHTonJy 10^-^ on1bc 
EVHDMSJ- C^jJd-T^^ryr^miiKJAVtdVd-n^ 
mjPcrr^ have hifh core>tancy incl EtyAi^6^oiia 
citt Iri?enAikf iscon^isltntly pi7?icnt in Iht 
c EHtcmrrKHil occijrrcnce> of Ihii type Fort> 
divers] ty i^ mcxJcrateLy bu^hincl hi^bicr m 
wc'>tem1h4n tfilcmMT wilhixH much 
oveilip in hi^h t:oiKtanc> species bdwccn 
rcgioift; rcgardLe>Ji of Lut Bl]on_ forb (.o>erage\ 
ITT generally ]dw^ not eTcccdi ng ]Q% rxccpt m 
1hc mo^t open "ftm^. 



or near, upper Limberljiit it ]'i often bonilcrctl 
bcLow by the \hici iasuxc^friT^A - Fiims 
aihfi^fftiii / ^^ccf^uttif} scofX{ffUffj[ type End 
Hlnvebyiipint scrub Unve^cUlfd UiiK 
^LopKi sometimes ]ntc[f]ngcr wi th thi^lypc. 

Soik- Soils arc typu. al Ly pjive] ly to vci^' 
gruvciiy. fcatuie icryu. lempcrilurc regime, 
BDd may be "^Irjngly 1o MoLenHj effervescent. 
TcKtujes arc sincly ]oanfi> 1o loinw Soil deplh 
]S'>hBiio^ 1D mcKltr^tely deep AMiiiblc WA[cr 
holding L ap*L Lty vanes fn^m Low lomcd]ijm_ 



Other Studies: ] n 4 study renlen^d on 
Hontbie BHtem N^onl Bna Hanhen and lioffman 
|l9flSJ hive best Lticumcntixl Ihi-^ type End 
B rown 1 L ?7 1 1 has al-^tfc^nbcd il for bad] and 
landfonnsin the .Ashland Di^tnd Cutter 
Nfllional Forest This a.'e»™. lat ion his been 
dcscnbed asieLativelj conunon in Wj^oming 
BDd CKtentt as fir south as Colorado 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLOO(374fl 

EdHhiii/ AultHT- ?9-L2-03 / ^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Woodland I Pio>isionaL] 

(PIN ALB - ABILAS) whucbark pinc- 

subilpinc fji 

Naturul H crltafe C onRrvuthm E^nk- 

EnvlrDDmcut- The type occurs o n giiciitrd 
mountain ndges and upper "fLu pes at elevatioisi 
above S900feet The lo1 a] cover of soil, 
gruvcl, and nxzk exceetls 5(3^_ Thesoil 
surface is of 1cn unstable bee biec of a lick of 
adequate vegeiiiion cover. 

Vccetutioii- f rnj^j^^^^rcudr/rj, \hiei 
kfl\c^^.{A^fitt^I*i^e{f 6^ijl6^t^{fiifur , and 
occ asioniiiy ^Jtr/Jr^ru/^ tr FJTi-TJjorr occur in 
vicying amounts in Ihe ohen open, stunted, and 
w] nd-deformcd liee ] ayer_ The urk5ergrowlh ]s 
highly van able] ncomposilion and few 
]ndividuB]sp«.ics ever exceed 5^ cover. 

Adjacent C D mmunflief- This type occnn at, 



Other S tod k's- TbMjpe has been dcscnbetl 
only in Montana, where il is quite conunon 
|Prts1eretil-]97Tj- 

Conuutnls- fffuis tr/^^wj/Jr t - ,\hiei 
kfiroc£^rjt^^hy 3A.i[iB]]y a synlixonomic unat 
alxiveihe plinlishocial]on level becatsc 
considerible undeigmwlhvination]s 
iccommiMJated within it isongmilly 
dcscnbed Fflslcrel iL (] 977) did nj t choose 
1o decomp<:se Ihis iini t on Ihe basis of v inouh 
undcrgiuwih assembLiges because it 
enLomp asses envi n^mnents wi1h very low 
pioduclion and similar management 
]mplica1]ons 

Element Code- CEGLOWn 2fl 

Edition/ Author- 9LML-Lft/S-V- Cooper, 
MTNHP 



WoodLind 

(PIfJALB/FESlDM whitcbirk pine / 

Idiho fescue 

Natuntl H crltace C onRrvutioii E^nk- 

G4/S4 

EnvlroHOHiit- The frttus atbiarufij / FesUic^r 
\d^f}uft^f\j\s wc'Oiiliinii assoc] a1 ion is a minor 
lype lecoided fium the highes! forcsled 
elevations, generilly atcve SM^J ft . of the 
Cenlenmal andTendoy Ranges on w]nd-swepC 
ndgehnes and wcs! and n^juthwesl-fat ing 
slopes; thjs assoc] a1]on is e^ pe<. ted inothcrdiy 
southwestern Mon1 ana R anges Ostensibly 
dners]tcs etc Fx-'s^u^a iii{fiioi.^isIi- or A r?efjriir a 



92 



Inii6^rtiJl£^ VBr_ tvud^ tfrttf-iikjminaLctl; on 
moislcr or Iq>s ^trcwifuJ ct pcKLUcs arc fourkJ 

Vccctuthm- fnrus tr/Ar^ujj Jr t clmiiinatcN in 
open (. BDLipy gcncraJ ly not cxLcedin^ 60ft 
coverage. St: Bl1crcd /"rjacri ^ l^ff^jj J^j and^tuntctl 
Frr^u r>r Abf6"i hrjrtyi£^tpa Tn^y be present, nn^ 
coLinb> or tbicHC spec L«i 1 flkcn inlbc nxi^t open 
por1]on of tbicHC standi ] ndiL atcd a^csof 40lo 
]05yciri For1rc«i not c;trt«J]n^6ft, IhuH 
]ndi4.atinglBckol pot-^nUaJ tocslBbLbih 
dominance fiom ^tand opcnin^: 1 rcitmcnb>_ 
UixbgrD^tbi in undislurbcd slBnckof tbu*^ l>pc 
]^ dominated by F^'jitt^^f I^itrhtju^il^, bul in the 
CcnlcnnjB]^ Bnd TcnJ:jyy ^biccp grB/jng bia.^ led 
1o rcdL^1]on of tbic forb componciH and the 
] nliodiKl ion of ^^jtr jtrtJJd^ur T, whic h h*i 
bn.Qmc well icpirscnlcd i n ^omc ^tark±i_ 
TnjFftrjTi iprc^Uim ind F^x^f n^ kv^Ttr bit 
cijre>i*ilL"ntl y present Ibjugh t^ovcrigcs Bit 
^"Idoni even comjix>n_ Forbs coiTitslcntLy 

S<x^f{h^ ty fnttiJlrtiiir^fta ind Ajit {fji^AhtJ mrser. 

Soil- f r?rj/T tr^fir^tn/Jr t / fd^Trj/^w rL'Jti/z^td^Fjr t w as 
noted to occur on botbi c ak arcous ind cxirusi vc 
vokanu:?! ^ bch wc Blhtr lo s] 1 1 loam anJ loim 
1cMurQ>_ Exposed sub^trBlc 1*1 commonJy Ic"^ 
Ihin 10^ and litter LSL£>LiBl]y SO^ ptib ind 
relalivcl^' deep [i inchplisr 

Octicr Studies- Tb2\ i'^ 4 minor to incidrntB] 
1>pc from *rtJLi1 hem Montana and northwestern 
Wyommg |Sleeleet4l. I9S_TJ and cast ccntrB] 
Idahn ^Sleelrctal. ISSI] ind is nnt reportctl 
eL»cwhcre 

Ekmtnt Codr- CEGL000755 

EdHliin/Au(lwr-?9-][-Lfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTWHP 



Woodland 

(FINFLE/CERLED) limber pine/ 

CLirLlcaf mountain mihogBny 

Natuntl H crltace C onRrvuthm E^nk- 



G3G4/ST 

Environoical- fiiit\jjiej:ihj / CerL<?caf]Mtf 
led^foiiAfs bias been sampled only ]n the 
Limestone Hills vicinity, in the piuximity of 
the Elkbiom R^n^ e but has been ixHed ]n 
rcconnai-Ciint^e in the Tendoy bixJ Greenhorn 
nnfes. InlKJih Breast r^rj/jyJd'^Jrj/ 
Ceri<xc-^fi?Aii ii-^iifjoffifi isaErfKiated with 
moderate 1o steep slopes wilh west- to soul h- 
ficin^ aspects bixJ 4. ak areous substrates [n the 
Tcndoys i1 ot^curs as b nBiiox^ fringe. rBlber 
ecotoniL, bet^^een the drier |or at least less 
rat^kyj ^j r^jjij TJ tr ^JTJdTJJ^jftr 3nd FrslAica 
TL'/tj/E^td^urj-dominated rBn^eUncis and purr 
C^K ^t^tr^y^jf ffdjT^j Jrdu si BJxJ and on moisler 
SLtesopentockwicd forests of Ihe anj 
r i6Ttiioiittji{f ^rterrzji^rr scries. 

^ ccetuthm- Tree t: anopies are very open with 
St altered f^imujli-^jcshi ind rjtT/Jr>rTJ/£ tr 
fr^cffZ^c^ff Bnd in younger standi, well 
TcprcHcn\cdJw^jx6'nii icofxifi^xnit^ The shrub 
stratum is di^minBled by ^^ell represented Id 
Bbundant CenoctirfyAis ii^fJof\tn , ^Met^fjia 
Jrijif^kj Bnd Grttii^fr6'ziu itrnxlht^fx.^ etc 
consLslently present but pccriy itpresented. 
F i^tiiortTeg^rena i^<.akf Bnd Onz^xpifs 
fniJ\6'X2tyI{i^i |orO_ ^rrrrj l^^jj j/ej^ J md only in 
exticme soulhwestem M ont Bna, F6f lUicti i^fr^r\ 
ETC the ckiminant gr*mi noids- their cover vanes 
Widely bul never w*i noted tocxt^eed 10-I5^_ 
Forbs diveis]t> may bcippretiable bul cover 
seldom eicee* t race amounLs, with the 
exception of C^ FJMJ^^i'^Yrj ^^jtTrt^KJftu and 

Soife I't*uiifle:ufis / C^rc^xca^piis icdif^fttts 
his been dL»cumented only from cilcAreoiE 
Aiibslrites inMonlani, sites with shBllow soils 
iixJ lock BixJ gravel exposure usuill^ 
cxceenling JO^ . Soils ai~esilt loams bul the 
gruvcl conteni scveitly d i minishes their wiler 
holding cap^cily bul mBy ticiliUle its deep 
pert^oUlion to levcs t apped by deep moled 
shrubs mJ trees 

Oilier Studies- Tbs minor type was fust 
niconJenl forN^onUnain b pi~elimi nB j>' import 
iDcVcficc 19?2J regarding s^juthwestcm 
CDunliesand 1 1 ls very simi I ar to /" t^v^c^j^ Jdd^^ 
HWTEzreiTi / Ctmvt^ {frf?Ai t ix^xifjolnfi described 



93 



fur Ihc Piyor M OLintairw |DL"\tLu.t bjxJ Lf^ici 
]993j_ Thi!i a.'&ffl.LatLon cxttnd*i a*i an 
]ncid^nUl typcio rH>r1hwL^lcin Wytjmm^ 
|Slcc]cct b]_ L?S3l inci eastern Lcnlr^l ]dahi> 
|Slcc]cct b]_ L^Sll bill further to thcsoulh in 
norlbcm Utah 1 1 ]s nx>rc cxIciklvc (M aiit inci 
HcixlciionL?S4) 

Ekmrnt Code- CEGLO0OBO4 

Edt(lDn/Auttur-?9-]L-L6/S.V.Coo|Tcr. 

MTNHP 



Wood L End 

IPI WFLE / FES[DAf Lmbcr pjnc / Tdflho 

J cm: Lie 



NatutB] H crltac^ Ci^Rscrvatlan Rask- 

G5/S5 



\{kj^iiX6^isf'i 1*1 t^ommonJy found on wc^t- to 
Houtbi-fat I ng anpK. ti of mcdcratc 1o "^tttp 
^LopKi often 4HtOci4led wilh upper slope, wind- 
exposed conditLons- The oteicn-ed elevation 
r*nfc was 7,503 lo fl_SOO ri_ though in fac t ] t i^ 
piobably grca1cr_ .\dj acent drier !ii1e^ suppurl 
FeiIifiaiii{fhoi.^isIi art] ^fTi-rjidjrtr ^jt Jtrir^jftr 
>ir LYJfd'_hY^jjL'HdDnunat«l TBUge] End 
conimunil]e^_ il gr*de^ lo I^JX-^i^hUuga 
^rwTFzrFfr^ Hcriess]1e*>of motstcrhflbitati il 
lower elevatioisi and 1o Ti^ £?j ^encs ^i1es al 
uppereLevBl]Dn£ 

Vccetutioii- WKfcly *ipaced I^inttijfex^iij 
duminate lb? upper s1 Blum inlhcsc open. 
sa^inni-kke aLL-aged ippi^an iig s1 anii^ y^i least 
standi not read]]y arcessible to liee harveilingt 

wherein tolB]canop> cover L£>uaLLy dDes not 
exceetlfiO^- ^jx^i^hlsiiga fj^i-^izie^i^ ruBy be 
we]] iepiesentedore>enco-d:)minBnt but 
^Lze-c]as^ dislribul]ons jDd]CBle F Ji^xifri wil] 
conlinu^lobe b1 LeasI a co-duiuinanl 
comjxjncn1_ Jttn\pi.'ttn kvj^/Jl7h^fjt rrny be 
we]] represented as b Loug-pen>isling *ieral 
species. SciMcred.o]d |>250yis_l fiie-^c aired 
]ndiv]dLiBL> |bolh ^_ ni^rtiTf jjj ajid/'__/?i'_aijfl 
w]th muLtiple fire-sc BIS m bv be preseni 
]ndicating b p ast liislory of ground- flies or flies 
creating a nxi'>aic of ige cLciF^es 



UixJcrgrowth is dorrunated b> bunchgraHics 
with fd^f rjJtfT rdj^/z^td^urf comjixin indicaling 
hib]talsmort rrniisl thBn 1lxme suppi>r1]np. j iKt 

(j^F^rr as dnminBnts. I n eMieme si>ul]i^^estern 
MonlBua// trjz^rj ]s BLoreipicuous 
occ aslonilly dDminBnt, componenl. Fxnb 
diversity is often high wUli ^fa^L^A ^j^V _ 

SenecTf? ttriiifi irkJ ly^FJ/m /^rciJ^Ei^ being 
corbislcntly rcpresenled S hnib*i commonly 
found scilleienl in canopy openings ire 

y^jxrvuf^ Rfbei ii'fi'w^ ind Chn sol^ujt^fuis 

Soife \llsUncis^4mpled Bnd noted in 

rcconnaiaince were *> cLopcd on c aJc Brcous 
Eiib^li^tes hivi ng luucli. iKiiB]]y 20^-^ plus, 
exposed Holl and grB>elJroct IJksc ^iibMi^tcs 
hive ^^eatheiKJ to s]]1 luam texlures 

Olher SliHfks- /"r^FJ/Ty^d-uJ^j/F^TfiJcv? 
f^kj^iixff^ifs 1*1 amajorpLan! assocntlonof 
CB]cBieou*i subsidies aLou^ the Rrxky 
N^oujitiinFiuul and lunges of central Monlana 
iFTisleret bI. 1977] ind continues as b noHble 
compuncnt li>south-cenli^L bixJ soulh^^est 
MonlBna bixJ extendi as b minor lypc to casl- 
oentral IdBlxi ^Steeled aL I9SL) and 
norlli^^estcrn Wyoming ] n the rBiiTihadow of 
1he AbsBiuka Range bixJ Ihe very dry Owl 
Creek Range |Sleclcet bI. I9S3j_ 

Coniiiicnts- Intensive catllegrBJin^ in tbs 
lypeean viriualLy eLiminile the bunchgiasi 

component oral least reduce the cover of /" 
FL^JtiJE^td^u^j 3ndI'sL'Aid{ttoejin^f^f 'ipfc^fta to the 
poinl wheie'>itepolentiaL]SDn1d]scemab]e the 
f^cl thil gT^ss cover polenliaLLy lscon*ilderBbLy 
]e?i thBnlhit ofopen rBnf.cl Bnd^ d^es nol ^eem 
1o leaen 1lie depjee of jmp ac1_ 

Element Code- CEGLO00805 

EdKion/ Anchor- 9^^]L-Lft/S-V-Coopcr, 

MTNHP 



94 



WoDdhnd 

(FINFLE / JUNCOM) LJmhcr pine / 

CDUimon jiJiiJ[^F 



Natural H trltaff C oiKtrvutloii E^nk- 

G5/S4 



iiKrciL-;::^ in impijn ajci: Kj the tail ^^bicit it *i 
cxtcre>ivc aLon^ Ihc Rockj MounUinFnjnlof 
Momana (PTtslcrct b]_ [977t iixJ W>-ommg 
(Slcclcct b]_ L?S3l In -ajutbicaHtcni Wyoming 
|AlcKan*rct b]_ I9S6i ind nonhw^ilcm 
Colorudo IJobuTrQn I^ST] il'i ci^lcnt ]"> again 
rtducnJ i?l ati vc tu it^ rcprQkCnlBl]DnLn 
Klonlana 



EnvlroH^nl- Witbiin tht "^tLidy irca thj'> 
minor t> pc wis sampled a1 5_&!IiO M-oncalcare- 
oiK ^ulHilr^tcs w I th moderate CK [XKLUCS- It 
was no1 cncount-rrcd in rcconnaiJisaiKC fiulbcr 
■^utbilhan the Dcwcy,MT vicinity (\ii^ 
comnwjn alon^ the Rffl-ky Mountain Front 1d 
the norlh) D ncr "iilcs ire occ upicd by 

sprcaJiA and nxi]'itcr ones b> the f^s6Tt£ioiirt^tr 

V^ctBHan- Thr one plot is typical for ihc type 
atiiigc asdcscribcd byPfi^tcrct aJ i\^77) 
-9nihf\fUisJf6'^ffIj d:jmLnBl]ng thccanopj and 

'iiOfXAifr/nit^ IS subordinate s]>«. Lts^ bm wilh 
popul atLon '>tnx tLue j ndic: ati ng fi6^fiioiiiiji{f 
would not DLilcompctr r J^6'^fhj in the lung 
tcnn. 

Th^ uodcr^rowlh !"> dDmioBlcd by ihclr^LLinf 

^hiub ,\tcloikffxh}it?j ifm-unr ^r^JufUf?enis 
ct?iJ\TT\Aifrij. Under appreciable grizin^ prwisurc 
lhe highly palatable bunchgr^is/'Tfjjf'^jjL^d^j- 
fiena 'iprrtrJa wa^: prc^cn! 4*1 nio*illy coreiumctl 
■fl. attcrcd clumps. Ihclx^kof Fesfaca 
TL'Jcj/z^td^ur T miy bcattnbotable togr^rinf 
picsiure as it 1^ common in Ihc general 
vicinity. .-^ j?j L'^^L'^Vm jwr Ti-r is thedomjnani forb 
as ]t ts in most occ urreixfs oflhis association. 

Soife S impled sobstralcF^ wcic c^FcarcoiE 

saiiiiilones and we Blhcred kj "^illy ^antk w]1 h 
appn>^imatcly 20% exposed gravel aixJ i?ck 
Wilh high ^hjub cover the liller cover was 
comparably' hi^ 

Oilier SfiufkE- I'ff^i'iJ^6'xi^j /JAimjxenu 
ctyitMmim^ tsfoonJ a.sf4rwe'>t as lhe Blue 
A-l ountains of Oirgon fCole I9fl2^ and Lo^t 
Rtver and Lemhi Rinses of Fdaho |Sleele el al. 
1?SI| ^heTT ]t i^i kn incidental 1ype mJ 



Etouot CDdE- CEGLJ3D0S07 

EdUlon/ AuChor- 99-] i-[6/ S.V.Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Woodland 

(PINFLE/PSESPll hmhcrpinc/ 

blncbunch whcBtgr4'>s 

Natuni J H crltage C c iKtrvutloii R^nk- 

G4/S4 

EnvlroBiiiciil- FitnfjJJeirJis /fseitden osj^tfena 
j^FLuJ^ ]s found on 1hc driest exposures 
capable of siipfKjrting Irccs sleep soiilhe*il- 
thniugh Houthwe^l-f*. ing slopes. The nntetl 
Hhdy irea elev Hl]on r^nge w as from 5,500 to 
7,61X1 ft bill thjs as'-^oc] a1 ion could occur il 
higher elevatioisi. Thj'>1>pe is i£>u ally found in 
a mosB]c of ^rassl Bixl^hiiibUnd on deeper 
sci]ls w]lh adj*Lenl foresi types being 

f6^ijtyilus , /" j^ J c^ J J T J J ^ ^ J J J I tv Ei r 6fsii f Jim r j^ ft j j 
fyjjijjijjFNT ^nd Fliiifijk' Klin / Jft^jf^Teni J 
CT^jji jjijjFrj T on rac kier ^1 Ics 

Vcgetatloii- Witfcly Kpaced FinrtiJ/6'\7ii^ 
usually domi niles the c anop^ , of1en ] n 
conj unc tian w] th ycrrtr/^47T/j K £?jtd^fr>FT/™ and 
f^i6^tiioiiitji{f md^E^f frr , ] n early neril sUnd^ J. 
'iiOfXAiff?nitn cin have gieater cover Ihan 01 her 
treespcc]e'> bul 1 n the iggrcg lie the>i'>u4l 
expresj>ion js thil of a very open Forest or 
savinni. 

Untfcign^w th cover IS in1 riiTiicilly low and 
with cattle grazing may look especially 
depauperile. I'seAidittoi.^jifiL^n^f sprc^Ja well 
reprc^enled IS d] agnos! ic for 1 he 1ype. iKuaJ ly it 
IS 1 he dominant heiin bul in thesoulhweslem 
extreme /"ffJjjnj ^r?rj^ rr may be a co-dLuninant 



95 



or cvf n d<^nij ii4n1 wilhcBUlc^rizin^ 
picfcrcnl] b]]> Tcn¥Jv\ngP^i.^iAttoejifiirn^ 
iprcaJi^ Co nlnbulion of bicrb'> fium 
com If uniK f ra^Ci] Bixl^ eg. Oxyzflpsji 

O-tlT^uj^t T ^pp inci lirtrrm /^rcTapr^, of1cn 
piDducc a spn. ic"^ nch urKfcrf [xjwih 
Cumb]n«J shrub cover nckkjm ciccMfc 5^ 
w]th ^j rt-jjij jJcryjTjf rcftj _ \. r^cfcvEPtrr^. 
GrtU^rr^z/^ li^rolfrrae.Rfbez LeretffJT and 
SMJ\pfr{tn^{frf?^ys tyrcfxpiifiAis bci ng 1bc mcKit 
comimnly icpicscntcd. 

Sotk- Tbu^lypc ^^as noted only on t: bIc bitous 
'>Lil»ilT^tes^ 1ki1 h '>andhlonc and Limc^tonc^ wilh 
exposed ^urfatc^ of solI, gravel and nK k often 
cxLc^ling 60^ _, fnjmlhc drscn pl]ore> of 
olhcn> Ihi^rc is reason 1o cfLpc^:! Ihi^ type on 
olhcr tbiBn nkircoiK parcnl milcna^. 

Other SLndlH- Tbu-^1>pc ls found bI] along Ihe 
Rocky Moun! B]n Fn^m ind "tattered ringcsof 
central iPHslere! iL_ 1977) as well 4S 
HoutbiwcsttmMonlBna |DcVtLu.c ]9?2J_ This 
1ypc tsnol identLfictl for CO nliguoLUi states to 
1 he south bet ause the l Line oF increasing 
Feilifia hiign tow brI Ihc south c: aiise'> Ihesc 
rr?rjj jy^d'jT Jr T -domi niled M Bncis w itbi 
F s6Ttiiortyegtrena ipicai£^ 1d be termed fnriis 
J^i^xffis ^ F^lttiii iI}2Rii (wcSleeled iL_ 19SL 
]9S_lJ /"rtarrTyj^^T/j T / F-tT^rK ^j (jrt^j J extends to 
1he Medicine Bow R angc oF soulbcastcFn 
Wyoming (ALcTBixJercl iL_ ]ys6l_ 



nxvitLy haveshaJ]owsi>iK andmiich |>Xi^J 
exposed subslratc Ihat of ten appn^at hes sera* 
]n Lat k of Mibi I ity Sampled cltvBl]on range 
W1S5.SD0 to6&[K3f1. ttioiigh its DLiled rin^e 
] nciuHed higher cicvilions Fi^tihJ^ttgtr 
m^rzf^iff /S-v fJTfx^iixni {Arjtt?j orctyfthiiiis ccc uis 
on relatively more mesic o r leKS locty Kiles 
B ixl Ci.^f ctxi ^ J J pi II f6^IJ(x^ii ii/Fi6T tiio f txeg F r^ na 
iprt-tr\£i is ibto pirt of what ]"> often a fairly 
fine-Healed mosaic of fomil/toJ] shrub 
communities. 

Vcgf tBCbn- C inopy struclurc is itsoiliyquile 
D|Kn, Huvinna-like with to1 b] iximbi ned cover 
of rjtT/Jr>rTJ/jf tr FJTi-TJjorr ^r^ Jttx2\i?L'tiis 
Kujtjjfw^jm _ Ihe only 1ree species prescnl, nol 
excced]ng 50*i art] often as little as5^_ I'f^uis 
J^6'\ffij was DD t recoided where *iubslrBleH ire 
crystalline fS livcrtow Co ) but w bs noled in 
reconnai*^ bikc o F c aJc Breo us subs1 riles 
|BcB>cdieadCo J_ 

Shrub cover, 1he two pnncjpiloncsof x^hich 
Bit C€ri-ocxiti?Aii iciifjolfifi ^r^Ar?i.'fj[ii\{f 
Inii6^rial£i , is a1 Ieis1 as VBnablcas ttie tree 
cover but seldom cxce«t> 50 %_ Arle/TifsiiJ 
Jrijlf^h EJKi Chr\Jolhtww2tn f^ifi6^y^tn h^vc 

highcoitiUncy andHcajcecovcTigc- Theherb 
compi>nent i^ |K>or]y repre^cnled ind only 
Fi6Ttiiortyegfrena ipiiukf , r^x^f s{A?rii!?i.'t ^n bixJ 
L^ffxpiiiiA rciiov\^'iiiI hivcgreiterlhan50* 
core>tancy Combi ned bryoptij te and lichen 
cover TBnged as high as40%.bul u^u4ll> 1hey 
are merely tniLcs 



Ekmrnl Codr- CEGLOCK^U J 3 



Edttion/ Author-??-] 1-16/ S-V-Coopcr- 



P,'^^t{!{?iMt^{f mefiz^^^i ^ Cet^fxraifxiis 

h'Jr/xxi ht T Woodl and 

(FSEMEN /CERLEDl Douglas-fcr/ 

c urllcaf mo u n taj n mihog b ny 

Natuntl H trltacc C ftnstE~viitlDn Etask- 

G4^/S'* 

Edv IroKBiciit- ^ j^'jdf^H? Jjdr;^^ jTTd'^r^rtfrr / 
Cf rcflcu ^jjr J IctiiJ^ffrtfj i^restnctcd todr^'. 
often sleep 1>40%i upper slopes and nd^es 
w]thsoulh- to wes1-facing4spccti_ Si1es 



All simpled stanth occEHred on coaPiC- 
tcxlured HoiK den>«l f n^m ^r^ni1]c pBren! 
mitenaK and had as miKh as W^-^ exposed 
^zruvel and lock, deep pcnrolationof 
precipilBl]onsub'tcquenlly Uppibic by Trrcs 
BixJ shrubs is the f Bdor 4w>umed to favor Ihcse 
lifeforms on Ihese ^ites_ 

Other Studies DeVcliccBiKlLesica 11?^ 3> 
have iieicnb^ Pj^i^xUiiga fjr€X2zi^Jii / 
Cen^xctifi?^^ I^ifo^fifi for IhePr^'or 
Mountains bixJ v]c]nily n e^lcixl^ fiom 1 he 
£tiK]y irea into cast-ccnlr^l Idaho fSleclcct 
b].]9SI) andsouthefilemldiho and 
southwestern Wyomjngiatcclcel al l9flJl, 
where il isfoundonivincty of subsides and 



96 



IS clu^: umciil[^J Bsrars^mlh lls "^uthcm U1 Bh 
lYoun^bltxxJ andMBub L?S5l 
EtiDcnt C«lE-CEGL0O[iS97 

Edhhin/ Auttnr- ^9-11-16 / S-V-Coopcr, 
MTNHP 



iPSEMEfJ/FESIDAl Douglas-fir/ kiBbio 

fc^LIC 

Natural H crltafi: C oiKtrvutloii E^nk- 
G4/S4 

Env Irouniciil- f^wn^hl'iii^iA uid^F^r^id^' / 
/"«ft^^ jcftj Jr^jerruf b> i dr>' !ij1c type but wis 
found on aJl isjmx t^ di^pcndi ng on Lck aJ 
pm:ipilBl]on [iBl1CTiis^ m rairwhui^w posLtions 
1 1 !"> found on DLiTlh-fa4. Lcig anpccls whc ins in 
miin moun1 B]ii nia^ihc'> i1 Ui ay^nc i atful wi Ih 
■^tccp, wc*>t- li> Houtbi-fac] ng slopes The 
observed cLcv Bl]on r^ngc w*s 6 W>0 toT.ffiX) 
fl.^ but [ficTT IS no ieafion tt could not be FoluxJ 
beyond botbioftbicHccKtrcmni- It^radcsKj 

sprcaJi^ orAr^^nrifiA rfrcfc-flffrrj^ var_ vcui^^j^r^j- 
or F-trPrw ^j r Jtr^r^^rt jr j-donunated rBngclincIs 
on dncr aspccb> or more dcnhcly forested 
f jdtr^L^Pjrrj^ tr-dominatcd commuoily types of 
rTH>isler eiposLucs- 

VcEetatloii- f j^rJpPirrjn m^rzj^^irr donunite^ 
thecaDi^pyind all '>ize 4:1 f>hes ]nc Lulling 
reprrdiK tLon, whereas /"rjjrrTy^^^Jj J and 
Jw2rpi.^nn ^iopufoHffjr are reduced lo minor 
components (rover < ] ^ J of the c anop> bixJ 
repnxJixeonJy m Lar^ercinopy gBjWi- S1bix1j> 
with ft armer ex posLucs tend ttj be more open 
[<&.) ^^ cover) 1 bin Iho^e of cooler DLUIherly 
slopes ( Bppioachmg W^-^ CBnopy cover). 

,\M6't^fsIaiff{l^ikf^aY^r rtrii^j^^Ej^ ind 
ChtyioI^^t^fUis vricf^r/fortn are piesenl*i 
sc altered ]Dd ividuils ind mBny skeletons of.-^. 
Inii67riiJl£^ may be present m younger startii 
indicating Ihis type pishes 1 hiough bhA 
Jr: Jd^rPj^J^j-domi niled ser^l ^ta^e_ HerbaccoiK 
components are those of Ibe Bdjatenl 
^ra.'^lBnd^ but with rcdi^cd cover fd^irutfr 
f{kj^iiX6^isfs j^ IhedLunmBut gramino]d cxcepi 



were ^ra/in^ pres^iuie is intensive, Iben/'LTj^ 
j^j?rJ/w^ jrj _ fi^tyeii-^titr n f 'iJakf or Ff jprw ^j hfij^fl 
(only ]n the so ulhwcstem extiemef bctomc 
dominaiiL \'iirti^^iiis fnr'ii'r ^ndAnl^mtina 
m\noi?h}fhr are conuixin, iKC asional ly 
abujxJBnt foiin^ Lichen ind hi^'ophyte cover 
Vines w]dely but apparently is re] Blcd lowland 
wgc |or history) being higher in older, nwrc 
dere»eoncs__ 

Soik- ParenI milen al^ ] ncluile l>i>th CTystillinc 
und calc arcoi£> '>ubslrales and generally thcT^iE 
lewi thBn 33 ^f ex pi>sed !iub^lrBlc ini>sl of which 
isHO]]_ The relatively high (.onten! of wo«ly 
debris IS mostly fiom Jiigebnish skc]c1ore> or 
toppied-ovcroU wolf Irecs 

^>ther SLudlL±^ The f^i6^fiiotitt^tr fr7t^rzfi.'ir\ / 
FeiliKa idi^ffit^mi p b. his 4 bioMJ ^eogrBphic 
dts1nbii1]on fn^measloflheCascidc^in 
Washington |W]lliainsindLi]]ybridgc I^S3j 
and Brili^hColumb]B ^McLean l?70|1o 
ni>r1hfteslem Colorado |BoLiJgen^n and 
Engciking l^94j but has ils^ieatesl arcii 
extem ilong Ihe Rocky M ounUin FionI and 
isolalcd ranges of centra] MonUna {Pf ister el 
aJ- [977). 

EtQUUt CDdE- CEGLJ3D09UD 

Editton/ Author- 99-] l-t6/S-V-Cooper, 

MTNHP 



f\6'Ai£io^Mi^{A mi?rtc M^-SJ J / Sc rcc Woodland 
(PSEMEN/ SCREE) Do uglas-fLr/ scree 

Natural H t^rltafe C onRrvutloii Elask- 

G5/S4 

Env Ironmciil- ^ jtj^dfj Jjjd£ u n^iziJfjrr V Scree 
IS B ^^idc'>pread plBnt assocj a1 ion in N^onl Bna 
pieviously rcc4>^ni ^etl by 1 he simple dcs]g- 
nition of Scree" wilhDut dominan! oerstory 
identified. Thisasscciation is dLsl]nguished by 
itsumque^ub'>trBlc unstable ^enerBl]> '>teep 
slopes; poten1]aJly thi^ljpctan be found on 
slopes of any aspec t or angle of lepose 
piDvid]ng Ihey are unhUbIc bul as sampled anJ 
noted It ™.(.un>on those w]th any aspect, bii1 
gie ater than 3III ^ ikiope .\11 sampled 



97 



cnndilk>n^ ind tbic nvusl L'xLciisj^i:'ftan±i ^on 
quajl/Hc) were inGrBnitcCo- buLlhis type wbh 
noted for Ibc Terttiy and Ccntermi al Range> an 
]im]1ciJ lincirpatebic^i>n*iub^LrBlc^of vanoL£> 
onpjn ThesampLcd cLcv Bl]on r^n^^ w as 4 40{J 
1o 5 .4(X) ft_ bill i1 bias been noted over a much 
w]clcrr^ngc, jxjicntiilly 1 1 ]s cocxIeiKivc w Hh 
1 he db>l nbLil]on of P^cudDLsuga 

\ccetatlDii- Due to c;t]sti ng Hcvcic s] te 
conJilions liees are lisuaLLy widely ^ipacccl and 
sLowpjT>wth witbia woLfy form; camb]ncd 
c anjpy co>tr ran^^l from2C3 to 7[)^, 
dominated by Pjxni^xISAiga fj^L'^zf^sii but w]1h 

wc]] rcpiT^cntcd on lower elevation SI teN_ The 
combination of lijsiI able substrates, lov^ 
underaiuwlh produuliv Lty art] w]deLy spaced 
1 re es has resulted in 4 higbi [in>portion of Ihese 
stanJh developing into old-f lowlh^ wilh 
Fs6Tt£ioiirtgtr "2-3^1 indiamelcr 
The undei^ro^^ Ih ]SHiepiuper^te_ in bolh 
divers]ty and cover, in Ihe graminoid and forb 
componcnls w]1h onJy ri^t£ityr^x6'gii6'r2a 
j^rrcrrrij . Eicuchera pan']flora and ^^tr^^'/jVj 
!ras\{Akf having high constancy Shnilsi tabe 
advantage of Iheirnieep mc1]nghabi1 to 
become by far. the iindeigiowth component 
w]th the greatesi coverage larkd higheiit 
diversi ty), .^ 4t giabt d^FJT consislentLy 
dominated thislayer wilh^rA^i^^rt^jm, 
Afncitmrhier tiiiifJof\ti^ arkd SytnphontxirfXiM 
fjr^opffitiis i^ijJhiii to the northwest of arcif 
consislentLy piesent.occis]onally wcil 
represented. 

Soife The iinhUble natuie of Ihcse siibslrat-es is 
IheirdislinguLshmgcharacler. parent matenaJ 
] ncluiles c ak areoLis ind non-< ale areoiis 
senlimem BTy fi wel I is 4. rys1 all i ne milen als. 
The combined exposure of SOI I , gravel and 
mck usually cxceenis 5(3^ and ninsishi^h as 
90^-^ wilhhtter the only o1 her importani 
component Usually e>en the Liller and 
biyophyle components arc nndeiliin by co arae 
fra^menLs 5oil development JsmimmiLv^ith 
no bunzonation evident 

Other Shidin- For MonUna ind Idaho lhLS 
1ypc \^4s fiisL de^rcnbed urkder Ihe bmader 
dcs]gna1]Dn "Sciee iPfistcrcl al L 97 7, Cooper 



c1 4l. I9S7J bul tbssyntaTonincludenl 
CDLinnoiZi venation a.s]1 includenl all Iree nencs 
P^'uttitsiiga men£]esi i^ree has been formally 
dcscnbedonly for southern CoLoradj and 
nonhem New- Mexico |DeVeLu.e el aL I9S6, 
Fitnihughe! aL 1957J largely becauhcolhcr 
regional fo n:s1 c La*isi he a1]ons |e^. Steele et al. 
I9SJ. Youngblcxxj and Maiik I9S5J ha>e been 
biased low and commerc I al forcsls. w bch 
PseiKtilsiiga men£]esii / sciee is clearly nol 
Using a tey bised on vegetation alone IhesE 
sites would key 1o ^Jt^r^A^rTJ/j^ tr ^rrtTJj^jrr / 
Actrf y^f^fhnifn (Steele el al I9SJJ which is* 
very different, highly pmdiKtive a^cioc i ation of 
central ind ni>r1herii Idaho 

Element Code- CEGL0D091 1 

Edhlon/ Author- ?9-lE-l6/ S.V.Cooper, 

MTNHF 



Montaneor Boreal Cold- 
dedduous Forest 



Ffjfxiilif^ bat'^inifcrtr ^j. ftich^x'^^tpQ/Pixi 

ftf L-^/t^Fr h-"!^" Fo rest 

(POFBST/FbAFRA) blackcoltonwood / 

Kentucky blucgrass 

Natunt J H 4:rlt3ce C c nRrvuthm R^nk- 

Env IrDQnicnl- ^^^fXAifuj bQlsQimjenf sifx 
ardrlrrjiT^j^tj / ^^u jj ru Jf jr jr J iscitetl b> Hansen 
e1 4l. |I^5J to be a major Forested npanin 
1ype oF ^^eslem Montana; 1 1 ]'^ unconunon 
w]thin1heslLK]y area bc]nf. founJ on alluvial 
leTT^LCN of maju r sleims and nven>as well as 
bordenn^ ponds ind lakes The 1ype is 
defined by Hanhenet al. is a def anlt c I asi 
w ] t h I n 1 h e I*oi?uh u fi tiii t w i IJl' ra i sfi 
rm^^ ^jj^tf nenes ind thu*i>er>' Lnclus]>eof 
both envi n^nmen! al and>epeUlK>n vanation. 
This type incoipor^tes SI tes "^Libj ected to 
penodu. dislnrbinces such as flccdin^ and 
cnjsLO nAleposLtion. 1 ntens]ve grBi]ng further 
ad[ls 1o ^Lte heterogeneily and 4. an alsi> lesul t ]n 
Hohd "^wanih or]nliodLiced. rhi/i>maloLis 
^;ra.'3ies levenluilly 1o weed-chjked lerracesj. 
Upslope these SI tcN iTiual ly abnipllj give way 



9S 



1 n^inrJakf ciominated "ibuub "^ttppc 
\ccftBtlDii- This type his a simple 1wo layer 
sLructLirc of mcKtLy open I'ofXifitn ha^s£^t^fj6'nA 
isfxJMi hty^ {ft^ o^ cr b swiid of i nlioduzcd 
TfiizomatoiE ^rasiQ> f^tyajxral6^?ir'i End 
F h^6^f f JT pr^fi^isi.^ 3nd Ihc rhi£orTnli>Lb>- 
Bppc Bnn^: f r^tfj jtL'^Vrrj?^ r T O tbicr corrurpLinLy 
ccc Liiri ng ^ra.'CiCS inc] ude flr^j^rrrrj r^^JFjrr^ 

trrrrrtdjrtCK £u_ Styini^fj^o giji{m\6^A, Simiacf^nj 
ilettiAl^^Ttn^nj^^xpifi mt?x2ltmtr and TiAt^fxuciffjr 
r^cTPr^j^^ arc (:on£b>1ciitly protcnt bixJ capable 
Df occuuing ivcLI rcprciCiilcd. 



CcnlcnruB] KJiqimcnl . gcncraJ ly tbicHcs]1e> 
have deep BixJ relatively iut:k- Fire H<ji]sw]1h an 
upper honzon hivmg b sliung blocky "t Iriiclurc 
BixJ very low chroma (dirt. humu*i-nt:h ■^]L>1_ 

XzptBtloT^ ftypttiAi'i 06'tmfi<xf{^ci \ii the 
dLuninaiil tree anJforiiSi a ntarly com i nuniK 
CBiK^py a^ well bs having seedl i ng BixlsApling 
sizcclishe"^ prtN^m in Hoin^ standi Comfer 
]nvBsion" Bppeiri to be very slow on 1hc^c 
SI tcs; seed]] ng^ bixJ very sc Bl1cred SBpttngs of 

DLi1cd_ Hxiugh 1 he pietkjminanl seed-ratn woutd 
have hccnVzDraI*ii^d(xlJiigiJfjrx^zii^ff- 



Solfc- There w Bs i (:oiKp]cixii£i Lat. k of genetic 
bLirironilK>n tn tbie^e itiuv ium-^fcrivetl "flU] K of 
]oimh>silty toam to co Bise "^icid thil bisd b 
DLi1 abte gravel component b1 greater nii^plhs. 
There is notable "^palial heterogeneity due lo 
Bcl]ve Bnd past flifviil piocesses. 

Other Sludbcv- The f^r/pitiiis h^Afs^fmrJ^t^f s^jx. 
^m htxi {Atpa /I'oa fxr£^l67ri\i 7cc1]c d]HC 1 1 m bx 
has been dKcn bed for only MonUna, il bias 
beendoLLimcmed byHinsenet al 11995] lobe 
B major npajun l> pe of low- to mid-eloatioiTi 
IhrjughLiut 1 he fmjIhiLis and nxnjnlajnsof 
N^onlBna 

Element Code- CEGLMTNH31 



] n MklinoniD /". Tr^rtttiordi.^ 6orn2n^img the 
IreecBnnpy tbs ishocimon is identified when 
1he under^io'A'lh compnnent is djmi nBled by 
one oF the following; tall ^jra.'^cs £j ljfjtjj j 
CYT^FKJftrj . Eh mitj giuiii j/j, or Efyxnifi 
fr^jcVntwjjJjjf 1syn_ .^r^j/j^ rrtrt i L'^jjjrtrrjji 1 ind 
thelaJl foit> eomponeni is poody repiesentetl- 
On the Refuge Ihe fiiyl two Lisled gra.'Cies were 
ilmofit bIwb^ the ■:k>mjiiants O ther frequenlly 
ibEHidBiit grumin[]]i±i^ \ncl%¥.\c F^x^f prti\i.^sij^ 
C{At6'\htx^tdii^ C.p^tnaliA SiijxiA ot\ni6^ii^iii , 
End I'oa fxral6^is\s Foifr^consislently pn.'iicnt 
] ncLuLlc, include \t-!riiii.^a t^f^i6.jofuf?j[^ 

TiliJ^fi J^/JH ^XCLf^it^lkff^ |Or J"__/tTJL'fli-'^T J, 

wndf^t? \ex2 If J J^ g f oLitii _ 



Edltbn/ AuilMr- 99-L1-16; S.Vroopcf. 

MTNHP 



Forrsi 

(FOPTRE/BROCARl trcmbUng aspen/ 

moon! am bromc 



Natui^E Herttace C DRsrrvBtloii Elask- 

Env jronmciit- Thi^ ]^ 4 bio adLy d]stn but«i 
Bspen-djminBlcd 1ypc da. iinK^med fiom the 
nx>untain rBogeso^ Ihe Gieal B aMn mJ 
western U1 Bh, J t hay not pre> iou*i]> been 
de^icnbed fiom a location as far m^rth is Red 
Roct Likes NWR_ On1he Refuge frt^^ti ^n t 
iretJ\t^toidsf / &ii?fR\is ciifjfuflitf ccLuniomhe 
lower slopes Bnd toeslope jwsi tio ns of the 



Element Code- CEGL000573 

EdlHon/ Author- ?9-l 1-C6 / S.V Cooper, 
MTNHP 



^anadexj^f^ Fores! 

iPOPTRE/CALCAM) trembling ispcn / 

bLucjoinl rcrdgrBss 

NaturuL H erltafe ConRrvatba Elank- 

GJ/S2 

EnvironQicnl- Tbie ^i^^c/^j^ J 0£tj\tji<?rdsj / 
Cirlam^rjirosUf c{rr}{rdet7frs asioc i ation is 
descnbed as in incidental l^pev^itbn Monlana 
(Hanson c1 il. ]^95) andnothsted at b11 Tor the 
1 ntermoun! B]n Region fW ueggler l9flS) 
iherefore the occ urren^es on 1he Retl Rock 



99 



LitcsNWL RcJ u^t t: Bn bt coreiidcrcd 
HomcwbiBl Luiiquc, pencil ng finlhcr I nvtnlory 
Hiraronct b]_ fl995j piobibly nc>cr SBmplcd 
Foprtiiii Iremrti^xf^li^i M Bixt* in 1 he vicinity of 
1hc Refuge inci the bugbicr c le^ itions of 
Houtbiwc^tem M on1 Bna bet ausc the M b net on 
1hr Refuge occur bI coreiHfcrBbl y b^her 
c]e> atLons Ihan c i ted for Ibc f*oi?Aiftn 

by Hansen et aJ 0*^95). FoprtiAis 06't^rti^xf^li.^i / 
C^j^tTPJTU^ ^Y>jPr J ^u^zul'^jjj J occ uri on fl at^ and 
dr[in:s^icii7i alonf tht Cenlcnnniii Mlis. 
CHcarpmcnt an ^m bI] s1 Bnii> |< L icrejoras 
fnng«i on herb- or shnjb-cJjminatcd wetlantfc 
and genera] ly i^ an^uc i atcul wi th ^ca^ioriBll^ 
'>aluj4li^J "^j k 

^ ccetutioii- The otKervrd hlBnd filn^luie was 
rilheropcn vcigangon wo{xlJBn[11< W^ 
c BnLipy coer^ and having /"_ ir^rtttiofA^i a*i the 
Holc dorru Hint of the upper c ani>py seedling 
Bnd SBpLings of f rtvtr t^rj^ rt'^rptNJ^rjj aiid.-^J?rfj 
f^firoc^ArjMf arc w]clcLy sc Bl1cr«L Thehe standi 
BIT putativcly nerfl] to /"r^ £u dirjf dVjHtrjj^zjj / 

f C^fiat^^fjinyiJli c ^fii^fxiefisf t biH Lompld ion of 
1hc sere would require hundn^tk of years 
dislurbincc-rrcc. 

The undergrowth dnmi riBnt^ Ca^^fj^agrostrs 
canaii6^ri\s u£lib]]> oc4.un>Ln4'^^^anJ w]th h]gh 
cover ^iliKS C>-K3^J Other grim I no I cis 
] ncluilr £1} fr7ttj giuiftiis^ ErtyiJ\Aii niitiUu^ and 
Ehwmxi Jnjci/n ^ ^rr/jj J ind whriedistud>ancc 
h*i occurred r/ J Jd^^FJT ^^trriTai^ nndl'oa 
y^^trr^'jaf J T_ Fortei usinLlyronslitulc a minor 
pre-^ncc, ] ndi vidiiBl !ipec]e> general Ly not 
CM. ceding 5% cover. comnxmLy present in 
Refuge M Bni> ire S^rrr^L'^T J jl^^ 'iWiial^A G^t^fiifAifn 
tiihtirxijwur, GuilAifnInJit?nit^ OsiJ\ot^uztr 
o<.<.iii6^r\affj and G^/JFJ JTi^t'j L?jt/z^yyjjJFJ ShrulKi 
ire a mi nor CO mponeni w I th ^^jtr ttYjr^jN\ 

being mo^t lypicaJ 



m !x.'^ cir ^" Fo rc*i t 

(POPTRE/CALRUB) ircnibLng as^cn/ 

pj nc grais 

Natural H crltace ComervutlDii Rank- 

G5''/S4 

Env Ironoicnl- N^ urggler C 1 9 SSj ^y^icdftxf^tIhiI 
fremitloiJet / CQliTfRQ^roflrs litixesc^m to be an 
especiiLly common 1> [ic in the Centennial 
M liTi- of Idaho Bnd Gros Ventre Ringeof 
western Wyomjng soiUhweilem Montana 
reflect*! th]^ pattern bh well ^Mth lhi*i commun- 
]ty type 1be previLen! /"L^jtd^ftrj JreFJTJj^LTjJ^T- 
dommatcd vege1a1]on lype_ ^^jj^j^du 
IreiJ\Aiftyiii6fi / CtiJ^j^rrtrj^ j oilf t j ifhesi em ccc u- 
pies gentle to intKJei^te ^Lope^ and benches 
] neaped ive of aspect or ^lope ci>nfiguration It 
j'^gener^LLy a*ihc<.iat«J w ith Lindscipe pos]1 ioik 
1hil could be inferred Id be col Loc ling ]XJRitH>ns 
|e.g. inlheleeof a knoLL or ndger wherein the 
pfil aeoh Bn maten aJ would have been 
depos]1ed or cunenHy where sddw dcjxj^ition 
would be greater Though ex tere>i ve "^ 1 1 
mea*iure]nentH weie dd1 Uken thi^ lype doci 
iieem to occur w i1h deeper and lelativelj njck 
fieeprofiLa (Bt Lea^l for upper honzunb|h. 

\ ccetathm- The ^iiccew>ionaL ^tatuHof thi^ 
B}>siKialioni'>s1]lldebiled1Mueggler ]9SS^; it 
]^i£iualLy dominBled]n bH s]7e ^iT^ta by P. 
treTT\iifrAii6"i |inkmngexi'^lenceof acLimajc 
pUnt iShociilionW]1honly theoccaMonB] 
pie^encc of conifer regeneration 1o "iugge^t 1hat 
Home Htan* miy be slowly ^uccewjonaJ k> 
com Fer dominance On Ihe Refuge theconifec 
'>peciesinos1 likely to leplaceT It6ftmfi^}f£iei 
Bre, ]n order of probabilily, Abr^i iass^K L-^djAJ . 

Veryotlen P liemuLo]dL^fornv> b ncBiLy 
CDFit]nuDiE upper CAnDp>. 



Element L ode- CEGLCMK3574 

EdHkin/ A.uliHr- ?9-n-l6 / S.V.Coopcr. 

MTNHP 



Shrubs MKh 3^ S-vrnphxrii^Arj^yi ^fihifi S 
o^fi^jJpjVj/j, BtFid^m rejx6^^ , Rt?^a v\^o^x{hff and 
Arcloil^fxhvio'i ifViAssrir occuriiC^Wci^, not *> 
B disc rele Uyer. Thelype ischiracten/edby 
the do mmanceVcodDmmance of C£^kffj[agrt?Jiri 
mhen^^i Bnd/or CL^d^f J gi^iTT . which oflcn 



100 



on. Lu I n *iix h dcji*iHy anlo t^irilt li ^w ajil-]j Izl" 
anpccL O tbicr ^ramiDLi]Lfe consb>1cntly pr&cnt, 
but wi1h]o\^ cover, \nc[%wAc Eh?j[iis gitmcttj, 
BrofJTiis caniiaiiis, Ei vfmu It ^Kiiycanhn, Siijx^f 
c<.<:i£i67r\afn and where disturb bikc has fivoicd 
thrir ] nlruj>Lun r^tL'^ /j^tf ^i-Tjjd J ^nd f*hftrttij\ 
praJenie Total Fbrb cover 1*1 ^cncrBl]> ]cs*i 
thin 10^ and 1 nLiuilL's Gd^n'jprj j/jfj 

mr^^ifoffiffJT^ Fragana veica (ozF \^r^\mafiij). 
H]^h covcra^Ki of .A mr^^eJofritm^Ttrra^^fmt^ 

^rrrr^'rart inJu.atLvcuf pAhlortonttnuing 
^r^7jng iLfiUdlly intcrhivct' 



\ cc^tutlDii- The ovcn>lor>' tsgcncraJly a4:k>*irtl 
CBWjpy i>l I'ofXifius Iretmfityliici Ihc undcnto ry 
miy be dLiiiiLnBlcd |bul cover nol exceed] ng 
]0-20%| by B younger a^e-cla.-^ of j°_ 
Iretmfi^xfiiei bul moreoflcn ascBMcnn^ (cover 

< ] % J of /" Tf JJC^J^f JJ^^J FJT^rtlTf TJJ, .^/m"^T 

Iairoc£^rpa or^ktu tvEjtVjJiL'^?rrtrr is found 
Th^ "c]]mjT 'species BresLow to cM BbLish 
and cquiLly ^low to eicn clormnancc- T^v^o ffi)- 
] 00 yeir old /"_ Ircfsrii^ordei-^ozru nited M Bnds 
hxJ no morelhan 3 % oF the ifoienBmenl c I lftiix 
1 rce s[icc]C'> incl they had all es1 ablb>hed w ilhin 
1he list 30>ean> Wild un^juJ b1c bnjwsin^on 
lhe \hli'^ ^vascvidenl but lhe other t^v^o species 
fai^ no better in Iheir ^n^wlh ntes_ 



Element Code- CEGE_O00575 

Edicion/ Author- ?9-]L-L6/S-V-Ci>oper, 

MTNHP 



lFOPTPE/FOAFRAnrcmbLjn| asfcn/ 
Kentucky bliJcgrBM> 

Natuntl H tEitage C c nRrv^Jthtn R^nk- 

jjnjjfjrjjj b> i common gn^i ng-]DdiKed 
communily 1y[ic found Blong 1he fnolhi Lis to the 
CenlcnnjB] Rin^e, often bhsoc] a1cd w]1h 
slumps BixJ pocketHoflocsssi>Lls_ Tbslype 
^jencrilly CK.C upies benches or gentle north- or 
c BHt-f^cin^ slopes. The c I asiifu. ation imnuil 
ofMontanB's npanan/welUnd vegelalion 
fHinstnet aJ I ?95> recogm7.c^ b portion of 
Ihislvpe to occupy welUnd siles ncluH]iig 
requi'>i te soil bixJ ti^diologic al pi~opcTlics|. 
However, 1be ^^jy^/^du Jr^rtttiordx.^ /F<x{? 
y^dtrrfrtfJT s]1e^ we notetl were c BDd]dite 
wellajxJs, B1 mos1 Ihey could be consLnJerrd 
ines]c siles in wilernt eiving pc«ii1]Dns but 
lacking evenfaculutivehydn^phyle^ Adjicen! 
comjiiunilies4ielhepLilBl]>ely les^ grazing 
] mpacled Popiihfi Irx^mifoni6's Frtri^ffclmm 
J6ftui^6'r2 iz 1. and /" Tf JK^jf jjj^^j FJTi-TaiJf jjj / 
C^jftf fjtj^£ rtyji\i f ubeii 6^is or on drier 1r4nsLlH>n^ 



L]ke 1he com I eis, 1 he shnibs. S-v mp^nyrii ^j^tj 

Iheavily browsed) ^r^ Rtyja v\^o<x{hff . kzc ^n 
ins]gnit]CBntromponenl of 1hc >egelBl]on 
complex This lype f enerill^ ^uppods b lL£>ti 
^w and of f ^tn ^jj L'dPiTJTj J in whu. ti £lj L7FJTJ/J 

EhfJTiii giznictn hivebeen reducetl k> minor 
components fiom whit are aaumcd I0 be their 
pie-dislurbincc leveK rW^^FJT >?d dVerrjF we] I 
represented wis assumed toderejic an even 
funher nic^radcd rondi tion Fort> 4."o mp^MJ tion 
miy bediveise and even include indidtorsDf 
reUlively mcsic conditioiTi [ThaiUUJtiJ\ 

ijf J L'djjjjj^rr kVJt^jfjjjrjFJd^FJT Bnd Vaientix^a iiiorca] 
but cover^e's of mes]c inclicito r, even 
combmetl, dj no! eiceed 5^^ whereas weedy 
species C T{fra\{At-ttiJ\ ojff^mtiie^ Tnjt^iw^ 
repcjis} may be ibundinl 

Soik- The only eicBvated p]1 sbDwcd deep 
(>S0cmJsi]1 loam with no mtkorgrivel ind a 
mollic epipedjn b1 leasl 20 cm thick Other 
explontoiy eicBvationsof thi^c.t found the 
upper 10-20 cm to he mollic with virtually no 
rack or gravel. In extremely imp^clnl ircasf 
prtrJensi^ mB> be reduced to poitdy repre^enlcd 
and 7" t?fjiiiii{d^ is dominanl. 

OriherShidIn- Mueggler's monograph |l9flS) 
of Bspen in lhe ] ntermoum B]n region descn bes 
FtyprtiAii It6'tmdtyA£i^s /Foa fxral6fitrs bi^ i minor 
type a grajjug-iixlu^ed deflec tion of 1he 
FtypitiAis Ir6'tmfUxf£ics 2.\\\^ncc -wi^h JJr^j^r^ Jnjj?j 



101 



fium U Lah_ No adi, DJilhw ard 1o thcEnd^^r- 
Tcton N_F_ of Wj-iiming bdlI TBighcc of [dahi> 
In ColnradD il L^ ^ik^uI^IhI In bt b d isturlranci:- 
]ndLJCcd version of /"L^jtd^^j/j Jffjjijjfw Jf f / 
C£^ftifjragrt?Jiri Mfh6's^efii InMonUriB Hanhcn 
ct il. 1 1 995) recognize I'ofXifius IremAiftAii^i / 
fwj ^jr^j^d^ruj BH B mBjorljpc. pirt of 1hs 
npanBii complex though djI aL^^ay'> Bjuiis- 
diclionBl ^^ctLand Hansen c1 aL\ t:ont:cpt of 
lhts lypc IS piubably biuBdcr Ihan those of lhc 
] ntemwuntai n region aslbcy Lite adiFferent 
^Lulc of biovra«J-o ul shrubs c_p^ Otnaru 
j^rTHivu . /"njPNJ J w^^ jjTJ^pr^ , .^^PNJ T TFr^ ^j^r^j anJ 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLMTHP37 

EdBliin/AuChiir-?9-5C-t6/S-V-Coopcr, 

MTNHF 



f^{?fMf^Ai^ Ift■'x^2it!^^iJir'^/Ttr^i Fr^r/ft Fores! 
fPOFTRE /TBLIFort>slTr:mblin£! Bsrcn/ 
TBilForb ^ ^ 



Natunt J H trltafi: L' onstrvudon Elask- 

EnvlrDDmcnl- Though ^^jjdr/rjj Jr^r^jJrtrJd'j / 
Till Fort> j^ 1h[: mo^t commonly cncounlcred /"_ 
fn^jTijj^MJfj-dominatciil planl assoc i ation in Ihr 
] nterim^om B]n Refjonil is rcUlively uixom- 
monombc RRLNWLR- GcncrBlly it kcur 
on concave to undu] Bl]nf. UndfoTm confi^or- 
BUons Soils arc re] Bl]vcLy drcp, lotk-frce bixJ 
developed fiom anumberof parent n^itenal 
1ypes iiK LiKJing ]] mcslone santtlone, quBil/He 
BixJ indr^ile. Envi n^mncnl b] p Brimcleis bia>e 
not been defi niliveLy LdentLfienl thilv^uld 
mike this lype di ffrrenliible fn^m Poi?Aifiti 

frfjTijjfwJ^T V C{AlaTT\£^^n?Jiii rttbesc^fj} bixJ it 
docs grade to these lypes in b Lindscipe 
conlexL WespK-ulBle thBl this type o<:c uri on 
slightly moi? mesic land^ape positions 
Trldlivelolheolher typn. Stantfconlhe 
RRLNWLRircsmiLK<]acJindhive 
received sipjiiflL an! pas1 disturbance by 
]ivcs1ixk_ Refuge CT Bmples of Ihis type Bppcir 
to be near-climaT aspen communilies wilh linle 



judication 1h4t(:oniren>^^iLli^ver BchK^ve 
dLiniinajxe 

\ ccctudon- The umFying di*il]DL tions forlhc 

1ype IS Ihe presence and iKuaJ pn^mjnence of 
one or nv^rc n^embi^rs of what M ucggLer 1 L ?S Sj 
his termed Ihe 1bI] forb gi~oiip" Jick of ■ 
dislinclshiiib layer andiixoisiequcntial 
amountsof comfcri 111 the trceslnlum. The 
1aJI fortjgiuld IS comprised ol Vtrii.^ntmti 
ty<. i J JfT r \aff s, Oj fmx rhf ziJ occni6ff i iafij , fiac Mi a 

ttflrnjoiiti^ Mer?x^i'ii{A pa*uai^£^I^^ De^phlxjnffjr 
tHxi£i^r\a^6'. \s\er 6^iji6^t^{fimrr and H^r^j^/ewm 
kfii^iiit^ (iiyn. /f. J f?ht?nd'\iiAim). On Refuge 
itartii 0. ^xcndL'XJ^^fii.^, A ^r^^fntmmi^ bixJ ff_ 
f{fii{fiuij\ Bre nxist ] I IzcLy li> be ] Byer domi ninls 
in undisturbed condilions whei^a^i A. 
ifflrajofrti and /J__/?on^dfjrtj moit lypicilly 
exploil dLslorbincecondilions 

The treeslratumcharaclcnslicaJly is composed 
of onJy r IreiJ\Aiftyiii6fi \hii.^i iiAiiortrfjx^f and 
Trfflu errjt^^rtfTrtFNV miv be present asstBl1eitd 
seedlings andsiplm^; \hiei is very he a> ily 
bio^vsed by moose and has little chance of 
ese aping sap]] ng s1 b1ui. 

Shrub Brepiesem. u^uMy SytTiphoncarfT^M 
w^fi^jJwVj/j, Ei^rheni r^x6^is ind R\hL'j spp _ bul 
1 heir combined trover does not generally 
exceed 5^ Lo^^ forbs wi th bgh cons1 ajK^' in 
Ihtslypc include ijd^njprjjj^rr nili{ff{^it?nrrr G- 
VTffDf^jjr^rrcrjTi, Oimryrljfz^ii}r^6ffitri |orD_ 
di^jtrj/^jcnrr^j^, 77r^j Jr^ Jn/jw ot-crd^xjltrii^ Cor r_ 
J6^iii^6'r2} B¥^ fty\e}2l\ff{f ghmAiloiti The 
common gram]DLijd componem ^^bchcBn 
hive app[et]able cover though obscured by ihe 
1all fo rtHi, ] ncluLles £j L^FJTJ/j ttrn jj^j^rri, Ei"^ FJTJ/j 
^iuiKiis^ BmA Elymtti Irach\£i^ttiiii 

ElemenC Cijde- CEGL00061 S 

Edition/ Auttur- 99-] l-t6/S.V.Coopcr, 

MTNHP 



Forrsi 

(POFTRE / THAFEW) trembling ispcn / 

Fcndlcr's mcBdowruc 



102 



Envjronnical- f^oi?Aififi \refjrii^oni6's / 
T/iijfli \nw\ )^r£il6'n. i\ 4 t^ommon communily 
ly|K found Blon^lht loolhiLls tolhcCcntE^rmiil 
Range i>ricn bssoci Bled w]1h '>LLiiiip'> bikJ 
po<:kcts of loQ>saL Hoj]^ This typt gcncrilly 
raxLipLKi bcDL hcs or pcntlL" ni>r1h- or C4s1- 
f^cin^ slop ITS. Thi'f type wssiK^I foundibovc 
7,400 ft elevation Adjiccnl communi tiKi of 
dncr C^ cn> Lronmcnti err? f^f?prtiii'i ^j 6'tmfitylii^i 

m^rz^^sff / Caf{ffj[ag j oi^ t j ifh6'Si tvu or 
ATlemi^ii 1 ndem bI b "^p vahfy4na//~^jJdKU 
FL^Jti/E^td^ur J, J t grBtfcs 1o Rjpulu*! trcmLJoLdH>/ 
Cotf^ij TiTTfflu ormos! of1cn Pop LiliK 
lrcmuk>idQ> / 'iij\ot hrz^f m.iii6^iiaffj oV 
iTHii-^tcrcnviionmcnti Irccogmzcd by 5^ 
coverage of Vrt?ta i ufuj^i'ih , /i6't ^jff ct/jh 

VccttHdon- Thr ovcrstor^' is pcncrBllj b 
(.](h»iaJ ciiKjpy of r^j-_^/yjjf ^j d^jHd^y^tTL'ta the 
unclL^r^tory may be HiDmi nilcd (but (.over not 
exceeding LO-SO"^] by a younger Bge-classof 
^ JrtTTiJjfLTjJd'TbLit moieoften ascBUcring 
(cover < 10) oV Fi^i£it?\ju^tr m^rzj^^ir\ . Ahii^i 
f^firociArjta or^ktvj tv?j£Vj3iL'^?rrtrr is found 
TbcNe c]]miT *ipKieN BresLow tocMBbLish 
BixJ equiLly ^low to eieil domjnance. \ ^ 
frfjjijjfw Jd'T-dominated "itind ] n cxces> of iOO 
yean old had no more than 10^-^ of 1he 
Bforenamed climaT tiee species andlhey biBd 
b]I eslBblLshed v^ithm tbie LaM40yean> Wild 
ungulate browsing on the Ahf£"i f{fi\oi{Arjtti -wb}^ 
cvidcnl but 1hL" olher two species f Bred no 
betler in Iheir growth r^tcs. 

£ hnibs, ] ncLuHing tbie highJ> con^tanl 
Sympfhrn^-iArfKyi or^t^fritiis^ Ros^f ^kVjr^jjV, ind 
Bcfhi-^ni yci?6'ni are poorlj represented. 
Sii6^?ii6't Jrtf t"fTrttfJf?rjjf Tin be well repre^enlcd 
]n'fmaJl patches anJ miy lepiTsent fragmenls 
of 1he r^xpii^Aii trcfrttttof^i /Sh^?h^t ^fia 
ttNatrJd^ur J c_t_ but nines nol appear to be 
Bs-wjc] a1cd w]1 h b pBrtLCLJajenvironji>en1aJ 
feilure. Tbie ninmi nBut anpeclof Ihisc 1 in 
good CO nd 1 1 LOU is thilof alow- fort> layer wilh 
highly vanibkc covcT^ge of intiDdiized 



itiizomatoiK [^ocf ^f^ff^'ishij , fhieufn p^^fft^Jis^ 
BixJ auMyc gz3^icty (Eromtn cffl£^^ifi, E 
vttiji^fns^ B. ^.ann^fiiis^ Eiv pjtj/j ^i^ufi jj j ind 
Ajiroi?^ r^fff ctin\fuifn) The coverage of 
] nliod Lie ed gravies may be abundanlou 
gr^zj ng-imp Bcled SI Les [n its mrxla] foTmIhe 
dugnostic forbs rfttf/R P^YfjJi y^^rJJd^n |Drr_ 
t?<.i'i£i6^r\a^6') , OiiJ\ot^uz^f cfflii.^'iij (orO_ 
cft^jfTJ/^-Ttrr^J, aixJ G6'nAmAitn t?JiVJjjjjr™ddFJT 
hivc at leant lO^-^ cover, singly or in Ihe 
Bggrega1e_ Olhernpeciei noted tobc 
conniiilentLy present and b.'QtOC i ated wi tbi e^ en 
more mesic condi tioisi thin IbD^e lisLed alxjve 
] ncluile LsgiisJu litnjliuiinffjr^ Gi.^ramttit\ 
n^ha riij^}f u r . G^iiJ\ f jt^ j c rojx^i} ii t tij\ , ^ jt j f ck in a 
iJeiiakf, and jWiTffFrjJcr HLT^rcrrj^ Taraxti^Aun 
y£fitTFKjfd^. D6fic iff {fiiif^f ^jrFrncrPj^ and Mvoioirs 
afi^aisis ire inc rciher fbrlHi w itbi gnzing. 

Soib- TheouLy eicavated pal showed deep 
|> ] 00 c m| ni It loim w]1h no rack or gra veL and 
a molhc efupedon at lcx'>t ^cnilhick. Olher 
exploratory eKca> ations of thjnc_t_ found 1he 
upperpmfiLelobemollic ind tolally lacking 
rack or gravel. Tbie Liller ] ayer is conliuiiOLAk 
aixJ very 1hin. fi is the humus I ayer as is 
lypical for piodL^I]>e Pop uliK 1 i~emu]oLdes- 
dominatcd "itarttii- Ineilremclj overgrazed 
are*! /"_ fxnA^67ri\i may be retluzcd Kj pccdy 
repre^euled ind r_ ^j^^^Trtcry^ irkJ.^ftrJta^ 
fm^fifoffiffjT aieninininint 

Other SLiidlLS- For the[nlerniouut4Lnrcgioii 
MueggLerlL?SSl hay defined as arealLy 
extensive ^I'ajxifittJ IreiJ\Aiftyiii6"i /TffiAff^ Imfn 

J6^fii^6'r2 c_t 1hat ranges fiom rK^rthwcslem 
Wyomi ng lo c aslem Id abLi f as /ijd^j ^Frjjj^rr 
VT JLU rr Tjr^rrrrjji cJ_ M iKggler and C ampbelL 
I9S2J andUlah |H ueggler and C ampbell 
l9S6j and Houtheislem Wyoming (A]exark5er 
ct ak I9S6| f^^fxifiiis lr£.'ij\Aift?Iiiei /Ttfulfclnim 

J6ffui^6fn IS ippirenlly >cry abundant m westem 
Colondo {Johnson 19S7). 

Coomicnls- M ueggler 1 1 9SS>iemaTk^1hat1hts 
c_l_ appean> lo slowly succeed lo 1he .-^firfi-j 
f^irociArjtti / jFJM>rtr jj ^ /Fj^errTj j biabiHt lype. 
population structure of "^tandh in our study arcA 
SL'em Lo'^ubs1anti4le1hisobsen'a1]Dn 

Element L ode- CEGLO0O619 



103 



Edhliiii/AuClwr-?9-]L-L6/S-V-Coopcr, 

MTNHP 



Shrublands 



Shrubknd 

fAPTCAN/PASSMIl^jlvcr^agcbrLi-:h/ 

ftc^lcrn whcilgra*!^ 



Env IrDDmcnt- (Thr following dncnption 
characlcn/cs the type an found i n northcislcni 
MT; tt ]'i B minor type insoulhwcMcmMT, 
noted only in pansin^l The ARTCAN / 
Fai<.<xpvtttit\ jJFjrJ^rr a^fhO-LitLon I't found on 
]cvcL to gently !ilop]ng. riBrrow ttjcxiitmely 
bioBd4lluv]B] fflcchJfi] BJ n) lcrra(:e'> ind 
coalKrcin^ al I Li> laL fins bixI upslopc may occur 
jns^^aLoi aiid ^nUc dcprcs*iK>re> These ^Lt«i 
are moister Ihan contigixiuh upslope vegc1a1]on 
BixJ in some raiies ma> (constitute ^^etiind sties 
(none of our sampled slBDiis wcir, Ihis tan only 
be determined by hydrolo^icil momlormgor 
cxamj nilion of Hoil c hir^c: tenstiLsr ^ubstrBtcs 
Bre ^encrilly Jix»dera1c]> fine 1o fine Ick tured . 
bein^ den vcd fnjinHeiilimenls dejKiSLted in low 
energy enviiunments lor m the l ase of basins 
BixJ sw bIcs fnjm slopewash^, have a high water 
holding cap^cLlyind arc well- li> ]ni[ieTf«: tly 
dnimcd .^sspceoLiled in other "iti^ies 
iJor^enson 197?, Hinscnct aJ 1^91) perched 
or high w a1cr tables may mflueixe 1hc iool]ng 
7onc for a portion of the ycir A variety of 
communilj 1ypes are found to occur idjaeent 
on upUnd sHes ith>sI commonJj SJijxcf 60fj[al£^ - 

^jjtL'^ i l7fjtj^J^ . where as Jixuster pos]1 ions are 
frequcnily tinminated by \hc S\ynf?htynt-trtjxoi 

Bssoc I atioiTi orSiff ctyh^tiis va^f m\cztialifi- 
dominatetl types when Ihe se11 1 ng is in highly 
ciosive to badlands toju^raphy. 

VccetBlkm- .^^ /^rrr tjVj ^ ^jpf^j Ka>inf at le«t 
5^ (.aiH>pv cover ]s dngos1]c o f this1>pc. but 
] ts cover ifiuilly exceeds 3(3%_ None of 1hc 
sites supported the robust -I- ."S Fl tall specimens 



cj1cd by Jiinstn ind HoHman (I^SS] or 
Muegglerind Stev^arl (I^SO] forfBvoi^h]cs]1c 
corkdilions A^f^rtrfr^j_JrTjrJfT wisconstslenlly 
presem in low auiounts (grealer than 10% 
where citlle^raHiing inlensive^ and other shrub 
species were only sporadic G ramiruids 
dominate Ihe herbaceous I ayer w]1h fj^^i^i nanr 
iij\lUiff WiuaJ ly dom]uan1 but lu our samples 

^rtmiii were ill ckjminanl or co-dormnan1 mil 
Ic asl one s1 BixJ fthey bIho hidgrcBlcr thin75* 
constancy 1_ This van abil]1y]s speculated to 
reflec t dif Fcnn^ ^razi ng pre^urc assHnds 
wcir not clKJsen for pris1 1 ne condH]on (stirKl 
w]th fi. j^^L'^cT^ri LlLiininajit hid \.jm\lhi and^ 
VTnJrr^j^ confined to canopies of ^_h:^fkjJ_ The 
ftjrb component IS insignific an1 none had e>en 
W^t cortstBixy. 

D^her Studies- ThLS or closely irlited. types 
hivc been dncumcnletl mother Breasof MT; 
AouthcBstem |lianhen andHolfman I9SS|, 
Houthwcstem |Hiie^cr and Slew Bit 19 SOI ^nd 
central iJor^^nhcn l?"??j Themjst 
comprehensive simphng 143 stands) ot this 
1ype is Ihat performed b> theA-1ontani Ripariin 
Association (Hinsenet bI. 1995] fori he entire 
state Thtslype h as been descnbed onl y for 
N^ on1 Bna^ Monh bjxI Soulh D Bko1 b ftdansenet 
Bl- 19E41 

Etment Code- CEGLO01O72 

Edition/ Author- 99-1 2-03 / S.V-Cooper, 
MTNHP 

Fe^iiua jrftfJrr^frt-Tn Shnibland 

(ARTTST/FESIDAl basm bjg sBgcbrush / 

Idiho fc?icuc 

NbCueb] H crltafe CfritscrvBllon Elask- 

G4-^/SP 

EnvlroQinciil- This type is fburuf on moist 
lower slopes or short slopes b1 6 .W>0-7,2C>n ft ]n 
theTeixJoy Moun1 Bjns and repe Bis ]n 1 he 
CenlcnmaJ SindhilLs as the I ate seril stage of 
stab]li7_cddunesani±i_ .\djaccnt less mes]c 
sites are dom]natei:l by ArJi-TTt a J7ii lM^f£f\UfI{r 
vujtfu^^r^^ Biid /"f f Jd^t^ jcftj^r^jerruf Moisler 
sites with finer lextnred soils supjxjil .^^ fd^nrjiij 



104 



dominated by /"L^uti^ji J d^FJT j?jTj^/jjj Bncl/or 

VcEttarton- \r1eTT\Ijra ^^ Jfnr^ffT f tjt_ 
Ir2ii6^rtaI{A li the dDm]nan1 *ihrub with 10-20* 
CBDjpy cover Cftn j^jJ/fj^jh^fjj t "^pp bikJ 
TeInAdvTT\i£^ <.a*ieic^ns art prcscn! in man> 
^tarttii- GraK> rarmpy cover li SCJ-TO"^ 
/■"«ft^j^ jJl'^/j^jctjjjj dorru nit^i, bixJ 
r i^tiiortTegfrena ipurali^ is bL»o common- 
Forb cover b> general lyca 10% "fr itbi moiti bIc 
divers] ty_ \'i\ra^tiiAii tr£iiiffget2S^I'6^isl6^nt?y2 
tmdAi'i bdJ 5t^r^^T^j ^ ^JFNJ J Bre often piesrnt 
Mms»e^ Bnd Lu.bicn*i niBy be common. 

Soik- Si>ibi arc deep Bnclsii1> or loamy m 
lexlunz tbie Centennial S BnclhiLis composed of 
BeoLiinsBndtei Loamy saixl^ corwti tiHe anlhci 
uniqu? substrate Fn^m 10 to 20% of the 
'>Liiface IS bai~e^ and surf ace grivel tsinLially 
piesen! _ wi tbi tbieeiception orihcCenlenniAl 
S andhilLs lepie^entatLves of the type 

OtherSLndlH-MLiegflerandSlewirt |i91tO> 
donol mention 1 hit .^F ^d^rrr TJ^ Jndenlalaiip 
^nii6^rtaI{A mB> ckc ur w]1h F-t^T^rr^ ^j r^Arftr^^tair j 
]n Montana Similar vegetation is repoTted for 
Idaho Oiegon and Washi ngton |BoLiJgerun 
BDdEnsell:]nEL?94) 

Element Codr- CEGL001014 

Ed tcion/ Author- ?9-]L-L6/S-V-Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Fi^^copsmm CTnjWrrj Shrub Lind 

rARTTST/PASSMIl basin big sagebrush / 

vhcMcrn whcilEiass 



Natuntl H crltafe C Dnservutlon Etask- 

Enviroaniciil- This type is common on gently 
slope 1o neiHy level slreim lerraees il 5.90Q- 
7,21X1 f t in 1hc Tendoy MounlBiiK; ver^' limited 
BTrv{QfArl£tr\\mrIntietrfQlifsiix /jt JftzJ^/u / 
f u ji c^vrrjJTT JwirJlprr werenoledin 
TTConnaisBnceof the Centennial Valley ind 
olher locBl]ORS wilhin Ihe m^rtheni portion of 



D] I Ion Resi>UK.e A rci_ Sj1es Bre often 
Bssocj a1cd w] th di>' siream channels and thu*i 
hive alo\^ ^rad]ent The larahape locBl]on 
JixJ vegetition m]gh1 be cons]derei:l nparian 
but lhe t>pcLSDLil 4 J uiisdiclionBl wetUnd 
US] ng soils irkJ hydiological cnteria Parent 
material js BlliJV]ijm derived from limestone 
BixJquirt^ite \dja4.enl npslope s]1es support 
safebnzih steppe dominiled by AMet^fJia 
Inii6^rtiJkf sii?. 07 A^il£^Ia or vase'i^fii^f and 
F^liK-ij id{Ao^isii , in the Yellowstone 
Ecosystem this t>pcw4s noted lo^jradclo 
AM6't^f'iIaiafiij^ f^trji^ypvrttij\ uwrJ^rrof 
ini>ister reg]incs_ Coi>l slopes are di>m]nated hy 
r s6Ttiioiirtji^ m^rz^eiff or f^\frii'i Jl6':uff t fo res1s, 
BixJ very lucky slopes support Cd' J ^■cxj^r7Jrrj 
fe^fifiyilAii wxxxJl Bixis 

^ ccetBthm- At I6't^fsla Jndenlaia ssp. 
Ir2ii6ffrtaI{A is the dorrunanl shrub wilh canopy 
cover rBnf]ng from 10 to 5(3^ _ 
ChtysoI^iat^fUis ^r^jrrjcrtjjjf and C_ viicrdijionis 
on.uj,rooriy repiesen1ed,]n miny sHrKls- The 
siibshrub \m.^j\Ii\ti Jnj^f^h^ may be common 
]nsomesUnds_ Griss cover ]s high to nearly 
conlinurun in mosi sUncis_ f j^m^/^v^jm j^nrfftjj 
Bixl/or EivfJTiis ftrncFT^^j^ru ( i n our co ncep1 of 
1he type) are thedi^minBnt bixJ d i agnos1]c gris^ 
species F^t^ ^jj l'^^dtjtj j irkJ £<h jwru ^ jh? j d^u 
miy beabundan1_ rit^t£ityr^x6'gii6'na ii?i££^Ia 
oizef Email blnegrasi's sul h as F^tL*^ j^ jj^zJl'^ F 
^tncTJ^JfrL■^ or ^_ t j/TJi ij7 b]t often present 
Forb cover is u£uaJ ly 10% or less, bixJ diveisily 
]slDft 1D moderate Aihrf^e^t^Tf^eJofnffjr, 
.Aprr^^rtFr^jjT^j jwr^'j ^j/^fti ffcr, Enji6frofr <.ot7i^ysi7Xis^ 

species wilh high constancy Moshes and 
liLliens Bre often p]-csenl bikJ ma> be common. 

Soik- Soils are ver^' drep with asilty to Loamy 
1cxture_ Some may beslighlly saline. The 
amount of bare soil surface vanes belween 
10^ and 70%, but there is no surface gravel. 

Other SLiidiLN- M negglcr and Slewirt |I9S0> 
dcscnbe ass™, lations dorm nitcd bySi^rcoh^fiiti 
vcn^fCifitrUis and ei ther/*^j Ti l7/^i rr/JH j^rrr^lEJj or 
£<h"^rrrrj i jj]f J d^u for western Mon1 ana These 
lypcshave a sinul ar herb acei>its Uyer to 
AM6'mfsl£^ r^JtvE^trr^j Tjy^ rn J^'jaftrr^j / 
Fcrmv^^ rrrjji uwrJ^rr bu1 the tiominint shrub is 



105 



fn" JtrrPj^J^j V Tj^ji ^jy^i a/jH jjwr j/ej r c 1_ i-i reported 
forCoLoritti andNcvadi, bixJ an \rl6'imi\ti 

type b> reported ForColorBLti. Idaho and 
Oitgon (Oouigciun bixI Engcl king L91^4l_ 



depcjxJj n^ on the s1 B^ of ^LJLTt»>ion Foit>^ 
hivc LO-30^.^ trover and nx»d?rBlc tohiph 
divers] ty_ Opitn^^fJnA^ihi. ljii?Imfi £^t gejil^ti^, 

L'^^'CKJjFKJjfm niB> bcconunQH- Mo^tr^ and 
lichi^ns Bn: Blsitnt 



CoainitiiLs- Mos1 sj1c'> Ihat bit JThT^ic enough 
to "iLipport A tti.^j[iif{f Ir2ii6^UaI{A *s>p_ Uid^'^ItiJa 
w]ll probably ibto support b robiisl gran.^ "iiich 
Mii L^ymitJ 6in^t6fm. HcBvy ^pnngindeady 
^Limmcr graj_i ng of Ihc^ ttiHoml and ^itc^ 
would f Bv^or the shorter. rhL/omatou*i 
rtm^xpvtttit\ f jwr rftrr over Ibc mo]rn>biKt, 
biijx h-fornung E cifrer€}is Wc hypothe>ize 
thit hci^'y gi^/ing m the early pirt of 1bc 
centLU^' irmovcd nxi^t £ cffn^r^n fium the^e 
SLtei- W]th I Lght grazi ng ]1 isLoixeivBblelhat 
£ C7*ier^n c^ould eventually regBin dLuiiLnajKC 
This typcmighl bcsl becon*i]dcred Bd]'^lLmBx 
of 1bc .-^ rPfTJTJfrL'^ J« Jd^EPtrr^j jf/j fn'Jt^rr^Jrt / 
I<h~^rrrrj ^TJ]^ drrr plBiit bhsoc] a1 ion bul anf^ 
exc Losujes estib I I'^hcd before Ihe rattle 
I ndus1 ry w Bs ini tiated (.uoLd pose an answer. 

Element Lodr- CEGLOOlOl 7 

Edhlon/ Amhor- 99-] L-Lfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Shrubland 



(ARTTRJ / STICOM) basjn big 
needle- and- ihwz BtT 



sagebrush/ 



Natui^l H erttafe C onnrrvBtlDii E^nk- 

GAQ/S4 

Env Ironnieiil- A rr^r^ j irn fridsriiirlu (jifx 
Jj d J^n r^^ J^f / ^jVjl'^ ^Y^FJT^j Jl7 iseixJemic 1o 
stah]] ized sand dunes m theCenlcnnial Valley 
B1 6_&M-6,7Ki f t Adjicenl bio wouLs support 
Siifx^i LOfnaJi^ / f^iortit^A ti.^iifijff?rij as a nerB] 
cDmmcQiLty lypc. 

\ ecetBthm- At I6'tnfsla \ndex2It1ia up 
Inii6^rtaI{A is the i:kim]nan1 shrub with lO-JO^ 
c BDDpy (.o>er_ C^n T^j^^KJ^rp^NJ t spp Brepre^ent 
]n niBny siBixis Graaitanopj cover is l a -K3- 
TOTt W31 h ^jjtfd ^UFJT^^JL■^ £«ft« j^ jjL'dft^jtTJjjj . or 
Efyfniii ^afr£.6foitiUii shanng donumnce. 



Soife Soils are deep BixIsBndy Gravel bixI 
njck are ab^enL 40-60^ of the soil "surface is 
bire. 

Other SI lidk.'v- VegelBl]ondoniin4lcdby 
^j Jd'jFjp jjj^ P^tl'/l-^] JL'dPj^ ssp- Fj jVJt^rr^j Jl^^ andSVr/M 
ctyiJ\{Alti I'f reported for Idaho W Bshinglon ind 
OregDn^Ooujgeion andEngeltmg ]994-i_ This 
type occurs b1 low eleva! ions m Wishinglon 
and common forbs are verydiffereni than those 
of the^^o^1Bna1>pe (Dauh«iniirc L97U| 



Co nunc Ills- This type mighl be con^iderrd 4 

Si-N bJ siBgc oF Artemisia tndentata s.sp_ 
tndem B1 B /Feslix a idahoensis or in edapbc 
phase of Ihis type Eiowever. it appeals to be 
Htibic over lon^ 1] me penodh and has different 
BoiL forb and bryi>phyle components than 
typical Artemisia tndentata ssp.lndeuUti/ 
FestLKB idihoensis. 

The relatio nship belwcen 1 his type and the 
closely reliled 5Jp^ tvtJFJL'dPtr phase ^y ^rPiiJTJjra 
Irip^fflrkf / Fi^iIiK£^ ni^fliit^ijii is unclear Both 
air found in ippirenllysinulaj habitats. Fire 
and/or ^raz]ug may play a role inmajutiining 
these diffe rent as.socja1]ons]n1heCenlenniBl 
Sandhills lam^inpe. 

Element Code- CEGLOOIOIO 

EdBtan/ Aulhor- 99-1 [-Ifi/S-V- Cooper, 
MTWHP 



Leyiffii^ ^'^r^jvdtY Shnibland 

lARTTSV /LEYCINf mountam big 
sagebrush/ basin wiklr^c 

NbIiieb] Hcrlface Ci^nnrrvaflDii Elank- 

Envlronaiciil- Gentle I0 moderate slopes ind 
terraces w] th w arjn aspect deep soils ind 



106 



LT^icr^^s. SlBnct>4K:curBl6.900-7,2Ki ftor 
highrr]n the RrdRock R]^crdrajnap.c_ 
S I iphtLy dncr silcs supjxj r1 ^M^'itwjia ^M{l^r\£^^{? 
sjfx vase'i ^jfkj / Ftn^iu a lii^fliocmii , w hilc 
ccc Icr !iilQ> sup pon f^s6^fiioiiifji{f JHdirzrffrr or 
frFNJfyfd^jTfr J forces Adj Bccnt locky *ilDpQ> 
support Cf J cocijrprtj ^eAjt?iiAis woodi arufa 

\ccttBthni- \MetnfJia indi-^kfia vase'i^ftfiA is 
1 he ckjminanl !ihrub WLlh20-J0ft canopy cover 

Chxyiolhat^fUiS ^p-p iicotlcn picscn! bul not 
comjiHjn- GraEi cover b> 70-90% [>ominanl 
^ra.'^L^ ire £^ FJTJJT ^T^Ei'^w/j ^nd Feiiiii^f 
f{kj^iiX6^isf'i ,\^n?p}roii <.£^?riiiiffjr, A 
^s'lJiachMit^ ind Erofr^itJ c^in^ujlifi may bie 
corrunon msomesUrkfe- F<}a prai^isli oi.cur^ 
I n "^Uncls Ihat have been heavily gra7^d E^rf^i 
hivc LO-30^^ trover, bill di^criily]^onJ> \ovr to 
miKJerate Aihrff^^ mrf^eJoiiitiJ\^ Crtsiw^if?p , 

ajT presen! ]n iTuny *iUncls_ Mewses may be 
CDFTUiTDn in some slinds. 

Soik- Soibi arc deep wi1h aLoamyors]1ty in 
texture and ire oflen den v eJ from Bllijv]ijni 
Some'>iteN miy be slightly ^iline Biregn^LuxJ 
ajxJ surface ^r^vel arc uncommon 

Other Studies- Tbu'^1>[ic bias bee n described 
fbrldiho (BouF^ron bixI Engel king 1994) 

Commcnb- This type mighl also be 
Lon^idcretl ames]c phase of Aitemisn 
tndL^nl B1 B ssp > aseyanayFcslix a idahoensis At 
this time Ihesixcc^iionB] rclalionshipsof 
F^IiKiJ lii^fiio^ijii ^¥)£i L^yfntn ift2Cf6Tn arc 
not clcir Eieavy^pnng ore Biiy summer 
^razi ng probably lesul ti in i decrease oF E 
LT^EjTTtT/j, while h^ht summer ^;raz]ng may 
fivor 1 his spec leN Although 1his tyj>c]'^DLiw 
confinetl to very mKir-^Ltes, it may no! biBvc 
been so leslncled pnor lo intn>ducl]onoF 
hvestock- 

Element Code- CEGLOD1027 

Edhlon/ Author- 99-5 M6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



F\6fAi£iofryef'n6'f t£^ ^f?rc'aftr Shrub Li nd 
lARTTSV/PSESPIl monntajn bjg 
sagebrush /blue bunch whcalgrBss 

Natui^l Heritage ConRrvutloii E^nk- 

Env Ironoicnl- This type is common on sleep 
slopes or occ asion Bl]y ridges or tcrrices at 
5,0{Ki-6 fXK) f1 on the east slopes of the Pioneer 
Mountains BixJ theB]n.k MounlB]u arei; it was 
noted in rcconnaissBixe ]n 1he Tenckjy Ringc 
on soul h-fBcing slopes. Common issociited 
pirenl mBlcnals ai~c b asaJ t. quartz.i te or nu ^ed 
senlimem BTy AdjacenlshaJlo^^er rocky so] Is 
are lJli minated by Cerrcmwr^rjj ^^ dj^nJdJdJ 
ATlcmisiB tnden1a1assp Indcutm and 
Pascopyium snulhii dominate idjaccnt 
teiTices 

VccetBtbn- At ii't^fjia Tn^fetji^fTa ssp_ vcrjfivjFFJ 
IS IhedominanI shrub wilh ]0-K3^ canopy 
cover. ScAllcied Chn t^jJ/ej^j?j^ej/j ^raifi^xiiis 
pUnt. are usually prcsenL The subshrubs, 
AM6't^fsIaJngni{f and Cjj Jr^^rrt^rL'^ j^jj L'JpJrFUd' are 
conunon in mos1 s1 ajxls Grass c ajxipy cover ]s 
genci^lly 40-70^ f'senAtroFjltien^ sprfalij ii 
the dominan! spec les, SJjVjct ntJTi^jffT, B^ttt\6'totta 
gr^iiii ind /"r^^j j^ j/^zJl'^ are o1her common 
species- Forb canopy cover is lO-30'\^,ind 
diversity is low to moderBle. Oprtnlfa 

ct?TT\pt?jrItn are common spec ies_ Mosses art] 
lichens bit often common. 

Soik- Soils hB^'ei loBmy ors^ruly cUy lextuie 
The surface may be as muzh as ^"^t biiesoil, 
but lock andgrBvel account for up to 70% 
cover 

OthcrSLiidk±^Muegg]crandSlci^4rt |l91tO> 
descnbc this 1ype for western Mon1 ana 
Sim]]Brcommuni1]eshave been leporled for 
most of 1he Northern R™. ky M ountains and 
1 nlermountain s1 Blcs iBourgeion aixl Bngel king 
]9941_ MuegglerandStewBJl fl9S0jd]sciLss 
bow Ihe lypes desc n bed from difFeiem areas 



107 



difTcr 

CoDiniciits- Mos1 of tbic cuum r> noutbiof 
Hone PrB]ricCicck m bv be 1oi> hiph t(j*iup|Kjrt 
cxtcre>LvcMBntt>of lhi!i type 

Ekmrnt Code- CEGL001030 



vcf.c1 BUon d<jnii ihIkI by ,\t I^ttnfSAU tf f^l^iikfltf 
Nt^i ^j^rrr?rj^ erruj inci Ovfjtjjj ftfrtcvr^^jftu in 
central MonUna Thbi type^on veiy MiriLLaF 
anaLogiK li reported for Wyoming and 
Colorado B^Ar?efj[iif{f Inii6^iitr\£^ VBr_ 
w\omrfrg^rjii /ELyinL^i liiK-eoLitiK var. 
oibfL^fiis IBoui^ron ind Engelking ]y?4J_ 



EdHlon/Au(lwr-^-][-Lfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTWtlP 



ArT i?^?E rf^d itfiicfflaia s."^!? w\^.fmm^€n^is / 

Ei ivMjf_s Jj^jji i^^uTit ^" Shrub Lind 

f ARTT^SW / ELYLANf WyomLng bj| 

saiTc hru^K / 1 h irk-^nikc vthcaH^rB-^^ 



Natural H trltafi: C oiKervutloii K^nk- 



CoBuncnts- ElymiZi ^^jpr^ ^vj^frfuT ind 
f ti ji ^j-_^wYrjji jjwrJ^rr biB>eovcHappLnghabilBl 
irquii^nient^ tbuoLighi>ul mix bi of M ontani l^iee 
CouplBixJ 1961 and Joigenhcn l^T^y In much 
ofMonUnalhcl^volyfie^ \Met^fjiaiff{li^iIatii 
T J jt_ ^v}o^^f^2^enIfs/ ^^ j f ^ t? j j-_h"n ifn Jtsriif rli t rnrf 

Hyfrnij kfiic6^?ialifi may be ind]^ti n^jLo^hiblc 
extep! fonbcdLfFeirnldommint rbu/omBlony 
whcatgn^ihe^ 



EnvlroDiiiciil- Thi^ typcoecuni ongcnlly 
'>LopLn^ alluviaLfiiK bix1 terraces. Ours]iif|c 
example w as from h,ft5(3 f1 but Artemisia 
IridenlBlB^p wyom]ngereib»/Elymu*i 
] BJiceo] Bli£i nu^ht be expected lo occur bI 
5,0O[i-7_S}0 fl_ Ar1emL*iiB arbuhculBH>p 
lon^ilobB andElymiK I aiK~eo] Bluh or LeymiZi 
c]nL'reLb>anJPoajijnc]foliadDmLnBle adjacent 
^tartii on heavier HO]]^w]1h poorer djiina^e. 
Adjicen! Jilope^ wilh deeper noil^ may support 
^tarkii iikjmmatcd by ^fTi-rjiJjrtr lM£itrtr\£^I{f 
vajxrvu^iij and /"f f Jddt^ jcftj Jr^jerruf or 

\ ccetBthm- At I6'tnfsla Jndenltiia up 
v\^'\ omrffg^r jii b> tbic domi nint shrub 
CftjyT^j^Jrj^jH^Ej/j ^pp may also be preseni- Tlic 
^Liteihrub. \MetnfJiaJffgid{A, isiiiually 
conunon. Gra.'&canopj covens mcxler^telo 
high and dLunmBled by Ihe midgras^ spec]e'> 

cttjfchr And f Jcv-Aifrxi^f may ib»o be pre^en1_ 
Eorb cover IS low_ ind diverni ty is low lo 
moderate Fh^ox inxodii and ^sirag^fius 
L'^Tjjf£i-Tjj are common spec le^ Mo^-^es and 
lichens are utuzomnun 

Soik- Soibi arefine-te^Tored. M i^rh orihe soil 

surface is bare, and ^urf bcc gjive] i^ 
uruzomjiun 

Other Sladles- Jor^enscn (19791 describes 



Element Code- CEGE_001(H4 

Edition/ Author- 99-] l-h6/2.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

(BETGLA/CARUTRfGog bjrch;bcakcd 

sedge 



Natural H critace C onKr^atlon Etask- 

G4''/S4 

EnrlroBiiiciil- This conununily 1>pe occurs 
Bdj^cem to beaver poixi^ Ukes ormaishes, 
Bjxl on seep'>. ^w Bles ind wet illuv] b] terraces 
adjaceni to lowgrMJienl meinden n^ '>ti~e Bnvi 
(liinsenet b]_ I99_'5l This communi ty occun> 
on fairly we1^]1e'> wilhpeat Mrcumulaticm, 
indicating 4 predono nincc of Bnaemb ic 
pF>ccshes [ncontras! some willowslBixti. 
\\kc Si^hiiJ}Aff\\f\\fxiiiluffUf '>tajxJs, commonly 
occur on 'toi]'> 1hat Bre beller Berated, and hence 
are not iziually found ]ii peatlandh SoiK Bre 
comjix>nlyflood[x] until irndsommer mJ air 
salujited yeBr n^ujxJ on wetter !i]1e^ RedoT 
concentrations are preseni in some mi ner^l 
so]]s, redox depleliorei (gleyed soil] occur 
niely. OrgBULC matter «x. umuJ a1 ions miy 
form Floating, qiiBking mats as th]'> l>pc 
eiK njic tie^ on1o open wa1er_ Dncrcilremcs 
hivc shallow organic honiorfi> overlya ng 



103 



dttpcr miJwrB] solI (HBJihL'ncI aL l^^Sj- 

aminorlypt at mid elevations in wfMem 
A-1onlHiia iHinscnct al 199^). ind tbiJT>uglH>Li1 
Idaho iMoHclcyct bI. l99I.Bur:ik Bnd 
Mcfficlcy l?95) 
Adjacent Communities- ^V^Vja dnit^t^oii^htinti^ 

imydjmiriBlc adJAcrm wctttrs]1a> Dncr 
wc1] and communities support /"l^ct jtmJd^urf, 
Fr/prttiii iM^^ifK'^ifpar End f^tyJetJ^ffi^^Jn^Ifioi^f 
A1 biif tier do iliore> adjBccnt well Bnd Forcsti 
Brc ol^n dorru nitcd by f^\t-ctr 67r^\^fr7tmfm or 
\hi6'j kfifocarjMf. Adjacent uplBnd^ sup jxjH 
hib] tat l> pes fmm llw Atrf f iaslxxctrri?^^, 
F s6^tiiotittji{f jwd^E^rffN, and TiJidu pty^^feros^ 
Hcnc^ ni^pendinf on clevatiun bibcI aspect 
iHiiKnetBl. [9S5] 

VccetBtlon- Ec^ttiiA gf^ndii^oia conlribiilc^ an 
a>cra^^of 35^ 1o thcovcn>tor>'_ M]Djr 
amjunte of I'oisjxiitiajt ifirct^ju arkd ijfri 
species ire lEuaJ ly present The c anupy cover 
piovidcdby llic vanoLis^hiubsisjipaniClo 
moderate bul the biciin bccol£> I Bycr cover b 
high, .^s^iociiled '>hnil»i inclixJe RfriAfnmis 
{fiiiffoff^f and vajioL£> wiiio^^'*i_ Undcn>toi>' 
species compos]! ion i^ifcpenden! on wa1cr 
levels. The wetles! !i]1e^ ^uppon CtjrtT: 
ifin{Ttial£^ and C {A^j^itiisiri Gciitn 
jHtMYT^^n J/jj^rr arkd 1 he ^r^miixi]dcs r^tL^^ 
praJenil^ Knd A^ t oilf s i\off?TJfj£.'nA areoflen 
piesen! in dner micio-!i]1e^ ind/i>r d]^tLijtKd 
sites OiBreienel al 1995) 



associations aJso exi'>t in noTthv^cst N^onl Bna 
ipreeniee JiJ^J- 

Siicce^^n - The Be^rti^A j^fc^ndsshicf / C^^^r 
dd^^TL YrVj^J^j commum ty type lepiesenls b fajrty 
stable type Gi^^ing my dn^iTise the vi^rof 
bo^ biirhind increase the piesenceof Kpecics 
toier^nl of grazing inc I udmg .^r^j jFj t 
sJoloiifJenAr f'oij fxr£^l6ffitri^ I^oa ^iiilni, And 

T^fasafeiBeiit - 5 Blorated so i Is are highly 
sas^cptible lo soil Lompsclion andstreimbink 
sLoughmg w hen iKed by livestock ind heivy 
m*L bnery. Overuse mB> result inrctluzed 
vigDr or evenlual ei]mination of shrubs fiom 
the site Burning of thi^lype can temjwrinli" 
inciease producli>ity of Care\ species. 
However. CBie^houJd be taken when burning 
aJonf streambanLs bee ause of the excellent 
emsion piolec^on pmvidcd by B^Uil^f 
giufiiiidtyja / Caret! silnmkfitr h2.bi^B^ type 
(Minsenet b]_ 19^51 

Wildlife Values- Bi^af^ ^ia^dult?ia is a 
valuable biuwsc spec les For elt IK uf eld I97J)_ 
Commum tics dDminBled by E^ttia j^kfii^faioi^f 
miy ruDLlioo1ostab]]]zechBnnel bBnks 
{frequently cieati ng oveitiBng]ng banks] ind 
pio>ide shade cn^atin^ quality fishhBbital. 

Elemtnt Code- CEGL0D1079 

Edtthin/ Author- 93-09-0^/L. Williams 



SImlbr Communllies- The E^ttia ghmdu^oitr 
/ Care'j^ ifiMCifitrJ^A hBbitit type is equiv Blent 1o 
E^rdiA ^kfii^hifos^f / C^frcx ^ytTrnrr^j f Hansen el 
aJ_ [995] whjch hid been pieMously de^cnbed 
in an unpublished ^liKJy b> Pierce fl9S6l_ 
C^ J d^^ J/ J^HiT/J^ftr was erroneously ret enetl tOL^u 
C£^t6'^ ^Y^TP^L'^^umeBrlierUxoK^mic bixI 
ccDlo^icil studies (Gnffiths 19S9) Pierce 
( 1 91t6^ descnbed b similar community wilhin 
undecstory J:jjninBlcdby DeschBmp^ia 
cc^pilosi- OthcrcommuniHe^ wi1h uE^ttia 
giufidid t?ja o\'C¥ii\ory and Carxn. ftiJity^iAtpa 
understory ccc uj I n northern EdihtJ and 
northwest M on1 ana |JBnbov^ky-Joncs 1997, 
ChBddeetBl- 1995, bikI Greenlee 19991- 



s^f^tii^ Shrubland 

CCERLED/ AGRSFf;ciirl-lcaf moumain 

mihoginy / blue bunch whcilgrass 

Natuni J H crltace L i^nservutfain Etask- 

Env IrDQnicnl- N^ounlai 11 mahogany 
WGcdUndsoflendjminale on steep, mcky- 
gruvelly slopes. it.uaJ ly w i th ^^ ann, southeisl- 
1hiuughwc^t-f*Lin^; aspect it 5,-HX3-7 900 ft 
thiougbLiul thestuily 4ica Ihese conJilions Arc 
usually founJ on upper and shoulder po!ii1ions 
of nd^e and hill slopes. AdjBcent cool slopes 



109 



J^6'\fflj foresti- VJjBccnt wirmjilopc^ wilh 
dtcficr so]]:^Li:^ih lock bit clmiiinatcd by Ihc 

r J dt r^A^ d y;* £ J Jtr: j^ J j^t^ ft r I N ?^ J o r w H ho u E 

W Bny ^1 Bnd^ grade ] nlQ barrtn luck outcrupiiDr 
1 al Lis "f loprs. 

VccTtBthm- Stan±i arc dorru n^tcd by 
C€ti<xcxiri?Aii f^fo^ufi wUhcinopy cover of 
]0-60% WLlhi mcinof 30*_ Arl^msf^f 

y^siiiirJfoMfi arc ufltn common yrwarj^^-^Yri 
icofXAiff?nit^ cccuri inaboLiI hal f of Lbic sUncIs 
w]th a mean cover of 6 ff biH ib>prcHcixc 
CBnnot be convincingly linked to pBilicular 
hib I tat uondi tLO ITS or "^tand hisloiy _ The 
SLitfthrub Arl£.'iJ\Ijiapigrda. \ii present in irejst 
stantii- GraK> cover Ls spiRE- 
r I6T tiio f tyeg ^retia if?i^ ^ j ft^ ^fii^! n z^^ r r 
fnij}^^^^^!^! 41? lhe herbs ^v ith Ihe highesl 
constancy 1he presence of cither Bscommonj"^ 
diigmv^tLC tor Ihe lypc_ F^x^f Tt^d^jjJtr undSlf^ 
coiJM^Iti arc present m rrnny sUncls. Forb cover 
IE low but dLvcn>]1> i^ often mrxJerile to bgh. 
No "^pccics utc urrcd in even half of Ihe 
sampled "^tind*!- \chlii^u fmii€ft?iiw^. Opimirtr 

lhc only species wi1h constancy higher Ihan 
25^-^ MoshC"^ are present m imv^t "^tinds and 
licheiFi Bre ccc u'^LoniLly founJ 

Sotk- Tei^lures Bre sandy to SBndy Imm An 
Bvera^je of ^;re a1er tbiBii ft5 ^-^ of Ihe noil surf 4cc 
i"^ bire or covcrctl wi tbiiDct or grBvel .^s 
MueggLerind Stewarl f 1 9 SO] suhpecled this 
1ypc IS nol confined to caLc arcony sub^lr^te^ 
but is of1en foLuxJ on these substrBles bee ause 
1hcy wcitbier to the appropnBle rocky-^ravcl]> 
SLibsli^te, 1 his lypc was bL»o found on gr^nilics, 
extnisive >olc anu:?i andquirtEite 

Other Studies M neggler and Slcwirt |I91K)> 
dcscnbe this 1ypc for western Monlana, 
however their "^ampLLn^ w as limiled lo 
CBlcareouh pirenl mBlenais. SimiLar vegetation 
h*i been described for Ediho (SchLatterer L972, 
Lewis 1975, Scheldt inilTiHdBle 1970) 
Vegetation with the sime ^mi n Bnts his been 
reported for Colorado Utah Nebula ind 



Wyoming (Eoiir^enjnindEn^elting 19^4) 

Coouiiciits- Standi 'ifr lih Jifiif^^rtn siOi?AiftyntiJ\ 
hive sonieUmL's been hc^ ic^iled is i ^^p Brate 
lypc (Bouigeion bixJ Engelking I994l_ 
however, we conJd find noconsislent habUBlor 
flonstic difFeirnces belwcen 1hrse 1wo pnlative 
types I n our slixJ> Brei. Bnd inLlircc t grBdienl 
uuly&LS did ni>t separale Ihem. Thei~e i*^ u 
tcfiikfKy for J j<.^xpiiforiifJt to be present only 
non-c ale areoiis silcs. 

The presence of I Bige quinli lies of j>elleb> and 
stron^lv hedged C. ie£irJoi\tn inJu.ates Ihil this 
vcgelBlionlype is ver^' imporl ant for tfcer, 
pirticulBrly «i winler nn^e. 

Element L ode- CEGLO0O967 

EdHlon/ Author- 99-] E-E6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



cfxrnai£^ Shrub I and 

(CHRVIS/STICOMI green rBbbitbnish/ 

need Ic- and- thrr Bd 



Natunt J H crltage C c nservutloii E^nk- 

EnvlrDBmcnl- The Chi\s<?AifM\mfs 
v\scid\ptxrt(j /SUp{rc£ffRQl{rc t has been found 
only on 1he Cenlenniil Sandhilk as 4 putative 
serB] s1 Bge 1o 1hc .-^ ^ ^^rtrir^ UiJexj^tiJawyp 

communily lypcs- Chfy loih^fr^mis 
yr'iii£i\J^OHfi/Slipzrt-t?TT\{Alti BppBrenlly 
represents a reUlively early stage in the 
colonization of sandy '^ubslnlL's thBl have 
blownoul (ItJSI their ongi nil vege1 BUon cover 
]eB>in^ a i^^^ snbsli^tel 1 1 can iiccur in any 
position I n thi-i dune "iyslem but rmv^t often was 
noted I n dner ex piv^ures of npslope posilions 
bcL auhe Ihcse bit 1 he locilions most of1en 
^ubj cc t Id dislurbaruze. 

^ ccetatioii- Toul vegetative cover on ihe^e 
sites is^enerilly ]ow,no1CTcecding 30^ ^Mth 
ChxyioI^iiJtnfUis viicfAjff?ntJ dLiminant biilI 
olher shrubs, Ti.^rti£i}mrtr ninracenj. 



110 



l6f9mfJ^ot{f, and /'Jrj^^WrL'^ /ej^jPj^J^ dominate Ihc 
forb ] aycr_ but none arc even well rcprKicntctl, 
1hc t^ombincd forin cover bcmglc^^ thin I5^_ 

Soik The sijb'>tratc IS f I nt-teTluicd sand "A'j th 
mure tbiBn90ff ck praicd ind only 4 trBCEof 
litter There is no cvidcixe of soil 
devclopmrm wilh 1he CM.ep1]on of a tT*cc of 
orfinic matter dBTlening tbic surface 

Other Studies- Tficie is nn ccmifi Hr^ble 
cijnununHv 1>pc Lislcd fb r the westL^n Unilcd 
States HixJ only one type |inUlBh| wherein 
ChrrsolhajTif^i'i vt jl f^fi/hyrtn ]s Ihe d] agnos1](. 
species f C/jn jWEtfjJirtrrT \^s6l£i\JfoMfi/ Lcvimis 
s{ff\misbsp Jtr/j^ddJ , E DLirgeion andEngelkjng 



mo^enient of Beratenl fji>und\^ itLT Ihn^u^h Ihe 
subsurface ] Byen> whu. h mB> bL" im|KJitin1 for 
Ihelon^evity of standi Walera^iiUbikty 
rinses from tii^ h_ where this lype occup]es 
flood[i]B]nh Lcnjned] a1e]y adj«:en1 lo relive 
channels andmoHlcd and glc> ed soils may 
GCCLuCMinnin^ andPBdge11 19^5; Halt and 
HfliEcn l?97;Ciowc andCLaLisnilzcr]9?7J, 1o 
low on upper, remole floiKlpI ai n silcs_ 

Hante- This IS i w idcspread type know n fn^m 
Wajshi ngton. Oiegon^ [daho Nevada^ Bnd 
Monlana 

Adjacent CcmmunhlJeh- l^^'caiise of lhe w]de 
geographic range for thjslype,commun]1]ea of 
Bdjacem LipLindscan bL' com I eiT>Lis forest 
aspen. S4gcbrusli-ste[ipe, ind pin^'on-juniper 
1ypes 



EkmenI Code- CEGLMTNHI t 

Editbii/ Author- ?9-l l-t6 / S.V. Cooper, 
MTNHP 



Cotirifs^t^'tiii^f Shrubland 
lCORSER|n:d-osicr dogwood 

Natural Heritage Connrrvatinn Rank- 

Env jronQicnl- ThjM> pe is typically adjacent 

10 Stic am andn^'erchBnnels bnl it CBnn.cLipy 
B di> ec^Lly of UndfoTms It n^iy appear is 

denhc hnear bBDLis on aLLuviil benches in 
narmw canyons or bn>ad tbckels on jsl arnii 
bdJ flocdpLains of major strc Bnsi andnven> l1 
miy iiso CKC ur on well-w ateixzd SI tes below 
bearer dims Most ntc urrcn^es hBve evidence 
of annual or near-annuB] f1cHxJ]ng fM anni ng 
BDdPid^etl l9y5,HB]] ind Hansen ]9?7i- 
Soilsof thjscorrununily Bre cl assif lenl as 
Incepliwjls. Entisois. orMollisols. Wheies]tes 
Bre located oiJt>]de of Ihe Bclive RoodpUin. 4 

11 tter/diiff ] Byer 2 ]DL hes or more 1hLC b ma> 
BccumuLate S uif ace h^nzoisi are compn^ed of 
B wide rangeof all Li>LaL materials with teilures 
nngiiif fiomsil1> c]b> tosinnly loam. These 
iByersmiy beielativelj shBllow or asdrep as 5 
feci U ru5crlying Layeni are ty piciLly coarse 
sanch, gravels , andcobbleslhit t^cilHale the 



Veptatliii- C<}}tn\j jent£Q fomsi ailcn.sc 
closed canopy, often excluHing LiJxlen>tory 
shiub and herbaceous species CotnrtJ sent-€^ij 
Ls usually the o nly spec les with hi^h cover 
vaLiics A-crfic I atetl spec]es vary w]1h 
geographic loc a1 ion ind elo ation, birt 
commonly ashoci Bled shrubs include flwn^ 

hgiisiuijt?iia. Bee ause of ] Is w]de Tinge, J 
grea1 di^ersily of herbaceous species Jie 
Bssoc] Bled w]1h1 his community, nsoalLy in low 
cover (M inning andPBdge11 19^5; Harthenet 
Bl- L9S5, HaJ] iitl Hansen ]997.Crowe BnH 
CLaL^nilzerl997) 

Similar C (immunities- C^jj ^zj/t j^n\ £VJ is i 

corrununilydDminBnt ]n several ishociilions 

Thiscommunily, however, lacks the stnjclurBl 
divenjty of the olher types, for example 1he 
.^FNJf JFK ^j?r^j / Comrrj m-'^T^ftr BDd Coniifi 
lericsuSiffrx ii]> lypes from Nev Bda iHannmg 
BDd PMJgell 19951 ThereLatLonshipot tbs 
corruniinHy wilh 1he Conms 16'nLe^i / 
fi^t^Ki^it^ iantiUifn and C. i^nf^a / Gi^^ftffsr 
Iriponit^ lypcs from Uuh irkJ c astern Idaho 
|Youngblo«J et aJ l9a5,Pidg^t1 et al L9S9)ia 
nruzlear. 

Siicee^^n- Tbs js considered an early nerBl 
corrununily, |}'pbcatty coloruzj ng sites ac^ uzcnt 



III 



1o*ilrt:iinH Thi: hLTb*.«Ju*i (.over is ot1cn 
^piric, piubablj due li> lhc dcre»c ovciMory 
CBDLipy ind n:gulBrflu<)dLng^'tCOLinii^ and 
dcpos]1ion The I attcr fac tor i^ piubably 
r[rs]Kins]bLr fnr mai n1 H]iiLn^ tbu'> bhi pcrii'>tcnl 
communily1>pcon the Landscape. The 
pirwncc of tal L ^hjubs o r trees jn "^me "Stands 
miv repiT^cnt sucTKMon Iqw ard Aiiufi Iii^tm^f, 

m£fizj^ni ^ QT olher communities 

MasBi^mtnt- The hcrbKTOiB baomas.^ v*nc^ 
wjdeLv ind is I ai^^^Ly depcrkJcn! on thedensHy 
of 1hc dof W4x>d riiKjpy (Cnswe iixJ 
CLausnilier ]997j_ Raling^ forretl-osicr 
do^^^iiod palatabilHy for Livestock rin^je fiom 
]ov, [Wmning andPad^cH l995;Ciuwe and 
CLausniUer ]S97j to "ice cream" f Hansen e1 aL 
1995 HBl]anLlHBnsenl997^,bLiHhes1an* 
B re often si> L^nse Ihat 1hey Limi t ^ra7J ng in 
n^4n> cases ThtscommLinity functioisi ma 
> inety of ways Id pnsmole siream tieBllh Rcd- 
os]er dogwood foims dense mo I nclworks ttia1 
stab]]]7jz !ilieambanks Bgainst I BicraL cutting 
BixJ CFM>ion_ pn^v]des cover in Ibc form of 
Dverfiangmgbrajxtics Bnd bBnt-s ind "shades 
channels, cffcc1]>eLy modi^rilin^ eMremc 
summer temperBlure fliiclualioiK [YiM and 
HfliTien I997J fto^wood spnjuti vigDiu iis]> 
Bfler B fire and germination of ]1 ssecd-binh i"^ 
stimuliled by fiTT (C n^^e ind C l4iKml7^r 
1997J- 

Vi IkJIlfL' ^ Blue^ Red-iKier dog wcxxl preiv ides 
tood BixJ cover for muLe deer mcxjse elt 
cotHmlBil rabb] Is, snQwsth>e hares andminy 
biids Thefmjl"^ are an i mjxjiUnt bac k bcir 
fiKMl Bixl ire ilso ea1en by son^ bi rels. ^luuse, 
quajl [1 BTlndge. cutthio B1 trout, ducks, creiws, 
mice, Biid o1her mammals Deer mice meBdjw 
voles, And o1her smiLI mdcnts eat 1he yi>un^ 
stems and bBit_ Red -i>sier dogwood of! en 
gio^vs in dense Ihic kels bee BiZiC of I ts la>enng 
Bbilily These thictels piu>idcgnod mule deer 
fawning Biid reBnnf areisind nesUng habiUI 
for many son^bi nil fHBiTiencI al 1995, Ciowc 
ajKlC]au!,iutzerL997j- 

Element Code- CEGLOOl 165 



Edition / AnUwr- 9tt-0 L -02/ E . M mcLei- 



if _^j^ rr^tt^j Shru bland 
^POTFPU /DESCES) shnibb> cjnqucfojl / 

tiiftcd hBirgrass 

Natuntl H crltace C c mervutlDii Etanli- 

G4/S4 



Enviroaniciil- These alkaline meui^^vs occur 
on snb-irrif 4led flcKxJ plains, slieam terr^res 
ajxl gentle lower slopes, of1cn in assiKiation 
w] th springs or seeps, IbLiugh licultativc 
hydiopti^tes are oflen ibundint 1hese di> no1 
consislently [Kwsess hydiulogjc regimes or soil 
charac1cris1]cs inJicatin^ jijnsd]c1]onaJ 
wcHajxJs Thtsct w4sfoundBl500{)-7,5iXift 
thiougbLiut the sluily Brea mos1oFlcn]n areis 
of cilciieom piieni mBlcniL. Most exampLcs 
of lhis type hivc hummuck-hollow 
miciolopogTiphy SiiS\x spfx _ Carsjv (Jinct^tQl^r 
txrCarej. fimitlQlafen^^r Jt^ncuj balUiAH and 
/3 e jc Jjjjjnytjr^ ct jytj ?rj tj^ of1cn niLiminalc ^^etter 
site?i. Dners]1csmay bcdommiledby LAr\imis 
nfiL^r^is, C^fr^xprtre^t^ftifri Bnd Tj/^t r^Ecf^rtr 
{fiil^fiis Ar1cmis]B tridcntata. A lnpBi1ilBorA_ 
lon^iiobB and Fes1 UC4 ]datK>[:nsis dominates 
adj«.en1 upland communities. 

V ccetBtloii- f^cfr\{Ai?ii\i^oid€s J^oM!?iif?d£^ ls Ihe 
only common shrub wilh 10-30% cover- 
Dominant griminoids usually well 

represenled. ireyjJFr^jjj/^j/fr^du and 
Deichampira f^tsprloia Othcrcommon 
species imz\[M^ Ctrr^'x praegt^ftifri ind 
MiffriL'Xjhetjif^f tn Ii{frdit?x2rs Fortis Bie diverec 
and may be abundanl up 1o 35^A cover- 
Common spec les I ncLuile Ajler ot'CTd€t2l^iii, 
SetJ^at? debrl\'i^ Aihiitn Jciiox^iofxrasAim and 
Vtiienamr ^Ad^. TanAxtiiAifn offrcTfiiJ^6'r foa 
prti\6'X2iIj and fni fj[iisoifn^rj\i may be 
common inslBndslhat have been heavily 
impaclcd by hvesloc k gi^^ing Mosses are 
comnxjn in some fiUntis. 

Soib- Soil^i hive « silly lexture bikI in ilkalmc 
reic tion; some may besli^htLy siline as weLL 
5oiLs Biemjist to ^^et for at le ast 1he fiisl tiBlf 
of 1he grei^^ ing seison. There is vei^' Ii11le bare 



IJ2 



^luund bdJ ru) "f Liif ac^c ^rB>4^l 

OthcrShidlH-Hiiv^nctaJ ri?95j and 
LcHcall^^OlA^nbc a /*f Hftr^j/E^y^tr J« 
Jfoff!?iifiii{f / D^ic^iiJt^pi\a c'6'sprloiti hibitat 
type for we>tcm M on1 ina S irru I ar vegetation 
h«i been Lk^icn bed for [iH^Ik^ Utah and wq>1ctii 
Wyoming (Youngblondctil- ] 9 S5_ Pid^ rtl ct 
aJ- [?E?,BDdChaddcclaL ]9SfiJ- 

CoDiniciils- Hansen c1 aL 1L^5>bclicvQ>lhat 
the abundance of /j/^ehlt/j /wj^Jr^ du b> fK»ii1]vcLy 
corrtl4l[^d wilh ovcigrinn^- However, wc 
bcLicvc Ihat other f4cton>_ siK h as hydiD]og]c 
rcgi mc, sal Lm1y andsoiL rciclion roBy bLso 
affects the rc]Bl]>cdLiminanccofy h^Afltctts 
and Di.^t-ii{ffr7i?^ia ii^ii?IUy'i{A fstc commcnt> 

TTic f^en ^^jxh \ iioi^isi flo rib rtn^h/ Di.^i r!rQ f nf? t j tr 
rFf^jfwn^ c_t_ Ls s] mil bf ]n composHion to the 
D^ic^iiJt^pi\{f {'6fiprIt?Jti cA. ajxJ Ihc/jjpr^jjj 
ha^IiiAii - C£^t6'^ jxnAc^nrifil^ <. i Thi^prcwMicc 
o f Pen ^^p /e V ii^xf £itn Ji^x nhi fii^iti b> u ndo ub tcti ] y 
rrliltd lo lht dtgrcr of soil acrBl]on ^^ith 
F^il{Ai?h} ffoides_flonbifii£itr iiK rc4S]ng soi Is 
bn-oint drier. However. Ihis rrUlionship ls 
bIso Lnflu?nc«J by the degree of humnx»ckLng 
Hummnt ks piovid? i beUer- aei^t«l 
env]ronincnl art] bIIowT Jmlfcoia to occur m 
Brcis w heiT J t otheriM*»e would nol. It is not 
known Ikjw hunuiMK-ks arc formed, biH fmcil 
BC1]onmay plBV b cxjIc. Trampling by Livestock 
enhBixes LhL' hummocks aixlpmbBbly allows 
shrubs to becomclBiger and moiefiequtnl. ]l 
]s bIso posMbIt thil trBinplingby livestock bixJ 
olherlar^L" ajumals is IhL" pnmajv ciuwof 1bc 
hLijnm(K.k.s Dejiii^ffj^fxsIiA ie^fXfJoi^f arkJ ycrrttT/j 
biJ^IicAii - C^r6f^ pnAc^racffij typnican 
piobably be convened lo J^exjl^fjxhviimiiei 
Jhffhufiii^f / Dei{ fr{At^?i\ti r^i^itxja by the 
formatLon of hummocks 

Thii vegetation Ls pmdiK tLve ind often remains 
gieeu thiuugbjut thegiow]iigseBson making 
]t iUr^ctive to livestock, cspK I al ly late]nlhc 
year The nxi]st to wet s^Jils ind generBhj 
smB]] s]ie of sUncis make thtslvpc ver^' pn^ne 
1o dcgridation Trimplin^ by]]veMuck, 
especially diinn^ the spnug and eBdy summer 
resulls in Ihe foTmatiou or enhancement of 



humnK^cLs The presence oJ subslBntiil 
hummocki ng may cause in jdl re sse oF Ihe 
s hni b , I^€* E P ap !n iioi desjio * t bii* ui^i 

Elemen( Code- CEGLOO] 107 

Edition/ Author- 99-] E-t6/^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



fxy^m^f Shru bland 

CFENFLO/POTOVIf shrubby cJnqucfoil/ 

shccpcinqucfojl 

Natunt J H crltace C ftnstrvutlon Rask- 



EnvlroHOKiit- This uncommon [yj>e occuni in 
biDMJ sw aJes nf geully slopi ng B]]uv]aJ fans in 
are fi of c aJc Breous p Brent maten aJ These sites 

miy be sub-iTTif 4led duiinf part of 1he year. 
1 hey have the appearance ot be]ngsB]1-ilTecled 
BixJ possibly expenence soil loss Ihn^u^hshcel 
eiosion on in annual ba.'t is. f ftEl^jjIn llo^dei 
ptxnhAff\d{7 / P<?\etrf\}}ii txvAr}{r is found bI 7.00Q- 
7,40n ftlowardstheheBdwatersof Bi^ Sheep 
Creek in the Beivertiead andTendoy 
mi>untains \rtemj'^ia IndenUU "^ip 
w^'ominf en^LS or A lo ngi loba ind FesliK a 
]d4hi:)ensLS dominates adjacenl upland 
vegel Blion. 

^ ccetBtloii- The only shrub is F^^i{?fxhyifoidei 
J^offhufiiiiA ^Mthcinopy cover of CB. 30^-* 
Giound layer vegel Bl]Dn is sparse Griminnid 
CBDjpy cover is lEUBlly le^ thBU ^^-^ species 
w]th highconsUncy andil lea.'^t common 
coverage are Mj JrJi-Ta^^-r^jVj nt-h{ftdit?x2rs^ 
FtiJ<.<xpvtttT)\ fj?jrJ/Err. Care\ icjrjttxlii^r ajxl/*£w 
jifiicfjofr^f. FoHk fiequenlly preseni irtlixle 
FtxJexjIr^kf t^vAii^f, tk-TaJ^L'^jj^j ^^m^, Vux^i^ 
ffi-^thrt^fryiiar .\ifer t^Liii^rJ^Affs Bnd 
fi^'ijunifn ittifx^uireni.^s Mosses bixI licheiK 
are absent, perhaps stnpped by 4 ncxjdin^ 
regime. 

Soib- Soibi have « ^illy texture and b ne*r 
ueulTBl to ilkaJine resclion. The> appear to be 
shBllo^v and slony wi th c a one thiidof the 
surface covered w I th grivel oriock OvcrWTt 



113 



of 1ht soil ^urfiit^c IS barc_ 

Other Sliidks- SimiLar vcgctitLon ht^ rut been 
picvioLHiy i:l«»cnbcd 

Comments- SojI ipprirs 1o hive been 
removed fn>m tbie^c s]1e^ by water, although 
1 his seems implaiisible^iven the nearly Level 
slope Pedups w]Dd eros]on following severe 
overgrBiing c aused theshB]]owso]ls This 
lypcbcBissomesimilanly \d F€JiI{^xhyifGidei 
J^o f f hi if eJl7 / Di.^1 c^KJ f rry^ J J t r i i-^/^" r^> t^ j hn wcv e r_ 
] t has veiy d]frereiit SO] Is bixJ herhaceoiK 
s[iecies that indicale Jner (gondii jons 

Tr^mpLin^ by ]]>eslnc k dunng Ihe spn ng when 
1 hese siles ire wet resijlb> in soil c^omp Bclion 
Bnd k dcL Fe ase m prodix tkvi ty. 

Element Code- CEGLMTHP17 

Edition/ Auttur- 99-] t-L6/^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHF 



Shiubland 

(SALB03/CALCAW) Booth^i wallow/ 

Biucjoinl rccdgrBss 

Natural H erlta^e Ci^Rzrvatlan Ranl^ 

G3G40;SR 

EnviroBmenl- The ^u^j ^ h^mfhiA f 
C^ffTFJTj^£ ^Y^jPrf i ^j^Ej^L^JtriTJ T BErfKiation ciH be 
fouixJ LCI montane habitats m western Montana 
Ifrom valley bottoirei to mid-eLevilions in 1he 

mountaiRSJ and jh the rnountaiRS of (.enlrii and 
e BsLem N^ on1 Biia [1 is frequently fo und on 
Blluvial Icrraces where briver activily has 
CTTited 4 series of dams Ihat nise thelueal 
WBler table, aJon^slitams art] nearseejwor 
sfinn^ 5oils4nM£iually deepsiLt orsand 
oveilymg nx>re sind, gravel, or ciibbles- Thjs 
communily usually flcicds dun ng spn ng, wilh 
the water level within I in of 1bc surf ace theiest 
of the year. Nearby we11ercommijm1]cs could 
]nclu:le C{At6'\Ai^r2iAikfia Stiiix gs-v€nax2ti / 
C{At6f^AiIr2iAikfta. A^jIej^ y^^J^^^Jf^L■^ or open 
WBler, BixJ nearby dner communities could 

Cotf^ij lem^A, C^fcTFJTj^^ ^Y>T?r J i ^J?r^jdi7if J J, 



v^nety of adj«:en1 upUnds could ccc ur nearby 
ranfinf fiomconifemkimmatedcommijmljcs 
to di>' shrubl a™k such as.^^ff^rrrijVj Jndi'nitita 
Bssocjalions (liBn^enel al l^SS HanscnetBl. 
1995J- 

Etan^e- The S^Afrx ho<xlhrr / C{fiait\£i^rosfis 
ctmtrii67ri\s ishociBl]on u> found in MonUna. 

Ulah,]dBbj and western Wyom] ng_ 

Vegetation: lf^StriIx!?ixoihii f Ctri^Amagrciiis 
^u^crJd^urj ishociilion typically has b dense 
oven>1ory dom]natei:1 b> S^^ff^ hoixlhw^ and Bn 
understory tl:jminBlcd by C{Akffj[agrt?Jlri 
{tmtrii67ri\i Inconlris! lo 5^jfrT jf t^ ct df^nn — 
dominated commijm1]es Ihesf standi Bi^nxire 
often 4. lo^ed and less e bs] ly accessible by large 
ungulates, while J^j^r^ g^^f^fii^f sUnJs have 4 
more open Loindor ispcc t |PMJ^eMet b]_ l?S?l 
Olher willowTiCommonJj found in tbs 
izornmuniiy ki^ Sifirx g^i-^n^fii^f ^ndSifirx 
drttitw\ofr£i\tix2tr^ h{ywcYcz.SiJ^f\hoix\hrr is 
cleBriy Iheninminint willow Common 
associatetl undeislory spec]es iit Ctr reA 
ifincttial£i, G^it^ it\£it-tofxhvihtit\ ML'XJiffa 
afi^sjisii, Sixiidajio ^wjiL'^d^un, and EijTHJfPrrjJi 
Q^ VCTjj^ (liansen cE ai L^^) 

SImlbr CDmmuahks- This conununily has 

bJho been dz^cnmented in Uuh {Padgett et aI. 
19S9J, Idaho and weslem Wyoming 
fVoungblocd et al l?S5> Otherstudies 
(HiiKenetaJ 19?5,HbI1 and Hansen 19?7| 
I ncluile £!cjJr ^ /^^tJ^rr-d:)minBled s1 Bixls wilhi n a 
Sijff\ ^6"\6'r2afiiJ h3.bi\k\ type for management 
purjxj^es, SI nee ij^r T h{^IxIh^ indij^ri 
gir\£.'tjafiij Bi? often ccxJominBnlw]1hin 4 stand. 
Olher Buthors |e_^ Padgett c1 il_ 1 4 S4^ sep ajile 
StjJd ^ /f^jwr^rr-dLiminaled stand*! as BSs^parite 
pUnt ishociilion due lostroztujil differences 
bciVtfccaStrtixhooiiifi und Sijfi\ ji£y6'niif^ 
stands, b1i hough basedonlhedescnplionsin 
Padgettelal |l9tt9|,lhere Lssomedegreeof 
overl Bp between 1 he two plant associilions 

Succe^^n- Sp^jt hf?£M!rIi I Gj^l7fjtj^£ rf?ilri 
^tnatrJd^ur J standi are fBiiiy s1 able if the 
hydiolog]c regime nMUBins unchanged. K]11el 
etal_ |I99S) suggest Ihat flooding c>ents]n 
Sa^f \ boixI^ur/CiAt e^ jj^n\ AihrUi comnium ties can 



lU 



rtsuH in *icJLnicnt dL"|KM>j Lion, whiL h riiJM.^ Lbu: 
ficiodfi] H]ii "f Liif ace higher above tbic ^^aLcr tiblc 
.^H ihr fluodfi] bjh B^^«l»>,lhcs]tc could 
bn.oiiit Ic^ ^iturBlcd which could cauhclht 
^T^miDD]d undcntory 1o change lowarct 
C^fcTFJTj^^ ^Y>T^r J i ^j^r^jdi-iaf J T_ Sim]]Bily KiElcf 
|l9?4^'5tatni thBldi-^tincc f R>ni the slrtini 
chanjicL cbh change 1 he dtgrcc ofsciJ 
'>atLiJ4tk>n, BixJ tbicrcby ] nflLicixe Ihe 
undcr^tory comjKi^i tion Removal of bcivcr 
fram B SiJ^i\ hot?\hrf/Care\ iiln<.ii^£^la ^tand 
CDuJd aJ^o c aiisc coni[)os]1]onal cbiaji^c'> 
UnmajnUincd bc^vcrdimscoLJd bieak, aixE 
cBu*iL" a kiv^e nn^ i>l the ^^atcrUblc ^^bch 
couJd cause a shift m tbicdonunint unJtrntoTy 
gr^minojd 1o^^ani> C^j^trjji^j^ ^y^tPjj ^ ^JFr^Jtfc-j] jr j 
(MiiKnetBl- [9^5] 

Itlaiui^ mrnt- Ca^afsrugroilrs <:afiij{!^isis ^s 
rTHKlL'raLc l> to hjghJ> piLitiblc and w]lh high 
^rajjng prcssiuc, 1hc \igDr, itpioducUvc 
■^ucucss and compctilivc BbiLityol tbu"^ grass 
w]|| dn.rcasc_ EkoI]c pasture gra-cicssixhai 
fty£^pnA^^mior \grt?^i\i iIoitynrj6't{A mBV Ihcn 
]nciea5e L]ycMoc k gra^ii ng ]ii this f>sociAlion 
shouJd br avoidrd when the soibi arc wet to 
Bvo]d c huming of 1hc SO]] surf 4CC Sifiix 

exposed 1D heavy biowsi ng prcssuir iLsuiLly 
show rcduc«J vi^rof the wlLLow species, such 
as hLfhLtni ng. c Lubbi ng. or dcMJ clumps, w]1h 
cvenluaL dec rease in willow coveripe f Hansen 

Elemrnt CMic- CEGLOOl 175 



spnngsAeL'ps These sHes are se asonaJ ly 
IVxxkd and h^ve waterlBbles ator near the 
surface throughoul Ihe grow ing season. 
Adj«:en1 wctlcr comjuuuilies inc I ude Cu r«T 
^^jrc^^j^u fluatLngiu4b> nnded aquatic 
vcge1 Bl]on like Nifjx^njr sp_, or open w Bter_ 
Adj4cen1 dncrei>mmunLtLes mcimle those 
dominated by ^trir^jj^^i floni6"iJit?tjhAifr£iti^ 
D^ic^iiJt^pir^f c6'ip\^t?^^ Upiincisare usuBlly 
dominated b> conjfciois forest liiAnsenet aJ. 
]S95). 

V^ctBtbn- Sttiix ctm^hii^f ^jmws bs « low 
shnib and tl^minBlesIhe shrub iByer, although 
c BDLipy coverage lenii 1o be low (10'^-40'^1_ 
Therc ma> be a few sc attered shrulsi with 
^leatersUlurc than 5^j^r^ < ^j^zJ^l'Jcj UkcE6'Iiifa 
giafiiiifit?ja Atlenseco>erof CareT Li1riculata_ 
andCBieT aquatiLLS, C arex si muLiti dLmiinales 
the undeislory, ind Tn" jta ^jt^? jml-^jt Jr jjuj^rr c an 
also compose SLgnific an1 amounts of the 
understory covei^ge. Forb co>erBge ]s usually 
low (TiHiKcncI al 1995} 

Simihr CDmmunilkf- ChBdde ct kl. |l?9St 
menlion BSijff\ candi^ia f Car^'x kfifocarjta 
peatland communily for western MonlBna 
which is s]niii4r 1o S^Aff^iUf^f^lu f Ctrtin. 
iftn^jtial^A excep! thBl the unden>1oiy is 
ckjminated by C^fr^x ^£^ifo<.arjt{f: thjsljpc is 
aJso suppoTled by unpubhshed plol data on file 
a1 HTNHP LesLca |l?ttft| bIso notes SiiJr^ 
cti^iii^f as an i mportan! shrub ci>m|Kjnenl in 
dwarf CUT vegetation b1 the PineBuHe Fen on 
the Rocky MounlB]nFn^nt 



Edition/ Audnr-?^-10-lS/ J Greenl«, 
MTNHF 



Sijib. cairdrda / Cij^ex ifirrc'iilai^f Shru bland 

(SALCAN/CARUTRl Hoary willow- 

Bcakcd sedge 

Natural HcFib£eC«mrrvaClDii Elank- 
G3/S3 



EnvirDUMcnl- This communily ]s found ]n 
mi>nl Biie h> lower subiipi ne habitats in western, 
southwestern, indcenlr^lMonlBua 1 1 occurs 
on |Tca1 deposits thai have developed ajT>Lind 
the mirfjisi of lakes ind pi>nds, and imund 



Succc^rion- The suLcessLonii dynamics of the 
communily bit poorly unden>1c»d it Lsmi>st 
likely 4 rB]Tlystable communily, IS Ihepcal 
depos]ts upon whjchi his community is found 
requiie b sUble hydn^logic regime. 

MaiiBi^inent- The Off Bnic soils oF this type 
an: c asi ly tl Bmaged by livestiKk use.espcciBlly 
when wct_ hfcuwoer due 1o the wetness of Ihis 
type. It mosi likely djesrajl icce]vemiKh 
liveslocb iKe]n any C4se_ The lesponseof 
Salfx cij^iiti tof]re hisEut bL^nck>cumenlcd. 

Element Code- CEGLOOl I SB 



115 



Editbn/Aiilbr-^'^-IO-lSVJGirE^nJcr: 
MTNHF 



E:ditlDii;AiiltiDr-9i»-]h-L&/S.V.Cuopcr 

MTNHP 



Safix ^Mflita TcmnnrarLly Flooded 

Shiubknd 

(SALEXIlEindbBrwJUow 



Natuntl H crltac^ C«nstE~viitlDn Etask- 

G5/S5 

EnvlrDDmcnl- Thbi Lypr occ uri on grflvcl Ly 
alluvial parent inatcnaK on flat flood plains 
and Icrraccs in wid^ valley bottoms. 
ElcvatLonh arc bdwccn ^TKKi and 55CX) fret 
L]11cr pliTi woixJ cover cquaii or exceeds Wl^ 
of 1b? ^jiourkJ surface and -ftj] I cover ls 1> pic aJ ly 
ajound 20^_ The soi L surface is nnsl abLc 
bctauseof a I ark of adrquate vef.cl aUon cover 
ajxl the active fluvial JislurbancL' le^inie 
prcM-^m on S 6'xr^Ai^f "^Hcs- 

VccetBthm- S^il\ ^aj^jjcf dnnnnBles Ihe 
oveisloiy loften ^vithi tolal canopy cover of 
100^1 The undeipjowth Ls typic ally very 
dep Bupcnte due to the intense compe1]1 ion 
w]thS 6'xigu^f and seldom efLC teds -"^^ toUl 
cover. Species 1 hit arc often pre^cnl in tb"^ 
■^paric undeigiowth inclDde Cj ^ jjjj^rr ^jj kt?rT^, 

Soik- Soils are often .\qiJic Udifl ii>ents. are 
very deep wi1h "^andy tciluies, have alow 
available water holding capacity and BnMXii> 
calcBieoiTi- Coirye fra^men! cojiten!"^ > ary 
fram ^ruvclly to very cobbly 

Af^ acent C frmmuiiilir&- \dj aceni siIe^s are 
often open w ater_ Adjacenldnernpanan 
CDnimuni1]esof1en feature the r^j^jz/jji 

type- 
Other Studies- Tbu'^1>pe bias bee n d esc n bed 
as ijb]qiii toiE andibundint ]iiN^onlBiiaby 
Hansen el aL 1 L ?y 1 ),] t is reported forlbe 
nonhwesl^ where il is comparatively raie^by 
KovaJchit1L?S7) and as far to the soinheasl ay 
Colondo IKttlcl and Ledcier L^3> 

Element Cocie- CEGLOOl 197 



c axiaxii-'f? h-'j ? S h ru b I and 

(SALDRU/CALCANldriimmond^s 

willow / blucjojnt rccdgnss 

NatuEBl Hcrltafe ConRrvutloii E^nk- 
G3/SP 

Env IrDQnicnl- Elevation ranges fiom 2320 lo 
S200 feet thiouglx-ut the ran^e of the 
conununily Type occurs on low gradient 
slopes adj Bcent lo beaver jxjixJy- Utcy_ 
nmyhes nveis and stream*!, oronloeslopes 
below upland siles Sojk arecoiryelo 
Fragmenled loints or grass peiloverdrep, 
eiosive mcxJei^tely fine leMurcd BlliJV]um 
(Kovilchik l993,Tuhyin:1Jere>enl9B2> 
HiiTienel al 11995] nolessoil leMures i^nge 
fiomsilt today lo am^ nx>ltl i ng aixlfleycd 
so]Ls Bie common. Type is reUlively dry 
complied to olher w illow plani association 
(Ko^ilchik 1993] W alcr leveb> r^nge from al 
the surface Id IfKJcm below the surface dun ng 
the gnuwing se^son. 

Etan^e- This community is a mim^r 1>pe in 
Colorack> Utah, Idabu, Wasbnglon. anJ 
Klonlana 

Adjacent Communities- \djacenlwe11er sites 
miy supjxjn J^Jd I Jrjdjn jn tftE Jj ujru / Cu r^ ^ 
tj\nc\ilala. Cortex ittMCitln^a, C u^^JrJdJ.orC 
KT^tLTJcfev? \^ff ^fdrrJojtTJ^w J«r 1ypes_ or 
open wa1er_ Drier sites m ay support StrJjA 
ckjmmated types with a r^tL^^ ^j L'^Pi-riTJ j or 
Jcrncrrj ha^\U-}ii urkjecstoiy _ GTl*o^67riiifa 
fnilffoitr^ Aiiiifi J jj^fTJjL? or conifer domi niled 
types lhliRsenetBJ.l?95,Kovilchik 199 3J. 

Vccetutioii- SiJ^f\ iinimmt?^ia*iij ^ra\n^\c^ 
the tall shrub layer |25-60^^ cover}- 5^^^!^ 
£^:■^ ena^w^ Stiiix h^}oihfi and ijfrr iJ\ofr\i<:okf 
are son>etimes prcsen! in lesher amounts than 
the ckjminaiH shrub. L^iifc 6'nA Jtaw^jjfj ^fttr^ 
R\h£j spi?.. \^nttj ffiiufiij. {Afr£iI'6^iiaph'\^iordez 
JfoffhwiiiiA are usually preseni ^^ithup to 15% 
cover ]ndi^iduBll> Calama^KistLscanadeiSiis 
con1nbii1es hI leas! 5^ ind up1o Wl^-^ cover 1o 



n6 



ihc LiiKJi^iMory. O thtr '>[icci[:^ wLlh hi^ 
core>tancy JDL LiiJc C^r^:^ miLr^x^iera^ C. 

ceipitiria^ Aii^f fo^f^fii.^i'i^ bixJ Fha^wi^a 

SImlbr Communilic^ SinnLar (:ommunil]Q> 
I ncluilc Tubiy^ 1 1 9fl L ^ ijfr^ Jj jj^rTFJT^t^?Jr^j?r^j / 

ajxJQLiC]njz ^ {[9^3) Sifii:^ {fntfmJ\ofriif{fIIa- 
E akcr\ 1 1 9fl9) Sifirx ^!f iffj[fj[w?iif^fis^fStfhx 
t^ty^^f^ tyiii/C{A kf fj[ag f t?j iiic tiii{fii67 r t j f - C^f f ex 
mfJmJL? andKinclct b]/!i (]y9fljStJ^^i 
{frttit\iJ\ofr£i\tmtr / m^^ic forb types 

Gr47Ln^ piTTihurc willcaLihc 4dccn:ayc]n 
C aLam BgrrHi1]'> cinBdrn^i'f bix1 Df% biBnip'>i a 
cc^pHreii, w]lh a coiT^Nponclinp. Lncn:a*iL" m 
n thcr ]ntrodL^«l or L«s> dH>Lrablc spcc]c^siKbi 
BiiRily6f'i 16'Ioitttjr, UMfc^f^fAtyiiiA, and fL^wm-^j/JH 

turtcrJdirjrf ^ug^HilH Ihat commLuiLtLKi rriBV be 
scvb] Migcs of Abjc^ liwocaqii^ b] Bjnapj^v^tis 
c Bnaclcnsis biBbitat 1> pc The develop mcntol a 
comfer ovcisloiy tertii to reduce *nd 
cvenluiLly eLLmiriBle the '>biBJe inLoleT^m SiLix 
species ^^LltK^ut BffceU iig Ihc herbac^eom ] Byer 
iTLihyiitUerMii L9S2,HBreienelal 1995) 

Management- The vigDr of S bI] fL ^pp_ ]n these 
comiTiuiii1]e'> appears direelly rel4leJh> 
strcBinbajikMBbLLLty ind rile of HedLmenUlion 
ink>^treim^ys1emsrrubiye1 il. ]9^2). 
S Lis1 ajned grizin^ decreases the vjg^jr, 
repnxJix tLve ^iKccss^ BndLompel]1]^e BbiLilyor 
C aLam BgroM]'> nriBdi^n^is bixJ Desc biBnip'>i a 
ce^pilD^i. To main1 Bin vigor and pievent 
diniB^^ 1o so]]s BixJ vegetation, ^;ra£]ng sbjuLd 
be defened unlil soils dry Piuper levels of 
^r^zj ng should r^nge fiom ] If ht 1o moderate 
Overuse b> hvesi™.k will rcsuH inietliKcd 
>igDr of willow species prtscnt- il]u*ili^t«l b> 
uneven slem Bgedislnbotion, highLining, ind 
clubbing or dead 4. 1 ujnps W]thcontini3ed 
ovence, willows nny be eventuBlly eliminated 
fiDm thesile (HBimenel al 1995) 

WikJIife^nlueh- Abundanlfcod,eover. anJ 
pioxiniJl> to w aler piovide habil Bl for 
iiiimEn]i& wi Idhfe species anJ s^mgbirds. 



K-lncseind beBver tenJ to bieBviLy uUIihIC jtplisI 
species of wihow- 

Element Code- CEGL002667 

Ed ttbii/ Author- 1996-06-13/L.WilliinK 



Saih £ifu^?unox}£iiana/CarexAitnc2tt£Ata 

Shiubland 

(SALDRU /CARUTR) drommond^s 

willow / bcdkcd sedge 

Natural H crltage Comervatloii Etank- 

G3/S5 

Env Ironoicnl- The community is found in 
n4ri~ow 10¥^ide alleys on iLIuvIbI terr^cfs 
Bdj«.en1 to s1 renins of low ormoderBle 
gr^ients (M ut7_ ind Q ueiiuz L9flj; Hansen c1 
Bl- L995, Hall bikJ Hansen 19971- Thrse 
streBms are oflen moderalely entrenched, 
Ros^enC 1>peslKovaLcbk 199-1]- ll ls equally 
coninH>n adjicenl lo j»orly drained or 
jmpoundLxl are as sucbiis beB>er poncis 
peatLands lakes m Bishcs- seeps, spnn^ and 
load (. iTws] ng^ iKo^ilchik L993, Moseley el al 
1994-HBnsenet al 1995) Though on mostly 
fill giound, chanj>els andhumini:>cLs (Mutz 
■ixlQue]roz I9SJ^ t:harat:1eri/e the 
miciDlopogriphy As wi1h 1 BixJfonn setting, 
so]Ls>ary FiumEntisols and Histosols to 
N^oLLIsols- Soils adjacent h>inoderBlegr4d]enl 
streBms are oflen poorly developed, coanc 
textured mJ sandy wilh high gravel and 
cobble conteni- Ttiesesoils allow the water 
nccessBiy kT suppon C Biei iHnculataloeasily 
p*is Ihmii^h IHansen et bL 1995]- In w]der 
> alleys, cUy ind sill-loBm or organic soils are 
nx>re 4.ommon- Gleying aixJ moUhngiieoften 
piesen! typu. al of i spring^ummer surface 
WBler table followed by Ihe wilerlBblc 
diopp]ngli> 100 cm below IbesurfBce by Ia1c 
summer (KovBlchik 1993] Organic loBm and 
setlge peat soils w i tti b^ h ivaj I able wa1er 
conleni, Bre up1o I mdeep bixJ l lassi hed bs 
C umiil ic Cry aqu:jlls inn! Temc . Eiemic, S apnc - 
jixJ Fibnt: HlsIosdLs [WuU BndQueiiu?- I9flj; 
KovaJchit I99J| A 5-cm sulfate liUci^uff 
lajermay be present Thesi>ilsof this 
communily Bie held lof elher b> sod mat 
formed by C^j f ^ spct les and w]llow cover 



117 



iHinscnct b]_ [995] 

Kani^'- The Saffx iinit^fnt?ndla*iij / Car^x 
tttn^ttial^A zoinrauruty type l^ kno^^ n f mm 
\^ on1 Biia Jd Bho WAhhington^ bixJ probably 
western Wyom]ng_ 

Adjacent CommunUka- CnmjnLuiLlicTi 

lypc^wjlh^Liphtlydncr moisture regimes 
Examples arc StJ^r^ Jnj^rr^rrr^rt JjVjffj^ / 

j^^trrfrtfJT Mutz BDdQLiC]n>7_ l9ttJ, Hansen cl 
Bl- Li^SS-KovBlchik ["^J^HBiihcnclal 1995} 
Olher adjacent ciimmLuiLlics ^^ itbi ^imiLar 
moi-^lurc Levels Bi^S^ff\x^^^n{fii{i/Caf6fx 

BndS^fiix^y^^x^Jh cornmuniiie^ (hAuU bixJ 
Ouciror I9SJ Ko^iLcbk l^;9J HaLL and 
Hanhcniy??. Wilfoidclal I997J SlietiHy 
dner adj Bcent commLuiLlics include \hmi 

ceipilt?ia cummuniiic^ Wc11crBdja(.en1 
CDmmunil]c^ iir berbatrnjiE types f Cctpva 

jL7jroH:ar7Jcr tin minatcdf b¥¥.\ SiJ^f\Janjtie / 
C^Afffx iiln<.iikfiti |Ko>iLcbk l^9J Hansen c1 
aJ L995> AdJBcentufilBDLis Bi^.-^Ard'j 

6^rf^^mtm*ui, or^j jjdu ^jr^nrf^rrtu^ biBbmM> pes 
(MinsenetaJ L9ttS,HBreienel al I995i- 

VccetBthm- The 5!tjJ^T Jnj^rt^rtr^ntfianjj / CflrtT 
d^P^T^ir^j^J^j Lommumly type b> v Bniblc . often 
hav]ng mixed Sl^^^jt arkd Cl^^^ d^j !ipec les presen! 
S al I ^ dnijnniondiina b> usually dLuninBiit 'A']1h 
30lo55^^ cover BJxJ 70 to ICX)^^ t^nnstancy 
(Kovilchik L993,HiiKenetB]- L995, 
Janto>Tity-Joncs L9?7l OthcrlBll wlLIow 
■species iiuzh a*i StJ^r^ jd'_h"d'JiVj?KJ. 5 h^xoifrii^S. 

^jCT/Jwji^jFrrji ^jfL^M^hual I y biBve lcw> 1han 40^ 
cover and less 1 hin 3(3^ LoiTil BDLy_ While 
these !ipet ic*> torm a Ull shrub cinopy (1o4 mj. 



■shorter spec les, such as i^j^r^_/tJF ^itri^ or ij^r^ 
^ia*u)t?iia can be piomincnl in the ujxJeislDiy 
(MLit7-indQueiio7 L9fi3,KovBlchil: 1993, 
HBnsenelaL ]995i_ WheieSB]]X'^pec]eshave 
been rediiced by beaver or overgrazjng. E6^ifia 
giafiiiifit?^a |L0 ttj L5%coveO,^j^L'^i?'j 
L'itd^j^L'^frr, or flri« spct les miy beimporlBnt 
(liinsenet b]_ 1995] Fit-€^iJ x^igi.^fj[a*uifi^ Abrei 
kfircT^iArjMf^ ind ^^^n/T r^r^ ^j^r^j ire ibto 
occ asion Bl]y presem. The hcrt>aceous]iycF t& 
dominated byC{frcxifIn£.ifia\£^ (10 to 39% 
cover, Bttiut SO^-^ constancy) ind C^jj^^t 
{^ij^fallili fle^ tbiBn 34-^ cover less Ihan SO^ 
constancy) wUh CL^^^fT t^jjt^jj jVj abrf> common 
Ol her Bssoc] a1ed C^ffT^ tiBving low cover and 
constarty. inc I ude CcrrfA ^L'^jjd^jrjawn^r C 
kfi\o<.£^rjtti^ C. ietJlfCifiani, bixJ C 
^z^-Aj ^ j^^ur J O ther comnxm graminoid 
species w i tbi Low coisil Bncy but n.4. xslo niLly 
moderate cover |iess1han4<5^|, bit 
C^jffTFJTj^£ ^Y>T?rf i ^Fr^jcfc-rtfr T. /"/ztr/^jj? J 

sp^cieir and Jrr^^TrT specjcs |Mli17 andQuciioz 
19S3-Ko^Blchik L993,Hajisenelal 1995; 
J antovsky- Jones L 99ft, Jinko>sky-Jones 
199TJ_ Due to the dense Sahi andCarcx 
species cover overall forb cover is low and 
miinly around shrub bases. Widespread 
species ^jj ^ E^jr^L'j'frd^FJT ^T^rL-^PrriJi, G^'Aifn 
jFJtrt rr^^n JJjj^rt. and EijTN TfPtrjJi trrvtrai^ Less 
common spec]es (but ™.casLoniLiy wilh higher 
cover) ]nc LiKJe ija^/j L^^j^ L^^^ £ j/Jl-^ Gtiilw^ 
j^jfCT«r /"^fur Jf T fL^^jr rrj^JdU- Bnd ^fJtr 
tnt?ii6fiUii |Mlj17 andQueiroz l9SJ_Ko>iLcbuh 
J 993_ Hansen et b]_ 1995, Jankovsky-Jonrs 
1996 JBnkovsky-Jones I997j_ MoH>coverLS 
often h]gh_ 

SimibrCoinmuQl1ie&- EirlierstuHies lumped 
this communi Ij 't\iih}nhf^x£^derSijff\/Cijr€x 
roilral^ [often mtsidentiF]cd, Actually Carex 
d^P^T^YrVuJ^j]. SaLix dniiTimond]Bna-5B]]x Ixx^thji/ 
C arcx lostrala-C arex ^quitiiis andSiiix^Bre^ 
n>slrata-C arcx Aquiliiis communities |Tuh^' 
and Jensen i9S2 Mul/ andQueiroz I9S3_ 
WaLfordetaJ L997| L]kewLse, ineastern 
Idaho. WTSIem Wjciming, Bnd Uubi it inBy 
hivc beenkep! Vtfi\h\aif^Stiiixh^}otiiii/Carsx 
roslral^ or Sa^f \ jt^.^"^^ diJ?KJ / Ci^rex r^iIraTa 
communily 1ypes (Younghlcod el li. 19S5 
Padgettelal 1959) These commumlics often 



lis 



h^vi^ hi^hcovE^r BixlixuislBixy oJ ^^j^ 
J^YrjJiJJkJ^rJrtftafT (lo 1hc locL of ro-LfcmLnajKCJ 
mikjng lumping of 1ypc^sccm*i Logu.al 
iHiiKcnctal l?95. Hall bikJ Hanhcn L9?7l 
5 al I ^ dnunmoncli Bna romiTiLiJiLtL^!^^ wi th tbicir 
mixed S al n !ip«. ie> comjxj^i tLon_ may be 
IrBiKLliQnil to olhrr community types 
|kov4lchik \99J\ ]n v^il^oa.Sii^f^. ifln'/iet^sis 
]^ c BHi ly conf Ltscd w]1h ijfr \ Jj iffj[fmxfiiif{Afr£^ 
|\^ ilh whu. bi Lt miy h>brjiJL/tj_ S^jfri ^\lci^mti 
Homctimc^ ciT-LijminBlcs s1 bix1j> mab]ng 
communil> idtnl]ficatLondLf1]cijLt |JBnknv'>l:y- 
Jonra 199T)- 

Thccdaphic ind hydiolopjcjiiluatLons wbuch 
b]]ow Care\ iiIniiif{fiti<^TniaBTV.c ^bto 
piDinolc mBny d]Ffcrcnt Salix'i|KC]c^ 
However. LtiminajKt by iny one SbI]x species 
cbh be tht rc'>Lil1ob many factoni^uLh a^ 
cJc>atLonor^;raz]n^lHall bixJ Hare»cn I997l_ 
TbII w I LLow communi tics ^imj I ar to ijfr^ 
{httitw\otr£i\tiii{f/Ctrr€'Xifincttiakf (often w]th 
high cover anul cijre>tanL"y o^5ifi\:^ 

Saff \ ho<xlhrr / Car^'x ros\ra\£^-Ctir^x {fij^faliili, 
SjJft booihrr / Ci^rex r^iir^m. S^iix g€-v€nana / 
C£^t6'^ rt?Jit{fia^ Sifiix ^iil^ti / Ctircx roiIr£^Ia, 
and Stiiix drttit\iJ\ofr£ir{fii^ / Ctir^x {fzj^ fall ill 
(MLit7_indQuciiu£ L 9S 3, Y oim^bLcKxl cl al 
]9S5 PulgttlctBl. l9S9,HinsenetB]- L995, 
HBlliitl Hansen ]^97- WBlford cut- ]y97. 
K]ttel el al 1995^ Short w]]]owspec]es may 
dominate 4l higbier e]c> atioisi. Sifiix 
jFYrjJiJJi^jFrJrtrrtfT ]'i s^jmctmies prehcnl mshon 
w] I low commijm1]cs sucbi Bill SaliTcandidi/ 
Carex utncuim; 5ali^ fimae^Carex utncuim; 
Bnd SiLix \^ol F]]/C arex nKtrata (Youngblood e1 
Bl- L9S5, Padgett el al i9fl9; Ko> ale hik ] 99-1- 
HBnhenelaL 1995 WBlfordeHL 1997J- 
OlhcrCarcK spn.LKi mBV be more common 
liiijfi Care\ aln<.iikf^a m ^\ mi] BT curuTnuniUc^ 
duelD vanBl]onK i n serai s1 a1 ns o r o1her fac toni- 
TbKc \nclud^^ff^ ho^xlh\r / C{ft6'^ {A{j}itriii\s. 

dntit\iJ\otr£i\tix2ti / C^fr^x s6 0i?AifontT)\ vcrr 
y^FTr^a^jt/E^V^u (YoungbloiKl et it- 19S5 P*dgctt 
el4L-]9S9 ku^ilchik L9S3. HBnhtn tl al 
3995- Hill and HBn>cni997r 

Succe^^n- The ^iiKcc^ionBl origm of ^j^rr 
drttitw\of7£i\trii{f / Carcx tiUicifial^A is not well 



known. Bo^h Safn zitntnt^oii^httxjit bdJ Ctiti^K 
dFPFT^YrVj^J^j (. an b[r eolonucri of fresh mjncral 
aJluvium iHinsenet bI- 1 99-^5, W al ford et ii- 
]99Tj- Thus, when BiluvaumiscKposcd suzh 
as jwst-flcod siLt dcposi Ls amund WLik>wraot> 
OFBftErr B beBverdam bitats- Ihese species may 
invade ALtennteLy Care\ trr^a/J^jftr might 
] nvade on s] 1 1 deposiled ]n open beaver ponds, 
1 hen 4Lk>¥^ I ng ] Bler S al I M Ln>asiana.s the site 
dnes (Mut?- BndQLicamz i9flJ| Another 
hypothecs Utenfiom the simi I ar 5!tJ^j ^ h£tt?\hii 
/ Ctir^x ifiMCifitrJ^A type, ]s 1hat b SaLiK 
communilj exisled before Ihe beaver dam- The 
beaver dim Wis buiH, HcxxJmg theStJ^r^ biH 
nQteLLminBl]ngit,sijbsequenlsLLtitian aJ lowed 
Qjffi"^ j/Jrrt jj^L^F^tf 1o invade, B¥¥ASijff\ 
rrjuvcnated laterrr'oungbluodel al 1985, 
PadgettelaL i9S9J Whatever the ong]n, 
stab]] I ty of the Saff \ iinifnfr7t?ndiafiij / Carex 
dFPFT^Yr^uJ^j commnm ty is i ndie a1ed by ilhick 
accumuLatLon of orgamc mBl1erCKovBichik 
199-lJ- Disturb Bn^e by Livcstoct or be a> er will 
reduce Saff^ iinit^fnt?x2{fiafiij €^yyc^ B¥¥A allow 
^ramim^jds especiiiiy introduced spec les, lo 
increase |MLil£ andQueiroz I9S3J- ]f wallows 
air reduced Inc much beBver will Leave in 
search of fcHxJ anJ ^iii to mainliindams 
washed OLi1 b> storms- The water tible will 
then lower as the slieam dow ncuts and 1 he 
communily w]]] change towaid i dner Str/j-c 
£■ Jf y tij\ J J I ^ J F rJr aii^f / Ctiiam ^fji ro i r j j c ^fii^fiief u r j or 
\hi6'j i^Aiforatjx^f type IHanscn et ii- l^SS- 
Hflnhcncl al i995> 

MaiiB pe men t- Safr x dnit fj m f?TjAaf la / CtircT 
dF^^TL YrVj^J^j (. an be a pnxliK tive commum ty but 
will detrease if soils iie damaged or 
hydiologjc (.ond]1 ions change Forexamptn, 
recitation It^lIs n>ad buildmg, agnt-uJlni? 
(in^ I LKJing drai ning w Lth d] tc hes^, ind livestock 
^r^7J ng efiily dimBge or^ime soils thiough 
compaction and redix tion of wiler bjldin^ 
LBpacity fMuti andQuean^z l^SJ Hoscley et 
aJ L9S4, Hansenel aL i995J- These activ]1ies 
miy ibto L Buse stre ambank sloughi ng as weLL 
as premature soj I dry in^, 1he loss of ^'c^etitive 
piolcclion and cventuBl hv^ of 1 he communily 
Eeavcis are also imporlBnt in miintaimng 
necessBT^' hydrcLogic conJilions Thick shrub 
cover and excessive wetness often Limit 
ac1j>nies in Ihis communily Lavesloc k torage 



119 



viLu^ V :irjQ> wi1h "^LLSon liiid hbilonc iTsf^bLiI 
bothSti/d^ d^i/jHJHii'jjL'Jrtrtatr inci Cw6'\AiIniAil{fia 
arc fB]r to^nod Foragt m tbic*iprin^ |HanhcncL 
aJ_ L?SS_HBiKcnct al 1995} O vcigrizing of 
wi I lo^vs (t^ rtisa> Ihtir vigor ind c an cl i iTi]iiatc 
thrmrromlht '>itc4llDwinggraminoidcnvcr Lo 
increase Thismaj occLU^Mtbn I ate summer 
and fall gra/]n^ regime ^^buch rcducKi ^mLLow 
fL'^rov^ tbi and allows *i«lgcs with tbic]r 
uitlcigKiund nnc! reserves, to laterpn>lifcritc_ 
Til Lb. Long ns I periods are needed to mamlain 
thr communily iHinsenet al. L^5| 
PreHi^ribed hrceffettLvclj rejuvenate"^ ct ad 
clumps bee BiKe ^aI\x Jj d^FJTFJT^t^zJj^JFr^j ^iproiil"^ 
vigDnniBly Bflerflie |quict_hol hresare 
preFcircdover*ilow,CQol bumsj- F]resilso 
]nciTa.'^ C{At6'\ ^Y>T?j L^^Pj^ bill only if ungraj_cd 
before and if ter the Hre IHansen et il_ I995j_ 

|ind Ctjm {fij^faliih and C_ \/esN.an£^) are 
excel Len1 forre-vcgetation over the Icmg-lerm 
HixJ pn3V]de ^od ciosion conliol {tiachen et al. 
1995J- 

Vr ildlUe \ Bluu- In the v^mlcz.Si^tix 

dntiJ\it\ofr£i\tmtr "ibKcts aie beav]ly biuw^ed by 
moose. Thn^LighoLil Ihc year^trJjA 
dntit\iJ\ofr£i\tmtr I't utilized by beaver and 
piovide^ fair forige for el b art] deer 
Songbirds aL^» utilize 5 aJiM s[iee]e'> habilal bor 
feeding and nesting In adJ]tion1o Sal it root 
mishcs, Ihc dere»e C^n'x roiUal^A ^j?rJ Ctrr^'x 
CTfjU^UVjj Rod overhang undeR.ul banks 
creating pnmefi^h habilal fhJajSienel al I9SS; 
Hanhenelal 1995 HaLL and Hm-wn L997, 
WaLfordetaJ L9?7| 

Element Code- CEGU3D26JI 

Editbii/ Author- I99tt-1 L-25/Chrui Murphy 



Suffix ^^£^Au a Shrub Li nd 
(SALCLA) Glaucus willow 

NbIui^] HcFlface Comrrvatloii Rank- 

Env IrDQnicnl- The s] ngle s1 and of Suffix ^ J^NiT^ 
occinredon airejderale to steep upper, noith- 
facing blope, J us1 imheleeot a divide ridge at 



9,9CB fljn Lhe 3 nowc rest R an^^^^ Weobhervcd 
but did nol sample olher eTBm[ile'> of Ihi'f type 
in tticGraveLLy Range. This site was a definite 
soo^v ealehment area \djaceiil associations 
were C arex elynoides tujf and mtJts! slopes 

Vccetathm- Striix gimictr had canopy cover of 
W^-* , ran other shrubs were presenl. Trice 
an^nunls of ^^jtr tr/jtr^Ej^ und Ehyntn iiAff^eitfafixs 
were piesen! but toUl gi^mj noid cover w as 
only L^. Forin cover Wis 60^. Common 
species inc I uded .iiJ^r cr^^rf^^m, fi^'iJijnim 

^iiif^JlJiii^f. Lictiens andinc4i^iCSCDvered7% 
of 1he giouckd surface. 

Soik- Piienl milenaL WBScaLcareoi£> 
sand^lone. ETjKmetl giound and ^;ra>eL 
constHuted6^of ttie*iurtice Dcplhsof hlter 
and duff were I in andO 5 in respec1]veLy 
The high surface organic mailer piobablj 
reflet ti low rale^ of decomjwsition due li> low 
msoLition and I ale snowmel t Percent coaPiO 
fr^gn^ents were >ery different for different 
micio^ites but averaged ?0% For lhe s1 and 
The lextuje of the tme fraction was ^andy 
loim Soil pH Wis 7.6 Orgamc mailer conteni 
was 14^ meanlotiL niliogen w*iCi.31^. and 
C Nr^tbD was2IJ L. 

Praductlvftj- Our estimates air based on onLy 
three pLols jn one si and indstiould be 
con^ideied onLy lough apfuoximatioivi. Stitsx 
giuiKU prodijccd 75^ Lbs^acre. Gr^mjnoid 
pioducl]> ity Wis L 2 1 bs/acre, ind forb 
pioducl]vHy Wis75y Lbs^acre. TolaJ 
piDdi^|]> ity was 1 ,5 30 Lbs^ac re. 

OlherShidIn- \chuff indConn |I9S2^ 
descnbc three communilylype^tbminaled by 
Saffx ^iiuu^A f i~om the C anadiin Rock]cs 
ThL"^e assoc] al ions com aj n olher shrubs 1i e . 
Saff^. t6'Iifia^ {Affiil'o^cfrJiiia) and better 
developed graminoid cover Strilx ^iuiica 
assoc I atioift were observed nc aj treehne ] n the 
FiT^nl RangeofMontani^Houttiot Glacier 
NBl]onal Part {Cooper and Les]CB, peis. obs ). 
.\ssoc] al ions dLi minatetl by Sifiix gfmic^ occur 
ongenlle Lee slopes on lhe east end of the 
Eearlcclh Range |Lesica 1991 J. Common 
underatory species in the^e communities were 



120 



roi'iii {f?r£i Lsipiims arji6'f?tinis in thcEcarlcclh 
Range nf MonUna 4nc1 tbic Rrx. ky N^ountain^ of 
Colorado Sifii:^pkfiifJofr{f and 51 j^^jrw l^^ 
dominated a.'tsj^ i atiuisi found on 4.00L moi^l 
■iLopKi h Bvi ng ] a1c MXiw rclcahc iJuhrariin and 
ELLLii^l96:?,Komartovaii*:1 Webber l^TSJ- 

Ekmrnt Codr- CEGLOOl 1 36 

Elditbu/ Author- 97-10 /S V CKii>erelal 



Si^ih ^ey6ft funa / Cafi^mtigrf^fij^ 

c anaxieff nV S h 1 li b I and 

(SALGEV/CALCANlGcycrs w]1Idw/ 

BIucjdlhI rccdgrBM> 

NatuEBl Hcrlta^ C c iKtrvatton Elank- 

EnvlroH^nt- The SaJij j;£yeri{rfr^/ 
C£^hrfj[agrtyjt\s ^.{AfiiJ^l^isij bstDC 1 atiun c*n be 
fbuixJ in montane hibitaL^ m western Montana 
ITrom valley bottoirei to mid-eLevilion^ in 1he 

moLintain^J and jh the moLintain^ of (.enlril and 
CBHtem N^ on1 Biia [1 !"> frequently fo und on 
aJluvial lcrrat:&i where beiver at: tivily hai 
CTTited 4 series of damn Ihat nbte the local 
WBlcr tabic, aJong *ilieams art] nearsccjwor 
Kfinngs. 5oiK inMZiual I y deep ">■ Lt or '>and 
oveilyi ng more !iind, gravel, or cobbles. Tbu^ 
communily iziually flccds dormg spn ng, wilh 
the water Level withm L m of 1be surface tbieiest 
of 1beyear_ Nearby we11ercommijm1]c*> could 
MK"lu:1e Ci^rex iiIncAifaIiJ.SiJ^i\ jie\-^M£^fr{Af 

WBter, BixJ ncBrbj dner communities could 

Conuij ien<.^A, C^fcTFJTj^^ ^Y>j?r j ^ ^j?r^jdi-7]f j j, 
£■? f^ jEj^jH/jjrtf ^f f^jfwTtr, or /jJFK jjf ^^Mt"rrj_ A 
Mfiety of adj 4cen1 upUnds t-ooLd ot-cor nc ad>y 
ranging fK>m com fer ■:k>minatei:l comiTiijmlJC'> 
to dr>' jihrubl andi ^uch as ^jT^jjij irtr ^jt Jd^rr^j^L'^ 
assoc] a1 ions (liBnsenet aJ L ?S Ij, ]i Bn^en et al 

Ranfe- This rommunity or one very ^Lmjlarto 
It nccuri inMontaoB, Utah, Ne>adB, aixJ IdBbj. 

V ccetuthm- The 5iflr:x £ ^vx^ntixj^^ 

C£^Unj[ag rt?Jiri ^ ^jff^jl^'^ ir t ashoci Bl]on typic al ly 



h«i an ovecstciTy nii^mmBleJ by ^^Vj ^ jq ^^^TL'dTJ^d, 
whiebi occois as large clumps, aixlan 
understory tl:jmmBlcd by C{Akffj[agrt?Jlri 
ctix2tni67ri\i These slinct> ha> e an open 
corncfc r aspcc! 'ifrh\\c Sifirx btx^Miui 
communil]es iie nxire often cloned and ]csb 
easily accessible by large ongul ates iPulgeMet 
bJ_ 19S91 Other willows commonJ> found in 
this eommuni ty areS^Jn h^ttyjiiff BndSijfi\ 
dntT)w\ofr£i\tix2tr^ however. 5!tJ^j^ g^i d^rij^Hj^ is 
clcBriy IhedDmin^nt willow Common 
BssiKiatcd undeislory spec]cs iie CcrrFA 

{ffi^^isii, SVtJj Jtf jL? ^ L'^jjL'^d^urf, and E^NJt^trjJi 
n^-reTiJ^(Hjnsenet aJ [995} 

SImlhr C ftmmuiiilir&- This communily bias 

aJno been dL»cijnicntod in Uuh fPidgett et il. 
19S9J and Idaho |Hall and HBiKen 1^7, 
Youngblood e1 al iyS5y 3 everil sluilies 

(MiiEenetaJ 19S5-HbI1 and Hajihen 19?7) 
incluile in lhjsishociBl]onslBnds^mLnBledby 
StjJ^ ^ ^jwrftrr _ a w]llow 1 hit isfrequenllj b 
cndomi nint wi1h ijfr^ jf t^i-'^TL'^jjL'^- Other 
authois Ce_g Fidget! et bI. 1 9 S?1 separBlc Stj/n 
^^tL7?/jjj-dom]nated sUnds as aseparBic plBnt 
assoc I ation, b Bsenl onslnKtur^l dLffeier^es 
bciVrC^aStiiix h^toihfi nnd Sijfl\ ji6'y6'r2{Afra 
stand*!- KineletaJ fl*^9ttldescnbe aStr/jA 
£ ir\ enuf laSifii x fj[<xf U\t vtJ^ j / C^ j ftiij\ ^ j ^ rostis 
ctrx2trii67ri\i community which hfi an 
undeislory 1hit is si mj I ar to Su^j ^ jt^-d^r^^FKj/ 
C{Ahrfj[agrt?^iri ^.ufiij^li^i'ili but which has Sct/ja 
jFjrwjJr^u^j^ ]n 1 he overslor^' as acodominani 
I nslcBd of StJ^^i h^tt?Uiff In Nevada, Manning 
and Pidgell f 1^95) describe bSu^x ^eii^niifni/ 
K1 esic ^rimi noid assn. lation which is similar 
\r:S£Aff^g^vcntix2 {f/C^fiat fj l? j nxs \Ii c urt t rii67 r j r s 
aJlhi>iigh the undeisloiy of the former ]s 
apparenlly moredjversc. 

S ucee^ii^ n- Sa^i \g^x^n ^fii^f/ C^fi t w 1 l^f ^ ros fis 

^trjatrJd^urf standi Bre FBiiiyslable if the 
hydiolofjc regime rem Bin*i unchanged Kj11el 
el il_ |I?9S| suggest Ihat flooding events ]n 
Saff \^^^ f^fii^f/CiAt 6"^ iftf fc ifial^A communilics 
CBn result J n Hed]men1 dejwsition, which rajses 
the Flcodpl aj n surface higher above the water 
table, .^s the flondpl ai n aggrades . thcsHe 
CDuJd become lesiSituriled.wbch could cause 
the gr^m]n:jjd iinderstory I0 change lowards 



121 



|l9?4^'5tatni tbiBldi-^tincc f R>m the sirt ini 
charuicL LBn chan^^ 1hc degree of -ftj]] 
'>atLiJ4tk>n^ and Ihercby Lnnuencc tbic 
undcntory comjKi^i tion Removal of bcivcr 
fium BSijiI\ ^e\-6'r2{Afiij/Care\ III Hi uf^f^ti ^i^nd 
couJd aJ'OJ c aiisc cuni[)os]1]onal cbiajigc'> 
UnmajnUincd beaver dims c^ouJd bn^alz^ aixJ 
CBiTiC alowcnnpof the ^^atcrUblc ^^but:h 
couJd cause a shift m tbie dorru nint unJcrntoTy 
gruminu]d lowards C^j/friTi^jf ^y^jPj j ^ ^pr^jc^^ ir j 
iHin^nct b]_ [995] 

Maim lament- Cakf?j[agfoiI\s<.afiiJ{l^isij is 
rTHKJeratcly to tu^biJ> piLitible and w]lh high 
^razjng pressure, 1bc vig^r, itpit»dLJC1]> e 
success and competili>c BbiLityot tbs^jrass 
wjII dixiMBSC- EkoI]c pasture ^;ra.'3iessixbia*i 
f^t?£^ pnAl^mi vr ,\grt}jiri iIoif?nrj6't{A mBV Ihcn 
]ncicasc L]>f^hK k ^ra?:i ng ]ii this f>soci4lH>ii 
shouJd be avoided when the soili arc ^^ct ttj 
Bvo]d c huming of 1hc SO]] surf 4ce Sifiix 
j;^e nuf la^ C^fiat h ^fji ro t r j j c '{fii{fii6^ u r j !i 1 b ixis 
cxfKHicdIo heavy biowsi ng pressure iLsuiLly 
sho^^ reduced vigor of the ^mLLow spet le^, such 
BshLghLining c Lubbing-crdcHJ clumps, w]lh 
oenluaL decrease in willow coverage f Hansen 
CHI- 1995)- 

Ekment Code- CEGUDOl 205 

Edhhin/ Author- 99-10-15 / J.Gieeniee, 

MTNHP 



Sa!ix ges^riana/ Ci^fex ifirrcaiafa 
^ Shrubland 
(S.\LGEY /CARUTR) Gcycr's wJllow / 
Beaked Sedge 

Natuntl H crltafe C onRrvuthm E^nk- 

G5/S5 

Env iroaniciil- 7'hcSiil\x gcysnann / Car^'x 
rtincttial^A a.'Cin. i atiou c bu be found ] n rnonlBne 
hib]taS]n western Monlaua |fn^m vaMey 
bottoms to m]d-elc> atLous in the mounUinsI 
BixJ inlhenxiuntainso^cenlriL andeisleTn 
N^onlBua [1 is frequently found on 4iiu^]Bl 
1eiT^(.es where beaver Activity hascieatetl a 
sencs of dams that r^Uie the IocbI water tible. 
Blongslieams and nearsecpsorsprings So]ls 



Bn: usuiLly fine lex lured mineral soils IhBl 
Bccumulate dunng penodu. fluodi ng event>. 
BixJ Ihey mBy hivc i surface orgamc hon7_on 
Soil reac1]on ]s ni^ulnl to moderilely Blkahne 
ipH 7 to 7 5] arkJ thiscomiuuuLty is iiiually 
flooded during spn ng bixJ early summer, with 
1he water level neBr the surface 1 he reslof the 
year. NcBrbj wc11creommum1]es could 
]nclu:Je C{At6'\Ai^r2iAikfia Ti ^j Jr^j /^j J^J^Jf^L■^ or 
open wa1er, Bnd neBiiny dner co mmuni tie^ 
couJd ]DL lude S^fiix ^^i ena^uj/Caf^Afna^ j oilfs 

Df f^ ^JH/Jjrcr ^f f^jfwjtr, or /jJFK jjf ^^Mt"rrT_ A 
variety of adj «.en1 upUnds could occur near1>y 
ringing fn>mconiferi:k>minatedcommunjlJcs 
1o dr>' !ihrubl anck such as ^fTt^jJiJirtr ^JT^Jt^rr^jfa 
Bssoc]a1ions (HBnsenet aJ 1 9S Ij, H Biben et al 
1995J- 

Raiife- This community l^ found in M onl ana 

Idaho eaMem Oregon, UlBh,Nevadi, 
Colorado, and Wyom]ng_ 

VcEetathni- The Sijff\ j^eyen^Affa I C^Arer 
ttOicttial^A LLSsoc I ation ly[i]c b11> ha^ an 
Dven>lDry dom]natei:l by ijfr^ jf d^L f jTL'^jJiJ which 
occun> fi large clumps And an unden>lDiy 
dominated by C^t^x ififfCifial^A. OlherwilFows 
oomnonly founJ in this ci>mmunLty ^rcSifiix 
boDiiill 3ndSifiix{!Hffmmt*iiif{fii{f. Comnwn 
associatetl undeiMory spec]es ire CcrrtA 
tiij^faliili, tjdtrjji fj[acroi?h}lhtit\^^¥¥^Ef}7^ohlAim 
CT^faittiJ\ This community can occur*! a pari 
of B dj>ec^ nxisaic of welUnd typci dependi ng 
on degree Bnd frequency of Flcoding. scounng 
channel changes, Bnd be Bver ac tiv] ty (HBiTien 
em-1995j- 

Simitir CommunHies- Thi^ communily has 
beenJoLUJ]ien1cd b} b number of slmhes ]n 
Dlherweifternstite^ eastern O regon 
{Kovilchil: 19S71 UtahfPadgett el al I9fl9(, 

NevadB (Manmngind Padgett 1995^, Idaho 
|HAllandHmenl997>,€olorBdLi(K]ttelelal 
199flJ,andWyommglChaddeclal I9SS) 
Sever^lstudies (Hinsenet aJ l995,HBlland 
HBiSicn 1 997^ ] ncluile in this issociilion M Bnds 
dominated bySifiuxhr/iMtfii^ b willow Ihatis 
fiequenHy b codominanl wi th 5!tjJj ^ j5d'_h"d'j dVjFKJ_ 
OlherButhoc^ |e_g_ Padgett e1 il_ 1 9 S9^ !iep ajile 
Saff\ /^jr^r^rr-duminalcd staruis as BsefiBnte 



122 



plinL BssocjBUon b flh^l Oil '>LrLK:turBl 
diffcrcnt:e> bct^^ccn Sijfi\ hoty\h\f incl ijfr^ 
j;^ L'nuf^ s1 BDLi^ 

^tand*i arc fajriy stable if 1bc hydrolofjc regime 
rtmai ns uncbiBn^cd Eiowcvcr flcodin^ events 
CBn rciuLt ] n «d]mcn1 dcjw^LtLon, whu. bi raj'H!^ 
1hc Flcxxjp] aj n "iLuf ate higher above thc^^atcr 
1ablc_ .^i the nocKlplainapgracIc*! the-^Hc 
couJd brcomt lesisituriled. ^^beh could eaiise 

I he ^rumiranid undcr^toiy lo change Sim]]Bily_ 
K]ttel 1L?94|states1hatdLslBDLcfr(jmlhc 
^treBm (. hinj>?L c an change the degree of soiJ 
'>aLLiJ4tH>ii^ BixJ tbiereby ] nflLicDLCIhe 
understory comjKi^i tion Removal of bcBver 
fium BSijii\ ^£y6'n£^fiij/Care\ III nm^^^ti ^i^nd 
couJd aJ-ftj c ausc compos]1]onal changes 
UnniajnUmcd beaver dims couJd bn^alz^ aixJ 
CBiZiC alQwenngob tbie ^^aterUble wbuch 
CDuJd cause a shift m tbic dorru nint unJcrntoTy 
gr^miiKi]d iHinsenet b]_ L 91^51 

\]3im|^ mi'nt- Striix £fi ennna / Caret! 
d^^^T^YrVj^J^j sUnct> tijxjsed to hcivy biowsing 
piesiurc LisLiBl]> show reduced vigor of the 
wi I low species suLh as highlining^ clubbings or 
dead 4. LLunps^ wilh evenlual decrease in willow 
covcrigc- Livestock dts1 urb Bnce in drier StjJr ^ 
gir\6'nafiij f Can.'\ rrr^Tfrr/^j Jl^^ startls l an nzsuH 
in I ncreaics in cover of exolic p asLiiri: grasses 

I I ke fty^A pt {fi^isii or.^ rosUi Jit?iofriJ^rti 

Ekmtnt C<fle- CEGL0D12Ci7 



resoLl biom lateral SLibimgilion LhoLighin 
so er^L ] ns1 Bixes Lhislypc was miLetl Lo be 
associatenl with fluvial condilions is nancw 
stnngerot small, TlisI order slrcams This 
communilj Lsiiiually is the moisleslon Ihe 
lociL moislure gradient and grades 1o 
D^ic^iijjTipira C6fip\^t?ja- , FcBpfaii.^isii-Dr 
^rrja^YfT itryrjij/j- dDmiriBled cJ/s of dner 
[x>sitions or more iKiiBlly abruptly gives way to 
the ^Metnma tff{(enkfitr '^p kvut^ trtatr or 
\t I6'mfsia inpar?i^tr / F^iUfi a ixi^fhoeji'iij c_1_ 

^ cgf tathm- Shrub dorrunance on sampled 
ocLUJTtnces VBried between ijf^^ brach'\C'^rf?a 
End S^fii :x pianrjoiia i^-p unknownducto 
1 nopportujie sampling 1 1 mef bikJ both species 
bdJ /"d^EPtf^jJn yy^jrL'/L^j_rJ^tr: 'fddjjL'/tJ were noted to 
be pr4."^n1 m nxist stantt, but coverages never 
exceeded 2(3^ (see comjnen1sl_ The diJinmBnt 
Bspecl of these s1 Bixls IS b solid sw Bid ot mid- 
height gramiDLiids. C{At6'\ ii6^rajiet2sij^ C^jjd^^ 
fmregt^M-iiri Car€t!.sifjriikfIa^Ca^{Afr7ti^toi^fs 
f rntVtf , Dfufj^j^rrj^jjcr cespiUxju and /j/^ehlt/j 
hafli^Aii onJylhefiis1 thee nBmcd are 
BbujidajiL Well represenlcd ^tYAttr/j^m 
^ dY^^^^tr^jHiu ts Ihe dDminBnt forb BndS^TJ6^fo 
j^j Jr^jf J L^ i^jIzj^Jdu . \il6't r>i iT Jtvrr^j^r T Bnd 
^ji jTJEt"/ JT J j^rr L^^jj^ j/T^jyr^ J J/ JH arc frequenlly 
picsen1_oflen well represenled Basb] iieaof 
gr^miDLiii±i and Bboiit lO^-^ Ii11er accounl \dz 
the 20^-^ orthegicmnJ thil \s not acArpclof 
bryophyles- 



Edhhin/Aulhiir-]??9-IO-l5/J Greenlee 
MTNHP 



Safix pfijnif^^itr / C^j f e\ nebras^€ir rZr 

Shrubland 

(SALPAL/CARfJEBl planclcaf willow / 

Nebraska sedge 

Natural Hcrltaci: C onRrvutloii Etank- 



Env Iroumciil- S^tix ^/ujrrjc^^ru / Cai^x 
^ji^j ^ jcfn jr J IS a mi ni>r Lojnmum ty type 
^encrilly CKLumiigissiiiall C<l acre) patches 
in theCenlennial Villey vicini1> on flat or 
^en1ly sloping me Bdnws ind on lower slopes 
with a vanely of aspects. The hi^hwBlcr tables 



Soik- The iipperlO-20cmof profiles have at 
least 3n^ fibious Id hislic oigaiiic miller Bnd 
the remai nJer is a silty or c layey jnineril 
niiten al. m one caiie the minerBl maleriil was a 
3ciii_1hick Uyer I n1CK alated bclweenlwo 
htslic organic laycni Soili were silurBlcd 1o 
1he surface in IbIc July. 

Of her Shfdies- This descnplion should be 
considered preliminBTy is this exact 
comjnunilyljpe hasixi! been dcscn bed 
clsew heie^ m fic t^ 4 misidentificalionot Salix 
spp on our pan CO uld pla4.e i1 wilhiny number 
of ijfr^-dDminBled ci>mmujiity tvpes withC 
Fr^'Aj ^j j^^ur J BsidominanI uixleigiowth 
componen! Youngblocdet aJ fl9S5j 
deicnbe 4 '^Affrjxf^AmJixff^AC t of "low 



123 



cloatLoiis" LnlhcCciil[^niii4l R^ii^e^ liiid 

\ c]]o\^'s1onc Plilriu incl note Ihat C^ti.^x 
ttin^ttial^A and /jj^z^ jj J /^j/ Jr^ du dorru nitt Tht 
unclLTjJiuwIh 1 liL^rcForc biBvin^; li hi^h rr^EMnb- 

lancc to tbuHlypc_ 



Soik- SDll^ arc^il1> ajxJdrcp Tht "furfat-c 
hon/orw Bi^ "^aLinc- MoMoF thcsoiljiurficc is 
birc and ^ravi:l bi abbcfil. 



CoDiniciits- Juilgi n^ by tbic Ln1ciih]vc hDilgi n^ 
of^hcSijfi\ ^pccLKi f iTiilurc ■i|KC]mtre> DLi1 over 
2 dm when [)otL'n1 1 al !"> Im filns) in tbic^c ind 
Bdj «:cn1 SL'd^rf-donii niltd ^1 Biids wc surmi'ic 
1hr wild Lui^uLitE^ picture to be intensive on 
ihE^scsilrs. 5omchumnKxkjii^b>pratCiit but 
not i^iK^u^h lo cieate difhcuLt w Biking CbHIc 
use biBS iK^I yd niailcdly illcml 4.oiii[)osi1]on 
ipolcntnL for crca1 1 ng Potr y^^tr Ff rtir t- ind 
JrtncitJ ftj^JrjVjjf-dnminatcd stancK] 

EkmEnt Code- CEGLMTHP20 

Edhbii/AuCtnr-97-fcO /S V Cccj>crrlal 



\^t^trl{f Shru bland 

(S^^RVER / DlSSPl) black grcascwood / 

jnland silt^riss 

Natural H trltafc C oiKtrvutloii E^nk- 
G4/S2 



Env Ironoicnl- This uiKommon typt ]s found 
on wid^ s1 rcim Icrrac^cs ind Lo'A'cr aJ I uvi al fans 
often in areas of rakarcoLis parent miltnaL 
such aslhcCcntcnniil Valley. Higher Icit^lcs 
w]th IfCi saline soil mBy supporlslBixls 
dominated by SartobQlAH vsr^jwcuiiilta ^r 
Arl6't^f'ila Uiden^^fia lip ^JTJfprr^j^L'd Bnd 
ftrji ^j-jn nrjji it^flh\r or Leytrnfi 67t2Cf6Tti. 
NcBiinj slopes arcdomjnit«J by AM6't^fsIa 
Inii67rtaI{ACTA lMpar?rItr 3nd f^i6^fiiofOi.^g fiL^n a 

VccctBtloii- ^n: ^j/^j Jdu b^TTJiJ^ jj Jl'^Pj/j ]s The 
dominaiH shrub although canopy cover is oflen 
Icsi thin iO^_ Ar?^jriif{f Inii6^iitr\{A Jip 
Ir2ii67rtaI{A ^r^Chfyioih^ffmiifin^fiise^Mi^ arc 
BLtO oflen prcHC 111. Halo phylic g T^^iscs 
] ncluHing £5r jrj\ ftfr J jfn^ r^. FiictftieiUtr xifiia^iSr 
Bixl/or F^Kf _^j?K Ifoff^f dom]nate Ihe groiijxj 
layer Foiins Bie uncommon, anddivcisil> ]s 
low_ L^pidiAifn ii^iJiptynitnr /i^Jj^^jy^Jf^jtdu 
rtiifjionfi ^¥¥.\ ^^rr^rtPr^jJiVj jjiji rrj^Jn ^y^j mB> be 



Other SLiidiLN- M uc^er and Slcwirt |I9S0, 
P-Tfi^-^UIe Ihil tticy have reason 1o believe Ihat 

1hts lypeoceuPi in western MonlBna,bul ttiey 
do nol dcHcnbe ]1. 5]milBr>egclBl]on has been 

dewnbed for eastern Wiihington (Diubenmire 
19701, Colorado IdBho and Oregon 
(Bourgen^n arkd Engelking 1994)_ 

CoQuutnts- San oh^A^tti \^t itwi iffaUi t / 
DrslN-iiffj sJncItr EndSanohiAli^ y^rmUAifaUisI 
raji<xpvrttit\ fJHrJftrr aresimilirlypcs Ihislypc 
mighl aL^» be considcied a saline phase of f^ 
Sar^ohi^Iiti \^tTT\iLiifaIiis/f^tin:<xpvrttTT\ im^jfarr 
c_l_ C nee Comments under ^L'^dtTPicT N J f 
vf J jwr^ ifitiUis f f^tm ^xpv fjiij\ j^rrrf^N jf_ 

Element Code- CEGLO01363 

Edition/ Auttur- 9i»-l lib / 2.V. Cooper. 
MTNHP 



Shrubland ' 
iSARVER/LEYClNiblBckE^BscwDod/ 
bisin wildr^'c 

Natural H crltace ConRrvatloii R^nk- 
G3/S3 



Envlroimiciil- Tbs assnciation 
characlcnsliL al I y occujs m low piecipitation 
areas as compiraUvcl^ n4ri~o^^ bandh along 
nver anJ stream flcod pl^ii^.SurtobQUfs 
vtjjnrcnyuNrj Jslyp]C4ll> found on heavy 
texlui~cd, poorly dramedsBhne or alkaline 
SLilHili^tes- _\eeo rIi n^; 1o M ueggler arkJ S tewarl 
1 1 9 W) cnv]ionmenl bI dis1 1 nclions separBl]ng 
1 his type fium 5ijr? ^'f^jfrri \^MJ\i6ifftiUii/ 
FtiJi<xpvntit\ it^flhrr tiB>eno1 been idenl]ficd 
but 5iff ct?h{fius vcf t^fc ifialAis / L^-^mfi Lin^rsu^ 
dnes BppcBFlo be assot i atctl wi tti be11cr 
drained less ilkalmc soils, such Bsoccur on 
concBveloeslopes fBixlnolonfliLsJ- Ttus 
Bssoc] a1 ion IS d:>CLimentci:l to ocriir thioughoul 
1 he west- fn^m W asbnglon soLi1 h toCilifonua 



124 



ami till to Ntvuda ajxl Wj^oming- 

V cgf tilth) n- Titshock*! of 1 he tall gz3:^ L^syntn 
CTFr^rtiJf compn-^Ln^ at ]cas1 1^-^ t^BDjpy ro>tr 
clb>l I ngui'>h tbu'> B.'>.soc]Bl]onrromlht rrliltd 

or Si?rtt?b{?7Xis vf^ ^rrrfrr/^j Jdu V DriIiLhfrs ilricJiJ 
ansu^: I atioib. ^iii la ihc Strrt-obtrUii 

y^rjTifCifitiUii !"> Itic shrub wilh lht highest 
CDVcrv4lurs^ro]]DW«JcLo'tcly hyAfl^rtriiQ 

tt^i ^j^rrrFFj^ d^rTJj J. Tttt liigc "f hnib ^Ulurc rc]Bl]Vi: 
1o thaloJ thL' aysDC I atcd vegetation c bikl' 1 his 
1y|TC Id bt 1 reeled IS 4 ShrubLincI C1h[Mr comhin- 
cd cover usuiLly DJ1 cicccding ]5^J_ Thck>w 
^hjubs ^fTt^jJiJ Trtr/jTj^ tl^j incl C/efi fL^pJr^JFrr^rjjf 
y^siiiirJfoMfi arc noted to ire. rcisc on diMurbed 
^Ltcs and may have incTccsj>of 10^ cover 
TechniciLlyspeab]ng comb]ncd !ihrub c anopy 
cover ^ilucs are never sufficient |>25^J for 
1 his m be c] BS'^ificd as olher Ihan a '>hiiib herba- 
ccDL£> typc_ I'{fict?;x\-tAim jfJTiihii and^orO^FJTJj? 
kfiic6^ialiis lie Itieoniy ibLirelintgrBJULnoich 
butothcis witbi bgbi consl Bixy inclDJc 
r f £T tiio f tyeg ? rt" na if?l6 ^ j Iti , KtTeie t la fj^ac j ^ j f r r^ tr , 

diversity and cover i"^ higheihcrc Ihan in 
reiilcd^ tfrTJiJiij^L'^^j/T-di>m]natei:11ypcs_ 

driix^ish art] Ji^L'^^fffr^Tf iiecons]stenlly 
piesem in li^4.c iire^unts 

Conmiciits- MLieg^ieiirel Stew an H^SO) 
obwrvc 1 hit overgra/jng causes the decline of 

i?i^t£it?r<}£'gTJ£tn£^ ind thil peisislent heivj use 
can cause the dccirase of A'l^jl-'^tl'^ ^ n jptrr^j inn! 
L^synttJ cfficrcttj. KialLdaL |L97C3|found 
c ally spn ng grajj ng pnorlolhc toot" 
developmcnlalslage li> be very dctri-mcn1 a] to 
i<h"^rrcrj tVrtf J «u_ We ^uspct 1 1hat n^jmc 
piDpoition of thi^ lypc bias been (.onveit-ed to 

iij\lUiff ishociilion thiough overgrBZ]iig in Ihe 
eaiiyspnng bet auhc /"_ j^rrr^/ajj . thi>iigh it ]s 
more [i al al able, is les^ susceptible thani^Firi/T 
nfurrcji'i to the pic^isuies of inappn^pn Ble]> 
1imedgrB£inf. 



EdttiDii/ Author- ^J-l 2-^3 / S.V. Cooper 



Sheuhet^fk^ £^r^efiiea Shrub I and 
fSHEARG) Ihomy buffilobcrry 

Natunt J H crit^ci: C c iKtrvutloii Etank- 

G3G4^S3 



Env IrDDmcnl] Sh^^h^rdifr ^rt genle^r is a minor 
1ype documented only fiom the wetLartii 
between Twi n E ndges and Dillon Valley 
where il occun* in sub irrigated viLley pos] tions 
jii an eMeiKivc Lomplcx rTH>sau. w]1holher 
npanau aixJ wetland ci>nunujiilies. In diK 
landsape^ ^ff ^et^^trtr fiyrir^ pilchily 
disl nbnled co[me:£ W]1 h olher shrub'> the 
]nleivening ground being dmninalcd by 
Fan <x^v tttT)\ jJFjr j/zjr . SjxortAtyius tilnxlii^i art] 
olher me^iL graminout The southwestern M T 
on. ujienccs contrast wj th those of Phillips and 
Valley Counties where il occun> *i smal I standi 
(mostly < 1/5 acre] on the mosl mesic 
pi>sitions often V-'^hapcd ravines il drainage 
headwBleis in a loll i ng upl anis or b Bdlm±i 
lands ape mosaic. This landscape |k:iS]1 ion 
agrees w]1h the obseiv ilions of Hansen et al. 
119*^1 1 who Uigeled npaiian 4iea.s specifically 
and found 1 he t>pe4long1he Sun Milk 
M]ssi>un and YellowstoneRiveis. SUrels 
luigc fiom smal 1 1o large pat4.h and show much 
mlcmHl heleiogenei1> ]n tc1h miciolopogriphy 
and vegetation^ w]1h c^lumpy dislnbulion afS. 
{ff^exjl^ti l^ndolhcr shrubs) Thesmillesl 
stands are not muLh rmire thBn]ndividiiBl 
clumps or nanow slnn^ra of^ j^rj^vFr^u 

Sotk- Soils ajT developed fiom fine-lextnrrd 
aJluvium whereas Ihoseof norlhcaslem 
Monlana are developed fium ^l^ciil dnft or 

shales Several sites were nnted to havegleyed 
and moMled soils. onJ> one sampled stand ]n 
nnnheaslem Montana at 4 diainage headland 
quaJihed is j unsdiclional wetland wilhgleying 
and inol1l]ngwilhin6in of surface. Be]ng 
pF>duclJ>e sik"^. 1hc ground ci>vci ]s pn manly 
Inter, though much bare SOI I ls ex posed ivhctc 
animal IraiLs are concentrated. 



Etmrnt Code- CEGL0D1366 



VccetBtlon: ^l^^^^j Jicr fTFij^d^zP^-u aUllshrub 



125 



|4lo 7 fLIall ]n eastern MTsjLcn aiidio 12 Iq 
13 ft 1b]] inBcavtrhtid Mounl ai ns S action) ]^ 
usually ibunJ^m fomuu^i pilcbi^ 
db>1 ribLi1]on Ji mpiritm ^ffj^yi occrdenlaili , 
Rt?ja v\^o<x{hff [or R. acfcifiani) CT Jtt^f^nn 
^iixr2z^?n^triii may biBvc grcilcr cover bul occur 
111 the Low slirub ] Bytr I n c asLcm M T__ Rfhi.^i 
'ieIoiiffj[ IS consLMcntLy prcscul ay b nud to taLL 
sbuub- The forb liycis fomilwo sampL^I 
■5tand*i were vcr^- di Ffcrcnl, BppBrcnIly 
rcflcc ting differences in Hoi] motsluit The 
wc1-s]1c hcrt> ] Bycr ^^ as domjnat«J by /"r^^j 

BixJ Ehtmfi irtfihyrtrnhn |wcs1einMTj 
wlicrcas 1lic drier si Bnds wcic dLiiuinaled by 
r^ji^xpvtttit\ fjwrj^rr in bolh regions 

Other SI lidfics Fi>rMontanB She^^t^^^^fitr 
cr^ j^rtfftf w as Hnt d«»cnbed m the si>u1lwasl by 
]iBi7ien Bnd EiofTmBn |i9SSr bixJ sub^K^uenliy 
documented lo range from Houthweslem 
Ihidugh central _ to easlem seclions by Hansen 
ctil_|i995) OthernorUiernGreBl FiiiiK 
occ Luiences are dcsc nbetl f roni Norlli D Bko1 b 
(Nelson 1961 andEo]dt eUL ]y7flj andc]1ed 
fium South Dabota (F Bbcr-L angendr^en 199 J) 

Cb^^huIs- A t ]e Bst in eislem Mo nUna due 

in lauckcafie posil]on anJ structure J he^te sties 
Bre heiv]ly uhed by w]]d ungulates For cover 
domesUc si™. k alM>u*ie these si1cs 
piefeienU al ly_ Ei therrtKJihi of Ihcse gnjups ire 
piobabl> ]ni[i]ica1ed]n1he jiiln>duc1]onof 
Eitpihtrhia ^lifitr |leify spurgeflo these mois! 
]i4b]taLslh4l are so TavorBble 1o ] t^ piopagilion. 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLOOl 1 2fl 

EdUbn/ Auftnr- 99-] 2-^3 / S.V. Cooper 
MTWHP 



Dwarf- Shrublands 

induding Dwarf-Shrub 

H erbaceous 



Eiy^nif ^" itrirt-6^^tilit t Dw arf-s h rub 

HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

(ARTASL/ELYLAN)cariy]oft 

sagebrush /ihick-spikc x^'hcalgrBss 

Natural Hcrltace C c nRrvuthtn E^nk- 



Env IroDimciil- .-{ r^tM rf r^ nfhiticulQ jf^ 
^rtJE^j ^fj&u f Ei'\iJ\Aisianri.^x^^IrtJ is found on 
gen1 ly sloping terraces and ]ower slopes of 
B]]uvial fins Bsx^ell as biuBd^low ndgesal 
6iKi-7JB0fl. usuiLlyin areas of c b]c bitouh 
pireiH milenal Adj«:en1 (.ommuni ties on 
mi>ist stieam territes m By be ctimmaled by 

C^j d'^ ^jfL'^n'jcTfr T, Dej^.h^ffJTjx'iia Le'ifXfloia, 
L^\fr7tn il}2ct6^fi ur ftxa jttxjtiJtyiAU Deeper or 
betler-drajned soils are donunitetl byAfl^mil^A 
^r2ii67rtaI{A*^-p.\v}tximx2^ex2ifjr>rA. r^T/^jfTjpj^ 
BixJ Ef\tmfiiax2t-i.^x^{fItnorFejirt^{n{hht?£X2ifs. 

\ ccetBtlon- ,\t let^fjia arinti^i^i^ sifx. 
fL?jj£ j^r^cr ]s 1lie dLiminanI shjub w I th LO-40^ 
CBraupy cover O ther comnxm shrubs inc I uds 
ChtysoI^iat^fUis Fr^jrrjcrtTJjj Bnd C_ '\^itTdIJionxs 
Arl^tt^fsla p7grd£^ is a comnxm subshrub. Gr^*is 
cover was 3C-KI}^. Eivfjrsss ^^iiLeoialm i^ \hc 
dominani taLLgn^a with 10-50^ cover. Olher 
conunon grasses ]iK LlkSc r^tL'^ m-^ J j?rJcr, F 
citjrc^rr ind^ jUjfk j/JtJr^j- Forb cover is only 
CB. ]0^-f . Bnddjvec^Lty is low Highly (.oiSiUnt 
usually poody represent«l forin spec les JDL lude 
Fhiox ^lixodll^ At2^^mtintr fnmofxhviia^ \. 
f?arvipx^f{A and En^^rwi c'Ofjrfxoi\Iifi. Mo^es 
Bre absent, bul lichen*i niB> be conunon. 



Soik- Soils hive 4 silly lDc]Byey te^luie ind 

Bre usually cilcireoiK bixJ perfiaps SB]]ne be 
we]] 30-70^ of Ihe^oilsurfice IS bire Tlicre 



126 



i-i 1 1 LtLc or JMJ surf Bcc gjivd 

Other SI lidks- V^^^clBnnndomin^mlby 

f^aji-oi?vnit^ ]^r[rporlKl forColorBdo 
(Bourgcrtjn andEn^cLbmg 19^4) 

CoDiniciits- This lypL' i^ Liszd by 4nldo|TC ind 
miy be iin[K^rtaiil dctr bixI tLk winter r^ngc 
Sec comments Luxlcr ^j Jd^jwr jj^ jjl^wj / 
r leitiiortTegfrena if?i<.£^kf This asira. lalion 
on. Lus only in Houtbicm Be Bverbeacl County in 
M Dn1 ana 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLMTHPOI 

Edhlon/AuClwr-?9-]L-Lfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



festu<:a idahoensf^ Dwaif-shrub 

HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

(ARTASL / FES[DAl cBriy lovr sa^chru^h 

/Idaho foiCLic 

Natuni] H erltaci.' Ci^nserviiUDn Etask- 



Env IroBiueiil- GcntLi: '>lo]>cs of broxJ Low 
ridf.es aLLiiviiL ^Bnh and Icrrajre^ il 6 .90Q-7,2r»0 
fl mB> ^Lippon vegctition dorrunated by 
AMt^tnrsi^f ^f}l?\i'iiAf}{t sjj}. i<?f\j[iJ£fh^f ind F-t^frw ^j 
rdu^i(X6^isf'i Thislypc usiJiLlyo<:cuis m areas 
orcalciieoiK piicnl mBlenil. S hect eio'>ion ]"> 
evident m many ^iBiKi^ Adj icenl deeper mi^ 
or t>etter-drB]ncd soi Is support A r^efsriir^f 
Ir2£i6^r\akf i\^vw^f*ijl6ffisrs or V£^i6'\-ana and 
F^IiK-iJ iii{?ho4^isii or Fieitiitrr^yegiieria 

TL'/tj/E^td^ur J graduaJ ly mrigesinLo the .^^ ^d^rrr tjVj 

c.l. on lo^er md gentler slopes wilh heavier 
Hoils. 

\ ecetathm- The lJli minani *ihrub is .^^ ^d^^rrr hj^j 
arhAiicifiti s'ip iofrgr^oh^fwMh 10-20"^ canopy 
cover Clin Jo\htiiJ\t2rti kv thliJ^JJ^jj du occun ]n 
most ^tark±i_ ^fTi-mdjrtr Jr: JdirPj^J^j arkJ.-^_ 
^rifxcfflfkf mB> ccc ur when they on. upy 
Bdj icen1 *i1 Bixt> Total gra."^ l anopy cover 
B>erBgesca 40%. Feiiiica f^i^htyexjifj is the 



dominani pj^ss wHh 20-10^ (.over Other 
comnx>n flosses inc I ude Eh-^mfi y^Fr^^vj^trPj/j, 
f^i6Ttiiort?egtrentr if?i^akf AVjfff n^ criilala and 
r^>^ jFtT/FEj^L?. Forb cover is rarely ^ icater thin 
10^-* Common species inclixJe \fiii.^ifujna 
/7ircyof?h}ifa^ G€iitn tnJfouffj[, Lsfuit^ i^wrsii^ 

r^F/^JT JeWJcNj and 7^J ^a^i dFFJT r>£fiCTFKjfF. 

Mo*isc^ Bieriic bul Lu.bien*i are common jn 
some ^tand^ 

Sotk- Si>il^ hive 4 silly loclByey teTlnidnd 
bjet usnaLLy cikireoiK bixJ periiaps SB]]ne bs 
we]] 20-70^ ot Ihe soil ^urf Hc ma^' be bare 

ornovcml ^ith gravel 

Ocher Slirdfics- Similar vegetation his been 
n^portnxJ for XoatiB ^iiiK^ra bixJ Tueller 
]97JJ and Idaho iTLsdaleclal 1965^ andlikclj 

ocLUJS in Wyoming arkJ O rcgDn as \^ ell 
(Bourgen^n arkd Enge]king 19941. 

CoQinieiits- See eomment> under A rlemisii 

ni» i / P^cudjiuegneni sp]c B1 B. InMontana 
this iHsociition i^ kno'A'n onJ> fiom sonthem 
Eeavcihcid County". 

Element Code- CEGLOOl 522 

Edition/ Auttur- 99-] E-t6/ S.V.Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Dwarf -shriih lind 

fARTNOV/PSESPI) black sa^cbnj->h/ 

b]iicbunch whcatgn^s 

NaturaJ Hcrlta£e CfrnstrvutlDU Rask- 

G405/S3 

Envlronmenl- Thi^ type i'> eommon on gentle 
to steep ^]o[ii:'> illu^ial fans and leTraces ] n 
are*! of c a]c aieou*! paren! malenil; genera]]y it 
IS piesen! on slopes ^Mth wjuth- or wes1-facing 
aspects. ]l IS found imheTeixioy Hounlajns 
nor1h1oE*dBerFassal5 5:M)-7,2C>nft 
Cf rcflcu ^jjr J lsdij£ffrtjj or niimjle\iiii 
dominates adjacen! n^ck]erso]ls \M6't^fsia 
In£i67r\akf tvud^trjacror \Metn6'sIa \ndex2ltr\a 
Jri JtrrPj^J^j and F6fs\iitxi rcftj^r^jerrTrf. 
f^ieitiiortTeg^rena ipiral^A or Tj^t^ oi?^ nitn 
STT\ilint dDmbnUcs deeper SOI 1^. 



127 



^ccftBtlDIl- ^j r^'j/ij Tier pr^vfT i^i Ihc dDini n Bnt 
sbuub w I Lbi (.o>trBg«i up 10 40"^ Chnj^xl^iat^- 
fuis fiijifi6^?jttj \ii usuaLLy common Common 
■iLiteihrub^ ] ncLuilc .^^ Jd'jHr Tjj^/^ r£j J^ and 

sprcaliJii wcLL rcprchcnlnJ incl LisuaLLy Ihc 
dominanl pj^K> wilh CBnopy cover of LCMO'S 
Siifxci fPFJTj^J^ arkd Orrzftf?iii h\-tn67r{tf{k^i arc 
highly coRHtanl but gcncT^LLy irc nol c> en wtll 

rcprchcnicd Forin cover i^ spine, biH divcriily 
i-i nxidcratc- Of?Aifr\Ia jxohac^fiil^iij. I'^^ty\ 

jiptt^r and r^-TJTri-TJi^JFr l'^^tlS/t bit often prc- 
EcnL MiV';sc'> irc Bl»icnt ind licbicisi arc rare. 

Soik- Si>ibi hBvcisilly orsBixJy tcxiunz anJ 
arc usuaLLy s1ony, ^biBllow ajxl derived from 
c^BlcBieouh pBi^m matcniL Up to SO^ of Ihc 

^loundmiy be bare or covered w]1 h gi^vc] or 

[Dck 

OtherShidlcs- Mucker and Sle\^4rt|l^lK0 
fliM dcHi: nbcd thi't type for western Montan* as 

I umping tbic ^r^LYJ anJ crr/?jj jl d^^u '>uIk[icc]cs of 
\ {frhiiSLiifti VanoL£> Buthory have 
"iLiteitqucntly rcco^ni^ed the di^ti ncl ecology, if 
notlBxonomy of these ta^B. S]mii4r 
vcgelBl]onhas bten reporlcd for O regon, 
Noadi, I daho_ Coloridn and Wyomjng 
(Bourgen^n anul Enpclking I994j_ 

Coainiciits- Th[^re hay bi:en 4 good deal of 
LonfusLon yLUFJurkJmg 1hc 1 Bxoiximic 
nomenc] a1 uie o^ the low SBgebTi£>bi \Memfiia 

^oiigift?btiin hAoalET}^ Hilchcock ani 

Cronqui^l |L97Jr pLice bI] three ta^i under 
,\M6't^fsIa.£^thiii<.Aif{f. ScbiuLi |I9M| 
recognizee .-^ rPerjTJfd^ ^E^>ku asidietirezt 
'>[iecies but places \Met^ma. iwij^fioh^A afi i 
eiiteipc^: ley of .-^ F?eTJTJfrL'd trti?AiS{ ifia Beetle 
|I9S2^ recognizey aJI Ihree as yep Brite ypecies 
Thui enable nomeixLature h«i caused 
confusion i n 1 he >ege1 Bl]on c Lassj Ficilion 
literilure. 

The cIcHiely leLated \r1eij\ijia ^ritvti / Feslaca 
f{kj^iiX6^isf'i cA. bL»o oi:cun> in southwrs! 
MonlBna, bul we failed lo '>ample iny ^UncLF^ 



Element Code- CECE_00]4T4 

Elditbu/ Author- 99-3 l-tfi/^.V. Cooper P 

Dw aif-shriib I ind 

(ATRGAP /OR YHYMf Gardner's 

siltbueh/indjan nccgras^ 

NaCural Hcrlbce Ctmrrvatloii Rank- 

G3/S3 

Env IrDuacnl- The lype occun>on^leep 
bxJ] and S]1Q> bI elcMlione iiound 5iD0D feet 
E are ^olL cover to1 b]'> bI Leasl60^ andmo'it of 
the rcmai n]ng ground cover IS comprmed of 
coane fr^ments The noil Mjrfice ly unstable 
bccauheot a I ark of Bdequate vegcl Bl]on cover 
ajxJ gully eio'>ion ]"> conuixm 
Parent matenaJy bit Hetlimcnl bi>' F>clLy ajxl 
BO]L> Bie >ery ybiaJlow and p^jody devc loped_ 
SoiK r^nge frjm not grB>eLLy li> >ery gravelly 
and irerejn-CB]cBreou*i_ Teilurey are gcnerillj 
very f]nc (r_g_, siLtycUy loamsj ackJ BvaiLable 
wBler holding cap^cily ih low 

Vcgetatloii- ToUl vcgel a1 ion cover in this 
b*d]ani> 1>pe seldjm exceeds 5^^ 
C biBr*. tenylic species i ncluile _-l ^nixSc k jen ffaih r . 
Cftj yT^jf/?j^j?jdEjj T dKJtrjCT>jjj jj ind Otyz^j?i\i 

Adjacent C Dmrnunllits- Vegc1a1ionon 
adj*Len1 more s1 able y<jj]s jncLuile the .-^ f ^f^ruiin 
in£i6^r\akf /^JCT/L'^wrr>d^£ jjd^nVj jf?ii ^jftr fL/^ on 
non-al k Bline HoiK ind the S^Arioh^Altn 
kf J t^fc ifiaUii //'{fictypy j d^FJT sfmiiifi lypr on 
aJ IziLine yoi Is. 

Other Studies- Tbuy 1>pe biasrejl pn^vioiKly 
been reported jn Montana but has been 
reported inColorBdj and ]y liyted fi 
quH>tLonab]> pieyen! in Oiegon art] Wyomi ng 
iBouigcion and EngcJktng 1994|. 

Element Code- CEGL001444 

Edition/ Author- 99-] L-L6/S-V- Cooper, 
MTNHF 



123 



£irttitw\otr£ir\ WEMCDDlBbLf lor Ihc i r 4b^<MiC[^ or 
lowt:ovcr_ Mcincovcrof ]]chcre>inc1 mosh«> 



Dwarf-shrub I ind 
(CASMFR / CARFAY) Mcncn^s moss- 
he Bthcr/ Piy ban's Midgc 

NaCural HcrUac^ C tmrrvaCloii Elank- 

G2-^ / S2 

Envlronniciil- C^fiilo^Te mi.^f^67rjrtintr / Car^n. 
i?a\som^ Ls LUPLOjnmon in 1ht '>LLK]y arcB 
ocLLunn^; a1 lb? base of gentle rejrtbi- or c i^t- 
ficin^sloprs at 9,403-9 _M0 h in Ihc Anaconda 
BixJ Tobacco Rool ranges This lypc piubablj 
BL»cioccijrs]n the PionccrRangc- ThcscctH] 
piolcclcd SI tcN hivc deep ^no^^ dining the 
w]nlcr, ind releise comes somc^^ ha1 lile m the 
glowing !iC4son_ They ofttn slxiwcd "^igrei of 
fnn^t-chLuni ng ind so]] Hik tLon_ sugg^iUng thBl 
1hcyrcce]>c BiiJ]1]onal upslope moislure. 

]n a mosajc with other '>nowbeJ ishociBl]DRb 

{fntiJ\it\ofr£i\f / Ax2l6^ui{fna ^^ii^ftti Bnd oflcn 
occ Lijs adj Bcent Id nxi]st 1 urf communi ties "^lich 
as ijfr I ^jj ^ Jr^ ^ V r^tJh"£^t^Ej/j7i /?j T^r^rP^tr Jf J arkJ 

jHfj lef^if^fiia / Ccfr^x ^jcn ^wi\i prob BbLy 
experiences e Briier snow release 1hin the other 
mountai n-hcither communilj , ffniUx^xce 
fivrtj^JfTjonrtrf /Ax2l6f*ux{ina fax^alij 

VcEetHrtoii- Mean c anopy covrr of shrubs "fra-s 
6tt4_ C^Ji TJ^j-_^^ JHd'j Jd^urcTJjL? and Slt^fjc ^jj ^ Jr^ ^j 
were the i:k>m]nan1 shrubs, we lefer to tb^ 
communily asCassinpc merten^iain bccauheof 
I ts ^leater Milure and gencT^LLygreBler 
abiiJxJBiKe compared 1o ij^r^_ {Atrlf^^f. 
f^h'i^ioditc'^ glaiiAi^fJlonA waspresen! in one 
stand Me an ^ram]DJ]d cover ^^ as 23^-^, wilh 
C^jj d'^ jtL'^^ jr^r J 1 he clominanl onc_ f^ty^uA^^iii^f 
and Ctir^x j^t^ j^jfl-Jhi wcie common. I^oti 
)£tfui^6fr2afiij ind £5f j^ hat^pira cespiUysn were 
we]] reprcscntetl Lnoncstind- Mean fort cover 

L^ivr^ f^_/^jfrL'^ were common species, and 

wercfiequen! .\iil6^ui{fM{f ^{A?r£^Itr trii^f Jifiicifi 



SdU>- P^ienl mBlen^ls wcrequ^rtEite gnrisF^ 
andgrBnite Biie gn^und ind grive] covered 
] 1"^ of llic surface. whi]e roct cover w as S^_ 
Mc4ndep1]ior]]1ter^^as0.2in ind mean 
deplhof duff was 0_L in Percent coarse 
fragments > aned fiom 9^ to J5*i wilha mean 
of 2J% McBnlextureof thef]ne flection was 
BandycLay. Soil p]i rangetl fiom 5_S 1d 6_2 
with a mean of 6.0 McBn organic matter 
conlent was ]9%_meBn1otaL niliogen was 
0_52*, BndC N ratio was 19 L_ Soils were 
mnderately deep and moisl to wet in Late July 

PriHJuctlvflj- Wc measured produclivi ty in 
only one '>tand. anJ C ass]ope wah d]frLC uJl lo 
c]ip accijra1e]y_ ThiK_oujpF>ducl]onesl]mafcs 
are only rou^h appiuximal ions Shrub 
pioducli>Lty was 237 I bb/acre, graminoid 
piodL^|]>Lty was267 Ib^acre and fori) 
prjduclJvUy was7]2Lb^acre_ Total 
piodL^|]> Lty was 12l6lls/*cie 

Other SI udficv- Associations domi naled by 
C^jf Tj^j-_^^ jHd'fTi'jjfp^j^r^j hBvebeen rejxjiledfcir 
theCanBdianRffl-kies the C asc Bde R ange and 
norlliwesl A-l ontana_ /"/z^VV^^Jr^ d' spp were 
often codaminBnt. S ee dLsciKS]on under 
f^!r'\^iod{tce6't^pi.^nJofmr'i /At2lcfmtrntrf^x2ti\a 
dwarf shrub] and. 

Element Code- CEGLOO] 396 

EditlDii/AuthDr-97-ia /S V Ccxiperelal 



Drya^ ^}ct<jfXFia!a / Car^x ^iy^f_T/^ rj Dwarf- 
shrub HcrbBccous Vcpclation 
(DRYCCT/CARRUPlMounlaJn Bvcns/ 
curiy sedge 

NatutB] H critace Ci^iKervutlDii E^nk- 

04/ S3 



Envlron^nl- This '>paiseLy vegetatetl 
communily 1ype iiccurred on bmad ndge tops, 
stnuJders, '>addles and upper ^]ope'> al 9 ,200- 
9,7t>!3 ft ]n the Pioneer and A naconda ranges 
DiEhnct patterning was appareni, withDj_Lffj 



129 



tK U}jMrfiif{A fomujif. maLs "^Lunjuikfcd by ban^ 
giDundornKk pivcmcn! M bIh wcit n thcr 
ocnJy KpBccdoriligncd Blong 1 he edge of 
^tcppctl tcrricni or w I rkJ iT>wi BBinbcigintI 
Major |I96S| rcjxjn tbia1 Dfytis mBtH]n the Big 
Snowy Ringc of MonI Bna cfcrnonstrilcd 
Bppm. tabic yc Bfty do\^ re>toj>c nxi>cmcnt 
However, w]Dd lo^sil StychPa."^ inGtatter 
Part were rctitively Mible DmAi ^x^ IofX6'kfia / 
C£^t6fx H^td'jr^ J u£tiaJ]y occurred tn i milnTof 
diy ormoiM ttnf communines sue bi ijf Care'j^ 
fffsifitf^lez or C£^rex ici*p^}f^a /f^r/JL^n^ff^^A 
{^vi-^fiffofr^f. This community type l^ closety 
reified ^ty Dty^fi ontyft^tri^A / F^xf'i g^xnrtij\ 
yryri?anifn arkJlhdwo rrny intergradc 
However DfytiJ oiUx^a^£^ / F^x^yg^x^uim 
trvTj^j^nj^rr occurred on wetter !i]1e^ biBd higher 
toUi cover, and had moic species, such as5^j^rj 
reliLiifaJUr I'ohjioiiifm !ipp-, Bnd /"r^^j ^jfj^'rtcr, 
indicative of mjre iuni]c condi1]on.s 

Vecetutloii- Mean cover of dwirf shruhs w ay 
38^ Drvas o<.U}p^a^^ was the only common 
■ibuiib ■ipec]es, C^^ifOfX6' mer^x.^isIa^iiJr 
f^^il£^?h} lloni6'sJhytjhAi?r£itr trnd Sifi\:^ {frrlrca 
cichoccuTred inone'>tanJ Mean f r^mjDLi]d 
cover was ]2% Common ^pccicsi irkzluded 

C£^fafj[iJgrty^i\ipifri?Ait{fic^n, F-tr^rrt^ l^wjil'^ 
l'^jjl'J^wj Ti^ j/^fJl'^ were locally dislnbuled 

I ndividuBlly seldom attain]ugniorelhan^% 
cover. Mean forb cover was oni> 154, Ihc 
second lowesi value aiuong ill commumty 
types 0\}^toi?i^ i^ffJTjxe'iUJi undl'^^^xx 
piif\^fiij\{A were coiumtjn spec les Found inmos! 

ohlifir^ohci, £5r;^j^y^jjjVj jJi^j?rr^j?KJ_ G6^ffjr toisil, 

comnxjn insomeslBnd^ Cover of moiise^ and 
I ic hens w as ies^ 1han [% 

Soik- Pirenl milenal^ were 1 1 meslone. gnitilc 
ajxJ quarlTJie, w I th 1 1 me'>lone [i redjmi nBl]ng. 
Earegmund arkd gravel covered 4fl "^ of Ihe 
surface Meindep1h*i of litter Bnd duff were 
bothO-i in Percent coiise fragments ringed 
fium jJ4 1o544 with a mean of 42-^ 
Tex tuje of 1he fine frac tion > aned fiomsindy 
c]b> to ^mJy ciiy-loam, and mean teMurc wfi 
sandy cLay_ Soil pH ranged fiT>m6_2lo 7_S 



wjlh ameanoJ 7.3 MeBn organic matter 
content was 12^ mcBnloHL niliogen was 
0-34*, BDdCN ratio way 36 L SoiLs 
evidenced p ast ciu^ion events Bnd arc often 
unstable. 5BDd> c]a>-lo4m'tOii'> wbch are 
deri> ed from c Biciieoib pirenl niatenils oflen 
show c> idcDLe of fro*it c biurning- 

Productivftj- O ur estimates Bit based on only 
IhK'cslaniK, Bnd twoo^ tbiese ccc uned on 
barren noii'i denved fn^m fiBTliiiiy 
meUmorpbLmetl limc^Kjnc These 'toii'> likely 

h^vc unusual phy'>io-c bicmic al pi~opcTlies tbiBt 
deter plain estab]]sbin>ent and^rox^lh 
Coiscqucntl^', our [uodiKtion est] miles forlhis 
type iic pn^b BbLy low Shrub pioduct]vily 
^inetl fium44 to65L Ibs^acrc \^Hh b mcBnof 
157 lbs/acre GrBminoidpmductivity rBngcd 
fram ] 5 to S9 Ibs/icit w]th a mean of 3 J lbs/ 
acit E^rb producli> ity varied fiom S to L4S 
lbs/acre with a mean of 43 IIhi^bcit ToUL 
pioducl]>ity ivcrigcd 233 Ibs/Bcir 

Olher Studies- \chuff indConv^ n^S2^ 
descnbc analfune type from the C anuli an 
Rocties dominated by Drr^i ocltrp^tiia ind 
AVj/?n?3rL'^ mmjrrn'>^J« _ hut this commumty hfi 
miny mes]c ^]tc inJicaton> md is more similar 
to our Dn ^jf ot-^t?fX6^{fiii/I'ohjiomffj[ vrvry^j mfn. 
DouflisandELiWi 1 1 977) descnbc £5n ^jf 
tellfield^ fium the North Cisc Bdes of 
Washington 'Bc^\dr^ Dm^s t-^t?fX6^{fia only a 
handful of olhcr ^pcc les, iDLliKJing Feilit<:£^ 
oviii^i and AJJjJddtf^Prcr iTfiftur^Ljiw, were 
comnH>n_ ^shociations domi naled by Drv£^i 
^Uxpe?akf, C^jjd^^ ni^'i^rij, C^jj^^t 6^\fiiXfdci 
and Ccr^fA j^j^tL^cfcvj occur in IheEi^ Snowy 
and n]nt Creek rBn^csof MontaoB fEamber^: 
and Major 1965] ^Ti ^j j ci>mmiini ties in 
G]ac]crPark, MontanB appear com[KHiil]onB]]y 
mlermcdiate between tbKae in the Flint Cmnlz 
Range bikJ those of the Canadian Rockjes 
(Bambcig Bnd Major I9ft2 CbL-Btc and Habctk 
1967 J_ Johnson and Billing^ 1 L 96 2] state Ihat 
Dn l7j ^xc lofxekfiti colonizes w]nd-eiodei:1 sites 
and is very hmiledon the B eartooth PI Bicau of 
south-central M ontana Bnd adj Bcent Wyoming. 
Uitanczyk and Hender«jn ( ] 994J descnbed 
veget Bt]on domi naled by Jl^n l7j ^>^'jL7jtffjL'^ytf ind 
C{At6'^. ^i/^^j^r:"! on steep north slopes below 
scK^wbBnks in Idaho's Lemhi Range 



no 



Cojnnium Lies LlLuniniilcd by Dntis och^jM^fui^A 
and Ctir^'x nipeilrij fn>m the Roc ky Hountai ns 
ofColorBdn irc fihociilHl \^ ilh hi^h levels ot 
CB]c]ijm accDfclinf to KomirlzovB and Webber 
|l979|ajxJ W]llard|l97S|,bul&:ldlerTnini*:1 
Ward C]9S4-JfoLuxJ no such rcLitLonship- 
Feilifiaoy^^iij. GL'Aifn rr>Tjrr. ^fd^rf ck ^jrrJj j and 
Tnfi}^mm ntimffsr are aJso (.oninion in Ihc 
Ccilor^dn repie^cntation of Ihis 1ypc 

Our 1wo fln L^u-dDmi naltd lypes d fi'jjj 

o<.U}p^af{f / r^x^'i gonttit\ VTvry^jj d^FJT appear to be 
It Ihednerand weHerend^of a nwisluic 
gr^ient The former lype pirdomi inlcs in 
relilively dry mounlB]ii rin^f^ of the Central 
HixJ Morlhcrn Rockifs and on Ihe eis1 s]de of 
1he Ca^c4d»>. while Ibe ]a11er type is moic 
comjix>n I n tbie C anacli an Rockies aixJ Ihe 
we11er ranp.es of the Nonhern Rockini (sec 
Ol her S1 udies under D rms ty^ \of?£\£^kf / 

Element Code- CEGLOOl 892 

Edicbn/ Author- 97-10 ; S V Col>pe^e1^l- 



Dwarf-shiub Hcibaccous Vcgdatjon 

(DRYOCT/POLVIVl white dr^-a-s / 

vavipiiDus bislon 



Naturul H erlt^ce C onRrvuthm Etank- 

G3'' / S2 

Enrlromneiit- Thi^ mimr type was found ]u 
bnth tbie ^^^^ttesl^ l^nacondi andMad]'tOU| ind 
dnesi (Tendoyf rinses. SnuLloccunrncesof 
Ihtslype were rested but nnt sampletl mother 
mountain ranp.es Thui vegetation w as 
gencriLLy found on rejrtbieily-fa(. ing gentle Id 
steep slopes. Evidence oF distujijance, 
] ncluHinp so I iflix tion^ si umps and eirthflows^ 
weir aJso common Only Irice amounts of 
rack wereeijKiscd hut gravel ranged fium5 to 

Vecetutloii- M als of Dnuj oi rrj^t/u J^ . rang] ng 
]n cover from 30 to SO^, BndStrilx reJiiAikfta 
(^20% c^ I pn^v]ded thedi^minant aspect of 
lhtsc t Griminoid c*nopy cover w as low, not 



ex4.eei:1ing 5 ^ _ are] conipi>s<Ml ot tbiet-omnun 

turf spec LHi Car6'\ i.'hiioitlej, C. ntp^ilni, and 
Fes^ifiu^xy^f^ as well ^ I'oa aip\?r£^ Average 
forb cover was al^^j [e]a1]veLy low_ 14%. with 
ckimmance shared among the diigni>stic 
species for the iypc^ F^x^yg^xfUit^ wwy^jJd^FJT. ^_ 
hiilof loiii6"i^ Zsji^fdefittj ^^g{A?n andO^Wn'^f 
\^s£'i£ia Other forbs w ith high cons1 aix y . low 
coveripe areJ some depire of fkiel i ty to Ihis 
type weie U^x'i ^fiti i6fnMr*iiJr S^ret fo c r^^uufifir 
Sfjr^£x>\^ikja <.ijh-CT*uJr O\ylropii ^^fn;x€'iUJi ^r^ 
f^^fiAifannrMifxpIen^hJoiiti Twoplolshid 
rmy^ areJ ] ic hen coverages m excess of 50"^ 
aiUjng h> 1he ] mpressLon of i fimooth blanket of 
>epelHion_ 

Soik- Pirenl malenals were limestone ind 
quailzile. \verige Ii11er and duff deplh weie, 
respec tLvely 0_4 ared 0_5 in Coaise fragment 
conlent ranged fiom S to 45^ and averagnxl 
30"^^ Mean lexluralcLassoF the fine friclion 
was sandy c I ay. SolL reaction for cilciieoiK 
BLtes ranged fium 7_4 to 7 6, the lone quait/He 
EampLe w as more thin one pH unit lower at 
6_2_ Mein organic mailer conteni was 25"^, 
mein total ni trogen was 75"^^ , and C :N ra1]D 
wis l&il Thisljpc hadihe highcsl iverige 
oiginic mattered ni1n>gen conlent of iny 
non-wetl aixl communi ty m our study. 

Praductlvftj- O f Ihe Iwo plots clipped, Ihe one 
Irjm the nx-kj site registeretl onl y 54S Ibs^xre 
C-lft^ shrubj whereas the one w]1h only trace 
anxiunts of exposed luck aixlsoiL piuduced 
1239 Ibs/Kie 197% shrub) 

^Xhcr SLudlLi^ Vegel al]on s]miUr 1o Dn ctj 
tx^Ux^a^^ / F£x^\-g£x*uiij\ wwy^jJd^FJT iscomnxm 
]n the Cinadiin Rock]es l-Vhuf^ arel Corns 
]9S2 Hrapko and LiRoL I97flj- Canidian 
lypeshave bghdiveisily of ]]chens4nd mosses 
HixJ are coisiidered succfssional I y malure 
Coixenlnlmg on cilciieoiK subslr^tes of 
several M on1 ana ranges, E amberg and^^4|o^ 
1 1 96S^ sampled manystantfeof what they 
termenl zonal ilpine vegetation, buld]dDDl 
exp]ic]tly giuups1andsintocommum1y t>pes 
On the bis]s of Iheir s1 and Ubies it appeals 
Dn^fi ^xcIofX6fkfia / I'ohjioiiiim utr^jcr^jm is a 
miforc t in Glacier M^liona] Pirk and Big 
Snowy Mounlains. A similar turf type occurs 



131 



jii the Flint CrcctRan^^ in the Ci>loi^i<j 
RocktKi, Wtttircl (1^79^ dcscnbcd moi^t 
fcllftttd (.omnium tt^N ctominatctl by D 
tKV}pi.^taf{A wtthM^nihcBnt ^_ ww^JL^^^YriJi cover 
HixJ lichens ind ithvisjzs but lac^kin^dwHTf 
Saff\ spp . she dcscnbcd dwirt willow 
communincs 4S bc]n^ confined to snnwbcd 
cnv]ronmcnts McGriw C]9S5^fotuxJ IhatD 
tK Uxpe?af{A c^onsisK of at ]c ast lwi> Jisliix t 
ccotypesi tn Atihha one tbiaUKCury m t:oo], 
nx>ist habitats and one tbiBl is found on dry . 
exposed sites Sim]]ajccoty pic differentiation 
would explain the donii nince of £5 orttypc^triiA 
in the re] bUv ely ciKil, nxii-^t ^j vl^u ^jtVr^^JtVtry^j / 
Ft?i'\f^t?nttiJ\ VTVT/^jj jj^rt c t as well sslhedner 



VccelBlhiii- D ^^ arf "^hjubs pnj> ]dc lbc 
dommanl a.'tpecl wilh b me bii cover of 55% 
Fh'\^tod{tt-^6'tnp^nJoffr7\i^r\£} VVjrcT^rjjj^rr 
liOfXiAMiffJT were Lommon in bH four s1 ajxis, 
while /" ^iafiiiifirjfortr and CtiiifOfX6f 
m^Mefisf^fii^f were Lommon in IWD of Ihe 
^tark±i_ HeanpjiminoidLover w4sLow. ZOft- 
J6^iiif6'r2afiij were common grimi noicls 
DCLLunng in all or nxist stantfc. Forts cover was 

consislently present, Ihouph onJy .^ Um^fia 
occLured WLthgreBlerlhinS"^ cover. Mean 
cover of mo^es ind I ic hens w as less thBn ] ft_ 



Element Code- CEGLODl S^ 
Edhh»ii/Au(tnr-97-]0 / S V Cooper et*l- 



Fh s-'H^xi^M. f emj^efrifonffi r /Aniefffrtrriti 

ianaTti Dwarf-sh ru b I and 

(PHYEMP/ANTLANf Moiintijn-hcilhcr 

/ woolly pussvtocs 

Natural H trltafi: C oiKtrvutloii E^nk- 
G3/S3 

EnvlroB^nl- fin Ihxdtxi'if ^r7ff^£f^ dln^j mis / 
Anletrn^rnir Ji^fiiilii was Ira. ally common on 
gcn1 le to moderBle picHecled slopes between 
9,2Ki and 10 100 Fl in Ihe Anacondi, M idison 
BixJ Pioneer ranges, assoc] Bled w]1h crystalline 
pireni m Biennis in Ihese wc11cr rBnges of our 
stiidy irea. Thesesites are undoubtedly well 
coveird by snow dunng Ihe winter, art] melt 
off piobibly occurs lelatLvely lateinlhc 
season, BUhough not aslBic «i inlheCcrrQ: 
Fn^r^^^j^uc t In BckJjl ion lo other snowbed 
Bssoc I ations suzh 3:i Car^x nr^ncatJi ^¥)d 
JitncitJ ^Hffj[fmxfiihf /.\iil£t*uj^n{f f^fii^iia^ 
r^Fi^/rtcfarF empetnformis /Aniennina linBlB 
often grades lo mj ist turf communities su: h as 

CarcxscirpoidcBy ijtTjm roiiii. A lyp]CBl 
loposeqiiCDLC on a lee slope might /w Car^x 
lii fjxoid6^f / G6Ttfj[ roiJii on Ihe lower slope . 

B1 Ihe base of 1he slope, ivtJ^ Care\ FN^r^i^j^ri in 
1he tti1lDm_ 



Sotk- PiienI lUBlenals were gT^mle and 
quarlzilc. Coverof baiegiound BixJgrBvel was 
15^^ w]lh SW cover of lock Mean depths of 
litter ind duFf v^re bothO 1 in_ Feitenl co Bise 
fragn>LNits > ancd fiom 0^ to 14^ wilhi mein 
of7^_ Mean tei! uie of Ihe fine frBC1]on w as 
sandy c lay-lo am Si>il reaction rBnf.ed frjm fi 
1o6.4 wi1h a mean pHof 6.1 McBnoiginic 
mailer conlent was 14^ mein total nitrogen 
wasO 30^^,indC:N rBl]owas2J 1_ Soils 
u¥¥^rz\yin^'^. Phylfty^ioie ^j[fX6fInJ(xnjrii were 
rrldlively deep ind generally still moisl in late 
July 

Pnductlvflj- We mcisurcd produclivity in 
onl> twoslBnds and the heather spcc]es proved 
difficull to c lip ace ujately Thus, our 
pioduclioneslimates are only rough 
BppioximatioiSi. Mean shrub pnKliK li v]1y was 
166 lbs/acre GrBminoidprcxJixtivity had a 
mean of [3? Ibs^acre and forb produclivity had 
B meanof 104 Ib^Jacre. Mean total 
piodi^hvity was 40J IhiJacTr. 

Other SI udk.'v- MounI Bin- heather communities 
sirm I ar to fh\ fioditr^ 6^ni?eUj)tynj[ii / 
A^rJetJffiAMiA iufiiJkf hBvebeen reported far 
B anff and Jasper national parks in Ihe 
Canadian Rockies by .\c huff and Corns [19Z1} 
BixJ Hrapko andLaRoi (l^TS). The Canadian 
1ypes had similar compos]1 ion_ but rhy^^oiioce 
^iafiiiiifrj^of a and Ctiurt^jf mffTi-Ta jjVj^f^j were 
1hedi>minan1 healhrrspcties- Moun1a]n- 
heathercommuni1]es from Ihe Norlh C ascades 



132 



of W a.^hin^lQn arc nioic si milir 1o L?j/r 

CT>ouglas I972_[>ciuglas iixJ B]]^^ 197T)_ 
Wbiciras Dou^] bs 1 1 ?72l comhi na> ill 
^Jn jy^jcftjcv- and Ctf jjrpjtd'-ttimi nilcd 
assuc] Bl]niK ] nK> one commumly typt. [>Qugl a.^ 
and B]]^ C]977^clcs]gna1c!icparBlccommijm1y 

type domi nilcd by Fh\i^oiio<.i^^rtf?e\nJf?njriir 
rh'\fiod{tc'^giandAif\Jfot{f BncI C^Aisuxpi^ 
t^cMet^if^fii^f. I n the North C asc adcs wbicir 
"f ruw [1 Bck ]"> niLich hLgh[rr 1han mos1 iieasof 
the nonhcm Rockies, Ihcsc (.ommuml ic^ bit 
notronfLncd kj arc as of Litc^no^^ rclc4sc_ 
Apirt fnjm lbcsc "^tLiclits CIk^iIe^ and limbeck's 
|I967) mention nf 4 similar lypr at Lo^inPas^ 
inGlac^icrNational PBTlin northv^cst N^onl Bna 
IS the only other rcfcrcnt^c loheatbicr- 
dominatcd communi1]C'> Thus nioLuiULn- 
heatbicr aysuc I atioisi appear to be confined Id 
the nioLintaLre> DLiilh Bnci wcsl of our MixJy Brea 

Ekmtnt L ode- CEGLOOl-105 

EdUhin/Auihiir-97-10 /S VCoopcrct J. 



Dwarf -shrub LincI 

(S.^LRET/CALLEP|snov. wJlLow/ 

miTsh mBngoLd 



Natuntl H trltace ConRrvuthm E^nk- 

G3/S2 

Env Iroaniciil- Samplenl in only thcTend^y 
and Gravelly ranges, ^^^rj reU<.iifa}Q / CQlJha 
fefxUMe^Qj^f appcBis to be aminorlype 
env] ronmcm B]]y Bnd flon^licilly rel ated to 
SiJ^t! an-fN-u / f^tyi'\gt?x2rtfjr hii^ofItyiii6'i The 
rel4li>e pauci1> of Ihisc 1 can be expl ai ned, il 
least ]ii pirt, by lack of Bpfiiopnate habitat fie , 
genllek>^tecp nonh-fBuin^ !ik>pcsV Skipes 
with thi'> aspect Bnd fioshe^ing a noil coBiitLe 
Bre ni>t comnxiii in the p rednmi nBntLy north- 
Houth IrcnLling rBn^es oF the s1udy are*. Slopes 
with northerly' aspec ts did occ ur as spur ndges 
butoflen they ivEicmcrcly boulder fields. 
Bo1 h ^tarnii c B ipctetl bcHvc noiifliK tion slopes 
Bnd ^^ere MibiingBled frjjn ] Ble-pcisistLnf 
^no^^ fields Ly I ng ibove O^lensj biy Ihese ^i tes 
couJd be as wet 4S Cfrrt'A Kujtd^fPFT/JH / C Bi1ha 
leph>scp b] B, diffenn^ by lacking '>tafnanl water 



and posM^^ing bolh unstable ^ubslrBles ind 
poEiibly long-pcisi^Ung ^ni>w picks 

Vc£ctutloii- The pre^ iiling aspcc! of thi^c_t_ 
was B LiEhgrecn cirpe! of dwBif^hrub species 
(iverigecc 7C3%J, Bmong ^^ hich StJ^r ^ 
reliiAif^ia [=S FN wj J^ j) WAS ck^rru ii4n1 . bul 
Sij^f\ f oiimdifo^f^f (=Sifiix{^x{f^e{fii£^) undSaiix 
arclrctr bL»o figure piominenlly The 
gruminoid comjKiiienI wfi sparse, nol 
exceeding 20ft c c_ wi th Ctirt^ fc^i-J^Ejj, 
C^jd^i *iix\^f, C{At6'x Jtitp^xfA^Ur Dej<.ii{ffjrfxsia 
c'^ipilt?^a. LsiZJ^kf 'ijxfc'^fta and /"r^^j ^jff^'jiL'^ 
hivjngil Leasl5^cc in one or more s1 Bnii> 
Averaging 2L^c_c . Ca^lh^ leixJoie^tii^A ^vas a 
diagnostic species foni y forin with LOO"^ 
constancy) and it along wilh Sr^^-vz^ L'^^Ttiyn, 
were theonl^' forhi* wUh morc than 10% 
coverage- 

Sotk- Both s1 Bixl^ ^^ ere developed on 
1 1 meslone bul were notably low incoiise 
frogmen! conlent 1< lOft) Li1 ter and duff 
dep1 hs were lesj> lhan 5 1 n_ Mean soi I lexlurc 
wascUy De^pHe the wet corkJitions soil 
reaction was 1yp ic aJ for c BicaieoiZi subslrales 
|7 5 avera^el Meanoi^anic matter conlent 
was 15^ mcBnlotal niliugcn was 0.40% , and 
C N ralio was 24:1 

Pniductlvftj- The v/idc ran^ e in pn^duclivity. 
517-1 670lbs/acic despite1he^imjlanl> of 
iLte parametec^, j^ pam> eitplained by the fac1 
lhal the low-piodiKtivily ^itehadeitpcrienced 
^now relea!iejuj>t pnonosamplin^- The higher 
figure would be morelypicBl fonhecJ- The 
'>hiiib frac tLon oflolal piodi^tion was 56% and 
7SS- 

OtherSLiidk^ Slancisdominalcdby Gi/jJur 

'>LgnLflcanlcontnbuticinby ^Jn crmpj^uand 
Sa^f\ f6^fCifia\{A are occasionally found in 
Blpine seepage areas in Ihe Canadian Rockies 
lAchuff and Comh l?S2l Johnson and 
Billings 119621 descnbe for the Beartooth 
Range '>mall areasof ^oil rio'>t dislnrbance 
dominated by5ifirx£^tcIfi£^OTS j d'Jj^ jj/trru and 
Trifix^iAim fxa* xy? They infer 1hese sHes to be in 
BneBilystafeorrecolonizalion Bnd dene nbe ran 
ini>re exiensive communities with dwarf Salix 



133 



'>pp LlmnLniinL Oursj1c4> etc liki^ tbKVtJ^oJ tbic 
Bcarlooth Range bul cli'>turb bdlc IsqI i fl uclion 
HDdcoiif.c]]LurbBl]on^ his apparently oc^currcd 
Dili mixbiLar^crHi^aJc- Willird f 19791 
dnjnbcs Blpinc mBislKS inCoLoridn RcK^ini 
dominated by C{frc:i uoi?AilorttiJ\ bixJ CaiJhtr 
^6^ioseptita-wi^'hS£AffX{At6lIi{A aroinmon 
species (sec discission urkdcr Ctr rcT 
iiOi?AihytttiJ\ / CtiiJh^f ^eptt?jejx{fia). In her 
Calor^do study arca^ r^ Jj^jj^ctJj^ is apparcnliy 
raic 

Ekmrnl Cock- CEGiJX)1435 

Edition/ Author- ?7 -10 ;S V Cooper cHL 



iij\i\iiif az Elvfjriih Itinc^yii^Iifi). TbiBl ^fT4.-TJN"jrtf 
ranzr / Ei'imAis it^u hycmififi \vould cons1] tulc a 
grajj ng "di^ LimBx" ]s somcwhit improbBbLc 
given thit £h ^rtrri JrtJ^'/E^£ ^jfr/j/j Ls onJy sLiphBly 
]c^ pBiBlBblelhanlhchifhLy palatablL' 
FtiJiopvtttit\ fjwrrftrr one ^^^ouLd rejl cipct t one 
species lobe so highJj dLffercnlially pji/^ 
thit It wouJdbt >LrtuBii> e]]inLna1cd aixJ yc1 4 
compimon spn. Lcs would remain in b v]gLinjLis 
condilion. The \r?i.'fjrii\ti t-zrntr / f^iAicofxymm 
iimUiff 1ype is common in soulhwe^tem 
hlonlBiia^bul is oflen highly imparled by 
gra^jngind "converted" to .^rt fin Jirtr tirntr / 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLMTHP37 



H erbac€ous V^etation 

with a Sparse ra eedle- 

leaved or microphyllus 

Evergreen Shrub Layer 



Shmh Herbaceous VcgclBtion 

(ARTC AN /ELYTRA) silver sage / 

be aided whcBtgrass 

Natuntl H crltagt C omtrvutloii E^nk- 

C^/S"^ 



EnviroB^nl- This i*^ a very minor vegetation 
component found on lerraces ^MtfcvaJlcy 
Intteinn and fans On tbie Red Rocbi LBkc 
NBl]onal Wild]]fc Refuge wcnolcd i numlwr 
of very "^niB]] irc as where Eh jn n j Jrac^mmttwi 
|syn_ ^£ ^Y>^ji J L^jj i ^j?rj jJd^FJT) consli tilled 1 he 
dominanlgr^minoid loxJer a iigbil eanop> (10- 
20"^* cover] of ^fTi-mjjrtr canti I'oajmcijzriia 
End I^oa citJirhr arecommonJy assoc] a1cd w]1 h 
1 his eommuni ty_ The fort> comjKiJienl is 
dcpBuperitc and composed of iix re ascr specjes 
si^h as ^chliix^A ij\fiiiJ^}^iAim, Afl6ft^fsi£^ 
hfiiovniafiiJr Trtigtyptyj^oii iiifbfifi art] 

VcEetaf ion- This lypc hisrw^l been Hie«. n bed 
elsewhere bjxJ may repre^enl a nerBl si Bge of 
At I6't^fsla i ^j^r^j / ras6 of?^ ^/jh imrliui 
{klcnlificd by tbiedominire.eof rj^j^^jy^^^jm 



Edition/ Aultur- ^-11-16/ 5 V.Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Ariemist£^ ttrprtr/f-Fh-fcrfL? rJj^frj'KTr h."j ^" Sh i u b 

HcrbBLcous Vcgdatjon 

(.ARTCAN/FES[DAfSli^crsBgc/ Idaho 

fc^uc 



Natural H trltace C (^mtrvutlon R^nk- 

Env ironiiiciil- This pLan1 association wa.'t finl 
rumcd by M urggler and S tewajl f I9S0J and 
dcscnbed Bsoceumnginsouthwcsleni 
MonlBna |YeLLowstonePBik vicinily] is-^mall 
pitcbiesondeep k>amy. aLLuvi4i'«>ik aJong 
mountain sireams ibove6.000 fret elevation 
]loccun> as b vci^' mi nor I Bndsc Bj>e comjxjnenl 
onlheRRLNWLR assoc i atctl w i th viituaJ ly 
]di:ntical enviionmentaL parBmeten> fi 
dcscnbedbyMiicgglerandSlewBil ^]9S0J for 
Ihe type 4l Large 

^ ccetBtbn- VegeUlioncompo!iil}on s thil of 
1he iTH>rc niois! [kihIia^t^ of f he A rf£fM\mr 

hjh] tat lype, with bghcovcr |> _10-4O^^l for 
F«ft«^ jcftj Jr^jerrTJf and > an able cover of other 
incs]c gi^mjDLi]i:is inc]ixJ]ng Erotnifi c^fntialifir 

Efi ^rrjjj Jnjt Jn i ^jrr/jjf |syn_ .^r^j^^ rr^a 
t~fT^r^zj/jFj J. The shiub component^ which 
generiLLy tfcies nol eiceed 15-20 "^ CBraup^' 
cover, LsdLiminBlcdhy \rU^mi\tr ctin^fwMh 



134 



Inii6^rtaIiA H>p_ vajxrv^A^ra The foiin Lomponcnl 
]s rich with Geran\itTT\ wf^ujri jjfjtj/jh_ 
r^r^rtft JJrt £ ^tK jVjj. ijftrjji PjtJJ^jj d^FJT, End 
A^oi6fnj gkfiicrr contnbLi! i ng 1hc grca1e>t 
cover the mob>1e>t ^1 t«i "support apprcciibic 
Brnjunt: of /*^jfi ^^jFNJJH hfiUyr^orA^i ark3Cn^'F_r 

m\^^ifoffiffjr arkJ Ttijoffiffsr "^pp ha>c hifh cover 
whtrcgrizinf his aLtErrcd (:onimuni1]C'> 

Ekmrnt Lodt- CEGLOOI 552 

EdiClon/ Author- 99-] L-L6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Arli-mf^^A ctrfftr / f^xA ^j ^ l^ Jt-rr vj v S h i u b 

Hcrbflccous Vcgdatjon 

(ARTCAN/FOAPRAl siUcrsigc/ 

Kentucky bluci^rBss 



Natural H trltafi: C oiKtrvutloii R^nk- 

Envlronmciil- irft^fM\mr c^rn^r / P<?a jtrQletffrs 
]^ agrBzinf indiiccd dL^cli^laT"clf any oncof 
B numbtrof [i] ajil asioc i atioisi inclixljiig 
At I6't^fsla i ^j?r^j / FciJ^rK ^j l£itihoi.^sij, Af fd^rer jj^ 
cana / EhTTMii Itcft-hyc^ih^ ur ZDfXi^ piobibly 
Arie/Tif sin ciAffiA / f^^j<:x}^vrttij\ uwrJ^rr- W]thin 
gicatcr hQulhwfsltm AJ^jFrr^pr^j ^ jT^'j? i j jjj^ ^j^^zj^ / 
TcTJ^ ^^^ pYriJi jJFjrr^rr ls tbic mosi abundant 
BsscK] a1]on djiTiLriBlcd by \Metnfsia<:{AfiiJ 
Hbjuph w] thin lhii region the typcisitlativcly 
sc arccf, prc^Lunablj thcCcnIcnmB] Valley is 
not umqiic so 1 hi! ^rrwj^ \r?i.^mir^ cxinti / I^oti 
f?rti\enii^ would bcnfcrivcd fiT>m ovcrgrBZ]ng 
of .^^ I^rtrifiA c^fii^f / PiAii ofyi njjw jfnilhii. 
UsLiBlly on. Lunng asslnngcison the fin>t lor 
Sixond) IciT^cc up fiom small nxiunlajn 
strcBm*!, th«»c comnium! ics ™.(. upy nicsic Iq 
wdsilcs wLthdccp BlluvjaJsoLls. 

^ccctutlon- In the moic «> crc ciscs of 
convection" 1 he "K atttrcd ^hnib caraupy 
|combi ncd cover <20^ 1 of \r?efmirtr c^fii^f and 
occ asionilly .^ fjf Jfprr^jjL? ssp vase'i^ixaQTA 
^n" Jdir^j^J^j ssp_ fjT JtTjr^j^L'^ IS ]iuposcd over i 
sw and of r^tL'^ ^^j L'^^fFriJj ind Tn/r^jjjJH spp_ In 
loss I mpac Idil stands grimi noid rciunautsof 
p4*il vegetation, such 4S Carxn. y^r^JiL'^^cr, 



Brwmfi 6'itiaiifi crSfifx^ ci\.iii6^iiaflj -w\\\ be 
present- Co\cr ^orA£hrff6^n^fffifo^uifjr, 

j^L'tfjtw appean>1o i nciea.'s under 1hcsc 
conditioiTi; w here dts1 urb Bnce hay been severe 
Tijrax^fi Aim xyfffiixjtriL' c Bn fonn 4 > irtiiBlly 
CO nlinuDifi CArpel /often wi th rrr^t/jjj^rr spp.) 

HJement Cade- C EGLM THP J 1^ 

EdlUDn/Aua»r-99-t]-l6/S.V Cooper, 
MTNHP 



fe^iii^a id{ih{?£'X2\f\ Shnib HcrbAccou& 

VcgctBtion 

(ARTTSV /FESIDM mounlBin big 

sagcbnEh /Idiho fescue 

fVBhirai Herib^eConseriBUon Ranb- 

G5/S4 

Environment- Ar1cniLS]B tnden1a1a'^p 
V asi^yina/Fc^tuc B itl Bbjeraits is common on 
slopes Bnd upper terrices at h,CXK)-S 500 fl 
Ihn^iighont Ihestudy areB. Pirenl malcnib 
inc. I liJiMl limes1one.quar1z]1c vxj k anic, ignroiis 
ind aJluviiun Adj Bccnt cooler slopes support 
Fs^Afd^fliAf^i^ m^jFtdfTjj or Pj Jjdu_/Jc^j7jj foie^t>_ 
Si1es wilh shallow hoiI areoflendDminBledby 
C^rcocarjnn ie£i\)oiiu^. Nearly level sites of 
IrrTBces wilh finer teMurcd sa:ii]z miy be 
d^mi niled by Af I6fj7iislij Indenlatu sip 
indeiiiala. 

VrfclaUon- A r^^rrr ir^j r^c^^^frru ssp vi^ieyaua 

is IhedDminBut "^hjub with canopy cover of 10- 
70%_ Cft^3 foP^^rtFNJf M JCTcfi/?^>rTj J Ls Ibe only 
othrrfiequ^nl and common shrub. Griss cover 
isgenerBlly high. Fi'jirt^^f i£i^iioi.^isIj is the 
dDmmint grass with moBU CBixipy cover of 
4S%. Olber common grT^cs are ^m-iJL'it- 
roegfrena i^i-akf {A?r£i !CiX6^6'r2a i nmi^tr. Fort>y 
ire generally abundani anddiveisi1> ]s 
mod^nle to bgh Con^nicmspL'cies incliKic 
AL^r^^fiu fmiii-^xilAim, .\iil6^ui{fn{f fjth ^Y^Jn iia^ 
Ef J J F^' j^ yv} txij\ J J ] ^ ^rt f r T . En ty^ t?n r tm 
w^heiialAim, G^tit\ OiJioMfm and T-tiryj-nK d^FJT 
^xjfliixjai^. MiveiL^irc uncommon ]n mosi 
siBixis Par1]culirly mesics]1cs bI bgher 



135 



do atLO ITS biiivt ii>bu*il fj4*s»«> ^uch asflr^j^rrrrh 

coverage of me>ic fortHi-iuzh bs G^t^fimifj^ 

Iriponit^ And f^t?i^ilfii£^ j^ratiffs 

Sotk- Soll^ hBvci loBmy tr^luic incl arc 
^jcncriLLy dccp_ Uplo 30"^ of 1hc ^mund irny 
be bire GrBvtl ]^ uncorruimn or absent 

OthcrShidlcs- Mucker and Slcw4rt|l91K0 
dcicnbc thi'f 1y|K forwe>tcmMonlBna 
Sim]] Br vegetation hay bccnreporlcdforaLL 
'>tat4!s m tbic NoTlhcm Rocky MounlBiiSi and 
] nlermoLuitaLn M B1Q> iBouigcion bixJ Bngclking 
]S94). Murkier and Stcwajl ( 1 9 SOj dj-K lhs 
howlhcsc BHSoc] Bl]onK differ Fn>m thcac m 
W an1 ana 

Commcnb- Ma>ic starut '>uppDMing *n 
BbLuulajri-f of lo biKt ^r^'fse'> incl forti'>i'i 
core>LdcmJ Ihc Gerufuw^ wjtf^jjj tj jjuj^rt phase 
of1hc1ypclMucgf|cr bixI Sle^^irt ]9S0i_ 

Elk BixJ mule deer Bre cnmrnon in Ihe^c 
hib]laK Pocket gopbicis arc cv]dcnl income 
'>tancl5 

EtQuat Code- CEGLJ3D15J3 

EdUlon/ Author- ?9-]E-t6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



ArT i?^?E FT^d U fiii-'irkila ^'i/? wv^nm^i'n^is / 

F^eAi£iof{?£'^netiij s{iiLtil{A Shiub 

HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

(ARTTSW/PSESFIl^'yomLng bjg 

EBgcbnish /blucbLinch whcilgrass 

Natui^l HcrUace C onKrvutloii E^nk- 

G4/SJ 



EnvlrDDmcnl- Gentry !ilop]iig alLiiv LiL fins Bnd 
leiT^ccs miy supjwn sUnds of .^ j Jd-jrrd tjj^ 

P f£\iJtxroegr}en^ fixualn. The single sample 
^tarttlwasil 7 .-KX) ft, but IhL^ typcmighl be 
cxpcc1ed1ooccLuat5,CXK)-7.500fl_ _\dja(.cnt 
^tacKti w I tbi heB> Lcr soLb> mJ fxior drainage die 
dominated by A t'9efj[ii\ a {frhAu^ifia isp. 
foiigift?btr and Efytmfi ia^Ke^ix^^ftm r>z Fe'iiiicG 



\{kj^iiX6^isf'i Of L^fr7tn cfficrt^ih aiid^^Jtr 
jifiicfJof\{f. Adj Bccnt slopes wi1h deeper Hoi]^ 
jiny supjxjil sUnd*i donu intcd byAM6't^fsIa 

VccetBtkm- ^fTfjJiJ irtr Inderff^if? wp 
v\^'\Ofr7\?r^ctrjii is the dominant shrub wi1h a 
cover of a1 Ic4s1 10^. in 1he coujse of 
rcconnaj^ire.e cover w as reeled 1o > ir>' fmm 
5-10^.^ (in 1hc e^tabli^hmenl phase] lo Si^ 
pim msUnJh bieBviLy impacted by ^r^zmg 
Chtysolhat^fUi'i spp may also be presenL 
Griss cover miv be as high as W)^-^ ind 
r i6Ttiiorty£g?r6'na ipii akf fj 1 he dLunmanl 
species F^x^f ii.^Aifr{itr and ^r^i^Ttrn? t^j^J^j arc 
olher bugbi coiTil Bre.y grasses w]1h li^ht gra£]ng 
Iheviie poorly represenled biH increase 
HomewbiBl in p nipodion lo ]ix reasi ng ^rB£]iig 
piesurc. Common forbs ]ix LLK3e r^L?A ^>o^7 
iixl \fi^cfmtrntr mrctofxhviitr Moshe^ iixJ 
lichens Bie onc^ommon or absent 

Soik- SoiLs are silly m texlore. Mishof the 
sujfat^e is bare, and surf Bce gravel is common 

Other Sludkv- VegelBl]ondoniin4ledb> 

AMemfsIa\ndex2^ti\av/uxt^ff?^i'f?if\ ind 
Fs6Ttiiortx6'^tr£.'na i^iukf n d\:^icnbcd for 
western MonlBna by Miiegf ler and Slewirt 
|l9&3Jwhodj not differentiate betv^een sub- 
species H7 wjTidrt^^rtfr J and tufd^rarttf _ 
Joigcnhen 1 1 979) descnbes Ihis type for cenlriL 
Montina This lype bias ilso been reportenl for 
Washington Oiegon Nevida. Idiho, Wyo- 
ming and Colorado lEouigeiun and EngeLkjng 
1994]- 

Coauutnls- S libspec les w^Ji■^ ^j^r^j appears 1o 
be mora Lomnion Ihan SLibspK les ^M■_h"£?FJTJJJg - 
d^rirf ]n 1he high (.ounli^' of soulh^^est 
MonlBna We expct t sijbspec]es wi^^Jwrrt^tTEfi j 
to be common only ]n the more wirkiiwcpt or 
olherw]He ind sites where subspcc les vctj^^u^ej^ 
]sexclLu3cd. 

Element Code- CEGLO01535 

Editbn/ Author- 99-] l-L6/^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



136 



Arfemf^t£^ U^xatfri^^ /E!\7ini\ ^^ja^i-'L'V^rjj-s 

Shrub Hcrt] acco Lii Vcgclation 

(ARTTRF/ELYLANl thrcc-ur-^igcbnish/ 

thick*! pike whcal| ra*!"^ 

Natuni] HcTilact CoBscrv^lion Kank- 

Env IrDDnicnl- Thi^ typt ]"> fuuncl on ntaHy 
IcvrL kLo pf^ of "f ticam tcrT«.f^ and4lliJV]B] fans 
aica 6 500-6.700 ft ]n thcCcnIcnnial Villcy 
Vc^tatLon of lower pos]1ioiK]n the landscape 
tcixfcm br wcl I arufe dDuiinatcd by Jsmtiis 

infx^fflfkf/fejlui^ndiihtxeiisAj \ii the mosl 
common type on idj accnt sLo pc^ or bcMcr- 
dr^mcJ pos] tioivi w]th coaner-lcxtLUHl^uil^. 

VcEetalloii- \ti6'/7ifiiain^rmahyih^ 
dominant *ihrub withcinopy cover of 10-20^ 

VT j£ J JrJj£7J du are common in most s1 Bixl^ 
Gr*Wi cover Vines between 40 and W^ 
Ef}fniiikffri6^itrUishyU^uMy Ihc HinmmHnt 
graEi- SmiLI cesp]1(M»e b]ucpj4w> ^ six bi 4*1 f r^^j 
jifiicfJof\tr^ r^x^f T^jj^rJtf 3ndI'oiJ ciisN-kii^ lie 
oftencommon. Forbeovcn^c*- 10"^ And 
diversity 1*1 low_ I'hhy\ Jr^jr^^r ^niejifiana 
mrctoi?h}ffti and ^trJetJfUjri^A ptifyijt?tia ^rc 
common !ipec]cs Moshes and lichens iie 
Blsitnt 

Soik- Soil^ arc dctp incl silly ]ii Icxturt. Si>mc 
^Ltes mB> be^lLphtLysaJ]nc 40-70^ oflbe^o]] 
SLufacc isbarc^ aixlgraveJ isuruzomimiL 

Dctier Shidin- Tbusl^pe hasix-l been 
pievioLsl> drscnbcd 

Coainiciits- ExamplE^s oJ 1his LiJiL£>u bI 
vcgclBl]onhavc been heavily *;rB£cd by 
]ivcslock inlhepasl and pnsb ably obscures lhe 
BdoaL jxjlentiil vcgelationoF tbic^e ^]1c'> 
V citation Ltiminaled by Af I6't^fsla rn/^jj \i\a 
BixJ Lcvfiriis cj^ier^iS is reported for Idaho 
(Bourgemn irkJ Engclking l^94j. and b type 
dominated by \rl6'im^\tr Inptir^r^^f and5ft^ 
cf?TT\{Alti occ los in W Bshin^lon (D aubenmi re 
]9701_ \r?efj[ii\{f Irip^fflrkf / Et'MJMii 
kfiic6^ialAii n%3.y be a neril !iUge of vegetation 
^imjlar tooncof lhcse types. A poss]bEE 
Hcc nino en> LS]ons 1hese silcs as serai Id 



^j Jd'jHriJj^ fj ^ JtTjr^jftr s*ip fff^^TiIcfftt [in 
y^jxrvufiij) quite jxj^sibl> ih^AfI^rtril£^ 

Inii67rtaI{A *isp_ tf rL^JcuJ^j^fr / Lc-vT)\iii <.iii£tr€iu or 
h I6't^fsla Jntii'XJltita sjip_ if fdejilQia I 

f^tin<xpvntit\ fJHrJftrrc t s 

Element Code- CEGLMTHPO& 
EdUion/ Author- ?9-][-Lfi/S-V- Cooper 



Shnib Hcrbiccous VcpclBtion 

(ARTTRP / FESIDAl Three- tip sigcbrtish 

/Idaho fescue 



Natunt I H critace C c nRrvuthm Etank- 

Env IrDQnicnl- Thi^ type i'> common on gentle 
to mcdei^te slopes and ndges at 6 JKi-7_500 ft 
wrthin 1be drai nige of the Red Roct River 
ThclzUfMi ctxfy^f\{r phase is common cm 1be 
stab]]]7_cd sandhills bI 6.600-6,700 fl it the 
mirlbeasl end of the Centennial V B]]e> SojIs 
are den vcd fium miny different parent 
milenais. Finer teTlnred so] Is of mJj accnl 
terraces support A tt^jrma Irifx^* Ifl^ / Eh xnifi 
^^iiceoialAii wbleMeeper. higher or cooler 
slopes are dominatetl by A r?^jrii?^ Inii6^iia\£^ 
y^jxrvuf^ Bnd /"f f Jddt^ jcftj^r^jerruf ThcSJipa 
tY^jJi^jftr phase of \r1eT)\hrtiItiptir?r7{f/F€siiiC'{f 
TL'/tj/E^td'^ur T ™.c upies long-term ^tabi]]ied dunes 
in the Centennial Valley Bieas thil tiBvebeen 
stabilized for^hoTler Ume \u]>[[oriSlfpiJ<.oxnaiiJ 

VccetBtbn- \M6'x?mia inparliTu hy itvz 
dommanl !ihrub withcinopy cover of lO-Xi^ 
At I6't^fsla if f^lnikf^ti sj>p_ vusiTi ^jff^j. 
ChtyioI^fatfifUisviicf^fiJftxftn and T6'InAdvTT\UA 
{trx2^ic6ffis are of1en piesen1_ Total grasi cover 
IS generally high, 60-B0ft 1 n moM M Bnds 
Feilifi-a ni^fliit^ijii Ls i£>u4lly IhedDminBnl 
species, hut Eivfmi'i iufic^x^^fiin, 
F s6Ttiiortxegtrena ijHi {A^^f trnd Ko^^ f^f cm i Tat a 
are also common SVrj^j ^^j^rrcr^u ]"> common 
BixJ ib> d^mi nBixe defines ttie £Vj j^ ^ ^j^rrcrrdj 
phase Fort> cinopy cover ind diven>i ty ire 
miKlcrate. Common fort>s Bre.\i/jr^ytYJ 
mr^^6'JoirrtiJ\^ ^fiix^ifiana tfif^rophy^^a, Ge^im 
tripomm, Com^xjdra atfiheiiala, LitprfUis 



137 



offitTFKJ^d' Miws»c^inc1 liLhciK rrny be prcHcnl 
but lie uruzDmirpLin 



Soib- Soibi FiHVf B!iilty orlo^my tcxiurc. 
LKiiBlly lcs*i than 30^ of the Jiurfatc ]^ birc_ 

ajxJgrivcl i^ uncommon The SiijTiA iOfntrJa 
phane n.c uri on '>andy SQi l^ w itbi no surface 
^ruvct 

Other Studies- Diiibcrunirt 1 L ?70l Tint 
dcicnbcd A^ ^d^rer tjVj tn^r^iia ^ Fejirt^^ 
f{kj^iiX6^isf'i BH 4 7J^naJ rLimax plint BShociHl]nn 
for cailcm W anhin^lon but nuny of 1hc 
common subonJinalc *i pet ic^ arc different from 
thi>^c of OLU "^Hiily Bira Mucf^lcr bixJ Sltwirt 
Cl9&!Ii^ were the fi rst lo ii>cijment th]^lypc for 
soiJtbiwc'>tern N^onl ana ^MnilHrvegclaUonhaH 
bcendH»cnb«J for Idaho iHiionaba L?77l ancl 
vcgd i1]on dnmmalcd by tbic^c Iwo ^pccini li 
alHO re porlcd for Colorado |Bourgenninntl 
Ei^ltme]9?4J- 

Comnif hIh- The SVjjt^ iu^rKjf^j phaic occeits on 
sandy ralher 1han^]]1y orloamy soil:£ andb> 
charadcn/jd b> hiV]ng5Jr^n>™L'^^tf rilher 
1 han Oi JHd^f iant-i.^^xf^^ttj or ^m-r/L'itn'jf ^ja^JTL'^ 
j^jrt~crr^j IS imporl ant '>LilKiidm4lt ^ra.'fsc'> 5cc 
Commcnti under .-^ rPcflJTJirL^ r^iL^rtftr Fj^ H>p_ 

Muc^gLerind Stewarl (1950) imply 1hat standi 
dominated byAr?i.^mif{fInfX{fMf\{A maj ctcur 
onsjlc^lhal arcdnenhanoplimLimfor \. 
^r2£i67r\akf tvudTLtfrtfr This hypo tbicsii i"^ 
supported by OUT obser^ ilion thai .^_ J« Jd^z^trr^j 
vcTJi^j^^Ej^ standi are often on cooler or bughcr 
c]c> ation "iLopes- C apible of r>ot spiouting is 
a reproducli>e liclic^ .-^ ^ ^^rrr jjVj J^jt^jj Jr r^j alM> 
resprouti aFlcrF]re, while .^ fJTJt^rr^j^L'M'i tilled 
HO fire tu-^tory may play aiule indetermimng 
1he dts1 nbu1 ion of these plants across 1hc 
land^ape. Nonethelc^^ ]1 is d] TicuJ llo clearly 
dislinguish belx^een theetolopjcal mchciiof 
1hese twci s Bgebrush spct le^^ al least in the 
] ami sc apes ^^ here they co-cccur 

Element L ode- CEGLODl 536 

Edhhin / A ufhor- ?9- II - 1 5 / 5. V. Cooper 

MTWHP 



sffkaT^f Shnib Herbaceous Vcgclation 

rARTTRP/PSESPn thn:c-li[i sagebrush/ 

blucbunch whcatgrass 

Natural HcrUace Ctmrrvatloii Elank- 

G2G3/S-^ 



EnvlroQniciil- A rff r^ j ir^ Tjt^u rrrPcj / 
P f£UiJtxn}egr}em^ jytJt^^r^ isacommunilyof 
very limjted acreage in Ihe Beaverhead 
Mountains Scc1]on noted only south of the 
C lark Folk Reservci]r_ It almost always occms 
as sm all o r line ar palchcs on wes1- tosoulh- 
facin^ ndges and convex slope shoulden> "^it^ 
where solar inso] a1 ion and piev aihng w inds 
exceeil the tolerance of /"t^fJd^nj /JL-Jr^Jt^ruj 
These sites usually have an abrupt Iransilion to 
,\M6't^f si a r f T/^j^fT J ia / Fes Hfiu ixi^fiio^i t j j o r 
.^f Jd^mrjjj^ pjTLftnJ^ftf Hsp \^ai^'afitr / F^iliica 
TL'^j/E^td'^ur T of less mois1 uie-s tressed posil]ons 

Vccetathm- These diuughly s]1es have 
insufhc]ent cover |IO-20%) d^ Ar?€fjriira 
Irifx^ff^fkf to be coiTiidercd shrub stand*i_ Other 
shiubs thai occur general l> with less lhan^% 
cover, ]nE liK3e CJrrt'jyJ^FJTJJdu \^siiiifJ!orm. 
\M6't^fsIaJngni{f and \m^TT\Iirti ItiiictrJ^Akf \^r. 
y^fjirvuf^. Fi6^t£iort?£g?rena i^iukf {fiiii 
AVjt^f JT^j t ^j jL^^PfT d^mi n He the herbaceous 
layer though Ihei r coverage ]s commonly less 
than 30^ _ Forbsoflen \ncl%¥.\\: fhiox hty^tdli^ 

t^\ctoi?h}lhr and fr: jd'j ^JFr n>™^tjj?j/j, none 
hav]ng mtjnM han 5^-^ cover 

Soik- GcEierally ihere \^ more Ehan 70^ 
exposed substrate linclixJ] ng soil, gravel and 
mckr and liller ]s confined to the inuned]a1e 
vicini ty of shiub andbunLhgrasscam^pies. 
Parent matenals inc I i^5c extnziive volcanicE 
and alluvial outwash- 

Other Sliidfies- ^j J^jfj^ tju Tftj^j J^ r^j / 
Fs6^tiiorty6'^fr£:tja ipiiukf w as fini1 desc nbed by 
Daubenmire fl^TOj for jwnions of the 
Columbia Basin of Washington Slale wheie it 



ns 



on. Lus in jnuch 1 Ml" sanic niajincr it ckics wj Lhin 
thcCcnlcnruB] VaLL^y ay Ih^jI Bled paLt: he> 
typifying hot dry ex pcviura> \^ ilhi n ^^ biHt q 

dominatfiH Lan^iCAficrc^DnsLd^mJiclimilK: 
c]]mATonly ]ii thr Col umb] b E is]ii| L1 
appBrcnUy 1*1 rmv^l cxIciklvc soulhw ard ] n 
Idaho "> ^nakc R]vcr P]b]ii aixJ ilso on. ujs fi 
an uncommon type in Oregon (Bourgcn^n art] 
Ei^lking]?^). 

Coainiciits- Wilhi n the Ccnlcnm al VaLlL^y 

wc ^pKulilt to be a '>LiccHhional cominLiJiLty 
typc.scr^l ^DAfI^rtrii£^ indetJl^iait^p. 

noted, bill did not sample, sc>crB]*imaLL^tani±i 
w]th m]x«J \. tndi.^I{fia '^[\ tv^fd^trtafr and \. 
Irifx^fflfkf and ccc um ng in Iht sajiit ] aixJ*^ api: 
po^LtionHis \fl6'J7irsl£^InfX{ffIfkf/ 
fi6Ttiioytyeg?r6'na ipiraJ^A. The !icvcri1y of 
thntc ^ilQ> may ^low lht nit at which \ 
Jn" JtrrPj^J^j H>p. vujf 1 L^^jj^j rccoLonLZWi and 
LillimateLy zcplx^^Af^^miiiA Irip^fflrkf (inlht 
absence ot fire}. 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLOOl 53Z 

E:ditlDn/Aultnr-?9-]E-h6/ S.V.Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Pen ftii? h y !t o rdes J I tyrii^i rdtr / Fe '^fu ca 

^ainftesft i^ Shrub HcrbBccouH 

iFENFLO/FESCAMl^hmhhycjnqucfoLl 

/ lOLlgh fchcuc 

NatutB] H crltaff C (^nKrvuthm E^nk- 

G4/S4 

Envlron^nl- Owning 10 thefBCI thBl the 
geographic range of fd-jfj^L ^ iTirm^Jd-i r^TJ , 4*1 a 
communily dLUHLnajit, extenJh on Ihr easl side 
of Ibc Conti nentaL D]> idc soulhw and I0 
ap[iK>^imately 46 ^ noTth lililixJe tbs 
BHSoc I ation ]"> found only nod h of Ihis LatLluile 
in the AnBCi>nda-F]ntlir R angc ind on 1hc 
upper slopes of 1hc DeerLodgc ViLlcy 
SubsrctLon [t]^nxi^lprcviLcn1 on gently 
"iLoping or iT>l I ing lopogrBphy but rin occur on 
Ktccp "f Lopfs ^^ Lthj n mountain p Brk] bdlI^ ibovc 
the 4,5m Io6fl0(3 feel cLcvBl]on range quot^l 



by MuEgflcr and Slew- Bit O^HJ). Thjsjs b 
modL'ralcly meuc foothj]] lomounlBinlype thBl 
1 1 kely faLi^ in Ihc 2U to 30 ]iBC h ^recipi taticm 
zone. 

Sob- P^iTEit materi flk DFi whic h iEi^ noted ba 
occ uj I ncluilL' "f ani±ili>ne, ] I mfslonc and gLackal 
dnfl soib> 41? modcfBtel^ deep, hO to ISinckus 
moUngnirplh Co nwdcrabLc surface met may 
be exfKHied. although hulc bare so]] is minimal 
In 1bc nxirc pioducl]vc Danihitm^^ iiilerme^ha 
Phise. Iitttrind vcgcl a1]on rombi ne to cover 
98"^.^ of Ihc surface. 

VccetBthm- L] kc lbc /"d^E^jj-^^fti J/^jr^fej 
Jfof fhufiii^A / Fe'iiiic^f r{kj^iiX6'fis\s ishociilion, 
but even more so, 1bc shiub component, 
ckimmatcd by /"d^E^jj-^^Jn ^y^jFL^JirT J^onhiinAi (5- 
30^-^ CBiKjpy covcrj, CBn be rendered quilc 
obscuj^by thelui^unBnt gramiiK^iL^, 
pnru:]pally IhcUll tus'^ock gra.*?! /~»^d^ u 
cxiij\pcilni 4l least as 1hc 1> pc iKcury in 
A-l on1 Bna ] t wouJd be bes1 co ns]dered adwarf- 
■^hjub type bee ause r^-TJJL'^y^i yy^tTL-Jt^ _/?r>^/?jj^r^JfT 
seldom IS tiller Ihan -1-5 d[!C]melen \neTT\ijia 
frijifdu BixJ ijddftf J ffijcr fL?^ opfrnjff are sub- 
Ehiubs thai ^{ongVtfWhJAimjxeniihonzft^rJa^n 
(dw arf-'^hiub} Bllajn a high constancy bul 
seldom arc well reprc^cnled even w]1h 
overgriiing FesUica f^kj^nx^fisfi 3ndKty£iena 
mtn tanlfr£^ ha>e high constaruzy m bi>th pha^es 
but are dLM]Dr tly secondary ^oFi.^iIttm 
fampeilni Forb d]>eriLty tsgeneraJly high 
those of high constancy being Ga^iiim bf?r^a^e. 
Gtriiitrriifmrfjikf^tr^ ^cffiiicu mf^feJolrrtT)\ . 
.^tJrJtfj^ ty fms'ioifnefnii ind C^fjrpainfia 

The DanUh^ffiiA inier7T\6^^ phase <.\i I fery 
■^LpjiLfLC anily 1f1onM]cs coupled wHh 
env]mnmenlB] pBi^meleisof mesicsHuationl 
ajxJ il should be considered aseparBle 
Bssoc ] B 1 ] o n C /" d^ r Japhyf^onie t J^o n!?iif ^^f / 

thtsphise IS typified by Dj^^? Jr^jFrjVj ffiU^ffr^edi^^ 
being well repiesenlenl and Ihe relative 
abujxJ Bixe of El ymus ^j L^K /jhtfTJjfdu . Care\ 

^^oserij gioiica^ Gera^uitn} viict?iiisiTT\Aim and 



139 



TtK^ufhiul nLiiTiE^Jby Mue^^Ie^i bjxJ SlL'wirL 
|I9&!3J, 1hc dncr ph*ic should r«:cjvc Bn 
BHSU^:] a1 ion (tsLgnitioii t^ well incl bL' known 
fl^i Pen ^tip /e V ii^xf Jca _ J^o nhtt^d^A/ Fei Hil l? 

1ypir]cdby 4 rc]Bl]>cLy hif h canntancy ind 
covcT^^cof f^s6^fiiofOi.^gtri.'ntr i^t-a\£^ art] 
C^j d'^ jtTJ^tJ JtTT BncI the con*ib>1cnl presence 
of B number of other ^;ramiDLi]d*i tbiBlnin not 
occ Lu, or ]f tbiey lJd . at muLh rcdueed ]e>cl!i in 
1he mes]c phaie \ncl%K\in^ D£^?r\ht?nr{f parrvi^ 

t ii htrtiiswui ^ivM'oa i6xrttnthA. ]l lacks the 
ines]c forb^ of the more produclivc 
F ^il£^?h} ffoni6's_fl t?tjhAifr£itr / Fes ft « ^ 
camp^iini - Dj^^e? Jr^jFN^ jjiJd'rTJkvAtr bill dw Bif 
^buubs arc vinuaLLy eicluMvc 1o thi^ phise 
Blong wi tbi the ^oib^ Chrntyfislj y^ffos^f^ 
Sen^cTfj canrti , Eng^rtm cu6fip\lt?jrtj and 

Coninu'iil^ This assoc i atioii '>hi>LJd be 
pirti tLoned i n1o l^^o, f^cfrJa^iiyf^oidi'j 

FeUifiimAfr^iK'Jtffi - Fi^i£if?r^x6'gii6'n{A ^jxU^fltr^ 
bfiedon flon^lie and enviiunmcntiL 
differences This aaintLatLon i"^ vcryiimi I ar to 
1hosc]n theFfsliKacimpeMTisiLliincc. ]l i^ 
we]] suLled lo gra7J ng by c attic bixJ hoisesb^ 
virtLie of hiving ]tH forBgc comprxwd 
pn ncipal Ly of tushoet grasses. I'6^Uap!r'\'^iorA^ 
fJoffhiifuii^ increases Bpprecubly w]lh 
Dveigrizin^ and compLic atcs nunBgenient 
be<.aLiheil i^difficull to4.oiitrol spiounng 
reid]ly FoLk>w i ng binru ng or sprBying (2,^-0 J_ 
Tlxmc fortjs det re Bsi ng on slieep range inc I ucle 

h^xre^Al^, St^i^tcTO c^fiiifi and posj>i b]y r^tJ^EPjf^L'd 
^rtfiliii eonveise]> these ^imc fortn Bie 

CBixljditai to increfic on eAll]e range. 

Element € Mic- CEGLOOl 50 J 

Edtthin/ Author- 9tt-] 2-fl3 / S.W. Cooper 



Natural HcrflBce CoBNcrvallon Kank- 

G3/S3 

Env Ironoicnl- FefWa^h^ Ilord^j pe^nhutrtiir / 
/"f j/tji ^M J^/jL?en jj J ]s Bn uneomuKin 
Bssoc]a1ion ]ii Montani^ found only eis1 of the 
ContincnUL Divide however]! ranges 
Houthw Bid into cenlT^L ]dahi> northern Nevada 
and weslem Wyoming. ]nMonUnail has been 
found ate]e>atLonh be1ween6 6(K3 andttMB 
feet ongenlle mountiin s]opcs wi1li moderutcly 
deep *iOlIs denvcd Fium ^ram1]cs Nomia]]y 
1 he SO]] surf Bce iscxtenMve]> coveiri wilh 
vegel a1 ion ind htter This associ aHon is 
oonsideied mrxJerileLv mcsu. ^ iKLiB]]y tilling 
within 1]k Xi to 30 inch preeipitition zone 

\ tcetuthm- G I ven llie ieLatLve]y shon *i1a1ure 
oV I*ex2laphviUxf£ieiJlonbrtii{kj comb] ned w ith 
Its low c anopy cover i^eldum exLeedin^ 15^) 
It i'> ippiopn ate lo c] ossify thjs1>pe fi^hrub 
herbicecnzi f most Montana standi in fae1 
would qualify for dwajf-shnib status]. 
Occ s>ional ly At I6't^f 'ila Unk'tJ^trta *isp 
vtrjiTvaf^ axjd A c^fii^f are pi^esent in trace 
anxiunis F^iUfiu id^Ahtctnii ^¥¥.\ D^fiil^nmra 
relief m^£^ are the dominant graminoids^ at 
]iigherelevatioi7i in soulh centra] Montana 
C{At6'^^x!?ttnaI{A may aL»o be well lepresented. 
T]ie mesic and ieLative]y cold nature of Ihese 
sites IS revealed inlhe]ow cover of 
Fs6Ttiiorty6'gtretja i^iukf and presence of 
several STjj^^ spp ^ndFi'\imis tf^fihyctmhts. 
The nj:jst common forbs ire Beji^'a 

Achfiix^ T)wiiiJ^}fiiim .^J£?^^^n^^uJJ£d^ft^^nL^ 
Ff?\6'X2lr^^{A gra^iii.Geiffj[ Iripomm is 
sometimes 1l>e ci^minant forb 

D4herSlDdfies-Schlatterer|l972)]ia.s 
dcscnbcd ancqm>alen1 vegetation type from 
the White C]oud, Boulder and Pioneer 
MoiMitains of centra] Idih). Murder and 
Stewart (] 9 SOj c i te 1lie 1>pe from Yellowstone 
NalionaJ Part 



PentaphyHoidesfloriiKJiida / F^sfuca 

iJah{?£'X2^f^ Shnib Hcibiccous 

(PENFLO/FESlDAf shrubby cjnqucfoil/ 
Idiho fescue 



CoDuncnts- Over ^^ of the total ve^ etition 
of 1hiis typeconsislsof pa]a1ablegraaicsind 
setlges, 1l>e most pioducUve of whic h are 
Fei^ifi-a Aii^dioeji'ih ^r^ D{Afrdioiif£^ ftii^ t^i^a, 
the fust of the foienimed species m addition To 



140 



Ehfr7iii Itac^imutius liDd Ctiti^x ohlifitiJ^A arc 
the pnmBry drcrciicri wi tbi otr^razi ng 
^CTJJ^^i f^L7JJd■Jyfw^T/?JJ?^JL■^ niling a mchr Bkin 
to ihBlof,\rIet^fiiaiff{l^ikfIa^ip tuid^rantr ]n 

f{kj^iiX6^isfs^g^ncw2.\[y incrrfic apprcciBbly ^ith 
^razj ng pr&>SLiJC, Blong w]th G^tm InJIomm 
and f^ty\et2lffi{A £ rod in 

EtQum Code- CEGLJ3D1502 

EdUbn/ Author- 9fl-] 2-03 / S.W. Cooper 



DwBi-fShru bland 

(SALARC/POLBIS) AnztJc v^jIIdw/ 

Amcrjcin bj^lort 

Natuntl H crltaff C oiKtrvutloii Etank- 

G2C3/SZSJ 

Envlrouniciil- Though OLijdefini1]onof tbu'> 
C.I. IS bised on only 1WD pk>t?E Jhe f^cl tbiBl tbii*^ 
type b> rccogni/cd ciscv' here LiHhcR(>ct> 
MoLuitiLiK bHow^ l£> I o compare and Jiilcrpi?t 
ourdBlB. S]1a> wci? dLicomcnled m 1he Eis1 
Pioneer and Anacondi-FLntlar Rinses on lower 
to m]d-'fLope?i of gentle Icrrain (bixJ noted in 
reoonnai^^ncc in Ihe Be B>erhcad MounlBin^r 
Wc ]nterprct 1he*iC "^Hes a*i wc1 1 and^tiuf hybrids 
in temri of bi>th envLnjnment ind vegetation 
Eo1h SLte^ we re pDtenl]Bl]> ]n WBler-receiving 
po^Ltk>ns. one ci>mmLinHy w a*i inleitalated 
between snowbcds upslopc inddnerlurf c 1's. 
dowreJope . w hile the olherwis developed on 
an ephemera] spring w]1h spongy gn^iijxl 
thioogbLiot. Land^ape posinoRsof^uJj:^ 
arc?\LQ / f^h^&mtf/} &r j J^j J^r Jd"j were muzh 
like ibi-wc ^[ip[[ort\ngSifiix n.'\Uiikfitr / Ca^lhtr 
f6'pt^xs6:ptiia bul w i th a higher pnib Bbi Lity of 
wind SCO Liiinf. VegelBlioncomposilioniiso 
indicated a dner env i i~onn>en1 Ihan thilof J^j^r^ 

Vccetuthtn- The^tC sUnds were domi niled by 
Saff K iJti tN.a {Si^"^' iz c. I wi1h lesser imounts oF 
Dn{fi<}cIof?eI{Ahr Moss coverage in exce^ of 
5{}^A BLkls lo 1he > IsoaL ] mpi~essLO 11 of B blankd 
of vegelAlion- Gi^nunoidcoveraver^ged 15^ 
con1ribLi1ed nwstLy by fty^A afjMtr^A and moist- 



SLte C^jjf^ j/^j.. C tiibty^rgrtf^ C. plra6yyL6^iHAfa 
orCffitvu Foih cover averaged 30ft. The 
diignostic fur'b^ I'oiyjiofmm hi liorloides |L0^ 
cj.]. was among several wilh leLativelj high 
coverages, incl udi ng f. \/i\/}ptintit\r Gx^ifn 

and Cia\-Iom£i kfiii6^ia\{A. 

Salb- PiienI milenaL ]nL Liided qoartzi te and 
grunile-Limesttjne mn fn^m 4 (.ontac! zone 
Average 1 1 Iter ind duff depths weie 1 inani 
0.4 m respecUveLy. CoBise I rigmen! uonlenl 
nnfedrrom 1^ lo 3J^ MeBn leMunzof the 
fine frac tion w as oUy Soil reBdions were 
slightly bchJ 4ver4g]ng650 KIcBnor^imc 
miller conlentwBS l6ft , meinlntal nitrogen 
WBs0 43^^,indC:N rBl]owas25 1 

l^ductlvHj- ToUl piodiJclJ> ily ranged fium 
T^^S Kj L 095 llHi/iciewilh shrub piDdiJCI]>ily 
constituting 32 to Sl^ oflheloUL^^ranunjid 
and foihoover^^ were L4S iml 2'?5 Lbii^aLre. 
respcc! iveLy. 

Other SLudk's- Satix arclrccf do minates ]n 
sonK snnwbed oommiinitie^ of the CanBdian 
Rockies CAchiiff Bnd Corns L 9tt:?, Hriplzo ind 
LiRoi I97flj. fo?^sfIiiuiifi^niJt?i]u ^nd 
ftyi'i^tynrtij} vrvr/^jjj^rr were common species in 
the Btti>e-c]1ed conuniinilies however, 
snow bed ]nd ic a1or species . such as \ni^miana 
kfii^ftti^ I'hviityiityi e j^f^fffiitttlflixra ind C{fiifOf?e 
t^cMefisf^fii^f were aisocomnxm Johnwjn and 
EiLlings f 1^621 thscuss smill distiiiin anLe si Ics 
wi thin nxi]st Di-^fJr^j^rry^jjtr ti^jj^ r^tT^j meidijw^ 
wi th vegetal ion very si nul Br tj Saff^ an \u ^j / 
f^tyi'igtyxjttif} /?jjfc7^ fr^'Jd'j (see Olher S tuHies 
sec tion ijfri r€?rcttt£il{f / CtiiUi^f ^6^Uy'ii.^{fia I^or 
exp Bnded disc IKS] ony In theCoLor^dn Rockies 
WillAid (1979) dcscnbed snow bed >egelBl]on 
dominated byij^mfm^ her commumly type 
h*d hi^h coverages of Ct^^^rr rr>TJjr. f^tyh^omifsr 
spi? r f"f TFj/^tr L7VIJJL■^ miv^esind lichens Bnd 
was nxire similar to Ihal of oiu study iiea Ihan 
those c]1ed Fium theCinBdianRctb]es Eaber 
|I9SJ) descnbed iBle snowbank communities 
dominated byS.ar6\U£i ind^ telUAihrJaVoT 
the SangredeCreJo RiF^of New Mexico 

Element Code- CEGL0014JI 



141 



EditlDii/Aiilbr-97-IO / 5.V Couptr c1 il. 



^miihii Shnib Hc^ba^coLi^ VcgclHtion 

(S^^RVER / FASSMIl black grci^wood / 

woitcm whcal|rBW> 

G4/54 

Envlroimiciit- Thi^ uncnmrnon type ih found 
on \^ kk' '>Lrc Bm ICTTiLC^. of ten m arcB.'iof 
CBlcBr^ouh fiBi^m matcriBl^uLh a.*^ tht Ruby 
BixlTcntfaj MoLintairw H i^hc r tcrraucs ^Mth 
leu al l:4linc-'>al I nt '^] I may support ">[ a ruk 
dominated by \m.^mirtr^ti{ictr\{AkfSJfx. 
Ir2ii67riaI{A arkJ ^^j Ji L^jth nj^rr j^rrrf/ajj or I.^^ fjtjjt 
crner^is. Ncarbyslopcs Brc dominated hy 
Arl6'tnfsla Jndi'nltita and ^m-riL'itn'jf gn^ nn 

V c Etta don- Sir? rt/MjJd« t^^rmjnjJLTPJjj ]s the 
dominani "^hnib^ avcrBging ap[in>ximately LO^ 
CBDupyrovtr ]t.^ cover may be leu but ]t^ 
'>tatujL' m Lomp4n^on to the a^ihocLitHl ^pcc ic^ 
^tiLI conveys a *ihrubl and ispcc t Ar^^jriir^f 
Ir2ii67riaI{A ssp. Uidi'^^^fta ind Chfyio^fhAfr^mu 
VT j£ j^_J^l7j du L an be core>picu:ju*i component, 
1 heir cover appioathin^ tbiBlof 5 vi^ffnrcztialifi 
Tbc^ubshnib^ \M6't^map7^rAA ^ndAUjf?iin. 
j;ar£ifren, mBy Bb»o be common. J^i^icopynifn 
iTT\i\iiff Bnd/or Eh-tnifi y^JFrt^j^trn/j Bit 1bc 
dominanl and dLafjxi'>ti4. spec l«i^ of ten forming 
B Ihmjiwond E^rtei aresciac OpimI\a 
i?^}^\-{fiaMtii{f CT T{fraMAtTtT)\ r^^TJj^jff mBy be 
piesen1_ Soil LicbieiTi or al^ie miy be pre^cnl 
as well ^ biei? 1 iveslcc k trampling has been 
minimiL 

Soik- Soils are^iHy aixldrcp The surface 
horizons lie iziually alkBi]ne-'>alLne. Miv^tof 
1 he ^luurkJ surface i^ bare SOI L ajxlgrBvel l^ 
nie or ibsem. 

Oilier Studies- Mueggler and Slewirt |l9}tO> 
dcscnbc this type for western Montana, bixI 
HBiTienel aL 1 L 995) descn be it mainly for 
c astern M on1 Bna Jorgensen ( 1 979^ dcscnbed 
B very siruil^i SifrnybaJwi vcf tnr^jtialifi / 



Eh'^niij f{Atriet^hrfAii 1> pe fnjni 4:en1 ral Montana 
San ohiA^tti k^j ij\li jjftf rj/j //"tf Jt^^^ rttit\ it^flhn 
as aJ^o reported fiom Wyomi ng |Boujgenjn 
BixJ Engelkjng 1994) A very similar lypc 
dominated byS^frt-t?btiUi'ivcft^fctttaIifi aru3 
Ttf Jt^j^^ FYfjji fjFjrrftrr wilh the addition of 
L^ymttJ ily2^t6^fi has bIh^j been niescn bed fo r 
western M on1 Bna (Mue^eraixJ Sicwart 
1 9 SO). 

CoDinu'iits- .M tbiougbi M uegf ler Bnd Stewart 
|l9&!lij state thai r^tL^^ jjjfk jT^t^r^J decreases wi th 
^rB/.ing \^¥ believe Ihat under Late season 
^jra^jngil niB> incrcahe wbu le rtu/oniBlouji 
wheatgrashes drt re Bhe_ Mueggler art] Stewart 
|I9&!)) indicale an lUBbilily li> distinguish 
env] mnjnem d] Ffereixes between Stin: ^j/wjftu 
ivj t^fc ifiaUii / LAr\ imu tifriTx^u and Si^ri oin^Iifs 
vcn^fCifiaUii/f^an:opvrttTT\it^fI^u\ the 
differences could be more Bl1ribulBble1o 
gr^zi ng hislory thanhabilBl. Most examples of 
Sari oh^Altti k^j iJ\U jjftr Fj/j /f^tiJi ^}^v rttij\ it^flhrr 
ire close to walerandon nearly level terrBin 
CoiTiequently moM M Bnds have been severely 
]mpac1ed by livestock ^raj_i ng L^-^mfi 
tifier^is mBy have been prcseni in many of 
IhL^sc elands pnor lo 1he heavy 1 iveslct b 
^ru/inii in lliecad> part of Ihe century' {sec 
Coiunu'iils- under L^fr7ttJ cfm^r^is / 

Element L ode- CEGE_001 508 

Edition/ Author- 99-3 l-t6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



H €rbaceous Vegetation 

Lacking a Significant 

Slirub/ TreeComponent 



HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

iBROCAR-BROANOj mount Bin bmmc 

— nodding biumc 

Natural H CEitage C omervutloii E^nk- 

G'^/S"^ 



Env IroQiiiciil- This communilv is assffl.iated 



142 



wjLh*iHia>lhat etc bi>Lbipn>L«:Lci:1 andrtccLvc 
mnrc moiilurc than olhcr fKHii1]orL^ ]n 1 he 
lajKkcapc, c]1hLT lhroLi^;bi*iDLiw dcjxj^ition or 
SLilHiurf«:c ] npul. S]1c'> irc iziual I y found on 
^cn1ly Lnc]]n«J 1<3(3^ sloped Itc slopes wi tbi 
norlh^^c^l- 1o norlbcast-f Being aip«: Is ] n 
tocslopc fKHiil]on.^ wilh cort Bvc k> siriighl 
slope sbiBj>ni_ TbiBl thcM: bic Ice *i]opc^ j^ 
pirLialLy Lonuttirilrtlby tbicM>ibi_ Tbicy Bit 
de[:[i^]]1 hiams, oflcn wilhout RK k (of iny size 
cIbhsI m the upprr2Cicm. bul not hiving nwrr 
thin 5^-^ stone to a dcp1h of 40 cm ]n anyof Ihc 
cxarru n«l pR>fi Ics, wc JipccuLitc 1 hit these soils 
ongjnatcpnminLy f n^m the dcjxj^Ltio n of 
aeoLLicimatcriBl andin pirt from '>lopew asbi of 
Fines S Uncis ire iklib]]> sciib]] Lesslhan 1-2 
aerci and often only i fr4ctii>n of an acre. 
Adjicem ve^tatLon ih iimo'>t in^ Bnably 
dominated by Ibenxm: mcwc plant 
ansoc I atioisi w]1 hin tbie \M6:t^ma Uitk'^IaTa 
Hip i^i6'\-{fii{f ^nd Fi'Jiii^ {f fiitrhty^'^sf J 
aJ] I ances^ iziual I y Ibiose eonununil]e'> dcixiled 

tj f J {fill A imyriioifSJifnrtTT\^f^t?\en If J/^ j ^ roLiiii 
and /". i^axidsi^osa 

Kanpe- This aK»ocLition bias only been found 
on Ihe lo^^er slopes of Ihe Srajwcres! and 
BLa4.klB]] R Bnges inul V anoiK hiii'>ind kiolhLLIs 
between these ranges; 1 1 w as pajlicuLady in 
evidence on tbie Biicktail SlBle Wildlife 
W Bna^emenl \reB and occinied to i lesser 
degn:e and in b more d^T^cd condition on the 
Robb-LedfonI SlBle Wildlife H anBgemcnt 
Arei_ Wespecuiile ttiBl H t^ould occurlo the 
HoottiwBid mldaJxi Nevada bikI Utatiif one 
env]sioiri It as b serai community resulting 
fium the burning (or olhenMse dcsUiK tion] of 
1 he shjub (.ompi>nent u\ ,\r\eij\i^itr in^ffiil^Ala 
ssp 'msey^fii^f ^ E c^infiiJlifs ^r^ 

communil]es AnecctilB] information From the 
foolhills of the Rocky Mountain Front suggests 
1his lype occurs is small meado^^ pit4.hes 
w]thini pnmBniy foresled ] BDLihc ape 

VccetBtlon- This commumly ]s dislinguishcd 
by iLs tfc ajlh of shrubs, A^ ^d^rrr tjVj UitlenltiJa 
ssp viAsey^ix^f ChniolhamnitJ fujm6y?iitj and 
SMj\p!r{mi£^tp<y'i or^?p!riiiis h^vc the highesi 
constancy bii1 coverages seldnm exceed trace 



amounLs The nvKlB] h> highesi qnalitv fleasl 
dtslurbed] eTpiess]onoF thjs1>pe is thai of 
dense grassUnd, 1 he UiswjcIls set ho l lone ly thai 
fium adislinceone apficBHi to be viewing t 
^r^in field or vege1a1]ondLiminBled by 
rtiizomatJir: ^n-^es- The non-rtu/omBloiis 
lippiu Bchi ng bujx hgra*^ Form> ^ra.'^es BrrtJFJtu 
canffi^Iifi ind B tmtyit\{Afifi usuilly dLrniinBte 
the commun]1y aixJ Inie bnnchgrishes such as 

InAtim^frtiiiir Fe'iUicxi rd£^^iiX67riri I'oa 
Jffiiajofr^f KndD{m\hfyn\{frnii.^ffr7ctli£^ are 
I mportan! components as wel I the] r cover 
on. asionilly exceeding thilof Ihediigixisttc 
species. Thesecommunitiesare notiblebolh 
for Ihei r deiTie cover of ^r^nuDJ mis ^^hc^e 
combinenl indiv]diiB]4.o>er values approich or 
exceed HXi^ indforlhe>ane1y of 
fr^miDLi]d*i, usually eiceeding 10 species per 
plot In stam^i of osleisiibly degraded 
conJilion /"ltu jtr^j^^rTJ J inJ rxcasionilly 
Fhieiifn fif^fix^isL' are we]] re presentctl to 
abundant and pi~ob ably indicitive of [i ast 
^ra7 1 ng pnzssnir , qui le possih]y by lj:]n»e henk 
Tfe fort> comjxjnen! isbghly vinab]e in 
coverage. rang]ng from nearty ]00^ inslaixis 
wliere Ihe graminoid componeni is reduced. Kj 
20-K3^ in standi w]th the bghest coverage of 
^rumino]i±i. \ny of the folli>w i ng torbs may 
be tcth well represented and exhibit high 
constancy and the]r presence is inJicativeof 
the mesjc nalureol tbs 1ype . /"£??« jJ^y/iJ 

VTiioifSjrmitTT\^As\Ff tiui^nsii, GcttiJ\ Oijfomm^ 
\goi6'nj jfmjnr aixJ &jfrrrj3i h^trecii^. 

SlmlbrCommunitkfi- Though this 
community cccuis as sma]] patches in unique 
env] |-onments, il is rallier surpnsing thai il his 
^ne undescTibenl until now ind in fact il is 
notable thai there are noherbaceoiE 
communily 1ypesnoled]n1lieNVCS with 
nitive Brwmfi spp. as diigni>stic species. As 
iH>ted abo^e^]1 isqnileconcejvible Ihat Ih^e 
Buccessional « res of severil shjiib<lomi niled 
rin^eliikJ types of ]daho Nevada bdJ Utih 
would piss Ihmiif h i compositionil stige 
appioximati ng 1lie communily lype descnbed 
here. Thecommunity lype moslsimilarin 
env]njnmenl and compcsi tion ]s ^dVjcr 
riihtrrii'iwui — F^tiUicti rd{A^iiX6ffriri This 



143 



conununily LK4.uri Ln Ihc SBjnf n^^ion and 
lajxt^apt pcF^Llions 4. LoHf I y comfi BT^blc Ec 
Ihoscof ^ ctrnffiA^tn — B. ufiixt^^fhi^ and could 
bc^ccn as avananlof it, isil poshc^ mBny of 
1 he same spn. ics_ bill lb? dDminancc of lhc 
£^Y>jjiJuspp bia.^ bctn rcpliccd by tbialof 5_ 

Ekmrnt Codr- CEGLMTHP09 

E:ditlDn/\iithcr-?9-]|-22/S V Ccopcr, 
MTNHP 



Vcgctaljon 
JCALCANf ffiucjoim rrcdgrais 

Natural H crltace C oiKtrvutloii R^nk- 

GAQ/S4 

Enrlroimiciil- The C^'jr^ ^£ Ji7JPr j i'^rnodettiis 
BHSocj a1 ion !"> founJ ] n monl Bnt In '>ubal pine 
h4b]taL^ m tbic moLuitiLnsorN^onUna Tl is 
typically found in b v Bncty of sctlin^^ in 
depresj>ionaL ] ajxlforms a*i one of Ihcoulcr 
bind*i (\ c_ the di^wdow n ionc] of vegetation, 
I n wet meadowE, sdjacenl to slieam councs 
ajxJon al I u> laL 1eTTa4.es, ind Lnmob>1 fore^l 
openings. 5oib> in basinseUm^ are generally 
loimy mincrB] soils, while lhi>se Blonglow 
gr^ient '>tre Bnb are lisniLly coarye te^l ured 
aJluvium C^iatn^ijinxsJli i^fii^fdi'fisfs 
communil]e'> iKUBlly ncxx]]n the spring anJ 
diy downby m]d-^iimnier \djaeent we11er 
CDmmunil]e'> could iix I i^5e Ctrr^'x {fi^fallili or 
Gjj d^^ jj Jn^ jj^L'^Pu communi tie^, Bnd adj«:en1 
dner vegetation ]siriual I y upland comfeioiTi 
fbnz^t iHachenet bI. l?£S, HBnsenet al 1^5} 

Vc^lBtlDn: C{A^{?fj[agrf?i^i ca^iadensii ik the 
dominaiH spee]e'> in Ihis commnml^, wi1h 
CBiwpy coverage averagingTO^-^ (Hinsenetal 
]995j. Traces of com Feis and of shrubs c an be 
fbuixJ inlhis assoc I ation. ind ^^jl '/FUJFJ^jrcr 
cvj>vfr^ju !"> 4 fieqi3en1]> assoc] Bled gramim^id 
A wi* vane1> of fortK are Taoc i ated wi tbi this 
communily. iKUBlly a1 low coverage 

Similar Coiumunitica- Similar communihes 
hive beendcscnbed by Hitb»on1l?S4l fbr 
Ye]]o\^-s1one National Part Pidgettdal 



(I9U^) ^orUuhindsoulheast^Tii Idabio, 
Jantovsty-Jonci flS97j foriHiElhern Ediho, 
and easlemOregon (KovBlchib 19S71 Similar 
communilics domjnated by CtriujTi^fjinMlis 
jJfTtVtf hive been observed in MonlBna ind 
tdBiSienel al |I99^) hive placed tbiese in1hc 
C^^CTPJTU^ ^Y^TPr J ^ ^jFr^j^y^-T] jj J Bssocj BUon beciiEC 
of SI mi] amies in mani^emem coDzensi. Oiler 
Btiidies hive Hi:>cumentcd CL'F^j^JHL'Fjn'tTrd J 
camrii67ri\i is the dominant nnderstoTy spec id 
glowing with i variety oFolheroveislory 
species includ] ng ^Jt£u sp IHansenelil. 
1995J. \l?ie^ fiisf^trarjx^f (PTisteret al. IS77J. 

S^jJ^i^trltu fHansenel al 1995) 

Succedcn- Sixcessionil dynBmu.s of Ihis 
communilj bit jxx^rly ujxJeislcxx] Padgett c1 
aJ f ] 9 S9 J dene nbe ex p aitiion of Cl-^^j^jji^j^ rewJXj 
LUrttrJd^urf ]nto Ihe ino]st lxjnlen> of ^ffej/j 
CY^^L^F^L'F stmJh dying fiom birt beelles anJ 
asc nbe 1 his lo iDL rc ascs jn the water table due 
to le^ transpiration by Ihe conifers Hansen el 
aJ. fl995jsijggesl tbia1 /"rtdv^ sp V 
Gj^ctpjtj^^ rt?Jtri ^^j^zj^l'/^tuj j communi1]CF^ aic 
I ate seriL stages of Ihe Abr^i fa^rtK {a^jmj I 
C^fcTFJTj^^ ^Y^jPrf i ^^ej^l'^jjj J communily with 
shrubs domi niting where dislurbance renxi>es 
the tree overstory However, it jsd:j1 clear 
whether the C^j^triJi^j^rr^TPJi i^JFr^Ji^'jair? 
communily shi>uJd be considered an early scral 
communily 1hat js ultimately invaded by 
comFeis and^or shrubs Changes in 1 he 
compi>sition of 1 he Caiatn^ijirosJij c {fii{fii6^is\s 
communily can lake plate when there are 
changes in the hydmlogic regjme. 

A I aim 1^' men t- Palatabihl^ o^ C£^kffj[agrt?ilri 
cuj]crJd^ur J V anes from nxhJerale lo high, and 
heavj graj.i ng can leduLC 1hc vigjrof this 
grass anJ lead to an increase ot olher 
gramino]i±i siK h as T^tL? ^jj l'^Pctjjjj . f r^^j 

!?afmAii Heavilygra^edweUer sites can be 
converted todom]nance by JSiXJCiu haiJli.-^i'i r>r 
C{At6'^ii6^?rtnt-i.^isii. Hansenelal 11995] also 
state 1hat moderate I ale-season gracing of 
C^ffTFJTj^£ ^Y^TPrf i ^j^Ej^L^JtriTJ J hasouly limited 
impactonslands.espec] ally when soils are Ay 

Ekmrnt Code- €EGL00i559 



144 



E:ditlDii/Autt»r-^-]0-l2/J GiKntcc, 
MTNHP 



nrf^f T/rrT HcrbiccoiEi VcgclBtioi! 

(CALFUR -CARRUPl purple ncdgrass 
curly sedge 

Natuntl H crltac^ C oiKtrvutloii E^nk- 



Env Ironniciil- Tbic C^j^crui^j^ ^y>jPX j 

pnmBnIy 4 high^ubilpmt to alp]nt >ffcUlinn 
type. biBving bccrni^cujncnlcdfium S,ytX)ft 1d 
the highfsl cLcvBl]on5 of thcElBcktahL 
GrtcnhLun bdJ Tcndny Ranges |ibovc9_4C0 
Ictlf, ]1 occupies 1b? most cxpcdcd si tcs, 
^cncriLly including ^houJdcrs of ndgcs, 
ridgcl]nKi, BixJ upper vrest and soul h-FBcing 
■^LopKi- TbicHC upper slopes BirflBl to 
rTHKltralcly sloping and usually convex I0 
■itrai^ht ]n sbiBpc This type can bccxpeclcd to 
Dcc uj I n simi Lar pos]1]on^ ] n mountai u ranges 
adjiccm ti> Iht ones riled ibove ind tbiBleT]'>t 
m the raj n sbiBdLiw ot the BcBverbead Rin^e. 
.^1 BVRHDMS sampled -^itcs and railed 
occujicncHi ^^ere doeLopcd on limeslone ind 
pcKfflcshetl SO] k w] th "^iH loBmlcxturesand b 
high mtkconlent In the^iluily BiTa]t may 
occur on b w ider Mnety of ^ubsl rilfs Ihan 
indicatenl bisedon theobsen'Bl]onlhat ]n 
Wyoming (Regan et b1_ ["^Tl il is kranwn to 
occur on rann-c bIc Breoiii !icd] mcntary 
sulHili^tes- The amount of CKpojicdsubstrate 
v*ries greally, dL"peDd]ngon exposuic. bul 
^rneriLly between dead art] hvc 5ef{A^Iy26^kf 
det2i£^, br^'ophyles, ind litter moirlhin 70^ of 
the surface has an oigBnic cover. Tbs 1ypc 
usually IS the mtjs! areBllj extere>ive 
communily ]n amciSB]cof C Mfjx6"iUJi/ 

communilics. FeUifca kingii / Oxv irtyprs 
camp^slni gr4w>l and^ 1 hit osleiTiibLy occupy 
cquBlly, ]f not mi>rc . stres*iJ ul si les bixJ Canm 

f{!u^ii}6^isfs //"wk-T] JrW^j Jrvf^ 'iipxff£^ or 
D^ic ^liJt^^if^f //*_ £if k^j 'iiJ^xiiiA commum1]c^ 
fbundon mai~e mcsic.ics^ exposed, or Lower 
elevation s] tes 



VccetBChm- Thrae Jiiles ire iecogn]zed by 
G'j^tf ?jT^j£ ^Y^T^rf jtd^^ j^jj ^jf^ d^rj bein^ well 
Tepre^cnled ind Care\ Mfjx6fsImDZ C ohlm^fia 
alHO be]ng dnmi n Bnt or co-djminant^ tolBi 
^raminoidcBDDpy cover IS mostly 50 to 70^_ 
However, grBminoid diveniily ]s low on Ihese 
sites, the only o1her ones occurnng regularly 
were Xo^^n^f mL^K rtml^^ Bnd /"r^^j ntp\t-tyi{A. 
No shrubs or Jiub^hrufci occurred in 1his type. 
Forbd]>ec^Hyi^ generally b^h wilh b1 Leas! L5 
BJxJ up to 2S per plot bul overall fort? cover 
seldom eicceni^ ^^-^ Forthwith the b^hesC 
cover and constancy ire Ejjj^^'jjj ddpjr 

camp^ilni _ £n£f ^tva t^j^rrj^j tj Nj j art] I*o^67rfiifa 
ljwjjl'^- S€Ji6^fo c^iiifi S 'i\rcjxI{A?rUifJof\tti and 
At6^rar2{A ^x!?ittJiit?btr ^\\T\-p[y hBvehi^h 
corfi>tancyw]1hinlhe1>pc_ The cover of live (or 
pholi>sy nihetic al ly bc\i\^] S^tignr^ia ii^na 
f eneriLly wis nol more Ihan ^^.4 but dead 
fol lage/^lems ere a1ed any where from i trace to 
BOTt cover 

Simibr C Dmmuiiille&- Fn^m Wyomi ng'"^ 
Snowy Ringe b communi ly of the ^ime nanv 
(SBme dLiniinanI ^pec]e'>J arkJ lxc upyjng Ihe 
same envin^nmenlal niche his been drscnbcd 
South m1o Colorado as well as in [diho 
(UrhBnczytintI Eiendenon i9?4. Richanfcon 
and Hcndecajn \*^9*)) indMonlana (Cooper el 
aJ_ L9?7l several communities are doc u men led 
wherein Care\ HffX6"iUJi ilone islhedominani 
ordia^ran^tic grBminoid ind the envi rorunents 
bear i stiong resemblance to Ihe one describetl 
here Mojieicy 1l?S5>has idcntifietl, b*iedon 
a very hmiled '>ample in 1he aJpine of easl- 
centraJ IdBbn, KCaiiAmtr^toiIfjpiirjMtrajiexji 

type- Urbanczyk andHendeison fl9^1 
document ^ Ctii^Ama^toiIfs f?Airjtrtras^eni — 
Gjj 6f^ i.^Mioides community wherein Car^'x 
njy^j^^rj]s B mBjor CO mponeni; they ]Dd]CBle 
thit this communi ty occupies posj1]ons IckS c 
thin CL^^^f J i^Ji rt wVJd'j 1urf !iilcs_ In 
southwestern MonlBna]1 hasDJl been 
establ]'>hcdwha1 environmental parimetePi 
CDrfi>islently d]stin^uish Ctjr^^ ntfieUrij/ 
Ox} It of?ij c'{f?j[fX6"i\ni fnsm Cati.^x 
piirpitranetji / Carex. nfjxesJniAhDughi^ is 
likely 1he degree of eKprwiure. 



145 



Ekmtnt Code-CEGLMTHPI 1 

EditlDii/\uttur-?9-]l-23/^ V Ccopcr, 
MTNHP 

(CARAQUl Watcrscd^c 

Natuntl H crltac^ C«nstE~viitlDn Etask- 

05 /S5 



EnvlrDUMcnt- C^ffex tnjifxilfilj c^i^mmunilich 
cbh be found at mid In high clcvilions 
1 hiDUflxiut M on1 ana [1 b>lypic4ll> found in 
dtprE^s^ionaL ] BDdfomsi^ old cbiBJincl'i ikrci^ 
'>trcBJi7i FciSi^ Bixl in SI I tful in bcBv^r ponds. 
This commijm1> dctujs bolhon rruntral ind 
ni^inic: soils tbiougbi moiT comjixiJiLy on tbic 
latter. SolL rt actions irc iKLiBlly a(:]dic^ BixJ 
WBlcr Ic^rls in Ctrti.'x cr^^Jr/jT Lommuni1]C'> 
usually remain hi^lhn^uftK^utlhrfn^wiug 
^>ta.son. ott: asLonaLLy dropping; bcLow the 
moUngzonEr mdi^' ycajs. Adjatcnl wetter 
communil]cs inc: I ud^ Qinr^ tt\ntiii£^Iti bixI 
C^fffi ^j^jjVt^ L^^^y^j *iUnds wh]]cdnEr 
communil]cs co uld inc I ude Jifffi ifi b^iTXcus^ 
C£^fafj[ag rt?Jiri i a^uj^f^i'ih , or mcajiiw^ 
dominated by Di.^<.ii{if jrfxsiij <.i.^ii?ilixs£^ (HBra»cn 
ct 11.19381. 

VccctBtbn- CiAtei a^i{?Trifs ^nlc^fiy the 
domiuani "t |Tec]cs in Ihis piinl ishociilion, 
B]lhi>Ligh Lt c Bu be found giowi ng wilh 
^LE^iif It: an! t^overige of o1her grBmLrmid^, 
pirlK. uJ Biiy CcrrfA itincztiakf or Di.^it-ii{ffrtjxjia 
ceipitiria Low coverBge of shrubs such as 

BLtO be found growing in tbiis Bssot.]a1]on Low 
coverage ot a > inety of forbs may be fourkJ in 
1 his coiumuni ty , tbic^e fortrs may int-luds 
A/d^E?^r^j L'^jTtYnrf G{ffrttit\ injioriffsr^.^sl^t 
tKii£i67r\afn^ and Epift?brttfjr ^p-p |Hare»enet ii. 
a995.Hare^nelBJ.15SSl 

SlmlhrCommunlCic^ Similar plBnl 
conununilics ha>e bten dffl. umenlcd by other 
"itudini in ea^slrrn Oregon |Ko>4lchil: I^S7|. 
Idaho (Hall andiiinsen 1997]. Unti (Padgett c1 
b]. l9S9l.NevBda (Manning and P^dgell 1995]. 
Wyoming (Youngbloodet bI. I9S5J. and 
Color^kj iKilleiet bI. I99ttl. Twophise^ the 



phase havE^ b[^entA[!S4.ribL'drorMonlaii4 
liiinsenet aJ 1995> C^jj^t tii^t^A^ffn his also 
been dcHt nbcd giowi ng aslhedijminBnt 
undtrstory ve^cUlion w itti 5!tJ^j ^ jt/^jFrj/j'tJj^j and 
Siiff\ v\roDff iHanhenet bI. 1995) 

Siiccc^ii^n- Carex oiflt^Alffij conununilics 
piobably ]r p n:sent b fairlj stable p]Bn[ 
issocjalion al ttiough ttie snccessio nil 
pittiwBjs for 1his commum ty arc pccdy 
underytixxJ Heaneolonizerxpin^esor 
mineral SOI L sucti is dned oii1 beaver pond& 
|liinsen[M al 1995)^ bii1 lit. an also occupy 
sites on orgimc ^oils which lypicilly 
expenence more anaeiobic conJitions 

Management- Care\ Ui^i^flrffs ihcun^dci^ 
modL'ralely p bI alible li> ]]yeslo<. k^ and poor 
gr^zj ng manigemem praclicescan impact Ihis 
plin1 community by c aus]ng drcieasfs in 
D^iciiampir^ t6'ip\^t?K^ and increises in ^jj^zhlij j 
^JJjLJjJind thjough tramphng damage to 
oiginic soils However, due li> lb? 
rfii tomato i£i hibi t of Ihi^ "^edgL^. di'^turb^H silc& 
dosland ichinceof impnjvingripidly once 
1 he dis1 urt ance level isiediKenl (Kovalchik 
]9S7j. Thi-i "species rhizomes c an also 
^tron^ly anchor anJ stabihze "tlieambank^ 

Kkment Code- CEGUDO] B02 

EdiCbn/ Author- 9'>]0-D5/ J Greenlee, 
MTNHP 



Ccrnrj hixbaiuim Herbaceous VcgdaUon 
(CARBUX) buxbium^s sedge 

Natural H CEitage Comtrvatloii Rank- 

G3/S3 



Env IrDDmcnl- Thi*^ community type dccupi in 
miKlL"ralcl> biu ad valley botloms. in 
depressional well anis like gl ac I al polholes in 
peatlinLls andon lake p]a]i7i. Saluraledsoj] 
connlilions pen>isl in the *iurfice peat fiom mid 
spnn^ Kj mid summer. Witcr levek miv 1ben 
diopio the'«>il surf ace o r, on dner ^iles. to 
several d[!c I meleni below 1be surface. 

Rait^e- Carei huxh^nfmu \^ a minor 
communily 1>pe inlheUintaN^ountain'^Df 



14^ 



Yc]]o\^'s1onc NatLoniLPart and 4 disjunct 
fljca^ uf [ddbiD. 

Adjacent C ommoniltrE- rnMontBna^ adjacent 
wc11cr (.ommijnjlJC*> idl Ludc 5tTJ ^jm {M.iilifi, 

adj «:cn1 d ricr ">■ tfs i nclixlc Dd-i^^r^j^f^jrcr 

Vcgttutloii- Ci^re^ hifjch^fw^ff j^ilwiy^ 
dominanl in tbu-^commLUiHy with 25^ or 
gicatcr cover Cl^^^ i?t ^jL^jajtr^iVrf indoor CareA 
soj^aJiiii ircMjnic1]mcs prricnt ind 
Dcc a.'f lankily ii? c{]-dDniLnBnti. Other 
ansot I atcs jdcLulIc Di.^t-li{ffni?^ia ^ 6'jfXfioi^, 
CiAlI^iij ii.'fxIoi6^?akf, Eii-^xc^^rii pttAiti/fortt ('^yiL 

l67riifJofritTT\^ Ctircx ftimij^f^ifysar Care\ 

C£^rex iividi^. Caret! JirtniTttvu^j, Cn^F_r 
praegr^fciirir irkd C£^r6'^ Jimttt^^I^f (Pid^cH ct bI 
19S9J- 

Slmilar C ommuoilks- 1 ix I uck'M he Cctfet 
huxhaiftj[ii - Ctiti.^x s£^xtiUiii (Tuhy 19Sllc t 
and Ctirx-^x hiixhuiffj^ii - Ctrrex tii^fulffij 
(Mitlson I9S4> h.t Bnd [ihasfs. HBibrnrl al 
|l?95)]ump tbu^ ciiminLUiLty wilh Ccrrcr 
kfiro^iArjMf BixJ Ctrti.^x l{fmfjiffit?^a for 
rrnnagcmcnt purjxjws PLcrt^cll^Sft] ind 
Padgcttclal 1L?S?1 ilsodcscnbc thi-i 
commLuiLty lypc_ 

ItLasu^ nw nt- H-^rba^c [inidiK tion > anc'> from 
low to mrxJcrilr. S iturBlcd 'toil'> irc b nBlurB] 
deterrent 1n ]]vcMnc k pji^in^;- AHei^tion of 
hydiolopy BDdsubwqiKnldewilenngmai' 
result I n commum1]c*> dLuninalcd by Carex 
hiixhiUffJTii being acccMiibIc Id CBlHe. Pencil ng 
of Ihe^c rL'litivcly ^maJ] communi tLfs I't a 
pr^(:ti(:aJ manigcmem end hod for res tor Alion 
v^hen the hydroLogLC Trgime \h inlBCI 

Ekmrnl €*dc- CEGEJWl S06 

Elditbu/ Author- 95-06-09/ L WiMiains 



Ccrmu ffJ iirr^rL'/d'T Hcrbiccous Vcgcl ation 
(CARELY) blaokraot Jicdgc 

NbC unil HtrUa^e Connrvaf bn Elank- 

G4/S4 



KuwlroniB^Txi- Cortex ehtwi Jet wis tbic mc^l 
frequcnUy "iampLcd aLp]necJ_ in the 
EVHDMS l1 w«i found in bH eighl moLuitaLn 
rinses anul i"^ unckjubtcdly, one of, ]f not the 
mo^t cxtere>Lve alp]nc vcgelBl]on type mour 
BtLKJy irca_ H ^^as mrail tileiTiivc in 1 he dncr 
Tendoy, Etavcrbic Bd ind Sno^^tre^t i^ng4!s_ 
C£^re^ €iMioides ^[\Bnu^ b (considerable r^ngc 
mclcvilion 9,363 li> iO.J60ft ALLsites, 
becaiihcot topographic |K:iS]tiou Bnd 
oncnlBl]on wtre inferredlo be highJy wind- 
impactcd and blown fitc of wintcrMxiw- More 
thin hal f Ihe s1 and^ cxc liircul on ndge c re'>ts or 
shoiJders w I th l«islhan ^^ slope Most of 
the remai rkJcr was on moderate lo ^tccp 
Bouttiwe^t- to w cs1-fac I ng slopes Thtslype 
often grided to gr4w>l and c_rs_ l?^ Carxn. 
S67 tjxorde^A / Fxxl6^iiifl{f divi.^t ifJofr^<. 1 onmoic 
piolcclcd moL'>t '>i tfs and ci£>hjon pi anl- 
dominatcd sues ^Mtti yd greiler wind imp*cl. 
Mcin exposed bare si>i I, grBvtl and lock |23^| 
WBSslightlygreilenhan for grassland types, 
however, silcs grsdi ng 1o ciiihion plint 
CDmmunil]C'> had as miKh as 70^ '>ubstratc 
exposure. 

V ccetatton- The Qjj fi ri^ nojJd^j 1ypc is 
charaelcnzed by a ^horl {< 4 inj, usually Anse 
giound cover of fibroi£>-iooled grflminoid^ 
fjve c c 46^) and foThs Car^x e^y^^of^lc^i wis 
strongly dLiminBnt (lOO^i core>tancy_ 27% c c_) 
Fol lowed ] n decreasing older by 1he 1iirf- 
Formers C^jjd^i rttp^ilni ind F-t^ft^ ^j ^tn^?j^ 
Ol her common grBminoid^ weie Ctiiat^^fjiroifis 
piirjMtrasiexji. I^oa giuifiu irkd /"« Jd« j^ 1syn_ 
fi^ip^rf?Lhft?a) ilxj^ii. Average forin cover was 
3l'^,only '>lightly les^lhan ttiBl o f gr^ss] and 
types The dominance of rW^j j^rr/wrtcrrj^ inti 
SeiagiTJ6^i{A iicffju Bnd the presence ind 
occasion bI domjnince of cizihion plants net Ihis 
typeipan f mm gr4w>l and^ E^rhs w i tti bgh 
f>50 %1 coiTil Biicy I ncludcd Ci ^rwt^jffj d« 



147 



^randiflorHr Oj^Irojxii cat^jM-^iIrij, I*ol6^rIiiiti 
divernjoha, uid^ oviixii. 

Solk- Pii^nl mHlcn^ls i^crc prrdnmLFiHnEFy 

] I iTia>1onc mJ c bIc Bn!oi£i sanJhlonc but 
quajl7i1c and gnc]^s were bIho rcprcscnlcd 
N^cin l]11cr and duff depltn were, rnipcc tivcl> , 
0_4 in 4nc1 0__1 ]n Pcrt^cnl ^lo^HiC fi^pmcnls 
r*n^«J from SloTS"^ with a mean of _T3^, b 
flgLut ]iiltnTicdi ate between th[^ ^r^ss] bixJ and 
ciTihion plint c.t'^. Texlurc of the fine li^Ltion 
rin^nJ from fine cliy lo '>andy 4. Lay-Lo Bin. bixJ 
1he niL'iiHeK tLU^L (.] awi w ay ^andy L Lay_ Soil 
re Actions were s]]^htly more basu. Ihinlhoseof 
^r^*^! Bncis w ilh an a^cra^c pHof 7_5 for 
CBlcBrcoiZi mBlcnils anJ b 4 for dlii>c bIc bitouh 
SLilHilT^te^. Mean organic miMtrconlcnt was 
l6'S,mean tolBl m1 ro^cn wis 57 % _ and C N 
TAlio WBS L5:l 

lYoductlvflj- A nearly ten-fold r^nge in 
piodLJCI]> Lty w*i recondcd for tti1 h ^r^miDJids 
|W3*S2HK^4creJandfi>rtHiC]L5-977LbH/acre| 
Average producliv ity 's for gramirejiiii, forla 
BixJ community tolB] wereiespccliveLy. 39 S, 
39S, BixJ 796]lHi/Bcie A cline of dee re asi ng 
piDdiE:l]> Lty occurred from noiid md 
condilioFU Id near c ushio n pUnt co ndi tbOfE. 

Dcticr Shrdlcs- Carex^yfrordei tujf 
conimunHJcs ire leporlcd fiom si m]] Br 
cnvininmentson a vandy of parent milcnals 
]n ncightanng rBngcs in Idaho (Moselcy I9S5_ 
Caicco L?S3_UrbBD;:7_yt Bnd E-[enden»<jn 1994. 
RLcbiBi*on BixJ EierkJerson ] 99S J, c bIc Breoiii 
SLte^ inMontaoB fEamber^ andMijor L96Sl_ 
ihcBearlGclh PI ateau of Wyormng/M on1 ana 
iJohnsonanJEiLLin^ L ?6 2| . tbin>ugbioLi1 
Color^kil&ildlemBnBitl WiidL?S4,WiLLard 
1979- Komirkovi and Webber L?7S)-llK 
U]nU RingeofUlBh (Lewis 19701 tbicGreBl 
B asm of Ncvadi (Loope I9fi9^ and as far soul h 
asNcw Mexico |BBter I91tj| BDd_ Johnwm 
BixJ Billing C]962jcoraii*rC ffi pr^jFL^Jtr and 
ij rrturrniDminBlcdlnrf to be tbiecLima;^ 
vcgclBl]oiHypc of their stLKJy areB_ 5]miUr 
vcgclBl]onisrejl repc ricd for the cooler inci 
mi> 1*^11:1 ranges to Ihc iKmhincI we^t of our 
stLidy ireB- 



Elemtnt Code- CEGLOO L 353 

Edition/ Author- 97 -I a /S V Ccwperclal 

(CARLAM^ wcoLly sedge 

NafuEBl HcTllBce Coitscrvallon Ranh- 

G3'^/3P 

Raitce- C^j d-j A^jrrj^ rn^ j^ domjnateil 
communil]cs have al^o been Ll:»cumcnted for 
Idaho iHaLL andHBiKen 1 99 7, J ankovsty-Jones 
1997 J and eastern OiegonlKo vale hit ]9S7J_ 

EnvlroDiiiciil- C^frc:^ f{fmfjilnt?ja communi ties 
CBn be found at low to nod c lev itions in 
western ajxJcenlril Montana. ThcHeman>h 
communi1]es lie iKuaJly Found in di^pre^ionF^. 
older n ven ne sloughs ^vet meado^v are*! along 
creeks inci in^vetLands fonned by springs and 
seeps- Standi pnniBnly occur on mildly 
brackish minerBlsi>ils thBl areseisonBlly 
Heod[Ml but w hich iKLiaJly dr>' niijw n by Late 
■summer. .\dj Bcent weMer communities mclixle 
shBllow marsh commom tic^ dLiminaled by 
C£^t6'^AiIr2iAil{ftaorSiitjMi'ifr7trn^fr7ttJ while 
adjAcem dner, less frequently flooded 
communilies inc I ude JifiicTti ha^Jli jj j. Diiircfftii 
jf ntVtr, or s1 BDii of eiotic pislure grasses like 
FhteAifn ptiAl^ne. U [1I BDd commom ties Bre 
often dominated by A* l£ttmsi£^ <:£^?fij or 
AM6't^f J jV J ^riiitr^ r FiJ f n _ 

VccelBtlDii- Cw6'\ iafuigiiioi^f typically 

dominates 1hese commomlies^ ind due lo its 
dii^omatoizi hibit often Forms deisie stands 
with heivy cover Common assjx latetl speciea 
I nclude MeMi!r£^ ^nvriir j^ Hordeiii^ jubiilufn^ 
and JAiff^Aii h^iircus. 

SliiiIbrCfrmmuBfllr&- Hansenel aJ (1995| 
1 ncluded 1he C\ffvx kfiiifjiisuy^a pi anl 
assiK I ation in the C^ff 6^:^ t^^siocafjx^f habitat lypc 
For mBnagemen! considerBlions hijwever, the 
two commumlies differ in thBl C^jj^^t 
jLTjr£^^r7J£r leixls 10 ncc ur on slightly acidic^ 
oi^inic soils Ihat lie permanently wet^ while 
Gjj d^^ iu^zj/^ jFr^j jl"^ commiiml les Bie often Found 
in mildly brackish man>hes thBldry dnwn 
seiLsonilly (Lesic a I994J_ Carxn. ftimfjiffiixsij 
dominated communities have aJ^o been 



143 



ciiK^ijnicntrtl forliJahi> |HiLL liikJHinstn 1997- 
J antov^ty-Jonni [9^7 \ bixI cailcm O rcgj n 
(Ko^ilchik I9S7J- 

Siicci'^iQn- Ccrr^A ^L'^jJt^^^^z^tJ^j communi ticN 
piubablj rcprcHcnl a fairly MBbLcpLan! 
aHsc>cja1]on pj>cn a itLativdy stable hydiologic 
regime. HcuJcratcdisturbancc could cause 
incn:a.^c^ in /jjpr^ jj j /^j^f^^ du or any pay turt 
^ra.'^L^ present, ] i kc F^x^a pt ^j^t^ruj or /"/e/ji-t/jh 
i?ftiS£nsff iHaniicn ct aI. i995j_ 

MaiuJI^'ment- Ctin^^ ^trtarrj^ ffw^t^j li bughJy 
palatable, and ri>mmLiJiLtic^ c an be impacL^ b> 
stiLson- lon^ griming, par1]cijLarly whcn^;raj]ng 
imnagcmcnt pr^c1icc> c^%rx ]ixrcBhAl 
dow ncLi1 ti ng of s1]r am rbiBnncls wbchcouJd 
bUct the h.ydju\ogy of C{At6'^ iafUi^\fr^M{f 
communi1]es Localed m noDdpl4insc11]ii^ 
However, diie to Ihc rtu/omBlouy hab]1 of tb-i 
s^gc di'^lurbcd siles nin sUnd a chance of 
]mprov]iig rapidly ODL^Ihrdbilurbince e 
removed and ]f the disturb bdl 4: level isn't too 
JiighptovBlchib L?S7l 



IS dislnbuled gLobiiiv ihrou^hout the iH>rlhein 
hemi^fihrrc in Ih^ weslcm Uni t«J Stitc^ it ]s b 
minor1>pcinc*i1cin Washinplon the UinlB 
Moujitam.s of Ul Bh. soul hefilem idiho, 
thiougbLiut mixh of Montana, bixJ incentrBl 
Ye]]ows1oneNa1ional Pirk_ 

Adjacent C omniunhk^ \djaccnl weHcrsfcls 
miy be domi nit«l by tTf/zi'd CarexififfCifial^A, 
C£^t6f^ Ui^iiAlrffi^ or Car6'\ fri'tf^ficcmii 
communilies. Dnersitfs miy bt dLuiiLnaled ti 

DCIC /fj^JH^JFCT t"«^^tT^r .^rlet^fSIiJ t^JFKJ / 

Fei^ifi a lii^flio^mi , or Jimm'i h^Aflfi du 
communi1]es Adjicenl upLanJscan br 
dominated by Ar?x^mif{f Inii6^Ua\£^, oi b VBriety 
of conifer commujiLties ftdajsienel al 1995) 

^ccetatlDIl- Qjr^Y ^crjj4?cn^;^ domi niles the 
communHy wi1h 30-BO^ cover [l oflcn foira-i 
mi>no<. uHures in sedge me ado ws ]n Monlana 
C£^r6f^uIniuf{A^tr Bnd Can^ Umifj^ffnyia ^rc 
often the only oihci speoioi with hi^ 
constancy. 



Etnunt Lode- CEGU3D1S09 

EdUlDn/AuCt»r-?9-]0-D5/J Grcenrce, 
MTNHP 



CiJtex !£^^t^M.atp£^ Hcrbarcoui V'cgctilion 
(CARLASlSLcndci Sedge 

NaCural H crltafe C onnrrvatlDii E^nk- 

G5/55 

EnvirDoniciil- The Cu r^* ^ /ujrrjif^jyt^ pJant 
BssiKjalion iKUBlly on. upiKi former iBke 
bfiins, lon^abindoned be a> er jx^nis 
potholes. Bnd Lake andstreBmmir^ins thai 
favor Ihr BccumoLatLonofptat Occasionally 
1 his eommuni ty occno; as flo a1] ng or quak] ng 
niab>on fluid peBl subsoil. This asirxiation CBn 
often be found in ]nlennedLate 1o rich fens 
Th?soib> ire iKUBlly orgBnu., wilh 
BccumulatLons o f scdf c pcit Thisljpe li 
lypically an indu.atororB "liable hydi~ologic 
rtgime with yearlong SBlurBled soil (.ODd]1]oiK 
]n the mc1 zone at mimmum. TbscommunHy 
c BJ1 loLerate ^'e BTiong flooded conditions. 

Kanpe-Thc Qj^f t icrjin^Lnd^ eommuni ty type 



SlmlhrCDOiiuunltka- Some eiassi fie Bl]ons 
I nciuile "Stands dL^nijnat«J b> C^jj d^^ /^jfnj^ iiicua 
in the C{Are\ iasI^K{fri?£^ plBnt Bssoc]a1ion 
(P]en:e 1956 Hansen et bI. l?95l.diJcto 
^imj I ari1]es in s1nK tuie and management 
conccms OrrcA ^L'FJJdFjr^Fr^n^ lends lo etc ur on 
minerBl SOI li, while C^Ate^ iasNxc^frfT^A is mosi 
often found on organic SOI Is (liBnsenel al 
19Stt. Lcsita ]y?4j Ctr Ft- a ftj/^.fnudFFJTjr il Bnds 
are also includDil la ihc Car^x f^irt?c£^rpa 
hab]tat lype by some elassi fie Bl]ons due to 
EiimlBiidcs in mamgemrnl (.oixems 
(KDVilchik]?B7,HiiHnetBJ. 1995) 

Succe^^n- ModrrBte d]stui1>ance will 
incriMLse C{At6'\ {A^j^itiJiiri. JAi^mfi b^fiiitu^ ajxl 
assiKiated forbs. Severe d]stuji>ance |iesulting 
indcwalenngl may lower1hcwa1er table and 
CBUse thesile to be domi n Bled by /"ltu 
prtiJeniij, r^x^f jMjhfilrii, FoJi'yj^fkf {fii'ii'nfr£^ or 
,\^ roslii f JiJ^cvifJd^nj. 

Masai^ment- D rought yeais may make 
OLC UJTC iK"ti of this eommuni ty accessible 1o 
both ckjmestie and wild grazing BnimaJs which 
couJdcaiZiC mtledand hijmnx>cky soiL^ on 
maigiiTi. These sites are gencrBlly so wel as to 



149 



pm. I uJ^ mo'>L 1y|K4> of r«. I'c BUc^nuJ iKf^<M^C[^pL 
fishing- Hcivy cJtslurbBiKcsixbiai fnjmORV 
use should be avoLttd brcauhc Ihr or^ imc solIa 
BrcsLow k> retovcr frDm mcthamc b] d Bmapc 
]i]^h w4lrrlBbLf^ mBkcbLimmgdLfricult. bm 
fliT c bh bt used on s]1cs Bdja4.cnl to 
ficiodfi] B]i7i. [>am]iian1sedgQ>of tbu^h t aic 
rETSLStam todaiTiigcby fi re cxccp t where hot 
fliT^ penrtrBlcIhe peat soil. It hfiuflenbccn 
1he pulley of land inanB^n> 1o 1rBp and bj]l 
beaver because 1bcy L an be i nuisince. 
However, bet anse beBvern produce "^uch 
de^inblc biBbitit aixJ [iiuMdcman> benefu-iaL 
streBin ^uncUons Ihe i r renxwiL 1 lo m anfiBnin 
system neett to beclo^y eviLualed (Hinsen 
ctal. 199^1- 

EkmEnt Code- CEGLODISIO 

Edhhin/ Auttnr- 9My7-1 U L. WLlLiants 



Vcectutbn- Beciu^HBUsenrl al 1L995| 
con-iider Care^ FrtVj^trjt^-rjTJj to be puirly a 
species lesponJin^ to fjizinf disturb Bnce Ihey 
reco^ni7_e 4 C^jj t^i ut^j^ L^uttriTiJ commumly 
type only Bfter iLI olher possi ble di Bgnoslic 
C^jjd'^spp- biB>e been dj^ounled Carxn. 
^z^'Aj ^j^ d^ur J should bLso hBvegreBler cover 
th*n Bny olher CL^^^f-Tspp- Wedjnol 
nctessBnIy subst nbe 1o the ^raj_i ng disclimax 
hypnthes]s of Hinsen et al ^1995] iTgiid]ng 
thtslype. It "^eernsloiXLLipy a-^mev^hBl 
unique ni4. he and perhaps is issociiled wilh 
dkiLinesubstralcs, HBUsenel al (19951 dD ™>t 
indicate whBl a^isffl. lations are fjiEing ] mpac ted 
ECi sigmficintly as to dnve Ihem to Ctin^x 
^z^^^j^^un dsniLnajice l^nd thus the C^jjd^^ 
ficbt ^jf^t?rjrf c_L J 



Car^\ Jur^njAi 4.^Fr h."A" Hcrbicco us VcgclBtion 
^CARNEB) NcbrB^kB sedge 



Naturu J H crltace C Dns rvadan Rask- 

G4/S4 

EnvlroBHcnl-liBUFenel al ri995j identify 
C£^t6'^ ii6^?rtrit-i.^i'ili as aminon^pc at low to 
mid clev a1 ions Ihrou^lK^ut N^onUna wilhin 
southwest N^onlBnaind pirtu. uJ btIv on the Red 
RockLitcsNBl]onB] Wildlife Retugc it is bLso 
B mi ni>r type occujnn^; insmaJI lo large 
pitch s C^j d'^ jJdV?^tf Ji i-7] jj T in genera] is 
found on subi mgated, gen1 ly inclined Lower 
slopes, bisnsi anJ swales and spins b bioad 
rin^e i n hydrologu. regi mcs fn^m semi- 
perminenlly flooded to situriled (soi Is dr^'ing 
1oo>eri melenndepthf On Ibe Refuge it is 
found mosl fi~eqLientLy as small patches (not 
3 ndividiiBlly mapped) in the wel I and comple ;^es 
sujnjunding Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes 
Bs well as a npariBn stinger ind arDUJxJ 
scattered swales Ihatmighl be veruBllj flooded. 
C£^rex iiehrai<.€Ji'iii f enerilly occ upies habu u1s 
] nlermediate (in hydrtjlogic legime] between 
1 he we11er assoc I atioiK typic al ly dominated by 
CiAt^tx uln<.iif{fttr r>z Ctirx-^x {fz^fulihi andlbe 
miiginalLy dner BssociBlions Des^htiiJ}^!!^^ 
cespiitrsa^ CaiiAfntr^ rosif t t-tmtr£i^mi or 



TbeonJj shrubs reeled m 1 his lype areerrint 
specimens ot /"ctjJ^jj^^i floni6"i Jft?nhiifrii{f or 
£s7iifJL6'r£^iiivoirt6raI^. In mcslsouthvrestem 
MonlBna examples of this lype the cover ot 
C£^rex jjd^^tf TtiTJjj J exceeds Ki-7C3^ . o1ber 
gr^miDLi]i±i of moderate 1o high constancy 
I ncluije I^d'f^ ^liJt^pif^f t-^ipiit?jar Jifii^ifi 
bafIi<.Aii. Caf{Afr7ti^ j oilfj ilni ia (or C^ff dr 

and Otvjt A^jJT J /AJ Jdufn J . the fin>t Ihrce nBiiKMl 
spp cin have signific an1 cover 1>54 1 The 
Forb component of these sites js depBupei^tc, 
thi>sc most consislently piesent ind w i th the 
greatest cover (sekkjm in excess of 5^i 
incluile ijdTfjJi fj[iJcroi?h}lfiifjr^ Eftrff?briffjr 

and TngUxc'^un fjrijniifnttij\ Grazing impaeled 
sites terkJlo h Bve higher cover for M arvx^sij 
and Ti^r^iXiJCiifJt qfji<.im^f^. 

Element Code- CEGLOOl 813 

E:ditlDn/ Author- 99-1 1-16 /S.V.Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Carex nfgf t<.an^ Herbaceous VcgcHlion 
ICARNIGJ Black alpine sedge 

Natural H crltaci.' C (^nservutfain Etask- 

G4/S3 



150 



Env IroBiMciit- The Carcx pnj^ m ^ffn 
conununily 1ypc wai foLuxJ between ?,5(H 3 art] 
lO-OMf! imhc AnBi:i>nda_Had]Hon, Eail 
Pioneer and TobiCLO Rcxjl range> Ihewtllrsl 
rinses WLtbn thcEVHDMS ThLMiltsti nclive 
conimunilycKcuni on nearly level mIcs it the 
biiC of "^LopKi and]n>iLLcy ind "^^^ ale tcHoms 
where blowing *inow li deposited and melt oft 
dne*> DL1I utcur unl]] wett 1 nio 1hc ^;rowin^ 
^>eiLson_ Cann. prj^n^ ^ffj occupied si te^ w]1 h 
perennially nioisl or saturiled soil and wilhlhe 
stiortc^t "^no^^- fire He ahon of any MKJwbetl (. 1 
tn ]^9[, many ol oijr'>tanch huljuhl bc^iin to 
gieen-up ]n ] a1e Juty. C^j d^^ jjt^ jt^wjjt usuatty 
occLusini miinx of Mnal t pat4. tic'> of wetUnd 
or otticr "ino^^ bed commiinLlies Dcicli^ffnjx^ia 
c "Ff^ It?ja / Caflh tri^x \o i6^^£^ , Gj j d^^ 

are the asioe 1 atioisi mo^l frequently found as 
mitnT components 

Vccetathm- Mean ^ramiixi]d cover wa.": 3J% 
Gjj 6f^ iifg * fc ^iis w as Ihe absolute dLmiinanl 
with mean cover of 76 ft O thcr fiequsnily 
on. Liin ng^ bul te?is abnndam ^rimi nou^ weie 
JrtxjcTtJ ^HftJ[fj[w^ffr f*hlt^tif\ ttip\mit?i and 
C£^t6'Xi?£A}ioiifs. Porta tiad ameancoverof 
21"^ The most common tieiin aceous spec les 
weir Ci^f^hA iepItxi^x^Afti^ Ax2lctrx2^ntr iax2ti\£^ 
and EtJ^L'nxfi ^rc^tJiiifi No forb -species 
occLinenl inill fDur^lBnd'> and only une^ .-4. 
^L'^jjL'^Ptr CKC Luietl inlhrceout of four Thedw*rf 
shrubs I'hviitTiitK e i.^jrfX6^r2pxnj\Ij ^ii^! /" 
^Vj^^zJjjfry^L?^ L^^ were piesem in^matt anxmnls jn 
twosUnds, and J^j/r T ur^ n^ u wfi common in 
oneslBixJ. M e an cover of mocies mJ lichens 
waslc^is tbATi 1^. 

Soib- PiFenl milenals were 1 1 meslone. gr^njle 
ajxJ gnetu> B arc ground and gravel coveied 
only 2ft of the surf ice_ Heandepthsof ]]tter 
and duff weie 4 in arkdO 2 in respec1]VEly 
Percent coan»e fragments were ilway^lc^s thin 
lO"^ w]1h amcanof J^_ Meinlcxtureof 1he 
fine fr^c tion w as sand> clay_ pH W4s6 5 a1 Ihc 
1 1 meslone s]1e mJ vinenl belween5 S and 6 2 
when parent matenB]'>wei?CT>'staLLLne. N^ein 
pH for Ihc 1ype w*i 6_2 Mean oiganu. mitlcr 



conlent was 1 54^ mean to1aJ nitrogen was 
0_3fi*, indC N ratio was 31 L_ SoiLsinUlc 

Ju]>, ]^?2 were aLwa^'^ wel anJcoki 

PnHJucthH^- Due to letaRtd [ibenology in 
\yf'}\ Wi: jncasunzd pmd uctLvi ty inonly Iwo 
stam^i. GruminLi]d pioduclivity had a mean of 
375 Ib^Jacre^ and forln pmdixtLV]1y hul a mein 
of 275 lbs/acre Mean piodiKlivily of dwarf 
shrubs w*i 22 lbs/acre Mean tola] 
piDducl]>Lty w*i65Li Lb^acrc- Crt^^FJ hj j fthlijhj 
wasnji ful]> mature when we clipped plots in 
these ^Unds Ihus our estimates of gramino]d 
anLl total pnxlix tiv 1 ty arc low. 

Other Shidlcs- Communities domi nited by 
C{At6'^iif^Mccfii'i hive bcendcscnbcd for Banff 
and JaspernatLonaL parks in \lberlB Canada 
|.-^chuff ind ComK 19S2, Hr^pko and LaRoi 
197S1. ComfKHiil]on IS !i]mLUr 10 our Cijffj 
^^m^^u asscc latLon^ dllbLiogh ^/CJj^Li 
fckVjJr/i-Ta/M^jdV C= L ^/^rr) w as i comnxHi 
component of Ihe Canad] an 1ypes l^ruJ not 
recoRletl inlheBVHDMSJ. Ctiri.^x fuj^rii {Afri 
communilies ire moic comnxm and widely 
dis1 ribiiled ]n 1he C anuJi an Rockies, often 
on. ujnng on slopes as well as Level areas 
Communities simj I ar to ttie Car^'Kiif^Mc^fii'i 
assiKJ a1 ion ^S4. n bed heir in are bIho common 
in the North C ahc adcs of W*ihi ngton CE>ougLas 
1972. Douglas andBli^s 1977 J. £jK^r^YJ 
^j^ Jlii^fta and bryophytes were comnxm 
components ]n the Nortti C asc ades type 
RoHminind Har1man(19S5j reporl an 
assiK] a1]on d:)mma1ed by C m^n^^f^n 
on.ujnng]n ttie tenlcr of wjrtetl *ilone polygons 
in the SanJuanMounUirei of Colorado. 
Ssbha^iirtr fxnxcztfjrb6^rj, Af I^nrif^A S6 oi?Aifontit\ 
{fii{! Jifiicifninifnfr7t?x2dii -were thecommonJy 
associatetl Forbs. CL^^^f t nr^ ^t^rtf snjwbed 
communilies appear li> be nxi'>t comnxm to ttie 
north and wcslof our^tudy arei. 

Element Code- CEGLODISI6 

Edhhin/ Author- 97 -ID /S V Cncperclal 



Herbaceous Vcgdatjon 

CCAPRUF / POTOVI) curiy sedge /^hccp 

cmqucfbil 



151 



Naturu J H crltac^ C Dnsrvatlan Rask- 

G3/S3 

Environmrnt- Ctrti.^xnii?£.'Jtff'i/I*o^^r\Iiia 
ty'\^ii{f 1^ trans]1ional btt^^ccnaniLpmc tuif bixJ 
a 4:L£>buon pi an! type [ t ckc uri on cxfKWicd 
w] nckwtp! upper "^Lopc*! saddLwi andnd^^tojwi. 
app Birntly ^tiunplj assoc] Bled wi1h h^jiI^ 
developed fium c Bicircou*! piicnl inBlcnabi 
found inlhc BcB>erhcad Madi*»on Pionttr- 
Tcndoy andBlackuil Rinfe^i. Appiopnatc 
h4b]tatoccuri molhtr ranges orsouthwfslcm 
MonlBna niprtially tbicCcntcnnial Range. It 
WBH sampled at elevations rBn^ingfrom^ 300 
to 10,40(3 ft [n wvci^L of the rBngj5i_ CcrraT 
J jjj^^j?^ f T /^^j^errrj^VfT r?wrttr general Ly gilded 
]nk>lhc C{At6'^ £.'i'\ntyiii6'i oz Ctirx-^x siifjxoiiiea/ 
r^rt" rtft JJ^ {hv^f If/off {f 1 urf commuml icb of 
deeper sojIs on moir pnjicclcd s]op«>_ \^ he rcis 
]n tbie Bl^cktail Bnd TcixJoy R ajige'> ]1 grMfenl to 
F«ft« a J JL^^/jLTi-TiTJ j-domi nit«l communily 
1ypcs, par1]cijLarly /"f f Jdw j^ ixi^fho^nsii — EJytnifi 
Iri^tini^fftiiii [1 gjMfes 1o fellfleld or c L£>hiDn 
plintrommunitLf^ thil typcfy bifshcr, more 
wj ncb^cpl SLt«i. 

VccttHCloii- McBn^r^mino]d cover wan 5 1 % 
] mfXTd Bnt ^ramino]i±i were C^j^f^ ntp6filnir 

i6^ifii{kj. ind at hightr eleval ions F-tTfcr^^ 

w B.^ corrurann i n some M Bnds_ MeBnfbrb cover 
WB.^29^ CoiTitstcnlly pre^cnl and often well 
rcprchcnicd fdrt>s jdcLulIc I*ol67r\iifa ^tkv^ztr, 
A/rjarr^jj JjVj L^^Jd^fr Jl^/mj. OxMrt?fXf'iiaj7ipi.^lMJ 
BixJ /"/e/^^t /^jfvTFKJfrt OccLunng core>i!ilcntl y 
but wilh low cover is Enln<.hriffjr FKJFrjjflJr 

ftjjtrjFFr^j^m. £dT£i-'dY^ iu^rTjt^jfr Jjjund &^Ei^T^t 

{fii^f Ssl^re a^^fuiij were wel L represented m 
Homc^tantfc- The shrub . ffiJJL'^tfti'ifM^f 

Jfoffhw^iA wasprehen! in one start] Lichen 
BJid mc4ts c BDLip^' co^cF Averaged Less than 2^. 

Soib- P^renl malenaL WBsqu^rtiCLteinone 
start] bdJ Limestone ]n the remaimng seven 
startii- Bare ^lourt] and grBveLcovenxJ67^ 
of 1he ^Luf ate MeBndep1h*iof ktler BixJdufT 
were bothO_l ]n PeicenI coiise fi^gmenls 
ringed fiom 40% lofid^ with a mean of 57^ 



Texture of 1be fine fracUon vancJ Jrjm ^andy 
c]b> tosindyrliy-loam with 4 meBn class of 
Kandy L Lay-Lo Bm SoiL pH vined fmm65lo 
S.2 WLlh B meBnof 7 S; p]i fromlbeHCVEn 
pk>ls on ]]mcs1one VBnedfrom7 5 to fl 2 with a 
meinol 7 9 pHof Ihe si ngle pLo1 on quirtzi te 
wasft9_ Heanoigank mBHercontenl was 
12ft, mean tolBl m1mfenw*sO J4-% antlCN 
rilio w Bs J 2: 1 

Productlvflj- G rBn^inoid piodiKtivHy varied 
Fiom J5lo 253 Ib^/acre wittn meinof L 1 2 lbs/ 
aciT E^rb producli> Lty ranged fmm S? to 759 
lbs/acre with ameanof 277 Lbs^atre. N^ein 
toUl piodLicHvily w Bs 3S9 Ibs/icre Cushk^n 
pUnt pmdu^tLvity isdifficull to meisnie Ihus 
the Forb estimales Bie onJy n^ugti 
appioximatioiTi- Eiowever. tbs communLt^' 
type Wis among the least pioduc1]ve ] n our 
stLt]y ircB- 

Coiunuiils- Son^e stanch a1 lower e lev it k^ns 
are ckjmmated by Ctriat^^fjinMJij ^irjxifrajii.^s 
which ciusetl uslo n:ci>^ni7_e il as an 
aJtematLve irkJirato r w i tti C ntp^ilrii. 
FieitiiortTe^^rena i^iukf LSil^o present in the 
WBimest and most ex posed ot ttie^e s1 bixLs 1hat 
miy lepiesenL IransiLioiSi to ttie 
f lertiiorty^'^ ^retia ii?ii {Akf / Cuihion PI an! 
associBHon Some standi miy beimpBcledby 
sheep grB/]ng or pocbelgDpheis C^jj^^t 
njj^j^d r J /^^j^drrrj^Vtr wwrttr SI tes miy piovide 
importan! winter range for bighorn sheep 
Vegetation of Ihcsedi^' ex jxjHetl sUcs is easily 
dimBged b> motonzed vehicLes and recovers 
slowly- 
Other SLiidkN- Cn^'FT m/J^^fn J commonly 
dommalcs wjDdswepI fell Fields in the Rocky 
Mountiins Lewis | L ?7C3| drscn bes cusbon 
pUnt communities in ttie UinlB MounlB]i7iof 
U1 ah ckjmmated by C_ m^-^^jJT. Fx^iUfCiJ ovi*Mi 
ajxj cusbon pi anLs sucti fi i^/frr^' tr^ ^jrrJj J anJ 
TriJ^xfnifrj t2tmrtij\ Will Bid ( 1 97?] desc nbcs a 
diy tuif Bssoc] Bl]on di^mi n Bled by C riif?esim^ 
^r^r^rtftJJ^j jarvtr/jj irt] 31/^73^ ^nnjfri for Rocky 
A-1ountainMationil Park]nCo]or^ck> and 
Komajkova Bnd Webber |I97S^ report a 
fellfieLd comniuni Ly dominatetl by C_ FT/^nJm 
and fi^tyhresia fj[uyswo\tlej fiumNiwol Ridge 
B aker ll 95 J) descnbes aC nj/^jpJT t-c itshton 



152 



(^onununily for tbic Sin^r^ df C ri'>to Rbh^cuJ 

New McMco Mosclcy |l9fl5|iJcwnbc^ 

1 1 mcslonc fcl I F]c]i±> dorru nitcd by C_ nifieUrii 

while Urbancyzk andHcnclcrron C]y?4j rcjHil 
(:i£ihioii pLan1 rommuni tL4!s iilaminatfiil by C 
nii?L'Jiffs m the Lcmhi R angc of Idiho, but^_ 
owjjl'^ was uncommon fD_ H-?™fcryon pcn>_ 
comm ). 

t?'\^ii{f 1^ CHilcnhibLy cunf mcd Id c4lc4rcou£ 
pircnl m Biennis and /"L^Pd^rNVVj^ ^ttrjafr, one of 
the i:k>m]nan1 forb^_ tsacB]c]phjlcon th&c 
high cIcvAlion !iilrs. ]nlhcl]mnh>nc 
mountai ns li> 1he DDilh mos1 C nj/^j?JTT 
BHSiK I atioisi support ^nvu ^p[i. an an ]ni[)ortanl 
componcn! (B imbcrg art] M Bjor I96S, Achiiff 
ajxJCom.^ l9S2i_ To Ihccisi inci wulhofoiu 
■itLidy irca C ^d^jtd^Tr^f fclLficlclcDmmun]1]c^ 
on 4:ryslaM I nc pii^m mBlcnil arc often 
cixiomjnitcd by G6^ffj[ rouii or DmAi 
o<.U}^^af£^ (B[\i^ L 956^ Johnson anJ B I LLings 
l962-W]]lard]y7yjandBitnx>rcsimiLarli> 
ourGeiifJT rosjir / Sfr^ui^flf^f ohlAUffoh^AC t _ 
Tlic Caf ex nipeilni / Fo\enI\^^a ovifr£^ c t may 
bccDdcmic to (.alcajcous ranges of south wcs1 
MontHiia Hnd adj Bccnt cu>1-ccntral Idaho 

Ekmcnt Lodr- CEGLOOI tt62 

Elditbu/ Author- 97 -LO /S V Cccpcrclal 



HcrbBLcous Vcgdatjon 

fCAR SCI /GEUROSfnon hern smgk- 

spikc sedge / Ross avcns 

Natuntl H crltac^ C onRrvuthm Rank- 

G3/S3 

Env Iroamciil- Wc TTgaid Cu rf:^ larpcAdea / 
Ge\im ycfiii ail 4 f rof r^phu-^ubstrBlc ^ 4nan1 
of C^frex Kiifi?£tf^a / f^ty\et2lffi{A £ir\^t sij(y^i£^. It 
was B common [1 1 ani a.'dnc i ation ]ii tht 
BVHDMS s rtl atLvcly Jixi]'^t muum aj n rinses 
dominated bygrBnitirormctamoq^hoscd 
]nlrusivc vokan]cs the East Pioneer and 
Tob Bcro Root R angc^ [ t w as ilso found inlbc 
Mfldison Ringe_CKclus]>eLy ongnciss- ]l 
sp Bnncd nearly the Full range of al pine 



elevations avBjlBbLe J n these ranges, from 9, jO(3 
to IO,J2C3 f1 S ample SI tes were aboul evenly 
dividrd between low ^rad]ent slopwi and 
steeper slopes. \ll aspects weie reprcsenled 
M osl L hBrat tenstu. w as some degree of 
enhBnLenl eFfet-tLve moisluie Ihn^ugh increased 
snow p act or del ay«J snLiwmclt Often C^^rex 
'ii7fjxoid6^f / G^tT)\ roi'iii tuif otcuned as 
pitches sc Bl1ered imon^ bouJders which «. t as 
Enow fences ciealing eddy c urrcnts anJ 
I ncreasin^; snow p act C^^re^ itirpxxfii^ij / 
G^tiJ\ r^jf jj J graded 1o dner lurf types, usual I y 
C^j d'^ i-^^rtL^Jd'j, of moie ex posed posjUons 
and lo DRY SLOPE or MOIST SLOPE c fs- 
of sleeper ujtiI able slopes 

VccetBlkm- Graminoid canopy cover averaged 
only J7^,of whu.h24^ was C^Jd^^ 
'iiffjxoni6^f Car^x ph{?^xc6^h{fiar C ^It^fta and 
C tiibtmrgrtfwcTC also dominant in a1 leaslonc 
stand Common 1 urf gjimi noids C n^jM-'i^ni, 
C siynordej and Fejiuc^f ^jw^r^j had nx»dera1e 
coverages or high constancy bii1 ire much less 
importin! Ihan in the Ctim larjttyiiieti/ 
f^ty\6'nl\ff{u^\v^ 'iifxxff£^ iz 1_ O ther graminoHt 
with h]ghcoirilancy wereZj^a^^j^j/VHLiuJL?. f^t^ 
{fifxffiij^ /*_ jfcrrntftj ^nd Triie^itm ipicalum. The 
mi>islersi tes supported Desc ^r^j^rr/^irtr i ^-^j^T^tT^j . 
but ]ts cover did nLi1 eTceed5^_ Carex 
Bcirpoidei V G^tiJ\ j l^jjjV fbrb coverage 
averaged 51^, ver^'similirlo thit of C^jj d^^ 
'ii7fjxo\d£.'£^/I*ol6^iiiihrdiverirJoirtr With the 
eM.ep1]onof Ct^jj^rr rosirr, wbch was 100"^ 
constam anJ a>erag«l 37% c c. in Ihis type. Ihe 
two C f^vrpLTjJdv^-donunated tujf 1>peshad 
miny forb species of high constancy or 
coverage in common e_g_, A/^jej/l'^^ Jr^ 
ohlmf^ohiA, I*ol67riiifti £if\^t siJxxtiiA, Fh^ox 
i^ufy^f^I^A, Fxx^\-gxxfUitnbr'i\ot\o\dej, En^erxm 
sw\pf6fx, Umiii£^ Ji.^rty\Iii{f and Lsipimfi 
af^exjl^n. No netheless, 1hcse two mesic lurf 
types had fewer heiins ]n common (55) Ihan 
weTT found in only one of Ihe Iwo 1ypes |6J) 

Soib- Ah soils weie developed on inlTiKive 
i^neoin or metamorphosed substrates Ihereof. 
C^j d'^ jtTJ ^JW^Jdir / tk-T/JH jL^jfrj had nju^hly 
seven Umes more ex posed soil^ gravel andiock 
thin did Care\ itTrpt?i£ieti / I'oi^^iiiia 
{fivi.'t ifjofr^f BothliMerandduff depths were 
shallow l0 2 inr CoaPte fragment conlenl 



153 



rin^E^d from h Kj 39^ji' and b>ci b^I [9^ji\ twit^c 
ihilof the C{At6'^ Jtitpof^^u /f^tytx^ilf^i£^ 
divi.^f iffofr^f iz 1_ TcTluic of the fine friction 
ringed rrom'iajxJy clay to^indy loam while 
1he meinlextur^l cl bss w bh sajxJ> cla^-loim 
pH viliKS were low, avera^in^ 5_^ Bnc1 ranpjng 
fium5_5loftJ_ Mean organic mBHercontcnl 
WBH ]4^_meBn1otiL niliu^en w*i0_45^. and 
C N rilio WBH IS ] Soilsi wcrc morcri>aryc- 
Icxlured. ind orgBnic matter ind niliugcn 
con1cnb> were lower tbiBn 1 ho^c of other tiiff 
conunLuiLtici- 

Productivftj- The highdcgrceof >ariabiiil> ]n 
pioiJL^|]>Hy ippeiry 1o reflw-t Ihc vanBbiLHy in 
exposed substrate Total pmdixtivity rBnged 
fium 236 to 2ft69 Lb^/acre and BvcrB^^M 
]bs/Bcre, 272 bixJ 6?2 ibs/icrc for ^jimanLiacfc 
BixJ forb^ respcclivcl^- 

Ottitr Shidks- The Cann. icfrjxoni6^fy^r 
'i67fjxoid6^c t described by DoLigL*i andEliH> 
(1977) ronhce4s1ciiiNorlhCa.sc«fc^ha*i 
^tron^ floriMic ^imi I an ty wi th our Care\ 
'ii7fjxoid6'{f/G^tit\ jL^jfjVp i_, except 1 heir lype 
lacks GitffJT ^TtTjrr. However, Ibcir CcrreA 
mfjxoide£^iz 1 represents dncr porlioiK of 
jix>i'5ture^>DLiwmeLt ^radienly Fium a much 
we11cr c]] milic regime. Converieiy_Thiicni us 
BixJ SmLth1l9S5nlrfl.nbe as 1hc moi-^tcsl of 
lhcir Abs4iokaRangc4ipinesi1es4 GcttiJ\ 
roi'iii-TnJoiittit\ jx^ffnf €.1 whose 
env]ronincnlBi p Bi^mclcis resemble IIbhc of 
Ci^rex larp^xiii^ti / Gi^im n?Jirf bul whose 
vege1 Bl]on diffcn? by having C scfrjxoni6^f 
replaced by C_i*dirtYJ_ In Bnalogoiii fashion. 
1he S angc dc C rxsto Ringeof NcwHct]co 
supports a iJci/jh jojjn" meadow 1>pc in wbch 
C_ frelenxfie^inA (= C.alrakf} and Deji h^ffirpsI^A 
t-^i^ilt?ja iiT conspicuous comjxjncnts 
decK^tinf the mesic natui? bikJ a sim]]Bnly to 
our Ctircx SLifjxoide^A / G6^ffjr rosiinz 1_ (Baker 
]9SJJ_ LcwLS f]970j described vegetation 
dominatctl by C^frcx T^i^y^jrcfcvj. G6^ffjr rouii 
BixJ De^^.ii^ffj^fxsla onplJoiiA fiom Utah's UinlB 
Mountains WeLI-di^incd si tcs were dom]nat«J 
by C Ti J ^tL^^rt^YJ w h]]e £■_ i fjjt^ tofL'^ domjnatKl 
Breas of impeded dr^i nigc Onecanonty 
speculation the ccolof icii or phyh>^ei>f r^phic 
signifu. ance of the fK 1 1 hit this f>hoci4liou has 
not been reported immedi atel y to the south in 



the high ranges of e4*it-ccntriL Idaho 

Element Code- CEGLOO] S66 

Edition /Anllwr- 97 -10 /S.V Coopcret al. 



HcrbBccous Vcgctatjon 

(CARSCI / POTDIVl northcm sJnglc-spita: 

sedge / divcniC-LcBvcd cjnqucrail 

Natura J H crltac^ C Dnsrvatlan Rank- 

G3/S2 

EnvlroB^nl- Curex iCirjM?\de{r / F^ffsrilAttQ 
dAVi'rirj£fl\ii IS a moist lurf type fcmrkd ] n 
EVHDMS ranges w]th higher precipitation 
(Gr^^ ell> _ Snowcrest, ^nacondi- Pint] ar and 
MfldLson) [tGtcurredfmmy.300to IO-320ft 
Bssoc] ated w I th gentle, nol ue BrLy so w] nd- 
I mpac ted slopes as those of the Qjjfj 
6^\yr{tfA^i<. t did- Most of thcs]teshad 
oidencc of frecil-sorti ng or si>lifl uclion IoTks- 
Wc hy pothes]zc thest sites are luif because 
they occur in winciswept jxjsitions flittlc w]n[cr 
snow Bccumulationl but they in^lso moisl, 
bein^ in mrejff col Icct i ng jxjsi tioiTi or, ]f on 
slopes, t hen o ncs w i th low solar inso] at ion 
(north-fac i ngj_ C^fr^:^ s<.irf?£tr^a / f^tyJexjIr^kf 
{^vi^f ifjofr^f f r^es lo Ibe Ctirex ^y ff^jfl'^ 
Bssoc]ation on upper slopes art] to wet 
meadows or snow bed communilicsof ycl 
wettcrsilcs- With thceiceptionof wet 
meadow cA\.^Ctiti.^xmfjxoide£^/r^xl6^iiifUr 
divufiffofra huJ less ex posed soil andiuck 
(4"*) Ihan an> other al pine si tc grBininoid- 
dominated piBnt b.'QtUC i ation w]thin Ihc 
BVHDMS- 

\ccctatlDii- DominBnLC of Ctjr^^ j^Tr7JW Jdtf, 

combination of Ihesc sedges ls diagnostic for 
thisc t Graminoid c Biiopy cover avenged 
66^-^ , of whic h 35^^ was C.ititp^xf^f^u. C^Atex 
6^\ir{trdi.^i, C MffX6'\UiSr FL^iiiic^f oviii^f and 
GjfcTFJT^j^ ^Y^jPrf fXifri?Ait £^ic 67rj were strongly 
represcnicd. Qvfjtjjj Ir^fchyc^fi^hfi. Ijiz^fhr 
j^rnrr^j ind /"r^u uJ^j pr^j hBd high constancy Bnd 
low covcrBgc Average forb co>crBgc |47^i 
was high- iTf]ect]ng Ihe favorBblt mi>isture 
status of Ihesc SI tes. Forbs with high constancy 
[> 50%) ]ncluHed Iho^e lypicil of moist sites 



154 



such Bh £Jtyv£i\ti seroIffiiJr Enji^ttotr ift^^ii.'x, 
ftyi'i^tynttij} /?j T^r>F?wVJd"f_ /"_ \/i\/ipantit\ and 
^5 trJtTJjj J t^d^j ans_ Olhi^r bii^h-constajK y 
fartei Lnclucfcd Cerasiiutn ar\^ns6'. ffwjid^wMh"j 

f?arrvi, S^tff^kjg^x fjrii^\Irtr£irtr\a. and mos1 
characlcn^tic al Ly rr?rt^rtft JJ^j djvmrJ^jfrL'^- Forbs 
core>i*ilcntLy pr«»cnt_hLi1 rrujic lyp]c b] of dr>' 
1 urf or L LishLU n plint commLuiLtLf^ inclurltd 

B ixl /" /a/^t ^ fxi fi viiii^ la 

Solfe S 4mpln> were abK^iH L'vcnLy d]^ klrd 
btt\^ [M:n L ak an.H>Lb> ^ 1 1 mc'>LonF ind 
cnnglomirratcj and dlid: ak arcaiis f bisBH 
gr^nilc and quBrt/LtE^I substrates Avi^ra^L' litt-i^r 
BixJ duff Aplhs wnr , rtspK. Live] J Oi Lnind 

0_4Ln CoBJSc f rBgmcnt conlcnt rBn^cd from 
1o J]* andivcrBgcd?^ Tck Lmr of 1hc fine 
fr^c tion rinf fd from fine rLiy h>'>andy clay^ 
BixJ mean tcMunz wassindy cliy Soil rcai:1]on 
w as stn^ngLy coixJ] tionctl by ^ubstr^tc lypc, 
Bvcragin^ 7_2 for c ale ajcous ind 5_S far 
noncak arcoL£> 1> pc^ bo1h vaLiic^ wcir 
db>linclly lower Ihan for Ihcdncr tuif lype> 
Mcinoc^amc maltcrcontcnl was 20"^, mean 
1oUl ni1n>^rn wis0.7J%, and C N r^tun wfi 
]-1 ] 

lYoductlvflj- Tht rin^t ]n toUl piodLic1]vily 
WBsrcLatLvdy nincw, I 127 to L ,426 Ibs/^cic 

|l21tJ Lb^Jacnz avtraf t). wilh grBuiLnoHfc 
Bvcragin^ 74_T art] Forbs 540 Ibs/^crc These 
high vbIucs rclilivc to, ^ay the C^^rex eiviioixies 
p_ B_ (Bvc 796lbs/4cicJ Further ^ubsUnti att Ihe 
Icsi stircifiil bu^hcr moislurc s1 Blu*i of the 
C^j 6'x jHLT^^trJflu /r^xJ^'^Irlf^f {fivi.^f ifjofra c_l_ 

OltierShidk9-[>QLiglay ajxJEh^n^'^^i 
descnbc 4 Cw6'\ Jtitp^xf^i^u \^r. siifjxor^^ 
communily 1ypc f nsm the easlem NoTlh 
C ascddc^ of W Bshinf Ion tbiBl ls vcgctatLoualFy 
BixJ physiognomic b]]> veiy JiimiLar Id CL^^^fT 
mtjxoid6^A/ f*o^6^iiiila dii^ri\Joi\tr. However 
]n the moislcr C ascadj an c]] mile, Iheir Ctf rFA 
K7 ^t£?jcfcvj communi ty rcprcscnb> Ihe dry, eirly 
^now-free end of an aJpincmnlmuum 
OCX. Lunng on weLI-driincd slopes of aJ I 4sj>ctls_ 
Stand iBbLesfmm Bimber^ and M i|i>r 1 1 *^6 S] 
^how plots fbr Ihe B 1^ Snowy HounlB]iriof 
^^ on1 Bua 1h4t confonn loourconceplionof 



1htsc_t 



Elcmeni Code- CEGLOO 1 5*7 



Edhbii/AuCtnr-97-LO /S V Cccperel 



HcrbBccDus Vcgdatjon 

1CAPSCO /CALLEF) Holm^^ Rocky 

MoLinlajn scdtc/clkslip juaish nungold 

Natural H trltaci: C onservutloii E^nk- 

G4/S3 



Envlrouniciil- This sshoci Bl]on w as ex tensive 
J 11 tticGrBvelly ind MBdLsi>ii Rinses sampled 
]n the Tobarco Roots mitctl in the East Pioneer 
BixJ li> be expecled ]n the o1her ranges bised on 
lhe bioBddiMnbulion of lhe dLimmaul spceics 
Saturated soiLoFlen wilh '>tanding wiler 
IhioughLiut the^iuwingseison was the 
dominani feBlure These ^ites span the rBnge 
fium wel meadow lo fen ind ocTunn shallow 
undr^i ned 4i:pie^iore>. low-grMJieni 
siiiiiiigited posjiions bixJ aLsoMJjacenI tof]n>1 
Older ^tre Bm*i or n> uJels Fromihe high values 
for basal Biea \)t^^ average) ind abunJanI moss 
|60^ jvcrjgei and]]1terfSi^^ BverBgeJ.it 
fbl low^ that 1 here Wis !ieldnm more than b trace 
Bnn unt of exposed soil/grivcl or fdcL. 

^ ccetaCloii- O dy trace anx>unts of 5ff/rA' spp_ 
were prcsi:n1_ Wilh^ut excepl]on the ^ramjnoid 
componen! domjnited b> Hiedngixi^tic 
species CcrrFA JLVJ/^jfi7nrj7i o r C ifnJjt jjftr ni _ 
w as ex tremely dense fSfl^-^ mean canopy 
cover)- Ihju^h! hey did not exceed S-12 irkzhcs. 
OlhergraminoKk wj1h high coiTiUncy or 
coverage were C ^lay^k^rfr Deji ii^ffsr^xsia 

Mnir^tr^fifXftJtr The forb component, nolibly 
lacking ind]>en>ity wasdaminatctl by ^levcral 
we1-s]1e species, mosl commonly C^Afl^nj 
f^i^yiL'ptria {35"^ meincc J, /"dvia/^^JT j 

f}mh£^fanf?iii6's^ Trt^iirn kfjuis and V^oiifc^f 

Sotk- \ll pireni milenals were charac1eri/ed 
as alluvium mos1l> volcanic-derived Fourof 
the fi>e sites had fibrous peal b1 lefil6 indc^. 



155 



Lj11crdcpLbfi> BvcrB^;ft10_7 jn, wcdid ikjI 
dtscrimiriBlcdijfFfnjm pcBl_ Nocoarsc 
frapmcnlH wcir found in iny of the pnjfaJca 
Soil tcTl uic i^ng«J fromcLiy m^andy clay- 
loim wilh B mcxJ b] coDd]1]nn bc] ng cliy loam. 
Soil rcai:1]on for tht ont cihrircoiK ^Ltc |pM = 
5_9J waslhc lowcslof an> c bIc Brcoiii ^ilE 
sampled however, 1 he so]]'^ derived from 
vokajiLC aJ] uvi um ^howctl no Irencl of lower 
j>Yi VAlues |6 U BYCZBgc] Ihan olhcr wctymobt 
£i[cs. TtieonLy ^l]gbilly acid values ] ndic ate 
mincrotrnphir "^LtKi hivinguKire m common 
w]th fenh tbiBii bi>^1a.s thi'>c.t ha^i been 
Icrmenl in the lileratLuer MeBiior^inic matter 
conlcnt wa.^ 25^_ meBn lotaL nUiu^n cont-enl 
WBH0 70'^.^,indC:N rBl]owas 17 L OrgBnic 
iniller bikJ mlR>^enconlentwei? higher Ihan in 
olhcr wetland 1> |>e*> bixJ were equaled only by 

1urf_ 

Prcductlvff^- Average piudiKlivil> for thee 1_, 
2,277 Ihi^ac re . was higher pBilicularlj ]n the 
grumi™:i]d comjxjnen! I 720lb^4crc ttiBnIhat 
of any other ^tudy arcBC t Eiowoer. the 
rin^e, 1,426 to 4 123 I bs/Bcie, overlaps w]1h a 
number of moiM/wcl !iilc typKi_ Wc*ipccuUle 
1h4l these vBlun ai~e luxJeiesninates, b^i 
sampling i nvan Bbly occurred pnor li> 
phenologicalopl]nia A pn^tec ted sile at 
10.2JOfl inlheMadjsonrinfe h^dlotal 
pioduclivity of 4. 1 23 Itei^icie much higher 
Ihin for comparable 4. 1 's in Ihe Central 
Rockies (Miv Bnd Webber I9S2 Scott bixI 
Eillii^l^,Eng^ajxJHacMaJx.n I9S31- 



M on1 Bna, bm sub Blpinc s1 Bixis have adiflerent 
Forb comjKi^i tion 3imilarcommum1]cshavc 
not been de^ic rib«l north mJ west of oursludy 
area. 

ElemrnC Codr- CEGLOOI fl23 

E:ditlDn/AuthDr-97-m /S V Cccperelal 

Cij*6fxj^imiittfl£^ Herb acco lis VcgcHHon 
JCARSIMJ short- be j+icd sedge 

Natural H CEit^ce C omervutlDii Etank- 

04/ S3 

Env IrDQnicnl- This minor, bul distincl]ye, fen 
conununily 1ypc was found confined Id 
satujited organic so]ls developed ]n assoc]Bl]on 
with spnngHAiibirrifilion on stream lerrace"! it 
6,6Ki-7_CpM fl_ in the vicinily of IheTendoy 
ajxJ Centennial R anges, 1 he Bclual elevation 
rin^e is piubablj coreiidei^bly gieater This 
vegelBl]on lype occur* on some of the wcltcst 
sites sampled in southweslem Mo nUna. Planb^ 
^enci^lly iKcur on hummocks or mBts biMween 
are*! of standing w a1er_ Slighllydncr adjacent 
conununilies arc donu nited b> f^^rtiIf^^\'\iioid€l 
flc n ft J i fiJa / Ji rncT ti ha^lU m ur f^ty^A jiif iciJ^x^i^A , 
^rrttv^Erffrcr cfijftrjJT, ind C^j d^^ ^jj l'^^'j^t Jr j, or 
Sijff\ '>pp ind C{ft6'XAiIr2iAiUrta UplmJ 
vegelBl]on isdominiled by \ bhoizi 
combinations oV Ar?efj[iir^ In Jd^zPuJ^ ^p. 
viseyanior tndenlBlB^,.^ nrrtfror.-^- ft?nj;IUxha 
usually VtfUh FL'siiica iJijhoe^iiis and^or i^^ pjtj/j 



Other Sludks- Virlually identical Blpine 
mic^h communities BixJenvin^nmenlaJ 
parameleis are descnbeil for Ihe BeBTloolh 
Pi ale au of MonUna/^'yomi ng iJohiTronand 
Billinf'> 1962), Med]C]ne Bow fScoll and 
Billing I964| bixJ Teton Ranges |Spence and 
Shiw ISSIJof W>-omin^ and CokirBct- "s Fiont 
Range |W]llard 1*^7^; iitl May and Webber 
19S21_ Ctfi?^^ J^^jfr>n:7tL'^ytr ]^ 1he dLiminanI Forb 
]n mBny alpine m4c^he'>of Utah's Uinta 
N^ountains. bul the dommani grimi noid^ lie 
C£^t6'^ Ui^i^firlfi tyr C liAxtiJiiii, ra1 her Ihan C 
nofXiift?nitn (Briggsind MBcMihon I91tj, 
Lcwtsl97C3^ Hare>enetBl-Ciy95^da>cribeB 
sinu I ar type fiom '>iibalp]ne bixJ ilpine are is of 



VccetBtlon- S tan±i gener4ll> BiCtomewhAl 
depBupcrite. having fewer thin len species. 
C£^r£t^ irmrtial^ is cfominanl and ibundint 

^ff^j^wn^ may be well represented in some 
stantii- Forbs arc generally not abnndanL 
Trijifoi Iift2 ptiiAiilrx.^ and Ef?Ii^x!?AW^ p^fiii'iU-^^ 
BnJ ^^jPNJFr^ jj^EU ^ 1 JFJ J^^^jjtl'^ are the mosi 
conunnn forb species Moshes are common, 
usually wHh2!Ii-_10^ cover, though they c an 
Form a nc ally conHnuoiK sw anJ, occ um ng 
even w heie standing w Bler existed b1 the lime 
of sampling 



156 



Soik- Si>ibi arc HisloM^bi. RcnluLin^ 
corkJUiQns a*i c^ idcnccd by glcyin^, Brc I cm 
to ^itatcr Ihan 20 cm bclQW 1bc surface. Walcr 
CDVcis JO-SO* of lhc SLufact 

Othtr Shidin- Hansen ct Bl. f! 99^1 cte>cribc * 

C£^t6'^i\fnttiakf hibitat 1ypc fn>m wc^tLTii 
A-lonlina Lc^ic a 1 L ^^O] dr^ n bed Mmilir 
communil]a> from higher clc^ilions in 
soutbiwcit MonUna. but '>if mficajit covcrAga> 
of CL^^^f T ^ji^jtf PX^rf Bnd5!tjJn hraciiu^Arpa -wci^ 
pir^m iiiH^JiiK: ^tanck More -species nt bi 
vc^clBl]ondominitrtJ b> Ec^tufiA gitmAiloitr^ 

WBH dKC n bed for nurlh-ccnlral MonlBna 
(Lf^icA l9S6j_ Fen vcgcl Bl]on HinmLnBlcd by C 
sinmf^ia has aJnn been de^cnbed for [dibu^ 
Wyoming Bnci UtabifPaclgcttel aL ]9Sy, 
YoLingblood el al 19Z5} 

CoDinicnts- Light Id moderBte Ifcve^tcck 
^ra7J ng dLiCh occur ]ii the C{At^'\iftmfiaIi^c 1. 
A] though the cffccb> of the associated 
herbivor^' arc pmbibly mjuimaJ tramphngmay 
aJlcr the hBbitat by 4.rcBl]nghummn.ki>lhat 
permil the invAS]Dn of ^hrub'> BixlaLicn species 

EkmEnl Code- C EG LO0 1 Z25 

EdKion/ Author- ?9-]E-L6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Cij^exiflfmitaliA HcrbaocoLs Vcgctilion 
CCAPUTPlbcBkcd sedge 

Natural H crltafi: C oiKtrvutloii R^nk- 
G5^S5 



Env Ironoicnl- This i*^ pcrhip^ 1he iix>si 
comjnon of mid lo high clc^*tion wetland lypes 
in Mon1aji4. w]thiu1htCciilenniBl VaMcy it ]"> 
rilhcr Loxommon wilh 1hc ^tn^ng CM.^p1]onof 
the R«J Rffl-lz LaJzKi National Wild]] be Refuge 
where pcrtiaps Ihc s1 ale's Lirgcs! eipirLVL" 
occujslit bL»o occup]e^ jrajre are* thBU Buy 
olhcr single vegetation 1> peon the Refuge). It 
IS recognized by Buy of three "^ctlgcs, dryex 
ti\nc\ilala, C{rt£x ^^SAUfm^ or C^^te^ al^ic^rty^i^s 
hivangil LcasI 25 ^ cinopy cover On the 
Refuge and Ihroughout Houthwestem MonUna 
C itlnciit£^lti IS bv far the d^mi Hint Bnd 



dugnostLC sedge ttnJ C vesrcxfnti is 
sporadicaLLy present wi th lowcover vbIuts- 
C^j d^^ j/Jr:\ jj/crPu i'> found as a nanow. hncar 
feature, boRlenng s1e Bms or pond margins with 
com I nuniTily SBluratetl so]]s bill itsriKHil 
extensive development [^\ least ]n the 
EVHDMSl LsinthewetUndssunounding 
Upper and Lower Red Rocks LBkes In places 
It fonn*i abnjid band scores of ineten> w]dc ]n 
places, Biound the mBjon ty of Ihe^e Ukc s 
pen mclcis- Even in Lite summer si>i Is of 1hese 
sites aresBluralcd to the surface BixJohen Bre 
even inundited by standing wa1er_ S ubstrates 
hive ahighoigBnic cijnicnt, ibjugh not bHoI 
the Refuge si1es invesi igiled had hislic 
epipcduiTi f probably nwstLy Enceplisols Bnd 
Entisois piTF Bi] though .\quic MoLLisois and 
H]stosoLs bIh^j occur)- Si>i[s arc formed fium 
all uvi um of vanoiis sources ind aregenerB]]> 
moderately f]nc- texlured. Ih^ugh lenses of 
siLty-cUys weir aJso encountered On 1hc 
Refuge Ihis t> pe most of1en bonders dircdly on 
open wa1er but ]n plices there aredtstincl 
pitc hes d:jmi nBled by T'ipfriA i^A^JoUtr^Sc'frjtrti 
L'Mjj^du and rfjjjy^jjnj hj/^^jj j j ] nieic al ated 
between Cbict iHricul ata ind open water- 
Tow and shiLlower/dner hibi tats C{At6'\ 
tiincttial^A gridss lo JSi^tn t haflfi ifi- 
domination mosHy uhJwKiis h^AlIfCifi plani 
assoc]a1ion |neBr monrx. uJlure of J. A^^Piaut or 
the Jttii^Tti baiJN.ii'i - C{ftexpt{fejiracjff'i]>lMnt 
assiic]a1ion This typefomsi floiling mBtsas 
we]] w hen urkJcr Ihe infl uence of w ave aclion, 
pieces of the anchored mBl ire dislodged. 

^ccctuthm- Qim-'A d^P^ r^ d^^uJ^j veiges on being 
a monospec if ic dDini nBnt ]n the por1]ons of Ihis 
type occupying siles Ihal Brencar]y 
com I nurnEily inundBled, Ctrrcx tri^fulfii^ shBirs 
dominance on b ver^' mi nor portion of 1 he type 
Total grammoid cover often appnsaches LiX^ 
The fac 1 1 lies e are aggressive]^ rJiinXjmatoiE 
gramiDLi]i±i mBV ex pi Bin site pi~eemp1]on flocil 
dominance of one of the lwi> spet lesf bixJ Ihe 
lowspec]esdiveisilycKh]bited b> thtslype, 
though the envi mnment ibtel r Ls consitleribly 
rcs1ncl]ve Oliver grimi noids ci>ns]sten1]y 
presem often weLLrepn:sentcd inc]utt 

S hrulHi, StjJr T spp , L^iifi6'nA iiiy^iucnAl^f and 
f^cjil£^?h} lfoni6's_ptfnbAifnia^ md fo rtra. 



157 



tfBCC iHuunts 

Coiiiiiiciit5- This K an CTtrrmdy common and 
bn^^JlydjsLnbutcd wetland lyfic ^B^fiIl^a^fB^ 
Houtbi*! Ne^^ Mexico and Anzona |Bour^n^n 
iixJ EngcLb]n^ 1994) In MontanB pnjbibly 
nx>rc simplinf bias bfcn clonE^ to 4i:>CLijni:n1 Ihc 
regional permutatioibonhis type Ihin has 
been coixliK t«J for Bny other well bixJ typc_ 
Thuslhrci: phizes ire recogmicd of whic h 
C^j d'^ j^grr^ft^r T i"^ 1 he one simplcd BncI 
commonly itpresentcd in the BVHDH3; the 
D^ic^iiJt^pir^f c^ipi^tyja [\h^c Ircpirsentativc 
of ]q>s ]iiLiJidalcd ajxl iTK^rc ]]>cshK l:-a4.ccs!iible 
cnv]iunmcnb>^ mBy hivc been cixuirejiKly 
reduced locxtirpiledby he Bvy pjinnng of 1 hcsc 
ripanan^wetUndhah]1aK, mos1c^pec]B]]> IIxim: 
of IbcCcnIenniBi ValLty and Refuge Larkfe 

Ekmtnt L odp- CEGLOOl 562 

EdHlon/ Aullwr- 99-] [-Lfi/S-V- Cooper, 

MTWHP 



Vcgctaljon 
fDESCESf Tufted hiirgrasi 

Natuntl H crltafe C Dnstn utlon Etask- 

G4/S4 

Env Ironniciil- Thi*^ ci>mjrpLio pL^m a^^MxiatLon 
ocLLUson moi^lstieam tcrT*:«i, extensive 
SLibirngated beix hi bikIs. Mnal I vaLLey ^eefi*^ bikJ 
jLis1 ibove Ihe drBwdLiwn /one o r Lakes ind 
ponds W]1hLnlheEVHDMSsomeof the best 
qua] I ty "^Uncis al beil of ]] miled ex teni , occ lu 
1 hiougbLiut the lowlBixisofihe Red Rock 
LBtcNNBl]onaJ W] Id life Refuge Soils iie 
^jeneriLlysilty to s]]1y c I ays m lex tiiie Sites 
w]th theEVHDMS exbbHedLiMle bBre^jmund 
BixJ no surface gravel .\dj acent sites are mos1 
fiequenlly dsminatcd byJitr}iitibiilf\L\is, 

C_ jrwi (j^^^JiT or ijJ^^ spp_ Arlefrtrif£^ Inii6^Utr\{A, 
A Irifx^ff^fkf, indoor fd^jN J ttr rrtj^r^Jd^rirf 
dominate adjacent ufilBixJ vegetation 



\\ a ixinliniioiis nieiise c ani:»[i> of grajninii^ii^], 
the ckjminanLs ot w bch, f f Ti^jL'^FJTjtjjVj 
c^i^ilt?^a End JAiffi Ail h^A^Ifiifi areiEiiBlJy 
abiind antly repiesentetl; however 1hc mere 
piescrkze o F Ci_ i fjjtr r^jfL^^ luxJer i niense ^T^zi ng 
iseDDUgh to I ndic ate 1hese moisl to wet sites 
are potenliill^ dDininalcd by this species. 

prtfi'gt^fiiUi Bre other comjix>n fr^miDD]*- 
The cover Bjxl di> eisi1> of fortHi is low to 
iDodcrute Asi^i oc<.ideniaiii, FoJenlr^kf 
{fiisenii^f, ^ grcr<.iiii ind Crx^xf s mff^'inaia ^zc 
conuiHjn spec]es Moshcs Bre common; 
occ asionilly 1hc^' wiLL ^nn a neady conlinuous 
I aycr_ 

CDOuiitnts- /see eomment> under Jd^jj^ du 
!?aflmii - C{ff6'Xfit{fejiracj^fsi This vegelBdon 
IS produclive Bnd oflen remB]i7i gieen 
thiDugbout 1 he flowing seison mating]! 
a1trBcliyelol]>eslocl:, especially I Ble in the 
year The nxi]st to wet noils ind generallj 
sniB]] sj/c of "^Unds make thislypc ver^' pn^ne 
to degradation Hanhenet il_ ( 1 995^ describe 
thi^ D6'i£.^iiJit\p If {f c6"iprIoitr'h2.bi^B^ type as i 
jTiijor Laruisc4[ie coinfioncul ForMoutanB. 
Sim]] Br types hive been descnbed for Ihe 
ELackfbol River Valley (LewcB L9S4)ind the 
ELackfeetlndun Reservation iLesici ]9S9j_ 
Wet meadowTi donunatetl by D.^eifXfloi^f hive 
aJso been de^icnbed for the ilpine /one of 
southwestern N^onl ana nK^unlB]]!^ (Cooper and 
Lqjcb L?92| Youngb]nodetil-Cl9g5^ 
descnbed 1his vegetation type for Wyomi ng 
ajxJ Idah:) in fac 1 1his is one on 1hc most 
wjdespre ad well aixJ types of 1be ] nlc nrajun! ajn 
Wesi f Padgett e1 aL |L9fl9| aixJ aLsocxtendh to 
near-roastaL env]n>ninenb> (Eourgeion aixi 
Ei^elting]9M|- 

Elemtnt Code- CEGLOOl 5?9 

EdlCioii/ Author- ^ML-Lft/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



'ffjj f r^h^^f^tf 'rt Herbaceous VcgctaUon 

(DESCES - CALLEPl tuflcd hai]griss/ 

cl ks] ip m anih marigold 



Vceetutloii-TheLt.minanlaspec1ortheses]1cs NaCural H critaEC t^ o ^Mrvatloii Rank- 



153 



G4/S3 

Envjronnical- This c.1. wb.^ wc] I iT[irf?icntfd 
]n tbic Gra>cLLy R angc 4nc1 al^xj SBUifi led m [he 
BcavrrticMJ incl M aclison R bii^c'>. i1 wa^ notfd, 
but ncH ^ BiTifilcdJii four nf lht nthcr fivt mijiir 
mountain ran^c^ of Ihc B V H DM S_ H occurred 
B1 cltvaHoiK BHhLgh as 10 lOOfccI^ but wis 
nuKh more comnmn in lower cLtvBlion 
collecting po^ilions fci tbicr snow or pcKo] B1] ng 
WBlcr)4l the bJ pint/subiipi nc c^Dlone (ippnux. 
?,2tB to9 500 kcl| 3 ampLcd s]1e> ™.c upi^l 
fiBl to concave bcix biQ> ind "^Lopcs thai did not 
cxccctl L5^ "^Lopc Bjxl Vrcrc rejrtbi- tbm>Ligh 
nonhca.st-1 Bcing ^ BixJ [uobiblytLibLni^itrd/ 
SmBi] p Bicbcs of 1 his c t wcicnolcd on sleeper 
sLopKi b[rlow pcn>islcnt snowbanks and ]n 
swales At limcof sampLing aJisoii piofiics 
wcTTsatujilcdlolhesLirfBcc. Sokfluclion 
lobcNwcie prominent ocn on the gentlest 
slopes 

^cc[^tut}D1l- The high cavcrB^ of moss (72^ 
mcin^ LonlubLilcd dramiliciiiy lo lhf luhh 
BppcBi^nccof ltusc_t_ Only trace amounts of 
Saffwpp wcrcfourkJ Graminoid cover > anctl 
considerably, ivcriging 3SW £5«^ Jr^^rrj^irtr 
cvf^jfr^n^ Wis L tear] > 1hcdDminanl^ranuDLi]d; 
Dihcr moLM sile ^r^nu noicis oc^cornng w ith it 
least 5^ coverBgc it^d^f^ C^^fj ijff^ffr, C_ 
Frj^m^Fn. C Ii{mi6^ui, Jrtnctn {fntfj[T)\ofiiiff and 
J ficr/?HT/T Though £■_ i i-T/^"r^jj^j c I umps 
piDvided B rccognHion fBdor for this 
Bssocjalion foih cover |65^ average) fir 
oulstnppcd thBlof thegr^nuDLiids- C^fiifr^A 
fd^?^>Tf ^jcr/j^ d^minBled |4S^ l c_|1bcfort> 
layer O ther fbrbs wi th high coverage hut not 
netcssBniy high constancy WEic^jfer 
Joiia^6^fir Cim^ty^f^f ftint-^?t{Al^, E^jdrnpr 
i?x^rejiniiifi, Fx-^iifcniani groenftin^fn-ar 

cymhi^fan t?i£i6'i ^ f ni Wr ^ j t rli ^ h y^ynt i j kjo^Jr r 

Soik- Parent matcn aJs in^ I udnil aJluvium, 
limeslone sindslone biSBll indgncjss. Litter 
BDdduffdeplh BverBgenl 0.6 ]n and 4 in, 
nrspec tLvely Coan»e frBgment t^ontenl was 
consislently Low. averaging only ?^ with 
1 races ot gTivel inc1 nxk fourkJ on Ihe surf at:e_ 
E arc solL exposure Wis *i hjghis2C3^. 
dpccLiLly where po<: kct gopher fr.^^j/i^j^ njt' J 



f^^Vjt^jrJfjf workings were ex tens] ve Soil 
texture VBned fn^mciiy lo sandy clay withi 
meanoFsincly clBy Soil reiclion for 
c bIc Bn!oi£i subs1 TBles iverigcd 7.5 while Ihat 
for none aJ(. Breou*! was only 5 S Meanoigamc 
miller conlent was 20^ meinlotal nitrogen 
WBs0 57^^,in:IC:NrBl]owasl5 1. 

PiTHluctlvftj- TotiL productivi ty ranged 

w]deLy_fn^m62l lo 3,1^7 Lbs^acre withi mcin 
ori,S20 lbs/acre. Graminoid produclivi |y 
accounted foronly 13ft to42ft of Ihelolil- 
ThL"^^ producliv ity fLgures BiehkeLy 
undeie'^timates as il least two "^iles were 
sampled pnor to l uJmination of gmwth_ 

Oriher Shidlcs- Mncgglcr and Slew irt |I^SO> 
descnbc ^ Di'ic^iat^pif^f {'6fipr^fjitr / Ctin^x '&^ 
c-LforsubBlpLnc meadjws of w cslem 
Mojitina I1 has high piodL^l]>Lty bul Utile 
conhibLi1]on by forbs. Our De^ichampsii 
cespilosi/Calthi leplosepalac t can be 
inlerpreled is a ilpine e^lcnhionof the 
^■cjl /Fu/Tj^jrcr senes John^m BndBill]ngs 
(1962^ hive desL n bed i more b madly defined 
Dene himps] a (.esp I tosB vegetation 1>pe fw]th 
apprecLib le C BrcT scopulonim J for the 
Ei^arlffljlh Ringeof MonlBna-Wyom]ng_ They 
ohsei^vi: Bn i iK"ie asing coverige oF CtjJr^ 
JspUyseptita ind]c Bles i 1 ransilion Id C 
KujtJjfp^jm-damLnaled ttig condi tioiTi- 
D^sc ^liJt^pir^f ^f f^j^wn^-LtiminBled meBdLiws 
extend Houthw Bid lo Colorado ^illiid [979, 
EonhamandWard 1970- May and Webber 
l9S2in:lEddleminin:l Wild l9&4>.Ulih 
(Lewis I ?70l _ ackJ DLi rlhem New Mexico 
(Baker 19Z3) but appirenll> lack the mesic lo 
hydnc for1>s thil Chirac terije the Des4.hampsia 
cespilrHiB/Caltha lep1osepalac_t_ Their D 
^f f^fwu^-djmina led types are appirenlly 
inlermedLate nxjistun: status between ^tddf 
£■ ^sc ^liJt H^ If {f cespi ? t?ja / I^o f £T r r j^ h r xif y^nij^ia 
and D eji ii^f fjrjxsia ceijxf lo i^f / C^fi ? Jkj 
f6'pi^x'iefitriaiz l's_ 

Element L odp- CEGLOOl flS2 

Edition/ Author- 99-] E-L6/^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



159 



di\/^r'^if{iia HcrbiccDu^ VcpclBtion 

(DESCES - POTDIV) luflcd RaJrgrB-:^/ 

d I vcis- Lc B vcd cinqucfo 1 1 

Natunt J H trltacD Cflnstrvutlon Etask- 

G5/S2 

Env ironnical- Thi:£ cominunily lypc occurrcd 
fium trcclinctDDV«-]OflOOf1 in Ibc Gi^vclly, 
N^Bdi^un and ^DLiwcrf^l r[mga>. bul filial I 
cxampLf^ican [iiT>bAbly be found in BlloFchc 
EVHDMS rin^j'Ki- it wan confined to cooL 
^LopKi, > aLLcy bollumH ind dcpra>KLon*i where 
'tO]]^ Bi?L^p andirmain mobil luitii at least 
mid-summcr This 4."Ojnmuni ty type ncc upic^ 
1hL" ino^t mcMC siluatLons in tlic Lower al pine 
ZDiu. Snow cover diinn^ wi n1cr pio1ccb> Ihe 
plint^^ind al tbioLi^bi SDLiw release comes 
nmdcr^tel y ear]> mi tbicstison tbiesilesiie 
often fed by mc I Lw ater f mm Lipslopc 
snow fields. Dx.^it-h^ffnjx'iia i 6'jfXfIoi^f / 
Tr^r^^taft^^^j Jrv^ TjT^t^r^J w ay Bbiuxl Bnt on the old 
eiosLon terricey of the G TBve 1 1 y RBn^e and was 
often BHrfK I atetl wi th slopes show]ng ev]dL"nce 
ofsoliflLicHon This commumly type generally 
occLuienl in 4 miln^of dnergrasilBnd anJ 
moi-it ordiy tLuf >egelBl]on_ ]l also grBdcd into 
we1] and Lommuni ties, cspcc i al I y Dcsc ^lat^^irti 
ceipitiria / CtiiJh^f fe^ityji-^x^fitr. ImheGrivellj 
Range i1 some^mcs occiuied Lmn>KJ]Ble]y 
Btcve shrubLackii donunatetl b> .^^ ^tvrrrf jVj 
Inii67r\akf sjf?. vujfi l^^jj^j or subaLpanc forests 
dominated by I'fC6^f ^rg^m^xj^ui 

Vccetuthm- GrBminoid cover in D^i-h^ifjrjxslij 
ceipiifjia / f^t?\^^lf^i{A ihv^t siJ^xfiiA is high, 
BverBging 75^-^ and CKt^eedctl only by thBl of 
1hc C^jj£'^ ^i-^xpttioMftJ[ / C{fiifr£^ iL'pItyjx^x^fiti 
Kimh commomly D€n.i}afjrfxsi£^ <.^fxiUM£^ is 
Ihcdominanlgi^mjnoid, often forming Large 
lushocks Carxn. aUtrJ^A ind /"Jr/f jj^rr ^jff^ujd^FJT 
Brc also impodant- fd^TNytfT rrti/z^td'^ur t w as 
conimi>ii inslBncisil lower elevatioisi, and 
C{At6f^fx^iiJ6'Oi£.'fiir£^kf ^nd JAifUAis h^AlIfCifi were 
locally CO mmon The I a1 ter mBV have 
]ncieased under the i nfluence of Lveslot k 
grazing |Hare»enet b]_ 1^5] Mean Forb cover 
was 37ft /"oPiTJJdWj^ ^ kf J jj/j'Vj^. Tr^i jf r^tarrjji 



b^ilof Ioni6'\ and id^Ei^i j^t cv LUfd^Vrrj were LbK 
most abundani forbs. C6fr£^iIlAim ^jj l^u^, 
iitixjftxjcttiiii ff^'/zjtVr^jfJjV and S^fjdjrag^f 
r^rt^f l7 J jl^^ were also common Mer?i.^isia <.iha^ 
was BbiindBnt in one stand Mean cover of 
lichens Bnd moshes was_14 

Soib PirenI mBlcnils for 1hese standi were 
sancbilone, limeslonc quun/i1e and gneiss 
McBndepllsi of litter Bnd doff w as 0.4 ]n and 
0_S in respecl]vely_ GenerBl]yHO]Ls supporting 
1 his communi ty type weie deep withdajt- 
molli4.-Bppe4nng epipcdLmh and hi^h mo]stuje 
conlcnt thrjugbijut miKhof the^iow]ng 
season BBregiound and gravel coveiKl6'Tt of 
1 he sulfate This type h*d Ihe lowesi coiisc 
f ragmen! con ten1 ot all nLm-we! I and lypes, 
rin^in^ fiomO-19% wilh b mcBnof S% 
TcK lure of 1be fine frac1 ion longed fmmfinc 
c]By to loBmy sind with 4 mein lex tural class 
of clBy ]oam_ Soil reac1]on vaned fiom alow 
of 6 on sojIs den V ed frtjm gneiss to 7_0Dn 
HO]]sdcnved from limestone and calc areoiE 
santtilone. Mean pH for the type wasft5_ 
Meinorgamc malterconteni was Ut4,mcan 
1oUl niliogen WIS 0.6^% , andC N r^tio wfi 
34 1 

PriHJuctlvflj-GiBjnirK^Kl pnKliKl ivily varied 
bet^^een S5n ind 2, J50 Ibs/icre wilh b mean of 
?JS lbH/acre_ Forb pioduc1]>Hyi^nget1 from 
IflO to S75 Ibs^icrewilh b mean of 72? lbs/ 
Bcre Mean tolBl pradiKtivily was I Af>7 Ib^ 
Bcie and wis behest on w imier aspecis 

Other Studies- Di"iihttit\fiif{A c6"iprIoia / 
Ftx\cx2^ff{ufAVi.^fifJolf{f B1 lower elevatioiTi is 
very similar in enviionment Bnd 4.ompos]1]onlo 
Mucgglerind Stewan's1l?S0| F^^'ifut-tf 
fflaHfxefisr t /D6'Si htiit\fiif£^ cespr^oitr habi1 Bt 
1ype Though ]mpossi ble toevBluate wilh 
stand lablcs Mueggler ind Stew ad ^FesUica 
\{kj^iiX6^isrs /D6'ii htiij\fisf{f c d"iyjj ^tx^a ^shociilion 
piobabl> BLtO encompasses Ihc moist Inrf 
community lype, Care'j^ s<.irfMrA^ / FoJexjIrffa 
div^fiffofr^f. These aulhonisUlelhil 
piDdi^|]> ity of the]r type probably ranges 
between 13)0 and 1500 I b^/ac re, nomew hal 
lower Ihan we measured Johrt^m bikJ Bi]]]n^ 
|l962K1escnbed we1 meBdows dLiminaled by 
D LesfXfloia ^nd Ctir^'x n:of?iiJontit\ in the 



160 



Gf ai1c>i>Lh MounUiib of H^^utbi-L'E^m i il 
A-1on1ajia^ bikI Lc^lci |I?9L) rcpoTltJ IhaL drier 
cnminunilirs djmi nilHJ by £^. ^^^j^'^tT^j acbil 
ijtrrjTi roisli aJ-ftj occur in 1 hb> r^ngc In North 
Amrnca.MiTiLLar a^ihocLitians arc bc'>t 
developed m the Rocky Mountaire> from 
Houthcni MonUna soLi1 h to NtwHcTico whcic 
Baber |l9flJ| reported commuml ic*> ^im]]ir m 
dominanl vegetation incl laiid^ape fXKSLlion. 
Lewis 1 1 9 70] dsM. nbcd aLp]ne meadow 
communil]cs from Ihc Uinta \^ountainsor Utah 
dominated by D. t-i.^fHUxs£^, f^f?ivgoiiiffjr 
hii^of If?ni6"i^ ind G6^ffj[ rouii. These types 
differ by having G. ^^jjn' dsminanl instead of 
F {fivL^f lAfo^f^f and by the greater piom]nencc 
of Fn/^Vrd^^rr spp_ Bonhimind Wird fl970j 
iixJ Komirtovi and Webber 1L "^751 dTNcn bed 
simj I ar £■_ i ^Tjtr JL^fL'^-dormnatetl communi1]es in 
Colorado w]1h G r^xsjir and Tt ifo f f if fsr pa n-yr as 
dugno^tic ■ipcc]es_ This communi1> 1ypc in 
Rocky Mourn Bin NBl]onB] Firlz, Colorado did 
not have an abundance of r_ /^jj n j, Bnd 
Wiiiiid f 1979 J be]]evcs thBl tbs spL^-ics has 
]nciea.'5ed luxJer the i nfluc nee of ijveslot k 
gr^zi ng in unproleeled die a.*^ oul'^idc the pail 
M cidnws domi niled by £■_ t47/^"r^j T^j are 
report«l for 1 he C asc*de R Bnge of Wishinglon 
|Himanni972ascitei:linW]]lard]979J- 

Element Code- CEGLOOI flS9 

EdlChin/Aultur-97-LO /S V Cooper el al 



DisSichUj^sftictili^ Hcrbaecoiis VcgcHHon 
rD[SSni InlBndsBll^rB-^ 

Natuntl H trltacL' C c men uthm E^nk- 

Env IrDoniciil- ]i BnhL'n et al {1 995| oteen'c 
1h4l Ihjs js B nuDLi r type ] n central BixJeaslem 
MonlBna BDJoniy isaniiK-idental l>pc in 
southwestern MonlBna> alleys ]1 occurs on the 
Red Rotk L akes N ational Wildlife Refuge as 
scob]] pBlch communilies incapable of bein^ 
mapped efLcep 1 4S inc]u*i]ons Relatively high 
quaJity e^implesoccur on the Refuse onsB]]ne 
orBlkali bfi]i7i and swales, seep are is and the 
dmv^iow n zone of ponti or lake mBig]ns_ 

^ccetuth>1l- Reiilively pure pBlchesof 



Dii\uhhs if^tli}Uf wjlh herbs l>pjcB]ol wetter 
oriesssahne (Blkaline^envin^nmenlscccuinng 
J 11 not nH>i~c than trBce amounts identify this 
1ypc Sl altered pate hes of Ihe 1ir>soct grass, 
Fttitffi^frtrfmlkfil\{fii{f^ Bie quj1e typical. 4S are 
lone spec I meiTi of i^ FJTJ/j tTFK^^tTj T Diilfcii^ii 
iprca\£^ iKUBlly occujs in 4 miln^ wilhf^'pjuij 
cjfiL^r^ii - FattTfieiiitr imll^iiitixj^ ufui 
Sar^ohiAltti v^ j^r^Tr^uId^ j-ninini nBled 
communi1]es lepiesen! i ng slightly dner Kales 
BixJ iisiiBi]> Bbruptly trajSiiHoni ng lo J unc i£ 
bAlliciE- urStitpttJ spp -dnminaled 
communi1]esiKcurTjngon welter and^or le^ 
saknes]1es Shrubs ind forbsiie very 
St altered \\ they occur at bII. 5_ w^njTJcr/J^frrj 
BixJ Chn-ioih^ffmiiis ii^ise^Miii irelheonJy 
shrubs noled in 1be 1ypc incl Trigfo^iifn 
manlrt^ttfj[ ^nd Gn?r£i^\{f sqrt^At roi^A are the 
only forbscoiTiistenllj preseni on Refuge 
examples. Hansen el b]_ remark thBl Eionieuin 
J ubatiim cin iDL re Bsc niarlculiy wUh ^r^zi ng 
but onJ> scattered// jjj/wjftrjji was noled 

Element Code- CEGLOOI 770 

Edition/ Author- 99-n-fc6 / S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Efetxrharh ptiht ^irh H crb bccdu& 

Vcgctaljon 
(ELEPAL^ Common Spike rush 

Natural H trltafe C onservutloii Rank- 

G3/S3 

h 11^ in^nnicnl- The Eleoi^ranf ^uJj^i/fTJ 
CL^nununHv 1ype is found bI low lo mod^^rBle 
elevations, ^eneriiiy in w]de, kjwgrBdiiMi! 
valleys of bI] shapes. 5ites are wet basins, 
fkjodp] B]i7i, meadowTi, f r^vei biis, bixJ like 
BixJ pond mBigjns. ]l typu.ally occupjessiten 
1hil are pione to yearly nood]ng o r peisisteni 
surface wiler Where slieanis Bre preseni. they 
Bre Rosgen\C bixJ B stre Bm 1ypcs Blev4lion& 
rin^e fiom 2.200 1o a1 ieis! fl 700 feel, 
depcDd]ngon latiti^e liiinsenet bI. 1995, 
MBnn]ngand Padgett ]995.Cmweind 
Claiisnil7er]y97 Hill andHiiKen 1997| Soils 
of 1his Lommuni ty type Bie c] assifletl as 
N^ollisoLs EntL^»ls, iiistosob> bixJ lixepUsols 
TcKtujcs are VBnible rBng] ng from s] tcMhit 



16! 



ETC V E^r^' 4.0 BiM^-f ri^mtnL Tich lo olhcrs IhaL bi? 
deep and hn^LcMurcd The "^infat^c tsiKuaJly 
nch m or^Biiu. metier bdJ Ihc l]11cr 
BccumuLatLon mBybLenJ i nh> nch. b] auk 
ni^iniL miick 't{)iL> The flnc-1cx tLued upper 
hon/urw i>l 1cn BruicfiT>m al I u> laL dcfKHii1]on_ 
Sand_grivc] andcobbLwi usuaLLy rons1] tulc the 
irnin body of drtpcr "^ubsurf Bct miltnal^ 
iMarmin^ andPadgcn L9S5;Cidwc and 
CLaL&nitzcr 19^7, HaU and HaiHFii^Tj. 

Raiifc- E^6'Oiii^ns i?£AhfiIr2J \ii a rommonlypL" 
]nCaLLrorTua Colorado. Id Bho Monlana. 
No adi, Orcpnii- U tabi Wishin^jton, Wyormng. 
BixJ Siskatc bicwin EkSfn1]aJly it haii bcnn 
documcntctl fn^m every wn>1ciii s1 a1c ciccpt 
Arizoni and New Mexico iBouigciun and 
EngclkLns]y94-AiKlEiMncty-]99Sj- 

Adjaccnt C ommunflics- Diidolhc w]dr 
gfo^raphit. Ji^lributkQn oflhis typc^ adjacent 
upl and CO mmuni tLC^ arr mhchI incliKlinf 
'>hiiib-^lcppc^ wcodLanJ^ ind eonifcn>Lis foreM 
1ypcs AdJBCtnt npBnincommunitLKi mBy be 
dominatctl by br cquBllj varied a.'&i>r1mcn1 of 
1ypes ]DLLLidinf deciduQiis ToreMJaJl shrub 
low^hjub, BixJ bieittaceoL£> commLUiLtLL^ 

^ ccetuthm- Ef^K ham jx^dixiUJs l^ in 

aggrfs^ivc^ TfiizomatoiZi "t pee]es Ihat neady 
cxcLudL^ al L other "^pecje^ from cs! abLtshin^ any 
SLfjiif le an! eover_ Common a.-^TiK i ate-^ ]n high 
qua] I ty Jiiles LiK I ud? \fofX6^TtrttJ ttit^tt^Alfi^ 
M6ffiiii£^ {ff y^^TKSi. Riffj[^x cnspiti, Ei^vxi^iani 

/"^r^jffran^nj^pJr^Fj^^ dv^_ On HoiiK s] te"^ BqLiBl]c 
■species *iiKh ay Wjjjy^jjfTJ l^^^^^jjtt. U^n^ifltiJ^A 
vTr/jL7^TT, ind f r>r^jjHwjdYL7jj jjL'^pj^rtf biBvehifh 
CDVcr 

SimihrCDmuuiiiiLks- [nsomccfics thi: 
Ef^y^htrni fx^fhtJtn'i miy be confused w]1h E_ 
KF^Ii^llBlB^especiiii^ ]f the "^lolorai of E_ 
roiIcfi^A^^f arc not prcsen! or not obvLoub- Be 
sure of 1hc pLan1 slnie identity A 
misidrntificBl]on will resuil m the wi~ong 
community 1ype being identiflctl and ccologie aJ 
confusion w I LL rtsuLt becauhe Ihc s] te^ on w bch 
they otcur Bie >cry different ccologic al ly_ it 
■^houJd be notetl thBl Hansen et b]_ []S95) 
cor\:i\xi^T Ef^y^htini acjcztiarii fncedlespikr- 



riKliJ to be Bn ecological analogue of £. 
pafifilni anJuse it as b d] Bgnosl]c !ipee le^ for 
thc£ /Jtryj/jJn J Associ Bl}on 

Siicces^n- Padf el1 at bL OS^) ^ugge^t ihit 
£Vl7^ /?trr] J jtL'^^j/T^^T T c Bn reprnient Bntiriy 
serB] sj>K. le"^ on pojxis Bnd sireambanks where 
WBler IS at or ibove 1hc ground surface. Aa 
siltdtion occun>o>er lime. o1 her commiinitie?i^ 
si^h Eli Car^'j^ iilnLtifaJi^ mB> replace it 
Howcvcrduc to the continual "fiturBnonanJ 
dense gn^w th of E^fiYAifttr^Tf j^j^rrjfjT J. once 
lormed sUnds appear d i fficul t lo displace ind 
mii" persist asc]]miT vegetition. If witer 
levcEs nsc, i ^r/tdu spp_ ^nd T v jx^ia iaiifof fa 
miy beiblelosupplBnt £ i?afifilnj. Hansen cl 
aJ_ fl^95j hBveobservKJ thai di-^lurbance can 
drastically shift Ihc vegeUtivecomp^MJtionof 
thtslype towBftl mere iser or inv Bder spec les 
such as W-rtr^frrjJi jttbatss/7i 

A Lanai^'mcnt- Seasonally wet condilmns ind 
low piUubM ity of EJ'^jr^r^n J ^Jd^j Jr: J hmj1 
the graj_i ng value of thjs 1> pe for ]]vesi™. k 
even d un ng drought years when uplind forage 
dnes early Bndd]esback (KovBlchik I9fl7) 
S I tes occupied by thjslype are typically 
I nundated or a1 Ieis1 SBlnraled lor much of Ihe 
year so as1o prec I ude nxjsl developjnen1_ 
Trampling damage and soil c huming occ ujs 
re4d]ly w i th livestock use and may resuJl in b 
■-hil' KJWBid more disturbance toleran! spec les 
■-ikh d\ fi^xr£i6^tit\ jifh^ftw^. Ctiti.'Xfiebt{Aic^rjsir 
and Ju?fiush{illfi:ifi {t\\L\\ Bnd Hansen ]997j_ 

W lldlife \ Blues- B io4d /ones oJ thtslype 
aJong strc ains nvec^, iBkes, Bnd reservoin* 
piovide vBlnable feeding andneslmg anzasfor 
WBleifbw]_ E^eorli^fM'i i?£^UfiInj and issociiled 
pUnts are a > al UBblc source of food and cover 
for waterfowl Wild unguJ ales seldom biowse 
thishabiUl type due to its low piUubility jtiaJI 
and Hansen [997] 

Element Code- CEGLO01833 

Elditlon/ Author- 9fl-] 2-OgV E. Moseley 



HcrbBccous Vcpclatjon 
flLYLSL/FHAHAS) thickspikc 



162 



w hcalgrBS^ / silvcrl c Bt ph bc cl i 



Natural HcTilBe? CoBSLT^^Iion Kanh- 

Env Irouniciil- Thi*^ bk'^oc] a1 ion hT^ l>[:cn 
oiKcrvfd onLy in 1ht Ccnltnniil Valley m a 
laikhapc referred 1o BHlhrCciHtnniil 

5aiidhilL> 1 1 uecurs on SBJxJ June blow outs at 
do atLons around 6 7(K3 Fed clcvilion. Ttic^c 
^Lti^s niB> rin^t FiT>m foredunt a[x>ns to 
iixKJL'r^tcly Lcic]] nrd June faecs bixJ Lff>lo|K 
dt[)os]1 ion ir^ a.s Bircsoil (finc-lcxturHl sbixI) 
cover TBn^cs from Go loMff BudtoBr^ 
fr^pjncnts Brc atftcnt Thcajjl surface is 
usually unslablt btcauhcol a ] ark of adequate 
> cpd Bl]on cover Parent matcnals bit coLiin 
'>and dtfHXiits Sg]Is bi? vrry deep Ustic 
ToQipsarruncnl"^ ] Bckin^; coarve fra^mcnt> and 
ETC not c4lc4i?ou£ AvB]]Bblc WBlcrhak1]u^ 
CBpacity Ls low due tc [hccoBise texture of Ihc 

'>LllHilr^tC 

^ ccctuthm- £^1 ^rrrrj i^ffi.'eofaUi t is wcl I 
rcprcscntcd toibundin! wUhi n ttus commiinHy 
type. i1 mJ .^j j^d ^upjtuJlt coiKtilute Ihe pn mir^' 
coloni/int] tiranuDi^jcIs oiilhfsi: '^LtL's ^^itti 
■^tuJ^inp *iub^lrBli^^ OlhcrspL^L«i ttiBl arc 
^cncrilly prcHcnl w I tti cover ranging fiom I to 
20"^ ]nc luHc C/e^^ f^?^j^drr?NJf jjL'tf jTtvjfdu . 

Adjacent C ommuiim?&- Ttic \M6't^fsIa 

^p Uiti6'nI{fta/F6"iUit-ti\{!u^iiX6^is\'i ^t2dA 
^r2ii67rtaI{A ^^-p. tnA^kfta / Siri?£A iOfnti\£^ plant 
BS'foc I ationh 3ic itsually founJ on adj accut 
nx>rc ^Uble soils and "iitcs. 



lEQUFLU) WalcrhoisclBil 
Natural Hcrltact ConRrvatloii Etank- 

Env Ironoicnl- ThEii^trsentfM JJin'\QUic plan1 
x'KSiKJ a1 ion cin be found a1 lo^ lomid 
cloatLons in lhemounlB]nh of central ind 
Kouttiwc'>tem N^i>n1 Bua and jn IMl' mountains 
BJxJ vallej^sot weslcmMontanB- ]loccun>]n 
gl^cLil potholes and likes^ old oxbows^ and 
b*: bw Blcni of nvers ajxJslrcims Soils arc 
enable and Ihey fiequenHy i ncluilt M ollbtob>, 
EntLsoLs^ BDd HlsIosoLs. The mincrBl soils 
Ltsually have son>? Ltpjce of orgicuc matter 
buildup. Ttu^ ci>mmLinHy IS iKLiBlly FlcxxJnil 
ycar-ioucKl- .\djaccntwc11er slice an be 
dominated by squAlic commum1]cs '>LJcti fi 
NAif?h^riip .T'lptri^ialAjo^f^f oropcnwBlcr A 
variety of dner communi ties c an occ lj adjicen! 
to fL'jQjr j^'Jjj^rryjjJVTcr^jy^ communi1]C'> andlhcsc 
CBn I nciuilc Minds of Ctrrt^ sp_, ij^r i sp__ or 
rffiAhrni anifiiiffiijce^ CHBnscnct aJ l?SS, 
HBDhcnclal 19^5^ 

Ran^e- This community occun> ]n N^onlBna. 
Idaho, and Alberta 

\ fgetatton- This commum ty is usually 
dominaletl by b dciTiC, nx>ni>typic ^tandoF 
E{j}i\ii'lAifnJIu\^{ftilc. Scattcretl Forlsi may 
occur in ttic communi ty^ aixJ Ihcse ]ix liKic 

kfiro<.{ArjMr and Ctrri.^x ttin^Ttial^ ^i^n aJso occur 
]n tticse s1 Bixl^ ]n low amount^] (liBi^cncI al 
l9Sfl Hanhen et bL ] 5951 



Other Studies Tticie Brc no other "itikdiHi ttiBl 
dcscnbc SLmilarcommum1]cs 

Element L mIc- CEGLOOl 745 



Similar Commuuhks- This conununitv has 

been dffl. umcnicd in ni>r1hcrn Idaho 
llBnkov^by- Jones 1997 J and A] bcrla (D irsc hJ 
cial-]974j- 



Edltion/ Author- 99-] [-16 /S-V- Cooper 



Sucee^ion- The ^iKCCKsiiinal dynamics of thhs 
communily Bie pnorly unclen>1cxx3 If Ihe 
hydiolog]c regime lem BiiSi unchanged it is 
likely Ihat Ihis comniumty w 1 1 1 befairl> stable. 



163 



Maiui^ mrnt- Tliis4.ojnmuniLy bi ^cntrBlly h^^ 
wd IhiiL J1 rixc I V cs very ] I ttLc ]]vcsi™. k uw 

Ekmtnt L ocic- CEGLOO 1 960 

Edi(lDn/AuCtnr-?9-]D-tS/J Gr«nr«. 

MTNHF 



ce^nTo^a Hcrbiccous Vcgclation 
(FESIDA - DESCES) Idflho fescue - 



luftcd hE 



ii^ra^^ 



Natunt J H 4:[itacD C omtrvatloii Rank- 

EnvlroH^nl- Fi'^Tm ^f f{!uhiX6^is\i — 
D^ic^iiJtn^ira c'6fip\^ty^tr 1^ ^ miixir ^LibaLp]nc 
meadow type of !iDLi1hw«ilcm Montani. On 
the R«J Rffl-lz La^Ki National WiLd]]rc Refuge 
(RRLNWLRJ]1 Lsa.'&ffl.Lated w i tbi KipK^] aJ ly 
mcHC . or ^ubi mgatctl sUcs at lower eLevBl]onK 
|< 7jXh] frclf 1han previously c]1cd for thi"^ 
type IS .(XX) feet, Murggler and Slew- bH I9S01_ 
llgcnerB]]> ccc lus aii smaJ] inc: I lisions w] thin 
rTH>rc eMensLvc /"d^f Jjjttr JcftjJr^Jdrrjjf-djmLriBlcd 
type"^ The loamy hoiK ippciretl to biBve b Locwi 
component Very h ttLe h^jI] surfice ]^ ck [x>srtl 
b«.auheot tbic hjfhpnxJixtLV]ty and 
consequem abundarH LLlltrgenrratLon. Tlu& 
typegrBdcN abruptly li> bixJ isoflcn 
c5KompBHS«J w Hhi n /"« Jd« j^ jJL'^^r^jerrjjj — 
H} fniij Ira^ hu iutiwi or other yd drier F. 
rL^Jti/E^td^urT-dominatetl typelie ih^F^iHiCiJ 
f{kj^iiX6^isrs - D^ic^iiJt^pircf t'^ipilt?ia \y[\c as 
found on thL^ RRLWWLR Bnd greater 
southwestern HonUnacorailHutcs nxii-^l 
piuckcth w I th f a^'u rible ±iDLb>). 



f^kj^iixt^^if \ , olher grimi noLdj> jjx LiKt f^lif6^ifjr 

r^E^i-'^ ^rrfdjVj _ Ctf rcT ftirppjJ^fT [or C ohuu^flti] 
jixJ Tj7Ji^j/JH spp C araspy cover for fdrtK 
uj>uaLLy eicecds 40 "^ _ I'ohjiofmfn hiilof loides^ 

ip^cityjiiS ajxJ ^/^Jidu ur^^rr^jj J eonlnb ulc the 
gieatest cover and ire eonwstenHy piescn1_ 

Slmlbr Cniumunitka- Di.^cii{ffjrfxiia cesprlo^a 
/foi^TiIitia£if\^tJiJf?tia\ii B^LibaLpinc/ilpme 
gra-^lBnd type 1 he sampled s1 Bixt> of whic h 
hivc apprccjBble anx>unly of F \{kj^^x6'f?i\i Bnd 
wouJd key 1o1hL"F f^luhty^'f^ifs — D. li'jjxfJoi^f 
lypeinMucgglerind Stewarl (l^SO] Tbe£J 
ceipiItfia/I'.iiry^tsifix^iiA type was 
db>1] ngutshcd by Cooper and Lesley C19??! 
bficdon the]r I mpnzssLon thil it consti tilled b 
lypeoF hjgher elev atLons. cokfcrenvLronmcntH- 
G]>en D_ i i-ry^T^j j^j 'j res1 ncled cnviionmenUl 
BmphtLKSe Bnd [iioven 4n']nLly of for moisl to 
we1s]1esil mjght imfiiove 1 he c] BS.SLfl4. ation 1D 
nimc Ihis typeD ceipiit?ja— F rL-Jti/E^tfi-rtirf, 
Kiik I ng 4:ertai n thBl fulure ke^'s to vegetation 
give pnonty to D t^-^^ ^j^ over f_ jc^j^mctuij- 

Element Code- CEGL001900 

Edition/ Aultnr-^-IE-h6/5.V. Cooper, 
MTNHP 



HcrbBccDus Vcgdatjon 

(FESIDA-ELYTPM Idalw fo^uc - 

bcaidcd whcBtgrass 

Natunt J H crltafe C c nRrvuthm R^nk- 

G4/S334 



VcEetHdon- This aswx lation is rrco^nized by 
the di>mjnance of F-t^^rrt^ J jL^^/jLTi-TJiJ J andlbe 
pr^'^DCc of D6'SihtiiJ\pif{f i6'sprIoitr ind the 
dbscmzcol f^i6^fiiotox^jl*iL^ntr sp\t-tr\£^ (these 
sites are too moisl for 1his bunchg riss of xenc 
env] RjnmentsJ MuegElcr bixJ Slewirt 1l?S0) 
donol mBke]tclr4r whether the piesenccof 
f^ffteam £^ff?iiiiffjr of Jnsi'Uifn spp_ are also 
diagnostic Fi^ittiiUiiahtyenifj is generally the 
di>minanl ^i^mjDLijd wi th £■_ i ^Tjtr Jl^jl'^ and 
Hyf mi J InAcim^fiihii hB.\ing apfireeiiblc, 
though mix h icduzed cover re] B1]VE to F 



Envlronnirnl- This type is common on upper 
slopes, nhl I mg uplands bixI gentle rid^eh>ps *l 
7,40n-9 200 fl in Ihe TendD> bixJ Centennial 
Mountains These mesjc pioductive 
grn'^il bkIs ohcn occ uj I n sno\^ (.atchmenl arets 
such as lee slopes J list below ndge l] ncs_ 
Vegetation dLmiinated by .^j If jjirjj^ IndetrfuUi 
bsp wj j£^Y^ J jl^^ often occurs below in slightly 
dners]1es S teep slopes on cool slopes support 

criifT^ L'tfi/j J forests. _\dj accnt exposed ndge 1ops 
often support 1he cushion plan1 communities. 



164 



or CrtfiT n^tf"f Jm - i*ij JfiViPiifcr om Jirt_ 

VcccIbCIiiii- Fesfura fdahfxe^^is - ElyfJTiis 
^r^jrJn ^ L'^rr/jj J ]"> djmi riHlcd by FciUfiu 

^as£^I{f ^nd Ktyeiena cffiJakf arcolhcr 
CDrrunon ^i^rruDLi]i:ls_ The intrDduccd /'on 
praJenilj mB> bccomjixm irmIcs thai have 
cxpcncre-cd core>idcrab]c pjiniLn^; prc^urc. 
Thii a.'^ra.iatLon hih bugbi rover of till and low 
fbrlMi and high spcc]e> divcriily Comnxm 
fbrlHi iuL]udc Gfftffjrlriponim, Gen^friAim 

c t?it I ^ J tyi \^tti,Aihr ff6^f fsrii f€jt?iiiit h ^ - ^ ^ ^^ re r j jV j 
hfiiovn-ia^ia^ Ga^fum h^xri^f6f and ii/^jrPNJ j spfi. 
Taraj(£^citTT\ qffrnfr{Af6' ma> be comjixm jn some 
lower ^tantfc with a hiMory of grajj ng pressure- 
Mrwh ind lu.bienh arc rare. 

Soik- Soll^ arc deep. of1ciiw]lh asurficc 
hon/on of loess Parent inBlenali arc 
]imes1one. mjxed *ied i mentary or voLramc. 
BarcgruuixJ l£>libI]> h«i Le^islhan 20^ cover^ 
BixJ lock BDdgjive] iic niLmmil. 

Other stndks-N^iKfgler and £le^-BTt|]93D) 
de^cnbe thi^ typeforwestern Montani- Tbic> 
'>tate1h4t higbi abundance of Forbs MX bi ail 
G^tiJ\ InflotAifn and ^l /wV^tir FJTjif^r^jJim are 
Ihe rchull cf gr^/i ng presiure. 

Comnicnts- The mes]c Ger{?n7Aifn 
VTKLJimr^rrrrjJi phase of tbii-i 1ype drw. n bed by 
MucggLerind Stew an 1 1 9 SO] occurs on Idksb] 
'tO]]^ Deer^ell: and antelope frequenlly iec 
Ihtslype Dtslurbincedue to pctkclgophen 
iTJr^j^rtwjji 1 J JL-^Vy^jrcfc-Jl ]s ibund Bnt ]n 1his mcsi(. 
phase The G. tr k ^^tj u^JWd^^JT phase wc 
recommend lo be cloated to a*s»ffl.LatLon level 
creitin^ F. l£itriioi.^2sIj — E. UtrihyiUifitn/ G 
VTK L^ ir Tjr^rrrrjji The 1995 ven>ionDf Ihe 
southwestern c] BSKiflL ation (Cccpcret bI.) 
puzzled what todo w]th a few very mesic 
stantii with k>w cinopy cover of or I ackin^ F 
TL'/tj/F^td^ur T_ bu1 ra1 her iie ttijninBlcd by 5^r^ 

InActm^ntiiii. Br^xtnifmAnntiUis Bndf 
anofj^ahfi ind Qir^Aspp. Tbcoixeel this^ip 



111 the c Laif^jficilion severBl djfTerejit ^raiih] and 
asKiK] a1 loiK, mjst dj! ably Brwmfi ^ ^jJT^Fj^Jdu — 
E {fiiofj^ahis B¥¥A S^i?a ^xccj^fetJkfiii — F. 
idtj/E^td^ur T_ ha> e been pn^fKHied based on 
sampling condiKled subsequent lo 1he ]9?S 
pLibLicatLou 

Ekmtnt Lodp- CEGL001614 

EdMbn/ Aultur- ?9-ll-i6 / 2.V. Cooper, 
MTNHP 



Fcsluca id ahocnsis - PotcnliLladivcrajfolLE 

HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

(FESIDA/FOTDIV) Idaho fescue/ 

dLvcp>c-lcavcd cinqucfoiL 



Natural H CEitage C onRrvuthm Elank- 

G3/S3 

Env IronmcDl- F-t^TPJjtw rduhiX6furs //"fff^nft W^ 
Avi.^fifJol\cf isconiiTH>n bck>w 9 ,9(K3 f1 in Ihe 
Ecaverhcid Gravelly. 3 noweiest and Tcndoy 
rin^cs- This type wasmoslci>mjrpLinonwafin 
slopes at Ihe low ]imi1 of alpine ve^eUlionfcB. 
9,5C>n ftj where nxider^telo li^ht snow co^cr 
metis early in the gnsw in^; season it BbiiUcd 
SLibalpine forest tlnmLnBlcd by /"rt^fl 

jFJd^r^ri/jrr ^ or graded jnto shrub] anch dLrniinaled 
by \r?efjriirtrlnii67riakf Jif?. vuJ^:■^^d^^J bckiw 
trcel]ne Fi^i^ttnA I^itriiox^isij /I^o^67r\iiitr 
{fivi.^f iffofr^f merged w Lth ffj^ facTJji^jfr^j 
ceipi^txia /f^ty\i.^2lffi{A Jrvf J jifj^VjiJ ^rasJ bdJ on 
moisler slopes and wilh Care'x 6f^\-*iiXfA^i turf at 
higher elevations on w*rm dr>' . wi nd-impaeled 
slop«i_ [>ominance of ErrtJJiddf jtd^FJTjtdVJp^JFNJf 
defines 4 phase 1hat w as In. al I y abundanlon 
ccc] slopes ]n the S nowc rest R ange_ 

Vccetatlon- Mean ^r^minaid cover of Ff^fc^u 
f{kj^iiX6'fisfs /I'd? militia xif \^nijf?tia w*i 55"?^ 
Fei^ifiu lii^fliit^ijii was thedominani 
^r^minoid w]1 h Eiy fjtj/t Ira^ Jn ^ {uti^u ranking 
second in aburkJanec. C^fr^x ohUii£^Itr^ F^x^f 
'ietifii^h^ C.Jtifp^xf^lea ^r^f^ ^jm-Jicnwere 
locally common, Ihe fo rmer two on warm 
aspects ind the I alter Iwo on cooler slopes or 
loel areiswLlh deeper s^nls Mcbu Forts cover 
was J4^_ Comrmijn forbs weie ^^jf£Tr?ji^cr 
{f^vi-^t ifjofra, Fh^oxpiif\^fitr\{A und f^txii'iJ\omwn 



165 



yrsiOiiftJT I*ol}^omifr7 hfhUxnof^L'i, M'\oioi\s 
fiJi^ft^fT and Cd'f^fJNJ^rT ^jj k^FJf were 
Frequcm. arkJ G^tm JnfTorr/JH ind Trifo fritm 
ftjjyrfeTar? wcit locaLLy common McBn cover of 
li(.hL"re> Bixj ireMiM!^ w ay only 2*. 

BrofJTiis ^it^p^iiuf^tn phiv?- T^^^o *il Bnct> fn^ni 
ccc] slopes ]n the S no ^^x. re ^t ring e were 
dominated by Errtmdu prtij\p^ff{fmfi instead of 

abLuxJBJil mone The^e sUncb> were others ise 
CDmposLtion4llys]milHr1o 1y pic aJ /"^ild^niu 

Soik- Pirenl mBlenaL was generally 
senlimem BTy . w I tbi LLmestoDi: Bnd c ale airDLi& 
sand*ilone'*i pietkjmiJiatLng Quirtz-ite 
L bIc BreoiZi conf lomer^te^ mJ >olc ajiLC BixJesite 
weir also lepiesenletl- Mean Litlerdeplh was 
0^ in. ind meinduff deplh WBsO 3 la. Bare 
^lourkJ BixJ grBvel covered 1 1 ^ of the surfice 
Percent coarse frBgnienti vBned rn^m2-5L^ 
with a mean of 20^ Tex tuie of Ibe fine 
fraction ringed from fine oliv 1o sandy c lay- 
loim IbeiTfan te^loral elis^ wis SBnd> clBy 
Reac tion of Ibe Hoil was neir-ncLilril CpE-[=6 7- 
7_5J witbia meinpH of 7 2. Mean organic 
miller conlentwBS 19^, ineinlotal nitrogen 
was U 66^.4, anLlCif^ rBUowas 14J. 

PnHJuctlvff^- G rBininoLd piodiKtivily varied 
betx^een L&Li ind 1,1 30 Ibs/icre wilh b mean of 
726 lbs/acre_ E^rijproduclivity VBried between 
l60and],270LbH/acre WLtbumeinol "?73tllHi/ 
acre Mean tolB] pniduLtLV]1y For rd^jn/^fr 
f{kj^^x6'fisfs / I'oii.^illiia £ir\^mJt?ti{A was ],504 
Ibs/Bcie Produciiv Lt^' wfi bugbicst ondeej? 
sDils. 

Other ^lulks- Fesiifca iii{?hosnsii / FoIe^iUJfa 
L'AvFd jd^j^FL'd could be considered 4 higbi- 
cJevatLon phase of H iicggler and Slew Bit's 
|l 9 &[J^ Feilifi a lii^fliit^isii / Ei} fjtu t 
Jr^jf^n i L-drr/jJi habi1 B1 type A I though the 
dominanl gi^mi noids in Ihe 1wo 1> pes Bie 
similar the impoiUnt foihs Biedifkicn! with 
f L^^ vt'^ j^r^ J ^^L^d considered the d] Bgnos1]c fort 

sepirating 1be 1wo 1ypc^ F^xl^'f^trff^f grti^Iiiir 
G^tiJ\ Itlji^xnim 3nd At ^uii^ti fjriif^Jtxtmm are 
the most abundani Forbs in Ihe lower-eLev Bl]on 
type A] pine grassLanJh similar li> F^'jriJiiv'd 



ftkj^iiX6'fisf\ / t^ol6^UilUf th wf iijofuf were 
dcscnbed for easl-cen1riL Idaho (Ho^iclcy 
1^55 Cb]cco ]9SJJwheic1bey were 
charBclcn^ed by hiving 1be highcs! sranw- 
deposilion of al I Bipine communities iMo^eley 
]9S5j. Alpine me^dn^vsdnminiled by r^'iN^ccr 
j/zj/rfid'Ji, in ecologic al BnalogueofF 
rL^Jti/z^td^urj, have been tfcsc n bed for New 
Mexu-o fEaker I9S3)_ 

Element Code- CEGL001623 

Edition/ Author- 9^ML-Lft/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



^^K^rtr HcrbBccous VcgclBtion 

(FESIDA-PSESPIl Idiho fescue - 

bliicbunch whcBtijras^ 

NatuntJ Hcrit^cL' C c me nut Ion R^nk- 

G4/S4 

EnvlroQiiiciil-N^uegglerand^lewBil (]?S0) 
descnbc this assocjalionis the mos1 fi~eqiientLy 
eixounlered gr4w>Land 1> pc insoulhweslem 
Montana We hBvefew sanipLe*i of the type 
becaiiheil thought li> be BbuixJBiitLy 
documented- We ^ampletl it on nx»derBle to 
steep, pretkiminanllj H<JutherLy-fac i ng slopes in 
theTcndoy MoiinlB]nh at 6U0O-7 .500 feet |lhc 
c]1edele^ition range l^ 4.500 1o 7,50D feetl_ 
On lower elevation sites it leiHfc 1o occur on 
rTH>re mcderite exptjsurcs bixI misrlhcrLy 
aspect> Adjacenl!ii1e^ wilh deeper HO]]s |orin 
some c Bhes IOC kier HoiKj arednminBledby 
,\flt^tr\rsi^f /^T^ttE r^/u ^sp y^fi^tmtr Rockier 
Eites on w Bim slopes Bre often domi niled by 
Ceti<xtxifi?Aii ii.^iifJo f r r r j . w h i Le I^jeiithlsiig a 
/^ictrz^ciff BixJ /"r^zjjjyjf ji Je J fore±±b cccur on 
cccler slopes. 

VccetBtlon- Stindh arc donii niled b> the 
dugiH>stic grasses F6fs\iitxi ftkj^iiX6^isfs Bnd 
f^s6Ttiiorty£.'gtretja ipii-akf . on I]gh1 ly prized 
sites lhe]r combined cover L an exceed 70^_ 
AVjt^fJT^j i nikfttr i^ bL»o common. The !ihnib^ 

Irid^jfiiJlt? TJ/^_ fJ7 JtTJ^^J^L■^ may be piesen! bul 
are not comnxm. 1heir cover dj! eTceeding5ft_ 
Forb^ Brediveise and abuixJBnt Common 



166 



■species ijx Ludi^ r/j^^j^ ftr^tfjjjj . r^_ ^jtj/t^ ^jfl'^j. 
^ciifiieiA itwiiefofuffj^, .\iil6^uian^ mrcrof?h}ifti 
and Drab^ oii^oipefmtr Mo^^«i and 

csprcLiLLy lichens may be (:omiTH>n. 

Soik- Soils art wd l-draj nrd *nd "^fchy in 

tcxiurc. LlMIc of tht surf a4.c IS banz , but gravel 
IS comjiKjn_ 

Other Sludfics- Tbus vc^ tUlH>n bias been 
dcscnbcd for weslcm Montana b> Mucp^jLer 
and Slcwirt (I^Kiy The type h*i also been 
ckK-umentcd li> ck Ic nJ fnjm 1h[: K ainLoops aiea 
orBri1]sh Columbia "^iiilhwaRj Ihn^u^h 
Washington Idalxi ind Wyoming (Eour^cion 
and Engel king L?94) 

Ekmtnt C Ade- CE:c;L001624 

Edhhin / A ulhor- ?9- M - 1 5 / £. V. Cooper 

MTNHF 



Hcrbiccous Vcgdatjon 

(FESK[fJ /OWCAM) Snikc foiciic/fldd 

crizywccd 

NaCural Hcrltafe C omtrvatloii E^nk- 

Env Ironuical- fVj N^t n k\f\^ rr /O xyti ojmj 
cujTT^tJJrjj Ls a mjnLi r type LJm:ijmcnt«l as 
occLijnngfiom9,5iXi-^ HXJ Feet on mjdrrale 
to strep slopes generally with warm aspcet>_ 
Extensive sUncisof tbus 1ypc occurred only ]n 
thcEcavcrbicad and Tendny rinses, the 
wcstemrrujsl inddnesl p art of our "^luily area 
■M thougbi not parlJcuLarly w I nckwep! IIil^sj: 
ajtfi receive lilUc pie<. ip] tation ind "^now mcl1 
occ un> early. F-tr^rK ^j (jja^jj / Ox'i \nyp\i 
txiij\p^ilni nxist often occurred in 4 mosaic i^ 
F^ li K-a iiit rh ox.^ j j j /f^ty i^ilf Hi a ^h v^ liftj k a 
^ra.'^iland andCarex el> noidcs Inrf 
communi1]es 1 1 occurred in stcmier soils [Kan 
olher gr^ssl and lypes mJ a1 lower eleMlions 
Ihinlurf communi1]es 5 ubal pine grassLan±i 
ami shrubl and"^ Ltmiinalcd by Ar1eTT\iira 
^r2£i6^r\akf tj/^_ vuTf i ^j?kj generaJJy ccc t^ied at 
loivcrcLev Bl]Dns 

Vccetuthm- Me an ^r^mjnLi]d trover w as J7^_ 



ytnliua hri^n was the ^mi nanl ^ra>;s 
f^i6^t£itynyegii6'r2{A Jf^\vJ^L■^ rxx{fj6^iiifena*uj ind 
^_ j£CTrn£^ weie pre^enl wUh less thin 5^ 
CDvennaLL tbueestaikii- M ean fort cover w as 
23^-* bd i^h constancy fortK ] ncLuHcd Owlr^ypii 

and Cyfn^xpl^Mfi br^iif^Uis. Thesub^buub 
,\M6'mfsIap7g\d{A was aminorcomponent of all 
three standi- ind tbie shrub"^ .-^ Oi^k^ikf^ti ^^p 
y^jxrvufiij ind C/E^_h"j^jrtKJ^rr^rjjj viitidijionis 
were minor components ]n the lowes1s1and 
thil boi~dercd "^ubaLpj ne "^buiibUncIs N^ein 
cover of lichens and mosses was less thin ]%. 

Soik- F^iliica hug rr / Orv if ojxfs campeilns 
occurred only on soils denved fiom c ale areoic 
pireni milenaL,eilher Limestone or Beaverhead 
conglomerate Mcandeplhsof Litler anddnfl 
weit 0_J in ind0_2]n respectively. Bare 
^louikJ and gravel covered 21^ of tbie surface , 
and met cover averted 9 ^ Fereenlcoaisc 
fr^gmenLs ranged from 33-65^-^ with a mean of 
51^-^ Mean texlure of tbie fine friction was 
sandy c Lay-Loam_ Soil reiction vaned fn^m 
7.2-7.5 wilh a mean pHof 7_4_ Meanorginic 
miller conlent was 11^, meinlotal nitrogen 
wasO JS-^^indCiN ra1]owas2L 1_ This 
communily nccuned on the shal Lowest, slomcsb 
and sandjest Hoils of iny grassl and type^ and 
oiginic matter ind niliugen levels are only bialf 
of tiiat in tbie olber Iwo lypes 

Pivductlvflj-GiajninL^Kl pnKliKl ivily varied 
between 275 ind S75 Lbt^acrc with* meinof 
ftl J lbH/a(.re_ Fori^ pioduclJ> Hy i^ngetl fn^m 
250to6mib^4crewHhameanof Sy^lbs/ 
acre Sbuub piodiKlivil> ]n the lowesi 
elev ation sUnd w as 25 3 1 bs/acre Mean tolal 
prjduclJvUy w»i 1 0^6 lbs/acre, apprec] ably 
less tbian 1hat of 1he other two grissl and lypes 

Other Sludkv- ^lltK^u^hr^Tru^'crCT^z^rroccufs 
thiuughLiut muLhof 1 he western U_S_, SI mjlaj 
aJpine grassLand assoc]a1]onshaveonLy been 
dcscnbcd for Ihe cilcireoiEi ranges of etit- 
ccntraJ Idalx- fCiicco L?SJ, MoseLey I9S5, 
Uittanc^yk and Henderson I994J ind 
northwest Utah CPrecteiySJ.Reim 19 W-J In 
Idaho. wbieTT this ^shoci^tion is more common 
two types are recogni^etl fWoseley 19S5J 
bfiedon diffenznces jn sulsilrate stabihiy. 



167 



Ekmtnt Cod?- CEGL001 ? 1 2 



Edition/ Author- 97-10 /S V CDoptrrl 



Hcrbflccous Vcgdatjon 

(GEUROS-M[NOBr)Roy> iivcn^- 

airlir ^ind^orl 

\BhiEB] Hcrifacc C*RzrvBtlan Rank- 

G3/S3 

Env Ironniciil- Gcum rrvisj i / A/r^rr^jj Jj^ 
ohlififfc^hi; 1*1 (.ommon on cxfKMitd wirkiiWcpL 
ijpprrslopc^,SBiiJ]e> Bnc1 nd^tjp^ between 
?,SCKi ind I0 40{?f1 in Ibc P]oiKcr and Tobicco 
Root rin^Q>_ Thii typccKCLurctlonLy on-^]!"^ 
developed fium ci^'^taLLinc pBren! nialcnil. 
Thbi "^p BiMzl^ >c^el Bled fihoci Bl]on L£>u4lly 
gr^ledinto ihc Ctiti.^x siIfjxo\d6'£^ / G^tT)\ roisii 
1 urf rommLini ty biBving deeper so]]^ bixI 
piolccled tTjxj^uiT^- 

VccclBtloii- Mean ^raminoid cover ft as only 
4^i. /-"-L^T^rK ^j ^j n^?j^ Wis the only grBminoLd 
commnnly pre^ciil m appreciBble imounti 
|c*nopy cover not exceeding L0%) Ls^z^ifa 
ip\t-tr\£^ ufiii Cl^^^ d"T ^/i jaw Jd'f had LowcoverBge 
but weie frequeni . Knd C^fr^x m^^i^MJ and 
TmFftrjTi ipicalAim were locilly common 
M ein cover of forlHi was 30"^ CfiJ^rt ^y^jj^^" 
h*d llie gre Blest constancy ind cover of any 
forts; A/rrtrr^jj JjVj ohuuiioha Iformerl y .^j £?rj^n^ 

i?uf\^f^\{A ind ^j^iTid^ j^^tfj/Jr T were conunan 
cizihiun plinths Seiti^\fri^iia ii6^istr and^ 
v\^^sofrii werr locally ibundint Trace 
Bnx>unls of lhe shrutei. R\hL'j hcji^^^ 'iomi and 
£5j 1 L^u ^xc IofX6'kfhr. occurred ]n one s1 bixJ. 
Cover of tnc^kSes aixl lictiens wfi Lessilianl%. 

Soib- PirenI mBlenal^ were gr^mle anJ 
quailzile. Banr^n^nnJ andgrB>eLcnvenxl 
47^-^ nf Ibe SLirf a(.c_ M ein ntpllti of 1 1 tter ind 
duff were both less 1han 0_ 1 ]n_ PcicenlcoBniC 
fr^mcnls > aned fiom 355 to 70^ with* mein 
nf 4^^ Tex tiuiL c I asies o F the fine friction 
ringed fronisaixJ^ clay-loimlo^and wUh a 
meancLfisof SBDd> loim Soil pH Tinged 
fium6_2lo6 6 withi mcBnof 6 4_ Mean 



or^iniL matter ccintem wihonLy U^^mean 
tolii m1n>^en WBsO 24^.^,indC:N ratio was 
20 1. ^OLlshad a sandier textuie bixJ iower 
loelsof oigBnic Kiitler Bnd m1 n>gen 1han meet 
ijlher commumlj 1ypcs sampled. 

PriHJuctlvflj- G I Bminoid piodiKl ivily ranged 
fiumO to I Itt Itei/icie w]1h a mean of 41 Itei/ 
Bcie Ex>rb prodnclivLty varied fiom ]92 t(j65L 
lbs/acre with a mean of 45 J Lb^acrc. N^ein 
tolii piodLic1]vHy w as -194 ib^icre Cushion 
piint pnxJixtLvity isdifficuil to meisnie Ihus 
the forb estimales Bie onJy irsiigh 
BppiofLimatLons- The low tolB] pioduztivily 
n^fliXls 1he smiii ^r^nunoid contnbLilion 

Driller Sfodfies-FeLineLdsindcLishLon piint 
conimuniliessimiiirloG^-^jjFj n?Ki\f /Mi^tfarfia 
tyhlifif^oh^A are common in 1he Rocky 
N^OLintiLiK of southern MontanB soulh 1o 
Color^kj Eimber^ andMiiorfl96ttlHiH»cnbe 
B fellf]c]dcommunil> fiom 1he Fl i n1 Cieeb 
Rangeof MontinBdommiledby G. rfjin?^ 

FtyJenlr^kf coiia^ui^f. Cusbonplanl 
communilies in Ihe Beailnolh R ange of 
MonlBna bikJ Wj^omLng arcdonunited by G. 

Sxieji6'{Acaii^fs and TriJ^xfmfn *iijnttit\ iJohjTron 
BDdB]]lingh]?62.LcsicA]?9l1. Bli»>r]?36| 
descnbes ndgetop vegc1a1ion in Ihe Medicine 
Bow Moun! BiiTi of Wyomi ng dmninalcd by 
C^jd"^ H^jtd'Tra J ind c Lishion pUnLs'^iich as 

A/rjirr^jj Jj^j ohUisiUxhUr f'^^ry\ <.aesprIoiti and 
TriJ^xfnifrj {itrvvjx^niirtm G^tm j^jjjjj was 
piemen! b ul of s4.^ondiiy import Bnce Similar 
BssocjBlions with > Br^'ing inujunt>of G6^ffjt 
toisii hB>e been de^cnbetl fiom Wyoming'^ 
AbsBioka Range iThileni US ind Smi1h I^S5j 
BixJ Ihe Uinta Range in UlBh |Lewis ]?70|. In 
the Rocky Moun! Bins of Colorado, ex pi>wd 
ridges ind 1 ellfield^ Bre ■:k>minated b> cushion 
plints^ such 4S TriJ^xfmfn {hwjx^niiw^r 
Ftrrwmhf^f piif\^*iij\£^, Ssii.^i6f£^crrAilfs and 
^^ft2tt{AMl{Aohiiisii^x!?a as well 3sCarcx 

iKomBfbovB and Webber l97S,WilUid L979) 
G^tTT\ roisii isdsminanl in tLiifcommLinLties 
but is of secondary importance in cushion plant 
assoc I atioisi in these areas 



I6S 



Ekmtnt Code- CEGLOO L 965 



Elditbu/ Author- 97-10 /S V CDoptrrl 



Hord^tt?? JAi ^^j rjjjjj Herb arco u-^ Vcgc t4l lo n 
mORJUBl FoictijI birlcv 

Natural H trltafi: C oiKtrvutloii E^nk- 

G4/S4 

Env IroDOicnl- Thbi i*^ an LiiK.c»niiTH>n Lypt Wfs1 
ofcBslcni HixJccnlnl M online; it i^ of very 
lim]1cdcKtcn1 in B VHDH S, conflnctl to 
dnv^down Konc^of jxjixt>orcphcmcrBl ponds 
wjth mixJci^tcLy SB]]ncoriltali WBlcr Euiiy 
on in 1bc ^FJW]ng scisonlhc^t SLt«i arc 
flcxxicd but m the court? of lh[: "^Limmcr the 
WBlcr tabic fBlL> considerably bcLow thcsuri"4C4: 
lca> LUf w hi1c c m*its of Sill cfflnrcHccncc Sitc^ 
arc rcco^ni7_cd b> 1 he dominance of //r^rJd^^FJT 
Jifh{fiiiTT\ |wc notctl miixir amounts of ^ 
hrcrLhyan^fretJit^ in 1hm: "t tinds lI i^ acinic 
ccoLogLcaL aniLof uc of /J. jr/^Jjj^n andcouJd 
bcusj^d as in 4llcrnBl]> c ] ndic ator for thcsf 
cnv] mnnK^ntsJ- Somcof thcslBixisDJlcdon 
the Red Rffl-lz La}L«i National WiLd]]lc Refuge 
miy rcpre^en! grBiing djHt h niBX of SI tcs 
potcnlidllydnmLnBlcd by f^tiJi<xpvntit\ j^rrrJ/zji, 

Vc£f tatioii- A nmderatc coverage to dense 
s^^ard oV fitytii6^ffj[ Jifh^^ttT)\ . hy 1hc near 
cxc LusLon of other species c hir^t: tcn/es Ihcsc 
■^Ltcs- Shrubs are not found in Ihis type Other 
grumiDLi]i±i present JDL Lude 1hiv^" cHed Bbo>t as 
we]] t^I'otrf?ral6.fisfs and/f. hrach'\{Afrlh6'Mffj[. 
f^xi'i gt?nttij\ spp .Griii^fi^ia li^i^fftoi^f and 
RrtTT\e\insprtJ Bit 1lic only forbs ci>nsLsttn1]y 
DDlcd 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGLODJ 79S 

Edhliin/ Author- ?9-]M6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Jjfjunr r fttjy/ii-w r Herbaceous VcgclBtion 
aUNBALlBaluc rush 



Natunt J H 4:rlt3CL' Ccnstnutloii R^nk- 



G5 / 55 

Envjronaical- The Jimatt b{7lf\aij a^isn.Lation 
IS a major wc1 1 and assoc] Bl]on occ um ng from 
low to bghelevalions (2,300 to 9 .OM fl_ -l-| 
tliioug]xiut M on1 ani, ] t IS found 1]irou^]xiut 1 he 
BLM's Dillon R. A. and ]s especialLy ib undent 
on Ihe Red Rocbi LBkwi National Wild]]re 
Refuge fRRLNWLR J v^ hcie J1 chajictenzcs 
Bomcof Ihc w eller SI tes, 1]):)'^ i:i>n1]nLioiKLy 
Hitir^ted and often hB> ing > ear-long standi ng 
WBter_ The only we11ersLte^ would be 
dominated by Cari.^x ifinczttakf, d^rex 
{fzjAfuIfh^, C{At6'^i\fnttiakf, Si^j^jjspp or 
T\j^lI{f i{A^fJof\tr. Wliat we hB>e referred li> 4S 
the Jifii^tti btitin.iis 1ype is somewhat di ffereni 
fioni,l]):)ug]i incluiled wilhin the biuBdly 
descnbed t>peof Hinhenet b]_ fl^95j_ The 
pUnt BShoc] Bl]on we nzferlo B^JAiffiAuh^fiirt-tn 
i'^>LrtLiBl]> B monocultuieof/jjpr^jjj^/^^TU 
and iKcurs on SI te^ thil are Largely beyond 1lic 
h>rBgLng Tinge of 1 1> eslock lexcept in drier 
yean>| ind hence coukl dj1 be grazing-indiKcd 
disc]]miT 4S Hansen et kl. C]995i claim is the 
case fij rally ^jfT/rdV j/t djminaletl silcs_ Theie 
IS gencT^lly no appreciBble b mo un1 of forage 
on Ihne sites, "^ave for CtrtajTi^fjinMlij 
^urtcrJtTrjrf (C slncltr] sedge spec le^ presen I 
arecoiFse BixJ unpalatable. Weiecognizca 

assoc]a1ion Ihat characterizes moist meadows 
to seasi>n4lly floockd we1] and^ bix1 whjch 
couJd be agrB7ingd]sclimBx, bin this 
I nlcqireUlion ibopcn toqurstioii as we]]. 

VcEetBdon- On the RRLNWLR the Jrmnts 
^^Jj^jjj|ypech4rac1en/es the sometimes 
bioul vegeUlion zone ckc um ng on sligh1]y 
lesi wets]1es |o r with shallower standing WBlcr 
thiouE]i glowing seison^ thBndoesIhe 
piedominam wetlanJiype, C£^t6fx ulriLAiftifa - 
Gjffi'i iiln<.iikfiti The Jitnciti baifi<.iis lypc 
often was noted to grade 1o 1 he yrrrtttrT ftj^Jri^uf 
— C^j f ^ J^^J^i? pfKT Jj J or Dcsc /fj^jh^jfl'^ tv j^jPwh^ 
assoc I ations of Homew hil dner lerTB]n The 
form of y haniciiim this zone isespeciBl]y 
lobuhl (10 2.5-3fl. 1aJlj. OlJierlhan the 
piesence of Hc altered graminoHti nnted above 
the only o1 her herbs rcguJ aily presen! are 
M6^nanitrei if fJof\tiia. Tr2gfo<.iifn fjrariiifjriitnr 
f^xi'i gtynttij\ tfjJi^jJrdfirrrFJT, und Rtiinfiicifius ^pp 



169 



Ekmtnt L ode- CEGLOO L S J S 
EdlttoayAntiior- 99-] L-L6/S-V- Cooper. 
MTNHF 



Jiini.its but licit "^ - Cat^'x ^r^e^racfih 

Hcrbtci:ow> Vcgdatjon 
(JUNBAL-CAPPR.<)bBliJc nish- 

Natunt J H crltac^ C omervutlDii E^nk- 

EnvlroDiiiciil- JttncttJ hafiiuu - Care'j^ 
prtie^t{M.ii\i ■:£ b wcti and isM>ci4lian (common 
I n "f Libimf 4led s]1a> on ^li^ani terrsces, pond 
ajxJ likcmar^LR^ ind m^wiLe^i of alluvial 
fiiK It h*i been documented from 6,500- 
7,2CKi ft]n the m Bjor val Itys oF the Tcndsy 
MoLintiLiK BixJ Lo theCentennLaL VBllcy bixJ 
aJmo^t ceTtiinly ocrurs bruadl> Ihrou^h^ut 1he 
EVHDMS Mos1 eTBmp]c*> of lhi!i typcha^e 
developed hummctk-hoLLow mic rutojwgrBpbiy 
Adjiccnl motstcr siles arc o Flen Ltiminalcd by 
f^^il£^?h}ffoni6'sJ^onhiifiii{f Bndflff^Jr^jjwy^jrtr 
L-Ff^fwn^ or 5rtfrT spp_ and C^fr^xii^p. 
OccBsionally JrtncitJ h£^UfCi^C£^t6fx 
praegr^M-iiri w]]] idjoin Cctpva linMifaia- and 
Gjj fi"^ jjd^^tunnjjj J- dominatetl feiTi and wel 
meido^^'^. .\dj accnt dncr ^]1e'> though iKuaJ ly 
core>Lden!d wctLmJs aii wcl 1. arc dDini nBled by 
fty£^jii?niJ^xfA{A ^r^ L^fnrtJ aficr^ti. Fesfaca 
f{kj^iiX6^isfs BixJ ^j Jf nir TJj^ PJTLftnJ^ftr, ^_ 
Ir2jx{ffIfIai2TA i^xn^Iio!?a 6ora\n^\c Bdj*Lcn1 
uplands Thtslype appe ars lu be nxi^t common 
]n are IS of pn^domj mntly c ale Bjeaiis p Brent 
Kitten aJ 

\ ccctathm- GrBminoid cover Ls over HH ^ ]n 
mo^t "^tand*!- [>ominan1 spec ics ]ncLuHe ^j^ectjj 

ti6 harxis^x^ui Olher common grBmLCK^uk bi? 

Cover of forin^ ]s >anabLe, probably depending 
ongrBjinf bstoTy ind moislure le^ime Fort> 
divciwty IS low to modi^rBle. Common spcc]eii 
] ncluile .^jJtvEfj^jJTL? tnfcrof?h} ffa, As7^* 

rtiifjionfi ^¥¥.\F^xIefiirff{f grtfiitii. Biyophytc 
coverage is highly VBniblc, rin^inf from tncc 
Bnxiuntslo a nc ailv conl]nLiOLis bLanlLct 



Solk- Si>Lbi biB>c Bsj]1y to4.Laye> tcMunz and 
are moisl thjoughoul mtjslol the growing 
iiCBSon They have a ncar-ncutral or slightly 
tlkalmc icac1 ion ind mBV bIho be m]]dLysBl]nc 
] n ^ome c a.'ies- BBre-^j] i^ generally 
uncommon except fb r arc bs Ihal Bie heavily 
trampled 

OfherShidks- Hansen etBl.|]995|dQ>cnbe 

1 he Vi^rjL du J?l^V^jlt/t "communily lype" for 
N^onlBna bixIsIbIc tbiBl lI is a grBiing-indiKcd 
disc]]ni4T of vegelBl]on previoiZilydnminBled 
by Di'Ji li^fmjx'ila ii'^fxfloi^f OT C{fitiiJ\{A^f^xs\ii 
nrrttrJd^urf They rcpnrl that /jjfk jj j 'fL'^Vftrcri 
BixJ fi^xni^tij\ jifh^ftiit^ Bre 1he onJ> common 
species, suggesting thil tbie]r type is 
signific anl]> diffcrenllhan yrrrtn/j /wjf Jr^ du / 
C^fd'^ jtr^Jd"^ rtji r/j J of southwest MonI Bna For 
1he ELackfeet Reservition of iHilhwcst 
MonlBnaLes]CB f] 9 S9 J described a 

Bssoc] a1 ion wilh comjxjsi tion SI mj] aj to thBlof 
J htiiJiciis/C p^^f^gnAcrfrs S i nu] ar vege1 Bl]on 
h*! also been described for Ihe E I ac kfoot River 
VBllcy of MonlBnalLesica ] 994^ southward 
inloldBhLi mJ Wyoming |Yo ung blood et bI. 
19S5J toisfarsoulh bs southern U tibi {Padgen 
el4l. I9S9). 

Coainiciits- [f Jddii^YU Atr/^j^ j/t pUnt issoc- 
]a1ion£ are agrBzin^induceddutchniaTof 
D^ic fujt^pir^f c^i^ilt?ja f>hoci4lioRS ftd ansen el 
b]_ L?95)_D t"«^j^tn^ should be negilively 
correlBled w]1h abundance of / h^^llfiifi forbs 
BixJ exolics and BbujxJBiKeof/_^dfft^YU 
sbvr^uJd be jxjsi tive]> correlBled wilh BbujxJBixe 
of fbrlHi andexo1]cs Thisdijesnol appear to 
be the L ase ] n our s1 udy areB_ A Peinon's 
corre]Bl]on(.oefflcicnt (rfmatrn is given 
below: 

JurAaL Debceft Forbs Eaolicft 
jLHibal l.OOD 
Desccs 019 1000 
Forbs -0-297 -0.272 L-(K30 



EkoIics -0-122 -0-020 0-110 



3 000 



Tliere was aJmosI no correLition belweenihe 
cover of £■ ^L^ifXfloi^f and-^ hafll^Ais Eoth 
species decrease as tbie abunJance of forbs ind 
exo tics ]iK rease although IhcconeLation is ixit 
strong- The^e lesiil is suggest 1hat bi>th spec]es 



170 



d«. rcflhc wilh ^ra/.i 11^ dbil urbincc and Lhil Lbic 
abLindanr? of fortei li abctlcr]ndit:a1orof 
disc]jni4T Ihan tbic ibundincc of /. ^^M^y^t , at 
lcaHt]n1hcEVE-[DMS O ur ordination rtsuLts 
'^u^i:'>t 1hat Jiifii lis haflii jj j b> di^mi riBnt m 
"f Lifhlly dncr silH> than tho^t dominated by D 
ceijAios£^. 

VBrirty ^rrrva^fTrtdu is the com etui n fin im of 

Jw2nn btritiius m Montan*. Hiiwocr one of 
our ^Uncis \^ a^ a nearly complete monotuHure 
of y htii\i<.iis \ kz i^fffrcoia 4 more robus! foim 
of 1he species Thi*i*iUndon b pond dra^^tio^^ n 
/one hajil the appcarBnce o^ 4 bulrush 
mono<:uHure_ Tbu"^ ve^elBl]onma> WBirunl 
recognition an B^eparBle type ] F it on. los in 
olher Iffl. atio ns. 

Trampling by i]>eilo<.l:, e^peciaLLydunnglhe 
"ifinnf and eirLy summer ro^ul ti in tbie 
formation or enbiBixemenl of hiimmcx. ks The 
pie^enee of '>ub^Un1 1 3 1 hummcx kjn^ ma> aJlox^ 
1he I nvayio n of 1he ^hrub, ^£VE?cr^j Jn yy^trA^ 
y^L^^ ^^^j/^fJ^j ,] iih> habil BlH Ihal 41? others l^e toi> 
wet 

EkmenC Code- CEGLMTHPi4 

Edition/ Aultnr-?9-]E-h6/5.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



JitncAi^ {fniiiim^mdfi - Antennae in tanai^A 

HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

IIUNDRU / ANTLANf Driimmond\ riL^h 

/woolly [nii-^vloc^ 

NatutB] H crltafe ConRrvathm Rank- 

EnriroHotciit- 5 m^ll palche^ |lenth^ of an ac re 
a1 most) of /Ntzc rrj dj drw FJj^^jr Jdd / .^ n Tf jr^u^j j^ 
faniiJQ Bi^TTl^tively common in swBlesind 
olher-^no^^-coiiection miciolopogriphy set 
w] thin > al L^y^ ind c I iigiie b asi ns belwcen ?,NDO 
and iO,0{W ft in the M adison R ange_ THl^ 
communily ]^ BlwByy a.-^rfK 1 a1ed w 1 th are as of 
I a1c SDJwmcLt, however. mel1 off piobabij 
on. lus earlier thin in communities domj nited 
by Ctrrcxn\^nt-af?i Jitnctti £iMffj[?j[Of^ff / 
.AprrfrtFr^jjT^j y^j^r^jJL'F was often pirt of vegetation 
nxv^aic resulting fiom uneven snow deposi tion 



Cojnnionly assuc 1 aled conimuiiil]es 41? moist 
turf ^^ctLanJh andothersnowbed BSiHciatiois 
■^uch tfT Car£.'\ icjrjttyi^i^u / Genfn rr>TJjr. Cti/ET 

^ccctut}DIl- Mean ^r^miDLi]d cover was SH^ 
DoniininlgrBminoKh were Jii^Kus 

fyayioffii. C^^f j>?v^f?Kjr^tf w as let al Ly 
comnwjn. M ean co ver of fort>s w as 37^ and 
common spec]es inc I udnil .^jJtvEfj^jJTL'F kfii£^Iti^ 
Sih!?af{i\tr i?rtyi Aimhefii and En ^erofi 
f?^rejiniiifi. AnrU^^ ialifoff^f was comnxm ]n 
one s1 BixL The ^hjub, Vacafuw^iaxptiniitn. 
was bIho common in Ihis sime s1 ajxJ McBn 
cover of mosics ind I u. hens w as 2^ . 

Soib- Pirenl malenab were fjieiss and granite. 
EaregmuixJ art] ^r^vei covered 5[J 4 of Ibc 
surface Meindeplfeiof htter Bnd duff were 
both 0.1 in Percent coiise Frapjnents ringed 
fiom6% 10 17^ wilh b meBnof 1 J^ MeBn 
texlure of the f]ne fraction was sandy clay. 
AJ though they ixcuned]n1opogrBphjcBiiy low 
positions the^c re I ativeiy barren arkd 
unpioducl]ve communities were apparently 
underlain by shBllow bixJ peitiaps ctccssi vel> 
well-drB]ned soils. Soil pii rBnged fiom h to 
6.L wilh B mcBnof 6 I. Mean organic mBHer 
conlent was 12^ mcBnlotiL niliogen was 
0.21*, BndC.NFal 10 was 24.1. 

PiTHluctlvity- Graminoid pioduztivity varied 

betx^i^t^n 2tX) ind 270 Lbs^acre with 4 meinof 
2J7 Ih^/acre. Forb pioducUv Hy i^nged fn^m 
l50-Sft:Hbs/acre withimcinof460ibs^4cre 
PnxJiK tiv I ty of dwirf shrubs ] n one stand wis 
30ibs/4cre Mein lotaL productivity w*i 726 
Ibs/Bcre HighesI piodi^1]vily ccc urred on lie 
deepest soils. 

Ottier Studies- Axj^^mtina iaxjzrJa is a 
comnwjn component of SDJwbcd commijm1]es 
in the North C Bsc adfs and Canadian Rockifs 
but Ihc codom]nan1 spec les usually c ited ire 
C£^t6'^ jjrj^jT^wjJT or dwarf shrubs suchj^T 
C^j JTJ^J^ or rfri JJ^jcfijcv spp. TBlber Ihan yrrneuj 
J^TfjJiJJkJ^KjVr 1.\c huff and Corns 1952, Hripko 
ajxJLaRoi 1973. Doi^lasiiKJ Bliss 1977). 



171 



S nt>w bed 4Xi mmuni Llcn ckimiJiaLctl by yrwitT/j 

Sxhhakfia i?r^xc iffj[ty6^n occur in Ihc Rocty 
M OLintaLre> of CoLorBttj fKomaitov a inci 
Webber l97S,WLlUnJ L?7?l bjwcvcr. 
.^Frr^j]^r^jjT^j y^jpr^jlL'^ I't ix>t li'>tcd ^or Ihc CoLorBdn 
BHSCK I atioiti- Le>u. a 1 L ?y I ) reports 
CDrnmunilics very SI mil ir 1o Jrtnctn 
{!ntiJ\it\ofr£i\f / At2l6^ui{fna f^fii^fttr fiom lhc 
CBsLcm cd^c of the E cirtoDtbi Moun! B]n*i in 
soutbi-rcntrBl Montana. It BpficBis tbiBl/jJFr^jjj 
J^YfjjijjkJFKAr domiintL^ sno^^bcdcommLuiLtLKi 
m theccnlral Rocky MounUins^ while 
.^Frr^j]Fr^jjT^j y^JFr^JlL'F occupies a si mi] Br nicbic in 
1 he C ariBdian RcK kics ind the North C asc adcs_ 
The Iw-o ^pec Lcs cotfcmLriBlc Jinowbctl 
Bssuc I atioivi m the c r^Ulhne rinses of 
"lOutbi^n Nf ontariB. 



sw\pltrx, .^Frr^'j]Fr^jj j^j jJFrr/?^ Fr^Vy^j indl^t'jjrcr 
^^jfFrtfTtvj- M ein co> er of nxi^ses artl Ml hens 
wai.2^- 

Soib- Piicnl malcnAls LFi ihc Iwo stajxt wcic 
ajxJcsite BiKJ quartzi tc B arc groiuxl mJ ^r^vel 
cDvcTTd 47% of the surf a4.e. indicilin^ tbiBl this 
was Ibc most birrcn of olu snowbcd 
communi1]c^ M c Bn dcpllri of h tttr incl duff 
wcreO-J in Bnd<3_l jn rcspet tivcly. Mean 
pert^cnt t^oiise fi^pmcnts was 25^ McBn 
tcxiurc of the fi ne trie tLon was c] B> McansoiJ 
pH was5ft_ Meinor^;an]c mBllcrcontcnl wah 
20^-^^mcaji toUl ni1n>f en co nlent wis 0.64% , 
ajxJC N ratio was L5 L_ Thi*i sp ajscly 
vegcl Bled commiinHy lypc is simi I ar to Juncic 
dnjmmondii/ \ntcniianB LariBlB but Ihc soils 
were even mo ic s to n^' mJ a(:]dic 



Ekmrnt Code- CEGL001904 



Edt(kin/Auttur-97-Ja /S V Ccc}>crcl 



Jiini-if^ pat f vl / Ef f^eron nt^wut^ 

HcrbBccous Vcpclatjon 

|JUNPAR/ERlURSlF?rrj\nish/bcBr 

flcabinc 

NatuEBl H crltac^ CiMtzrvBdon Elask- 



EnvlrDDmcnl- Examples ofJufiatt jt{rrr^i/ 
TjT^^FTJjr JFJjrrjjrj were lociLly common near 
the biscof gentle slopes with warm aspects. 
Both of oiij Minds were between 9, 5(B ind 
9,SCKi ft]n theGrBvelly Rin^e. \llhouf h '>iiow 
]s cxpcclcd 1o BccumuLate onlhcsc ^1 tes, this 
lypeof aLL the snow bed communiUcs is peitiaps 
least Bffected bylBlc meltoff- FesUifa 
f{kj^iiX6fisf T /f^ty\6't2^fff{A {fivi^f If/off {f ^;ras!iUnd 
was Ihe common BdjaceiH pUntcommiuiity. 
JrtncitJ pan-yr /Eng^yaiiiiriffrii'i is similar in 
phys]Ofjxiiny ind habitat loirr^t^rT 

Vccctuthtn- Mean ^ramiixi]d cover was 35% 
Domi Hint grBminokfc weit yrwattri /Jj^rF^ r art] 
F«ftFi j^ jfftj Jr^jfFrTJ J and r^tL^F ^^mjt^ Wis 
CDre>islently present w]1h low coverBges. Mean 
cover of fbrtei was 25^^ Common !ipec]es 
I ncluiled Ef] ^^'FTtFE FFF jjrtrrj. £ /^^rt^jniflu. £ 



PnHJuctlvff^- Mean grBininoid pmdixtcvaty 
w as 4 J'> ] bs/BciT, ind meinfbrt>pn>ductivity 
was 25 3 Ibs/Bcrc MeBnIoUl piodiicli^ilj was 
692 lbs/acre_ PiodiJCI]>ity ispmbBbLy affccled 
mi>rc b> 1 he shBllow _ poorly developctl SO] Is 
thin lile snow releibe. 

OthcrSliidk^HoLway and Ward |I963) 
ii'port '>nL^w Bccumulalion btc^ in the 
Colorackj Rockj M oiintainj> Ltmiinalcd by 
C^fd^^ jMTfrttrji ^j ^jFrJ /j/FM j/j /^jj F"n_ W]]land 
|l 979 J stites thai /jJFK jjf j^L^FF n F ]^ eco logic al ly 
Binular to /_ J/tjjfjjfjl'jjjl'^j but ^nci^LLy occurs 
a1 lower cLev Bl]ore> En our study anzi, Jrrrttfrj 
parrvi / En^i.^n?n wiiiiifi wis assffl. lated with 
terrain ^upjxjTlmg al p]nF gras^lincis v\^h\ftr 
Jw2nn {hiffj[fj[wiiiff /.^jrtvEFr^jJTL'Fy^JFr^j^L'F was 
associated w]th tuif communities- Thu*i,]t 
seems likely thBl the^e Iwo community Ivpcs 
EKCi^iy similar topographic ]w>i tioisi^ but 

JlFJKTrJ Jf FFFJTFJT^tFFJFF /.\lll6^UI{fn{f f^fliaZa 

occupies cooler, moister habilils. 

Element Code- CEGL001906 

Edith»n/Auttnr-97-ia /S V Ccxjpcrelal 

ij jTFrjf--? t m^Ff jj_T - FAi^cf^elfla niift£^ilk^n£^ 

HcrbBccDus Vcgctatjon 

iLEYClN-PUCNUTfbisJnwJldr^-c- 

NultaL] s aLki]igri->s 

Natural H crlt^cc C onRrvutloii Etask- 



172 



EnvironDical- Sln:4ni li^rrBCL's ind lowirr 
por1]ore>of illuvjB] vaJ]c> Flcwis it ft,5CKi-7_000 
frcl with]n1hcEVHDA'1Ssup[x>r1 riBiFJW 
cornLin rs or CTlciri]vc ^tartii of L^mtn 

LisuaLLy a^^hocLitHJ w ilh 4i?a.s dLuninatcd by 

1 1 mQ>1onc [1 Brtnt matcri bI. .\dj ancnt nxi]'^ t^ r 
vcgclBl]nn typ«i mBy be clominatcd by JttnciiJ 

D^ic^iampira c'6fip\It}ia or S^fiix spp_ wi1h 
Gj^fTspfi. .\djaccnl upland >ffcUlion 
supports ^tancfci clomina ted by Ar^crmif^f 



CoDinicnts- L£'\imfnin£'^£'ifi isbu^hly 
piLitabli: h> ]]veMcK k onLy rirl y in Ihr growing 
sca.'OJii; LfgrB/cd b1 Ihi^ station lI Ldhcs a 
■^ipniflcanl porlion of b]oma.'^ thil v^JuLd biBvc 
contnbLilcd 1o ]K polcntiiLly Ull "^titurc. Ihu*^ 
rTnk]ngil vci^' sciTiilivc 10 mlciKLvcpji^Ln;; 
WcbcLitvc tbia1 broad alLLivuL^illcysof 
SDiJtbiwc'>t MonUna may hive been dominatcul 
by E_ HLTjjfffjjf bcfoic lhc Bdvcnt of iHl" 
livcslcckindustiy ocr lOOjcarn Bgo_ With 
tht dtcLincoF tb't lobiKl f r^i^, smaller species 
Bdaplcd to KiLinc soLb>, ^iK h 3:^ Potr jifiicijoira^ 

aiiSLoncd domi nAiu^c. 

EkmrnC Code- CEGLMTHPl 5 



Vcgf tBtlon- ThL^L" ^ptcics-poor aanc 1 atioiTi 
arc dj minatcd by I' oa jmtijt^ia. I' ifniii6^^f{A 
fUilliAffr^fii^f Cor^_ dijitmi) and C^fr^x 
^rtregt{fiii\i L£"\T)\ifs iiii6'r£.'ifi n%3.y be 
dominani, Homctimc^ foiming near 
monu<: ullijra> instand^lhit hivcnol'^Lirrcrcd 
I niEMisLvc grijin^ prHsui? Tht BbiuxlBixc bikJ 
'^pc4:ii:s L0inp<:isj1 ion o^ the forln coinponciil is 
vinablt and ni^ptnct upon tbic rooiMurc 
regime, SO]] ICKturt,SB]]nily inddcgrtECjf 
db>1urbBre.c fitrpftyptrjxpn'i WA\)fortn and 
.^Frr^^ja^r^jjT^j jjiji rrt^jJn yy^j arc the niwil common 
fbrb spccjc^ The ^hnib Chtyio^hat^fUi'i 
fiiJifict?^iiS IS LtsuaLLy present and may be 
common. Hoacsand lichens arc absent 

Soik- Soils are itsuiLlysaJine with asiltjor 
clBycy tcTlui? Rcac tion ]"> neulriL to alkaline 
Tbc^urfBjTC Ls 60-90^^ bare wilh]]ttlt orrej 
gruvel. Soils may be aff«.ted b> nilurBlar 

min-ciuwMl SLibirngatLon 

Other studies- SinnLir vcgctatunn dnminalcd 
by Le\iJ\Aii tifrere^u^ I^iAicofxynun ifmlhi and 
f^ttctf^i^fra diilaiis m ixulhwcst MonlBna w*i 
bncfly dtsciEscd by HLicgplcrandSlcwBit 
|l9H3.p-75jindLcMcalL?Sgl BgcnerB] 
i<h"^rrrrjijj]fjd^uc t b> fourkJ fio m 
Washi ngtcm, Oregon, thiuugh Idaho I0 
Color^lo bm has cnnoiE gips |nol cited for 
Wyoming or UuhJ thai may reflect a I act of 
I nvcnlory rilher thBn Bn]ntnnsic ibM^nrc 
(Bourgcn^n and Engclking I994j_ 



Elditbu/ Author- 9i»-]t-L6/^.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Pijs^fxpyniin ^miih j j He rb accous 

VcgctiUon [Provisioinl] 
fPASSM[l wCTitcm VrhcBtarass 

Natural H crltafe C omervutlDii Etask- 

G5G5/S4 



Env Ironounl- This is an uncommon type]n 
southwestern M T_ occ um ng on alluviaL 
Hinodp] aj ns thBl titpcneixc regular overland 
Flow floodi ng or hea> y-1cxtujed solIs- ]I is 
found on islands of the E]g Hole River at cb. 
5,0m-5 :^:}0 ri- Slightlybgher areas ire 
dominated by ^jrfjrr^jru fu{i(^r}\{7lii ssf^ 
iMdenUfl^r ^nd I' seAiditroeji^urn^ ipical£^. 
Adjicenl s]1es cin supporl f^r/prtiiis h^fis^ffsrij^ti 
jj;t_ P^T^Jwt^trrf^ forest>_ HBiTienelal 119^51 
consider at Ieis1 4 por1]onof Ihis typelo be 
well and siles ijunsdictional wetUnds|. 

VccetBtimi- GrBminoid cover is high, bul 
f^^jiop\ntit\ jJFjrJ/zr] Ls the only dominant griss 
Xo^^M^f ^riiltitUr fou jxral6^isrs bixI Ctirtv 
slexjtxph'iiia ire other comnxm species. 
£{j}iri6'Iiffjr h}Cfj[af6' 1^ \hc ur\}y comnxm Forb 
A number of weedy forbs. suzh as GtlsjdL'iia 

ajxj jW^-^j^ wNj T r^HTJjL'^^r j_ ma> be present 
Mosses BnLl licheiEi arc absenl. 



Soik- Si>ils arc sill foams. There is no gravel 



173 



Dttitr Sludirs- CoufilaixJ {[950] i^fiorts a 
'>LniJ I ar t^'pc liuin alluvial fluodfi] b]I7i lci 
Alberta HanscncTal. |l?93|citclhL^ as an 
]m|TOTt4n1 typr mccnlr^L bixJ caMrm Montan b 
Bixl in varying degrees oF imporlBncc il CTleixlj> 
to Colorado BixJ Utabi lEoLifgeinii and 
Ei^lting]9?4)- 

Coainicnts- This vegctatLcn ise3eirlyseT^LlD 
Ff?ftrtiAii hi^fi^ffnij^t^ sjf?. Pn^mtir^^ forest or 

iij\i\iiff Flo«J]ngor LLC scour apparently 
reUidj> colonisation by wiK>dy'ipccje^ Tbtse 
^Lt«i are Litcly areas Iq be ]nvajJed by 
Ertpifitthiaciifitr |leify "spurge) 

Element Code- CEGL0D1577 



Bre veiy deep wj1li loBmy SBnd to loam 
Icxiures medLLijn aMiUblc \^4ler holding 
CBpaLLty irkJ are nQn<aLcareoLis Coajse 
fr^mcnl contents > ary fiom none togrivclly. 

OthcrShidfcs- W]thinlbcwesLcmU_ S Ihis 

1ype hay been dene nbcd only in MonlBna 
where il is acomnwjn type fiom 1 he western 
I nlcrmoiintiin vaJ leys to theea.'^leni piBiiSi 
iH^nsenetaJ [995} Some conlend Ihat 
PhiUns amnJinaeeB is ni>t b nBl]>e species^ 
her^e tbus type shj uld be recogm/cd as b 
dislnrbince type 

Element L ode- CEGL001474 

Edition/ Author- ^ML-Lft/S-V- Cooper, 
MTNHP 



Edhlon / A ulhor- 99- M - 1 5 / 5. V. Cooper, 

MTNHF 



Phatarh anin£iina^c£^ Wcslcrn Hcrbarcou-^ 

Vcgctaljon 

{PHAARU) rccd canarvgriss 

Natural H^^fliaj^e ConHrvulii^n Kank- 

G5/S4 

Vccetatloii- f /]^/crnf /dj drndr^uTCdnj domEnates 
|of1enwith a loHL canopy cover of ICKJft) The 
underHiowlh islypicaJly ver^'depauperBledue 
1o the I mciTie compL"li1]on wUh /"_ ^jj dddr^A^r^jfdir 
Tr^ ^JL^^Vj/h r^T J may be weLL represented art] 
Cit iUffJT {ff y^crnx.^ ^nd Sf^uha (If yiejisii areoflen 
common. The tolaJcoverof Ihefcw BdHi1]onaJ 
species seldom CM-ceds Iff .\dj acent we11er 
sitcsoftenfealuicopenw Bier while Bdj*:en1 
dnernpinan communities incluile ihcFxxpufifi 

lypeind a wide vanely of olhernpinan types. 

Env Ironoicnl- This lypeoccuisongrBvclLy 

Blluvial parent mitenaK on flat flood plains in 
w]de viLley boMoms il elcMlions iiound 50W 
feel- Litter Bnd soil coverequals or exceeds 
30"^ BDd 20% of the gmund surface, 
respectively. The^oil surface isgenerBlly 
stable wtth no evidence of *cceLcrale^1 «usion. 

Soib- Soils are often r[uv 4quent^ or Flnvents, 



Pixijitficif^^iij Hcrbiccous VcgclBtion 
(POAJUWl alkali blucgra-ss 

Natural H crltace Ci^RKrvatlan Rank- 

EnvlroH^nl-lf weic1osLav]shl> follow tFie 
ni>menc I atiire of K artez IT^^l Ihen thislype 
would be knjwn as 1he P<?a seamda 
commimily However, ^^Jtr ^d^n^vjL^^rtr BppcBni 
lo Its to be 4 disl I ncl ecok>f icil enlily. 
Bssoc] a1cd w] th alkali '«>iK (is its common 
nime indicitesr and having a miich mi>re 
lobiEl^iowlh form wi th tu&oc ks up to 2lo 3 
limes Ullerl^nd bioBdent the bsse^ thBnIlxme 
of r TttddJjL'/tJ These "iUnds eT]'^t assmBll to 
1 ajge pate hcs . commonJj found on the western 
Bndcenlril portioiTi of the Refuge on fl ne- 
leMured BlliJV]aJ flats thil are "vanj nilly 
saturated but which dry deeply by Ulc 
summer. Ti^ccN of sal t effloiescence hBvebcen 
noletl- The"^ SI tes miycons1]lule grayling 
dtschmiT of ftrw ^j^^ ^Yrjji j^rrr j/ejj-. EiviJMU 

dominatetl hibitaty.onJy Bppiopnate 

exc Lo-iujcs couLd answer thj"^ question The 

closest named l>pe of the literBluie is4ir«.nbed 

fiom southern Oiegon iLkal I flits as ^r;^j 

let i fiitkj 1/" _ jj J F rt ijxxff ^ '^ - ^ J iccT ? reiiia Ji-r? \iJ\of r j j 

— Efymifi eJytnoiii6fs |syn. ipj^nr tva A_> f J^a) 



174 



Vcci-'tutloii- TliL" bwH:h^i3*^ foil jii^it}Jtyini 
ckiminak^ li spar^ hcrb*L«Ju*i laycrw]th 
c BDLipy cover in Lhc rBn^cof l5-5n^f Other 
^r^mi™:i]i±i t:oiKis1cntLy pr«»cnt w]1h low trover 
viLuH> JDL Ludc 5r \{Amwi hviln \. I'oa i lisiLili, 

TbconJj ^buij bs LoiTii^tcnllj prchtnl arc 
scattered ChtyioI^njt^fUis ^r^un^yius r>z C 
y^sLiiirJfoMfi. Forb divcrni ty 1*1 low,mos[ty 
"^[iccic^ a^iMK latfd ^vLtbid]stLii1>anct^ t.^ 
Gnx^deiia j{j}itrnt?iti^ DiT^T/rar^Ejj^ jtrrt?r^jftr_ ind 
vinous Eng^rzm spp-. especially EL 
ct^ryfjrboitts. 

EkmenC Codr- CEGL001657 

EdtClon / A uttur- ?9- n - h 6 / ^. V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 

Pj'xj ^t J ^ k-'^E TJT H crb Bccous VcgclBtion 

[ProvLSLonill 

(POAPRA) Kcmucky blucgrass 

Natuntl H crltacD C Dnstrvutlon Etask- 

GW/SW 

Env IroDiiiciil- Thc^^u ytru J^jr ir t cominunily 
type. re^:opnLK«l by a hipfer ciwcra^c of f r^j 
prtileniij tbiBn Bny o1hcr herb prcseni 
representi a w]dcLy di-^tnbuted ^r^/m^^or 
olherwiHc d]^tLijttaiiL"c- 1 nduced dj-^ I imBx of 
Refuse Lirtii. it is piobably 1hc mi>st extcre>i ve 

dbtc]]ni4T on botbi the Retu^L' aiid in 1he '>tate m 
gcneriL- I'^mj i?tal6^isf'i.^ rhinXJinatous eiotu. 
Europe Bn mcado^v ^ra."^, hisi vcr^' bmad 
eeoLogLcaL amplitLide Bnd L^ toLuul from Inie 
we1] ajxt> mned v/i th Jw2citJ !?a^If6 jj j^ 

ceipiU?ja ^y[\c^ lo up] BixJ !i]1e^ such 4S /"f jJd^t^ 
f{!u^iiX6^isrs - Fi^t£it?rtyeg?r6'na ipN.aI{i or F 
f{kj^iiX6^isr'i - EivfJTWi ^t^filiyc^fufifi H develops 
Its highcs! cover on pj^/ing- 1 mpaeled wc1 
meadows and mesic gr^ssl bixI^ char^clen zenl 
by mcdium-leil uied Molli'iobshiKh asF 
f{kj^iiX6^isfs - SJijx^f rii li{frdjonr\ or Erofj^ii'i 
ctrnffiA^ifi- aod fl_ j^^E^tJWL'^Vj/j-dominatcd 
h4b]tats [t bIso ls foundoo^incly. is weLL as^ 
dere>eclBy H^jiK if Ihe nxi]'^tLije "^tatir: ]^ 
fiv(jr^b]e_ .^sHinseoet aJ ^1995] nole tb^ j^ 
one oF the d riest of hertf-dLuninated npananor 
we1] BixJ Lommumly type-^ 



Vccetatloii- Comjxj^LtLon of 1hcse *iilescan 
viry fn>m oeBiiy puie sw an±i of f_ /^^uJ^^^Efr j to 
miK tLucs of weedy spec les or ] ncreaser ^ipKiea, 
incluHin^ BromttJ fMCfmrir fhi^it^ fxnAl67rje, 
Jw2CTtJ !?a^Ii6Aiir F6fiUit-ti anif^ffia^6^f, 
/ff?rdeAifn _^^^jftrjji, I^o^^rJliia ufis^n*^^ /"_ 
groiiiii ind T{frti\{AtTtT)\ t?fJiiiiiof^. Once asite 
h*i been ciptuird b> /" pt{fii.^isli it i-^ unlikely 
to reved lo native cover due to Ihe hiphLy 
compelilive nature of Ihi^ ■5pec]e^ il develojHi 
an extL"nj>i vc rhi/omc "^y^tem thBl peiinit*i it I0 
spread quickly and !"> ex tremel y rcsislBnt I0 
high LeveKof hertuvory. WespctulBle thai on 
the Refuge as elsew here. Ihe nati ve 
corrununily 1>pe^ nw^t often converted to f. 
/j^Trr^rtfjj dom]nancc 1 nclude Tj^j^ ^jy^i ^/jh 
sij\ilim and D^icfujmfurti ce^iinUysi^. 

RIement Code- CEGL0030SI 

Elditbu/ Author- 99-] I-L6/2.V. Cooper. 

MTNHP 



HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

IPSESPI -CUSH) bliicbunchwhcBtgriss- 

cushion plant 

NatutB J H crltace C Dnzrvatlan Rank- 

G3/S3 



Env Iroumciil- This uncommon type cx.c uis on 
w]™kwep1 I ime^tjne nd^e crests ind upper 
slopes I n the TendDy ind perhBp*i Centennial 
Mountiins b1 S 0(30-9,003 ft Adjicenl s]1ea 
w]th deeper SOI 1*1 are often dnmiriBled by 
,-\Metr\rsiif \n(iift7fiiUf vi^sesiir}^? ^r^ F6"i\iicti 
f{kj^iiX6^isf'i Cool Klopes below these ndgcs 
miy supjxjil f^i6Ttiioiirtji{f JWd^E^rfirr or^Jrtm 
Jf6'^fffj forests 

VccetBtlon- The dLmiinanl ^ r^nuDJ]ds are 
f^s6^tiiortyegtrena ii?iiakf, Fi'i^tt^^A in^^h Bnd 
C£^texJifrJoi\tr S hnibs arc comple1el> Blftent 
There is a rich assemblage of low forb^, 
incluHin^ many 4. ushion-forming species "lUch 
3}i C\yr7tyfM6't Ail brpiiifiiJUiir Leujifi^r^fo trijxffuj. 

cxiTT\peiIni And Tov\^x2i67riif{f spp E^rtn hive 
EignifiLanlly more basil cover than graminoith. 



175 



Cipcciilly ]n Lbic niiw>1 1\ piVM^tl sj1c^ MtJWrfs 
iixJ c^pKially Lu.bicn*i arc (.ommon_ 

Soik- Soil^ arc 4. ak artoLis ickI ^biBllow. Mo'>t 
of lbc ^Luf ace b> covcrctl wi tbi grivcl DFlhc 
plint c UHhion^ 

Other Studies- DeVcLu.tii*:lL&>ica1L?9 31 
dnicnbcd Bn cxttre>Lvc rs6Ttiioyty6'g?r6'tja 
f^jrttrr^j / C usbuon pi an! 1ypc f rum w irkdswcpt 
CBlcBiTouh ndga> bI Luw to mid-rLcv b1]oik on 
Ihcsoulhsidcof the PryorMounlB]iri in soul h- 
ccntral MonUna Althuugh tbic forb'> in Ihcsc 
lwo typcN hivc the sBmc low , cifcbuon-ljkc 
phyMognomv- there is little ovciiip inspetii.^ 
comfXK£Ltk>n. Lesiea |l9SS)dcscnbcd b 
"ifi Bricly >ef eUlcd grBHsLand ■:k>minatei:1 b> 

ovuJfJofrrtfjr m rajilhwc^t N^onUna. however, 

lhb>lype is developed on excek^ively dr^Lncd 
gravel and CK bubUs a difTcrent suHe of fortft, 
w]thnul the hjgbidiversilyoF/'jt^^L^jLTi-^j^Ei-TTfT 
j^jrrcrrrij / C n't bon [1 1 ani. ALfimeciZihionpLinl 
communinc^ tfc^ nbed by Cooper and Lesici 
(l?92f aJ^o biB>e b s]niLLAr pbi^TiiQ^iK^my and 
nuny forts "species in conurajn. bill Iheeommon 
grumino]i±i arc Care\ HffX6'sInir C e^\-*i(Hdez 
and Fesliica o^^na. 

Coainiciits- This lype miy occur lower bul 
only on1he nH>st c itlremely exposed ind 
cdaphieaLLy harsh ^Ltes. E^lciSiive ireay "A'j 1 1 
occur only at highcF elevations 



EnvJronaical- The lype oc4:un> on sleep 
bidl bjhJ s] Ic^ a1 elevations aroiuxJ 5^0(1 feet. 
E arc sdlL cover to! bL> 20 li>70^ ind mcdlof 
the rcmai n]ng ground (.over is eompnsed of 
coane fr^ments The noil surfice is unstable 
because of a I aek of Bdcquatc vegcl Bl]on cover 
and nLL and sheet cios ion i-^cominon. Parent 
milenaK an: "^edj menlary locks and^^JiK Bre 
sbiBllow BixJ poorlj developed SojI"^ ^^n^^ 
tium not gravelly lo very gravelly and Bie 
■^tnjn^ly 1o>Lolenll> cffervescen1_ Teiluies are 
saiufc to loBUSi and tvaiJabk water hokJing 
CBpaciti" IS low_ 

VcEetHCloii- ToUl V egcta! ion cover in ths 

b^Lll ajxis 1> pc seldom cx4.eeds 15%. 

C tiBr*. tcnslic species i ncludc C\ilierreui^ 

Adjacent Comniunhlich- Vegelalionon 
adj*.en1 more s1 able so]ls ]nclu:1e the .-^ r^f^ruiin 
Ir2{i67 r \akf /Fi^ t^it? t -^X6'g ii6'r2a jy^"^ ^ j ^^f a rkJ 

typci 

OCher Studies- Ttu'^1>pc tiasn:)! pn^vioiKly 
been repi>r1cd ] n Montana bul has been 
reportetl in Wyoming (Eour^eion bixI 
Ei^eltingl^MI. 

Element Code- CEGL0D1674 



TIk*^ sites m*y pmvadeamportam winter range 
for b i^hom sheep. Vegel a1 ion of Ihe^e dry, 
exposed "i I tes is c asi ly d Bma^ed by molonzed 
vebclcsind rcco^eis slowly. 

Etnunt Code- CEGLj:X)1666 

EdUbn/ Author- ?9-]E-t6/^.V. Cooper 

MTNHP 



hyjii6't2oufir'i i]cTb^i.€^u^ Vcgclation 

(PSESPI/ORYH\M) blLicbunch 

whcAlgrass / Indian nccgrBss 

Natuntl H crltage C c nRrvuthm R^nk- 



EdHlon/ Author- ?9-lE-l6/S.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



Fscijdon>ct:ncrn "^picalB - Pasto pymni 
smithii H c rb at cou^ Vc;fclalJon 
IPSESFI -PASSMIl biSc bunch 
wlicAtgrass - wc;^lcrn whcalgrass 

Natunt J H trltage C c nRrvutlon Etank- 
G4/S4 



EnvlrDQnicnl- Thi*^ uncommon type ccc uis on 
^enHy^lopin^ al I Li> lal fins Blca 6m0-7,0O[i 
t^. ay well «i moderile to sleep eioding -slopes 
a1 6 hLK)-7,5CW fl]n1heCen1cnmBl MoijnlB]n*i. 
Vegetation Ltmiinatcd by .^j J^^jh^th^ Uidenlaia 
Eip L^fd^_hY^jjL'^ andeilher/'TfJKftjjLTCjrtfna 



176 



j^jrttrr^ or /"f J Jjjl^ r Jj^lz^td^urf ctL Lus on 
Bdjiccnl drcprr or less cnidibLc ho]]s 



Ekmrnt Code- CEGLOO L 675 



iij\I\hffAitnM^tnh}ttit\ BIT common Examples 
lo^^trclLiwn on al I li> laL fins hive abunJarH 

both of lh«ic s|>c^:je> pmbably increase ^^ilh 

gTHjm^ Bl the tipcnhc of Ihc whcat^rass and 
BIT BLtO assa.Lat«J w itbi co Biyer- tcxlurcd soils 
Gttii^f r6fziiJ larolht ^f^ and An€TT\iirapigrdiJ arc 
common subshrLit>s 1li4t also inert isc wilh 
grazjnp^ Forins bit unciimnxm FisJu^tr i:r^?jj7 
]scomjix>n and oec asional I y wtl L n:prtsent«J 
] n examples of tbus lypc oecomn^ on sleep 
slopes of 1 he Ccnicnm b] MounlBjns- Subshruts 
bixJ other ^raHiCS ire uncomnxm, biH fort>s arc 
BbiiJxJBnt ajxJdi^criC- Common species 
] ncluilc /f^j^rrr^^jf J J ti7Jjg47ftf nndAsfer 
t?<.ii£i6^r\affj. Mosses and lichens bit r*rc 

Solk- This 1ype appcan> lo be ini>st common on 
s<jj]sdenved fn^m calcareous parent materials, 
] nnestonc or c ale areoLis SBixistone E^itsolI \h 
BbLiixJBnt and surf Bce gravel iscommcm Soils 
ofslopesin thcCenlcnnial Mountains in Ihe 
Peel C rcL't irea ire unstable andpionclo 
slunifiinf^ 

OthcrShidlcs-MLie^erandSle^^irt II^IKO 
BixJ Jor^cnscn f I ^ 79 1 tfcsc n bcs this 1ypc for 
east 4nc1 ocrfiionBlly west of Ihc Com mental 
Divide in MonlBna Their lype is ver^' MiniUr 
1o stmJs f n^m si>ii1h^^esl Montana thBl occur 
onilluvjBl fans. PseudDioegneni s[ik b1 b- 
Pascopynim smi thii is also reportetl fiom 
W^'oming lEouigeion bixI En^^l king l?94) 



Conmcnts- Exlrnsive are as of the C enlenni al 

MiJiintains l>et^^een Sand Creek and Feel Creek 

Bit dominatetl b> hiphlyeioiJiblesiiilsdenveiJ 
fium c bIc BreoiZi ^indslone The grasslands 
occ innng on Ihcse s^jils hav c bL^L^n ire. I iKfctl 
here but Ihev may conslilnte b tijstinci phise of 
I he Fi6Tt£iorty6'^ trena ii?n akf / I^i^icofxynim 
iTT\lUiff c.t. or peitiaps a disliDL t commiinily 
1ype. 

HcBvy livestock grB/ing or niotori/cd vehicle 
use of these si1es IS DLi1 desirable due 1o the 
enidiblc nature of 1he soil. 



l':dltloii/ Author- ?9-3l-E6/S.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 
IPSESFI fPOASEC) blucbunch 
whcilgrass-Sandbcrg blucgrBss 

Natural H crltacc C Dnservutlon Etask- 

G4^ / S4 

EuvlroHiiciil- f jf rj^n rrj^f jzmji jjjjV^Pu -Poo 
iectindi^ IS common on moderate Id steep 
slopes and BlluviaJ fans nsuBll> with a wirm 
Bspccl. ElevBlions Tinge lioni5,SCX3-7 500 ft 
Adjicen! deeper soi Is often Jiuppoit >egelBlion 
dominated by ^fTimjjrcr Ir2ii67rtaI{A arkd FesTXica 
\{kj^iiX6^isf'i Cooler aspects or higher eloatioiTi 
support woodi antfc daminatctl by I' ft^r a Jf 6' Kfhj 
or Fiett£ity\irt^tr t^6^^\eiff Very locky 
outcrops lie ^minBled by Cetc'o<.£^tptn 
l6^JtyiAiis Mosl^lBiidsoccursouth of Dillon 
Alon^ theeasi Fionlof the nod hern Tend:jy 
M ountains, Ihis vcgel a1ion of1en fornsi mctiici 
thil I nclude shaJ low dramBge sirel bild 
1 1 mcslone outc n^ps 

\ccciBtlDii- DominBDLC IS shared by 
r leitiiortyeg^rena ipN.aIa 5Vr/^ iOfnaJ^A and 
On j^JPi ^p^ J?itvEr;^VJf f f^ty^AJ^Kiifiii^f and 
AVj^^jt^ ^ ^j^L'^Pu 4IT preseni m^mall amounts 
in moMMirels. The subs hnibs ^fTfjnjjJcr 
Jrijif^kj BiKJ Gifticf rez^a itrnyJhtiAe ^rc usually 
piesem. Forbs cogens low but diverse. 
Common spec les i ncluile T/jJ^jt Je^^oJjV, 

rtTJTPi-TJkJpp ^nd^is BixJ L£"i6^fi.'tcilti trip\f^ 
MoH»es Bfcriie bul lichens mBy be conuni>n in 
some stands 

Soib- Pirenl malenab are Itmestone or mi Med 
setlimenl B i^' 20-5(3 ff of the !iOils iseijxjsed 
BixJ gravel Ls BbujxlBnt on Ihe surf ace. 5oils 
ire ^enerilly well d riinenl and of ten sanJy in 
lextujc. 

Other Sludk'v- R»eixJoroegnena spiciH- Poa 
S6^ifii^/xi |=.\GRSP-POASECj is described for 



177 



wc^tci Ji M on1 BJia by M tickler ajxJ Slcwirt 
|l9KiJ DaiibcnmLic | L ?70| dKjn bcs i -^Lmi I ar 
lypcwilh lower fbrtuJivciwly and w]lbLiijl 
JPXjtL'd fOFJTj^J^ tbiBl wai ODLC CK tcnwvc I n eastern 
Waihington Pscixlonjcpncn a ^piciH- /"ltj^ 
i6^ifii{kj Bpp Br^^mly c i^lEMicis «i farsuulh e}^ 
nonhrm Color^lo bikI Utabibut i^only a 
^LfjiLf It: an! I antkc ape t^omponcnt ]n Wyorru ng 
(Bourgcron arkJ Enpclking I994)_ 

CoDiniciits- .M L of our stan±i fit Iht 
dcicnpLion of lh? STj^l? ^Y^FJT^ Jl^^ pha.'vof Ihr 

iHurgplcr and Slew Brt, IS&ny Slfimct?iJ\£ifti, 
rty£^jafiiih^^ii and Ihc ^ub^buubs Gjjftf j rezrcr 
f^jj oihra6' ind Af l6^rtrsl£^Jn^I{i{f i ncicasc wi1h 
] ncrc i^ing arazi ng prc^-^Liir , bum bu^jbicr 
] nlcnsiljc^ S. cofjrala da. rcBhc^ 

EkmrnC Codr- CEGL001677 

Edilhin/AuCtur- 99-] t-L6/S.V. Cooper 



Fjjti riatJ/jj^ Tjjj^J^^'iUj]^ Herb arco LIS 

Vcgctaljon 

fPUCNUTl rfuUiirs alkBlJgrB-:^ 

Natural H trltafc C oiKtrvutloii Rank- 



Env Ironiiiciil- fjra rn^JJjj^ jrrj rr^JJd^^^j^^ L^ an 
oncomjiion on 1 hr Refuge mJ flobilly rinkKJ 
high fori^nty a*i well [1 i^spineLy vegetated 
w]thNiJttiLI'*i Bikal Lgr4w> f rjj£ ^ r^Ei^Vfrtf jjd^pftr/yjj^ 
Bppioaching monospecific clmiiLnajxe. 
Dcc Lun ng ] n "^maJ I patches fi a broten stnnger 
along I nlerrrul tc nl drai riBge "> ind on iLluv i bI 
flBb> (riKWilly on Ibe wcsLem fringe of Refuge) 
1 n Home cise^ on the Refuge Puccinellia 
nutLallLariB c^onstLlutes 1he vegeUlion bind 
close'>t lo 1he incuted channel on a floodplBin 
position witbi^ii1> loamaLLuMilKJjIs Salt 
efflorescent^e wis not observed bul thi^ 
communily i^ known to occur onjiBll-afbeetcd 
HO]L> 1hat have a slightly wetter temjxjrinLy 
anundatetl, irajj^ture regime. The Fu:c]neLLii 
nullallianB typehaii not been bormiii^ 
dc^cnbed fioin M T in the c I a.'^]ficition efforts 
ofHBreienel al {[9*^5] bul piobibly biasheen 
Hiiteiumed by thche le^eirc hen within lhc 
Disfichffj ilm itt or ftm <}pvntTT\ jjwr jJzjr 



conununily lypes- Witbun IheTNC li^Lking 
^y^tem tb^ communily lype bian been reported 
only fiom CoLorido as G I ^ but Heidel bixJ 
Cooper (19?7J biBve ii>cumented H fiom 
we'>tem plains of N^onlBna near tbie Reeky 
\^ount4in Fiunl^ ixilcd it in field 
reeonnai'Ciince andciledn ri~omlheCanadjBn 
literBlure fsyrajnym: ^jjfCTFr^y/n^ ^r^^jrcfej, 
DcddandCouplBitl I96ftl We hive 
rreogmzed 1 he t> pc by ^. ^rrrpu^/j^j^zu having at 
lea.Ht 10 % cover ind greater cover 1 hin iny 
olherforb indicative ot yel dner nwL^ture 
regimes, ll Ui i£>ii4lly exuib> in b complex with 
L^syntn {ffiL^ytrtn - Pixcinellia nutUlliBna, 
Pascopynimsmithii V BlluviaJ f\^\ii or DIjItMis 

dominated types Inlhe vicimly of 1he 
Fttit ffi^frtr fmIkfN\{fii{f ^ampl i ng Mies a 
comparable lands ape posilion was ».c upienl 
by what has beenckscnbedis^^eMern 
wheatgrisH — inlanJ '>al tgr^iis gns^lanJ 
|i*^j j£ oi?^ rr/m jfjril!rii - Diilfi /a/rf j/^"^ £^Ia 
Hert>aceoi£> Vegc1a1ion WY ND1_ 

^ CEetatton- The Reruge CT amples of Ihis type 
hive low diveisily ind ai~e compoMlionBlly 
very simi lar lo other observed Montana 
occ ujienccs- Fiic c ffii^i\tr mf^^tiiiitmtr 
dominaiib>il an^und-K3 ^^ CBDjpy cover 
I nUnd saltgr4w> {Dfjiirifiii sprcaia) , fif?rdeiifjr 

tT^Ei-TdT/j, ijjt^fJ^VjVj u^fant?ja and /vm^^r^^^jJT t 
are theonly olherherb^ei^hibiUngmoielhin 
1 race coverages or 1hat an: present wi1h any 
core>iMency_ Chrvit?\h^itmtn ntmi6^irn and 
SanohiA^tti \/enj\U-}ikfiii^ in trace amounts were 
lhe only Jihrub^ noled wUhin Ihe lype_ 

Element Code- CEGLOOl 799 

Edition/ Author- ?9-]l-E6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



^^' jrTTJf--? ^ji jjrtr ^" Hcrbiccous Vcgclation 
(SCIACU) hardslcm bulrush 

Natural H crltage C c nservutloii Rank- 

G5/S5 

Env IrDQnicnl- Thi^ is a niaji^r \^ etUnd plant 
communily Ihroughoul N^onUna noled is 



173 



on. Lun n^; tiujn low to mid ck^v Bijun (H liiiscn c1 
flJ L?95|, 1 he examples uccuFBl Ihc cilcd up plt 
dcvatLon lirruSoflhc type |6toOfccO On 
the rcfu^t thi'>l>pc tsfounJ uh Bdi%oiitLnLK>Lis 
fnngc on Iht margins of pond^ bjxJ is 
csprciilly conspicuDin on Ihc mar^LCL'^ of 
Upper and Lower Red Roct Lakes in WBlcr up 
to aboul six feet drcp_ ]l frequently pjuw^ with 
Typli^f f^firjoiia oz xij3Aicni ttj T. f^A^Joirtr- 
dominatcd t:ommuni1]cs1wheiTr ialiJ^xff^A 
cover 1^ greater tbiBn 25^^ 1be communily is 
defnicd as b T.ialifo^f^f type] SilfjxAisaciftiis 
usually yrfldes to the Car6'\ rrratTi/^jftr — C^jj f^ 
ttin^jtial^A type or /jj^K jj J 'fL'^Vftttri communihcs 
1h4l chararlcnze shallower water. 



]-2 nirzlcis deep^ bjxJ lI ls usually c] assiflenl as 
Herru-pcimanently flooded si nee 1 he w a1er 
levels can dn^p below the sui I "iujf ate by the 
eixJ oF the gnsw ing "wason This commujiLty 
occLipies the siine posi tiou ]u the land^ape ay 
T\-pii{f'^[\ . w I th open w ater or aquatic 
communilies occupying wetter spols ind Si^fw 
sp., C^Jd'^sp ur I'^iijkfffs antndintni'^A 
(.onimunilies iKcupj in^ nearby dner "^ites 
(HinsenetaJ l^US.Hajscnel al 1995). 

Rait^e- Communi tLi."^ oV^Itjxifi 
kfb6fn2ti£.'it\ofr\{Am are widespreBd bciuss the 
Greil Plains stale^^ biilI also u^c: ur jh Montana 
BJXJ IdBbj. 



Vcc^bitlDii- Though Hansen c1 il. [1995) 
] ncluile Si ^^/j lu/j Jru f^oflslcin bul niihj as 
Bn equivalent indicilor spec les for this lype we 

found only 5^ frjMfi a^tttiis on Ihc Refuse. 
Extepl for Ibe SI tu Blions where Typh^f kfirjtyiia 
on. un> w ith si^ni I ic Bnt cover^ 5^ rr7Jru L'^u^du 
^jenerilly foims densL" nc ar rmisn™. uJl urcs wj Ih 
r^x\{Afr7ty^^tyt2 cffr7fxh\hiAifr7, f^ty\{Amty^^t?t2 s;xp ^ 
Ftx\£.'X2^ff{f pafifilrii, ni-^^xc'^iani paiAUIni and 
Tnji^o<.iifn JHL'dJTJrjTUJ^rr being present in barely 
mora thBn Irice BnxiunL^ 

Element Code- CEGLODJ lt40 

EdBliin/Au(hiir-?9-5M6/S.V. Cooper, 

MTNHF 



Scffpu T ia benicf6'iii{?fiiani H crb bccous 

Vcgctaljon 

ISCITABI So ftstcm bulrush 



Natuntl H critace C«nstE~viitlDn Etask- 
G4/S3 

Env irDBmcnt- The Sf J rytJd J Ufh^n}{7£fMoxffaiir 
Bssocj a1 ion is lypiciiiy found at io^ lomid 
ele> ations at n^ss Hontina but nxire Irequenlly 
in theeaslempBTlof thesUle. it isfouixJ in 
miryhes pond andlBkemirfins^oTlHW iikefi. 
BixJ bac^k^^ ater ir^as of nven> ind slreams 
5oiis ire commonly Moiiisob> lAqw^ilsJ , 
Entisols C \qiienti). or "ftjinetimes Hist(M»ob>. 
BixJ soil re4clH>n ranges from neulni to 
mnderately albBline |pH 7 to S.Oj. This 
communily c Bn ncc ur i n stindin^ w aler up to 



VccetBHan- This plBnl ishociBlion usuBlly 
form*! dcn*ie nH>ncK uHurcs 1hat (. bu on. upy 
large ireas Slems are usually 1-2 melers tall 
The noodetl condilions in whith this species 
often giuws precludes Ihe estabiishmenl of 
olhergTiminoidsind forbs ifprcsen! species 
\\kc r^xJexjIr^kf ^hfilni ^r^Poh^ofmm 
tnJ\f^^^hfiffJ\ arc oflen widely scatteretl. Its 
seecis lequi re b Bre. moist HoiLs for germination, 
HO this species (.an rapidly Lolonize newly 
exposed miKJfl ats anddra^'dnwn Bieas HiBnsen 
ctiLl^SS.HaiEenet bL I995| 

Simibr Com miiiiitie^ Stitpiis 
i{ib6'n2ti6'it\otr^{Am is syjxmynxuri wi th Sn^ j^jj 
Lu/jJdu HBmenelal {[995] Hall and liAnGcn 

fi9?7^, BDdKiMeietBLfl99flJhBveB5nj>vjj 
cUAiFifi hBbitit lype in thei r c I a.'Ciificitions thai 
I nciuiles all c^ombinatioisi of S^ J ^td^ J u^v^^j/j bixI 
!?. ^trb^niijet^oiil£^m du^ to similarities in 
enviionmenUi condilions ind minBgement 
concerns St^ j^j/j ftrfif j dZj^d'JHL^jjJ^JFrj is of1en 
treiled 4S i nepir^te Blliancein the Weslem 
RegionBl Vegetation C la^isificAlion iBourgemn 
aixJ Engelkmg 1 9^) O thcr communities wilh 
this spec les flowing fi adLiminant or 
ccxlominint hB>e been dene nbcd: St^^jj 
kfh6'n2tr6'it\otr\{AfrA - Typii^f fiAlrJoira |e g. 
Koniajtova i91tft|, nivAScirpixs 
kfix6'n2ti6'it\ofr\{Afrs - Ti^Jr^Jspp. - (Sfx^ff ^{Afrissm 
spp .yjJFKJjJspp J fHoaglBixJ 1997) The 
Si ^y^j J ^tffifj dEj^d'jHL^jjJL'djjj 1> pe describetl here 
eixomp asses eni>ugh composilionai and 
struclurBl vBnition to include these other lypes 



179 



Siicci'^iQn- Tbu"^ ^pa. Its (. an Lolomzc newly 
cx[hhiiaJ JTiLidn aL^ and drBwclLiwn orta^^ aixJ 
conimuni1]c^ IcixJ li> be pcrniilcnL j I the 
hydiDlopjc regime b> sl BbLc 

Manage me nt- Suft^tcm bulr^sliha^ low tu 
nxKleratcpalatabili1> mliveslnck andbccBiZit 
conimuni1]C'>4reiMuaJly HcxKled acc^cssfor 
]ives1ock IS LisLiBlly diff iL ull. W hen s1 bixIs dry 
down, ]]veMut k rriBV heavily utiLLzelbniC 
conimuni1]cs if upl and fcrige b> spacHf Standi 
of Hoftilcm buJ ncih cin buffer w ave ac^tionon 
]BkES andpcnds iHinsenet bJ L^^> 

Element L ocie- CEGLC)0262 J 

EdillDn/Au(tnr-?9-]0-L^/J Greenlee. 
MTNHF 



HcrbBccDus Vcgdatjon 

(STICOM-BOUGRM nccdlc-ind-lhrca 

/ blue grami 

N bCui^] Hcrl^Ce Ctmrrvatloii Elank- 

G5/S3 



EnvlrDHMcnl- Sffpu cofnuici-BoitteimtiA 
^ ^tK j/jj iK^cury fium the flncis irkd gently 
sLuping c^oiLesced 4llifV]B] faiih of 
] nlermoLuitiLn vaJ leys Li]Vilo[ie to ^^biere J1 
] nlcipj*des wilh F-euftK ^j d JL^^^KJi-TJij J- bhI 
At I6ft^fsla tnA^kfta ssp_ vusxri ^JFr^j-dnmi n*led 
rangel>nds. Lowest elevation on. inrenccs are 
represented by valley boHonts |non-^aJinE or 
B]kiLines]tcsl ground 4,500 ft and the type 
extrnJh as h]gbi«i6 .KX>fl a.'t "^niBl] patc^hes 
w]thcoirEe-texluredHOjLs wnhinimcKau. of 
nx>re mesic: vegetition. ]l is apparently nol 
Bspecl or slope resinc ted ^^ithm this eleval ion 
nnge but habilBls^^ilhinlhi't landscape are 
generiliy low grBdien! {<25^ slope) 
Muegglerind Stewart (1980) termSVr/^j 
nyiJ\{A^{f-BoiiIefou{A £ j {uiiis the dries! of western 
N^ on1 ana gra^SiUnd habitat 1ypes ]1 LS4.crlB]nly 
1he mosi eMciKLve dry gra.'^Und typebiH isrej 
dner than the more are Blly reslricled 

Jr V ij\ en w Jf f r S^^ 6oma\a/Fit? rtiiiiif i i f jt 

l6^UifJIOt d^FJT or Fl^i£it?r^X6fgII6'r2{A JfXii ^Iti/ 

Cushion Plan1 ccrnimnni ty types 



\ ccetutlon- All si tes "s amplcd ind mitenl m 
reconnai*?! BiKe supported BbiuxJ Bnt 3^r^ 
f^ojTiiJftf , 1be diapjxistLC species but cover was 
highly > an Bble (2(3-30^) depcnd]n^ on grayling 
htsloiy and intrinsic sevenly of site ostensibly 
com ml led b> the amount of grBvel BixJslone in 
sutelnte Coer of £li7JjJfJL7J/L'd j^ J L'M^Vr J the 
olherd]Bgnc&lic'^pcc]es is also highly variable 
but shows BcUnal response of ]ix reasi ng cover 
west 1o east It wisonly spi>rBdLcalty 
ciKounlcred in Ihe wcslcirunost > illey belween 
Tendoy art] Eeaverheid R anges Other 
gr^miixijd*! frequenHy occurring, usuaJly 
poorly repiesenled, iiK I LK3e lt"r;t^^FTj^ t ^f JL^dfcr, 

TbDOfh nbiqui toi£i on 1 hese siles Ll is herelhat 
1he I ncirase ] n cover of .^d ^d^rrr TjVj_/dT£ /JL-d and 
Grtiieft6fziiJiarolht{fi^ -with the ] ncreasing 
J nlL^iKLly of ^ri/ing is -so ippirenL Ceritoidcs 
Jaiim]'s BLtO consislently pre^cnl, ] n % are 
BnxiunLs Forb cover and diveisilj j-s usually 
low, 1 hose species ^Mth Ihc hiplKSI cover are 
often erotic wee* or l^sc Bpixl agncuJtur^l 
] nliDdi^hons (e g_ J^i-^ihyJiiS ^xJJIi ixj^fiii.Si^fsokf 
^cr/j, WfcfiL^j^^j n^Jd tvj . Tarti\{AtiiTT\ ^xjff67ntiie] 
Sjxhuen^fc^a ctTLtfM^u a ]dl reascr w i th 
grazing is bghly consUnl bu1 sciice. no other 
fbrlHi had even 50^ LonsUruzy 

Sob- Gcven the position of thrsc ^itra witbn 
1he landscape and comp<:si tion Idomininceof 
Siifx^f iOfjral^A) 1 1 fol lows that Ihe soils are 
Kiedjum-lextured to sandy usLiahy loimy 
M ollisols or A ridisoLs w i th free c alcj um 
carinnateil andnearlhesnrtace. The amouni 
of baresubslralc f-so] I _ grive I loctj ranged 
fiom 20 1o 50"^ , most of the ■siiri'ace ]s covered 
w]th I Liter ind c ry plogamic cnist Ininminaled by 
lichens) the relative pio]KiTl]Dns of ^ bch air 
highly variable 

0(hcr Bhidlcs- CoLiplind CI9fih in southern 
S ask B1L■hl^^^ a n tlcscribctl ^Slfptiaxtn^fta - 
BtxAi^^txAi^f gr^Iiii fac]Bl]onon sandy siles 
w] thin 1he miKcd-grass priine This major 
pUnt f>hoci4lion eMends soiHh^^ ard aJong the 
western fnnge of 1he Great Pi ai ns in cislem 
Monlana Wyoming art] Colorado (Oourgeion 
iixJ Engelk]n|!. I^M| ThesluHy aira 
constitutes 1he western extreme of it;; 



ISO 



dis1nbLi1]un DBubcnnuir dot^ntKnl a 51 1 pi 
comBl i-Z'ltj^ jtfrt Jfif f£ jj biBbitat type incBHtcm 
Waiihi ngton 1hat !"> ">■ m]] Br to Stipaconiata- 
BouttLoui gracjli'^ ]ii ] BixtM. api: ]XJ'>itLon^ 
cnminunily lyfic mBlnx incl ■:k>miiianb> 1^^ i th 
the cxccp! ion of Al^j JdV^jrr^j j^ J L^KTyrnlKcnci^ iii 
WA] He showed w]1hdctiLlcd soil anilv'^i:^ 
thil SVrj^j ^^j^rrtrr^-dnmLriBled SI te*^ dif Ferfd at 
95^^ cnnJkfcnct ]e>tL tium \grtyfntoii- and 
F«ft« j^-HinmLnBled ^1 tc^ m hiv i ng tc1h coaEier 
|dner) bixI L«s> fer1]]e llower cm. biBnf.e 
CBpatity arkJ lo^^cr nulncm conttn!^ -aj] Is 

Ekmtnt Code- CEGE-0DJ^9 

Edttliin/AuClwr-?9-5E-[6/S-V- Cooper, 

MTNHP 



bire. 

Other Studies- LQ>]CBll9S7|drscnbed A 
SLcrular a.'^inc i atiun fiom 1he "landhilLi near 
Medu-ine Lake jn ShendBiiCoijn1>,N^onUna 
The Slipti tf^jji^jftr / toiil6^ott{A ^ j {uii\s habil bI 
typcofMiiegglcr and Slew Brt Cl^HJ^ i-^ foiuid 
a1 lower cIcvAlinrw 4nc1 hB^ Eoiil6^ort{A ^t^fiiiri 
and many dif Fcirm forb^ 1han 5fty^j ^ ^j^rrtrr^j / 

Coiunitnls- This ve^tation ]"> enclemic lo 

sandhjJ]'> bix1 other Bi?ay of very ^indy soils. Tl 
iscleBrLy 4 '>erB] (.oinoiLini ty a.'^cx i atenl witbi 
Lind eve] oped ■^]]s BncI penodir dislurbincc 
fium^r^zmg fire mi^or wind 

Elcmtnt L ode- CEGLMTHP3 J 



Sfij^a ^^athl'^/^ - P^M{f!iiimm 76'nAiAffofiim 

HcrbBccous Vcpclatjon 

(STICOM - PSOTEN) needle- and-lhrc ad - 

^Icndcr-lcAvcd seurf-fca 

Natuntl H crltace C c mervutloii E^nk- 

Envlroaniciil- Thi*^ HcrBl type charBclen^es 
receoHy stab]hzed blowouts oFsbixJIilIIs at 
ft,6C>n-6 900 Hon the nodhe^ilsideof Ihc 
CenlenmB] Valley. .\dj aecnt >egel Bhon is 
dominatenl by vanoi^i i:ombLOBl]orb of 
■■^ J Jf jn r jjj^ JnfXi^MAUf or \. Inii6^iitr\£^ Jif?. 
Inii67rtaI{A w ith fd-f Njctt jc^j Jr^j^Fru j or SVj/^j 
ctyiJ\{A7tr or yet e BTiier. Torb-niDmLOBled "icral 
yc^ci Blioi]. 

VccetBtlon- Grass canjpy rover i^ ^nerally 
les^ ItiBn 1^)^ Domi OBnt '>peeies are 5^>^ 

Iz^jjid'rtwJff Sc altered CJrrtJwrftcTJJirtru 
FEj^dUd^^jj/j shrubs may be present Forb cover 
IS 10-3(3^ w Ltti moderile diven>i ty. 

^^KJtt^rfT /ej^tF^jJl'f iTiBy beibundint Other 
comjiHjn forbs irtlude AJ^jfJ^jf j ^fiilh^ ^f 
caneice*2s, ,\fhttfjr iexiiJe and Comaxjdra 
iffjrh^kfia Moshes bixJ lichens are oo I present 

Soik- Soils are ver^'s^ndy wilhl]ttlehonzon 
devclopmen! They were piubablj stab]]]7.eiJ 
reldlively recently &Ii-95 ^ of the surf 4ce ]s 



Edhlon/ Author- ?9-5E-t6/S.V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



HcrbBccous Vcgdatjon 

rSTlRlC -FESlDAllfichBrdson^s 

need I Egress— Idiho fescue 

NaCural Hcrltace C c nRrvuthtn E^nk- 



Envlroamciil- 5 1 tes '>upporti ng Ihis type lie 
poorly tkx. umenled in Montana. At least ]n 
HoiJttiwe^ternMonlBnai1occun>pnminly in 
^tieHenxJ en> LFjnmenls, ^uch asloeslopcs and 
I eew Bid slopes ]n 1he foolhiHsor lower slopes 
of nxiuntajn ranges fn^m6 to{J to 7 600 ft 
Hbere isrw^ reison to suspee 1 1hit thi^ 
communi1> L'>ieslncted to ttiiseloalion 
rin^ef These are locBl]oosone would ex peel 
1o receive dn Fled ^now orposj>ibl> be 
'>LibLrrigated or I n some ^^ay tiBve Bu^menled 
nx>islure regimes 



The \bc\ ttiBls]1c^ Brein 
collecting posilion^ i'> borne out by Ihe soils, 

which lie loams or s]l1 loams in lexture and 
hivc virlually no mt k in 1he upper 20-.10cmof 
1he piofile. Given the soil chaj^clenslicsiod 
land^ape posilionot the type we inlenhat 
hojL> Biepnminly aeohaninongin w]1hsome 
coIIuvIbI and slopewash f] ne Kitten als Bckled 
Reflec1]ng highly pioduztive nilure of these 
^ites, the siibslrile sinfaee IS composed of 



lEI 



COfllOIK iLttE^r BiXJ bUNlL 'JTC^ lilldjUSi 4 LrUTi^O^ 

cxfKWicd Hoil_ This t:ommuni1> i^^cry 
c]irurnscnlKd in arc b LisuiLLy Ics^ Ihin 2- 3 
Bcrni, bccauhcil li apparently confined 1osmB]] 
]cnscj> of acol] Bn matcn als AdiBccnt 
vr^d Bl]Dn b> aLmosI Lnvinably^^mLnBtcdby 
1hc more mcsit: plan! asrfic i atioiTi witbun 1bc 

rdu^i(X6^isfs MiBnzc^^ miiBlly 1hnsc 
CDnimunH]Q> ipr phases) drnot^ hy Qvfjtjij 

VTffPfr jjr^rrcrjji , I'oIctrJiiia jr^j^T Jr j Bnd ^ 

Hai^c- Thi*i Lommumlj is currently krajwn 
fium the Fed hill^ inci lower ^LopKi of IIil" 
5rK>w(:rQ>1 GrB>flLy andBlBcktaiLN^ountain 
Rangfs and Ihr hiLls anJ nd^c complexes 
between thchc i^ng«i_ It h*i been tfccumcntMl 
1o occur in Wj^omin^ as well wilhin the 
Southern Ret !:> MountainSlcppc— Open 
WoodI and — Conifeiu LIS E^res! — \lpine 
W c«fcw Prov I nee 

VcEetadon- Thr shrub component ]s presenl as 
s^ aLL^'nzd jjxJ i> kIlibIs of .^^ f^rrr jjVj Ir2ii67rtal£^ 
ssp wjJtTOJjL'^ ^r^ Chfyioihi^mmu ii^fiiSi-^MAii 
whose cover usuaLLy d^cs not exceed tr^ce 
Bnx>unts SUncIs wilhpLoldatahacI a>ery 
strongly d^minBntl all grBminoid liyer thil was 
HO tlcnhc as to covey tbie look of in BgncuLturBl 
field when vjcwcd fium b distance folher 
stannti, inore open w Lth less herb*. o<ju*i cover, 
were iH>tcd in passin^;! SVjy^j m c"/jl'^j Jjr^arr is 
conspjcuLiUhlynii^niLnBnt w]th cover lisniLLy m 
excessuf70*_ Olher pjimi miicls of high 
constancy inz Liide Ffjpj/^w rL'/ti/z^ttvur j, Hvjtujj 

ffUi-^ffn^ii^, ^nd I' {fin?fn MffJT sij\l\iiff tbie]r 
]ndividLiBlco>erselLtimefLceeds 10 ^_ The 
SLUIe of mesic s] te fortjs nrguUrLy present 
] ncluiles Genii Bna af finis Pol6^iiilhr j^racfffj^ 
G^tTT\ Injlonifn, Cifimm t^ ^j j^jfd^FJT (orC 
ifii{iif{ftttit\] Agoscns gUiK a. C^ffnjx^fmihr 
tolttn^fijtyiii^ ind iJcryjj/JHfiL^^ftry^, seldom docs 
andividuBl forin cover ciceed 5^ and combined 
forb cover IS usuilly jn the rBnpe of 5- 1 5^_ 

Similar CommuuHks- The nK%1 similar 
communil> jn nimc ind all otbier piramelers is 

defined by MnegEleraixJ Slewirt |l9a])for 



sontbiwestemMontanA^ tbieirpk>ts also 
demonstrated- ^TfJ^jj Jjr^rtrr lohave high 
CBDLipy cover. sigmficanHygieater than thilaf 
F ^ Jcrftr^rtfrj- We lecommeoLJ tbia1 Ihcir type 
becombined with the5 niii{frdit?nrr — F. 
r^^iiX6^isfs Bssoc] Bl]on fi thjslBHernimemoie 
BppiopnateLy describes 1he conuniinily wbch 
]s31 JT^'/zun^j^JFrjj-donunated and si mil Br ]n 
composilion and ab]olic features 

Element Lode- CEGLOOl 712 

Edition/ \alh>r-?9-l [-22/5 V Cooper, 
MTU HP 



Typhis ia7rffjit£^ Wcslcrn Herbaceous 

Vcgctaljon 

fr YPLAT} commoii c itta i L 

Natunt I Heritage C c nRrvuthm R^nk- 

G5/S5 

Env Ironoicnl- The T'\f^^w ii^lij£flrii corrunLinily 
js B bioadlydislnbuted exiiemelj comn»n 
emergent welUnd type 1hat occ iin> from Low Kj 
mid elevations (Red RikI: LBkesNWR 
examples occur -KX) feet higher Ihan type's 
c]1cd rBnge IHBnhenel aL I9?5]|_ 
charac1eris1]CBlly on permanently tosemi- 
perminenlly floodetl siles- S]1es on the Refuge 
often are assj^ciated with wilerdepllsi in 
excess of four feet Bnd hB>e BtfcepoigBnic 
miller Bccumul atenl over silts Bnd o1her fi nes 
Hox^ever, expcfted minei^l so]l is lequi red for 
germination ind estabhshmeni Typii^ kiirjt?tiij 
HO thai Ihcse sites piesumibly dTyoul in 
exticme >e4is so fi to fac]litate 1hese 
prjcesses- The Tn^'/jl'^ /^j/rjL^/rtr 1ype oflcn 
occ un> in smal L individually unmapped 
pitches fi pBTt of B wetland iTH>saic w]1h 
Siiri?Ais tr^Ai^tn Onequally deep WBlerior as 
narrow stn ngers ilong channels removed from 
1he miin w Bler biKlies {in the cfie of R«l 
Rocks LBkeNBl]onBl W] Idlife Refuge ] where 

communines ire found immediately adjacent 
Dns]1es w]lhshBllower wilerdep1h*i_ Hansen 
e1 il_ |l995|]ndicatelhatT\jt/EuytfrjAt/^^j ls not 
Bsloleranlof bracl:]sh water fi isiniT^^/T 
cr^jj/du bnl thisisnol the factor Heparan nglhesc 



132 



■iLtKion RRLNWLR- rather J1 improbably 4 
milltrof pnonty of fM4bli!ihmtnt ond 
SLibbcgucnt comiKtLtLon for i^ub^tFalc. 

L^^jj^ jj h rj/r>yj^j J, u*iual Ly txrrcd] ng 75^ t^anopy 
cover, dominate Ihca: mi tcs wi th few o! her 
fbrlMi or ^r^rruDLi ids pr&cnt du? Kj the 
core>tan1]y wc1(.ODd]1ioiK Scattered 
indi^]dLiB]m from xJjarcnt mkghtLy less wet 
CDmmunil]cmof1cn ]dlLlk3c Car^x itfncitii^Ia, 

crlralum. 

EkmrnC Codr- CEGLOOWIO 

EdtClon / A uttur- ?9- n - h 6 y ^. V. Cooper, 

MTNHP 



ia3 



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USA hnp //vf-ww nbs govy^A veg/ . 



147 



Gnveijnan. D H_ct bI. I^9tt InttmationiL 
C La^ih] FlciliDn of E^olof ]C4l Communi ti^s: 
Terrestrial Vcgc1 ation of the Uni1ciJSlBle^ 
VoluiTiL' 1. Thcnalional vcfrUlioncLaiiMfi- 
CBl]on^^lcm d^vrk>pintnl , "^tatu^ ani 
Bpp]ica1]oiK The N Blurc Core»crvancy_ 
Ailin^lon V]rgLmB_USA_ 



HtLdc] B-L-andS V Cooler 1^7. BoUni- 
c aL ^LiTL'cy of 1bc A] IziLi LBkc Brca, B I ackfcci 
[ndian Rcscn'Bl]on Unp ubi-^bicd report 1o 
[hcBlBckfcd FLsh bikJ Wildlife Dr[iai1intn1 
and the U S. Fish iitlWildUfc Sen- it:c- 
MontariB Natural HcnUgcPiu^rain^ Helena 
J5pp- + Bpp- 



HBbmlzJ R iiKlC-M-CI»ilr-196J \n 
Biialy'>isorkrummholzcommijm1]a> bI 
Lo^brPbhs, G]BcicrNBl]onaJ FBrt:_ North- 
west Sc]cikc 37: 1 65- ] 6ft- 



HlIIM-O l?7?a DEX:OR\N\-AFOR- 
TR \N Pmgrim for DctrcixJcd Coircspon- 
dciKC Analysis bixJ Rcciprctal AvcrBgin^; 
Ithaci, New York Cornell Univcis]1y_ 



HBnhcn_P_L_ I935_ An ccolo^icil stuHy of 
ibn vcgclBl]onol the Grand R]vcr/C cdar 
RLVcr,Siou;t, and ^shlarkJ dislricls oF the 
C L£>tcr N atLonal ForesL Unpublished 
dishcrlBl]on SonthDalzotaSlBlc Univcisity^ 
Broiikin^ SD 



HillM-O 1979b. TWINSPAN-AFOR- 
TRAN Pn^pjim for A rr^n^jin^: M ultiv ajiilc 
Data]n an O nJcrcd Two- Way Tabic by 
C]Bs.sifl4.ation of Ihc Individuals bixJ At- 
tnbuta. hhacA^Ncw YujI Come]] Univcr- 
sily. 



Hansm P. L-, S W Chaddc Bitl R. D PHslcr 
]9Stt R]pariani:k>m]nancc types of Mon- 
tana Univcisil^ of MontanB M iscellancoi£> 
Publ ic ation 4^ MontanB Forts! irkJConscr- 
VAtion ExpcTimf nl S tatio n^ M ts^koula. M T 
411 pp_ 

HBnhcn P-L-,ajxJG-R Hoffman- ]yS7- The 
>cgclBl]onof thcGrajxl R] ^ cr/C cd Br River, 
Siom. and-^shlind D istnt is of 1he C ustcr 
NBlional Forest A hBbitat 1>pcclass]fic4- 
1ion USD A Fores! Scr> ice_ Rocty M oun- 
lajnFoiesI and Range EfLpcrjn>L"n1 Suiion. 
GcnerB] Tethkil Report RM-157 Ro<:l:y 
M oiintain E^rest ind Range Ek pen mcnt 
S tation. Fort Collinh, CO fttt pp_ 

HBnhcn_P_ L_, R D_ Pfistcr K_Eogg>_B_ J_ 
Coob.J-Jo> ajxJD-K Hinckley. 1995 
C lass]fic4lH>n and man4g«nent of 
M on1 ana's ripanBn Bnd well and si Ics 
M on1 Bna Forest and Conservition Experi- 
menlSlBlJon Sc hoc] of Forcslry Um>ersity 
Df^^onU^a Misc. Publication niunbcr 54 
646 pp 

HBrvey,S J. I9S2_ Vegetation of M uciclshcll 
BixJ PcHolcumCoiinlics. Montana. Unpub- 
lished report 1o lhc Soil Conservation 
Service. Roiuxtup MT. 



Hiionalzi, A-l . 1977 Second ycBr's report 
habiUI type clissi f]c Bl]on for gra^Cil Bncis and 
^hmblands of southern Idiho. Collcgeof 
Forestry, W I kl]]fe and RBnge Science, 
Uruvcraityof Idiho, Moscow. 

HiiDnal:i,M.,M. A Fwiberg anJ .^. H. 
W]n^^ard. 19^3 S Bgebrush-griss habi1 bI 
types oJ souihe m ]dahi> Foreslr^' Wildlife, 
and Range E^penment SlBl]on Bulletin No. 
1 5, Univeis]1y of I daho Mostow. 44pp. 

HilchLffl-b C.L. and \. Cronquisl. 1973. 
FlorBof the Pa(.if](. Nonh^^esl. Umvcraily 
of Wishin^lon Piesji, Seattle. W.^ 730 pp 

HoffmBn,G.R and R. R. Alexander 19S0 
Forest vegeUlion of 1he Routt NBUonal 
Forest in northv^estem Colorado 4 habitat 
typeclassifltation USD.^FoiesI Service 
RescBKh Piper RM-221. Rocky Hounlajn 
E^rest ind Range Expenment Station, Fori 
Collins, CO 41 pp 

Holway,J G.BndR.T WBid l963.Snow jikI 
meltwater effects in in iiea of ColoridD 
alp I ne. .\inenc Bn M idl and N atujilisl 
69(1 ).L 39-197 



143 



HriplzD J-O iitIG H-LbRoL l^TS. The 
aJpinc lundrB vegetation nf SigriBl MounUin^ 

J aspcr N ationaL Pail C aEiaJtan JoLunBJ of 
EolBny 56 309-J32_ 

JoTiEston^B C_ ]yS7_ Plan! asscKiattonscif 
Elcg]DnTwo_ Edjtion4 USDAFoir^l 
Service. R™.k> MoLUitain Region RZ-Ecol- 
S7-2 429 pp- 



KojTurko^i, V_ K R_R \ltK aikfcr aiid B C 
JobuTilon. ]9SS_ Foie^t vegetation of Ihe 
GLUini^ran aixJ pan'>o^ the Uncompihf ic 
NatLoniLForeM: A pirLLmmir^' biBbitat type 
c La*s>] Flcl]on_ USDA Forts! Scmcc, Rocky 
Moun! B]n Fort^l andRBngc Experimcnl 
Slalion. Rc^cirt^h Paper RM-163 Rntky 
Moun! B]n FoiTSI andRBngc Expenmcn! 
Suiion Fan CollinL.CO. 65 pp. 



Johnwjn € andS Simon L?S7 Flint 
assot:] Bl]ons of 1bc Wal Low B-3 nakt Pidv- 
iiK-L^ U3D\FoitM Service, Wal Low b- 
WhjLminNilk>nBl E^m>1 Region Sn_ R6- 
ECOL-TP-:55B-S6 373p|i- 

Johnhon- P- L-, and W D EilLings. \*^62 The 
aJpine vegctition of 1bc BearlGCI h Plateau m 
rclilion to L ryopHfcgenic piucesses and 
pitlE^ms E^DLogK^I A^ Dnngriphs 3212) 10^ 
iJ3 

Joigenhen H_E_ ]979_ Vegetation of 1hc 
Yellow WilcrTnangLe Montan* Depart- 
ment of FLkh and Gimc, Helena, MT. 

Kbi1cs/,J [994. SynonoyminM^d L tiecH i*il of 
the > iscuLar flori of lh[: United Suies 
CanuJaincI Greenland Vols 1 & IE. Tam- 
bErPiess. Arimgton, VA_ 

K]ttel G-M-andN-D Letlcrer. ]S93 A 
piel inn nicy l1 auiifu. ation of Ihe npinan 
vcgetBl]DnoF the Yampa Bnd SinHigurL/ 
Dolores R]ytr B BHi re> Unp ubi I'^hed report 
piepiied for ColnrBLti DepBrtment of HeiHh 
and the Environmental Fio1cc1]on ^gen^y 
by The N atiuc CoreicrL- Bncy, Colorado F]eliJ 
Office- BoiJdcr,CO_ 

K]ttel a E VinWic, Bnd M Dimm. I99S 
S al IX dmnunondi ani^ bI BmagR:i'>ti^ 
L Bnadenhb> [il Bnt B.'>.socjBl]on CharBclen^a- 
Lion Bb^lract Ln:0*ib<jm. R_,G_K]Ltel_and 
M_ Reid L?9S ColorBLfc R]parian Plant 
.\MrfK I atioiTi Bnd Western Si Ble^ Vep.etBl]on 
CLaK>]Hcilion_CDROH U S Geolog]t:Bl 
Sun'ey Mid-Contment Ecology R«]CarcIi 
Cemer, FortCoLlins. CO 



Komirkovi, V and P J Webber I97S- An 
alpanc vcgelBl]onmapof N]wot Ridge, 
CdLotmId. Aictic and Alpine Research 10 
1-29- 

KovaLcbk^B L I9S7. Ripanan ^one bk^ocIa- 
tions- DeK hute^, OcbLuro- Fremon! and 
W]neniaNationaLFoie^t>_ USDA Forest 
Scrv]ccTechmcBl Paper 279-97 Pacific 
Northwest Reg]on Ponhnd, OR t7t pp_ 

Ko>aLehjk,B L I99J. RipariBnpLanl a^ihffl.ia- 
Eionson the NationaL Forests of cantem 
Washinglon- Dr^f1 ven>ion 1 USDA Forrst 
Scrv]cc,ColviLLe Nalional Fonsil, ColviLIc, 
WA- 20J pp- 

Krall J-L J.R Slmh,C-S Ccwperanil 3 R 
Chapman. 197L_ Effec! oF time and exicnt 
of hBn-esting basin w]ldr>'e_ JonmaLof 
RBngc Managemem 24l6j 4H-41E_ 

Langenheim,J H_ I96Z Vegetation and 
enviionmentaL patterns L Ihe Cn.^1ed B ii11e 
areB GunmH<jnCoun1>,ColorBii:i_ Eeologi- 
caLMonographh J2 249-2S5 

Lesiea,F_ 19S6 Vegetation andfloraof Pine 
Butte Fen, Tclon County Monlana GreBl 
B asuiNatunlisI 46: 22-32_ 

L^esiea, P_ ]937_ Medicine Lakes Sandblls 
Piescrvc Design. Prepared For The Nature 
Conbcrvancy, HcLcna, MT_ 

Lesica,P_ 195S_ G]ant RipplrMaits pieserFr 
design Piepaied for The N Blure Conser- 
vancy, tieLena, MT. 



149 



L&JLB P L-^IW- The vi^^^tatLOJi liikJ flori ot 
gl^cLitHJ pninc ]xj1halc^ on tbic E I BcktccI 
] nc1i Bn Rcvr^ ition^ M on1 ana Picpiml for 
The Milurc Conhcrvancv- EicLcriB. MT_ 



LoiKks.O ["^b- IC>ttycan>Bftcr€owLti: A 
na1ionalclis^ificBl]onof vrgctatiun EuJlc- 
tin of the EcolofjH^ al Sn. ict^' cf Amcru. a 
77: 75-76- 



LcHCB P L?90 VcgrmionandHcnwtivc 
> iscul ar p] ants of Morrr^n L Btc Harkncwi 
Likes BixJ N u. bioLii C reck "A'dl BixL'> 
Beavcrbicid Counly, MonUnu. Prepared tor 
BcavcrticHd NaIIdfibJ Forest, DitlDO.MT. 2S 
PP 

LewcB P [99]. The imporlBnceof IhcLLne 
C reek P] alcBU for piu1cc1] ng b iolo^]c bI 
diversity in the Grcalcr Yellowstone Eco^ys- 
1cm_ RcjxjH prepBred forThcNBlurc 
CoiTien" Bncy, Helena, HT 

Les]ca P [994 ThcdtstnbLilionof plan! 
communil>diveisi1y bskoci Bled wilh gl ac i al 
we1] ajxt> ]n 1 he O^irkJo valley, MonlBna 
Prepared for The Nature ConscrF jnc>, 
Helen*, MT 

LesacB.P bikJ 3_V_ Cooper. 1998 Succeiion 
BixJ d]'>tLii1>ance ]n "landhil]"! ve^etition: 
Coi7ilni£:1]ng models for manigjng biolog]- 



CB]d]vcnLty 
29J-302- 



CoisrrvAlion Biology i3J2): 



LcacB P bikIS-J SbclLy. ]S9[ Sens]tivr, 
threatened andendBn^ered VBheniirplanK 
ofN^onUna N^onlBnaNBlnrB] iienta^e 
ProgTim On. asionii PubLu.atLonNo I 
Helena, MontariB. 

Lewis M E i970_ Alpine range]Bixt>oflbe 
liinU M OLintiLns, -Ashley and Wasilch 
nitionilforesti- USDAForesI Service, 
InternnnntBjn Region OfdenUtalL 

Lewis. M E [975 PUnt commLinLlicsof the 
Jarhndgc Houn! ajn compLei HumboLd! 
NBUonal Forest USDA Forest Servit^e 
] ntemxiun! B]n Region Ogden Utah. 

Lcwpe L L 1969. SLibaLp]ne and iLpme 
vege1 Bl]on oF northeislcm Nev ada Unpub- 
li'^hcd 1he?iis, Duke Univenily. Duifian^, 
North Carolina 



May,D E BitlP-J Webber. ]yS2_ ^pilial 
andlcKiporal >ana1ionof the vegetation and 
HsproduLtiv]1y, N]wot Ridge, ColorBLin- [n 
S.C HBlfpenny (ed J, Ecologic al studies in 
theColorKfci alp]ne Univen>ity of Colorado 
I nsti tu1e of Airlic and Alpine RfseBich 
Octasionil Paper 37_ 

Manning,M-E-andW G- Padgett 1995. 
R]panan communily 1> pe c I a.-aification for 
Humboldt ind Toiy abe N BlionB] Forests. 
NevBdaind eastern CaliforruB- USDA_ 
Foresi Sen']ce,lnbcrnxiuntB3n Reg]on 306 
PP- 

Matlson. D J_ 1954 Classification and envi- 
ronmental relationships of wetUnd vegela- 
lion in central Y ellowslone N Bl]onaJ Pirk. 
Unpublishctl thesi*i, Univenjiy of IdBhj, 
Moiicow- 4tl^ PP 

Mauk-R L jikIJ-A Hendervm [9^ 
Comfeiou*! forest hab]1 at lypcs of northern 
Utjh_ USDA Ex>res1 Ser^']ce, I nternxmntBin 
Forest ind Range Experiment Sla1]on 
General Technical Report INT-I70_ Inler- 
mounUin Forest bikJ R^nge Expenment 
aiilion^Ogflen, UT_ 39 pp 

McGtbw, J B 1985 EjiperimentBl ecology of 
Zl ^^J^J ^jfPr^^JtVtr/j^ ecotypes llLEnv]iunmen- 
lilfBclorH BiKJ plant giowlh Arctic kzu.] 
Alpine Research J7 229-239. 

IrfcLeBn. \. I970_ PlBnCcommuni1]esof Ihe 
SmilkBmcen V aJ ley, B rilL'>h Col umbi b and 
thei r rel Bl]onshj p toso]ls Ecological 
MoDL.graphj>40|4j 403^24 

McNab,W H-andP E Avers 1994. Ecti- 
logicil subregions of the Uni1edSlBle^ 
Section dcsenplioiK WO-WSA-5USDA 
Forest SerL']ce_ Wishinglon, D C_ 52 
chapters plus append. 



150 



Wi*»core>i n pi ar] Bl]on |nW H MillQr>_ ct 

aJ_ f«±i_) GcolQg]c atLaiof the Rix^lzy 
MoLuitaLFimfion- Rocky MounUinA'K'^ocjB- 
tion of Gcdlogi-its- Hrnhflcid Ptetwi- 

Denver, CO 



MLJiJav]n.E_ I994_ Oirpon Houn! B]rai 
^cnsilivc sp[:<. Lf^ andpknlcommuFuty 
inventor^'- Unpijb]]sbiciJ report prcpiretl by 
the New McKit^o Natural Hcntapc FnjgrBm, 
Atbtjqutiquc NM 



MonlBgnc.C_, L_C Munn.G A_NiclKEn,J_ 
W RogcFHBiKJH E- Hunter- 19S2 SoiKof 
A-lonlana BulLttLn744 M on1 ana Agnc ul- 
tur^l E^pi^rMTicnt SlBl]on Montana State 
Univciwly, Bo/cman, WT 

hAc/^clcy R_ K I9S5 3 y nn-ologit: aJ rtl ation- 
sbup^ of al pine spikc-^f^cu^ grBS^Lan±i in 
CBHt-ccntra] Idiho. M S Ihcsis Un]>frHity 
of Idaho HoHcow- 

McHiclcy R_K_,RJ Buryik M Hanusco 
1991 Flon^tw. inventory oFwctLarKii m 
Fremont and Teton counties. Idaho Unpub- 
lished report on fiLt ] [>CDC DcptFishind 
Gome, Boise. ID. 60 pp 

Mucgglcr. W_F L9SS ^spcn communi ty 
types of Ihe ] mcTmounl Bin Rcif ion. USDA 
ForeM Scrv Lce Genera] Tccnu. al Report 
rNT-250- USDA For&t Service Enlcr- 
mountam Rcseaah Station, Ogden^UT. 
135 pp. 

MucggLer.W-F inil R-E-Campbci] Jr. 19S2 
A^pen community lypes on theCinboiund 
Taiphce NilioriB] Forests in sou thcislem 
Idaho USDA FoiesI Service, InleTm^unUin 
FoiTSI and Range EfLpenmenI Suiion 
Research PaperlNT-294 Ogden.Uuh 32 
pp. 

MucggLer.W-F inil R-E-Camphci] Jr. i9S6 
.^pnn community lypes of Utah. USDA 
Foie^l Service Reseanrh Paper INT- 362, 
Tntemxiunl ajn Foiesl and R ange Expenmcnl 
Station.OgtIcn, UT 

MucggLer.W-F bikIW-L Slrwirt [9E0 
Grassland and shrub] bixJ habiUI typnof 
western Mon1 ana USDA Forest Service 
Genera] Technical Report iNT-66_ ]nt«-- 
mountai n Forei! and Range Eipenmenl 
Station, Ogilen Utah. ]54pp 



rriutz,K M and J.Quciioz. ]9S3 R]panan 
communi ty c I a.'^iification for the Cenlennial 
Moijn1i]iri and Soii1 h Fort. Salmon River, 
Idiho. Unpublished report piepaiKlfor 
USDA FoiesI Serv ice ] nlenrejunl ain Region 
iindercontrBcl53-&4MS-2^MM-gby\]eiiii 
Resource ConsuttAnIs, La^'lon, UT L6S pp. 

NeH»er,J ^_,G_L Ford,C L Miynird, and 
D Page-Dumraese L997 E^olo^icii unifc 
of [he NoTlhem }%ef ion Subsections. Gen 
Tech Ilep-I?^T-GTR-369 Ogdnn, UT. 
USD\, Forest Service. Intermountain 
RcseBirhSlBl]on- SS pp. 

Nobs,R F_ ]9S5 Onchar^teniing 
prese11]emen1 vegetation lxiwarkJwhy_ 
Natujii .Areas JDiimai5_ 5-]9_ 

P4d^ett,W G-,A-P YoungbLocdinHA H. 
W]n^vard_ i9fl9_ R]pariancommun]ty type 
cLaiisihcBl]onof Utah bixJ si>ul]ieasleni 
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Region R^-E€OL-S9-0L. [nlennountain 
RescBR-hSlanon O^den, UT_ ]9] pp_ 

PHslerR D i97Z Vegemionandsoi]sin^ 
sijbB]pine foresb> of U1 ah_ Unpijb]]shed 
disiertation, W ashinglon S tate Univeisily, 

Pullman 9S pp 

PfLslcrR D B-L-Kovalchit S.F \ mo and 
R_C_ Prcsby J977 Fores! habiUI types of 
Monlana. USDA Forest Service, [nlcr- 
mounUin Forest and R^n^ e Expenment 
Suiion. Generii Technicii Report ] NT- 54-_ 
[ nlemiountain Forest ind Ringe Ex pennient 
Smion0^n,UT_ i74pp_ 

Pierce J_ R ]9S6_Weli*ndcommijm1y types 
of west-central HonUna U npnbLislicd drift 
repi>r1 p repared fb r the USD.AFoie^l 
S crvice, I^g]on One M ihduJ i . MT_ 57 pp_ 



151 



Prcc*:t,5 J_ I95(3_ F]ori*ilic andccitlogu-aL 
fcilurc^ of the R Bfl Ri^'cr Moun1 i]ns of 
nonh^^fMtm U tab- M S Ihcsiii, Univcoiit^' 
DfUlBh SillLakcCity. 



Rottnian-M-L-andE-L-Hailjnan- 19S5- 
TuixJri vc^d Bl]on of three t: I rqiic baHirL^in 
the nortbicm Sin Join MoijnlB]i:[S, Colorado 
Grca1 BBHinNatur^LLM45 57-93_ 



Rcam,R_R 1 964_ The vcf.ctBl]nn of the 
Waiiilch Moontai ns Utah and Idaho 
Unpubl i!ihcd dishcimion Univciwty of 
Wiscore>i n, M Bdl^o^_ 190 pp_ 



SchBiisbcrgcr L_ A l9flS_ Effect>DfgrBzing 
on the hulni^i oV .\s^t{f^{Ahn i6'r£^fnrctn vbf 
£^piisin the Centennial Valley. Montana- W. 
,\ lh«ib>, UnivcPiity of Montani^MbihooLa 



Refill. P B Jr l?SS. National Ibilof plml 
'>[ieeieh that occur in well Bixl^ NoTthwc4>t 
|RcgLon9J U S_ FLsh BixJ W]ldl]fe Scrvu-c 
BLo]oeicaJRepL.ilSg|2ft-9y USDI Fi^h iitl 
Wildhfe 3 erF ice. Research and Devclop- 
inen1 Wanhin^lon. DC fl9 pp 

Re^Bii €_ M . R_C_MuHi»e]man and J D_ 
HBjnci- I997_ Vegc1a1ionof IhcGliciEr 
LitcsEi-^osy^ttm EupcnmcnlB] Sile_ Rc- 
H*archPBpcr_ RMRS-RP-I FoitCoNinH 
CO,U_3 Deparlmcniof A^fKuJluic E^rest 
Service. Reeky Mountam Rci»eiKh Station. 

RicbiBnihon,C A bixJ D M_ Hcixlen»on_ 
1999 C ka^ih] ricilion anJ ordination of Ihc 
Bipinc plajil communi1]e'>of Riiln^Bd RKlge 
WtutcClouil Peaks. Ed jho Grea1 Basin 
Naturah^l^Ul 63-7S. 

Robcrts,D_W_ I9ffi3_ Forest hibitatlype^of 
1 he Bear's FiwMoiintiiiK bixJ Little Rock^' 
^^ DiiJitiins, Mo nUna. UnpohlisbuzdM.S. 
thcBis. U njveisily of Montan B, N^ i'>soijla, 
MT- 

Rollins, R_C [9E4 S luHics in lhe C nx iferae 
of wcslem Nonh America I [_Conlnbulions 
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Rollins. R-C BixJE A. Shiw. 1973. TTk 
gcai^ Li'u^fi^rclUr iCnxiferie] in North 
America. H ajvaid Univeiiily Prewi^Cam- 
bndge.HA 

Ro^s,R L bikJH E- Hunter- 1976- CLiniax 
ye^clBl]on of Montana b ahenl on 'toii'> ind 
o]]mile_ USDA SoiiConsen'a1]onSen']cc, 
Bozcman, Monlana 64 pp 



Sehe]dl,R S. and E. W. Timiliic- 1970. 
Ecolo^y HixJ m I hzation of curl-leaf monn- 
t4inmahi>^4ny inEdiho. Suiion No1c No. 
L^. Forcsl W]]diire and Rin^e Expcnmenr 
Suiion, Univ of idiho, M oscow_ [ D 2pp 

SchI attercr, E_ F L972 A piriiminai^'drscnp- 
tion of piint eommiinities found on tbic 
Siwloolh, While C Loud -Boulder, and 
Pioneer Mountains USDAFoiest Service 
[ nlermountain Region ^^ imeo Report 

L I I pp_ 

Schullz,L.M 1984 Taxonom]c and ^co- 
gr*phic I inu S of .-^ rPfTJTJjrL'^ siibgcnuji 
7^(4731^^?^^ fBeetLe) McAnhur |.AsterBce*c, 
Amhenudeaej- Pa^e 1^0-45 in E_ D_ 
McAnhurandB L-WeLcbiletls J Proceed- 
ing- S> nipi>sium on 1he biology of .^^ f^mr- 
sia End C!rr\-'if?\htiiJ\nrti. US DA Forest 
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Scwtt D-aixJW D BilLings- 1964. Effeclsof 
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Moix.^rapbfi> 54 24J-270 

Spencc-J R-andR J Shaw [9S1 \checl:- 
Lis1o1 the iLpine and > ascul ar flora of Ihc 
Teton R ange_ Wyomin^;_ w]1h notes on 
biology and biabitat piefeience. Gieat Basin 
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Siccic, a , R D_ Pfister R_ A Ryter and J A_ 

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[ nlermountain Forest ind RingeExpenment 
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OgjJen. UT IJSpp 



152 



Steele. R-, 5 V Cooper, D-M Ontt-V-D W. 
RobcrS and R D PTtstcr I9S_1 Fore-^t 
hib]tat lypcsof taytcrn I iJahi>wc*>ttm 
Wyorrung USDA Forcil Scnicc, Intcr- 
mountai n ForcM and Range Eipcnmcnt 
Station GenErral Tethnttal Rc[x>r1 [NT-t44 
] ntcrmjun! ajn FoitM and Range ExpcrjJTK^nl 
Station, OgHcn^UT. 122pp 

TLm:1ilc,E-W-,H-H]ronita-indM- A 
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jncnt, idilB- Ecology 46(3) 349-352. 

ThikniiE,J F_ andD_ R_Smi1h ] 9 S5_ Vendi- 
tion Bnd!»Ll^of an alpine nngt in tbie 
Ateiiioka Mountains Wytjming USDA 
FoiKil Serv Lce General Techmta] Report 
RM-I2I Rocky MounUin Forest bdJ Range 
Expenment Station, F1_ Colli re>_CO_ IS pp_ 

Tuhy, J_ S ]93L_ Stream bi>ttom communily 
c] assifu. atLon for the S awtootbi V al ley, 
Idaho UnpiibLtshrd thesis, Univcnjly of 
Idaho, Moseow. 230 pp 

Tuhy, J S_ and S_ Jere»cn_ 19S2 R]panan 
c] assific atLon for the Upper Salmon and 
M]dd]e Fork Salmon Riverdriina^fs Idaho 
Unpubl ishetl report picpiinil For Ihc USDA 
FoiTSI Serv u.e ] ntermoun! B]n Reg]onby 
WbteE-[on»e A-araiLates, Smilhheld, Uuh 
JSJpp 

UNESCO (Uni1edNitions&:1uLBl]onal 

ScienlifLCinjilCLJlijralOrn am nation] l^^73 
IntcrnalEonAl C Lass] ricilion and Mapping of 
Vegetation. Scntes 6_ Ecology arkd CoiTicr- 
VAlion.UnkEcd Nations, Pans, France. 

Uitanczyk, S- M inH D M. Heixlenion. 1994 
C La^isi r]c Bl]on anJoidinationof alp]nc pLan1 
communilies, Sheep Monntajn, Lemhi 
Countyjdaho MadroiB^a^J) 205-223 

U_ S Drparlmcm of A^nc till uie Forest 
Service I9S7 Eciv^ystem c LaK>]fic*lion 
hindbcck- Forest Sen-jec Handbcck 1 2^87 
R-1 Supp-I Missoula, MT: USDA _ Fores! 
Service, NoTlhem Region. 



U S_ Depirtment of ^gncuLtuir, Forest 

Semce, Reg]on L ]997. UnpiiblLsbcd p]int 
spec le^ dmb ase*^ [ncLuiles flon, lutecol- 

ogy_ f I re effect> and establtshmeni elec- 
tionic databases onginaJly in pir^oT. 
MLSwjula, MT_ 

Vanderhon>t_ J_ andP_ Lesica 1994 Sensitive 
plan! survey in theTe™fcy^^ountalns_ 
B e averhead County , M on1 ana Montaoj 
Natujil Heril age Piogram, Helena 

WB]ford,G-,G- Jones W Ferli^, and K. 
Eiouslon. I ^^7 Rjpinan and wetUnd pUnt 
community types of 1he S hoshone National 
E^rest Unpublisheddraft rep^Jit pirpiredby 
Wyoming Nalural Diven>ily Database, 
Laramie WY forThe NilureCore»ervanci'_ 
and the USDA Foiest Service 227 pp_ 

W]]lard,B E 1979 Plant soc tology of ilpine 
tundri, Ti^iL Ridge, Rocky Mountiin 
NationiL Park. Colorsd:^- CoLoradj Schnc] 
of Mines {Juajleriy 74: 1-119 

■W]llard,E E iiKlLW-Marr 1970 Effects 
of human BC1]>Hicson al pine lurkJra ecosys- 
tems ]n Rocky MoijnlB]nNBl]onB] Pirt, 
CoLoridn- B]ok>gic jI Conherval ion 2_ 257- 
265- 

"Walhams-C-K andT.R Lillybndge L?S3 
[^rested pUnl ishoci alions of the O kaixigan 
NationiLFoiesL USDA Foiesl Service 
Picific Nonhwesl Region R6-Eco]- 1 32b- 
L9tt3- 140 pp- 

W]]liams C-K andT.R Lillybndfe L?S5 
E^>rested pUnt ishociilionsof theColville 
National ForcsL Dr^fL Unpublished fieEd 
guide prepared for U S DA FoiesI Service 

W]]liams.C-K andE G. Sm]1h L?90- 
E^>rested pUnt ishoci Bl]ons of the 
WcnatchceNalional Forest Unpublished 
drift prepiied for USDA Fonzst Sen-icc. 
219 pp_ 



153 



\oLingblu<>J \-P indR-L-MBuk- 1^55 
ConLfcroL£> fores! biBbiUI typr^ of ccntri] 
iixlsoLilbcrn Utah- USD \ Fores! ScrL']cc, 
] ntcnrajun! ajn Fores! and R angc EfLpcnmcn! 
Station General T«.hnu.al Rcporl [NT-LS7 
] ntcmxiuntaj n Rescirt^h S tation, Ogclcn. U T 

YoLingblnod ^ P W.G P*dgctt and A. H 
WlciwbrI I^S5 Rl[i anin rommuiiLty lypc 
C] BSSiflC atLOn of C1S!CT11 Id BbLi - wcs!ctii 
Wyorrung US DA Forest Service Region 4 
Ecology S5-0 1 _ I nlcrmoLintaLn RcscBirbi 
Station.Ogdcn, UT 

ZimoT^.B and? T Tiicllcr- I973_ .-^ r?eTJTJi7L7 
tryhAiscifia^A.iwi^Iioha^¥¥^ \ fiix\^f habitat 
!y|K'f ]n nonhernNoulB- GrcatEasin 
Nituralisl33 225--:4-: 



154 



L'SFS Rtp. 
ICodc 



Appeodtc A. FIdi^ of Ihi] Eea^erbead MojnIaLns SecIIoc 
S^mojiu^ SpccirsNamE ^^^^^^^VCo m man N unit ■ 



JUZ^SCO JUTGCO Juiq>:n^ KLfUlinjB 

LARLVA l-M^LTt \ L^Jl J}^lLL 

PICCNC FCCCriLj P^n^a Cf^lKiniU 

P]X^LB FINALS PJuKjIrfe-uLb 

PINCCN PENCON P Lnj J Cfuiucia 

p]Nin-i: FiNnr. Phij^ iV'Aiih 

P]N\]C)N FINMON PkUNJm^LDLa 

P]^~POM PINFDTJ P tB^ [Hii^x^ru 

POP^hin FOF^VG PLfU hJN v^v^ IKhlLa 

PCIPIST FC^PI^T Piiiu UK hi ham iriira u^ IrkiM^apa 

POPTFLi: FOFTTf. PiliU hJN C^rTMJ hKL^ 

PSChCrX I^CMCN PiiM]±uu^J mflV^^H 



RckSLy hNHixakilunlp^ 
Suha(iki: ].vdi 
big c I rrucn ."^iwv u 
"^Ikkckjrk tWK 

UrrtKTFi^^ 

Pmii^iina Fkie 
lb fcuB PrYitir 



194 



L"SFS Rtc. 
JCwk 



Appendiv A. Tbiraof Ihe BeEi^eibcad Mountains Secllon 

Shrubs 
SjB>n^m> Spccirs Name ^^^^^^^^F CommDn Name 



AUnNC ^LNir^Z AbsK insn 

ALNV^S AU^^ AklJ^ ^ friJh K^ KllJ Jl2 

AXIE-^LN ^MZ-^LN ^miJtiJ^lLOkilEfilb 

AMCUT.■^ ^MEUT^ ^miJtiJ^lLC u4 jJuKh 

Atruv^ ^CUVA ^r^hil^ti^ hh v^ j-nnL 

AHT^Ria ^RT^XB ^OJDh^ JjfHJ^OJ b 

AXT^EI. ^RTU>L ^ojnhU .MtmiLVb i:^ lTi£U±a 

ARTU^H ^RTCAN Arltnihi CJJU 

AKTfRI ^RTTR] ^ojnhtJ tr^kb 

ART?h"0\' ^RThinV ^ncBhLaiu\J 

ARTT3T ^RTTZT ^ncjDbLa Lfk^xriJla ^h|>. LTk^frtoia 

^TTTSVr ^RTTSW Aitc^kJ Irki^lKi u^ P}-fiBk^L3Kb 

ARTTRP ^RTTRF AilEHhb LT |rarl li > 

ATECi^R ^TKHLTT ^o^tx jariiwf I 

ATRNUr ^TKHLTT ^o^ts mjii.illll 

BCrnL.^ BETGI_■^ BhvU g tuiij yua 

Bcrocc Bcrccc Bdn b oi-ckkrt jih 

C^^]ER C^AMCf: Cauy^ mmiSbbu 

C^STLT C^ITKr CaMlLfV c iflr jpm* 

CE.^vcL cc^vn- c Liwrilij ^ 1^'H kB^ 

CEKLCD CEJLCD CiTCLX^pjK i^dlbLklK 

CniUMB CI1]U^B ChlKq^Lb u ^>^lblJ 

CHRV^Li CHRK^U Clr^withjJirB^ cujklHKUN 

CHRVE CHRVE Cir^withjJirB^ ^ bCkJdlzuK 

CLECOU CS-BTDU CiJjmib CDtaJiiiLau 

CLTLIG CLCLDIi Cljjmib l^s^JliMta 

CLt^X-C CLEOCC Cizjmih 4H>.hl3ri J]h 

CC^RAEIR COi:STO ConiNAiTh^ 

CR^]XHJ CR.MIOl. C^;^ JlJI V Li^^ ^11 

IMIYtXT DRYOTT rc_MHKl^iflJli 

^LACOM EC-^OM CLatainjK L4hjnwj[d3 

TRIN^N n^FN^N Eth-aniiir tJ nvu 

LR]\][C CRIhIH. Ety»^LXBjn mkr^nl^jajm 

G M.11LIM G.■^ 1-01131 CrJU ktub iBJnItJ u 

GU1S.-M: GUI^^R Cu4>^c^La uru4l¥>^ 

JUhJIOM JUn^OM Jvh^^N t^m Qunh 

KALMIC KALULC EC^lBla BkT^l^ Ul 

SKALAN CEKLAN E(nMiuJ]y■]lk^^^ ti tiJUl > 

L^D:il_■^ leeoc.^ QjLijjn j biij knn 

LCPPUN LLJFLiX [^nfau^ l:cif4Ji^«u 

LINHOR [[h4BnR LknuhuruU^ 

LONChJV' LCNINV [^Hik fTTi km-HhtaLT^ J 

l_CJNl_T^ UJXLT^ [/nti^a ul ^KCKh 

hi^HR]:? BrftRFF h[ JKcib TLtiuH 

Mt!Nrrj: h[]:xhi:R hCLcirk^b jixru j ki^a 

PI-^]-1:L■ FT^NhTU P>^Hl- rTKih fruc t^-flUN 

PlCWlJi-: FOrrRU PLiya{^i_Mkiiij^ rikr tnnl] 



RLck^ ^I^HJixan ^Ijfik 
h[4HiTaki \k}w 

WcuEm^ETL y.fbHr^ 

KkulkkHikl 
[jtt. ^L±Tu:d] 
^L^l ^aj-.'hnii 

SMhet !ia2 Jwuhh 
Ftk^KJ SJEtmi^ 
BtK^ Ea^ Jwuhh 
BwtiBJg Ea^JnuJi 
P.f<Hriati B^ Eajdn^ 
W^omkif BLf ^a^L'truii 

GLT^kuf ^ Saiu^^ 

Buf BlJl 
WjLrr B^di 

nMjr-ajiibd hCixjrtaJi nizzbr 
h[4HiT>k] Balm 

Cnrl-LiiaE M^'4Jlri:Lkb-■aJx1E^lf 

C Dm rmnz Pr ku I'^-pku 
RrfilKf I:.W:4ohl^«^] 
Ciri^^] R^tikbvA 
hl^«d (. LzKiLb 
Wulon V^fkK-bniAn- 
h^caJim Btac ^ lB^vhK#iT 

Ri^J-fUi^ ]X>j^^'fKHl 
WbilLt n-fus 

SJkcdMfTy 
Dn jE GfiklTDA'Hd 
smtdMJ!^ BnLl^fvjl 
A^ku "A' ty«f jnm 
&<wm ^niL«iA'«d 
CL^mjom Ju i]|tiT 

SjmJL-k^^ Ljd Ljurijl 

WkitfCu 

FTk±l^ FhbK 

Tta kinznA-ir 

fTAh-hofT] 

UA hnuyuj4^b 

CiKfik^ Cn^cvip^K 

Buhli Pl'jk^ rT>:n 

!iJi4ih) C ku^^kill 
hE4H±4ricif t. EyTk]^^ 



195 



Rtf. 



Appendiv A. Tbiraof Ihe Be^i^eiheud Mountains Secllon 

Shrubs 
Sjncn^mj Spccirs Name ^^^^^^^^^f CommDn Name 



ode 



MH'i IMP PIIYEM? Ph_MhKkK ^ ^^vtr INvni L^ 

PtfYGL^ FIiyG]-^ PJn LixhK-L' I tiJiij Lll kn 

PHY hi ^]. PhVhCM. Pln^H.api^ rruh^m 

PRUVCR PIIUVIR Ptuiu^ ^ ^1 iiLku 

PUIITRI PUFLTi:[ Pur^ila IrUixriJLj 

RH^^LN RH^^LN RJu rrrm^ .ilii1i>ILa 

RnHTTR] R]1irT1:l Rlu^ irl kilrai.i 

R IB \^ I. R]U.\ hi E Rd^ J rT>^i.HiJ m 

RCB^UR tlB.^UE Ri>sur^m 

RIBLTR R]BCrJ: RiucDJ^m 

RCBHUD RIBIIl.]^ Ri^z^i^ii^nbiJ m 

RIB3NC R]BINr Rt^ Whimc 

RCI3IRI: RCSIC7C RiwN vr^ujD 

RCBI-^f. RIB]-^C R^^ boj^inj 

RIB\]ON R]Bh1CiN R t>j^ rmjllFUH m 

RD^VLZ tlBVE^ Ri>i^ ^ bn^fcnkJiu m 

Rc:&^^l rcir^c RnhUKku^h 

RCG^RK RCE^RK RiKLorkaJTWB 

RTS^OD tO&WCO RHhU ^HK^Ifc 

RUB]D^ RLlBI]>-\ R^UN hbilJK 

RUBL^C RLlB]-^C~ R^HJ^ kl£l]tJlUN 

RUBF^R RL'BPM: RvhuN [W^ lEknjK 

SALARC SALARC SallT v^1h.> 

E^l.TI^R S^LB^R SaLLbvcLajL 

E^LUIIB SM^LB SaLb hJihlVB 

S^LBDD S^LBCO SallLhoAlk 

E^I.I3R^ S^LBR^ Salli hradi^ Lsq^ 

S^LIT^N S^LT^N SaUxLSiJkti 

S^LDE SM-DG SaLU db^Hhkr 

S^[-DRU S^LDRU SalU 4hBrTHnJbJM 

SALEXI S^]JC^] !ialL< ljMpu:l 

S^Lr^R S^LfM: SaL\ turtjc 

S^LGEV S^LOTY SalUfC^^bJn 

SALLEM SMJ-TU SalK LmmuU 

SALLUT SM-LL~T SalU bka 

S^LPE-^ SMJL^ SaLip^ilfnlU 

S^LRK^ S^LKHi SalL\rlihL 

SU-SID S^LECO SalU uxnLrLxu 

SALWDL S^L^OL SaLb i^dIEIL 

E^hfCER S^MCCf: SanAiHUK t\^ tJ 

E^MR^C S^hfR^C Sao^LU rK^wjKL 

SERVER S^RVEl S Vfi±aliJ T x^Btu bai 

EFtE^RG SnC^RC Sb-yJuf dLa ^^xn 

EFtCC^N Sn^^N Ebf#U4k LKBj^T^ta 

SISSTO SDRECD Euln^ K^f^ lis 

SPCBCr EPIBCr ^t-Jiia bunJIblb 

EVM^]J! SV%]M.B E) rrfdix t-jjpi^ aliiJ^ 

E^MOXi: E^hEC^Hf E) mfJywlLHpiKh HVL^fthL&JK 

TFTC^N TCTC-^H Trtiaih ni li i wi^^ClIK 



Kl- J \EL4jnj hluah 
^^ItiiA \]fMJl>k]-l>^Lh 
hfdUyn Nkii>ak 
Cl>[iljihh]{ bii»k^i£fr^ 

aUt ]ivL±lbHm 

Ekni±-lm^] EvBJL 
B^^ Currari 

StfiaiA CiurjjJ 

SJ k^ k^ Cnrrari 
Whk^dijjD GLxzuiiar^ 
tUxi dHMMb^fr;^ 

Ewa^ Cnn^ci 

hEHHixaki CiiHMMbffT} 

EJkly Curml 

PTtkL;r Rc«^ 

WWKbRLU^ 

Red Ilaaf^KfT^ 

E^^jroi^ Bb£kbcrT} 
Thimhfctwm 
^nk Wllhh^ 
B veil} N 1^ UhK.v 
Bkti^Uki^ 
Bodh Wllbw 
Eiizi-Rut«d "^llhMt 

EicumrTHHiJ "^ llhh^ 

EXMt>Vi^ LIbiA 

E^r^ WJki^ 
C*}^ WJltm 
Ci tujCLUi W ILim 
Lj^QUiKn^ W llhhw 
WiUczi^JLyiw 
P^rvLiaE "^UhMT 

E^bHICMl "ML^iA 
ELHHi^^UkKA 

bUlj rkkfhufr\ 
RLxJ]:kWiur^ 
BlJiiL GrtauAiiHid 

Ttiunm KvlJaytKjry 
Canda BuElak4>3Ty 

CaH3£^ hEHHilJki-jrfi 
Atiy-kzarEpk^jza 
CL^mBiXi itTHKA hawy 
hfHHixak] Sji^iAttnry 
Cira^ ULTU-bruhh 



196 



Appendiv A. Tbiraof Ihe Besi^eiheud Mountains Secllon 

Shrubs 



Rf 1^. Sjncn^mj Spccirs Name 



CDirnnoa Name 



Ddc 



v H ( 1 ^ 


\ \f.f.l> 


V JLX hk] m LOi^ll^'MJ ■ 


L^u-^ri l1uLlLh-^\ 


V^CMHM 


v^c^€EH 


Vjlx hkj m iDMitwauLou m 


B^ nu4i: ktKfry 


V^C\3YE 


v_■^c^.1Y fl 


Vjixhijm m^nllhj^ 


DnrvrBllHTT 


VACECO 


v\aco 


Vua tiMj m u:4|>xkj ■ 


Wbwff1li*-:rT} 



197 






Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mountains Secdon 

Forbs 
Sjiwn^mj SptcksNBQU Commoa Name 



-HCtLhLJL ^L]J%][L M±iUm mUtEolu in 

^CCCOL ^COCCO- M^nUB ^utaJitiDiJ m 

^G^CLG ^G^CLE ^|a^ jJk- tu ^ tk II 

^G.-M^TT ^O ^UFLT ^g^ulKl V un t ItM ti 

Mia^U]: ^GO.^LiE ^pMttf h avKri^£a 

^GOnCT ^GOhrr ^pkltL^ tkJi^^yJb 

MJ-HE^ ^LLBi:^ ^LkJ ■ hr.Mvi:£^l 

M-LBi:r ^LLiSEr Mihjn br.^ h^ kj ■ 

^LLCrFL ^LL^ri: ^DkJBCiTiiJuni 

MJj^IC^ ^LLCrY MItaJD ftwf J 

^U^cn ^LLSCH ^ Jlkun uiuuiUfTTisj u 

^LLTEX ^LLTCX ^JIMJ m L?u Ifc 

M-LVIK ^LLVIE ^JLcoufU ^ trgjLa 

^LVraS ^LYDCS ^IjWBjn tkfl Jl^ru ra 

^N^MM: ^h4AM^t ^njfJiilK KirearlL^nja 

^NiniL ^NDML \r^\jrxii nUlDrmb 

^NEKX-C ^Nr:o:~c \ji±c«k^ c^i^xal h 

^NEGID' ^NIKEiF \Ji±ftULt ^-flKrirywuJL^ 

^NTCY L ^NrCYL ^IJJIKHIJ C) \tvk\Ll 

^NCUftU ^NI^DRI- ^JiJJiKWU L±u mjiKWvJih 

^^TMLIL ^NfhlUL ^JiJJTKno WJ H IfU^ 

^^T^~L^T ^NIIJ^T ^ij mH v njiiJJLbra 

\^sr.?\T ^NCP^E \n^mu4>^ par^ Iftz^ 

^JiCTET ^hlEliVT ^iKmuHit (iJlHMKii^ L^ 

^ND.■^RO ^hC^RG \j^lJ lb.> u^uia 

^KrHCE ^hCRCS \J^LJJk^ fftUKB 

\^sT\N\ ^^^■^^^■^ Mirtwuru ajin+iai.Miii 

^XT^RO ^riT^RO ^JimnrLa ari>ma k > 

^XTCCM ^riTCOFL ^iHiur^ ffwy rrtHMU 

^NTDIM ^riTDIhl MlHlBT La JlWJtpJu 

^NTL^?C ^^iT^_^H MiCiX^tJ l^iUa 

^hTLi.'Z ^riTLUZ ^ji^TBT b tan^ihii^ 

^hiTMCC ^NTM]C \JiaiiirLa mlLnii^^ Iti 

^NTNCG ^riTXtUG ^JimnrLa J>.^ kLl2 

^EMTPAR \r^T7\T ^JlHWur La par^ IFih]b 

^NTT^C ^^i^R^C ^Jlniur^ r^nj mhu 

^hTRUS ANThNC ^iMiurLanh^^ 

^NTUUB ^m~Uh{U \Jl«¥vLa u mhr tvCL 

MK>^N13 ^FOAMD ^j^:c}iiJ ■ ajxk^K JlJbIMI kJ m 

MOL^N \?ac\r^ ^jxtjiu ■ cjJiBbhu m 

^Q4JC.oe: ^lcchl m^i i^^ b fi>5u k^ 

^C^Ti-^ Vjun.^ Mf] it£b jbMst->.MTc 

V^Pl^R ^unn ^ Itf b KrrTHKL 

\T\T1^\ \KJ%Tti\ ^j^ky^K h ilnlLau 



Ll>[iljthh] ^ HniA 



Pab ^gjTHTh 
BtL ^2ftHTb 

Sba«-s^ Lj: C>ihMi 

G^*?^ Chhn 

TtLlLit i^ihn 
CaMJ}4kt 

PaLjz ^IrKUB 
Ehzurt ^K^mm 

Cl>[iljthh] Pl^f I^ -c^ iishx\ h^ 
Sbiii^-^omBHl I'^ky-iTuxL^Latr;! 
Wljukti ]'^ky-Lanikbh4-a 
r^nJijn] E^j t^-^^nitbhn 
Caidit ^luwicie 
CruBrTHiiJN ^j^Ji>:¥u 

C]LJr \iijrTHknj 

^iliujciyd] ^ii^Jli3 

Rlu\ ^npcUia 

hCmki^ ruu}-i4»K 

WCHhJL^ PUUJ-CLMN 

WizKHlnhh }^u;y-di:KN 

E >.'kJ JU U}-l4»K 

^^tl^ir-T PD:^^>-lf>» 

Koiif Tmviy4jxs 
Unrf^t^ F^uy-d[>» 

!ijT;^tlP ]Xft\MU 

FtorTf> l>:iibai^ 

C DkwTuL Cob rrtiiij 

SlLaCDta^ku 
h[4HU-^ar Cnwi 



193 



ICdcIc 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mimntalns Secdon 

Forbs 
Sjncn^mj Sptcics N bdic CDirnnoa Nbitu 



M:LC^P 

M: K^ LP 

M:HDIV 
M:Nn."l_ 
\T H[_^T 
MiHLCJH 

MNPM 
M:NR^D 

^ETDf:^ 
MTLUD 
\T TM IC 

^SCSPE 

^STcn] 

\STPEFL 



^R ^IMl 
^RMHH- 

BRECON 
PtHT^NS 

^FLrCCft 
^FLNiaV 
^FLNrUL 

^FLN"MOL 

^RNKYD 

^RrSOR 

^RTC ^^3 

^RTDR \ 

^RTLUD 

^RThllC 

FRISCO 

^T_M_G 

^TC\M 
^TUH[ 

^TCCJH 
^TDOT 

^nocc 



^jTihh f-iunfa 

^i^h bnhojIIJ 
\ntih LzBrTHHilk 

^jd?L^ InllU 

\j^h nlLablk 
^TKurLa t^ Jbr h 

\rgL^ka ajTCiTku 

\jn>rj cbjjDhhnhh 
Mn>rj ciirdlfnlb 

^jnt-j UJE^Ib 
4jn>rj kw^lfnlta 
^mln rTH>]lli 
\n]k_i ]\jrT} L 

\jnt2MrLy ti 
\nLjmbLa LirrfVHTK 
^ncQLhLa 4fr>n]iin] ku 
^^c mh ti taLio\ Lkiju 
^j^ijmL^La BktuiJxiuiL 

\riCBLTlJ N^L^nLLum. 
\il^ j^Lf oni 

^ULT fHhjnniucau^ 
\3ltr «if clrrucwkJL 

\3l^ EOLULHJK 

\drr oi-cki5ri:Llb 

\3l^ N^L^nlAUEBi 



Leu ni rTKmrs EiKi;LT>JUh 
S^^^ RozkcTK^ 

TCWET^BlJlfd 

n^t^ Xmt4xcu 

FDzihojJI^ Rozkcr^^ 

Li^mBm^ i:4H±Lm^ 

[ i,^\I'r R4H±4Xl:1N 

[H[k>.^j Rl^cthu 
riJCljJL^ i:oii4XLJu< 

Tt¥«Hl-L:a\^ SajxhA'm 

Kkf lEXMhA-fTl 

S jk-?^ tiMl C h^ictiJ 

httaj±r?. ^inl3 
nojJl-loE ^mlc^ 

Bnhsdkaf \m>rj 
Lfwiglnl ^mkj 

R^ii^t^f^ ^mk^ 
TiAk] ^iniia 

ParlEt Sa^fiAfvt 
Tzr^Hi 
Pn^lt SjgE^'Hn 

hf kfuj L MufiA-nt 

RL>ik) hCiiuixak] !iaf lj^'hv^ 

Lf¥i{- t^jYijd \3^a- 

La£U4i\ \iiiis 

iIi^-^oqljdkJ .^dLJ^ 

Ant A^cff 



l?9 






Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mountains Secdon 

Forbs 
Sjncn^mj Sptck's N bdu CDirnnoa Nbitu 



^ST^BO ^TMZi \^rap^kj ^ ^r^Jij QL 

^ST^ES ^T^]^:^ \^nptai aiioir^aK 

^TUii: ^^^.■^GE \^rJFalJi :l^l^ L^ 

\5T^LP AST^LF \^nFahJ^2^kiJN 

\^r^hlt: ^T^Mr ^^rj^abN amirk-jjij^ 

^ST^EU ^T\TO ^^rj^abN u^^^Jta^ 

^ET^Tl ^ST_^TJ: ^ilnaafcj T jJr^T'rfhiw.rtK 

^STBC^~ ^TBOU ^^r^tatai bnvpKHril 

^STC^X ^TU^M ^^iratata^ c.MU(kBfa 

^^rCLE ^TCrj: ^^rJiaUi cmmtvx 

^STCRA ^TR-FL^ \^nFak]^ CTK^ tapj ^ 

^STDEU A5T1HIU ^^rj^abN ^ ■rmulll 

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Forbs 
Sjncn^mj SptcksNanu Commoa Nbitu 



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10\ 



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Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mimntalns Secdon 

Forbs 
Sjncn^mj SptctcsNanu Commoa Nbitu 



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202 



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203 



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205 



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206 



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Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mimntalns Secdon 

Forbs 
Sjncn^mj Sptck'sNanu Commoa Nbitu 



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207 



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208 



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Laj£te^U3V 



209 






Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mimntalns Secdon 

Forbs 
Sjncn^mj Sptck^sNanu CDirnnoa Nbitu 



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hfLMjnJzikh rtk'rrTK^h 



210 



^SFS Rc£. 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mimntalns Secdon 

Forbs 
Sjncn^mj SptcicsNanu Commoa Nbitu 



ICidt 



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Whk«-iK jd hftit iHZsn 



211 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mountains Secdon 

Forbs 

TTSFS Rc£. Sjncn^mj Sptck's N bdu Commoa Name 

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212 



Rff. 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mountains Secdon 
GrnniLLioids 
Sji»n^m> Sptcics N BDC ^^^^H CommDii Nam? 



Ddc 



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TtriJKJ-ltJYHl S«d;« 



213 



VSFS Rtp. 
J Cock 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mimntalns Secdon 
GrnniLLioids 
Sjiii>n^m> Sptcks N Bmc^^^^B CommDii Nam? 



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CEUDrUH] Epk-.'UL^ 



214 



L'SFS Rtp. 
J Cwk 



Appondl\ A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mountains Section 
GrnniLLioids 
Sjiii>n^m> Sptcfcs N Bmc ^^^^B CommDii Nam? 



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JL M^U 


JUNDRU 


JumJ^ ^ "^^rn'fc' 


rrDjnoujiiK Ilurfi 


JL M 11 


JUHErr 


Juiuj^ ijEtasu 


!^hli:u:^ 


JUNLhG 


JUHErC 


Juinv^ ■jAlEbltai 


EuggiT-lZdE Rvih 


JUNLDN 


JUHUIN 


JumjN iJi^L^^ILi 


E/nf-d) bd Ruhh 


JUNhfER 


JUNMER 


JUIKUN ^i^LlbbJUK 


hEtflflfi R«^1 


JUNhJEV 


JUNNEV 


Jumj^ n^Tuiibh 


SkmRi^] 


JUHPM 


JLIN^^FL 


Junius fojryl 


Par^'^ R«^1 


JUrfTEN 


JLINTCH 


JUIinilCKlJll 


Skn^ Rd^i 


JUriTClf: 


jijrn-oj: 


JUMICLNTC^I 


TnuiJ^'s R Uhh 


JUriTi:-^ 


jLirfTFA 


Junua \i*r\ L 


Tnuiy^ Rurfi 


K(3EM «. 


KOETHI 


KLtJl^La mKT.iixJii 


Pn^t Jui^-^^r^tu 


LEYC]N 


LCTt C IX 


LizyHUK Liuf ^K 


Gbri Wlk±}^ 


LUZCM] 


LUZCAM 


Lnzaii cjJifvnTh 


Fkt5 WiXKhj!^ 


LuaL^n 


LU/n]T 


Ln/uLa f tjlrjl^ MT Ki4±iimiLhl 


SJIKHribl ^HHJ^kUKh 


l_L'ZP^R 


LUZP^R 


] J]/U tl [HTMUrTJ 


!iJiuJI- IbiA-^KJ iVthhW^ 


Lu:^p[ 


LU/J^PI 


Ijsfu La Y"^'"^^ 


!if^ WWKkllA 


MTIf UL 


hfhJJ^LlL 


\]Ljlta In J>:kl 


Cnkin^js 


hllJ-^Ff. 


MELSPE 


UeLcj :f>^^abllh 


Siiyn^ {bbnjnira 


hlM^LlB 


hcrui.'B 


Uelk3 HjhuU:! 


^bia C^ikwfTxa 


MLQI^P 


hCUM^SP 


%]ubii3#>Tjkj j£fcf hiDlb 


AbhMrfll> 



213 



Rtf. 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mountains Secdon 
GrnniLLioids 
Sjiii>n^m> Sptcks N BDC ^^^^H CommDii Nam? 



Ddr 



MunriL hcunnL \]ubii3#>Tj tj fJliftTHta 

hiUHRCC hCLinxK. MubiiiritiTj b Thiv^hinh 

hi^SV]!: STI^3I: ^AutLb YJ-i±b 

oi:^ tn h[ DFLV tfv m a^zDrrch h^ mmh^JK 

P^S.'^hCI F^AEM] FHt-4»f^TU ■ ^ mrilhll 

Pn^MlU FH^^FLLi JtuLvLh JTUixJiULn 

PnLALF FhLALP JtiizvJD a^^^BH 

PI1].PR^ FhLPE.^ Jfi^^BfW^OKC 

PC>^ \ LF FU.^ ^ LP Fhh j^ tu 

Pn^^MP FC^^EtlC Fhh jrTf>Lj 

PO^^RC PO.^^RC KMETdki 

pn^^E] FO.^^Ri RHTkb 

PO^EUL FU.■^B1.1- KHbniy^u 

PO^C^N FO.^EtC PMCoriirl 

POMTCM FO.^CO%] Fhh LL^rrfKCiKJ 

PO^CLE FOjM^N IVuuj^i^ll 

PO^rCN FOArCH Pci fEnJitrtau 

POUiL^ FO.^GL.^ Foa F tJUCJIoLb 

Pn^GE^ B^WTC FHHgn^^ru 

PClMhiT FO.^GLU Phkj Uluhw 

Pa\JUN FO^SCC FfH>n.lfL>lb 

PO^LrP FU^LCP Fhkj IqHiicoKL 

pa^LCT FC^^Lrr fhh iHitf^uui 

PO.■^NER FC^^NtlX PfMrvfVDB 

PCl^NCV FO.^ECC Fa* Ji;^ .iiiiJT^li 

PCi^F-^L FOAP^L R»j\jU^rL^ 

PO.^PF^ Fa.■^FFL^ FHHr^Tii^ibb 

PO^XEP FO.^FLCr PfMi-cftu 

Pn^A.■^ N FC^^EtlC FfU :«MhT£H 

PU^L'^ FO.^Er^ FoAAC^w^lb 

Pn^^tiC FO.^ECC Pfnuarxb 

P(^_■^STt FOASTE Fhkj s^wiajUs 

Pn^TFL] FO.■^Ttl FHHlrL^Lallc 

PSCSFI FS^PE J^mLixo^jikTb i^mia 

PUCDQ FUCDts ni4^kuiib dbJjjK 

PLICMLTT FUCNUT Rjix kullu iiJ4l:LllbJM 

SCI^CEJ SCL^CU ."^Ipj^aLWU^ 

ECIT^B SC]V.■^L SckpiN lalMfiMorTHHlHil 

EFMiE^ SP.■^GR^ ^[iKlku fTK llh 

EF^PCC SP^PEC ^rarl kn [IlJlJ UuU 

EFHClflT SPhOer ."^Wux^WxiUc u4:4nKKa 

spoilt SFC>^]R ."TprFftHAJN Jhihki 

SFCCRV SPCCRY ."^rHthcbi CT^r^^Mhi 

mCOM STIITCM ^iKJcnmjLj 

mice STIDCC ."^^ oi-ckkrtalh 

mXCC STIRK ^ ^ rktu-ii«H]IL 

TRIEP] TRQFI l^l^Lnjn ^|ik njD 

TRIWOL TRCWDL 1Yh«i«iD \^-4hJnh 



PtJtn^luIri^ 

KLk hluKJ^ 

LHLL: F k-o^JiN 
EnJkii Rtcp3» 

Arik.BU«^T^u 
FbJK Hkj-.'^nu 

Cactm^i Btaijpsu; 

C jcuia ]?kJt^r3u 

Cul±^ BtaL^ITJU 

Fab-k^ laUi^FTua 

Cira^ }k BlJi^r^tu 

iitsid BlJ^prHiT 

Ak^lL ]?ta^;ciu 
Bn^Bbrjnra 
E-diiTQiai^ ]^ljij^^u 

r^Y^Lb BlJijpshn 
E4h^l I3ta:^r3n 

!taii±uf I }k I3ta^an 

PJv l31JLjpK^ 

Trtita^ ]?tatjrju; 
RHHJglT^aL ]?taL^rju; 
BljdMjndi "i^tHijnA; 

rijdjjr^ ^fcalljnw 

FLinUiJB Bulu^i 
SLd:4Dm ]iu k«^] 

Fnkb CfwdpjKc 

VnklE Vr a\gtgW3is 

^tall Aa£ai:ci 
Sand I^L^TH^d 

^k^ TlbiJlUB 

WntTKTrKrtDm 



216 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead Mountains Secdon 
Fern and Feru Allies 
flJSFS Keg. Sjiwn^vni> SpcricEf N amc CommoiiNaE 



L Code 



CHEFEE 




CbMtultv^ led 


rcC^ ].|>-rimi 


C\ZIT\ 


c vsm^ 


C^^c^iTh t-jgllh 


Brll It BlKklr- b^m 


tlJU^EV 


UJU^FL^ 


llifj h^n m m^iTC^ 


rtkl ] JCTMlzLlI 


tijun_i_ 


CQUfLU 


1^ t^vjn Eta^ MIL 


"^^iT J J^T^d J II 


CgUMYC 


EQUCfVE 


Eifj bcfu m JTri^jmle 


CDmHcn SfiMjr tif-curfi 


tlJUL^tl 


CQUL^E 


lli^lttlum tu\ I^Jlum 


SrTHHrih Acinr Jij-mhh 


SCLDEN 


SKLDEX 


AiJt9|v^Uj lixna 


CDrTfmi ^tbjv^JLa 


SEL^^T 


SKLW ^T 


SiztJEJiJJti lA^NmiJ 


i^^iMH^^ Etbj hjJb 


woe KM: i: 


WCCOIC 


v^fflKhta i:rcf au 


{^^^m'^KHLti 


WCKBrCJ 


WGCfiCCJ 


V^fflHilb UJH^IlH 


RckL^ hNHixaJi ^HHxbii 



213 



Appendix A. Flora of Ibe Beaverhead MimntalTLS Secdon 
No n* Vascular 



\ 



ICodr 



Co mimn Name 



REDEEM FI:D^I:^ 






irCJLTfN COLTCX 

MtlL-^LB hcni ^IJ^ 

MLLELIB h[IJ21-]? 

VKEV]!: VTFLVIJ: 






CALSTE CM_STi: 









219 



AppendK B. 
r^lural HLTlla]!e Gbbal Raok DeRnltlonsand llieir M4>dmer5 



Rank G [obal Usak Dcflnj lb ns 



CX Presumed Ek ti iict - Believed Kj bcexlirkz! Ihroughout Lti range. No1 kK Blcd dt^pilc 
inti.Nisi^'c hjz BiLhr^ of hbtluric hite^ andothtr Eppiopnite habiUt End v]Ttu4LLy no 
|jkclLbiLxx1 Ibut il will be renlbX-ovrml 

CH PcwJbly Extinct- Knox^nfmm only hL^ttjnt bI iicuLunziKCS- Still sn me tope of 
rcdmcovciy. 

Gl C rilu. aJly ] mpenlcd - CritiLBlLy impenfcd global l> b« aiKe of ck Uemc rBn1> or 

bK Bu^ of H^jme fac1ori>il making it e>pn. i bIIv > uJnerablc to rTlinclk^n Typically 5 
or ft^^er ffl-cunencni or vei^' few remaining inciiMduaLi f< I flffiJ) or acieii (<2iKB) 
or-^trcini miles 1<tOl_ 

G2 ImpLTilcd- Imprnlcdgkjbi^ly bee BiEe of ranty or bee BiEe of somt fBclorlsl 
miking It very vulnerBblc locxtiixtion. TypiciLly 6ln ^ ctt: unences or few 
icnmning iixlividuab> |LO0O to 2pQ0] orjcres |2iKXi Id I OOMJJ or -stream rmlni (10 
to 501- 

C3 VuLm^rabLe - ViJDeriblc globilLy cilbicrbccaiar vciy rar andlncal IhnjughLUJC iS 
ringc found onJ> in 4 rQ>tTKted rangt feven irabumlinl Bisomc locBlkusir or 
b«. BiKe of othtr fac1i>rs making it vulncrabLe to extinction TypiciLL^' 2J to lOIH 
ctLunences or between J,000 ind IO.(X>n ]ndividuiL^ 

C4 AppBientLy Scciue- UncomjiHjn but not rare, and iiiUBlly w idcspirad- Pow>ibLy 

CBiKe for ]ong-1crni concern TjpiciLLy thjtc tbiBn I {XJ occurrencni ind more 1han 
l^fX^ in[lJvKluBb^ 

G5 SecuiT - Comjixm lypicBlly widH>prc*d ind abiindinl- Typk al]> wi1h t:ore>Ktrably 
moie thin ] CX) cx-Lunence^ and Jixue than lOUIXJ individuals- 

CU UnfBiikable - ConenlLy unrajikiblt due 1o I ach of ]nfbnna1ion or du^ 1o ^ub^tanti ally 
conflicling inTormition alnut staliE or trcrufc 

C? Unrantcd- Global rink no! yet 

? inexact numcTK rank 



220 



Appendl\ C. Plant AsDclalloiisof lheBea>erhead Mounlalns Secllon 

Evei^reen Forest 
Stale Hink Global Rank 

Abies ]aKifi^arpa V \lnLiN \ iniji^ up ^iJTua4:L hiMcil 

AbicK biJihLjrpa V ^ iniLzi CHhnijfolu Fdjci4 

AbicK biki^acf > ^ Atjijlj bLjfL>]ia Fdj^u 

Ab wzt hi inn rpj / C j tin j£ nh^ k 4. j ftiLlcji^is Ffi cekc 

Abies ]aKiDCjrfj / Ca la m a^ruil Is lubciccjii Fnhrcs^ 

AbicK b.iKi^arf > /CaruA ^cj^cri Fnm^ 

AbicK Lj^Loojp:! f Ckn^LK c[>kiBbia[u lar ^.^kinb la 0:1 FaruNl 

AbjcN laNHhLa cf^ / Ga LrujD ri rifki niQL Evnut 

AbicK laiJL^cjrpj f ].cdum ^ Li dlIuIikiub Fditi^ 

Abies laNJL^LZirpj f LiJiJiaca lHhiE2]is FfiruNL 

AbicK bski^arp^ / Lix/Aiti jlahnLa \:lt iiJli-licfi^Lii Fnrrsi 

Abici tijacaif a V 3.4cn^Lciu fcirugJBCJ FfiruNL 

AbicK LasLficj rpzL f Khcs I m lmiI i^cmib . lacuscru JBcrmcl FfiruK^ 

AbicK tiiHhLarj-a ; SLiep4fipuK a m pIcAjfiii Ijui F^icekL 

Abies laNiDcarp > ■ S^ m pliLMLej rf4>s aLbLU FoitnL 

AbicK tijaca 17a y Tkj I ICC ruQL ccc drtf ^k FemtiJ 

AbicK biJihLjrj-a V Vjc4.ijijub 4.e^pL£OKUjn F^icekL 

AbicN LjsLDCJjpj f Va^ciJiJUB BeBbnua^cLUD l^fi^V} ZvlnHiidziiB Fi:im4 

AbicK Uski^arp^ /Vu-ciaajm icDpjrjuB Fprni 

AbicK tikitacfj / K c m p b^ Ltum Icnaic FqitnI 

Pi^ca (cjigcljnzLBBLi X j^Lauca cjigclB^BBLO; Came dnpcra^ Far^^J 

Pl^cj (CB^Imanjiji X ^buo cji^c][iLjanji| /GdlLim IrjflnQjQL Ffiruii 

Pi^ca ^cngeloiaanij X fjlauca cn^cLmannjil f Junipcjiii cam muBiN Pi^rc^L 

Pi^ca {cn^eLmannji X fiance, cji^c]B2BBiL)y LianjLa hnrraLi^ Ffiml 

Pi^ca {cngcLmAnnji X gbuc j . e ajJcloLJ aau h ^ M a u oi he muiD s^elUcLim Ffiml 

Pkca (eBgc]B2i]BiL X jbuc^, cn^cLmaaaiO/ Pli} uhl j rpu^ jual^nccLii FoiuKt 

Pkcd {en^clm jbrli \ ^tLULJ.eB^c]B2J]BiL) f ScBcrEi IE rr j^^Jil kiEHhlojN FoiuKt 

Pi^ca {cngcLmannji X gbuc j . e B^clmj aau h / ^ zu-cin run 4.CKpJfiKum Ffiml 

Pkca c [L^c]B:LBBii y Czilajn >£■ mK[ 1^ onadcn^L^ FoitnI 

Pirca c [L£e loia BBiL ■ P.4fJLxe4Lim zinenKC hnhiuKL 

Pkch cnjrtminnia f HvpjiujD luvfi tuLujD Fnmi 

Pi^ca cj]^c]b2bbli / Vji-cinjuB KCHhpzirjuB FdiuiI 

PiruiN 2hLcnj]K y Cjiex n:>s.^Li PhhiekL 

PiniiN jhicTLulK ; V^c^iaiLim icDpanjm p[>rcit 

PioLU 4.DnLL>na f ^raka i-nnJiEolii Fhhiu^c 

PiauT cfioJfiila y C2]a[iLJ^iDK[iN nihcK^CEU FfiruKri 

PiniJK 4.LM]lDila yCzLJCK gc^cri Fnhreu 

PiniJK 4.i:inLLMlJ f Czltcie j^kkii pHhrcKC 

Pious 4.D ncD rt^ / Lcaa^c^ bDiraLiN Pnml 

PioLU 4.[M]lLMla y SpiriLco bccuLiffiLia FnrYst 

PiniJK 4.onLDJiJ f Vj4.cLa[Ljm ccNpjNhsuB FditiI 

PiniJK ^DJiNhila ■ V>c4.jj]iuB K^DparLim Plmusc 

PiOLU 4.LM]lLMtJ ^ Xc Cl^pil} ]Ll m [CftlA pEMTd 

P^culIdI^u^ mca^icui f ^Tai^a CHhrdifDlja Fditj^ 
PscLidiiiLiiJgj JDCJivkui f Calaoia^iDNLji rubcNccni FlmusJ 



S2 


Oil 


Si 


CA 


S9 


Cfi 


S3 


CA 


SS 


CE 


S3 




S3 


CE 


S3^ 


C3' 


S4 


CA 


Si 


cn 


SS 


Cfi 


S9 


Cfi 


SS 


Cfi 


Si 


Cfi 


S3 


cn? 


S3 


CB 


S3 


CA 


SS 


Cfi 


SS 


Cfi 


SS 


Cfi 


S9 


Cfi 


i2^ 


H32Q 


Si 


iHi 


S2 


CHQ 


S4 


CH 


SJ 


C3 


SJ 


C3 


Si 


CA 


Si 


cn 


S5 


CH 


S2 


cn 


SP 


Hia 


SP 


G3GS 


SP 


CJ' 


S3 


CH 


S3^ 


Ci' 


SS 


ca 


SP 


Ci' 


SP 


Cfi 


S9 


Cfi 


SP 


C3Gi 


ss 


CE 


S3 


Cfi 


Si 


Cfi 


Si 


CH 


SS 


Cfi 



221 



Appendl\ C. Plant AsDclalloiisof lheBea>erhead Mounlalns Secllon 

Evei^reen Forest 
Slatf Rank ^:;k■l^alRanl^ 

r^cuiliri 'AJ^A JD c n^Lc^ii / Cu rzx £C} c ri Fd mi 

P^cudDCNUfl^ mcBzicxil / M^iiDJiia rcpcnx FnrYxt 
P^CLidiiicNLi^^ mcBzicxil / PhvNDCjrfu^ JDjL^ai-cui Fnhrcsi 
F^cij[1l4^li4i:l mcn^kiii/ Spirjca bcLij]ifL>]Ei FhhiexL 
^scuLloLiuga ■cnYLCiiiV S^ ql p hn rira c^lm jbu^ FfiruNt 
P^cudDLiuga ■cjiylc^ilV Sv m pliD it^ a rpnu DicDpiijIiu FfiruNL 
F^mJiKNLi^a ■CB^JcuiV VjccjBOjm m c mbn naccum FocenI 



u 


at? 


Si 


□f 


Si 


en 


S3 


Cfi 


S9 


Cfi 


Si 


CE 


SS 


CE 


S3 


Cfi 


S9 


CB? 



222 



Appendl\ C. Plant AsDclalloiisof lheBea>erhead Mounlalns SkIIoh 

Evergreen Woodland 
Assoc la lion Slate Rank Glottal kantj 

AbicK Lj^ldc>j[i:l - PiJiu^ albjcjuliN S\ zicciaaim ^ciiipjrjuB ^'DiMltiJid 
Abies laNiDL^jpzL f Jiinipcmi CHhBoiLinLi V^HHhdtnL] 

Abies laNIL^CTLTp:! S4.ITC WDfldLjMl 

CcrcDCdrfus ]cc1irf>lLLU V FciIuls jdatificiiiJi V^fifidtnd 
Jujiipcmi NcnpukimjD f \Tiziui'rUi n^\j Wfin^lljMl 
Jujijpc OMTr icfi pu Lo niB y A lie ■ IN la 4 rjJr nLac^ W nn^l LlmI 
Juhj^c nu icD pu Ld niB y Ccrc4H. J ipui IcdiEnhlLiK WDL>d]anLl 
Junipcmi NCHhpulihnj m / Clmiuj i sc rtLC j "^'HHhdbnLl 
JunipciuN K^ L> jaj]LMU QL ■ PncuJd jficgjic na ^pKa42 V^HHhdland 
Pircj cEL^clBJBBiL ^ Cd inLiK jcjicca ^'DDdbnLl 
PiniJK 2l>kaLiLLi - ^bici laKiDc^rpj WpiiidlaEuJ IFcuyuLDnull 

PlDlIN jhLrJLj]K y CjCEA £C^C IT "^'hHIkILj kJ 

Pinw; aEbi^jLiLiN ■ E~cj[u^a idahocDii^ W^M^ILiJid 

PiniJK j]bjLJulLN ■ JuriLpciui cnhnmujiJi WfiDLlljMl 

PioLiN 2l>k au 111 WddH la nd [FnhyniDJiaLI 

Pious cfiruiiida ^ JunipcjuK 4.0 m jdubIs WdiiilILjmI 

PiMii cfirufida Scree WDDd]aruJ 

PinuN riciciLLi f CciufH-arpuc kdiEolojN V^fifidljod 

PiniJK Oca I lis / FcnIucj jdahockSK WLM>d]and 

Piruih rkiciLLi y JujijpciiiN ^'hhb m ujii^ WiM^dtzid 

PiniJK flcA i]ii y FKCuJoiDC^ELCTia spkaLa WnDLllaruJ 

PinuN rk^Lliiy SciEc WoDdbnd 

PImii pondcifisa ■ PNcudLMficgnciu Npic^Lj WfifiJbnd 

Pscud^lHi^ [ilcb?:jckii yCcccDc^rpuK kdjfDljus WnDdlaMl 

PscLidDLiuga BCJiyLciJiy Cf>rjiuN Ncricca WDDdlaod 

PsclilIdLnu^j JDcnvkiJj f FcnLuco c^mpcKcri^ WooJLjmI 

PsnidficNLi^ mcn^icKLiy FriiuLJ idatiHhrnNiN '^'4hDd]a[LJ 

PscudDLiuga iDcazksai f Jujijpcnii iLfipukimjD WiiifidLjMl 

P^riiLloLNLifij JDcnvicNiJ y PicLid^in^c^incju ipjcola WL>[>dla[Ld 

Ps^udaLiuga BCBZirsLL Scene V^a^idtoMl 



S5 


txS* 


SJ 


ouia 


S3 


Gi' 


52 


C3 


S2 


C2' 


S2'> 


G3Q 


5J' 


cm 


S4 


en 


S4 


en 


SJ 


a 


S3 


G5' 


S1 


G2D3 


U 


CH 


SF 


ca? 


55 


G%' 


SJ 


HIE 


S5Q 


ca' 


5J 


QGi 


S3 


H3 


S4 


H3 


S4 


Oi 


S3 


GJQ 


S4 


Gl 


gn 


ca? 


5J 


□t 


S4 


□t 


S4 


en 


SJ 


C3 


U 


en 


S4 


CE 



223 



Appendl\ C. Plant AsDclalloiisof lheBea>erhead Mounlalns Secllon 
Deciduous Foi-efd mid Woodlnud 
SlaleBiik Glo bal Rank 

L aru L}al]ii - AHlck b^u^cjcfj hwiruii |}^m v lih na L| 
^hfuluT an^uKCLrnhlEL /Clmiuu ^crtLCJ WnHhdbnLl 
PnhpuliK SaL^JBLfrn %%\\ L ir^ Jil^lzl ipzi / ^ha piaccjiii^ h'^iiuKC 
Pfi pu Lin Ltcbu IdjJcn / A qlc La m-Iijc r j]j]ifD]EL Ffi cenI 
PHhpuLiK 4 IE m LI Il^jljck ■ RnhBLi^ 4.jriBaLLiN E~DrE^4 
PnhpuliK IrcBuLoiLkiV Cjlanu^roNl l^ LzinadcDiJi FnhiEKri 
PHhpuhii IrcBulDidc^ f CjlaoLJ^iDNLji rubcNccni Femu^ 
Rnhpuhi^ I re Bu Lci idcs f CnhrniiN Kcricca FfiruNL 
PHhpuliu I JCJDukikJci / Pl>j prjIcnKiN FemciI 

PHhpuLl^ 4 IE QLU lo idCK y S^ QL p ho IT^ a CfHK^ LMCDpiljIlU Fc CENL 

PopuLiK 4 CE m LI Il^jJen ^TjI] Fnhib^ Fhhickl 

PfipuLiN LTCBU Li ILJEN ' T h:L]K I lUJD fCDilLciJ Fc CEXt 



£4 


Gl 


S3 


Gl 


a? 


GT 


S2 


Gi 


a? 


■3 


n 


GJ 


£4 


<3^ 


S2 


Gi 


a? 


GJ 


S2 


■3 


JJ 


■3 


5? 


ca 



224 



Appendiv C. Plant AsDclalloiisof lheBea>erhead Mounlalns SkIIoh 

Shrub Innd 



^sgQciallon 



SlalihRaak GlcibalKank 



s^ 


C]^ 


52 


G2Q 


S3? 


G3' 


a? 


GL 


u 


Gi 


5? 


i^ 


^2 


H33 


53 


HIS 


U? 


OIQ 


54 


CJIQ 


IP 


Ci' 


51 


HIE 


53 


G3' 


IP 


G2Gi 



HIT 



Alniih in^an^ Sknihljul 

AInuN vindiN KNp ^JMiaLa Shnrf>tLJ]LJ |Pm\ Lxionjl| 

Artcjni^LA cjnj / h'ciluLJ jda Kficjiii^ SKmh Hcjti^ccHHii Vc^cLacuiin 

AncBLNia i-aoA / L c;kblin ^JBCTm^ SKnihtiJiL] 

AnrBiitiu cdna y PaA<.[>p;Kruii] iblIIiji Shnihland 

ArtcjDKU czLJia y Poj pjiilrnNii Skiuh HcjtiziLCHHU Vcgcla[i[>9 

AncBLXia 4.JEU y Sriipzi cfimjc:! Sbmh HcibacriiiLiN \ cgcLjciDn 

A rtcH D ■! tridc ■doJa ^Fcxtuc^ r^mpcititTLX SliJiih H c rtiziLCEnji Vc^cLaciDJi 

ArtcjDKLA LTukid^la y Fc£Juca idahockiLx Shnib HccbaccoLu Vcjc^jtwH 

A nc ■ LNja [ rkJcB4:Ll > ^ S I ipzi cfi m jczl SKnihtinL] 

ArtcjDisEL LruJcjilacj up 4 ride dizlI > ■ E~cj4u^a idahoc vk Stinihbncl 

ArtdDKL] IndcDiari^ NNp IrjdcoiJri^ S Lcjkbli^ ciucceuk SliiublzLBd 

AncBLNia ^rulcnlaLj ^^p [irdcB^zila ■ PaK^'4hp;Kniin unkhu Skmhbnd 

ArtcjnLLL LirdcjilaLj up ^ndcoiarid f PxcudninrfBC ru xpic^la ShnM> 

Artcmiiu [lidcnLjri^ Kxp. vucynHi y Fciluc^ csmpcxcru Skiub HcrturcDux 

Artcmjiia rindcDi^la iip vdir^aaa S Fc^Lu.a jda boc n:^ i:^ Slinib Hcibj4.CLMii 

ArtcjDisEL LTidcjilaLa up yji^cyaiia - 5} m piiDTLCJ rpoi Diuopkihi^ f Fciluc^ 

idatiHhcnNiN SJiJuhLiJid 

ArtcjDisEL [rkJcjiLac^ up ieucjdbs / Fcs^ulj jJatificiiiii - F]} jdu^ I rji. hv^ au Lin 

Skiuh]anLl 

ArtcjDKU IndcruzL^j NNp ^axc^^n^ f Futiica idiharBtD - GrmaEiB 

viM-iiiNiJBU m SJiJublaEiJ 

ArtcjDULL LiLika^Jla ^^p vaicy^aa / Fc^uca idahock^K - PaNcop;Kn-i m Km Jkii 

Skiub]anLl 

Artcmnia [ridcnLjrid up voicyasi y Fciliic^ idjkucnxix - P^cudn cucj^elctu 

NpiLZLla S hnibbjid 

ArtcjnL^izL LiLika^aLa 12 p v^icy^na y l.cvmui riacmji Sknihlan^l 

ArtcjDKU lridcruj4:L nap ^axcyanj f F^icDpvniB ^miLiiJi Shniblajid 

AdcmiiEL LrKJcjiLaczL xip ^axcjaEU / Picudfimc^acra xpic^La ShnMtbnd 

ArtcjDisEi [rkJcjiLac:! up. in^cxnoj / Fc^uca jdahncniii- Sriipu DccadcoialK 

Skiuh]anLl 

ArtCJDKU I JILkoiZLlJ up i.V^a QL IJlgC DX LN / Elj^BLi^ tlJlCCUbLlJl NN p a [b ICJIll 

Skiub]anLl 

ArtcjnisLL LiLika^aLa ^^p wy^hBLn^jcn^i^ f Tin xci-LinJ^ SkniblanJ 

ArtcjuKizL LTLika^aLa ^sp w^ i>jn in^jcjiiii f Picudannrfincria ipiLac^ Skiub 

licibj^caLix Vcj^^jLjihB 

ArtcjDKLA I jidcid^la Txp ia ^fi ql 1 nfjc ksk y PNcuJihnic ^bc 11:1 Npjc^la SliJuhbMl 

AncBLNja [npzLilJ:! / Fl} jdu^ tuiLCHhtilu^ Shrub H c rbziccHHi^ Vcgc^zilHa 

Artcjnnu InpariEJ f Fc^Iulj iJahoc vk Shrub HcEhaccoLiN \ cgccjriuia 

ArtcjDLXiJ 4rjp>rtLia y FxcuJihiuc^EicTiJ ^pkaca StLnrf> Hciba^coiiN Vcgccj^ifin 

T^club fjlanLkiliy^j f Carnt liLtiluLjcj SKnibljul 

dcLub (1^*4. idc Di J Iln SliJiiblaEuJ 

CcrcDc^rpuN kdif[>]mu f FxcudiMDc ^bc ru Npjc:L4> Sliiubljod 

C ki^ iL>l ka m uui \ iH. idjf Ilmun / S I jpj i \>mi\ t S luub U mI 

Cnhniui icrircj StLnrf>tLJ]d IPjiii^ LiHhru]| 

Pc Dl >pii} ]ki ukx nihrltun^l:! f Cjjck ulrjLLibLrj StLnrf>LjMl 

PcnLapti^LLDidcs fliMibuEuJ^ / Dcich^jDp^LA ccipjNhSj SluubLiMl 



S4 


HIE 


S'* 


H31 


gn 


<r 


5? 


c 


gn 


<r 


gn 


cr 


5? 


Gi" 


S3? 


GJ" 


5? 


HIE 


S'* 


G' 



Hl^i 



IP 


Gf 


53 


Hl^i 


SS'* 


CB^ 


5? 


<T 


S3? 


HIE 


gn 


CEC3 


54 


Gl' 


53 


G3Q 


54 


GiQ 


5? 


S^ 


53 


HIU 


5? 


G' 


54 


H31 



223 



Appendiv C. Plant AsDclalloiisof lheBea>erhead Mounlalns SkIIoh 

Shrub Innd 



"As^clallon 



Tl nLaph^ lloiiicK ^ll>^lhLl^^l.l f ] c^Iulj LzimfLNl rw S hnih Kl rb>Lci>u^ \ c^cL.i4ion 
PrnLapKjKlL^i^l^^ fLoriiuMla ^ FcKcu^a kJ^lii^c d^lx Shnrf> HcibacccLU Vc^cIjLilmi 
Pcj]laphvl]L>idc^ llnr^iind:! / PnricjiliLLj l^^iki Sknibland 
FViiNJiia 4rjL]cn[:Ll> ■ Kc^Li^a ulahocftSL^ SKmh Hcjb^cciMJi \cgccarikia 
FViniija 4rjdcnLjri2 / PicLidfinhcgncTu ^pkj^^ Skiub Hcrb^ccLMJN Vcgc[j4kia 
Rhu I Jibbac:! f PicLiLlDnhcgncrja jpKacj SKiuh H cjtizLCCHhui Vc^cLaciDn 

S2]ix bdtha» Skni>bMl 

S2]ix tHHritiLi / C J la Qia^nhf^ LN c^nadcKK SliJiibland 

S^liA boDlKii f CzLiEx LiLriLLiLaLa SkiuhbKl 

S2]iA bpiiilkiL/ McNJL Gnjninoid^ Shjiibbnd 

S2]iA bnchvc^i^a /Camt aqLiJ[i]K SliiuhliMl 

S2]iA ^ajiLJkl:! f CzLiEX LiKii^LJCf > Sknrf>Ljnd 

S^liA ^jjilJkJj f Cjiea LiLiH-Libla Skn^LjKJ 

S^]!^ diuB QLDJiLJiajia y C J tiBZL^n^i^ LN ^jnjdcjL^K Si]Jub]anLl 

SziliA lIjii m BD ndiifta / C^i^ x LiiTicubl t S kn^ Li od 

SziliA LlnimnnnLljajia SkiubbKl |Fm\i^Kinjl| 

S^liA cxL^iu 1 cmpDianI} hUMMlni Shniblanii 

Sj]ix ^cvcruna V C j tiJD^gi^Nl 11 i-jrudcnNii SKnrf>tLi]L] 

S2]u ^cjr^Jianj V Cjcea msLrjcj ShrublanLl 

S2I1A ^c^criaju ■ CarTK iJckuLjcj Shrubbnd 

Sj]j:c gc^crunj f ]3cK^k>mpiEL ccNpJHK^ SkiuhbnLl 

S^liA^laiic^ Sbrublarul 

S2]ix Lice J / Ca Lj m J ^ny^ LN ^anjdcaiK Slijubland 

S^Il^ pbj]iE<iLu f CzLJEA ufjj4i]LN Skn^land 

S2]iA plaaifpla /Cdiuic BcbrjKccjisK SkiuhtiMl 

SzlIlt planiEnhLia ^C^r^K ^^'HhpuliMUB SJiiuhtiKJ 

S^liit 'al^IFli / CjrzTi aqiulilA Siiiirf>bnd 

S2]ix wuLFil/ Dc£4.1]a m pin cc^pilL^u Sliiubliad 

Sjj^DhaLuN vcrmkulacuN / DKcictiLiN Npic^lj SliJiibljMl 

Sai^DhacLiN ^crm JLLilacLiN / F.L^niLih ljn^cfiLj4Li^ Shnih HcEhaccDLiN Vcgccj^ifin 

Sjj^DbacLiN \crm JLulacLiN ■ Lc^jnu^ LinciuLi^ ShnibLiDLi 

SjicdIuLiji ^cnDKubLui / P^NCfip^niB ^BiLiui Shnrf> HcEtuccDLii Vc^cLaiinn 

SkcpiicnlEL Ji^cnLc^ SkiuhbnLl [PnhVLXiiMiaLI 

S^m phonmpoN (1^*4. idc ni j Lin SkiuhbnLl |Pm\ LM^nal] 



SlaleRaak 


GlcitalKs 


s^ 


<^ 


J2SJ 


cs 


5? 


<T 


^2 


GUI^i 


5F 


H33 


34 


H31 


33 


CS 


S3? 


CJ' 


3E 


H3JGIQ 


3? 


CU 


3? 


CJ' 


3? 


G]C3 


3? 


<r 


33 


His 


3P 


His 


33 


cs 


33 


G3Q 


33 


HIE 


34 


HIE 


33 


CE 


34 


01 


33 


H31 


31 


GJ' 


S3? 


GJ' 


33 


HIE 


3? 


Hi?' 


3? 


H31 


33 


Hl^i 


33 


HIE 


S2 


H31 


S3 


HIE 


S2S3 


HIE 


S4 


H31 


S3? 


G3GI 


£iX5 


GiGi 



236 



Appendiv C. Plant AsDclalloiisof lheBea>erhead Mounlalns Secllon 

Dwarf Shrubland 

SliltRant Glo bal Kanl_ 

ArtcjnKLL jibuNcuL^ / Fckcuca id^liL^c eu ln Dwarf-Ktimh Hcjbu-CHHfi S3 GS 

ArtcjDLxij a[lHiH.ula V FKcijdL>inc^BCTu ipjLjJa Dwdrf-xhoMi S3 CS 

AncBLNia jrtiLumb NNp loBgitDbn f ^IjntB lancc[>litui Di.vKrF-ihiub &^ GI 

ArtcjDKLA aibuicLiLj Nip lihBgjkh^ / Fc^u^a kJ^Iil^ceulx Dwarf-^Kmh 

Hcibj^cfiuK Vc^^jLjob 

ArtcjDisLL nD^ J / FcKCLio kJziiiDcruLN D^ arf-^kiuh H c rtizLCCDUi 

ArtcjDKL] ni^^a / PNCudfi n^c^ocria ^pkaca D*!! j if-^ kiubJa n<l 
Artcjnnu pcd^lifula V Kci4uLa jdahockiLX D^ arf-Ktimh Hcibacr^iui 

AtTip]cA £3 idnc IT y Oi^ zfi pN Li li} iDci][>kJci J^v, J wi-% tLnrf>L] mI 
CANiJopc mcdcniiana VC^i^ic pjvNDnji D^a j if-skiuhb hlI 
Dr^^i DCCDpc^zib - Cum mpc^rn D^arf-Nhruh Hcrti^ccHHU Vc^^jl job 
Dr^^i DLCopcrizib - Ciizji ipp D^^rf-Nhruh H c rtiziccHHi^ Vc^^jl job 
Dr^^i Dc^ap^^b - P4>l^£<] DUQL V L^ ipa CUB D'^arf-KKnib HccbaccDux 

KjLmu jnLcnhphv]li /Cziicx xcDpukirum D^a j rf-N hn^tiKl 
PK^LIlm]l>lc c m pcLTiffi rm II / AnLcnnjria Ijn^ila D w:l il-skiuhtiJiL] 
S2]ix jj^lL^j / ^hl^^oniim bi^conoidcN D^ >jl-ikiublaj][i 
S2]ix CELjLublJ /Callka IcpLiMcpaLj D^ a rf-Nlinihla nil 



S2 


Gr 


KLS2 


C2^ 


S3 


43ICS 


S2 


H32^ 


S3 


■13 


S2 


H32^ 


53 


Gl 


S3? 


H^J-' 


SZ 


H3J^ 


S3 


H3K1 


S3 


G3 


52S3 


aoj 


&2 


■13 



227 



Appendix C. Plant ^sfoc lal lo n^ of I he }lr^>i^rhtLid ^]c■Jnt^l^^ S'e^lLon 

Herbaceous 



AsEo^halban 



A^^^^^LK UHhhhnikrj tC^^KJCCLUs Vc^njLioB 

Alninr]clirKUl/D[^ 

A]pj[iE FcUfLEkJ/^/lDrd 

Bin^m canru4LL^ - Bcnjnuc 3T>njnalEi Hcibzu'^imK Vc^c^QtiiiH 

C^LaKa^nulK jti rjtijau'cru - CaiuK elij^^Icu Hcrb^-i^HJi Vc^il^nn 
Cj r^it Mfsiila llcjt\JccLXLi Vcg^UcxiB 

Ca rnt butbaum iL lic±iK'CfiiK VcgfUcriB 

CaruA cIvHiikd^ - Gcum [niNii He ±i>L'Cfiu< Vc^datEiB 

Cuniri cIvniMiliN Hc±i>L'CfiiK Vcgdajicn 

Carnt biLi^imKL llcjt\JCELXL^ Vr^ULi^a 

Car^it ti^uKjrja llcjt\JccLXLi VcgfLi4xiD 

Cjru:^ Bd^QM-cub HcjbaccLXii Vcg^Udxin 

Carnt njgncaK llcjt\JCELX£ Vc^jLi^n 

Car^A lupciIiK - hiNc njLli Hnim HcrbM-UKn \ c]^lJiHui 

CzLmsciipoika -Cviuql pk^jl H c±iaci:4KLi \ cj^iUixih 

Car^A ^iipukdij - l^cnJ ilLa dih'CJiLJihlu Hc^kjlclxt; Vcg^rihnu 

Car^A u'^ijulnium - CaLka LrpLnhNcpaLa HcrbM-UKL^ Vcj^LriHhn 

Ca ruA ACDpjk^QjB HcEhM-cmc \ c^uLvm 

Ca ruA ^QiLibLi HcjhorcciLi VcgfLi4xiB 

Car^A ipp - C^mm miNii Hc±iaccLXJ^ Vcgnalu^a 

Ca r^A t^ncubda lic±iaci>tLn Vc^aiiiia 

Dcu hajn jfl A 4.r^ p^hN> - Czihha IcplHhNrpab Hc±inccHK Vc^c^oijas 

DiachiBpNu ^'^prifiu HcrbM-UKu Vcgnalica 
DkrikchiK ^phLTin Hc±iaccLXi^ VcfjdjLu^a 
EkiTLkaiT; paLi^Lcu He rhcuvfruc Vc^aixm 
fknclaik ffjinLfi^rhhja lic±iH.i:4Puc \ c^jcULi^a 

Ec^irKTUQi fkjvAjLit HcrtKU'c«K VcfiriaJu^n 

E~oriLH.> LajDj^^lm- h'cuixTi KblccKU- Slija nrhaiikHhnii Hc±iaLCLxa Vc^alu^n 

E^oriLH-a Lamf^^liTh- ] cuixtl i:l>k.^rKK Hc±iaccLXii Vc£irijL»B 

E~cn4lh.> Lamj^^lru- ]^^nHkPK|iKru ^px~jL> Hc±iaLCLXLi V^ndalu^n 

FcNtixTL utihiKrnA - CaruA flliJihlb H c±iaci>HLS \ c^aiiiiB 

E~cn4lh.> j:l>k.^rKb- ]>LnJhihnEi inciBrdu HcrbM.nKr; \ r^Lrixin 

E^f^LH.> xJahncmr; - Dcu ha m ja a 4.r^ p^hN> Hc±iaLCLXLi Vc|||:4jLkih 

E^oriLH-a xlahncmn - EUyjnuc LiM.k^'i.HibK HcrbM-UKLi Vc^alu^n 

E~cn4lh^ Kbbj^n^L^- hr^Lu.a kin^L Hc^iaLcixE Vcg^ndHhn 

E^lLH.a HLhiKn^L^ - PL^copyium kjdxJiu HcrbM-UKLS Vcgnalica 

Fcn4lh.> JibkocKB- FixciLilb dhcmln]^ Hc^iaccixA Vcgnntnn 

FcdL»L4 xblccKK- Slija n-idcrl^njiii Hcjbzu'cnK Vc^daLniB 

Fcn4lh.> jrUkocKLi Hcrb^Lvouc \ r^aixiJi 

E~^lLH.> kin^ii-OijlPhpK Lajnj^^lru HcrbM-UHJi Vcgnalica 

E~CNtlXTL Lingll Hc^KJLCLAL^ Vc^LU hHP 

Gcum mujL- MuiiajlLa c4HtKibha HcrbM.n»m Vc^alu^n 

Ghxrna hojuali^ KciIkjcelxl^ Vc^riHhJi 

PCnhnl^uni jii?>tum HcrtAU'cms Vc|icJjL»p 

AimiL^ halxiLS - C^c^A poc^DiLLJa Hc^kjcelxa Vc^LadxiJi 



SiBic Etanic 


Global Ranic 


ss 


CSfI 


H 


QT 


H 


a? 


H 


a? 


Si 


CHQ 


H 


QT 


M 


a? 


Si 


OS 


S9 


a? 


S 


03 


Si 


Ol 


Si 


CH 


SP 


Q3T 


Si 


Ol 


Si 


Ol 


s 


Ol 


a 


03 


s 


03 


EZ 


Q3T 


s 


Ol 


Si 


OS 


iJ 


GX 


S4CJ 


<^Q 


S9 


OS 


iJ 


GX 


S4CJ 


&[? 


EZ 


OS 


Si 


Ol 


Si 


OS 


S9 


OS 


SP 


Ol 


H 


OT 


EZ 


Ol 


Si 


Ol 


S' 


OT 


S3 


03 


Si 


Ol 


S 


03 


H 


Q3T 


a 


03 


S3S4 


CU 


SP 


cz? 


Si 


Ol 



Ol 



n 


CHQ 


EZ 


Q3T 


SP 


03Q 


s 


03 


s 


Ol 


Si 


Ol 


H 


OT 



221 



Appendix C. Plant AsfoclEil lo n^ of I he }lr^>i^rhtiid ^]c■Jnt^lTls S'e^lLon 

Herbaceous 



Ahso c Ln I Lu n 



Slalc Etanic 


C^lobalRanic 


ss 


ca 


EZ 


Q3? 


52T 


QZ? 


52? 


az? 


53? 


CHQ 


H 


a? 


EZ 


H32G30 


Si 


G3G5Q 


Si 


G3 


EZ 


CU 


Si 


aw 


5W 


aw 


H 


Oi? 


a 


cu 


s 


CB 


Si? 


Oi? 


H 


03 


Si 


Ol 


S' 


a? 


Si 


Oi? 


s 


cu 


H 


as? 


S9 


OS 


S] 


cu 


53? 


a3? 


S9 


05? 


EZ 


CHQ 


S' 


a? 


S9 


OS 


H 


a? 


S9 


OS 



AirtuK dniBBthmLL - Ajicaruna LaKJlzi Hcrhcu'couc Vc^oIeib 

AirtuK jan^j- En^^ r^a li AiriL^ He rtxu'Cfiuc Vc^Ladxin 

[xjKmm ^iJ>rruiL^ - Kr^LiiLa uLhiKrnr; Ml#kjlcixli VcfjizalH^n 

Lxj^mLE i-LDTcmi - ]^uyip^jum ^mrihii Hc±iaLCLXLi VcfidjLnB 

L^iKmin cikieu; - FYhxldtIIu ■LriLLHaKJ Hc^kjlclx^ Vcg^Udhnji 

Lxj^mLi^ CL»: ruiL^ HtiIkjcelxli Vc|k^alH>n |}^ji^m<»kj l| 

EbMJHhp^niB imrihji Ml#kjcc«k Vc^icJaixiD IPpnKEKjJl 

Phabrn jJunJiuLca Wrclcrn Hc[hM.cauc Vc^datEia 

PtiB^ricN aifrirjlK Tcmpciadc HcjtKU'cnK Vc^cjoipiib 

1>M pIsJ m He rbM-nKU Vc^alu^n 

EVh pcucjnA Hc^KJCcii^K Vc|ii:4a£»B [Pm^ bu^oa]! 

E^> _^iBCJ&ilu HcrtKU'cnK \'c^MHYn 

ESiiiukiJL^K m ^pEalJ - ChkecItiuj ^jim-iIl^ HcjtKU'Cii^K V^nrialH^n 

ESiiiuhhr^ct^na Nptoia - Cu^h^iB Pbji Hc^kjcclxji Vc^izalki^n 

ESicukuL^^iK ra ^pnalzi- KocIijtl bzu cirri ha ]3crbH:cnLT; Vc|icJjL»n 

E^nxk^cncgncjTL ^pKTua - Gj^^jaa h^mcn^ki^ ML^KJCcfruc \ c^LadHhn 

ESiiiuhhrDc^ncnj spiLal^- F^^cop^ium KjnEhii HcrbM.nKLi Vc^fcninn 

raoKUynx^TKra ^p>rua - Fhu iccukU - SLija uhm jL> HcrbM-couc VctpiUixii] 
ES;i:u:hhn>r4i r>rru ^phTjLs - FhsiAccuidi Hc±cu'Cfiuc Vc^alEB 
ES;i:u:hhrE-r4ij>rrB ^pKTua - SLipauhmjLa HcrbM-UPUc \ c^UixiJi 
E\H:4.LJ>rllEL ■LrflziJuna lic±TM.i:4Puc Vc^datba 

Scii^L^ [ah^cTUCBihrri J ni TcjD j^rjLc Hc±inccnA Vc^irtDa 
Sc r>r^ Hh [lUJ^JuLarc Hc^kjliihhji \ c^jLua 

SpihniKiibic jipnxJci Hcjho^'CfiiK Vc^atcB 

Slipa CDQUia - IJii^Arli^u fjiM-ilK - F^uvipyjum unchii HcrbK'CfTuc \c^U£xiJi 
Slipauhmjl:!- ]i^KricViLU4ijaLilK Hcrhcu'cnK Vc^irijiiDn 
Slipa CDmjLa - F^ja]kJpum [cjiiillihjum Hcrhcu'couc Vc^i^laiEiB 
T}pkj blif^La WcN4cm Hc±iaccnji VcfdjLuiB 



229 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiis: rrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



pbiii \^>i:iaimmm^' 


l^i'liK-lple Refeience Source 




Abbis iiNiDcarpa - PiJiui jLbLrjLj]ii f 
V:u.cLnrujn i4.Dpaniim V^fiDLllanLl 


L^oLe L>?tf2.}^rLucrdal 1^77 




Abk^ |jsKi4.jrpj f Acljcj mbn Fl^jc^I 


H^jL^cji^al ]WI JahnNlDB ]9tf~ Muil. aod HcnLlcQHhB ]4^tt4 Pad^cric 
ziil I9SS. SEcckctaL I9S3 Y4Hiaiibl(H4J ^kJ Maut tQBS 






PfKLcT^^I 1977. Steele clEiL I4BI 




AhLC2 tiHKacf > / AnKa 4.DJ1I iffi Lia 


HoHman jrul Alexander L-^Tfa Pfmcrrt >] I'JTT-Kccd J^Hn^ Steele rt a] 
l?ai. Steele ctBl 1^3. YEiuHrftkndjjidMueMkrl^l 




Abic^ bNHhLaij-a V ^mic^ lacifDlia Fnmi 


Cooper a Euf PTitfer 19fl 1 , ^bisCD n 19fl7^ S^ek etal I9BJ 




Ab uzi ]nN i[>c2rpa / C a la old ]^wa\\ k 


CDDpereLal 1 iJtf 7 . H eis a nd Akic^JideT l^^ti Jl^Lkcdji I4tf~ MuiLand 
Hcndce^on 1 i^lU . FfiMer cc a L 1^77 RjLlianI ci al ]^6 S4eeled>l ]^L 

S4cekeLal L>?»?l 




Ab Lc ^ ]aN iL^L^rpa / C a 1 j mj jf ruil k 


CnhopcrecjL J^7 JthtinNDBjnd Simnha L^S" tZfi ma r^^ a e^ j] L4t£B^ 
Maiik jnd HejHkjxi^B 1^^^ FIlMeTe^ >] L477. Steek d ■] IQBI.Srieele 




Abn laciiKEiipi /Caiux ^ c}cri FamL 


AkxBKkret aL iW^n Henind A kuwk r I9A4 . JdIiisob j nd 
DttnnrireT LQ92, JdIikLl^b ]9K7 KnhBjrtfi^a I^S2 tZfi m a riiDx j c4 al 
L4t».FrEiicreLal L4~7. ScecLe e^ j] ]i^L Slee]ec[jL |-^SJ Tc nv Jli^er c« 
lI l474.WaxxcrjKJ HeNN 1 4S ^ . YLMJBMf>k(i4J and 




Abicx luiacaTpa f Clzmuia cokimhtrnm^ 

\ar cfi til mhia n J KoitnI 


Plater e^al 3977 




AbicN biHc^if a /Galmioi LrjflaEiiQL 


PfEteTdal ]977 




Abic^ lax locTL jpzL / Jli aipc lui CHhB QLU n 11 


HcMleixDne^ j| I^K^JihkKcon I4S7 Maul: and Hendenna n^. 
PfKLeTe^al ]977 RDheils l-^^O Slee]eeL jL |-^B] Sleek eUL L-^SJ. 
\(iunsbbLMlarid MjuL l*m% 






HaKeaeLaL 19^ L HanNene^j] L>^4S 




Abies laNiL^LZirpa f Linnaca Iioie2]k 
Fditkc 


HeKJenoaeLaL I9«5 JihtiruojiJ rul Sinion I9»$7. PfL^ccreL jL ]977. 
Slreketil I^SE.Steele d >L ]9«3 ■^' iHia ms jjhI I.Lll^bnd^c l-^SS. 
WifaHiaidSjiLkh L99D.WUiHEetDl LQW 




Abcc^ txkicacf a / Lu^ut ^]ahr;Ll? ',aw 
tiiLc ticL^c k 1 1 FnhrcM 


Doeprretnl I9B7 . Pfste r et n 1 1977. Sleek eL a L 19ZJ ■^' iHia m 1 a nd 
SoL^k 14 W] 




Abie J laiJihLjrpa ■ Mcb?:icxij fc rjiifj ij]c:l 


Dcof^Tel al I9£7. DaubeaoLije an^l Datrf>ei]BLre ]'JCptt, JDhnuhB an^l 
SimHhn l4l?7_rfiMcrel al l"^"" ^i^tL-m .iI rJ31 S<cek z\ >] 19BJ 




Abn kciacirfa / Ri>ci [ bid nl a^cjiujn . 


HeMlr j-:o n e^ i\ h;77. Ji>ha^iMii mS" \1>Lik jhI llenLkcMhB I9S4^ 
DNboneLal L4QB. Peet ]97J FrBier]971 FfDrierelaL 1^77 . Steek cl aL 

Li^L SleekeLal 1^1 




Abki L^ijoc^rp^ / ScrcpLDpux 

lBplCAjfD]LilN FOCEII 


DuHhperd j] L4S7 HaKeaeLaL ]995 . Jl^Lkd n j kJ SjB^in L4B7 Mnuk 
ikJ HendeiNcij] 1 i^lU. P^dgeM el al |-^«B iLeck eL jL ]9tt L . 5[eek ei al 

L>?BJ ^(lun^hk^idaKJ Mjuk |-^«5 




Abic^ laxuiiorp:! ■ S^ mphi>ric>rp<i^ 


llHHhpcranLl PfKLerrJBI Sleeledj] \m 




Ab uzi bsLcca rp^ f Tkj]ji:4 lu m 


Dot I^B2.C[»per]97J Jokruien I9B7. Jceek eJ al LQB3 




Abicx LaxiDCJipa S\ j<.cij]jub 

ECXpkflHlB FflCE^ 


Kerijjid Hcadeni^B ]979 Maukand HeadciuhB J9tt4 Pfji^erdjl 
LQ77. Sceeke^ al L4tf 1 . "i^ i]Lujdx d j] \^^*}Q Yc^iasbkiDd a ad M^l: 1*^3 




Abicx LaxiDCJipa '\ j^cijijub 

QIC Qib njuc cujD I^hkV} MLMJUIdin FuiexL 


:rLM>peT 1^75 Ji^kucan L4S7 KerrjruJ Hendec^ia 1^7^ ^^>li1: jmI 
HcadcEsein 1 9tt4. FfiMer cc al ]977 SLeeledal Ji^L SLecLeelj] \^Ki, 
Tcr\,\l\\]}c\ rt al 1^79 





230 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



P^ut Asocbllon Name 


Principle Releicncc S>iii'ce 




AbicK LiKLOL^rpa ■ VzLLCiniujn ^ Dp> mi m 
Fditkc 


AlcAandcTcc^L |-^Kb Du^c am irr jjhI ]3niK-BnLjn: 1 i^h^ . Dc V c Ix-c \^1. 
DiitanL] RLchjnk L>^~fh. HjU ]^73 Hcl^jjhI ^k:<aKJcr]^6 HnhfTaja 




FlMTKC 


"oHhpcr ]^75 CDL^pcT^al ]9tt7 Daiihcjuu u^ jjhI ]3aLil>cjiJD u^ ISI^B, 
HorlDBl^VI FfLucrcLal I^TT S^cct cc al ]^3. WjLIelbn jrlI 




AbicK U^Loc^jpa KiujDBho]?: SliiuhbjiL] 


HahrLLamlClKiJric l^i 




U>KI imiEKBIVfl SCIEC WDodkKl 


FfkterdBl l?77 




VcgcLaciDJ] 


H>ECHctDE 9995 




ALdlu iM-jfti Slirubtnd 


F.^jru \^ii^ HakcbcI al 1-^40 Hajiicjicc jL ]^L 




ALniJK ^jjilIin %%\\ KLniizila SKnih]>nd 
Fj^^ 11 lo na L] 


HaKCBcLjL J99L 




Alpine FcliruiLd/Di^ 


ZHhnpcrcLal 1^97 




ALpmc E=cllficlLl/MDiH 


rnhnpcrcLal l^^~ 




A d c m iiEi a ibuicu Lj f FcnIijc:l 
LdjkhcnNiN Dwarf-iKml> HcrhacciMiN 
VcgcLaciDn 


Blu.l:h4incL jL I^JfiS BlacLbiiTn c4 al |iWh9. HjLI ] 1^73 . H ckn j elH ■^'uKcr 
l^^l Icwix I9~S. MucEtftramH S^c^Jil ]i^>W].Tncil a ni] H lmiacdh |i^4W. 
/jm^iaaulTucllcrl-^TJ 




Adcmi^EL Jibu^LLilj f ]^CLJLii>n^c^Brn:L 
epical a ]?'i^ J if-^knih HcchaccoLiN 
Vc^cLaciLMi 


Bb^LtiLiJucL jl L4~I.Hall L4~J. JrjLWB d >] ]9«S Lc->ln 1975 
Mucgf Ic r J ni] S^ci^ari I^^CI S^hulkr jruJ Fv^Jii ] 9ttfh. T LcdcnaBB an^l 
KIi>lI: 1^77 /jnmn jrlI Tijc]l:r I^JTJ 




AdcmiTEi jibiiNLuL^ NNp lihB^ikib:! ■ 
ELyiDtu bnccL^bltu D^a j if-2 tiaMt 
^cibacrfttB Vrj^diE idd 


Mucfjlcrand Sricwjrt I4BQ 




A d c m iSEi J ibiiNLu La NNp IthB^ikib^ / 
FcKCLicj idahiiicuK D^^ii-Niinjb 
Hcibu-CHHi^ Vc^claciDJi 


r^jLCDaKJ ■^'c]lncr]9K1 HinhOjUcLaL 19^-^ JcKcricI >l L4»?»? 
Muc^gtrjod S4c^jn I4^h Si-lib^cc cut L4~2 Tudat cc jI J9fh^ Zamnha 
ikITlicUct l^'i 




Adcmjiia 4.jfta ^ FciluLJ iilaluhcnNLi 
S iiJiih K L rb iLCDui \ ckcL Jri lo n 


MucfSlcrdnd Sricw^n L^SO 




AricjnKij LAmt ■ Lcymus LinciELiN 
SiiJiibljruJ 


[^CEfiLM] Njcura] Hcrkj^c Piu^iam n^ 




AricjniMa ^>nj y Fj i^'HhpjKnjB ^m iILli 
SiiJiibljnd 


KaKCBcLaL I9^L Hnnicndai LQQS 




AdcmiiEL ^>nj .' P^a prj^cn^i^ Stiml^ 
Hcibu-Cftus VcgclaciLMi 






AricjDKia i-jmt ^ Slip^ chhbj^a Skiuh 
^cjbu-CHHK V^KclaciDJi 


DrVcbcccLa] ]9g 1 




AdcmL^ia Hh^a y FcnLuo l^IaJidc n-iLX 

D^ Jjf-NllJllb HcibU-CHHl^ Vc£^AlHhB 


Mucf^lcrand Sricw^n L^JBCi 




epiLAla D ^ J rf-NliJub Lj m1 


BaVcT L^SJ BakErdJHlKcjiJicdr I9«5 . B Lac »Mjn cL a L l^6S BbL^Hin 
da] 1 1^7 1 . ?Kic r I^TO , Hu£hc^ L4T7 Twce akI HnKiNNhn I^^O ^amfin 
ikITucUct 1-^7 J 




Ari^jDKu pcLljriLrkl^/ hcilULJ 
iLljkhcnNiN D^ arf-ilimh HcrbaccDLiN 
Vci^cLaciDn 


MucfSlcr^nd S4cwjn L^SCi 




AdcmiTEi LiiLkncAla ■ Fckclicj 
umpcKcru ikiub HcriuccDu:^ 
VcptctnciEM] 


Mucsglcrdnd Sric\nn h^BQ 




Adcmi^EL LiidcruAla ■ Fckclicj 
uIjIidcelsk Skiub Hcrbj4.c4Hii 

VcgcLaciLMi 


Bb^LtiLijnclal |i^4fl DniK-amirr ]97D.e{aD 1^7 J . H iii^klLj cI j] ]9»3 
Mclcaa 1^70. MucfjIcTajid SLci.vjd L^BO FiMjkLM] ]9U.Ti£djL: l-^-LT 





231 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrtnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



l^laiit ^Hwcbllon Name 


Principle Releie]ice Soiiice 




AricjDLXia ^nJcjri^lJ ; Slipzi Lfimacj 


Blu-Uuru^j] |i^4« CjurcHhajHl^'cllEbirJ^^ l>>LiK-BnLjn: I474>. 




SiiJiihljnd 


HiJ^jul^^ >] l9ttJ. LcNJLa^KJ DcVcIkc |i^2. M4.]can 1 970. FVili h(i n 
L>?5S.TiJc]krjjHlRLaLk}Hin 1^74 




Adcmi^EL crkJcjilaLj \\f iwsdcnlJiA ^ 


HiiDJuka^j] liJUJ.JcnicjicLaL l^lj 




rcKcu^a idahficD^j^ SkjiihLiJiLl 






AdcmiTEi crKJcjilaLj ^^p 4rjLicnLj4:L ■ 


Utyrs I9tt: CjLcrl-^RJ Hcm J^l kricclcL jI 1 494. (3 Jki m cc j L I44»? 




Lc} BUK 4. iJic CELiN S kiiih la n^l 






AdcmiTEi crKJcjilaLj ^ip 4rjdcnLj42 ■ 


E=ajH.A L>?»?J.KcanLJDcn:T 1977. Jtma^ L4tHh. T>r4k-B j nn d a L L9H7 




PlNLfl PV nj QL K m J KlI S klU^^tlJIL] 






Adcmi^EL crkJcjilaLj i^p 4rjLJcnLj4:L / 


Dajccd^mJ WcllELcr 1 9tt3 . D jubc n m ic? 1 974>. H iiiMuka ^ j] l^tfJ Jensen 




Picudfi n^c^ac ru k p inL j S knib 


zi^l L4SB MfiDncy L^B5 Muc j^Le r a rnH S4cwjn L9SD TwcJ jnd 




HcitwccxitB VcftctMljaH 


HouhiH 1980 




AitcmuB liidcntilB Eip. viicyiia - 


Umiaia aid Wclkc r h?fi J. H bdhi ki d bI 1^3 




S> jupkhnczLTpaK HhiEfi pkiLiK V Kcs^ulj 






iLljkDcn^i^ ShniblanLl 






Adcmi^ia 4 rjiic dizlI a up vjnc;k3[u / 






FcKCLicj 4.jBpc^l JIN Shnib Hcrb^LCLOJi 






VcgcLaciDJ] 






Adcmi^ia ^rjiicruzila ',',f . taCf an:! f 


Muc^fl Ic r J mi Sic^^n L^KO 




FckLlicj LdzikDcnNiN - FLvmu^ 






inck^M-JuliK SKiuhlan^l 






AdcmL^ja ^rjijcoi^la ^sp h JNc;K3ru / 


MucfSlcrdnd Sricwjn h^BQ 




Fcxtuc^ idiliDcnxLi - Gcr^Biuoi 






VLHUWCLHUH SllIlM^klKl 






Aclcmi^ja ^rjijcruzila 2sp h >Nc;K3ru / 


MucfSlcrdnd Sricwjn E^BD 




FcKCLica ulziiiDC rL^LX - F>NC4hp;Knirn 






cmkhij ShnihlanLl 






AdcQiL^ja 4rjL]cru2la zzf h >Nc;K3ru / 


MucfSlcr^nd Sricw^n L^BO 




FcKcu^a idahoc Jiii^ - PxcuclLM^cg ncria 






cpicjLa SKnihbnLl 






A clem i^ja ^rjiicruzila j^f h >Nc;K3ru / 


Biambk-]$nhd:LkL L^T^ Dc^pziia 197 J, Hcni and "i^ uxor ]^Z.Hjiuuka 




FcKcu^a JLJa tiHhc nx LN Sbmh Hcrba^cfiu^ 


^:lI l9ttJJcnii:i]C[ jI 1*^W\ JihtrnMnha L^B7.Lcwk L9~S Mlm>k-^ ]^J 




Vci^cLaciDD 


Mucfl^lcrsnd Sric^^n L^BO 




A clem i^ja ^rjiicnczila ',j^f h >Nc^an:L / 


HuDJiaka cl jI L>?B J . Jcnxc a d j] L^Btf Mdl>k-> \*m5 




Lc} BLU 4. iJic CELiN S kiiih la n^l 






A clem i^ja ^rjiicnczila ',',f . taCf an:! / 


R?:rdihiANl:L l^ttl.Sarih 1?^ . Trrw illi^ rd >L I97tt 




pjNCfip^ njm Km rihii SkiuhbDii 






AdcniL^ja ^rjJcni^la up h >Nc;K3n2 / 


BaVcT L9BJ 13>1:cj2kI tZoncdy L^B-i. dajDhlc-dph4kLkL L47tt.Cum:jri 




Picudfi n^c£ ELCJU ipjc^lj ShnibtnL] 


L4B4.HjPhn2L:Ld al L4BJ. Jcjucb cl al L>?t».Lci.va 1^75. MH>[Lcy I^BS. 
Kufl] ]%l>.TcrAjUL^crcLal l^7B 




AitDB all tiidDilBti &»p vivciiu^ 


MuDg^krand Sricw^n L^BD 




FcKcucj kJ^liDcnxLX - Sljpa HhLcidc nLa [lx 






SlimbljEuJ 






Adcmi^EL LruJcB^Jla s.^p wjr^BLngckiK 


II^icii: 1975 Gkhx 3^55. MnrrcLnl L97^.5Lc2cr 1970 Ti:n dUigc rd aL 




f EI^Bux liJiccL^bLLiN %',\\ zilbkanx 


L979 




Slmihljn^l 






A d c m iiEL L ruJcid jLa up 'f^fom in^kiD 


Ddii:cD2idWc]lnjrrJ^3 H jronikzL ct :lL I^J JcfeKBdal. L-^Bt£ 




f Pna icoinda Skiubhwl 






Adcmi^EL LruJcB^Jla nf wjMHHLn^ckiK 


BjVct L9tf3 EjVcjzlkJ tZoncd^ N»?-T.I^nhwa L>^7I Flmct l9^.FhiKr 




■ PNCuJihJDCgJic ria ^pH.j42 Siinjb 


L97D HzLKCBiJiLi Huffman Ntitt Hcjx L43J kniglri cl al l^«7 ilwan^ 




Hcjbu-CHHis Vc^claciDn 


L9«D 





232 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiis: rrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



P^ut Asocbllon Name 


Tilnclpk RefCreBH Source 






Btu-^funi L4b7.1]b^ltium^:Ll J^Wh^ ]$ lac kburji cL j 1 1^49 Bh4.UnjnL 
ziil |iJ7l.[]iL4lb:[»n:LKJ RpoLLcim^b J^ L DaLil^cnjDLrr J^TCI Hal] 
1^71 Hctaj^ cJ j] ]^:.e{in^HLj cl j] J^3 Uwil- |-?7S. Mi-k^a 1^70. 
Moiulti 1 979^ M Dunt] n nd B iiM kcnDn 39B2^ 




S iiJiih H c rti iLCLMJi \ c^cL j4 lo n 






AdcmL^i:! Liipjil J:l ■ Kculio KJziiiDcnNLi 


D>JLLO jkJ ■^'c]Lncrl-^«? DaiiK-BBin: L4TU Hcjx L4»?l H iji^jial^ ^ zil 
hQBJ. hhnitDB I9fl7. UiEMtrud StxiwrnH l?aO 






D3JCCD a orl WcFlBcr 19fl3. Dnidvcnis Qu I97D , K nunaVs ct ^1 I9E3, 

Mclean L474h 




A[ rLp]cA f^idjic IT y OrvjA\ pN l^ 
1^ mcn^ii^k^ l>'>^ a rf-^ h nihti nii 


Utyrs |i^1 Bjkcr>KJ t:cBncd> ]^5 DcVclcc 1^42 




Elclula ^InnilLili^^a .' C >ita LilriLLilaLa 
S ii nih 1 J n^l 


H^KCBcLat 199 [ 




3 ccLi la HhLL k\c wiAln S h ruh U m1 


HjKcncIa] L49J k ririci ^mI Lcljcjh r J 1^3 










"a Laid jg nK^4 Lx L^jiadcjiiJi "^'cNLcrji 


Doopcr iqtf{h.Ccopirrj[uJCDl4rT]L L-^>?Ci Hjjiicj] ci ^1 ] ■«{. H j oxca ct ■ 1. 
LqiJ].Ka^aLjrtLil: |i^J. MaLKon I4H4 Mul?: jn^l Qucinh.^ ] 9tt J. P^d^cU ct 




E^liHBgnixt Li OLD nLa ELcniii HcibacmuK 
Vc^cLnciEMi 






Da Lfl [il:l£eih£ IX puTpu ra^i-c ox - LZ^iex 






Da Tz\ aqLuJ lIu H c [haccHHi^ V cgcc j4 ld n 


B^kcrl-;^ Cjkcrjrul tZcannl^ 19Z5 Uji^^3.mdh.i^i.yi3.htvn. 19ZJ Hj]I 
L47] HajiicsciBl ll^ti?. H^kk-b cL uL a?!>5.Hcu >mI Wixxcr 391(2. 




lacEA :L4kcTfi<lcs HccbacciiiLiN \cgcLa[|i:in 






DaiTK h^iKhuimiJ HcrtiJ4.CDLLX Vc^c4:l4loji 


HzLLK-j] c[ :lI I^SK MaJcNLMi \^)U MdncLc^ cI aL ]99l. MLMc]cy ^ al. 
L494 P>l1ki:I[^ >] 1^^ Pkclc I<JS6 Pjcjucanii Jnknxoji ]i^4tti 




HcitlU-CHHlT Vc^claciDJ] 


B>Bbcj£ ]9<il 




rarcA rlvK>El» HcilwcuotB VciJc^aJiaB 


BalErl^&O.HEitErl^BJ.CoDicrHBdLan 1992. MairHHl &■ «k l?7D 




DacEA Imu^iEiax^ NcibaccciLn 
VcgcLaciDJ] 


Haoxra^^l 99fr7 K2ti:9ctDL 1995. Kavnlchik 1967 . Pad^cft ct a9 19Bff. 

PaJgcLI cL jL J9tt^ 




DiiYA Lixi[>cai^a H cjtia4.cfiux VcgcLaciDJi 


Hjnxca^^] I^KS.HarucucLaL 1^^ 1 . Ka va Lc till. ]9«7 Kf>\ j Lrtiil: ]993 
Pil1.-.-ii ci ,i\ 1 -ht^J 




Da rex BcbnxccnxB Hcibucrotn 
VcgcLaciLM] 


Bakrr h>M I ^.^^pcT d bjH Cod ic]! LQW. Hal] l^7J H^Kna^^l ]9?5. 
KilricL^a] l99ti.K[>xjlLl]iL L4tf~ Mu .^ a nd Que iiu?: L4BJ P^dj^c d ■! 




Diicx nigncDBi Hcrb^cmtE VcjciariLon 


A^cc jruJ KcAi^ 19^7 Cfifipcraoil Lcsutj N92 Dfiu^laN ^mI Bliix L^77 
H^BJBa 1^72 ]5cndc[»n L47J. HcudcraDJi ^od PcLcr I9±II 




Dir^x lupc^LTLX - P^lcjiliLla fi\ uia 
Hcifa^cmui Vc ^cJ ac ilmi 


DEWfirrjMJ Lciku 1992 




Djjux AcirpDHlca - Gcum il-sxij 

^cibu-Cftu^ Vc KCl ac IL> n 


DHMhpcrjrul Lckicj 19^2 Cooper cl al i^^~ 




D^mc ^^ jcfHhLilc:! - P4ricKi]b liivcr^iRiLu 
Hcibu-nHU Vc^claciDJ] 


D4h4>pcr:LDd Lcxica l942.CDDpcr4:l il EQQ7 




Di rz\ sen pLilniujD - C a ll k> Ic pLiMC p j U 
f{cjti:u.nH£i Vc^claciDJ] 


D]cjDCJ]K l9<]-L.C4hnpcrjKJ LciJLa L<J<J2 J^as NB] HcNiaojH '^'jiict 
L4tf2 JL^iiKLL^B 19^7 Kcl4Lcrjj]d^^^^^ul]cj] ]99fi KJLclciaL ]9^4. 
Wdbnl J9^3 




Da iTit xcHhfuLo nj m Hcrbu.c4HJX 
Vc^cta[i[>D 


H^u^BcLaL ]99I.Kd^ ale till: 1 iJiJ J . Ma an mt; a nd P^dgcU I9<J L 





233 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



Ftaol AsoctaUon rbme 


Prtaciple Relf lence Soiiice 




"amt ^jBLilaLa Hcibj4.CDUN Vc^lJlKia 


HzLKCBCI al |-^«7 Harucncczil \^9l K(i^ a Lrtiil: |i^7. ^ddtfcM cl al 
L4SS P^tf^M cLal l^tfiJ S j kJcjndji j ruJ KcLlkT L^^6 Tij]i> jnd Jcjiicn 




Vc^cLaciDJi 


BaabcT^ ]^ 1 




Cir^A uJnculaca Hcrb^ccoLU VcjcLnciEM] 


AnLljuwx L4tfJ.djl:cT L4SJ. BcncdjLl 1^ 3 . Krj nklin ^mI D^ckh L47J. 
HaBKBC^al [4BT HiurBi:taL 199] . Hcii aod ■^' Jiic r I9S2. Krir kheI 
HcBifcHiH] 1979. X-ttcldHl 199S 




D WZLTi-lkluhllllL] 


Dfwprranri [cxiiia 19^ CDDrcrct a1 1997 






Z-MpcTCTaL L995_DcVc]irc ig92.DcjLj ]^*?S.HnU l^7J Ncskt ]^WT 




L CIll^LZirpLI^ kdlNhllLIN/ 


Eakcj L9t£3.B2kcr and Kennedy I^B5 KaiEbtciaL I^BT.Ltwb 1975. 
MjLlcrL9iS4.MiJcgtft^3nd ScdAad I^BD Tiulik ]9«6 




"li jvNiiiLlia QL niiN ^ iNL id 1 llfi nu f Sc i p j 






romuE iciKc* JlhHMvkud [Piovkia^TI 


HuHCBdal l991.Eh4:lcti1. 1»i. Km^lcliit 1993. CW»n ct nL 1998 




DciLtUBpKU LCipJflKZL - Czillka 

kp^fiKcpaLi Hcibj4.c4H£^ Vc^claLiDn 


BnhBhjm I96rh.l]4hnham JEul'i^zLnl ]97a CaDpcnU j] L997,Hcxn I9AI. 
Hcssjnd'i^u.^cj L4B2 lihtiEuon L^TQ lihtiruLDJ] ]9tf7 Kfiourinhh^ l9Kl^. 
Mav l97J.DNh4in I95B ^'jLm^b 1949 




DcK ha ■ pK la cc^p UDxa - Ca rzx x p p- 
f{citi:u.c4HK Vc ^cl ac id n 


Mucjjicrand Sricw^n t^BO 




Dcich^BpXLL CC^pEDNJ - PdI C Oi l]la 

divDHifalK HrinrcEMii VrRclJtwH 


BjVct L9t£J.i5ani]am IIMCa . B l^bLiql ^djH "i^ ^id II^VQ.CcopcrcL al. L9?7 




DcNckampua ccipjNhia Hcibji-Cftui 
VcgcLaciEM] 


Bi^BkajD and "^'jnJ 1970 . E rj^ftf^ J hlI Ma^M^hhB ] 9B3 , Cidi.vc a ruJ 
Dttnnri^cT L^9~ Dud>irBm jie :lm1 fHaubcjiB u^ I9^S FrTLBkUaand 
Dyincu I^TJ HjI] I^JT] HjU I^JTJ HjnLanu J9?2. Haoscn cc jL L9K7_ 
Hbbcbcii] L^95 Hckk JMlWaxiirr I9B2. Jc 




DixLictiLix xpi^jLa Hcibaccfiux 

VcgcLaciLMi 


Utyn L9»U.I]c>lLry L^'fh. I] cikIicjm^b I<JB~ Du^cnminr ]97Ci FianVlui 
iMll>>rncKN L4T3 Hansen cl aL ]99I.HyLkrc[ >] L<J66 JthKun^l 
Wzil&inJ L995 KikcLjnd [jidcruT L99J 




c h nrf> H c lb j4.cfHii \ c^ccari h el 


ITfKipcr^ j] 1^7 €a7i ]933 Eddkaan \^7 Trtr 1*^\ HcKNand 
■^'^iK-r I9tf2.e{(ilnay L^62 HoLi.va ^ jud W j nl ]9{h3 . JL>k[uLL>B ]9tt7. 
KdJDJckDxj 1976 Wiltnl L96J.WjLliid 1^79 






B ajnbirrg a hlI M>jihr]9rh^ 




viiapdruQL Dwdrf-xlilub Hcrbu-Cfiux 
VcgcLaciDn 


DfwprraKJ Lnica 19^2^ Cnnpc rut il h??7 




EknhLhjn^ pjLixcrn HceIuccdlin 
VcgcLaciEM] 


B>kErl9«1 ]$:lLcj:lkJ KcjiBcd} ]9tt5 . IJ nri he [» n :lh1 C j nc^ J9}U. 
H^KCBcLaL 19^7 HanNcn^j] L99S. Kcklcrand \^4.^^ullcn L996 
tZricclcLal 1994 Knhvjlcliik 1993 M 




EtfKliaru qujMfucriDn H c rbziLCHHi^ 
VcgcLaciDJ] 


Biigtf^anLl Mj^^^zlIil^b ]9ttJ CiM^pcr I9<JU. H jkcb cc ^1 I9S»? Jcnirn 
iKJTuhy l9»?I.JL>k[uL4hB |-^«7 KjLcUczlI J994 Ki^hZLkkik L4»?~ 

MacLuhB l9^.P2dKi:l4 cL jL J9tt9 




ELvmui cLvmL^kti licibj<.cDUN 
VcgcLaciEM] 






ELvmiii lanccDbLui - Phj4.cLij kiNLacj 

^Cjbu.C4H£T VcKCl3[IL^J] 


Dc\c]iLC L99: 




EquL^cLujD flLi^iiLjk Hciba^CDUi 
VcgcLaciLMi 


Bijnik3iid?^(iKcL:^ 19^5 HanNcn^j] L99] Hjjiicji cc zil 199^. 
Kcixikkil ]9<J^ 





234 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' Rettrences 



E^nl Asocbllon Name 


l^ilnclplf Rtk^icncc Sniiice 




- Sriipj jL^kai^lNonii Hciba^coLiN 
VcgcLaciLMi 








MiJC£g]c J 2m1 SLC1A J ri I^J^O TklIjLc 1^47 TKdaLrand BajDbk-Bmdatih 
LflBI TiMttandMi-Lcjn I^J5" 






Mucs^lcr^nd Sricw^n L^SO 




Fc:?tuc3 ■JahncEUB- Came Hlrf^ln 
f{cjti:u.c4H£T Vc^claciDJ] 


Mucjjicrand S4c^jn t^BO 




idciBiixlB HciBEXOUC VD(tc4at»H 


M Jri4 MhB a m1 N J 1 HhBa L ■ i\ 




FdiIuci iikboDB&n - I>cErkimpiii 


Muc^^lcrand S4c^jn L^SO 




FckLucj LdzikDcnNiN - ELvmui 
Inckyi-JiiLu Hcdtacccux Vdrc4jLil>s 


Hcu and ■^' jnic r ] 1^2 . J(i tinNLLM] l^B' Mucgtfti^nLJ S4c^ad I^^Wh 




f{cjti:u.c4H£i Vc^claciDn 


IdiliD C[>Bicrv*1 »■ DaCa Ccntcrn d 3.4f>B42i]a NaLunl Heritage 
P^^^^^J■ n d 






MucfSlcr^nd S4c^jn L^JKO 




Ji^cniEnhlu HccbacciMJi Vc^claLjihB 


Umtccn [QB3.C«]pirrind LcNH.a L^Q2.C[»pcrci at ]W7 Maiclcy IQBS 




FcK[LK.a Hlahocjuii- Pxnjd[>mcgncrLa 


MiJC3g]cT2KlSLciA:Ld l^ilQ-TDdalE I^UCi 




FckLucj iLljkhcnNJi - SLipa rjLhzirLlNoniJ 
f{citi:u.c4H£i Vc^claciDJ] 


Mucs^lcrand Sricwan E^BD 




FCKCLL^J IlIjLl^CD^K Hcjb^LCDUN 


JohnNDj] 1 471:1 




FcNiuLa Vin^Li - Oitjliupn 4.jmpcKLTiN 
Hcjtiu-CHHr; Vc^claciLMi 


rH>rirraKJ Lciici 1992 




7cnLijl:l kjjigji HcrbaLCDUi Vc^laUiMi 


VfDJilanj XacLirTi] Hcrdzi^c Pj^firiun n i\ 




HiniB luuLL- \]injjJilEL oblu^Lli^ba 

^cibu.nH£T Vc KCl ac idji 


ITuHhpirraKJ Lcikj 1992 




HrLvCCJia Ih>IEJIlN H Clb J4.Cf1LIN 

VcgcLnciLMi 


HZLKCBCL jL J^^ 




HfinlcLim jLibacum Hcjbji-CfiuK 
Vc^cLaciDJi 


BuaiB I^SS.HaoNcndjL L99 1 . Rnloia nn J^72.Rcjd 1^74. Vc^l 1914 










JuELcui baki^ui Hcibji-CHHii \cgccjrikia 


B ji^l krjNL^B a nd E > incK L^S4 CunjB 1^5 TbncE^ I^(i2 Harucncri j] 
L^t^.HanicBd al I99I.Hc:^t |-^B] tZriccLccaL l-^U kom^rlnvj 19Z6 
MannjBtf l^tlB 




luncue diujD Bfi hlI ij - ^ JricjiJiarii lanzila 

^cjbu.nHU VcKClaciLM] 


ITLHhpirrjKJ Lcikj 1992 




HcitiaccfHK Vc^claciLMi 


DoDfirr a Hi Lciks 1992 






DcVclicraMlLcAkc^ 1-^9 J. Lux H.a ^kI DcV dec 1-^92 




iLinipcnu M.O pLi bill m / AricjDKU 
:ndcnLjriJ W4hDL]]a[uJ 


Z'HhnpcrcJj] 1995 DcVdkc 1991 DcVdirccLaL 1^95. Hckn l9ttL Hcu 
ikJ ^k:e>j]dcrl^«6 Jcnnin^N L97B. Jcbblr^ ] 979 . JdIiibJd n L9B7. 





233 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



l^hiit ^Hwcbllon Name 


PrtDcipk Relei'cncc Sniiice 


lunipcnjN K^D|aj]LMum ; CciuHhLjrpuN 


DcVc]icc LW2 


JunipCIUN NCHhpuhhlUJD f C.4>TnUN KCJICCJ 




iLinLpcniN ^L^pLiliMum V 




tZ J Lm EL ■ ic ru piij^LLa / C j ruit M.L>pj Ilmub 


B4>t^^j] L44D.e{2JtK-BcL jL ]4^tt:K . H a rue n ^ j] L44] 


Lnnn lyuFlic- Abici laNJO^^rps Fniu^t 
\Fiu\ 1^ Lo na L] 


PrntcT^^I J977 


Lc} JDU& ciocTciJi - FcnLuc^ uljkDcruLN 
[^yBLiN cinciELiN - J^^Li>p^ HI m ^^ii hai 


Rhk^ ^ ■! E9TJ 


Nfuc^^ Ic ra nd S4c^jn L^SO 


L^i^QLLii cLncruui - PuLcincLlia 
DLiLtiLljinzL HrdticcDUE VcricEJriifia 




Vc^cljLjiha |FnhyLML>fta]| 


AkkHM^wlShLiJz l^li DcVcLicT 1941 JokuDnand SIeud^ I9?7. 
Kaigk^ j] L4T6,Mucss]ct2kJ Sicnaa L4SD TtLi]cj]±jK ^ j] 199^, 
W:i]|.cj:LjHlBnritLcnL>B 1^2 


PaNCfip^niB iBLlhjj HcibaccDUN 


E]>kcrJ9«1 BzlLct^mI Kenned} |iJHS Buain L4SS.€hTuicKca and 
Wchh l^3.HarucsctDL 144 1 . MarranLl LJtK Lorr 1974 naanLc^ LU2. 
SkiBb L4TT ThikaaiicLaL 1945 


Pc DLa p hy]k] lJci fh rtmod:! V Ca cex 




PcnLjpkylLoiLJCK flonbiinLlj / 
DcictujDpiu ccKpiLoNj Shiuhland 


HzLKcncI al 149] tZ^c Ic r^Jid M^ Mu Ik-Ji ]99^ Mucv ajHlGrjhjm l^tfJ. 
P>lIscLI cczlI Ntftf Pad^ccL cri j] L4S4 SjKJcni^B an^l Man.]] N^Jb. 
^ fill nghkidLl c4 j] L4S5 


Pc Di J pkjKlki idci fkir#HiMla / FcKcu^a 
VcgcLaciLMi 


Muc^flcrand Sricwan L4Si:i 


Pc Di J pkjKlki idci fLor#HiMla / Pc^cuca 
Vci^cLaciDJ] 


MjcLndj] jkJ N jcionaL ■ lI MiK^Lcrzuid S^ci^ari Ji^h T^ cil jnd 
HfiuNNhk I9«CJ VLMjj]tJf>LDDd CI a] \W5 


PcnLapti^LlDjdcN llfirbundj f TfMcukiWs 
nvinj SKmhbnLl 




^cjbu.C4H£^ Vc KCl ac ID n 


B4>t^da] t^QD.HaiKBcLzLL ]99L.Hnucnc«a] 1995 


Pkrj^ini iIl^ JLiK[r;L]K Tcjnp^rj^c 
Hcibu-nHii Vc^claciDJ] 


Utyrs L>?tf2 HjDNcncc jL 1441 Hzlkcdc^j] \^S KxLc] cI al L49-> 


Pk;KlLi=i£lL>c^ c mpcc riRi cb ln / A nLc nn j ria 


"mnpcrand Lcsica 1941 CDDpcrcJ al L997 


Pkcj ^cngcljD^jiBii K ^Ljucj, 


SricckcLal LQUI-Sccrtrctd] \^1 


Pkcj KngcljDZLJiBii K ]jLjucj 
LBRcliDdnnij|/CL>T[iiiN Kcricca Pnirii 


HzLKCBcLaL I9<J L Hansen c4 >] L99S 


LB£cLmjj]BiO/GaLuB [Tiilthnioi Furni 


PrnLcjc^al ]9?7 


Pkca ^cngcljD^JiBii X ^Lill^j, 
^■^]Ba ■■LI ^ y Juaipc lui cf\ ql muBiN 
Fditkc 


R44K-I1T 14^0 


[^■((^■■■■ii) / Li^am banalm Fd nitf 


PrnLcjc^al ]9?T 



236 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' Rettrences 



Ptanl Affiocbllon Name 



E'rtnclpit RcrereHX SmFce 



^■^clmn an ij h / M^elb^ he m li m ^cc Malum 



FKhcrjudCLi^LL^B J^3 FRstcrdal 1977 



FlMTKC 



PrnLcj^al ]^*?" 



LBgc]lDai]I]jil / 5CELC4.IL> KlTCf^aJll klEnhlLlIN 



PrnLcT^al ]^*?" 



L B^cloia an i]} / VjcciaujD 4.CNp rifiNUjn 



PrnLcj^al ]^*?: 



Picui cn^cCnunmiV Catma^iuii uf 
LaaadcnNLX Ffirc^l 



Vo^jKcial I^W.YiMJB^hlLHhd cl jl L^S^ ZiicL L-;T4 



Pirca c afjc Ima aaij / CalIhA IcpLuicpaU 
FbccxE 



JoiiJiiifia L-^ST ^^auLanil HcmIcjndji I iJtU. S1i:c k i:L a L }^i 



Pkn DB^Imaaii /EquBc4iiB arvrkic 
Fditkc 



CiDW r d nd C tiuBLl^r 1 49 j , In tinittoB ]^7. K^clcrand McNfu]kz] 
I9». KnvnlchiL ]^7 Maul. >jh1 H c ndc raDH ]9}U.Oil»ncJ nl l^9B. 



Pkcj cjigcljnaDBii .' HvpnuB rr^uluLim 
FarYXI 



JohvcunJ^? SLcckrIal |-^S I 5lrclc^>] \^Ei 



Pjmis jfbjLJuLiN - \hjcN LjJLOorpa 

"^'niKHltUHl IPjiII^ LlJUftal] 



CHhapirri^il L9fl7. PrElcr ct aL 1^77 . Steele ct aL I^BI 



PiaiJN jhicjLiLu f CaiEX £c^ti 

WoL^LlljBd 



Amcijnil^cixcT L99^^_Bfl^AC^■Jart al ]^W? CnDftr 1975 Hall l^7J. 
JoJifcWDU J^Wt? ^lunay l9Wh_ Ncsscr I^W7 RluI I^WB ictlaLttiur 1972, 



PiiLU jl>kaulii f Caiuic idiiIl Fl>iu« 



Il^IikLl^b ]^7 Rccd l^Hh^ SLcck cl al L-^BJ 



PjMii a b kaLiLiN y FciluL J idatiHhcnNLi 

"^'HhL^LlljBd 



Johjii44ha 1^7. Muidaju Naluial Hcnlagc Pi^^rajD ■ lI Sirck ct al 
LWI.S 



Pjmt; albjLJuliN ■ Jli n ipc m^ en m m ubk 
WoL^LlljBd 



luhKLuB J^7 l^ccd ]4Hh^ SLcck rl al I^JB.^ 



PiaiJN jEbH-aLiLaV VaccianjB xenhparjui 

FlMTKC 



CfH>per]^75 kitin^fin l9B7.Rccd 1 9Ch^. Jicrkr iA ■ I E9flJ. 



Pjmk > II^jl ju Ll^ W find Lj kI | Piu^ ism n j I| 



PfKLcT^al ]^*?" 



Pjbib cnaiDrta / Amjca cnnlif[>]ia F[>tc^ 



JdIiiihdd l^7.5J«:kdd] L9BJ 



Pjmu en nin ria ■ Cal> m >£■ nuc ln 
rubric cnx Fnrcil 



HnriDJ] I4-] Id hnuha jud C btn n il ^c r I^J I FfKLcrcUL ]^77. Sccclc ci 
al J^3 TKdalc jod MLLcaa 1^57 



Pjmu CDntnria f C^mt gc;KciL Flmci4 



AkxjKJcrcrij] L-^Bb Hcni I9BI Hch jud A IcAa nik r ] 9»^ Hc^ jbeI 
WasKcr l9tt2.JL>kKLL>B ]^7 >^4>Lr 1^69 SlcckcUl L9BJ Slcck^a] 
L433 WjskctjkJ HcNi I9tf2 



Pjmu cnnioria /C^rnt nujLL Futc£4 



AkxjndcrcLjL J^fi ^^aul. > nd H c nik c^n n I4H4 S4cr]c c4 a] I9tfj 



Pjm£^ c4hB4nr1> V JuBipcoix Lnoimuiiii 
"^'ol^lI I J ad 



AkxanLkrl-^BI AkxjodcrcLal l-^Bb Hckn jail Akxanikr |-^B6. 
iDfaasJDn L9B7.MjuL>j]dHcn£kc^4hn 1-^^ 3.4nLrl^69 nnbcdx L^BO 
54cckcLal L4»?l.5[cck cl j] I9tt1 



PjMii cnaJnrlJ / Liaftao hnrualK FnruNL 



iDliunn jad Sjoldj] ]9tt7.rrKLcT^ j] I9~7. 5ricc]c ci al ]^3 



Pjhjx 4.L>j]lf>i1a / Spjrjca bclulLfolu 



54cckcLal L9tfJ 



Pjhu 4.L>z]l4>ila ■ Vac^iniLim cc^prin^iim 

FOITKC 



CHHhpcrccal l9tf7.MauVaad HcMk-jiL^B |4>^ FfLMcTcUl L^77 S^cck 
nj| L4»$l 



237 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



P^ut Asocbllon Name 


[^ilnclple Releience Soiiice 


PiujK ^'4hB4fid2 f Vaccijijum NCfipzirrujn 

FlMTKC 


AlEitajHk-icE jL l-^Ub LnnnpEr^ >l J^T Hu.ll \^71 Hjinafji^B I^Ttt 
Hc^x L4?IJ Hc^zljhI ^kxajHlET L^Sb H^i ffa j ■ jud \]E:t>j]dET 1^76 
iDiiucoj] |iJK7.KQm>jkDx>^ j] L^JSK Mjct^j] L47J MjliL^mI 
Hc:BilrEMa LQB4 Dxi.vaLd I9M 


Pjmk r[M]lf>i1i / Xciup}]} ]|j m Lcruic 

FlMTKC 


AmocE jL I^BS CcoprrEtil I^T.VDlknd 1976 


pjjiui c4hB44hilJ S^TCC WddcIIjhI 


Vtojilanj XacLirTi] HeciIzl^e Pjr>£ir;Ljn n d 


PiriLiN fticiLu f C ciuafdrpLiN lcdifD]iJK 

"^'HhDLlljBd 


DcVE]Ljrc |i^2. MjLiVaoil HcKJcc^a L-^Bl. SIeeIe d >] L4ti] . 5ricE]E c« 
iL I9JIJ 


Wol^lIIjbl] 


Ji>hKLDB 19^7 PfuiciEL jL l977.SlEElEd j] li^l-iccck ELal L-^SJ 


PiriLiN fticiLu f JuBipcius LomBunu 

WnhDLlljBLl 


AlEAjrulEEEL jl 19^6 CeiIe 19^1 HfirfBjaajHl ^kxajidET L^KD JoIijiueii 
LflB? Pfr:LErrlal L'17t 5icE]EEcal 1 Wtl_ Scccl: eL jI I^J«^ ^'asirjiKl 
Hew L^B^ 




PrnLETd^l 3977 


PiH>flcTilLc ^Scm: Wwdlind 


Pfktert^Bl 1977 


E p Lcac^ V^ Hh^d la mI 


DfKipETEJj] I^AT.DaLihEHBiiE^KJ Du^camic? ]9^» Hj]L 1973. 
H^ks^j] J ad Hnhffman L^^BB H^frmaa jud AlEAJodci [■^76 IthboxDn asd 
DluuailzErl9^^ JthtiDMM] an^l SIehl^b J9tt5 


f^ iuuiifblii HcolMcmtm VDAclBtDH 


BbcUHind^ l«^. Mi nHikf] 1?&& 


p[>a pahjilni HcibaccfHU Vc^claciEMi 


H^KCBELaL I9^L HanxEndj] L-^^^ 


fnnvkkiiul 


S ju } E rand K.EE Ie r^ WoII 19^5 




H^jLTEJic^ j| 199't Hcl^ and W axxE r ] iJBJ . J(i IioMlmi IOtf~ KJccl^nd 
Lnk-JurJi^J t:Lilc]EL jI \^^^ Miildaxja and J^iiuan L-;^3 Pad^ciL ci 
il ]9«« Pads^El EL jL I^«4 RjLiunlda 


P^pulu^ l>a In J ■ lIcjtl NNp 1 iiL^ui^acf > V 
Pl>j pJTiLc u l^ Fnhrc il 


H^kcbeL jL J99^ 


ilaiRiLia Fiiij^^ 


Monlanj XacLim] HECri^^E Pj^fjnijn n i\ 


Pi^jajhi^ 1 re QLU l[>jdcN ; BnhBUK 4.arjB>LiJi 


MuEsgki liJtitt. MuEggkiJOilC^mpticll \^^ 




BHhf^xccaL I^J-^Ci H^Kcnrl >] |i^I.MueI |iJ7J.FaiAcU ]9«B 


Pi^puLiK i IE mulihkJci / Ca U b^^iuiI k 


AlEAjnilErrl al L-^Bb CLHhpcijad PfiELEr l-^B 1 Mlie££]et L>?tf»? 
^fLJ^ggkIJa£lCampt1cll 1 9»?2. MuEgtf t r a oil C jjd ptic LI 1 9ttfh. "i^ i]lia m ^ 
ikI l.iU^nJ^c l9«1.VLMJBtJ^LoL>daa£l Mije££]ej L^JB 1 


Pi^puhr; 1 wc QLU Id idEK V €a rMU ^e rn ci 


t^anx |i^>tt^.HanxEnc[2l ]9^a H^JiiEJiELaL 1^4 1 . KlLcl eJ al LQ^. 
RktuEtlElj] l9Wi 


l^puhK ticHuloiifci / Pna pn^EiKLX 
Fditkc 




Pl> jojIu^ 1 wc BLi iDjdEX V j^ Eu p ho nrt rp^i^ 
a CEO p kiLu Fa icii 


Hc^x and'iVa.^xci L4B2 Hoffman ^mI \]E:tanLkr ]iJR4h Hfi ff ma n j nd 
AlEXjndci l9ttJ. JdJikcdji ] i^T. Jl^Jiludji a qiI HckJ-^e] ]9tt->. KcaamErrT 
ikI PeLeheeij] I9tf 1. Kc jjd niE m j od Sl4i-r4.1:Er 1^75, llEa qlidcie r jud 
S<ciEctcr]9«0 


Pi^fuku LicBLiLDidEx YTaLI f~[>ibx ^dtc^ 


Hcsx jjid^osxci L>?B2 Hnhrf m a n ^mI A]E:ta n^k r J iJtHh . H^i ffiDaj] ^ehI 
AlEiEiDdEr]9«3 JihlinxlnnaMlHEJ]d?:El 1 iJtf S J^ JLe 1 ci al 1994. Lewb 
Lq"-T_Mai¥cc jI L9"J_MiK-KiJli:T IWB 







233 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



Ftaol Asocbllon Name 


Principle Releicncc SiHince 




PupuLiN LiubuIl^jJcn f 1 lulictniiD 
fc nd Ic ri Fd itnI 


B4>^c 1477 duBin 1 ■JTS. C ilul ii J^1 Hcni J i^ L . H cnu djH A IcA^idc r 
iDiiJuJfin LOST JfitinNNhBjnd Hcod^c] J i^S. Ko m > r^^ j cl aL 19101. 






BcarCcEcL UianruB Mine ^ppLH.a[i[>B n d BhiILem] cc al \^\i\) PrjruK 
L4KI MucgtfLcrand ScdAJri I^JI^Ci TcnxjLli^crand Tjrdrjn^BB I^J'S 
rhjk-BLii^cLal |-^>?^ TiELkmanjicc jL 1^7 




P^CLid^in^c^incju Npiola - CluKloh 


[ji-iH-a^KJ DcVclkcc l^>^2 




ma^rjB4h:L Hcibji-CfiuK Vcgc^^lHhB 


Rhux^j] LQTJ 




ivmcruhKJci Hcibji-CHHi^ Vcj^claciDJi 


B>brrl4t£3 Bah:r I^Bi DcVchcc ]4Q2 




P^CLidfinhCfjELCJiJ ^pkacj - PaKcnnp^ Jiim 


Hau^BanLl HfirfB^B J^IH . MiJC£g]cT ^mI SLcw^H ]i^h 












DjiiK-BBiJE I^TCi FiixcrcL jL l*Hi5 Hj]I I^T? J(i hnuhD ^jhI S ijd^i n 
L4S^ JnKnNDn jnd SjBfin L^ST Miic^^lcranLl Sicnart I^J^CI FfiulNhB 
L4SS Prxc^KJ BjdLLcim^b 1^7 




PjcudDn>c^9cni xptcata - Sriipa conaJa 


Aidc:Hi» l^fi4>HMKHBmr ]97C.Hydc l^64.Mantani Nstunl 
Hcriae^ Pn>Enm n d , Mijc^^]ct and SccwaH ] ■JW>. PfHihoH I95J T'ttct 






iDhKLL^B I9±|T PfuicrcLaL 1977. Siccic ^ d] I9ttl. Jccclr cL al L^JRJ 




PiclilIdI hi^ mc mnsca u ^ C a U ■ j ]^wa\\ k 


Kill L^73 HiMlL^j] ]iJ7l iDhruuBandClauiBE^j L-^Q2 . JthkoxD n ^mI 
Vtmam I9B7 lahruicn IQB7 






Dliuiari?:crandZjnLcirj ]9tt7.CfKipcrc[al |iJB7 J5cxn l>^»?] Hcx^sHd 
AlcAanLlcrl^JSb JdIikcl^b ]9«T Pfiucrcl al L^TT S^cckcLjl l<J« 1 . 




P^cudoLKUga JDcnzkiii f Ccrcnc^rpux 


DcVcIjlc 19^ I. Jl^Iilm a and C bu^riLiycr N^^J MuiLanLl HcjidcixDn 
l^iU S4cckcL jL I-^SI Slcclcc4al 1^1 VMiELjjhlihnd ^kJ Mjuk I4BS 




"^'ol^lI 1 J ad 


H^KCBCL jL Ji^h. HjrL-:cacl aL ]99L. H JONcn cl al I9<J5 KJccL^mI 
[j:dcrTr]9^? tZikclcLal 1994 KiJcLnal I^^S. KJLc] cta9 1947. 
:)Nbi>rnclal I^J^tf . R^kAid ci a L ]946 




PxcmkilxLJ^Ei ■cn^icNiJ /FcnLucj 
Lampc^n^ ^findtiJiLi 


PfcLrrc^al 1977 




PicudficNUfj JDcnvicNiri ^FcxLuca 


JciifeHLM] J9tt7 Frt^fcrial 1977. Sicck ct nL. I4£J 




hcudDtiuga TncnEKEii / JuuLpriux 
zom QLU n Li Forcxc 


Dicxc t47S. JDhnHDn l9S7.MuFrk^ t4B2 rfiifirrctnL 1477 Slcclc^i] 
LWtL Sleek cli] J9JIJ Vonri L474 




PicuLlficNu^j mcnvicNJj / JunLpcniN 

CC4> rLj]LMU m '^'LM>d]a[Ld 


R44k-i1^ cl al 1479 




3firEa]lT FflCEXC 


Pfiiti:r^al 1977. Steele m dL I4B3 




PicudacNugj JDcnzKijiy Mahnnia 
rupcnx Fciuit 


AlEAJEukrcL jL 19^ HnhffjDJJi an^l AlcAarulcr 197^ Lajmmi and Maiw 
L9B7.MaLikaKJ HcjhIcindji ]9}U . R^ibcrix L4BD RnhcruccaL ]991. 
S4cc]cc[al l9ttl.S[cckcL jL J9«1 VL^iBjjhhHhd aod Muil. 14^5 











239 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



l^biiit ^ffiocbllon Name 


PrtDcipk Releience Soiiice 






ZttKnJ^rjnLl/jmi>ia L'Jif?. CLM>pcrcLal L^S~ Djubcnmic? J^S2. 
Dat^caoL ICE J nd Du^cam iie L^^tf Hnll |iJ~J. Ji^kaKcui an^l Simnha I^BT, 
JoiiJidfia L^^" Maul: jnd Hcudcnfin L^J34 FfKLcrcL jI IQ77, SIccLc ct 
iL IQBI.JtcclcinaL tQB3 




PicLidiiiLKU^a jurn^kiii/ 


Z-oIe L^BZ-rriMcrdil ]^>?7 




Dc^uLilfiLia FDm4 


"uHhpcTCI aL ]^7. Hfirtfin L^7 1 JthkruDnnul SimnhB J^7 . JpiiJiiifi a 
L4t£7.DNnald ]4H»4 Ffudcrci^l ]iJ77.5tcrbct il. h^BJ. VcujigMoLMl and 




PicLiLloLNuga jDcn^kiii/ 

S } JD pkD Jicj rpHhs aLbLU FoitnL 


TiMhi^jcl al 1^7. DjubcBQLiiE an^l Durfi^JiBLrT ]'J^, iDhniuB and 
Simua L4B7.FrBicrcLal \^77 Sti:clci:«EiL I^Bl. SCcutd >3 99E3. 




5> jupkhnczLTpaK 4hrcf>pkiljK FdcenL 


Hcniid'h'aNNcrJ^L^^ Ithkn^^iadud SioiDn L^E7 JaLuioft I9S7. Moiik 
ikI HcMk-iuhn I^S4 MiiUiyin L^^M PfiHcriAil. 1477. Rcnf 1476. 




nicmbrjB>LmB Fdj^^c 


ZHMhpcrcLjl I^^T JoJiawDU J^Ht? FIlMcrccal ]97?_5cccLr cl al L4BJ 




P^clilIocnu^j JDCHYLCiii Scree "^'HNhdlaJll] 


DcVclM-crtal J^WI6 E=xyhuBtrti] J^WIT PftHcr^j] ]^*?7 




E^CLELclLia nd^zillijn:! Kcjbj^coLiN 
VcycLaciLM] 


UnsarL';72 UnsarL474 H c uHc 1 j od C4ki pc r 1497 




Sliiuh H c rb accEMJi VcgcLari LD n 


Dat±icniDLnr I47D. HaLI 397 J . Jabuai] a nd J ubq n I9tt7 Lc^n LQ7S. 
Mueller and S4c^ad 19^0 . Ti.vcLi a m1 H ihisco n L^I^Ci 




PunhizL LndcDi^lJ / PxcudDmc^Hcra 


Daubramin: J!J74>.Hal] J1>7 3 . H irooxiLi cL nL I4B J . Jia hnu n ^kI Sjbdji 
l?B7.lh1iKMkrEiHlStcmt 1?BD 




cpicjLa Shnib H c ib J4.cfiLi ^ Vc^claLiiMi 


B i^ hD in Chu] ^4 inc md Bmv/n. L9"] Hn vcb > nd H i^fToia n l4tfH. 
Muc^^lcranLl S4c^ad 19^0 . Tia clIj m1 H L4uca n L^SO 




FLiMa w^HhJsiL S h nih LikJ 


H^KCBcLaL I4<JCJ HanNcn^j] L44] 




SaliK an.LH.a y FfiLvgiMUB bKCDiliiijdcN 
D ^ :l ji-^kiubb Dii 


Z'Hmpcrjnd Lckicj 1941 CDDpcrcl al i^^l 




SaljK hcbbuna S hnibbnii 


Utyrs L^I^I. DjL>-PcdLlK- ]i^1 Han^cBCI >] |i^L.OJKim cc nl ]94S. 




SaljK b^DlkiiV Cjtijn^giDNlK i-jB^dcnNii 
SliJiibljnd 


Mu.^andGrjhjnL I9»?2. Muv jjidQucjnh.^ J9tt1 Nnhri^inci^l ]9ttL. 
PiLl^ccLccnl NStf Tutiv and JcnNca L4«^ VLOjaM^Lood cri j] L4S5 




Sj]ix boDLkiL.' Cjj^ic uncubca Siuubbjid 


kikcL^Kl I.nk-n:rl443 Kiilclclal L4U tZ^i^alchjL I4S~ MLil?:aDd 
Gnk>JD 14^2 MliL?: JEidQucLmv l^^"! Pjd^ccl cL jL I4«S Pad^cLI cLal 
l?B9.Tukv and JcnNcn L4?i: 




5d]iK iKiDLkii ^ McKE GajDLn[>j(k 
S hnibl.in^l 


hd^cddd] I91W. hidi^^Lcc^L 39tt4 ^cliI \9^ 




KljiublzLU^ 


ri^kiriLL^h NaLurjL HcrJn^c Piu^iam n d .GsbLMn cri j] IQiJB 




Sain EBwIiit] VCaruit laikic^i^ 
SliJiibljnd 






S t}i\ i t mlula y Ca rTK tri ircii laLa 
SiuiibljEid 


KjKcn^j] 1491 SricckcLaL 19^1 




Salu duB mood u na V CukiBLjiiMtB 

LanzidckiLT SKiubljMl 


BakET J9B6. BsVcr L4B9. JnliEtDH I9E7 . Kc4i Icr bbiI McMulkft l^^^, 
Ki^cl^sdl-cdcrrr 1 99 J. KDJD^rVon ] i^ . S^MJcnoa ^nd K cJri Le r 1996. 
ruti^ jnLl Jcjucn L4^I 




S >]ix lI ni m ni d mlu n j ^ C a m< u nLLiblzi 
SiiJiibljnd 


KD^alchjt 1443 MdicIcjccjL 14^ 




S >]ix Jmb mnhKJ la n j S brub La nd 
\Fio\ i^LO na L] 


Bjl:crL4S9 Bi^t^K^^I I94<]. Hansen cc nl J9«4 HijiicjicLjL 1441 
KilccI jnil l_cLlcreT]943 Fliil]iri I4TT 





240 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



P^ut Asocbllon Name 


PriDcirk Releiencc Souice 




SiiJiihljruI 


HjKcacI j] LQiJS.Hfijj^lanLl |iJiJ7. KikcLaKJ l-cdcjurJ^] Ki^vrikhck 
L9tt7 Pkillipi 1^77 






L'uHhpirjaMlCfiLliELI \^^y Hansen c[ a] L44J J^iKhnNhb 1^7. Kc[L]rj >Jid 
ruhvaMlJcrucn L^J^Z VLMjjigbki^id cl aL l*m% 




5j]u £c^cniB2 f C^iEA LiLrjLuti^j 
SJiJiihljEid 


Mul ?: J nd QuTJiu?: L^SJ Pjd^criL cri j] i^E^ Tub^ asdJc rue n I4B2 
^fiLin^hkiodc^ >] L4K5 




S limb 1 J ad 


Jc vcj] JkJ Tuii} NS 1 Zv]4hB4aju NaLurjl Hcrkj^c Pj^fjrajn n d Ful^ctl 
ziu.1 1*^HS Fjd£C[l cLal l<JS9 




S>1ix ^hIjli^i SknihljKl 


:~i>ihtirrjKJ Lcikj I4IJ2 




S hnihl.in^l 


FCaKcarUL ]^L 




S>]Lt p]>j]ilfilu f CirzTi jqualilA 
SiiJiihljruJ 


Baker |-^«4 Coi^^ciaMl Col4n:]L L-^4U Hau^arLaL V}^^ llaji^cji cL jL 
L>^4I HcNN I4K] HcNiaod '^'jNicr 1^2. Jcruca an^l Tuh> L>?S 1 
iDiiKLL^B J^7 KELc]and LcdccET L>?iJJ KiMcL^ >] I9i^. Kri[cLc4 al 




5>]ix pLinifolA /CarTK nLbrj^ccn^ih 
SiiJiibljruJ 






Sain phHifn]E] VCdiux i^cDjukiiuH 
SliTiibljn^l 


Hcai [QB].e{cH2iHlWaNicrL^B2.Kf>SLnrk<]vi 1^76. Kotmnrbva I^E6 




^^\n lECJLuljta / Ca Likj IcpLiucfab 
I>mii^hiiMvhwl 


Cooper ^od Lcxic^ I1>SI Z. Cnnpc r d a 1 L447 




5j]ia i.vD]nL^CaiEA a^LiaLjLu Shjuhbrul 


Bjl:crl-;S6 BaLir]^^}^; ]3arurj]C[al ]i^L.JihknM4hn |-;S~ Kcklcr^Jid 
McMullcn I4i». KriccLjnd [.nk-n: r 1-^4 J KlUcIcI j] L^i^h MaUKon ]9}U 




SiiJiibljn^l 


n jL L4B-> 




San-DbacLiN \cjm JLLilacLiN ■ l>L^4icklLN 
^pioLa SKnihbnLl 






San-DbacLiN \ crm JLubLu^ .' b-l^mu^ 

LjM.c4hbLLiN Shnrf> HcjtiaCCLMJN 

VcgcLaciDJ] 


iDr^cu^n |iJ7Q 




San-obacuN h crm icuIjIlu V Lc^qlun 


MucfSlcrdnd Sricw^n L^BO 




SiicDbalui vcrmicuhJtix / PaKC[>p}ium 
cmjlhii Skiub HcibaccDLiN \ c^cLaciDJ] 


H J rue n and H DfToia a I91ffl . Muc^^ Ic r a nd 54cnad l^lffl ^ O Lil^b a od 
Zicdurl 1*^2 




SLLFfu^ a^ului HcjbaccHhui \ c^c[j4kia 


H^KCBcLaL I^L Hansen ^ >] L44S 




S c 1 jpuK [ jbr inac m iMri jjij Tc m pc lacc 
^ciboi-CHHii VcKclaciDJ] 


HzLKCBcl aL I^B K^yjlLiiik I^^J S j ode c^Hhn zljhI KcLI k r l^i^h 




Sc nrc ID ri rim^b riN HcrtuccDui 
VcgcLatiLM] 


HjKca^al IQ9l,Hauca^a9 199^. KajD^rVi^v^ 997^ 




SiicpKcjiliJ jrgcDio Shnrftlanii 
PiD^ 1^ Lo na 1] 


HzLKcnrI al l<J4 1 KElc]anLl L oJc ie r l^>^ "^ KeIc]cL jL 1*}*H Oihon cL 
il \*}^m 




S iknr aLouliN H rjtiJi-c^iLiK Vc^cco^Kin 


B>Bbcj£ J^ll 




S pD jfihfi LiJK aLrvidc:^ HceIuccdux 

VcgcLnciLM] 


ALIloi^ jnd ^hAwij- ]924.Coopcr |iJh4 E=rj[ijrK L4Bb. kihruNha |-^«7 
KikcLjEid LcdccET L49J.LcNH.a2KJ DcVc]Ljrc 19^2 Stch^nrd L4U2. Ung^r 
L'J?4 




54Lpa ciziiDsr^ - BfiLitcLcrua ^acilii- 
PaNCfip^niB iBLlhjj HcibaccDUN 
Vc^ctaciEM] 







241 



Appeodlx D. 
Planf AsocbillDiK: PrlnLlpal and SubstanllallnL' References 



P^ut Asocbllon Piune 


E'rlDclple RefereKC Smrce 




S4Lpj cfimaLa- B lojI cIihu ^nc iIb 
f{cjti:u.c4H£i Vc^claciDJ] 


Sf>iL Clmu^ j^ j[ iLM] JcrviLC l^7S ^ jedccLc r-K c j qljd en w Cuku II j nis n d 




54Lpa cnmaLa - FKnr3]cj 4cjiuiflna 






S } jn p bn rjL J rj-D^ iiici. ilIc ru j Ilx ShmhtiDLl 
iPj^^ i^ Lo na L] 


ITLndy L>^~J.Cbri: 1977 CbrkctnL t^Bf}. H a ru» cl >] I99L KiJcl^^L 
L494.0JKinL^:Ll ]^B 




VcgcLaciLM] 


Bunij] ]^5 Chjiu> ]^73 Hjjucb cl tl \^[ KxLc] cl al L>?iWh. 
KfivjkkiL 1^1. LinLljucr^MlCKcKL} 1472 Mu LHa v in ^mI JihkKfi a 











242 



Indeacto DEScnptions of Types 



Nccdle-kaitd iLvcj^m^n Fot^sIs ^ 76 

,\hlej f{fifocarpa/Anjf6at'ordiJ(xfi£^'Uo¥^^\ 76 

Ahiej kfifocijrpa/CatiAJTi^jinMlij c'{fii{fii6ffisrsr-orc^i 76 

Ahlej f^fifoi-ijrpa / Ctiiat^^ijiroiJij ni!?x^it-^i'i Torc^i 77 

AhiejkfifOiurjt^f/C^frcx^^i^n Fores! 7^ 

Ahiej kfifOi-arjtti/I^ib^ifmmtr^i't2ttit\rorc^i TV 

Ahlej f{fi\ciijrjta/Th{fiit-Oiffjr o<.ini67riiJ^6'VQTr^-\ 7y 

f rtTUJfta^^Jjji^Frrtrr A ^^j^dK j^r t^fl,?^Jfl^Frrtrr J / Ec^tf jdYd^FJT n^vCTiJf Forest i^ 

rrrflu iTj^i^FJTj^^EfjTJ / Ctjy^jdrrtfj^ J L^ jJr J ttNatrJd^rirf Foirs! t?I 

Frce^iJti'fijl6^t^{fimr\ \jl^{uti {A, ^rg^manmi}/G{firrtiJ\ ^t7jiotAifr7 Forest H2 

rrffluJtvE^t^jji^jFrrtrr ^ ^y^rri^j. d^EjfffJfljL'dmErr^/SfiVE^tV^j j^j^^j^^E?^7^^''"^*^^^^ ^ 

Fffmi c<mltyr?a / Ctircx roiJii Yoj^^l t^ 

(rj^i{h\^iigafj[x^izi^f\^Af*u<:aiot£i\Jtyiiarx^rc^1. t^ 

Fieitiioiiitji{n^67rZf^xffTCa^^fnaf^toi^fSMfhi"i^ensV<^TC^-\ K5 

(f^ji-^i^hljuga fj[x^iziejif ^ Jtt^f^nti cofj^fjriifui Voj^^i iiB 

F\irAi£i^^^Mi^{A m6'nzi^^ii ^ Ssifffthof kaipos {?reoyhfiifsFQzzitt ^V^V 

Nccdle-kai ?d Kvci^rt^^Mi Wo wfbnds ^ 89 

^&rejytJjjH?cff^jj2//t/JEr^efTJjir^w]djjrjjrrj WcxxJLirkJ WJ 

Cer<.<Kttfi?Aiii^ffofufi/Fi^iliK{Alii{flioi.^isii'Wood]3nd WJ 

Jrwar^-'dYfT Ti^jy^j^L^^Trjn/^fTi-TJiJTrtrfjjJf^rr^j^L'd WcxKllind tU 

Jcrrtr^-'dYrj Ti^jy^jfL7dYrjJi/Cfd^Y>i^jj^rrT^dv^fr^jjjT WnodLirkd W 

Jto2\pi.^ntJ 'iiOf?AilorttiJ\/I'ji.^i{hror^t2ct7{f sfXfc^fiayt^^Xfdy^r^ [>/ 

rrFNJH^/6rrmjfrj-.^/?jfj J^frLJt^r/tL'd WoodlBixJ |Pnjv]^ionaL| H2 

rrFNJU^/firnnj^r J / Fd"jrj/^ L^d TL'/tj/E^ttvEjr T WDCKllincI H2 

rrFNJfJFf Ji^rf / CF^rt« ^jj^/T ftiyj^t/jjjf WuodLarkd W 

rrFNJfJFfJi^r J / Fffjfjiccr rc^/E^>dVEjrf WcxxJLirkd [W 

rr?NJf_/FfJifrf /yd^FrjVjfJdUi^j^rr^iTrrjjn Wcxjdlincl W5 

TrFrjjfJff Jifrf //"ft^dcftjj LTi-^j^Ei-'dTL'd f^jrttrr^j WoodI and [>J 

F i6Ttiioiiifji{n^67rz^^xff /Ci.^rc<x6{ffpiis l^ij^xfms 'Wood\Knd [ft 

ri^rJL^PJcrjL'd fljdir^f fdd" / FffjNiccr rc^j/z^td^Ejr J Wc»dLark3 P7 

Tf^rJLjpJtrjL'd jFJd^E^rf i7J /5^'j d^ WoodLarkd [>7 

MouIbiif or Uortal C oU-dct hJuD UE Forest l.-..^. l. ^ 9S 

FtyprtiAis hiAliiAfnrJct^f sii?.iffc^iixc'{fri?£A/f^ty£Apt{ft^iJiiVoTC^-\ tW 

Ftyfttthis ^t6'tmfi^xf£iei /EyofJTUs ctinfr£^IifiVoic^\ [>y 

rr^^jrr/jjf ?j d^jFjrr^^tTL'ta / C^jffTJJi^j^ FY^TPjf i ^jFrj^L^Jtrjid J Forest [>y 

Fr/prtiAis 06'tmfUxf£iei / C{Ahnj[agrty^iri rttb6'ic6^isVoic^\ lOO 

F^^tAiiii^ Ueiimif^i^fe^/ F^xi i?rafcfi^hFuwz^\ fOf 

F^^jjjJjj_s Ueiimiorde^ / Ta!t Forb*^ Forest 102 



243 



ShrublaiHk L04 

ArIemfsIai{Afra/f^triOf?'\nitnifnrI^ui Shwubl^r^ I04 

Ar?€fjrii\alr2£i67r\akf sif?.in{lejikfttr /F6'sUit-ti rti{A^ii}£^isr I Shruh]End /tW 

,\rl6fmfsIaUidi.^^{ftaiifi In£i6^r\akf/I*{AS{Ofx\-nimjfjrilthiShruh]ETKi I05 

,\riemfsIain{l^^kfta/Sirf?£^6oma\£^^hm\>l^ru.\ I06 

,\M6'j7ifsIa in^fenkfia isp pvufl crrttr / ii^ fjtjjj tTFr^rtru Shrub] and ^IX^ 

,\rl6't^fsia in^letJkfiij isfi y^i^ufia / I'seAiditroi.^jlfii^n^f sprt-tr\{A Sbuublind ^07 

,\rl6'mfsIaUjd€t2l{fiiJiip v\^'\Ofnnr^^mi/Ehfntn f{fiic6foialAis^hjubl^¥¥A /tW 

E^ttt{Agftindu^oitr/Cijr^xit\ncii^£^I^ fi^thac'6^?iis Veg^tiJum IlH 

Ceri<Kxirf?Aiii€^iiffofrifi/Fi^t£itynyeg?renaii?Ii{A^{f1Jhn2h]3nd JtW 

Chtysolfiijj7ifUisyri{f{fr)fonts/Slipacoi/iatiiShru^}Bnd fiO 

C^jj ^Ej/j jtFTCt^ 3 hrub] BJxJ HJ 

F^ili^^}fff?ni6'sJft?nhAi?r{itr/Dejih{ffjrfxsi{A£.esfXfloi{fShn2b]3nd Ii2 

f^ ^il£^?h}ff anil's _ptxnhAifnia/f^f?\ex2^f^^£^oviii{f^hw\Lb[^r\£} liS 

Sijffxho<xlhrr /C£^faTT\£^^rt?jiri<.a*uj{!i^isiiShwu'b[^r\£} II4 

SiJ^\i-ij*iiif£ia/Cari.^xiiinczttaIaShwu'b[^r^ HJ 

SijffXi^jiIjiifaJ^jrfxof{fnh-F^ot?£icdShn2h]BTKi /i6 

Sijff^iinifr7fr7tyx2dIaf^/Cakffj[agfoiI\iiafiiJ{i^isii^hwu\>[^r^ Il6 

Sijff\iinifr7fr7tmJiafiij/C{At6'\Ai^r2iAilataS^irttf^l{fii{^ 117 

S^fOx ^hui^a ShtAif^anxi 120 

Sa! ix ^esvrriana / Ci^iaiTm^fo^f^ c'£^x2£^£i^'fr'^I'^ Shrub\^Tsd f2f 

Safix ^everitrirti / C£^fe\ii7ricAiiaf^ Shnibland 122 

SaOx ^!£^x2ifi^iij / Carcx x2ebr£^sceir'^i'^Shrub\^Tsd 123 

Sar^obahi^ ve^mkiitahi^ / DistichU'^ ^f^^tri^f Shru bland f24 

Sjircob^rtuj t^j JTTJHi^r^ff Nj j / Levrajj j Lrnfr«dJ Shrub] and J?J 

Sh6^xii6ft£i\trtrr^efi7^uShn2b]End f25 

D^BrfShnibluiidhiiK-ludiii£D^^3fi-Shnib Hi^rba^^cous L2<i 

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