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Full text of "100 things you should know about communism series"

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THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 



COMMUNISM 



SERIES: 

— in the U. S. A. 
—and RELIGION 
—and EDUCATION 
—and LABOR 
—and GOVERNMENT 

and 




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SPOTLIGHT ON SPIES 




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SECOND PRINTING 

August 15, 1949 



PUBLIC I 



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Prepared and released by the 
COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES, U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES- 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



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a. S. SUPERIKTENOENT OF DOCUMtNU 

OCT IG 1949 



Committee on Un-Am^erican Activities 
U. S. House of Representatives 

* 
John S. Wood, Georgia, Chairman 

Francis E. Walter, Pennsylvania 
Burr P. Harrison, Virginia 
John McSweeney, Ohio 
Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri 
J. Parnell Thomas, Neiv Jersey 
Richard M. Nixon, California 
Francis Case, South Dakota 
Harold H. Velde, Illinois 



Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator 

John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 



COMMUNISM 

IN THE U. S. A. 



The first of a series on the Communist conspiracy and its 

influence in this country as a whole, on religion, on 

education, on labor and on our government 



^^No Communist, no matter how many 
votes he should secure in a national 
election, could, even if he would, become 
President of the present government. 
When a Communist heads the govern- 
ment of the United States — and that day 
will come just as surely as the sun rises— 
the government will not he a capitalist 
government hut a Soviet government, and 
hehind this government will stand the 
Red army to enforce the dictatorship of 
the proletariat, '' 



Sworn statement of 
WILLIAM Z. FOSTER 

Head of the Communist Party 
in the United States 



100 Things You Should Know 
About Communism in the U. S. A. 

Forty years ago, Communism was just a plot in the minds of a very 
few peculiar people. 

Today, Communism is a world force governing millions of the 
human race and threatening to govern all of it. 

Who are the Communists? Hoiv do they work? What do 
they want? What would they do to you? 

For the past lo years your committee has studied these and other 
questions and now some positive answers can be made. 

Some answers will shock the citizen who has not examined Com- 
munism closely. Most answers will infuriate the Communists. 

These answers are given in five booklets, as follows: 

1. One Hundred Things You Should Know About Commu- 
nism in the U. S. A. 

2. One Hundred Things You Should Know About Commu- 
nism and Religion. 

3. One Hundred Things You Should Know About Commu- 
nism and Education. 

4. One Hundred Things You Should Know About Commu- 
nism and Labor. 

5. One Hundred Things You Should Know About Commu- 
nism and Government. 

These booklets are intended to help you know a Communist when 
you hear him speak and when you see him work. 

If you ever find yourself in open debate with a Communist the facts 
here given can be used to destroy his arguments completely and expose 
him as he is for all to see. 

Every citizen owes himself and his family the truth about Com- 
munism because the world today is faced with a single choice: To 
go Communist or not to go Communist. Here are the facts. 

1 . What is Com-munism? 
A system by which one small group seeks to rule the world. 



2. Has any nation ever gone Communist in a free election? 

No. 

3. Then how do the Communists try to get control? 

Legally or illegally, any way they can. Communism's first big 
victory was through bloody revolution. Every one since has been by 
military conquest, or internal corruption, or the threat of these. 

CONSPIRACY is the basic method of Communism in countries it 
is trying to capture. 

IRON FORCE is the basic method of Communism in countries it 
has already captured. 

4. What would happen if Communism should come into power 
in this country? 

Our capital would move from Washington to Moscow. Every man, 
woman, and child would come under Communist discipline. 

5. Would I he better off than I am now? 

No. And the next 17 answers show why. 

6. Could I belong to a union? 

Under Communism, all labor unions are run by the Government 
and the Communists run the Government. Unions couldn't help you 
get higher pay, shorter hours or better working conditions. 

They would only be used by the Commtwists to help \eep you down. 

More complete details are given in ONE HUNDRED THINGS 
YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT COMMUNISM AND LABOR. 

7. Could I change my job? 

No, you would work where you are told, at what you are told, for 
wages fixed by the Government. 

8. Could I go to school? 

You could go to the kind of school the Communists tell you to, 
AND NOWHERE ELSE. You could go as long as they let you 
AND NO LONGER. 



You could read ONLY what the Communists let you; hear only 
what they let you, and as far as they could manage, you would KNOW 
only what they let you. 

For details, see ONE HUNDRED THINGS YOU SHOULD 
KNOW ABOUT COMMUNISM AND EDUCATION. 

9. Could I belong to the Elks, Rotary, or the American Legion? 

No. WilHam Z. Foster, the head of the Communists in the United 
States, says: 

Under the dictatorship all the capitalist parties — RepubHcan, Democratic, Pro- 
gressive, SociaHst, etc. — will be liquidated, the Communist Party functioning 
alone as the Party of the toiling masses. 

Likewise will be dissolved, all other organizations that are political props of the 
bourgeois rule, including chambers of commerce, employers' associations, Rotary 
Clubs, American Legion, YMCA, and such fraternal orders as the Masons, Odd 
Fellows, Elks, Knights of Columbus, etc. 

1 0. Could I otvn ^ny own farm? 

No. Under Communism, the land is the property of the Govern- 
ment, and the Government is run by the Communists. 

You would farm the land under orders and you could not make 
any decisions as to when or where you would sell the produce of your 
work, or for how much. 

1 1 . Could I own my own hofue? 

No. Under Communism, all real estate in the city as well as the 
country belongs to the government, which is in turn run by the 
Communists. 

Your living quarters would be assigned to you, and you would 
pay rent as ordered. 

1 2. What would happen to my insurance? 

The Communists would take it over. 

15. What would happen to my hank account? 

All above a small sum would be confiscated. The rest would be 
controlled for you. 

1^. Could I leave any property to my family when I die? 

No, because you wouldn't have any to leave. 



15. Could I travel around the country as I please? 

No. You would have to get police permission for every move you 
make, if you could get it. 

16. Could I belong to a church? 

In Russia, the Communists have for thirty years tried every way 
they could to destroy religion. 

Having failed that, they are now trying to USE religion from the 
inside and the same Party strategy is now operating in the United 
States of America. 

See ONE HUNDRED THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 
COMMUNISM AND RELIGION. 

1 7. Could I start up a business and hire people to work for me? 

To do so would be a crime for which you would be severely punished. 

18. Could 1 teach what I please with "academic freedom"? 

You would teach only what the Communists authorize you to teach. 
You would be asking for jail or death to try anything else. 

19. Could I do scientific research free of governmental interfer- 
ence and restrictions? 

Police and spies would watch your every move. You would be 
liquidated on the slightest suspicion of doing ANYTHING contrary 
to orders. 

20. Could I have friends of my own choice as I do now? 

No, except those approved by the Communists in charge of your 
life from cradle to grave. 

21 . Could I travel abroad or marry a foreigner? 

You could do nothing of that sort except with permission of tlie 
Communists. 

22. Could I exchange letters with friends in other countries? 

With the police reading your mail, you could try — once. 

23. Could I vote the Communists out of control? 

No. See ONE HUNDRED THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW 
ABOUT COMMUNISM AND GOVERNMENT, showing the facts 

8 



of Communist government in other countries and the facts of Com- 
munism at work within OUR OWN government. 

24. But doesn't Cofnfnunism profnise poor people a better life? 

Communist poHticians all over the world try in every way to break 
down nations as they are, hoping that in the confusion they will be 
able to seize control. 

Promismg more than you can deliver is an old tric\ in the history of 
the human race. 

Compare Communism's promises with Communism's performances 
in countries where it has come to power. 

25. What are some differences between Communist promise and 
Communist performance.'^ 

When it is agitating for power, Communism promises more money 
for less work and security against war and poverty. 

In practice, it has not delivered any of this, anywhere in the world. 

26. But don't the Comm^unists promise an end to racial and re- 
ligious intolerance? 

Yes, but in practice they have murdered millions for being religious 
and for belonging to a particular class. Your race would be no help 
to you under Communism. 

Your beliefs could get you killed. 

21 . Why shouldn't 1 turn Communist? 

You know what the United States is like today. If you want it 
exactly the opposite, you should turn Communist. 

But before you do, remember you will lose your independence, your 
property, and your freedom of mind. 

You will gain only a risky membership in a conspiracy which is 
ruthless, godless, and crushing upon all except a very few at the top. 

28. How many Communists are there in the world? 

There are 20,000,000 Communists, more or less, in a world of 
2,295,125,000 people. In other words, about one person in 115 is a 
Communist, on a world basis. 

91252° — 49 2 * y 



29. How many people are now ruled by Comtnumsrn? 

About 200,000,000 directly ; 200,000,000 more indirectly, and an addi- 
tional 250,000,000 are under daily Communist pressure to surrender. 

50. Which countries are Communist controlled or governed? 

Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Lat- 
via, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Yugoslavia. 

Important regions of Austria, Germany, Korea, Mongolia and Man- 
churia. 

Communism is concentrating now on immediate capture of Afghan- 
istan, China, France, Greece, Latin America, Iran and Palestine. 

It has plans to seize every other country including the United States. 

37. How fnany Communists are there in the United States? 

There are approximately 80,000 out of a population of 145,340,000 
people. J. Edgar Hoover has testified that "in 1917 vi^hen the Com- 
munists overthrew the Russian Government there was one Communist 
for every 2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States today there is 
one Communist for every 1,814 persons in the country." 

32. Why aren't there more? 

Because the Communist Party does not rely upon actual Party mem- 
bership for its strength. J. Edgar Hoover testified : 

"What is important is the claim of the Communists themselves that 
for every Party member there are ten others ready, willing, and able to 
do the Party's work. Herein lies the greatest menace of Communism. 

"For these are the people who infiltrate and corrupt various spheres of 
American life. So rather than the size of the Communist Party the 
way to weigh its true importance is by testing its influence, its ability 
to infiltrate." 

55. How are they organized? 

Primarily around something they call a political party, behind which 
they operate a carefully trained force of spies, revolutionaries, and 
conspirators. 

The basic fact to remember is that Communism is a world revolu- ) 
tionary movement and Communists are disciplined agents, operating/ 
under a plan of war. ' 

10 



34. Where are their headquarters in the United States, and who 
is in charge? 

Headquarters are at 35 East Twelfth Street, New York City. Wil- 
liam Z. Foster, of 1040 Melton Avenue, New York City, has the title 
of "Chairman of the Communist Party of the United States," but 
Foster is actually just a figurehead under control of foreign operatives 
unseen by and unknown to rank and file Communists. 

55. What is the emblem of the Communist Party in the United 
States? 

The hammer and sickle. 

36. What is the emblem of the Communist Party in the Soviet 
Union? 

The hammer and sickle. 

It is also the official emblem of the Soviet Government. 

57. What is the flag of the Communist Party in the United States? 
The red flag, the same as that of all Communist Parties of the world. 

38. What is the official song of the Communist Party of the 
United States? 

The Internationale. Here is the Chorus: 

'Tis the final conflict, 

Let each stand in his place; 

The International Soviet shall be the human race. 

39. Do the Communists pledge allegiance to the flag of the 
United States? 

The present head of the Communists in the United States has testi- 
fied under oath that they DO NOT. 

40. What is the Communist Party set-up? 

At the bottom level are "shop and street units" composed of three 
or more Communists in a single factory, office, or neighborhood. 

Next is the section which includes all units in a given area of a city. 
Then come districts, composed of one or more States. 

At the top is the national organization, composed of a national com- 
mittee and a number of commissions. 

11 



In the appendix of this pamphlet you will find listed the officers and 
address for each district of the Communist Party in the United States. 

41. Who can become a member of the Comtnunist Party of the 
United States? 

Anybody over 17 years of age who can convince the Party that his 
first loyalty will be to the Soviet Union and that he is able to do the 
Party's work as a Soviet agent. 

He must be an active member of a Party unit. He must obey ALL 
Party decisions. He must read the Party literature. He must pay dues 
regularly. 

42. How do you go about joining the Party? 

You must know some member 'in good standing who will vouch for 
you to his Party unit. Your acceptance still depends on the verdict 
of Party officials that you WILL AND CAN obey orders. 

43. Canyoube asecretm^ember? 

All Communists are secret members until authorized by the Party 
to reveal their connection. Party membership records are kept in 
code. Communists have a real name and a "Party name." 

44. Are meetings public like those of ordinary political parties.'' 

No, meetings are secret and at secret addresses. Records are all 
secret and in code. Public demonstrations are held at regular periods. 

45. What dues do you have to pay? 

They are adjusted according to income. They may range from as 
low as 2 cents a week to $15 a week with special assessments in addition. 

46. What do you have to promise? 

To carry out Communist Party orders promptly. To submit with- 
out question to Party decisions and discipline. 
To work for "The triumph of Soviet power in the United States." 

47. After you join, what do you have to do? 

You have to obey the Party in all things. It may tell you to change 
your home, your job, your husband, or wife. It may order you to lie, 
steal, rob, or to go out into the street and fight. 

12 



It claims the power to tell you what to think and what to do every 
day of your life. 

When you become a Communist, you become a revolutionary agent, 
under a discipline more strict than the United States Army, Navy, 
Marines, or Air Force have ever known. 

48. Why do people become Communists then? 

Basically, because they seek power and recognize the opportunities 
that Communism offers the unscrupulous. 

But no matter why a particular person becomes a Communist, 
every member of the Party must be regarded the same way, as one seek- 
ing to overthrow the Government of the United States. 

49. What kind of people become Communists? 

The real center of power in Communism is within the professional 
classes. 

Of course, a few poor people respond to the Communist claim that 
it is a "working class movement." 

But taken as a whole the Party depends for its strength on the sup- 
port it gets from teachers, preachers, actors, writers, union officials, 
doctors, lawyers, editors, businessmen, and even from millionaires. 

30. Can you quit being a Communist when you want to? 

The Communists regard themselves as being in a state of actual 
war against life as the majority of Americans want it. 

Therefore, Party members who quit or fail to obey orders are 
looked on as traitors to the "class war" and they may expect to suffer 
accordingly when and as the Party gets around to them. 

31. How does the Communist Party of the United States work, 
day by day? 

The Communist Party of the United States works inside the law 
and the Constitution, and outside the law and the Constitution with 
intent to get control any way it can. 

32. What are some types of Communist activities within the 
law? 

Working their way into key positions in the schools, the churches, 

13 



the labor unions, and farm organizations. Inserting Communist 
propaganda into art, literature, and entertainment. Nominating or^ 
seeking control of candidates for public office. The immediate objec- 
tive of the Communist Party is to confuse and divide the majority so 1 
that in a time of chaos they can seize control. 

33. What are some types of Communist activities outside the law? 

Spying, sabotage, passport fraud, perjury, counterfeiting, rioting, 
disloyalty in the Army, Navy and Air Force. 

54. What are some official newspapers or m^agazines of the 
Communist Party? 

Daily and Sunday Worker, 50 East Thirteenth Street, New York 
City; Morning Freiheit, 50 East Thirteenth Street, Nev^^ York City; 
Daily Peoples World, 590 Folsom Street, San Francisco, Calif.; 
Masses and Mainstream, 832 Broadway, New York City; Political 
Affairs, 832 Broadway, New York City. There are also numerous 
foreign language publications. 

55. Does the Party also publish books and pamphlets? 

Yes, thousands of them, through such official publishing houses as: 
International Publishers, 381 Fourth Street, New York City; Workers 
Library Publishers, 832 Broadway, New York City; New Century 
Publishers, 832 Broadway, New York City. 

56. Does the Party have public speakers and press agents? 

Hundreds of them, paid and unpaid, public and secret, hired and 
volunteered, intentional and unintentional. 

Publicity seeking is one of the Party's principal "legal" occupations, 
intended to confuse people on all important issues of the day. 

5 7. How does the Party get the money for all this? 

At first it received money from Moscow but now it raises millions 
of dollars here in the United States through dues, foundations, en- 
dowments, special drives, and appeals. 

58. Do only Com?nunists carry out Communist work? 

No. The Party uses what it calls "Fellow Travelers" and "Front 
Organizations" in some of its most effective work. 

14 



59. What is a felloiv traveler? 

One who sympathizes with the Party's aims and serves the Party's 
purposes in one or more respects without actually holding a Party card. 

60. Is he Important in the Communist movem-ent? 

Vital. The fellow traveler is the HOOK with which the Party 
reaches out for funds and respectability and the WEDGE that it drives 
between people who try to move against it. 

61 . What is a Communist front? 

An organization created or captured by the Communists to do 
the Party's work in special fields. The front organization is Com- 
munism's greatest weapon in this country today and takes it places it 
could never go otherwise — among people who would never willingly 
act as Party agents. 

It is usually found hiding among groups devoted to idealistic activi- 
ties. Here are lo examples out of hundreds of Communist fronts 
which have been exposed : 

1. American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

2. American Slav Congress. . 

3. American Youth for Democracy. 

4. Civil Rights Congress. 

5. Congress of American Women. 

6. Council for Pan-American Democracy. 

7. International Workers Order. 

8. National Committee to Win the Peace. 

9. People's Institute of Applied Religion. 
10. League of American Writers. 

62. How can a Communist he identified? 

It is easy. Ask him to name ten things wrong with the United 
States. Then ask him to name two things wrong with Russia. 

His answers will show him tip even to a child. 

Communists will denounce the President of the United States but 
they will never denounce Staliri. 

65 . How can a fellow traveler be identified? 

Apply the same test as above and watch him defend Communists 
and Communism. 

15 



64. How can a Communist front be identified? 

If you are ever in doubt, write the House Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities, Room 226, House Office Building, Washington 25, 
D. C. 

65. What do Comm^unists call those who criticize thefn? 

"Red baiters," 'Vitch hunters," "Fascists." These are just three out 
of a tremendous stock of abusive labels Communists attempt to smear 
on anybody who challenges them. 

66. How do they smear labor opposition? 

As "scabs," "finks," "company stooges," and "labor spies." 

67. How do they Senear public officials? 

As "reactionaries," "Wall Street tools," "Hitlerites," and "im- 
perialists." 

68. What is their favorite escape when challenged on a point 
of fact? 

To accuse you of "dragging in a red herring," a distortion of an old 
folk saying that originally described the way to throw hounds off the 
track of a hot trail. 

69. What is the difference in fact between a Communist and a 
fascist? 

None worth noticing. 

10. How do Communists get control of organizations in which 
the majority are not Comtnunists? 

They work. Others won't. 

They come early and stay late. Others don't. 

They know how to run a meeting. Others don't. 

They demand the floor. Others won't. 

They do not hesitate to use physical violence or ANY form of 
persecution. They stay organized and prepared in advance of each 
meeting. The thing to remember is that Communists are trained 
agents under rigid discipline, but they can always be defeated by the 
facts. 

16 



71. When ivas the Communist Party of the United States organ- 
ized, and where? 

September 1919, at Chicago. 

72. Has it always been called by its present name? 

No. Here are the recorded, official name changes : 

1919 — Communist Party of America, and the Communist Labor 
Party of America. 

1921 — The above parties merged into the United Communist Party 
of America. 

1922 — The Communist Party of America and the Workers Party of 
America. 

1925 — The above merged into one organization known as Workers 
(Communist) Party of America. 

1928 — Communist Party of the United States. 

1944 — Communist PoHtical Association. 

1945 to present — Communist Party of the United States of America. 

75. Why has it changed its name so often? 

To serve Moscow^ and evade the lav^ of the United States. 

74. Why isn't the Communist Party a political party just like the 
Democratic and Republican parties? 

Because it takes its orders from Moscow. 

73. Are the Communists agents of a foreign power? 

Yes. For full details write the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, Room 226, House Office Building, Washington 25, D. C, for 
House Report No. 209, entitled The Communist Party of the United 
States as an Agent of a Foreign Power. 

76. Where can a Communist be found in everyday American life? 

Look for him in your school, your labor union, your church, or 
your civic club. Communists themselves say that they can be found 
"on almost any conceivable battlefront for the human mind." 

77 . What States have barred the Comrmmist Party from the 
ballot? 

Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, 
Tennessee, and Wisconsin.^ 

^ This lis.t was compiled as of January 1948. 

94252°— 49 3 1' 



78. How does Commtinism expect to get power over the United 
States if it cannot win elections? 

The Communists only compete for votes to cover their fifth-column 
work behind a cloak of legality. They expect to get powder by ANY 
means, just so they get it. 

The examples of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and other countries in 
Europe show just how many methods Communism applies. 

In each country different details — in all the same result. 

79. Why don't Comtnunists over here go to Russia if they like 
that system so much? 

They are on duty here to take over this country. They couldn't go 
to Russia even if they wanted to, except on orders from Moscow. 

80. Which Communists get such orders? 

High Party officials and special agents who are to be trained in spy- 
ing, sabotage, and detailed planning for capture of this country. 

81 . Where are they trained in Moscow? 

The Lenin Institute, a college in revolution which teaches how to 
capture railroads, ships, radio stations, banks, telephone exchanges, 
newspapers, waterworks, power plants, and such things. 

32. Does Stalin let American Communists in to see him-? 

Yes. Earl Browder and William Z. Foster, the two heads of the 
Party for the last 20 years, have both admitted under oath that they 
conferred with Stalin. 

The records show that Browder, for instance, made 15 known trips 
to Moscow, several with false passports. 

83. Are American Communists used in the Soviet Secret Service? 

Yes, here are the names of a few such agents proved on the public 
records: 

Nicholas Dozenberg, George Mink, Philip Aronberg, Charles Dirba, 
Pascal Cosgrove, J. Mindel, Alexander Trachtenberg, Julia Stuart 
Poyntz, Jack Johnstone, Charles Krumbein, and Albert Feirabend. 

84. What central organization controls all the Communist Parties 
of the world? 

18 



An organization originally set up in Moscow by the Government 
of Russia, and known as the "Communist International" called 
Comintern for short. 

It has since changed its name to "Communist Information Bureau" 
and is known as the Cominform. 

85. Who is the most important Communist in the United States 
today? 

The Cominform representative. 

86. Why is he here? 

To see that American Communists follow the orders of the Soviet- 
directed Cominform in all things. 

87. Do they? 

Yes. 

88. Has any representative of this central organization ever 
been caught? 

Yes. For example, over a period of 12 years one Gerhart Eisler, 
alias Brown, alias Edwards, alias Berger, did such work, making 
regular trips between the United States and Europe. 

On February 6, 1947, his activities were exposed by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities and he has since been convicted 
in court of perjury and contempt of Congress.' 

89. What is the best way to combat Communism? 

Detection, exposure, and prosecution. 

90. Are these being done? 

Millions of dollars have been spent by the Federal Bureau of Inves- 
tigation, Army and Navy Intelligence, and other executive agencies to 
detect and keep track of Communists since the Party's organization 
in this country a generation ago. 

Exposure in a systematic way began with the formation of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, May 26, 1938. 

Prosecution of Communists, as such, has never taken place in this 
country, as yet. 

'Eisler jumped his bond of $23,000 and fled to Europe on the Polish Hner Batory on May 
6, 1949. 

19 



91. Have any Communists been prosecuted on other grounds? 

Yes. For violations of such laws as those governing passports, 
immigration, perjury, criminal syndicalism, and contempt. 

92. Is this enough? 

No. The House of Representatives maintains this Committee on 
Un-American Activities to study the problems of Communism and all 
other subversive movements and recommend new laws if it feels they 
are needed. 

95. Has the Committee m^ade any such recomtnendations? 

Yes. The latest is H. R. 5852, known as the Mundt-Nixon bill, which 
passed the House of Representatives on May 19, 1948, by a vote of 
3191058. 

94. What does this bill do? 

The main points are: 

To expose Communists and their fronts by requiring them to regis- 
ter publicly with the Attorney General and plainly label all their 
propaganda as their own. 

To forbid Communists passports or Government jobs. 

To make it illegal for ANYBODY to try to set up in this country 
a totalitarian dictatorship having ANY connection with a foreign 
power. 

95. What is Communism^ s greatest strength? 

Its secret appeal to the lust for power. Some people have a natural 
urge to dominate others in all things. 

Communism invites them to try. 

The money, hard work, conspiracy, and violence that go into Com- 
munism, add up to a powerful force moving in a straight line toward 
control of the world. 

9G. What is Communism's greatest tveakness? 

The very things that give it strength. For just as some people have 
a natural lust to dominate everybody else, so do most people have a 
natural determination to be free. 

Communism can dominate only by force. 

20 



Communism can be stopped by driving every Communist out of 
the place where he can capture power. 

P7, What is treason? 

Our Constitution says that "Treason against the United States, shall 
consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their 
Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be con- 
victed of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the 
same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court." 

98. Are the Communtsts committing treason today? 

The Soviet Union has launched what has been called a "cold war" 

on the United States. Therefore, Communists are engaged in what 

might be called "COLD WAR TREASON/' 

The Mundt-Nixon bill is intended to fight this "cold war treason." 
If our war with Communism should ever change from "cold" to 

"hot" we can expect the Communists of the United States to fight 

against the flag of this country openly. 

99. What should I do about all this? 

Know the facts. Stay on the alert. Work as hard against the Com- 
munists as they work against you. 

J 00. Where can I get information about Com^munism^ regularly? 

Write the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Room 226, 
Old House Office Building, Washington, D. C, for information 
regarding official publications. 



21 



APPENDIX 

Principal officers and offices of the Communist Party, U. S. A., as of 
1947. 

Communist Party, United States of America 

National headquarters: 35 East Twelfth Street, New York, N. Y. 

Chairman — William Z. Foster. 

General secretary — Eugene Dennis (Waldron). 

Administrative secretary — John Williamson. 

Treasurer — Vacant since the death of Charles Krumbein, 

National secretariat: 



William Z. Foster. 

Eugene Dennis. 

Robert Thompson. 

John Williamson. 

Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. 

John Gates. 
National committee: 

William Z. Foster. 

Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. 

Rose Gaulden. 

Mickey Lima. 

John Williamson. 

Nat Ganley. 

Bella Dodd. 

James Jackson. 

Louis Weinstock. 

William McKie. 

Nat Ross (South). 

Fred Blair. 

Jack Stachel. 
National review board : 

Chairman — Ray Hansborough. 

Vice chairman — Vacant since the death of Charles Krumbein. 

Secretary — Saul Well man. 

William McKie. 
National labor commission: 

Chairman — John Williamson. 

Secretary — William Albertson. 

Administrative secretary — Robert Minor. 

Al Blumberg. 

Pat Toohey. 



Gil Green. 
Gus Hall. 
Irving Potash. 
Jack Stachel. 
Carl Winter. 
Henry Winston. 

Gus Hall. 
Nat Cohen. 
Ferdinand Smith. 
Abner Berry. 
Alexander Bittleman. 
Claudia Jones. 
Alexander Trachtenberg. 
David Davis. 
Herb Signer. 
Irving Potash. 
Max Weiss. 
Lem Harris. 
Hal Simon. 



22 



National women's commission: 

Chairman — Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. 

Assistant secretary — Claudia Jones. 
National Negro commission: 

Chairman — Josh Lawrence. 

Secretary — Henry Winston. 
National group commission: Chairman — Steve Nelson. 
N'ational farm commission: 

Chairman — Max Weiss. 

Secretary — Lem Harris. 
Organizing commission: 

Secretary — Henry Winston. 

Assistant Secretary — Betty Gannett. 
Coordinating Committee, National Maritime Field — Al Lannon. 
Jewish Commission: 

Secretary — Moses Miller. 

General Secretary — Alexander Bittleman. 
Veterans' commission: 

Director — John Gates. Leon Straus. 

George Blake. Robert Thompson. 

Joseph Clark. Carl Vedro. 

Louis Diskin. George Watt. 

Irving Goff. Saul Wellman. 

Howard Johnson. Herbert Wheeldin. 

Herbert Kurzer. Henry Winston. 

Carl Reinstein. 
Students commission: Director — Marion Shaw. 
Legislative commission: 

Chairman — Arnold Johnson. 

Secretary — Robert Minor. 
Educational Agit-Prop., and publicity commission: 

Chairman — Jack Stachel. 

Secretary — Max Weiss. 

DISTRICT AND LOCAL OFFICIALS 

Northeast district, 80 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 

(States included: Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, 

Vermont) 

Chairman (district) — (Manny) Emanuel Blum. 
Secretary (district) — Fanny Hartman. 
Chairman (Massachusetts section) — Otis A. Hood. 
Committee members for Massachusetts: 

Jack Green. 

Hy Gordon (trade union secretary, Massachusetts). 



23 



William E, Harrison. 

Arthur E. Timpson (husband of Anna Durlak). 

Joseph C. Figueiredo (Bristol organizer). 
Organizer, Boston — F. Collier. 
Secretary-treasurer (district) — Hugo Gregory. 
Educational director, Massachusetts — Alice Gordon. 

State (Massachusetts) campaign committee — Frances Hood (Mrs. Archer Hood). 
Chairman, New Hampshire section — Elba Chase Nelson. 
Labor secretary and Massachusetts organizer — Daniel Boone Schirmer. 
Chairman (Maine) — Lewis Gordon. 

Eastern Pennsyhania-Delaware district, 2^0 South Broad Street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

(States included: Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware) 

Chairman (district) — Phil Bart. 
Secretary (district) — Bob Klonsky. 
Committee members: 

Tom Nabried. Bill McKane. 

Estelle Shohen. Jessie Schneiderman. 

Carl Reeve. Sam Donchin. 

Jules Abercaugh. John Devine. 

Secretary, thirty-sixth ward (Philadelphia) — Bill Brockman. 
Financial secretary (district) — Ben Weiss. 
Organizer, Wilkes-Barre section — Joseph Dougher. 
Organizer (district) — Sam Rosen. 
Member, labor committee — David Davis. 

Western Pennsylvania district, 41J Grant Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

(V/estern Pennsylvania) 
Chairman — Roy Hudson. 
Secretary — Dave Grant. 
Organizer — J. G. Eddy. 

Chairman, Lawrenceville section — Matt Cortich. 
Organizer, Lawrenceville section — Eleanor Sackter. 

Organizer, Jones & Laughlin Club of Communist Party (Pittsburgh) — Sam Reed. 
Youth organizer, Pittsburgh — Mike Hanusik. 
Executive secretary (district) — Peter Edward Karpa. 
Committee members: 

Joe Godfrey. Ben Careathers. 

Elmer Kish. Gabor Kist. 

Dave Grant. 



24 



Maryland-District of Columbia district, 210 West Fran^Jin Street, Baltimore, 
Md., and ^2j Ninth Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

(Maryland and Washington, D. C.) 

Chairman (district) — Phil Frankfeld. 

Secretary (district) — Dorothy Blumberg. 

Chairman (District of Columbia section) — William Taylor. 

Vice chairman (District of Columbia section) — William S. Johnson. 

Secretary (District of Columbia section) — Elizabeth Searle. 

Treasurer (District of Columbia section) — Mary Stalcup. 

Literary director (District of Columbia section) — Casey Gurewitz. 

Cumberland organizer — Mel Fiske. 

Director, membership committee — Constance Jackson. 

District of Ohio, 20^6 East Fourth Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

(State of Ohio) 

Chairman — Gus Hall. 
Secretary — Martin Chancey. 
Organizing secretary — Frieda Katz. 
Organizer — A. Krchmarek. 
Committee members: 

Gus Hall. Carl Guilood. 

Abe Lewis. Elmer Fehlhaber. 

Edward Chaka. Martin Chancey. 

Bernard Marks. Mike Davidow. 

Robert Hamilton. 
Chairman, Cedar-Central section — Abe Lewis. 
Chairman, Cuyahoga County section — Gus Hall. 
Chairman, Cleveland County section — Elmer Fehlhaber. 
Secretary, Cleveland County section — Mike Davidow. 
Organizer, Toledo section — Nat Cohn. 
Organizer, Cincinnati section — Robert Gunkel. 
Organizer, Akron section — Bernard Marks. 

Minnesota, North Da\ota, and South Dakota district, 1216 Nicollet Street, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

(States included: Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) 

Chairman (district) — Martin Mackie (Minnesota). 

Secretary (district) — Carl Ross. 

Assistant secretary (district) — Rose Tillotson. 

Chairman, Hennepin County section (Minnesota) — Robert J. Kelly. 

Secretary, Pine County, Minn., district — Clara Jorgensen. 



94252° — 49- 



25 



District of Indiana, 2g South Delaware Avenue, Indianapolis, Ind, 

(State of Indiana) 

Chairman — Elmer Johnson. 
Secretary — Henry Aron. 

Legislative director, Indiana and Illinois — William Patterson. 
Committee members: 

Elmer Johnson. Benjamin Cohen. 

Morris Porterfield. Imogene Johnson. 

Sylira Aron. 

District of Michigan, go2 Lawyers Building, Detroit, Mich, 

(State of Michigan) 
Chairman — Carl Winter. 
Secretary — Helen Allison. 

National committee representative — James Jackson. 
Educational director — Abner Berry. 
Youth director — Robert Cummings. 
Daily Worker representative — Mabel Mitchell. 
Organizer — Fred Williams. 
Committee members: 

Hugo Beiswenger. Joe Brandt. 

Geneva Olmsted. 
Chairman, Ypsilanti, Willow Run section — Thomas Dennis. 
Chairman, Flint section — Thomas Kelly. 
Chairman, Hamtramck section — Thomas Dombrowski. 
Secretary, New Haven — Joseph Gonzales, Jr. 
State literature director — Byron Edwards. 
Chairman, Flint — Berry Blossinghame. 
Chairman, Michigan Avenue, Detroit section — John Hell. 

District of Illinois, 208 North Wells, Chicago, III, 
(States included: Illinois and Kentucky) 

Chairman, Illinois section — Alfred Wagenknecht. 

Chairman (district) — Gil Green. 

Vice Chairman — William L. Patterson. 

Assistant secretary — Victoria Kramer. 

Legislative director, Illinois section — Edward Starr. 

Labor secretary, Illinois section — Fred Fine. 

Chairman, East Side Chicago section — Claude Lightfoot, 

Section organizer — Jim Keller. 

Organizer — Henry Davis. 

Section organizer, Ninth Congressional District — Ethel Shapiro. 

Organizer, South Chicago section — James Balanoft, Jr. 

26 



Chairman, twenty-eighth ward — Sylvia Woods. 
Chairman, third ward — Ishmael Flory. 

District of New Yor}{, 55 East Twelfth Street, New Yor\, N. Y. 

(State of New York) 

Chairman — Robert Thompson. 

Vice chairman — Rose Gaulden. 

Organizing secretary — William Norman. 

Organizer — Donald MacKenzie Lester. 

Director of education — William Weinstone. 

Secretary of education — Sam Coleman. 

Legislative director — Bella Dodd. 

Farm organizer — George Cook. 

Youth director — Lou Diskin. 

Secretary, legislative committee — Lillian Gates. 

Director, industrial section — Ben Gold. 

Chairman, Negro committee — Charles Lohman. 

Director, veterans' committee — John Gates. 

Assistant director, veterans' committee — Howard Johnson. 

Director, Daily Worker veterans' committee — Joe Clark. 

Assistant organizational director — Charles Lohman. 

Chairman, Communist Party Club, New York City — Leon Beverley. 

Water front organizers — Tom Christensen and Al Rothbart. 

Italian section organizer — Antonio Lombardo. 

State secretariat: 

Robert Thompson. Israel Amter. 

Hal Simon. William Norman. 

Committee members (in addition to above): 

Nat Slutsky (section organizer). Elwood Dean. 

Michael Salerno. George Watt. 

Harlem section: 

Chairman — Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. 

Executive secretary — Robert Campbell. 

Administrative secretary — John Lavin. 

Industrial section director — Rose Gaulden. 

Organizing director — Anselo Cruz. 

Organizing secretary — Bonita Williams. 

Educational director — Carl Dorfman. 
Committee members: 

Bob Campbell. Carmen Lopez. 

Bonita Williams. Horace Marshall. 

Rose Gaulden. Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. 

Larry Washington. Sam Patterson. 

Leon Love. Maude White. 



27 



Cyril Phillips. Letty Cohen. 

Fern Owens. Herb Whiteman. 

Theodore Bassett. Oscar James. 

John Lavin. 
New York County section: 

Executive secretary — George Blake Charney. 

Membership director — Clara Lester. 

Educational director^Rebecca Grecht. 

Executive committee members: 

James Tormey. Robert Cam-pbell. 

Louis Mitchell. Ester Letz. 

Howard Johnson. David Greene. 

Esther Cantor. Evelyn Wiener. 

Tom Christensen. Alvin Warren. 

Queens County section: 

Chairman — Paul Crosbie. 

Organizer — Dave Rosenberg. 

Secretary — James A. Burke. 

Educational director — Helen Stuart. 

Organizing secretary — Fay Collar. 

Sectional organizer — Milton Goldstein. 
Bronx section: 

Chairman — Isidora Begun. 

Organizing secretary — Bob Appel. 

Press director — Bob Alpert. 

Educational director — Robert Klonsky. 

Assistant educational director — Henry Kuntzler. 
King's County section: 

Chairman, women's committee — Margaret Cowl (Krumbein). 

Sectional organizer — Carl Vedro. 

Press director — Mickey Langbert. 
Essex County section: Chairman — Martha Stone. 
Manhattan County section: 

Executive secretary — George Charney. 

Press director (industrial) — Al Reger. 
Brooklyn section: Organizing secretary — John White. 
Miscellaneous sections: 

Chairman, Buffalo — Lloyd Kinsey. 

Organizer, Buffalo — Nicholas Kosanovich. 

Assistant to chairman, Buffalo — Norman Ross. 

Chairman, Rochester — Gertrude Kowal. 

Chairman, Syracuse — George Sheldrick. 

Chairman, Utica — Murray Savage. 

Chairman, Schenectady — Harold Klein. 

Chairman, Binghamton — Irving Weissman. 



28 



Chairman, Yonkers — Edna Fried. 

Chairman, Astoria, Long Island — Esther Signer. 

Secretary, Nassau County — John Lavin. 

Secretary, Coney Island — William Albertson. 

Organizing secretary, eastern New York — Morris Smith. 

Director, Nassau County — Jim Faber. 

Chairman, Melrose — Joe Jackson. 

Literature director, Middletown — Rose Walsh. 

Organizing secretary, Williamsburg — Leon Nelson. 

Organizer, Brownsville — Abe Osheroff. 

Organizer, Nassau — Sam Faber. 

Chairman, Westchester — Herbert L. Wheeldin. 

Section organizer — Leon Nelson. 

Press director. Bright Beach — Harry Klein. 

Organizer, Morrisania — Morris Stillman. 

Organizer, Allerton — Bernard Schuldiner. 

Organizer, Parkchester — Sparky Friedman. 

Organizer, Jamaica — Charles Evans. 

Northwest district, lOiSYi Second Avenue, Seattle, Wash., and gi6 East 
Hawthorne Street, Portland, Oreg. 

(States included: Idaho, Oregon and Washington) 

Chairman (district) — Henry Huff. 
Labor secretary (district) — Andre Remes. 
Secretary Pierce County section — Clara Sear. 
Director, People's World, Seattle — Marx Blashko. 
Committee members (in addition to above): 

C. Van Lydegraf. Edward Alexander. 

Barbara Harde. 
Chairman, Spokane section — William L. Cumming. 
Chairman, Oregon section — Ead Payne. 
Secretary, Oregon section — Mark Haller. 

District of California, 942 Mar/(et Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

(State of California) 

Chairman — William Schneiderman. 

Organizing secretary — Loretta Starvis. 

State treasurer — Anita Whitney. 

State field organizer — Mickey Lima. 

State educational director — Celeste Strack. 

People's Daily World circulation director — Leo Baroway. 

Chairman youth commission — George Kaye. 

Chairman, Jewish commission — A. Olken. 

State press director — Ida Rothstein. 

State youth director — George Kaye. 

29 



Labor secretaries — Archie Brown and Leon Kaplan. 
Committee members: 

John Pittman. Loretta Starvis. 

Louise Todd. Nemmy Sparks. 

Ray Thompson. Clarence Tobey. 

William Schneiderman. George Lohr. 

Pettis Perry. Mickey Lima. 

State political editor — Douglas Ward. 
Secretary, water-front section — Herbert Nugent. 
Los Angeles County section: 

Chairman — Nemmy Sparks. 

Labor secretary — Ben Dobbs. 

Press director — Elizabeth Ricardo. 

Chairman, minorities commission — Pettis Perry. 

Organizing secretary — Dorothy Healy. 

Editor, People's Daily World — Sidney Burke. 

Chairman Sixteenth Congressional District — Emil Freed. 

Section organizer — Alvin Averbuck. 

Legislative director — Harry Daniels. 

Harbor section organizer — Jim Forrest. 

Veterans' director — Merel Brodsky. 

Youth director — Phil Bock. 

Secretary, Carver Club section — Mort Newman. 

Candidate, board of education — La Rue McCormack. 

Candidate, councilman — Henry Steinberg — Ninth District. 

Candidate, councilman — James C. McGowan — Eleventh District. 

Candidate, councilman — Elsie M. Monjar — Eighth District. 

Director, West Adams Club of Communist Party — Joe Klein. 

Social activity secretary, 62 AD, Communist Party — Ida Elliott. 
Northern California section: 

Chairman, San Francisco section — Oleta Yates. 

Legislative director, San Francisco section — Herb Nugent. 

Labor director, San Francisco — Leon Kaplan. 

Water-front organizer — Alex Freskin. 

Educational director, San Francisco — Aubrey Grossman. 
San Diego County section: Chairman — Enos J. Baker. 
Alameda County section: 

Chairman — Lloyd Lehman. 

Labor director — Wesley Bodkin. 

Organizer, Ben Davis Club of Communist Party (Alameda) — Buddy Green. 

Trade-union director, Hariet Tubman Club of Communist Party (Ala- 
meda) — Helen Bodkin. 
Miscellaneous section: 

President, Santa Monica Club of Communist Party — David Grant. 

Chairman, Contra Costa County — Mildred Bowen. 

30 



Chairman, Hollywood section — John Stapp. 

Press director, East Side Youth Club (Los Angeles)— Libby Wilson. 

Organizer, North Oakland section — George Edwards. 

District of Arizona, JiSYi North Washington Street, Phoenix, Ariz. 

(State of Arizona) 

Chairman — Morris Graham. 
Committee members: 

Lewis Johnson. 

Karl M. Wilson. 
Chairman, Maricopa County — M. Dallen. 

District of New Jersey, ^8 Par\ Place, Newar\, N, J, 

(State of New Jersey) 

Chairman — Sid Stein. 
Organizing secretary — Larry Mahon. 
Section organizer, Plainfield — Al Muniz. 
Comm.ittee members: 

Martha Stone (Scherer). 

Tom Scanlon. 

Irving Glassman. 

Joseph Magliaco. 

Elwood Dean. 

Mrs. Gaetana Mahan. 

District of Connecticut, 2^1 Fairfield Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

(State of Connecticut) 

Chairman — Joe Roberts. 

Secretary — Mike Russo. 

Committee members (in addition to above): 

Rudolph Gillespie. 

Roy A. Leib. 
Chairman, Hartford section — Roy A. Leib. 
Chairman, New Haven section — Sidney S. Taylor. 

District of Wisconsin, 6iy North Second Street, Milwaukee, Wis, 

(State of Wisconsin) 

Chairman — Fred Blair. 

Secretary — E. Eisenscher. 

State committee — Sigmund Eisenscher. 

Chairman, Milwaukee section — G. Eisenscher. 

Chairman, sixth ward — Joe Ellis. 

Secretary, Milwaukee section — Clarence Blair (alias Clark). 

Organizer, Milwaukee — James Phillips. 



31 



Dislrict of Colorado, g2g Seventeenth Street, Denver, Colo. 
(States included: Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming) 
Chairman — William Dietrich. 
Secretary — Arthur W. Barry. 
Organizational secretary — Tracy Rogers. 

District of Missouri, 1041 North Grand Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

(State of Missouri) 
-Chairman — Ralph Shaw. 
Secretary — Nathan Oser. 

District of West Virginia, Charleston, W. Va. 

(State of West Virginia) 
Chairman — Ted Allen. 

Southern District 

(States included: Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Virginia, Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, Tennessee, Oklahoma, North Carolina, and South Carolina) 
Chairman, Texas — Ruth Koenig, 305 Herman Building, Houston, Tex. 
Executive secretary, Texas — James J. Green. 
Chairman, Houston section — William C. Crawford. 
Chairman, Louisiana — James E. Jackson, Jr., 

Secretary, Louisiana — Kay Davis, Godchaux Building, New Orleans, La. 
Chairman, Florida-Georgia — Alex W. Trainor, 1546 Loma, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Organization secretary, Florida-Georgia — Homer Chase. 
Chairman, Virginia — Alice Burke, 102 North Eighth, Richmond, Va. 
Chairman, Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — Harold Bolton. 
Secretary, Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — Andy Brown. 
Press director, Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — Harry Raymond. 
Organizer, Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — Mary Southard. 
Chairman, Oklahoma — Allen Shaw. 

District organizer, Oklahoma — H. Smith, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Organizing secretary, Oklahoma — Al Lowe. 
Organizing secretary. North and South Carolina — Sam Hall. 

District of Montana, 2iiy Fourth Avenue South, Great Falls, Mont. 

(State of Montana) 
Chairman — Ira Siebrasse. 

District of Nebrashji, 4/5 Karbac\ Building, Omaha, Nebr. 
(State of Nebraska) 

State chairman — Warren Batterson. 

District of Utah, y^ Southwest Temple Street, Salt La\e City, Utah 

(State of Utah) 

State chairman — Wallace Talbot. 
State secretary — Joseph Douglas. 

32 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 



COMMUNISM 
and RELIGION 



The second oj a series on the Communist conspiracy and its 

influence in this country as a whole, on religion, on 

education, on labor, and on our government 



94252° — 49- 



J. EDGAR rfOOVER: 

"I confess to a real apprehension, so long as Communists are 
able to secure ministers of the gospel to promote their evil work 
and espouse a cause that is alien to the religion of Christ and 
Judaism." 

EARL BROWDER: 



". . . we Communists do not distinguish between good and 
bad religions, because we think they are all bad . . " 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD 

KNOW ABOUT 
COMMUNISM AND RELIGION 

This is to tell you what will happen to YOU and YOUR CHURCH 
if Communism ever takes over the United States of America. 

The long and the short of it is just this: You cannot be a Commu- 
nist and believe in God. You cannot believe in God and have a 
peaceable life under Communism. 

In all their plans and actions, the Communists mark down religion 
as Enemy No. i. Where they dominate, they attack it head on. 
Where they do not dominate, they try to deceive and to corrupt from 
within just as they do in government, in education, in labor unions, 
and throughout a nation's life in general. 

The aim and object of Communism is always the same — complete 
control over the human mind and body, asleep and awake, in sick- 
ness and in health, from birth to death. That is why Communism 
marks religion Enemy No. i, for religion in some form is always a 
basic influence in the life and thinking of any people. 

Communism cannot dominate family life, for example, until it 
has first fought its way past the influence of religion upon the family. 

Communism cannot force its own brand of moral code upon a person 
without first destroying his moral code rooted in religion. 

Communism cannot make education a weapon in its hands so long 
as religion is secure in its own right to teach and to educate. 

Communism cannot dominate unless it has the power to remake 
the life of the people. It cannot ignore religion and do that. 

So here, then, is a report on what Communism seeks to do about 
religion in the U. S. A., as judged by what it has already done else- 
where and has SAID it will do here at the first opportunity: 

1. If Communism should com,e to the United States, could I 
belong to a church? 

You would have to choose at once between church and Commu- 
nism. If you should choose the church, then prepare for persecution. 

35 



2. What would the Communists DO to churches and synagogues? 

Take them over and put an end to the freedom now guaranteed by 
Sentence One, Article One in the Bill of Rights of the Constitution; 
Congress shall make NO law respecting an establishment of religion or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof. 

5. What does that m^ean, exactly? 

Just study for a minute these figures on the present size and nature 
of religion and its works in the U. S. A. : 
256 denominations. 
253,000 churches and synagogues. 
77,000,000 members. 
162,000 Sunday schools. 
13,000 parochial schools. 
690 colleges and schools of higher learning. 
Libraries, radio stations, publishing houses for books, maga- 
zines and newspapers. 

Charities, orphanages, hospitals, missionary forces. 
Ladies' aids and auxiliaries. Men's societies, young people's 
organizations, children's groups. 
These are what Communism would like to take over and destroy. 

4. Would the Communists destroy the Bible? 

Every copy they could find. And they would jail anybody try- 
ing to print new copies. 

5. Could I be married in the church? 

Not legally. 

6. Could my funeral be held in the church? 

Not legally. 

7. Could my child be baptized or christened in the church? 

At the risk of prison for parent and pastor. 

8. Would my child go to Sunday school? 

Not only would Sunday school be illegal, but also your child 
would be taught to report you to the police for trying to send him. 



36 



9> How would my child learn his religion, then? 

Only through what you might tell him at home, to offset the 
positive atheism he would learn all week at the government school. 

10. You mean the GOVERNMENT would teach atheism? 

Yes. Here is the rule laid down by Nikolai Lenin, leader of the 
Communist revolution in Russia in 1917 and founder of the Red 
government now headed by Joseph Stalin: 

Down with religion! Long live atheism! The spread of atheist views 
is our chief task! 

That rule has not changed. 

1 1 . Could I give money to the church? 

Yes, if the Communist system would allow you any; but then most 
of it would go for staggeringly high taxes, rent, and other fees charged 
by the government to discourage church operations. Anything left 
could go to feed the preacher, who would be little better off than a 
beggar, anyhow. 

1 2. Who would own the churches? 

Under Communism, churches and synagogues could no longer own 
their own property, free, clear, and untouchable, as they do in the 
United States today. Church property would become government 
property. Congregations could only use such small rooms or build- 
ings as die government might license to them on concession. 

The fees and charges for this would be heavy and all use would be 
subject to strict Communist control, review and supervision. 

13. How about my own church-going? 

You could try on your own time, if the Government happened at the 
time to let you off work on a holy day. Otherwise, only at night, when 
and if you got the chance. 

14. Would I be allowed time off for religious holidays and cele- 
brations as now? 

Not a chance. 

13. Could I help out tvith church charities and welfare work? 

There wouldn't be any. All church schools, hospitals, orphanages, 
asylums, and such things would be seized by the government. Re- 
ligion would be denied any say in their use or management. 

37 



1 6. What about missionary work? 

Illegal. Forbidden. 

1 7. Could we print the sermons, church notes or news letters? 

Certainly not. Only atheistic views could be distributed and, of 
those, only such as the government v^^ould hand out in official form. 
Under Communism you wouldn't even be free to peddle your own 
brand of atheism — just the government's. 

IS. How about my church men's club, ladies' aid society, or 
young people's group? 

Out. There is no freedom of assembly under Communism. 

19. What could my pastor do? 

In the pulpit, he could lead the congregation in acts of faith and 
deliver sermons, with the Communists checking on every word. 

Out of the pulpit, he would be an official target for abuse, ridicule, 
and scorn, under constant suspicion, and in danger of his life. 

20. Why? 

In him, the Communists would see a rival to their power over your 
mind, imagination, and will. The faith your pastor teaches is Com- 
munism's deadliest enemy. 

21 . What do you mean by ''faith"? 

The sort of thing you find in the Ten Commandments and the 
Sermon on the Mount. 

22. What is the COMMUNIST faith? 

"Marxism-Leninism," as operated by Joseph Stalin. 

23. What's all that? 

A plan and method to rule the world. 

The man who drew up the plan was Karl Marx, who lived from 
i8i8 to 1883. 

The man who put the plan into action in real life was Vladimir I. 
Ulyanov, alias Nikolai Lenin, who lived from 1870 to 1924, and led 
the world Communists to capture Russia in 1917-18. 

The man who made the plan a world force was Josif Vissarionovich 
Djugushvili, alias Josif Stalin, now living, and 68 years old, who 
followed Lenin in command of the world Communist conspiracy. 

38 



24. Why do you say "alias Lenin" and "alias Stalin"? 

Because those are not the real names of the men involved. 

Remember, the present "Stalin" started out in life to destroy the 
government of his own country and rebuild it on Communist lines 
through bloody revolution, and that's how it was actually done. 

He was against all law except Communist ideas as laid down by 
Karl Marx. He used the alias "Stalin" to hide his real identity, just 
as Ulyanov used "Lenin." 

25. What was Marx' idea of a Communist world? 

That the world as we know it must be destroyed— religion, family, 
laws, rights, everything. Anybody opposing was to be destroyed, too. 

Marx wanted a world in which people owned no property, took 
orders from the Government without question, and let their family 
life— husbands, wives, parents, and children — be without religion, 
morals, or ideals as we know them. 

26. What was his idea of morality and family? 

That anything is moral— even lying, stealing, and murder— if it 
brings on Communism. 

That women should have children for the Communist state to 
educate, train, and use, but parents should not have any say in train- 
ing according to their OWN ideas. 

That there is no need to fear God because He does not exist. 

Marx had the idea that people could never be happy, have enough 
to eat, make enough money, or have success in the kind of world we 
know. 

The U. S. A. is living proof that he was as wrong as a man 
can be. 

27. Was Marx crazy? 

Perhaps. But Marx was not the first evil and crazy man to start 
a terrible world upheaval, nor was he the last. Hitler was like that, 
too, but look at what he did. 

28. How did anybody fall for Marx? 

Some overlooked his craziness because he was one of the most 
effective propagandists who ever lived. 

His preaching of destruction appealed especially to people who 
wanted to rule others and didn't know how. It still does. 

39 



29. Was Lenin one of those power seekers? 

Yes. Lenin was the son of a minor Government clerk. He had 
a terrible thirst for power. 

Early in his life he read Marx, caught the idea of forming Com- 
munist cells of revolution as Marx planned them, and built a con- 
spiracy to capture his country. 

When Russia's Czarist Government crashed in the war of 1914-18, 
it was followed by a Republic organized along the lines of our own. 
But before the Republic could really take hold, Lenin's Communists 
came out from under cover, confused the public mind by propaganda, 
stirred a military revolt, slaughtered all opposition and set up by force 
of arms a Communist dictatorship. They still have it today. 

30. Did all the Russians turn Communist? 

Neither then nor now. Only a few trained and disciplined favorites 
were or are allowed to be Communists. 

For a general picture of what kind of people turn Communist and 
what they DO, see the first of this series, entitled "100 Things You 
Should Know About Communism in the U. S. A." 

31. Why do any people fall for their line? 

They promise all the things that people have always sought — an 
easier life, an end to trouble. 

32. Do they deliver? 

Of course not. 

Once they get in control, they reduce a nation to horror and slavery. 
Look at the record, not only in Russia but in all other countries cap- 
tured by Communism. 

33. How do they keep going? 

The secret of Communism's drive and the real key to the Commu- 
nist faith is the dream of total power for Communists, loss of power 
for all others. That's the story in a nutshell. 

54. Where is the headquarters of the Communist faith? 

The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia. 

35. Who is the head of that faith? 

Joseph Stalin, because he is the head of the Government of Russia 
and Chief of the Communist Party of Russia. To a Communist in the 
United States or any other country, Stalin's word is final. 

40 



For a Communist to defy Stalin is as scandalous to other Commu- 
nists as for a religious-minded person to blaspheme God. 

36. Is there any proof of this? 

Examine the record in Russia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, 
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Austria, 
Germany, and in all other countries where Communism takes any hold. 

Add to it the thousands of volumes of Communist official literature 
collected in the Library of Congress here in Washington. 

Measure against your common sense and decide for yourself. In 
the meantime, here following are significant highlights from that 
record dealing with just one side of the story, Communism's war on 
religion all over the world, including the United States of America. 

37. W hat about Russia? 

Let's flash back. The number of congregations has dropped since 
1917 by more than 75 percent. That any have remained at all is a 
triumph of survival against relentless, cruel, and powerful persecution. 

38. Was Russia a very religious country before? 

About half the people of the old Russian Empire belonged to the 
Eastern Orthodox branch of Christianity. The Orthodox Church 
was recognized and established as an arm of the Government. 

Beyond the established church, there were congregations of Roman 
Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Mohammedans and other faiths, even 
ancient tribal pagan groups. 

None beyond the Orthodox Church was recognized as legally 
"established" by the Government, but they were at least tolerated. They 
are not even TOLERATED now. Only the Orthodox sect is allowed 
any activity at all. 

39. Why is the Orthodox church an exception? 

Its priests are today held captive by the Communists and used to 
help rule the Russian people. 

40. How did the Communists capture them? 

By destroying the independent power of the church and then tak- 
ing advantage of the determination of many people to have a con- 
tinuing religious service on any terms. 



94252°— 49- 



41 



41. What was the first step? 

All Orthodox Church property, right down to the crucifixes and 
altar vessels, was seized. All monasteries closed. Churches turned 
into movie houses and museums. Church bells destroyed. 

42. How were Orthodox priests treated? 

Thousands were slaughtered. Others were ridiculed and kicked 
through the streets. As a class, they were held up to the country as 
parasites and frauds, and refused permission to travel, meet in groups, 
or to train or ordain others. 

43. How about the other faiths? 

Treated even worse, since they represented minority groups. 

44. What else happened? 

Official Government agencies were set up with the taxpayers' money 
to operate "antireligious museums" and to pubhsh books, posters, 
pamphlets, and magazines denouncing religion. Atheist carnivals 
were held on religious holidays. Christmas trees were banned. 
Sunday was decreed a workday to stop devotional services, and 
failure to report for work on a religious day meant instant dismissal. 
Religious oaths were abolished. 

Atheism was taught in the schools as a required course for all 
children. Radio broadcasts by Government propagandists dinned 
atheism into people's ears night and day. Communists who showed 
any interest in religion were expelled and ruined. Priests and their 
families were made outcasts of society, refused jobs or food-ration 
cards, and forced to pay extra rent and taxes. 

Orthodox priests are allowed to marry, so the Government even 
took it out on their children by refusing them so much as a high 
school education. 

Non-Communists who stood by their religion lost their jobs and 
generally were shoved downhill by the full force of government. 

43. Was all this effective? 

Figures on congregations and church organizations in Soviet Russia 
vary, but over-all they show a general reduction in church organiza- 
tions of 75 to 90 percent over a 25-year period. The number of priests 



42 



in the Russian Orthodox Church was reduced from nearly 51,000 down 
to less than 6,000. Orthodox Churches dropped from 46,000 before 
the Communists took over to 2,000 in 1948. 

However, religion went underground as a result of persecution, and 
a vast network was created in which priests carried on religious schools 
and services in secrecy and survived in disguise with the help of the 
general public. 

It has been estimated that today there are, in addition to the nearly 
6,000 registered priests mentioned above, another 5,000 under cover; 
there are at least 2,000,000 children in underground Cliristian youth 
organizations; and there are between 67,000,000 and 80,000,000 adult 
believers in Russia. 

46. Are the Communists satisfied with the dam^age accomplished 
so far? 

No, They will never accept as final anything less than the complete 
end of religion. 

47. Have the Russian Communists EVER tolerated religion? 

They have pretended to on a few occasions when it served their pur- 
pose. While Communists do not have religion themselves, they have 
sometimes agreed that personal faith is all right so long as churches 
obey Communism's orders against missionary, welfare and charity 
work, and religious education of children. 

48. Why is this? 

The Russian Communists have needed cooperation from religious- 
minded people in their own country, and they also want religious 
people outside the borders of Russia to help the Communists there 
seize control of other countries. "Toleration" of religion is just a 
tactical maneuver in Communism's war on civilization. Long-range 
strategy of total destruction does not change. 

49. When was this "toleration" tactic first used in Russia? 

Although very minor concessions to the church were allowed in 
1923 and 1935, after two of the most severe waves of religious perse- 
cution, the first significant pretense of religious tolerance came in 
1938. A general order went out to "avoid jarring the religious sensi- 
bilities of the believers." 



43 



50. Why.^ 

Because Stalin was afraid of Hitler's growing power and wanted 
the Russian people to be unified and cooperative in case of war. 

When war did come, the Russian Communists used priests to 
appeal to the Russian people for support of the war. The Moscow 
radio actually called upon "God-loving inhabitants" of German- 
occupied countries to rise in defense of religious freedom. References 
to God were even found in Stalin's papers and addresses. 

The Government also temporarily closed its atheistic publishing 
concerns as a war maneuver. Churches in Moscow took on a blaze 
of outward life. 

51. Did this mean Stalin had lost his nerve as an atheist F 

Not at all. He simply turned the church into a weapon for his own 
use on the home front then, and such it remains today. 

52. Do the Communists pretend to tolerate religion today? 

No. Since the end of World War II, the Russian Government 
has renewed open war against rehgion in all forms, although in some 
countries Communists pretend to tolerate it to serve their propaganda 
purposes. 

55. How do we know this? 

A recent statement in an official Soviet newspaper listed the stamp- 
ing out of religious faith "by systematic, scientific, antireligious 
propaganda" as "the most important task in the struggle for the 
triumph of Communism in the U. S. S. R." 

Communist Party members in Russia, both young and old, were 
publicly ordered recently to work against religious beliefs. 

Radio Moscow is carrying atheistic broadcasts and hammering at 
the people with Marx' well-known words, "Religion is the opium 
of the people." 

54. How do the Communists control the Orthodox Church? 

Through the Soviet Government's State Council on Orthodox 
Affairs, headed by Georgi Karpov, an atheist Communist who for 
years had been a member of the Soviet Secret Police. Every decision 
of the church officers must be approved by Karpov, even down to the 
point of getting his permission to go on a trip. 



^5. How do Americans of the Russian Orthodox faith feel about 
the state of their faith in Russia? ^ 

Russian Orthodox bishops and priests here refuse to accept the 
Russian church any longer as a guide or source of rehgious authority. 

36. Is the Roman Catholic Church restored in Russia? 

In no way. One priest is allowed to stay in Moscow for the benefit 
of foreigners there, but the church is entirely shut off from the people 
of the country as a whole. 

57. How about the Jews? 

The same. Hebrew, the sacred language of the Judaic faith, is 
forbidden by law. Feast days, religious development and enjoyment 
for Jews have been suppressed as harshly as for any others. 

38. How about Protestant groups? 

They have been crushed. 

39. What has Comm^unism done against religion outside Russia? 

It has seized church and synagogue property and killed church lead- 
ers wherever and whenever Communism has gained control. 

Where it has not yet gained the upper hand over the country as a 
whole, it has tried to corrupt religion from within by setting sect 
against sect and creed against creed. 

dO. Are Communists trying to corrupt religion in the U . S. A.? 
Yes. 

61. What is their method? 

The Communist Party of the United States assigns members to 
join churches and church organizations, in order to take control where 
possible, and in any case to influence thought and action toward 
Communist ends. 

It forms "front organizations," designed to attract "fellow travelers" 
with religious interests. 

It tries to get prominent religious leaders to support Communist 
policies, disguised as welfare work for minorities or oppressed groups. 
In the words of Earl Browder, former head of the Communist Party 
of die U. S. A.: 

". . . By going among the religious masses, we are for the first time able 
to bring our anti-religious ideas to them." 

45 



62. What is a ''front organization"? 

An organization created or captured by the Communists to do the 
Party's work in special fields. The front organization is Communism's 
greatest weapon in this country and takes it among people who would 
never willingly act as Party agents. 

63. What is a ''fellow traveler"? 

One who sympathizes with the Party's aims and serves the Party's 
purposes without actually holding a Party card. 

64. How can I spot them? 

Many organizations have been listed as Communist fronts by the 
Attorney General and this Committee. You can get a list of these 
by writing to the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Room 
226, Old House Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

To show up a fellow traveler, ask him to name ten things wrong 
with the United States and then ask him to name two things wrong 
with Russia. He will be on Russia's side every time. 

65. Are American Comm^unists atheistic? 
Yes. 

66. Can a Communist ever have religious beliefs? 

When he first joins the Party, a Communist may still have some 
religious faith but it soon goes or he fails as a Communist. 

61 . What happens to a religious person who turns Communist? 

The Party ridicules his religious ideals and dins atheist propaganda 
into his ears, day and night, in an attempt to convert him to atheism. 

68. What if a new Communist refuses to renounce religion? 

Kicked out. 

69. What happens to a person who gets kicked out of the Party? 

He is hounded for the rest of his life. 

70. Have the Communists used blasphemous propaganda against 
the church? 

If there is any doubt in your mind as to the vicious and blasphemous 
propaganda Communists are using against religion, then go to your 

AG 



public library and read a typical example of it entitled "Goodbye, 
Christ," by Langston Hughes. 

It is so atrocious that we will not reproduce it here, but even so, it is 
mild compared to the atheist propaganda in Moscow. 

7 1 . How do Communists work am^ong church people, since they 
themselves are such haters of religion? 

Communists are two-faced. 

In their secret Party meetings, they make plans to destroy religion. 
In public, they say religion and Communism should be friends and 
that both are working for the same goals. 

72. Are there Com^m^unist clergymen? 

Unfortunately, yes. 

13' Do they admit they are Communists? 

Some do, but except in special cases, the Party requires Communists 
to keep their membership secret. 

74. Will you give an example of the ^'open" type of membership? 

The Rev. Claude C. Williams, a Presbyterian minister, whose con- 
gregation expelled him for Party activity. The Rev. Eliot White, re- 
tired Episcopalian minister, who served as a delegate to a Communist 
convention and lectured at Communist meetings. 

75. Are they important? 

Not as important as the others who have joined the Communist 
fronts which the Attorney General and this committee have declared 
to be "subversive." 

76. Do you mean that fust because a clergy m^an foins or sponsors 
one or two Communist fronts for one reason or another, he is 
playing Stalin's game in America? 

No. We are talking about those clergymen who have over a period 
of years consistently followed the Party line and joined, not one or two 
fronts, but ten, twenty, or thirty. These are the core of agents the 
Party depends on in the religious field. 

77 . But couldn't some of these clergymen be innocently mis- 
guided in their attempts to do good? 

Well, they have followed every crook and twist of the Communist 
Party line. Would you excuse that in your minister's case.?* 

47 



78. Is your Committee investigating religion? 

Certainly not. Religion is not under any sort of investigation by 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities, nor is any sect, 
creed, church, or individual, so far as his religion is concerned. 

79. Then what's this pamphlet for? 

To help you protect your religion and faith from Communist at- 
tack by showing you exactly what the Communists are up to. 

80. But is Communism a "real" danger inside our churches? 

Here's J. Edgar Hoover on the subject: 

I confess to a real apprehension, so long as Communists are able to secure 
ministers of the gospel to promote their evil work and espouse a cause that 
is alien to the religion of Christ and Judaism. 

81. Is Communist propaganda ever sneaked into church 
publications? 

Yes. For instance, a minister was discharged as editor of an official 
chur'ch publication for permitting communistic propaganda to appear 
in this publication. 

82. Do Communist propagandists ever actually get before church 

groups as speakers? 

Yes. For example, the head of the Communist Party, on one oc- 
casion at least, spoke at Union Theological Seminary in New York 

City. 

Only a few months ago, the Legislative Secretary of the Commu- 
nist Party addressed a conference of lOO ministers in Washington, 
D.C. 

83. What about church youth groups? 

Young Communists are ordered to join them. 

84. Why? 

For two reasons: To win over youth to Communism and atheism, 
and to turn their groups into tools of the Communist Party. 

85. Is this done openly? 

No. Communist youth, like Communist adults, work under cover. 
They won't admit being Communists if you ask them unless and until 
their Party officers direct them to do so. 

48 



86. Is the YMCA a Communist target? 

Yes. SoistheYWCA. 
Also, church youth groups. 

81 . Do you mean every youth group is a Comm^unist hide-out? 

Of course not. But we do mean that Communists do dig into such 
groups any way and any time they can. 

We do mean they have dug into such groups, and are at it today. 

We do mean that if you want to keep your own organization fit for 
your own family's membership, you had better stay on the alert. 

88. How else do Comm^unists spread atheism? 

Indirectly in Communist schools such as the Jeflferson School of 
Social Science in New York, and the California Labor School. 

Also in the atheistic schools for children operated throughout the 
country by the International Workers Order. 

89. What is the People's Institute of Applied Religion? 

One of the most vicious Communist organizations ever set up in 
this country. Declared subversive by the Attorney General. 

90. Where is it located and who are its officers? 

4105 '/2 Third Avenue, South, Birmingham, Alabama. 

Rev. Claude C. Williams, director; Edna Joyce King, executive secre- 
tary; Owen H. Whitfield and Winifred L. Chappell, associate di- 
rectors; Carl Haessler, Calla E. Tennant, and Clara M. Vincent, trus- 
tees; Cederic Belfrage, research director. 

91. What does it do? 

It teaches Communist ideas, pretending that they are Christian ideas. 

92. What is the Methodist Federation for Social Action? 

A tool of the Communist Party, denounced by numerous loyal Ameri- 
can Methodists. It claims to speak for 17 Methodist Bishops and 4,000 
clerics and laymen. Not an official church organization. 

93. Where is it located and what is it trying to do? 

150 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York. Although strictly un- 
official as a "church" organization, it is trying to use the prestige of the 
Methodist Church to promote die line of the Communist Party. 



94252°— 49- 



49 



94. What is ''The Protestant"? 

A magazine which fanatically spreads Communist propaganda 
under the guise of being a religious journal. 

Its avowed purpose is to "build a bridge" between Christendom and 
Communism. Boasts support of 6,000 ministers but not actually 
connected with any official religious organization. 

95. Where is it published and who are the officers? 

It is published by Protestant Digest, Inc., at 521 5th Avenue, New 
York, New York. Editor: Kenneth Leslie; Associate Editors: James 
Luther Adams, John Hammond, Gerald Richardson. 

96. Should such organizations have any church's support? 
Ask your own pastor. 

91 . How can we combat them? 

Reread this pamphlet. Show it to others. Become as interested 
in protecting your religion as the Communists are in destroying it. 

98. Are the Com^munists just trying to get m,y church? 

No. They're also out to get your job, to get your union, to get your 
farm, to get your school, to get your property, to get your Government. 
They're out to get YOU and make you a slave of Communism from 
cradle to grave. 

If they can wreck your religion, that makes you just so much easier 
to capture and enslave. 

99. When and how do they work on all these other angles? 
See the other pamphlets in this series: 

100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT COMMUNISM IN THE U. S. A. 

100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT COMMUNISM AND LABOR. 

100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT COMMUNISM AND EDU- 
CATION. 

100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT COMMUNISM AND GOVERN- 
MENT. 

100. Can the Communists win in all this? 

It's up to you. 



50 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 



COMMUNISM 



AND 



EDUCATION 



The third of a series on the Communist conspiracy and its 

influence in this country as a whole, on religion, on 

education, on labor, and on our government 



Give us the child for 8 years and 
it will be a Bolshevik forever, 

—V. I. LENIN, 
Founder of Communist Governm^ent in Russia 

Our teachers must write new school 
textbooks and rewrite history 
from the Marxian viewpoint. 

—WILLIAM Z. FOSTER, 
Head of the Com^munist Party, U. S. A. 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD 

KNOW ABOUT COMMUNISM 

AND EDUCATION 

This is to tell you what the master minds of Communism have 
planned for your child in the name of "Education." 

They mean to take him from the nursery, put him in uniform with 
the hammer and sickle flag in one hand and a gun in the other, and 
send him out to conquer the world. 

If they have their way, he will be guided from the kindergarten 
straight through to college so that he will have anything except a mind 
of his own. 

He will be trained but not educated. He will be taught to solve 
problems that are handed him and to consider it a crime to think for 
himself. He will be the child-man of Communism. 

Here are the facts in this, the third of a series on Communism: 

1. What is Comtnunisfn? 

A conspiracy to conquer and rule the world by any means, legal or 
illegal, in peace or in war. 

2. Is it aimed at me? 

Right between your eyes. 

5. What do the Com-munists want? 

To rule your mind and your body from the cradle to the grave. 

4. Are you joking? 

Look at the world today and see if the people of Europe and Asia 
have anything to laugh about, now that Communism has captured so 
many of them. 

5. If Comfm/nism should conquer America, what would happen 
to the schools? 

Real education would stop. Only training would be allowed. 

53 



6. What's the difference? 

All the diflerence there is between freedom and jail. 

7. What is '^education"? 

People are "educated" when they learn to go after facts and to think 
for themselves. 

8. What is ''training"? 

People are "trained" when they learn how to do a particular thing 
well and can be depended on to do it. 

9. Which is better? 

A monkey can be "trained" but only a human being can be 
"educated." 

A man can very well improve himself by training in some specialty 
but only if he adds that training to independent thinking power, the 
hall-mark of education. 

10. Are Communists really against education? 

Yes, but don't take our word for it. Take theirs. The details here 
following are all from their own stuff. 

11. What do they say? 

Here's a quote from Lenin, founder of the Soviet state: 
"Give us the child for 8 years and it will be a Bolshevik forever." 

12. What's a ''Bolshevik"? 

The origin and history of that word tell a lot about Communism 
itself. The Russian word for "majority" is "bolshinstvo" and the 
Russian for "minority" is "menshinstvo." 

Back in 1903, when the Social Democratic Party in Russia was 
plotting revolution against the Czar, it split into two wings : One, led 
by Lenin, claimed to be the majority group and took the name "Bolshe- 
vik" from "bolshinstvo." It called the other wing "mensheviks" after 
"menshinstvo." 

Both groups helped overthrow the Czarist regime in 1917. But 
then the Bolsheviks turned on the Mensheviks, threw them in jail, and 
set up a terroristic dictatorship. The Bolsheviks changed their name 
to the "Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)" after they took control, 
and they have continued to rule under the same name as the only 
organized political group right up to the present day. 

54 



Their headquarters are in Moscow in an 800-year-old fort called the 
"Kremlin." The head of the party is Joseph Stalin, who not only 
commands the Communists in Russia but everywhere in the world, 
including the United States of America. 

13. Do you mean the Communists in this country take their 
orders frotti StalinP 

Just exactly that, and every one of them knows it sooner or later. 

14. Then a ^'Bolshevik" and a ^'Communist" are the same thing 
in meaning, aren't they? 

Yes, and they are bad news for everybody else. 

13. Well, what did Lenin have in mind when he said give hitn 
the child's first eight years? 

He meant that, given a child from its infancy, he would turn it into 
a faceless, obedient, trained Communist slave for life. 

IG. How? 

Here's a quote from an official 1946 guide to teachers of kinder- 
gartens in Soviet Russia, which handle children from 3 to 6 years of age: 

"The basic habits of SociaHst life are formed during this period — order and 
discipline, friendship and comradeship among children, love of our great 
motherland, of the Communist Party, of the leaders of the people — ." 

This kindergarten program is the biggest, broadest, and most 
elaborate branch of the whole Russian school system. 

11 . What actually goes on in these kindergartens? 

From the same book above quoted : 

"Here children play Red Army soldier; in their hands are litde flags, on 
their uniforms and caps are the insignia of infantrymen, tankmen, sailors, and 
aviators. 

"They march in formation to the tune of a martial song." 

18. What's the purpose of all this? 

Again, that same teachers' handbook tells us the aim is — 

"preparation for organized and disciplined labor in higher schools, in produc- 
tion, and in the service of the Red Army." 

19. How does that differ from our school system? 

We teach children here how to think. They teach children what 
to think. 

55 



Our kindergartens try to develop children as individuals so each 
one can have a chance to grow^ up into the kind of citizen he best can 
be. Their kindergartens try to stamp each child into a fixed form 
so that he will serve Communism, and Communism alone, regardless 
of his ow^n individual ambitions or instincts. 

20. Just what makes up the "school system" in Am^erica which 
the Com^m^unists want? 

There are about 201,100 schools in this country listed by the 
United States Office of Education. They teach some 31,880,000 
students everything from cooking to atomic physics. 

Our schools range from public to private to church ow^nership, 
and from kindergartens to colleges. 

Add to these the thousands of commercial, music, drama, art, busi- 
ness and trade schools not counted in the list above. 

Add the research centers, textbook houses, teachers' unions, school 
supply companies, the National Education Association, and its 
affiliates. 

Each and every one w^ould be wrecked and the pieces taken over. 

21. What do you mean by "wrecked"? 

Just that. One of the first things that Communists did in Russia 
when they came to power was to smash the existing school system. 

22. How did they do this? 

They deliberately broke down college entrance standards and 
abolished degrees hke the B. A., M. A., and Ph. D. Universities be- 
came cheap diploma mills. 

The lower schools were turned into nothing more than revolution- 
ary clubs, where students were fed godless Communist slogans 
rather than knowledge. The teachers' authority was destroyed and 
classrooms became madhouses of disorder with "student councils" 
deciding courses, discipline, and school policies. 

25. Why? 

Because the Communists knew they could never control the public 
mind until they had first smashed the school system as it was. 

After the break-down and explosion period, they rebuilt the school 
system into a tremendous machine for training rather than education. 

This was done by installing a new group of teachers loyal to the 
Communists. These were allowed new and extreme authority over 

56 



their pupils, who in turn have become cowed, uniformed puppets 
whose main lesson is to learn to worship Stalin as "teacher, leader, and 
father." 

24. But ivhat about academic freedom? 

A teacher under Communism never has freedom, academic or 
otherwise. 

He teaches only what the Government tells him to. And police 
watch to see that he does so. 

23. Would that be so here? 

Freedom in every respect would be the first thing to go. Teachers 
bucking the system would be fired, jailed, or shot. 

2G. What would they train the pupils here to do after getting 
the schools under their thumb as they are now in Russia? 

To obey, to love, and to hate. 

27. To obey whom,? 

The best answer is from the same teachers' guide, "Pedagogy," 

earlier quoted: 

"Unquestioned obedience and submission to the leader, the teacher or the 
organizer." 

28. To love whom? 

From the same source: 
"The best people." 

29. To hate whom? 

Says the Soviet teachers' guide: 

"The pupils of the Soviet school must realize that the feeling of Soviet 
patriotism is saturated with irreconcilable hatred toward the enemies of socialist 
society." 

30. Who are the ''best people"? 

From that handbook again: 

"Our best men and women are banded together in our Communist Party, which 
directs the entire life of the country." 

31. Doesn't that sound like something thought up by Hitler? 

Exactly. The Communists were at it before he was and they still 
are going strong after he has gone. Hitler imitated many tactics of 
the Communists. 

94252° — 49 8 57 



32. Who are these ^'enemies" the Russian Communists train 
children to hate? 

Anybody and everybody who objects to being dominated all his life 
long by the Communists. Any loyal citizen of the United States, for 
instance. 

And this training in hate is made twice as deadly by coupling it with 
formal mihtary training for all children from the fourth grade up. 

33. Does any other school system teach hate in the classroom? 

Some have, as in Italy, Germany, and Japan. Today, people in those 
countries are paying the price. 

54. And that's what Communism wants to plant over here? 

Exactly the same thing. 

35. How can we stop it? 

Know Communism for what it is. Know Communists for what 
they are. Find them out, drive them out, and prosecute them by every 
means possible under the law. 

We need more law than is at present on the books in order to do this 
effectively. See lOO Things You Should Know About Communism in 
the U. S. A. for more details. 

36. What do they want, anyhow? 

Power; Communists all have a craze for power. 

57. How can I tell a Communist? 

Compare his opinions of this or any other country with his opinions 
of Russia. A Communist will criticize the President of the United 
States of America, but not Stalin. 

38. Who hangs around with the Communists? 

Mostly their fellow travelers and front organization dupes, but 
Communists themselves will go anywhere among any people on orders 
of their Party leaders. 

39. What's a "fellow traveler"? 

Someone who follows the Communist Party line without actually 
carrying a membership card. 

40. What's a "front organization"? 

Any group that knowingly works for Communist aims or supports 
Communist propaganda. 

58 



41. Are there many around here? 

Too many. For details concerning any specific organization, write 
to the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Room 226, Old 
House Office Building, or the Department of Justice. Both have 
published lists of typical Communist fronts, from time to time. 

42. Are there many Comm^unist fronts and fellow travelers in the 
United States school system? 

There are, and they are a deadly danger. 

43. Who says so? 

The Attorney General of the United States, and the United States 
Office of Education, to mention just two of many official sources. 

44. How do they work? 

Here is an example given by Dr. Harry Gideonse, president of 
Brooklyn College: 

"A Communist group at an Ohio college recently tried very hard to bring 
into its ranks a young liberal who was a Phi Beta Kappa and an officer of the 
Student Council. 

"When ideological arguments failed, he was invited to a house off the campus 
where drinks were served lavishly. He was then told he could bring a girl 
to the house any time he wanted to, provided he joined the group. 

"If he didn't know any girls without bourgeois ideas of morality, he could 
be introduced to one." 

45. That's just the plain old badger game that criminals use 
everywhere, isn't it? 

Surely. The Communists excuse it on the ground that in war any- 
thing goes. 

46. Did you say ''war"? 

That's the Communists' own word to describe their attitudes, 
thoughts, and actions. They themselves say they are "at war" with 
every person and government in the world that does not submit to 
Moscow. 

47. What are some of their other "war" tactics on the school 
campus? 

There are many Communists and Communist sympathizers among 
actors, actresses, authors, musicians, and other artists whose careers 
are interesting and attractive to young people. 



59 



One of the Communist Party's most powerful devices for catching 
youth is that of using these "big name" agents to spark a campus rally 
or meeting which has as its real purpose the planting of Party 
propaganda. 

48. Do they meddle in student activities? 
Says Dr. Gideonse: 

"Perhaps the most effective tactic they employ, however, is their practice 
of espousing popular causes and protesting militantly against anything which 
they can make appear as unfair practice, exploitation or discrimination." 

49. Do the students know what they're getting into, when they 
go to these things.'* 

Hardly ever. They go for the fun and excitement, usually, but then 
the loops and the snares go out and catch all too many. 

50. What happens to them, then? 

The girl or boy who falls under Communist influence is in danger 
of losing his whole future as an independent, American citizen. 
The same applies for teachers or anybody else. 

51. Why? 

Because nobody, man, woman or child, can be a Communist and 
a good citizen of the United States of America at the same time. 

52. Again, why? 

All Communists everywhere come under the same rule: Absolute 
obedience in all things to Party orders. Each and every one of these 
Party orders starts from the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia. 

No good American can surrender to that. 

53. Do any teachers in our schools actually submit to such a 
Communist dictatorship? 

Here again, read what Dr. Gideonse has to say : 

"Communist professors and teachers play an important part, of course, in 
the broad-scale campaign to convert our youth to Stalinism," 

54. How do they work? 

By slipping propaganda into classroom work and textbooks and by 
leading gullible students into Red-sponsored campus activities. 

60 



55. What's biting these people, anyhow P 

Here is at least one part of the answer given by John Hanna, a 
professor of Columbia University, who was formerly with the Farm 
Credit Administration and chief analyst with the United States Courts' 
Administration Office: 

"The girls' schools and women's colleges contain some of the most loyal 
disciples of Russia. 

"Teachers there are often frustrated females. They have gone through bitter 
struggles to attain their positions. 

"A political dogma based on hatred expresses their personal attitude." 

Politics based on hatred and self-pity has the same appeal for men, 
too, who feel frustrated by life. 

56. Are they open in their hate? 

No. Says the same expert: 

"They can manipulate admissions and scholarships to obtain radical students. 
They require courses that give a maximum of indoctrination. They favor 
students who follow their leadership. At the same time, they are shrewd enough 
to avoid any open affiliation with Communism." 

51 . Is this sort of thing confined to the colleges? 

Attorney General Tom C. Clark says : 

"The Federal Bureau of Investigation has learned that the Communists have 
started a campaign to recruit our children to their ideology — the younger they 
are, the better." 

58. How about the parents? 

Richard Frank, writing in "The Communist," an official Party pub- 
lication, specifically directed: 

"In rural communities, teachers who are among the few educated people are 
looked up to with tremendous respect. They are in a position to become 
community leaders. 

"As a means of mobilizing the people in the villages and countryside, steps 
should be taken to try to send Communist teachers into rural communities where 
they should become active in all community organizations. 

"The Party should work actively within Parent-Teachers' Associations and 
all similar organizations." 

59. How about the textbooks? 

Dr. Ralph West Robey, Assistant Professor of Banking at Columbia 
University, made a survey of high school texts a few years ago with 

61 



one out-and-out Marxist, one "liberal," and one "conservative" scholar 
to help him. 

The results are plain enough for anybody to understand if they want 
to understand. 

60. What did the results show? 

That the success of the United States of America is played dow^n in 
too many of our school books and its failures are played up. That 
the success of Soviet Russia is played up and its failures are played down. 
This is an important and much-used Communist device. 

61 . What sort of thing do they say about the United States? 

From the report: 

"The whole emphasis is placed on the one-third of the population who are 
underfed, rather than on the two-thirds who are well-fed. 

"The textbooks emphasize the small number of large corporations, rather 
than the large number of small ones. The authors point out the few wealthy 
people of this country rather than the fact that we have the greatest distribution 
of wealth in the world." 

62. And why shouldn't they do this? 

Because the picture of the United States of America given in those 
texts is false on its face. For all its faults, the United States of America 
today is the light and hope of the world. Its citizens are the envy of 
all the rest of mankind. People everywhere want to come here but 
nobody is leaving here to go to Russia or any other alleged "land of 
promise." 

A true story of the United States would emphasize these facts and 
show why we have become what we are. 

63. Well, why have we? 

Because of our basic idea that each person is a free individual who 
must think and act for himself as an independent human being, and 
must not let himself become a mere cog in a machine. That idea 
has made us the richest nation the world has ever known. 

64. Aren't our natural resources the true source of this wealth? 

Certainly not. The same resources were always here, the same soil> 
timber, minerals, and metals. They never meant anything until 
somebody had the right ideas about how to use them. 

62 



65. But don't we have MORE of all the best natural resources 
than any other people? 

No. Russia, for instance, has always had gigantic stores of timber, 
minerals, farmland, and water power. 

The secret of it all is that, never yet, down to this day, has Russia 
made those things work as we make them work here. 

66. Why? 

Because the Communists, like the Czars before them, have never 
really given the people of the country freedom and encouragement to 
see what they could do with the things lying around before their very 
eyes. 

67. Haven't the Communists expanded industries and agriculture 
tremendously? 

They claim to have done so, but their figures and statistics are so 
unreliable that the real rate of development is unknown, even to 
themselves. Only one fact is certain. 

68. What? 

They have never been able to do enough original planning, develop- 
ment, or expansion on their own, to bring off a real industrial expansion 
equal to their needs. 

Before World War II they had to hire engineers and technicians 
from the United States, England, and other countries to start their 
industrial development. Col. Hugh Cooper, the famous American 
who designed the Soviet system of power dams, is just one of many 
examples. 

Since World War II the Soviets have been copying United States 
patents, spying in United States factories, and grabbing scientists and 
engineers from all over Europe to put real brains into their program. 

69. What's wrong with their own brains? 

The trouble starts with the basic Communist theory that a man 
should be a cog in a machine, not an independent thinker on his own. 

That theory, applied in schools dominated by Communism, turns 
out people who are trained but not educated. 

Result: They can't run their country on their own, as we run ours. 



63 



10. Does all that come out in Communist-injiuenced textbooks? 

It does not. Instead, the authors dehberately falsify facts to support 
the fiction that the "Communist experiment" has been a "grand and 
glorious success" in the U. S, S. R. 

11. Do these hooks teach lies about this country too? 

Yes. For example, some give students the idea that our country 
is hopelessly ridden with economic evils. 

12. Isn't there something to it? 

There are many ways to answer that, but one ought to be enough. 
Which nation, in World War II, sent arms and food all over the world 
to failing Allies and then followed up with armies, navies, and air 
forces to Europe, Asia, Africa, to outposts in North and South America, 
and on islands across the seven seas — yet, at home, kept up the highest 
living standard the world has ever known ? 

The United States system, as it has been and still is, needs make no 
apologies to any other. 

13. What's biting these textbook ivriters, then? 

Communism. Whoever is touched with Communism loses his 
sense of truth as we know it. 

14. How else have American Com^m-unists dug into the United 
States school system? 

Besides active teaching in pubUc schools, private schools, and church 
schools, from kindergartens to colleges, they run some schools outright. 

15. You mean there are actually Communist schools in this 
country? 

Yes. 



64: 



3 



76. Will you list sofne? 
Here are some typical examples: 

School Location 

Jefferson School of Social Science 575 Avenue of the Americas, New York, 

N.Y. 

Jefferson School Annexes: 

Brighton Beach Annex 3200 Coney Island Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Brownsville Annex 108 Watkins St., Brooklyn, N, Y. 

Tremont Annex 868 East i8oth St., Bronx, N. Y. 

AUerton Annex 649 Britton St., Bronx, N. Y. 

Philadelphia School of Social Science 

and Art 1704 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

People's Educational Center 1717 North Vine St., Hollywood, Calif. 

California Labor School 216 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 

Annex 112 West 9th St., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Annex 2030 Broadway, Oakland, Calif. 

Annex 560 Manlo Dr., Palo Alto, CaHf. 

Walt Whitman School of Social Science . 17 William St., Newark, N. J. 

George Washington Carver School. ... 57 West 125th St., New York, N. Y. 

Seatde Pacific Northwest Labor School 3^9 Second Ave. North, Seattle, Wash, 
(formerly called Seattle Labor School) 

Samuel Adams School 37 Province St., Boston 8, Mass. 

Abraham Lincoln School 180 West Washington St., Chicago 2, 111. 

Annexes: 

South Side Annex 444^ South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Annex 12^5 South Independence. 

Annex 2409 North Halsted. 

School of Jewish Studies 575 Avenue of the Americas, Room 301, 

New York City. 

Ohio School of Social Science and Art . . 1735 Euclid Ave., Cleveland 15, Ohio. 

Tom Paine School New Rochelle, Westchester, N. Y. 

Tom Paine School of Social Science . . Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pa. 

' At the present time, only the Jefferson School of Social Science, California Labor School, 
Seattle Pacific Northwest Labor School, and School of Jewish Studies are epen. Repeated 
exposure of t^eir Communist nature has undoubtedly forced the others to suspend operations, 
but there is little doubt that all will reopen again at the first sign of favorable opportunity, 
whether under the same name or another. Right now, the work of the People's Educational 
Center in Los Angeles is being carried on by a branch of the California Labor School of San 
Francisco. 



65 



77 . Some of those schools are named after very famous Am^eri- 
cans, aren't they? 

Sure. The Communists started early in the 1930's hiding behind 
the claim that their program is just the United States Revolution of 
1776 brought up to date — a typical Communist propaganda lie. 

7S. Who attends these schools? 

Chiefly grown people. Most classes are held at night to attract older 
people. But there are also children's classes and summer-camp projects 
for young and old alike. 

79. What do they teach? 

Such courses as history, economics, public speaking, art, drama, and 
music — all Communist corrupted. 

80. Is any of it on the level at all? 

No. Every course is just so much window dressing for Soviet theory 
and propaganda. 

The whole thing is aimed at luring loyal Americans into becoming 
Communists. 

81 . Are these the only Comm^untst schools? 

No. The Communist Party, U. S. A., also has a network of secret 
schools, called section, district, and national training schools, in which 
promising Communists are trained to be leaders in the conspiracy to 
betray and capture America. 

82. What is the Lenin School? 

The highest college of Communist training. You might say its 
graduates are all Ph. D.'s of Communism. 

83. Where is it located? 

Moscow, Russia. 

84. What goes on there? 

Carefully selected Communists from the United States and other 
countries get a free course in factory sabotage, bomb-making, kid- 
naping, train-wrecking, mutiny, civil warfare, espionage, infiltration, 
and other methods of wrecking a country. 



66 



55. \y^hat do you mean "wreck" a country? 

The Communist plan for world domination starts with the basic 
thought that no people will ever submit to Communism without a 
struggle. 

So the top members of the Party in Russia train agents in ways to 
paralyze a nation from within and capture it, how to destroy its come- 
back chance, and then how to drive it in Communist harness. 

56. How many Americans are Lenin School "graduates"? 

An estimated 800 American Communists have been trained there 
and returned to the United States. 

They serve as the high officers of a secret army now being drilled 
to overthrow our Government. 

87. What about Communist Youth groups? 

A vitally important instrument of the Communist Party in its plot 
to get control of America. 

88. What is their purpose? 

To recruit and train young people for the Communist Party. 

89. Can you name some of these? 

Here are a few which have been declared subversive by the Attorney 
General, the Committee on Un-American Activities, or some other 
official investigating agency: 

American Student Union National Youth Assembly Against Uni- 

American Youth Congress versal Military Training 

American Youth for a Free World Socialist Youth League 

American Youth for Democracy Southern Negro Youth Congress 

California Youth Legislature Student Congress Against War 

Connecticut State Youth Conference Student Rights Association 

Council of Young Southerners Sweethearts of Service Men 

Friends of the Campus Town Meeting of Youth 

International Union of Students United Youth Committee Against 

Karl Marx Society of Brooklyn College Lynching 

League of Young Southerners World Federation of Democratic Youth 

Los Angeles Youth Committee Against World Youth Council 

Universal Military Training Young Communist League 

Marxist Study Club of City College of Young People's Records 

New York Young Pioneers of America 

Model Youth Legislature of Northern Young Progressive Citizens' Committee 

California (1939) Young Workers League 
National Student League 

67 



90. How else do they serve the Communist Party? 

Through strikes — marches — lobbies — ralhes — petitions — for the ben- 
efit of things the Communists want. 

91. Do they adm^it Communist control? 

Practically never. 

For example, the Young Communist League today goes by the name 
of American Youth for Democracy, in order to trap loyal young 
Americans into its ranks. 

92. How important is the AYD? 

Just consider this ! It is the American branch of the World Federa- 
tion for Democratic Youth which is an international Russian-con- 
trolled movement to turn the youth of the world to Communism. 

93. What about the Wallace youth groups? 
More tools of the Communist Party. 

94. But the Wallace movement has flopped, hasn't it? 

Figure it out for yourself, Henry Wallace was Vice President of 
the United States from 194 1 through 1944, and, therefore, within one 
heartbeat of the highest office in the land. In 1948 he was candidate 
for President and polled more than 1,000,000 votes, with the Com- 
munist organization using him as its mouthpiece. 

Communism gained new recruits through the Wallace campaign, 
made new contacts, and tapped fresh money. The largest vote ever 
cast for Communism in this country was registered in 1948 behind 
Wallace's name. 

95. Are Communists very active in teachers' unions? 

Yes. For instance, the American Federation of Teachers (A. F, L.) 
in 1941 expelled three of its New York City teachers' unions, with 8,000 
members, because the locals were Communist-controlled. 

96. Do many of our teachers play the Communist game? 

The files of our Committee, running back over a ten-year period, 
show that the Communists have always found the teaching group 
the easiest touch of all the professional classes for actual Party zealots 
and fellow travelers. 



68 



91 . What attracts so many learned men and women to such a 
tnurderotis and destructive cause? 

Sometimes it is frustration. Sometimes it is greed or love of power. 
Sometimes it is misplaced idealism. But ask them. See if they can 
give you a good reason for having faith in Communism or any of its 
works. 

98. Are people doing anything about all this? 

In some places. 

For instance, Ohio State University faculty members are now 
required to sign the equivalent of non-Communist affidavits. Then, 
too, in New Jersey, California, Michigan, and Washington State, 
among others, local authorities have begun investigations of Com- 
munist infiltration of schools. 

99. Is this sort of thing suppressing academ^ic freedom? 

Certainly not. People who demand freedom to teach Communism 
are demanding the right to teach murder, robbery, revolution, treach- 
ery, and disaster. They cannot justify any such demand on any 
grounds of law, morals, common sense, or reason. 

100. What can 1 do? 

FIRST, know the facts. 

SECOND, work in your own community to get rid of Communists 
and Communist influences, whether in the school system or anywhere 
else. 

THIRD, be prepared to face accusations of "witch-hunting," "Red- 
baiting," "textbook burning," and "strangling academic freedom." 

These are all standard smears in the Communist propaganda routine. 

ABOVE ALL, remember that whatever you do you must always 
keep the Constitution of the United States in one hand and common 
sense in the other. The object here is NOT to destroy academic free- 
dom. It is to STOP COMMUNISM before it destroys us. The Com- 
munists CAN be stopped under our system of laws and MUST be. 



69 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 



COMMUNISM 



AND 



LABOR 



The fourth oj a series on the Communist conspiracy and its 

influence in this country as a whole, on religion, on 

education, on labor, and on our goverument 



^ ^ * no labor organization can he free under 
Communism because it is compelled to subordi- 
nate the interests of the workers to those of the 
Communist Party. — 

^Jf^ILLIAM Green, President, American Federation of 

Labor 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD 

KNOW ABOUT 
COMMUNISM AND LABOR 



". . . no labor organization can be free under Communism be- 
cause it is compelled to subordinate the interests of the workers 
to those of the Communist Party." — William Green, President, 
American Federation of Labor. 



If you work for a living, there are some facts here you should know. 
They deal with the future of your job security, working conditions, 
pay, and union membership, if any. 

The aim of Communism is to take control of all these and end 
forever your chance of living as a free citizen. The aim of this 
pamphlet, fourth in a series, is to tell you just how Communism 
works inside the labor movement and what you can do about it. 

1 . Is this pamphlet an attack on the unions? 
No. Read it through and see for yourself. 

2. Well, aren't the unions being investigated by your committee? 

No. Investigating unions, as such, is NOT the committee's job, 
and so the committee does not do it. 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities was started on 
its way May 20, 1938, with instructions from the United States House 
of Representatives to expose people and organizations attempting to 
destroy this country. That is still its job, and to that job it sticks. 

5. But haven't I read that its work is just a disguised attack on 
the unions? 

You may have, but that doesn't change the facts which you can 
check in detail by looking at the printed record of 10 years' hearings 
now on the shelves of tlie Library of Congress. 

73 



4. What does the record show? 

The first witness ever to appear before the committee was one of its 
agents who had joined the German- American Bund to expose Nazi 
activity in the U. S. A., and the first committee witness against Com- 
munism was a prominent labor leader. 

More than 25,000 pages of testimony have been taken by the com- 
mittee. These deal with Nazi, Fascist, and Communist activities. 
When the Nazi movement in the U. S. A. was in its hey-day in 1938, 
committee investigations were instrumental in sending the ring- 
leaders to jail. Communism was a problem then and remains one 
now. The committee has continuously exposed its workings — within 
the secret circles of the Party itself, as well as in the Government, 
trade-unions, schools, movies, and other fields. 

5. Why worry about Communists in the unions, especially? 

Because Communists know control of unions will provide a main 
key to take control of a country. 

G. Who was your first witness against Communism? 

John P. Frey, president of the Metal Trades Department, American 
Federation of Labor. His testimony was given August 13, 15, and 16, 
1938, and can be found now on pages 91 to 277 of volume I of the 
committee hearings. 

7. What did he say? 

He warned American labor that unless it keeps free of Communist 
encirclement it will one day find itself working for a tyranny that 
"menaces the structure and form of our Government." 

8. Is that all? 

No. He filled 186 pages with names, dates, and details to back up 
a charge that Communism had already begun to dig into American 
unions. 

Frey described Communist penetration of unions in the U. S. A., 
England, France, and Italy. He warned that over here the central 
organization of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, National 
Maritime Union, and United Auto Workers were especially vulnerable 
and headed for trouble. 

9. How did his predictions pan out? 

His forecasts proved all too accurate. Communism's grip on the 
labor movement in France and Italy lasted even through the war and 

74 



German occupation and has become, since 1946, a threat to world 
peace. 

In Britain, Communism has been a drain and burden upon even a 
SociaHst government's attempts to hold trade-unionism in line with 
national policy. 

In the U. S. A. the organizations above mentioned have each and 
every one had a knock-down and drag-out internal fight with Com- 
munism. The cost to them and to the Nation was enormous. And 
let it be remembered they were not the only unions to have terrible 
internal fights with Communism; and remember, also, the fight is 
not yet over. 

10. What do the Commtimsts want? 

To dominate your life from the cradle to die grave, in every detail. 

1 1 . Suppose I don't want that? 

They won't ask your approval, if they ever get control. 

12. How do they plan to get control? 

By aggressive war, internal revolution, fraud, trick, corruption of 
public self-confidence. Any way at all. 

15. If they should get control what would happen to my union? 

It would be wiped out as a union — contract, treasury, constitution, 
and all. Instead of the union being your agent to bargain a contract 
for your wages and working conditions, it would become part of the 
Communist power over you. 

i4. Couldn't we just strike, as we do now, for better conditions 
or higher pay? 
Not a chance. 

13. Why not? 

Because the Government, instead of stepping in to protect your 
right to strike, would send soldiers around with guns, to kill you. 

1 6. Kill ME, personally? 
To kill you, personally. 

17. But isn't Communism supposed to help the working man? 
Communism has governed Russia now for more than 30 years, and 

since 1945 has spread its power over most of Europe and Asia. The 
record is too plain to fool anybody any longer. 

75 



Communism, on the evidence of its own works, grinds down the 
workingman. It does not hft him up. It does not free him. It 
makes him a slave of the state. 

18. Isn't that what they said about the Nazis? 

It is and it was true, too. Both systems are the same for the 
workingman. 

19. How are they alike? 

Under each the government runs everything, the whole country 
is taxed to poverty, worked in slavery, and the profits all go to the 
party in power. 

20. Why can't they he voted out? 

In Nazi Germany there was only one political party in the country — 
Hitler's. In Communist Russia there is only one political party in 
the country — Stalin's. The Nazis were and the Communists are a 
strictly organized military machine in control of all the weapons 
and all the power. 

21. Why are some people like that? 

Some people have an overpowering urge to command. Other 
people sometimes forget to check them until too late. Our problem 
here and now is to check the Communists. 

22. Mow, incidentally, can you TELL a Communist? 

Get him in an argument about the United States. He can tell 
you plenty of things wrong with this country. But ask him to tell you 
what's wrong with Russia. Even the slickest Communist will sooner 
or later give himself away on that one. Particularly watch what he 
says about Stalin. 

23. Is everybody a Communist who criticizes the United States? 

Of course not, but Communists and their dupes make a career of it. 

24. Is everybody a Communist who defends Russia? 

Oh, no. Some of the loudest Russia lovers are only fellow travelers 
and members of Communist fronts. 

25. What is a fellow traveler? 

Someone who does the Communist Party's work without carrying a 
Party card. 

76 



26. What's a Communist front? 

An organization that promotes Communist causes. 

27 . How can I recognize one? 

Basically, by its attitude toward the United States in its dealings 
with Communists, Communism, and Russia. The more you study 
the Communist movement the easier it is to spot them, for they all 
have the habit of using the same language and promoting the same 
propaganda line. 

However, this committee, the Department of Justice, and other 
official agencies issue from time to time lists of Communist-front 
organizations and outright Party groups. 

Following are typical ones which are now or have been particularly 
trying to influence the ranks of American labor: 
^American Committee for European Workers' Relief 

American Federation of Labor Trade Union Committee for Unem- 
ployment Insurance and Relief 

American Labor Party 
*American Negro Labor Congress 
*American Polish Labor Council 

Bronx Victory Labor Committee 
*California Labor School 

Emergency Trade Union Conference To Aid Spanish Democracy 

Farm Research 

Greater New York Committee for Employment 
^International Labor Defense 
*International Workers Order 

Joint Committee for Trade Union Rights 

King-Connor-Ramsey Defense Committee 
*Labor Research Association 

National Congress for Unemployment and Social Insurance 
*Negro Labor Victory Committee 

New York Trade Union Committee To Free Earl Browder 
*Revolutionary Workers League 
^Seattle Labor School 
*Socialist Workers Party 

Trade Union Advisory Committee 

•Asterisks denote organizations cited as Communist dominated by the Attorney General and/or 
the Committee on Un-American Activities. Organizations not so marked have been cited by the 
committee only. 

77 



Trade Union Committee on Industrial Espionage 

Trade Union Committee To Put America Back to Work 
*Trade Union Educational League 
*Trade Union Unity League 

Unemployed Councils and Leagues 

Washington (D. C.) C. I. O. Committee to Reinstate Helen Miller 
^Workers Alliance 
^Workers Party of America 

Workers School of New York City 

Workmen's Educational Association 

Young Workers Leagues 

28. Well, getting back to Russia, do they have unions over there 
at all? 

Yes, as Government whips to lay across the workers' backs. 

29. Will you tell hoiv? 

Better than that, let Victor Kravchenko, an escaped Russian Govern- 
ment official, tell you. Here is his sworn testimony to this Committee: 

The local party (Communist) organization, that is through the bureau of 
the Party, elects one of its suitable members to become president of the trade- 
union. Generally speaking, the Soviet trade-unions have to see that the workers 
execute the program. 

50. You mean the union helps boss the employees, instead of 
helping the employees get better wages and working conditions.'^ 

Kravchenko answers that the union's job is to see — 

that strict discipline is maintained, that there will be NO strikes, that the workers 
work for wages established by the central government, that the workers carry 
out all the decisions, resolutions, et cetera, of the party. 

31. Doesn't that mean the trade-unions in Russia are really run 
from the outside by the Communist Party instead of from the 
inside by the union members.'^ 

Kravchenko answers that: 

In other words, the Soviet trade-unions function politically, economically, and 
intellectually like brokers or intermediaries between the Party and people. 

*Asterisks denote organizations cited as Communist dominated by the Attorney General and/or 
the Committee on Un-American Activities. Organizations not so marked have been cited by the 
committee only. 



78 



32. What happens if a Russian wants to quit his job? 
Kravchenko again: 

Every citizen in the Soviet union has a passport. On the passport is his photo- 
graph. There is also a special page on which a stamp is put which indicates the 
place, date, and type of employment. 

If you leave your job in one factory and go to another without the permission 
of your director you will be prosecuted under the law for violation of the law 
prohibiting unauthorized change of employment. This refers not only to laborers 
but to any kind of employee. 

For a complete story on working conditions in Communist Russia, 
read "I Chose Freedom" by Victor Kravchenko. You should find it 
in any public hbrary. 

33. Was it always this way? 

No. When the Communists started out in 1917, they kidded the 
public into thinking that everything would be free and easy. They 
softened up the unions particularly by making them appear to have 
a big say in the management of industry. 

There have been three big shifts of the gears in Communist control 
of labor that tell it all. 

34. What was the first step? 

That was what you might call the honeymoon between the Com- 
munists and the people, from 1917 to 1931. 

At the very beginning, the Communists promised that regardless of 
skill or individual abiUty, everybody would get the same pay, same 
food, same clothes, and same treatment. A very elaborate paper 
program of holidays, sick leave, unemployment insurance, and pen- 
sions was drawn up. 

33. Did it last? 

Naturally not. The honeymoon began to come apart in a hurry, 
but the public didn't get the full bad news in plain language until about 
193 1, when the second step was taken. 

36. What was that? 

Stalin in that year announced a "six point program" of industrial 
policy, as the key to success in the first 5-year plan of expansion. 

Any American workingman can understand what Stalin had in 
mind on learning that he ordered an end to "interference by workers, 
factory committees, and unions with the operation of plants." 

79 



57 . Did he put in a new system? 

That he did. Plant managers were given personal power over their 
help, but on the other hand they were held personally responsible for 
success. If they hit the mark set by their own bosses, they got bonuses 
and promotions. If they missed they got — not fired — BUT 
LIQUIDATED. 

Workers were switched to piece rates and put on speed-ups, wherever 
possible. Instead of all wages being the same, differences in pay for 
differences in production were glorified. 

Stalin called for a no percent increase in manufacturing produc- 
tivity, 75 percent increase in transportation, and 60 percent in con- 
struction. He laid on the whip to get it. 

38. How? 

For instance, a man more than 20 minutes late for work could get 
as much as six months at "corrective labor" in punishment. A pen- 
alty was laid on for absenteeism, loafing on the job, or taking too long 
at meals. The workers had no way out, for their unions were power- 
less to help them. 

59. Then what happened? 

That's where phase 3 of the workingman's life under Communism 
came in with the case of Alexei Stakhanov. 

40. What's that? 

Alexei Stakhanov was a coal miner in the Donetz Basin, the region 
of Russia that compares with our own western Pennsylvania or West 
Virginia. The Communists dug him up in 1933 or 1934 and made 
him a propaganda hero. All he did, if anything, was to hit on some 
ideas of dividing up work and making each motion count for more 
production than before. 

4i . Isn't that just the old speed-up trick? 

American industry has been working for many years to show how a 
shovel, a pick, or a machine can be handled to get more out of it than 
before and to make labor less burdensome. 

The difference between that and the way the Communists used 
Stakhanov is something that should interest any American union 
member. 

42. What was that? 

Well, in 1935, a "Congress of Stakhanovites" was called in Moscow 
with Stalin presiding. These "Stakhanovites" were a hand-picked 
group of Communist Party agents from all industries and all sections 

80 



of the country chosen specifically to set a production pace far above 
the average man's ability. They were given a big time in Moscow, 
told the country's fate depended on them, and then sent back home 
to spread the "gospel" — that hard work would thereafter be harder 
than ever. 

Stakhanovites began to go up the ladder both in the Communist 
Party and in actual factory management. Eventually the most severe 
Stakhanov speed-up policies became factory standards, that punished 
anybody falling behind. But wages did not keep up with pro- 
duction. 

^5. What did the unions do then? 
Just what the management told them — To produce or else. 

44. Who was the management? 

The Communist Party, which runs everything in Russia. It runs 
the Government, the factories, the schools, the hospitals, the churches, 
the homes, the work and the play of the people, from cradle to grave. 

In Russia, the Communist Party has a monopoly on decisions. It 
does the thinking and everybody else does the working. The Com- 
munists make policy. The people take the consequences. The Com- 
munists enjoy the profits and the public pays the bill. 

45. That is some change, isn't it, from the old honeymoon the 
workers started on back in 1917-18 when Communism had just 
come to power? 

You said it. 

46. What made the change? 

Ask the Communists. The fact remains that not for the past 20 
years have unions in Russia had any influence on management, nor 
any power to make collective bargains for workers, change any work- 
ing conditions, or fix their wages. 

In addition, the Russian government has thrown 14,000,000 to 
20,000,000 men and women into slave labor camps, where they are 
forced to work inhumanly long hours at hard tasks under barbarous 
conditions. These slaves are mostly politicians, farmers, priests, et 
cetera, whose only "crime" was disagreement with the Communists. 

41 . And that's what Communism would do for us over here, if 
it could? 

That's what it did in Russia, even before World War II, and has 
done since in countries it has captured in Europe and Asia. It would 
do the same here. 

81 



48. How can Comrrmnism he stopped, here? 

First, detect the Communists at work around you. Second, expose 
them and all their connections. Third, wherever possible, force their 
prosecution under the laws of our country. 

49. What do Communists go after in an American union? 

Key jobs, such as president, business agent, secretary, treasurer, or 
counsel at law. They almost never stay down in the rank and file 
except on orders to hide out there for the particular purpose of sniping 
at the union officers if these are all anti-Communist. 

50. Why don't they all try for union president? 

The president of a union is usually too public a figure for effective 
work as a Communist. The real power, day by day, lies in monopo- 
lizing the jobs around the president. 

51. Do Communists join unions to improve the conditions of 
the workingm^an? 

They join specifically to make all unions, in the words of Stalin, 
"schools of Communism." That covers everything. 

52. Suppose there is a conflict between the union's interest and 
the Communist Party's orders? 

The Communist Party comes first in every Communist's life. You 
have to bear in mind that when anybody joins the Communist Party 
he becomes fiterally a soldier in a "class war," as the Communists call it. 

53. What do you mean by ''war"? 

The Communists consider themselves actually at war with every 
person and every government in the world that does not take orders 
from Moscow. They, themselves, live under a "class war" discipline 
more strict than our Army, Navy, or Marines do. 

54. How could they help their class war by wrecking a union? 
Take the case of a general strike. Communists try to organize these 

on the slightest excuse, regardless of the effect on the union movement 
as a whole, on the survival of unions crushed by the consequences, and 
regardless of the wholesale suffering and hardship brought down upon 
working families in the process. Their theory is that the more misery 
they can cause in the present the easier it will be for them to grab control 
in the future. 

82 



55. What role is played in the union movement by Communist 
lawyers? 

They often serve as the direct channel between the Communist Party 
and the union. Although not elected by the membership and not 
responsible to it, they often exercise monopoly control of collective 
bargaining and union policy. 

They are responsible for all kinds of legal tricks to perpetuate the 
control of Communist officials and stifle all opposition. 

36. What union role is played by a Communist accountant or 
treasurer? 

He knows the most intimate details of union money and is in a posi- 
tion to report the most confidential information to the Communist 
Party. Also he can cover up Communist use of union money. 

37. How can the union treasury be used for Communist purposes? 

Through contributions to Communist organizations or individuals, 
who siphon off funds to Communist use either directly or through 
Communist-dominated printing plants, meeting halls, newspapers 
(for advertising), front organizations, or to "entertainers" supporting 
Communist campaigns for "justice" to somebody or other. 

38. How does a Communist educational director operate in a 
union? 

He conducts Communist propaganda courses and invites Commu- 
nist speakers to address union members. He presents Communist 
films and entertainment. He recruits members for the Communist 
Party. He trains selected personnel for intelligence and sabotage 
service. He popularizes Communist Uterature in the union library. 

39. How does a Communist editor slant a union paper? 

By printing articles from Communist writers. By giving a Com- 
munist twist to editorials and news items. By advertising and sup- 
porting Communist activities and organizations. By reviewing Com- 
munist books. By employing Communist cartoonists. You can tell 
by the way he compares U. S. and Russian affairs. 

60. What post do the Communists try to capture in a shop? 

Shop steward. This is important because it gives the Communist 
an opportunity to manufacture grievances, to incite strikes, distribute 
Communist literature, and collect funds for Communist purposes and 
engage in spying. Actually he is aiming to make "every factory a 
fortress" for Communism, as advised by Lenin. 

83 



61. Do the Communists rig union elections? 

Plenty. Just before the election they railroad through a nomina- 
tions committee stacked with Communists and sympathizers, and put 
over an "approved" slate of nominees with but one choice for each 
office printed on the ballot. 

Opposition candidates are often framed on false charges of violating 
union rules, nonpayment of dues, etc. Ballots are premarked and 
forged. A committee of Communist stooges counts the ballots in 
secret. 

62. How can they do these things, if they are in the minority? 
It's easy, if you let them. They come to meetings carefully organ- 
ized. They throw in at the beginning a long list of objections and 
proposals to change the regular order of business, whatever it may be. 

They keep it up until the opposition wears out, scatters, gets tired, 
and goes home. Then they slam through their real plans and the next 
day the majority wakes up to find itself committed to something it 
never had in mind. 

63. Can you tell me what a '^Communist diamond" is? 

One of their operating formations. They look at a union hall as a 
battlefield. One Communist unit takes the front row, center. One 
sits half way back on the right side. One, half way back on the left 
side. The fourth unit takes the back row, center. 

They actually form a four-point diamond that way, covering the hall. 

6^. What then? 

The four units work on signals just like a baseball team. They 
hiss, boo, make motions, shout down opposition, start fights, yell 
"Fire," or do whatever their boss on the scene directs. You would be 
surprised how much trouble a small number of disciplined rioters can 
make that way, unless you've seen it work. 

65. Can anybody do anything about it? 

Sure. Put your own diamond in their places, take the play away 
from them, wear the Communists down instead of letting them wear 
you down. 

66. How do they get into a union in the first place? 

Here is a description by David Dubinsky, a very successful union 
leader who has had to slap the Communists down, first-hand: 

The Communist technique is simple. The Party agent forms acquaintance 
of a member of a union which is marked for capture. They form a "cell" or 

84 



"fraction" of a few like-minded members. With the help of the Party agent 
a program is prepared. Naturally, it follows the Communist Party line. 

67. What then? 
Says Dubinsky: 

The innocent is introduced to an important party functionary or well-known 
party speaker; he is taken to cocktail parties and dances and no time is lost in 
introducing him to attractive partners. The next scene is at the union meeting. 

At the meeting, the Communist faction takes over and wears down 

the majority, as described in the answers to the questions just above. 

68. Well, don't they do sotne good just the same? 

Let Dubinsky, the labor leader, answer that: 

The Communists refer to themselves as the "vanguard of labor." Nothing 
could be further from the truth. They have disrupted many unions with their 
factional quarrels and have left in their wake many saddened and disillusioned 
members, destroyed businesses, and blasted hopes. Far from being "progres- 
sives" as they claim, they are really "dynamic reactionaries" as someone has called 
them. 

69. Can you give an example of a union ruined by Communism? 

Let Dubinsky tell it, again : 

Although our union is free of the Communist menace today it was not always 
so. In 1926 the Communist Party, through its demagogic propaganda and 
exaggerated promises, was able to attract many of our members. It thus man- 
aged to obtain control of our New York organization and succeeded in plunging 
the coat and suit industry into a general strike. 

It took 10 years for us to recover from the criminal and stupid Communist-led 
strike of 1926 which cost $4,500,000 and left in its wake a chaotic industry and a 
crippled union. 

70. Is it possible to throw the Communists out of control, once 
they have wormed into a union? 

It is no easy job. The founder of Communist government in 
Russia was Nikolai Lenin and his word to this day is sacred to Com- 
munists. He laid down the rule to: 

agree to any sacrifices and even if need be to resort to all sorts of stratagems, 
artifices, illegal methods, to evasions and subterfuges, only so as to get into the 
trade-unions, to remain in them and to carry on Communist work within them 
at all costs. 

But they CAN be defeated if you work hard enough. 

71. Could a union refuse membership or office to a Communist? 

All it has to do is to make Communist Party membership contrary 
to the union constitution and enforce that clause. The law of die 

85 



United States can be used to help do that. If your union lawyer 
doesn't have the information on diat, tell him to get it from the 
Government. 

12. What unions have the Communists controlled? 

In 1944, the Committee on Un-American Activities found the fol- 
lowing unions to have "Communist leadership . . . strongly 

entrenched": 

American Communications Association (CIO) 

International Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists, and 
Technicians (CIO) 

International Fur and Leather Workers Union (CIO) 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (CIO) 

International Union of Fishermen and Allied Workers of America 
(CIO) 

International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers (CIO) 

International Woodworkers of America (CIO) 

Marine Cooks and Stewards Association of the Pacific Coast (CIO) 

National Maritime Union of America (CIO) 

State, County, and Municipal Workers' 
of America (CIO) 

United Federal Workers of America 
(CIO) 

Transport Workers Union of America (CIO) 

United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied Workers of Amer- 
ica (CIO) 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America (CIO) 

United Farm Equipment and Metal Workers of America (CIO) 

United Furniture Workers of America (CIO) 

United Gas, Coke, and Chemical Workers of America (CIO) 

United Office and Professional Workers of America (CIO) 

United Packinghouse Workers of America (CIO) 

United Shoe Workers of America (CIO) 

United Stone and Alhed Products Workers of America (CIO) 

15. Are all these unions still under Communist leadership? 

Some have belatedly tried to clean out the Communists— notably 
the Transport Workers Union under the aggressive direction of its 
president, Michael Quill. But in a number of these, such as the 
powerful United Electrical Workers', and Longshoremen's Unions, 
Communists are still in the saddle. 

86 



Merged to form United 
Public Workers of America 



74. What tvoiild the Comtminists do in the event of war between 
the United States and the Soviet Union? 

They say themselves that they would "stop the manufacture and 
transport of munitions," as well as "the transport of all other materials 
essential to the conduct of war through mass demonstrations, picket- 
ing, and strikes." They would try to "stall the (American) war 
machine in its tracks." 

73. Have the Communists ever carried out such a policy in the 
United States.'' 

Yes, during the Stalin-Hitler pact (1939-41) they caused terrible 
strikes that delayed U. S. rearmament. For example, AUis-Chalmers, 
Milwaukee; International Harvester, Harvill plant in Los Angeles; 
Vultee Aircraft, North American Aviation, Los Angeles; Aluminum 
Co. of America, Cleveland; the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers at 
Trona, Calif., and in Connecticut brass factories, all were led out by 
the Communists. 

76. What could the above cited American Communications Asso- 
ciation do in case of war? 

This outfit is in our cable offices and in the radio control rooms of 
our merchant ships and commercial airfields. They could garble 
messages so as to sink ships, wreck planes, tap intelligence channels, 
and isolate us from the rest of the world. 

77. Would the International Longshoremen' s and Warehouse- 
men's Union give us anything to worry about? 

This has 75,000 members. They have effective control of many 
ports in the U. S. A. and more than once have used it to paralyze 
shipping. Communist domination of this union in wartime could 
wreck the whole U. S. fighting power. 

75. What could the Transport Workers Union do? 

Paralyze bus, subway and trolley transportation in some of our 
largest cities. Widiout transportation, life in these cities would come 
to a standstill. 

This union, which claims 100,000 members, could also tie up some 
of our most important air lines. 

79. How about the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine 
Workers of America? 

The leading electrical and machine plants, manufacturing impor- 
tant parts for guns, tanks, torpedoes, range finders, sound detectors, 

87 



altimeters, gyroscopes, aerial cameras, motors, and other vital equip- 
ment, are at its mercy. 

The union, which claims 600,000 members, is banned from repre- 
senting our Nation's atomic workers. 

80. Surely the United Public Workers of America would not be a 
menace, would it? 

There are 15,000 members of this union in the Panama Canal Zone, 
alone. Many of the other 71,000 members are stationed at navy yards, 
arsenals, experimental stations, the State Department, and throughout 
our Government agencies. 

81 . Well, how do you know Communism has any power in any 
of these listed unions? 

Because of the men who hold positions of critical influence 
in them. 

Here are some examples of Communist officers : 



Name 


Union 


Office* 


Harry Bridges 


International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, CIO. 


President. 


Samuel Burt 


International Fur and Leather Work- 


Vice president; also manager. 




ers' Union, CIO. 


Joint Board of Fur Dressers 
and Dyers. 


Philip M. Connelly. . 
Julius Emspak 


Los Angeles CIO Council 


Secretary. 
Secretary-treasurer. 


United Electrical, Radio and Ma- 




chine Workers of America, CIO. 




Abram Flaxer 


United Public Workers of America, 
CIO. 


President. 


Julius Fleiss 


International Fur and Leather Work- 


Business agent. Furriers Joint 




ers' Union, CIO. 


Council. 


Ben Gold 


International Fur and Leather Work- 
ers' Union, CIO. 


President. 






Donald Henderson. . 


Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and 
Allied Workers" Union of America, 
CIO. 


Do. 


James Lustig 


United Electrical, Radio and Ma- 
chine Workers of America, CIO. 


Representative, District 4. 


James Matles 


United Electrical, Radio and Ma- 


National organizational direc- 




chine Workers of America, CIO. 


tor. 


Irving Potash 


International Fur and Leather Work- 


Vice president; also manager. 




ers' Union, CIO. 


Furriers Joint Council of New 
York. 


William Sentner .... 


United Electrical, Radio and Ma- 
chine Workers of America, CIO. 


President, District 8. 


Maurice Travis 


International Union of Mine, Mill 
and Smelter Workers, CIO. 


Secretary-treasurer. 



*Offices listed above were held by the men in question as recently as the year 1948. If there 
have been any changes, they have not come to the conimittee's notice. 



88 



82. How else? 

Because these unions not only endorse Communist aims in union 
matters but also in matters of United States national policy. 

83. Can you give some examples? 

During the Stalin-Hitler Pact, Joseph Selley, president of the Amer- 
ican Communications Association, CIO, led a movement against U. S. 
armaments, saying "Don't give us any baloney about 'patriotism' 
and 'national defense'." 

Harry Bridges in 1934 w^on the high praise of the Communist In- 
ternational for involving the International Longshoremen's and Ware- 
housemen's Union in a general strike. 

The Transport Workers Union has just w^on a violent internal 
struggle for power led by President Michael Quill against John Santo, 
former International Organization Director, who is subject to depor- 
tation proceedings for being a member of an organization "advocating 
and teaching the overthrow by force and violence of the government 
of the United States." 

We could multiply this many times. 

84. Do you hold the rank and file of these unions responsible 
for the actions of a few individuals? 

The rank and file allow such men to command them. 

Of course, we do not indict all the members of any union as Com- 
munistic just on that account, but we do call their attention to the 
things that are being done in their name. 

The responsibility for cleaning up their unions rests primarily 
upon them and with courageous, patriotic action they can always 
throw the Communists out. 

85. ]ust the same, isn't Communism a working-class movement? 

Absolutely not. It is a revolutionary movement. 

A working-class movement seeks to better the state of labor. This 
revolutionary movement seeks to destroy things as they are, with the 
aim to seize power and put it in the hands of one political party — 
the Communist Party. 

86. But don't Communists promise that when they get power 
they will hand it over to the workers? 

Yes, they promise that. Now point to one place in the world 
where they have lived up to that promise. There is none, of course. 

89 



The standard of living in Russia under Communism is barely above 
that of India and China. The people live in abject poverty, w^hile 
the bigwigs among the Communists live better than most million- 
aires do in this country. 

87. Can you give some figures? 

For example, as of 1947, a Russian had to work 22 days for money 
enough to buy a suit of clothes. An American could get a much 
better suit for 20^2 hours' work. 

Even today in Russia, a man works for 32 hours to buy a cotton 
dress for his wife. In America a man works only 4 hours to buy his 
wife a better dress. 

In Russia it takes a worker 108 hours to earn a pair of shoes. In 
America he can do it in 9 hours. 

In Russia a man must work one hour and forty minutes to buy 
a bottle of beer. In America he needs to work only six minutes. 

The same comparison works out all along the line for food, shel- 
ter, and other necessities of life. 

88. Where do Cofnmunists come from^ in Am^erica? 

Contrary to what you may have heard, the record shows that rela- 
tively few Communists spring directly from the people who work 
at hard labor. Mainly, Communists come from the so-called "middle 
class" — doctors, lawyers, teachers, actors, writers, accountants, other 
white-collar workers, and even at times among the clergy. 

Most Communists have never worked with their hands, except 
where and when directed by the Party. This is the case not only in 
the United States but all over the world. 

89. What is the World Federation of Trade Unions? 

The WFTU was formed by a group of labor leaders in September 
1945, as an effort intended to carry over into peace the wartime 
alliance of the United States, Great Britain, Russia, and other 
countries, insofar as the labor organizations of those countries were 
involved. But it has not succeeded because of Communist infiltration. 

90. Does labor in this country support it? 

The American Federation of Labor has refused to affiliate. On 
September 17, 1948, President WilUam Green, of the A. F. of L., said: 

Opposing our efforts to bring security, prosperity, and peace to the workers of 
Europe is ranged a powerful fifth column of Moscow, which masquerades under 
the name of the World Federation of Trade Unions. 

90 



91. How about the CIO? 

The CIO pays international dues to the WFTU. At the recent 
CIO convention a resokition was adopted aiming to bring the WFTU 
back to the purpose for which it was founded. 

92. What labor organizations abroad back the WFTU? 

The labor federations in the Soviet-controlled countries of Po- 
land, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, and 
Yugoslavia. 

In Italy, the Confederation of Labor, headed by Di Vittorio, a 
Communist. 

In France, the Confederation of Labor which is almost entirely 
Communist-dominated. 

In the Western Hemisphere, the Latin-American Federation ot 
Labor, headed by Vicente Lombardo Toledano, which consistently 
attacks the United States and its foreign policies. 

93. Are they catching on to it abroad? 

Arthur Deakin, one of the leaders of the labor movement in Britain, 
and a former president of the WFTU, itself, warned the British 
Trade Union Congress this year: 

The Communists have captured the Worid Federation of Trade Unions and 
are using it as a medium for advancing Soviet propaganda, not only in Europe, 
but throughout the world. 

94. What is the American Communists' attitude toward the 
WFTU? 

William Z. Foster, head of the Communist Party in this country, 

has stated that: 

It is imperative that the world's workers, through the World Federation of 
Trade Unions, should intervene in the proceedings of the United Nations. 

93. Have the Communists actually used the international labor 
movement in recent years to capture governments? 

Specifically, in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and each of the other Euro- 
pean governments now Communist dominated. 

96. What's a good program for an American union man against 
Communism? 

Here is one given by James B. Carey, secretary-treasurer of the CIO : 
Full exposure of the Communists, plus a strong progressive policy 
"far in advance of the bogus progressivism of the Communists." 

91 



Swift, flexible infighting that defeats the Communists at their own 
game within the union. 

91 . What is the CIO doing about this itself? 

At its latest convention, CIO President Philip Murray officially de- 
nounced "unfit" unions and the CIO executive board was given broad 
power to organize workers in fields where such unions had "failed." 

Also, there has been an extensive house cleaning of State and city 
industrial union councils, which, according to Carey, were "often 
converted into virtual soapboxes of Communist propaganda." 

98. Which unions did Murray call ''unfit"? 

The United Office and Professional Workers of America (CIO) 
and the United Public Workers of America (CIO), which will be 
dealt with extensively in the next pamphlet of this series, "lOO Things 
You Should Know About Communism and Government." 

99. What is the biggest single blow the Communists have felt 
from the CIO? 

Expulsion of the Greater New York CIO Council — key unit in the 
whole Communist program. This took place November 20, 1948. 

1 00. Well, then, can't we just relax now and forget it? 

At your peril. We promised this pamphlet, as a whole, will answer 
question i. Read it again and see why we say what we do in the 
answer to question 100. 



92 



100 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT 



COMMUNISM 



AND 



GOVERNMENT 



The fifth of a series on the Communist conspiracy and its 

influence in this country as a whole, on religion, on 

education, on labor, and on our government 



"The American Soviet government will 
be organized along the broad lines of the 
Russian Soviets. * * * ^j^^ American 
Soviet government will join with the other 
Soviet governments in a world Soviet 
Union/' 

-William Z. Foster 

Chairman^ Communist Party , U, 5. A, 



100 Things You Should Know 

About Communism and 

Government 

Our Government is under attack. The enemy is Communism. If 
Communism were to win, there would be no United States 
Constitution, Courts, President, or Congress. 

The American RepubHc would be wiped out, and in its place there 
would be a system with which freedom cannot live. 

Here, in this fifth and final one of a series of pamphlets, are the 
facts on what Communism has already done to, and aims to do to, the 
Government of the United States. 

1 . Are Communists traitors? 

This whole pamphlet is to help you make up your own mind on 
that. The facts speak louder than words. 

2. Are Communists loyal? 

To Stalin. Not to the U. S. A. 

5. Are Communists spies? 

Anytime they are ordered to be by their Party. 

4. Would Comm-unists support our Government in war with 

Russia? 

The sworn testimony of their present leader in this country is "no." 

5. Do American Comm-unists EVER uphold our Government? 

When it suits Moscow's purposes. For instance, from 1939 to 1941, 
while Germany and Russia were on the same side in the European 
war, American Communists sabotaged our arms factories, and spied 
on our Government for Hitler as well as for Stalin. They even tried 
to stir sedition and rebellion in the armed forces. But when Germany 

95 



attacked Russia, they wrapped themselves with the U. S. flag overnight 
and immediately demanded that we go to war — for Russia's sake. 

6. Are there any Communists in our Governm^ent now? 

We hate to say it, but nobody knows whether there are 3 or 3,000, 
even though ^17,000,000 have been spent by the President in the last 
two years to find out. Read on for details. 

7. Well, what do they want? 

To capture our Government any way they can, in order to use it 
against us. 

S. Why do Communists want to upset things as they are? 

Communists believe in Communism. Nothing else. They mean 
to enslave the world under Communist command. 

9. Do they admit that? 

V. I. Lenin, founder of Communist government in Russia in 1917, 
at that time declared "the historical mission of the Soviets to be the 
gravediggers, the heir and the successor" to the governments of the 
world. 

1 0. And they're still headed that way? 

Look at the roll call of conquered nations across Europe and Asia. 
See how Communist rule has grown in thirty-one years, until now it 
commands more people than any other system of government on 
earth, more than any ever has before in the history of the world. 

1 1 . What's the secret of its success? 

The carelessness and indifference of other people. 

1 2. How do you mean? 

Communism is a terrible international organization of spies, wreck- 
ers of civilization, and destroyers of nations. 

It is directed and managed as a world army from the city of Moscow, 
Russia. 

Communists in every country are strictly disciplined, closely organ- 
ized Russian agents. 

But they overturn governments and destroy nations NOT through 
their own power. They do it through the theft of others' power. 

96 



13. How do they get at this powerP 

By filtering into key spots of control while the majority in any coun- 
try still thinks Communism is "just a crackpot idea" and "Communists 
are just another political pressure group." 

14. Where are these keys to power? 

In the government, in the schools, the churches, and labor unions. 

See the first four pamphlets of this series: 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism in the U. S. A. 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Religion. 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Education, 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Labor. 

1 3 . Are Comtnumsts in this country part of this world movejnent.'^ 

Not "movement." The right word is "conspiracy." All Com- 
munists, everywhere, are a part of it. A Communist in China, in 
Washington, D. C, in London, Paris, Berlin, or Rome, is the same as 
any other Communist. 

Every one is an agent of Moscow working for the capture of the 
world. 

1 6. Well, supposing they win here, what happens? 
The Constitution will go. The free American Republic will be dead. 

i 7. Would we have a V resident as we have today? 

No. 

18. Would we have a Supreme Court? 

No. 

19. Would we have a Congress? 

No. 

20. How about the State, county, and city Govermnents? 

Gone. 

21 . Well, how would the Government be run? 

By one man, the top U. S. Communist. He would be our President, 
Congress, Supreme Court, and everything else, all rolled into one. 
And even HE would only be an office boy for a man in Moscow — 
Stalin. 

97 



22. Would we even he knotvn as the United States of America 

any longer? 

No. William Z. Foster, present head of the Communist Party, 
U. S. A., says we would be known as "Soviet America" if the Commu- 
nists take over. Our symbol of freedom, the Stars and Stripes, would 
be replaced by the Red flag of Russia. 

23. And that's what Communism wants to deliver here? 
Right. 

24. Suppose we didn't like it? 

Too late. Once in power, the Communists kill and destroy until 
there is not even a seed-bed left for opposition to their monopoly of 
power. 

25. How does the Communist Party keep such a tight control of 

power where it is in command? 

The Communists own the guns. 

26. But don't they promise to help people live better if they get 

into power? 

That they do. But name one place where they have delivered. 

27. What do the Communists themselves get out of it? 

Rich livings where they are on top, but the main thing is that Com- 
munists all have a lust for power which drives them night and day. 
Government by their system is the only thing that satisfies their lust. 

28. And you say some Communists have sneaked into our Govern- 

m^ent, as it is today? 

Yes. And we repeat, nobody knows how many. 

29. When and hoiv did they break in? 

You'll have to review a little U. S. and world history to get a clear 
picture. There have been changes in direction for the Communists 
over here from time to time, each of which has had its influence on 
Communists in government. 



98 



30. What was the first development? 

The Communist Party in the United States was organized at Chi- 
cago, IlHnois, September 1-7, 1919. For ten years thereafter, it went 
through a series of violent internal shake-ups and factional fights that 
kept it from concentrating very efi^ectively on our own governmental 
machinery. 

Furthermore, the official Party theory then was that we were on the 
verge of a crack-up, anyhow, and would be taken over any day. 
Therefore filtering into our governmental machinery was regarded 
as a waste of time. 

3 1 . Did they really say that we were cracking up? 

Here's a quote from Stalin, May 6, 1929: 

I think the moment is not very far off when a revolutionary crisis will develop 
in America. 

He said that in the course of a speech outlining a complete reorgani- 
zation of the Com^munist set-up over here to prepare for what he called 
"its historic task" of taking over the U. S. A. in crisis. 

32. Well, didn't we actually HAVE a '^revolutionary crisis," 

just as he predicted? 

No, even though the U. S. A. and the rest of the world all plunged 
together into a terrible economic slump. 

33. How did Russia do in that slump? 

Curiously enough, the government most violently shaken of all in 
the world was Stalin's. The Communist Party in Russia broke in two 
and Stalin had to spend the better part of the next eight years shooting 
and killing off his opposition. 

As for the people of Russia, they suffered the most terrible privations. 

Millions literally starved to death. The standard of living dragged 
along barely above that of China and India. 

34. Hoiv about the U. S. A.? 

We had ample power under our Constitution to act, and so did. The 
United States and its citizens found a peaceful road out of the depres- 
sion without any Moscow-type purges, killings, or violence. 

In fact, we not only recovered from the depression under our tried 
and true Constitutional system, but even financed and fought the most 

99 



terrible war in history, and Soviet Russia itself would have been 
destroyed without our aid. 

Today, still under that system, we are the hope and envy of the world. 
Russia is not. 

35. What's all that got to do ivith Cotnmunists in our Govern- 
ment? 

It's just to remind you of some serious facts of life and to point out by 
comparison the different effects of freedom and slavery. 

Our system still survives IN SPITE of Communists within and 
without. On the other hand, the Communists, even with a total 
monopoly of power, still have to use guns to rule. 

56. Well, when did they begin to invade OUR Government? 

The fatal official turning point was November i6, 1933, the day when 
the Government of the United States granted diplomatic recognition 
to the Soviet government of Russia. That ended the futile first phase of 
Communist activity in this country and a second far more deadly 
development got under way. 

51 . What was that? 

The famous "Trojan Horse" or "United Front" program by which 
Communists were directed to say less in public about violent revolution 
and DO more toward corrupting from within. 

5S. By the way, what did otir Government get, officially, in re- 
turn for granting Stalin diplomatic recognition? 

Promises to (a) settle all outstanding debts between the two coun- 
tries, (b) develop mutual trade, (c) end Communist propaganda 
against our Constitution, and (d) refuse support to the Communists 
here seeking to destroy our country. 

. 39. Were any of these promises kept? 

Not one. 

40. Well, what actually happened? 

In Russia itself, the crisis of the Communist Party continued its 
bloody way. More than 1,000,000 Party members (about a third of 
the total membership) were expelled in 1933, alone. 

100 



The next year an open reign of terror and assassination swept the 
country. The terrible "purge trials" began and it was obvious to the 
world that Communism was at the point of real collapse. 

But it was saved by U. S. recognition and by that afore-mentioned 
"United Front" and "Trojan Horse" program. 

41. What form did this strategy take over here in the U. S. A.P 

Communists stopped operating apart from everybody else and in- 
stead began to join other people's movements and to oflfer their own 
disciplined forces to promoters of special causes and public issues with 
intent to capture "fellow travelers" and "Communist front" organi- 
zations. 

42. What is a "fellow traveler". '^ 

Anybody who allies himself with Communists in anything is a fel- 
low traveler. He is a deadly weapon, for he deceives others and often 
himself, that Communism can be led to peaceful ways. 

43. Is that possible.^ 

Neither in fact nor in theory. The Communists have always made 
it basic in their thoughts that VIOLENCE is inevitable in their strug- 
gle for the world. And in all their captures, from Russia in 1917 down 
to China in 1948, they have USED violence as their weapon. 

44. What's a "Communist front"? 

Any organization that lends itself to Communist purposes. This 
committee has just issued a pamphlet, 144 pages long, on this subject 
listing examples. It is entitled "CITATIONS by Official Government 
Agencies of Organizations and Publications Found to be Communist 
or Communist Fronts." You can get it by writing the committee, or 
the Government Printing Office. 

45. When did these spring tip in the U. S. A.? 

Immediately upon U. S. recognition of Soviet Russia. Communists, 
fellow travelers, and front agents promptly flooded Washington, and 
began to worm their way into the Government of the United States. 

46. Where did they show up, m^ostly? 

The main inflow was through die Public Works Agency, Works 
Progress Administration, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 
and National Recovery Administration, during the years 1933-36. 

101 



The Federal Art Project, Federal Writers' Project, Federal Theatre 
Project, and such organizations introduced them in large numbers. 

47. Did they stay in these? 

By no means. Within a few years, Communist lawyers, accountants, 
executives, and scientists were solidly entrenched in Washington in 
various Government departments. 

48. Who let them do it? 

You. The voting public is the real power of Government in this 
country. Public indifference to the realities of Communism in past 
years caused indifference on the part of governmental officials. 

49. How do you mean "indifference"? 
Here is an example given by J. Edgar Hoover: 

The FBI submitted a 57-page report to the Federal Security Agency on March 
7, 1942, on Doxey Wilkerson. The investigation recorded interviews with 
persons who stated that he was a member of the Communist Party. Following 
submission of the report, we were advised by the Federal Security Agency that 
further investigation failed to show Wilkerson was "subversive or disloyal to 
our Government." 

50. Well, was he? 

The Hoover report answers that: 

Wilkerson subsequently transferred to OPA and resigned on June 19, 1943. 
Within 24 hours he announced his new job as a "Communist Party organizer." 
He was subsequently appointed a member of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party. To be eligible for service with the National Committee, one 
"must have been a member of the Party in continuous good standing for at 
least four years." 

51. You blame fne for that sort of thing? 

Yes. Until the general public demands it, offices of the Govern- 
ment will always tend to be slack about cracking down. 

52. How did the Communists use the federal theatre, writers, 

and other such projects? 

To present Communist propaganda plays, to feature Communist 
actors, to distribute Communist propaganda in Government books, 
pamphlets, and art work. 

102 



^3. Can you give a sample of Communism in the WPA theatre 
project? 

Here is the testimony of a confidential investigator for the head of 
the WPA, regarding two of the Federal Theatre Project Plays: 

* * * there was one with the title "Triple A Flowed Under-" That was 
one play which on the opening night required 30 New York poHcemen to guard 
the play and prevent a riot. 

It contained a scene in which the secretary of the Communist Party con- 
demns the judiciary of the United States Government. Such characters as 
George Washington and Andrew Jackson were removed from the play in order 
to give a prominent part to the secretary of the Communist Party, Earl Browder. 

The conclusion of the play is the establishment of a political party in ac- 
cordance with the wish expressed by the secretary of the Communist Party, 
expressed by Mr. Earl Browder himself in a radio broadcast a short time previous 
to the production. * * * 

Then there was "The Class of '2g." The script called for the cast to carry 
the Red Soviet banner. While they start in the beginning of a show, they do 
not really carry the props used for the production. So they carried something 
which was to take the place of the Soviet banner. 

54. How about writing? 

Well, for example, Committee Report issued January 3, 1939, pp. 31 
and 32, tells in detail how Communists slipped their propaganda into 
the WPA writers program of "state guides", a series of supposedly 
historical and descriptive studies of the 48 states. 

55. How about the art project? 

Same story. In numerous communities, after post offices and other 
federal buildings had been decorated at considerable expense to the 
taxpayers, paintings were covered over or removed upon public 
demand. Communist-corrupted art work, however, can still be found 
in many public places to this day. 

56. What was the idea of all this? 

The Communists try to tilt public sentiment their way by propa- 
ganda in art, literature, and music. The chance to carry on such a 
campaign at the taxpayers' expense was a stroke of fortune they 
naturally would not overlook. But it was only a sideline to their main 
job. 



103 



57. What was that? 

The same it remains today. Espionage. 

38. How did they set up this spy system? 

Naturally, it is impossible for any outsider to know the full story, but 
the main outlines are clear. 

Sometime in the 1930's the Party planted secret operatives high in 
the U. S. executive branch and began to place around them a corps of 
skilled agents. 

39. Have any of them been identified? 

Some extremely important officials have been accused by witnesses 
before this committee as either Communists or fellow travelers. De- 
tails further along in this pamphlet. 

60. Has your committee ever conducted a real investigation into 

the departments to clean up these matters? 

Not on the scale we would like. Such facts as we have learned are 
just byproducts in carrying out the committee's mission from the 
House to investigate subversive activity of all kinds, wherever found, 
report on the facts to the House and recommend legislation accord- 
ingly. 

• 

61 . Getting down to details of what you HAVE found, how about 

Communism in federal employee unions? 

The United Public Workers of America (CIO) is deep into federal 
service and it is Communist-controlled. 

The UPWA has 15,000 members in the highly strategic Panama 
Canal Zone and the U. S. District Attorney there has openly declared 
this situation a public danger. 

62. How about the Army, Navy, etc.? 

Communists are in there, too. How many we don't know. 

63. How about atomic energy? 

The best indication is the fact that the Atomic Energy Commission 
this fall of 1948 had to withdraw recognition of certain unions because 
the union's officers would not sign non-Communist affidavits. 



104 



The AEC has now ruled that for "security reasons" the officers of 
ALL unions with which it deals must be put through a federal loyalty 
investigation whether the employees are working for the Government 
or for some contractor with AEC. 

64. Is this going to he the rule for ALL federal agencies, now? 

We recommend it, not only for all federal but state and other govern- 
mental agencies. 

The disclosure of Communist union officers is not only important to 
safe government but also to the protection of unions themselves from 
Communist sabotage. 

65. Do Communists ever try to fix elections? 

As in every other field, they lay a poisonous hand on the ballot box. 
They sometimes run candidates in the open under the Communist 
label. More often they enter into corrupt bargains to back their 
stooges under cover. 

66. Any proof? 

For example, in die 1940 Presidential election year, this committee 
made a special inquiry into Communist voting tactics. 

Surveys in Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and 
Ohio all unearthed wholesale frauds. 

More than 100 indictments were brought on the basis of evidence 
the committee disclosed and between 50 and 60 convictions followed. 
But that did not end the problem. Communists still try to corrupt 
tlie ballot box at every opportunity. 

67. What is their 7nethod? 

Communist candidates circulate petitions for nominations and 
obtain signatures, without disclosing WHAT party the candidates 
represents. 

They also have been convicted of forging signatures, using false 
names and generally showing contempt for the law. 

68. Why have they ever bothered to meddle in elections they 

can't win? 

To use their own words, "for training, experience," and to keep 
a certain amount of their propaganda before the voters. 



105 



69. They don't think they cotild put Communism over here by 

peaceful ballot, do they? 

Says William Z. Foster, present head of the Party in this country: 
There must be no illusions about peacefully capturing the state. 

70. Well, what's the REAL Comm^unist program for capturing 

our Government.'' 

It starts with spying and infiltration of the sort now going on. 
Then confusion and chaos caused by sudden paralysis of our 
communications, transportation, money system and law enforcement. 

Finally, direct seizure of power. 

Communists have spent the last fifteen years hiding their key men 
in our Army, Navy, diplomatic corps, treasury, and other control 
points of Government. 

71. How do you know they're there? 

Ten years of this committee's records, plus the convictions and 
indictments obtained by the Department of Justice. For an outside 
check, read the Report of the Canadian Royal Commission, June 27, 
1946, on the spy ring caught in Ottawa, Canada. 

72. Can you tell something about it? 

Yes. Igor Gouzenko, a code clerk in the Russian Embassy there, 
suddenly walked out one day in September 1945 and handed the 
Canadian government official Russian spy papers that showed how 
just ONE group he knew about had stolen U. S. secrets in wartime. 

75. Such as? 

Samples of atomic bomb explosive, secrets of radar, radio-controlled 
shell fuses, and other highly secret and important instruments of 
U. S. fighting power. 

74. Hoiv did the spies get those? 

Some traitors in the United States Government gave them to 
Russian agents who took them out by way of Canada. 

75. Who? 

The story is not yet all told. We recommend that you get 
detailed reports and hearings of this committee, to keep abreast of 
developments. 

106 



IG. What? 

For instance the Interim Report on Communist Espionage in the 
United States Government, August 28, 1948; and the Second Report, 
Soviet Espionage Within the United States Government, December 31, 
1948. Write the Government Printing Office for each pamphlet."^ 

17 . Can you give some facts here? 

Briefly, a former Communist courier, EHzabeth T. Bentley, testified 
there were two spy groups in the Government with which she worked 
between 194 1 and 1944 — The Siiverraaster group and Perlo group. 
Another former Communist agent, Whittaker Chambers, said he had 
his own apparatus in Government agencies from 1932 to 1938 and that 
several others were operating at the same time. 

78. Did they name names? 

Yes. Bentley named 30 Government employees and Chambers 
named 9 who they testified were in the Communist underground. 

When the committee brought the principal subjects before it to ask 
them about the charges, they refused to answer on grounds they might 
"incriminate" themselves. 

79. Were these people important? 

They held top jobs in our Government and some of them held 
commissions in the United States Army. 

80. Is there any proof that Government secrets were really stolen 

as Chambers has alleged? 

Chambers has produced a sheaf of confidential documents which 
were stolen from our State Department and other agencies. One 
result — Alger Hiss, former State Department official, has been indicted 
for perjury by a Federal Grand Jury. The Grand Jury investigation 
of espionage in our Government is still going on.^ 

81. How serious is this theft of documents? 

Well, just consider. 

Not only did Russia get secret U. S. military and diplomatic infor- 
mation from the documents — she also had the key to our code system 

Mntcrim Report, loc each; Second Report, 25c each; at Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

^ The first trial of Alger Hiss resulted in a hung jury by a vote of 8 to 4 for conviction. The 
second trial has been scheduled for October 1949. 

107 



so that she could intercept and understand all other secret messages 
sent by our State Department. 

Since Stalin was teamed up with Hitler in this period, the Nazis 
probably knew our Government secrets, too. 

82. What has your comfnittee found out about Communistn 

within our atomic energy program? 

Plenty. They have espionage rings which have been operating at 
least since 1942, using American science and money to inform the 
Soviet Government of Russia on how to make the atom bomb. 

83. Did they tell the Russians the ''secret" of the bomb? 

Only the Russians and their spies know how much actually got 
abroad. 

For a more detailed idea of what this committee has learned to date 
about this matter, read the committee's "Report on Soviet Espionage 
Activities in Connection with the Atom Bomb," September 28, 1948, 
available at the Government Printing Office. 

84. What are some of the things it shows? 

For instance, Arthur Adams, who has been a Communist revolu- 
tionary since 1905, penetrated to the heart of the electronics industry 
which was supplying information to our wartime atom bomb develop- 
ments. He was in physical contact with Clarence Hiskey and other 
atomic scientists on the famous "Manhattan Project." 

In 1944, agents of the Manhattan District searched his rooms and 
there found "highly secret information" regarding the atomic bomb 
plant at Oak Ridge, Tenn., and other vitally important matters. 

85. Is that all your report shoivs? 

By no means. The report traces out in detail exactly how Adams 
and other agents were brought into the atomic energy program, who 
did the job, when, where and how, and in all lists a score of people who 
were in one way or another, at one time or another, used to further the 
interests of the Soviet Government against the welfare of the United 
States. 

86. Who besides your committee has anything to say about this? 

On September 10, 1948, Gen. Leslie R. Groves, former head of the 
Manhattan District, testified : 

108 



I have no hesitancy in saying that there was continued and persistent and well- 
organized espionage against the United States, and particularly against the atom 
bomb project, by a foreign power with which we were not at war, and its mis- 
guided and traitorous domestic sympathizers or perhaps stooges would be a better 
word. * * * 

87. And that sort of character has been living off my tax money? 

Has been, still is, and still will be, until YOU force every Communist 
out of power. 

88. How? 

Detection. Exposure. Prosecution. 

89. Are any of these being done.'' 

Not very well, even though Congress has been wrestling with the 
problem now for ten years. 

90. What's the story. ^ 

On May lo, 1938, the House set this Committee on Un-American 
Activities to work. Since then, 25,000 pages of public and executive 
testimony have been taken. It has made 50 reports to the House, which 
include recommendations for new laws. 

91. What's all this cost the taxpayer? 

The Committee's total appropriations to date have been $1,050,000. 

92. Has Congress followed the Committee's suggestions? 

In 1939, Congress forbade federal employees to be members of any 
group advocating the overthrow of the Constitution. 

In 1941, it strengthened that law by refusing pay to any person proved 
a member of any such group. 

It has passed further laws giving the various executive agencies spe- 
cial powers and money to get rid of subversives. 

93. Any results? 

So little that in July 1946 a House Civil Service subcommittee urged 
a complete overhaul of security measures in the executive branch. 

On November 25, 1946, the President set up a commission to deal 
with employee loyalty. For two years since, an elaborate screening 
program has been under way. 

109 



94. What has THAT cost? 

Funds appropriated by Congress for this screening program in the 
1948 fiscal year totaled $11,000,000. For the 1949 fiscal year, $6,606,000. 

95. How does it work? 

This gives you an idea. A federal employee who gets a job goes 
right to work before his loyalty to our Government is ever established. 

It doesn't matter whether he is hired for a minor clerkship or a 
"sensitive" job of importance to national security, he still can be on the 
payroll for at least 120 days before the various checkups can determine 
whether he is a safe risk. 

96. Well, is it keeping down the risk.'' 

This committee feels the Communists have such deep-laid lines into 
the federal departments that the present security system is a feeble 
defense. 

97. What do you recommend? 

In the second session, the 80th Congress, this committee brought 
out a bill, known popularly as the Mundt-Nixon bill. This contains 
the principles of law we feel necessary, still. 

98. What are these? 

A penalty of as much as ten years in jail and a $10,000 fine for any- 
body trying to set up a foreign-directed dictatorship in this country. 

Registration of Communists and their organizations as foreign 
agents. 

No passports for Communists. 

Tougher rules to keep Communists out of our Government. 

99. How jar did it get? 

Passed the House 319 to 58. Died in the Senate. 

100. What next? 

That's up to the 8ist Congress and you.^ 

'New Communist control bills have been introduced during the 8ist Congress by various 
Members of the House and Senate. The Mundt-Nixon bill has been remtroduced. 



110 



SPOTLIGHT ON 

SPIES 



Conditions in America present the 
most fertile soil for Soviet espionage. 

— Victor Kravchenko, 

Former Soviet official. 



The Communist Party is like a sub- 
merged submarine; the part that you 
see above water is the periscope, but 
the part underneath is the real Com- 
munist organization; that is the con- 
spiratorial apparatus. 

— J. Peters, 

Russian head of a Communist 
spy ring in the U. S. A. 



spotlight On Spies 

This is the story of Communist spying in the United States. But 
don't look for the names of spies. We don't name them. 

What we are trying to do is to show you that there IS such a thing 
as a Soviet spy system in our country, what it is after, how it works, 
and what it has succeeded in doing so far. It is the right and duty of 
every American citizen to know these facts. 

The information we are setting before you is based on many long 
hours of investigation by the staff of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities and many hundreds of pages of testimony by witnesses, some 
of them former spies for the Soviet Union in the United States. 

What is a spy? 

A person employed by or in the service of a foreign government, 
either with or without pay, to secure information considered vital to 
the waging of a shooting or economic war against another country. 

Will you find them in America? 
Yes. 

Are all spies in America citizens of foreign countries? 

No. Many American citizens have been recruited in the service of 
other governments. 

What governments have spied on us in the past? 

The Germans during World Wars I and II had agents in this coun- 
try. Many of these were caught and convicted. 

The Russian Government has had spies in the United States since 
1922, but their operations were not exposed until recently. 

Why do the Russians continue to spy on us? 

The aim of the rulers of Russia is to take over the United States 
along with the rest of the world. Her spies are here to pave the way 
for a Soviet America. 

♦ 113 



How do Soviet leaders think we can he taken over? 

By a revolt led by Communists in this country during some kind of 
national economic crisis, or through an armed attack. 

How big is the Soviet spy ring here? 

Naturally, we can never know the exact size, but former ringleaders 
have confessed there are thousands of Russian agents, as well as many 
more thousands of Americans, who are selling us down the river. 

In fact, we are the NUMBER ONE target of Russia's spy effort. 

Does this constitute a dangerous situation? 

To answer this it is only necessary to quote the testimony of the 
Honorable J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation, before this Committee, which was that "The Communist 
Party of the United States is a fifth column if there ever was one." 
He also said there are 74,000 Communist Party members in the United 
States, but, "What is important is the claim of the Communists them- 
selves that for every Party member there are 10 others ready, willing, 
and able to do the Party's work. 

This means that at a time of national crisis, the United States would 
have nearly 825,000 persons who are either spies, traitors, or saboteurs 
working against us from within. 

Can our country afford this ? 

Why is the United States the number one target of the Soviet spy 
system? 

Well, the United States is the most powerful and advanced nation 
on the earth today. Its scientific and technical success is matched by 
none. Russia wants the industrial capacity of the United States. 

Just what are Soviet spies after? 
Everything there is to know about the United States. 

What do they want most? 
Production secrets of the atom bomb. 

What about other military defenses? 

They want to know everything about them, too. 

The Committee has uncovered recent secret orders from abroad to 
spy leaders in the United States hsting twenty-odd categories of infor- 
mation they want on the armed strength of this country. 

114 



These include: 
Aviation: 

Total number of aircraft formations; combat and numerical strength of units 
Distribution of base and alternate airfields, their technical equipment and 

characteristics 
Civilian aviation 
New types of planes 
New technical inventions in the aviation field, in detail, whether appUcable 

in the air or on the ground 
Radar 

Robot planes 
Ground troops: 

Infantry — num.erical strength, distribution, organization, combat manuals, 
firing power, training status, morale, combat status, officers' staff 

Artillery and armored troops, particularly production, application of V-i and V-2 
Navy: 

General description of the naval fleet and organization 

Principal Navy bases and descriptions 

Chemical units: 

Organization and distribution 
New inventions in chemical warfare 

Are the spies after diplomatic secrets? 

Yes, they want American plans for dealing with Russia and other 
nations. 

Also any secret or open agreements which America might have 
with other countries. Even the foreign policy ideas of individual 
politicians must be furnished by the spies. 

What about our industry? 

Soviet Russia keeps a close watch on it. Here are some of the things 
Communist spies have to report on, according to secret spy orders in 
the hands of the Committee on Un-American Activities: 

Principal branches of industry, especially war industry; the production of 

various enterprises and branches of industry 
Location of industry, especially war industries 

Status of various firms, their productive capacity, type of production, num- 
ber employed 
Construction of new industrial plants, especially war plants 
Technical innovations in industry 
Work of engineers, research institutions, and laboratories 



115 



Any other economic facts? 

Yes. For instance, everything about our natural resources and raw 
materials — with the stress on those having possible military value. 

Is this all? 

No. As we said, they want to know EVERYTHING about the 
United States. 

But we don't make any secret of some of the things Russia tvants, 
do we? 
No. But Soviet Russia wants more than we are willing to give. 

Well, America wouldn't let spies obtain our REAL secrets, tvould 
she? 

Not intentionally, but an ex-Soviet spy told this Committee that this 
country is the easiest in the world for spies to work in and obtain secret 
information. 

Why is this? 

Because of the number of Soviet sympathizers whose jobs put them 
in a position to get secret information. 

Because of the naive attitude of many Americans about the Com- 
munist danger. 

Who runs the Comtnunist spy system in America? 

Russian Communists who are trained in espionage and sent over 
here to direct the spy work on the spot. 

Are they the real bosses? 

No. They are the "foremen." They see that American spies carry 
out Soviet orders for secret information and that the secret information 
gets back to Russia. 

The REAL boss is the Soviet Government. 

How do they get into this country? 

One class of Russian spy leaders gets in on fake travel papers and 
quickly drops out of sight. Only trusted Communist lieutenants ever 
are in close contact with them. Even they know them only by some 
simple name such as "Al," "Carl," "Bill," or "Jack." 

116 



How else do Russian agents get in? 

Some are sent here as military, political, or as other official repre- 
sentatives of tlie Soviet Government. They may be attached to the 
Soviet Embassy in Washington, D. C, or the United Nations head- 
quarters in New York. 

Still others are disguised as "commercial agents" for the Soviet 
Union. They have quietly carried on their spy w^ork in such com- 
mercial firms as "World Tourists" and "Amtorg Trading Company" 
in New York City. 

Even those officials who are not working with organized spy rings 
are ordered to collect what information they can while in the United 
States. 

Hotv could the United Nations he used? 

An outstanding example is the former Russian military attache in 
Canada, who was exposed as the head of a huge spy ring working 
against the Canadian Government. He was forced to leave Canada, 
but he later was admitted to the United States as a UN representative 
for the Soviet Union. 

Or take the case of the Russian "engineer" stationed at UN head- 
quarters in New York who was arrested by the FBI on March 4, 1949^ 
with an American employee of our own Government and charged 
with spying. 

Do these Russian spy agents tvork in one big ring? 

No. They run a lot of separate spy rings. Each agent and his ring 
are kept in the dark about the work of the other rings. 

Who serve as the actual thieves for these spy rings? 
Self-styled "loyal" AMERICANS, believe it or not. 

You mean an American would actually betray his own country 
to help Soviet Russia? 

We have confessions to prove it. 

But what kind of people can they be? 

Treasonable creatures who enjoy the privileges of American citizen- 
ship and talk loudly about their loyalty, but all the time are REALLY 
loyal only to Russia. 

This boils down to Communist Party members and their sympa- 
thizers. 

117 



Are all Comtnumsts spies? 

Yes, in one sense, for it is every Communist's duty to report anything 
he learns that might help the Soviet Union. 

But in the organized spy rings, whose target includes America's top 
secrets, only carefully selected Communists and sympathizers are used. 

Mow are American Cotnmttnists recruited for spy rings? 

First of all, every Communist's record is filed in Moscow^. When 
Soviet leaders notice an American Communist who seems particularly 
suitable for spy work or is in a good spot to learn American secrets, 
or render some other service, he is marked for the role of a spy. 

Sometimes American leaders recommend a comrade for the work, 
and Moscow checks his record and gives the okay. 

What kind of records does Moscow keep? 

Everything about a person. For instance, his job, education, family, 
acquaintances, finances, politics, criminal record, if any, and personal 
habits. Even such personal things as his ability to hold liquor. Some 
of this information can be used as a club over the individual if he 
threatens to break. 

Are American Communists trained in spy work? 

Not in any formal way. All Party work involves secret, under- 
handed actions so a seasoned Communist could step right into spy 
work when ordered. 

.If inexperienced Communists are in a spot to help the spy rings, they 
might be given "special treatment." 

What is this "special treatment"? 

They are invited to join small Communist "study groups" which to 
outsiders appear to be harmless social gatherings or discussion groups. 

Actually, these gatherings are used to teach the "students" blind 
loyalty to the Soviet Union and to get them into a conspiratorial frame 
of mind against the American Government. 

Then what? 

Communist spy agents get progress reports on the "students" and 
when it looks as though they are ready to do anything for the Soviet 
Union, the agents will take them into the spy rings. 

118 



Do these Americans betray their country for money? 

Not all the time. Sometimes when an American Communist enters 
a spy ring, he is shocked if money is offered to him. 

Russian agents have had to trick some American agents into taking 
rewards. 

What's back of these rewards? 

Useful as blackmail in case a spy gets scared and wants to quit. For 
that reason, spies who receive money are forced to sign receipts which 
are sent to Moscow. 

How can spies be tricked into taking tnoney? 

Usually by giving them lump sums of money for "expenses." 
Then there are "good will" presents such as expensive rugs, which 

four American spies in high U. S. Government jobs received from the 

Soviet Government. 

Is an American ever '' forced'' into a spy ring? 

Sometimes. We know of an American in our War Department 
who was scared into stealing secrets because the Russians threatened 
to harm his relatives in Russia. 

Russian agents make a special effort to find out and use Americans 
with close relatives in the Soviet Union. 

Would anyone but a fool be willing to spy for Russia? 

No. But you'll find "fools" in pretty HIGH places. 

Soviet spy rings contain well-educated and able Americans who are , 
looked up to by their fellow men. They may be scientists, lawyers, 
professors, writers. Government career workers, and even successful 
businessmen who have been filled with Communist poison. 

Do these spies really know what they're doing? 

Wouldn't you ? 

Well, just how does a spy ring operate? 

Picture a production line. At one end, we have the American spy, 
who is stealing material Russia is interested in. Next, we have the 
"go-between" who receives the material from the spy and passes it on 
to the Russian boss. Then it's headed for Russia. 

119- 



Can yoti give more details? 

Let's take it step by step. 

Suppose the American spy works in the War Department. He 
keeps his eyes and ears open for every bit of information he can learn. 
He goes out of his way to be friendly with others who might know 
something of value. He snoops in the files and records when no one 
is looking. He learns a lot this way, because no one knows he is a spy. 

What happens then? 

Committee investigations have shown that the spy turns his informa- 
tion over to a "go-between" or "courier." Sometimes he tells the 
courier what he has heard ; sometimes he gives him notes, and copies 
of letters or other papers revealing secret plans. Sometimes he even 
steals original records from the Government files and turns them over 
to the courier. 

Jtist who is this *' courier"? 

A trusted American Communist who acts as messenger for a Russian 
spy boss. This courier picks up information gathered by American 
spies and passes on to them orders from the Russian agent in charge. 

If the Russian had to personally contact all his spies, he would arouse 
suspicion. 

How does the spy get information to the courier? 

They make a date to meet — maybe at a restaurant, a drug store, or the 
home of a Communist. Maybe even in a park or on a street corner. 
There the spy turns over his material and finds out if the Russians want 
any particular job done. The spy knows the courier only by some alias 
such as "Carl" or "Helen." 

Is this the only way? 

No. The spy can mail information to an address of a trusted Com- 
munist, where the courier will pick it up. 

What's the next step? 

Well, the courier has to get the stuff to a Russian agent. One ex- 
courier told us he would sometimes have a trusted photographer make 
tiny pictures (known as microfilm) of the secret information so that 
it could be delivered less conspicuously. 

120 



In the case of original documents that were stolen, they had to be 
photographed right away so the spy could put them back in the files 
before they were missed. 

Hoiv does the courier carry this stolen booty? 

The most obvious ways, in the cases we know of. 
A brief case, or, if the courier is a woman, a large purse, knitting 
bag, or shopping bag. 

And then? 

The courier furtively hands over his haul to a Russian agent whose 
job is to get it to Russia. 

How DOES it get there? 

There are plenty of tricky ways. For instance: 

Short-wave radio, if it's "hot" news 

Diplomatic mail pouches from Soviet Government officials here 

Russian officials who travel back and forth on United Nations and other 

business 
Russian undercover agents traveling on false passports 
Communist businessmen whose custom it is to take business trips abroad 
Communist seamen 

How can a seaman help? 

Easy. No one pays any attention to his traveling because it's his 
livelihood. Even if his ship doesn't touch Russia, he can still deliver 
secret messages to Communists in other countries, who will see that 
they reach Moscow. Sometimes these people are not really seamen at 
all, but Communist agents with fake seamen's papers. 

What precautions are taken in sending stolen material? 

Radio messages are sent in code. 

Official Russian mail cannot be opened by anyone. 

And for Russian undercover agents and Communist seamen who 
serve as couriers, there are countless clever ways to hide secret informa- 
tion. 

Can you name some of these? 

The back is removed from a dime-store pocket mirror, tiny photo- 
graphs of secret material are inserted against the glass, and the back is 
then replaced. 

121 



How else? 

Tiny photographic films, containing secret messages, are soaked in 
a solution to make them flexible as cloth. Then this soft film is tightly 
rolled up, put into a small cylinder, and inserted into a tube of 
toothpaste. 

Any other methods? 

Sometimes the film is softened in the same way and cut up and 
sewed inside the lining of neckties. 

Messages have also been placed in hollow parts of toys and in the 
hollow handles of safety razors. 

What happens tvhen the information gets to Russia? 

The Russians sort out the information which is pouring in. Bits of 
information from separate American spy rings are pieced together. If 
something is missing to make a complete picture of some American 
project, orders go back to the spy rings to concentrate on that particular 
point. 

Don't spies ever duplicate each other's work? 

All the time. Because, besides carrying out special orders, American 
spies pick up any and all information they can lay their hands on. 
Furthermore, each spy ring in America works independently of the 
others. 

The screening process takes place in Russia. 

Isn't this a costly operation? 

Sure. But it's so important to the Soviet Union that money is no 
object. Russian agents are free-handed in their offers of "gifts" to 
American spies. They have handed out as much as two thousand 
dollars at a time. 

Where does the tnoney come from? 

The Soviet Government, and sometimes wealthy American Com- 
munists or sympathizers. 

Where does the Communist Party of the United States fit into 
the scheme? 

It's a separate organization from the huge spy network although the 
network draws upon the Party for spies and couriers and any other 
help it may need. 

122 



But wouldn't spies who are Party workers be easy to spot? 

No. For it is Party policy to give "super" secret membership to 
certain classes of people such as students, scientists, teachers, office 
workers, administrative, and Government \\'orkers. 

Other Party members are kept from know^ing these people are in 
the Party. They never hold Party membership cards or attend regular 
Party meetings. In fact, they're not allowed even to discuss their real 
political views with anybody. 

5^0 what job a Communist holds has a lot to do with his selection 
for spy work? 

Yes, if he's in a position to steal information for the Russians. And 
a file clerk can be as useful as an executive. 

But a highly placed Communist is valuable in still another way — he 
can use his influence to get other Communists into jobs involving 
secret information. 

What about spies in our Governm^ent? 

Two former couriers for spies within our Government told your 
Committee how they worked. 

One courier headed a ring of spies who were in such Federal agencies 
as the War, State, Navy, Justice, Treasury, Labor, Agriculture, and 
Commerce Departments. The other received information from high 
Government officials. 

The couriers said other spy rings operated at the same time in our 
Government. 

Were the spies in spots where they could steal secrets? 

Several spies had such important jobs that it was their duty to handle 
confidential State Department papers. 

Several others actually worked within one of our Government's own 
intelligence groups during the war. Others within the armed forces. 

Did they succeed in stealing information? 

Your Committee has copies of more than 60 secret State Depart- 
ment papers — dealing with American diplomatic relations with other 
countries — which were stolen by a spy. We can't tell you what some 
of them say because even now it would endanger the safety of our 
country. 

Yet this was just the result of one spy's work in one week. THINK 
WHAT THE TOTAL OUTPUT MUST BE. 

Are spies after our Government secrets RIGHT NOW? 
You can be sure of it. 

123 



where would yoti find spies in industry? 

Well, we told you they wanted to know everything about our 
industry. 

But, particularly watch for them in: 

Atomic plants Steel firms 

Aviation companies Maritime industries 

Submarine companies Chemical and other research institutions 

Munitions works Communications 

Transportation Oil and mining industries 

Why these particularly? 

Important from a war angle. 

What has happened in the atomic field? 

Since the atom bomb is Russia's chief worry right now, she has 
several spy rings concentrating on that alone. 

Where are these atomic spies? 

Your Committee has shown that they have penetrated right to the 
very heart of our atomic work. Some agents working for the Com- 
munists have contacted scientists working in the most secret branches 
of atomic research. 

Then haven't they m^ade away with som^e of our atomic secrets? 
We KNOW they have, but just how much of the entire formula of 
the bomb is unknown. 

How about aviation? 

We know of a Russian agent, skilled in aviation, who, with the help 
of other spies, collected a huge store of confidential aviation data. It 
contained photographs, blueprints, and notes which were personally 
flown to Moscow by the chairman of the then active Soviet Purchasing 
Commission. 

Two spies were decorated by the Soviet Government for this. 

And the submarine field? 

Blueprints, photographs, and technical descriptions have been 
sneaked out of American submarine companies by spies and sent to 
Moscow. 

In several cases, Russian agents directing the work were Soviet naval 
captains pretending to be civilians with entirely different interests. 

124 



Can you give an example in the steel industry? 

Yes. An American scientist held a top research job with one of our 
biggest steel companies. He was a spy and, every week or two, he 
flew half way across the country to turn over information to a Russian 
spy agent. 

What is the interest in steel? 

New formulas for making it, for one thing. The amount of steel 
produced is another. 

What Communists in industry CAN be trusted? 

None, when you get right down to it. It's every Communist's duty, 
even as a mechanic or office worker, to pick up any information around 
tlie plant he can lay hands on. Though he may not act under an 
organized spy ring, he can often turn up information which Moscow 
wants. 

This applies to Communists in the Government and anywhere else, 
too. 

How would secrets from Cofnmunists outside a spy ring get to 
Russia? 

Here's one example: 

A Communist in a submarine-building plant regularly gave infor- 
mation he gathered about the plant to the Communist Party organizer 
in his district. The organizer sent it on to national Communist Party 
headquarters which in turn handed it over to a Russian spy. 

Any other way? 

Communist union officials could also send through the channels 
described above any important material collected by a Communist 
worker. 

Just how successful is the Soviet spy system in America? 

An Army general said that when this country is compared with 
Canada you get some idea of the success because Russian spies in 
Canada obtained an enormous amount of information. 

Why can we be sure of this? 

Because the spies have been with us for close to 30 years and America 
is only beginning to wake up to the fact that there are such things as 
Soviet spies. 

125 



Until lately, Communists even succeeded in getting Government 
positions no matter hov^ secret the work. 

All this is pretty serious, isn't it? 

Very, very serious. 

But in the case of much important information, Russian agents 
haven't had to steal it. We have GIVEN it away. 

What do you mean? 

For one thing, we have tried to be friendly to Russia and as a result 
Russian officials have been able to collect a lot of our industrial and 
military inventions just by buying patents for the inventions from our 
Government Patent Office. This is done right out in the open with 
our permission. 

Has this been done on a large scale? 

So large that Russia has practically EVERY American patent dealing 
with industrial, chemical, and military inventions which have been 
released to the public. This runs into the hundreds of thousands. 

What do these patents cover? 
Here are a few of the types bought by Russia : 

Bomb sight Bomb-dropping device 

Military tank Helicopter 

Airplane Mine sweeper 

Ship control Ammunition 

Bullet-resisting armor 

But won't Russia do the same for us? 

Russia has refused to give out a single one of her patents since 1927. 

What else have we GIVEN away? 

During the war, because they were our allies, Russian visitors were 
invited to inspect our country and its defense industries. One of the 
results was that the Russians betrayed our friendship and printed a 
thick book which can easily be used as a handbook for bombing and 
sabotage against the United States, 

What does the book show? 

In pictures, maps, and words, the location and lay-outs of our Na- 
tion's large power dams and power plants, aircraft and auto fac- 
tories, plants dealing with metals, bridges, railroads, and important 
communications. 

126 



Is America doing anything to protect herself from Soviet spies? 

Yes. The world's finest investigative agency is on the job — the 
FBI. It is aided by Mihtary and Naval Intelligence. 

Isn't this enough? 

Far from it. Every patriotic American must be on the alert and 
report all suspicious activities brought to his or her attention to either 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Army or Navy Intelligence 
services, local police departments, and/or the Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 

This is particularly important since the spy network is growing 
bigger because of new sources for spies. 

What are these new sources? 

New Communist governments such as Poland, Hungary, Czecho- 
slovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania. 

Hotv is this of help to Russia? 

These countries send Communists over here to represent them in 
their embassies and legations, in the United Nations, and on other 
missions. 

These Communists are just as willing to spy for Russia as a Russian 
Communist. For all Communists everywhere are loyal to the Soviet 
Union. 

Is there any proof? 

The former top military officer of a Russian satellite embassy, in 
Washington, D. C, got disgusted with the Communists and exposed 
a spy ring working from his embassy. 

What did he confess? 

He said the spy ring he knew about in America was Nation-wide 
and looking for scientific, political, and industrial information about 
our country. 

He said the ring was directed from the Russian Embassy in Wash- 
ington and information collected sent out in diplomatic mail pouches 
to Russia by way of another country. 

What else did he say? 

That other spy rings could be found here in the embassies and 
legations of all Balkan countries under control of Russia. 



■!=>'■ 



127 



When necessary, the United Nations was also used as a hide-out for 
these Balkan Communist spies. 

What should ive do about the Soviet spy system in Atnerica? 

Redouble our efforts to root out the spies and send them to jail or 
to Russia. 

Since American Communists are so necessary to the Soviet spy rings, 
we must also concentrate on exposing every one of them, wherever 
they may be found. 

New laws are needed, too. 

What kind of laws? 

Laws that will give tougher penalties to anyone stealing secret infor- 
mation for Russia, whether in peace or in war. 

Laws that will clamp down on the activities of Russian agents in 
this country and of American Communists in foreign countries. Any 
other laws that will help us stamp out the spy network, as well as 
Communist cells. 

Is it too late to start now? 

Of course not. Spying is a never-ending business with the Russians. 

New secrets are being born every day as American science and 
industry progress. 

What we do NOW to stop the spies and Communists means a lot to 
the future safety of our country. 

What is the Committee on Un-American Activities doing about 
all this? 

Your Committee's job is to show the American people what the 
Communists are up to, and suggest any new laws needed to deal with 
them. 

The Committee is doing everything it can to run down the Com- 
munist spy rings in this country and has already succeeded in exposing 
many of the spies. It has also offered a new law to Congress and is 
studying still others — all aimed at curbing the Communist spy business. 

What can I do to help? 

Do some deep thinking about what the Soviet spy system and the 
American Communist mean to the safety of our country. 

Then let your Government and your Congress know that you want 
to see REAL ACTION to rid our country of these menaces. 

190 / ^ \ 

^^O I l*r|>"ijTC' 1 U. S. GOVCRNWENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 

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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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