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MARTYR, 1555. 


Etie U at Iter Society. 









Biographical Notice of Ridley , i 


1. Brief Declaration or Treatise against Transubstantiation ... 1 

2. Piteous Lamentation 47 

3. Treatise against Image Worship 81 


4. Conferences with Latimer 97 

5. Conference with Secretary Bourne 153 


6. A Determination concerning the Sacrament 167 

7. Judicium de Epistolis Decretalibus 180 


8. Disputation at Oxford 185 

9. Examination before the Queen's Commissioners 253 


10. Ridley's account of his disputation at Oxford 303 

11. The Theological Variations of Stephen Gardiner 307 

12. Answer to certain Queries touching the abuses of the Mass... 316 

13. Injunctions to the Diocese of London 319 

14. Reasons why the Lord's board should be in the form of a table 321 


15. Letters.— XXXIV 325 




I. Disputatio habita Oxonii 433 

II. Articles of accusation against Ridley 486 

III. Letter of Dr Turner to John Fox 487 

IV. Letter from Gardiner to Ridley 495 

V the Protector to Ridley 505 

VI Edward VI. to Ridley 507 

Notes 509 

Index 513 




BISHOP OF LONDON, 1550—1553. 

Dr Nicholas Ridley 1 was born in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century (the exact date is not known), in North- 

1 Ridley. The allusions made by Bp Ridley to his family in his 
letters, and especially in his " Farewell," where he specifically addresses 
its several branches, render it desirable to give some account of his 
relatives and their possessions. The origin of the name may be traced 
more satisfactorily than that of many others now equally illustrious. 
It appears to have been Scottish, and originally Riddle, or rather 
Ryedale, of which Riddle is a corruption; and the Riddles of Glen- 
riddle might have traced their descent to a common stock with the 
Ridleys of Willymotswick. The Ridleys appear to have had their full 
share in the disturbances so frequent in the border territory, and in 
works which treat on Border History occur many instances both of 
their courage and their importance. Turner speaks of one of Ridley's 
uncles who was a knight; it is just possible that he may have been 
the same person with the Richard Ridley of Hardriding, of whom 
mention is made by Ridpath. A passage in the Border Minstrelsy 
mentions those branches of the Ridley family located at Willymots- 
wick, Hardriding, Hawden and Waltown; the first of whom was pro- 
bably the uncle of Nicholas Ridley, and father to the "worshipful 
cousin of Willowmountswick," addressed by the Bishop in his last 
farewell. To this passage the editor appends the following note, the 
information of which he derived, he says, from Mr Surtees. "Willi- 
moteswick" (the etymology of which name is given in a note to 
Appendix III.), "now called Ridley Hall, is situated at the confluence 
of the Allon and Tyne, and was the chief seat of the ancient family 
of Ridley. Walltown, where another branch of the same family was 
settled, was so called from its situation on the great Roman wall." 
* * * * "A feud did certainly exist between the Ridleys and the 
Featherstonehaughs, another border family, and which led on more than 



umberland, not far from the Scottish border. Thus much he 
states himself; and to this his friend and fellow-collegian, 
Dr Turner 1 , adds, that the place of his birth was Wilmonts- 
wick. "His father," says Dr Glocester Ridley, "was the 
third son of a very ancient family, which had been seated 
there through a long descent of knights for many genera- 
tions ; the second son was John, father to Dr Lancelot Ridley, 
and a fourth son was Dr Robert Ridley." 

"Descended from this ancient stock, he degenerated not 
from the virtues of his ancestors, but gave a much greater 
lustre to his family than he derived from it." His school 
education he received at Newcastle upon Tyne, from whence 
he was removed, about a. d. 1518, to Pembroke College in 
Cambridge, at the expence of his uncle Dr Robert Ridley, 
then a Fellow of Queens 1 College. 

The following dates of the chief events in Ridley's life 
are collected from Dr Glocester Ridley and Bp Godwin 2 : 

Born in the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

Entered at Pembroke College, about a.d. 1518 

B. A 1522 

Elected fellow of University College, Oxford, but declined the 

honour 1524 

Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge , 1524 

one occasion to fatal results, as may be seen by the following ex- 
tracts from the Inquis. Calend. '24 Oct. 22do Henrici 8vi Inquisitio 
capt. apud Hautwhistle sup. visum corpus Alex. Featherstone Gen. apud 
Greenselhaugh, felonice interfecti 21 Oct. per Nicolaum Ridley de Un- 
thanke, Gen. — Hugon. Ridle. Nicolaum Ridle et alios ejusdem nominis.' 
Nor were the Featherstones without their revenge, for in 36to Henrici 
8vi we have, c Ut legatio Nicolai Featherston ac Thomse Nyxon, &c. 
pro homicidio Willmi. Ridle de Morale.' These extracts are here given 
as much with a view to shew the various modes of spelling the name, 
Ridley — Riddle — Ridle — Rydley — of which the first only is now pre- 
served, as to throw some light on the allusions in the Bishop's letters." 

1 See Appendix III. 

2 Ridley's Life of Dr N. Ridley, London, 1763, 4to. F. Godwini de 
Praesulibus Angliae Commentarius (p. 192) with Dr Richardson's Notes. 
Cantabrigiie, 1743. fol. 


M.A 1525 

College agent for Tylney, Soham, and Saxthorpe Churches 1526 

Went to Paris, and studied at the Sorbonne 1527 

Returned to England. Junr. Treasurer of Pembroke College ... 1530 

Senior Proctor 1533 

Signed the decree against the Pope's Supremacy at Cambridge .. . 1534 

B.D 1534 

Chaplain to the University and Public Orator 1534 

Chaplain to Archbishop Cranmer 1537 

Vicar of Heme 1538 

Master of Pembroke College, and D.D 1540 

Chaplain to Henry VIII 1540 

Prebendary of Canterbury 1541 

Prebendary of Westminster 1545 

Vicar of Soham 1547 

Bishop of Rochester 1547 

Commissioner to visit Cambridge 1549 

Bishop of London 1550 

Nominated Bishop of Durham 1553 

Excepted from the Amnesty by Mary 1553 

Committed to the Tower, July 1553 

Sent to Oxford to dispute 1554 

Martyrdom, October 16 1555 

From the preceding list of dates it will be seen that 
the college career of Bishop Eidley was highly honourable 
and equally successful ; and so great were the hopes excited 
by his learning and abilities, that a fellowship at University 
College, Oxford, was offered for his acceptance. This honour 
he thought it best to decline, preferring the prospects which his 
own University presented him, and was accordingly the next 
year elected a Fellow of his own College, to the Master- 
ship of which he subsequently attained. Impelled by that 
thirst for knowledge which ever distinguished him, he went 
in the year 1527 to Paris, for the purpose of studying at 
the Sorbonne ; and here doubtless he availed himself of every 
advantage presented to him by that then celebrated seat of 
learning. But the University of Paris was already in its 

a— 2 


decline, and Ridley has given a picture by no means favour- 
able of the then prevailing style of disputation among its 
members. His absence was not long, for we find him, in 
1530, Junior Treasurer of Pembroke Hall. He signed, as 
Proctor, in 1534, the Decree against the Pope's supremacy, 
and continued steadily rising in his University career. In 
1538 he appeared in a new capacity, that of a parish- 
priest. The Vicarage of Heme, in Kent, was bestowed upon 
him ; and with the intense but well-directed zeal which 
formed so essential a part of his character, he applied him- 
self to the duties of his new situation. So successful was 
he as a preacher, that he attracted to his church numbers 
who had hitherto altogether omitted the duty of attendance 
on the services of the church ; nor was he less attentive to 
the other parts of his parochial duty. 

His subsequent history will be given in the words of 
Fox, which, brief as they are, form nearly all that can be 
known of this great and good man's life. 

The " Life and Story 11 of Bishop Ridley preserved in 
the " Acts and Monuments 11 , is valuable and interesting, 
more especially as it gives many particulars of his domestic 
life, which are preserved in no other author. The mar- 
tyrologist, after some introductory remarks, proceeds thus : 
" Among many other worthy and sundry histories and notable 
acts of such as of late days have been turmoiled, murdered, 
and martyred for the true gospel of Christ in queen Mary^ 
reign, the tragical story and life of Dr Ridley I thought 
good to commend to chronicle, and leave to perpetual me- 
mory : beseeching thee, gentle reader, with care and study 
well to peruse, diligently to consider, and deeply to print the 
same in thy breast, seeing him to be a man beautified with 
such excellent qualities, so ghostly inspired and godly learned, 
and now written doubtless in the book of life, with the 
blessed saints of the Almighty, crowned and throned 


amongst the glorious company of martyrs. First descending 

of a stock right worshipful, he was born in Northumberland- Nicholas 

Ridley born 

shire, who being a child, learned his grammar with great {"^nd um " 
dexterity in Newcastle, and was removed from thence to Rid?ey as 
the University of Cambridge, where he in short time became Newcastle. 
so famous, that for his singular aptness he was called to 
higher functions and offices of the University, by degree 
attaining thereunto, and was called to be head of Pembroke Nicholas 

_ Ridley 

Hall, and there made Doctor of Divinity. After this, de- Master of 

•* Pembroke 

parting from thence, he travelled to Paris, who at his return b r idjje. Cam ' 
was made Chaplain to King Henry the Eighth, and pro- Ridley made 

Doctor of 

moted afterwards by him to the Bishoprick of Rochester : S- V i ni , ty- 

J l Nicholas 

and so from thence translated to the See and Bishoprick Henry'? 11 ^ 
of London in Kins: Edward's days 1 . Nicholas' 

° J Ridley made 

" In which calling and offices he so travelled and occu- Rochester 
pied himself by preaching and teaching the true and whole- Ridieymade 

i s-ai • i n i m i bishop of 

some doctrine of Christ, that never good child was more London. 

' ° The fruitful 

singularly loved of his dear parents, than he of his flock BfclopRid- 
and diocese. Every holiday and Sunday he lightly preached poaching 

God's word. 

m some one place or other, except he were otherwise letted 
by weighty affairs and business, to whose sermons the people 
resorted, swarming about him like bees, and coveting the 
sweet flowers and wholesome juice of the fruitful doctrine, 
which he did not only preach, but shewed the same by his 

1 Ridley was not promoted to the see of Rochester till after the 
king's death, but it would appear that he was intended to be placed 
in that see as soon as the death of Longland, the aged bishop of 
Lincoln, made a vacancy for the translation of Holbeach, then bishop 
of Rochester. Gloucester Ridley remarks, that the historians of the 
latter part of Henry's reign and the beginning of that of Edward VI. 
speak of him as having been appointed to preach the funeral sermon 
of Francis I. at St Paul's, calling him elect of Rochester; but that 
even in this particular they are inaccurate, as this sermon was preached 
on the 19th of June, 1547, and the conge d'elire was not issued to 
the chapter of Rochester till the first of August following, Henry 
VIII. having died on the 28th of January in the same year. Gloucest. 
Ridley's Life of Bishop Ridley, pp. 184, 210, 211. 


life, as a glittering lantern to the eyes and senses of the 
blind, in such pure order and chastity of life (declining 
from evil desires and concupiscences), that even his very 
enemies could not reprove him in any one iota thereof, 
fey o?grea d t" " Besides this, he was passingly well learned, his memory 
reading was great and he of such reading withal, that of right he 
deserved to be comparable to the best of this our age, as 
can testify as well divers his notable works, pithy sermons, 
and sundry his disputations in both the Universities, as also 
his very adversaries, all which will say no less themselves. 

" Besides all this, wise he was of counsel, deep of wit, 
and very politic in all his doings. How merciful and care- 
ful he was to reduce the obstinate Papists from their erro- 
neous opinions, and by gentleness to win them to the truth, 
his gentle ordering and courteous handling of Doctor Heath, 
late Archbishop of York, being prisoner with him in King 
Edward's time in his house one year, sufficiently declareth. 
In fine, he was such a prelate, and in all points so good, 
godly, and ghostly a man, that England may justly rue the 
loss of so worthy a treasure. And thus hitherto concerning 
these public matters. 
Bishop Rid- " Now will I speak something; further particularly of his 

ley comely x ° *■ J 

tfon r and r " person and conditions. He was a man right comely and 
compexion. we jj p r0 p 0r t; one( j in all points, both in complexion and 

lineaments of the body. He took all things in good part, 
bearing no malice nor rancour from his heart, but straight- 
ways forgetting all injuries and offences done against him. 

SaonsT 1 ' He was ver y kind and natur al to his kinsfolk, and yet not 
kyftende'r 11 " bearing with them anything otherwise than right would re- 

to his kin- . . . 

ot r henvise n0t qUire ' £ mn S them alwavs for a general rule, yea to his 
andVighf own brother and sister, that they doing evil should seek or 
squired. j Qok for nothmg at j^g j lan( ^ but ^oxM be as strangers 
and aliens unto him, and they to be his brother or sister 
which used honesty and a godly trade of life. 


" He using all kinds of ways to mortify himself, was given Bishop Rid- 

° J J 3 ley a great 

to much prayer and contemplation : for duly every morning, SSiseu:' ° f 
so soon as his apparel was done upon him, he went forth- 
with to his bedchamber, and there upon his knees prayed 
the space of half an hour, which being done, immediately he The order of 
went to his study, (if there came no other business to in- andtliet - 
terrupt him,) where he continued till ten of the clock, and 
then came to common prayer, daily used in his house. The 
prayers being done he went to dinner, where he used little 
talk, except otherwise occasion by some had been ministered, 
and then was it sober, discreet, and wise, and sometimes 
merry, as cause required. 

" The dinner done, which was not very long, he used to 
sit an hour or thereabouts talking or playing at the chess : 
that done, he returned to his study, and there would con- 
tinue, except suitors or business abroad were occasion of 
the contrary, until five of the clock at night, and then would 
come to common prayer, as in the forenoon, which being 
finished he went to supper, behaving himself there as at his 
dinner before ; after supper recreating himself in playing at $[| r ^ 
chess the space of an hour, he would then return again to per> 
his study ; continuing there till eleven of the o'clock at night, 
which was his common hour to go to bed, then saying his 
prayers upon his knees, as in the morning when he rose. 
Being at his manor of Fulham, as divers times he used to 
be, he read daily a lecture to his family at the common The careful 

diligence of 

prayer, beginning at the Acts of the Apostles, and so going Bishop Rid- 
throughout all the Epistles of St Paul, giving to every ^" ghis 
man that could read a New Testament, hiring them besides 
with money to learn by heart certain principal chapters, 
but especially the thirteenth chapter of the Acts; reading 
also unto his household oftentimes the one hundred and 
first Psalm, being marvellous careful over his family, that 
they might be a spectacle of all virtue and honesty to 


other. To be short, as he was godly and virtuous him- 
self, so nothing but virtue and godliness reigned in his 
house, feeding them with the food of our Saviour Jesus 

" Now remaineth a word or two to be declared of his gentle 
nature and kindly pity in the usage of an old woman called 
Mistress Bonner, mother to Doctor Bonner, sometime bishop 
of London: which I thought good to touch, as well for the 
rare clemency of Doctor Ridley, as the unworthy immanity 
Thebeha- and ungrateful disposition again of Doctor Bonner. Bishop 

viour of 

Bishop Rid- Eidley, being at his manor of Fulham, always sent for the 
mother! 161 ' 3 sa id Mistress Bonner, dwelling in an house adjoining to his 
house, to dinner and supper, with one Mistress Mungey, 
Bonner's sister, saying, Go for my mother Bonner ; who 
coming, was ever placed in the chair at the table's end, 
being so gently entreated, welcomed, and taken, as though 
he had been born of her own body, being never displaced 
of her seat, although the king's council had been present, 
saying, when any of them were there (as divers times they 
were), By your lordships' favour, this place of right and cus- 
Thecourte- torn is for my mother Bonner. But how well he was re- 

sy of Ridley, J 

n h ess of rish " compensed for this his singular gentleness and pitiful pity 
scrS and after at the hands of the said Doctor Bonner, almost the 


together, least child that goeth by the ground can declare. For who 
afterward was more enemy to Ridley than Bonner and his? 
Who more went about to seek his destruction than he? 
Bishop Rid- recompensing his gentleness with extreme cruelty. As well 
Bonner^ 10 a Ppe are d by the strait handling of Ridley's own natural sister, 
Bonnlrun- and George Shipside her husband, from time to time : whereas 

kind and 

churlish to the gentleness of the other did suffer Bonner's mother, sister. 

Bishop Rid- ° ' ' 

an y d S seek!th aia & otner ^ s kindred, not only quietly to enjoy all that 
his brother- which they had of Bonner, but also entertained them in 


his house, shewing much courtesy and friendship daily 
unto them : whereas on the other side Bishop Bonner, being 


restored again, would not suffer the brother and natural 
sister of Bishop Ridley, and other his friends, not only not 
to enjoy that which they had by the said their brother 
Bishop Ridley, but also currishly, without all order of law 
or honesty, by extort power wrested from them all the 
livings they had. 

" And yet being not therewith satisfied, he sought all 
the means he could to work the death of the aforesaid 
Shipside, saying that he would make twelve godfathers to 
go upon him ; which had been brought to pass indeed, at 
what time he was prisoner at Oxford, had not God other- 
wise wrought his deliverance by means of Doctor Heath, 
bishop then of Worcester. Teste Georgio Shipsidio. 

" Whereby all good indifferent readers notoriously have 
to understand, what great diversity was in the disposition of 
these two natures. Whereof as the one excelled in mercy 
and pity, so the other again as much or more excelled in 
churlish ingratitude and despiteful disdain. But of this matter 

" Now concerning God's vocation, how Doctor Ridley was 
first called to the savouring and favouring of Christ and 
his gospel, partly by his disputation before, and other his 
treatises, it may appear, that the first occasion of his con- 
version was by reading of Bertram's book of the Sacrament, Bishop Rid- 

ley first con- 

whom also the conference with Bishop Cranmer and with verted by 

L Bertram's 

Peter Martyr did not a little confirm in that behalf. Who Books - 
now by the grace of God, being throughly won and brought 
to the true way, as he was before blind and zealous in his 
old ignorance, so was he as constant and faithful in the 
right knowledge which the Lord had opened unto him, (as 
well appeared by his preachings and doings during all the 
time of king Edward,) and so long did much good, while 
authority of extern power might defend and hold up the 
peace of the church and proceedings of the gospel. But 


Bishop Rid- after that it pleased so the heavenly will of the Lord our 

ley one of A J 

troubieafter G°d to bereave us of our stay, and to call from us King 
King e Ed.° Edward that precious Prince, as the whole state of the 


Church of England was left desolate and open to the ene- 
mies'' hand; so this Bishop Ridley, after the coming in of 
Queen Mary 1 , eftsoon and with the first was laid hands upon 

1 Ridley while Bishop of London had visited the (then) Princess 
Mary, and offered to preach before her. This interview seems to have 
created in Mary's mind a dislike to Ridley. An account of it has 
been preserved by Fox, in the following words : 

About the eighth of September, 1552, Dr Ridley, then bishop of 
London, lying at his house at Hadham in Herts, went to visit the 
Lady Mary, then lying at Hunsden two miles off, and was gently en- 
tertained of Sir Thomas Wharton and other her officers, till it was 
almost eleven of the clock, about which time the said Lady Mary 
came forth into her chamber of presence, and then the said bishop 
there saluted her Grace, and said that he was come to do this duty 
to her Grace; then she thanked him for his pains, and for a quarter 
of an hour talked with him very pleasantly, and said that she knew 
him in the court when he was chaplain to her father, and could 
well remember a sermon that he made before King Henry her father 
at the marriage of my Lady Clinton that now is to Sir Anthony 
Browne, &c. and so dismissed him to dine with her officers. After 
the dinner was done, the bishop being called for by the said Lady Mary, 
resorted again to her Grace, between whom this communication was: 
first the bishop beginneth in manner as followeth. "Madam, I came 
not only to do my duty to see your Grace, but also to offer myself to 
preach before you on Sunday next, if it will please you to hear me." 

At this her countenance changed, and after silence for a space, she 
answered thus: "My Lord, as for this last matter, I pray you make 
the answer to it yourself." 

Ridley. — " Madam, considering mine office and calling, I am bound 
to make your Grace this offer to preach before you." 

Mary.—" Well, I pray you, make the answer, as I have said, to this 
matter yourself, for you know the answer well enough ; but if there be 
no remedy, but I must make you answer, this shall be your answer, the 
door of the parish church adjoining shall be open for you, if you come 
and ye may preach if you list, but neither I nor any of mine shall hear 

Ridley. — "Madam, I trust you will not refuse God's word." 

Mary. — " I cannot tell what ye call God's word — that is not God's 
word now, that was God's word in my father's days." 

Ridley. — " God's word is one at all times, but hath been better 
understood and practised in some ages than in other." 


and committed to prison, as before hath sufficiently been J^" 1 ^'' 1 " 
expressed : first in the Tower, then after translated from Sop Rid- 

lev removed 

thence with the Archbishop of Canterbury and Master La- to the prison 

1 J ofBocardo 

timer to Oxford, was with them inclosed in the common in 0xford - 
gaol and prison of Bocardo, while at length being dissevered 
from them, he was committed to custody in the house of 
one Irish, where he remained till the last day of his death 
and martyrdom, which was from the year of our Lord, 1554, 
till the year 1555, and 16th day of October. 1 '' 

Mary. — "You durst not for your ears have avouched that for 
God's word in my father's days that now you do; and as for your 
new books, I thank God, I never read any of them, I never did nor 
ever will do." 

And after many bitter words against the form of religion then 
established, and against the government of the realm, and the laws 
made in the young years of her brother, which she said she was not 
bound to obey till her brother came to perfect age, and then she said 
she would obey them; she asked the bishop whether he were one of 
of the council ? He answered, " No." " You might well enough," said 
she, "as the council goeth now-a-days." And so she concluded with 
these words : " My lord, for your gentleness to come and see me I 
thank you, but for your offering to preach before me I thank you 
never a whit." 

Then the said bishop was brought by Sir Thomas Wharton to the 
place where they had dined, and was desired to drink, and after he 
had drunk, he paused awhile, looking very sadly, and suddenly brake 
out into these words, — "Surely I have done amiss." "Why so?" 
quoth Sir Thomas Wharton. " For I have drunk,'' said he, " in 
that place where God's word offered hath been refused, whereas if 
I had remembered my duty, I ought to have departed immediately, 
and to have shaken off the dust of my shoes for a testimony against 
this house." These words were by the said bishop spoken with such 
a vehemency, that some of the hearers afterward confessed their hair 
to stand upright on their heads. This done, the said bishop departed, 
and so returned to his house. Testified by a certain reverend per- 
sonage yet alive, being then the bishop's chaplain. 

2 Bishop Ridley appears to have had forebodings of the kind of 
death by which he should depart this world. Humphrey, in his " Life 
of Bishop Jewell," records the following anecdote : 

Similiter et Or Ridlaeus, tametsi indignante in tempestate jactatus, 
suos jam territos cohortans, " Bono," inquit " animo estote, et remis in- 
cumbite : hcec cymba fert episcopum, quern non mergi sed comburi oportet." 
P. 258, 9, a.d. 1573. 


His character is sufficiently depicted in his works : they 
indicate a mind of the very highest order, both as to power 
and acuteness, and where he fairly entered into a subject he 
left but little for after writers to touch upon. In matters of 
controversy his immense patristic learning gave him a de- 
cided advantage over all his antagonists, and the general 
idea of his importance to the cause of the Eeformation may 
be estimated from the words of one of his most distinguished 
adversaries : " Latimer leaneth to Cranmer, Cranmer leaneth 
to Ridley, and Ridley leaneth to his own singular wit." 

The quaint lines wherein Quarles gives the character of 
Ridley may not be unacceptable to the reader : 

Read, in the progress of this blessed story, 

Rome's cursed cruelty and Ridley's glory : 

Rome's siren's song; but Ridley's careless ear 

Was deaf: they charm'd, but Ridley would not hear. 

Rome sung preferment, but brave Ridley's tongue 

Condemned that false preferment which Rome sung. 

Rome whispered death; but Ridley, (whose great gain 

Was godliness) he waved it with disdain. 

Rome threatened durance, but great Ridley's mind 

Was too, too strong for threats or chains to bind. 

Rome thundered death, but Ridley's dauntless eye 

Star'd in death's face, and scorn'd death standing by. 

In spite of Rome for England's faith he stood, 

And in the flames he sealed it with his blood. 

Bishop Ridley complied with the apostolic maxim, " Let 
your moderation be known unto all men." The share which 
he took in the arrangement of the Book of Common Prayer, 
and other ecclesiastical formularies, enables us to judge with 
some accuracy as to his correct views of church-government. 
As a bishop, both at Rochester and in the more important 
see of London, his conduct was beyond all praise ; his judg- 
ment and his activity were alike called into exercise, and 
were but too painfully contrasted with those of his prede- 


cessor and successor 1 . The account of his martrydom will 

be found after that of his last examination at Oxford. The 

lists of his works have been various, that by Bishop Tanner, 

given in the Bibliotheca Brittanico-Hibernica, is the most 

complete. It is as follows : 

I. Treatise concerning Images not to be set up nor 

worshipped in churches. Pr. First the words of the comm. — 

Fox, p. 2128. 

1 A remarkable instance of the beneficial effect of Ridley's counsels 
is to be seen in the foundation of three institutions in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI., and which in point of date may be called the first fruits of the 
Reformation. Both in the council chamber and the pulpit did this 
eminent prelate resist the sacrilegious spirit of his day; and though 
the young King was but partially able to resist the tide of corruption, 
he yet founded, at the suggestion of Ridley, no less than sixteen gram- 
mar-schools, and designed, had his life been spared, to erect twelve 
colleges for the education of youth. Shortly before his death he sent 
for the bishop, and thanking him for a sermon in which he strongly 
pressed the duty of providing for the poverty and ignorance of our 
fellow-men, added ; " I took myself to be especially touched by your 
speech, as well in regard of the abilities God hath given me, as in regard 
of the example which from me he will require ; for as in the kingdom 
I am next under God, so must I most nearly approach him in goodness 
and mercy; for as our miseries stand most in need of aid from him, 
so are we the greatest debtors — debtors to all that are miserable, and 
shall be the greatest accountants of our dispensation therein ; and there- 
fore, my lord, as you have given me, I thank you, this general exhorta- 
tion, so direct me (I pray you) by what particular actions I may this 
way best discharge my duty." The bishop, who was not prepared for 
such a request, begged time to consider, and to consult with those who 
were more conversant with the condition of the poor. Having taken 
the advice of the Lord Mayor and aldermen of London, he shortly 
returned to the King, representing that there appeared to be three 
different classes of poor. Some were poor by impotency of nature, 
as young fatherless children, old decrepit persons, idiots, cripples, and 
such like, these required to be educated and maintained ; for them 
accordingly the King gave up the Grey Friars' Church, near Newgate 
Market, now called Christ's Hospital. Other he observed were poor 
by faculty, as wounded soldiers, diseased and sick persons who required 
to be cured and relieved, for their use the King gave St Bartholomew's 
near Smithfield ; the third sort were poor by idleness or unthriftyness, 
as vagabonds, loiterers, &c. who should be chastised and reduced to 
good order; for these the King appointed his house at Bridewell, the 
ancient mansion of many English Kings. 


II. Answers to certain Queries concerning the abuses 
of the Mass. Pr. No man can take unto himself anything. 
MS. Bibl. Bodl. NE. B. 2. 7. et Burnet Hist. Eeform. torn. ii. 
app. p. 123. 

III. Brief Declaration of the Lord's Supper. Pr. Many 
things confound.— 1555 et 1586, 8vo. et Oxon. 1688, 4to. 
Latine per Guliel. Whyttyngham Genev. 1556, h. t. "de 
coena dominica assertionem e carcere scriptam." Pr. Cum 
duse res sint quae mihi. Latina autem versio in principio 
unam aut alteram sententiam habet quae non est in originali. 
Libro huic respondit Alban Longdale, S. T. Professor e 
coll. D. Johan. Oantabr. in " confutatione Oatholica Nic. 
Bidley de Eucharistia." Par. 1556, 4to. 

IV. Certain Godly and Comfortable Conferences be- 
tween him and Mr Hugh Latimer during the time of their 
Imprisonment. Pr. A bishop ought to be unrepr. — London, 
1555, 1556, 8vo. et Oxon. 1688, 4to. Et in partibus trans- 
marinis, 1556, 12mo. Editioni Londinensi additur, 'A 
Treatise against the Error of Transubstantiation. Et ite- 
rum cum prsefatione Henrici Wharton, Lond. 1688, 4to. In 
MS. Bodl. NE. B. 2. 7. Extat conferentia una contra 
Missam. Pr. All worldly respects put apart. — Et in Fox. 
1 edit. p. 1285, extat altera cum Antonio qusedam. Pr. 
All men do much marvell. 

V. A Friendly Farewell written during his Imprison- 
ment at Oxford unto all his true lovers a little before his 
Death. Pr. partis 1. At the name of Jesus Christ let. — 
Pr. partis 2. Farewell, my dearly beloved brethren. — Lond. 
1558. Extant apud Fox, p. 1770, 1776. 

VI. A Piteous Lamentation of the Miserable State of 
the Church of England, in the time of the late Eevolt from 
the Gospel. Pr. Alas, what misery is. — Lond. 1566, 8vo. 
Extat in Fox, p. 1778. 2 A Comparison between the Com- 

1 Same as No. III. 2 Same as No. VI. 


fortable Doctrine of the Gospel and the Traditions of the 
Popish Eeligion. Ibid. 

VII. An Account of a Disputation held at Oxford, 
a. d. 1554. Pr. I never yet sithens I was born. — Prodit 
Latine cura Gilb. Ironside. Oxon. 1688, 4to. 

VIII. The Way of Peace among all Protestants, being 
a Letter sent by him to Bishop Hooper, with Observations 
upon it. — Lond. 1688, 4to. 

3 A Letter of Eeconciliation written to Bishop Hooper. — 
Lond. by Samuel Johnson, 1689, 4to. 

IX. De Abominationibus Sedis Itomanse et Pontificum 
Eomanorum. — Strype in Vita Oranmeri, p. 343. 

X. Annotationes in Tonstalli libros de Transubstan- 
tiatione. Ibid. 

4 Collectanea ex Evangeliis et D. Paulo, tribus docto- 
ribus Ecclesise Grsecse, sc. Origene, Ohrysostomo et Theodo- 
reto, et tribus Ecclesise Latinse, sc. Tertulliano, Augustino 
et Gelasio de verbis Institutionis Ccense Dominicee figurative 
intelligendis. Ibid. 

XL Tres positiones de sacrificio missse expiatorio. Ibid, 
(same as VII, but in Latin). 

XII. Epistolas ad Fratres in diversis carceribus. Ibid. 

XIII. De Electione et Prsedestinatione. Ibid. p. 350. 
Vide Literas Martyr, in Bibl. Emman. Cant. fol. 70. 

XIV. Judicium ejus de epistolis decretalibus, sc. de- 
mentis, Anacleti, Luciani et Pontiani, et aliorum vetustissi- 
morum pontificum. Pr. Ego censeo sane esse supposititias. 
MSS. Bibl. Emman. Cant. 1. c. finit ita : Hsec esse respon- 
denda censeo Bradfordo meo ad suam Qusestionem de auc- 
toritate harum epistolarum. 

XV. Annotationes in duas Watsoni conciones quad- 
rigesimales coram regina. MSS. ibidem. 

XVI. Certain Matters wherein Stephen Gardiner dif- 
3 Same as No. VIII. 4 Same as No. III. 


fereth from others of the Papists, and from himself, as 
touching the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. Pr. Other 
say that the body.— Fox, 1 Ed. p. 1384. 

1 Answer to M. Ant. Oonstantius. Ibid. p. 1503. 

XVII. Articles to be Enquired of in the Visitation 
of the Diocese of London, 1550. Concil. M. Brit, et Hib. 
torn. iv. p. 60. seq. 

XVIII. Injunctions given at the Visitation of the Dio- 
cese of London, 1550. Burnet Hist. Reform, torn. ii. App. 
n. 52. 

XIX. His Letter to the Preachers within the Diocese 
of London, setting out the Sins of that time. Ibid. n. 58. 

XX. His Letter to the Protector concerning the Visi- 
tation of the University of Cambridge. Ibid. n. 59. 

XXI. Diverse Letters. Strype in Vita Grindall, 19. 
Id. in Vita Oranmer, Ap. lxxxvi. Id. in Vita Parker, 29. 
Fox, 1464, 1504, 1724. MSS. Epist. Martyr, in Bibl. Emm. 
Coll. Cant. MSS. C. C. C. C. Miscell. i. 401 2 . 

1 Same as No. IV. 

2 Of these, the works numbered I. II. III. IV. V VI. VII. VIII. 
XI. XII. XIV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. have been pre- 
served, and are given in this Edition; those numbered IX. X. XIII. 
and XV. have unhappily perished. 










A.D. 1555. 


m ttie aortas Supper, Written tip 

tfje singular leameU man, an& most 

constaunt tnartir of §t$w Christ: 

Nicholas Untrtep &izf)op of £on= 

Hon, prisoner in ©xfor&e, a 

little ttfove fjt suffered 

Deatfje for tfje true 

testimony of 


ftoma. 8. 

J'or t^B safce are toe fellUB all Bap 

long, anB ate comptetf as sfjepe 

appointed to be slajine. 

i^ebertljeless in all 

tljese tljings toe 

obercome tljrougl) 

i)im tijat lo= 

fieti us. 
■Jlnno 1555. 


Understand, good reader, that this great clerk and 
blessed martyr Bishop Nicholas Bidley sought not (by set- 
ting forth this notable godly piece of learned work) the vain 
glory of the world, nor temporal friendship of men for his 
present advancement, much less he hunted hereby for Bishop- 
rics and benefices, as all his adversaries (the enemies of Christ's 
truth and ordinance) the papists commonly do : but, having 
consideration of the great charge of souls committed unto 
him, and of the account thereof which the justice of God 
would require at his hands, intending therewithal to be found 
blameless in the great day of the Lord, seeing he was put 
apart to defend the gospel ; he not only forsook lands, goods, 
world, friends, and himself withal, and testified the truth 
specified in this book by his learned mouth, in the presence 
of the world, but also (to leave a sure monument and love- 
token unto his flock) he hath registered it by his own pen 
in this form ensuing, and sealed it up with his blood. For- 
asmuch, then, as he hath approved himself no vain disputer, 
no weathercock, no hypocrite ; seeing he hath nvillingly given 
his life for the truth; and inasmuch also as his 
love and most constant Christian conscience 
speaketh freely unto thee, gentle reader, 
I beseech thee, for Christ's sake 
and thine own, lend him 
thine indifferent heart 
and patient 










Many things confound the weak memory: a few places 
well weighed and perceived lighten the understanding. Truth 
is there to be searched, where it is certain to be had. 

Though God doth speak the truth by man, yet in man's 
word (which God hath not revealed to be his) a man may 
doubt without mistrust in God. Christ is the truth of God 
revealed unto man from heaven by God himself; and there- 
fore in his word the truth is to be found, which is to be 
embraced of all that be his. Christ biddeth us ask, and we 
shall have ; search, and we shall find ; knock, and it shall 
be opened unto us. 

Therefore, heavenly Father, Author and fountain of all 
truth, the bottomless sea of all true understanding ; send down, 
we beseech thee, thy holy Spirit into our hearts, and lighten 
our understanding with the beams of thy heavenly grace. 

We ask thee this, merciful Father, not in respect of 
our deserts, but for thy dear Son our Saviour Jesus Christ's 
sake. Thou knowest, O heavenly Father, that the contro- The blessed 
versy about the sacrament of the blessed body and blood prayers. 
of thy dear Son, our Saviour Jesus Christ, hath troubled, 
not of late only, thy church of England, France, Germany, 
and Italy, but also many years ago. The fault is ours, no 
doubt, thereof, for we have deserved thy plague. 

But, Lord, be merciful, and relieve our misery with 
some light of grace. Thou knowest, Lord, how this 
wicked world rolleth up and down, and reeleth to and fro, 
and careth not what thy will is, so it may abide in wealth. 


Truth in jf truth have wealth, then who are so stout to defend the 

time of 

Srthfew truth as they? But, if Christ's cross be laid on truth s back , 

friends. i\ ien they vanish away straight, as wax before the fire. But 
these are not they, heavenly Father, for whom I make 
my most moan, but for those seely 1 ones, O Lord, which 
have a zeal unto thee: those, I mean, which would and 
wish to know thy will, and yet are letted, holden back, and 
blinded, by the subtilties of Satan and his ministers, the 
wickedness of this wretched world, and the sinful lusts and 
affections of the flesh. 

Alas! Lord, thou knowest that we be of ourselves but 
flesh, wherein there dwelleth nothing that is good. How 
then is it possible for man without thee, Lord, to un- 
derstand thy truth indeed? Can the natural man perceive 

icor. ii. the will of God? Lord, to whom thou givest a zeal for 
thee, give them also, we beseech thee, the knowledge of thy 
blessed will. Suffer not them, O Lord, blindly to be led, 
for to strive against thee, as thou didst those, alas! which 
crucified thine own dear Son : forgive them, Lord, for 
thy dear Son's sake, for they know not what they do. They 

johnxvi. do think, alas! Lord, for lack of knowledge, that they 
do unto thee good service, even when against thee they do 
most grievously rage. Eemember, O Lord, we beseech thee, 

Actsvii. for whom thy martyr Stephen did pray, and whom thine holy 

Rom. ix. Apostle did so truly and earnestly love, that, for their salva- 
tion, he wished himself accursed from thee. Eemember, 
heavenly Father, the prayer of thy dear Son our Saviour 

Luke xxui. Christ upon the cross, when he said unto thee : " Father, 
forgive them, they know not what they do.' 1 With this for- 
giveness, O good Lord, give me, I beseech thee, thy grace, 
so here briefly to set forth the sayings of thy Son our Sa- 
viour Christ, of his Evangelists, and of his Apostles, that, 
in this aforesaid controversy, the light of thy truth, by the 
lantern of thy word, may shine upon all them that love thee. 
Of the Lord's last supper do speak expressly three of the 
Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke; but none more 
\} Seely— hodie silly, the original meaning of the word was happy, for- 
tunate : from that signification it varied through the successive changes 
inoffensive, weak, or foolish, infirm in body, in which last sense it is 
even now used in the north of England. It is derived from the Saxon 
r*lis. happy. Ed.] 


plainly nor more fully declareth the same, than doth St Paul, 
partly in the tenth, but especially in the eleventh chapter of 
the First Epistle unto the Corinthians. As Matthew and 
Mark do agree much in form of words, so do likewise Luke 
and St Paul ; but all four, no doubt, as they were all taught 
in one school, and inspired with one Spirit, so taught they 
all one truth. God grant us to understand it well. Amen. 

Matthew setteth forth Christ's supper thus : 

" When even was come, he sat down with the twelve, Matt - xxvi - 
&c. As they did eat, Jesus took bread, and gave thanks, 
brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said : Take, eat, 
this is my body. And he took the cup, gave thanks, and 
gave it to them, saying: Drink ye a^l of this; for this is 
my blood of the New Testament, that is shed for many for 
the remission of sins. I say unto you, I will not drink 
henceforth of this fruit of the vine-tree, until that day when 
I shall drink that new in my Father's kingdom. And when 
they had said grace, they went out," &c. Matt. xxvi. 

J O i J i 26—30. 

Now Mark speaketh of it thus : 

" And, as they ate, Jesus took bread, blessed, and brake, Mark xiv. 
and gave to them, and said : Take, eat, this is my body. 
And he took the cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them; 
and they all drank of it. And he said unto them : This is 
my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many. 
Verily, I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of 
the vine, until that day that I drink that new in the king- 
dom Of God. 11 Mark xiv. 


Here Matthew and Mark do agree, not only in the matter, 
but also almost fully in the form of words, 2 saving tlbat, for 
these words in Matthew, " gave thanks," Mark hath one word, 
" blessed ;" which signifieth in this place all one. And, where 
Matthew saith, " drink ye all of this ;" Mark saith, " and they 
all drank of it." And, where Matthew saith, "of this fruit 
of the vine ;" Mark leaveth out the word " this," and saith, 
" of the fruit of the vine.- 11 

Now let us see likewise what agreement in form of words 
is between St Luke and St Paul. Luke writeth thus : 

"He took bread, gave thanks, brake it, and gave it toLukexxH. 

[ 2 The words in Italics are not in the editions of this treatise sub- 
sequent to 1556. En.] 


them, saying: This is my body, which is given for you. 
This do in remembrance of me. Likewise also, when they 
had supped, he took the cup, saying: This cup is the New 

lukexxii. Testament in my blood, which is shed for you." 
' ' St Paul setteth forth Christ's supper thus: 

icor.xi. "The Lord Jesus, the same night in the which he was 

betrayed, took bread, and gave thanks, and brake, and said: 
Take, eat, this is my body, which is broken for you. This 
do in remembrance of me. After the same manner he took 
the cup, when supper was done, saying : This cup is the 
New Testament in my blood. This do, as often as ye shall 
drink it, in the remembrance of me. For as often as ye 
shall eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye shall show the 

1 Cor. xi. Lord's death until he come." 

Here, where St Luke saith, " which is given ;■" Paul saith, 
" which is broken. 11 And as Luke addeth to' the words of 
Paul spoken of the cup, " which is shed for you ;" so like- 
wise Paul addeth to the words thereof, " This do, as often 
as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of me." The rest that 
followeth in St Paul, both there and in the tenth chapter, 
pertaineth unto the right use of the Lord's supper. 

Thus the Evangelists and St Paul have rehearsed the 
words and work of Christ, whereby he did institute and 
ordain this holy sacrament of his body and blood, to be a 
perpetual remembrance until his coming again of himself (I 
say), that is, of his body given for us, and of his blood 
shed for the remission of sins. 

But this remembrance, which is thus ordained, as the 
author thereof is Christ (both Cod and man), so by the 
almighty power of God it far passeth all kinds of remem- 
brances that any other man is able to make, either of him- 
self, or of any other thing : for whosoever receiveth this holy 
sacrament thus ordained in remembrance of Christ, he re- 
ceiveth therewith either death or life. In this, I trust, we 
do all agree. For St Paul saith of the godly receivers in 

i Cor. x. the tenth chapter of his First Epistle unto the Corinthians : 
" The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the partaking 
or fellowship of Christ's blood?" And also saith: "The 
bread which we break (and meaneth at the Lord's table), 
is it not the partaking or fellowship of Christ's body? 11 


Now the partaking of Christ's body and of his blood, unto 
the faithful and godly, is the partaking or fellowship of 
life and immortality. And again, of the bad and ungodly 
receivers, St Paul as plainly saith thus : " He that eateth i Cor. xi. 
of this bread and drinketh of this cup unworthily, is guilty 
of the body and blood of the Lord." 

Oh ! how necessary then is it, if we love life and 
would eschew death, to try and examine ourselves before we 
eat of this bread and drink of this cup ! for else, assuredly, 
he that eateth and drinketh thereof unworthily eateth and 
drinketh his own damnation, because he esteemeth not the 
Lord's body; that is, he reverenceth not the Lord's body 
with the honour that is due unto him. 

And that which was said, that with the receipt of the 
holy sacrament of the blessed body and blood of Christ is 
•received of every one, good or bad, either life or death ; it 
is not meant, that they which are dead before God may 
hereby receive life; or the living before God can hereby 
receive death. For as none is meet to receive natural food, 
whereby the natural life is nourished, except he be born and 
live before ; so no man can feed (by the receipt of the holy 
sacrament) of the food of eternal life, except he be regene- 
rated and born of God before : and on the other side, no 
man here receiveth damnation, which is not dead before. 

Thus hitherto, without all doubt, God is my witness, 1 
say, so far as I know, there is no controversy among them 
that be learned among the church of England, concerning 
the matter of this sacrament, but all do agree, whether 
they be new or old; and to speak plain, and as some of 
them do odiously call each other, whether they be Pro- 
testants, Pharisees, Papists, or Gospellers. 

And as all do agree hitherto in the aforesaid doctrine, 
so all do detest, abhor, and condemn the wicked heresy of 
the Messalians, which otherwise be called Euchites, which 
said, that the holy sacrament can neither do good nor harm : 
and do also condemn those wicked Anabaptists, which 
put no difference between the Lord's table and the Lord's 
meat, and their own. And because charity would, that we 
should (if it be possible, and so far as we may with the 
safeguard of good conscience, and maintenance of the truth) 


agree with all men ; therefore, methinks, it is not charitably 
done, to burden any man (either new or old, as they call 
them) further, than such do declare themselves to dissent 
from what we are persuaded to be the truth, and pretend 
thereto to be controversies, whereas none such are in deed; 
Charity win and so to multiply the debate, the which, the more it doth 
man. increase, the further it doth depart from the unity that the 

true Christian should desire. 

And again, this is true that the truth neither needeth, 
nor will be maintained with lies. It is also a true common 
what it is proverb, " that it is even sin to lie upon the devil : for 
though by thy he thou dost never so much speak against 
the devil, yet in that thou liest, indeed thou workest the 
devil's work ; thou dost him service, and takest the devil's 
do be^the Now, whether then do they godly and charitably, which 
P h rea Q h !j; rs 1 of either by their pen in writing, or by their words in preach- 
ing, do bear the simple people in hand, that those which 
thus do teach and believe, do go about to make the holy 
sacrament, ordained by Christ himself, a thing no better 
than a piece of common baken bread? or that do say, that 
such do make the holy sacrament of the blessed body and 
blood of Christ nothing else, but a bare sign, or a figure, to 
represent Christ, none otherwise than the ivy-bush doth 
represent the wine in a tavern ; or as a vile person gor- 
geously apparelled may represent a king or a prince in a 
play : alas ! let men leave lying and speak the truth every 
one, not only to his neighbour, but also of his neighbour, 
Ephes. iv. for we are members one of another, saith St Paul. 

The controversy (no doubt), which at this day troubleth 
the church (wherein any mean 1 learned man, either old or 
new, doth stand in 2 ), is not, whether the holy sacrament of 
the body and blood of Christ is no better than a piece of 
common bread, or no; or whether the Lord's table is no 
more to be regarded than the table of any earthly man; or 
whether it is but a bare sign or figure of Christ, and nothing 
else, or no. For all do grant, that St Paul's words do 
require that the bread which we break is the partaking of 

[} Moderately learned. Ed.] 

P Doth stand in— doth agree. Ed.~| 


the body of Christ: and all also do grant him, that eateth 
of that bread or drinketh of that cup unworthily, to be 
guilty of the Lord's death, and to eat and drink his own 
damnation, because he esteemeth not the Lord's body. All 
do grant that these words of St Paul (when he saith, " If 1 Cor - viii - 
we eat, it advantageth us nothing;" or, "if we eat not, we 
want nothing thereby 11 ) are not spoken of the Lord's table, 
but of other common meats. 

Thus then hitherto yet we all agree. But now let us wherein the 
see wherein the dissension doth stand. The understanding consUteTh. 7 
of that wherein it chiefly standeth is a step to the true 
searching forth of the truth. For who can seek well a 
remedy, if he know not before the disease ? 

It is neither to be denied nor dissembled, that in the 
matter of this sacrament there be divers points, wherein men 
"Counted to be learned cannot agree : as, Whether there be 
any transubstantiation of the bread, or no? Any corporal 
and carnal presence of Christ's substance, or no? Whether 
adoration, only due unto God, is to be done unto the sacra- 
ment, or no? And whether Christ's body be there offered 
in deed unto the heavenly Father by the priest, or no? Or 
whether the evil man receiveth the natural body of Christ, 
or no? Yet nevertheless, as in a man diseased in divers 
parts, commonly the original cause of such divers diseases, 
which is spread abroad in the body, doth come from one 
chief member, as from the stomach, or from the head ; even 
so, all five aforesaid points do chiefly hang upon this one 
question, which is, What is the matter of the sacrament, 
whether it is the natural substance of bread, or the natural 
substance of Christ's own body ? The truth of this question, 
truly tried out and agreed upon, no doubt will cease the 
controversy in all the rest. For if it be Christ's own 
natural body, born of the Virgin ; then assuredly (seeing 
that all learned men in England, so far as I know, both 
new and old, grant there to be but one substance), then, 
I say, they must needs grant transubstantiation, that is, a 
change of the substance of bread into the substance of 
Christ's body: then also they must grant the carnal and 
corporal presence of Christ's body : then must the sacrament 
be adored with the honour due unto Christ himself, for the 


unity of the two natures in one person : then, if the priest 
do offer the sacrament, he doth offer indeed Christ himself; 
and finally, the murderer, the adulterer, or wicked man, 
receiving the sacrament, must needs then receive also the 
natural substance of Christ's own blessed body, both flesh 
and blood. 

Now, on the other side, if, after the truth shall be truly 
tried out, it be found that the substance of bread is the 
material substance of the sacrament ; although, for the change 
of the use, office, and dignity of the bread, the bread indeed 
sacramentally is changed into the body of Christ, as the water 
in baptism is sacramentally changed into the fountain of re- 
generation, and yet the material substance thereof remaineth 
all one, as was before ; if (I say) the true solution of that 
former question, whereupon all these controversies do hang, 
be, that the natural substance of bread is the material sub- 
stance in the sacrament of Christ's blessed body; then must 
it follow of the former proposition, (confessed of all that be 
named to be learned, so far as I do know in England,) 
which is, that there is but one material substance in the 
sacrament of the body, and one only likewise in the sacra- 
ment of the blood, that there is no such tiling indeed and 
in truth as they call transubstantiation, for the substance of 
bread remaineth still in the sacrament of the body. Then 
also the natural substance of Christ's human nature, which 
he took of the Virgin Mary, is in heaven, where it reigneth 
now in glory, and not here inclosed under the form of bread. 
Then that godly honour, which is only due unto God the 
Creator, may not be done unto the creature without idolatry 
and sacrilege, is not to be done unto the holy sacrament. 
Then also the wicked, I mean the impenitent, murderer, 
adulterer, or such-like, do not receive the natural substance 
of the blessed body and blood of Christ. Finally, then doth 
it follow, that Christ's blessed body and blood, which was 
once only offered and shed upon the cross, being available 
for the sins of all the whole world, is offered up no more 
in the natural substance thereof, neither by the priest, nor 
any other thing. 

But here, before we go any further to search in this 
matter, and to wade, as it were, to search and try out, as 


•we may, the truth hereof in the Scripture, it shall do well 
by the way to know, whether they, that thus make answer 
and solution unto the former principal question, do take 
away simply and absolutely the presence of Christ's body 
and blood from the sacrament, ordained by Christ, and duly 
ministered according to his holy ordinance and institution of 
the same. Undoubtedly, they do deny that utterly, either so 
to say, or so to mean. Hereof if a man do or will doubt, 
the books, which are written already in this matter of them 
that thus do answer, will make the matter plain. 

Now then you will say, what kind of presence do they what kind 

J J l •'of presence 

«rant, and what do they deny? Briefly, they deny the pre- is to be 

e>' j j j ? j j i granted in 

sence of Christ's body in the natural substance of his human * he Lord ' s 

J Supper. 

and assumed nature, and grant the presence of the same by 
grace : that is, they affirm and say, that the substance of 
the natural body and blood of Christ is only remaining in Matt - xxiv - 
heaven, and so shall be unto the latter day, when he shall 
come again in glory, accompanied with the angels of heaven, 
to judge both the quick and the dead. And the same na- 
tural substance of the very body and blood of Christ, be- 
cause it is united in the divine nature in Christ, the second 
Person of the Trinity, therefore it hath not only life in John vi. 
itself, but is also able to give, and doth give life unto so 
many as be, or shall be partakers thereof: That is, that to 
all that do believe on his name, which are not born of blood, 
as St John saith, or of the will of the flesh, or of the John i. 
will of man, but are born of God — though the self-same 
substance abide still in heaven, and they, for the time of 
their pilgrimage, dwell here upon earth ; by grace (I say), 
that is, by the gift of this life (mentioned in John) and the J°i>n vi. 
properties of the same meet for our pilgrimage here upon 
earth, the same body of Christ is here present with us. Even 
as, for example, we say the same sun, which, in substance, 
never removeth his place out of the heavens, is yet present 
here by his beams, light, and natural influence, where it 
shineth upon the earth. For God's word and his sacraments 
be, as it were, the beams of Christ, which is Sol justitice,^^-'^ 
the Sun of righteousness. 

Thus hast thou heard, of what sort or sect soever thou 
be, wherein doth stand the principal state and chief point of 


all the controversies, which do properly pertain unto the 
nature of this sacrament. As for the use thereof, I grant, 
there be many other things whereof here I have spoken 
nothing at all. And now, lest thou mayest justly complain 
and say, that I have, in opening of this matter, done no- 
thing else but digged a pit, and have not shut it up again; 
or broken a gap, and have not made it up again ; or opened 
the book, and have not closed it again; or else, to call me 
what thou listest, as neutral dissembler, or whatsoever else 
thy lust and learning shall serve thee to name me worse ;—• 
therefore here now I will, by God's grace, not only 
shortly, but also clearly and plainly as 1 can, make thee 
to know, whether of the aforesaid two answers to the forr 
mer principal state and chief point doth like me best. Yea, 
and also I will hold all those accursed, which in this matter, 
that now so troubleth the church of Christ, have of God 
received the key of knowledge, and yet go about to shut up 
the doors, so that they themselves will not enter in, nor 
suffer other that would. And, for mine own part, I con- 
sider, both of late what charge and cure of souls hath been 
committed unto me, whereof God knoweth how soon I shall 
be called to give account, and also now in this world what 
peril and danger of the laws (concerning my life) I am now 
in at this present time : what folly were it then for me 
now to dissemble with God, of whom assuredly I look and 
hope by Christ to have everlasting life ! Seeing that such 
charge and danger (both before God and man) do compass 
me in round about on every side ; therefore (God willing) 
I will frankly and freely utter my mind ; and though my body 
be captive, yet my tongue and my pen, as long as I may, 
shall freely set forth that which undoubtedly I am persuaded 
to be the truth of God's word. And yet I will do it under 
this protestation, call me a Protestant who listeth, I pass 
a protes- not thereof 1 . My protestation shall be thus : that my mind 
is and ever shall be, (God willing), to set forth sincerely the 
true sense and meaning (to the best of my understanding) 
of God's most holy word, and not to decline from the same, 
either for fear of worldly danger, or else for hope of gain., 
I do protest also due obedience and submission of my 
[} I pass not thereof. I care not for it. Ed.] 



judgment in this my writing, and in all other mine affairs, 
unto those of Christ's. Church, which be truly learned in 
God's holy word, gathered in Christ's name, and guided by 
his Spirit. After this protestation, I do plainly affirm and 
say, that the second answer, made unto the chief 2 question 
and principal point, I am persuaded to be the very true 
meaning and sense of God's holy word ; that is, that the Aj 18 ^? *° 
natural substance of bread and wine is the true material question, 
substance of the holy sacrament of the blessed body and 
blood of our Saviour Christ : and the places of Scripture 
whereupon this my faith is grounded, be these, both con- 
cerning the sacrament of the body, and also of the blood. 

First, let us repeat the beginning of the institution of 
the Lord's supper, wherein all the three Evangelists and 
St Paul almost in words do agree ; saying, that " Jesus Christ can- 
took bread, gave thanks, brake, and gave to the disciples, bread his 
saying, Take, eat, this is my body." Here it appeareth 
plainly, that Christ calleth very bread his body. For that 
which he took was very bread (in this all men do agree); 
and that which he took, after he had given thanks, he brake ; 
and that which he took and brake, he gave it to his dis- 
ciples; and that which he took, brake, and gave to his 
disciples, he said himself of it : " This is my body." So it 
appeareth plainly that Christ called very bread his body. 
But very bread cannot be his body in very substance thereof. 
Therefore it must needs have another meaning, whieh mean- 
ing appeareth plainly, what it is, by the next sentence that 
folio weth immediately, both in Luke and in Paul. 

And that is this : " Do this in remembrance of me." Argument. 

Luke xxn. 

Whereupon it seemeth to me to be evident, that Christ did x Cor - xi - 
take bread, and called it his body, for that he would thereby 
institute a perpetual remembrance of his body, specially of 
that singular benefit of our redemption, which he would 
then procure and purchase unto us by his body upon the 
cross. But bread, retaining still its own very natural sub- 
stance, may be thus by grace, and in a sacramental signifi- 
cation, his body : whereas else the very bread, which he 
took, brake, and gave them, could not be in any wise his 

[ s The words in Italics are wanting in the editions subsequent to 
1556. Ed.] 



natural body, for that were confusion of substances. And 
therefore the very words of Christ, joined with the next 
sentence following, both enforce us to confess the very bread 
to remain still, and also open unto us, how that bread may 
be, and is thus, by his divine power, his body which was 
given for us. 

objection. B u t here I remember, I have read in some writers of 

the contrary opinion, which do deny, that that, which Christ 
did take, he brake. For, say they, after his taking, he 

Mark xiv. blessed it, as Mark doth speak ; and by his blessing he 
changed the natural substance of the bread into the natural 
substance of his body: and so, although he took the bread 
and blessed it, yet because in blessing he changed the sub- 
stance of it, he brake not the bread, which then was not 
there, but only the form thereof. 

Answer. Unto this objection I have two plain answers, both 

grounded upon God's word. The one I will rehearse ; the 
other answer I will defer, until I speak of the sacrament of 
the blood. Mine answer here is taken out of the plain 
words of St Paul, which doth manifestly confound this fan- 
tastical invention, first invented, I ween, of Pope Innocentius 1 , 

it is meant and after confirmed by that subtle sophister Duns, and lately 

first set renewed now in our days with an eloquent style and much 

forth under . J . 

the name of fineness of wit. But what can crafty invention, subtilty in 

Marcus _ ... 

Antomus sophisms, eloquence or fineness of wit, prevail against the 
u " s > and . , unfallible word of God ? What need have we to strive and 

afterward of 

Gardiner con t en d what thing we break? For Paul saith, speaking 
w'nchesL undoubtedly of the Lord's table: "The bread, saith he, 
which we break, is it not the partaking or fellowship of the 
Lord's body?" Whereupon followeth, 'that after the thanks- 
giving it is bread which we break. And how often, in the 
Acts of the Apostles, is the Lord's supper signified by 
Actsii. breaking of bread? "They did persevere," saith St Luke, 
"in the Apostles' doctrine, communion, and breaking of bread." 
ibidem. And, "They brake bread in every house." And again, in 
Acts xx. another place, "When they were come together to break 
bread, &c." St Paul, which setteth forth the most fully in 
his writings both the doctrine and the right use of the 

P Innocent III., in the fourth Lateran Council, held a.d. 1215. En."} 


Lord's supper, and the sacramental eating and drinking ofit'or. x. 
Christ's body and blood, calleth it five times, " bread," i Cor. xi. 
"bread," "bread," "bread," "bread." 

The sacramental bread is the mystical body : and so it 
is called in Scripture, as it is called the natural body of i <■'»«■• *• 
Christ. But Christ's mystical body is the congregation of £j^j cond 
Christians. Now no man was ever so fond, as to say, that 
that sacramental bread is transubstantiated and changed i cor. x. 
into the substance of the congregation. Wherefore no 
man should likewise think or say, that the bread is transub- 
stantiated and changed into the natural substance of Christ's 
human nature. 

But my mind is not here to write what may be gathered 
out of Scriptures for this purpose, but only to note here 
briefly those which seem unto me to be the most plain 
places. Therefore, contented to have spoken thus much of 
the sacramental bread, I will now speak a little of the 
Lord's cup. 

And this shall be my third argument, grounded upon The tiurd 


Christ's own words. The natural substance of the sacra- " 
mental wine remaineth still, and is the material substance 
of the sacrament of the blood of Christ : therefore it is 
likewise so in the sacramental bread. 

I know, that he that is of a contrary opinion, will deny 
the former part of my argument : but I will prove it thus, 
by the plain words of Christ himself, both in Matthew and Matt. xxvi. 
in Mark. Christ's words are these, after the words said Mark xiv. 
upon the cup 2 : "I say unto you (saith Christ), I will not 
drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine-tree, until I shall 
drink that new in my Father's kingdom." Here note, how 
Christ calleth plainly his cup the fruit of the vine-tree. But 
the fruit of the vine-tree is very natural wine. Wherefore the 
natural substance of the wine doth remain still in the sacra- 
ment of Christ's blood. 

And here, in speaking of the Lord's cup, it cometh 
unto my remembrance the vanity of Innocentius his fantas- 
tical invention, which by Paul's words I did confute before, 

£ 2 Aeyto oe v/xiv oti ov fxtj ttioi air apri sk toutov tou yevvjj- 
fiaTos Trji a/xireXov ew<s TJ79 j/'/ie'pa? eKeivt]<; orav civto Trivia /xed' 
v^xmv naivov ev tjj ftaatXe'ia rov irarpoi fiov. Matth. xxvi. 29.] 




and here did promise somewhat more to speak; and that is 
this : If the transubstantiation be made by this word " blessed" 
in Mark, said upon the bread, as Innocentius, that Pope, 
did say; then surely, seeing that word is not said of Christ, 
neither of any of the Evangelists, nor in St Paul, upon 
the cup, there is no transubstantiation of the wine at all. 
For where the cause doth fail, there cannot follow the 
effect. But the sacramental bread, and the sacramental 
wine, do both remain in their natural substance alike ; and 
if the one be not changed, as of the sacramental wine it 
appeareth evidently, then there is not any such transub- 
stantiation in neither of them both. 

All, that put and affirm this change of the substance of 

bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood 

(called transubstantiation), do also say and affirm this change 

to be made by a certain form of prescript words, and none 

other. But what 1 they be that make the change either of 

the one or of the other, undoubtedly even they, that do 

write most finely in these our days, almost confess pjainly 

that they cannot tell. For although they grant to certain 

of the old doctors, as Chrysostom and Ambrose, that these 

i^ i the h !n ter words, " This is my body, 11 are the words of consecration of 

IShobjec- 6 '^e sacrament of the body: "yet," say they, "these words 

tion. ma y we n kg s0 ca ]i e <^ because they do assure us of the 

consecration thereof, whether it be done before these words 

be spoken, or no." But, as for this their doubt (concerning 

the sacrament of the body), I let it pass. 

Let us now consider the words which pertain to the cup. 
This is first evident : that, as Matthew much agreeth with 
Mark, and likewise Luke with Paul much agreeth, herein 
in the form of words ; so, in the same, the form of words in 
Matthew and Mark is diverse from that which is in Luke 
and Paul. The old authors do most rehearse the form of 
words in Matthew and Mark, because, I ween, they seemed 

wds^thf to them most clear - But here * would know > whether it is 

p?Fes S t h hood credibIe or no, that Luke and Paul, when they celebrated 

is given. th e Lord's supper with their congregations, did not use the 

same form of words at the Lord's table, which they wrote, 

Luke in his Gospel, and Paul in his Epistle. Of Luke 

[} But which be the words. Ed.] 


because he was a physician, whether some will grant that 
he might be a priest or no, and was able to receive the 
order of priesthood, which (they say) is given by virtue of 
these words said by the Bishop, " Take thou authority to Peter and 

. Paul were 

sacrifice for the quick and the dead,'" I cannot tell. But, no priests 
if they should be so strait upon Luke, either for his craft, pish order. 
or else for lack of such power given him by virtue of the 
aforesaid words: then, I ween, both Peter and Paul are in 
danger to be deposed of their priesthood ; for the craft either 
of fishing, which was Peter's, or making of tents, which was 
Paul's, were more vile than the science of physic. And, as 
for those sacramental words of the order of priesthood, to 
have authority to sacrifice both for the quick and the dead, 
I ween, Peter and Paul (if they were both alive) were not 
able to prove, that ever Christ gave them such authority, or 
'ever said any such words unto them. But I will let Luke 
go : and, because Paul speaketh more for himself, I will re- 
hearse his words. "That (saith Paul) which I received of 1Cor>xL 
the Lord, I gave unto you : for the Lord Jesus, &c. :" and 
so setteth forth the whole institution and right use of the 
Lord's supper. Now, seeing that Paul here saith ; that, 
which he received of the Lord, he had given them; and 
that, which he had received and given them before by word 
of mouth, now he rehearseth and writeth the same in his 
Epistle : is it credible that Paul would never use this form 
of words upon the L6rd's cup, which (as he saith) he 
received of the Lord, that he had given them before, and 
now rehearseth in his Epistle? I trust, no man is so far 
from all reason, but he will grant me that this is not likely 
to be. 

Now then, if you grant me that Paul did use the form 
of words which he writeth, let us then rehearse and con- 
sider Paul's words, which he saith Christ spake thus upon 
the cup: "This cup is the New Testament in my blood; 
this do as often as ye shall drink it in the remembrance of 

Here I would know, whether that Christ's words, spoken 
upon the cup, were not as mighty in work, and as effectual 
in signification, to all intents, constructions, and purposes 
(as our Parliament men do speak), as they were, spoken upon 



the bread? If this be granted, which thing, I think, no 
man can deny, then further I reason thus: but the word 
"is" in the words spoken upon the Lord's bread, doth 
mightily signify (they say) the change of the substance of 
that which goeth before it, into the substance of that which 
followeth after; that is, of the substance of Christ's body, 
when Christ saith, This is my body. Now then, if Christ's 
words, which be spoken upon the cup, which Paul here re- 
hearseth, be of the same might and power both in working 
and signifying ; then must this word " is," when Christ saith, 
" This cup is the New Testament, &c." turn the substance 
of the cup into the substance of the New Testament. And, 
if thou wilt say, that this word "is" neither maketh nor 
signifieth any such change of the cup, although it be said 
of Christ, that this cup is the New Testament, yet Christ 
meant no such change as that ; marry, Sir, even so say I, 
when Christ said of the bread which he took, and after 
thanks given, brake, and gave them, saying, " Take, eat, 
this is my body;" he meant no more any such change of 
the substance of bread into the substance of his natural body, 
than he meant of the change and transubstantiation of the 
cup into the substance of 1 the New Testament. 

And, if thou wilt say, that the word ("cup") here in 
Christ's words doth not signify the cup itself, but the wine, 
or thing contained in the cup, by a figure called metonymy, 
for that Christ's words meant, and so must needs be taken; 
thou sayest very well. But, I pray thee by the way, here 
^notes' note tw0 ^ings: first, that this word ("is") hath no such 
strength and signification in the Lord's words, to make or to 
signify any transubstantiation : secondly, that, in the Lord's 
words, whereby he instituted the sacrament of his blood, he 
used a figurative speech. How vain then is it, that some 
so earnestly do say, as if it were an infallible rule, that in 
doctrine and in the institution of the sacraments Christ used 
no figures, but all his words are to be strained to their 
proper signification; when as here, whatsoever thou sayest 
was in the cup, neither that, nor the cup itself (taking every 
word in its proper signification), was the New Testament: 

[} These words are found in the edition of 1556, but not in those 
subsequent. Ed.] 



but in understanding that, which was in the cup, by the 
cup, that is a figurative speech. Yea, and also thou canst jj^ 16 ^^, 
not verify, or truly say of that (whether thou sayest it was «™j c °»- 
wine or Christ's blood) to be the New Testament, without 
a figure also. Thus, in one sentence spoken of Christ in 
the institution of the sacrament of his blood, the figure must 
help us twice : so untrue is it that some do write ; that Christ 
useth no figure, in the doctrine of faith, nor in the institu- 
tion of his sacraments. 

But some say: if we shall thus admit figures in doctrine; 
then shall all the articles of our faith, by figures and allegories, 
shortly be transformed and unloosed. I say, it is like fault, 
and even the same, to deny the figure where the place so re- 
quireth to be understood, as vainly to make it a figurative 
speech, which is to be understood in its proper signification. 

The rules, whereby the speech is known, when it is a 
figurative, and when it is not, St Augustine, in his book 
called De Doctrina Christiana, giveth divers learned lessons, ohnsti^*' 
very necessary to be known of the student in God's word. hb * m * c * 16- 
Of the which one I will rehearse, which is this : "If 2 " (saith 
he) -'the Scripture doth seem to command a thing which 
is wicked or ungodly, or to forbid a thing that charity doth 
require ; then know thou (saith he) that the speech is figur- 
ative.' 1 '' And, for example, he bringeth the saying of Christ 
in the 6th chapter of St John : " Except ye eat the flesh 
of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, ye cannot have 
life in you. 11 It seemeth to command a wicked or an un- 
godly thing. Wherefore it is a figurative speech, commanding 
to have communion and fellowship with Christ's passion, and 
devoutly and wholesomely to lay up in memory that his flesh 
was crucified and wounded for us. 11 

And here I cannot but marvel at some men, surely of 
much excellent fineness of wit, and of great eloquence, that 

Q 2 Si autem flagitium aut facinus videter jubere, aut utilitatem aut 
beneficentiani vetare, figurata est. " Nisi manducaveritis (inquit) carnem 
filii hominis, et sanguinem biberitis, non habebitis vitam in vobis." Faci- 
nus vel flagitium videtur jubere: figura est ergo, prascipiens, passionL 
Dominicae communicandum, et suaviter atque utiliter recondendum, 
in memoria quod pro nobis caro ejus crucifixa et vulnerata sit. 
S. Augustini de doctr. Christ, lib. in. c. 16. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 167i>, 
vol. ii. col. 52. Ed.] 


are not ashamed to write and say, tliat this aforesaid saying 

of Christ is (after St Augustine) a figurative speech indeed, 

howbeit not unto the learned, but unto the unlearned. Here 

Ss r an"were * et an y man ' tnat indifferently understandeth the Latin tongue, 

and h *26th St reac ^ tne p" ace i n &t Augustine : and, if he perceive not clearly 

objection, gt Augustine's words and mind to be contrary, let me abide 

thereof the rebuke. 

This lesson of St Augustine I have therefore the rather 
set forth ; because, as it teacheth us to understand that place 
in John figuratively, even so surely the same lesson with the 
example of St Augustine's exposition thereof teacheth us, not 
only by the same to understand Christ's words in the insti- 
tution of the sacrament, both of his body and of his blood, 
figuratively, but also the very true meaning and understanding 
of the same. For if to command to eat the flesh of the Son 
of Man, and to drink his blood, seemeth to command an 
inconvenience and an ungodliness; and is even so indeed, if 
it be understanded, as the words do stand in their proper sig- 
nification, and therefore must be understanded figuratively and 
spiritually, as St Augustine doth godly and learnedly interpret 
them; then surely Christ, commanding in his last supper to 
eat his body and to drink his blood, seemeth to command, 
in sound of words, as great and even the same inconvenience 
and ungodliness, as did his words in the 6th chapter of St 
John ; and therefore must even by the same reason be like- 
wise understanded and expounded figuratively and spiritually, as 
St Augustine did the other. Whereunto that exposition of 
St Augustine may seem to be the more meet, for that Christ 
in his supper, to the commandment of eating and drinking 
of his body and blood, addeth : " Do this in the remembrance 
of me." Which words, surely, were the key that opened and 
revealed this spiritual and godly exposition unto St Augustine. 
But I have tarried longer in setting forth the form of 
Christ's words upon the Lord's cup, written by Paul and 
Luke, than I did intend to do. And yet, in speaking of the 
form of Christ's words spoken upon his cup, cometh now to 
words of the my remembrance the form of words used in the Latin mass 

jjcitin mass. 

upon the Lord's cup. Whereof I do not a little marvel, what 
should be the cause, seeing the Latin mass agreeth with the 
Evangelists and Paul in the form of words said upon the 


bread, why, in the words upon the Lord's cup, it differeth 
from them all; yea, and addeth to the words of Christ, 
spoken upon the cup, these words, mysterium fidei, that is, 
" the mystery of faith ;" which are not read to be attributed 
unto the sacrament of Christ's blood, neither in the Evan- 
gelists, nor in Paul, nor (so far as I know) in any other 
place of holy Scripture. Yea, and if it may have some good 
exposition, yet, why it should not be as well added unto the 
words of Christ upon his bread, as upon his cup, surely I do 
not see that mystery. 

And, because I see in the use of the Latin mass the The abuse 

of the*3.« 

sacrament of the blood abused, when it is denied unto the ment in the 
lay people, clean contrary unto God's most certain word ; for 
why, I do beseech thee, should the sacrament of Christ's 
blood be denied unto the lay Christians, more than to the 
-priest I Did not Christ shed his blood as well for the lay 
godly man as for the godly priest? If thou wilt say, Yes, 
that he did so ; but yet the sacrament of the blood is not to 
be received without the offering up and sacrificing thereof 
unto God the Father, both for the quick and for the dead ; 
and no man may make oblation of Christ's blood unto God, 
but a priest, and therefore the priest alone (and that but in 
his mass only) may receive the sacrament of the blood: and 
call you this, my masters, -mysterium fidei? 

Alas ! alas ! I fear me, this is before God mysterium 
iniquitatis, the mystery of iniquity, such as Paul speaketh of 
in his Epistle to the Thessalonians. The Lord be merciful ps T1 j^; "• 
unto us, and bless us, and lighten his countenance upon us, 
and be merciful unto us; that we may know thy way upon 
earth, and among all people thy salvation. 

This kind of oblation standeth upon transubstantiation, 
its german cousin, and do grow both upon one ground. 
The Lord weed out of his vineyard shortly (if it be his will 
and pleasure) that bitter root ! 

To speak of this oblation; how much it is injurious unto The mass 

... sacrifice m- 

Christ's passion, how it cannot but with high blasphemy, and J£™^ s t0 
heinous arrogance, and intolerable pride, be claimed of any passion. 
man, other than of Christ himself ; how much and how plainly 
it repugneth unto the manifest words, the true sense and 
meaning, of holy Scripture in many places, especially in the 


Heb. ix. Epistle to the Hebrews ; the matter is so long, and others 
have written of it at large, that my mind is now not to 
entreat thereof any further. 

For only in this my scribbling I intended to search out 
and set forth by the Scriptures (according to God's gracious 
gift of my poor knowledge), whether the true sense and 
meaning of Christ's words in the institution of his holy 
supper do require any transubstantiation (as they call it), 
or that the very substance of bread and wine do remain 
still in the Lord's supper, and be the material substance of 
the holy sacrament of Christ our Saviour's blessed body and 
th^nswi" blood. Yet there remaineth one vain quiddity of Duns in 
objMtion? this matter, the which, because some that write now do 
seem to like it so well, that they have stripped him out of 
Duns' dusty and dark terms, and pricked him and painted 
him in fresh colours of an eloquent style, may therefore 
deceive the more, except the error be warily eschewed. 

Duns saith in these words of Christ, This is my body, " This 
pronoun demonstrative, meaning the word ' this,' if ye will 
know what it doth shew or demonstrate, whether the bread 
that Christ took or no, he answereth, no ; but only one 
thing in substance it pointeth, whereof the nature and name 
it doth not tell, but leaveth that to be determined and told 
by that which followeth the word, 'is,' that is, by predica- 
tum, as the logician doth speak:" and therefore he calleth 
this pronoun demonstrative "this," individuum vac/urn, that 
is, a wandering proper name, whereby we may point out 
and shew any one thing in substance, what thing soever 
it be. 

That this imagination is vain and untruly applied unto 
those words of Christ, " This is my body," it may appear 
plainly by the words of Luke and Paul, said upon the cup, 
conferred with the form of words spoken upon the cup in 
Matthew and Mark : for as upon the bread it is said of all, 
"This is my body;" so of Matthew and Mark is said of 
the cup, " This is my blood." Then, if in the words, " This 
is my body," the word ("this") be, as Duns calleth it, "a 
wandering name," to appoint and shew forth any one thing, 
whereof the name and nature it doth not tell; so must it 
be likewise in these words of Matthew and Mark upon the 


Lord's cup, " This is my blood. - " But, in the words of 
Matthew and Mark, it signifieth and pointeth out the same 
that it doth in the Lord's words upon the cup in Luke and 
Paul, where it is said, " This cup is the New Testament in 
my blood, &c." Therefore, in Matthew and Mark, the pro- 
noun demonstrative ("this") doth not wander to point out 
only one thing in substance, not shewing what it is, but 
telleth plainly what it is, no less in Matthew and Mark 
unto the eye, than is done in Luke and Paul, by putting too 
this word "cup" both unto the eye and unto the ear. 

For taking the cup, and demonstrating or shewing it 
unto his disciples by this pronoun demonstrative "this," 
and saying unto them, "Drink ye all of this;" it was then 
all one to say, " This is my blood," as to say, " This cup 
is my blood," meaning by the cup, as the nature of the 
speech doth require, the thing contained in the cup. So 
likewise, without all doubt, when Christ had taken bread, 
given thanks, and broken it, and giving it to his disciples, 
said, " Take ;" and so demonstrating and shewing that bread 
which he had in his hands 1 , to say then, " This is my body," 
and to have said, " This bread is my body." As it were all 
one, if a man, lacking a knife, and going to his oysters, would 
say to another, whom he saw to have two knives, " Sir, I pray 
you lend me the one of your knives ;" were it not now all one 
to answer him: "Sir, hold, I will lend you this to eat your 
meat, but not to open oysters withal :" and " Hold, I will lend 
you this knife to eat your meat, but not to open oysters?" 

This similitude serveth but for this purpose, to declare 
the nature of speech withal: whereas the thing that is de- 
monstrated and shewed, is evidently perceived, and openly 
known to the eye. But, good Lord, what a wonderful 
thing is it to see, how some men do labour to teach, what 
is demonstrated and shewed by the pronoun demonstrative, Gardiner to 
"this," in Christ's words, when he saith: "This is myjection. 
body;" "this is my blood:" how they labour (I say) to 
teach what that "this" was then in deed, when Christ spake 
in the beginning of the sentence the word "this," before 
he had pronounced the rest of the words that followed in 
the same sentence ; so that their doctrine may agree with 
E 1 Subaudi— it is all one. Ed.] 



their transubstantiation : which indeed is the very foundation 
wherein all their erroneous doctrine doth stand. And here 
the transubstantiators do not agree among themselves, no 
more than they do in the words which wrought the transub- 
stantiation, when Christ did first institute his sacrament, 
m. Etfrt." 8 Wherein Innocentius a , a Bishop of Rome, of the latter days, 
irt.v.ep. an( j D uns ( as was noted before), do attribute the work unto 
the word benedixit, "he blessed:" but the rest for the most 
The papists part to hoc est corpus meum, "this is my body.' 1 '' Duns, 


do not a- therefore, with his sect, because he putteth the change be- 
fore, must needs say, that "this," when Christ spake it 
in the beginning of the sentence, was indeed Christ's body. 
For in the change the substance of bread did depart, and 
the change was new done in "benedixit," saith he, that 
went before. And therefore, after him and his, that "this" 
was then indeed Christ's body, though the word did not then 
import so much, but only one thing in substance, which 
substance, after Duns, the bread being gone, must needs be 
the substance of Christ's body. But they, that put their 
transubstantiation to be wrought by these words of Christ, 
"This is my body," and do say, that, when the whole sen- 
tence was finished, then this change was perfected, and not 
before : they cannot say, but yet Christ's " this" in the 
beginning of the sentence, before the other words were fully 
pronounced, was bread indeed. But as yet the change was 
not done, and so long the bread must needs remain: and so 
long, with the universal consent of all transubstantiators, the 
natural substance of Christ's body cannot come ; and, there- 
fore, must their "this" of necessity demonstrate and shew 
the substance, which was as yet in the pronouncing of the 
first word " this" by Christ, but bread. But how can they 
make and verify Christ's words to be true, demonstrating 
the substance, which, in the demonstration, is but bread, and 
say thereof, "This is my body," that is, as they say, the 
natural substance of Christ's body; except they would say, 
that the verb "is" signifieth, "is made," or "is changed 
into?" And so then, if the same verb "is" be of the same 
effect in Christ's words spoken upon the cup, and rehearsed 
by Luke and Paul ; the cup, or the wine in the cup, must 
* See note A. at the end of the volume. 


be made or turned into the New Testament, as was de- 
clared before. 

There be some among the transubstantiators, which walk Winchester 

~ ' is become 

so wilily and so warily betwixt these two aforesaid opinions, neutral. 
allowing them both, and holding plainly neither of them both, 
that methink they may be called neutrals, ambidexters, or 
rather such as can shift on both sides. They play on both 
parts : for, with the latter, they do all allow the doctrine of 
the last syllable; which is, that transubstantiation is done 
by miracle in an instant, at the sound of the last syllable 
("»") in this sentence, hoc est corpus meum: and they 
do allow Duns 1 fantastical imagination of individuum vagum, 
which demonstrated (as he teacheth) in Christ's words one 
thing in substance, that being (after his mind) the substance 
of the body of Christ. 

* A marvellous thing, how any man can agree with both 
those two, they being so contrary the one to the other. For 
the one saith; The word ("this") demonstrated the substance 
of bread : and the other saith ; " No, not so ; the bread is 
gone, and it demonstrateth a substance, which is Christ's 
body." "Tush," saith the third man, "ye understand nothing Gardiner to 

11 t i i • , . the 84th ob- 

at all : they agree well enough m the chief point, which is jection. 
the ground of all ; that is, both do agree and bear witness, 
that there is transubstantiation." 

They do agree, indeed, in that conclusion, I grant: but 
their proofs and doctrine thereof do even as well agree to- 
gether, as did the false witnesses before Annas and Caiaphas 
against Christ, or the two wicked judges against Susanna* 
For against Christ the false witnesses did agree, no doubt, God-makers 

. . » -i i ■ i -i • i agreeamong 

to speak all against him. And the wicked judges were both themselves. 
agreed to condemn poor Susanna: but, in examination of 
their witness, they dissented so far, that all was found false, 
that they went about ; both that wherein they agreed, and 
all those things which they brought for their proofs. 

Thus much have I spoken, in searching out a solution 
for this principal question : which was ; What is the material 
substance of the holy sacrament in the Lord's supper I Now, 
lest I should seem to set by mine own conceit, more than is 
meet ; or less to regard the doctrine of the old ecclesiastical The consent 
writers, than is convenient for a man of my poor learning authors. 


and simple wit for to do ; and because also I am indeed 
persuaded, that the old ecclesiastical writers understood the 
true meaning of Christ in this matter; and have both so 
truly and so plainly set it forth in certain places of their 
writings, that no man, which will vouchsafe to read them, 
and without prejudice of a corrupt judgment will indifferently 
weigh them, and construe their minds none otherwise than 
they declare themselves to have meant: I am persuaded 
(I say), that, in reading of them thus, no man can be ignorant 
in this matter, but he that will shut up his own eyes, and 
blindfold himself. When I speak of ecclesiastical writers, 
I mean of such as were before the wicked usurpation of the 
See of Rome was grown so unmeasurably great, that not only 
with tyrannical power, but also with corrupt doctrine, it began 
to subvert Christ's Gospel, and to turn the state, that Christ 
and his Apostles had set in the church, upside down. 

For the causes aforesaid, I will rehearse certain of their 
sayings : and yet, because I take them but for witnesses and 
expounders of this doctrine, and not as the authors of the 
same; and also for that now I will not be tedious, I will 
rehearse but few : that is, three old writers of the Greek 
church, and other three of the Latin church, which do seem 
unto me to be in this matter most plain: the Greek authors 
are Origen, Chrysostom, and Theodoret: the Latin are Ter- 
tullian, St Augustine, and Gelasius. 

I know, there can be nothing spoken so plainly, but the 
crafty wit, furnished with eloquence, can darken it, and wrest 
it quite from the true meaning to a contrary sense. And 
I know also that eloquence, craft, and fineness of wit, hath 
gone about to blear men's eyes and to stop their ears in 
the aforenamed writers, that men should neither hear nor 
see what those authors both write and teach so plainly, that, 
except men should be made both stark blind and deaf, they 
cannot but of necessity, if they will read and weigh them 
indifferently, both hear and see what they do mean, when 
eloquence, craft, and fineness of wit, have done all that 
they can. Now let us hear the old writers of the Greek 
Eccf' Hist. Origen, which lived above twelve hundred and fifty years 
Lib. vi. cap. a g 0; a man5 f or the excellency of his learning, so highly 


esteemed in Christ's church, .that he was counted and judged 
the singular teacher, in his time, of Christ's religion, the 
confounder of heresies, the schoolmaster of many godly mar- 
tyrs, and an opener of high mysteries in Scripture : he, 
writing upon the 15th chapter of St Matthew's Gospel, 
saith thus: '"But if any thing enter into the mouth, it ^ e ^{. n 
goeth away into the belly, and is avoided into the draught. 
Yea, and that meat which is sanctified by the word of God 
and prayer, concerning the matter thereof, it goeth away into 
the belly, and is avoided into the draught. But, for the 
prayer which is added unto it, for the proportion of the faith, 
it is made profitable, making the mind able to perceive and 
to see that which is profitable. For it is not the material 
substance of bread, but the word, which is spoken upon it, 
that is profitable to the man, that eateth it not unworthily. 
And this I mean of the typical and symbolical (that is, sa- 
cramental) body." Thus far go the words of Origen ; where 
it is plain, first, that Origen, speaking here of the sacrament 
of the Lord's supper, as the last words do plainly signify, 
doth mean and teach, that the material substance thereof is 
received, digested, and voided, as the material substance of 
other bread and meats is : which could not be, if there 
were no material substance of bread at all, as the fantastical 
opinion of transubstantiation doth put. 

It is a world to see the answer of the Papists to this 
place of Origen. 

In the disputations, which were in this matter in the par- The dispu- 

, . , . tations in 

hament house, and in both the universities of Cambridge and th e pariia- 

° ment house 

Oxford, they that defended transubstantiation said, that this an d in the 

J universi- 

part of Origen was but set forth of late by Erasmus, and ties - 
therefore is to be suspected. But how vain this their an- 
il 1 Ylav to ela-Kopevojxevov eh to <TTopa eh KoiXlav ■ytapel kcii eh 
ctcpecptova eK_3a\\erai' kcu to dyia^pixevov fipaina Old \dyov 0e.ou 
kcu evTev^ew!, kcit avro fxev to vXikov, eh Tt\v K.oi\'iav ympel kcu 
eh a(pecp<5va eKpaWeTctr Kara oe t»/i> eiri'yivojjievijv avTto evyijv, 
tcetTa Tt]v avaXoylav tij? TiVTeto? uxpeMuov ylnerai, kcu t»7? tov 
vov aiTioi/ oia/?Ae\/>eo>9, opuvTos em to oxpeXovv, nai ovy t\ v\r] tov 
apTov t a\\ o 67r avToa elpfifievov Aoyo? ecrTtv o uxpeXwv tov fit] 
uva£ (ID? tov Kvp'iov e<rdiovTct clvtov. Orig. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 17?3, 
vol. iii. pp. 499, 500. In Matth. Comment. Horn. xi. Ed.] 



swer is, it appeareth plainly. For so may all the good 
old authors, which lay in old libraries, and are set forth 
of late, be by this reason rejected : as Clemens Alexandrinus, 
Theodoretus, Justinus, Ecclesiastica Historia Nicephori, and 
other such. 

Another ob- Another answer they had, saying : that Origen is noted 
to have erred in some points ; and, therefore, faith is not to 
be given in this matter unto him. But this answer, well 
weighed, doth minister good matter to the clear confutation 
of itself. For indeed we grant that in some points Origen 
did err. But those errors are gathered out and noted both 
of St Hierome and Epiphanius, so that his works (those errors 
excepted) are now so much the more of authority, that such 
great learned men took pains to draw out of him whatsoever 
they thought in him to be written amiss. But, as concerning 
the matter of the Lord's supper, neither they nor yet ever 
any other ancient author did ever say, that Origen did err. 

Gardiner to Now, because these two answers have been of late so con- 

thel66thob- . . . 

jection. futed and confounded, that it is well perceived, that they will 
take no place ; therefore some, which have written since that 
time, have forged two other answers, even of the same mould. 

The former whereof is, that Origen in this place spake 
not of the sacrament of bread or wine of the Lord's table, 
but of another mystical meat, of the which St Augus- 
tine maketh mention, to be given unto them, that were 
taught the faith, before they were baptized. But Origen's 
own words in two sentences before rehearsed, being put to- 
gether, prove this answer untrue. For he saith, that "he 
meaneth of that figurative and mystical body, which profiteth 
them that do receive it worthily :" alluding so plainly unto 
St Paul's words, spoken of the Lord's supper, that it is a 
shame for any learned man once to open his mouth to the 
contrary. And that bread, which St Augustine speaketh of, 
he cannot prove that any such thing was used in Origen's 
time. Yea, and though that could be proved, yet was there 
never bread at any time called a sacramental body 1 , saving 
the sacramental bread of the Lord's table, which is called 
of Origen the typical and symbolical body of Christ. 

P The words in Italics, though found in the edition of 1556, are not 
in those subsequent. Ed.] 



The second of the two new-found answers is yet most ^ ardi a ^ in 
monstrous of all other, which is this. "But let us grant (say P lace - 
they) that Origen spake of the Lord's supper, and by the 
matter thereof was understanded the material substance of 
bread and wine: what then?" say they. "For though the 
material substance was once gone and departed by reason of 
transubstantiation, whilst the forms of the bread and wine 
did remain; yet now it is no inconvenience to say, that as 
the material substance did depart at the entering in of Christ's 
body under the aforesaid forms, so, when the said forms be 
destroyed and do not remain, then cometh again the substance 
of bread and wine. And this," say they, "is very meet in 
this mystery, that that which began with a miracle, shall 
end in a miracle." If I had not read this fantasy, I would 
scarcely have believed, that any learned man ever would have 
set forth such a foolish fantasy ; which not only lacketh all 
ground either of God's word, reason, or of any ancient writer, 
but is also clean contrary to the common rules of school 
divinity ; which is, that no miracle is to be affirmed and put 
without necessity. And, although for their former miracle, 
which is their transubstantiation, they have some colour, 
though it be but vain ; saying, it is done by the power and 
virtue of these words of Christ, "This is my body:" yet to 
make this second miracle, of returning the material substance 
again, they have no colour at all. Or else, I pray them 
shew me, by what words of Christ is the second miracle 
wrought? Thus ye may see, that the sleights and shifts, 
which craft and wit can invent, to wrest the true sense of 
Origen, cannot take place. But now let us hear one other 
place of Origen, and so we will let him go. 

Origen, in the seventh Homily, super Leviticum, saith, The second 
2 that there is also even in the four Gospels, and not only Origen. 
in the Old Testament, a letter (meaning a literal sense), 

P Est enim in Evangeliis litera quae occidet, non solum in veteri 
testamento occidens litera deprehenditur. Est et in novo testamento 
litera quae occidet eum qui non spiritaliter quae dicuntur adverterit. Si 
enim secundum literam sequaris hoc ipsum quod dictum est "Nisi 
manducaveritis carnem meam et biberitis sanguinem meum/' occidit 
haec litera. Orig. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1733, vol. ii. p. 225. Horn, 
sup. Levit. vii. Interp. Ruf. Ed.] 


which killeth : for, if thou follow (saith he) the letter in that 
saying, "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and 
drink his blood, fee.''' this letter doth kill. If in that place 
the letter doth kill, wherein is commanded the eating of 
Christ's flesh ; then surely in those words of Christ, wherein 
Christ commandeth us to eat his body, the literal sense 
thereof likewise doth kill. For it is no less crime, but even 
the same and all one in the literal sense, to eat Christ's 
body, . and to eat Christ's flesh. Wherefore, if the one do 
kill, except it be understanded figuratively and spiritually ; then 
the other surely doth kill likewise. But, that to eat Christ s 
flesh doth kill, so understanded, Origen affirmeth plainly in his 
words above rehearsed. Wherefore, it cannot be justly denied, 
but to eat Christ's body, literally understanded, must needs 
(after him) kill likewise. 

The answer that is made to this place of Origen of the 
Papists is so foolish, that it bewrayeth itself without any 
further confutation. It is the same, that they make to a 
Lib. iii. cap. place of St Augustine, in his book De Doctrina Christiana, 
whereas St Augustine speaketh in effect the same thing that 
Origen doth here. The Papists' answer is this: "To the 
carnal man the literal sense is hurtful, but not so to the 
spiritual." As though to understand that in its proper 
sense, which ought to be taken figuratively, were to the 
carnal man a dangerous peril, but to the spiritual man none 
at all. 
?nl^f om ' Now t0 Chrysostom, whom I bring for the second writer 
Hom'^hi in the Greek church. He, speaking of the unholy using of 
man's body, which, after St Paul, ought to be kept pure and 
holy, as the very temple of the Holy Ghost, saith thus: 
ul If it be a fault (saith he) to translate the holy vessels (in 

Q Si ergo vasa sanctificata ad privatos usus transferee, sic periculo- 
snm est, in quibus non est verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis 
ejus continetur; quanto magis vasa corporis nostri, quae sibi Deus ad 
habitaculum prseparavit, non debemus locum dare Diabolo agendi in 
«is quod vult. 

S. Chrysostomi Op. Latin. Op. Imperfect, in Matth. Horn. xi. 

Ed. Ben. Par. 1724. in fine tomi sexti j in brackets, and with 
p# lxl11, I a side-note, indicating 

Ed. Antwerp Nomeceius vol. ii. (of the | a doubt of its genuine- 
Commentary) p. 35. En.] J ness. 



the which is contained not the true body of Christ, but the 
mystery of the body) to private uses ; how much more offence 
is it to abuse and defile the vessels of our body?" 

These be the words of Chrysostom : but, I trow, that 
here many foul shifts are devised to defeat this place. 

" The author," saith one, " is suspected." I answer, but 
in this place never fault was found with him unto these our 
days. And whether the author were John Chrysostom him- 
self, the archbishop of Constantinople, or no, that is not the 
matter : for of all it is granted, that he was a writer of that 
age, and a man of learning. So that it is manifest, that 
this which he writeth was the received opinion of learned 
men in his days: or else, undoubtedly in such a matter his 
saying should have been impugned of some that wrote in his 
time, or near unto the same. 

"Nay," saith another, "if this solution will not serve, ^gthob- 
we may say, that Chrysostom did not speak of the ves- J ectIon - 
sels of the Lord's cup, or such as were then used at the 
Lord's table, but of the vessels used in the temple in the 
old law." This answer will serve no more than the other. 
For here Chrysostom speaketh of such vessels, wherein was 
that which was called the body of Christ, although it was not 
the true body (saith he) of Christ, but the mystery of Christ's 
body. Now of the vessels of the old law, the writers do use 
no such manner of phrase ; for their sacrifices were not called 
Christ's body: for then Christ was not, but in shadows and 
figures, and not by the sacrament of his body revealed. 
Erasmus, which was a man that could understand the words 
and sense of the writers, although he would not be seen to 
speak against this error of transubstantiation, because he 
durst not, yet in this time declareth plainly, that this say- 
ing of the writer is none otherwise to be understanded. 

" Yet can I," saith the third Papist, "find out a fine and §££S£ iB 
subtle solution for this place, and grant all that yet is said, place- 
both allowing here the writer, and also that he meant of the 
vessels of the Lord's table. For (saith he) the body of Christ 
is not contained in them, at the Lord's table, as in a place, 
but as in a mystery." Is not this a pretty shift, and a mys- 
tical solution? But, by the same solution, then Christ's body 
is not in the Lord's table, nor in the priest's hands, nor in 


Triolet. 1 


the pix : and so he is here no where. For they will not say, 
that he is either here or there, as in a place. This answer 
pleaseth so well the maker, that he himself (after he had 
played with it a little while, and sheweth the fineness of 
his wit and eloquence therein) is content to give it over and 
say, "But it is not to be thought, that Chrysostom would 
speak after this fineness or subtlety:" and therefore he re- 
turneth again unto the second answer for his sheet anchor, 
which is sufficiently confuted before. 

Another short place of Chrysostom I will rehearse, which 
(if any indifference may be heard) in plain terms setteth 
in cTsariZ forth the truth of this ™atter. '"Before the bread," saith 
Monachum. Chrysostom, writing ad Ccesarium 3, monachum, "be hallowed, 
we call it bread: but, the grace of God sanctifying it by 
the means of the priests, it is delivered now from the name 
of bread, and esteemed worthy to be called Christ's body, 
although the nature of bread tarry in it still." These be 
Chrysostom's words, wherein I pray you, what can be said 
or thought more plain against this error of transubstantia- 
fteMutob- ^ 0n ' tnan to declare, that the bread abideth so still ? And 
jection. y e £ fjjjg g0 p] a j n a pl ace some are not ashamed thus shame- 
fully to elude, saying : " We grant the nature of bread 
remaineth still thus, for that it may be seen, felt, and tasted ; 
and yet the corporeal substance of the bread therefore is 
gone, lest two bodies should be confused together, and Christ 
should be thought impanate. 11 

What contrariety and falsehood is in this answer, the 
simple man may easily perceive. Is not this a plain con- 
trariety, to grant that the nature of bread remaineth so 
still, that it may be seen, felt, and tasted, and yet to say, 
the corporeal substance is gone, to avoid the absurdity of 
Christ's impanation? And what manifest falsehood is this, 
to say or mean that, if the bread should remain still, then 

P Sicut enim antequam sanctificetur panis, Panem nominamus, di- 
vina autem ilium sanetificante gratia, mediante Sacerdote, liberatus est 
quidem appellatione panis, dignus autem habitus est dominici corporis 
appellatione, etiamsi natura panis in eo permansit. S. Chrysostomi 
Op. Ep. ad Caesarium Monachum. Ed. Ben. Par. vol. iii. p. 744. — 1717. 

(J* See note B. at the end of the volume. Ed.] 


must follow the inwnveniency of impanation? As though 
the very bread could not be a sacrament of Christ's body (as 
water is of baptism), except Christ should unite the nature 
of bread to his nature, in unity of person, and make of the 
bread God. 

Now let us hear Theodoretus, which is the last of the Theodoret. 
three Greek authors. He writeth in his Dialogue contra Dial. 1. 
Evit/vhm thus: " a He that called bis natural body corn and 
bread, and also named himself a vine tree; even he, the same, 
hath honoured the symbols (that is, the sacramental signs) 
with the names of his body and blood, not changing indeed 
the nature itself, but adding grace unto the nature." 

What can be more plainly said 'than this, that thi& 
eM writer saith ? That although the sacraments bear th& 
name of the body and blood of Christ, yet is not their na-^ 
ture changed* but abideth still. And where is then the 
Papists' transubstantiation? 

The same writes, in the second dialogue of the same Dial. 3. 
work against the aforesaid heretic Eutyches, writeth yet more 
plainly against this error of transubstantiation, if any thing 
can be said to be more plain. For he maketh the heretic 
to apeak thus against him that defendeth the true doctrine, 
whom he calleth Orthodoxus: " 3 As the sacraments of the 
body .and blood of our Lord are one thing before the in- 
vocation, and after the invocation they be changed, and are 
made another;: so likewise the Lord's body (saith ihe 

£* 'O 700 S»j to <pv<rei ffcSfna &Ttov koi olotov it po(sayopevva<s, 
kat av -7ra\H/ eavrov apire\ov 6iioftd<ra<!, ooto? tol opoapeva <rvuj3o\a 
Trj Toy <ra>juaTOS koi aifiaToi irpo&rjyapia TeTi/xtjKev, bv ty\v tpvmv 
perafiaXtov, a\Xa ty\v X&pw Trf cpva-ei irpoa-TedeiKtos. TIieod. J DiaI. 1. 
Op. Ed. Pari 1642, torn. ir. p. 18. Ed.] 

£ a Epcti/. "Qonrep Tttivvv to <ru/x/3oAa tou SeawoTtitov awfiaTov tb 
kui aijuaTos aAAa pev el<ri- irpo T»Je lepaTtKrj*; ewiisAfja'eure, peTa be 
ye Trfv eiriK\ri<rtv peTajfidWeTeu Kaierepa y'weTctr ovtio to te,<T7roTucoi> 
<ru>fia, fieTci tijv avdXrjyp-iv, ek Trjv ovcriav jU.6TejSA.1761;, tqv deiav* 

Opoooo^ov. . 'EaAtos ak v(pt]uev apKvanv avbe yap, peTa tov cwynaa-- 
pov, to pvvTina avp./3o\a t«j« olicelav efiarTaTai (pvireiav pevei yap 
eTri Trjv irpoTepav ova-lav koi tov <rynpaTO<: na\ tov eioous, koi opaTa. 
ea-ri koi «W, ola koI irpoTepov r)v. Theod. Dial. £. Op/Ed. Par. 1642, 
torn. ir. p. 85. Ed.] 



heretic) is, after the assumption or ascension into heaven, 
turned into the substance of God:" the heretic meaning 
thereby, that Christ, after his ascension, remaineth no more 
a man. 

To this Orthodoxus answereth thus, and saith to the 
heretic : " Thou art taken (saith he) in thine own snare ; for 
those mystical symbols or sacraments, after the sanctification, 
do not go out of their own nature, but they tarry and abide still 
in their substance, figure, and shape; yea, and are sensibly 
seen, and groped to be the same as they were before, &c." 

At these words the Papists do startle ; and, to say the 

truth, these words be so plain, so full, and so clear, that 

they cannot tell what to say : but yet they will not cease 

The cuttle is t „ a bout to play the cuttles, and to cast their colours 

a sea-fish o i •/ ? 

whichcast- over them, that the truth, which is so plainly told, should 

ethasitwere ' ' r J ' 

her in aii a dso l not ^ave P^ ace - "This author wrote" (say they) "before 
the water S * ne determination of the church." As who would say, what- 
eth C takfnpr soever that wicked man Innocentius, the Pope of Eome, 
cap! - 4. lb ' IX " determined in his congregations with his monks and friars, 
that must needs be (for so Duns saith) holden for an article, 
and of the substance of our faith. 
D°More- rsd Some do charge this author, that he was suspected to be 
convocation a Nestorian : which thing, in Chalcedon council, was tried, 
House. anc i proved to be false. But the foulest shift of all, and 
yet the best that they can find in this matter, when none 
other will serve, is to say, that Theodoret understandeth 
by the word substance accidents, and not substance indeed. 
This gloss is like a gloss of a lawyer upon a decree, the 
text whereof beginneth thus: Statnimus, that is, "we de- 
cree." The gloss of the lawyer (after many other pretty 
shifts there set forth, which he thinketh will not well serve 
to his purpose), therefore at the last, to clear the matter, 
he saith thus : " after the mind of one lawyer, vel die''' (saith 
he) "statuimus, id est, abrogamus 1 ," that is, as expounded, 

SpJsStni- " we do decree ' that is > we do abrogate or disannul." Is 

mus - not this a worthy and goodly gloss? Who will not say, 

but he is worthy in the law to be retained of counsel, that 

can gloss so well, and find in a matter of difficulty such 

[} The words "vol die" do not occur in the passage. Decreta 
Gratiani. Ed. Par. 1585, p. 14. Ed.] 


fine shifts? And yet this is the law, or at the least the 
gloss of the law. And therefore who can tell what peril a 
man may incur to speak against it ; except he were a lawyer 
indeed, which can keep himself out of the briers, what wind 
soever may blow? 

Hitherto ye have heard the writers of the Greek church, 
not all what they do say, for that were a labour too great 
for to gather, and too tedious for the reader, but one or two 
places of every one. The which how plain, and how full 
and clear they be against the error of transubstantiation, 
I refer it to the judgment of the indifferent reader. And 
now I will likewise rehearse the sayings of other three old 
ancient writers of the Latin Church, and so make an end. 

And first I will begin with Tertullian ; whom Cyprian, the Tertullian. 
holy martyr, so highly esteemed, that, whensoever he would 
have his book, he was wont to say, " Give me the master." 
This old writer, in his fourth book against Marcion, the 
heretic, saith thus: "'Jesus made the bread, which he took 
and distributed to his disciples, his body, saying, This is my 
body: that is to say (saith Tertullian), a figure of my body." 
In this place it is plain that, after TertulhWs exposition, Adv. Marc. 
Christ meant not, by calling the bread his body and the «>.' 
wine his blood, that either the bread was his natural body 
or the wine his natural blood : but he called them his body 
and blood, because he would institute them to be unto us 
sacraments, that is, holy tokens and signs of his body and 
of his blood ; that, by them remembering and firmly believing 
the benefits procured to us by his body, which was torn 
and crucified for us, and of (by) his blood which was shed 
for us upon the cross, and so with thanks receiving these 
holy sacraments according to Christ's institution, (we) might 
by the same be spiritually nourished and fed to the increase 
of all godliness in us here in our pilgrimage and journey, 
wherein we walk unto everlasting life. This was undoubtedly 
Christ our Saviour's mind, and this is Tertullian's exposition. 
The wrangling, that the Papists do make to elude this 
saying of Tertullian, is so far out of frame, that it even 

Q 1 Acceptum panem et distributum discipulis corpus suum ilium 
fecit, "hoc est corpus meum" dicendo: id est, figura corporis mei. 
Tertul. Adv. Mar. lib. iv. c. 40. Op. Ed. Par. 1641, p. 571. Ed."] 




Gardiner to wearieth me to think on it. " Tertullian writeth here (say 

the 16th ob- . , 

jection. they) as none hath done hitherto before him, neither yet 
any other catholic man after him." 

This saying is too manifestly false: for Origen, Hilary, 
Ambrose, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, St Augustine, and other 
old authors likewise, do call the sacrament a figure of Christ's 
body. And where they say, that Tertullian wrote this when 
he was in a heat of disputation with an heretic, coveting 
by all means to overthrow his adversary; as who should 
say, he would not take heed what he did say, and specially 
what he would write in so high a matter, so that he might 
have the better hand of his adversary; is this credible to 
be true in any godly wise man? How much less then is 
it worthy to be thought or credited in a man of so great 
a wit, learning, and excellency, as Tertullian is worthily es- 
teemed ever to have been? 

Tertullian, Likewise this author in his first book against the same 

lib. 1. cap. _ ° 

14, contra heretic Marcion writeth thus: ' 4l God did not reject bread, 

Marcion. J 7 

which is his creature; for by it he hath made a representa- 
tion of his body." Now I pray you, what is this to say, 
that Christ hath made a representation (by bread) of his 
body, but that Christ had instituted and ordained bread to 
be a sacrament, for to represent unto us his body? Now, 
whether the representation of one thing by another requireth 
the corporeal presence of the thing which is so represented 
or no, every man that hath understanding is able in this 
point (the matter is so clear of itself), to be a sufficient 

The second doctor and writer of the Latin church, whose 
saying I promised to set forth, is St Augustine, of whose 
learning and estimation I need not to speak. For all the 
church of Christ both hath and ever hath had him for a 
man of most singular learning, wit, and diligence, both in 
setting forth the true doctrine of Christ's religion, and also 
in defence of the same against heretics. 

This author, as he hath written most plenteously in other 

[} Sed ille quidem usque nunc nee aquam reprobavit creatoris qua 
suos abluit, nee oleum quo suos unguit, nee mellis et lactis societatem 
qua suos infantat, nee panem quo ipsum corpus suum repraesentat. Ter- 
tul. Cont. Mar. lib. i. c. 14. Op. Ed. Par. 1641, pp. 439, 440. Ed.] 

St Augus- 



matters of our faith, so likewise on this argument he hath 
written at large in many of his works so plainly against this 
error of transubstantiation, that the Papists love least to 
hear of him of all other writers ; partly for his authority, 
and partly because he openeth the matter more fully than 
any other doth. Therefore I will rehearse more places of 
him, than heretofore I have done of the other. 

And first, what can be more plain, than that which he 
writeth upon the 98th Psalm, speaking of the sacrament of p^xcviii? 
the Lord's body and blood; and rehearsing (as it were) 
Christ's words to his disciples, after this manner? " 2 It is not 
this body, which ye do see, that ye shall eat, neither shall 
ye drink this blood, which the soldiers that crucified me shall 
spill or shed : I do commend unto you a mystery, or a 
sacrament, which spiritually understood shall give you life." 
Now, if Christ had no more natural and corporal bodies, but 
that one which they then presently both heard and saw, nor 
other natural blood, but that which was in the same body, 
and the which the soldiers did afterward cruelly shed upon 
the cross; and neither this body nor this blood was (by 
this declaration of St Augustine) either to be eaten or 
drunken, but the mystery thereof spiritually to be under- 
stated ; then I conclude (if this saying and exposition of St 
Augustine be true), that the mystery, which the disciples 
should eat, was not the natural body of Christ, but a mys- 
tery of the same, spiritually to be understanded. 

For as St Augustine saith, in his 20th book, " 3 Christ's £"(?• contra 

° ' ' Faustum, 

flesh and blood was in the Old Testament promised by simili- " b - xx - ca P- 
tudes and signs of their sacrifices, and was exhibited in 
deed and in truth upon the cross : but the same is cele- 
brated by a sacrament of remembrance upon the altar." 

[ 2 Non hoc corpus, quod videtis, manducaturi estis ; et bibituri ilium 
sanguinem, quem f usuri sunt qui me crucifigent. Sacramentum ali- 
quod vobis commendavi; quod, spiritaliter intellectum, vivificabit vos. 
S: Aug. in Psal. xcviii. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. vol; iv. col. 1066. Basil Edit, 
vol. viii. col. 1105. Ed.] 

£ 3 Hujus sacrificii caro et sanguis ante adventum Christi per victi- 
marum similitudinem promittebatur, in passione Christi per ipsam veri- 
tatem reddebatur, post adscensum Christi per sacramentum memoriae 
celebratur. S. Aug. cont. Faust, lib. xx. c. 98. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. torn, 
viii. col. 348. Ed.] 



in Ps. iii. 

De Fide, ad And in his book De Fide ad Petrum, cap. 19, he saith, that 

Petrum,cap. ' r » 

19 - ' £l In these sacrifices, (meaning of the old law,) it is figu- 

ratively signified what was then to be given: but in this 
sacrifice it is evidently signified, what is already given (under- 
standing in the sacrifice upon the altar), the remembrance 
and thanksgiving for the flesh, which he offered for us upon the 
cross :" as in the same place evidently there it may appear. 

Another evident and clear place, wherein it appeareth, 
that by the sacramental bread, which Christ called his body, 
he meant "a figure of his body," is upon the third Psalm, 
where St Augustine speaketh thus in plain terms : " Christ 
did admit Judas unto the feast, in the which he com- 
mended unto his disciples the figure of Ms body 2 .'''' This was 
Christ's last supper before his passion, wherein he did ordain 
the sacrament of his body, as all learned men do agree. 

St Augustine also in his 23rd Epistle to Bonifacius 
teacheth how sacraments do bear the names of the things 
whereof they be sacraments, both in baptism and in the 
Lord's table; even as we call every Good Friday the day of 
Christ's passion, and every Easter Day the day of Christ's 
resurrection ; when, in very deed, there was but one day 
wherein he suffered, and but one day wherein he rose. And 
why do we then call them so, which are not so indeed, but 
because they are in like time and course of the year, as those 
days were wherein those things were done \ " Was Christ 

Ep. 23. 

Q 1 In illis enim carnalibus victimis figuratio fuit carnis Christi, 
quam pro peccatis nostris ipse sine peccato fuerat oblaturus, et san- 
guinis quern erat effusurus in remissionem peccatorum nostrorum ; in isto 
autem sacrificio gratiarum actio atque commemoratio est carnis Christi 
quam pro nobis obtulit et sanguinis quern pro nobis idem Deus effudit. 
Fulgentius, Edit. Lug. 1633. 

The Liber ad Petrum de Fide is a work not of Augustine, but of 
Fulgentius. In the Benedictine Edition of St Augustine, printed at 
Paris, 1679, the book is prefaced with an Admonitio commencing thus : 
Liber "de fide ad Petrum" inter Augustini opera olim impressus est, 
veterum aliquot manuscriptorum auctoritate, verum non esse Augus- 
tini probe monstravit Erasmus ex ipsa, phrasi, aliisque argumentis qute 
hie referre superfluum putamus. Nam indubitatus ejus auctor a 
nemine jam ignoratur Fulgentius. Ed.] 

Q 2 Cum adhibuit ad convivium in quo corporis et sanguinis sui figu- 
ram discipulis commendavit et tradidit. S. Aug. in Psal. iii. Op. Ben. 
Ed. Par. vol. iv. col. 7. Ed.] 


(saith St Augustine) offered any more but once ? And he 
offered himself. And yet in a sacrament or representation, 
not only every solemn feast of Easter, but also every day 
to the people he is offered. So that he doth not lie, that 
saith, 'He is every day offered.' For if sacraments had 
not some similitude or likeness of those things, whereof they 
be sacraments, they could in no wise be sacraments : and, for 
their similitudes and likeness, commonly they have the names 
of the things whereof they be sacraments. Therefore, as 
after a certain manner of speech the sacrament of Christ's 
body is Christ's body, the sacrament of Christ's blood is 
Christ's blood ; so likewise the sacrament of faith is faith 3 ." 

After this manner of speech, St Augustine teacheth in Quest. 57, 
his question, Super Leviticum et cont. Adamantum, it is 
"said in Scripture, that seven ears of corn be seven years; 
and 'the rock was Christ;' and 'blood is the soul 4 :' the 
which last saying (saith St Augustine in his book cont. Ad- Ep. 102, cap. 
amant. 5 ) is understanded to be spoken in a sign or figure ; for 
the Lord himself did not stick to say, ' This is my body,' 

[ 3 Nonne semel immolatus est Christus in seipso ? et tamen in Sacra- 
mento non solum per omnes Paschse solemnitates, sed omni die populis 
immolatur, nee utique mentitur qui interrogatus eum respondent im- 
molari. Si enim sacramenta quamdam similitudinem earum rerum 
quarum sacramenta sunt, non haberent, omnino sacramenta non essent ; 
ex hac autem similitudine plerumque etiam ipsamm rerum nomina 
accipiunt. Sicut ergo, secundum quemdam modum, sacramentum cor- 
poris Christi corpus Christi est, sacramentum sanguinis Christi sanguis 
Christi est; ita sacramentum fidei fides est. S. Aug. Epist. xxm. Op. 
Ed. Ben. Par. 1679. vol. ii. col. 267. F. Ed.] 

[* Solet autem res quse significat ejus rei nomine quam significat 
nuncupari, sicut scriptum est, septem spicae septem anni sunt; non 
enim dixit, septem annos significant. Septem boves septem anni sunt, 
et multa hujusmodi. Hinc est quod dictum est, Petra erat Christus; 
non enim dixit, Petra significat Christum, sed tanquam hoc esset quod uti- 
que per substantiam non hoc erat, sed per significationem. Sic et sanguis 
quoniam propter vitalem corpulentiam animam significat in sacramentis : 
anima dictus est. S. Aug. Quaest. 57. lib. in. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. vol. iii. 
col. 516. Ed.] 

[ 5 Nam ex eo quod scriptum est sanguinem pecoris animam ejus 
esse, prater id quod supra dixi, non ad me pertinere quid agatur de 
pecoris anima, possum etiam interpretari praeceptum illud, in signo 
esse positum; non enim Dominus dubitavit dicere, "Hoc est corpus 
meum," cum signum daret corporis sui. S. Aug. Epist. en. c. 12. sect. 3. 
Op. Ed. Ben. Par. vol. iii. col. 124. Ed.] 


when he gave the sign of his body." " For we must not 
consider in sacraments (saith St Augustine in another place) 
what they be, but what they do signify. For they be signs 
of things, being one thing in themselves, and yet signifying 
contra another thing 1 " " For the heavenly bread (saith he), speaks 
num, lib. ii. i n g f the sacramental bread, by some manner of speech is 
called Christ's body, when in very deed it is the sacrament 
of his body, &c." 

What can be more plain or more clearly spoken, than 
are these places of St Augustine before rehearsed, if men 
were not obstinately bent to maintain an untruth, and to 
receive nothing, whatsoever doth set it forth? Yet one 
place more of St Augustine will I allege, which is very clear 
to this purpose, that Christ's natural body is in heaven, and 
not here corporally in the sacrament, and so let him depart. 
^i U fnJohan ^ n n * s ^ st Treatise, which he writeth upon John, he 
Evan. cap. teacheth plainly and clearly, how Christ, being both God 
and man, is both here after a certain manner, and yet in 
heaven, and not here in his natural body and substance 
which he took of the blessed Virgin Mary, speaking thus of 
Christ, and saying, " 2 By his divine majesty, by his provi- 

P Haec eniin sacramenta sunt, in quibus non quid sint, sed quid os- 
tendant semper adtenditur, quoniam signa sunt rerum, aliud existentia, 
aliud significantia. S. Aug. cont. Max. lib. n. c. 22. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 
vol. viii. col. 725. Ed.] 

E* Accipiant boc et boni, sed non sint soliciti; loquebatur enim de 
prsesentia corporis sui. Nam secundum majestatem suam, secundum 
providentiam, secundum ineffabilem et invisibilem gratiam, impletur 
quod ab eo dictum est, "Ecce ego vobiscum sum usque in consum- 
mationem saeculi." Secundum carnem vero quam Verbum assumsit, 
secundum id quod de virgine natus est, secundum id quod a Judseis 
prehensus est, quod ligno confixus, quod de cruce depositus, quod lin r 
teis involutus, quod in sepulchro conditus, quod in resurrectione mani- 
festatus, non semper habebitis vobiscum. Quare ? Quoniam conversatus 
est secundum corporis praesentiam quadraginta diebus cum discipulis 
suis, et, eis deducentibus videndo, non sequendo, adscendit in ccelum, et 
non est hie. Ibi est enim et sedet ad dexteram Patris, et hie est : non enim. 
recessit praesentia majestatis. Aliter, secundum praesentiam majestatis, 
semper habemus Christum : secundum praesentiam carnis, recte dictum 
est discipulis, "me autem non semper habebitis." Habuit enim ilium 
Ecclesia secundum praesentiam carnis paucis diebus; modo fide tenet, 
oculis non videt. S. Aug. Tract li. in Johan. Ev. c. 12. Op. Ed. Ben. 
Par. 1679, torn. hi. pars iii. col. 634. Ed.] 

op the lord's supper. 43 

dence, by his unspeakable and invisible grace, that is fulfilled 
which he spake, 'Behold, I am with you unto the end of 
the world.' But as concerning his flesh which he took in 
his incarnation; as touching that which was born of the 
Virgin; as concerning that which was apprehended by the 
Jews, and crucified upon a tree, and taken down from the 
cross, wrapped in linen clothes, and buried, and rose again, 
and appeared after his resurrection ; as concerning that flesh, 
he said, ' Ye shall not ever have me with you.' Why so ? 
For, as concerning his flesh, he was conversant with his dis- 
ciples forty days; and, they accompanying, seeing, and not 
following him, he went up into heaven, and is not here. 
By the presence of his divine majesty, he did not depart ; 
as concerning the presence of his divine majesty, we have 
Christ ever with us : but, as concerning the presence of his 
flesh, he said truly to his disciples, ' Ye shall not ever 
have me with you.' For, as concerning the presence of his 
flesh, the church had him but a few days: now it holdeth 
him by faith, though it see him not." 

Thus much St Augustine speaketh, repeating one thing 
so often; and all to declare and teach how we should un- 
derstand the manner of Christ's being here with us, which 
is by his grace, by his providence, and by his divine nature ; 
and how he is absent by his natural body which was born of 
the Virgin Mary, died, and rose for us, and is ascended into 
heaven, and there sitteth, as it is in the articles of our 
faith, on the right hand of God, and thence, (and from 
none other place, saith St Augustine) he shall come on the 
latter day, to judge the quick and the dead. At the which 
day, the righteous shall then lift up their heads : and the 
light of God's truth shall so shine, that falsehood and errors 
shall be put unto perpetual confusion. Righteousness shall 
have the upper hand, and truth that day shall bear away the 
victory; and all the enemies thereof be quite overthrown, to 
be trodden under foot for evermore. O Lord, Lord, I be- 
seech thee, hasten this day. Then shalt thou be glorified 
with the glory due unto thy holy name and unto thy divine 
majesty ; and we shall sing unto thee, in all joy and felicity, 
laud and praise for evermore. Amen. 

Here now would I make an end : for methinks St Augus- 


tine is in this matter so full and plain, and of* that authority, 
that it should not need, after this his declaration, being so 
firmly grounded upon God's word, and so well agreeing with 
other ancient authors, to bring in for the confirmation of this 
matter any more. And yet I said, I would allege three of 
the Latin church, to testify the truth in this cause. Now, 
Geiasius. therefore, the last of all shall be Gelasius, which was a 
bishop of Rome ; but one that was bishop of that see, before 
the wicked usurpation and tyranny thereof spread abroad 
and burst out into all the world. For this man was before 
Bonifacius, yea, and Gregory the First, in whose days both 
corruption of doctrine and tyrannical usurpation did chiefly 
grow, and had the upper hand. 

Gelasius, in an epistle of the two natures of Christ, 
{contra Euti/chen,) writeth thus : " The sacraments of the 
body and blood of Christ, which we receive, are godly things, 
whereby, and by the same, we are made partakers of the 
divine nature ; and yet, nevertheless, the substance or nature 
of the bread and wine doth not depart or go away 1 ." 
Note these words, I beseech you ; and consider, whether any 
thing can be more plainly spoken, than these words against 
the error of transubstantiation ; which is the ground and 
bitter root, whereupon spring all the horrible errors before 

Wherefore, seeing that the falsehood hereof doth appear 
so manifestly and by so many ways, so plainly, so clearly, 
and so fully, that no man needeth to be deceived, but he 
that will not see, or will not understand ; let us all that do 
love the truth embrace it, and forsake the falsehood. For 
he that loveth the truth is of God : and the lack of the 
love thereof is the cause why God suffereth men to fall into 
errors, and to perish therein ; yea, and, as St Paul saith, why 
he sendeth unto them illusions, that they believe lies, unto 

\J Certe sacramenta, quae sumimus, corporis et sanguinis Christi, 
divina res est; propter quod et per eadem, divinae efficimur consortes 
naturae : et tamen esse non desinit substantia vel natura panis et vini ; 
et certe imago et similitudo corporis et sanguinis Christi in actione 
mysteriorum celebrantur. Gelasii Op. adv. Eutych. et Nest, de 
duab. Christ. Natur. in Bibliotheca Patrum, Colon. 1618. Sec. v. 
Part in. p. 671. Ed.] 

op the lord's supper. 45 

their own condemnation : " because (saith he) they loved not 
the truth." 

This truth, no doubt, is God's word: for Christ himself 
saith unto his Father, "Thy word is truth." The love John xvii. 
and light whereof Almighty God our heavenly Father give 
us, and lighten it in* our hearts by his holy Spirit, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Vincet Veritas. 








©4F toe imsnumsuu 

of Clfjrtet in ©nglan&e, tit tfje time of queene 

Plarp, infjcrrin 10 contepnetr a learned torn* 

parteon oetfojene tfje eoutfortanle Doctrpne of 

ttJP gospell, an& t!)e tratritione of tfje popple 

religion; ttitf) an instruction fjouje ttje true 

OTtjrpstian oug&te to fieljaue fjitnsselfe in 

tlje tptne of trpall— torptten tip 

ttjat ftortflp ntartpr of ©on 

Nicolas ftpMep, late 

ISpsfjoppe of 


iHeuer tiefore tfjte tpme 

13eruseD antr aHotoefc aecor&ing to ttje 
<®tienes Maimie* Entuncttons. 


Alas ! what misery is thy church brought unto, Lord, The state of 
at this day ! Where of late the word of the Lord was truly of England 

■' ^ described 

preached, was read and heard in every town, in every church, ^ d n |g~ d 
in every village ; yea, and almost every honest man's house ; 
alas ! now it is exiled, and banished out of the whole realm. 
Of late, who was not glad to be taken for a lover of God's 
•word, for a reader, for a ready hearer, and for a learner of 
the same ? And now, alas, who dare bear any open counte- 
nance towards it, but such as are content in Christ's cause, 
and for his word's sake, to stand to the danger and loss of 
all that they have? 

Of late there was to be found, of every age, of every 
degree and kind of people, that gave their diligence to learn, 
as they could, out of God's word the articles of the Chris- 
tian faith, the commandments of God, and the Lord's prayer. 
The babes and young children were taught these things of 
their parents, of their masters, and weekly of their curates, 
in every church : and the aged folk, which had been brought 
up in blindness, and in ignorance of those things which 
every Christian is bound to know, when otherwise they could 
not, yet they learned the same, by often hearing their chil- 
dren and servants repeating the same ; but now, alas, and 
alas again, the false prophets of Antichrist, which are past 
all shame, do openly preach in pulpits unto the people of 
God, that the catechism is to be counted heresy : whereby 
their old blindness is brought home again ; for the aged are 
afraid of the higher powers, and the youth is abashed and 
ashamed, even of that which they have learned, though it 
be God's word, and dare no more meddle. 

Of late in every congregation throughout all England 
was made prayer and petition unto God, to be delivered 





The lament- 
able change 
of religion 
in the 

Jerem. iv. 

1 Cor. xiv. 

in prayer. 

from the tyranny of the Bishop of Eome, and all his detest- 
able enormities 1 ; from all false doctrine and heresy: and 
now, alas ! Satan hath persuaded England, by his falsehood 
and craft, to revoke her old godly prayer, to recant the same, 
and provoke the fearfid wrath and indignation of God upon 
her own pate. 

Of late by strait laws and ordinances, with the consent 
of the nobles and commonality, and full agreement and council 
of the prelates and clergy, was banished hence the beast 
of Babylon, with laws (I say), and with oaths and all means 
that then could be devised for so godly a purpose : but now, 
alas ! all these laws are trodden under foot : the nobles, 
the commonality, the prelates, and clergy, are quite changed ; 
and all those oaths, though they were herein made in judge- 
ment, justice, and truth, and the matter never so good, doth 
no more hold than a bond of rushes, or of a barley straw; 
nor public perjury no more feareth them, than a shadow 
upon the wall. 

Of late it was agreed in England of all hands, according 
to Paul's doctrine and Christ's commandment, as Paul saith 
plain, that nothing ought to be done in the church, in the 
public congregation, but in that tongue which the congre- 
gation could understand, that all might be edified thereby, 
whether it were common prayer, administration of the sacra- 
ments, or any other thing belonging to the public ministry 
of> God's holy and wholesome word : but, alas ! all is turned 
upside down, Paul's doctrine is put apart, Christ's command- 
ment is not regarded : for nothing is heard commonly in the 
church, but in a strange tongue, that the people doth no- 
thing understand. 

Of late all men and women were taught, after Christ's 
doctrine, to pray in that tongue which they could understand, 
that they might pray with heart that which they should 
speak with their tongue : now, alas ! the unlearned people 
is brought in that blindness again, to think that they pray, 

[} In the Litany of Edward VI. occurs the Petition : 

Priest. From all sedition and privy conspiracy, from the tyranny of 

the Bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enormities; from all false 

doctrine, &c. &c. 

Arts. Good Lord, deliver us. Ed.] 


when they speak with their tongues, they cannot tell what, 
nor whereof their heart is nothing mindful at all, for that 
it can understand never a whit thereof. 

Of late the Lord's supper was duly ministered and taught ^Lord's 
to be made common to all that were true Christians, with Su PP er - 
thanksgiving and setting forth of the Lord's death and pas- 
sion, until his returning again to judge both quick and 
dead : but now, alas ! the Lord's table is quite overthrown, 
and that which ought to be common to all godly, is made 
private to a few ungodly, without any kind of thanksgiving, 
or any setting forth of the Lord's death at all, that the 
people is able to understand. 

Of late all that were endued with the light and grace The sacra- 

° ° ment turned 

of understanding of God's holy mysteries, did bless God, out of Ms 

o J J right use 

which had brought them out of that horrible blindness and and kind, 
ignorance, whereby in times past being seduced by Satan's 
subtilties, they believed that the sacrament was not the sacra- 
ment, but the thing: itself whereof it is a sacrament ; that idolatry in 


the creature was the Creator ; and that the thing which hath creaturesfor 

' ° the Creator. 

neither life nor sense, (alas, such was the horrible blindness !) 
was the Lord himself; which made the eye to see, and hath 
given all senses and understanding unto man. But now, 
alas ! England is returned again like a dog to her own vomit 
and spewing, and is in a worse case than ever she was : for 
it had been better never to have known the truth, than tc« 
forsake the truth once received and known : and now, not 
only that light is turned into darkness, and God's grace is 
received in vain; but also laws of death are made by high 
court of Parliament, masterfully to maintain by sword, fire, 
and all kind of violence, that heinous idolatry, wherein that 
adoration is given unto the lifeless and dumb creature, which 
is only due unto the everliving God : yea, they say, they can 
and do make of bread both man and God by their transub- 
stantiation. ! wicked invention, and Satan's own brood ! 

Of late was the Lord's cup at his table distributed, ac- The cup de- 

.. . barred from 

cording to his own commandment by his express words in the minis- 

i • r< i u i i ■ • i i i • i -. tration of 

his trospel, as well to the laity as to the clergy, which order tne Lord's 
Christ's church observed so many hundred years after, as 
all the ancient ecclesiastical writers do testify, without con- 
tradiction of any one of them, that can be shewed, unto 

4 — 2 


this day : but now, alas ! not only the Lord's commandment 
is broken, his cup is denied to his servants, to whom he 
commanded it should be distributed, but also with the same 
is set up a new blasphemous kind of sacrifice, to satisfy and 
pay the price of sins, both of the dead and of the quick, to 
the great and intolerable contumely of Christ our Saviour, 
his death, and passion, which was and is the one only suf- 
ficient and everlasting available sacrifice, satisfactory for 
all the elects of God, from Adam the first to the last that 
shall be born in the end of the world. 
Deut.v. Of late that commandment of God, "Thou shalt not 

make to thyself any graven image, nor any similitude or 
likeness of any thing in heaven above, or in earth beneath, 
or in the water under the earth, thou shalt not bow down 
to them nor worship them," this commandment of God, I 
say, was graven 1 almost every where in churches, was learned 
of every body, both young and old ; whereupon images that 
provoked the simple and ignorant people unto idolatry, as the 
wise man saith, were taken out of the churches, and straitly 
forbidden that none should any where either bow down to 
them, or worship them : but now, alas ! God's holy word is 
stSksand blotted an & razed out of churches, and stocks and stones are 
stones. se {. U p m fae place thereof. God commanded his word so 
to be ordered, that it might be had in continual remembrance 
at all times, and in every place; and on the other side he 
forbad images and idols, so to be either made or set in any 
place, where any should bow or worship them: but now, 
alas ! that which God commanded is not passed upon 2 , and 
that which he forbiddeth is masterfully maintained by false- 
hood and craft, and wickedly upholden. 

Of late all ministers that were admitted to the public 
office and ministry of God's holy word, in their admission 
made a solemn profession before the congregation, that they 
should teach the people nothing, as doctrine necessaiy to 

I 1 "Graven almost every where in churches." In the reign of 
king Edward VI. texts of Scripture were painted in most of the 
churches, particularly the second commandment, and 1 John v. 21, 
"Babes, keep yourselves from images." On the accession of Queen 
Mary these texts were erased. Ed.] 

[ a Regarded. Ed.] 


attain eternal salvation, but that which is God's own holy 
word, or may be thereof grounded without any doubt, where- 
by vanished and melted away of themselves many vain, yea, 
wicked traditions of man, as wax before the fire : but now 
at one brunt they are revived, and are in full hope all to 
return again, in as great strength as ever they have been. 
And how can any man look for any other thing, but when 
you have received the head, you must also receive the whole 
body withal; or else how can the head abide? The head, 
under Satan, of all mischief is Antichrist and his brood; 
and the same is he which is the Babylonical beast. The 
beast is he whereupon the whore sitteth. The whore is 
that city, saith John in plain words, which hath empire over 
the kings of the earth. This whore hath a golden cup of 
abominations in her hand, whereof she maketh to drink the 
•kings of the earth, and of the wine of this harlot all nations 
hath drunk; yea, and kings of the earth have lain by this 
whore ; and merchants of the earth, by virtue of her pleasant 
merchandise, have been made rich. 

Now what city is there in the whole world, that when The whore 

, . of Babylon 

John wrote, ruled over the kings of the earth; or what city with her cup 

• i c i ••,,», ofabomma- 

can be read of m any time, that of the city itself dial- t'°ns ex- 

, , . „ , pounded. 

lenged the empire over the kings of the earth, but only the Apoc. xvii. 
city of Eome, and that since the usurpation of that See hath 
grown to her full strength? And is it not read, that old and 
ancient writers understood Peter's former Epistle to be writ- 
ten at Rome, and it to be called of him in the same Epistle, 
in plain terms, Babylon ! By the abominations thereof, I un- 
derstand all the whole trade of the Romish religion, under 
the name and title of Christ, which is contrary to the only 
rule of all true religion, that is, God's word. What word 
of God hath that devilish drab, for the maintenance of her 
manifold abominations, and to set to sale such merchandise, 
wherewith, (alas, the madness of man !) the wicked harlot hath 
bewitched almost the whole world? Did not Peter, the true 
Apostle of Christ (of whom this stinking strumpet beareth 
herself so high, but falsely and without all just cause), did not 
he, I say, give all the world warning of her pelf and trash, of 
her false doctors and apostles (for this whore and beast will be 
called Dominus Apostolicus, whosoever say nay), after this 


2 Pet. ii. manner in his latter Epistle ? " There were among the people 
in times past false prophets, as there shall be also among you, 
in time to come, false teachers, which shall privily bring in 
pestilent sects, even denying the Lord which hath bought 
them, and redeemed them, procuring to themselves swift 
damnation; and many shall follow their damnable ways, by 
whom the way of truth shall be railed upon, and through 
covetousness by counterfeit tales or sermons, they shall, saith 
Peter, make merchandise upon you, &c." And doth not 
John likewise in his Eevelation, after he hath reckoned up 
a great rabblement of this whored mystical merchandise, at 
the last (as though he would knit up all in plain words, 
without any mist at all, setting out the whore's merchan- 
dise) reckon up among the rest, and concludeth saying, et 
aiiimas hominum, "and the souls of men toof Whereupon 

ah things at I pray you else rose this true proverb, Omnia Momce mnalia^ 

Rome for 

money. "All things for money are set to sale at Eomef Was 
not that a worthy commendation of Christ's vicar in earth, 
that was written of our holy father, one of the Alexanders, 
a bishop of Eome, thus I ween in Latin : 

Vendit Alexander claves, altaria, Christum; 
Vendere jure potest, emerat ille prius. 

These two verses in Latin, I have read thus of one 
translated into English rhyme : 

Verses a- Alexander our holy father, the Pope of Rome, 

Alexander' 6 Selleth for money both right and doom: 

VI - And to sale the holy father doth not stick to set 

All kinds of holiness, ready money for to get : 

And eke Christ himself he dare be bold, 

To chop and change for silver and gold. 

And why should any think this to be sore? 

For what doth he sell, but that he bought before? 

I grant these verses to be light gear, and the verse is 
but rude ; but, alas ! such conditions were more wicked and 
lewd than any wit could express. If these had been but 
the faults of one or a few in number, they had been less 
pernicious, and might have been taken for personal crimes, 
not to be imputed unto that See : but now, alas the 
matter is more than evident to all that hath godly under- 
standing, that these crimes be grounded upon laws, be es- 


tablished by custom, and set forth by all kind of wicked 
doctrine, falsehood, and craft : and therefore are not now to 
be esteemed for any one man's or of a few men's personal 
crimes, but are now by laws, custom, and doctrine, incorpo- 
rated into that wicked See ; and maketh indeed the body of 
the beast, whereupon the abominable whore doth sit. 

But you would know, which be those merchandise, which 
I said this whore setteth forth to sell, for the which all her 
false prophets, with all their jugglings and crafty gloses, can- 
not bring one jot of God's word. Surely, surely, they be 
not only all these abominations which are come into the 
church of England already (whereof I have spoken somewhat 
before), but also an innumerable rabblement of abominations Abomina- 
and wicked abuses, which now must needs follow : as Popish wicked a- 

, ... t> • i a T> • i buses of the 

pardons, pilgrimages, ixomish purgatory, ixomish masses, see of Rome 
'placebo et dirige, with trentals, and scala coeli, dispensations 
and immunities from all godly discipline, laws, and good order, 
pluralities, unions, tot quots, with a thousand more 1 . 

Now shall come in the flattering friars, and the false 
pardoners, and play their old pranks and knavery; as they 
were wont to do. Now you shall have (but of the See of 
Rome only, and that for money) canonizing of such saints 
as have stood stout in the Pope's cause, shrining of relics, 
and from any kind of wickedness, if you will pay well for 
it, clear absolution, a poena et culpa, with thousands of 
years ; yea, at every poor bishop's hands and suffragan, ye 
shall have hallowing of churches, chapels, altars, superaltars, 
chalices, and of all the whole household stuff and adornment, 
which shall be used in the church after the Romish guise; 
for all these things must be esteemed of such high price, 
that they may not be done, but by a consecrate bishop only. 
Lord, all these things are such as thy Apostles never 
knew. As for conjuring (they call it hallowing, but it is 
conjuring indeed) of water and salt, of christening of bells 2 
and such like light things, what need I to speak I For every 
priest that can but read, hath power, they say, not only 

[} Placebo, dirige, etc. See note C. at the end of the volume. Ed.] 
[ 2 The forms for these and other offices may be found in the 
Rituale Romanum. Ed.] 


to do that, but also hath such power over Christ's body, as 
to make God and man, once at the least every day, of a 
wafer-cake '. 

After the rehearsal of the said abominations, and re- 
membrance of a number of many more, which, the Lord 
knoweth, irketh me to think upon, and were too long to 
describe; when I consider on the other side the eternal 
word of God, that abideth for ever, and the undefiled law 
of the Lord, which turneth the soul from all wickedness, 
and giveth wisdom unto the innocent babes ; I mean that 
milk that is without all guile, as Peter doth call it, that good 
The true word of God, that word of truth, which must be graven 
and the ' within the heart, and then is able to save men's souls ; that 
samede- wholesome seed, not mortal but immortal, of the eternal and 

pin ypfi 

everliving God, whereby the man is born anew, and made 
the child of God ; that seed of God, whereby the man of 
God, so being born, cannot sin, as John saith (he meaneth, 
so long as that seed doth abide in him) ; that holy Scripture 
which hath not been devised by the wit of man, but taught 
from heaven by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, which 
is profitable to teach, to reprove, to correct, to instruct, and 
give order in all righteousness, that the man of God may be 
whole and sound, ready to perform every good work ; when, 
I say, I consider this holy and wholesome true word, that 
teacheth us truly our bounden duty towards our Lord God 
in every point, what his blessed will and pleasure is, what 
his infinite great goodness and mercy is, what he hath done 
for us, how he hath given his own only dear beloved to death 
for our salvation, and by him hath sent us the revelation of 
his blessed will and pleasure; what his eternal word willeth 
us both to believe and also to do, and hath for the same 
purpose inspired the holy Apostles with the Holy Ghost, and 
sent them abroad into all the world, and also made them, 
and other disciples of Christ, inspired by the same Spirit, to 
write and leave behind them the same things that they 
taught, which as they did proceed of the Spirit of truth, so 
by the confession of all them that ever were endued with the 
Spirit of God, were sufficient to the obtaining of eternal sal- 

[} A priest of the Roman church may perform mass once a day 
only, and then fasting. Ed.] 


vation : and likewise when I consider that all that man 
doth profess in his regeneration when he is received into 
the holy catholic church of Christ, and is now to be ac- 
counted for one of the lively members of Christ's own body, 
all that is grounded upon God's holy word, and standeth in 
the profession of that faith, and obedience of those command- 
ments, which are all contained and comprised in God's holy 
word: and furthermore, when I consider whom our Saviour 
Christ pronounceth in his Gospel to be blessed, and to whom 
Moses giveth his benedictions in the law; what ways the 
law, the Prophets, the Psalms, and all holy Scriptures, both 
new and old, do declare to be the ways of the Lord; what 
is good for man to obtain and abide in God's favour ; which 
is that faith that justifieth before God; and what is that 
charity, that doth pass and excel all ; which be the proper- 
lies of heavenly wisdom ; and which is that undefiled religion 
that is allowed of God ; which things Christ himself calleth 
the weighty matters of the law; what thing is that which 
is only available in Christ ; and what knowledge is that, that 
Paul esteemed so much, that he counted himself only to 
know; what shall be the manner of the extreme judgment 
of the later day ; who shall judge, and by what he shall 
judge; and what shall be required at our hands at that 
fearful day; how all things must be tried by the fire, and 
that that only shall stand for ever, which Christ's word shall 
allow, which shall be the judge of all flesh, to give sen- 
tence upon all flesh, and every living soul, either of eternal 
damnation or everlasting salvation, from which sentence there 
shall be no place to appeal, no wit shall serve to delude, 
nor no power to withstand or revoke : when, I say, I con- 
sider all these things, and confer to the same again and 
again all those ways wherein standeth the substance of the 
Romish religion, whereof I spake before ; it may be evi- 
dent and easy to perceive, that these two ways, these two 
religions, the one of Christ, the other of the Romish See, 
in these latter days, be as far distant the one from the 
other, as light and darkness, good and evil, righteousness 
and unrighteousness, Christ and Belial. He that is hard of 
belief, let him note and weigh well with himself the places 
of holy Scriptures, which be appointed in the margent where- 


upon this talk is grounded, and by God's grace he may re- 
Notehere, ceive some light. And unto the contemner I have nothing 

t licit II1.GS6 . 

scriptures now to say, but to rehearse the saying of the Prophet Esay, 
by N.Ridley which Paul spake to the Jews in the end of the Acts of the 

in the mar- l 

gent, but Apostles. After he had expounded unto them the truth of 

were not in l L 

the copy God's word, and declared unto them Christ, out of the law 

which we ' 

red W56 °*" Moses and the Prophets, from morning to night, all the 
Ed -] day long, he said unto them that would not believe : " Well,'" 

said he, "spake the Holy Ghost unto our fathers, saying: 
Go unto this people and tell them, ye shall hear with your 
ears, and not understand, and seeing you shall behold, and 
not see the thing ; for the heart of this people is waxed gross 
or dull, and with their ears they are hard of hearing, and 
they have shut together their eyes, that they should not see, 
nor hear with their ears, nor understand with their hearts, 
that they might return : and I should heal them, saith the 
Lord God 1 / 1 

Alas ! England, alas ! that this heavy plague of God should 
fall upon thee. Alas! my dear beloved country, what thing 
is it now that may do thee good? Undoubtedly thy plague 
is so great, that it is utterly uncurable, but by the bottom- 
less mercy and infinite power of Almighty God. Alas! my 
dear country, what hast thou done, that thus thou hast pro- 
voked the wrath of God, to pour out his vengeance upon 
thee for thine own deserts? Canst thou be content to hear 
thy faults told thee? Alas! thou hast heard oft, and wouldest 
never amend. England, thy faults of all degrees and sorts 
of men, of the magistrates, of the ministers, and of the com- 
mon people, were never more plainly told, since thou bearest 
that name, than thou didst hear them of late, even before 
the magistrates, in King Edward's days, but thou heardest 
them only, and didst amend never a whit. For even of thy 
greatest magistrates, some (the King's Highness then, that 
innocent, that godly-hearted and peerless young Christian 
Prince excepted) evermore unkindly and ungently, against 
those that went about most busily and most wholesomely to 
cure their sore backs, spurned privily, and would not spare to 
speak evil of them, even unto the prince himself, and yet 

[} The texts are— Is. vi. 9; Mark iv. 12; Acts xxviii. 25, 2G, 27. Ed.] 


would they towards the same preacher outwardly bear a jolly 
countenance and a fair face. 

I have heard that Crannier, and another whom I will not j^™^ neth 
name, were both in high displeasure, the one for shewing ^ n ^ ey 
his conscience secretly, but plainly and fully, in the Duke of ^e'Dukeof 
Somerset's cause, and both of late, but specially Cranmer, for ^" set ' s 
repugning as they might against the late spoil of the church p™"-£t r re " 
goods, taken away only by commandment of the higher powers, Ipoaof the 
without any law or order of justice, and without any request good? 
of consent of them to whom they did belong. As for Latimer, Bradford, 
Lever, Bradford, and Knox, their tongues were so sharp, they Knolf.' 
ripped in so deep in their galled backs, to have purged them, 
no doubt, of that filthy matter, that was festered in their 
hearts, of insatiable covetousness, of filthy carnality and vo- 
luptuousness, of intolerable ambition and pride, of ungodly 
"loathsomeness to hear poor men's causes, and to hear God's 
word, that these men, of all other, these magistrates then 
could never abide. Other there were, very godly men and 
well learned, that went about by the wholesome plasters of 
God's word, howbeit after a more soft manner of handling 
the matter ; but, alas ! all sped in like. For all that could 
be done of all hands, their disease did not minish, but daily 
did increase, which, no doubt, is no small occasion in that 
state, of the heavy plague of God, that is poured upon Eng- 
land at this day. As for the common sort of other inferior 
magistrates, as judges of the laws, justices of peace, Ser- 
jeants, common lawyers, it may be truly said of them, as of 
the most part of the clergy, of curates, vicars, parsons, pre- The corrupt 
bendaries, doctors of the law, archdeacons, deans, yea, and p'eiier^m" 
I may say, of bishops also, I fear me, for the most part, warf'sUme. 
although I doubt not but God had and hath ever, whom he 
in every state knew and knoweth to be his, but for the 
most part, I say, they were never persuaded in their hearts, 
but from the teeth forward, and for the king's sake, in the 
truth of God's word ; and yet all these did dissemble, and bear 
a copy of a countenance, as if they had been sound within. 

And this dissimulation Satan knew well enough, and 
therefore desired, and hath ever gone about, that the high 
magistrates by any manner of means might be deceived in 
matters of religion; for then he being of counsel with the 



dissimulation in the worldly, knew well enough that he should 
bring to pass, and rule all even after his own will. 
Hypocrisya Hvpocrisy and dissimulation St Hierom doth call well a 

double evil. « . 

double wickedness, for neither it loveth the truth (which is 
one great evil), and also falsely it pretendeth, to deceive the 
simple, for another thing 1 . This hypocrisy and dissimulation 
with God in matters of religion, no doubt, hath wholly also 
provoked the anger of God. And as for the common people, 
although there were many good, where they were well and 
diligently taught ; yet, God knoweth a great number received 
God's true word and high benefits with unthankful hearts. 
For it was great pity and a lamentable thing, to have seen 
in many places the people so loathsomely and so unreligiously 
to come to the holy communion, and to receive it accord- 
ingly, and to the common prayers, and other divine service, 
which were according to the true vein of God's holy word 
in all points so godly and wholesomely set forth, in com- 
parison of that blind zeal and indiscreet devotion, which they 
had aforetimes to those things, whereof they understood never 
one whit, nor could be edified by them any thing at all. 
The slack- And again, as for alms deeds, which are taught in God's 

ness that -i • 1 1 1 /-i i • i i • i i 

was in that word (whereby we are certain that God is pleased with them, 

time to good , ■, , i -n • i ■, ■ 

works. and doth and will require such at our hands, which are a 
part of true religion, as St James saith, and such as he 
saith himself he setteth more by than by sacrifice, as to 
provide for the fatherless, infants and orphans, for the lame, 
aged, and impotent poor needy folk, and to make public 
provision that the poverty that might labour, should have 
wherewith to labour upon, and so be kept from shameful 
beggary and stealing), in these works, I say, how wayward 
were many, in comparison (I mean) of that great prodi- 
gality, whereby in times past they spared not to spend upon 
flattering friars, false pardoners, painting and gilding of stocks 
and stones, to be set up and honoured in churches, plainly 
against God's word. And yet because no place is to be de- 
frauded of their just commendation, (in) London, I must con- 
fess, that such godly works, in Sir Richard Dobs, knight, 
then lord mayor, his year, began marvellous well: the Lord 
grant the same may so likewise persevere, continue, yea, 
[} And it deceiveth the people, which is another evil. Ed.] 


and increase, to the comfort and relief of the needy and 
helpless, that was so godly begun. Amen. 

All these things do minister matter of more mourning 6 , od ' s 

° . . plague upon 

and bewailing the miserable state that now is ; for by this England 

° . justly de- 

it may be perceived, how England hath deserved this just served. 

plague of God. And also it is greatly to be feared that 
those good things, whatsoever they were, that had their be- 
ginning in the time when God's word was freely preached, 
now with the exile and banishment of the same they will 
depart again. 

But to return again to the consideration of this miser- 
able state of Christ's church in England, and to leave fur- 
ther and more exquisite searching of the causes thereof unto 
God's secret and unsearchable judgments, let us see what is 
best now to be done for Christ's little 2 silly flock. This is 
one maxim and principle in Christ's law : " He that denieth 
me before men, him shall Christ deny afore his Father, and 
all his angels of heaven." And therefore every one that He exhort- 
looketh to have by Christ our Saviour everlasting life, let stant con-* 
him prepare himself so, that he deny not his master Christ, Christ. 
or else he is but a castaway and a wretch, howsoever he be 
counted or taken here in the world. 

Now then, seeing the doctrine of Antichrist is returned 
again into this realm, and the higher powers (alas!) are so 
deceived and bewitched, that they are persuaded it to be 
truth, and Christ's true doctrine to be error and heresy, and 
the old laws of Antichrist are allowed to return with the 
power of their father again; what can be hereafter looked 
for by reason, to the man of God and true Christian abid- 
ing in this realm, but extreme violence of death, or else to 
deny his Master I I grant the hearts of princes are in God's 
hands, and whithersoever he will, he can make them to bow ; 
and also that Christian princes in old time used a more gentle Punishment 
kind of punishment, even to them which were heretics in- more gentle 
deed, as degradation, and deposition out of their rooms and time, and 
offices ; exile and banishment out of their dominions and used. 
countries; and also (as it is read) the true bishops of 
Christ's church were sometime intercessors for the heretics 
unto princes, that they would not kill them, as is read of 
[ 2 See page G, foot-note. Ed.] 


St Augustine. But as yet Antichrist's kingdom was not so 
erected at that time, nor is now accustomed so to order 
them, that will not fall down and worship the beast and 
his image; but even as all the world knoweth, after the 
same manner that both John and Daniel hath prophesied 
before, that is, by violence of death: and Daniel declareth 
farther, the kind of death accustomably should be by sword, 
fire, and imprisonment. 

Therefore if thou, O man of God, do purpose to abide 
in this realm, prepare and arm thyself to die : for both by 
Antichrist's accustomable laws, and these prophecies, there is 
no appearance or likelihood of any other thing, except thou 
wilt deny thy Master Christ, which is the loss at the last, 
both of body and soul, unto everlasting death. Therefore, 
my good brother or sister in Christ, whatsoever thou be, 
to thee that canst and mayest so do, that counsel that I 
think is the best safeguard for thee, both for thy body, and 
most surety for thy soul's health, is that which I shall shew 
thee hereafter. But first I warn thee to understand me, to 
speak to him or her which be not in captivity, or called 
already for to confess Christ, but is at liberty abroad. 
counsel My counsel, I say, therefore is this, to fly from the plague, 

these days and to get thee hence. I consider not only the subtleties of 

ofpersecu- ° _ •* 

tionwhatto Satan, and how he is able to deceive by his false persua- 
sions, if it were possible, even the chosen of God, and also 
the great frailty, which is oftentimes more in a man, than 
he doth know in himself, which in the time of temptation 
then will utter itself — I do not only consider these things, 
I say, but that our Master Christ, whose life was and is 
a perfect rule of the Christian man's life, that he himself 
avoided oftentimes the fury and madness of the Jews, by 
departing from the country or place. 

such as re- Paul likewise, when he was sought in Damascus, and the 

mained out . . . ° 

of captivity, gates of the city were laid m wait tor him, he was conveyed 

counselled ° • i i 

todepartthe by night, let down m a basket out at a window over the wall : 

realm. •' ° 

and Helias, the Prophet, fled the persecution of wicked Jeza- 
bel. And Christ our Saviour saith in the Gospel, " When 
they persecute you in one city, flee unto another : " and so 
did many good, great, learned, and virtuous men of God, 
which were great and stout champions nevertheless, and stout 


confessors and maintainors of Christ and his truth, in due 
time and place. Of such was the great clerk Athanasius. 
But this is so plain to be lawful by God's word, and exam- 
ples of holy men, that I need not to stand in it. 

Having this for my ground, I say to thee, man of God, 
this seemeth to me to be the most sure way for thy safe- 
guard, to depart and flee far from the plague, and that swiftly 
also: for truly, before God, I think that the abomination 
that Daniel prophesied of so long before, is now set up in 
the holy place. For all Antichrist's doctrine, laws, rites, ^on* o? 1 ' 
and religion, contrary to Christ, and of the true serving and ^"p^" 
worshipping of God, I understand to be that abomination : En s land - 
therefore now is the time in England for those words of 
Christ, Tunc, inquit, qui in Judea sunt fugiant ad monies. 
"Now then," saith Christ, "let those that be in Judea fly 
"to the mountains." "Then," saith he, — mark this Christ's 
" then"" ; for truly I am persuaded, and I trust by the Spirit of 
God, that this " then" is commanded — " then, saith Christ, 
they that be in Jewry, let them flee into the mountains, and 
he that is on the house-top, let him not come down to take 
away any thing out of his house ; and he that is abroad in 
the field, let him not return to take his clothes. Woe be to 
the great-bellied women, and to them that give suck! but 
pray, saith Christ, that your flight be not in winter, or on 
the Sabbath-day." 

These words of Christ are mystical, and therefore have 
need of interpretation. I understand all those to be in Jewry 
spiritually, which truly confess one true living God, and the 
whole truth of his word, after the doctrine of the Gospel of 
Christ. Such are they whom Christ here biddeth, in the 
time of the reign of Antichrist's abominations, to fly unto c hri st com- 

° J mandeth to 

the mountains : which signifieth places of safeguard, and all fl y to the 

° *• i i mountains. 

such things which are able to defend from the plague : that 
he biddeth him that is on the house-top, not come down; 
nor him that is in the field, not to return to take with him 
his clothes — he meaneth that they should speed them to get 
them away betimes, lest in their tarrying, and trifling about 
worldly provision, they be trapped in the snare or ever they 
be aware, and caught by the back, and for gain of small 
worldly things endanger and cast themselves into great perils 


of more weighty matters. And where he saith, Woe be to 
great-bellied women, and to them that give suck ; women 
great with child, and nigh to their lying down and to be 
brought to bed, are not able to travel : nor also those women, 
which are brought to bed, and now give their babes suck. 
By these therefore Christ spiritually understandeth all such as 
be in extreme danger, which this word "woe" signifieth: all 
such, I say, as are so letted by any manner of means, that 
they no ways be able to fly from the plague. That which 
Christ saith, " Pray you that your flight be not in the winter, 
nor on the Sabbath-day :" in winter, the common course of 
the year teacheth us, that the ways be foul, and therefore 
it is a hard thing then to take a far journey, for many in- 
commodities and dangers of the ways in that time of the 
year; and on the Sabbath-day it was not lawful to journey, 
but a little way. Now Christ therefore, meaning that we 
should have need, both to speed our journey quickly, which 
cannot be done in the winter, for the incommodities of the 
ways, and also to go far, which cannot be done on the Sab- 
bath-day ; he biddeth us therefore pray that our flight be 
not in winter, nor on the Sabbath-day : that is, to pray that 
we may fly in time, and also far enough from the danger 
of the plague. Now the causes why we should fly followeth 

Matt.xxiv. in the same place of St Matthew's Gospel, which I now 
pass over: thou mayest read them there. 

Apoc. xviii. And in the eighteenth chapter of the Revelation, the 
angel is said to have cried mightily with a loud voice : " Fly, 
my people, out of Babylon, lest you be infected with her 
faults, and so be made partners of her plagues : for her 
offences and sins are grown so great, that they swell and are 
come unto the heaven : certainly the time doth approach, 
and the Lord's day is at hand." Hear, I beseech you, also 
holy Paul, that blessed Apostle: he plainly forbiddeth us 
dticere jugvm cum incredulis, that is, to join or couple our- selves with the unfaithful; "for what fellowship can there 
be," saith he, " of righteousness with unrighteousness ; what 
company hath light with darkness ; or what agreement hath 
Christ with Belial; or what part can the faithful have with 
the unfaithful; or how doth the temple of God agree with 
images or idols? for you are the temple of the living God : 


as God hath said, I will walk and dwell in them; I will be 
their God, and they shall be my people: wherefore depart 
from amongst them, and get you from them, saith the Lord, 
and touch no unclean thing; and I will receive you, and be 
to you in the stead of your father, and you shall be unto 
me as my sons and daughters, saith the Almighty Lord." 

This counsel to depart the realm, I do not marvel if it 
do seem to divers (even of them, I mean, that bear favour 
to God-ward) diversely. Many, I trust, that be learned shall 
think the counsel good. Others there be peradventure, that 
will think it rather a thing to be more tolerable, and that it 
may be indeed by God's word lawfully done, rather than to 
be counselled to be done ; for they will peradventure say, we 
should counsel a man always to do that, which is best of all J^™ 9 ,^ 
and of most perfection: but boldly in Christ's cause to spend g^™^ wh 
a man's life is best of all and of most perfection, and to ^To'tar™ 
fly it may seem to smell of cowardness. In many things, debated « 
that which is best for one at some times is not best for 
all at all times; and it is not most perfection, nor meet for 
a child to covet to run before he can go. I will not here 
make a discourse in this matter, what might here be ob- 
jected, and what might be answered again: I leave that to 
the witty and eloquent men of the world. 

This is my mind, which 1 would thou shouldest know, 
man of God, as I would wish ; and I do pray to Almighty 
God it may be, that every true Christian, either brother or 
sister (after they be called, and brought into the wrestling 
place, to strive in Christ's cause for the best game, that is, 
to confess the truth of the Gospel and of the Christian faith, 
in hope of everlasting life), should not shrink, not relent one 
inch, or give back, whatsoever shall befall, but stand to their 
tackle, and stick by it even unto death, as they will Christ 
shall stick by them at the latter day : so likewise, I dare 
not wish nor counsel any, either brother or sister, of their Presump- 

. tuons provn. 

own swing to start up into the stage, or to cast themselves cation, and 

rash ruti- 

either before or farther in danger than time and need shall ™ng; into 

° . # danger, for- 

require. For undoubtedly when God seeth his time, and his bidden. 

pleasure is, that his glory shall be set forth and his church 

edified by thy death and confession, means shall be found by 

his fatherly universal Providence, that thou, without thine 



own presumptuous provocation, shalt be lawfully called to do 
thy feat and to play thy part. The miserable end that one 
Quintus came unto, may be a warning and a fearful exam- 
ple, for all men to beware of presumption and rashness in such 
Euseb. things, as Eusebius writeth in Eccles. Historia, for evermore. 

Eccles. His. o ' -11 

Lib. iy. j} u t; a third sort of men there be, which also will be 

Cap. 15. ' 

counted favourers of God's word, and are, I fear, in number 
far more, and worse to be persuaded to that which is the 
godly mean : I mean, of such as will peradventure say or 
think, that my former counsel, which was to flee the in- 
fection of the antichristian doctrine by departure out of the 
realm, is more than needeth, and other ways and means may 
be found, both to abide, and also to be clear out of danger 
of the foresaid plague. If that could be found indeed truly 
agreeable to God's word, I would be as glad to hear it, 
God is my witness, as who is the other. Yes, peradventure, 
will some say, thus it may be. Thou may est keep thyself, 
thy faith, and thy religion close to thyself, and inwardly and 
privately worship God in spirit and truth, and outwardly see 
thou be no open meddler, nor talker, nor transgressor of com- 
mon order : so mayest thou be suffered in the commonwealth, 
and yet use thy religion without offence of thy conscience. 
Conscience In other countries somewhere this peradventure might be 
would not used : but in England what shall be, God wot ; but it was 

be dissem- 

bled. never yet, so far as ever I have known or heard. And also 

how can it be, but either thou must transgress the common 
order, and the Eomish laws and customs, which have been 
used in England in the times past of Popery, and now, it 
is certain, they return again : I say, thou must either be a 
breaker of these rites, laws and customs, and so bewray thy- 
self; or else if thou be indeed a man of God, thou shalt 
offend thy conscience ; for in observing of them, thou shalt 
be compelled to break God's law, which is the rule of con- 
science to the man of God. For how canst thou resort 
every holy day to the church, and bear a face to worship 
the creature for the Creator, as thou must do, and perad- 
venture confess it too with thy mouth, and to sprinkle thyself 
with their conjured water? 

Thou must be contributor also to the charges of all their 
popery, as of books for Antichrist's service, of lights of the 



roodloft, of the sepulchre, for setting up and painting of 
images, nay indeed of idols, and thou must bear a face to 
worship them also, or else thou must be had by the back 1 . 
Thou must serve the turn, to give the holy loaves, as they 
call it, which is nothing else but a very mockery of the Lord's 
holy table. Thou must be a contributor to the charges of 
all the disguised apparel, that the popish sacrificing priest, 
like unto Aaron, must play his part in. Yea, when the par- 
doner cometh about, or the flattering friar, to beg for the 
maintenance of superstition, except thou do as thy neigh- 
bours do, look not long for to live in rest. If any of the 
household die, if thou wilt not pay money for ringing and 
singing, for requiem, masses, dirige, and commendations, and 
such-like trumpery of the antichristian religion, thinkest thou 
that thou shalt be reckoned for a catholic man, or for ami- a hard 

dwelling m 

cus Ccesaris ? A hundred things more may be reckoned, England for 

* a good man, 

and many of more weight, and of more evident superstition either with- 

*' ° . l out danger 

and idolatry, than some of these which I have now re- of . con - 

•"/ , science or 

hearsed, which God knoweth be ill enough: but these are pern of life. 
enough to declare, and to set before thine eyes the thing 
that I intend; that is, if thou abide and wilt dwell in 
England, thou must either do these, and many other more 
contrary to God's word, which forbiddeth not only the thing 
which is evil, but also saith, ab omni specie mali abstinete vos, 
" Abstain from all things that have any appearance of evil ;" 
or else, if thou wilt not do them, how thou canst live in 
England in rest and safe from the stake, truly I cannot tell. 

But peradventure (as a man is ready to find and invent 
some colour to cloke his conscience, to do that thing that his 
heart desireth) thou wilt say, Though at any time I shall be 
forced to do any of these things and such-like, yet will I have 
no confidence in them, but outwardly with my body; I will 
keep mine heart unto God, and will not do that of mine own 
mind willingly, neither but to avoid another inconvenience : 
I trust therefore God will hold me excused, for he shall have a 
my heart — what can I do more? 

O my friend, beware for God's sake, and know that the invent not 


subtleties of Satan are deep. He that is not able by God's cioke sin. 
word to perceive them, is heavily laden ; pray therefore with 
\} Be imprisoned. Ed.] 




David : " Lord, let me not have a mind to invent excuses 
for to cloke my sin." Examine, my dear friend, these thy 
wily ways with the word of God, and if they do agree, thou 
mayest use them : if not, know, though they may seem never 
so fine and goodly, yet indeed they be of Satan's brood. God's 
word is certain, that forbiddeth to worship the creature for 
the Creator ; for that is heinous idolatry, and against the first 
commandment of God. And it is also against the second 
commandment of the first table to bow down, or to do wor- 
ship, unto any images of God or of any other thing : and 
God's word requireth not only the belief of the heart, but 
also the confession of the mouth. And to bear part of the 
charges to the maintenance of things ungodly, what is that 
but, in thy so doing, a consent to the thing done? Now 
consenters and the doers, God's word accounteth to be guilty 
both. And it is not lawful by St Paul's doctrine," which was 
inspired him by the Spirit of God, to do ill, that thereof the 
thing which is good may come. 

Thy heart, thou sayest, God shall have, and yet wilt thou 
suffer thy body to do the thing that God doth abhor. Be- 
ware, man ; take heed what thou sayest. Man may be 
deceived, but no man may deceive God, for he is called, and 
is truly, KapSioyvwcrTrjs, that is to say, "the Searcher of the 
heart." Now, to give God thy heart is to give him thy 
whole heart, to love him, to dread him, and to trust in him 
above all other things. " He that hath my commandments," 
saith Christ, "and observeth and keepeth them, it is he that 
loveth me:" and to dread God above all other, is rather wil- 
lingly to incur the danger and peril of all fearful things, than 
willingly to do that thing which is contrary to his blessed will 
To trust in and commandment ; and to trust in him above all things, is 

God, what it 5 ' 

is - assuredly to trust to his promise of his reward, and of his 

tuition, and of his goodness and mercy, and to prefer that 
above all things in the world, seem they never so strong, so 
wise, or so good. Now how canst thou say truly, that God 
hath thy heart after this manner of sort (which is to have 
thy heart indeed), when thy deeds do declare far another 
thing I Thy body, man, is God's, and all the parts thereof, 
even as thy soul is ; he made them both, and Christ with his 
blood hath redeemed them both, and is Lord of both, for he 



hath bought them both dear ; and darest thou suffer any 
parts of either of them to do service to Satan? Surely in 
so doing, thou eommittest sacrilege and dost rob God ; thou 
defilest the lively temple of the living God, if thou suffer 1 Cor. Hi. 
thy body to do Satan service. "Do you not know, saith 1 Cor. vi. 
St Paul, that your body is a lively temple of God?" And 
may a man then take and use any part thereof but in the 
service of God ? No surely, it is not lawful so to do for the 
man of God, neither with hand, tongue, nor foot, nor any 
part of the whole body. 

Doth not Paul command to the Romans, which pertaineth 
to every Christian soul: "As you have in times past," saith Rom. vi. 
he, "given your members to do service unto uncleanness and 
wickedness, from one wickedness to another ; so now give your 
members to do service unto righteousness, that you may be 
'sanctified." And I pray thee, good brother, what dost thou 
think is to bear the mark of the beast in the forehead and 
in the hand, that St John speaketh of? I know we ought 
warily to speak of God's mysteries, which be shewed by the 
spirit of prophesying to his servant John ; yet to read them 
with reverence, and to pray for the understanding of the 
same so much as God knoweth is necessary for our time to 
know, I think it necessary and good. Wherefore what I 
suppose is to bear the beast's mark, I will tell thee, and 
commit the judgment of mine interpretation, as in all other 
things, to the spiritual man. I suppose he beareth the beast To bear ; 
of Babylon's mark in his forehead, which is not ashamed of «?? rk > what 
the beast's ways, but will profess them openly to set forth 
his master the beast Abaddon. And likewise he beareth his a p°c- xm. 
mark in his hand, that will and doth practise the works of 
the beast with his power and hand. 

And likewise I will not let to tell thee, what I think to 
be signed in the forehead for the servant of God, whereof 
John also speaketh, reckoning up many thousands so to have 
been signed of every tribe : I suppose he is signed in the 
forehead for the servant of God, whom God hath appointed 
of his infinite goodness, and hath given him grace and strength, 
stoutly to confess him and his truth before the world. And 
to have grace and strength to confess Christ, and the doc- 
trine of the cross, and to lament and mourn for the abo- 



minations of antichrist, I suppose is to be signed with Tau 1 , 
whereof Ezekiel the prophet doth speak. Thus I suppose 
these prophecies are spiritually to be understood : and to 
look for other corporal marks, to be seen in men's fore- 
heads, or in their hands, is nothing else but to look that 
there should come some brute beast out of Babylon, or some 
elephant, leopard, lion, or camel, or some other such mon- 
strous beast with ten horns, that should do all the wonderful 
things spoken in John ; and yet of a beast speaketh John ; 
but I understand him so to be called, not for that he shall 
be any such brute beast, but for that he is and shall be the 
child of perdition, which for his cruelty and beastly manners 
is well called a beast. 

The carnal Jews knew there was a promise made, that 
Helias should come before Christ Messias, the anointed of God, 
to prepare his ways : they knew also that there was a pro- 
mise of Messias, that he should come and be a king, and 
The literal reign in the house of David for evermore; but they under- 
the scrip- standed all so grossly and so carnally, that they neither knew 

tures made 

the Jews Helias nor Messias, when they came, for they looked for 

infidels, TT „ -. ,. , • , • i 

Hehas to come down from heaven in his own person, and 
for Messias to come and reign in worldly pomp, power, 
riches, and glory : when as the prophecies of both were spi- 
ritually to have been understanded of Helias, that he should 
come not in person, but in spirit, that is, one which should 
be endued with the spirit and gifts of grace of Helias, which 
was indeed John Baptist, as Christ himself did declare to his 
Apostles. And of Messias 1 reign, all the Prophets were to 
be understanded of the reign of his spiritual kingdom over 
the house of Jacob and the true Israelites for evermore. And 
so by that their gross and carnal understanding, they mistake 
both Helias and the true Messias ; and, when they came, 
knew neither of them both. So likewise I fear me (nay it 
is certain), the world that wanteth the light of the Spirit of 
God (for the world is not able to receive him, saith John) 
neither doth nor shall know the beast nor his marks, though 
The pope's he rage cruelly and live never so beastly, and though his 
men. 6 marked men be in number like the sand of the sea. The 

[} Tau, the letter Tau, or a cross, see Ezek. ix. and Rev. xiii. 
xiv. xx. En.] 


Lord therefore vouchsafe to open the eyes of the blind with 
the light of grace, that they may see, and perceive, and un- 
derstand the words of God, after the mind of his Spirit. 

Here remaineth two objections, which may seem weighty, 
and the which may peradventure move many not to follow 
the former counsel. The former reason is, a man will say: 
"O, Sir, it is no small matter ye speak of, to depart from 
a man's own native country into a strange realm. Many men 
have so great lets, as how is it possible that they can or may 
do so ? Some have lands and possessions, which they cannot parnai ob- 

1 J jections 

carry with them : some have father, mother, wife, children, answered. 
and kinsfolk, from whom to depart is as hard a thing, (and 
all one almost) as to suffer death, and to go to a strange 
country, that thou knowest not, neither the manner of the 
people, nor how thou mayest away either with the people 
or with the country. Oh ! what a hard thing it is to live 
among a strange people, whose tongue thou dost not under- 
stand, 1 ' &c. 

I grant here thou mayest heap a number of worldly in- 
commodities, which are surely very like to ensue the departure 
out of a man's own native country — I mean out of the whole 
realm, into a strange land : but what of all these, and a thou- 
sand more of the like sort I I will set unto them one saying 
of our Saviour Christ, which unto the faithful child of God, 
and the true Christian, is able to countervail all these, yea, 
and to weigh them down. Christ our Saviour saith in Luke: 
"If any come to me, and do not hate his father and mother 
(he meaneth, and will not in his cause forsake his father and 
mother), his wife, children, and brethren, yea, and his life 
too, he cannot be my disciple : and whosoever doth not 
bear his cross and come after me, he cannot be my dis- 
ciple." And in the same place he declareth by two parables, 
one of a builder, and the other of a king that is a warrior, 
that every man that will not in Christ's cause forsake all 
that ever he hath, he cannot be his disciple. Look the place 
who will : the matter is so plainly set forth, that no glosses 
nor cloaking of conscience to the man of God can serve to 
the contrary. Many places there be for the same purpose, 
for the embracing of Christ's cross, when Christ and his cause 



layeth it upon our back: but this is so plain, that I need 
here to rehearse no more. 

The latter reason and objection, whereof I spake before, 

is of more force, and includeth a necessity, which, after the 

Another common saying, hath no law, and therefore it is more hard 

worldly ob- 7 , . , , « 

jection to shape for it a good answer. This may be objected ot 
some: "Alas! Sir, I grant all these things do grieve me, 
and because I understand they do not agree with God's 
word, which is the rule of my conscience, I loathe either to 
look on them or to hear them. But, Sir, alas ! I am an 
impotent man, an aged man, a sick man, a lame man, or I 
have so many small infants and a lame wife, which all liveth 
by my labour and by my provision : if I leave them they 
shall starve, and I am not able to carry them with me, such 
is my state. Alas ! Sir, what shall I do V And these causes 
may chance to some men of God, whereby either it shall be 
for them utterly impossible to depart the country, or else 
in departing they shall be enforced to forsake such in extreme 
necessities, of whom both God and nature hath committed 
unto them the care. 

Alas ! what counsel is here to be given I lamentable 
state ! sorrowful heart ! that neither can depart, and with- 
out extreme danger and peril is not able to tarry still ! And 
these are they whom our Saviour Christ saw before should 
be, and called them in his prophecy of the latter time preg- 
nant women or travailing women, and women that give, after 
they be brought to bed, their small babes suck. Of the state 
of such as are not able to fly the infection of the pestiferous 
plague of antichrist's abominations, Christ lamenting, and not 
cursing, saith : " Woe be to the pregnant women and travail- 
ing women, and women that give suck in those days !" For 
these, alas ! my heart mourneth the more, the less I am able 
to give any comfortable counsel, but this, that always, as 
they look for everlasting life, they abide still in the confession 
of this truth, whatsoever shall befall ; and for the rest to put 
their trust now wholly in God, which is able to save them 
against all appearance, and commonly in extremities, when all 
worldly comfort faileth, and the danger is at highest, then 
unto his he is wont, after his accustomed mercy, to be most 
ready for to put his helping hand. Daniel God suffered to 


be cast into the den of lions, and the three children into the 
hot burning furnace, and yet he saved them all. Paul was 
plucked out of the mouth of the lion (as he saith of himself), 
and in Asia he was brought in such trouble, that he looked 
for no other thing but for present death; and yet He that 
raiseth the dead to life again, did bring him out of all his 
troubles, and taught him and all other that be in troubles 
for Christ's cause, not to trust to themselves, but in Al- 
mighty God. 

Of God's gracious aid in extreme perils toward them that 
put their trust in him, all Scripture is full, both old and 
new. What dangers were the patriarchs often brought into, 
as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but of all other Joseph ; and 
how mercifully were they delivered again ! In what perils was 
Moses when he was fain to fly for the safeguard of his life ! 
and when was he sent again to deliver the Israelites from 
the servile bondage ? Not before they were brought into Examples 
extreme misery. And when did the Lord mightily deliver ready help 

in 6xtr6ni6 

his people from Pharaoh's sword ? Not before they were pe" ls - 
brought in such straits, that they were so compassed on every 
side (the main sea on the one side, and the main host on 
the other), that they could look for none other, (yea, what 
did they else indeed look for then?) but either to have been 
drowned in the sea, or else to have fallen on the edge of 
Pharaoh his sword. Those judges which wrought most won- 
derful things in the delivery of the people, were ever given 
when the people were brought to most misery before, as 
Othoniel, Aioth 1 , Sangar, Gedeon, Jephtha, Samson. And 
so was Saul endued with strength and boldness from above, 
against the Ammonites, Philistines, and Amalechites, for the 
defence of the people of God. David likewise felt God's help 
most sensibly ever in his extreme persecutions. What shall 
I speak of the Prophets of God, whom God suffered so oft 
to be brought into extreme perils, and so mightily delivered 
them again ; as Helias, Hieremy, Daniel, Micheas, and Jonas, 
and many other, whom it were but too long to rehearse and 
set out at large? And did the Lord use his servants other- 
wise in the new law after Christ's incarnation? Read the 
Acts of the Apostles, and you shall see, no. Were not the 

C 1 Ehud. Ed.] 



rfGod^de- A P ostles cast mto prison, and brought out by the mighty 
liverance. h an( j f & ft i Did not the angel deliver Peter out of the 
strong prison, and bring him out by the iron gates of the 
city, and set him free? And when, I pray you l Even the 
same night before Herod appointed to have brought him in 
judgment for to have slain him, as he had a little before 
killed James, the brother of John. Paul and Silas, when 
after they had been sore scourged, and were put into the 
inner prison, and there were laid fast in the stocks ; I pray 
you, what appearance was there that the magistrates should 
be glad to come the next day themselves to them, to desire 
them to be content, and to depart in peace ? Who provided 
for Paul, that he should be safely conducted out of all dan- 
ger, and brought to Felix, the Emperor's deputy, when as 
both the high priests, the pharisees, and rulers of the Jews 
had conspired to require judgment of death against him, he 
being fast in prison, and also more than forty men had sworn 
each one to other, that they would never eat nor drink until 
they had slain Paul? A thing wonderful, that no reason 
could have invented, or man could have looked for: God 
provided Paul his own sister's son, a young man, that disap- 
pointed that conspiracy and all their former conjuration. 
The manner how the thing came to pass, thou mayest read 
in the twenty-third of the Acts ; I will not be tedious unto 
thee here with the rehearsal thereof. 

Now, to descend from the Apostles to the martyrs that 
followed next in Christ's church, and in them likewise to de- 
clare how gracious our good God ever hath been to work 
wonderfully with them which in his cause have been in ex- 
treme perils, it were a matter enough to write a long book. 
I will here name but one man and one woman, that is, 
Athanasius, the great clerk and godly man, stoutly standing 
Lib.v.Cap.i. j n Christ's cause against the Arians ; and that holy woman, 
Blandina, standing so constantly in all extreme pains, in the 
simple confession of Christ. If thou wilt have examples of more, look and thou shalt have both these and a hundred 
Lib?V. more m Ecclesiastica Historic/, of Eusebius, and in Tripartita 

But for all these examples, both of holy Scripture and 
of other histories, I fear me the weak man of God, encum- 


•bered with the frailty and infirmity of the flesh, will have now 
and then such thoughts and qualms (as they call them) to 
run over his heart, and to think thus : " All these things 
which are rehearsed out of the Scripture, I believe to be 
true, and of the rest truly I do think well, and can believe 
them also to be true : but all these we must needs grant 
were special miracles of God, which now in our days are 
ceased, we see, and to require them at God's hands, were 
it not to tempt Godf 

Well-beloved brother, I grant such were great wonderful f^Vea?" 
works of God, and we have not seen many of such miracles ™, time m 
in our time, either for that our sight is not clear (for truly ev^l^m 
God worketh with his his part in all times), or else be- ^m" ' see 
cause we have not the like faith of them for whose cause 
God wrought such things, or because, after that he had set 
'forth the truth of his doctrine by such miracles then suffi- 
ciently, the time of so many miracles to be done was expired 
withal- Which of these is the most special cause of all 
other, or whether there be any other, God knoweth : I leave 
that to God. But know thou this, my well-beloved in God, 
that God's hand is as strong as ever it was; he may do 
what his gracious pleasure is, and he is as good and gra- 
cious as ever he was. Man changeth as the garment doth; 
but God, our heavenly Father, is even the same now that he 
was, and shall be for evermore. 

The world without doubt (this I do believe, and there- 
fore I say) draweth towards an end, and in all ages God hath 
had his own manner, after his secret and unsearchable wis- 
dom, to use his elect ; sometimes to deliver them, and to 
keep them safe ; and sometimes to suffer them to drink of 
Christ's cup, that is, to feel the smart, and to feel of the 
whip. And though the flesh smarteth at the one, and feel- 
eth ease in the other, is glad of the one, and sore vexed 
in the other; yet the Lord is all one towards them in both, 
and loveth them no less when he suffereth them to be beaten, 
yea, and to be put to bodily death, than when he worketh 
wonders for their marvellous delivery. Nay, rather he doth The Lord's 
more for them, when in anguish of the torments he stand- less in ad- 
eth by them, and strengthened them in their faith, to suffer in prosperi- 
in the confession of the truth and his faith the bitter pangs 



of death, than when he openeth the prison-doors and let- 
teth them go loose : for here he doth but respite them to 
another time, and leaveth them in danger to fall in like peril 
again; and there he maketh them perfect, to be without 
danger, pain, or peril, after that for evermore : but this his 
love towards them, howsoever the world doth judge of it, 
is all one, both when he delivereth and when he suffereth 
them to be put to death. He loved as well Peter and Paul, 
when (after they had, according to his blessed will, pleasure, 
and providence, finished their courses, and done their ser- 
vices appointed them by him here in preaching of his Gospel) 
the one was beheaded, and the other was hanged or cruci- 
fied of the cruel tyrant Nero (as the ecclesiastical history 
saith), as when he sent the angel to bring Peter out of 
prison, and for Paul's delivery he made all the doors of the 
prison to fly wide open, and the foundation of the same like 
an earthquake to tremble and shake. 

Thinkest thou, thou man of God, that Christ our Sa- 
viour had less affection to the first martyr, Stephen, because 
he suffered his enemies, even at the first conflict, to stone 
him to death ? No, surely : nor James, John's brother, which 
was one of the three that Paul calleth primates or principals 
amongst the Apostles of Christ. He loved him never a whit 
the worse than he did the other, although he suffered Herod 
the tyrant's sword to cut off his head. Nay, doth not Daniel 
Dan. xi. say, speaking of the cruelty of Antichrist his time : Et docti 
in populo docebunt plurimos, et ruent in gladio, et in Jlammd; 
et in captivitate, et in rapind dierum, fyc. Et de eruditis 
ruent, ut conjlentur, et eligantur, et dealbentur, fyc. That is, 
" And the learned (he meaneth truly learned in God's law) 
shall teach many, and shall fall upon the sword, and in the 
flame (that is, shall be burnt in the flaming fire), and in 
captivity (that is, shall be in prison), and be spoiled and 
robbed of their goods for a long season." And after a little, 
in the same place of Daniel, it followeth : "And of the 
learned there be, which shall fall or be overthrown, that they 
may be known, tried, chosen, and made white" — he meaneth 
be burnished and scoured anew, picked and chosen, and made 
fresh and lusty. If that then was foreseen for to be done 
to the godly learned, and for so gracious causes, let every 



one to whom any such thing by the will of God doth chance 
be merry in God and rejoice, for it is to God's glory and 
to his own everlasting wealth. Wherefore well is he that 
ever he was born, for whom thus graciously God hath pro- 
vided, having grace of God, and strength of the Holy Ghost, 
to stand stedfastly in the height of the storm. Happy is 
he that ever he was born, whom God, his heavenly Father 
hath vouchsafed to appoint to glorify him, and to edify his 
church, by the effusion of his blood. 

To die in Christ's cause is an high honour, to the which Martyrdom 

Y an high no- 

no man certainly shall or can aspire, but to whom God nour - 

vouchsafeth that dignity; for no man is allowed to presume 

for to take unto himself any office of honour, but he which is 

thereunto called of God. Therefore John saith well, speaking 

of them which have obtained the victory by the blood of the Apoe. xii. 

"Lamb, and by the word of his testimony, that they loved not 

their lives even unto death. 

And our Saviour Christ saith : " He that shall lose his 
life for my cause shall find it." And this manner of speech 
pertaineth not to one kind of Christians (as the worldly do 
wickedly dream), but to all that do truly pertain unto Christ. 
For when Christ had called unto him the multitude together 
with his disciples, he said unto them (mark that he said not 
this to the disciples and Apostles only, but he said it to 
all), " Whosoever will follow me, let him forsake or deny 
himself, and take up his cross and follow me: for whosoever 
will save his life, shall lose it" (he meaneth whosoever will, 
to save his life, both forsake or leave him and his truth) ; 
' t 'and whosoever shall lose his life for my cause and the 
Gospel's sake, shall save it : for what shall it profit a man 
if he shall win the whole world and lose his own soul, his 
own life? or what shall a man give to recompense that loss 
of his own life and of his own soul?" " Whosoever shall 
be ashamed of me and my words (that is, to confess me and 
my Gospel) before this adulterous and sinful generation, of 
him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in 
the glory of his Father with the holy angels." Know thou, 
O man of God, that all things are ordained for thy behoof, 
and to the furtherance of thee towards thy salvation. "All 
things," saith Paul, "worketh with the good to goodness," 


even the enemies of God; and such kind of punishments 
whereby they go about to destroy them, shall be forced by 
God's power, might, and fatherly providence, for to do them 

It is not as the wicked thinketh, that poverty, adversity, 
sickness, tribulation, yea, painful death of the godly, be 
tokens that God doth not love them ; but even clean the 
contrary, as all the whole course of Scripture doth evidently 
declare ; for then he would never have suffered his most dear 
beloved, the patriarchs, to have had such troubles, his Pro- 
phets, his Apostles, his martyrs, and chief champions and 
maintainers of his truth and gospel, so cruelly of the wicked 
to have been murdered and slain : "of the which some were 

Heb. xi. racked, as the Apostle saith, and would not be delivered, 
that they might receive a better resurrection. Some were 
tried by mockings and scourgings, yea moreover by bonds 
and imprisonment : they were stoned ; they were hewn and 
cut asunder; they were tempted; they were slain with the 
sword ; they wandered up and down in sheeps' skins and 
goats 1 skins, being forsaken, afflicted, and tormented ; such 
men as the world was not worthy to have, wandering in 
wildernesses, in mountains, in dens and caves of the earth. 
All these were approved by the testimony of faith, and re- 
ceived not the promise, because God did provide better for 
us, that without us they should not be consummated." They 
tarry now for us undoubtedly, longing for the day ; but they 
are commanded to have patience ; " yet," saith the Lord, 
"a little while," until the number of their fellow-servants be 
fulfilled, and of their brethren which are yet to be slain, as 
they were. 

Now, thou, O man of God, for our Lord's sake, let us 
not, for the love of this life, tarry then too long, and be oc- 
casion of delay of that glorious consummation, in hope and 
expectation whereof they departed in the Lord, and the which 
also the living, endued with God's Spirit, ought so earnestly 
to desire and to groan for with all the creatures of God. Let 
us all with John, the servant of God, cry in our hearts unto 

Apoc. xxii. our Saviour Christ, Veni Domine Jesu, " Come, Lord Jesu, 
come." For that when Christ, which is our life, shall be 
made manifest and appear with him in glory, then shall the 


children of God appear what they be, even like unto Christ ; 
for this our weak body shall be transfigurated and made like 
unto Christ's glorious body, and that by the power whereby 
he is able to subdue unto himself all things : then that which 
is now corruptible, shall be made incorruptible : that is now 
vile, shall then be made glorious ; that is now weak, shall rise 
then mighty and strong; that is gross and carnal shall be 
made fine and spiritual ; for then we shall see and have the 
unspeakable joy and fruition of the glorious majesty of our 
Lord, even as he is. 

Who or what, then shall let us to jeopardy, — to jeopardy? — 
yea, to spend this life, which we have here, in Christ's cause, 
in our Lord God his cause? O thou therefore, man of God, 
thou that art laden, and so letted like unto a woman with 
child, that thou canst not fly the plague; yet if thou lust 
after such things as I have spoken of, stand fast, whatsoever 
shall befall in thy Master's cause ; and take this thy letting 
to fly for a calling of God to fight in thy Master Christ 
his cause. Of this be thou certain, they can do nothing unto Nothing 
thee, which thy Father is not aware of, or hath not foreseen without 
before ; they can do no more than it shall please him to suf- sight. 
fer them to do for the furtherance of his glory, edifying of 
his church, and thine own salvation. Let them then do what 
they shall, seeing to thee, O man of God, all things shall 
be forced to serve, and to work with thee unto the best 
before God. be not afraid, and remember the end. 

All this which I have spoken for the comfort of the 
lamentable case of the man whom Christ calleth women 
with child, I mean to be spoken likewise to the captive and 
prisoner in God's cause : for such I count to be, as it were, 
already summoned and pressed to fight under the banner of 
the cross of Christ, and, as it were, soldiers allowed and 
taken up for the Lord's wars, to do to their Lord and Master 
good and honourable service, and to stick to him, as men 
of trusty service in his cause, even unto death ; and to think 
their life lost in his cause is to win it in eternal glory for 

Therefore now to conclude, and to make an end of this 
treatise, I say unto all that love God, our heavenly Father, 
that love Christ Jesus, our Redeemer and Saviour ; that love 



to follow the ways of the Holy Ghost, which is our Com- 
forter and Sanctifier of all ; unto all that love Christ's spouse 
and body, the true Catholic church of Christ, yea, that love 
life and their own soul's health ; I say unto all these, Hearken, 
my dear brethren and sisters, all you that be of God, of all 
sorts, ages, dignities, or degree ; hearken to the word of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, spoken to his Apostles, and meant to 
Matt.x. all his, in Saint Matthew's Gospel: "Fear not them which 
kill the body, for they cannot kill the soul ; but fear him 
more which may destroy, and cast both body and soul into 
hell fire. Are not two small sparrows sold for a mite, and 
one of them shall not fall or light upon the ground without 
your Father? all the hairs of your head be numbered. Fear 
them not, you are much more worth than are the little spar- 
rows." — "Every one then that confesseth me before men, 
him shall I likewise confess before my Father which is in 
heaven. But whosoever shall deny me before men, I shall 
deny him likewise before my Father which is in heaven." 

The Lord grant us therefore of his heavenly grace and 
strength, that here we may so confess him in this world, 
amongst this adulterous and sinful generation, that he may 
confess us again at the latter day, before his Father which 
is in heaven, to his glory and our everlasting comfort, joy, 
and salvation. 

To our heavenly Father, to our Saviour and Redeemer 
Jesus Christ, and to the Holy Ghost, be all glory and honour 
now and for ever. Amen. 

Note. — [To the letters of Careless, which have the sig- 
natures following those of Ridley, i. e. beginning F. 1 — the 
date 1556 is prefixed and this colophon is appended. 

Imprinted at London by Willyam 

Powell, dwellying in Fletestrete 

at the sygne of the George, 

near to Sainct Dunstans 

Churche. Ed.] 








[When any note is not enclosed in brackets and signed Ed. it is 
Ridley's own quotation, and merely removed from the text for the 
sake of uniformity. The Treatise itself was first published by Fox 
in his "Acts and Monuments." Ed.] 







Certain reasons which move us that we cannot with safe consciences give 
our assents that the Images of Christ, &;c., should be placed and erected 
in Churches. 

First, the words of the commandment, " Thou shalt not Maiedictus 
make to thyself any graven image, 1 '' &c. And the same is fecit sculp. 
repeated more plainly, " Cursed is the man which maketh a flatiie, etc. 

, . „ , , • • , etponitillud 

graven or molten image, &c, and setteth it in a secret place, "? abscon- 
and all the people shall say, Amen. - " Exod. xx. 

Deut. xxvii. 

In the first place, these words are to be noted : " Thou 
shalt not make to thyself;" that is, to any use of religion. 

In the latter place, these words : " And setteth it in a 
secret place ;" for no man then durst commit idolatry openly. 
So that, comparing the places, it evidently appears that im- 
ages, both for use of religion and in place of peril 1 for idolatry, 
are forbidden. 

God, knowing the inclination of man to idolatry, sheweth 
the reason why he made this general prohibition : " Lest Ne forte er- 
peradventure thou, being deceived, shouldst bow down to them tus adores" 

, i • ,1 ,i eaet colas. 

and worship them. 

This general law is generally by all to be observed, not- 
withstanding that peradventure a great number cannot be hurt 
by them, which may appear by the example following. 

P Placed where there is danger of their being worshipped. Ed.] 

6 — 2 




Deut. vii. G- 0( j forbade the people to join their children in marriage 

Sffiium with strangers, adding the reason : " For they will seduce thy 
seqJTatur son, that he shall not follow me." 

Moses 1 was not deceived or seduced by Jethro's daughter, 
nor Boaz by Euth, being a woman of Moab. And yet for all 
that, the general law was to be observed, " Thou shalt join 
no marriage with them." And so likewise, " Thou shalt not 
make to thyself any graven image," &c. 

In Deuteronomy God gives a special charge to avoid 
images: "Beware that thou forget not the covenant of the 
Lord thy God which he made with thee, and so make to thy- 
self any graven image of anything which the Lord hath for- 
bidden thee ; for the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, and 
a jealous God. If thou have children and nephews, and do 
dwell in the land, and, being deceived, make to yourselves 
any graven image, doing evil before the Lord your God, and 
provoke him to anger, I do this day call heaven and earth 
to witness that you shall quickly perish out of the land which 
you shall possess ; you shall not dwell in it any longer, but 
the Lord will destroy you and scatter you amongst all 

Note what a solemn obtestation God useth, and what 
grievous punishments he threateneth to the breakers of the 
second commandment. 

In the tabernacle and temple of God no image was by 
God appointed to be set openly, nor by practice afterwards 
used or permitted, so long as religion was purely observed; 
so that the use and execution of the law is a good interpreter 
of the true meaning of the same. 

If, by virtue of the second commandment, images were not 
lawful in the temple of the Jews, then by the same com- 
mandment they are not lawful in the churches of the Christ- 
ians. For being a moral commandment, and not ceremonial 
(for, by consent of writers, only a part of the precept of ob- 
serving the Sabbath is ceremonial), it is a perpetual com- 
mandment, and bindeth us as well as the Jews. 

The Jews by no means would consent to Herod, Pilate, 

[ l It should be remembered that Moses acted previous to the pro- 
mulgation of the law in question, and Boaz in obedience to a peculiar, 
and in his case superior one. Ed.] j 


or Petronius, that images should be placed in the temple of 
Jerusalem ; but rather offered themselves to death than assent 
unto it : who, besides that they are commended by Josephus 2 j^ s t < j ph j. b 
for observing the meaning of the law, would not have endan- ™"- c ?.p- 8 > 

e> o ' lib. XV1H. 

gered themselves so far, if they had thought images had been J a P- 5 and 
indifferent in the temple of God. For as St Paul saith, Q^f-J^. 
"What hath the temple of God to do with idols?" piSnpS 

r cum simul- 

God's Scripture in no place commends the use of images, but acris? 
in a great number of places doth disallow and condemn them. 

They are called, in the book of Wisdom, the trap and 
snare of the feet of the ignorant. 

It is said, the invention of them was the beginning of spi- 
ritual fornication ; and that they were not from the beginning, 
neither shall they continue to the end. 

In the fifteenth chapter of the same book it is said, 
' r Their pictures are a worthless labour.' 1 And again, "They umbrapfc. 

turae labor 

are worthy of death that put their trust in them, that make sine fructu. 
them, that love them, and that worship them." 

The Psalms and prophets are full of like sentences; and 
how can we then praise that which God's Spirit doth always 

Furthermore, an image made by a father, as appears in 
the same book 3 , for the memorial of his son departed, was 
the first invention of images, and occasion of idolatry. 

How much more, then, shall an image made in the memory 
of Christ, and set up in the place of religion, occasion the same 
offence? Images have their beginning from the heathen; 
and upon no good ground, therefore, can they be profitable Euseb.4Ec- 
to Christians. Whereunto Athanasius agrees, when writing lib. Vu. cap.' 
of images against the Gentiles 5 : " The invention of images 

[ 2 Ed. Genev. 1635, p. 596. 624. 640. Ed.] 

3 "Thus some parent mourning bitterly for a son who hath been 
taken from him, makes an image of his child ; and him who before had 
been to his family as a dead man they now begin to worship as a god ; 
rites and sacrifices being instituted to be observed by his dependents." 
Book of Wisdom, xiv. 

C 4 Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. vn. c. 8. Ed. Par. 1659, p. 265. Ed.] 

\J Athanasius, Cont. Gentes. tj T(5v eibw\mv evpe<ri<; ovk <1-ko dyadov, 
u\\ airo KciKt'a? yeyove, to Se t»ji/ ap^rjv e%ov KaKtjv iv ovhevt 
7roT6 kuXov KptOeit], o\ov ov (pav\ov. Par. 1627, torn. i. p. 8. Ed.] 



came of no good, but of evil ; and whatsoever hath an evil 
beginning can never in anything be judged good, seeing it is 
wholly naught." 

St John says, "My little children, beware of images;" 
but to set them in the churches, which are places dedicated 
to the service and invocation of , God, and that over the Lord's 
table, being the highest and most honourable place, where 
most danger of abuse both is and ever hath been, is not to 
beware of them nor to flee from them, but rather to embrace Co- and receive them. Tertullian, expounding the same words, 
' writeth thus : " Little children, keep yourselves from the 
shape itself, or form of them 1 ." 

Images in the Church either serve to edify or to destroy. 

If they edify, then is there a kind of edification which the 

Scriptures neither teach nor command, but always disallow: 

if they destroy, they are not to be used ; for in the Church 

icor. xiv. of God all things ought to be done to edify. 

The commandment of God is, " Thou shalt not lay a 
stumbling-block or a stone before the blind ;" and, " Cursed 
is he that maketh the blind to wander in his way." 

The simple and unlearned people who have been so long 
under blind guides, are blind in matters of religion, and in- 
clined to error and idolatry. Therefore, to set images before 
Namiaquei them to stumble at (for they are snares and traps for the 

pedibus in- v ^ x 

sipientium feet of the ignorant), or to lead them out of the true way, 
is not only against the commandment of God, but deserveth 
also the malediction and curse of God. 

The use of images is, to the learned and confirmed in 
knowledge, neither necessary nor profitable. To the super- 
stitious, it is a confirmation in error. To the simple and 
weak, an occasion to fall, and very offensive and wounding to 
their consciences ; and therefore very dangerous. For St 

i Cor. ix. p au l saith, " Offending the brethren and wounding their 
weak consciences, they sin against Christ." And Matthew 
xviii : " Woe be to him by whom offence or occasion of 
falling cometh; it were better that a millstone were tied 

1 Filioli custodite vos ab idolis, non jam ab idololatria quasi ab 
officio, sed ab idolis, i. e. ab ipsa effigie eorum. 
[Ed. Par. Rigalt. 1G41. p. 126—7. Ed.] 


about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than to offend one 
of the little ones that believe in Christ.'" And where an ob- 
jection may be made that such offence may be taken away 
by sincere doctrine and preaching, it is to be answered, that 
is not sufficient; as hereafter more at large shall appear. 

And though it should be admitted as true, yet it should 
follow that sincere doctrine and preaching should always, 
and in all places, continue as well as images : and so that 
wheresoever an image were erected to offend, there should 
also, of reason, a godly and sincere preacher be continually 
maintained; for it is reason that the remedy be as large as 
the offence, the medicine as general as the poison ; but that 
is not possible in the realm of England, if images should be 
generally allowed, as reason and experience may teach. 

As good magistrates, who intend to banish all whoredom, 
do drive away all naughty persons, especially out of such 
places as be suspected ; even so images, being " Meretrices,'" 
id est, " Whores" — for that the worshipping of them is called 
in the prophets fornication and adultery — ought to be banish- 
ed, and especially out of churches, which is the most suspected 
place, and where the spiritual fornication hath been most 

It is not expedient to allow and admit that which is hurt- 
fid to the greatest number ; but in all churches and common- 
wealths the ignorant and weak are the greatest number, to 
whom images are hurtful, and not profitable. 

And whereas it is commonly alleged that images in 
churches stir up the mind to devotion, it may be answered 
that, contrariwise, they rather distract the mind from prayer, 
hearing of God's word, and other godly meditations ; as we 
read that in the council chamber of the Lacedaemonians no 
picture or image was suffered, lest, in consultation of weighty 
matters of the common weal, their minds, by the sight of 
the outward image, might be occasioned to withdraw or to 
wander from the matter. 

The experience of this present time declareth, that those 
parts of the realm which think, and are persuaded, that God 
is not offended by doing outward reverence to an image, most 
desire the restitution of images, and have been most diligent 
to set them up again : restitution, therefore, of them by com- 



raon authority shall confirm them more in their error, to 
the danger of their souls, than ever they were before. For, 
as one man writeth, "Nothing is more certain or sure than 
that which of doubtful is made certain 1 ." 

The profit of images is uncertain ; the peril, by experience 
of all ages and states of the Church, as afore, is most certain. 

The benefit to be obtained by them, if there be any, is 
very small ; the danger in seeing of them, which is the danger 
of idolatry, is the greatest of all other. Now, to allow a most 
certain peril for an uncertain profit, and the greatest danger 
for the smallest benefit, in matters of faith and religion, is 
a tempting of God and a grievous offence. 


Probations out of the Fathers, Councils, and Histories. 

First, it is manifest, that in the primitive Church images 
were not commonly used in churches, oratories, and places of 
assembly for religion ; but they were generally detested and 
abhorred, insomuch that the want of imagery was objected 
to the Christians by the heathen, as a crime, 
ub.iv. con- Origen relates that Celsus objected the lack of images 2 . 

Arnobius saith also, that the Ethnics accused the Christ- 
ians, that they had neither altars nor images 3 . 

Zephirinus in his " Commentary upon the Apology of Ter- 
tullian," 1 gathers thus of Tertullian's words : " That place of 
persuasion were very cold, and to no purpose at all, except 
we hold this always, that Christians in those days did hate, 
most of all, images, with their trim decking and ornaments 4 . 11 
Lib. i. mr. Irenseus reproves the heretics called Gnostics, because 
that they carried about the image of Christ, made in Pilate's 

1 Nihil magis est certum quam quod ex dubio factum est certum. 

[ 2 Ed. Par. Ben. torn. i. p. 524. Ed.] 

[ 3 Ed. Par. de la Barre. 1582, p. 137. Ed.] 

4 Qui locus persuadendi frigeret penitus, nisi perpetuo illud tenea- 
mus, Christianos tunc temporis odisse maxim e statuas cum suis orna- 
mentis. [Ed. Col. 1622, p. 145. Ed.] 



time, after his own proportion 5 (which were much more to 
be esteemed than any that can be made now) ; using also, 
for declaration of their affection towards it, to set garlands 
upon the head of it 6 . 

Lactantius affirms plainly 7 , " It is not to be doubted, that Lib. Dim. 
there is no religion wherever there is any image." If Christ- cap. is. ' 
ians then had used images, he would not have made his 
proposition so large. 

St Augustine 8 commends Varro the Eoman in these words: De civitate 
" Since Varro thought religion might be kept more purely cap. 31. 
without images, who does not see how near he came to the 
truth V So that not only by Varro's judgment, but also by 
St Augustine's approbation, the most pure and chaste ob- 
servation of religion, and the nearest the truth, is to be 
without images. 

The same St Augustine, in Ps. cxiii., hath 9 these words: 
"Images have more force to bow down and crook the silly 
soul, than to teach it." 

And upon the same Psalm he moves this question 10 : 
"Every child, yea, every beast knoweth that it is not God 
which they see ; why, then, doth the Holy Ghost so oft give 
warning to beware of that which all do know?" St Augus- 
tine answers 11 : "When they are set in churches, and begin 

5 Made like to the actual bodily form and proportion in which 
Christ appeared upon earth. 

[ 6 Gnosticos se autem vocant, et imagines quasdam quidein depictas, 
quasdam autem et de reliqua materia fabricatas, habent, dicentes formam 
Christi factam a Pilato illo in tempore, quo fuit Jesus cum hominibus, 
et has coronant. — S. Ir. Op. Par. Ben. 1710, p. 105. Ed.] 

7 Non est dubium, quin religio nulla sit ubicunque simulacrum est. 
[Ed. Oxon. 1684, p. 203. Ed.] 

s Quum Varro existimaverit castius sine simulacris observari religi- 
onem, quis non videt quantum appropinquaverit veritati 1 [The words in 
Italics are not Augustine's. — Ed. Ben. Par. 1681, torn. vii. col. 112. Ed.] 

9 Plus valent simulacra ad curvandam infelicem animam * * * quam 
ad corrigendam. — f_Ed. Par. Ben. 1681, torn. iv. col. 1262. Ed.] 

10 Quivis puer, immo qusevis bestia scit, non esse Deum quod vident : 
cur ergo Spiritus Sanctus toties monet cavendum quod omnes sciunt ? 

11 Quoniam cum ponuntur in templis, et semel incipiunt adorari a 
multitudine, statim nascitur sordidissimus affectus erroris. 

[The genuine words of Augustine are : 
" Quis puer interrogates non hoc certum esse respondeat, quod simul- 
acra gentium os habent et non loquuntur, oculos habent et non vide- 




once to be worshipped of the multitude or common people, 
straightway springs up a most filthy affection of error." 

This place of St Augustine well opens how weak a reason 

it is to say, images are a thing indifferent in chambers 

and in churches; for the alteration of the place, manner, 

and other circumstances, oftentimes alters the nature of the 

thing. It is lawful to buy and sell in the market, but not so in 

churches. It is lawful to eat and drink, but not so in churches. 

tisdomosad And therefore saith St Paul : " Have you not houses to eat 

wKZ"? and drink in ? Do you contemn the Church of God ?" 

sSmDei Many other actions there be, which are lawful and honest in 

private places, which are neither comely nor honest, not only 

in churches, but also in other assemblies of honest people. 

Tertullian saith he used sometimes to burn frankincense 
in his chamber, which was then used by idolators, and is 
so still in the Romish churches ; but he joineth withal : " But 
not after 1 such a rite or ceremony, nor after such a fashion, 
nor with such preparation or sumptuousness, as it is done 
before the idols." 

So that images placed in churches, and set in an ho- 
nourable place of estimation, as St Augustine saith, and 
especially over the Lord's table, which is done (using the 
words of Tertullian) after the same manner and fashion 
which the Papists used, especially after so long continuance 
of abuse of images, and so many being blinded with super- 
stitious opinion towards them — cannot be counted a thing 
indifferent, but a most certain ruin of many souls. 

bunt, et csetera quse divinus sermo contexuit — cur ergo tantopere Spiritus 
Sanctus curat Scripturarum plurimis locis Iisec insinuare, atque incul- 
care velut inscientibus, quasi non omnibus apertissima atque notissima, 
nisi quia species membrorum quam naturaliter in animantibus viven- 
tem videre atque in nobismetipsis sentire consuevimus, quanquam ut 
illi asserunt in signum aliquod fabrefacta atque eminenti collocata 
suggestu, cum adorari atque honorari a multitudine cceperit, paret in 
unoquoque sordidissimum erroris affectum/' &c. &c. 
Ed. Ben. Par. 1681, torn. iv. col. 1261. c.d. > 
— Basil. 1542, torn. viii. col. 1306. 5 Ed 'J 

1 Sed non eodem ritu, nee eodem habitu, nee eodem apparatu, quo 
agitur apud idola. 

QTertullian. de Corona Militis. Cap. 10. Ed. Rigalt. 1641. Paris, 
p. 126. Ed.] 


Epiphanius, in his epistle to John Bishop of Jerusalem 
(which epistle was translated out of the Greek by St Jerome, 
shewing that it is likely that Jerome disliked not the doctrine 
of the same), writes a fact of his own, which most clearly 
declares the judgment of that notable learned bishop con- 
cerning the use of images : his words are these : " When 2 I 
came to a village called Anablatha, and saw there, as I 
passed by, a candle burning, and enquiring what place it 
was, and learning that it was a church, and had entered 
into the same to pray, I found there a veil or cloth hang- 
ing at the door of the same church, dyed and painted, 
having on it the image of Christ, as it were, or of some 
saint — for I remember not well whose it was. Then, when 
I saw this, that in the Church of Christ, against the autho- 
rity of the Scriptures, the image of a man was hung up, I 
cut it in pieces," &c. And a little after: "And commanded 
that such manner of veils or cloths, which are contrary to 
our religion, be not hanged in the Church of Christ." 

Out of this place of Epiphanius divers notes are to be 

observed : — 

First, that, by the judgment of this ancient Father, to 

permit images in churches is against the authority of the 

Scriptures, meaning against the second commandment : 

"Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image," &c. 

Secondly, that Epiphanius rejecteth, not only graven and 
molten, but also painted images ; for if he cut in pieces 
the image painted on a veil hanging at the church door, what 
would he have done if he had found it over the Lord's 

Thirdly, that he spareth not the image of Christ ; for no 
doubt that image is most perilous in the church, of all other. 

P Quum venissem ad villam qua: dicitur Anablatha, vidissemque 
ibi praeteriens lucernam ardentem, et interrogassem quis locus esset, 
didicissemque esse Ecclesiam, et intrassem ut orarem, inveni ibi velum 
pendens in foribus ejusdem ecclesiee, tinctum atque depictum, et habens 
imaginem quasi Christi vel sancti cujusdam, non enim satis memini 
cujus fuit. Cum ergo hoc vidissem in Eeclesia Christi contra auctori- 
tatem scripturarum hominis pendere imaginem, scidi illud * * * et 
prsecepi in Eeclesia Christi istiusmodi vela, quae contra religionem 
nostram veniunt, non appendi. 

[Ed. Par. Ben. 1706. torn. ir. col. 828-829. Ep. ex. Ed.] 



Fourthly, that he did not only remove it, but with a 
vehemency of zeal cut it in pieces ; following the example of 
the good King Hezekiah, who brake the brazen serpent and 
burnt it to ashes. 

Last of all, that Epiphanius thinketh it the duty of 
vigilant bishops to be careful that no such kind of painted 
images are permitted in the Church. 

Serenus, bishop of Massilia, broke down images, and de- 
Gre^. in stroyed them, when he saw them begin to be worshipped 1 . 
epist. cv. Experience of the times since has declared whether of 

the two sentences were better. For since Gregory's time 
the images standing in the Western Churches have been 
overflowed with idolatry, notwithstanding his or other men's 
doctrine ; whereas, if Serenus's judgment had universally 
taken place, no such thing had happened : for if no images 
had been suffered, none could have been worshipped; and 
consequently no idolatry committed by them. 

c. 9. 


To recite the proceedings in Histories and Councils about the matter of 
Images, would require a long discourse, but it shall be sufficient here 
briefly to touch a few. 

It is manifest to them that read histories, that not only 
emperors, but also divers and sundry councils in the Eastern 
Church, have condemned and abolished images, both by de- 
crees and examples. 
Bookix. Petrus Crinitus, in his book of "Honest Discipline," 

wrote out of the emperors' books these words 2 : " Valens 

Q 1 Prseterea indico dudum ad nos pervenisse, quod fraternitas vestra 
quosdam imaginum adoratores aspiciens, easdem in ecclesiis imagines 
confregit atque projecit. Et quidem zelum vos, ne quid manu factum 
adorari posset, habuisse laudavimus, sed frangere easdem imagines non 
debuisse indicamus. Idcirco enim pictura in ecclesiis adhibetur, ut hi 
qui literas nesciunt saltern in parietibus videndo legant, quas legere in 
codicibus non valent. Tua ergo fraternitas et illas servare et ab earum 
adoratu populum prohibere debuit ; quatenus et literarum nescii haberent 
unde scientiam historise colligerent, et populus in pictures adoratione 
minimc peccaret. Greg. Mag. Op. Regist. lib. ix. Indict. 2. Ed. Ben. 
Par. 1705, vol. ii. col. 100G. Ed.] 

2 Valens et Theodosius imperatores prsefecto prastorio ad hunc 
modum scripserunt. Quum sit nobis cura diligens in rebus omnibus 


and Theodosius, the emperors, wrote to the pretorian prefect 
in this sort: 'Whereas we are very careful that the religion 
of Almighty God should be kept in all things ; we permit no 
man to cast, grave, or paint the image of our Saviour 
Christ, either in colours, stone, or other matter : but where- 
soever it be found, we command it to be taken away, punish- 
ing them most grievously that shall attempt anything con- 
trary to our decrees and empire.' " 

Leo III., a man commended in histories for his excellent 
virtues and godliness, (who as is judged of some men was 
the author of the book de re militari, that is of the feats 
of war, being translated out of Greek by Sir John Cheke, 
and dedicated to king Henry the Eighth your highness -1 
father 3 ,) by public authority commanded abolishing of images, 
and in Constantinople caused all the images to be gathered 
together on a heap, and burned them to ashes. 

Constantine, his son, assembled a council of the bishops 
of the Eastern Church, in which council it was decreed as 
follows: "It is not lawful for them that believe in God 
through Jesus Christ, to have any images, either of the 
Creator or of any creatures, set up in the temples to be 
worshipped; but rather that all images, by the law of God, 
and for the avoiding of offence, ought to be taken out of 
churches." Which decree was executed in all places where 
any images were, either in Greece or in Asia. But in all 
these times the bishops of Eome, rather maintaining the 
authority of Gregory, than, like Christian bishops, weighing the 
peril of the Church, always in the assemblies allowed images. 

Not long after the bishop of Rome, practising with 
Tharasius, patriarch of Constantinople, obtained of Irene, 
the empress, her son Constantine being then young, that a 

superni numinis religionem tueri; signum salvatoris Christi nemini 
concedimus coloribus, lapide, aliave materia fingere, insculpere, aut pin- 
gere, sed quocunque reperitur loco, tolli jubemus, gravissima poena eos 
mulctando, qui contrarium decretis nostris et imperio quicquam ten- 
taverint. Pet. Crin. de Hon. Discip. lib. ix. c. 9. 

[ 3 The work " de apparatu bellico, or Tactica," of which the treatise 
de re militari is the first chapter, was not the work of Leo III., other- 
wise called Iconoclastes, but of Leo VI. who was surnamed Pacificus, 
Philosophus, and Sapiens. Cave, Hist. Literaria. Ed.] 



council should be called at Nice, in which the Pope's legates 
were presidents, which appeared well by their fruits; for 
in that council it was decreed, that images should not only 
be permitted in churches, but also worshipped ; which council 
was confuted by a book written by Charlemagne, the emperor, 
calling it a foolish and arrogant council 1 . 

Soon after this council arose a sharp contention between 
Irene, the empress, and her son, Constantine VI., the 
emperor, who destroyed images. And in the end, as she 
had before wickedly burned the bones of her father-in-law, 
Constantine V., so afterwards unnaturally she put out the eyes 
of her son, Constantine VI. 

To be short, there never was anything that made more 
division, or brought more mischief into the Church, than 
the controversy of images ; by reason whereof, not only the 
Eastern Church was divided from the Western, and never 
since perfectly reconciled, but also the empire was cut asun- 
der and divided, and the gate opened to the Saracens and 
Turks to enter and overcome a great part of Christendom. 
The fault whereof most justly is to be ascribed to the 
patrons of images, who could not be contented with the ex- 
ample of the primitive Church, being most simple and sin- 
cere, and most agreeable to the Scripture — (for as Tertullian 
saith 2 , "What is the first, that is true, and that which is 
later is counterfeit") — but with all extremity they maintained 
the use of images in churches, whereof no profit nor advan- 
tage ever grew to the Church of God. For it is evident 
that infinite millions of souls have been cast into eternal 
damnation by the occasion of images used in place of re- 
ligion ; and no history can record that ever any one soul 
was won unto Christ by having of images. But lest it might 
appear that the Western Church had always generally re- 
tained and commended images, it is to be noted that in a 
council holden in Spain, called the Eliberian Council 3 , the 

P See the nine canons of that council (the 2nd Nicene,) Crabbs. Con. 
Gen. torn. ii. p. 465—6, Ed. Colon. 1551. Ed.] 

Q 2 Id esse verum quodcunque primum; id esse adulterum quod- 
cunque posterius. Tertullian. cont. Praxeam, Sect. 2. Op. p. 405. Ed.] 

P Held at Elvira, near Granada, about a.d. 8C5. Labbe, Cone. Gen. 
torn. i. col. 995. Ed.]. 



use of images in churches was clearly prohibited in this 
form of words: "We decree that pictures ought not to be 
in churches, lest that be painted upon the walls which is 
worshipped or adored 4 ." 

But, notwithstanding this, experience hath declared, that 
neither assembling in councils, neither writings, preachings, 
decrees, making of laws, prescribing of punishments, hath 
holpen against images, to which idolatry has been committed, 
nor against idolatry whilst images stood. For these blind 
books and dumb schoolmasters (which they call layman's 
books) have more prevailed by their carved and painted 
preaching of idolatry, than all other written books and preach- 
ings in teaching the truth, and the horror of that vice. 

Having thus declared unto your Highness a few causes 
out of many which move our consciences in this matter, we 
beseech your Highness most humbly not to strain us any 
further, but consider that God's word threateneth a terrible 
judgment unto us, if we, being pastors and ministers in his 
Church, should assent unto the thing which in our learning 
and conscience we are persuaded tendeth to the confirmation 
of error, superstition, and idolatry, and finally, to the ruin 
of the souls committed to our charge, for which we must 
give an account to the Prince of pastors at the last day. Heb. xiii. 
We pray your Majesty also not to be offended with this 
our plainness and liberty, which all good and Christian 
princes have ever taken in good part at the hands of godly 

St Ambrose, writing to Theodosius the emperor, useth 
these words 5 , that is to say: "Neither is it the part of an Epist.iib.v. 
emperor to deny free liberty of speaking, nor yet the duty P ' s ' XMX ' 
of a priest not to speak what he thinks." And again": " In 

4 Placuit in Ecclesiis picturas esse non debere, ne quod colitur aut 
adoratur in parietibus depingatur. [Can. 36. Crabbs. Con. Gen. Col. 
vol. i. p. 284. Ed.] 

Sed neque imperiale est libertatem dicendi negare, neque sacerdotale 
quid sentiat non dicere. [S. Ambros. Op. Ed. Par. Ben. 1690, Ep. xxix. 
col. 946. Ed.] 

In causa vero Dei quem audies, si sacerdotem non audies, cujus 
majore peccatur periculo? Quis tibi verum audebit dicere, si sacerdosnon 
audeat ? [S. Ambros. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1690, Ep. xxix. col. 947. Ed.] 



God's cause whom wilt thou hear, if thou wilt not hear the 
priest, to whose great peril the fault should be committed? 
Who dare say the truth unto thee if the priest dare not?" 
These and such like speeches of St Ambrose Theodosius 
and Valentinianus, the emperors, always took in good part ; 
and we doubt not but your Grace will do the like, not only 
of whose clemency, but also beneficence, we have largely 

We beseech your Majesty also, in these and such like 
controversies of religion, to refer the discussion and deciding 
of them to a synod of your bishops and other godly learned 
men, according to the example of Constantinus Maximus, 
and other Christian emperors, that the reasons of both 
parties being examined by them, the judgment may be given 
uprightly in all doubtful matters. 

And to return to this present matter, we most humbly 
beseech your Majesty to consider, that besides weighty 
causes in policy which we leave to the wisdom of your 
honourable councillors, the establishment of images by your 
authority shall not only utterly discredit our ministers as 
builders up of the things which we have destroyed, but also 
blemish the fame of your most godly father, and also of such 
notable fathers as have given their life for the testimony of 
God's truth, who by public law removed all images. 

The almighty and everlasting God plentifully endue your 
Majesty with his Spirit and heavenly wisdom, and long pre- 
serve your most gracious reign and prosperous government 
over us, to the advancement of His glory, to the overthrow 
of superstition, and to the benefit and comfort of all your 
Highness's loving subjects. 









A. D. 1556. 


ftettoene tfje ttijo l&ebmnU dfatijm and ^olg 

martpra of iTlni^t, 29. iltcola$ UijDlf» 

late brnfyovpt of fion&on, and 

ittr. f&unlj Uattmir, sometntne 

liisljcp of esaorce0ter during 

tfie tnme of tfjrir tm= 


18s. 116. 

BpsT)t T'ate Cn tftc stgljt of tlje 

ICortfe is tfje Beat!) of !)is 


■anno 1550. 


Grace and peace &c. Good Christian Eeader, here are 
set forth for thine instruction and comfort certain learned 
and comfortable conferences between the two reverend and 
godly fathers, M. Ridley and M. Latimer, whose bodies 
the Romish tyranny of late hath tormented, and fire hath 
consumed; whose souls mercy hath embraced, and heaven 
hath received ; yielding the one unto the enemy to death, for 
testimony of the truth; commending the other unto God, 
in sure hope of life. And forasmuch as these their scrolls 
and writings were by God's good providence preserved, and 
as it were raked out of the ashes of the authors — containing 
as well comfortable consolation for such as are in the school 
of the Cross, as also good and profitable admonition for them 
which (either of ignorance, either of infirmity, or by flattering 
of themselves with vain pretences) do yield unto the wicked 
world — the reverence due to the reverend fathers, the zeal 
towards the setting forth of the tried truth, and the ready 
good will to comfort and confirm weak consciences, would 
not suffer thee any longer to want these small treatises and 
yet no small treasures; that as in life they profited thee 
by teaching, and in death by example, so after death they 
may do thee good by writing. And albeit the matter of 
itself is sufficient to commend itself, yet it cannot be, but 
the worthiness of the writers will increase credit, and give 
no small authority to the writings. M. Latimer came earlier 
in the morning, and was the more ancient workman in the Matt. xx. 
Lord's vineyard ; who also may very well be called (as divers 
learned men have termed him) the Apostle of England, as 
one much more worthy of that name for his true doctrine 
and for his sharp reproving of sin and superstition, than was 




Augustine, bishop of Canterbury, for bringing in the pope's 
monkery and false religion. M. Ridley came later, about 
the eleventh hour; but no doubt he came when he was 
effectually called: and from the time of his calling became 
a faithful labourer, terrible to the enemies for his excellent 
learning, and therefore a meet man to rid out of the Lord's 
vineyard the sophistical thorns of the wrangling adversaries; 
which did well appear in all disputations and conferences 
that were in his time, and partly doth appear in these short 
treatises following. But what shall it need in many words 
to praise them, whose lives were most commendable, whose 
deaths were most glorious? In office and vocation both like, 
in labour and travail both faithful, in learning and judgment 
both sound; in mind and manners both mild, but in God's 
cause both stout. For neither threatened death, neither 
love of present life, could shake the foundation of their 

Matt. vii. faith, firmly grounded upon the sure rock, Christ. They 
redeemed liberty of conscience with the bondage of the body ; 
and to save their lives, they were content to lose their lives. 
This was not the work of the flesh, but the operation of 
God's mighty Spirit; who hath ever from the beginning not 
only builded, but also enlarged, his Church by the suffering 
of his saints, and sealed his doctrine with the blood of his 
martyrs: as S. Augustine, speaking of the persecutions in 
the primitive church, doth well declare in these words: 

De civ. Dei, Ligabantur, indudebantur, cwdebantur, torquebantur, lire- 

cap. 6. bantur, (laniabantur, trucidabantur,) et multiplicabantur 1 . 

That is to say, The Christians were bound, were im- 
prisoned, were beaten, were tormented, were burnt, [were 
butchered, were slain,] and yet were multiplied. 

Apoiog;. ii. If Justinus Martyr 2 when he was yet an heathen philo- 

[} S. Aug. De Civ. Dei, lib. xxn. cap. 6. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, 
torn. vii. col. 661. The words in brackets are omitted by Ridley in his 
quotation. Ed.] 

3 Just. Mart. Apol. ii. cap. 12. Ed. Ben. Par. p. 06. 



sopher (as he confesseth of himself) was moved to embrace 
the faith and religion of Christ in beholding the constant 
patience of the martyrs, which suffered for Christ in his 
time ; how much more ought the patient suffering and volun- 
tary death of these notable fathers, with many other learned, 
godly men in our days (whose names are written in the 
book of life) not only move, but also pierce and persuade 
all godly hearts, constantly to remain in the truth known! 
For undoubtedly the truth of the cause they suffered for 
is most evident by God's word, and hath been so fully taught, 
so clearly set forth by many and sundry writings, that it 
is open to the consciences of all the world, even of the 
very adversaries themselves that persecute it (greater is their 
damnation), except it be to such whom the God of this 
world, malice, ambition, avarice, or ignorance hath blinded. 2 Cor - iv - 
Which thing needeth none other proof (especially for the 
realm of England) but only to call to mind, with what 
conscience and constancy these pillars of the church (that 
cannot err) have walked in religion these twenty years by 
past: how they (not long ago) received and allowed things, 
which with fire and faggot they persecute now ; and shrank 
from that then, which now they most earnestly maintain. 
And although there appeared in the latter days a shadow 
of stoutness in a few, yet it was indeed nothing. For it 
sprang not out of any zeal to the cause or clearness of 
conscience, but rather out of a like subtle and foxy pre- 
sumption as the Syrians once conceived, when they put 
themselves in the danger of king Ahab, saying, " Behold we l Kin & s : 
have heard that the kings of the house of Israel are pitiful 
and merciful. 1 ' For out of all doubt, king Henry the Eighth 
could as easily have obtained at Winchester's hands and 
others, a conformity in putting down the mass and all the 
rest, whatsoever hath been done (by order) since, if he had 
earnestly minded it ; as the abolishing of the Pope, monkery, 



pilgrimages, relics, with like baggage; all which are now 
again things well esteemed, and covered (as all the residue 
is) with the cloak of the Catholic church. 

But to return to the matter we have in hand : in this little 
treatise, good Reader, thou shalt perceive another manner of 
spirit, thou shalt think (if thou thyself be not very dull) 
that thou hearest men speak, which had learned the lesson 

Actsiv. f the Apostles, that is, to obey God rather than man, 
and had not learned the Eomish epicure's lesson, to apply 
faith and religion to the present state of policy, to turn 
with the time, and serve all seasons ; men before death 

pwiip. iii. (jgg^j un t the world, accounting with St Paul all other things 
to be damage, loss, and vile, that they might win Christ; 
men zealous for the house of God, and the glory of his 
name ; such as had already laid open their consciences and 
infirmities before the judgment-seat of God, and had again 
through Christ received the effect of faith and true right- 
eousness, that is, peace of conscience and joyfulness in the 
Holy Ghost, and so had a full taste in this mortal body, 
of immortality ; in misery, of happiness ; in earth, of heaven. 
O England, England ! how great is thy loss for the want 
of them ! how horrible is thine offence for killing of them ! 
how grievous will thy plague be, when the revenger of innocent 
blood shall call thee to an account for them, if thou do 
not repent in time ! God grant that the admonitions of 
these and other godly martyrs may so warn us, their doc- 
trine so instruct us, and their example so confirm us in the 
true knowledge and fear of God, that flying and abhorring 
idolatry and superstition, we may embrace true religion and 
piety; forsaking the phantasies of men, we may humbly 
obey the written word of God; and ruled thereby, direct 
all our doings to the glory of his name, and our own endless 
salvation in Christ Jesus. Amen. 











" In the name of Jesus let every knee bow." Philip, ii. 


" A bishop ought to be unreproveable, as the steward of N- Ri". 
God, &c, cleaving fast to the true word of doctrine," &c. Tit! ii. 
AH worldly respects put apart, of shame, death, loss of goods, 
and worldly commodities, let me have, 1 pray you, your advice 
in these matters following: that is, your assent and con- 
firmation in those things, which you judge that God doth 
allow, and your best counsel and advertisement where you 
think otherwise, and your reasons for both the same. For 
the wise man saith, " One brother which is helped of another, ^tov. win. 
is like a well-defended city 1 ."" 

The causes that move me to abstain from the mass, be 
these : 

I. It is done in a strange tongue, which the people doth 
not understand, contrary to the doctrine of the apostle. x Cor - xiv - 

fj This quotation is taken from the Septuagint: 
" aceA<po? viro dheX<pov /3ori6ounevo<; <os vo\i<s o^vpd koi tty»/A>/." 
The authorised version renders the passage: 

"A brother offended is harder to be won than a strong city." Prov. 
xviii. 19. Ed.] 



H. Lat. Where is no understanding, there is neither edifying, nor 

comfort; for besides that they speak into the air, the mind 
receiveth no profit; they are one to another as aliens. The 
parishioners will say, their priests are mad, whereas all things 
ought to be done so as they may edify. Let every man 
know, that the things which I write, saith St Paul, are the 
commandments of the Lord. Such absurdities are to be 

N. Rid. II. There is also wanting the shewing of the Lord's 

icor.xi. death, contrary to the mind of the Apostle, "As often as ye 
shall eat this bread, and drink of this cup, ye shall shew the 
Lord's death till he come." What shewing can be there, 
whereas no man heareth, that is to say, understandeth 
what is said ? No man, I mean, of the common people, for 
whose profit the prayer of the church ought specially to 

H. Lat. " Woe be unto you, that take away the key of know- 

ledge." The papists study by all means to make the people 
ignorant (lest their ignorant Sir Johns should be had in less 
estimation or despised), which is clean contrary to St Paul's 
practice, who wished that all men might be fulfilled with all 
coi. i. knowledge, and to be perfect in Christ Jesus, &c. The 
institution of Christ, if it were rehearsed in the vulgar tongue, 
should be not only a consecration, but also a fruitful preach- 
ing to the edification of the hearers. Whereas, in the popish 
mass it is neither understanded nor heard, whilst the common 
people are utterly ignorant what their priests do, or what 
they go about, whether they bless or curse. The apostles 
understanded Christ, when he celebrated his supper ; therefore 
do these papists swerve from Christ in their mass. 

N. Rid. HI. There is no communion, but it is made a private 

table, and indeed ought to be a communion; for St Paul 
1 cor. x. saith, " The bread which we break, is the partaking of 

the body of Christ." And Christ brake, distributed, and 
Matt. xwi. said, " Take and eat," &c. But that they make it a private 


table, it is open. For where they be many priests which ^papists 
will communicate, they do it not in one table or altar, hut L °^stabie 
every one of them have their altars, masses, and tables. table - 


To make that private, which Christ made common, and H. Lat. 
willed to be communicated, may seem to be the workmanship 
of Antichrist himself. The canons 1 of the apostles do excom- Can. ix. 
municate them which being present at common prayer, &c. 
do not also receive the holy communion. And unto the same 
agreeth the decree of Anacletus : " When the consecration pc consec. 

° . (list. 1 cap. 

is done," saith he, " let all such communicate as intend not Epist. 
to be excommunicated 2 .'" " That which is first is true ; that 
which is latter is counterfeited 3 ' 1 saith Tertullian. But the Ter ' u11 - 

' m contra Prax- 

papists say, " We do it privately, because we do it for others." eam - 
But where have you your commission to mass and sacrifice 
for others? 


IV. The Lord's commandment of communicating the N. Rid. 
cup unto the lay people, is not observed according to the 
word of the Lord, " Drink ye all of this." Matt - xxvi < 


" As often as ye shall eat of this bread, and drink of H. Lat. 
this cup, ye shall shew the Lord's death." So that, not the 
partaking of the one only, but of both, is a shewing of the 
Lord's death. Because in his death the blood was divided 
from the body, it is necessary that the same division be 
represented in the Supper; otherwise the Supper is not a 
shewing of the Lord's death, &c. " Let a man examine 

£' wai/ras tou? elartovras whttovs kcu tuv ypa<j)wv di<ovovTa<;, 
Htj TrapafxevoiiTa? Se rrj irpocrev^fy kou rrj ayia fieraXtjyJsei, to? dra~ 
tjiav ep-irotovvTai Trj eKK\tj<ria, d(popi£ea-dai 'Xjptj. Can. Apost. Can. 9. 
Cone. Coll. Reg. Par. torn. i. p. 12. En.] 

P Peracta autem consecratione, omnes communicent qui noluerint 
ecclesiasticis carere limitibns. Anacleti. Ep. i. Cone. Coll. Reg. Par. 
torn. i. p. 140. En."] 

Q 3 Id esse verum, qnodcunque primum ; id esse adulterum, quodcun- 
que posterius. Tertullian. adv. Prax. sec. 2. Op. p. 405. Ed.] 


The Lord's himself," &c. But this word, 'homo,' is of both genders: 

death is not ' , t ■ i 

shewed ex- therefore it is as well commanded to the woman to arms 

cept both „,,•■) j. 

parts of the f t he cup as the man, &c. But the kings argument, 

tered inis " once a g ainst me ' was tnis — "'When ye come together 
TheaW t + ■> h e S aith not, saith he, to drink."— I answered, 

ment ot ' , , , 

Km- Henry - t was not nee dful, seeing that a little before he had 
icor.xi. made mention of both in these words: "And so let him 
eat of that bread, and drink of that cup."— .Homo— That is 
to say, as well the woman as the man. Under the name of 
bread, which betokeneth all sustenance of the body, drink is 
also understanded in the Scripture. Otherwise they would say, 
that Christ did not drink after his resurrection with his dis- 
ciples, except Peter had said, we did eat and drink with 
Actsx. him after he rose from death. 


N. Rid. V. They do 1 servilely serve the holy sign, as St Au- 

chris°t c ian"? gustine speaketh, instead of the thing signified, whilst 
Lib. 3, cap. t ^ e sacramen t a i bread (by a solemn or common error) is 

adored and worshipped for the flesh taken of the Son of 


H. Lat. If ye deny unto them their corporeal presence and tran- 

substantiation, their fantastical adoration will (by and by) 
vanish away. Therefore, be strong in denying such a presence, 
and then ye have won the field. 

Furthermore, in the first Supper, celebrated of Christ 
himself, there is no mention made of adoration of the elements. 
Who said, " Eat ye, and drink ye," not worship ye. There- 
fore, against adoration may be spoken that saying of Christ 

Matt. xix. concerning divorce, " From the beginning it was not so." 
But the devil secretly, and by little and little, infecteth all 
Christ's ordinances; and as for the private mass, with all 
the sinews thereof, what manner a thing it is, may be easily 
perceived by the ready acceptation of the people, whose hearts 

Gen. viii. are prone to evil even from their youth. 

Q Sub signo enim servit, qui operatur aut veneratur aliquam rem 
significantem, nesciens quid significet. S. Aug. de doctr. Christ, lib. in. 
cap. 9. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1635, torn. iii. pars i. col. 48, 49. Ed.] 



VI. They pluck away the honour from the only sacri- N. Rid. 
fice of Christ, whilst this sacramental and mass-sacrifice is 
believed to be propitiatory, and such a one as purgeth the 
souls, both of the quick and the dead. Contrary to that is 
written to the Hebrews, " With one offering hath he made Heb. x. 
perfect for ever them that are sanctified." And again, 

" Where remission of these things (that is, of sins) is, 
there is no more offering for sin." 


" By his own person he hath purged our sins.'" These H. Lat. 
words, ' by his own person 2 ,' have an emphasis or vehemence, 
which driveth away all sacrificing priests from such office 
of sacrificing ; seeing that, which He hath done by himself, 
"He hath not left to be perfected by others; so that the 
purging of our sins may more truly be thought past and 
done, than a thing to come and to be done. " If any man 1 John a. 
sin," &c. He saith not, let him have a priest at home to 
sacrifice for him, but "we have an Advocate," the virtue 
of whose one oblation endureth for ever. St Paul saith, 
" They that serve the altar, &c. Even so the Lord hath 1 cor. ix. 
ordained, that they which preach the gospel should five of 
the gospel." Why doth he not rather say, "they that sacri- 
fice in the mass"! 


VII. There be manifold abuses and superstitions which N. Rid. 
are done in the mass and about the mass. Salt is conjured, conjuring 

of salt water 

that it may be a conjured salt for the salvation of the and bread, 
believers, to be a salvation and health, both of the mind 
and of the body, unto everlasting life, to all them that 
receive it. Water is conjured, that it may be made a 
conjured water, to chase away all the power of the enemy, 
to chase away devils, &c. Bread also hath this second 
blessing, that it may be health of mind and body to all 
them that receive it. If we do think that such strength 
is to be given to salt, water, and bread; or if we judge 

\y In the authorised version the passage is rendered "by himself 
purged our sins." Heb. i. 3. Ed.] 


that these things are able to receive any such virtue or 
efficacy, what leave we to Christ, our Saviour? But if we 
think not so, why then do we pray on this sort; foras- 
much as all prayer ought to be done in faith? 

H. I, at. As touching: the abuses of the mass, I refer you to a little 

A book . . . . 

against the book, the title whereof is Mistress Missa 1 , where she was justly 
i>y Dr Tur- condemned and banished under pain of burning. But the devil 


hath brought her in again, to bring us to burning. 


N. Rid. VIII. The priest turneth himself from the altar, and 

speaketh unto the people in an unknown tongue, saying, 
Dominus wbiscum, orate pro me, fratres et sorores, &c. ; 
that is, The Lord be with you, and pray for me, brothers 
and sisters: and turning from the people, he saith in Latin, 
" Let us pray, and the peace of the Lord be always with 
you." Also the people, or at least he which supplieth the 
place of the people, is compelled three times to say, " Amen," 
when he hath heard never a word of that the priest hath 
prayed or spoken, except these few words, Per omnia secula 

1 cor. xiv. seculorum. Whereas to the answering of " Amen," St Paul 
willeth the answerer, not only to hear, but also to understand, 
the things that were spoken. 


H. Lit. Yea, and Ite, missa est, must be sung to them with a 

great rolling up and down of notes, so bidding them go 
home fasting, when he hath eaten and drunken up all himself 
alone. A fellow, once rebuked for going away before mass 
was ended, answered, that it was not good manners to tarry 
till he were bidden go. After that he was blamed for 
not taking holy bread, he answered, that he was bidden go 
away before. 


N. Rtc. IX. The priest, when he lifteth up the Sacrament, he 

th to himself these words : Ilcec quotiescunt 
mei memoriam facietis ; that is, " As often 
[} See note D. at the end of the volume. Ed.] 

Words out murmureth to himself these words : Hcec quotiescunque fece- 
of the mass, ritis, in mei memoriam facietis ; that is, "As often as ye do 


these things, ye shall do it in remembrance of me." He 
seemeth by his words to speak unto the people, but he 
suffereth not his voice to be heard of the people. 


I cannot tell to whom the mass-man speaketh as he is H. Lat. 
a lifting, seeing that neither Christ bade him lift, neither 
is the people allowed to do those things: and as for that 
form of words, it is of their own framing. But the papists 
do all things well, be they never so much deceitful workers, 
taking upon them the vizor and title of the church, as it 
were sheep's clothing, as though they were the ministers of 
righteousness : whereas indeed they are the devil's ministers, 
whose end shall be according to their deeds. They roll 2 Cor - *•• 
out their Latin language by heart, but in so doing they 
"make the poor people of Christ altogether ignorant ; and, so 
much as in them lieth, they keep them back from that which 
St Paul calleth the best knowledge, which is, to know rightly i Cor. ii. 
the things which are given unto us of Christ. But this is 
the matter, so long as the priests speak Latin, they are 
thought of the people to be marvellous well learned. 


X. " Upon the which vouchsafe to look with thy mer- N- R">- 
ciful and cheerful countenance." What meaneth this prayer of the canon 

n ... of the mass. 

for the Sacrament itself, if it be, as they say, the body of 
Christ, if it be God and man ! How should the Father 
not look with a cheerful countenance upon his only well- 
beloved Son ? Why do not we rather pray for ourselves, 
that we, for his sake, may be looked upon of the Father 
with a cheerful countenance? 


To this let them answer, that so pray ; except, perad- H. Lat. 
venture, this prayer was used long before it was esteemed 
to be the body of Christ really and corporeally. And then 
this prayer maketh well to destroy the popish opinion, that it 
is not the opinion of the church, nor so ancient as they bab- 
ble. There be other prayers of the mass, which, peradventure, 
be of like effect; but I have forgotten all massing matters, 



and the mass itself I utterly detest and abhor: and so I 
confessed openly before our Diotrephes 1 and others. 

N. Kid. XI. " Command these to be carried by the hands of 

Another *; . - 

piece of the thy holy angel unto thy high altar, &c. If we understand 

canon of the J J a J o > 

mass. the body and blood of Christ, wherefore do we so soon 
desire the departure of them, before the receipt of the same ? 
And wherefore brought we them thither by making of them, 
to let him go so soon? 

Write again, I beseech you, fathers and brethren, most 
dearly beloved in Christ. Spare not my paper, for I look ere 
it be long that our common enemy will first assault me, and 
I wish, from the bottom of my heart, to be holpen not only 
by your prayers, but also by your wholesome counsels. 


H. Lat. 
Matt, xvii 

As Peter, when he said, "Let us make here three ta- 
bernacles," spake and wist not what; so, peradventure, our 
massmen cannot tell what they say, speaking so manifestly 
against themselves. So that the old proverb may very well be 
a Proverb, spoken of them, ' Liars had need to have good memories.' 

John iii. 
Heb. v. 

Against the Sacrifice of the Mass yet more, by Hugh Latimer. 

St John Baptist saith, "A man can receive nothing, 
except it be given him from heaven. 11 And St Paul, " No 
man taketh honour unto himself, but he that is called of 
God, as was Aaron, 11 &c. But to oifer Christ is a great and 
weighty matter; therefore ought no man to take it upon 
him without a manifest calling and commission. But where 
have our sacrificers so great an office committed unto them? 
Let them shew their commission, and then sacrifice. Per- 
adventure they will say, 'do this, 1 is all one to say, as 'offer 
this. 1 Then I ask, what was there done? What was de- 
monstrated by this pronoun, 'this? 1 Or, what did they see 
done, to whom these words, ' Do this, 1 were spoken ? If the 
whole action of Christ, if all that Christ did, be meant by 

[_ l Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester. En.] 


this Word, 'this,'' and 'do,' is nothing else but 'offer 1 ; 
then the whole action of Christ is to be offered of the priests, 
neither can they, but in so doing, satisfy the commandment. 
And so it should appear, that neither was there any sacrament 
instituted for the lay people, seeing that no such sacrifice 
hath been done at any time, or is to be done, of the lay 
people ; neither doth it avail much to eat or drink it, but 
only to offer it. Now the text hath not, that any part of 
Christ's action was to offer, forasmuch as the text doth not 
declare that Christ himself did then offer. And so the 
action of offering is not contained in this pronoun 'this. 1 

Go through every word. First, 'to take 1 is not to 
offer; 'to break 1 is not to offer; 'to give to the disciples' 
is not to offer, and so on. Worcester 2 said once to me, that 
to offer was contained in ' Benedicere? whieh is not true; 
Tor '•Benedicere' 1 is to give thanks. But he had often given 
thanks to God before, without any such offering. And if, 
in giving of thanks, Christ offered his body, seeing after he 
had given thanks, he said, ' This is my body ;' then in 
speaking those words, he did not change the bread into his 
body, forasmuch as he had offered, before those words were 
spoken. St Paul hath these words to the Hebrews, speak- 
ing of Christ : " that he might be merciful and a faithful Heb - "• 
high priest in things concerning God, for to purge the 
people's sins." So that it may appear, that the purging of 
our sins doth rather hang hereof, that Christ was the high- 
priest offering, than that he was offered ; saving in that he 
was of himself willingly offered. Then is it not necessary 
he should be offered of others; I will not say, a marvellous 
presumptuous act, that the same should be attempted of 
any without a manifest vocation; for it is no small matter 
to make an oblation. And yet I speak nothing, that it 
tendeth partly to the derogation of Christ's cross; besides 
also that the offerer ought to be of more excellency than 
the thing offered. 

The minister of the gospel hath rather to do for Christ 

with the people, than for the people with God, except it be 

in praying and giving of thanks; and so hath the people 

as well to do with God for the minister. The office of re- 

[ 2 Heath, Bishop of Worcester, afterwards Archbishop of York. Ed.] 


2 cor. v. conciliation standeth in preaching, not in offering. " We 
are messengers in the room of Christ," saith St Paul; he 
doth not say, "We offer unto God for the people." 

If Christ offered in his Supper, for whom, I pray you? 
For all. Then his latter oblation made on the cross cannot 
be thought to be done for all men, for it was not done for 
them for whom the oblation was made in the Supper ; except, 
peradventure, he offered twice for the self-same, and that 

1 Pet. v. should argue the unperfectness of the sacrifice. " Feed ye, 
as much as in you lieth, the flock of Christ :" nay, sacrifice 
rather for the flock of Christ, if the matter be as it is pre- 
tended; and it is marvel that Peter did forget so high an 
office, seeing in these days sacrificing is so much esteemed, 
preaching almost nothing at all. Who art thou, if thou 
ceasest to feed? A good catholic. But who art thou, if 
thou ceasest to sacrifice and say mass? At the least, an 
heretic ! From whence come these perverse judgments, ex- 
cept, peradventure, they think that in sacrificing they 
feed, and then what needeth a learned pastor? Seeing 
no man is so foolish, but he can soon learn to sacrifice 
and say mass. 

Paul wrote two epistles to Timothy, and one to Titus, 

Acts xx. two clergymen. He made also a long sermon ad clerum, 
but not one word of this mass sacrifice, which could not 
have been done, if there had been such a one, and so highly 
to be esteemed. 

The sinews I have read over of late the New Testament three or four 

of the mass 

Tund^th ^ mes deliberately ; yet can I not find there neither the popish 
Ne nt Testa " consecra tion, nor yet their transubstantiation, nor their ob- 
lation, nor their adoration, which be the very sinews and 
marrow-bones of the mass. Christ could not be offered, 
but propitiatorily ; yet now, Hocfacite, 'Do this,' must be 
as much as to say, ' Sacrifice and offer my body under a 
piece of bread,' available, but we cannot tell how much. 
Ah ! thieves, have ye robbed the realm with your sacrifice 
of lands and goods; and now cannot tell how much your 
sacrifice is available? As who say, it is so much avail- 
able, that the value cannot be expressed, nor too dear 
Isai. lxiv. bought with both lands and goods. " The eye hath not 
seen, and the ear hath not heard," &c. This is a fine- 


spun thread, a cunning piece of work, worthily qualified and 
blanched, be ye sure. But our nobility will not see : they 
will not have that religion that hath the cross annexed 
to it. 

All popish things (for the most part) are man's inven- 
tions ; whereas they ought to have the holy scripture for 
the only rule of faith. When Paul made allegation for him- 
self before Felix, the high deputy, he did not extend his 
faith beyond the word of God written : " Believing all things Acts xxiv - 
(saith he) which are written in the law and the prophets; 11 
making no mention of the rabbins. Moreover, " they have Luke xvi. 
Moses and the prophets, 11 saith Abraham in the parable ; 
not their persons, but their writings. Also, " Faith cometh Rom - x - 
by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 11 And again, 
" Blessed are they which hear the word of God. 11 " The f T uke xi -. 

_ , . . . . . Hieron. in 

things, which have not their authority of the scriptures, may Matt - xxiii - 
as easily be despised as allowed," saith St Hierome 1 . 

" Therefore, whether it be of Christ, or of his church, £ u % c °"t,- 

' ' ' lit. Pet. lib. 

or of any other manner of thing, which belongeth to our ilL cap - 6 - 
faith and life, I will not say if we, 11 saith St Augustine 2 , 
" which are not worthy to be compared to him that said ' If 
we/ but that also which forthwith he addeth, ' if an angel Gal - »■ 
from heaven shall teach anything, besides that ye have re- 
ceived (in the scriptures of the law and gospel,) accursed be 
he 1 . 11 Our Diotrephes with his papists are under this curse. Dfotrephes'' 
But how are the scriptures, say they, to be understanded? isdescribed# 
St Augustine answereth, giving this rule, " The circum- chri°t ct ii'b 
stances of the scriptures, 11 saith he, " lighten the scriptures ; '"• cap - 28 - 
and so one scripture doth expound anothei*, to a man that 
is studious, well willing, and often calling upon God in con- 
tinual prayer, who giveth his Holy Spirit to them that desire Luke xi- 

[} Hoc quia de Scripturis non habet auctoritatem, eadem facilitate 
contemnitur qua probatur. S. Hier. in Matth. xxiii. Op. Ed. Ben. 
Par. 1706, torn. iv. col. 112. Ed.] 

£ 3 Proinde, sive de Christo, sive de ejus ecclesia, sive de quacumque 
alia re quae pertinet ad fidem vitamque vestram, non dicam nos, nequa- 
quam comparandi ei qui dixit, 'Licet si nos;' sed omnino quod secutus 
adjecit, Si angelus de ccelo vobis annuntiaverit prseter quam quod in 
Scripturis legalibus et evangelicis accepistis, anathema sit. S. Aug. Cont. 
lit. Pet. lib. m. cap. 6. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. ix. col. 301. En.] 



2Pet.i. it of him 1 ." So that the scripture is not of any private in- 
terpretation at any time. For such a one, though he be a 
layman, fearing God, is much more fit to understand holy 
scripture than any arrogant and proud priest, yea, than the 
bishop himself, be he never so great and glistering in all his 
pontificals. But what is to be said of the Fathers! How 

Epist. xix. are they to be esteemed ? St Augustine answereth, giving this 
rule also ; that we should not therefore think it true, because 
they say so, do they never so much excel in holiness or learn- 
ing ; but if they be able to prove their saying by the canonical 
scriptures, or by good probable reason ; meaning that to be 
a probable reason, as I think, which doth orderly follow upon 
a right collection and gathering out of the scriptures 2 . 

Let the papists go with their long faith ; be you contented 
with the short faith of the saints, which is revealed unto us 
in the word of God written. Adieu to all popish fantasies. 
Amen. For one man, having the scripture and good reason 
for him, is more to be esteemed himself alone, than a thou- 
sand such as they, either gathered together, or succeeding 
one another. The Fathers have both herbs and weeds; and 
papists commonly gather the weeds and leave the herbs. And 
they speak many times more vehemently in sound of words, 
than they did mean indeed, or than they would have done, 
if they had foreseen what sophistical wranglers should have 
succeeded them. Now, the papists are given to brawl about 
words, to the maintainance of their own inventions, and rather 
follow the sound of words, than attain unto the meaning of 
the Fathers ; so that it is dangerous to trust them in citing 
the Fathers. 

In all ages the devil hath stirred up some light heads to 
esteem the Sacraments but lightly, as to be empty and bare 
signs ; whom the Fathers have resisted so fiercely, that in 
their fervour they seem, in sound of words, t o run too far the 
other way, and to give too much to the Sacraments, when 

\} The passage here quoted does not occur in the 28th chapter, 
though the sense of the chapter is the same. Ed.] 

Q 2 Alios autem ita lego, ut quantalibet sanctitate doctrinaque praepol- 
leant, non ideo verum putem, quia ipsi ita senserunt, sed quia mihi vel 
per illos auctores canonicos, vel probabili ratione, quod a vero non abhor- 
reat, persuadere potuerunt. Ordo Novus. lxxxiii. S. Aug. Op. Ed. 
Ben. Par. torn. ii. col. 190. Ed.] 


they did think more measurably. And therefore they are 
to be ready warily, with sound judgment. But our papists, 
(an they seem but a little sounding to their purpose,) they will 
outface, brace, and brag all men : — it must needs be, as they 
will have it. Therefore, there is no remedy (namely, now 
when they have the master-bowl in their hand, and rule the 
roast) but patience. Better it is to suffer what cruelty they 
will put unto us, than to incur God's high indignation. 

Wherefore, good my Lord, be of good cheer in the Lord, 
with due consideration what he requireth of you, and what 
he doth promise you. Our common enemy shall do no more 
than God will permit him. " God is faithful, which will not i Cor. x. 
suffer us to be tempted above our strength," &c. Be at a 
point, what ye will stand unto, stick unto that, and let them 
both say and do what they list. They can but kill the body, 
which otherwise is of itself mortal. Neither yet shall they 
do that when they list, but when God will suffer them, when 
the hour appointed is come. To use many words with them, it 
shall be but in vain, now that they have a bloody and deadly 
law prepared for them. But it is very requisite that ye give 
a reasonable account of your faith, if they will quietly hear 1 Pet. m. 
you ; else ye know, in a wicked place of judgment a man 
may keep silence after the example of Christ. Let them not Luke xxiii. 
deceive you with their sophistical sophisms and fallacies; 
you know that many false things have more appearance of 
truth, than things that be most true. Therefore Paul giveth 
us a watch-word, saying, " Let no man deceive you with Coi. ii. 
likeliness of speech." Neither is it requisite, that with the 
contentious you should follow strife of words, which tend to 
no edification, but to the subversion of the hearers, and the 2 Tim. ii. 
vain bragging and ostentation of the adversaries. 

Fear of death doth most persuade a great number. Be 
well ware of that argument ; for that persuaded Shaxton 3 , as 
many men thought, after that he had once made a good pro- 
fession openly before the judgment-seat. The flesh is weak ; 
but the willingness of the spirit shall refresh the weak- 
ness of the flesh. The number of the criers under the altar 
must needs be fulfilled. If we be segregated thereunto, happy Rev - vi - 

Q 3 Shaxton, Bishop of Salisbury, who resigned at the passing of the 
Six Articles, but afterwards acquiesced in them. Ed.] 



be we. That is the greatest promotion that God giveth in 
Philip, i. thi s wor i(j 5 to be such Philippians, " to whom it is given not 
only to believe, but also to suffer," &c. 

But who is able to do these things? Surely all our 
ability, all our sufficiency, is of God. He requireth and 
promiseth. Let us declare our obedience to his will, when 
it shall be requisite, in the time of trouble, yea, in the midst 
of the fire. When that number is fulfilled, which I ween 
shall be shortly, then have at the papists, when they shall 
uiiess. v. saVi "Peace, all things are safe;" when Christ shall come 
to keep his great parliament, to the redress of all things 
that be amiss. But he shall not come, as the papists feign 
him, to hide himself, and to play bo-peep, as it were, under 
a piece of bread ; but he shall come gloriously, to the terror 
and fear of all papists, but to the great consolation and 
iThess. iv. com f or t f all that will here suffer for him. "Comfort your- 
selves one another with these words." 

Lo ! sir, here have I blotted your paper vainly, and played 
the fool egregiously. But so I thought better, than not to 
do your request at this time. Pardon me, and pray for me : 
pray for me, I say, pray for me, I say. For I am some- 
time so fearful, that I would creep into a mouse-hole ; some- 
time God doth visit me again with his comfort. So he cometh 
and goeth, to teach me to feel and to know mine infirmity, to 
the intent to give thanks to him that is worthy, lest I should 
rob him of his duty, as many do, and almost all the world. 

Fare you well. 

What credence is to be given to papists, may appear by 
their racking, writhing, wringing, and monstrously injuring of 
God's holy scripture, as appeareth in the pope's law. But 
I dwell here now in a school of obliviousness. Fare you 

1 cor. xv. W ell, once again. And be you steadfast and immoveable in 
the Lord. Paul loved Timothy marvellously well, notwith- 

2Tim.i. standing he saith unto him, "Be thou partaker of the afflic- 
tions of the gospel :" and again, " Harden thyself to suffer 

Rev. ii. afflictions." "Be faithful unto death, and I will give thee 
a crown of life," saith the Lord. 







In writing again, ye have done me an unspeakable plea- n. Rid. 
sure; and I pray, that the Lord may requite it you in that 
day. For I have received great comfort at your words, but 
yet I am not so filled withal, but that I thirst much more 
now than before, to drink more of that cup of yours, wherein 
ye mingle unto me profitable with pleasant. I pray you, 
good father, let me have one draught more to comfort my 
stomach. For surely, except the Lord assist me with his 
gracious aid, in the time of his. service I know I shall play 
but the part of a white-livered knight. But truly my trust 
is in him, that in mine infirmity he shall try himself strong, 
and that he can make the coward in his cause to fight like 
a man. 

Sir, now I look daily when Diotrephes with his warriors, 
shall assault me; wherefore I pray you, good father, for that 
you are an old soldier and an expert warrior, and, God. 
knoweth, I am but a young soldier, and as yet of small' 
experience in these feats, help me, I pray you, to buckle 
my harness. And now I would have you to think that these 
darts are cast at my head of some one of Diotrephes 1 or 
Antonius 1 soldiers. 

The First Objection of the Antonian. 

All men marvel greatly, why you, after the liberty which Anton. 
you have granted unto you, more than the rest, do not go BJSCT ' '• 
to mass ; which is a thing, as you know, now much esteemed 
of all men, yea, and of the queen herself. 


The Answer. 


N.Rp. Because "no man, that layeth hand on the plough, and 

looketh back, is fit for the kingdom of God." And also for 
the self-same cause, why St Paul would not suffer Titus to 
be circumcised : which is, that the truth of the gospel might 

Gai. ii. remain with us uncorrupted. And again, " If I build again 
the things which I destroyed, I make myself a trespasser." 
This is also another cause, lest I should seem by outward 
fact to allow the thing, which, I am persuaded, is contrary 
to sound doctrine, and so should be a stumbling-stock unto 

Matt. xvm. j.j ae wea k. But, " Woe be unto him, by whom offence cometh! 
It were better for him, that a mill-stone were hanged about 
his neck, and he cast into the midst of the sea." 

H. Lat. 
John xv. 


Except the Lord help me, ye say. Truth it is. For 
" Without me, saith he, ye can do nothing ;" much less 
suffer death of our adversaries, through the bloody law now 
prepared against us. But it followeth, " If ye abide in me, 
and my words abide in you, ask what ye will, and it shall 
be done for you." What can be more comfortable? Sir, 
you make answer yourself so well, that I cannot better it. 
Sir, I begin now to smell what you mean : by travailing 
thus with me, you use me, as Bilney did once, when he con- 
verted me. Pretending as though he would be taught of me, 
he sought ways and means to teach me; and so do you. I 
thank you, therefore, most heartily. For indeed you minister 
armour unto me, whereas I was unarmed before and unpro- 
vided, saving that I give myself to prayer for my refuge. 

The Second Objection of the Antonian. 

Object, ii. What is it, then, that offendeth you so greatly in the 
mass, that ye will not vouchsafe once either to hear it or 
see it? And from whence cometh this new religion upon 
you? Have not you used in times past to say masses your- 


The Answer. 

I confess unto you my fault and ignorance : but know n. Rid. 
you, that for these matters I have done open penance long 
ago, both at Paul's Cross, and also openly in the pulpit at 
Cambridge; and, I trust, God hath forgiven me this mine 
offence, for I did it upon ignorance. But if ye be desirous i Tim. i. 
to know, and will vouchsafe to hear what things do offend 
me in the mass, I will rehearse unto you those things, which 
be most clear, and seem to repugn most manifestly against 
Crod's word. And they be these. 

The strange tongue : the want of the shewing of the Matt. xxvi. 
Lord's death : the breaking of the Lord's commandment of 
having a communion: the Sacrament is not communicated 
to all under both kinds, according to the word of the Lord : 
the sign is servilely worshipped, for the thing signified : 
Christ's passion is injured, forasmuch as this mass sacrifice 
is affirmed to remain for the purging of sins. To be short, 
the manifold superstitions and trifling fondness, which are 
in the mass and about the same. 


Better a few things well pondered, than to trouble the H. Lat. 
memory with too much. You shall prevail more with pray- 
ing, than with studying, though mixture be best ; for so one 
shall alleviate the tediousness of the other. I intend not to 
contend much with them in words, after a reasonable account 
of my faith given ; for it shall be but in vain. * They will 
say as their fathers said, when they have no more to say, 
" We , have a law, and by our law he ought to die." " Be Joim xix. 
ye steadfast and unmoveable," saith St Paul. And again, icor.xv. 
persistito, "Stand fast." And how oft is this repeated, " If j ^™- 
ye abide, if ye abide," &c. But we shall be called obstinate, CoU *■ 
sturdy, ignorant, heady, and what not. So that a man hath 
need of much patience, having to do with such men. 

The Third Objection of the Antonian. 

But you know how great a crime it is, to separate your- QbTe t 
self from the communion or fellowship of the church, and to m - 


make a schism or division. You have been reported to have 
hated the sect of the Anabaptists, and always to have impugned 
the same. Moreover, this was the pernicious error of Novatus, 
and of the heretics called Oathari, that they would not com- 
municate with the church. 

The Answer. 

N. Rie. J know that the unity of the church is to be retained 

by all means, and the same to be necessary to salvation. 
But I do not take the mass, as it is at this day, for the 
communion of the church, but for a popish device, whereby 
both the commandment and institution of our Saviour Christ, 
for the oft frequenting of the remembrance of his death, is 
eluded, and the people of God are miserably deluded. The 
sect of the Anabaptists, and the heresy of the Novatians, 
ought of right to be condemned; forasmuch as, without 
any just or necessary cause, they wickedly separated them- 
selves from the communion of the congregation. For they 
did not allege that the Sacraments were unduly ministered; 
but turning away their eyes from themselves, wherewith, 
according to St Paul's rule, they ought to examine them- 
selves, and casting their eyes ever upon others, either ministers 
or communicants with them, they always reproved some thing, 
for the which they abstained from the communion, as from 

Cor. xi. an unholy thing. 


H. Lat. I remember, that Calvin beginneth to confute the Inte- 

Hiiarius rim after this sort, with this saying of Hilary, " The name 

ent. ' m ~ of peace is beautiful, and the opinion of unity is fair ; but who 

doubteth that to be the true and only peace of the church, 

which is Christ's 1 !" I would you had that little book, 

there should you see how much is to be given to unity. 

St Paul, when he requireth unity, he joineth straight withal, 

Rom. xv. secundum Jesum Christum, "according to Jesus Christ," no 

Q 1 Speciosum quidem nomen est pacis, et pulchra est opinio unitatis : 
sed quis ambigat earn solam ecclesise atque Evangeliorum unitam pacem 
esse, quae Christi est ? S. Hil. Op. Bas. 1550. p. 294. Ed.] 


further. Diotrephes now of late did ever harp upon Unity, 
Unity. "Yea, Sir," (quoth I), "but in verity, not in popery. 
Better is a diversity than an unity in popery." I had nothing 
again but scornful jeers, with commandment to the Tower. 

The Fourth Objection of the Antonian. 

But admit there be in the mass that peradventure might Anton. 
be amended, or at least made better : yea, seeing you will iv. 
have it so, admit there be a fault; if you do not consent 
thereto, why do you trouble yourself in vain? Do not you 
know, both by Cyprian and Augustine, that communion ofcyp-Ub.i. 
Sacraments doth not defile a man, but consent of deeds 2 ? Aug. ep. 152. 

The Answer. 


If it were any one trifling ceremony, or if it were some N. Rid. 
one thing of itself indifferent, although I would wish nothing 
should be done in the church which doth not edify the 
same, yet for the continuance of the common quietness I 
could be content to bear it. But forasmuch as things done 
in the mass tend openly to the overthrow of Christ's insti- 
tution, I judge that by no means, either in word or deed, I 
ought to consent unto it. As for that which is objected 
out of the Fathers, I acknowledge it to be well spoken, if 
it be well understood. But it is meant of them which sup- 
pose they are defiled, if any secret vice be either in the 
ministers or in them that communicate with them; and is 
not meant of them which do abhor superstition and wicked 
traditions of men, and will not suffer the same to be thrust 

[ 2 S. Cyp. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1726, Ep. lii. p. 66. The whole epistle, 
which is too long for quotation, infers the truth of this proposition, but it 
is no where laid down in it, in express terms like those of St Augustine. 
The latter in commenting on the Epistle of Cyprian uses the words 
" discessit ab eis dissimilitudine morum, non divisione sacramentorum. 
Cont. Gaudent. lib. 11. cap. 9. 

Quia communio malobum non maculat aliquem participatione 
sacramentorum, sed consensione factorum. S. Aug. Epist. ad popu- 
lum factionis Donatistante. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. ii. Ordo novus 
Epist. cxli. col. 458. Ed.] 


upon themselves or upon the church instead of God's word 
and the truth of the gospel. 


H. Lat. The very marrow-bones of the mass are altogether de- 

testable, and therefore by no means to be borne withal, so 
that, of necessity, the mending of it is to abolish it for ever. 
For if you take away oblation and adoration, which do 
hang upon consecration and transubstantiation, the most pa- 
pists of them all will not set a button by the mass, as a 
thing which they esteem not, but for the gain that followeth 
thereon. For if the English Communion, which of late was 
used, were as gainful to them as the mass hath been here- 
tofore, they would strive no more for their mass. From 
thence groweth the grief. 

The Fifth Objection of the Antonian. 

Anton. Consider into what dangers you cast yourself, if you forsake 

" the church. And you cannot but forsake it, if you refuse 
to go to mass. For the mass is the sacrament of unity : 
without the ark there is no salvation. The church is the 
ark, and Peter's ship. Ye know this saying well enough; 
Aug;.Lib.iv. " He shall not have God to be his father, which acknow- 
cap. 13.' ledgeth not the church to be his mother 1 ." Moreover, "With- 
out the church, saith St Augustine, be the life never so well 
spent, it shall not inherit the kingdom of heaven 2 ." 

The Ansvjer. 


N. Rid. The holy catholic or universal church, which is the com- 

lTim. iii. rnunion of saints, the house of God, the city of God, the 

Apoc. xxi. . 

Eph.i. spouse of Christ, the body of Christ, the pillar and stay of 

P Nee habebit Deum Patrem, qui Ecclesiam noluerit habere ma- 
trem. S. Aug. De Symb. lib. iv. cap. 13. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. 
vi. col. 582. Ed.] 

(j 2 Quisquis ergo ab hac catholicaEcclesiafuerit separatus, quantum - 
libet laudabiliter se vivere existimet, hoc solo scelere, quod a Christi 
imitate disjunctus est, non habebit vitam. S, Aug. Epist. cxli. ad pop. 
fact. Don. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. ii. col. 458. Ed.] 


the truth; this church I believe, according to the Creed: 

this church I do reverence and honour in the Lord. But 

the rule of this church is the word of God, according to 

which rule we go forward unto life. " And as many as walk Gai. vi. 

according to this rule," I say with St Paul, " peace be upon 

them and upon Israel, which pertaineth unto God.' 1 The guide 

of this church is the Holy Ghost. The marks whereby this 

church is known unto me in this dark world, and in the midst 

of this crooked and froward generation, are these — the sin- vuiip. a. 

cere preaching of God's word; the due administration of the 

sacraments ; charity ; and faithful observing of ecclesiastical 

discipline according to the word of God. And that church 

or congregation, which is garnished with these marks, is in 

very deed that heavenly Jerusalem, which consisteth of those Rev. xxi. 

that be born from above. This is the mother of us all : J°hn m. 

and, by God's grace, I will live and die the child of this 

church. Forth of this (I grant) there is no salvation, and, 

I suppose, the residue of the places objected are rightly to 

be understood of this church only. " In times past," (saith l n oveje 

J r 7 v imperfecto 

Chrysostom) "there were many ways to know the church Hom. 49, on 

of Christ, that is to say, by good life, by miracles, by chastity, 

by doctrine, by ministering the sacraments. But from that 

time that heresies did take hold of the churches, it is only 

known by the scriptures which is the true church. They 

have all things in outward show, which the true church 

hath in truth. They have temples like unto ours," &c. And 

in the end concludeth, " Wherefore only by the Scriptures 

do we know which is the true church." 

To that which they say, " The mass is the sacrament of 
unity ; " I answer, The bread which we break, according to the 
institution of the Lord, is the sacrament of the unity of Christ's 
mystical body. " For we, being many, are. one bread and l Cor - x - 
one body, forasmuch as we all are partakers of one bread." 
But in the mass the Lord's institution is not observed : 
for we be not all partakers of one bread, but one devour- 
eth all, &c. So that, as it is used, it may seem a sacrament 
of singularity, and of a certain special privilege for one sect 
of people, whereby they may be discerned from the rest, 
rather than a sacrament of unity, wherein our knitting to- 
gether in one is represented. 



H. Lat. 
2 Cor. vi. 

1 Tim. vi. 

1 Cor. ii. 


Yea, what fellowship hath Christ with Antichrist ? There- 
fore is it not lawful to bear the yoke with papists. " Come 
forth from among them, and separate yourselves from them, 
saith the Lord." It is one thing to be the church indeed, 
another thing to counterfeit the church. Would God, it 
were well known what is the forsaking of the church ! In 
the king's days that dead is, who was the church of England ? 
The king and his fautors; or massmongers in corners? If 
the king and the fautors of his proceedings ; why be not we 
now the church, abiding in the same proceedings? If clan- 
cularly massmongers might be of the church, and yet contrary 
the king's proceedings ; why may not we as well be of the 
church, contrarying the queen's proceedings? 

Not all that be covered with the title of the church, are 
the church indeed. " Separate thyself from them that are 
such," saith St Paul. From whom? The text hath before, 
" If any man follow other doctrine, &c. he is puffed up and 
knoweth nothing," &c. Weigh the whole text, that ye 
may perceive what is the fruit of contentious disputations. 
But wherefore are such men said to know nothing, when 
they know so many things? You know the old verses, 

Hoc est nescire, sine Christo plurima scire; 

Si Christum bene scis, satis est, si ccetera nescis. 

That is, " This is to be ignorant ; to know many things 
without Christ. If thou knowest Christ well, thou knowest 
enough, though thou know no more." Therefore would St 
Paul know nothing but Jesus Christ crucified, &c. As many 
as are papists and massmongers, they may well be said to 
know nothing. For they know not Christ : forasmuch as 
in their massing they take much away from the benefit and 
merit of Christ. 

The Sixth Objection of the Antoni-an. 
Anton. That church which you have described unto me is in- 


VI. visible, but Christ's church is visible and known. For else 

Matt, xviii. why would Christ have said, Die ecclesice, " Tell it unto the 

church?" For he had commanded in vain to go unto the 

church, if a man cannot tell which is it. 


The Answer. 


The church which I have described is visible ; it hath n. Rid. 
members, which may be seen, and also I have before de- 
clared by what marks and tokens it may be known. But if 
either our eyes are so dazzled that we cannot see, or that 
Satan hath brought such darkness into the world that it is 
hard to discern the true church; that is not the fault of 
the church, but either of our blindness, or of Satan's dark- 
ness. But yet in this most deep darkness there is one 
most clear candle, which, of itself alone, is able to put away 
all darkness. " Thy word is a candle unto my feet, and a p s . cxix. 
light unto my steps." 

The Seventh Objection of the Antonian. 
The church of Christ is a catholic or universal church, Antov. 


dispersed throughout the whole world. This church is the VII. 
great house of God. In this are good men and evil 
mingled together, goats and sheep, corn and chaff. It is Matt. xxv. 
the net, which gathereth all kind of fishes. This church 
cannot err, because Christ hath promised it his spirit, which 
shall lead it into all truth, and that the gates of hell shall Matt. xvi. 
not prevail against it; that he will be with it unto the end Matt, xxviii. 
of the world. Whatsoever it shall loose or bind upon earth, 
shall be ratified in heaven, &c. This church is the pillar 
and stay of the truth; this is it for the which St Augustine 1 c^j™j ii1- 
saith, he believeth the gospel. But this universal church l^enf""" 
alloweth the mass, because the more part of the same cap - 5 - 
alloweth it. Therefore, &c. 

The Answer. 


I grant that the name of the church is taken after three n. Ri D . 
divers manners in the scripture. 

[} Ego vero evangelio non crederem, nisi me catholics Ecclesiae 
commovcret auctoritas. S. Aug. cont. Ep. Fund. cap. 5. Op. Ed. Ben. 
Par. 1685, torn. viii. col. 154. Ed.] 



Sometime for the whole multitude of them which profess 
the name of Christ, of the which they are also named chris- 

Rom. ii. ix. tj ans B ut5 as st Paul saith of the Jew, " Not every one is 
a Jew, that is a Jew outwardly, &c. Neither yet all that 
be of Israel are counted the seed." Even so, not every one 
which is a christian outwardly, is a christian indeed. For 
"If any man have not the Spirit of Christ, the same is 
none of his." Therefore that church, which is his body, and 

i Pet. ii. f w hich Christ is the head, standeth only of living stones 
and true christians, not only outwardly in name and title, 
but inwardly in heart and in truth. 

But forasmuch as this church, which is the second taking 
of the church, as touching the outward fellowship, is con- 
tained within that great house, and hath with the same 
outward society of the sacraments and ministry of the word ; 
many things are spoken of that universal church (which St 

doc ? t' Christ Augustine 1 calleth the mingled church) which cannot truly 

]«>. ui. cap. b e understood, but only of that purer part of the church. 
So that the rule of Tyconius concerning the mingled church 
may here well take place ; when there is attributed unto the 
whole church that which cannot agree unto the same, but 
by reason of the one part thereof; that is, either for the 
multitude of good men, which is the church indeed ; or for 
the multitude of evil men, which is the malignant church 
ev ' n " and synagogue of Satan. 

And \this\ is also the third taking of the church, of 
the which, although there be seldomer mention in the scrip- 
tures in that signification, yet in the world, even in the 
most famous assemblies of Christendom, this church hath 
borne the greatest swing. This distinction presupposed of 
the three sorts of churches, it is an easy matter, by a figure 
called synedoche, to give to the mingled and universal 

[} Regula Secunda Tichonii — " Secunda est de Domini corpore bipar- 
tite, quod k quidem non ita debuit appellari ; non enim re vera Domini 
corpus est quod cum illo non erit in sternum; sed dicendum fuit, de 
Domini corpore vero atque permixto, aut vero atque simulato, vel 
quid aliud ; quia non solum in sternum, verum etiam nunc hypocritse 
non cum illo esse dicendi sunt, quamvis in ejus esse videantur Eccle- 
sia, unde poterat ista regula et sic appellari, ut diceretur de permixta 
Ecclesia. S. Aug. de doct. Christ, lib. m. cap. 32. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, 
torn. iii. p. 1, col. 58. Ed.] 



church that which cannot truly be understood but only of 
the one part thereof. 

But if any man will stiffly affirm, that universality doth 
so pertain unto the church, that whatsoever Christ hath 
promised to the church, it must needs be understanded of that, 
I would gladly know of the same man where that universal 
church was, in the times of the patriarchs and prophets, of 
Noah, Abraham, and Moses (at such times as the people 
would have stoned him,) of Elias, of Jeremy, — in the time E xo<i. xvii. 

' . 1 Kings xix. 

of Christ, and the dispersion of the apostles, — in the time J? r - xx™. 
of Arius, when Constantius was emperor, and Felix, bishop ^ ist - " t"- 
of Rome, succeeded Liberius? 

It is worthy to be noted, that Lyra writeth upon Matthew: ^ a r t j in 
" The church, saith he, doth not stand in men, by reason of 
their power or dignity, whether it be ecclesiastical or secular. 
For many princes and popes and other inferiors have been 
found to have fallen away from God 3 ." Therefore the church 
consisteth in those persons in whom is true knowledge and 
confession of the faith and of the truth. Evil men, (as it Sl^ifcap 
is in a gloss of the Decrees) are in the church in name, Eccles - 
and not in deed 3 . And St Augustine, Contra Cresconium Lil >- *■ cap. 
grammaticum 4 , saith, " Whosoever is afraid to be deceived 
by the darkness of this question, let him ask counsel at the 
same church of it, which church the scripture doth point 
out without any doubtfulness." All my notes which I have 
written and gathered out of such authors as I have read in 
this matter and such like, are come into the hands of such 
as will not let me have the least of all my written books. 
Wherein I am enforced to complain of them unto God: 
for they spoil me of all my labours which I have taken in 

£ 2 Ecclesia non consistit in hominibus, ratione potestatis vel digni- 
tatis ecclesiastics vel secularis, quia multi principes, et summi ponti- 
fices et alii inferiores inventi sunt apostasse a fide. Bibl. Lat. cum gloss. 
ord. et Nic. de Lyra. Ed. Bas. 1502. fol. 52. in Matth. xvi. cap. Ed.] 

P Vel distingue, nam sunt quidam in Ecclesia, nomine et re, ut 
boni Catholici, quidam nomine nee re, ut praecisi, quidam nomine tan- 
tum — quidam re tantum. Decret. 2 Pars Causa xxxiii. Qusest. 3. de 
Penit. dist. i. cap. 70. Decret. Grat. Ed. Par. 1585, col. 2092. Ed.] 

P S. Aug. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn ix. col. 407. Quisquis falli 
metuit, hujus obscuritate qusestionis, eamdem ecclesiam de ilia consulat 
quam sine ulla ambiguitate Sancta Scriptura demonstrate Ed.] 

1 Cor. ii. 


my study these many years. My memory was never good: 
for help whereof I have used for the most part to gather 
out notes of my reading, and so to place them, that thereby 
I might have had the use of them, when the time required. 
But who knoweth whether this he Gods will that I should 
be thus ordered, and spoiled of the poor learning I had (as 
methought) in store, to the intent that I, now destitute of 
that, should from henceforth learn only to know, with Paul, 
Christ and him crucified? The Lord grant me herein to be 
a good young scholar, and to learn this lesson so well, that 
neither death nor life, wealth nor woe, &c. make me ever 
to forget that. Amen. Amen. 


H. Lat. I have no more to say in this matter ; for you yourself 

have said all that is to be said. That same vehement say- 
ing of St Augustine, " I would not believe the gospel, &c." 
was wont to trouble many men : as I remember I have read 

Mei. do Ecc. jf. we u qualified of Philip Melancthon, but my memory is 
altogether slippery. This it is in effect. The church is not 
a judge, but a witness 1 . There were in his time that lightly 
esteemed the testimony of the church, and the outward ministry 
of preaching, and rejected the outward word itself, sticking 
only to their inward revelations. Such rash contempt of the 
word provoked and drove St Augustine into that excessive vehe- 
mence. In the which, after the bare sound of the words, he 

Q 1 Quod Augusthvus ait, " Evangelio non crederera nisi me Catholics 
Ecclesise commoveret auctoritas;" hsec verba non hoc volunt, quod 
Ecclesise auctoritas major sit quam evangelii seu scripturae, aut quod 
Ecclesia possit evangelium abolere. Sed quum fides affirmet aliquid 
certi de voluntate Dei, necesse est earn non ab humana auctoritate 
pendere, sicut et Johannes inquit, Deum nemo vidit unquam, Unige- 
nitus filius qui est in sinu Patris, ille enarravit. Ecclesia tantum 
testatur hanc scripturam divinitus acceptam esse, sicut nuncius testatur 
se mandata Domini perferre. Fides igitur quae affirmat de voluntate 
Dei pendet ex ipso verbo Dei, etiamsi ad cognitionem verbi invitatur 
Ecclesise testimonio, sicut Judex non credit narrationi, nisi propter 
testes. Nee tamen sequitur quod testes mutare narrationem possint: 
item nuncio credinius, nee sequitur quod nuncius mutare mandata 
possit. Ita Ecclesise credimus tanquam testi aut nuncio. Melanct. 
Op. Ed. Wit. 1601, torn. iv. p. 502. Disputatio Secunda de Eccles. 
cap. 17—22. Ed.] 


might seem to such as do not attain unto his meaning, that 
he preferred the church far before the gospel, and that the 
church hath a free authority over the same. But that godly 
man never thought so. It were a saying worthy to be brought 
forth against the Anabaptists, which think the open ministry 
to be a thing not necessary, if they anything esteemed such 
testimonies. I would not stick to affirm, that the more part 
of the great house, that is to say, of the whole universal 
church, may easily err. And again, I would not stick to 
affirm, that it is one thing to be gathered together in the 
name of Christ, and another thing to come together with a 
mass of the Holy Ghost going before 2 . For in the first Christ 
ruleth; in the latter, the devil beareth the swing, and how 
then can anything be good that they go about? From this 
latter shall our six articles come forth again into the light, 
'they themselves being very darkness. 

But it is demanded, whether the sounder or better part a question. 
of the catholic church may be seen of men or no? St Paul 
saith, " The Lord knoweth them that are his." What manner Answer. 
of speaking is this, in commendation of the Lord, if we 
know as well as he, who are his? "Well, thus is the text, 
"The sure foundation of God standeth still, and hath this 
seal: the Lord knoweth them that are his. And let every 
man that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity." 
Now, how many are there of the whole catholic church of 
England which depart from iniquity? How many of the 
noblemen, how many of the bishops or clergy, how many of 
the rich men or merchants, how many of the queen's council- 
lors, yea, how many of the, whole realm? In how small 
room then, I pray you, is the true church within the realm 
of England ? And where is it ? And in what state ? I had 
a conceit of mine own, well grounded (as they say) when I 
began, but now it is fallen by the way. 

The Eighth Objection of the Antmian. 

General councils represent the universal church, and have Anton. 

this promise of Christ: "Where two or three be gathered viii? T ' 

together in my name, there am I in the midst of them." Matt - xviiii 

[ 2 See note E. at the end of the volume. Ed.] 



If Clirist will be present with two or three, then much more 
where there is so great a multitude, &c. But in general 
councils mass hath been approved and used. Therefore, &c. 

The Answer. 

N. Rid. Of the universal church, which is mingled of good and 

bad, thus I think : Whensoever they which be chief in it, 
which rule and govern the same, and to whom the rest of 
the whole mystical body of Christ doth obey, are the lively 
members of Christ, and walk after the guiding and rule of 
his word, and go before the flock towards everlasting life; 
then undoubtedly councils, gathered together of such guides 
and pastors of the christian flock, do indeed represent the 
universal church; and, being so gathered in the name of 
Christ, they have a promise of the gift and guiding of his 
Spirit into all truth. But that any such council hath at any 
time allowed the mass, such a one as ours was of late, in 
a strange tongue, and stuffed with so many absurdities, errors, 
and superstitions ; , that I utterly deny, and I affirm it to be 
impossible. For like as there is no agreement between light 

2 cor. vi. and darkness, between Christ and Belial; so surely super- 
stition and the sincere religion of Christ, will-worship and 

joh. iv. the pure worshipping of God, such as Cod requireth of 
his, that is, in spirit and truth, can never agree together. 
But ye will say, where so great a company is gathered 
together, it is not credible, but there be two or three 
gathered in the name of Christ. I answer, if there be one 
hundred good, and two hundred bad, forasmuch as the de- 
crees and ordinances are pronounced according to the greater 
number of the multitude of voices, what can the lesser 
number of voices avail ? It is a known thing, and a com- 

a proverb. mon p rover b ; "Oftentimes the greater part overcometh the 


SiVhicon -^ S * ouc h^ n g general councils, at this present I have no 

th an En°iish more to sa y' n y ou ^ ave sa ^* ^ n ty ■"■ re ^ er y° u to y° ur 

^laments own experience, to think of our country parliaments and 
cations. convocations, how and what ye have there seen and heard. 



The more part in my time did bring forth the six articles ; for 
then the king would so have it, being seduced of certain. 
Afterward the more part did repeal the same, our good 
Josiah willing to have it so. The same articles now again, 
alas ! another greater, but worse part hath restored. what 
an uncertainty is this ! But after this sort most eommonly 
are man's proceedings. God be merciful unto us i Who 
shall deliver us from such torments of mind ? Therefore is Death the 

• best phy- 

death the best physician, but unto the faithful, whom she f^"* tbe 
together and at once delivereth from all griefs.— You must 
think this written upon this occasion, because you would needs 
have your paper blotted. 

The Ninth Objection of the Antonian. 
If the matter should go thus, that in general councils Anton. 


men shall not stand to the more number of the whole mul-]X. 
titude (I "mean of them which ought to give voices), then 
should no certain rule be left unto the church, by the which 
controversies in weighty matters might be determined. But 
it is not to be believed, that Christ would leave his church 
destitute of so necessary a help and safeguard. 

The Answer. 


Christ, who is the most loving spouse of his espoused gp^ 15 * 
the church, who also gave himself for it, that he might 
sanctify it unto himself, did give unto it abundantly all- things 
which are necessary to salvation, but yet so, that the church 
should declare itself obedient unto him in all things, and 
keep itself within the bounds of his commandments, and 
further not to seek any thing; which he teacheth not, as 
necessary unto salvation. Now further, for determination 
of all controversies in Christ's religion, Christ himself hath 
left unto the church not only Moses and the prophets, whom Luke xvi - 
he willeth his church in all doubts to go unto and ask counsel 
at ; but also the Gospels and the rest of the body of the 
New Testament. In the which, whatsoever is hard in Moses Isai - viii - 
and the prophets, whatsoever is necessary to be known unto 
salvation, is revealed and opened. 




Rom. x. 

So that now we have no need to say, Who shall climb 
into heaven, or who shall go down into the depth, to tell what 
is needful to be done? Christ hath done both, and hath 
commended unto us the word of faith, which also is abun- 
dantly declared unto us in his word written; so that here- 
after, if we walk earnestly in this way, to the searching out 
of the truth, it is not to be doubted but through the cer- 
tain benefit of Christ's Spirit, which he hath promised unto 

Lukexi. hig 5 we mav fj nc | {^ an( j obtain everlasting life. "Should men 

isai.vm. ag k. counse i f the <j ea( j f or the ii v i n gf sa ith Esay. "Let 
them go rather to the law and to the testimony ," &c. Christ 
sendeth them that be desirous to know the truth unto the 

Joh.v. scriptures, saying, "Search the scriptures." I remember a 
like thing well spoken by Hierome, "Ignorance of the scrip- 
tures is the mother and cause of all errors." And in another 
place, as I remember in the same author, "The knowledge 
of the scriptures is the food of everlasting life." But now 
methinketh I enter into a very broad sea, in that I begin 
to shew, either out of the scriptures themselves, or out of 
the ancient writers, how much the holy scripture is of force 
to teach the truth of our religion. But this is it that I am 
now about, that Christ would have the church, his spouse, 
in all doubts to ask counsel at the word of his Father, writ- 
ten, and faithfully left and commended unto it in both Tes- 
taments, the Old and the New. Neither do we read that 
Christ in any place hath laid so great a burden upon the 
members of his spouse, that he hath commanded them to 

Hom. xv. g t the universal church. " Whatsoever things are writ- 
ten," saith Paul, "are written for our learning:" and it is 

Epfc.iv. true that "Christ gave unto his church some apostles, some 
prophets, some evangelists, some shepherds and teachers, to 
the edifying of the saints, till we all come to the unity of 
faith," &c. But that all men should meet together, out 
of all parts of the world, to define of the articles of our 
faith, I neither find it commanded of Christ, nor written in 
the word of God. 


H. Lat. There is a diversity betwixt things pertaining to God or 

faith, and politic and civil matters. For in the first we must 


stand only to the scriptures, which are able to make us all 
perfect and instructed unto salvation, if they be well under- 2 Tim. ju. 
stood. And they offer themselves to be well understood only 
to them which have good wills, and give themselves to study 
and prayer. Neither are there any men less apt to understand 
them than the prudent and wise men of the world. 

But in the other, that is, in civil or politic matters, often- 
times the magistrates do tolerate a less evil for avoiding of 
a greater ; as they which have this saying oft in their mouths, 
"Better an inconvenience than a mischief:'" and, "It is the 
property of a wise man," saith one, " to dissemble many things, 
and he that cannot dissemble cannot rule. - " In which sayings 
they bewray themselves, that they do not earnestly weigh what 
is just, what is not. Wherefore, forasmuch as man's laws, 
if it be but in this respect only, that they be devised by men, 
are not able to bring any thing to perfection, but are enforced 
of necessity to suffer many things out of square, and are com- 
pelled sometime to wink at the worst things; seeing they 
know not how to maintain the common peace and quiet; 
otherwise they do ordain that the more part shall take place. 
You know what these kinds of speeches mean, " I speak after f ^"'iii 
the manner of men." — " Ye walk after the manner of men." — 5 0m - »?• 

Ps. CXV1. 

" All men are liars." And that of St Augustine, " If ve live Lib. i. Re- 

p 1 i> <■ i -ii p /^ n„ tract.cap.10*. 

atter man s reason, ye do not live alter the will 01 (rod 1 . 

The Tenth Objection of the Antonian. 

If ye say that councils have sometimes erred, or may err, Anton. 
how then should we believe the catholic church? For the 
councils are gathered by the authority of the catholic church. 

The Answer. 


From " may be," to " be indeed," is no good argument ; N. Rid. 
but from "being," to "may be," no man doubteth but it is 

I 1 S. Aug. Retract, lib. 1. cap. 10. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn, i. 
col. 16. In the 9th and 10th chapters the sense of these words may 
frequently be inferred, but the words themselves do not occur. Ed>3 


socratis a most sure argument. ; But now that councils have some- 

Ecc Hist ■ • 

lib.ii. time erred it is manifest. How many councils were there in 

the east part of the world, which condemned the. Nicene 

council? And all those which would not forsake the same, 

they called by a slanderous name (as they thought) ' Ho- 

socratis mousians. 1 Were not Athanasius, Chrysostom, Cyril, Eu-- 

lib.i. cap. s tachius, men very well learned and of godly life, banished, 

24 et 32. ' J i ■ w J 

Theod.iib.v. an( j condemned as famous heretics, and that by wicked 

cap. 34. ' ^ . 

objection. 00 uncils . How many things are there in the canons and 
constitutions of the councils, which the papists themselves 
do much mislike. 

; But here, peradventure, one man will say unto me, "We. 
will grant you this in provincial councils, or councils of some 
one nation, that they may sometimes err, forasmuch as they 
do not represent the universal church: but it is not to be 
believed, that the general and full councils have erred at any 
time." Here, if I had my books of the councils, or rather 
such* notes as I have gathered out of those books, I could bring 

Answer. something which should serve for this purpose. But now 
seeing I have them not, I will recite one place only out of 
St Augustine, which (in my judgment) may suffice in this 

51 Bwiat?" matter > instead of many 1 . " Who knoweth not," saith he, 

iib.ii.cap.3. "that- the holy Scripture is so set before us, that it is not 
lawful to doubt of it, and that the letters of bishops may 
be reproved by other wiser men's words, and by councils; 
and that the councils themselves, which are gathered by 

\} Quis autem nesciat sanctam scripturam canonical)!, tam veteris 
quam novi Testament^ certis suis terminis contineri, eamque omni- 
bus posterioribus episcoporum Uteris ita prjeponi, ut de illo omnino 
dubitari et disceptari non possit, utrum verum vel utrum rectum sit, 
quidquid in ea scrip turn esse constiterit; episcoporum autem literas, 
qusE post confirmatum canonem vel scripts sunt vel scribuntur, et 
per sermonem forte sapientiorem cujuslibet in ea re peritioris, et per 
aliorum episcoporum graviorem auctoritatem doctioremque prudentiam, 
et per concilia licere reprehendi, si quid in eis forte a veritate devia- 
tum est; et ipsa concilia, quse per singulas regiones vel provincias 
fiunt, plenariomm conciiiorum auctoritati, quae fiunt ex universo orbe 
Christiano, sine ullis ambagibus cedere; ipsaque plenaria saepe priora 
I>osterioribus emendari, cum aliquo experimento rerum aperitur quod 
clausula evat, et cognoscitur quod latebat ? S. Aug. Op. Ed. Ben. Par* 
1G85, torn. ix. col. 93. Ed.] 


provinces and countries, do give place to the authority of 
the general and full councils ; and that the former general 
councils are amended by the latter, when as by some ex-> 
perience of things, either that which was shut up is opened, 
or that which was hid is known V Thus much of Au- 
gustine. But I will plead with our Antonian upon matter 
confessed here with us, whenas papistry reigned. I pray 
you, how doth that book, which was called " The Bishop's ^, op>i& 
Book 2 ," made in the time of king Henry VIII, whereof Book - 
the bishop of Winchester is thought to be either the first 
father or chief gatherer, how doth it (I say) sharply re- 
prove the Florentine council 3 , in which was decreed the 
supremacy of the bishop of Rome, and that, with the con- 
sent of the emperor of Constantinople and f of the Gre- 
cians? So that, in those days, our learned ancient fathers 
and bishops of England did not stick to affirm, that a 
general council might err. 

But methinketh I hear another man despising all that 
I have brought forth, and saying, " These which you have 
called councils, are not worthy to be called councils, but 
rather assemblies and conventicles of heretics."" " I pray you, 
sir, why do you judge them worthy of so slanderous a name V 
— "Because," saith he, "they decreed things heretical, con^ 
trary to true godliness and sound doctrine, and against the 
faith of christian religion." The cause is weighty, for the 
which they ought of right so to be called. But if it be so, 
that all councils ought to be despised, which decreed any- l Tim - vi - 
thing contrary to sound doctrine, and the true word, which 
is according to godliness ; forsomuch as the mass, such as we 
have had here of late, is openly against the word of God, 
forsooth it must follow of necessity, that all such councils 
as have approved such masses, ought of right to be fled 
and despised, as conventicles and assemblies of men that 
stray from the truth. 

Q 3 See note F. at the end of the volume. Ed.] 

P This council was originally assembled at Ferrara by Eugene IV. 
Jan. 10, 1438, in opposition to that of Basil. It was attended by John 
Palaeologus, Emperor of Constantinople, and Joseph, Patriarch of the 
same city. In consequence of the plague it removed to Florence, Feb. 
29, 1439, till April 26, 1442. Ed.] 


of h Rome°P Another man allegeth unto me the authority of the bishop 

authority. f R me, " without which neither can the councils,' 1 '' saith 

he, " be lawfully gathered, neither, being gathered, determine 

anything concerning religion.'" But this objection is only 

grounded upon the ambitious and shameless maintenance of 

the Romish tyranny and usurped dominion over the clergy, 

?"fk" h d e ab " which tyranny we Englishmen long ago, by the consent of 

pope's su- t}j e whole realm, have expelled and abjured. And how 

rightly we have done it, a little book set forth, De utraque 

Potestate\ that is, " Of both the Powers," doth clearly 

shew. I grant, that the Romish ambition hath gone 

about to challenge to itself and to usurp such a privilege 

conc.carth. f rom ]<j time. But the council of Carthage, in the year 

of our Lord 457, did openly withstand it 2 ; and also the 

council at Milevite, in the which St Augustine was pre- 

Can.xxii. sen t 5 did prohibit any appellations to be made to bishops 

beyond the sea 3 . 

The Eleventh Objection of the Antonian* 
Anton. St Augustine saith, " The 4 e;ood men are not to be for- 

Object. . 

XI. saken for the evil, but the evil are to be borne withal for 

pist,XV1 " - the good." Ye will not say (I trow) that in our congre- 
gations all be evil. 

The Answer. 


N. Rid. I speak nothing of the goodness or evilness of your con- 

gregations, but I fight in Christ's quarrel against the mass, 

\} See note G. at the end of the volume. Ed.] 

[ 2 The third Council of Carthage was held a.d. 397. The protest 
here mentioned is to be gathered rather from the spirit than the 
letter of its canons. See L'Abbe, torn. ii. col. 1165. Ed. Par. 
1671. En.] 

[ 3 Ad transmarina autem qui putaverit appellandum, a nullo intra 
Africam in communionem suscipiatur. L'Abbe, Cone. torn. ii. col. 1543. 
Ed. Par. 1671. Ed.] 

Q" Non enim propter malos boni deserendi, sed propter bonos mali 
tolerandi sunt. S. Aug. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. ii. col. 238. 
Ordo novus, Ep. xcm. Ed.] 


which doth utterly take away and overthrow the ordinance 
of Christ. Let that be taken quite away, and then the par- 
tition of the wall that made the strife shall be broken down. 
Now to the place of St Augustine for "Bearing with the 
evil for the good's sake," there ought to be added other words, 
which the same writer hath expressedly in other places ; that 
is, " If those evil men do cast abroad no seeds of false doc- £??• cont * 

' literas 

trine, nor lead other to destruction by their example 5 ." ^"V&a" 1 ' 

The Twelfth, Objection of the Antonian. 

It is perilous to attempt any new thing in the church, Anton. 
which lacketh the example of good men. How much more xu. 
perilous is it, to commit any act unto the which the example 
of the prophets, of Christ, and of the apostles are contrary! 
But unto this your fact, in abstaining from the church by 
reason of the mass, the example of the prophets, of Christ, 
and of the apostles, are clean contrary. Therefore, &c. The 
first part of the argument is evident, and the second part I 
prove thus. In the times of the prophets, of Christ, and of 
his apostles, all things were most corrupt. The people was 
miserably given to superstition, the priests despised the law 
of God; and yet, notwithstanding, we neither read that the 
prophets made any schisms or divisions; and Christ himself 
haunted the temple, and taught in the temple of the Jews. Lukexxi. 
Peter and John went up into the temple at the ninth hour Acts Hi. 
of prayer. Paul, after the reading of the law, being desired 
to say something to the people, did not refuse to do it. Yea 
further, no man can shew that either the prophets, or Christ 
and his apostles, did refuse to pray together with others, to 
sacrifice or to be partakers of the sacraments of Moses'' law. 

The Answer. 


I grant the former part of your argument, and to the N. Rid. 
second part I say, that although it contain many true things, 

[ 5 S. Aug. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. ix. col. 58. The words here 
quoted do not occur in the passages referred to, but the sense of the 
two chapters is the same. Ed.] 


as of the corrupt state in the times of the prophets, of Christ, 
and the apostles ; and of the temple being haunted of Christ 
and his apostles; yet, notwithstanding, the second part of 
your argument is not sufficiently proved ; for ye ought to 
have proved, that either the prophets, either Christ, or his 
apostles, did in the temple communicate with the people 
in any kind of worshipping which is forbidden by the law 
of God, or repugnant to the word of God. But that can 
no where be shewed. And as for the church, I am not 
angry with it, and I never refused to go to it, and to pray 
with the people, to hear the word of God, and to do all other 
things, whatsoever may agree with the word of God. St 

Epist. cxix. Augustine, speaking of the ceremonies of the Jews 1 , (I sup- 
pose in the epistle ad Januarium,) although he grant they 
grievously oppressed that people, both for the number and 
bondage of the same, yet he calleth them burdens of the law, 
which were delivered unto them in the word of God, not 
presumptions of men; which notwithstanding, if they were 
not contrary to God's word, might after a sort be borne 
withal. But now, seeing they are contrary to those which are 
in the word of God written, whether they ought to be borne 
of any christian or no let him judge which is spiritual, which 
feareth God more than man, and loveth everlasting life more 
than this short and transitory life. To that which was said, that 
my fact lacketh example of the godly fathers that have gone 

ToMt i. before, the contrary is most evident in the history of Tobit : 
of whom it is said, that when all other went to the golden 
calves, which Hieroboam the King of Israel had made, he 
himself alone fled all their companies, and got him to Je- 
rusalem unto the temple of the Lord, and there worshipped 
the Lord God of Israel. 

i Kings xiii. DJd not the man of God threaten grievous plagues, both 
unto the priests of Bethel, and to the altar which Hieroboam 
had there made after his own fantasy? Which plagues king 
Josiah, the true minister of God, did execute at the time 
appointed. And where do we read that the prophets or the 

2 Kings apostles did agree with the people in their idolatry? When- 


\2 Legalibus tamen sarcinis, non humanis prsesumtionibus (Judcei) 
subjiciuntur. S. Aug. Epist. cxix, cap. 19, Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, 
Ordo novus, Epist. lv. torn. ii. col. 142. Ed.] 


as the people went a whoring with their hill altars, for what 

cause, (I pray you) did the prophets rebuke the people so 

much, as for their false worshipping of God, after their own 

minds, and not after God's word? For what was so much 

as that was? Wherefore the false prophets ceased not to Jer.xx. 

malign the true prophets of God ; therefore they beat them,;Het>. xi. 

they banished them, &c. How else, I pray you, can you, 

understand that St Paul allegeth when he says, " What 2 Cor - vi - 

concord hath Christ with Belial? Either what part hath the 

believer with the infidel? Or how agreeth the temple of God 

with images? For ye are the temple of the living God, as 

God himself hath said, I will dwell among them, and walk Levit - xxvi - 

among them, and will be their God, and they shall be my 

people : wherefore come out from among them, and separate Isai - lii - 

yourselves from them, saith the Lord, and touch none 

unclean thing; so will I receive you, and will be a Father 

unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith', 

the Lord Almighty.' 1 Judith that holy woman would not Judith xn. 

suffer herself to be defiled with the meats of the wicked. 

All the saints of God which truly feared God, when they 

have been provoked to do anything, which they knew to 

be contrary to God's law, have chosen to die rather than 

to forsake the laws of their God. 

Wherefore the Maccabees put themselves in danger of 2 Mace. vn. 
death for the defence of the law, yea, and at length died ! 
manfully in the defence of the same. "If we do praise," £<>?*• Sec - 

■' L ' Epist. Gau- 

saith St Augustine, "the Maccabees, and that with great d | ntii > cap- 
admiration, because they did stoutly stand even unto death for 
the laws of their country, how much more ought we to suffer 
all things for our baptism, for the sacrament of the body and 
blood of Christ 2 , &c. ?" But the supper of our Lord, such 

[ a S. Aug. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. ix. col. 635. The words 
liere quoted do not occur — the nearest approach to them is as follows : — 
Sed (scriptura Macchahaeorum) recepta est ab Ecclesia, non inutiliter,- 
si sobrie legatur vel audiatur, maxime propter illos Macchabaeos qui, 
pro lege Dei, sicut veri martyres, a persecutoribus tam indigna atque 
horrenda perpessi sunt, ut etiam hinc populus Christianus adverteret, 
quoniam non sunt condignas passiones hujus temporis ad futuram 
gloriam quae revelabitur in nobis, pro quibus passus est Christus. — lb. 
col. 655. - Ed.] 


a one, I mean, as Christ commandeth us to celebrate, the 
mass utterly abolisheth and corrupteth most shamefully. 


h.Lat. Who am I, that I should add any thing to this, which 

you have so well spoken? Nay, I rather thank you, that 
you have vouchsafed to minister so plentiful armour to 
me, being otherwise altogether unarmed : saving that he can- 
not be left destitute of help, which rightly trusteth in the 
help of God. I only learn to die in reading of the New 
Testament, and am ever now and then praying unto my God, 

Ps. ix. that he will be an helper unto me in time of need. 

The Thirteenth Objection of the Antonian. 

Anton. Seeing you are so obstinately set against the mass, that 

XIII. " you affirm, because it is done in a tongue not understanded of 
the people, and for other causes, (I cannot tell what,) there- 
fore it is not the true sacrament ordained of Christ, I begin 
to suspect you, that you think not catholicly of baptism also. 
Is our baptism, which we do use in a tongue unknown to 
the people, the true baptism of Christ or not? If it be, 
then doth not the strange tongue hurt the mass. If it be 
not the baptism of Christ, tell me how were you baptized? 
Or whether ye will, (as the Anabaptists do) that all which 
were baptized in Latin, should be baptized again in the 
English tongue. 

The Answer. 


N. Rid. Although I would wish baptism to be given in the vulgar 

tongue, for the people's sake, which are present, that they 
may the better understand their own profession, and also be 
more able to teach their children the same; yet, notwith- 
standing, there is not like necessity of the vulgar tongue in 
baptism, as in the Lord's supper. Baptism is given to chil- 
dren, who by reason of their age are not able to understand 
what is spoken unto them, (in) what tongue soever it be. The 
Lord's supper is and ought to be given to them that are 



waxen. Moreover in baptism, which is accustomed to be 
given to children in the Latin tongue, all the substantial 
points, (as a man would say) which Christ commanded to 
be done, are observed. And therefore I judge that baptism 
to be a perfect and true baptism, and that it is not only 
not needful, but also not lawful, for any man so christened 
to be christened again. But yet, notwithstanding, they ought 
to be taught the catechism of the christian faith, when they 
shall come to years of discretion ; which catechism whoso- 
ever despiseth, or will not desirously embrace and willingly 
learn, in my judgment he playeth not the part of a christian 
man. But in the popish mass are wanting certain substan- 
tiate, that is to say, things commanded by the word of God 
to be observed in ministration of the Lord's supper, of the 
which there is sufficient declaration made before. 


Where you say, " I would wish," surely I would wish H. Lat. 
that you had spoken more vehemently, and to have said, 
" It is of necessity, that all things in the congregation should 
be done in the vulgar tongue, for the edifying and comfort 
of them that are present.'" Notwithstanding that the child 
itself is sufficiently baptized in the Latin tongue. 

The Fourteenth Objection of the Antonian. 

Forasmuch as I perceive you are so stiffly, I will not Anton. 
say obstinately, bent, and so wedded to your own opinion, xiv. 
that no gentle exhortations, no wholesome counsels, no other 
kind of means can call you home to a better mind; there 
remaineth that which in like cases was wont to be the only 
remedy against stiffnecked and stubborn persons; that is, 
you must be hampered by the laws, and compelled either 
to obey, whether ye will or no, or else to suffer that which 
a rebel to the laws ought to suffer. Do you not know, that 
whosoever refuseth to obey the laws of the realm, he be- 
wrayeth himself to be an enemy to his country I Do you 
not know, that this is the readiest way to stir up sedition 
and civil war? It is better that you should bear your own 
sin, than that, through the example of your breach of the 


common laws, the common quiet should be disturbed. How 
can you say you will be the queen's true subject, whenas 
you do openly profess that you will not keep her laws? 

The Answer. 


x. Rid. O ! heavenly Father, the Father of all wisdom, underr 

standing, and true strength, I beseech thee, for thy only 
Son our Saviour Christ's sake, look mercifully upon me, 
wretched creature, and send thine Holy Spirit into my breast ; 
that not only I may understand according to thy wisdom, 
how this pestilent and deadly dart is to be borne off, and 
with what answer it is to be beaten back ; but also, when 
I must join to fight in the field for the glory of thy name, 
that then I, being strengthened with the defence of thy 
right hand, may manfully stand in the confession of thy 
faith and of thy truth, and continue in the same unto the end 
of my life, through the same our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 

Now to the objection. I grant it to be reasonable, that 
he which by words and gentleness cannot be made yield to 
that is right and good, should be bridled by the strait cor- 
rection of the laws. That is to say, he that will not be 
subject to God's word, must be punished by the laws. It 
is true that is commonly said, "He that will not obey 
the gospel must be tamed and taught by the rigour of the 
law.'"' But these things ought to take place against him 
which refuseth to do that is right and just, according to 
.true godliness, not against him which cannot quietly bear 
superstitions and the overthrow of Christ's institutions, but 
doth hate and detest from his heart such kind of pro- 
ceedings, and that for the glory of the name of God. To 
that which ye say, a transgressor of the common laws be- 
wrayeth himself to be an enemy of his country, surely a 
man ought to look unto the nature of the laws, what manner 
of laws, they be which are broken. For a faithful christian 
ought not to think alike of all manner of laws; but that 
saying ought only truly to be understanded of such laws as 
be not contrary to God's word. Otherwise, whosoever love 
their country in truth, that is to say, in God, they will 


always judge, (if at any time the laws of God and man bB 
the one contrary to the other,) that a man ought rather to 
obey God than man. And they that think otherwise, and Acts iv - 
pretend a love to their country, forasmuch as they make 
their country to fight, as it were, against God, in whom 
consisteth the only stay of the country, surely I do think, 
that such are to be judged most deadly enemies and traitors 
to their country. For they that fight against God, which is 
the safety of their country, what do they else but go about 
to bring upon their country a present ruin and destruction? 
But they that do so, are worthily to be judged enemies to 
their country and betrayers of the realm. Therefore, &c. 

But this is the readiest way, ye say, to stir up sedition, 
to trouble the quiet of the commonwealth ; therefore are 
these things to be repressed in time by force of laws. Behold, Satan and 

° l _ ^ , 'his minis- 

Satan doth not cease to practise his old ernles and accus- * ers d ° aI - 

1 ° ways charge 

tomed subtleties. He hath ever this dart in a readiness thegndiy. 


to hurl against his adversaries, to accuse them of sedition, sedition. 
that he may bring them (if he can) in danger of the higher 
powers; for so hath he by his ministers always charged the 
prophets of God. Ahab said unto Elias, "Art thou he i Kings 


that troubleth Israel V The false prophets also complained 
to their princes of Jeremy, that his words were seditious Jer - xxvi - 
and not to be suffered. Did not the Scribes and Pharisees Luke xxm. 
falsely accuse Christ as a seditious person, and one that 
spake against Csesar? Did they not at last cry, "If you John xix. 
let this man go, you are not Caesar's friend V The orator 
Tertullus, how doth he accuse Paul before Felix, the high- 
deputy ! " We have found this man (saith he) a pestilent Acts xxiv - 
fellow, and a stirrer of sedition unto all the Jews in the 
whole world," &c. 

But I pray you, were these men as they were called, 
seditious persons, Christ, Paul, and the prophets? God for- 
bid! But they were of false men falsely accused. And 
wherefore, I pray you, but because they reproved before the 
people their guiles, superstition and deceits? And when the 
other could not bear it, and would gladly have had them 
taken out of the way, they accused them as seditious persons 
and troublers of the commonwealth, that being by this means 
made hateful to the people and princes, they might the more 


easily be snatched up, to be tormented and put to death. 
But how far they were from all sedition, their whole doc- 
trine, life, and conversation, doth well declare. For that 
which was objected last of all, that he cannot be a faithful 
subject to his prince, which professeth openly that he will not 
observe the laws which the prince hath made, here I would 
wish that I might have an indifferent judge, and one that 
feareth God, to whose judgment in this cause I promise I 
will stand. I answer therefore, a man ought to obey his 
prince, but in the Lord, and never against the Lord. For 
he that knowingly obeyeth his prince against God, doth not 
a duty to the prince, but is a deceiver of the prince, and 
an helper unto him to work his own destruction. He is 
also unjust, which giveth not the prince that is the prince's, 
and to God that is God's. Here cometh to my remem- 
Theod.Ecc. brance that notable saying of Valentinianus, the emperor, 
cap. 5. for choosing the bishop of Milan. "Set him," saith he, 
"in the bishop's seat, to whom, if we, as man, do offend at 
Hut eb ub C -°" an y *™ e 5 we ma y submit ourselves 1 ." Poly carpus, the most 
cap. 15. constant martyr, when he stood before the chief ruler, and 
was commanded to blaspheme Christ, and to swear by the 
fortune of Csesar, &c. he answered with a mild spirit, " We 
are taught," saith he, "to give honour unto princes and 
those powers which be of God, but such honour as is not 
contrary to God's religion 3 ." 

Hitherunto ye see, good father, how I have in words 
only made, as it were, a flourish before the fight which I 
shortly look after, and how I have begun to prepare certain 
kinds of weapons to fight against the adversaries of Christ, 
and to muse with myself how the darts of the old enemy 
may be borne off, and after what sort I may smite him 
again with the sword of the Spirit. I learn also hereby to be in use with armour, and to assay how I can go armed. 

[_ loiovrov dtj ovu koi vuv to?? dpxtepariKOis lyKaQiZpvffare 
piokok, O7r<os kcli jjjUe?>, ol Ttjv /3a<n\eiav IdvvovTes, elXiKptvuii avrio 
tos t]fieT€pa<; viroKXwm/xev K£(pa\a<;, kcxi toi/s Trap exe'ivov yevop.evov<; 
e\ey%ov<; [avvptoirov: yap oi/Tas kcu Trpo<nrraieiv avdynt]) o>'s IdTpiKrjv 
dn-'rraa-coij.eda Qepa-rre'iav. Theod. Ecc. Hist. lib. iv. cap. 6. Ed. Paris. 
1673, p. 157. Ed.] 

[ 2 Euseb. Ecc. Hist. lib. iv. cap. 15. Ed. Par. Valesio, 1659, p. 132. Ed.] 


In Tynedale, where I was born, not far from the Scottish 
borders, I have known my countrymen watch night and day 
in their harness, such as they had, that is, in their jacks, 
and their spears in their hands, (you call them northern 
gads), especially when they had any privy warning of the 
coming of the Scots. And so doing, although at every 
such bickering some of them spent their lives, yet by such 
means, like pretty men, they defended their country. And 
those that so died, I think that before God they died in a 
good quarrel, and their offspring and progeny all the country 
loved them the better for their fathers' sakes. 

And in the quarrel of Christ our Saviour, in the defence 
of his own divine ordinances, by the which he giveth unto 
us life and immortality, yea, in the quarrel of faith and 
christian religion, wherein resteth our everlasting salvation, 
.shall we not watch? Shall we not go always armed, ever 
looking when our adversary (which, like a roaring lion, seeketh J Pet - v - 
whom he may devour,) shall come upon us by reason of 
our slothfulness I Yea, and woe be unto us, if he can oppress Matt. xxiv. 
us at unawares, which undoubtedly he will do, if he find us 
sleeping. Let us awake therefore; for if the good man of 
the house knew what hour the thief would come, he would 
surely watch, and not suffer his house to be broken up. Let 
us awake therefore, I say, and let us not suffer our house 
to be broken up. "Resist the devil," says St James, "and James iv. 
he will fly from you."" Let us therefore resist him man- 
fully, and, taking the cross upon our shoulders, let us follow 
our captain Christ, who by his own blood hath dedicated 
and hallowed the way, which leadeth unto the Father, that 
is, to the light which no man can attain, the fountain of 
everlasting joys. Let us follow, I say, whither he calleth 1 Tim. vi. 
and allureth us, that after these afflictions, which last but 
for a moment, whereby he trieth our faith, as gold by the 
fire, we may everlastingly reign and triumph with him in 
the glory of the Father, and that through the same our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, now and for ever. 
Amen. Amen. 

Good father, forasmuch as I have determined with my- 
self to pour forth these my cogitations into your bosom, 




here, methinketh, I see you suddenly lifting up your head 
towards heaven, after your manner, and then looking upon 
me with your prophetical countenance, and speaking unto me 
with these or like words: "Trust not, my son, (I beseech 
you, vouchsafe me the honour of this name, for in so doing 
I shall think myself both honoured and loved of you,) trust 
not, I say, my son, to these word-weapons, for the kingdom 
1 cor. iv. of God is not in words, but in power. And remember 
Matt. x. always the words of the Lord, 'Do not imagine aforehand, 
what and how you will speak, for it shall be given you even 
in that same hour, what ye shall speak ; for it is not ye 
that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh 
in you.'''" ' 

I pray you therefore, father, pray for me, that I may 
cast my whole care upon him, and trust upon him in all 
perils. For I know and am surely persuaded, that what- 
soever I can imagine or think aforehand, it is nothing ex- 
Eph. vi. cept he assist me with his Spirit, when the time is. I beseech* 
you therefore, father, pray for me, that such a complete 
harness of the Spirit, such boldness of mind, may be given 
Ps. xiiv. unto me, that I may out of a true faith say with David, "I 
will not trust in my bow, and it is not my sword that shall 
Ps. cxivii. save me. For he hath no pleasure in the strength of a horse, 
&c. But the Lord's delight is in them that fear him, and 
put their trust in his mercy." I beseech you, pray, pray 
that I may enter this fight only in the name of God, and 
that when all is past, I, being not overcome, through his 
gracious aid, may remain and stand fast in him till that 
day of the Lord, in the which to them that obtain the victory 
Rev. ii. shall be given the lively manna to eat, and a triumphant 
crown for evermore. 

Now, father, I pray you, help me to buckle on this 
Rev. ii. gear a little better; for ye know the deepness of Satan, 
being an old soldier, and you have collared with him ere 
now, blessed be God that hath ever aided you so well! I 
suppose he may well hold you at the bay. But truly, he 
will not be so willing, I think, to join with you, as with us 

Sir, I beseech you, let your servant read this my babbling 
unto you ; and now and then, as it shall seem unto you best, 


let your pen run on my book. Spare not to blot my paper : 
I give you good leave. 

As touching this Antonian, whom I have here made mine 
adversary, lest peradventure any imagination might cany you 
amiss, and make you think otherwise than I meant, know you 
that I have alluded to one Antony, a most cruel bishop of the 
Arians, and a very violent persecutor of them that were 
catholic and of a right judgment. To whom Hunericus, a 
tyrant of the Vandals, knowing Antony's fierceness, com- 
mitted his whole authority, that he should either turn the 
christians which believed well unto his false religion, or else 
to punish and torment them at his pleasure. Which thing 
Antonius took in hand to do, and executed the same against 
a great number, but specially against two most godly bishops, 
and most constant in the doctrine which was according to 
godliness. The name of the one was Eugenius, an aged 
man; the other was named Habet-Deum. This latter, as it 
appears by Victor's history of the persecutions of the Vandals, Victor de 
both the tyrant and the false counterfeit bishop desired much Afric.iib.iu. 
to have turned unto their most pestilent heresy. This Habet- 
Deum was bishop of the city of Tamullume, where Antony 
had been bishop before. And when Antony had vexed him 
.(as the story saith) with diverse and sundry persecutions, 
and had found the soldier of Christ always constant in his 
confession, it is said, that at length in a great rage he 
swore and said to his friends on this wise : " If I make him 
not of our religion, then am I not Antony." It is incredible 
what harms and troubles he put him to ; what cruelty he 
practised against him; and it were too long now to describe 
the same unto you. But the man of God stood always un- 
moveable ; and in the confession of Christ's faith remained 
ever unto the end the constant and unfoiled soldier of Christ 1 . 
This good bishop, Habet-Deum, I pray to God our heavenly 
Father to give me grace, that I may faithfully follow, through 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 

Sir, I have caused my man not only to read your armour h. Lat. 
unto me, but also to write it out. For it is not only no 
bare armour, but also well buckled armour. I see not how 
it could be better. I thank you even from the bottom of 

[ l Vict, de Pers. Afric. lib. m. Ed. Bas. 1539. p. 663. Ed.] 



my heart for it ; and my prayer shall you not lack, trusting 
that you do the like for me. For indeed there is the 
help, &c. Many things make confusion in memory. And 
if I were as well learned as was St Paul, I would not 
bestow much against them, further than to gall them, and 
spurgall too, when and where as occasion were given, and 
matter came to mind: for the law shall be their sheet- 
anchor, stay, and refuge. Fare you well in Christ. 


In this conference and talk between these two great 
learned men and holy martyrs of Christ, thou perceivest, good 
reader, the causes wherefore they, with the loss of lands, goods, 
friends, and all the world's wealth, chose rather most terrible 
merciless death, than by the denial of the truth to live with 
an evil conscience, in an open untruth, for a time, in this sinful 
slippery world. Thine indifference understandeth that they 
endured tb'.t long imprisoning, that straight keeping, that 
ungentlp entreaty and cruel handling, not upon an obstinate 
hea< nor froward disposition (being otherwise men most 
gentle and tractable), much less upon any most desperate 
temerity: but considering the urgent weight of the cause 
for the which they suffered, necessarily to require a plain 
confession, after they had examined, debated, and throughly 
tried out the matter to the utmost; forasmuch as it was 
given unto them of God, not only that they should believe 
in Christ, but also suffer for him ; and seeing they were 
segregated and especially chosen to defend the gospel, they, 
contemning the tender trembling of the cowardly flesh, and 
setting all fleshly policies apart, buckled on them the ar- 
mour of God, that they might stand manfully against the 
assaults of the devil, and with the target of a firm faith 
extinguish the fiery darts of the wicked ; and so have joy- 
ously finished their course, testifying with their blood God's 
eternal truth unto the world: testifying (I say) the mighty 
power, the sufficiency and sincerity of God's written word, 
and the comfort exhibited by the same to all faithful in the 
true use and participation of Christ's holy Sacraments, mi- 
nistered according to his own institution ; testifying what the 


true Catholic Church of Christ is indeed, and by what marks it 
is certainly known : testifying as well what troubles and perils 
of the world the same Church is subject unto ; as also what 
weight of eternal glory the momentary trifling afflictions 
bring: to such as continue in that true afflicted Catholic 
Church, beholding not joys seen, but joys that are not seen : 
testifying that like as Christ, (being the head of his mys- 
tical body, the Catholic Church,) giveth life and salvation 
unto all the members of the same ; even so, whosoever is 
out of that Church cannot be partaker of salvation and 
life : testifying what damnation hangeth over them that 
profane or corrupt the holy ordinance of God in the Sacra- 
ments and ministry of the Church, as the papists in their 
mass and other superstitious counterfeit God-service do : 
testifying what causes moved these two blessed martyrs 
with many more besides (and ought to move all that intend 
to be partakers of life and salvation with Christ in his king- 
dom) to abhor and abstain from the popish mass, now set 
up by Satan and Antichrist in England again: testifying 
how far, and in what things, every subject ought and may 
lawfully obey the higher powers, and wherein disobey: tes- 
tifying, finally, how dangerous and damnable a matter it is 
for any Christian to credit and do after the shaven swarm of 
mass-priests and papists, who, like most notorious thieves and 
sacrilegers, not only rob the true Catholic Church of Christ of 
her right name, and arrogantly and falsely clothe themselves 
withal (by colour and pretence whereof they rob the people 
of their goods, to make themselves rich, and like ravening 
wolves exercise all merciless murder and tyranny against the 
saints and flock of Christ, that withstand their blasphemy, 
as these two martyrs most learnedly and constantly did), but 
also rob God the Father of his honour, God the Son of his 
humanity, merit, and priesthood, and God the Holy Ghost 
of his eternal divine doctrine. 


Thus have these two blessed martyrs testified unto the 
world (for God's elect's sake) the certainty of his unfailing 
truth, and danger of his blasphemous enemies, the papists' 

Judge now, gentle reader, whether it is better for thee 
to abide patiently thy most merciful loving heavenly Father's 
rod under Christ's cross, in confessing the truth with these 
holy martyrs, to thy eternal salvation; or to slide back into 
the filthy soil of papistry, and' so in partaking the papists' 
pleasures and ease of the tottering world for a very short 
time, to be partakers also of their just deserved plagues in 
the torments of hell, among those hypocrites, to thy greater 

The Lord God give thee Ins light, to embrace and obey 

the persecuted truth, and to judge rightly 

now in this trying time of the cross, that 

thou be not damned with the wicked 

world for being ashamed to bear 

thy cross after thy crucified 

Christ. Amen 1 . 

[} This conclusion to the reader is signed in the second edition, 
where for the first time it occurs, J. O. Ed.] 











It was declared a little before, how Doctor Ridley was 
had from Fremingham to the Tower; where, being in du- 
rance, and invited to the Lieutenant's table, he had certain 
talk or conference with Secretary Bourn, Mr Fecknam, 
and other, concerning the controversies in religion : the 
sum whereof, as it was penned with his own hand, hereafter 
ensueth. — Fox. 

Master Thomas of Bridges said at his brother Master sir Thomas 

° Abridges. 

Lieutenant's board, " I pray you, Master Doctors, for my 
learning, tell me what an heretic is?" Mr Secretary Bourn 
said, " I will tell you who is an heretic : whoso stubbornly who is an 

. . . . . heretic. 

and stiffly maintaineth an untruth, he is an heretic." " Ye 
mean, Sir," said I, "an untruth in matters of religion and 
concerning our faith." " Yea, that is true," said he : and in 
this we were soon agreed. Then said Master Fecknam, 
sitting at the upper end of the table, whom they called Mr 
Dean of Paul's, " I will tell you by St Augustine who is an 
heretic : Qui adulandi principibus vel lucri gratia falsas opi- An heretic 
niones gignit vel sequitur, hcereticus est, saith St Augustine 1 ." Saint Au- 
And then he Englished the same. " Sir," said I, " I ween 
St Augustine addeth the third member, which is vel vance 
glorim causa?" 1 " Ye say even true, Mr Doctor," said he ; 
and thus far we did agree all three 2 . 

Mr Fecknam began again to say, " Whoso doth not believe Fecknam 

. . provokintr 

that the Scripture amrmeth, but will obstinately maintain Master Rid- 

[} He who for the sake of flattering princes, or of gain, invents or 
follows false opinions is an heretic. Ed.] 

[ 2 Or for the cause of vain glory. Vide S. Aug. de utilitate cre- 
dendi, cap. 1, Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. viii. col. 45. The words are : 
Hsereticus est, ut mea fert opinio, qui alicujus temporalis commodi, et 
maxime gloriae principatusque sui gratia, falsas ac novas opiniones vel 
fingit vel sequitur. Ed.] 


the contrary, he is liosreticus. As in the sacrament of the 
altar, Matthew doth affirm there to be Christ's body, Mark 
doth affirm it, Luke affirmeth it, Paul affirmeth it, and none 
denieth it: therefore to hold the contrary is heresy. It is 
the same body and flesh that was born of the virgin: and 
Unity, anti- this is confirmed by unity, antiquity, and universality. For 
versaiity. none before Berengarius did ever doubt of this; and he 
was an heretic, as Mr Doctor there knoweth full well : I do 
testify 1 his own conscience," said he. 

" Marry, Sir," said Master Secretary, " Master Fecknam 
hath spoken well. These be great matters : unity, antiquity, 
and universality. Do ye not think so, Master Doctor V said 
he to me. 

Here while I strained courtesy, and pretended as nothing 
to talk, said one of the commissioners : " Peradventure Master 
Ridley doth agree with Mr Fecknam, and then there needs 
not much debating of the matter." 

" Sir," said I, " in some things I do and shall agree with 
him; and in some things which he hath spoken, to be plain, 
I do not agree with him at all. — Masters," said I, " ye be (as 
I understand) the Queen's commissioners here, and if ye 
have commission to examine me in these matters, I shall 
declare unto you plainly my faith ; if ye have not, then I 
shall pray you either give me leave to speak my mind freely, 
or else to hold my peace." 

" There is none here," said Mr Secretary, "" that doth 
not favour you." — And then every man shewed what favour 
they bare towards me, and how glad they would be of an 

But as I strained to have licence of them in plain words 

to speak my mind, so methought they granted me it, but 

vise or cegre. Well, at the last I was contented to take it 

for licensed, and so began to talk. 

BisiiopRid- To Mr Fecknam's arguments of the manifold affirmation 

ley answer- ° 

Fecknam wnere no denial was, I answered, Where is a multitude of 
Truth in affirmations in Scripture, and where is one affirmation, all is 
goetifnntby one concerning the truth of the matter: for that any of the 
affirmation, Evangelists spake inspired by the Holy Ghost, was as true 
is sufficient. ^ that which was spoken of them all. It is as true that 

[} Testify, i.e. take to witness. Ed.] 



in talk with you I should so utter my mind in words, that ™JJen^vit 
ye by the same do and may plainly perceive my meaning, | heir mean " 

John saith of Christ, Ego sum ostium ovium, I am the John *• 
door of the sheep, as if all had said it. For it is not in 
Scripture as in witness of men, where the number is credited 
more than one, because it is uncertain of whose spirit he 
doth speak. And where Mr Fecknam spake of so many, 
affirming without any negation, &c. r " Sir," said I, " all they 
do affirm the thing which they meant. Now, if ye take 
their words, and leave their meaning, then do they affirm 
what ye take, but not what they meant. Sir," said I, " if J c °$j r a e 

must be 
taken with 
their mean- 

and could, if ye would be captious, cavil at my words, and 
writhe them to another sense, I would think ye were no 
gentle companion to talk with ; except ye would take my 
words as ye did perceive that I did mean." 
- " Marry," quoth Mr Secretary, " we should else do you 
plain injury and wrong." 

Mr Fecknam perceiving whereunto my talk went, " Why," 
quoth he, "what circumstances can ye shew me that should 
move you to think of any other sense, than as the words 
plainly say, Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis tradetur ? Luke xxu. 

HOC €8Z COi* 

This is my body which shall be betrayed for you." pus meum 

" . ' J J expounded. 

" Sir," said I, " even the next sentence that followeth ; 
Hoc facite in meam commemoraiionem, Do this in my re- 
membrance. And also by what reason ye say the bread is 
turned into Christ's carnal body ; by the same I may say, 
that it is turned into his mystical body. For as that saith Reasons 

why tti6S6 

of it, Hoc est corpus meum quod pro vobis tradetur ; so Paul words ought 
which spake by Christ's spirit saith, Unus panis et unum notuterauy. 
corpus multi sumus omnes, qui de uno pane participamus. We i cor. x. 
being many are all but one bread, and one body, in as 
much as we are partakers of one bread." 

"Here he calleth one bread, one loaf," said Mr Secre- 

" Yea," said I, " one loaf, one bread, all is one with me." 

"But what say ye," quoth Master Secretary, "of the 
universality, antiquity, and unity, that Master Fecknam did 
speak off 

"I ensure you," said I, "I think them matters weighty, y^y^ith^ 
and to be considered well. As for unity, the truth is, before allowed - 


God, I do believe it and embrace it, so it be with verity^ 
and joined to our head Christ, and such one as Paul speaketh 
Eph. iv. of, saying, Una fides, unus Deus, unum baptisma, One faith, 
Antiquity, one God, one baptism. And for antiquity, I am also per- 
suaded to be true that Irenseus saith, Quod primum verum 1 , 
That is first is true. In our religion Christ's faith was first 
truly taught by Christ himself, by his Apostles, and by many 
good men that from the beginning did succeed next unto 
them: and for this controversy of the sacrament, I am 
persuaded that those old writers, which wrote before the 
controversy and the usurping of the see of Rome, do all 
agree, if they be well understood, in this truth." 

" I am glad to hear," said Master Secretary, " that ye 
do so well esteem the doctors of the church." 
Universality " Now as for universality, it may have two meanings : one, 
double un- to understand that to be universal which from the beginning 

derstand- . . 

ing. in all ages hath been allowed; another, to understand uni- 

versality for the multitude of our age, or of any other 
singular age." 

" No, no," saith Master Secretary, " these three do 
always agree ; and where there is one, there is all the rest." 
And here he and I changed many words. And finally, to 
be short, in this matter we did not agree. 

" There was none," quoth Master Fecknam, " before Be- 
rengarius, Wickliffe, and Hus, and now in our days Carolo- 
stadius and CEcolampadius. And Carolostadius saith, Christ 
pointeth to his own body, and not to the sacrament, and 

Meiancthon said, Hoc est corpus meum. And Melancthon writeth to one 

ad Mico- m J - 

nium. Micronius, (Miconius, said I,) these are like words : Nullam 
satis gravem rationem invenire possum, propter quam a fide 
majorum in hac materia dissentiam 2 . I can find no grounded 
reason to cause me to dissent from the belief of our fore- 

Thedoctrine Thus when he had spoken at length with many other 

of the Sacra- . 

mentnot words more, "Sir," said I, "it is certain that other before 


these have written of this matter; not by the way only, and 

\} See notes to the Conferences with Latimer. The words referred 
to are those of Tertullian, not of Irenseus. Ed.] 

[ 2 Mel. Ep. ad Mycon. apud (Ecolampadium, de Euchar. Ed. 1530, 
p. 58. Ed.] 


obiter, as do for the most of all the old writers, but even 
ex professo, and their whole books entreat of it alone, as 

" Bertram," said the Secretary, " what man was he ? and 
who was he 3 , and how do ye know?" &c. with many ques- 

" Sir," quoth I, " I have read his book. He propoundeth 
the same which is now in controversy, and answereth so 
directly that no man may doubt but that he affirmeth, that 
the substance of bread remaineth still in the sacrament ; 
and he wrote unto Carolus Magnus." 

" Marry," quoth he, " mark, for there is a matter. He 
wrote," quoth he, "ad Henricum*, and not ad Carolum, for 
no author maketh any such mention of Bertramus." 

" Yes," quoth I, " Trithemius in catalogo illustrium 
'Scriptorum speaketh of him. Trithemius was but of late 
time: but he speaketh," quoth I, "of them that were of 
antiquity." Here after much talk of Bertram ; " What authors 
have ye," quoth Mr Secretary, "to make of the Sacrament 
a figure f 

p »\yh was he?" etc. The celebrated work of Bertramus, or 
Ratramnus, de Corpore et Sanguine Domini, is here alluded to. An. 
English translation by William Hugh had shortly before this time, 
viz. in 1548, been printed, under the title of "A book of Bertram 
the Priest." It is supposed that Ridley met with it in the year 1545 
or 1546. Dr Gloucester Ridley says: "Few books have drawn after 
them such salutary consequences as this has done. This first opened 
Ridley's eyes, and determined him more accurately to search the 
Scriptures in this article, and the doctrine of the primitive fathers, 
who lived before the time of this controversy betwixt Bertram and 
Paschasius." Ed.] 

[ 4 "Ad Henricum." "That is," says Dr Wordsworth, "to Henry 
the Eighth: meaning to insinuate that this book of Bertram's, 
which bore too strongly against the Romish corruptions in the doc- 
trine of the Eucharist, to admit easily of any fair and direct answer, 
was a modern forgery of the Protestants of late time." The work 
of John of Trithemius was finished a.d. 1494, and first published at 
Basil. Ridley was under a mistake as to the precise date of the work 
in question; it was addressed not to Charlemagne, but to Charles the 
Bald: it was besides not the "Catalogus illustrium virorum," but the 
"Catalogus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum," to which he refers; that work 
states of Bertram, "ad Carolum regem, fratrem Lotharii imperatoris, 
•scripsit commendabile opus." Ed.] 


make the hat " Sir >" <l uotl1 *' " y e know (* tnink ) that Tertullian in plain 

j^crament^ wor( J s speaketh thus : Hoc est corpus meum> id est, figura 

nZ tU Geto corporis mei; This is my body, that is to say, a figure of 

sius,ori- m y b dy. And Gelasius saith plainly, that substantia panis 

manet ; the substance of bread remaineth. And Origen saith 

likewise; Quod sanctificatur secundum materiam, ingreditur 

stomachum et vadit in secessem; That which is sanctified, 

as touching the matter or substance, passeth away in the 

draught 1 ." This when I had Englished, Mr Secretary said 

to me, " You know very well as any man," &c. ; and here, 

if I would, I might have been set in a foolish Paradise of 

his commendation of my learning, and quod essem vir multce 

Zectionis, a man of much reading. But this I would not 

take at his hand. He set me not up so high, but I brought 

myself as low again : -and here was much ado. 

"As for Melancthon," quoth I, "whom Mr Fecknam 
spake of, I marvel that ye will allege him; for we are more 
nigh an agreement here in England, than the opinion of Me- 
lancthon to you: for in this point we all agree here, that 
there is in the sacrament but one material substance ; and 
Melancthon, as I ween, saith there are two." 

" Ye say truth," quoth Mr Secretary : " Melancthon's 

opinion is so. But I pray you, ye have read that the 

sacrament was in old time so reverenced, that many were 

then forbidden to be present at the ministration thereof, 

catechumen^" 1 quoth he, "and many more." 

Sen? and " Truth, Sir," quoth I, " there were some called audientes, 

Tatlt the"' sorae pomitentes, some catechumeni, and some energumeni, 

tion! stra " which were commanded to depart." 

Ja h techism. of " Now," quoth he, "and how can ye then make but a 
figure or a sign of the sacrament, as that book which is set 
forth in my Lord of Canterbury's name 2 ? I wis, ye can tell 

l^ 1 Tertul. oont. Marcion. lib. iv. cap. 40. Gelasius de duab. nat. in 
Christo. Bibl. Pat. Paris, 1575, vol. v. p. 475. Orig. in Matth. Op. Ed. 
Par. 1745, Horn. xi. vol. iii. p. 499. For these references to the Pathers 
see The Brief Declaration. Ed.] 

P "Lord of Canterbury's name." Fox, in the margin, calls this 
' the book of Catechism/ by which he probably meant either the Cate- 
chism commonly called the Catechism of King Edward, or the " Short 
Instruction unto Christian Religion:" or possibly that of Justus 
Jonas, translated under Cranmer's authority, and often referred to as his. 



who made it: did not ye make it?" And here was much 
murmuring of the rest, as though they would have given 
me the glory of the writing of that book; which yet was 
said of some there, to contain most heinous heresy that ever 

" Master Secretary," quoth I, " that book was made of a 
great learned man, and him which is able to do the like 
again : as for me, I ensure you (be not deceived in me) I 
was never able to do or write any such like thing. He 
passeth me no less, than the learned master his young 

Now, here every man would have his saying, which I 
pass over as not much material for to tell. "But, Sir," 
quoth I, "methinks it is not charitably done, to bear 
the people in hand that any man doth so lightly esteem the 
sacrament, as to make of it but a figure. For that maketh 
it (but) a bare figure without any more profit; which that 
book doth often deny, as appeareth to the reader most 

" Yes," quoth he, " that they do." 

" Sir, no," quoth I, " of a truth : and as for me, I ensure 
you I make no less of the sacrament than thus : I say, 
whosoever receiveth the sacrament, he receiveth therewith 
life or death." 

"No," quoth Mr Secretary, "Scripture saith not so." 

" Sir," quoth I, " although not in the same sound of 
words, yet it doth in the same sense ; and St Augustine saith 
in the sound of words also : for Paul saith, The bread which x Cor " x ' 16, 
we break, is it not the partaking or fellowship of the body 
of Christ? and St Augustine, Manduca vitam, hibe vitam, 
Eat life, drink life 3 ." 

Then said Master Pope, " What can ye make of it when ™ e nt Sa «; 
ye say, there is not the real body of Christ? which I do ^thouf 6 
believe, and I pray God I may never believe other. How stantiation. 

It is known by the title " Catechism of 1543." But it is more likely 
that Ridley referred to the Book on the Sacrament, which Cranmer 
afterwards defended against Gardiner, and that Fox was wrong in 
mentioning a catechism at all. Ed.] 

Q 3 S. Aug. Sermo cxxxi. de verb. Evan. Joh. vi. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 
1685, torn. v. col. 641. Ed.] • 







can it bring (as ye say) either life or death, when Christ's 
body is not there?" 1 

"Sir," quoth I, "when you hear God's word truly 
preached, if ye do believe it and abide in it, ye shall and 
do receive life withal : and if ye do not believe it, it doth 
bring unto you death: and yet Christ's body is still in 
heaven, and not carnal in every preacher's mouth." 

" I pray you tell me," quoth he, " how can you answer 
to this, Quod pro vobis tradetur, Which shall be given for 
you? Was the figure of Christ's body given for us?" 

" No, Sir," quoth I, " but the very body itself, whereof 
the sacrament is a sacramental figure." 

" How say ye then," quoth he, " to quod pro vobis tra- 
detur, Which shall be given for you?" 

" Forsooth," quoth I, " Tertullian's exposition maketh it 
plain, for he saith, Corpus est figura corporis, The body is 
a figure of the body. Now put to quod pro vobis tradetur, 
Which shall be given for you ; and it agreeth exceedingly 

"• In faith," quoth he, " I would give forty pounds that ye 
were of a good opinion. For I ensure you, I have heard you, 
and had an affection to you." 

"I thank you, Master Pope, for your heart and mind: 
and ye know," quoth I, " I were a very fool if I would in 
this matter dissent from you, if that in my conscience the 
truth did not enforce me so to do. For I wis (as ye do 
perceive, I trow) it is somewhat out of my way, if I would 
esteem worldly gain." 

" What say ye," quoth he, " to Cyprian ? Doth he not 
say plainly, Panis quem dedit Dominus, noil effigie, sed natura 
mutatus, omnipotentia verbi /actus est caro 1 : The bread which 
the Lord did deliver, being changed not according to the 
form, but according to the nature thereof, by the omnipotent 
word is made flesh." 

" True, Sir, so he doth say, and I answer even the same 

Dr Ridley 
falsely re- 

S? r i ec i of 'n which once by chance I preached at Paul's Cross in a sermon, 

of his at 

for the which I have been as unjustly and as untruly reported, 

C 1 Cyp. de Ccena Domini. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1726, col. 111. This 
treatise is placed by the Benedictine Editor at the end of the volume 
among those falsely attributed to Cyprian. En.] 



as any poor man hath been. For there I, speaking of the 
sacrament, and inveighing against them that esteemed it no 
better than a piece of bread, told even the same thing of 
poenitentes, audientes, catechumeni, energumeni, that I spake 
of before ; and I bade them depart as unworthy to hear the 
mystery; and then I said to those that be sancti, Cyprian 
the Martyr shall tell you how it is that Christ calleth it, 
saying, Panis est corpus, cihus, potus, caro 2 , &c, Bread is the g t h c pl ri| n ° f 
body, meat, drink, flesh, because that unto this material expounded. 
substance is given the property of the thing whereof it beareth 
the name : and this place then took I to utter as the time 
would then suffer, that the material substance of bread doth 
remain." Mr Fecknam (which, as is reported to me, did belie 
me openly in the same matter at Paul's Cross,) heard all this 
my talk, as red as scarlet in his face, and herein answered 
me never one word. 

" You do know well," quoth Mr Secretary, " that Origen 
and Tertullian were not catholic, but erred." 

"Sir," quoth I, "there is none of all the doctors that Noneofaii 

' \ ' the doctors 

are holden in all points, but are thought to have erred in h °J^ninaii 
some things. But yet I never heard that it was either 
laid to Origen's charge, or to Tertullian, that ever they were 
thought to have erred in this matter of the sacrament." 

" What," quoth Mr Chomley, late chief justice, " doth stAugustine 

IdlvcLIi XXI" 

not Christ say plainly, that it is his very flesh and his very words of the 

J *■ J J J sacrament 

blood, and we must needs eat him, or we can have no life V Amatively 

' by Bourn's 

" Sir," quoth I, " if you will hear how St Augustine expound- own «>nfes- 
eth that place, you shall perceive that you are in a wrong box." 
And when I began to tell St Augustine's mind in his book 
De Doctrina Christiana 3 , " Yea, yea," quoth Mr Secretary, 
'" that is true. St Augustine doth take it figuratively in deed." 

" Forty years ago," quoth Mr Fecknam, " all were of 
one opinion in this matter." 

"Forty years ago," quoth I, "all held that the Bishop 
of Rome was supreme head of the universal church." 

P Cyp. lb. The words are, Ipse enim et panis, et caro, et sanguis; 
idem cibus et substantia et vita factus est Ecclesiae suae, quam corpus 
suum appellat, dans ei participationem spiritus. Ed.] 

[ 3 Lib. in. Sect. 24. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. iii. col. 52. See 
notes to The Brief Declaration. Ed.] 




Matt, xvi, 
John i. 

" What then V was Master Fecknam beginning to say, 
&c. but Mr Secretary took the tale, and said, that was but 
a positive law. 
QuamJii " A positive law?" quoth I, "no, Sir, he would not 

have it so : for it is in his decrees, that he challenged it by 
Christ's own word. For his decree saith : Nullis Synodicis 
constitutis, neque conciliis, sed viva voce Domini prcelata est 
Ecclesia Romana omnibus ecclesiis in toto mundo: dicente 
Domino Petro, Tu es Petrus 1 , &c. The church of Eome 
was advanced above all other churches in the world, not by 
any synodical constitutions, nor yet any councils, but by the 
lively voice of the Lord, according as the Lord said to 
Peter, Thou art Peter, &c. And in another place he en- 
treateth, Tu es Cephas, id est caput, Thou art Cephas, that 
is to say the head." 

" Tush, it was not counted an article," quoth Mr Secre- 
tary, "of our faith." 

" Yes," said I, " if ye call that an article of our faith, 
which is to be believed under pain of damnation. For he 
saith : Omnino definimus, declaramus, pronunciamus, omnem 
humanam creaturam subesse Romano pontifici de necessitate 
salutis 2 : We do absolutely determine, declare, and pronounce, 
that every creature is subject to the obedience of the Bishop 
of Eome upon necessity of salvation." 

And here when we spake of laws and decrees, Mr Eoger 
Chomley thought himself much wronged, that he could not 
be suffered to speak, the rest were so ready to interrupt 
him : and then he up and told a long tale what laws were 
of Kings of England made against the Bishop of Eome, and 
was vehement to tell how they alway of the clergy did fly 
to him. And here, because he seemed to speak of many 

fj 1 The words of the decree are " Sancta tamen Romana Catholica 
et Apostolica Ecclesia nullis Synodicis constitutis cseteris ecclesiis prse- 
lata est, sed evangelica voce Domini et Salvatoris nostri primatum 
obtinuit, ' Tu es Petrus' inquiens, &c." Dist. 21. cap. 3. Decreta 
Gratiani, Paris, 1585, cols. 115, 116. En.] 

L 2 Extravag. Comm. lib. i. tit. de majoritate et obedientia — the 
words are, " Porro subesse Romano pontifici omnem humanam crea- 
turam declaramus, dicimus, definimus, et pronunciamus, omnino esse de 
necessitate salutis." Ed. Lugd. 1509, fol. 8. See also the conclusion of 
the Bull of Boniface VIII. " Unam Sanctam." Eo.J 


things beside our purpose, whereof we spake before, he was 
answered of his own fellows, and I let them talk. 

Finally, we departed in peace, and Master Secretary 
promised in the end, that of their talk there should come 
to me no harm. And after I had made my moan for lack 
of my books, he said they were all once given him : but P r Ridley's 

•> 7 J ° books given 

sith I know (said he) who hath them now, write me the "way. 
names of such as ye would have, and I will speak for you 
the best I can. 
















The disputations held at Cambridge before the King's 
commissioners, June, 1549, and which are preserved by Fox 
in his Acts and Monuments, were remarkable, as well for 
the importance of the subject discussed, as for the learning 
.and character of those who took part in them. The com- 
missioners were the Bishops of Rochester and Ely, Mr 
(afterwards Sir John) Cheke, formerly Tutor to the King, 
Dr May, and Thomas Wendy, Physician to the King. In 
the first disputation, Dr Madew was opposed by Dr Glin, 
Sedgwick, Langdale, and Young. The second disputation 
was carried on between Dr Glin on the Bomish side, and 
Grindall, Perne, Gest, and Pilkington on the other. In the 
third Peme contended against Parker, Pollard, Vavisor or 
Vavasour, and Young. 

After three days' disputations, Dr Ridley who had occa- 
sionally assisted the disputants against transubstantiation 
delivered the determination or judgment subjoined. 






There hath been an ancient custom amongst you, that ^ation'of 
after disputations had in your common schools, there should w ^p^^ 
be some determination made of the matters so disputed and ^ n ? " ta " 
debated, especially touching Christian religion. Because there- 
fore it hath seemed good unto these worshipful assistants joined 
with me in commission from the King's majesty, that I should 
perform the same at this time ; I will by your favourable 
patience declare, both what I do think and believe myself, 
and what also others ought to think of the same. Which 
thing I would that afterward ye did with diligence weigh and 
ponder, every man at home severally by himself. 

The principal grounds, or rather head springs of this 
matter are specially five. 

The first is the authority, maiesty, and verity of holy Fi y e prmcj- 

•> ' d •> ' •> •> pal grounds 

Scripture. to take away 

r _ transub- 

The second is the most certain testimonies of the ancient, stantiation. 
catholic Fathers, who, after my judgment, do sufficiently 
declare this matter. 

The third is the definition of a Sacrament. 

The fourth is the abominable heresy of Eutyches, that 
may ensue of transubstantiation. 

The fifth is the most sure belief of the article of our 
faith, He ascended into heaven. 

The First Ground. 

This transubstantiation is clean against the words of the JSation 
scripture, and consent of the ancient catholic fathers, The sfriptu* 6 



scripture saith : "I will not drink hereafter of this fruit of 
the vine, &c." Now the fruit of this vine is wine. And it 
is manifest that Christ spake these words after the supper 
was finished, as it appeareth both in Matthew, Mark, and 
also in Luke, if they be well understood. There be not many 
places of scripture that do confirm this thing, neither is it 
greatly material ; for it is enough if there be any one plain 

bem^sured testimony for the same. Neither ought it to be measured 

beibutby 1 " ty tne num ber of scriptures, but by the authority, and by the 

authority. ver ity of the same. And the majesty of this verity is as am- 
ple in one short sentence of the scripture, as in a thousand. 

Moreover, Christ took bread, he brake bread, he gave 
bread. In the Acts Luke calleth it bread. So Paul calleth 
it bread after the sanctification. Both of them speak of 
breaking, which belongeth to the substance of bread, and in 

Exod. xn. no w j se | Christ's body, for the scripture saith : " Ye shall 
not break a bone of him." Christ saith : " Do ye this in my 

i Cor.xi. remembrance." Saint Paul also saith : " Do ye this in my re- 
membrance." And again : " As often as ye shall drink of this 
cup, do it in remembrance of me." And our Saviour Christ, 

Joimvi. m the 6th f J hn, speaking against the Capernaites, saith: 
" Labour for the meat that perisheth not." And when they 
asked, "What shall we do that we may work the works of 

Ibld - Godf he answered them thus : " This is the work of God, 

that ye believe in him whom he hath sent." You see how he 
exhorteth them to faith, for faith is that work of God. Again, 
" This is the bread which came down from heaven." But 

ibid. Christ's body came not down from heaven. Moreover: "He 

that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, 
and I in him. My flesh (saith he) is meat indeed, and my 
blood is drink indeed." When they heard this, they were 
offended. And whilst they were offended, he said unto them : 

ibid. lt What if ye shall see the son of man ascend up where he 

was before?" Whereby he went about to draw them from 
the gross and carnal eating. This body, saith he, shall ascend 
up into heaven, meaning altogether, as St Augustine saith: 
"It is the spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing. 
The words that I speak unto you, are spirit and life, and 
must be spiritually understood. 11 These be the reasons which 
persuade me to incline to this sentence and judgment. 


The Second Ground. 


Now my second ground against this transubstantiation The second 

•> o o ground 

are the ancient fathers a thousand years past. And so far against 

•> r transuo- 

off is it that they do confirm this opinion of transubstantiation, ^ n {j at ^ n ' 
that plainly they seem unto me both to think and to teach fathers, 
the contrary. 

Dionysius 1 in many places calleth it bread. The places are nionys. in 

mn t i • i * i • Eccle. Hie- 

so manifest and plain, that it needeth not to recite them. rar. 
Ignatius to the Philadelphians saith : " I beseech you, Ignatius 

3.(1 Phils.— 

brethren, cleave fast unto one faith, and to one kind ofdeipn. 
preaching, using together one manner of thanksgiving: for 
the flesh of the Lord Jesus is one, and his blood is one 
which was shed for us. There is also one bread broken for 
us, and one cup of the whole church 2 ." 

i Irenaeus writeth thus : " Even as the bread that cometh irenaeus,Hb. 
of the earth receiving God's vocation is now no more com- 
mon bread, but sacramental bread, consisting of two natures, 
earthly and heavenly; even so our bodies, receiving the 
Eucharist, are now no more corruptible, having hope of the 
resurrection 3 ." 

Tertullian is very plain, for he calleth it a figure of the Tertuiua- 
body, &c. 4 

[} Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita, wrote about a.d. 865, Cave. Ed.] 
Q ? TlapaKaXoou vp.d<; juia ir'urrei Kai em Kr/pwy/xaTt kcli /una 
evyapHTria ypijaBai. p-'ia yap eo-Tiv tj crap£ tou Kvp'iov 'It]<rov, 
kcu ev avTOv to alfxa to virep tjfxwv eicyvdev' ek Kai apTos toFs 
iracrtv eQpvcpQrj, Kai ev TroTtjpiov to?? oAoi? }>ievejxt]dr], ev dv<ria<rTtj- 
piov irdcnj t»} eKKXrjn-ia. S. Ignat. Ep. ad Philad. Op. Ed. Lond. Voss. 
1680, p. 176. Ed.] 

rj 1 'fli yap d-rro yrji a pros, "Kpo<r\afx(3avojxevo<; rfjv eKuXtjcriv tov 
Seov, ouk6ti koivo<! ctpTO<s ecrrtv, d\\' evyapiarTia e< $vo irpayfxaTwv 
<rvv€(TTt]Kvia, eirtyeiov re Kai ovpavtov, outws Kai Ta (rca/xaTa rjfiiov, 
fieTaXafxfidvovra tjj? evj^apicrTia^, ju^k6ti e'icnv (pdapra, Ttjv eXirida 
t»j? eh aitoi/a? ai/a<7Ta'crew? eyovra. S. Iren. cont. Heres. lib. iv. 
cap. 18. (ant. ord. 34.) Ed. Ben. Par. 1710, p. 251. Ed.] 

[* Sic enim Deus in Evangelio quoque vestro revelavit, panem corpus 
suum appellans: ut et hinc jam eum intelligas corporis sui figuram 
.pani dedisse. Tert. adv. Marcion. lib. in. Op. Ed. Rigalt. Paris, 1641, 
p. 493-4. Ed.] 



c£sarium ad Chrysostom writing to Caesarius the monk, albeit he be 
not received of divers, yet will I read the place to fasten it 
more deeply in your minds: for it seemeth to shew plainly 
the substance of bread to remain, • The words are these : 

"Before the bread is sanctified, we name it bread: but 
by the grace of Grod sanctifying the same through the minis- 
try of the priest, it is delivered from the name of bread, 
and is counted worthy to bear the name of the Lord's body, 
although the very substance of bread notwithstanding do 
still remain therein, and now is taken not to be two bodies, 
one body of the Son, Sec. 1 " 

^p?s*?6 Ilb " Cyprian saith : " Bread is made of many grains. And is 
that natural bread, and made of wheat? Yea, it is so in 
deed 2 " 

Theodore- rp^ ^^ Q £ ^heodoret, in G/eek, was lately printed at 

Rome, which if it had not been his, it should not have been 
set forth there, especially seeing it is directly against tran- 
substantiation : for he saith plainly, that bread still remaineth 
after the sanctification 3 . 

£plst!de in Gelasius also is very plain in this manner. " The sa- 
crament (saith he) which we receive of the body and blood 
of Christ, is a divine matter: by reason whereof we are 
made partakers by the same of the divine nature, and yet 
it ceaseth not still to be the substance of bread and wine. 
And certes, the representation and similitude of the body 
and blood of Christ be celebrated in the action of the 

After this he mysteries, &c. 4 " 

recited cer- •' ' 

out n o?Au- s Hesychius also confesseth that it is bread 5 , 

Justine and 

Cyril, which 

were not p s 4 See Treatise on Transubstantiation. Ed.1 

noted. „ . J 

Hesych. [j" Quo et ipso sacramento populus noster ostenditur adunatus, ut 

in Levit?iib. quemadmodum grana multa in unum collecta et commolita et commixta 

ii. cap. s. panem unum faciunt, sic in Christo qui est panis ccelestis unum sciamus 

esse corpus, cui conjunctus sit noster numerus et adunatus. S. Cyp. 

Epist. ad Csecil. Ordo novus lxiii. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1726, p. 108. 


E 5 Quomodo ergo in his non admiranda sit sapientia Spiritus ? nullam 

quippe dubietatem hujusmodi intellectui dereliquit; propterea carnes 

cum panibus comedi prsecipiens, ut nos intelligeremus, illud ab eo 

mysterium dici quod simul panis et caro est, sicut corpus Christi, panis 

vivi qui de ccelo descendit. Hesychius, Comment, in. Levit. lib. n. cap. 8. 

Op. Ed. Basil. 1527, p. 49. c. Ed.] 

duabus na- 
turis in 


Also the judgment of Bertram in this matter is very Bertram. 
plain and manifest. And thus much for the second ground. 

The Third Ground. 
The third ground is the nature of the sacrament, which The T ' lird 

, ground. 

consisteth in three things, that is, Unity, Nutrition, and ™ ree . 

° •> ' ' things in a 

Conversion. sacrament. 

1. Unity. 

As touching unity, Cyprian thus writeth : "Even as of^^rition. 
many grains is made one bread, so are we one mystical Cy ^° a n ,;. 
body of Christ." Wherefore bread must needs still remain, 
or else we destroy the nature of a sacrament. 

Also they that take away nutrition, which cometh by 
bread, do take away likewise the nature of the sacrament. 
For as the body of Christ nourisheth the soul, even so doth 
tread likewise nourish the body of man. 

Therefore they that take away the grains or the union 
of the grains in the bread, and deny the nutrition or sub- 
stance thereof, in my judgment are Sacramentaries : for they 
take away the similitude between the bread and the body 
of Christ. For they which affirm transubstantiation are 
indeed right Sacramentaries and Capernaites. 

As touching conversion (that like as the bread which Conversion. 
we receive, is turned into our substance, so are we turned 
into Christ's body), Eabanus 6 and Chrysostom 7 are witnesses Rabanus. 

m . , Chrysos- 

sumcient. tom. 

The Fourth Ground. 

They which say that Christ is carnally present in the The Fourth 
Eucharist, do take from him the verity of man's nature. The reai 

presence in 

I 6 Rabanus Maurus de Sermonis Proprietate. The work itself is lost, men^stand- 

and is not noticed by Cave : but Gesner in his " Bibliotheca" mentions ?£ h ?°* J" 4 ]? 
^ t the truth of 

two persons who had it in their possession in MS. Flacius Illyricus Christ's 
must have had access to it, for he quotes the very passage to which m 5 " 
Ridley most probably refers ; the words of Rabanus are, " Sacramentum 
in alimentum corporis redigitur : sicut ergo illud [sacramentum] in nos 
convertitur cum id manducamus et bibimus, sic et nos- in corpus Christi 
convertimur Cum obedienter et pie vivimus." Flacius Illyricus refers 
this to the fifth book and second chapter of the above-mentioned work. 
Rabanus Maurus was Abbot of Fulda, and. died a.d. 856. Ed.] 
P See notes to Disputations, infra. JSd.] 



Tract. 30. 

Tract. 50. 

Eutyches granted the divine nature in Christ, but his human 
nature he denied. So they that defend transubstantiation 
ascribe that to the human nature, which only belongeth to 
the divine nature. 

The Fifth Ground. 

Jr h ouncL l1 The fifth ground is the certain persuasion of this article 

of faith, " He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right 
hand, fee." 

£CT S "oanf u ' Augustine saith : " The Lord is above, even to the end of 
the world ; but yet the verity of the Lord is here also. For 
his body wherein he rose again, must needs be in one place, 
but his verity is spread abroad every where 1 . 1 ' 

Also, in another place he saith : " Let the godly receive 
also that sacrament, but let them not be careful (speaking 
there of the presence of his body 2 .) For as touching his 
majesty, his providence, his invisible and unspeakable grace, 

xxviii.' these words are fulfilled which he spake, ' I am with you unto 
the end of the world.' But according to the flesh which he 
took upon him, according to that which was born of the 
Virgin, was apprehended of the Jews, was fastened to a tree, 
taken down again from the cross, lapped in linen clothes, 
was buried and rose again, and appeared after his resurrection, 
so you shall not have me always with you. And why ? because 
that as concerning his flesh he was conversant with his dis- 
ciples forty days, and they accompanying him, seeing him, 
but not following him, he went up into heaven, and is not 
here, for he sitteth at the right hand of his Father, and yet 
he is here, because he is not departed hence, as concerning 
the presence of his divine majesty 3 ." 

Mark and consider well what St Augustine saith : " He is 
ascended into heaven, and is not here, 11 saith he. Believe 

[} Sursum est Dominus: sed etiam hie est Veritas Domini. Corpus 
enim Domini in quo resurrexit, uno loco esse potest : Veritas ejus ubique 
diffusa est. S. Aug. in Johan. Evan. Tract xxx. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, 
torn. iii. col. 517. Ed.] 

P Accipiunt hoc et boni, sed non sint soliciti : loquebatur enim de . 
preesentia corporis sui. S. Aug. in Johan. Evan. Tract, l. Op. Ed. Ben. 
Par. 1685, torn. iii. col. 633-4. Ed.] 

P See Treatise on Transubstantiation. Ed.] 



not them therefore which say, that he is here still in the 

Moreover, "Doubt not (saith the same Augustine) hut Ijjgjf*^ 
that Jesus Christ, as concerning the nature of his manhood, 
is there from whence he shall come. And remember well and 
believe the profession of a Christian man, that he rose from 
death, ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand 
of his Father, and from that place and none other (not from 
the altars) shall he come to judge the quick and the dead, 
and he shall come, as the angel said, as he was seen to go 
into heaven ; that is to say, in the same form and substance, 
unto the which he gave immortality, but changed not nature. 
After this form (meaning his human nature) we may not 
think that it is every where 4 . 1 '' 

And in the same epistle he saith : " Take away from the A b "^ st 
•bodies limitation of places, and they shall be no where : and 
because they are no where, they shall not be at all 3 .'" 

Vigilius saith: "If the word and the flesh be both ofS'f 
one nature, seeing that the word is every where, why then ub'Iv. ien- 
is not the flesh also every where ? For when it was in earth, 
then verily it was not in heaven : and now when it is in 
heaven, it is not surely in earth. And it is so certain, that 
it is not in earth, that as concerning the same we look for 
him from heaven, whom, as concerning the word, we believe 
to be with us in earth 6 . ,, 

p Noli itaque dubitare ibi nunc esse hominem Christum Jesum, unde 
venturus est, memoriterque recole et fideliter tene Christianam con- 
fessionem, quoniam resurrexit a mortuis, adscendit in coelum, sedet ad 
dexteram Patris, nee aliunde quam inde venturus est ad vivos mortuos- 
que judicandos. Et sic venturus est, ilia angelica voce testante, quem- 
admodum ire visus est in coelum, id est, in eadem carnis forma atque 
substantia; cui profecto immortalitatem dedit, naturam non abstulit. 
S. Aug. Ep. ad Dard. (Ordo novus clxxxvii.) Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, 
torn. ii. col. 681. En.] 

\_ 5 Nam spatia locorum tolle corporibus, nusquam erunt; et quia 
nusquam erunt, nee erunt. lb. col. 683. Ed.] 

rj* Deinde si verbi et carnis una natura est, quomodo cum verbum 
ubique sit, non ubique inveniatur et caro? namque quando in terra 
fuit, non erat utique in coelo, et nunc quia in ccelo est, non est utique 
in terra ; et in tantum non est, ut secundum ipsam Christum spectemus 
venturum de coelo, quem secundum verbum nobiscum esse credimus in 
terra. Vigil, cont. Eutych. Tiguri, 1539, p. 73. Ed.] 



Also, the same Vigilius saith : " Which things seeing 
they be so, the course of the scripture must be searched of 
us, and many testimonies must be gathered, to shew plainly 
what a wickedness and sacrilege it is to refer those things to 
the property of the divine nature, which do only belong to the 
nature of the flesh ; and contrariwise, to apply those things 
unto the nature of the flesh, which do properly belong to 
the divine nature 1 .''' Which thing the transubstantiators do, 
whilst they affirm Christ's body not to be contained in any 
one place, and ascribe that to his humanity, which properly 
belongeth to his divinity : as they do which will have Christ's 
body to be in no one certain place limited, 
conclusion. Now, in the latter conclusion concerning the sacrifice, 
because it dependeth upon the first, I will in few words de- 
clare what I think. For if we did once agree in that, the 
whole controversy in the other would soon be at an end. 
Two things there be which do persuade me that this con- 
clusion is true : that is, certain places of the scripture, and 
also certain testimonies of the fathers. 
Heb. ix. St Paul saith, "Christ being become an high priest of good 

Christ's" ° f ^ nm g s t° come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, 
)'°<iy- not made with hands, that is, not of this building, neither 

by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood, 
entered once into the holy place, and obtained for us eter- 
nal redemption, &c. and now in the end of the world he hath 
appeared once to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself." 
Heb. x. And again : " Christ was once offered to take away the sins 
of many." Moreover he saith : " With one offering hath he 
made perfect for ever those that are sanctified." 
offeredbut er These scriptures do persuade me to believe that there 
once. j s no other oblation of Christ, (albeit I am not ignorant 

there are many sacrifices) but that which was once made 
upon the cross. 

The testimonies of the ancient fathers which confirm the 
BonifjipTst. same, are out of Augustine ad Bonifac. Epist. 23. Again in 

£ l Quae cum ita sint, series nobis divinaram percurrenda est litera- 
min, et plurima testimonia eongerenda, quibus demonstretur, quam sit 
impium et sacrilegum ea, qua sunt propria carnis Christi, ad naturae 
verbi proprietatem referre, et quae sunt propria verbis proprietati nature 
carnis adscribere. Id. lib. v. p. 88. Ed.J 


his book of Questions, in the 61st Question. Also in his qS*- 61# 
book against Faustus the Manichee, Book xx. Chap. 21. And £^- s c _ "- 
in the same book against the said Faustus, Chap. 18. thus*"™'^- 3 ™- 
he writeth : " Now the Christians keep a memorial of the 
sacrifice past, with a holy oblation and participation of the 
body and blood of Christ 2 ." Fulgentius in his book De Fide 
calleth the same oblation a commemoration. And these 
things are sufficient for this time for a scholastical determi- 
nation of these matters 3 . 

Q 2 Unde jam Christiani peracti ejusdem sacrificii memoriam cele- 
brant sacrosancta oblatione et participatione corporis et sanguinis 
Christi. S. Aug. cont. Faust, lib. xx. cap. 18. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, 
torn. ix. col. 345. Ed.] 

Q 3 The other passages from St Augustine are to be found in the 
notes to the Treatise on Transubstantiation : see pp. 39, 40, 41. Ed.] 

12 o 

Judicium de Epistolis decretalibus. 

Nicolai Eidlei episcopi Londinensis judicium de epistolis 
decretalibus, sc. dementis, Anacleti, Lucii, Pontiani, et 
aliorum vetustissimorum pontificum. 

E MSB. Bill. Coll. Emm. apud Cantab. 

Ego sane censeo esse supposititias et ab impostoribus 
subornatas, ut crederentur false- esse patrum decreta — nee 
possum adduci ut credam quse citantur ex decretalibus epistolis 
Gelasii et Vigilii et [aliorum] Pontificum Romanorum, esse 
vere illorum. Nunquam credam tam doctos viros tantopere 
delirasse, ut Petrum Cephas dictum dicerent quia esset caput, 
quod Cephas caput significaret. Et Jacobum mortuum esse 
constat priusquam Clemens in sede Romana constitutus est. 
Multaque prseterea illic scribuntur, quse ab illius temporis 
conditione prorsus sunt alienissima. In una, epistola, sicut 
memini, dicitur, quod, sicut uxor ob nullam viri culpam potest 
virum deserere, ita nunquam ecclesia potest deponere suum 
episcopum propter ulla crimina, &c. 

Et doctrina talis multa est in illis, quse, collata cum classi- 
cis scriptoribus et veteribus, facile meo judicio ostendit illas 
non esse istorum pontificum Romanorum, qui fuerunt viri 
doctissimi et sanctissimi. Hsec ego respondenda esse censeo 
Bradfordo meo ad suam qusestionem de authoritate harum 

De phrasi in epistolis ascriptis Pontiano, in qua, dicitur, 
" Presbyteri ore conficiunt corpus Christi", nihil est quod 
quemcunque offendat, si more veterum intelligatur verbum : ita 
enim loquitur Hieronymus; "Absit ut aliquid mali suspi- 
cietur de iis qui ore sacro dominicum corpus conficiunt 1 ." 

[} The following passage was probably that to which Ridley referred, 
" Absit ut de his [clericis] quidquam sinistrum loquar, quia Apostolico 


" Oonficere corpus Domini" 1111s nihil aliud erat quam conficere 
sacramentum corporis Domini, quee pars erat ministerii nostri 
Domini; nam qui ministrabant verbum Dei, iidem et panem 
perpetuo frangebant, et ut Tertullianus 2 ait, antiquitus " non Paulas, 
nisi de prsesidentium manu panem dominicum sumere consue- Act. xx. 
verunt, 11 hoc est, non [nisi] ab 1111s sanctificatum. Et quod 
ad honorem presbyterorum pertinet, si modb tales essent 
quales esse deberent, qui et in verbo et doctrina laborarent, 
quales multos fuisse in illo tempore valde est credibile, status 
est vere venerabilium et honorabilium virorum. 

gradui succedentes, Christi corpus sacro ore conficiunt, per quos et nos 
Christiani sumus. S. Hieron. Epist. 5. ad. Heliodorum Monachum. 
Op. Ed. Ben. Par. torn. iv. pars 2. p. 10. Ed.] 

[ 2 The words of Tertullian are: " Eucharistise sacramentum et in 
tempore victus, et omnibus mandatum a Domino, etiam antelucanis 
ccetibus, nee de aliorum manu quam prsesidentium sumimus." De Co-> 
rona, cap. 8. Op. Rigalt. Paris, 1641. p. 121. Ed.] 


From the MSS. in the Library of Emmanuel Coll. Camo. 

[The Judgement of Nicholas Bidley, Bishop of London, con- 
cerning the decretal epistles, to wit, those of Clement, 
Anacletus, Lucius, Pontianus, and other most ancient 

I fully believe them to be supposititious and suborned by 
impostors, that they might falsely be deemed to be the decrees 
of the fathers. Nor can I be induced to believe those passages 
which are cited from the decretal epistles of Gelasius and 
Vigilius, and of [other] Roman pontiffs, to be truly theirs. 
I will never believe such learned men so to have raved, as 
to say that Peter was called Cephas because he was the 
head, for that Cephas signifies "head." And it is evident 
that James was dead before Clement was appointed to the 
Boman see. And many other things besides are there written 
which are altogether inconsistent with the circumstances of 
that period. In one epistle it is asserted, as I remember, 
that as a wife may not on account of any fault in her hus- 
band desert her husband, so neither could a Church, on 
account of any crimes, depose her Bishop. 

And much of such doctrine is there in them, which, when 
compared with the old and classical writers, shews them 
easily, in my judgement, not to be the works of those Boman 
Pontiffs, who were most learned and holy men. Thus then 
do I think it well to answer my Bradford's question concern- 
ing the authority of these epistles. 

As to the phrase in the epistles ascribed to Pontianus, 
in which it is said, "the priests with their mouth make 
[conficiunt] the body of Christ", — there is nothing which can 
offend any body, if the word be understood after the usage 
of the ancients — for so also speaks Jerome : " Let there be 


no evil suspected of those who by their sacred mouth make 
[conficiwnt] the Lord's body [corpus dominicum~\. For with 
them to make [conficere] the body of the Lord, was no other 
than to make [conficere] the sacrament of the Lord's body, 
which was a part of the ministry of our Lord ; for they who 
ministered the word of God, the same also perpetually broke 
bread — and as Tertullian says, " anciently they were not st Paul, 

11-IP1T1 ,- ACtS "• XX ' 

accustomed to receive the bread ot the Lord save from the 
hands of those presiding over them — i. e. unless it had been 
sanctified by them. 

And as to what concerns the honour of the priests, if 
only they were, as they ought to be, men who laboured 
both in the word and in doctrine, such as in that period 
it is highly credible that many were, [then] is it truly the 
position of venerable and honourable men. Ed.] 


























The next day following, which was the 17th 1 of April, f™^^* 
[1555] was brought forth Dr Ridley to dispute ; against whom jg2J"y* 
was set Dr Smith 2 to be principal opponent. Touching which 
Dr Smith, forsomuch as mention here happeneth of his name, 
first the reader is to be advertised what is to be attributed 
to his judgment in religion, who so oftentimes before had 
turned and returned to and fro, grounded (as it seemeth) upon 
no firm conscience of doctrine, as both by his articles by him 

[} This is said in some editions to have been April 12th. in others 
April 18th, and in the MSS. in the library of C.C.C. at Cambridge to 
have taken place on April 2, but Tuesday, April 17th, appears to have 
been the correct date. Strype in his life of Cranmer, (Book in. chap. 10.) 
gives the order of the proceedings day by day, grounding it as he alleges 
on a letter written by Dr Weston himself to the Bishop of London 
(Bonner) : from this account it seems, that by a legal instrument the 
University of Cambridge authorised their Commissioners to go to Ox- 
ford to the Disputation ; this was done by the Senate, April 10th, and 
at the same time a letter was written by the authority of the Senate 
to the University of Oxford ; both these documents, viz. the legal in- 
strument and the letter are given by Strype; (Append, nos. 77, 78,) 
the process commenced on Saturday. Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer 
disputed on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. On Wednesday, April 
18th, the disputations ended, and on Friday, April 20th, all the three 
disputants were condemned. Ed.] 

Q 2 A full account of Dr Smith, together with the reason of his 
leaving England will be found in Strype's life of Cranmer, Book n. 
chap. 7 and 22. Ed.] 



recanted may appear, and also by his own letter sent a little 
before in king Edward's days to the archbishop of Canterbury 
from Scotland. Which letter I thought here to exhibit as 
a certain preface before his own arguments, or rather as a 
testimony against himself, whereby the reader may understand 
how devoutly he magnified them and their doctrine a little 
before, against whom he now disputeth so busily. Read I 
beseech thee his epistle, and judge. 

Dr Smith 
to write 
lor the 
of priests. 

The true Copy of a certain Epistle of Dr Richard Smith to 
Dr Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, declaring his 
Affection to the setting forth of God's sincere Word. 

Most honourable, I commend me unto your lordship, doing 
the same to understand, that I wrote letters to your grace in 
January last and the 10th day of February, declaring the 
causes of my sudden and unadvised departing from your grace 
over the sea ; and desiring your good lordship, of your charity 
toward them that repent of their ill acts, to forgive me your- 
self all the wrong I did towards your grace, and to obtain 
in writing the king's majesty's pardon for me in all points 
concerning his laws : upon the receipt whereof I would re- 
turn again home, and, within half a year (at the uttermost) 
afterward, write " De Sacerdotum Connubiis," etc. a Latin 
book that should be a just satisfaction for any thing that I 
have written against the same. Reliquaque omnia dogmata 
vestra turn demum libentur amplexurum, ubi Deus mentem 
meam [ita persuadeat] ut ea citra conscientise laesionem 
agnoscam doceamque. I wrote not this that I want any 
good living here, but because mine absence out of the realm 
is dishonour to the king's highness and realm, and because 
I must need's (if I tarry here a quarter of a year longer) 
write an answer to your grace's book of the sacrament, and 
also a book of common places against all the doctrine set 
forth by the king's majesty, which I cannot do with a good 
conscience. Wherefore I beseech your grace help me home, 
as soon as you may conveniently, for God's sake ; and ye 
shall never, I trust in God, repent that fact. 
Ex urbe divi Andrese. 14. Feb. [15-50.] 

Rich. Smitheus. 


And thus much touching the forenamed Dr Richard Smith, 
being set here (as is said) to dispute against bishop Ridley, 
who was brought now, the next day after the archbishop, to 
answer in the divinity school. Against whom also, besides 
Dr Smith, disputed Dr Weston, Dr Tresham, Dr Oglethorpe, Dis P n ^ t ers 
Dr Glyn, Dr Seton, and Dr Cole, Master Ward, Master Ridley. 
Harpsfield, Dr Watson, Master Pie, Master Harding, Master 
Curtop, Master Fecknam : to all them he answered very 
learnedly. He made a preface to these questions, but they 
would not let him go forth in it, but caused him to make 
an end of the same, and said it was blasphemy. And 
some said, he drove off the time in ambiguous things, no- 
thing to the purpose ; and so they would not suffer him to 
say his mind. Dr Smith could get nothing at his hand ; 
insomuch that others did take his arguments and pro- 
secuted them. He shewed himself to be learned, and a 
great clerk. They could bring nothing, but he knew it as 
well as they. 

The Disputation beginneth. 

Weston the Prolocutor : — " Good christian people and 
brethren, we have begun this day our school, by God's good 
speed, I trust ; and are entering into a controversy, whereof 
no question ought to be moved, concerning the verity of the 
body of our Lord Jesu Christ in the eucharist. Christ is true* 
who said the words. The words are true which he spake, yea, 
truth itself that cannot fail. Let us therefore pray unto God 
to send down unto us his holy Spirit, which is the true in- 
terpreter of his word ; which may purge away errors, and 
give light, that verity may appear. Let us also ask leave 
and liberty of the church, to permit the truth received to 
be called this day in question, without any prejudice to the 
same. Your parts thereof shall be to implore the assistance 
of Almighty God, to pray for the prosperity of the queen's 
majesty, and to give us quiet and attentive ears. Now go 
to your question." 

Dr Smith : — " This day, right learned Master Doctor, three ^ s ques " 
questions are propounded, whereof no controversy among 
Christians ought to be moved, to wit; 


" First, Whether the natural body of Christ our Saviour 
conceived of the Virgin Mary, and offered for man's 
redemption upon the cross, is verily and really in the 
sacrament by virtue of God's word spoken by the 
priests, &c. 

" Secondly, Whether in the sacrament, after the words of 
consecration, be any other substance, &c. 

" Thirdly, Whether in the mass be a sacrifice propi- 
tiatory, &c. 

" Touching the which questions, although you have pub- 
licly and apertly professed your judgment and opinion on 
Saturday last ; yet being not satisfied with that your an- 
swer, I will essay again to demand your sentence in the first 
question — whether the true body of Christ, after the words 
pronounced, be really in the eucharist, or else only the figure. 
In which matter I stand here now to hear your answer." 

The Preface or Protestation of Dr Ridley before his 
Disputation. 1 

" I received of you the other day, right worshipful master 
prolocutor, and ye my reverend masters, commissioners from 
the queen's majesty and her honourable council, three propo- 
sitions ; whereunto ye commanded me to prepare against this 
day, what I thought good to answer concerning the same. 

" Now, whilst I weighed with myself how great a charge 
of the Lord's flock was of late committed unto me, for the 
which I am certain I must once render an account to my 
Lord Cod (and that how soon, he knoweth), and that more- 
over, by the commandment of the Apostle Peter, I ought to 
be ready alway to give a reason of the hope that is in me with 
meekness and reverence, unto every one that shall demand 
the same : beside this, considering my duty to the Church of 
Christ, and to your worships, being commissioners by public 
authority ; I determined with myself to obey your command- 
ment, and so openly to declare unto you my mind touching 
moral tne a f° re said propositions. And albeit, plainly to confess 

alterhis. [} This Preface or Protestation exists in Ridley's own Latin, and 

will be found in Appendix I. Ed.] 


unto you the truth in these things which ye now demand of {J^luiie* 
me, I have thought otherwise in times past than now I do, jJJJJJ£ h of 
yet (God I call to record unto my soul, I lie not) I have 
not altered my judgment, as now it is, either by constraint 
of any man or laws, either for the dread of any dangers of 
this world, either for any hope of commodity; but only for 
the love of the truth revealed unto me by the grace of God 
(as I am undoubtedly persuaded) in his holy word, and in 
the reading of the ancient fathers. 

" These things I do rather recite at this present, because 
it may happen to some of you hereafter, as in times past it 
hath done to me : I mean, if ye think otherwise of the matters 
propounded in these propositions than now I do, God may 
open them unto you in time to come. 

"But howsoever it shall be, I will in few words do that 
'which I think ye all look I should do; that is, as plainly as 
I can, I will declare my judgment herein. Howbeit of this 
I would ye were not ignorant, that I will not indeed wittingly 
and willingly speak in any point against God's word, or dissent 
in any one jot from the same, or from the rules of faith, and 
christian religion: which rules that same most sacred word 
of God prescribeth to the church of Christ, whereunto I now 
and for ever submit myself and all my doings. And because Ri ^% 

J . . submit- 

the matter I have now taken in hand is weighty, and ye all jjj|j]j *™^ 
well know how unready I am to handle it accordingly, as well c ^^ of 
for lack of time, as also lack of books ; therefore here I pro- 
test, that I will publicly this day require of you, that it may 
be lawful for me, concerning all mine answers, explications, 
and confirmations, to add or diminish whatsoever shall seem 
hereafter more convenient and meet for the purpose, through 
more sound judgment, better deliberation, and more exact 
trial of every particular thing. Having now, by the way of 
preface and protestation, spoken these few words, I will come 
to the answering of the propositions propounded unto me, and 
so to the most brief explication and confirmation of mine 

Weston: — "Eeverend master doctor, concerning the lack 
of books there is no cause why you should complain. What ™e«™' 
books soever you will name, ye shall have them ; and as not kept " 
concerning the judgment of your answers to be had of your- 




self with further deliberation, it shall, I say, be lawful for 
you, until Sunday next, to add unto them what you shall 
think good yourself. My mind is, that we should use short 
arguments, lest we should make an infinite process of the 

Ridley : — " There is another thing besides, which I would 
gladly obtain at your hands. I perceive that you have writers 
and notaries here present. By all likelihood our disputations 
shall be published 1 : I beseech you for God's sake, let me 
have liberty to speak my mind freely, and without interrup- 
tion ; not because I have determined to protract the time 
with a solemn preface, but lest it may appear that some be 
not satisfied. God wot I am no orator, nor have I learned 
rhetoric to set colours on the matter." 

Weston: — -" Among this whole company it shall be per- 
mitted you to take two for your part." 

Ridley. — "I will choose two, if there are any here with 
whom I were acquainted." 
These two Weston : — " Here are two which master Oranmer had 


were master yesterday. Take them, if it please you." 

Jewel, some- <> J ' r J 

ofSau«bu? p Ridley: — "I am content with them; I trust they are 

Gilbeft 8161 '' honest men " 

The First Proposition. 

In the sacrament of the altar, by the virtue of God's 
word spoken of the priest, the natural body of Christ, born 
of the Virgin Mary, and his natural blood are really present 
under the forms of bread and wine. 

The Answer of Dr Ridley. 

The pro- Ridley: — "In matters appertaining to God we may not 

put forth speak according to the sense of man, nor of the world : there- 
in dark / ° . . . ' . 

terms. lore this proposition or conclusion is framed after another 
manner of phrase or kind of speech than the Scripture useth. 

[} " Shall be published." Dr Wordsworth says : " However this 
might be intended by the Romish party, yet the design was never 
executed, for reasons which it requires no CEdipus to conjecture. 
They were challenged by the Protestants to make them public. ' And 
yet for all this, I warrant you, they be not hasty in putting forth 
the disputations in print. As much as they brag, I dare say they 
will never put them forth.'" E».]] 


Again, it is very obscure* and dark, by means of sundry words 
of doubtful signification. And being taken in the sense which 
the schoolmen teach, and at this time the church of Eome 
doth defend, it is false and erroneous, and plain contrary to 
the doctrine which is according; to godliness.'" 

The Explication. 

Midley: — "How far the diversity and newness of the 
phrase, in all this first proposition, is from the phrase of 
the holy Scripture, and that in every part almost, it is so 
plain and evident to any that is but meanly exercised in holy 
writ, that I need not now (especially in this company of 
learned men), to spend any time therein, except the same 
shall be required of me hereafter. 

" First, there is a doubtful sense in these words ' bv virtue f irs * 

* . . doubt. 

of God's word :' for it is doubtful what word of God this is ; 
whether it be that which is read in the evangelists, or in Paul, 
or any other. And if it be that which is in the evangelists, or 
in St Paul, what that is. If it be in none of them, then how 
it may be known to be God's word, and of such virtue that 
it should be able to work so great a matter. 

" Again, there is a doubt in these words ' of the priest,' fo^t? 
whether no man may be called a priest, but he which hath 
authority to make propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and the 
dead ; and how it may be proved that this authority was com- 
mitted of God to any man, but to Christ alone. 

"It is likewise doubted, after what order the sacrificing Third 

& doubt. 

priest shall be, whether after the order of Aaron, or else 
after the order of Melchizedek. For as far as I know, the 
holy Scripture doth allow no more." 

Weston : — " Let this be sufficient." 

Hidley : — " If we lack time at this present, there is time 
enough hereafter." 

Weston : — " These are but evasions or starting holes : you 
consume the time in vain." 

Bidley : — " I cannot start far from you : I am captive 
and bound." 

Weston: — "Fall to it, my masters." 

Smith : — " That which, you have spoken, may suffiee at 
this present." 




Ridley : — " Let me alone, I pray you ; for I have not 
much to say behind." 

Weston : — " Go forward." 

fourth Ridley: — "Moreover, there is ambiguity in this word 

'really,'' whether it be to be taken as the logicians term it, 
' transcendenter ;' that is, most generally : and so it may sig- 
nify any manner of thing which belongeth to the body of 
Christ, by any means : after which sort we also grant Christ's 
body to be really in the sacrament of the Lord's supper 
(as in disputation, if occasion be given, shall be declared), or 
whether it be taken to signify the very same thing, having 
body, life, and soul, which was assumed and taken of the 
word of God into the unity of person. In which sense, since 
the body of Christ is really in heaven, because of the true 
manner of his body, it may not be said to be here in the 

St. "There is yet a further doubtfulness in these words, 

'under the forms of bread and wine,' whether the forms be 
there taken to signify the only accidental and outward shews 
of bread and wine ; or therewithal the substantial natures 
thereof, which are to be seen by their qualities, and perceived 

^sltwn ^ exterior senses. Now the error and falseness of the pro- 
position, after the sense of the Roman church and schoolmen, 
may hereby appear, in that they affirm the bread to be 

church. transubstantiated and changed into the flesh assumed of the 
word of God, and that (as they say) by virtue of the word, 
which they have devised by a certain number of words, and 
cannot be found in any of the evangelists, or in Paul; and 
so they gather that Christ's body is really contained in the 

Transub- sacrament of the altar. Which position is grounded upon 

stantiation x ° \ 

not founded the foundation of the transubstantiation ; which foundation 

in scripture. 

is monstrous, against reason, and destroyeth the analogy or 
proportion of the sacraments ; and therefore this proposition 
also, which is builded upon this rotten foundation, is false, 
erroneous, and to be counted as a detestable heresy of the 

Weston : — " We lose time." 
Ridley: — "You shall have time enough." 
Weston : — " Fall to reasoning. ■ You shall have some 
other day for this matter." 

after the 
sense of 
the Romish 



Ridley : — " I have no more to say concerning my ex- 
plication. If you will give me leave, and let me alone, I 
will but speak a word or two for my confirmation." 
Weston : — " Go to ; say on." 

The Confirmation of the aforesaid Ansiver. 

Fes- 1 Ridley:—" There ought no doctrine to be established Argunient - 
in the church of God, which dissenteth from the 
word of God, from the rule of faith, and draweth 
with it many absurdities that cannot be avoided. 
ti- "But this doctrine of the first proposition is such: 
no. "Ergo, It ought not to be established and maintained 
in the church of God. 
" The major or first part of my argument is plain, and 
the minor or second part is proved thus: 

" This doctrine maintaineth a real, corporal, and carnal 
presence of Christ's flesh, assumed and taken of the word, 
to be in the sagrament of the Lord's supper, and that not 
by virtue and grace only, but also by the whole essence and 
substance of the body and flesh of Christ. 

" But such a presence disagreeth from God's word, from The real 

• i i it presence 

the rule of faith, and cannot but draw with it many ab- '•isagreeth 

J from Scnp- 

surdities : *■»«. 

" Ergo, The second part is true. 

"The first part of this argument is manifest, and the 
second may yet further be confirmed thus:" — 

Weston: — " Thus you consume time, which might be better Weston 

° again inter- 

bestOWed on other matters. Master opponent, I pray you to ^{5i et r h 

your arguments." 

Smith : — " I will here reason with you upon transubstan- 

17 It may be well to observe, that ratiocination, according to the 
rules of logic, is conducted by means of figures and moods, as they 
are termed ; these are couched in certain mnemonic words, which have 
been put into five mnemonic hexameters, as follows: 

Fig. 1. Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferioque prioris. 
Fig. 2. Cesare, Camestres, Festino, Baroco, secundae. 
_. „ rTertia, Darapti, Disamis, Datisi, Velapton. 
t"" ' iBokardo, Feriso habet. quarta insuper addit, 

IBramantip, Camenes, Damaris, Felapo, Fresison. 
See also Abp. Whately's Logic. Ed/] 



Seven in- 


tiation, which you say is contrary to the rule and analogy 
of faith ; the contrary whereof I proved by the Scriptures and 
the doctors. But before I enter argumentation with you, I 
demand first, whether in the sixth chapter of John there be 
any mention made of the sacrament, or of the real presence 
of Christ in the sacrament V 

Ridley: — " It is against reason, that I should be impeached 
to prosecute that which I have to speak in this assembly ; being 
not so long, but that it may be comprehended in few words." 

Weston : — " Let him read on." 

Ridley : — " First of all, this presence is contrary to many 

e ?thereS e P^ aces °f tne no ty Scripture. 

" Secondly, it varieth from the articles of the faith. 

" Thirdly, it destroyeth and taketh away the institution 
of the Lord's supper. 

" Fourthly, it maketh precious things common to profane 
and ungodly persons; for it casteth that which is holy unto 
dogs, and pearls unto swine. 

" Fifthly, it forceth men to maintain many monstrous mi- 
racles without necessity and authority of God's word. 

" Sixthly, it giveth occasion to the heretics, who erred 
concerning the two natures in Christ, to defend their here- 
sies thereby. 

" Seventhly, it falsifieth the sayings of the godly fathers ; 
it falsifieth also the catholic faith of the church, which the 
Apostles taught, the martyrs confirmed, and the faithful (as 
one of the fathers saith) do retain and keep until this day. 
Wherefore the second part of mine argument is true." 


The Probation of the second or minor 1 part of this 
Argument oy the parts thereof. 

The seven 
ences de- 
clared by- 
John xvi. 
Acts iii. 

" This carnal presence is contrary to the word of God, 
as appeareth thus : — ■' I tell you the truth. It is profitable 
to you that I go away; for if I go not away, the Comforter 
shall not come unto you.' ' Whom the heavens must receive 
until the time of restoring of all things which God hath 

\} Some editions have " antecedent or former part" ; but on a 
reference to the syllogism in p. 197, — Festino, — it is plainly the second 
or minor against which Ridley is here arguing. Ed.] 



spoken.' ' The children of the bridegroom cannot mourn so 1. The real 

& presence 

loner as the bridegroom is with them : but now is the time against the 

„ „ - Scripture. 

of mourning.'' ' But I will see you again, and your hearts Matt. ix. 
shall rejoice. 1 ' I will come again and take you to myself.' J°h« xiv - 
'If they shall say unto you, Behold, here is Christ, or there Matt. xxiv. 
is Christ, believe them not : for wheresoever the dead carcass 
is, thither the eagles will resort.' 

" It varieth from the articles of the faith : ' He ascended ?,• Against 

the articles 

into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the of me faith. 
Father, from whence (and not from any other place, saith St 
Augustine), he shall come to judge both the quick and 
the dead.' 

" It destroyeth and taketh away the institution of the s. it de- 

J ill stroyeth the 

Lord's supper, which was commanded only to be used and institution 

rr ■> _ J of the Lord's 

continued until the Lord himself should come. If, therefore, supper. 
he be now really present in the body of his flesh, then must 
the supper cease : for a remembrance is not of a thing present,. 
but of a thing past and absent. And there is a difference be- 
tween remembrance and presence, and, as one of the fathers 
saith, 'A figure is in vain where the thing figured is present.' 

" It maketh precious things common to profane and un- ^ n I e t th ?r & c 
godly persons, and constraineth men to confess many absur- 
dities. For it affirmeth, that whoremongers and murderers, 
yea, and (as some of them hold opinion) the wicked and 
faithless, mice, rats, and dogs also, may receive the very real 
and corporal body of the Lord, wherein the fulness of the 
Spirit of light and grace dwelleth : contrary to the manifest 
words of Christ in six places and sentences of John vi. 

" It confirmeth also and maintaineth that beastly kind of 
cruelty of the 'Anthropophagi,' that is, the devourers of man's ™ e " An - 
flesh: for it is a more cruel thins; to devour a quick man, vtwi" are 

° * 'a kind of 

than to slay him." brutish 

J people that 

Pie: — "He requireth time to speak blasphemies. Leave ^d on ^ 
your blasphemies." 

Eidky: — " I had little thought to have had such reproach- 
ful words at your hands 2 ." 

Weston : — " All is quiet. Go to your arguments, master 

P See Ridley's account of this tumultuous behaviour, among the 
documents before the letters. Ed.] 


Ridley : — " I have not many more things to say." 
Weston : — " You utter blasphemies with a most impudent 
face: leave off, I say, and get you to the argument." 
thitfoitow- Ridley. — "It forceth men to maintain many monstrous 
rea/bc 1101 m h"acles, without any necessity and authority of God's word. 
C roio e cutor ^ or at tne com * n g °f tn i s presence of the body and flesh of 
haste t» the Christ, they thrust away the substance of bread, and affirm- 
arguments, that the accidents remain without any subject; and, in the 
taineth stead thereof, they place Christ's body without his qualities and 

monstrous P 

miracles the true manner of a body. And if the sacrament be re- 

without ne- . . J 

cessity. served so long until it mould, and worms breed, some say 
that the substance of bread miraculously returneth again, and 
some deny it. Other some affirm, the real body of Christ goeth 
down into the stomach of the receivers, and doth there abide 
so long only as they shall continue to be good. But another 
sort hold, that the body of Christ is carried into heaven, so 
soon as the forms of bread be braised with the teeth. works 
of miracles ! Truly, and most truly, I see that fulfilled in these 

2 Thess. ii. men, whereof St Paul prophesied, ' Because they have not 
received the love of the truth, that they might be saved, God 
shall send them strong delusions, that they should believe 

By this dc- lies, and be all damned which have not believed the truth.' 

vice of con- 
comitance, This gross presence hath brought forth that fond phantasy of 

the papists . . . 

imagine as concomitance, whereby is broken at this day and abrogated 

much to be ' •' jo 

received un- the commandment of the Lord for the distributing of the 

aer one kind ~ 

as both. Lord's cup to the laity. 

r>. it giveth " It giveth occasion to heretics to maintain and defend 

occasion to ° 

heretics, their errors ; as to Marcion, which said that Christ had but 
a phantastical body; and to Eutyches, which wickedly con- 
founded the two natures in Christ. 
eththfsi 6 " "Finally, it falsifieth the sayings of the godly fathers 
o"f doctor! anc * *^e cat holic faith of the church, which Vigilius, a martyr 
and grave writer, saith, was taught of the apostles, confirmed 
with the blood of martyrs, and was continually maintained 
by the faithful until his time. By the sayings of the fathers, 
I mean of Justin, Irenseus, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius 
Emissenus 1 , Athanasius, Cyril, Epiphanius, Jerome, Chrysos- 

[} Eusebius, Bp. of Emesa or Emissa, in Syria, and here called 
Emissenus, to distinguish him from Eusebius the historian: it is 
however probable, that the writer here referred to is Eusebius Philo- 


torn, Augustine, Vigilius, Fulgentius, Bertram, and other most 
ancient fathers. All those places, as I am sure I have read 
making for my purpose, so am I well assured that I could 
shew the same, if I might have the use of mine own books; 
which I will take on me to do, even upon the peril of my 
life, and loss of all that I may lose in this world. 

"But now, my brethren, think not, because I disallow The faith 

7 J ' ' and confes- 

that presence which the first proposition maintaineth (as a |j|»" of . 
presence which I take to be forged, phantastical, and, beside \^^ Te 
the authority of God's word, perniciously brought into the sence in the 

J ' L jo sacrament. 

church by the Bomanists), that I therefore go about to take 
away the true presence of Christ's body in his supper rightly 
and duly ministered, which is grounded upon the word of God, 
and made more plain by the commentaries of the faithful 
fathers. They that think so of me, the Lord knoweth how far 
they are deceived. And to make the same evident unto you, 
I will in few words declare, what true presence of Christ's 
body in the sacrament of the Lord's supper I hold and 
affirm, with the word of God and the ancient fathers. 

" I say and confess with the evangelist Luke, and with st Paul, 
the Apostle Paul, that the bread on the which thanks are 
given, is the body of Christ in the remembrance of him and 
his death, to be set forth perpetually of the faithful until 
his coming. 

" I say and confess, the bread which we break to be the 
communion and partaking of Christ's body, with the ancient 
and the faithful fathers. 

" I say and believe, that there is not only a signification Cyprian. 
of Christ's body set forth by the sacrament, but also that 
therewith is given to the godly and faithful the grace of 
Christ's body, that is, the food of life and immortality. And 
this I hold with Cyprian. 

" I say also with St Augustine, that we eat life and we Augustine. 
drink life ; with Emissene, that we feel the Lord to be present Emissene. 
in grace ; with Athanasius, that we receive celestial food, Athanasius. 
which cometh from above ; the property of natural commu- 
nion, with Hilary ; the nature of flesh, and benediction which Hilary. 

sophus, of whom Hoffman says, " Ex generosis Edessae in Mesopotamia 
parentibus natus est. Extant homiliae ejus lat. 8, Par. a.d. 1554. 
Op. 1575. Vixit tempore Constantii Imp. sub quo mortuus est, et 
Antiochia sepultus est, ideoque saltern ante a.d. 361 vivere desiit." Ed.] 



tom, &c. 


Cyril. giveth life, in bread and wine, with Cyril ; and with the same 

Cyril, the virtue of the very flesh of Christ, life and grace 
of his body, the property of the only begotten, that is to say, 
life ; as he himself in plain words expoundeth it. 
Basil - " I confess also with Basil, that we receive the mystical 

advent and coming of Christ, grace and the virtue of his very 
Ambrose, nature ; the sacrament of his very flesh, with Ambrose ; the 
Epiphanius. body by grace, with Epiphanius ; spiritual flesh, but not that 
Jerome. which was crucified, with Jerome ; grace flowing into a sacri- 
fice, and the grace of the Spirit, with Chrysostom ; grace 
and invisible verity, grace and society of the members of 
Christ's body, with Augustine. 

" Finally, with Bertram (who was the last of all these) 
I confess that Christ's body is in the sacrament in this respect ; 
namely, as he writeth, because there is in it the Spirit of 
Christ, that is, the power of the word of God, which not 
only feedeth the soul, but also cleanseth it. Out of these 
I suppose it may clearly appear unto all men, how far we are 
from that opinion, whereof some go about falsely to slander 
us to the world, saying, we teach that the godly and faithful 
should receive nothing else at the Lord's table, but a figure 
of the body of Christ 1 ." 

The Second Proposition. 

After the consecration there remaineth no substance of 
bread and wine, neither any other substance, than the sub- 
stance of God and man. 




The Answer of Dr Ridley. 

Ridley : — " The second conclusion is manifestly false, 
directly against the word of God, the nature of the sacrament, 
and the most evident testimonies of the godly fathers ; and, 
it is the rotten foundation of the other two conclusions pro- 
pounded by you, both of the first and of the third. I will 
not therefore now tarry upon any further explication of this 
answer, being contented with that which is already added 
afore to the answer of the first proposition/' 

[ l The greater part, if not the whole, of the authors here mentioned, 
are cited by Ridley in former works — and as they are here only referred 
to generally, it has not been thought necessary to cite passages from, 
them. Ed.] 


The First Argument for the confirmation of this Answer. 

"It is very plain by the word of God, that Christ did 
give bread unto his disciples, and called it his body. 

"But the substance of bread is another manner of 
substance than is the substance of Christ's body, God and 

" Therefore, the conclusion is false. 

" The second part of mine argument is plain, and the 
first is proved thus : 

The Second Argument. 

Da- " That which Christ did take, on the which he gave 
thanks, and the which he brake, he gave to his 
disciples, and called it his body. 

ft- "But he took bread, gave thanks on bread, and brake 
bread : 

si. " Ergo, The first part is true. And it is confirmed 
with the authorities of the fathers, Irengeus, Tertul- 
lian, Origen, Cyprian, Epiphanius, Jerome, Augus- 
tine, Theodoret, Cyril, Babanus, and Bede : whose 
places I will take upon me to shew most manifest 
in this behalf, if I may be suffered to have my 
books, as my request is. 
" Bread is the body of Christ : 
" Ergo, It is bread." 
A tertio adiacente ad secundum adiacens cum verbi sub- Tlie lule of 

° * logic is this : 

stantivi pura copula. "Aproposi- 

A A tione de ter- 

tio adja- 

The Third Argument. eamquLst 

de secundo 

Ba- "As the bread of the Lord's table is Christ's natural cu ™ ye . rb0 . 

recto sigm- 

body, so is it his mystical body. ficanteex- 

•" J •> istentiam, 

ro- " But it is not Christ's mystical body by transubstanti- v f4 e ntia"f" 

ation : firmavit," 

co. " Ergo, It is not his natural body by transubstantiation. 

"The second part of my argument is plain, and the first The major 
is proved thus : As Christ, who is the verity, spake of the 
bread, ' This is my body which shall be betrayed for you,' 
speaking there of his natural body : even so Paul, moved with 
the same Spirit of truth, said, ' We, though we be many, i cor. x. 


yet are we all one bread and one body, which be partakers 
of one bread.'"'' 

The Fourth Argument. 

The argn- " We may no more believe bread to be transubstantiate 

eth. into the body of Christ, than the wine into his blood. 

" But the wine is not transubstantiate into his blood : 
"Adestruc- " Ergo, Neither is that bread, therefore, transubstantiate 

tione ante- . . . , - 

cedentis, ad into his body. 

nem conse- " The first part of this argument is manifest ; and the 

Qucutis " 

second part is proved out of the authority of God's word, in 
Matt. xxvi. Matthew and Mark, ' I will not drink of the fruit of the 

vine,' &c. Now the fruit of the vine was wine, which Christ 

drank and gave to his disciples to drink. With this sentence 
Chrysos- agreeth plainly the place of Chrysostom on the twentieth 
Cyprian, chapter of Matthew 1 : as Cyprian 2 doth also, affirming that 

there is no blood, if wine be not in the cup.'" 

The Fifth Argument. 

Ba- " The words of Christ spoken upon the cup and upon 
the bread have like effect and working. 

ro- " But the words spoken upon the cup have not virtue 
to transubstantiate : 
This argu- co. " Ergo, It followeth, that the words spoken upon the 

merit hold- 1 i 1 1 • t 

eth after the bread have no such virtue. 

did the other " The second part of the argument is proved ; because they 
should then transubstantiate the cup, or that which is in the 
cup, into the new testament. But neither of these things 
can be done, and very absurd it is to confess the same." 

The Sixth Argument. 

Da- " The circumstances of the Scripture, the analogy and 
proportion of the sacraments, and the testimony 

\} The passage probably referred to in Chrysostom is in the 82 
Homily on Matth. 20th chap., ufxwe\o<; g 6 v olvov ov-% vlmp yevva. 
S. Chiysost. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1727, torn. vn. p. 784. Ed.] 

Q 2 Nam cum dicat Christus, Ego sum vitis vera, sanguis Christi non 
aqua est utique, sed vinum, nee potest videri sanguis ejus, quo redempti 
et vivificati sumus, esse in calice, quando vinum desit calici quo Christi 
sanguis ostenditur. S. Cypriani Epist. lxiii. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1726, 
p. 104. Ed.] 


of the faithful fathers, ought to rule us in taking 
the meaning of the holy Scripture touching the 
ti- " But the words of the Lord's supper, the circumstances 
of the Scripture, the analogy of the sacraments, 
and the sayings of the fathers, do most effectually 
and plainly prove a figurative speech in the words 
of the Lord's supper: 
si. " Ergo, A figurative sense and meaning is specially to 
be received in these words, ' This is my body.' 
" The circumstances of the Scripture : ' Do this in the J^c^a^d" 
remembrance of me. 1 ' As oft as ye shall eat of this bread, suture. 
and drink of this cup, ye shall shew forth the Lord's death.' 
' Let a man prove himself, and so eat of this bread, and 
drink of this cup.' ' They came together to break bread ; and 
they continued in breaking of bread.' ' The bread which we 
break,' &c. ' For we, being many, are all one bread and one 
body,' &c. 

" The analogy of the sacraments is necessary : for if the onheisacS 
sacraments had not some similitude or likeness of the things ments - 
whereof they be sacraments, they could in no wise be sacra- 
ments. And this similitude in the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper is taken three manner of ways : 

" The first consisteth in nourishing ; as ye shall read in ^"ee ^*" 
Rabanus, Cyprian, Augustine, Irengeus, and, most plainly, 
in Isidore out of Bertram. 

" The second is the uniting and joining of many into one, 
as Cyprian teacheth. 

" The third is a similitude of unlike things, where, like 
as the bread is turned into one body, so we by the right 
use of this sacrament are turned through faith into the body 
of Christ. 

" The sayings of the fathers declare it to be a figurative fortKgu- 
speech, as it appeareth in Origen, Tertullian, Chrysostom, speech. 
Augustine, Ambrose, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Hilary, and, 
most plainly of all, in Bertram. Moreover, the sayings and 
places of all the fathers, whose names 1 have before recited 
against the assertion of the first proposition, do quite over- 
throw transubstantiation : but of all other most evidently and 
plainly, Irengeus, Origen, Cyprian, Chrysostom (to Ceesarius 


the monk), Augustine (against Adamantus), Gelasius, Cyril, 

Epiphanius, Ohrysostom again on Matthew xx., Babanus, 

Damascene 1 , and Bertram. 

StfonoT "Here, right worshipful master prolocutor and ye the 

Bertram. res ^ f ^e CO m m i ss ioners, it may please you to understand, 

that I do not lean to these things only, which I have written 

in my former answers and confirmations, but that I have also, 

for the proof of that I have spoken, whatsoever Bertram, a 

man learned, of sound and upright judgment, and ever counted 

a catholic for these seven hundred years until this our age, 

hath written. His treatise whosoever shall read and weigh, 

considering the time of the writer, his learning, godliness of 

life, the allegations of the ancient fathers, and his manifold 

and most grounded arguments, I cannot (doubtless) but much 

marvel, if he have any fear of God at all, how he can, with 

good conscience, speak against him in this matter of the 

Ridley first sacrament. This Bertram was the first that pulled me by the 

Drought to c J 

the know- ear an( j ^at fi rs t brought me from the common error of the 

ledge oi the 1 o 

b^Be'rtram -^ om i sn church, and caused me to search more diligently and 
exactly both the Scriptures and the writings of the old ecclesias- 
tical fathers in this matter. And this I protest before the face 
of God, who knoweth I lie not in the things I now speak." 

The Third Proposition. 

In the mass is the lively sacrifice of the church, pro- 
pitiable and available for the sins as well of quick as of the 

The Answer of Dr Ridley. 

Ridley : — " I answer to this third proposition as I did 
to the first : and moreover I say, that being taken in such 
sense as the words seem to import, it is not only erroneous, 
but withal so much to the derogation and defacing of the 
death and passion of Christ, that I judge it may and ought 
most worthily to be counted wicked and blasphemous against 
the most precious blood of our Saviour Christ." 

\} DamascenuSj Johannes, Pater Ecclesiss et Historicus, de quo vide 
Voss. de Hist. Gr. Floruit sub Leone Isaurico. Patriam Damascum 
habuit, vixitque, ut Petrus Martyr contra Gardinerum probat, circa 
a.j). 740. Hoffman. Lexicon. Ed.] 


The Explication. 

" Concerning the Eomish mass which is used at this day, ^"^Ji" 
or the lively sacrifice thereof, propitiatory and available for proposition, 
the sins of the quick and the dead, the holy Scripture hath 
not so much as one syllable. 

" There is ambiguity also in the name of mass : what it 
signifieth, and whether at this day there be any such indeed, 
as the ancient fathers used ; seeing that now there be neither 
catechists nor ' poenitentes 1 to be sent away. tivecTurdi" 

"Again, touching these words, 'the lively sacrifice of the instructed 
church, 1 there is a doubt whether they are to be understood and h the a un- 
figuratively and sacramentally, for the sacrament of the lively w°re h put 
sacrifice (after which sort we deny it not to be in the Lord's tnTcommu- 
supper), or properly and without any figure : after the which mon " 
manner there was but one only sacrifice, and that once offered, 
namely, upon the altar of the cross. 

" Moreover, in these words 'as well as,' it may be doubted 
whether they be spoken in mockage ; as men are wont to 
say in sport, of a foolish and ignorant person, that he is apt 
as well in conditions as in knowledge — being apt indeed in 
neither of them both. 

" There is also a doubt in the word ' propitiable,' whether 
it signify here, that which taketh away sin, or that which 
may be made available 2 for the taking away of sin; that is 
to say, whether it is to be taken in the active or in the 
passive signification. 

"Now the falseness of the proposition, after the meaning The false- 
of the schoolmen and the Eomish church, and impiety in third propo- 

.... n . • i ■ i i sition re- 

that sense which the words seem to import, is this : that they, proved. 
leaning to the foundation of their fond transubstantiation, 
would make the quick and lively body of Christ, flesh, united 
and knit to the Divinity, to he hid under the accidents and 
outward shews of bread and wine ; which is very false, as I 

P " Made available." The original in Latin is an quod potest reddi 
propitium ; and " therefore," says Dr Wordsworth, " the translation does 
not reach the sense of the original. The meaning of the clause is; 
'Whether it signify here, that which propitiates, or that which may 
be propitiated, that is to say, whether it is to be taken in the active, 
or in the passive signification.'?' E».j 


have said afore : and they, building upon this foundation, 
do hold that the same body is offered unto God by the priest 
in his daily massings, to put away the sins of the quick and 
the dead; whereas by the Apostle to the Hebrews it is 
But one sa- evident, that there is but one oblation, and one true and lively 

crificc in the 

scripture, sacrifice of the church offered upon the altar of the cross, 
which was, is, and shall be for ever the propitiation for 
the sins of the whole world : and where there is remission 
of the same, there is (saith the Apostle) no more offering 
for sin." 

Arguments confirming Ms Answer. 

Heb. v. g e _ " N sacrifice ought to be done, but where the priest 
is meet to offer the same. 

la- " All other priests be unmeet to offer sacrifice propitia- 
tory for sin, save only Christ : 

rent. " Ergo, No other priests ought to sacrifice for sin, but 
Christ alone. 

" The second part of my argument is thus proved. 

Fe- " No honour in God's church ought to be taken where- 

unto a man is not called, as Aaron. 
ri- " It is a great honour in God's church to sacrifice for 

son. " Ergo, No man ought to sacrifice for sin, but only they 
which are called. 
" But only Christ is called to that honour : 
" Ergo, No other priest but Christ ought to sacrifice for 
sin. That no man is called to this degree of honour but 
Christ alone, it is evident ; for there are but two only orders 
of priesthood allowed in the word of God, namely, the order 
Heb. vii. of Aaron, and the order of Melchizedek. But now the order 
of Aaron is come to an end, by reason that it was unprofitable 
and weak ; and of the order of Melchizedek there is but one 
priest alone, even Christ the Lord, who hath a priesthood 
that cannot pass to any other." 

Another Argument. 

Ba- "That thing is in vain, and to no effect, where no 
necessity is wherefore it is done. 


ro- "To offer up any more sacrifice propitiatory for the 
quick and the dead there is no necessity, for 
Christ our Saviour did that fully and perfectly 
once for all : 

co. "Ergo, To do the same in the mass it is in vain." 

Another Argument. 

Fe- " After that eternal redemption is found and obtained, 

there needeth no more daily offering for the same. Heb. ix. 

ri- "But Christ coming an high bishop, &c, found and 
obtained for us eternal redemption: 

o. "Ergo, There needeth now no more daily oblation for 

the sins of the quick and the dead." causa veri- 

tatis ad prae- 
. ,7 A , habentem 

Another Argument. iiiamcau- 

sam valet 

Ca- "All remission of sins cometh only by shedding of tia - 

mes- " In the mass there is no shedding of blood : 
tres. " Ergo, In the mass there is no remission of sins : and 

so it followeth also, that there is no propitiatory 


Another Argument. 

"In the mass the passion of Christ is not in verity, but 
in a mystery representing the same : yea, even there where 
the Lord's supper is duly ministered. 

"But where Christ suffereth not, there is he not offered 
in verity : for the Apostle saith, ' Not that he might offer Heb. ix. 
up himself oftentimes; for then must he have suffered often- 
times since the beginning of the world. Now, where Christ 
is not offered, there is no propitiatory sacrifice : 

" Ergo, In the mass there is no propitiatory sacrifice : 

" For Christ appeared once, in the latter end of the world, 

to put sin to flight by the offering up of himself. And as 

it is appointed to all men that they shall once die, and then 

cometh the judgment : even so Christ was once offered to 

take away the sins of many ; and unto them that look for 

him shall he appear again without sin unto salvation." 



Another Argument. 

Da- " Where there is any sacrifice that can make the comers 
thereunto perfect, there ought men to cease from 
offering any more expiatory and propitiatory sacri- 

ri- " But in the new testament there is one only sacrifice 
now already long since offered, which is able to 
make the comers thereto perfect for ever : 
A. " Ergo, In the new testament they ought to cease from 
offering any more propitiatory sacrifice." 

(Sentences of the Scripture, alleged by Ridley, tending to 
the same end and purpose ; out of which also may be 
gathered other manifest Arguments for more confirmation 

Heb. x, " ' By the which will (saith the Apostle) we are sanctified, 

by the offering up of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.'' 
And in the same place, ' But this man, after that he had offered 
one sacrifice for sin, sitteth for ever at the right hand of God,' 
etc. ' For with one offering hath he made perfect for ever 
them that are sanctified;' and, 'By himself hath he purged 
our sins.' 

"I beseech you to mark these words 'by himself,' the 
which, well weighed, will without doubt cease all controversy. 
The Apostle plainly denieth any other sacrifice to remain for 
him, that treadeth under his feet the blood of the testament, 
by the which he was made holy. Christ will not be crucified 
again, he will not his death to be had in derision."" 

coi. i. " ' He hath reconciled us in the body of his flesh.' 

" Mark, I beseech you ; he saith not, in the mystery of 
his body, but in the body of his flesh." 

1 John ii. " ' If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, 

Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propitiation for' 
our sins; not for ours only, but for the sins of the whole' 

The popish " I know that all these places of the Scripture are avoided" 

distinction . r 

between by two manner of subtle shifts : the one is, bv the distinction 

bloody and . J 

unbloody of the bloody and unbloody sacrifice, as though our unbloody 


sacrifice of the church were any other than the sacrifice of 
praise and thanksgiving, than a commemoration, a shewing- 
forth and a sacramental representation of that one only bloody 
sacrifice, offered up once for all. The other is, by depraving 
and wresting the sayings of the ancient fathers unto such a. 
strange kind of sense as the fathers themselves indeed never 
meant. For what the meaning of the fathers was, it is evident maintom Sts 
by that which St Augustine writeth in his epistle to Boniface, |ceprop[-~ 
and in his book against Faustus the Manichee, besides many theow'dJc- 
other places ; likewise by Eusebius the Emissene, Cyprian, wre S s ted. ely 
Chrysostom, Fulgentius, Bertram, and others, who do wholly 
concord and agree together in this unity in the Lord ; that 
the redemption, once made in verity for the salvation of man, 
continueth in full effect for ever, and worketh without ceasing 
unto the end of the world ; that the sacrifice once offered can- 
not be consumed ; that the Lord's death and passion is as 
effectual, the virtue of that blood once shed as fresh at this 
day for the washing away of sins, as it was even the same 
day that it flowed out of the blessed side of our Saviour ; J^whoie 
and finally, that the whole substance of our sacrifice, which is ^"h^n' 
frequented of the church in the Lord's supper, consisteth in gt^° nsist " 
prayers, praise, and giving of thanks, and in remembering and 
shewing forth of that sacrifice once offered upon the altar of 
the cross ; that the same might continually be had in reverence 
by mystery, which once only, and no more, was offered for 
the price of our redemption, 

" These are the things, right worshipful master prolocutor, Ridley ap- 
and ye the rest of the commissioners, which I could presently from the 
prepare to the answering of your three aforesaid propositions, tenceofhis 
being destitute of all help in this shortness of time, sudden t0 some 
warning, and want of books : wherefore I appeal to my first perior, com- 
protestation, most humbly desiring the help of the same (asJwtee. 
much as may be) to be granted unto me. And because ye 
have lately given most unjust and cruel sentence against 
me, I do here appeal (so far forth as I may) to a more 
indifferent and just censure and judgment of some other 
superior, competent, and lawful judge, and that according 
to the approved state of the church of England. Howbeit 
I confess, that I am ignorant what that is, at this present, 
through the trouble and alteration of the state of the realm. 





Sck e o y f for But if this appeal may not be granted to me upon earth, 
ferenc^apl" then do I fly (even as to my only refuge and alone haven 
afmfghty of health) to the sentence of the eternal Judge, that is, of 
the almighty God; to whose most merciful justice towards 
us, and most just mercifulness, I do wholly commit myself 
and all my cause, nothing at all despairing of the defence 
of mine Advocate and alone Saviour Jesus Christ ; to horn, 
with the everlasting Father, and the Holy Spirit, the Sancti- 
fier of us all, be now and for ever all honour and glory. 

Albeit this learned bishop was not suffered to read all 
that is above prefixed before the disputations, yet because he 
had it then ready, and offered it up to the prolocutor after 
the disputations and sentence pronounced, I thought here 
the place not unmeet to annex the same together with the 
rest. Now let us hear the arguments and answers between 
Dr Smith and him'. 


The verity 
of Ridley's 
real being 
of Christ in 
earth to be 
by his as- 

Dr Smith beginnetli to oppose. 

Smith : — " You have occasioned me to go -otherwise to 
work with you, than I had thought to have done. Me seemed 
you did, in your supposition, abuse the testimonies of Scrip- 
ture concerning the ascension of Christ, to take away his 
presence in the sacrament; as though this were a strong 
argument to enforce your matter withal : 

" Christ did ascend into heaven : ergo, he is not in the 

"Now therefore I will go about to disprove this reason 
of yours. 

" Christ's ascension is no let to his real presence in the 
sacrament: ergo, you are deceived, whereas you do ground 
yourself upon those places." 

Ridley : — " You import as though I had made a strong 
argument by Christ's going up into heaven. But howsoever 
mine argument is made, you collect it not rightly. For it 
doth not only stay upon his ascension, but also upon his 
ascension and his abiding there also." 

[} This passage is Fox's: for the place and manner in which the 
reading of Ridley's protest was stopped, see p. 189. Ed.] 



Smith: — "Christ's going; up to heaven, and his abiding: cending and 

° & r . ° abiding in 

there, hinder not his real presence in the sacrament : ergo, heav | n ' h 
you are deceived. 11 cX* ne * 

Ridley: — "Of Christ's real presence there may be a^* 1 i< * we 
double understanding. If you take the real presence of Christ q„e nt C j° n > s , e * 
according to the real and corporal substance which he took ^o^tra^* 
of the Virgin, that presence being in heaven cannot be onjg™' ^J£ 
the earth also. But if you mean a real presence, ' secundum J£igt°neces- 
rem aliquam quae ad corpus Christi pertinet, 1 i.e. according contained 
to something that appertaineth to Christ's body, certes the S?M§ e «rl 
ascension and abiding in heaven are no let at all to that ta christ's 
presence. Wherefore Christ's body, after that sort, is here natural* 
present to us in the Lord's supper ; by grace I say, as Epi- b °Ergo, 
phanius speaketh it." tody not to 

Weston: — "I will cut off from henceforth all equivocation certahl" 6 
and doubt : for whensoever we speak of Christ's body, we Kmn. 
mean that which he took of the Virgin." impossible! 

Bidley: — " Christ's ascension and abiding in heaven cannot fte°ruie" gt0 
stand with his presence." propositto- 

Smith: — "Christ appeared corporally and really on the possiwu et 
earth, for all his ascension and continual abode in heaven aequipouent 
unto the day of doom : ergo, his ascension and abiding in miiiter se " 
heaven is no let to his real presence in the sacrament." modosi'mi- 

. . liter." 

Bidley : — " Master doctor, this argument is nothing worth. 
I do not so straitly tie Christ up in heaven, that he may 
not come into the earth at his pleasure : for when he will, 
he may come down from heaven, and be on the earth, as it 
liketh himself. Howbeit I do affirm, that it is not possible 
for him to be both in heaven and earth at one time." 

Smith: — "Mark diligently, I pray you, my masters that 
be here, what he answereth: First he saith, that the sitting 
of Christ at the right hand of his Father is a let to the real 
presence of his body in the sacrament; and then afterward 
he flieth from it again." 

Bidley : — " I would not have you think that I do imagine 
or dream upon any such manner of sitting, as these men here 
sit in the school." 

Smith : — " Ergo, It is lawful for Christ, then, to be here 
present on the earth, when he will himself." 

Bidley : — " Yea, when he will, it is lawful indeed." 


Smith : — " Ergo, He, ascending into heaven, doth not re- 
strain his real presence in the sacrament.'''' 
Christ's Ridley :— " I do not gainsay, but that it is lawful for him to 

abode in •* ° J ... „ 

heavenusno appear on the earth when he will : but prove you that he will. 
elrXwhen 11 Smith : — " Then your answer dependeth upon the will of 
whether he* Christ, I perceive : therefore I will join again with you in 
win, that this short argument : 

must be ° 

A r °ata d itis "Christ, albeit he doth alway abide in heaven after his 
appear on t0 ascension, was seen really and corporally on earth: 
other's wi " Ergo, Notwithstanding his ascension and continual sitting 

cramentT at tne right hand of his Father, he may be really and corpo^ 
presenfthe rally in the sacrament." 

wlufhi™ 6 Ridley : — " If the notaries should so record your argument 

venfwheiT" as you have framed it, you, peradventure, would be ashamed 
prefenu^ thereof hereafter." 

earth. Smith : — " Christ, after his ascension, was seen really and 

corporally upon the earth : 

" Ergo, Notwithstanding his ascension and abiding with 
his Father, he may be corporally in the sacrament." 

Ridley: — "I grant the antecedent, but I deny the con- 

Smith : — " Do you grant the antecedent V 
Ridley: — " Yea, I grant the antecedent. I am content to 
let you have so much : because I know that there be certain 
ancient fathers of that opinion. I am well content to let 
you use that proposition as true, and I will frame the argu- 
ment for you. 

" He was seen on earth after his ascension : ergo," &c. 
Smith: — "Nay, nay, I will frame it myself. 
" Christ, after his ascension, was seen really and corporally 
on earth, albeit he do abide in heaven continually : 

" Ergo, Notwithstanding his ascension and continual 
abiding at the right hand of the Father, he may be really 
and corporally on the earth." 

Ridley : — " Let us first agree about the continual sitting 
at the right hand of the Father." 

Smith : — " Doth he so sit at the right hand of his Father, 
that he doth never forsake the same!" 
Christ can- Ridley : — " Nay, I do not bind Christ in heaven so straitly. 

not be both J , •-, • , . 

corporally l see you go about to beguile me with your equivocations. 


Such equivocations are to be distinguished. If you mean by Xo in a "eL 
his sitting in heaven, to reign with his Father, he may be J^el* one 
both in heaven and also in earth. But if ye understand 
his sitting to be after a corporal manner of sitting, so is he 
always permanent in heaven. For Christ to be corporally 
here on earth, when corporally he is resident in heaven, is 
clean contrary to the holy Scriptures, as Augustinus saith 1 : ^ u fohaL n . us 
* The body of Christ is in heaven ; but his truth is dispersed tv!ict ' xxx - 
in every place.' Now, if continually he abide in heaven after 
the manner of his corporal presence, then his perpetual abiding 
there stoppeth or letteth that the same corporal presence of 
him cannot be in the sacrament." 

Smith : — " In Acts iii. we read, that Christ shall sit per- 
petually at the right hand of God unto the consummation 
;of the world."" 

Weston : — " I perceive you are come here to this issue, 
whether the body of Christ may be together both in earth 
and in heaven. I will tell you that Christ, in very deed, is 
both in earth and in heaven together, and at one time, 
both one and the same natural Christ, after the verity and 
substance of his very body : ergo," &c. 

Ridley: — "I deny the antecedent." 

Weston ;• — "I prove it by two witnesses: First by Chry- 
'Sostom 2 : ' Do we not offer every day ? we do so indeed ; but 
doing it for the remembrance of his death. And this offering 

1 " Corpus Christi est in coelo, sed Veritas ejus ubique diffusa est." 
f_S. Aug. in Johan. Evan, tract, xxx. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. iii. 
col. 517. The words of St Augustine are : " Corpus enim Domini, in quo 
resurrexit, uno loco esse potest ; Veritas/' etc. Ed.] 

Q 2 tj ovv ; jjjueTs Kad eK<x<TTr}v rjpepav ov irpocrcpepopev ; irpocr- 
upepofxev pen, ccAA' avapurjaiv woiovpevoi too davaTov avTov. nai pia 
ecrTii/ avrrj, Ka\ ov 7ro\\a'f irreidr/ ama$~ trpo<Tt]myQr\, dxrwep enavtj 
;»/ '€is t« ayia toov ayimv. tqvto eneivri<; tuttos €<tti, koi aittj 
€K£iPf}?. top yap uvtov aei 7rpo<r<pepopev, ov vvv pev eTepov vpo- 

Barov, avpiov 3e e-repov, d\\' de\ to avTO' wctte pia itrrw tj 6u<rta, 
eTTcl Tto \oyeo toutoi, eireicav TroWa^ov irpoacpepeTai, kcu iroWoi 

Xpio-TOJ. a'\\' ovlapdoV ctAA.' ei? Travraj^ov o XpicrToe, Kai ev- 

Tavda Tr\rjpt]<s <Sv kcu itce? irAt'ipt]<s, ev <riapa. S. Chrys. Horn. 
.xvii. in Heb. cap. 10. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. toni. xii. pars i. pp. 168, 169. 

Weston's translation gives the sense of the passage, but is a .very loose 

one. Ed.] 





Answer to 



why it is 
called one. 

is one, and not many. And how is it one, and not many, 
which was once offered in the holy place? This sacrifice is 
a pattern of that: the selfsame we always offer; not now as 
offering one lamb to-day, and another to-morrow, but always 
one and the same lamb. Wherefore here is but one sacrifice ; 
for else by this means, seeing there be many sacrifices in many 
places, be there many Christs. Not so, but one Christ in 
all places, both perfect here and perfect there, one only body.'' 
Now thus I argue: 

" We offer one thing at all times. 

" There is one Christ in all places, both here complete, 
and there complete. 

" Ergo, By Chrysostom, there is one body both in heaven 
and earth." 

Ridley: — "I remember the place well. These things 
make nothing against me." 

Weston : — " One Christ is in all places ; here full and there 


Ridley: — "One Christ is in all places; but not one body 
in all places." 

Weston: — "One body, saith Chrysostom." 

Ridley: — "But not after the manner of bodily substance 
is he in all places, nor by circumscription of place. For ' hie' 
and ' illic,' ' here' and ' there,' in Chrysostom do assign no 
place ; as Augustine saith 1 , ' The Lord is above, but the truth 
of the Lord is in all places.''" 

Weston: — "You cannot so escape. He saith not, the 
verity of Christ is one; but one Christ is in all places, both 
here and there." 

Ridley: — "One sacrifice is in all places, because of the 
unity of him whom the sacrifice doth signify: not that the 
sacrifices be all one and the same." 

Weston : — " Ergo, By your saying it is not Christ, but 
the sacrifice of Christ. But Chrysostom saith, ' One body 
and one Christ is there \ and not one sacrifice." 

Ridley : — " I say, that both Christ and the sacrifice of 
Christ are there : Christ by his spirit, grace, and verity ; the 

[} " Sursum est Dominus, sed ubique est Veritas Domini." S. Aug. 
in Johan. Evan, tract, xxx. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. iii. col. 517. 
The words of St Augustine are : " sed etiam hie est Veritas," etc. En.] 


sacrifice by signification. Thus I grant with Chrysostom, £y's°own d " 
that there is one host or sacrifice, and not many. And this wntin8: ' 
our host is called one, by reason of the unity of that one, 
■which one only all our hosts do represent. That only host 
was never other but that which was once offered on the altar 
of the cross, of which host all our hosts are but sacramental 

" And whereas you allege out of Chrysostom, that Christ Christ's! of- 
is offered in many places at once (both here full Christ, and many piace^ 
there full Christ), I grant it to be true; that is, that Christ at once - 
is offered in many places at once, in a mystery and sacra- 
mentally, and that he is full Christ in all those places; but 
not after the corporal substance of our flesh which he took, 
but after the benediction which giveth life ; and he is given 
to the godly receivers in bread and wine, as Cyril speaketh. 
Concerning the oblation of Christ, whereof Chrysostom here 
speaketh, he himself doth clearly shew what he meaneth 
thereby, in saying by the way of correction, ' We always do 
the selfsame, howbeit by the recordation or remembrance of 
his sacrifice. 1 " 

Weston : — " The second witness is Bernard, in a sermon Bernard * 
that he made of the supper of the Lord, who saith 2 : ' How 
cometh this to us, most gentle Jesus, that we, silly worms, 
creeping on the face of the earth, that we, I say, which are 
but dust and ashes, may deserve to have thee present in our 
hands and before our eyes, who, both together, full and whole, 
dost sit at the right hand of the Father; and who also, in 
the moment of one hour, from the rising of the sun to the 
going down of the same, art present, one and the selfsame, 
in many and divers places V" 

Ridley : — " These words of Bernard make for you nothing Bernard! ° 
at all. But I know that Bernard was in such a time, that in this 
matter he may worthily be suspected. He hath many good 
and fruitful sayings; as also in the same aforesaid place by 

fj* " Unde hoc nobis, piissime Jesu, ut nos vermiculi, reptantes super 
faciem terrae, nos, inquam, qui pulvis et cinis sumus, te prsesentem 
habere mereamur prae manibus, prse oculis, qui totus et integer sedes 
ad dextram Patris, qui etiam unius horse momento, ab ortu solis usque 
ad occasum, ab aquilone usque ad austrum, praesto es unus in multis, 
idem in diversis locis?" S. Bernard. Op. Ed. Par. 1609, p. 1678. 


you alleged : but yet he followed in an age, when the doctrine 
Bernard ra- of the holy supper was sore perverted. Notwithstanding yet 
pounded 1 will so expound him, rather than reject him, that he shall 
ed?" rejec " make nothing for you at all. He saith, that we have Christ 
in a mystery, in a sacrament, under a veil or cover ; but here- 
after shall have him without veil or cover. In the mean time 
here now he saith, that the verity of Christ is everywhere: 
the verity of Christ is both here and there, and in all places." 

Weston : — " What do you call verity ? He saith not the 
verity of Christ, but the verity of the body of Christ. 1 ' 
The verity Ridley : — " The verity of the body of Christ is the true 
of Christ, faith of the body of Christ : after that verity he is with them 
which truly believe upon him." 

Weston: — "Christ is one and the same in divers places. 
I urge these words 'in diversis locis,' 'in divers places;' and 
yet I am not satisfied." 

Smith: — "Christ was seen really and corporally on the 
earth after his ascension, and continually sitting at the right 
hand of the Father : ergo, the ascension and perpetual sitting 
in heaven hinder nothing, but that he may be really and 
corporally in the sacrament." 

Ridley : — " If by perpetual sitting you mean the residence 
of his body in heaven, your reason containeth manifest con- 

Smith : — " These two have no contradiction in them at all, 

both to sit continually at his Father's right hand, and also 

to be seen here really in earth after his ascension. First, you 

will give me, that Christ sitteth in heaven at the right hand 

Acts iii. pf his Father : for so it is written, ' Heaven must needs 

receive him, unto the time of the restoring of all,' &c. 

Secondly, he was also seen of Paul here corporally on earth. 

Wherefore these two do import, as ye see, no contradiction." 

To be here Ridley : — " What letteth but that Christ, if it please him, 

hereim- and when it pleaseth him, may be in heaven and in earth, 

porteth con- L . 

tradition in and appear to whom he will \ and yet, notwithstanding, you 
ttoe^ * mve not y et P rove d that he will so do. And though Christ 
continually shall be resident in heaven unto the judgment, 
yet there may be some intermission, that notwithstanding. 
But this controversy, as I said, is amongst all the ancient 
doctors and writers. And that Christ hath been here seen, 



that they grant all: but whether then he being in earth or 
in heaven, that is doubtful.'''' 

Smith:-— "I will prove that he would appear in earth. 
He so would, and also did appear here in earth after his 
ascension : ergo," &c. 

Ridley : — " He appeared, I grant ; but how he appeared, 
whether then being in heaven or in earth, that is uncertain. 
So he appeared to Stephen, being then corporally sitting 
in heaven. For, speaking after the true manner of man's 
body, when he is in heaven, he is not the same time in 
earth; and when he is in earth, he is not the same time 
corporally in heaven." 

Smith : — •" Christ hath been both in heaven and in earth 
all at one time : ergo, you are deceived in denying that." 

Ridley : — " I do not utterly deny Christ here to have been 
seen in earth. Of uncertain things I speak uncertainly." 

Smith :— " He was seen of Paul, as being born before his l Cor. xv. 
time, after his ascending up to heaven. 

" But his vision was a corporal vision : 

" Ergo, He was seen corporally upon the earth after his This argu- 

B ' r J r menthold- 

aseending into heaven." eth rather 

° materia" 

Ridley: — "He was seen really and corporally indeed: than " rati - 

. . . one formae." 

but whether being in heaven or earth, is a doubt : and of 
doubtful things we must judge doubtfully. Howbeit you 
must prove, that he was in heaven at the same time when 
he was corporally on earth." 

Smith : — " I would know of you, whether this vision may 
enforce the resurrection of Christ." 

Ridley : — " I account this a sound and firm argument to Whether 
prove the resurrection. But whether they saw him in heaven Christ in 
or in earth, I am in doubt: and to say the truth, it maketh earth; ains 

. ..,. . one to prove 

no great matter. Both ways the argument is ot like strength : his resur- 

. rection. Pe- 

for whether he were seen in heaven, or whether he were seen titio prlnci. 
on earth, either of both maketh sufficiently for the matter. 
Certain it is, he rose again : for he could not have been seen, 
unless he had risen again." 

Smith : — " Paul saw him as he was here conversant on 
earth, and not out of heaven, as you affirm." 

Ridley : — " You run to the beginning again : that you 
take for granted, which you should have proved." 







Lib. iii. cap 

Smith : — " You make delays for the nonce." 

Ridley : — " Say not so, I pray you. Those that hear us 
be learned: they can tell both what you oppose, and what 
I answer, well enough, I warrant you." 

Tresham : — " He was seen after such sort, as that he 
might be heard: ergo, he was corporally on the earth; or 
else how could he be heard?" 

Ridley: — " He that found the means for Stephen to behold 
him in heaven, even he could bring to pass well enough, that 
Paul might hear him out of heaven." 
Da- Smith: — "As others saw him, so Paul saw him/ 
ti- " Other did see him visibly and corporally on earth : 
si. " Ergo, Paul saw him visibly and corporally on earth." 

Ridley : — " I grant he was seen visibly and corporally : 
but yet have you not proved that he was seen in earth." 

Smith : — " He was seen of him as of others. 

" But he was seen of others being on earth, and appeared 
visibly to them on earth : 

" Ergo, He was seen of Paul on earth." 

Ridley: — "Your controversy is about 'existens in terra, -1 
that is, being on earth. If 'existere, 1 'to be,' be referred 
as unto the place, I deny that Christ after that sort was 
on earth. But if it be referred as to the verity of the body, 
then I grant it. Moreover I say, that Christ was seen of 
men in earth after his ascension, it is certain: for he was 
seen of Stephen; he was seen also of Paul. But whether 
he descended unto the earth, or whether he, being in heaven, 
did reveal or manifest himself to Paul, when Paul was rapt 
into the third heaven, I know that some contend about it: 
and the Scripture, as far as I have read or heard, doth not 
determine it. Wherefore we cannot but judge uncertainly 
of those things which be uncertain." 

Smith: — "We have Hegesippus and Linus against you', 
which testify, that Christ appeared corporally on the earth 

Q Hegesippus, who was born in the beginning of the second cen- 
tury, was the author of the first ecclesiastical history, a work which 
now unhappily has perished, save a few fragments preserved chiefly 
by Eusebius. St Jerome speaks of it in high terms. The writings 
attributed to Linus, who is mentioned by St Paul, are spurious, .see 
Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. pp. 27. 73. Ed.] 



to Peter after his ascension. Peter, overcome with the requests 
and mournings of the people, which desired him to get him 
out of the city because of Nero his lying in wait for him, began 
without company to convey himself away from thence : and 
when he was come to the gate, he seeth Christ come to meet 
him, and worshipping him he said, 'Master, whither walk 
you f Christ answered, ' I am come again to be crucified.' 
Linus, writing of the passion of Peter, hath the selfsame Linus ' 
story. St Ambrose hath the same likewise, and also Abdias, Abdiasf ius " 
scholar to the apostles, which saw Christ before his ascending 
into heaven. With what face, therefore, dare you affirm it 
to be a thing uncertain, which these men do manifestly witness 
to have been done?" 

Ridley : — " I said before, that the doctors in that matter 
did vary." 

Smith : — " Do you think this story is not certain, being 
approved by so ancient and probable authority?" 

Ridley : — " I do so think, because I take and esteem not 
their words for the words of Scripture. And though I did 
grant you that story to be certain, yet it maketh not against 

Smith : — " Such things as be certain, and approved of 
them, you do reject as things uncertain." 

Ridley : — " The story of Linus is not of so great authority ; The credit 
although I am not ignorant that Eusebius so writeth also, story. 
in the Story of the Church. And yet I account not these This addi- 

, ii • i a • i .„ .. t'on is taken 

mens reports so sure as the canonical scriptures. Albeit, out of the 

. , , i ii „ copy of Rid. 

if at any time he had to any man appeared here on the ley's own 

,. . ill t • writing. 

earth after his ascension, that doth not disprove my saymg. 
For I go not about to tie Christ up in fetters (as some do 
untruly report of us) ; but that he may be seen upon the 
earth according to his divine pleasure, whensoever it liketh 
him. But we affirm, that it is contrary to the nature of his 
manhood, and the true manner of his body, that he should 
be together and at one instant both in heaven and earth, 
according to his corporal substance. And the perpetual 
sitting at the right hand of the Father may, I grant, be 
taken for the stability of Christ's kingdom, and his conti- 
nual or everlasting equality with his Father in the glory 
of heaven." 


cijjrsos- Smith : — " Now, whereas you boast that your faith is the 

very faith of the ancient church, I will shew here that it is 
not so, but that it doth directly strive against the faith of 
the old fathers: I will bring in Ohrysostom for this point 1 . 
'Eliseus received the mantle, as a right great inheritance; 
for it was indeed a right excellent inheritance, and more 
precious than any gold beside. And the same was a double 
Elias : he was both Elias above, and Elias beneath. I know 
well you think that just man to be happy, and you would 
gladly be, every one of you, as he is. What will you then 
say, if I shall declare unto you a certain other thing, which 
all we that are endued with these holy mysteries do receive 
much more than that? Elias indeed left his mantle to his 
scholar: but the son of God ascending did leave here his 
flesh unto us. Elias left it, putting off the same : but Christ 
both left it to us, and ascended also to heaven, having it 
with him.' ' , 

Here.atthis Bidley : — "I grant that Christ did both; that is, both 

answer, " ° _ ' 

fuTisof 1 * 1 *°°k U P *" s ^ es k ^k ^ m ascending up, and also did leave 

s a kefui ff and ^ e same behind him with us, but after a diverse manner and 

wOTdswere res P ect - For ne to °k *" s fl esn with him, after the true and 

thfsgood corporal substance of his body and flesh: again, he left the 

bishop. game in mystery to the faithful in the supper, to be received 

after a spiritual communication, and by grace. Neither is 

the same received in the supper only, but also at other 

times, by hearing the gospel, and by faith. For the 

'bread,' which we break, is the communication of the body 

of Christ : and generally, ' Unless ye eat the flesh of the 

Son of man, and drink his blood, ye shall have no life 

in you. 1 " 

P'EScAxto Kadcnrep fxey'urTtjv KXripovofiiav Trjv p.t]\wTt)i> o EAicxtibe" 
Kal yap r\v d\rjdw<! fxeyitTTtj Kktipovofua TravToi j^pvcriov TtfiiwTepa. xac 
r)v Si7rA.ou« 'HAiae eiceu/oe. kch r\v avia 'HXia?, kou koltio 'HAias. oi'Sa, on 
jxa.Kapii'eTe tov hinatov eKtivov, k<z\ e/3ouAecr0e auTos ckccc-to? iiceivos 
elvar tj ovv av vjxiv v-Trohel^to on erepov ti iroWdo fxei^ov eneivov 
TtdvTes eXd/3o/jLev ol fxepvcrTayicyrjfxevoi ; o p.ev yap 'HXiae fitiXtorriv 
d<pi)Ke ™ padrjTrj, 6 Be vioi tov Qeov ava/3aivmv tijv a-apua tjpTv 
KaTe\i7T6 tyjv eavTOv, d\\' 6 jxev 'H\ia? a7ro§D<7a/jiei/o?, o Se Xpicrro? 
koi KareXnre, ko'i ?^b» avrt/v dvrj\6e. S. Chrysostomi, Hom. II. 
in Antioch. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1718, torn. ii. p. 34. Ed.] 


Smith : — " Ohrysostom saith 2 : ' O .miracle, O good will 
of God ! He that sitteth above, at the sacrifice time is con- 
tained in the hands of men.' Or else, as others have trans- 
lated it, thus : ' miracle, O the gentleness of God ! he that 
sitteth above with the Father, is handled with the hands of 
all men at the very same moment of time, and doth him- 
self deliver himself to them that are desirous to take him 
and embrace him.'" 

Ridley : — " He that sitteth there, is here present in mys- 
tery, and by grace ; and is holden of the godly, such as com- 
municate him, not only sacramentally with the hand of the 
body, but much more wholesomely with the hand of the heart, 
and by inward drinking is received : but by the sacramental 
signification he is holden of all men." 

Seton : — " Where is then the miracle, if he be only present 
through his grace and mystery only?' 1 

Ridley: — "Yes, there is a miracle, good sir: Christ is The miracle 

" ' ' ° in the sa- 

not idle in his sacraments. Is not the miracle great, frow^^nt, 
you, when bread, which is wont to sustain the body, becometh 
food to the soul? He that understandeth not that miracle, 
he understandeth not the force of that mystery. God grant 
we may every one of us understand bis truth, and obey the 

Smith : — " Ohrysostom calleth it a miracle, that Christ 
sitteth at the right hand of God in heaven, and at the same 
time is held in the hands of men. — Not that he is handled 
with the hands of men — only in a mystery, and is with them 
through grace. Therefore while you deny that, you are 
altogether deceived, and stray far from the truth." 

Harpsfield: — "The former place of Chrysostom is not 
to be let slip. Let me, before I begin, ask this one question 
of you. Is it not a great matter that Elias left his cloak 
or mantle, and the gift of his prophecy to his scholar V 

Ridley: — "Yes, surely; it is a great matter." 

Harpsfield: — "Did not Elias then leave great grace 1" 

£ 2 '£2 tov 6avfia,TO<;' ^£2 tij? tou 0eov (piKavdpumias' o p.eT<x tou 
iraTjOoe avw naQtinevos Kara Ttju tapav eneivtjv Ta?? cnravTiav nare- 
j(e-rai -^epai, kcli tSiSaxni/ avTov to?? /SouAojueVoie irepnrTv£a<r6ai «ai 
ireptXafieiv. S. Chrys. de Sacerdotio, lib. in. cap. 4. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 
1718, torn. i. p. 382.. Ed.] 


Bidley ■•— " He did so." 

Harpsfield: — "But Christ left a far greater grace than 

Elias : for he could not both leave his cloak and take it with 

him; Christ doth both in his flesh." 

Soku C P b ws Ridley:—"! am well content to grant, that Christ left 

iSt !t with mucn greater things to us than Elias to Eliseus, albeit he 

phrasYof be said to have left his double spirit with him; for that 

co h nTd ere d? *^ e stren gth an d grace of the body of Christ, which Christ 

ascending up here left with us, is the only salvation and 

life of all men which shall be saved : which life Christ 

hath here left unto us, to be received by faith through the 

hearing of the word, and the right administration of the 

sacraments. This virtue and grace Chrysostom, after the 

phrase and manner of John the evangelist, calleth Christ's 


Comparison Harpsfield : — "But Christ performed a greater matter. 

tie'and 13 "* -^ e carr i e d U P' anc * k^ behind. You understand not the 

flesh^'Iiias comparison. The comparison is in this, That Elias left his 

manne iS and mant l e > an & carried it not with him : Christ left his flesh 

mantie'nor behind him, and carried it with him also." 

ofhu^an- Ridley:— "True it is, and I myself did affirm no less 

hhnf Christ before. Now, where you seem to speak many things, indeed 

fl°esh, h ind y ou bring no new things at all. Let there be a comparison 

mentofhfs" between grace and grace; then Christ gave the far greater 

wl S s h more Ch grace, when he did insert or graft us into his flesh." 

dw"a E nd a yet Harpsfield :— u If you will give me leave, I will ask you 

iiaslftei?" this question : If Chrysostom would have meant so, that 

dowtw? Christ left his body in the eucharist, what plainer words think 

mantle. ^^ of mQre ev j,j ent cou i<i he have used than these V 

Bidley: — "These things be not of so great force as they 
bear a great shew outwardly. He might also have used 
grosser words, if he had listed to have uttered his mind so 
grossly: for he was an eloquent man. Now he speaketh 
after the manner of other doctors, which of mystical matters 
speak mystically, and of sacraments sacramentally," 

Harpsfield: — "The comparison lieth in this: That which 
was impossible to Elias, is possible with Christ." 

Bidley: — "I grant it was possible to Christ, which was 
to the other impossible. Elias left his cloak : Christ both 
left his flesh and took it with him." 


Harpsfield: — "Elias left behind him, and could not take 
with him : Christ both left behind him, and also took with 
him : except you will say the comparison here made to be 

Ridley : — "He took up his flesh with him to heaven, and ^^ e e ( j d 
left here the communion of his flesh in earth." 

Weston : — " You understand in the first place his flesh 
for very true flesh ; and in the second place for grace, and 
communion of his flesh ; and why do you not understand it 
in the second place also, for his true flesh? I will make it" Qua™ sit 

i • • stupidaet 

evident how blockish and gross vour answer is." erassare- 

Ridley : — " These be taunts and reproaches not beseeming, **»•" 

as I think, the modesty of this school." 

Weston : — " Elias left his cloak to his disciple ; but the 

Son of God, going up to heaven, left his flesh. But Elias 

certainly left his cloak behind, and Christ likewise his flesh ; 

and yet, ascending, he carried the same with him too. By 

which words we make this reason : 

"Christ left his flesh to his disciples, and yet, for all that, 

he took the same up with him : 

" Ergo, He is present here with us." 

Here Dr Weston, crying to the people, said unto them, Wes J-°" 

"Master doctor answereth it after this fashion: 'He carried English. 

his flesh into heaven, and he left here the communion of his 

flesh behind.' Assuredly the answer is too unlearned." 

Ridley: — "I am glad you speak in English. Surely, I 

wish that all the whole world might understand your reasons 

and my answers. He left us his flesh. This you understand n^g^j* 

of his flesh, and I understand the same of grace. He carried nem suam -" 

his flesh into heaven, and left behind the communion of his 

flesh unto us." 

Weston: — -"Ye judges, what think ye of this answer V 
Judges: — "It is ridiculous, and a very fond answer." 
Ridley: — "Well, I take your words patiently, for Christ's 


Weston here citeth a place: "We are sprinkled with "Sparffimur 

1 L sanguine 

the blood of Christ." christi." 

Ridley: — "Master doctor, it is the same blood, but yet How we are 
spirituallv received. And indeed all the prophets were sprinkled with 

1 r r i Christ's 

1 5 blood. 

r „. 1 ■ 



the people 

Answer to 

with the same blood, but yet spiritually, I say, and by grace. 
And whatsoever they be that are not sprinkled with this 
blood, they cannot be partakers of the everlasting salvation ." 
This he re- Weston: — " Here I bring Bernard unto you again 1 : 'Even 

English to f ro m the west unto the east, from the north unto the south, 
there is one and the selfsame Christ in many and divers 
places.'' " 

Ridley: — "The answer is soon made, that one Christ is 
here and in divers places : for God, according to his majesty, 
and according to his providence, as St Augustine saith, is 
everywhere with the godly, according to his indivisible and 
unspeakable grace. Or else, if ye should understand Bernard 
according to the corporal presence, how monstrous, or huge 
and giant-like a body would you then make Christ's body 
to be, which should reach even from north to south, from west 
to east." 

Weston: — "Nay, nay, you make a monstrous answer, and 
unlearned. ,1 

Ward: — "Before I come in with those reasons which 
I had purposed to bring against you, I am minded to 
come again to Master doctor's argument, by which you, 
being brought into the briars, seemed to doubt of Christ's 
presence on the earth. To the proof of which matter I 
will bring nothing else, than that which was agreed upon 
in the catechism 2 of the synod of London, set out not long 
ago by you," 

Ridley : — " Sir, I give you to wit, before you go any 
further, that I did set out no catechism." 
W n St Ed- in Weston: — "Yes, you made me subscribe to it, when you 
^^s_days, were a bishop in your ruff." 

Ridley : — " I compelled no man to subscribe." 

Ward: — "Yes, by the rood, you are the very author of 
that heresv." 

charged to 
set forth the 
Here they 
again to 

I 1 See p. 216, note. Ed.] 

\y The catechism here referred to is the Catechism of King Edward 
VI. published by Royal Authority both in Latin and English in a.d. 
1 ">53, and which was revised and approved by convocation. Fox, in his 
side note, " of this catechism read before," refers to the conference 
with Secretary Bourne,, where he (Fox) speaks of the Catechism, but 
erroneously. En.] 


Ridley: — "I put forth no catechism." 

Cole : — " Did you never consent to the setting out of those 
things which you allowed ?" 

Ridley : — " I grant that I saw the book ; but I deny ^ e f c ^^ ca_ 
that I wrote it. I perused it after it was made, and I noted read before - 
many things for it : so I consented to the book. I was not 
the author of it." 

Judges: — "The catechism is so set forth, as though the The judges 

* ' ° give an un- 

whole convocation-house had agreed to it. Cranmer said t™? v ? r - 

o diet: for Dr 

yesterday, that you made it." cranmer, 

J J J meaning by 

Ridley: — "I think surely, that he would not say so." s h |keno d1 ' 
Ward: — " The catechism hath this clause : ' Si visibiliter £? rdof 


et in terra.' ' If visibly and on the earth.' " 

Ridley : — " I answer, that those articles were set out, I 
both writing and consenting to them. Mine own hand will 
testify the same, and Master Cranmer put his hand to them 
likewise, and gave them to others afterward. Now, as for 
the place which you allege out of it, that may easily be ex- 
pounded, and without any inconvenience." 

Ward : — " Christ is the power and the virtue of his Father : a possiwii 

1 ad esse, non 

ergo, he was not of so little strength, that he could not bring valet c ° n - 

° ' . sequentia. 

to pass whatsoever he would himself." 

Ridley : — " I grant." 

Ward: — "Christ was the wisdom of the Father: ergo, 
that he spake, he spake wisely, and so as every man might 
understand; neither was it his mind to speak one thing in- 
stead of another." 

Ridley:—"- All this I grant." 

Ward: — "Christ was likewise the very truth: ergo, he Argument 

of the wis- 

made and performed indeed that which he intended to make, dom and 

. truth of 

And likely it is, that he doth neither deceive, nor could be Christ, 
deceived, nor yet would go about to deceive others." 

Weston :— " Hilary on Psal. cxviii. hath these words 3 : ' All f^ 1 ^^ 
God's words or sayings are true, and neither idly placed 
nor unprofitably, but fiery, and wonderful fiery, without all 

3 " Vera omnia sunt, et neque otiose neque inutiliter constituta Dei 
verba, sed extra omnem ambiguitatem superfluse inanitatis, ignita, et 
ignita vehementer, ne quid illic esse, quod non perfectum ac proprium 
sit, existimetur." [S. Hilar, in Psal. cxviii. (hodie Psal. cxix.) Op. Ed. 
Ben. Par. 1693, col. 350. Ed.] 



doubtfulness of superfluous vanity ; that there may be nothing 
thought to be there, which is not absolute and proper."' " 

Ward: — "He is the truth of the Father: ergo, he can 
neither deceive, nor yet be deceived ; especially, I mean, when 
he spake at his latter end, and made his testament ." 
Answer to Ridley :■— " Christ is the very truth of the Father; and 

Ward's ar- " J , 

gument. J perceive well to what scope you drive your reason. This 
is but a far-fetched compass of words. If that these words 
of Christ, ' This is my body, 1 which you mean, be rightly 
understood, they are most true." 

Ward : — " He took, he brake, he gave, &c. What took he V 

Bidley : — " Bread : his body." 

Ward:— 11 What brake hef 

Bidley :— " Bread." 

Ward: — "What gave heV 

Bidley :— " Bread." 

Ward: — "Gave he bread made of wheat, and material 

Bidley : — " I know not whether he gave bread of wheat ; 
but he gave true and material bread." 

Ward: — "I will prove the contrary by Scriptures. 

" He delivered to them that which he bade them take. 

" But he bade not them take material bread, but his own body: 

m™u?not " -^ r S ' He gave not material bread, but his own body." 

th™econd Bidley: — "I deny the minor. For he bade them take 

Anfwer '" s k 0< ty sacramentally in material bread : and after that sort 

it was both bread which he bade them take, because the 

substance was bread, and that it was also his body, because 

it was the sacrament of his body, for the sanctifying and 

the coming of the Holy Ghost, which is always assistant to 

those mysteries which were instituted of Christ, and lawfully 

administered 1 ." 

Q 1 Eiirioi/ 2e, Touto fiov ecrri to a-m/xa, oeiKvvei oti avrd to 
Closet tou K.vpiov e<TTiv o dpToi o ayta^o/xevos ev too 6v<TiaaTt)p'iu>, 
Koti oir^l avTirvrroV ov yap eiire, Tovrd €<tt\v dvTiTvirov, d\\d 
J^outo jiov 60-ti to awjxa' apprjTip yap evepyeia xieTa-noieiTai, kuv 
(pnivrjTat tjfxiv apTos' evei yap acrdeve?<! eapcv, na\ ovk uv ice£d- 
/xeoa Kpea? eadietv wfxdv nai avQpunrov capua, cid tovto apTO? 
/xev rjjxw Qaiverai, <*dp£ Ce tw oi/ti eo-ri. Theoph. in Matth. cap. 
xxvi. Ed. Morclli. Paris, p. 162. En.] 


Harpsfield: — " What is he that so saith, 'By the coming 
unto of the Holy Spirit f" 

Ridley: — "I have Theophykct for mine author for this 
manner of speaking. And here I bring him, that ye may 
understand that phrase not to be mine, upon Matthew xxvi. 
Furthermore the said Theophylaet, writing upon these words, 
'This is my body,' sheweth, that the body of the Lord is 
bread, which is sanctified on the altar." 

Oglethorpe: — "That place of Theophylaet maketh openly 
against you : for he saith in that place, that Christ said not, 
' This is the figure of my body, but my body. 1 ' For,' saith 
he, 'by an unspeakable operation it is transformed, although 
it seem to us to be bread.'" 

Ridley : — " It is not a figure ; that is to say, ' Non tantum The words 

. T . ° ofTheophy* 

^st figura; i.e. It is not only a figure of his body." lacuwno 

Weston : — " Where have you that word ' tantum' tnis is » «- 

•' sure of my 

' only V " So <iy) »«• 

- . . . swered. 

Ridley : — " It is not in that place, but he hath it in 
another; and Agustine doth so speak many times, and other 
doctors more." 

Here Weston repeating the words of Theophylaet in 
English, said, " He saith, it is no figure, and you say, it is 
a figure." And the same Theophylaet saith moreover, that 
the converting or turning of the bread is made into the Lord's 

That which Christ gave, we do give. Tiusargu- 

n r« • mentis 

But that which he gave was not a figure of his body, but without per. 

° ° ^ feet mood 

his body. and form, 

•> . having- the 

Ergo, We give no figure, but his body 2 . minor nega. 

Ridley : — " I grant," quoth he, "the bread to be converted second fi- 
and turned into the flesh of Christ ; but not by transubstanti- ^£^g , a t n 

sort in the 
[ 3 Fox has the following note on this passage : " As concerning the sacrament. 

authority of Theophylactus, what he thought and might have spoken 
of that author, Dr Ridley did not then speak, nor could conveniently 
(as he himself afterwards declared, reporting and writing with his own 
hand the disputations in the prison,) because of the uproars and cla- 
mours, which were so great, and he of so many called upon, that he 
could not answer as he would, and what he thought touching the 
authority of Theophylactus, but answered simply to that which is 
brought out of that author on this sort." Ed.] 


ation, but by sacramental converting or turning. ' It is trans- 
formed,' saith Theophylact in the same place, 'by a mystical 
benediction, and by the accession or coming of the Holy 
Ghost unto the flesh of Christ.'' He saith not, by expulsion 
or driving away the substance of bread, and by substituting 
or putting in its place the corporal substance of Christ's flesh \ 
And whereas he saith, ' It is not a figure of the body,' we 
should understand that saying, as he himself doth elsewhere 
add 'only, 1 that is, it is no naked or bare figure only. For 
Christ is present in his mysteries ; neither at any time, as 
Cyprian saith, doth the Divine Majesty absent himself from 
the divine mysteries." 

Weston: — " You put in 'only,' and that is one lie. And 
I tell you further : Peter Martyr was fain to deny the author, 
because the place was so plain against him. But mark his 
words, how he saith, ' It is no figure, but his flesh.' " 

Ridley : — " To take his words, and not his meaning, is 

to do injury to the author." 

Sjt 1S s5a r t d " Harding : — " No other doctor maketh more against you. 

monlthe*" For the word in Greek is fieracrToi^eiovTai ; which is in 

notaries. Latin ' trans-elementatur,' that is, turned from one element 

into another. And shewing the cause why it is in form 

of bread, he saith, ' Because we are infirm, and abhor to eat 

the raw flesh, especially the flesh of man ; therefore it ap- 

peareth bread, but it is flesh.'" 

^TaZt- Ridley :— " That word hath not that strength which you 

Xi l0 "Z e ? L \ seem to #i ve it- You strain it overmuch, and yet it maketh 

Theophylact ° J 

■expounded, not so much for your purpose. For the same author hath 
in another place, rj[xei<s yuerauToi^etoi; /ue9a, that is, ' We are 
trans-elemented, or transformed and changed, into the body 
of Christ :' and so by that word, in such meaning as you 
speak of, I could prove as well that we are transformed indeed 
into the very body of Christ." 

I" 1 'O apTO?, 6 ev tch? /xva-rtjpio^ vcp' rjixav e<rdi6[xevo<;, ovyi dvr'i- 
tvkov t-jjs tod K.vpiov <rapKo\, dW CtVTt} r\ rod Kvptov adpt' ov 
yap enrev, oti (J apro<; ov eyia contra avTiTvnov e<TTi tiis capKO? 
/xov, d\\' TI crdp£ jiov ea-r'f ixcTawoieiTai yap diropptjTotv Xoyoiv 6 
apTOS hu'to!, cia -rrjs /.iuo-tikjjs evXoyias sol eVi^oiTjjcre&K tov dylov 
iruev/xa-ro^ ek adpKa -rod Kvp'iov. Theophylact, in Evan. Johan. 
cap. vi. Ed. Morelli, Paris 1631, p. G51— 2. Ed.] 


Ward; — " Learned master doctor, thus you expound the 
place, '.Hoc est corpus meum, 1 i.e. 'This is my body, 1 that 
is, a figure of my body. 11 

Ridley :— " Although I know there be that so expound it, 
yet that exposition is not full to express the whole. 1 ' 
Da- Ward: — " My sheep hear my voice, and follow me. ^ r f™third 
ti- " But all the sheep of Christ hear his voice, ' This is fi s ure - 

my body,' without a figure : 
si. "Ergo, The voice of Christ here hath no figure. 11 

Ridley :— " The sheep of Christ follow the voice of Christ, 
unless they be seduced and deceived through ignorance." 

Ward: — " But the fathers took this place for no figurative 

Ridley : — " Yet they do all number this place among figu- 
rative and tropical speeches. 11 

Ward: — "Justin Martyr, in his second Apology 2 , hath ^ tin Mar * 
thus : ov yap cos koivov aprov ovce koivov irofia tclvto. Xafi- 
j3avofiev' a\\ ov Tpoirov oid \6yov 0eov GapKOiroirjOels 
Irjcrovs, o (TWTijp tjfiwv, kcii aapKa Kal cti/ua virep crwrrjpias 
r)fx<ii)v ear^ev } outws Kal tyjv 01 ev^rjs \6yov tov Trap' auTov 
€v^apiarr}deicrav Tpo(prjv, e% j}s ai/aa Kal crapices Kara /ueTCt-< 
fioXrjv Tpe<povTai ijfjiwv, eKelvov tov o~apKoiroir}9evTo<; Irjaoo 
Kal aapKa Kal atfia eowdyfirjiuLev etvai." 

" ' Neque vero hsec pro pane potuve communi sumimus : 
imo quemadmodum verbo Dei Jesus Christus, Servator noster, 
incarnatus habuit pro salute nostra carnem et sanguinem; 
ita per orationem illius verbi consecratum hoc alimentum, quo 
sanguis et carnes nostrse per immutationem enutriuntur, ejus- 
dem incarnati carnem et sanguinem esse sumus edocti. 1 

" This place Cranmer hath corrupted. Thus it is Eng- 
lished : ' For we do not take this for common bread and 
drink ; but like as Jesus Christ our Saviour, incarnate by the 
word of God, had flesh and blood for our salvation ; even so we 
be taught the food wherewith our flesh and blood is nourished 
by alteration, when it is consecrated by the prayer of his word, 
to be the flesh and blood of the same Jesus incarnate. 1 

" Dr Cranmer hath thus translated it : ' Bread, water, and cranmer 


wine, are not to be taken as other common meats and drinks witl1 mi ?- 

[ 2 In modern editions, Apolog. i. § 66, p. 85. Venetiis, 1747. Ed.] Justin. 


be, but they be ordained purposely to give thanks to God, 
and therefore be called Eucharistia, and be called the body 
and blood of Christ: and that it is lawful for none to eat 
and drink of them, but such as profess Christ, and live accord- 
ing to the same ; and yet the same meat and drink is changed 
into our flesh and blood, and nourisheth our bodies.'" 1 

Ridley : — " good master doctor, go sincerely to work : 
I know that place, and I know how it is used. 1 '' 

Ward here repeated the place again out of Justin, ' We 
are taught,' &c. as above. 
snmptum Ridley: — "0 what unright dealing is this! I have the 

ex expm- " o o 

uifni iwdiei seu " same place of Justin here copied out. You know your- 
descripto. se }f 5 w h are skilful in Greek, how the words here be removed 
out of the right place ; and that without any just cause." 

Ward: — "I stand still upon mine argument. What say 
you *" 

Ridley : — " If you will, that I should answer to Justin, 
then you must hear. I have but one tongue, I cannot answer 
at once to you all." 

Weston : — " Christ gave us his very and true flesh to be 
eaten : 

" But he never gave it to be eaten but in his last supper, 
and in the sacrament of the altar : 

roenUfTfe" " El 'g°> There is tIle Vel 7 trUe flesh ° f Christ." 

™"ative e a Ridley : — " If you speak of the very true flesh of Christ, 

flTseTtfit 1 a fter the substance of his flesh taken in the womb of the 

tive/^ui- Virgin Mary, and not by grace and spiritually, I then do 

the'majoi? is deny the ^ rs ^ P ar * °f y our reason. But if you understand it 

likd 6 .* 16 * of the true flesh, after grace and spiritual communication, 

I then grant the first part, and deny the second. For he 

giveth unto us truly his flesh, to be eaten of all that believe in 

him : for he is the very and true meat of the soul, wherewith 

we are fed unto everlasting life, according to his saying, ' My 

flesh is meat indeed, 1 &c." 

"Desiderio Ward: 1 — u ' I have desired with my hearty desire to eat 

desideravi J J 

manducare ^ " P r °f essus itaque se concupiscentia concupiscere edere pascha ut 

vobiscum." suum (indignum enim ut alienum concupisccret Deus) acceptum panem 

et distributum discipulis corpus ilium suum fecit, Hoc est coitus meum, 

dicendo, etc." Teitul. contra Marcion. lib. iv. cap. 40. Op. Ed. Rigalt. 

Par. 1641, p. 571. En.] 


this paschal with you.' What paschal, I pray you, desired 
he to eat ? If you stand in doubt, you have Tertullian against 
Marcion : He, therefore, protesting a great desire to eat his 
paschal (his own paschal I say, for it was not meet that he 
should desire any other than his own), taking bread and 
distributing it to his disciples, made it his body, saying, 'This 
is my body.' What say you? Did he understand by this 
paschal the Judaical lamb, or by that which afterwards he 
gave in his supper?" 

Ridley : — " I suppose that the first he understood of the 
Judaical passover, and afterward of the eucharist/ 1 

Ward:— "Nay then Tertullian is against you, who Argument, 
saith : 

Ba- ' He desired to eat his passover. 
ro- 'But the Judaical passover was not his, but strange 

from Christ : 
co. ' Ergo, He meant not of the Judaical passover. 1 11 

Ridley : — " The Judaical passover was not strange from Answer. 
Christ, but his own ; insomuch as he is the Lord of all, and as 
well the Lord of the Judaical passover, as of his own supper." 

Ward: — " What answer you then to Tertullian, who saith, 
' He desired to eat his own passover,' and not the Jewish 
passover, which stood upon words without flesh?" 

Ridley : — " Tertullian may here dally in sense analogical. Analogical 

T , , « T sense is that 

I know that Cyprian hath these words : ' He began then to wnicl > nath 

J r ° a high and 

institute the holy eucharist, but both were Christ's. 1 " mystical un- 

•' ... derstand- 

Ward: — "Augustine on Psalm xcvi., writing upon these j"?^ 11 ^' 
words, ' Adorate scabellum pedum ejus \ i. e. ' Worship his s t™ se and 
footstool, 1 &c. 3 'I ask, 1 saith he, 'what is the footstool f undert !' e 

' ' ' external 


2 " Tunc instituit quidem eucharistiam, sed utrumque erat Christi." 
[ 3 "Quscro, inquit, quid sit scabellum pedum ejus? Et dicit mihi 
Scriptura, Terra scabellum pedum meorum. Fluctuans converto me ad 
Christum, quia ipsum qusero hie, et invenio quomodo sine impietate 
adoretur scabellum pedum ejus. Suscepit enim de terra terram, quia 
caro de terra est, et de carne Marise carnem accepit, et quia in ipsa 
carne hie ambulavit, et ipsam carnem nobis manducandam ad salutem 
dedit : nemo autem illam carnem manducat nisi prius adoraverit. In- 
ventum est quomodo tale scabellum pedum Domini adoretur, ut non 
solum non peccemus adorando, sed peccemus non adorando ipsum," etc. 
S. August, in Psal. xcviii. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. iv. col. 1604"— 5. 


his feet; and the Scripture telleth me, The earth is the 

footstool of my feet. And so, in searching thereof, I turn 

myself to Christ, because I seek him here in the earth, and 

find how, without impiety, the footstool of his feet may be 

worshipped. For he took earth of earth, in that he is flesh 

of the earth, and of the flesh of Mary he took flesh, and 

because that in the same flesh here he walked; and also he 

gave the same flesh to us, to be eaten unto salvation. But 

no man eateth that flesh except he have worshipped before. 

And so it is found, how such a footstool of the feet of the 

Lord is to be worshipped, so that not only we sin not in 

worshipping, but also do sin in not worshipping the same." 

Da- " He gave to us his flesh to be eaten, the which he 

took of the earth, in which also here he walked, &c. 

ti- "But he never gave his flesh to be eaten, but when 

he gave it at his supper, saying, ' This is my body : ' 

if the minor si- " Ergo, In the eucharist he gave us his flesh." 

ment(asTs Ridley: — "You do allege the place of Augustine upon 

saidbefore) ... , . ., , r ™ . , . „ , 

beequipoi- Psalm xcvui., where he saith, that Christ gave his flesh to 
firmative, be eaten which he took of the earth, and in which here 
cometh next he walked ; inferring; hereupon that Christ never gave the 

to the mood . & r ^ t> 

Dam. same his flesh to be eaten, but only in the eucharist: I 

How Christ _ . . 

gave his deny your minor ; for he gave it both in the eucharist to 

flesh to be J J ' ° 

eaten, and be eaten, and also otherwise, as well in the word, as also 

when. ' ' ' 

upon the cross." 

Smith: — "What if Augustine say, that Christ did not 
only give himself to us in a figure, but gave his own very 
flesh indeed and really?" 

Ridley : — " I never said that Christ gave only a figure of 
his body ; for indeed he gave himself in a real communication, 
that is, he gave his flesh after a communication of his flesh." 

(Here Weston read the place of Augustine in English, 
and afterward said, " Ye say Christ gave not his body, but 
a figure of his body.") 

Midley : — "I say not so: I say, he gave his own body 
verily; but he gave it by a real, effectual, and spiritual 
communication ." 

nr Giyn, After this, Dr Glyn began to reason, who (notwithstand- 

ley'soid ing master Ridley had always taken him for his old friend) 


made a very contumelious preface against him. This preface ^'j.™^^ 
master Ridley, therefore, did the more take to heart, because g^_ 
it proceeded from him. Howbeit he thought, that Dr Glyn's g, v y e n t ' lDr 
mind was to serve the turn ; for afterward he came to the 
house wherein master Eidley was kept, and, as far as master 
Ridley could call to remembrance, before Dr Young and 
Dr Oglethorpe he desired him to pardon his words. The 
which master Eidley did even from the very heart ; and 
wished earnestly, that God would give not only to him, but 
unto all others, the true and evident knowledge of God's 
evangelical sincerity, that, all offences put apart, they being 
perfectly and fully reconciled, might agree and meet together 
in the house of the heavenly Father. 

Glyn : — " I see that you elude or shift away all Scrip- 
tures and fathers: I will go to work with you after another 
sort : — Christ hath here his church known in earth, of which 
you were once a child, although now you speak contumeliously 
of the sacraments." 

Ridley : — " This is a grievous contumely, that you call me 
a shifter away of the Scripture and of the doctors. As 
touching the sacraments, I never yet spake contumeliously of 
them. I grant that Christ hath here his church in earth ; 
but that church did ever receive and acknowledge the eu- 
charist to be a sacrament of the body of Christ, yet not 
the body of Christ really, but the body of Christ by grace.' 1 

Glyn : — " Then I ask this question : whether the catholic 
church hath ever or at any time been idolatrous?" 

Ridley : — " The church is the pillar and stay of the truth, 
that never yet hath been idolatrous in respect of the whole ; 
but, peradventure, in respect of some part thereof, which 
sometimes may be seduced by evil pastors, and through ig- 

Glyn: — '-That church ever hath worshipped the flesh of 
Christ in the eucharist. 

"But the church hath never been idolatrous: 

" Ergo, It hath alwav iudged the flesh of Christ to be "This argu- 

° ' J J o ment, hav- 

in the eucharist." ing the mi- 

nor a nega- 

Bidley : — ■" And I also worship Christ in the sacrament, -^maMe 1 " 
but not because he is included in the sacrament : like as I in the third 


figure, nor worship Christ also in the Scriptures, not because he is 

doth it con- \ . r 

elude right- really included in them. Notwithstanding I say, that the 
should con- body of Christ is present in the sacrament ; but yet sacra- 

cludethus: J . . x . . ,.„ 

ergo, to mentally and spiritually (according to his grace) giving life, 
flesh of and in that respect really, that is, according to his benedic- 

Christinthe . . . l J a 

cucharistis tion, giving life. Furthermore, I acknowledge gladly the 
t, r y-"- true bodv of Christ to be in the Lord's supper, in such 

.Sumptura •* i ± ? 

a i ,a R t ki r? " sort ^ ^ ie ^ nurcn °f Christ (which is the spouse of Christ, 
manu de- an( j j s tauo-ht of the Holy Ghost, and guided by God's word) 

senpto, ° J ° J < ' 

doth acknowledge the same. But the true church of Christ doth 
acknowledge a presence of Christ's body in the Lord's supper 
to be communicated to the godly by grace, and spiritually, as 
I have often shewed, and by a sacramental signification ; but 
not by the corporal presence of the body of his flesh." 

Glyn : — " Augustine against Faustus [saith,] ' ' Some there 
were which thought us, instead of bread and of the cup, to 
worship Ceres and Bacchus." Upon this place I gather, that 
there was an adoration of the sacrament among the fathers; 
and Erasmus, in an epistle to the brethren of Low Ger- 
many, saith, that the worshipping of the sacrament was be- 
fore Augustine and Cyprian." 

Ridley : — " We do handle the signs reverently : but we 
worship the sacrament as a sacrament, not as a thing sig- 
nified by the sacrament." 

Glyn : — " What is the symbol or sacrament V 

Ridley:— "Bread." 
svor'r 1 ^ Grtyn: — "Ergo, We worship bread." 

distinguish- Ridley: — "There is a deceit in this word 'adoramus.' 
We worship the symbols, when reverently we handle them. 
We worship Christ wheresoever Ave perceive his benefits ; but 
we understand his benefits to be greatest in the sacrament." 

Glyn : — " So I may fall down before the bench here, and 
worship Christ; and if any man ask me what I do, I may 
answer, I worship Christ." 

Ridley: — " We adore and worship Christ in the eucharist. 
And if you mean the external sacrament ; I say, that also 
is to be worshipped as a sacrament." 

[* "Nomvulli propter pancm ct calicem Cerercm ct Bacchum nos 
colore existimabat," etc. August, contra Faust, lib. xx. cap. 13. Op. 
Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, torn. viii. col. 342. Ed.] 


Glyn: — "So was the faith of the primitive church." 

Ridley : — " Would to God we would all follow the faith 
of that church !" 

Glyn : — " Think you that Christ hath now his church V 

Ridley:—"! do so." 

Glyn: — "But all the church adoreth Christ verily and 
really in the sacrament." 

Ridley : " You know yourself, that the eastern church This conn- 

1 cil of Flo- 

WOUld not acknowledge transubstantiation : as appeareth in rence was 

s ' rr hut of late 

the council of Florence. years, in the 

7 mi • . time of the 

Cole: — "That is false: for in the same thev did acknow- council of 

, ... Basil. 

ledge transubstantiation; although they would not entreat of 
that matter, for that thev had not in their commission so 
to do." 

Ridley : — " Nay, they would determine nothing of that 
matter, when the article was propounded unto them." 

Cole : — " It was not because they did not acknowledge 
the same, but because they had no commission so to do." 

Curtop: — "Reverend Sir, I will prove and declare, that 
the body of Christ is truly and really in the eucharist : and 
whereas the holy fathers, both of the west and east church, 
have written both many things and no less manifest of the 
same matter, yet will I bring forth only Chrysostom. The 
place is this 2 : 

" That which is in the cup, is the same that flowed from 
the side of Christ. 

" But true and pure blood did flow from the side of 
Christ : 

" Ergo, His true and pure blood is in the cup." snounT' 

Ridley: — "It is his true blood which is in the chalice, thlls: what- 

«' 7 soever did 

I grant, and the same which sprang from the side of Christ. ^^^ f 
But how ? It is blood indeed, but not after the same man- Christ is in 

' _ # the cup, &c. 

ner, after which manner it sprang from his side. For here "lament 6 
is the blood, but by way of a sacrament. — Again I say, hke}!^ 1 ."^ 
as the bread of the sacrament and of thanksgiving is called Jj™*j|j™' 
the body of Christ given for us ; so the cup of the Lord is 
called the blood which sprang from the side of Christ : but 

T 2 Touto to tv woTtjptta ov, skuvo t<TT< to airo rij<; -TrXevpus 
ftevo-av' «a\ ckcIvov /jie-re^o/jiei/. S. Chrys. in cap. x. Cor. 1. Horn. xxiv. 
Op. Ed. Ben. Tar. 17-32, torn. x. pp. 212— 13. En.] 

This argu- 
ment con- 


that sacramental bread is called the body, because it is the 
sacrament of his body. Even so likewise the cup is called 
the blood also, which flowed out of Christ's side, because it 
is the sacrament of that blood which flowed out of bis side, 
instituted of the Lord himself for our singular commodity, 
namely, for our spiritual nourishment ; like as baptism is 
ordained in water to our spiritual regeneration." 

Curtop: — " The sacrament of the blood is not the blood." 
Ridley : — " The sacrament of the blood is the blood ; 
and that is attributed to the sacrament, which is spoken of 
the thing of the sacrament." 

(Here Weston repeateth Curtop's argument in English.) 
Weston : — " That which is in the chalice, is the same 
™iy, not which flowed out of Christ's side, 
fn the fe- S " But there came out very blood : 

affirmative 6 , " Ergo, There is very blood in the chalice." 
forma?.' Ridley .— " The blood of Christ is in the chalice indeed, 

but not in the real presence, but by grace, and in a sacra- 

Weston : — " That is very well. Then we have blood in 
the chalice." 

Ridley: — " It is true ; but by grace, and in a sacrament." 

(Here the people hissed at him.) 

Ridley : — " my masters ! I take this for no judgment : 
I will stand to God's judgment." 

Watson : — " Good sir, I have determined to have respect 

of the time, and to abstain from all those things which may 

hinder the entrance of our disceptation : and therefore first I 

"Qui man- ask this question: When Christ said in John vi., 'He that 

nem ^ eateth my flesh,' &c, doth he signify in those words the 


eating of his true and natural flesh, or else of the bread and 
symbol ?" 
spiritual Ridley : — " I understand that place of the very flesh of 

eatmgofthe ^ 1 

flesh of Christ to be eaten, but spiritually : and further I say, that 

latins t. 

the sacrament also pertaineth unto the spiritual manduca- 
tion : for without the spirit to eat the sacrament is to eat 
it unprofitable ; for whoso eateth not spiritually, he eateth 
his own condemnation." 



Watson: — "I ask then, whether the eucharist be a sacra- 
ment r 

Ridley : — " The eucharist, taken for a sign or symbol, is 
a sacrament." 

Watson .•— " Is it instituted of God?" 

Ridley : — " It is instituted of God." 

Watson :— " Where V 

Ridley: — "In the supper." 

Watson : — " With what words is it made a sacrament V 

Ridley: — "By the words and deeds which Christ said 
and did, and commanded us to say and do the same." 

Watson: — "It is a thing commonly received of all, that 
the sacraments of the new law give grace to them that 
worthily receive." 

Ridley : — " True it is, that grace is given by the sacra- 
"inent ; but as by an instrument. The inward virtue and Christ 
give the grace through the sacrament." 

Watson : — " What is a sacrament V 

Ridley: — "I remember there be many definitions of a Sacrament 
sacrament in Agustine: but I will take that which seemeth 
most fit to this present purpose. A sacrament is a visible 
sign of invisible grace." 

Watson : — " Ergo, Grace is given to the receivers." 

Ridley : — " The society or conjunction with Christ through 
the Holy Ghost is grace ; and by the sacrament we are made 
the members of the mystical body of Christ, for that by the 
sacrament the part of the body is grafted in the head." 

Watson : — " But there is difference between the mystical 
body and natural body." 

Ridley: — "There is, I grant you, a difference; but the 
head of them both is one." 

Watson : — " The eucharist is a sacrament of the new Argument. 
testament : 

"Ergo, It hath a promise of grace. Tnesyiio- 

-I-, n • 1 i 1 1 1 S^ 1 " is tnus 

" But no promise oi grace is made to bread ana wine : to be form- 
" Ergo, Bread and wine be not the sacraments of thecramentof 

the New 
new testament." Testament 

Ridley : — " I grant that grace pertaineth to the eucharist, mise of 
according; to this savingf, ' The bread which we break, is it nexed : 

bread and 

not the communication or partaking of the body of Christ?'" wine havo 


!!? F, r ,°™ ise And like as he that eateth and he that drinketh unwor- 
e"" ex brekd tmIv tne sacrament of the body and blood of the Lord, eateth 
f J'i^lr is and drinketh his own damnation : even so he that eateth 

no sucrs.- ~ 

NewTrata 6 - ancl drinketh worthily, eateth life, and drinketh life. I grant 
No n promise a ^ so *^ at tnei-e m no promise made to bread and wine. But 
"read mid inasmuch as they are sanctified, and made the sacraments 
bi n common y °f tne body an & blood of the Lord, they have a promise of 
common* 1 grace annexed unto them ; namely, of spiritual partaking of 
Stheybe tne body of Christ to be communicated and given, not to 
anTmade the bread and wine, but to them which worthily do receive 
Sfthe&the sacrament." 

bi°o d od, a they Watson: — "If the substance of bread and wine do re- 
called bread main, then the society betwixt Christ and us is promised to 
but have a them that take bread and wine. 

nexedto an " " But that society is not promised to bread and wine, but 
theruo'say" to the receivers of the flesh and blood : ' Qui manducat,' &c. 
annexed to " Ergo, The substance of bread and wine remaineth not." 

ere of them. Ridley: — "The promise undoubtedly is made to the flesh 
and the blood ; but the same is to be received in the sacra- 
ment through faith." 

Watson: — "Every sacrament hath a promise of grace 
annexed unto it ; but bread and wine have not a promise 
of grace annexed unto them : 

" Ergo, The bread and wine are not sacraments." 

haveTpro- Ridley: — "True it is, every sacrament hath grace an- 

£race C an- nexed unto it instrumentally. But there is divers under- 

absoiu'tei°y, standing of this word 'habet,' 'hath: 1 for the sacrament 

mentally. 11 " na *h not grace included in it; but to those that receive it 

well, it is turned to grace. After that manner the water in 

baptism hath grace promised, and by that grace the Holy 

Spirit is given : not that grace is included in water, but 

that grace cometh by water." 

Watson: — "This promise is made to the flesh and blood 
of Christ, and not to the bread and wine : 

" Ergo, The sacrament is not bread and wine, but the 
body and blood of Christ." 

Ridley : — " There is no promise made to him that taketh 
common bread and common wine ; but to him that receiveth 
the sanctified bread, and bread of the communion, there is 
a large promise of grace made : neither is the promise given 


to the symbols, but to the thing of the sacrament. But 
the thing of the sacrament is the flesh and blood." 

Watson : — " Every sacrament of the new testament giveth 
grace, promised of God to those that worthily receive it." 

Ridley : — " This sacrament hath a promise ot grace, made only instru . 
to those that receive it worthily, because grace is given by ™ e a f e * ° 
it, as by an instrument ; not that Christ hath transfused grace 
into the bread and wine." 

Watson: — "But this promise which is made, is not but 
to those that worthily receive the flesh and blood ; not the 
bread and wine." 

Ridley:— "That proposition of yours hath a divers un- 
derstanding. There is no promise made to them that receive 
common bread, as it were; but to those that worthily re- 
ceive the sanctified bread there is a promise of grace made, 
like as Origen doth testify." 

Watson : — " Where is that promise made ?" 
Ridley :— " The bread which we break, is it not a com-itior.x. 
munication of the body of Christ? And we being many 
are one bread, one body of Christ." 

Watson : — " What doth he mean by bread in that place ?" 
Ridley : — " The bread of the Lord's table, the communion 
of the body of Christ." 

Watson : — " Hearken what Chrysostom saith upon that 
place 1 : 'The bread which we break, is it not the com- 
munication of Christ's body?' Wherefore did he not say 
participation? Because he would signify some greater 
matter, and that he would declare a great convenience and 
conjunction betwixt the same. For we do not commu- 
nicate by participation only and receiving, but also by co- 
uniting; for likewise as that body is co-united to Christ, 
so also we, by the same bread, are conjoined and united 
to him." 

£' 'O a'juTO? vv kXuSixcv, ov^i koivuv'm "rod <Tu>fia.TO$ rov \pi<rrov 
earl; Zid rl nrj eine /xeTovn ; on ir\eov rt dr/Xmo-at tj(3ov\ri9>i, Kai 
•ffoWtjv tvoei^atrdat tx\v <rvvd(petav ov •yap Tip fxere^ew fxovov Kai 
)iera\a)xftdvew, dwd kc*i t<o evoua-dai KOtvoovovfiev. Kadairep yap to 1 
amfxa eiceTvo ijvwTai too Xp«rT<o, ovtco Se tjfxevs avTta ota tov apTOV 
tovtov ivoufxeOa. S. Chrysost. Horn. xxiv. in 1 Corinth, cap. x. Op. 
Ed. Ben. Par. 171 8. torn. x. p. 213. Ed.] 


rPTTlT.F.V. I 


Answer to Bidley : — "Let Chrysostom have his manner of speaking 

tom. a nd his sentence. If it be true, I reject it not. But let it 

not be prejudicial to me, to name it true bread." 
chrysos- Watson :— " 'AH,' saith Chrysostom, 'which sit together 

bread, one at one board, do communicate together of one true body. 
body! ca What do I call,' saith he, 'this communicating? We are 
all the selfsame body. What doth bread signify? The body 
of Christ. What be they that receive it? The body of 
Christ : for many are but one body.' Chrysostom doth inter- 
pret this place against you: 'All we be one bread and one 
mystical body, which do participate together one bread of 
Christ 1 .' " 

Bidley : — " All we be one mystical body, which do com- 
municate of one Christ in bread, after the efficacy of regene- 
ration or quickening." 

Watson :— " Of what manner of bread speaketh he V 
Bidley : — " Of the bread of the Lord's table. 11 
Watson : — " Is not that bread one ?" 
Bidley: — "It is one, the church being one; because 
one bread is set forth upon the table : and so of one bread 
all together do participate, which communicate at the table 
of the Lord." 

Watson: — "See how absurdly you speak. Do you say, 
all which be from the beginning to the end of the world?" 
Bidley: — "All, I say, which at one table together have 
communicated in the mysteries might well so do. Albeit the 
heavenly and celestial bread is likewise one also, whereof the 
sacramental bread is a mystery : the which, being one, all we 
together do participate." 
a cavil. Watson: — "A perverse answer. Which 'all 1 ? Mean 

you all christian men?" 

Bidley: — "I do distribute this word 'all;' for all were 
wont together to communicate of the one bread divided into 
parts : all, I say, which were in one congregation, and which 
all did communicate together at one table." 

Q 1 Ti yap Xeyto Kowmvlav, <prj<rlvj avro ecrpev eKeivo to amjxa. 
ti yap £<tt\v 6 apTOi ; criajxa Xjuicttou. ti Ze yivovrai ot fieTaXafj.- 
fiavovres; <ywjxa XpiffTov, ovyi <Twp.aTa TroWa dwd aufxa ev. 
S. Chrysost. Horn. xxiv. in 1 Corinth, cap. x. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1718. 
torn. x. p. 213. Ed.] 


Watson : — " What I Do you exclude then from the body 
of Christ all them which did not communicate, being present V 

Fecktmm : — " But Cyprian saith 2 , ' Bread which no mul- 
titude doth consume :' which cannot be understood but only 
of the body of Christ." 

Ridley: — "Also Cyprian in this place did speak of the 
true body of Christ, and not of material bread." 

Fecknam: — "Nay, rather he did there entreat of the sa- 
crament in that tractation ' De Ceena Domini,' writing upon 
the supper of the Lord." 

Ridley: — "Truth it is, and I grant he entreateth there 
of the sacrament : but also he doth admix something there- 
withal of the spiritual manducation." 

Smith : — " When the Lord saith, ' This is my body,' he 
.useth no tropical speech : 

" Ergo, You are deceived." 

Ridley : — " I deny your antecedent." 

Smith : — " I bring here Augustine expounding these words, 
' He was carried in his own hands 3 :' How may this be un- 
derstood to be done in man? For no man is carried in his 
own hands, but in the hands of other. How this may be 
understood of David after the letter, we do not find; of 
Christ we find it. For Christ was borne in his own hands, 
when he saith, ' This is my body :' for he carried that same 
body in his own hands, &c. Augustine here did not see 
how this place, after the letter, could be understood of David ; 
because no man can carry himself in his own hands. ' There- 
fore,' saith he, 'this place is to be understood of Christ after 
the letter.' For Christ carried himself in his own hands in 
his supper, when he gave the sacrament to his disciples, say- 
ing, 'This is my body.'" 

Ridley: — "I deny your argument, and I explicate the^^™ 
same. Augustine could not find, after his own understanding, 

P "Nulla panem hunc multitudo consumit." Cyprian, de Ccena 
Dom. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1726. col. cxv. Ed.] 

[ 3 " Hoc vero, fratres, quomodo possit fieri in homine, quis intelligat? 
Manibus enim suis nemo portatur, sed alienis. Quomodo intelligatur de 
David secundum literam, non invenimus ; de Christo autem invenimus. 
Ferebatur enim Christus in manibus suis cum diceret. Hoc est corpus 
meum. Ferebat enim illud corpus in manibus suis," etc. S. Aug. in 
Psal. xxxiii. En. 1. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685. torn. iv. col. 214. Ed.] 




how this could be understood of David after the letter. Augus- 
tine goeth here from others in this exposition, but I go not from 
him. But let this exposition of Augustine be granted to you ; 
although I know this place of Scripture be otherwise read 
of other men, after the verity of the Hebrew text, and it is 
also otherwise to be expounded. Yet, to grant to you this 
exposition of Augustine, I say yet notwithstanding, it maketh 
nothing against my assertion : for Christ did bear himself in 
his own hands, when he gave the sacrament of his body to 
be eaten of his disciples." 

Smith : — " Ergo, It is true of Christ after the letter, that 
he was borne in his own hands. 11 

Ridley : — " He was borne literally, and after that letter 
which was spoken of David : but not after the letter of these 
words, ' Hoc est corpus meum.' 
The place of "I grant that St Augustine saith, that it is not found liter- 

Augustine, ° .... 

how Christ ally of David, that he carried himself in his own hands, and 

was carried J ' 

hands "•'ad ^^ ^ * s f° un( * °^ Christ. But this word ' ad literam, 1 ' literally,' 
nteram," y 0U ,j no ^ we n re f er t that which was borne, but rather it 

i.e. literally. J ... 

ought to be referred to him that did bear it. St Augustine's 
meaning is this ; that it is not read anywhere in the Bible, 
that this carnal David, the Son of Jesse, did bear himself in 
his hands ; but of that spiritual David, that overthrew Goliath 
the devil (that is, of Christ our Saviour, the son of the Virgin), 
it may well be found literally, that he bare himself in his 
own hands after a certain manner, namely, in carrying the sa- 
crament of himself. And note, that St Augustine hath these 
words, ' quodam modo,' ' after a certain manner ;' which mani- 
festly declare, how the doctor's meaning is to be taken." 

Smith: — "When then was he borne in his own hands, 
and after what letter V 

Ridley : — " He was borne in the supper sacramentally, 
when he said, 'This is my body.'" 
a figure he Smith : — " Every man may bear in his own hands a figure 
but not a' of his body. But Augustine denieth that David could carry 
himself in his hands : 

" Ergo, He speaketh of no figure of his body." 
Ridley: — " If Augustine could have found in all the Scrip- 
ture, that David had carried the sacrament of his body, then 
he would never have used that exposition of Christ." 


Smith : — " But he did bare himself in his own hands : 

" Ergo, He did not bear a figure only. 11 

Ridley : — " He did bear himself, but in a sacrament : and 
Augustine afterward addeth, 'quodam modo, 1 that is, 'sacra- 
mentally.' " 

Smith: — "You understand not what Augustine meant ^^ am 
when he said, 'quodam modo;' for he meant, that he did 
bear his very true body in that supper, not in figure and 
form of a body, but in form and figure of bread : 

" Ergo, You are holden fast, neither are you able to 
escape out of this labyrinth." 

Dr Weston repeated this place again in English: which 
done, then Dr Tresham began thus to speak, moved (as it 
seemed to master Ridley) with great zeal; and desired that 
he might be in the stead of John Baptist, in converting the 
hearts of the fathers, and in reducing the said Bishop Ridley 
again to the mother church. Now at the first, not know- 
ing the person, he thought he had been some good old man, 
which had the zeal of God, although not according to know- 
ledge, and began to answer him with mansuetude and reve- 
rence: but afterward he smelled a fox under a sheep's 

Tresham : — " God Almighty grant that it may be fulfilled Tresham 
in me, that was spoken by the prophet Malachi of John ^5{' eitin s 
Baptist, ' Which may turn the hearts of the fathers to the 
children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers, that 
you at length may be converted. 1 The wise man saith, ' Son, 
honour thy father, and reverence thy mother:'' but you dis- 
honour your Father in heaven, and pollute your mother the 
holy church here on earth, while ye set nought by her." 

Ridley: — "These bye words do pollute your school." 

Tresham : — " If there were an Arian which had that subtle 
wit that you have, he might soon shift off the authority of 
the Scriptures and fathers." 

Weston : — " Either dispute, or else hold your peace, I pray 

Tresham: — " I bring a place here out of the council of T||C decree 

-r i i • i »i ,1 • 1*. of the Late- 

Lateran, the which council representing the universal church, ran council 





aiiegedfor wherein were congregated three hundred bishops and seventy 
stantiation. metropolitans, besides a great multitude of others, decreed 
that bread and wine, by the power of (rod's word, was 
transubstantiate into the body and blood of the Lord. There- 
fore whosoever saith contrary, cannot be a child of the church, 
but a heretic." 

Ridley: — "Good sir, I have heard what you have cited 
out of the council of Lateran, and remember that there was 
a great multitude of bishops and metropolitans, as you said : 
but yet you have not numbered how many abbots, priors, 
and friars were in that council, who were to the number of 
eight hundred." 

One of the Scribes : — " What ! will you deny then the 
authority of that council, for the multitude of those priors V 

Ridley: — "No, sir, not so much for that cause, as for 
that, especially, because the doctrine of that council agreed 
not with the word of God, as it may well appear by the 
acts of that council, which was holden under Innocent the 
Third, a man (if we believe the histories) most pernicious 
to the church and commonwealth of Christ." 

Tresham : — " What ! do you not receive the council of 
Lateran?" Whereupon he, with certain others, cried, " Scri- 
bite, scribite," Write, write. 

Ridley : — " No, sir, I receive not that council ; ' scribite, 
et rescribite,' write, and write again." 

Tresham : — " Evil men do eat the natural body of Christ : 
ergo, the true and natural body of Christ is on the altar." 

Ridley: — "Evil men do eat the very true and natural 
body of Christ sacramentally, and no further ; as St Augus- 
tine saith. But good men do eat the very true body, both 
sacramentally, and spiritually by grace." 

Tresham : — " I prove the contrary by St Augustine : 
'Sicut enim Judas, cui buccellulam Dominus tradidit, non 
malum accipiendo, sed male accipiendo, peccavit,' fee. 1 ' Like 
as Judas, to whom the Lord gave the morsel, did offend, 
not in taking a thing that was evil, but in receiving it after 
an evil manner,' &c. And a little after 2 , 'Because some 

[} Aug. lib. v. cont. Donatistas. cap. 8. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685. 
torn. ix. col. 146. Ed.] 

P Aut quia non ad salutem accipit, nihil acceperit. Ibid. Ed.] 

Council of 



xlo not eat unto salvation, it followeth not therefore, that it 
is not his body.'" 

Ridley: — "It is the body to them, that is, the sacra- 
ment of the body: and Judas took the sacrament of the 
Lord to his condemnation. Augustine hath distinguished these 
things well in another place, where he saith 3 , ' The bread 
of the Lord, [and] the bread the Lord. Evil men eat the 
bread of the Lord, but not the bread the Lord : but good 
men eat both the bread of the Lord, and bread the Lord. ,,1 

Weston : — " Paul saith, ' the body,' and you say, the sa- Tni s wes- 

ton spake in 

crament ot the body. English. 

Ridley: — "Paul meaneth so indeed." 

Watson : — " You understand it evil concerning the sign : 
for the fathers say, that evil men do eat him which de- 
scended from heaven." 

Ridley : — " They eat him indeed, but sacramentaJly. The The old doc- 
fathers use many times the sacrament for the matter of the 
sacrament, and all that same place maketh against you:" 
and so here he cited the place. 

Weston : — " I bring Theophylact, which saith, that Judas Theophyiact 
did taste the body of the Lord 4 . 'The Lord did shew the 
cruelty of Judas, who, when he was rebuked, did not un- 
derstand, and tasted the Lord's flesh,' &c." 

Ridley : — " This phrase to divines is well known, and Answer. 
used of the doctors : He tasted the flesh of the Lord, ' in- 
sensibiliter,' ' insensibly ;' that is, the sacrament of the Lord's 

Weston : — " Chrysostom saith, that the same punishment Chrysostom 
remaineth to them which receive the body of the Lord un- 
worthily, as to them which crucified him." 

Ridley : — " That is, because they defile the Lord's body : chrysostom 
for evil men do eat the body of Christ sacramentally, but 

P "Panem Domini, et panem Dominum. Mali manducant panem 
Domini, non panem Dominum: boni autem manducant et panem Do- 
mini, et panem Dominum." S. Aug. on Johan. Evan. Tract. Mx. Op. 
Ed. Ben. Par. 1685. torn. iii. pars 2. col. 663. Ed.J 

[_ 4 A<a tovto -rrpoffedrfKe to eadiovrwv, "va irapacrTtjo-r] tijv dirav- 
Oponriav tov Iouoa, oti ev Tpaire'Cri k<xl tUv avrwv (ipmixaTtov Kowiavla, 
ore, el icai dr/plov y\v, wpaoTepo^ av eyeyovei, totc ov$e eXeyyofxevo^ 
avvt]Kev, ak\a koi tov o-tojuaro? avTov yevofxevos ov fxeTafxe\e?Tai. Math. Evan. cap. xxvi. Ed. Morelli, Paris. 1631. p. 161. Ed.] 


good men eat both the sacrament and the matter of the 
The council Watson : — " You reject the council of Lateran, because 
i°eged? e a ' (you say) it agreeth not with God's word. What say you 
then to the council of Nice? The words of the council be 
these : ' Let us not look a-low by the ground upon the bread 
and the drink set before us, but, lifting up our mind, let 
us faithfully believe, there upon that holy table to lie the 
Lamb of God taking away the sins of the world, being sacri- 
ficed of the priests 1 . - " 1 

Ridley: — "That council was collected out of ancient 
fathers, and is to me a great authority; for it saith, 'that 
bread is set upon the altar, and having our minds lifted up, 
we must consider him which is in heaven.' The words of 
the council make for me." 
SpouS. Watson :— " ' Exaltata mente,' ' with a mind exalted :' that 
of God I iic llb i s > not as b rute beasts at the rack or manger, having an eye 
the'tlbie? 11 on ty u P on the thing that is set before them : ' The Lamb of 
do^t?/ God lieth on the table,' saith the council." 
u°s u uftup id Ridley:— "The Lamb of God is in heaven, according to 
Xichrather the verity of the body: and here he is with us in a mys- 
us°ietdown tery, according to his power; not corporally." 
?heSlar d ? t0 Watson :— " But the Lamb of God lieth on the table." 
Ridley : — " It is a figurative speech ; for in our mind 
we understand him which is in heaven." 

Watson: — "But he lieth there, the Greek word is 


Ridley: — "He lieth there; that is, he is there present, 
not corporally, but he lieth there by his operation." 
Watson : — " He lieth ; but his operation lieth not." 
Ridley : — " You think very grossly of the sitting or lying 
of the celestial Lamb on the table of the Lord : for we may 
not imagine any such sitting or lying upon the table, as the 
reason of man would judge ; but all things are here to be 

Q l E71-1 Tt}<} 0eia? Tpaire(ri<;, iraXtv navravdu prj tuj irpoKetfxeva 
OjOTio kcu To? TTOTtjpico TCtTrcwoos Trpocre^oi'J-ev, <x\\ u\|/ajo~ai'Te? tiiutiv 
t»;i/ ctavoiav 7n<7T£i i/o»/iro)/iei' Keurvai tin Trj<; lepas eKeives tov a\xvov 
tou 6eoZ } tov a'lpovTa tyjv u/xapTiav tov Koaptov, ddvTtoi vtto twv 
icpeiav Bvopevov. Gelasius. Hist. Cone. Nicsen. cap. xxx. apud Labbseum. 
Ed. 1671. torn. ii. col. 233. Ed.] 


understood spiritually. For that heavenly Lamb is (as I 
confess) on the table ; but by a spiritual presence, by grace, 
and not after any corporal substance of his flesh taken of 
the Virgin Mary. And indeed the same canon doth very 
plainly teach, that the bread which is set on the table is 
material bread; and therefore it (the canon, I mean) com- 
mandeth that we should not creep on the ground in our 
cogitation, to those things which are set before us; as who 
should say, what other things are they (as much as pertaineth 
to their true substance) than bread and wine ? ' But rather,' 
saith the canon, 'lifting up our minds into heaven, let us 
consider with faith the Lamb of God, which taketh away 
the sins of the world, sitting or lying upon the table.' 'For 
a lifted up faith,' saith he, 'seeth him which sitteth on the 
right hand of God the Father, after the true manner of a 
body set by grace on the Lord's table, and taking away the 
sins of the world. For I think you mean not so ; as though 
the Lamb did lie there prostrate with his members spread 
upon the table.'" 

Smith: — "I bring another place out of the council ofp^^' 
Nice 2 : ' None of the apostles said, this is a figure of the lesed " 
body of Christ : none of the reverend elders said the unbloody 
sacrifice of the altar to be a figure.' 

"Ergo, You are deceived." 

Ridley : — " This canon is not in the council of Nice ; for 
I have read over this council many times." 

Then came in another, whom master Ridley knew not, The council 
and said : " The universal church both of the Greeks and alleged. 
Latins, of the east and of the west, have agreed in the council 
of Florence uniformly in the doctrine of the sacrament ; that 
in the sacrament of the altar there is the true and real 0ut °fDr 


body. copy. 

Ridley : — " I deny the Greek and the east church to have 
agreed either in the council at Florence, or at any time else, 
with the Romish church in the doctrine of transubstantiation 

2 " Nullus apostolorum dixit, haec est figura corporis Christi : nullus 
venerabilium presbyterorum dixit incruentum altaris sacrificium figu- 
ram," etc. 


of bread into the body of Christ. For there was nothing in 
the council of Florence 1 , wherein the Greeks would agree 
with the Romanists ; albeit hitherto, I confess, it was left free 
for every church to use, as they were wont, leavened or un- 
leavened bread." 

Here cried out Dr Cole, and said, they agreed together 
concerning transubstantiation of bread into the body of Christ. 
Master Ridley said, that could not be. 
one of the Here started up another unknown to master Ridley, but 
sen es. thought to be one of the scribes, who affirmed with him, 
that indeed there was nothing decreed concerning transub- 
stantiation ; but the council left that, as a matter not meet 
nor worthy to disturb the peace and concord of the church : 
to whom master Ridley answered again, saying, that he said 
the truth. 

Pie : — " What say you to that council, where it is said, 
that the priest doth offer an unbloody sacrifice of the body 
of Christ f 

Ridley: — "I say, it is well said, if it be rightly under- 

Pie: — "But he offereth an unbloody sacrifice. 1 '' 

Midley : — "It is called unbloody, and is offered after a 
certain manner, and in a mystery, and as a representation 
of that bloody sacrifice ; and he doth not lie, who saith Christ 
to be offered." 
Weston Weston : — " I, with one argument, will throw down to the 

Hath with ground your opinion, out of Chrysostom 2 , and I will teach, 
not only a figure, and a sign of grace only, but the very same 

[} This assertion is perfectly true, although cardinal Bessarion had 
managed to produce a temporary union; for his conduct in which 
business he was severely blamed, the Greek church being uninformed 
of his proceedings, and having never authorised him to attempt a union. 
See Historia concertationis Graec. Latinorumque de Transubstant. auct. 
J. R. Kieslingio; Lipsise, 1754, pp. 188 — 194. Fleury, Hist. Eccles. 
livre 108, § 135, and Labbe, torn. xiii. Ed.] 

Q 2 Tovto to aruSfia kcu eiri <pa.Tvr)<; Kei/xevov rjheo-drjG-av /xdyoi 
***** o-u he ovk. ev (parvri dpas, d\\' ev 6ucria(rTt}pi(p, ov <yu- 
vcukci Karei^ovcrav, d\\ lepea vape<TTWTa. S. Chrys. Horn. xxiv. in 
1 Cor. cap. x. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1710, torn. x. p. 218. Ed.] 



body, which was here conversant on the earth, to be in the 

" We worship the selfsame body in the eucharist which 
the wise men did worship in the manger. 

"But that was his natural and real body, not spiritual: 

" Ergo, The real body of Christ is in the eucharist. ^ t fX'r 

" Again, the same Chrysostom saith, ' We have not here tiJ,n d and° si " 
the Lord in the manger, but on the altar : here a woman s^ndetif is 
holdeth him not in her hands, but a priest. 1- " not formal. 

Ridley: — "We worship, I confess, the same true Lord 
and Saviour of the world, which the wise men worshipped 
in the manger; howbeit we do it in a mystery, and in the 
sacrament of the Lord's supper, and that in spiritual liberty, 
as saith St Augustine 3 , not in carnal servitude ; that is, we 
do not worship servilely the signs for the things : for that 
should be, as he also saith, a part of a servile infirmity. But 
we behold with the eyes of faith him present after grace, 
and spiritually set upon the table ; and we worship him 
which sitteth above, and is worshipped of the angels. For 
Christ is always assistant to his mysteries, as the said 
Augustine saith. And the Divine Majesty, as saith Cy- 
prian, doth never absent itself from the divine mysteries; 
but this assistance and presence of Christ, as in baptism it 
is wholly spiritual, and by grace, and not by any corporal 
substance of the flesh, even so it is here in the Lord's 
supper, being rightly and according to the word of God duly 

Weston : — " That which the woman did hold in her womb, 
the same thing holdeth the priest." 

Ridley : — " I grant the priest holdeth the same thing, 
but after another manner. She did hold the natural body; 
the priest holdeth the mystery of the body." 

(Weston repeated again his argument out of Chrysostom 
in English.) 

Ridley: — "I say that the author meant it spiritually." 

(Weston here, dissolving the disputations, had these Weston 

P S. Aug. de Doctrina Christiana, lib. iii. cap. vi. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 
1685. torn. iii. pars 1. col. 47. Ed.] 


words 1 : " Here you see the stubborn, the glorious, the crafty, 
the unconstant mind of this man. Here you see this day, 
that the strength of the truth is without foil. Therefore I 
beseech you all most earnestly to blow the note (and he began, 
and they followed,) 'Verity hath the victory, 1 'Verity hath 
the victory. 1 " 

1 "Videtis prsefractum hominis animum, gloriosum, vafrum, incon- 
stantem : videtis hodie veritatis vires inconcussas. Itaque clamate, Vicit 















First, after the appearing of Thomas Cranmer, archbishop 
of Canterbury, before the pope's delegate and the queen's 
commissioners, in St Mary's Church at Oxford, about the 
12th day of September, whereof more shall be said (by the 
Lord's grace) when we come to the death of the said arch- 
bishop ; shortly after, upon the 28th of the said month of 
September, was sent down to Oxford another commission 
from Cardinal Pole, legate a latere, to John White bishop ^effect of 
of Lincoln, to Dr Brooks bishop of Gloucester, and to Dr £2^°™"^ 
Holyman bishop of Bristol. The contents and virtue of which down to ox- 
commission were, that the said John of Lincoln, James of 
Gloucester, and John of Bristol, they, or two of them, should 
have full power and authority, to ascite, examine, and judge 
Master Hugh Latimer, and Master Dr Ridley, pretensed 
bishops of Worcester and London, for divers and sundry 
erroneous opinions, which the said Hugh Latimer and Nicho- 
las Ridley did hold and maintain in open disputations had 
in Oxford, in the months of May, June, and July, in the 
year of our Lord 1554, as long before, in the time of perdition 1 , 
and since. The which opinions if the named persons would 

Q 1 The Commissioners doubtless meant by this expression, the reign 
of Edward VI, and the latter part of that of Henry VIII. Ed.] 


now recant, giving and yielding themselves to the determination 
of the universal and catholic church, planted by Peter in the 
blessed see of Rome, that then they the deputed judges, by 
the said authority of their commission, should have power to 
receive the said penitent persons, and forthwith minister unto 
them the reconciliation of the holy father the pope. But if 
the said Hugh Latimer And Nicholas Ridley would stoutly and 
stubbornly defend and maintain these their erroneous opinions 
and assertions; that then the said lords by their commission 
should proceed in form of judgment, according to the law 
of heretics, that is, degrading them from their promotion and 
dignity of bishops, priests, and all other ecclesiastical orders, 
should pronounce them as heretics; and therefore clean cut 
them off from the church, and so yield them to receive punish- 
ment due to all such heresy and schism. 
Latimer"* 1 Wherefore, the last of September 1 , the said two persons, 
cited to ap- Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer, were ascited to appear 
before the said lords, in the divinity school at Oxford, at 
eight of the clock. At what time thither repaired the lords, 
placing themselves in the high seat, made for public lectures 
and disputations, according to the usage of that school, being 
then fair set, and trimmed with cloth of tissue and cushions 
of velvet. And after the said lords were placed and set, the 
said Latimer and Ridley were sent for; and first appeared 
Master Dr Ridley, and anon Master Latimer. But because it 
seemed good severally to examine them, Master Latimer was 
kept back until Dr Ridley was throughly examined. There- 
fore, soon after the coming of Dr Ridley into the school, 
the commission was published by an appointed notary, and 
openly read. But Dr Ridley, standing bareheaded, humbly ex- 
pecting the cause of that his appearance, eftsoons as he had 
heard the cardinal named, and the pope's holiness, put on his 
cap. Wherefore, after the commission was published in form 
and sense above specified, the bishop of Lincoln spake in 
sense following: 

Thewords Lincoln: — "Master Ridley, although neither I, neither 

Lin h coin°to mv Iorcls here, m aspect of our own persons do look for cap 
puTtin^off' or k nee ' vet because we bear and represent such persons as 
hiscap " [' Monday, Sept. SO, J 566. See Nicolas' tables. Ed.] 


we do, that is my lord cardinal's grace, legate a latere to 
the pope's holiness, as well in that he is of a noble parentage 
[and therewith Master Eidley moved his cap with lowly 
obeisance] descending from the regal blood, as in that he is 
a man worthy to be reverenced with all humility for his 
great knowledge and learning, noble virtues, and godly life, 
and especially in that he is here in England deputy to the 
pope's holiness, it should have become you at this name to 
have uncovered your head. Wherefore, except you will of 
your ownself take the pains to put your hand to your head, 
and at the nomination, as well of the said cardinal, as of 
the pope's holiness, uncover the same, lest that this your 
contumacy, exhibited now before us, should be prejudicial 
to the said most reverend persons (which thing we may in 
no case suffer), you shall cause us to take the pain to cause 
some man to pluck off your cap from you." 

To whom Master Eidley making his petition for licence, 
answered : 

Ridley: — "As touching that you said, my lord, that you Answer of 
ot your own persons desire no cap nor knee, but only require him. 
the same in consideration that you represent the cardinal 
grace's person, I do you to wit, and thereupon make my 
protestation, that I did put on my cap at the naming of 
the cardinal's grace, neither for any contumacy that I bear 
towards your own persons, neither for any derogation of 
honour to the lord cardinal's grace : for I know him to be Ridley re- 


a man worthy of all humility, reverence, and honour, in that the person 

of tlie cardi- 

he came of the most regal blood, and in that he is a man nai, but not 
endued with manifold graces of learning and virtue. And 
as touching these virtues and points, I, with all humility 
[therewith he put off his cap, and bowed his knee] and obei- 
sance that I may, will reverence and honour his grace : but, 
in that he is legate to the bishop of Eome, [and there- 
with put on his cap,] whose usurped supremacy and abused 
authority I utterly refuse and renounce, I may in no wise 
give any obeisance or honour unto him, lest that my so 
doing and behaviour might be prejudicial to mine oath, and 
a derogation to the verity of God's word. And therefore, Ridieydoetu 

not rcv6" 

that I might not only by confession profess the verity in rence to the 


not reverencing the renounced authority contrary to God's 
word, but also in gesture, in behaviour, and all my doings 
express the same, I have put on my cap; and for this con- 
sideration only, and not for any contumacy to your lord- 
ships, neither contempt of this worshipful audience, neither 
derogation of any honour due to the cardinal his grace, both 
for his noble parentage, and also his excellent qualities, I 
have kept on my cap." 
white Lincoln : — " Master Ridley, you excuse vourself of that 

bishop of J ' •> •> 

L h>ti° lnre W ^k *h e which we pressed you not, in that you protest 
you keep on your cap, neither for any contumacy towards 
us (which look for no such honour of you), neither for any 
contempt of this audience, which, although justly they may, 
yet (as I suppose) in this case do not require any such obei- 
sance of you ; neither in derogation of any honour due to 
my lord cardinal's grace, for his regal descent [at which 
word Master Ridley moved his cap] and excellent qualities; 
for although in all the premises honour be due, yet in these 
respects we require none of you, but only in that my lord 
cardinal's grace is, here in England, deputy of the pope's holi- 

ruttin? off n ess Tat which word the lords and others put off their caps, 

caps at the L * L 

jpning of a nd Master Ridley put on his] ; and therefore we say unto 
you the second time, that except you take the pains your- 
self to put your hand to your head and put off your cap, 
you shall put us to the pain to cause some man to take 
it from you, except you allege some infirmity and sickness, 
or other more reasonable cause, upon the consideration where- 
of we may do as we think good." 

Midley : — "The premises I said only for this end, that it 
might as well appear to your lordships, as to this worshipful 
audience, why and for what consideration I used such kind 
of behaviour, in not humbling myself to your lordships with 
cap and knee : and as for my sickness, I thank my Lord 
God, that I am as well at ease as I was this long season; 
and therefore I do not pretend that which is not, but only 
this, that it might appear by this my behaviour, that I 
, fupremacy d acknowledge in no point that usurped supremacy of Rome, 
fiec? " 16 de " an< ^ therefore contemn and utterly despise all authority coming 
from him. In taking off my cap, do as it shall please your 
lordships, and I shall be content." 



Then the bishop of Lincoln, after the third admonition, Kidiey's cap 
commanded one of the beadles (that is an officer of the by force. 
University) to pluck his cap from his head. Master Eidley, 
bowing his head to the officer, gently permitted him to take 
away his cap. After this the bishop of Lincoln in a long 
oration exhorted Master Eidley to recant, and submit him- 
self to the universal faith of Christ in this manner : 

Lincoln : — " Master Eidley, I am sure you have sufficiently 
pondered with yourself the effect of this our commission with 
good advisement, considering both points thereof, how that 
authority is given to us, if you shall receive the true doctrine 
of the church (which first was founded by Peter at Eome Nay, the 

,. ... faith of 

immediately after the death of Christ, and from him by lineal Christ may 

.... be proved to 

succession hath been brought to this our time), if you will bave been at 

° i Rome in Ti- 

be eontent to renounce your former errors, recant your he- berius's 

,. . . . • n ie time, before 

retical and seditious opinions, content to yield yourself toPe ter ca me 
the undoubted faith and truth of the gospel, received and 
always taught of the catholic and apostolic church, the which 
the king and queen, all the nobles of this realm, and commons 
of the same, all christian people have and do confess, you 
only standing alone by yourself; you understand and perceive, 
I am sure, that authority is given us to receive you, to re- 
concile you, aud upon due penance to adjoin and associate- 
you again into the number of the catholics and Christ's 
church, from the which you have so long strayed, without 
the which no man can be saved, the which thing I and my 
lords here, yea and all, as well nobles and commons of this 
realm, most heartily desire, and I for my part [wherewith 
he put off his cap] most earnestly exhort you to do. 

" Eemember, Master Eidley, it is no strange country Though the 

i-i-ri -it- <. country of 

whither I exhort you to return. You were once one of us; Romebenot 

, t • i i i -it- i strange, yet 

you have taken degrees in the school. You were made a <*e doctrine 

• -ii i -pii i ■ of Rome is 

priest, and became a preacher, setting forth the same doctrine strange. 
which we do now. You were made bishop according to 
our laws ; and, to be short, it is not so Iqjig agone, since you 
separated yourself from us, and in the time of heresy became 
a setter forth of that devilish and seditious doctrine which 
in these latter days was preached amongst us. For at what 
time the new doctrine of "only faith" began to spring, the 



Another ui> council, -willing to win my lord chancellor, sent you to him 
white for (^ ^ Cien being in my lord's house, unknown as I suppose to 
« only kith" y 0U ) . an( j a ft e r you had talked with my lord secretly, and 
doctrine. were departed, immediately my lord declared certain points 
of your talk and means of your persuasion; and amongst 
of RkUey rds others this was one, that you should say, ' Tush, my lord, 
repo f rtedl y tms matter of justification is but a trifle, let us not stick 
to condescend herein to them ; but for God's love, my lord, 
stand stoutly in the verity of the sacrament : for I see they 
will assault that also.' If this be true (as my lord is a man 
credible enough in such a matter), hereby it is declared of 
what mind you were then, as touching the truth of the most 
blessed sacrament. 
omncoin P "Also in a sermon of yours at Paul's Cross you as 
Ridley to* effectually and as catholicly spake of that blessed sacrament, 
thepope's as an y man might have done ; whereby it appeareth that 
church. -£ j g no g^ ran g e thing, nor unknown place whereunto I ex- 
hort you. I wish you to return thither from whence you 
came ; that is, together with us to acknowledge the church 
of God, wherein no man may err, to acknowledge the supre- 
macy of our most reverend father in God the pope's holiness, 
which (as I said) lineally taketh his descent from Peter, 
upon whom Christ promised, before his death, to build his 
church ; the which supremacy or prerogative the most ancient 
fathers in all ages, in all times, did acknowledge [and here 
he brought a place or two out of the doctors, but especially 
stayed upon a saying of St Augustine 1 , who writeth in this 
manner: 'All the christian countries beyond the sea are 
subject to the church of Rome 2 .'] Here you see, Master 
Ridley, that all Christendom is subject to the church of Rome. 

1 " Dubitatur utrum forma verborum hsec sit Augustini." [Some 
doubt may well be expressed, as the tendency of the language contra- 
dicts the 22nd canon of the Council of Milevis, to which Augustine had 
himself subscribed : " Ad transmarina autem qui putaverit appellandum, 
a nullo intra Africam in communionem suscipiatur." See Concilia, 
Studio Labbei, torn. ii. col. 1543 ; but the passage intended for citation 
is, no doubt, that in Augustine's treatise " Contra Epist. Parmen." lib. i. 
cap. iii. sec. 5, and its application to the bishop of Rome is here aided 
by the addition of Romanse Ecclesiee. Ed.] 

2 " Totus orbis Christianus in transmarinis et longe remotis terris 
Romanse Ecclesioe subjectus est." 


What should stay you therefore to confess the same with 
St Augustine and the other fathers V 

Then Master Bidley desired his patience, to suffer him 
to speak somewhat of the premises, lest the multitude of 
things might confound his memory ; and having grant there- 
unto, he said in this maimer : 

Bidley .•— " My Lord, I most heartily thank your lord-^X£ of 
ship, as well for your gentleness, as also for your sobriety 
in talk, and for your good and favourable zeal in this learned 
exhortation ; in the which I have marked especially three 
points which you used, to persuade me to leave my doctrine ^^P 05 !? 8 
and religion, which I perfectly know and am thoroughly per- jj^ *) f 
suaded to be grounded not upon man's imagination and de- oration. 
crees, but upon the infallible truth of Christ's gospel, and 
not to look back, and to return to the Romish see, con- 
trary to mine oath, contrary to the prerogative and crown 
of this realm, and especially (which moveth me most) con- 
trary to the expressed word of God. 

" First, The first point is this, that the see of Eome taking ^ s e ee of 
its beginning from Peter, upon whom you say Christ hath „"^ d |g t r 
builded his church, hath in all ages lineally, from bishop to 
bishop, been brought to this time. 

" Secondly, That even the holy fathers from time to time ^ on ^ ed 
have in their writings confessed the same. tors - 

" Thirdly, That in that I was once of the same opinion, ^j^, 
and, together with you, I did acknowledge the same. 

" First, as touching the saying of Christ, from whence The cimrcn 
your lordship gathereth the foundation of the church upon u P« n 1>eter - 
Peter, truly the place is not so to be understood as you 
take it, as the circumstance of the place will declare. For 
after that Christ had asked his disciples whom men judged 
him to be, and they had answered, that some had said he 
was a prophet, some Elias, some one thing, some another, 
then he said, ' Whom say ye that I amf Then Peter said, 
' I say, That thou art Christ, the Son of God.'' To whom 
Christ answered, ' I say, thou art Peter, and upon this stone 
I will build my church 3 ; 1 that is to say, upon this stone — 

[ 3 " Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram asdificabo ecclesiam meani." 
" Upon this stone." Compare Tindal's Works, p. 357. Nowell's Con- 



not meaning Peter himself, as though he would have con- 
stituted a mortal man, so frail and brickie, a foundation of 
his stable and infallible church; but upon this rock-stone — 
The chmch that is, this confession of thine, that I am the Son of God, 
upon faith, I will build my church. For this is the foundation and 
any person, beginning of all Christianity, with word, heart, and mind 
to confess that Christ is the Son of God. Whosoever be- 
lieveth not this, Christ is not in him; and he cannot have 
the mark of Christ printed on his forehead, which confesseth 
The words not that Christ is the Son of God. Therefore Christ said 
Peter"x- unto Peter, that upon this rock, that is, upon this his con- 
poun e . f ess j on? that jj e was c nr igt the Son of God, he would build 
his church ; to declare, that without this faith no man can 
Faith the come to Christ : so that this belief, that Christ is the Son 
of U the atlon of God, is the foundation of our Christianity, and the foun- 
church. (Jation of our church. Here you see upon what foundation 
Christ's church is built, not upon the frailty of man, but 
upon the stable and infallible word of God. 
Lineal de- " Now, as touching the lineal descent of the bishops 

bishop of in the see of Rome, true it is, that the patriarchs of Rome 
in the apostles 1 time, and long after, were great maintainers 
and setters forth of Christ's glory, in the which above all 
other countries and regions there especially was preached 
the true gospel, the sacraments were most duly ministered: 
and as before Christ's coming it was a city so valiant in 
prowess and martial affairs, that all the world was in a 
manner subject to it, and after Christ's passion divers of 
why the the apostles there suffered persecution for the gospel's sake ; 
RomJ'nave so, after that the emperors, their hearts being illuminated, 
esteemed received the gospel and became Christians, the gospel there, 
bishops. as well for the great power and dominion, as for the fame 
of the place, flourished most, whereby the bishops of that 
place were had in more reverence and honour, most esteemed 
in all councils and assemblies, not because they acknow- 
ledged them to be their head, but because the place was 
most reverenced and spoken of for the great power and 
strength of the same. As now here in England the bishop 

futation of Dorman, p. 445, &c. Jewell's Answer to Harding, p. 165, 
184. Fox's Acts, p. 1637, &c. all (with others which might be cited) 
concurring in this interpretation. Ed.] 



of Lincoln in sessions and sittings hath the pre-eminence of 
the other bishops, not in that he is the head and ruler of 
them, but for the dignity of the bishopric. [And therewith 
the people smiled]. Wherefore the doctors in their writings 
have spoken most reverently of this see of Rome, and in T ^^, r ^ 
their writings preferred it ; and this is the prerogative which ^ d t ort t ^ s 
your lordship did rehearse the ancient doctors to give to the seeofRome. 
see of Rome. 

" Semblably, I cannot nor dare not but commend, re- fo^Snuedin 
verence, and honour the see of Rome, as long as it con- fri^itwas 
tinued in the promotion and setting forth of God's glory, and reverenced? 
in due preaching of the gospel, as it did many years after 
Christ. But after that the bishops of that see, seeking their 
own pride, and not God's honour, began to set themselves 
above kings and emperors, challenging to them the title of 
God's vicars, the dominion and supremacy over all the world, 
I cannot but with St Gregory, a bishop of Rome also, con- 
fess that the bishop of that place is the very true Anti- 
christ, whereof St John speaketh by the name of the whore 
of Babylon, and say with the said St Gregory, ' He that The bishop 
maketh himself a bishop over all the world, is worse than proved to be 

v Antichrist. 


" Now, whereas vou say St Augustine should seem not The pl f ce of 

■ » •> o Augustine 

only to give such a prerogative, but also supremacy to the answered, 
see of Rome, in that he saith, All the christian world is 
subject to the church of Rome, and therefore should give 
to that see a certain kind of subjection; I am sure that 
your lordship knoweth, that in St Augustine's time there 
were four patriarchs, of Alexandria, Constantinople, Antioch, arXsintiie 
and Rome, which patriarchs had under them certain countries ; £ia 1 Sme n ' 
as in England the archbishop of Canterbury hath under him 
divers bishoprics in England and Wales, to whom he may 
be said to be their patriarch. Also your lordship knoweth 
right well, that at what time St Augustine wrote this book, 
he was then bishop in Africa. Further, you are not igno- 
rant, that between Europe and Africa lieth the sea called 
Mare Mediterraneum, so that all the countries in Europe to 
him which is in Africa may be called transmarine, countries How , . 

•i countries 

beyond the sea. Hereof St Augustine saith, ' All the christian beyond the 

J o ' sea were 

countries beyond the seas and far regions are subject to the UJj^' t0 



see of Rome 1 .'' If I should say all countries beyond the sea, 
I do except England, which to me now, being in England, is 
not beyond the sea. In this sense St Augustine saith, ' AH 
the countries beyond the sea are subject to the see of Rome ;' 
declaring thereby that Rome was one of the sees of the 
four patriarchs, and under it Europe. By what subjection, 
I pray you ? only for a pre-eminence, as we here in England 
say, that all the bishoprics in England are subject to the 
brother archbishoprics of Canterbury and York. For this pre- 
and yet C not' eminence, also, the other doctors (as you recited) say, 
heEf C t ,nat Rome is the mother of churches, as the bishopric of 
cimrches. Lincoln is mother to the bishopric of Oxford, because the 
bishopric of Oxford came from the bishopric of Lincoln, 
and they were both once one 2 ; and so is the archbishopric 
of Canterbury mother to the other bishoprics which are in 
her province. In like sort the archbishopric of York is 
mother to the north bishoprics ; and yet no man will say, 
that Lincoln, Canterbury, or York, is supreme head to 
other bishoprics : neither then ought we to confess the see 
of Rome to be supreme head, because the doctors in their 
writings confess the see of Rome to be mother of churches. 

" Now whereas you say, I was once of the same religion 
which you are of, the truth is, I cannot but confess the 
same. Yet so was St Paul a persecutor of Christ. . But to 
that you say, that I was one of you not long agone, in that 
I, doing my message to my lord of Winchester, should de- 
sire him to stand stout in that gross opinion of the supper 
of the Lord; in very deed I was sent (as your lordship 
said) from the council to my lord of Winchester, to exhort 
him to receive also the true confession of justification; and 
because he was very refractorious, I said to him, ' Why, 
my lord, what make you so great a matter herein? You 
see many Anabaptists rise against the sacrament of the 
altar; I pray you, my lord, be diligent in confounding of 
them;' for at that time my lord of Winchester and I 

1 " Totus orbis christianus in transmarinis et longe remotis terns 
Ecelesiae Romans subjectus est." 

[ 2 " Both once one." The see of Oxford was erected out of part 
of the ancient diocese of Lincoln, a. d. 1542. See Richardson's God- 
win. Ed.] 


had to do with two Anabaptists in Kent. In this sense 
I willed my lord to be stiff in the defence of the sacra- 
ment against the detestable errors of Anabaptists, and not 
in the confirmation of that gross and carnal opinion now 

" In like sort, as touching my sermon which I made at f^ y 
Paul's Cross, you shall understand that there were at Paul's, preafhtrM- 
and divers other places, fixed railing bills against the sacra- ^ st a ^ ntia " 
ment, terming it 'Jack of the box,' 'the sacrament of the gjjj' g * 
halter,' 'round Eobin,' with such like unseemly terms; for 
the which causes I, to rebuke the unreverend behaviour of 
certain evil disposed persons, preached as reverendly of that 
matter as I might, declaring what estimation and reverence 
ought to be given to it, what danger ensued the mishan- 
dling thereof; affirming in that sacrament to be truly and 
verily the body and blood of Christ, effectually by grace and 
spirit : which words the unlearned, understanding not, sup- tekeKhi's 
posed that I meant of the gross and carnal being which sermon - 
the Romish decrees set forth, that a body, having life and 
motion, should be indeed under the shapes of bread and 

With that the bishop of Lincoln, somewhat interrupting 
him, said : — 

" Well, Master Ridley, thus you wrest places to your Lin ] ( : {! 1 
own pleasure ; for whereas St Augustine saith, that the whole 
christian world is subject to the see of Rome without any 
limitation, and useth these words, ' In transmarinis et longe 
remotis terris,' only to express the latitude of the dominion 
of the see of Rome, willing thereby to declare that all the 
world, yea countries far distant from Rome, yet nevertheless 
are subject to that see, yet you would Wrest it, and leave 
it only to Europe. I am sure ye will not deny, but that 
'totus mundus' is more than Europe." 

Ridley : — " Indeed, my lord, if St Augustine had said, ^'s|yj reth 
' simpliciter totus mundus,' and not added ' in transmarinis,' ^otAs of 
it had been without limitation ; but in that he said, ' totus Au s ustme - 
mundus in transmarinis partibus,' 'all the countries beyond 
the seas,' he himself doth limit the universal proposition, de- 
claring how: far he meant, by 'totus mundus.'" 


The bishop, not staying for his answer, did proceed, 
saying : — 

" Well, if I should stay upon this place, I could bring 
many more places of the fathers for the confirmation thereof; 
but we have certain instructions, according to the which we 
must proceed, and came not hither to dispute the matter 
with you, but only to take your answers to certain articles ; 
and used this in the way of disputation, in the which you 
interrupted me : wherefore I will return thither again. 
Lincoln " Ye must consider that the church of Christ lieth not 

returneth ,.,,,. . i . , -,, 

to his hidden, but is a city on the mountain, and a candle on the 

oration. . 

candlestick. Ponder with yourself, that the church of Christ 

is ' catholica,' 'catholic,' which is deduced of /caret o\ov, 

that is 'per omnia:'' so that Christ's church is universally 

spread throughout the world, not contained in the alliga- 

thendo y ou ** on °^ P^ aces ' no ^ comprehended in the circuit of England, 

tne S ritvof to no * contained in the compass of Germany and Saxony, as 

Home? y 0ur church is. Wherefore, Master Eidley, for God's love 

be ye not singular ; acknowledge with all the realm the truth : 

it shall not be (as you allege) prejudicial to the crown; for 

the king and queen their majesties have renounced that 

usurped power taken of their predecessors, and justly have 

Twopowers; renounced it. For I am sure you know that there are two 

the keys •> 

sword 16 powers, the one declared by the sword, the other by the 
keys. The sword is given to kings and rulers of countries ; 
the keys were delivered by Christ to Peter, and of him left 
to all the successors. As touching our goods, possessions, 
and lives, we with you acknowledge us subjects to the king 
and queen, who hath the temporal sword; but as concern- 
ing matters of religion, as touching God's quarrel and his 

England, word, we acknowledge another head : and as the king and 

how subject ' ° . . 

to the king, the queen their highnesses do, in all worldly affairs, justly 

the pope, challenge the prerogative and primacy, so in spiritual and 

ecclesiastical matters they acknowledge themselves not to 

be heads and rulers, but members of Christ's body. Why 

therefore should ye stick at that matter, the which their 

majesties have forsaken and yielded? 

hortedto" "Wherefore, Master Ridley, you shall not only not do 

seifto^'e™* ^ n J m 7 to tne crown ? an< i k e prejudicial to their majesties' 

pope. honour, in acknowledging with all Christendom the pope's 



holiness to be supreme head of Christ's church here militant 
in earth, but do a thing most delectable in their sight, and 
most desired of his holiness. Thus if you will do, revoking 
together all your errors, acknowledging with the residue of 
the realm the common and the public fault, you shall do 
that all men most heartily desire ; you shall bring quietness 
to your conscience, and health to your soul. Then shall we 
with great joy, by the authority committed to us from the 
cardinal's grace, receive you into the church again, acknow- 
ledging you to be no longer a rotten, but a lively member 
of the same. But if you shall still be singular, if you shall 
still and obstinately persevere in your errors, stubbornly main- 
taining your former heresies, then we must, against our will, 
according to our commission, separate you from us, and cut * ear . of 

° i r j ' punishment 

you off from the church, lest the rottenness of one part in » et bef01e 
process of time putrefy and corrupt the whole body; then 
must we confess and publish you to be none of ours ; then 
must we yield you up to the temporal judges, of whom, ex- 
cept it otherwise please the king and queen's highness, you 
must receive punishment by the laws of this realm due for 

" Wherefore, Master Kidley, consider your state ; remem- 
ber your former degrees; spare your body; especially con- 
sider your soul, which Christ so dearly brought with his pre- 
cious blood. Do not you rashly cast away that which was 
precious in Cod's sight; enforce not us to do all that we 
may do, which is not only to publish you to be none of us, 
to cut you off from the church; for we do not, nor cannot 
condemn you to die (as most untruly hath been reported 
of us), but that is the temporal judge's office ; we only de- B «t that 
clare you to be none of the church ; and then must you, ac- yourselves 

« . have assign- 

COrding to the tenor of them, and pleasure of the rulers, abide ^ ™ to 

their determination, so that we, after we have given you 
up to the temporal rulers, have no further to do with you. 

"But I trust, Master Ridley, we shall not have occa- 
sion to do that we may. I trust you will suffer us to rest 
in that point of our commission, which we most heartily 
desire, that is, upon recantation and repentance to receive 
you, to reconcile you, and again to adjoin you to the unity 
of the church." 


Then Master Ridley, with often interruption, at length 
spake : — 
R?d£y r to f Ridley:— "My Lord, I acknowledge an unspotted church 

Lincoln. f (^ist, ; n the which no man can err, without the which 
He mean- no man ca n be saved ; the which is spread throughout all 
W e h iera"° *^e wor ^' tnat * s > tne congregation of the faithful; neither 
Snau °esta- e °*° * am g ate or ^ m ^ tne same to any one place, as you 
wished. sa ;<j 5 but confess the same to be spread throughout all the 
The church world; and where Christ's sacraments are duly ministered, 

tied to no . 

place. his gospel truly preached and followed, there doth Christ's 
church shine as a city upon a hill, and as a candle in the 
candlestick : but rather it is such as you that would have 
the church of Christ bound to a place, which appoint the 
Soman] same to Eome, that there, and no where else, is the foun- 
bindthe 3 d ° Nation of Christ's church. But I am fully persuaded that 
certain toa Christ's church is everywhere founded, in every place where 
that o'niy'to his gospel is truly received and effectually followed. And 
proTestaJts 6 m tfl at * ne church of God is in doubt, I use herein the 
church to w i se counsel of Vincentius Lyrinensis, whom I am sure you 
tain placed w ^ allow, who, giving precepts how the catholic church may 
thecon° w be in all schisms and heresies known, writeth in this manner: 
tneworS. ' When,' saith he, ' one part is corrupted with heresies, then 
oflfhnsten- prefer the whole world before that one part ; but if the greatest 
edwiththe part be infected, then prefer antiquity 1 .' In like sort now, 
Rome. ° when I perceive the greatest part of Christianity to be in- 
fected with the poison of the see of Rome, I repair to the 
usage of the primitive church, which I find clean contrary 
to the pope's decrees ; as in that the priest receiveth alone, 
that it is made unlawful to the laity to receive in both kinds, 
and such like. Wherefore it requireth that I prefer the an- 
tiquity of the primitive church before the novelty of the 
Romish church." 

Lincoln : — " Master Ridley, these faults which you charge 
the see of Rome withal, are indeed no faults. For first, it 

[* Quid igitur faciet Christianus Catholicus, si se aliqua Ecclesiae 
particula ab universalis fidei communione prasciderit ? Quid utique, nisi 
ut pestifero corruptoque membro sanitatem universi corporis anteponat ? 
Quid si novella aliqua contagio non jam portiunculam tantum, sed totain 
pariter Ecclesiam commaculare conetur ? Tunc item providebit ut 
antiquitati inhaereat, quse prorsus jam non potest ab ulla novitatis fraude 
seduci. Vincentius Lyrinensis, cap. iv. Ed. Baluzii. Cantab. 1687.] 


was never forbidden the laity, but that they might, if they T1 ? e Bohe - 

•" jo' j mians re- 

demanded, receive under both kinds. You know also that i ui j ed that > 

. . ant » were 

Christ, after his resurrection, at what time he went with his fjent for 

7 their labour. 

apostles to Galilee, opened himself by breaking of bread. 
You know that St Paul, after his long sailing towards Eome, 
brake bread, and that the apostles came together in breaking 
of bread ; which declareth that it is not unlawful to minister 
the sacrament under the form of bread only : and yet the Great «;<«- 

•> J sons of the 

church had just occasion to decree, that the laity should Romanists 

J ' J to prove the 

receive in one kind only, thereby to take away an opinion of communion 

J J •> L under one 

the unlearned, that Christ was not wholly both flesh and kind - 
blood under the form of bread. Therefore, to take away 
their opinion, and to establish better the people's faith, the 
Holy Ghost in the church thought fit to decree, that the 
laity should receive only in one kind : and it is no news for Aryu- 

111 . . , . , . , m e nt =— The 

the church upon mst consideration to alter rites and cere- church did 

. abrogate the 

monies ; for you read in the Acts of the Apostles, that St precept of 

... . . . . the apostles 

Paul, writing to certain of the Gentiles which had received of strangled 

. . . andblood- 

the gospel, biddeth them to abstain, 'a suffocato et sanguine, 1 fags: ergo, 

° . r , ' o » the church 

that is, from things stifled, and from blood ; so that this likewise 

' o ' ' hath antho- 

seemeth to be an express commandment ; yet who will say «ty touch- 
but that it is lawful to eat bloodings? how is it lawful, but ministration 

~ 7 under both 

by the permission of the church?" kinds. 

Ridley: — "My lord, such things as St Paul enjoined Answer :— 
to the Gentiles for a sufferance, by a little and little to win ot ' th e apo- 

■' . sties was but 

the Jews to Christ, were only commandments of time, and for a time, 

' J and for a 

respected not the successors : but Christ's commandment, ' Do {•^P° s *j l b5r 
this, 1 that is, that which he did, ' in remembrance, 1 which J^™ 
was not to minister in one kind only, was not a commandment 
for a time, but to persevere to the world's end." 

But the bishop of Lincoln, not attending to this answer, 
without any stay, proceeded in this oration. 

Lincoln : — " So that the church seemeth to have authority 
by the Holy Ghost, whom Christ said he would send after 
his ascension, which should teach the apostles all truth, to 
have power and jurisdiction to alter such points of the Scrip- 
ture, ever reserving the foundation. But we came not, as 
I said before, in this sort to reason the matter with you, 
but have certain instructions ministered unto us, according 


to the tenor of the which we must proceed, proposing certain 
articles, unto the which we require your answer directly, 
either affirmatively or negatively to every of them, either 
denying them or granting them, without further disputations 
or reasoning; for we have already stretched our instructions, 
in that we suffered you to debate and reason the matter 
in such sort as we have done : the which articles you shall 
hear now ; and to-morrow, at eight of the clock in St Mary's 
Church, we will require and take your answers ; and then 
according to the same proceed. And if you require a copy 
of them, you shall have it, pen, ink, and paper; also such 
books as you shall demand, if they be to be gotten in the 
university. 1 '' 

Articles, jointly and severally ministered to Dr Ridley and 
Master Latimer, hy the Pope's Deputy. 

'In Dei nomine, amen. Nos Iohannes Lincolniensis, Ia- 
cobus Glocestrensis, et Iohannes Bristollensis, episcopi, per 
reverendissimum dominum Eeginaldum, miseratione divina, 
S. Marise in Cosmedin, sanctse Romanse ecclesise diaconum 
Cardinalem " Polum nuncupatum," sanctissimi domini nostri 
papse, et sedis apostolicse, ad serenissimos Philippum et 
Mariam Anglise reges et ad universum Anglise regnum 
legatum, authoritate sufficiente delegati, ad inquirendum de 
quodam negotio inquisitionis hereticse pravitatis contra et 
adversus Hugonem Latimerum et Nicholaum Ridleyum (pro 
episcopis Vigornensi et Londoniensi se respective gererites,) 
specialiter delegati, et contra et adversus eorum quemlibet 

[ J In the name of God., amen ! — We, John Bishop of Lincoln, James 
Bishop of Gloucester, and John Bishop of Bristol, delegated by the most 
reverend Lord Reginald "surnamed Pole," by divine mercy Cardinal 
Deacon of St Mary in Cosmedin of the holy Roman Church, legate of 
our most Holy Father the Pope, and of the Apostolic See, to the most 
serene sovereigns of England, Philip and Mary, and to the whole realm 
of England, — with sufficient authority to inquire concerning a certain 
matter of inquisition of heretical pravity against Hugh Latimer and 
Nicholas Ridley claiming to be respectively bishops of Worcester and 
London; for this cause being especially delegated with power of in- 
quiring against either of them, we do [accordingly] accuse and specify 
against them jointly and severally as follows. Ed.] 


inquirendo proponimus, et articulamur conjunctim et divisim, 
prout sequitur 8 . 

1. We do object to thee, Nicholas Bidley, and to thee 
Hugh Latimer, jointly and severally ; first, that thou Nicholas 
Ridley, in this high university of Oxford, anno 1554, in the 
months of April, May, June, July, or in some one or more 
of them, hast affirmed, and openly defended and maintained, 
and in many other times and places besides, that the true 
and natural body of Christ, after the consecration of the 
priest, is not really present in the sacrament of the altar. 

2. Item, that in the year and months aforesaid, thou 
hast publicly affirmed and defended, that in the sacrament 
of the altar remaineth still the substance of bread and wine. 

3. Item, that in the said year and months thou hast 
openly affirmed, and obstinately maintained, that in the mass 
is no propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and the dead. 

4. Item, that in the year, place, and months aforesaid, 
these thy foresaid assertions solemnly have been condemned 
by the scholastical censure of this school, as heretical and 
contrary to the catholic faith, by the worshipful Master Doctor 
Weston, prolocutor then of the convocation house, as also 
by other learned men of both the universities. 

5. Item, that all and singular the premises be true, 
notorious, famous, and openly known by public fame, as well 
to them near hand, and also to them in distant places far off. 

The Examination of Dr Ridley upon the said Articles. 

All these articles I thought good here to place together, 
that as often as hereafter rehearsal shall be of any of them, 
the reader may have recourse hither, and peruse the same ; 
and not to trouble the story with several repetitions thereof. 
After these articles were read, the bishops took counsel to- 
gether. At the last the bishop of Lincoln said : 

Lincoln : — " These are the very same articles which you, 
in open disputation here in the university, did maintain and 
defend. What say you unto the first? I pray you answer 
affirmatively or negatively. 1 ' 

2 The articles here follow in Latin in the First Edition of Fox, 
page 1362, and will he found here in Appendix II. 


Ridley : — " Why, my lord, I supposed your gentleness 
had been such, that you would have given me space until 
to-morrow, that, upon good advisement, I might bring a de- 
terminate answer." 

Lincoln : — " Yea, Master Ridley, I mean not that your 
answers now shall be prejudicial to your answers to-morrow. 
I will take your answers at this time, and yet notwithstanding 
it shall be lawful to you to add, diminish, alter, and change 
of these answers to-morrow, what you will. 11 

Ridley : — " Indeed, in like manner at our last disputa- 
tions I had many things promised, and few performed. It 
was said, that after disputations I should have a copy there- 
of, and license to change mine answers, as I should think 
good. It was meet also, that I should have seen what was 
written by the notaries at that time. So your lordship pre- 
tended great gentleness in giving me a time ; but this gentle- 
Thehigh ness is the same that Christ had of the high priest. For 

priests had . . ° * 

not power to you, as your lordship saith, have no power to condemn me, 
to death, neither at any time to put a man to death : so, in like sort, 

but they had . . 

power to the high priests said, that it was not lawful for them to put 

commit him ox ' ^ i 

to Pilate, any man to death, but committed Christ to Pilate, neither 

neither . 

would they would suffer him to absolve Christ, although he sought all 

suffer him ° o 

to absolve the means therefore that he might." 

Christ. o 

Then spake Dr Weston, one of the audience : 

rfiootethhis Weston :— " What ! do you make the king Pilate?" 

Ridley: — "No, master doctor; I do but compare your 
deeds with Caiaphas's deeds, and the high priests 1 , which 
would condemn no man to death, as ye will not, and yet 
would not suffer Pilate to absolve and deliver Christ." 

Lincoln : — " Master Ridley, we mind not but that you 
shall enjoy the benefit of answering to-morrow, and will take 
your answers now as now ; to-morrow you shall change, take 
out, add, and alter what you will. In the mean season we 
require you to answer directly to every article, either affirm- 
atively or negatively." 

ation of test " Ridley : — " Seeing you appoint me a time to answer to- 
morrow, and yet will take mine answers out of hand, first, 
I require the notaries to take and write my protestation, 
that in no point I acknowledge your authority, or admit 





you to be my judges, in that point that you are authorized 
from the pope. Therefore, whatsoever I shall say or do, I 
protest, I neither say it neither do it willingly, thereby to 
admit the authority of the pope ; and, if your lordship will 
give me leave, I will shew the causes which move me there- 
unto: 1 

Lincoln: — "No, Master Eidley, we have instructions to 
the contrary. We may not suffer you." 

Ridley: — "I will be short; I pray your lordships suffer 
me to speak in few words." 

Lincoln: — "No, Master Ridley, we may not abuse the R» dl ey ^ 
hearers' 1 ears." 

Ridley : — " Why, my lord, suffer me to speak three 

Lincoln : — " Well, Master Ridley, to-morrow you shall 
speak forty. The time is far past ; therefore we require your 
answer determinately. What say you to the first article V 

And thereupon rehearsed the same. 

Ridley : — " My protestation always saved, that by this How the 
mine answer I do not condescend to your authority in that Christ may 
you are legate to the pope, I answer thus : In a sense the reaiiy, and 
first article is true, and in a sense it is false : for if you really, in 

♦yip ^fif*i*i— 

take really for vere, for spiritually, by grace and efficacy, mem. 
then it is true that the natural body and blood of Christ is 
in the sacrament vere et realiter, indeed and really; but if 
you take these terms so grossly, that you would conclude 
thereby a natural body having motion to be contained under 
the forms of bread and wine, vere et realiter, then really is 
not the body and blood of Christ in the sacrament, no more 
than ^the Holy Ghost is in the element of water in our 

Because this answer was not understood, the notaries wist 
not how to note it: wherefore the bishop of Lincoln willed 
him to answer either affirmatively or negatively, either to 
grant the article, or to deny it. 

Ridley : — " My lord, you know that where any equivo- 
cation (which is a word having two significations) is, except 
distinction be given, no direct answer can be made ; for it 




tions q und"er is one of Aristotle's fallacies, containing two questions under 
papisJand one, the which cannot be satisfied with one answer. For 
FagrSg both you and I agree herein, that in the sacrament is the 
senc P e r , e do very true and natural body and blood of Christ, even that 
iftlVman- which was born of the Virgin Mary, which ascended into 
theydifferf' heaven, which sitteth on the right hand of God the Father, 
may beta* which shall come from thence to judge the quick and the 
mentTand dead ; only we differ in modo, in the way and manner of being : 
we confess all one thing to be in the sacrament, and dissent 
in the manner of being there. I, being fully by God's word 
thereunto persuaded, confess Christ's natural body to be in 
the sacrament indeed by spirit and grace, because that who- 
soever receiveth worthily that bread and wine, receiveth ef- 
fectuously Christ's body, and drinketh his blood (that is, he 
is made effectually partaker of his passion) ; and you make 
a grosser kind of being, enclosing a natural, a lively, and 
a moving body, under the shape or form of bread and wine. 
Now, this difference considered, to the question thus I an- 
swer, that in the sacrament of the altar is the natural body 
and blood of Christ vere et realiter, indeed and really, for 
spiritually, by grace and efficacy; for so every worthy re- 
ceiver receiveth the very true body of Christ. But if you 
mean really and indeed, so that thereby you would include 
a lively and a moveable body under the forms of bread and 
wine, then, in that sense, is not Christ's body in the sacra- 
meant really and indeed." 

This answer taken and penned of the notaries, the bishop 
of Lincoln proposed the second question or article. To whom 
he answered : 

what^ Ridley : — " Always my protestation reserved, I answer thus; 

the sacra- that in the sacrament is a certain change, in that that bread, 

mental ° ' 

bread. which was before common bread, is now made a lively pre- 
sentation of Christ's body, and not only a figure, but effec- 
tuously representeth his body ; that even as the mortal body 
was nourished by that visible bread, so is the internal soul 
fed with the heavenly food of Christ's body, which the eyes 
wmtnot d °f faith see, as the bodily eyes see only bread. Such a 
changed, sacramental mutation I grant to be in the bread and wine, 
which truly is no small change, but such a change as no 


mortal man can make, but only that omnipotency of Christ's 

Then the bishop of Lincoln willed him to answer directly, 
either affirmatively or negatively, without further declaration 
of the matter. Then he answered : 

Ridley : — " That notwithstanding this sacramental muta- comparison 
tion of the which he spake, and all the doctors confessed, communion 
the true substance and nature of bread and wine remaineth : tism. 
with the which the body is in like sort nourished, as the 
soul is by grace and Spirit with the body of Christ. Even 
so in baptism the body is washed with the visible water, 
and the soul is cleansed from all filth by the invisible Holy 
Ghost ; and yet the water ceaseth not to be water, but keepeth 
the nature of water still: in like sort, in the sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper the bread ceaseth not to be bread." 

Then the notaries penned, that he answered affirmatively Difference 

L m ' put between 

to the second article. The bishop of Lincoln declared a, thecomniu - 

1 _ nion and 

difference between the sacrament of the altar and baptism, baptism. 
because that Christ said not by the water, " This is the Holy 
Ghost," as he did by the bread, " This is my body." 

Then Master Eidley recited St Augustine, who conferred 
both the sacraments the one with the other: but the bishop 
of Lincoln notwithstanding thereupon recited the third article, 
and required a direct answer. To whom Ridley said : 

Eidley : — " Christ, as St Paul writeth, made one perfect Answer to 
• i-i-i the tnin * 

sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, neither can any article. 

man reiterate that sacrifice of his ; and yet is the communion 

an acceptable sacrifice to God of praise and thanksgiving. 

But to say that thereby sins are taken away (which wholly Propitiatory 

and perfectly was done by Christ's passion, of the which the mass is 

ft dcro£T3.tion 

the communion is only a memory), that is a great deroga- to Christ's 
tions of the merits of Christ s passion : lor the sacrament was 
instituted, that we, receiving it, and thereby recognising and 
remembering his passion, should be partakers of the merits 
of the same. For otherwise doth this sacrament take upon- 
it the office of Christ's passion, whereby it might follow, that 
Christ died in vain." 

18 — 2 


The notaries penned this his answer to be affirmatively. 
Then said the bishop of Lincoln : 

unbloody Lincoln : — " Indeed, as you allege out of St Paul, Christ 

sacrifice. J ° 

made one perfect oblation for all the whole world, that is, 
that bloody sacrifice upon the cross : yet nevertheless he 
hath left this sacrifice, but not bloody, in the remembrance 
of that by the which sins are forgiven; the which is no 
derogation of Christ s passion." 

the S fourth Then recited the bishop of Lincoln the fourth article. 

article. rp ^ e which Master Ridley answered, that in some part 
the fourth was true, and in some part false ; true, in that 
those his assertions were condemned as heresies, although 
unjustly ; false, in that it was said they were condemned 
scientia scholastica, in that the disputations were in such sort 
ordered, that it was far from any school act. 

This answer penned of the notaries, the bishop of Lin- 
coln rehearsed the fifth article. To the which Ridley an- 
swered, that the premises were in such sort true, as in these 
his answers he had declared. Whether that all men spake 
evil of them, he knew not, in that he came not so much 
abroad to hear what every man reported. 

This answer also written of the notaries, the bishop of 
Lincoln said : 

Ridley as- Lincoln : — " To-morrow, at eight of the clock, you shall 

signed to . 

appearagain appear before us in St Mary's church ; and then, because 
Aw- we cannot well agree upon your answer to the first article 

[for it was long before he was understood], if it will please 
you to write your answer, you shall have pen, ink, and paper, 
and books, such as you shall require : but if you write any 
thing saving your answers to these articles, we will not re- 
ceive it." 

So he, charging the mayor with him, declaring also to 
the mayor that he should suffer him to have a pen and ink, 
dismissed Master Ridley, and sent for Master Latimer, who, 
being brought to the divinity school, there tarried till they 
called for him. 



Here followeth the Second Bay's Session. 

The next day following (which was the first day of Oc- 
tober), somewhat after eight of the clock, the said lords re- 
paired to St Mary's church; and after they were set in a 
high throne well trimmed with cloth of tissue and silk, then 
appeared Master Eidley, who was set at a framed table a 
good space from the bishop's feet, which table had a silk 
cloth cast over it, the which place was compassed about 
with framed seats in quadrate form, partly for gentlemen 
which repaired thither (for this was the session day also of 
waol-deliverv) and heads of the university to sit, and partly Ridley's ap. 

° J ' J 1 •> pearance 

to keep off the press of the audience : for the whole body, before the 

1 >■ . deputies. 

as well of the university as of the town, came thither to 
see the end of these two persons. After Master Ridley's 
appearance, and the silence of the audience, the bishop of 
Lincoln spake in manner following: 

Lincoln : — " Master Eidley, yesterday when that we chal- The words 

t 01 MclSTfir 

lenged you for not uncovering your head, you excused your- ™* e > 
self of that whereof no man accused you, in saying you did |^ oln > t0 
not put on your cap for any obstinacy towards us, which as about his 
touching our own persons desired no such obedience of you, 
but only in respect of them whose persons we bear ; neither 
(you said) for any contempt that you bear to this worship- 
ful audience, which, although they justly may, yet in this 
case require no such humility of you ; neither for any dero- 
gation of honour to my lord cardinal's grace, in that he is 
descended from the regal blood, in that he is a man most 
noble, both for his excellent qualities and singular learning: 
for, as touching those points, you said, you with all humility 
would honour, reverence, and worship his grace ; but in that 
he is legate to the most reverend father in God the pope's 
holiness [with that the bishop and all then present put off Ca P.P in s?\,, 

L r r r again at the 

their caps, but Master Ridley moved not his] you said you nameofthe 

neither could nor would by any means be induced to give 

him honour; but forasmuch as this is the point, as we 

told you yesterday, why we require honour and reverence 

of you, we tell you now as we did then, except you take 

the pains to move your bonnet, we will take the pains to 


cause your bonnet to be taken from you, except you pre- 
tend sickness, as yesterday you did not." 
Ridley re- Ridley: — "I pretend now none other cause, than I did 

off his cap" yesterdays that is, only that hereby it may appear that not 
orto e them' only in word and confession, but also by all my gesture and 
from the behaviour, in no point I agree or admit any authority or 
power that shall come from the pope ; and not for any 
pride of mind (as God is my judge), neither for contempt 
of your lordships or of this worshipful audience, neither for 
derogation of honour due to my lord cardinal's grace as con- 
cerning those points which your lordship spake of; that is, 
his noble parentage and singular graces in learning. And 
as for taking my cap away, your lordship may do as it shall 
please you ; it shall not offend me, but I shall be content 
with your ordinance in that behalf." 

Lincoln : — " Forasmuch as you do answer now as you 
did yesterday, we must do also as we did then :" and forthwith 
one of his beadles very hastily snatched his cap from his 

After this the bishop of Lincoln began the examination 
in sense following : 

The former Lincoln : — " Master Ridley, yesterday we took your 
of Kidiey. answer to certain articles, which we then proposed unto 
of the you : but because we could not be thoroughly satisfied with 

bishop of J -,111 ■ 

Lincoln. your answer then to the first article, neither could the notaries 
take any determinate answer of you, we (you requiring the 
same) granted you license to bring your answer in writing, 
and thereupon commanded the mayor that you should have 
pen, paper and ink, yea any books also that you would re- 
quire, if they were to be gotten : we licensed you then also 
to alter your former answers this day at your pleasure. There- 
fore we are come now hither, to see whether you are in the 
same mind now that you were in yesterday (which we would 
not wish), or contrary, contented to revoke all your former 
assertions, and in all points consent to submit yourself to 
the determination of the universal church ; and I for my 
part most earnestly exhort you [and therewith he put off 
his cap], not because my conscience pricketh me, as you 
said yesterday, but because I see you a rotten member, and 


in the way of perdition. Yesterday I brought forth amongst 
others St Augustine, to prove that authority hath always 
been given to the see of Rome, and you wrested the words 
far contrary to St Augustine's meaning, in that you would 
have 'totus mundus 1 to be applied only to Europe, which 
is but the third part of all the world 1 : whereas, indeed, the 
process of St Augustine's words, will not admit that your 
interpretation; for he saith not 'totus mundus Christianus |*epUiceo f 
in transmarinis, 1 &c, but first ' totus mundus Christianus J™ £g"j n 
Romanae ecclesise subjectus est: 1 'all the christian world JJ"^^, 
is subject to the church of Rome, 1 and afterwards addeth, 
'in transmarinis partibus, 1 'beyond the sea, 1 but only to aug- 
ment the dominion of the see of Rome." 

But Master Eidley still persevered in his former answer, 
saying ; 

" I am sure, my lord, you have some skill in cosmography, 
in the which you shall understand that there is a sea called 
' Mare Mediterraneum,' cast between Europe and Africa, in 
the which be meant Europe beyond the sea; even as I 
should say the whole world beyond the sea, excepting Eng- 
land in the which I stand." 

And here many words were spent upon the interpretation 
of the same place of St Augustine. After long disceptation, 
the bishop of Lincoln said, that the meaning of St Augus- 
tine might be known by the consent of other the doctors ; 
and rehearsed divers. But Master Ridley required the re- Ho f *! ie 

•' * catholics 

hearsal of the places, and to read the very words of the " se *° a } ,e g' e 

r ' J the doctors. 

doctors, saying, that perhaps those which the bishop re- 
hearsed, being proponed in other terms in the doctors, would 
admit a contrary meaning and interpretation: but in that 
book, out of the which the bishop rehearsed them, were none 
of the doctors, but only the sentences drawn out of the 

[} America was discovered by Columbus Aug. 4, 1498, but was not 
for some time regarded as a fourth quarter of the world. Fox, about 
1566, makes the following remark, " The world being divided commonly 
into three parts, Asia, Africa, and Europe Asia is counted to be the 
greatest in compass, containing as much as both the others." (Ed. 1836, 
vol. iv. p. 88.) Ed.] 


doctors by some studious man : he could not recite the very 
words of the doctors. 
a place of Then after, Lincoln came to Cyril, which (as he said) 

Cynlalleged . -r,.„ 

byMeianc- made against Master Ridley in the sacrament, even by 
Philip Melancthon's own alleging in his Common Places 1 ; 
and forthwith he called for Melancthon, but in vain, be- 
cause all such books were burned a little before 3 : wherefore 
he passed it over. 

"Argu- "Cyril also, in another place, proving to the Jews that 

contrario Christ was come, useth this reason, ' Altars are erected in 
Cyriiio con- Christ's name in Britain, and in far countries : Ergo, Christ 


Altars be ' is come.' But we may use the contrary of that reason, 

erected in 

Christ's re- ' Altars are plucked down in Britain: Ergo, Christ is not 
in Britain: come.' A good argument a contrariis. I will stand to it 

Ergo, Christ ■, 

is come, in the schools by and by with any man. Ye see what a 
now plucked good argument this your doctrine maketh for the Jews, to 

downinHn- ° •> ' 

tain: Ergo, prove that Christ is not come." 

Christ is not *■ 

swer e -'This* ^ r ^^y smiling answered, "Your lordship is not'igno- 
argumentis ran t that this word ' altare, 1 in the Scripture, signifieth as 

not "a sen- ' r » o 

rlo^'for 8 " we ^ ^ ne a ^ ar whereupon the Jews were wont to make their 
aiTarsIn the burnt sacrifices, as the table of the Lord's supper. Cyril 
andphfck-' meanetn there by this word 'altare,' not the Jewish altar, 
aitara°inthe ^ u * * ne table of the Lord, and by that saying, ' Altars are 
be"not l con-' erec t e d in Christ's name: Ergo, Christ is come, 1 he meaneth 
thelntece- ^hat * ne communion is ministered in his remembrance : Ergo, 
me'aneft'the Christ is come. For the strength of his argument is, because 
etsethe Lie- ^ ne remembrance of a thing cannot be except itself be past : 
theLord's * aen could not all countries celebrate the communion in re- 
hiT?emem- membrance of Christ's passion, except Christ had been come 

Q 1 The "Loci Communes rerum Theol., seu Hypotyposes Theolo- 
gicse," first published at Wittenberg, 1521 (of which the second in 1522 
has been consulted), does not mention the name of Cyril or any other 
under the head " De ccena Domini." They seem to have been written at 
first without alleging testimonies : these were afterwards added. Ed.] 

Q 2 This refers to a "proclamation set out by the King and Queen 
for the restraining of all books and writings tending against the. doc- 
trine of the Pope and his church" : it is dated, Hampton Court, June 13, 
1555. It is given by Fox (Ed. 1836, vol. vii. p. 127), and by Wilkins 
(Concilia, torn. iv. p. 198). Melancthon's name is specified in the pro- 
clamation, among many others. Ed.] 


and suffered. As for the taking down of the altars, it was brance. in 
done upon just considerations, for that they seemed to come quent, by 

• i i T i • i pi plucking 

too nigh to the J ews usage : neither was the supper ot the down of 
Lord at any time better ministered, fori more duly received, meant the 

i "ii i i iii' i i taking away 

than in those latter days when all things were brought to of places and 

, ^ ° ° monuments 

the rites and usage of the primitive church. 11 serving not 

Lincoln : — " A goodly receiving, I promise you, to set an Lord's sup- 
oyster table instead of an altar, and to come from puddings idolatry, 

TT7 - . , , ,, whereby the 

at Westminster, to receive : and yet, when your table was con- true table of 

•' ' J the Lord's 

stituted, you could never be content, in placing; the same now supper, in 

■" . nis remem- 

east, now north, now one way, now another, until it pleased brance, may 
God of his goodness to place it clean out of the church. 11 again. 

Ridley: — "Your lordship's unreverend terms do not Bh*°p 
elevate the thing. Perhaps some men came more devoutly p^™"! 1 ^ 
from puddings, than other men now do from other things." L^j}°™ ,e 

Lincoln : — " As for that, Master Ridley, you ought to P t e e r r a t " b ^" 
be judge of no man: but by this your reasoning you cause 
us to stretch and enlarge our instructions. We came not to 
reason, but to take your determinate answers to our articles ;" 
and eftsoons he read the first article in manner above speci- 
fied. " Now, Master Eidley, what say you to the first article I 
If you have brought your answer in writing, we will receive 
it : but if you have written any other matter, we will not 
receive it. 11 

Then Master Eidley took a sheet of paper out of his The articles 

J . read again 

bosom, and began to read that which he had written: but to Ridley; 

. i . he not sut- 

the bishop of Lincoln commanded the beadle to take it from feredtoread 

1 . ... U1S ° wn - 

him. But he desired license to read it, saying that it was 

nothing but his answer, but the bishop would in no wise 

suffer him. 

Ridley : — " Why, my lord, will you require my answer, 
and not suffer me to publish it? I beseech you, my lord, 
let the audience bear witness in this matter. Your lord- 
ships may handle it at your pleasure : therefore let the 
audience be witness to your doings. 11 

Lincoln : — " Well, Master Eidley, we will first see what 
you have written, and then, if we shall think it good to be 
read, you shall have it published ; but except you will deliver 
it first, we will take none at all of you. 11 


With that Master Ridley, seeing no remedy, delivered 
it to an officer, who immediately delivered it to the bishop 
of Lincoln, who, after he had secretly communicated it to 
the other two bishops, declared the sense, but would not 
read it as it was written, saying, that it contained words 
of blasphemy ; therefore he would not fill the ears of the 
audience therewithal, and so abuse their patience. Notwith- 
standing Master Ridley desired very instantly to have it 
published, saying that, except a line or two, there was nothing 
contained but the ancient doctors'' sayings, for the confirma- 
tion of his assertion. 

After the said bishops had secretly viewed the whole, 
then the bishop of Lincoln said : — 

Lincoln : — " In the first part, Master Ridley, is nothing 
contained but your protestation, that you would not have 
these your answers so to be taken as though you seemed 
thereby to consent to the authority or jurisdiction of the 
pope's holiness. 11 

Ridley : — " No, my lord, I pray you read it out that 
the audience may hear it." 

But the bishop of Lincoln would in no wise, because (he 
said) there were contained words of blasphemy. 

First article. Then the bishop of Lincoln recited the first article, and 
required Master Ridley's answer to it. Then Master Ridley 
said, that his answer was there in writing, and desired that 
it might be published: but the bishop would not read the 
whole, but here and there a piece of it. So the notaries 
took his answer, that he referred him to his answer in 
writing exhibited now, and also before at the time of dis- 
putation, Master doctor Weston being prolocutor. 

article 1 ^ n ^ e w * se *' ne bishop of Lincoln recited the second 

article, and required an answer, and Master Ridley referred 
him to his answer in writing, exhibited now, and also before 
at the time of disputation: and like answers were taken to 
all the residue of the articles. 

These answers in this manner rehearsed, taken and 
penned of the notaries, the bishop of Gloucester began an 
exhortation to move Master Ridley to turn. 



Gloucester : — " If you would once empty your stomach, The words 

, r J J ' ofexhort- 

captivate your senses, subdue your reason, and together with ation of 
us consider what a feeble ground of your religion you have, Ridley. 
I do not doubt but you might easily be induced to acknow- 
ledge one church with us, to confess one faith with us, and 
to believe one religion with us. For what a weak and feeble 
stay in religion is this, I pray you? Latimer leaneth to 
Oranmer, Cranmer to Eidley, and Kidley to the singularity 
of his own wit : so that if you overthrew the singularity of 
Ridley's wit, then must needs the religion of Oranmer and 
Latimer fall also. You remember well, Master Ridley, that 
the prophet speaketh most truly, saying, ' Vse, vse,' ' Woe 
be to them which are singular and wise in their own 

"But you will say here, 'It is true that the prophet 
saith : but how know you that I am wise in mine own con- 
ceit V Yes, Master Eidley, you refuse the determination 
of the catholic church ; you must needs be singular and wise 
in your own conceit, for you bring Scripture for the proba- 
tion of your assertions, and we also bring Scriptures ; you 
understand them in one sense, and we in another. How 
will you know the truth herein? If you stand to your own 
interpretation, then you are singular in your own conceit : 
but if you say you will follow the minds of the doctors and 
ancient fathers, semblably you understand them in one mean- 
ing, and we take them in another. How will ye know the 
truth herein? If you stand to your own judgment, then are 
you singular in your own conceit ; then can you not avoid 
the ' vae' and ' woe 1 which the prophet speaketh of. Where- 
fore if you have no stay but the catholic church in matters 
of controversy, except you will rest upon the singularity and 
wisdom of your own brain, if the prophet most truly saith, 
' Vae, vse,' ' Woe, woe be to them that are wise in their 
own conceit; 1 then, for God's love, Master Eidley, stand 
not singular; be not you wise in your own conceit; please 
not yourself over much. How were the Arians, the Mani- 
«hees, Eutychians, with other divers heretics which have 
been in the church, — how, I pray you, were they suppressed 
and convinced? By reasoning and disputations? No, truly, 
the Arians had no more places of Scripture for the con- 



firmation of their heresy, than the catholics for the defence 
of the truth. How then were they convinced? Only by the 
determination of the church. And indeed, except we do 
constitute the church our foundation, stay, and judge, we 
can have no end of controversies, no end of disputations. 
For in that we all bring Scriptures and doctors for the 
probation of our assertions, who should be judge of this our 
controversy? If we ourselves, then, be singular and wise 
in our own conceits, then cannot we avoid the woe that 
the prophet speaketh of. 

" It remaineth therefore that we submit ourselves to the 
The deter- determination and arbitrament of the church; with whom 

mination of . 

the church God promised to remain to the world s end ; to whom he 

is only that, * . 

whereupon promised to send the Holy Ghost, which should teach it the 

our catholic *• •' . 

men do truth. Wherefore, Master Eidley, if you will avoid the woe 

ground their . . 

faith. that the prophet speaketh of, be not you wise in your judg- 

ment : if you will not be wise and singular in your own judg- 
ment, captivate your own understanding, subdue your reason, 
and submit yourself to the determination of the church." 

This is briefly the sum of the oration of the bishop of 
Gloucester, by the which he endeavoured in many more words, 
amplifying and enlarging the matter eloquently with sundry 
points of rhetoric to move affections, to persuade Master 
Ridley to recant and forsake his religion. 
a brief To whom Master Ridley answered in few words, that he 

answer of . ^ , 

Ridley to said most truly with the prophet, "Woe be to him that is 
Brooks's wise in his own conceit ;" but that he acknowledged no such 
singularity in himself, nor knew any cause why he should 
attribute so much to himself. And whereas he, the bishop 
of Gloucester, said Master Cranmer leaned to him, that was 
most untrue, in that he was but a young scholar in comparison 
of Master Cranmer; for at what time he was a young 
scholar, then was Master Cranmer a doctor ; so that he con- 
fessed that Master Cranmer might have been his schoolmaster 
these many years. It seemed that he would have spoken 
more, but the bishop of Gloucester interrupted him, saying : — 

Gloucester : — " Why, Master Ridley, it is your own con- 
fession ; for Master Latimer, at the time of his disputation, 




confessed his learning: to lie in Master Cranmer's books, and 
Master Cranmer also said, that it was your doing." 

Likewise the bishop of Lincoln, with many words, and ™ rtl f£ c jjfe d 
gently holding his cap in his hand, desired him to turn. But yiS^to'tife 
Master Eidley made an absolute answer, that he was fully {£jne' s d ° c " 
persuaded the religion which he defended to be grounded 
upon God's word ; and therefore, without great offence to- 
wards God, great peril and damage of his soul, he could not 
forsake his master and Lord God, but desired the bishop to 
perform his grant, in that his lordship said the day before, 
that he should have license to shew his cause why he could 
not with a safe conscience admit the authority of the pope. 
But the bishop of Lincoln said, that whereas then he had 
demanded license to speak three words, he was contented 
then that he should speak forty, and that grant he would 

Then stepped forth Dr Weston, who sat by, and said, ^„^"™ h his 
" Why, my lord, he hath spoken four hundred already. 11 bolt - 
Master Ridley confessed he had, but they were not of his 
prescribed number, neither of that matter. The bishop ofRMiey 

1 ... limited no 

Lincoln bade him take his license ; but he should speak but more but , 

1 forty words 

forty, and he would tell them upon his fingers. And eftsoons t0 s P eak - 
Master Eidley began to speak : but before he had ended half Not ?> ^ 

J ° A reader, the 

a sentence, the doctors sitting by cried and said, that his ^?™ e f 
number was out ; and with that he was put to silence. the papists. 

After this the bishop of Lincoln, who sat in the midst, 
began to speak as followeth : 

Lincoln : — " Now I perceive, Master Eidley, you will not 
permit nor suffer us to stay in that point of our commission 
which we most desired : for I assure you, there is never a 
word in our commission more true than ' dolentes et ge- 
mentes: 1 for indeed I for my part (I take God to witness) 
am sorry for you. 11 

Whereunto Master Eidley answered, " I believe it well, 
my lord, forasmuch as one day it will be burdenous to your 
soul. 11 

Lincoln: — "Nay, not so, Master Eidley, but because I 
am sorry to see such stubbornness in you, that by no means 
you may be persuaded to acknowledge your errors, and receive 


the truth. But, seeing it is so, because you will not suffer 
us to persist in the first, we must of necessity proceed to 
the other part of our commission. Therefore I pray you, 
hearken what I shall say. 11 

And forthwith he did read the sentence of condemnation, 
which was written in a long process : the tenor of which, 
because it is sufficiently already expressed before 1 , we thought 
meet in this place to omit, forasmuch as they are rather 
words of course, than things devised upon deliberation. How- 
beit indeed the effect was as this : 

" That forasmuch as the said Nicholas Eidley did affirm, 
maintain, and stubbornly defend certain opinions, assertions, 
and heresies, contrary to the word of God, and the received 
faith of the church, as in denying the true and natural body 
of Christ, and his natural blood to be in the sacrament of 
the altar; Secondarily, in affirming the substance of bread 
and wine to remain after the words of the consecration; 
Thirdly, in denying the mass to be a lively sacrifice of the 
church for the quick and the dead; and by no means would 
be induced and brought from these his heresies : they there- 
fore (the said John of Lincoln, James of Gloucester, John 
of Bristol,) did judge and condemn the said Nicholas Ridley 
as a heretic, and so adjudged him presently, both by word 
and also in deed, to be degraded from the degree of a bishop, 
from priesthood, and all ecclesiastical orders ; declaring more- 
over the said Nicholas Bidley to be no member of the church : 
and therefore committed him to the secular powers, of them 
to receive due punishment according to the tenor of the tem- 
poral laws ; and further excommunicating him by the great 
excommunication . 11 

A Communication between Dr Brooks, and Dr Ridley, in 
the house of Master Irish, the 15th day of October, 
at which time he was degraded. 

In the mean season upon the 15th day in the morning 
and the same year abovesaid, Dr Brooks, the bishop of 
Gloucester, and the vice-chancellor of Oxford, Dr Marshal, 
with divers other of the chief and heads of the same uni- 

P Fox refers to the degradation of Hooper previously related. Ed.] 



versity, and many others accompanying them, came unto 
Master Irish's house, then mayor of Oxford, where Dr Rid- 
ley, late bishop of London, was close prisoner. And when 
the bishop of Gloucester came into the chamber where the 
said Dr Eidley did lie, he told him for what purpose their 
coming was unto him, saying, that yet once again the queen's 
majesty did offer unto him, by them, her gracious mercy, if 
that he would receive the same, and come home again to No mercy to 

' ° behadwith- 

the faith which he was baptized in, and revoke his erroneous outconsent- 

r ' mg to m- 

doctrine that he of late had taught abroad to the destruc- Mty- 
tion of many. And further said, that if he would not recant 
and become one of the catholic church with them, then they 
must needs, against their wills, proceed according to the 
law, which they would be very loth to do, if they might 

" But," saith he, " we have been oftentimes with you, and 
have requested that you would recant this your fantastical 
and devilish opinion, which hitherto you have not, although 
you might in so doing win many, and do much good. There- 
fore, good Master Ridley, consider with yourself the danger 
that shall ensue, both of body and soul, if that you shall so 
wilfully cast yourself away in refusing mercy offered unto 
you at this time." 

" My lord," quoth Dr Ridley, " you know my mind fully ^f d s ^ r t ° f 
herein ; and as for the doctrine which I have taught, my oworthy S ' 
conscience assureth me that it was sound, and according to Christ's" 1 ° f 
God's word (to his glory be it spoken) ; the which doctrine, clmrch - 
the Lord God being my helper, I will maintain so long as 
my tongue shall wag, and breath is within my body, and in 
confirmation thereof seal the same with my blood." 

Gloucester : — " Well, you were best, Master Ridley, not 
to do so, but to become one of the church with us : for you 
know this well enough, that whosoever is out of the catholic 
church, cannot be saved. Therefore I say once again, that 
while you have time and mercy offered you, receive it, and 
confess with us the pope's holiness to be the chief head of with that 

. , 111, their caps 

the same church. went off, but 

Ridley : — " I marvel that you will trouble me with any held on his 
such vain and foolish talk. You know my mind concerning 



the usurped authority of that Romish antichrist. As I con- 
fessed openly in the schools, so do I now, that both by my 
behaviour and talk I do no obedience at all unto the bishop 
of Rome, nor to his usurped authority, and that for divers 
good and godly considerations." 

Ridley com- And here Dr Ridley would have reasoned with the said 

manded to » •* 

silence, Brooks, bishop of Gloucester, of the bishop of Rome's au- 

wlien other- ' r r 

couMnot be thority, but could not be suffered ; and yet he spake so 
convinced, earnestly against the pope therein, that the bishop told him, 
if he would not hold his peace, he should be compelled 
against his will. "And seeing, 11 saith he, "that you will 
not receive the queen's mercy now offered unto you, but 
stubbornly refuse the same, we must, against our wills, pro- 
ceed according to our commission to degrading, taking from 
you the dignity of priesthood. For we take you for no 
bishop, and therefore we will the sooner have done with 
you. So, committing you to the secular power, you know 
what doth follow. 11 

Ridley : — " Do with me as it shall please God to suffer 
you ; I am well content to abide the same with all my 

Gloucester : — " Put off your cap, Master Ridley, and put 
upon you this surplice." 
St r o- Ridley:-" Not I, truly." 

surplice! 16 Gloucester:— "But you must." 

Ridley :— "I will not." 

Gloucester : — " You must therefore make no more ado, 
but put this surplice upon you." 

Ridley : — " Truly, if it come upon me, it shall be against 
my will." 

Gloucester : — " Will you not do it upon you V 

Ridley:— "No, that I will not." 

Gloucester: — "It shall be put upon you by one or other." 

Ridley: — "Do therein as it shall please you; I am well 
contented with that, and more than that ; ' the servant is 
not above his master. 1 If they dealt so cruelly with our 
Saviour Christ, as the Scripture maketh mention, and he 
suffered the same patiently, how much more doth it become 
us his servants !" 


And in saying of these words, they put upon the said ^fj heth 
Dr Ridley the surplice, with all the trinkets appertaining to Kp\rf e 
the mass. And as they were putting on the same, Dr Ridley foolish 
did vehemently inveigh against the Romish bishop and all a PP arel - 
that foolish apparel, calling him antichrist, and the apparel 
foolish and abominable, yea, too fond for a vice in a play; 
insomuch that bishop Brooks was exceeding angry with 
him, and bade him hold his peace, for he did but rail. Dr 
Ridley answered him again, and said, so long as his tongue 
and breath would suffer him, he would speak against their 
abominable doings, whatsoever happened unto him for so 

Gloucester: — "Well, you were best to hold your peace, 
lest your mouth be stopped." 

At which words one Edridge, the reader then of the Edridgegiv- 
Greek lecture, standing by, said to Dr Brooks ; " Sir, the that C Runey' 
law is, he should be gagged ; therefore let him be gagged." gagged. be 
At which words Dr Ridley, looking earnestly upon him that 
so said, wagged his head at him, and made no answer 
again, but with a sigh said, "Oh well, well, well!" So gfgggf 
they proceeded in their doings; yet nevertheless Dr Ridley 
was ever talking things not pleasant to their ears, although 
one or other bade him hold his peace, lest he should be 
caused against his will. 

When they came to that place where Dr Ridley should 
hold the chalice and the wafer-cake, called the singing-bread, 
they bade him hold the same in his hands. And Dr Ridley ^„\ e d y not 
said, "They shall not come in my hands; for if they do, jf^h^^e 
they shall fall to the ground for all me." Then there was^j£ e "£* 
one appointed to hold them in his hand, while bishop Brooks 
read a certain thing in Latin, touching the degradation of 
spiritual persons according to the pope^ law. 

Afterward they put a book in his hand, and withal read S d ^ m 
(as is before said) a certain thing in Latin, the effect whereof P reachin ff- 
was : " We do take from you the office of preaching the 
gospel," &c. At which words Dr Ridley gave a great sigh, 
looking up towards heaven, saying, " Lord God, forgive 
them this their wickedness!" And as they put upon him 
the mass gear, so they began with the uppermost garment, 




In taking it away again reading a thing in Latin, according 

to the order contained in the said book of the pope's law, 

Now when all was taken from him, saving only the surplice 

left on his back, as they were reading and taking it away, 

Dr Ridley said unto them, " Lord God, what power be you 

of, that you can take from a man that which he never had! 

I was never singer in all my life, and yet you will take from 

me that which I never had." 

terin^of 1 *" S° when all this their abominable and ridiculous degra- 

Mn&dom 1 ' 8 Nation was ended very solemnly, Dr Ridley said unto Dr 

fn apfsh th Brooks, " Have you done? If you have done, then give me 

toys- leave to talk with you a little concerning these matters." 

Brooks answered and said, " Master Ridley, we may not 

talk with you; you be out of the church, and our law is, 

that we may not talk with any that be out of the church." 

Then Master Ridley said, " Seeing that you will not suffer 

me to talk, neither will vouchsafe to hear me, what remedy 

but patience? I refer my cause to my heavenly Father, who 

will reform things that be amiss, when it shall please him." 

At which words they would have been gone, but Master Rid- 

Bertrim'f % sa ^> " My lord, I would wish that your lordship would 

the'sac'ra™ vouchsafe to read over and peruse a little book of Bertram's 

ment. doings, concerning the sacrament. I promise you, you shall 

find much good learning therein, if you will read the same 

with an indifferent judgment." Dr Brooks made no answer 

to this, but would have been gone away. Then Master 

Ridley said, 

"Oh, I perceive that you cannot away with this manner 

of talk. Well ! it boots not, I will say no more, I will speak 

of worldly affairs. I pray you therefore, my lord, hear me, 

and be a mean to the queen's majesty in the behalf of a great 

many of poor men, and especially for my poor sister and 

charity of her husband which standeth there. They had a poor living 

papists. g ran t e (j un t them by me, whiles I was in the see of London, 

wuioctor P an< ^ * ne same is taken away from them by him that now occu- 

Bonner. pj e th the same room, without all law or conscience. Here I 

have a supplication to the queen's majesty in their behalfs. 

You shall hear the same read, so shall you perceive the 

matter the better." 


Then he read the same 1 : and, when he came to the place Ridley's sis- 

' x ter put from 

in the supplication, that touched his sister by name, then he ^{f^ e by 
wept, so that for a little space he could not speak for weep- 
ing. After that he had left off weeping, he said, " This is 
nature that moveth me, but I have now done." And with 
that he read out the rest, and delivered the same to his brother, 
commanding him to put it up to the queen's majesty, and 
to sue, not only for himself, but also for such as had any 
leases or grants by him, and were put from the same by Dr 
Bonner, then bishop of London. Whereunto Brooks said, 
" Indeed, Master Ridley, your request in this supplication is 
very lawful and honest : therefore I must needs in conscience 
speak to the queen's majesty for them." 

Ridley : — " I pray you, for God's sake, do so." 

Gloucester : — " I think your request will be granted, except 
one thing let it ; and that is, I fear, because you do not allow 
the queen's proceedings, but obstinately withstand the same, 
that it will hardly be granted." 

Ridley: — "What remedy? I can do no more but speak 
and write. I trust I have discharged my conscience herein ; 
and God's will be done." 

Gloucester: — "I will do what lieth in me." 

This degradation being past, and all things finished, Dr 
Brooks called the bailiffs, delivering to them Master Ridley 
with this charge, to keep him safely from any man speaking 
with him, and that he should be brought to the place of 
execution when they were commanded. Then Master Ridley 
in praising God burst out with these words, and said, " God, Ridley 

liiii i i • i • i ^ • could not 

1 thank thee, and to thy praise be it spoken, there is none with any 

„ ii • notorious 

ot you all able to lay to my charge any open or notorious crime be 

. . J . . charged. 

crime ; for if you could, it should surely be laid in my lap, 
I see very well." Whereunto Brooks said, he played the 
part of a proud Pharisee, exalting and praising himself. But 
Master Ridley said, " No, no, no, as I have said before, to 
God's glory be it spoken. I confess myself to be a misera- 
ble wretched sinner, and have great need of God's help and 
mercy, and do daily call and cry for the same : therefore, I 
pray you, have no such opinion of me." Then they departed, 

\} This supplication will be found among the letters. Ed.] 




and in going away a certain warden of a college, of whose 
name I am not very sure 1 , bade Dr Eidley repent him, and 
forsake that erroneous opinion. Whereunto Master Ridley 
said, " Sir, repent you, for you are out of the truth. And 
I pray God (if it be his blessed will) have mercy upon you, 
and grant ; you the understanding of his word. 1 '' Then the 
warden, being in a chafe thereat, said, " I trust that I shall 
never be of your erroneous and devilish opinion, neither yet 
to be in that place whither you shall go. He is," saith he, 
"the most obstinate and wilful man that ever I heard talk 
since I was born." 

The behaviour of Dr Ridley at Ms Supper, the night before 

Ms suffering. 

Ridley bid- 
deth guests 
to his mar- 

Mrs Irish, 
a great 
papist be- 
fore, weep- 
eth for 
Br Ridlev. 

The night before he suffered, his beard was washed and 
his legs ; and as he sat at supper the same night at Master 
Irish's (who was his keeper), he bade his hostess, and the 
rest at the board, to his marriage; "for," said he, "to-mor- 
row I must be married :" and so shewed himself to be as 
merry as ever he was«at any time before. And wishing his 
sister at his marriage, he asked his brother sitting at the 
table, whether she could find in her heart to be there or no. 
And he answered, " Yea, I dare say, with all her heart :" 
at which word he said, he was glad to hear of her so much 
therein. So at this talk Mistress Irish wept. 

But Master Ridley comforted her, and said, "0 Mrs 
Irish, you love me not now, I see well enough ; for in that 
you weep, it doth appear you will not be at my marriage, 
neither are content therewith. Indeed you be not so much 
my friend, as I thought you had been. But quiet yourself: 
though my breakfast shall be somewhat sharp and painful, 

[} Fox, in his first edition, has a note, " this was one Master Warner, 
as I remember." This note, in subsequent editions, was expunged, and 
it would appear with reason ; for the Dr Warner in question was pro- 
bably the warden of All Souls. (See Wood's Fasti, in his Athense 
Oxonienses.) Dr Warner was warden before the reign of Mary, and 
afterwards ; for he was a Protestant, and was on that ground deprived 
of his office during the reign of Mary. It is therefore hardly likely 
that such a man would have used the words here attributed to him. 


yet I am sure my supper shall be more pleasant and sweet," 

When they arose from the table, his brother offered him Ridley with- 

» . . . , . ont care at 

to watch all night with him. But he said, "No, no, that his death, 
you shall not. For I mind (God willing) to go to bed, and 
to sleep as quietly to-night, as ever I did in my life." So 
his brother departed, exhorting him to be of good cheer, and 
to take his cross quietly, for the reward was great, &c. 

The behaviour of Dr Ridley and Master Latis:er, at 
the time of their death, wheh was the 16th of October, 

Upon the north side of the town, in the ditch over against 
Balliol college, the place of execution was appointed ; and for 
fear of any tumult that might arise, to let a the burning f" hinder ' 
them, the lord Williams was commanded, by the queen's 
letters, and the householders of the city, to be there assistant, 
sufficiently appointed. And when every thing was in a readi- 
ness, the prisoners were brought forth by the mayor and 
the bailiffs. 

Master Ridley had a fair black gown furred, and faced 
with foins, such as he was wont to wear being bishop, and 
a tippet of velvet furred 2 likewise about his neck, a velvet 
night-cap upon his head, and a corner cap upon the same, 
going in a pair of slippers to the stake, and going between 
the mayor and an alderman, &c. 

After him came Master Latimer in a poor Bristol frieze 
frock all worn, with his buttoned cap, and a kerchief on his 
head, all ready to the fire, a new long shroud hanging over 
his hose down to the feet : which at the first sight stirred 
men's hearts to rue upon them, beholding on the one side 
the honour they sometime had, and on the other the calamity 
whereunto they were fallen. 

Master doctor Ridley, as he passed toward Bocardo, looked Lata"*" 11 
up where Master Cranmer did lie, hoping belike to have seen ^ethfrtVtue 
him at the glass window, and to have spoken unto him. But stake " 
then Master Cranmer was busy with friar Soto and his fellows, 
disputing together, so that he could not see him, through that 
C 2 " With a tippet of sables." Edit. 1563. E».] 


occasion. Then Master Bidley, looking back, espied Master 

Latimer coming after, unto whom he said, " Oh, be ye there?" 

B j*aviour "Yea' - ' said Master Latimer, "have after as fast as I can 

of Ridlev ' ' 

a"tW a stSe r f°U° w " So he following a pretty way off, at length they 
came both to the stake, the one after the other; where first 
Dr Bidley entering the place, marvellous earnestly holding 
up both his hands, looked towards heaven. Then shortly 
after espying Master Latimer, with a wondrous cheerful look 
he ran to him, embraced and kissed him; and, as they that 
stood near reported, comforted him, saying, "Be of good 
heart, brother, for God will either assuage the fury of the 
flame, or else strengthen us to abide it." 

With that went he to the stake, kneeled down by it, 
kissed it, and effectually prayed ; and behind him Master Lati- 
mer kneeled, as earnestly calling upon God as he. After 
they arose, the one talked with the other a little while, till 
they which were appointed to see the execution, removed 
themselves out of the sun. What they said I can learn of 
no man. 

Dr smith Then Dr Smith, of whose recantation in king Edward's 

preaching at • ' o 

ofRidie nmg *™ e y e neai *d before, began his sermon to them upon this 
andLati- text of St Paul, " If I yield my body to the fire to be burnt, 
and have not charity, I shall gain nothing thereby 1 ." Wherein 
he alleged that the goodness of the cause, and not the order 
of death, maketh the holiness of the person ; which he con- 
firmed by the examples of Judas, and of a woman in Oxford 
that of late hanged herself, for that they, and such like as he 
recited, might then be adjudged righteous, which desperately 
sundered their lives from their bodies, as he feared that those 
Si!th ith men tn at stood before him would do. But he cried still to the 
St^rs! 116 P eo pl e to beware of them, for they were heretics, and died out 
of the church. And on the other side, he declared their diver- 
sity in opinions, as Lutherans, GDcolampadians, Zuinglians, 
of which sect they were, he said, and that was the worst : 
co^ga- but the old church of Christ and the catholic faith believed 
Siened with ^ ar otherwise. At which place they lifted up both their hands 
ophitonJ. * an d e y es to heaven, as it were calling God to witness of the 
truth : the which countenance they made in many other places 

1 "Si corpus meum tradam igni, charitatem autem non habeam, 
nihil inde utilitatis capio." 1 Cor. xiii. 


of his sermon, where they thought he spake amiss. He ended 
with a very short exhortation to them to recant, and come 
home again to the church, and save their lives and souls, 
which else were condemned. His sermon was scant; in all, 
a quarter of an horn*. 

Dr Ridley said to Master Latimer, " Will you begin to 
answer the sermon, or shall I?" Master Latimer said, 
"Begin you first, I pray you." "I will," said Master 

Then, the wicked sermon being ended, Dr Ridley and 
Master Latimer kneeled down upon their knees towards my 
lord Williams of Thame, the vice-chancellor of Oxford, and 
divers other commissioners appointed for that purpose, who 
sat upon a form thereby; unto whom Master Ridley said, 
" I beseech you, my lord, even for Christ's sake> that I Ridieyready 

ii i liiAiiM it t0 ans wer 

may speak but two or three words. And whilst my lord smith's ser- 

i i'ii i i-i ii i mon, but 

bent his head to the mayor and vice-chancellor, to know not suffered. 

(as it appeared) whether he might give him leave to speak, 

the bailiffs and Dr Marshall, vice-chancellor, ran hastily unto Marshall, 

him, and with their hands stopped his mouth, and said, ceiior ot u " 

" Master Ridley, if you will revoke your erroneous opinions, stoppeth 

and recant the same, you shall not only have liberty so to 

do, but also the benefit of a subject ; that is, have your 

life." "Not otherwise?" said Master Ridley, "No," quoth 

Dr Marshall. " Therefore if you will not so do, then there 

is no remedy but you must suffer for your deserts." " Well," 

quoth Master Ridley, "so long as the breath is in my 

body, I will never deny my Lord Christ, and his known 

truth : God's will be done in me ! " And with that he rose 

up, and said with a loud voice, " Well then, I commit our Ridley com- 

cause to Almighty God, which shall indifferently judge cause to 

all." To whose saying Master Latimer added his old posy, 

w Well ! there is nothing hid but it shall be opened." And ^^ s en 

he said, he could answer Smith well enough, if he might ^^J™ 4 

be suffered. J? a a ns ^t r 

Dr Smith. 

Incontinently they were commanded to make them ready, 
which they with all meekness obeyed. Master Ridley took 
his gown and his tippet, and gave it to his brother-in-law 
Master Shipside, who all his time of imprisonment, although 
he might not be suffered to come to him, lay there at his 


own charges to provide him necessaries, which, from time 

to time, he sent him by the serjeant that kept him. Some 

other of his apparel that was little worth, he gave away; 

other the bailiffs took. 

Si?awa Si h"- ^ e S ave awa y besides divers other small things to gen- 

otheriftsi* ^ emen standing by, and divers of them pitifully weeping, as 

the people, to Sir Henry Lea he gave a new groat; and to divers of 

my lord Williams 1 gentlemen some napkins, some nutmegs, 

and rases 1 of ginger; his dial, and such other things as he 

had about him, to every one that stood next him. Some 

plucked the points off his hose. Happy was he that might 

get any rag of him. 

Latimer at Master Latimer gave nothing, but very quietly suffered 

the stake in " 

his shirt, his keeper to pull off his hose and his other array, which 
to look unto was very simple : and being stripped unto his 
shroud, he seemed as comely a person to them that were 
there present, as one should lightly 2 see ; and whereas in his 
clothes he appeared a withered and crooked silly old man, 
he now stood bolt upright, as comely a father as one might 
lightly behold. 

Then Master Eidley, standing as yet in his truss, said 

to his brother, " It were best for me to go in my truss 

still."" " No," quoth his brother, " it will put you to more 

pain; and the truss will do a poor man good/' Whereunto 

Master Eidley said, "Be it, in the name of God;'' 1 and so 

unlaced himself. Then, being in his shirt, he stood upon 

the foresaid stone, and held up his hand and said, " 

Ridley heavenly Father, I will give unto thee most hearty thanks, for 

God for his that thou hast called me to be a professor of thee, even 

andprayeth unto death. I beseech thee, Lord God, take mercy upon 

' this realm of England, and deliver the same from all her 


Then the smith took a chain of iron, and brought the 
same about both Dr Ridley's, and Master Latimer's middle: 
and as he was knocking in a staple, Dr Eidley took the 
chain in his hand, and shaked the same, for it did gird in 
his belly, and looking aside to the smith, said, " Good fel- 
low, knock it in hard, for the flesh will have his course." 

[} Pieces, or roots. Ed.] 

P LightJy — easily or commonly. Ed.] 



Then his brother did bring him gunpowder in a bag, and ^p ^* 
would have tied the same about his neck. Master Bidley martyrs. 
asked what it was. His brother said, " Gunpowder." " Then," 
said he, " I will take it to be sent of God ; therefore I 
will receive it as sent of him. And have you any," said 
he, "for my brother f meaning Master Latimer. "Yea, 
sir, that I have," quoth his brother. "Then give it unto 
him," said he, " betime ; lest ye come too late." So his 
brother went, and carried of the same gunpowder unto 
Master Latimer. 

In the mean time Dr Ridley spake unto my lord Wil- SftKri 11 
liams, and said, " My lord, I must be a suitor unto your fo r T ie£™s'of 
lordship in the behalf of divers poor men, and specially in poormen ' 
the cause of my poor sister: I have made a supplication to 
the queen's majesty in their behalfs. I beseech your lord- 
ship for Christ's sake, to be a mean to her grace for them. 
My brother here hath the supplication, and will resort to 
your lordship to certify you hereof. There is nothing in all 
the world that troubleth my conscience, I praise God, this 
only excepted. Whilst I was in the see of London, divers 
poor men took leases of me, and agreed with me for 
the same. Now I hear say, the bishop that now occupieth ^ n "" a *^* 
the same room will not allow my grants unto them made, le a ^ s J™ m 
but, contrary unto all law and conscience, hath taken from ^ B n j! r d be " 
them their livings, and will not suffer them to enjoy the Ridle y- 
same. I beseech you, my lord, be a mean for them : you 
shall do a good deed, and God will reward you." 

Then they brought a faggot, kindled with fire, and laid whtenedij 1 
the same down at Dr Ridley's feet. To whom Master Latimer dom™" rtyr " 
spake in this manner : " Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, saints ' 
and play the man. We shall this day light such a candle, by 
God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." 

And so the fire being given unto them, when Dr Ridley 
saw the fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a won- 
derful loud voice, " In manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum 
meum : Domine, recipe spiritum meum." And after repeated 
this latter part often in English, " Lord, Lord, receive my 
spirit ;" Master Latimer crying as vehemently on the other 
side, " O Father of heaven, receive my soul !" who received pra y ™ e and 
the flame as it were embracing of it. After that he had martyrdom - 


stroked his face with his hands, and as it were bathed them 
a little in the fire, he soon died (as it appeared) with very 
little pain or none. And thus much concerning the end of 
this old and blessed servant of God, Master Latimer, for 
whose laborious travails, fruitful life, and constant death, the 
whole realm hath cause to give great thanks to Almighty 

But Master Ridley, by reason of the evil making of the 
fire unto him, because the wooden faggots were laid about 
the gorse, and over-high built, the fire burned first beneath, 
being kept down by the wood ; which when he felt, he de- 
sired them for Christ's sake to let the fire come unto him. 
Which when his brother-in-law heard, but not well under- 
stood, intending to rid him out of his pain (for the which cause 
he gave attendance), as one in such sorrow not well advised 
what he did, heaped faggots upon him, so that he clean 
covered him, which made the fire more vehement beneath, 
that it burned clean all his nether parts, before it once 
touched the upper ; and that made him leap up and down 
under the faggots, and often desire them to let the fire come 

Sbiirnin" s unto ^™' sa y m S' " •"■ cannot burn." Which indeed appeared 
well; for after his legs were consumed by reason of his 
struggling through the pain (whereof he had no release, but 
only his contentation in God), he shewed that side toward 
us clean, shirt and all untouched with flame. Yet in all 
this torment he forgot not to call unto God still, having 
in his mouth, " Lord, have mercy upon me," intermingling 
his cry, " Let the fire come unto me, I cannot burn." In 
which pangs he laboured till one of the standers-by with 
his bill pulled off the faggots above, and where he saw the 

The death fire flame up, he wrested himself unto that side. And when 

and martyr- l 

ma\° f ^ ie ^ ame touched the gunpowder, he was seen to stir no 
more, but burned on the other side, falling down at Master 
Latimer's feet ; which, some said, happened by reason that 
the chain loosed ; others said, that he fell over the chain by 
reason of the poise of his body, and the weakness of the 
nether limbs. 
k^hearts*' Some said, that before he was like to fall from the stake, 
o^ e „ p ^ lene desired them to hold him to it with their bills. How- 

3X txlc Itial- 

tyrdomof ever ft was ^ sure ]y ft m oved hundreds to tears, in beholding 


the horrible sight ; for I think there was none, that had these two 

& .11 saints. 

not clean exiled all humanity and mercy, which would not 
have lamented to behold the fury of the fire so to rage 
upon their bodies. Signs there were of sorrow on every side. 
Some took it grievously to see their deaths, whose lives they 
held full dear: some pitied their persons, that thought their 
souls had no need thereof. His brother moved many men, 
seeing his miserable case, seeing (I say) him compelled to such 
infelicity, that he thought then to do him best service, when 
he hastened his end. Some cried out of the fortune, to see 
his endeavour (who most dearly loved him, and sought his 
release) turn to his greater vexation and increase of pain. 
But whoso considered their preferments in time past, the 
places of honour that they some time occupied in this com- 
monwealth, the favour they were in with their princes, and 
the opinion of learning they had in the university where they 
studied, could not choose but sorrow with tears, to see so 
great dignity, honour, and estimation, so necessary members 
sometime accounted, so many godly virtues, the study of so 
many years, such excellent learning, to be put into the fire, 
and consumed in one moment. Well ! dead they are, and 
the reward of this world they have already. What reward 
remaineth for them in heaven, the day of the Lord's 
glory, when he cometh with his saints, shall shortly, I trust, 









The manner of Dr Ridley's handling in the schools at Ox- 
ford, and of the impudent, spiteful, and cruel dealing of 
the papists : which he set before his disputation by way 
of a preface 1 . 

I never yet in all my life saw or heard any thing done 
or handled more vainly or tumultuously, than the disputation 
which was had with me of late in the schools at Oxford. 
And surely I could never have thought, that it had been 
possible to have found any within this realm, being of any 
knowledge, learning, and ancient degree of school, so brazen- 
faced and so shameless, as to behave themselves so vainly 
and so like stage-players, as they did in that disputation. 

The Sorbonical clamours which at Paris (when popery 
most reigned,) I in times past have seen, might be worthily 
thought, in comparison of this thrasonical and glorious os- 
tentation, to have had much modesty. Howbeit it was not 
to be wondered at, for that they which should there have 
been moderators and rulers of others, and which should have 
given a good example in word, gravity, &c. as Paul teacheth, i Tim. iv. 
gave worst example of all; and did, as it were, blow the 
trumpet to other, to rail, rage, roar, and cry out. By reason 
whereof, good Christian reader, it is manifest that they never 
sought for any truth, but only for the glory of the world 
and a bragging victory. But, besides the innumerable rail- 
ings, rebukes, and taunts, wherewith I was baited on every 
side, lest our cause, which indeed is God's cause and his 
church's, should also by the false examples of our disputa- 
tions be evil spoken of and slandered to the world, and so 
the verity sustain hurt and hindrance thereby ; I have thought 
good to write my answers myself, that whosoever is desirous 

[} The original Latin will be found prefacing the disputation in 
Appendix. Ed.] 


to know them and the truth withal, may thereby perceive 
those things which were chiefly objected against me, and 
also in effect, what was answered of me to every of them. 
Howbeit, good reader, I confess this to be most true, that 
it is impossible to set forth either all that was (God know- 
eth) tumultuously spoken, and like as of mad men objected 

°. con - of so many, which spake oftentimes huddle 3 , so that one 

' or - could not well hear another; either b all that was answered 

of me briefly to such and so diverse opponents. Moreover, 
a great part of the time appointed for the disputations was 
vainly spent in most contumelious taunts, hissings, clapping 

• intolerable. f hands, and triumphs, more than tolerable even in stage- 
plays, and that in the English tongue, to get the people's 
favour withal. All which things when I with godly grief 
did suffer, and therewithal did openly bewail and witness, 
that that company of learned men, and schools which were 
appointed to grave men and to grave matters, were conta- 
minate and defiled by such foolish and Robinhood pastimes, 
and that they which were the doers of such things, did but 
thereby openly shew their vanity ; I was so far by my such 
humble complaint from doing good, or helping any thing at 

"forced. a j^ fo^ j wag en forced d , what with hissing and shouting, 
and what with authority, to hear such great reproaches and 
slanders uttered against me, as no grave man without blush- 

'by. hig could abide the hearing of the same spoken of e a most 

vile knave against a most wretched ruffian. At the begin- 
ning of the disputation, when I should have confirmed mine 
answer to the first proposition in few words, and that after 
the manner of disputations; before I could make an end 
of my probation, which was not very long, even the doctors 
themselves cried out, "He speaketh blasphemies, blasphe- 
mies, blasphemies. 11 And when I on my knees most humbly 
and heartily besought them, that they would vouchsafe to 
hear me to the end, whereat the prolocutor (something moved, 
as it seemed) cried out, " Let him read it, let him read it ; ^ 
yet when I again began to read it, there was by and by such 
a cry and noise, " Blasphemies, blasphemies, 11 as I (to my re- 
membrance) never heard or read the like, except it be one 
which was in the Acts of the Apostles stirred up of Deme- 
trius the silversmith, and others of his occupation, crying 


out against Paul, "Great is Diana of the Ephesians, great 
is Diana of the Ephesians;" and except it were a certain 
disputation which the Arians had against the Orthodox, and 
such as were of godly judgment in Africa, where it is said, 
that such as the presidents and rulers of the disputation 
were, such was also the end of the disputation, all was 
done in hurlyburly, and the slanders of the Arians were so 
outrageous that nothing could quietly be heard. So writeth 
Victor in the second book of his history. And thus the 
cries and tumults of these men against me now so prevailed, 
that, whether I would or no, I was enforced to leave off the 
reading of my probations, although they were but short. And 
of the truth hereof I have all those that were present, being 
of any discretion or honesty, to be my witnesses. But hereof 
will I cease to complain any further 1 . 

Know, gentle reader, that master Prolocutor did pro- 
mise me in the disputations publicly, that I should see mine 
answers, how they were collected and gathered of the no- 
taries, and that I should have licence to add or diminish, to 
alter or change afterwards, as I should think best would 
make for me to the answering of the propositions. He pro- 
mised moreover publicly, that I should have both time and 
place for me to bring in frankly all that I could for the 
confirmation of mine answers. Now when he had promised 
all these things openly, in the hearing of other commission- 
ers and of the whole University of Oxford, yet, good reader, 
mark this, that in very deed he performed nothing of all 
that he promised : what faith then shall a man look to find 
at such judges' hands in the secret mysteries of God, which 
in their promises so openly made, and so duly debt/ (I / owing 
will not speak of the witnesses of the matter,) are found to 
be so faithless both to God and man? Well, I will leave 
it to the judgment of the wise. 

And now, for that is left for us to do, let us pray that God 
would have mercy on his Church of England ; that yet once, 

P Coverdale, from whom this account is reprinted, divides it at 
this passage into two portions, and places each separately among 
Ridley's letters, at the same time apologizing for the division, and 
stating that it ought not to have been made. See Coverdale's Letters 
of the Reformers, fol. 112. Ed. 1564. Ed.] 



when it shall be his good pleasure, it may clearly see and 
greedily embrace, in the faith of Jesus Christ, the will of 
the heavenly Father; and that, of his infinite mercy, he 
would either turn to him the raging and ravening wolves, 
and most subtle seducers of his people, which are by them 
sor - altogether spoiled and bewitched, either 8 that of his most 

righteous judgment he would drive these faithless feeders 
from his flock, that they may no more be able to trouble 
and scatter abroad Christ's sheep from their shepherd — and 
that speedily. Amen, amen. And let every one that hath 
the Spirit (as St John saith) say, Amen. 

Yet further know thou, that when Master Prolocutor did 

put forth three propositions, he did command us to answer 

particularly to them all. After our answers neither he nor 

his fellows did ever enter into any disputation of any one of 

them, saving only of the first. Yea, when that he had 

asked us, after disputations of the first, (as ye have heard 

for my part,) whether we would subscribe to the whole in 

such sort, form, and words as there are set forth, without 

'■refased. further disputation, (which thing we denied' 1 ) by and by he 

gave sentence against us all ; that is, against me, Dr Cranmer, 

and Mr Latimer, my most dear fathers and brethren in Christ ; 

condemning us for heinous heretics concerning every of these 

propositions ; and so separated us one from another, sending 

us severally into sundry and diverse houses, to be kept most 

secretly till the day of our burning ; and as before, so still 

commanded, that all and every one of our servants should 

be kept from us; whereto he added that at his departure 

thence, pen, ink, and paper should depart from us also. 

heretha" 611 ' But thanks be to God, that gave me to write this before 

fraltfufre- the use of such things were utterly taken away. Almighty 

disputation Cod, which beholdeth the causes of the afflicted, and is wont 

which °he' to loose and look mercifully on the bonds and groanings 

hf s n ovvn W1 1 of the captives, he vouchsafe now to look upon the causes 

of his poor church in England, and, of his great wisdom 

and unspeakable mercy, with speed to make an end of our 

misery ! Amen, amen, amen. 







Forasmuch, good reader, as our adversaries, that is the 
Romish Catholics, as Lindanus 1 , Pighius, Gardiner, with others 
more, are wont so greatly to charge us with dissension and 
repugnance among ourselves; for the same cause I have 
thought good, especially having here in hand the story of 
Winchester, to set forth to the eyes of men a brief treatise 
of Dr Ridley, wherein, as in a glass, you may see, and that 
by his own words and in his own works, the manifest con- 
trariety and repugnance of the said Winchester: first, with 
other writers; secondly, with himself, in the matter of the 
sacrament; thirdly, herein thou mayest see and understand 
how far and wherein not only he disagreeth from his own 
profession, but also granteth and agreeth with sundry of our 
assertions in the said matter; as by reading thereof thou 
mayest see and perceive more at large. 

"Other Catholics say, that the body of Christ is made 
of bread. Thomas vult, em pane, non de pane, parte tertia 2 ; 
Winchester saith, that the body of Christ is not made of 
the matter of bread, nor ever was so taught, but is made 
present of bread 3 . 

[} The following may be mentioned as a specimen of such writings : 
"De M. Lutheri et aliorum sectariorum varietate opuscula; item Guil. 
Lindani hereseon tabulae ;" Colonise, 1579. Ed.] 

[* The second references within brackets thus ( — ) refer to Cran- 
mer's works, Ed. Oxon. by the Rev. Henry Jenkyns, M.A. 1833. Ed.] 

2 Quest. 75, art. 8. 

[ 3 P. 72, 1. 14; and p. 178, 1. 10, (vol. iii. p. 145, 303.) Ed.] 



Confutation of Winchester against Cranmer. 

2. Winchester saith, that Christ called bread his body, 
when he said, "This is my body 1 ." And in the Devil's 
Sophistry 2 . Others say contrary 3 . 

Winchester saith, that "bread is my body," is as much 
as to say, "bread is made my body." And so he taketh 
est for fit". Others say that est is taken there sub- 
stantively, that is to say, only for "is," and not for "is 
made 5 ." 

Winchester saith, that " Christ is present in the sacrament 
carnally and corporally, after the same signification that he 
is in heaven ." 

3. Winchester saith also, that when we speak of Christ's 
body, we must understand a true body which hath both 
form and quantity 7 . Smith saith, that Christ's body in the 
sacrament hath not its proper form and quantity, fol. 106. 
And the contrary he saith, fol. 105 8 . 

4. Winchester saith, we believe simply that Christ is 
naturally and corporally in the sacrament without drawing 
away his accidents, or adding 9 . Smith saith, we say that 
Christ's body is in the sacrament against nature, with all 
its qualities and accidents 10 . 

5. Winchester saith, that God's works be all seemli- 
ness without confusion, although he cannot locally distinguish 
Christ's head from his feet, nor his legs from his arms 11 - 
Others say, that Christ's head and feet, and other parts, be 
not indeed locally distinct in the sacrament, but be so con- 
founded, that wheresoever one is, there be all the rest. 

6. Winchester saith, that Christ's body is in the sacra- 

[} P. 257, 1. 27, (vol. iii. p. 369.) 

2 And in the Devil's Sophistry, fol. 27. 

3 See Smith, fol. 53. 

4 P. 295, 1. 35, (vol. iii. p. 425.) Confutation. 

5 Marc. Anton, fol. 171, fac. 2. 

6 P. 141, 1. 6, (vol. iii. p. 213.) Confutation. 

7 P. 71, 1. 37, (vol. iii. p. 132.) 

8 Chedsey in disputatione cum Petro Mart. 

9 P. 353, 1. 1, (vol. iii. p. 502.) 

10 Fol. 105. 

11 P. 70, 1. 27, (vol. iii. p. 115.) Confutation. Ed.] 


ment sensibly, naturally, carnally, and corporally 12 . Others say 
contrary 13 . 

7. Others say, that Christ's feet in the sacrament be 
there where his head is. Winchester saith, that whosoever 
saith so, may be called mad 14 . 

8. Others say, that corporally Christ goeth into the 
mouth or stomach, and no further 15 . He saith contrary 16 . 

9. Winchester saith, that Christ dwelleth corporally in 
him that receiveth the sacrament worthily, so long as he 
remaineth a member of Christ 17 . Others say contrary 18 . 

10. Winchester saith, that no creature can eat the body 
of Christ, but only man 19 . Others say clean contrary : Thomas, 
Hoc derogat, inquit, veritati corporis Christi" . Perin 21 , in 
his sermon of the Sacrament: "What inconvenience is it, 
though the impassible body lie in the mouth or maw of the 
beast," &c. Magister Sententiarum, qui dicit corpus Chrisii 
posse a mure manducari aut a iruto, is condemned 22 . 

11. Winchester saith, that an unrepentant sinner, re- 
ceiving the sacrament, hath not Christ's body nor spirit 
within him 23 . Smith saith, that he hath Christ's body and 
spirit within him 24 . 

12. Winchester saith, that of the figure it may not be 
said, " Adore it, worship it ; 11 and that it is not to be adored 

[ 12 P. 159, 1. 9, (vol. iii. p. 240.) Confutation. 

13 Smith, fol. 39. 

14 P. 61, 1. 34, (vol. iii. p. 115.) Confutation. 

15 BonaventurcV Hugo, Innocent, 3, lib. iv. cap. 15. Glos. de con- 
secrat. dist. 2, cap. "tribus", et in glos. "non iste". Thorn. Parte 3, 
quaest. 80, art. 3. "Tamdiu manet duni est in digestione." Smith, 
fol. 64. 

10 P. 52, 1. 30, (vol. iii. p. 99.) Confutation. 

" P. 53, 1. 1 ; p. 56, 1. 31, (vol. iii. p. 106.) Confutation. 

18 Smith, fol. 64. 

19 P. 66, 1. 30, (vol. iii. p. 123.) Confutation. 

20 Part 3, q. 8, art. 3. 

21 "Three godly and notable Sermons, by W- Peryn. Imprynted 
by Nicolas Hyll;" 8vo. London. 1546. See Dibdin's Typographical 
Antiquities, 4. 230. 

22 " A mouse may eat Christ's body," saith the Master of the Sen- 
tences. " A mouse cannot eat it," saith Winchester. 

23 P. 225, 1. 36, (vol. iii. p. 328.) 

24 Fol. 136. "Within him," that is, within his soul. En.] 


which the bodily eye seeth 1 : Docetur populus non adorare 
quod mdent oculis corporis. Smith saith contrary 3 . 

13. Winchester saith, that reason will agree with the 
doctrine of transubstantiation well enough 3 . Smith saith that 
transubstantiation is against reason and natural operation 4 . 

14. Others say, that worms in the sacrament be gen- 
dered of accidents : Ex speciebus sacramentalibus generentur 
vermes''. Winchester saith, that they be wrong borne in 
hand to say so 6 . 

15. Winchester saith, that the accidents of bread and 
wine do mould, sour, and wax vinegar 7 But he answereth 
so confusedly, that the reader cannot understand him, be he 
never so attentive. Smith saith, " Thus I say, that the con- 
secrated wine turneth not into vinegar, nor the consecrated 
bread mouldeth, nor engendereth worms, nor is burned, nor 
receiveth into it any poison, as long as Christ's body and 
blood are under the forms of them, which do abide there 
so long as the natural qualities and properties of bread and 
wine tarry there in their natural disposition and condition; 
and the bread and wine might be naturally there, if they 
had not been changed into Christ's body and blood, and 
also as long as the host and consecrated wine are apt to 
be received of man, and no longer, but go and depart thence 
by God's power, as it pleaseth him ; and then a new sub- 
stance is made of God, which turneth into vinegar, engen- 
dereth worms, mouldeth, is burned, feedeth rats and mice, 
receiveth poison 8 ," &c. 

16. Winchester saith, "Every 'yea' containeth a 'nay' 
in it naturally : so as whosoever saith, this is bread, saith 
it is no wine. For in the rule of common reason the grant 
of one substance is the denial of another. And therefore 
reason hath these conclusions thoroughly ; whatsoever is bread 

C 1 P. 178, 1. 40; p.339, 1. 32, (vol. iii. p. 269;) Marc. Anton, fol. 136, fac. 2. 

2 Fol. 145, fac. 2. 

3 P. 264, 1. 47, (vol. iii. p. 382.) Confutation. 

4 Fol. 60. 

5 Thom. par. 3, q. 77, art. 5. 

P. 355, 1. 3, (vol. iii. p. 505.) Confutation. 

7 P. 265, 1. 11 ; p. 355, 1. 8, (vol. iii. p. 182.) Confutation, et 
Marc. Ant. fol. 168, fac. 1. 

8 Fol. 64, and fol. 105. Ed.] 

on the lord's supper. 811 

is no wine ; whatsoever is wine, is no milk ; and so forth." 
So Christ saying, This is my body, saith, It is no bread !> 
Smith saith, that a boy which hath only learned sophistry, 
will not dispute so fondly 10 . 

17. Others say, that the mass is a sacrifice satisfac- 
tory by the devotion of the priest and of them for whom 
it is offered, and not by the thing that is offered 11 . Win- 
chester saith otherwise 13 . 

18. Winchester saith, that the only immolation of Christ 
in himself upon the altar of the cross, is the very satisfac- 
tory sacrifice for the reconciliation of mankind unto the fa- 
vour of God 13 . Smith saith, " What is it to offer Christ's 
body and blood at mass, to purchase thereby everlasting life, 
if the mass be not a sacrifice to pacify God's wrath from 
sin, and to obtain his mercy 14 ?" Where he saith further, 
" Priests do offer for our salvation to get heaven, and to 
avoid hell." 

Matters wherein Bishop Gardiner varieth from himself. 

" The body of Christ in the sacrament is not made of First pro- 
bread, but is made present of bread 15 ." 

" Of bread is made the body of Christ 16 ." Contratiic- 

'■ The Catholic faith hath from the beginning confessed 
truly Christ's intent to make bread his body ir ." 

" And of many breads is made one body of Christ 18 ." 

" And faith sheweth me, that bread is the body of Christ, 
.that is to say, made the body of Christ 19 ." 

" Christ gave that he made of bread 20 ." 

"Christ spake plainly, 'This is my body,' making v de- second pro- 
monstration of the bread, when he said, ' This is my body 21 . 1 " 

[ 9 P. 256, 1. 38; p. 265, 1. 5, (vol. iii. p. 3G9.) 

Fol. 77- u Thorn, par. 3, 9, 79, art. 5, 

P. 80, 1. 43, (vol. iii. p. 150.) Confutation. 

P. 437, 1. 1, (vol. iii. p. 543.) M Fol. 24, 148, 164, 

P 76, 1. 6, (vol. iii. p. 145, 303.) Confutation. 

P. 344, 1. 8, (vol. iii. p. 488.) 

P. 26, 1. 40, (vol. iii. p. 72.) Confutation. 

P. 144, 1. 23, (vol.'iii. p. 217.) Confutation. 

P. 295, 1. 30, (vol. iii. p. 425.) Confutation. 

P. 257, 1. 50, (vol. iii. p. 371. ) 31 In the Devil's Sophistry, 27. Ed.] 



"The demonstration, 'this,' may be referred to the in- 
visible substance 1 " 

contra- "The verb 'is' was of his body and of his blood, and 

not of the bread and wine 2 ." 

Third pro- " HUs verbis, ' Hoc est corpus meum, 1 substantia corporis 

position. . r . 

sigmjicatur, nee de pane quicquam zntettigitur, quanao cor- 
pus de substantia sua, non aliena, prwdicetur 3 ." "When 
Christ said, ' This is my body, 1 the truth of the literal sense 
hath an absurdity in carnal reason 4 . - " 

" What can be more evidently spoken of the presence 
of Christ's natural body and blood in the most blessed sa- 
crament of the altar, than is in these words, ' This is my 
body 5 * 1 " 
Fourth pro- " Where the body of Christ is, there is whole Christ, 

position. ^ 

God and Man ; and when we speak of Christ's body, we 

must understand a true body, which hath both form and 

quantity 6 .'" 

"And he is present in the sacrament, as he is in 

heaven 7 . 1 ' 

" We believe simply the substance of Christ's body to 

be in the sacrament, without drawing away of the accidents, 

or adding 8 ." 
diction" " Ch" 15 *' ^ s no ^ present in the sacrament after the man- 

ner of quantity, but under the form and quantities of bread 

and wine 9 . 11 
position?" " ^ n sucn as rece i ye * ne sacrament worthily, Christ dwell- 

eth corporally, and naturally, and carnally 10 . 11 
Sctton" " ^e manner °f Christ's being in the sacrament is not 

corporal, not carnal, not natural, not sensible, not perceptible, 

but only spiritual 11 ." 

Q 1 P. 106, 1. 42, (vol. iii. p. 178.) Confutation. 
2 P. 251, 1. 8, (vol. iii. p. 364.) 
s Mar. Anton, fol. 24, fac. 2. 

4 P. 138, 1. 19, (vol. iii. p. 210.) Confutation. 

5 In the Devil's Sophistry, fol. 51. 

P. 71, 1. 47, (vol. iii. p. 1 32.) Mar. Anton, object. 77- Smith, fol. 105. 

7 P. 141, 1. 6, (vol. iii. p. 213, &c.) Confutation. 

8 P. 353, 1. 1, (vol. iii. p. 502.) Confutation. 

9 P. 71, 1. 50; p. 90, 1. 43, (vol. iii. p. 132.) 

10 P. 166, 1. 19; p. 173, 1. 54; p. 191, 1. 47, (vol. iii. pp. 251. 262,287.) 

11 P. 159,1. 17; p. 197, 1.32, (vol. iii. pp. 241, 295.) Confutation. EdJ 



"We receive Christ in the sacrament of his flesh and sixth pro- 

blood, if we receive him worthily 12 .'' 

" When an unrepentant sinner receiveth the sacrament, 
he hath not Christ's body within him 13 .'" 

" He that eateth verily the flesh of Christ, is by nature 

in Christ, and Christ is naturally in him 14 . 1 ' 

" An evil man in the sacrament receiveth indeed Christ's contra- 

very body 15 ." 

"Evil men eat verily the flesh of Christ 10 .'" 

" Christ giveth us to be eaten the same flesh that he seventh pro- 

° > # position. 

took of the Virgin Mary 17 . 11 

" We receive not in the sacrament Christ's flesh that 
was crucified 18 ." 

" St Augustine's rule in his book, De Doctrina Chris- Eigw.ii pro- 
tiana, pertaineth not to Christ's Supper 13 ." p0S1 lon * 

" St Augustine meaneth of the sacrament 20 ." 

" Reason in the place of service (as being inferior to faith) Ninth pro- 
will agree with the faith of transubstantiation well enough 21 ." p0bl 10n " 

" And as reason received into faith's service doth not strive contra- 
with transubstantiation, but agreeth well with it, so men's 
senses be not such direct adversaries to transubstantiation, 
as a matter whereof they cannot skill; for the senses can- 
not skill of substances 22 ." 

" Thine eyes say, there is but bread and wine ; thy taste 
saith the same; thy feeling and smelling agree fully with 
them. Hereunto is added the carnal man's understanding, 
which, because it taketh the beginning of the senses, pro- 
ceedeth in reasoning sensually 23 ." 

" The church hath not forborne to preach the truth, to 
the confusion of man's senses and understanding 24 ." 

[ 12 P. 167, 1. 0; p. 174, 1. 1, (vol. iii. p. 252, 262.) Confutation. 

13 P. 225, 1. 43, (vol. iii. p. 328.) Confutation. 

14 P. 17, 1. 38, (vol. iii. p. 62.) Confutation. 10 Ibid. 
1C P. 225, 1. 47, (vol. iii. p. 328.) Confutation. 

17 P. 241, 1. 27, (vol. iii. p. 348.) 

15 P. 243, 1. 16, (vol. iii. p. 351.) Confutation. 

19 P. 117, 1. 21, (vol. iii. p. 190.) 

20 P. 119, 1. 24, (vol. iii. p. 194.) Confutation. 

21 P. 265, 1. 1, (vol. iii. p. 382.) Confutation. 

22 P. 271, 1. 24, (vol. iii. p. 391.) 

23 In the Devil's Sophistry, fol. 6. u Fol. 15. Ed.] 


Tenth "It is called bread, because of the outward visible 


matter ." 
contra- " When it is called bread, it is meant Christ, the spi- 

diction. . „ „ 

ritual bread'." 
Eleventh " And the catholic faith teacheth, that the fraction is in 


the outward sign, and not in the body of Christ 3 ." 
contra- " That which is broken is the body of Christ 4 ." 

diction. J 

Twelfth "The inward nature of the bread is the substance 5 ." 


contra- " Substance signifieth in Theodoret," he saith, "the out- 

ward nature ." 
Thirteenth a The substances of bread and wine be visible creatures 7 " 


SiSion " Accidents be the visible natures, and visible elements 8 " 

proposMon " Christ is our satisfaction wholly and fully, and hath paid 

our whole debt to God the Father for the appeasing of his 

wrath against us 9 ." 

diction " ^ ie ac ^ °f *^ e P r i es *> done according to God's com- 

mandment, must needs be propitiatory, and ought to be 
trusted on, to have a propitiatory effect 10 ." 

Fourteenth " The sacrifice of our Saviour Christ was never reiterate u " 


contra- " Priests do sacrifice Christ 12 ." 


" And the catholic doctrine teacheth the daily sacrifice 
to be the same in essence, that was offered on the cross 13 ." 
Fifteenth " The Nestorians granted both the Godhead and Man- 

proposition. ° 

hood always to be in Christ continually 14 ." 
diction. " The Nestorians denied Christ conceived God, or born 

God, but that he was afterward God; as a man that is not 
born a bishop, is after made a bishop. So the Nestorians 
said, that the Godhead was an accession after by merit, and 
that he was conceived only Man 15 ." 
proposition. "Christ useth us as familiarly as he did his apostles 16 ." 
diction" " Christ is not said to be conversant in earth 17 ." 

C 1 P. 392. 3 P. 284, 1. 25, (vol. iii. p. 411.) 

3 P. 144, 1. 39; p. 348, 1. 21, (vol. iii. p. 218,) and in the Devil's 
Sophistry, fol. 17. 4 P. 348, 1. 18, (vol. iii. p. 494.) 

5 P. 348, 1. 18, (vol. iii. p. 494.) ° P. 359, 1. 22, (vol. iii. p. 511.) 

7 P. 285, 1. 48; p. 28G, 1. 44, (vol. iii. p. 414.) 

8 P. 363, 1. 39, (vol. iii. p. 518.) 9 P. 81, 1. 39, (vol. iii. p. 150.) 
10 P. 387, 1. 13, (vol. iii. p. 542.) " P. 368, 1. 46, (vol. iii. p. 529.) 
12 P. 381, 1. 42, (vol. iii. p. 583.) ]3 P. 436, 1. 11, (vol. iii. p. 541.) 
14 P. 309, 1. 18, (vol. iii. p. 447.) 15 P. 309, 1. 12, (vol. iii. p. 449.) 
16 P. 83, 1. 54, (vol. iii. p. 152.) * P.101,1.16,(vol.iii.p.l73.) Ed.] 


Certain things that Bishop Gardiner granted unto. 

" Christ declared eating of himself to signify believing 18 . 11 ^arin<? e " 
" Christ must be spiritually in man, before he receive the ^Chester 
sacrament ; or else he cannot receive the sacrament wor- f^rituai* 

+Viilv 19 " use of the 

uiiry . sacrament. 

"How Christ is present 20 . 11 

"By faith we know only the being present of Christ's 
most precious body ; not the manner thereof 21 . 11 

" When we speak of Christ's body, we must understand 
a true body, which hath both form and quantity 22 . 11 

"Although Christ's body have all those truths of form 
and quantity, yet it is not present after the manner of 
quantity 23 . 1 ' 

"The demonstrative 'this 1 may be referred to the in- 
visible substance 2411 

" All the old prayers and ceremonies sound, as though 
the people did communicate with the priest' 25 ." 

" The manner of Christ's being in the sacrament is not 
corporal nor carnal ; not natural, not sensible, not percepti- 
ble, but only spiritual 2 "." 

" When the unrepentant sinner receiveth the sacrament, 
he hath not Christ's body within him 27 ." 

" We eat not Christ as he sitteth in heaven reigning 28 .' 1 

" The word ' transubstantiation 1 was first spoken of in a T j" an /^- 

1 stantiation 

general council, where the bishop of Borne was present 2 *." first spoken 

" In the sacrifice of the church Christ's death is not 
iterated, but a memory daily renewed of that death ; so that 
Christ's offering on the cross, once done and consummate, is 
now only remembered 30 ." 

[ 13 P. 27, 1. 7, (vol. iii. p. 72.) Confutation. 

19 P. 48, 1. 46 j p. 140, 1. ult.; p. 172, 1. 28, (vol. iii. p. 94.) 

20 P. 61, 1. 10 j p. 71, 1. 41; p. 90, 1. 44; p. 57, 1. 17; p. 197, 1. 30, 
(vol. iii. p. 114.) 

21 P. 61, 1. 43, (vol. iii. p. 114.) 
33 Ibid. 

23 P. 71, 1. 34, (vol. iii. p. 132.) 

24 P. 106, 1. 44, (vol. iii. p. 178.) M P. 145, 1. 90, (vol. iii. p. 219.) 
20 P. 159, 1. 17; p. 197, 1. 32, (vol. iii. pp. 241, 295.) 

, w P. 225, 1. 43, (vol. iii. p. 328.) * P. 243, 1. 32, (vol. iii. p. 351.) 
29 P. 250, 1. 28, (vol. iii. p. 363.) 30 P.391, 1.5, (vol. iii.p. 549.) Ed.] 



"Tins winter (1548), there was a Committee of selected 
bishops and divines appointed for examining all the offices 
of the Church, and for reforming them. Some had been in 
King Henry's time employed in the same business, in which 
they had made a good progress, which was now to be brought 
to a full perfection. Therefore the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury and York, the Bishops of London, Durham, Worcester, 
Norwich, St Asaph, Salisbury, Coventry and Lichfield, Car- 
lisle, Bristol, St David's, Ely, Lincoln, Chichester, Hereford, 
Westminster and Bochester, with Doctors Cox, May, Taylor, 
Heins, Robertson and Redmayne were appointed to examine 
all the offices of the Church, and to consider how far any of 
them needed amendment." " The thing they first examined 
was the sacrament of the Eucharist." — " Cranmer's hand is 
over every one of them (the answers) marking the name of 
the bishop to whom they belonged 1 ." 

Burnet, Hist, of the Reformation, Ed. 1816, 
Ox. vol. ii. part i. pp. 113, 114, 11 5. 

Question 1 . 
Question. Whether the sacrament of the Altar was instituted to 

be received of one man for another, or to be received of 
every man for himself? 

Of every man for himself. 

Question 2. 

Question. Whether the receiving of the said sacrament of one man, 

doth avail and profit any other? 

Answer. n — fo^ as the receipt of wholesome doctrine, the re- 

ceipt of the fear of God, the receipt of any godly gift, that 
is profitable to any one member of Christ's mystical body, 
may be said generally to profit the whole body, because there 

[} The answers of Ridley have been extracted and are here published 
with the questions, separately. Ed.] 


is a mystical communion and a spiritual participation amongst 
all the members of Christ in all godliness, as there is in the 
natural body a natural participation of all natural affections 
both good and evil. 

Question 3. 

What is the oblation and sacrifice of Christ in the mass ? Question. 

The representation and commemoration of Christ's death Answer. 
and passion, said and done in the mass, is called the sa- 
crifice, oblation or immolation of Christ : non rei veritate 
(as learned men do write) sed significandi mysterio. 

Question 4. 

Wherein consisteth the mass by Christ's institution? Question. 

1 am not able to say that the mass consisteth by Christ's Answer. 
institution in other things than in those which be set forth 
by the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke, in the Acts, 
and in 1 Cor. x. xi. 

Question 5. 

What time the accustomed order began in the Church, Question. 
that the priest alone should receive the sacrament? 

Because the Scripture saith, Panis quern frangimus nonne Answer. 
communicatio corporis est, &c. likewise de chalice cui le- 
nedicimus, and also, oibite ex eo omnes: and the Canons 
said to be of the Apostles, 10 and 11. and of the Anti- 
ochian council can. 2. Anacletus in an epistle commandeth 
the sacrament to be received of more than the priest alone : 
Dyonise also declareth the same, and long after, Chrysostom : 
St Ambrose and St Augustine both complain of the slack- 
ness of some, and earnestly exhort the people to the receipt 
thereof: therefore I suppose that custom, that the priest 
should receive it alone where it was celebrated openly, was 
not received in the Church of Christ by the space of four 
or five hundred years at least after Christ. 

Question 6. 

Whether it be convenient that the same custom continue Question, 
still within this realm? 

I suppose it were best that the custom should be re- Answer. 


formed unto the rule of Scripture, and unto the pattern of 
the primitive church. 

Question 7 

Question. Whether it be convenient that masses satisfactory should 

continue, that is to say, priests hired to sing for souls de- 
parted ? 

Answer. That masses satisfactory should continue to be sung for 

souls departed by priests hired thereunto, I think it not 

Question 8. 

Question. Whether the gospel ought to be taught at the time of 

the mass to the understanding of the people being present? 

Answer. The Annunciation of Christ's death and passion, and the 

benefit of the same, that [is] the forgiveness of sins to all 
the true and faithful believers therein, ought evermore to be 
set forth in the mass to the edification of the people, which 
thing cannot be done according to St Paul's mind and 
meaning, 1 Cor. xiv. as I suppose, except it be set forth 
to the people's understanding. 

Question 9. 

Question. Whether in the mass it were convenient to use such 

speech as the people may understand? 

Answer. j think it not only convenient that such speech should 

be used in the mass as the people might understand, but 
also to speak it with such an audible voice that the people 
might hear it, that they be not defrauded of their own, 
which St Paul teacheth to belong to them, and also that 
they may answer, as Cyprian saith the people did in his 
days, " Habemus ad Dominiumi? Nevertheless as concerneth 
that part which pertaineth to the consecration, Dyonise and 
Basil move me to think it no inconvenience that [that] part 
should be spoken in silence. 

Question 10. 

Question. When the reservation of the sacrament and the hanging 

up of the same first began? 
Answer. N answer of Ridley's to this query has been preserved. 







LONDON, A.D. 1550. 

First, That there be no reading of such injunctions as 
extolleth and setteth forth the popish mass, candles, images, 
chauntries ; neither that there be used arty superaltaries, or 
trentals of communions. 

Item. That no minister do counterfeit the popish mass, 
in kissing the Lord's board; washing his hands or fingers 
after the gospel, or the receipt of the holy communion ; 
shifting the book from one place to another; laying down 
and licking the chalice after the communion ; blessing his 
eyes with the sudarie thereof, or paten, or crossing his 
head with the same, holding his fore-fingers and thumbs 
joined together toward the temples of his head, after the re- 
ceiving of the sacrament ; breathing on the bread, or chalice ; 
saying the Agnus before the communion; shewing the sacra- 
ment openly before the distribution, or making any elevation 
thereof; ringing of the sacrying bell, or setting any light 
upon the Lord's board. And finally, that the minister, in 
the time of the holy communion, do use only the ceremonies 
and gestures appointed by the Book of Common Prayer, 
and none other, so that there do not appear in them any 
counterfeiting of the popish mass. 

Item. That none be admitted to receive the holy commu- 
nion, but such as will, upon request of the curate, be ready 
with meekness and reverence to confess 'the articles of the 

Item. That none make a mart of the holy communion, 
by buying and selling the receipt thereof for money, as the 
popish mass in times past was wont to be. 

Item. Whereas in divers places some use the Lord's board 
after the form of a table, and some of an altar, whereby 


dissension is perceived to arise among the unlearned; there- 
fore wishing a godly unity to be observed in all our dio- 
cese, and for that the form of a table may more move and 
turn the simple from the old superstitious opinions of the 
popish mass, and to the right use of the Lord's supper, we 
exhort the curates, church-wardens, and questmen here pre- 
sent, to erect and set up the Lord's board after the form 
of an honest table, decently covered, in such place of the 
quire or chancel, as shall be thought most meet by their 
discretion and agreement, so that the ministers, with the com- 
municants, may have their place separated from the rest 
of the people ; and to take down and abolish all other by- 
altars or tables. 

Item. That the minister, in the time of the communion, 
immediately after the offertory, shall monish the communi- 
cants, saying these words, or such-like, " Now is the time, if 
it please you, to remember the poor men's chest with your 
charitable alms." 

Item. That the Homilies be read orderly, without omis- 
sion of any part thereof. 

Item. The common prayer be had in every church upon 
Wednesdays and Fridays, according to the king's grace's 
ordinance ; and that all such as conveniently may, shall 
diligently resort to the same. 

Item. That every curate be diligent to teach the Catechism, 
whensoever just occasion is offered, upon the Sunday or 
holy-day, and at least every six weeks once shall call upon 
his parishioners, and present himself ready to instruct and 
examine the youth of the same parish, according to the book 
of service touching the same. 

Item. That none maintain purgatory, invocation of saints, 
the six articles, beadrolls, images, reliques, rubrick primars, 
with invocation of saints, justification of man by his own 
works, holy bread, palms, ashes, candles, sepulchre paschal, 
creeping to the cross, hallowing of the fire or altar, or any 
other such like abuses and superstitions, now taken away 
by the king's grace's most godly proceedings 1 . 

Item. That all ministers do move the people to often and 
worthy receiving of the holy communion. 

[} For Gardiner's opinion of Ridley's proceedings, see Appendix IV,] 



Item. That every minister do move his parishioners to 
come diligently to the church ; and when they come, not to 
talk, or walk, in the sermon, communion, or divine service- 
time, but rather at the same to behave themselves reverently, 
godly, and devoutly in the church ; and that they also monish 
the churchwardens to be diligent overseers in that behalf. 

Item. That the churchwardens do not permit any buy- 
ing, selling, gaming, outrageous noise or tumult, or any 
other idle occupying of youth in the church, church-porch, 
or church-yard, during the time of common prayer, sermon, 
or reading of the homily. 

Item. That no persons^ use to minister the sacraments, 
or in open audience of the congregation presume to expound 
the holy scriptures, or to preach, before they be first law- 
fully called and authorised in that behalf. 

God save the king. 


("I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the [Rom.i..i6.] 
power of God unto salvation, to every one that believeth." 

Certain reasons why the reverend father, Nicholas, bishop 
of London, amongst other his injunctions given in his late 
visitation, did exhort those churches in his diocese, where 
the altars, as then, did remain, to conform themselves to 
those other churches which had taken them down, and had 
set up, instead of the multitude of their altars, one decent 
table in every church. And that herein he did not only 
not any thing contrary unto the Book of Common Prayer, 
or to the king's majesty's proceedings 2 , but that he was in- 
duced to do the same, partly moved by his office and duty, 
wherewith he is charged in the same book, and partly for 
the advancement and sincere setting forward of God's holy 
word, and the king's majesty's most godly proceedings 3 ). 

p Fox, Acts and Monuments, Edition 1563, p. 727. Ed.] 
[ 3 See Appendix VI.] 



First Reason. 

The form of a table shall more move the simple from 
the superstitious opinions of the popish mass, unto the right 
use of the Lord's Supper. For the use of an altar is to 
make sacrifice upon it ; the use of a table is to serve for 
men to eat upon. Now, when we come unto the Lord's 
board, what do we come for? to sacrifice Christ again, and 
to crucify him again, or to feed upon him that was once 
only crucified and offered up for us? If we come to feed 
upon him, spiritually to eat his body, and spiritually to 
drink his blood (which is the true use of the Lord's Sup- 
per), then no man can deny but the form of a table is 
more meet for the Lord's board, than the form of an altar. 

Second Reason. 
Answer to Whereas it is said, ' The Book of Common Prayer 

certain ea- ' •> 

yiiiers who maketh mention of an altar ; wherefore it is not lawful to 

take hold ot ' 

«aitar™n a ^°^ sn * nat which the book alloweth:' to this it is thus 

i)ook ins ' s answered: The Book of Common Prayer calleth the thing 

table may wnereu po n the Lord's Supper is ministered indifferently a 

aTtar'. 116 ' 1 an table, an altar, or the Lord's board ; without prescription of 

any form thereof, either of a table or of an altar : so that 

whether the Lord's board have the form of an altar, or of 

a table, the Book of Common Prayer calleth it both an 

altar and a table. For as it calleth it an altar, whereupon 

the Lord's Supper is ministered, a table, and the Lord's 

board, so it calleth the table, where the holy communion 

is distributed with lauds and thanksgiving unto the Lord, 

an altar, for that there is offered the same sacrifice of 

praise and thanksgiving. And thus it appeareth, that here 

is nothing either said or meant contrary to the Book of 

Common Prayer. 

Third Reason. 

The popish opinion of mass was, that it might not be 
celebrated but upon an altar, or at the least upon a super- 
altar, to supply the fault of the altar, which must have had 
its prints and characters ; or else it was thought that the 
thing was not lawfully done. But this superstitious opinion 


is more holden in the minds of the simple arid ignorant This reason 

for tslciiiET 

by the form of an altar, than of a table; wherefore it i& away the 

. . supersti- 

more meet, for the abolishment of this superstitious opinion, tious 

x opinion 

to have the Lord's board after the form of a table, than servetu also 

as well for 

of an altar. abolishing 

other things 
Fourth BeaSOn. altars, &c. 

The form of an altar was ordained for the sacrifices of the The name of 

/\ r an altar, 

law, and therefore the altar in Greek is called ovaiaGTjjpiov, how deri- 
qitasi sacrificii locus. But now both the law and the 
sacrifices thereof do cease : wherefore the form of the altar 
used in the altar ought to cease withal. 

Fifth Season. 

Christ did institute the sacrament of his body and blood aK^nd 
at his last supper at a table, and not at an altar ; as it not an a,tar « 
appeareth manifestly by the three Evangelists. And St 
Paul calleth the coming to the holy communion, the coming 
unto the Lord's Supper. And also it is not read that anyTheaitar 

1 * # •* never used 

of the apostles or the primitive church did ever use any amon f tne 

1 # r # J apostles. 

altar in ministration of the holy communion. 

Wherefore, seeing the form of a table is more agree- 
able to Christ's institution, and with the usage of the 
apostles and of the primitive church, than the form of an 
altar, therefore the form of a table is rather to be used, 
than the form of an altar, in the administration of the 
holy communion. 

Sixth and last reason. 

It is said in the preface of the Book of Common Prayer, 
that if any doubt do arise in the use and practising of the 
same book, to appease all such diversity, the matter shall 
be referred unto the bishop of the diocese, who by his dis- 
cretion shall take order for the quieting and appeasing of 
the same, so that the same order be not contrary unto 
any thing contained in that book. 

(After these letters and reasons received, the fore-named 
Nicholas Bidley, bishop of London, consequently upon the 

21 2 


same did hold his visitation, wherein, amongst other his 
injunctions, the said bishop exhorted those churches in his 
diocese, where the altars did then remain, to conform them- 
selves unto those other churches which had taken them 
down, and had set up, instead of the multitude of their 
Ridley ap- altars, one decent table in every church. Upon the occa- 

pomtedm ' J op 

theri°ht S€ s * on hereof here arose a great diversity about the form of 
taMe° fa ^ ie Lord's hoard, some using it after the form of a table, 
and some of an altar. Wherein when the said bishop was 
required to say and determine what was most meet, he de- 
clared he could do no less of his bounden duty, for the 
appeasing of such diversity, and to procure one godly uni- 
formity, but to exhort all his diocese unto that which he 
thought did best agree with the Scripture, with the usage 
of the apostles, and with the primitive church, and to that 
which is not only not contrary unto any thing contained in 
the Book of Common Prayer (as is before proved), but 
also might highly further the king's most godly proceedings 
in abolishing of divers vain and superstitious opinions of the 
popish mass out of the hearts of the simple, and to bring 
them to the right use, taught by holy Scripture, of the 
Se e hirtt lby Lord's supper. And so appointed he the form of a right 
Paul's 11 St * a ^ e to be used in his diocese, and in the church of Paul 
dow k uby brake down the wall standing then by the high altar's side. 

Ridley. Fqx> ) 



















LETTEE I. (Burnet.) 

To the protector 1 , concerning the visitation of the University 

of Cambridge. 

Eight honourable, 

I wish your grace the holy and wholesome fear of God, 
because I am persuaded your grace's goodness to be such 
unfeignedly, that even wherein your grace's letters doth sore 
blame me, yet in the same the advertisement of the truth 
shall not displease your grace ; and also perceiving that the 
cause of your grace's discontentation was wrong information, 
therefore I shall beseech your grace to give me leave to shew 
your grace, wherein it appeareth to me that your grace is 
wrong informed. 

Your grace's letters blameth me, because I did not (at 
the first, before the visitation began, having knowledge of 
the matter) shew my mind. The truth is, before God, I never 
had, nor could get any fore-knowledge of the matter, of the 
uniting of the two colleges 2 , before we had begun, and had 

P Edward Duke of Somerset. Ed.] 

[ 3 These two Colleges were Clare Hall, of which Dr Madew was 
Master, and Trinity Hall, of which Stephen Gardiner was Master. 
It was intended to unite these two, and to form out of them one 
college of civilians. Clare Hall, however, refused to submit ; and as 
it was then full of Northern men, Ridley, who supported their refusal, 
was thought to have been induced to take this step by his partiality 
for his own countrymen. This visitation took place in May, 1549, at 
which time Robert Rugge -was Chancellor. Ed.] 


entered two days in the visitation ; and that your grace may 
plainly thus well perceive. 

A little before Easter I, being at Bochester, received 
letters from Mr Secretary Smith and the Dean of Paul's, to 
come to the visitation of the University, and to make a sermon 
at the beginning thereof; whereupon I sent immediately a 
servant up to London to the Dean of Paul's, desiring of him 
to have had some knowledge of things there to be done, 
because I thought it meet that my sermon should somewhat 
have savoured of the same. 

From Mr Dean I received a letter, instructing me only, 
that the cause of the visitation was, to abolish statutes and 
ordinances, which maintained papistry, superstition, blindness 
and ignorance ; and to establish and set forth, such as might 
further God's word and good learning; and else, the truth 
is, he would shew me nothing, but bade me be careless, and 
said, there were informations [instructions] how all things 
were for to be done ; the which, I take God to witness, I 
did never see, nor could get knowledge what they were, 
before we were entered in the visitation two days, although 
I desired to have seen them in the beginning. 

Now, when I had seen the instructions, the truth is, I 
thought, peradventure, the master and company would have 
surrendered up their college ; but when their consent, after 
labour and travail taken therein two days, could not be ob- 
tained, and then we began secretly to consult (all the com- 
missioners thinking it best that every man should say his 
mind plainly, that in execution there might appear but one 

thought b' e ' wa y *° ^ e * a ^ en °f a ^) t nere when it was seen to a some, that 
without the consent of the present incumbents, by the king's 
absolute power, we might proceed to the uniting of the two 
colleges, I did in my course simply and plainly declare my 
conscience, and that there only, secretly, among ourselves 
alone, with all kind of softness, so that no man could be 
justly offended. Also I perceive, by your grace's letters, 
I have been noted of some for my barking there ; and yet 
to bark, lest God should be offended, I cannot deny, but 
indeed it is a part of my profession; for God's word con- 
demneth the dumb dogs that will not bark and give warning 
of God's displeasure. 


As for that that was suggested to your grace, that by 
my aforesaid barking I should dishonour the king's majesty, 
and dissuade others from the execution of the king's com- 
mission, God is my judge, I intended, according to my duty 
to God and the king, the maintenance and defence of his 
highness' royal honour and dignity. If that be true, that I 
believe is true, which the prophet saith, Honor regis judicium 
diligit; and as the commissioners must needs, and I am 
sure will all testify, that I dissuaded no man, but contrariwise 
exhorted every man (with the quiet of other) to satisfy their 
own conscience; desiring only, that if it should otherwise 
be seen unto them, that I might, either by my absence or 
silence, satisfy mine. The which my plainness when some 
otherwise than according to my expectation did take, I was 
moved thereupon (both for the good opinion I had, and yet 
have, of your grace's goodness, and also specially because 
your grace had commanded me so to do) to open my mind, 
by my private letters, freely unto your grace. 

And thus I trust your grace perceiveth now, both that 
anon, after knowledge had, I did utter my conscience; and 
also that the matter was not opened unto me before the visit- 
ation was two days begun. 

If in this I did amiss, that before the knowledge of the 
instructions I was ready to grant to the execution of the 
commission; truly I had rather herein acknowledge my 
fault, and submit myself to your grace's correction, than 
after knowledge had, then wittingly and willingly commit 
that thing whereunto my conscience doth not agree, for 
fear of God's displeasure. 

It is a godly wish that is wished in your grace's letters, 
that flesh, and blood, and country, might not more weigh 
with some men than godliness and reason; but the truth is, 
country in this matter, whatsoever some men do suggest unto 
your grace, shall not move me; and that your grace shall 
well perceive, for I shall be as ready, as any other, first 
thence to expel some of my own country, if the report which 
is made of them can be tried true. 

And as for that your grace saith of flesh and blood, that 
is, the favour or fear of mortal man : yea, marry, sir, that 
is a matter of weight indeed, and the truth is, (alas, my own 


feebleness !) of that I am afraid. But I beseech your grace, 
yet once again, give me good leave, wherein here I fear my 
own frailty, to confess the truth. Before God, there is no 
man this day, (leaving the king's majesty for the honour 
only excepted) whose favour or displeasure I do either seek 
or fear, as your grace's favour or displeasure ; for under 
God, both your grace's authority, and my bounden duty 
for your grace's benefits, bind me so to do. So that if 
the desire of any man's favour, or fear of displeasure, should 
weigh more with me than godliness and reason ; truly, (if I 
may be bold to say the truth), I must needs say, that I 
am most in danger to offend herein, either for desire -of your 
grace's favour, or for fear of your grace's displeasure. And 
yet I shall not cease (God willing) daily to pray God so to 
stay and strengthen my frailty with holy fear, that I do not 
commit the thing for favour or fear of any mortal man, 
whereby my conscience may threaten me with the loss of 
the favour of the living God, but that it may please him, 
of his gracious goodness, (howsoever the world goes) to blow 
this in the ears of my heart, Deus dissipavit ossa eorum 
qui hominibus placuerinf ; and this, Horrendum est incidere 
in manus Dei viventis 2 ; and again, Nolite timere eos qui occi- 
dunt corpus 3 . 

Wherefore I most humbly beseech your grace, for God's 
love, not to be offended with me, for renewing of this my 
suit unto your grace, which is that, whereunto my conscience 
cannot well agree, if any such thing chance in this visitation, 
I may, with your grace's favour, have license, either by mine 
absence or silence, or other like means, to keep my conscience 
quiet. I wish your grace, in God, honour and endless fe- 
licity. From Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, June 1, 1549". 
Your grace's humble and daily orator, 


[} God hath scattered the bones of those who pleased men. Ed.] 
\y It is a horrible thing to fall into the hands of the living God, 

[ 3 Fear not them which kill the body. Ed.] 

[ 4 The Protector's reply to this letter will be found, Appendix V.] 



LETTER II. (Burnet.) 

A Letter of that true Pastor and worthy Martyr, Doctor 
Ridley ; wherein you may see the singular zeal he had 
to the glory of God, and the furtherance of his Gospel. 
Written to Master Cheke, in King Edward's days. 

Master Cheke, I wish you grace and peace. Sir, in 
God's cause, for God's sake, and in his name, I beseech you 
of your help and furtherance towards God's word. I did talk 
with you of late, what case I was in concerning my chap~ 
lains. I have gotten the good will and grant a (to be with " consent - 
me), of three preachers, men of good learning, and, as I am 
persuaded, of excellent virtue ; which are able, both with life 
and learning, to set forth God's word in London, and in the 
whole diocese of the same, where is most need of all parts 
in England; for from thence goeth example, as you know, 
into all the rest of the king's majesty's whole realm. The 
men's names be these. Master Grindall, whom you know to 
be a man of virtue and learning. Master Bradford, a man 
by whom (as I am assuredly informed) God hath and doth 
work wonders, in setting forth of his word. The third is a 
preacher, the which, for detecting and confuting of the ana- 
bapists and papists in Essex, both by his preaching and by 
his writing, is enforced now to bear Christ's cross. The two 
first be scholars in the university. The third is as poor as 
either of the other twain. Now there is fallen a prebend 
in Paul's called CantrehV, by the death of one Layton. This 

[j 5 The Prebendary of Kentish-Town, Kentissetune, or Cantlers, and 
sometime Kentillers, alias Kentish-Town, hath the Tenth Stall on the 
right side of the choir ; and the corps of his prebend lies in the parish 
of St Pancras, Middlesex. 

Grindall does not appear from the list of prebendaries to have 
succeeded; for Richard Layton was appointed on the resignation of 
W. Kemp, May 9, 1523 ; William Layton was appointed on the death 
of Richard Layton, Oct. 17, 1544 ; and John Bradford (the martyr) was 
appointed on the death of Richard Layton by Bishop Ridley, Aug. 
24, 1551 ; and he was succeeded after his martyrdom by John Fecken- 
ham, Jan. 25, 1553. 

Edmund Grindall was appointed Pracmtor of St Paul's by Bishop 
Ridley, Aug. 24, 1551, which he resigned in 1554. 

John Rogers was made Prebendary of St Pancras, Aug. 24, 1551 ; 
burnt Feb. 4, 1555. See Newcourt's Repertorium of the Diocese of 


prebend is an honest man's living, of thirty-four pounds and 
better in the king's books. I would with all my heart give 
it unto Master Grindall ; and so I should have him continu- 
ally with me, and in my diocese, to preach. 

* hindered. But alas, sir, I am letted b by the means (I fear me) of 
such as do not fear God. One Master William Thomas, 
one of the clerks to the council, hath in times past set the 
council upon me, to have me to grant that Layton might 
have alienated the said prebend unto him and his heirs for 
ever. God was mine aid and defender, that I did not con- 
sent unto his ungodly enterprise. Yet I was so then handled 
before the council, that I granted that whensoever it should 
fall, I should not give it, before I should make the king's 

zance^ac- ma j es ty privy unto it and of acknowledge , before the col- 

quainted. l a tion of it. Now Layton is departed, and the prebend is 
fallen, and certain of the council (no doubt, by this ungodly 
man's means,) have written unto me to stay the collation. 
And whereas he despaireth that ever I would assent that a 
preacher's living should be bestowed on him, he hath pro- 
cured letters unto me, subscribed with certain of the council's 
hands, that now the king's majesty hath determined it unto 

<»mainte- the furniture d of his highness' stable. Alas, sir, this is a 

nance. _ ~ ' ' 

heavy hearing. When papistry was taught, there was nothing 
too little for the teachers. When the bishop gave his bene- 
fices unto idiots, unlearned, ungodly, for kindred, for pleasure, 
for service, and other worldly respects, all was then well 
allowed. Now, where a poor living is to be given unto an 
excellent clerk, a man known and tried to have both dis- 
cretion and also virtue, and such a one as, before God, I do 
not know a man (yet unplaced and unprovided for) more meet, 
to set forth God's word in all England; when a poor living 
(I say), which is founded for a preacher, is to be given unto 
such a man, that then an ungodly person shall procure in 
"hinder, this sort letters to stop and let e the same, alas, Master Cheke, 
this seemeth unto me to be a right heavy hearing. Is this 
the fruit of the Gospel? Speak, Master Cheke, speak, for 
God's sake, in God's cause, unto whomsoever you think may 
do any good withal. And if you will not speak, then I be- 

London, vol. i. pp. 27, 101, 169, 196. Grindall was made a Prebendary 
of Westminster in July, 1552. Ed.] 


seech you, let these my letters speak unto Master Gates, to 
Master Wroth, to Master Cecil, whom all I do take for men 
that do fear God. 

It was said here constantly my Lord Chamberlain to have 
been departed. Sir, though the day be delayed, yet he hath 
no pardon of long life : and therefore I do beseech his good 
lordship, and so many as shall read these letters, if they fear 
God, to help that neither horse, neither yet dog, be suffered 
to devour the poor livings appointed and founded by godly 
ordinance to the ministers of God's word. The causes of 
conscience, which do move me to speak and write thus, are 
not only those which I declared once in the cause of this 
prebend before the king's majesty's council, which now I let 
pass ; but also now the man Master Grindall, unto whom I 
would give this prebend, doth move me very much ; for he 
is a man known to be both of virtue, honesty, discretion, 
wisdom, and learning. And besides all this, I have a better 
opinion of the king's majesty's honourable council, than (al- 
though some of them have subscribed, at this their clerk's 
crafty and ungodly suit, to such a letter) than, I say, they 
will let f , and not suffer, after request made unto them, the /hinder - 
living appointed and founded for a preacher, to be bestowed 
upon so honest and well a learned man. 

Wherefore for God's sake, I beseech you all, help that, 
with the favour of the council, I may have knowledge of 
the king's majesty's good pleasure, to give this preacher's 
living unto Master Grindall. Of late there have been letters 
directed from the king's majesty and his honourable council 
unto all the bishops, whereby we be charged and commanded, 
both in our own persons, and also to cause our preachers 
and ministers, especially to cry out against the insatiable 
serpent of covetousness, whereby is said to be such a greedi- 
ness amongst the people, that each one goeth about to devour 
other; and to threaten them with God's grievous plagues, 
both now presently thrown upon them, and that shall be 
likewise in the world to come. Sir, what preachers shall I 
get to open and set forth such matters, and so as the king's 
majesty and the council do command them to be set forth, 
if either ungodly men, or unreasonable beasts* be suffered to 
pull away and devour the good and godly learned preachers' 


livings? Thus I wish you, in God, ever well to face and to 
help Christ's cause, as you would have help of him at your 
most need. 

From Fulham this present, the 23rd of July, 1551. 

Yours in Christ, 

Nicholas London. 

LETTER III. (Burnet.) 

A Letter written by Bishop Ridley to his well-beloved the 
Preachers within the Diocese of London setting forth the 
sins of those times. 

After hearty commendations, — having regard 1 , especially 
at this time, to the wrath of Cod, who hath plagued us 
diversely, and now with extreme punishment of sudden death 
poured upon us, for causes best known unto his high and 
secret judgment ; but as it may seem unto man, for our wicked 
living which daily increases, so that not only in our conver- 
sations the fear of God is, alas ! far gone from before our 
eyes, but also the world is grown into that uncharitableness, 
that one, as it appears plainly, goes about to devour ano- 
ther, moved with insatiable covetousness, and contrary to 
God's word and will, and to the extreme peril and damna- 
tion of Christ's flock, bought so dearly with his precious 
blood, and to the utter destruction of this whole common- 
wealth, except God's anger be shortly appeased. Wherein, 
according to my bounden duty, I shall, God willing, in my 
own person, be diligent and labour ; and I also exhort and 
require you, first in God's name, and by authority of him 
committed unto me in that behalf, and also in the king's 
majesty's name, from whom I have authority and special 
commandment thus to do — that as you are called to be set- 
ters forth of God's word, and to express the same in your 
lives, so now in your exhortations and sermons, most whole- 
somely and earnestly, tell unto men their sins, with God's 
punishments lately poured upon us for the same, now before 
our eyes; according to that word, "Tell unto my people 

[} These words " having regard" seem to refer to the " letters" 
mentioned in the preceding letter. Ed.] 


their wickednesses." And especially beat down and destroy, 
with all your power and ability, that greedy and devouring 
serpent of covetousness, which now so universally reigns; 
Call upon God for repentance, and excite to common prayer 
and amendment of life, with most earnest petitions, that 
hereby God's hand may be stayed, the world amended, and 
obedience of subjects and faithfulness of ministers declared 
accordingly. Thus I bid you heartily well to fere. 
From London, July 25, 1551. 

Yours in Christ, 

Nicholas London. 

LETTER IV, (Strype.) 
Bishop Ridley to Doctor Parker. 

Mr Doctor, I wish you grace and peace. Sir, I pray 
you refuse not to take a day at the Cross 2 . I may have, if 
I would call without any choice, enow ; but in some, alas ?' 
I desire more learning, in some a better judgment, in some 
more virtue and godly conversation, and in some more sober- 
ness and discretion ; and he in whom all these do meet shall 
not do well, in my judgment, to refuse to serve God in that 
place. Of which number because I take you to be, there- 
fore, (leaving at this time to charge yOu with answering for 
the contrary to the king and his council), I must charge 
you to take a day as you will answer the contrary to A1-" 
mighty God at your own peril. If the day be thought not 
commodious for you, I shall appoint another for it. But if 
I should discharge you from that place, — for the time here- 
after in good faith my conscience should accuse me, and 
tell me that I did rather go about to satisfy your request, 
(whom, the truth is, as your kindness hath bound me, I 
should be glad to gratify) than to set forth God's cause. 
Thus fare you well, from my house in London ; and I pray 
you commend me to Mrs Parker, whom although I do not 
know, yet, for the fame of her virtue, in God I do love. 

Yours in Christ, 

25 July, 1551. Nicholas London; 

[ a Paul's Cross. Ed.] 



To Sir John Gate and Sir W. Cecil, from the Lansdotcne 
MS. in the British Museum. 

Dr Ridley, Bishop of London, to Sir John Gate, Vice- 
Chamberlain, and Sir W. Cecil, Secretary to Edw. 
VI. for their interest with the King, that he might have 
the nomination of the Person to be appointed to the 
Chantership of St PauTs, about to be vacant by Mr 
Grindall's translation to a Bishopric, Nov. 18, 1552. 

Right Honourable, 
[The pas- Although, if I would believe every tale, I might fear 

itfucs?n rather that ye are offended with me, than to think to obtain 

tliis letter 

are under- any pleasure at your hands, and so to be more afraid of your 
original, displeasure, than to hope to speed my request ; yet neverthe- 
less, because my conscience doth bear me witness, that neither 
in heart nor in deed I have given, or minded to give either 
of your worships just occasion to be offended with me, nor 
(God willing) never intend to do ; therefore I will, by your 
leave, be bold with you, in God's cause, even to require you, 
as I have heretofore been wont to do ; for I take this for a 
true saying: frons tenera magna conscientia sustinetur. It 
may please you to wit, that I understand by the constant 
rumour which is now spread about in London, that Mr Grin- 
dall is or shall be named to be a Bishop in the North parts, 
of whose preferment I ensure you I give God hearty thanks, 
that it hath pleased God to move the heart of the King's 
Majesty to choose such a man of such godly qualities unto 
such a room. Now, good Mr Vice-Chamberlain and Mr 
Secretary, ye know both how I did bestow of late three or 
four prebends, which did fall in my time, and what manner 
of men they be unto whom I gave them, Grindall, Brad- 
ford and Rogers, men known to be so necessary to be abroad 
in the commonwealth, that I can keep none of them with me 
in my house. Ye know, I am placed, where / have daily 
need of learned men's counsel and conference: wherefore I 
beseech you for God^s sake, be so good unto this See of Lon- 
don, which is the Spectacle of all England, as to be petitioners 
for me in God's cause unto the King's Majesty, that seeing 



his highness doth perceive, that I did so well iestow the Pre- 
bend, which Mr Grindall hath of my collation, it may please 
the same to grant me of his gracious clemency the collation 
of the same again, that I may therewith call' some other like 
learned man, whom hereafter by God's grace his highness 
shall think meet likewise to promote, as Mr Grindall is 
now. If ye would know, unto whom I would this dignity of 
our church, called the chantership, should be given, surely 
unto any one of these, either unto Mr Bradford, whom in my 
conscience I judge more worthy to be a Bishop, than many 
[a one] of us that be Bishops already, to be a parish priest ; 
or unto Mr Sampson, a preacher; or unto Mr Harvey, a 
divine and preacher; or unto Mr Grimbold, a preacher; or 
unto Dr Lancelot Ridley, a preacher : if it would please 
your goodness to be suitors for me, (nay, not for me, but for 
God's word's sake), unto the King's Majesty, that the colla- 
tion may be given unto me for one of these, or any one of 
these, then I shall surely praise God in you, and think myself 
ever bound to render unto Almighty God for you entire and 
hearty thanks. Thus I wish you both, in God, well to fare. 
From my house in London, this 18th day of November, 1552. 

Yours in Christ, 

Nic. London. 


An Answer to a Letter written unto him by West, sometime 

his Chaplain 1 . 

I wish your grace in God, and love of the truth ; without 
the which truly established in men's hearts by the mighty 

P West had been chaplain to Bishop Ridley, but turned to popery- 
in Queen Mary's reign, and, in the beginning of April 1555, he wrote 
to the bishop, earnestly and affectionately persuading him to consider 
the danger he was in, and exhorting him not "to stand against learning, 
or in vain glory," but to return to the church of Rome, for "he must 
either agree or die." This letter was written in answer : but though 
"West was convinced by it he had done wrong, he wanted courage to 
renounce his preferments and the world. For some further particulars 
of West, see the letter of Ridley in reply to that of Grindall, dated from 
Frankfort, 6 May, 1555. Ed.] 




hand of Almighty God, it is no more possible to stand by 
the truth in Christ in time of trouble, than it is for the wax 
to abide the heat of the fire. Sir, know you this, that I am 
(blessed be God !) persuaded that this world is but transitory, 

i John ii. and (as St John saith) " the world passeth away and the lust 

Matt. x. thereof." I am persuaded Christ's words to be true — " Who- 
soever shall confess me before men, him will I confess also 
before my Father which is in heaven;" and I believe that 
no earthly creature shall be saved, whom the Redeemer and 
Saviour of the world shall before his Father deny. This the 
Lord grant that it may be so grafted, established, and fixed 
in my heart, that neither things present nor to come, high 
nor low, life nor death, be able to remove me thence ! It is 
a goodly wish that you wish me, deeply to consider things 
pertaining unto God's glory : but if you had wished also that 
neither fear of death, nor hope of worldly prosperity, should 

"hinder. } e ta me to maintain God's word and his truth, which is his 
glory and true honour, it would have liked me well. You 
desire me, for God's sake, to remember myself. Indeed, Sir, 
now it is time so to do ; for so far as I can perceive, it 
standeth me upon no less danger than of the loss both of 
body and soul ; and, I trow, then it is time for a man to 

Lukexii. awake, if any thing will awake him. He that will not fear 
him that threateneth to cast both body and soul into ever- 
lasting fire, whom will he fear? With this fear, Lord, 
fasten thou together our frail flesh, that we never swerve from 
thy laws. You say you have made much suit for me. Sir, 
God grant that you have not in sueing for my worldly deli- 
verance impaired and hindered the furtherance of God's word 
and his truth. You have known me long indeed, in the 
which time it hath chanced me (as you say) to mislike some 
things. It is true, I grant : for sudden changes without sub- 
stantial and necessary cause, and the heady setting forth of 
extremities, I did never love. Confession unto the minister 
which is able to instruct, correct, comfort, and inform the 
weak, wounded, and ignorant conscience, indeed I ever thought 
might do much good in Christ's congregation, and so, I as- 
sure you, I think even at this day. My doctrine and my 
preaching, you say, you have heard often, and after your 
judgment have thought it godly, saving only for the sacra- 


meiit ; which thing although it was of me reverently handled, 
and a great deal better than of the rest (as you say), yet in 
the margin you write warily, and in this world wisely — "and 
yet methought all sounded not well." Sir, but that I see so 
many changes in this world and so much alteration, else at 
this your saying I would not a little marvel. I have taken 
you for my friend, and a man whom I fancied for plainness 
and faithfulness, as much (I assure you) as for your learn- 
ing: and have you kept this so close in your heart from 
me unto this day? Sir, I consider more things than one, 
and will not say all that I think. But what need you to 
care what I think, for any thing that I shall be able to 
do unto you, either good or harm? You give me good 
lessons, to stand in nothing against my learning 1 , and to 
beware of vain-glory. Truly, Sir, I herein like your counsel 
very well, and by God's grace I intend to follow it unto my 
life's end. 

To write unto those whom you name, I cannot see what 
it will avail me. For this I would have you know, that I 
esteem nothing available for me, which also will not further 
the glory of God. And now, because I perceive you have 
an entire zeal and desire of my deliverance out of this 
captivity and worldly misery, if I should not bear you a good 
heart in God again, methink I were to blame. Sir, how 
nigh the day of my dissolution and departure out of this 
world is at hand, I cannot tell: the Lord's will be fulfilled, 
how soon soever it shall come. I know the Lord's words 
must be verified on me, that I shall appear before the in- 
corrupt Judge, and be accountable to him of all my former 
life. And although the hope of his mercy is my sheet-anchor 
of eternal salvation, yet am I persuaded, that whosoever 
wittingly neglecteth and regardeth not to clear his conscience, 
he cannot have peace with God nor a lively faith in his mercy. 
Conscience therefore moveth me (considering you were one 
of my family and one of my household, of whom then I 
think I had a special cure, and of all them which were 
within my house; which indeed ought to have been an ex- 
ample of godliness to all the rest of my cure, not only of 

[} To rely in no point npon my learning, or to insist on nothing 
contrary to my better knowledge. Ed.] 



good life, but also in promoting of God's word to the utter- 
most of their power : but alas ! now when the trial doth 
separate the chaff from the corn, how small a deal it is, God 
knoweth, which the wind doth not blow away ! This con- 
'knowied^e, science 1 *, I say, doth move me) to fear lest the lightness of 

theknowin 0- 

this. ° my family shall be laid to my charge, for lack of more earnest 
and diligent instruction which shoidd have been done. But 
blessed be God, which hath given me grace to see this my 
default, and to lament it from the bottom of my heart, before 
my departing hence. This conscience doth move me also now 
to require both you and my friend Doctor Harvey, to re- 
member your promises made to me in times past, of the pure 
setting forth and preaching of God's word and his truth. These 
promises, although you shall not need to fear to be charged 
with them of me hereafter before the world, yet look for 
none other (I exhort you as my friends), but to be charged 
with them at God's hand. This conscience and the love 
that I bear unto you biddeth me now say unto you both 
in God's name, Fear God, and love not the world ; for God 

Psai. ii. i s a ble t cas t k th body and soul into hell fire. " When his 
wrath shall suddenly be kindled, blessed are all they that put 
their trust in him." And the saying of St John is true : 

i John ii. u aii t i iat i s j n the world, as the lust of the flesh, the lust 
of the eyes and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but 
of the world ; and the world passeth away and the lust 
thereof, but he that cloth the will of God abideth for ever." 
If this gift of grace, which undoubtedly is necessarily re- 
quired unto eternal salvation, were truly and unfeignedly 
grafted and firmly established in men's hearts; they would 
not be so light, so suddenly to shrink from the maintenance 
and confession of the truth, as is now, alas ! seen so mani- 
festly of so many in these days. But here, peradventure, 

Joimxvii. vou wou ],j know of me what is the truth. Sir, God's word 
is the truth, as St John saith, and that even the same that 
was heretofore. For albeit man doth vary and change as 
the moon, yet God's word is stable and abideth one for 
evermore : and of Christ it is truly said, Christ yesterday 
and to-day, the same is also for ever. 

When I was in office, all that were esteemed learned in 
God's word, agreed this to be a truth in God's word written ; 

Heb. xiii 


that the common prayer of the church should be had in the 
common tongue. You know I have conferred with many, 
and I ensure you I never found man (so far as I do re-° assure - 
member), neither old nor new, gospeller nor papist, of what 
judgment soever he was, in this thing to be of a contrary 
opinion. If then it were a truth of God's word, think you 
that the alteration of the world can make it an untruth? 
If it cannot, why then do so many men shrink from the 
confession and maintenance of this truth, received once of 
us all? For what is it, I pray you, else, to confess or deny 
Christ in this world, but to maintain the truth taught in 
God's word, or for any worldly respect to shrink from the 
same? This one thing have I brought for an ensample : 
other things be in like case, which now particularly I need 
not to rehearse. For he that will forsake wittingly, either 
for fear or gain of the world, any one open truth of God's 
word ; if he be constrained, he will assuredly forsake God 
and all his truth, rather than he will endanger himself to 
lose or to leave that he loveth better in deed than he doth 
God and the truth of his word. I like very well your plain 
speaking, wherein you say, I must either agree or die; and 
I think that you mean of the bodily death, which is common 
both to good and bad. Sir, I know I must die, whether I 
agree or no. But what folly were it then to make such 
an agreement, by the which I could never escape this death, 
which is so common to all, and also incur the guilt of 
death and eternal damnation ! Lord, grant that I may 
utterly abhor and detest this damnable agreement so long 
as I live. And because (I dare say) you wrote of friend- 
ship unto me this short earnest advertisement, and, I think, 
verily wishing me to live and not to die; therefore, bear- 
ing you in my heart no less love in God than you do 
me in the world, I say unto you in the word of the Lord 
(and that I say to you I say to all my friends and lovers 
in God), that if you do not confess and maintain, to your 
power and knowledge, that which is grounded upon God's 
word, but will, either for fear or gain of the world, shrink 
and play the Ajpostata, indeed you shall die the death : Apostata 
you know what I mean. And I beseech you all, my true which fled 
friends and lovers in God, remember what I say ; for this captain to 

the enemy. 


^called 180 ma y be tne last time peradventure that ever I shall write 

that depart- lin + n vnl1 
ed from the unt0 J "- 

tofteJws From Bocardo in Oxford, the 8th day of April, 1 554. 

and Gen- N. E. 



To the brethren remaining in captivity of the flesh, and dis- 
persed abroad in sundry prisons, but knit together in 
unity of spirit and holy religion, in the bowels of the 
Lord Jesus. 

Grace, peace, and mercy be multiplied among you. What 
worthy thanks can we render unto the Lord for you, my 
brethren? namely, for the great consolation which through 
you we have received in the Lord; who (notwithstanding the 
rage of Satan, that goeth about by all manner of subtle means 
to beguile the world, and also busily laboureth to restore and 
set up his kingdom again, that of late began to decay and 
fall to ruin), ye remain yet still unmoveable as men surely 
grounded upon a strong rock. And now, albeit that Satan 
by his soldiers and wicked ministers daily (as we hear) draw- 
eth numbers unto him, so that it is said of him that he 

Apoc. xii. plucketh even the very stars out of heaven, whilst he driveth 
into some men the fear of death and loss of all their goods, 
and sheweth and offereth to other some the pleasant baits of 
the world, namely, riches, wealth and all kind of delights 
and pleasures, fair houses, great revenues, fat benefices, and 
what not? and all to the intent they should fall down and 
worship (not in the Lord, but in the dragon, the old ser- 

Apoc. xviii. pent, which is the devil,) that great beast and his image, 
and should be enticed to commit fornication with the strum- 
pet of Babylon, together with the kings of the earth, with 
the lesser beast, and with the false prophets, and so to 
rejoice and be pleasant with her, and to be drunken with 
the wine of her fornication; yet blessed be God, the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, which hath given unto you a manly 
courage, and hath so strengthened you in the inward man by 
the power of his Spirit, that you can contemn as well all the 


terrors, as also the vain flattering allurements of the world, 
esteeming them as vanities, mere trifles, and things of nought : 
who hath also wrought, planted, and surely stablished in your 
hearts so stedfast a faith and love of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
joined with such constancy, that by no engines of antichrist, 
be they never so terrible or plausible, ye will suffer any other 
Jesus or any other Christ to be forced upon you, besides him 
whom the prophets have spoken of before, the Apostles have 
preached, and the holy martyrs of God have confessed and 
testified with the effusion of their blood. " In this faith stand Ga\. v. 
ye fast, my brethren, and suffer not yourselves to be brought 
under the yoke of bondage and superstition any more.' 11 For 
ye know, brethren, how that our Saviour warned his before- 
hand, that such should come as would point unto the world 
another Christ, and would set him out with so many false 
miracles and with such deceivable and subtle practices, that 
even the very elect (if it were possible) should be thereby 
deceived; such strong delusion to come did our Saviour give 
warning of before. But continue ye faithful and constant, 
and be of good comfort : and remember that our grand Cap- 
tain hath overcome the world ; "for he that is in us is stronger i John iv. 
than he that is in the world," and the Lord promiseth unto 
us, that for the elect's sake the days of wickedness shall be 
shortened. In the mean season abide ye, and endure with 
patience as ye have begun; endure, I say, and reserve your- 
selves unto better times, as one of the heathen poets said. virgM's 

i t it pit Mnad,l. 

Cease not to shew yourselves valiant soldiers of the Lord, 
•and help to maintain the travailing faith of the Gospel. " Ye "suffering 
have need of patience, that after ye have done the will of 
God, ye may receive the promises. For yet a very little 
while, and he that shall come will come and will not tarry; 
and the just shall live by faith : but if any withdraw himself, 
ray soul shall have no pleasure in him, saith the Lord. But 
we are not they which do withdraw ourselves unto damnation, 
but believe unto the salvation of the soul." Let us not suffer 
these words of Christ to fail out of our hearts, by any man- 
ner of terrors or threatenings of the world : " Fear not them Matt. x. 
which kill the body." The rest ye know. For I write not 
.unto you as to men which are ignorant of the truth, but 
-which know the truth : and to tins end only, that we, agree- 


ing together in one faith, may take comfort one of another, 
and be the more confirmed and strengthened thereby. We 
never had a better or a more just cause either to contemn 
our life, or shed our blood : we cannot take in hand the de- 
fence of a more certain, clear, and manifest truth. For it is 
not any ceremony for the which we contend ; but it toucheth 
the very substance of our whole religion, yea, even Christ 

'or. himself. Shall we, either 5 can we, receive and acknowledge 

any other Christ, instead of him who is alone the everlasting 
Son of the everlasting Father, and is the brightness of the 
glory, and lively image of the substance, of the Father? in 
whom only dwelleth corporally the fulness of the Godhead, 
who is the only way, the truth, and the life? Let such 
wickedness, my brethren, let such horrible wickedness, be 
far from us. For although there be that are called gods, 
whether in heaven, either in earth, as there be many gods 
and many lords, yet unto us there is but one God, which is 
the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and 
one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by 

Joim xvii. him : but every man hath not knowledge. " This is life eter- 
nal (saith St John,) that they know thee to be the only true 
God, and him whom thou hast sent, Jesus Christ. 1 ' If any 
therefore would force upon us any other God, besides him 
whom Paul and the Apostles have taught, let us not hear him, 
but let us fly from him and hold him accursed. Brethren, 
ye are not ignorant of the deep and profound subtleties of 
Satan; for he will not cease to range about you, seeking by 
all means possible whom he may devour: but play ye the 
men, and be of good comfort in the Lord. And albeit your 
enemies and the adversaries of the truth, armed with all 
worldly force and power that may be, do set upon you ; yet 
be not ye faint-hearted, nor shrink not therefore : but trust 
unto your captain Christ, trust unto the Spirit of truth, and 
trust to the truth of your cause ; which, as it may by the 
malice of Satan be darkened, so can it never be clean put 
out. For we have (high praise be given to God therefore !) 
most plainly, evidently, and clearly on our side all the pro- 
phets, all the apostles, and undoubtedly all the ancient eccle- 
siastical writers which have written until of late years past. 
Let us be hearty and of good courage therefore, and tho- 



roughly comfort ourselves in the Lord. " Be in no ways pmi. i. 
afraid of your adversaries - r for that which is to them an oc- 
casion of perdition, is to you a sure token of salvation, and 
that of God. For unto you it is given, that not only ye 
should believe on him, but also suffer for his sake.'' 1 And 
when ye are railed upon for the name of Christ, remember 
that by the voice of Peter, yea, and of Christ our Saviour 
also, ye are counted, with the prophets, with the apostles, 
and with the holy martyrs of Christ, "happy and blessed x Pet - iv - 
therefore ; " for the glory and Spirit of God resteth upon you. 
On their part our Saviour Christ is evil spoken of, but on 
your part he is glorified. For what can they else do unto 
you by persecuting you, and working all cruelty and villainy 
against you, but make your crowns more glorious, yea, beau- 
tify and multiply the same, and heap upon themselves the 
horrible plagues and heavy wrath of God? And therefore, 
good brethren, though they rage never so fiercely against us, 
yet let us not wish evil unto them again ; knowing that, while 
for Christ's cause they vex and persecute us, they are like 
madmen, most outrageous and cruel against themselves, heap- 
ing hot burning coals upon their own heads : but rather let us 
wish well unto them, " knowing that we are thereunto called * Pet< "'• 
in Christ Jesu, that we should be heirs of the blessing. 1 ' Let 
us pray therefore unto God, that he would drive out of their 
hearts this darkness of errors, and make the light of his 
truth to shine unto them; that they, acknowledging their 
blindness, may with all humble repentance be converted unto 
the Lord, and together with us confess him to be the only 
true God, which is the Father of lights, and his only Son 
Jesus Christ, worshipping him in spirit and verity. Amen. 

The Spirit of our Lord Jesus Christ comfort your hearts 
in the love of God and patience of Christ. Amen. 

Your brother in the Lord (whose name the bearer 
shall signify unto you), ready always, by the 
grace of God, to live and die with you. 




Ad fratres in captivitate carnis, et per varios career es dis- 
persos, sed in unitate Spiritus atque sacrosanctce religi- 
onis in visceribus Jesu Christi conglutimtos. 

Gratia vobis et pax ac misericordia multiplicetur. Quam 
gratiarum actionem pro vobis, fratres, reddere possumus Do- 
mino super omni consolatione quam de vobis concepimus in 
Domino? qui (Satana sseviente, et per omnia fallaciarum 
genera mundo imponere studente, et regnum suum, jampri- 
dem collabascere ruinamque minitari incipiens, erigere atque 
denuo instaurare sedulo satagente), tanquam in petra firmis- 
sime fundati, permanetis immobiles. Jamque licet Satan 
per suos satellites ac ministros multos, ut audivimus, quo- 

Apoc. xii. tidie pertrahat ad sese, ut stellas etiam e ccelo prosternere 
dicatur, aliis nimirum metum mortis, aut amissionis commo- 

Apoc. xviii. dorum hujus mundi, incutiendo ; aliis pollicendo, aut osten- 
tando illecebras hujus mundi, opes videlicet, atque omnis 
generis lautitias, sedes amplas, lata praedia, opima sacerdotia, 
ac quid non? uti prostrati adorent (non in Domino, sed in 
dracone, serpente antiquo qui est diabolus), magnam illam 
bestiam et imaginem ejus, utque cum regibus terrse, et mi- 
nore bestia, et pseudo-prophetis, scortari velint cum Baby- 
lonica meretrice, et cum ilia lsetari atque luxuriari, et de vino 
prostitutions ejus inebriari : benedictus tamen Deus et pater 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui vobis dedit pectus masculum ; 
quique fortitudine spiritus ita vos in interno homine corro- 
boravit, ut isthsec omnia sive terriculamenta, sive hujus mundi 
illecebras, pro vanitatibus ac meris nugis nihilique tricis con- 
temnere possitis ; quique ita cordibus vestris tantam constan- 
tiam, fiduciam, ac amorem Domini nostri Jesu Christi per- 
suasit, insevit, alteque impressit, ut nullis Antichristi machinis, 
quantumvis alioqui aut terribilibus aut plausibilibus, sinatis 

Matt. xxiv. vobis alium Jesum aut alium Christum, prseter eum quern 
prophetse prsedixerunt, apostoli annunciaverunt, et sancti Dei 
martyres suo sanguine confessi sunt. In hac fide, fratres, 
state, et ne rursus jugo servitutis aut superstitionis impli- 
cemini. Nostis enim, fratres, quemadmodum Servator noster 
prsemonuit suos futurum, ut venirent qui alium Christum 


raundo ostentarent, eumque tot miraculorum et fallaciarum 
dolis atque fraudibus commendarent, ut electi quoque, si fieri 
posset, seducerentur : tam fortem futuram esse prsedixit illu- 
sionem Salvator. Sed durate, fratres, atque confidite, et 
memineritis mundum a nostro Agonotheta devictum esse. 
" Major enim est qui in nobis est, quam qui est in mundo : " 1 John "'• 
et pollicetur nobis Dominus, ut propter electos dies malitise 
abbrevientur. Interea vos, quod facitis, fratres, durate; du- 
rate, inquam, et vosmet rebus, ut quidam gentilium poetarum viigii'* 
dixit, servate secundis : pergite prsebere vos strenuos athletas 
Domini, et adjuvate decertantem evangelii fidem. " Patientia Heb. x. 
vobis opus est, ut cum voluntatem Domini peregeritis, repor- 
ters promissionem. Adhuc enim pusillum temporis, et qui 
venturus est veniet, et non tardabit. Justus enim ex fide 
victurus est ; et si se subduxerit, non probabitur animo meo, 
dicit Dominus. At nos non sumus qui subducimus nos in 
perditionem, sed ad fidem pertinemus in acquisitionem ani- 
mse." Non sinamus, fratres, ullis mundi tonitruis verba ilia 
Christi nostris cordibus excidere : " ne terreamini ab illis qui Matt - x - 
oecidunt corpus." Reliqua nostis. Non enim scribo vobis ut 
ignorantibus veritatem, sed ut earn cognoscentibus, tantum ut 
per mutuam fidem consolationem communem capiamus con- 
firmemusque. Nulla unquam melior aut major causa vel 
contemnendse vitse vel profundendi sanguinis. Nulla esse 
potest causa aut certioris veritatis, evidentise, aut claritatis. 
Non enim agitur controversia de ceremoniola aliqua, sed de 
substantia universse religionis nostrse, adeoque de Ohristo 
ipso. Num alium Christum, pro eo qui solus est seterni Pa- 
tris seternus filius, qui est splendor glorise et expressa imago 
substantise Patris, in quo uno plenitudo divinitatis corporali- 
ter inhabitat, qui est solus via, Veritas et vita, admittere 
agnoscereque volumus aut possumus? Absit, fratres, absit 
tanta procul impietas a nobis. " Nam quanquam etiam sint i Cor. viu. 
qui dicantur dii, sive in coelo sive in terra, quemadmodum 
sunt dii multi et domini multi, nobis tamen unus est Deus, 
qui est Pater, ille ex quo omnia, et nos in ilium, et unus 
Dominus Christus, per quem omnia, et nos per ilium : " sed 
non in omnibus est scientia. " Hsec est (inquit Johannes) Joim xvii. 
vita seterna ; ut cognoscant te solum verum Deum, et quem 
misisti Jesum Christum." Si quis igitur nobis alium Deum 


obtrudere velit, pragter eum quem Paulus et Apostoli docn- 
erunt, non audiamus, sed ut anathema procul fugiamus. Pro- 
funditates Satanae non ignoratis, fratres; non enim cessabit 
ille circuraire vos, ut quaerat quovis modo quem devoret. Sed 
viriliter agite, et comfortemini in Domino : et licet hostes 
vestri et adversarii veritatis omnibus mundi prsesidiis muniti 
fuerint, et vos adoriantur, nolite tamen propterea animum de- 
spondere, sed confidite duci vestro Christo, confidite Spiritui 
veritatis et veritati causae, vestrse, quae, ut tenebris per nequi- 
tiam Satanae obduci, ita extingui non potest. Stant enim a 
nobis (ingentes Deo gratiae !) certissime, evidentissimeque, 
clarissimeque, omnes prophetae, apostoli, et omnes proculdubio 
veteres ecclesiastici scriptores usque ad tempora neoterico- 
rum. Confidamus ergo, et plenam in Domino capiamus con- 
Phii. i. solationem : " nee teireamini ab adversariis ; quae enim illis 
causa est perditionis, vobis autem salutis, et hoc a Deo ; 
quia vobis donatum est non solum ut in eum credatis, verum 
etiam ut pro illo patiamini." Et dum probris afficiamini no- 
mine Christi, cogitate vos voce Petri, imo et Ohristi salvato- 
ris, beatos esse cum prophetis, cum apostolis, cum martyribus 
Christi, "quoniam gloria et Spiritus Domini super vos requi- 
escit. Juxta illos Servator noster maledictis afficitur, juxta 
vos glorificatur : " quid enim aliud, vos persequendo aut etiam 
crudeliora designando, vobis facere possunt, quam vestras vo- 
bis coronas insignire, ornare, et multiplicare, sibi vero plagas 
suas et iras Dei graves accumulare et aggravare? Ergo ne 
turn quidem, cum maxime in nos debacchantur, male prece- 
mur illis, fratres ; scientes quoniam dum nos ob Christum 
Rom.xii. insectantur, in seipsos maxime sseviunt, "ardentesque in capita 
1 Pet.iii. propria carbones congerunt : " sed bene precemur potius ; " sci- 
entes nos in Christo vocatos esse ut benedictionem hsereditate 
possideamus.'" Precemur ergo, ut Dominus e cordibus eorum 
errorum tenebras dispellat, et veritatis lucem illis faciat illu- 
cescere ; ut, agnitis erroribus, supplices poenitudine ad Domi- 
num convertantur, et nobiscum solum ilium verum Deum qui 
est pater luminum, et ejus unicum filium Dominum Jesum Chris- 
tum, agnoscant, atque in spiritu et veritate adorent. Amen. 

Vester in Domino frater (quem tabellarius vobis de- 
nuntiabit), per Dei gratiam ad convivendum et 

1 Pet. iv. 


LETTER VIII. (Coverdale.) 

To the brethren which constantly cleave unto Christ, in suffer- 
ing affliction with him, and for his sake. 

Grace and peace from God the Father, and from our 
Lord Jesus Christ, be multiplied unto you, Amen. — Although, 
brethren, we have of late heard nothing from you, neither 
have at this present any news to send you ; yet we thought 
good something to write unto you, whereby ye might un- 
derstand that we have good remembrance of you continually, 
as we doubt not but ye have of us also. When this mes- 
senger, coming unto us from you of late, had brought us 
good tidings of your great constancy, fortitude, and patience 
in the Lord, we were filled with much joy and gladness; 
giving thanks to God the Father through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, which hath caused his face so to shine upon you, 
and with the light of spiritual understanding hath so lightened 
your hearts, that now, being in captivity and bands for Christ's 
cause, ye have not ceased, as much as in you lieth, by 
words, but much more by deed and by your example, to 
stablish and confirm that thing which, when ye were at liberty 
in the world, ye laboured to publish and set abroad by the 
word and doctrine ; that is to say, " holding fast the word phil - "• 
of life, ye shine as lights in the world, in the midst of a 
wicked and crooked nation : 11 and that with so much the 
greater glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, and profit of your 
brethren, by how much Satan more cruelly now rageth; and 
busily laboureth to darken the light of the Gospel. 

And as for the darkness that Satan now bringeth upon 
the Church of England, who needeth to doubt thereof? 
Of late time, our Saviour Christ, his apostles, prophets, and 
teachers, spake in the temple to the people of England 
in the English tongue, so that they might be understood 
plainly and without any hardness 3 of the godly, and such * difficulty- 
as sought for heavenly knowledge in matters which, of 
necessity of salvation, pertained to the obtaining of eter- 
nal life. But now those things which once were written of 
them for the edifying of the congregation, are read in a 
strange tongue without interpretation; manifestly against St 


Paul's commandment; so that there is no man able to un- 
derstand them, -which hath not learned that strange and un- 
known tongue. Of late days those heavenly mysteries, 
■whereby Christ hath engraffed us into his body, and hath 
united us one to another, whereby being also regenerate 
and born anew unto God, he hath nourished, increased, 
and strengthened us, whereby moreover either he hath taught 
and set forth an order amongst them which are whole, or 
else to the sick in soul or body hath given, as it were, whole- 
some medicines and remedies — those, I say, were all plainly 
set forth to the people in their own language ; so that, what 
great and exceeding good things every man had received of 
God, what duty every one owed to another by God's ordi- 
nance, what every one had professed in his vocation and was 
bound to observe, where remedy was to be had for the weak 
and feeble, — he to whom God hath given a desire and will- 
ing heart to understand those things, might soon perceive 
and understand : but now all these things are taught and 
set forth in such sort, that the people redeemed with Christ's 
blood, and for whose sakes they were by Christ himself or- 
dained, can have no manner of understanding thereof at all. 
Of late (forasmuch as we know not how to pray as we ought), 
our Lord Jesus Christ in his prayer, whereof he would have 
no man ignorant, and also the Holy Ghost in the psalms, 
hymns, and spiritual songs, which are set forth in the bible, 
did teach and instruct all the people of England in the 
English tongue, that they might ask such things as are ac- 
cording to the will of the Father, and might join their hearts 
and lips in prayer together: but now all these things are 
commanded to be hid and shut up from them in a strange 
tongue, whereby it must needs follow, that the people nei- 
ther can tell how to pray, nor what to pray for ; and how 
can they join their hearts and voices together, when they 
understand no more what the voice signifieth, than a brute 
beast? Finally, I here say, that the catechism which was 
lately set forth in the English tongue, is now in every pulpit 
condemned. Oh devilish malice, and most spitefully injuri- 
ous to the salvation of mankind purchased by Jesus Christ ! 
Indeed Satan could not long suffer that so great light should 
be spread abroad in the world; he saw well enough, that 


nothing was able to overthrow his kingdom so much as if 
children, being godly instructed in religion, should learn to 
know Christ while they are yet young; whereby no;t only 
children, but the elder sort also, and aged folks, that be- 
fore were not taught to know Christ in their childhood, 
should now, even with children and babes, be forced to learn 
to know him. Now therefore he roareth, now he rageth. 
But what else do they, brethren, which serve Satan, and be- 
come his ministers and slaves in maintaining of this impiety, 
but even the same which they did, to whom Christ our 
Saviour threateneth this curse in the Gospel? "Woe unto Matt - xxiii - 
you which shut up the kingdom of heaven before men, and 
take away the key of knowledge from them; ye yourselves 
have not entered in, neither have ye suffered them that 
would enter to come in." And from whence shall we say, 
brethren, that this horrible and mischievous darkness pro- 
ceedeth, which is now brought into the world? from whence, 
I pray you, " but even from the smoke of the great furnace, Apoc - ix * 
the bottomless pit, so that the sun and the air are now 
darkened by the smoke of the pit?" Now, even now, out of 
doubt, brethren, the pit is opened amongst us, and the 
locusts begin to swarm, and Abaddon now reigneth. Ye 
therefore, my brethren, which pertain unto Christ, and have 
the seal of God marked on your foreheads, that is to wit, Apoc - viL 
are sealed up with the earnest of the Spirit to be a peculiar 
people unto God, quit yourselves like men, and be strong; 
for he that is in us, is stronger than he which is in the 
world : and ye know, " that all that is born of God overcometh 1 John iv * 
the world, and this is our victory that overcometh the world, 
even our faith." Let the world fret, let it rage never so much, 
be it never so cruel and bloody ; yet be ye sure that no man 
can take us out of the Father's hands, for he is greater 
than all : " who hath not spared his own Son, but hath given Rom - viii - 
him to death for us all; and therefore how shall he not 
with him give us all things also? Who shall lay any thing 
to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth : who 
shall then condemn? It is Christ that is dead, yea rather 
which is risen again, who is also at the right hand of God, 
and maketh request also for us. Who shall separate us from 
the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or anguish, or persecu- 


tion, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?" — The rest 
ye know, brethren. We are certainly persuaded with St Paul, 
by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that no kind of thing 
shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is 
in Christ Jesus our Lord. Which thing that it may come 
to pass, by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
to the comfort both of you and of us all, as we for our 
parts will continually, Cod willing, pray for you ; so, dear 
brethren in the Lord, with all earnest and hearty request, 
we beseech you, even in the bowels of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
that ye will not cease to pray for us. Fare ye well, dear 
brethren. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you 
all evermore, Amen. 

Yours in the Lord, 

Nicholas Ridley. 



Ad fratres qui Christum cum cruce amplectuntur. 

Gratia vobis et pax a Deo et Domino nostro Jesu Christo 
multiplicetur, Amen. Licet a vobis, fratres, nihil nuper ac- 
cepimus, neque vobis aliquid novi nunc nuntiandum habemus, 
tamen ideo visum est nobis aliquid vobis scribere, ut intel- 
ligatis nos memoriam vestri bonam habere perpetuam, sicut 
vos de nobis habere minime dubitamus. Veniente nuper ad 
nos harum latore, et annuntiante nobis vestram omnium in 
Domino constantiam, fortitudinem et patientiam multam, re- 
pleti sumus consolatione et gaudio, gratias agentes Deo et 
Patri per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, qui ita illu- 
minavit vultum suum super vos et lumine intelligentise spiritu- 
alis ita illustravit eorda vestra, ut quod nuper (dum essetis 
in mundo liberi,) verbo et doctrina passim prsestare sategistis, 
nunc propter Christum captivi, quantum licet, verbo, sed multo 
magis opere atque vestro exemplo, prsestare non cessatis; 
hoc est, sermonem vitse sustinentes, lucetis tanquam luminaria 
in mundo, in medio nationis pravse et tortuosse : idque tanto 
cum majore Domini nostri Jesu Christi gloria, fratrumque 
vestrorum emolumento et utilitate, quanto nunc Satan magis 
seevit, majoresque luci evangelicse conatur inducere tenebras. 



De tenebris autem, quas nunc ecclesise Anglicanse Satan of- 
fundit, quis potest dubitare? Nuper Christus salvator, apos- 
toli, prophetse, et doctores ipsius, in templo loquebantur 
populo Anglicano Anglice, ita ut ab eis qui pii erant et re- 
rum coelestium studiosi, in iis quse ad vitse seternse redemp- 
"tionem de necessitate salutis pertinebant, clare et absque 
senigmate facile intelligi poterant: nunc vero quse ab illis 
t)lim in sedificationem ecclesise scripta sunt, leguntur in lin- 
gua peregrina, citra interpretationem, manifeste contra prse- 
-ceptum Pauli apostoli ; ita ut a nemine prorsus, qui alienam 
et peregrinam illam linguam non didicerit, intelligi possint. 
Nuper sacrosancta ilia mysteria coelestia, quibus nos sibi 
■Christus insevit et suo corpori complantavit, atque nos inter 
nos mutuo colligavit, quibus natos Dei aluit, auxit, atque 
corroboravit ; denique quibus aut ordinem inter sanos docuit, 
aut segrotis vel anima vel corpore veluti salubria pharmaca 
tradidit — omnia populo clare in sua lingua tradebantur, ita ut 
quisque, quanta et quse immensa a Deo accepisset, quid cuique 
ex Dei prsescripto deberet, quid in sua quisque vocatione pro- 
fessus esset et observare teneretur, unde languenti remediura 
esset petendum, facile is cui Deus mentem et animum hsee 
intelligendi avidum dedit, quam facillime intelligere poterat : 
nunc vero omnia hsec ita traduntur, ut eorum omnium po- 
pulus Christi sanguine redemptus, et cui hsec maxime a 
Christo instituta sunt, ne tantillum quidem intelligere possit. 
Nuper (quum quid orare debemus ut oportet nescimus) 
Dominus noster Jesus Christus in sua, quam omnibus tradi 
voluit, oratione, atque etiam Spiritus sanctus in psalmis, 
hymnis, et cantionibus spiritualibus, quse in sacris bibliis re- 
periuntur, universum populum Anglicanum Anglice docuit, ut 
et quse petenda essent juxta voluntatem Patris peterent, et 
corda cum labiis in oratione conjungerent : nunc vero omnia 
sub involucro linguae peregrinse jubentur claudi, unde neces- 
sario sequi oportet, populum neque quid oret neque quid 
orare debeat posse intelligere : et quomodo potest cor voci 
conjungere, quum, quid vox valeat, magis quam brutum in- 
telligere nequeat? Postremo, audio passim in pulpitis nunc 
damnari catechesim illam editam nuper in sermone vulgari. 
malitiam daemoniacam, et humani generis per Christum 
saluti partse plane invidam ! Omnino Satan tantam lucem 





vulgar! per orbem diu sustinere non potuit : nihil seque in 
suo regno subvertendo efficere posse intellexit, quam si a 
teneris annis sacris imbuti pueri Christum didicissent; unde 
non tantum pueros, sed et senes atque setate provectiores, 
qui ab infantia Christum prius non didicissent, una cum pueris 
Christum discere necesse erat. Ergo nunc exclamat et vo- 
ciferatur. Sed quid faciunt aliud, fratres, qui Satanse in hac 
impietate operam impendunt atque ministrant, quam illi qui- 
bus Christus servator noster in evangelio dirum illud inter- 
Matt, xxiii. minatur et intonat ? dicens : " Vse vobis qui clauditis regnum 
ante homines, qui tulistis clavem scientise : ipsi non introiistis, 
et introire volentes prohibuistis." Et unde, fratres, dixerimus 
has tetras et exitiosas tenebras in mundum invectas exha- 
lasse? Unde, quseso, quam ex fumo fornacis magni putei 
abyssi, ut jam obscuratus sit sol et aer ex fumo putei ? Jam 
jam proculdubio, fratres, apud nos puteus apertus est, locustee 
Apoc. ix. luxuriantur et Abaddon regnat. Ergo, fratres, qui estis 
Apoc. vii. Christi, qui signum Dei habetis in frontibus vestris, hoc est 
arra Spiritus obsignati estis in populum peculiarem Deo, vi- 
1 John iv. riliter agite et confortamini ; major enim est qui est in nobis 
Rom. viii. quam qui est in mundo. Scitis autem quod omne, quod na- 
tum est ex Deo, vincit mundum, et hsec est victoria quae 
vincit mundum, fides nostra. Fremat, frendat, et insseviat" 
quantumlibet mundus ; scitote quod nemo potest nos tollere de 
manu Patris, quia major est omnibus: qui proprio filio suo 
non pepercit, sed pro nobis omnibus tradidit ilium ; et proinde 
qui fieri potest ut non cum illo omnia nobis donet? Quis 
intentabit crimina adversus electos Dei? Deus est qui jus- 
tificat : quis ille qui condemnet ? Christus est qui mortuus, 
immo et qui suscitatus est, qui et intercedit pro nobis. Quis 
nos separabit a dilectione Dei? Num afflictio? Num an- 
gustia ? Num persecutio ? Num fames ? Num nuditas ? Num 
periculum ? Num gladius ? — Reliqua nostis, fratres. Speramus 
plane cum Paulo, per gratiam Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 
quod nihil prorsus nos poterit separare a dilectione Dei, quae 
est in Christo Jesu Domino nostro. Quod ut et vobis sit, 
et nobis omnibus contingat gratia et misericordia servatoris 
nostri Jesu Christi, et nos pro vobis (Deo volente) indesi- 
nenter orabimus, et vos pro nobis ne aliquando orare desinatis, 
etiam atque etiam in visceribus Jesu Christi, fratres in Do- 


mino charissimi, quantum possumus obnixe precamur. Bene 
valete, fratres charissimi. Gratia Domini nostri Jesu Christi 
sit semper cum omnibus vobis. Amen. 

Vester in Domino, N. E. 

LETTER IX. (Coverdale.) 

To my most dear Brother, and reverend fellow Elder in 
Christ, John Hooper, grace and peace. 

My dearly beloved brother and fellow elder, whom I 
reverence in the Lord, pardon me, I beseech you, that hitherto, 
since your captivity and mine, I have not saluted you by 
my letters: whereas, I do indeed confess, I have received 
from you (such was your gentleness,) two letters at sundry 
times, but yet at such times as I could not be suffered to write- 
unto you again; or if I might have written, yet was I 
greatly in doubt, lest my letters should not safely come unto 
your hands. But now, my dear brother, forasmuch as I 
understand by your works, which I have yet but superfi- 
cially seen, that we thoroughly agree and wholly consent 
together in those things which are the grounds and sub- 
stantial points of our religion, against the which the world 
so furiously rageth in these our days, howsoever in time past 
in smaller matters and circumstances of religion, your wisdom 
and my simplicity (I confess) have in some points varied: 
now, I say, be you assured, that even with my whole heart, 
(God is my witness,) in the bowels of Christ, I love you, 
and in truth, for the truth's sake which abideth in us, and 
(as I am persuaded) shall by the grace of God abide with 
us for evermore. And because the world, as I perceive, 
brother, ceaseth not to play his pageant, and busily con- 
spireth against Christ our Saviour, with all possible force 
and power, exalting high things against the knowledge of 
God, let us join hands together in Christ; and if we cannot 
overthrow, yet to our power, and as much as in us lieth, 
let us shake those high things, not with carnal, but with 
spiritual weapons ; and withal, brother, let us prepare our- 
selves to the day of our dissolution ; whereby after the short 



time of this bodily affliction, by the grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, we shall triumph together with him in eternal glory. 
I pray you, brother, salute in my name that reverend 
father, your fellow prisoner, Dr Crome ; by whom, since the 
first day that I heard of his most godly and fatherly con- 
stancy in confessing the truth of the Gospel, I have conceived 
great consolation and joy in the Lord. For the integrity 
and uprightness, the gravity and innocency of that man all 
England, I think, hath known long ago. Blessed be God 
therefore, which in such abundance of iniquity and decay of 
all godliness hath given unto us, in this reverend old age, 
such a witness for the truth of his Gospel. Miserable and 
hard-hearted is he, whom the godliness and constant confes- 
sion of so worthy, so grave, and innocent a man will not 
move to acknowledge and confess the truth of God. I do 
not now, brother, require you to write any thing to me 
again; for I stand much in fear lest your letters should be 
intercepted before they can come to my hands. Neverthe- 
less know you, that it shall be to me great joy to hear of 
your constancy and fortitude in the Lord's quarrel. And 
albeit I have not hitherto written unto you, yet have I twice, 
as I could, sent unto you my mind touching the matter 
which in your letters you required to know, neither can I. 
yet, brother, be otherwise persuaded. I see, methinks, so 
many perils whereby I am earnestly moved to counsel you 
not to hasten the publishing of your works, especially under 
the title of your own name. For I fear greatly, lest by this 
occasion, both your mouth should be stopped hereafter, and 
all things taken away from the rest of the prisoners ; whereby 
otherwise, if it so please God, they may be able to do good 
to many. Farewell in the Lord, my most dear brother ; and 
if there be any more in prison with you for Christ's cause, 
I beseech you, as you may, salute them in my name ; to 
whose prayers I do most humbly and heartily commend 
myself and my fellow-prisoners, concaptives in the Lord : 
and yet once again and for ever in Christ, my most dear 
brother, farewell. 




Charissimo fratri et mnerabili in Christo compresbytero 
loanni Hopero gratiam et pacem. 

Dilecte frater et venerabilis in Christo compresbyter, 
condonet mihi precor tua dilectio, quod hactenus a tua cap- 
tivitate, tua simul et mea, tuam dilectionem meis literis non 
salutaverim, quando (ingenue fateor) mihi abs te (quae tua 
erat humanitas) binse literae datae fuerunt, diversis quidem 
teraporibus, sed eis semper profecto in quibus aut mihi per 
iniquitatem temporis rescribere bene non licuit, aut, si rescrip- 
sissem, de literis ad te tuto perferendis multum dubitavi. Jam 
vero, charissime frater, quum ex illis tuis lucubrationibus, quas 
mihi non nisi obiter videre contigit, facile intelligo nos in iis 
quae sunt nostrae religionis fundamenta et bases omnium (ad- 
versus quas mundus hodie tantopere insanit) probe convenire 
et in unum conspirare, utcumque in rebus minoribus et reli- 
gionis appendicibus olim tua prudentia et mea simplicitas in 
aliquibus (fateor) uterque suum sensum habebat : jam, inquam, 
cognoscat tua dilectio, quod ex animo (Deus mihi testis est) 
in visceribus Christi te diligam, frater in veritate, propter 
veritatem quae permanet in nobis, et, ut mihi persuasum ha- 
beo, per gratiam Dei permanebit nobiscum in aeternum. 
Quoniam autem (uti video, frater) mundus causam suam agere 
non cessat, et contra Christum Servatorem quantum potest 
maximis munitionibus conspirat, et summas conatur erigere 
altitudines adversus cognitionem Dei, jungamus, frater, dex-2Cor. x. 
tras in Christo, et pro nostro virili, quantumque in nobis 
situm erit, non armis carnalibus sed spiritualibus, si non pos- 
sumus demoliri, saltern pulsemus illas altitudines : et simul 
nos jam, frater, praeparemus ad diem dissolutionis nostrae, per 
quam cum Christo post momentaneam carnis istius nostrae 
afflictionem in seternum, gratia Domini Jesu Christi, simul 
cum illo triumphabimus in gloria sempiterna. 

Obsecro, frater, salutameo nomine venerandum ilium tuum 
concaptivum et mihi vere venerabilem patrem D. Cromerum; 
de quo (mihi crede) ex primo die quo de ejus sanctissima et 
gravissima constantia in confessione veritatis evangelicae au- 
divi, semper maximam consolationem maximumque gaudium 


concepi in Domino : integritatem enim ejus viri, gravitatem, 
et innocentiam, jampridem universa pene (credo) novit Anglia. 
Benedictus igitur Deus, qui nobis in tanta abundantia iniqui- 
tatis, et in tanta ruina pietatis, talem nobis dedit in isthac 
veneranda canitie testem sui Evangelii veritati. Infelix quem 
tanti viri, tarn gravis et innocentis, pietas et constans con- 
fessio nihil permovere possunt ad cognoscendam veritatem 
Dei. Non peto jam, frater, ut mihi quicquam rescribas, 
multum enim vereor ne literse intercipiantur : quanquam scias 
mihi de tua constantia et fortitudine in Domini causa audire 
semper fore gratissimum. Et ut tuse fraternitati hactenus 
non rescripserim, bis tamen (ut potui) tibi significandum cu- 
ravi quod a me in tuis literis cognoscere voluisti. Nee adhuc 
profecto, frater, possum animum meum mutare : tot enim mihi 
videre videor pericula, quae me impellunt ut consulam, ne 
tuarum lucubrationum editionem festinare velis, saltern sub 
titulo nominis tui. Multum enim vereor ne hac occasione et 
tibi os obstruatur in posterum, et aliis quoque captivis omnia 
auferantur, quibus alioqui multis, Deo ita volente, poterunt 
prodesse. Bene vale in Domino, charissime frater, et siqui 
alii in vestris sedibus sunt vobiscum in causa Christi concap- 
tivi, precor illis meo nomine salutem, uti possis, velis im- 
partiri; et omnium vestrum precibus apud Dominum me 
atque meos concaptivos in Domino etiam atque etiam humil- 
lime commendo ; et rursus atque in setemum in Christo bene 
vale, frater charissime. 

LETTEE X. (Oovekdale.) 

To Master Bradford, Prisoner in the King's Bench. 

Well beloved in Christ our Saviour, we all with one 
heart wish you, with all those that love God in deed and 
truth, grace and health; and specially to our dearly beloved 
companions, which are in Christ's cause, and the cause both 
of their brethren and their own salvation, ready and willing 
to put their neck under the yoke of Christ's cross. How 
joyful it was to us to hear the report of Doctor Taylor, 
-assure. and of his godly confession, &c, I ensure 3, you it is hard 


for me to express. Blessed be God which was, and is, the 
giver of that and all godly strength and stomach in the time 
of adversity. As for the rumours that have and do go abroad, 
either of our relenting or massing, we trust that they which 
know God and their duty towards their brethren in Christ, 
will not be too light of credit to believe them. It is not the 
slanderer's evil tongue, but a man's own evil deed, that can 
with God defile a man; and therefore, by God's grace, you 
shall never have cause to do otherwise than you say you do, 
that is, not to doubt but that we will continue, &c. Like 
rumour as you have heard of our coming to London, hath 
been here spread of the coming of certain learned men 
prisoners hither from London ; but as yet we know no cer- 
tainty whether of these rumours is or shall be more true. 
Know you, that we have you in our daily remembrance, and 
wish you and all the rest of our aforesaid companions well in 
Christ. It should do us much comfort, if we might have 
knowledge of the state of the rest of our most dearly beloved, 
which in this troublesome time do stand in Christ's cause, 
and in the defence of the truth thereof. We are in good 
health, thanks be to God, and yet the manner of our treat- 
ment doth change as sour ale doth in summer. It is reported 
to us of our keepers, that the University beareth us heavily 5 . 61 ?f, t ? ui 
A coal chanced to fall in the night out of the chimney, 
and burnt a hole in the floor, and no more harm was done, 
the bailiffs' servants sitting by the fire. Another night there 
chanced a drunken fellow to multiply words, and for the same 
he was set in Bocardo. Upon these things, as is reported, Bocardo is 
there is risen a rumour m the town and country about, that and filth y 

, ; , prison for 

we would have broken the prison with such violence as, if drunkards, 

. , , whores, and 

the bailiffs had not played the pretty men, we should have harlots, and 
made an escape. We had out of our prison a wall that we sort °L pe £" 
might have walked upon, and our servants had liberty to 
go abroad in the town or fields; but now both they and 
we are restrained of both. The Bishop of Worcester passed 
by us, through Oxford, but he did not visit us. The same 
day began our restraint to be more, and the Book of the 
Communion was taken from us by the bailiffs at the mayor's 
commandment. No man is licensed to come unto us. Afore 
they might, that would, see us upon the wall ; but that is so 


grudged at, and so evil reported, that we are now restrained, 
&c. Sir, blessed be God, with all our evil reports, grudg- 
ings, and restraints, we are merry in God; and all our care 
is, and shall be by God's grace, to please and serve him, of 
whom we look and hope, after this temporal and momentary 
miseries, to have eternal joy and perpetual felicity with Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob, Peter, and Paul, and all the blessed 
company of the angels in heaven, through Jesus Christ our 
Lord. As yet there was never learned man, or any scholar 
or other, that visited us since we came into Bocardo, which 
now in Oxford may be called a college of quondams; for as 
you know, we be no fewer here than three, and I dare say r 
every one well contented with his portion, which I do reckon 
to be our heavenly Father's gracious and fatherly good gift. 
Thus fare you well. We shall, with God's grace, one day 
meet together and be merry : the day assuredly approacheth 
apace. The Lord grant that it may shortly come ; for before 
the day come, I fear the world will wax worse and worse. 
But then all our enemies shall be overthrown and trodden 
under foot, righteousness and truth then shall have the victory, 
and bear the bell away; whereof the Lord grant us to be 
partners, and all that sincerely love the truth. We all pray 
you, as you can, to cause all our commendations to be made 
to all such, as you know did visit us and you when we were 
in the Tower with their friendly remembrances and benefits. 
Mistress Wilkinson and Mistress Warcup have not for- 
gotten us ; but even since we came into Bocardo, with their 
charitable and friendly benevolence have comforted us : not 
that else we lack, (for God be blessed, which ever hitherto 
hath provided sufficiently for us,) but it is a great comfort 
and an occasion for us to bless God, when we see that he 
maketh them so friendly to tender us, whom some of us 
were never familiarly acquainted withal. 

Yours in Christ, N. E. 



To Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Latimer, being 
separated from him, and prisoners in several *■ places. "separate. 

The cause of my brother's imprisonment is this, so far 
as I can perceive. There is a young man called Mr Grim- 
bold, which was my chaplain, a preacher, and a man of 
much eloquence both in the English and also in the Latin. 
To this man, being desirous of all things which I had writ- 
ten and done since the beginning of mine imprisonment, 
my brother (as is said) hath sent copies, no more but b of 'than. 
all things that I have done. First, a little treatise which 
Mr Latimer and I wrote in the Tower; where there is be- 
fore my sayings, N. R. and before Mr Latimer, H. L. 1 Also 
another draught, which I drew out of the Evangelists and 
of St Paul, that the words of the Lord's Supper are figu- 
ratively to be understood ; alleging out of the doctors only 
six, three of the Greek church, which are Origen, Chrysost. 
ad Oesa. monachum, and Theodoret ; and three of the Latin 
church, Tertullian, Augustine, and Gelasius. He had of my 
brother also a copy of my Three Positions to the Three 
Questions here propounded to us at Oxford. Then also a 
copy of my disputation in the Schools, as I wrote it my- 
self after the disputation. Item the letter, Ad fratres in 
diversis carceribus. All these things they have gotten of 
Grimbold, as my brother doth suppose; not that Grimbold 
hath betrayed him, but (as is supposed) one which my brother 
trusted to carry his letters unto Grimbold: for it will not 
sink into my head to think that Grimbold would ever play 
me such a Judas's part. Although these things are chanced 
far otherwise than I had thought they should, (for my mind 
was that they should not have come abroad until my body 
had been laid to rest in peace,) yet truly I suppose this is 
not thus chanced without God's gracious providence, which 
he hath over all his, and I trust that God of his goodness 
shall turn it to his own glory. For it shall evidently appear 
to the reader of these things which they have, that the cause 
why I do dissent from the Romish religion is not any study 

[} "The conferences with Hugh Latimer." En.] 



of vain glory or of singularity, but of conscience, of my 
bound duty towards God and towards Christ's church, and 
the salvation of mine own soul; for the which, by God's 
grace, I will willingly jeopard here to lose life, land, and 
goods, name and fame, and what else is or can be unto me 
pleasant in this world. My brother as yet, because they 
neither shewed any commission or authority whereby they 
did examine him, nor also anything of his letters (although 
they said they had them), as yet I say my brother hath 
confessed nothing. But I look for none other but he shall 
be forced to tell where he had the copies, and where they 
be, and I will be content that he shall say the truth, that 
he had them all of me ; let them come and take them, and 
cast them into the fire, if God know they will promote his 
glory; they can do no more than he will suffer them. Be- 
cause in the book of N. R. and H. L. it is said in the end, 
that H. L. hath caused his servant to write it ; I would 
Austin 1 should have word, if any further search be, to keep 
'himself. him c out of the way. God shall reward you both for my 
brother ; you, my lord of Canterbury, for your meat and daily 
comfort, and you, father L. for your money and comfortable 
messages. I trust in God my brother, though he be young, 
yet will study to learn to bear Christ's cross patiently, as a 
young scholar in Christ's school. God increase his grace in 
us all. Amen. 

LETTER XII. (Coverdale.) 

Letter from Doctor Ridley to the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury (Cranmer). 

I wish ye might have seen these mine answers before 
I had delivered them, that ye might have corrected them. 
But I trust, in the substance of the matter we do agree 
fully, both led by one Spirit of truth, and both walking after 
one rule of God's word. It is said, that Sergeant Morgan 2 , 

[} Augustine Berneher. Ed.] 

[ 2 Sergeant Morgan, after the trial of Lady Jane Grey, is said to 
have had her figure continually before his eyes, and to have cried out 
incessantly, "Take away the Lady Jane." Ed.] 


the chief justice of the Common Pleas, is gone mad. It is ™r<4 U rf lce 
said also, that Justice Hales hath recanted, perverted by f£™, s * n ~ 
Doctor Moreman. Item, that Master Eogers, Doctor f^jf'c 
Crome, and Master Bradford, shall be had to Cambridge, 
and there be disputed with as we were here; and that the 

doctors of Oxford shall go likewise thither, as Cambridge Disputa- 

i tl0ns ln 

men came hither. When you have read mine answers, send Cambridge 

J ' intended. 

them again to Austin, except ye will put any thing to them. M - c. 
I trust, the day of our delivery out of all miseries, and of 
our entrance into perpetual rest, and unto perpetual joy and 
felicity, draweth nigh. The Lord strengthen us with his 
mighty Spirit of grace .' 

If you have not what to write with, you must make your 
man your friend. And this bearer deserveth to be rewarded, 
so he may and will do you pleasure. My man is trusty ; 
but it grieveth both him and me, that when I send him with 
any thing to you, your man will not let him come up to see 
you, as he may to Master Latimer, and yours to me. I 
have a promise to see how my answers were written in the 
schools, but as yet I cannot come by it. Pray for me, I be- 
seech you, and so shall I for you. The Lord have mercy 
of his church, and lighten the eyes of the magistrates, that 
God's extreme plagues light not on this realm of England ! 

Turn or burn. 

LETTER XIII. (Coverdale.) 
To Master Bradford. 

Dearly beloved, I wish you grace, mercy, and peace. 
According to your mind I have run over all your papers 3 , and This was 
what I have done, (which is but small,) therein may appear. th e cam- 
Sir, what shall best be done with these things, now you must wthother 
consider: for if they come in sight at this time, undoubtedly ]Y ni ck Mr 
they must to the fire with their father ; and as for any safe- sent t0 him 

■" •'to peruse 

guard that your custody can be unto them, I am sure you «id to give 
look not for it : for as you have been partner of the works, ™ ent J h c re " 

P The treatise in question was first printed in 1574, and afterwards 
with a preface by Thos. Sampson, a. d. 1581. Ed.] 


so, I am sure, you look for none other but to have and 
receive like wages, and to drink of the same cup. Blessed 
be God, that hath given you liberty in the mean season, 
that you may use your pen to his glory, and to the comfort 
(as I hear say) of many. I bless God daily in you and all 
your whole company, to whom I beseech you to commend 
me heartily. Now I love my countryman in deed and in 
truth, I mean Doctor Taylor, not now for my earthly country's 
sake, but for our heavenly Father's sake, whom (I heard 
say) he did so stoutly in time of peril confess; and yet 
also now for our country's sake, and for all our mother's 
sake, but I mean of the kingdom of heaven and of heavenly 
Jerusalem, and because of the Spirit which bringeth in him, 
in you, and in your company, such blessed fruits of holiness 
in the Lord's cause, of patience, and constancy. The Lord 
which hath begun this work in you all, perform and perfect 
this his own deed until his own day come. Amen. 

As yet, I perceive you have not been baited 1 ; and the 
cause thereof God knoweth ; which will let them do no more 

"blessed, to his, than is his pleased 3, will and good pleasure to suffer 
them to do for his own glory, and to the profit of them 
which be truly his. For the Father which doth guide them 
that be Christ's to Christ, is more mighty than all they, 
and no man is able to pull them out of the Father's hands. 
Except, I say, it please our Father, it please our Master 
Christ to suffer them, they shall not be able to stir one hair 
of your heads. My brother P. 2 , the bearer hereof, would 
that we should say what we think good concerning your 

'purpose. m ind b : that is, not for to answer, except ye might have 
somewhat indifferent judges. We are (as ye know) sepa- 
rated, and one of us cannot in any thing consult with 
another, and much strait watching of the bailiffs is about 
us, that there be no privy conference amongst us. And yet 

iiiwm more fa we near ) the scholars bear us more heavily than the 
townsmen. A wonderful thing ! among so many, never yet 

[} It was intended, though the design was never carried into exe- 
cution, to carry Bradford, Hooper, Farrar, Taylor, and others, to Cam- 
bridge, to hold a public disputation there, as had been done with Ridley, 
Cranmer and Latimer at Oxford. See the preceding letter. Ed.] 

[ 2 Probably William Punt. Ed.] 



scholar offered to any of us (so far as I know) any manner 
of favour, either for or in Christ's cause. Now, as con- 
cerning your demand of our counsel ; for my part, I do not 
mislike that which I perceive ye are minded to do: for I 
look for none other but, if ye answer before the same com- 
missioners that we did, ye shall be served and handled as 
we were, though ye were as well learned as ever was either 
Peter or Paul. And yet further, I think that occasion after- 
wards may be given you, and the consideration of the profit 
of your auditory may, perchance, move you to do otherwise. 
Finally, determinately to say what shall be best, I am not 
able : but I trust He, whose cause ye have in hand, shall put 
you in mind to do that which shall be most for his glory, 
the profit of his flock, and your own salvation. This letter 
must be common to you and Mr Hooper, in whom and in his 
prison-fellow, good father Orome, I bless God even from 
the bottom of my heart; for I doubt not but they both do 
to our Master Christ true, acceptable and honourable service, 
and profitable to his flock, the one with his pen, and the 
other with his fatherly example of patience and constancy 
and all manner of true godliness. But what shall I need 
to say to you, Let this be common among your brethren? 
among whom, I dare say, it is with you, as it is with us, 
to whom all things here are common : meat, money, and 
whatsoever one of us hath, that can or may do another good. 
Although I said the bailiffs and our hosts straitly watch 
us, that we have no conference or intelligence of anything 
abroad, yet hath God provided for every one of us in the 
Stead of our servants faithful fellows which will be content 
to hear and see, and to do for us whatsoever they can. It 
is God's work surely, blessed be God for his unspeakable 
goodness. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love 
of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you 
all. Amen, Amen. As far as London is from Oxford, yet 
thence we have received of late both meat, money, and shirts ; 
not only from such as are of our acquaintance, but of some 
whom this bearer can tell, with whom I had never to my 
knowledge any acquaintance. I know for whose sake they 
do it : to him, therefore, be all honour, glory, and due thanks. 
And yet, I pray you do so much as to shew them that we 



have received their benevolence, and (God be blessed) have 
plenty of all such things. This I desire you to do, for I 
know they be of Mr Hooper's and your familiar acquaintance. 
heaith e n]. n Mr Latimer was crazed d , but I hear now, thanks be to God, 
that he amendeth again. 

Yours in Christ, 


LETTER XIV. (Coverdale.) 
To Master Bradford. 

Brother Bradford, I wish you and your company in 
Christ, yea, and all the holy brotherhood, that now with you 
in divers prisons suffereth and beareth patiently Christ's cross 
for the maintenance of his gospel, grace, mercy, and peace 
from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ. Sir, 
considering the state of this chivalry and warfare, wherein I 
doubt not but we be set to fight under Christ's banner and 
his cross against our ghostly enemy the devil, and the old 
serpent Satan, methink I perceive two things to be his most 
perilous and most dangerous engines which he hath to im- 
pugn Christ's verity, his Gospel, his faith : and the same two 
also to be the most massy posts and most mighty pillars^ 
whereby he maintaineth and upholdeth his Satanical synagogue* 
These two, sir, are they in my judgment: the one his false 
doctrine and idolatrical use of the Lord's supper; and the 
other, the wicked and abominable usurpation of the primacy 
of the see of Rome. By these two Satan seemeth to me 
principally to maintain and uphold his kingdom: by these 

Apoc.viii. two, he driveth down mightily (alas! I fear me), the third 
part of the stars in heaven. These two poisonful rotten posts 
he hath so painted over with such a pretence and colour of 
religion, of unity in Christ's church, of the catholic faith, and 
such like, that the wily serpent is able to deceive, if it were 
possible, even the elect of God. Wherefore John said not 

Apoc. ji. without great cause, "If any know not Satan's subtilities 
and the dungeons thereof, I will wish him no other burden 
to be laden withal." Sir, because these be his principal and 
main posts whereupon standeth all his , falsehood, craft, and 



treachery; therefore, according to the poor power that God 
hath given me, I have bended mine artillery to shoot at the 
same. I know it to be little (God knoweth) that I can do ; 
and of my shot I know they pass a not. Yet will I not (God "regard. 
willing) cease to do the best that I can, to shake those 
cankered and rotten posts. The Lord grant me good suc- 
cess, to the glory of his name, and the furtherance of Christ's 
Gospel. I have now already (I thank God) for this present 
time spent a good part of my powder in these scribblings, 
whereof this bearer shall give you knowledge. Good brother 
Bradford, let the wicked surmise and say what they list; 
know you for a certainty by God's grace, without all doubt, 
that in Christ's Gospel's cause, against and upon the foresaid 
God's enemies, I am fully determined to live and die. Fare- 
well, dear brother; and I beseech you and all the rest of 
our brethren, to have good remembrance of the condemned 
heretics (as they call them) of Oxford in your prayers. The 
bearer shall certify you of our state. Farewell in the Lord. 
From Bocardo. Yours in Christ, N. E. 

LETTER XV. (Coverdale.) 
To Master Bradford. 

Dearly beloved brother, blessed be God our heavenly 
Father for his manifold and innumerable mercies towards us ; 
and blessed might he be that hath spared us long together, 
that each one of us may bless his mercy and clemency in 
other, unto this day, above the expectation and hope of any 
worldly appearance. 

Whereas you write of the outrageous rule that Satan, our 
ghostly enemy, beareth abroad in the world, whereby he stir- 
reth and raiseth so pestilent and heinous heresies, as some 
to deny the blessed Trinity, some the divinity of our Saviour 
Christ, some the divinity of the Holy Ghost, some the bap- 
tism of infants, some original sin, and to be infected with the 
errors of the Pelagians, and to re-baptize those that have been 
baptized with Christ's baptism already; alas, Sir, this doth 
declare this time and these days to be wicked indeed ! But 


what can we look for else of Satan here, and of his mi- 
nisters, but to do the worst that they can, so far forth as 
God shall or will suffer them ? And now, methink, he is less 
to be marvelled at at this time, if he bestir him by all man- 
ner of means, that the truth indeed do take no place. For 
he seeth now, blessed be God ! that some go about in deed 
and in truth, not trifling, but with the loss of all that they 
are able to lose in this world, goods, lands, name, fame, and 
life also, to set forth God's word and his truth ; and by God's 
grace shall do, and abide in the same unto the end : now 
therefore it is time to bestir him, I trow. And as for the 
diversity of errors, what careth he though one be never so 
contrary to another? He reckoneth all (and so he may) to 
be his, whosoever prevail, so that truth prevail not. Never- 
theless, good brother, I suppose that the universal plague is 
most dangerous, which at this day is (alas !) fostered and 
masterfully holden up by wit, worldly policy, multitude of peo- 
ple, power, and all worldly means. As for other the devil's 
en^nefo!? g a ^ r0 P esa that he casteth in our ways by some of his busy- 
Svairy ff headed younkers, I trust they shall never be able to do the 
M - c - multitude so great harm. For, blessed be God ! these heresies 
before time, when Satan by his servants hath been about to 
broach them, have by God's servants already been so sharply 
and truly confounded, that the multitude was never infected 
with them, or else, where they have been infected, they are 
He meaneth healed again, that now the peril is not so great. And where 

here the ° ' . r & , 

matter of you say, that if your request had been heard, things (you 
Won, where- think) had been in better case than they be : know you that 

of he after- ' . . 

ward wrote concerning; the matter you mean, I have in Latin drawn out 

a godly and ° * ' 

comfortable the places of the Scriptures, and upon the same have noted 

treatise, re- 1 i ' j. 

™™ningyet what I can for the time. Sir, in those matters I am so fear- 
in the hands ' 

hlreaft e er and m ^' tna t ^ ^ are not s P ea ^ farther, yea, almost none otherwise, 
to lirfrMf tnan * ne vei 7 text d° tn as ^ were k a( * me ky ^e hand. And 
Godjso will, -where you exhort us to help, &c. ; Lord, what is else in 

this world that we now should list to do? I bless my Lord 
God, I never (as methinketh), had more nor better leisure 
to be occupied with my pen in such things .as I can do, to 
set forth (when they may come to light) God's glory. And 
I bless my Lord God through Jesus Christ, my heart and 
my work are therein occupied, not so fully and perfectly as 



I would, but yet so as I bless God for the same. Farewell, 
dear brother ; the messenger tarrieth, and I may not now be 
longer with you. The Lord, I trust verily, shall bring us 
thither, where we shall each one with other in Christ our 
Saviour rejoice and be merry everlastingly. 

Your brother in Christ, N. R. 

LETTER XYI. (Coverdale.) 

To Master Bradford, 

Dearly beloved brother Bradford, I had thought of late 
that I had written unto you your last farewell, (until we 
should have met in the kingdom of heaven,) by our dear 
brother Austin : and I sent it to meet you in Lancashire ; 
whither, it was said here, you were appointed to be sent to 
suffer. But now, since they have changed their purpose, 
and prolonged 3, your death, I understand it is no other « deferred. 
thing than that once happened to Peter and Paul. The 
which, although they were of the first which were cast in 
prison, and as little shunned peril as any other did, yet 
God would not have them put to death with the first, be- 
cause he had more service to be done by their ministry, 
which his gracious pleasure was they should do. So with- 
out doubt, dear brother, I am persuaded that the same is 
the cause of the delay of your martyrdom. Blessed be the 
Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 
for your threefold confession. I have read all three with 
great comfort and joy, and thanksgiving unto God for his 
manifold gifts of grace, wherewith it is manifest to the 
godly reader that GOD did assist you mightily. And blessed 
be God again and again, which gave you so good a mind 
and remembrance of your oath once made against the bishop 
of Rome, lest you should be partaker of the common per- 
jury which all men almost are now fallen into, in bringing 
in again that wicked usurped power of his. Which oath 
was made according to the prophet, " in judgment, in right- Jer. iv. 
eousness, and in truth ; " and therefore cannot without perjury 
be revoked, let Satan roar and rage, and practise all the 




cruelty he can. Oh, good Lord, that they are so busy with 
you about the church ! It is no new thing, brother, that 
is happened unto you ; for that was always the clamour of 
the wicked bishops and priests against God's true prophets : 

Ezek.vii. »The temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord, the 
temple of the Lord: r> and they said, "The law shall not 
depart from the priest, nor wisdom from the elder:" and yet 

* singularly, in them whom they only b esteemed for their priests and 
sages, there was neither God's law nor godly wisdom. It is 
a marvellous thing to hear what vain communication is spread 
abroad of you. It is said here, that you be pardoned your 
life ; and when you were appointed to be banished and to go, 
(I cannot tell whither) you should say that you had rather 
here suffer, than go where you could not live after your con- 
science ; and that this pardon should be begged for you by 
Bourne, the bishop of Bath, for that you saved his life 1 . Again, 
some say, and among other mine host reported, that you 
are highly promoted, and are a great man with my lord 
chancellor. This I could not believe, but did deny it as a 
false lie : so surely was I always persuaded of your constancy. 
What God will do with us, he knoweth. In the mean time, 
wonderful it is to behold how the wisdom of GOD hath in- 
fatuated the policy of the world, and scattered the crafty 
devices of the worldly wise. For when the state of religion 

'furious. was once altered, and persecution began to wax whole , no 
man doubted but Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley, should have 
been the first to have been called to the stake. But the 
subtle policy of the world, setting us apart, first assaulted 
them by whose infirmity they thought to have more advan- 
tage ; but God disappointed their subtle purpose. For whom 
the world esteemed weakest (praised be God), they have 
found most strong, sound and valiant, in Christ's cause, 
unto the death ; to give such an onset as, I dare say, all 
the angels in heaven do no less rejoice to behold in them, 
than they did in the victorious constancy of Peter, Paul, 

[} Immediately after the accession of Queen Mary, bishop Bourne was 
appointed to preach at Paul's Cross. In his sermon he spoke so much 
against the late King Edward VI. and the reformation, that a tumult 
was excited, and he would probably have suffered injury, had not 
Bradford stood forward and protected him. Ed.] 


Esay, Elias, or Jeremy. " For greater love no man hath, John xv. 
than to bestow his life, - " &c. Good brother, have me and 
us all continually in your remembrance to God in your 
prayers, as, God willing, we shall not be in our prayers for- 
getful of you. 

Your own in Christ, N. R. 

LETTER XVII. (Coverdale.) 
To Master Bradford. 

Brother Bradford, I wish you in Christ our Saviour 
grace, mercy and peace, and to all them which are with 
you or any where else captives in Christ ; and to hear that 
ye be all in good health, and stand constantly in the con- 
fession of Christ's gospel, it doth heartily rejoice us. Know 
you likewise that we all here be (thanks be to God !) in 
good health and comfort, watching with our lamps alight (I 
trust in God), when it shall please our master, the bride- Matt. x.w. 
groom, to call us to wait upon him unto the marriage. 
Now, we suppose, the day doth approach apace, for we 
hear that the parliament is dissolved. The burgesses of 
Oxford are come home, and other news we hear not, but 
that the king is made protector to the prince to be born, 
and that the bishops have full authority, ex officio, to inquire 
of heresies. Before the parliament began, it was a rumour 
here, that certain from the convocation house was appointed, 
yea, ready to have come to Oxford, and then there was spied 
out one thing to lack, for want of a law to perform their 
intent. Now, seeing they can want no law, we cannot but 
look for them shortly : I trust to God's glory, let them come 
when they will ; &c. 

Brother Bradford, I marvel greatly of good Austin, where 
he is, for that I heard say he promised his master to have 
been here before this time ; and he had from me that I 
would be loth to lose, yea, to want, when time shall be that 
it might do (nay, help me to do) my lord and my master 
Christ service : I mean my scribblings z de abominationibus 

Q 2 Concerning the abominations of the Roman see and of the Roman 
pontiffs. Ed.] 




sedis Romance et pontificum Romano-rum. I have no copy of 
the same, and I look daily to be called in l certamen cum 
antiquo serpents ; and so I told him and, I ween, you also, 
by whose means I was more moved to let him have them. 
I doubt not of his fidelity. I pray God he be in health 
and at liberty ; for I have been and am careful a for him. I 
have heard that Master Grimbold 2 hath gotten his liberty; 
if without any blemish of Chrisfs glory, I am right glad 
thereof. My brother-in-law is where he was, that is in Bo- 
cardo, the common gaol of the town. I have written here 
a letter to Master Hooper ; I pray you cause it to be writ- 
ten to him again. Commend me to all your prison fellows 
and our brethren in Christ. If Austin were here, I would 
have had more to say. The Lord grant that all be with 
him well ; who ever preserve you, and all that love our 
Saviour Christ in sincerity and truth. Amen. 

Yours, by God's grace, in our master Christ's cause, unto 
the stake ; and thenceforth without all danger and peril for 
ever and ever. I am sure you have heard of our new ap- 
parel, and I doubt not but London will have their talk of it. 
Sir, know you that although this seemeth to us in our case 
much thanks-worthy, yet have we not that apparel that we 
look for : for this in time will wear ; and that which we 
look for, rightly done on, will endure, and is called stola 
immortalitatis 3 . 

N. R. 

LETTER XVIII. (Coverdale.) 

To Augustine Berneher, then servant to Master Latimer, 
and now a faithful minister in Chrisfs church ; to whom, 
because he might not come to the prison to speak with 
him, he wrote as followeth. 

Brother Austin, you are heartily welcome to Oxford 
again; you have made good speed indeed; and blessed be 

[} Into conflict with the old serpent. Ed.] 

[ 2 " Master Grimbold." This man had been one of Ridley's chap- 
lains, but turned to popery, and for some time acted as a spy among 
those who were in prison for religion. Ed.] 

P The robe of immortality. Ed.] 


God for his gracious goodness, that all is well with you. 
That our dearly beloved brethren in Christ are all in good 
comfort, hearty in Christ's cause, and stand stedfast in the 
confession of his true doctrine ; it rejoiceth (I ensure a " assure. 
you) my heart in God to hear of it. This day was Doctor 
Croke, [the Grecian 4 ,] with me [at dinner 5 ,] and both he and 
Mistress Irish, mine hostess, told me that Master Hooper 
is hanged, drawn, and quartered for treason ; but I did not 
believe them, for it is not the first tale that mine hostess 
hath told me of M. Hooper. And I trust the tidings that 
were here spread abroad since your departure, that Master 
Grimbold also should have been ararigned and condemned 
for treason to be hanged and quartered, was not true : let me 
hear if there be any such thing. Not three days ago there 
was a privy warning given me from a man of God, one 
Lifley, a glover, that we prisoners here all three should be 
shortly and suddenly conveyed into three several colleges; 
for what purpose, and how to be ordered, God knoweth. 
At the which time, and at the earnest request of that fore- 
named man of God, I did deliver unto him some of the 
things I had in hand, to write out : what they be, you shall 
know of him. Beside the things which he hath, I have some 
things else, which (if it please God) I would wish might come, 
to light, if perchance any thereby might receive the light tp< 
love the truth the better, and to abhor the falsehood o£ 
antichrist. I have written annotations e in priorem librum* 
Tonstalli plenius, in secundum vero parcius: optarem ut 
transcriberentur, ne fortassis una mecum fiant sulito Vulcani 
cibus. I have also many things, but as yet confusedly set 
together, of the abominable usurpation, pride, arrogancy, and 
wickedness of the see and bishop of Rome ; and altogether 
in Latin 7 . If those things were written out, I would wish 
that Master Bradford would take them, and translate and 

[ 4 5 MSS. Emm. Coll. Lib. Ed.] 

[ 6 More fully on the first book of Tonstall, but more sparingly 
on the second. I should wish them to be transcribed, lest by chance 
together with myself they should suddenly become a prey to the flames. 

[J This collection of Ridley's probably fell into the possession of Fox 
or Grindall, and furnished some of the materials for the earlier part of 
the Acts and Monuments. Ed.] 

* concern- 


order them as he should think might best help to open the 
eyes of the simple, for to see the wickedness of the syna- 
gogue of Satan. But that at your last being here you cast 
cold water upon mine affection towards Grimbold, else me- 
think I could appoint where he might occupy himself to his 
own profit in learning which he liketh, and to no small 
profit which might ensue to the church of Christ in England : 
as, if he would take in hand to interpret Laurentius Valla, 
which (as he knoweth) is a man of singular eloquence ; his 
book I mean, which he made and wrote against that false 
feigned fable, forged of b Constantinus Magnus, and his dota- 
tion and glorious exaltation of the see of Eome : and when 
he hath done that, let him translate a work of iEneas Silvius 
de gestis Basiliensis Concilii 1 . In the which although there 
be many things that savoureth of the pan, and also he him- 
self was afterward a bishop of Eome, yet, I dare say, the 
papists would glory but a little to see such books go forth 
in English. If you will know where to have these books 
or treatises, you may have them both together, and many 
like treatises, which painteth out the wickedness of the see 
of Eome, in a book set forth by a papist called Ortwinus 
Gratius, entitled Fasciculus rerum expetendarwm ei fugien- 
darum". In that book you shall have confessionem fratrum 
Waldensmm, men of much more learning, godliness, sober- 
ness, and understanding in God's word, than I would have 
thought them to have been in that time, before I did read 
their works. If such things had been set forth in our 
English tongue heretofore, I suppose surely great good might 
have come to Christ's church thereby. To my good lady's 
grace, and to my lady Vane, what thanks can I give, but 
desire Almighty God to lighten, comfort, and strengthen 
them evermore in his ways? The other two whom you 
mention I know not: but the Lord knoweth them; to whom 
in them all and for all their kindness I give most hearty 

[} Concerning the Acts of the Council of Basil. A translation of 
these Acts is given by Fox in his " Acts and Monuments." Ed.] 

£ 3 A bundle of such things as are to be sought after, and such things 
as are to be avoided. A well-known and valuable work published at 
Cologne, a,d. 1535, and to which was added an appendix published in 
London, a.d. 1690, by the Rev. — Browne. Ed.] 


thanks. Master Bradford desireth that thanks should be 
rendered unto you for your comfortable aid wherewith you 
comfort him: but you must tell him that he must bid you 
thank them for him, which are not bound to thank you for 
themselves ; and if he do so, then, I ween, all we prisoners 
of Oxford shall so stop his mouth. 

Brother Austin, you for our comfort do run up and down, 
and who beareth your charges God knoweth. I know you 
must needs in so doing take much pains. I pray you take 
this poor token 3 of my good will towards your charges. 

LETTER XIX. (Coverdale.) 

To Doctor Weston ; requiring performance of certain pro- 
mises made unto him, but never fulfilled, according to the 
accustomed wily and unfaithful dealings of the papists. 

Master Prolocutor, ye remember, I am sure, how you 
promised me openly in the schools, after my protestation, 
that I should see how my answers were there taken and 
written of the notaries, whom you appointed, (me fateor 
neminem recusante 4 ,) to write what should be said; and to 
have had licence for us to have added unto them, or for 
to have altered them, as upon more deliberation should have 
seemed me best. Ye granted" me also, at the delivery of « promised. 
mine answer unto your first proposition, a copy of the same. 
These promises be not performed. If your sudden departure What pro- 
be any part of the cause thereof, yet I pray you remember made openly 
that they may be performed ; for performance of promises is schools that 
to be looked for at a righteous judge's hands. performed, 

read before 

Now I send you here mine answers in writing to yourM.c. 
second and third propositions, and do desire and require 
earnestly a copy of the same : and I shall, by God's grace, 
procure the pains of the writer to be paid for and satisfied 
accordingly. When I would have confirmed my sayings with 
authorities or reasons, you said there openly, that I should 

Q 3 The MS. in the Library of Emm. Coll. Cambridge adds here, 
3*. id. Ed.] 

Q 4 I iconfess, without objection to any one of them on my part. Ed.] 


have had time and place to say and bring whatsoever I could 
another time. And the same your saying was then there 
confirmed of other of the commissioners. Yea, and I dare 
say the audience also thought then that I should have had 
another day to have brought and said what I could say, for 
the declaration and confirmation of mine assertions. Now 
that this was not done, but so suddenly sentence given be- 
fore the cause was perfectly heard, I cannot but marvel at 
all; and the due reformation of all things which are amiss 
I commit unto Almighty God, my heavenly Father, which 
by his dear Son our Saviour Christ, (whom he hath made 
the universal judge of all flesh,) shall truly and righteously 
judge both you and me. 

Master Prolocutor, I desire you, and in God's name re- 
quire you, that you truly bring forth and shew all my three 
answers, written and subscribed with mine own hand, unto the 
higher house of the convocation, and specially unto my Lord 
Chancellor, my Lords of Durham, Ely, Norwich, Worcester, 
and Chichester, and also to shew and exhibit this my writing 
unto them, which in these few lines I write here unto you. 
And that I do make this request unto you by this my 
writing, know you that I did take witness of them by whom 
I did send you this writing, and of those which were then 
with them present, that is, of the bailiffs of Oxford, and of 
Master Irish, Alderman, then there called to be a witness. 
By me, N. Ridley, April 23, 1554. 


.4 Letter sent from Dr Ridley, late Bishop of London (when 
lying in- the Mayors house of Oxford, called Mr Irish), 
unto owe,, William Punt, who brought at that time 
writings from Mr Hooper and Mr Bradford to Dr 
Ridley, Mr Cranmer, and Mr Latimer, to peruse, 
and for that he could not come to him, this letter was 
sent unto the said William into the tovm. Anno 1554. 
MSS. Bibl. Emm. Coll. apud Cantab. 
Brother Punt, ye do know what hath bechanced unto 

my brother of late ; and the truth is also, that this three or 


four days I have been somewhat in a fervent heat, and felt 
in my body a disposition to an ague ; but, thanked be God, it 
assuageth. I have looked for none other, nor yet do, but every 
hour for some to come to make a search. I have in haste read 
over the book, the three chapters. But mine advice is that 
they be not now published, lest they should be lost and no 
profit so might come by them; for I know no state of men, 
neither of high degree or low, lord, lawyer, priest, or lay- 
man (as the world is set now), whom I think would gladly 
receive them, specially of those that are learned in the Latin 
tongue ; yea, and I fear that the setting (them) forth might 
be occasion to have the author of them more hardly to be 
handled, and so peradventure as he should be least able to 
do hereafter any more good either with his tongue or with 
his pen, which were a great pity. What this will come 
unto that they have gotten out by my brother-in-law's be- 
haviour, I cannot tell ; but it was not in my mind that any 
thing should have come abroad in my name, until our bodies 
had been laid at rest. Commend me to all the holy pri- 
soners in Christ, and desire them to pray for me unto our 
gracious Father, that as by my brother's trouble he hath 
somewhat increased my cross, so he will of his gracious 
goodness increase his gifts of grace to his glory and the 
furtherance of his truth. Amen. 


Nicholas Ridley. 

LETTER XXI. (Coverdale.) 

To Master Bradford. 

Oh, dear brother, seeing the time is now come when it 
pleaseth the heavenly Father, for Christ our Saviour his 
sake, to call upon you, and to bid you to come, happy are 
you that ever you were born, thus to be awake at the Lord's 
calling. Buge, serve bone et fidelis, quia super pauca fuisti Matt. xxv. 
fidelis, super multa te constituet, et intrabis in gaudium Do- 
miiii 1 . O dear brother, what meaneth this, that you are 

[ x Well done, good and faithful servant: because thou hast been 
faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things, 
and thou shalt enter into the joy of thy Lord. Ed.] 


sent into your own native country? The wisdom and policy 
of the world may mean what they will; but I trust God 
will so order the matter finally by his fatherly providence, 
that some great occasion of God's gracious goodness shall 
be plenteously poured abroad amongst his, our dear brethren 
in that country, by this your martyrdom. Where the mar- 
tyrs for Christ's sake shed their blood and lost their lives, 
oh what wondrous things hath Christ afterward wrought to 
his glory and confirmation of their doctrine ! If it be not 
the place that sanctifieth the man, but the holy man doth 
by Christ sanctify the place, brother Bradford, then happy 
and holy shall be that place •wherein thou shalt suffer, and 
shall be with thy ashes in Christ's cause sprinkled over 
withal. All thy country may rejoice of thee, that ever it 
brought forth such a one, which would render his life again 
in His cause of whom he had received it. 

Brother Bradford, so long as I shall understand that 
thou art in thy journey, by God's grace I shall call upon 
our heavenly Father, for Christ's sake, to set thee safely 
home : and then, good brother, speak you and pray for the 
remnant that are for to suffer for Christ's sake, according 
to that thou then shalt know more clearly. 

We do look now every day when we shall be called on, 
blessed be God ! I ween, I am the weakest many ways of 
our company ; and yet I thank our Lord God and heavenly 
Father by Christ, that since I heard of our dear brother 
Rogers' departing and stout confession of Christ and his 
truth even unto the death, my heart (blessed be God !) so 
rejoiced of it, that since that time, I say, I never felt any 
lumpish heaviness in my heart, as I grant I have felt some- 
times before. good brother, blessed be God in thee, and 
blessed be the time that ever I knew thee. Farewell, farewell. 
Your brother in Christ, N. R. 
Brother, farewell. 


LETTER XXII. (Coverdale.) 

To Master Bradford. 

Gratiam et pacem, fyc. Although I ween it is not yet 
three days ago since you heard from me, yet having such 
a messenger and so diversely enforced, I cannot but say 
something to you. What shall I thank you for your golden ^^ 
token ? What mean you, man I Do you not know that we ^fehhe 
have victum et amictwm e penario regio 1 ? I was so moved jjevews 6 " 
with your token, that I commanded it straightway to be slSpgide, 
had to Bocardo, which is our common gaol. I am right Bocardo." 1 
glad of Austin's return, for I was (as I told you) careful a ^'^ions. 
for him. Blessed be God that all is well ! I have seen 
what he brought from you, and shortly surveyed the whole, hereHarry 1 
but in such celerity, that others also might see the same ward'fr/e " 
before Austin's return : so that I noted nothing but a con- w il had* 
fused sum of the matter, and as yet what the rest have treatise a- 
done, I can tell nothing at all, and it was at the writing ^e Iie5- ds 
hereof in their hands. To your request and Austin's earn- Bradford 
est demand of the same, I have answered him in a brief Rwiey, 
letter, and yet he hath replied again : but he must go with- andTatimer 
out any further answer of me for this time. I have told d^sS^M. 
Austin that I, for my part, as I can and may for my answer the 
tardity and dulness, will think of the matter. We are so same ' 
now ordered and straitly watched, that scantly our servants 
dare do anything for us : so much talk and so many tales 
(as is said) are told of us abroad. One of us cannot easily 
nor shortly be of 2 the knowledge of another's mind, and 
you know I am youngest many ways. Austin's persuasions 
may do more with me (in that I may do conveniently in 
this matter,) armed with your earnest and zealous letters, 
than any rhetoric either of Tully or Demosthenes, I ensure 
you thereof. With us it is said that Master Grimbold was 
adjudged to be hanged, drawn, and quartered ; of whom we 
hear now, that he is at liberty. So we heard of late, that 
Master Hooper was hanged, drawn, and quartered, indeed, 
not for heresy but for treason; but blessed be God, we 

[} Food and clothing at the royal charge. Ed.} 
F Attain to, Ed.] 



Note the 
lying spirit 
of the pa- 
you may 
see whose 
they are. 

hear now that all is true in like. False tongues will not 
cease to lie, and mischievous hearts to imagine the worst. 
Farewell in Christ : and token for token now I send you 
not; but know this, that (as it is told me) I have two 
scarlet gowns that escaped, I cannot tell how, in the spoil, 
whereof you shall have your part. Commend me to all our 
brethren, and your fellow-prisoners in the Lord. 

Yours in Christ, N. R. 

tyr is the 
first mar- 
tyr : whom 

LETTER XXIII. (Coverdale.) 

To Augustine Berneher. 

Brother Augustine, I bless God with all my heart in 
his manifold merciful gifts given unto our dear brethren in 
Christ ; especially to our brother Rogers, whom it pleased him 
to set forth first, no doubt but of his gracious goodness and 
fatherly favour towards him. And likewise, blessed be God 
in the rest — as Hooper, Saunders, and Taylor, whom it hath 
pleased the Lord likewise to set in the fore-front of the battle 
against his adversaries, and hath endued them all, so far as 
I can hear, to stand in the confession of his truth, and to 
be content in his cause, and for his gospel's sake, to lose 
their life. And evermore, and without end, blessed be even 
the same our heavenly Father for our dear and entirely 
beloved brother, Bradford, whom now the Lord, I perceive, 
calleth for : for I ween he will no longer vouchsafe him to 
abide among the adulterous and wicked generation of this 
world. I do not doubt but that he, for those gifts of grace 
which the Lord hath bestowed on him plenteously, hath 
holpen those who are gone before in their journey, that is, hath 
animated and encouraged them to keep the high way, l et sic 
currere uti tandem acciperent premium. The Lord be his 
comfort, whereof I do not doubt, and thank God heartily 
that ever I was acquainted with him, and that ever I had 
such a one in my house. And yet again I bless God in 
our dear brother, and of this time protomartyr, Rogers, that 
he was also one of my calling to be a prebendary preacher 
[} And so to run that at length they might receive the prize. Ed.] 


of London. And now because Grindall is gone (the Lord because he d ' 
I doubt not hath and knoweth wherein he will bestow him), I J^su^ed 
trust to God it shall please him of his goodness to strengthen bSJly days' 
me to make up the trinity 2 out of Paul's church to suffer MC - 
for Christ, whom God the Father hath anointed, the Holy 
Spirit doth bear witness unto, Paul and all the apostles 
preached. Thus fare you well. I had no paper; I was 
constrained thus to write. 


From Augustine Berneher to Ridley. 
MSS. Bibl. Emm. Coll. apud Cantab. 

Although I am so weary as any man can be, by the 
reason of my journey I have had this day, yet I cannot but 
write two or three words to your lordship, desiring you for 
God's sake to pardon me because of my long absence con- 
trary to my promise : but if you had known whereabouts I 
had been occupied, I am sure you would pardon me, although 
your lordship shall understand that I had no time at all to 
write out your book, the which thing truly is a great sorrow 
unto me. I have brought them all again, lest peradventure 
you should have need of them ; and if so be that your good- 
ness would let me have them for a while, I would copy them 
out with all haste possible. 

Good my lord, conceive nothing against me, for since 
my departure hence there hath been such turmoilings as 
never was in London, as I doubt not but your lordship 
hath heard of it. As yet all things go forward to the great 
pain of godly ministers and the perpetual shame of the peo- 
ple. The best tragedy to describe it would ask a great deal 
of time. If so be that your lordship hath not heard of the 
matter, I shall certify the same by my simple writing. 

My lord, I pray you as you have at all times (preserved) 
your books, so I trust you will do forward ; and if so be 
that God shall take your lordship out of this misery, I 

P The other two were Rogers and Bradford, prebendaries of St 
Paul's. Ed.] 


would by all means possible get them in print beyond the 
seas, where I shall have the help of learned men. 

Mr Bradford moveth to-morrow towards Lancashire with 
my lord of Derby. I have promised him to meet him at 
Coventry; therefore I pray you let me hear of you this 
day, for to-morrow I will be gone veiy early. 

LETTER XXV. (Coveedale.) 

To Augustine Berneher. 

Brother Augustine, I thank you for your manifold kind- 
Thisaims ness. I have received my lady's grace's alms, six royals 1 , 

was sent # •> J ° •> 7 

i! 1 d b c the s * x snmm g s > an d eight pence. I have written a letter here 
therme un to her grace, but I have made no mention thereof; where- 

Ducness of ° ' 

Suffolk, to f ore x desire you to render her grace hearty thanks. Blessed 

"whom he •> o J 

aTorth^ie? ^ e ^ 0( ^' as *° r m y seue I want nothing, but my lady's alms 

iost W and h is come th happily to relieve my poor brother's necessity, whom 

™rittenboth y ou k now they have cast and keep in prison ; as I suppose, 

others? 1 "' y ou k now tne cause why. Farewell, brother Austin, and 

MC - take good heed, I pray you, and let my brother's case make 

you the more wary. Bead my letter to my lady's grace. 

I would Mistress Wilkinson and Mrs Warcup had a copy 

of it : for although the letter is directed to my lady's grace 

alone, yet the matter thereof pertaineth indifferently to her 

grace and to all good women, which love God and his 

word in deed and truth. 

Yours in Christ, N. R. 


To Augustine Berneher. 

Brother Austin, where you desire so earnestly to know 
my mind in that part of the husband's letter unto his wife, 
wherein he permitting her "to do as she may, when she 

L 1 Rial or royal, a gold coin worth in 1 Henry VIII. lis. 3d., in 
2 Ed. VI. 13s. 6d., and in 2 Elizabeth 15s. Ed.] 


cannot do what she would," giving this reason, "that she 
must keep her religion as she may in this realm, and God 
shall accept her will, and shall impute the fault to others : " 
also saying, " What blame is in her, if she use the religion 
here as she may, though it be not as she would V — this 
seemeth to me to be a perilous saying, wherein I fear me 
the man tendereth his wife too much. I wish rather he 
had counselled her to depart the realm : for peradventure, 
she tarrying, to have bidden her openly and boldly, when 
she should have been commanded to follow ungodliness — 
to have bidden her, I say, there [and] then to have confessed 
the truth, and to have stood in it — he thought, and per- 
adventure knew, was more than she was like to do. But 
I suppose, if she had considered more deeply her husband's 
mind in writing — that his counsel savoured of his so tender a 
zeal towards her, [rather] than of the contempt of all worldly 
and carnal affections, which ought to be in Christ's cause ; and 
upon the same had required licence to have departed the 
realm ; yea, and then had departed indeed, rather than, 
after certain knowledge had of their ungodly ways, to seem 
to allow the same by her, in this case, open acts, and so not 
to have followed her husband's former counsel ; I think she 
should less have offended her husband than she doth now, 
in that she hath made his letter, — not so warily written (me- 
thinks) as I would have wished it had been (if it were her 
deed 2 ) — to have come to the knowledge of those that will use 
it, and construe it to the worst, to the defence of and 
maintenance of ungodly ways. 

Nicholas Eidley. 

LETTER XXVII. (Coverdale.) 

To Mistress Glover, a woman zealous and hearty in tlie 
cause and furtherance of God's gospel. 

Mistress Glover, I wish you grace and peace ; and al- 
though I am not acquainted with you, yet nevertheless. 

[ 2 If it were by her means that her husband's letter was made 
public. Ed.] 


hearing that your husband, Master Glover 1 , is in prison for 
God's word's sake, and also that you are a woman hearty 
in God's cause, and, thirdly, that old father Latimer is your 
uncle or near cousin, whom I do think the Lord hath placed 
to be his standard-bearer in our age and country against 
his mortal foe antichrist, I was thus bold to write unto 
you in God's behalf, to do according to the report which I 
hear of you ; that is, that you be hearty in God's cause, and 
hearty to your Master Christ, in furthering of his cause and 
setting forth his soldiers to his wars to the uttermost of 
your power. Let no carnality nor worldly regard of any 

"hinder, thing let a you to declare your true heart, which you are said 
to bear to your Master Christ above all other things. 13e 
hearty now also to your husband, and declare yourself to love 
him in God, as the true faithful christian woman unto her 
husband is bound to do. Now, seeing your husband, which 
is set by God's ordinance to be your head, is ready to suffer 
and abide in adversity by his Master's cause, and to cleave 
to his head Christ, see likewise that you do your duty ac- 
cordingly, and cleave unto him your head : suffer with him 
that you may further his cause. His cause now I under- 
stand to be Christ's cause ; and therefore beware, good sister 
in Christ, that in no wise ye hinder it. Love so his body, 
and the ease and wealth thereof, as your love may further 
him to the winning both of body and soul unto everlasting 
life. And this love shall both God allow, your husband shall 
have just cause to rejoice thereof, and all the godly to com- 
mend you therefore, and to number you, for the same, among 
the godly and holy women of God. To your husband I have 
written more. And thus fare you well now, good dear sister 
in our Saviour Christ. I was the bolder to write unto you, 
for that I understood my dearly beloved brother Austin, 

'would. whom I call Faustus, should b be the carrier; a man whom 
I think God hath appointed to do much pleasure for his 
prest 2 servants to his wars. 

Yours in Christ, N. R. 

[} He was burned at Coventry a short time before Bishop Ridley 
suffered martyrdom. Ed.] 
[ 2 Ready, zealous. En.] 


LETTER XXVIII. (Covebdale.) 

To a friend that came to visit him in prison, but could not 

speak with him. 

Well beloved, I thank you heartily for your manifold 
kindness, but the Lord shall (I trust) acquit you your meed a . °^ d r ^ you 
Though Satan rage, the Lord is strong enough to bridle him, ward# 
and to put an iron chain over his nose when it shall please 
him. In the mean time they that are the Lord's will flee 
unto him, and assuredly he will not forsake them that seek 
unto him in very deed and in truth. This bearer, my man, 
is trusty, you may send your token by him. Let Nicholas 
keep still the shirts. The Lord reward that lady Wyatt, 
which for his sake hath thus remembered me : I do not 
know her person. What can I render to Mistress Wilkin- 
son for all her benefits? Nothing surely, but to desire the 
Lord to acquit b her with his heavenly grace. If you tarry ' requite. 
I shall have more to say to you, peradventure, hereafter. 
Now, Vale in Domino charissime. 

Yours in Christ, N. R. 

LETTER XXIX. (Covebdale.) 

To a Cousin 3 of his. 

God's Holy Spirit be with you now and ever, Amen. 
When I call to remembrance, beloved cousin, the state of 
those that for fear of trouble, either for loss of goods, will 
do in the sight of the world those things that they know 
and be assured are contrary to the will of God, I can do 
no less but lament their case ; being assured that the end 
thereof will be so pitiful, without speedy repentance, that I 
tremble and fear to have it in remembrance. I would to 
God it lay upon some earthly burden, so that freedom of 
conscience might be given unto them. I write, as God 
knoweth, not of presumption, but only lamenting their state, 

[ 3 According to Gloucester Ridley, this cousin was Mabel, grand- 
daughter of Lord Dacre, married to his cousin Nicholas Ridley. Ed.] 



who, I thought, now in this dangerous time should have 
given both you and me comfortable instructions. But, alas ! 
instead thereof we have persuasions to follow (I lament me to 
rehearse it) superstitious idolatry; yea, and that worst of all 
is, they will seek to prove it by the Scripture. The Lord 
for his mercy turn their hearts. Amen. 

Yours, N. R. 

LETTER XXX. (Coverpale.) 

A Letter of Master Edmund Grindall, then being in exile 

15 w- for the testimony of the truth, and now 3. Bishop of 

London, to Dr Ridley, prisoner in Oxford, which we 

thought good here to place ; for that the letter following 

is an answer thereof. 

Gratiam 1 et consolationem a Domino et servatore nostro 
Jesu Christo. — Sir, I have often been desirous to have written 
to you, and to have heard from you, but the iniquity of the 
times have hitherto always put me forth of all hope and 
comfort. Now at this present God seemeth to offer some 
likelihood that these might come to your hands, which I 
thought to use, referring the rest to God's disposition. Your 
present state not I only (who of all other am most bound,) 
but also all other our brethren here, do most heartily lament, 
as joined with the most miserable captivity that ever any 
church of Christ hath suffered. Notwithstanding we give 
God most humble thanks, for that he hath so strengthened 
you, and others your concaptives, to profess a good profes- 
sion before so many witnesses. And I doubt nothing, but 
he that hath called you and them, not only to believe upon 
him but also to suffer for him, doth not leave you destitute 
of that unspeakable comfort, which he useth to minister 
abundantly to his in the school of the cross. He grant 
that his name may be glorified in you, whether it be by 
life or death; as may be most to his honour and your 
everlasting consolation. 

C 1 Grace and consolation from our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 



Sir, I thought it good to advertise you partly of our 
state in these parts. We be here dispersed in divers and 
several places. Certain be at Tigury 2 , good students of either 
university a number, very well entreated of Master Bullinger, 
of the other ministers, and of the whole city. Another 
number of us remain at Argentine 3 , and take the commodity 
of Master Martyr's lessons, who is a very notable father; 
Master Scory and certain other with him be in Friesland, 
and have an English church there, but not very frequent b . ' crowded * 
The greatest number is at Frankfort, where I was at this 
present by occasion, a very fair city, the magistrates favour- 
able to our people, with so many other commodities as exiles 
can well look for. Here is also a church, and now (God be 
thanked) well quieted by the prudence of Master Coxe and 
other which met here for that purpose. So that now, we 
trust, God hath provided for such as will flee forth of Baby- 
lon a resting place, where they may truly serve him and 
hear the voice of their true pastor. I suppose in one place 
and other dispersed, there be well nigh an hundred students 
and ministers on this side the seas. Such a Lord is God, 
to work diversely in his, according to his unsearchable wis- 
dom, who knoweth best what is in man. Primus est vic-r 
torice 4 titulus, Gentilium manibus apprehensum Dominwm 
confiteri. Secundus ad gloriam gradus est, cauta secessione j^™"" 8 ' 
subtractum Domino reservari. Ilia publica, hcec privata con- 
fessio est. Ille judicem seculi mncit, hie contentus Deo suo 
judice conscientiam puram cordis integritate custodit. Illic 
fortitudo promptior, Mc solicitudo securior. Ille appropin- 

[ 3 Zurich. Ed.] [ 3 Strasburg. Ed.] 

[ 4 S. Cypriani de lapsis. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1726, p. 182. The first 
title of victory is for one, who taken by the hands of the heathen con- 
fesses the Lord — the second path up to glory is taken by that man who 
by a prudent withdrawing is preserved to the Lord. The former is a 
public, the latter a private confession. The former challenges and 
obtains the verdict of this present world — the latter, content that God 
should be his judge, preserves a pure conscience in the integrity of his 
heart. In the former case is there a more prompt fortitude, in the 
latter a more secure solicitude — the one, when his hour approaches, is 
found already mature ; the other perchance is reserved, who having left 
his patrimony, on that account has departed, because he would not 
deny [his faith], but had he been detained, would also himself have 
confessed it. Ed.] 




quante Jiora sua jam maturus inventus est. Hie fortasse 
dilatus est, qui patrimonii) derelicto idcirco secessit, quia non 
erat negaturus, confiteretur utique si fuisset et ipse detentus. 
We have also here certain copies of your answers in the 
disputation ; Item Antoniana objecta cum responsione. The 
treatise in English against transubstantiation, which in time 
shall be translated into Latin. It hath been thought best 
not to print them, till we see what God will do with you; 
• for fear of. fa fa f or c incensing of their malicious fury, and also for re- 
straining you and others from writing hereafter, which should 
be a greater loss to the church of Christ, than forbearing of 
these for a time. If I shall know your will to be otherwise 
in it, the same shall be followed. Thus much I thought 
good to let you understand concerning these matters, and 
concerning the poor state of men here ; who most earnestly 
and incessantly do cry unto God for the delivery of his 
church, to behold the causes of the afflicted, and to hear 
the groans of his imprisoned, knowing that you, who in 
this state have more familiar access unto God, do not forget 
us. God comfort you, aid you, and assist you with his 
Spirit and grace, to continue his unto the end, to the glory 
of his name, the edification of his church, and the subver- 
sion of antichrist's kingdom. Amen. 

E. G. 
From Frankfort, the 6th of May, 1555. 

LETTER XXXI. (Coverdale.) 
The Answer of Dr Eidley to the former Letter. 

Blessed be God, our heavenly Father, which inclined 
your heart to have such a desire to write unto me; and 
blessed be he again, which hath heard your request, and 
hath brought your letters safe unto my hands : and over all 
this, I bless him through our Lord Jesus Christ, for the 
great comfort I have received by the same, of the know- 
ledge of your state, and of other our dearly beloved brethren 
and countrymen in those parts beyond the sea. 



Dearly beloved brother Grindall, I say to you, and all 
the rest of our brethren in Christ with you, Eejoice in the 
Lord ; and as ye love me and the other my reverend fathers 
and concaptives, (which undoubtedly are gloria Christi*), °f cLnsiT 
lament not our state ; but I beseech you and them all to 
give unto our heavenly Father, for his endless mercies and 
unspeakable benefits even in the midst of all our troubles 
given unto us, most hearty thanks. For know ye, that as 
the weight of his cross hath increased upon us, so he hath 
not nor doth not cease to multiply his mercies to strengthen 
us; and I trust, yea, by his grace, I doubt nothing, but he 
will so do for Christ our Master's sake even to the end. 
To hear that you and our other brethren do find in your 
exile favour and grace with the magistrates, ministers, and 
citizens at Tigury 1 , at Frankfort, and otherwhere, it doth 
greatly comfort (I dare say) all here that do indeed love 
Christ and his true word. I ensure 6 you it warmed my * assure - 
heart to hear you by chance to name some, as Scory and 
Coxe, &c. Oh that it had come in your mind to have said 
somewhat also of Cheeke, of Turner, of Leaver, of Samp- 
son, of Chambers; but I trust to God, they be all well. 
And, Sir, seeing you say that there be in those parts with 
you of students and ministers so good a number, now there- 
fore care you not for us, otherwise than to wish that God's 
glory may be set forth by us. For whensoever God shall 
call us home, (as we look daily for none other but when it 
shall please God to say, "Come,") ye, blessed be God, are 
enough through his aid to light and set up again the lantern 
of his word in England. As concerning the copies ye say 
ye have with you, I wonder how ever they did wander and 
could find the way to come to you. My disputation, except 
you have that which I gathered myself after the disputation 
done, I cannot think ye have it truly. If ye have that, 
then ye have therewithal the whole manner after the which 
I was used in the disputation. 

As for the treatise in English, Contra transwbstantiationem 2 , 

C 1 Zurich. Ed.] 

[ a As for the treatise in English against transubstantiation, I can 
scarcely be induced to believe it worth translating into Latin. As to 
the rest, whatever may happen, I should in no manner wish, that any 


visa possum adduci, ut credam opera? pretiwm fore tit in La- 
tinum transferatur. Cceterum quicquid sit, nullo modo velim 
ut quicquam quocunque modo meo nomine ederetur, donee quid 
de nobis Dotminus constituent fieri, wbis prius certo consti- 
terit: and thus much unto your letters. Now, although I 
suppose ye know a good part of our state here, (for we 
are forthcoming even as when ye departed, &c.) you shall 
understand that I was in the Tower about the space of two 
months, close prisoner; and after that, had granted to me 
without my labour the liberty of the Tower, and so conti- 
; sanction, nued about half-a-year ; then, because I refused to allow the 
mass with my presence, I was shut up in close prison again. 

The last Lent save one, it chanced by reason of the tu- 
mult stirred up in Kent 1 , there was so many prisoners in 
the Tower, that my Lord of Canterbury, Mr Latimer, Mr 
Bradford, and I, were put altogether in one prison, where 
we remained still almost to the next Easter; and then we 
three, Canterbury, Latimer, and I, were suddenly sent a little 
before Easter to Oxford, and were suffered to have nothing 
with us, but that we carried upon us. About the Whitsun- 
tide following was our disputations at Oxford ; after the which 
was all taken from us, as pen and ink, &c. ; our own ser- 
vants were taken from us before, and every one had put to 
him a strange man; and we each one appointed to be kept 
in several 2 places, as we are unto this day. 

Blessed be God, we three at the writing hereof were 
in good health, and (in God) of good cheer. We have looked 
long ago to have been despatched; for we were all three 
on one day, within a day or two of our disputations, of 
Doctor Weston, (being the head commissioner), condemned 
for heretics ; and since that time we remain as we were of 
him left. The Lord's will be fulfilled in us ; as I do not 
doubt, but by his grace it shall be to his glory and our 
endless salvation, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Likewise the Lord hitherto hath preserved, above all our 

thing should in any way be published in my name until you are made 
certainly acquainted with what it may have pleased the Lord to deter- 
mine concerning us. Ed.] 

[} Wyatt's Insurrection. Ed.] 

[ 2 Separate. Ed.] 


expectation, our dear brother, and in Christ's cause a strong 
champion, John Bradford. He is likewise condemned, and 
is already delivered unto the secular power, and writs (as 
we have heard say) given out for his execution, and called 
in again. Thus the Lord, so long as his blessed pleasure 
is, preserveth whom he listeth, notwithstanding the wonder- 
ful raving of the world. Many (as we hear say) have suf- 
fered valiantly, confessing Christ's truth, and nothing yielding 
to the adversary, yea, not for the fear or pains of death. 

The names of them which I knew, and have now suf- 
fered, are these : — Farrar, the Bishop of St David's ; Hooper, 
the Bishop of Worcester ; Rogers, tuus olim comprebendarius?; 
Doctor Taylor, of Hadley; Mr Saunders; and one Tomkins, 
a weaver : and now, this last day, Mr Oardmaker with another 
were burnt in Smithfield at London, and many others in 
Essex and Kent, whose names are written in the book of 
life, whom yet I do not know. 

West, your old companion, and sometime mine officer, This west 
alas! hath relented, (as I have heard); but the Lord hath relented and 
shortened his days, for anon he died and is gone. Grim- against Ms 


bold was caught by the heel and cast into the Marshalsea, shortly after 

.... • i T r- i t pined away 

but now is at liberty again ; but 1 tear me he escaped not and died for 

. . sorrow. 

without some becking and bowing (alas) of his knee unto m. c. 

My dear friend Thomas Ridley, of the Bull Head in 
Cheape, which was to me the most faithful friend that I 
had in my trouble, is departed also unto God. My brother 
Shipside, that hath married my sister, hath been almost half 
a year in prison, for delivering (as he was accused) of cer- 
tain things, I ween, from me; but now, thanks be to God, 
he is at liberty again, but so that the bishop hath taken 
from him his park. 

Of all us three concaptives at Oxford I am kept most 
strait, and with least liberty ; 4 vel quia viro in cujus cedibus 

Q 3 Once thy fellow prebendary. Ed.] 

£* Either because the man in whose house I am a prisoner is ruled 
(though he be the mayor of the city) by his wife, an old ill-tempered 
and most superstitious woman, who indeed takes it to herself as a mat- 
ter of praise, that she is said to guard me most strictly and cautiously. 
The man himself, however, whose name is Irish, is good-tempered enough 
to every body, but to his wife most obsequious. Now although, as you 


ego custodior, uxor dominatur {licet modo sit praifectus civi- 
tatis) mulier vetula, morosa, et superstitiosissima ; quw etiam 
hoc sibi laudi ducit, quod me dicatur arctissime et cautissime 
custodire ; vir autem ipse, Irischius nomine, tnitis satis est 
omnibus, uxori vero plusquam obsequentissimus. Licet uxorem 
(uti nosti) nunquam habuerim, tamen ex hac quotidiana con- 
suetudine, quam cum istis conjugibus habeo, videor mihi non- 
nihil posse intettigere, quam grave malum et intolerabile jugum 
sit cum mala muliere in conjugio colligari. Becte ergo sa- 
piens dixit, Uxor bona donum Dei ; et iterum, Mulieris bonw 
beatus vir. Vel hose, inquam, causa est, vel quia a magnis 
magistratibus (nescio quas ob causas) illud est, ut ita fieret, 
ipsis mandatum; id quod illi, siquando de mea nimia servi- 
tute apud eos conqueror, sedulo swpe rursus mihi inculcant. 

At Cambridge, (as I hear say), l omnes studiorum et sta~ 
tutorum reformationes nuper facta? nunc sunt denuo deformatos 
et delete, et omnia sunt in pristinum chaos et in antiquum 
papismum reducta : omnes collegiorum prafecti qui sinceritati 
evangelii favebant, vel qui conjugati erant, loco moti sunt, et 
alii papistical factionis in eorum loca surrogati ; quod et de 
sociis collegiorum, qui noluerunt flectere genu Baali, factum 

know, I have never myself had a wife, yet from my daily association 
with this couple I seem in some measure to understand, how great 
an evil and intolerable a yoke it is to be joined in wedlock with a 
bad woman. Rightly therefore has the wise man said, A good wife 
is the gift of God, and again, Blessed is the husband of a good woman — 
Either I say this is the cause, or because this has been so commanded 
them by the higher powers, (from what causes I know not) — which 
they, if ever I complain of my too strict imprisonment with them, 
often and diligently impress upon me. Ed.] 

[} All the reformations lately made with regard both to statutes 
and to studies are now again deformed and invalidated, and every thing 
reduced to its pristine chaos and ancient papistry. All those heads 
of Colleges who favoured the purity of the Gospel, or who were married, 
are removed from their places, and others of the popish faction placed 
in their stead; and this also I hear to be the case with those fellows 
of Colleges who would not bow the knee to Baal. Nor is this to 
be wondered at, for the same line of conduct has been every where 
pursued throughout all the realm of England — to all Archbishops, 
Bishops, Deans, Prebendaries, ministers of churches, and towards all 
the clergy; and to tell you much naughty matter in a few words, 
Papistry reigns every where among us in all its pristine strength. 


esse audio. Nee mirum ; nam et istud passim factum est in 
imi'oerso regno Anglia? in omnibus Archiepiscopis, Episcopis, 
Decanis, prebendariis, sacerdotibus ecdesiarum, et in toto clero ; 
and to tell you much naughty matter in a few words, Pa- 
pismus apud nos ubique in pleno suo antiquo robore regnat. 

The Lord be merciful, and for Christ's sake pardon us 
our old unkindness and unthankfulness ; for when he poured 
upon us the gifts of his manifold graces and favour, (alas) 
we did not serve him nor rendered unto him thanks ac- 
cording to the same. We pastors, many of us, were too 
cold, and bare too much (alas) with the wicked world ; our 
magistrates did abuse, to their own worldly gain, both God's 
gospel and the ministers of the same; the people in many 
places was wayward and unkind. Thus of every side, and 
of every sort, we have provoked God's anger and wrath to 
fall upon us. But blessed might he be, that hath not suf- 
fered his to continue in those ways, which so wholly have 
displeased his sacred majesty; but hath awaked them by 
the fatherly correction of his own Son's cross, unto his glory 
and our endless salvation, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 
My daily prayer is (as God doth know), and by God's grace 
shall be so long as I live in this world, for you my dear 
brethren that are fled out of your own country, because ye 
will rather forsake all worldly things, than the truth of God's 
word. It is even the same that I used to make to God 
for all those churches abroad through the world, which have 
forsaken the kingdom of Antichrist, and professed openly the 
purity of the Gospel of Jesus Christ: that is, that God our 
eternal Father, for our Saviour Christ's sake, will daily in- 
crease in you the gracious gift of his heavenly Spirit, to 
the true setting forth of his glory and of his Gospel, and 
make you to agree brotherly in the truth of the same, that 
there rise no root of bitterness among you, that may infect 
that good seed that God hath sown in your hearts already ; 
and finally, that your life may be so pure and so honest, 
according to the rule of God's word, and according to that 
vocation whereunto we are called by the Gospel of Christ 
our Saviour, that the honesty and purity of the same may 
provoke all that shall see or know it to the love of your 
doctrine, and to love you for your honesty and virtue's sake, 


and so both in the brotherly unity of your true doctrine, 
and also in the godly virtue of your honest life, to glorify 
our Father which is in heaven. 

l Ex nostratibus magni aliquot magistratus, Cancellarius 
Whit. Comes Arundellus, et dominus Pachetus, jam legatione 
funguntur una cum Cardinali Polo, in partibus transmarinis, 
ad componendam (ut aiunt) pacem inter imperatorem, regem 
nostrum, et Francorum regem. Post illorum magistratuum 
nostrorum reditum, et partum reginos, quern jam quotidie ex- 
pectamus, etiam aliquandiu expectavimus, quemque Deus pro 
sui nominis gloria digneiur bene illi fortunare, nos tunc 
statim nihil aliud quam nostras confessionis de hoste nostro 
antiquo triumphales in Domino coronas expectamus. 

Omnium vestrum precibus me liumillime et ex toto corde 
commendo ; in primis tuis, o charisshne in Christo /rater et 
dilectissime Grindalle, et charissimorum fratrum et unice mihi 
in Domino dilectorum, Ckeci, Coxi, Turneri, Leveri, Samp- 
sonis, Chamberi, et omnium fratrum nostrorum et conterra- 
neorum qui apud vos degunt, et diligunt Dominum nostrum 
Jesum Christum in veritate. Commendo etiam vobis reveren- 

[} Certain great persons of our government — Winchester the Chan- 
cellor, the Earl of Arundel and Lord Paget are now engaged in an 
embassy together with Cardinal Pole, in the parts beyond sea, to nego- 
ciate, as they say, a peace between the emperor, our Sovereign*, and the 
king of the French. After the return of these our nobles, and the con- 
finement of the Queen, which we now daily look for, and have indeed 
for some time expected, (and which may God for the glory of his name 
vouchsafe to render happy to her), we then expect nothing else than the 
immediate crowns of our confession from our ancient foe. I commend 
myself most humbly and with all my heart to the prayers of you all. 
In the first place to thine, my most dear and beloved brother in Christ 
Grindall, and of those brethren most dear to me and only beloved in 
the Lord, Cheke, Cox, Turner, Lever, Sampson, Chambers, and of all 
our brethren and fellow countrymen who are residing among you, 
and who in truth love our Lord Jesus Christ. I commend also unto 
you my most reverend fathers and fellow prisoners in the Lord, Thomas 
Cranmer, most worthy indeed of the title of Chief Pastor and Arch- 
bishop, and that veteran, the true apostle of our Anglican people and 
of Christ, Hugh Latimer. Pardon me, my brother, the prolixity of 
this letter, for after this I believe you will never again be troubled, 
my dearest brother, with letters of mine. Oxford. Ed.] 

[* Ridley uses the word "regem", referring without doubt to Philip, then king of Spain, 
and titular king of England ; and possibly under the apprehension that should his letter be 
intercepted, an accusation of treason might otherwise be grounded on it against him. Ed.] 


dissimos patres et concaptivos meos in Domino, Thomam Cran- 
merum, jam vere magni pastoris et Archipresulis nomine 
dignissimum ; et veteranum ilium nostras gentis Anglicanw 
verum apostolum et Christi, H. Latimerum. Condona mihi, 
/rater, harum prolixitatem ; non enim posthac, credo, charis- 
sime /rater, meis Uteris jam amplius aliquando turbaberis. 

LETTER XXXII. (Coverdale.) 

A Letter which he wrote as his last Farewell 2 , To all his true 
and /aith/ul /riends in God, a little be/ore he suffered: 
with a sharp admonition, by the way, to the papists, the 
enemies 0/ the truth. 

At the name of Jesus let every knee bow, both of things 
in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth ; 
and let every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is the Lord, 
unto the glory of God the Father. Amen. 

As a man minding to take a far journey, and to depart 
from his familiar friends, commonly and naturally hath a desire 
to bid his friends farewell before his departure ; so likewise 
now I — looking daily when 1 should be called for to depart 
hence from you, (0 all ye my dearly beloved brethren and 
sisters in our Saviour Christ, that dwell here in this world!) 
having a like mind towards you all, and also (blessed be Cod) 
for this such time and leisure, whereof I right heartily thank 
his heavenly goodness, — do bid you all, my dear brethren and 
sisters (I say) in Christ, that dwell upon the earth, after such 
manner as I can, farewell. 

Farewell, my dear brother, George Shipside, whom I have 
ever found faithful, trusty, and loving in all states and con- 
ditions, and now in the time of my cross, over all other to 

P These Farewells appear to have been written between the 
first day of October, 1555, when he was condemned at Oxford by the 
bishops of Lincoln, Gloucester, and Bristol, and the sixteenth of the 
same month, when he was burned. It was during this interval that 
Lord Dacre offered ten thousand pounds to the Queen if she would 
spare Ridley's life, which was refused. Ed.] 


me most friendly and stedfast, and (that which liked me 
best,) over all other things in God's cause ever hearty. 

Farewell, my dear sister Alice, his wife: I am glad to 
hear of thee that thou dost take Christ's cross, which is laid 
now (blessed be God) both on thy back and mine, in good 
part. Thank thou GOD that hath given thee a godly and a 
loving husband : see thou honour him and obey him, accord- 
ing to God's law. Honour thy mother-in-law, his mother, 
and love all those that pertain unto him, being ready to do 
them good, as it shall lie in thy power. As for thy children, 
I doubt not of thy husband, but that he which hath given 
him a heart to love and fear God, and in God them that, 
pertain unto him, shall also make him friendly and beneficial 
unto thy children, even as if they had been gotten of his 
own body. 

Farewell, my well-beloved brother, John Eidley, of the 
Waltowne, and you my gentle and loving sister, Elizabeth; 
whom, beside the natural league of amity, your tender love 
which you were said ever to bear towards me above the rest 
of your brethren, doth bind me to love. My mind was to 
have acknowledged this your loving affection, and to have 
■ requited, acquitted 1 it with deeds, and not with words alone. Your 
daughter Elizabeth I bid farewell, whom I love for the meek 
and gentle spirit that God hath given her, which is a precious 
thing in the sight of God. 

Farewell, my beloved sister of Unthank, with all your 
children, my nephews and nieces. Since the departure of 
my brother Hugh, my mind was to have been unto them 
in the stead of their father; but the Lord God must and 
will be their father, if they will love him and fear him, and 
live in the trade of his law. 

Farewell, my well-beloved and worshipful cousins, Master 
Nicholas Eidley of Willimountswick, and your wife; and I 
thank you for all your kindness, shewed both to me and 
also to all your own kinsfolk and mine. Good cousin, as 
GOD hath set you in that our stock and kindred, not for any 
respect of your person, but of his abundant grace and good- 
ness, to be as it were the bel-wether to order and conduct 
the rest, and hath also endued you with his manifold gifts 
of grace, both heavenly and worldly, above others ; so I pray 


you, good cousin, (as my trust and hope is in you,) continue 
and increase in the maintenance of truth, honesty, righteous- 
ness, and all true godliness, and to the uttermost of your 
power, to withstand falsehood, untruth, unrighteousness, and 
all ungodliness, which is forbid and condemned by the word 
and laws of God. 

Farewell, my young cousin, Ralph Whitfield. Oh, your 
time was very short with me : my mind was to have done 
you good, and yet you caught b in that little time a loss; but 'sustained. 
I trust it shall be recompensed, as it shall please Almighty 

Farewell, all my whole kindred and countrymen, farewell 
in Christ, altogether. The Lord which is the searcher of 
secrets knoweth, that according to my heart's desire, my 
hope was of late that I should have come among you, and 
to have brought with me abundance of Christ's blessed 
Gospel; according to the duty of that office and ministry, 
whereunto among you I was chosen, named, and appointed 
by the mouth of that our late peerless prince, king Edward, 
and so also denounced openly in his court by his privy g| nnounc - 

I warn you, all my well-beloved kinsfolk and countrymen, 
that ye be not amazed or astonied at the kind of my de- 
parture or dissolution: for I ensure you I think it the most 
honour that ever I was called unto in all my life; and there- 
fore I thank my Lord GOD heartily for it, that it hath 
pleased him to call me of his great mercy unto this high 
honour, to suffer death willingly for his sake and in his 
cause ; unto the which honour he called the holy prophets, 
and his dearly beloved apostles, and his blessed, chosen 
martyrs. For know ye that I doubt no more, but that the 
causes wherefore I am put to death are God's causes, and 
the causes of the truth, than I doubt that the Gospel which 
John wrote is the Gospel of Christ, or that Paul's Epistles 
are the very word of GOD. And to have a heart willing 
to abide and stand in God's cause and in Christ's quarrel 
even unto death, I ensure thee (0 man) it is an inestimable 
and an honourable gift of GOD, given only to the true elects 
and dearly beloved children of GOD, " and inheritors of the 
kingdom of heaven." For the holy Apostle and also martyr 


i Pet. iv. m Christ's cause, St Peter, saith ; " If ye suffer rebuke 
in the name of Christ, that is, in Christ's cause, and for his 
truth's sake, then are ye happy and blessed, for the glory 
of the Spirit of God resteth upon you." If for rebuke's sake, 
suffered in Christ's name, a man is pronounced by the mouth 
of that holy Apostle blessed and happy, how much more 
happy and blessed is he that hath the grace to suffer death 
also ! Wherefore all ye that be my true lovers and friends, 
rejoice and rejoice with me again, and render with me hearty 
thanks to God our heavenly Father, that for his Son's sake, 
my Saviour and Redeemer Christ, he hath vouchsafed to 
call me, being else without his gracious goodness in myself 
but a sinful and a vile wretch, to call me (I say) unto this 
high dignity of his true prophets, of his faithful Apostles, 
and of his holy, elect, and chosen martyrs ; that is, to die, 
and to spend this temporal life in the defence and maintenance 
of his eternal and everlasting truth. 

Ye know, that be my countrymen dwelling upon the 
borders, where (alas) the true man suffereth oftentimes much 
wrong at the thief's hand, if it chance a man to be slain 
of a thief, (as it oft chanceth there,) which went out with 
his neighbour to help him to rescue his goods again ; that, 
the more cruelly he be slain, and the more stedfastly he 
stuck by his neighbour in the fight against the face of the 
thief, the more favour and friendship shall all his posterity 
have for the slain man's sake of all them that be true, as 
long as the memory of his fact d , and his posterity, doth 
endure. Even so, ye that be my kinsfolk and countrymen, 
know ye, (howsoever the blind, ignorant, and wicked world 
hereafter shall rail upon my death, which thing they cannot 
do worse than their fathers did of the death of Christ our 
Saviour, of his holy prophets, Apostles, and martyrs ;) know 
ye, I say, that both before God and all them that be godly, 
and that truly know and follow the laws of God, ye have 
and shall have, by God's grace, ever cause to rejoice, and 
to thank God highly, and to think good of it, and in God 
to rejoice of me, your flesh and blood, whom God of his 
gracious goodness hath vouchsafed to associate unto the 
blessed company of his holy martyrs in heaven. And I doubt 
not, in the infinite goodness of my Lord God, nor in the 



faithful fellowship of his elect and chosen people, but at 
both their hands, in my cause, ye shall rather find the more 
favour and grace : "for the Lord saith that he will be both Deut - vii - 
to them and theirs that love him, the more loving again in 
a thousand generations; the Lord is so full of mercy to 
them (I say) and theirs, which do love him in deed. And 
Christ saith again, " that no man can shew more love than John xv. 
to give his life for his friend." 

Now also know ye, all my true lovers in God, my kinsfolk 
and countrymen, that the cause wherefore I am put to death 
is even after the same sort and condition, but touching more 
near God's cause, and in more weighty matters, but in the 
general kind all one ; for both is God's cause, both is in 
the maintenance of right, and both for the commonwealth, 
and both for the weal also of the Christian brother ; although 
yet there is in these two no small difference, both concerning 
the enemies, the goods stolen, and the manner of the fight. 
For know ye all, that like as there when the poor true man 
is robbed by the thief of his own goods truly gotten, where- 
upon he and his household should live, he is greatly wronged, 
and the thief in stealing and robbing with violence the poor 
man's goods doth offend God, doth transgress his law, and 
is injurious both to the poor man and to the commonwealth : 
so, I say, know ye all, that even here (in the cause of my 
death) it is with the Church of England, I mean the con- 
gregation of the true chosen children of God in this realm 
of England, which I acknowledge not only to be my neigh- 
bours, but rather the congregation of my spiritual brethren 
and sisters in Christ, yea, members of one body, wherein by 
God's grace I am and have been grafted in Christ. This 
Church of England had of late, of the infinite goodness and 
abundant grace of Almighty God, great substance, great 
riches of heavenly treasure, great plenty of God's true and 
sincere word, the true and wholesome administration of Christ's 
holy sacraments, the whole profession of Christ's religion 
truly and plainly set forth in baptism, the plain declaration 
and understanding of the same taught in the holy catechism, 
to have been learned of all true Christians. This church 
had also a true and sincere form and manner of the Lord's 
Supper, wherein, according to Jesus Christ's own ordinance 

Psal. lxxix. 


and holy institution, Christ's commandments were executed 
and done. For upon the bread and wine set upon the Lord's 
table thanks were given, the commemoration of the Lord's 
death was had, the bread in the remembrance of Christ's body 
torn upon the cross was broken, and the cup in the re- 
membrance of Christ's blood shed was distributed, and both 
communicated unto all that were present and would receive 
them, and also they were exhorted of the minister so to do. 
All was done openly in the vulgar tongue, so that every thing 
might be both easily heard and plainly understood of all 
the people, to God's high glory, and the edification of the 
whole church. This church had of late the whole Divine 
service, all common and public prayers ordained to be said 
and heard in the common congregation, not only framed and 
fashioned to the true vein of Holy Scripture, but also all 
things so set forth according to the commandment of the 
Lord and St Paul's doctrine, for the people's edification, in 
their vulgar tongue. It had also holy and wholesome Homi- 
lies, in commendation of the principal virtues which are com- 
mended in Scripture; and likewise other homilies against 
the most pernicious and capital vices that useth! (alas) to 
reign in this realm of England. This church had, in matters 
of controversy, Articles so penned and framed after the Holy 
Scripture, and grounded upon the true understanding of God's 
word, that in short time, if they had been universally received, 
they should have been able to have set in Christ's church 
much concord and unity in Christ's true religion, and to have 
expelled many false errors and heresies, wherewith this church 
(alas) was almost overgone. But (alas) of late into this 
spiritual possession of the heavenly treasure of these godly 
riches are entered in thieves, that have robbed and spoiled 
all this heavenly treasure away. I may well complain on 
these thieves, and cry out upon them with the prophet, 
saying, Deus, venerunt gentes in Imreditatem tuam, etc. 
Lord GOD, the Gentiles, heathen nations are come 
into thy heritage, they have defiled thy holy temple, and 
made Jerusalem an heap of stones; that is, they have 
broken and beat down to the ground thy holy city. This 
heathenish generation, these thieves of Samaria, these Sabsei 
and Chaldsei, these robbers have rushed out of their dens, 


and have robbed the Church of England of all the aforesaid 
holy treasure of God ; they have carried it away and over- 
thrown it; and in the stead of God's holy word, the true 
and right administration of Christ's holy sacraments, as of 
baptism and others, they mixed their ministry with men's 
foolish phantasies, and many wicked and ungodly traditions 
withal. In the stead of the Lord's holy table they give the 
people, with much solemn disguising, a thing which they 
call their mass ; but in deed and in truth it is a very 
masking and mockery of the true supper of the Lord, or 
rather I may call it a crafty juggling, whereby these false 
thieves and jugglers have bewitched the minds of the simple 
people, that they have brought them from the true worship 
of GOD unto pernicious idolatry ; and make them to believe 
that to be Christ our Lord and Saviour, which indeed is 
neither God nor man, nor hath any life in itself, but in 
substance is the creature of bread and wine, and in use of 
the Lord's table is the sacrament of Christ's body and blood ; 
and for e this holy use, for the which the Lord hath ordained '<£* 
them in his table to represent unto us his blessed body torn 
upon the cross for us and his blood there shed, it pleased 
him to call them his body and blood; which understanding 
Christ declareth to be his true meaning, when he saith, " Do 
this in the remembrance of me." And again, St Paul like- 
wise doth set out the same more plainly, speaking of the 
same sacrament after the words of the consecration, saying, 
"As often as ye shall eat of this bread, and drink of this 
cup, ye shall set forth (he meaneth, with the same) the 
Lord's death until his coming again." And here again these 
thieves have robbed also the people of the Lord's cup, con- 
trary to the plain words of Christ written in his gospel. 

Now, for the common public prayers which were in the 
vulgar tongue, these thieves have brought in again a strange 
tongue, whereof the people understand not one word. Where- 
in what do they else, but rob the people of their divine 
service, wherein they ought to pray together with the mi- 
nister? And to pray in a strange tongue, what is it but, 
as St Paul calleth it, barbarousness, childishness, unprofit- 
able folly, yea, and plain madness? For the godly articles 
of unity in religion, and for the wholesome homilies, what 



on account 



do these thieves place in the stead of them, but the pope's 
laws and decrees, lying legends, and feigned fables and 
miracles, to delude and abuse the simplicity of the rude 
people? Thus this robbery and theft is not only committed, 
nay sacrilege and wicked spoil of heavenly things, but also 
in the stead of the same is brought in and placed the 
abominable desolation of the tyrant Antiochus, of proud 
Sennacherib, of the shameless-faced king of the Babylonical 
beast. Unto this robbery, this theft and sacrilege, for that 
I cannot consent, nor, God willing, never shall so long as 
the breath is in my body, (because it is blasphemy against 
God, high treason unto Christ our heavenly King, Lord, 
Master, and our only Saviour and Redeemer, it is plain 
contrary to God's word and to Christ's Gospel, it is the 
subversion of all true godliness, and against the everlasting 
salvation of mine own soul, and of all my brethren and 
sisters whom Christ my Saviour hath so dearly bought 
with no less price than with the effusion and shedding forth 
of his most precious blood ;) therefore, all ye my true lovers 
in GOD, my kinsfolk and countrymen, for this cause, I say, 
know ye that I am put to death; which, by God's grace, 
I shall willingly take, with hearty thanks to GOD therefore, 
in certain hope, without any doubting, to receive at God's 
hand again, of his free mercy and grace, everlasting life, 
/case. Although the cause* of the true man, slain of the thief 

helping his neighbour to recover his goods again, and the 
cause wherefore I am to be put to death, in a generality 
is both one, (as I said before,) yet know ye that there is 
no small difference. These thieves against whom I do 
stand, are much worse than the robbers and thieves of the 
borders. The goods which they steal, are much more pre- 
cious, and their kinds of fight are far diverse. These thieves 
are worse, I say, for they are more cruel, more wicked, 
more false, more deceitful and crafty ; for those will but 
kill the body, but these will not stick to kill both body 
and soul. Those, for the general theft and robbery, be 
called, and are indeed, thieves and robbers : but these, 
for their spiritual kind of robbery, are called " sacrilegi ;" 
as ye would say, church-robbers. They are more wicked : 
for those go about but to spoil men of worldly things, 


worldly riches, gold and silver, and worldly substance ; these 
go about in the ways of the devil, their ghostly father, to 
steal from the universal church, and particularly from every 
man, all heavenly treasure, true faith, true charity, and hope 
of salvation in the blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, yea, 
to spoil us of our Saviour Christ, of his gospel, of his 
heavenly Spirit, and of the heavenly heritage of the king- 
dom of heaven so dearly purchased unto us with the death 
of our Master and Saviour Christ. These be the goods 
and godly substance whereupon the Christian before God 
must live, and without the which he cannot live ; these 
goods (I say) these thieves, these church-robbers go about 
to spoil us of. The which goods, as to the man of God 
they excel and far pass all worldly treasure ; so to with- 
stand, even unto the death, such thieves as go about to 
spoil both us and the whole church of such goods, is most 
high and honourable service done unto God. These church- 
robbers be also much more false, crafty, and deceitful, than 
the thieves upon the borders : for these have not the craft 
so to commend their theft that they dare avouch it; and 
therefore, as acknowledging themselves to be evil, they steal 
commonly upon the night, they dare not appear at judge- 
ments and sessions, where justice is executed ; and when 
they are taken and brought thither, they never hang any 
man, but they be oftentimes hanged for their faults. But 
these church-robbers can so cloke and colour their spiritual 
robbery, that they can make the people to believe falsehood 
to be truth, and truth falsehood; good to be evil, and 
evil good ; light to be darkness, and darkness light ; super- 
stition to be true religion, and idolatry to be the true wor- 
ship of God ; and that which is in substance the creature 
of bread and wine, to be none other substance but only 
the substance of Christ, the living Lord, both God and man. 
And with this their falsehood and craft they can so juggle 
and bewitch the understanding of the simple, that they dare 
avouch it openly in court and in town, and fear neither 
hanging nor heading, as the poor thieves of the borders do, 
but stout and strong like Nembroth dare condemn to be 
burned in flaming fire, quick and alive, whosoever will go 
about to betray their falsehood. 




The kind of fight against these church-robbers is also 
of another sort and kind, than is that which is against the 
thieves of the borders. For there the true men go forth 
against them with spear and lance, with bow and bill, and 
all such kind of bodily weapons as the true men have; but 
here, as the enemies be of another nature, so the watch- 
men of Christ's flock, the warriors that fight in the Lord's 
war, must be armed and fight with another kind of wea- 
pon and armour. For here the enemies of God, the soldiers 
of antichrist, although the battle is set forth against the 
church by mortal men being flesh and blood, and neverthe- 
less members of their father the devil ; yet for that their 
grand master is the power of darkness, their members are 
spiritual wickedness, wicked spirits, spirits of errors, of 
heresies, of all deceit and ungodliness, spirits of idolatry, 

Ephes. vi. superstition and hypocrisy, which are called of St Paul 
principates and powers, lords of the world, rulers of the 
darkness of this world, and spiritual subtilties concerning 
heavenly things : and therefore our weapons must be fit and 
meet to fight against such ; not carnal nor bodily weapons, 
as spear and lance, but spiritual and heavenly ; we must 
fight against such with the armour of God, not intending 
to kill their bodies, but their errors, their false craft and 
heresies, their idolatry, superstition, and hypocrisy, and to 
save (as much as lieth in us) both their bodies and souls. 

Ephes. vi. A n( j therefore, as St Paul teacheth us, we fight not against 
flesh and blood, that is, we fight not with bodily weapons 
to kill the man, but with the weapons of God, to put to 
flight his wicked errors and vice, and to save both body 
and soul. Our weapons therefore are faith, hope, charity, 
righteousness, truth, patience, prayer unto God; and our 
sword wherewith we smite our enemies, we beat and batter 
and bear down all falsehood, is the word of God. With 
these weapons, under the banner of the cross of Christ, we 
do fight, ever having our eye upon our grand Master, Duke 
and Captain, Christ : and then we reckon ourselves to 
triumph and to win the crown of everlasting bliss, when, 
enduring in this battle without any shrinking or yielding to 
the enemies, after the example of our grand captain, Christ 
our Master, after the example of his holy prophets, apostles, 


and martyrs, when (I say) we are slain in our mortal bodies 

of our enemies, and are most cruelly and without all mercy 

murdered down like a many 8 of sheep. And the more cruel, * multitude. 

the more painful, the more vile and spiteful is the kind of 

the death whereunto we be put, the more glorious in God, 

the more blessed and happy we reckon, without all doubts, 

our martyrdom to be. 

And thus much, dear lovers and friends in God, my 
countrymen and kinsfolk, I have spoken for your comfort, 
lest of my death (of whose life you looked peradventure 
sometimes to have had honesty, pleasures, and commodities,) 
ye might be abashed or think any evil : whereas ye have 
rather cause to rejoice, (if ye love me indeed,) for that it 
hath pleased God to call me to a greater honour and dig- 
nity, than ever I did enjoy before, either in Eochester or 
in the see of London, or ever should have had in the see 
of Durham, whereunto I was last of all elected and named. 
Yea, I count it greater honour before God indeed to die 
in his cause, (whereof I nothing doubt,) than is any earthly 
or temporal promotion or honour that can be given to a 
man in this world. And who is he that knoweth the 
cause to be God's, to be Christ's quarrel and of his gospel, 
to be the common weal of all the elect and chosen children 
of God, of all the inheritors of the kingdom of heaven, who 
is he, I say, that knoweth this assuredly by God's word, 
and the testimony of his own conscience, (as I through the 
infinite goodness of God, not of myself, but by his grace, 
acknowledge myself to do,) who is he, I say, that knoweth 
this, and both loveth and feareth God in deed and in truth, 
loveth and believeth his Master Christ and his blessed 
gospel, loveth his brotherhood, the chosen children of God, 
and also lusteth and longeth for everlasting life — who is he 
(I say again) that would not or cannot find in his heart, in 
this cause to be content to die ? The Lord forbid that any 
such should be, that should forsake this grace of God! I 
trust in my Lord God, the God of mercies and the Father 
of all comfort, through Jesus Christ our Lord, that he 
which hath put this mind, will, and affection by his Holy 
Spirit in my heart, to stand against the face of the enemy 
in his cause, and to choose rather the loss of all my worldly 


substance, yea, and of my life too, than to deny his known 
truth, that he will comfort me, aid me, and strengthen me 
evermore even unto the end, and to the yielding up of my 
spirit and soul into his holy hands : whereof I most heartily 
beseech his most holy sacred Majesty, of his infinite good- 
ness and mercy, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Now that I have taken my leave of my countrymen and 
kinsfolks, and the Lord doth lend me life and giveth me 
leisure, I will bid my other good friends in God, of other 
places also, farewell. And whom first or before other, than 
the University of Cambridge? whereat I have dwelt longer, 
found more faithful and hearty friends, received more bene- 
fits, (the benefits of my natural parents only excepted,) than 
ever I did even in mine own native country wherein I was 

Farewell therefore, Cambridge, my loving mother and 
tender nurse ! If I should not acknowledge thy manifold 
benefits, yea, if I should not for thy benefits at the least 
love thee again, truly I were to be accounted ungrate and 
unkind. What benefits hadst thou ever, that thou usest to 
give and bestow upon thy best beloved children, that thou 
thoughtest too good for me? Thou didst bestow on me all 
thy school degrees : of thy common offices, the chaplainship 
of the University, the office of the proctorship, and of a 
common reader ; and of thy private commodities, and emolu- 
ments in colleges, what was it that thou madest me not 
partner of? First, to be scholar, then fellow, and after my 
departure from thee thou calledst me again to a mastership 
of a right worshipful college. I thank thee, my loving 
mother, for all this thy kindness ; and I pray Cod that his 
laws, and the sincere gospel of Christ, may ever be truly 
taught and faithfully learned in thee. 

Farewell, Pembroke Hall, of late mine own college, my 
cure and my charge ! What case thou art in now, Cod 
knoweth, I know not well. Thou wast ever named sithens' 
I knew thee (which is now a thirty years ago,) to be studious, 
well learned, and a great setter forth of Christ's gospel and 
of God's true word : so I found thee, and, blessed be Cod ! 
so I left thee indeed. Woe is me for thee, mine own dear 
college, if ever thou suffer thyself by any means to be brought 


from that trade. In thy orchard 1 (the walls, butts, and 
trees, if they could speak, would bear me witness,) I learned 
without book almost all Paul's epistles, yea and, I ween, 
all the canonical epistles, save only the Apocalypse. Of 
which study, although in time a great part did depart from 
me, yet the sweet smell thereof, I trust, I shall carry with 
me into heaven : for the profit thereof I think I have felt 
in all my lifetime ever after; and I ween, of late (whether 
they abide there now or no I cannot tell,) there was tliat 
did the like. The Lord grant, that this zeal and love toward 
that part of God's word, which is a key and a true com- 
mentary to all holy Scripture, may ever abide in that college, 
so long as the world shall endure. 

From Cambridge I was called into Kent by the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, that most reverend 
father and man of God, and of him by and by sent to be 
vicar of Heme in East Kent a . Wherefore farewell, Heme, 
thou worshipful and wealthy parish ! the first cure where- 
unto I was called, to minister God's word. Thou hast heard 
of my mouth oftentimes the word of God preached, not 
after the popish trade, but after the Christ's gospel : oh that 
the fruit had answered to the seed ! And yet I must ac- 
knowledge me to be thy debtor for the doctrine of the 
Lord's supper ; which at that time, I acknowledge, God had 
not revealed unto me: but I bless God in k all that godly * for - 
virtue and zeal of God's word, which the Lord by preaching 
of his word did kindle manifestly both in the heart and in 
the life and works of that godly woman there, my lady 
Phines 3 . The Lord grant that his word took like effect there 
in many other more. 

Farewell, thou cathedral church of Canterbury, the me- 
tropolitic see, whereof once I was a member ! To speak 
things pleasant unto thee I dare not, for danger of con- 
science and displeasure of my Lord God; and to say what 

[} There is a walk in the garden of Pembroke College still dis- 
tinguished by the name of Ridley's walk. Ed.] 

Q 2 Instituted April 30, 1538. Resigned 1549. Ed.] 
p Sir John Fineux, Knt. was Lord of the Manor of Heme, and 
his wife Elizabeth, who died a. d. 1589, was probably the lady here 
referred to. Ed.] 


lieth in my heart, were now too much, and I fear were able 
to do thee now but little good. Nevertheless, for the 
friendship I have found in some there, and for charity sake, 
I wish thee to be washed clean of all worldliness and ungod- 
liness, that thou mayest be found of God (after thy name) 
Christ's church in deed and in truth. 

Farewell, Eochester, sometime my cathedral see ! in whom 
(to say the truth) I did find much gentleness and obedience ; 
and I trust thou wilt not say the contrary, but I did use it 
to God's glory, and thine own profit in God. Oh that thou 
hadst and mightest have continued and gone forward in the 
trade of God's law, wherein I did leave thee ! then thy 
charge and burden should not have been so terrible and 
dangerous, as I suppose verily it is like to be (alas !) on 
the latter day. 

To Westminster other advertisement in God I have not 
now to say, than I have said before to the cathedral church 
of Canterbury ; and so God give thee of his grace that thou 
mayest learn in deed and in truth to please him, after his 
own laws. And thus fare you well. 

Oh London, London ! to whom now may I speak in thee, 
or whom shall I bid farewell? Shall I speak to the pre- 
bendaries of Paul's \ Alas ! all that loved God's word, and 
were true setters forth thereof, are now (as I hear say) 
some burnt and slain, some exiled and banished, and some 
holden in hard prisons, and appointed daily to be put to 
most cruel death, for Christ's gospel sake. As for the rest 
of them, I know they could never brook me well, nor I 
could never delight in them. Shall I speak to the see thereof, 
wherein of late I was placed almost, and not fully, by the 
space of three years ? But what may I say to it, being (as I 
hear say I am) deposed and expulsed by judgment, as an un- 
just usurper of that room \ Oh judgment, judgment ! Can this 
be just judgment, to condemn the chief minister of God's 
word, the pastor and bishop of the diocese, and never bring 
him into judgment, that he might have heard what crimes 
were laid to his charge, nor never suffer him to have any 
place or time to answer for himself \ Thinkest thou that 
hereafter, when true justice shall have place, that this judg- 
ment can be allowed either of God or of man? Well, as 


for the cause and whole matter of my deposition, and the 
spoil of my goods which thou possessest yet, I refer it unto 
God, which is a just Judge ; and I beseech God, if it be 
his pleasure, that that which is but my personal wrong 
be not laid to thy charge in the latter day — this only can 
I pray for. 

thou now wicked and bloody see, why dost thou set up 
again many altars of idolatry, which by the word of God 
were justly taken away? Oh why hast thou overthrown the 
Lord's table ? Why dost thou daily delude the people, mask- 
ing in thy masses, in the stead of the Lord's holy supper, 
which ought to be common as well (saith Chrysostom, 
yea, the Lord himself,) to the people as to the priest ? 
How darest thou deny to the people of Christ, contrary to 
his express commandment in the gospel, his holy cup ? 
Why babblest thou to the people the common prayer in a 
strange tongue ? wherein St Paul commandeth, in the Lord's 
name, that no man should speak before the congregation, 
except it should be by and by declared in their common 
tongue, that all might be edified. Nay, hearken, thou 
whorish bawd of Babylon, thou wicked limb of antichrist, 
thou bloody wolf; why slayest thou down and makest havoc 
of the prophets of God ? Why murderest thou so cruelly 
Christ's poor seely 1 sheep, which will not hear thy voice be-' sim P Ie - 
cause thou art a stranger, and will follow none other but 
their own pastor Christ his voice? Thinkest thou to escape, 
or that the Lord will not require the blood of his saints at 
thy hands? Thy god, which is the work of thy hands, and 
whom thou sayest thou hast power to make — that thy deaf 
and dumb 1 god (I say) will not indeed nor cannot (although 
thou art not ashamed to call him thy Maker,) make thee to 
escape the revenging hand of the high and Almighty God. 
But be thou assured, that the living Lord our Saviour and 
Eedeemer, which sitteth now on the right hand of his Father 
in glory — he seeth all thy wicked ways and cruelty done to 
his dear members, and he will not forget his holy ones; 
and his hands shalt thou never escape. Instead of my fare- 
well to thee, now I say, Fie upon thee, fie upon thee, filthy 
drab, and all thy false prophets ! 

[_ l The consecrated wafer. Ed.] 


Yet, thou London, I may not leave thee thus. Al- 
though thy episcopal see, now being joined in league with 
the seat of Satan, thus hath now both handled me and the 
saints of God, yet I do not doubt but in that great city 
there be many privy mourners which do daily mourn for 
that mischief; the which never did, nor shall, consent to 
that wickedness, but do detest and abhor it as the ways of 
Satan. But these privy mourners here I will pass by, and 
tothese We11 kid them farewell with their fellows hereafter, when the 
iTtheTetter place an d occasion shall more conveniently require. Among 
ing 1 . 1 f m.°c. * ne worshipful of the city, and specially which were in office 
of the mayoralty, (yea, and in other citizens also whom to 
name now it shall not be necessary,) in the time of my 
ministry, which was from the latter part of Sir Eowland 1 
Hill's year unto Sir George Barnes's year and a great part 
thereof, I do acknowledge that I found no small humanity 
and gentleness, as methought : but (to say the truth) that 
I do esteem above all other for true Christian kindness, which 
is shewed in God's cause and done for his sake. Where- 
fore, O Dobbes, Dobbes, alderman and knight, thou in thy 
year didst win my heart for evermore, for that honourable act, 
that most blessed work of God, of the erection and setting 
up of Christ's holy hospitals and truly religious houses, 
which by thee and through thee were begun. For thou, 
like a man of God, when the matter was moved for the 
relief of Christ's poor seely members, to be holpen from 
extreme misery, hunger, and famine, thy heart (I say) was 
moved with pity : and as Christ's high honourable officer in 
that cause, thou calledst together thy brethren, the aldermen 
of the city, before whom thou brakest the matter for the 
poor, thou didst plead their cause, yea, and not only in 
thine own person thou didst set forth Christ's cause, but to 
further the matter, thou broughtest me into the council 
chamber of the city, before the aldermen alone, whom thou 
hadst assembled there together to hear me speak what I 
could say, as an advocate by office and duty in the poor 
men's cause. The Lord wrought with thee, and gave thee 
the consent of thy brethren, whereby the matter was brought 

[} Sir Rowland Hill was Lord Mayor, a.d. 1549-50, and Sir Geo. 
Barnes, a. d. 1552-53. Maitland's History of London. Ed.] 


to the common council, and so to the whole body of the 
city, by whom with an uniform consent it was committed 
to be drawn, ordered, and devised by a certain number of 
the most witty citizens and politic, endued also with godli- 
ness and with ready hearts to set forward such a noble act, 
as could be chosen in all the whole city : and they, like true 
and faithful ministers both to their city and their master 
Christ, so ordered, devised, and brought forth the matter, 
that thousands of seely poor members of Christ, which else 
from extreme hunger and misery should have famished and 
perished, shall be relieved, holpen and brought up, and shall 
have cause to bless the aldermen of that time, the common 
council, and the whole body of the city, but specially thee, 
O Dobbes 2 , and those chosen men by whom this honourable 
work of God was begun and wrought ; and that, so long 
through all ages as that godly work shall endure, which I 
pray Almighty God may be ever unto the world's end. 

And thou, Sir George Barnes, (the truth it is to be 
confessed to God's glory and to the good example of other,) 
thou wast in thy year not only a furtherer and continuer of 
that which, before thee, by thy predecessor was well begun, 
but also didst labour so to have perfected the work, that 
it should have been an absolute™ thing, and a perfect spec- m complete. 
tacle of true charity and godliness unto all Christendom. 
Thine endeavour was to have set up an house of occupa- 
tions : both that all kind of poverty, being able to work, 
should not have lacked whereupon profitably they might have 
been occupied to their own relief, and to the profit and 
commodity of the commonwealth of the city ; and also to have 
retired thither the poor babes brought up in the hospitals, 
when they had come to a certain age and strength, and also 
all those which in the hospitals aforesaid had been cured of 
their diseases. And to have brought this to pass, thou ob- 
tainedst (not without great diligence and labour both of thee 

P Sir Richard Dobbs was Lord Mayor, a.d. 1551-52. He was very 
active in promoting the foundation of Christ's Hospital, , also of those 
of Bethlehem, and St Bartholomew, and Bridewell. These were all 
established by Royal Charter a few weeks before the death of the 
king. Maitland's History of London. Ed.] 



and thy brethren,) of that godly king Edward, that Christian 
and peerless prince's hand, his princely place of Bridewell ; 
and what other things to the performance of the same, and 
under what condition, is not unknown. That this thine endea- 
vour hath not had like success, the fault is not in thee, 
but in the condition and state of the time ; which the Lord 
of his infinite mercy vouchsafe to amend, when it shall be 
his gracious will and pleasure. 

Farewell now, all ye citizens that be of God, of what 
state and condition soever you be ! Undoubtedly, in London 
you have heard God's word truly preached. My heart's de- 
sire and daily prayer shall be for you, (as for whom, for 
my time, I know to my Lord God I am accountable) that 
ye never swerve, neither for loss of life nor worldly goods, 
from God's holy word, and yield unto antichrist ; where- 
upon must needs follow the extreme displeasure of God, and 
the loss both of your bodies and souls into perpetual dam- 
nation for evermore. 

Now that I have gone through the places, where I have 
dwelt any space in the time of my pilgrimage here upon 
earth, remembering that for the space of king Edward's reign, 
which was for the time of mine office in the sees of Lon- 
don and Rochester, I was a member of the higher house 
of the parliament ; therefore, (seeing my God hath given me 
leisure and the remembrance thereof,) I will bid my lords 
of the temporalty farewell. They shall have no just cause 
(by God's grace) to take it, that I intend to say, in ill 
part. As for the spiritual prelacy that now is, I have no- 
thing to say to them, except I should repeat again a great 
part of that I have said before now already to the see of 
London. To you therefore, my lords of the temporalty, will 
I speak : and this would I have you first to understand, 
that when I wrote this, I looked daily when I should be 
called to the change of this life, and thought that this my 
writing should not come to your knowledge, before the time 
of the dissolution of my body and soul should be expired. 
And therefore know ye, that I had before mine eyes only 
the fear of God and Christian charity towards you, which 
moved me to write : for of you hereafter I look not, in this 
world, either for pleasure or displeasure. If my talk shall 


do you never so much pleasure or profit, you cannot pro- 
mote me ; nor if I displease you, you cannot hurt or harm 
me, for I shall be out of your reach. Now therefore, if 
you fear God, and can be content to hear the talk of him 
that seeketh nothing at your hands, but to serve God and 
to do you good, hearken to what I say. 

I say unto you, as St Paul saith unto the Galatians, I Gal ' uu 
wonder (my lords) what hath bewitched you, that ye so 
suddenly are fallen from Christ unto antichrist, from Christ's 
gospel unto men's traditions, from the Lord that, bought 
you unto the bishop now of Eome. 

I warn you of your peril; be not deceived; except you 
will be found willingly consenters to your own death. For 
if ye think thus — We are laymen; this is a matter of reli- 
gion; we follow as we are taught and led; if our teachers 
and governors teach us and lead us amiss, the fault is in 
them, they shall bear the blame : my lords, this is true (I 
grant you) that both the false teacher, and the corrupt 
governor, shall be punished for the death of their subject 
whom they have falsely taught and corruptly led, yea, and 
his blood shall be required at their hands : but yet never- EMk - >"• 
theless shall that subject die the death himself also, that is, 
he shall also be damned for his own sin ; for if the blind 
lead the blind, Christ saith, not the leader only, but (he Lukevi * 
saith) both shall fall in the ditch. Shall the synagogue 
and the senate of the Jews, trow ye, which forsook Christ and 
consented to his death, therefore be excused, because Annas 
and Caiaphas, with the scribes and pharisees and their clergy, 
did teach them amiss I (yea, and also Pilate, their governor and 
the emperor's lieutenant, by his tyranny did without cause put 
him to death.) Forsooth no, my lords, no : for notwithstanding 
that corrupt doctrine, or Pilate's washing of his hands, neither 
of both shall excuse either that synagogue and seigniory, or 
Pilate ; but at the Lord's hand, for the effusion of that inno- 
cent's blood, on the latter day all shall drink of the deadly 
whip — ye are witty, and understand what I mean 1 . Therefore 
I will pass over this, and return to tell you how ye are fallen 
from Christ, to his adversary the bishop of Rome. 

[} There seems here to be some allusion to contemporaneous trans- 
actions, the meaning of which is now lost. Ed.] 



And lest, my lords, ye may peradventure think, thus barely 
to call the bishop of Rome Christ's adversary, or (to speak 
it in plain terms) to call him antichrist, that it is done in 
mine anguish, and that I do but rage, and as a desperate 
man do not care what I say, or upon whom I do rail : 
therefore, that your lordships may perceive my mind, and 
Actsxxvi. thereby understand that "I speak the words of truth and of 
sobriety ,1 (as St Paul said unto Festus), be it known unto your 
lordships all, that as concerning the bishop of Rome, I neither 
hate the person nor the place. 

For I ensure your lordships (the living Lord beareth me 
witness, before whom I speak), I do think many a good holy 
man, many martyrs and saints of God, have sat and taught 
in that place Christ's gospel truly; which therefore justly 
may be called Apostolici, that is, true disciples of the Apostles, 
and also that church and congregation of Christians an apo- 
stolic church, yea and that, certain hundred years after the 
same was first erected and builded upon Christ, by the true 
apostolical doctrine taught by the mouths of the Apostles 

If ye will know how long that was, and how many hun- 
dred of years, to be curious in pointing the precise number 
of years I will not be too bold : but thus I say ; so long 
and so many hundred years as that see did truly teach and 
preach that gospel, that religion, exercised that power, and 
ordered every thing by those laws and rules, which that see 
received of the Apostles, and (as Tertullian saith) the Apostles 
of Christ, and Christ of God; so long (I say) that see 
might well have been called Peter and Paul's chair and see, 
or rather Christ's chair, and the bishop thereof Apostolicus, 
or a true disciple and successor of the Apostles, and a mi- 
nister of Christ. But since the time that that see hath 
degenerated from the trade of truth and true religion, the 
which it received of the Apostles at the beginning ; and hath 
preached another gospel, hath set up another religion, 
hath exercised another power, and hath taken upon it to 
order and rule the church of Christ by other strange laws, 
canons and rules, than ever it received of the Apostles, or 
the Apostles of Christ, which things it doth at this day and 
hath continued so doing (alas, alas !) of too too long a time 


— since the time (I say) that the state and condition of that 
see hath thus been changed in truth, it ought, of duty and 
of right, to have the names changed, both of the see and 
of the sitter therein. For understand, my lords : it was nei- 
ther for the privilege of the place or person thereof, that 
that see and bishop thereof were called Apostolic ; but for 
the true trade of Christ's religion, which was taught and 
maintained in that see at the first, and of those godly men. 
And therefore as truly and justly as that see then, for that 
true trade of religion and consanguinity of doctrine with the 
religion and doctrine of Christ's Apostles, was called apo- 
stolic ; so as truly and as justly, for the contrariety of reli- 
gion and diversity of doctrine from Christ and his Apostles, 
that see and the bishop thereof at this day both ought to 
be called, and are indeed, antichristian. 

The see is the seat of Satan ; and the bishop of the same, 
that maintaineth the abominations thereof, is antichrist him- 
self indeed. And for the same causes this see at this day 
is the same which St John calleth in his Revelation Babylon, a p° c - xvii - 
or the whore of Babylon, and spiritually Sodoma and Egyptus, a p° c - xi - 
the mother of fornications and of the abominations upon 
the earth. And with this whore doth spiritually mell n , and -meddle. 
lieth with her and committeth most stinking and abominable 
adultery before God, all those kings and princes, yea, and 
all nations of the earth, which do consent to her abomi- 
nations, and use or practise the same ; that is (of the in- 
numerable multitude of them to rehearse some for example 
sake) her dispensations, her pardons and pilgrimages, her 
invocation of saints, her worshipping of images, her false 
counterfeit religion in her monkery and friarage, and her tra- 
ditions, whereby God's laws are defiled; as her massing, 
and false ministering of God's word and the sacraments of 
Christ, clean contrary to God's word and the Apostles' doc- 
trine, whereof in particularity I have touched something be- 
fore in my talk had with the see of London, and in other 
treatises more at large : wherein (if it shall please God to 
bring the same to light,) it shall appear I trust by God's 
grace plainly to the man of God, and to him whose rule 
in judgment of religion is God's word, that that religion, 
that rule and order, that doctrine and faith, which this whore 



Apocxvii. f Babylon and the beast whereupon she doth sit main- 
tained at this day with all violence of fire and sword, with 

Daniel vii. spoil and banishment (according to Daniel's prophecy), and 
finally with all falsehood, deceit, hypocrisy, and all kind of 
ungodliness — are as clean contrary to God's word as dark- 
ness is unto light, or light to darkness, white to black, or 
black to white, or as Belial unto Christ, or Christ unto 
antichrist himself. 

I know, my lords, and foresaw when I wrote this, that 
so many of you as should see this my writing, not being before 
endued with the Spirit of grace and the light of God's word, 
so many (I say) would at these my words lordlike stamp and 
spurn, and spit thereat. But sober yourselves with patience, 
and be still ; and know ye that in my writing of this, my mind 
was none other but in God (as the living God doth bear me 
witness,) both to do you profit and pleasure. And otherwise, 
as for your displeasure, by that time this shall come to your 
knowledge, I trust by God's grace to be in the hands and 
protection of the Almighty, my heavenly Father and the living 
Lord, which is (as St John saith) the greatest of all ; and then 
I shall not need (I trow) to fear what any lord, no nor what 
king or prince, can do unto me. 

My lords, if in times past ye have been contented to 
hear rne sometimes in matters of religion before the prince in 
the pulpit, and in the parliament house, and have not seemed 
to have despised what I have said ; when as else, if ye had 
perceived just occasion, ye might then have suspected in my 
talk, though it had been reasonable, either desire of worldly 
gain or fear of displeasure : how hath then your lordships 
more cause to hearken to my word, and to hear me patiently, 
seeing now ye cannot justly think of me (being in this case, 
appointed to die, and looking daily when I shall be called to 
come before the eternal Judge,) otherwise but that I only 
study to serve my Lord God, and to say that thing which 
I am persuaded assuredly by God's word shall and doth please 
him, and profit all them to whom God shall give grace to hear 
and believe what I do say ! And I do say even that I have 
said heretofore, both of the see of Rome, and of the bishop 
thereof — I mean after this their present state at this day. 
Wherein if ye will not believe the ministers of God, and true 


preachers of his word, verily I denounce unto you in verba 
Domini, Except ye do repent betime, it shall turn to your 
confusion and to your smart on the latter day. Forget not 
what I say, my lords, for God's sake forget not, "but re- Psalm "'• 
member it upon your bed." For I tell you moreover, as I 
know I must be countable of this my talk, and of my speak- 
ing thus, to the eternal Judge, who will judge nothing amiss, 
so shall you be countable of your duty in hearing ; and you 
shall be charged, if ye will hearken to God's word, for not 
obeying to the truth. 

Alas, my lords, how chanceth this, that this matter is 
now anew again to be persuaded unto you ? Who would have 
thought of late, but your lordships had been persuaded indeed 
sufficiently, or else that ye could ever have agreed so uni- 
formly with one consent to the abolishment of the usurpation 
of the bishop of Eome ? If that matter were then but a 
matter of policy, wherein the prince must be obeyed, how is 
it now made a matter wherein (as your clergy saith now, and 
so say the pope's laws indeed) standeth the unity of the 
catholic church, and a matter of necessity of our salvation? 
Hath the time, being so short since the death of the two 
last kings, Henry VIII. and Edward his son, altered the 
nature of the matter? If it have not, but was of the same 
nature and danger before God then as it is now, and be now 
(as it is said by the pope's laws, and the instructions set forth 
in English to the curates of the diocese of York,) indeed a 
matter of necessity to salvation, how then chanced it that 
ye were all, my lords, so light and so little passed upon ° concerned 
the catholic faith and the unity thereof (without the which 
no man can be saved), as for your princes'' pleasures, which 
were but mortal men, to forsake the unity of your catholic 
faith, that is, to forsake Christ and his holy gospel? And 
furthermore, if it were both then and now so necessary to 
salvation, how chanced it also, that ye, all the whole body 
of the parliament agreeing with you, did not only abolish and 
expel the bishop of Eome, but also did abjure him in your 
own persons, and did decree in your acts great oaths to be 
taken of both the spiritualty and temporalty, whosoever 
should enter into any weighty and chargeable office in the 
commonwealth? But on the other side, if that law and 




decree, which maketh the supremacy of the see and bishop 
of Borne over the universal church of Christ a thing of ne- 
cessity required unto salvation, be an anti-christian law (as 
it is indeed), and such instructions as are given to the 
diocese of York be indeed a setting forth of the power of 
that beast of Babylon by the craft and falsehood of his 
false prophets (as of truth, compared unto God's word, and 
truly judged by the same, it shall plainly appear that they 
be), then, my lords, never think other but the day shall 
come, when ye shall be charged with this your undoing of 
that that once ye had well done, and with this your perjury 
Jer. iv. and breach of your oath, which oath was done in "judgment, 
justice, and truth, agreeable to God's law. - " 

The whore of Babylon may well for a time dally with 
you, and make you so drunk with the wine of her filthy 
stews and whoredom (as with her dispensations and promises 
of pardon a poena et culpa), that for drunkenness and blind- 
ness ye may think yourselves safe. But be ye assured, when 
the living Lord shall try the matter by the fire, and judge 
it according to his word, when all her abominations shall 
appear what they be, then ye, my lords, (I give your lord- 
ships warning in time, repent if ye be happy, and love your 
own soul's health, repent, I say, or else without all doubt 
ye shall never escape the hands of the living Lord for the 
guilt of your perjury and the breach of your oath;) as ye 
have banqueted and lain by the whore in the fornication of 
her whorish dispensations, pardons, idolatry, and such like 
abominations ; so shall ye drink with her (except ye repent 
betime) of the cup of the Lord's indignation and everlasting 
wrath, which is prepared for the beast, his false prophets, 
and all their partakers. For he that is partner with them 
in their whoredom and abominations, must also be partner 
with them of their plagues, and on the latter day shall be 
thrown with them into the lake burning with brimstone and 
unquenchable fire. Thus fare ye well, my lords all. I pray 
God give you understanding of his blessed will and pleasure, 
and make you to believe and embrace the truth. Amen. 


LETTER XXXIII. (Coverdale.) 

Another Farewell, to the Prisoners in Christ s Gospel's cause, 
and to all them which for the same cause are exiled and 
banished out from their own country, choosing rather to 
leave all worldly commodity, than their master Christ. 

Farewell, my dearly beloved brethren in Christ ; both 
ye my fellow-prisoners, and ye also that be exiled and banished 
out of your countries, because ye will rather forsake all worldly 
commodity than the gospel of Christ. 

Farewell, all ye together in Christ, farewell and be merry, 
for ye know that the trial of your faith bringeth forth pa- 
tience, and patience shall make us perfect, whole and sound 
on every side ; and such after trial, ye know, shall receive 
the crown of life, according to the promise of the Lord made 
to his dearly beloved : let us therefore be patient unto the 
coming of the Lord. As the husbandman abideth patiently James v - 
the former and latter rain for the increase of his crop, so 
let us be patient and pluck up our hearts, for the coming 
of the Lord approacheth apace. Let us, my dear brethren, 
take example of patience in tribulation of the prophets,, 
which spake likewise God's word truly in his name. Let 
Job be to us an example of patience, and the end which 
the Lord suffered, which is full of mercy and pity. We * Pet - >'• 
know, my brethren, by God's word, that our faith is much 
more precious than any corruptible gold, and yet that is 
tried by the fire : even so our faith is therefore tried like- 
wise in tribulations, that it may be found, when the Lord 
shall appear, laudable, glorious and honourable. "For if 1Pet - »• 
we for Christ's cause do suffer, that is grateful before God; 
for thereunto are we called, that is our state and vocation, 
wherewith let us be content." Christ, we know, suffered for 
us afflictions, leaving us an example that we should follow 
his footsteps : for he committed no sin, nor was there any 
guile found in his mouth; when he was railed upon, and 
also reviled, he railed not again ; when he was evil entreated, 
he did not threaten, but committed the punishment thereof 
to him that judgeth aright. 

Let us ever have in fresh remembrance those wonderful 
comfortable sentences spoken by the mouth of our Saviour 

27 2 



Matt. v. Christ : " Blessed are they which suffer persecution for right- 
eousness'' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven ; blessed 
are ye when men revile you, persecute you, and speak all 
evil against you for my sake ; rejoice and be glad, for great 
is your reward in heaven, for so did they persecute the pro- 
phets which were before you." Therefore let us alway bear 
this in our minds, that if any incommodity do chance unto 
us for righteousness 1 sake, happy are we, whatsoever the world 
doth think of us. Christ our master hath told us before- 
Lukexxi. hand, "that the brother should put the brother to death, 
and the father the son, and the children should rise against 
their parents and kill them, and that Christ's true Apostles 
should be hated of all men for his name's sake ; but he 
that shall abide patiently unto the end shall be saved." 
Let us then endure in all troubles patiently, after the ex- 
ample of our master Christ, and be contented therewith ; 
for he suffered being our Master and Lord, how doth it not 
Lukevi. t\\en become us to suffer? "For the disciple is not above 
his master, nor the servant above his lord." It may suffice 
the disciple to be as his master, and the servant to be as 
Matt. x. jjjg j or( ] i " If they have called the father of the family, 
the master of the household, Beelzebub, how much more 
shall they call so them of his household? Fear them 
not then," saith our Saviour, "for all privities shall be made 
plain : there is now nothing secret, but it shall be shewed 
in light." 

Of Christ's words let us neither be ashamed nor afraid 
to speak them ; for so Christ our master commandeth us, 
saying, " That I tell you privily, speak openly abroad, and 
that I tell you in your ear, preach it upon the house top. 
And fear not them which kill the body, for the soul they 
cannot kill : but fear him which can cast both body and 
soul into hell-fire." Know ye that the heavenly Father 
hath ever a gracious eye and respect towards you, and a 
fatherly providence for you, so that without his knowledge 
and permission nothing can do you harm. Let us there- 
fore cast all our care upon him, and he shall provide that 
Matt. x. which shall be best for us. " For if of two small sparrows, 
which both are sold for a mite, one of them lighteth not 
on the ground without your Father, and all the hairs of our 


head are numbered, fear not then," saith our master Christ, 
"for ye are more worth than many small sparrows. 11 And 
let us not stick to confess our master Christ for fear of 
danger, whatsoever it shall be ; remembering the promise 
that Christ maketh, saying, " Whosoever shall confess me 
before men, him shall I confess before my Father which is 
in heaven ; but whosoever shall deny me, him shall I like- 
wise deny before my Father which is in heaven. 11 

Christ came not to give unto us here a carnal amity 
and a worldly peace, or to knit his unto the world in ease 
and peace, but rather to separate and divide them from the 
world, and to join them unto himself; in whose cause we 
must, if we will be his, forsake father and mother, and stick 
unto him. If we forsake him or shrink from him for trouble 
or death's sake, which he calleth his cross, he will none of 
us, we cannot be his. If for his cause we shall lose our 
temporal lives here, we shall find them again and enjoy 
them for evermore ; but if in his cause we will not be con- 
tented to leave nor lose them here, then shall we lose them 
so that we shall never find them again, but in everlasting 

What though our troubles here be painful for the time, 
and the sting of death bitter and unpleasant? yet we know 
that they shall not last in comparison of eternity, no not 
the twinkling of an eye ; and that they, patiently taken in 
Christ's cause, shall procure and get us immeasurable heaps 
of heavenly glory, unto the which these temporal pains of 2Cor - iv - 
death and troubles compared, are not to be esteemed, but 
to be rejoiced upon. " Wonder not," saith St Peter, " as * rct ' iv - 
though it were any strange matter that ye are tried by the 
fire (he meaneth, of tribulation), which thing, saith he, is 
done to prove you. Nay rather, in that ye are partners of 
Christ's afflictions,, rejoice, that in his glorious revelation ye, 
may rejoice with merry hearts. If ye suffer rebukes in Christ's 
name, happy are ye, for the glory and spirit of God resteth 
upon you. Of them God is reviled and dishonoured, but of 
you he is glorified. Let no man be ashamed of that he 
suffereth as a Christian, and in Christ's cause : for now is 
the time that judgment and correction must begin at the 
house of God ; and if it begin first at us, what shall be 



the end of those, think ye, which believe not the gospel? 
And if the righteous shall be hardly saved, the wicked and 
the sinner, where shall he appear? Wherefore they which 
are afflicted according to the will of God, let them lay down 
and commit their souls to him by well-doing, as to a trusty 
and faithful Maker. 1 ' 

This (as I said) may not seem strange to us, for we 
know that all the whole fraternity of Christ's congregation in 
this world is served with the like, and by the same is made 
perfect. For the fervent love that the Apostles had unto 
their master Christ, and for the great commodities and in- 
crease of all godliness which they felt (by their faith) to 
ensue of afflictions in Christ's cause, and thirdly, for the 
heaps of heavenly joys which the same do get unto the 
godly, which shall endure in heaven for evermore, for these 
causes (I say) the Apostles of their afflictions did joy, and 
rejoiced in that they were had and accounted worthy to 
suffer contumelies and rebukes for Christ's name. And Paul, 
as he gloried in the grace and favour of Cod, whereunto he 
was brought and stood in by faith; so he rejoiced in his 
afflictions for the heavenly and spiritual profits, which he num- 
bereth to rise upon them : yea, he was so far in love with 
that that the carnal man loathed so much, that is, with 
Christ's cross, that he judged himself to know nothing else 
but Christ crucified ; "he will glory (he saith), in no- 
thing else but in Christ's cross :" yea, and he blesseth all 
those, as the only true Israelites and elect people of God, 
with peace and mercy, which walketh after that rule and 
after none other. 

Lord, what a wonderful spirit was that that made 
Paul, in setting forth of himself against the vanity of Sa- 
tan's pseudo-apostles, and in his claim there that he in Christ's 
cause did excel and pass them all, — what, a wonderful spirit 
2 cor. xi. was th a t (J sav ) that made him to reckon up all his trou- 
bles, his labours, his beatings, his whippings, his scourgings, 
his shipwrecks, his dangers and perils by water and by land, 
his famine, hunger, nakedness, and cold, with many more, 
and the daily care of all the congregations of Christ, among 
whom every man's pain did pierce his heart, and every man's 
grief was grievous unto him ! O Lord, is this Paul's pri- 

1 Cor. ii. 


niacy, whereof he thought so much good that he did excel 
other? Is not this Paul's saying unto Timothy, his own 
scholar, and doth it not pertain to whosoever will be Christ's 
true soldiers? — "Bear thou, (saith he) the afflictions like 2 Tim - «- 
a good soldier of Jesus Christ. This is true : if we die 
with him, (he meaneth Christ,) we shall live with him ; if 
we suffer with him, we shall reign with him; if we deny 
him, he shall deny -us ; if we be faithless, he remaineth faith- 
ful, he cannot deny himself." This Paul would have known 
to every body; for there is none other way to heaven, but 
Christ and his way, and "all that will live godly in Christ, shall 2 Tim - iu - 
(saith St Paul) suffer persecution. 11 By this way went to 
heaven the patriarchs, the prophets, Christ our master, his 
Apostles, his martyrs, and all the godly since the beginning. 

And as it hath been of old, "that he which was bornGai.iv. 
after the flesh persecuted him which was born after the 
spirit, 11 for so it was in Isaac's time ; so, said St Paul, it 
was in his time also. And whether it be so or no now, let 
the spiritual man, the self-same man (I mean) that is en- 
dued with the Spirit of Almighty God, let him be judge. 
Of the cross of the patriarchs, as ye may read in their 
stories if ye read the book of Genesis, ye shall perceive. 
Of other, St Paul in few words comprehendeth much matter, 
speaking in a generality of the wonderful afflictions, deaths, 
and torments, which the men of God in God's cause and 
for the truth's sake willingly and gladly did suffer. After 
much particular rehearsal of many, he saith, " Others were Heb. xi. 
racked, and despised, and would not be delivered, that they 
might obtain a better resurrection; other again were tried 
with mockings and scourgings, and moreover with bonds and 
imprisonment ; they were stoned, hewn asunder, tempted, fell 
and were slain upon the edge of the sword, some wandered 
to and fro in sheeps 1 pilches a , in goats 1 pilches, forsaken "skins, Lat. 
oppressed, afflicted, (such godly men as the world was un- 
worthy of,) wandering in wildernesses, in mountains, in 
caves and in dens ; and all these were commended for their 
faith. 11 And yet they abide for us the servants of God, and 
for those their brethren which are to be slain as they were 
for the word of God's sake, that none be shut out, but that 
we may all go together to meet our master Christ in the 


air at his coming, and so to be in bliss with him in body 
and in soul for evermore. 

Therefore, seeing we have so much occasion to suffer 
and to take afflictions for Christ's name's sake patiently, so 
many commodities thereby, so weighty causes, so many good 
examples, so great necessity, so sure promises of eternal life 
and heavenly joys of him that cannot lie, let us throw away 

'hinder, whatsoever might let b us, all burden of sin, and all kind of 

Heb. xii. carnality, and patiently and constantly let "us run for the 
best game in this race that is set before us ; ever having 
our eyes upon Jesus Christ, the ringleader, captain, and 
prefecter of our faith ; which, for the joy that was set before 

« regarding, him, endured the cross, not passing upon c the ignominy and 
shame thereof, and is set now at the right hand of the throne 
of God. Consider this, that he suffered such strife of sinners 
against himself, that ye should not give over nor faint in 
your minds. As yet, brethren, we have not withstood unto 
death, ficditino; against sin."' 1 

Heb. xii. " Let us never forget, dear brethren, for Christ's sake, that 

fatherly exhortation of the wise that speaketh unto us, as 
unto his children; the godly wisdom of God, saying thus, 
My son, despise not the correction of the Lord, nor fall 
not from him when thou art rebuked of him ; for whom the 
Lord loveth, him doth he correct, and scourgeth every child 
whom he receiveth. What child is he whom the father doth 
not chasten? If ye be free from chastisement, whereof all 
are partakers, then are ye bastards and no children. Seeing 
then, whereas we have had carnal parents which chastened 
us, we reverenced them, shall not we much more be subject 
unto our spiritual father, that we might live? And they for 
a little time taught us after their own mind ; but this father 
teacheth us to our commodity, to give unto us his holiness. 
All chastisement for the present time appeareth not pleasant, 
but painful ; but afterward it rendereth the fruit of righteous-* 
ness on them which are exercised in it. Wherefore let us be 
of good cheer, good brethren, and let us pluck up our feeble 
members that were fallen, or began to faint, heart, hands, 
knees, and all the rest, and let us walk upright and straight, 
that no limping or halting bring us out of the way." Let us 
look, not upon the things that be present, but with the eyes 



of our faith let us steadfastly behold the things that be ever- 
lasting in heaven, and so choose rather, in respect of that 
which is to come, with the chosen members of Christ to 
bear Christ's cross, than for this short lifetime to enjoy all 
the riches, honours, and pleasures of the broad world. 

Why should we Christians fear death ? Can death deprive 
us of Christ, which is all our comfort, our joy, and our life? 
Nay, forsooth. But contrary, death shall deliver us from 
this mortal body, which loadeth and beareth clown the spirit, 
that it cannot so well perceive heavenly things ; in the 2 Cor. v. 
which so long as we dwell, we are absent from God. 

Wherefore, understanding our state in that we be Christ- 
ians, " that if our mortal body, which is our earthly house, 2 Cor. v. 
were destroyed, we have a building, a house not made with 
hands, but everlasting in heaven, &c, therefore we are of good 
cheer, and know that when we are in the body, we are absent 
from God ; for we walk by faith, and not by clear sight. 
Nevertheless we are bold, and had rather be absent from 
the body, and present with God. Wherefore we strive, 
whether we be present at home or absent abroad, that we 
may always please him. 11 

And who that hath true faith in our Saviour Christ, 
whereby he knoweth somewhat truly what Christ our Saviour 
is, that he is the eternal Son of God, life, light, the wisdom 
of the Father, all goodness, ail righteousness, and whatso- 
ever is good that heart can desire, yea, infinite plenty of all 
these, above that that man's heart can either conceive or 
think, (for in him dwelleth the fulness of the Godhead corpo- 
rally,) and also that he is given us of the Father, "andicor.i. 
made of God to be our wisdom, our righteousness, our holi- 
ness, and our redemption ;" — who (I say) is he, that believeth 
this indeed, that would not gladly be with his master Christ ? 
Paul for this knowledge coveted to have been loosed from 
the body, and to have been with Christ, for that he counted pmi. i. 
it much better for himself, and had rather to be loosed than 
to live. Therefore these words of Christ to the thief on the 
cross, that asked of him mercy, were full of comfort and 
solace: "This day thou shalt be with me in paradise. 11 To mkexxiii. 
die in, the defence of Christ's Gospel, it is our bounden duty 
to Christ, and also to our neighbour. To Christ, " for he Rom. ix. 


died for us, and rose again, that he might be Lord over all." 

i John in. And seeing he died for us, " we also (saith St John) should 
jeopard, yea give, our life for our brethren. 11 And this kind 
of giving and losing is getting and winning indeed ; for 
he that giveth or loseth his life thus, getteth and winneth 

Apoc xiv. it for evermore. " Blessed are they therefore, that die in the 
Lord; 11 and if they die in the Lord's cause, they are most 
happy of all. 

Let us not then fear death, which can do us no harm, 
otherwise than for a moment to make the flesh to smart; 
for that our faith, which is surely fastened and fixed unto the 
word of God, telleth us that we shall be anon after death 
in peace, in the hands of God, in joy, in solace, and that 
from death we shall go straight unto life. For St John saith, 

John xi. " He that liveth and believeth in me, shall never die. 11 And 

John v. m another, place " He shall depart from death unto life. 11 
And therefore this death of the Christian is not to be called 
death, but rather a gate or entrance into everlasting life. 
Therefore Paul calleth it but a dissolution and resolution; 

2gjt-J; an( j both Peter and Paul, a putting off of this tabernacle 
or dwell-house, meaning thereby the mortal body, as where- 
in the soul or spirit doth dwell here in this world for a 
small time. Yea, this death may be called, to the Christian, 

Actsiv. an end of all miseries. For so long as we live here, "we 
must pass through many tribulations, before we can enter 
into the kingdom of heaven. 11 And now, after that death 
hath shot his bolt, all the Christian man's enemies have 
done what they can, and after that they have no more to 

Luke xvi. c ] What could hurt or harm poor " Lazarus, that lay at 
the rich man's gate 11 ? his former penury and poverty, his 
miserable beggary, and horrible sores and sickness? For 
so soon as death load stricken him with his dart, so soon 
came the angels, and carried him straight up into Abraham's 
bosom. What lost he by death, who, from misery and 
pain, is set by the ministry of angels in a place both of 
joy and solace? 

Farewell, dear brethren, farewell ! and let us comfort our 
hearts in all troubles, and in death, with the word of God : 
for heaven and earth shall perish, but the word of the Lord 
endureth for ever. 



Farewell, Christ's dearly beloved spouse here wandering 
in this world, as in a strange land, far from thine own 
country, and compassed about on every hand with deadly 
enemies, which cease not to assault thee, ever seeking thy 
destruction ! 

Farewell, farewell, O ye the whole and universal congre- 
gation of the chosen of God, here living upon earth, the true 
church militant of Christ, the true mystical body of Christ, 
the very household and family of Cod, and the sacred temple 
of the Holy Ghost ! Farewell. 

Farewell, O thou little flock of the high heavenly pastor Luke xn 
Christ ! for to thee it hath pleased the heavenly Father to 
give an everlasting and eternal kingdom. Farewell. 

Farewell, thou spiritual house of God, thou holy and 
royal priesthood, thou chosen generation, thou holy nation, 
thou won d spouse I Farewell, farewell ! 

N. K. 


LETTER XXXIV. (Coverdale.) 

To the Queers Majesty 1 

It may please your majesty, for Christ our Saviour's sake, 
in a matter of conscience, (and now not for myself, but for 
other poor men,) to vouchsafe to hear and understand this 
mine humble supplication. It is so, honourable princess, 
that in the time while I was in the ministry of the see of 
London, divers poor men, tenants thereof, have taken new 
leases of their tenantries and holdings, and some have re- 
newed and changed their hold, and therefore have paid fines 
and sums of money, both to me, and also to the chapter of 
Paul's, for the confirmation of the same. Now I hear say, ^fand 6 
that the bishop which occupieth the same room now will -^"fB^" 
not allow the aforesaid leases, which must redound to many ^o^i 
poor men's utter ruin and decay. Wherefore, this is mine J^ 5 ^ 

men, which 
[} On the day previous to his martyrdom, after he had been degraded God and a 
by bishop Brookes, Ridley read this letter to the bishop, and requested {^h^M.C. 
him to forward the petition contained in it. This was refused, and 
Ridley then delivered it to his brother to be presented to the Queen : it 
was dated for the day following. Ed.] 


humble supplication unto your honourable grace, that it may 
please the same, for Christ's sake, to be unto the aforesaid 
poor men their gracious patron and defender, either that they 
may enjoy their aforesaid leases and years renewed, (as, when 
their matter shall be heard with conscience, I suppose, both 
justice, conscience, and equity shall require ; for that their 
"Collusion, leases shall be found, I trust, made without fraud or coven a , 
either of their part or of mine ; and also the old rents always 
reserved to the see, without any kind of damage thereof;) or 
if this will not be granted, then that it may please your gra- 
cious highness to command that the poor men may be re- 
stored to their former leases and years, and may have ren- 
dered to them again such sums of money, as they paid to 
me and to the chapter for their leases and years so now taken 
from them ; which thing, concerning the 'fines paid to me, 
may be easily done, if it shall please your majesty to coniT 
mand some portion of those goods which I left in my house 
to be given unto them. I suppose that half of the value of 
my plate which I left in mine offices, and especially in an 
iron chest in my bed-chamber, will go nigh to restore all 
such fines received ; the true sums and parcels whereof are 
not set in their leases ; and therefore (if that way shall please 
your highness,) they must be known by such ways and means 
as your majesty by the advice of men of wisdom and con- 
science shall appoint. But yet, for Christ's sake, I crave and 
most humbly beseech your majesty, of your most gracious 
thl° vidows r P*ty anc ^ niercy, that the former way may take place . I have 
fess impure a ' so a P 001 ' sister, that came to me out of the north with 
medren-" three fatherless children for her relief, whom I married after 
lt°james *° a servant of mine own house : she is put out of that which 
fs Bonner" I did provide for them. I beseech your honourable grace, 
gkmmtiiy 1 ' that her case may be mercifully considered: and that the 
nabiewhSi rather, in contemplation that I never had of him which 
wrong"!) the suffered indurance b at my entrance to the see of London, 
fatherless, one penny of his moveable goods, for it was almost half'-a- 
' Hardship, year after his deposition, afore I did enter in that place ; 
yea, and also if any were left known to be his, he had licence 
to carry it away, or there for his use it did lie safe ; and 
his officers do know, that I paid for the lead which I found 
there when I occupied any of it to the behoof of the church 


or of the house. And moreover, I had not only no part of N°^ith- 
his moveable goods, but also (as his old receiver, and then ^ e d s ? u |t dly 
mine, called Master Staunton, can testify,) I paid for him, [^fcoSw 
towards his servants 1 common liveries and wages, after his ^ {^t "ow 
deposition, fifty-three li. or fifty-five pounds, I cannot tell °£ ihese° me 
whether. In all these matters, I beseech your honourable j^ a u ™£s U by 
majesty to hear the advice of men of conscience, and espe- h^b/en"* 
cially the archbishop now of York 1 ; which, for that he was 5|fc? ssed " 
continually in my house a year and more before mine im- 
prisonment, I suppose he is not altogether ignorant of some 
part of these things ; and also his grace doth know my sister, 
for whose succour and some relief now unto your highness 
I make most humble suit. 

The 16th day of October, 1555. 

N. E. 
[} Dr Heath. Ed.] 


I. Disputatio Habita Oxonii. 1555. 

II. Articles jointly and severally ministered to Dr Ridley 

and Mr Latimer by the Pope's Deputy. 

III. Letter of Dr Turner, Dean of Wells, to Fox, touching 

chiefly his knowledge of Ridley. 

IV. Letter from Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, to 


V. Letter from Edward, Duke of Somerset, the Protector, 
to Ridley. 

VI. Letter from Edward VI. to Ridley. 



lieprinted from Fox, " Rerum in Fcclesia Gestarum," Basil, 1559, and 
collated with a MS. in the collection of Archbishop Parker in the 
Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

£The Corpus MS. is a very imperfect sketch of the proceedings. 
It appears to have been taken from the first notes which Ridley made 
after the discussion, before he had time to arrange them at full length. 

l Prcefatio N. Bidkei Episcopi Londinensis, in mam dispu- 


Nunquam mihi contigit in universa vita mea videre aut 
audire quicquam vanius aut tumultuosius geri, quam hsee 
quae nuper mecum habita est disputatio in scholis Oxonien- 
sibus. Et profecto non arbitrabar inter nostrates potuisse 
reperiri alicujus literaturae aliquos, gradu insigniori donatos, 
qui tam perfrictee frontis essent, ut ejusmodi scenicis vani- 
tatibus (quibus ea disputatio abundabat) indulgere aequo 
animo sustinuissent. Sorbonici clamores, quos olim vidi Pa- 
risiis, ubi Papismus maxime regnat, prse nostra hac thra- 
sonica ostentatione speciem aliquam habere modestise merito 
videri possunt 2 . 

Nee mirum erat; quoniam qui aliorum moderatores ibi 
esse debuerunt, quique 3 aliis sese formam in agendo prsebu- 
issent, in verbo, in gravitate, &c. ut Paulus loquitur, ipsi sane 
omnium emisissime 4 aliis in 5 tumultuandum ad clamandum 

1 These words are omitted at the top of the MS., which, however, 
has the signature " D. Ridleye, Eps. Lond." 
a Parker MS. — possint. 

3 Parker MS. — quique aliis esse sese formam prsebuissent in agendo. 
rjThere appears to be a mark through the esse, probably meant for an 

4 Parker MS. — perfusissime. 

5 Parker MS.— ad. 



classicum cecinerunt. Unde manifestum est, Ohristiane lector, 
quod haudquaquam ab istis sincera aliqua Veritas, sed prorsus 
vana mundi gloria et thrasonica victoria quaerebatur. Csete- 
rum ne ad innumera convicia, quibus ego inter disputandum 
totus conspuebar, causa nostra, quae Dei est et ecclesiae ip- 
sius, mendosis etiam disputationis habitae exemplaribus mundo 
traducatur, atque inde damnum aliquod ipsa Veritas sustinere 
possit; visum est mihi meam literis commendare responsio- 
nem ; ut quisquis ejus cognoscendae cupidus est, simul et 
veritatis studiosus, scire ex his posset et quae mihi maxime 
objecta fuerint 1 , et in summa quid 2 a me singulis sit re- 
sponsum. Quanquam sed tibi, amice lector, verissimum esse 
fateor, omnia omnium mihi, a tam multis et tam tumultuose 
objecta, et a me vicissim tot interdum simul opponentibus 
tam celeriter responsa ponere, esse omnino impossibile. 

Ad haec bona pars temporis in contumeliosissimis op- 
probriis, et plus quam theatricis exsibilationibus, applausio- 
nibus et triumphis ad captandum auram popularem populari 
sermone inaniter consumpta est. Quam rem cum ego aeger- 
rime ferrem, ac publice deplorarem testarerque coetum ilium 8 
eruditorum virorum ac scholas (quae theologorum gravitati 
destinatae esse 4 dicuntur) ejusmodi ineptiis et scenicis vanita- 
tibus contaminari atque pollui, et actores suae causae vanita- 
tem 5 per haec ipsa palam prodere ; dicendo nihil profeci, sed 
obloquentium exsibilationibus et vociferatiohibus, partim vero 
praesidentium auctoritate coactus sum ejus generis in me 
jactata audire convicia, qualia profecto viri graves non sus- 
tinuissent citra ruborem audire conjecta a turpissimo nebulone 
in vilissimum ganeonem. 

In initio disputationis, cum meam responsionem ad pri- 
mam propositionem 6 voluissem paucis, idque dialecticorum 
more, confirmare ; priusquam primam probationem, quae non 

1 Parker MS.— fuerant. 

2 Parker MS.— quod. 

3 Parker MS.— illorum. 

4 In the MS. this is confused. We have essent for esse, and a comma 
after it; then, dicantur ejusmodi, &c. 

5 Parker MS.— it stands thus, ™"ita!em E the alteration standing 
above the original.] 

6 Parker MS. — argumentationem. 


admodum prolixa est, potuissem absolvere, exclamant ipsi D. 7 
doctores: Loquitur blasphemias, blasphemias, blasphemias. 
Quumque ego supplex atque obnixe precarer, uti perorantem 
audire dignarentur: qua mea supplicatione commotus (ut 
videbatur) D. prolocutor 8 inclamat ex alto, Legat, legat : 
et 9 ego quum rursus pergerem legere, tantus continuo obortus 
est clamor, Blasphemias, blasphemias, ut nullum me unquam 
meminerim audisse aut legisse similem, prseter ilium 10 in Actis 
Apostolorum excitatum 11 a Demetrio fabro argentario cum suis 
qui erant ejusdem artis, clamantibus 12 in Paulum, Magna 
Diana Ephesiorum, Magna Diana Ephesiorum ; et prseter 
disputationem quondam quam Ariani habebant contra ortho- 
doxos in Africa 13 , ubi dicitur, Quales prsesides, talis erat 
et disputationis finis. Omnia erant plena tumultu et Aria- 
norum calumniis, ut nihil quiete audiri potuisset. Hsec Victor 
in libro secundo suae historise. 

Atque ita invaluerunt istorum clamores et tumultuationes, 
ut ego, velim nolim, cogerer probationes meas, alioqui satis 
breves, inchoatas dimittere. 

Testes habeo hujus veritatis omnes cordatiores qui inter- 
erant. Sed de his plura conqueri desinam: et nunc mihi 
curse erit, argumenta mihi proposita, et meas vicissim ad 
argumenta illorum responsiones, quanta mea memoria dili- 
gentiori singularum circumstantiarum recordatione suggerere 
potuerit, summatim annotare. 

"Disputatio habita Osoonice inter D. Nicolawm episcopum 
Londinensem, et doctorem Smithum, cceterosque doctores 

Vuestotws: — Viri Christi fideles, coepta est hodie schola 
summi Dei, ut spero, auspicio. Coepta controversia de se, 

7 Parker MS.— the D. is omitted. 

8 Parker MS. — proloquutor, [as it is likewise occasionally spelt in 
the printed copy.] 

9 Parker MS. — et ego cum rursus legerem. 

10 Parker MS.— qui. 

11 Parker MS. — excitatus est. 

12 Parker MS.— conclamantibus. 

13 Parker MS.— Carthagine. 

14 All that follows is wanting in the MS. till the title of the Dis- 
putation — " Disputatio habita/' &c, p. 451. 




controversia plane libera, de veritate scilicet corporis Domini 
nostri Jesu Ohristi in eucharistia. Christus verus est, qui 
dixit : vera sunt quae dixit, imo Veritas ipsa quae dixit. 
Orandus est ergo Deus nobis, ut demittat Spiritum, qui sit 
ejus verbi certus interpres, qui abstrahat errores, qui doceat 
ut Veritas elucescat. Oranda est Ecclesiae venia, ut illius 
receptam veritatem absque illius prsejudicio sinat hodie in 
qusestionem vocari. Vestrae autem partes erunt, Divini Nu- 
minis opem implorare; deinde reginae bona omnia precari, 
nobis pacatas et tranquillas praebere aures. 

Propositce qucestiones. 

Smithus; — Hodierno die, vir eruditissime, vocata sunt 
tria in quaestionem, minime certe inter Christianos contro- 

1. Nimirum, an Christi servatoris nostri corpus, con- 
ceptum ex Maria Virgine, oblatum in cruce pro redemptione 
hominum, sit reipsa aut realiter in eucharistia. 

2. Secundum, an post consecrationem ulla remaneat 
substantia, praeter substantiam Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 
Dei et hominis. 

3. Tertium, an in missa sit vivificum saerificium et 
oblatio, turn pro vivis quam pro defunctis, propitiabile. 

Nunc, doctissime doctor, tametsi tu die Sabbathi, quid 
indicaveris et senseris de his quaestionibus, aperte et publice 
pronunciasti, tamen non contentus responsione tua, quam 
negative protulisti, non gravabor rursus aperte rogare sen- 
tentiam tuam in prima quaestione: An verum Christi corpus 
post pronunciationem verborum Christi a sacerdote sit realiter 
in eucharistia, an tantum sit ibi secundum figuram ! Expecto 
quid respondeas. 

Pr^ifatio et Protestatio Nicolai Ridljsi Episcopi Lon- 
• dinensis habita 17 Aprilis in publicis scholis Oxonice. 

Accepi a vobis, ornatissime vir et domine Prolocutor et 
vos viri venerabiles, domini Commissarii celsitudinis Reginee 
et aliorum, superiore die tres propositiones, quibus jussistis me 
ut in hanc diem pararem, quid illis respondendum censerem. 
Ego vero cum mecum considerarem, quanta cura gregis Do- 
minici nuper mihi commissa esset, pro cujus administratione 


olim (idque quam cito, Deus novit) rationem Domino meo 
sum redditurus; quodque Petri Apostoli prsecepto paratus 
semper esse debeam ad respondendum cuilibet, ut loquar 
de ea quae in nobis est spe cum animi mansuetudine et 
reverentia; ad hoc quid debeam ecclesise Christi, quidque 
vobis, qui estis hie commissarii cum auctoritate publica; 
statui mandatis vestris hac in parte obtemperare, et palam 
vobis patefacere, quid de propositis propositionibus sentiam. 
Et quanquam (ut ingenue vobis quod verum est fatear) aliter 
olim atque nunc de illis rebus, de quibus me interrogatis, 
sensi ; nihilominus Deum testem invoco in animam meam, 
non mentior, quod ut mutarem animam, quodque in hanc in 
qua nunc sum devenirem sententiam, nullus me, ut id facerem, 
coegit aut legum humanarum aut periculorum hujus mundi 
metus, aut ulla spes vel expectatio mundanse commoditatis ; 
sed amor duntaxat veritatis, revelatse mihi per Dei gratiam 
(ut mihi persuasum habeo) in verbo Dei et in antiquorum 
patrum orthodoxorum lectione. 

Heec ego nunc propterea magis commemoro, quoniam 
quis scit, si quod mihi olim contigit, alicui vestrum in pos- 
terum contingere poterit? hoc est, ut si quid aliter atque 
ego nunc de rebus propositis sentiatis, et hoc vobis Deus 
aliquando sit revelaturus. Sed utcunque fuerit, quod vos 
omnes nunc me facere velitis opinor, hoc ego jam breviter 
sum facturus: hoc est, sententiam animi mei, quam pla- 
nissime potero, explicabo. In qua tamen sententia dicenda, 
id vobis testatum esse velim, me ex animo nihil esse dictu- 
rum scienter et prudenter, quod ulla in re crediderim posse 
vel tantillum repugnare aut dissentire a verbo Dei, aut a 
regulis fidei et Christians religionis, quas illud sacrosanctum 
Dei verbum ecclesise Christi prasscribit, quibus me meaque 
omnia volo nunc et in perpetuum esse vel fore obnoxia. 

Et quoniam gravis causa est quam agimus, et ad earn 
peragendam quam simus nunc inexpediti, temporis nimirum 
angustia et librorum inopia oppressi, vobis omnibus ignotum 
esse non potest: propterea protestor me hoc a vobis hodi- 
erno die publice postulaturum, nimirum ut in posterum liceat 
omnibus meis hodiernis responsionibus, explicationibus, et 
confirmationibus addere vel demere, quicquid in posterum 
saniore judicio, maturiore consultatione, aut exactiore sin- 


gularum rerum expensione, magis commodum magisque 
opportunum esse videbitur. Aliquid etiam adferunt carceres 
molestise, quae mentem meam nonnihil conturbarunt ; neque 
enim is sura, ut liber sim ab omnibus hujusmodi affectibus. 

Vuestonus: — Reverende doctor, quod ad penuriam libro- 
rura spectat, non est quod causeris; libri tibi exhibebuntur 
quoscunque postulaveris. Quod ad maturius judicium attinet, 
liberum erit usque in diem Dominicum addere responsionibus 
tuis, quod magis opportunum videbitur : nolo ut concisis uta- 
mur argumentis, ne videamur nectere arenas. 

Ridlwus: — Est aliud, quod impretatum velim. Video hie 
scribas et notarios adhiberi : verisimile est, quod palam profe- 
rentur quae dicemus : obsecro ut sit facultas loquendi libere ; non 
quod constituerim tempus eximere dicendo, sed ne cui vide- 
atur non satis fieri : non sum orator, nee didici rhetoricam. 

Vuestonus : — Licebit tibi eligere duos notarios ex hac tota 

Hidlwus: — Si essent hie mihi noti aliqui, eligerem. 

Vuestonus: — Sunt hie duo, quos dominus Cranmerus heri 
elegit: ipsos, si placet, eligito. 

Ridlasus : — Placent : puto esse viros bonos. 

Hsec jam pauca prsefatus et protestatus, confero me nunc 
ad propositarum propositionum responsionem, et responsionum 
mearum explicationes et confirmationes brevissimas. 

Prima Propositio a Papistis proposita. 

Forma autem conclusionum hsec erat. 

In sacramento altaris, virtute verbi divini a sacerdote pro- 
lati, prsesens est realiter sub speciebus panis et vini naturale 
corpus Ohristi, conceptum de Virgine Maria, item naturalis 
ejusdem sanguis. 


Respondeo, Non est humano aut seculi sensu in Dei re- 
bus loquendum. Prima itaque propositio vel conclusio for- 
mata est phrasi a sacra scriptura aliena, et multis ambiguis 
obscuritatibus involuta et implicata. In sensu autem, quem 
docent scholastici, et hodierna Romanensis ecclesia defendit, 
falsa est, erronea, atque doctrinse, quse est secundum pieta- 
tem, plane contraria. 




Diversitas et novitas phraseos, et quam sit a scriptura 
aliena, in tota hac prima propositione et in singulis pene 
partibus ita patet et evidens est vel mediocriter versato in 
sacris Uteris, ut nihil necesse jam putem, in hoc coetu docto- 
rum virorum, in ea re demonstranda aliquid temporis (nisi 
id a me postea postulatum merit,) collocare. 

Ambiguitas est in verbis, "virtute verbi divini." Am- 
biguum enim est, quod sit istud verbum divinum : illudne 
quod legitur in Evangelistis, aut in Paulo, aut aliquod aliud. 
Si quod in Evangelistis aut in Paulo, quodnam illud sit : si 
non ex illis, quomodo cognoscitur esse verbum divinum et 
tantse virtutis, ut hanc tantam rem efficere valeat? 

Item ambiguitur de verbo, " a sacerdote," an ullus dicendus 
sit sacerdos, nisi cui data sit potestas sacrificandi expiatorie 
pro vivis et mortuis ; et unde patet hanc auctoritatem esse a 
Deo ulli mortalium, prseterquam uni Ohristo, commissam? 

Dubitatur etiam, secundum quem ordinem futurus sacri- 
ficans sacerdos sit; utrum secundum ordinem Aaron, an 
secundum ordinem Melchisedec. Nam plures ordines sacer- 
dotii non probat, quod sciam, sacra scriptura. 

Vuestonus: — Sufficiant ista. 

Bidlceus: — Si desit tempus, sunt adhuc dies multi. Nee 
ego sum qui velim, quod non possum, abire. 

Vuestonus : — Hsec sunt subterfugia : eludis tempus. 

Bidlceus: — Non possum fugere. Oaptus sum, et vinctus.- 

Vuestonus : — Oongredimini. 

Smithus: — Sufficiant quae dixisti. 

Bidlceus : — Sine, quseso ; non adeo multa sunt quae sum 

Vuestonus : — Perge. 

Bidlceus: — Item in verbo "realiter, 11 ambiguum est an 
sumatur transcendenter, et sic potest hie signare quamcunque 
rem quae ad corpus Christi quovis modo spectat; et sic con- 
cedimus, corpus Christi realiter esse in sacramento ccense 
Dominicse ; sicut inter disputandum, si detur occasio, a nobis 
declarabitur : vel rem ipsam corpoream, animatam, quae 
assumpta est in unitatem personae a Verbo Dei ; secundum 
quam significationem, corpus Christi cum sit in coelis realiter 


propter verum corporis modum, hie in terris esse dicendus 
non est. 

Item in verbis, "sub speciebus panis et vim," ambiguum 
est utrura species significare intelliguntur formas tantum ac- 
cidentals et exteriores panis et vini, an naturas eorumdem 
substantiales, suis qualitatibus visibiles, et externis sensibus 

Falsitas autem propositionis in sensu Romanensis ecclesiee 
et scholasticorum hinc patere potest. Mi enim ponunt panem 
transubstantiari in carnem assumptam a Verbo Dei : idque, ut 
aiunt, per virtutem ejus vei-bi, quod 1111 conceptis vocibus et 
syllabis formaverunt ; quod in nullo reperiri potest Evange- 
listarum, aut in Paulo : atque inde colligunt, corpus Christi 
realiter contineri in sacramento altaris. Quae positio, quoniam 
fundatur super fundaraento transubstantiationis, (quod est 
fundamentum monstrosum, absurdum et analogise sacramen- 
torum interemptivum ;) idcirco et hsec prima propositio, quae 
super hoc putre fundamentum et vanum superstruitur, falsa 
est, erronea, et infami sacramentariorum errori merito de- 

Vuestonus : — Teritur tempus. 

Bidlceus : — Non deerit tempus : supersunt adhuc multi 

Vuestonus: — Perge ad argumenta: prsescribetur tibi alius 

Bidlceus : — Nil habeo amplius, quod de explicatione dicam ; 
si permiseritis, dicam paucis de confirmatione. 

Vuestonus : — Perge. 

Responsionis jam dat^e confiematio. 

Bidlceus: — Non est statuendum dogma aliquod in ec- 
clesia Dei, quod dissentiat a verbo Dei, et ab analogia fidei, 
et quod secum trahat multas absurditates. Sed dogma hoc 
primse propositionis tale est : ergo non est statuendum in ec- 
clesia Dei. Major patet, et minor probatur sic : Hoc dogma 
ponit realem, et corporalem, et carnalem carnis Christi a 
Verbo assumptse in sacramento coenae Dominica? preesentiam ; 
idque non per virtutem et gratiam, quod et orthodoxi faten- 
tur, sed per integram essentiam et substantiam corporis et 
carnis Christi. Sed talis prsesentia dissentit a verbo Dei, 



ab analogia fidei, et multas secura necessario tfahit absur- 
ditates: ergo, etc. Major est manifesta, et minor adhuc 
probatur sic. 

Vuestonus: — Tu bonas horas male perdis. Domine op- 
ponens, perge ad argumenta. 

Smithus: — Disseremus de transubstantiatione, quam tu 
asseris contrariam esse analogiae fidei. Contrarium probo 
ex scripturis et patribus. Sed antequam tecum congrediar, 
quseso an in sexto Johannis fiat mentio de Sacramento, aut 
de reali prsesentia corporis Christi in eucharistia? 

Bidlceus: — Iniquum videtur esse, ut amputentur ea quae 
eram dicturus: nee adeo multa sunt, paucis dicentur. 

Vuestonus : — Legat. 

Bidlceus: — Primo, Talis prsesentia contraria est locis ali- 
quot sacrse scripturse. Secundo, Dissentit ab articulis fidei. 
Tertio, Evacuat et tollit institutionem Domini de sua coena. 
Quarto, Prostituit preciosa prophanis ; projicit enim quod sanc- 
tum est canibus, margaritas scilicet porcis. Quinto, Multa 
cogit monstrosa miracula prseter necessitatem et auctoritatem 
verbi Dei ponere. Sexto, Ansam prsebet hsereticis, qua suos 
errores tueantur, qui non recte de duabus in Christo naturis 
sentiebant. Septimo, Fidem veritatis humanse in Christo 
minuit. Postremo, Falsificat dicta patrum orthodoxorum ; 
falsificat et fidem ecclesise catholicam, quam Apostoli tra- 
diderunt, martyres roboraverunt, et fideles, (ut quidam ex 
patribus ait,) usque nunc custodiunt. Ergo minor est vera. 

Probatio antecedentis hujus argumenti per partes. 

Talis prsesentia contraria est verbo Dei, Johan. xvi. Ve- 
ritatem dico vobis, expedit vobis ut ego vadam : si enim 
non abiero, Paracletus ad vos non venit. Act. iii. Quern 
oportet quidem ccelum accipere usque ad tempora restitu- 
tions omnium, quae loquutus est Deus. Matth. ix. Non 
possunt filii Sponsi lugere, quamdiu cum illis est Sponsus. 
Sed nunc est tempus hictus. Beati qui lugent, etc. Johan. 
xvi. Iterum videbo vos et gaudebit cor vestrum. Johan. xiv. 
Iterum veniam, et assumam vos ad meipsum. Matth. xxiv. 
Si dixerint vobis, Ecce hie Ohristus, aut illic, nolite credere : 
et ibidem : Ubicunque fuerit cadaver, ibi congregabuntur et 



2. Dissentit ab articulis fidei : Ascendit ad ccelos, sedet 
ad dextrara Dei Patris. Inde, et non aliunde, ut inquit Au- 
gustinus, venturus est ad judicandum vivos et mortuos. 

3. Evacuat et tollit institutionem coense Dominicse, ut- 
pote quae tantum jussa est tantisper continuari, donee ipse 
Dominus venerit. Si igitur nunc prsesens est realiter in 
veritate corporis carnis, debet hsec coena cessare. Comme- 
moratio non est rei prsesentis, sed prseteritse et absentis. 
Memoria autem et prsesentia differunt. Atque frustra ibi 
ponitur figura, inquit ex patribus quidam, ubi res figurata 
prsesens est. 

4. Prostituit preciosa profanis, et raulta cogit absurda 
fateri. Asserit enim adulteros et homicidas impoenitentes, imo 
(ut est quorundam apud istos opinio) impios et infideles, 
mures et canes, recipere corpus Domini nostri reale et cor- 
porale, in quo inhabitat plenitudo Spiritus, lucis, et gratise, 
contra manifesta verba, Johan. vi. in sex ibidem locis et 
sententiis. Statuit ai>dpu)7ro(payiav, id est, bestialem quan- 
dam crudelitatem. Crudelius est enim hominem vivum com- 
edere, quam interimere. 

Pius: — Petit tempus ut edat blasphemias. Mitte blas- 

Ridlwus: — -Ego non expectabam a vobis hujusmodi con- 

Vuestonus: — Omnia pacata, omnia tranquilla; perge ad 
argumenta, Domine Doctor. 

Ridlceus: — Restant non multa. 

Vnestonus : — Impudentissimo ore profers blasphemias : 
perge ad argumenta : incipe. 
Reiiquanon 5^ Ridlwus: — Cogit multa monstrosa miracula prater 

legebantur, o r 

cutOT P ro-°" necess itatem et auctoritatem verbi Dei ponere. In adventu 
ar'umenta nu j us prsesentise corporis et carnis Ohristi substantiam panis 
extrudunt ; ponunt autem accidentia sine subjecto, substituunt 
Christi corpus, sed sine suis qualitatibus et vero corporis modo. 
Si vero sacramentum tam diu servetur, ut mucescat, et ver- 
mes inde generentur, quidam dicunt substantiam panis mira- 
culose redire : alii negant. Quidam corpus Christi dicunt in 
stomachum recipientis descendere, et ibi tam diu manere, 
donee species calore naturali consumantur : quidam in bonis 
manere dicunt, quamdiu ipsi permanent esse boni : quidam 



tam cito corpus Christi in coelum rapi dicunt, qiiam cito 
species dentibus teruntur. O mirabiliarios ! Vere in istis 
impletum esse vereor quod prophetavit Paulus : Pro eo quod 
dilectionem veritatis non receperunt in hoc ut salvi fierent, 
mittet illis Deus efficaciam illusionis, ut credant mendacio, 
ut judicentur omnes qui non crediderunt veritati. Hsec prae- 2 Thess. u. 
sentia commentum illud concomitantiae peperit, quae sustulit 
hodie et abrogavit praeceptum Domini de communicando 
poculo Domini laicis. 

6. Ansam preebet heereticis errandi, et suos errores de- 
fendendi ; ut Marcioni, qui dixit Christum habere corpus 
phantasticum ; et Eutychi, qui confudit impie duas in Christo 

Postremo f'alsificat dicta patrum orthodoxorum et fidem 
.ecclesiae catholicam, quam Vigilius, martyr et auctor gravis, 
dicit esse traditam ab Apostolis, sanguine martyrum robora- 
tum, et a fidelibus ad suam usque aetatem custoditam. Dicta 
patrum intelligo, Justini, Irenaei, Tertulliani, Origenis, Euse- 
bii (Emisseni), Athanasii, Cyrilli, Epiphanii, Hieronymi, Chry- 
sostomi, Augustini, Vigilii, Fulgentii, et Bertrami : quorum 
omnium atque aliorum quoque vetustissimorum patrum loca 
in hanc sententiam scio me legisse ; et si esset librorum 
meorum mihi concessa copia, possem commonstrare, idque 
sub periculo capitis mei et amissionis omnium quae in hoc 
mundo amittere possum. 

Nolite putare, fratres, nos, quoniam hanc prsesentiam 
corporis Christi, quam hsec prima propositio ponit, impro- 
bavimus, utpote quam censemus esse commentitiam, phan- 
tasticam, et prseter autoritatem verbi Dei in ecclesiam a 
Eomanensibus introductam, propterea velle tollere veram il- 
lam praesentiam corporis Christi in sua ccena, rite et legiti- 
me administrata, quae est fundata in verbo Dei, et patrum 
orthodoxorum commentariis illustratur. Qui de me ita sen- 
tiunt, Deus novit quam multum illi hallucinentur : idque ut 
vobis planum manifestumque faciam, declarabo paucissimis, 
quam ego veram in verbo Dei et priscis patribus statuo in 
Sacramento coenae Dominicae corporis Christi praesentiam. 

Cum Luca Evangelista et Paulo Apostolo dico, panem 
in quo gratiae actae sunt, esse corpus Christi ad memoriain 
ipsius et mortis ejus, usque ad adventum ejus, perpetuo a 


fidelibus celebrandam. Dico item, panem quem frangimus, 
esse communicationem corporis Christi. 

Cum orthodoxis patribus sic loquor et censeo, non so- 
lum significationem corporis Dominici fieri per sacramentum 
suae ccense : sed una cum illo exhiberi quoque fateor piis 
et fidelibus gratiam corporis Christi, vitam scilicet atque 
eeternitatis alimoniam : idque cum Cypriano. Manducamus 
vitam, bibimus vitam, cum Augustino : sentimus Dominum 
prsesentem in gratia, cum Emisseno : recipimus cibum coe- 
lestium, et superne venientem, cum Athanasio : proprietatem 
naturalis communionis cum Hilario : naturam carnis et be- 
nedictionem vivificativam in pane et vino, cum Cyrillo : et 
cum eodem, virtutem proprise carnis Christi, vitam et gra^ 
tiam corporis, unigeniti proprietatem, id est, ut Cyrillus ipse 
disertis verbis exponit, vitam. Fatemur nos recipere, cum 
Basilio, mysticum Christi adventum, gratiam verse naturae, 
atque verse carnis sacramentum : cum Ambrosio, corpus per 
gratiam : cum Epiphanio, carnem spiritualem, sed aliam ab 
ea quae crucifixa est : cum Hieronymo, gratiam influentem 
in sacrificium, et Spiritus gratiam: cum Chrysostomo, gra- 
tiam, veritatem invisibilem : gratiam et societatem membro- 
rum corporis Christi, cum Augustino. Postremo cum Ber- 
tramo, qui horum fuit omnium postremus, fatemur, secundum 
id haberi in sacramento coenee Dominicse corpus Christi, 
videlicet ut ipse exponit, quod sit in eo spiritus Christi : id 
est, Divini potentia verbi, quae non solum animum pascit, 
verum etiam purgat. Ex his opinor omnibus dilucide pa- 
tere potest, quam simus ab ea sententia alieni, qua nos falso 
quidam orbi traducere conantur, dicentes, nos nihil aliud 
docere quam figuram corporis Christi in mensa Dominica a 
piis et fidelibus recipiendam expectari oportere. 

Pbopositio Secunda. 

Post consecrationem non remanet substantia panis et vini y 
nee ulla aha substantia, nisi substantia Dei et hominis. 

Eesponsio N. Ridl.*:i ad secundam propositionem. 

Secunda conclusio est simplicitur falsa ; verbo Dei, naturae 
sacramenti, patrum orthodoxorum clarissimis dictis ex dia- 
metro contraria. Est putre fundamentum reliquarum duarum, 


quae nobis propositi sunt, videlicet primse et tertise conclu- 
sionum. Ad hanc igitur responsionem non morabor vos ulla 
explicatione, contentus scilicet ea quae jam exposita est prius 
ad responsionem primse propositionis. 

Responsionis ad secundam propositionem confirmatio. 

1. Constat ex verbo Dei, Christum panem dedisse dis- 
cipulis, illumque suum corpus appellasse : sed substantia panis 
altera est a substantia Christi Dei et hominis. Ergo conclusio 
est falsa. Minor patet ; et major probatur sic : Hoc dedit 
discipulis, appellavitque corpus suum, quod accepit, in quo 
gratias egit, quod fregit : sed accepit panem, super panem 
gratias egit, et fregit panem : ergo major vera. Et con- 
firmatur auctoritatibus patrum Irensei, Tertulliani, Origenis, 
Cypriani, Epiphanii, Hieronymi, Augustini, Theodoreti, Cy- 

-rilli, Rabani, Bedse. Horum loca recipio me ostensurum 
clarissima, si modo concedatur (quod quidem peto) librorum 

2. Panis est corpus Christi, ergo est panis : a tertio 
adjacente ad secundum adjacens cum verbi substantivi pura 
copula. Sicut panis mensse Dominicse est corpus Christi 
naturale, ita est et corpus ejus mysticum : sed non est corpus 
Christi mysticum per transubstantiationem : ergo neque sic 
est corpus Christi naturale. Minor patet; et major probatur 
sic: Ut Christus, qui est Veritas, dixit de pane, Hoc est 
corpus meum, quod pro vobis tradetur, loquens ibi de corpore 
naturali; ita Paulus ab eodem Spiritu veritatis impulsus 
dixit: Unus panis et unum corpus multi sumus, qui 
de uno pane participamus. 

3. Non magis credendus est panis transubstantiari in cor- 
pus Christi, quam vinum in sanguinem : sed vinum non tran- 
substantiatur in sanguinem ; ergo nee panis in corpus. Major 
est manifesta: probatur minor ex auctoritate verbi Dei et in 
Matthgeo et in Marco: Non bibam ex hoc fructu vitis, et 
csetera. Fructus autem vinum est, quod Christus bibebat, et 
discipulis bibendum dedit. Huic sententise clarissime suffra- 
gatur Chrysostomi locus in Matthgeo xxvi. suffragatur Cypri- 
anus : affirmat sanguinem deesse, si desit vinum in calice. 

4. Verba Christi Domini super poculum apud Lucam et 
Paulum sunt tarn efficacia, quam quce dicuntur super panem : 


sed dicta super poculum non habent vim transubstantiandi : 
ergo, etc. Minor probatur, quia tunc transubstantiarent ca- 
licem, vel quod est in calice, in novum Testamentum. Sed 
neutrum hoc fieri potest, et absurdum est confiteri. 

5. Ille sensus sacrse scripturse (de sacramentis loquor) 
maxime deligendus est, quem maxime circumstantiee scriptu- 
rarum, analogia sacramentorum, et patrum dicta probant. 
Hsec maxime probant locutionem tropicam in verbis ccense 
Dominicse : est ergo sensus tropicus in eisdem maxime recipi- 
endus. Circumstantise scripturse : Hoc facite in mei comme- 
morationem : Quotiescunque comederitis panem hunc, et de 
poculo hoc biberitis, mortem Domini annunciabitis : Probet 
seipsum homo, et sic de pane illo edat, et de poculo bibat: 
Oonvenerunt ad frangendum panem, et perseverarunt in frac- 
tione panis : Panis quem frangimus etc. Quoniam unus 
panis et unum corpus multi sumus. 

Analogia sacramentorum necessaria est. Nam si sacra- 
menta aliquam similitudinem non haberent earum rerum qua- 
rum sunt sacramenta, omnino sacramenta non essent. 

1. Similitudo hsec in sacramento ccense Dominicse triplex 
est : Prima consistit in alitione. Vide Rabanum, Cyprianum, 
Augustinum, et Irenseum; et planissime Isidorum ex Ber- 

2. Secunda in compositione multorum in unum : ex 

3. Tertia est, dissimilium rerum similitudo, ubi sicut 
panis transit in corpus nostrum, ita nos per legitimum usum 
sacramenti per fidem transimus in corpus Christi. 

Dicta patrum, quod sit tropica et figurativa locutio. Ori- 
genes, Tertullianus, Ohrysostomus in opere imperfecto, Au- 
gustinus, Ambrosius, Basilius, Gregorius Nazianzenus, Hila- 
rius, et omnium clarissime Bertramus. 

Contra transubstantiationem militant insuper omnium pa- 
trum dicta loca, quorum nomina supra recensuimus contra 
assertionem primse propositionis. Sed omnium clarissime et 
evidentissime Irenseus, Origenes, Cyprianus, Ohrysostomus 
ad (Jsesarium monachum, Augustinus contra Adamantum, 
Gelasius, Cyrillus, Epiphanius, iterum Ohrysostomus in Mat- 
thseum xx, Rabanus, Damascenus, Bertramus. 

Hie vos, viri venerabiles, domine Prolocutor, et vos reliqui 


commissarii, rogatos velim, uti dignemini cognoscere me non 
solum niti his solis, quae hactenus scripsi in meis superioribus 
responsionibus et confirmationibus ; sed habere quoque pro 
mea sententia confirmanda, qusecunque scripsit Bertramus, 
vir doctus et orthodoxus, quique usque in hanc nostram 
jetatem jam septingentis annis semper habitus est catholicus. 
Cujus tractatum quicunque legerit perpenderitque, considerans 
setatem scriptoris, eruditionem, sanctimoniam, veterum alle- Ridiaeus per 

. Bertramum 

gationes et rationes llhus multiphces et sohdissnnas, mirabor in i»m»c 

.... x sententiam 

si quisquam timentium Deum possit ei in negotio eucha- adductus. 
ristiae salva conscientia contradicere. Hie mihi primus aurem 
vulsit, et a pervulgato Romanensis ecclesise errore ad dili- 
gentiorem veterum ecclesiasticorum scriptorum hac in re in- 
vestigationem primus ire coegit. Et haec loquor coram Deo, 
qui scit me in his, quae jam scribo, non mentiri. 

Tertia Propositio. 

In missa est vivificum ecclesise sacrificium, pro peccatis 
tarn vivorum quam mortuorum propitiabile. 

Responsio Nicolai Ridl^ei ad tertiam propositionem. 

Ad tertiam similiter, ut ad primam, respondeo ; atque in- 
super dico, earn in sensu, quern verba videntur prse se ferre, 
non solum esse erroneam, sed in tantum quoque esse mortis et 
passionis Christi derogativam, ut non immerito (mea quidem 
sententia) impia et in preciosissimum sanguinem Christi 
Servatoris blasphema censeri et possit et debeat. 

De missa Romanensi, quae hodie extat, aut ejus vivifico 
sacrificio propitiabili pro peccatis vivorum et mortuorum, 
universa sacra scriptura ne gry quidem habet. Ambiguitas 
de missae nomine quid significet, et an hodie ulla, qualis fuit 
veterum, vere habeatur, quum jam nulli aut catechumeni 
aut permanentes dimittantur. 

Item in illis verbis, " Vivifico ecclesise sacrificio," ambigi- 
tur, an intelligantur tropice et sacramentaliter, pro vivifici sa- 
crificii sacramento, quod in coena Domini non negatur ad- 
esse ; an proprie et citra omnem tfopum, quo modo unicum 
tantum fuit, idque semel oblatum, videlicet in ara crucis. 

Item in illis verbis, "tam, quam," ambiguum esse potest, 


utrum in sensu dicatur ludicro, quo dici solet per jocum de 
prorsus inepto, quod sit aptus tarn moribus quam scientia. 

Et in verbo " propitiabile 1 '' dubitatur, an idem sit quod 
propitiatorium et expiatorium : an quod potest reddi pro- 
pitium; hoc est, utrum active vel passive capiatur. 

Falsitas autem in sensu scholasticorum et ecclesise Eo- 
manensis, atque impietas in sensu quem verba prse se ferre 
videntur, hsec est ; quia illi innixi suo transubstantiationis 
fundamento, ponunt vinum et animatum corpus carnis Christi 
unitum Divinitati delitescere sub accidentibus panis et vini : 
quod est falsum, uti supra dictum est; et superstruentes su- 
per hoe fundamentum, dicunt etiam illud corpus offerri Deo 
a sacerdote in suis quotidianis missis ad expianda peccata 
yivorum et mortuorum. 


1 . Ubi non adest sacerdos idoneus ad offerendum sa- 
crificium pi'opitiabile, ibi tale sacrificium offerri non potest : 
sed nullus est idoneus sacerdos prseter Christum. Ergo tale 
sacrificium in quotidianis missis a sacerdotibus offerri non po- 
test. Probatur minor: ofncium offerendi grandis est honor: 
sed nemo debet sumere sibi honorem, nisi qui vocatur a Deo. 
Nemo autem hie vocatus est prseter unicum Christum Ser- 
vatorem. Ergo nemo illud prseter unicum Christum offerre 
potest. Quod nemo prseter unicum Christum ad hunc gra- 
dum vocatus sit, hinc patet. Duplex est tantum ordo sacer- 
dotii probatus in verbo Dei, secundum Aaron videlicet et 
secundum ordinem Melchisedec. Ordo Aaronis jam cessavit 
propter inutilitatem et imbecillitatem. At secundum ordinem 
Melchisedec unicus est tantum sacerdos Christus Dominus, 
sacerdotium habens cnrapafiaTov. 

2. Cujus nulla est necessitas ut fiat, id frustra fit. Sed 
nulla est necessitas offerendi amplius sacrificium propitiato- 
rium seu propitiabile pro vivis et mortuis: nam id Christus 
servator noster semel abunde perfecit et explevit. Ergo si 
in missa id fiat, frustra fit. 

3. Postquam inventa est seterna redemptio, non opus 
est amplius quotidiana oblatione. At Christus accedens pon- 
tifex, etc., seternam nobis invenit redemptionem. Ergo non 


amplius opus est quotidiana pro expiandis peceatis mortuorum 
et vivorum oblatione. 

4. Absque sanguinis effiisione non fit remissio. Sed in Heb. ix. 
missa non est sanguinis effusio. Ergo in missa non fit re- 
missio, et per consequens neque sacrificium propitiabile. 

5. In missa non est Christi passio in veritate, sed tan- 
tum signata mysterio, etiam ubi coena Domini legitime per- 
agitur: sed ubi Christus non est passus, ibi neque in veri- 
tate est oblatus. Ait enim Paulus : non ut saepius semetip- 
sum offerat, alioquin oportuisset ilium saepius passum fuisse 
a condito mundo. Ubi Christus non offertur, ibi non est 
sacrificium propitiabile. Nam Christus semel sub consum- 
mationem seculorum ad profligationem peccatorum per im- 
molationem sui ipsius apparuit : et quatenus manet illud om- 
nes homines, ut semel moriantur, post hoc autem judicium; 
ita et Christus semel oblatus est, ut multorum peccata tol- 
leret, rursusque absque peccato conspicietur iis qui ilium 
expectant in salutem. 

6. Ubi est hostia, quae potest accedentes perfectos red- 
dere, ibi desinere debent homines amplius hostias offerre ex- 
piatorias. Sed sub novo testamento est unica hostia jam- 
pridem oblata, quae potest perfectos in aeternum reddere 
accedentes. Ergo in novo testamento desinendum est ab 
hostiis expiatoriis offerendis. 

7. In eundem sensum et sententiam tendunt manifes- 
tissime loca scripturarum quae sequuntur, unde et manifes- 
tissima inde argumenta formari possunt. Videlicet, per quam 
voluntatem (inquit Paulus) sanctificati sumus per oblatio- 
nem corporus Jesu Christi semel peractam. Et ibidem: 

Hie vero una pro peceatis oblata victima, perpetuo sedet Heb. x. 
ad dexteram Dei, &c. unica enim oblatione perfectos effecit 
in perpetuum eos qui justificantur. Per semetipsum facta Heb. '• 
purgatione peccatorum : Hebr. primo. Obsecro, notate verbum 
" semetipsum" : quod bene notatum procul dubio dirimit uni- 
versam controversiam. 

8. Hebr. x. negat Paulus ei qui sanguinem filii Dei, Heb. x. 
per quem fuit ipse sanctificatus, conculcaverit, reliquam esse 
hostiara. Non vult Christus iterum crucifigi, non vult mortem 
suam ludibrio exponi. Et ad Colossenses : Reconciliavit nos coi. i. 
in corpore carnis suae. Observate, obsecro, non dicit, in mys- 



450 APPENDIX 1. 

terio corporis, sed in corpore carnis suae. Et prima Johannis 
1 Job. ii. secundo : Si quis peccaverit, advocatum habemus, etc. 

Scio hsec omnia scripturarum loca deludi a quibusdam 
duplici commento. Alterum est, per distinctionem de sacri- 
ficio cruento et incruento : quasi vero nostrum incruentum 
ecclesiae sacrificium aliud esset quam laus et gratiarum 
actio ; quam illus unici cruenti semel peracti commemoratio, 
annunciatio et sacramentalis reprsesentatio, &c. Alterum 
commentum est : depravant orthodoxorum patrum dicta ad 
intellectum alienum, quern ipsi patres nunquam senserunt. 
Quid autem patres senserint, manifeste patet ex Augustino 
in epistola ad Bonifacium, et lib. lxiii. libro nono contra 
Faustum Manichseum, et in aliis locis quamplurimis ; ex 
Eusebio (Emisseno), Cypriano, Chrysostomo, Theodoreto, 
Fulgentio, Bertramo, et aliis, quorum omnium procul dubio 
heec est unanimis concorsque in Domino sententia, videlicet 
quod indefessa currit pro salute hominis redemptio perpetua, 
quse semel facta est in veritate ; quod hostia semel oblata 
consumi non potest ; quod tam potens est Christi passio, tam 
crescens virtus et vigor illius semel efmsi cruoris hodie ad 
ablutionem peccatorum, quam fuit illo eodem die, cum ex 
benedicto Christi servatoris latere effluxit. Quanquam omnis 
sacrificii nostri ratio, quod in coena Dominica in ecclesia 
frequentatur, consistit in orationibus, laude et gratiarum 
actione, in recordatione et annunciatione illius semel in ara 
crucis oblati sacrificii, ut jugitur coleretur per mysterium, 
qui semel duntaxat et non amplius offerebatur in pretium. 


Hsec sunt, viri venerabiles, domine Prolocutor, et reliqui 
domini commissarii, quse ad vestras tres mihi propositas pro- 
positiones respondere nunc potui in hac consiliorum inopia, 
et prsesidio librorum destitutus : quamobrem provoco ad 
meam primam protestationem, cujus auxilium, quantum licet, 
postulo mihi non denegari. Et quoniam nuper a vobis sen- 
tentia lata est in me multis nominibus injusta et iniqua; 
ego igitur, quatenus mihi licet, ab eadem appello ad sequi- 
orem justioremque justi alicujus judicis superioris compe- 
tentisque et legitimi censuram et judicium, idque juxta sta- 


turn approbatura ecclesise Anglicanse : licet quis is jam sit, 
propter mutationem reipublicse, fateor me ignorare. Quale 
judicium si mihi in terris non datur habere, tunc tanquam 
ad sacram anchoram et unicum salutis mese portum confugio 
ad sententiam seterni judicis: hoc est, omnipotentis Dei, 
cujus in suos misericordissimse et justitiee et justissimse miseri- 
cordise totaliter me meamque universam causam judicandam 
committo, nihil quicquam desperans de patrocinio advocati 
mei et unici servatoris nostri Jesu Ohristi. Cui cum Patre 
sempiterno, et Spiritu sancto omnium sanctificatore, sit nunc 
et in aeternum omnis honor et gloria. Amen. 

Disputatio 1 habita Oooonice xvii. 2 Aprilis de reali prcesentia 
corporis Ohristi in eucharistia. Anno 1554. 

Smithus 3 : — Dedisti mihi occasionem, ut jam exordiar ab 
alio capite, quam proposueram : visus es mihi abuti locis scrip- 
turarum de ascensione Ohristi, ut tollas prsesentiam Ohristi 
in eucharistia. Ego vero contra tuam sententiam infringam : 
ascensio Ohristi nihil obstat prsesentise reali corporis Ohristi 
in eucharistia. Ergo quum his locis inniteris, falleris. 

Ridlams: — Ego tibi visus sum argumentum fortissimum 
fecisse ab ascensione Ohristi in ccelos ; sed tu male colligis : 
nee enim solum nititur ascensione, sed ascensione et perman- 
sione in ccelis. 

Smithus*: — Ascensio Ohristi in ccelos, et permansio ibi, (l) s 
obstant reali Ohristi prsesentiae in sacramento : ergo falleris. 

Bidlceus : — Realis Ohristi prsesentise duplex esse potest (2) 
intellectus. Nam si intelligas realem Ohristi prsesentiam se- 
cundum assumptse carnis realem et corporalem substantiam, 

1 See p. 435. 

3 Instead of XVII. we have in the MS. z°, which stands for secundo 
in other places. 

3 This first speech with Ridley's answer is omitted in the MS., which 
begins with Smith's next observation, 'Ascensio Christi', &c. 

4 Parker MS. — Here the disputation begins, and the speech stands thus : 
Ascensio Christi in coelos, et ejusdem ibidem perpetua sessio ad dex- 

teram Patris, non obstant quicquid reali praesentiae corporis Christi in 
sacramento altaris: ergo tu falleris. 

B The numbers (1), (2), &c. down the margin indicate the speeches 
contained in the Parker MS. 



ea prgesentia quum' sit in ccelis, obstat quo minus simul 
possit esse in terris : sin intelligas realem prsesentiam se- 
cundum rem aliquam quae ad corpus Christi pertinet, ea sane 
non obstat, quare sic est corpus Christi hie nobis in ccena 
Dominica, per gratiam, ut Epiphanius loquitur 3 . 

Vuestonus : — Ego vobis prsescindam ambiguitates : quoties 
loquimur de corpore Christi, loquimur de eo quod sumpsit 
de Virgine. 

Ridlceus: — Hoc non potest consistere. 

Smithus: — Non obstante ista ascensione et permansione 
in ccelis perpetua usque in diem judicii, Christus post as- 
censionem apparuit corporaliter et realiter in terra. Ergo 
non obstat ascensio, et permansio in ccelis, prsesentise ejus 
in eucharistia reali. 

Ridlceus: — Domine doctor, argumentum non valet. Non 
ita alligo Christum in coelo, ut non possit libere venire in 
terras; nam quando libet, licet illi descendere, et in terris 
esse, quum velit : sed ut simul in coelo sit et in terra, id 
dico non posse fieri. 

Smithus: — Animadvertite diligenter, qui adestis, quid re- 
spondeat. Primo dicit, sessionem Christi ad dexteram Patris 
impedimento esse ejus corporis reali prsesentise in eucharistia: 
deinde negat. 

Ridlceus: — Nolo putes me fingere aut somniare talem 
sessionem, quali isti viri sedent. 

Smithus: — Licet ergo, Christum esse prsesentem hie in 
terris, quum voluerit? 

Ridlceus: — Licet, quum voluerit. 

Smithus: — Non pugnat ergo ascensio ejus in ccelos cum 
corporis ejus reali prsesentia in eucharistia. 

Ridlceus: — Permitto illi licere, ubi voluerit, in terris ap- 
parere. Proba velle. 

Smithus : — Pendet itaque responsio tua ex voluntate Christi. 
Congrediar igitur rursus brevi argumento : Christus post suam 

1 Parker MS. — cum. 

3 Parker MS. — After this speech of Ridley's comes the following one 
of Smith: 

(3) Christus perpetuo sedet ad dextram patris, et tamen quoque in 
terris ab ascensione sua visus est : ergo. 

Then comes Ridley's answer, see p. 457. (4). 


ascensionem, licet perpetuo maneat, illis visus est in terra 
realiter et corporaliter. Ergo non obstante ascensione et 
perpetua sessione ad dexteram Patris, potest esse realiter 
et corporaliter in eucharistia. 

Bidlceus: — Si exciperem argumentum, quemadmodum tu 
protulisti, fortasse te ejus pudebit postea. 

Smithus: — Christus post suam ascensionem, ut supra. 

Bidlceus : — Ooncedo antecedens, nego consequens. 

Smithus : — Ooncedis antecedens ? 

Bidlceus: — Concedo antecedens. Largior hoc tibi, quia 
scio quosdam patres fuisse in hac opinione. Dabo tibi usum 
hujus propositionis. Et ego formabo argumentum : visus est 
in terris post perpetuam sessionem in coelis. Ergo, etc. 

Smithus: — Imo ego formabo. Christus post ascensionem 
licet jugiter maneat in coelis, visus est in terra realiter et 
corporaliter. Ergo non obstante ascensione et perpetua 
permansione ad dexteram Patris, potest esse realiter et cor- 
poraliter in terris. 

Bidlceus: — Conveniat primum de perpetua sessione ad 
dexteram Patris. 

Smithus: — An sic sedet ad dexteram Patris, ut non 
deserat eum unquam? 

Bidlceus: — Non alligo ita Christum in coelo. Video te 
fallere per sequivoca: multiplex est distinguendum. Si intel- 
ligas sedere in coelo, regnare cum Patre, potest simul in 
coelo esse et in terris. Sed si sedere intelligas juxta cor- 
poris modum, in coelo semper manet. Nam ut corporaliter 
maneat in terris, cum corporaliter sit in coelo, repugnat 
sacris Scripturis. Ut Augustinus: Corpus Christi est in coelo, 
sed Veritas ejus ubique diffusa est. Jam si perpetuo maneat 
in coelo secundum corporalem prsesentiam, ea permansio im- 
pedit prsesentiam corporalem in eucharistia. 

Smithus: — Actorum tertio docetur, quod sessurus sit 
Christus perpetuo ad dexteram Dei usque ad consummatio- 
nem mundi. 

Vuestonus: — Video hoc inter vos controverti, utrum cor- 
pus Christi possit esse simul in terris et in coelo. Ego 
docebo, Christum secundum veritatem esse et in terris et 
in coelo simul et semel, unum et eundem naturalem et se- 
cundum veritatem et substantiam veri corporis. 


Bidlceus : — Nego antecedens. 

Vuestonus: — Probo e duobus testibus, Chrysostomo Ho- 
milia xvii. ad Hebrseos : " nonne per singulos dies offeri- 
mus? Offerimus quidem, sed recordationem facientes mortis 
ejus : et una est haec hostia, non multae : et quomodo una, et 
non multae, quae semel oblata est in sancto sanctorum? Hoc 
autem sacrificium exemplum est illius ; idipsum semper offeri- 
mus, nee nunc quidem alium agnum, crastina alium, sed 
semper eundem ipsum. Proinde unum est hoc sacrificium 
hac ratione: alioqui, quoniam in multis locis offertur, multi 
Ohristi sunt? nequaquam, sed unus ubique est Ohristus : et 
hie plenus existens, et illic plenus, unum corpus." Audi, idip- 
sum semper offerimus, unus ubique Ohristus, et hie plenus, 
et illic plenus: ergo ex Chrysostomo, unum est corpus simul 
in ccelo et in terra. 

Bidlceus: — Memini loci satis bene. Ista non militant 
contra me. 

Vuestonus: — Unus ubique est Ohristus, hie plenus, et 
illic plenus. 

Bidlceus: — Unus Ohristus ubique, sed non unum corpus. 

Vuestonus: — Unum corpus, inquit Ohrysostomus. 

Bidlceus: — Seel non secundum corporis substantiam est 
ubique, sed secundum locum : nam hie et illic non indicant 
locum. Ut Augustinus : Sursurn est Dominus, sed ubique 
est Veritas Domini. 

Vuestonus : — Non potes sic effugere : non dicit, una est 
Veritas Christi; sed unus est Ohristus ubique, et hie et illic. 

Bidlceus : — Una hostia ubique, propter unitatem ejus quern 
hostia significat, non quod hostiae sint eaedem. 

Vuestonus: — Ergo non est Ohristus, sed hostia Christi. 
Sed Ohrysostomus, Unum corpus, et unus Ohristus, ait, non 
una hostia. 

Bidlceus: — Concedo cum Chrysostomo, una est hostia, et 
non multae : et una dicitur nostra hostia ab unitate illius 
unicae, quam unam omnes nostree repraesentant : ilia autem 
unica fuit ea, quae semel duntaxat oblata est in ara crucis ; 
cujus omnes nostrae sunt sacramentalia exemplaria. Et quod 
dixisti ex Chrysostomo, Christum in multis locis simul offerri, 
hie plenum, et illic plenum : verum est, Christum quoque 
offerri simul multis in locis, sed in mysterio et sacramenta- 


liter; et plenum esse in omnibus illis locis, non secundum 
corporalem carnis assumptse substantiam, sed secundum bene- 
dictionem vivificativam, quae datur piis in pane et vino, ut 
Cyrillus loquitur. Quod ad oblationem Christi attinet, cujus 
meminit sic Chrysostomus, ipsemet quid sentiat, clarissime 
explicat, per correctionem dicens : " Idipsum semper facimus, 
naagis autem recordationem sacrificii operamur.'" 

Vuestonus: — Secundus testis est Bernardus in sermone 
de coena Domini : Unde hoc nobis, piissime Jesu, ut nos 
vermiculi reptantes super faciem terrse, nos inquam, qui 
pulvis et cinis sumus, te praesentem habere mereamur prse 
manibus, prse oculis, qui totus et integer sedes ad dexteram 
Patris; qui etiam unius horse momento, ab ortu solis usque 
ad occasum, ab aquilone usque aJ austrum, prsesto es unus 
in multis, idem in diversis locis? 

Ridlceus: — Ilia verba nihil astipulantur tibi: sed scio 
Bernardum eo tempore fuisse, ut mihi suspectus esse de- 
beat in ista materia. Habet multa commoda dicta, ut etiam 
hoc loco. Sed secutus est earn eetatem, quum perverse de 
eucharistia sentiretur: commode tamen eum interpretabor, ut 
nihil pro te faciat. Dicit habere nos Christum in mysterio, in 
sacramento, in velamento, post habituros sine velamento ; et 
nunc veritatem Christi eandem ubivis dicit esse : est et hie 
et illic, est ubique Veritas Christi. 

Vuestonus: — Quam dicis esse veritatem? non dicit veri- 
tatem Christi, sed veritatem corporis Christi. 

Ridlceus: — Veritas corporis Christi est vera fides de cor- 
pore Christi, et secundum veritatem est apud eos qui habent 
veram fidem in Christo : hoc est qui vere credunt Christum esse. 

Vuestonus : — Est idem in diversis locis : ego urgeo in di- 
versis locis, et non est satisfactum. 

Smithus : — Christus visus est in terra realiter et corporali- 
ter post ascensionem et perpetuam sessionem ad dexteram 
Patris : ergo ascensio et perpetua sessio in ccelis non impe- 
diunt quo minus possit esse realiter et corporaliter in sacra- 

Ridlceus: — Si per perpetuam sessionem intelligas resi- 
dentiam corporis in ccelo, implicat contradictionem. 

Smithus: — Non implicant contradictionem hsec duo, vide- 
licet sedere perpetuo ad dexteram Patris, et realiter visum 


esse in terris post suam ascensionem : primum dabis Christum 
esse in ccelo, et sedere ad dextram Patris ; quia Actorum tertio 
dicitur, Oportet eum capere ccelum usque in tempora resti- 
tutionis omnium : et visus est in terra Paulo corporaliter post 
illius ascensionem : ergo duo ilia non implicant contradic- 

Ridlceus: — Nihil impedit, quin Ohristus possit esse in 
ccelis et in terris, si velit, et cum velit apparere his quibus 
voluerit : sed tamen mihi nondum probas ita Christum velle : 
et quod usque ad judicium Christus perpetuo sit futurus in