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Biographical Notice of Philpot i 

Examinations of John Philpot 1 

Disputation in the Convocation-House, October, 1553 165 

Letters of Master John Philpot 215 

Apology for spitting upon an Arian 293 

Defence of the true and old authority of Christ's Church by Coelius 

Secundus Curio, translated by John Philpot 319 

Index , , 433 




The life of the excellent man, whose Examinations and 
literary remains occupy the present volume, was not through- 
out an eventful one. Its main interest is gathered up into 
its closing period. For, although the whole of the history 
of John Philpot was cast in with times which were them- 
selves most eventful, yet the part which he himself took 
was conspicuous only towards the end of his career. 

He was born in the year 1511, his father being Sir 
Peter Philpot, knight of the bath, of Compton, in Hampshire, 
who was twice sheriff of that county ; and who, availing him- 
self of the contiguity of his residence to Winchester, resolved 
to give his son, from an early period of his youth, the benefits 
of the education which Wykeham's school presented. The 
son appears to have early manifested a love of learning, and 
abilities more than respectable ; and of the incidents that 
might support this opinion, one is preserved by Strype, who 
relates that at " Wickham College he profited in learning 
so well, that he laid a wager of twenty pence with John 
Harpsfield, that he would make two hundred verses in one 
night, and not make above three faults in them. Mr Thomas 
Tuchyner, schoolmaster next before Mr White, was judge ; 
and adjudged the twenty pence to Mr Philpot.'" The study 
of languages seems to have been the pursuit most congenial 
to his taste ; and if we may form any conclusion from the 
anecdote just recited, classical reading, and the poetical 
part of it, was the department of learning in which his 



genius excelled. His fondness for the Greek and Latin 
languages, probably, led him to acquaint himself in com- 
parative youth with the theology that is contained in the 
writings of those early divines to whom, on account of their 
high antiquity, we are accustomed to concede the appellation 
of " Fathers :" and it cannot be doubted, that the just view 
which he took of their sentiments on many of the litigated 
topics of his day was to be referred, as in part to his naturally 
sound judgment, so, in an important degree, to the foundation 
of classical learning which had been securely laid at school. 

But it seems to have been in Hebrew that Philpot 
made the greatest proficiency; and as the text-book for the 
study of that language, and almost the only literature it 
contains, is the holy Scripture of the old testament, we may 
conclude that his mind, by continually dwelling upon that 
sacred book in his cultivation of the language which he ad- 
mired, gradually opened, under divine guidance, to the true 
meaning of its contents. And as the old testament is the key 
to the new, it may thus have happened that his study of the 
Hebrew language contributed to that enlightened interpreta- 
tion of the gospel records, which was at once a striking 
contrast to the darkness of the minds of churchmen in those 
days, and also, as a reprover of that darkness, the instru- 
ment which conducted him to martyrdom. It is not a little 
remarkable, however, that his study of Hebrew was seri- 
ously adduced by a bitter opponent, as an early proof of the 
tendency of his mind to what was eccentric. The intention 
of Philpot, at first, was to pursue the civil law; which cir- 
cumstance, viewed in conjunction with his Hebrew acquire- 
ments, drew from Persons, a virulent papist of that day, the 
following singular remark : " Foxe noteth that he gave him- 
self to the study of tongues, especially to the Hebrew 
tongue, which, he being a lawyer, doth well shew, that even 
then he was touched with some humour of new fancies, the 


Hebrew tongue being little needful to that profession 1 ." 
But what could be more unreasonable, than to find materials of 
quarrel against another, because in his capacity as a christian 
man, and without any reference to the professional use to 
which such a study might afterwards become subservient, he 
had determined to acquaint himself with the language in 
which "holy men" of old wrote and "spake as they were 
moved by the Holy Ghost ?" 

We learn from Antony a Wood, the Oxford antiquarian, 
that Philpot was admitted "true fellow" of New College in 
the year 1534 2 ; and from a note by the editor of a late 
reprint of AVood, that he took the degree of B.O.L. about 
the same time. If that date be correct, he must have been 
elected from Winchester at an age somewhat later than is 
now usual; or the time of his being a probationary fellow 
must have been prolonged beyond the present practice : the 
former supposition being the most probable, because the length 
of the probationary period must have been fixed by the 
statutes, and therefore could not be variable. The same 
historian tells us that Philpot "had a civilian's place there;" 
by which is to be understood, that the fellowship which he 
held was one on the " law" foundation, which was originally 
designed by the founder for the cultivation of that science ; 
though the holders of those fellowships were then, as now, 
permitted to pursue theology and take holy orders. And 
this may have been the only ground for the ill-natured re- 
mark of Persons above related, who may have been ignorant 
of that which Philpot was ever aware of, that his accept- 
ance of a law-fellowship did not bind him to follow that 
profession, and was therefore entirely consistent with the 
intention, whether then or subsequently formed, of entering 
into the christian ministry. 

1 " Three Conversions," iii. 287. 

2 Collier's Eccl. Hist. Vol. iy. p. 240. 

a— 2 


Of the events which made up the history of the ensuing 
eight years of his life, we have no record ; the next account 
of him being the forfeiture of his fellowship in 1541, which 
" fell void," says Wood, "because of absence, being then on 
his travels." An incidental notice of these travels occurs in 
his "Examinations," where one of the civil commissioners, 
Dr Saverson, reminds Philpot that he had met with him abroad 
some time before. With what view he had gone upon foreign 
travel, may with tolerable certainty be concluded, if we con- 
sider the state of his own mind and the circumstances of 
the period during which he was an absentee from England. 
In the very year in which he was made an actual fellow of 
his college, the papal supremacy in England was annulled 
by parliament, and that of the king recognised ; the quarrel 
of Henry the eighth and of England with Rome became irre- 
concileable; the parliament 1 declared its own "authority to 
abrogate, null, amplify, diminish, or dispense with all human 
laws of this realm," and forbad the payments of faculties 
formerly made to the see of Rome ; the oath of supremacy 
to the king, under whom these ominous changes were made, 
was imposed ; and the determination of purpose with which 
it was to be exacted, was made conspicuous by the com- 
mittal to the tower of two recusants, though found among 
the highest orders both in church and state ; and finally, 
a complete edition of Luther's translation of the bible had 
come out. These occurrences had all been crowded into one 
year, 1534: and if we pass on to that immediately follow- 
ing, when we find the protestants so advanced in resoluteness 
as to refuse to attend the pope's summons to any council 
which might be convened in Italy, and behold the Refor- 
mation making progress in Geneva and Poland; we shall 

1 MS. Hist, of the persons educated at New College, Oxford, Bodl. 
MS. Rawl. Misc. 130, fol. 55, where he is termed • Constans Martyr pro 
Verbo Dei, regnante Maria regina.' 


perceive, in the events which only these two years developed, 
a character so plainly predictive of some mighty movement 
in things religious which the world should ere long witness, 
that, without pursuing the inquiry into subsequent years, we 
shall see abundant reasons why Philpot should desire at least 
a temporary absence from home. 

This then appeared to be a convenient period for seeking 
the advantages of foreign travel, to improve and expand his 
mind. He would escape from times that were troublous, and 
from the thorny (and usually unproductive) field of controversy. 
His absence excused him from witnessing the commencement 
of these days; but providence designed him both to witness and 
share the hottest portion of them. Italy was the country into 
which he travelled ; and there he dwelt principally at Rome : 
at all events some considerable period must have been passed 
in that city ; for we find one of his opponents attempting to 
account for Philpofs aversion to certain tenets of the Romish 
faith, from the corruption of manners which he had witnessed 
during his stay in that city, which had created a disgust 
towards the religion. Whilst travelling in Italy, the frank- 
ness of his disposition engaged him in conversation with 
those whom he met; and as his mind was full of the ab- 
sorbing subjects 1 of religious truth, he naturally adverted to 
it in his conferences with fellow-travellers. On one occasion, 
Sailing from Venice to Padua, he encountered a Franciscan 
friar, one who passed for a man of no common learning with 
his own people; but whom Philpot satisfactorily sifted, so 
as to pronounce him to be nothing more than a man well 
instructed in the scholastic subtilties of his day. With this 
friar Philpot held a discussion, which, while it enabled the 
latter to gage with exactness the theological depth of his 
opponent, so irritated the friar that he threatened to repre- 
sent him as a heretic on their arrival at Padua : but there 
is no account of his having carried this menace into 


execution. He who " restrains the fierceness of men, 
withheld the Franciscan from his vindictive purpose; and 
the Inquisition was cheated of a victim, who was re- 
served to be an offering upon the important cause of the 

Though Philpot had felt a growing conviction, for a length 
of time, that Romanism was untrue, it does not appear that 
he had as yet arrived at any positive conclusion respecting 
the system which was to be adopted in its stead. His mind 
had been long and deeply dissatisfied with the papal doc- 
trines; but had not yet worked out any definite set of 
views which should supply their place. It is to be believed 
that he quitted Oxford, on his Italian tour, with a strong 
disapprobation of Romanism; and, possibly, with a pre- 
sentiment that, if he returned to England, it would be 
to resist the system in which he had been nurtured : 
but a residence in the country and the metropolis of that 
religion formed a part of the process whereby his con- 
victions were to be deepened, and his faith assured. He 
would have too much wisdom not to discriminate between 
the wickedness that his eyes witnessed in Rome during his 
stay there, and the truth of the religion whose principal seat 
that corrupt city claimed to be ; and he could be in no 
danger of arriving at a false conclusion respecting Romish 
principles, when he mingled with the ecclesiastics of the 
country, and received his impressions of that faith from the 
lips of its own ministers. The expedition from Venice to 
Padua in the society of the friar was amongst the means 
which contributed to the deliverance of his mind from griev- 
ous error: arid we may well suppose that when he stood 
a prisoner in his own land at a tribunal not more equi- 
table than that with which the friar had endeavoured to 
frighten him in Italy, and was reminded of that journey in 
years gone by, the reminiscence was one which only served 


to nerve his resolution in that trying hour, by recalling to 
his thoughts the shallowness of the arguments by which it 
was sought to support the system which he was now ex- 
posing. It fixed his determination to oppose it, if he needs 
must, even " unto the death." 

When Philpot returned to England, he gave unequivocal 
evidence that his religious views were totally different from 
those in which he had been nurtured. This change had be- 
gun to work for several years before he travelled to Italy : 
it was matured and deepened by his residence in that country, 
and its plain fruits appeared, when, upon his return, he read 
lectures upon St Paul's Epistle to the Romans in the cathe- 
dral of Winchester, " which, though gratis," says Anthony 
Wood, " were not acceptable to the cathedral clergy or 
the citizens of that place." There is no record to fix the 
period at which he entered into holy orders : it is pretty 
clear that he had not taken that step before he went abroad ; 
and it is probable that he did not long defer it after his 
return, because he seems to have come back with all his 
doubts removed, and his mind finally made up as to the 
principles which he would advocate. Nor was this all : he 
was resolved not to " hide under a napkin " the truth which 
had been revealed to his heart. Many have been the in- 
stances of a conversion from error to truth, where the change 
has, apparently, amounted to nothing more than an aban- 
donment of false tenets, and an adoption of sound opinions in 
their place: but still opinions they are, and nothing more. 
The change has been from " darkness to light " mentally, 
without satisfactory evidence that the subject of that increased 
intellectual light has been turned from " the power of Satan 
unto God." We are warranted, however, from the whole 
tenour of Philpotfs life subsequently to his renunciation of 
Romish errors, as well as from many of his written senti- 
ments, to decide that his newly adopted views did not per- 


mit him to remain "barren or unfruitful" in divine know- 
ledge, but actively " alive unto God through Jesus Christ.'" 

Moved with a holy zeal in the cause of truth, he 
exercised his ministry in the furtherance of Reformation prin- 
ciples. His disinterested efforts in lecturing at Winchester 
have been referred to : we are informed too, that he preached 
much in different parts of that county ; by which latter course 
he rendered himself as obnoxious to bishop Gardiner, as by 
the former he had displeased his clerical brethren and the 
inhabitants of Winchester. But the impulse which guided 
him, and the explanation of his perseverance, are to be found 
in the confession of St Paul, " We have believed, and there- 
fore have spoken." Gardiner, as his ordinary, would have 
suppressed his teaching, but could not: which Strype thus 
records : "Stephen, bishop of Winton, now bare ill will against 
this godly gentleman, and forbad him preaching oftentimes in 
king Henry's reign. But he could not in his conscience hide 
his talent under this prince, and in so popish a diocese." 

The portion of scripture which Philpot chose for his lec- 
tures in Winchester cathedral is of so peculiar a character, 
as to justify us in regarding his selection of it as an index of 
the state of his mind. The key-note of that celebrated epistle 
is justification by the meritorious obedience of Christ, exclu- 
sive of any work of man. Such a doctrine, while it was 
directly contradictory of the Romish notion of human merit, 
Philpot knew to be the central truth of the gospel of Christ : 
he found it running as a bright silver stream through the 
epistles to the Galatians and Colossians, but with deep and 
swelling tide through that to the Romans. This, therefore, 
was his text-book ; and we may well imagine the fervour and 
the force with which he pressed home the conclusions which 
the strong mind of the apostle had so logically drawn from 
the fact that "both Jew and Gentile are all under sin." 
What were his views upon the great matters of which that 


epistle treats, is no speculation, since both his "Examina- 
tions" and "Letters" contain expressions which place his 
sentiments beyond all doubt, and shew that he did not 
fraternize with any views, which would virtually deny to jus- 
tification that plenary sufficiency, which scripture, unperverted 
by human glosses, plainly assigns to it. 

The advancement of Philpot to the archdeaconry of 
Winchester took place in the reign of Edward the Sixth ; but 
the precise time cannot be ascertained. His .predecessor was 
William Bolen, who had succeeded to the office in 1528, 
upon the resignation of Richard Pates, who became bishop 
of Worcester. Bolen held the office of archdeacon for twenty 
years; a duration which was in affecting contrast to the brief 
and suffering space permitted to his successor. It appears that 
bishop Gardiner had nominated him, prospectively, to the office 
of archdeacon; a promise which we might be inclined to 
suppose had been given many years before; since it would 
appear improbable that that prelate would have shewn any 
favour to him after his principles had become so changed as 
they were on his return from Italy. But however this be, 
the nomination which Gardiner had given him, it was left to 
his successor to make good. 

If Gardiner had been mistaken in his man, not so 
bishop Ponet, who found in Philpot all he desired. But the 
archdeaconry was not to be a resting-place for his feet. 
A misunderstanding arose between him and the bishop, 
through the malicious interference of one of that prelate's 
officials. Let Strype tell the story of this quarrel : " There 
was," writes that historian, " in the latter end of king Edward, 
an unhappy difference started between Poynet, the learned 
bishop of Winton, and him ; fomented and devised by Cook 
the register, a man that hated pure religion. He informed 
the said bishop, whether true or false I know not, that there 
was a yearly pension due to him from the archdeacon. This 


causing contention between them, hence intolerable troubles 
arose, and slanders in that diocese to them both; while so 
good a bishop, at the setting on of so rank a knave, could 
find in his heart to vex his brother, so conspicuous both 
for learning and for life. Another instance of Cook's malice 
towards the archdeacon was this: Cook, having married a 
lady, rode with more men than the archdeacon himself; 
and taking this opportunity of number of attendance, once 
forestalled the way between Winchester and Mr Philpot's 
sister's house, about three miles from the said city, whither 
he was going ; and, lying in wait for him, set his men upon 
him and sore beat him, overdone by number : for otherwise 
the archdeacon had as lusty a courage to defend himself, 
as in disputation against popish prelates to impugn their 
doctrine. But though he were thus beaten, hurt and wounded, 
yet remedy he could have none in the spiritual court, the 
bishop, as well as this his register, being in contest with 

History is far from being particular in recording the 
occupations of Philpot during the period that intervened 
between his return from Italy, and the eventful opening of 
Mary's reign. It has been remarked that he was not actu- 
ally made archdeacon of Winchester until bishop Ponet filled 
that see, to which that prelate was preferred upon the de* 
privation of Gardiner, probably in the autumn of 1550- 
His return to England could scarcely have taken place be^ 
fore the spring of 1547, when the persecution of the famous 
Six Articles was stopped, and liberty was given to all per j 
sons to profess their belief. At this time the doors of the 
prisons, which had held captive many faithful servants of 
God, were thrown open; and many returned to England, 
who had fled beyond the seas to enjoy that free exercise of 
conscience which is the inalienable right of every free-born 
man, but which the intolerance of the times had denied to 


not a few. Miles Coverdale, afterwards bishop of Exeter ; 
John Hooper, afterwards bishop of Gloucester; and John 
Rogers, subsequently appointed to a prebend in St Paul's, 
were among the most distinguished of those who had been 
invaded in the exercise of their liberty of conscience ; whose 
restoration to this privilege, in conjunction with Philpot, we 
may, in the absence of evidence, (in the latter case at least,) 
suppose to have taken place in the year when the persecut- 
ing edict had ceased to act. Zealous preaching of pure 
christian truth, and the careful fulfilment of his archidia- 
conal functions, seem to have filled up the space between 
his return to England and the commencement of Mary's 
reign. Whatever countenance Philpot was permitted to give 
to the rising cause of the Eeformation, whatever impression 
he was destined to make upon his times, was comprised within 
the narrow compass of time that, by the will of a mysterious 
providence, Edward was allowed to occupy the throne. 

The proceedings of his archdeacon were, meanwhile, jea- 
lously observed by Gardiner, the deprived bishop of Win- 
chester; and one who had been so diligently helping for- 
ward the obnoxious cause, would be unlikely to reap any great 
measure of kindness from that prelate, when the time should 
arrive for the recovery of his dignity. 

The year 1553, which saw Mary ascend the throne of 
England, witnessed the beginning of. sore troubles to the 
church. By the queen's command, the convocation had a 
summons to meet at St Paul's on the sixth day of October, 
when a sermon was preached by Harpsfield, the chaplain of 
bishop Bonner, now restored to the see of London. It may 
serve as an illustration of the temper of the prevalent party, 
to insert the abstract of this sermon with which Jeremy 
Collier 1 has furnished us. Harpsfield's " text was, ' Take heed 
therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock over which the 
1 Eccles. Hist. Vol. vi. p. 37, Lond. 1840. 


Holy Ghost has made you overseers.' From the words he 
took occasion to speak to three propositions: his first head 
was, how well St Paul practised his own doctrine; secondly, 
how much the late clergy managed wide of the apostle's 
exhortation ; and thirdly, he pointed out the methods for the 
discharge of what was commanded in the text. Under the 
second head he ran out into a violent invective against the 
management of the clergy in the late reign ; that they misbe- 
haved themselves to a remarkable degree, both with respect 
to government and private life. He charged them with inso- 
briety and epicurism, with flattering great men and servile 
applications to the court, with omissions in hospitality and 
regard to the poor, with boasting their great knowledge in 
the scriptures, and presuming to compare themselves with the 
most eminent fathers, whereas some of them mounted the 
pulpit from the shop, and were scarcely grammar high. 
Then, as to the care of their flocks, he said they had mi- 
serably mismanaged: they had made a breach in the unity 
of the church, poisoned the kingdom with heterodoxy, and 
misled great numbers to endless perdition. In short, he 
omitted nothing which might discover a passionate and un- 
friendly temper, and carried his satire to the last degree of 
roughness and reproach." This sermon, which with four 
orations was printed by Cawood, the queen's printer, in 
1554, is given at length by Strype, in his " Ecclesiastical 
Memorials 1 ." An interval of at least a fortnight elapsed 
between the sermon and the commencement of business. 
Cawood's book represents the 26th of that month (October) 
as the day when business began ; but Strype, after noticing 
the latter date, adds, "or rather the 16th," while Collier 
assigns the opening of the proceedings to the 18th day of 
the month. It is certain that " in the first session of this 
convocation all that was done was, that the bishops, by the 

1 Vol. iii. Pt. r. pp. 60—65. 


mouth of Bonner, admonished the lower house to choose a 
Keferendary or Prolocutor, and so adjourned. Dr Hugh 
Weston, dean of Westminster, that had some impediment in 
his speech, but otherwise a bold man, and that had never 
complied in the last reign, and in great favour with the queen, 
was elected, and the next session presented to the bishops 
by William Py, dean of Chichester, and John Wymsbesly, 
archdeacon of London, each of whom made a speech 2 ;" their 
address being followed by one from the bishop of London 3 . 

When the business of the convocation commenced (either 
on the 16th or 18th of October, 1553) two questions were 
first proposed for consideration, the forty-two Articles, and 
the Book of Common Prayer : and with the former question 
was associated the Catechism which had been published a 
short time before king Edward's death. On Friday the 20th 
of October, Weston the prolocutor presented to the house 
two bills, which had already obtained his own signature ; in 
the one of which, treating of the Catechism, that formulary 
was described as " pestiferous and full of heresies," as 
having been "foisted upon the last synod fraudulently, and 
therefore that the present synod disowned it 4 ." It was for 
his firm refusal to sign the document which branded a Cate- 
chism that had both truth and synodal authority on its side, 
quite as much as for his resistance to transubstantiation 
and the mass, that Philpot, at the close of this convoca- 
tion, was visited with the severe penalties which lighted upon 
his head. 

The account of the proceedings of the convocation are 
given so fully in the following pages, that to dwell upon 
them here is superfluous. It is impossible, however, to with- 
hold an expression of astonishment at the issue of this me- 

* Strype, Eccl. Mem. Vol. in. pp. 65 — 67. 

3 Strype, Ibid. Vol. iii. pp. 71—73. 

4 Strype, Mem. Cranm. Vol. i. p. 423. 


morable synod. It is scarcely credible, and would not be 
received as true unless established by undoubted historical 
testimony, that a meeting, to the members of which the 
queen had given " full liberty of speech," should have 
resulted in the severest treatment of one of its members 
who had claimed, but not abused, that liberty. Philpot was 
"excommunicated 'as contumacious,' without any personal 
citation, illegally deprived of his archdeaconry, and committed 
to the king's bench prison 1 ." 

In this durance, the wages of his intrepid advocacy of 
scriptural truth, Philpot remained for a period of very nearly 
two years. According to the most literal interpretation of 
the words, he had "suffered the loss of all things 2 :" but 
we know also from his own statements in his letters, that 
he " took joyfully the spoiling of his goods ;" and that the 
ground of this joy was the knowledge that he had "in 
heaven a better and an enduring substance 3 ." The seeming 
paradox of being " as sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing 4 ," was 
during his imprisonment vindicated and realized ; the secret 
of that " rejoicing being this, the testimony of his conscience, 
that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wis- 
dom, but by the grace of God, he had had his conversation 
in the world 5 ." 

If Philpot during his imprisonment was cheered by the 
" comfort of the Holy Ghost," so also was he not left 
destitute of the bodily presence of consoling friends. For 
associated with him in the bonds of the gospel were Ho- 
per, Farrar, Taylor, and Bradford ; in conjunction with the 
latter three of whom Philpot wrote a letter, "concerning 
the Freewillers," to Cranmer, Eidley, and Latimer, then 
prisoners in Oxford. Of this letter, written some time dur- 

1 Hist, of the Reformation by H. Soames, M.A. Vol. iv. p. 482. 

2 Philip, iii. 8. » Heb. x. 34. 
4 2 Cor. vi. 10. s 2 Cor. i. 12. 


ing the year 1554, Bradford was the composer, the other 
three signing it to express their concurrence in its senti- 
ments. The concluding sentence expresses in lively terms 
the readiness of each of these holy men " to be offered upon 
the service and sacrifice of" the christian "faith:" "All 
here (God therefore be praised !) prepare themselves willingly 
to pledge our Captain Christ, even when he will and how 
he will. By your good prayers we shall all fare the better; 
and therefore we all pray to you to cry to God for us, as 
we, God willing, do and will remember you. My brethren 
here with me have thought it their duty to signify this 
need to be no less than I make it, to prevent the planta- 
tions which may take root by these men 6 ." 

In the month of April, 1554, the famous disputations 
were held at Oxford, at the end of which Cranmer was con- 
demned for heresy. " It was such an imaginary victory as 
they had now got at Oxford, that they intended also to ob- 
tain at Cambridge; and much talk at this time arose, that 
Hoper, Rogers, Crome and Bradford, whom they had in 
prisons at London, were to be had to this university, to be 
baited as Cranmer, Bidley and Latimer, newly had been at 
Oxford ; and several of the doctors at Oxford should be sent 
in likewise to Cambridge for this purpose. But Hoper, Far- 
rar, Taylor, Philpot, Bradford, and the others, having the 
inkling of it, consulted among themselves what to do ; and 
resolved to decline it, unless they might have indifferent 
judges 7 ." A confidential messenger was dispatched to Ox- 
ford to obtain the opinion of the three illustrious prisoners 
in that place upon the question, whether it would be the 
duty of Philpot and his brethren to obey any summons which 
might be sent them to dispute at Cambridge. The purport 
of the answer which Eidley returned was, that he could not 

* Strype's Mem. of Cranm. Vol. ii. Appendix, No. lxxxiii. p. 958. 

7 Strype's Mem. of Cranm. Vol. ii. Appendix, No. lxxxiii. pp. 489, 490. 


blame them if they should decline to appear at Cambridge ; 
for that they could expect nothing but cruel handhng from 
the same commissioners as had acted at Oxford, ' though ye 
were as well learned,' (said he,) ' as ever was either Peter or 
Paul.' It was possible, however, that they might yet be in- 
duced to engage in such a disputation, if it should appear 
that important benefit might arise to their hearers. He 
abstained from giving any decisive counsel on the point, but 
trusted that "he whose cause they had in hand would put 
them in mind to do that which should be most for his glory, 
the profit of his flock, and their own salvation." 

The purpose of the authorities to hold a disputation at 
Cambridge became no longer doubtful, Weston and his as- 
sociates having taken out the commission. Hoper sent early 
intimation of the steps which were being taken to Philpot 
and his fellow-prisoners, urging them to "refuse wholly to 
dispute," unless the original authors from which their oppo- 
nents proposed to quote were brought forward, and unlessv 
also the reporters were placed under the obligation of an 
oath to give a true statement of what was uttered. More- 
over they were advised, in case they perceived any secret 
conferences being carried on, or any contemptuous language 
used by their opponents, to break off the disputation in the 
midst, and to appeal for a hearing before the queen. Such 
were the precautions employed : but Philpot and his brethren 
were spared the occasion which would have made them use- 
ful ; for it does not appear that the intended disputation was 
held. From the king's bench prison the Archdeacon was re- 
moved to the sessions'-house, by Newgate, on the second of 
October, 1555 ; and having been examined before the queen's 
commissioners, was by that board committed to the custody 
of bishop Bonner. 

We are indebted to Foxe, the martyrologist, for an 
interesting detail of the latter scenes of the life of this emi- 


neat man. He conducts the account from the time of his 
committal to Bonner's custody to the stake at Smithfield, 
on the eighteenth day of December, 1555. The glorious 
catastrophe of Philpot's career has denied to his memorialist 
the power of pointing to his monument or his grave. But 
"his sepulchre is with us unto this day;'''' not only in the 
existence of Smithfield, and the reminiscence which it con- 
tains of this venerable witness to Christ's truth, whose soul 
ascended amid flames kindled in the midst of its area : it is 
" with us 11 every time that we exclaim in the congregation, 
" The noble army of Martyrs praise thee.'" 

Herbert's Ames speaks of " A Epytaph of John Philpotte, 
1564 :" but the Editor has not been able to meet with it. 

* The death by which this holy man was enabled " to glorify 
God" might have been prevented, if he could have been in- 
duced to recant, or even so far to modify his former strong 
statements, as to give his judges a pretext for releasing him 
without compromising their characters as protectors of the 
church. The imprisonment of Philpot and his associates 
seems to have been protracted in order to intimidate them ; 
but the period of their incarceration was far otherwise em- 
ployed than in devising methods how they might escape the 
impending fate : the study of the scriptures, prayer and medi- 
tation, were the channels by which new vigour was imparted 
to their faith, and constancy to their resolution. 

The character of Philpot will ever be revered for his 
enlightened acquaintance with the scriptures, and his main- 
tenance of those scriptures in the midst of a dark and frown- 
ing generation ; for his deep personal conviction of the pre- 
ciousness of the gospel revelation of grace ; for his profound 
humility, and for the courage, tranquillity, and unshaken faith 
which he maintained through his severe ordeal and to the 
last extremity. 



The " Examinations" display nothing of doggedness, but 
the calm self-possession of an unwavering faith : and though 
the charge of insanity brought against him by his judges 
has been re-echoed by a Jesuit writer 1 inferior to none of them 
in rancour against the promoters of the Reformation; yet it 
will be evident to every reader of them, that in answer to 
such an imputation he might have adopted the language of 
one who, like himself, had stood at a tribunal for his faith: 
Acts xxvi. " J am no t m ad, but speak forth the words of truth and 

The " Letters" of Philpot are equally descriptive of the 
firmness of his purpose, whether for doing or suffering. They 
introduce us into the interior of his character: they shew a 
man immoveably rooted in the true faith, and intrepid in its 
defence ; but meek withal, and while himself abounding in 
the consolations of the Holy Ghost, able and anxious to 
" comfort others with the comfort with which he himself was, 
comforted of God." 

Of the "Apology for spitting upon an Arian" it is no 
disparagement to say, that it is the least gratifying of the 
productions of Philpot. The act, which gave occasion to the 
" Defence," was of so coarse a nature, that, even after making 
every allowance for the difference of manners in that day, one 
could heartily have desired that his zeal against the heresy, 
of Arianism had wanted such a manifestation. But having 
made this admission, we claim for the "Apology" that praise 
which is due to an honest indignation towards one of the 
most grievous errors which ever dishonoured the Saviour, 
or infected his church. If the language throughout this 
" Apology" is strong, it must be excused as the outburst 
of a righteous displeasure, not against the persons, but the 
tenets, of those whom he reproves. 

The treatise on the " Baptism of Infants," though unpre- 
1 Robert Persons or Parsons, in his " Three Conversions of England." 


tending in. its form, will be found to contain in a very short 
compass the most solid arguments for that practice, scriptu- 
naJIy sanctioned, and supported by the highest authorities. It 
contains, too, not a few statements of an unequivocal kind, 
as describing Philpot's views of that sacrament. They place 
him in a position equidistant from those who would make 
baptism a mere symbolical act, and from that other scheme, 
yet more subversive of the essential grace of the gospel, which 
describes that sacrament as the " exclusive" channel through' 
which the Holy Spirit renews the soul. From each of these 
extremes Philpot was far removed. It may here be remarked 
thai, though his writings contain no express dissertation upon 
the other sacrament, yet the tone of his opinions thereupon, 
contrasted as they so strongly are with the transubstantiation 
view, can hardly be mistaken. At all events, had he reck- 
oned the benefits of the atonement to be conveyed by that 
sacrament as an "exclusive" instrument to that end, he 
could scarcely have failed to drop a hint to that effect, on 
some one of the many occasions on which he speaks with 
fervency of the precious truth of justification. 

Little doubt can exist as to the author of the account 
of the " Disputation in the convocation-house, 1 '' as it appears 
in the following work. It is not likely that two accounts of 
it would have been penned; and that Philpot was the au-^ 
thor of one, the historian above referred to has expressly 
informed us: "There was a true report of the disputation 
of these men at the Convocation, which Philpot, one of the 
disputants, wrote, and had it printed ; which he owned at 
one of his examinations before the bishop of London and 
others; and perhaps may be the same we have extant in 
Fox's Monuments." Strype, Mem. Cranm. p. 461. 

It is a subject of much regret, that the treatise " De 
Vero Christiani Sacrificio" does not make a part of "the 
present volume. But it is far from clear that this work was 

b— -2 


ever completed by the author. The above Latin title is 
found in some lists of Philpot's works; but the authority 
for its insertion does not appear. In a note to p. 1574 of 
Herbert's Ames, is an allusion to the " Trewe sacryfyce of 
a Chrysten man,''' not as a work then in being, but which 
might, ere long, be given to the world. We cannot but 
lament that the sentiments of Philpot on such a subject 
have not come down to us: they would be in instructive 
contrast with that grand error of the sacrifice of the mass, 
against which he so valiantly contended even unto death. 

The translation of Curio on the "olde and awncyent 
authoritie of Christes churche," is now first printed from 
a MS. in the British Museum. That it is Philpot's pro- 
duction, can scarcely be questioned. The dedication bears 
the name of John Philpot ; and his previous travels in Italy 
may readily account for his mind being directed to, and 
interested in, the progress of the Reformation in that country. 
But the chief evidence of its genuineness is of an internal 
character; since it treats of that subject which was the hinge 
of the whole controversy of those times, as well as the main 
topic of dispute between himself and his opponents. His 
refusal to admit the authority of the church in their sense 
formed the platform of his resistance to the dogmas of tran- 
substantiation and the mass. For these reasons, though it 
is not an original work of Philpot, its publication appeared 
very desirable. 

The entire works of Philpot, as stated jointly by Watt 
in his " Bibliotheca Britannica," and by Chalmers in his 
"Biographical Dictionary,*" are as follows: 

I. The Examinations; Lond. 1559, 4to., of which there 
is another edition, without date, to which is added, 

II. An Apology of John Philpot, written for spitting 
upon an Arian, &c. 


The " Examinations" were drawn up by Philpot in English, 
and afterwards translated into Latin by John Foxe, the mar- 
tyrologist, when he was in exile. " These things," (says 
Strype, Mem. Cranm. p. 515,) "Foxe put into Latin (as 
he had an excellent Latin style), and printed with this title : 
' Mira ac elegans cum primis Historia, vel Tragoedia potius, 
de tota ratione Examinationis et condemnationis J. Philpotti 
Archidiaconi Wincestrise, nuper in Anglia exusti : Ab autore 
primum lingua sua congesta; nunc in Latinam versa, inter- 
prete J. F. A/" 

III. Supplication to King Philip and Queen Mary. 

IV. Letters. Foxe. 

V. Disputation in the Convocation-house : of which the 
Latin title is "Vera Expositio Disputationis institutse man- 
dato D. Marise Reginse, Ang. etc. in Synodo ecclesiastico 
Londini in Comitiis Regni ad 18 Oct. anno 1553." Printed 
in Latin at Rome, 1554 ; and in English at Basil. 

VI. Translation of Ccelius Secundus Curio's " Defence 
of the Old and Ancient Authority of Christ's Church." 

VII. De Vero Christiani sacrificio. 

VIII. Translation of Calvin's Homilies. 

IX. Translation of Chrysostom against Heresies. 

X. Epistolae Hebraic*. 

XI. De Proprietate Linguarum. 

The last five in this enumeration have not been found, 
and are probably not extant. The latter four, even had they 
been met with, would scarcely have been suited to the ob- 
jects of the " Parker Society." 

The manuscripts relating to Philpot, in Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, were examined by the Editor: but the 
search did not end in the discovery of any additional papers. 


The thanks of the members of the Parker Society are 
due, and are now in their name offered by the Editor, to 
the Rev. J. Allport, M. A., of Birmingham ; the Eev. J. 
Mendham, of Sutton Coldfield ; and to the Eev. T. P. Pan- 
tin, M. A., Rector of Westcote, Gloucestershire, for several 
important communications: nor less to the Rev. S. R. 
Maitland, M. A., Librarian to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who gave to the Editor ready access to the Library 
at Lambeth Palace. 

nation of fbe tomtantt fflattix of 

©tjrtet, Uojti tffiilpot, arcffreacon of £28iiu 

cljegter, at eun&rj? seasons, in tlje tpme of 

?>ps 0ore tmprisonemente, comtenteft and 

ftaiteft, ae in tflese particular tragedies 

foloftgnge, it mage (not onlg to tfje 

christen instruction, Jiut also 

to t&e merp recreation of 

ti&e indifferent realrer) 

moste manifestly 


Reade fyrst, and then iudge. 

When the waters arose, the floudde bet 
vpon this house, and could not moue 

it : for it was builded vpon a rock, 

Luc. 6. 

And the rocke was Christe. 
2 Corinth. 10. 








in 1555. 

Edmund Boner (or Bonner), who acted a memorable part in the Bishop of 
eventful age wherein his life was cast, was a student of Broadgate Hall, 
now Pembroke College, Oxford. He was nominated to the see of 
Hereford toward the end of 1538; but before his consecration was 
transferred to London, which diocese was the grand arena of his activity. 
In 1549 he was deprived, and committed to the Marshalsea prison ; but 
was restored to his see in the first year of Mary's reign. The rejection 
of the oath of supremacy on Elizabeth's accession to the throne was 
followed by the loss of his see. An ecclesiastical historian speaks of 
him as one "who had gone through several embassies; but lost himself 
by his persecuting temper and harsh management." (Collier's Eccl. 
Hist.) His brutal conduct is too notorious to need remark. 

Nicholas Heath, descended from the Heaths of Aspley, near Tarn- Archbishop 
worth, began his academical course at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, ofYo^ "• 
but removed thence to Clare Hall, Cambridge, took orders, and was 
afterwards archdeacon of Stafford. He was consecrated bishop of 
Rochester in 1539, being then almoner to Henry the Eighth, and was 
thence translated to Worcester, which see he held until the beginning of 
Edward's reign, when he was (1549-50) committed as a prisoner to the 
Fleet, as "being no friend to that king or reformation." When Mary 
came to the throne, he was restored to his bishopric, upon the deprivation 
of Hooper. Bishop Heath stood so high in this queen's favour, that he 
was made by her, not only lord president of Wales, but archbishop of 
York. On Elizabeth's accession, in Nov. 1558, (cardinal Pole, archbishop 
of Canterbury, being dead,) the duty of anointing and crowning Eliza- 
beth devolved upon Heath; but refusing, in common with all the other 
bishops except one, and declining also, the next year, to acknowledge 
the new queen's supremacy over the church, he was deprived of the 



Bishop of 

Bishop of 
and Coven- 

Bishop of 

archbishopric, and committed to custody for a time. During the rem- 
nant of his days he lived, a prisoner at large, at Cobham in Surrey; and 
there at length dying, was buried in the chancel of that church. 

Cuthbert Tonstall (or Tunstal) was born in Yorkshire in 1476. 
He became a member of the University of Oxford in 1491 ; but left it, 
with many others, on account of the plague which broke out about 
that time, and proceeded to Cambridge. From that place, after no long 
stay, he proceeded to the University of Padua, in Italy. After his re- 
turn, being LL.D. (of Padua, as is supposed) he was appointed, in suc- 
cession, archdeacon of Chester, prebendary of York, and vicar general 
to Warham, archbishop of Canterbury. He was afterwards made 
master of the rolls, and keeper of the seals, and was employed abroad 
in matters of the highest moment. In 1521, he was made dean of 
Salisbury; and not long after bishop of London, to which he was 
consecrated in October, 1522. Tonstall was translated to the see of 
Durham, of which it was attempted to deprive him by a bill brought 
into parliament, which failed of its object: he was, however, subse- 
quently deprived by a commission. On the accession of Mary he 
was set at liberty from the custody in which he had been placed, and 
restored to his see: but when Elizabeth came to the crown, he 
shared the lot of all those bishops (and their number included the 
whole bench except Kitchin, of LlandafF,) who rejected the oath of 
supremacy, by being deprived of his see, which sentence took effect 
about September, 1559-60. He has been described as "a prelate 
thoroughly accomplished in the polite part of learning." 

Ralph Baines, born in Yorkshire, was educated at St John's 
College, Cambridge. After taking the degree of D.D. he went to Paris, 
where for some time he was royal professor of Hebrew. He remained 
abroad during the latter part of Henry the Eighth's reign, and through- 
out that of Edward the Sixth: but when Mary obtained the crown, 
he returned into England, and was made bishop of Lichfield and Co- 
ventry, which dignity he retained until the first year of queen Elizabeth, 
when he was deprived and imprisoned for refusing to take the oath 
of supremacy. He died in 1559, the first year of his imprisonment, 
having published only one work: In Proverbia Salomonis, L. 3. 

Richard Pates, a native of Oxfordshire, was admitted scholar of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1522. After taking his degree of 
B.A. he went to Paris, and became M.A. of that University. Re- 
turning to England, he became successively archdeacon of Winchester 
and Lincoln. He went abroad in several embassies: and is mentioned 
in 1534, as being resident in the emperor's court; and again in 1540, 
in which year a passport was made for him by secretary Cromwell 
to Calais, to reside with the emperor as ambassador from the king of 
England. He was made bishop of Worcester, probably upon the re- 
signation of Latimer. At all events, he was " designed" to that office, 
at that time, by Henry the Eighth. In 1542, he was attainted of high 
treason and deprived of his spiritualities : he remained in banishment 
the whole of Edward the Sixth's reign, during which time he sat and 


assisted at the council of Trent. Mary ascending the throne, bishop 
Pates was recalled home, and restored to his see of Worcester in 1554; 
but upon the next change of church affairs (the first of Elizabeth) re- 
fusing to take the oath of supremacy, he was deprived; and, going 
abroad, re-appeared at Trent at the closing of the council. He was 
living in 1562, but how long after is not certainly known. Of bishop 
Pates Antony a Wood says : " He was a learned man, of a peaceable 
disposition, zealous in the faith he professed, yet always against in- 
dicting corporal punishments on such that were opposite in religion 
to him." 

Robert Warton, alias Parfbw, alias Purfoy, was translated to the Bishop of 
see of Hereford from St Asaph April 24, 1554; died Sept. 22, 1557; Hereford - 
and was buried in his own cathedral. 

George Day was restored to the bishopric of Chichester in 1553, Bishop of 
on the deprivation of John Scory : he died on the 2nd of August, 1556. Chichester « 
He was originally confirmed in this see on the 5th of May, 1543 ; de- 
prived of it, Oct. 10, 1551 ; and then succeeded by John Scory. 

Maurice Griffyth (or Griffyn) by birth a Welchman, and, in Bishop of 
respect of ecclesiastical order, a Dominican or Black Friar, received Rochester ' 
his "academical education, for a time, among those of his profession 
in their house in the south suburb of Oxon," and was admitted Bachelor 
of Canon Law in February, 1533. He was appointed to the arch- 
deaconry of Rochester; and subsequently, upon the translation of Scory 
to the see of Chichester, was made bishop of Rochester, to which he 
was consecrated " in St Saviour's church, Southwark, by Stephen, 
bishop of Winchester," in April, 1554. He ended his days either in 
November or December, 1559, and was buried in the church of St 
Magnus, London Bridge, which living he seems to have held, with his 
bishopric, until his death. 

Thomas Goldwell, of a Kentish family, took the degrees of M.A. Bishop of 
and B.D. successively in the years 1531 and 1533, being a member of sap 
All Souls College, Oxford, where he was distinguished by his attain- 
ments in astronomy and other mathematical sciences. He was a zealous 
Romanist, and "was attainted with cardinal Pole in 1538, and lived 
with him beyond sea in the times of Henry the Eighth and Edward 
the Sixth, and was employed by the cardinal to carry his letters to 
queen Mary, by whom he was promoted to the bishopric of St Asaph, 
in 1555." Soon after, he induced the pope to renew the indulgences 
granted to those who went on pilgrimages to St Winifred's well at 
Holywell, in Flintshire. Refusing to make the required compliance 
on the accession of Elizabeth, he was deprived, and " conveying himself 
away beyond the seas," presented himself at the council of Trent under 
Pope Pius in 1562. The remainder of his life was for the most part 
passed at Rome; where "he lived very pontificially among the Thea- 
tines," and was appointed by the pope to baptize Jews there, and to 
confer orders on Englishmen who should fly thither for religion's sake. 
In 1580, it was proposed that bishop Goldwell should go over to 
England to perform episcopal offices for the English Romanists, their 


only bishop being Dr Thomas Watson, who was at that time confined 
in Wisbeach castle. For this purpose he proceeded as far as Rheims ; 
but his strength failing him, he returned to Rome, and died soon after, 
being more than eighty years old. He was esteemed among the English- 
men at Rome "a, most useful person; and was had in great veneration 
for his learning," having (as Wood was informed) written one or more 

At Ravenna, in Italy, is a convent of Theatines ; where, among the 1 
pictures of several famous men of their order, there is one, the inscrip- 
tion of which speaks of Goldwell as " Fidei confessor conspicuus." 

Bishop of James Brooks (or Brokes), a native of Hampshire, was elected 


fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1531. He took the degree 

of D.D. in 1546, and the following year was elected master of Balliol 

College ; was " chaplain or almoner to bishop Gardiner," and at length 

by queen Mary appointed bishop of Gloucester, upon the deprivation 

of John Hooper. In 1555, he was delegated by the pope to examine 

and try Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley. " He was a person very learned 

in the time he lived, an eloquent preacher, and a zealous maintainer of 

the Roman Catholic religion, as well in his sermons as writings, some of 

which are published, as 

1. Sermon at St Paul's Cross in the first year of queen Mary on 
Matt. ix. 18. 

2. Oration in St Mary's Church in Oxon. 12th March, 1555, to 
Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury. 

3. Oration in closing up the examination of Thomas Cranmer, 
archbishop of Canterbury 1 ." 

Upon Elizabeth's accession, being summoned to take the oath of 
supremacy, he refused, was deprived, and committed to prison, and died 
in 1559-60. He was buried in Gloucester cathedral, but no monument 
Bishop of Gilbert Bourn, son of Philip Bourn of Worcestershire, and 

WeUs? nd brother to Sir John Bourn, principal secretary of state, was a fellow 
of All Souls College, Oxford, in 1531. Ten years afterwards, he was 
made one of the first prebendaries of Worcester upon the erection of 
that church into a cathedral body. In 1549, he supported the Reforma- 
tion, and was successively archdeacon of Bedford, Essex, and Middlesex, 
also canon of St Paul's. In the beginning of queen Mary's reign, he 
became so zealous for the Romish cause, that preaching at Paul's Cross 
in behalf of Bonner, then present, a dagger was thrown at him by one 
of the hearers. Soon after, in the year 1554, he was made bishop of 
Bath and Wells, in the place of William Barlow; and at no distant 
period, was appointed lord president of Wales. He remained in great 
favour during the reign of Mary; but when Elizabeth succeeded, he 
was deprived of his bishopric for denying her supremacy. He was a 
prisoner at large under the inspection of Dr Cary, the dean of Exeter, 
devoting himself to reading and contemplation. He died at Silverton 

1 Ant. a Wood.Athen. Ox. 


in Devonshire, Sept. 10, 1669, and was buried in the chancel of the 
parish church. 

Henry Morgan, a native of Wales, entered at Oxford about 1515, Bishop of 
where becoming distinguished by his knowledge in the civil and canon " avi b ' 
laws, he was appointed principal of St Edmund's Hall, at that time 
a noted house for civilians. On the deprivation of Robert Ferrar, he 
became his successor in the bishopric of St David's; but was himself 
deprived in 1559, for refusing to make the required compliances. The 
remainder of his days he passed among his relations at Godstow, near 
Oxford, where he died in December, 1559. 

William Glynn was a fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge, in Bishop of 
which university he took the degree of D.D. Upon the death of Arthur Ban s OT 
Bulkeley, LL.D., bishop of Bangor, in 1552, he was nominated his 
successor, and was consecrated in ] 655, the bishopric remaining vacant 
for more than two years. He died in 1558. 

Henry Cole was born at Godshill, in the Isle of Wight, and edu- Dean of 
cated in Wykeham's School near Winchester. He was admitted true * au s- 
and perpetual Fellow of New College, Oxford, in 1523; and having 
there read civil law, he travelled some years after into Italy, and tarried 
some time at Padua, prosecuting his studies. Returning to England, and 
having settled in London, he proceeded to the degree of Doctor in 
Civil Law in 1540; and the same year resigned his fellowship, being- 
then an advocate in the Court of Arches. He was afterwards made 
prebendary of Salisbury, and about the same time archdeacon of Ely, 
in the room of Richard Coxe. In 1542 he was elected to the warden- 
ship of New College; and, two years afterwards, was made rector of 
Newton Longville, in Bucks. Soon after, when Edward the Sixth came 
to the crown, he was a supporter of the reformation, an admirer of 
Peter Martyr, "a frequenter of protestant service, and a receiver of the 
holy communion according to their way": he upheld the reformation 
principles in a sermon at St Martyn's (Carfax), Oxford; and was in 
other respects an approver of the proceedings of Edward VI. In 1551 
he resigned his wardenship, and the year after, his rectory : in 1554 he 
was made provost of Eton College, of which he had been fellow, and the 
same year had the degree of D.D. conferred upon him. It was not long 
after that he was appointed one of the commissioners to visit the uni- 
versity of Cambridge ; and became dean of St Paul's on the removal of 
Dr Feckenham to Westminster; being nominated vicar-general of the 
spiritualities under Cardinal Pole in 1556, and in 1558 one of the 
overseers of the said cardinal's will. When Elizabeth came to the 
throne, Dr Cole, with John Whyte, bishop of Winchester, and five other 
zealous Romanist divines, " did dispute with as many protestant divines 
concerning matters of religion ; but that dispute (where this Dr Cole 



of London. 

Dean of 

Dean of 

was spokesman), coming to nothing/' he was deprived of his deanery, 
to make way for Dr W. May, Master of Trinity College, Camhridge. 
''About that time," says Antony Wood, "Dr Cole was imprisoned; 
but where, I cannot tell ; but he died in or near the Compter, in Wood- 
street, London, in December, 1579." Leland, in his " Encomia," gives 
a high character of Cole's learning. 

John Harpsfield was born in the parish of St Mary Magdalene, 
Old Fish-street, London, and educated at Winchester school. Being 
elected thence to New College, Oxford, he became a fellow of that 
society in 1534; but quitted his fellowship in 1551, being then bene- 
ficed in London. He was made archdeacon of London in 1554; in 
which capacity he aided Bonner in his various plans and proceedings, 
being a man of a kindred spirit with the bishop, who had probably 
been first attracted to him by discovering such a similarity of views. 
In 1558, Harpsfield was appointed dean of Norwich, but was forced 
to leave it to make room for John Salisbury, suffragan bishop of 
Thetford. After Elizabeth had come to the throne, he was committed 
to the Fleet for not acknowledging her ecclesiastical supremacy; but 
was released upon condition that he should not act, speak, or write 
against the doctrine of the Church of England. Hereupon retiring to 
the house of a relative dwelling in St Sepulchre's parish, he passed 
the remainder of his days in retiredness and devotion. He died in 
1578, and was (probably) buried in the church of St Sepulchre. 

James Cubthopp (or Curthorp) was educated at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford ; and took the degree of M.A. in 1546. He afterwards 
became canon of Christ Church ; and, in the beginning of Mary's reign, 
dean of Peterborough. He died July 19, 1557. 

John Christophebson, a native of Lancashire, was educated at 
St John's College, Cambridge, where he took the degree of D.D., and 
became master of Trinity College. During Edward's reign he lived 
abroad ; but returning on Mary's accession, was raised to the deanery 
of Norwich in 1554, and placed in the see of Chichester in 1557. In 
the first year of Elizabeth he was deprived, and died soon after, and 
was buried in Christ Church, London. He wrote translations of Philo's 
works, of the Greek ecclesiastical historians, and of the fathers. 

Henry Pendleton was born in Lancashire, and entered at Braseri 
Nose College, Oxford, about 1538. He took the degree of D.D. in 
Edward the Sixth's reign, being then probably well disposed towards the 
Reformation. However, in Mary's reign he proved by his sermons, and 
the part he took in the contests with the friends of the Reformation, that 
his preferences were on the Romish side. In the first year of Elizabeth 
he was deprived of his preferments and committed to prison. The time 
of his death is not known. 


John Stohy was a student of civil law at Oxford. In 1531 he CMl Corn- 
took the degree of B.C.L. ; and in 1535 was appointed professor of a new 
lecture in law, founded by Henry the Eighth : he was made principal of 
Broadgate Hall (now Pembroke College) in 1537 ; and the following 
year took the degree of D.C.L. He was a zealous adherent to the 
Romish communion, and withdrew into Flanders in the reign of Edward 
the Sixth ; but returned to England on Mary's accession, the patent of 
his professorship at Oxford being restored to him. Being employed in 
matters relating to canon law in the courts held in London, and being 
made chancellor of Oxford, he became very active in prosecuting the 
protestants in the reign of Mary. After Elizabeth had come to the 
throne, Story, who was then a member of the House of Commons, spoke 
so warmly against the religious changes then being introduced, that he 
was committed to custody; out of which, however, he escaped to Flan- 
ders, and obtained an advantageous post in the Custom House of Antwerp. 
This place he subsequently quitted for England about the beginning of 
1570; and on his return was imprisoned in the Tower, from which he 
might have escaped, if he had consented to take the oath of supremacy : 
this, however, he persisted in refusing to do, being animated to such 
resoluteness by Feckenham, who was a prisoner at the same time. He 
was executed at Tyburn, June 1, 1571, dying an unshaken assertor of 
Romanist principles. 

WiiiLiAM Roper, son of John Roper of Eltham in Kent, (who was 
some time attorney general to Henry the Eighth), was clerk of the 
King's Bench, and married the daughter of Sir Thomas More. He 
died Jan. 4, 1577, having been the author of " The Life of Sir Thomas 
More," MS. published 1712. 










"Next followeth the constant martyrdom of master John 
Philpot, of whom partly ye heard before in the beginning 
of queen Mary's time, in prosecuting the disputation of the 
convocation-house. He was of a worshipful house, a knight's p i"ipot, a 

1 ° knight's 

son, born in Hampshire, brought up in the New College in son > and a 
Oxford, where he studied the civil law the space of six or 1 ( ?^[ 1 i ^ e New 
seven years, besides the study of other liberal arts, especially Oxford. 
of the tongues, wherein very forwardly he profited, namely, 
in the knowledge of the Hebrew tongue, &c. In wit he 
was pregnant and happy, of a singular courage, in spirit fer- 
vent, in religion zealous, and also well practised and exer- 
cised in the same (which is no small matter in a true divine), 
of nature and condition plain and apert, far from all flattery, 
further from all hypocrisy and deceitful dissimulation. What 
his learning was, his own examinations penned of his own 
hand can declare. 

From Oxford, desirous to see other countries as occa- 
sion served thereunto, he went over into Italy and places ™|P°* ver 
thereabouts ; where he, coming upon a time from Venice to to Italy. 

C 1 The text of the " Examinations" (including the title and intro- 
duction) is taken from the edition of Foxe's Acts, published in 1597; 
any differences between that text and the original edition printed 1556, 
without the printer's name, entitled " The Examination of the constant 
martyr of Christ, John Philpot," (see Herbert's Typographical Antiqui- 
ties, Vol. in. p. 1588.) being marked in the notes.] 



Padua, was in danger through a certain Franciscan friar 
accompanying him in his journey, who, coming to Padua, 
Thcretum sought to accuse him of heresy. At length returning into 
into England his country again, as the time ministered more 

boldness to him in the days of king Edward, he had divers 
conflicts with Gardiner the bishop in the city of Winchester, 
as appeareth by divers of Winchester's letters, and his exa- 
minations ; whereof read before. 
rimpot After that, having an advowson by the said bishop, he 

archdeacon ° J i . 

of winches- yvas made there archdeacon of Winchester, under Dr Poinet, 

ter. . . ' 

who then succeeded Gardiner in that bishopric. Thus, during 
the time of king Edward, he continued to no small profit 
of those parts thereabout. AVhen that blessed king was taken 
away, and Mary his sister came in place, whose study was 
wholly bent to alter the state of religion in the woful realm 
of England, first she caused a convocation of the prelates 
and learned men to be congregated to the accomplishment 
of her desire. 

In the which convocation master Philpot being present 
according to his room and degree, with a few others, sus- 
tained the cause of the gospel manfully against the adver- 
sary part (as is above recited) ; for the which cause, not- 
withstanding the liberty of the house promised before, he 
was called to account before bishop Gardiner the chancellor, 
then being his ordinary, by whom he was first examined, 
Philpot sent although that examination came not yet to our hands. From 

from Uarili- . . . 

nertouon- thence again he was removed to Bonner and other commis- 
sioners, with whom he had divers and sundry conflicts, as 
in his examinations here following may appear. 

the first The first Examination of Master John Phil- 
examination. po t before the queen's commissioners, Master 
Cholmley, Master Roper, and Dr Story, and one of the scribes 
of the Arches, at Newgate Sessions 1 Hall, October the 2nd, 

w,?nfs S io Dr St01 7' before I was called into an inner parlour where 

Philpot. tney ga ^ came Qut mto tne j m jj w j, ere I wag} tQ v j ew me amon g 

others that there were, and passing by me said, " Ha! Master 


Philpot ;" and, in returning immediately again, stayed against 
me, beholding me, and saying that I was well fed indeed. 

Philpot : — " If I be ftit and in good liking, master doc- 
tor, it is no marvel, since I have been stalled up in prison 
this twelve months and a half, in a close corner. I am 
come to know your pleasure, wherefore you have sent for me." 

Story : — " We hear that thou art a suspect person, and of 
heretical opinions; and therefore we have sent for thee." 

Philpot: — "I have been in prison thus long, only upon c?" se °, f 
the occasion of the disputation made in the convocation-house, ™pns<m- 
and upon suspect 1 of the setting forth the report thereof." 

Story : — " If thou wilt revoke the same, and become an 
honest man, thou shalt be set at liberty, and do right well : 
or else thou shalt be committed to the bishop of London. 
Hq,w sayest thou ? wilt thou revoke it or no ?" 

Philpot : — " I have already answered in this behalf to 
mine ordinary." 

Story: — "If thou answerest thus, when thou comest be- 
fore us anon, thou shalt hear more of our minds :" and with 
that he went into the parlour, and I within a little while 
after was called in. 

The Scribe: — "Sir, what is your name?" 

Philpot : — " My name is John Philpot." And so he in- 
tituled my name. 

Story: — "This man was archdeacon of Winchester, of 
Dr Poinefs presentment." 

Philpot : — " I was archdeacon indeed, but none of his 
presentment, but by the virtue of a former advowson, given 
by my lord chancellor that now is." 

Story : — " Ye may be sure that my lord chancellor would 
not make any such as he is archdeacon." 

Boper .— " Come hither to me, master Philpot. We hear 
say that you are out of the catholic church, and have been 
a disturber of the same ; out of the which whoso is, he can- 
not be the child of salvation. Wherefore, if you will come 
into the same, you shall be received, and find favour." 

Philpot :— " I am come before your worshipful masterships ™Jp* 
at your appointment, understanding that you are magistrates p^ ^ a 
authorized by the queen's majesty, to whom I owe, and will j^f ' 6 

„ . . n called to liis 

[/ Suspect: SUSpiClon.J answer. 


do, my due obedience to the uttermost. Wherefore I de- 
sire to know what cause I have offended in, wherefore I am 
now called before you. And if I cannot be charged with 
any particular matter done contrary to the laws of this realm, 
I desire your masterships that I may have the benefit of a 
subject, and be delivered out of my long wrongful imprison- 
ment, where I have lien this twelvemonth and this half, with- 
out any calling to answer before now, and my living taken 
from me without all law." 
No particu- Roper : — " Though we have no particular matter to charge 

lar matter . 1,11 •• 11,1 

but sus- you withal, yet we may, both by our commission and by the 

picion. J J . . . „ , j 

law, drive you to answer to the suspicion ol a slander going 
on you: and, besides this, we have statutes to charge you 
herein withal." 

Philpot ••— " If I have offended any statute, charge me 
therewithal ; and if I have incurred the penalty thereof, 
punish me accordingly. And because you are magistrates 
and executors of the queen's majesty's laws, by force whereof 
you do now sit, I desire that, if I be found no notorious 
transgressor of any of them, I may not be burdened with 
more than I have done." 

Cholmley : — " If the justice do suspect a felon, he may 
examine him upon suspicion thereof, and commit him to 
prison though there be no fault done." 

Story : — " I perceive whereabout this man goeth. He is 
plain in Cardmaker's case, for he made the selfsame allega- 
tions. But they will not serve thee ; for thou art a heretic, and 
holdest against the blessed mass. How sayest thou to that V 

Philpot : — "I am no heretic." 

Story : — " I will prove thee a heretic. Whosoever hath 
holden against the blessed mass is a heretic : but thou hast 
holden against the same ; therefore thou art a heretic." 

Philpot : — " That which I spake, and which you are able 
to charge me withal, was in the convocation, where, by the 
queen's majesty's will and her whole council, liberty was given 
to every man of the house to utter his conscience, and to 
say his mind freely of such questions in religion, as there 
were propounded by the prolocutor; for the which now I 
thought not to be molested and imprisoned as I have been, 
neither now be compelled of you to answer to the same." 


Stogy: — "Thou shaft go to the Lollards' Tower, and be 
handled there like a heretic, as thou art; and answer to 
the same that thou there didst speak ; and be judged by 
the bishop of London.' 1 • 

Philpot: — "I have already been convented of this matter Philpot a P . 
before my lord chancellor, mine ordinary, who this long time ws oW 
hath kept me in prison. Therefore, if his lordship will take 
my life away, as he hath done my liberty and living, he may ; 
the which I think he cannot do of his conscience, and there- 
fore hath let me lie thus long in prison: wherefore I am 
content to abide the end of him herein that is mine ordinary, 
and do refuse the auditory of the bishop of London, because 
he is an incompetent judge for me, and not mine ordinary." 

Story : — " But, sir, thou spakest the words in the convo- 
cation-house, which is of the bishop of London's diocese ; and 
therefore thou shalt be carried to the Lollards' Tower to be 
judged by him for the words thou spakest in his diocese 
against the blessed mass." 

Philpot : — " Sir, you know by the law, that I may have 
' Exceptionem fori 1 :' and it is against all equity that I should 
be twice vexed for one cause, and that by such as by the 
law have nothing to do with me." 

Eoper: — "You cannot deny but that you spake against 
the mass in the convocation-house." 

Story : — " Dost thou deny that which thou spakest there, 
or no?" 

Philpot: — "I cannot deny that I have spoken there; and 
if by the law you may put me to death therefore, I am 
here ready to suffer whatsoever I shall be judged unto." 

The Scribe : — " This man is fed of vain glory." 

Cholmley : — " Play the wise gentleman, and be conform- 
able ; and be not stubborn in your opinions, neither cast your- 
self away. I would be glad to do you good." 

Philpot :— " I desire you, sir, with the rest here, that I ™Jp* 
be not charged further at your hands than the law chargeth^^" 11111 
me, for that I have done, since there was then no law di- ,v0Uld bear - 
rectly against that wherewith I am now charged. And you, 

C 1 'Exceptio fori' was the defendant's 'Exception against the court/ 
the entry of his protest against some part of the charge, or the mode 
of proceeding against him.] 


master doctor (of old acquaintance in Oxford), I trust will 
shew me some friendship, and not extremity ." 

Story: — "I tell thee, if thou wouldst be a good catholic 
man, I would be thy friend, and spend my gown to do thee 
good; but I will be no friend to a heretic, as thou art, 
but will spend both my gown and my coat, but I will burn 
thee. How sayest thou to the sacrament of the altar? 11 

Philpot : — " Sir, I am not come now to dispute with 
your mastership, and the time now serveth not thereto, but 
to answer to that I may be lawfully charged withal." 

Story : — " Well, since thou wilt not revoke that thou hast 
done, thou shalt be had into the Lollards 1 Tower." 
Phiipot re- Philpot : — "Sir, since you will needs shew me this ex- 

quirethto . 

see their tremity, and charge me with my conscience, I do desire to 

commission. •" e> J ' 

see your commission, whether you have this authority so to 
do ; and after the view thereof I shall (according to my duty) 
make you further answer, if you may, by the virtue thereof, 
burden me with my conscience." 

Roper: — "Let him see the commission: is it here?" 
Story: — "Shall we let every vile person see our commis- 

sion r 

Cholmley : — " Let him go from whence he came, and on 
Thursday he shall see our commission." 

Story : — " No, let him lie in the meanwhile in the 
Lollards' Tower; for I will sweep the king's bench, and 
all other prisons also, of these heretics : they shall not have 
that resort as they have had, to scatter their heresies." 

Philpot: — "You have power to transfer my body from 
place to place at your pleasure ; but you have no power over 
my soul. And I pass not 1 whither you commit me, for I 
cannot be worse entreated than I am, kept all day in a close 
chamber : wherefore it is no marvel that my flesh is puffed 
up, wherewithal master doctor is offended." 

Story :— " Marshal, take him home with you again, and see 
that you bring him again on Thursday ; and then we shall rid 
your fingers of him, and afterward of your other heretics." 

Philpot:—" God hath appointed a day shortly to come, 
in which he will judge us with righteousness, howsoever you 
judge of us now." 

C 1 Pass not: care not.]] 


Roper: — " Be content to be ruled by master doctor, and 
shew yourself a catholic man.'" 

Philpot : — " Sir, if I should speak otherwise than my con- piuipot win 
science is, I should but dissemble with you : and why be bie against 
you so earnest to have me shew myself a dissembler both science. 
to God and you, which I cannot dor 1 

Roper : — " We do not require you to dissemble with us, 
but to be a catholic man." 

Philpot : — " If I do stand in any thing against that, where- 
in any man is able to burden me with one jot of the scrip- 
ture, I shall be content to be counted no catholic man, or 
a heretic, as you please." 

Story : — " Have we scripture, scripture V — and with that 
he rose up, saying, " Who shall be judge, I pray you ? This 
man is like his fellow Woodman, which the other day would 
have nothing else but scripture." 

And this is the beginning of this tragedy. 

the second ^ e secon d examination of Master Philpot be- 
examination. f ore the queen's commissioners, Master Cholmley, 
Roper, Dr Story, Dr Cook, and the scribe, the 24th of 
October, 1555, at Newgate Sessions 1 Hall. 

At my coming, a man of Aldgate of mine acquaintance 
said unto me, " God have mercy on you, for you are already 
condemned in this world ; for Dr Story said, that my lord 
chancellor had commanded to do you away." After a little 
consultation had between them, master Cholmley called me 
unto him, saying: 

Cholmley : — " Master Philpot, shew yourself a wise man ; 
and be not stubborn in your own opinion, but be conformable 
to the queen's proceedings, and live ; and you shall be well 
assured of great favour and reputation." 

Philpot: — "I shall do as it becometh a christian man 
to do." 

Story : — " This man is the rankest heretic that hath been 
in all my lord chancellor's diocese, and hath done more hurt 
than any man else there : and therefore his pleasure is that 
he should have the law to proceed against him ; and I have 


spoken with my lord herein, and he willeth him to be commit- 
ted to the bishop of London, and there to recant, or else burn. 
He howled and wept in the convocation-house, and made 
such ado as never man did, as all the heretics do when they 
lack learning to answer. He shall go after his fellows. How 
sayest thou ? wilt thou recant 2" 

Philpot: — "I know nothing I have done, that I ought to 

Story : — " Well then, I pray you, let us commit him to 
the Lollards 1 Tower, there to remain until he be further 
examined before the bishop of London; for he is too fine 
fed in the king's bench, and he hath too much favour there : 
for his keeper said at the door yesterday, that he was the 
finest fellow, and one of the best learned in England." And 
with this he rose up and went his way. 

Cook : — " This man hath most stoutly maintained heresies 
since the queen's coming in, above any that I have heard of; 
therefore it is most meet he should be adjudged by the bishop 
of London, for the heresies he hath maintained." 
Philpot : — " I have maintained no heresies." 
Cook : — " No ! have you not ? Did you not openly speak 
against the sacrament of the altar in the convocation-house ? 
Call you that no heresy? wilt thou recant that, or not?" 

Philpot : — " It was the queen's majesty's pleasure, that 
we should reason thereof, not by my seeking, but by other 
men's procuring, in the hearing of the council." 

Cook : — " Did the queen give you leave to be a heretic ? 
you may be sure her grace will not so do. Well, we will 
not dispute the matter with you: my lord of London shall 
proceed by inquisition upon thee; and if thou wilt not recant, 
thou shalt be burned." 

Philpot : — " My lord of London is not mine ordinary in this 
behalf, and I have already answered unto mine ordinary in this 
matter ; and therefore (as I have said before) you shall do me 
great wrong, to vex me twice for one matter, since I have sus- 
tained this long imprisonment, besides the loss of my living." 
Eoper: — " You were a very unmeet man to be an arch- 

Philpot: — "I know I was as meet a man as he that 
hath it now." 


Cook:— "A meet man, quoth he! he troubled master 
Boper and the whole country. 1 ' 

Philpot: — " There was never poor archdeacon so handled 
at your hands as I am, and that without any just cause ye 
be able to lay unto me." v 

Cook: — "Thou art no archdeacon.'" 

Philpot:—" I am archdeacon still, although another be in pwipotde- 

• privcdofhis 

possession of my living ; for I was never deprived by any law." archdeacon- 

Cook: — " No, sir ; that needeth not : for a notorious heretic any law. 
should have no ordinary proceeding about his deprivation; 
but the bishop may, upon knowledge thereof, proceed to de- 

Philpot: — "Master doctor, you know that the common 
law is otherwise ; and besides this, the statutes of this realm 
be otherwise, which give this benefit to every person, though 
he be a heretic, to enjoy his living until he be put to death 
for the same." 

Cholmley ; — "No, there thou art deceived." 

Philpot : — " Upon the living I pass not ; but the unjust 
dealing grieveth me, that I should be thus troubled for my 
conscience, contrary to all law." 

Cholmley : — " Why, will not you agree that the queen's 
majesty may cause you to be examined of your faith?" 

Philpot: — "Ask you of master doctor Cook, and he will 
tell you that the temporal magistrates have nothing to do 
with matters of faith, for determination thereof. And St 
Ambrose saith, that the things of God are not subject to 
the power and authority of princes 1 ." 

Cook: — " No ! may not the temporal power commit you 
to be examined of your faith to the bishop !" 

Philpot : — " Yea, sir, I deny not that. But you will not 
grant, that the same may examine any of their own authority." 

Cook: — "Let him be had away." 

Philpot : — " Your mastership promised me the last time 

Q 1 Convenior ipse a comitibus et tribunis, ut basilicse fieret matura 
traditio, dicentibus imperatorem jure suo uti; eo quod in potestate ejus 
essent omnia. Iiespondi, si a me peteret quod meum esset, id est fundum 
meum, argentum meum, quidvishujusmodi meum, me non refragaturum, 
quanquam omnia quse mei sunt, essent pauperum : verum ea quse sunt 
divina, imperatoriae potestati non esse subjecta. Ambros. Op. Par. 1690. 
Tom. ii. col. 854, § 8.] 


I was before you, I should see your commission, by what 
authority you do call me, and whether I by the same be 
bound to answer to so much as you demand. ,, 

Roper :— " Let him see the commission." 

Then the scribe exhibited it to master Roper, and was 
about to open the same. 

Cook:—" No, what will ye do? he shall not see it." 

Philpot:— "Then do you me wrong, to call me and vex 
me, not shewing your authority in this behalf." 

Cook : — " If we do you wrong, complain on us ; and in 
the mean while thou shalt lie in the Lollards' Tower." 

Philpot :— " Sir, I am a poor gentleman; therefore I 
trust of your gentleness you will not commit me to so vile 
and strait a place, being found no heinous trespasser." 

Cook: — "Thou art no gentleman." 

Philpot:— "Yes, that I am." 

Cook : — " A heretic is no gentleman : for he is a gentle- 
man, that hath gentle conditions." 

Philpot: — "The offence cannot take away the state of 
a gentleman as long as he liveth, although he were a traitor : 
but I mean not to boast of my gentlemanship, but will put 
it under my foot, since you do no more esteem it." 

Story : — " What ! will you suffer this heretic to prate with 
you all this day V 

Cook:— "He saith, he is a gentleman." 

Story : — " A gentleman, quoth he I he is a vile heretic 
knave : for a heretic is no gentleman. Let the keeper of 
the Lollards 1 Tower come in, and have him away." 

The Keeper : — " Here, sir." 
Command- Story : — " Take this man with vou to the Lollards 1 Tower, 

ed to Lol- ° J 

lards' tower or else to the bishop 1 s coal-house." 

by Dr Story. ... 

Philpot: — "Sir, if I were a dog, you could not appoint 
me a worse and more vile place : but I must be content with 
whatsoever injury you do offer me. God give you a more 
merciful heart ! you are very cruel upon one that hath never 
offended you. I pray you, master Oholmley, shew me some 
friendship, that I be not carried to so vile a place." 
choimiey And Cholmley called me aside, and said, "I am not skilful 

talketh with , J ' ' 

Philpot ot their doings, neither of their laws : I cannot tell what they 
mean. I would I could do you good." 


Philpot : — " I am content to go whither you will have 
me. There was never man more cruelly handled than I am 
at your hands, that, without any just cause known, should 
thus be entreated." 

Story : — " Shall we suffer this heretic thus to reprove 
us?- Have him hence . ,1 

Philpot :— " God forgive you, and give you more merciful 
hearts, and shew you more mercy in time of need : 'Do quickly 
that you have in hand'." 

Story : — " Do you not hear how he maketh us Judases V 

Philpot: — " That is after your own understanding." 

After this I, with four other more, were brought to the 
keeper's house in Paternoster-row, where we supped ; and 
after supper I was called up to a chamber by the archdeacon 
of London's servant, and that in his master's name, who 
offered me a bed for that night. To whom I gave thanks, 
saying, that it should be a grief to me to lie well one night, 
and the next worse : " wherefore I will begin," said I, " as I ^Bonn^rs 
am like to continue, to take such part as my fellows do." And c0alll0Use - 
with that we were brought through Paternoster-row to my 
lord of London's coal-house ; unto the which is joined a little 
blind house, with a great pair of stocks, appointed both for 
hand and foot. But, thanks be to God ! we have not played 
on those organs yet, although some before us have tried them. 
And there we found a minister of Essex, 1 a married priest, 
a man of godly zeal, with one other poor man. And this 
minister, at my coming, desired to speak with me, and did 
greatly lament his own infirmity, for that through extremity 
of imprisonment he was constrained by writing to yield to ^™ a p n ' 
the bishop of London : whereupon he was once set at liberty, j^ 
and afterward felt such a hell in his conscience, that he could doeth - 
scarce refrain from destroying himself, and never could be 
at quiet until he had gone unto the bishop's registrar, desiring 
to see his bill again, the which as soon as he had received, 
he tore it in pieces ; and after, he was as joyful as any man Bonner^ 
might be. Of the which when my lord of London had under- away a great 
standing, he sent for him, and fell upon him like a lion, and ^^ tlP ^ s c 
like a manly bishop buffeted him well, so that he made his face 

[ l This man's name was Thomas Whittle : he was burnt in 1550.] 

an un- 


black and blue, and plucked away a great piece of his beard : 
but now, thanks be to God ! he is as joyful under the cross 
as any of us, and very sorry of his former infirmity. I write 
this, because I would all men to take heed how they do 
contrary to their conscience; which is, to fall into the pains 
of hell. And here an end. 

The manner of my calling first before the Bishop of 
London, the second night of mine imprisonment in his coal- 

di°arit er ' s S ent third ^ ne bishop sent unto me master Johnson, his 

to Phiipot. examination, registrar, with a mess of meat, and a good pot 
of drink, and bread, saying, that my lord had no knowledge 
erst 1 of my being here, for the which he was sorry: there- 
fore he had sent me and my fellows that meat, knowing whether 
I would receive the same. 

I thanked God for my lord's charity, that it pleased him to 
remember poor prisoners, desiring Almighty God to increase 
the same in him and in all others; and therefore I would 
not refuse his beneficence. And therewith took the same 
unto my brethren, praising God for his providence towards 
his afflicted flock, that he stirred our adversaries up to help 
the same in their necessity. 

Johnson : — " My lord would know the cause of your 
sending hither (for he knoweth nothing thereof) ; and won- 
dereth that he should be troubled with prisoners of other 
diocese than his own." 

I declared unto him the whole cause. After the which 
he said, my lord's will was, that I should have any friendship? 
I would desire ; and so departed. 
Bonner en- Within a while after, one of my lord's gentlemen cometh 

tertaimng „ J *» 

Phiipot. for me. And I was brought into his presence, where he sat 
at a table alone, with three or four of his chaplains, waiting 
upon him, and his registrar. 

Bonner .•— " Master Phiipot, you are welcome: give me 
your hand." 

I 1 Erst: before.] 


With that, because he so gently put forth his hand, I, 
to render courtesy for courtesy, kissed my hand, and gave 
him the same. 

Bonner : — " I am right sorry for your trouble, and I ^aaettie 
promise you, before it was within these two hours, I knew not f£™™i t n or 
of your being here. I pray you, tell me what was the cause ^uV* st Ms 
of your sending hither; for I promise you I know nothing 
thereof as yet, neither would I you should think that I was the 
cause thereof. And I marvel that other men will trouble me 
with their matters : but I must be obedient to my betters ; 
and I wist 3 men speak otherwise of me than I deserve." 

I shewed him the sum of the matter : that it was for 
the disputation in the convocation-house, for the which I 
was, against all right, molested. 

Bonner : — " I marvel that you should be troubled therefor, 
if there was none other cause but this. But, peradventure, you 
have maintained the same since, and some of your friends of late 
have asked whether you do stand to the same, and you have 
said, ' Yea ;' and for this you might be committed to prison. 11 

Philpot : — " And 3 it shall please your lordship, I am bur- 
dened none otherwise than I have told you, by the commis- 
sioners, who sent me hither, because I would not recant the 

Bonner: — "A man may speak in the parliament-house, 
though it be a place of free speech, so as he may be im- 
prisoned for it ; as in case he speak words of high-treason 
against the king or queen. And so it might be that you 
spake otherwise than it became you of the church of Christ." 

Philpot: — " I spake nothing which was out of the articles, 
which were called in question, and agreed upon to be dis- 
puted by the whole house, and by the queen's permission 
and the council." 

Bonner : — " Why, may we dispute of our faith V 

Philpot: — "Yea, that we may." 

Bonner : — " Nay, I trow not, by the law." 

Philpot : — " Indeed, by the civil law I know it is not 
lawful, but by God's law we may reason thereof. For St 
Peter saith, 'Be ye ready to render account unto all men of ^j" 6 *' m ' 
that hope which is in you, that demand of you the same'." 
[ 2 Wist: suppose.] [ 3 And: if.] 

No man is 
bound to 
render ac- 


Bonner: — " Indeed, St Peter saith so. Why then, I ask of 
you, what your judgment is of the sacrament of the altar V 
Philpot: — "My lord, St Ambrose saith, that the dispu- 
count r oniis Nation of faith ought to be in the congregation, in the hearing 
vateiy'un- °f * ne people 1 , and that I am not bound to render account 
edify' be l ° thereof to every man privately, unless it be to edify. But 
now I cannot shew you my mind, but I must run upon the 
pikes, in danger of my life therefor. Wherefore, as the said 
doctor said unto Valentinian the emperor, so I say to your 
lordship : ' Take away the law, and I shall reason with you 2 . 1 
And yet, if I come in open judgment, where I am bound by 
the law to answer, I trust I shall utter my conscience as 
freely as any that hath come before you. 11 

Bonner: — "I perceive you are learned: I would have 
such as you be about me. But you must come and be of 
the church ; for there is but one church." 

Philpot: — "God forbid I should be out of the church! I 

am sure I am within the same ; for I know, as I am taught 

rson^oTso- ty the scripture, that there is but one catholic church, one 

vi™ ] 1 ' v ' *' dove, one spouse, one beloved congregation, out of the which 

there is no salvation. 11 

Bonner : — " How chanceth it then, that you go out of 
the same, and walk not with us? 11 t 

Philpot : — " My lord, I am sure I am within the bounds of 
the church, whereupon she is builded, which is the word of God." 
Bonner: — "What age are you of 2" 
Philpot : — "I am four and forty. 11 
The faith Bonner : — "You are not now of the same faith your god- 

promised by J » 

fathlrs was f atners an & godmothers promised for you, in the which you 
the faith of W ere baptized. 11 

Christ, after l 

his o-eed Philpot :— " Yes, I thank God, I am : for I was baptized 

into the faith of Christ which I now hold. 11 

Bonner :— " How can that be ? there is but one faith." 
[Eph.iv.s, Philpot:—" I am assured of that by St Paul, saying, that 

[} Venissem, Imperator, ad consistorium clementiae tuae, ut hac 
coram suggererem, si me vel episcopi vel populus permisissent, dicentes 
de fide in ecclesia coram populo debere tractari. Ambros. Op. Par. 1690. 
Epist. xxi. Tom. n. col. 863.] 

[ 3 Tolle igitur legem, si vis esse certamen. Ambros. Op. Par. 1690. 
Epist. xxi. Tom. n. col. 863.] 


there is but one God, one faith, and one baptism, of the 
which I am." 

Bonner: — "You were twenty years ago of another faith 
than you be now." 

Philpot : — " Indeed, my lord, to tell you plain, I was then 
of no faith, a neuter, a wicked liver, neither hot nor cold." 

Bonner : — " Why, do you not think that we have now 
the true faith?" 

Philpot: — "I desire your lordship to hold me excused 
for answering at this time. I am sure that God's word 
thoroughly, with the primitive church, and ail the ancient 
writers, do agree with this faith I am of." 

Bonner: — "Well, I promise you I mean you no more Bishop Bon- 

. ner ofi'ended 

hurt, than to mine own person : I will not therefore burden with John 

. . T Philpot's 

you with your conscience as now. I marvel that you are so sinking i n 

. . . . , prison. 

nierry in prison as you be, singing and rejoicing, as the pro- 
phet saith, ' rejoicing in your naughtiness.' Methinketh you 
do not well herein : you should rather lament and be sorry." 

Philpot : — " My lord, the mirth that we make is but in 
singing certain psalms, according as we are commanded by 
St Paul, willing us to be ' merry in the Lord, singing to- [Eph. v. 19.] 
gether in hymns and psalms; 1 and I trust your lordship 
cannot be displeased with that. 11 

Bonner :— " We may say unto you, as Christ said in the 
gospel, Tibiis cecinimus vobis, et non planxistis^ 

Here my lord stumbled, and could not bring forth the 
text, and required his chaplains to help, and to put him in 
remembrance of the text better; but they were mum: and 
I recited out the text unto him, which made nothing to his 
purpose, unless he would have us to mourn, because they, if 
they laugh, sing still sorrowful things unto us, threatening 
fagots and fire. 

Philpot: — "We are, my lord, in a dark comfortless place, 
and therefore it behoveth us to be merry, lest, as Solomon 
saith, 'sorrowfulness eat up our heart 1 . Therefore I trust your [p r0 v. xv. 
lordship will not be angry for our singing of psalms, since 
St Paul saith, 'If any man be of an upright mind, let him [Qu.james 
sing. 1 And we therefore, to testify that we are of an up- 
right mind to God, though we be in misery, do sing." 



The end 
of his first 
talk with 


Bonner : — "I will trouble you no further as now. If I can 
do you any good, I will be glad to do it for you. God be 
with you, good master Philpot, and give you good night. 
Have him to the cellar, and let him drink a cup of wine." 

Thus I departed, and by my lord's registrar I was brought 
to his cellar door, where I drank a good cup of wine. And 
my lord's chaplain, master Cosyn, followed me, taking ac- 
quaintance, saying that I was welcome, and wished that I 
would not be singular. 

Philpot: — "I am well taught the contrary by Solomon, 
[Eccies. iv. saying, ' Woe be to him that is alone'. 1 ' 

After that I was carried to my lord's coal-house again, 
where I with my six fellows do rouse together in the straw, as 
cheerfully (we thank God) as others do in their beds of down. 

Thus for the third fit 1 . 

the fourth ^ ie f° ul 'th examination of Master Philpot 

examination. j n t he archdeacons house of London, the said 
month of October before the bishops of London, Bath, 
Worcester, and Gloucester. 

Bonner .-— " Master Philpot, it hath pleased my lords to 
take pains here to-day, to dine with my poor archdeacon; 
and in the dinner time it chanced us to have communication 
of you, and you were pitied here of many that knew you 
in the New College in Oxford. And I also do pity your 
case, because you seem unto me, by the talk I had with 
you the other night, to be learned. And therefore now I 
have sent for you to come before them, that it might not 
be said hereafter, that I had so many learned bishops at my 
house, and yet would not vouchsafe them to talk with you ; 
and at my request (I thank them) they are content so to 
do. Now therefore utter your mind freely; and you shall 
with all favour be satisfied. I am sorry to see you lie in 
so evil a case as you do, and would fain you should do 
better, as you may if you list." 

Bath : — " My lords here have not sent for you to fawn 
[} Fit is used in the old romances for canto or part.'} 


upon you, but for charity's sake to exhort you to come into 
the right catholic way of the church." 

Worcester: — "Before he beginneth to speak, it is best that 
he call to God for grace, and to pray that it might please 
God to open his heart, that he may conceive the truth." 

With that I fell down upon my knees before them, and 
made my prayer on this manner: — 

" Almighty God, which art the giver of all wisdom and The prayer 
understanding, I beseech thee of thine infinite goodness and before the 

° . . ° bishops. 

mercy in Jesus Christ, to give me (most vile sinner in thy 
sight !) the Spirit of wisdom to speak and make answer in 
thy cause, that it may be to the contentation of the hearers 
before whom I stand, and also to my better understanding, 
if I be deceived in any thing." 

Bonner :— " Nay, my lord of Worcester, you did not well ^J*J 
"to exhort him to make any prayer : for this is the thing they P ra y er - 
have a singular pride in, that they can often make their vain 
prayers, in the which they glory much. For in this point 
they are much like to certain arrant heretics, of whom Pliny 
maketh mention, that did daily sing antelucanos hymnos, 
' praise unto God before dawning of the day 2 '." 

, Philpot :— " My lord, God make me and all you here 
present such heretics as those were that sung those morning 
hymns; for they were right Christians, with whom the ty- 
rants of the world were offended for their well doing. 1 '' 

Bath .— " Proceed to that he hath to say. He hath 
prayed I cannot tell for what." 

Bonner :— " Say on, master Philpot ; my lords will gladly 
hear you." 

Philpot :— " I have, my lords, been this twelvemonth and ^& neth 
a half in prison without any just cause that I know, and ^J 1 s ?ful 

[ 2 This strangely perverse or ignorant language, by which Bonner 
makes the early Christians 'arrant heretics/ refers to the well known 
letter of Pliny to Trajan, where he writes: Adfirmabant autem, hanc 
fuisse summam vel culpae suae vel erroris, quod essent soliti stato die 
ante lucem convenire, carmenque Christo quasi Deo dicere secum in- 
vicem. C. Plinii Csecilii Secundi, Lib. x. Epist. xcvii. Lugd. Batav. 

Jerome, in Chronic. Eusebii, calls these assemblies 'antelucanos 
conventus ' ; and Eusebius uses the Greek word signifying ' early in 
the morning,' (eiuflei/.)] 



my living taken from me without any lawful order ; and now 
I am brought, contrary to right, from mine own territory 
and ordinary into another man's jurisdiction, I know not 
why. Wherefore, if your lordships can burden me with any 
evil done, I stand here before you to purge me of the same. 
And if no such thing may be justly laid to my charge, I 
desire to be released of this wrongful trouble. " 

Bonner: — " There is none here goeth about to trouble 
you, but to do you good, if we can. For, I promise you, 
ye were sent hither to me without my knowledge. There- 
fore speak your conscience without any fear." 
canJcHn no Philpot : — " My lord, I have learned to answer in mat- 
assemWv * ers °^ re hgion, in ecclesid legitime vocatus, 'in the congre- 
forenot' 6 ' g at i° n being thereto lawfully called:' but now I am not 
answer 10 lawfully called, neither is here a just congregation where I 
p£hitt o«ght t0 answer." 

in danger. Bonner .— " Indeed this man told me, the last time I 

spake with him, that he was a lawyer, and would not utter 
his conscience in matters of faith, unless it were in the 
hearing of the people ; where he might speak to vain glory." 
Philpot:— "My lord, I said not I was a lawyer, neither 
do I arrogate to myself that name, although I was once a 
novice in the same, where I learned something for mine own 
defence, when I am called in judgment to answer to any 
cause, and whereby I have been taught not to put myself 
further in danger than I need; and so far am I a lawyer, 
and no further." 

Bath:— "If you will not answer to my lord's request, 
you seem to be a wilful man in your opinion." 

Philpot:—" My lord of London is not mine ordinary, be- 
fore whom I am bound to answer in this behalf, as master 
doctor Cole (which is a lawyer) can well tell you by the 
law. And I have not offended my lord of London, where- 
fore he should call me." 

Bonner:—" Yes, I have to lay to your charge that you 
have offended in my diocese, by speaking against the blessed 
sacrament of the altar ; and therefore I may call you, and 
proceed against you to punish you by the law." 

Philpot:— "I have not offended in your diocese: for that 
which I spake of the sacrament was in Paul's church in the 


convocation-house, which (as I understand) is a peculiar juris- 
diction belonging to the dean of Paul's, and therefore is counted 
of your lordship's diocese, but not in your diocese." 

Bonner: — "Is not Paul's church in my diocese? Well 
I wot, it costeth me a good deal of money by the year, 
the leading thereof." 

Philpot : — "That may be, and yet be exempted from Bishop Bon- 
your lordship's jurisdiction. And albeit I had so offended fuToldiiary 
in the place of your diocese, yet I ought by the law to be *° Fh ' lp0t " 
sent to my ordinary, if I require it, and not to be punished 
by you that are not mine ordinary. And already (as I have 
told you) I have been convented of mine ordinary for this 
cause, which you go about to inquire of me." 

Bonner:— "How say you, master doctor Cole? may not 
_I proceed against him by the law, for that he hath done in 
my diocese ?" 

Cole : — " Methinketh master Philpot needeth not to stand 
so much with your lordship in that point as he doth, since 
you seek not to hinder him, but to further him: therefore 
I think it best that he go to the matter that is laid against 
him, of the convocation, and make no longer delay." 

Philpot : — " I would willingly shew my mind of that mat- 
ter; but I am sure it will be laid against me to my pre- 
judice, when I come to judgment." 

Cole : — " Why then, you may speak by protestation." 
Philpot : — " But what shall my protestation avail in a 
cause of heresy (as you call it), if I speak otherwise than 
you will have me ; since that which I spake in the convoca- 
tion-house, being a place privileged, cannot now help me?" 

Bonner : — " But, master doctor Cole, may not I proceed 
against him for that offence he hath done in my diocese ?" 
Cole : — " You may call him before you, my lord, if he 
be found in your diocese." 

Philpot: — "But I have by force been brought out of^jP ^ 
mine own diocese to my lord's, and require to be judged of gf^pBo™ 
mine own ordinary ; and therefore I know master doctor will ^dinary? 
not say of his knowledge, that your lordship ought to pro- 
ceed against me." 

And here master doctor would say nothing. 
Worcester: — "Do you not think to find before my lord 


here as good equity in your cause, as before your own ordi- 
nary ?" 

Philpot : — "I cannot blame my lord of London's equity, 
with whom (I thank his lordship) I have found more gentle- 
ness since I came, than of mine own ordinary (I speak it 
for no flattery) this twelvemonth and this half before, who 
never would call me to answer, as his lordship hath done 
now twice. No man is forbid to use his own right due 
unto him. But I ought not to be forestalled of my right; 
and therefore I challenge the same for divers other conside- 

Bonner : — "■ Now you cannot say hereafter but that you 
have been gently communed withal of my lords here ; and 
yet you will be wilful and obstinate in your error and in 
your own opinions, and will not shew any cause why you 
will not come into the unity of the church with us." 

Philpot : — " My lords, in that I do not declare my mind 
according to your expectation, is (as 1 have said) because I 
cannot speak without present danger of my life. But rather 
than you should report me by this either obstinate or self- 
willed, without any just ground whereupon I stand; I will 
open imto you somewhat of my mind, or rather the whole, 
desiring your lordships, which seem to be pillars of the church 
of England, to satisfy me in the same ; and I will refer all 
other causes, in the which I dissent from you, unto one or 
two articles, or rather to one, which includeth them both; 
in the which if I can by the scriptures be satisfied at your 
mouths, I shall as willingly agree to you as any other in 
all points." 

Bonner :—" These heretics come always with their 'ifs,' 
as this man doth now, saying, ' If he can be satisfied by 
the scriptures C so that he will always have this exception, 
' I am not satisfied, 1 although the matter be never so plainly 
proved against him. But will you promise to be satisfied, 
if my lords take some pains about you V 

Philpot:— "I say, my lord, I will be satisfied by the 
scriptures in that wherein I stand. And I protest here 
before God, and his eternal Son Jesus Christ my Saviour, 
and the Holy Ghost, and his angels, and you here present 
that be judges of that 1 speak, that I do not stand in any 


opinion of wilfulness or singularity, but only upon my con- 
science, certainly informed by God's word, from the which 
I dare not go for fear of damnation ; and this is the cause 
of mine earnestness in this behalf." 

Bonner : — " I will trouble my lords no longer, seeing that 
you will not declare your mind." 

Philpot :— " I am about so to do, if it please your lord- 
ship to hear me speak." 

Bath : — " Give him leave, my lord, to speak that he hath 
to say." 

Philpot : — " My lords, it is not unknown to you, that the The chiefest 
chief cause why you do count me, and such as I am, for in the 

i_ j.- • i i • -i ii church of 

heretics, is because we be not at unity with your church. Christ now, 

•\7" PI 111 <»l' St0 " CnOW 

You say you are of the true church; and we say, we are of the which is the 

J J ' J true church 

true church. You say, that whosoever is out of your church of Christ, 
is damned ; and we think verily on the other side, that if we 
depart from the true church, whereon we are grafted in God's 
word, we should stand in the state of damnation. Where- 
fore, if your lordship can bring any better authorities for your 
church than we can do for ours, and prove by the scriptures 
that the church of Eome now (of the which you are) is the 
true catholic church, as in all your sermons, writings, and 
arguments you do uphold, and that all christian persons ought 
to be ruled by the same under pain of damnation (as you 
say), and that the same church (as you pretend) hath autho- 
rity to interpret the scriptures as it seemeth her good, and 
that all men are bound to follow such interpretations only; 
I shall be as conformable to the same church as you may 
desire me, the which otherwise I dare not : therefore I re- 
quire yoUj for God's sake, to satisfy me in this." 

Cole: — "If you stand upon this point only, you may soon 
be satisfied and you list." 

Philpot: — "It is the thing that I require, and to this, 
I have said, I will stand, and refer all other controversies 
wherein I stand now against you; and will put my hand 
thereto, if you mistrust my word." 

Bonner:— "I pray you, master Philpot, what faith were 
you of twenty years ago ? This man will have every year a 
new faith." 

Philpot:— "My lord, to tell you plain, I think I was 


of no faith : for I was then a wicked liver, and knew not 
God then, as I ought to do ; God forgive me !" 

Bonner: — "No faith? That is not so. I am sure you 
were of some faith." 

Philpot: — "My lord, I have declared to you on my con- 
science what I then was, and judge of myself. And what 
is that to the purpose of the thing I desire to be satisfied 
of you?" 

Bonner : — " Master doctor Cole, I pray you say your 
mind to him." 

Cole: — "What will you say, if I can prove that it was 
decreed by a universal council in Athanasius's time, that all 
the christian church should follow the determination of the 
church of Rome? but I do not now remember where." 

Philpot : — " If you, master doctor, can shew me the same 
granted to the see of Rome by the authority of the scrip- 
ture, I will gladly hearken thereto. But I think you be not 
Athanasius able to shew any such thing;: for Athanasius Avas president 

misalleged. . J ° 

of the Nicene Council, and there was no such thing decreed, 
I am sure." 

Cole : — " Though it were not then, it might be at an- 
other time." 

Philpot : — " I desire to see the proof thereof." 

And upon this master Harpsfield, chancellor to the bishop 
of London, brought in a book of Irenseus, with certain leaves 
turned in, and laid it before the bishops, to help them in 
their perplexity, if it might be : the which after the bishops 
of Bath and Gloucester had read together, the bishop of 
Gloucester gave me the book. 

Gloucester : — " Take the book, master Philpot, and look 
upon that place, and there may you see how the church of 
Rome is to be followed of all men." 

\rl™u° f * took the book ' and reacl tlie P lace ' tlie which after I 

aliened. had read, I said it made nothing against me, but against 
the Arians and other heretics, against whom Irenseus wrote, 
proving that they were not to be credited, because they did 
teach and follow after strange doctrine in Europe ; and that 
the chief church of the same was founded by Peter and Paul, 
and had to his time continued by faithful succession of the 
faithful bishops in preaching the true gospel, as they had 


received it of the apostles, and nothing like to these late 
sprung heretics, Sec; whereby he concludeth against them, 
that they were not to be heard, neither to be credited 1 . 
" The which thing if you, my lords, be able to prove now tiic church 

pi i i p ' -rt ., , , , of Rome not 

or the church of Jxome, then had you as good authority now as it 
against me in my cause now, as Irenseus had against those time of 

i • t» i i i i» t» i Irenasus. 

heretics. But the church of Rome hath swerved from that 
truth and simplicity of the gospel, which it maintained in 
Irenseus's time, and was then uncorrupted from that which 
it is now : wherefore your lordships cannot justly apply the 
authority of Irenseus to the church of Eome now, which is 
so manifestly corrupted from the primitive church." 

Bonner : — " So will you say still, it maketh nothing for 
the purpose, whatsoever, authority we bring, and will never 
be satisfied." 

Philpot : — " My lord, when I do by just reason prove 
that the authorities which be brought against me do not 
make to the purpose (as I have already proved), I trust 
you will receive mine answer. 1 "' 

Worcester : — " It is to be proved most manifestly by all ^j^ 1 ™ 1 " " 
ancient writers, that the see of Eome hath always followed ^edl 6 * 
the truth, and never was deceived, until of late certain here- 
tics had defaced the same."' 1 

Philpot : — " Let that be proved, and I have done." 

Worcester : — " Nay, you are of such arrogancy, singu- 
larity, and vain-glory, that you will not see it, be it never 
so well proved. 11 

Philpot : — " Ha ! my lords, is it now time, think you, 
for me to follow singularity or vain-glory, since it is now 
upon danger of my life and death, not only presently, but 
also before God to come? And I know, if I die not in the 

Q 1 Sed quoniam valde longum est in hoc tali volumine omnium 
ecclesiarum enumerarc successiones, maximse, et antiquissimae, et omni- 
bus cognitse, a gloriosissimis duobus apostolis Petro et Paulo Romse 
fundatse et constitutes ecclesise, earn quam habet ab apostolis traditio- 
nem, et annunciatam hominibus fidem, per successiones episcoporum 
pervenientem usque ad nos indicantes, confundimus omnes eos qui 
quoquo modo, vel per sui placentiam malam, vel vanam gloriam, vel 
per coecitatem et malum sententiam, prseter quam oportet colligunt. 
Irensei adversus Hayeses, Lib. ii. Cap. iii. p. 201. Oxon. 1702. The 
Greek version of the above passage is not extant.] 


true faith, I shall die everlastingly. And again I know, if 
I do not as you would have me, you will kill me and many 
thousands more : yet had I rather perish at your hands, than 
to perish eternally. And at this time I have lost all my 
commodities of this world, and lie in a coal-house, where a 
man would not lay a dog, with the which I am well con- 

Cole ;— " Where are you able to prove that the church 
of Eome hath erred at any time? and by what history? Cer- 
tain it is by Eusebius, that the church was established at 
Eome by Peter and Paul, and that Peter was bishop twenty- 
five years at Rome. 11 

Philpot : — " I know well that Eusebius so writeth : but 
Gai. i. if we compare that which St Paul writeth to the Galatians, 
the contrary will manifestly appear, that he was not half 
so long there. He lived not past thirty-five years after he 
was called to be an apostle; and Paul maketh mention of 
his abiding at Jerusalem after Christ's death more than 
thirteen years 1 . 11 

Cole :— " What ! did Peter write to the Galatians V 

Philpot : — " No : I say, Paul maketh mention of Peter, 
writing to the Galatians, and of his abiding at Jerusalem : 
and further, I am able to prove, both by Eusebius and other 
historiographers, that the church of Eome hath manifestly 
erred, and at this present doth err, because she agreeth not 
with that which they wrote. The primitive church did use 
according to the gospel, and there needeth none other proof 
but compare the one with the other. 11 

Bonner : — " I may compare this man to a certain man I 
read of, which fell into a desperation, and went into a wood 
to hang himself; and when he came there, he went viewing 
of every tree, and could find none on the which he might 
vouchsafe to hang himself. But I will not apply it as I 
might. I pray you, master doctor, go forth with him. 11 

Cole : — " My lord, there be on every side on me that be 
better able to answer him, and I love not to fall into dis- 
putation ; for that now-a-days a man shall but sustain shame 
and obloquy thereby of the people. I had rather shew my 
mind in writing. 11 
I^ 1 Abiding after Christ's death more than eighteen years, ed. 1559.] 


Philpot: — "And I had rather that you should do so than Reason why 

, i • /. , i i ,, . i P , it is not like 

otherwise; tor then a man may better judge of your words, that in Atha- 
than by argument ; and I beseech you so to do. But if I time^nmen 
were a rich man, I durst wager a hundred pounds, that you to abide the 
shall not be able to shew that you have said, to be decreed tion of 
by a general council in Athanasius's time. For this I am 
sure of, that it was concluded by a general council in Africa 
many years after, that none of Africa (under pain of ex- 
communication) should appeal to Rome: the which decree I 
am sure they would not have made, if by the scriptures and 
by a universal council it had been decreed, that all men should 
abide and follow the determination of the church of Rome." 

Cole : — " But I can shew that they revoked that error 

Philpot: — "So you say, master doctor; but I pray you 
shew me where. I have hitherto heard nothing of you for 
my contentation, but bare words without any authority." 

Bonner : — " What 1 I pray you, ought we to dispute with 
you of our faith? Justinian in the law hath a title, De 
fide catholica 2 , to the contrary." 

Philpot: — "I am certain the civil law hath such a con- Not the law, 
stitution: but our faith must not depend upon the civil law; sospei, P a- 
for, as St Ambrose saith, ' Not the law, but the gospel hath church to- 
gathered the church together 3 .''" 

Worcester : — " Master Philpot, you have the spirit of 
pride wherewith ye be led, which will not let you to yield 
to the truth : leave it for shame." 

Philpot : — " Sir, I am sure I have the spirit of faith, by 
the which I speak at this present; neither am I ashamed 
to stand to my faith." 

Gloucester: — "What? do you think yourself better learned 
than so many notable learned men as be here ?" 

Philpot: — " Elias alone had the truth, when there were Four hun- 
four hundred priests against him." against one 

Worcester : — " Oh, you would be counted now for Elias : 
and yet I tell thee he was deceived; for he thought there 

17 Decretalium Bonifacii Papse vm. Lib. i. Tit. i. Taurini, 1620. 
" De Summa Trinitate et fide catholica."] 

P Non lex ecclesiam congregavit, sed fides Christi. Ambros. Op. 
Par. 1690. Tom. n. col. 870. 24.] 


had been none good but himself, and yet he was deceived, 
for there were seven thousand beside him 1 ." 

Philpot : — " Yea, but he was not deceived in doctrine, 
as the other four hundred were." 

Worcester : — " By my faith, you are greatly to blame, that 
you cannot be content to be of the church which ever hath 
been of that faithful antiquity." 

Philpot:—" My lord, I know Eome, and have been there, 
where I saw your lordship." 

Worcester: — "Indeed I did fly from hence thither, and 
I remember not that I saw you there. But I am sorry 
that you have been there: for the wickedness which you 
have seen there peradventure causeth you to do as you 

Philpot: — "No, my lord, I do not as I do for that cause: 

for I am taught otherwise by the gospel, not altogether to 

refuse the minister for his evil living, so that he bring sound 

doctrine out of God's book." 

whether the Worcester: — "Do you think the universal church may 

universal . ,.„ 

church may be deceived . 
be deceived? 

Philpot : — " St Paul to the Thessalonians prophesieth, that 

there should come a universal departing from the faith in the 

[2 Thes. ii.j latter days, before the coming of Christ ; saying, ' Christ shall 

not come, till there come a departing first 1 ." 
pr^heded ^ e : — " ^ ea > I pray you, how take you the departing 

church there in St Paul? It is not meant of faith, but of the de- 
parting from the empire : for it is in Greek cnrcHTTaaia." 

Philpot : — " Marry indeed you, master doctor, put me in 
good remembrance of the meaning of St Paid in that place ; 
for apostasia is properly a departing from the faith, and 
thereof cometh apostata, which properly signifieth one that 
departeth from his faith : and St Paul in the same place 
after speaketh of the decay of the empire." 

Cole: — "Apostasia doth not only signify a departing 
from the faith, but also from the empire, as I am able to 

Philpot: — " I never read it so taken; and when you shall 
be able to shew it (as you say in words), I will believe it, 
and not before." 

[ l Seven hundred besides him, ed. Ijo!).] 


Worcester: — "I am sorry that you should be against the 
christian world." 

Philpot: — "The world commonly, and such as be called 
Christians; for the multitude have hated the truth, and been 
enemies to the same." 

Gloucester:— "Why, master Philpot, do you think that the Jh° r £ji pe ' 9 
universal church hath erred, and you only to be in the truth ?" ™ hich now 

* *> <j iSj was never 

Philpot: — "The church that you are of was never uni- universal - 
versal ; for two parts of the world, which is Asia and Africa, 
never consented to the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, 
as at this day they do not, neither do follow his decrees." 

Gloucester : — " Yes, in the Florentine council they did 
agree 2 ." 

Philpot : — " It was said so by false report, after they of 
Asia and Africa were gone home : but it was not so in- 
deed, as the sequel of them all hitherto doth prove the con- 

Gloucester : — " I pray you, by whom will you be judged 
in matters of controversy which happen daily?" 

Philpot: — "By the word of God. For Christ saith in Tiie word or 
St John, 'The word that he spake shall be judge in thejmiseincon- 
latter day'." tr0versies - 

Gloucester : — " What, if you take the word one way, and 
I another way? who shall be judge then?" 

Philpot : — " The primitive church." 

Gloucester : — " I know, you mean the doctors that wrote 

Philpot : — " I mean verily so." 

Gloucester: — " What, if you take the doctors in one sense, 
and I in another? who shall be judge then?" 

Philpot : — " Then let that be taken which is most agree- 
able to God's word." 

Cole : — " My lords, why do you trouble yourselves to an- 
swer him in this matter? It is not the thing which is laid 

[ 2 Begun to be held a.d. 1438. Its principal aim was to restore and 
establish union in faith and rites between the Greek and Latin churches. 
This union was effected by various arts and threats through the subscrip- 
tions of certain of the Greek party. (Vid. Sagittarii Introd. ad Hist. 
Eccl. Tom. ii. p. 1064.) The union did not last long. Vid. Mosheim. 
cent, xv.] 


to his charge, but his error of the sacrament; and he, to 
shift himself off that, brought in another matter." 

Philpot :— " This is the matter, master Cole, to the which 
I have referred all other questions, and desire to be satisfied. - " 
Worcester : — " It is a wonder to see how he standeth 
with a few against a great multitude."" 
pilot's Philpot :— " We have almost as many as you : for we 

tiiemcrease have Asia, Africa, Germany, Denmark, and a great part of 
gospel. France, and daily the number of the gospel doth increase ; 
so that I am credibly informed, that for this religion in the 
which I stand, and for the which I am like to die, a great 
multitude doth daily come out of France through persecu- 
tion, that the cities of Germany be scarce able to receive 
them. And therefore your lordship may be sure, the word 
of God will one day take place, do what you can to the 

Worcester : — " They were well occupied to bring you such 
news, and you have been well kept to have such resort unto 
you. Thou art the arrogantest fellow, and stoutest fond fel- 
low, that ever I knew." 

Philpot : — " I pray your lordship to bear with my hasty 
speech ; for it is part of my corrupt nature to speak some- 
what hastily: but for all that, I mean with humility to do 
my duty to your lordship." 
Philpot put Bonner: — "Master Philpot, my lords will trouble you no 
other day. further at this time, but you shall go from whence you came, 
and have such favour as in the meanwhile I can shew you ; 
and upon Wednesday next you shall be called again to be 
heard what you can say for maintenance of your error." 

Philpot : — " My lord, my desire is to be satisfied of 
you in that I have required ; and your lordship shall find 
me, as I have said." 

Worcester : — " We wish you as well as ourselves." 
Philpot : — " I think the same, my lords ; but I fear you 
are deceived, and have a zeal of yourselves, not according 
to knowledge." 

Worcester : — " God send you more grace." 
Philpot: — "And also God increase the same in you, and 
open your eyes, that you may see to maintain his truth and 
his true church." 


Then the bishops rose up and consulted together, and 
caused a writing to be made, in the which I think my blood 
by them was bought and sold ; and thereto they put their 
hands. And after this I was carried to my coal-house again. 

Thus endeth the fourth part of this tragedy. God hasten 
the end thereof to his glory ! Amen. 

John Philpot to certain that required him to write his 

Because I have begun to write unto you of mine exa- 
minations before the bishop and others, more to satisfy your 
desire than that it is any thing worthy to be written ; I 
haye thought it good to write unto you also that which had 
been done of late, that the same might come to light which 
they do in darkness and in privy corners, and that the world 
now and the posterity hereafter might know how unorderly, 
unjustly, and unlearnedly these ravening wolves do proceed 
against the silly and faithful flock of Christ, and condemn 
and persecute the sincere doctrine of Christ in us, which 
they are not able by honest means to resist, but only by 
tyranny and violence. 

the fifth ^e fifth examination of John Philpot, 

examination. h a( j b e f ore t h e bishops of London, Rochester, 
Coventry, St Asaph (I trow), and one other, whose see I 
know not, Dr Story, Curtop, Dr Saverson, Dr Pendleton, 
with divers other chaplains and gentlemen of the queen's 
chamber, and divers other gentlemen, in the gallery of my 
lord of London's palace. 

Bonner : — " Master Philpot, come you hither. I have de- 
aired my lords here and other learned men to take some 
pains once again, and to do you good. And because I do 
mind to sit in judgment on you to-morrow (as I am com- 
manded), yet I would you should have as much favour as 
I can shew you, if you will be any thing conformable. There- 


fore play the wise man, and be not singular in your own 
opinion, but be ruled by these learned men."" 
Phiipot Philpot: — " My lord, in that you- say you will sit on me 

ready to ■* •> ' i *"<•/• t 

yieia his life i n judgment to-morrow, I am glad thereof; lor 1 was pro- 
cause, mised by them which sent me unto you, that I should have 
been judged the next day after : but promise hath not been 
kept with me, to my farther grief. I look for none other 
but death at your hands, and I am as ready to yield my 
life in Christ's cause, as you be to require it." 

Bonner : — " Lo, what a wilful man is this ! By my faith, 
it is but folly to reason with him, neither with any of these 
heretics. 1 am sorry that you will be no more tractable, 
and that I am compelled to shew extremity against you."''' 

Philpot: — "My lord, you need not to shew extremity 
against me, unless you list : neither by the law (as I have 
said) have you any thing to do with me, for that you are 
not mine ordinary, albeit I am (contrary to all right) in 
your prison ." 

Bonner : — " Why, the queen's commissioners sent you 
hither unto me upon your examination had before them. I 
know not well the cause ; but I am sure they would not 
have sent you hither to me, unless you had made some talk 
to them otherwise than it becometh a christian man." 

Philpot : — " My lord, indeed they sent me hither with- 
out any occasion then ministered by me. Only they laid unto 
me the disputation I made in the convocation-house, requiring 
me to answer to the same and to recant it ; the which be- 
cause I would not do, they sent me hither to your lordship." 

Bonner: — "Why did you not answer them thereto?" 

Philpot : — " For that they were temporal men, and ought 
not to be judges in spiritual causes, whereof they demanded me, 
without shewing any authority whereby I was bound to answer 
them ; and hereupon they committed me to your prison." 

Bonner: — "Indeed I remember now, you maintained open 

heresy in my diocese : wherefore the commissioners sent you 

unto me, that I should proceed against you for that you 

have spoken in my diocese." 

Phiipot 's Philpot: — "My lord, I stand still upon mv lawful plea 

just detcr.ce .,.,,, " 

tor speaking m this behalf; that, though it were as great a heresy as 

in the par- . J ■ you suppose it, yet I ought not to be troubled therefore, 


in respect of the privilege of the parliament-house, whereof 
the convocation-house is a member, where all men in matters 
propounded may frankly speak their minds. And here is 
present a gentleman of the queen's majesty's, that was pre- 
sent at the disputation, and can testify that the questions 
which were there in controversy were not set forth by me, 
but by the prolocutor, who required, in the queen's majesty's 
name, all men to dispute their minds freely in the same, that 
were of the house." 

The Queen's Gentleman : — " Though the parliament-house 
be a place of privilege for men of the house to speak, yet 
may none speak any treason against the queen, or maintain 
treason against the crown." 

PMlpot : — " But if there be any matter which otherwise 
it were treason to speak of, were it treason for any person 
to "speak therein, specially the thing being proposed by the 
speaker? I think not." 

The Queen's Gentleman: — " You may make the matter 
easy enough to you yet, as I perceive, if you will revoke 
the same which you did there so stubbornly maintain." 

St Asaph: — "This man did not speak under reformation, 
as many there did, but aywviGTiKtvs and /car^o/jtKws', 
which is, earnestly and persuasibly, as ever I heard any." 

PMlpot : — " My lords, since you will not cease to trouble pwipot ap- 

r J .... pealethto 

me for that I have lawfully done, neither will admit my iust the whole 

J . . J * parliament 

defence for that was spoken in the convocation-house by me, house. 
contrary to the laws and custom of the realm ; I appeal to the 
whole parliament-house, to be judged by the same, whether I 
ought thus to be molested for that I have there spoken." 

Rochester: — "But have you spoken and maintained the 
same since that time, or no V 

PMlpot : — " If any man can charge me justly therewith, 
here I stand to make answer." 

Rochester : — " How say you to it now ? will you stand to 
that you have spoken in the convocation-house, and do you 
think you said then well, or no?" 

PMlpot : — " My lord, you are not mine ordinary to pro- 
ceed ex officio against me, and therefore I am not bound to 
tell you my conscience of your demands." 

[• dyopiKws, ed. 1559.] 




St Asaph :— " What say you now \ Is there not in the 
blessed sacrament of the altar [and with that they put off 
all their caps for reverence of that idol] the presence of 
our Saviour Christ, really and substantially, after the words 
of consecration V 

Philpot :— " I do believe in the sacrament of Christ's body, 
duly ministered, to be such manner of presence, as the word 
teacheth me to believe ." 

St Asaph :— " I pray you, how is that V 
Philpot .— " As for that, I will declare another time, when 
I shall be lawfully called to dispute my mind of this matter ; 
but I am not yet driven to that point. And the scripture 
[i Cor. xiv. saith, ' All things ought to be done after an order'." 
+ °' ] Another Bishop :— " This is a froward and vain-glorious 


Bonner :— " It is not lawful for a man by the civil laws 
to dispute of his faith openly, as it appeareth in the title 
De summa Trinitate et fide Catholica 1 ." 

Philpot :— " My lord, I have answered you to this question 
before. 1 ' 

Bonner :— " Why, I never asked thee of this before 

Philpot .— " Yes, that you did at my last examination, 
by that token I answered your lordship by St Ambrose, that 
the church is congregated by the word, and not by man's 
law. Wherefore I add now further of this saying, ' That he 
which refuseth the word, and objecteth the law, is an un- 
[Hab.ii.H.]just man, because the just shall live by faith.' And more- 
over, my lord, the title which your lordship allegeth out of 
the law, maketh it not unlawful to dispute of all the articles 
of the faith, but of the Trinity." 

Bonner: — " Thou liest, it is not so: and I will shew 
you by the book how ignorant he is." 

[} Sed quia nonnulli propter irrefragabilis praemissse veritatis igno- 
rantiam in errores varios sunt prolapsi : Nos hujusmodi erroribus viam 
praecludere cupientes, hoc sacro approbante concilio, damnamus et repro- 
bamus omnes qui negare prsesumpserint, seternaliter Spiritum sanctum 
ex Patre et Filio procedere. Decretalium Lib. i. Tit. i. col. ix. Taurin. 
1620. The argument of Bonner in this place, as well as in a subse- 
quent passage, seems to be an inference from the words "negare prse- 


And with that he went with all haste to his study, and 
fetched his book, and openly read the text, and the title of 
the law ; and charged me with such words as seemed to make 
for his purpose, saying, " How say est thou to this ?" 

Philpot: — "My lord, I say, as I said before, that the 
law meaneth of the catholic faith, determined in the council 
of Chalcedon 2 , where the articles of the creed were only 
concluded upon." 

Bonner: — " Thou art the veriest beast that ever I heard: 
I must needs speak it: thou compellest me thereunto. - " 

Philpot: — "Your lordship may speak your pleasure of 0urfaith . 
me: but what is this to the purpose, which your lordship «i?ponthe 
is so earnest in ? You know that our faith is not grounded 
upon the civil law : therefore it is not material to me, what- 
soever the law saith." 

"Bonner: — "By what law wilt thou be judged? Wilt 
thou be judged by the common law?" 

Philpot: — "No, my lord, our faith dependeth not upon 
the laws of man.'" 

St Asaph : — " He will be judged by no law, but as he 
listeth himself.'" 

Worcester : — " The common laws are but abstracts of the 
scriptures and doctors." 

Philpot : — " Whatsoever you do make them, they are no 
ground of my faith, by the which I ought to be judged." 

Bonner: — " I must needs proceed against thee to-morrow." 

Philpot : — " If your lordship so do, I will have exceptio- 
nem fori 3 : for you are not my competent judge." 

Bonner : — " By what law canst thou refuse me to be thy 

Philpot : — " By the civil law, Be competente judice 4 . 1 ' 1 

Bonner: — "There is no such title in the law. In what 
book is it, as cunning a lawyer as you be?" 

Philpot : — " My lord, I take upon me no great cunning 

P Qui autem fidem repudiat, et legis jura prsescribit, ipse se 
testatur injustum, quia Justus ex fide vivit. Ambros. Op. Par. 1690. 
Tom. ii. col. 870. 24.] 

£ s See note, p. 7.] 

C* There is a title in the second book of the Decretals, De foro 
competenti, to which, possibly, the reference may have been intended. 
Vid. Decretalium, Lib. n. Tit. ii. Pithsei Corp. Jur. Can. Par. 1687.] 



in the law: but you drive me to my shifts for my defence. 
And I am sure, if I had the books of the law, I were able 
to shew what I say." 

Bonner: — "What? Be competente judice? I will go 
fetch thee my books. There is a title indeed, Be officii* 
judicis ordinarii 1 ." 

PMlpot :— " Verily that is the same Be competente judice, 
which I have alleged." 

With that he ran to his study, and brought the whole 
course of the law between his hands, which (as it might 
appear) he had well occupied, by the dust they were imbrued 

Bonner: — "There be the books: find it out, if thou 
canst, and I will promise to release thee out of prison." 

PMlpot:— "My lord, I stand not here to reason mat- 
ters of the civil law, although I am not altogether ignorant of 
the same ; for that I have been a student in the same six 
or seven years ; but to answer to the articles of faith, with 
the which you may lawfully burden me. And whereas you go 
about unlawfully to proceed, I challenge, according to my 
knowledge, the benefit of the law in my defence." 

Bonner : — " Why, thou wilt answer directly to nothing 
thou art charged withal : therefore say not hereafter but you 
might have been satisfied here by learned men, if you would 
have declared your mind." 
Phiipotre- PMlpot : — " My lord, I have declared my mind unto you 
again to ins an( j to other of the bishops at my last being before you, 
the church, desiring you to be satisfied but of one thing, whereunto I 
have referred all other controversies : the which if your lord- 
ships now, or other learned men, can simply resolve me of, 

[} Ut clericorum audacia (qui praetextu privilegii clericalis ordinis 
impunitatem excessuum obtinere sperantes, nonnulla multotiens com- 
mittunt enormia, per quae nimirum diffamatur ccelesia, et scandala gravia 
in populo generantur, potissime cum talia per episcopos, ad quos horum 
spectat correctio, deferantur ut plurimum incorrecta) propensius com- 
pescatur : Eisdem episcopis districte injungimus, quatenus sic circa cor- 
rectionem clericorum hujusmodi vigilanter intendant, et diligenter sui 
officii debitum exequantur, quod et iidem clerici metu poense a suis 
arceantur insolentiis, et alii eorum exemplo perterriti prosilire ad similia 
merito pertimescant. Decretalium Clementinarum, Lib. ir. Tit. ix. 
p. 354. Pithaei Corp. Jur. Can. De officio judicis ordinarii.] 


I am as contented to be reformable in all things, as you 
shall require; the which is, to prove that the church of 
Borne (whereof you are) is the catholic church. 1 '' 

Coventry : — " Why, do you not believe your creed, Credo 
ecclesiam catholicam . ? " 

Philpot: — "Yes, that I do: but I cannot understand 
Rome (wherewithal you burden us) to be the same, neither 
like to it." 

St Asaph : — " It is most evident, that St Peter did build 
the catholic church at Eome. And Christ said, Tu es Pe- 
trus, et super hanc petram cedificabo ecclesiam, meam. More- 
over, the succession of bishops in the see of Eome can be 
proved from time to time, as it can be of none other place 
so well ; which is a manifest probation of the catholic church, 
as divers doctors do write." 

PMlpot : — " That you would have to be undoubted, is 
most uncertain, and that by the authority which you allege 
of Christ, saying unto Peter, ' Thou art Peter, and upon 
this rock I will build my church ;' unless you can prove 
the rock to signify Eome, as you would make me falsely 
believe. And although you can prove the succession of 
bishops from Peter, yet this is not sufficient to prove Eome 
the catholic church, unless you can prove the profession of 
Peter's faith, whereupon the catholic church is builded, to 
have continued in his successors at Eome, and at this present 
to remain." 

Bonner:— 11 Is there any more churches than one catholic 
church ? And, I pray you, tell me into what faith were you 
baptized ?" 

Philpot : — " I acknowledge one holy catholic and apostolic 
church, whereof I am a member (I praise God), and am of 
that catholic church of Christ wbereunto I was baptized.'''' 

Coventry : — " I pray you, can you tell what this word 
' catholic' doth signify ? shew, if you can." 

Philpot :— " Yes, that I can, I thank God. The catholic Jfitfg* 
faith, or the catholic church, is not, as now a days the t e * jjp™, 
people be taught, to be that which is most universal, or of tude - 
most part of men received, whereby you do infer our faith 
to hang upon the multitude, which is not so ; but I esteem 
the catholic church to be as St Augustine defineth the 


Fides catho- game ' : 'We judge,' saith he, 'the catholic faith, of that 
which hath been, is, and shall be.' So that, if you can be 
able to prove that your faith and church hath been from the 
beginning taught, and is, and shall be, then may you count 
yourselves catholic : otherwise not. And catholic is a Greek 
word compounded of Kara, which signifieth after or according, 
and 6'Xoj/, a sum, or principal, or whole 2 . So that catholic 
church, or catholic faith, is as much to say, as the first, 
whole, sound, or chiefest faith." 

Bonner : — " Doth St Augustine say so as he allegeth it ? 
or doth he mean as he taketh the same ? How say you, master 
Curtop r 

Gurtop: — " Indeed, my lord, St Augustine hath such a 
saying, speaking against the Donatists, that the catholic faith 
ought to be esteemed of things in time past, and as they are 
practised according to the same, and ought to be through all 
ages ; and not after a new manner, as the Donatists began to 

Philpot : — " You have said well, master Curtop, and after 
the meaning of St Augustine, and to confirm that which I 
have said for the signification of catholic. 11 

Coventry: — " Let the book be seen, my lord. 11 

Bonner : — " I pray you, my lord, be content, or in good 
faith I will break even off, and let all alone. Do you think 
the catholic church (until it was within these few years, in 
the which a few upon singularity have swerved from the 
same) have erred? 11 

Philpot : — " I do not think that the catholic church can 
err in doctrine; but I require you to prove this church of 
Rome to be the catholic church. 11 

Curtop : — " I can prove that Irenseus (which was within a 
hundred years after Christ) came to Victor, when bishop of 

l l Non autem asserit (scrip tura sc.) nisi catholicam fidem rebus prae- 
teritis et futuris et praesentibus. Augustini Op. Par. 1680, De Doctrina 
Christiana, Lib. in. Tom. in. col. 49."] 

t 2 Qusstio certe inter nos versatur ubi sit ecclesia, utrum apud 
nos, an apud illos. Quae utique una est, quam majores nostri catholicam 
nominarunt, ut ex ipso nomine ostenderent, quia per totum est. Secun- 
dum totum enim, K aff o\ov Grace dicitur. Augustini Op. Par, 1694. 
Ep. contr. Donatist. Tom, ix, col, 338, § 2.] 


Rome, to ask his advice about the excommunication of certain 
heretics 3 ; the which he would not have done (by all likelihood) 
if he had not taken him to be supreme head. 11 

Coventry : — " Mark well this argument. How are you 
able to answer the same ? Answer, if you can. 11 

Philpot: — " It is soon answered, my lord, for that it is of 
no force ; neither this fact of Irenseus maketh no more for the 
supremacy of the bishop of Rome than mine hath done, which 
have been at Rome as well as he, and might have spoken with 
the pope, if I had list : and yet I would none in England did 
favour his supremacy more than I. 11 

St Asaph : — " You are the more to blame, by the faith of 
my body, for that you favour the same no better, since all 
the catholic church (until these few years) have taken him to 
be the supreme head of the church, besides this good man 

Philpot : — " That is not likely, that Irenseus so took him, Seven gene- 

. . . •" ™ councils 

or the primitive church : for I am able to shew seven general j"^ 1 */ 116 
councils after Iren8eus 1 s time, wherein he was never so taken ; Rome was 

' never taken 

which may be a sufficient proof, that the catholic primitive £ ) e r Jj upreme 
church never took him for supreme head. 11 

The other Bishop : — " This man will never be satisfied, 
say what we can. It is but folly to reason any more with 
him. 11 

Philpot : — " Oh, my lords, would you have me satisfied with 
nothing ? Judge, I pray you, who of us hath better authority, 
he which bringeth the example of one man going to Rome, or 
I that by these many general councils am able to prove, that 
he was never so taken in many hundred years after Christ, as 
by the Nicene, the first and second Ephesine, the Chalcedo- 
nian, the Constantinopolitan, the Carthaginian, and that at 

Coventry : — " Why will you not admit the church of Rome 
to be the catholic church V 

[ 3 ''Euk 6 tV/s 'PjoV»7« eTrloKoiro<; WtKriap aperpa Qeppavdeis, 
aKoiviavrja-'iav toiv kv tjj 'Atria Teo-o-apea-KaiSeKaTiTcu? a7r£<TTeiAei/* 
t(f> a) yevopeva) Ei^i/albs, 6 Aovyhovvov Trj<; ev TaWia eTri<TKOTro^, 
rov H'tKTOpos $t eTrio-ToArjs yevva'ua<; Kareipap.eV ^e^^a^evos p.ev 
avTov Ttjv depnoTtira. Socratis Hist. Eccl. Par. 1668. Lib. v. cap. 
xxn. p. 284.] 


PMlpot : — " Because it followeth not the primitive catholic 
church, neither agreeth with the same, no more than an apple 
is like a nut."" 
The cimrch Coventry : — " Wherein doth it dissent V 
dissenteth PMlpot : — " It were too long to recite all ; but two things 

primitive I will name, the supremacy and transubstantiation. 11 

Curtop : — " As for transubstantiation, albeit it was set 
forth and decreed for an article of faith not much above three 
hundred years, yet it was always believed in the church. 1 ' 1 

Bonner :— " Yea, that was very well said of you, master 


Transnb- PMlpot : — " Ye have said right, that transubstantiation is 

fsbutViate but a late plantation of the bishop of Eome; and you are not 

P antatwn. ^^ ^ ^ ew an y anc i en t vvriter, that the primitive church did 

believe any such thing.'''' 

And with this Curtop shrank away. And immediately 

after the ambassador of Spain came in, to whom my lord of 

London went, leaving the other with me. To whom I said, 

Phiipot " My lords, if you can shew me that this church of Eome 

again to his f whereof vou are members) is the true catholic church, I shall 


be content to be one thereof, and as conformable to the same 
as you can require me in all things; for I know there is no 
salvation but within the church. 11 

Coventry : — " Can you disprove that the church of Eome 
is not the catholic church f 
Rome is not PMlpot : — " Yea, that I am able ; but I desire rather to 

the catholic « n i <• 1 i» a l • T I 

church, and hear ot you ior the proof thereof. And seeing 1 cannot have 
my request at your hands, neither be satisfied with any probable 
authority, I will shew you good proof why it is not. For if the 
primitive church were catholic, as it was indeed, and ought to 
be, the form and school-mistress of the church to the world's 
end ; then is not the church of Eome now the catholic church, 
which dissenteth so far from the same both in doctrine and use 
of the sacraments. 11 

Coventry : — " How prove you that the church of Eome now 
dissenteth in doctrine and use of the sacraments from the 
primitive church V 

PMlpot : — " Compare the one with the other, and it shall 
soon appear; as you may see both in Eusebius and other 
ecclesiastical and ancient writers. 11 


Gomntry : — " What have you to say more, why it is not 
the catholic church V 

Philpot: — " Because it is not (by your interpretation of 
'catholic 1 ) universal, neither ever was, albeit you falsely persuade 
the people that it is so. For, the world being divided into The faith of 
three parts, Asia, Africa, and Europe; two parts thereof, Asia cirarchnow 
and Africa, professing Christ as well as we, did never consent universal! 
to the church of Rome, which is of Europe ; which is a 
sufficient testimony that your church was never universal." 

Coventry : — " How prove you that V 

Philpot: — " All the historiographers, which write of the 
proceedings of the church, do testify the same. Besides that 
this present time doth declare that to be true, which I say : for 
at this present the church of Asia and Africa do not consent 
to the church of Rome. Yea, and besides all this, most part of 
Europe doth not agree, neither allow the church of Eome ; as 
Germany, the kingdom of Denmark, the kingdom of Poland, a 
great part of France, England, and Zealand; which is a manifest 
probation that your church is not universal." 

And after this the bishop of London called away the 
other bishops, and left with me divers gentlemen, with certain 
of his chaplains, as Dr Saverson an Englishman, who had 
proceeded doctor at Bologna, who after began with me in this 

Dr Saverson : — " Master Philpot, I remember you beyond 
sea since the time you reasoned with a friar, a notable learned 
man, coming from Venice to Padua in a barge." 

Philpot : — " I cannot forget that ; for the friar threatened 
me to accuse me of heresy as soon as he came to Padua, for 
that I talked with him so boldly of the truth. He was no 
such learned man as you name him to be, but only in his 
school points, a good purgatory friar." 

Dr Saverson: — " Well, he was a learned man for all that. 
And I am sorry to hear that you this day, having communed 
with so many notable learned men, are no more conformable to 
them than you be." 

Philpot : — " I will be conformable to all them that be 
conformable to Christ in his word. And I pray you, good 
master doctor, be not so conformable to please men more than 
God, contrary to your learning, for worldly estimation's sake." 


Dr Saverson : — " No, that I am not. Upon what oc- 
casion should you think thus of me V 

PUlpot:— Upon no evil that I do know of you, master 
doctor ; but I speak as one wishing that you should not be 
led away from the truth for promotion's sake, as many doc- 
tors be now a days." 

Dr Saverson :— " I have heard your arguments hitherto, 
and methinketh that a great many of the old ancient writers 
be against you in that you do not allow the church of Eome, 
neither the supremacy; for St Cyprian, who is an old an- 
cient writer, doth allow the bishop of Eome to be supreme 
head of the church." 

PUlpot:—" That I am sure of he doth not: for he, 
writing unto Cornelius, then bishop of Rome, calleth him 
but his companion and fellow-bishop 1 , neither attributed to 
him the name either of pope, or else of any other usurped 
terms which now be ascribed to the bishop of Rome, to the 
setting forth of his dignity." 

Dr Saverson : — " You cannot be able to shew that St 
Cyprian calleth Cornelius his fellow-bishop." 

PUlpot: — " I will wager with you what I am able to make, 
that I can shew it you in Cyprian, as I have said." 

Dr Saverson : — " I will lay none other wager with you, 
but book for book, that it is not so." 

Philpot: — "I agree thereto, and I pray you one of my 
lord's chaplains to fetch us Cyprian hither for the trial here- 

And with that one of them went to my lord's study, 
and brought forth Cyprian, and by and by he turned to the 
first book of his epistles, the third epistle 2 ; and there would 

[} Cyprianus Comelio fratri salutem. Venerunt ad nos, frater 
cavissime, &c. Nam et ego, et collegse plurimi qui ad me convene- 
rant, expectavimus adventum collegarum nostrorum Caldonii et Fortu- 
nati, quos ad te nuper et ad coepiscopos nostras, qui ordinationi tua 
affuerant, legatos miseramus, &c. Cypriani Op. Par. 1726. Ep. xli. 
p. 55.] 

[ 2 Neque enim aliunde haereses obortae sunt, aut nata sunt schis- 
mata, quam inde quod sacerdoti Dei non obtemperatur, nee unus in 
ecclesia ad tempus sacerdos et ad tempus judex vice Christi cogitatur: 
cui si secundum magisteria divina obtemperaret fraternitas universa, 
nemo adversum sacerdotum collegium quicquam moveret, nemo post 


have seemed to have gathered a strong argument for the 
supremacy of the bishop of Rome, because he saith, " It goeth 
not well with the church when the high priest is not obeyed, 
which supplieth the stead of Christ, after God's word, and 
the consent of his fellow-bishops and the agreement of the 

Dr Saverson : — " How can you avoid this place, which 
maketh so plainly for the bishop of Rome's supremacy?" 

Philpot : — " It maketh not so plain, master doctor, on Saverson 

• j ,! -i i t t -li • , hath lost his 

your side, as you gather; as by and by I will give you tobooktoPMi- 
understand. But first I challenge the wager which we made, P ° ' 
that your book is mine ; for here you may see that he calleth 
Cornelius his fellow-bishop, as he doth also in other places. 
And now, for the understanding of that place, you do mis- 
construe it, to take the high priest only for the bishop of 
Rome, and otherwise than it was in his time. For there 
were by the Nicene council four patriarchs appointed, the 
patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Constantinople, the 
patriarch of Alexandria, and the patriarch of Rome ; of which 
four, the patriarch of Rome was placed lowest in the council, 
and so continued many years 3 , for the time of seven or eight 
general councils, as I am able to shew. Therefore St Cy- 
prian, writing to Cornelius, patriarch of Rome, whom he 
calleth his fellow-bishop, findeth himself offended, that certain 
heretics, being justly excommunicated by him (as the No- 
vatians were), did flee from his diocese, who was their chief 
bishop, refusing to be obedient to him and to be reformed, 
to the bishop of Rome and to the patriarch of Constanti- 
nople, and there were received in communion of the congre- 
gation, in derogation of good order and discipline in the 
church, and to the maintenance of heresies and schisms : and 
that heresies did spring up and schisms daily arise hereof, 
that obedience was not given to the priest of God, nor that 
they considered him to be in the church for the time the 
priest, and for the time the judge, in Christ's stead (as in 
the decree of the Nicene council was appointed), — not mean- 

divinum judicium, post populi suffragium, post coepiscoporum consen- 
sum, judicem se jam, non episcopi, sed Dei, faceret. Cyprian. Op. Par. 
1726. Ep. lv. p. 82.] 

[ 3 Many hundred years, ed. 1559.] 


ing the bishop of Rome only, but every patriarch in his 
precinct; who had every one of them a college or cathe- 
dral church of learned priests, in hearing of whom by a con- 
vocation of all his fellow-bishops, with the consent of the 
people, all heresies were determined by the word of God; 
and this is the meaning of St Cyprian." 

Br Saver son : — " You take it so, but it seemeth to me 


PMlpot ;— " Upon what ground it should seem otherwise 
unto you, I know not; but this meaning which I have declared, 
the general councils, seven or eight one after another, con- 
firmed it so to be, which did not allow one supreme head 

Pendleton :— " There were not so many general councils, 
but four only allowed." 

PMlpot : — " This is not so, master Pendleton, although 
there be four specially allowed for the confirmation of the 
Trinity; but besides these four there were many other ge- 
neral councils, as you may learn by many writers." 

A Chaplain : — " Did not Christ build his church upon 

Peter? St Cyprian saith so." 

How st cy- Philpot •• — " St Cyprian De simplicitate proelatorum de- 

etiichns'tto clareth in what respect he so said: 'God gave, in the per- 

ehurchupon son of one man, the keys of all, that he might signify the 

unity of all men 1 .' And also St Augustine saith in the tenth 

treatise of St John, ' If in Peter had not been the mystery 

of the church, the Lord had not said unto him, I will give 

unto thee the keys. For if that were said to Peter, the 

church hath them not ; if the church have them, when Peter 

received them, he signified the whole church 5 . 1 And also 

[ J This passage has not been found ; but the following words con- 
tain the substance of the sentiment : " Ut unitatem manifestaret, uni- 
tatis ejusdem originem ab uno incipientem sua auctoritate disposuit." 
Cypr. de Unitate Ecclesise, Ed. Par. 172G. p. 195. "De Simplicitate 
Prselatorum " is the title in the old editions : " De unit. Eccl." is that 
by which the Fathers make mention of it. See Dupin's Eccl. Hist. 
Vol. i. p. 161.] 

£ 3 Nam si in Petro non esset ecclesiae sacramentum, non ei diceret 
Dominus, Tibi dabo claves regni coelorum : qusecunquc solveris in 
terra, soluta erunt et in ccelo; et quxcunque ligaveris in terra, ligata 
erunt et in coelo. Si hoc Petro tantum dictum est, non facit hoc eccle- 


St Jerome, a priest of* Rome, writing to Nepotian, saith, 
' That all churches do lean to their own pastors ;' where he 
speaketh of the ecclesiastical hierarchy or regiment, where 
he maketh no mention of the bishop of Rome 3 . And writing 
Ad Evagrium*, he saith, 'that wheresoever a bishop be, 
whether it be at Rome, or at Evagium, or at Rhegium, he 
is of one power and one jurisdiction'." 

Br Saverson : — " St Jerome, Be ccelesti Hierarchid ? It 
was St Dionysius you mean 5 ." 

Philpot : — " I say not that Jerome wrote any book so 
intituled: but I say, that in the epistle by me alleged he 
maketh mention of the ecclesiastical regiment." 

Br Saverson: — "I wonder you will stand so stedfast in 
your error to your own destruction." 

Philpot : — " I am sure we are in no error, by the pro- 
mise of Christ made to the faithful once, which is, that he 
will give to his true church such " a spirit of wisdom, that 
the adversaries thereof should never be able to resist." And 
by this I know we are of the truth, for that neither by rea- 
soning, neither by writing, your synagogue of Rome is able 

sia : si autem et in ecclesia fit, ut quae in terra ligantur, in ccelo ligentur, 
et quae solvuntur in terra, solvantur in ccelo ; quia cum excommunicat 
ecclesia, in ccelo ligatur excommunicatus; cum reconciliatnr ab ecclesia, 
in ccelo solvitur reconciliatus; si hoc ergo in ecclesia fit, Petrus quando 
claves accepit, ecclesiam sanctam significavit. Augustini Op. Par. 
1680. Tom. m. Pars ii. col. 633, § 12.] 

s While the letter of Jerome to Nepotian "de Vita Clericorum 
et Monachorum" ' contains many sentences which recognize and imply 
the ecclesiastical regiment', the words alluded to do not appear in it. 
" Sciat episcopus cui commissa est ecclesia," is the nearest expression to 
that in the text, which has been found. Vide Hieron. Op. Par. 1706. 
Epist. xxxiv. Tom. iv. col. 262.] 

[ 4 Ubicumque fuerit Episcopus, sive Romse, sive Eugubii, sive 
Constantinopoli, sive Rhegii, sive Alexandriae, sive Tanis, ejusdem 
meriti, ejusdem est et sacerdotii. Hieronym. Op. Par. 1706. Ep. ci. 
Tom. iv. p. 803.] 

P The works attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite are now gene- 
rally considered spurious, and were so even in the time of Photius. 
The early writers made no mention of them ; and various ecclesiastical 
terms and subjects are interspersed, long subsequent to the times of 
the Areopagite. For a reply to the arguments of Baronius and others 
in their defence, vide Dupin's Eccl. Hist, and Rivet. Crit. Sacr. Lib. i. 
§ 9, 10.] 




cometh in. 

to answer. Where is there one of you all, that ever hath 
been able to answer any of the godly learned ministers of 
Germany, who have disclosed your counterfeit religion? Which 
of you all at this day is able to answer Calvin's Institu- 
tions, who is minister of Geneva?" 

Dr Saverson :— " A godly minister, indeed, of receipt of 
cutpurses and runagate traitors ! And of late, I can tell you, 
there is such contention fallen between him and his own 
sects, that he was fain to flee the town, about predestina- 
tion. I tell you truth, for I came by Geneva hither." 

PMlpot :— " I am sure you blaspheme that godly man, 
and that godly church where he is minister; as it is your 
church's condition, when you cannot answer men by learn- 
ing, to oppress them with blasphemies and false reports. For 
in the matter of predestination he is in none other opinion 
than all the doctors of the church be, agreeing to the scrip- 

Dr Saversoti :— " Men be able to answer him if they list. 
And, I pray you, which of you have answered bishop Fisher's 

PMlpot :— " Yes, master doctor, that book is answered 
and answered again, if you list to seek what hath been 
written against him." 

And after this Dr Story came in. To whom I said, 
" Master doctor, you have done me great injury, and with- 
out law have straitly imprisoned me, more like a dog than 
a man. And, besides this, you have not kept promise with 
me ; for you promised that I should be judged the next day 

Story : — " I am come now to keep promise with thee. 
Was there ever such a phantastical man as this is? Nay, 
he is no man, he is a beast, yea, these heretics be worse 
than brute beasts ; for they will, upon a vain singularity, 
take upon them to be wiser than all men, being indeed very 
fools and ass-heads, not able to maintain that which of an 
arrogant obstinacy they do stand in." 

PMlpot : — " Master doctor, I am content to abide your 
railing judgment of me now. Say what you will, I am con- 
tent ; for I am under your feet to be trodden on as you list. 
God forgive it you ; yet am I no heretic. Neither you nor 


any other shall be able to prove that I hold any jot against 
the word of God otherwise than a christian man ought." 

Story : — " The word of God ! Forsooth, the word of 
God ! It is but a folly to reason with these heretics, for 
they are incurable and desperate. But, as I may reason with 
thee (not that I have any hope to win thee), whom wilt 
thou appoint to judge of the word whereto thou standest?" 

PMlpot: — "Verily the word itself." 

Story : — " Do you not see the ignorance of this beastly 
heretic? He willeth the word to be judged of the word. 
Can the word speak ?" 

PMlpot : — " If I cannot prove that which I have said by 
good authority, I will be content to be counted a heretic 
and an ignorant person ; and further, what you please." 

Story: — "Let us hear what wise authority thou canst 
bring in. 1 ' 

PMlpot : — " It is the saying of Christ in St John (chap, 
xii.), ' The word which I have spoken,' saith Christ, ' shall 
judge in the last day.' If the word shall judge in the last 
day, much more it ought to judge our doings now: and I 
am sure I have my judge on my side, who shall absolve and 
justify me in another world. Howsoever now it shall please 
you by authority unrighteously to judge of me and others, 
sure I am in another world to judge you." 

Story: — "What! you purpose to be a stinking martyr, 
and to sit in judgment with Christ at the last day, to judge 
the twelve tribes of Israel?" 

PMlpot :— " Yea, sir, I doubt not thereof, having the 
promise of Christ, if I die for righteousness 1 sake, which 
you have begun to persecute in me." 

Story : — " I told you it was but vain to argue with 
this heretic; he is drowned in his heresies, without all 

PMlpot :— " Sir, I have brought you, for that I have 
said, good authority out of God's book, to the which you 
answer nothing, but go about still to give railing judgment 
against me without any cause." 

Story : — " I will come to you by and by. When the 
judge at Westminster Hall giveth sentence, doth the word 
give sentence, or the judge? tell me." 


God's jutis- PMlpot: — "Civil matters be subject to civil men; and 

merit and -* 1 1 • 1 i> j.i 

cmijucig- they have authority by the word to be judges ot them. 

alike. ' But the word of God is not subject to man's judgment, 

but ought to judge all the wisdom, thoughts, and doings oi 

men ; and therefore your comparison disproveth nothing that 

I have said, neither answereth any whit thereto." 

Story: — "Wilt thou not allow the interpretation of the 

church upon the scriptures V 

iTiento d f S " PMlpot :— " Yes, if it be according to the true church : 

how forTt'' and tms I sav to vou ' as I have saicl heretofore, that if 

serveth. y e can p rove ^he church of Rome, whereof ye are, to be 

the true catholic church which I ought to follow, I will 
be as ready to yield thereto (as long as it can be so proved) 
as you may desire me. 11 

Story : — " What a fellow is this ! he will believe nothing 
but what he listeth himself. Are we not in possession of 
the church ? have not our forefathers these many hundred 
years taken this church for the catholic church, whereof we 
are now? and if we had none other proof but this, it were 
tiorfofti'me sufficient ; for prescription of time maketh a good title in 

the law." 

£on S oftfme PMlpot: — " You do well, master doctor, to allege pre- 

titieinGod's scl *iption of many years ; for it is all that you have to shew 

matters. f or y 0urse i ves> But you must understand, that prescription 

hath no place in matters belonging unto God, as I am able 

to shew by the testimony of many doctors." 

SmfessTth Story: — " Well, sir, you are like to go after your fathers, 

be"?ie chief Latimer the sophister, and Eidley, who had nothing to 

of aH a God' r s allege for himself, but that he had learned his heresy of 

suffercd'in Cranmer. When I came to him with a poor bachelor 

Alarms °f ai 'ts, he trembled as though he had had the palsy; as 

ime ' these heretics have always some token of fear whereby a 

man may know them, as you may see this man's eyes 

do tremble in his head. But I despatched them ; and I 

tell thee that there hath been yet never any one burnt, 

but I have spoken with him, and have been a cause of 

his despatch." 

PMlpot :— " You have the more to answer for, master 
doctor, as you shall feel in another world, how much soever 
you do now triumph of your proceedings." 


Story : — " I tell thee, I will never be confessed ' thereof. 
And because I cannot now tarry to speak with my lord, I 
pray one of you tell my lord, that my coming was to 
signify to Ins lordship, that he must out of hand rid this 
heretic out of the way." 

And, going away, he said to me, " I certify thee, that 
thou mayest thank none other man for it but me." 

Philpot : — " I thank you therefore with all mine heart, 
and God forgive it you ! " 
r Story : — " What ! dost thou thank me ? If I had thee story's 


in my study half an hour, I think I should make you sing 
another song." 

Philpot: — "No, master doctor, I stand upon too sure a 
ground to be overthrown by you now." 

And thus they departed all away from me one after PMipot left 
another, until I was left all alone. And afterwards, with 
my keeper going to my coal-house, as I went, I met with 
my lord of London, who spake unto me gently, as he hath 
hitherto in words, saying: 

London : — " Philpot, if there be any pleasure I may shew 
vou in my house, I pray you require it, and you shall have 

Philpot:— "My lord, the pleasure that I will require ofj^jj^ 
your lordship is to hasten my judgment, which is committed Ph - , s 1 SJ t tor 
unto you, and so to despatch me forth of this miserable Jjgw, 
world unto my eternal rest." fair words. 

And for all his fair speech I cannot attain hitherto, this 
fortnight's space, neither fire nor candle, neither yet good 
lodging. But it is good for a man to be brought low in 
this world, and to be counted amongst the vilest, that he 
may in time of reward receive exaltation and glory. There- 
fore praised be God, that hath humbled me, and given me 
grace with gladness to be content therewithal. Let all that 
love the truth say, Amen. 

Thus endeth the fifth tragedy. 

the sixth The sixth examination of John Philpot, had 
examination. be f ore t ^ e ^^ honourable lords, the lord 
chamberlain to the queen's majesty, the Viscount Hereford, 



commonly called Lord Ferrers, the Lord Riche, the Lord 
St John, the Lord Windsor, the Lord Ohandos, Sir John 
Bridges, lieutenant of the tower, and two other more, whose 
names I know not, with the bishop of London and Dr Ohed- 
sey, the 6th day of November, Anno 1555. 

Before that I [Philpot] was called afore the lords, and 
whiles they were in sitting down, the bishop of London came 
aside to me and whispered in mine ear, willing me to use 
myself before the lords of the queen's majesty's council pru- 
dently, and to take heed what I said: and thus he pretended 
to give me counsel, because he wished me to do well ; as I 
might now do, if I list. And after the lords and other wor- 
shipful gentlemen of the queen's majesty's servants were set, 
my lord of London placed himself at the end of the table, 
and called me to him, and by the lords I was placed at the 
upper end against him; where I kneeling down, the lords 
commanded me to stand up, and after in this manner the 
bishop began to speak : 

London : — " Master Philpot, I have heretofore, both pri- 
vately myself, and openly before the lords of the clergy, more 
times than once, caused you to be talked withal to reform 
you of your errors ; but I have not found you yet so tract- 
able as I would wish. Wherefore now I have desired these 
honourable lords of the temporalty and of the queen's ma- 
jesty's council, who have taken pains with me this day (I 
thank them therefore), to hear you what you can say, that 
they may be judges whether I have sought all means to do 
you good, or no : and I dare be bold to say, in their behalf, 
that if you shew yourself conformable to the queen's majesty's 
proceedings, you shall find as much favour for your deliver- 
ance as you can wish. I speak not this to fawn upon you, 
but to bring you home into the church. Now let them hear 
what you can say." 

Philpot :— " My lord, I thank God of this day, that I 
have such an honourable audience to declare my mind before. 
And I cannot but commend your lordship's equity in this 
behalf, which agreeth with the order of the primitive church, 
which was, if anybody had been suspected of heresy, as I 
am now, he should be called first before the archbishop or 


bishop of* the diocese, where he was suspected ; secondly, in 
the presence of others his fellow-bishops and learned elders; 
and thirdly, in hearing of the laity ; where, after the judg- 
ment of God's word declared, and with the assent of other 
bishops and consent of the people, he was condemned to 
exile for a heretic, or absolved. And the second point of 
that good order I have found at your lordship's hand already, 
in being called before you and your fellow-bishops ; and now 
have the third sort of men, at whose hands I trust to find 
more righteousness with my cause than I have found with 
my lords of the clergy. God grant I may have at last the 
judgment of God's word concerning the same. 1 ' 

London : — " Master Philpot, I pray you, ere you go any 
further, tell my lords here plainly, whether you were by me 
or by my procurement committed to prison or not, and 
whether I have shewed you any cruelty since ye have been 
committed to my prison." 

Philpot: — "If it shall please your lordship to give me 
leave to declare forth my matter, I will touch that after- 

Biche : — " Answer first of all to my lord's two questions, 
and then proceed forth to the matter. How say you? were 
you imprisoned by my lord or no? can you find any fault 
since, with his cruel using of you?" 

Philpot : — " I cannot lay to my lord's charge the cause Bonner not 
of my imprisonment, neither may I say that he hath used pniipot's 
me cruelly; but rather for my part I may say, that I have ment. 
found more gentleness at his lordship's hands, than I did 
at mine own ordinary's, for the time I have been within 
his prison; for that he hath called me three or four times 
to mine answer, to the which I was not called in a twelve- 
month and a half before." 

Riehe : — " Well, now go forth to your matter." 
Philpot : — " The matter is, that I am imprisoned for the 
disputations had by me in the convocation-house against the 
Sacrament of the altar ; which matter was not moved prin- 
cipally by me, but by the prolocutor, with the consent of 
the queen's majesty and of the whole house ; and that house, 
being ■& member of the parliament-house, ought to be a place 
of free speech for all men of the house, by the ancient and 



laudable custom of this realm. Wherefore I think myself 
to have sustained hitherto great injury for speaking my con- 
science freely in such a place as 1 might lawfully do it : and 
I desire your honourable lordships 1 judgment, which be of the 
parliament-house, whether of right I ought to be impeached 
therefore, and sustain the loss of my living (as I have done), 
and moreover of my life, as it is sought."" 

Riche :— " You are deceived herein ; for the convocation- 
house is no part of the parliament-house."' 

Philjjot :—- My lord, I have always understood the con- 
trary, by such as are more expert men in things of this 
realm than I : and again, the title of every act leadeth me 
to think otherwise, which allegeth the agreement of the spi- 
ritualty and temporalty assembled together. 11 

Rich': — " Yea, that is meant of the spiritual lords of 
the upper house. 1 " 

Windsor: — "Indeed the convocation-house is called to- 
gether by one writ of the summons of the parliament, of an 
old custom ; notwithstanding that house is no part of the 
parliament-house ." 

Philpot: — " My lords, I must be contented to abide your 
judgments in this behalf. 11 

Riche : — " We have told you the truth. Marry, yet we 
would not that you should be troubled for any thing that 
there was spoken, so that you, having spoken amiss, do de- 
clare now that you are sorry therefore." 

London: — "My lords, he hath spoken there manifest 
heresy ; yea, and there stoutly maintained the same against 
the blessed sacrament of the altar [and with that he put 
off his cap, that all the lords might reverence and veil their 
bonnets at that idol, as he 1 did], and would not allow the 
real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the same. 
Yet, my lords, God forbid that I should go about to shew 
him extremity for so doing, in case he will repent and re- 
voke his wicked sayings ; and if in faith he will so do, with 
your lordships 1 consent he shall be released by-and-by. If he 
will not, he shall have 2 the extremity of the law, and that 
shortly. 11 

I 1 "As they did," ed. 1559.] 

[ 2 "He shall look for the extremity of the law," ed. ]559.] 


Chamberlain .— " My lord of London speaketh reasonably 
unto you. Take it whiles it is offered vou." 

JRic/w:— 1 - How say you i Will you acknowledge the real 
presence of the body and blood of Christ, as all the learned 
men of this realm do, in the mass, and as I do, and will 
believe as long as I live, I do protest it?" 

Philpot : — " My lord, I do acknowledge in the sacrament 
of the body and blood of Christ such a presence, as the word 
of God doth allow and teach me." 

Hiche : — " That shall be no otherwise than you list." 

London : — " A sacrament is the sign of a holy thing ; so 
that there is both the sign, which is the accident, as the 
whiteness, roundness, and shape of bread, and there is also 
the thing itself, as very Christ both Cod and man. But 
these heretics will have the sacraments to be but bare sio-ns 
How say you 1 declare unto my lords here, whether you do 
allow the thing itself in the sacrament or no." 

Pliilpot: — '• I do confess that in the Lord's Supper there 
is in due respects both the sign and thing signified 3 , when 
it is duly ministered after the institution of Christ." 

London : — '• You may see how he goeth about the bush 
(as he hath done before with my lords of the clergy), and 
dare not utter his mind plainly" 

Bichc : — " Shew us what manner of presence you allow 
in the sacrament." 

Philpot: — "Kit please you, my lord of London, to give 
me leave to proceed orderly thereunto, and to let me declare 
my mind without interruption, I will throughly open my mind 

Lord Ohandos: — " I pray you, my lord, let him speak his 

Philpot : — - My lords, that at the first 1 have not plainly 
declared my judgment unto you, the reason is this, because 
I cannot speak hereof without the danger of my life." 

Hiche : — " There is none of us here that seeketh thy life, 
or means to take any advantage of that thou shalt speak." 

Philpot: — "Although I mistrust not your honourable lord- 
ships that be here of the temporally ; yet here is one that 

{J " I do confess the sacrament both to be a sign and the thing itself, 
lvben," &c. ed. 1559.] 


sitteth against me [pointing to my lord of London], that will 
lay it to my charge, even to the death. Notwithstanding, 
seeing your honours do require me to declare my mind of 
the presence of Christ in the sacrament, that ye may per- 
ceive that I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, neither 
do maintain any opinion without probable and sufficient au- 
thority of the scripture, I will shew you frankly my mind 
without all colour, whatsoever shall ensue unto me therefore, 
so that my lord of London will not let me to utter my mind " 
Eiche:— U My lord, permit him to say what he can, seeing 
he is willing to shew his mind." 

London :— " I am content, my lords ; let him say what 
he can, I will hear him. 11 
Theprotes. Philpot : — "That which I do intend to speak unto you, 
PhSSpot right honourable lords, I do protest here first before God and 
lords? e his angels, that I speak it not of vain-glory, neither of singu- 
larity, neither of wilful stubbornness, but truly upon a good 
conscience, grounded on God's word, against the which I dare 
not do for fear of damnation, which will follow that which is 
done contrary to knowledge. Neither do I disagree to the 
proceedings of this realm in religion, for that I love not the 
queen (whom I love from the bottom of my heart) ; but because 
I ought to love and fear God in his word more than man in 
his laws, though I stand, as I seem to do, in this consideration, 
The papists and for none other, as God I call to witness. There be two 
the sacra- things principally, by the which the clergy at this day do de- 
Lord'sbody, ceive the whole realm ; that is, the sacrament of the body and 
church. blood of Christ, and the name of the catholic church: the 
which both they do usurp, having indeed none of them both. 
And as touching their sacrament, which they term, of the 
altar, I say now as I said in the convocation-house, that it 
is not the sacrament of Christ, neither in the same is there 
any manner of Christ's presence. Wherefore they deceive 
the queen's majesty, and you of the nobility of this realm, in 
making you to believe that to be a sacrament which is none, 
and cause you to commit manifest idolatry in worshipping 
that for God which is no God. And in testimony of this 
to be true, besides manifest proof, which I am able to make 
to the queen's majesty, and to all you of her nobility, I will 
yield my life : the which to do, if it were not upon a sure 


grdund, it were to my utter damnation. And whereas they Papists un- 
take on them the name of the catholic church (whereby they the nameof 
blind many folks' eyes), they are nothing so, calling you from thechurch - 
the true religion, which was revealed and taught in king 
Edward's time, unto vain superstition. And this I will say 
for the trial hereof, that if they can prove themselves to be 
the catholic church (as they shall never be able to do), I 
will never be against their doings, but revoke all that I 
have said. And I shall desire you, my lords, to be a mean 1 PMpot 

. . i . i t iii offereth 

for me to the queens majesty, that 1 may be brought to himself to 
the iust trial hereof. Yea, I will not refuse to stand against against ten 

„ . . i • i.» of the best 

ten of the best of them in this realm : and if they be able learned in 

T 1 • 1 • 1 1 •• tl>0 realm > 

to prove otherwise than 1 have said, either by writing or in tne P 100f 

1 . . ° of his cause. 

by reasoning, with good and lawful authority, I will here 
promise to recant whatsoever I have said, and to consent to 
them in all points." 

And in the declaration of these things more at large, 
which now I write in sum, the bishop of London eftsoons 
would have interrupted me, but the lords procured me liberty 
to make out my tale, to the great grief of the lord bishop 
of London, as it appeared by the dumps he was in. 

London : — " It hath been told me before, that you love 
to make a long tale/ 1 

Biche : — " All heretics do boast of the Spirit of God, and 
every one would have a church by himself; as Joan of Kent 
and the Anabaptists. I had myself Joan of Kent a seven- 
night in my house, after the writ was out for her to be burnt, 
where my lord of Canterbury and bishop Ridley resorted 
almost daily unto her. But she was so high in the spirit, that 
they could do nothing with her for all their learning : but she 
went wilfully unto the fire, was burnt, and so do you now." 

Philpot : — " As for Joan of Kent, she was a vain woman 
(I knew her well), and a heretic indeed, well worthy to be 
burnt, because she stood against one of the manifest articles 
of our faith, contrary to the scriptures. And such vain 
spirits be soon known from the true Spirit of God and 
his church, for that the same abideth within the limits 
of God's word, and will not go out of the same, neither 
stubbornly maintain any thing contrary to the word, as I 
[} A mean : a medium of communication and entreaty.] 


have God's word thoroughly on my side to shew for that I 
stand in." 

London : — " I pray you, how will you join me these two 
scriptures together, Pater major me est; and Pater et ego 
unum sumus? I must interpret the same, because my 
lords here understand not the Latin, that is to say, ' The 
Father is greater than I ;' and ' I and the Father are one :' 
but I cry you mercy, my lords, I have misspoken in saying, 
you understand no Latin ; for the most part of you under- 
stand Latin as well as I. But I spake in consideration of 
my lord Chandos and master Bridges his brother, whom I 
take to be no great Latin men. Now shew your cunning, 
and join these two scriptures by the word, if you can." 

Philpot : — " Yes, that I can right well. For we must 

understand that in Christ there be two natures, the divinity 

and humanity : and in respect of his humanity it is spoken 

[johnxiv. of Christ, ' The Father is greater than I 1 ; but in respect of 

x] his deity he said again, ' The Father and I be one 1 . 1 ' 

London : — " But what scripture have you V 

Philpot: — "Yes, I have sufficient scripture for the proof 

of that I have said. For the first, it is written of Christ in 

[Psai.viii.5. the Psalms, ' Thou hast made him a little lesser than angels.' 

Psal.xix.l.] . ... 

It is the 15th Psalm, beginning Coeli enarrant^ And there 
I misreckoned, wherewithal my lord took me : 

London : — " It is in Domine Dominus noster. Ye may see, 
my lords, how well this man is used to say his matins." 

Philpot : — " Though I say not matins in such order as 
your lordship meaneth; yet I remember of old, that Domine 
Dominus noster, and Coeli enarrant, be not far asunder. And 
albeit I misnamed the psalm, it is no prejudice to the truth 
of that I have proved." 

London : — " What say you then to the second scripture I 

how couple you that by the word to the other?" 

scripture Philpot : — " The text itself declareth, that notwithstanding 

Christ did abase himself in our human nature, yet he is still 

[Heb. i. 3, one in deity with the Father: and this St Paul to the 

4 ' 8 '- 1 Hebrews doth more at large set forth. As I have by the 

scriptures joined these two scriptures together, so am I able 

to do in all other articles of faith which we ought to believe, 

and by the manifest word of God to expound them." 


London : — " How can that be, seeing St Paul saith, ' That 
the letter killeth, but it is the spirit that giveth life 1 ? 11 

Philpot: — "St Paul meaneth not, that the word of God How the 
written in itself killeth (which is the word of life, and faithful eth, and 
testimony of the Lord) ; but that the word is unprofitable 
and killeth him that is void of the Spirit of God, although 
he be the wisest man of the world. And therefore St Paul 
said, ' That the gospel to some was a savour of life unto ra cor. h. 
life, and to some other a savour of death unto death 1 . Also 
an example hereof we have in John vi., of them who hearing 
the word of God without the Spirit, were offended thereby : 
wherefore Christ said, ' The flesh profiteth nothing ; it is the 
Spirit that quickeneth 1 . 11 

London : — " What ! do you understand that of St Paul 
and of St John so V 

Philpot : — " It is not mine own interpretation, it is agree- 
able to the word in other places ; and I have learned the 
same of ancient fathers interpreting it likewise. And to the 
Corinthians it is written, ' The natural man perceiveth not the [iCor.ii.M, 
things that be of the Spirit of God ; but the spiritual man, 
which is endued with the Spirit, judgeth all things 1 . 11 

London : — " You see, my lords, that this man will have 
his own mind; and will wilfully cast away himself. I am 
sorry for him. 11 

Philpot :— " The words that I have spoken be none of 
mine, but of the gospel, whereon I ought to stand. And if 
you, my lord of London, can bring better authority for the faith 
you would draw me unto, than that which I stand upon, I will 
gladly hear the same by you or by any other in this realm. 11 

Wherefore I, kneeling down, besought the lords "to be PMpot's 
good unto me, a poor gentleman, that would fain live in the the lords. 
world, if I might, and testify as you have heard me to say this 
day, "that if any man can prove that I ought to be of any other 
manner of faith than that which I now am, and can prove the 
same sufficiently, I will be neither wilful, neither desperate, as 
my lord of London would make you believe me to be. 11 

Biche:— "What countryman be you? Are you of the 
Philpots of Hampshire? 11 

Philpot ••— " Yea, my lord; I was Sir Peter Phiipot's 
son of Hampshire.' 1 


Eiche : — " He is my near kinsman ; wherefore I am the 
more sorry for him." 

PMlpot .— " I thank your lordship that it pleaseth you 
to challenge kindred of a poor prisoner." 

Eiche : — " In faith I would go a hundred miles on my bare 
feet to do you good." 

Chamberlain :— " He may do well enough, if he list." 
St John : — •" Master Philpot, you are my countryman, and 
I would be glad you should do well." 

Eiche : — " You said even now, that you would desire to 
maintain your belief before ten of the best in the realm. You 
did not well to compare with the nobility of the realm. But 
what if you have ten of the best in the realm to hear you, will 
you be tried by them V 

Philpot : — " My lord, your lordship mistaketh me to think 
that I challenge ten of the best of the nobility of this realm. 
It was no part of my mind ; but I meant of the best learned 
on the contrary side." 

Eiche : — " Well, I take your meaning. What if means be 
made to the queen's majesty, that you shall have your request, 
will you be judged by them V 

Philpot : — " My lord, it is not meet, that a man should be 
judged by his adversaries." 

Eiche : — " By whom then would you be judged V 
Philpot: — " I will make your honours judges, that shall be 
hearers of us." 

Eiche : — " I dare be bold to procure for you of the queen's 
majesty, that you shall have ten learned men to reason with 
you, and twenty or forty of the nobility to hear, so you will 
promise to abide their judgment. How say you ? will you 
promise here, afore my lords, so to do V 

Philpot : — " I will be contented to be judged by them." 
Eiche : — " Yea, but will you promise to agree to their 
judgment ?" 

Philpot : — " There be causes why I may not so do, unless 
I were sure they would judge according to the word of God." 

Eiche : — " Oh, I perceive you will have no man judge but 
yourself, and think yourself wiser than all the learned men in 
this realm." 

Philpot : — " My lord, I seek not to be mine own judgd, 


but am content to be judged by others, so that the order of The true 
judgment in matters of religion be kept that was in the pri- judgment 

r ■ i i 1 • i • r* ,i /-w -i, -nil' used in the 

mitive church ; which is, first that Grod s will by his word was primitive 
Sought, and thereunto both the spiritualty and temporalty was 
gathered together, and gave their consents and judgment. 
And such kind of judgment I will stand to." 

London : — " My lords, he would make you believe that he 
were profoundly seen in ancient writers of the judgments of Bonner be- 

wray6th his 

the primitive church ; and there was never any such manner ° wn ign°- 
of judgment used as he now talketh of." 

Philpot : — " In the Epistles of St Cyprian I am able to 
shew it you." 

London : — " Ah, I tell you there is no such thing ; fetch 
me Cyprian hither." 

Philpot : — " You shall find it otherwise when the book Bonner 

* . dares not 

"COmeth." — And Dr Chedsey, his chaplain, whom he appointed «f* :h out 
to fetch his book, whispered the bishop in his ear, and fetched 
not the book, by likelihood that he should have sustained the 
reproach thereof, if the book had been fetched. " Well, my 
lord," quoth I, "master doctor knoweth it is so, or else he 
would have fetched the book ere this." 

Mche : — " You would have none other judge, I see, but 
the word." 

Philpot : — " Yes, my lord : I will be tried by the word, 
and by such as will judge according to the word. As for an 
example, if there were a controversy between your lordship 
and another upon the words of a statute, must not the words 
of the statute judge and determine the controversy ?" 

Biche : — " No, marry, the judges of the law may determine 
•of the meaning thereof." 

London: — " He hath brought as good an example against Bonner tri- 
himseli as can be. fore the 


And here the bishop thought he had good handfast against 
me, and therefore enlarged it with many words to the judgment 
of the church. 

The Lords: — " He hath overthrown himself by his own 

Philpot : — " My lords, it seemeth to your honours that 
you have great advantage of me by the example I brought in 
to express my cause : but if it be pondered thoroughly, it 


maketh wholly with me, and nothing against me, as my lord 
of London hath pretended. For I will ask of my lord Riche 
here, whom I know to have good knowledge in the laws and 
statutes of this realm, albeit a judge may discern the meaning 
of a statute agreeable to the words, whether the same may 
judge a meaning contrary to the express words or no?" 
Riche : — " He cannot do so.' 1 

Philpot : — " Even so say I, that no man ought to judge the 
word of God to have a meaning contrary to the express words 
thereof, as this false church of Eome doth in many things." 

And with this the lords seemed to be satisfied, and made 

no further replication herein. 

objection of Riche : — " I marvel then, why you do deny the express 

KicheTwhy words of Christ in the sacrament, saying, 'This is my body,'' 

are not s and yet you will not stick to say it is not his body. Is not 

'•ThisV" God omnipotent ? and is not he able as well by his omnipotency 

my oc y. ^ raa i ce ft his body, as he was to make man flesh of a piece 

of clay ? Did not he say, ' This is my body which shall be 

betrayed for you V and was not his very body betrayed for us? 

Therefore it must needs be his body." 

London : — " My lord Riche, you have said wonderful well 
and learnedly; but you might have begun with him before 
also in the sixth of John, where Christ promised to give his 
body in the sacrament of the altar, saying, ' The bread which 
I will give is my flesh. 1 How can you answer to that f 

Philpot: — "If it please you to give me leave to answer 
first my lord Riche, I will also answer this objection." 

Riche : — " Answer my lord of London first, and after come 
to me." 
John vi. ex- Philpot : — " My lord of London may be soon answered, 
"The bread that the saying of St John is, that the humanity of Christ, 

that I will i • i , . i i • ,. , , . „ . , 

give is my which he took upon him for the redemption ol man, is the 

flesh " etc. ... 

bread of life, whereby our bodies and souls be sustained to 
eternal life, of the which the sacramental bread is a lively 
representation and an effectual coaptation to all such as be- 
lieve on his passion. And as Christ saith in the same sixth 
of John, ' I am the bread that came down from heaven ;' but 
yet he is not material natural bread neither ; likewise the bread 
is his flesh, not natural or substantial, but by signification, 
and by grace in the sacrament. 


" And now to my lord Riche's argument. I do not deny the Papists 
express words of Christ in the sacrament, ' This is my body, 1 £? us J, r ' s t0 
but I deny that they are naturally and corporally to be taken : ^'^ s - 
they must be taken sacramentally and spiritually, according to f^h^ieith 1 
the express declaration of Christ, saying that the words of the §££ n ture f 
sacrament which the Capernaites took carnally, as the Papists n °j t * uti " 
now do, ought to be taken spiritually and not carnally, as they 
falsely imagine, not weighing what interpretation Christ hath 
made in this behalf, neither following the institution of Christ, 
neither the use of the apostles and of the primitive church, who 
never taught neither declared any such carnal manner of pre- 
sence as is now exacted of us violently, without any ground of 
scripture or antiquity, who used to put out of the church all 
such as did not receive the sacrament with the rest, and also 
to burn that which was left after the receiving, as by the 
canon'of the apostles 1 , and by the decree of the Council of 
Antidch may appear 2 .' 1 

London : — " No, that is not so ; they were only catechu- 
meni, which went out of the church at the celebration of the 
communion, and none other." 

Philpot : — " It was not only of such as were novices in 
faith, but all others that did not receive. 11 

London; — " What say you to the omnipotency of God 3 ? 
Is not he able to perform that which he spake, as my lord 
Riche hath very well said ? I tell thee, that God by his omni- 
potency may make himself to be this carpet, if he will. 11 

Philpot : — " As concerning the omnipotency of God, I say 

L 1 YldvTas tou? el<ri6vra<s tti<ttov<;, /cai tcoi/ ypa<f>tav aicovovTas, 
jiti irapafXtvovTw; Se Ttj trpoaevytj nai Trj dyia ixeTa\tj\J/et, cos aragiav 
*/i7roioui/Ta? tj/ eKKA^cria, d(popi£e<rdai y_pr\> Concil. Labbei. Lutet. Par. 
1671. Tom. i. Col. 27. Can. ix.] 

[" riaWa? tous CiVioWa? ek rtjv eKK\ri<rtav tov Qeov, nat rotv 
lepwv ypcKptSv aKovovTai, fit] koh/coi/oui/tcis fie ev)(rj<; afia ™ Aaco, r\ 
aito<TTpe(pofievovv rtjv aerd\ri\j/tu tjjs ev^api<TTta<! Kara riva wra^iav, 
toutous diro(3\t]Tovs ytveadat riji ei^A^a-ias, ecos dv e£ofio\oyrj<Ta- 
jxevoi Kai iei^avre^ Kapirovi fieravoiai, kcu irapaKaXeaavrci, TV)(eiv 
StiMjflcocn (rvyyvw/jLt}?. Concil. Labbei. Tom. n. Col. 561. Can. ix.] 

[* Asylum haereticorum est omnipotentia Dei. The omnipotence of 
God hath always been the sanctuary of heretics, which was well said 
and often repeated amongst the ancients. Donne's Sermons, Vol. i. 
p. 320. Lond. 1839.] 


Bonner's that God is able to do (as the prophet David saith) whatsoever 

and tos- nt he willeth ; but he willeth nothing that is not agreeable to his 

spe™ing S of word ; as that is blasphemy which my lord of London hath 

[Psai.cxxxv. spoken, that God may become a carpet. For, as I have learned 

6 ] of ancient writers, ' God cannot do that which is contrary to 

his nature,' as it is contrary to the nature of God to be a 

carpet. A carpet is a creature, and God is the creator ; and 

the creator cannot be the creature. Wherefore, unless you can 

declare by the word, that Christ is otherwise present with US 

than spiritually and sacramentally by grace, as he hath taught 

us, you pretend the omnipotency of God in vain." 

Theomni- London: — " Why, wilt thou not say that Christ is really 

potency pre- J ■ . „ 

tended in present in the sacrament I or do you deny it i 

Philpot : — " I deny not that Christ is really in the sacra- 
ment to the receiver thereof according to Christ's institution." 
London : — " What mean you by really present V 
what Phil- Philpot: — " I mean by really present, present indeed." 
reaiiy. London :— " Is God really present everywhere V 

Philpot : — " He is so." 
London : — " How prove you that V 

Philpot:—" The prophet Isaiah saith, ' that God filleth all 
places: 1 and 'wheresoever there be two or three gathered to- 
gether in Christ's name, there is he in the midst of them*."" 
London : — " What ! his humanity V 
Philpot : — ' ; No, my lord, I mean the deity, according to 
that you demanded." 
Bonner too Eiche : — " My lord of London, I pray you, let master doc- 
l'hiipot. tor Chedsey reason with him, and let us see how he can 
answer him ; for I tell thee he is a learned man indeed, and one 
that I do credit before a great many of you, whose doctrine 
the queen's majesty and the whole realm doth well allow; 
therefore hear him." 
fau e to 0r(ls London : — " My lords, I pray you, will it please you to 

drinking, drink ? you have talked a great while, and much talk is thirsty. 
I will leave master doctor and him reasoning together awhile, 
with your leave, and will come to you by and by again." 
He went (as I suppose), to make room for more drink, after 
Lord Riciie the lords had drunken. My lord Riche said to the lords, " I 

biddeth • . 

Phiipot pray you let the poor man drink, for he is thirsty ; and with 
that he called for a cup of drink, and gave it me, and I drank 



before them all. God requite it him ! for I was athirst indeed. 
Afterwards Dr Chedsey began in this wise, making a great 
process, of the which this is the effect : 

Chedsey : — " Master Philpot findeth fault with the convo- chedsey be- 

ginneth to 

cation-house before your lordships, that he hath lain thus long dispute with 
in prison, and that he had there a dozen arguments, whereof he 
could not be suffered to prosecute one thoroughly, which is not 
so ; for he had leave to say what he could, and was answered 
to as much as he was able to bring ; and when he had nothing 
else to say, he fell to weeping. I was there present and can 
testify thereof; albeit there is a book abroad of the report of 
the disputation to the contrary, in the which there is never a 
true word. And whereas you require to be satisfied of the 
sacrament, I will shew you the truth thereof, both by the scrip- 
tures, and by the doctors.' 1 

Philpot : — " It is a shrewd likelihood that you will not con- Philpot 


elude with any truth, since you have begun with so many 1 chedsey. 
untruths, as to say that I was answered whiles I had any thing 
to say, and that I wept for lack of matter to say, and that the 
book of the report of the disputation is nothing true. God be 
praised, there were a good many of noblemen, gentlemen, and 
worshipful men that heard and saw the doings thereof, which 
can testify that you here have made an unjust report before 
these honourable lords. And that I wept, was not for lack of 
matter, as you slander me ; for I thank God, I have more 
matter than the best of you all shall ever be able to answer, as 
little learning as I have. But my weeping was, as Christ's 
was upon Jerusalem, seeing the destruction that should fall 
upon her ; and I, foreseeing then the destruction which you 
(through violence and unrighteousness which you there de- 
clared) would work against the true church of Christ and her 
faithful members, as this day beareth witness, was compelled 
to weep in remembrance of that which I, with infinity more, 
have felt and shall feel." 

All these words I did not then speak out, being interrupted t ™toJ*£- in 
by my lord Riche, saying that I should suffer him to proceed his answers. 
out in this matter, and afterwards I should have leisure to 
answer him in every article. But he promised more than he 
could perform, as the end did well declare; for he had not the 
C 1 " Manifest untruths," ed. 1559.] 

bv John vi. 


consent of the spiritualty to his promise, which now rule the 
roost. God shorten their cruel days for his elect's sake ! And 
therefore I add this, which I had purposed to have spoken, if 
then I might have been suffered, lest any that perfectly know 
not the things done in the convocation-house and now laid to 
my charge, if they should not be answered by me, might reckon 
Dr Chedsey's sayings to be true. And as concerning the book 
of the report of the disputations, I wrote the same, and it is 
true in everv argument, as master dean of Eochester, and 
master Cheyney, archdeacon of Hertford (yet being alive, and 
within the realm), can testify. 

Chedsey : — "You have of scriptures the four evangelists 1 
for the probation of Christ's real presence to be in the sacra- 
ment after the words of the consecration, with St Paul to the 
[Matt. xxvi. Corinthians ; which all say, ' This is my body.' They say not, 
wi. 22. as you would have me to believe, This is not the body. But 

Lake xxii. v . ' •' 

19. i cor. xi. specially the sixth of St John proveth the same most mani- 
chedsey festly, where Christ promised to give his body, which he 

jiroveth the J . r B •" 

performed in his last supper, as it appeareth by these words, 
' The bread which I will give is my flesh, which I will give 
for the life of the world 1 ." 

Philpot : — " My lord Riche, with your leave, I must needs 
interrupt him a little, because he speaketh open blasphemy 
against the death of Christ. For if that promise, brought in 
by St John, was performed by Christ in his last supper, then 
needed he not to have died, after he had given the sacrament." 

Riche : — " Let master doctor make an end of his argu- 
ments, and afterward object to him 2 what you can." 

Chedsey: — "You must note that there is twice dabo in 
this saying of St John ; and the first is referred to the sacra- 
ment of the altar, and the second to the sacrifice upon the 
cross. And besides these manifest scriptures, there be many 
ancient doctors proving the same, as Ignatius, Irenseus, and 
St Cyprian" [whose authority he recited at large, which I do 
omit because I was not permitted to answer the same]. 

Riche: — "Now answer, and object to him what you can, 
and you shall be heard." 

Philpot : — " My lord, the chiefest ground whereon he with. 

[} St John does not give the words referred to.] 

[ 2 "Object to him again," ed. 1559; object against him.] 


the rest of his side do ground themselves against us, be these 
words, ' This is my body,' with a false pretence of the omnipo- 
tency of God. And before I will come to the particular answers 
of all that he hath alleged, for that your lordships may the 
better understand me, what I mean, and whereupon I stand, I 
will first require master doctor to answer me one question. 
But first of all I do protest to your honours, that I think as Phiipot 

si ti cwpTptn 

reverently of the sacrament as a christian man ought to do, and protesta- 
that I acknowledge the sacrament of the body and blood of 
Christ, ministered after Christ's institution, to be one of the 
greatest treasures and comforts that he left us on the earth : 
and, contrariwise, it is most discomfort and abominable, not 
being ministered as it ought to be, as it is used now a days. 
And now to my question, which is this : Whether these words 
only, ' This is my body,' spoken by a priest over the bread and 
wine, may make the body and blood of Christ, as you suppose, 
or no 2" 

Staggering what he might say, at last Chedsey said, " That 
these words alone, pronounced by the priest, be sufficient to 
make the bread and the wine the very body and blood of 
Christ really. 11 

Philpot: — " That is blasphemy to say, and against all the Blasphemy 

# to s&y tnux 

scriptures and doctors, who affirm that the form and substance thcse I™!* 5 

r . . only, "This 

in consecration must be observed which Christ used and did isn ?y bod y>" 

make a real 

institute, as St Cyprian saith, ' In the sacrifice, which is Christ, presence. 
only Christ is to be followed 2 . 1 And by the law it is forbidden 

to add or take away from God's word. And St Peter saith, 'If [1 Pet. iv. 

. ii.] 

any man speak, let him speak as the word of God. 1 Where- 
fore, whosoever saith that these words only, ' This is my body,' 
do make a presence of Christ, without ' Bless, take, and eat, 1 ^ h 3 e I s e e s J rords 
which be three as substantial points of the sacrament, as 'This **£l!™ d as 
is my body,' he is highly deceived. Therefore St Augustine p"^"^^ 
saith, ' Let the word be joined to the element, and it becometh H"^"-,, 
a sacrament 3 .' So that, if the entire words of Christ's institutions m y bod y-" 

Q 2 Nam si in sacrificio quod Christus obtulit non nisi Christus 
sequendus est, utique id nos ohaudire et facerc oportet quod Christus 
fecit, et quod faciendum esse mandavit, quando ipse in evangelio dicat, 
' Si feceritis. quod mando vobis, jam non dico vos servos sed amicos.' 
Cypr. Op. Par. 1726. Epist. lxiii. p. 108.] 

C " Accedit verbum ad elementum, et fit sacramenturn, etiam ipsum 
tanquam visibile verbuin." Augustini Op. Par. 1680. Tom, m, col. 703.] 



be not observed in the ministration of a sacrament, it is no 
sacrament ; as the sacrifices which the ten tribes did offer at 
Bethel to God, were not acceptable, because they were not in 
all points done according to God's word. Wherefore, except 
blessing be made after the word (which is a due thanksgiving 
for our redemption in Christ), and also a shewing forth of the 
Lord's death in such wise as the congregation may be edified, 
and moreover a taking and eating after Christ's commandment 
■ — except (I say) these three parts be first performed (which is 
not done in the mass), these words ' This is my body,' which 
are last placed in the institution of the Lord's supper, cannot 
be verified 1 . For Christ commanded as well, ' Take ye, eat 
ye,' as, ' This is my body.' " 

Chedsey : — " Christ said, ' Take, eat, this is my body ;' and 
not, ' Take ye, eat ye.' " 
Master doc- Philpot : — " No did 2 , master doctor I Be not these the 
with the words of Christ, Accipite, manducate? and do not these 


words in the plural number signify, ' take ye, eat ye ;' and 
not ' take thou, eat thou,' as you would suppose V 

Chedsey : — " I grant it is as you say." 

Philpot: — "Likewise of consequency you, master doctor, 
must needs deny, which you have said, that these words, ' This 
is my body,' being only spoken, be sufficient to make the body 
and blood of Christ in the sacrament, as you have untruly 

Then came in the bishop of London again, and said, " What 
is that you would have master doctor deny ?" 

Philpot : — " My lord, master doctor hath affirmed that 

these words, ' This is my body,' spoken by the priest, only 3 do 

make the sacrament." 

The words London : — " Indeed, if master Bridges should speak these 

"This is my words over the bread and wine, they would be of none effect: 

T>ody," ex- ■ ■ 

cept a priest but if a priest speak them after a due manner, they are effec-- 
make no ' tual, and make a real body." 

body. . J 

Philpot : — " Master doctor hath said otherwise." 

[} " Except— verified :" thus in the edition of 1559, "As it is not 
in the mass : This is my body, which is the latter part of the sacrament, 
hath never no place, neither can be verified."] 

C 3 No did?— did He not?] 

P Only : alone, of themselves.] 


London :-~- "I think you mistake him; for he meaneth of 
the words duly pronounced.' 1 

Philpot: — " Let him revoke that he hath granted, and then 
will I begin again with that which before was said ; that, < this 
is my body, 1 hath no place, except ' bless, take, and eat, 1 duly 
go before. And therefore, because the same words do not go 
before, ' this is my body, 1 but preposterously follow 4 , in your 
sacrament of the mass; it is not the sacrament of Christ, 
neither hath Christ in it present." 

Ghedsey : — " If, ' this is my body, 1 only, do not make the 
sacrament, no more do, ' bless, take, and eat. 1 " 

Philpot: — " I grant that the one without the other cannot 
make the sacrament. And it can be no sacrament, unless the 
whole action of Christ doth concur together according to the 
first institution. 11 

~ Chedsey : — " Why, then you would not have it to be the 
body of Christ, unless it be received V 

Philpot : — " No, verily, it is not the very body of Christ to sacraments 
any other, but such as condienly receive the same after his their use be 

J ' O J n0 sacra . 

institution." nients. 

London : — " Is not a loaf a loaf, being set on the table, 
though no body eat thereof 2" 

Philpot: — " It is not like 5 , my lord: for a loaf is a loaf 
before it be set on the table ; but so is not the sacrament a 
perfect sacrament, before it be duly ministered at the table of 
the Lord." 

London: — " I pray you, what is it in the mean while, be- Thesacra-^ 
fore it is received V Lord's body 

without re- 

Philpot : — " It is, my lord, the sign begun of a holy thing, «*™f jj? 
and yet no perfect sacrament until it be received. For in the ment - 
sacrament there be two things to be considered, the sign, and 
the thing itself, which is Christ and his whole passion ; and it 
is that to none but to such as worthily receive the holy signs 
of bread and wine, according to Christ 1 s institution." 

Windsor : — " There were never any that denied the words 
of Christ, as you do. Did not he say, ' This is my body f " 

Philpot: — " My lord, I pray you, be not deceived. We do 

E 4 The words " but preposterously follow/' are not in the edition 
of 1559.] 

[_ s It is not like : the cases are not alike.] 



not deny the words 1 of Christ : but we say, these words be of 
none effect, being spoken otherwise than Christ did institute 
them in his last supper. For an example : Christ biddeth the 
church ' to baptize in the name of the Father, of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost f if a priest say these words over the water, 
and there be no child to be baptized, these words only pro- 
nounced do not make baptism. And again, baptism is only 
baptism to such as be baptized, and to none other standing by." 
Chamberlain: — " I pray you, my lord, let me ask him one 
question. What kind of presence in the sacrament (duly mi- 
nistered according to Christ's ordinance) do you allow V 

Philpot: — " If any come worthily to receive 2 , then do I 
confess the presence of Christ wholly to be, with all the fruits 
of his passion, unto the said worthy receiver, by the Spirit of 
God, and that Christ is thereby joined to him and he to 

Clmmberlain : — " I am answered. - " 

London: — " My lords, take no heed of him, for he goeth 
about to deceive you. His similitude, that he bringeth in, of 
baptism is nothing like to the sacrament of the altar. For if 
I should say to sir John Bridges, being with me at supper, 
and having a fat capon, ' Take, eat, this is a fat capon,' 
although he eat not thereof, is it not a capon still? And 
likewise of a piece of beef, or of a cup of wine ; if I say, 
' Drink, this is a cup of wine, 1 is it not so, because he drink- 
eth not thereof V 

Philpot : — " My lord, your similitudes be too gross for so 
high mysteries as we have in hand, as, if I were your equal, 
I could more plainly declare ; and there is much more dissimi- 
litude between common meats and drinks, than there is be- 
tween baptism and the sacrament of the body and blood of 
Christ. Like must be compared to like, and spiritual things 
with spiritual, and not spiritual things with corporal things. 
And meats and drinks be of their own natures good or evil ; 
and your words, commending or discommending, do but de- 
clare what they are. But the sacraments be to be considered 
according to the word which Christ spake of them ; of the 
which, ' Take ye, and eat ye, 1 be some of the chief, concur- 
[} Words of Christ : presence of Christ, ed. 1559.] 
[* " If any— receive," omitted in ed. 1559.] 


rent to the making of the same, without the which there can 
be no sacraments. And therefore in Greek the sacrament of 
the body and blood of Christ is called noivcovia, i. e. com- 
munion; and likewise in the gospel Christ commanded, saying, 
' Divide it among you/ " 

Chedsey : — " St Paul calleth it a communication." 

Philpot : — " That doth more expressly shew, that there 
must be a participation of the sacrament together." 

London : — " My lords, I am sorry I have troubled you so 
long with this obstinate man, with whom we can do no good ; 
I will trouble you no longer now." 

And with that the lords rose up, none of them saying 
any evil word unto me, half amazed, in my judgment : God 
work it to good ! 

•Thus endeth the sixth part of this tragedy : the seventh 
look for with joy. 

the seventh Tne seventn examination of John Philpot, 
examination, had the 19th of November, before the bishops 
of London and Rochester, the Chancellor of Lichfield, Dr 
Chedsey, and Master Dee, Bachelor of Divinity. 

London : — " Sirrah, come hither. How chance you come Another^ 
no sooner ? Is it well done of you to make master chancellor Philpot ^ 
and me to tarry for you this hour ? By the faith of my body, bishop. 
half an hour before mass, and half an hour even at mass, 
looking for your coming." 

Philpot : — " My lord, it is not unknown to you that I am 
a prisoner, and that the doors be shut upon me, and I cannot 
come when I list. But as soon as the doors of my prison were 
open, I came immediately." 

London :— " We sent for thee to the intent thou shouldst 
have come to mass. How say you ? would you have come to 
mass, or no, if the doors had sooner been opened V 

Philpot:—" My lord, that is another manner of question." 

London :— " Lo, master chancellor, I told you we should 
have a froward fellow of him : he will answer directly to no- 
thing. I have had him before both the spiritual lords and 


temporal, and thus he fareth still ; yet he reckoneth himself 
better learned than all the realm. Yea, before the temporal 
lords, the other day, he was so foolish to challenge the best: 
he would make himself learned, and is a very ignorant fool 
indeed. 11 

Philpot: — " I reckon, I answered your lordship before the 
lords plain enough." 

London : — " Why answerest thou not directly, whether 
thou wouldst have gone to mass with us, or no, if thou hadst 
come in time V 

Philpot : — " Mine answer shall be thus ; that if your lord- 
ship can prove your mass, whereunto you would have me to 
come, to be the time service of God, whereunto a Christian 
ought to come, I will afterward come with a good will. 11 

London : — "Look, I pray you : the king and the queen, and 
all the nobility of the realm, do come to mass, and yet he will 
not. By my faith, thou art too well handled : thou shalt be 
worse handled hereafter, I warrant thee." 

Philpot : — " If to lie in a blind coal-house may be counted 
good handling, both without fire and candle, then may it be 
said, I am well handled. Your lordship hath power to entreat 
my body as you list." 

London : — " Thou art a fool, and a very ignorant fool. 
Master chancellor, in good faith I have handled him and his 
fellows with as much gentleness as they can desire. I let their 
friends come unto them to relieve them. And wot you what ? 
the other day they had gotten themselves up into the top of 
the leads with a many of prentices, gazing abroad as though 
they had been at liberty. But I will cut off your resort : and 
as for the prentices, they were as good not to come to you, if 
I take them." 
The prison- Philpot: — " My lord, we have no such resort to us as your 

crs clmrffcd 

with that lordship imagineth, and there cometh verv few unto us. And of 

they neither . T , • , , , , i, 

did nor prentices 1 know not one, neither have we any leads to walk 

knew of 

on over our coal-house, that I wot of : wherefore your lordship 
hath mistaken your mark." 

London : — " Nay ; now you think, because my lord chan- 
cellor is gone, that we will burn no more. Yes, I warrant 
thee, I will dispatch you shortly, unless you do recant. 11 

Philpot: — " My lord, I had not thought that I should have 


been alive now, neither so raw as I am, but well roasted to 
ashes. 1 ' 

Chancellor: — "Cast not yourself wilfully away, master 
Philpot. Be content to be ruled by my lord here, and by 
other learned men of this realm, and you may do well enough.'" 

Philpot : — " My conscience beareth me record that I seek Phiipot 

J standeth 

to please God, and that the love and fear of God cause me to u P«n his 

*■ # conscience 

do as I do : and I were of all other creatures most miserable, and the fear 

. of God. 

if for mine own will only I do lose all the commodities I might 
have in this life, and afterward be cast to damnation. But I 
am sure, it is not my will whereon I stand, but God's will, 
which will not suffer me to be cast away, I am sure." 

Chancellor ; — " You are not so sure, but you may be de- 

London: — "Well, since thou wilt not be conformable by ^™? n {£°* 
fair" means, I will proceed against thee ex officio ; and there- pJ^J"* 11 
fore hearken here to such articles as I have here written, and I 
charge thee to make answer to them." 

And with that he read a libel which he had in his hand of 
divers articles ; and when he had done, he bade me answer. 

Philpot: — "Your libel, my lord, containeth in sum two Two un- 

* ' J ' truths in the 

special points : the first pretendeth, that I should be of your ^°f s s 
diocese, and therefore your lordship, upon divers suspects and 
infamies of heresy going upon me, is moved to proceed against 
me by your ordinary-office : the which first is not true, for that 
I am not of your lordship's diocese, as the libel doth pretend. 
And the second is, that I, being baptized in the catholic church, 
and in the catholic faith, am gone from them : the which is not 
so, for I am of that catholic faith and church as I was bap- 
tized unto." 

London :— " What ! art thou not of my diocese ? Where 
are ye now, I pray you ?" 

Philpot: — " My lord, I cannot deny but I am in your coal- 
house, which is in your diocese, yet I am not of your diocese." 

London: — " You were sent hither unto me by the queen's 
majesty's commissioners, and thou art now in my diocese: 
wherefore I will proceed against thee as thy ordinary." 

Philpot:— "I was brought hither through violence, and pmj*^ 
therefore my present being now in your diocese is not enough t^F^f 
to abridge me of mine own ordinary's jurisdiction, neither nary's right. 


maketh it me willingly 1 subject to your jurisdiction, since it 
cometh by force, and by such men as had no just authority so 
to do ; no more than a sanctuary man, being by force brought 
forth of his place of privilege, doth thereby lose his privi- 
lege, but always may challenge the same wheresoever he be 
brought. 11 

Chedsey: — '-Hath not the queen's majesty authority, by 
her commissioners, to remove your body whither she will \ and 
ought you not to obey herein V 

Philpot : — " I grant that the queen's majesty (of her just 
power) may transpose my body, whither it shall please her 
grace to command the same. But yet, by your laws, ' spiritual 
causes be not subject to the temporal power.' As for example: 
you, master doctor, if the queen's majesty would to appoint two 
temporal men to be judges over you in certain spiritual mat- 
ters, might not you allege the privilege of a clerk, and demand 
competent spiritual judges in your causes V 

London: — "•Doth not a man, I pray you, sortiri forum 
ratione delicti F' 

Philpot : — " My lord, your rule is true in temporal mat- 
ters ; but in spiritual causes it is not so, which be otherwise 

London : — " What sayest thou then to the second article, 
and to the other V 

Philpot: — " My lord, I say that I am not bound to answer 
the second, neither the rest, unless the first be proved." 

London : — " Well, suppose the first may be proved, as it 
will be, what will you say then to the second — that you are not 
of the same catholic faith, neither of the same church now, as 
you were baptized in '" 

Philpot : — " I am of the same catholic faith, and of the 
[i Tim. iii. same catholic church, which is of Christ, the pillar and stablish- 
ment of truth." 

London : — " Nay, that you are not." 

Philpot:— u Yes, that I am." 

London: — "Your godfathers and godmothers were of 
another faith than you be now." 

[} 'I Unwillingly," ed. 1559. The sense in this case will he "my 
being violently brought hither will not cause me to be of your diocese, 
so long as I am unwilling to acknowledge you as my ordinary."] 


Philpot: — " I was not baptized either into my godfathers' 
faith or my godmother's, but into the faith and into the church 
of Christ." 

London : — " How know you that V 

Philpot: — " By the word of God, which is the touchstone 
of faith, and the limits of the church." 

London : — " How long hath your church stood, I pray youf 

Philpot: — "Even from the beginning; from Christ and 
from his apostles, and from their immediate successors." 

Chancellor : — " He will prove his chinch to be before 
Christ !" 

Philpot : — " If I did so, I go not amiss : for there was a 
church before the coming of Christ, which maketh one catholic 

Chancellor : — " It is so indeed." 

"Philpot: — " I will desire no better rule than the same 
which is oftentimes brought in of your side, to prove both my 
faith and church catholic ; that is, antiquity, universality, and 

London : — " Do you not see what a bragging foolish fellow 
this is ? He would seem to be very well seen in the doctors, 
and he is but a fool. By what doctor art thou able to prove 
thy church I Name him, and thou shalt have him." 

Philpot : — " My lord, let me have all your ancient writers, 
with pen, and ink, and paper, and I will prove both my faith 
and my church out of every one of them." 

London : — " No, that thou shalt not have. You shall see 
how he lieth. St Cyprian saith, ' There must be one high 
priest, to the which the residue must obey 2 ;' and they will 
allow no head, neither vicar-general." 

Philpot: — " St Cyprian saith not, that there should be a 
vicar-general over all ; for in his book De Simplicitate Prce- 
latorum, I am sure he saith the contrary 3 : c There is but 

Q 2 Neque enim aliunde hsereses obortse sunt aut nata sunt schismata 
quam inde, quod sacerdoti Dei non obtemperatur, nee unus in ecclesia 
ad tempus sacerdos et ad tempus judex vice Christi cogitatur: cui si 
secundum magisteria divina obtemperaret fraternitas universa, nemo 
adversum sacerdotum collegium quicquam moveret, Cypr. Epist. r.v. 
p. 82. Ed. Par. 1726.] 

[ a Episcopatus unus est, cujus a singulis in solidum pars tenetur. 
p. 19.i. Ed. Par. 1726.] 



one bishopric, which is wholly possessed of every bishop in 

London: — "Fetch hither the book: thou shalt see the 
manifest place against thee.'" 

Doctor Chedsey brought the book, and turned to the place 
in an epistle written unto Cornelius, then bishop of Rome, 
and recited these words in sura, " That it went not well with 
the church, where the high priest was not obeyed 1 ," and so 
would have concluded for the confirmation of the bishop's 

Philpot: — '"Master doctor, you misconstrue the place of 
The place of St Cyprian : for he meaneth not there by ' the high priest' 
explained? the bishop of Rome, but every patriarch in his precinct, of 
whom there were four appointed in his time. And in writing 
unto Cornelius he meaneth by the high priest himself, which 
was then chief bishop of Africa, whose authority the heretics 
began to despise : whereof he complaineth to Cornelius, and 
saith, ' The church cannot be well ordered, where the chief 
minister by order, after the judgment of the scriptures, after 
the agreement of the people, and the consent of his fellow- 
bishops, is not obeyed 2 .' " 

London : — " Hath not the bishop of Rome always been 
supreme head of the church, and Christ's vicar in earth, even 
from Peter?" 

Philpot: — " Js'o, that he was not. For by the word of God 
he hath no more authority than the bishop of London hath." 

London : — " Was not Peter head of the church ? and hath 
not the bishop of Rome, which is his successor, the same 
authority V 

Philpot: — "1 grant that the bishop of Rome, as he is 
the successor of Peter, hatli the same authority as Peter 
had. But Peter had no more authority than every one of 

every une ui ,-t j.1 l l *i 

the apostles, the apostles had. 

I 1 See p. 73, note 2.] 

[ 2 Cui si secundum magisteria divina obtemperaret fraternittt; 
universa, nemo adversura sacerdotum collegium quicquam moveret, 
nemo post divinum judicium, post populi suffragium, post coepisco- 
porum consensum, judicem se jam, non episcopi, sed Dei, faceret: 
nemo discidio unitatis Christi ecclesiam scinderet, nemo sibi placens 
ac tumens, seorsum foris haeresim novam conderet.] 

Peter had 
no more 
over the 
church than 
every one of 


Chancellor: — "Yes, that St Peter had; for Christ said 
specially unto him, ' I will give thee the keys of the king- [Matt- xvi 
dom of heaven ;' the which he spake to none other of his 19] 
disciples singularly, but to him. 1 ' 

PMlpot: — "St Augustine answereth otherwise to the ob- Peter bear- 
iection, and saith, ' That if in Peter there had not been the figure of the 


figure of the church, the Lord had not said to him, To thee 
I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven. The which 
if Peter received not, the church hath them not. If the 
church hath them, then Peter hath them not 3 . 1 '''' 

London : — " What if I can prove and shew you out of ?. onn . , f' s 

r J divinity 

the civil law, that all Christendom ought to follow the holy ^f^u 
catholic church of Rome, as there is a special title thereof, law - 
De catholica fide et sancta Bomana ecclesia*?''' 

PMlpot: — " That is nothing material, seeing the things of 
God be not subject to man's laws ; and divine matters must be 
ordered by the word of God, and not of man." 

A Doctor : — " What will you say, if I can prove that Christ Cyprian. 
builded his church upon Peter, and that out of St Cyprian? 
Will you then believe that the bishop of Rome ought to be 
supreme head of the church f ' 

Philpot: — "I know what St Cyprian writeth in that behalf; 
but he meaneth nothing as you take it." 

A Doctor : — " St Cyprian hath these words, ' That upon 
Peter was builded the church, as upon the first beginning of 
unity 5 :" 

Philpot: — "He declareth that in an example, that uni ty ^ P a ^ x / 
must be in the church; he grounded on Peter his church pounded. 
alone, and not upon men. The which he doth more mani- 
festly declare in the book De Simplicitate Prcelatorum, saying, 
' In the person of one man, God gave the keys to all, that 
he, in signification thereby, might declare the unity of all 
men 6 . 1 " 

[ 3 See p. 44, note 2.] 

[ 4 This, probably, is a reference to the same place in the Decretals 
which is mentioned p. 34, note 1, although the words " et sancta 
Romana ecclesia" are not a part of the title.] 

C 6 Una ecclesia a Christo Domino super Petrum origine unitatis 
et ratione fundata. Cypr. Epist. lxx. Ed. Par. 1726. p. 125.] 

[ 6 See p. 44, note 1.] 


A Doctor : — " What ! will you understand St Cyprian so ? 
That were good indeed !" 

Philpot: — "I think you cannot understand St Cyprian 
better, than he doth declare himself." 
?o"th e to the London : — " I will desire you, master chancellor, to take 
parliament. gome p a ; ng w j tn mas ter doctor Chedsey about his examina- 
tion; for I must go to the parliament-house. And I will desire 
you to dine with me." 

Then the doctor took again his former authority in hand 
for want of another, and would have made a further circum- 
stance, digressing from his purpose. To whom I said, he 
knew not whereabout he went; and therewithal he laughed: 
and I said, his divinity was nothing but scoffing. 
?or suppetn* A Doctor :— " Yea, then I have done with you :" and so 
away " went away. 

Philpot: — " You are too young in divinity to teach me in 
the matters of my faith. Though you be learned in other 
things more than I, yet in divinity I have been longer prac- 
tised than you, for any thing I can hear of you : therefore be 
not too hasty to judge that you do not perfectly know." 

Chancellor: — "Peter and his successors from the beginning 

have been allowed for the supreme head of the church, and 

that by the scriptures, for that Christ said unto him in St 

John thrice, ' Feed my sheep. 1 " 

If b chr?s r t d to Philpot : — " That is no otherwise to be taken, than ' Go ye 

nfysheep* and preach," 1 which was spoken to all the apostles, as well as 

meas" ex- s unto Peter. And that Christ said thrice, ' Feed my sheep,' it 

^""pram- signifieth nothing else but the earnest study that the ministers 

[Mark xvi. of God ought to have in preaching the word : God grant that 

xxi. is, ic, you of the clergy would weigh your duty in this behalf more 

than you do ! Is this a just interpretation of the scripture, to 

take Pasce oves meets, for, to be lord of the whole world?" 

In this meanwhile came in the bachelor of divinity, which 
is a reader of Greek in Oxford, belonging to the bishop; and 
he took upon him to help master chancellor. 

Scholar : — " What will you say if I can shew you a Greek 
author, called Theophylact, to interpret it so ? Will you be- 
lieve his interpretation V 
It no P great Ct Philpot :— " Theophylact is a late writer, and one that was 
authority. a f av0lim . f t i ie bi s hop f Rome, and therefore not to be 


credited, since his interpretation is contrary to the manifest 
words of the scripture, and contrary to the determination of 
many general councils." 

Scholar : — " In what general council was it otherwise, that 
the bishop of Rome was not supreme head over all ?" 

PMlpot : — " In Nice council I am sure it was otherwise ; £ ouncil of 
for Athanasius was there the chief bishop and president of the 
council, and not the bishop of Eome. ,, 

Scholar :— " Nay, that is not so. 1 ' 

PMlpot: — " Then I perceive you are better seen in words, 
than in knowledge of things : and I will gage with you what 
you will, it is so ; as you may see in the Epitome of the 
Councils 1 ." 

Scholar : — " I will fetch Eusebius and shew the contrary, 
and the book of General Councils." 

"He went into my lord's closet, and brought Eusebius; but 
the General Councils he brought not, saying (for saving of 
his honestv) that he could not come by them. And there he The scholar 

* m •> of Oxford 

would have defended that it was otherwise in Eusebius, but was shrinketh 


not able to shew the same, and so shrank away confounded. 

Chancellor: — "The church of Some hath been always 
taken for the whole catholic church ; therefore I would advise 
you to come into the same with us. You see all the men of 
this realm do condemn you : and why will you be so singular?" 

Philpot: — " I have said, and still do say, that if you can The pope's 

i i i i • i x mi i <• i ti t sidenot able 

be able to prove it unto me, that I will be ot the same. Jout 1 to prove 

i • i i i i • i i in- their church 

am sure that the church, which you make so much of, is a to be the 

' J holy catho- 

lic church. 

[} What is the particular book here referred to, does not certainly 
appear. It may have been Bartholomaei Carranzae 'Sumnia Concilio- 
nem et Pontificum a Petro ad Paulum iii.* Salmanticse, 1549; the first 
edition of which work according to Antonio (Biblioth. Hisp. Nova) 
appeared at Venice in 1546. The evidence of the fact, however, to 
which Philpot refers, runs throughout the whole of the history of 
the Council of Nice. The following passage may serve as a sample 
of such evidence : AvroKpaTup roivw 'P<np.ata>v 'lov\iavo<s 6 irapa- 
paTti<: yevofxevoi, tous vtto Ktoi/o-Tai/Tiou e£opi(r8evTa<: eiria-KOTrov? 
irpoaQ(tifxaTi <rvfnradeia<; dv6K<x\e<rev. W6avd<rio<; ovv o jiaKapio^ ev 
A\e£av$peia crvvadpoi<ra<: tod's d<pe6evTa<; eiria-Koirovv eK twv d\u- 
aetiiv, (Tiii)obiK(S'! to iv Niica/a Soy/uano^e'i'TOt eKvpoxre, kcu Apeiavi- 
Ktjv dvedepaTurev ddedrrira. Concil. Labbei Ed. Lutet. Par. 1671. 
Tom. ii. col. 97.] 


false church and a synagogue of Satan. And you with the 
learned men of this realm do persecute the true church, and 
condemn such as be more righteous than you." 

Chancellor : — " Do you hear, master doctor, what he saith, 
that the church of Rome is the devil !" 

Chedsey : — " I wish you did think more reverently of the 
church of Rome. What will you say if I can shew you out of 
St Austin, in his Epistle written unto pope Innocent, that the 
whole general council of Carthage did allow the church of 
Rome to be chiefest over all other 1" 

Philpot : — " I am sure you can shew no such thing." 

And with that he fetched the book of St Austin, and turned 

to the Epistle, but could not prove his allegation manifestly* 

but by conjectures in this wise : — 

The see of Chedsey : — "Here you may see, that the council of Gar- 

Rome, how \ . J J . 

apostolical, thage 1 , writing- to Innocent the bishop, calleth the see of Rome 

and not & ° . r ' . , 

apostolical, the apostolic see. And besides this, they write to him certi- 
fying him of things done in the council for the condemnation 
of the Donatists, requiring his approbations in the same ; which 
they would not have done, if they had not taken the church of 
Rome for the supreme head of others. And moreover you may 
see, how St Austin doth prove the church of Rome to be the 
catholic church by continual succession of the bishop until his 
time, which succession we can prove until our days. There? 
fore, by the same reason of St Austin we say now, that the 
church of Rome is the catholic church." 
a^Rorae 1 " 5 Philpot : — "Master doctor, I have considered how you do 
perneluit we ig n St Augustine ; and, contrary to his meaning and words, 
beheXrf y ou wom< ^ m ^ er vom ' ^ se conclusion. As concerning that it 
the church. was ca i] e d by him the apostolical see, that is not material to 
prove the church of Rome now to be the catholic church. I 
will grant it now that it is the apostolical see, in respect that 
Paul and Peter did once there preach the gospel, and abode 
there for a certain season. 1 would you could prove it to be 

[} " Hoc itaque gestum, Domine frater, sanclse caritati tuae intiman- 
dum duximus, ut statutis nostra mediocritatis etiara Apostolicse sedis 
adhibeatur auctoritas, pro tuenda salute rrraltorum, et quorundam per- 
versitate etiam corrigenda." Aurelii et Patrum Cone. Carthag. ad In- 
nocentium Epist. August. Op. Par. Bened. 1679. Tom. i. Ep. clxxv. 
col. 618. § 2. Vide etiam Concil. Gen. Labb. Lut. Par. 1671. Tom. ii, 
col. 1534. in Cone. Carth. n.] 


the apostolical see, of that true religion and sincerity, as the 
apostle left it, and did teach the same : the which if ye could 
do, you might boast of Rome as of the apostolical see : other- 
wise it is now of no more force, than if the Turk at Antioch 
and at Jerusalem should boast of the apostolic sees, because 
the apostles once did there abide, and founded the church of 

" And whereas the whole council of Carthage did write 
unto pope Innocent, certifying him of that was done in the 
general council, and willing him to set his helping hand to the 
suppressing of the Donatists, as they had done ; that fact of 
the council proveth nothing the supremacy of the bishop of 
Rome, no more than if the whole convocation-house now ga- 
thered together, and agreeing upon certain articles, might send 
the same to some bishop that upon certain impediments is not 
present, willing him to agree thereto, and to set them forth in 
his diocese. The which fact doth not make any such bishop of 
greater authority than the rest, because his consent is brotherly 

" And touching the succession of the bishops of Rome, 
brought in by St Augustine, it maketh nothing now thereby 
to prove the same catholic church, unless you can conclude 
with the same reason as St Augustine doth. And the rehearsal 
of the succession of the bishops doth tend to this only, to prove 
the Donatists to be heretics, because they began, as well at 
Rome as in Africa, to found another church of their own set- 
ting up, than was grounded by Peter and Paul and by their 
successors, whom he reciteth until his time, which all taught 
no such doctrine neither such church as the Donatists. And 
if presently you be able to prove by the succession of bishops 
of Rome (whereof you do glory), that such doctrine hath not 
been taught by any of the successors of Peter's see, as is now 
taught and believed of us, you have good reason against us : 
otherwise it is of no force, as I am able to declare." 

Chancellor : — " Well, master doctor, you see we can do no 
good in persuading of him. Let us minister the articles which 
my lord hath left us, unto him. How say you, master Philpot, 
to these articles? Master Johnson, I pray you write his an- 

Philpot: — "Master chancellor, you have no authority to fuseththc" 


chancellor inquire of me my belief in such articles as you go about, for 
ordinary, that I am not of my lord of London's diocese ; and, to be 

brief with you, I will make no further answer herein than I 

have already to the bishop.* 1 

Chancellor : — " Why, then, let us go our ways, and let his 

keeper take him away." 

Thus endeth the seventh part of this tragedy. 

The sum of a private Conference or Talk between Master 
Philpot and the bishop of London. 

The next day, in the morning betimes, the bishop sent one 
of his men unto me, to call me up into his chapel to hear mass. 

Bishop's Man: — " Master Philpot, where be you?" 

Philpot:—" Who is it that calleth me?" 

Bishop's Man: — "My lord's will is, you should rise and 
come to hear mass. Will you come or no?" 

Philpot : — " My stomach is not very good this morning : 
you may tell my lord I am sick." 1 

After this the keeper was sent to bring me to my lord. 

The Keeper: — " Master Philpot, you must rise and come 
to my lord." 

Philpot: — "I am at your commandment, master keeper, 
as soon as I can." 

And going out of the prison, he asked me, saying : 

The Keeper : — " Will ye go to mass ?" 

Philpot: — " My stomach is too raw to digest such raw 
meats of flesh, blood, and bone, this morning." 

After this my keeper presented me to the bishop in his hall. 

London : — " Master Philpot, I charge you to answer unto 

such articles as my chaplain, master Dee, and my registrar 

have from me to object against you : go and answer them." 

Philpot re- Philpot : — "My lord, all judgments ought to be public. 

answer but Therefore, if your lordship have any thing to charge me law- 

in open . ' . 

judgment, fully withal, let me be in judgment lawfully and openly called, 
and I will answer according to my duty : otherwise in corners 
I will not." 

London : — " Thou art a foolish knave, I see well enough : 


thou shalt answer whether thou wilt or no ; go thy ways with 
them, I say." 

Philpot: — "I may well go with them at your lordship's 
pleasure ; but I will make them no further answers than I have 
said already. 11 

London : — " No ! wilt thou not, knave ? Have him away, pwipot 
and set him in the stocks : What ! foolish knave V to the stocks 

Philpot : — " Indeed, my lord, you handle me, with others, house. 
like fools : and we must be content to be made fools at your 
hands ; stocks and violence be your bishop-like alms. You go 
about by force in corners to oppress, and be ashamed that your 
doings should come to light. God shorten your cruel kingdom 
for his mercy's sake !" 

And I was put by and by into the stocks, in a house alone, 
separate from my fellows. God be praised that he hath thought 
me Worthy to suffer any thing for his name's sake ! Better it is 
to sit in the stocks of this world, than to sit in the stocks of a 
damnable conscience. 

Another conference between Bonner, bishop of London, and 
Master Philpot and other prisoners. 

The next day after, an hour before day, the bishop sent for ^*J^ k# 
me again by the keeper. 

The Keeper: — " Master Philpot, arise; you must come to 
my lord. 11 

Philpot: — "I wonder what my lord meaneth, that he sendeth 
for me thus early. I fear he will use some violence towards 
me : wherefore I pray you make him this answer, that if he 
send for me by an order of law, I will come and answer ; other- 
wise, since I am not of his diocese, neither is he mine ordinary, 
I will not (without I be violently constrained) come unto him." 

Keeper : — " I will go tell my lord what answer you make." 

And so he went away to the bishop, and immediately re- 
turned with two of the bishop's men, saying that I must come, 
whether I would or no. 

Philpot :— " If by violence any of you will enforce me to 
go, then I must go : otherwise I will not." 



brought to -^nd herewith one of them took me with force by the arm, 

by e vtoience. anc * ^ me U P * nto tne ^shop's gallery. 

London : — " What ! thou art a foolish knave indeed ; thou 
wilt not come without thou be fetched." 

Philpot: — " I am brought indeed, my lord, by violence unto 
you ; and your cruelty is such, that I am afraid to come before 
you. I would your lordship would gently proceed against me 
by the law." 

London : — " I am blamed of the lords the bishops, for that 
I have not despatched thee ere this. And in faith I made suit 
to my lord cardinal, and to all the convocation-house, that they 
would hear thee : and my lord of Lincoln stood up, and said 
that thou wert a frantic fellow, and a man that will have the 
last word. And they all have much blamed me, because I have 
brought thee so often before the lords openly : and they say 
it is meat and drink to you to speak in an open audience, you 
glory so of yourself. Wherefore, I am commanded to take a 
further order with thee ; and, in good faith, if you will not re- 
lent, I will make no further delay. Marry, if thou wilt be con- 
formable, I will yet forgive thee all that is past, and thou shalt 
have no hurt for any thing that is already spoken or done." 
Phiipot, Philpot: — " My lord, I have answered you already in this 

being arch- j. j ■> j j 

communl-" behalf, wIiat * wil1 do. An d as for the report of master White, 

wwte b for° P wsho P of Lincoln, I pass not; who is known to be mine 

FaTsetoc? enem y> for that !> bem g archdeacon, did excommunicate him 

for preaching naughty doctrine. If Christ my master were 

called a mad man, it is no marvel though ye count me frantic." 

London : — " Hadst thou not a pig brought thee the other 

day with a knife in it ? Wherefore was it, I pray thee, but 

to kill thyself? or. as it is told me (marry, I am counselled 

to take heed of thee), to kill me? But I fear thee not: I 

trow I am able to tread thee under my feet : do the best thou 


Sofa Philpot:—" My lord, I cannot deny but that there was a 

Phiip""na knife in the P 5 S S belI y tliat was brou g nt m e. But who put it 
pig's beiiy. in, or for what purpose, I know not, unless it were because he 

that sent the meat, thought I was without a knife, and so put 

it in : but other things your lordship needeth not to fear : for 

I was never without a knife since I came into prison. And 

touching your own person, you should live long, if you should 



live until I would go about to kill you : and I confess, by 
violence your lordship is able to Overcome me." 

■London : — " I charge thee to answer to mine articles. Articles 
Hold him a book. Thou shalt swear to answer truly to all to Phiipot. 
Such articles, as I shall demand of thee. 11 

PMlpot : — " I will first know your lordship to be mine ordi- 
flarVj before I swear herein. 11 

London : — " What ! we shall have an Anabaptist of thee, 
which thinketh it not lawful to swear before a judge !" 

Phiipot : — " My lord, I am no Anabaptist ; I think it law- 
ful to swear before a competent judge, being lawfully required. 
But I refuse to swear in these causes before your lordship 
because you are not mine ordinary." 

London : — " I am thine ordinary, and here do pronounce by Bonner, of 
sentence peremptory 1 , that I am thine ordinary, and that thou andautno- 
art of my diocese. 11 [And here he bade call in more to bear nouncetii 

i • • t i -it i • • himself to 

him witness. " And 1 make thee [taking one oi his servants be Phiipot's 

. , , . iiii ordinary. 

by the armj " to be my notary. And now hearken to my ar- 
ticles :" to the which (when he had read them) he monished me 
to make answer, and said to the keeper, "Fetch me his fellows, 
and I shall make them to be witnesses against him. 11 

In the mean while came in one of the sheriffs of London, ™?« 

' articles 

whom the bishop (calling for two chairs) placed by him, saying, feig™^ 
" Master sheriff, I would you should understand how I do pro- Aupot. 
ceed against this man. Master sheriff, you shall hear what 
articles this man doth maintain: 11 — and so he read a rabblement 
of feigned articles : That I should deny baptism to be necessary 
to them that were born of christian parents ; that I denied fast- 
ing and prayer, and all other good deeds ; and I maintained 
only bare faith to be sufficient to salvation, whatsoever a man 
did besides ; and I maintained God to be the author of all sin 
and wickedness. 

Phiipot : — " Hah, my lord ! have ye nothing of truth to 
charge me withal, but ye must be fain to imagine these blas- 
phemous lies against me ? You might as well have said I had 
killed your father. The scriptures say, that " God will destroy 
afl men that speak lies." And is not your lordship ashamed to 
say before this worshipful gentleman (who is unknown to me), 

[} Sentence interrogators, ed. 1559.] 



that I maintain these abominable blasphemies which you have 

rehearsed \ which if I did maintain, I were well worthy to be 

counted a heretic, and to be burned a hundred times, if it 

were possible. 1 '' 

London : — " I do object them unto thee, to hear what thou 

wilt say in them, and how thou canst purge thyself of them." 
Bonner PMlpot : — " Then it was not justly said of your lordship in 

an untruth, the beginning, that I did maintain them, since almost I hold 

none of these articles you have read, in form as they are 


London : — " How sayest thou ? Wilt thou answer to them, 

or no?" 

PMlpot: — " I will first know you to be mine ordinary, and 

that you may lawfully charge me with such things ; and then 

afterward, being lawfully called in judgment, I will shew my 

mind fully thereof; and not otherwise." 
other London: — " Well then, I will make thy fellows to be wit- 

pnsoners ' •> 

called in to nesses herein against thee. Where are they 2 Come !" 

bear witness » •> 

against Keeper :— " They be here, my lord." 

Phiipot. London: — "Come hither, sirs: hold them a book. You 

shall swear by the contents of that book, that you shall (all 
manner of affections laid apart) say the truth of all such articles 
as you shall be demanded of concerning this man here present, 
which is a very naughty man. And take you heed of him, that 
he doth not deceive you, as I am afraid he doth you much hurt, 
and strengthened you in your errors." 
Jr^refuseTo Prisoners:—" My lord, we will not swear, except we know 
a-alnsT" whereto : we can accuse him of no evil ; we have been but a 
Phiipot. ^ik acquainted with him." 

Phiipot : — " I wonder your lordship, knowing the law, will 
go about, contrary to the same, to have infamous persons to be 
witnesses ; for your lordship doth take them to be heretics, and 
by the law a heretic cannot be a witness." 
al a1n e doeth London:—" Yes, one heretic against another may be wit- 
Si ness well enough. And, master sheriff, I will make one of them 
to be witness against another." 

Phiipot :— " You have the law in your own hand, and you 
will do what you list." 

Prisoners : — " No, my lord." 

London :— « No ! will you not \ I will make you swear, 


whether you will or no. I ween 1 , they be Anabaptists, master Note how 

i .«. i i • i • , P i the bishops 

sheriff : they think it not lawful to swear before a hidece." make Ana- 

J . •> ° baptists. 

Phttpot: — " We think it lawlul to swear for a man judi- 
cially called, as we are not now, but in a blind corner." 

London : — " Why then, seeing you will not swear against 
your fellow, you shall swear for yourselves ; and I do here in 
the presence of master sheriff object the same articles unto you 
as I have done unto him, and do require you, under the pain of 
excommunication, to answer particularly unto every one of them 
when ye shall be examined, as ye shall be by and by examined 
by my registrar and some of my chaplains." 

Prisoners : — " My lord, we will not accuse ourselves. If 
any man can lay any thing against us, we are here ready to 
answer thereto : otherwise we pray your lordship not to burden 
us ; for some of us are here before you, we know no just 
cause why." 

London: — "Master sheriff', I will trouble you no longer Bonner 

, r seeketh 

with these froward men. And so he rose up, and was going corners. 
away, talking with master sheriff. 

Philpot : — " Master sheriff, I pray you record how my lord 
proceedeth against us in corners, without all order of law, 
having no just cause to lay against us." 

And after this [we] were all commanded to be put in the 
stocks, where I sat from morning until night ; and the keeper 
at night upon favour let me out. 

Another private conference between the bishop of London 
and Master Philpot in the coal-house. 

The Sunday after, the bishop came into the coal-house at B °^ llis 
night with the keeper, and viewed the house, saying that he c° al - house - 
was never here before : whereby a man may guess how he hath 
kept God's commandment in visiting the prisoners, seeing he 
was never with them that have been so nigh his nose. And 
he came not then for any good zeal, but to view the place, 
and thought it too good for me; and therefore, after supper, 
between eight and nine, he sent for me, saying : 

London : — " Sir, I have great displeasure of the queen and 
[} Ween": think, suppose.] 


the council for keeping you so long, and letting you have 
so much liberty. And besides that, you are yonder, and 
strengthen the other prisoners in their errors, as I have laid 
wait for your doings, and am certified of you well enough. I 
will sequester you therefore from them, and you shall hurt no 
more as you have done ; and I will out of hand despatch you, 
as I am commanded, unless you will be a conformable man." 

Philpot: — "My lord, you have my body in your custody: 
you may transport it whither you please : I am content. And 
I would you would make as quick expedition in my judgment, 
as you say ; I long therefore ; and as for conformity, I am ready 
to yield to all truth, if any can bring better than I." 

London : — " Why, will you believe no man but yourself, 
whatsoever they say V 

Philpot: — " My belief must not hang upon men's sayings 
without sure authority of God's word, the which if any can 
shew me, I will be pliant to the same. Otherwise, I cannot go 
from my certain faith to that which is uncertain." 

London : — " Have you then the truth only V 

Philpot: — " My lord, I will speak my mind freely unto you, 
and upon no malice I bear to you, before God. You have not 
the truth, neither are you of the church of God; but you 
persecute both the truth and the true church of God, for the 
which cause you cannot prosper long. You see, God doth not 
prosper your doings according to your expectations : he hath 
of late shewed his just judgment against one of your greatest 
doers, who by report died miserably 1 . I envy not the authority 
you are in : you that have learning should know best how to 
Good coun- rule. And seeing God hath restored you to your dignity and 

sel given to ... . . „ . , . 

Bonner. living again, use the same to God s glory, and to the setting 
forth of his true religion ; otherwise it will not continue, do 
what you can." 

With this saying he was apaused 2 , and said at length : 
London : — " That good man was punished for such as thou 
art. Where is the keeper ? Come, let him have him to the 
place that is provided for him : go your way before." 

And he followed me, calling the keeper aside, commanding 

[} Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, who died about a month before 

[ 2 Apaused: struck.] 


tq keep all men from me, and narrowly to search me (as the ** n e ^ i n c t ° n j 
sequel did declare), and brought me to his privy door that ^„f n t0 7 er 
gqeth into the church, and commanded two of his men to ^un-h 
aecompany the keeper, and to see me placed. And afterwards 
I passed through Paul's up to the Lollards 1 Tower, and after 
that turned along all the west side of Paul's through the wall, 
and passing through six or seven doors, came to my lodging 
through many straits; where I called to remembrance, that 
' strait is the way to heaven'. And it is in a tower, right on the [Matth. vii.] 
other side of Lollards 1 Tower, as high almost as the battle- 
ments of Paul's, eight feet of breadth, and thirteen of length, 
and almost over the prison where I was before, having a window 
opening toward the east, by the which I may look over the tops 
of a great many houses, but see no man passing into them : 
and whoso walketh in the bishop^ outer gallery going to his 
chapel, may see my window and me standing in the same. 
And as I was come to my place, the keeper plucked off my phiipot 
gown, and searched me very narrowly, and took away penner 3 , writings. 
inkhom, girdle, and knife ; but (as God would) I had an inkling 
a little before I was called, of my removing, and thereupon 
made an errand to the stool, where, full sore against my will, I 
cast away many a sweet letter and friendly : but that I had 
written of my last examination before, I thrust into my hose, 
thinlppg the next day to have made an end thereof, and with 
gpmg it was fallen down to my leg, the which he by feeling did 
soon espy, and asked what that was. I said, they were certain 
letters: and with that he was very busy to have them out. 
'* Let me alone, 11 said I, " I will pluck them out. 11 With that The copy of 
I put in my hand, having two other letters therein, and brought nations by 
up the same writing to my pocket-hole, and there left it, giving working 
him the other two letters that were not of any great importance; 
the whieh, to make a shew that they had been weighty, I began 
to tear, as well as I could, till they snatched them from me ; 
and sq deluded him (I thank God) of his purpose. 

After this he went his way ; and as he was going, one of 
them that came with him said, that I did not deliver the 
writings I had in my hose, but two other letters I had in my 
hand before. " No did V quoth he, " I will go search him 
better :"" the whjch I hearing, conveyed my examination I had 
[ 3 Penner : a case to hold pens.] 


written into another place beside my bed, and took all the 
letters I had in my purse, and was tearing of them when he 
came again ; and as he came, I threw the same out of my 
window, saying, that I heard what he said : wherefore I did 
prevent his searching again, whereof I was right glad. God be 
praised, that gave me that present shift to blind their eyes from 
the knowledge of my writings; the which if they had known, it 
would have been a great occasion of more straiter keeping and 
looking unto, although they look as narrowly as they may. 

the eighth ^e eighth examination of John Philpot, 

examination. be f ore fa e b j s h p of London, the bishop of St 
David's, Master Mordant, and others, in the bishop's chapel. 

The next day after, my keeper came before day in the 
morning to call me down ; and so was I brought down into his 
wardrobe, where with a keeper I was left, and there continued 
all the day. But after dinner I was called down into the 
chapel, before the bishop of London, the bishop of St David's, 
master Mordant, one of the queen's council, master archdeacon 
of London, and before a great many more Balaamites. And 
the bishop spake unto me in this wise : — 
>cted e an°d London : — " Sir, here I object and lay unto you, in the 

pm o°t presence of my lord of St David's, and of master Mordant, and 
of these worshipful men, these articles here in this libel con- 

And openly he read them. To whom when I would par- 
ticularly have answered to some of his blasphemies, he would 
not permit me, but said, I should have leisure enough to say 
what I would, when he had said. " And unto these here I add 
another schedule. Also I require thee to answer to the cate- 
chism set forth in the schismatical time of king Edward. Also 
I will thee to answer to certain conclusions agreed upon both 
in Oxford and Cambridge. And I here do bring forth these 
witnesses against thee in thine own presence, namely, my lord 
of St David's, master Mordant, and master Harpsfield, with as 
many of you as were present in the disputation he made in the 
convocation-house ; willing you to testify, of your oaths taken 
upon a book, the stubborn and unreverent behaviour he did 


there use against the blessed sacrament of the altar. Give mc 
a book !" And receiving one, he opened the same, saying, " I witnesses 
will teach him here one trick in our law which he knoweth not; against 
that is, my lord of St David's, because you are a bishop, you ' P ° ' 
may swear by looking on the gospel book, without touching 
of the same." And so he opened the book in his sight, and 
shut it again, and caused the others to put their hands on the 
book, and take their oath, and willed them to resort to his 
registrar to make their depositions when they might be best at 
leisure. And afterwards he turned to me and said, " Now, sir, 
you shall answer in two words, whether you will answer to these 
articles which I have laid unto you, directly, yea or nay 2" 

Philpot : — " My lord, you have told a long tale against me, Papists keep 

.. I- iii • l-i i -i 110 promise. 

containing many lying blasphemies, which cannot be answered 
in two words. Besides this, you promised me at the beginning, 
that I should say what I could for my defence; and now will 
you not give me leave to speak \ What law is this V 

London : — " Speak, yea or nay ; for you shall say no more 
at this time. 1 "' 

The cause was, as I guess, that he saw so many there 
gathered to hear. 

Philpot: — " Then my two words you would have me speak pwipotap- 

r J J r pealethfrom 

shall be, that I have appealed from you, and take you not for Bonner. 

my sufficient judge." 

London : — " Indeed, master Mordant, he hath appealed to 

the king and to the queen; but I will be so bold with her 

majesty, to stay that appeal in mine own hands." 

Philpot : — " You will do what you list, my lord, you have 

the law in your hands." 

London : — " Wilt thou answer or no ?" 

Philpot : — " I will not otherwise than I have said." 

London : — " Registrar, note his answer that he maketh." 

Philpot: — "Knock me on the head with a hatchet, or set ^ t 'J 1 , e u r t doth 

up a stake and burn me out of hand, without further law : as order of law. 

well you may do so, as do that you do ; for all is without order 

of law. Such tyranny was never seen as you use now a days : 

God of his mercy destroy your cruel kingdom !" 

And whilst I spake this, the bishop went away in haste. 
St David's : — " Master Philpot, I pray you, be quiet, and 

have patience with you." 


PJdlpot : — " My lord, I thank God I have patience to bear 
and abide all your cruel intents against me : notwithstanding I 
speak this earnestly, being moved thereto justly, to notify your 
unjust and cruel dealing with men in corners, without all due 
order of law." 

After this, at night, I was conducted again by three or 
four into the coal-house. 

the ninth The ninth examination of Master Philppt, 

examination, before the bishop of London, and his chaplains. 

In the morning, the next day, I was called down betimes 
by my keeper, and brought again into the wardrobe, where I 
remained until the bishop had heard his mass ; and afterward 
he sent up for me into his inward parlour, and there he called 
for a chair to sit down, and brought his infamous libel of his 
forged articles in his hand, and sat down, willing me to draw 
near unto him, and said 

London: — "I am this day appointed to tarry at home 
from the parliament house, to examine you and your fellows 
upon these articles ; and you stand dallying with me, and will 
neither answer to nor fro. I wis 1 , all your exceptions will not 
serve you. Will it not be a fair honesty for you, think ye, 
that when thou comest before my lord mayor and the sheriffs, 
and other worshipful audience, when I shall say before them 
all, that I have had thee these many times before me, and 
before so many learned men, and then thou couldst say nothing 
for that thou standest in, for all thy brags of learning, neither 
wouldst answer directly to any thing V 
piuipot stm Philpot: — "My lord, I have told you my mind plain 

standethto * J . J J . l 

his former enough ; but yet 1 do not intend to lose that privilege the law 
answer be- giveth me, the which is, free choice to answer where I am not 

fore his own , . , 

ordinary, bound; and this privilege will 1 cleave unto, until I be com- 
pelled otherwise." 

London: — "Well, I perceive you will play the obstinate 
fool. Lay thine appellation when thou comest in judgment, 
and answer in the mean while to these articles." 

[} Wis : think, am sure. Ed.] 


Phiipot: — "No, my lord, by your leave I will not answer 
to them, until my lawful appeal be tried." 

London : — " Well, thou shalt hear them." 

And with that he began to read them. I shrank back into Phiipot win 
the window, and looked on a book. And after he had read articles 
them over, he said unto me, 

London: — "I have read them over, although it hath not 
pleased you to hear me. I marvel, in good faith, what thou 
meanest, to be so wilful and stubborn, seeing thou mayest do 
well enough if thou list. It is but a singularity. Dost thou 
not see all the realm against thee V 

Phiipot: — " My lord, I speak unto you in the witness of 
God, before whom I stand, that I am neither wedded to mine 
own will, neither stand upon mine own stubbornness or singu- 
larity, but upon my conscience instructed by God's word ; and 
if your lordship can shew better evidence than I have for a 
good faith, I will follow the same." 

London : — " What ! thou wilt not, lo, for all that ! Well, 
all that is past shall be forgotten ; and be thou conformable 
unto us. I wis, thou mightest find as much favour as thou 
wouldest desire." 

Then I, perceiving that he fawned so much upon me, 
thought it good to give him some comfort of my relenting, to 
the intent I might give him and his hypocritical generation 
openly a further foil, perceiving that they dare reason openly 
with none, but with such as be unlearned, and for lack of 
knowledge not able to answer, or else with such as they have 
a hope that for fear or love of the world will recant : I said, 
" My lord, it is not unknown to you, that I have openly, in the 
audience of a great number, stood to the maintenance of these 
opinions I am in, and by learning did offer to defend them : 
therefore, my lord, I would it might openly appear to the world 
that I am won by learning ; or else what will they say, but 
that either for fear or love of the world I am without any 
ground turned from the truth? And if I hear any kind of 
learning openly shewed, I shall be as conformable as you may 
require me." 

London : — " Yea, marry, now ye speak somewhat like a 
reasonable man. I wis, you might have had a great deal more 
favour in my house, and liberty, than you have had ; and you 



shall lack nothing that is within my house : call for it, and you 
shall have it. And what is it that you would openly by learn- 
ing somewhat be satisfied in ? tell me." 

Philpot : — " My lord, I have openly said, and do believe it 
also, that your sacrifice of the mass is no sacrament." 

London: — " What ! do you deny the presence of Christ in 
the sacrament ?" 
Talk of the Philpot: — "No, my lord, I deny not the presence of Christ 
in the sacrament, but I have denied the sacrament of the altar, 
as it is used in your mass, to be the true sacrament of Christ's- 
institution : and first, it must be proved a sacrament, before 
there can be any presence granted." 

London:—" Why, do you deny the mass to be a sacra- 
ment ? Is it not a sign of a holy thing, as St Austin doth 
define it?" 

Philpot: — " Yes, verily, that it is." 

London : — " Then I make this argument unto you : a sa- 
crament is the sign of a holy thing : but the mass is the sign 
of a holy thing ; ergo, it is a sacrament." 

Philpot : — " You must add this to your major, or first pro- 
position, as St Augustine doth mean, that a sacrament is the 
sign of a holy thing instituted of God and commanded: for 
otherwise it can be no sacrament ; for all men cannot make a 

London : — " I grant that : and such a sign of a holy thing 
is the mass of Christ's institution." 

Philpot : — " I deny that, my lord." 
The bishop, London: — " I will prove this by St Augustine by and by. 
brought to I will go shew you the book, and you shall have any book I 

a narrow 

strait, is have, that you will demand. Ho ! who is without there? Call 

fain to call J 

for more m e master doctor Chedsey, master archdeacon, master Cosins, 
and other chaplains hither." 

" Here, my lord. Master doctor Chedsey is gone to West- 
minster, and master archdeacon was here even now." 

London: — " Master Cosins, I pray you, examine him upon 
these articles, and write his answer he maketh to every one of 
them. I will go examine his fellows, and send you St Augus- 
tine by and by. I find this man more conformable than he 
was before." 

Cosins : — " I trust, my lord, you shall find him at length a 


good catholic man. Marry, here be a sight of heresies ! I 
dare say you will hold none of them, nor stand in any of them. 
How say you to the first ?" 

Philpot: — " Master Cosins, I have told my lord already, 
that I will answer to none of these articles he hath objected 
against me : but if you will with learning answer to that which 
is in question between my lord and me, I will gladly hear and 
commune with you." 

Cosins :— " No ! will you ? Why, what is that then, that is 
in question between my lord and you?" 

Philpot: — " Whether your mass be a sacrament, or no." 

Cosins: — " What! the mass to be a sacrament ? who ever whether the 

doubted thereof ?" sacrament. 

Philpot: — "If it be an undoubted truth, you may the 
sooner prove it ; for I doubt much thereof." 

tJosins: — " Why, I will prove it. It is the sign of a holy 
thing : ergo, it is a sacrament." 

Philpot: — " I deny your antecedent." 

Cosins : — " AVhat ! will you so ? then there is no reasoning 
with you." 

Thus master Cosins gave over in the plain field for want Master co- 

° r sins giveth 

of further proof. And then the morrow-mass chaplain began over m the 
to speak for his occupation ; and with that master Harpsfield 
came out from my lord with St Augustine's Epistles, saying, 

Harpsfield : — " My lord hath sent you here St Augustine 
to look upon; and I pray you, look what he saith in a certain 
epistle which he writeth : I will read over the whole. Here 
you may hear the celebration of the mass, and how it reproveth 
them that went a hawking and hunting before the celebration 
of the same on the Sabbath and holy-days." 

Philpot : — " I perceive the contents of this epistle, and I 
see nothing herein against me, neither any thing that maketh 
for the proof of your sacrament of the mass." 

Harpsfield: — " No ! doth he not make mention of the 
mass, and the celebration thereof? what can be spoken more 

Philpot:— "St Austin meaneth of the celebration of the The Epistle 

„ , x r. i i i ofStAugus- 

communion, and of the true use of the sacrament ot the body tine aliened 

' for confir- 

and blood of Christ, and not of your private mass, which you mation of 
of late years have erected in the stead thereof; for this word answered. 


' mass ' hath been an old term attributed to the communion 
even from the primitive church 1 . And I pray you, tell me what 
missa doth signify. I think, not many that say mass can well 

Cosins :— " No ! cannot ? That is marvel." 

Philpot: — " Then tell me, if you can." 

But master Cosins and my morrow-mass chaplain were 
both dumb, looking upon master Harpsfield for help ; and at 
length he spake : 

Harpsfield: — " You think it cometh of the Hebrew Word 
'massah,' as though none were seen in the Hebrew but 
Hssa° rd PMlpot: — "I have not gone so long to school, to de- 

rive the signification of missa, which is a Latin word, out of 
Hebrew: but I have learned to interpret Greek words by 
Greek, and Latin by Latin, and Hebrew by Hebrew. I take 
the communion to be called missa 'a mittendo'', of such things 
as at the celebration of the communion were sent by such as 
were of ability to the relief of the poor ; where the rich brought 
after their devotion and ability, and required the minister, in 
the celebration of the communion, to pray unto God for them, 
and to accept their common alms, which they at such times 
did send for the help of their poor brethren and sisters ; and 
for this Cause was it called missa, as learned men do witness. 
At the which celebration of the mass, all that were present did 
communicate under both kinds according to Christ's institiF 
tion, as they did in Augustine's time. But unless you can 
shew that your mass is used as then it was, ye shall never by 
the name of mass (which St Augustine attributed to the true 
use of the communion) prove your private mass to be a sacra- 

[' There is a general remark, well worthy of notice, made by both 
Romish and Protestant writers, on the modern use of ancient words : 

"Bona (the Cardinal) fassus est multa vocabula, nobis et priscis 
patribus communia, nos retinere, sed sensu ab eo, quem tunc habe- 
bant, non minus alieno, quam nostra tempora a primis post ChristuM 
saeculis remota sunt." Fechtius de Missarum superstitione, cap. iv. § 26, 
who observes in another part : " Non quaeritur, quem quisque, dum 
ait templa martyribus constitui, vel sacrificia martyribus afferi, sen- 
sum animo concipiat, suseque locutioni inesse velit; sed quem sen- 
sum ex communi usu et naturali verborum dispositione verba ipsa 
obtineant." Cap. 11. § 11.] 


ftient, unless ye can prove the same now to be in your masses 
as was then ; which is clean contrary." 

Hufpsfield : — " What ! deny you the mass to be a sacra- 
ment ? for shame, speak it not." 

Philpot :— " I will not be ashamed to deny it, if you can- 
hot prove it." 

Harpsfield : — " Why, it is a sacrifice, which is more than a 

Philpot : — " You may make of it as much as you list : but 
you shall never make it a sacrifice, as you may imagine thereof, 
but first it must be a sacrament ; for of the sacrament you de- 
duce your sacrifice." 

Harpsfield: — "Why, doth not Christ say, 'This is my 
body f and doth not the priest pronbunce the same that Christ 

Philpot: — "The pronunciation only is not enough, un- a sacrament 

JC r J o ' is no sacra- 

leSS the words be therewithal applied to the use, as Christ me "t witn - 

rr ' out its use. 

spake them to. For though ye speak the words bf baptism 
over water never so many times, yet there is no baptism unless 
there be a Christian person to be baptized." 

Harpsfield: — "Nay, that is not like 2 ; for Hot tost Corpus 
nteunt, is an indicative proposition, shewing a working of God 
in the substance of bread and wine." 

Philpot: — " It is not only an indicative proposition, but 
also imperative or commanding. For he that said, ' This is 
my body,' said also, ' Take ye, eat ye.' And except the former 
part bf the institution of Chrisfs sacrament be accomplished 
according to the communion, the latter, ' This is my body,' 
can have no verification, take it which way you will, and how 
you will." 

MorrdW-mass Chaplain : — " Why then, you will make the 
sacrament to stand in the receiving, and that receiving maketh 
it a sacrament." 

Philpot:— "I do not say, that the receiving only maketh R^vin^ 
it a sacrament; but I say, that a common receiving must needs ^| n s * c ™ t " 
be concurrent with the true sacrament, as a necessary member, ^| n f ^ e 
without the which it cannot be a sacrament ; because Christ £°£ d 4hX't 
hath made this a principal part of the sacrament, ' Take ye, j^J 6 ^ n0 
eat ye,' which you do not in your mass according to Christ's sacrament. 
s That is not like : the one case is not like the other.] 


institution. Wherefore it can be no sacrament, for that it 
wanteth of Christ's institution." 

Cosins : — " We do forbid none to come to it, but as many 
as list may be partakers with us at the mass, if they require it." 
Philpot: — "Nay, that they shall not, though they require 
it ; you will minister but one kind unto them, which is not 
what the a ft er Christ's institution. Besides that, you ought, before you 
o"ght s to do g° to mass, to exhort all that be present, to make a sacrifice 
2" of thanksgiving for Christ's passion with you, and exhort them 
to be partakers with you, according to Christ's commandment, 
saying unto all that be present, ' Take ye, eat ye ;' and like- 
wise by preaching shew forth the Lord's death, which you do 

Cosins : — " What if all things be done, even as you would 
have it; and whilst the minister is about to minister the sacra- 
ment, before any have received it, there rise a certain hurly- 
burly, that the communicants be compelled to go away : is it 
not a sacrament for all that 1 none have communicated beside 
the priest V 

Philpot: — " In this case, where all things are appointed to 
be done according to God's word, if incident necessity had not 
let, I cannot say but it is a sacrament, and that he which hath 
received, hath received the true sacrament." 

After this the morrow-mass priest made this apish reason : 
The Morrow-mass Priest : — " If the sacrament of the mass 
be no sacrament, unless all do receive it, because Christ said, 
' Take ye, eat ye ;' then the sacrament of baptism is no sacra- 
ment where there is but one baptized, because Christ said to 
his apostles, ' Go, preach the gospel to all creatures, baptizing 
all nations in the name of the Father,' &c." 
ment of bap- Phtyot :— " In that saying of Christ, ' baptizing all na- 
mi™istered e ^ nns ^ ls a commandment to the apostles to baptize all sorts 
pTrs°on ny °f men ' anc * to exclude none that believe, be he Gentile or 
Jew ; not meaning all at once, for that were impossible. And 
there are many examples that baptism may be singularly mi- 
nistered to one person, as we have example in Christ baptized 
The sacra- of John, and in the eunuch baptized of Philip, with many 

ment of the r r ' / 

Lord's sup- more such like : but so have you not of the sacrament of the 

per re(|uir- J 

eth a com. body and blood of Christ ; but contrariwise, by the express 

munion. J *■ ■ 

l l For all that : although, notwithstanding.] 


words of St Paul, you are commanded to use it in a communion 
and participation of many together, ' As oft as ye come to- 
gether to eat (meaning the Lord's Supper), tarry one for an- 
other .' And also the minister, in the celebration of the sacra- 
ment, speaketh unto all that be present in Christ's behalf, to 
communicate with him, saying, 'Take ye, and eat ye. 1 Where- 
fore, as many as be present and do not communicate, break 
(rod's commandment in not receiving the same. And the mi- 
nister is no just minister that doth not distribute the sacrament, 
as Christ did, to all that are present ; and where God's word 
is transgressed, there is not Christ present, and consequently 
it is no sacrament." 

Harpsfield : — " What ! would you have it no sacrament At the 

. , . ministra- 

without it be a communion? tionofthe 

t> 7 . 7 T . Supper all 

Philpot: — "I make it not so, but God's express word that b « vre- 

• ■* ' r sen t ought 

teacheth me so, yea, also all the ancient writers ; as St Chry- J?™™" 111 - 

sostom, writing upon the epistle to the Ephesians, saith, ' that 

the oBlation is in vain, where none doth communicate with the it is no sa- 

T n 1 l • • ' crament 

priest 2 . If by Ins judgment the action of the priest alone is in without it 
vain, where is no communion, how can that be a sacrament, munion. 
which he calleth a vain oblation and a vain standing at the 

Cosins : — " You are such another fellow as I have not 
heard 3 , that will not have the mass to be a sacrament: you 
are no man for me to reason withal. Come, let us go [pointing 
to the morrow-mass chaplain] : we will leave you, master arch- 
deacon, and him together." 

And so they went away. Afterward the archdeacon fell 
into earnest persuasions with me, saying : 

Harpsfield: — " Master Philpot, you and I have been of old Taikbe- 
acquaintance a long time. We were school-fellows both in pot and 
Winchester and in Oxford many years : wherefore I must 
wish you as well to do as myself, and I pray you so think of 

Philpot : — " I thank you for your good will towards me. 

L 1 *fl T»7e a-vvtjdeiav, do tiJs TrpoAi/v// etas, elxij dua-'ta nadtiixepivt), eiiei) 
irapea-TriKafiev ™ dvatcurTripiw, ou'oek a fierej^uiv. Chrysost. in Ep. 
ad Eph. Cap. i. Homil. m. Bened. Par. 1734. Tom. xi. p. 22.] 

P You are such, &c. : You ate such an one, that I never heard 

of another your fellow.] 




But if you be deceived (as I am sure you are), I shall desire 
you not to wish me deceived with you : for afore God I tell 
you plainly, you are highly deceived, and maintain false religion, 
and be not those men you take yourselves for ; and if you do 
not repent, and leave off your persecuting of Christ's truth, you 
will go to the devil for it. Therefore consider it in time : I 
give you warning : or else in the day of judgment I shall be 
a witness against you, that I told you this, here talking to- 

Harpsfield: — " Fie ! that is but your own vain singular 
opinion. I perceive you are now still that man you were in 

Philpot : — " I trust you can report no notorious evil that 
ever you knew by me there 1 ." 

Harpsfield : — " I can say no evil of your conversation, but 
I knew you to be a studious man. Marry, if you remember, 
when we met in disputation in par vis 2 , you would not lightly 
give over ; and for that cause I speak what I have said." 

Philpot : — " Master Harpsfield, you know in the schools of 
Oxford, when we were young men, we did strive much upon 
vain glory, and upon contention, more than for the truth ; but 
now our years and our riper learning teach us to fall to a truth, 
which must be our portion for ever. And if I was then, in my 
time of ignorance, earnest in my own cause, I ought now to be 
earnest in my master Christ's cause and his truth. I know 
now that nothing done upon vain glory and singularity can 
please God, have it never so godly a shew : wherefore I pray 
you, judge not so of me now." 

Harpsfield: — " What ! will you think yourself better learn- 
ed than all the learned men in this realm V 

Philpot : — " My faith hangeth not upon the learned of the 
world, but upon the learned of God's word." 

Harpsfield: — " Well, I will talk with you no more as now, 
but pray to God to open your heart." 

Philpot : — " I pray God open both our hearts, to do more 
his will than we have done in past times." 

C 1 You knew by me: you knew me to be guilty of. "I know 
nothing by myself :" Oilev i/xavTM <rvvo3a. 1 Cor. iv. 4.] 

[ 2 In parvis: in parviso: probably some prolusion, or disputation 
in the schools.] 


Harpsfield: — " Ho ! keeper, take him away with you."" 
Philpot: — "I pray you, master Harpsfield, tell me what what this 
this pronoun hoc doth demonstrate and shew, in this indi- *i>ocdotu 

n • rr demon- 

cative proposition, as you call it, Hoc est corpus meum, this is strate - 
my body?" 

Harpsfield: — " It doth demonstrate the substance of bread, 
which by the words spoken by the priest, and by the omnipo- 
tency of God, is turned into the substance of Christ's very 

Philpot: — "Is the substance of the bread, as you say, 
turned into Christ's body 2" 

Harpsfield: — " Yea, that it is." 

Philpot: — "Why, then Christ's body receiveth daily a 
great increase of many thousand pieces of bread into his body, 
and that is his body become now, which was not before ; and 
by this you would seem to make, that there is an alteration in 
Christ's glorified body, which is a wicked thing to think." 

/ Then Harpsfield fetched about again ; and remembering Harpsfield 
better himself, and seeing the inconvenience of his first as- tale. 
sertion of the transubstantiation of bread into Christ's body, 
he said, that the substance of bread, after the words spoken by 
the priest, was evacuated, or vanished away, by the omnipo- 
tency of God. 

Philpot : — " This is another song than you sang first ; and £ pjp a i" h ety 
here you may see how contrary you are to yourselves : for in- doctnne ' 
deed your schoolmen do hold, that the very substance of bread 
is really turned into the substance of Christ's body. And now 
you perceiving of late the inconvenience which is objected ^d> e s n omni- 
against you in that opinion, you are driven to imagine a new p° tence - 
shift, and say, the substance of bread is evacuated ; contrary to 
that your church hath first believed and taught. Oh, what 
contrariety is there among you, and all to deface the sincere 
truth !" 

Harpsfield: — " Is not God omnipotent? and cannot he do 
as he hath said V 

Philpot .— " But his omnipotence will not do as you say, 
contrary to his word and to his honour. It is not God's honour 
to include him bodily into a piece of bread, and of necessity to 
tie him thereto. It is not God's honour for you to make a 
piece of bread God and man, which you see before your face 



doth putrify after a certain time. Is not God's omnipotency as 

able to give his body with the sacramental bread, as to make so 

many turnings-away of the bread, as you do, and that directly 

JtanUa?" against the scripture, which calleth it ' bread 1 many times after 

parts of the the consecration? Are you not ashamed to make so many 

sacrament J ill 

by k the away alterations of the Lord's holy institution as you do, and to take 
papists. away t he substantial parts of the sacrament, as, ' Take ye, eat 
ye, Drink ye all of this ; Do ye this in remembrance of me ;' 
and to place in their steads, ' Hear ye, gaze ye, knock ye, wor- 
ship ye, offer ye, sacrifice ye for the quick and the dead? 1 If 
this be not blasphemy to God and his sacraments, to add and 
to pluck away in this sort, and that contrary to the mind of all 
ancient writers, and contrary to the example of Christ and all 
his apostles, tell me." 

Harpsfield: — " I know you have gathered the sayings of the 
Harpsfieid doctors together, which make for your purpose : I will talk no 

£iveth over ° ■/ i i 

for lack of longer with you." 

good matter. ° J 

Philpot : — " I pray God open both our hearts, to do more 
his will than we have done in times past." 

Harpsfield: — " Ho ! keeper, take him away with you 1 ." 

the tenth ^he tentn examination of John Philpot, before 
examination, the bishop of London, his registrar, and others. 

The next day after dinner I was brought into my lord's 
upper hall, and there he called me before him and his regis- 
trar, and before Dr Chedsey, in the presence of two homely 
gentlemen, and a priest which I knew not: at what time the 
bishop said, 

London : — " I do here lay unto this man in your presence 
(requiring you to be a witness against him, as much as you 
know in any of them) these articles, this book of the catechism 
made in king Edward's days, also these conclusions agreed 
upon both in Oxford and Cambridge. Also I lay unto him 
that he hath despised the censures of the church, and hath 

[} The two concluding sentences of Philpot and Harpsfield are not 
found in the edition of 1559.1 


stood accursed more than this twelvemonth, and never required 
absolution thereof. How say you \ wast thou not accursed by 
my lord chancellor V 

JPhilpot : — " I was excommunicated by him wrongfully. Phiipot ac- 

, . , . . J b J ' cursed by 

and without any just cause, and without order of law, being Gardiner 
never personally cited." order of law. 

London : — " Didst thou not tell me the other day, when I 
required thee to come to the mass, that thou wast excommuni- 
cated, and therefore by the law couldst not hear mass ? How 
long hast thou been thus excommunicated?" 


— " More than a twelvemonth and a half." 
— " Lo, you may hear what he saith : write it. 

: — " But as you would have written, that I have pwipot re- 
said I have been thus long excommunicated ; so also let him solution of 

. Winchester, 

write, that I did require of my lord chancellor, that did excom- and was 

- . . ... denied. 

mumcate me, my absolution, but he would not give it me, say- 
ing, that I was excommunicatus ipso jure, because I was a 
heretic, as it pleased him to call me ; therefore accursed by 
your law : and so commanded me to prison, where I remain." 

Gentleman : — " Why do you not require absolution at my 
lord^ hands here now V 

PMlpot: — " Because he is not mine ordinary, neither hath 
by the law any thing to do with me of right." 

London : — " What an obstinate fool is this ! I tell thee, I 
will be thine ordinary, whether thou wilt or no." 

PMlpot: — "And because of this your unrighteous force Phiipot 
towards me, I have appealed from you, and require you, master from Bon- 
registrar, that my appeal may be entered in writing." 

London : — " Have you heard such a froward fellow as this I 
he seemed yesterday to be very tractable, and I had a good 
hope of him. I tell thee, thou art of my diocese." 

PMlpot : — " I am of Winchester diocese, and not of London 

London : — " I pray you, may not a man be of two dioceses 
at once V 

PMlpot : — " No, that he cannot." 

London: — "Lo, will you see what an ignorant fool this is in how one 

may be 

the law, in the which he would seem to be seen I I tell thee, a of three 

. „ , . dioceses 

man may be of three dioceses at once : as if thou wert born in at once. 
London, by reason thereof thou shouldst be of my diocese ; or 


else if thou wert not born here, but hadst a dignity, also thou 
art to be counted of my diocese ; or else by reason of thy habi- 
tation in my diocese." 

Philpot: — " In none of these respects I am of your lord- 
ship's diocese ; but for all that, this will not follow, that I, 
dwelling at Winchester, am at that present of London diocese. 1 ' 

London: — "What wilt thou lay thereof? wilt thou re- 
cant, if I prove it ?" 

Philpot : — " But what shall I win, if you do not ?" 

London : — " I will give thee my bishopric, if I prove it 

Philpot: — " Yea, but who shall deliver it me, if I win?" 

London: — " Thou art an arrogant fool. Enter their oaths, 
and take these witnesses' depositions. I must be gone to the 

After this spake unto me a priest standing by, asking me 
whether I was kin to my lord Biche, or no ? 

Philpot: — I said, "He said so himself to me the other 
day; but how, I know not." 

Chedsey: — " I heard him say he was his nigh kinsman." 
uekfnsmanl Balaamite : — " Why, then you and I must be of kin, for 
he is my nigh kinsman. How chanceth it that you and I be 
of contrary judgments ?" 

Philpot: — " It is no marvel ; for Christ prophesied, 'that 
the father shall be divided against the son, and the son against 
the father, for my truth's sake.' " 

Balaamite : — " You do hold (as I understand) against the 
blessed sacrament of the altar, and against the holy mass." 

Philpot : — " If you can prove it a sacrament, I will not hold 
against you." 
Ssomeiy -Balaamite :— " What, prove it a sacrament, quoth he! 

[Tcor ed ii.9.] Doth not St Paul sa y> ' That such thin g s a s th e eye hath not 
seen, neither ear heard, hath God prepared for them that love 

Philpot : — " That saying of St Paul concerneth nothing 
your sacrament ; but is meant of the heavenly joys that be 
prepared for all faithful believers." 

Balaamite : — " Why, then I perceive you understand not 
St Paul. By God, you are deceived." 

Philpot: — " You ought not to swear, kinsman, if you will 


that I shall so call you ; and without disworship of our kindred 1 , 
I understand St Paul as well as you, and know what I say." 
[And with that shewed him a Greek Testament with Erasmus's 
translation, and with the old also, demanding him which text he 
was best acquainted withal.] 

Balaamite : — " I knew Greek too once, as well as you : I 
care not which you read." 

Philpot: — " You know them then all alike; you understand 
the one as well as the other." 

With this my Balaamite kinsman departed in a fury. 

The next day after I was brought down again, after dinner, The next 
to the chapel ; and there my Balaamite kinsman (to verify the with the 
scriptures, that a man's own kinsfolks shall be his enemies) 
came in with the bishop as a witness against me : and there 
the bishop caused another that came to him about other mat- witness 
ters^ to swear also to be a witness against me, which was aa|ainst wor " 
priest also ; saying, " You shall swear to depose all the truth 
of certain articles you shall be inquired of concerning this 
man ; and here I (according to the law) do bring them forth 
in thy presence." 

Philpot: — " My lord, I do not agree to the production of appea°eth 
them, but do appeal from all these and other your proceedings tfeWsho™. 
against me ; and require you, master registrar, that my appeal 
may be entered, and I will give you for your labour." 

Registrar: — " Your appeal shall be entered at leisure, 
Whom do you appeal unto? tell me." 

Philpot: — " I appeal to a higher judge, as to the lieutenant 
of the archbishopric of Canterbury ; for I know not who is 
bishop thereof at this present." 

With that the bishop went away, and my Balaamite kins- 
man, looking big upon me, but said never a word. 

Thus have I in haste scribbled out all mine examinations 
hitherto, that the same which hath been done unto me in dark, 
might come to light, and that the papists 1 unjust proceedings 
and nakedness in their false religion might be known to their 
confusion. Jesus is Emmanuel, that is, God with us. Amen, 

[} DiBworsJrip of our kindred ; disrespect to our relationship.] 


the eleventh TIie eleventh examination of John Philpot, 
examination, had on St Andrew's Day, before the bishop of 
Durham, the bishop of Chichester, the bishop of Bath, the 
bishop of London, the prolocutor, Master Christopherson, and 
Dr Chedsey, Master Morgan of Oxford, Master Hussey of the 
Arches, Dr Weston, Dr Harpsfield, Archdeacon, Master Cosins, 
and Master Johnson, registrar to the bishop of London, in his 

Yet another I was coming, being sent for, with my keeper ; and the 

examina,- o 7 o ' * *■ 

tion of John bishop of London met me in his hall- door, and full mannerly he 

Philpot be- r 

for ddo S t ° ps pl a y e d tne gentleman-usher to bring me before the lords, say- 
ing, " My lords, I shall desire you to take some pains with this 
man : he is a gentleman, and I would he should do well ; but 
he will wilfully cast away himself." 

Durham: — " Come hither, sir : what is your name V 

Philpot : — " My name is Philpot . ,1 

Durham : — " I have heard of that name to be a worshipful 
stock ; and since you be a gentleman, do as you may live wor- 
shipfully among other gentlemen. What is the cause of your 
trouble now V 

I told him the cause, as in my former examination is ex- 

Durham : — " Well, all causes set apart, will you now be a 
conformable man to the catholic faith, and leave all new fangled 
opinions and heresies ? I wis, I was in Germany with Luther at 
the beginning of these opinions, and can tell how they began. 
Leave them, and follow the catholic church throughout the 
whole world, as the whole realm now doth. 1 '' 

Philpot : — " My lord, I am in the catholic faith, and desire 
to live and die in the same. But it is not unknown to your 
lordship, that I with others these twenty years have been taught 
another manner of faith than you now go about to compel us 
unto : wherefore it is requisite that we have a time to weigh 
the same, and to hear how it agreeth with God's word ; for 
faith is at a sudden neither won, neither removed, but, as St 
[Rom. x. i7.] Paul saith, ' Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the 

have S faith lU Chichester : — " And if you give me leave, my lord, I will 
peiie<L° m shew him how he taketh the saying of St Paul amiss, as many 


others now a days alleging the same do, that they ought not to 
be compelled to believe : whereas St Paul meaneth of infidels, 
and not of the faithful. And so St Augustine, writing against 
the Donatists, saith, that the faithful may be compelled to 
believe 1 . " 

PMlpot : — " St Bernard (if it please your lordship 1 ) doth Faith ou s ht 

i l n t-> i t i not to he 

take that sense of St Paul as I do, saying, that faith must compelled. 
be persuaded to a man, and not enjoined 2 . And St Augus- 
tine speaketh of such as were first thoroughly persuaded by 
manifest scriptures, and yet would resist of stubborn wilful- 

Chicliester: — " So Bernard meaneth of infidels also." 

PMlpot: — "No, my lord, that he cloth not; for he writeth 
not of the infidels, but he writeth of such as were deceived by 

Chichester : — " My lord of Durham, I have been so bold to 
interrupt your lordship of your tale : I pray you now proceed 

Durham : — " Master Philpot, will you be of the same 
catholic faith and church with us [which] you were baptized 
in, and your godfathers promised for you, and hold as we do ? 
and then may you be rid out of trouble. I perceive you are 
learned, and it is a pity but you should do well." 

Philpot: — " I am of the same catholic faith and catholic pwipotof 
church I was baptized unto, and in that will I live and die." 

Durham : — " That is well said: if you hold there, you can- 
not do but well." 

Chichester: — " Yea, my lord, but he meaneth otherwise No man 

than you do. Are you of the same faith your godfathers and of the faith 
ii mi °f ms sort- 

godmothers were, Or no i fathers in 


Philpot : — " I cannot tell what faith they were of certainly, respect. 
but I am of the faith I was baptized unto, which is, the faith 
of Christ : for I was not baptized in the faith of my godfathers, 
but in the faith of Christ." 

[} Quod autem vobis videtur, invitos ad veritatem non esse cogen- 
dos, erratis nescientes scripturas neque virtutem Dei, qui eos volentes 
facit dum coguntur inviti. Augustini cont. Gaudent. Donatist. Lib. i. 
cap. xxv. Tom. ix. col. 649. Par. Bened. 1694.] 

£ 2 Approbamus zelum, sed factum non suademus; quia fides 
suadenda est, non imponenda. Bernardi Abbatis Op. Par. 1690. In 
Cantica^erm. lxvi. Tom. i. col. 1499. $ 12.] 


Chichester : — " St Augustine saith, that infants are bap, 
tized in the faith of their godfathers 1 ." 
st Angus- Philpot: — "St Augustine, in so saying, meaneth of the 

faith of Christ, which the godfathers do or ought to believe ; 
and not otherwise." 

Durham : — " How say you, will you believe as we do, and 
all the learned of the realm, or no ; and be of one church with 
us f 

Philpot :— " My lords, it is not unknown to you, that there 
have been always two churches." 

Chichester : — " Nay, that is not so : there is but one catho-* 
lie church." 
The true Philpot : — " I shall desire your lordships to hear out my 

the false tale, and to take my meaning : for I know there is but one 
joined true church ; but always from the beginning there hath been 
The true and joined to the same true church a false church, adversary to the 

fills* 1 church 

declared true ; and that was declared at the first in Abel and Cain, who 

and Cain, persecuted and slew his brother, in whom (as St Augustine 

witnesseth) is represented the false and true church 2 . And 

after that, as soon as God had chosen his peculiar people, and 

shewed unto them his sanctuary, holy statutes, and will, anon 

[} "In fide susceptorum." The reference of the Bishop of Chi- 
chester will be found to be substantially correct, upon an examination 
of several of the works of Augustine, where he treats of the baptism 
of infants. The following may suffice as samples. " Qui crediderij, 
jnquit, et baptizatus fuerit, salvus erit: qui vero non crediderit, con- 
demnabitur. Cujus mysterium credulitatis in parvulis, per eorum 
responsionem a quibus gestantur, impletur." Augustini De anima et 
ejus origine, Lib. n. Tom. x. col. 367. Par. 1696. 

Quid de parvulis pueris, si ex Adam segroti? Nam et ipsi portantui 
ad ecclesiam : et si pedibus illuc currere non possunt, alienis pedibus 
currunt, ut sanentur. Accommodat illis mater ecclesia aliorum pedes 
ut veniant, aliorum cor ut credant, aliorum linguam ut fateantur; 
ut quoniam quod segri sunt alio peccante preegravantur, sic cum 
hi sani sunt, alio pro eis confitente, salventur. August, de verbis 
Apostoli, i. Tim. vi. Serm. clxxvii. Tom. v. col. 839. §. 2. Par. Bened. 

£ 2 Hunc secutus Abel, quern major frater occidit, prsefigurationis, 
.quadam peregrinantis Civitatis Dei, quod ab impiis et quodam modo 
terrigenis, id est terrenam originem diligentibus, et terrenae Civitatis 
terrena felicitate gaudentibus, persecutiones iniquas passura fuerat, 
primus ostendit. Aug. De Civit. Dei, Lib. xv. Tom. vn. col. 396, 
Op. Bened. Par. 1685.] 


after rose the false church, and ten of the twelve tribes of Israel 
divided themselves from the true church of Judah and Ben- 
jamin, and made to themselves at Bethel and set up golden 
calves; and yet pretended therewith to serve God, and so 
abused his word. Notwithstanding God was displeased with 
them, and ceased not his wrath, until he had utterly destroyed 

Chichester : — " I will grant you, before the coming of Christ JrDay 
there were two churches in the old law ; but in the new law, a strait - 
since Christ's coming, you cannot shew it to be so by the 

Phil/pot: — " Yes, my lord, that I can, if you will give me 
leave. After Christ had chosen his twelve apostles, was there 
not a Judas in the new law, and a Simon Magus ? and were 
not they of the false church V 

Chichester : — " Yea, but I mean after the gospel was writ- 
ten : where can you find me two churches, after Christ had 
ascended, and sent the Holy Ghost V 

Philpot: — "The gospel was, within eight years after the 
ascension, written by St Matthew ; and the writing thereof is 
not material to the declaration of these two churches to have 
been always from time to time, as by example it may be 
shewed ; and yet, as evil as my memory is, I remember in the 
New Testament is mention made of two churches, as it ap- 
peareth in the Apocalvpse ; and also St Paul to the Thes- [Rev. a. 9. 

1 r j r ' 2 Thess. ii. 

salonians maketh mention that antichrist, with his false 4.] 
generation, shall sit in the temple of God." 

To the which Chichester replied not. 

Durham: — "The church in the scripture is likened to a 
great fisher's net, which containeth in it both good fishes and 
bad fishes. I trust you will be of the better sort, and lean to 
the truth." 

Philpot: — "My lord, it is my whole desire now to follow 
that which is good, whatsoever I have done in times past, and 
to cleave to God's truth." 

Durham: — "Do you so, and then shall you do well. 
It is almost night, my lord of London, I must needs be 

London: — " Nay, my lord of Durham, I must desire your The bishops 
lordship, and my lord of Chichester, to tarry a little while." weary of ^ 


And before he had so said, the bishop of Bath went his 
way without saying any word. 

"What, my lord of Bath, will you be gone? I pray you, 

Bonner tarry. My lords, I have earnest matters to charge this man 

£ckout m withal, whereof I would your lordships to be made privy, and 

could tell e 1 have them here written in a libel. I pray you, sit down 

how " again, or else I will. First, I lay to him here, that he hath 

written in a bible, which I took from him, this erroneous 

saying, 'The Holy Ghost is Christ's vicar in earth.' Wilt 

thou abide by this saying of thine; that the Spirit is 

Christ's vicar on earth?" 

Philpot : — " My lord, it is not my saying, it is a better 
learned man's than mine ; for I use not to write mine own 
sayings, but the notable sayings of other ancient writers, as all 
others be, where ye find the same written. And, as I remem- 
ber, it is even the saying of St Bernard 1 , and a saying that I 
need not to be ashamed of, neither you to be offended at ; as 
my lord of Durham and my lord of Chichester by their learn- 
ing can discern, and will not reckon it evil said." 

London: — "No will? Why, take away the first syllable, 
and it soundeth Arius." 

Philpot: — " That is far fetched indeed : if your lordship 

will scan men's sayings in such wise, you may find out what 

you list." 

Another London : — " But to help this, I find moreover written with 

picked his own hand in another book, In me Johanne Philpotto uU 

pwipot. abundamt peccatum, superabundavit et gratia ; that is, ' In me 

John Philpot, where sin did abound, grace hath superabounded. 1 

I pray you, what superabundant grace have you more than 

other men? So said Arius, that he had abundance of grace 

above all others." 

Philpot : — " My lord, you need not be offended with that 
[Rom. v. so.] saying more than the other, for it is the saying of St Paul 
himself; and I did apply it to myself for my comfort, knowing 
that though my sins be huge and great in the sight of God, yet 
is his mercy and grace above them all. And concerning Arius 
and his adherents, I defy them ; as it is well known I have 
written against them." 

\} This saying has not been found in Bernard; though that writer 
repeatedly speaks of Peter as being * Christ's vicar on earth.'] 


London:- — "Also I lay to thy charge, that thou killedst 
thy father, and was accursed of thy mother in her death-bed, 
as I can bring witness thereof." 

Phiipot : — " Lord, what blasphemy is this ! Hath your Phiipot 
lordship nothing of truth to charge me withal, but (as I may charged 
speak it with your honours) such forged blasphemous lies? If truth"wherf 
any of these can be proved, I will promise here to recant at be found 

t» n n i mi i t against him. 

raul s Cross what you will have me : l am so sure they are as 
great blasphemies as may be objected against any man. Hah, 
my lords ! I pray you consider how my lord of London hath 
hitherto proceeded against me : for indeed he hath none other 
but such pretensed slanderous lies. 11 

Chichester: — "They be Trdpepya; that is, matters beside 
the purpose. 11 

Durham : — " My lord, I must needs bid you farewell." 
London: — "Nay, my lord, here is a letter which I shall Phiipot 

J 1 •> _ charged 

desire your lordship to hear ere you go. This man (being in with abetter 

my keeping) hath taken upon him to write letters out of prison, master 

and to pervert a young gentleman, called master Green, in my 

house, (Call him hither !) and hath made a false report of his 

examination, as you shall hear; not being content to be evil 

himself, but to make others as bad as himself. He all-to tare 

the letter, when he saw my man went about to search him ; 

but yet I have pieced it again together, and caused a copy to 

be written thereof." 

And he read the torn letter, bidding master Christo- 

pherson and Morgan to mark the copy thereof. 

The contents of the letter were the examination of master The con- 
tents of 
Green before the bishop of London in the presence of master Phiipot-s 

Fecknam, dean of Paul's, and of divers others ; whose ready Green. 

answers in the scriptures and in the doctors were wondered 

at of the dean himself, and of many others, as Fecknam did 

report; and that he was committed to Dr Chedsey, and to 

have his meat from the bishop's own table. 

"How say you, my lords? was this well done of him, 

being my prisoner, to write this? And yet he hath written 

a shameful lie, that he was in Dr Chedsey's keeping. How 

say you, master doctor Chedsey? is it not a shameful lie?" 

Chedsey : — " Yes, my lord, he was never in my keeping." 

London : — " Art thou not ashamed to write such shameful Jjjf^ 



with an 

Black pow- 
der sent to 
Philpot to 
make ink. 

lies ? Come hither, master Green : Did I not shew you this 
letter ?" 

Green : — " Yea, forsooth, my lord ; you shewed it me." 

London : — " How think you, my lords, is not this an 
honest man to belie me, and to call my chaplain a great 
conjuror?" [My lord of Durham smiled thereat.] 

Philpot :— " Your lordship doth mistake all things. This 
letter (as your lordship may perceive, and all others that have 
heard the same) was not written by me, but by a friend of 
mine, certifying me at my request, how master Green sped 
at the bishop of London's hands : and there is nothing in 
the letter that either I, or he that wrote it, need to fear, 
but that might be written as my report." 

London : — " Then tell me who wrote it, if you dare." 

Philpot : — " No, my lord, it is not my duty to accuse my 
friend ; and specially, seeing you will take all things to the 
worst ; neither shall you ever know of me who wrote it. Your 
lordship may see in the end of the letter, that my friend did 
write unto me upon the occasion of my appeal, which I have 
made to the whole parliament house about such matters as I 
am wrongfully troubled for." 

London : — " I would see any so hardy to put up thine 

Philpot : — " My lord, I cannot tell what God will work : 
I have written it, speed it as it may." 

London : — " My lords, I have used him with much gentle- 
ness since he came to me. How sayest thou? have I not?" 

Philpot: — " If to lie in the vilest prison in this town (being 
a gentleman and an archdeacon), and in a coal-house, by the 
space of five or six weeks already, without fire or candle, be 
to be counted gentleness at your hands, I must needs say I 
have found gentleness. But there were never men so cruelly 
handled as we are at these days." 

London : — " Lo, what a varlet is this ! Besides this, ray 
lords, even yesterday he procured his man to bring him a blad- 
der of black powder, I cannot tell for what purpose, I — " 

Philpot : — " Your lordship needeth not to mistrust the 
matter : it is nothing but to make ink withal, for lack of 
ink, as I had it before in the King's Bench, when my keeper 
took away my inkhorn." 


London : — " And why shouldst thou go about any such 
thing unknown to me, being thy keeper ? for I am thy keeper 
in this house, I tell thee." 

PJiilpot: — "My lord, because you have caused my penner 
and inkhorn to be taken from me, I would yet fain that my 
friends might understand what I lack : not that I intend 
to write any thing that I would be afraid should come to your 

London : — " More than this, my lords, he caused a pig to ^e 


be roasted, and made a knife be put between the skin and the pKj£ 
flesh; for what purpose, judge you. How sayest thou? didst 
thou not so?" 

Philpot : — " I cannot deny but there was half a pig sent 
me, and under the same a knife lying in the sauce, but for no 
ill purpose that I know : your lordship may judge what you 
will. "it was not to kill myself nor any other, as you would have 
men to believe ; for I was never yet without a knife, since I 
came to prison : therefore all these be but false surmises, and 
not worth rehearsal." 

London : — " I have here to lay to his charge (chiefest of 
all) his book of the report of the disputation had in the 
convocation-house, which is the rankest heresy that may be, 
against the blessed sacrament of the altar. How say you, 
master doctor Weston ? did he maintain the same there stub- 
bornly, or no V 

Weston : — " Yea, my lord, that he did, and would never 
be answered. And it is pity that the same worshipful con- 
gregation should be slandered with such untrue reports." 

Philpot : — " You answered me indeed, master doctor, ^ ^.' s 
(being then prolocutor) goodly, with ' Hold thy peace, 1 and "^ocatiw? 
' Have him to prison,' and ' Put him out of the house.'' I house - 
have read the book, and I find the report of every man's 
"argument to be true in all points. And if there be any 
fault, it is, because he setteth forth your doings too favourably, 
and nothing like to that you did use me, being an archdeacon, 
and not of the worst of the house." 

Weston : — " Thou art no archdeacon." 
Philpot : — " Indeed, master doctor, ye have amongst you 
unarchdeaconed me as now (I thank God of it), and that 
without all order of law," 


London : — " I pray you, my lords, hearken what he 
writeth of himself: I read it over this morning, and made 
a note of it. He saith, that Dr Weston called him frantic 
and madman, and said he should go to Bethlehem." 

Philpot : — " Indeed, my lord, so it pleased Dr Weston to 
taunt at me, and say his shameful pleasure ; but yet I was 
no whit the more so for all his sayings, than Christ was 
when the Scribes and Pharisees said likewise he was mad, 
and that he was possessed of a devil, most blasphemously."" 
Bishop Durham: — " Mv lord of London ! I can tarry no longer, 

Tonstal •> J ° ' 

and master \ mus t needs bid you farewell. Master Philpot, mettnnketh 

Weston give J .... 

over the you have said well, that vou will abide in the catholic faith 

matter. J ' * 

and in the catholic church : I pray you so do, and you shall 
do right well. 11 

And so he departed with master Weston and master 

Philpot : — " I have purposed so to do, howsoever I speed, 
by God's grace. 11 

London: — " I pray you, my lord of Chichester, and master 
prolocutor, and master doctor Morgan, to commune with him 
whiles I bring my lord of Durham going. 11 

Christopherson : — " Master Philpot, I was acquainted with 
you at Rome, if you be remembered (but you have forgotten 
me), and talked somewhat with you of these matters ; and I 
find you now the same man that you were then: I wish it 
were otherwise. For God's sake be conformable to men that 
be better learned than you, and stand not in your own 
conceit. 11 

Philpot : — " Whereas you call me in remembrance of ac- 
quaintance had at Rome, indeed it was so ; though it were 
but very strange on your part to meward, being driven to 
necessity. 11 

Christopherson : — " You know, the world was dangerous at 

that time. 11 

i^God™ Philpot : — " Nothing so dangerous as it is now ; but let 

s"s a teth n C o?' tliat P ass " Whereas you say, you find me to be the same 

leading man * was tnen ' * P ra i se God for that you see me not like 

a reed wavering with every wind. And whereas you would 

have me follow better learned men than myself; indeed I 

acknowledge that you, with a great many others, are far 


better learned than I, whose books, in respect of learning, 
I am not worthy to carry after you. But faith and the 
wisdom of God consist not in learning only; and therefore 
St Paul willeth that our faith be not grounded upon the 
wisdom of man. If you can shew by learning out of God's 
book, that I ought to be of another faith than I am, I will 
hear you, and any other man, whatsoever he be." 

Christopherson : — " I marvel why you should dissent from 
the catholic church, since it hath thus long universally been 
received, except within these five or six years here in 

Philpot : — "I do not dissent from the true catholic 
church ; I do only dissent from the bishop of Rome, where 
if you can prove to be the catholic church of Christ, I will 
be of the same also with you." 

Christopherson : — " Will you believe St Cyprian, if I can 
shew out of him, 'that the church of Rome is such a one, [icor. ii.5.] 
unto the which misbelief cannot approach\" 

Philpot: — "I am sure, you cannot shew any such saying 
out of St Cyprian." 

Christopherson : — " What will you lay thereon ?" 

Philpot : — " I will lay as much as I am able to make." 

Morgan : — " Will you promise to recant, if I shew his 
saying to be true V 

Philpot: — "My faith shall not hang upon any doctor's 
saying, further than he shall be able to prove the same by 
God's word." 

Christopherson : — " I will go fetch the book, and shew it 
him by and by." 

And therewithal he went into the bishop's study, and 
fetched Cyprian, and appointed out these words in one of 
his epistles : " But unto the Eomans, whose faith by the 
testimony of the apostle is praised, misbelief can have no 
access 1 ." 

Philpot: — " These words of Cyprian do nothing prove your 
pretensed assertion, which is, that to the church of Rome there 
could come no misbelief." 

L 1 "Nee cogitare eos esse Romanos, quorum fides, apostolo prsedi- 
cante, laudata est, ad quos perfidia habere non possit accessum." Cypr. 
Epist. lv. p. 86. Par. 1726.] 




also away, 

Christopherson:— "Good Lord! no doth? What can be 
said more plainly V 

Philpot:— u He speaketh not of the church of Eome abso- 

Christopherson :— " By God, a child that can but his gram- 
mar, will not deny that you do, the words be so plain." 

Philpot:— "Swear not, master doctor, but weigh Cy-. 
prian's words with me, and I shall make you to say as I have 

Christopherson: — " I am no doctor; but I perceive it is but 
labour lost to reason with you." 

And with that the bishop of London came in blowing again, 
and said, " What ! is my lord of Chichester gone away also?" 
[for he even a little before departed also, without saying any 
other word, but he must needs be gone.] " What is the matter 
you now stand upon V 

Morgan : — " Master Christopherson hath shewed master 
Philpot a notable place of the authority of the church of Eome, 
and he maketh nothing of it." 

Bonner : — " Where is the place ? Let me see. By my 
faith, here is a place alone. Come hither, sir, what say you to 
this ? Nay, tarry a while; I will help this place with St Paul's 
[Rom. i. 8. own testimony, the first to the Komans, where he saith, that 
their faith is preached throughout the world. How can you be 
able to answer this V 
cyprian 0f Philpot: — " Yes, my lord, it is soon answered, if you will 

expounded. cons i(j er a il the words of Cyprian : for he speaketh of such as 
in his time were faithful at Rome, and followed the doctrine of 
St Paul, as he had taught them, and as it was notified through- 
out the world by an epistle which he had written in the com- 
mendation of their faith. ' With such as are praised of St 
Paul at Rome, for following the true faith, misbelief can have 
no place 1 . 1 And if you can shew that the faith which the 
church of Rome holdeth now, is that faith which the apeetle 
praised and allowed in the Romans in his time, then will I say 
that St Cyprian then said, and with you, ' that infidelity can 
have no place there r 1 but otherwise it maketh not absolutely 
for the authority of the church of Rome, as you do mistake 

t 1 Vide supr. p. 119. not. 1.] 


Ohfistopherson .--—"You understand Cyprian well indeed ! I 
think you never read him in your life." 

Philpot : — >" Yes, master dOetof , that I have : I can shew Papists 
you a book noted With mine own hand: though I have not read andmisre- 

. ° porters of 

so much as you, yet I have read somewhat. It is a shame for the doctors. 
you to Wrest and writhe the doctors as you do, to maintain a 
false religion; which be altogether against you, if you take then* 
fright. And indeed your false packing of doctors together 
hath given me and others occasion to look upon them, Whereby 
we find you shameful Hats and misreporters of the ancient 

Morgan : — " What ! will you be in hand to allow doctors 
now? They of your sect do not so : I marvel therefore you will 
allow them," 

Philpot : — ■" I do allow them inasmuch as they do agree' 
wifn the Scriptures, and so do all they which be of the truth, 
howsoever you term us : aild 1 praise God for that good tinder- 
standing I have received by them." 

Ohfistopherson: — "What ! you understand hot the doctors: 
you may be ashamed to say it." 

Philpot : — " I thank God, I understand them better" than 
you : for you have the blindness of heart ; so that you under- 
stand not truly what you read, nO more than the wall here, as 
the taking of Cyprian doth well declare. And afore God you 
are but deceivers of the people, for all your brag you make of °°£° rs 
learning ; neither have ye scripture or ancient doctor on your p^"^ 6 
side, being truly taken." J^f' 

Morgan: — "Why, all the doctors be on our side, and against ta,cen - 
you altogether." 

Philpot: — " Yea, so yoti say When you be in your pulpits 
alone, and none to answer you. But if you will come io cast 
accounts with me thereof, I will venture with you a recantation, 
that I (as little sight as I have in the doctors) Will bring more 
authorities of ancient doctors on my side, than you shall be 
able for" yours; and he that can bring most, to him let the 
oth$r side yield. Are ye so content herewith?" 

Qfaristophersm : — " It is but folly to reason With you: yOtt 
will believe no man but yourself." 

Philpot:—" I will believe you, or any other learned 1MH, 
if you can bring any thing Worthy to be believed. You cannot 



win me with vain words from my faith : before God, there is 
no truth in you," 

Morgan : — " What ! no truth ? no truth ? ha, ha, ha !" 

Philpot: — " Except the articles of the Trinity, you are 
corrupt in all other things, and sound in nothing." 

Morgan : — " What say you ? do we not believe well on the 
sacrament ?" 

Philpot : — " It is the thing which, among all others, you do 
most abuse." 

Morgan : — " Wherein, I pray you ? tell us." 

Philpot: — " I have told you before, master doctor, in the 
here S be«-in- Morgan: — " Yes, marry : indeed you told us there very 
tiie h er°Mi! ay we ^ ' f° r tnere vou f e ^ down upon your knees, and fell to 
weeping ; ha, ha, ha !" 

Philpot: — "I did weep indeed, and so did Christ upon 
Jerusalem, and am not to be blamed therefor, if you consider 
the cause of my weeping." 

Morgan: — " What ! make you yourself Christ? ha, ha, ha !" 

Philpot: — " No, sir, I make not myself Christ : but I am 
not ashamed to do as my Master and Saviour did, to bewail 
and lament your infidelity and idolatry, which I there foresaw 
through tyranny you would bring again to this realm, as this 
day doth declare." 

Morgan : — " That is your argument." 

Christopherson : — " Wherein do we abuse the sacrament? 
tell us." 
mentatased Philpot:—"- As I may touch but one of the least abuses, 
plp'sts, y° u minister it not in both kinds, as ought you to do, but 
where".?. kee P the one half frora the people, contrary to Christ's in- 

Christopherson : — " Why, is not there as much contained in 
one kind as in both ? And what need is it then to minister 
in both kinds ?" 
^'oneMnd Philpot :—" I believe not so; for if it had, Christ would 
have given but one kind only, for he instituted nothing super- 
fluous ; and therefore you cannot say that the whole effect of 
the sacrament is as well in one kind as in both, since the 
scripture teacheth otherwise." 

Christopherson : — " What if I can prove it by scripture, 


that we may minister it in one kind ? The apostles did so, as 

it may appear in the Acts of the Apostles in one or two places, [Acts ii. 42.] 

where it is written that the apostles continued * in prayers and 

in breaking of bread,' which is meant of the sacrament." 

PMlpot: — "Why, master doctor, do you not know that 
St Luke, by making mention of breaking of bread, meaneth 
the whole use of the sacrament, according to Christ's institu- 
tion, by a figure which you have learned in grammar, ' synec- 
doche,' where part is mentioned, and the whole understood to 
be done, as Christ commanded it V 

Christopherson : — " Nay, that is not so. For I can shew 
you out of Eusebius in Eccl. Hist., that there was a man of 
God (whom he named) that sent the sacrament in one kind 
by a boy to one that was sick 1 ." 

PMlpot : — " I have read indeed, that they did use to give 
that was left of the communion-bread to children, to mariners, 
and to women ; and so peradventure the boy might carry a 
piece of that was left to the sick man." 

Christopherson : — " Nay, as a sacrament it was purposely 
sent unto him." 

PMlpot: — " If it were so, yet can you not precisely say 
that he had not the cup ministered unto him also, by some 
other sent unto him. But what, though one man did use it 
thus ? doth it follow that all men may do the like 2 St Cyprian 
noteth many abuses of the sacrament in his time, which rose 
upon singular men's examples, as using of water instead of 
wine : therefore he saith, ' We must not look what any man 
hath done before us, but what Christ first of all men did and 
commanded 2 .'' " 

Christopherson : — " Hath not the church taught us so to 
use the sacrament ? and how do we know that Christ is homou- 
sios, that is, of one substance with the Father, but by the de- 

L Ei/to\^9 Se vw eikdv 6ehojxevri<:, touV cnraWaTTOfievow; tou 
plov, el Zeoivro, icai fidXiara el kou nrpdrepov inerev<ravTe<; TV)(oiev, 
aipleirdat, "v ■ ■ ii>e\iri$es diraWaTTwvrat, (Spayy tw iraitapiia Ttji 
ev X a P la " r ' iai eireSuKev diro(ipe£ai Ke\eii<ras, kcu riS irpeapvTti huto. 
tou o-Tojua-ro? eVio-Tafai. Euseb. Eccl. Hist. Lib. vi. cap. xliv. Par. 
1678. p. 200.] 

[* "Quare si solus Christus audiendus est, non debemus attendere 
quid alius ante nos faciendum esse putaverit, sed quid qui ante pmnes 
est Christus prior fecerit." Cypr. Epist. lxtii. p. 108. Par. 1726.} 


termination of the church ? How can you prove that otherwise 
by express words of scripture ? and where find you horftousios ir 
all the scripture V 

[Heb.i.s.] PMlpot:—" Yes, that I do in the first of the Hebrews, 
where it is written that Christ is the express image of God's 
own substance, ejusdem substantial?'' 

Christoplierson .•— " Nay, that is not so : that is, there is 
no more but expressa imago substantia, the express image oj 
God's substance ; and image is accident." 

PMlpot : — " It is in the text, ' of his substance, 1 substantia, 
illius, or of his own substance, as it may be right well inter- 
preted. Besides this, that which Christ spake of himself in 

[John x. 30.] gj. j i in nianifesteth the same, saying, ' I and the Father be 
one thing, 1 Ego ct Pater unum sumus. And whereas you say, 
imago here is accidence, the ancient fathers use this for a 
strong argument to prove Christ to be God, because he is the 
very image of God." 

Christoplierson : — " Yea do 1 is this a good argument, be* 
cause we are the image of God, ergo, we are God V 

JfGod?f e PMlpot: — " We are not called the express image of God, 

Christ and as it is written of Christ; and we are but the image of God 

[Gm.'i. 26. by participation; and, as it is written in Genesis, we are made 

"" 6] to the likeness and similitude of God. But you ought to know, 
master Christoplierson, that there is no accident in God ; and 
therefore Christ cannot be the image of God, but he must be 
of the same substance with God." 
Christoplierson : — " Tush !" 

Presence of Morgan : — " How say you to the presence of the sacrament! 

ment. W ill you stand to the judgment here of your book, or no ? or 
will you recant f 

PMlpot: — "I know you go about to catch me in words, 
If you can prove that book to be of my setting forth, lay it to 

mentofTiie m y charge when I come to judgment." 

™edi?no is Morgan :— " Speak, be you of the same mind as this book 

sacrament. j s f ? or no ? g ure J ftm y QU weve Qnc ^ un ] egg y QU are become 

another manner of man than you were." 

PMlpot : — " What I was, you know : what I am, I will 
not tell you now. But this I will say to you, by the way, that 
if you can prove the sacrament of the mass, as you now use 
it, to be a sacrament, I will then grant you a presence ; but 


first you must pr6ve the same a sacrament, and afterward 
entreat of the presence." 

Morgan : — " Ho ! do you doubt that it is a sacrament ?" 

Philpot: — "I am past doubting, for I believe you can 
never be able to prove it a sacrament." 

Christopherson: — "Yea do? Good Lord! doth not St 
Augustine call it the sacrament of the altar? How say you 
to that?" 

Philpot : — " That maketh nothing for the probation of your 
sacrament. For so he, with other ancient writers, do call the 
holy Communion or Supper of the Lord, in respect that it is 
the sacrament of the sacrifice which Christ offered upon the 
altar of the cross, the which sacrifice all the altars and sacri- Altar, what 
fices done upon the altars in the old law did prefigure and 
shadow ; the which pertaineth nothing to your sacrament 
hanging upon your altars of lime and stone." 

Christopherson : — " No doth ? I pray you what signifieth 

Philpot: — "Not as you falsely take it, materially, but for 
the sacrifice of the altar of the cross." 

Christopherson : — " Where find you it ever so taken V 

PMlpot : — " Yes, that I do in St Paul to the Hebrews, 
where he saith, ' We have an altar, of the which it is not [Heb. xiii. 
lawful for them to eat that serve the tabernacle. 1 Is not 'altar' 
in this place taken for the sacrifice of the altar, and not for 
the altar of lime and stone ?" 

Christopherson .%— " Well ! God bless me out of your com- ciiristo- 

r # * pherson, for 

pany ! you are such an obstinate heretic, as I have not heard |ajk of bet- 
the like." iKShtp 


Philpot : — " I pray God keep me from such blind doctors, 
which when they are not able to prove what they say, then they 
fall to blaspheming (as you now do) for lack of better proof." 

In the mean while the bishop of London was talking with 
some other by, and at length came in to supply his part, and 

London: — "I pray you, masters, hearken what I shall 
say to this man. Come hither, master Green. And now, sir, 
[pointing to me], you cannot think it sufficient to be naught 
yourself, but must go about to procure this young gentleman 
by your letters to do the like." 


wrangling PMlpot:— "My lord, he cannot say that I ever hitherto 


acainst wrote unto him concerning any such matter, as he here can 

Green : — " No, you never wrote unto me." 

Bonner :— " Why, is not this your letter which you did 
write concerning him V 

PMlpot :— " I have shewed your lordship my mind con- 
cerning that letter already: it was not written to master 
Green, neither was he privy to the writing thereof. - ''' 

London: — "How say you then? if a man be in an error, 
and you know thereof, what are you bound to do in such 

a case 


PMlpot : — " I am bound to do the best I can to bring him 
out of it." 

London : — " If master Green here be in the like, are you 
not bound to reform him thereof, if you can V 

PMlpot: — " Yes, that I am, and will do the uttermost of 
my power therein." 

The bishop, remembering himself, thinking that he would 
lout shrewdly after his expectation be holpen at my mouth, but 
rather confirmed in that which he called an error, ceased to 
go any further in his demand, and called master Green aside, 
and before his registrar read him a letter: I know not the 
contents thereof. And therewithal he gave master Green the 
book of my disputation in the convocation-house ; and after- 
ward went aside, communing with master Christopherson, leav- 
ing master Morgan, master Harpsfield, and master Cosins, 
to reason with me in the hearing of master Green. 

Morgan : — " Master Philpot, I would ask you how old 
your religion is 2" 

PMlpot : — " It is older than yours by a thousand years 
and more." 

Morgan : — " I pray you, where was it fifty years ago ?" 

PMlpot : — " It was in Germany apparent, by the testimony 
of Huss, Jerome of Prague, and Wickliff, whom your gene- 
ration a hundred years ago and more did burn for preaching 
the truth unto you ; and before their time and since hath 
been, although under persecution it hath been put to silence." 

Morgan : — " That is a marvellous strange religion, which 
no man can tell certainly where to find it." 


Philpot : — " It ought to be no marvel unto you to see 
God's truth tlirough violence oppressed ; for so it hath been 
from the beginning from time to time, as it appeareth by 
stories, and as Christ , s true religion is now to be found here 
in England, although hypocrisy hath by violence the upper 
hand. And in the Apocalypse you may see it was prophesied, 
that the true church should be driven into corners, and into 
the wilderness, and suffer great persecutions." [Rev.™.] 

Morgan: — "Ah! are you seen in the Apocalypse? there 
are many strange things." 

Philpot: — "If I tell you the truth, which you are not |^jjjf 
able to refel, believe it, and dally not out so earnest matters. 
Methinketh you are liker a scoffer in a play, than a reasonable 
doctor to instruct a man: you are unclad, and dance naked 
in a net, and you see not your own nakedness." 

Morgan : — ■" What ! I pray you, be not so quick with me ; 
let us talk a little more coldly together." 

Philpot : — " I will talk with you as mildly as you can 
desire, if you will speak learnedly and charitably. But if you 
go about with taunts to delude the truth, I will not hide it 
from you." 

Morgan : — " Why will not you submit your judgment to 
the learned men of this realm ?" 

Philpot : — " Because I see they can bring no good ground 
whereupon I may, with a good conscience, settle my faith 
more surely than on that which I am now grounded upon by 
God's manifest word." 

Morgan :— " No do ? that is marvel, that so many learned 
men should be deceived." 

Philpot :— " It is no marvel by St Paul, for he saith, 'that [icor.i.26.] 
not many wise, neither many learned after the world, be called 
to the knowledge of the gospel. 1 " 

Morgan : — " Have you then alone the Spirit of God, and 
not we?" 

Philpot: — "I say not that I alone have the Spirit of 
God ; but as many as abide in the true faith of Christ have 
the Spirit of God, as well as I." 

Morgan: — "How know you that you have the Spirit of 

Philpot : — " By the faith of Christ which is in me." 



falleth to 
scoffing and 
railing at 
the good 
martyrs of 

[Matt. xii. 

with great 
zeal, de- 
hell-fire to 
Morgan un- 
less lie re- 

[Acts ii. 13.] 

Morgan .— Ah ! by faith, do you so i I ween it to be the 
spirit of the buttery, which your fellows have had that have 
been burned before you, who were drunk the night before they 
went to their death, and I ween went drunken unto it." 

Philpot : — " It appeareth by your communication, that you 
are better acquainted with the spirit of the buttery than with 
the Spirit of God; wherefore I must now tell thee, thou 
painted wall and hypocrite, in the name of the living Lord, 
whose truth I have told thee, that God shall rain fire and 
brimstone upon such scorners of his word and blasphemers of 
his people, as thou art." 

Morgan : — " What ! you rage now." 

Philpot: — "Thy foolish blasphemies have compelled the 
Spirit of God, which is in me, to speak that which I have 
said to thee, thou enemy of all righteousness !" 

Morgan: — "Why do ye judge me so?" 

Philpot : — " By thine own wicked words I judge of thee, 
thou blind and blasphemous doctor ! for as it is written, ' By 
thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt 
be condemned.' I have spoken on God's behalf, and now I 
have done with thee." 

Morgan: — "Why, then I tell thee, Philpot, thou art a 
heretic, and shalt be burned for thine heresy, and afterwards 
go to hell-fire." 

Philpot : — "I tell thee, thou hypocrite ! that I pass not 
this for thy fire and fagots, neither, I thank God my Lord, 
stand in fear of the same : my faith in Christ shall overcome 
them. But the hell-fire which thou threatenest me is thy 
portion, and is prepared for thee (unless thou speedily repent), 
and for such hypocrites as thou art." 

Morgan : — " What ! thou speakest upon wine : thou hast 
tippled well to-day, by likelihood." 

Philpot : — " So said the cursed generation, of the apostles 
being replenished with the Holy Ghost, and speaking the 
wondrous works of God. They said they were drunk, when 
they had nothing else to say, as thou dost now." 

Morgan : — " Why, I am able to answer thee, I trow." 

Philpot : — " So it seemeth, with blasphemies and lies." 

Morgan: — "Nay, even with learning, say what thou canst." 

Philpot: — "That appeared well at my disputation in the 


convocation-house, where thou tookest upon thee to tower Morgan 
those few arguments I was permitted to make, and yet wast and stam- 
not able to answer one ; but in thine answers didst fumble and theralv'oca- 
stammer, that the whole house was ashamed of thee : and the 
final conclusions of all thine answer was, that thou couldest 
answer me, if I were in the schools at Oxford !" 

Morgan: — "What! did I so? thou behest me." 

Philpot: — "I do not belie thee: the book of the report 
of the disputation beareth record thereto, and all that were 
present then can tell, if they list, thou saidst so. And I tell 
thee plain, thou art not able to answer that Spirit of truth 
which speaketh in me for the defence of Christ's true religion. 
I am able by the might thereof to drive thee round about this 
gallery before me : and if it would please the queen's majesty 
and her council to hear thee and me, I would make thee for 
shame shrink behind the door." 11 

Morgan : — " Yea, would you so V 

Philpot : — " Thou hast the spirit of illusion and sophistry, Morgan 

.... ,, n i d • • « 11 taken up for 

which is not able to countervail the spirit ot truth : thou halting. 
art but an ass in the true understanding of things appertaining 
unto God. I call thee ass, not in respect of malice, but in 
that thou kiekest against the truth, and art void of all godly 
understanding, not able to answer to that thou braggest in." 

Morgan:— ■" Why, have I not answered thee in all things 
thou hast said unto me ? I take them to record." 

Philpot : — " Ask of my fellow whether I be a thief !" 

Cosins : — " Hark ! he maketh us all thieves." 

Philpot: — " You know that phrase of the proverb, that 
.like will hold with like. And I am sure you will not judge 
with me against him, speak I never so true; and in this 
sense I speak it. The strongest answer that he hath made 
against me is, that you will burn me." 

Morgan: — "Why, we do not burn you: it is the tem- 
poral men that burn you, and not we." 

Philpot: — •" Thus you would, as Pilate did, wash your 
hands of all your wicked doings. But I pray you, call upon 
the secular power to be executioners of your unrighteous 
judgments. And have you not a title in your law, 'to burn 
heretics T" 

Hwpsfield :-™" I have heard you both a good while reason 


together, and I never heard so stout a heretic as you are, 
master Philpot." 

Cosins : — " Neither I, in all my life." 

Philpot :— " You are not able to prove me a heretic by 
one jot of God's word.'''' 
a H ndctein d s Harpsfield :—" Y on have the spirit of arrogancy: 1 will 
depart. reason with you no more. 11 

And so he was departing, and master Cosins also : and with 
that the bishop and Christopherson came in again, and said : 

Bonner:—" Master doctor, how do this man and you 

agree ?" 

Morgan : — " My lord, I do ask him where his church was 

fifty years ago?" 

Bonner: — "Are you not half agreed? as one man said 
once to two parties, of whom the one was equally disagreeing 
from the other. 11 

Christopherson : — " My lord, it is but folly to reason with 
him any further: your lordship shall but lose time, for he is 

Bonner: — "Well, then, let his keeper have him away. 11 

And with that Dr Chedsey led me a way by which we could 
not pass, and therefore came back again through the bishop's 
chamber, where all these doctors were clustered together; 
and, as I was passing by, the bishop took me by the gown 
and said, " Wot you what master Christopherson telleth me \ 
I pray you, master Christopherson, rehearse the sentence in 
Latin." And so he did : the contents whereof were, that a 
heretic would not be won. 
[Tit. Hi. 10.] Christopherson: — "St Paul saith, 'Flee a heretic after 

once or twice warning. 111 
truufcaSed ^ ^ ie doctors:—" Yea, my lord, it is best you so do, 
heresy. an( j trouble your lordship no more with him." 

Philpot: — " You must first prove me justly to be a heretic, 
before you use the judgment of St Paul against me; for he 
speaketh of such as hold opinion against the manifest word, 
the which you cannot prove by me: and because you want in 
your proof, and be able to prove nothing against me, there- 
fore you go about falsely to suppose me to be a heretic, for 
the safeguard of your own counterfeit honesties. But afore 


God you are the heretics, which so stoutly and stubbornly 
maintain so many things directly against God's word, as God 
in his time shall reveal.'" 

As I went out of his chamber the bishop called me aside, 
and said, 

Bonner: — "I pray thee in good sadness, what meanest ™e Holy 
thou by writing in the beginning of thy bible, ' The Spirit is Christ's 
the vicar of Christ on the earth V I wis, you have some special ^ h > a " a 
meaning thereof." 

Philpot: — " My lord, I have none other meaning than as 
I have told you already, that Christ, since his ascension, 
worketh all things in us by his Spirit, and by his Spirit doth 
dwell in us. I pray you, my lord, let me have my bible, 
with other lawful books and writings which you have of mine, 
whereof many of them be none of mine, but lent to me by 
my friends." 

Bonner: — " Your bible you shall not have, but I will per- 
haps let you have another ; and after I have perused the rest, 
you shall have such as I think good." 

Philpot : — " I pray your lordship, then, that you would Jo h " P'" 1 - 
let me have candle-light." ^ h ? v L c,in " 

° die-light 

Bonner : — " To what purpose, I pray you ?" 

Philpot: — "The nights be long, and I would fain occupy 
myself about somewhat, and not spend my time idly." 

Bonner: — "You may then pray." 

Philpot: — "I cannot well say my prayers without light." 

Bonner : — " Can you not say your Pater-noster without a 
candle ? I tell you, sir, you shall have some meat and drink 
of me, but candles you get none." 

Philpot : — " I had rather have a candle than your meat 
and drink : but, seeing I shall not have my request, the Lord 
shall be my light." 

Bonner : — " Have him down." 

Ghedsey : — " I will bring him to his keeper, my lord. 
Master Philpot, I wonder all these learned men, whom you 
have talked withal this day, can nothing at all persuade you." 

Philpot: — "Why, master doctor, would you have me to 
be persuaded with nothing? or would you have me build my 
faith upon sand? What do you all bring, whereby I ought 
by any sufficient authority to be persuaded to you?" 



Chedsey : — " I am sorry you will so wilfully cast away 
yourself, whereas you might live worshipfully : do you not 
think others have souls to save as well as you have?" 

Philpot: — " Every man shall receive according to his own 
doings. Sure I am, you are deceived, and maintain a falsa 
religion ; and as for my casting away, I would my burning 
day were to-morrow ; for this delay is every day to die, and 
yet not to be dead." 

Chedsey : — " You are not like to die yet, I can tell yoti." 

Philpot: — " I am the more sorry thereof. But the will 
of God be done of me to his glory. Amen." 

sent tor to 
mass, re- 
fuseth to 

The bishop 
layeth out 
his articles 

the twelfth ^ ie twelfth examination of John Philpot, on 
examination. Wednesday, the 4th of December, before the 
bishop of London, the bishop of Worcester, and the bishop 
of Bangor. 

In the morning I was fetched down to the wardrobe 
adjoining to the chapel, and within a while after came three 
of the bishop's chaplains unto me, saying, " Master Philpot, 
my lord hath sent us unto you, to desire you to come to mass, 
certifying you that there is a doctor of divinity, a chaplain" 
of my lord's, a notable learned man, called Dr Chedsey, going 
to mass. Therefore we also pray you, good master Philpot, 
be content to come : it is hard hereby." 

Philpot : — "I wonder my lord would trouble you in send- 1 
ing you about this matter, seeing he knoweth that I am a 
man, by your law, that cannot hear mass, because I stand 
excommunicated ." 

Bishop 'a Chaplain : — " Your excommunication is but flpofl 
a contumacy ; and my lord will dispense with you, if you will 

Philpot .' — " My lord cannot, for he is not mine ordinary; 
and I will not seek any such thing at his hands." 

With this answer they went their way; and after mass 
the bishop called me before him into his chapel, and theity 
in the presence of his registrar (after he had said his mind* 
because I would not come to mass), recited the articles, which 


he oftentimes before had done in that behalf, with the de- 
positions of the witnesses, of whom some were not examined. 
" Sir," said Bonner, " what can you now say, why I should 
not proceed to give sentence against thee as a heretic V 

Philpot : — " Why, my lord, will you proceed to give sen- The m- 
tence against me before your witnesses be examined I That ings against 
is plain against your own law, as all your doings have been 

Bonner : — " See what a fool thou art in the law. I need 
not to recite the depositions of the witnesses, but if I list ; 
for I know them well enough already." 

Philpot : — " It appeareth indeed you may do what you list." 

Bonner : — " Tell me, I say, whether thou wilt answer, or 
no ; and whether, if thou wert absolved of thy excommuni- 
cation, thou wouldst come to mass, or no?" 

Thilpot : — " I have answered as much as I intended to 
do, until I be called to lawful judgment : and as concerning 
my conscience, I will not make you God, to sit there as 
yet : it is God's part only to be searcher of my heart." 

Bonner : — " Look how foolishly he speaks. Art thou God ? 
and yet dost thou not sit in thine own conscience V 

Philpot : — " I sit not in mine own conscience ; but I know 
it, and God there only ought to sit, and no man else." 

Bonner: — "Thou art a naughty fellow, and hast done Philpot is 

. . rebuked for 

much hurt, and hast seduced other poor fellows here in prison singing. 
with thee by thy way of comforting them in their errors, and 
hast made them rejoice and sing with thee." 

Philpot: — " Yea, my lord, we shall sing, when you and 
such others as you are shall cry, Vce, vce, ' Wo, wo,' except 
you repent." 

Bonner : — " What an arrogant fool is this ! I will handle 
thee like a heretic, and that shortly." 

Philpot:— "I fear nothing, I thank God, yon can do 
to me. But God shall destroy such as thou art, and that 
S&Ortly, as I trust." 

Bonner : — " Have him away : this is a knave indeed." 

And I was had into the wardrobe again by my keeper,' 
and, Within an hour after, was sent for to come before him 
and the bishops of Worcester and Bangor. 


Bonner: — "Sir, I have talked with you many times, and 
have caused you to be talked with of many learned men, yea, 
and honourable, both temporal and spiritual, and it availeth 
nothing with you. I am blamed that I have brought thee 
afore so many; for they say thou gloriest to have many to 
talk withal. Well, now it lieth upon thee to look to thyself; 
for thy time draweth near to an end, if thou do not become 
conformable. And at this present we are sent from the synod 
to offer you this grace, that if you will come to the unity 
of the church of Rome with us, and acknowledge the real 
presence of Christ in the sacrament of the altar with us, all 
that is past shall be forgiven, and you received to favour. 1 ' 
Talk be- Worcester : — "Master Philpot, we are sent (as vou here 

tween Phil- * ' v •> 

bisVJTsof 6 ^ ave h ear d by my lord of London) from the synod, to offer 

a^Ban^or you mercy, if you will receive it ; and of good-will I bear 

you, I wish you to take it, whilst it is offered; and be not 

a singular man against a whole multitude of learned men, 

which now in fasting and prayer are gathered together to 

devise things to do you good. There have many learned 

men talked with you. Why should you think yourself better 

learned than them all ? Be not of such arrogancy, but have 

humility : remember, there is no salvation but in the church. 1 ' 

Bangor : — " Methinketh my lord hath said wonderfully 

well unto you, that you should not think yourself so well 

learned, but other men are as well learned as you ; neither 

of so good wit, but others be as wise as you; neither of so 

good memory, but others have as good memories as you. 

Therefore mistrust your own judgment, and come home to 

us again. I wis, I never liked your religion, because it was 

set forth by violence and tyranny, and that is no token of 

true religion. And I was the same manner of man then 

that I am now, and a great many more. Marry, for fear 

we held our peace, and bare with that time. Wherefore, 

master Philpot, I would you did well, for I love you: and 

therefore be content to come home with us again into the 

catholic church of Rome." 

tiip pope's PMljiot : — " Whereas, my lord (as I may begin first to 

hath no answer you), you say, that religion is to be misliked which 

ground to jg set forth by tyranny, I pray God you give not men oc- 

i>utvio- casion to think the same by yours at this day, which hath 


none other argument to stand by but violence. If you can 
shew me any good sufficient ground, whereby to ground my 
conscience, that the church of Eome is the true catholic 
church, whereunto you call me, I will gladly be of the same : 
otherwise I cannot so soon change the religion I have learned 
these many years." 

Bangor: — " Where was your religion to be found (I pray where this 

\ i ^ religion was 

you) a hundred years ago, that any man knew of it?" one hundred 

Philpot: — " It was in Germany, and in divers other places 

Worcester: — " Jesus ! will you be still so singular a man ? 
What is Germany to the whole world?" 

Bonner : — " My lords, I pray you, give me leave to tell you, Bonner 
that I sent for him to hear mass this morning. And wot you Latimer. 
what excuse he made unto me ? forsooth, that he was accursed, 
alleging his own shame. He playeth as that varlet Latimer did 
at Cambridge : when the vice-chancellor sent for him (who in- 
tended to have excommunicated him for some of his heresies), 
and the chancellor was coming to his chamber, he, hearing 
that the chancellor was coming, made answer that he was sick 
of the plague, and so deluded the chancellor. Even so this 
man saith he is accursed, because he will not come to mass." 

Worcester: — " My lord, I am sure, here doth behave him- 
self like a father unto you : therefore be admonished by him, 
and by us that come now friendly unto you, and follow your 
fathers before you." 

Philpot : — " It is forbidden us of God by the prophet Eze- rrczek. xx. 
kiel to follow our fathers, or to walk in their commandments." 

Worcester: — "It is written also in another place, 'Ask of [Job via. 8.] 
your fathers'." 

. Philpot :— " We ought to ask indeed our fathers, that have jwiwrs 
more experience and knowledge than we of God's will ; but no J^ed, but^ 
more to allow them, than we perceive they agree with the f t ^H ey 
scripture." £«. 

Worcester : — " You will be a contentious man, I see well; ^ or - *'• 
and St Paul saith, that neither we nor the church of God have 
any such custom." 

Philpot:—" I am not contentious but for the verity of my 
faith, in the which I ought to contend with all such as do 
impugn the same without any just objection." 


fnTtTf tiAfn I 


Worcester: — "Let us rise, my lord, for I see we shall do 
no good." 

Bonner: — " Nay, I pray you, tarry and hear the articles I 
lay to his charge." 

And after he had recited them, they arose, and after 
standing they reasoned with me awhile. 

Worcester : — " Master Philpot, I am very sorry that you 
will be so singular. I never talked with any yet in my diocese,, 
but after once communication had with me they have been con- 
tented to revoke their errors, and to teach the people how they 
were deceived, and so do much good — as you may, if you list. 
For, as I understand, you were archdeacon of Winchester 
(which is the eye of the bishop) ; and you may do much good 
in that country, if you would forsake your errors, and come to 
the catholic church." 

Philpot: — " Wherewithal you so soon persuaded them to 
your will, I see not. Error, that I know, I hold none : of the 
catholic church I am sure I am." 

Worcester : — "The catholic church doth acknowledge a 
real presence of Christ in the sacrament, and so will not you. 1 ' 

Philpot: — "That is not so: for I acknowledge a very 
essential presence in the sacrament duly used." 

Worcester: — " What ! a real presence?" 

Philpot : — " Yea, a real presence by the Spirit of God in 
the right administration." 

Worcester:— " That is well said: and do you agree with 
the catholic church also ?" 

Philpot :— " I do agree with the true catholic church." 

Worcester:— " My lord of London, this man speaketh 
reasonably now." 

Bonner:— " You do agree in generalities; but when it 
shall come to the particularities, you will far disagree." 

Worcester:— " Well, keep yourself here, and you shall 
have other learned bishops to commune further with you, as 
my lord of Durham, and my lord of Chichester, whom, I hear 
say, you do like well." 

Philpot:—" I do like them as I do all others that speak 
the truth. I have once already spoken with them, and they 
found no fault with me." 

Worcester :— " Pray, in the mean season, for grace to God." 


Philpot: — " Prayer is the comfortablest exercise I feel in 
my trouble, and my conscience is quiet, and I have the peace 
of mind, which cannot be the fruits of heresy." 

Worcester: — " We will bid you farewell for this time. 1 " 

Another Talk the same day. 

After dinner they called for me again, and demanded of me After dinner 
whether I meant as I spake before dinner, and would not go ed again. 
from it. To whom I answered, that I would not go from that 
I had said. 

Worcester: — " You said, at my departing from you before 
dinner, that if we did burn you, we should burn a catholic 
man. Will you be a catholic man, and stand to the catholic 
church r 

Philpot: — "I will stand to the true catholic church."" 

Worcester: — "Will you stand to the catholic church of 

Philpot: — " If you can prove the same to be the catholic 
church, I will be one thereof." 

Worcester: — "Did not Christ say unto Peter, and to all 
his successors of Eome, 'Feed my sheep, feed my lambs V 
< — which doth signify that he gave him a more authority than 
the rest." 

Philpot: — " That saying pertaineth nothing to the autho- The words 
rity of Peter above others, but declareth what Christ requireth "Feed my 
of his beloved apostles, that they should with all diligence opened. 
preach to the flock of Christ the way of salvation ; and that 
doth the iteration of feeding, spoken to Peter, only signify. 
But the bishop of Rome little regardeth the spiritual feeding ; The pope is 
and therefore he hath imagined an easier way to make himself 
lord of the whole world, yea, and of God's word too, and doth 
hot feed Christ's flock, as Peter did." 

Worcester: — " How can you tell that? 1 '* 

Philpot: — " Yes, I have been there, and I could not learn 
of all his countrymen that ever he preacheth." 

Worcester: — " Though he preacheth not one way, he 
preacheth another, by procuring good order for the church to 
be kept in." 

PMlpot:— " I am sure that it will be his damnation before 



God, that he leaveth that he is commanded of Christ, and 
setteth forth his own decrees to deface the gospel." 

Worcester : — " It is the evil living that you have seen at 
Rome, that causeth you to have this ill judgment of the church 
of Rome. I cannot now tarry with you to reason further of 
the matter. How say you to the real presence of the sacra- 
ment? will you stand to that?" 

Philpot: — " I do acknowledge (as I have said) a real 
presence of the sacrament, in the due administration thereof, 
to the worthy receivers, by the Spirit of God." 

Worcester: — " You add now a great many more words 

than you did before : and yet you say more of the sacrament, 

than a great many will do." 

nr'ciiedse Thus they departed, and after them came in to me Dr 

vfrwht Chedsey, and Dr Wright archdeacon of Oxford, with a great 

ami others. ma ny more. " Master Philpot," said Chedsey, " here is master 

archdeacon of Oxford come to you, to give you good counsel ; 

I pray, hear him." 

Philpot: — " I will refuse to hear none that will counsel 
me any good ; and if any can bring any matter better than 
I have, I will stick thereunto." 

Wright: — " I would wish you, master Philpot, to agree 
with the catholic church, and not to stand in your own conceit. 
You see a great many of learned men against you." "* 

Philpot: — " I am, master doctor, of the unfeigned catholic 
church, and will live and die therein : and if you can prove 
your church to be the true catholic church, I will be one of 
the same." 

Wright: — " I came not to dispute with you, but to exhort 
you. Here be better learned than I, that can inform you 
better than I." 

Chedsey: — " What proof would you have? I will prove 
unto you our church to have its being and foundation by the 
scriptures, by the apostles, and by the primitive church, con- 
firmed with the blood of martyrs and with the testimony of 
all confessors." 

Philpot: — "Give me your hand, master doctor; prove 
that, and have with you." 
fetSi.7s Chedsey:—" If I had my books here, I could soon prove it: 
notationl"" * wil1 S° fetch sorne "— And with that he went and fetched his 


book of Annotations, saying, " I cannot bring my books well, 
therefore I have brought my book of Annotations ;" and turned 
there to a commonplace of the sacrament, asking mo whether 
the catholic church did allow the presence of Chrisfs body in 
the sacrament, or no I "I hear say you do confess a real pre- 
sence : but I will be hanged, if you will abide by it : you will 
deny it by and by. 11 

PMlpot: — "That I have said, I cannot deny; neither 
intend, whatsoever you say." 

Chedsey: — " If there be a real presence in the sacrament, 
then evil men receive Christ : which thing you will not grant, 
I am sure." 

PMlpot: — " I deny the argument ; for I do not grant in the sa- 
crament by transubstantiation any real presence, as you falsely 
imagine; but in the due administration to the worthy receivers." 

Chedsey : — " I will prove that the evil and wicked men eat whether 
the body of Christ, as well as the good men, by St Austin receive 
here." — And in the beginning of his text St Austin seemeth to of Christ. 
approve his assertion ; but I bade him read out to the end, and 
there St Austin declareth most evidently that it was quodam- « Qnodam- 
modo, after a certain manner, the evil man received the body 
of Christ, which is sacramentally only in the outer sign, and 
not really or in deed, as the good do. 1 " And thus all the 
doctors that you seem to bring in for your purpose, be quite 
against you, if ye did uprightly weigh them." 

Chedsey : — " By God, you are a subtle fellow. See how he 
would writhe St Augustine's words." 

PMlpot: — "See who of us writheth St Austin more, you, nrChp<isry 
or I which take his meaning by his own express words. And his proof. 
seeing you charge me of subtlety, what subtlety is this of you, 
to say that you will prove your matter of the church, even from 
the beginning, promising to shew your books therein ; and 
when it cometh to the shewing, you are able to shew none, and 
for want of proof slip into a by matter, and yet faint in the 
proof thereof I Afore God you are but bare in your religion." 

Chedsey : — " You shall be constrained to come to us at 
length, whether you will or no." 

[} Et ipse se portabat quodammodo. August, in Psal. xxxiii. Cone. 2. 
Sicut secundum quendam modum sacramentum corporis corpus Christi 
est* Epist. xxiii. ad Bonifac] 


Philpot: — "Hold that argument fast; for it is the best 
you have, for you have nothing but violence." 

the thirteenth ^ ne thirteenth examination of master Phil- 
examination. pot? before the arc hbishop of York, and 

divers other bishops. 

The Thursday after I was called in the morning before the 
archbishop of York, the bishop of Chichester, the bishop of 
Bath, and the bishop of London. The bishop of Chichester, 
being first come, began to talk with me. 

Chichester : — " I am come of good will to talk with you, to 
instruct you what I can to come to the catholic church, and to 
will you to mistrust your own judgment, and to learn first to 
have humility, and by the same to learn of others that be better 
learned than you, as they did learn of such as were their 
betters before them." 

Philpot: — " We must all be taught of God, and I will with 
all humility learn of them that will inform me by God's word, 
what I have to do. I confess, I have but little learning in 
respect of you, that both for your years and great exercise do 
fris'tenoHn exce ^ therein. But faith consisteth not only in learning, hut 
in a beiievmg! m simplicity of believing that which God's word teacheth. 
Therefore I will be glad to hear both of your lordship, and of 
any other that God hath revealed unto by his word, the true 
doctrine thereof, and to thank you that it doth please you to 
take pains herein." 

Chichester : — " You take the first alleged amiss, as though 
all men should be taught by inspiration, and not by learning. 
How do we believe the gospel, but by the authority of the 
church, and because the same hath allowed it V 
rityofthe" Philpot:—" St Paul saith, 'he learned not the gospel by 
[Ga[. c l!'i2.] men 5 neither of men, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ:' 
which is a plain and sufficient proof that the gospel taketh not 
its authority of man, but of God only." 

Chichester : — " St Paul speaketh but of his own knowledge, 
how he came thereto." 

Philpot: — "Nay, he speaketh of the gospel generally, 


' which cometh not from man but from God ;' and that the 
church must only teach that which cometh from God, and not 
man's precepts.'" 

Chichester: — "Doth not St Augustine say, 'I would not The place of 


believe the gospel, if the authority of the church did not move 
me thereto' V 

Philpot : — " I grant that the authority of the church doth Tiie word is 

,,,..,. thefounda- 

move the unbelievers to believe : but yet the church giveth not t; °n °f the 

J ° church, and 

the word its authority ; for the word hath its authority only ™t the 
from God, and not of men ; men be but the disposers thereof. the word - 
For first, the word hath its being before the church, and the 
word is the foundation of the church ; and first is the founda- 
tion sure, before the building thereon can be stedfast." 

Chichester: — " I perceive you mistake me : I speak of the 
knowledge of the gospel, and not of the authority ; for by the 
church we have all knowledge of the gospel." 

Philpot: — "I confess that; for faith cometh by hearing, 
and hearing by the word. And I acknowledge that God 
appointeth an ordinary means for men to come unto the know- 
ledge now, and not miraculously, as he hath done in times past; 
yet we that be taught by men, must take heed that we learn 
nothing else but that which was taught in the primitive church 
by revelation."" 

Here came in the bishop of York and the bishop of Bath ; T ^ n b ^ he 
and after they had saluted one another, and communed awhile JJ^j.*^ 
together, the archbishop of York called me unto them, saying, PMpot. 
" Sir, we, hearing that you are out of the way, are come of 
charity to inform you, and to bring you into the true faith and 
to the catholic church again ; willing you first to have humility, 
and to be humble and willing to learn of your betters ; for else 
we can do no good with you. And God saith by his prophet, 
' On whom shall I rest, but on the humble and meek, and such [ijai. i 
as tremble at my word? 1 Now if you will so be, we will be 
glad to travail 1 with you." 

Philpot:— "I know that humility is the door whereby we 
enter into Christ ; and I thank his goodness, I have entered in 
at the same unto him, and with all humility will hear whatso- 
ever truth you shall speak unto me." 

[} Travail: labour in argument.] 

. lxvi. 


York: — " What be the matters you stand on, and require 
to be satisfied in?" 

Philpot : — " My lord, if it shall please your grace, we were 
entered into a good matter before you came, of the church, and 
how we should know the truth but by the church." 

YorJc : — " Indeed that is the head we need to begin at ; for 
the church being truly known, we shall sooner agree in the 
particular things." 

Philpot: — "If your lordships can prove the church of 
Rome to be the true catholic church, it shall do much to 
persuade me toward that you would have me incline unto." 

York : — " Why, let us go to the definition of the church. 
What is it ?" 
dsfined! rch Philpot : — " It is a congregation of people dispersed through 
the world, agreeing together in the word of God, using the 
sacraments and all other things according to the same." 

York : — " Your definition is of many words to no purpose." 
Philpot : — " I do not precisely define the church, but de- 
clare unto you what I think the church is." 
both C visibie York: — " Is the church visible or invisible?" 
bie. " 1V1SI " Philpot : — " It is both visible and invisible. The invisible 
church is of the elect of God only ; the visible consists both of 
good and bad, using all things in faith, according to God's word." 
York : — " The church is a universal congregation of faithful 
people in Christ through the world, which this word 'catholic 1 
doth well express ; for what is 'catholic 1 else ? doth it not sig- 
nify universal?'''' 
finern/ys't 6 " Philpot: — "The church is defined by St Augustine to be 
ugus me. ca jj e( j ca t} 10 ]j c j n thjg w i se i : 'The church is called therefore 

catholic, because it is thoroughly perfect, and halteth in no- 
thing. 1 " 

Catholic de- \ r 7 _ T . . 

fined by the i ork : — " JNay, it is called catholic, because it is uni- 
versally received of all christian nations for the most part." 

Philpot : — " The church was catholic in the apostles 1 time, 
yet was it not universally received of the world. But because 
their doctrine which they had received of Christ was perfect,. 

[} "Constitutam ab illo matrem Ecclesiam, quoe catholica dicitur 
ex eo quia universaliter perfecta est, et in nullo claudicat, et per 
totum orbem diffusa est." Augustin. Lib. de Genesi ad literam Op. 
Par. 1680. Tom. m. col. 94. § 4.] 


and appointed to be preached and received of the whole world, 
therefore it is called the catholic faith, and all persons receiving 
the same, to be counted the catholic church. And St Augus- 
tine in another place writeth, that the catholic church is that 
which believeth aright." 

York : — " If you will learn, I will shew you St Augustine, universality 
writing against the Donatists, that he proveth the catholic sioru 
church by two principal points, which are, universality and 
succession of bishops in one apostolical see from time to time 5 . 
Now thus I will make mine argument. 

" The church of Rome is universal, and hath her succes- 
sion of bishops from time to time. Ergo, It is the catholic 
church. How answer you to this argument V 

Philpot: — "I deny the antecedent, that the catholic church 
is only known by universality and succession of bishops." 

York : — " I will prove it." — And with that he brought 
forth a book which he had noted out of the doctors, and 
turned to his commonplaces therein of the church, and re- 
cited one or two out of St Augustine, and specially out of 
his epistle written against the Donatists ; where St Augustine 
manifestly proveth, that the Donatists were not the catholic 
church, because they had no succession of bishops in their 
opinion, neither universality; "and the same force hath St 
Augustine's argument against you." 

Philpot : — " My lord, I have weighed the force of that universality 

,» , T .... , . . always to be 

argument before now, and I perceive it maketh nothing against i^' x with 

E 3 This seems to be only a general reference. The treatises entitled 
"Contra Donatistas epistola, vulgo, De Unitate Ecclesiae;" and those 
" Contra Cresconium Donatistam," are occupied throughout with the 
topics to which the archbishop refers. A quotation from each of those 
treatises on the points of 'universality' and 'succession' respectively, 
will serve as a sample of the whole argument. 

"Jam vero istse divinae voces de universa, ecclesia ita manifesto; 
sunt, ut contra eas nisi hseretici animosa. perversitate et caeco furore 
latrare non possint." Augustin. Op. Par. 1694. Contra Donatistas, 
Epist. Lib. i. Tom. ix. col. 355. 

"Nisi quia in causa resarciendi hujus schismatis obliti estis pro- 
prise vanitatis, qua post episcopos ab istis Apostolorum sedibus incon- 
cussam scriem usque in hsec tempora perducentes, non unum hominem, 
non unam domum, non unam civitatem, non unam gentem, sed orbem 
terrarum baptizandum esse censetis." Contra Cresconium Donatistam, 
Lib. in. Cap. xviii. col. 445. § 21.] 



The error 
of the 

me, neither cometh it to your purpose ; for I will stand to the 
trial of St Augustine for the approbation of the catholic church, 
whereof I am. For St Augustine speaketh of universality 
joined with verity, and of faithful successors of Peter before 
corruption came into the church. And so if you can deduce 
your argument for the see of Rome now, as St Augustine 
might do in. his time, I would say it might be of some force: 
otherwise not." 

York : — " St Augustine proveth the catholic church prin- 
cipally by succession of bishops, and therefore you understand 
not St Augustine. For what, I pray you, was the opinion 
of the Donatists, against whom he wrote ? can you tell I 
What country where they of?" 

Philpot: — "They were a certain sect of men, affirming, 
among other heresies, that the dignity of the sacraments de- 
pended upon the worthiness of the minister ; so that, if the 
minister were good, the sacraments which he ministered were 
available, or else not." 

Chichester: — "That was their error, and they had none 
other but that." — And he read another authority of St Au- 
gustine out of a book which he brought, even to the same 
purpose that the other was. 

Philpot: — " I challenge St Augustine to be with me tho- 
roughly in this point, and will stand to his judgment, taking 
one place with another." 

Chichester : — " If you will not have the church to be cer- 
tain, I pray you, by whom will you be judged in matters of 
controversy V 

Philpot : — " I do not deny the church to be certain ; but 
tam, andyet I deny that it is necessarily tied to any place, longer than 
m°e place? it abideth in the word; and for all controversies the word 
ought to be judge." 

Chichester : — " But what if I take it one way, and you 
another; how then?" 

Philpot : — " St Augustine sheweth a remedy for that, and 
willeth, ' that one place of the scripture ought to be under- 
stood by the more 1 .'" 

1 " Quod unus locus per plura intelligi debeat." Aug. De Doctrina 
Christiana. [This precise set of words has not been found: it may 
have been, as in some former quotations, nothing more than the general 

The church 


York : — " How answer you to this argument ?— 

' Rome hath known succession of bishops ; which your 

church hath not. Ergo, that is the catholic church, and 

yours is not, because there is no such succession can be 

proved in your church." 1 

PMlpot : — " I deny, my lord, that succession of bishops The argu- 

is an infallible point to know the church by : for there may denied. 

be a succession of bishops known in a place, and yet there Local sue- 


be no church, as at Antioch, and Jerusalem, and in other without suc- 
places, where the apostles abode as well as at Rome. But doctrine 
if you put to the succession of bishops succession of doc- avails. 
trine withal (as St Augustine doth), I will grant it to be a 
good proof for the catholic church : but a local succession is 
nothing available." 

JTork : — " You will have no church then, I see well." 
PMlpot: — " Yes, my lords, I acknowledge the catholic 
church, as I am bound by my creed : but I cannot acknow- 
ledge a false church for the true." 

Chichester: — " Why, are there two catholic churches, then ?" 
PMlpot: — " No. I know there is but one catholic church; The mother 

± m church of 

but there have been, and be at this present, that take upon Rom f com - 

. . pared to the 

them the name of Christ and of his church, which be not woman in 


so indeed, as it is written, ' There be they that call themselves f 1 ? e ' l th ^ l 
apostles, and be not so indeed, but the synagogue of satan and {.™f e ^ the 
liars.' And now it is with us, as it was with two women in tner's child 

' from her. 

Solomon's time, which lay together, and the one suppressed t^^-.?: 
her child, and afterward went about to challenge the true 20 -l 
mother's child." 

Chichester : — " What a babbling is here with you now ! 

impression of the sense of the writer, cast into a form of words of his 
own devising. This is undoubtedly the case in many of the quotations 
from the Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers, which are met with 
in later theologians, who give not unfrequently (as in this instance it 
is thought that Philpot may have done) even the words of the original 
author from memory. "Turn vero facta, quadam familiaritate cum 
ipsa lingua divinarum scripturarum, in ea quss obscura sunt aperienda 
et discutienda pergendum est, ut ad obscuriores locutiones illustrandas 
do manifestioribus sumantur exempla, et quaedam certarum senten- 
tiarum testimonia dubitationem incertis auferant." Aug. de Doct. 
Christ. Lib. n. cap. ix. col. 24. § 14. Par. 1680. Tom. m. 

" Ubi autem apertius ponuntur, ibi discendum est quomodo in locis 
intelligantur obscuris." Ibid. Lib. in. cap. xxvi. p. 56. § 37.] 


I see you lack humility. You will go about to teach, and 
not to learn." 

Philpot: — " My lords, I must desire you to bear with my 
hasty speech : it is my infirmity of nature. All that I speak 
is to learn by. I would you did understand all my mind, 
that I might bo satisfied by you through better authority." 

Chichester : — " My lord, if it please your grace, turn the 
argument upon him, which you have made, and let him shew 
the succession of the bishops of his church, as we can do. 
How say you, can you shew the succession of bishops in 
your church from time to time? I tell you, this argument 
troubled Dr Ridley so sore, that he could never answer it : yet 
he was a man well learned ; I dare say you will say so." 

Philpot : — " He was a man so learned, that I was not 
worthy to carry his books for learning." 

Chichester: — "I promise you, he was never able to answer 
that. He was a man that I loved well, and he me; for he came 
unto me divers times being in prison, and conferred with me." 
of bisiions" Philpot : — " I wonder, my lord, that you should make this 
sufficient' ar g umen ^ which you would turn upon me, for the trial of 
^rovethc m y cnurcn whereof I am, or that you would make bishop 
Ridley so ignorant that he was not able to answer it, since 
it is of no force. For behold, first I denied you, that local 
succession of bishops in one place is a necessary point alone 
to prove the catholic church by ; and that which I have de- 
nied you cannot prove : and is it then reason that you should 
put me to the trial of that, which by you is unproved, and 
of no force to conclude against me V 

Chichester: — "I see, my lords, we do but lose our labours 
to reason with him : he taketh himself to be better learned 
than we." 

Philpot : — " I take upon mo the name of no learning. I 
boast of no knowledge, but of faith and of Christ, and that 
I am bound undoubtedly to know, as I am sure I do." 

Chichester : — " These heretics take upon them to be sure 
of all things they stand in. You should say rather with humi- 
lity, I trust I know Christ, than that you be sure thereof." 

Philpot: — "Let him doubt of his faith that listeth : God 
giveth me always grace to believe that I am sure of true 
faith and favour in Christ." 



Bath: — "How will you be able to answer beretics, but 
by the determination of the known catholic church?' 1 

Philpot: — " I am able to answer all heretics by the word 
of God, and convince them by the same."" 

Chichester: — " How arrogantly is that spoken! I dare not 
say so." 

Philpot: — " My lord, I pray you bear with me ; for I am 
bold on the truth's side, and I speak somewhat by experience 
that I have had with heretics ; and I know the Arians be 
the subtlest that ever were, and yet I have manifest scrip- 
tures to beat them down withal " 

Chichester : — " I perceive now you are the same manner of 
man I have heard of, which will not be satisfied by learning. 11 

Philpot : — " Alas, my lord ! why do you say so ? I do 
desire most humbly to be taught, if there be any better way 
that* I should learn ; and hitherto you have shewed me no 
better: therefore I pray your lordship not to misjudge with- 
out a cause. 11 

Bath : — " If you be the true catholic church, then will you 
hold with the real presence of Christ in the sacrament, which 
the true church hath ever maintained. 11 

Philpot : — " And I, my lord, with the true church do hold 
the same in the due ministration of the sacrament. But I 
desire you, my lord, there may be a better conclusion in our 
first matter, before we enter into any other ; for if the church 
be proved, we shall soon agree in the rest. 11 

In the mean while my lord of York was turning his book 
for more places to help forth his cause. 

York: — "I have found at length a very notable place, 
which I have looked for all this while, of St Augustine, Be 
simplicitate credendV ; ." 

[} "Tenet consensio populorum atquc gentium: tenet auctoritas 
ttiiraculis inchoata, spe nutrita, caritate aucta, vetustate firmata: tenet 
ab ipsa sede Petri Apostoli, cui pascendas oves suas post resurrecti- 
onem Dominus commendavit, usque ad praesentem episcopatum suc- 
cessio sacerdotum: tenet postremo ipsum Catholicoe nomen, quod non 
sine causa inter tam multas hsereses sic ista ecclesia sola obtinuit, ut 
cum omnes hseretici se catholicos dici velint, qusei-enti tamen peregrino 
alicui, ubi ad Catholicam conveniatur, nullus hereticorum vel basilicam 
suam vel domum audeat ostendere." August, contra Epist. Manichaei 
quam vocant Fundamcnti. Op. Par. 1694. Tom. vm. col. 153. § 5. No 


Chichester : — " It is but folly, my lord, that your grace do 

read him any more places, for he esteemeth them not." 

Phiipot Philpot : — " I esteem them, inasmuch as they be of force, 

reported as your lordship doth hear me deny no doctors you bring, 

doctor! but only require the true application of them, according to the 

writer's meaning, and as by his own words may be proved. - " 
rour points York : — " I will read him the place, and so make an end. 1 ' 
Augulune. After he had read the sentence, he said, that by four 
special points here St Augustine proveth the catholic church. 
The first is, by the consent of all nations ; the second, by 
the apostolic see ; the third, by universality ; and the fourth, 
by this word 'catholic.' 

Chichester : — " That is a notable place indeed, if it pleasfc 
your grace." 

Philpot : — " I pray you, my lord, of what church doth St 
Augustine write the same? of Borne, or not V 

York : — " Yea, he writeth it of the church of Borne." 
Philpot : — " I will lay with your lordship as much as I 
can make, it is not so ; and let the book be seen." 

Bath : — " What art thou able to lay % thou hast nothing." 

York: — " Doth he not make mention here of the apostolic 

see, whereby he meaneth Bome?" 

Answer to Philpot : — " That is very straitly interpreted, my lord, as 

Slhop^s" though the apostolic see had been nowhere else but at Bome. 

tour pomts. g u {. j e j. ^ j-^ R ome5 an( j y e ^ vou s i ia n nev er verify the same, 

unless all the other conditions do go therewith, as St Augus- 
tine doth proceed withal ; whereof none, except the apostolic 
see, can now be verified of the church of Bome. For the 
faith which that see now maintaineth hath not the consent of 
all nations, neither hath had. Besides that, it cannot have 
the name of catholic, because it differeth from the catholic 
churches, which the apostles planted, almost in all things. 11 

York : — " Nay, he goeth about here to prove the catholic 
church by universality ; and how can you shew your church 
to be universal fifty or a hundred years ago?" 

Philpot: — " That is not material, neither any thing against 

St Augustine : for my church (whereof I am) should be ac- 

treatise of Augustine exists bearing the title " de simplicitate credendi ;" 
but the passage above quoted will be found to contain the several points 
to which the archbishop alludes. It is to be supposed therefore that the 
treatise "Contra Epist. Manich." was that to which he referred.] 


counted universal, though it were but in ten persons, because 
it agreeth with the same that the apostles did universally 

York : — " I perceive you are an obstinate man in your 
opinion, and will not be taught : wherefore it is but lost labour 
to talk with you any longer. You are a member to be cut off." 

Chichester : — " I have heard of you before, how you 
troubled the good bishop of Winchester ; and now I see in 
you that I have heard." 

Philpot : — " I trust you see no evil in me by this : I desire 
of you a sure ground to build my faith on ; and if you shew 
me none, I pray you speak n6t ill of him that meaneth well." 

Chichester : — " Thou art as impudent a fellow as I have 
communed withal." 

Philpot : — " That is spoken uncharitably, my lord, to blas- 
pheme him whom you cannot justly reprove." 

Chichester: — "Why, thou art not God: blasphemy is 
counted a rebuke to Godward, and not to man." 

Philpot : — " Yes, it may be as well verified of an infamy 
laid to a man, speaking in God's cause, as you now do lay it 
unto me, for speaking freely the truth afore God, to maintain 
your vain religion. You are void of all good ground. I per- 
ceive you are blind guides, and leaders of the blind ; and there- 
fore (as I am bound to tell you) very hypocrites, tyrannously 
persecuting the truth, which otherwise by just order you are 
by no means able to convince. Your own doctors and testi- 
monies which you bring, be evidently against you, and yet you 
will not see the truth." 

Chichester : — " Have we this thank for our good will, in 
coming to instruct thee?" 

Philpot : — " My lords, you must bear with me, since I "Veritas 
speak in Christ's cause : and because his glory is defaced, and p* rit -" 
his people cruelly and wrongfully slain by you, because they heart of 
will not consent to the dishonour of God and to hypocrisy * en ™K 
with you ; if I told you not your fault, it would be required 
at my hands in the day of judgment. Therefore know you, 
ye hypocrites indeed, that it is the Spirit of God that telleth 
you your sin, and not I. I pass not, I thank God, for all your 
cruelty : God forgive you, and give you grace to repent !" 

And so they departed. 


Another Talk the same day. 

Another The same day at night before supper the bishop sent for 

Phiipot me into his chapel, in the presence of archdeacon Harpsfield, 
bishop. Dr Chedsey, and other his chaplains, and his servants; at 
what time he said, " Master Philpot, I have by sundry means 
gone about to do you good, and I marvel you do so little con- 
sider it. By my truth, I cannot tell what to say to you. Tell 
me directly, whether you will be a conformable man, or no; 
and whereupon you chiefly stand." 

Philpot : — " I have told your lordship oftentimes plain 
enough, whereon I stand chiefly, requiring a sure probation 
of the church whereunto you call me." 

Harpsfield: — "St Austin, writing against the Donatists, 
declareth four special notes to know the church by : the con- 
sent of many nations, the faith of the sacraments confirmed 
by antiquity, succession of bishops, and universality." 

London : — " I pray you, master archdeacon, fetch the book 
hither : it is a notable place, let him see it." 

And the book was brought, and the bishop read it, de- 
manding how I could answer the same. 

Philpot : — " My lord, I like St Augustine's four points 
for the trial of the catholic church, whereof I am: for it 
can abide every point thereof together ; which yours can- 
not do." 

Harpsfield : — " Have not we succession of bishops in the 
see and church of Rome ? Wherefore then do you deny our 
church to be the catholic church?" 

Philpot: — "St Augustine doth not put succession of 
bishops only to be sufficient, but he added the use of the 
sacraments according to antiquity, and doctrine universally 
taught and received of most nations from the beginning of the 
primitive church, the which your church is far from. But my 
church can avouch all these better than yours : therefore by 
St Augustine's judgment, which you here bring, mine is the 
catholic church, and not yours." 

Harpsfield and Chedsey : — " It is but folly, my lord, for 
you to reason with him; for he is irrecoverable." 

Philpot : — " That is a good shift for you to run unto, when 
you be confounded in your own sayings, and have nothing 


else to say ; you are evidently deceived, and yet will not see 
it when it is laid to your face. 1 ' 1 

Here ende as manye of John Philpots examinations, as came to the 

printers handes, and as soone as the rest may be come by, thou 

shalt haue it, good reader, by the vvyll of God. In the 

meane tyme refresh thy selfe with this, praising 

god for the perseueraunce of this constant 

learned martyr, and pray hartily for 

the reste of Christes poore 

afflicted churche. 

Geue God the glory. 1 

f 1 This colophon concludes the account of Philpot's Examinations in 
the original form of a small and separate publication. What follows 
was added by Foxe, in his Acts and Monuments : it is here printed from 
his edition of 1597.] 





Thus have I at large set forth as many of the said John 
Philpot's examinations and privy conferences as are yet come 
to light, being faithfully written with his own hand. And al- 
though he was divers other times after this examined, both 
openly in the consistory at Paul's, and also secretly in the 
bishop's house ; yet what was there said is not yet sufficiently 
known, either because master Philpot was not himself suffered 
to write, or else for that his writings are by some kept close, 
and not brought forth, otherwise than as the bishop's registrar 
hath noted, whose handling of such matters because it is 
(either for fear or favour of his lord and master) very slender, 
little light of any true meaning can be gathered, especially in 
the behalf of the answerer: howbeit, such as it is, such thought 
I good to put forth ; requiring the reader to judge hereof ac- 
cording to his answers in his former examinations. 

into open 

special arti. 
cles laid to 

The examinations of master Philpot in open judgment, by 
bishop Bonner, in the consistory at Paul's, on the 13th 
and 14th of December. 

The bishop, having sufficiently taken his pleasure with 
master Philpot in his private talks, and seeing his zealous, 
learned, and immutable constancy, thought it now high time 
to rid his hands of him; and therefore on the 13th and 14th 
days of December, sitting judicially in the consistory at Paul's, 
he caused him to be brought thither before him and others, 
as it seemeth, more for order's sake, than for any good affec- 
tion to justice and right judgment. The effect as well of 
which their two sundry proceedings, as also of one other, had 
the 11th day of the same month in his chapel, appears in a 
manner to be all one. The bishop therefore first speaking to 
master Philpot, said : — 

" Master Philpot, amongst other things that were laid and 
objected unto you, these three things ye were especially charged 
and burdened withal. The first is, that you, being fallen from 
the unity of Christ's catholic church, do refuse and will not 
come to be reconciled thereunto. The second is, that you 
have blasphemously spoken against the sacrifice of the mass, 
calling it idolatry. And the third is, that you have spoken 


against the sacrament of the altar, denying the real presence 
of Christ's body and blood to be in the same. And according 
to the will and pleasure of the synod legative, ye have been 
oft by me invited and required to go from your said errors 
and heresies, and to return to the unity of the catholic church ; 
which if ye will now willingly do, ye shall be mercifully and 
gladly received, charitably used, and have all the favour I can 
shew you. And now, to tell you true, it is assigned and ap- 
pointed me to give sentence against you, if you stand herein, 
and will not return. Wherefore, if ye so refuse, I do ask of 
you, whether you have any cause that you can shew, why I 
should not now give sentence against you?" 

Philpot : — " Under protestation, not to go from my appeal 
that I have made, and also not to consent to you as my com- 
petent judge, I say, touching your first objection concerning the 
catholic church, I neither was nor am out of the same. And 
as touching the sacrifice of the mass, and the sacrament of the 
altar, I never spake against the same. And as concerning the 
pleasure of the synod, I say, that these twenty years I have 
been brought up in the faith of the true catholic church, which 
is contrary to your church, whereunto you would have me to 
come: and in that time I have been many times sworn (as 
well in the reign of king Henry the eighth, as in the reign of 
good king Edward his son) against the usurped power of the 
bishop of JRome ; which oath I think that I am bound in my 
conscience to keep, quia teneor reddere Domino juramentum. 
But if you, or any of the synod, can by God's word persuade 
me. that my said oath was unlawful, and that I am bound by 
God's law to come to your church, faith, and religion, whereof 
you be now, I will gladly yield, agree, and be conformable 
unto you; otherwise not." 

Bonner then, not able with all his learned doctors to ao- Bonner with 

all his ncc- 

comphsh this his offered condition, fell to persuading of himj tors not able 
as well by his accustomed vain promises, as also by bloody PMpot. 
threatenings, to return to their church : to the which Philpot 
answered, " You, and all other of your sort, are hypocrites ; 
and I would all the world did know your hypocrisy, your 
tyranny, ignorance, and idolatry." 

Upon these words, the bishop did for that time dismiss 
him, commanding that on Monday the 1 6th day of the same 




month, between the hours of one and three in the afternoon, 
he should again be brought thither, there to have the defini- 
tive sentence of condemnation pronounced against him, if he 
remained then in his former constancy. 

prayer when 
he gave sen- 
tence upon 

[1 Cor. xiv. 







The last examination of master John Philpot, Dec. 16th, 

At which day and time, master Philpot being there presented 
before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester, and Lichfield, 
Bonner, bishop of London, began to talk in this manner. 

London : — " My lords, Stokesley my predecessor, when he 
went to give sentence against a heretic, used to make this 
prayer: Deus qui errantibus, ut in mam possint redire, justitim 
veritatisque tuce lumen ostendis, da cunctis qui Christiana pro- 
fession censentur, et ilia respuere quce huic inimica sint no- 
mini, et ea quce sint apta sectari, per Christum Dominum 
nostrum. Amen 1 . Which I will follow." And so he read it 
with a loud voice in Latin. To which master Philpot said, 
" I would ye would speak in English, that all men might 
hear and understand you; for Paul willeth that all things 
spoken in the congregation to edify should be spoken in a 
tongue that all men might understand." 

Whereupon the bishop did read it in English : and when 
he came to these words, "to refuse those things which are 
foes to his name," Philpot said, "Then they all must turn 
away from you ; for you are enemies to that name (meaning 
Christ's name), and God save us from such hypocrites as 
would have things in a tongue that men cannot understand." 

London: — "Whom do you mean?" 

Philpot : — " You, and all other that be of your generation 
and sect. And I am sorry to see you sit in the place that 
you now sit in, pretending to execute justice, and to do no- 
thing less, but deceive all men in this realm." And then 
turning himself unto the people, he further said, " Oh ! all 
you gentlemen, beware of these men (meaning the bishops), 

Q 1 This with a very slight verbal alteration will be found in the 
" Miss. Sarisb." The collect for the Second Sunday after Easter in the 
English "Book of Common Prayer" is an almost literal translation of 
the above form.] 


and all their doings, which be contrary unto the primitive 
church. And I would know of you, my lord, by what au- 
thority you proceed against me." 

London: — "Because I am bishop of London." 
Philpot : — " Well, then ye are not my bishop, nor have I j^""'* 
offended in your diocese. And moreover I have appealed ■"^ceed 
from you, and therefore by your own law you ought not to ^*lf** 
proceed against me ; especially being brought hither from phil P°t- 
another place by violence." 

London : — " Why, who sent you hither to me V 
Philpot : — " That did Dr Story and Dr Cook, with other 
the king and queen's commissioners. And, my lord, is it not 
enough for you to worry your own sheep, but ye must also 
meddle with other men's sheep V 

m Then the bishop delivered to Philpot two books, one of 
the civil law, and the other of the canon, out of the which he 
would have proved that he had authority to proceed against 
him in such sort as he did. Master Philpot then, perusing 
the same, and seeing the small and slender proof that was 
there alleged, said unto the bishop, " I perceive your law and 
divinity is all one ; for you have knowledge in neither of them; 
and I would ye did know your own ignorance: but ye dance 
in a net, and think that no man doth see you." Hereupon 
they had much talk; but what it was, it is not yet known. 
At last Bonner spake unto him, and said, " Philpot, as con- 
cerning your objections against my jurisdiction, ye shall under- 
stand that both the civil and canon laws make against you ; 
and as for your appeal, it is not allowed in this case : for it 
is written in the law, A judice dispositionem juris exequente 
non est appellandwm^ 

Philpot: — " My lord, it appeareth by your interpretation of B°™ e t r obe 
the law, that ye have no knowledge therein, and that ye do not j^°™ ltin 
understand the law: for if ye did, ye would not bring in that 

Hereupon the bishop recited a law of the Eomans, that it 
was not lawful for a Jew to keep a christian man in captivity, 
and to use him as a slave, laying then to the said Philpot's 
charge, that he did not understand the law, but did like a Jew. 
Whereunto Philpot answered, " No, I am no Jew, but you, 
my lord, are a Jew ; for you profess Christ, and maintain anti- 



christ: you profess the gospel, and maintain superstition; and 
ye be able to charge me with nothing." 

London and other Bishops : — " With what can you charge 

us ! 

Philpot : — " You are enemies to all truth ; and all your 
doings be naught, full of idolatry, saving in the article of the 
Trinity: 1 

The lord 
mayor, with 
the sheriffs, 
assistant to 
bishop Bon- 
ner against 

The three 
John Phil- 
pot again 

Whilst they were thus debating the matter, there came 
thither Sir William Garret, knight, then mayor of London, Sir 
Martin Bowes, knight, and Thomas Leigh, then sheriffs of the 
same city, and sat down with the said bishops in the said 
consistory; where and what time bishop Bonner spake these 
words in effect as folio weth : " Philpot, before the coming of my 
lord mayor, because I would not enter with you into the matter 
wherewith I have heretofore, and now intend to charge you 
withal, until his coming, 1 did rehearse unto you a prayer both 
in English and in Latin, which bishop Stokesley, my pre- 
decessor, used when he intended to proceed to give sentence 
against a heretic." 

And here Bonner did again read the said prayer both in 
English, and also in Latin : which being ended, he spake again 
unto him, and said, " Philpot, amongst other, I have to charge 
you especially with three things. First, whereas you have 
fallen from the unity of Christ's catholic church, you have 
thereupon been invited and required, not only by me, but also 
by many and divers other catholic bishops, and other learned 
men, to return and come again to the same : and also you have 
been offered by me, that if you would so return, and confess 
your errors and heresies, you should be mercifully received, and 
have so much favour as I could shew unto you. The second 
is, that you have 'blasphemously spoken against the sacrifice of 
the mass, calling it idolatry and abomination. And thirdly, 
that you have spoken and holden against the sacrament of the 
altar, denying the real presence of Christ's body and blood to 
be in the same." 

This being spoken, the bishop recited unto him a certain 
exhortation in English, the tenor and form whereof is this. 


Bishop Bonner's exhortation to John Philpot. 

" Master Philpot, this is to be told you, that if you, not 
being yet reconciled to the unity of the catholic church, from 
whence ye did fall in the time of the late schism here in this 
realm of England against the see apostolic of Rome, will now 
heartily and obediently be reconciled to the unity of the same 
eatholic church, professing and promising to observe and keep 
to the best of your power the faith and christian religion 
observed and kept of all faithful people of the same: and 
moreover, if ye, which heretofore, especially in the years of our 
Lord 1553, 1554, 1555, or in one of them, have offended and 
trespassed grievously against the sacrifice of the mass, calling 
it jdolatry and abominable, and likewise have offended and 
trespassed against the sacrament of the altar, denying the real 
presence of Christ's body and blood to be there in the sacra- 
ment of the altar, affirming also withal material bread and 
material wine to be in the sacrament of the altar, and not the 
substance of the body and blood of Christ : if ye, I say, will be 
reconciled as is aforesaid, and will forsake your heresies and 
errors before touched, being heretical and damnable, and will 
also allow the sacrament of the mass, ye shall be mercifully 
received, and charitably used with as much favour as may be : 
if not, ye shall be reputed, taken, and judged for a heretic, (as 
ye be indeed.) Now do you choose what ye will do : you are 
counselled herein friendly and favourably." 

The bishop's exhortation thus ended, master Philpot turned 
himself unto the lord mayor, and said ; "To you, my lord 
mayor, bearing the sword, I speak : I am glad that it is my 
chance now to stand before that authority that hath defended 
the gospel and the truth of God's word. But I am sorry to see 
that the authority which representeth the king and queen's 
persons, should now be changed, and be at the commandment 
of antichrist ; and ye" [speaking to the bishops] " pretend to 
be the fellows of the apostles of Christ, and yet be the very ™"p* {■«£ 
antichrists and deceivers of the people. And I am glad that j»* rf*£ ' 
God hath given me power to stand here this day, and to declare cai, bhurch. 
and defend my faith, which is founded on Christ. Therefore, 
as touching your first objection, I say, that I am of the catholic 



not against 
the true 
but against 
the sacrifice 
set upon the 
altar, used 
in private 

denieth not 
the sacra- 
ment of the 
altar of the 
cross, but 
the sacra- 
ment of the 
stone he 

Dr Banes, 
bishop of 

church, whereof I was never out, and that your church (which 
ye pretend to be the catholic church) is the church of Rome, 
and so the Babylonical, and not the catholic church : of that 
church I am not. As touching your second objection, which is, 
that I should speak against the sacrifice of the mass, I do say, 
that I have not spoken against the true sacrifice, but I have 
spoken against your private masses that you use in corners, 
which is blasphemy to the true sacrifice ; for your sacrifice 
daily reiterated is a blasphemy against Christ's death, and it is 
a lie of your own invention : and that abominable sacrifice 
which ye set upon the altar, and use in your private masses 
instead of the living sacrifice, is idolatry, and ye shall never 
prove it by God's word. Therefore ye have deceived the 
people with that your sacrifice of the mass, which ye make a 
masking. Thirdly, whereas you lay to my charge, that I deny 
the body and blood of Christ to be in the sacrament of the 
altar, I cannot tell what altar ye mean, whether it be the altar 
of the cross, or the altar of stone : and if ye call it the sacra- 
ment of the altar in respect of the altar of stone, then I defy 
your Christ, for it is a rotten Christ. And as touching your 
transubstantiation, I utterly deny it, for it was brought up first 
by a pope. 

" Now, as concerning your offer made from the synod, 
which is gathered together in antichrist's name ; prove me that 
to be of the catholic church (which ye shall never do), and 
I will follow you, and do as you would have me to do. But 
ye are idolaters, and daily do commit idolatry. Ye be 
also traitors; for in your pulpits ye rail upon good kings, 
as king Henry, and king Edward his son, which have stood 
against the usurped power of the bishop of Rome ; against 
whom also I have taken an oath, which if ye can shew me 
by God's law that I have taken unjustly, I will then yield 
unto you : but I pray God turn the king and queen's heart 
from your synagogue and church ; for you do abuse that good 

Here the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield began to shew 
where the true church was, saying, " The true catholic church 
is set upon a high hill." 

Philpot: — "Yea, at Borne, which is the Babylonical 
church ." 

eonner's exhortation. 153 

Coventry : — " No, in our true catholic church are the apos- 
tles, evangelists, and martyrs ; but before Martin Luther there 
was no apostle, evangelist, or martyr of your church. - ' 1 

Philpot: — "Will ye know the cause why? Christ did 
prophesy that in the latter days there should come false pro- 
phets and hypocrites, as you be." 

Coventry: — "Your church of Geneva, which ye call the 
catholic church, is that which Christ prophesied of." 

Philpot: — " I allow the church of Geneva, and the doctrine The church 

p , 7 . of England 

of the same ; for it is una, catholica, et apostohca, and doth in kin? Ed- 

. x ward's time. 

follow the doctrine that the apostles did preach ; and the 
doctrine taught and preached in king Edward's days was also 
according to the same. And are ye not ashamed to persecute 
me and others for your church's sake, which is Babylonical, 
and contrary to the true catholic church V 

And after this they had great conference together, as well 
out of the scriptures, as also out of the doctors. But when 
Bonner saw that by learning they were not able to convince 
master Philpot, he thought then by his defamations to bring 
him out of credit ; and therefore, turning himself unto the lord 
mayor of London, he brought forth a knife and a bladder full 
of powder, and said : 

" My lord, this man had a roasted pig brought unto him, B ,° nn ^ h 
and this knife was put secretly between the skin and the flesh hi , m with 

r J false suv- 

thereof, and so was it sent him, being in prison. And also mises - 
this powder was sent unto him, under pretence that it was good 
and comfortable for him to eat or drink ; which powder was 
only to make ink to write withal : for when his keeper did 
perceive it, he took it and brought it unto me ; which when 
I did see, I thought it had been gunpowder, and thereupon I 
put fire to it, but it would not burn. Then I took it for poison, 
and so gave it to a dog; but it was not so. Then I took a 
little water, and it made as fair ink as ever I did write withal. 
Therefore, my lord, you may understand what a naughty fellow 
this is." 

Philpot : — " Ah, my lord ! have you nothing else to charge 
me withal but these trifles, seeing I stand upon life and death ? 
Doth the knife in the pig prove the church of Rome to be a 
catholic church?" 


co r nchfded Then the bishop brought forth a certain instrument, con- 

andcaiif fining articles and questions, agreed upon both in Oxford 
Thelate- an< ^ Cambridge, whereof you have mention before. Also he 
Thebook of did exhibit two books in print ; the one was the catechism 
dtsputa/ion 6 ma< ^ e m ' im g Edward's days, anno 1552, the other concern- 
'"" ing the true report of the disputation in the convocation-house, 
mention whereof is above expressed. Moreover he did bring 
forth, and laid to master Philpot's charge, two letters; the 
one touching Bartlet Green, the other containing godly ex- 
hortations and comforts, which both were written unto him 
by some of his godly friends ; the tenor whereof we thought 
here also to exhibit. 

in the con- 

A letter exhibited by Bonner, written by some friend of 
master Philpot's, and sent to him, concerning the handling 
of master Green in bishop Bonner's house at London. 

You shall understand that master Green came unto the 
bishop of London on Sunday last, where he was courteously 
received; for what policy, the sequel declareth. His enter- 
tainment for one day or two was to dine at my lord's own 
table, or else to have his meat from thence. During those 
days he lay in Dr Chedsey's chamber, and was examined. 
Bonner Albeit, in very deed, the bishop earnestly and faithfully pro- 
promise, mised many right worshipful men (who were suitors for him, 
but to him unknown), that he in no case should be examined; 
before which, master Fecknam would have had him in his 
friendly custody, if he would have desired to have conferred 
with him, which he utterly refused. And in that the bishop 
objected against him singularity and obstinacy, his answer 
thereunto was thus : "To avoid all suspicion thereof, although 
I myself am young, and utterly unlearned in respect of the 
learned (and yet I understand, I thank my Lord), yet let 
me have such books as I shall require : and if I, by God's 
Spirit, do not thereby answer all your books and objections con- 
Master trary thereto, I will assent to you." Whereunto the bishop, and 
strong- in his, assented, permitting him at the first to have such books : 

scriptures 1 ° 

and doctors, who at sundry times have reasoned with him, and have found 
him so strong and rife in the scripture and godly fathers, 


that, since, they have not only taken from him such liberty 
of books, but all other books, not leaving him so much as 
the new testament. Since, they have baited and used him 
most cruelly. This master Fecknam reported, saying farther, Fecknam's 
that he never heard the like young man, and so perfect. Green - 
What shall become further of him, God knoweth ; but death 
I think, for he remaineth more and more willing to die, as 
I understand. Concerning your bill 1 , I shall confer with others 
therein, knowing that the same court is able to redress the 
same: and yet I think it will not be reformed, for that I 
know few or none that dare or will speak therein, or prefer 
the same, because it concerneth spiritual things. Notwith- 
standing, I will ascertain you thereof; committing you to the 
Holy Ghost, who keep you and us all, as his. 

Your own, &c. 

The copy of another letter written by the faithful and 
christian-hearted lady, the lady Vane, to master Philpot, 
exhibited likewise by bishop Bonner. 

Hearty thanks rendered unto you, my well-beloved in 
Christ, for the book ye sent me, wherein I find great con- 
solations, and, according to the doctrine thereof, do prepare 
my cheeks to the strikers, and my womanish back to the 
burdens of reproof. And so in the strength of my God I 
trust to leap over the wall : for his sweetness overcometh me 
daily, and maketh all these apothecary drugs of the world 
even medicinal-like in my mouth. For the continuance where- 
of, I beseech thee, my dear fellow-soldier, make thy faithful 
prayer for me, that I may with a strong and gladsome con- 
science finish my course, and obtain the reward, though it 
be no whit due to my work. I am not content that you so 
often gratify me with thanks for that which is none worthy, 
but duty on my part, and small relief to you. But if you 
would love me so much that I might supply your lacks, then 
would I think ye believed my offers to be such as agreed 
with my heart. And for the short charges ye speak of, the 
means are not so pleasant, if God (whom my trust is in) 
P This bill was a supplication to be offered up in the parliament.] 


TEccies. iii. will otherwise prepare : but Solomon saith, " All things here 
have their time;" you to-day, and I to-morrow; and so the 
end of Adam's line is soon run out. The mighty God give 
us his grace, that during this time his glory be not defaced 
through our weakness ! Because you desire to shew yourself a 
worthy soldier, if need so require, I will supply your request 
for the scarf ye wrote of, that ye may present my handywork 
before your Captain, that I be not forgotten in the odours 
of incense, which our beloved Christ offereth for his own: 
to whom I bequeath both our bodies and souls. 
Your own in the Lord, 

F. E. 

Over and besides these letters, the bishops did also bring 
forth a supplication made by master Philpot unto the high 
court of parliament, whereof mention is made in the first of 
the two letters last mentioned ; the copy whereof doth here 
ensue, as followeth : 

To the king and queen's majesties 1 highnesses, the lords 
spiritual and temporal, and the commons of this pre- 
sent parliament assembled. 

In most humble wise complaineth unto this honourable 
court of parliament John Philpot, clerk, that whereas there 
was by the queen's highness a parliament called in the first 
year of her gracious reign, and after the old custom a con- 
vocation of the clergy, your suppliant then being one of the 
said convocation-house, and matters there rising upon the 
using of the sacraments, did dispute in the same, knowing 
that there all men had and have free speech, and ought not 
to be after troubled for any thing there spoken : and yet, 
that notwithstanding, not long after the said parliament, your 
said suppliant (without any act or matter) was commanded 
to prison to the king's bench by the late lord chancellor, 
where he hath remained ever since, until now of late that 
my lord the bishop of London hath sent for your said sup- 
pliant to examine him (being none of his diocese) upon cer- 


tain matters, wherein they would have your orator to declare 
his conscience ; which, the said bishop saith, he hath authority 
to do, by reason of an act of parliament made in the first 
and second years of the king and queen's majesties 1 reigns, 
for the reviving of three statutes made against them that 
hold any opinion against the catholic faith : whereby he 
affirmeth, that every ordinary may, ex officio, examine every 
man's conscience. And for that your said orator 1 hath and 
doth refuse, that the said bishop of London hath any autho- 
rity over your said orator, for that he is neither his diocesan, 
nor hath published, preached, nor held any opinion against 
the catholic faith (notwithstanding the said bishop of London 
detaineth him in the coal-house, in the stocks, without either The strait 
bed or any other thing to lie upon but straw), and for that PMpot !n° 
your said orator cannot appeal for his relief from the said coai-house. s 
bishop to any other judge, but the same bishop may refuse 
the same by their law, and therefore hath no succour and 
•help, but by this high court of parliament, for the explana- 
tion of the said act ; therefore may it please you, that it may 
be enacted by the king and queen's majesties, the lords 
spiritual and temporal, and the commons of this present par- 
liament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that 
no bishop nor ordinary shall commit or detain in prison any 
suspected person or persons for the catholic faith, except he 
or they have spoken, written, or done some manifest act 
against the catholic faith, and the same to be lawfully proved 
against every such person or persons by the testimony of 
two lawful witnesses, to be brought before the said person 
or persons so accused, before he or they shall either be com- 
mitted to prison, or convicted for any such offence or offences ; 
•the said former statute, made in the said first and second 
year of our said sovereign lord and lady notwithstanding : 
whereby your said orator shall not only be set at liberty, and 
divers others now remaining in prison; but also the blood 
of divers of the queen's majesty's true and faithful subjects 

[} ' Orator' seems to have the sense of beadsman ; one who ' as in 
duty bound, will ever pray' : from the Lat. 'oro/ to pray.] 


The condemnation of the worthy martyr of God, 
John Philpot. 

These books, letters, supplications, and other matters 
being thus read, the bishop demanded of him, If the book 
intituled, "The true Keport of the Disputation," &c. were 
of his penning, or not? Whereunto Philpot answered, that 
it was a good and true book, and of his own penning and 
setting forth. 

The bishops, waxing now weary, and being not able by 
any sufficient ground, either of God's word, or of the true 
ancient catholic fathers, to convince and overcome him, fell 
by fair and flattering speech to persuade with him ; promising, 
that if he would revoke his opinions, and come home again 
to their Romish and Babylonical church, he should not only be 
pardoned that which was past, but also that they would with 
all favour and cheerfulness of heart receive him again as a 
true member thereof. Which words when Bonner saw would 
take no place, he demanded of master Philpot (and that with 
a charitable affection, I warrant you), whether he had any just 
cause to allege, why he shoidd not condemn him as a heretic. 
"Well," quoth master Philpot, "your idolatrous sacra- 
ment, which you have found out, ye would fain defend; but 
ye cannot, nor ever shall." 
sentence of In the end the bishop, seeing his unmoveable stedfastness 

condemna- . . A ° 

tionread in the truth, did pronounce openly the sentence of condemna- 

aeainst # r 1 •> 

Philpot. tion against him. In the reading whereof, when he came to 
these words, Teque etiam tanquam hcereticum, obstinatum,perti- 

His words nacem, et impoenitentem, fyc. master Philpot said, " I thank 

it- God that I am a heretic out of your cursed church: I am 

no heretic before God. But God bless you, and give you once 
grace to repent your wicked doings ; and let all men beware 
of your bloody church." 

Moreover, while Bonner was about the midst of the sen- 
tence, the bishop of Bath pulled him by the sleeve, and said, 
" My lord, my lord, know of him first, whether he will recant 
or no." Then Bonner said (full like himself), " let him 
alone;" and so read forth the sentence. 

Philpot de- And when he had done, he delivered him to the sheriffs ; 

livereu to . 

the sheriffs, and so two officers brought him through the bishop's house 


into Paternoster-row, and there his servant met him, and when 
he saw him he said, " Ah ! dear master." 

Then master Philpot said to his man, " Content thyself, 
I shall do well enough ; for thou shalt see me again." 

And so the officers thrust him away, and had his master Philpot 

. J brought to 

to Newgate; and as he went, he said to the people, "Ah! Newgate: 
good people ; blessed be God for this day !" And so the permitted 
officers delivered him to the keeper. Then his man thrust to with him - 
go in after his master ; and one of the officers said unto him, 
" Hence, fellow ! what wouldst thou have ?" And he said, 
" I would go speak with my master." Master Philpot then 
turned him about, and said to him, " To-morrow thou shalt 
speak with me." 

Then the under-keeper said to master Philpot, " Is this ™en b Phii- 
your man?" and he said, " Yea." So he did license his man xiLTnder 
to go in with him; and master Philpot and his man were the keeper> 
turned into a little chamber on the right hand, and there re- 
mained a little time, until Alexander the chief keeper did come 
unto him ; who, at his entering, greeted him with these words : 
"Ah!" said he, "hast not thou done well to bring thyself 
hither?" " Well," said master Philpot, " I must be content, 
for it is God's appointment : and I shall desire you to let me 
have your gentle favour ; for you and I have been of old ac- 
quaintance." " Well," said Alexander, " I will shew thee 
gentleness and favour, so thou wilt be ruled by me." Then 
said master Philpot, " I pray you, shew me what you would 
have me to do." He said, " If you would recant, I will shew Good pm. 

, T potloaden 

you any pleasure I can. " Nay," said master Philpot, " I with irons, 

•> J *■ J ' r ' because lie 

will never recant, whilst I have my life, that which I have would not 

•> ' recant at 

spoken, for it is most certain truth; and in witness hereof Alexander's 

r # ' ' # bidding. 

I will seal it with my blood." Then Alexander said, " This 
is the saying of the whole pack of you heretics." Where- 
upon he commanded him to be set upon the block, and as 
many irons upon his legs as he could bear, for that he would 
not follow his wicked mind. 

Then the clerk told Alexander in his ear, that master Alexander 

' taketh Phil- 

Philpot had given his man money. And Alexander said to g°^ f°* ens 
his man, " What money hath thy master given thee ?" He map - 
answered, " My master hath given me none." " No !" said 
Alexander, "hath he given thee none? That I will know. 


for I will search thee." " Do with me what you list, and 
search me all that you can, 11 quoth his servant : "he hath 
given me a token or two to send to his friends, as to his 
brother and sisters." " Ah !" said Alexander unto master 
Philpot, " thou art a maintainer of heretics : thy man should 
have gone to some of thine affinity ; but he shall be known 
well enough. 11 " Nay, 11 said master Philpot, " I do send it 
to my friends : there he is, let him make answer to it. But, 
good master Alexander, be so much my friend, that these 
irons may be taken off." " Well," said Alexander, " give me 
my fees, and I will take them off: if not, thou shalt wear 
them still." Then said master Philpot, " Sir, what is your 
Alexander fee V He said, four pound was his fees. " Ah !" said master 

tliG cruel 

keeper re- Philpot, " I have not so much : I am but a poor man, and 

quireth four . . „ „-.. ., . . , 

pounds of I have been long; in prison. " What wilt thou give me then: 

Philpot for ° r _,. ., . T ... . 

his irons, said Alexander. " Sir, said he, " 1 will give you twenty 
shillings, and that I will send my man for; or else I will 
lay my gown to gage 1 . For the time is not long (I am sure), 
that I shall be with you ; for the bishop said I should be 
soon dispatched." 

Philpot had Then said Alexander unto him, " What is that to meV 

into limbo. 

And with that he departed from him, and commanded him 
to be had into limbo. And so his commandment was ful- 
filled ; but before he could be taken from the block, the clerk 
would have a groat. 

Then one Witterence, steward of the house, took him on 

his back, and carried him down, his man knew not whither. 

Wherefore master Philpot said to his man, " Go to master 

sheriff, and shew him how I am used, and desire master sheriff 

to be good unto me." And so his servant went straightway, 

and took an honest man with him. 

Master And when they came to master sheriff (which was master 

sheriff, a' Macham), and shewed him how master Philpot was handled 

sendethhis in Newgate, the sheriff, hearing: this, took his ring 2 off from 

rinstotake ,.„,,,. . , . 

offPhiipot's his finger, and delivered it unto that honest man which came 

irons, and ° , 

to restore with master Philpofs man, and bade him go unto Alexander 

the man's r ' ° 

tokens. the keeper, and command him to take off his irons, and to 

[} To gage : to be a pledge7\ 

Q 3 The ring, from the most ancient times, contained the seal of office. 
Vid. Gen. xli. 42; Esth. iii. 10, 12; viii. 2.] 


handle him more gently, and to give his man again that which 
he had taken from him. And when they came again to the 
said Alexander, and told their message from the sheriff, Alex- 
ander took the ring, and said, " Ah ! I perceive that master 
sheriff is a bearer with him 3 , and all such heretics as he is : 
therefore to-morrow I will shew it to his betters." Yet at 
ten of the clock he went in to master Philpot, where he lay, 
and took off his irons, and gave him such things as he had 
taken before from his servant. 

Upon Tuesday at supper, being the 17th day of December, ™'P^ b 
there came a messenger from the sheriffs, and bade master *jj e she ™«' s 
Philpot make him ready, for the next day he should suffer, and J^nlft'day 
be burned at a stake with fire. Master Philpot answered and t0 the fire - 
said, " I am ready: God grant me strength, and a joyful resur- 
rection !" And so he went into his chamber, and poured out his 
spirit unto the Lord God, giving him most hearty thanks, that 
he of his mercy had made him worthy to suffer for his truth. 

In the morning the sheriffs came, according to the order, 
about eight of the clock, and called for him, and he most 
joyfully came down unto them. And there his man did meet 
him, and said, " Ah ! dear master, farewell." His master 
said unto him, " Serve God, and he will help thee." And 
so he went with the sheriffs to the place of execution ; and ^olf m to 
when he was entering into Smithfield, the way was foul, and martyrdom 
two officers took him up to bear him to the stake. Then 
he said merrily, " What ! will ye make me a pope ? I am 
content to go to my journey's end on foot." But first, coining 
into Smithfield, he kneeled down there, saying these words, 
" I will pay my vows in thee, Smithfield !" 

And when he was come to the place of suffering, he kissed words 0t °-'oin{r 
the stake, and said, " Shall I disdain to suffer at this stake, tothes ° take - 
seeing my Redeemer did not refuse to suffer a most vile death 
upon the cross for me 2" And then with an obedient heart Phiipot's 

A prayers. 

full meekly he said the 106th, the 107th, and the 108th 
psalms. And when he had made an end of all his prayers, 
he said to the officers, " What have you done for me?" — and ^j^ers 
every one of them declared what they had done ; and he gave mone y- 
to every of them money. 

P Is a "bearer with" him : has a leaning towards him.] 



162 A PBAYEE. 

Then they bound him to the stake, and set fire unto that 
constant martyr, who the 18th day of December, in the midst 
of the fiery flames, yielded his soul into the hands of Almighty 
God, and full like a lamb gave up his breath, his body being 
consumed into ashes. 
[a.d. 1555.] Thus hast thou, gentle reader, the life and doings of this 
tings and learned and worthy soldier of the Lord, John Philpot, with 

examina- . . , n 

tions of all his examinations that came to our hands, first penned 

John Phil- ii- 

pot, by the a nd written with his own hand, being marvellously preserved 

providence . i i ii 

of Almighty f rom the sight and hand of his enemies; who by all manner 

God, pre- & ... 

served. f means sought not only to stop him from all writing, but 
also to spoil and deprive him of that which he had written ; 
for the which cause he was many times stripped and searched 
in the prison of his keeper: but yet so happily these his 
writings were conveyed and hid in places about him, or else 
his keeper's eyes so blinded, that, notwithstanding all this 
malicious purpose of the bishops, they are yet remaining, and 
come to light. 

A prayer to be said at the stake, of all them that God shall 
account worthy to suffer for his sake. 

prayertobe Merciful God and Father, to whom our Saviour Christ 
ti a me a of the approached in his fear and need by reason of death, and found 
martyrdom. com f or t ; gracious God and most bounteous Christ, on whom 
Stephen called in his extreme need, and received strength; 
most benign Holy Spirit, which in the midst of all crosses 
and death didst comfort the apostle St Paul with more con- 
solations in Christ, than he felt sorrows and terrors; have 
mercy upon me miserable, vile, and wretched sinner, which 
now draw near the gates of death, deserved both in soul and 
body eternally, by reason of manifold, horrible, old and new 
transgressions, which to thine eyes, O Lord, are open and 
known. be merciful unto me, for the bitter death and 
blood-shedding of thine own only Son Jesus Christ. And 
though thy justice doth require in respect of my sins, that 

A PRAYER. 163 

now thou shouldst not hear me, — measuring me in the same 
measure with which I have measured thy majesty, contemn- 
ing thy daily calls — yet let thy mercy, which is above all thy 
works and wherewith the earth is filled, let thy mercy (I 
say) prevail towards me, through and for the mediation of 
Christ our Saviour. And for whose sake, in that it hath 
pleased thee to bring me forth now as one of his witnesses, 
and a record-bearer of thy verity and truth taught by him, 
to give my life there-for (to which dignity I do acknowledge, 
dear God, that there was never any so unworthy and so un- 
meet, no, not the thief that hanged with him on the cross) ; 
I most humbly therefore pray thee that thou wouldst accord- 
ingly aid, help, and assist me with thy strength and heavenly 
grace, that with Christ thy Son I may find comfort, with 
Stephen I may see thy presence and gracious power, with 
Paul, and all others, which for thy name's sake have suffered 
affliction and death, I may find so present with me thy gra- 
cious consolations, that I may by my death glorify thy holy 
name, propagate and ratify thy verity, comfort the hearts of 
the heavy, confirm thy church in thy verity, convert some 
that are to be converted ; and so depart forth of this miserable 
world, where I do nothing but daily heap sin upon sin, and 
so enter into the fruition of thy blessed mercy ; whereof now 
give and increase in me a lively trust, sense, and feeling, 
wherethrough the terrors of death, the torments of fire, the 
pangs of sin, the darts of Satan, and the dolours of hell, may 
never depress me, but may be driven away through the work- 
ing of that most gracious Spirit ; which now plenteously endue 
me withal, that through the same Spirit I may offer (as I 
now desire to do in Christ by him) myself wholly, soul and 
body, to be a lively sacrifice, holy and acceptable in thy sight, 
dear Father ! whose I am, and always have been, even from 
my mother's womb, yea, even before the world was made ; 
to whom I commend myself, soul and body, family and friends, 
country and all the whole church, yea, even my very enemies, 
according to thy good pleasure ; beseeching thee entirely to He prayeth 
give once more to this realm of England the blessing of thy ingofthe 
word again, with godly peace, to the teaching and setting peace in 
forth of the same. dear Father ! now give me grace to 
come unto thee. Purge and so purify me by this fire in 


164 A PBAYEK. 

Christ's death and passion through thy Spirit, that I may be 
a burnt-offering of a sweet smell in thy sight, which livest 
and reignest with the Son and the Holy Ghost, now and for 
evermore world without end, Amen. 




OCTOBER, a.d. 1553. 









Hugh Weston, a native of Leicestershire, entered at Balliol Col- Prolocutor, 
lege, Oxford, in 1526, and subsequently became a fellow of that society. 
He was elected rector of Lincoln College in 1538; and two years after- 
wards was appointed Margaret Professor of Divinity ; and subsequently 
archdeacon of Colchester, and rector of ClyfF in Kent. In the first 
year of queen Mary he was made dean of Westminster, but quitted 
that dignity to make way for abbot Feckenham. The abilities of 
Weston as a disputant marked him out as a fit person to be the pro- 
locutor of the convocation appointed by queen Mary hi 1553 ; and his 
fame recommended him for the further preferment of the deanery of 
Windsor, which he obtained in 1556. Of this dignity he was deprived 
by cardinal Pole, upon a criminal prosecution ; and when he threatened 
to go to Rome to appeal, he was seized and committed to the Tower, 
where he died in 1558, and was buried in a church belonging to the 
Savoy. He has been described as "one of the best preachers and 
orators of his time." 

John Mobeman, of Exeter College, Oxford, took the degree of Dr More- 
B.A. January 29, 1508; that of MA. in July, 1512; and D.D. De- man " 
cember 16, 1529. " This person, who was very learned in his time, 
and hath (as 'tis thought) written several matters of his faculty, but 
lost, was born at Southole in Devon ; and, after he had left his college, 
became vicar of Mayhanet, in Cornwall; where, with much labour, 
he taught the parishioners to say the Lord's prayer, the belief, and 
the ten commandments in the English tongue, about the latter end of 
the reign of king Henry the eighth, being the first of all that did so 


in that country." He was afterwards dean of Exeter ; and, (if Foxe's 
account may be received as authentic) being coadjutor to the bishop, 
was made bishop of that see after his decease. This coadjutorship was 
in October, 1554 ; but Voysey, the then bishop of Exeter, lived until 
1555, a year longer than Moreman, as appears from Ant. Wood, who 
says that Raynolds was " dean of Bristol for a time in 1553 ; and dean 
of Exeter in the year following, on the death of Dr Moreman." 

DrChedsey. William Cheadsey (or Chedsey), born in Somersetshire, was 
admitted scholar at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1528, and be- 
came fellow of the college in 1553. Bishop Bonner, " having a 
special respect for his learning and zeal for the Roman Catholic re- 
ligion," made him his chaplain, and archdeacon of Middlesex. In 
1546 (having about that time taken the degree of D.D.) he subscribed 
the thirty-four articles, and four years after disputed with Peter 
Martyr in the divinity school, "from which time he seemed so moderate 
in his religion in the remaining part of the reign of Edward the Sixth, 
that the protestants took him to be one of their number." In 1550 
he preached openly in Oxford "against the steps of the Reformation 
that were made and making;" and was accordingly committed to the 
Marshalsea prison, where he lay until Nov. 11, 1551. Mary's accession 
procuring his freedom, he was in 1557 made a canon of Christ Church, 
and the following year president of Corpus Christi College, of both 
which dignities he was deprived in the first year of Elizabeth's reign, 
for refusing to acknowledge her supremacy. He was committed to 
the Fleet prison, where after lying for several years he died about 

Dr Watson. Thomas Watson, D.D., was master of St John's College, Cambridge, 
and chaplain to Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. In 1553, he was 
installed dean of Durham by bishop Tonstall, on the deprivation of 
Robert Home; and, in August, 1557, was consecrated bishop of Lincoln, 
from which see being removed by the authority of parliament in the 
beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, as being an enemy to reformation 
and the queen's supremacy, he was imprisoned in and near London for 
about twenty years. At length in 1580, being sent, with John Feckenham, 
prisoner to Wisbeach, in Cambridgeshire, he continued there to the time 
of his death, and was buried in the church of that town, September 27, 
1584. He has been described, (erroneously, as the editor of Ant. Wood 
thinks) as the author of a translation of the Antigone of Sophocles and 
other poetical pieces; Thomas Watson, a native of London, being the 
real author. " In his elder years, being then of a sour disposition, as 


one saith, and learned in deep divinity,, but surly with an austere 
gravity, as another tells us, he published several matters of divinity." 

Andrew Perne, (according to Ant. Wood) was educated at Peter Dr Perne. 
House, Cambridge, of which college he was subsequently fellow and 
master. But Baker, in his MS. account of St John's College, Cam- 
bridge, says of him, that " he was first fellow of St John's, afterwards 
of Queens' College, but never fellow of Peter House." The same author 
relates of Peme, that he was " Whitgift's particular friend and patron, 
whilst Whitgift was fellow of Peter House; protected him in queen 
Mary's time, and did him other good offices, which were always re- 
membered." Dr Perne was one of the six eminent preachers chosen 
to be the king's chaplains in ordinary, in 1551; and, in 1550, was 
made dean of Ely. He is spoken of as " a mutable man in his religion, 
and of a facetious nature, yet a great Maecenas of learning." He died 
at Lambeth, and was buried in the chancel of the parish church 1 . 

This man is to be distinguished from one who had both his names, 
and was a fellow of Catharine Hall, Cambridge, and afterwards minister 
of Wilby, in Northamptonshire; who was also a frequent preacher 
before the long parliament at Westminster, in 1640. Yet another 
Andrew Perne (LL.D.) is found upon record, an inhabitant of West 
Wratting, in Cambridgeshire, who died in 1680. 

William Pye, born in Suffolk, was elected fellow of Oriel College, Dr Pye. 
Oxford, in 1529. He studied physic, was thrice proctor of the Uni- 
versity, and subsequently took the degree of D.D. He was made 
archdeacon of Berkshire in October, 1545; and in the reign of Edward 
VI. shewed signs of being a favourer of the Reformation ; but on Mary's 
accession he changed his mind, and early in her reign was made dean 
of Chichester and prebendary of Lytton in Wells Cathedral, with which 
he united the rectory of Chedzoy, in Somersetshire. "When this 
learned person and celebrated preacher died," says Wood, "unless in 
1557, 1 know not; nor any thing else, only an epigram written upon 
him by a poet of his time and acquaintance, which shall serve for his 
epitaph : 

'Cum pia vita siet, pia cum doceasque popellum, 
Jure videre mihi nomine reque pius.' " 

(Ant. Wood, Ath. Ox. i. 248.) 

P Pollanus, in the preface to his Latin version of the Disputation, says of Perne, 
"This man, though he had, in an unguarded manner, subscribed to the proceedings of 
this synod, afterwards, however, took an opportunity of declaring his assent to the 
truth, and disputed on the fourth day."] 



Dean of 

as dean of 


" Walter Philips, the last prior of Rochester, made a surrender 
of his convent into the king's hands in March, 1540; who, ejecting the 
monks, erected a new society in this church, to consist of a dean and 
six prebendaries, and constituted the said Walter Philips the first 
dean. He died in 1570." (Le Neve's Fasti Ecel. Angl. p. 252.) 

Walter Haddon was originally a member of the university of 
Cambridge, as it would appear from the words of Ant. Wood, who 
says of Dr Richard Coxe, " At Cambridge he was esteemed a good 
scholar, and a better poet than Dr Walter Haddon, who called Mm 
master, as having been either his scholar or his servant." From the 
authority, however, of the same antiquary, it is evident that, at some 
period of his life, (the latter part, probably,) he belonged to Oxford, 
since Wood says of Dr, Owen Ogelthorp, that in 1553 he " was elected 
again president" of Magdalen College, '' having resigned that place about 
a year before, to make room for Dr Walter Haddon." 

But it is an error, (of Foxe, probably,) to call Haddon dean of 

Exeter, as it is clear from ecclesiastical records, that Dr Moreman held 

that dignity at the time of the " Disputation in the Convocation-House." 

Richard Cheyxey (or Cheney) born within the diocese of London, 
of Hereford, was a Fellow of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; was ordained subdeacon 

Feb. 24, 1531 ; and priest, Sept. 21 of the following year: he was made 
archdeacon of Hereford, in the year 1551, and in November, 1558, having 
before that time taken the degree of B.D. was admitted to the fifth 
prebend in the cathedral church of Gloucester; and was made 'bishop 
of that see in 1562, when it had lain vacant more than three years; 
liberty being allowed him at the same time to keep the bishopric of 
Bristol, in commendam, with Gloucester. He was deprived of his spiritu- 
alities in Mary's time for being addicted to the opinions of Luther. 
Early in Elizabeth's reign (1560) he was made by her first canon of 
the fourth stall in Westminster, a dignity which he kept until 1562. 
After being bishop of Gloucester for three years, he was incorporated 
D.D. of Oxford. Goodman, one of his successors in the see of Gloucester, 
wondered "why his master William Camden should say that the said 
Richard Cheyneywas 'Luthero addictissimus,' whereas it was certain 
that he was a papist, and bred up his servants papists, as he had beeri 
informed by one of them with whom he had spoken. He tells us also 
that it doth appear upon record in the Arches, that he was suspended for 


popery and died so suspended, and never would make any recantation. 

He was buried in his cathedral church of Gloucester ; but whether ever 

any monument was put over his grave, I know not." (Ant. Wood, ii. 791.) 

But this opinion of Goodman must be regarded as erroneous, since in 

a letter written from Rome to the bishop, Nov. 1571, by Edmond 

Campian, he urged him to embrace openly the Romish faith, (" vehe- 

menter ilium ad papismum amplexandum hortatur,") and tells him that 

otherwise his hands, which had given pretended orders to many young 

men, would be burnt "in hell flames." (Wood, i. 473.) He died April 

25, 1578-9. 

John Aylmer, (or Elmer,) descended from an ancient and considerable Archdeacon 

of Stow. 
family in Norfolk, passed a period of his youth in Oxford, but took a 

degree in arts (probably M.A.) at Cambridge. He was chaplain to 
the duke of Suffolk, and tutor to Lady Jane Grey ; and was appointed 
to the archdeaconry of Stow in 1553; of which, however, he was 
deprived before he had held it a year. The same cause which led to 
the forfeiture of his archdeaconry, impelled him to seek a voluntary 
exile in Germany, in which country he remained until the commence- 
ment of the reign of Elizabeth, by whom he was appointed one of the 
Protestant disputants against seven Romanist divines. He was made 
archdeacon of Lincoln, in 1573, and consecrated bishop of London, 
March 24, 1576; which see he enjoyed for eighteen years, dying at 
Fulham, June 3, 1594. He was buried in St Paul's cathedral. " He 
was a person of learning and resolution, governed with vigour, and 
was strict in requiring conformity. Part of his character, which has 
been touched already, is comprehended in these two verses upon his 
monument : 

'Ter senos annos prsesul; semel exul, et idem 
Bis pugil in causa religionis erat.'" 

Collier's Eccl. Hist. Vol. ix. p. 179. 

Thomas Young 1 , a native of Pembrokeshire, entered at Broadgate Precentor of 

St David's 
Hall, (now Pembroke College,) Oxford, in 1528. He pursued the study 

of civil law for some years, having taken his degrees in that faculty; 

though he subsequently entered into holy orders. He was elected 

principal of his hall, and afterwards precentor of the cathedral church 

of St David's, probably about the year 1542. This latter preferment, 

(and doubtless the headship of Broadgate Hall with it, if he retained 

the latter post so long,) he resigned in 1553, when he fled into Germany ; 

[' Pollanus remarks, that though Young took no part in the "Disputation," yet he 
was one of six who refused to sign his name as assenting to the acts of the synod.] 


there remaining until the next reign opened. Returning to England, 
he was made bishop of St David's, Jan. 21, 1559 ; and was translated 
thence to York, either the next, or subsequent year; and was also 
appointed president of the queen's councils in the north of England. 
He took the degree of D.C.L., but not (as it seems) until the year 1564, 
when he had been archbishop at least three years. He died June 26, 
1568 ; and was buried at the east end of the choir of York minster.] 

£There is extant a Latin translation of the " Disputation in the 
Convocation-house " by Valerandus Pollanus, whose title-page runs 

" Vera Expositio Disputationis institutse mandato D. Marise Reginse 
Angl. Franc, et Hibern. &c. in Synodo Ecclesiastica, Londoni, in Comitiis 
regni ad 18 Octob. Anno 1553. 

His accessit Reverendiss. in Christo patris ac Domini D. Archiepiscopi 
Cantuariens. epistola apologetica ex Anglico autographo latina facta. 

Et, Precatio ad deum quam Rex Edvard. VI. habuit cum ageret 

1. Joan. 4. 
Probate spiritus, an ex Deo sint. 
S. D. S. M. 

The Latin of Pollanus is a strictly literal translation of Foxe's English, 
with scarcely any deviation therefrom. Being a translation, it possesses 
no authority which could make the reprinting of it in this work import- 
ant, or even interesting : it contains some marginal notes of no historical 
value, as elucidating facts; but, for the most part, exclamations and 
running remarks. Some of these, as describing the feelings of a con- 
temporary writer, have a measure of interest, and may be consulted in 
the original. It has been thought well, however, to give, in this place, 
an English version of V. Pollanus's Preface to his translation ; including 
king Edward's dying prayer.] 


" When I left England, not long ago, there fell into my 
hands a little book, in which were set forth the Acts of the 
disputation at Paul's church, in the recent pretended con- 
vocation held by the papists: and though I met with no- 
thing; in it which I had not before heard while I was in 
London from men of high character, and whose report might 
be trusted, it occurred to me that I owed a debt to the church 
and realm of England for the kindly entertainment I had 
received; and, accordingly, I began to muse by what act of 
service I might shew that my mind was not forgetful of the 
kindness that had been shewn me- Now since it appeared to 
me that the publishing of this Disputation was a matter of 
interest to the whole church, I easily prevailed upon myself to 
put this little work into Latin : it woidd also supply a worthy 
occupation to beguile the weariness of the journey and the 
inns. For I think that all are interested in knowing under 
what tyranny, and by what contrivances, a few months ago, 
the church of England was well nigh overwhelmed; to the 
end that all men, in public and private, may be the more 
earnest in committing this church to God in prayer, and may 
also learn thereby seriously to fear God. In England has 
recently been displayed, (next to Germany,) God's great judg- 
ment ; and how great is his displeasure when his word and 
true religion are treated with dishonour : for our God is a God 
that taketh no pleasure in wickedness ; extremely jealous of 
his honour ; and one who cannot long endure to be profaned 
by hypocrites under cover of the gospel, and who will not 
permit godless men and idolaters to go at last unpunished 
for thus casting away from them, or pouring contempt upon, 
the knowledge of salvation and the truths of the gospel. 


TEerefore it should appear the less wonderful to all, that God 
should give proofs of his displeasure, whether towards his 
church, when its members by pravity of life and corruption 
of manners disgrace the profession of the gospel ; or towards 
any people, for despising the riches of the kingdom of heaven 
which have been offered to, and thrust upon, them, Although, 
in such calamities, ungodly men usually insult over the true 
church, and delight themselves yet more in their superstition 
and idol-folly; nevertheless the doctrine and religion of the 
gospel is true, though some of its professors for their ungodli- 
ness fall under the just judgment of God : forasmuch as the 
word of God endureth for ever, though the heavens should fall 
with a crash, or the earth and all created things should come 
to "nought. The doctrine or superstition of the popish or 
Mahometan sect is not a whit more true, because those sects 
have stood for many years in a flourishing condition, as respects 
both wealth and power, and have far exceeded, [in such mat- 
ters,] the true church of Christ : for as their head is Satan, 
a " liar and murderer from the beginning," whom God permits 
to hold the principality of this world, that he may enrich his 
own children with abundance of earthly things in this life, and 
entice them with the baits of such allurements ; he scarcely 
ever lies in wait where true religion and doctrine are ex- 
tinguished, but keeps a firm hold upon his own by giving 
them every kind of success ; and thus permits each of them 
to live by his own measure, never reproving their unholy ways, 
until he has completely drawn them into eternal and sudden 
destruction with himself. Whereas God, who is truth and 
life itself, forasmuch as he has decreed to make his elect par- 
takers of that life and of his own glory, as a kind parent and 
true friend, does not flatter that at last he may destroy them ; 
but on the contrary he winnows, as by a fan, those who are 
destined to be partakers of his kingdom, that by a process of 
cleansing discipline he may wipe away and purge off the im- 
purity which yet adheres to them : and this is the reason that 


he visits his church with severity, lest his holy name should be 
evil spoken of by his enemies, if he should frequently suffer 
such faults in his own people. Moreover, Satan, the immortal 
enemy of the church, is often permitted by God to vex and 
harass the church, hoping by this way to allure some from 
the fold of Christ into his own sty ; and God allows it, that 
the weakness of his people may turn to his praise, and that 
their patience, accompanied by faith, may be the more con- 
spicuous. For it has been appointed to that old serpent and 
his members, from the beginning, that they should only creep 
on the ground in a degraded state, and lick the dust ; that is, 
be filled with earthly things ; whereas meanwhile to the godly 
heaven is promised, that they '" in heart and mind may thither 
ascend,'" and not linger on the earth. All you, therefore, who 
would be enrolled under the name of Christ, I would entreat 
to learn at length true righteousness, being admonished by 
these severe examples ; and worship the true God, the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and do not any more hereafter 
estimate the religion or true doctrine of Christ by the issue 
of things external ; lest your portion be with Jeroboam, 
Sennacherib, wicked Jezebel, and their followers, if your 
own prosperity, and not a desire to advance the glory of the 
one living God and Almighty Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, be the motive that stirs you ; or if you transfer his 
praise, either wholly or in part, to your own arm, or to your 
idols of silver, gold, stone, wood, and such like panacea^. 

For though God sometimes punishes severely the mem- 
bers of his church, yet it is not to be supposed that the 
church of antichrist is more holy than Christ's true church, 
in which, since the Holy Spirit by the ministry of the word 
is continually reproving sin, the smallest offences are pre- 
sently made manifest, whereas the foulest transgressions among 
those that belong to antichrist are not only not noticed, 

Q 1 The word in the original is panaceis, the spirit of which might 
perhaps be better expressed by quackeries.'] 


but are the occasion of laughter and sport, because their God 
Satan is delighted therewith. Let any one who chooses weigh 
the manners of either church, and he will say that I do not 
state what is false, whatever orders in the church he may 
compare together. But he will find in the clerical order 
especially, that in the papists reigns the devil, but in the 
others Christ himself; though I do not deny that the latter 
too are but men. 

The blessed God grant that these now most renowned 
kingdoms of England and Germany may under these stripes 
return to a better mind; so that, entirely renouncing the 
ungodliness of idolatry and an unholy life, they may approve 
themselves faithful servants of God : and upon all other may 
God cast such bright beams, that they may be able to 
emerge out of darkness to the true light of the gospel. Eead 
the following account, most dearly beloved brother in Christ, 
with an attentive mind and an upright judgment, that you 
may be enabled to quit the lie and wisely embrace the truth. 
And be not displeased, I entreat you, with the humbleness 
of my style : my aim has been truth and the edification of 
the godly: the 'nature of the subject forbids that it should 
be embellished; it is enough that it be clearly set forth 2 .'' 

Farewell. At the inn, Jan. 28, in the year 1554, since 
Christ took upon him our flesh of the substance of the 
Virgin Mary, which was 2515 years from the slaughter of 
the priests of Jezebel. May the Lord in like manner punish 
the blasphemies of his name, and the cruel treatment of his 
people, his religion, and his truth, by the more than Jeze- 
belitish papists, who are striving afresh to place on the necks 
of the people the popish yoke, and would gladly do so with 
twice, thrice, or four times the force of former occasions. 

Your hearty well-wisher, 


[_ a "Omari res ipsa negat, contenta doceri"] 



178 king Edward's prayer. 

The prayer of the most sacred and innocent prince Edward 
the sixth, king of England, France, and Ireland, which he 
poured out to God in the midst of his meditations, with closed 
eyes, a little before he breathed his last, in the seventeenth 
year of his age, and seventh of his reign ; in the year of 
Christ, 1553. 

" O Lord God, take me out of this most wretched and 
most troublous life, and receive me into the assembly of thy 
elect : yet, not what I will, but thy will alone be done. Lord, 
I commend my spirit to thee. thou, my Lord, how happy 
and blessed would be my condition, if I were with thee ! but 
for the sake of thy elect preserve my life, and restore me to 
my former health, that I may be able faithfully to serve thee. 
Ah, my Lord, be kind and gracious to thy people, and save 
the kingdom of thy inheritance! Ah, Lord God, preserve 
thy elect people of England ! Ah, my Lord God, defend this 
thy realm, and protect it from popery, and maintain the true 
religion and pure worship of thy name ; that I and my people 
may be exalted to praise and celebrate thy holy name. Amen." 

After three hours he gave up his soul to God with these 
words and this short prayer: 

" My strength is now failing me : Lord, have mercy upon 
me, and receive this spirit of mine.' 1 

This prayer, and these last words of the late young king, 
(than whom the world hath not seen a more excellent prince,) 
I have added in this place, kind reader, in order that you 
might behold the piety of the young king ; and at the same 
time note, how dear to his heart were the welfare of his 
people and the true religion of Christ. I often observed his 
majesty, during prayer, spread out his hands and lift up his 
eyes to heaven at these words of the minister, " Lord, save 
thy people; 11 and he would himself repeat the same. More- 
over, from these his last words you will discover, that his 
sacred soul at that time foretold those artifices of Satan and 
of antichrist his servant, and those assaults upon the true 
church of God, which we at this present time witness. Whereof 
the following disputation will give you a sample : read, and 
judge: and, whatever is good and agreeable to the word of 
God, hold fast. Farewell. 




OCTOBER, A. D. 1553. 

London the 

Whereas divers and uncertain rumours be spread abroad * disputa- 

1 tion of reh- 

of the disputation had in the convocation-house ; to the in- f°^ 
tent that all men may know the certainty of all things therein f^£^ 
done and said, as much as the memory of him that was pre- JwJ,{Jer 
sent thereat can bear away, he hath thought good, at request, 
thoroughly to describe what was said therein on both parties 
of the matters argued and had in question, and of the en- 
trance thereof. 

The Act of the First Bay. 

First, upon Wednesday, being the 18th of October, at October is. 
afternoon, master Weston, the prolocutor, certified the house, 
that it was the queen's pleasure, that the company of the 
same house, being learned men assembled, should debate of 
matters of religion, and constitute laws thereof, which her 
grace and the parliament would ratify. "And for that," said Dr Weston, 

CT * J prolocutor, 

he, " there is a book of late set forth, called the catechism 2 , against the 

' ' book of 

Q 1 The text adopted in the " Disputation" is that of Foxe, 1684 : se t forth in 
the differences between that and the editions of 1597 and 1610, being {^.^time. 
marked in the notes.] 

[ 2 The title of this book is as follows: " 'Catechismus brevis, Chris- 
tians Disciplines Summam continens', omnibus ludimagistris authoritate 
regia commendatus. Huic catechismo adjuncti sunt articuli de quibus 
in ultimo Synodo Londinensi Anno Dom. 1552, ad tollendam opinionum 
dissensionem, &c. inter episcopos, et alios eruditos viros convenerat, regia 
similiter authoritate promulgati." These words do not assert that the 
catechism, but the articles only, laid claim to synodical' authority. 
Weston seems to have confused these points in his own mind ; and, if 
we may judge from his words, not to have clearly distinguished the two 
treatises mentioned in the title-page, since he says presently, "I thought 



[which he shewed forth,] bearing the name of this honour- 
able synod, and yet put forth without your consents, as I 
have learned ; being a book very pestiferous, and full of he- 
resies ; and likewise a book of common prayer very abomi- 
nable," as it pleased him to term it. " I thought it there- 
fore best, first to begin with the articles of the catechism, 
concerning the sacrament of the altar, to confirm the natural 
presence of Christ in the same, and also transubstantiation. 
Wherefore," said he, " it shall be lawful, on Friday next 
ensuing, for all men freely to speak their conscience in these 
matters, that all doubts may be removed, and they fully sa- 
tisfied therein." 

The Act of the Second Day. 

October 20. The Friday coming, being the 20th of October, when men 

had thought they should have entered disputations of the 

Tv yo bills questions proposed, the prolocutor exhibited two several bills 

the convoca- unto the house ; the one for the natural presence of Christ 

tion-nouse _ r 

toutV™" m ^ ne sacramen t of the altar; the other concerning the 
catechism, that it was not of that house's agreement set 
forth, and that they did not agree thereunto : requiring all 
them to subscribe to the same, as he himself had done. 
Whereunto the whole house did immediately assent, except 
six, which were the dean of Rochester, the dean of Exeter 1 , 
the archdeacon of Winchester, the archdeacon of Hereford, 
the archdeacon of Stow, and one other 2 . 

«i h e e cate°- k ° f Anc * w hilst a the rest were about to subscribe these two 

chism de- 
fended by 
Phiipot. it best first to begin with the Articles of the Catechism, &c. The king's 

letters patent speak of it as having been composed by a "certain pious and 

learned man", and presented to him; and that he entrusted the task of 

examining it to certain bishops and other men of learning. Who was the 

author of it, is not ascertained; some having ascribed it to Poinet, bishop 

of Winchester ; and others to Alexander Nowell, who was subsequently 

dean of St Paul's. Vid. Collier's Eccl. Hist. Lond. 1840. torn. v. p. 506.] 

L 1 The person referred to is Haddon, but he was not dean of 
Exeter. See "Notices" before the Disputation, p. 170.] 

P That "other" was, probably, Young, Precentor of St David's.] 

a while, 1597. 


articles, John Philpot stood up, and spake, first, concerning 
the articles of % the catechism, that he thought they were de- 
ceived in the title of the catechism, in that it beareth the 
title of the synod of London last before this ; although many 
of them which then were present were never made privy there- 
of in setting it forth; for that this house had granted the 
authority to make ecclesiastical laws unto certain persons to 
be appointed by the king's majesty ; and whatsoever ecclesi- 
astical laws they, or the most part of them, did set forth, 
according to a statute in that behalf provided, it might be 
well said to be done in the synod of London, although such 
as be of this house now, had no notice thereof before the 
promulgation. And in this point he thought the setter-forth 
thereof nothing to have slandered the house, as they by their 
subscription went about to persuade the world, since they had 
our synodal authority unto them committed, to make such 
spiritual laws as they thought convenient and necessary. 

And moreover he said, as concerning the article of the A ^-j" e st J he 
natural presence in the sacrament, that it was against reason senclf pre " 
and order of learning, and also very prejudicial to the truth, 
that men should be moved to subscribe before the matter were 
thoroughly examined and discussed. But when he saw that 
allegation might take no place, being as a man astonished b at 
the multitude of so many learned men, as there were of pur- 
pose gathered together to maintain old traditions more than 
the truth of God's holy word, he made this request unto the 
prolocutor : that whereas there were so many ancient learned ™Jg°£ s t |£ 
men present on that side, as in the realm the like again were prolocutor, 
not to be found in such number ; and that on the other side, 
of them that had not subscribed, were not past five or six, 
both in age and learning far inferior unto them; therefore, 
that equality might be had in this disputation, he desired 
that the prolocutor would be a mean unto the lords 3 , that J^g 1 * t0 
some of those that were learned, and setters-forth of the gj^ey a" d 
same catechism, might be brought into the house, to shew *£e dispu- 
their learning that moved them to set forth the same; and 
that Dr Ridley and master Rogers, with two or three more, 

C 3 Bo a mean unto the lords: be the medium of communicating a 
request to the bishops : " cum D.D. episcopis agas." Lat.] 

b attorned, 1597. 


might be licensed to be present at this disputation, and to 
be associated with them. t 

thTSops. ^*" s rec l uest was thought reasonable, and was proposed 
unto the bishops, who made this answer : that it was not in 
them to call such persons unto our house, since some of them 
were prisoners. But they said, they would be petitioners in 
this behalf unto the council, and in case any were absent 
that ought to be of the house, they willed them to be taken 
in unto them if they listed 1 . After this, they minding to 
have entered into disputation, there came a gentleman as 
messenger from the lord great master, signifying unto the 
prolocutor, that the lord great master and the earl of Devon- 
shire would be present at the disputations, and therefore he 
deferred the same unto Monday, at one of the clock at 

The Act of the Third Day. 

Upon Monday, the 23rd of October, at the time appointed, 
in the presence of many earls, lords, knights, gentlemen, and 

Weston. divers other of the court and of the city also, the prolocutor 
made a protestation, that they of the house had appointed 
this disputation, not to call the truth into doubts, to the which 
they had already all subscribed, saving live or six, but that 
those gainsayers might be resolved of their arguments in 
the which they stood, "as it shall appear unto you, not 
doubting but they will also condescend unto us." 

Haddon Then he demanded of master Haddon, whether we a would 

and Elmar ' 

al^wer t0 ex- reason a g a inst the questions proposed or no. To whom he 

r!quest eir ma( ^ e a nswer, that he had certified him before in writing, 

be granted, that he would not, since the request of such learned men as 

were demanded to be assistant with them, would not be 

granted. Master Elmar likewise was asked, who made the 

[} Here, too, the words, as given by Foxe, are obscure. Possibly, 
the bishops meant that, if the petitioners desired the attendance of any 
parties over whom they (the bishops) had controuL their free consent 
was given that such persons should attend the adjourned meeting of 
convocation. So Pollanus seems to have understood the sentence; "ut 
hos ipsi advocent, et sibi, si lubeat, adjungant."] 

a he, 1597. 


prolocutor the like answer; adding moreover this, that they 
had done too much prejudice already to the truth, to sub- 
scribe before the matter was discussed ; and little or nothing 
it might avail to reason for the truth, since all they were 
now determined to the contrary. 

After this he demanded of master Cheney, who, the pro- Cheney. 
locutor said, allowed the presence with them ; but he denied 
the transubstantiation by the means of certain authorities 
upon the which he standeth, and desireth to be resolved (as 
you shall hear), whether he will propose his doubts concern- 
ing transubstantiation, or no. " Yea, 1 ' quoth he, " I would doubt*/' 8 
gladly my doubts , to be resolved, which move me not to substantial 
believe transubstantiation. The first is out of St Paul to [I'cor. xi. 
the Corinthians, who, speaking of the sacrament of the body 23 ' 27] 
and blood of Christ, calleth it ofttimes bread after the con- 
secration. The second is out of Origen 2 , who, speaking of 
this sacrament, saith, that the material part thereof goeth 
down to the excrements. The third is out of Theodoret 3 , 
who, making mention of the sacramental bread and wine 
after the consecration, saith, that they go not out of their 
former substance, form, and shape. These be some of my 
doubts, among many others, wherein I require to be an- 

Then the prolocutor assigned Dr Moreman to answer ^™ a t "' s 
him, who, to St Paul, answered him thus : that " The sacra- st Paul - 
ment is called by him bread indeed ; but it is thus to be 
understood : that it is the sacrament of bread ; that is, the 
form of bread." 

Then master Cheney inferred and alleged, that Hesychius ^hto re " 
called the sacrament both bread and flesh. " Yea," quoth f n ° s r w e ™ n ' s 
Moreman, " Hesychius calleth it bread, because it was bread, 


Lf Ei he wav to eWnropevopevov eh to a-Topa eh KoiXlav %(ope?, 
kcci ek atpehpwua eKfidWerai, kc» to dyia^opevov j3piiofxa hta Xoyov 
Qeov Kat evTev^ews kcit' ctuTo fxev to vAikov ek tr\v noiAiav ^mpeT, 
koi ek dcpehpuiva eK/3d\\erat. Orig. Op. Par. 1740. torn. in. In Matth. 
Comment, torn. xi. p. 499.] 

[? Ou3e yap perd toV dyta<rp.6v to pvarrtxd <rvp(3oAa t»;s ohe'ias 
ejjio-TaTtxi (pvaeoo<;. pevei yap eV« tijs irporepai ova-la's, kou rod <rj£ij- 
paTOf, KCti tou ei'Bous, kou opard iart, kcei dirra, ola sai trporepov rjv. 
Theodoret. Op. Halse. 1772. torn. iv. Dialog, ii. Inconfusus. p. 126.]. 


^°swS a to' s an( i not because it is so." And passing over Origen, he 
Theodoret. came ^ Theodoret, and said, that men mistook his authority, 
by interpreting a general into a special, as Peter Martyr 1 
hath done in the place of Theodoret, interpreting ovaia for 
substance, which is a special signification of the word; whereas 
ova ict is a general word, as well to accidents as to substance; 
" and therefore I answer thus unto Theodoret ; that the 
sacramental bread and wine do not go out of their former 
substance, form, and shape ; that is to say, not out of their 
accidental substance and shape." 
ar'neth After this master Cheney sat him down ; and by and 

Moreman's ' 3 y master Elmar stood up, as one that could not abide to 
answer. i lear so f on( j an an swer to so grave an authority, and rea- 
soned upon the authority of Theodoret alleged before by 
master Cheney, and declared, that Moreman's answer to 
Theodoret was no just or sufficient answer, but an illusion 
and subtle evasion, contrary to Theodorefs meaning. "For," 
said he, "if ovaia should signify an accident in the place 
alleged, as it is answered by master Moreman, then were it 
a word superfluous set in Theodoret there, where do follow 
two other words, which sufficiently do expound the accidents 
of the bread, that is eldo<s ical a^ijfxa, which signify in 
English, shape and form." And so he proved out of the 
same author, by divers allegations, that ovaia, in Greek, 
could not be so generally taken in that place, as Moreman 
for a shift would have it. But Moreman, as a man having 
no other salve for that sore, affirmed still, that ovaia, which 
signifieth substance, must needs signify an accidental sub- 
stance properly. To whose importunity, since he could have 
no other answer, Elmar, as a man wearied with his impor- 
tunity, gave place. 

pucittonto" After this stood up John Philpot, and said, that he 
foreman's could p rov ^ that by the mSitter that Theodoret entreateth 

Theo P doret° f °f m the place above alleged, and by the similitude which 
opene . be maketh to prove his purpose, by no means master More- 
ls " Nam apud Theodoretum Eutychiani ad hunc modum argu- 
mentantur: Panis efficitur corpus Christi: Ergo humana natura Christi 
transivit in divinam. At Theodoretus negat assumptum ; nam panem 
ait nomen quidem accipere corporis Christi, interim tamen ejus naturam 
et substantiam non mutari." Pet. Martyr. Defens. ad Gard. de Eucha- 
ristia. Part i. p. 389. Tigur. 1559.] 


man's interpretation of ovala might be taken for an acci- 
dental substance, as he for a shift would interpret it to be ; 
for the matter which Theodoret entreateth of in that place, 
is against Eutyches 8 a heretic, who denied two natures of 
substance to remain in Christ, being one person ; and that 
his humanity, after the accomplishment of the mystery of our 
salvation, ascending into heaven, and being joined unto the 
divinity, was absorpt, or swallowed up of the same ; so that 
Christ should be no more but of one divine substance only, 
by his opinion. Against which opinion Theodoret writeth, ™„*^™" 
and by the similitude of the sacrament proveth the contrary Th . eo *? re t 

•> r J a similitude. 

against the heretic : that like as in the sacrament of the 
body of Christ, after the consecration, there is the substance 
of Christ's humanity, with the substance of bread remaining 
as it was before, not being absorpt by the humanity of 
Christ, but joined by the divine operation thereunto ; even 
so in the person of Christ, being now in heaven, of whom 
this sacrament is a representation, there be two several sub- 
stances, that is, his divinity and humanity united in one 
hypostasis or person, which is Christ ; the humanity not 
being absorpt by the conjunction of the divinity, but remain- 
ing in his former substance. " And this similitude," quoth The place of 
Philpot, "brought in of Theodoret to confound Eutyches, jjjfseiy taken 
should prove nothing at all, if the very substance of the papists. 
sacramental bread did not remain as it did before. But if 
Dr Moreman's interpretation might take place for transub- 
stantiation, then should the heretic have thereby a strong 
argument, by Theodoret's authority so taken, to maintain 
his heresy, and to prove himself a good christian man ; and 
he might well say thus unto Theodoret : ' Like as thou, 
Theodoret, if thou wert of Dr Moreman's mind, dost say, 
that after the consecration in the sacrament the substance 

£* Eutyches, an abbot of Constantinople, first published his opinions 
a.d. 446. In the following year the council of Constantinople condemned 
and deposed him; but, in 449, his orthodoxy was proclaimed by the 
council of Ephesus, who reinstated him in his dignity : but his doctrines, 
in conjunction with those of Nestorius, were pronounced heretical by the 
(fourth general) council of Chalcedon in 451. The Eutychian% (also 
called 'Monophysites' from their doctrine of one nature only being in 
Christ after his incarnation,) were yet subsisting in the eastern provinces 
as late as a.d. 655.] 


of the bread is absorpt or transubstantiate into the human 
body of Christ coming thereunto, so that in the sacrament 
is now but one substance of the humanity alone, and not the 
substance of bread as it was before : even so likewise may 
The false I affirm, and conclude by thine own similitude, that the hu- 

exposition ' J 

of Dr More- manity, ascending up by the power of God into heaven, and 

man upon •> 7 o i J l 7 

Theodoret adjoined unto the deity, was by the might thereof absorpt 

overthrown. •> •> ' J o r 

and turned into one substance with the deity ; so that now 
there remaineth but one divine substance in Christ, no more 
than in the sacramental signs of the Lord's supper, after 
the consecration, doth remain any more than one substance, 
according to your belief and construction V 

In answering to this Dr Moreman staggered ; whose de- 

Phiipot. f ec t Philpot perceiving, spake on this wise : " Well, master 
Moreman, if you have no answer at this present ready, I 
pray you devise one, if you can conveniently, against our 
next meeting here again." 

Weston is With that his saying the prolocutor was grievously of- 

fended, telling him that he should not brag there, but that 

Phiipot's he should be fully answered. Then said Philpot, " It is the 

replication J >■ ' 

answeredby thing that I only desire, to be answered directly in this 

command- o J ' J 

silence" 10 behalf; an( ^ I desire of you, and of all the house at this 
present, that I may be sufficiently answered, which I am 
sure you are not able to do, saving Theodoret's authority 
and similitude upright, as he ought to be taken." None 
other answer then was made to Phiipot's reason a , but that 
he was commanded to silence. 

Philips. Then stood up the dean of Rochester, offering himself 

to reason in the first question against the natural presence, 
wishing that the scripture and the ancient doctors in this 
point might be weighed, believed, and followed. And against 
this natural presence, he thought the saying of Christ in St 
Matthew to make sufficiently enough, if men would credit 

[Matt.xxvi. and follow scripture ; who said there of himself, that poor 
men we should have alway with us, but Him we should not 
have always : " which was spoken," quoth he, " concerning 
the natural presence of Christ's body. Therefore we ought 
to believe as he hath taught — that Christ is not naturally 
present on earth in the sacrament of the altar." 

° reasons, 1697. 


To this was answered by the prolocutor, that we should not Weston. 
have Christ present always to exercise alms-deeds upon him, 
but upon the poor. 

But the dean prosecuted his argument, and shewed it out Philips. 
of St Augustine further, that the same interpretation of the 
scripture alleged was no sufficient answer ; who writeth on A notable 

. . , authority 

this wise on the same sentence : " When as he said Csaith St outofst 

^ Augustine. 

Augustine), ' Me shall ye not have always with you;' he spake 
of the presence of his body. For by his majesty, by his provi- 
dence, by his unspeakable and invisible grace, that is fulfilled 
which is said of him, ' Behold I am with vou until the con- f Mat ^ „„ , 

' J xxvm. 20.] 

summation of the world.' But in the flesh, which the Word 
took upon him, in that which was born of the Virgin, in that 
which was apprehended of the Jews, which was crucified on 
the cross, which was let down from the cross, which was 
wrapped in clouts, which was hid in the sepulchre, which was 
manifested in the resurrection, ' You shall not have me always 
with you. 1 And why? For after a bodily presence he was 
conversant with his disciples forty days ; and they accompany- 
ing him, seeing and not following him, he ascended and is not 
here ; for there he sitteth at the right hand of the Father ; 
and yet here he is, because he is not departed in the presence 
of his majesty. After another manner we have Christ always, 
by the presence of his majesty ; but, after the presence of his 
flesh, it is rightly said, ' You shall not verily have me always 
with you. 1 For the church had him in the presence of his flesh 
a few days, and now by faith it apprehendeth him, and seeth 
him not with eyes."' 

[} Potest et sic intelligi : ' Pauperes semper habebitis vobiscum, me 
autem non semper habebitis.' Accipiant hoc et boni, sed non sint soliciti: 
loquebatur enim de preesentia corporis sui. Nam secundum majestatem 
suam, secundum providentiam, secundum ineffabilem et invisibilem 
gratiam, impletur quod ab eo dictum est, ' Ecce ego vobiscum sum usque 
in consummationem saeculi.' Secundum carnem vero quam Verbum 
assumpsit, secundum id quod de virgine natus est, secundum id quod 
a Judaeis prehensus est, quod ligno confixus, quod de cruce depositus, 
quod linteis involutus, quod in sepulchro conditus, quod in resurrectione 
manifestatus, non semper habebitis vobiscum. Quare 1 Quoniam con- 
versatus est secundum corporis prsesentiam quadraginta diebus cum 
discipulis suis, et eis deducentibus videndo non sequendo, adscendit in 
ccelum, et non est hie. Ibi est enim, sedet ad dexteram Patris : et hie 
est, non enim recessit praesentia majestatis. Aliter: secundum prte- 



answer to 
St Augus- 

Philpot re- 
plieth to 


To this authority Dr Watson took upon him to answer, 
and said, he would answer St Augustine by St Augustine. 
And having a certain book in his hand, of notes, he alleged out 
of the seventieth treatise upon St John, that after that mortal 
condition and manner we have not now Christ on earth a , as he 
was heretofore before his passion. 

Against whose answer John Philpot replied, and said, that 
master Watson had not fully answered St Augustine by St 
Augustine, as he would seem to have done ; for that in the 
place above-mentioned by master dean of Rochester, he doth 
not only teach the mortal state of Christ's body before his 
passion, but also the immortal condition of the same after his 
resurrection : in the which mortal body St Augustine seemeth 
plainly to affirm, that Christ is not present upon the earth, 
neither in form visibly, neither in corporal substance invisibly, 
as in few lines after the place above alleged St Augustine doth 
more plainly declare by these words, saying, " Now these two 
manners of Christ's presence declared, which is, by his majesty, 
providence, and grace, now present in the world ; which before 
his ascension was present in flesh, and being now placed at 
the right hand of the Father, is absent in the same from the 
world; I think (saith St Augustine) that there remaineth no 
other question in this matter. 11 

" Now, 11 quoth Philpot, " if St Augustine acknowledged no 
more presence of Christ to be now on earth, but only his divine 
presence, and touching his humanity to be in heaven, we ought 
to confess and believe the same. But if we put a third pre- 
sence of Christ, that is corporally to be present always in the 
sacrament of the altar invisibly, according to your supposi- 
tions, whereof St Augustine maketh no mention at all in all his 
works, you shall seem to judge that, which St Augustine did 
never comprehend." 

" Why," quoth Watson, " St Augustine, in the place by 

sentiam majestatis semper habemus Christum: secundum prsesentiam 
carnis, recte dictum est discipulis, ' Me autem non semper habebitis.' 
Habuit enim ilium ecclesia secundum prsesentiam carnis paucis diebus : 
mod 6 fide tenet, oculis non videt. Ergo sive ita dictum est, ' Me autem 
non semper habebitis,' qusestio sicut arbitror jam nulla est, quae duobus 
modis soluta est. Aug. Op. Par. 1680. torn. m. part u. col. 633.] 

a on the earth, 1597. 


me alleged, — maketh he no mention how St Stephen, being in 
this world, saw Christ after his ascension?" 

" It is true," said Philpot : " but he saw Christ, as the Phi 'P ot - 
scripture telleth, in the heavens being open, standing at the 
right hand of God the Father." Further to this Watson 
answered not. 

Then the prolocutor went about to furnish up an answer to Weston. 
St Augustine, saying, that he is not now in the world after the 
manner of bodily presence, but yet present, for all that, in his 

To whom Philpot answered, that the prolocutor did grate rwipot re- 
much upon this word secundum in St Augustine ; which weston. 
signifieth, after the manner, or in form: but he doth not 
answer to id quod, which is that thing or substance of 
Christ, in the which Christ suffered, arose, and ascended into 
heaven, in the which thing and substance he is in heaven, and 
not in earth; as St Augustine, in the place specified, most 
clearly doth define. 

To this nothing else being answered, the dean of Rochester Philips re- 

. » i ■ ii o sumeth his 

proceeded in the maintenance ot his argument, and read out of argument. 
a book of annotations sundry authorities for the confirmation 
thereof; to the* which Moreman, who was appointed to answer Moreman. 
him, made no direct answer, but bade him make an argument, 
saying, that master dean had recited many words of doctors, 
but he made not one argument. Then said the dean, " The Philips, 
authorities of the doctors by me rehearsed be sufficient argu- 
ments to prove mine intent, to the which my desire is to be 
answered of you." But still Moreman cried, " Make an argu- Moreman. 
ment," to shift off the authority which he could not answer 

After this the dean made this argument out of the institu- Philips. 

tion of the sacrament : " Do this in remembrance of me :" and, [i cor. xi. 

24 > 26 -] 
" Thus ye shall shew forth the Lord's death until he come." — 

The sacrament is the remembrance of Christ : ergo, the sacra- Argument. 

ment is not very Christ ; for yet he is not come. For these 

words, " until he come," do plainly signify the absence of 

Christ's body. Then the prolocutor went about to shew that Weston 

J , . answereth 

these words, "until he come," did not import any absence of *° the t 
Christ on the earth, by other places of Scripture, where 
donee, " until," was used in like sense ; but directly to the 




Christ did 
eat his own 


purpose 1 he answered nothing. In conclusion the dean fell to 
questioning with Moreman, whether Christ did eat the paschal 
lamb with his disciples, or not ! He answered, " Yea." Fur- 
ther, he demanded whether he did eat likewise the sacrament 
with them, as he did institute it ? Moreman answered, " Yea." 
Then he asked, what he did eat, and whether he did eat his 
own natural body, as they imagine it to be, or no ? which when 
Moreman had affirmed ; then said the dean, " It is a great 
absurdity by you granted ;" and so he sat down. 

Against this absurdity Philpot stood up and argued, saying, 
he could prove it by good reason deduced out of the scripture, 
that Christ ate not his own natural body at the institution of 
the sacrament ; and the reason is this : 

Argument. £ a _ Receiving of Christ's body hath a promise of remission of 
sins with it annexed 2 . 

ro- Christ, eating the sacrament, had no promise of remis- 
sion of sin. 

co. Ergo, Christ in the sacrament did not eat his own body. 



that which 
his fellow 

To this reason Moreman answered, denying the former 
part of the argument, that the sacrament had a promise of 
remission of sins annexed unto it. 

Then Philpot shewed this to be the promise in the sacra- 
ment : " Which is given for you, which is shed for you, for the 
remission of sins." But Moreman would not acknowledge 
that to be any promise, so that he drave Philpot to John vi., 
to vouch his saying with these words, " The bread which I 
will give, is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the 

Moreman answering nothing directly to this argument, 
Harpsfield started up to supply that which was wanted in his 
behalf; and thinking to have answered Philpot, confirmed 
more strongly his argument, saying, " Ye mistake the promise 
which is annexed to the body of Christ in the sacrament : for 
it pertained not to Christ, but to his disciples, to whom Christ 
said, ' This is my body which is given for you,' and not for 
Christ himself." 

[} " Sed quidquid diceret, nihil ad Rhomtmm." Lat. of Pollanus/] 
Q 2 " Digne manducantibus" is added in the Latin of Pollanus.} 


" You have said well for me," quoth Philpot, " for that is P!lil P ot - 
mine argument. The promise of the body of Christ took no 
effect in Christ : ergo, Christ ate not his own body." 

Then the prolocutor, to shoulder out the matter, said, the Weston. 
argument was naught ; for by the like argument he might go 
about to prove, that Christ was not baptized, because the re- 
mission of sin, which is annexed unto baptism, took no effect 
in Christ. To the which Philpot replied, that like as Christ Pi«ipot. 

■ 111 Philpot's 

was baptized, so he ate the sacrament: but he took on him argument 

. , , , not soluted. 

baptism, not that he had any need thereof, or that it took any 
effect in him ; but as our master, to give the church an 
example to follow him in the ministration of the sacrament, 
and thereby to exhibit unto us himself; and not to give himself 
to himself. 

No more was said in this ; but afterward the prolocutor 
demanded of Philpot, whether he would argue against the 
natural presence, or no ? To whom he answered, Yea, if he 
would hear his argument without interruption, and assign one 
to answer him, and not many; which is a confusion to the 
opponent, and especially for him that was of an ill memory. 

By this time the night was come on ; wherefore the pro- The convo- 
locutor brake up the disputation for that time, and appointed tinued to the 
Philpot to be the first that should begin the disputation the 
next day after, concerning the presence of Christ in the sa- 

The Act of the Fourth Dmj. 
On Wednesday, the 25th of October, John Philpot, as it Philpot not 

. , tit suffered to 

was before appointed, was ready to have entered the disputa- make his 

. iJ - J . L declaration. 

tion, minding first to have made a certain oration, and a true 
declaration in Latin of the matter of Christ's presence, which 
was then in question. Which thing the prolocutor perceiving, 
by and by he forbade Philpot to make any oration or decla- 
ration of any matter ; commanding him also, that he should 
make no argument in Latin, but to conclude on his arguments 
in English. 

Then said Philpot, " This is contrary to your order taken Philpot. 
at the beginning of this disputation. For then you appointed 


that all the arguments should be made in Latin, and there- 
upon I have drawn and devised all my arguments in Latin. 
And because you, master prolocutor, have said heretofore 
openly in this house, that I had no learning, I had thought 
to have shewed such learning as I have, in a brief oration, 
and a short declaration of the questions now in controversy; 
thinking it so most convenient also, that in case I should 
speak otherwise in my declaration than should stand with 
learning, or than I were able to warrant and justify by God's 
word, it might the better be reformed by such as were learned 
of the house, so that the unlearned sort, being present, might 
take the less offence thereat." 

But this allegation prevailed nothing with the prolocutor, 
who bade him still form an argument in English, or else to 
hold his peace. Then said Philpot, " You have sore disap- 
pointed me, thus suddenly to go from your former order : but 
I will accomplish your commandment, leaving mine oration 
apart ; and I will come to my arguments, the which, as well 
as so sudden a warning will serve, I will make in English, 
senceof -^ u * before I bring forth my argument, I will in one word 
thesacra- d ec l are what manner of presence I disallow in the sacrament, 
to the intent the hearers may the better understand to what 
end and effect mine arguments shall tend : not to deny ut- 
The gross 1 ' ter ty tne presence of Christ in his sacraments, truly ministered 
thTpIpTsu according to his institution ; but only to deny that gross and 
denied. carnal presence, which you of this house have already sub- 
scribed unto, to be in the sacrament of the altar, contrary to 
the truth and manifest meaning of the scriptures; that by 
transubstantiation of the sacramental bread and wine, Christ's 
natural body should, by the virtue of the words pronounced 
by the priest, be contained and included under the forms or 
accidents of bread and wine. This kind of presence, imagined 
by men, I do deny," quoth Philpot, " and against this I will 
craveth of -^ u * before he could make an end of that he would have 

prosecutV sa ^' ne was interrupted of the prolocutor, and commanded 

His true 

liis argu- 
ments with- 
out inte 

iisargu- to d escen( l ^ his argument. At whose unjust importunity 
out inter- Philpot being offended, and thinking to purchase him a re- 
medy therefore, he fell down upon his knees before the earls 
and lords which were there present, being a great number, 


whereof some were of the queen's council, beseeching them 
that he might have liberty to prosecute his arguments with- 
out interruption of any man; the which was gently granted 
him of the lords. But the prolocutor, putting in use a point 
of the practice of prelates, would not condescend thereunto, 
but still cried, " Hold your peace, or else make a short a^Junter. 
argument." " I am about it," quoth Philpot, " if you will jjf*^ 
let me alone. But first, I must needs ask a question of my tor - 
respondent, concerning a word or twain of your supposition, 
that is, of the sacrament of the altar: what he meaneth 
thereby, and whether he taketh it as some of the ancient 
writers do, terming the Lord's supper the sacrament of the 
altar — partly, because it is a sacrament of that lively sacrifice Altar <h- 

. * J versely 

which Christ offered for our sins upon the altar of the cross, — taken - 
and partly, because that Christ's body, crucified for us, was 
that bloody sacrifice', which the blood-shedding of all the beasts 
offered upon the altar in the old law did prefigurate and sig- 
nify unto us, in signification whereof the old writers some- 
times do call the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, 
among other names which they ascribe thereunto, the sacra- 
ment of the altar ? Or whether you take it otherwise ; as 
for the sacrament of the altar which is made of lime and 
stone, over the which the sacrament hangeth, and to be all 
one with the sacrament of the mass, as it is at this present 
in many places? This done, I will direct mine arguments 
according as your answer shall give me occasion." 

Then made Dr Chedsey this answer, that in their sup- chedsey. 
position they took the sacrament of the altar, and the sacra- 
ment of the mass, to be all one. 

" Then," quoth Philpot, " I will speak plain English as pwipot. 
master prolocutor willeth me, and make a short resolution 
thereof: that that sacrament of the altar, which ye reckon 
to be all one with the mass, once justly abolished, and now 
put in full use again, is no sacrament at all, neither is Christ 
in any wise present in it." And this his saying he offered pwipot's 
to prove before the whole house, if they listed* to call him convoca- 

1 ' J tiou-house. 

thereunto ; and likewise he offered to vouch the same before 
the queen's grace, and her most honourable council, before' 

U C or !] Mfwe, in Foxe.] 
« tutted, 1597 and 1610. 



the face of six of the best learned men of the house, of the 
contrary opinion, and refused none. " And if I shall not be 
able, - " quoth he, " to maintain by God's word that I have 
said, and confound those six which shall take upon them to 
withstand me in this point, let me be burned with as many 
fagots as be in London, before the court gates.'" This he 
uttered with great vehemency of spirit. 
Weston. At this the prolocutor, with divers others, were very much 

offended, demanding of him, whether he wist what he said, 
phiipot. or no i? "Yea," quoth Philpot, "I wot well what I say;" 
desiring no man to be offended with his saying, for that he 
spake no more than by God's word he was able to prove. 
" And praised be God," quoth he, " that the queen's grace 
hath granted us of this house (as our prolocutor hath in- 
formed us), that we may freely utter our consciences in these 
matters of controversy in religion : and therefore I will speak 
here my conscience freely, grounded upon God's holy word, 
for the truth; albeit some of you here present mislike the 
tulTioco Then divers of the house, besides the prolocutor, taunted 

cms." ° ar " an ^ reprehended him for speaking so unfearingly against the 
sacrament of the mass; and the prolocutor said, he was mad; 
and threatened him, that he would send him to prison, if he 
would not cease his speaking. 
Phiipot. Philpot, seeing himself thus abused, and not permitted 

with free liberty to declare his mind, fell into an exclama- 
tion, casting his eyes up towards the heaven, and said, "0 
Lord, what a world is this, that the truth of thy holy word 
may not be spoken and abiden by !" And for very sorrow 
and heaviness the tears trickled out of his eyes. 
m'itteouo 61 " After this the prolocutor, being moved by some that were 
make a brief about him, was content that he should make an argument, 

argument. n 

so that he would be brief therein. 

" I will be as brief," quoth Philpot, " as I may conve- 
niently be, in uttering all that I have to say. And first, I 
will begin to ground my arguments upon the authority of 
scriptures, whereupon all the building of our faith ought to 
be grounded ; and after, I shall confirm the same by ancient 

C 1 Satin' nanus e.s, aut intelligia quae loqueris? Lat. See Acts xxvi. 
24, 25.] 


doctors of the church. And I took the occasion of my first ^fJlw. 
argument out of Matthew xxviii., of the saying of the angel 
to the three Marys, seeking Christ at the sepulchre, saying, 
' He is risen, he is not here :' and Luke xxiii., the angel 
asketh them, Why they sought him that liveth among the 
dead. Likewise the Scripture testifieth, that Christ is risen, 
ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the 
Father: all the which is spoken of his natural body: ergo, 
it is not on earth included in the sacrament. 

" I will confirm this yet more effectually by the saying 
of Christ in John xvi. ; 'I came,' saith Christ, ' from my 
Father into the world, and now I leave the world and go 
away to my Father r 1 the which coming and going he meant 
of his natural body. Therefore we may affirm thereby, that 
it Js not now in the world. 

" But I look here, 11 quoth he, " to be answered with a 

blind distinction of visibly and invisibly, that he is visibly Distinction 
i .,•,.,., . , ....,, . ,, , of the pa- 

departed in his humanity, but invisibly he remainetn not- pists. 

withstanding in the sacrament. But that answer I prevent 
myself, that with more expedition I may descend to the pith 
of mine arguments, whereof I have a dozen to propose ; and 
will prove that no such distinction ought to take away the 
force of that argument, by the answer which Christ's dis- 
ciples gave unto him, speaking these words: 'Now thou 
speakest plainly, and utterest forth no proverb ;' which words 
St Cyril interpreting, saith, ' That Christ spake without any Cyril, 
manner of ambiguity and obscure speech 2 .' And therefore I 
conclude hereby thus, that if Christ spake plainly, and with- 
out parable, saying, ' I leave the world now and go away 
to my Father, 1 then that obscure, dark, and imperceptible 
presence of Christ's natural body to remain in the sacrament 
upon earth invisibly, contrary to the plain words of Christ, 
ought not to be allowed. For nothing can be more uncer- 
tain, or more parabolical and insensible, than so to say. Here 
now will I attend what you will answer, and so descend to the 
confirmation of all that I have said by ancient writers." 

P Qavfj.djjjvo-1 tjjV dnrotei^iv mi evapye(TrdTt]V KaraTr\T]TTOvrai 

tow \6yov to liatpavei' irepi<rro\rji yap aVa'cr^s &X a > rov "^poi ai/Toi/s 

c S fiaKa ireiroirirat \6yov. Cyril. Alexandr. Archiep. Op. Lutet. 1638. 

torn. iv. p. 941.] 



answer to Then Dr Chedsey, reciting his argument in such order as it 

pinipot. wag ma( j ej took upon him to answer severally to every part 
thereof on this wise. First, to the saying of the angel, " That 
Christ is not here ;" and, " Why seek ye the living among the 
dead?" he answered, that these sayings pertained nothing to 
the presence of Christ's natural body in the sacrament; but 
that they were spoken of Christ's body being in the sepulchre, 
when the three Marys thought him to have been in the grave 
still. And therefore the angel said, " Why do ye seek him 
that liveth among the dead?" And to the authority of John 
xvi., where Christ saith, " Now I leave the world and go to 
my Father," he meant that of his ascension. And so likewise 
did Cyril, interpreting the saying of the disciples, that knew 
plainly that Christ would visibly ascend into heaven. But that 
doth not exclude the invisible presence of his natural body in 
the sacrament ; for St Chrysostom, writing to the people of 
Antioch, doth affirm the same, comparing Helias and Christ 
together, and Helias' cloak unto Christ's flesh: "Elijah," 
quoth he, " when he was taken up in the fiery chariot, left his 
cloak behind him unto his disciple Helisseus : but Christ, as- 
cending into heaven, took his flesh with him, and left also his 
flesh behind him." 1 Whereby we may right well gather, that 
Christ's flesh is visibly ascended into heaven, and invisibly 
abideth still in the sacrament of the altar. 
Answer fo To this Philpot replied, and said, " You have not directly 

chedsey. answere( j to the saying of the angel, ' Christ is risen, and is 
not here,' because you have omitted that which was the 
chiefest point of all. For," said he, " I proceeded further, 
as thus : He is risen, ascended, and sitteth at the right hand of 
God the Father: ergo, he is not remaining on the earth. 
Neither is your answer to Cyril, by me alleged, sufficient ; but 
by and by I will return to your interpretation of Cyril, and 
more plainly declare the same, after that I have first refelled 
the authority of Chrysostom, which is one of your chief prin- 
ciples that you alleged 2 to make for your gross carnal presence 

|_ U fxev yap H\i'a? fxrjXtaTrjv d<prjfce tco /AadrjTt] " o ce vlo<; tow 
Weoi> avapa'tvwu Trjv cdpua tj/uv KctTeAiwe Ttjv eavrov' a\\A' 6 faev 
rlAias awodv<rafxevo<; • 6 6e Xpo-TO? koi ijfuv KaTeAnre, koi eymv avTiju 
dvljxOe. Joan. Chrvsost. Op. Par. 1718. torn. n. p. 34/] 

[" "Qus vobis Achilleum argumentum dare videtur." Lat.~] 


in the sacrament ; which being well weighed and understood, 
pertaineth nothing thereunto. 11 

At that the prolocutor startled, that one of the chief pillars Phiipot in- 
in this point should be overthrown 3 ; and therefore recited the e " nP 
said authority in Latin first, and afterward Englished the same, 
willing all that were present to note that saying of Chryso- 
stom, which he thought invincible on their side. "But I shall 
make it appear," quoth Phiipot, "by and by, that it doth 
make little 3, for your purpose." And as he was about to declare Phiipot 
his mind in that behalf, the prolocutor did interrupt him, as he terrupted. 
did almost continually ; wherewith Phiipot not being content, 
said, " Master prolocutor thinketh that he is in a sophistry 
school, where he knoweth right well the manner is, that when 
the respondent perceiveth that he is like to be enforced with an 
argument, to the which he is not able to answer, then he doth 
what he can, with cavitation and interruption, to drive him 
from the same." 

This saying of Phiipot was ill taken of the prolocutor and Weston. 
his adherents; and the prolocutor said, that Phiipot could 
bring nothing to avoid that authority, but his own vain ima- 
gination. " Hear, 1 ' quoth Phiipot, " and afterward judge. Phiipot. 
For I will do in this, as in all other authorities wherewith you 
shall charge me in refelling any of my arguments that I have 
to prosecute, answering either unto the same by sufficient 
authorities of scripture, or else by some other testimony of 
like authority of yours, and not of mine own imagination ; the 
which if I do, I will it to be of no credit. And concerning the 
saying of Chrysostom, I have two ways to beat him from your 
purpose ; the one out of scripture, the other out of Chryso- 
stom himself, in the place here by you alleged. First, where The place 
he seemeth to sav, that Christ ascending took his flesh with stom, of 

^ Christ tak- 

him, and left also his flesh behind him, truth it is : for we all iag up his 

i • • i flesh, and 

do confess and believe, that Christ took on him our human leaving his 

_... . ill- • flesh, an- 

nature m the Virgin Mary's womb, and, through his passion in swered to 
the same, hath united us to his flesh ; and thereby are we how Christ 

' .|i left his flesh 

become one flesh with him: so that Chrysostom might there- behind him. 
fore right well say, that Christ ascending took his flesh, which 

[ s Added in the Latin : " ut auditorum attentionem frangeret, atque 
a Filpoto averteret."^ 

a to make little, 1597 and 1610. 

Gal. iii. 


he received of the Virgin Mary, away with him; and also left 

his flesh behind him, which are we that be his elect in this 

world, who are the members of Christ, and flesh of his flesh ; 

as very aptly St Paul to the Ephesians, in the fifth chapter, 

doth testify, saying, ' We are flesh of his flesh, and bone of 

his bones.' And if percase 1 any man will reply that he entreat- 

eth there of the sacrament, so that this interpretation cannot 

so aptly be applied unto him in that place, then will I yet 

Chrysostom interpret Chrysostom another way by himself. For in that 

by P Chry- place, a few lines before those words which were here now 

lately 3 read, are these words ; that Christ, after he ascended 

into heaven, left unto us, endued with his sacraments, his flesh 

in mysteries ; that is, sacramentally 2 . And that mystical flesh 

Christ leaveth as well to his church in the sacrament of 

baptism, as in the sacramental bread and wine. And that St 

Paul justly doth witness, saying, ' As many of us as are 

baptized in Christ have put upon us Christ. 1 And thus you 

may understand that St Chrysostom maketh nothing for your 

carnal and gross presence in the sacrament, as you wrongfully 

take him." 

Re- Now in this mean while master Pie rounded the prolocutor 

in the ear 3 to put Philpot to silence, and to appoint some other, 
mistrusting lest he would shrewdly shake their carnal presence 
in conclusion, if he held on long, seeing in the beginning 
he gave one of their chief foundations such a pluck. Then the 

A e ood so- P r °l° cu t° r ^id to Philpot, that he had reasoned sufficiently 

hisar f u raUenou S n ' an< ^ ^ na ^ some other should now supply his room. 

Philpot Wherewith he was not well content, saying : " Why, sir, I 
have a dozen arguments concerning this matter to be proposed, 
and I have yet scarce b overgone my first argument ; for I have 
not brought in any confirmation thereof out of any ancient 
writer (whereof I have for the same purpose many), being 
hitherto still letted by your oft interrupting of me." 

P Percase: perchance.] 

P Oihu on /xaKapl^eTe tov Vmaiov tKeivov, koi e[3ov\e<rde auroc 
£Ka(7TO? eKewa elvai' t'i ovv av 17111/ vTrooe'i^ia, on erepov ti ttoMw 
fiei'Cpv eKeivov ircti/Te? eXafiopev 01 fxenvo-Taymyrifiei'ot ; Chrysost. Op. 
torn. 11. p. 34.] 

P Rounded, &c. : whispered, from the German, runen.~] 
■• no rather read, 1597 and 1610. 
•> not pet, 1597 and 1610. 


" Well," quoth the prolocutor, " you shall speak no more Weston. 
now, and I command you to hold your peace." " You per- 
ceive," quoth Philpot, " that I have stuff enough for you, and PMpot. 
am able to withstand your false supposition, and therefore you 
command me to silence." " If you will not give place," quoth 
the prolocutor, "I will send you to prison." "This is not," 
quoth Philpot, " according to your promise made in this house, 
nor yet according to your brag made at Paul's Cross, that men 
should be answered in this disputation to whatsoever they can 
say ; since you will not suffer me, of a dozen arguments, to 
prosecute one." 

Then master Pie took upon him to promise that he should 
be answered another day. Philpot, seeing he might not pro- 
ceed in his purpose, being therewith justly offended, ended, 
saying thus : " A sort of you here, who hitherto have lurked in 
corners, and dissembled with God and the world, are now 
gathered together to suppress the sincere truth of God's holy 
word, and to set forth every false device, which by the catholic 
doctrine of the scripture ye are not able to maintain." 

Then stepped forth master Elmar, chaplain to the duke of ^ lmw ^* in 
Suffolk, whom master Moreman took upon him to answer ; forib - 
against whom master Elmar objected divers and sundry autho- 
rities for the confirming of the argument he took the day before 
in hand, to prove that ovaia in the sentence of Theodoret, Ov<ri a . 
brought in by master Cheney, must needs signify substance, 
and not accidents: whose reasons and probations , because they 
were all grounded and brought out of the Greek, I do pass 
over, for that they want their grace in English, and also their Moreman 

U-CSli Cull Ot 

proper understanding. But his allegations so encumbered day, to 
master Moreman, that he desired a day to overview them; for some crafty 
at that instant he was without a convenient answer. 

Then did the prolocutor call master Haddon, dean of 
Exeter, and chaplain to the duke of Suffolk, who prosecuted 
Theodorefs authority in confirming master Elmar's argument : 
to whom Dr Watson took upon him to give answer ; who, 
after long talk, was so confounded, that he was not able 
to answer to the word mysterium: but, forasmuch as he 
seemed to doubt therein, master Haddon took out of his bosom 
a L&tin author to confirm his saying, and shewed the same to 

<• approbations, 1697 and 1610. 


master Watson, asking him whether he thought the trans- 
lation to be true, or that the printer were in any fault. " There 
Watson con- mav De a fault in the printer," quoth Watson, "for I am not 
Haddon. remembered of this word." Then did master Haddon take out 
of his bosom a Greek book, wherein he shewed forth with his 
finger the same words ; which master Watson could not deny. 
His arguments further I omit to declare at large, because they 
were for the most part in Greek, about the boulting 1 of the 
true signification of ouaia. 
Pern Then stept forth master Pern, and in argument made 


transub- declaration of his mind against transubstantiation, and con- 

stantiation. . i , • • n i i ™ 

firmed the sayings and authorities alleged by master Elmar 
and master Haddon : to whom the prolocutor answered, say- 
ing, " I much marvel, master Pern, that you will say thus ; 
forsomuch as, on Friday last, you subscribed to the con- 
trary." Which his saying master Elmar did mislike, saying 
to the prolocutor, that he was to blame, so to reprehend 
any man, "partly for that this house," quoth he, "is a house 
of free liberty for every man to speak his conscience, and 
partly for that you promised yesterday, that, notwithstanding 
any man had subscribed, yet he should have free liberty to 
speak his mind." And for that the night did approach, and 
the time was spent, the prolocutor, giving them praises for 
their learning, did yet notwithstanding conclude, that all 
reasoning set apart, the order of the holy church must be 
received, and all things must be ordered thereby. 

The Act of the Fifth Bay. 

On Friday, the 27th of October, Dr Weston the pro- 
locutor did first propound the matter, shewing that the con- 
vocation hath spent two days in disputation already about 
one only doctor, who was Theodoret, and about one only 
word, which was ovaia : yet were they come, the third day, 
to answer all things that could be objected, so that they 
would shortly put a their arguments. So master Haddon, 
dean of Exeter, desired leave to oppose master Watson, who, 

fj 1 Boulting: sifting. Boulting out, 1597 and 1610.] 
a put out, 1597 and 1610. 


with two other more, that is, Morgan and Harpsfield, was 
appointed to answer. 

Master Haddon demanded this of him, " Whether any Haddon, 

i p i i dean of 

substance of bread or wine did remain after the consecration V Exeter, a- 
Then master Watson asked of him again, whether he thought son > Mor - 

° gan, and 

there to be a real presence of Christ's body or no ? Master Harpsfield. 
Haddon said, It was not meet nor order-like, that he who 
was appointed to be respondent, should be opponent ; and he 
whose duty was to object, should answer. Yet master Watson, 
a long while, would not agree to answer; but, that thing 
first being granted him, at last an order was set, and master 
Haddon had leave to go forward with his argument. 

Then he proved, by Theodoret"s words 2 , a substance of T '!l wor 1 ds 

. r . . ofTheodo- 

bread and wine to remain. For these are his words: "The ret - 
same they were before the sanctification, which they are 
after." Master Watson said, that Theodoret meant not the 
same substance, but the same essence. 

Whereupon they were driven again unto the discussing a popish 

..„, , > , _ T . ■,. distinction 

ot the week word ovaia; and master Haddon proved it to between 


mean a substance, both by the etymology of the word, and and essence, 
by the words of the doctor. "For over la," quoth he, "cometh 
of the particle b wv, which descendeth of the verb e'tfii; and 
so cometh the noun ovala, which signifieth substance." Then 
master Watson answered, that it had not that signification 
only : but master Haddon proved that it must needs so sig- 
nify in that place. 

Then Haddon asked Watson, When the bread and wine 
became symbols ? Whereunto he answered, " After the con- 
secration, and not before." Then gathered master Haddon 
this reason out of his author. 

Da- The same thins:, saith Theodoret, that the bread and wine Argument 

, „ , , , ' , . of Haddon. 

were before they were symbols, the same they remain 
still in nature and substance, after they are symbols. 

tl- Bread and wine they were before : 

si. Therefore bread and wine they are after. 

Q a OuSe yap //CTa tov dyicMr/jiov tb ixvcttikix a-vfx.f]o\a Trji oiKeia? 

e'f iVtotoi (pvveun. Theodoreti Inconfusus Dialog, n. Op. Lutet. Par. 

1642. torn. iv. p. 85.] 

>> Participle, 1597 and 1610, The edition of 16S4 reads " cometh to the particle,*' 
which is scarcely sense. 


Then master Watson fell to the denial of the author, 
and said he was a Nestorian' ;-and he desired that he might 
answer to master Cheney who stood by, for that he was 
more meet to dispute in the matter, because he had granted 
and subscribed unto the real presence. 

Cheney. Master Cheney desired patience of the honourable men 

to hear him, trusting that he should so open the matter, 
that the verity should appear; protesting furthermore, that 
he was no obstinate or stubborn man, but would be conform- 
able to all reason ; and if they, by their learning (which he 
acknowledged to be much more than his), could answer his 
reasons, then he would be ruled by them, and say as they 
said ; for he would be no author of schism, nor hold any 
thing contrary to the holy mother the church, which is Christ's 

Dr Weston liked this well, and commended him highly, 
saying that he was a well-learned and sober man, and well 
exercised in all good learning, and in the doctors ; and finally, 
a man meet, for his knowledge, to dispute in that place : " I 
pray you, hear him," quoth he. 

Cheney's Then master Cheney desired such as there were present, 

prayer. J * 

to pray two words with him unto God, and to say, Vincat 

ocritas; "Let the verity take place, and have the victory: 11 

and all that were present cried with a loud voice, Vincat 

Veritas, Vincat Veritas. 

Weston. Then said Dr Weston to him, that it was hypocritical. 

" Men may better say," quoth he, Vicit writas, " Truth 

hath gotten the victory." Master Cheney said again, If he 

would give him leave, he would bring it to that point, that 

he might well say so. 

Cheney and Then he began with master Watson after this sort : " You 

pute. said, that master Haddon was unmeet to dispute, because 

he granteth not the natural and real presence ; but I say, 

[} The heresy of Nestorius (who held that the divine and human 
nature in Christ were connected rather than united), arose a.d. 428: 
and its remains are yet visible in the community of Nestorian, or 
Chaldean Christians, who compose a part of the church settled on the 
coast of Malabar. This portion of the church in question has never 
conformed to the Romish church, but the other part has become 
identified with the Romish communion.] 


you are much more unmeet to answer, because you take away 
the substance of the sacrament. 1 ' 

Master Watson said, he [Cheney] had subscribed to the changed, 
real presence, and should not go away from that : so said &c- 
Weston also, and the rest of the priests ; insomuch that for 
a great while he could have no leave to say any more, till 
the lords spake, and willed that he should be heard. 

Then master Cheney told them what he meant by his Caene y- 
subscribing to the real presence, far otherwise than they 
supposed. So then he went forward, and prosecuted master 
Haddon's argument, in proving that ovala was a substance ; 
using the same reason that master Haddon did before him. 
And when he had received the same answer also that was 
made to master Haddon, he said, it was but a lewd refuge, 
when they could not answer, to deny the author ; and proved 
the author to be a catholic doctor ; and, that being proved, he 
confirmed that which was said of the nature and substance 
further. " The similitude of Theodoret is this," quoth he : 
"As the tokens of Christ's body and blood, after the invo- 
cation of the priest, do change their names, and yet continue 
the same substance ; so the body of Christ, after his ascension, 
changed its name, and was called immortal, yet had it its 
former fashion, figure, and circumscription ; and, to speak 
at one word, the same substance of his body. 2 Therefore," 
said master Cheney, " if in the former part of the similitude ^„f „^ a 
you deny the same substance to continue, then in the latter }^^ 
part of the similitude, which agreeth with it, I will deny the by Chene y- 
body of Christ, after his ascension, to have the former nature 
and substance. But that were a great heresy : therefore it is 
also a great heresy to take away the substance of bread 3, and 
wine after the sanctification." 

T "(lairep to'wvv to. trvpifioXa tov ZecrirortKOv <ra>juaTos t£ Km 
ct'tftctTos aWa fiev ei<ri irpo t»j? tepa.TiKrj<; eiriK\tj<r6(io$, /xera ce ye rrjv 
67riK\i7<ni/ ixerafiaWeTai, Kal ei-epa yiveTai' ovtw to becnoTiKov 
(nS/xa fterd rrjv dvdKti^iv ek .Trjv ovcriav fj.eTe(3\ti6rj rqv 6eiau. Ibid. 
Infra. Koj yap eKeTva to triofxa to fxev irpoTepov eiooe %X €l Kai 
a-)(tjfia na\ irepiypcMpriv, kou aVa^aTrAius eliretv, ty\v tov cro)/i«To? 

» " blood and wine," Ed. 1684, but " bread and wine" seems to be demanded by the 
reasoning; and, indeed, to make sense; and is the reading of the ed. of 1610. 


Watson. Then was master Watson enforced to say, that the sub- 

stance of the body, in the former part of the similitude brought 
in by him, did signify quantity, and other accidents of the 
sacramental tokens which be seen, and not the very substance 
of the same ; and therefore Theodoret saith, Quae videntur, fyc. 
that is, "those things which be seen.'" For, according to 
philosophy, the accidents of things be seen, and not the sub- 
appSSed to Then master Cheney appealed to the honourable men, and 
the lords, desired that they should give no credit to them in so saying ; 
for if they should so think as they would teach, after their 
lordships had ridden forty miles on horseback (as their business 
doth sometimes require), they should not be able to say at 
night, that they saw their horses all the day, but only the 
colour of their horses. And, by his reason, Christ must go to 
school, and learn of Aristotle to speak: for when he saw 
Nathanael under the fig-tree, if Aristotle had stood by, he 
would have said, " No, Christ ; thou sawest not him, but the 
colour of him." 

After this Watson said, " What, if it were granted that 

Theodoret was on the other side I Where they had one of that 

opinion, there were a hundred on the other." 

ca"ie(i a for S Then the prolocutor called for master Morgan to help, and 

pinch? at a sa ^' tna * Theodoret did no more than he might lawfully do. 

For first, he granted the truth, and then, for fear of such as 

were not fully instructed in the faith 1 , he spake aiviy/jiaTiKws, 

that is, covertly and in a mystery ; and this was lawful for him 

to do : for first he granted the truth, and called them the body 

of Christ and the blood of Christ. Then, afterwards, he 

seemed to give somewhat to the senses, and to reason : " but, 

that Theodoret is of the same mind that they were of, the 

words following," quoth he, "do declare ; for that which follow- 

eth is a cause of that which went before. And therefore he 

saith, ' The immortality,'' &c. whereby it doth appear, that he 

meant the divine nature, and not the human." 

Morpanai- Then was Morgan taken with misalleging of the text: for 

the text, the book had not this word " for ;" for the Greek word did 

rather signify "truly" and not "for;" so that it might 

[ ] Added in the Latin, "illorumque imbecillitati se accommodans."] 


manifestly appear, that it was the beginning of a new matter, 
and not a sentence rendering a cause of that he had said 

Then it was said by Watson again, " Suppose that Theo- Watson. 
doret be with you, who is one that we never heard of printed, 
but two or three years ago ; yet is he but one, and what is one 
against the whole consent of the church V After this, master 
Cheney inferred, that not only Theodoret was of that mind, Cheney. 
that the substance of bread and wine do remain, but divers 
others also, and especially Irenseus, who, making mention of 
this sacrament, saith thus : " When the cup which is mingled 
with wine, and the bread that is broken, do receive the word of 
God, it is made the eucharist of the body and blood of Christ, 
by the which the substance of our flesh is nourished and doth 
consjst." 2 If the thanksgiving do nourish our body, then there 
is some substance besides Christ's body. 

To the which reason both Watson and Morgan answered, Watson and 

° Morgan. 

that Ex quious, " By the which," in the sentence of Irenseus, 
was referred to the next antecedent, that is, to the body 
and blood of Christ ; and not to the wine which is in the cup, 
and the bread that is broken. 

Master Cheney replied, that it was not the body of Christ Cheney. 
which nourished our bodies. " And let it be that Christ's flesh 
nourisheth to immortality, yet it doth not answer to that argu- 
ment, although it be true, no more than that answer which 
was made to my allegation out of St Paul, ' The bread which 
we break, 1 &c, with certain other like; whereunto you an- 
swered, That bread was not taken there in its proper signi- 
fication, but for that it had been; no more than the rod of 
Aaron was taken for the serpent, because it had been a 

After this, master Cheney brought in Hesychius, and used Cheney, 
the same reason that he did, of burning of symbols ; and he 
asked them, What was burnt? Master Watson said, We must 
not inquire nor ask, but if there were any fault, impute it to 

[_ Ottots ovv koi to KCKpafxevov iroTriptov, kcii o yeyovms apToi 
eirioe^erat tov \oyov tov Qeou, koi yiuerai >; evyapia-Tta trcopa 
\pi(TTOv, ex Tovrtov Se av^eTai ko\ cvvia-TciTai r\ Trj's (TapKoi r\fxu)v 
vitoaratTx. Irenffii adv. Haereses. Lib. v. Cap. ii. Oxon. 1702. 
p. 3970 



called in 
to help 

Christ. Then said master Cheney, Whereof came those ashes — 
not of substance ? or can any substance arise of accidents I 

Then was master Harpsfield called in to see what he could 
say in the matter 1 ; who told a fair tale of the omnipotency 
of God, and of the imbecility and weakness of man's reason, 
not able to attain to godly things. And he said, that it was 
convenient, whatsoever we saw, felt, or tasted, not to trust our 
senses. And he told a tale out of St Cyprian, how a woman 
Here is good saw the sacrament burnine; in her coffer; "and that which 

s tuft" as if it 

were out of burned there, 11 quoth Harpsfield, "burnetii here, and becometh 

the Legend - 1 r 

of Lies! ashes. 11 But what that was that burnt, he could not tell. But 
master Cheney continued still, and forced them with this 
question, What it was that was burnt I "It was either," said 
he, " the substance of bread, or else the substance of the body 
of Christ, which were too much absurdity to grant." At 
length they answered, that it was a miracle ; whereat master 
Cheney smiled 2 , and said, that he could then say no more. 

Weston Then Dr Weston asked of the company there, whether 

would know r j > ^ 

tiie et were those men were sufficiently answered, or no. Certain priests 
anwered y criecl ' " Ye V but they were not heard at all for the great 
hk e hadan n - d multitude which cried, "No, No;" which cry was heard and 
argument , noised almost to the end of Paul's. Whereat Dr Weston 
being much moved, answered bitterly, that he asked not the 
judgment of the rude multitude and unlearned people, but of 
them which were of the house. Then asked he of master 
Haddon and his fellows, whether they would answer them other 
three days? Haddon, Cheney, and Elmar said, "No." But 
the archdeacon of Winchester stood up and said, that they 
should not say but they should be answered ; and though all 
others did refuse to answer, yet he would not, but offered to 
answer them all one after another. With his proffer the pro- 
locutor was not contented, but railed on him, and said, that he 
should go to Bedlam : to whom the archdeacon soberly made 
this answer, that he was more worthy to be sent thither, who 
used himself so ragingly in that disputation, without any 
indifferent equality. Then rose Dr Weston up, and said : 
"All the company have subscribed to our article, saving 

to answer 
them all. 

A strong ar 
gument of 

C 1 


1 Succurrere lapsanti socio." Lat7\ 

' Vix risum contineo, cum videam vestra tarn nuda latibula.' 


only these men which you see. What their reasons are, you Dr Weston : 

where lie is 

have heard. We have answered them three days, upon pro- not able t0 

. J r r answer, he 

mise (as it pleased him to descant without truth, for no such would out - 
promise was made), that they should answer us again as long 
as the order of disputation doth require ; and if they be able to 
defend their doctrine, let them so do." 

Then master Elmar stood up, and proved how vain a man Einw'srea- 

11 son why 

Weston was ; for he affirmed that they never promised to tne v would 

. r not answer. 

dispute, but only to open and testify to the world their con- 
sciences. For when they were required to subscribe, they 
refused, and said that they would shew good reasons which 
moved them, that they could not with their consciences sub- 
scribe; as they had partly already done, and were able to 
do more sufficiently : " Therefore," quoth he, " it hath been 
ill galled a disputation, and they were worthy to be blamed 
that were the authors of that name. For we meant not to 
dispute, rior now mean to answer, before our arguments," 
quoth he, "which we have to propound, be solved, according 
as it was appointed. For by answering we should but en- 
cumber ourselves, and profit nothing ; since the matter is 
already decreed upon and determined, whatsoever we shall 
prove, or dispute to the contrary. 

The Act of the Sixth Day. 

On Monday following, being the 30th of October, the 
prolocutor demanded of John Philpot, archdeacon of Win- 
chester, whether he would answer in the questions before 
propounded to their objections, or no ? To whom he made 
this answer, That he would willingly so do, if, according to 
their former determination, they would first answer sufficiently 
to some of his arguments, as they had promised to do, whereof 
he had a dozen, not half of the first being yet decided : and 
if they would answer fully and sufficiently but to one of his 
arguments, he promised that he would answer to all the ob- 
jections that they should bring. Then the prolocutor bade 
him propound his argument, and it should be resolutely an- 
swered by one of them ; whereunto master Morgan was 





One body 
cannot be 
at once in 

" Upon Wednesday last," quoth Philpot, " I was enforced 
to silence before I had prosecuted half mine argument ; the 
sum whereof was this (as was gathered by the just context 
of the scripture) — That the human body of Christ was as- 
cended into heaven, and placed on the right hand of God 
the Father : wherefore it could not be situate upon earth 
in the sacrament of the altar, invisible after the imagination 
of man. 11 The argument was denied by Morgan: for the 
proof whereof Philpot said, that this was it wherewith he 
had to confirm his first argument, if they would have suffered 
him the other day, as now he trusted they would. 

Argument. J?e- 



" One self and same nature," quoth he, " receiveth not 
in itself any thing that is contrary to itself. 

"But the body of Christ is a human nature, distinct 
from the deity, and is a proper nature of itself: 

" Ergo, It cannot receive any thing that is contrary to 
that nature, and that varieth from itself. 

" But bodily to be present, and bodily to be absent ; to 
be on earth, and to be in heaven, and all at one present 
time ; be things contrary to the nature of a human body : 
ergo, it cannot be said of the human body of Christ, that the 
selfsame bodv is both in heaven, and also in earth at one 
instant, either visibly or invisibly." 

Morgan denied the major, that is, the first part of the 
argument; the which Philpot vouched out of Vigilius 1 , an 
ancient writer. But Morgan cavilled that it was no scrip- 
ture, and bade him prove the same out of scripture. 

Philpot said, he could also so do, and right well deduce 
the same out of St Paul, who saith, "that Christ is like 
unto us in all points, except sin :" and therefore, like as 
one of our bodies cannot receive in itself any thing contrary 
to the nature of a body, as to be in Paul's church and at 
Westminster at one instant, or to be at London visibly and 

[ x Et ab ipsomet Rom. pont. catalogo sacro ascriptus, cui etiam 
dies festus nuncupatus. Added in Lat. 

Et hie sensus catholicus naturarum inter sese coeuntium uni- 
tatem, non naturse unionem admittit, dum duabus naturis iisdemque 
manentibus umis Deus idemque homo creditur Christus. Vigilii Mar- 
ty ris et episcop. contra Eutychen, Lib. i. p. 42. Tiguri. 1539.] 


at Lincoln invisibly, at one time (for that is contrary to the 
nature of a body, and of all creatures, as Didimus and Basil 
affirm, that an invisible creature, as an angel, cannot be at 
one time in divers places) ; wherefore he concluded, that the 
body of Christ might not be in more places than in one, 
which is in heaven ; and so consequently not to be contained 
in the sacrament of the altar. 

To this the prolocutor took upon him to answer, saying, Weston. 
that it was not true that Christ was like unto us in all points, 
as Philpot took it, except sin ; for that Christ was not con- 
ceived by the seed of man, as we be. 

Whereunto Philpot again replied, that Christ's concep- PMipot. 
tion was< prophesied before, by the angel, to be supernatural ; 
but after he had received our nature by the operation of the 
Ho]y Ghost in the Virgin's womb, he became in all points like 
unto us, except sin. 

Then Morgan inferred, that this saying of Paul did not Morgan. 
plainly prove his purpose. 

" Well," quoth Philpot, " I perceive that you do answer Philpot. 
but by cavillation ; yet am I not destitute of other scriptures 
to confirm my first argument, although you refuse the pro- 
bation of so ancient and catholic a doctor as Vigilius is. 
St Peter, in the sermon that he made in Acts hi., making 
mention of Christ, saith these words, " Whom heaven must 
receive until the consummation of all things, 1 ' &c. : which 
words are spoken of his humanity. If heaven must hold 
Christ, then can he not be here on earth in the sacrament, 
as is pretended." 

Then Morgan laughing at this, and giving no direct an- ^ rp |^ , {J ) 
swer at all, Harpsfield stood up, being one of the bishop of 
London's chaplains, and took upon him to answer to the 
saying of St Peter, and demanded of Philpot, whether he 
would, ex necessitate, that is, of necessity, force Christ to any 
place, or no. 

Philpot said, that he would no otherwise force Christ of Philpot. 
necessity to any place, than he is taught by the words of 
the Holy Ghost, which sound thus : That Christ's human body 
must abide in heaven until the day of judgment, — as he re- 
hearsed out of the chapter before mentioned. 

" Why," quoth Harpsfield, " do ye not know that God Hatfield. 



is God omnipotent V " Yes," said Philpot, " I know that 
right well ; neither doubt I any thing at all of his omnipo- 
tency. But of* Christ's omnipotency, what he may do, is not 
our question, but rather what he doth. I know he may make 
a stone in the wall a man, if he list, and also that he may 
make more worlds; but doth he therefore so? It were no 
good consequent so to conclude: he may do this or that, 
therefore he doth it. 

Ba- " Only so much is to be believed of God's omnipotency, 

as is in the word expressed. 
ro- "That Christ's body is both in heaven, and here also 

really in the sacrament, is not expressed in the word : 
co. " Ergo, It is not to be believed, that the body of Christ, 

being in heaven, is here also really in the sacrament." 

" Why," quoth the prolocutor, " then you will put Christ 
in prison in heaven." To the which Philpot answered, " Do 
you reckon heaven to be a prison I God grant us all to come 
to that prison !" 

After this, Harpsfield inferred that this word oportet in 
St Peter, which signifieth in English "must," did not im- 
port so much as I would infer, of necessity, as by other 
places of scripture it may appear, as in 1 Timothy iii., where 
Paul saith, Oportet episcopum esse unius uxoris virum, " A 
bishop must be the husband of one wife." " Here," quoth 
he, "oportet doth not import such a necessity, but that he 
that never was married may be a bishop." 
Philpot. To this Philpot said again, that the places were not alike, 

ho^tlf'" wn ich he went about to compare ; and that in comparing of 
verseiyin t fle scriptures we must not consider the naked words, but 
scripture. t } ie mean i n g ra ther of the scriptures; for that in the place 
by him alleged St Paul doth declare of what quality a bishop 
ought to be; but in the other St Peter teacheth us the 
place where Christ must necessarily be until the end of the 
world, which we ought to believe to be true. " And this 
comparison of this word oportet doth no more answer mine 
argument, than if I should say of you now being here, 
oportet te hie esse, ' You must needs be here ;' which im- 
porteth such a necessity for the time, that you can no other- 


wise be but here : and yet you would go about in words to 
avoid this necessity with another oportet in another sense, as 
this ; oportet te esse virum lonum, ' You must be a good 
man ;' where oportet doth not in very deed conclude any such 
necessity, but that you may be an evil man. Thus you may 
see that your answer is not sufficient, and as it were no an- 
swer to my argument." 

Then the prolocutor brought in another oportet, to help Weston. 
this matter (if it might be), saying, " What say you to this, 
Oportet hcereses esse ? must heresies needs be therefore, be- [i cor. xi. 
cause of this word oportet?" 

" Yea, truly," quoth Philpot, " it cannot otherwise be, if PM P ot - 
you will add that which followeth immediately upon these 
words of Paul, that is, TJt qui electi sunt manifestentur ; that 
is, _' that such as be the elect of God may be manifested 
and known. 1 " 

"Why," quoth the prolocutor, "the time hath been, that Weston. 
no heresies were." " I know no such time," quoth Philpot ; Phiipot. 
" for since the time of Abel and Cain heresies have been, 
and then began they." 

Then said the prolocutor, " Will you now answer Morgan Weston. 
an argument or two?" "I will," quoth Philpot, "if I may™***- 
first be answered to my argument any thing according to 
truth and learning." " What !" quoth the prolocutor, " you Weston. 
will never be answered." 

" How I am answered," quoth Philpot, " let all men that Philpot. 
are here present judge, and especially such as be learned; 
and with what cavillations you have dallied with me. First, 
to the ancient authority of Vigilius you have answered no- 
thing at all, but only denying it to be scripture 1 , that he saith. 
Secondly, to the saying of St Peter in the Acts ye have 
answered thus — demanding of me, whether I would keep Christ 
in prison, or no. Let men now judge, if this be a sufficient 
answer, or no." 

Then stood Morgan up again, and asked Philpot, whe- Morgan. 
ther he would be ruled by the universal church, or no? 

" Yes," quoth he, " if it be the true catholic church, ^iipot. 

And since you speak so much of the church, I would fain 

that you would declare what the church is." 

I 1 Id quod posset ad omnia vestra dogmata responderi. Lat.'} 






[Eph. ii. 20.] 

the church 
was before 
the scrip- 




Weston rail- 
eth affainst 
Philpot to be 
a madman. 

" The church," quoth Morgan, " is diffused and dispersed 
throughout the whole world." 

" That is a diffuse definition," quoth Philpot ; " for I am 
yet as uncertain as I was before, what you mean by the 
church : but I acknowledge no church but that, which is 
grounded and founded on God's word ; as St Paul saith, 
' Upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, 1 and upon 
the scriptures of God." 

" What !" quoth Moreman, " was the scripture before the 
church ?" " Yea," quoth Philpot. 

" But I will prove nay," quoth Moreman, " and I will 
begin at Christ's time. The church of Christ was before any 
scripture written ; for Matthew was the first that wrote the 
gospel, about a dozen years after Christ : ergo, the church 
was before the scripture." 

To whom Philpot answering, denied his argument ; which 
when Moreman could not prove, Philpot shewed that his ar- 
gument was elenchus, or a fallacy, that is, a deceivable ar- 
gument. For he took the scripture only to be that which 
is written by men in letters ; whereas, in very deed, all pro- 
phecy uttered by the Spirit of God was counted to be scripture 
before it was written in paper and ink, for that it was written 
in the hearts, and graven in the minds, yea, and inspired in 
the mouths, of good men and of Christ's apostles, by the 
Spirit of Christ : as the salutation of the angel was the scrip- 
ture of Christ and the word of God, before it was written. 

At that Moreman cried, " Fie ! fie !" wondering that the 
scripture of God should be counted scripture before it was 
written ; and affirmed, that he had no knowledge that said so. 

To whom Philpot answered, that concerning knowledge 
in this behalf, for the trial of the truth about the questions 
in controversy, he would wish himself no worse matched than 
with Moreman. 

At the which saying the prolocutor was grievously offended, 
saying, that it was arrogantly spoken of him, that would com- 
pare with such a worshipful learned man as Moreman was, 
being himself a man unlearned, yea, a madman ; meeter to 
be sent to Bethlehem, than to be among such a sort of learned 
and grave men as were there ; and a man that never would 
be answered, and one that troubled the whole house : and 


therefore he did command him that he should come no more 
into the house, demanding of the house, whether they would 
agree thereupon, or no. To whom a great company answered, 
" Yea." Then said Philpot again, that he might think him- 
self happy that was out of that company. 

After this Morgan rose off, and rounded the prolocutor Morgan. 
in the ear. And then again the prolocutor spake to Phil- 
pot, and said, " Lest thou shouldest slander the house, and p hiIpot to 
say that we will not suffer you to declare your mind, we i"^'",^ 
are content you shall come into the house as you have done aiur,| i'P et - 
before, so that you be apparelled with a long gown and a 
tippet, as we be, and that you shall not speak, but when I 
command you. 11 " Then, 11 quoth Philpot, " I had rather be 
absent altogether 1 ." 


Thus they reasoning to and fro, at length, about the 18 th 
of December, queen Mary, to take up the matter, sendeth 

Q 1 The following passage concludes Pollanus's Latin translation of 
the " Disputation in the Convocation-House." It follows the last re- 
ply of Philpot, " I had rather/' &c. 

' So ended this conference and debate, as the leaders of the papists 
pretended it to be. But if you wish to see (the subjects of) this dis- 
cussion fully handled, read a little work of Peter Martyr, in which 
he sets forth at length the debate which was held for four days in 
the University of Oxford, where he was Regius Professor. On two 
accounts this discussion seems deserving of being read; both because 
it is a sort of commentary on this; and because that [as well the 
one which followed] was held by royal authority and command, five 
years before ; the parties who presided thereat being the most excellent 
and pious Henry QHolbech] Bishop of Lincoln, and Dr Richard Cox, 
the most worthy Dean [[of Christ's Church], and Chancellor of Ox- 
ford, who was at that time also the instructor of the youthful King 
Edward the Sixth in religion and general learning. The former of 
these rests in Christ : the latter, in return for all his good deeds to the 
realm of England, — having suffered cruel treatment, (in common with 
many godly men,) at the hands of the papists since their return to 
power, has hitherto endured, with an undaunted heart, as becomes a 
true servant of Christ, all these things; even bonds, and the loss of 
all his goods. 

Lord, how long wilt thou permit the ungodly to bear rule? 

Suffer not the wrongs done to thy Church and thy pious servants 

to be unavenged.* 

Soli Deo Gloria. 

S. D. S. M.] 


her commandment to Bonner, bishop of London, that he should 
dissolve and break up the convocation. The copy of which 
commandment here followeth. 

The precept of the queen to Bonner, bishop of London, for 
the dissolving of the aforesaid convocation. 

Maria, &c, reverendo in Christo Patri et domino, do- 
mino Edmundo Londinensis episcopo, salutem. Cum prsesens 
Convocatio Cleri Oantuariensis provincise apud S. Paulum 
London, jam modo tenta et instans existit, certis tamen 
urgentibus causis et considerationibus nos specialiter moven- 
tibus, de advisamento concilii nostri ipsam prsesentem convo- 
cationem duximus dissolvendam. Et ideo vobis mandamus 
quod eandem prsesentem convocationem apud Sanctum Pau- 
lum prsedictum debito modo absque aliqua dilatione dissol- 
vatis, dissolvive faciatis, prout convenit, significantes ex parte 
nostra universis et singulis episcopis, necnon archidiaconis, de- 
canis, et omnibus aliis personis ecclesiasticis quibuscunque 
dictse Oantuariensis provinciee, quorum interest, vel interesse 
poterit, quod ipsi et eorum quilibet huic mandato nostro ex- 
equendo intendentes sint et obedientes prout decet. — Teste 
meipsa apud Westmonasterium 13 die Decembris, anno regni 
nostri primo. 









LETTER I. (0.) 

A Letter which he sent to the Christian congregation, exhort- 
ing them to refrain themselves from the idolatrous service 
of the papists, and to serve God with a pure and undefiled 
conscience after Ms word. 

It is a lamentable thing to behold at this present in En- 
gland the faithless departing both of men and women from the 
true knowledge and use of Christ's sincere religion, which so 
plentifully they have been taught and do know, their own con- 
sciences bearing witness to the verity thereof. If that earth be Heb. ri. 
cursed of God, which, eftsoons 2 receiving moisture and pleasant 
dews from heaven, doth not bring forth fruit accordingly, how 
much more grievous judgment shall such persons receive, 
which, having received from the Father of heaven the per- 
fect knowledge of his word by the ministry thereof, do not 
shew forth God's worship after the same ? If the Lord will 
require, in the day of judgment, a godly usury of all manner of Matt, xxv 
talents which he lendeth unto men and women, how much 
more will he require the same of his pure religion revealed unto 

£' Of these letters some are taken from " Coverdale's Letters of the 
Martyrs;" and may be distinguished by the letter (C) prefixed: the 
remainder are from Foxe ; the edition followed being that of 1597 ; 
and the differences between it and the copy of 1684 being marked in 
the notes.] 

[? Eftsoons: continually.] 



us, (which is of all other talents the chiefest, and most per- 
taining to our exercise in this life,) if we hide the same in a 
napkin, and set it not forth to the usury of God's glory, and 
edifying of his church by true confession ? God hath kindled 
the bright light of his gospel, which in times past was sup- 
pressed and hid under the vile ashes of man's traditions, and 

Matt. v. hath caused the brightness thereof to shine in our hearts, to the 
end that the same might shine before men to the honour of his 
name. It is not only given us to believe, but also to confess and 

Rom. x. declare what we believe in our outward conversation. For as 
St Paul writeth to the Romans, the belief of the heart justi- 
fieth, and to knowledge 1 with the mouth maketh a man safe. 

It is all one before God not to believe at all, and not to 
shew forth the lively works of our belief. For Christ saith, 

Matt. xii. " Either make the tree good and his fruit good, or else make 
the tree evil and the fruit evil, because a good tree bringeth 

Luke xii. forth good fruit ;" so that the person which knoweth his 
master's will and doth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes. 

Matt. vii. And " not all they which say, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the 
kingdom of God, but he that doth the will of the Father." 

Luke ix. And whosoever in the time of trial " is ashamed of me (saith 
Christ) and of my words, of him the Son of man will be 
ashamed before his Father." After that we have built our- 
selves into the true church of God, it hath pleased him by 
giving us over into the hands of the wicked synagogues to 
prove our building, and to have it known as well to the world 

Matt. vii. as to ourselves, that we have been wise builders into the true 
church of God upon the rock, and not on the sand ; and there- 
fore now the tempest is risen, and the storms do mightily blow 
against us, that we might notwithstanding stand upright and 
be firm in the Lord, to his honour and glory, and to our eternal 
felicity. There is no new thing happened unto us ; for with 
such tempests and dangerous weathers the church of God hath 
continually been exercised. Now once again, as the prophet 

Hag-, ii. Haggai telleth us, the Lord shaketh the earth, that those 
might abide for ever which be not overthrown. 

Therefore, my dearly beloved, be stable and immovable, in 
the word of God, and in the faithful observation thereof; and 
let no man deceive you with vain words, saying, that you may 
£* Knowledge: acknowledge.] 


keep your faith to yourselves, and dissemble with antichrist, 
and so live at rest and quietness in the world, as most men do, 
yielding to necessity. This is the wisdom of the flesh : but the Rgm. viii. 
wisdom of the flesh is death and enmity to God; as our 
Saviour, for example, aptly did declare in Peter, who exhorted Matt * xvi - 
Christ not to go to Jerusalem to celebrate the passover and 
there to be slain, but counselled him to look better to himself. 
Likewise the world would not have us to forsake him 2 , neither 
to associate ourselves to the true church, which is the body of 
Christ, whereof we are lively members, and to use the sacra- 
ments after God's word, with the danger of our lives. But we 
must learn to answer the world as Christ did Peter, and say, 
" Go behind me, Satan, thou savourest not the things of God." 
" Shall I not drink of the cup which the Father giveth me?" [J°j»»xviii. 
For it is better to be afflicted and to be slain in the church of ^; ^ vi 
God, than to be counted the son of the king in the synagogue 
of false religion. Death for righteousness is not to be abhorred, 
but rather to be desired, which assuredly bringeth with it the 
crown of everlasting glory. These bloody executioners do not 
persecute Christ's martyrs, but crown them with everlasting 
felicity. We were born into this world to be witnesses unto 
the truth, both learned and unlearned. Now, since the time is 
come that we must shew our faith, and declare whether we 
will be God's servants in righteousness and holiness, as we have 
been taught and are bound to follow, Or else with hypocrisy 
serve unrighteousness; let us take good heed that we be found 
faithful in the Lord's covenant, and true members of his 
church, in the which through knowledge we are engrafted : 
from the which if we fall by transgression with the common 
sort of people, it will more straitly be required of us, than 
many yet do make account thereof. We cannot serve two Luke xvi. 
masters. We may not halt on both sides, and think to please 1 Kings 

, xviii. 

God ; we must be fervent in God's cause, or else he will cast Rev. m. 
us out from him. For by the first commandment we are com- 
manded " to love God with all our heart, with all our mind, with 
all our power and strength:" but they are manifest trans- 
gressors of this commandment, which with their heart, mind, 
or bodily power do communicate with a strange religion, con- 
trary to the word of God, in the papistical synagogue, which 
\J Him : the world.] 



calleth itself the church, and is not. As greatly do they offend 
God now, which so do, as the Israelites did in times past, by 
forsaking Jerusalem, the true church of God, and by going to 

i Kings xiii. Bethel to serve God in a congregation of their own setting up, 
and after their own imaginations'; for the which doing God 
utterly destroyed all Israel, as all the prophets almost do 
testify. This happened unto them for our example, that we 
might beware to have any fellowship with any like congre- 
gation to our destruction. God hath one catholic church 
dispersed throughout the world ; and therefore we are taught 
in our creed to believe one catholic church, and to have com- 
munion therewith ; which catholic church is grounded upon 
the foundation of the prophets and of the apostles ; and upon 

Eph. ii. none other, as St Paul witnesseth to the Ephesians. There- 
fore, wheresoever we perceive any people to worship God truly 
after that 2 word, there we may be certain the church of Christ 
to be, unto the which we ought to associate ourselves, and to 

Psai. xxii. desire, with the prophet David, to praise God in the midst of 
this church. But if we behold, through the iniquity of time, 
congregations 3 to be made with counterfeit religion, otherwise 
than the word of God doth teach, we ought then, if we be 
required to be companions thereof, to say again with David, 

Psai. xxvi. " I have hated the synagogue of the malignant, and will not 

Rev. ii. sit with the wicked." In the Apocalypse, the church of Ephe- 
sus is highly commended, because she tried such as said they 
were apostles and were not in deed, and therefore would not 
abide the company of them. Further, God commanded his 

Amos v. people that they should not seek Bethel, neither enter into 
Galgala, where idolatry was used, by the mouth of his pro- 
phet Amos. 

i Cor. iii. Also we must consider that " our bodies be the temple of 

God, and whosoever (as St Paul teacheth) doth profane the 
temple of God, him the Lord will destroy : may we then take 
the temple of Christ, and make it the member of an harlot V 
All strange religion and idolatry is counted whoredom with the 
prophets ; and that, more detestable in the sight of God than 
the adulterous abuse of the body. Therefore the princes of the 

Q 1 Imaginations : and traditions, is added in Foxe's edition of 1597-3 
£ a After his word. Foxe.] 
\y Segregations. Foxe.] 


earth, in the Revelation of St John, be said to go a-whoring, [Rev. xvii. 
when they are in love with false religion and follow the 
same. How then by any means may a christian man think 
it tolerable to be present at the popish private mass, which 
is the very profanation of the sacrament of the body and 
blood of Christ, and at other idolatrous worshippings and 
rites, which be not after the word of God, but rather the 
derogation thereof, in setting man's traditions above God's 
precepts ? — since God by his word judgeth all strange religion, 
which is not according to his institution, for whoredom and 

Some fondly 4 think that the presence of the body is not 
material, so that the heart do not consent to their wicked 
doings. But such persons little consider what St Paul 
writgth to the Corinthians, commanding them to glorify God lCor - vi - 
as well in body as in soul. Moreover, we can do no greater 
injury to the true church of Christ, than to seem to have 
forsaken her, or disallow her by cleaving to her adversary ; 
whereby it appeareth to others which be weak, that we allow 
the same, and so, contrary to the word, do give a great offence 
to the church of God, and do outwardly slander (as much as 
men may) the truth of Christ. But " woe be unto him by 
whom any such offence cometh ! Better it were for him to 
have a mill-stone tied about his neck, and to be cast into the 
bottom of the sea." Such be traitors to the truth, like unto 
Judas, who with a kiss betrayed Christ. 

Our God is a jealous God, and cannot be content that we 
should be of any other body than of that unspotted church, 
whereof he is the head only, and wherein he hath planted us 
by baptism. This jealousy which God hath towards us, will 
cry for vengeance in the day of vengeance, against all such as 
now have so large consciences to do that which is contrary to 
God's glory and the sincerity of his word; except they do in Markviii. 
time repent and cleave inseparably to the gospel of Christ, 
how much soever at this present both men and women other- 
wise, in their own corrupt judgment, do flatter themselves. 
God willeth us to judge uprightly, and to allow and follow that 
which is holy and acceptable in his sight, and to abstain from 
all manner of evil ; and therefore Christ commandeth us in the 
[ 4 Fondly: foolishly.] 


gospel to " beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is 

Heb. x. hypocrisy." St Paul to the Hebrews saith, that if any person 
withdraw himself from faith, he shall not be approved in his 
judgment ; and therefore he saith also, that " we are none 
such as do withdraw ourselves unto perdition, but we belong 
unto faith for the attainment of life." 

Rev. xiii. g t j h n m the Apocalypse telleth us plainly, that none of 

those who are written in the book of life do receive the mark of 
the beast, which is, of the papistical synagogue, either in their 
foreheads or else in their hands, that is, apparently or obedi- 

Eph.v. ently. St Paul [to the Ephesians and] to the Philippians 

Phii. ii. affirmeth, that we may not have any fellowship with the works 
of darkness, but in the midst of this wicked and froward 
generation we ought to shine like lights, upholding the word 

2 cor. vi. of truth. Further he saith, that we may not touch any un- 
clean thing; which signifieth, that our outward conversation 
in foreign things ought to be pure and undented as well as the 
inward, that with a clean spirit and rectified body we might 
serve God justly, in holiness and righteousness, all the days 

Rev. xvhi. of our life. Finally, in the 18th of the Apocalypse, God 
biddeth us plainly to depart from this Babylonical synagogue, 
and not to be partakers of her trespass. St Paul to the 

2 Thess. iii. Thessalonians commandeth us, in the name of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, to " withdraw ourselves from every brother that walketh 
inordinately 1 , and not according to the institution which he 
hath received of him." 

Ponder therefore well, good brethren and sisters, these 
scriptures, which be written for your erudition and reforma- 
tion ; whereof one iota is not written in vain ; which be utterly 
against all counterfeit collusion to be used of us with the 
papists in their fantastical religion, and be adversaries to all 
them that have so light consciences in so doing. And if they 

Matt. v. do not agree with this adversary (I mean the word of God), 
which is contrary to their attempts, he will, as it is signified 
in the gospel, deliver them to the judge, which is Christ, and 
the judge will deliver them to the executioner, that is the 
devil, and the devil shall commit them to the horrible prison of 
Matt. xxiv. hell fire ; where is the portion of all hypocrites, with sulphur 
and brimstone, with wailing and gnashing of teeth, world 
Q 1 Inordinately: disorderly.] 


without end. But yet many will say for their vain excuse, 
God is merciful, and his mercy is over all. But the scripture 
teacheth us, that cursed is he that sinneth upon hope of for- 
giveness. Truth it is, that the mercy of God is above all his 
works, and yet but upon such as fear him, for so it is written 
in the Psalms, " The mercy of God is on them that fear him, Psai. ciu. 
and on such as put their trust in him :" where we may learn, 
that they only put their trust in God that fear him ; and to 
fear God is to turn from evil and to do that is good. So that 
such as do look to be partakers of God's mercy, may not 
abide in that which is known to be manifest evil and detestable 
in the sight of God. 

Another sort of persons do make them a cloke for the rain 
under the pretence of obedience to the magistrates, whom we 
ought to obey, although they be wicked. But such must learn 
of Christ to give to Caesar that is Caesar's, and to God that is Luke xx. 
due to God ; and with St Peter to obey the higher powers in 1 Pet. ii. 
the Lord, albeit they be evil, if they command nothing con- 
trary to God's word: otherwise we ought not -to obey their 
commandments, although we should suffer death therefore ; as 
we have the apostles for our example herein to follow, who 
answered the magistrates as we ought to do in this case, not 
obeying their wicked precepts ; saying, "Judge you whether it Actsiv. 
be more righteous that we should obey men rather than God." 
Also Daniel chose rather to be cast into the den of lions to be Dan. vi. 
devoured, than to obey the king's wicked commandments. " If 
the blind lead the blind, both fall into the ditch." There is no Matt. xv. 
excuse for the transgression of God's word, whether a man do 
it voluntarily or at commandment, although great damnation is 
to them by whom the offence cometh. 

Some other there be, that for an extreme refuge in their 
evil doings, do run to God's predestination and election, saying, 
that if I be elected of God to salvation, I shall be saved what- 
soever I do. But such .be great tempters of God, and abomi- 
nable blasphemers of God's holy election ; and cast themselves 
down from the pinnacle of the temple in presumption, that 
God may preserve them by his angels through predestination. 
Such verily may reckon themselves to be none of God's elect 
children, that will do evil that good may ensue ; whose dam- 
nation is just, as St Paul saith. God's predestination and Rom. in. 


election ought to be with a simple eye considered, to make us 
more warily to walk in good and godly conversation according 
to God's word, and not to set cock in the hoop, and put all on 
God's back, to do wickedly at large : for the elect children of 
God must walk in righteousness and holiness, after that they 
be once called to true knowledge ; for so saith St Paul to the 

i: ( .h. i. Ephesians, that God " hath chosen us before the foundations 
of the world were laid, that we should be holy and blameless in 

2 Pet. i. h; s sight." Therefore St Peter willeth us through good works 
to make our vocation and election certain to ourselves, which 
we know not but by the good working of God's Spirit in us, 
according to the rule of the gospel ; and he that transformed 
not himself to the same in godly conversation, may justly trem- 
ble and doubt that he is none of the elect children of God, but 
of the viperous generation, and a child of darkness. For the 
children of light will walk in the works of light, and not of 

Prov. xxiv. darkness : though they fall, they do not lie still. Let all 

John xii. vam excusations be set apart ; and " while ye have light, as 
Christ commandeth, believe the light and abide in the same, 

John Hi. lest eternal darkness overtake you unawares." The light is 
come into the world ; but alas ! " men love darkness more than 
the light." God give us his pure eyesalve to heal our blindness 
in this behalf. Oh that men and women would be healed, and 
not seek to be wilfully blinded ! The Lord open their eyes, 

Heb. vi. x. that they may see how dangerous a thing it is to decline from 
the knowledge of truth contrary to their conscience. 

But what said I ? Conscience ? Many affirm, their con- 
science will bear them well enough to do all that they do, 
and to go to the idolatrous church to service — whose con- 
science is very large, to satisfy man more than God. And 
although their conscience can bear them so to do, yet I am 
sure that a good conscience will not permit them so to do ; 
which cannot be good, unless it be directed after the know- 
ledge of God's word : and therefore in Latin this feeling of 
mind is called conscientia, which soundeth 1 by interpretation 
with knowledge. And therefore, if our conscience be led of 
herself, and not after true knowledge, yet we are not so to 

iCor. iv. be excused; as St Paul beareth witness, saying, "Although 
my conscience accuseth me not, yet in this I am not justified." 
Q 1 Soundeth : is synonymous.] 


And he joineth a good conscience with these three sisters, 1 Tim. i. 
charity, a pure heart, and unfeigned faith. " Charity 1 ' keepeth 
God's commandments ; " a pure heart" loveth and feareth God 
above all ; and " unfeigned faith" is never ashamed of the pro- 
fession of the gospel, whatsoever damages he shall suffer in 
body thereby. 

The Lord, which hath revealed his holy will unto us by 
his word, grant us never to be ashamed of it : and give us 
grace so earnestly to cleave to his holy word and true church, 
that for no manner of worldly respect we become partakers 
of the works of hypocrisy, which God doth abhor; so that 
we may be found faithful in the Lord's testament to the 
end, both in heart, word, and deed, to the glory of God, and 
our everlasting salvation. Amen. 


Prisoner in the king's bench, 

for the testimony of the truth; 1555. 


To his dear friend in the Lord, John Car.eless, prisoner 
in the king's bench. 

My dearly beloved brother Careless, 1 have received your 
loving letters, full of love and compassion ; insomuch that 
they made my hard heart to weep, to see you so careful for 
one that hath been so unprofitable a member as I have been 
and am in Christ's church. God make me worthy of that 
I am called unto ; and I pray you cease not to pray for 
me. But cease to weep for him who hath not deserved such 
gentle tears; and praise God with me, for that I now ap- 
proach to the company of them, whose want you may worthily 
lament. God give your pitiful heart his inward consolation! 
Indeed, my dear Careless, I am in this world in hell and 
in the shadow of death; but he that hath brought me for 
my deserts down unto hell, shall shortly lift me up to heaven, 




where I shall look continually for your coming, and others 
my faithful brethren in the king's bench. And though I 
tell you that I am in hell in the judgment of this world, yet 
assuredly I feel in the same consolation of heaven, praise 
God ! And this loathsome and horrible prison is as pleasant 
to me, as the walk in the garden of the king's bench. You 
know, brother Careless, that the way to heaven out of this 
life is very narrow, and we must strive to enter in at a narrow 
gate. If God do mitigate the ugliness of mine imprisonment, 
what will he do in the rage of the fire whereunto I am ap- 
pointed? And this hath happened unto me, that I might 
be hereafter an ensample of comfort, if the like happen unto 
you or to any other of my dear brethren with you in these 
cruel days ; in the which the devil so rageth at the faithful 
flock of Christ, but in vain (I trust) against any of us, who 

fRom. viii. be persuaded that neither life, neither death is able to sepa- 
rate us from the love of Christ's gospel, which is God's 
high treasure committed to our brittle vessels, to glorify us 
by the same. God of his mercy make us faithful stewards 
to the end, and give us grace to fear nothing, whatsoever 
in his good pleasure we shall suffer for the same ! 

That I have not written unto you erst, the cause is our 
strait keeping, and the want of light by night; for the day 
serveth us but a while in our dark closet. This is the first 
letter that I have written since I came to prison, besides 
the report of mine examinations ; and I am fain to scribble 
it out in haste. Commend me to all our faithful brethren ; 
and bid them with a good courage look for their redemption, 
and frame themselves to be hearty soldiers in Christ. They 
have taken his press-money a great while ; and now let them 
shew themselves ready to serve him faithfully, and not to 
fly out of the Lord's camp into the world, as many do. Let 

[Rev.xxi.8.] them remember that in the Apocalypse " the fearful" be ex- 
cluded the kingdom. Let us be of good cheer ; for our Lord 
overcame the world, that we should do the like. "Blessed 

Luke xii. j s t h e servan t w hom, when the Lord cometh, he findeth watch- 
ing." Oh, let us watch and pray earnestly one for another, 

Matt. xxvi. that we be not led into temptation. Be joyful under the 
cross, and praise the Lord continually ; for this is the whole 
burnt sacrifice which the Lord chiefly delighteth in. Com- 


mend me to my father Hunt ; and desire him to love and 
continue in the unity of Christ's true church, which he hath 
:begun, and then shall he make me more and more to joy 
under my cross with him. Tell my brother Clements, that 
he hath comforted me much by his loving token, in signi- 
fication of an unfeigned unity with us : let him increase my 
joy unto the end perfectly. 

The Lord of peace be with you all ! Salute all my loving 
friends, Master Mering, Master Crooch, with the rest ; and 
especially Master Marshall and his wife, with great thanks 
for his kindness shewed unto me. Farewell, my dear Care- 
less. I have dallied with the devil awhile, but now I am 
over the shoes : God send me well out ! 

Out of the coal-hole, by your brother, 



•Another Letter written to John Careless, out of the coal- 
house of darkness; tohereby he giveth light and heavenly 
comfort to his heavy and troubled mind. 

The God of all comfort, and the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, send unto thee, my dear brother Careless, the 
inward consolation of his holy Spirit, in all the malicious 
assaults and troublous temptations of our common adversary 
the devil ! Amen. 

That God giveth you so contrite a heart for your sins, 
I cannot but rejoice to behold the lively mark of the children 
of God ; whose property is to think more lowly and vilely 
of themselves than of any other, and oftentimes to set their 
sins before them, that they might the more be stirred to 
bring forth the fruits of repentance, and learn to mourn 
in this world, that in another they might be glad and re- 
joice. Such a broken heart is a pleasant sacrifice unto God ; 
oh that I had the like contrite heart ! God mollify my stony 
heart, which lamenteth not in such wise my former detestable 




Matt, vj 

Psal. cxxvi. 

Psal. li. 

Luke vii. 

iniquities. Praised be God, that he hath given you this 
sorrowful heart in respect of righteousness; and I pray you 
let me be partaker of these godly sorrows for sin, which be 
the testimony of the presence of the Holy Ghost. 

Did not the sword of sorrow pierce the heart of the 
elect and blessed mother of our Lord? Did not Peter weep 
bitterly for his sins, which was so beloved of Christ ? Did 
not Mary Magdalene wash the feet of our Saviour with her 
tears, and received therewithal remission of her sevenfold 
sins? Be of good comfort, therefore, mine own dear heart, 
in this thy sorrow ; for it is the earnest-penny of eternal 
consolation. In thy sorrow laugh, for the Spirit of God is 
with thee. " Blessed be they (saith Christ), that mourn, for 
they shall be comforted." " They went forth and wept," saith 
the prophet ; " such shall come again having their gripes 1 full 
of gladness." And although a sorrowful heart in consideration 
of his sin be an acceptable sacrifice before God, whereby 
we are stirred up to more thankfulness unto God, knowing 
that much is forgiven us that Ave might love the more ; yet 
the man of God must keep a measure in the same, lest he 
be swallowed up by too much sorrow. St Paul would not 
iThess. iv. the Thessalonians to be sorry as other men which have no 
2 Cor. vii. hope. Such a sorrow is not commendable, but worketh dam- 
nation, and is far from the children of God; who are con- 
tinually sorrowful in God, when they look upon their own 
unworthiness and hope of forgiveness. For God to this end 
by his Spirit setteth the sins of his elect still before them, 
that where they perceive sin to abound, there they might 
be assured that grace shall superabound ; and bringeth them 
down unto hell, that he might lift them up with greater 
joy unto heaven. Wherefore, mine own bowels in Christ, as 
long as you are not void altogether of hope, be not dismayed 
through your pensive heart for your sins, how huge soever 
they have been ; for God is able to forgive more than you 
are able to sin ; yea, and he will forgive him which with 
hope is sorry for his sins. 

But know, brother, that as oft as we do go about by 
the help of God's Spirit to do that is good, the evil spirit 
Satan layeth hard wait to turn the good unto evil, and goeth 
Q 1 Gripes: grasp.] 

Rom. v. 


about to mix the detestable darnel 2 of desperation with the 
godly sorrow of a pure penitent heart. You be not ignorant 
of his malicious subtlety; and how that continually he as- 
saulteth that good, which the grace of God planteth. I see 
the battle betwixt you and him ; but the victory is yours, 
yea, and that daily. For you have laid hold upon the anchor 
of salvation, which is hope in Christ, the which will not 
suffer you to be made ashamed. Be not discomforted that 
you have this conflict ; but be glad that God hath given 
you the same, to try your faith, and that you might appear 
daily worthy of the kingdom of God, for the which you strive. 
God beholdeth your striving faith against Satan, and is pleased 
with your mighty resistance. The Spirit which is in you is 
mightier than all the adversary's power. Tempt he may, 
and, lying await at your heels, give you a fall unawares ; but 
overcome he shall not, yea, he cannot, for you are sealed 
up already with a lively faith to be the child of God for ever ; 
and whom God hath once sealed for his own, him he never 
utterly forsaketh. " The just falleth seven times, but he riseth C Prov - xx »- 
again. 11 It is man's frailty to fall, but it is the property of 
the devil's child to lie still. This strife against sin is a 
sufficient testimony that you are the child of God ; for if you 
were not, you should feel no such malice as he now troubleth 
you withal. When this strong Goliah hath the hold, all things Luke xi. 
be in peace which he possesseth; and because he hath you 
not, he will not suffer you unassaulted. But stand fast, and 
hold out the buckler of faith, and with the sword of God's 
promises smite him on the scalp, that he may receive a deadly 
woUnd, and never be able to stand against you any more. 
St James telleth you that he is but a coward, saying, " Resist J» mes >v. 
the devil, and he will fly away." It is the will of God that 
he should thus long tempt you, and not go away as yet ; or 
else he had done with you long ere this. He knoweth already 
that he shall receive the foil at your hands, and increase the 
crown of your glory ; for he that overcometh shall be crowned. 
Therefore glory in your temptations, since they shall turn 
to your felicity. Be not afraid of your continual assaults, 
which be occasions of your daily victory. " The word of God [i Pet. i. 
abideth for ever :" " In what hour soever a sinner repenteth izek. iii. 

[ 2 Darnel: tares.] 


[Rom. viii. him of his sins, they be forgiven." " Who can lay any thing 
to the charge of God's elect?" Do you not perceive the 
manifest tokens of your election? first, your vocation to the 
gospel, and after your vocation the manifest gifts of the 
Spirit of God, given unto you above many other of your con- 
dition, with godliness which believeth and yieldeth to the 
authority of the scriptures, and is zealous for the same? 
Seeing you are God's own darling, who can hurt you? Be 
not of a deject mind for these temptations, neither make 
your unfeigned friends to be more sorrowful for you than 
need doth require. Since God hath willed you at your bap- 
tism in Christ to be Careless, why do you make yourself 

[i Pet. v. 7.] careful ? " Cast all your care on him ;" " set the Lord before 

s.] " your eyes always, for he is on your right side that you shall 
not be moved." Behold the goodness of God toward me. I 
am careless, being fast closed in a pair of stocks, which pinch 
me for very straitness ; and will you be careful ? I will not 
have that unseemly addition to your name. Be as your name 
pretendeth ; for doubtless you have none other cause but so 
to be. Pray, I beseech you, that I may be still careless 
in my careful estate, as you have cause to be careless in your 
easier condition. Be thankful, and put away all care; and 
then I shall be joyful in my strait present care. 

Commend me to all our brethren, and desire them to pray 
for me that I may overcome my temptations; for the devil 
rageth against me. I am put in the stocks in a place alone, 
because I would not answer to such articles as they would 
charge me withal, in a corner, at the bishop's appointment ; 
and because I did not come to mass when the bishop sent for 
me. I will lie all the days of my life in the stocks (by God's 
grace), rather than I will consent to the wicked generation. 
Praise God, and be joyful, that it hath pleased him to make 

[Rev. ii. io.] us worthy to suffer somewhat for his name's sake. The devil 
must rage for ten days. Commend me to master Fokes, 
and thank him for his law books ; but law, neither equity, 
will take any place among these blood-thirsty. I would, for 
your sake, their unjust dealing were noted unto the parlia- 
ment house, if it might avail. God shorten these evil days ! 
I have answered the bishop meetly plain already ; and I say 
to him, if he will call me in open judgment, I will answer 


him as plainly as he will require : otherwise I have refused, 
because I fear they will condemn me in hugger-mugger 1 . 
The peace of God be with you, my dear brother. I can 
write no more for lack of light ; and that I have written I 
cannot read myself, and God knoweth it is written far un- 
easily: I pray God you may pick out some understanding 
of my mind towards you. Written in a coal-house of 
darkness out of a pair of painful stocks, by thine own in 



A Letter of John Cabeless, written to Master Philpot ; 
being an answer to the former letter. 

A faithful friend is a strong defence; whoso findeth 
such a one, findeth a treasure. 

A faithful friend hath no peer : the weight of gold and 
silver is not to be compared to the goodness of his faith. 

A faithful friend is a medicine of life, and they that fear 
the Lord shall find him. — Ecclesiasticus vi. 

The Father of mercy, and God of all consolation, comfort 
you with his eternal Spirit, my most dear and faithful loving 
friend, good master Philpot, as you have comforted me by 
the mighty operation of the same : the everlasting God be 
praised therefore for ever ! Amen. 

Ah, my dear heart, and most loving brother, if I should 
do nothing else day and night so long as the days of heaven 
do endure, but kneel on my knees and read psalms, I can 
never be able to render unto God condign 2 thanks for his 
great mercy, fatherly kindness, and most loving compassion, 

[} Hugger-mugger : in the dark.] 
[~ 2 Condign: suitable.] 


extended unto me most vile, sinful, wicked, and unworthy 
wretch. Oh that the Lord would open my mouth, and give 
me a thankful heart, that from the bottom of the same 
might flow his continual praise ! Oh that my sinful flesh, 
(which is the cause of my sorrow,) were clean separated 
from me, that I might sing psalms of thanksgiving unto the 
Lord's name for ever; that with good Samuel's mother I 
might continually record this noble verse following, the which 
by good experience I have found most true — praised be 

I Kings ii. my good God therefore ! " The Lord (saith the good woman,) 
killeth and maketh alive : he bringeth down to hell and 
fetcheth up again." Praised be that Lord for ever, yea, and 
praised be his name, for that he hath given me true ex- 
perience and lively feeling of the same. Blessed be the 
Lord God, whose mercy endureth for ever, which hath not 
dealt with me according to my deep deserts, nor destroyed 
me in his displeasure, when I had justly deserved it. Oh, 
" what reward shall I give again unto the Lord, for all the 
great benefits that he hath done for my soul? I will gladly 

[Psai.cxvi. receive the cup of salvation" at his hand, and will worship 
his name with prayer and with praise. 

Ah, my dear heart, yea, most dear unto me in the Lord, 
think not this sudden change in me to be some fickle fantasy 
of my foolish head (as indeed some other would surely suspect 
it to be) ; for doubtless it is the marvellous doing of the Lord, 
most merciful unto me his unworthy creature. God, for his 
great mercy's sake, give me grace to be more thankful unto 
him than I heretofore have been, and keep me that I never 
fall forth of his favour again ! And know, my dear brother, 
and most blessed messenger of the Lord, whose beautiful 
feet have brought much glad tidings unto my soul, what 
shall I do or say unto you, in the least part to recompense 
your fatherly affection and godly care, that you continually 
keep for me? Oh that God would give me the spirit of 
fervent prayer, that I might yet that way supply some little 
part of my duty toward you ! Ah, my true loving friend, how 
soon did you lay aside all other business to make a sweet 
plaister for my wounded conscience, yea, and that out of a 
painful pair of stocks, which place must needs be uneasy to 
write in ! But God hath brought you into a strait place, 


that you might set my soul at liberty. Out of your pinching 
and painful seat, you have plentifully poured upon me your 
precious nard, the sweet savour whereof hath greatly refreshed 
my tired soul. The Lord likewise refresh you, both body 
and soul, by pouring the oil of his gracious Spirit into your 
sweet heart. 

Ah, good Jeremy, hath Pashur put thee in the stocks ? Jer. xx. 
Why, now thou hast the right reward of a prophet. Thy 
glory never began to appear until now. I doubt not but 
shortly, instead of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, Jesus the jer. xxvi. 
Son of the living God will come and deliver thee forth of 
the hands of all thine enemies, and will also make good, against 
them and the antichristian synagogue, all the words that thou 
hast spoken in his name. The Lord hath made thee this jer. i. 
day a strong defended tower, an iron pillar and a brasen wall 
against the whole rabble of antichrist ; and though they fight 
against thee never so fiercely, yet shall they not overcome 
thee; for the Lord himself is with thee to help and deliver j e r. xv. 
thee, and he will rid thee out of the hands of the wicked, 
and will deliver thee out of the hands of the tyrants. And 
in that you are not busy in casting pearls before swine, nor in Matt. vu. 
giving holy things unto dogs, you are much to be commended 
in my simple judgment. And sure I am, that your circumspect 
and modest behaviour hitherto hath been as much to God's 
glory and confusion of your enemies, as any man's doings 
that are gone before you. Wherefore mine advice and most 
earnest desire is, with all other of your loving friends, that 
you still keep that order 1 with those blood-thirsty bishops 
that you have begun. 

For though in conclusion they will surely have your blood ; 
yet shall they come by it with shame enough, and to their 
perpetual infamy whilst the world doth endure. They would 
indeed condemn you in hugger-mugger to darken God's glory, 
if it might be ; but Satan's thoughts are not unknown to you, 
and the depth of his subtlety is by you well foreseen. There- 
fore let them do whatsoever God shall suffer them to do ; 
for I know all things shall turn to your best. Though you 
lie in the dark, slorried 2 with the bishop's black coal dust, 

[} Order: method.] 
P Slorried: bedaubed.] 


yet shall you shortly be restored to the heavenly light, and 

Psai. ixviii. made as white as snow in Salmon, and as the wings of a 
dove that is covered with silver wings, and her feathers like 
gold. You know, the vessel, before it is made bright, is soiled 
with oil and other things, that it may scour the better. Oh, 
happy be you, that you be now in the scouring house; for 
shortly you shall be set upon the celestial shelf as bright 
as angels. 1 

Therefore, my dear heart, I will now, according to your 
loving request, cast away all care, and rejoice with you and 
praise God for you, and pray for you day and night. Yea, 
I will now, with God's grace, sing psalms of praise and thanks- 
giving with you ; for now my soul is turned into her old 
rest again, and hath taken a sweet nap in Christ's lap. I have 
cast my care upon the Lord, Avhich careth for me ; and 
will be Careless according to my name, in that respect which 
you would have me. I will leave out my unseemly addition as 
long as I live ; for it can take no place where true faith 
and hope is resident. So soon as I had read your most godly 
and comfortable letter, my sorrows vanished away as smoke 
in the wind, my spirit revived, and comfort came again; 
whereby I am sure the Spirit of God was the author of it. 

Oh, good master Philpot, which art a principal pot indeed, 
filled with most precious liquor, as it appeareth by the plente- 
ous pouring forth of the same : oh, pot most happy, of the 
high Potter ordained to honour, which dost contain such 
heavenly treasure in thy earthen vessel : oh, pot thrice happy, 
in whom Christ hath wrought a great miracle, altering thy 

[Johnii.9.] nature and turning water into wine, and that of the best, 
whereout the master of the feast hath filled my cup so full, 
that I am become drunken in joy of the Spirit through the 
same. When martyrdom shall break thee, vessel of 
honour, I know the fragrant savour of thy precious nard 
will much rejoice the heavy hearts of Christ's true members ; 
although the Judases will grudge and murmur at the same, 
yea, and burst out into words of slander, saying, It is but 

[Markxiv. l os t and waste. Be not offended, dear heart, at my meta- 
phorical speech ; for I am disposed to be merry, and with 

[2 Sam. vi. David to dance before the ark of the Lord ; and though 

14.] ° 

[} Angels : a play upon the word angel, a silver coin.] 



you play upon a pair of organs 2 not very comely or easy to 
the flesh, yet the sweet sound that came from the same 
causeth me thus to do. 

Oh that I were with you in body, as presently I am in 
spirit, that I might sing all care away in Christ; for now 
the time of comfort is come. I hope to be with you shortly, 
if all things happen aright ; for my old friends of Coventry 
have put the council in remembrance of me not six days 
ago, saying that I am more worthy to be burnt than any 
that was burned yet. God's blessing on their hearts for 
their good report! God make me worthy of that dignity, 
and hasten the time, that I might set forth his glory. Pray 
for me, dear heart, I beseech you, and will 3 all your company 
to do the same ; and I will pray God for you all so long 
as. I live. And now farewell in Christ, thou blessed of God's 
own mouth: I will for a time take my leave, but not my 
last farewell. Blessed be the time that ever I came into the 
king's bench, to be joined in love and fellowship with such 
dear children of the Lord. My good brother Bradford shall 
not be dead while you be alive ; for verily the spirit of him 
doth rest on you in most ample wise. Your letters of comfort 
unto me in each point do agree, as though the one were a 
copy of the other. He hath planted in me, and you do water ; 
the Lord give good increase ! My dear brethren and fellow- 
prisoners here have them humbly and heartily commended 
unto you and your company, mourning for your misery, but 
yet rejoicing for your plenteous consolation and comfort in 
Christ. We are all cheerful and merry under our cross, and 
do lack no necessaries : praised be God for his providence, 
and great mercies towards us, for evermore. Amen. 


C a Organs: the stocks.] 
[ 3 Will: desire.] 

Ixxxiv. 7.] 



To certain godly women, forsaking their own country, and 
going beyond the seas, in the time of persecution, for the 
testimony of the Gospel. 

The Spirit of truth, revealed unto you, my dearly beloved, 
by the gospel of our Saviour Jesus Christ, be continually 
abiding with you, and augmented into a perfect building of 
you into the lively temple of God, through the mighty opera- 
tion of his power. Amen. 

I read in the evangelists of certain godly women that 
ministered unto Christ, following him in the days of his pas- 
sion, and never forsook him, but, being dead in his grave, 
brought oil to anoint him, until that he had shewed himself 
unto them after his resurrection, and bidden them shew unto 
his disciples, which at his passion were dispersed, and tell 
them that he was risen, and that they should see him in 
Galilee. To whom I may justly compare you (my loving 
sisters in Christ), who of late have seen him suffer in his 
members, and have ministered to their necessity, anointing 
them with the comfortable oil of your charitable assistance, 
even to the death. And now, since ye have seen Christ to 
live in the ashes of them whom the tyrants have slain, he 
willeth you to go away, upon just occasion offered you, and to 
declare to our dispersed brethren and sisters, that he is 
risen, and liveth in his elect members in England, and by 
death doth overcome infidelity, and that they shall see him 
in Galilee, which is by forsaking this world, and by a faithful 
desire to pass out of this world by those ways which he 
with his holy martyrs hath gone on before. God therefore, 
entire sisters, direct your way, as he did Abraham and 
Tobias unto a strange land. God give you health both of 
body and soul, that ye may go from virtue to virtue, and 
grow from strength to strength, until ye may see face to 
face the God of Sion in his holy hill, with the innumerable 
company of his blessed martyrs and saints. Let there be 
continual ascensions unto heaven in your hearts. Let there 
be no decrease of any virtue, which is already planted in 


you. Be as the light of the just, such as, Solomon saith, [p< ( >v. iv. 
increaseth to the perfect day of the Lord. Let the strength 
of God be commended in your weak vessels, as it is. Be 
examples of faith and sobriety to all that ye shall come in 
company withal. Let your godly conversation speak, where 
your tongue may not, in the congregation. Be swift to hear, 
and slow to speak, after the counsel of St James. Be not [James i. 
curious about other men's doings, but be occupied in prayer 
and continual meditation, with reverent talking of the word 
of God, without contention, amongst the saints. Let your 
faith shine in a strange country, as it hath done in your 
own ; that your Father which is in heaven may be glorified 
by you to the end. 

This farewell I send you, not as a thing needful, which 
know already what your duty is, and be desirous to perform 
the same ; but as one that would have you understand, that 
he is mindful of your godly conversation, whereof he hath 
had good experience, and therefore writeth this to be as a 
perpetual memorial betwixt you and him, until our meeting 
together before God ; where we shall joy that we have here 
lovingly put one another in memory of our duty to perform it. 
Farewell again, mine own bowels in Christ, and take me 
with you wheresoever you go, and leave yourselves with me, 
that in spirit we may be present one with another. Commend 
me to the whole congregation of Christ, willing them not 
to leave their country without witness of the gospel, after 
that we all be slain, which already be stalled up and appointed 
to the slaughter; and, in the mean season, to pray earnestly 
for our constancy, that Christ may be glorified in us and [Phil. i. 
in them, both by life and death. Farewell in the Lord. 

Yours for ever, 





An exhortation to a sister of Ms, constantly and cheerfully to 
stick to the truth, and to abide the trial of that doctrine 
which she had fruitfully professed. 

God the eternal Father, who hath justified you by the 
blood of his Son Jesus Christ, and called you to hallow his 
name through a good conversation and profession of life, he 
sanctify you with daily increase of virtue and faith by his holy 
Spirit ; that you may appear a vessel of sanctification in the 
midst of this wicked and perverse generation, to the laud and 
praise of the gospel. Amen. 

I have occasion, mine own dear sister, to praise God in you 
for two causes : the one, that to your ability you are ready to 
shew yourself a natural loving sister unto me your poor afflicted 
brother, as by your gentle tokens you have eftsoons 1 testified 
being absent, as also presently visiting me ; which well de- 
clareth that you be a very natural sister indeed, and to be 
praised in this behalf: but in the other, that you be also a 
sister to me in faith after Christ's gospel, I am occasioned to 
thank God so much the more, how much the one excelleth the 
other, and the spiritual consanguinity is more perdurable than 
that which is of flesh and blood, and is a worker of that which 
is by nature — for commonly such as be ungodly, be unnatural 
and only lovers of themselves, as daily experience teacheth us. 
1 1 Pet. 1.23.] jhg ii v i n g Lord, which through the incorruptible seed of his 
word hath begotten you to be my liege 2 sister, give you grace 
so to grow in that generation, that you may increase to a per- 
fect age in the Lord, to be my sister with Christ for ever. 
Look, therefore, that you continue a faithful sister, as you are 
called and are godly entered, not only to me but to all the 
church of Christ, yea, to Christ himself; who voucheth you, 
in this your unfeigned faith, worthy to be his sister. Consider 
this dignity to surmount all the vain dignity of the world, and 
let it accordingly prevail more with you, than all earthly de- 
lights ; for thereby you are called to an equal portion of the 

[} Eftsoons : from time to time.] 
[ 3 Liege : attached, devoted.] 


everlasting inheritance of Christ, if now in nowise you do shew 
yourself an unnatural sister to him in forsaking him in trouble; 
which I trust you will never, for no kind of worldly respect, do. 
You are under dangerous temptations to be turned from that 
natural love you owe unto Christ, and you shall be tried with 
God's people through a sieve of great affliction ; for so Satan Luke xxii. 
desireth us to be sifted, that through fear of sharp troubles we 
might fall from the stableness of our faith, and so be deprived 
of that honour, joy, and reward, which is prepared for such as 
continue faithful brothers and sisters in the Lord's covenant to 
the end. Therefore the wise man, in the book of Ecclesias- 
ticus, biddeth them that come to the service of the Lord, to 
prepare themselves to suffer temptations. Since, then, that for 
the glory of God and our faith we are called now to abide the 
brunt of them, and that when our adversary hath done all that 
he "can, yet we may be stable and stand : this, Christ our first 
begotten brother looketh for at our hands ; and all our brethren 
and sisters in heaven desire to see our faith through afflictions 
to be perfect, that we might fulfil their number ; and the uni- 
versal church here militant rejoiceth at our constancy ; whom 
all, by the contrary, we should make sorry, to the danger of 
the loss both of body and soul. Fear not, therefore, whatso- 
ever be threatened of the wicked world: prepare your back, 
and see it be ready ,to carry Christ's cross. And if you see 
any untowardness in you (as the flesh is continually repugnant 
to the will of God), ask with faithful prayer, that the good 
Spirit of God may lead your sinful flesh whither it would not; Johnxxi. 
for if we will dwell in the flesh and follow the counsel thereof, 
we shall never do the will of God, neither the work that 
tendeth to our salvation. You are at this present in the con- 
fines and borders of Babylon, where you are in danger to drink [Rev. xvii. 
of the whore's cup, unless you be vigilant in prayer. Take 
heed the serpent seduce you not from the simplicity of your [a cor. xi. 
faith, as he did our first mother Eve. Let no worldly fellow- 
ship make you partaker of iniquity. He that toucheth tar [Eccius.xui. 
cannot but be defiled thereby, and with such as be perverse a 
man shall soon be perverted; with the holy you shall be holy. rPsai.xviii. 
Therefore say continually, with the prophet David, " Unto the Psal - xvi - 
saints which be on the earth, all my will is on them." You 
have been sanctified and made pure through the truth: take 


heed you be not unholied and defiled, lest the last be worse 
than the first. 

I write not this because I stand in any doubt of your 
sincere continuance, of the which I have had so good ex- 
perience : but because the days be evil ; and in the same it is 
the duty of every one of us to exhort another. I am bold to 
put you, my good sister, in remembrance of that, which doth 
not a little comfort me to remember in my troubles and daily 
temptations. Wherefore I doubt not, you will take that in 
good part which cometh from your brother both in spirit and 
body, who tendereth your salvation as earnestly as his own; 
that we might joy together eternally, with such joy as the 
world shall never be able to take from us. Thanks be unto 
God ! you have begun to run a good and great time well in the 
ways of the Lord : run out the race to the end which you 
have begun, and then shall you receive the crown of glory. 
2 Tim. ii. None shall be crowned but such as lawfully striveth. Be not 
overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good : and the Lord 
shall make you one of those faithful virgins that shall follow the 
Rev. xiv. Lamb wheresoever he goeth — the which Christ grant both you 
and me ! Amen. 

Commend me to all them that love me in the Lord un- 

feignedly. God increase our faith, and give us grace never to 

be ashamed of his gospel ! That same request which I have 

Tins was for made to my brother Thomas, I make also to you ; desiring 

fruits of his y u, by all means you can, to accomplish my request that my 

ry, whereof sureties might be satisfied with that is mine own to the con- 

all the time ° . 

ofhisim- tentation of my mind, which cannot be quiet until they be 

pnsonment J 1 J 

he had no discharged : therefore, I pray you, help to purchase quietness, 
and yet his that I might depart out of this world in peace. My dissolution 

sureties o i i j 

were com- j Iqq^ f or <Jailv ; but the Lord knoweth how unworthy I am of 

pelledtopay •> •> 

the same. so high an honour, as to die for the testimony of his truth. 
Pray that God would vouchsafe to make me worthy, as he hath 
done of long imprisonment — for the which his name be praised 
for ever. Pray and look for the coming of the Lord, whose 
wrath is great over us ; and I will pray for you as long as I 
live. The 9th of July, in the king's bench. 

Your own loving brother, as well in faith as in body, 




To my dear friend and brother in the Lord, Master Robert 


Gentle Master Harrington, I cannot tell what condign 
thanks I may give unto God for you, in respect to that great 
gentleness and pain which you have taken for the relief of me 
and of other our afflicted brethren iff Christ. God be praised 
for his mercy, whose loving providence we have seen towards 
us by such faithful stewards as you have been towards a great 
many. Blessed be you of God, for the loving care which 
you have taken for his poor flock. God hath reserved your 
reward of thanks in heaven ; and therefore I do not go about 
to render you any, lest I might seem to judge that you looked 
for that here, which is reserved to a better place. 

I thank God for that I have found by your faithful and 
diligent industry ; and God forgive me my unworthiness of so 
great benefits ! God give me grace to serve him faithfully, and 
to run out my race with joy ! Glorious is the course of the 
martyrs of Christ at this day. Never had the elect of God a 
better time for their glory than this is : now may they be 
assured, under the cross, that they are Christ's disciples for 
ever. Methinks I see you desiring to be under the same : the 
flesh draweth back, but the Spirit saith it must be brought Joim xxi. 
whither it would not. Here is the victory of the world ; here 
is true faith and everlasting glory. Who is he which desireth 
not to be found faithful to his Master ? And now is the time 
that every faithful servant of Christ hath just opportunity to 
shew himself a glorious soldier in the Lord's sight. Now do 
the Amalekites invade the true Israelites, that the Israelites 
might with speed be glorified. I need not, for want of under- 
standing, to admonish you hereof ; but, as a willing soldier in 
Christ, to exhort you so to run as you may gain the victory, 
and that speedily, with us. A man that is bid to a glorious 
feast, wisheth his friend to go with him and to be partaker 
thereof. God doth call me (most unworthy) among other, 
to drink of the bride-cup of his Son ; whereby we shall be 


[l'HILPOT ] 


made worthy, as many of our brethren have been before us, to 
sit at the right hand and at the left hand of Christ. Oh, what 
unspeakable condition is that ! May any worldly thing stay us 
from the desire thereof? Since we seek the kingdom of God, 
why do we not apprehend it, being so near offered unto us? 
[James w. Let us approach near unto God, and God will draw near unto 
[Cant. i. 4.J ug- Gr d draw us after him, that we may all run after the 
savour of his sweet ointments ! Christ anoint us, that we may 
be suppled in these evil days to run lightly unto the glory of 
the Lord ! Shame, imprisonment, loss of goods, and shedding 
of our blood, be the just price which we must willingly bestow 
for the same. Wherefore, dearly beloved in the Lord, let not 
the great charges keep you back from buying this glory; 
for the reward is ten thousand fold greater than the price. 
That you have married a wife, (whom God bless !) I cannot 
excuse you from this mart ; but you must bring your wife 
for a usury to the Lord, whose pleasure is in godly yoke- 
fellows. I wish you to be as I am — except these horrible 
bands, but yet most comfortable to the spirit, assuring us that 
[2 Thess. i.] we are made worthy, through Christ, of the kingdom for the 
which we suffer. 

Praised be the Lord for the affliction which we suffer, and 
he give us strength to continue to the end ! Commend me to 
master Heath, and tell him that I would wish him, with me, to 
prove how apt he is to carry the cross of Christ. I pray for 
his continuance in Christ, as for mine own. Commend me to 
his wife and to mistress Hall, certifying them that I am 
brought to the gates of hell, that I might never enter into the 
same, but be raised up from hell to heaven through the word 
that sanctifieth us. Commend me to master Elsing and his 
wife, and thank them that they remembered to provide me 
some ease in prison ; and tell them that though my lord's coal- 
house be but very black, yet it is more to be desired of the 
faithful than the queen's palace. God make her a joyful 
mother, and preserve them both to the comfort of God's peo- 
ple ! Thus for this time farewell, dear brother. Written in 
post haste because of strait keeping. 

This day I look to be called before the commissioners 
again. Pray, dear brother, for the Spirit of wisdom to remain 
with me. Commend me to your wife, and I thank you both 


for your tokens. Your token I have sent to your wife ; and 
my token unto you is my faithful heart with this letter. Com- 
mend me to all my friends ; and tell them, I thank God, I am 
cheerful in Christ, wishing them to fear God more than man, 
and to learn to despise earnestly the vanities of this world ; 
desiring you all to pray for me, that I may end my journey 
with fidelity. Amen. 



To Master Robert Glover 1 , prisoner in Coventry for the 

maintenance of GooVs Gospel. 

The knowledge of God which hath enlightened your mind 
with the true religion of Christ, and now doth in the begin- 
ning of darkness shine in you to the commendation of your 
true faith, and to the strengthening of many weak brethren, 
remain with you to the end, through the mighty operation 
of the Holy Ghost ! Amen. 

It is a singular comfort to the afflicted flock of Christ, 
to behold such as have been ministers and professors of his 
truth in religion to stand in the same, and that in the time 
of persecution, whenas the same may not be abiden by 
before the face of the rich and mighty in this world, to 
be preached without present danger. So St Paul willeth 
Timothy, both in season and out of season to be earnest PJ""' iv - 
in sowing the word. And praised be God that we here in 
prison for the testimony thereof do hear of your diligence 
in this behalf, which cease not to do the office of an evan- 
gelist, although it be with danger of affliction. Such faithful 
ministers be to be honoured, that do submit their own heads 
to peril for the love of the gospel. Such Christ will acknow- 
ledge and confess before his Father in heaven; and they 
are those which have bidden 2 with him in temptations, and ^^j*"- 
therefore shall eat and drink with him at his table in the 
kingdom of heaven. I thought it therefore my duty, at the 
motion 3 of this bearer, albeit I have no bodily acquaintance 

C 1 He was condemned and burnt as a heretic at Coventry, Sept. 
20, 1555.] 

[ 2 Bidden : abiden, continued.] [ 3 Motion : request.] 

16— <2 


with you, to exhort you, as St Paul willeth us to exhort one 
another as long as we are in this life, boldly to continue in 
this good and necessary work of the Lord ; specially in these 
evil days, in the which Satan rageth against the church of 
Christ, and daily imprisoneth and robbeth the members 
thereof, for their faithful testimony; and be you assured, 
he will not leave you untouched, for above all other he 
seeketh to suppress the good ministers of the word, for they 
be such as have destroyed his kingdom. But you must not, 
for fear of his odious and tedious assaults, withdraw your- 
self from your vocation; but rather provoke him by your 
constant profession to do his worst, knowing that the same 
shall turn unto you to the best, even to the crown of your 
glory. There is none crowned but such as hold out to the 
goal-end ; and therefore our Saviour Christ saith in the gospel, 

[Matt.x.22.] Beatus qui perseverat usque in finem. You run well: God 
is praised therein, and the afflicted church much comforted 
by so faithful a captain : run out therefore (as I doubt not 
you will), and fear nothing of that you shall suffer for your 

[Rev. ii. 10.] labour ; for if you be faithful unto death, you shall assuredly 
have the reward of eternal life. Many go on well till they 
come to the pikes; and then they turn their backs and give 
over in the plain field, to the shame of Christ and his church, 
that hath so faint-hearted soldiers in his host at the time 
of need, in the which his glory ought most manfully to be 

I doubt not but you have already cast the price 1 of this 
your building of the house of God, that it is like to be no 

Rom. viii. less than your life ; for I believe (as Paul saith), that God 
hath appointed us in these latter days like sheep to the 
slaughter. Antichrist is come again, and he must make a 
feast to Beelzebub his father, of many christian bodies, for 
the restoring again of his kingdom : let us watch and pray, 
that the same day may not find us unready. The peace of 
God be with you, and remain with you for ever! Your 
loving brother in Christ, and in spirit your familiar friend, 
captive in the king's bench. 


[_ [ Cast the price: counted the cost.]] 


To my dearly beloved Sister in the Lord, Mistress Heath. 

The light of the gospel of Christ, which hath enlightened 
you with the true understanding of faith, be daily increased 
in you, my dearly beloved sister, unto the perfect day of the 
Lord, through the mighty operation of his Spirit ! Amen. 

Whereas you have required of me a token at your depart- 
ing, that might be a remembrance with you of my brotherly 
love towards you, I mused, of diverse things, what I might 
commend unto you best ; and among all other I found none so 
certain a token either of the love of God toward us, or else 
of the love of us one to another, as to bear the cross together 
with Christ. To bear the cross is to be partaker of the 
afflictions of Christ, which now he suffereth in his members, 
for the accomplishment of his body the church, which are 
we that believe in him sincerely: which is the surest token 
of God's love towards us that we can have in this world ; 
for " whom God loveth he chasteneth," and, as it is written, Heb. xii. 
"he chasteneth every son whom he receiveth." Wherefore, 
above all things, love the cross of Christ, under the which 
all the church of Christ in England now is; and be con- 
tent to have your faith tried every day by some cross or other, 
as it pleaseth God to put on you : and if God putteth no 
grievous cross upon you, let your brethren's cross be your 
cross, which is a certain token of true brotherly love. 

If the church in England had learned, with the gospel, 
to have borne the cross of Christ, as all that be professors 
of the gospel be called thereunto, they would not so lightly, 
at the commandment of man, have turned from the ways 
of salvation to their old vomit again, contrary to their con- 
science ; and all to avoid the cross, the merciful sign of God's 
love towards us. If the cross were not, the faithful could 
not be known. If the cross were not, God should not so 
manifestly appear to be our deliverer and comforter, as he 
doth shew himself in the midst thereof unto all them 
that put their trust in him. Therefore believe them verily 
to be in most happy estate, that be under the cross; and 


such as do utterly abhor the same are cowards, and not fit 
soldiers for the Lord. We have all received the credit of 
faith from God in Christ, that we should beautify the same, 
— or rather, God in the same. We have this treasure in 

2C0r.1v. brittle vessels: let us take heed that the brittleness of the 
vessels shed not out our precious treasure on the earth, as, 
it is lamentable to see at this day, many have most un- 
faithfully done. Are they worthy of the heavenly kingdom, 
which here esteem more earth than heaven? Oh palpable 
infidelity ! Will not God require the credit of faith, which 
he hath committed unto us? Yea, verily. 

Is this the usury of faith, to love the world more than 
the gospel, and to fear man more than God ? If men, which 
count themselves stronger and worthier vessels, have thus 
unfaithfully dealt in the things of God, let the weakness of 
women be more firm in their faith to the glory of God, whose 
might appeareth in weakness. There is no exception of 
person before God : both man and woman be one in God ; 
and that person in all sorts of people is acceptable to him, 
that striveth to do his will. Wherefore contend in these 
cross-days, which be the love-days of God towards us, to 
shew yourself faithful to him that calleth you, and to be 
ready to do his will according to true knowledge, and that 
under the cross. God hath given you a faithful guide, whom 
see you love with all humility, patience, and obedience, as 
it become th a holy woman to be subject to her faithful head 
in the Lord ; and comfort him in our common cross, and 
bid him cheerfully take up the one end, and you will bear 
the other — a double string knit together. As you in your 

[Eph. v. 32.] godly matrimony do represent the mystery of Christ and his 
church, so continue you lively members of faith in the same ; 
and learn daily more and more to bear the cross of Christ, 
that others seeing your strength may be comforted, and be 
ashamed of their weakness in their master's cause. 

The faithful servant the Lord loveth, which bringeth his 
talent to his table with increase. Now is the time to increase 
to the Lord, and not to decrease ; to multiply our faith under 
the cross, and not to diminish it. The ways of the just do increase as the dawning of the day: embrace therefore the 

Gen. ix. cross, as the rainbow of God's merciful covenant ; pray that 


we may together end our course therein with joy. Take 
my token in good worth, until we be made partakers of the 
glory of the cross. 

Out of my lord of London's coal-house, the 11th of 




To my brother John Careless, prisoner in the King's 


The grace of God the Father, through his dear Son Christ 
our. Saviour, with perseverance in all godly verity, be with 
thee, my dear brother Careless, and with all my prison- 
fellows ! Amen. 

Ah. my own love in Christ, I am sorry to hear of thy ^f? w / re 

» ... certain free- 

great trouble which these schismatics do daily put thee ™'£ men > 

to. I would I were with thee, in part to relieve thy grief; f ™£™ A ' ■ t 
but since that it hath pleased God otherwise, take my advice s P irits - 
in this your conflict, and be patient whatsoever your adver- 
saries can say or do against you. Know that you are ap- 
pointed for the defence of the gospel, for the which you (God 
be praised!) do suffer: yet you must understand that you 
are but a voice in the wilderness, and a planter, and that 
it is God that must give the increase. And therefore, if 
there come not such fruit of your good labours as you would 
wish, be content, and know that a stony ground cannot 
fructify ; yet shall not God forget your labour, but you shall 
reap as plenteously in the day of reward, as though it had 
increased after your expectation. Have patience, therefore, 
in your labour, and let not care eat out your heart. Commit 
the success to God ; and cease not with charity to be earnest 
in the defence of the truth, against these arrogant and self- 
will-blinded scatterers. 

These sects are necessary, for the trial of our faith and 
for the beautifying thereof. Be not perverted with them 
that be perverse and intractable: they resist not you, they 
resist Christ; and be workers against their own salvation. 


Shew as much modesty and humility as you may possible : 
so shall your labour please God best, and your adversaries 
receive the more shame ; and others, seeing your modest 
conversation amongst these contentious babblers, shall glorify 
God in his truth by you, and the more abhor them, as you 
see it hath come to pass in times past. Be content that 

2 Sam. xvi. Shimei do rail at David and cast stones awhile : be sure, his 
railing judgment will fall upon his own pate. Have always 
that notable rule of Ohrisfs church before your eyes, which 

1 cor. xi. St Paul writeth ; that " if anybody be contentious, neither we, 
neither the church of God, hath any such custom." 

Desire all our brethren in the bowels of Jesus Christ 
to keep the bond of peace; which is the unity of Christ's 
church, where be all the treasures of spiritual consolation in 

Heb. xii. heavenly things. Let no " root of bitterness spring up," which 
the devil with all diligence seeketh to thrust in amongst the 
children of God. Kiss one another with the kiss of unfeigned 
brotherly love ; and take one another by the hand cheerfully, 
and say, " Let us take up our cross together, and go to the 
Mount of Calvary, and there be willing to suffer whatsoever 
it pleaseth God we shall. Hitherto we have not resisted 

[Heb. xii. 4.] to blood-shedding. Our blood must not be too dear for the 
Lord, and then his kingdom shall not be too dear for us." 
Thus exhort one another to offer yourselves a joyful sacri- 
fice unto God ; for this is that pleasant sacrifice wherewith 
his wrath shall be pacified, which is now kindled most justly 
against us. Be thankful unto God, that it hath pleased him 
to make you worthy of this glorious affliction ; yea, and I 
pray you give thanks unto God for me, that it hath been 
his good will to take me, most filthy and unthankful sinner, 
to be one of this number. My joy of the love of God towards 
me in this hehalf is such, that it maketh all my strait im- 
prisonment to seem pleasure : God be praised, I cannot be 
sorry though I would. 

Oh, how great is the love of God towards us ! Be merry, 
brethren, and rejoice continually in the Lord ; for the victory 
is ours, yea, heaven is ours, and all the glory thereof. Faint 
not, but run out, for we are even at an end. Be glad of 
nothing so much, as in the mortification of the old Adam: 
murmur not, in no case, whatsoever necessity you be in. Com- 


municate your necessities to me, and to others of his people, 
and God will make us to divide stakes. Be always praising 
God, talking, comforting, teaching, and exhorting in God, 
and he will not see you utterly destitute. 1 commend me 
to your faithful prayers all. And you, Careless, see that you 
be in my dungeon with me, as I am in spirit with you in 
the king's bench, and with you all. 

Thine own brother, 



To Mistress Ann Habtipole, who has fallen from the sin- 
cerity of the gospel, tchich she had before long known and 
^professed, to the pope and his idolatrous religion. 

The grace of God and true light, wherewith he lighteneth 
the hearts of all the true and faithful believers, lovers, and 
followers of his holy gospel, lighten your heart by the mighty 
operation of his holy Spirit! Amen. 

I have not hitherto been accustomed to write unto you 
in the matters of our common faith, which is now danger- 
ously assaulted, especially for that otherwise, by corporal pre- 
sence and mutual conference, we have had consolation in the 
same, as the time present did require. In the which I per- 
ceived your judgment and constancy to be so much, that I re- 
ceived, by your good and godly example, strength in the same ; 
as I have done even from the beginning, before I was called 
unto the light of the gospel, in the which you went before 
me, and ministered occasion to me to follow, at such time 
as that blessed woman Ann Askew 1 , (now a glorious martyr 
in the sight of Jesus Christ,) was harboured in your house ; 
so that I thought it superfluous and not needful to write 
thereof unto you, that of so long time have been instructed, 
and by so many learned books confirmed. But now, hear- 
ing that the old serpent, our ancient enemy, which lieth in 

Q 1 Or, Ayscough: "a young gentlewoman of condition, who was 
prosecuted for denying the corporal presence" of Christ in the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper; and was burned in Smithfield, with three others, 
in June, 1546.] 


continual wait of our steps, hath bitten you by the heel and 
given you a foul fall, I cannot but be heartily sorry, and, 
as brotherly charity moveth me, testify the same unto you 
by writing, for that I may not presently otherwise open my- 
self in this behalf. 

Alas, sister, that so sincere profession should receive so 
gross an infection, to the dishonour of God and of his church ! 

Lukex. What meaneth it that you are so suddenly departed from 
Jerusalem unto Jericho, to be a companion of thieves and 
idolaters, to the utter overthrowing of that good which you 

[James a. h ave p ro fessed ? For, as St James teacheth us, " he that of- 
fendeth in one is guilty in all f 1 and to come to idolatry and 
strange worshipping of God, forbidden by his word, is of all 
transgressions the most detestable. Therefore I cannot cease 
to wonder how you could so soon be allured or drawn thereto. 
I had thought the love of the truth had been so graffed in 
your heart, that neither persecution, sword, fire, nor gallows 
might have brought this to pass, that at the voice of a hand- 

[Matt. xxvi. maid, in the first temptation, you should have denied Christ. 
For not to walk after the sincerity of his gospel indeed is 

[i Cor. x.2i.] to deny him ; and none " can be partakers of the Lord's table 
and of the table of devils," which is the popish mass, and 
the malignant synagogue using the same. 

Methink I hear your excuse, pretending your conscience 
to be sound before God notwithstanding ; and that your con- 
science will give you leave thus to do, with the common sort 
of dissemblers both with God and man : but I must tell you 
plain, sister, in God's cause, that your conscience, so affected, 
is a sickly and unsound conscience and craftily blinded; for 
before God there is no such conscience allowed, which al- 
loweth your body to do that which it condemneth. " We shall 

[] receive all according to that which we do in our bodies, whe- 
ther it be good or evil ;" and it is commanded us as well to 

[i cor. vi. glorify God in our bodies as in our souls. We must shew 

20.] . . 

our faith by our outward conversation ; " that men, seeing our 
[Matt. v.i6.] good works, might glorify our Father which is in heaven. 11 
Will ye now with your presence go about to beautify that 
which hitherto you have justly destroyed ? What do you else 
in so doing, but notify yourself to be an infidel to the church 
of Christ, that will be content to associate yourself with her 


enemy for the eontentation of man I Hath ever any person 
of God so done, that was allowed therein ? Be not deceived, 
good sister, with the persuasible words of man, neither be 
afraid of his threats. Follow the gospel of Christ according 
to true knowledge ; and fear to do that, which by the same 
is straitly forbidden you. Tempt not God any longer by 
this evil doing, for you can do nothing more heinous in his 
sight. Let this halting be healed up, and turn not from the 
right ways of the Lord. Be not ashamed of his gospel, neither 
of the cross, which is the badge of the true and unfeigned 
professors thereof, which you see now his faithful (praised be 
his name therefore!) are so well content and willing to bear; 
but rather, as you are called, take up your cross and be as- 
sured thereby to enter into Christ's glory : for unless we suffer ^fj"- 
with him, we shall not reign with him ; and if we die not 
with Christ, we shall not live with Christ, The cross now 
is the way to heaven : therefore I wish you should choose 
to be afflicted with the people of God, rather than to live 
in the tabernacles of the wicked. Do not any more that which 
of all things you have now most cause to repent, neither lay 
daily the foundation of repentance ; but let this fall be a 
teaching unto you of the want of faith which is in you ; and 
so become more fervent in prayer and godly exercises, that 
with this new year you may become a new woman in a godly 
and new perfection ; the which God, for his mercy's sake in 
Christ, work both in you and me to the end! Amen. 

Written in haste by your brother in captivity, 



To a faithful woman and late wife to one of the bishops, which 
gave their lives in the Lord's quarrel. 

Remember, dear sister, that your life in this world is a 
continual warfare to fight against the world, the flesh, and 
the devil, in the which you are appointed, for the trial of 
your faith and love to God, to fight manfully, to overcome : 
for the Spirit of God which is in you is stronger than he 

-■'-i LETTERS. 

which is in the world ; and by this you may know that you 
are the child of God, even by the Spirit which striveth in you 
against the flesh and sin, and will not suffer sin to reign in 
you. This Spirit is obtained by often and daily reading and 
hearing the word of God, joined with faithful and hearty 
prayer : for diligent reading of God's word planteth the holy 
Spirit in you, and earnest prayer increaseth the same. Eead 
therefore the word studiously, and pray heartily that the same 
good gift of faith which you have learned of your faithful 
husband and good bishop in the Lord, who hath gloriouslv 
yielded his life for the same, may be confirmed in you even 
unto death, that you may receive the same crown of glory 
which he now hath ; for " precious is the death of the faith- 
ful in the Lord's sight :" therefore desire still to die to the 
Lord, and be glad to be poor both in body and spirit, and 
thus assure yourself the kingdom of heaven is yours. 

Your own in the Lord, 



Another Letter of exhortation to certain godly Brethren. 

The grace of God the Father, and the peace of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ his eternal Son, and the consolation 
of the Holy Ghost our Comforter, strengthen your hearts, 
and comfort your minds, that you may rejoice, and live in 
the truth of Christ's gospel to the end ! Amen. 
He com. I do much rejoice, dearly beloved in the Lord, to hear 

mendeth ' J . . J 

their faith- of your constant faith in the word of God, which you have 

ful zeal to , ' . . i i. i i- 

God's word, so purely received ; which do not with the worldlings decline 
from the purity thereof, albeit you suffer grief and trouble 
thereby; for the which I praise God most heartily: and 
the Lord of all strength, who hath begun this good work 
in you, make it perfect to the end, as I doubt not but he 
will, for the faithful zeal ye have to his truth and to his 
afflicted church. Therefore, that ye may the better stand and 



bear the brunt of many temptations, which you are like 1 to He exhort- 
be assaulted withal in these wicked and stormy days, I continue 

. . . . . , , ... andtostand 

thought it good, as it is the duty of one christian man to fast. 
exhort another in the time of trouble, to put you in remem- 
brance thereof, and to will you with the wise man, to prepare 
yourselves to temptations ; and to beware that ye, which yet 
do stand by the goodness of God, may not fall from your 
lively knowledge and hope. It is an easy thing to begin 
to do well ; but to continue out in well-doing is the only 
property of the children of God, and such as assuredly shall 
be saved. For so saith our Saviour in his gospel : " Blessed 
are they that persevere to the end." 

Let not therefore this certainty of your salvation, which 
is continuance in the sincerity of faith, slide from you. Esteem 
it more than all the riches and pleasures of this world; for 
it is the most acceptable treasure of eternal life. This is 
that precious stone for the which the wise merchantman, 
after the gospel, doth sell all that he hath, and buyeth the 
same. God, in the third of the Apocalypse, doth signify Rev. m. 
to the church, that there shall come a time of temptation 
upon the whole world, to try the dwellers on the earth ; from 
the danger of which temptation all such shall be delivered 
as observe his word ; which word there is called " the word The word of 
of patience," to give us to understand, that we must be ready 
to suifer all kind of injuries and slanders for the profession 

Therefore God commandeth us there to hold it fast, that 
no man might bereave us of our crown of glory; and St 
Peter telleth us, now we are afflicted with divers assays, i Pet. i. 
as it is need it should so be, " that the trial of our faith, 
being much more precious than gold that perisheth, and yet 
is tried by fire, might redound to the laud, glory, and honour 
of Jesus Christ.'" St Paul to the Hebrews sheweth us, that [Het>. n.] 
Christ our Saviour was in his humanity made perfect by 
afflictions, that we, being called to perfection in him, might 
more willingly sustain the troubles of the world, by the which 
God giveth all them that be exercised in the same for his 
sake his holiness. And in the twelfth chapter of the said 
epistle is written, " My son, refuse not the correction of the 
[ l All like to be. Ed. 1684.] 



.lolm xvi. 

Lord, nor shrink 1 not when thou art rebuked of him : for 
the Lord doth chastise every son whom he receiveth," &c. 
Christ, in the Gospel of St John, biddeth his disciples to 
look after afflictions, saving - , " In the world ye shall have 
trouble, but in me ye shall have joy." And therefore in the 
midst of their trouble, in the twenty-first of St Luke, he biddeth 
them look up and lift up their heads, -'for your redemption," 
saith he, "is at hand." And in the twenty-second he saith 
to all such as be afflicted for him, " You are those that have 
abiden with me in mv temptations, and therefore I appoint 
unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed for me, 
to eat and drink upon my table in my kingdom." 
The fruit Oh. how glorious be the crosses of Christ, which bring 

that cometh o c? 

hy bearing the bearers of them unto so blessed an end ! Shall we not 

of the cross. 

be glad to be partakers of such shame as may bring us to 
so high a dignity \ God open their eyes to see all things 
as they be, and to judge uprightly ! Then doubtless we would 
think with Moses, that it is better to be afflicted with the 
people of God, than to be counted the king of Egypt's son. 
Then should we joyfully say with David, in all our adversities 
jTs. cxix. an( j troubles. " Jt is good, Lord, thou hast brought me 
low, to the end I might learn thy righteousness." Therefore 
[Gal. vi. 14.] gt p au l would not glory in any other thing of the world, but in 
the cross of Christ, and in other his infirmities : we have 
the commandment of Christ, daily to take up his cross and 
follow him. We have the godly ensamples of all his apostles 
and holy martyrs, which with great joy and exultation have 
suffered the loss of all lands, goods, and life, for the hope 
of a better reward, which is laid up for all those in heaven, 
that unfeignedlv cleave to the gospel, and never be ashamed 
K'^orirt Great is the felicity of the world to the outward man, 
comparable anc ^ vei T Peasant are the transitory delights thereof: but 
areto'come! tne rewards of the righteous, after the word of God, doth in- 
comparably excel them all, insomuch that St Paul to the 
Romans doth plainly affirm, that all the tribulations of this 
TRom. viii. wor i c i cannot deserve that glory which shall be shewed unto us. 
Let us therefore, good brethren and sisters, be merry 
and glad in those troublesome days, the which be sent of 

[ ! N.u- shrink-. ]i;:!4.1 


LETTERS. - ; >-> 

God to declare our faith, and to brinp- us to the end and considera- 

^ Hon of joys 

fruition of that which we hope for. If we would enter into t0 ,ome - 
the Lord's sanctuary, and behold what is prepared for us. 
we could not but desire the Lord to haste the day of our 
death, in the which we might sot forth by true confession 
his glory. Neither should we be afraid to meet our adver- 
saries, which so earnestly seek our spoil and death, as Christ 
did Judas and that wicked rout which came to apprehend 
him, saying, " I am he whom ye seek.' 1 It is commanded 
us by the gospel, not to fear them that kill- the body, but 
to fear God, who can cast both body and soul into hell-fire. [Matt, 
So much we are bound to observe this commandment as any 
other which God hath given us. The Lord increase our faith, 
that we fear God more than man ! The Lord give us such 
love towards him and his truth, that we may be content 
to forsake all and follow him ! Now will it appear what we 
love best; for to that we love we will stick. There is none The note of 

r f i • • a tlue 

to be counted worthy 1 a Christian, except he can find in his christian. 
heart for Christ's sake, if the confession of his truth doth 
require it, to renounce all which he hath, and follow him ; 
and in so doing; he o-aineth a hundred-fold more in this life How a 

. . , . christian 

(as our Saviour said to Peter), and hereafter is assured of mansaineth 

v ' .a hundred- 

eternal life. Behold, I prav you, what he loseth which in fold in this 

. . I'fe. 

this life receiveth a hundred for one, with assurance of eternal 
life. happy exchange ! Perchance your outward man will 
say, If I were sure of this great recompence here, I could 
be glad to forsake all : but where is this hundred-fold in this 
life to be found ' Yes, truly : for instead of 4 worldly riches A compari- 

• " son between 

which thou dost forsake, which be but temporal, thou hast the loss and 

1 tram that 

found the everlasting riches of heaven, which be <dorv. honour, jonietii in 

° ' " following; of 

and praise, both before God, angels, and men ; and for an Christ. 

earthly habitation, hast an eternal mansion with Christ in 

heaven ; for even now thou art of the city and household 

of the saints with God, as it is verified in the fourth to the 

Philippians. For worldly peace, which can last but a while, 

thou dost possess "the peace of God, which passeth all under- [Phil. iv. r.j 

standing ;" and for the loss of a few friends, thou art made 

[ 2 Can kill, 1684. Ed.] 

[_ s Worthy to be counted, K.iU.] 

[ 4 The. worldly riclifs. 1084.] 



a fellow of the innumerable company of heaven, and a perpe- 
tual friend of all those that have died in the Lord from 
the beginning of the world. Is not this more than a hundred- 
fold? Is not the peace of God, which we in this world 
have through faithful imitation of Christ (which the world 
cannot take from us), ten-thousand-fold more than those things 
God°a Thine *^at mos t Eighty be esteemed in the world, without the peace 
jneompara- f q. 0( j ? j^\\ ^he peace of the world is no peace, but mere 
anguish and a gnawing fury of hell : as of late God hath 
set example before our eyes, to teach us how horrible an 
evil it is to forsake the peace of Christ's truth, which breedeth 
a worm in conscience that never shall rest. 

that we would weigh this with indifferent balances ! 
(Vod's'peace Then should we not be dismayed of this troublous time, nei- 
m\serabie° st ^ ier sorrow after a worldly manner for the loss which we 
are now like to sustain, as the weak, faithless persons do, 
which love their goods more than God, and the things visible 
above those which be invisible : but rather would heartily re- 
joice and be thankful, that it pleased God to call us to be 
soldiers in his cause against the works of hypocrisy, and to 
make us like unto our Saviour Christ in suffering, whereby 
we may assure ourselves of his eternal glory ; for blessed are 
they, saith Christ, that suffer persecution for righteousness 1 
[Matt.] sake. And as St Paul witnesseth to Timothy, "If we die 
2 Tim. ii. with Christ, we shall live with Christ ; and if we deny him, 
he will deny us." 

that we would enter into the veil of God's promises! 

Then should we, with St Paul to the Philippians, reject all, 

[Phii. iii. 8.] and count all things but for dross, so that we may gain Christ. 

God, which is the lightener of all darkness, and putter away 

of all blindness, anoint our eyes with the true eye-salve, that 

we might behold his glory and our eternal felicity, which 

is hidden with Christ, and prepared for us that do abide in his 

testament: for "blessed is that servant 1 , that whom the master 

[Matt. xxiv. w hen he cometh (as Christ said) doth find faithful." Let us 

therefore watch and pray one for another, that we yield not 

in any point of our religion to the antichristian synagogue, 

and that we be not overthrown of these temptations. Stand 

therefore, and be no cowards in the cause of your salvation ; 

[ : Whom the master, &c. Ed. 1684.] 


for his Spirit that is in us is stronger than he which in the [1 John iv. 
world doth now rage against us. Let us not put out the 
Spirit of God from us, by whose might we shall overcome 
our enemies; and then death shall be as great a gain to 
us, as it was to the blessed apostle St Paul. Why then do ye He exhort- 
mourn ? why do ye weep ? why be ye so careful, as though joyful in 
God hath forsaken you? He is never more present with us 
than when we be in trouble, if we do not forsake him. We 
are in his hands, and nobody can do us any injury or wrong 
without his good will and pleasure. He hath commanded 
his angels to keep us, that we stumble not at a stone with- 
out his divine providence. The devil cannot hurt any of 
us, and much less any of his ministers, without the 
good will of our eternal Father. Therefore let us be of To *e pa- 
good comfort, and continually give thanks unto God for JJJJ ^| in 
our estate, whatsoever it be ; for if we murmur against the affliction - 
same, we murmur against God, who sendeth the same : 
which if we do, we kick but against the prick, and provoke 
more the wrath of God against us ; which by patient suffer- 
ing otherwise would sooner be turned into our favour through 
faithful prayer. 

I beseech you with St Paul, to give your bodies pure [ ^ m - xii - 
and holy sacrifices unto God. He hath given us bodies to 
bestow unto his glory, and not after our own concupiscence. 
If many years God hath suffered us to use our bodies, which 
be his temples, after the lust of the flesh, in vain delights, 
not according to his glory ; is it not our duty in the latter 
end of our life, the more willingly to yield unto God's glory 
our bodies, with all that we have, in demonstration of true 
repentance of that we have evil spent before ? Cannot the 
example of the blessed man Job, horribly afflicted, cause us 
to say, " The Lord hath given it, the Lord hath taken it : 
blessed be the name of the Lord ! Even as it hath pleased 
the Lord, so is it come to pass 1 ' ? If we cast our whole care 
likewise upon God, he will turn our misery into felicity, as 
well as he did to Job. God tempteth us now, as he did 
our father Abraham, commanding him to slay his son Isaac 
in sacrifice to him, (which Isaac by interpretation doth sig- 
nify mirt h and/oy,-) who by his obedience preserved Isaac unto 
long life, and offered in his stead a ram that was tied by the 





sacrifice horns i Q the brambles. Semblably we all are 1 commanded 
toGod. ac *° sacrifice unto God our Isaac, which is our joy and con- 
solation : the which if we be ready to do, as Abraham was, 
our joy shall not perish, but live and be increased, although 
our ram be sacrificed for our Isaac : which doth signify that 
the pride and concupiscence of our flesh, entangled through 
sin with the cares of this stinging world, must be mortified 
for the preservation and perfect augmentation of our mirth 
and joy, which is sealed up for us in Christ, 
agsdnst tL -^ nc * *° withstand these present temptations wherewithal 
ofThe' devil 8 we are now encumbered, ye cannot have a better remedy than 
world! 6 *° se * before your eyes how our Saviour Christ overcame them 
in the desert, and to follow his ensample ; that if the devil 
himself, or any other by him, willeth you to make stones 
bread (that is, to take such a worldly-wise way, that you may 
have your fair houses, lands and goods, to live on still), ye 
must say, that "man liveth not only by bread, but by every 
word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. 1 ' 1 
temptations Again, if the devil counselleth you to cast yourselves down 
app S iied ally *° * ne ear t-h, so as to revoke your sincere belief and godly 
conversation, and to be conformable to the learned men of 
the world, pretending that God will be well enough content 
herewith; ye must answer that "it is written, that a man shall 
not tempt his Lord God. 1 ' 

Further, if the devil offer you large promises of honour, 
dignity, and possessions, so that ye will worship idols in his 
synagogue, ye must say, " Go behind me, Satan; for it is 
otherwise written, that a man must worship his Lord God, 
and serve him only.'' 1 

Finally, if your mother, brother, sister, wife, child, kins- 
man or friend, do seek of you to do otherwise than the word 
of God hath taught you, ye must say with Christ, that they 
are your mothers, brothers, sisters, wives, children, and kins- 
[Matt.xii. men 2 , which do the will of God the Father. To the which 

49 50.1 

will the Lord for his mercy conform us all unfeignedly to 
the end ! Amen. 

Your loving and faithful brother in Christ, in captivity, 

Anno 1555. JOHN PHILPOT. 

[} Are all, 1684.] 

[ 2 Children, kinsmen, &c. Ed. 1684.] 




Here followeth another letter of Master Philpot to the Lady 
Vane: which, because for the length, I could not wholly 
insert, I haw excerpted certain specialities thereout as fol- 
loweth : 

The principal Spirit of God the Father, given unto us 
by Christ Jesus our merciful Saviour, confirm, strengthen, 
and stablish you in the true knowledge of the gospel, that 
your faithful heart, worshipful and dear sister in the Lord, 
may attain and taste with all the saints, what is the height, 
the depth, the length, and the breadth of the sweet cross 
of Christ ! Amen, &c. 

Oh, happy are you amongst all other women, that have 
found this precious stone which is hidden in the gospel ; for 
the which we ought to sell all other things, and to purchase 
the same. happy woman, whose heart God hath moved 
and enlarged to be in the profession thereof ! Other seek 
worldly goods, honours, and delights ; but you seek with a 
good understanding to serve God in spirit and verity. This 
is the gate that leadeth to heaven; this is your portion for 
ever. By this you shall see God face to face (which sight 
is unspeakable joy), and by this shall ye see whatever your 
heart can desire : by this ye shall have a full sight of all 
the beautiful heavenly powers, and of all the celestial para- 
dise. By this shall you know them that you never knew, 
and be joyous and glad with those which you have known 
here in God, world without end, &c. 

Ah ! I lament the infidelity of England, that after so He bewaii- 
great light is stepped into so huge darkness again. "The of England. 6 
servant that knoweth his master's will, and doth it not, shall P he!?edto°" 
be beaten with many stripes." Ah ! great be the plagues that though the 
hang over England, yea, though the gospel should be restored restored 6 
again. Happy shall that person be whom the Lord shall asam ' 
take out of this world, not to see them. Ah ! the great per- 
jury which men have run into so wilfully against God, by 
receiving antichrist again and his wicked laws, which do 
threaten a great ruin unto England ! that the Lord would 



turn his just judgments upon the authors of the truce-breaking 

between God and us, that they might be brought low (as 

Nabuchodonosor was), that his people might be delivered, and 

Good luck jjjg g-lory exalted ! God grant that that good luck which you 

foresnewea o J o o J 

a"ain S the ns no P e shortly to come upon the house of God, be a true pro- 
gospei. phecy, and not a well-wishing only ! Ah, Lord ! take away 
thy heavy hand from us, and stretch it out upon thine ene- 
mies (those hypocrites), as thou hast begun, that they may 
be confounded. let not the weak perish for want of know- 
ledge through our sin. Although thou kill us, yet will we 
put our trust in thee. 

Thus, dear heart, you teach me to pray with you in 
writing. God hear your prayers, and give us the spirit of 
effectual prayer, to pour out our hearts continually together 
before God, that we may find mercy both for ourselves, and 
for our afflicted brethren and sisters. I cannot but praise 
God in you, for that pitiful heart that taketh other folks - ' 
calamities to heart, as your own. "Blessed be they that mourn, 
for such shall be comforted." God wipe away all tears from 
your pitiful eyes, and sorrow from your merciful heart, that 
you may (as doubtless you shall do shortly) rejoice with his 
elect for ever. You have so armed me to the Lord's battle 
both inwardly and outwardly, that except I be a very coward, 
I cannot faint, but overcome by death. You have appointed 
me to so good and gracious a general of the field, to so 
victorious a captain, and to so favourable a marshal, that if 
I should not go on lustily, there were no spectacle of heavenly 
manhood in me. I will present your coat-armour before my 
captain, and in the same I trust by him to overcome. The 
Phiipot's scarf I desire as an outward • sign to shew our enemies, who 
see not our glorious end, neither what God worketh inwardly 
in us, through the blindness of their hearts, that they per- 
secute Christ's cross in us, whereby he hath sealed up the 
truth of his gospel by his death unto us, that we by our 
death (if need be) might confirm the same, and never be 
ashamed, whatsoever torment we do suffer for his name's sake ; 
and our weak bi'ethren, seeing the same, might be more en- 
couraged to take up Christ's cross, and to follow him. God 
give us grace to do all things to his glory! Amen, &c. 
The world wondereth how we can be merrv in such ex- 




treme misery; but our God is omnipotent, which turneth Jfg^jS 
misery into felicity. Believe me, dear sister, there is no such thfume'of 
joy in the world as the people of Christ have under the cross, affliction - 
I speak by experience ; therefore believe me, and fear no- 
thing that the world can do unto you : for when they im- ^"n tSl " 
prison our bodies, they set our souls at liberty with God;P^™ bo _ 
when they cast us down, they lift us up; yea, when they geuheir y 
kill us, then do they bring us to everlasting life. And what f^rty! 
greater glory can there be, than to be at conformity with 
Christ ? which afflictions do work in us. 

God open our eyes to see more and more the glory of 
Cod in the cross of Jesus Christ, and make us worthy par- 
takers of the same ! Let us rejoice in nothing with St Paul, 
but "in the cross of Jesus Christ, by whom the world is cru- 
cified unto us, and we to the world." The cross of Christ 
be our standard to fight under for ever ! While I am thus 
talking with you of our common consolation, I forget how 
I trouble you with my rude and unordinate tediousness : but 
you must impute it to love, which cannot quickly depart from 
them whom he loveth, but desireth to pour himself into their 
bosoms. Therefore, though your flesh would be offended (as 
it might justly be) at such rudeness, yet your spirit will say 
nay, which taketh all things in good part that come of love. 
And now I am departing, yet will I take my leave ere I 
go, and would fain speak somewhat that might declare my 
sincere love to you for ever : Farewell, O elect vessel of the 
Lord, to the comfort of his afflicted flock : farewell on earth, 
whom in heaven I am sure I shall not forget. Farewell under 
the cross most joyfully ; and, until we meet, always remember 
what Christ saith, "Be of good cheer, for I have overcome 
the world," &c. 

God pour his Spirit abundantly upon you, mine own dear 
bowels in Christ ! until you may come to see the God of all 
gods with his elect in the everlasting Sion. I send to you 
the kiss of peace, with the which I do most entirely take 
my leave of you at this present. It is necessary we depart 
hence, or else we could not be glorified. Your heart is heavy, 
because I say I must depart from you. It is the calling of 
the merciful Father, wherewithal you are content, and so am 
I. Be of good comfort : hold out your buckler of faith ; for 



by the strength thereof we shall shortly meet in eternal glory : 
to the which Christ bring both us, Amen, Amen ! — The 10th 
of December, 1555. 

Death ! why should I fear thee 1 since thou canst not 
hurt me, but rid me from misery unto eternal glory. 

Dead to the world, and living to Christ, your own brother, 
sealed up in the verity of the gospel for ever. 



Another Letter written to the same lady, Icing a great 
supporter of him. 

I cannot but most heartily give God thanks for these 
his gifts in you, whose brightness many beholding, that are 
weak, are much encouraged to seek God likewise, and to 
cleave to him, having the ensample of so faithful and con- 
stant a gentlewoman before their eyes. If the queen of the 
south shall rise with the men of Christ's generation, and con- 
demn them, for that she came from the end of the world to 
hear the wisdom of Solomon, then shall your sincere and godly 
conversation, thus shining in this dangerous time of the trial 
of Christ's people, (being a woman of right worshipful estate 
A ? a j n st and wealthy condition,) condemn in the latter day a great 
ed gospel- many of these faint-hearted gospellers, which so soon be gone 
back and turned from the truth at the voice of a hand-maiden ; 
seeing that neither the fear of imprisonment, neither the pos- 
session of the world (wherewithal you are sufficiently endued 
above a great many), can separate you from the love of the 
truth, which God hath revealed unto you : whereby it appear- 
eth that the seed of God's word which was sown in you, fell 
neither in the highway, neither among the thorns, neither 
upon the stones, but upon a good ground, which is blessed 
of God, and bringeth forth fruit with great affliction, a hun- 
dred fold, to the glory of God and the increase of his church. 
James i. 2, J n consideration whereof St James biddeth us highly to "re- 
joice, whensoever we fall into many temptations, knowing that 


it is but the trial of our faith," that we might bring forth that 
excellent virtue patience, by the which we are made like to 
our Redeemer Christ; with whom we here being in like suf- 
fering, assuredly shall hereafter be partakers of his eternal 
glory. Therefore St Paul saith, " God forbid that I should 
glory in any thing but in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ ." 
I that am under the cross with you, (thanks be given to God 
therefore!) have felt in the same more true joy and consola- 
tion than ever I did by any benefit that God hath given me 
in my life before : for the more the world doth hate us, the 
nigher God is unto us, and there is no perfect joy but in God. 
Wherefore Christ said, " In me ye shall have joy, but in the Johnxvi.33. 
world affliction. 11 Blessed be God which sendeth us this 
affliction, that we might perfectly joy in him ! For this 
cause, in the ripest time of iniquity, and in the most fer- 
vent season of persecution of the true church, which Christ 
in the twenty-first of Luke prophesied to come, he willeth us Luke xxi. 
to be of good cheer, and to lift up our heads, for our re- 
demption is at hand. 

that the Lord would come and deliver us from this Perfect joy 


world, which is a vale of misery, unto his own kingdom, 
where floweth perpetual joy and consolation ! And verily that 
is the true and only joy, which is conceived, not of the crea- 
ture, but of the Creator; the which when we do possess, no 
body can take it away from us ; to the which joy all other Comparison 

,. 1 ... . liiTi, between the 

joys being compared, are but mournings, all delights sorrow, joy in God, 
all sweetness sour, all beauty filth, and finally, all other things fn thi S ej ° y 
that be counted pleasant are tediousness* Your own self is 
better witness of this than I. Ask yourself, with whom you 
are best acquainted. Doth not the Holy Ghost speak the 
same in your heart? Have you not persuaded yourself this 
to be true, before I wrote thereof? For how should you, 
being a woman, and a young gentlewoman, beautiful, and at 
your own liberty, have overcome this your frail kind and age, 
and despised your excellent beauty and estate, Unless all those 
things which be subject to the senses had been counted of you 
vile, and little to be esteemed in comparison of those things 
which inwardly do comfort you to overcome the flesh, the 
world, and the devil? 

God increase your joy in all spiritual things, and stablish 



God's saints your hope to the day of eternal rest ! You have forsaken 
judges darkness, and are entered into light : God grant the same 
their adver- may shine still in you, until the perfect day come of the Lord, 
in the which is all our consolation ! Here we must be dark- 
ened, that there we may appear as bright as the sun in the 
face of the whole world, and of all them that now condemn 
us for our well-doing; whose judges then we shall be, to 
their horrible grief, though now wrongfully they judge us. 
Pray heartily, and that often, that God onee again for his 
Christ's sake would be merciful to his afflicted church it 
England. Faithful prayer is the only remedy that we have 
against the fiery darts of the devil, that be kindled against 
us. By prayer the Amalekites shall be overcome, and the 
roarings of the lion, which seeketh still to devour us, shall 
be stopped and put to silence. The Lord stop Leviathan's 
mouth, that he swallow not up God's seely 1 people, accord- 
ing to his expectation ! 
The gospel Praise the Lord for the faithful testimony and sacrifice 

trmmpheth _ •< 

by the death w hich two of our brethren of late have, through fire, ren- 

of martyrs. - © ' 

dered to the truth of the gospel, which now triumpheth by 
the death of godly martyrs. The Lord is at hand: therefore 
watch and pray. — The last of May, 1555. Captive in the 
king's bench. 

Yours, with heart in Christ, 



Another Letter to the godly Lady Vane. 

God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, increase in 
your godly heart the faith of the gospel, which is your eternal 
inheritance, and the Holy Ghost comfort your spirit with all 
spiritual consolation, to the day of the Lord ! Amen. 

I cannot but praise God most highly and earnestly, my 
dear and faithful lady, for the great and unfeigned love which 
[^ Seely: silly, simple.] 


you bear unto me in Christ, declared oftentimes, as well now as 

of late, by manifest and liberal tokens. Blessed be God that Lady vane 

, a liberal 

hath made you so worthy a member in his kingdom : for it benefactor 
cannot be but such shall reap with abundance in time of re- saints. 
ward, that here doth sow so plenteously in well doing ; albeit 
I am most unworthy to receive any such benefit at your hands, 
as in respect of a pillar of Christ's church, which am scarce a 
shadow thereof. But the zeal of Christ's church in you wisheth 
me to be such a one as the time doth require. God fulfil your 
desire of me, that I may be found constant, and no wandering 
star ! I am not worthy of the name of a prophet, or of a 
minister of God's word, for that I have (being letted by the 
iniquity of the time) little or nothing laboured therein. I am 
a friend of our common spouse Jesus, and do rejoice of the 
verity of his word, for the which (praised be his name !) he hath 
counted me worthy to suffer; and indeed who that giveth "aaiarkix. 41. 
draught of water in the name of a disciple, 11 as Christ promised, 
" shall lose his reward V Therefore what your gentleness doth 
in the name of him, the Lord recompense unto you in all his 
blessings which he is accustomed to pour on them which love 
his flock unfeignedly ! 

Good lady, you have to joy that the kingdom of God is thus 
continually before your eyes, and that you are not ashamed of 
the bands of Christ, which you with his people in part do 
suffer. They may be assured of the glory everlasting, which 
here are not ashamed to take up the cross of Christ, and to 
follow him. Here we must weep and lament, while the world 
laugheth and triumpheth over us ; but our tears shall shortly 
be turned into unspeakable joy, and we shall eternally be 
merry together, when the world shall lament their infidelity 
without end. 

I would I were able to do any thing that might shew 
condign thanks for that sincere love you bear unto me in 
Christ : you adjure me (as it were) by your gentle letters to be 
bold on you in all my needs. I thank God which ceaseth not 
to provide for his, I lack nothing at this present, but only 
ability to thank your faithful heart for your goodness towards 
me. I love you and not yours, as it is meet Christians to love 
one another in God ; and your faith which I behold in you, is 
more worth unto me than all your possessions, And I think I 


shall not need long to be chargeable unto you, for that this week 

I look for commissioners to sit on me and my fellow-prisoners in 

prison, lest the spirit of our breath might blow further abroad. 

The will of God be done ! We are not so good as John the 

Baptist, which was beheaded in prison. Darkness cannot abide 

the light : therefore their doings must declare what they are. 

AVe are as sheep appointed for a sacrifice to the Lord. We 

must not fear the fire, for our Lord is a consuming fire, which 

will put out the fierceness of raging torments from us. "Be not 

afraid of them that can kill the body, but fear him that can 

cast both body and soul into hell fire." God forbid that we 

should rejoice otherwise than in the cross of Christ ; and pray 

that he would make us worthy to suffer for his sake. God will 

have our faith tried and known ; and therefore let us willingly 

"• humble ourselves under the mighty hand of God, that he may 

a perfect gloriously lift us up in his good time." There is none perfectly 

man* how faithful indeed till he can say with St Paul, " I am persuaded 

Rom. viiT. ' that neither death, neither life, neither angels, neither princes, 

' ' nor powers, neither things present, neither things to come, 

neither highness, neither lowness, neither any other creature, 

is able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ 

Jesus our Lord." This faith God plant both in you and in 

me unmovably ! In this faith we have to rejoice, and in none 


The time of All the tribulations of the world are not worthy of the 

better for a eternal weight of glory which is prepared for them that here do 

Christian . . 

than the with patience abide the cross. Wherefore let us be strong 
with the strength of him 1 that is able to make us strong, and 
lament the weakness, I might say the infidelity, of our faint 
gospellers. Christ, whom we would pretend to have put upon 
us, is the strength of God ; and how then may they be weak 
where Christ is \ We have more to be glad, touching ourselves, 
of this time, than we have had of any time before, in the which 
we have so ready a way to go unto God, and so good occasion 
to shew our duty in glorifying his holy name. For if we be 
imprisoned in this cause, we are blessed : if we lose all that we 
have, we are blessed a hundred fold : if we die, we are blessed 
eternally; so that in suffering of persecutions, all is full of 
blessings. Be blessed therefore, O elect lady, of God, with the 
[} Strength in him, Editions 1597 and 1684.] 



blessed of God, and flee (as you do) the concupiscence of the 
world. Embrace that which is perfect, and joyfully look for 
the coming and cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, &c. Thus 
desiring God to preserve you to his true peace, and to give you 
victory of that temptation which now is come to try our faith, 
Christ be with you, and bless you both in body and soul ; and 
my prayer shall follow you wheresoever you go, as I desire 
that yours may be with me. The last week I sent your be- 
neficence to Oxford: 1 could not before have a convenient 
messenger. As soon as I have word, you shall be satisfied of 
your request. Love me as you do, and the God of love be 
with you ! The 20th day of August. 

By yours, with all his power, in the Lord, 



Another Letter full of spiritual consolation to the said lady. 

The mercy of God the Father, and the consolation of the 
Holy Ghost, through Jesus Christ, be with you, and strengthen 
you, my dear mother and sister in the Lord, in these dangerous 
days, to the crown of eternal glory, which is now offered to all 
faithful soldiers in the gospel, Amen ! 

As your good ladyship doth desire to hear from me, so I 
am desirous to write, as your gentleness and daily goodness 
bindeth me. But Satan of late hath letted me, who envying 
all good exercises which I have had and received by mine easy 
imprisonment in times past, hath brought me out of the king's 
bench into the bishop of London's coal-house, a dark and an 
ugly prison as any is about London; (but my dark body of sin 
hath well deserved the same, and the Lord now hath brought 
me into outward darkness, that I might the more be lightened 
by him, as he is most present with his children in the midst of 
darkness;) where I cannot be suffered to have any candle-light, 
neither ink nor paper, but by stealth. Wherefore I cannot 
write to you as I would, neither as my duty is. As Christ my 
Master was sent from Annas to Oaiaphas, so am I sent from 


Winchester diocese to London, I trust, to make a speedy end 
of my course : God give me grace and patience to be a faithful 
follower of my Master ! I have been already this seven-night 
in his coal-house, and have of late been four times called to 
mine answer, but hitherto not called to judgment, which I 
do daily look for; but I fear they will prolong me, and try 
me by strait imprisonment awhile, in the which God's will 
be done. 
ofChris"" Pray, dear lady, that my faith faint not, which I praise 
h^r/aiiits fn ^ 0< ^ * s P resen % ni ore lively with me than it hath been in times 
cution erse " P ast - I taste anc ^ *" ee * tne faithfulness of God in his promise, 
who hath promised to be with his in their trouble, and to 
deliver them. I thank the Lord, I am not alone, but have six 
other faithful companions ; who in our darkness do cheerfully 
sing hymns and praises unto God for his great goodness. We 
are so joyful, that I wish you part of my joy ; for you that are 
so careful of my bodily relief, how can I but wish your spiritual 
consolation, and that abundantly? Let not, dear heart, my 
strait imprisonment any thing molest you ; for it hath added, 
and daily doth, unto my joy : but rather be glad and thank- 
ful unto God with me, that it hath pleased him to make 
me, most wretched sinner, worthy to suffer any thing for his 
sake. "Hitherto we have not resisted unto blood." God make 
us never to count our blood more precious in our eyes than 
his truth ! 

Ah, my dear sister ! I thank you again for the last letter 
you sent me ; it is a singular comfort unto me, as oft as I read 
the same. I have it in my bosom, and will carry the same 
even to the stake with me, in witness that Christ hath so con- 
stant and faithful a lady in England. God succour and keep 
that spirit in you ; for it is the very spirit of adoption of the 
child of God. Such cheerful and holy spirits under the cross 
be acceptable sacrifices in the sight of G od ; for Christ came to 
[Luke xii. cast fire into the earth, and looketh that it should be kindled. 


Be you fervent in spirit in our Christ's cause, as you have 
begun; for that is the principal spirit wherewithal David desired 
to be confirmed. Oh, how do I rejoice, your ladyship to go 
arm in arm with me unto Christ, or rather before me ! I can- 
not but joy of such a worshipful fellow. Methinketh I see 
you to mourn, and desire to be loosed out of the earthly and 


frail habitacle 1 of this body. Oh, how amiable and pleasant is 
it to dwell in the Lord's tabernacle ! Our Christ and his 
heavenly company look for us: let us haste and run thereto; 
for behold the Lord is ready to embrace us. Mine own bowels 
in the Lord ! be merry in the Lord with your afflicted brother, 
who daily offereth your merciful alms, which most unworthily 
I do receive still of you, unto the Lord. But now, dear mo- 
ther, you need not to burden so much yourself (as my last 
letters did signify), for that my chargeable imprisonment is cut 
off, and a little now serveth me : wherefore I pray you send no 
more until I send to you, for I have sufficient and abound. 
God's peace be with you for ever ! 

Out of my lord of London's coal-house, the last of October. 

Your own, 




Another Letter to the said lady, wherein partly he complaineth 
of the dissimulation and perjury of Englishmen, falling 
again to the pope, and partly he expresseth his joy in his 

I cannot but joy with you, my heartily beloved in Christ, 
of the fall of Sennacherib : since it is to the glory of God, ^ ^b' 
and to the consolation of his church, to see the fall of their JJJX^I 
enemies before their face, according as it is written, " The w *|X°ster. 
just shall rejoice, when he seeth the vengeance of the wicked." [^ lviii - 
God make this your joy perfect ; for as concerning myself, I 
count not to see those good days, whereof you have a glim- 
mering, in this life. For although the cockatrice be dead, 
yet his pestilent chickens, with the whore of Babylon, still 
live. But a great hope there is of their short confusion, be- 
cause God doth not prosper their doings according to their 
expectation. Most happiest 2 shall he be, whom the Lord shall 
most soonest 3 take out of this life, that he may not see the 

Q l Habitacle — Lat. habitaculum : dwelling-place.] 
[ a Most happy. Ed. 1684-1 
C 3 Soonest. 1684.] 



plagues which the manifest perjury and the manifold idolatry 
and detestable dissimulation (and that of such as do know the 
truth) do threaten to come. 

The Lord is just, and all unrighteousness displeaseth him, 
and either here, or else in another world, he will punish this 
gross infidelity of the world : but his elect, and such as he 
loveth, will he punish here, that they should not be con- 
demned hereafter with the world eternally. We have nothing 
so much to rejoice in, as in the cross of Jesus Christ, and 
in that we are partakers of his afflictions, which be the earnest- 
penny of that eternal kingdom, which he upon the cross for us 
hath purchased. For as Paul his faithful witness saith, " If 
we suffer with him, we shall reign with him : if we die with 
him, we shall live with him." 

Wherefore, mine own dear bowels! praise God with me 
most entirely, that it hath pleased him now mercifully to visit 
the sins of my youth, and my huge unthankfulness, and by 
the same doth give me much consolation, that he assureth 
me of his great goodness and mercy, and turneth his fatherly 
castigation into my crown of glory. good God! what am 
I, on whom he should shew this great mercy ? To him that 
is immortal, invisible, and only wise, be all honour, praise, 
and glory therefore, Amen. 
He express- "This is the day that the Lord hath made; let us rejoice 

eth the great •> . 

J God4 hi< ri an< ^ ^ e S^ m tne same " This is the way, though it be 
sonersfeei narrow, which is full of the peace of God, and leadeth to 

in their suf- ' L ' 

ferings. eternal bliss. Oh, how my heart leapeth for joy, that I am 
so near the apprehension thereof ! God forgive me mine un- 
thankfulness and unworthiness of so great glory. The swords 
which pierced Mary's heart in the passion of our Saviour, which 
daily also go through your faithful heart, be more glorious and 
to be desired than the golden sceptres of this world. Oh, blessed 
be they that mourn in this world to God- ward; for they shall 
eternally be comforted. God make my stony heart to mourn 
more than it doth! I have so much joy of the reward that 
is prepared for me, most wretched sinner, that though I be 
in a place of darkness and mourning, yet I cannot lament ; 

Phiipot but both night and day am so joyful, as though I were under 

never so ° ■' " J ° 

merry in n o cross at all : yea, in all the days of my life I was never 

all his life •' ' J J 

before. so merry; the name of the Lord be praised therefore ior ever 



and ever, and he pardon mine unthankfulness ! Our enemies 
do fret, fume, and gnash their teeth to see and hear that we, 
under this grievous affliction in the world, can be so merry. 
We are of them counted as desperate persons, for the certain 
hope and feeling which we have of our everlasting salvation. 
And it is no marvel, for the worldly men cannot perceive 
the things of God; it is mere foolishness and abomination 
to them. 

Be thankful unto God, mine own dear helper, for his 
wondrous working in his chosen people. Pray instantly that 
this joy be never taken from us; for it passeth all the de- 
lights of this world. This is " the peace of God which sur- 
mounteth all understanding :" this peace, the more his chosen 
be afflicted, the more they feel; and therefore cannot faint, 
neither for fire, neither for water. Let us pray for our weak 
brethren and sisters 1 sake, that it may please God to alleviate 
the grievous and intolerable burden of these cruel days. But 
touching ourselves, let us heartily beseech our Saviour to 
vouchsafe to give us this glorious gift, to suffer for his gospel's 
sake, and that we may think the shame of the world to be 
our glory, as it is indeed. God increase our faith, and open 
our eyes to behold what is prepared for us ! I lack nothing, 
praise be to God ! I trust my marriage-garment is ready. I 
will send you my examinations, as soon as I can get them 
written, if you be desirous of them. 

God of his mercy fill your merciful heart with all joy and 
consolation of the hope to come ! 

Out of the coal-house, the 19th of November. 

Your own lover, 



A Letter to a friend of his, prisoner the same time in New- 
gate ; wherein is delated and discussed the matter or A lettei . of 
question of infants to be baptized. stawuiung 

a certain 
brother in 

The God of all light and understanding lighten your heart the matter 
with all true knowledge of his word, and make you perfect $in a fants. n|? 



to the day of our Lord Jesus Christ, whereunto you are 
now called, through the mighty operation of his holy Spirit ! 

I received yesternight from you, dear brother, saint, and 
fellow-prisoner for the truth of Christ's gospel, a letter, wherein 
you gently require my judgment concerning the baptism of 
infants; what is the effect thereof. And before I do shew 
you what I have learned out of God's word, and of his true 
and infallible church touching the same, I think it not out 
of the matter first to declare what vision I had the same 
night, while musing on your letter I fell asleep, knowing that 
God doth not without cause reveal to his people, who have 
their minds fixed on him, special and spiritual revelations to 
their comfort, as a taste of their joy and kingdom to come, 
which flesh and blood cannot comprehend. 
i A eveaied t0 Being in the midst of my sweet rest, it seemed me to see 
uponaietter a g reat beautiful city, all of the colour of azure and white, 
swered. 1 four-square, in a marvellous beautiful composition in the midst 
of the sky; the sight whereof so inwardly comforted me, that 
I am not able to express the consolation I had thereof; yea, 
the remembrance thereof causeth as yet my heart to leap for 
joy : and as charity is no churl, but would others to be par- 
takers of his delight, so methought I called to others (I can- 
not tell whom) ; and while they came, and we together beheld 
the same, by and by, to my great grief, it faded away. 
The vision This dream I think not to have come of the illusion of 


the senses, because it brought with it so much spiritual joy; 
and I take it to be of the working of God's Spirit for the 
contentation of your request, as he wrought in Peter to satisfy 
Cornelius. Therefore I interpret this beautiful city to be the 
glorious church of Christ, and the appearance of it in the 
sky signifieth the heavenly state thereof, whose conversation 
The primi- is in heaven ; and that, according to the primitive church 

tive exam- ,... ., , i-t 

pie for us which is now in heaven, men ought to measure and iudge 

to follow. , , , « ™ . • f n , , t-w -J 

the church of Christ now in earth ; lor as the prophet David 
[Ps. lxxxvii. saith, " The foundations thereof be in the holy hills, and glo- 
1 rious things be spoken of the city of God." And the mar- 

vellous quadrature of the same, I take to signify the universal 
agreement in the same, and that all the church here militant 
ought to consent to the primitive church throughout the four 


parts of the world ; as the prophet affirmeth, saying, " God K s - ,xviii - 
maketh us to dwell after one manner in one house. 11 And 
that I conceived so wonderful joy at the contemplation thereof, 
I understand the unspeakable joy which they have that be at 
unity with Christ's primitive church : for there is joy in the 
Holy Ghost, and peace which passeth all understanding, as 
it i» written in the Psalms : " As of joyful persons, is the E Ps * v> n J 
dwelling of all them that be in thee." And that I called 
others to the fruition of this vision and to behold this won- 
derful city, I construe it by the will of God this vision to 
have come upon me musing on your letter, to the end that 
under this figure I might have occasion to move you with 
many others, to behold the primitive church in all your 
opinions concerning faith, and to conform yourself in all points 
to the same, which is the " pillar and stablishment of truth," 
arifl teacheth the true use of the sacraments ; and having, 
with a greater fulness than we have now, the first-fruits of 
the Holy Ghost, did declare the true interpretation of the 
scriptures according to all verity, even as our Saviour pro- 
mised to send them another Comforter, which should teach 
them all truth. 

And since all truth was taught and revealed to the primi- 
tive church, which is our mother, let us all that be obedient 
children of God, submit ourselves to the judgment of the 
church for the better understanding of the articles of our 
faith and of the doubtful sentences of the scripture. Let 
us not go about to shew in us, by following any private man's 
interpretation upon the word, another spirit than they of the 
primitive church had, lest we deceive ourselves : for there is 
but one faith and one Spirit, which is not contrary to him- 
self, neither otherwise now teacheth us than he did them. 
Therefore let us believe as they have taught us of the scrip- 
tures, and be at peace with them, according as the true 
catholic church is at this day: and the God of peace as- 
suredly will be with us, and deliver us out of all our worldly 
troubles and miseries, and make us partakers of their joy 
and bliss through our obedience to faith with them. 

Therefore God commandeth us in Job to ask of the elder [Jobviu.8, 
generation, and to search diligently the memory of the fathers : 
for we are but yesterday's children, and be ignorant, and our 




days are like a shadow, "and they shall teach thee," saith 
the Lord, "and speak to thee, and shall utter words from 
their hearts." And by Solomon we are commanded, not to 

[ re j ec t the direction of our mother. The Lord grant you to 
direct your steps in all things after her, and to abhor con- 
tention with her ; for as St Paul writeth, " If any man be 
contentious, neither we, neither the church of God, hath any 
such custom." 

Hitherto I have shewed you, good brother S., my judg^ 
ment generally of that you stand in doubt and dissent from 
others, to the which I wish you as mine own heart to be 
conformable; and then doubtless you cannot err, but boldly 
may be glad in your troubles, and triumph at the hour of 
your death, that you shall die in the church of God a faith- 
ful martyr, and receive the crown of eternal glory. And thus 
much have I written upon the occasion of a vision before 

Proof by Q ^ unfeigned. But that you may not think that I go about 

testimonies ° . ° 

and scrip- to satisfy you with uncertain visions only, and not after God s 

tures. J ** * 

Avord, I will take the ground of your letter, and specially 
answer to the same by the scriptures, and by infallible reasons 
deduced out of the same, and prove the baptism of infants 
to be lawful, commendable, and necessary, whereof you seem 
to stand in doubt. 
Baptism of Indeed, if you look upon the papistical synagogue only, 
ow antiqui- which had corrupted God's word by false interpretations, and 

ty in the . 

church. hath perverted the true use of Christ's sacraments, you might 

Everv thing r . • u 

abused in seem to have good handfast of your opinion against the 
church is baptism of infants. But forasmuch as it is of more antiquity, 

not to be L 1 

rejected, and hath its beginning from God's word and from the use 

but the an- o o 

ti?r ity ft b °^ * ne P" 11 "^ 6 church, it must not in respect of the abuse 
and r tobere m ^ e popish church be neglected, or thought not expedient 
duced again to be used in Christ's church. Auxentius, one of the Arians' 

to the same. ' 

sect 1 , with his adherents, was one of the first that denied 
the baptism of children; and next after him Pelagius the 
heretic ; and some others there were in St Bernard's time, as 
it doth appear by his writings; and in our days the ana- 
baptists, an inordinate kind of men stirred up by the devil, 
to the destruction of the gospel. But the catholic truth de- 

Q 1 Auxentius was bishop of Milan : he died in the year 374, and 
was succeeded by Ambrose.] 


livered unto us by the scriptures plainly determineth, that 
all such are to be baptized, as whom God acknowledgeth for 
his people, and voucheth them worthy of sanctification or re- 
mission of their sins. Therefore, since that infants be in the 
number or scroll of God's people, and be partakers of the 
promise by their purification in Christ, it must needs follow ' 
thereby, that they ought to be baptized as well as those that 
can profess their faith: for we judge the people of God as 
well by the free and liberal promise of God, as by the con- 
fession of faith. For to whomsoever God promiseth himself 
to be their God, and whom he acknowledgeth for his, those 
no man without great impiety may exclude from the num- 
ber of the faithful. But God promiseth that he will not only 
be the God of such as do profess him, but also of infants, 
promising them his grace and remission of sins, as it ap- 
peareth by the words of the covenant made unto Abraham : 
" I will set my covenant between thee and me (saith the Gen - xvii - 
Lord), and between thy seed after thee in their generations, 
with an everlasting covenant, to be thy God, and the God 
of thy seed after thee." To the which covenant circumci- 
sion was added, to be a sign of sanctification as well in chil- 
dren as in men ; and no man may think that this promise 
is abrogated with circumcision and other ceremonial laws : 
for Christ came to fulfil the promises, and not to dissolve Matt. v. 
them. Therefore in the gospel he saith of infants (that is, 
of such as yet believed not), " Let thy little ones come unto Markx. 
me, and forbid them not; for of such is the kingdom of 
heaven." Again, " It is not the will of your Father which Matt - x ™- 
is in heaven, that any of these little ones do perish." Also, 
"He that receiveth one such little child in my name, re- Matt. xvm. 
ceiveth me." " Take heed therefore that ye despise not one Matt. xvin. 
of these babes ; for I tell you, their angels do continually see 
in heaven my Father's face." And what may be said more 
plainer than this I It is not the will of the heavenly Father, 
that the infants should perish : whereby we may gather that 
he receiveth them freely unto this grace, although as yet 
they confess not their faith. Since then that the word of 
the promise, which is contained in baptism, pertaineth as well 
to children as to men, why should the sign of the promise, 
which is baptism in water, be withdrawn from children, when 




Christ himself commandeth them to be received of us, and 
promiseth the reward of a prophet to those that receive such a 
little infant, as he for an example did put before his disciples ? 
Arguments Now will I prove with manifest arguments that children 

proving the i % • i „ , 

baptism of ought to be baptized, and that the apostles of Christ did 

children to .... . r 

be of God, baptize children. The Lord commanded his apostles to bap- 

And tti fit tn6 # 

apostles tize all nations : therefore also children ought to be baptized ; 
children, for they are comprehended under this word, " all nations." 

Matt.xxvni. J r 

Further, whom God doth account among the faithful, they 
Acts x. are faithful ; for it was said to Peter, " That thing which God 
hath purified, thou shalt not say to be common or unclean." 
gurnet ar " -^ ut ^ oc * ^oth repute children among the faithful : ergo, they 
be faithful — except we had rather to resist God, and seem 
stronger and wiser than he. And without all doubt the apostles 
icor.i. baptized those which Christ commanded: but he commanded 
the faithful to be baptized, among the which infants be 
reckoned : the apostles then baptized infants. 
Another ar- The gospel is more than baptism ; for Paul said, " The 
icor.i. Lord sent me to preach the gospel, and not to baptize: 1 ' not 
that he denied absolutely that he was sent to baptize, but 
that he preferred doctrine before baptism; for the Lord com- 
manded both to the apostles. But children be received by 
the doctrine of the gospel of God, and not refused : there- 
fore what person being of reason may deny them baptism, 
in sacra- which is a thing lesser than the gospel ? For in the sacra- 
tninVs to be ments be two things to be considered, the thing signified, 


and the sign ; and the thing signified is greater than the 
sign; and from the thing signified in baptism children are 
not excluded. Who therefore may deny them the sign, which 
is baptism in water? St Peter could not deny them to be 
baptized in water, to whom he saw the Holy Ghost given, 
which is the certain sign of God's people : for he saith in 
Another the Acts, " May any body forbid them to be baptized in 
Actsx." water, who have received the Holy Ghost as well as we?" 
Therefore St Peter denied not baptism to infants ; for he 
knew certainly, both by the doctrine of Christ, and by the 
covenant which is everlasting, that the kingdom of heaven 
pertained to infants. 

None be received into the kingdom of heaven, but such 
as God loveth, and which are endued with his Spirit: for 


" whoso hath not the Spirit of God, he is none of his." But 
infants be beloved of God, and therefore want not the Spirit 
of God : wherefore if they have the Spirit of God as well ££*£* 
as men, if they be numbered among the people of God as 
well as we that be of age, who (I pray you) may well with- 
stand children to be baptized with water in the name of 
the Lord? 

The apostles in times past, being yet not sufficiently in- Another 
structed, did murmur against those which brought their chil- 
dren unto the Lord; but the Lord rebuked them, and said, 
" Let the babes come unto me.' 1 Why then do not these Mark x. 
rebellious anabaptists obey the commandment of the Lord? 
For what do they now-a-days else, that bring their children 
to baptism, than that they did in times past, which brought 
their children to the Lord ? and our Lord received them, and 
putting his hands on them, blessed them, and both by words 
and by gentle behaviour towards them declared manifestly, that 
children be the people of God, and entirely beloved of God. 
But some will say, " Why then did not Christ baptize them?" J b nn c |;° n - 
Because it is written, "Jesus himself baptized not, but his 

Moreover, circumcision in the old law was ministered to Another 

. # reason. 

infants : therefore baptism ought to be ministered in the new 
law unto children. For baptism is come in the stead of 
circumcision, as St Paul witnesseth, saying to the Colossians, 
" By Christ ye are circumcised with a circumcision which coi. a. 
is without hands, when ye put off the body of sin of the flesh, 
by the circumcision of Christ ; being buried together with 
him through baptism." Behold, Paul calleth baptism the cir- 
cumcision of a christian man, which is done without hands ; 
not that water may be ministered without hands, but that 
with hands no man any longer ought to be circumcised ; 
albeit the mystery of circumcision do still remain in faithful 
people. To this I may add, that the servants of God were Another 

i i j. • • i ii>i reason. 

always ready to minister the sacraments to them tor whom 
they were instituted : as for an example we may behold J ° sn - v - 
Joshua, who most diligently procured the people of Israel to 
be circumcised before they entered into the land of promise. 
But since the apostles were the preachers of the word, and 
the very faithful servants of Jesus Christ, who may hereafter 


doubt that they baptized infants, since baptism is in place 
Another of circumcision ? Item, the apostles did attemperate all their 

reason. _ r r 

doings to the shadows and figures of the old testament : 
therefore it is certain that they did attemperate baptism 
according to circumcision, and baptized children ; because 

icor.x. ^hey were under the figure of baptism: for the people of 
Israel passed through the Red Sea, and the bottom of the 
water of Jordan, with their children. And although the chil- 
dren be not always expressed, neither the women in the holy 
scriptures, yet they are comprehended and understood in the 

Another same. Also the scripture evidently telleth us, that the apos- 

reason. r •> *■ 

ties baptized whole families or households : but the children 
are comprehended in a family or household, as the chiefest 
and dearest part thereof: therefore we may conclude, that 
the apostles did baptize infants or children, and not only 
men of lawful age. And that the house or household is taken 
for man, woman, and child, it is manifest in the seventeenth 

TGen. xiv. of Genesis, and also in that Joseph doth call Jacob with all 
his house to come out of the land of Canaan into Egypt. 

Arguments Finally, I can declare out of ancient writers, that the 

of example . . 

and of an- baptism of infants hath continued from the apostles 1 time 
unto ours ; neither that it was instituted by any councils, 
neither of the pope, nor of other men, but commanded from 
the scripture by the apostles themselves. Origen 1 , upon the 
declaration of St Paul's Epistle to the Romans, expounding 
the sixth chapter, saith, " that the church of Christ received 
the baptism of infants from the very apostles. 11 St Jerome 2 

Q 1 Mihi vero ne illud quidem otiose praemisisse in hoc capitulo videtur 
Apostolus, quod dicit, ' An nescitis V Per quod ostendit quia tunc, hoc 
est, Apostolorum temporibus, non, ut nunc fieri videmus, typus tantum- 
modo mysteriorum his qui baptizabantur, sed virtus eorum ac ratio 
tradebatur, et tanquam scientibus et edoctis quia qui baptizantur in 
morte Christi baptizantur, et consepeliuntur ei per baptismum in mor- 
tem. Orig. Op. Par. 1759. in Epist. ad Romanos. Lib. v. torn. iv. p. 

[ 2 Critob. ' Die, quaeso, et me omni libera qusestione, quare infantuli 
baptizentur.' Attic. ' Ut eis peccata in baptismate dimittantur.' Hieron. 
Op. Par. 1706. torn. iv. col. 545. Lib. in. Dialog, adv. Pelagianos. 

Nisi forte eestimas Christianorum filios, si baptisma non acceperint, 
ipsos tantum reos esse peccati, et non etiam scelus referri ad eos qui dare 
noluerint: maxime eo tempore, quo contradiceve non poterant qui ac- 



maketh mention of the baptism of infants, in the third book 

against the Pelagians, and in his epistle to Leta. St Augus- Augustine. 

tine reciteth for this purpose a place out of John, bishop of 

Constantinople 3 , in his first book against Julian, chap. ii. ; 

and he again, writing to St Jerome 4 , saith, " that St Cyprian, 

not making any new decree, but firmly observing the faith 

of the church, judged with his fellow-bishops, that as soon 

as one was born 5 , he might be lawfully baptized." The place 

of Cyprian 6 is to be seen in his epistle to Fidus. Also St Cyprian. 

cepturi erant: siqut e regione salus infantium majorum lucrum est. 
Hieron. Op. Epist. lvii. ad Lactam, torn. iv. col. 593.] 

[ 3 Sed quid mussites, novi. Die jam, die, audiamus. In extremo 
tui opens de quo nunc agimus, id est, in quarti libri parte novissima, 
' Sanctus Johannes,' inquis, ' Constantinopolitanus negat esse in parvulis 
originale peccatum. In ea quippe homilia, quam de baptizatis habuit : 
Benedictus (inquit) Deus, qui fecit mirabilia solus, qui fecit universa, 
et convertit universa. Ecce libertatis serenitate perfruuntur qui tene- 
bantur paulo ante captivi ; et cives ecclesiae sunt qui fuerunt in pere- 
grinationis errore ; et justitiae in sorte versantur qui fuerunt in confusione 
peccati. Non enim tantum sunt liberi, sed et sancti : non tantum sancti, 
sed et justi : non solum justi, sed et filii : non solum filii, sed et haeredes : 
non solum haeredes, sed et fratres Christi: nee tantum fratres Christi, sed 
et cohaeredes : non solum cohaeredes, sed et membra: non tantum membra, 
sed et templum : non tantum templum, sed et organa Spiritus. Vides 
quot sunt baptismatis largitates : et nonnulli deputant coelestem gratiam 
in peccatorum tantum remissione consistere ; nos autem honores compu- 
tavimus decern. Hac de causa etiam infantes baptizamus, cum non sint 
coinquinati peccato, ut eis addatur sanctitas, justitia, adoptio, hasreditas, 
fraternitas Christi, ut ejus membra sint.' August. Op. Par. 1696. torn. x. 
col. 509. contr. Julian. Pelagian. Lib. i. cap. 6. § 21.] 

Q 4 Beatus quidem Cyprianus, non aliquod decretum condens novum, 
sed ecclesiae fidem firmissimam servans, ad corrigendum eos, qui puta- 
bant ante octavum diem nativitatis non esse parvulum baptizandum, non 
carnem, sed animam, dixit 'non esse perdendam;' et mox natum rite 
baptizari posse, cum suis quibusdam coepiscopis censuit. August. Op. 
Lib. ad. Hieron. seu Epist. clxvii. torn. x. col. 593. § 23.] 

[ 5 Fidus applied to Cyprian to be informed whether, under any cir- 
cumstances, he might baptize a child before the eighth day, since he had 
never known children, though in danger, being circumcised before the 
eighth day. The reply was, that an infant might be baptized at any 
moment after its birth, if there was a necessity arising from apprehended 

[_* Et idcirco, frater carissime, haec fuit in concilio nostra sententia, 
a baptismo atque a gratia Dei, qui omnibus misericors et benignus et 
pius est, neminem per nos debere prohiberi. Quod cum circa universos 



Augustine, in writing against the Donatists 1 , saith, that the 
baptism of infants was not derived from the authority of man, 
neither of councils, but from the tradition or doctrine of the 
c y ril - apostles. Cyril, upon Leviticus 2 , approveth the baptism of 
children, and condemneth the iteration of baptism. 

These authorities of men I do allege, not to tie the 
baptism of children unto the testimonies of men, but to shew 
how men's testimonies do agree with God's word, and that 
the verity of antiquity is on our side, and that the Ana- 
baptists have nothing but lies for them, and new imaginations, 
which feign the baptism of children to be the pope's com- 

After this will I answer to the sum of your arguments 
for the contrary. The first, which includeth all the rest, is, 
It is written, " Go ye into all the world, and preach the glad 
tidings to all creatures. He that believeth and is baptized, 
shall be saved ; but he that believeth not, shall be damned," &c. 

To this I answer, that nothing is added to God's word 
by the baptism of children, as you pretend, but that is done 
which the same word doth require; for that children are 
accounted of Christ in the gospel among the number of such 
[Matt, xviii. as believe, as it appeareth by these words, " He that offendeth 
one of these little babes which believe in me, it were better 
for him to have a millstone tied about his neck, and to be 
cast into the bottom of the sea." Where plainly Christ 
calleth such as be not able to confess their faith, believers, 

observandum sit atque retinendum, turn magis circa infantes ipsos et 
recens natos observandum putamus, qui hoc ipso de ope nostra ac de 
divina misericordia plus merentur, quod in primo statim nativitatis suae 
ortu plorantes ac flentes nihil aliud faciunt quam deprecantur. Cypr. 
Op. Par. 1726. Epist. lix. ad Fidum. p. 99.] 

[* Et si quisquam in hac re auctoiitatem divinam queerat, quanquam 
' Quod universa tenet ecclesia, nee conciliis institutum, sed semper 
retentum est, non nisi auctoritate apostolica traditum rectissime creditur;' 
tamen veraciter conjicere possumus, quid valeat in parvulis baptismi 
sacramentum, ex circumcisione carnis, quam prior populus accepit, 
quam prius quam acciperet, justificatus est Abraham. August, de Bap- 
tism, cont. Donat. Lib. iv. cap. xxiv. col. 140. § 31 .] 

[ 2 Non quo per haec iterandam baptismi gratiam sentiamus: sed 
quod omnis purificatio peccatorum, etiam haec quae per pcenitentiam 
quaeritur, illius ope indiget, de cujus latere aqua processit et sanguis. 
Cyril. Op. Par. 1605. In Levit. Lib. vm. torn. i. col. 83.] 



because of his mere grace he reputeth them for believers. 

And this is no wonder so to be taken, since God imputeth Righteous- 

1 ness and 

faith for righteousness unto men that be of riper age : for acceptation 

° # . r > ° . is only by 

both in men and children, righteousness, acceptation, sanctifi- imputation 
cation, is of mere grace and by imputation, that the glory s^e. 
of God's grace might be praised. And that the children of 
faithful parents are sanctified, and among such as do believe, 
is apparent in 1 Cor. vii. 

And whereas you do gather by the order of the words 
in the said commandment of Christ, that children ought to 
be taught before they be baptized, and to this end you allege 
many places out of the Acts proving that such as confessed 
their faith first, were baptized after : I answer, that if the 
order of words might weigh any thing in this cause, we have 
the scripture that maketh as well for us ; for in St Mark 
we* read, that John did baptize in the desert, preaching the Mark i. 
baptism of repentance. In the which place we see baptizing 
go before, and preaching to follow 3 . And also I will declare 
this place of Matthew, exactly considered, to make for the 
use of baptism in children ; for St Matthew hath it written in 
this wise: "All power is given me," saith the Lord, "in Matt.xxviii. 
heaven and in earth; therefore, going forth, naQriTeuaaTe? 
that is, "disciple ye" (as I may express the signification of 
the word), that is, make or gather to me disciples of all 
nations. And following, he declareth the way how they should 
gather to him disciples out of all nations, " baptizing them 
and teaching:" by baptizing and teaching ye shall procure 
a church to me. And both these, <aptly and briefly, severally 
he setteth forth, saying, " baptizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded 
youi" Now then, baptism goeth before doctrine. 

But hereby I do not gather that the gentiles, which never 
heard any thing before of God, and of the Son of God, and of 
the Holy Ghost, ought to be baptized, neither they would permit "He that 
themselves to be baptized before they knew to what end ; and is bap- 
but this I have declared to shew you upon how feeble founda- opened, 
tion the Anabaptists be grounded. And plainly it is not true 

[ 3 Follow after, Ed. 1684.] 

-ft- I.ET'I •Kll.-t. 

which they imagine of this text, that the Lord did only com- 
mand such to he baptized whom the apostles had first of all 
taught ; neither here verily is signified who only be to be 
baptized : but he speaketh of such as be at perfect age, and of 
the first foundations of faith, and of the church to be planted 
among the gentiles, which were as yet rude and ignorant of 
religion. Such as be of age may hear, believe, and confess 
that is 1 preached and taught, but so cannot infants : therefore 
we may justly collect, that he speaketh here nothing of infants 
or children. But for all this they be not to be 2 excluded from 
ia] heSS ' m " baptism. It is a general rule, " He that doth not labour must 
not eat ;" but who is so barbarous, that might think hereby 
that children should be famished I 

The Lord sent his apostles, at the beginning of his setting 
up of his true religion, unto all nations — unto such as were 
both ignorant of God, and were out of the covenant of God : 
and truly such persons it behoved not first to be baptized, 
and afterward taught ; but first to be taught, and after bap- 
tized. If at this day we should go to the Turks, to convert 
them to the faith of Christ, verily first we ought to teach them, 
and afterward baptize such as would yield to be the servants 
of Christ. Likewise the Lord himself in times 3 past did, when 
first he renewed the covenant with Abraham, and ordained 
circumcision to be a seal of the covenant after that Abraham 
was circumcised. But he, when he perceived the infants also 
to pertain to the covenant, and that circumcision was the 
sealing up of the covenant, did not only circumcise Ishmael 
o^l"'7 X i Vii ' ms son > *hat was thirteen years of age, but all other infants 

that were born in his house, among whom we reckon Isaac. 
wiiy ci-.ii- Even so faithful people which were converted from heathen 

christian idolatry by the preaching of the gospel, and confessing the 
receive! to faith, were baptized ; when they understood their children to 
be counted among the people of God, and that baptism was 
the token of the people of God, they procured also their 
children to be baptized. Therefore, as it is written, " Abra- 
ham circumcised all the male children of his house ;" sem- 

[} That which is preached, 1684.] 
\y Ought not to be, 1684.] 
[ 3 Time past, 1684.] 

blably \\v read in the Acts and writings of the Apostles, that [Acts xvi. 
after the master of the house was turned to the faith, all the 
whole house was baptized. And as concerning those which 
of old time were compelled to confess their faith before they 
received baptism, which were called caterlnaiieni, they were 
such as with our forefathers came from the gentiles to 4 the 
church, whom being yet rude of faith they did instruct in the 
principles of their belief, and afterward they did baptize them: 
but the same ancient fathers, notwithstanding, did baptize the 
children of faithful men, as I have already partly declared. 

And because you do require a hasty answer of your letter 
of one that is but a dull writer, I am here enforced to cease 
particularly to go through your letter in answering thereto, 
knowing that I have fully answered every part thereof in 
that I have already written, although not in such order as 
it had been meet, and as I purposed. But forasmuch as I 
understand that you will be no contentious man, neither in 
this matter, neither in any other, contrary to the judgment 
of Christ's true 5 primitive church, which is the body and fulness 
of Christ ; I desire you in the entire love of him, or rather 
Christ desireth you by me (that your joy may be perfect, 
whereto you are now called), to submit your judgment to 
that church, and to be at peace and unity in the same ; that 
the coat of Christ, which ought to be without seam, but now, 
alas! most miserably is torn in pieces by many dangerous 
sects and damnable opinions, may appear by you in no part 
to have been rent, neither that any giddy head in these dog- 
days might take an ensample by you to dissent from Christ's 
true church. I beseech thee, dear brother in the gospel, 
follow the steps of the faith of the glorious martyrs in the 
primitive church, and of such as at this day follow the same : 
decline from them neither to the right hand nor to the left. 
Then shall death, be it never so bitter, be more sweet than 
this life ; then shall Christ with all the heavenly Jerusalem 
triumphantly embrace your spirit with unspeakable gladness 
and exaltation, who in this earth was content to join your 
spirit with their spirits, according as it is commanded by the 

[ 4 Into the church, 1684.] 

[ f> Christ's primitive church, 1684.] 



icor.xiv. wor d, that the spirit of the prophets should he subject to 
[Ps.xxvii. the prophets. One thing ask with David ere you depart, 
and require the same, that you may dwell with a full accord 
in his house, for there is glory and worship ; and so, with 
Simeon in the temple embracing Christ, depart in peace. To 
the which peace Christ bring both you and me, and all our 
loving brethren that love God in the unity of faith, by such 
ways as shall please him, to his glory ! Let the bitter passion 
of Christ, which he suffered for your sake, and the horrible 
torments which the godly martyrs of Christ have endured 
before us, and also the inestimable reward of your life to 
[Coi. iii. 3.] come, which is hidden yet a little while from you with Christ, 
strengthen, comfort, and encourage you to the end of that 
glorious race which you are in ! Amen. 

Your yoke-fellow in captivity for the verity of Christ's 
gospel, to live and die with you in the unity of faith, 



A Letter of Mr Philpot, written to certain of his faithful 
friends as his last farewell, a little before he suffered. 

The knowledge of God, which hath enlightened you with 
true understanding of the gospel of Christ, be remaining with 
you still to the end, and be augmented in your hearts and 
doings through the operation of the holy Spirit to the glory 
of God and your eternal salvation! Amen. 

A man that is passing into far countries, before his de- 
parting, committeth such goods as God hath endued him 
withal to his dearest friends, to the end they might be the 
better by them, if he return not again. Even so, dearly be- 
loved and right worshipful, my good friends, I having shortly 
to pass unto my heavenly inheritance which is hidden with 
Christ, and to our common country and eternal dwelling-place 
which we shall have with God, never to return before the 


latter day, in the which our souls shall come to judgment, 
and receive their bodies to be glorified according to their 
doings, have thought it my duty to communicate unto you 
something (with whom I have found great humanity) of the 
few heavenly treasures with the which God among others 
hath endued me in Christ, whereby he hath made me his 
child, and assuredly the inheritor of the kingdom of heaven, 
with all those that unfeignedly love him, and constantly cleave 
to his holy gospel: and that is, by the renovation of his 
image, whereunto man was first created like unto God, which 
is to be in the favour of God, to know God truly, to live 
justly, to delight fervently in the contemplation of God, to 
be continually happy, to be immortal, void of all corruption 
and sin ; the which blessed image through sin is deformed 
in us, and in manner lost, saving that it hath pleased God 
of liis mercy (who willeth not the death of a sinner) to re- 
store that image by grace, through knowledge and belief of 
the gospel, which otherwise in our nature is clean suppressed 
and extinguished. 

Therefore we, knowing the great and lamentable loss 
which we do sustain in Adam, ought most earnestly to seek 
the recovery thereof, that we might eternally live like unto 
God in immortality and felicity; the which we shall never 
recover, unless we go about to mortify our outward man all 
the days of our life more and more, and be renewed in spirit 
according to the true knowledge of God; the which if we be, 
then may we be assured that we have found that joy, felicity, 
and eternal life which Adam had in paradise, yea, -and more 
than that ten thousand fold, for that it is such as "the eye 
hath not seen, the ear hath not heard, neither the heart can 
conceive which Christ hath prepared for us." This image of 
God whosoever by faith doth find, he hath found the most 
precious treasure that any man can find; for he is even 
here a citizen of heaven, and in possession of eternal life. 
Therefore I commit unto you principally a daily care of the 
renovation of this image, as the chiefest jewel you can de- 
sire in this world. And hereof now I am the more moved 
to put you in remembrance, because I love you entirely in 
the Lord, and desire your fellowship, which the iniquity of 



our time will not permit me to enjoy here. And, forasmuch 
as we have a better life to come than this present is, an 
eternal society with Christ, which neither the malice of time, 
neither the distance of place can dissolve or separate ; I ex- 
hort you now, as one that hath obtained mercy of God in 
the reparation of his image in me, to embrace the care thereof 
with earnest desire to attain the same, whereby we shall all 
have a perfect fruition of our love and friendship, which 
already we have here begun, and with God in heaven shall 
be (without all doubt) made joyfully perfect. 

Let this be a perpetual remembrance of your poor afflicted 
friend, which daily looketh through fire to enter into that 
eternal life, where he trusteth assuredly to enjoy your fellow- 
ship, if the image of God be renewed in you through the 
knowledge of Christ which you have received and do know. 
Look, whose image the coin beareth, his it is. Semblably, 
if your conversation be after the gospel, verily you are the 
elect of Christ ; but if it be according to the world, his ser- 
vants you are whom your life doth express. AVe have all 
in baptism put on Christ, whom if we endeavour to repre- 
sent, we are indeed the sons of God and inheritors with 
Christ. One good rule St Paul to the Romans, in the twelfth 
chapter, doth appoint for the restoration of this our image 
of God : ' ' Fashion not your lives (saith he) unto this world ; 
but be ye changed in your shape by the renewing of your 
mind, that ye may prove what is the will of God, which 
thing is good, acceptable, and perfect." God grant that this 
rule may take place with you ; and then doubtless our com- 
pany shall be inseparable with all the saints of God in eter- 
nal bliss. 

Be you not deceived by the vain possessions and uncer- 
tain pleasures of this world, which serve to none other pur- 
pose than to blind your eyes, that they might not behold the 
things which be glorious and permanent for ever. The things 
which we see are mortal ; but the things which we see not, 
but certainly hope for, be immortal. "For all flesh," as the 
prophet Esay saith, " is but grass, and the glory thereof as 
the flower of the field." Oh that you which have the pos- 
sessions of this world, would so account them, and not sell 


your eternal inheritance for a mess of porridge, as Esau did ! 
God open your eyes, that you may see the glory of Christ 
in the mount with Peter, John, and James ! Then, I doubt 
not, you would say with Peter, '• Lord, it is good for us to 
abide here : let us here make our dwelling-places. 11 We have 
in this world no firm mansion, but we seek after that which 
is to come ; the which if we seek now where it may be 
found, we shall surely find it. If we mortify the image of 
Adam, which through sin reigneth in our flesh, then shall 
the image of Christ revive in us to our eternal glory. We 
are all baptized to die with Christ, to the end we should walk 
in newness of life, as persons dead to the world and living 
to God. And if we die with him by crucifying our concu- 
piscence and lusts, we shall eternally live. Infidelity is the 
cause of all our misery, which causeth us to fear man more 
than God, and to esteem the things present more than the 
things to come. God enlighten our eves, that we may un- 
derstand how precious an inheritance Christ hath prepared 
for such as hunger and thirst thereafter ! Then, I doubt not, 
we would say with St Paul, -■ I am surely persuaded that 
neither death nor life, neither angels nor rule, neither power, 
nor things present, neither things to come, neither any other 
treasure or creature shall separate us from the love which 
is in Christ Jesus. 11 The Lord increase our faith, and give 
us his holy Spirit to discern with ourselves how much we 
are grown in his image, and are like unto him : for how 
much we are unlike to the world, so much more are we like 
unto God, and so much the more do we approach unto him. 
The Lord draw you by his holy Spirit, and fashion you unto 
his likeness, that we may eternally live together ! The means 
to come thereunto is diligent exercise in God 1 s word, con- 
tinual and faithful prayer, a desire and love to God, the 
fear of God, the contempt of the world, and a constant faith 
in the knowledge of his word joined with the works of righte- 

This is the sum of all our christian religion which we 
do profess ; which if we follow, happy are we that ever we 
were born. But if we be negligent in this, it had been better 
for us never to have been born: for cursed aiv they that 



decline from the Lord and his holy commandments, and have 
their delights in the vanities of this world. Cease not to 
follow the image of God, and to express the same in your- 
selves to the glory of God; and then God will glorify you 
for his image sake, which he saith to live in you. We are 
all weak in transforming the same in us at the beginning; 
for our flesh is clean contrary to it. But we must not give 
over by lawfully striving, until we may say with St Paul, 
" Now live I, but not I, but Christ in me." The Lord grant 
that Christ, which by the gospel is planted in us, may be 
fashioned in our godly conversation, to the glory of God, and 
to the good example of our brethren, that our temporal life 
may be changed into eternal life, and our friendship in God 
eternally endure ! Amen. 

This last farewell I send unto you to be a token of my 
love until we shall meet in the kingdom of Christ, there to 
rejoice perfectly of that godly fellowship which here we have 
had on the earth. God hasten that meeting and deliver you 
from the temptation which is now come upon the church of 
England, for the trial of such as be faithful in the Lord's 
testament, to the crown of their glory if they be found faith- 
ful to the end ! Let us watch and pray one for another, that 
these evil days do not overwhelm us, in the which " our ad- 
versary the devil goeth about like a roaring lion, seeking whom 
he may devour." The peace of God remain with you for ever ! 
Written in the king's bench by one of the poor captive sheep 
of Christ, appointed to the slaughter for the testimony of 
the truth, where he doth joy, and wisheth you to joy, praising 
God with him. Amen. 




To a certain lady, encouraging her under the -present evil 


The spirit of joy and rejoicing be with you, and be you 
comforted through his loving and comfortable leading and 
governance, and make continually joyful your unfeigned heart, 
my dearest sister in the Lord, continually joyful against all 
the fiery temptations of the enemy in these our days, by Jesus 
Christ our Saviour ! Amen. 

Praised and exalted be the name of our living God for the 
trulh of his faithful promises, which he maketh his people to 
feel in the time of extremity, when they seem of the world to 
be forlorn and most miserable ! Such is the goodness of the 
omnipotency of our God, that he can and doth make to his 
elect sour sweet, and misery felicity. Wherefore it was not 
without cause that the wise man in his proverbs writeth, 
" Whatsoever happeneth to a just person, it cannot make him 
sorrowful." All things work to good unto them which be 
good. Unrighteous we are, and wicked of ourselves, yea, 
when we have our gayest peacocks' feathers on : but through 
Christ, on whom we believe, we are just ; and in his goodness 
we are good ; and hereby have daily experience of his mercy 
and loving-kindness towards us in our afflictions and miseries, 
contrary to man's judgment. 

Therefore, let us always, as David did, put the Lord before 
us ; and then we shall find, as he said, that " He is on my 
right hand, and I shall not be moved."" Sure it is, as St Paul 
saith, " If God be with us, who shall be against us V As who 
should say, that all that our enemies can do maketh for our 
glory, so long as we abide in God. What hurt had Sydrach, 
Mysach, and Abdinego by the fire, whiles the Lord walked 

[* This letter is not contained in Foxe. It is taken from Strype's 
Ecclesiastical Memorials, Vol. m. Part 11. Numb. xlix. p. 380. Oxford, 
1822. Lady Vane is probably the person intended' by the words in the 
prefixed title.] 




with them ? What annoyance had Daniel by the fierce lions 
in the dungeon, the Lord being with him ? So mighty is our 
Lord, and able, yea, and ready, to comfort such as put their 
whole trust in him. 

Therefore, mine own heart, be of good cheer in these cruel 
days, for these are to the increase of our glory. They that 
bring us low do exalt us ; and they that kill us do open the 
gates of eternal life. You, by the Spirit of God, wherewith 
your mind is endued, do see that I say, and I by experience 
do feel it ; praise be to God therefore ! I cannot but lament 
the blindness, or rather madness of the world, to see how 
they do abhor the prison of the body in a most righteous cause, 
and little or nothing at all regard the prison of infidelity ih 
which their soul is fettered most miserably, which is more 
horrible than all the prisons of the world. How much the 
soul is more precious than the body, so much is the captivity 
and misery of the soul to be lamented than that of the body. 
God therefore be blessed, which hath given your tender per- 
son to understand that the liberty of the soul surmounteth 
all the treasures of the world ; and that, the soul being free, 
nothing can be hurtful to the body. Hold fast this liberty ; 
for this is the freedom of the children of God, by the which we 
pass without fear both through fire and water. And where 
to the world those be terrible, to the elect they are joyous and 
full of glory. 

God spake to Moses on the mount in fire, thunder, and 
storms ; and the voice was so terrible to the people, that they 
trembled thereat, and wished that God would not speak unto 
them in such wise : but Moses 1 face, coming out of the same, 
was so bright that the children of Israel could not behold his 
face. Even so shall our faces be in the midst of our fiery 
forms, that our enemies shall hereafter never be able to behold 
the brightness of our countenance. And although we be made 
as black as the pot's bottom that hangeth over the fire, yet 
sure I am that we shall be made whiter than snow, and purer 
than silver or fine gold. 

If we have to joy in any thing in this world, it is in tribula- 
tions, by the which we are certified to be the children of God 
and inheritors of his everlasting kingdom. "By this," saith St 
John, "we know the love of Christ towards us, that he gave his 


life for us." And by this we know we love him, that we are 
ready at his calling to yield our life for the testimony of his 
truth to our brothers, that they might have occasion to learn 
by our faithful example to esteem more the things of God 
than of the world. God, increase this true faith in you ; 
for I see you hereby to be in possession of heaven. Con- 
tinually, through hope, behold the things that be not seen, 
but yet hidden for our greater reward : and then shall not this 
noble faith perish, but grow to perfection and fruition of God. 
AVhat, though this sack of dung which we carry about us doth 
pinch and repine at this our pure faith, shall it discomfort us ? 
No, truly, but make us more circumspect and vigilant that we 
be not overthrown in our right ways, since we have so familiar 
an enemy. By faith we overcome, and he that overcometh 
shall be crowned. Therefore the assaults of the flesh and 
of the world wherewith we are to be pressed as long as we 
live, ought to make us diligenter in spiritual things, and to 
be more desirous to be delivered out of this body of corruption. 
Happy be we that see the danger of our conflict, whereby we 
are admonished to beware, and to run to the strong hold of 
the name of the Lord our defence, to the which in all your 
temptations I do most heartily commit your faithful heart 
for ever. 

As concerning mine own affairs, since I came to the 
bishop's coal-house, I have been six times in examination, 
twice before the spiritual bishops, and once of late before 
a great many of the lords of the council, before whom I have 
more frankly, I thank God, uttered my mind than I did any 
time before. The matter laid against me was the disputation 
in the convocation-house two years past concerning their idol, 
the mass, the which by all means they would have me re- 
cant : and I have answered, that if the clergy that now rule 
the roost, can prove either their sacrament of the altar to be 
a sacrament, or else themselves to be of the true church of 
Christ, that I would be as conformable to their doings as 
they could desire. 

I look daily for my final judgment, which was promised 
me ere this; but I think now they will defer it until the end 
of the parliament. God, in whose hands my life is, hasten 
the time in his good pleasure, and make me worthy of that 



An Apologic of Jhon Phil- 
pot written for Spittinge vpon an Ar- 
rian, with an Inuectiue against the Arrians, 
(the very natural children of Antichrist) with 
an admonition to all that be faythfull in 
Christe, to beware of them, and of o- 
ther late sprong heresies, as of 
the mostc enemies of 
the Gospel. 

QThc text of the following 'Apology' is that of the black letter 
edition (without date) of the 'Examinations'; to which this 'Apologie' 
is subjoined. A portion of it is found in Strype ; with whose copy (as 
far as it extends) the text here adopted has been compared.] 

T am amazed and do tremble both in body and soul to 
hear at this day certain men 1 , or rather not men but 
covered with man's shape, persons of a beastly understanding, 
who, after so many and manifold benefits and graces of our 
Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ manifested to the whole 

[} The leading idea of the Arian system was, that the Son of God 
was a created being. The Avians allowed that Christ was God, but only 
in the same sense as holy men and angels are styled " gods" in scripture. 
They admitted that the Son was truly God, but contended that he was 
made so by God. They granted that the Son was naturally of God ; for 
even we, said they, are of God, of whom are all things. They denied 
not that the Son was the power, wisdom, and image of the Father ; but 
limited their concession of these attributes to him, to the measure in 
which the same terms were applicable to themselves : for we also, 
they argued, are said to be the image and glory of God. Such are the 
propositions which the members of the Nicene Council extracted out of 
the writings of Arms, as we learn from Athanasius' account of the dis- 
putations of that synod. Vide Cave's Life of Athanasius. 

It is needless to observe that the heresy of the Arians is not to be in- 
cluded among those which the author designates in his title as, in his day, 
late-sprung. Arius, who seems to have been an African, arose about a.d. 
316. He began a dispute with Alexander, his bishop, (of Alexandria,) 
concerning the nature and dignity of the Son of God. The controversy 
spreading until the whole of Christendom was involved in it, Constantine 
summoned the Council of Nice, a.d. 325, to settle it, but without effect. 
Some of the succeeding Roman emperors favoured Arianism, and wars 
ensued, until the end of the seventh century, when the heresy dis- 
appeared, and sound views upon the Trinity prevailed until the middle 
of the sixteenth century : at that time some new sects arose, and others 
(among them Arianism) revived. The doctrines of Alius cannot be 
better ascertained, than by reading two epistles of his own ; the one 


An Apologie of Jhon Phil- 
pot written for Spittinge vpon an Ar- 
rian, with an Inuectiue against the Arrians, 
(the very natural children of Antichrist) with 
an admonition to all that be faythfull in 
Christe, to beware of them, and of o- 
ther late sprong heresies, as of 
the moste enemies of 
the Gospel. 

[[The text of the following 'Apology' is that of the black letter 
edition (without date) of the 'Examinations'; to which this 'Apologie' 
is subjoined. A portion of it is found in Strype; with whose copy (as 
far as it expends) the text here adopted has been compared.] 

I am amazed and do tremble both in body and soul to 
hear at this day certain men 1 , or rather not men but 
covered with man's shape, persons of a beastly understanding, 
who7 after so many and manifold benefits and graces of our 
Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ manifested to the whole 

\} The leading idea of the Arian system was, that the Son of God 
was a created being. The Arians allowed that Christ was God, but only 
in the same sense as holy men and angels are styled " gods" in scripture. 
They admitted that the Son was truly God, but contended that he was 
made so by God. They granted that the Son was naturally of God ; for 
even we, said they, are of God, of whom are all things. They denied 
not that the Son was the power, wisdom, and image of the Father; but 
limited their concession of these attributes to him, to the measure in 
which the same terms were applicable to themselves: for we also, 
they argued, are said to be the image and glory of God. Such are the 
propositions which the members of the Nicene Council extracted out of 
the writings of Arius, as we learn from Athanasius' account of the dis- 
putations of that synod. Vide Cave's Life of Athanasius. 

It is needless to observe that the heresy of the Arians is not to be in- 
cluded among those which the author designates in his title as, in his day, 
late-sprung. Arius, who seems to have been an African, arose about a.d. 
316. He began a dispute with Alexander, his bishop, (of Alexandria,) 
concerning the nature and dignity of the Son of God. The controversy 
spreading until the whole of Christendom was involved in it, Constantine 
summoned the Council of Nice, a.d. 325, to settle it, but without effect. 
Some of the succeeding Roman emperors favoured Arianism, and wars 
ensued, until the end of the seventh century, when the heresy dis- 
appeared, and sound views upon the Trinity prevailed until the middle 
of the sixteenth century : at that time some new sects arose, and others 
(among them Arianism) revived. The doctrines of Arius cannot be 
better ascertained, than by reading two epistles of his own ; the one 



world, and confirmed with so evident testimonies of the pa- 
triarchs, prophets and apostles, approved by wondrous signs 
and undoubted tokens, declared to be both God and man, 
Rom. i. by the Spirit of sanctification, the eternal Son of God with 
Heb. i. power, the very express image of the substance of the Father, 
and revealed unto us in these later times, in the flesh born 
of the seed of David, in the which he hath taught us truly 1 , 
and marvellously finished the mystery of our salvation, and 
is ascended in body into heaven, from whence his divinity 
abased himself for our glory, and sitteth in 2 equal power at 
the right hand of the Father in his everlasting kingdom, — 
notwithstanding are not ashamed to rob this eternal Son of 
God, and our most merciful Saviour, of his infinite majesty, 
and to pluck him out of the glorious throne of his unspeak- 
able deity. 

impiety of all others most detestable ! infidelity more 
terrible than the palpable darkness of Egypt ! flaming fire- 
isai. vii. brands of hell ! — as I may use the terms 3 of the prophet Esay 
against such apostates : was it not enough for you to be 
grievous unto men by so manifold sects and heresies, dividing 
The Arians yourselves from Christ's true catholic church, as never hitherto 
heresies, hath been heard of any heretical segregation, but will also be 
molesters unto my God 4 , the eternal Son of God ? What 
heart may bear such blasphemy \ What eye may quietly 
behold such an enemy of God ? What member of Christ 
may allow in any wise such a member of the devil ? What 
Christian may have fellowship with such rank antichrists \ 
Who, having the zeal of the glory of God in his heart, can- 
not burst out in tears and lamentations, to hear the immortal 
Gen.iii. glory of the Son of God trod under the feet by the vile seed 

written to Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia, in which he particularly 
mentions the opinions for which he suffered; the other to his own 
diocesan, in which he rectifies some misstatements concerning his views. 
This latter epistle is signed by fourteen persons besides himself.] 

[} " He hath taught us all truth." Strype. Oxford. 1822. Vol. in. 
part ii. p. 363. From " Foxii MSS."] 

[ 2 With equal power. Str.] 

P As I may use the words. Str.] 

£ 4 [No like] thereto hath been heard by any heretical segregation but 
[have offered such contempt] unto my God. Str.] 


of the serpent, whose head by his eternal godhead he hath 
beaten down, and therefore now lieth biting at his heel, 
lurking in corners? But he shall be crushed in pieces unto 
eternal Woe, after he hath spewed out all his venom ; for 
brighter is the glory of our God and Christ, than it may 
be darkened by all the rowte 5 of the prince of darkness, who 
dwelleth in the light which is unapproachable, although these 
dead dogs do take upon them with their corrupt light to pierce 
and blemish the same to their own blinding for ever. 

If the good king Ezekias, after he had heard the bias- isai. xxxvii. 
phemies that Kabsaces uttered against the living Lord, tare 
his royal garments in pieces in testimony of the sorrow he 
had conceived for the same, shall we be still at the blas- 
phemous barkings against our Lord, and shew no token of 
indignation for the zeal of his glory I If Paul and Barnabas, Acts xiv. 
perceiving the people of Listris to take the honour of God, 
and attributing the same to creatures, rent their garments in 
signification that we all should declare (by some outward 
means) the like sorrow when we hear or see the like blas- 
phemy, how may we with patience abide to hear the robbery 
of the majesty of our Christ's equality with God, who (as 
St Paul witnesseth) " thought it no robbery to be equal with Phi1, "• 
God?" What faithful servant can be content to hear his 
master blasphemed ? And if perchance he shew any just 
anger therefore, all honest men do bear with his doing in 
that behalf: and cannot you, good christian brethren and 
sisters, bear with me, who, for the just zeal of the glory of 
my God and Christ, being blasphemed by an arrogant, igno- 
rant, and obstinately blinded Arian, making himself equal 
with Christ, saying that God was none otherwise in Christ 
than God was with 7 him; making him but a creature, as he 
was himself; vaunting to be without sin 8 , as well as Christ,— 
did spit on him ? partly in declaration of that sorrow which ™ e c , a ? s f 

* ¥ J why I did 

1 had to hear such a proud blasphemer of his Saviour, as s p u - 
also to signify unto other there present, whom he went about 

P Rowte : rabble.] 

P The great sorrow. Str.] 

[7 In him. Str.] 

[ 8 [Pretending] you to be without sin. Str.] 



to pervert, that he was a person to be abhorred of all 
Christians, and not to be companied withal. If this my 
fact seem to some, that judge not all things according to 
the Spirit of God, uncharitable, yet let them know that God 
(who is charity) allowed the same. For it is written in the 

Lukexii. gospel, that Christ came not to set us at peace with men 
in the earth, but all 1 division, and that is for his cause and 
truth. And whosoever will not abide with Christ's church 
in the truth, we ought not to shew the points of charity 

Matt, xviii. unto any such, but to take him as an heathen and a pub- 

2 John. " If an y man5 (saith St John,) bring not unto you this 

doctrine, which I have taught you, say not God speed unto 
him ; for whoso saith God speed unto such a one, is par- 
taker of his evil doings." Consider you, therefore, that have 
love and fellowship with such, that the same damnation shall 
fall upon you therefore, as is due to wicked heretics. God 

2 cor. vi. will have us put a difference betwixt the clean and unclean, 
and to touch no unclean persons, but to go out from them. 
And what is more unclean than infidelity ? who is a greater 
infidel than the Arian, who spoileth his Eedeemer of his 
honour, and maketh him but a creature 2 ? What fellowship 
is there between light and darkness I what concord can 
there be between Christ and Belial 3 ? Never was there more 
abominable Belials than these Arians be. The ignorant 
Belials worshipped the creatures for the Creator ; but these 
perverse Arians do worship Christ (who is the creator of 

Col -i- all things, by whom, as St Paul testifieth, both in heaven 

Rom.ix. and earth all things visible and invisible were made, who is 

rj At division. Str.] 

[ a The author's use of this term creature should not mislead us as to 
the real doctrine of Arianism on the subject of the nature of the Son of 
God. The patrons of that sect did not maintain that Christ was a mere 
man, chief among men, but still no more than man. This was and still 
is the Socinian heresy. The Arians maintained that the Son, though the 
Son of God, was yet made such by the Father. There are degrees in 
error : and though the Arian view is as truly a heresy as the Socinian, 
yet is it not to be confounded with it."] 

Q 3 Belial's worship. Str.] 


God blessed for ever, and as St John witnesseth, very God l J °im v. 
and life everlasting,) but as a creature like unto themselves. 
What christian man may call him to be a good man that 
denieth Christ to be the author and worker of all goodness, 
as the Arian doth ? " Woe be unto them (saith the prophet) ['sai. v. 20.3 
that call evil good, and good evil !" Judge therefore uprightly, 
ye children of men, and condemn not the just for the un- 
righteous'' sake, neither by any means seem to allow, either . 
in word or deed, the wicked, who say there is no God ; for j hn v. 
they that honour not the Son, honour not the Father ; and 
he that hath not the Son, hath not the Father. And if 
we believe in God, we must also believe in Christ ; for the John xiv. 
Father and he be one. And none in the Spirit of God can j im x. 
divide Christ from the substance of God the Father 4 , unless 1 cor. xii. 
a natural son may be of another substance than his father, 
which nature doth abhor. Who can abide the eternal ge- 
neration of the Son of God to be denied, since it is written 
of him, "His generation who shall be able to declare?" isai. mi. 

Is there any true christian heart that grudgeth not at 
such faithless blasphemers? Can the eye, ear, tongue, or 
the other senses of the body be content to hear their crea- 
tor blasphemed, and not repine? Should not the mouth 
declare the zeal of his maker, by spitting on him that de- 
praveth his divine majesty, which was, is, and shall be God 
for ever ? If God, as it is mentioned in the Apocalypse, Rev. m. 
will spew hypocrites out of his mouth, such as be neither 
hot nor cold in his word, why may not then a man of God 
spit on him that is worse than an hypocrite, enemy to the 
Godhead, manifested in the blessed Trinity, which will in no 
wise be persuaded to the contrary ? If Christ with a whip 
drove out of the temple such as were profaners thereof, ought John u. 

E 4 The point which Arius denied was (in the language of technical 
theology) the consubslantiality of the Son with the Father. His reason- 
ing was, that as Christ came from the Father, if he was consubstantial 
with him, the Father must be divisible, since a part of the Father must 
have left the rest. But this curious speculation and erroneous inference 
might have been spared, had Arius reflected that the language which is 
used by the Holy Ghost to reveal awful mysteries about the nature of 
God, — since it is necessarily adapted to finite understandings, — must not 
be taken just as a saying upon " earthly things," to minds capable of 
grasping all it signified, ought to be taken."] 



not the servant of God, by some like outward signification, 
reprove the villany of those that go about to take away the 
glory of him that was the builder of the temple I If there 
were as much zeal in men of the truth, as there is talka- 
tive knowledge, they would never be offended with that which 
is done in the reproach and condemnation of fro ward ungodly 
men, whom nothing can please but singularities and divisions 
• from the church of Christ, which ought to be the mother 
Gai. iv. anc i mistress of us all 1 , to lead us into all true knowledge of 
the word of God, and not imagine by ignorance 2 , taking the 
word of God, daily another gospel and another Christ, as 
every sect doth, separating themselves from Christ's spouse 3 , 
Ejiii. i. which is the same that is the accomplishment of truth, 
[hitherto never knew 4 .] O insatiable curiosity ! arrogant 
self-love ; the original of all these heresies ! pestilent 
canker of thine own salvation ! O Arian, the right inheritor 
isai. xiv. to Lucifer, that would exalt his seat, and be like to the 
highest ; whose fall shall be like, where the sin is equal. If 
Kev. ii. God did highly allow the minister of Ephesus, for that he 
could in no wise abide such as said they were apostles, and 
were not in deed, how may any lay uncharitabieness unto me, 
which for the love of my sweet Christ do abhor all fan- 
tastical Arians, in such sort as all men ought to do that 
love the Son of God unfeignedly? If Moses be commended 
Acts vii. by the scriptures for striking an Egyptian that did injury 
to one of the people of God, how may he justly be blamed 
which did spit at him that doth such injury and sacrilege 
to the Son of God as to pluck him from his eternal and 
proper Godhead ? Was there ever creature so unkind I Was 
there ever man so temerarious, to shrive 5 against the glory 

[} All is omitted in Strype.] 

P " Yn . . by . . ignorance." Strype. " Imagine by ignorance," 
probably means ignorantly imagine — frame ignorant fancies.] 

Q 3 This sentence seems to need the insertion of some words to make 
it clearly intelligible, if not grammatically complete. The words "which 
singularities, the church," placed before " which is the same," will supply 
what is, apparently, wanting.] 

[ 4 Hitherto never knew — omitted. Str.] 

[_ 5 As to strive. Str. Shrive; a Saxon word meaning to make con- 
fession to a priest; and maybe supposed to mean here, 'to offer argu- 
ments, or make a confession of faith, against the glory of Christ.] 



of his glorifier? Was there ever heretic so bold and im- 
pudent as the Arian is, that durst take from the Son of 
God the glory which he had with the Father from the be- 
ginning ? If Christ be the beginning and ending of all things Rev. i. 
(as he testifieth himself 8 to St John), how may he be but 
a creature, like unto others ? Who may dissemble such blas- 
phemy that hath any spark 7 of the Spirit of God? Who 
may hear with patience the right ways of the Lord per- 
verted by these devilish holy Arians, and hold his peace? 
A lively faith is not dumb, but is always ready to resist the 
gainsayers, as David saith, " I have believed, and therefore I Psai. «vi. 
have spoken." Speak then, you that have tongues to praise 
and confess against these Arians; exalt your voice like a 
trumpet, that the simple people may beware of their Phari- 
saical venom 8 , and be not deceived, as now many are un- 
awares of simplicity. Suffer them not to pass by you un- 
pointed at : yea, if they be so stout that they will not cease 
to speak against God our Saviour and Christ, (as they are 
all new baptized enemies thereto,) refrain not to spit at such 
inordinate swine as are not ashamed to tread under their 
feet the precious godhead of our Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Our God is a jealous God, and requireth us to be zealous in Exod - xx - 
his cause. If we cannot abide our own name to be evil spoken 
of, without great indignation, shall we be quiet to hear the 
name of our God defaced, and not declare any sign of wrath 
against them ? It is written, "Be angry and sin not." A man Psai. iv. 
then may shew tokens of anger in a cause which he ought 
to defend, without breach of charity. The prophet David 
saith, " Shall I not hate them, Lord, that hate thee ? and 
upon thine enemies shall I not be wrathful? I will hate 
them with a perfect hatred ; they are become mine enemies." 
Aaron, because he was not more zealous in God's cause, 
when he perceived the people bent to idolatry, entered not 
into the land of promise. God loveth not lukewarm soldiers Rev. m. 
in the battle of faith, but such as be earnest and violent Matt. xi. 
shall inherit his kingdom. Therefore St Paul biddeth us to 
be " fervent in spirit ;" and you that are too cold in these Rom. xii. 

[ 6 Of himself. Str.] 
[ 7 Sparkle. Str.] 
C 8 Vermin. Str.] 



flavs in the conflict of the gospel, as well against these arch 
heretics as others, whereof there be, at these days, stirred up 
by the devil an infinite swarm to the overthrow of the gospel, 
if it were possible, I exhort you not to judge that evil which 
God highly coininendeth ; but rather to pray that God will 
give you the like zeal to withstand the enemies of the gospel, 
neither to have any manner of fellowship with these antichrists, 
whom the devil hath spitten out in these days, to defile the 
gospel, which go about to teach you any other doctrine than 
Tiiesospei y OU have received in kino- Edward's days, in the which (praised 

pure in King- J o ' vl 

Kihvani's ) Je GJod!) all the sincerity of the <msi>el was revealed, according 

days. ' • .-> i - _ p 

to the pure use of the primitive church, and as it is at this 
present of the true catholic church allowed through the world. 
The Spirit of God, the Holy Ghost, the third person in Trinity, 
whom these wicked Arians do elude 1 and mock, hath taught 
the church (according to Christ's promise) all truth ; and shall 
we now receive another vain spirit, whom the holy fathers 
never knew ! Try the spirits of men by God's word, and by the 
interpretation of the primitive church, who had promised"' of 
Christ to receive by the coming of the Holy Ghost the true 
understanding of all that he had spoken and taught, after the 
which we have been truly taught to believe three persons in 
one Deity; God the Father, from whom, and Cod the Son, 
by whom, and God the Holy ( diost, in whom all tilings visible 
and invisible do consist, and have their being and life. In the 
which belief we were baptized by the institution of Christ, into 
Matt.xxviii. th e n ame of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And 
shall we now begin to stand in doubt of this most firm faith, 
the which from the beoinnino- hath been confirmed, besides the 
undoubted testimonies of the scriptures, with the precious blood 
of an infinite number of martyrs and confessors I It is no 
marvel though these Arians deny the Holy Ghost to be Cod, 
Acts ii. w j 10 re f use the testimony that he made of himself in the fiery 
tongues to the primitive church, and before that, in the like- 
Matt. Hi. ness of a dove at the baptism of Christ. They must needs 
deny the Spirit of truth, who be led by the spirit of error, 
The Holy under the colour of godliness denying their true sanctifier and 
Comf.ii'tcr, instructor, whom Christ evidently taught to be another com- 

Christ ' [} Chide. Str.] 

p Had nvriinl a promise. Had promise. Str/] 



forter besides him ; and tlierefore to the end he should so be 
believed, appeared visibly, as Christ did : but as their corrupt 
faces bash 3 not to deny the eternal Son of God, so are they not 
ashamed to denv the Holy Ghost to be Cod. Their forehead T,,e Alians 

•> *> are past 

is like the forehead of a whore, hardened with counterfeited bi;u,Ut '- 
hypocrisy. Stiff-necked wretches they are, that will not yield 
to the truth, though it be never so manifestly said 1 before their 
face. They have sworn to run after their master the devil 
without stay, and to draw with them as many as they can, 
in the which they are very diligent. The Lord confound them! 
The Lord conserve his elect from their damnable poison ! The 
Lord open all christian eyes to beware of them ! The Lord 
give all his chinch an uniform zeal and mind to abhor them, 
and to cast faith from them 5 ! You that be of the truth, and 
have any zeal of God in you, stir it up and bind it against 
these enemies of our living God, which is the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost, to whom be all honour, praise and glory 
for ever. 

Canst thou be angered with thy brother, being law- 
fully called to be a minister in Christ's church, and to be a 
teacher in the same, for spitting at an obstinate adversary of 
Christ, refusing to obey the- truth ; and declare no manner of 
indignation against the Avian, the thief that robbeth thy God 
of his honour J Doth the injury of the Avian more offend thee 
than the defence of thy Bedeemev please thee '. Art thou not 
ashamed rather to take part with an Avian than with a true 
Christian*'? Thou wouldest seem to have charity by bearing 
with the wicked ; and, contrary to all charity, thou backbitest 
tiiv brother for doing that which thou shouldest rather do, than 
to have any familiarity with them. If thou dwell within the 
church of Christ, what hast thou to do with them that be 

[j ! Bash not : are not abashed.J 

[ 4 Laid. Str.] 

\j Cast from them. Str. What is the meaning of either of these 
readings, it is not easy to determine. To cast faith from them, may 
signify to ' have no confidence in,' or ' confidential intercourse with' 
them; while the other reading must be regarded as grammatically in- 
complete. It may have been intended by the writer for to ' cast them 
(the Avians) from them. '3 

p Ur,i,l it. Str.] 

[ 7 Right Christian. Str.] 



without, which go about nothing else but to build a new 
Babylon, and to destroy all the godly order of the gospel I I 
tell thee plain that I am nothing of that face 1 , but give God 
thanks that I hear evil 2 for well-doing. If I should please men, 
Gal - '• I could not please God. I marvel that there should be so 
little zeal in a true christian heart, that it can seem to take 
x vS ngs the part of an Arian. We cannot serve Christ and Baal : how 
Hei). xii. Jong will men halt on both sides ? Let your halting be healed. 
If ye be unfeignedly of the truth, abide in the truth, and let all 
your will be toward the professors of the truth in the unity of 
Christ's church, lest you may appear to be scatterers with 
heretics, rather than gatherers together with Christ. Do ye 
not see what a rabble of new-found scatterers there be, such 
a sort as never at once hath been heard of in one realm, the one 
hat e h d shaLn con * rar y *° * ne °^ ev ' so t^ a * the devil might seem to have 
of heresfef P oure( l ou * au hi s poisons at once against the gospel ? And 
-ospef the w ^ y° u ^ ia ^ $ 0V J °f *he truth, go about by word, deed and 
help, to maintain any such in their heady errors? He that 
toucheth pitch, cannot choose but defile his fingers therewith. 
1 cor. xv. «t j$ e no t deceived," saith St Paul, "for wicked talk corrupteth 
good manners. Therefore watch ye righteously, and sin not ; 
for many there be that have not the knowlege of God : I speak 
it to your shame." St Paul willeth us to be more 3 circumspect 
in talking, or acquainting ourselves with such heathen men as 
at this day be, to their encouragement and strengthening of 
their error. The words of an heretic (as he saith in another 
a Tim. ii. place) "eateth like a canker." And therefore writing unto 
'Jit. iii. Tite he commandeth all christian persons to avoid an heretic 
after once or twice warning, knowing that such a one is per j 
verted, and sinneth, and is damned by his own judgment. 
2Thess. iii. And to the Thessalonians he also saith, "We command you in 
the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you withdraw your- 
selves from every brother that walketh inordinately, and not 
according to the institution which they have received of us." 
There can be no fellowship betwixt faith and infidelity : he 
Lute xi. that is not with Christ is his enemy : he that is an enemy to 

[} Nothing ashamed of that fact. Str.] 

Q 2 Hear evil: am evil spoken of: a literal translation of the Latin 
phrase, malt- uudire.~\ 

[/' More— omitted in Str.] 


the unity and peace of Christ's church, he may not be coupled 

with us. And Solomon rendereth a cause why: "A perverse Prov - xvi - 

man in his mouth doth carry perdition, and in his lips hideth 

fire." Again, he sayeth, "An evil man obeyeth the tongue of Prov - xvii - 

the unrighteous, but the just hearkeneth not to lying lips. 

Also Ecclesiasticus writeth*, saying, "Hedge thine ears with kccIm. 

thorns, and do not hear a wicked tongue." 

This have I touched to give you warning, how to behave 
yourselves with the Arians and other schismatics and he- 
retics, whom all godly order and good learning displeaseth; 
the which if our christian brethren and sisters did well weigh 
and follow, there would not be so many stout heretics as 
there be. I doubt that the heretics be better provided for 
than the poor faithful afflicted flock of Christ. If you hear 
that there is contention between us and them that be in 
prison, marvel not therefore, neither let your minds be alien- 
ated from the truth anything thereby ; for, as it is written, 
" It is necessary that heresies should be, that the elect might * Cor. xi. 
be tried." Christ and antichrist can never agree. And as 
St John saith, "Antichrist is come, and there is now many uoimii. 
antichrists; they are gone out from us, such as were none 
of us ; for if they had, they should have continued with us." 
By this saying of St John, we may well try and know all 
the route of antichrist's generation. Such they be as break 
the unity of Christ's church, neither abide in the same, 
neither submit their judgment to be tried, in the causes 
which they brabble 5 for, by the godly learned pastors there- 
of; but arrogantly deprave them, and take upon themselves 
to be teachers, before they have learned, affirming they can- 
not tell what, and speaking evil of that which they know 
not: proud they are, and puffed up in the imaginations of 
their own hearts 8 and blind senses, and judge themselves 
best of all other, because they can make a pale face of hy- 
pocrisy to the world, and cast a glass of dissembling water 
before the eyes of the simple people, as these Arians do. 
But, praised be Cod! his word is lively and mighty, and 
beateth them all down, like an iron rod an earthern pot in 
pieces; and yet they are so hardhearted and far from grace, 

C 4 Warneth. Str.] [» Brabble: brawl.] 

C 6 Their own blind senses. Str.] 



that they will not yield to the manifest truth, when they 
have nought justly to reply besides counterfeited words 1 . 
There is no pith in them— full of contention and backbitingi 
These brawling heretics are 2 under a pretence of feigned 

Matt, xxiii. holiness, whom our Saviour Christ aptly compared to painted 
sepulchres, which be nothing else within but full of rotten 
bones. For whereas true faith is not in the unity 3 of Christ's 
church, there is nothing but abominable in the sight of God. 

Psai.ixviii. F or (j 0( } ( as t h e p ro phet saith) maketh his people to dwell 
after one manner in one house. But with all manner of 
sects can this perverse generation away with all, more than 
with the unity of Christ's pure catholic church, to the which 
in no wise they will agree, albeit the same is the pillar and 

iTim.iii. stablishment of truth, as St Paul writeth 4 to Timothy. I 
never saw, neither heard before of, such a sight of giddy and 
fantastical heads, who delight only in singularity; whom I do 
much pity, because they take so much pains to go to the 
devil. Arrogant singularity and envious contention be ready 
paths, leading to the same, in the which they walk man- 
fully. Still they have the scriptures in their mouth, and cry, 
'The scripture, the scripture'; but it cometh like a beggar's 
cloak out of their mouth, full of patches and all out of 
fashion ; and when they be (by the word rightly alleged) 
overthrown, that 5 they have not with reason what to reply, 
yet will they never be confounded ; but either depart in fury, 

Psai.iviii. or e i se s t p their ears at the saying of the wise charmers, 
like deaf serpents, or else fall to scolding, which is their 
surest divinity they fight withal. And if perchance any of 
them be soberer than other, their answer is, 'I pray you let 
us alone; our conscience is satisfied; you labour but in vain 
to go about to turn us.' Thus 6 in self-love, blindness, and 
vain hypocrisy, these heretics continue, be they never so 
learnedly or charitably informed. 

And where they have nothing to lay against their chari- 
table informers, then they imagine most spitefully and falsely 
(to declare whose children they are,) blasphemies ; spreading 

P Besides counterfeited words, there is no pith in them. Str.] 

P Full of contention and backbiting these brawling heretics are. Str.] 

P Unity and communion. Str.] p Witnesseth. Str.] 

P And they have not. Str.] p For in self-love, &c. Str.] 


the same abroad, both by themselves and by their adherents, 
against the sincere professors of the gospel; that we make 
God the author of sin, and that we say, Let men do what 
they will, it is not material if they be predestinate; and that 
we maintain all carnal liberty, dice, cards, drunkenness, and 
other inordinate things and gain 7 ; and with this I (among 
other) am most slanderously charged and defamed by these 
outrageous heretics, to whom I have gone about (to my 
power) to do good, as God is my witness; but I have re- 
ceived the reward of a prophet at their hands, although I 
am not worthy to be counted under that glorious name, which 
is shame, rebuke, slander, and slaying of my good fame. They 
are like Satan, their grandsire, in this point, who was a liar John viii. 
and a manqueller 8 from the beginning. These presumptuous 
heretics do daily declare their cold charity, which proceedeth 
out of their cold faith. God forgive it them 9 and inflame 
them with a better spirit ! I protest before God and his 
angels, that I never meant, neither said, any of these infa- 
mies whereof I am belied by them, with many other good 
men. Only because I hold and affirm (being manifestly in- 
structed by God's word) that the elect of God cannot finally 
perish, therefore they have picked out of their own malici- 
ous nails the former part of these blasphemies; and because 
at another time I did reprove them of their temerarious and 
rash judgment for condemning of men using things indif- 
ferent, as shooting, bowling, hawking, with such like, proving 
by the scripture that all men in a temperancy 10 might use 
them in their due times, and shewing that honest pastime 
was no sin, which these contentious schismatics do improve, 
whereupon they do maliciously descant, as is before mentioned. 
And whether I have deserved to have this reproach 11 for 
telling them the truth, which they cannot abide, let all men 
judge that be of an upright judgment. Might not these hypo- 
crites be ashamed of their brideless 13 blasphemous tongues, if 

[ 7 Games. Str.] 

f_ 8 Manqueller: manslayer, murderer; 'quell' being a Saxon word 
signifying to Ml.~\ 

E 9 God forgive them. Str/] 

[}" In a temperancy: in moderation.] 

[_ u These reproaches. Str/] 

|[ 1S Bridlesse : probably unbridled.~] 




the devil had not rubbed away all shame from their fore- 
Jamesi. heads! St James saith, "that if any person which would 
seem to be a gospeller refrain not his tongue, his religion 
is in vain." O what a many of vain caterpillars be there, 
which corrupt the sweet and wholesome flowers of the gospel 
to the shame thereof as much as it lieth in them ! It had 
been better for them never to have known the gospel than 
by their proud free-will knowledge to go about to subvert 
the same. 1 would they would be taught by the church of 
Christ, where they ought to be, and become sincere confessors, 
or else leave bogging 1 of heresies to their own damnation 
^heretics an d decaying of many, and fall to their own occupation, every 
scriptnrei man according to his own calling, and learn to eat with the 
understand- swe at of their own brows their bread, to help others, as God's 
word commandeth them, and not to lie in corners like humble 
dories 3 , eating up the honey of the bees, and do nothing else 
but murmur and sting at the verity and at all faithful la- 
bourers in the Lord's vineyard. 

Thus by the way I thought it good to admonish you of 
other heretics besides the Arians, who be handmaidens unto 
them, and do dailv make an entrance for them to increase; 
who long 4 to one kingdom of darkness, although the one be 
Matt. xv. not so high in degree as the other. " Blind guides they are, 
and leaders of the blind, and as many as follow them do fall 
Prov. xiv. into the ditch :" for, as it is said of Solomon, " There is a 
way that seemeth to a man right, and yet the end thereof 
tendeth to destruction." Direct therefore your steps with the 
church of Christ in the ways of the gospel and in brotherly 
unity, and account it as the sin of witchcraft to make division 
from the same. And God of his mercy either turn their hearts 
shortly or else confound them, that they be not a shameful 
slander to the gospel, as already they have begun to be, to 
the great grief of all faithful hearts. 
2 cor. xi. Now will I turn to the Arian again, who transfiggreth 

The Arians . . . " ' , ",, 

counterfeit, himself into an angel of light, as Satan oftentimes dotn, 
that he might under the cloak of holiness more mightily de- 

P Boggynge : botching up. Str.] 
P Clout up : join scriptures together clumsily.'] 
P The plural of dor ov dory, the di-one-bee/] 
P Long: belong.] 



ceive the simple folk. And verily he is a devil incarnate. 
He hath a name that he liveth, and indeed is dead. Judge J^'j'jj 
them not by their outward shew, wherein they extol them- 
selves wonderfully, and daare 5 simple men's eyes like larks. 
For our master Christ prophesied of such false hypocrites to 
come, giving us warning to beware of such as pretend the Matt. v "« 
simplicity of a sheep 8 outwardly, and yet inwardly are ravening 
wolves, devouring the souls and bodies of men unto perdi- 
tion. St Paul, departing from Ephesus, said there should Acts **• 
rise up men speaking perverse things, that they might make 
scholars to run after them. St Peter setteth me forth these 2Pet.u. 
Arians lively in their colours, and in manner pointeth at them 
with his finger : " There hath been," saith he, " false prophets 
among the people, as there shall be among you false teachers, 
which privily shall bring in pernicious sects, yea, deniers of 
the Lord who hath bought them, procuring to themselves 
swift destruction, and many will follow their poisons, by whom 
the way of truth shall be evil spoken of, fcc." Who be such 
Judases unto Christ as these Arians, which cease not to be- 
tray him of his eternal deity? Who slander more the truth 
than these, denying Jesus to be the God of truth? These 
be they of whom the Apostle Jude speaketh, which trans- Jude » *~ G - 
pose the grace of our God into wanton imaginations of their 
own brains, and deny God, who is the only Lord, and our 
Lord Jesus Christ. " My mind, therefore,' 1 saith he, " is to 
put you in remembrance, forasmuch as ye once knew this, 
that the Lord (after that he had delivered the people out 
of Egypt) destroyed them which believed not. The angels 
also, which kept not their first estate, but left their own ha- 
bitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under dark- 
ness, unto the judgment of the great day, &c." Even so 
shall the Lord destroy these unbelieving Arians, whom he 
did once through baptism deliver from the bondage of sin, 
because they have forsaken the deity of Christ, their original 
justice, and compared him unreverently and ungodly to them- 
selves, to whom eternal fire belongeth, which is prepared for 
the devil and for these Arians, his chief angels. Worse they 
are than the devils, which in the 8th chapter of St Matthew Matt. vm. 
did acknowledge him to be the eternal Son of God, and in 
[ 5 Daare: dazzle. Str.] l^ Show. Str.] 



Acts xvi. 

James ii. 

John i. 

the Acts of the Apostles they confessed Paul and Barnabas, 
which were the servants and disciples of Christ, to be the 
servants of God most high. The devils in St James do be- 
lieve and tremble at the majesty of Christ. The centurion 
Mattxxvii. i n the 27th of St Matthew acknowledged him verily to be 
the Son of God. But these hell-hounds are offended at his 
eternal majesty 1 , and would have him no better than them- 
selves by creation. 

Is this your 2 profession of Christ, you antichrists? doth 
your feigned holiness tend to this end, to dishonour him 
that is most holy, and one God with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, of all holiness ? you painted hypocrites ! 
doth your counterfeited love and dissembling patience go 
about to abase the eternal love of God, his beloved Son? 
you haters of God ! put off your shameless visars. 
you unbelieving Arians! put off your angelical infidelity and 
walk as you be. you deceivers of the people ! You say 
ye see, and yet be altogether blinded ; for he that seeth 
not Christ to be the everlasting Son of God, seeth no light; 
for he is the very light by whom all men be enlightened. 
Seek therefore of him your eye-salve, lest in your blindness 
you stumble shortly to eternal darkness. what huge blind- 
ness are they in, which say they have no sin in them! as 3 
St John plainly affirmeth, " That whosoever saith he hath no 
sin, is a liar." And David saith, " That all men be liars. 11 
The prophet Esay saith, " That our righteousness is like the 
cloth of a menstruous woman." Shall we believe liars be- 

[} Eusebius of Csesarea, the historian, seems to have held a kind of 
middle view, — that the Son of God was from eternity, but was not 
Jehovah, (the strict and original Arian position being that he was not 
from eternity ;) a notion confuted by Dr Waterland in his reply to the 
scripture doctrine of the Trinity. The above-named Eusebius is to be 
distinguished from the man of the same name, (of Nicomedia,) the great 
advocate of Arianism, who wrote a letter to the Council of Nice, im- 
pugning the idea of the Son of God being uncreated. It was in answer 
to that letter, and the confession of faith of the Arian party which ac- 
companied it, that Hosius of Corduba drew up a creed substantially the 
same as that which at this day bears the name of the Nicene Creed. 
This creed was sanctioned by the Council and by Constantine, (who 
acted as moderator on that occasion,) who denounced banishment against 
any who should refuse assent to it.] 

[ 2 Your profession : the profession. Sti\] [ 3 Whereas. Str.] 

1 John i. 
Psal. cxvi. 
Isai. lxiv. 


ibye the faithful servants of God? If they know not them- 
selves, is it any marvel though they know not God? "■ He that ^ ke xvi - 
is unfaithful in a little will be also unfaithful in much." He 
that is not ashamed to belie himself, it is no wonder though 
he be so bold to belie another better than himself. How may 
a purblinded man behold the brightness of the sun ? Who 
is so sore diseased as he that, being very sick, believeth that 
he is whole ? Who knoweth not our flesh, as long as it is 
in this corruptible life 4 , to be a lump of sin ? Yea, and who Rom. vii. 
feeleth not the law of sin which is in our members still to 
strive against the law of our mind ? St Paul, who was taken 
up into the third heaven, and saw such things as is not lawr 
ful for man to speak of, whose godly life surmounted the 
rabble of these Arians, and yet he durst not be so bold as 
to jsompare in purity with Christ, neither to affirm that he 
was without sin ; but acknowledged sin to be in his body, 
and desired that it might be taken from him ; to whom it 
was not granted, but that it should remain with him, for his 
spiritual exercise, and by grace to overcome 5 the same, that when 
sin aboundeth, there grace should superabound. Why do you 
cleanse the outward sides of your stinking vessels, you [Matt. xxiii * 
impure gloriflers of yourselves, and see not the inward abo- 
mination that is in you? Ye say ye be sweet before the 
Lord, and, behold, you stink before the face of the whole world, 
but specially before God and all his saints ; for how can God 
but abhor all such as do take away the sweet savour of his 
divine nature from his Son, and to attribute that excellency 
to themselves which is not in them ? Hath not God him- Gen> vi - 
self witnessed of man's impurity, saying that all the thoughts 
of man be only prone unto evil? Is not this inclination to 
evil which lurketh in our flesh, sin; and the natural corrup- Psai. ii. 
tion which we sucked from our first parents ? Learn to know 
thyself better, and then shalt thou judge more uprightly of 
the Son of God. Cleanse thine inward filthiness and sin by 
an humble and repentant confession of thine own unworthir 
ness and wickedness towards thy Redeemer, and then thine 
outward shew of holiness might be somewhat worth, which 
now is double deviliahness, for want of true knowledge both 
of thyself and of faith tp God. Know thine own poverty 
C 4 As long as it is in this life. Str.] [} Overrun. Str.] 


and misery, and come to thy Saviour, which is rich with God, 
and able of himself to enrich thee with all felicity. Thou 
art like them that be of the congregation of Laodicea, men- 

Rcv.Hi. tioned in the Apocalypse, which saith' with them, that "I am 
rich and enriched and want nothing, and knowest not in- 
deed that thou art wretched and miserable, both poor, blind, 
and bare. I counsel thee therefore to buy fiery gold 3 of the 
deity of our Christ, that thou mightest through true belief 
wax rich, and be clothed with his white garments, that the 
shame of thy nakedness might not appear," as it doth now 
to thy great confusion. If thou see not this, thou art one 

johnxii. f them whom Christ for thine infidelity towards him made 
blind 3 unto everlasting damnation. These Arians would not 
be counted miserable, and they cannot away with this goodly 
prayer which the church useth, saying, "Lord, have mercy upon 
us miserable sinners." But St Paul was not ashamed to say, 

Bom. vii. « Miserable person that I am ! who shall deliver me from this 
body subject to death V He confesseth as well our miserable 
as sinful state in this life ; and they that perceive the im- 
purity of our nature which it hath through the fall of Adam, 
and the want of original justice which we lost by him, can- 
not but cry we are miserable, and say with David, "I am 
miserable and made crooked, I went all day long sorrowfully ;" 
and pray with the blind man of the gospel, " Jesu, thou Son 
of David, have mercy upon us." 

What vain religion is this of theirs ! What pharisaical 
leaven do they scatter abroad ! what lying hypocrisy do they 
maintain ! But is this all ? No, verily. It were too long for 
me to touch their infinite errors they are infected withal. They 
deny the old testament to be of any authority : David's psalms 
be not to be used as prayers and praises to God : and they are 
almost as bold with the new; for they find fault with the Lord's 
Prayer, and affirm that they need not say for themselves, Let 
" thy kingdom come," for it is already come upon them : and 
what need we pray, say they, for that we have already ? And 
we have no sin; wherefore then should we say, "Forgive us 
our trespasses V impudency of all impudencies the greatest! 
O infidelity more than ever was among the brutish heathen ! 

[} Sayest with them. Str.] [? Gold tried in the fire.] 

[ 3 Hath made blind. Str."] 


Was there ever any that went about to set God to school 
before? He hath taught us how to pray, and they say, we 
need not so to pray. The godly men (saith St Peter) which 2 Pet - •■ 
did write the scriptures, spake not of themselves, but by the 
instruction of the Holy Ghost. And these frantic heretics 
and antichrists will both correct and teach the Holy Ghost 
to speak. Who having any spit in his body may not think 
it well bestowed 4 upon such wicked blasphemers of God and 
his word? I would I had a fountain of spittle to spattle 
on them: I would my spittle might be of so great virtue 
against them as the words of St Paul were against Bar-jesus, Acts xui. 
whom, resisting the belief of Christ, he called " the son of the 
devil," and therewith struck him blind. Better it were for a 
man to lose his outward sight, whereby corruptible things be 
only, seen, than to want the inward, whereby God is per- 
ceived. And more precious is the glory of my Christ in 
my sight than all the men of the world. 

The blind Pharisees, I know, will be offended at this my 
saying, and think it is uncharitably spoken ; but I pass not upon 
their offence, answering them with Christ, "Let them alone, Matt. xv. 
they are blind, and the leaders of blind :" he that is ignorant, i Cor. xiv. 
let him be ignorant still, and he that is filthy, let him be more Rev. xxu. 
filthy; but he that is holy, let him become more holy, and 
beware of these pestiferous Arians 1 leaven, who besides all this 
deny the benefit of repentance to any person that sinneth after 
baptism, contrary to the manifest word of God, saying that 
in whatsoever hour a sinner repenteth him of his sins, they Ezek. xviu. 
shall be forgiven him. Do ye not think that these beasts are 
to be borne withal? Say what ye will, they 5 will not hear: 
they are like unto those of whom it is written in the Psalms, 
" Eyes they have, and see not ; ears they have, and hear not ; p S ai. cxv. 
they have noses, and smell not;" yea, they have a froward 
heart, and understand not : when the scriptures be so clearly 
alleged against them, that they have not what to say, these 
be their foolish answers, — They can make you understand it 
so; — you will not have it so; — if ye were of us, ye should 
perceive more than ye do. Thus under the pretence of a 
hidden secret, which they say is revealed unto them above 

t 4 Well to be bestowed. Str.] 

[' With' this word ends Strype's account of the "Apology."] 


all other, they would, through curiosity, have men to call their 
faith in doubt, and so to deny the same. But say to them, 
Depart from me, you Satan's whelps. Take heed lest by any 
Cor.xi. means it come to pass, that like as the serpent deceived 
Eve, so by his subtilty your senses be corrupted from the 
simplicity of faith which ye have towards Christ. And if 
any man preach unto you any other Jesus whom the church 
of Christ hitherto hath not taught, or another spirit which 
the church hath not received, hear him not, believe him not ; 

Matt. xxiv. for such Christ prophesied of to come in the latter days, 
that should go about to shew other Christs than he taught 

Heb. xiii. us, whom he chargeth us not to credit ; for Jesus Christ (as 
it is written) is always one, yesterday, and to-day, and shall 
be to the world's end and for ever. Therefore do as St Paid 

Gai. i. exhorteth you: "If an angel from heaven should preach unto 
you any other gospel besides that which hath been preached 
unto you, let it be accursed ; or if any man preach any other* 
hold him accursed." These be sufficient warnings for all true 
Christians to beware of these late sprung heresies, and spe^ 
cially of these new baptized Arians, who be more crafty than 
the others, and more damnable, and for that the diligenter 
to be avoided. If they will go about to pervert you from the. 
true faith in corners and dens, as they do very diligently, 
as I hear say, (the more pity it is they be so suffered;) teU 
such that the truth seeketh no corners, as the proverb teacheth 
us; and therefore if they were of the truth, they would not 
lurk in corners this long as they have done. The apostles, 
whose counterfeited successors they would be counted tq be, 
after the truth of the gospel was revealed unto them, went 
forth and preached the same boldly, notwithstanding they were 

joimiii. straitly forbidden and persecuted for the same. "Everyone 
(saith our Saviour Christ) that doeth well cometh to the 
light, that his works may be seen, that they be done ac^ 
cording to God's will ; but he which doeth naughtily hateth 
the light, and cometh not to the light, lest his doings should 

The Avians be reproved." By this ye may know that these Arians, with 

comers other heretics, are born of that prince of darkness, who walk 

and be coy ' \ -n 1 

th Sh f W th eon t muau y under clouds, and with great difficulty will shew 
themselves, unless it be to some simple persons whom they 
think apt to be deceived. Therefore turn, your ears from 


them, all ye that be unlearned, when they endeavour to de* 
prave your faith with another Christ and means of salvation 
than you have heard before of. And bid them first shew 
their new-found faith to the elders and ministers of Christ's 
true church, and afterwards, if they allow the same as sound 
and pure, you will gladly hearken unto them, otherwise not ; 
for no person ought to take upon him the office of a doc- 
tor, except he be called thereunto by the ordinary allowance 
of the church of God, as St Paul testifieth, " How shall they Rom. x. 
preach except they be sent V Therefore Christ, in St Mark, Mark v. 
biddeth all persons take heed what they hear. There are 
innumerable sorts of heresies entered into the world, so that 
we may justly gather these to be the evil days that Christ 
spake of before, in the which, if it were possible, the very elect Matt - X!tiv - 
should be deceived. Be ye therefore strong in your faith, 
grounded upon the rock immovable, whatsoever storm come 
upon you or misty wind blow against you. Many inordinate 
persons of this time do run, whom the Lord hath not sent, 
as Jeremiah saith, and say the Lord saith thus and thus ; 3 <*- *»•*• 
whereas the Lord never spake any such thing as they of their 
fantastical brain do imagine, and through ignorance do mis- 
construe, to deceive others and themselves also. Therefore 
the Lord biddeth us not to hearken to their words. 

Prove these wandering and glittering spirits by this rule 
which I have told you, and then be you assured ye cannot 
be deceived, though there arise ten thousand more heresies 
than there be. It may trouble an inconstant mind to see so 
many at once ; but he that knoweth the devil's diligence to 
deface Christ's gospel, may not wonder thereat; for he knoweth 
his time is but short, and seeth the gospel so triumph through 
the death of faithful martyrs, that he is wood 1 thereat, and 
therefore worketh his uttermost, and trusteth to make some 
stout arrogant martyrs for the establishment and increase of 
his kingdom ; and under the name of Christ, as he hath had 
in times past, that the simple people might be brought in 
a mangering" of their faith, and stand in doubt whom they 

[* Wood: furious, from the Saxon }>ofean, to be mad.] 

Q 2 A mangering: perplexing, throwing their faith into confusion, 

is the probable meaning, from mang, a word of Celtic origin, meaning 

to stupify or confound. See Jamieson's Etymol. Diet.] 



might believe, that thereby he might more lightly seduce then 
into his snares. Behold, I have given you warning, that yt 
be not deceived by these wandering stars and empty clouds, 
which now-a-days are carried about with so uncertain winds 
that a man cannot tell where to find them, neither they them- 
selves know from whence they came, neither whither they would, 
They will enter into heaven by the window, and not by the 
door ; and therefore, like arrant thieves, shall be cast out. 

Beware of curiosity, my dear brethren and sisters; for she 
is an unsatiable beast, and the cause of much infidelity and 
wickedness. She is always desirous of alteration and to hear 
news, and cannot be permanent on one sure ground. Dina, 
Gen. xxxiv. as it is written in the Genesis, being full of curiosity and 
desirous to see the women of a strange country, was ravished 
and lost her virginity, and was the destruction of Sichem. 
2 Sam. xi. David was curious to behold the beauty of Bethzabe, and 
became thereby an adulterer and murderer; and was the cause 
[xxi™j °f many thousands 1 destruction by the curious numbering of 
his people. Therefore of experience he giveth good counsel, 
saying in the Psalms, " Turn away thine eyes that they see 
not vanity." Turn, I say, away from these heretics, shew not 
them a cheerful countenance, lest they receive an encourage- 
ment thereby to win thee unto them, and thou by curiosity be 
entangled through their hypocrisy and perverse talk. As many 
as abode in the ark of Noe were not drowned in the flood 
of Noe : even so as many as abide in the true church of 
Christ shall receive no hurt by all the blustering and corrupt 
waters which the dragon, that persecuteth the church into 
Rev. xii. wilderness, doth in the Apocalypse cast out after her, to the 
end to drown her therewith. You that stand in doubt of 
any thing by the suggestion of these new-found heretics, run 
to the pure catholic church of Christ for your sure instruc- 
tion, which (praised be God !) at this day doth gloriously 
appear and shine, spite of the gates of hell, in all Germany, 
and in the borders of France, at Geneva, and in the king- 
doms of Denmark and Pole, besides that which of late ye 
have seen in your own country, in England, now by the will 
of God under affliction and persecution, as well for our sins 
as for the trial of the people of God; for, as an ancient 
father, St Cyprian, saith, " He that hath not the church for 



his mother, hath not God for his father 1 ." We have but 
one mother, saith Solomon in his Ballets, and she coveteth Cant - vi - 
to father us under her wings, like a loving hen her chickens, 
and if we abide there, we are assured from all the ravening 
vermin of heretics ; and though there shall fall on every side 
of thee millions, yet shall they not approach near unto thee. 
But if after curiosity thou goest out astray, some kite or other 
will snatch thee up to the prince of the air, from whence 
thy fall will be great. If thou wilt be assured of the eternal 
kingdom of God, be stable in thy faith : flee from sects and 
heresies, and abide in the unity of Christ's spouse, his true 
church. Remember that in old time it was forbidden the 
people of God to marry with any foreign nation that was not of 
the house of Israel, in signification that the church of God 
should never join themselves with such as be of a strange re- 
ligion and of heretical opinions, contrary to the catholic faith. 
" Cursed is he (saith the [prophet] Hieremye) that doth the Jer. xiviii. 
work of the Lord negligently, and withdraweth his sword from 
blood." In the law he is commanded to be stoned that goeth 
about to turn us from the living Lord, and to move us to 
worship creatures for the Creator, and that the same should Deut - xili - 
cast the first stone at him whom he went about to pervert. 
And what do these Arians else go about, but will us to worship 
their new-found Christ, whom they affirm to be but a creature, 
in place of our true Christ, the eternal Son of God, our Creator, 
Redeemer and Governor, who is God to be praised and ho- 
noured, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, world without 
end ? The prophet saith in the Psalms, " There must be no [Psai. lxxxi. 
new God among God's people :" but if Christ should be, as 9 ' 
they say, but a made and appointed God of the Father, as 
princes of the earth be called gods, then should he be a new 
God, and by the word of God not to be taken to us for 
God, neither to be worshipped or called upon; for, as the pro- 
phet Jeremy testifieth, " Cursed is that person which putteth £ J , er - xvii - 
his confidence in man, and setteth flesh to be his strength." 
These wicked Arians are worse than the Jews, for they were 
offended with Christ, whom they took but for a creature, for 
saying he was the Son of God. But the Arians, blinder than 

[} Habere jam non potest Deum patrero, qui ecclesiam non habet 
matrem. Cyprian. Op. Par. 1726. Lib. de Unitate ecclpsiae, p. 195.] 


the Jews, taking him for God, would have him to be only a 
creature, like to themselves in all points, and not very God 
of God's substance. They make the Jews more righteous 
than Christ, and do justify them for crucifying of him; for 
the chief cause why they crucified him was, as it doth appear 
by St John, " because he made himself equal with God, 11 being 
but a man, as they took him to be only. What Christian's 
ears do not glow at this great impiety I Who, having any 
zeal of God, will not cry out, Ah devil ! ah Lucifer's brood ! 
ah marathans 1 , cursed of God until his coming? Wo be to 
thee, Arius, the father of this wicked progeny ! Wo be unto 
you, vile children and followers of his horrible impiety ! God 
of his mercy turn from you, such as of ignorance and sim- 
plicity be deceived ; but you that be arrogant and incurable 
in your blasphemy, the Lord for his glory sake, and for ex- 
ample to others to beware of such detestable impiety, con- 
sume you with fire from heaven, as he did Chore, Dathan, 
and Abiron ! Let the ground, O Lord, open, and let them 
go down alive into hell ! let them be put out of the book 
of life, and let them not be reckoned among the righteous: 
let them have the traitor Judas's reward, let them break 
asunder in the midst, and let their bowels gush out to their 
shame for ever : let their bowels 2 issue out behind, as Arius's 
bowels did, and let them die in their own dung with their 
father, and be abhorred of all the world for ever: let their 
portion be with Zodom and Gomor ; let their stinking smoke 
be done out never : let the just rejoice when they shall see 
the re -vengeance of the glory of Christ ; let them praise him, 
one God with the Father and the Holy Ghost, for ever and 
ever ! Amen. 

Q Marathans : the author probably meant accursed : " Maranathas," 
1 Cor. xvi. 22.] 

(j* This word is a substitution for that used by the author. The 
fact is recorded in Socrat. Eccl. Hist. Lib. i. c. 38.] 




Ah Oration of Ccelius, the second Curio, for the true and ancient 
authority of Christ his Church, against AntOny Florebell of Mutiny. 

In the which, reader, besides the excellent and secret places of 
divinity thou shalt find a comparison of all old hereticks almost with 
the papistry ; so that now thou mayest not stand in doubt it to be the 
same many-headed beast which is described in the Revelations of Saint 

Translated out of Latin into English by Ihon Philpott. 
[MS. Bibl. Reg. 17. C. ix. in Brit. MusQ 


QC(elio Secundo 1 Curione, or Curio, was bom at Turin in 1503, and 
received a liberal education at the university of that city. His father 
bequeathed him a beautifully written copy of the Bible ; which induced 
him to read that holy book with more than ordinary interest. In his 
twentieth year he had the writings of the Reformers put into his hands: 
he studied them with attention ; and became, in consequence, one of the 
great promoters of the Reformation in Italy. In the course of his travels 
he occupied himself for some time at the Priory of St Benigno, in 
endeavouring to enlighten the minds of the monks on religious points. 
He one day opened a box which lay on the altar of the chapel of the 
Priory ; and, having removed the relics therefrom, placed in the box 
a copy of the Bible, with the following inscription : " This is the ark 
of the covenant, which contains the genuine oracles of God, and the 
true relics of the saints." 

Suspicion falling on him as the author of this act, he fled to Milan ; 
and thence to Pavia and Venice. The divine blessing manifestly rested 
upon the exertions of Curio : he was hailed by many among whom he 
dwelt, as an enlightened teacher; and these same persons became his 
protectors from the anger of the Inquisition, which was hotly pursuing 

From Venice, the steps of Curio moved successively to Ferrara, to 
Lucca, to Lausanne, in Switzerland, where he was made Principal of 
the College ; and lastly to Basle, in 1547. Here he became Professor 
of Eloquence and the belles-lettres; a post which he retained until his 
death, which took place in 1569, at the age of sixty-seven.] 

[' Philpot's translation, " The second Curio," appears to be a mere oversight.] 






Philosophy, in the first book of Boetius, maketh her 
complaint unto him, that her beautiful garments wherewith 
she" was endued from the beginning be bereft and torn from her, 
and that by the feigned philosophers and Epicureans. Eight 
so in our time the evangelical philosophy hath appeared by 
God his gift unto us, most excellent prince, and hath piti- 
fully lamented that that purple raiment, I mean the verity of 
Christ's gospel sealed unto us with Christ his blood, which is John xix. 
without seam, and was wrought from above, hath been through 
Jewish hypocrites and other counterfeited Christians defaced, 
rented and casted lots upon, and that with dyfe 1 of advantage, 
which the devil the author of lies hath made a long season 
to run, to maintain his religion of hypocrisy. But forasmuch 
as an uncorrupt cause requireth an uncorrupt judge, and a 
just matter a just judgment, this evangelical philosophy could 
find a long time no redress against these her robbers and 
spoilers, and that by the corruptions and sin of man, where- 
with we of England by the just judgment of God were blinded, 
as well as other nations, through our offences. So that she 
was constrained by the multitude of troublesome waters, which Rev. xu. 
that red dragon poured out after her to overwhelm her and 
to destroy her, to flee into deserts and there to abide her 

[} Such appears to be the word in the MS.] 





time appointed by God, until he stirred up the just seed of 
David, I mean king Henry the eighth of most famous renown, 
whose memory (as I may use the prayer that was used for 
the dead in the old time) be blessed, which in his time called 
her out of wilderness, and set her in the right side of his 
regal throne ; whereby God prospered him in all his affairs, and 
crowned him with more glory and honour than any one that 
i chron. ever reigned in this realm before him : and like as David, pre- 
paring all things necessary to build the house of God, was 
letted by death, and the execution of that godly work he com- 
mitted to his son Salomon ; even so that noble king Henry, 
going about as much as he might for the malice of that time 
to restore this heavenly philosophy and lively food of our souls 
to her natural coat and dignity, was by the unsearchable des- 
tiny of God prevented by death, leaving unto his young and 
tender son, our lawful and sovereign king Edward the sixth, 
the accomplishment of this his former and godly intent, of 
the which God had constituted and appointed your grace to 
be the protector during his toward and virtuous nonage. In 
the beginning whereof your grace hath most justly and lau- 
Matt. vi. dably sought first of all the kingdom of God and the justice 
thereof, according to the rule of the gospel, and daily goeth 
about to restore the bridegroom unto his perfection, surely 
knowing by this doing that all other worldly business shall 
have thereby, through the infallible promise of God, a more 
happier success, whatsoever worldly policy, hell gates, and the 
devil do gabbe to the contrary. The which thing the roaring 
i Pet. v. j; on5 f w h om Peter maketh mention, perceiving (to whom 
Rev. xii. power upon the earth is given for the trial of God his elect) 
that your Grace with the nobility of this realm earnestly do 
mind, he exciteth other foreign princes with sword, fire, 
and worldly tyranny to constrain men to drink of the cup 
Rev. wii. f the whore of Babylon, wherewith she hath sotted and 
made drunk the most part of Christendom; and that under 


the pretence of religion, by renting, medlying, and racking 
the heavenly philosophy her garment thereto. And although 
heretofore the divelish hypocrisy hath been by the power of 
the verity vanquished and put to silence, both by reasoning, 
sermoning and writing, as it is by divers volumes plainly to 
be seen, whoso lust to compare the doctrine of the papists 
with the doctrine of Christ, so that these papists, like serpents, 
might be ashamed to hiss against the truth as they do daily : 
but, as the prophet Hierome writeth, they know not to be 
ashamed, and as Christ saith in John, " they cannot believe John xii. 
the truth, because that Esaias saith again, He hath blinded Isai - yi - 
their eyes, and hardened their hearts, that they should not 
see with their eyes, and understand with their hearts, and 
should be converted, and I should heal them ;" and the cause 
hereof John yieldeth in the beginning of his gospel, because 
they " loved darkness rather than light :" therefore, that such 
as be ignorant of the Latin tongue, might by due proof ma- 
nifestly see before their eyes, that the papists are justly by 
the word of God confounded, albeit through the right-wise 
judgment of God, for their obstinacy against the truth, they 
have ears and hear not, and eyes and see not, neither will 
understand to do that is right ; I have translated into our 
mother tongue this book intitled, " The defence of the old 
and ancient authority of Christ's church,' 1 written by one 
Coelius, an Italian, a man both of great learning and godly 
judgment, against Antony Florebell, a chieftan of the papists ; 
in the which all these interims, that is, all erroneous and 
incident opinions which have slidden by the subtlety of the 
devil and tyranny of men into the church, are bulted 1 out, 
and as chaff tried 2 from the corn. The which I do exhibit unto 
your noble grace, as unto one to whom, next unto God, of 

Q 1 Bulted, or, boulted : sifted.] 

E* Tried: separated. Such is the use of Kp'wta, to separate after 


■)2l TKA.V-r.ATIOX 01' CURIO. 

duty the praise hereof doth appertain, whom your grace his 
godly example and love towards the verity eucourageth as 
well me as others to labour in the Lord's vineyard, to help 
purge the same according to the talent as (.hid hath given me ; 
beseeching the Almighty Deity to grant your honourable 
grace strength of his power and might to aeeumphsn as ye 
have began, and long life to maintain the same. t>> the glon 
of God. and to the preservation and honour of this realm. 

So be it. 






QThc Latin original of this treatise is in the library of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, at Lambeth, where the editor compared it with the fol- 
lowing Translation. Its title is as follows : " C'u-lii Secundi Curionis, 
pro vera et antiqua Ecclesne ( 'hristi autoritate in Antonium Florebellum 
.Mutinensem, Oratio. In qua, lector, pncter Iii^itjncs et reeonditos Theo- 
logian locos, comparationem roperies omnium fere vcterum ILcretieorum 
cum Papatu: ut jam nihil dubites, eum multicipitem c"-se belhuun, r|me 
in Apocalypsi doscripta est." Baxilea'^ 

i i!ej,li;ve you, princes, to marvel what it meaneth, that 
whereas .so many high divines and notable learned men do 
flourish, I chiefly have taken upon me this matter, which 
neither by exercise, nor wit, nor authority, am to lie compared 
with them. .But if ye shall ponder them to follow (as I judge 
them) a certain perfecter trade and reason in the very proper 
kind of disputation than this ours is. ve will not marvel at all. 
For of late Florebell, an Italian, a man eloquent and learned, 
hath pleaded the cause of the Romish church, and hath set 
forth the same with a certain manner of style, which seemeth 
somewhat to dissent from the customable use of divines. For 
as peradventure he reasoneth with lesser subtlety and judgment 
than they are accustomed, even so with a certain plentiful- 
ness, copy 1 and eloquence in prose, he both defendeth the 
superstition of Rome, and accuseth our religion that [is] 
christian. Wherefore I have thought it nothing contrary 
to my manner and duty, if I an Italian should make answer 
unto this man of Italy, and take upon me the just defension 
against his unjust accusation, and to allege earnest probation 
for the true authority of the church against the feigned and 
false, Christ sitting and his apostles judging, which alone 
of this cause may be true and incorrupt judges. 

And albeit I am not able to bring like eloquence or learn- 
ing, yet, that in this cause is principal and chief, I can truly 
comfort myself with a sincere mind, and well affectionate to- 

Q Copy : copiousness : " copia," Lat7\ 



wards the cause of religion. For since that men have nothing 
more precious and profitable than true religion, it behoveth 
that not only to be known of all men and observed, but also 
to be set forth and defended ; for the true knowledge of God 
and sincere worship may not be peculiar, either to one family 
desirous of or P e0 p' e > or e ^ se sect of men; but whosoever be desirous 
ouStto 1 '^ °^ i mm ortality, they ought to think the same to appertain 
scriptures to them. The folk of the Jews verily might, by a certain 
'vorehrffof rig^' challenge unto them the outward jurisdiction, and the 
Go,i - family of Aaron the priesthood with other ceremonies: but 

the divine and inward circumcision, the lively and true sacri- 
fices, the everlasting laws of nature, which God, best of all 
creatures 1 and highest, from the beginning imprinted in the 
souls of men, which be approved by the judgments of all 
mortal men, neither Jews nor Greeks, neither Romans nor 
any other nation may arrogate to themselves to be as theirs 
peculiar. Neither they may say that truly, the which those 
men suppose, that the sum of our religion hath come to one 
singular person, as a man would say, by inheritance; so that 
after his own fantasy and pleasure he might interpret, add, 
take away, change, statute, and abrogate therein any thing. 
authority" Neither for that cause laws were given from God, nor religion 
ia» " 0oV!> manifested, to the end that men should have authority there- 
upon ; but that with all study, care, labour, and diligence, 
they should have it in reverence, and defend the dignity 
thereof. And as I may omit the Jews and other Gentiles, 
that did fix religion to consist in external things and outward 
christian worship, certes in this christian religion, which standeth alone 

religion i o ' 

iartii'aiKi'" m ^ a ^ 1 anc * arc * en t charity, which dissolveth the circumstances 
a f de " t and knots of all other religions, it is lawful for no man to 

chanty. o ' 

presume or go about any other jurisdiction than of those 
things which from God are appointed to us both to observe 
and maintain. The which things since that they be decreed 
by the authority of the Son of God, Master and Saviour of 
all men, Jesus Christ, and sealed up with his blood, and 
confirmed by his death; and of the Holy Ghost declared; by 
the voice of the apostles, throughout all the world divulgated 
and spread abroad ; and by them do remain faithfully written, 
by the which the holy catholic church of Christ even from 

Q 1 This must be understood as meaning "all beings;" or, better and 
higher than all creatures. Compare Coloss. i. 15.] 

curio's defence of chkist's church. #27 

the beginning is governed and ruled; it betideth no man to 
doubt of the authority and fidelity of thilk things, neither 
to despise them, nor to be ignorant of them. 

And the time hath been when I trowed it for me not only 
an impertinent thing, but also ungodly, neither to know or pro- 
nounce any point of our christian religion and philosophy : at 
that time, verily, when the power of a few usurped the common 
impery of religion, and held us out clean from the counsels, 
offices, privileges, and mysteries of it, as profane persons ; and 
bereft us clean of liberty either to handle, entreat, or else to 
know it. But after that it pleased God to store up some good 
men, which should be shields and protectors of the liberty at- 
tained by him, and with ancient writings alleged should teach 
that no degree of wights 2 , no folk, no condition of people, 
might be thrust back from the most sacred letters of our reli- The know- 
gion, and that nothing in them is so holy or privy, whose no- scripture 

. . . ° belongethto 

tice doth not belong to all men equally; then I began also to aiimen. 
take heart of grace to beseech God, to seek, and mark, until 
by the gift of God my mind was a little and little unlaced 
from the knots of this foolish, or more rather false religion; 
and committed himself into the plain fields of holy scripture, 
and received again the old liberty. There I was compassed 
with many and grievous perils: for with covetousness, with 
pride, with ungodliness, and certes with the seven-headed 
beast, I must eftsoons fight; against the which with the shield 
of faith, and with the sword of the Spirit, Jesus Christ, our 
king invincible, hath armed us, and made us victorious. There- 
fore, when my mind rested by little and little from many storms 
and dangers, I thought it not good to consume good time 
in sluggishness and idleness ; but as much as it was possible, 
and as much as for my business in instructing youth I might, 
to defend and illustrate the church of Christ and our religion. 
The which we have taken upon us, in this our defence of 
the church and the truth: the which, also, a great while before 
this we had accomplished, and surely with a quieter mind, 
in case 3 one sudden chance, as who would say a storm, had 
not interrupted me ; and that through the fault of them rather, 
which, when they might, if they would, turn away the same 

P No class of men.'] 

C 3 In case, &c. : unless one sudden chance had interrupted me.] 


from me before, had lever 1 to destroy me, that hath always 
been beneficial to them, than to save me. But now I intend 
to defend the holy religion and the church, and not to accuse 
any person ; because by defending, than by accusing, a great 
deal more glory is obtained. Which defence we have so 
much more willingly taken in hand, for that we perceive, 
by the slanderous oration of our adversary, the same to 
pertain unto your dignity. For algates 3 I am bodily sepa- 
rated from your jurisdiction, but in heart no distances of 
places, no chance, no perversity of men, shall abalienate me 
from your clemency and faithfulness. Wherefore I dedicate 
the same, O you noble princes, unto your name and goodness ; 
for it is right that such as in amplifying the religion of Christ, 
and in upholding the church, hath bestowed and do bestow so 
great cark 3 and labour, unto those also the sentences and 
arguments for religion ought to be ascribed 4 . For God, which 
is most best of all and mightiest, hath given you power to 
defend them, and also wisdom to understand them. There- 
fore, you most sage and strong princes, receive this defence 
of the church, after your accustomable humanity and courtesy, 
the which I trust shall be both profitable to the church, 
and at this time necessary and not unthankful 5 to you. But 
it is time that we take in hand our weapons defensives, and 
that, trusting upon the sincerity of our cause, we fight for 
the church, to the intent we may take our enemy, if it be 
possible; or if he will not yield himself, we may him, being 
overcome, cast down to the ground : for our contention is 
not of any frail or slipper matter, but of hope of the blissful 
life, of immortality, either to be obtained, or else for ever 
to be lost. Wherefore we will now contend for Christ's sake, 
both our guide and judge, whose cause is in communication. 

First of all, then, the total cause is to be shewn, and to 
be set before men's eyes, that it may be more easily per- 
ceived together, what it containeth and what thing is meet 
The division for us to follow. All this matter may be divided in three 
' parts. Whereof the first containeth the disputation, whereby 
our adversary goeth about to prove that the church is never 

Q 1 Rather : " perdere maluerunt," Lat.~] 

P Algates : for all that, although.] \J Cark : care.] 

Q 4 Ascribed : inscribed.] [ 5 Unthankful : unacceptable.] 

curio's defence of chrisms church. 329 

able to err or slide ; wherewith he willeth to conclude and 
to be brought to pass, that the same may establish what it 
will, and that the authority of her in all controversies of 
religion ought to be followed as well 8 as the word of God. 
The second part sheweth in what points Luther and others, 
which follow the self doctrine of the word of God, dissenteth 
with the Romish church, and thilk things he affirmeth to be 
false and to be rejected. The third part, verily, pertaineth to 
Luther's person, and to others, whom our adversary goeth about 
to bring in contempt, envy, and hatred. These things in this 
matter be to be regarded, in disproving of the which we will 
ensue the order of our adversary, and in manner his steps. 

Principally, he beginneth his matter in defining what the- 
church is; and afterwards he declareth the force and na- 
ture of faith, and so incontinent 7 he slideth down to the 
question of the authority of the church. But it shall be 
requisite that we describe those definitions, to the end they 
might the better be looked upon and considered. Therefore 
he defineth the church in this wise : that the church is the No true de- 

p , . . ™ . , , finition of 

university ot men worshipping Christ, keeping concord, spread the church. 

throughout the whole world, with continual succession. But 

faith he defineth after this sort : Faith is a constant and sure what faith 


consenting of the mind unto all such things that from God 
were opened and delivered to men for their souls' 1 health. 

In his definition of the church there be two things put, 
in the which an ignorant reader might be deceived. For 
that he saith " keeping concord," I do suppose it thus to be 
understanded, that such as be in the church do agree upon 
christian doctrine. But if thou shalt appoint to me any other 
sort of people, which neither sincerely teacheth the word of 
God, nor righteously useth the sacraments, albeit that same 
be in great power and authority among men, and with this 
multitude thou wouldest all other to consent, neither (under 
the colour of concord to be kept) thou permittest any person 
to disagree from it; this thing shall never be granted to thee : 
for how may it be that betwixt the false and the true church 
there may consist any peace or unity I What concord, either 

E s By "as well" is here meant as fully, as decisively: "quasi," Lat.~J 
Q 7 Incontinent: from the Latin 'incontinenter/ immediately: but 
the word is not in the original."] 



what atonement 1 (as very well speaketh Paul), is there betwixt 
light and darkness, betwixt Christ and Belial, betwixt the 
faithful and unfaithful I or how doth the temple of God agree 
with images ? There is also in that definition one other word 
to be expounded by some distinction, where he saith, the 
church to "continue in succession:" for the church of Christ 
is not perpetual by succession of certain bishops in certain 
places, that a pope may succeed a pope, and a bishop a bishop, 
after a civil fashion, the which in empires and realms is often- 
times accustomed to be done ; thilk thing we perceive our 
adversary to mind 2 throughout all his disputation ; but it is 
so to be understanded, that the church is continual in suc- 
cession, for because the church never faileth, in whatsoever 
places at length God willeth it to be, and of whatsoever per- 
sons to be governed, by the ministry of his word and doctrine : 
and like as one age succeedeth another, nor the world is 
at any time without men, as long as he that created him 
willeth it to be ; sembably the church of God with such suc- 
cession is continual. Wherefore most aptly and without 
any doubtful word, which specially in defining a thing is 
culpable, the beautiful nature and disposition of the church 
finiSonof might by definition in this wise be expounded. The church 
is a certain congregation of men, meddled 3 eftsoons with good 
and evil, in the universal doctrine of Christ openly agreeing, 
and using his sacraments righteously. In this definition there 
is nothing wanting or abounding, nothing doubtfully put, 
neither excludeth hypocrites, either unclean persons, which 
to God alone be known, so that they do not deny the true 
doctrine, and pass over their life quietly. 

But the definition of faith hath nothing, after my judg- 
ment, that ought be to reproved, if Ave do understand thilk 
assent of mind to consist by the gift and influence of the 
Holy Ghost. Certes, such things as after that he speaketh, 
of the beginning of the catholic church, of his principles and 
progressions, that he afnrmeth of the same bishops and pas- 
tors in every region or town to have been ordained, that 
he confesseth Jesus Christ to be the head of his church, 

Q l Atonement : at-oncment, agreement.]] 

Q s Thilk thing, &c. the thing we perceive our adversary to mean, &c J 

£ 3 Meddled: mingled.] 

the church. 



those things we do wholly allow and highly commend. And 
would to God, Florebell, thou didst persist in those same, 
and wouldest uphold thilk things that depend of these and 
which do ensue ; for by that means it might well be provided 
for thy soul's health: for out of these former things this 
followeth, that all the residue of thy oration is false, as re- 
pugnant unto these thine premisses, and swerveth very far 
from thy foundation well laid. But I fear lest, as Sinon, sinon - 
of whom Virgil maketh mention, that he spake certain true 
things of Palamedes and Ulysses in the beginning of his 
oration which he made to the Trojans, to the intent that 
he might have credence 4 in the rest, which were not true; 
even so thou hast proposed these things, that we should be- 
lieve all the other to be like and derived from these founda- 
tions. But if thou wilt be Sinon, we will not be Trojans; 
for they gave more affiance to Sinon a Grecian, that is, their 
enemy, than unto their soothsayer Cassander 5 , than to their 
bishop. But we credit the prophets of God and our bishop 
Christ, which earnestly warn us that we beware of you; 
wherefore you cannot deceive us now: and we will bring it 
to pass through Christ, our captain and lodisman 6 , that you 
may not lead other to error. 

But peradventure thou requirest what doth follow out 
of those principles: I will tell thee. First, if the church 
was grounded by Christ and his doctrine (as I may speak 
nothing of the old church of the Jews), tins then followeth 
to be false, that ye say the pope, either a council, or else 
the church self, to be of more authority than the gospel. 
Moreover, if it had so great augmentation from those begin- 
nings, that within fifty years almost it spread over all the The gospel 
world, and that without your decrees, without the authority yearespread 
of the pope, without any man's document ; what meaneth it world with- 
that with so high presumption ye go about by violence to or man's 
persuade these your trifles, as a man would say, to be 
necessary for salvation, through which inventions the church 
a little and a little began to decay and to be turned from 
Christ, until at length scarcely any token did appear of that 

£* Talibus insidiis perjurique arte Sinonis 

Credita res. Virg. Mn. Lib. ii. 195.] 
[ 5 " Cassandra," Lat.~\ Q 6 Lodisman: pilot: "auspice/' Lat.J 



former church ? Is not this true I Dare ye deny that verv 
wemen 1 perceive? Finally, if of this one church Christ is 
alone the head, the which already thou hast granted, and if 
Saiyai'e Christ liveth ; neither the lively head can be absent from his 
Self. 1113 body; and if he be present, because his presence is not vain, 
also he doth care, rule and govern it : it followeth then, that 
the bishop of Rome is not head of the church, nor any other 
person (I do except always the civil magistrate) to be sought 
as head or prince of the church. Dost thou see what ensueth 
these thy principles ? and now all thy argumentation to fail ? 

But let us permit this to thee, that other things also may 
be pondered. These things, as I have said, set apart, Florebell 
cometh to that sort which he intendeth to fortify and defend, 
for because that no fortress can seem to be found more 
stronger for all points. Verily, this is his chief fort or tower, 
The Authority of the Church ; but the rampyring and forti- 
fying thereof is, That the church may by no means err. But 
How the lest we may be deceived, here of the church we must make 

church may ... . . . - 

err or not a distinction, that we may understand how it may be said 

that it may err, either not err. J will not repeat thilk things, 

that he hath discussed of the signification of the word: I 

will only bring in the true and apt distribution of the church. 

ofnien S in ts Therefore, the universal church which dwelleth upon the 

universal 1 earth may be divided into three sorts or kinds. So that 

the one kind be of those whom the scripture calls the elects, 

that be always predestinate to everlasting life : this is thilk 

only spouse of Christ, which he hath cleansed for himself: 

wherefore it is said to be without wrinkle or spot. Unto 

this also there is one other adversary and contrary, whom 

men clepe 2 the church, of the reproved rout ; of all such, which 

with Christ and his saints bear a continual hatred: for like 

ismaei. as Ismael which was born of a handmaid persecuted him that 

[Gai. iv. 29.] was the son of the free woman and matron of the house, 

named Isaac, unto whom alone those goodly behests did 

appertain ; semblably even now the false church vexeth the 

true, and by thousands 3 means doeth it to anguish. But as 

the first was created to attain the blissful life, so is the other 

destinate to eternal punishments. Betwixt, these two kinds 

[} Wemen: women.] Q 2 Clepe: call.] 

Q 3 A thousand : " mille modis affligit," Lat7\ 


iere is a third intermeddled; or rather, out of these two : 
>rts is become the third church mixed of either kind, which 
msisteth of good and shrews, of elects and damnable persons, 
his is for to declare a manifest and clear partition of the 
mrch. The definition of our adversary, wherewith he de- 
fiteth the church, containeth the first kind only; but mine 
rniprehendeth the last. Whereby it is evident, that Flore- 
;11 hath taken a contrary definition from his disputation 
id purpose, when he afterward do confess himself to speak 
' this third kind : for where he saith in his definition, that 
le church is a congregation of men worshipping God in a 
ght faith, it is plain that the church now comprehendeth 
le definition of the elects ; for none beside the elects may 
orship and reverence Christ with a right, that is with a 
ue and justifying, faith. 
WEen then it is demanded, whether the church may err, whether the 

., . .. ,, ,,. , „ church may 

est we ought to consider what here by this word " to err err. 
ay be understanded : furthermore, what church may err, and 
hat may not err. Therefore " to err" in this place doth not 
mply signify to sin, as he sinneth which stealeth away other 
ien ? s, goods, which slayeth a man, or committeth any like 
slony contrary to God's laws. But " to err" in this place is to what it is 
osake faith; not to retain the true worship of God; not to 
)llow the word of God in judgment of matters of religion ; 
> judge by man's decrees, and not by the divine scriptures; 
rid to measure all things at the beck and will of him which 
i the church occupieth the mightiest place. Certes I say, this 
i in this question "to err;" for so Paul thinketh, when he 
iith certain to have erred from the faith, that is to say, p Tim. a. 
■om the religion of Christ, which once they had received ; 18,] 
3 also they did, whom Christ his self testifieth to believe for 
time. Certes, those as be such hath believed by the per- 
jasion of men, and not by the inspiration and instigation of 
le Holy Ghost. Wherefore they never had the faith and 
le spirit of the faithful; which if they had attained, they 
ad never lost it to destruction and damnation. 

By these then, I trow, now it is plain, which church either: 

my or may not err ; for that second church, and always 

ilse, 4 of the reproved sort continually erreth, nor at any time 

ldgeth right wisely of God, of Christ, and of his doctrine 

[ 4 "Omnino falsa," £«<.] 



and religion ; and yet he coveteth to be seen ofttimes to 
have a good judgment, and to be able to teach others. 
Of truth, the first church, which we have said to be of the 
elects, may err truly, but not continually; and that Christ 
his self witnesseth. For when he did prognosticate that 
there should come some which should shew themselves to 
be Christ, and false prophets with miracles and signs; (the 
which thing in the papistical church hath been done, where 
the pope hath challenged to himself the power of Christ 
and authority; where we heard every where so many mira- 
cles made of idols, by the working of the devil;) when, I 
say, he prophesied all these things to come, he added thereto 
this : "So that the very elects also (if it were possible) 
might be brought into error." From whence it is manifest 
enough, that the elects cannot continually err; for so thilk 
words of Christ be to be understanded : for as the wicked 
believe for a season, likewise those elects, because they be 
men, may be deceived, deluded, err, and slide for a time, 
specially when they swerve never so little a space from the 
course of that learning which they have received of Christ. 
But it is nedely 1 always there be some that err not, that 
stedfastly retain the true doctrine, the true faith, and the true 
invocation of God, that the wandering sheep of God, by 
the voice and calling of them, as it were by their herdsman 
Christ, might be reduced to the flock and sheepfold again. 
Therefore where we say, that the holy church of the elects 
How it is may err, that is thus to be conferred, that it is possible some 
elects part of the church for a time to be deceived, when for all 
that, in the mean season, at all times they have a zeal of 
the truth and of true religion and continual fear of God, 
The fear of which is the salt, and mark, and keeper of the elects, yea, 
keeper of very then 2 when they err ; and also when they plunge into 
any vice or sin. So then through these, I trow, may be 
gathered, that the church of the elects may wander in error, 
because some part thereof doth err ; and again, that it may 
not err, in consideration that God reserveth certain unto 
himself, which may not be led in error. If that those at 
any time, then and then 3 , be deceived ; nathless 4 certain other 

[} It is nedely, &c. : there must necessarily.] 

\y Very then : even then.] [ 3 " Vicissim/' Lat.~] 

P Nathless: nevertheless.] 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 335 

do persist in the pure worship of God and sincere religion, 

both constant and firm ; in this wise the church is said always 

to consist truly, and that it cannot err at any time. The 

which if once it should fail, so that there should be none at all 

upon the earth, God would not suffer this beautiful university 

of things to be, which was created for the children's sake 

of God and his elects, but would dissolve the elements : for 

because of the elects the world was made; for the elects' eiects'W 

sake Christ came into the world ; for the love of the elects ^t^*' 1 

the days shall be adbreviate and made short ; for respect of 

the elects the world shall be destroyed. 

But let us come unto that third church, whereof is all 
the controversy. That same, that same, Florebell crieth out, 
may not err; and that this hath equal authority with the 
gospel, and that it hath power to make new laws, rites, 
sacraments, and ceremonies, without the which we cannot 
be saved. Wherefore of that same let us speak a little, 
before we pass unto the arguments of our adversary. It is 
clear among all men, that this church, as touching the out- 
ward administration and worship, doth consist together of 
good and evil. Already before we have said, that both 
these may err. Albeit that I say 'may,' I would it not 
to be taken in the reproved sort so ; as though they might The re r 

1 ° •> ° proved can- 

not err, which cannot choose but err. But we speak in P ot ch °ose 

r but err. 

such manner as our speech may be applied to the question 
proposed. If that they both may err, why is it that Florebell 
with so open a mouth crieth, that this same church may 
never fall into error ? But when these folk denieth this church 
to err, they understand such as be rulers, popes, bishops, 
councils : as who would say, it is more difficile for a ruler 
to err than the people ; or else that it is not more lighter 5 
for him to slide and fall which is in a high and slippery 
place, than he that standeth upon a plain and easy ground ; 
either at length, as a man would say, such as bear rule 
be no men. And yet eftsoons they be so hauwtiff e with power, 
riches, and unpunishment, insomuch that they do not re- 
member themselves to be men, but would be seen to be 
certain gods, to whom all things might be lawful, which 
misuseth men as beasts. For from whence errors ? from 
[ 5 Lighter: easier.] Q B Hauwtiff: haughty.] 



whence vices ? from whence corruptions have crepen into the 
people, but from such, which when they ought to govern 
others in the true worship of God, in sincere doctrine, faith, 
charity, and pureness of living, they replenish all things with 
. superstition, ignorance, misbelief, cruelty, and naughtiness, 
and draw the miserable people to follow them ? What should 
the people else do ? they look up upon them, from an inferior 
place, as gods : whatsoever they shall do, say, or will, not pon- 
dering what manner of thing it is, but because it is done by 
them, they reckon it commendable. Do there want examples 
of these things ? Certes, there be more than may be remem- 
bered, more often in use than may be observed, more evident 
than it may seem possible to declare with tongue. 

But let us return unto that church in the which such 
as bear rule cannot err. First, I ask whether they be men 
or no ? If they be men, as they be indeed, then they may 
err, and shamefully be deceived. Moreover, again I demand, 
sith that they be chosen out of the number of men, and 
from that fish-pot or net in the which both good and naughty 
fishes be contained, of what sort would they these half gods 
to be? for it is not to be doubted in any wise but out of 
both sorts they may be taken : for those damnable and re- 
proved persons, seeking their own advantages, ofttimes appeal* 
better than the other ; and the good men, because they do 
not regard thilk things, they apply not themselves thereto, 
they get nought, they covet nothing, they seek after nothing, 
bearing themselves assayed 1 with their own stock and con- 
dition. Therefore if it happen the greater part, or else 
specially thilk part unto whom all things be referred, to 
be of shrews; those if any man say cannot err, he may 
seem to all men to be mad, since that they cannot choose 
but err : and if they be of the other sort, we have already 
above shewn that those for a time may be entangled with 

Aaron erred, error. Did not Aaron the high priest err, when he set before 
the Israelites a golden calf to be worshipped ? Whether hath 

Peter erred, not Peter the apostle erred, when he was reproved of Paul? 

[Gai. ii. 11.] Why shall I make mention of the troublesome time of Eh, 
Jeremy, Simeon, and Christ ? AVhy of the unhappy age of 

P Assayed with their own stock: contented with their lot: "sua 
sorte contenti," Lat7\ 

curio's defence of chhist's church. 337 

Arius? in the which none had less wit, none waxed more 
mad, none were infected with greater errors, than the sovereign 
priests, than the doctors, than the ministers. Let histories be 
sought, let old records be read over, and then both great 
ensamples and also many more shall be found than I can 
remember. But Florebell denieth that the church doth err. 
By what reasons led ? Because, quoth he, it is an unfitting 
thing for the clemency of God, if any man believe that he 
hath neglected the salvation of so great multitude of men, 
as by these thousand years hath been. What if that multi- 
tude of men were not the true church, but the false ; not 
friend to Christ, but contrary ; not of his elects, but of the 
rejects? What if by his divine purpose it was behoveful 
that same multitude to perish, such as were his notwith- 
standing being saved, which lay hidden among them ? What 
if he have not regard 2 them? whether for that will Florebell 
accuse God of unnatural goodness, either inconstancy, or 
else injustice ? Were not the churches founded and instituted Egypt, An- 
at Egypt, Antioch, and Ephesus, being cities of Asia, of Epnesus 
the apostles ? Those same nevertheless, deceived by Mahomet, tians > an <i 

L J now Maho- 

have gone from the true religion of Christ. What shall I me.tans in 
say of Arabia, which so many years heard the godly voice 
and preachings of Paul? But yet that same not long after ^o^T 03 
received so Mahomet, thilk false prophet and precursor of 
antichrist, and in such wise gave ear to him, that at this 
present day also it followeth his only dreams, errors and lies. 
Why then is it marvel, if as Mahomet hath possessed the 
orient and the west, semblably the pope hath drawn the whole 
Occident, and some part of the north, from the most holiest 
religion of Christ, from the institutions of the apostles, which 
are contained in the divine scriptures, unto his pestiferous 
decrees and laws, and that under the pretence of christian and 
apostolical religion? Whether shall we say Christ to have 
altered his purpose? whether without a cause to have for- 
saken suddenly and despised those whom he had delivered from 
so huge superstitions? I trow, not; if we will speak and judge 
of God godly, holily, religiously, as it is meet: but rather 
that he hath complished his eternal counsels, and brought to 
effect and end the foresayings of his prophets. St Paul saith, 
Q* Not regard: not regarded: "neglexit," Lat7\ 





" Let no man deceive you; that day shall not come except a de- 
parting come first, and that wicked man be brought to light : I 
mean that adversary which is extolled above God, and above all 
that is worshipped, insomuch as he sitteth in the temple of God, 
shewing himself to be God." Which dite 1 Paul seemeth to 
have taken out of the prophecies of Daniel; for with him both 
these and many more be read of thilk wicked wight. In 
whom sothly 2 might these be better applied, than in thilk 
same pope? Is not he cleped God upon the earth? Is not 
he reverenced as God? Whether hath not he ordained by 
decree, that kings reverently do fall down before him and 
kiss his foot? the which thing we never read Mahomet to 
have done, — lest peradventure any body may suppose that these 
be forespoken of him. Certes be not these causes evident 
enough, that in the testament of God they hath not stand 3 ; 

[Jer. ii. 13.] as Jeremias witnesseth that they have forsaken God, the lively 
well? that they have despised the amiable verity, that they 

2 Pet. ii. have wandered, leaving the right way, and followed the way 
of Bileam, which loved the unrightwise meed 4 ; that by them 
the way of truth is slandered? — which through avarice with 
feigned words, in the temple of God, in the christian folk, 
and in that same church of the souls, they exercise and make 
a wicked and vicious market: which also reject the Lord 
that hath redeemed them, while they have imagined, taught, 
confirmed, and do confirm other ways of salvation beside him 
that is " the way, the truth, and the life 1 ' particular and alone : 
which although they confess Christ by mouth only, yet in 
their doings they deny him. Whether be not these sufficient 
causes enough, by the which God moved, he hath struck 
them, with a long blindness ? May there any other grievouser 
be looked for, that like as Africke bringeth forth some new 
monster always (as it is reported), so they might induce to 
light new monstrous vices and errors? 

But in good sooth these be the causes which as well the 
prophets of God, as the apostles of Jesu Christ, do record of. 

P Dite : saying ; probably from Latin dictum : " locum," Lat-2 
Q 2 Sothly: truly; from the Saxon 'sothe', truth.] 
P They have not been stedfast in God's covenant.] 
E 4 The unrightwise meed: the reward, or, "wages of unrighteous- 
ness. J 

curio's defence op cubist's church. 339 

Paul verily maketh an end of that place I rehearsed before, in 
this wise speaking of antichrist : " Do ye not remember that, J?™*? 8 -" - 
when I was as yet present with you, I said these things to you ? 
And now what withholdeth, ye know, that he may be revealed 
in his time ; for now he goeth about to blow up the mystery 
of iniquity, until he be taken from the midst of you, which 
now doth let : and then shall appear thilk wicked man, whom 
the Lord with the spirit of his mouth shall destroy, and with 
the light and brightness of his coming shall confound. But 
the coming of that wicked and pestiferous person is appa- 
railed by the instigation and working of the devil, with all 
power, signs, and deceivable miracles, and with all treachery 
of injustice unto such as perish, for that they embraced not 
the truth, which is ta be loved, that they might be saved. 
Therefore God shall send to them an illusion of very great ™i^ t at 
force, so that they may credit lies and incur calamity, all the verity 
such as hath not yielded to the verity, but hath allowed un- -JoiitJy. 
rightwiseness and falsehood." These things then and sembla- 
ble when they come to pass, God his self is not changed, 
(as thou trowest, Florebell), which seeth all these before ; but 
thilk wretched men be changed. The which when we say 
to have been done, or to he doing, we turn not God him- 
self,, and feign him to be another person ; of a just unjust, 
of constant wavering, of benign cruel ; as thou falsely ob- 
jectest : but otherwise and 5 ye suppose, in all these things 
we do confess him to be highly just, and most constant, and 
most bountiful, neither that he neglecteth the salvation of 
his chureh at any time, nor to alter daily his purposes ; that 
he which is sovereign God envieth no wight. Hereto, in a 
clear voice with the whole scripture we assent. And whether 
God loveth that one more than that other, the which thou 
deniest, the holy scriptures of both testaments do affirm. 
Whether loveth not God all that be right in heart, and con- 
trariwise hateth all workers of iniquity \ Is it not written in [Mai- '• % s. 

-it li* • i i t> < t. •» Rom. ix. 13 

Malachi, recited by Paul, God himself thus to have spoken, -is.] 
" I have loved Jacob, but I hate Esau"" I " What then shall 
we say V Paul inferreth : " whether shall we accuse God of un- 
righteousness ? No : for I will be merciful (saith he to Moses) 
upon whomsoever I take mercy, and I will shew pity upon 

[ 5 And : than.] 




whom I do extend pity r" as who would say, there is no cause 
why thou mayest accuse me ; for whatsoever pleaseth me, that 
cannot be dissevered from justice, sith that I am sovereign 
just. And therefore Paul reprehendeth, a little after, man's 
temerity, which dare speak in that wise ; for verily so it is, 
that God turneth all things by his beck and will. " Why then 
doth he complain? Why accuseth he and reproveth folk?" 
But what answereth hereto Paul ? " man, what art thou 
that reasonest thus against God ? Whether shall the pot say 
to the pot-maker, Why hast thou made me after this fashion ? 
Hath not the pot-maker power to form out of that same 
clam of earth that one vessel for an honourable use, and that 
other for contemptuous and vilenous V 

Thus speaketh Paul, which sith they be clear and open, let 
us proceed unto another treate 1 of FlorebelFs. "What is it," 
quoth he, "why, sith that we ought to believe the gospels with- 
out any doubt, egall 2 credence might not be taken to the church?" 
This, after he hath put forth, he assayeth to establish by cer- 
tain arguments, which I will recite in order, to the end that, if 
any thing be naught in them, it may be reproved and refelled. 
First, in many words he saith this, that I in few will expound. 
For if thou demand of him for what cause in the same place, 
or else in like authority, the church is to be esteemed, in the 
which the gospel is deemed ; he answereth, " because from 
the church we have received the gospel, where Christ his 
decided se ^ ^ nothing at all in writing." What sayest thou, Flore- 
ttiechurch be\\ ? for that from the church we have received the gospel, 
the"ospei sa y es t thou her to be of equal authority with the gospel? 
eitiier'the' But tell me, I pray thee, that we may the sooner come to 
fhedm/ch. tne c ^ief point of our question. Of whom received the church 
the gospel? Whether not of the apostles and the Lord's 
disciples? But were not they that same church, or else the 
better part of the church? That cannot be denied. Then 
again I will ask, from whence thilk church of the apostles 
and disciples received it? I know thou wilt not again go 3 , 
that thilk have received it from the heavenly Master Jesus 
Christ. Then we have not received the gospel from the church, 
but from Jesus Christ the Son of God : so that we believe the 

I 1 Treate : point treated o/.] [ 3 Egall : equal.] 

Q 3 Again go : go against, contradict.] 

A common 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 341 

gospel, not for the church, but for Christ's sake we do it ; which, 
sith he is God and the self verity, he may lie by no means. 

" But Christ," quoth he, " wrawght 4 not the gospels, ^f*^ 
neither commanded they should be written of others." That °^ g bl ^^ s 
hath chanced to Florebell in a naughty and trifling accu- b £ written. 
sation, that same happeneth to me in a very good cause : 
he did not find how he might confirm a counterfeited 
matter ; I cannot find by what reason I might disannul 
and confute things of so small importance. Christ (quoth 
he) hath written nothing, for he hath indited his precepts 
and ordinances in the souls of men (as it was prophesied [Jer. xxxi. 
before of Jeremiah), and hath not graven them in books or 
tables. I hear thee well ; but this signifieth nothing else, than 
that Christ is minister of the Spirit, who being author, such 
as bejong to his kingdom believeth his doctrine, whether it 
be by the word or writing delivered. Therefore with his own 
finger, that is, with his Spirit and virtue, Christ writeth in 
the hearts of men, as often as he causeth that they give 
credence to his words. But what maketh this to the pur- 
pose ? Whether for that be those things of less verity, which 
have been written of the evangelists and apostles ? Have not 
both kings and senators and other princes servants that be 
their secretaries, by whose industry and 5 private and public 
matters be put in writing ? Semblably Christ, King of kings 
and Prince of all princes, hath had most faithful and most 
holiest scribes, that hath written all things very sincerely and 
clearly, which should be necessary for our salvation. 

But Florebell will say, that Christ commanded not that 
those should be written, but that in preaching and teaching 
should be published throughout the whole world : whereby he 
willeth to be concluded, that the authority of the church in 
teaching and preaching is equal with the gospel. Certes these 
sayings seem to our adversaries marvellous : but if any man 
will behold them a little nigher, he shall find them not only 
void of all reason, but also ungodly. For, first of all, they 
do not take heed ; or else, if they take heed, they be guilty 
of sacrilege, which they may purge with no Ave Maria. 
Sith that they deny that Christ commanded his doctrine to 
be written, they do accuse the most holy disciples of the 

C 4 Wrawght : wrote.] [ 5 And : both : " et privata et publica," Lat.~] 


Lord highly of impiety ; for if they did otherwise than Christ 
bid them, (which must needs be, if they being only com- 
manded to teach by mouth, have taught also by writings,) 
then they have not been neither faithful ambassadors, nor 
, disciples of their Lord and Master, but caitiffs, and disobe- 
dient, and to be accused of treason and sacrilege. Soothly 
saith that high Master, " Ye shall be my disciples, if ye shall 
do thilk things I command you." Oertes, that the Lord com- 
manded them for to write, yea by that it may well be proved, 
that they have written ; the which thing they had in no wise 
done, in case the Lord had not bid them ; albeit of that 
commandment there were no thing recorded in writing. But 
whether commanded he not them to write, when he bid them 
Matt.xxviu. to teach % " Teach ye (he saith) all people ;" and a little after, 
" Teach them to observe all things I have commanded you." 
He teacheth, which either by mouth or writing setteth forth 
any doctrine ; for word of teaching containeth all manner of 
learning to be shewn ; yea, children in the grammar schools 
know it. For as speech is the interpreter of the mind, so 
be writings the interpreters of speech, as right hath taught 
Aristotle. For he that bid teach, thilk same also commanded 
to write : for in teaching, that is, in writing, to teach is 
included. And that is hereby more probable, because the 
apostles could not go to all nations, and by mouth instruct 
them. Why is it in the Apocalypse, the Lord his self now 
endued with immortality, and set at the right hand of the 
Father, bid John, the apostle and evangelist, to write and 
put in records the doctrine of all times, and that appertain- 
eth unto all churches ? " I am, 11 quoth he, " Alpha and Omega, 
first and last. That thou seest write, and send to the seven 
churches which be in Asia." For he that bid this man for 
to write, also commanded his other fellows of the same num- 
ber ; lest, when they should depart from hence, of the church 
(as a man would say) the rule might want 1 : by the which 
both spirits and strange doctrines clearly should be judged, 
whether they did accord with that same divine line and rule. 
If that these holy books by and by after Christ his ascen- 
sion into heaven were not written, verily it was not need- 
ful, sith as yet there were no churches constituted, beside 

t 1 A rule might be wanting to the church.] 

curio's defence of obbist's church. 343 

that which heard the voice both of Christ and his disciples ; 
and the questions of religion might be referred unto the 
apostles, as unto the lively law of the Lord : but such things as 
afterwards were prescribed, those were not alone committed to 
them, that at thilk season lived, but unto all their posterity. 

But for what purpose is this added of Florebell, when 
he saith, that certes neither by the common counsel and as- 
sent of the apostles these holy books were written and made I 
Whether requireth Florebell man's counsel and authority in 
setting forth the celestial doctrine ? Doth he require the con- 
sent and judgment of any general council ? Doth he not think 
the counsel and divine sentence of Jesus Christ to be suffi- 
cient? — for upon that all the Lord's apostles and disciples did 
agree; and the Holy Ghost made all them fellows and as- 
sociates of one counsel : this they had before their eyes ; they 
judged one manner of thing. Whether knoweth not Florebell 
that which was written of a famous apostle? For he saith, 
" Not by the will of man whilom 2 the gift of prophecy was 2 Pet. i. 
brought forth, but through the inspiration of the Holy Ghost 
holy men spake of God." Therefore the counsel of the apostles 
was one ; their mind and sentence was all one ; albeit divers 
of litem have written and taught in divers times and places. 
What's that same may be said of their preaching 3 , which our 
adversary speaketh of the writings of the apostles: for of 
truth we read it not in any place, that with one common 
counsel and assent they have preached. If that for this cause 
their books have less authority, verily their preaching shall 
in no better stead be accounted. But, as I have said, those 
things were sufficiently done with one general assent, the 
which they did being inspired with one self Spirit. 

Over 4 this, we deny not, that men ought to attribute so 
much faith and authority to the church, as to any other man 
bringing the gospel of Christ, how much we give to writings 
and letters signed by the same gospel. For what skilleth 5 it 
me, if that which by word is taught, or else again be written, 

[ 2 Whilom: "in old time."] 

[ 3 What is it ? that same may be said, &c. : "quid ? quod idem de 
pnedicatione dici posset, &c," Lot.] 
Q 4 Over this : beside this.] 
[_* What skilleth it: what matter is it to me.] 



be one thing in all points with that, which in times past was 

openly preached and now registered in books? But we deny 

that it may be brought to thilk purpose, other than by those 

arguments [thou] hast respect 1 ; for thou wouldest by this that 

the church for a certain time were without books, the gospels 

(as thou sayest) being openly set forth ; that it hath so much 

Srth C n"ne h authority, that it may as well as the gospel establish certain 

estabTsh t0 other things, among those which be needful unto salvation. 

cessfry"^ But it is not so. For neither the apostles nor the church 

belwe the (when as yet there were no books made) taught either or- 

scnpture. Gained any thing else, than afterward within a while was put 

in writing. The which may be evident and open by the most 

holiest history of Luke, in the which he describeth the acts 

and certain sermons of the apostles. Wherefore if, when as 

yet no books were published, the church did enact or teach 

nought concerning our salvation, than that afterward was 

written by the same ; neither then, the books being set forth, 

any assent of the church may either prescribe or teach any 

thing, as though it were necessary unto salvation. But if 

the church will be reckoned christian and apostolical, it be- 

tideth that both it ensue the steps and doctrine of Christ and 

his apostles, neither that it decline unto the right or left hand. 

Otherwise it is not the church of Christ or spouse, but the 

congregation of antichrist, and to be called the whore of the 

The^ospei devil ; for the gospel hath not his being out of the church, but 

being of the the church out of the gospel : for the word of God was before 

church, but ° r 

of th Church man ' an< ^ ^ the word all things were created, and by that 
sospei. same word repaired, by the which also they be governed. 

I come now unto that other argument, whereby (as it 
seemeth) Florebell would confirm thilk high authority of the 
church to be equal with the gospel, or rather greater. Sith 
of wicked persons (quoth he) the gospel might have been 
corrupted, we cannot be assured by another guises 2 , that it 
is not defouled, than by the testimony and authority of the 
church. Here first we deny, that the gospel, or else any 
part of scripture, may be corrupted : moreover, that they have 

[ J But we deny that it is possible to arrive at that conclusion to 
which, by arguments of that sort, you have an eye: "sed negamus 
eo perveniri posse, quo tu ejuscemodi spectas argumentis," Lat.~] 

p By another guises: in any other manner: "aliunde," Lat.] 

curio's defence op Christ's church. 345 

not been corrupted or defaced, divine books, we believe and 
know, not through the testimony of the church, but of the 
holy and heavenly Ghost. For who may say that God for- 
letteth 3 his church right, so that he may permit those things 
to be defouled or decay, without the which it may not con- 
sist ? Who again knoweth not, that divine learning and Tbe nec e s - 
scripture is so needful, that without the same neither igno- d ! vine s e r - 
rant folk may be instructed, nor disobedient person reproved, 
nor wandering wights corrected, either led again into the way ? 
"All scripture, (saith Paul,) having his inspiration from God, is 
profitable for to teach, for to refel, for to correct, and for to in- 
struct unto justice, that a man of God may be perfect, and apt, 
and ready unto all holy working." But what uncertainty should 
there be of religion, and what confusion, if those holy books 
might be defouled, if we might stand in doubt of their purity 
and'sykerness 4 ! It were better a great deal that we had no 
books, than such as might be deemed to be spotted with fe- 
lonous errors. What truly were that divine providence, if 
his prophecies, his holy laws, his promises and testimonies, 
by the which together churches be made and governed, should 
suffer to be corrupted and intermeddled with the wicked 
opinions of men I Who ever heard that done sith men were 
born I The law which God gave to Moses and to the people The scrip . 
of Israel, and the residue of the old testament, neither sublety ™ r mS by 
of ungodly men, nor will, nor power, at any season either was decay# 
able to take away, or to alter, or else by any means to 
destroy it : shall we believe that the gospel, either the scrip- 
ture of the new testament and covenant, that is the virtue [Rom. i. 16.] 
and power of God openly declared for the salvation of all 
them that be faithful, might decay by any wise ? Either shall 
we suppose God to be vigilant and intentive about small mat- 
ters, and to slack and wink at things of most weight \ The 
continual hatred of the Jews towards Christians is well known : 
nathless we have thilk scripture uncorrupted, and in no point 
diminished or augmented, of the old testament, out of the which 
it is right surely and clearly proved, that the very Messias is 
already come ; not for because there wanted will, perchance, to 
them to corrupt it, but that the divine providence hath fore- 

[ 3 Forletteth : abandons.] 

[ 4 Sykemes, or sikerness : entireness: "integritate," Lat.] 



lette 1 so great a felony, to the end that the testimonies of Christ 
should remain for ever right certain : by the which the minds 
of good men might be refreshed, and the false opinions of 
the ungodly be confuted. Also the like reason is to be made of 
the new testament, whose records Clod, which is right best and 
mightiest, willeth to survive whole and inviolate until the con- 
summation of this world, that the knots of all false religions by 
them may be dissolved. In the which thing whether is not 
that a great token of God his providence, willing to conserve 
his scripture uncorrupted '. the which doth moderate the 
minds of wicked folk so, that they do keep for us the holy 
scriptures, because by those they believe that they may prove 
and confirm their errors ; and whiles they think so with 
themselves, they be enforced not to corrupt, but to conserve 
the holy books : that which I trow hath happened both to 
the Jews and papists, which while they judge the scripture to 
favour their pernicious errors, they maintain it sound and un- 
defiled. Not therefore we believe them undoubtedly 2 , for that 
we credit the testimony of the church ; but partly, that the 
Spirit of God teaching every one of us, and testifying inwardly 
to us, we know to be the words of God ; partly also, that we 
believe the providence and governance of God, which they 
believe not that suppose the needful scriptures unto salvation 
imrec?"inot ma ) ^ e d eea 5' e d arR l changed into error. Certes, Christ his 
be corrupt- se }f hatli witnessed that the scripture shall continue whole 
unto the world's end, when he said, '• Verily, verily, I sav unto 
you, until the heaven and earth do pass, one iota or tittle 
shall not fall from the law, until that all things shall be ac- 
complished. 11 Certes, Peter the apostle confesseth truly that 
the scriptures may be overstrained by false understanding, that 
is, ma}- be misunderstanded ; but that they may be corrupted 
either by adding or taking away, or else by changing, neither he, 
nor any other writer of holy scripture, hath thought it possible. 
Of truth, God forbid that nothing should be augmented in his 
words, nor taken away ! but the same hath respect hitherto, that 
men might know not to be lawful for them, which peradven- 
ture they would otherelse [have] supposed, except he had for- 
bidden it, that if at any time they have in thought for to corrupt 

[} Forelette, (in this place), means, let, hindered.] 

[_* We do not therefore believe them undoubtedly, &c.j 



them, or do haste to deprave them, albeit they be never able 
to bring it about, let them understand that they do grievously 
trespass, and sorely shall sustain punishment therefore. 

Wherefore it is of none effect that they object us Aus- Tiieyiite of 

■' Austin, how 

tin, saving, " I would not believe the gospel, except the an- ,; t < m z ht to 

' . ' °' « 1 » i beunder- 

thority of the church moved me thereto ;" sith also they do stamied. 
that too oft, and all they seem to be brought down hither for 
lack of good arguments ; for what do they think to be able to 
conclude thereby '{ whether that we should believe the au- 
thority of the church of Eome, that is, of the pope and his 
cardinals, to be equal with the gospel, or else greater I But 
certes Austin did not as much as think that, which named 
neither the church of Rome or Afric, but the catholic church, 
which is universal ; for verily the catholic church is (as our 
adversary a little before hath described it) the universal con- 
gregation of men worshipping God in a right faith. But they 
worship him in a right faith, which follow the word of God 
in worshipping him, and not the traditions of men. For Paul 
speaketh elegantly, " Faith is by hearing, and hearing by the 
word of God." Therefore Austin, in receiving the gospel, fol- 
lowed not the authority of ever} - church, cither multitude ; but 
of the catholic, holy, and of thilk church which brought the 
sincere word of God. It is therefore nothing that ye lay against 
us, to excite us to believe you in all points, to ensue your 
authority, to embrace by thilk authority your doctrine for the 
gospel ; .sith that ye neither do worship God with a right faith, 
neither do allege the pure word of God as the gospel, neither 
be the catholic church. 

But that the saying of Austin might better be perceived, 
the cause thereof is a little more to be weighed and re- 
cited. The Manicheans 3 went earnestly about, as you also 
do, that their doctrine might be allowed as apostolical, 

[ 3 The Maniehees (so called from Manes their founder) in common 
with the heathen philosophers held the Deity to be material. But 
their distinctive tenet was the doctrine of two independent principles, a 
good and an evil one. Pressed, as men in all ages have heen, with the 
difficulty of the question of the origin of evil, they resorted to that, 
mistaken solution of it. The rise of Manicheism in Persia was about the 
year 274 : it flourished especially in north Africa under Faustus, against 
whom Augustine wrote at the end of the fourth century. After various 
severe edicts published against this sect, (particularly under Valentinian 
III., A.n. 445,) it subsisted until the year (302, and then disappeared.] 


whom Austin resisted in certain books. And in the book 
which he argueth against the epistle of Manicheus, that men 
hyght 1 Of fundaments, he writeth in this wise 2 : " If that I 
should find any wight, which as yet believeth not the gospel, 
what wouldest thou do to him saying, I believe thee not? 
Certes, I myself would not believe the gospel, in case the 
authority of the catholic church did not excite me thereto. 
Then whom I have obeyed in saying, ' Believe the gospel,' why 
shall I not obey them saying, ' Nill thou credit Manicheus V 
Choose what thou list. If thou wilt say, ' Believe catholic 
folk, 1 they admonish me that I neither give any fiance to thee. 
Wherefore I cannot choose, believing them, but miscredit thee. 
If thou shalt say, ' Nill thou believe the catholic,' thou shalt 
not do well by the gospel to constrain me unto the faith of 
Manicheus, for that I believed the gospel through the preach- 
ing of catholic folk. But if thou wilt say, ' Thou believedst 
aright the catholic praising the gospel, but thou hast not 
aright believed them reproving Manicheus ;' dost thou judge 
me so very a dolt, that, without any reason yielded, I should 
believe as thou wilt, and that thou wilt not, I shall not be- 
lieve ? But God forbid that I should not believe the gospel ! 
for believing it, I cannot find also how I may believe thee ; for 
the names of the apostles which [be] there read, do not contain 
the name of Manicheus among them." And in thilk book in 
another place he saith : " They be so invincible which be 
brought forth out of the divine book against you, that ye have 

[* Hyght: call: "quam vocant Fundamenti," Lat.~] 
\J Si ergo invenires aliquem qui evangelio nondum credit, quid 
faceres dicenti tibi, Non credo ? Ego vero evangelio non crederem, nisi 
me catholics ecclesiae commoveret auctoritas. Quibus ergo obtempe- 
ravi dicentibus, Credite evangelio, cur eis non obtemperem dicentibus 
mihi, Noli credere Manichfeo? Elige quod velis. Si dixeris, Creole 
catholicis ; ipsi me monent ut nullam fidem accommodem vobis. Qua- 
propter non possum, illis credens, nisi tibi non credere. Si dixeris, Noli 
catholicis credere ; non recte facies per evangelium me cogere ad Ma- 
nichaei fidem, quia ipsi evangelio catholicis praedicantibus credidi. Si 
autem dixeris, Recte credidisti laudantibus evangelium, sed non recte 
illis credidisti vituperantibus Manichaeum: usque adeo me stultum putas, 
ut nulla reddita ratione, quod vis credam, quod non vis non credam? 

Sed absit ut ego evangelio non credam. Illi enim credens, non 

invenio quomodo possim etiam tibi credere : Apostolomm enim nomina 
quae ibi leguntur non inter se continent nomen Manichaei. August. Op. 
Par. 1837, toni.vm. contr. Epist. Manichaei Fund. Lib. i. c. v. col. 270.] 


nought else to say than that those be depraved. What autho- 
rity of learning may be found, what holy book looked over, 
what document of any manner of scripture might be known to 
convince errors, if this saying be admitted or esteemed of any 
weight 3 ?" Hitherto Austin ; by the which words it is manifest 
that not to be the sense of thilk saying which thou deniest, 
for Manicheus hasted (as I have said) that men should believe 
him. To whom Austin answereth : ' Why shall I believe thee 
bringing a new doctrine, which allegeth nought why thou 
oughtest to be believed? For let any wight come that as 
yet believeth not the gospel, and he refuseth to credit thee ; 
what mayest thou say? By what reason wiliest thou prove 
thy doctrine to him? Verily there is one good reason, — if 
thou can shew this thy doctrine to be one with that the catho- 
lic church teacheth, the which doctrine truly flowed from 
Christ into his apostles, and from them into the universal and 
holy church : for as touching my own self, how should I have 
believed the gospel, that was not conversant neither with Christ 
his self, neither with his apostles and disciples, unless by the 
church that now is teaching and admonishing me, that I should 
credit the gospel ? had I believed else ? For " how shall they 
believe that whereof they have not heard? as the apostle saith. 
But how shall they hear without a preacher ? For faith is by 
hearing ;" by hearing verily not of every man's word, but of 
God's. If so thou can not prove that, and it is plain thy 
gospel to be divers from the same was delivered by Christ, 
and at this present the church doth teach ; there is no cause 
why thou mayest suppose us to believe thee hereafter, which 
would not give any credence neither to Paul his self, the 
right true legate of Christ, neither certes to an angel of heaven 
bringing any other gospel, than that once hath been received. 1 
This to be the mind and sentence of Austin, those words do 
prove in which he saith, " I have been obedient to them say- 
ing, Believe ye the gospel ;" and these, " I have believed that 
same gospel at the preaching of catholic persons." 

Who here seeth not that Austin spake of thilk authority 

[* Usque adeo invicta sunt, quae adversus vos de divinis codicibus 
proferuntur, ut non sit aliud quod dicatis, nisi eos esse falsatos. Quae 
jam auctoritas literarum aperiri, quis sacer liber evolvi, quod docu- 
mentum cujuslibet scripturae ad convincendos errores vestros exseri 
potest, si haec vox admittitur, si alicujus ponderis aestimatur? August. 
Op. Par. 1837, torn. vra. contr. Faust. Manich. Lib. xi. c. ii. col. 363.] 



of the church which it hath through this, that it bringeth and 
teacheth the gospel I For besides that the church hath none 
authority ; and with that it hath most sovereign power : for 
neither the gospel nor Christ may be separated from the church, 
either the church from the gospel. Albeit, not the gospel of 
the church, but the church of the gospel, receiveth authority : 
for as we receive ambassadors, not because they come, but for 
that they be sent from their prince ; semblably, such shepherds 
be to be allowed in the church, which be sent of Christ. And 
as ambassadors do confirm their embassy through letters, com- 
mandment, and tokens of their princes, otherelse they be 
rejected and have none authority; so also those must be put 
back and not regarded, which when they say themselves to be 
messengers and pastors of Christ, yet they bring not the 
writings of Christ, but the imaginations and leasings of anti- 
christ. To whom with thilk words we may answer, that Austin 
spake to the Manichees : for these our new Manicheans 
neither have the faith of the catholic church, either bring or 
teach the doctrine ; algates they boast out the apostolical 
titles, and that they have been in counsel of the immortal 
gods, and from thence to be sent unto the city of Rome, as 
keepers of the church, judges, and right sovereign bishops, 
which do arete 1 the arms of the church and of the whole 
world unto their proper glory ; as though Christ were no where, 
his Spirit were no where, the gospel no where : vea, else as 
though there were no where men 2 which, — as Austin hath 
withstanded the Manicheans 3 , a man both in cunning and 
By that pureness of life famous, — even in like sort dare to resist them 


reason as Stl'Onoiy. 

Austin con- ° J . 

foundpdthe If then thou shouldest find any one which as yet did not 

Maniche- . J J 

aus, by believe the gospel, what wouldest thou do to him saying, ' I 
confoundeth believe thee not V I certes would not believe the gospel, in 

at tlie <- l 

papists' case the authority of the church moved me nought. To whom 

arguments. ^ ° 

therefore I have been obedient, saying, ' Believe ye the gospel ;' 
why should I not obey them telling me, ' Believe not the pope V 
Choose whether thou wilt. For if thou shalt say to me, ' Be- 
lieve catholic folk;' they admonish me that I ne apply 4 any 

\} Arete : impute, reckon. Arms : qu. harms ? the Latin being " Ec- 
clesise, atque orbis totius incommoda in gloriam suam ponunt/' Lat.~\ 
P As though there were no where else men, &c] 
[ 3 (Ut dixi), Lat.~] [ 4 That I do not apply.] 



faith to you : wherefore I can not otherwise do in believing 
them, but miscredit thee. If thou wilt sav, ' Believe not the 
catholics ;' thou shalt not do right by the gospel to compel 
me unto the faith of the pope, for because I have believed at 
the catholics 1 preaching thilk very gospel. But if thou shalt 
say, ' Thou believedst aright the catholics praising the gospel, 
but thou hast not rightwisely believed those same despising the 
pope ;' weenest thou me to be so very a fool, that without 
any reason declared I should believe as thou wouldest, and not 
believe that thou nillest? But God forelet it, that I should 
not believe the gospel ! for believing that, I cannot find how 
I might believe the pope ; for the names of the apostles which 
be read there, do in no place include the name of a pope, 
either of cardinals. If that ye say, therefore credit is to be 
taken unto you, for that the holy volumes might have been cor- 
rupted ; why then believe ye not us, which do affirm that [they] 
be not only not corrupted, but also that it is not possible that 
they may be corrupted i But those things are so undiscou- 
ntable 5 that against you out of the divine books be gathered, 
that for want of good arguments you come unto these wicked 
and felonous words. For why (saith our adversary) do thilk An objec- 
same people give credit wholly unto the narration of those 
matters written by the four evangelists, upon causes so un- 
looked for, so marvellous, not only passing the outward senses 
of men, but also the power of mans understanding and thought ; 
which do refuse to believe the universal church ? Why may 
they not as well conjecture some thing falsely to be set forth 
by them, either wrested, diminished, or changed, after so many 
years '. And divers other like things which Florebell heapeth 
up in this place more copiously and eloquently, than religiously 
and truly ; to the which yet he should have added this : What 
if now the skv fall I The which if it mi edit be admitted, if it a solution. 
might be esteemed of any weight ; what authority of learning 
might be found, what holy book may be perused, what kind 
of writing might be brought forth, for to confound errors ? for 
the rule being lost or made crooked, by the which all things 
might be made straight, there is nothing then whereby just 
things from unjust, false from true, man's inventions from 
God's constitutions, might be tried : and, as I may use the 

PJ 5 Undiscountable : not to be overthrown.1 


dite 1 of God and our Master, " If salt be made unsavoury, 
what can be salted therewith?" 

But grieveth 2 Florebell that we believe four, either six, 
apostles or writers of the gospel, rather than five hundred 
papists. If that he demand the reason why we so do, I 
will gladly satisfy his mind. First and foremost, for because 
such as have written these things, were most true witnesses 
and chosen of the Lord, either by his apostles, unto that 
action. Furthermore, for this 3 we know surely those things, 
as they have written, to have come unto us sound and uncor- 
rupt by the testimony of thilk Spirit wherewith those were 
written ; and that this was wrawght to the end that the un- 
bowable, most certain, and most straightest rule should always 
survive ; by the which of your errors, and of others like to 
you, the true catholic and holy church may judge ; by the 
which rule eke, and not by the opinions of men, those books 
were rejected and reproved, which thou sayest in times past to 
have been rejected and condemned, because those seemed not 
to accord unto this rule of holy scripture. But as those men 
lay again us Austin, which yet hath been shewn to make more 
with us than for them, thilk same we will object to them, 
ameussing 4 their faith and authority, not with obscure or doubt- 
ful speaking : for so hath he left in writing, in the controversy 
which was between him and Jerome, of the simulation of Peter 
the apostle, where he confirmeth that no suspicion of leasing 
ought to be received in the divine writ. " I do confess (saith 
How the he) to thy charity, I have learned to attribute this reverence 

doctors and ■' •" 

writers of and honour unto those only books of scripture which now be 

the church _ . . 

ought to be cleped canonical, that I believe right stedfastly none of the 

read and l ° J 

taken. authors of them to have erred in writing. Perde I read all 
other in this manner, that be they never so holy and clerk- 
like, I do not therefore think it true because those have judged 
so, but because they may persuade me either by thilk canonical 
authors, or else by probable reason, that it is not dissonant 
from the truth. Neither I trow thee, my brother, to discern 

[} " Scito," LaQ 

[ 2 It grieveth: "dolet," Lat.~\ 

[ 3 For this : because : " quia," Lat.~\ 

[ 4 This word in the MS. is unintelligible. The Latin is "elevantem," 
disparaging. It is probably meant to be amenusing, a word used by 
Chaucer in that sense.] 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 353 

Otherwise. I say, I suppose throughly, that thou wilt not thy 
books to be read after that condition, as the works of the pro- 
phets and apostles, of whose writings, because they be void of 
all error, it is outrage to doubt 5 ." Therefore all the papists may 
grudge as much as them list, and as serpents wryste them- 
selves after a thousand fashions. We will use the authority of 
•Austin in reading their books and hearing their doctrine, that, 
be they never so holy or so well learned, not for that we will 
think any thing true, because they have judged thus; but if 
they can do us to understand it by those holy writers, or else 
by probable reason which swerveth nothing from the truth. 

But here Florebell putteth this too : If any persons should 
reject and contemn all those books, or else some of them, men 
had nothing that they might lay against them besides the con- 
sent and testimony of the catholic church. Here our ad- 
versary maketh no leasing; he speaketh the thing that was 
done, and which also at this day is attempted of many. But 
that he reckoneth us to have nought which we may allege 
again such as deny the divine scripture, besides the consent 
and testimony of the church, he is greatly, in my opinion, de- 
ceived. For, first, if any wight allow some part of the divine 
volumes, and disannul the other, he shall be confuted by those 
which he alloweth and approveth : for every where the divine The scrip- 
scripture is agreeable to herself, neither in any place the same with herself, 
discordeth within herself, because it is the voice of one God, agieeth not. 
and sealed up in writing by the inspiration of one manner of 
Spirit. For if any man shall divide Moses from the prophets, 
and if any prophet shall be separate from Moses, as Christ 

[j 5 Ego enim fateor caritati tuse, solis eis scripturarum libris, qui jam 
canonici appellantur, didici hunc timorem honoremque deferre, ut nul- 
lum eorum auctorem scribendo aliquid errasse firmissime credam. [Ac 
8i aliquid in eis offendero Uteris quod videatur contrarium veritati, nihil 
aliud quam vel mendosum esse codicem, vel interpretem non assecutum 
esse quod dictum est, vel me minime intellexisse non ambigam.] Alios 
ittutem ita lego, ut quantalibet sanctitate doctrinaque prsepolleant, non 
ideo verum putem, quia ipsi ita senserunt ; sed quia mihi vel per illos 
auctores canonicos, vel probabili ratione, quod a vero non abhorreat, 
persuadere potuerunt. Nee te, mi frater, sentire aliquid aliter existimo : 
prorsus, inquam, non te arbitror sic legi tuos libros velle, tanquam pro- 
phetarum vel apostolorum ; de quorum scriptis, quod omni errore careant, 
dubitare nefarium est. Augustin. Op. Epist. Lib. ad Hierdn. xix. torn. 
ii. col. 285, Paris. 1836.] 




Teproveth the Sadducees, neglecting the sayings of the prophets^ 
and receiving Moses alone ; indeed, whosoever setteth aside 
the old testament, the authority of the new testament shall 
vanquish him: and, contrariwise, he that despiseth the new, 
may be confuted through the old. The like also is to be un- 
derstanded, if any wight should not regard the book of the 
new testament, either any part thereof: for whatsoever part 
he will allow, that shall be sufficient for to confound him. But 
if any will despise the universal scripture of the divine pro- 
phecies, he shall not be worthy of any credit : with such an 
one we will not much strive, but leave him to God's judgment* 
" If any body (saith John, the cousin by lineage of Christ,) come 
unto you, and bringeth not this doctrine, receive not him into 
your house, nor bid him God speed." So also Christ himself 
commanded those to be forsaken, that would not receive the 
apostles and their doctrine. And Paul saith, " If any wight 
loveth. not the Lord Jesus Christ, let men turn and flee from 
him, as from a fervent pestilence and pernicious." 

Why, is Florebell ignorant of the common saw, which 
is in every man's mouth? With such as deny principles 
men ought no longer to dispute ; for the divine scriptures 
be principles of all thilk things which be written and taught 
of God and his religion: which principles and, as it were, 
fundaments of divine matters whosoever neglecteth, he either 
is to be forsaken, if there be no hope of amendment in 
him ; or else, if there be any, he must be confuted, not 
with the texts of scripture, which he thinketh vain, verily 
feigned and counterfeited ; but with arguments and reason, 
the which some of our fathers heretofore have done. For 
when a cause is in hand against a man that is ignorant 
of the truth, enlarging somewhat the prophecies and divine 
testimonies, we may form this man anew, as it were a be- 
ginner ; and shew him by little and little the beams of light, 
as a man would say, upon the earth or in the water; lest, 
all the light being set before him, he may blind 1 : for as a 
child cannot bear the strength of whole and strong meats 
through the weakness of his stomach, but is nourished with 
the liquor of milk and pap, until, after more strength gathered, 
he be able to eat harder meats ; semblably, unto thilk man 
it is behoveful, because as yet he cannot receive godly tes- 
l 1 Blind: be blinded: "caliget," Lot.] 


iimoflies, first to offer man's persuasions, that" is, of philo 1 
eophere, poets, and historiographers, that by their authorities 
chiefly he may be reproved ; that when it is done, then such 
things as be recited out of the holy scriptures may appear 
neither new nor hard. What, if that the reason and causes 
be required of him which rejecteth all the holy books, or some 
of them ? For what may men allege why they believe Thu- 
cydides, Xenophon, Strabo, Livy, Sallust, or Pliny; and do not 
give credence to Matthew, either John, or Luke, Paul, or 
Peter ? Other 2 , that is better, what might they say, why ra- 
ther they believe silly men, that also ofttimes be shrews, than 
God himself, as touching their salvation? Except that as 
Nasica is read to have objected unto Ennius, they think we 
Ought rather to believe his handmaids and servants, than the 
Lord himself testifying of himself. 

By these now I trow, FlorebeU, thou seest us to have 
other things, which thou hadst little thought, that we may 
allege and answer to them which would reject the holy writ, 
without the testimony and agreement of the church. And 
where ye be so earnest and importune upon us with the testi- 
mony and consent of the church, may not we as lightly, or 
else more easily, disallow this testimony or consent, as the 
prophecies of God his self and the divine scriptures ? For 
what if any man should answer thus to your objecting the 
consent of the church : If I had mind to comprehend these 
things, certes I would sooner give affiance to those which do 
witness themselves to have received these matters from that 
same very God either from Christ, than to you that might 
infer no such thing: if a man should thus say, what shall 
ye further lay against him 2 I think fire or a sword : other- 
else ye will stop his mouth with water; for these be both 
your arguments and reasons by the which ye are wont to 
make proof of your authority, and by whom ye defend the 
authority of the church : this is your godliness ; this is your 
faith ; this is your religion. 

But Florebell will persuade us, the holy scripture to be 
allowed through the testimony of men, and to be established 
by the consent of the church, and with authority of the 
same to be corroborated. Verily, as who would say, either 

P Other: or: "vel," Lot.'] 




±he greater is wont to receive authority of the lesser; or, 
God taketh witness of man, or else needeth his approbation, 
O outrageous and importable 1 arrogancy of men ! un- 
shamefacedness ! impiety! They will us to believe the 
wife to be above her husband. But the contrary Paul 
saith, " You wives, be obedient unto your own husbands, 
as to the Lord; for that man is the head of the woman, 
semblably as Christ is the head of the church: and it is 
thilk same which giveth health unto the body. There- 
fore like as the church is obedient to Christ, even so ye 
Christ re- wives be subject in all things to your own husbands." Christ 

quirethnot -,.,, iipii 

thetesti- demeth that he receiveth testimony of men; but these iolk 

mony of. J 

man for the iudge his words to have none authority, except those be lor- 

probation of J . ° . , . ™ 

Ws gospel, tified with the depositions of men. John verily m his first 
epistle reasoneth thus : " If we allow the testimony of men, 
the testimony of God is greater; for this is the testimony 
of God with which he hath testified of his Son. He that be- 
lieveth in the Son of God hath testimony in his own self. 
He that doth not believe upon God maketh him a liar, be- 
cause he believeth not the testimony which God hath testi- 
fied of his own Son." Indeed, Christ bid his apostles to be 
witnesses for him : not that he might receive authority from 
them, (for what authority shall the servant procure to the 
lord, either an ambassador to his prince, from whom thilk 
same taken authority ?) but that by them it may be perceived 
how great is the power, authority, majesty, wisdom and good- 
ness of God and Christ, which saith, " He that heareth you 
(teaching truly those things which I have commanded) heareth 
me." Paul witnessed that the Thessalonians, which received 
his preachings, to have received not the word of man, but 
verily the word of God. For he that doubteth of faith and 
of the authority of divine scriptures, how will he credit the 
church, which hath none authority besides thilk same scrip- 
ture ? They take the sun out of the world, which endeavour 
to violate and diminish the sacred authority of holy writ. 
That they certes do, which make it subject to the authority 
and judgment of men; which is as much as if a man should 
say the moon to participate light to the sun, which is be- 
ginner of light, that 2 the moon, being of her own self dark, 
C 1 Importable: intolerable.] Q 2 That: which (light).] 

curio's defence op Christ's church. 357 

borroweth of the sun. For like as the sun is not therefore 

clear and bright because men judge him such and confess, 

but that he is such, men that behold him and perceive his 

strength be enforced to judge and confess him to be such 

a one ; if that any wight would say him to be darkish and not 

warm, men would as soon believe him as Anaxagoras, which Anaxagoras. 

feigned the snow to be black 3 ; in the which thing blind 

men might be deceived, but such as have their clear sight 

may not : semblably the writings and divine scriptures be not 

therefore true and certain, because the church hath determined 

them true and certain ; but for that they be of God, whose 

majesty and authority they pretend and set forth; and not 

only men (a few always excepted), but eke those noxious Man 

.. ., ..11 • cannot give 

spirits, necessarily must confess them to be certain, sure and authority 

rf , to scripture. 

true^ for as no man can add light unto the sun, so none 
neither mortal nor immortal may procure out authority for the 
divine writings : for excellently well speaketh David, that high 
prophet, " The testimony of the Lord is true, constant, sure, 
pure, enlightening man's eyes, and of his own nature and 
strength firm and approved." Item, in another place he saith 
" the word of the Lord to be a lantern to his feet and light 
to his goings." And Peter also calleth the divine word which 
is contained in the most holy wrytes, " a lantern shining in 
a dark place," upon the which he exhorteth us to direct our 
eyes, until that we come unto thilk celestial light. 

But let Florebelllook about how he may defend this opinion. 
Certes it is manifest among all, those fathers which for their An unlearn- 
learning and good living are renowned, after such sort to alleging . 

scriptur6 is 

judge of the authority of divine scripture, that, as Panormitan }? be ^ e - 
and other which be expert in the canon law do affirm, we a e ene . ral 


ought rather to believe a simple man, bringing in scripture, 
than a whole general council together 4 . Wherefore let him 
ponder with what counsel and mind he hath spoken these 
words, that there is no cause why any man ought believe 
that same gospel himself, either might require to be believed 
of others, except he be moved thereto by the consent and 
authority of the church : for verily these seem to me that they 

P "Anaxagoras nivem nigram dixit esse: ferres me, si ego idem 
dicerem V Cic. de Nat. Deor. Lib. i. c. 10.] 

f_ 4 Prima super primo Decretalium, torn. i. p. 122. col. 1. 1534.] 



may not be reported without injury of God's majesty, and 

Actsxvii. great impiety and felony. Of truth, at Berrhsea such as 

heard the doctrine of Paul and Silas, daily did search in the 

scriptures, whether those things which they had heard were 

so or no, as they were instructed by them : although the 

sheep of Christ do know the voice of him as of their good 

[John x. 27.] herdsman, and follow him, (as he himself testifieth), but they 

The church acknowledge no stranger. Out of the which it is appa- 

ruied by rent SU ch as believe, not to be led by the authority of the 

God's word, ' ' j j 

authorit by cnurcn 5 but to be excited with the power and majesty of 
God's word. 

Now let us go to one other wrong that our adversary doth 
to the Holy Ghost, and to Christ, and to his apostles : for to 
the intent he might persuade that men ought to condescend 1 
with the church in all points, yea, in such as may not be de- 
clared through the testimony and authority of holy scripture, 
whether he saith, that Christ taught not all the verity, but to have 
power to the left many things to the Holy Ghost to be taught; and that 
teach any the apostles have not written all things which they received 
of Christ, either of the divine Spirit, but to have commanded 
the church to observe certain things which be not written, and 
to charge their posterity therewith. 

But how he can prove every thing, let us see : first, there- 
fore, he proveth by thilk place, where Christ saith, " As yet 
I have many things to speak unto you, but ye are not able 
to bear them now. Verily, when the Spirit of verity shall 
come, he shall teach you all truth." Here, first, I do omit 
that Christ saith not, He shall teach, but, shall induce or 
lead you into all truth. I truly do come unto the sense of 
those words. But it needeth not for us to bring in any new 
thing ; for Christ himself before had taught how this should 
be understanded: for where he had admonished many thinga 
of this word to be kept, the winch because that same apos- 
tles hitherto did not sufficiently perceive, lest they should be 
in doubt of any thing henceforth, he comforted them with 
these words : " I have spoken these words to you abiding, 
among you; but thilk Comforter, the Holy Spirit, whom : 
the Father shall send in my name, he shall teach you all 
things, and bring you in memory of all that I have recited 
fj 1 " Assentiendum esse/' Lat.~] 

thing be- 
sides that 
he taught. 

John xvi. 

John xiv. 

curio's defence op cubist's church. 359 

unto you." Thou seest, Flordbell, of the Holy Ghost none 

other things to be taught, but those only which by Christ 

were spoken and taught, that is, to be expounded and to be 

brought in remembrance. The which also by another place 

may be confirmed, where Christ saith, " Teach ye them to ob- [Mat.xxviii. 

serve all whatsoever I have commanded you." Why is it Johnxv - 

that Christ himself testifieth unto his apostles, that he hath 

"taught them all things which he had received of the Father"? 

Now truly, if any man affirmeth that Christ received not all 

things which did appertain unto his duty and office for the 

salvation of the church, he shall be both accused of high 

impiety and also confuted by six hundred places of scripture. 

As when John saith, " The Father loveth the Son, and hath John m - 

committed all things into his hand" and power. And Christ 

himself speaketh unto his Father, saying, "All things which John xvii- 

an mine be thine, and such as be thine be mine." Certes 

Paul affirmeth, in Christ to be put all the treasures of science CCo1, "• 3] 

uad' wisdom of God. Finally, how may he be the wisdom 

of God, if the Father hath hidden from him anything ? How 

tody performed he his office, if he did not manifest all things 

tfrhis disciples which were touching his business ? 

But Florebell saith, Christ ownself speaketh it, that he hath 
astey things which then his disciples were not able to bear; 
therefore he held his peace many things, neither revealed all to 
them because of their weakness. I grant : but thilk things 
contained no new doctrine, but of that he had spoken an 
explanation and confirmation. These (as I have mentioned) 
were reserved to the Holy Spirit. He spake many things of 
the kingdom of God ; many things of his passion and death; 
and much of the glory to come; and after that he arose from 
his death, of his most ample power ; and much of the salva- 
tion and vocation of the gentiles. These and such other the 
apostles did little comprehend, which is plain by many places 
of scripture ; for they looked for a terrenal kingdom. They 
kaew not the counsel of God of Christ's death : what glory 
should follow his passion, they understood not : how he should 
ascend into heaven, they perceived not: that the gospel 
belonged unto the gentiles, they were ignorant. Therefore, 
because they were weaklings, and could not at that time bear 
so high mysteries, nor the reason of all those things, neither 



John xx. 

All thing's 
to obtain 
be written. 
[John xx. 30, 

it was expedient them then to be able; Christ, our most 
prowest 1 Master, keepeth silence of them, but yet doth them 
to wit, that they attend for the understanding of them until 
the coming of the heavenly Spirit, who teaching and renew- 
ing those things as they had heard, they might be ignorant 
of nothing. This then is the plain and clear sense of thati 
place, which also our ancestors themselves have upholden. > 
But the apostles (quoth Florebell) have not declared all 
things particularly, and written, that Christ both spake and did. 
Whereby provest thou that ? Out of John, .saith he, which 
in the end of his gospel hath left thus written : " Indeed there 
be many other things that Christ did, which if they should 
be written severally, I suppose the whole world might, not 
contain those books as could be written." Would to God, 
Florebell, thou wouldest gather and set forth the texts of 
holy scripture, nor craftily, nor subtlely, neither maliciously! 
for I see thee, while thou covetest too much to be seen an 
orator, to be small religious and little Christian: for what 
need was it for thee to bring in this place, when thou know- 
est another place more pithier than this in that same evan- 
gelist, unless thou wouldest deceive the reader I for he which, 
saith that all things which Christ wrought be not written, 
the selfsame witnesseth, that such things as be necessary 
to attain salvation and immortality be written. Of truth 
Christ hath done many other miracles before his disciples,, 
which, saith he, "be not specified in this book ; but these same 
be written for this intent, that ye may believe Jesus Christ 
to be the Son of God, and that so believing ye may have 
for his sake life."" Neither, albeit all things be not written 
of the apostles which Christ did work, therefore such as be 
requisite for the church be not all written. Wherefore Austin" 
expounding the same evangelist saith, " For where the Lord 
Jesus hath done many things, all be not written, as thilk 
evangelist testifieth : certes there were chosen things that 
should be written, which seemed to be sufficient for the sal- 

\} Most prowest: "prudentissimus," Lat7\ 

P Cum multa fecisset Dominus Jesus, non omnia scripta sunt, sicut 
idem ipse sanctus Johannes evangelista testatur, multa Dominum Chris- 
tum et dixisse et fecisse quae scripta non sunt. Electa sunt autem que 
scriberentur, quae saluti credentium sufficere videbantur. Aug. in Joh. 
Tract. 49. Tom. in. col. 2163. Paris. 1837.] 


■ration of .faithful persons." And Chrysostom 3 saith, "Whatso- 
ever is requisite for salvation is wholly contained in the scrip- 
tures." What meaneth it that John speaks? not of necessary 
doctrine, but of miracles and wonders which Christ hath 
wrought out ; of the which such as were most renowned and 
best were chosen, that seemed sufficient for to manifest 
<Ehrist, and to confirm his doctrine and religion: which point 
our adversary witnesseth; for he saith, that John took more 
care for to record Christ's sermons and preachings, than he 
did in reciting his facts. And the selfsame is to be judged 
of all the other writings of the apostles ; verily* that in them 
be included all things which belong unto faith and religion, 
which appertain unto good constitutions, and for the church 
to be ordered and reformed ; and finally such things as be 
needful for the blissful fife to be obtained. 

But Plorebell contemptuously clepeth 4 the second book of 
Luke, which he writ of the Acts of the Apostles, a little com- 
mentary; and calleth those one and twenty most divine and 
copious epistles of Paul, and of other the apostles, very few. 
Certes, not being well content that the history of Luke is not 
as big as Speculum Vincentii 5 , or else as Livy, and that 
those epistles be not as great and many in number as thilk 
which men call the Decretals ; neither he reckoneth not how 
light a thing it is to replenish paper with lies; but those be 
so ample, so copious, and so strong, that nothing seemeth 
to lack, for to confute Christ's enemies, and overthrow their 
temerity and boldness. For as touching Luke, all men 
clearly seeth this, that nothing is so exactly written of others 
which his commentaries do not excel both in majesty, dili- 
gence, and fidelity, which be the chief points of a history; 
and by the judgment of all men those be so much allowed, 
that faculty to write may seem by him to be prevented 
from others, and not ministered 6 . And algates those appear 

rj 3 Quidquid quteritur ad salutem, totum jam adimpletum est in 
scripturis. Chrysostom. Op. Par. 1834. Opus Imperf. in Matth. Horn, 
xli. Tom. vi. col. 914. App.] 

f_ 4 Clepeth: calleth.] 

[_ B The title of this book is "Speculum Naturale," Ven. 1494; the 
work of Vincent of Beauvais, a Dominican monk of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, who died in 1264.] 

C " Ut prserepta, non praebita, facultas scriptoribus videatur," Lat7\ 


but beginnings and rudiments, neither do contain all the 
lives of the apostles, nor their doings ; yet for all that 
those be sufficient enough, as nobly John Ohrysostom 1 hath 
said, to all such as will at this time apply their mind, thereto,! 
and fashion by that example their behaviours and the church. 
Certes, the epistles of Paul (as I may pass over the other 
apostles) be so perfect, replenished with so great learning 
and religion, that alone thilk same which was dedicate unto 
the Romans do include the whole self gospel, as it is preached 
of all the rest of the apostles, and do contain the definition 
of all religion. It is not verily fitting 2 that the apostles have 
written more negligently of such points as belong to religion 
and holiness, than they present in words had taught: but 
rather the contrary is like to be true, that they have taught 
more diligently by writings, (the which thing all men do 
use,) than they did by mouth and speech. Also men most 
grant this, that they have throughly put in writing that same 
doctrine, ordinances, rites and precepts, which in their ser- 
mons, which in their communication and private assemblies, 
they did teach. 

This same matter shall greatly appear, if any wight list 
to compare those most notable Acts of the Apostles with 
thilk high divine epistles of theirs: for there be not many 
The sum of chapters and places of our christian profession: that Jesus 
religion. Christ is the Son of God, which died for our sins, and 
arose again from death to life for our justification; he sit- 
teth and reigneth at the right hand of the Father, that 
he may shew us favour and grace, and lead us with his 
Spirit; that he shall come at the day of doom, then when 
all folk as be dead shall arise : over and besides this, the 
amendment of our life; the forgiveness of sins through the 
faith of Jesus Christ; baptism, the supper of the Lord; 
prayers, concord, and love one toward another; the provision 
for the poor ; and finally, pastors and the whole ministry of 

T 1 ''Ai/ ovtw Tolvvv QeXtafiev tci<? ypcKpds epevvav fxera aKptpeia'St 
Kai fj.rj aV/Xaj?, %vvt]crop.eda Tjy? <rmTrjp'ia<i Tt]$ tifxerepas eirirv^eiv' 
av Bia iravTO<s avTat<s evhtaTpifiunev, Kai Soyfidruiv opdorrjra k<zi p'ov 
ela-ofxeda tjKpi/3o>ixevov. Chrysost. Op. Par. 1834. in Joan. Horn, mis 
§ 3. Tom. vm. p. 359.] 

[ a sitting, in the MS.] 


churches; these things Christ both commanded and taught: 
that selfsame his apostles by mouth hath preached and con- 
firmed them by writings: thilk same the church hath always 
retained and kept, until at length antichrist perverted all. But 
these Florebell seeth not, either will not see ; for he seemeth 
to esteem no more the epistles of the apostles than either of 
Plato or Seneca, or else of any other philosopher. He sayeth, 
those were almost written for to correct and confirm their 
conditions which be but novices in Christ, and had received 
thilk things which were behoveful for them to believe and 
judge; albeit he denieth not that they have touched certain 
secret matters, and rather to have shewed those, than to have 
expounded, because they were wont to teach more largely, 
and to set forth many things besides in the presence of 
people by mouth. 

Thus nobly and worshipfully of the most high divine mo- 
numents of the apostles judgeth Florebell. 0, what a world 
is this ! O, what perverse manners ! that there should be such 
men, which dare to call the religion taught by Christ, written 
by his disciples and right holy hearers by the instigation 
of the Holy Ghost, covered over with the blood of so many 
martyrs, and testified, defended by the doctors, a thing wanting 
and imperfect ! What may men clepe perfect? They call thilk 
religion delivered from the wisdom of Cod, — that doctrine, 
rites and ceremonies, — that law which doeth, containeth, and 
maketh perfect all things, — and the very eternal mind of God, 
to be a thing begun, and not absolute and perfect. 

But they do not only say it, but also they abuse certain 
places of the scripture for to confirm it ; as this place which is 
unto the Thessalonicenses written : " Therefore, brethren, stand 2 Thess. 
ye fast, and keep the institutions which ye have learned, either 
by our speaking, or else by our epistles.'''' Out of the which he 
willeth to conclude, that Paul taught the Thessalonians certain 
points that he hath not written. But if he had looked a little 
better, truly he should see that he might conclude no such 
thing ; for many men at that time supposed the latter day of 
the Lord to be at band. But Paul had taught specially the 
Thessalonians, that the empire of Rome being in prosperous 
estate, and antichrist not yet declared, the Lord would not as 
yet come : but after that Paul had departed from them, cer« 


tain other began to make business of that thing, and greatly 
to quake for fear ; the which when Paul understood, he wrote 
two epistles unto the Thessalonians, and in both those, besides 
many other things which he instructeth them of, he maketh 
mention of that day of the Lord's coming, whereof they were 
in controversy ; and those things (as he being present before 
them had laid the same) he recordeth again. But in his latter 
epistle, where he reciteth that he had spoken, he saith, "Whe- 
ther do ye not remember, that when I was with you I told 
these things unto you!" And a little after, where he entreateth 
of the coming of antichrist, he concludeth with an exhortation 
in this wise: "Therefore, brethren, stand ye, and keep the tra- 
ditions which ye have learned, either by our speaking, or else 
writing.'" Here who understandeth not by those traditions thilk 
things to be signified which he had taught them of the coming 
of Christ ? Of the which, because he had already twice en- 
treated of, both before them his self, and by letters written 
unto them, therefore he addeth, " Which either by word, or else 
by our letters, ye have learned :" as who would say, It maketh 
no great skill for the purpose, whether of two they follow, 
either that he hath spoke, or that he hath written, since he 
taught one manner of thing both by writing and speaking. 
The like manner of phrase is in the third chapter of the said 
epistle, where he saith, " We command you to convey your- 
selves from every brother wandering inordinately, and not 
observing the institution and form which he hath received of 
us." And lest peradventure any body might gather Paul to 
have taught certain things which be not written, by and by 
he inferreth that same form of institution, and confesseth him- 
self to be thilk that he had preached by his mouth and word : 
for he saith, " When we were with you, we commanded you 
this, that if any person nilled to labour, he should not eat." 
i Cor. xi. ai so }j e a llegeth one other place of Paul, where Paul, after 

that he had declared the manner of the Lord's supper, he put- 
teth to these words : "I will dispose the rest when I come 
myself. 1 ' But neither this place may help them any thing which 
will their decrees to be accounted as God's : for when Paul 
committed all things to the Corinthians, which he had received 
of the Lord, of the sacrament of the body and blood of the 
Lord, after that same very form, as in thilk epistle he describ-. 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 36*5 

eth, what else might he have charged them withal ? The holy 
apostle was not so bold, that he would cast 1 any thing to the 
institution of Christ his Lord, either thought that ought to be 
added to. Certes, that it was the same institution of the Lord's 
mystical supper, it is evident by the description of the evange- 
lists. It is plain, therefore, that he meant nothing of doctrine^ 
when he saith, he will dispose the residue when he cometh. 
What then meaneth it? Those be controversies and strifes, 
whereof he spake in the beginning : these same, when he 
cometh, he saith he will set at peace, and such as be out of 
order he will bring in order ; that, as in another place he [> cor. xiv. 
commanded, " all things may be done by an order." 

What of that other place, whether shall not that uphold 

them at all? Verily, nothing at all. Paul saith, "I praise [icor.xi. 2.] 

you, my brethren, that ye keep all mine in remembrance; and, 

as I have appointed, ye observe ordinances." For neither here 

Paul understandeth any other ordinances than the very same 

which in that epistle he teacheth and comprehendeth, specially 

that they ensue him 2 , and that they nor offend nor hurt any 

of the weaklings by their christian liberty and knowledge of 

faith. For Paul praiseth them that they so did, and that 

they remembered after what manner he with all men, either 

Jews or Gentiles, was accustomed to be conversant; the which 

thing may appear by those words that go before thilk text, 

and in the chapter precedent. 

But now let us vanquish that fourth thing, whereby FIo- 
rebell troweth to have the victory, that is, which the said 
Paul, writing unto Timothy, saith : " Thou, therefore, my son, [2 Tim. ii. 
be strong in grace, which is by Jesus Christ, and in those h 
things which thou hast heard of me by many witnesses : com- 
mit those things to faithful men, which also shall be meet, that 
also they may teach others." I do acknowledge the words 
of Paul, neither I am ignorant of his customable exhortation. 
He exhorteth Timothy his son to continue in the doctrine 
which he once received, the which he oftentimes doth in his 
epistles ; and eke that he endeavour to set forth the same to 
the uttermost of his power. Whether is this any new thing-? 

[} Cast: add.] 

Q a " Prsesertim ut se imitentur," Lat. " Be ye followers of me. 
lCottxi* L] 



Who here may think any secreter doctrine than might fee 
put in writing to be signified ? and not rather the very gospel 
approved by the law and prophets, taught by Christ, and spread 
abroad by his disciples, both with preaching and writings! 
Certes the selfsame, and nothing else, that which the apostle 
ii^n.']" 1, teacheth in the said epistle by these words: " But persist thou 
in thilk things which thou hast learned of me, and which be 
committed unto thee ; knowing of whom thou hast learned 
them ; and that from a child thou hast learned the knowledge 
of holy writ, which can make thee wise unto salvation through 
faith in Jesus Christ. Ail scripture inspired from God is pro- 
fitable for doctrine, for to reprove and correct, for the insti- 
tution unto justice, that a man of God may be perfect, and 
prompt, and ready to all good works." Here thou seest that 
he referreth all things unto the holy scriptures ; he ascribeth 
all thilks to those same, which may seem to belong unto the 
perfect introduction of piety and religion. What is it then 
that ye go about to establish out of that place ? He saith, " Be 
thou strong in thilk things which thou hast heard," and not 
as thou hast imagined or found out ; for " faith is by hearing; 
and hearing by the word of Christ." And thou hast heard them 
not privily, neither by stealth, nor secretly, but by many wit- 
nesses : that is, openly, in the mouth, in the eyes of all men ; 
for so that Chrysostom 1 doth interpret it. "Commit these things 
to faithful persons :" commit thou, he saith, as the treasure 
of a king, which ought to be laid in a sure place ; otherelse it 
shall be lost or corrupted : but if it shall be commended for to 
keep unto faithful wights, it will be faithfully kept; and that 
same, when need, shall be restored again. But because Paul 
meant of teachers chiefly, and pastors to be instructed, there- 
Two twn ? s f ore } ie addeth, " which shall be fit also to teach others." Then 

requisite m ' 

a teacher, jjg re quireth in a teacher and master two things : that he be 
faithful, that is, that he keep the doctrine which he hath received 
whole and sound; the other thing truly is, that he be apt and 
meet for to teach. These things if they were in you, you 
popish doctors and masters, as they ought verily to be, we would 
not strive with you, we would gladly hear you, we would fol- 

£' Ti ea-Tt, Zid iroWmv fxapTvptau ; no's av el eKe-yev, ov Kadpa 
tjttovcras, ovce Kpvcptj, aWa ttoWwv irapovrasv, /xeTCt. iraprpt}tria'!- 
Chrysost. Op. Par. 1636. Tom. vi. in 2 Ep. ad Tim. cap. in. Horn, in.] 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 367 

low your doctrine. But of whom have ye heard that which 

ye teach ? not of God, but of the devil ; not of Christ, but 

of antichrist ; not of Paul, but of the pope. Besides this* 

how have ye been faithful in the doctrine of Christ, which 

ye have taken once upon you ? with what faith have ye Tim. vi. 

kept, set forth, and taught that thing was committed to your 

charge of that most holiest doctrine ? For this is not man's, 

but God's law, which ye have neither invented, nor desired, 

nor made, but we have received, learned, and drawn from 

God : which not by power, but by patience, not by strength, 

but by meekness, we do defend ; that if any man require it, 

if any covet to hear it, that same we will teach faithfully, 

yea, with the loss of our head and life. 

But because Florebell upholdeth that (by the authority of 
Irenseus) the apostolical doctrine (as it were) through continual Census. 
succession came from the apostles unto the bishops, without 
writings and books ; this opinion is to be diminished, and his 
subtlety to be detected. Irenseus sheweth the gifts of Christ 
to be found in the church of Christ, in the which the Lord 
hath constituted both minister and gifts. He allegeth verily a 
place of Paul out of his first epistle unto the Corinthians : and f 1 8 9 or,xii * 
certes, " God ordained in the church from first to be apostles, 
secondarily prophets, thirdly doctors, again powers, moreover 
gifts of healing, helpers, governments, diversity of languages." 
" Where then," saith he 2 , " be the gifts of the Lord set, there ^™ in 
we must learn the verity, with whom is that succession which lib - iv - c - 45 - 
was in the apostles of the church, and the sound and irre- 
prehensible doctrine doth remain; for they both do keep 
thilk faith which is to Godwards, that created all things ; 
and increase that love which we owe to the Son of God, 

P Ubi igitur tales inveniat aliquis, Paulus docens ait, ' Posuit Deus 
in ecclesia primo apostolos, secundo prophetas, tertio doctores.' Ubi 
igitur charismata Domini posita sunt, ibi discere oportet veritatem, apud 
quos est ea quae est ab apostolis ecclesiae successio, et id quod est sanum 
et irreprobabile conversations, et inadulteratum et incorruptibile ser- 
monis constat. Hi enim et earn quae est in unum Deum, qui omnia 
fecit, fidem nostram custodiunt ; et earn quae est in- Filium Dei, dilec- 
tionem adaugent, qui tantas dispositiones propter nos fecit ; et scripturas 
sine periculo nobis exponunt, neque Deum blasphemantes, neque pa- 
triarchas exhonorantes, neque prophetas contemnentes. Iren. adv. 
Hseres. Oxon. 1702. Lib. iv. cap. xlv. p. 345.] 



Lib. ii. 
cap. 46. 

that suffered so much for us. And they be which do ex- 
pound scriptures unto us without peril ; neither speaking evil 
of God, nor reproving the patriarchs, nor despising the pro- 
phets." Here, who seeth not that Irenseus willeth nothing else 
than besides the church neither true faith, nor charity, nor 
verity to be found, nor the understanding of scriptures to be 
possible to be had? the which the said doctor and martyr in 
another place right clearly confirmeth, " To stay," saith he, 
" upon the divine scriptures, which is a certain and undoubted 
verity, is to build his house upon a strong and sure stone: 
but, this forsaken, and to stick upon any other doctrines, 
it is nothing else than to edify an uncertain ruinous build- 
ing upon a fleeting sand, from whence the overthrow is easy 
and light 1 ." And in his sixty-second epistle 2 , "Blessed," saith 
he, " which soweth upon all waters, where the ox and the 
ass treadeth :" that is, which soweth upon people only fol- 
lowing the doctrine of both testaments, and not the vain 
fables of man's traditions. 

But for because Florebell writeth that other men testi- 

fieth the same, meaning that many things were delivered to 

the church by mouth which be not written, let him listen 

Hierome. to Hierome 3 expressing that verse of David, " The Lord shall 

P Quia autem parabolse possunt multas recipere absolutiones, ex 
ipsis de inquisitione Dei affirmare, derelinquentes quod certum et indu- 
bitatum et verum est, valde prsecipitantium se in periculum et irra- 
tionabilium esse, quis non amantium veritatem confitebitur ? Et nunquid 
hoc est non in petra firma et valida et in aperto posita sedificare suam 
domum, sed in incertum effusse arenac ? unde et facilis est eversio hujus- 
modi sedificationis. Iren. adv. Hser. Oxon. 1702. Lib. n. cap. xlvi. 
p. 172.] 

Q 2 This is manifestly an error of the writer, since no "Epistles" 
are extant among the works of Irenseus. He may have meant Jerome, 
whom he immediately after quotes ; in the works of which author will 
be found the following passage, bearing a very close resemblance to that 
in the text : " Tale quid et in Isaia dictum puto : ' Beatus qui seminat 
super aquam, ubi bos et asinus calcant.' Quod ille magister beatitudine 
dignus habeatur, qui super irriguum pectus seminet audientium, tarn 
ex Judaeis, quam ex gentium populo congregatum." Hieron. Op. Par. 
1699. Comment, in Ecclesiast. Tom. n. col. 777.] 

Q 3 Non dixit, qui sunt in ea, sed qui fuerunt in ea. Dominus narra- 
bit : et quomodo narrabit ? Non verbo, sed scriptura. In cujus scrip- 
tura ? In populorum. Non sufficit in populorum, sed etiam principum 
dicit. Et quorum principum? Qui sunt in ea? Non dixit hoc, sed 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 369 

declare in the writings of folk and of princes which have [Ps. lxxxvu. 
been in her. He said not (quoth he) which be in her. The 
Lord shall declare, and how shall he declare? not by word, 
but by writing. In the scripture of whom ? of the people. 
It was not enough to say of the folk or of people, but of 
princes. And of what princes? which be in her? he said 
not so; but which have been in her. Consider ye there- 
fore, how full the scripture is of mystery. We have read 
Paul the apostle ; we have read Peter ; and we have read 
him saying, ' Whether do ye seek a proof of him which [2 cor. xiii. 
speaketh in me, Christ?' And that Paul speaketh, Christ 
speaketh ; ' for he that receiveth you, receiveth me.' There- 
fore our Lord and Saviour sheweth to us, and speaketh, in 
the writings of his princes. The Lord shall declare by the 
writings of his folk in the holy scriptures ; which scripture is 
read of all folk, that all persons may understand. That he 
thus sayeth, he meaneth : as the apostles have written, so 
Christ hath spoken by his gospels, not to the intent a few 
might perceive it, but all men. Plato hath written in writings; 
but he hath not written unto the people, but to a few; so 
that scarcely three men understand them. But these, I mean 
the princes of the church and chieftains of Christ, have not 
written to a few, but to all people. And of princes, that is 

qui fuerunt in ea. Videte ergo quomodo scriptura sancta sacramentis 
plena est. Legimus apostolum Paulum, legimus Petrum, et legimus 
ilium dicentem, An experimentum ejus quaeritis qui in me loquitur 
Christus \ Et quod Paulus loquitur, loquitur Christus. Qui enim vos 
recipit, me recipit : Dominus ergo noster atque Salvator narrat nobis et 
loquitur in scripturis principum suorum. Dominus narrabit in scripturis 
populorumj in scripturis Sanctis: quse scriptura populis omnibus legi- 
tur ; hoc est, ut omnes intelligant. Quod dicit hoc est : Sicut scripserunt 
apostoli, sic et ipse Dominus : hoc est, per evangelia sua locutus est, non 
ut pauci intelligerent, sed ut omnes. Plato scripsit in scriptura, sed non 
scripsit populis, sed paucis; vix enim intelligunt tres homines: isti vero, 
hoc est, principes ecclesiae et principes Christi, non scripserunt paucis, 
sed universo populo: et principum, hoc est, apostolorum et evangelis- 
tarum, horum qui fuerunt in ea. Videte quid dicat, Qui fuerunt, non qui 
sunt: ut, exceptis apostolis, quodcunque aliud postea dicetur, abscin- 
datur, non habeat postea auctoritatem. Quamvis ergo sanctus sit aliquis 
post apostolos, quamvis disertus sit, non habet auctoritatem; quoniam 
Dominus narrat in scriptura populorum, et principum horum qui fue- 
runt in ea. Hieron. Op. 1699. Tom. 11. 350. in Psalm. Ixxxvi. Com- 





of apostles and evangelists, of those which have been in her: 
ponder what he saith, which have been in her, and not which 
be ; so that, besides the apostles, whatsoever else afterward 
shall be said, let it be disannulled, nor let it have in time 
to come any authority. Wherefore, then, if there be any holy 
man sith the apostles' time, be he never so cunning, he 
hath none authority ; for because the Lord declareth in the 
writings of people and princes of such as hath been in the 
church." And the said Hierome, in his commentaries upon 
the epistle of Paul unto Titus, writeth thus 1 : " That which is 
affirmed by us, it must be upholden by the testimonies of 
holy scriptures, in the which God daily speaketh to such as 
be faithful." 

Certes, these be so manifest, so plain, and do confute so 
dingily 2 the sentence and saying of Florebell, that I marvel, 
if so be he perceiveth these, him to have been able 3 to 
write against so evident a truth any thing. But this is a 
great deal more to be wondered at, that he durst be so 
bold to obscure and intricate so easy and manifest text of 
[Gai. i. 8, 9.] Paul, written unto the Galatians. The text is this : "Al- 
though we, either an angel of heaven, shall preach to you 
a gospel beside that we have preached unto you, let it be 
excommunicated : as we have said before, so say I now again, 
if any preach any other thing unto you than that ye have 
received, hold him accursed." By those words what the apostle 
mindeth, every wight doth understand ; for it is a continual 
statute and rule in the church, by that which it is ordained, 
that no person teach any other gospel, either any other doc- 
trine of salvation, beside that which both Paul and other the 
apostles and disciples of the Lord have delivered to us. Thilk 
same verily is contained in the writings of the new testa- 
ment ; for we have shewn before, that those holy writers have 
taught by mouth and put in writings one manner of gospel 
and the self-same doctrine wholly ; except plainly we would 

[} Quod nobis sanctarum scripturarum testimoniis asserendum est, 
in quibus quotidie credentibus loquitur Deus. Hieron. Op. Ep. ad 
Ctesiph. cxxxiii. §. 13. i. 1042.] 

P Dingily: forcibly; from the old verb ding, to dash against. "Tam- 
que apte" is added in the Lat.] 

Q 3 I wonder that he was able, &c] 



accuse than of inconstancy and of vanity. Wherefore, since 
at this present time no voice of the apostles may be heard, 
besides that scripture of theirs which is the interpreter of 
their voice and speech, whosoever shall bring in any other 
gospel either doctrine, besides that which is included in the 
•most sacred writings, and is apparent that both Christ and 
his disciples whilom have preached, such an one, by the 
commandment of Paul, is to be kept out from the fold of 
the church, as a wolf utterly to be repelled, which violently 
invadeth the flock of Christ. 

Which thing sith it is so, and is so understanded, after 
that sort, of all men which at any time hitherto have been 
notable in the doctrine of religion; yet, for all that, this 
Florebell is so bold, to subornate an exposition of it which 
hath not been heard sith men were born, neither witty verily 
nor "subtle, (lest peradventure it might please him), but un- 
godly and rude, and sprung from malice. " He said not (quoth 
he), If any man shall teach you otherwise than Matthew, 
Luke, Mark, or John hath writ, either shall write, or else 
otherwise than I have written: he maketh mention of no 
manner of writing, neither of gospel nor epistle. What 
then saith he? besides that which we have preached unto 
you; that is, otherwise than before you we have taught, 
and by preaching have committed to you; and besides that 
which ye have received, and in personal presence ye have 
learned, of us.'" witty exposition ! the wonderful sharp 
judgment of Florebell ! What if that which was preached, 
the same also be sealed up in writings? whether he which 
forbiddeth any thing to be preached besides that hath been 
preached, the same man also forbiddeth that hath been writ- 
ten to be preached ? No man truly may say that, which is 
endued with reason : not because a man forbiddeth any thing 
to be done, otherwise than he hath spoken, he by and by 
prohibiteth that to be done which is written, if thilk same 
thing which he hath spoken be had in writing: 'he said 
not, -1 quoth FlorebeH, 'besides that which is written; there- 
fore there is one thing written and another thing preached.' 
But Paul himself doth refel such great treacheries easily, 
and slanders of his sentence: for writing unto the Corin- [icor.xv.i, 


thians he openly and plainly testifieth, that he writeth the 




selfsame gospel which before then he preached ; and he saith 
it maketh no matter whether he, either any other, do teach 
the same gospel. Also he hath left written the same in an- 
other place, and sovereignly in his epistle unto the Ephe- 

But let us pass over these trifles; and forasmuch as we 
have confirmed the holy scripture not only to be perfect and 
absolute, but also we have dissolved the contrary arguments, 
now let us shew briefly, that nothing ought to be added 

Deut. iv. either diminished to the said scripture. For first of all, God 

Deut. xii. himself by Moses forbid that utterly in the law, that nothing 
should be added unto his words and precepts, neither any- 
thing taken away from the same ; but that respect should 
alone be had upon that he commandeth, and thilk kept and 
observed. Now, if the scripture of the new testament be the 
word of God, the which by no means may be denied ; by the 
said law also we be forbidden to cast to, either to take away 
any thing. Doth not that which in Solomon's Proverbs is read, 
ought to put us earnestly in fear, that we should not go 
about any such matter, but should have in more higher re- 
putation the words and scriptures of God ? when he saith, 

Prov. xxx. " All the words of God be purified, and be a shield of defence 
unto those which trust upon them. Cast thou nought unto 
his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found false." 
What saith John, that most renowned prophet of Jesus 
Christ? with what words doth he end his book, which con- 
taineth the whole doctrine of Christ, and all the destinies 
and prophecies of the church and of the wicked? with how 
horrible words, which ought always to be had in memory? 

[Rev. xxii. " For I witness," saith he, " to every one, hearing the words 
of this prophecy, if any man add either imagine of his own 
brain ought unto these my words, God will put upon him 
the plagues written in this book. And if any man pluck 
away from the words of this prophecy any thing, God will 
pluck away his part out of his book of life, and from the 
holy city, and from those things which be written in this 

ruai. Hi. is.] book." And eke that Paul writeth unto the Galatians ap- 
proveth the same : " The testament of man, if it be allowed, 
no wight abateth it, either augmenteth any thing to it." But 
will men amplify the testament of God and of his Son ? Man's 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 373 

laws and decrees be accounted very holy : but shall not so be 
the laws of God, which is best and mightiest, and of Christ, 
King of all kings ? And sith these folk are enwrapped with 
so great temerity, as they are not adrade 1 to accuse God of 
negligence and slackness ; yea, let those elder fathers come in 
and aid us in God's cause. " We learn 2 (saith Ambrose, the Ambrose. 
bishop of the church of Medy 3 ,) as much as the very pre- 
sent letter ministereth to us, and that we may not for any 
consideration add any thing to that we be commanded: for 
if a man put either abate ought, it seemeth to be a certain 
perverting of the commandment ; for the pure and simple form 
of the commandment is to be observed, or the order of the 
testimony to be manifested. Eftsoons, a witness when he ad- 
joineth any thing of his own surmise unto the process of 
things done, he defouleth the whole faith of his testimony 
by the falsifying of one part : ergo, nothing must be added, 
albeit seemeth good,." 

Also as notably speaketh Cyprian the martyr, saying: " The Cyprian. 
gospel comprehendeth all things which be now and to come, 
both honour, godliness, and faith. He hath concluded all 
things under the word of preaching ; for as a preacher preach- 
eth to all such as be gathered in a company together, even 
so we, saith he," (meaning Paul, whose words he expoundeth 
of his epistle unto Titus,) " we preach openly in such wise 
that we add nought, but those things only which we have 
heard. Perde 4 this is the virtue of a preacher, to recite 
all points truly, which he is put in trust withal, neither to 
put to ought, either to alter, or abate." If then Christ, when 
he instructed his disciples, hath taught them all that he had 
received of the Father, nor reserved any thing, either to 

[} Adrade: adread, afraid.] 

Q a Etenim quantum praesens lectio docet, discimus nihil vel cautionis 
gratia jungere nos debere mandate Si quid enim vel addas vel detrahas, 
prsevaricatio qusedam videtur esse mandati. Pura enim et simplex man- 
dati forma servanda, vel testimonii series intimanda est. Plerumque 
testis dum aliquid ad seriem gestorum ex suo adjicit, totam testimonii 
fidem partis mendacio decolorat. Nihil igitur, vel quod bonum videtur, 
addendum est. Ambros. Op. Basil. 1567- Lib. de Paradise cap. xii. 
Tom. rv. p. 107.] 

f_ 3 Mediolanensis ecclesiae pontifex, Lat. i.e. of Milan.] 

£ 4 Perde; or Perdie: a form of oath; (Par Dieu.)] 


Montan, or to Manichseus, or else to Mahomet, or finally to 
the pope, as who would say, to comforters 1 ; if the Holy 
Ghost hath revealed all things to the apostles ; if thilk 
apostles and disciples of the Lord have put all things in 
writings, nor have charged the church with aught which is 
not written by them; if, finally, commandment was given to 
the church, that she should teach nought else besides that it 
had received of the apostles, nor add, nor take away, nor 
change; whether is it not a huge boldness, under the pre- 
tence of the authority of the church, to make and ordain 
new religion, new doctrine, new rites and ceremonies, and al- 
together a new gospel (when indeed it is nought else but the. 
overthrowing of the gospel), and to entangle careful men with 
vain superstitions? 

Nobly it was spoken of an orator', that there is nothing 
so holy, which boldness at some time might not defile. For 
if there were certain thing's needful to salvation left to the 
church afterward to be enacted; why neither Christ himself, 
nor the apostles, nor the disciples of the Lord, give us any 
advertisement thereof? why have they hid from us a matter 
so weighty, so perilous, and so necessary to be known ? Were 
not the writers of the gospels negligent, the apostles un- 
circuinspect, Christ improvident, the Holy Ghost ignorant of 
things to come, if we hear the backbiters of God's majesty 
and of the holy scriptures? 

But because Florebell standeth in doubt that this place 
will be rent from him, he passeth unto another. And as that 
thraall 3 man of Terence 4 , fearing his own cause and mistrust- 
ing his own wiliness, said, If it come not to pass this way, we 
will attempt another ; even so Florebell, knowledging himself 
to maintain an evil cause, deviseth and draweth one thing after 
another, supposing that amongst a multitude some thing to 

[} " Quasi paracletis," Lat. used, probably, by Curio, not so much in 
the sense of " comforters," as referring to that other sense of the word, 
and office of the Holy Ghost, by which he is the Teacher and perpetual 
Admonisher of the church.} 

Q 2 "Qui cum intelligerent nihil esse tam sanctum, quod non ali- 
quando violaret audacia, supplicium in parricidas singulare excogita- 
verunt, &c." Cic. pro Sex. Rose. Amstel. 1G61. p. 206,] 

\J Thraall man, thrall : slave.] 

[" Hac non successit : alia aggrediemur via. Terent. And. in. i. 47. J 

curio's defence op Christ's church. 375 

be which may aid him. For to the intent he might constitute 
and establish the authority of his church, by the which he 
might uphold somewhat besides the scriptures, and never to 
be wandering in error, he goeth about to challenge unto it 
the right and title to interpret divine scriptures. But that 
reason of his is very weak for to prove that which our ad- 
versary intendeth : for he would, that if the church hath au- 
thority and right to interpret, that by and by it hath power 
for to decree new things and to retain them, which may not 
seem to be able to be confirmed with the testimonies and au- 
thority of holy scriptures. But this is like as if any wight 
should say, that because a man may run, he may also fly; 
either a lawyer, for that he hath authority to interpret the 
laws, that he hath eke power to make laws : but this how 
unsightly a thing it is, and how far from all reason, who per- 
ceiveth it not I 

If that with any argument or reason Florebell proveth 
that, let any man look ; for he saith, it is not agreeable for 
the Holy Ghost, which may not suffer the church to err in 
interpreting the scriptures, to permit the same notwithstand- 
ing to be oppressed with superstition, and to be enbasted 5 
with vain opinions repugnant to the sentence of the divine 
volumes. Here first I would know of thee, Florebell, whether 
thou thinkest the Holy Spirit to teach things which be con- 
trary one to another, and do not agree together? Whether 
thou list, take : for if he teach not contrary things, there is 
nothing that thou mayest look for of him, than that in the 
holy writ by those divine writers he hath spoken and set forth. 
But if he speaketh and telleth you those things which be repug- 
nant to the holy scriptures, now it is not the Holy Spirit, but 
a deceivable and lying spirit sent from hell for to deceive men. 
There is no cause, then, why we should look for from the Holy 
Ghost any new learning, either diverse from that which those 
heavenly men and messengers of the Lord have left written 
in books to us, either that we do make her the author and 
teacher of our lies : for the Spirit is true and always one, 
whom Christ hath given to the church, not for to teach new 
matters, but for to expound and put in our remembrance those 
things which were whilom committed and taught to us. Where- 
Q 5 Enbasted: steeped in; from verb to "baste;" "imbui," Lat^] 



fore, although the church may interpret and expound with the 
Holy Ghost, their guide and master, the divine writings ; there- 
fore it may not prescribe and constitute a doctrine or else any 
laws for salvation and immortality to be obtained. 

But sithen it is sufficiently before approved that the learn- 
ing of our religion, which is comprehended in the writs of the 
old and new testament, to be so perfect and absolute, that 
neither angels truly, nor celestial spirits, may want any thing 
in it ; sithen also by that they be taught ; it me seemeth good 
to speak of the way and lore to interpret any thing. Then let 
Florebell tell me, whether it may be seen rightful to comment 1 
any thing or to abate, as concerning the matter in defining 
holy scriptures. If he saith, yea ; he shall be confuted by the 
scriptures of God, whereof I made mention before, by the 
which it is forbidden, that we neither put to, or else take 
away aught, that may deprave or alter the sense of them. If 
he nayeth it, and be assayed with 2 thilk doctrine which the 
secretaries of God hath set in pointell 3 ; then we shall shew 
that he may be reduced unto health, if it be possible, and 
after what sort it is lawful to be occupied in expounding 
The way the holy writings. And what ways or what mean might 

to expound . i , • > r> ™ • 1 • 

holy scrip- be invented, more better than that which first Christ him- 
self, and afterwards his disciples, have followed \ For Christ 
Jesus, although he was able to teach of himself, as God ; yet 
to the end he would declare to us this way, which have 
not like authority, he brought forth Moses, David, and other 
prophets, for to confirm those things he taught; and he 
admonished the hearers, that they should confer 4 with dili- 
gence those prophets with thilk things he instructed them of; 
whereby it might be brought to pass, that they should find 
both life and the truth, and draw out the plain meaning of the 
divine sentences. The which thing eke afterwards his disciples 
thoroughly ensued, whether by word or by writing they would 
teach. That I say is this ; that the obscure and harder places 
by other places of holy scriptures, not darkish, but manifest, 

P Comment : invent, devise ; "affingere," Lat7\ 
P Assayed with : satisfied with ; " contentus ea doctrina," Lat.j 
P Have set in pointel: have put into writing; (pointel meaning 'a 
writing-pen ;') " literis mandarunt," Lat.'] 
p Confer: compare.] 


curio's defence of Christ's church. 377 

clear, and easy, [to] be expounded ; and not by man's will : 
which manner and way, such as were the fathers after the 
apostles, both knew and highly commended. For this is the 
sentence of Hilary, in his books of the Trinity: " He is a right HUarjus. 
good reader, which searcheth the interpretation of the sayings 
of scripture by the sayings of scripture, rather than make and 
determine it himself; and should declare it by them, rather than 
bring it of his own head*.'" He clepeth him a reader which 
readeth the divine books to the intent he may understand them, 
and commenteth somewhat thereupon ; which in reading useth 
to interpret ; and him he will not straightway to imagine any 
exposition, if he chance upon any hard place, but to mark 
the place, but to attend; until by reading other places do come, 
which may seem to be sufficient for to make evident that same 
place. Wherefore we deny not that the holy scriptures must 
be expounded, if in any place it be dark ; and if it be doubtful, 
to be distincted 6 ; if it be short, to be dilated; if it appear to be 
contrary, to be reconciled: and this office, to expound, willingly 
enough we grant to the church, and in her only to confess 7 . 
But this we do nay 8 , that by any man's interpretation any 
new doctrine ought to be erected, which cannot stand and be 
upholden by manifest and certain places of the said scripture. 
And besides this, we do affirm that none, either man or set of 
men, may challenge unto them, as it were by a title of inherit- 
ance, thilk same right and office for to interpret ; but that it 
belongeth to all men which, being inspired with the Holy 
Spirit, have purposed to labour themselves therein. Where- 
fore there is nothing why the pope or any other man may ar- 
rogate the same unto him, as by his own peculiar interest, that 
he would it to be lawful for no man to interpret the divine 
books besides those whom he shall appoint unto that office ; 
that, as a cook prepareth meats for his own tooth, so those 

p Optimus lector est, qui dictorum intelligentiam exspectet ex 
dictis potius quam imponat, et retulerit magis quam attulerit; neque 
cogat id videri dictis contineri, quod ante lectionem prsesumserit intelli- 
gendum. Hilar. Pictav. Op. Bened. Par. 1693. de Trin. Lib. i. §. 18. 
col. 776, 7.] 

Q 6 " Distinguendam," Lat. to be discerned, as to its true meaning.] 

[7 " To confess" that the power resides " in her only."] 

E 8 Nay: deny.] 



may expound the holy scriptures for his pleasures and most 
corrupt judgment. 

Then this followeth not, as Florebell troweth, that if the 
church maintain any thing which cannot be confirmed by 
the testimonies of holy writ, yet for all that we must think 
that she cannot be deceived ; but rather the contrary, we 
ought precisely to judge, that if any number of men, be it 
never so great and populous, not alone to be seduced and 
err 1 , but also thilk in no wise to be the holy church of Christ ; 
for that only is the true church of Christ which observeth 
the pure and sincere doctrine of Christ, and sticketh not, for 
to retain the same, to put all her endeavour and diligence. 
Which thing, Florebell, if thou understoodest or wouldest 
understand, thou shouldest never call us slanderers of the 
church : but we forgive thee this, with six hundred things 
more ; and beseech God that he do open to thee and to others 
the true church, whereof thou being ignorant, ye cannot be 
saved. I wis 2 , such things as thou settest forth of certain 
old ceremonies, as those be proposed lightly by thee, so may 
these lightly be passed over of me : for I do nought regard 
rites and ceremonies which have no force for salvation and 
justice ; for those ought not to excite sedition in the church: 
albeit it is very good to turn our minds unto thilk rites and 
mysteries alone, which Christ himself left us and sealed up with 
his own blood, the handling of whom and use is much worth 
unto piety and godliness ; whereas the inventions of men, be 
they never so gay, seem to have little efficacy to promote piety 
and set forth religion, but great weight for to destroy them. 

I come therefore unto those things which thou sayest 
may not be doubted of us, when, for all that, those cannot be 
proved by divine scriptures. And as I may speak of the Holy 
Ghost, who knoweth not by the divine writings, except he be 
very blind, that he proceedeth both from the Father and the 
[Rom. viii. g on \ f or w hy else should he be called the Spirit of Christ, 
unless he flowed also from him ? Who ever heard any thing to 
be any man's, which might not be of him? And although 

[} " If any number, &c, maintain any such thing, we should consider 
that that number, holding such views, are not only deceived, but are not 
the true church of Christ."] 

P Wis : wist ; am of opinion.] 



Christ saith this Spirit to issue and to be sent from the Father, 
yet nevertheless he denieth him not to proceed from himself; 
but because he is also a man, he teacheth all things to be re- 
ferred unto the fountain, that is God. But yet because Christ 
is also God, therefore he saith in another place, himself toge- 
ther with the Father to work, and bring to pass whatsoever 
the Father doth. Why is it also that he apertly behesteth 3 to 
send the Holy Ghost, that he might instruct us the Saint Spirit 
to descend from him I for " if I depart (saith he), I will send 
him unto you." 

But what do I any longer about these? sithen all such 
things which Florebell saith to be retained of the church 
without any authority of scripture, or those be idle things; 
either at liberty 4 ; or else those may be found set forth, 
and allowed by divine testimonies, by the labour and diligence 
of holy fathers. Paul permitteth folk of contrary religion, 
coupled together in marriage, to dwell so one with another: 
therefore what authority of the church without huge felony 
may forbid it I Eke the holy day received for the sabbath The sab- 

• i • bath-day. 

pertameth nought unto salvation, as Paul his self apertly testi- [Coi. n. 16, 

fieth unto the Colossians ; and it may be any other day, whom 

any nation, either magistrate, or else the church, shall appoint 

and approve, for to yield their common prayers unto God, and 

to receive his doctrine and sacraments. That verily the Lord's whetherthe 

i i i o i> • i • -i i Lord's sup- 

SUpper ought to be taken of men fasting, either no, it hath per ought to 

been always at liberty 4 , and always shall be; for that Christ hath fasting. 
not bound us to any other thing, than that, as oft as we should 
[do] this, in the remembrance of him we should do it : albeit in 
this point I deem that custom of the church in the which thou 
art is to be observed for a unity sake ; and it is commendable 
to be received of men fasting, for because of reverence. Certes, 
the apostles determined of strange beasts and blood to be for- 
saken. That cannot advance your matter nothing at all : for, 
alder first 5 , that was done for a time, partly that the gospel more 
speedily might be set forth, partly also lest the Jews might 
think they were despised, which for the ceremonies of their 

\y Apertly behesteth : plainly promiseth.J 

[ 4 At liberty: a question left open ; "libera," Lat.~\ 

Q 5 Alder first: first of all; "piimum enim," Latr\ 



country and rites eftsoons stored up 1 great controversies : be- 
sides that, the apostles in this point decreed no new thing; but 
a few, and very few, of those ceremonies which were delivered 
by Moses, by the commandment of God, were retained so long, 
till a great knowledge of Jesus Christ might transform their 
minds into the holy liberty. For your cause and theirs is not 
like : for they in decreeing followed the law of God ; you 
contrary to God's law, and the right holy liberty of Christ, 
do define things, and ye do draw men into a felonious thral- 
dom, which be made free by the benefit of Christ. 

But of the rest, as of the perpetual virginity of Mary, 
Christ's mother most holiest, and of infants to be baptized 
and christened, I wonder that Florebell calleth them in doubt; 
since in the time of our forefathers and of us those questions 
be diligently confuted, and sith with one word both may be 
satisfied : for of the continual purity of the body of our lady 
there is no place in holy scripture that constraineth us to 
doubt; for, that men do object of the brother of Christ, 
we must impute it to their ignorance, which, knowing not 
at all the manner of the Hebrews, do move such light ques- 
tions. But to bring infants into Christ's religion after the 
christian usage, is it not evident in the testimony of Christ 
by express commandment, which commandeth all persons to 
be baptized, and to be grafted in him? Doth he exclude 
from those all children ? either in the whole is not the part ? 
or, special form in his universal gender contained? Verily, 
that men once christened ought not to be baptized again, 
doth not the whole scripture declare, which maketh men- 
tion of none that was re-baptized after his fall? No, truly, 
Simon. uot Si m on thilk soothsayer, whom Peter admonished only 
22i tsvi "' ft* 1 ' to re P ent an d to pray unto God. And also, do not 
those words prove sufficiently that we go about, where 
Paul in his epistle which he wrote unto the Romans saith, 
[ 4.] those that be baptized in Christ, to die and to be buried? 
the which thing truly once only to be done, there is none that 
knoweth it not. Now, if that baptism and washing doth repre- 
sent unto us death; it is not to be taken again, lest so high 

f 1 " Turbas coneitabant," Lat.~] 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 381 

mysteries be confounded. By these allegations, Florebell, as I 
deem, thou confessest those of thine to be vain and foolish. 

But is.there any thing else? Yes, verily, he saith there is; 
for if the church be under this condition, that it may be deceived, 
all the acts of general councils and decrees may be disannulled 
and decay. I hear now, thou speakest something that maketh 
for the purpose. But this also thou shalt understand awhile 
after to be a trifle : for what sayest thou, Florebell ? If the 
church may err, and be deceived, that all the general acts of 
councils be of none effect : dost thou not perceive the fault of 
thy. argument? who at any time concluded such an argument, 
unless he were a sophister and a trifler? Peter erred some [Gal. «. u.] 
time, specially when he was reproved of Paul; therefore have 
all his acts and decrees taken such a fall, that they may be of 
none authority in the church? Either, if thou hadst liever, the 
philosophers in many things were deceived, and might be 
deceived : for this . may we cast away all their doctrine ? 
may we believe them nothing, disputing and teaching of 
nature, of manners, and of the knowledge to judge an argu- 
ment in an oration ? for they might be deceived, and eftsoons 
were deceived. How much these be worth, I wot now thou 
seest. - 

If that thou seest not, ne understandest as yet, I will speak 
plainer. The church may be deceived, and then chiefly is be- 
guiled, when she (as the prophet saith) inquireth not at the mouth [] 
of the Lord, that is to say, when she swerveth from the divine 
scripture ; when she setteth not the same before her, as a rule 
by the which she may measure all decrees and acts, and when 
she putteth not that same before her as a mark, at the which 
always we ought to shoot. , Certes, when it ensueth the divine 
discipline, then it wandereth not out of the way, nor erreth, nor 
is deceived : wherefore neither his acts may be unabled, neither 
his decrees let slip, neither his judgments abrogated. Eight 2 
as a judge cannot be. deceived, whiles in judgment he fol- 
loweth the law and the proper sentence of the law ; neither a 
physician ministering a medicine by science; neither a painter 
obeying the precepts of his craft ; whether in painting he 
imitate and follow the marvellous industry and cunning of 
Michael Angelo, either Titian :, right so the church, if it re- 
Q 3 Right as : just as.] 


tain the doctrine of the Son of God, and ruleth all things out 

of the same, shall never err. Wherefore upon wicked and 

felonious persons 1 , as Arius, Macedonius, Eunomius, Sabellius, 

CTunciis Manichseus, and such other like, for to be condemned, what- 

biTto'bff soever the councils have done and determined, for that they 

allowed. j, ave <jone things agreeable to the authority of divine scriptures, 

those may never decay, never be disannulled, or else be made 

of none effect. 

Seest thou not, Florebell, both that the church may err, 
and yet that rightwisely it establisheth, to be firm and in- 
violable ; and that in the church is a rule by the which as 
well the errors of councils, as also thilk things which they de- 
termine godly and holily, may surely be known, discerned, and 
lightly tried out I But it is well that thou understandest and 
grantest these thy reasons to be human, that is, false: therefore 
thou goest unto divine, that is, unto true authorities, and that 
irefully ; although thou didst ween that thou sufferedst wrong of 
us, which, foregoing the truth, by and by would not grant unto 
thy treacheries and trifles. But thou wilt say, Whether be 
these trifles which Christ his self, which his apostles with one 
assent have taught ? No, I say, I affirm that : but I call thilk 
things trifles, as they be in deed, which thou thinkest to con- 
clude by them. Christ hath promised to abide with the church 
until the world's end : also, that the Holy Ghost for ever shall 
dwell with the same. Paul calleth the church the firmament 

P The date, and character of the system, of each of these heretics is 
as follows. Arius, a.d. 318, denied the eternal generation of the Son 
of God from, and his consubstantiality with, the Father. Macedonius, 
bishop of Constantinople, (360), denied the consubstantiality of the Holy 
Ghost with the Father. The opinions of his followers (who from then- 
opposition to the orthodox doctrine concerning the Holy Ghost were 
called 'Pneumatomachi',) were condemned by the Council of Alexandria 
in 362. Eunomius, bishop of Cyzicus, (358), maintained that the Son of 
God is unlike the Father as to his substance. Sabellius (258) denied the 
personality of the Son and the Holy Ghost ; maintaining that God the 
Father was himself the Redeemer and Sanctifier of mankind ; that the 
divinity of the Father resided in Jesus Christ, who had no separate 
existence before his appearance upon earth ; and that the Son and Holy 
Ghost are mere modes or operations of the one only God. ( Vid. Riddle s 
Eccl. Chronol.) The followers of Manichseus, (or rather Manes, from 
a.d. 276 to 602), held the notion of two distinct principles, a good and 
an evil one, in order to solve the difficulty respecting the origin of evil, j , 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 383 

and pillar of truth. Out of the which thou wiliest to follow, 
that the church and the councils may never enlaced be with 
errors, neither by any means wimpled 2 and detained with 
them. What shall I here say, but that thou in the scriptures 
hold no certain sentence ? What then, if Christ never forsaketh 
his church; if with his Spirit continually he governeth it, 
shieldeth, and advanceth it I whether for that shall we say 
that he is with his adversary, which hath proclaimed an ever- 
lasting war with the church ? I have said oft, and have given 
warning, and again shall give warning, that to be the true 
church of Christ which retaineth the doctrine of the Son of 
God and his ceremonies, nor swerveth from them any whit: 
this church Christ never forsaketh: with this he doth par- 
ticipate the gifts of his Spirit and virtues. This church is the 
pillar and stable foundation of truth, for because in it soundeth 
the voice of the Son of God. Yea, this church beareth up 
Christ himself in manner of a certain pillar ; for that Christ is 
her head, from whom into all the body, in manner as oil did 
out of the head of Aaron, life, justice, wisdom, peace, health, 
floweth and springeth. This church erreth not in the total 
of his doctrine: she falleth not in those things which import 
eternal damnation. Sooth it is, otherwhiles, that there is a 
certain rout of men, which in manner of a worldly kingdom 
doth obtain a certain dominion, and avaunteth itself for the true 
church ; where, for all that, there is nothing farther from the 
true church than it. This ehurch ofttimes gathereth together 
councils and congregations of men : many times it judgeth of 
religion, either of some things controversed. But because it 
followeth not in judging the sincere doctrine of Christ, as 
already I have said, but her own commodities, her own riches, 
and her proper power ; it cometh to pass that she falleth into 
huge and felonious errors : right as it came to pass in the time 
of Elias, when Jezabel and Ahab waxed cruel upon good folks; Eiias' time. 
and many time also, when the Lord's prophets did judge and 25.] 
teach contrary to the priests, bishops, kings, and against the 
greatest multitude of the people. What ! was not the church 
of the Jews, which had highest authority, when Christ preached 
at Jerusalem, entangled with hideous errors, and condemned 
and drave from place to place and cast out Christ himself and 
Q 2 Wimpled : wrapped, involved.] 




his disciples as wicked and seditious persons I What ! in the 
troublesome time of Arius did not the east and the south 
parts almost all agree together with the bishops of Rome and 
Constantinople, and also the emperor himself, unto the wicked 
doctrine of Arius ? At the which time only five bishops, being 
vexed and exiled therefore, did judge aright ; and were deemed 
of that church, which then was falsely called catholick, here- 
ticks, ungodly, and seditious folks. For this, let Florebell tell 
me where at that time he trowed thilk church to be which 
cannot err : for those as were in highest authority, as kings, 
priests, pharisees, magistrates, bishops, emperors, dwelled in 
error, and pursued the servant of God unto death and con- 
fusion. Where therefore was the church hidden ? First time, 
in Helias, in Heliseus, and in thilk seven thousand persons 
whom God had reserved to himself; at another season, in 
Jeremiah, Isaiah, and certain other ; when Christ came, in 
Zacharias, Simeon, Joseph, Mary, Elizabeth, and in a few 
herdsmen of sheep, and in certain other almost of no repu- 
tation; in the troublesome time of Arius, in those five bishops, 
and such as followed them out from the commonalty. 

Go now thy ways, and declare that thilk church which 
contendeth for the primacy and hath the worldly dignity (for 
unto the same I know that thou referrest all thy sayings) may 
not err, either be seduced at any time ; and cease with an 
unclean mouth and wicked to reprove Christ the Son of God, 
his apostles, and the Holy Ghost ; or rather to condemn 
them, as though they be untrue and ungodly, because that your 
goodly church always hath erred, doth err, and perpetually 
shall err. Not for this 1 we bring in a church like to thilk 
city of Plato which is fained, either we place the same in 
some corner, either we affirm so to lie privy that it cannot be 
found out or looked upon and gone unto ; but we shew the same 
with her evident and manifest signs. Why ? be not these full 
true tokens and right sure marks of the church, the right 
sincere administration of the doctrine of Christ and his sacra- 
ments, the calling upon God through only Jesus Christ, and 
all the other ministry pertaining to the church, as bishops, 
pastors, doctors, and such other, whom the Lord Jesus, as 
Paul witnesseth, hath given unto the church? What is more cer- 
[} Not for this we : we do not therefore, &c. ; " non igitur," Lat.~] 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 385 

tain than these signs ? what thing more clearer ? Wheresoever 
these signs be found, then, whether it be in Grecia, either in 
Italia, or in Germany, either elsewhere; we doubt not but that 
same is the true church of Christ, although from thilk same 
we do not exclude such, whatsoever they be, that judge 
righteously and according to the same points ; albeit through 
tyranny they cannot have the whole ministry of the church, 
either, being letted by distance of place, or with other right 
urgent business may not join themselves bodily with the rest 
of the church : for this conjunction is of minds and faith, and 
not of bodies or places. 

In sooth, what like thing may ye affirm to have? First, 
although in word ye say the church to be throughout the 
world all, yet in deed ye include it at Rome and in the 
only pope. If that it please you to dilate the same further, 
ye stretch it unto cardinals and bishops, albeit the matter 
so always cometh about, that all things must be referred 
unto the pope : it is necessary that all things stand or else 
decay at his appointment. Moreover 2 , ye retain the pure 
doctrine of Christ, neither observe any sacraments after the 
right christian manner, neither do ye exercise evangelical 
preachers, or any other ministration of that true ancient 
and apostolical church. As concerning the rest which thou 
art able by speaking many things to reckon, as that many 
unclean and damnable persons is contained in this church, 
which we behold as it were fishes of all sorts in a fisher's 
trunk or willo ; and that also the company and fellowship 
of the elects doth ask with continual prayers of God for- 
giveness of their uncleanness ; and that the divine gifts be 
neither void ne vain by the unworthiness of the ministers, 
so that they teach those things which be contained in holy 
writings; and that it behoveth sects to be in the church, 
to the end that such as have abiden in the truth being proved 
may be saved ; — I say, that if thou lookest that I should answer 
to all those things, thou art greatly deceived; for I suppose 
verily that thou art not ignorant, since herein we agree with 
thee : then all these same things may be applied upon us 
right wisely. Wherefore I intend not to follow this thy vain 

P "Neither ye retain," is required both by the sense, and the Latin, 
" neque retinetis."] 




labours, but only to note briefly the points of thy arguments, 
and, without vain rehearsal of them, to refute them. And yet 
within a while after I will come unto thilk thine enumera- 
tion of heretics ; then truly after, thy faults shall by me be 

And first forward, that thou sayest that all churches were 
in much tranquillity and peace until one Luther sprang, which 
troubled so great peace of Christ's name, and did break the 
unity ; dost thou not understand that thou objectest that 
thing to Luther which was areted 1 to Elias, to Jeremiah, 
to Esaias, and unto other right holy prophets always, and 
afterward unto Christ and his disciples I for always they were 
both accounted and called peace-breakers, beginners of all 
tumults, seditious fellows, covoiters of newelties, and busy 
bodies. Why, was not this the old complaint of the Romans, 
which imputed every evil they feeled to Christ's doctrine I 
against the which complaints St Augustine, in his books de 
Chitate Dei, disputeth very abundantly and eloquently. But 
Florebell saith, God is the author of peace, and not of dis- 
sension. I grant ; but of what kind of peace I Of thilk, or 
no, which the world hath accustomed to give, and that is 
found eftsoons among evil and ungracious persons? No; if 
we believe Christ, which confesseth verily himself to give peace 
unto his meyney 2 , and as it were to leave it by will to them, 
but such an one as the world may not give, divine and hea- 
venly : by the which, first, the minds be made quiet against 
the dreads of sin, death, and hell : besides this, the consent 
of one faith, religion, and doctrine of the gospel, bringeth this 
peace. This is the concord, the charity, the peace and 
tranquillity, which Christ commended unto us, which he left 
us, by the which he willeth his disciples to be known. If 
that thou wouldest pluck me from this peace, then Christ 
himself testifieth that he was come to set betwixt us not 
peace, but war; and, that nature seemeth to abhor, he came 
to separate the father from the son, the brother from the 
brother, the son-in-law from the father-in-law, and the daugh- 
ter-in-law from the stepmother. Wherefore what marvel is 
it, if in times past all things seemed full of peace and tran- 

[} Areted to : imputed to, alleged against.] 
E 2 Meyney, or, meiny : household.] 

curio's defence op Christ's church. 387 

quillity in the church, when all things were under antichrist 
and vain superstition; and since Christ returned and his verity, 
every thing began to be troubled ? for " when a strong man 
armed keepeth his palace, all things be in peace which he 
possesseth: but when a stronger than he cometh,'" then riseth 
at length a fierce conflict, for that the former man seeth 
himself shortly to be spoiled of all those things, which here- 
tofore violently he possessed : for by this similitude God hath 
set before our eyes thilk peace of the world and his battle, 
that is to say, of ungodliness with godliness 3 , of superstition 
with religion, and his disagreement with antichrist. 

Augustin Mainard, whose wisdom and learning, adjoined ^lalriard 
with a singular modesty, all Italy wondered at, when at certain 
times he was wont to preach at Bonony, he moved thereby 
somewhat the citizens. There was at that time a certain man 
called* Calistus, a monk, which when he had accused Mainard Calistus. 
of heresy (as this kind of folk are accustomed to do) unto 
the pope's vicar, this vicar caused Augustin to be cited, that 
he might hear before him the cause why Calistus accused 
him. When they came both before him, Calistus spake in 
this wise : ' I cannot marvel enough, right reverend master, 
that whereas I have preached unto divers people divers ser- 
mons nigh hand these thirty years, yet I never troubled the 
auditors, neither stirred up any commotion or debate. But 
this man, (beholding grimly Mainard,) if either once or twice 
he cometh into a pulpit, it is a wonder what strife and mur- 
mur he exciteth; so that some men the pope, and some the 
gospel, I wot not what, will defend. Wherefore I can none 
otherwise guess with myself than that he is infected with some 
spoke of this new learning. 1 Unto this Augustin with a sober 
spirit, as he is always of, answered : ' This,' said he, ' the pro- 
phets which were before Christ, this Christ himself, this his 
apostles could not glory of: wherefore I perceive thou art 
more happier than all these, Calistus; but it shameth me 
nothing to be accounted among them, and to be partaker of 
this unwellefulness 4 with them, which also shall receive part of 
their felicity.'' And in this manner that wise man assuaged the 

P MS. ungodliness ; but the Latin is, " impietate cum pietate."] 
[ 4 Unwellefulness, or, unwelefulness : unhappiness. From wele, pros- 




outrage of the man and satisfied the judge, which was a won- 
der. And if that thou also mightest be contented by the like 
means, I am glad ; but if it may not be, I am sorry. 

But our adversary gabbeth 1 , ' Luther, Zuinglius, and such 
others like, hath replenished all places with flames of fire, 
with manslaughters, robberies of churches, with unlawful car- 
nal copulations, crimes. 1 What sayest thou, Florebell? who 
shewed thee this ? ' I have seen,' saith he, ' the remnants of 
a most cruel battle which was fought with a tyrannical fierce- 
ness, when the last summer I took my journey through the 
Helvetians : whereby also I became very sorry, when I saw 
everywhere the decay of churches and holy houses ; when I 
beheld the images of all saints abolished ; when I saw lying 
down, trod and broken off, that most holiest cross, the mo- 
numents everywhere which had borne Christ dying for our 
salvation. What form was then there ? how hideous ! how 
horrible was it in my sight ! where, a great while behold- 
ing, I could nowhere espy any token of an altar, no vest- 
ment, none ornament, no light ; finally, nothing like a church 
besides the roof and the walls and a few settels ; so that I 
dare say that the temples of the cruel barbarous nations have 
more semblant of religion.' 

And in all these things he is not ashamed to call God to 
witness in swearing that he feigneth ne augmenteth aught. 
whorish unshamefacedness ! But what may a man do unto 
that person which followeth the father of lies ? for what 
burnings hath our nation meddled withal? what slaughters 
have they done? with what unlawful delights, either wicked 
lechery, are they distained withal? I pray thee, transport 
not the proper doing of your Jezabel unto Elias and such 
as be blameless. Who knoweth not that the pope, with 
many wicked persons hired by him thereto, would have de- 
stroyed with fire a great part of Germany? he attempted 
it, and in many places brought it to pass. Certes, who but 
the pope stored up mutual manslaughters, wars against cities, 
peoples, and princes, as he at this time, usurping the power 
of kings and sovereign emperors, and joining his hosts with 
theirs, supporteth a wicked war and bringeth in most unjust 
weapons upon right just men, which have done much good 
[} Gabbeth: prateth.] 

curio's defence op Christ's church. 389 

for christian religion .! But he that desireth to know the out- 
rages of bodily lusts and all kind of unbridled delights of the 
flesh, let him go to Eome, and let him be conversant in the 
colleges of your women and men which be unmarried: let him 
mark your priests, and he shall find that his eyes, of their own 
accord, will abhor ne cannot abide. There is truly in those 
-churches and cities which have desired the old liberty of the 
■gospel, power to marry granted to them all by the command- 
ment of God, that such as cannot live chaste might enter 
into the holy bond of marriage: but none is hereto com- 
pelled; unlawful copulations either whoredoms none be com- 
mitted; no priests slain; none be exiled, but which or be 
seditious ; either by their own accord, through the hate of true 
religion, were willing to depart away. 

That thou sayest the Helvetians kept war with a bar- 
barous fierceness, thou declarest thy wrath towards that 
nation, which is full strong and gentle ; neither only thine, 
but also of all thy sort, that is, of papists. And in this 
I see thee to reprove the Bernates' princes and their people, 
than the which nothing may be found out more kinder, more 
merciful, more holier, nothing more earnester for to set forth 
the sincere religion of Christ. Verily that war which they 
of long continuance kept against Geneva, next little kingdom 
unto them ; that was taken in hand of them by great neces- 
sity and right, and fought with great equity, and brought to 
^,n end with a wonderful felicity and curtesy; so that in the 
same a man might have perceived, partly, a certain divine 
clemency of thilk princes, either rather a godliness ; but 
chiefly, the will and providence of God Almighty. They cast 
down images, altars, crosses, and whatsoever was set forth to 
superstition and false religion, I grant : and in this doing 
they obeyed to the law of God, and did the duty of good 
princes, and delivered the people from vain superstition. But 
thou wouldest have churches well furnished with altars, pic- 
tures, and sumptuous images, garnished with vestments, ves- 
sels gold, and precious stones, avanced 2 with lights and tapers, 
with a huge many of priests for to sound out with howlings 
which men understand not, with singsters and instruments of 
organs. But these manner of churches, men's minds which 
[ a " Illustrate," Latr\ 



be endued with true religion, understand that these belong 
not to the godliness of Christians, but unto the old super- 
stition of heathens ; neither that such be the temples of the 
true and immortal God, but rather of the gods of feigned 
antiquity ; whose foolish, old, and ungodly superstition you 
cannot deny but that ye follow. And, albeit that may be plain 
enough unto thee by the divine writ all those things to be 
Lactantius. vain and ungodly, yet if thou hadst either read Lactantius, or 
believed him when thou hadst read him, thou wouldst never 
have spoken ne set forth such fond and unsembly things. 

Now as touching the Tigurines, of whom thou makest 
mention ; who knoweth not that thilk battle was attempted 
and done, the pope being author and factor thereof; as I 
may pass over others, which devised for to abuse the Lu- 
cernats, being good and quiet men, to his purpose for to 
subvert the gospel? Wherefore let the fetys 1 fellow cease, 
which deemeth himself to be the flower of Italy, to call peo- 
ple and cities barbarous, which be instituted with right good 
laws and customs, and endued with true religion ; lest he may 
be seen to speak more for hatred and envy of the country, 
than of equity. Verily, that thou advancest with a plain se- 
ditious and unfaithful oration the one part of the Helvetians 
which as yet hath not coupled him with his neighbours in one 
manner of religion, thou lesest thy labour ; for at length, as they 
be now men both wise and loving of the truth, they shall 
understand both this religion to be true, and that you do no- 
thing else than lie in wait to deceive them of their liberty. 
But now I return a little while unto those thy words, by 
the which thou tellest when thou didst write them, that the 
summer past thou madest thy journey through Helvetia. 1 
marvel that thou, being a man learned and given to the studies 
of religion, didst not desire no company of learned men, which 
everywhere there in towns and cities do preach and teach the 
gospel; for I doubt not but that thou earnest from Lugdune, 
first to have come to Geneva, afterward to Lausanne, and 
then to Berna, and Tigur: the which if thou hadst done, 
thou shouldest have known the quick judgment of Calvin, 
the copy of Viretus, the gravity of Sulcer, the flower of 

C 1 Fetys, or fetise: spruce, fine; "bellus," Lat. with an allusion to 
the name of Florebell7\ 

curio's defence of chkist's church. 391 

Bullinger, in discussing of matters; and among all men thou 
shouldest have perceived learning, humanity, and a singular 
godliness. Truly thou wouldest have been so moved with the 
sight and learning of so many men, that either thou wouldest 
have cast away thy book, neither put him forth at all ; other 
else, if thou hadst determined to set him forth, I cannot doubt 
but thou wouldest have stricken out innumerable things that 
thou thyself shouldest have found partly false and unsembly, 
partly plain wicked and felonious. But, of myself I speak 
nothing, unto whom thou mightest a little turned out of thy 
way, as unto a man of Italy and almost thy countryman, and 
certainly thy friend, and used one hostelry 2 and fellowship with 
me as long as it should please thee. And although in this 
thou hast done amiss, it may be hereafter amended; for it 
may be leful for thee, when thou wilt, to resort unto us (the 
which I exhort thee heartily to do for God's sake, and for 
this wellbeloved truth sake, which I doubt not thou seekest 
after), and freely to reason and lovingly to dispute with us of 
the questions of religion. 

I now come to that thine argumentation of the church, 
which thou trowest no man is able to dissolve, albeit I am 
ashamed to entreat of one thing so oft, and (as the old 
saw goeth) to do a thing already done 3 ; for thou askest, 
AYhether there were any church before Luther's time, or 
no ? And to whichsoever we make answer, thou warrantisest 
thyself to have the upward hand ; for if we shall say that 
there was none, then thou deemest all the behests of God 
and Christ to have been frustrate. The which thing because 
it may not be, it is necessary that there was a church ; but 
since it was not the congregation of Luther, you will compel 
us to believe that thilk same hath been the true church of 
Eome. Natheless, if we will grant that there was a church, 
but a small one of number, then also thou demandest where 
be become the promises of God made of the church that 
was to come, which should be unmeasurable in the circuit 
of countries, and almost infinite in number of men. Thou 

Q 2 Hostelry: hospitality .3 

P Prseposteris enim utimur consiliis, et acta agimus : quod vetamur 
vetere proverbio. Cic. de Amic. cxxii. Ohe, 'Actum/ aiunt, f ne agas.' 
Terent. Phorm. Act. 11. Sc. ii. 71.] 



bringest many other points to confirm this sentence, the which 
every one shall fall and be of none effect, by the examination 
of those things which before I have put forth. 

But go on, I pray thee, Chrysippus, which with so sharp 
a judgment hast proposed a doubtful argument. — Now I make 
thee answer, and I say the church always to have been, to be, 
and for ever to remain : but whether it were a lythe 1 one 
or no, I dare not affirm ; for it was as great as God would 
it to be. Thou hast examples set before thine eyes heretofore 
by me of the times of Elias, Jeremiah, Christ, and Arius, 
when that which most of all seemed to be the church was 
not, and that which appeared least of all was the true church. 
By thilk examples and such like, learn to judge aright of the 
church : certes thou shalt judge aright, if thou wilt measure 
and deem it not by the multitude either fewness of folk, not by 
the pomp and ornaments, neither by the opinions of men, but 
by the full sincere word of God, by the right evident places 
of scripture. Verily, where thou allegest the church to be 
unmeasurable in circuit and almost innumerable in number, I 
fear lest thou do not understand it ; for I take that to have this 
meaning, that it be said unmeasurable in circuit, because it is 
not included alone in the nation of the Jews, but it may be 
extended and shall be extended into all lands and coasts of 
the world. Also, it is infinite in number, partly for the self- 
same reason, partly also that, albeit we do not for the most 
part know that infiniteness ; yet it is so great, that it passeth 
all men's imagination ; as in the time of Jezabel Elias 
thought that he alone remained which worshipped God righte- 
ously ; where, for all that, in the same place God had reserved 
to himself seven thousand persons, that is, a certain innu- 
merable multitude of men. Wherefore, although the church 
appear small in number, it is not by and by to be counted 
small ; albeit, as I have said, this maketh nought to the pur- 
pose, sith it is sufficient to uphold and believe that thilk 
holy church may never decay : therefore thou seest that thy 
argumentation is dissolved, and altogether that which thou 
hast objected falleth away ; if there were a church, whether it 
could know the other to err : if she had knowledge, why did 
she not give warning unto the other, and shew the errors I For 
[} Lythe: small, humble; "exigua," Lati] 


although the church, being oppressed with tyranny, sometimes 
lieth hid; — the which thing John, that right great prophet, very 
well hath declared, where he sheweth a woman (that woman 
is the church), for fear of the bloody dragon (which is anti- 
christ embrued with the blood of saints), to be kept in the [R*v. xii. 6.] 
wilderness by the benefit of God until a certain season ; — but 
algates the church ofttimes lieth privy, yet God suffereth no 
long space of time nor age of man's life to pass away without 
the trump and sound of his word, as the said prophet ex- 
presseth; for always he storeth up one other Elias, which 
doth admonish miswanderers from true religion, and goeth 
about to reduce them into the way. If ye would have known 
them, they were thilk which in the council at Constantine 2 
ye condemned, and unfaithfully murdered, with all those as 
followed them ; as Gerson, that was a man of Paris ; Valla a 
Roman ; Jerome of Ferrara ; Marsilius of Batavy ; and other 
innumerable were trumpets of the gospel ; as I may pass over 
those which now of days with so clear a voice and with so 
great spirit do blow the trumpets of the gospel, that the noise of 
them and the immortal harmony must needs be heard from the 
very uttermost stronds 3 both of sea and earth. But at these 
high voices, at these clamours and cries, at these so clear 
testimonies, ye stop your ears, in manner of a certain serpent, 
lest ye might forego aught of your pleasures, riches and power. 
Ye are deaf; and, that is worst of all, ye hear evil. But, ye 
wretches, God will move ye shortly together, and steare 4 you 
to hear with another manner grievouser trumpet. But let my 
oration return hither from whence it hath declined. 

At the last Florebell asketh : If there were any church 
besides that Romish, who, since the time that men have swerved 
from the doctrine of Christ and of his apostles, was ruler of the 
church, who hath been chief head upon the earth of the people 
of God, sith it is needful that always there be one which must 
rule the church and govern her I but, not such a one to be, he 
saith it is against both God's laws and man's constitutions. O 
blindness greater than was in the Egyptians ! no, rather this 
Florebell was somewhat deaf, but now he is blind. Come off 
now : if thou seest not, Antony, I will give to thee this ruler 

[ 2 Constantine: Constance.] [? "Pagis," Lat.~\ 

p Steare: stir; "excitabit," Lat.~\ 



and bishop of the church to be handled of thee, for as yet he 
liveth. Behold thou Paul, which teacheth Christ to be the 
heacfof the 6 rmer an( * nea< ^ °f ms church. And him (he saith) " he gave to 
church. }-,£ } iea( j a b ove all things unto the church, which is his body, 
and the fulness of him that filleth all in all things."" Moreover, 
23 1 ] 11 ' '' 22 ' h* 3 saith, "he that descended is even the same also that ascended 
jo— lb!] "' U P> even above all heavens, to fulfil all things. And the very 
same made some apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, 
some shepherds, and some teachers, that the saints might 
have all things necessary to work and minister withal, to the 
edifying of the body of Christ, till we every one in the unity of 
faith and knowledge of the Son of God grow unto a perfect 
man, after the measure of age of the fulness of Christ : that 
we henceforth be no more children wavering and carried with 
every wind of doctrine, by the wiliness of man and craftiness, 
whereby they lay await for us to deceive us. But let us follow 
the truth in love, and in all things grow in him which is the 
head, that is to say Christ, in whom all the body is knit and 
coupled together in every joint, wherewith one ministereth 
to another, according to the operation as every part hath his 
measure, and increaseth the body unto the edifying of itself 
in love. 11 Doth not he here seem to thee to be a very great 
bishop, and, as it is written unto the Hebrews, the chiefest 
ruler of the house of God, which also ordaineth many other 
to govern the church, lest he might be thought to be absent 
from his church? And herewithal Paul admonisheth us to 
retain him alone, to ensue his doctrine which continually is 
present with his church, which ruleth, and with holy laws 
governeth and increaseth her, which he hath caused to be 
written, and with his holy Spirit : and that they ought to be 
compared unto children which in this point doubt, which 
believe any other doctrine, any other laws and decrees, any 
other head, ruler, and high bishop, to serve unto salvation, 
besides only Jesus Christ. Thou seest that here is no mention 
made of any one bishop upon the earth, which ought to be 
higher in dignity than all the rest, and ought to be called 
greatest, either most sovereignest. Why is it that he hath 
promised himself to be present with his church unto the world s 
end, as thou already ofttimes hast specified, but now not re- 
membering the same, thou seekest another governor I Weenest 


thou that Christ with his congregation is idle; and as the 
Epicureans do grant, that there be gods, but that they regard 
not worldly affairs nor things ; right so, thou confessest Christ 
to be with the church for ever, but yet neither to govern nor 
care for her ; therefore ought there to be supplied in his room 
some other high bishop, which presently may rule her ? 

But among the Hebrews (quoth he), which be inferiors unto 
Christians both in number and dignity, God willed one bishop 
to have rule over them, unto whom all controversies and doubt- 
ful causes might be referred, whose judgments and deter- 
minations it was not lawful to break or improve. I hear thee : 
but the epistle which is written unto the Hebrews putteth 
away this reason : first, that therefore bishops were created [Heb. \-u. 
the one to succeed the other, for that by death they were letted 
to continue ; but this our Jesus Christ shall remain our 
bishop for ever : for this he concludeth that there ought none 
other to be put in his stead. Besides this, that high bishop of 
theirs was necessary for to renew their sacrifices, which sig- 
nified Christ: now sith there be no sacrifices to put away 
sins (for with one only sacrifice that high bishop Christ 
hath cleansed all sins), we have no need of a worldly bishop, 
either of any other sovereign priest besides Christ. 

But as concerning that belongeth unto the dignity of 
christian people, doth it not seem thee that they are excellently 
provided for! since we may perceive that the bishops of the 
Jewish people were in the house of God servants, mortal, un- 
clean, and bound to sins ; but our high bishop, Jesus Christ 
the Son of God, to be the everlasting Lord, pure, innocent, 
and at no time defiled with any spot of sin ; as the said 
epistle testifieth. — But truly, Florebell, so wouldest thou the 
kingdom of heaven, the church of Christ, to be ruled as 
these earthly kingdoms and imperies be ; but what Christ [Luke xxii. 
answered to such as then coveted the like kingdom, hearken: 
" The kings of the heathen folk," saith he, " have such do- 
minion and kingdom upon their people as ye desire to have, 
but it shall not be so among you: but who that among 
you willeth to be made great, let him be your minister ; and 
he that coveteth to be chiefest, let him be your servant." 
And the same he that was true King of kings confirmed by 
his own example; that albeit he was Lord and Master, yet 



he behaved himself more humbly than any servant. But this 
your bishop reckoneth it enough, if he name himself "the 
servant of servants," when, for all that, in deed he will be and 
accounted the lord of lords. — That thou also affirmest this 
primacy of one certain bishop to have always been allowed 
by councils, by sentences of ancient doctors, by the consent 
of many ages ; all this, in comparison unto the majesty and 
authority of the divine scriptures, is of none effect, nor able to 
stand. Wherefore it is to no purpose, if I should spend my 
labour in refuting the same in vain. 

For this 1 , Florebell, thou hast a high bishop and ruler of 
the church, such a one peradventure as thou soughtest not 
after : believe that he hath governed his church, yea, sith the 
time that the tyranny of the pope began to rise. If that thou 
hadst liever to have the pope, hold him to thyself: only Jesus 
Christ is sufficient for us, whom God the Father hath given 
to us for ever. Of truth we admit gladly all other persons, 
which after the manner of the apostles be put in authority 
over the congregations, upon this condition yet and law, that 
they bring us the pure doctrine, and every man, being con- 
tented with his place appointed, do not look to be superior to 

[i Pet. v. 3.] the others ; and, after the saying of Peter, let them exercise 
in the congregation of God no dominion. 

The cause Here a reason might be made to thee of me, why we come 

whvwe ° -ii 

come not not unto those your general councils, and why we will not 

to general ...... ., , 

councils, stand to those things which m such councils be decreed. 
But forasmuch as other men have right well made answer 
to all these things, I will in few here answer thee. Grant 
us a council to be where Christ with his disciples may sit 
as judge, and not the pope with his flatterers ; I mean, where 
sentences may be given by holy scriptures, and not by man's 
constitutions : appoint us some sure and free place to come 
unto, where the practice of your council of Constantine might 
not be dreaded, in the which council ye murdered two wit- 
nesses of the Lord, by a common assent, for their open faith 
sake ; and ye shall understand, that we will never hide 
ourselves, nor refuse the authority of councils. Not that the 
doctrine of Christ, which we preach and teach, needeth the 
approbation of any council, either man : but only that the 

I 1 "Igitur," Latr\ 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 397 

expectation of weaklings might be satisfied in this point, and 
that a common unity might be had, if it were by any means 
possible. But as long as such councils be, as of late the 
council of Tridentine was ; think not us to be so foolish, that 
we will commit our lives unto your faithfulness, which so oft 
already ye have lost and broken ; and to put in your hands 
that is more to be had in estimation than our life, the word 
of God and the heavenly doctrine : for we ought to fear lest 
that old proverb might be applied to us, ' Thou hast joined 
a sheep with a wolf. 1 

But, as I may conclude this place of the church and of her 
authority ; I think I have declared sufficiently, what is the true 
church, and from whence she hath her authority. For if that 
be the true church which is ruled and governed by the word 
of God, which is written to us by the apostles, and retaineth 
the trtie use of sacraments ; and if the church hath none 
authority in things belonging unto salvation, unless it may be 
proved by holy writ that she allegeth; then our adversary's 
arguments be all put clean away, and the true church and 
her true authority is declared ; for then the church hath equal 
authority with the gospel, when the gospel is declared by the 
church, and the church by the gospel, in this wise that one 
helpeth that other, and be knit together in friendship, as 
Horace hath said right elegantly of nature and art 2 . 

Now I descend unto that other part, which containeth 
certain common places; in the which our adversary saith we 
dissent from the church. Come on, Florebell : with what 
church sayest thou that we dissent I for if it be with her of 
whom no rather 3 I made mention, which maintaineth nought 
but sincere religion, not meddled with man's decrees ; with her 
in no point we disagree,, but her we follow the mistress of 
verity, teaching nothing but that she hath, taught us before 
out of the right clear fountains of divine scriptures. But if 
thou meanest that we dissent from that church, that would 

P "Natura fieret laudabile carmen, an arte, 

Qusesitum est. Ego nee studium sine divite vena 
Nee rude quid possit video ingenium: alterius sic 
Altera poscit opem res, et conjurat amice." 

Hor. Ars Poet. 408—11.] 

P "Cujus modo feci mentionem," Lat.~\ 



have her decrees and inventions to be accounted tor God's 
oracles, which commonly men clepe the Romish church ; what 
wonder is it if we disagree in those things with her, in which 
she disagreeth, with so great temerity, from the word of God * 
— For as first we may speak briefly of the Lord's supper. 

Barenger. Thou sayest that we follow a man called Barenger, which do 
deny that bread and wine after the consecration to be turned 
into any other nature : in the which point thou affirmest that 
we speak both against the right manifest words of Christ, and 
also the judgments of ancient doctors. I might, if I would, 
Florebell, as other men have done before me, shew the con- 
trary out of the same doctors which thou namest ; but it is no 
need; neither also I have not so much leisure at this time, 
sith as thou sayest the words of Christ instituting the sacra- 
ment be right plain and evident, that they require not neither 
the interpretation of any man, neither authority. — I pray thee, 
Florebell, put before thine eyes awhile Christ ordaining this 
mystery and entreating thereupon, if it is lawful to see these 

Theinstitu- things in mind, as it were, presently. Christ taketh in his 

tion of the ° i , t ™ • 

Lord's sup- hands bread which was upon the table ; Christ giveth his 

per, and the _ _ x . . ° 

understand- disciples thilk same bread ; Christ, whiles he giveth the bread, 
speaketh. Tell me, I desire thee, whiles the disciples eat 
this bread, chaw it with their teeth, and swallow it down 
into their stomach, where was Christ? was he not sitting 
at the table I did not his apostles behold him before them l 
did they not hear him speaking and right lovingly giving 
them advertisements ? In whether of those two places was 
the body of Christ ; whether under the teeth of his dis- 
ciples, other else where they both saw and heard Christ? 
If it was under their teeth, then it was not where they saw 
it : but if it was where they saw it, then it was not under 
the teeth, either within the bodies, of his disciples. For, whe- 
ther of two you do grant, that other thou must needs deny. If 
thou wilt say that he was in both places, now this followeth, — 
either that Christ had two bodies, or that there were two 
Christs, or else that it was a ghost which they thought them- 
selves to see Christ, and that so the disciples were deceived. 
The which things be so foul and so strange from the nature of 
Christ, that a man's mind doth abhor to hear them : but 
the words selfs be plain ; in the which things that be sensible 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 399 

do signify truly those which, in mind and religion by faith 
be comprehended. I grant Christ to have given his body, 
and his disciples to have received the same, not after a 
natural fashion, but supernatural; that is, after a heavenly 
and divine sort. 

Dost thou deny the bread to be the body of Christ ? I do 
not deny it, but confess the bread to be the body of Christ, not 
through any alteration of nature, but under verity of religion 
and of mysteries. Neither Christ himself by those words (as 
I have declared) minded to shew any commutation of natures, 
as which said the bread to be his body, and not to be changed 
into his body; and when he said that, he was present sitting at 
the table with them: neither the holy writer of the history 
understood any commutation of natures when he did say, " He 
took bread, he gave thanks, he brake it and gave it." Whether 
seemed he not by that circumstance of words to go about to 
put away all doubtfulness, lest we should think any miracle or 
wonder to be in this thing ? What, I pray thee, took he but 
bread ? what brake he but bread ? what gave he but bread ? 
for because that he took, he brake; and that he brake, he gave. 
But for that they be mysteries which be done, therefore they 
contain high and divine things; the which the very words and 
holy sayings of this our Melchisedec, both the priest and the 
Son of God Almighty, do lightly notify : " This is my body," 
saith he, "that is given for you; do ye this in remembrance of 
me." And likewise of the cup of wine : " This cup is the new 
testament through my blood which is shed for you." The 
which words, what mean they? what contain they? what 
signify they ? Truly no wonderful thing, but the sum of our 
salvation, and a full certain testimony thereof, which by the 
death of Christ we have obtained ; as it were 1 that right 
sovereign priest, and thilk same most acceptable host 3 unto the 
Father, did speak unto his disciples in this wise : ' What thing 
here be done, right dear beloved disciples, ye see ; I receive 
bread from the table, I give thanks unto my Father for his 
goodness, I break it in pieces, I distribute unto every one of 
you his portion. Also I reach unto you the cup, that of it ye 
drink all : certainly you take, eat, and drink it with such 

\} As if; " quasi," Lat.~] 

Q 2 " Idemque gratissima patri victima," Lat7\ 



reverence as it becometh you. All these things, I say, after 
what manner they be done, you yourself openly perceive, and 
taste : therefore these cannot be unknown unto you, for that 
these be subject unto your senses : but all this could do you 
no good, except ye know for what purpose they were ordained. 
And for this, receive ye a short declaration of this mystery, and 
shut up the same now, not in the foreign senses of the body, 
but in the inward parts of your mind; for it is no trifling 
matter. Certes, I give now unto you bread and a cup, as ye do 
see : but if ye be my true disciples, if ye believe me, think also, 
for the love and zeal I bear unto you, I give to you this my 
body which you behold eke with your eyes, and blood: that 
being refreshed with this heavenly bread and drink, ye may 
have everlasting life. And as ye may understand all the whole 
thing the better, and may perceive my love towards you, im- 
mediately I will give this my body for to be slain, and this 
blood to be shed ; and that for you and many others, to the in- 
tent the Father, being reconciled by this liberal sacrifice, might 
forgive you your sins, for the which, death and eternal punish- 
ments were due. Therefore understand ye, that this is the 
new covenant and the very testament eftsoons promised in the 
prophets, which is now confirmed, not by the blood of beasts, 
but by the shedding of my blood. Wherefore, observe ye this 
right and holy manner, and the mystery of so high thing, in 
your assemblies together continually, with such godliness and 
religion as is meet for you ; that both the memory of me may 
be always with you, and thanks be given to the Father, and ye 
be enkindled by this so great example of mine, one to love 
another.' This is the sentence 1 of that institution and of those 
words, not far fet, either transported; but borne out of the 
thing itself, and of the proper nature of the mystery. 

Thus the fathers, as well Greeks as Latins, have judged. 
Whether there is no cause 2 why that thou shouldst object 
against us the controversies of some of our own congregation 
in this point : for all they have maintained the chief and sum of 
this thing, and have agreed upon the same. If that there were 
contentions and discord, it was for certain other causes, which, 
as I perceive, thou dost not well understand : for neither Lu- 

[} Sentence : meaning ; " sententia," Lat7\ 
L~ 2 "Nee est quod," Lat.~\ 

curio's defence of Christ's church. 401 

ther at any time, yea, after this your consecration, denied it to wherein 
be natural bread; nor Zuinglius, either CEcolampadius, to be the oscoiam- 
body of Christ. But, in this consisted all the controversy, what ?. uin s^' 
manner of body and blood doth consist in ? And because thou 
sayest there can be no surer token of their ungodliness than 
such contentions, I confess verily that contentions and strifes 
ought to be eschewed, specially in religion; but that those 
always be tokens of ungodliness, I deny; for it may so be 
that they which contend, both parts may do it for the glory of 
God, neither judge any thing against religion. What manner [Acts xv. 
of contention was betwixt Paul and Barnabas, which, as Luke 
testifieth, waxed so fervent, that they which by the inspiration 
and commandment of Christ were joined together in com- 
mission to set forth the gospel, in that contention did de- 
part the one from the other? But if this do not satisfy, 
beh.old.thou the two lanterns of the Latin church, Jerome and 
Austin 3 , among whom arose so great contention of the simu- 
lation of Peter, that, if thou peruse over the epistles which one 
did write unto the other, a man might scarcely believe it to be 
possible, that those were written of so great men, and so famous 
in learning and godliness of living. Wherefore it is not to be 
wondered at, if among us also contentions and debates do 
arise of the places and words of scripture, so that neither 
side fall not from the faith of Christ, either from the sum 
of religion. But if the ungodliness and inconstancy of doctrine 
of any church be to be reproved for divers and full oft wicked 
contentions, and brawls always most vainest ; where may a man 
find at any time more, where greater, where more bitterer, than 
in the church of Eome ; in the which for these five hundred 
years or more there was not any doctor either writer, which 
did agree with the rest? insomuch that religious persons, 
every one of them following the inconstancy of their doctors, 
made eftsoons a place for that old saw of the poet to be ap- 
plied, ' Wisdom is taken away from men, and the matter is 
handled with violence.' If that the sects of the Anabaptists 
began to spring at such time also as the evangelical doctrine 
came again unto us, Luther, nor none other that did en- 
deavour to spread abroad Christ's doctrine, ought to be blamed 
therefore in any wise; for when were there more sects of 
[ 3 August. Op. Par. 1836. Tom. n. Epist. lxxv. et lxxxii. etc.] 





ungodly folk stored up, than when the most sincerest doctrine 
of Christ began first of the apostles to be published, and a 
little while after them, by others? for so it is ordained by 
nature, that right as with the good corn naughty cockle and 
barren weeds do spring together, so with the true and holy 
doctrine great abundance of heresies and lies do arise, verily 
not through the fault of the verity, but by the envy of the 
enemy of mankind, which goeth about to suppress the truth 
which groweth abroad. Also, if that princes and cities have 
fought against those Anabaptists, it was for that they first 
began the war not only against the gospellers, but against 
all magistrates they stored up every where sedition. There- 
fore they were to be suppressed and to be reformed, not 
alone for religion sake, if they had any hid in their mind, 
but for sedition. But I marvel that thou imputest that battle 
a fault to the Germans, which was accomplished with great 
praise and virtue by a common assent and aid, both of the 
pope's side and adherents, as of ours. Truly thus men are 
wont to do, that seek all means to hurt and to reprove: but 
hereof I have said enough. 

Let us now briefly consider other matters, lest I might 

be seen to go about to repeat those things, which of our men 

already have been written copiously, discreetly, and distinctly, 

vidence of" as concerning this. And that our people teach of the right 

ofm a " d cei "t am providence of God, and of our full great imbecility for 

strength. ^ do good and for to perform God's commandments, and of 

such owier high matters, those be most agreeable unto the 

divine scriptures. I pray thee, what else teacheth Paul than 

all things to be made, done, and administered by the right 

certain purpose, strength and decree of the will of God? 

Who can avoid the purpose of God? Who may escape his 

strength ? Who is able to change his will ? Neither, verily, 

when this is said of us, either we reject the cause of sin 

upon God, other else do renew the stoical destiny; but we 

declare what the power is of God's providence, and of his 

eternal decree out of the secret scriptures, that the glory of 

God might be conserved upright. The question of necessity 

shall not be so hard indeed, as it seemeth, if we separate a 

Sing! be little tne divine providence from our will ; and do say all things 

sar n i?y? ece8 " to t> e done necessarily, if we regard the purpose or providence 

curio's defence of Christ's chl~kch. 403 

of God ; but if the same be referred unto our will, we do work 
then freely and of our own accord. Neither it is no inconve- 
nient thing, truly, either reproach, to call thilk strength of 
God's providence a destiny, which from ever hath been, is, and 
shall be true ; the which word St Austin 1 refuseth not to use, so 
that it be well understanded ; for I believe there is no apter word 
in Latin for to express that men call predestination ; for provi- 
dence signifieth rather a certain purveyance and administration 
of those things which be included in destiny. Therefore let 
this be persuaded to all men, that God is the Lord and ruler of 
all things, and such things as be done, to be done through his 
dominion and power ; and that he doth always good for man- 
kind, and never evil ; and whatsoever man he be, what he work- 
eth, whatsoever he alloweth with himself, with what mind, with 
what godliness he observeth religion, let him think that God God hath a 

° ° respect of 

hath a -respect and care both of the godly and of the wicked the godiy 

A t . . and of the 

people. Nor in sooth any man may think otherwise, except he ungodly. 
that supposeth no heavenly power either God to be. But how 
great the infirmity of man's will is, thou mightest even by 
those sentences learn, which testify that we by nature are 
unclean and turned from God, and that we are not able of 
ourselves to will any thing which is holy and pure, much less 
we have power to accomplish it, except God by his holy 
Spirit put in us good thoughts, and heal and help our wills, 
and give us strength to perform. Thou mightest gather the 
same of Austin, and of other ancient doctors of the church; and 
not ascribe it unto Wickliff either Valla. Now, if in this case 
or in any other some of our side have amended ought; they be 
no more to be reproved of inconstancy than the said Austin, 
which hath written a book of Ketractions 2 also, in the which he 
correcteth and changeth himself full often. If that the latter 
sentence be better than the first, thou oughtest to commend it ; 
but if it be worser, to reprove it ; and not generally to con- 
demn the amendment without exception. 

But in that thou sayest us to teach the authority of the oftheabsti- 

ncncG from 

church to be neglected, which do preach no kind of meats meats. 

to be forsaken, verily not in the prescribed days of the 

[} August, de Predestinatione et Gratia, cap. 1 et 5.] 

P Retractationum Libri II. quorum in altero " retractantur libri 

quos scripsit nondum episcopus ;" in altera, " Libri quos scripsit epis- 

copus." August. Op. Par. 1836, Tom. i.] 




are worser than Aerius or Wickliff. But I trow thou speakest 
this of ignorance ; for thou knowest not how great the dignity 
of Christians is. Christian folk be anointed with the oil of the 
Holy Ghost, and that by the benefit of Christ, upon whom 
that same joyful oil was poured with so great abundance, that 
unto all his brethren some portion doth redound : whereby 
also they be cleped Christians. But whosoever be joined 
to him, they be kings, they be priests, they be prophets: 
therefore all christian men be both kings, priests, and pro- 

[Rev.i. 6.] phets. Hereof it is that John the prophet speaketh, that 
Christ hath made us to God and to his Father kings and 
priests. Hereby Peter calleth christian men, sometime a royal 
priesthood, and sometime a holy priesthood, for to offer up 
heavenly sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ: 
for that cause also Paul exhorteth all men, that they give 
and offer up their bodies as it were a living sacrifice, holy, 
pleasant, and true unto God. Besides this a man may find 
none other priesthood in the holy scriptures : although we 
deny not an order of ministers to be in the church, as I have 
shewed in another place, as bishops, pastors, doctors, deacons, 
priests, which be grafted in this ministration, not by this your 
anointing, but through sound doctrine, blameless living, lawful 
vocation, and by other gifts of the Holy Ghost. 

of images. Moreover, I marvel that ye defend and uphold images among 
a people so holy, so heavenly, and so divine as the Christians 
be, sith those were never suffered to be of the rude and gross 
people of the Jews, but rather straitly forbidden of God, and 
the worshipping of them revenged with hideous plagues. What 
do I speak of the old law? doth not the scripture of the new 
testament and the epistles of the apostles condemn all worship- 
ping of images, and command one God only in mind and in 
spirit alone for to be worshipped, because he is both spirit and 
mind ? For the right, best, purest, and most holiest and most 
full of godliness worship of God is, to honour him with a pure, 
clean, and uncorrupt mind and faith : for if religion is the 
worshipping of the true God, and we cannot see God with our 
eyes, but with our mind ; it is not to be doubted that there is 
no religion wheresoever an image is worshipped. But Flore- 
bell saith, that we follow the heresy of the Iconomaches, which 
long ago were confuted by the councils of Rome and Nicene. 



If this matter must be tried by councils and by the opinions of 
ancient doctors, Florebell shall not overcome in this contro- 
versy; for the sixth council of Constantinople, also the coun- 
cil of Elibertine in Spain, and eke the twelfth council of 
Toletan, utterly have condemned the use of images in the 
churches, and that under very good emperors. Leo the first 
began it, and after him the two Constantines, the fifth and 
the sixth ; last of all Nicephorus and Philippicus, not consent- 
ing only thereto, but also persuading the same ; and therefore 
they were named Iconomaches, that is, overthrowers of images : icono- 


likewise Origenes, Cyprianus, Lactantius, Cyrillus, Athanasius, 
Chrysostomus, Hierome, Ambrose, Theophylact, Austin, and 
others right notable both in learning and godly living. 

Of the mysteries which men call sacraments, I will not° fsi J cra - 

•' ments or 

contend greatly with thee, as who doth know 1 many more mys- mysteries. 
teries'in holy scripture to be contained than we do reckon 
upon; yea, almost every sentence includeth a mystery. But 
when men of our sort entreat of mysteries, they sequester cer- 
tain from that infinite number, and reduce them into a small 
and a few number; so that they call those only mysteries, 
either sacraments, which Christ hath commanded with any 
singular ceremony and promise, of what sort be that mystical 
baptism and the supper of the Lord: by which two things 
the sum of our salvation is represented ; and those be, pro- 
perly, testimonies of the Father reconciled and pacified, and 
of the forgiveness of our sins. The which if they be of us 
repurged from divers superstitions, with which they were 
shamefully defiled, and restored after the rule of the gospel and 
of the old church, why is it that thou reprovest them, as 
though they might be seen to have done it for the intent to 
renew matters, and for a desire to exchange doctrine, either 
for a lust to set against the church? 

Over and besides, thou affirmest them to have brought of conta- 
in a new way to be confessed of sins. What is this new 
way? to move eftsoons the people that they condemn and 
accuse themselves before God, to beseech him forgiveness of 
their trespasses and wickedness. What is more old than this ? 
what more profitable for to know the benefits of God ? This 
confession the fathers of the old law did use : this confession 
[} Because I know, &c] 



church of Rome : we may lightly contemn that, which have 
Paul the apostle for our author. And as I may join two 
places together, which thou allegest against us, the same 
Paul coupleth with that I have said before such as forbid 
all kind of meats and marriage, and saith that they are 

[ljrim. iv. driven with evil spirits. For where he writeth unto his friend 
Timothy, he prophesieth in this wise of the later times: 
" The spirit speaketh evidently, that in the later times some 
shall depart from the faith, and shall give heed to spirits 
of error and devilish doctrine, of them which speak false 
through hypocrisy, and have their consciences marked with 
an hot iron ; forbidding to marry, and commanding to ab- 
stain from meats, which God hath created to be received with 
thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth : for all 
the creatures of God are good, and nothing to be refused, with 
us received with a thankful mind to God-ward." But in thy 
judgment they be of Jovinian's sect and Epicureans, divines 
that take away the difference of meats, that approve the 
marriage of priests and of others that be appointed to minister 
in the church, and improve 1 the unmarried state of living. 

of the Then Paul is a Jovinian, and Epicurean, which willeth it to be 

of priests, free to eat any kind of meat, and which doth not only condemn 
such as forbid marriage, but also commandeth bishops, priests, 

iTim.iv.3.i and others that be called to ministration of the church, to 

Tit i fi 1 

be married. And because thou art not abashed to affirm the 
brotherhoods of unmarried folk to have been instituted in the 
apostles 1 times ; whether commanded not the same Paul 
[i Tim. v. 9, Timothy, not to admit the younger women unto those bro- 
therhoods, but only old wives of threescore years of age ? He 
willeth the younger women to marry and to bring forth children, 
to govern t ne house in due ministration. Where be these 
abbeys of monks and nuns ordained in the apostles' times . 
We, for this, will not be wiser than Basil 2 either Chry- 

E 1 Improve : disapprove of: " improbant," Lat.~] 
P Aid yap tovto KCti 6 (pikdvdpwrros Geo?, Ktiho/xevos t»/? tifiw 
crtaTrjp'ia<;, eh Cvo hteTAe /3ioi>? Tfji/ rwv dvOpunronv oiaywyrjv, <rv(vyMv 
\eyoi Ka\ 7rapdeviav, 'tvct 6 fxrj 2ui/a'/*ej/o<r uVei/eyKeii/ rov t»j? ■trapvtvia'; 
&8\ov e\6oi eir\ crvvo'iKtjtTiv yvvaiKos, eneTvo eiSak, a>? airatrrjoriatrai 
Xoyov (ruMppcxrvvri 1 ; xai dytcMTfiov, Kal Ttjs 7roo<r tout ev (rvQiytais xai 
TeKvoTpocplai? ayiovs ofxoiaxreoi^. Basil. Op. Par. 1722. Tie Kenun- 
ciatione ssec. Tom. n. col. 203.] 

curio's defence op chbist's church. 405 

sostom 3 ; yea, we dare not be of more wisdom than the apostle 
and the Holy Ghost. Neither we do not disallow the un- 
married life, but the filthy life ; neither to be without a wife, 
but to be without shame ; neither pure chastity, but this un- 
clean virginity. 

After this, whereas thou sayest that we take fasting of fasting. 
clean away, if thou intendest to say truth, thou wouldest not 
thus have spoken: for none of us have taken away either 
fasting or abstinence, but permit them to be free, which do 
know that christian people be free from such ceremonies, and 
that they ought not to be bound unto those things by no laws, 
from the which Christ hath enfranched us : albeit the pope, as 
in forbidding marriage, likewise in commanding fastings, fol- 
lowing the ungodly and wicked person Montan, hath esta- Montan. 
blished laws of fastings, and hath bound those fastings unto 
prescribed days almost innumerable, under the pain also (as 
men call it) of deadly sin. But we do not take away fastings 
indeed, but also exhort daily all men to the same, not unto all 
kind of fastings, but unto those as Esaias and Christ do adhort [isai. lvin. 

US tO. [Matt. vi. 

Verily, to pray for the dead, either to go about any To pray for 
divine sacrifice, I wot not what; thou oughtest to have de- 
clared us, if by any commandment either example of scripture 
we were bidden or excited to do the same. If that no such 
thing may be found out in holy scripture, as it may not in any 
place ; (for I wyne 4 that thou understandest the place of the 
Macchabees to have hereto none authority or credence;) neither 
that we renew the heresy of Aerius, neither that Aerius in this 
point hath been a heretick, thou shouldest not affirm. 

Also thou usest semblable rashness where thou writest of of the 


priesthood ; for that we receive the communion with every priesthood. 
profane man, yea with boys and women, neither do separate 
the order of priests from the rest of the people, that have not 
received the order of priesthood : in the which thou sayest we 

Q 8 Tii/os evexev nai tov toiovtov eh p.e<rov Trapayei ; eirt<TTOfiitet 
tous aipeTiKOU?, tows tov yafiov 6ia(3d\\ovTa<;, SeiKi/iis on to irpayfta 
ovk eaTiv evayei, aWa ovtcd Ttpiov, »s fteT outov ivvaaBat na) iir\ 
tov ayiov dva/3atveiv Opovov. Chrysost. Op. Bened. Par. 1718. epist. ad 
Tit. Horn. 11. p. 387, 14. torn, iv.] 

Q 4 Wyne : ween, suppose : " puto," Lat7\ 



the apostles and the church in their time and after did ob- 
serve : but your confession is altogether new, which may be 
confirmed by no testimony of holy scripture. 
Of the mass. Yea, also this your goodly mass, either that daily sacrifice, 
as thou termest it, and whereof thou makest so much ado, is 
it not plainly the invention of men, and invented to the 
greatest injury of Christ as might be? For where hath Christ 
ordained it, that any one person, clothed after the manner of 
players and counterfeited 1 , turned from the people, standing 
at the altar, upon the which is set a certain hallowed stone, 
polished with an iron instrument contrary to the law, and 
the same covered with two or three altar-cloths, and decked, 
to play as it were a part in an interlude ; walking now in this 
side and then in that side, and turning himself hither and 
thither, mumbling verses, I cannot tell what ; and at length 
he must hold up a round piece of bread, which they call an 
hest, and a cup finely made for the people to gaze upon, 
which, kneeling behind his back, worshippeth it, after that 
he hath lifted it with his hands as high as he can above 
his head? by and by the same priest breaketh the gobet 2 
of bread into three parts : that one he letteth fall into the 
chalice ; he must keep that other twain in his hand until 
heaven and earth be pacified : he alone eateth all, and 
rinceth up the chalice, and accomplisheth all other things, 
which men both see and say these maskers to use to do : — I 
say, where hath Christ ordained any like thing? where com- 
manded he the piece of bread to be worshipped? where, in 
any place, is it to be read in the holy scripture, that the Lord's 
supper is a sacrifice ? where, that it ought to be offered for 
the dead as a sacrifice ? God himself, (saith Florebell), a 
great while before Christ was born, maketh mention of this 
sacrifice, of this pure and sincere oblation, to be very pleasant 
[Mai. i. n.] and acceptable to him, by the mouth of the prophet Malachi. 
' crowked souls upon the earth (as the writer of Satyrs 
cryeth) and void of heavenly things 3 P Is it this to under- 
Maiachi. stand holy scriptures ? is it this to play the divine ? Malachi 
speaketh there of Christ his only sacrifice and oblation, by the 

[} "Et personatus/' Lat.~] [ 2 Gobet, gobbet: piece.] 

P "O curvse in terras auiraae et ccelestium inanes!" Persius, Sat. 
ii. 61.] 

curio's defence op Christ's church. 409 

which he offered himself and his body upon the cross to his 
Father, an host for our sins : these jugglers draw it unto 
bread and wine, or rather unto their fable of the mass. For 
what is that pure and cle