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' ■••■■ K.i. , 

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MR 5.HKi> | 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern 
District of Pennsylvania. 

SnEBWOOD <& Co., Printebb, 














The steady and constantly increasing demand for this 
work having long since exhausted the first edition, the 
author is encouraged to believe that he was not altogether 
mistaken in his opinion that a Dictionary containing satisfac- 
tory definitions of the words and technicalities belonging to 
Dental Surgery, as well as to the other branches of Medicine 
and to the Collateral Sciences, was needed. But in the 
preparation of the first edition he omitted many of the terms 
belonging to the last mentioned departments of science, 
fearing they might be regarded as out of place in a lexicon 
designed principally for the student and practitioner of 
Dentistry. Subsequent reflection has convinced him that a 
more extended view of the subject was necessary, since the 
scope of professional education for the Dentist has become 
so widened that general Medicine and Collateral Science 
are now, to a considerable extent, embraced in the curricu- 
lum of Dental study. He has, therefore, introduced into the 
present edition, not only the words and phrases purposely 
omitted in the first, but also those that have subsequently 


been added to the literature of the above mentioned depart- 
ments of science, thus making it a complete Dictionary of 
Medicine as well as of Dental Surgery. 

The present edition contains about eight thousand more 
words than the first. The introduction of these without very 
greatly increasing its size, which the author was anxious to 
avoid, rendered it necessary to rewrite and compress the 
heavier and more elaborate articles into much narrower 
limits than were originally assigned to them, and to strike out 
the Bibliographical and Biographical departments altogether. 
The last was done the more willingly, as a work embracing 
these subjects, by a very able pen, has already been an- 
nounced as in preparation. The character of the book in 
this respect being changed, a corresponding alteration of title 
became necessary. All the words, technicalities and other 
subjects belonging to Dental Surgery proper, have been 
retained, and all new terms, descriptions of subsequent dis- 
coveries and improvements in the art and science, have been 
carefully added. Numerous synonyms have also been in- 
troduced, and it is believed that no important word, in any of 
the specialties of Medicine, which has at all passed into 
general use, has been refused a place and a minute and 
careful definition in the present edition of the work. 

The author has of course, as stated in the preface to the 
first edition, made free use of the various Dictionaries of 
Medicine, Science and Art ; among which he would particu- 
larly mention, Hooper's, Cooper's, Dunglison's, Gardener's, 
Palmer's, Hoblyn's, Motherby's, the first three hundred pages 


of Mayne's Expository Lexicon, now in progress of publica- 
tion ; the French Dictionary of Medicine, Surgery, Pharmacy, 
Physics, Chemistry and Natural History ; Brande's Encyclo- 
paedia ; Ure's Dictionary of the Arts, and Ogilvie's Impe- 
rial Dictionary. It was his intention to give due credit 
to each author for all original matter taken from his pages, 
but this was soon found to be impracticable, inasmuch as a 
very superficial comparison of the several works of the kind, 
in our own and other languages, served to show that defini- 
tions had been considered common property, and transferred 
from one work to another without acknowledgment, until 
the paternity was beyond satisfactory ascertainment. He 
has, therefore, availed himself of the common privilege which 
seems to have been claimed by all lexicographers who have 
preceded him. For the definitions of the terms belonging 
to general Medicine and the Collateral Sciences, he claims 
no special originality, although where alterations seemed 
necessary, he has not hesitated to make them, and in all in- 
stances he has endeavored to be as concise as possible, and 
in most cases to give the definition of each word in im- 
mediate connection with it, without referring first to one, 
and then to another and another synonym for it, as is fre- 
quently done by most lexicographers. In these departments 
of the work he has confined himself, for the most part, to 
mere definitions, but on all subjects connected with Dental 
Surgery proper, as well as with the anatomical structures, 
diseases, treatment and operations on the mouth and adja- 
cent parts, this Dictionary will be found very full. It also 


contains many words belonging to the literature of general 
Medicine not found in other Dictionaries. 

Besides the works already referred to, the author has availed 
himself of the best standard authorities in all the depart- 
ments of Science and Art, the terms, phrases, and techni- 
calities of which this volume professes to contain. In short, 
he has spared neither pains nor labor to make the work 
desirable and useful. To what extent his efforts will prove 
successful, remains for others to determine. 

While the book was passing through the press, the author 
received many useful suggestions and much valuable aid from 
Professors A. S. Piggot and W. R. Handy, to whom he begs 
to express, in this public manner, his most grateful acknow- 



Baltimore, Oct. 9th, 1854. 







A. In some words of Greek derivation 
this letter is employed as a prefix, in a priv- 
ative sense, denoting the absence or priva- 
tion of any thing ; as acephalous, headless ; 
aphonia, voicelessness ; aphyllous, leafless. 

A. or aa. is an abbreviation of the Greek 
ava, ana, of each, and is used in Medical 
prescriptions to denote that an equal quan- 
tity of two or more ingredients is to be 
taken. See Abbreviation. 

AAA. In Chemistry, a contraction of 
Amalgama, an amalgam. 

ABACTUS. The words abactus venter 
have been used to signify a miscarriage. 

ABAN'GA. The eatable fruit of a palm 
tree, the Palma ady. It is called caryoces 
and cariosse. See Palma Ady. 

ABAPTISTON. Abapiis'ta, from a, 
priv., and fkatrtfyt, to plunge. The old 
trepan, which was shaped like a truncated 
cone, to prevent it from suddenly plunging 
into the brain. Various contrivances were 
adapted to it to avoid this difficulty. 

ABAEEMO-TEMO. A tree of the moun- 
tains of Brazil, supposed to be a Mimosa. 

articulus, a joint. That sjiecies of articu- 
lation which admits of manifest motion. 
See Diarthrosis and Synarthrosis. 

ABAS. See Tinea. Sometimes it sig- 
nifies Epilepsy. 

OF. An acidulous chalybeate Spring, at 
Abbeyville, France. 


ABBREVIATION. Abbrevia'lio; from 
brecis, short. In Medical Prescriptions, 
letters, parts of words, or certain symbols, 
by which the thing meant is designated. 

A. or A A. ana, of each ingredient. 

Abdom. Abdomen, the belly. 

Abs.febr. Abscnte febre, in the absence 
of fever. 

Add. Adde et addantur, add, let there 
bo added. 

Ad dcf. animi. Ad defectionem animi, 
to fainting. 

Ad gr. Acid. Ad gratam aciditatem, 
to an agreeable sourness. 

Ad lib. Ad libitum, at pleasure. 

Admov. Admovatur, let it be applied. 

Adst. febre. Adstante febre, when the 
fever is on. 

Aggred. febre. Aggrcdiente febre, while 
the fever is coming on. 

Altern. hoiis. Alternis horis, every 
other hour. 

Alvo adst. Alvo adstricta, when the 
bowels arc bound. 

Amp. Amplus, large. 

Anodyn. Anodynus, anodyne. 

Applic. Applicetur, let there be applied. 

Aa. Aqua, water. 

Aq. bull. Aqua bullions, boiling water. 

Aq. dist. Aqua distillata, distilled wa- 

Aquafcrv. Aqua fervens, boiling water. 

Aq.font. Aqua fontana, spring water. 




Aq. marin. Aqua marina, sea water. 
Aq. pluv. Aqua pluvialis, rain water. 
Aq. pur. Aqua pura, pure water. 

B. A. Balneum arena, a sand bath. 
Bain, mar ice. Balneum marie, a salt 

water bath. 

Bain. tep. Balneum tepidum, a warm 

Bain. tap. Balneum vaporis, a vapor 

Bib. Bibe, drink. 

Bis ind. Bis indies, twice a day. 

Bol. Bolus, a bolus. 

Bull. Bulliat, let it boil. 

Cap. Capiat, let him take. 

Cat. Cataplasma, a cataplasm. 

Cath. Catharticus, a cathartic. 

C. 0. Cornu cervi, hartshorn. 

C. C. U. Cornu cervi ustuin, burnt 

C. M. Cras mane, to-morrow morning. 
C. N. Cras nocte, to-morrow night. 
Cochl. Cochleare, a spoon, a spoonful. 
Cocld. inf. Cochleare infantis, a child's 

Cochl. magn. Cochleare magnum, a table 

Cochl. mod. Cochleare modicum, a des- 
sert spoon. 

Cochl. parv. Cochleare parvum, a tea 

Col. Colatus, strained. 
Colai. Colatur, let it be strained. 
Colent. Colcntur, let them be strained. 
Comp. Compositus, compound. 
Conf. Confectio, a confection. 
Cong. Congius, a gallon. 
Cont. Continuetur, let it be continued. 
Cop. Copiosus, abundant. 
Cart. Cortex, bark. 
Coq. Coque, boil. 
Crast. Crastinus, for to-morrow. 
C. V. Cras vespere, to-morrow evening. 
Cucurb cruent. A cupping glass. 
Cuj. Cujus, of which. 
Cujusl. Cujuslibet, of any. 
Cyath. theoz. Cyatho thfiffl, in a cup of 

Deb. spiss. Dcbita spissitudo, a pro- 
per consistence. 
Dec. Decanta, decanted. 

Decub. Decubitus, lying down, going 
to bed. Attitude of one lying down. 

De d. in d. De die in diem, from day 
to day. 

Dej. alvi. Dcjcctiones alvi, alvine evac- 

Dep. Depuratus, purified. 
Del. Detur, let it be given. 
Dext. lat. Dextrum latalis, right side. 
Dicb. alt. Diebus alternis, every other 

Dieb. tert. Diebus tertiis, every third 

Dig. Digeratur, let it be digested. 
Dil. Dilutus, diluted. 
Dim. Dimidium, one half. 
Dir. prop. Directione propria, with a 
proper direction. 
Dist. Distillata, distilled. 
Diuiarn. Diuturnus, long continued. 
Div. Divide, divide. 
Donee, alv. sol. fuer. Donee alvus so- 
luta fuerit, until the bowels are opened. 
Drach. Drachma, a drachm. 
Ed. Edulcora, sweeten ; Edulcorate. 
Ejusd. Ejusdem, of the same. 
Elect. Electuarium, electuary. 
Emp. Emplastrum, a plaster. 
Encni. Enema, a clyster. 
Exhib. Exhibiatur, let it be given. 
F. or ft. Fiat, let it be made. 
F. Fil. Fiat pilula, make it into a pill. 
F. V. S. Fiat venajsectio, bleed. 
Feb. dur. Febre durante, during the 









PI. D. 

II. S. 

Filtra, filter. 
Fluidus, liquid. 

Flores, nWers. 
Folium, a leaf. 
Fotus, a fomentation. 
Granum, a grain. 
Gutta, a drop. 

Gummi, gum. 

Hora decubitus, at bed time. 

Hora somni, on retiring to rest. 

Ind. Indies, daily. 
Inf. Infusum, infusion. 
Inj. enem. Injiciatur enema, let a clys- 
ter be given. 
Inject. Injectio, an injection. 
Jul. Julepus, a julep. 




Lai. dol. Lfiteri dolenti, to the pained 

lb. Libra, a pound weight. 

Lim. Limones, lemons. 

Liq. liquor, liquor. 

Lot. Lotioj lotion. 

M. Misce, mix. 

Mac. Maeora, macerate. 

Man. Manipulus, a handful. 

Min. Minimum, the 60th part of a 
drachm, by measure. 

Mist. Mistura, a mixture. 

Mitt. Sang. Mittatur sanguis, let blood 
be drawn. 

Mod. p-a>s. Modo pnescripto, in the 
manner directed. 

Mor. sol. More solito, in the usual 

Muc. Mucilago, mucilage. 

N. Noctc, at night. 

No. Numero, in number. 

N. M. Nux moschata, a nutmeg. 

0. Octarius, a pint. 

01. Oleum, oil. 

Omn. alt. hor. Omnibus alternis horis, 
every other hour. 

Omn. hor. C)mni hora, every hour. 

Omn. bid. Omni biduo, every two days. 

Omn. bih. Omni bihorio, every two Lours. 

Omn. man. Omni mane, every morn- 

Omn. nod. Omni nocto, every night. 

0. O. O. Oleum olivaa optimum, best 
olive oil. 

Ov. Ovum, an egg. 

Ox. Oxymel, a syrup of hone}' and 

Oz. Unci a, an ounce. 

P. JE. Partes a'quales, equal parts. 

Part. vie. Partitis vicibus, in divided 

Per salt. Per saltum, by leaps. 

PU. Pilula, a pill. 

P. r. n. Pro re nata, as circumstances 
may require. 

P. rat. cat. Pro ratione ajtatis, accord- 
ing to the age of the patient. 

Pro. pot. com. Pro potu communi, for 
a common drink. 

Prox. Inc. Proxima luce, the day before. 

Pulv. Pulvis, powder. 

Q. P. Quantum placet, as much as you 

Q. S. Quantum sufficiat, as much as is 

PL Eecipe, take. 

Had. Radix, root. 

Pas. Rasurae, shavings. 

Pect. Rectificatus, rectified. 

Bed. in pule. Redactus in pulverem, 

Peg. lie]?. Regio hepatis, in the region 
of the liver. 

Peg. limb. Regio umbilici, the umbili- 
cal region. 

8. A. Secundum artem, according to 

Sacch. Saccharum, sugar. 

Sirob. cord. Scrobiculus cordis, the pit 
'of the stomach. 

Sem. Semen, seed. 

Semi-dr. Semi-drachma, half a drachm. 

Semi-h. Semi-hora, half an hour. 

Scq. luce. Sequcnti luce, the following 

Serv. Serva, kee]i ; preserve. 

Si op. sit. Si opus sit, if there be occa- 

Si vir. pcfrm. Si vires pcrmittant; if 
the strength will permit. 

Signal. Signatura, a label ; also, signe- 
tur, let it be labeled. 

Sing. Singulorum, of each. 

Sol. Solutio, solution. 

Solv. Solve, dissolve. 

S. 0. S. Si opus sit, if there be occa- 

Sp. Spiritus, spirit. 

Sq. Squama, scale. 

Ss. Semissis, half. 

St. Stet, let it stand. 

Substtlph. Subsulphas, a subsulphate. 

Sublep. Subtepidus, lukewarm. 

Succ. Succus, juice. 

S. V. Spiritus vini, spirit of wine. 

S. V. R. Spiritus vini rectificatus, rec- 
tified spirits of wine. 

Syr. Syrupus, syrup. 

T. 0. Tinctura opii, tincture of opium. 

T. O. C. Tinctura opii camphorata. 
Paregoric elixir. 

Tr. or Unci. Tinctura, tincture. 




Trit. Tritura, triturate. 

Troch. Trochiscus, a troche or lozenge. 

Umb. Umbilicus, the navel. 

Uag. Ungucntum, ointment. 

Usq. ut liq. anim. Usque ut liquerit 
animus, until fainting is produced. 

Utend. Utendus, to be used. 

Vent. Ventriculus, the stomach. 

V. 0. S. Vitello ovi solutus, dissolved 
in the yolk of an egg. 

V. S. Venajsectio, bleeding. 

Zz. Zingiber, ginger. 

TTJ, . Minimum, a minim. 

Gr. Grana, a grain. 

9 . Scrupulum, a scruple. 

5 • Dracluna, a drachm, troy. 

| . Uncia, an ounce, troy. 

ffi. Libra, a pound. 

ss. Semissis, half. 

j, one ; ij, two ; iij, three ; iv, four, &c. 
See Prescription. 

ABDO'MEN. From Mere, to hide, 
because it conceals the viscera. The larg- 
est cavity in the body, bounded, supe- 
riorly, by the diaphragm ; inferiorly, by 
the pelvis ; laterally and anteriorly, by an 
expansion of muscles ; and posteriorly, by 
the lumbar vertebra?. 

ABDOMINAL. Pertaining to the ab- 
domen, as the abdominal muscles, abdom- 
inal viscera, &c. 

Abdominal Regions. The abdomen is 
divided into three zones : 1. The epigas- 
tric or upper ; 2. The umbilical, or middle ; 
3. The hypogastric, or lower region. Each 
i >f these is sub-divided into three compart- 
ments or regions, a middle and two lateral. 
The middle or the upper, situated over the 
small end of the stomach, is the epigastric 
proper j and the two lateral, under the 
cartilages of the ribs, are the hypochon- 
driac regions. The middle region is divi- 
ded into the central or umbilical, and two 
lateral or lumbar regions. The lower re- 
gion is divided into the central or hypogas- 
tric proper, and on each side there is an 
iliac or inguinal region. 

To the above, anatomists have added a 
tenth region, called the regio pubica, and 
situated on the front surface of the pubic 

ABDOMINA'LES. An order of soft- 
finned fishes which have the ventral fin 
placed under the abdomen, behind the pec- 
torals, as the salmon, the trout, &c. 

ABDOMINOSCOTY. Abdominoscopia ; 
from abdomen, and ckotteu, I view. Ex- 
amination of the abdomen for the detection 
of disease. 

ABD U'CENT. Drawing apart or from. 
The sixth pair of nerves are called the 
nerd abducentes. See abductor. 

ABDUCTION. Abductio; from abdu- 
cere, to separate. The action by which a 
limb or part is separated from the axis of 
the body. In Surgery, a fracture near the 
articular extremity of a bone in which the 
fragments recede from each other. Ceelius 
Aurelianus uses this word to express a 

ABDUCTOR. From abducere, to sepa- 
rate. In Anatomy, a muscle which sepa- 
rates the part or member to which it is 
attached from some other part. Its antag- 
onist is called adductor. 

Abductor Auricularis. A portion of 
the posterior auris. 

Abductor Indicis Manus. An inter- 
osseous muscle of the fore-finger. 

Abductor Indicts Pedis. A muscle of 
the fore-toe. 

Abductor Medii Digiti Pedis. A 
muscle of the middle toe . 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Manus. A 
muscle of the little finger. 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Pedis. A 
muscle of the little toe. 

Abductor Ppllicis Manus. A mus- 
cle of the thumb. 

Abductor Pollicis Pedis. A muscle 
of the great toe. 

Abductor Tertii Digiti Pedis. A 
muscle of the foot. 

ABELMELUCH. A species of Riei- 
nus ; also the name of a tree growing near 
Mecca, the seeds of which are said to act 
as a violent cathartic. 

ABELMOS'CHUS. An Arabic name 
signifying musked seeds. The musky seeds, 
Grana moschata, of a species of Hibiscus, 
employed by the Arabians for flavoring 




ABERRATION. Aberratio; from ab 
errare, to stray ; to wander from. Devi- 
ated from that which is natural; irregular- 
ity; deviation from the healthy condition 
ii^the appearance, structure, or functions 
of one or more organs ; mental alienation. 
In Optics, a deviation of the rays of light 
from a true focus, in certain lenses, pro- 
ducing a distorted or colored image. When 
the image is distorted the aherration is said 
to he spherical; when it is colored hy pris- 
matic hues, it is called a chromatic aherra- 

ABERDEVINE. The Carduelis spinus 
of Cuvier, a small green and yellow finch, 
belonging to the same subgenus as the 
goldfinch of England. 

ABEVACUATION. A term used by 
some old medical writers to express a par- 
tial or incomplete evacuation of the faulty 
humors, whether by nature or by art. 

ABHAL. An Asiatic fruit, obtained 
from a species of cypress, supposed to be 
an emmenagogue. 

ABIES. The Fir ; a genus of plants of 
the order Conifercc, abounding in resin. 
All those trees which, like the spruce, the 
cedar, and the larch, have their leaves sol- 
itary, distinct at their base, and the scales 
of the cone even and thin. For the species 
of aides, see Tinus. 

ABIETIC ACID. An acid recently dis- 
covered in the resin of trees of the genus 

ABIETI'NTB. A division of the natu- 
ral order of coniferous plants, including the 
firs, pines, and araucaria-like pines, all of 
which have cones with many rows of scales. 
ABIETINE. Ahidina. A resinous sub- 
stance obtained from the Strasburg tur- 

ABIETIS RESTNA. Thus, or frank- 
incense ; the resin of the spruce pine. 

ABIRRITATION. Abirritatio; from 
ab. priv., and irrilatio, irritation. Absence 
of irritation ; debility; asthenia. 

ABLACTATION. Ablaciio; from ab. 
priv., and larto, to give suck. Cessation of 
the periods of suckling, as regards the 
mother. The same period with regard to 
the child is termed weaning. 

ABLATION. Ablatio; from avfero, 
to remove. Removal or separation of a 
part, limb, organ or tumor, by accident or 
surgical operation. 

ABLEP'SY. Ablepsia; from a, priv., 
and ftTieiTu, to see. Blindness. 

ABLUENTS. Ablnentia ; from at hi ere, 

to wash. Detergents; cleansing remedies. 

ABLUTION. Abhdio; to wash away. 

The act of cleansing or purifying with 


ABNOR'MAL. From ab, from, and 
norma, rule. Not conformable to rule ; 

ABOLITION. AboUtio; from abolere, 
to abolish. Cessation of the function of 
the whole, or part of the body, as the loss 
of sight, hearing, &c. 

ABOMA'SUS. Abomasum. The fourth 
stomach of ruminating animals, the one 
from which, in calves, rennet is formed. 

ABORTION. Abortio. Miscarriage ; ex- 
pulsion of the foetus before the sixth month. 
ABORTIVE. Abortivus ; from abortio, 
a miscarriage. In Medicine, that which has 
the power of exciting abortion. In Botany, 
plants that do not acquire their usual per- 
fection ; a flower only partially formed, or 
a seed which contains no embryo. 
ABORTUS. Abortion. 
ABRA'CHIA. From a, priv., and ftpax- 
io>v, the arm. Absence of arms. 

ABRANCHIATE. From a, priv., and 
fipayxia, gills. Without gills, like the earth- 
worm, the leech, &c. 

ABRACADAB'RA. The name of an 
ancient Syrian idol, which, when pro- 
nounced and repeated a certain number of 
times, was supposed to possess the power 
of curing fevers, and of preventing many 

ABRACALAN. A cabalistic word used 
by the Jews as a substitute for the above, 
though but another name of the same 

ABRA'SION. Abrasio; from abradere, 
to scrape. The act of wearing or rubbing 
off; also, the state of a part some of which 
has been worn off by attrition. In Pa- 
thology, superficial ulceration, with loss of 
substance in shreds of the intestinal mu- 




cous membrane ; also, excoriation and ul- 
ceration of the skin. 

Abrasion of the Teeth. Odonto- 
tribc. Wearing away of the teeth ; grad- 
ual loss of a portion of the substance of 
the teeth, which may be produced either 
by mechanical or chemical causes. When 
by the former, it is called mccfianical, and 
when by the latter, spontaneous abrasion. 

Abrasion of the Teeth, Mechan- 
ical. When the incisors and cuspidati of 
the upper jaw shut over the coixespond- 
ing teeth of the lower, it rarely happens 
that much loss of substance from mechan- 
ical causes takes place ; it is only in those 
cases where the former fall plumb upon 
the latter, that mechanical abrasion, in any 
very considerable degree, occurs ; but when 
they come together in this manner, their 
crowns are sometimes worn down to the 
gums, or at least, those occupying the an- 
terior part of the alveolar arch. The rea- 
son of this is obvious. When the upper 
and lower front teeth strike upon each 
other, the lateral motions of the jaw are 
not in the least restricted; consequently 
the cutting edges of the incisors and points 
of the cuspidati, as well as the cusps of the 
bicuspids and molars, though not to the 
same extent, are subjected to an amount of 
friction to which they are not exposed in 
any of the other relationships which the up- 
per and lower teeth sustain to each other. 
The wearing away of the crowns of the 
teeth would expose the lining membrane, 
but for a most curious and singular pro- 
vision of nature, which consists in the 
gradual obliteration of the pulp cavities, by 
the conversion of the pulp into osteo-den- 
iine. By this wise provision of nature, an 
event from which the most painful conse- 
quences would result, is prevented, so 
that but little inconvenience results from 
it, or, at any rate, not until the crowns of 
the teeth are worn down to the gums. 

Abrasion of the Cutting edges of 
the Front Teeth, Spontaneous. Spon- 
taneous abrasion of the cutting edges of the 
front teeth, is an affection of rare occur- 
rence. It commences on the central incis- 
ors of both jaws at the same time, and from 

thence proceeds to the lateral incisors, the 
cuspidati, and sometimes, though not very 
often, to the first bicuspids. In other re- 
spects, little or no inconvenience is expe- 
rienced from it until the crowns of the 
affected teeth are nearly destroyed. 

Mr. Bell gives a description of an inter- 
esting case of a gentleman whose teeth were 
thus affected : " About fourteen months 
since, 1831, this gentleman," says Mr. B 
" perceived that the edges of the incisors, 
both above and below, had become slightly 
worn down, and, as it were, truncated, so 
that they could no longer be placed in con- 
tact with each other. This continued to 
increase and extend to the lateral incisors, 
and afterwards, successively, to the cuspi- 
dati and bicuspids. There has been no 
pain, and only a trifling degree of uneasi- 
ness, on taking acids, or any very hot or 
cold fluids, into the mouth. When I first 
saw these teeth, they had exactly the ap- 
pearance of having been most accurately 
filed down at the edges, and then perfectly 
and beautifully polished ; and it has now 
extended so far, that when the mouth is 
closed, the anterior edges of the incisors of 
the upper and lower jaws are nearly a 
quarter of an inch asunder. The cavities 
of those of the upper jaw must have 
been exposed, but for a very curious and 
beautiful provision, by which they have 
become gradually filled by a deposit of new 
bony matter, perfectly solid and hard, but 
so transparent that nothing but examina- 
tion by actual contact, could convince an 
observer that they were perfectly closed. 
This appearance is exceedingly remarkable, 
and exactly resembles the transparent lay- 
ers which are seen in agatose pebbles, sur- 
rounded by a more opaque mass. The 
surface is uniform, even, and highly polish- 
ed, and continuous, without the least break, 
from one tooth to another. It extends, at 
present, to the bicuspids, is iwrfeetly equal 
on both sides, and when the molars are 
closed, the opening, by this loss of sub- 
stance in front, is observed to be widest in 
the centre, diminishing gradually and 
equally on both sides to the last bicus- 




*' On the cause of this very extraordinary 
occurrence," says Mr. Bell, " I confess my- 
self wholly at a loss to offer even a conjec- 
ture. It cannot have been producer! by 
the friction of mastication, for these teeth 
have never been in contact since the first 
commencement of the affection ; nor does 
it arise from any apparent mechanical 
cause ; for nothing is employed to clean 
the teeth, except a soft brush. Absorption 
will equally fail to account for it; for not 
only would this cause operate, as it always 
does, irregularly, but we find that instead 
of these being the subjects of absorption, 
a new deposition of bony matter is, in 
fact, going on to fill the cavities which 
would otherwise be exposed." 

Mr. Bell is correct in supposing that it 
is not the result either of mechanical action 
or absorption. If, then, neither of these 
agendas is concerned in its production, it 
must be the result of some chemical action, 
and the author is of the opinion that it is 
caused by acidulated mucus, secreted by 
the mucous follicles of the end of the 
tongue, which is brought in contact with 
the cutting extremities of the front teeth 
almost constantly, and he believes that it is 
in this way that their loss of substance is 

Dr. Niihn, a German physician, de- 
scribes a gland which he has recently dis- 
covered in the interior of the tip of the 
tongue. It is represented as having a 
number of ducts opening through the mu- 
cous membrane over it. It is thought to be 
a mucous gland, and it may be, that this 
gland in peculiar idiosyncrasies, or habits 
of body, secretes the acidulated mucus 
which is concerned in the production of the 
affection under consideration. But wheth- 
er this hypothesis be correct or not, it is 
evidently the result of the action of a 
chemical agent, and that this is furnished 
by the end of the tongue is rendered more 
than probable from the fact that the end of 
this organ is brought in contact with the 
cutting edges of the teeth every time the 
mouth is opened, giving to the teeth where 
the jaws are closed, a truncated appear- 
ance, and increasing their susceptibility to 

the action of acids, and to impressions from 
heat and cold. 

The progress of the affection is variable. 
The destructive process sometimes goes on 
very rapidly ; but at other times it proceeds 
so slowly that several years are required for 
it to produce any appreciable effect. 

ABRAXAS. Abrabax, a magical word 
comprehending the days of the year in nu- 
meral letters. 

ABRO'MA. A gum-bearing tree of New 
South Wales. 

ABROTANUM. Southern wood; a 
species of evergreen plant of the genus Ar- 

a pinnate leaf terminating abruptly with- 
out an odd leaflet. 

ABRUPTION. Abrvptio ; from abrvm- 
pere, to tear asunder. In Svrgcry, sud- 
den separation of one part of a bone from 

ABRUTTUS. Abrupt. 

ABRUS. A genus of leguminous plants ; 
wild liquorice. 

wild liquorice. Its seeds, of a bright red, 
with a black spot, were formerly employed 
for necklaces and rosaries. 

AB'SCESS. Abscessns ; from abscedere, 
I separate from, or depart. An impos- 
thume, or boil ; a collection of pus in the 
cellular tissue, or some other part, resulting 
from inflammation and suppuration. An 
abscess is acute when succeeding acute in- 
flammation, and chronic or serofuhvs when 
resulting from chronic or scrofulous disease ; 
idiopathic, when occupying the same site as 
the previous affection ; and symptomatic or 
metastatic, when occurring in a remote sit- 
uation. Abscesses are designated according 
to the part in which they are situated. 

ABSCESSUS. Abscess. 

Abscessus Lumborum. Lumbar abscess. 

Abscessus MammyE. Mammary abscess. 

Abscessus Pectoris. Empyema. 

Abscessus Puemonum. Empyema. 

Abscessus Oculi. Hypopion. 

Abscessus Gangr2enosus. Anthrax. 

Abscessus Capitis Sanguineus Neo- 
natorum. Cephala-matoma. 




ABSCIS'SION. Abscissio; from absci- 
dere, to cut off. The excision of a morbid 
or superfluous part, especially of a soft 


4BSINTHATE. A salt of the absin- 
^ic acid. 

ABSINTHIA. Absinthine. The bitter 
uncrystallizable principle of absinthium. 

ABSINTHIC ACID. Acidum obsiiv- 
thicnm. A peculiar acid of absinthium. 

ABSINTHIUM. Wormwood. See Ar- 

ABSOR'BENT. Absorbens; from ab- 
sorbcre, to suck up, to imbibe. In Anato- 
my, a delicate transparent vessel, which 
exercises the function of absorption. In 
Materia Medica, any medicine which de- 
stroys acidity in the stomach and bowels, 
as magnesia, chalk, &c. 

Absorbent System. The vessels and 
glands of the body which exercise the func- 
tion of absorption. 

ABSORPTION. Absorptio. In Phys- 
iology, an organic function common to all 
things endowed with life, plants or ani- 
mals; whereby the former take up from 
without, and the latter from the interior of 
their own body, the materials necessary to 
their sustenance. In Chemistry, the action 
of certain solids and liquids in taking up 
gases and vapors, which may or may not 
enter into chemical composition with the 

Absorp'tion Interstitial. The func- 
tion by which the particles of the tissue 
filling the meshes of the capillary net- 
work are removed, as in the pupillary mem- 
brane of the foetus, and in the development 
of the cells in bone. 

Absorption Cutaneous. A function of 
the skin, by which substances applied to 
the surface of the body are taken into the 
circulation, and produce the same action as 
when taken internally. 

ABSTE'MIOUS. Abstemins ; from abs, 
without, and temetum, wine. Abstaining 
from the use of wine. Also temperate liv- 
ing, with regard to diet, &c. 

ABSTER'GENT. From ahstergere, to 

cleanse. Any application which cleanses 
the part to which it is applied ; a detergent. 

AB'STINENCE. Abstinentia ; from abs, 
from, and tenere, to hold. The act of vol- 
untarily refraining from any indulgence, as 
from the use of certain articles of food, or 

ABSTRACTION. From abstraho, I 
draw off. In Chemistry, the distillation of 
a liquid from any substance. 

ABUTILON. An Arabic name for the 
mallow. Recently it has been used as a 
generic name for certain plants which have 
been separated from the genus sida. Abu- 
tilon avicennw, one of the commonest of our 
native malvaceous plants, is an example. 

AB'SUS. Cassia absus. The small 
Egyptian lotus. 

ACA'CIA. AKaiaa, from ant], a point. 
A genus of spiny trees and shrubs, with 
pinnated leaves, of the order Legumi- 

Acacia Catechu. The tree which pro- 
duces the Catechu, or Terra Japonica. 

Acacia Gum. Gum Arabic, which is 
colorless or of a pale yellow ; it is hard, 
brittle, soluble in water, but not in alcohol. 
It is mucilaginous, and used as a demul- 
cent and for suspending oily medicines. 

Acacia Vera. The Egyptian thorn, 
which yields the Chim Arabic. This sub- 
stance is also produced from other species 
of this genus. 

ACALETILE. Acalephans ; ana^y , a 
nettle. A class of soft marine zoophytes, 
including the medusa;, sea-nettle, jelly-fish, 

ACALYPHA. A genus of plants of the 
order Eiiphorbiaca 3 . 

Acalypha Betulina. Birch-leaved aea- 
lypha. The leaves have an aromatic odor, 
and are used in India as a stomachic in 
dyspepsia and cholera. 

Acalypha Indica. A Malabar plant, 
possessing anthelmintic properties. 

Acalypha Virginica. Mercury weed, 
found in most parts of the United States, 
and said to act as an expectorant and 

ACANTHA. From any, a point. In 
Botany, a thorn or prickle of a plant. In 




Anatomy, the spinous process of a vertebra, 
also the spina dorsi. 

ACAN'THOPTERY'GII. Spiny-finned 
fishes. A great division of fishes established 
by Cuvier, characterized by strong sjiines 
in their dorsal fins. They comprise a very 
great number of the bony fishes, among 
others the perch family. 

ACAN'THUS. A genus of spiny herba- 
ceous plants. 

Acan'thtjs Mollis. Bear's breech, 
brank-ursine. The leaves are mucilaginous 
and are used for the same purpose as marsh- 

ACAR'DIAC. Acardia; from a, priv., 
and xapdia, the heart. Without a heart. 

A'CARUS. From a, priv., and netpu, to 
cut, too small to see divided. A numerous 
genus of insects. The tick or mite. 

Acarus Autumna'lis. The harvest 
bug, or wheat insect. 

Acarus Domesticus. Domestic tick, 
found in the head and near gangrenous 
sores, and on dead bodies. 

Acarus Dysenterle. Dysentery tick. 
Acauus Folliculorum. A tick said to 
be found in the follicles of the skin. 
Acarus Scabiei. The itch tick. 
Acarus Siro. The cheese mite. 
ACATAPOSIS. From a, priv., and 
Kaiamvu, deglutition. Inability to swallow. 
ACAULES'CENT. From a, priv., and 
KavXog, a stem. In Botany, ajiparently 
without a stem. 

ACAWERIA. The Singalese name for 
the bitter root of Ophyoxylum, a supposed 
antidote to the poison of serpents. 

ACCELERATION. Accderalio ; from 
arcelcro, to hasten. In Physiology and 
Pathology, increased action of the heart and 
respiratory organs. 

of the penis. 

ACCENT. Inflection of the voice. 
ACCES'SION. Accessio ; from accedere, 
I approach. The commencement of a 
disease, but usually restricted to the phe- 
nomena which signalize the recurrence of 
periodical diseases, as intermittent fever, 
comprehending their cold, hot, and sweat- 
ing stages. 

ACCESSORY. Accessorixis ; from ac- 
cedere, I approach. Connected with or 
dependent upon any thing; helping to 
produce an effect. In Anatomy, a name 
given to several auxiliary muscles and 
nerves, joined to other similar parts, and 
assist in their functions. In Botany, addi- 
tional, supernumerary. 

ACCIDENT. Aceidens ; from accidere, 
to happen. Literally, the occurrence of an 
event not foreseen or expected. In Path- 
ology, the unexpected occurrence of any 
thing in the course of a disease not essen- 
tially connected with it, and hence differing 
from an inherent symptom or phenomenon. 
In Surgery, hemorrhage, erysipelas and 
severe pain, constitute the accidents of a 
wound. In Dental Surgery, an injury in- 
flicted upon any part of the mouth in the 
performance of an operation, or from the 
application of a remedy ; as fractures of the 
teeth and alveolar processes, and hemor- 
rhage after the extraction of teeth. The 
term is also applied, by French dentists, to 
the morbid phenomena which develop them- 
selves during dentition. 

ACCIDENTAL. Happening by chance ; 
casual. In Morbid Anatomy, all structures 
developed as the consequence of disease. 

Accidental Colors. Ocular spectra. 

ACCIP'ITER. The Hawk; from accip- 
ere, to take. A name given to a bandage 
applied over the nose, from its likeness to 
the claw of a hawk. 

ACCIPITRES. From accipere, to take. 
Rapacious birds, known by their crooked 
beaks and talons. 

ACCLI'MATED. Climati assuetus ; 
from ad, and clima, climate. Accustomed 
to a climate. 

ACCOUCHEE. A woman who has 
just lain in. 

ACCOUCHE'MENT. Parturition ; child- 
birth, the expulsion or extraction of the 
foetus from the uterus. 

ACCOUCHEUR'. A man who practices 

ACCOUCHEUSE'. A female midwife. 

ACECHLORULE. A compound radi- 
cal, (C4 CL3) of which chloral has been sup- 
posed to be the hydratcd oxide. 




ACCRETION. Aca-etio ; from ad, and 
crcscere, to increase. Growth ; also, a 
growing together of parts. 

ACCUM'BENT. Lying against any 

ACKPH'ALOBRACirUS. Acephalobra- 
cliia ; from a, priv., KEfyalr], head, and iipa- 
X luv , arm. A foetus without head or anus. 
ACEPH'ALOCHEI'RUS. From a, priv., 
KE<t>a?iij, head, and x eL P, hand. A fcetus born 
without head or hands. 

ACEPH'ALOCYST. From a, priv., 
KE<pa?,r], liead, and kvotic, bladder. The hy- 
datid, or headless bladder worm. 

ACEPHALOGASTER. From a, priv., 
KE<t>alri, head, yacrrip, stomach. A foetus 
born without the head, chest and upper 
part of the abdomen. 

ACEPHALOSTOMA. From a, priv., 
Kf(f>a?.Ti } head, and arofia, mouth. A foetus 
without a head, but with an opening at its 
upper part resembling a mouth. 

ACEPIIALOTHO'RUS. From a, priv., 
KE$akr\, head, #wpa£, chest. A foetus born 
without head or chest. 

ACEPIPALUS. AcapMa; from a, priv. 
and KEtyalri, a head. Without a head. In 
Anatomy, the young of any animal born, 
from defect of organization, without a 
head. In Zoology, one of the divisions of a 
class of Molluscous animals, which have 
no head, as the oyster and mussel. 

A'CER. A genus of trees of the order 
Aceraceoe ; also, acrid, sharp. 

Aceb Sacchari'num. The sugar maple, 
a tall tree, from two to three feet in diame- 
ter, containing a large quantity of sap in 
the spring of the year, from which sugar 
may be extracted. 

ACERATE. A salt of the aceric acid. 
ACERBTTY. AcerbHas ; from am-, sharp. 
A sour, bitter and astringent taste, proper- 
ties met with, in some kinds of unripe fruit. 
ACERIC ACID. A peculiar acid said to 
exist in the Bap of the common maple, Acer 
eampenlre, in the state of acerate of lime. 
ACE'RIDES. From a, priv., and M/pog, 
wax. A plaster without wax. 

AC'EROSE. Acerosus ; from acus, chaff. 
In Botany, chaffy ; also leaves tapering to 
a point like a needle, as those of the pine. 

yellow, sandy concretions, collected under 
the tela choroidea, near the posterior com- 
missure of the brain, after the age of pu- 

ACES'CENT. Acescens ; from acescere, 
to grow sour. Turning sour j a tendency 
to acidity. 

ACETAB'ULUM. From acetnm, vine- 
gar, because it resembles the old saucer in 
which vinegar was held. A name given 
to the cavity which receives the head of 
the os femoris, or thigh bone. 

ACETA MEDICATA. Pharmaceutical 
preparation of vinegar. 

ACETAL. A colorless liquid, resem- 
bling ether, with a peculiar vinous odor, 
boiling at 200° to 204°. Its formula is 
Cg Hg O3. It was discovered by Dobcroiner, 
who called it oxygen-ether. 

pickle, recommended to scorbutic patients, 
made of fol cochlear marine § iij, sacch. 
aloes § ij, sal cochlear § j. These are well 
bruised and sacc. aurant § ij, added. 

aria, a salad. Plants used for salads, as 
lettuce, mustard, cress, endive, &c. 

ACETAS. From acetum, vinegar. A 
salt formed by the union of acetic acid with 
an earthy, alkaline, or metallic base. An 
acetate. The medicinal acetates are those 
of ammonia, potassa, zinc and lead. 

Acetas Ammonite. Acetate of am- 

Acetas Ferri. Acetate of iron. 

Acetas Hydrargyri. Acetate of mer- 

Acetas Morphine. Acetate of morphia. 

Acetas Plumbi. Acetate of lead ; sugar 
of lead. 

Acetas Totassje. Acetate of potassa ; 
a salt formed by the union of potassa and 
acetic acid. 

Acetas Sodje. Acetate of soda. 

Acetas Zixcr. Acetate of zinc, a salt 
formed by the union of zinc and acetic acid. 

ACETATE. Acetas. A salt of acetic 

ACETIC ACID. Acidum aceUcum. 
The acid of vinegar. The sour principle 




which exists in vinegar. It exists free and 
combined with bases in several vegetable 
products, and is the principal result of 
acetous fermentation. It unites readily 
with most of the earths, and acts slowly 
upon the teeth, increasing their sensibility, 
and putting them on edge. In Medicine, 
it is used as a rubefacient. 

ACF/ITCA. Pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions, consisting of vegetable principles 
dissolved in vinegar. 

ACETIC ETHER. See Ether Acetic. 

ACETIM'ETER. An instrument for 
ascertaining the strength of vinegar. 

ACETONE. From acetum, vinegar. 
Tyro-acetic spirit. Formula, C3 H3O. 

ACETONYL. The hypothetical radi- 
cal of acetone. 

ACETO'SA. From acescei'e, to be sour. 
Bumex Acetosa ; Sorrel. 

ACETOSELLA. From acetosa, sorrel, 
because of the acidity of its leaves. The 
wood sorrel, on account of the grateful 
taste of its leaves, is sometimes used in 
salads, but the oxalic acid which it con- 
tains is exceedingly hurtful to the teeth, 
inasmuch as it has a much stronger affin- 
ity for the lime of these organs than the 
phosphoric acid with which it is united. 
The teeth of persons in the country where 
sorrel abounds, are often injured by being 
frequently rubbed with its leaves for the 
purpose of removing stains and discolor- 

ACE'TUM. From acer, sour. Vinegar ; 
a sour liquid, produced by fermentation. 
There are four varieties, viz : wine vinegar, 
malt vinegar, sugar vinegar, and wood 
Vinegar. Common vinegar contains less 
than five per cent, of pure acetic acid. 

Acetum Aromaticum. Aromatic vin- 

Acetum Cantharidis. Vinegar of 

Acetum COLCHICI. Vinegar of meadow 

ACETUM Distillatum. Distilled vin- 

Acetum Opii. Vinegar of opium. 

Acetum Soiled. Vinegar of squills. 

ACETYL. A hypothetical compound 

radical, produced by the abstraction of 
two atoms of oxygen from ethyl, bydcoxy- 
dating processes. It derives its nature 
from acetic acid, which, with a series of 
other compounds, it pervades. Aldehyde 
is its hydrated oxyd. Its formula is C4 II3. 

ACFLE'ATUM. From a, priv., and 
Xaivu, to open. In Botany, a small, hard, 
one-seeded, one-celled, indehiscent fruit. 

ACHEI'LIA. From a, priv., and *«/loc, 
lip. A Malformation, consisting in a de- 
ficiency of one or both lips. 

ACHETR. From a, priv., and X El P, 
hand. Without hands. 

ACHILLEA. A genus of plants of the 
order Composite. Milfoil; yarrow. 

Achillea Age'ratum. A plant pos- 
sessing the qualities of tansy. 

Achilllea Atra'ta. A plant possess- 
ing the same or similar properties. 

Achillea Millefo'lium. The com- 
mon yarrow, or milfoil. 

Achillea Ptar'mica. Sneczcwort, or 
bastard pellitory. 

ACHILLES. The name of a Grecian 
hero, after whom a tendon and plant have 
been named. 

Achillis Texuo. The strong round 
tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus 

ACIILAMYD'EOUS. From a, priv., 
and ^rc/rt'f, a cloak. In Botany, plants 
in which the floral envelopes, the calyx 
and the corolla, are both absent. 

ACIILYS. Dimness of sight. Opac- 
ity of the cornea. 

A'CHOLIA. From a, priv., and x°^V, 
bile. Deficiency of bile. 

AC1IOR. A pointed pustule, contain- 
ing a light, straw-colored matter, and 
changing into a brown scab. Crusta lac- 

ACHRAS 8APOTA. See Sapota Aohras. 

ACIIROA. Crusta lactea. From a, 
priv., and X9 oa , color. A colorless state of 
the skin. 

ACHROMATIC. From a, priv., and 
^pw,ua, color. A lens constructed so as to 
correct the refrangibility of the common 

ACHROMATOPSIA. From a, priv., 




Xpu/i-a, color, and okto/icu, to see. Inability to 
distinguish different colors from each other. 

ACIC'ULAR. From aeicula, a little 
needle. In Crystallography, needle-shaped 
crystals, and in Botany, leaves that are 
long, stiff, and pointed. 

ACID. In common language, any li- 
quid, solid or gaseous body, imparting to 
the organs of taste a sour sensation. In 
Chemistry, a compound capable of neu- 
tralizing an alkali ; the electro-negative 
compound of a salt, consisting of more 
than two elements. The acids constitute 
a very numerous class of chemical sub- 
stances. They are called mineral or or- 
ganic, as they are derived from inorganic, 
or organic bodies. The names of those 
formed from the same base, change in their 
terminations according to the quantity of 
oxygen they are presumed to contain. 
Those which terminate in ic, contain the 
largest proportion of oxygen ; those in ous, a 
less amount. Those which begin with 
hyper, denote an excess of oxydation ; those 
with hypo, the lowest proportion. When 
combined with the alkaline and other bases, 
they form a class of bodies called salts. 

ACI DHTABLE. Capable of being con- 
verted into an acid, by uniting with an 
acidifying principle. 

ACIDIFICATION. The act of being 
changed into an acid. 

ACIDITY. Sourness. 

ACID'ULATE. To render slightly acid. 

ACID'ULOUS. Slightly acid. 

ACIDUM. From acer, sour. An acid. 

Acidum AOETICUM. See Acetic Acid. 

Acidum Aceticum Camphoratum. — 
Camphorated acetic acid. 

Acidum ACETICUM Dilutum. Dilute 
acetic acid. 

Acidum Aceticum Coxcentratum. — 
Concentrated acid of vinegar; vinegar de- 
prived of its water. 

Acidum Acetosum. Aoetum. 

Acidum Arsexiosum. See Arscnious 

Acidum Benzoicum. See Benzoic Acid. 

Acidum Cabbonicum. See Carbonic 

Acidum Citricum. See Citric Acid. 

Acidum Gallicum. See Gallic Acid. 

Acidum Hydrocyanicum. See Hydro- 
cyanic Acid. 

Acidum Hydrochloricum. Hydro- 
chloric Acid ; Muriatic Acid. 

Acidum Muriaticum. See Muriatic 

Acidum Muriaticum Dilutum. Di- 
lute Muriatic Acid. 

Acidum Nitricum. See Nitric Acid. 

Acidum Nitricum Purum. Pure Ni- 
tric Acid. 

Acidum Nitricum Dilutum. Dilute 
Nitric Acid. 

Acidum Nitro-muriaticum. See Ni- 
tro-muriatic Acid. 

Acidum Nitrosum. See Nitrous Acid. 

Acidum Oxalicum. See Oxalic Acid. 

Acidum Phosphoricum. See Phospho- 
ric Acid. 

Acidum Phosphoricum Dilutum. Di- 
luted Phosphoric Acid. 

Acidum Pyroligneum. See Pyroligne- 
ous Acid. 

Acidum Succinicum. See Succinic Acid. 

Acidum Sulphureum. Sec Sulphurous 

Acidum Sulphuricum. Sec Sulphuric 

Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum. 
Aromatic Sulphuric Acid. 

Acidum Sulphuricum Dilutum. Di- 
luted Sulphuric Acid. 

Acidum Sulphuricum Pubum. Pure 
Sulphuric Acid. 

Acidum Tanntcum. See Tannic Acid. 

Acidum Tartaricum. See Tartaric 

Acidum Vitriolicum. See Sulphuric 

ACIESIS. From a, priv., and kvelv, to 
conceive. Barrenness in females ; inability 
to conceive. 

AC'IFOKM. From amis, a needle, and 
forma, form. Needle-shaped. 

ACINACTFOKM. From arinaees, a 
eimctcr, and forma, form. A term applied 
in Botany to the leaves of certain plants, 
from their shape. 

ACINK'SIA. From a, priv., and kiviioic, 
immobility. Loss of motion. 




ACINUS. A grape stone. In Anatomy, 
the ultimate secreting follicles of glands. 
The granulations of conglomerate glands, 
as in the liver, &c, are called acini. 

ACIPEN'SER. A genus of fish of the 
order Ghondropta-ygii. The sturgeon. 

ACMASTICOS. From aKurj, the top, 
and arau, I remain. A species of fever 
which preserves a uniform intensity to the 

ACME. From anuv, the top. In Pa- 
thology, the height of a disease. 

ACMEL'LA. A Ceylonese plant, once 
used in nephrites. 

ACNE. Stone-pock ; maggot pimple ; 
a small, slowly suppurating pimple, occur- 
ring, most frequently, on the face. Four 
varieties are enumerated. 1. Acne sim- 
plex, simple pimple] 2. Acne punctata, 
maggot pimple; 3. Acne indurata, stone- 
pock ; 4. Acne rosacea, rosy drop ; car • 

ACNES'TIS. From a, priv., and nvaeiv, 
to scratch. That part of the back between 
the shoulder blades. 

ACOL'OGY. Acologia ; from anog, a 
remedy, and hoyoc, a discourse. The doc- 
trine of therapeutical agents. 

ACONI'TIC ACID. A white crystal- 
line acid, obtained from the aconilum na- 

ACONITIC ETHER. Aconitateofoxyd 
of ethyl. A colorless oily liquid, with an 
odor like calamus. 

ACONITINE. Aconitina; from aconi- 
lum; the name of a plant. A very poison- 
ous alkaloid extracted from several species 
of aconitum. 

ACONI'TUM. Aconite. Monkshood, 
wolf's-bane. A genus of plants, of the 
order llanunculacece. 

Aconitum Antho'ra. Salutary monks- 
hood, a poisonous plant like the rest of 
the genus. 

Aconitum Napel'lus. Aconite; the 
common monkshood, or wolfs-bane. It 
is an active narcotico-acrid poison. 

Aconitum Paniculatum. A species 
possessing properties similar to the last, 
very poisonous. 

ACONU'SI. From clkoti, audition, and 

vovoog, disease. Diseases of the ears and 

AC'OPA. Medicines against weariness. 
Soft cerate, which was formerly applied to 

A'COR. From aceo, to be. sour. Acid- 
ity ; acrimony. 

ACO'RIA. From a, priv., and Kopeu, to 
satisfy. Insatiable hunger ; canine appetite. 

A'CORUS. A genus of plants, of the 
order Aroide<s. 

Acobus Calamus. Sweet flag; cala- 
mus aromaticus. 

ACOTYLE'DON. From a, priv., and 
KorvArjduv, a seed lobe. Without a cotyle- 
don ; plants which have no seed lobes. 

ACOUOMETER. From anovu, to hear, 
and fJte.Tpov } a measure. An instrument in- 
vented by Itard, for measuring the de- 
grees of the sense of hearing. 

ACOUOPHO'NIA. Cophonia; froma*- 
ovo), I hear, and <puvTj } voice. Auscultic 
investigation from the sounds produced by 

ACOU'STIC. Aconsticus ; from anovu } I 
hear. Belonging to the ear, as the acous- 
tic nerve, acoustic medicine, &c. 

A CO USTICS. The science of the cause, 
nature, and phenomena of sounds. 

ACRAI. An Arabic word, signifying 
satyriasis or nymphomania. 

ACRA'LEA. From a/cpoc, extreme. 
The extremities, as the hands, feet, head, 
ears, nose, &c. 

ACRA'NIA. From a, priv., and xpaviov, 
cranium. Deficiency of a part or the whole 
of the cranium. 

ACRA'SIA. From a, priv., and icpamg, 
mixing. Wine unmixed with water. Hence 
drunkenness and intenqierance of all sorts, 
whether in eating, drinking or vencry. 

ACRATI'A. From a, priv., and Kparoc, 
strength. Imbecility; weakness. 

ACRID. From acer, sharp. Having a 
hot, pungent taste. 

ACRIMONY. Acrimonia; from acer, 
sharp. A quality in substances which ir- 
ritates, corrodes, or dissolves others. 

ACRIS'IA. From a, priv., and Kpivu, 
to judge. A state of disease, with regard 
to which no correct judgment can be formed. 




ACRITES. Acrita; from anpirog, indis- 
cernible; so culled because of the absence 
or indistinction of the nervous system. 
The lowest division of the animal king- 
dom, composed of the classes spongios, pol- 
ypi, polygastrica, sterehnintha, and aca- 

ACROBYS'TIA. From mpog, the tip, 
and (ivo, to cover. The extremity of the 

ACHROCHOR'DON. From mpog, ex- 
treme, and X°P&>1, a string. A small, dense 
tumor, attached by a narrow base or ped- 

AC'RODUS. From mpog, extreme, and 
odovg, a tooth. A genus of sharks, charac- 
terized by large polygonal, obtuse teeth, 
aggregated at the extremities of the jaws, 
and found only in the fossil state. 

ACRODY'NIA. From mpog, extremity, 
and odvvri, pain. A name given to an 
epidemic, attended with great pain in the 
tendons, which prevailed in Paris in 1828- 

AC'ROGENS. From mpog, extreme, 
and yevvau, to grow. Cryptogamous and 
acotyledonous plants, which grow only by 
additions to their extremities. 

ACROLEIN?]. In Chemistry, a vola- 
tile, oily, pungent liquid, obtained by boil- 
ing fats, but especially by the destructive 
distillation of glycerine. 

ACROMANTA. From mpog, extreme, 
and fiavia, madness. Incurable madness. 

ACRO'MIAL. Acromialis. Pertaining 
to the acromion. 

Acromial Artery. The external scap- 
ular artery. 

Acromio-Coracoid. Belonging or re- 
lating to the acromion and coracoid pro- 

ACRO'MION. From mpog, extreme, 
and u/wg, the shoulder. A process termi- 
nating the spine of the scapula. 

ACROM'PHALON. The middle of the 

ACROP'ATHOS. A disease at the top 
of any organ or on the surface of the body. 

A'CROITS. From mpov, the extremity, 
and orp, the voice. Faulty articulation, 
from a defect in the tongue. 

ACROPOSTHIA. That part of the pre- 
puce which is cut off in circumcision. 

ACROPSFLON. The naked end of the 
glans penis. 

ACROPO'DIUM. From anpog, extrem- 
ity, and irovg, foot. In Zoology, the upper 
surface of the whole foot. 

ACROT'ICA. From mpog, summit. 
Diseases affecting the external surface of 
the body. 

ACROTERIA. The extremities of the 

ACROTERIAS'MUS. Amputation of 
an extremity. 

ACROTIS'MUS. From a, priv., and 
KpoTog, pulse. Defect of pulse ; asphyxia. 

AC'IVE'A. A genus of plants of the 
order llanuncnlacem. 

Act^ea Americana. "White and red 
cohosh, a drastic purgative. 

Aci\ea Racemosa. Black snake-root. 

Actjea Spicata. Baneberry. 

ACTPNIA. From mrw, a ray of light. 
Sea- Anemones or Animal-flowers, so named 
from the resemblance of their tentacula to 
the petals of a flower. The genus contains 
upwards of twenty species, several of which 
are edible. 

ACTFNOLITE. From mnv, a ray of 
light. A variety of hornblende. 

a ray of light. That department of chem- 
istry which treats of the action of the sun's 

ACTINOM'ETER. From mnv, and 
lieipov, a measure. An instrument to 
measure the intensity of the sun's light. 

ACTION. Actio; from agere, to act. 
The exertion of power or force ; the opera- 
tion of an active power. In Physiology, 
the performance of a function. The func- 
tions of the body may be divided into vol- 
untary, involuntary and mixed. The volun- 
tary are produced by acts of the will : the 
involuntary are either mediate, through 
the nerves and spinal marrow, or immedi- 
ate, as those of irritability; and to the 
mixed, belong the acts of respiration. 

Action, Morbid. A derangement of 
the ordinary functions of the body. 

ACTIVE. Activus That wliich acts or 




enters into action ; energetic. The term is 
applied to medicines and diseases. 

ACT'UAL. This word is applied to any- 
thing endued with a special property in- 
herent in itself. It is the reverse of po- 
tential. Thus, 

Actual Cautery is a red hot iron, 
or a lire, while a potential cautery is 
only a chemical caustic. The former was 
once much used by surgeons for the extir- 
pation and cure of tumors and other dis- 

ACU'LEATE. From aculeus, a pric- 
kle. Prickly. In Botany, the surface 
covered with prickles, as the stem of a 

ACUMINATE. Pointed ; terminating 
in a point. 

ACUPUNCTURE. Acupunctu'ra; from 
acus, a needle, and punctura, a puncture. 
The puncturing of parts with a small 
ACUS. A needle. 

ACUTE'. Sharp. In Pathology a sharp 
pain ; a disease characterized by a certain 
degree of severity, or which is attended by 
violent symptoms, and runs its course in 
a few days. 

ACUTENAC'ULUM. Porte aiguille. 
A needle-holder. 

Acutenaculum, Dr. Hullihen's. An 
instrument invented by Dr. S. P. Hullihen, 
of Wheeling, Va., to be used in passing 
the needle through the cleft edges of the 
soft palate in the operation of staphylora- 
phy. This instrument is composed of two 
parts, a staff and a slide. The staff is a 
small steel bar, six inches in length, two- 
eighths of an inch in breadth, and one- 
eighth of an inch in thickness, with an 
arm at the superior end, rising at a curved 
right angle from the staff, and half an 
inch long. On the external or superior 
side of this arm, a duplicate arm is re- 
tained by a steel spring attachment, which 
brings the two arms in close contact, form- 
ing the jaws of the instrument. Between 
these two arms, and on the duplicature is 
a small groove formed to receive the liga- 
ture, and when the ligature is pressed be- 
tween the jaws of the instrument, they 

or>en, and it slides to the point designa- 
ted for its reception, immediately below 
which, the jaws are perforated with a hole 
for the introduction of the needle during 
the employment of the instrument in the 
operation. Two inches from the inferior 
end of the staff, a pair of rings are affixed 
to receive the thumb and index finger, the 
rings standing parallel with the staff, and 
sideways to the direction of the arms of 
the instrument. A slide is formed of steel, 
equal in length, thickness, and breadth 
to the staff, made to fit to the upper 
surface of the staff, and to move with 
ease up and down on guides placed on the 
same. From the superior end of the slide 
is a short straight spear-shaped needle, 
constructed just back of its point, with a 
small notch opening to it from the upper 

When the ligature has been fitted in its 
place of reception in the jaws of the instru- 
ment, and the slide adjusted to the staff; 
the slide is forced upward, the needle and 
jaws approach each other, and the needle 
passes through the hole in the latter just 
under the ligature, which is caught in the 
notch of the needle, and as the slide is 
drawn backward, the eye of the needle is 
threaded and the ligature drawn through 
the velum, and the introduction of the 
stitch completed. 

ACYANOBLEP'SIA. From a, priv., 

Kvavog, blue, and (Henu, to see. Inability 

to distinguish blue s from defective vision. 

ACYE'SIS. Inability to conceive in 

females ; barrenness. 

ADAC'TYL. From a, priv., danTvlog, 
a digit. In Zoology, a locomotive extrem- 
ity without a digit. 

ADAMANT. From a, priv., <5a/xao, to 
subdue. Diamond was formerly so named 
from its hardness. 

trum used for filling teeth, consisting of 
finely pulverized silex or pumice-stone, 
mixed with an amalgam, of mercury and 
silver. See Amalgam. 

ADAMANTINE SPAR. The crystals 
of corundum are so named from their hard- 
ness. See Corundum. 




ADDEPHA'GIA. From aMqv, much, 
and tyayo, to eat. A voracious appetite ; 
insatiable craving for food. 

ADDU'CENT. Adducens; from ad, and 
ducere, to draw. A term applied in Anat- 
omy to muscles which perform the func- 
tion of adduction. 

ADDUCTION. The action by which 
a part is drawn towards the axis of the 
body, or of a limb. 

ADDUCTOR. From ad, and ducere, 
to draw. In Anatomy, a muscle whose 
offico consists in drawing the limb, or 
part moved by it, towards the axis of 
the body, or of the member to which it 

Adductor Brevis Femoris. The short 
adductor of the thigh. 

Adductor Indicis Pedis. The adduc- 
tor of the first toe. 

Adductor Longus Femoris. The long 
adductor of the thigh. 

Adductor Magnus Femoris. The 
great adductor of the thigh. 

Adductor Minimi Digiti Pedis. The 
adductor of the little toe. 

Adductor Pollicis Manus. The ad- 
ductor of the thumb. 

Adductor Pollicis Pedis. The ad- 
ductor of the great toe. 

Adductor Tertii Digiti Pedis. The 
adductor of the third toe. 

ADECTA. Sedatives. 

ADEL'PHIA. From cuhlfyog, a brother. 
In Botany, a term applied by Lin- 
naeus, to those plants in which the sta- 
mens, instead of growing singly, combine 
into one or more parcels or brother- 

ADEMO'NIA. From adefiovsu, I am 
grievously tormented. Ecstlessness ; anx- 
iety of mind. 

A'DEN. AStjv. A gland. 

ADENAL'GIA. From adqv, and akyog, 
pain. Pain in a gland. 

ADEN'IFORMIS. From aden, a gland, 
and forma, resemblance. Resembling a 

ADEN'ITIS. Glandular inflam- 

ADENOG'EAPIIY. From a6 n v, a 

gland, and ypa<p(>>, I describe. A descrip- 
tion of the glands. 

ADENOL'OGY. Adenolog'ia; from 
a8r)v, a gland, and hoyog, a discourse. A 
treatise on the glands. 

a gland, and pyviy!;, a membrane. An 
epithet applied by Tinel to a fever, be- 
cause, in his opinion, the cryptai of the 
gastro-intestinal mucous membrane were 
principally affected by the disease. 

a gland, fieaog, midst, and evrepov, intes- 
tine. Inflammation of the Mesenteric 
glands. Tabes mesenterica. 

a gland, and yapvyt, the pharynx. Inflam- 
mation of the tonsils and pharynx. 

gland, and o<pdakfiog, the eye. Inflamma- 
tion of the Meibomian glands. 

gland, and anlripog, hard. A name given 
by Swediaur to tumefaction and indura- 
tion of the glands, which do not termi- 
nate in scirrhus. 

ADENO'SUS. From a6 V v, a gland. 

ADENOT'OMY. Adenotom'ia; from 
adrjv, a gland, and refivu, I cut. Dissec- 
tion of the glands. 

ADEPS. Lard ; the fat of the hog. 

Adeps Anserinus. Goose grease. 

Adeps villus. Mutton suet. 

Adeps Suillus. Hogslard. 

Adeps Pr^eparata. Prepared hogs- 

ADHE'SION. Adhai'sio; from adhcereo, 
to stick to. In Pathology, the morbid 
union of parts naturally contiguous, but 
not adherent, by adhesive inflammation. 
In Surgery, the re-union of parts which 
have been separated by accident or de- 

flammation which terminates by an adhe- 
sion of the inflamed and separated sur- 

Adhesive Plaster. A plaster pos- 
sessed of adhesive qualities, used by sur- 




ADIANTUM. From a, priv., and duuvu, 
to moisten, so culled because they cannot be 
made moist. A genus of ferns. See As- 

Adiantum Capillus Veneris. Maiden- 

ADIAPHORE'SIS. AdiapUrosis ; from 
a, priv., and dia^opeu, to dissipate. Defect 
of cutaneous perspiration. 

ADIAPHOROUS. From a, priv., and 
dtacpepei., it differs. A volatile and inodor- 
ous principle obtained from tartar by dis- 
tillation. Neutral ; applied to medicines 
which have no effect either for good or ill. 
Also used to exju-ess neutral salts. 

AD'IPIC ACID. A volatile and fusible 
acid, obtained by treating oleic with nitric 

AD'irOCERE. Adipocera, from adeps, 
fat, and cera, wax. A fat-like substance 
into which the human body is converted 
by long immersion in water or spirit, or by 
burial in moist earth. Chevreul showed 
it to be an imperfectly saponified human fat. 

AD'irOSE. From adeps, fat. Fatty. 

Adipose Membrane. Mcmbrana Adi- 
posa. The membrane winch encloses the 
adeps or fat. 

ADIPO'SLS. Excessive fatness. 

ADIP'SIA. From a, priv., and 6iipa, 
thirst. Absence of thirst, usually symptom- 
atic of cerebral disease. 

AD'JUVANT. From adjurare, to aid. 
A medicine added to a prescription to assist 
the operation of the principal ingredient. 

ADNATA. In Botany, this term is ap- 
plied to parts which arc closely united to 
one another. In Anatomy, the tunica ad- 
nata is that portion of the conjunctiva 
which covers the sclerotic coat of the eye. 

ADOLES'CENCE. From adolescere, to 
grow. Growing; applied to the human 
race ; the period between puberty and the 
full development of the body. 

ADOPTER. Adapter. A chemical ves- 
sel with two necks, placed between a re- 
tort and receiver. 

ADULA'RIA. A mineral, the most per- 
fect variety of feldspar. 

ADULT' AGE. The age succeeding ado- 

ADULTERATION. The admixture of 
noxious or inert ingredients with that 
which is pure. 

ADUSTION. Adustio ; from adurere, 
to burn. Cauterization ; the action of heat 
applied to the body. 

ADUST US. Burned; parched. 

ADVENTITIOUS. Adventitius; from 
adcenio, I come to. Accidental ; not in- 
herent. In Medicine, acquired diseases. 

ADY. See Palma Ady. 

ADYNA'MIA. Impotentia ; from a, 
priv., dvva/xic, power. A defect of vital 
power ; debility. 

7EDOFA. The pudenda. 

iEDOITIS. From attioia, pudenda, and 
His, inflammation. Inflammation of the 

^DOPSOPHTA. A name given by 
Sauvages to a fetid air issuing from the 
vagina or urethra. 

iE'GIDES. Small white spots on the pupil. 

iEGIDTON. A collyrium. 

^EGILOPS. From mi, a goat, and <*!>. 
the eye. A sore under the inner angle of the 
eye, so called because goats were supposed 
to be subject to it. 

iEGOPH'ONY. Mjopho'nia; from «f, 
a goat, and <j>uvij, voice. A peculiar sound 
of the voice resembling the bleating of a goat. 
It is diagnostic of pus in the pleural sac. 

yEOLIITLE. A hollow metallic ball, 
with a small pipe for the conversion of 
water into steam. Also an alcohol blow-pipe. 

AER. hyp. Air, gas ; often used as a 
prefix denoting the presence of air or gas. 

AERATED. Impregnated with air or 

AERTFORM. Air-like ; a term applied 
to gaseous fluids. 

AEROL'OGY. A'erdogia ; from ar/p, air, 
and hoyoc, a discourse. The doctrine of the 
nature and properties of air. 

AEROM'ETER. An instrument for as- 
certaining the weight of air, or bulk of 

iEROSUS LAPIS. The name given by 
Pliny to lajns calaminaris, a native carbo- 
nate of zinc. 

iERU'GO. Verdigris ; properly the rust 
of metal, but especially of copper. 




JE^'CULItfE. An alkaloid discovered 
in the JEscidns Hippocastanum. 

iES'CULUS. From esca, food. Horse- 
chestnut. A genus of trees of the order 

iEscuLus Hippocas'tanum. The horse- 
chesnut tree. 

iESTME'SIA. From aicftavofiai, to feel. 
Perceptive sensation ; feeling. 

iESTT'VAL. From JEstas, summer. Be- 
longing to summer. 

iE>,TI NATION. Prcef oration. A term 
employed in Botany to express the particu- 
lar state of a bud, before the expansion of 
the corolla. 

TEST US VOLATICUS. From cestus, 
heat, and volo, to fly. Transient heat or 
flushing of the face. 

^ETAS. Age. 

JE'THAL. See Cetyl. 

iETHER. From ai&r)p, air. A highly vol- 
atile and inflammable fluid; oxyd of Ethyl. 

iEniER Acet'icus. Acetic ether. 

JEtuer Hoffmanni. Spiritus Etheris 
Sulphur ici Compositus. Hoffmann's ano- 
dyne solution. 

yEther Hydrocyan'icus. Cyanuretof 
ethyl. Hydrocyanic ether. 

MTBX& Muriat'icus. Chloride of ethyl. 
Muriatic ether. 

TEtuer Nitro'sus. Nitrous ether. 

TEther Rectifica'tus. Rectified ether. 

JEtheb Sulphu'ricus. Sulphuric ether. 

iETHER'EA. The ethers. 

/Ethe'real Oil. Oleum a3therium. 

iETIFIOPS. Prom cu$unj>, sun-burnt, 
swarthy. A tcnn employed by the an- 
cientfl to designate several black powders, 
oxyds, sulphurets, &c. 

/Erinops Antimonia'lis. A compound 
obtained by treating black sulphuret of 
mercury with sulphuret of antimony. 
Huxham's formula was to rub up mercury, 
§ iv, sulphuret of antimony, § iij, and 
sulphur, § ij. 

yEtiiiops Martta'lis. Deutoxyde of 

iTCTinoPS Mineralts. Black sulphuret 
of mercury. 

iE'rniops Veoetabilk. A species of 
charcoal, obtained by burning the Fucus 

vesiculosits (sea-oak) in a covered crucible 
and reducing it to powder. It contains io- 
dine and was employed in glandular dis- 

ETHMOID. Ethmoid. 

^ETHOGEN. Fromaitfuv, brilliant, 
yeivo/jai, to become. A compound of boron 
and nitrogen, so called from the brilliant 
phosphorescent light it gives when heated 
before a blow-pipe. 

.ETH'RIOSCOPE. From aidpia, serene 
weather, and aKorreu, to examine. An in- 
strument invented by Sir John Leslie, for 
indicating the power of the clouds in pre- 
venting radiation of heat. 

iETHU'SA. A genus of umbelliferous 

yEthusa Cyna'pium. Fool's parsley, 
or lesser hemlock, possessing poisonous 

iETIOL'OGY. JEtido'gia ; from curia, a 
cause, and toyoc-, a discourse. The doc- "- 
trine of the causes of disease. 

AETI'TES LAPIS. See Eagle-stone. 

AFFECTION. Affectio. In Medicine, 
a disease ; in common language, an emo- 
tion or modification of the mind. 

AFFINITY. Affinitas. In Chemistry, 
attraction, or that tendency which different 
substances have to unite, and form another 

Affinity, Compound. Affinity is called 
compound, when three or more bodies, by 
their mutual attraction, unite and form one 
homogeneous body. 

Affinity, Double. Double elective at- 
traction. " When two bodies, each consist- 
ing of two elementary parts, come in con- 
tact, and are decomposed, so that their 
elements become reciprocally united and 
produce two new compound bodies; the 
decomposition is then termed decomposi- 
tion by double affinity." 

Affinity, Elect'ive. The preference 
manifested by one body to combine with 
another, rather than with a third, a fourth, 

Affinity, Single. The power by 
which two elementary bodies combine. 

AFFLATUS. From afflare, to blow 
upon. A term applied in Pathology, to a 




species of erysijjelas, which attacks jiersons 

AFFLUX'US. From affluere, to flow 
in. The determination of fluids to a part. 

AFFU'SION. Affusio; from affun- 
dere, to pour upon. The pouring of any 
liquid ujion the hody. 

AFTER-BIRTH. The placenta and mem- 
branes of the ovum are so called from 
their being expelled after the delivery of 
the foetus. 

AFTER-PAINS. The pain succeeding 

set on edge. 

A'GAMOUS. From a, priv., and ya/iog, 
marriage. A term applied in Botany to 
eryptogamous plants, from the supposition 
that they do not possess sexual organs. 

AGARICUS. Ag'aric. The generic 
name of the mushroom family ; order, Fun- 
gi ; class, Cryptogamia, comprehending sev- 
eral species. 

Agaricus Mineraus. One of the 
purest of the native carbonates of lime. 

Agaricus Pipera'tus. The pepper 
mushroom, or pepper agaric. 

Agaricus Quercus. Boletus ignia- 
rius. Agaric of the oak ; a fungus form- 
erly used for arresting external hemor- 

Agaricus Yiolac'eus. Violet mush- 

AGATE. A variegated chalcedony. 

AGA'VE. A genus of plants found in 
some parts of America, resembling aloes 
in its mode of growth and appearance. 

Agave Americana. Mexican aloe. 

Agave Cubensis. American aloe ; the 
roots of which resemble the sarsaparilla of 
the shops. 

AGE. In Human Physiology, the dura- 
tion of the life -of man : also, a certain ju- 
ried of life marked by a difference of state. 
The ancients divided life into six stages : 1. 
Infantia vel pueriiia, reckoned from birth 
to the fifth year of age. 2. Addescentia, 
aias bona; youth reckoned to the eighteenth, 
and youth, properly so called, to the twen- 
ty-fifth year. 3. Juvenius, from the twen- 
ty-fifth to the thirty-fifth year. 4. Virilis 

cetas, cetas jxrmata, thirty years ; adas con- 
stans, forty years; cetas matura, fifty 
years ; manhood, from the thirty-fifth to 
the fifty-fifth year. 5. Senecius, aitas pro- 
vecia, aitas mala; old age, from fifty to 
sixty. 6. Crepita adas, aitas ingravescens, 
cetas decrepita, cetas affeda, tetas exada, 
cetas extrema: decrepid age, ending in 

The most common division of life is into 
four stages, or ages; namely, infancy, youth, 
manhood, and old age. But the division of 
Halle seems to be more distinctly marked 
by changes in the economy than any other. 
He divides life into, 

1. Infancy, extending from birth to the 
seventh year of age. To this, three sub- 
divisions have been proposed. 1. The pe- 
riod of the commencement of the eruption 
of the temporary teeth, which is usually 
about the seventh month from birth. 2. 
The period of the completion of first den- 
tition, which is ordinarily about two and 
a half years after birth. 3. When the tem- 
porary teeth begin to be replaced by the 
permanent teeth. 

2. Childhood, from the seventh to the 
fifteenth year, during which period the 
whole contour of the face and expression o f 
the countenance is changed by the elonga- 
tion of the jaws, development of the al- 
veolar borders, and dentition of all the 
permanent teeth, except the dentcs sapien- 
tial, or last molars. 

3. Adolescence, or adolesccntia, extend- 
ing from the fifteenth to the twenty-fifth 
year of age, during which period, the jaws 
elongate sufficiently to admit the last mo- 
lars, the eruption of which completes the 
dentition of the permanent teeth. 

4. Adult age, or virilitas, a period of life 
extending in man from the twenty-fifth to 
the sixtieth year of age, and in woman from 
the twenty-first to the fiftieth. This period 
is divided again, into increasing, estab- 
lished, and decreasing virility, during 
which, the teeth undergo no change except 
that which they experience from disease. 

5. Old age, or senedus, embracing that 
period when the powers of the body are de- 
clining, ending in death. During this time 




the alveolar processes often waste away, 
causing the teeth to loosen and drop out. 

AGENESIA. Agennesia ; from a, priv., 
yevvau, to beget. 1. Impotence; male 
sterility j inability to beget offspring. 
2. Atrophy and imperfect development of 
the brain. 

A'GENT. From ago, to act. Any 
thing which produces an effect. In Pa- 
thology, the extraneous causes of disease are 
termed morbific agents. In Therapeutics, 
any thing used in the treatment of disease 
is termed a therapeutic agent. In Chemis- 
try, any substance ca])able of producing 
chemical action, is termed a chemical agent, 

AGEUS'TIA. From a, priv. and yevofiai, 
gusto, to taste. Loss or diminution of taste. 

AGGLOM'ERATE. From agglomerare, 
to wind up yarn into a ball, to collect to- 
gether. Applied to humors or glands in 

nate, to glue together. The act of being 
united by means of some tenacious sub- 
stance. In Surgery, the adhesion of divi- 
ded parts, as the lips of a wound. 

AG'GREGATE. Aggregatus ; from ag- 
grego, to assemble together. Bodies of the 
same kind when united together, are called 
an aggregate. Glands which are in clus- 
ters are called glanduke aggregates. 

AGGREGATION. A form of attrac- 
tion usually termed cohesion, by which 
particles are aggregated or retained in the 
state of a solid. 

AGIL'IA. From agilis, swift. A fam- 
ily of rodents, including the squirrels and 

AGITATION. Agitaiio; from agito, 
freq. of ago; to act. Restlessness; con- 
stant movement of a patient; inquiet- 
ude. It often arises from the irritation at- 
tending dentition. See Dentition, Morbid. 

AG'LIUM. A glossy tubercle on the 
face ; also, a white speck on the eye. 

AGLOS'SIA. From a, priv., and yluaaa, 
the tongue. Absence of the tongue. 

AGNATHIA. From a, priv., and yva-doc, 
aw. A malformation consisting in the 
want of the jaw, especially of the lower. A 

AGNOI'A. Agncea. From a, priv., and 
yivuonu, I know. Want of memory ; for- 

AG'NUS CASTUS. The chaste tree; 
a species of vitcx ; also castvr oil. 

AGOMPH1ASIS. Agomphosis; from 
a, priv., and yo/upou, I nail. Looseness of 
the teeth, usually caused by disease in the 
gums and the gradual destruction of the 
alveoli. See Gums, diseases of ; also, Al- 
veolar Processes, destruction of the. 

AG 'ONE. Henbane. 

AGONOS. Barren. 

AG'ONY. From ayuv, a contest. The 
last struggle of life against death. 

AGRESTIS. Wild. When applied to 
disease by the old writers, it means violent, 

AG'KIA. Holly. Also, a malignant pus- 

AGFJAMTELOS. The wild vine. 

AGRIEL.EA. The wild olive. 

common agrimony ; a plant of the natural 
order Ilosacece. 

Agrimony Hemp. Eupatorium canna- 

AGRIOTHYMTA. From aypioc, wild, 
and fivpog f disposition. Furious insanity. 

AGRIPAL'MA. Motherwort, or wild 
palm. Leonurus cardiaca. 

AGRIP'PA. From aypa, a capture, and 
note, a foot; or perhaps from cegre partus, 
born with difficulty. 

AGRYPNOCO'MA. From aypvitvia, 
sleeplessness, and icu/ia, drowsiness. Le- 
thargic watchfulness. 

AGRYP'NIA. From a, priv., and vmoc, 
sleep. Sleeplessness ; watchfulness. 

A'GUE. Trembling ; shuddering ; inter- 
mittent fever. 

Ague and Fever. Intermittent fever. 

Ague, Dead. Ague, Dumb. An irregu- 
lar or masked intermittent. 

Ague-Drop. A solution of arsenite of 
potassa in water. 

Ague-Tree. Laurus sassafras. 

Ague- Weed. Eupatorium perfoliatum. 

Ague-Cake. A hard tumor on the left 
side below the false ribs, caused by a vis- 
ceral obstruction, generally of the spleen, 




which may he felt externally. It is the 
effect of intermittent fever. 

AIR. A.r/p. Aiir ; from «w, I breathe. 
Atmospheric air ; an elastic, invisible fluid, 
surrounding the earth to the height, it is 
said, of fifteen or sixteen leagues. 

Air Cells of the Lungs. Bronchial 

Air, Fixed. Carbonic add; mephitic air. 

Air, Inflammable. Hydrogen. 

Air Passages. The larynx, trachea, 
bronchia, &c. 

Air Vital. Oxygen. 

AISTHETE'RION. JEstlieterium. The 
sensorium commune. 

AJUGA CHAM^EPITAS. Ground pine. 

AL. The Arabic definite article. 

ALA. Pinna ; pteryx. A wing. Tarts 
projecting like a wing from the median 
line are designated by anatomists by this 
name, as the alai nasi, &c. In Botany, the 
lateral petal of a papilionaceous corolla. 

Ala Auris. The wing of the ear. This 
is the upper part of the external ear. 

Ala Nasi. The cartilage winch forms 
the outer part of the nostril. 

ALABASTER. A variety of compact 
gypsum ; it has a white or grayish color. It 
was at one time much used in dentifrices, 
but at present it is seldom employed for 
this purpose. When used upon the teeth, 
no matter how finely pulverized, it gets 
between the free edges of the gum and 
necks of these organs, where its mechanical 
action is often productive of much injury. 
There are two kinds of alabaster : 1. Gyp- 
seous alabaster, a natural semi-crystalline 
sulphate of lime, forming a compact gyp- 
sum of various colors, employed in making 
statuary, vases, &c. 2. Calcareous alabaster, 
a mixed carbonate and sulphate of lime, 
deposited by the dripping of water in stal- 
actitic caves. 

AL.E MINORES The nymphoz. 

ALiEFORM. Ahrformis. From ala, a 
wing, and forma, a resemblance. Resem- 
bling a wing ; wing-shaped. 

ALANIN. An alkaloid obtained by act- 
ing on aldehyd- ammonia with hydrocy- 
anic acid. 

ALAN'TINE. Inuline; a whitish starch- 

like substance, extracted from the roots of 
the Inula helenium, and of Colchicum. 

ALARIS. From ala, a wing. Wing-like ; 
belonging to a wing. 

Alaris vena. The inner of the three 
veins at the bend of the arm. 

ALAU'DA: A Linnajan genus of pas- 
serine birds. The larks. 

Alauda Arvensis. The field lark. 

ALBAMEN'TUM. The white of an egg. 

ALB A'TION. Albatio. The act of be- 
coming white. 

co, to become white. See Corpora albicantia. 

ALBI'NISM. The anomalous constitu- 
tion which characterizes the albino. 

ALBFNO. From albus, white. A Span- 
ish word applied to the white progeny of 
negro parents. The skin has a pallid hue ; 
the hair on every part of the body resem- 
bles bleached flax ; the iris has a pale red- 
dish color, and is so sensitive that it can 
scarcely bear the light of day. The term 
is also applied to all persons who have 
these characteristics. 

AL'BITE. Soda feldspar ; a silicate of 
alumina, possessing properties similar to 
common feldspar, with the substitution of 
soda for potash. 

AL'BORA. A species of leprosy. 

ALBOR'CA. An old name for mercury. 

ALBOTIM. Turpentine. 

ALBUGIN'EA OCULI. The white fi- 
brous membrane of the eye, situated im- 
mediately under the conjunctiva. The 
white of the eye. 

Albuginea Testis. The thick, white 
membrane which immediately invests the 

ALBUGIN'EOUS. From albus, white. 
A term applied by anatomists to textures 
and humors which are white. 

ALBU'GO. From albus, white. A 
white opacity of the cornea of the eye. 

ALBUM GILE'CUM. Album canis. 
The white faeces of dogs. 

Album Nigrum. The faeces of mice and 

ALBU'MEN. A protein compound, the 
chief constituent of the body, or rather the 
material from which the tissues are mainly 




formed. It is found in great abundance 
in the serum of the blood, and constitutes 
the white of the egg, whence its name. 
Heat, creosote and the acids (excepting the 
acetic) coagulate it. 

Vegetable Albumen, found in most vege- 
table juices, is identical with and is proba- 
bly the source of, animal albumen. 

Albumen Alumino'sum. Alum curd. 

Albumen O'vi. The white of an egg. 

bumen is treated with soda, it loses some 
of its properties. Heat does not coagulate 
it, but changes it to a jelly. When the 
solution is boiled, a film forms on the sur- 
face resembling that of casein under simi- 
lar circumstances. 

ALBU'MINOSE. See Peptones. 

ALBU'MINOUS. Of the nature of, or 
containing albumen. 

Albuminous Group. A term of Prout's 
classification, signifying that class of ani- 
mal and alimentary substances the compo- 
sition of which is analogous to albumen. It 
includes albumen, fbrin, gluten, legumin, 
globulin, casein, and the substances called 
oxyds of Protein. 

ALBUMINURIA. A disease in which 
the urine contains albumen. It is com- 
monly appled to Bright's disease. 

ALBUR'NUM. The soft white sub- 
stance found between the inner bark and 
wood of trees ; in time it becomes wood. 

ALCALES'CENT. Becoming alkaline. 

ALCAIt'GEN. Cacodylic acid. 

ALCAR'SIN. Oxyd of kakodyl ; a liquid 
obtained by treating acetate of potash and 
arsenious acid, remarkable for its insup- 
portable odor and spontaneous inflamma- 
bility in air. 

ALCALL Alkali. 

AL'CEA. A genus of malvaceous plants. 
The hollyhock. 

Alcea Ro'sea. The common hollyhock. 

ALCHEMIL'LA. A genus of Rosace, 
ous plants, so called from their pretended 
alchemical properties. 

Alchemilla Arvensis. Ladies' man- 
tle ; parsley breakstone. 

AL'CHEMIST. One who practices al- 

AL'CHEMY. The mysterious art which 
2>retends to transmute the baser metals into 
gold, and to find a panacea for all diseases. 

AL'CHITRAN. The oil of juniper ; also 
the name of the dentifrice of Mesue, an 
ancient Arabian physician. 

AL'COHOL. Pure or highly rectified 
spirits of wine. It is a powerful diffusible 
stimulant, and is used both as a medicinal 
and pharmaceutic agent. Chemically pure 
alcohol is styled absolute alcohol. It is an 
oxyhydrate of ethyl, and is represented by 
the formula AeO, HO, Ae, or ethyl, being 
C4 H5. The empirical formula is there- 
fore C4 He O2. The common alcohol of 
the shops, however, contains a variable 
quantity of water. 

Alcohol Ammoniatum. A combina- 
tion of alcohol and ammonia. 

Alcohol of Sulphur. Busulphuret of 

ALCOHOLATES. Officinal medicines, in 
which alcohol is first impregnated with me- 
dicinal principles by maceration, and then 
by distillation, so that it only retains the 
volatile portions. Also, compounds of al- 
cohol with salt, called alcoates. 

ALCORNOQUE. Alcornoco. The bark 
of an unknown South American tree, ex- 
tolled as a specific in phthisis pxilmonalis. 

ALCYO'NIUM. Bastard sponge; the 
ashes of which were formerly used as a 

AL'DEHYDE. The hydrated protoxyde 
of acetyl, an ethereal fluid. 

AL'DER. Betula alnus. 

ALE. Alia. A fermented infusion of 
malt, usually combined with hops. 

ALEI'PHA. From ateupu, to anoint. 
Medicated oil. 

ALE'MA. From a, priv., and lifioe, 
hunger. Any thing which satisfies hun- 
ger. Boiled meat. Farina. 

ALEM'BTC. Alembicus ; a vessel mado 
of glass, metal, or earthenware, for the re- 
ception of volatile products from a retort. 

ALEM'BROTH SALT. A compound 
of bichloride of mercury and sal ammoniac. 
The Salt of Wisdom of the alchemists. 

ALETRIS. A genus of plants of the 
order Liliacew. 




Aletbis Farinosa. Star-grass, the 
root of which is employed as a tonic. 

ALEXIPHAR'MIC. From atef «*>, to re- 
pel, tyapumov, poison. An antidote. A 
term formerly applied to sudorifics, be- 
cause they were supposed to eliminate the 
poisonous matter of fevers through the skin. 

ALEXITE'RIUM. From alefa, to ward 

ALIZARINE. The red coloring matter 
of madder. 

ALKALES'CENT. Any substance con- 
taining manifest alkaline properties, or in 
which these properties are becoming de- 
veloped or predominate. 

AL'KALI. A term ajiplied to certain 
oxyds, soluble in water, possessing the 

off, and rrjpeu, to preserve. An ancient \ power of neutralizing acids, so as to form 

medicine used as a prophylactic against 
AL'GA. Meergrass ; sea- weed. 
AL'GyE. Plants which vegetate exclu- 
sively under water, and are destitute of 
sexual organs. 

garoth, the name of a physician of Verona, 
its inventor. Oxychloride of antimony. 

ALGE'DO. From alyoc, pain. Pain in 
the region of the neck of the bladder and 
anus, caused by sudden suppression of 

AL'GOR. Chilliness, rigor. 
AL'ICES. From altfa, to sprinkle ; or 
alica, a kind of grain, from their size. The 
reddish spots which appear on the skin 
previously to the eruption of small-pox. 

ALIENATION. Alienatio ; from alieno, 
to estrange. Applied to a wandering of the 
mind ; insanity ; mental derangement ; de- 

AL'IFORM. Aliformis; from ala, a wing, 
zndiforma, likeness. Pterygoid; wing-like. 

ALIMENT. Alimentum ; from ah, to 
nourish. Food. Any substance which, 
when introduced into the alimentary canal, 
may, after being subjected to the action of 
the digestive organs, afford nourishment to 
the body. 

ALIMENTARY. Pertaining to food, or 

Alimentary Canal. A musculo-mem- 
branous tube, through which the food pass- 
es. It extends from the mouth to the anus. 

Alimentary Duct. Alimentary canal. 

ALIMENTATION. The act of nourish- 
ing; the assimilation of food. 

ALIPT7E. From aleujxj, I anoint. Those 
who anointed the Athleta^ after bathing. 

ALIS'MA PLANTAGO. Water plan- 

a saline compound, and of changing some 
vegetable blues to green, and some vegeta- 
ble yellows to brown. There used to be 
reckoned three kinds of alkalies. 1. The 
vegetable, or potash ; 2. The mineral, or 
soda ; and 3. The animal, or ammonia, 
also called the volatile alkali. Modern 
chemistry has added to these, lithia. 

Alkali Causticum. Caustic alkali. 

Alkali Fixum. Fixed alkali. 

ALKALIM'ETER. An instrument for 
determining the purity of the alkalies of 

AL'KALINE. Substances which con- 
tain, or partake of the nature of an alkali. 

ALKALINE EARTHS. Earths which 
possess alkaline properties, as magnesia, 
lime, baryta and strontia. 

ALKALIZATION. The impregnation 
of any thing with an alkaline salt. 

AL'KALOID. A salifiable base exist- 
ing as a proximate principle in some vege- 
tables, and possessing the properties of an 
alkali in a greater or less degree. 

AL'KANET. SeeAnchusa Tinctoria. 

ALKEKENGI. Winter cherry, the fruit 
of the Physalis alkekengi. 

ALKERM'ES. A celebrated electuary, 
in which kermes is the basis. 

ALLANTOIC FLUID. The fluid fill- 
ing up the space between the allantois and 
the amnion. In the cow it contains allan- 
tina, albumen, lactates, phosphates and 

ALL'ANITE. A mineral of a brown- 
ish black color, having associated with it 
mica and feldspar. 

ALLANTO'IS. Membrana allantoides ; 
from alloc, a sausage, and eidog, likeness. 
A membrane of the foetus, found in most of 
the mammalia, situated between the cho- 
rion and amnion. 




ALLANTO'INE. A crystalline sub- 
stance obtained from the allantoic fluid o' 
the cow. Its formula is Cs H4 N5 O5 + HO. 

MENT. A composition for uniting single 
porcelain teeth to a plate and to each other ; 
the use of wliich is secured to Dr. John 
Allen, of Cincinnati, Ohio, by letters pat- 
ent. It consists of silex, 2 oz. ; white or 
flint glass, 2 oz. ; borax, 1 oz. ; wedgwood, J 
oz.; asbestos 2 drachms, feldspar, 2 drachms; 
kaolin, 1 drachm. This composition is inter- 
mixed or underlaid upon the plate with 
scraps of gold or platina. A plate having 
been prepared, and the teeth arranged 
on it, the composition is applied in a plastic 
state upon the outside, between and around 
the base of the teeth, forming an artificial 
gum upon the teeth and plate. This is 
covered with a thick mixture of asbestos 
and plaster of Paris. The wax is now re- 
moved from the inside of the teeth, and the 
composition applied on the plate and be- 
tween and around the base of the teeth. 
When dry, the piece is put in the furnace, 
and when the composition fuses, is with- 
drawn, and cooled slowly. 

The plaster mixture is now removed and 
glim enamel, composed of feldspar, £ oz., 
white glass, 1 oz., oxyd of gold, 1\ grains, 
applied. The piece is again placed in the 
furnace, and when the enamel has fused suf- 
ficiently, is withdrawn and cooled as before. 

"We believe the above formula? have 
been altered somewhat since the patent for 
its use was obtained. See Hunter's Fusi- 
ble Bilicious Cement. 

ALLIA'CEOUS. AJliacciis ; from al- 
lium, garlic. Pertaining to garlic ; simi- 
lar to garlic. 

mum alliaria. Hedge garlic. The seeds 
are diuretic, diaphoretic and expectorant. 

ALLIGATION. From alligo, to bend. 
An arithmetical formula for ascertaining 
the proportions of the constituents of a mix- 
ture when they have undergone no change 
of volume by chemical action. 

ALLTTURIC ACID. An acid generated 
when allantoine is boiled with hydrochloric 

A'LLIUM. Garlic. A genus of plants 
of the order Asphodelece. 

Allium Ascalonicum. The shallot, a 
bulbous plant resembling the garlic. 

Allium Cepa. The common onion. 

Allium Poruum. The leek or porret. 

Allium Sativum. Garlic. 

Allium SciiiENOFiiAsuM. The chive. 

ALLOTPJOPHAGIA. From aklorpiag, 
strange, and <j>ayu, I devour. A desire, or 
morbid longing to eat inedible substances, 
as chalk, leather, coal, &c. ; depraved ap- 

ALLG]0'SIS. Alloiosis ; from alloiou, 
to change. Alteration in the character of 
a disease, or in the constitution. 

ALLGiOT'ICA. From dkUq, another. 
Alterative medicines. 

ALLOGNO'SIS. From aklog, another,, 
and ytvuonu, to know. Perversion of mind ; 
incapability of distinguishing persons. 

ALLOPATHIC. Allopathicus. Per- 
taining to allopathy. 

ALLOTATHIST. One who practices 
or advocates allopathy. 

ALLOP'ATHY. Alhpaihia; from aX. 
Aof, another, and na-dog, disease. An em- 
pirical designation applied to the practice 
of medicine, in contradistinction to homoe- 
opathy, or that system of medical practice 
which proposes the cure of disease by es- 
tablishing in the system a condition oppo- 
site to, or different from, the disease to be 

AL'LOPHANE. The name of a mineral, 
of a blue, and sometimes of a green or 
brown color. 

ALLOTIUODON'TIA. From alUrpiog, 
foreign, and otiovg, a tooth. The transplant- 
ation of teeth. See Transplanting Teeth. 

property witnessed in elementary bodies, as 
carbon, sulphur, &c, of existing in differ- 
ent modifications. 

ALLOX'AN. Erythric acid ; purpuric; 
acid. Its formula is Cs H4 N2 O10. It is 
formed by the action of nitric upon uric acid. 

ALLOXANIC ACID. An acid discov- 
ered by Wohler and Leibig, in decompo- 
sing alloxan with alkalies. Its formula is 
C* H 2 N 2 Oe-H HO. 




ALLOXANTINE. A crystalline sub- 
stance formed by the deoxidation of alloxan. 
Formula, Cs H 5 N 2 Oio. 

ALLOY. A compound of two or more 
metals by fusion. See Gold Plate ; also, 
Gold Solder. 

ALLYL. Oil of garlic, obtained by dis- 
tillation of garlic with water, and purified 
by re-distillation. Formula, C6 H5. 

ALLSPICE. Jamaica pepper. SeeMyr- 
tus Pimenta. 

AL'MOND. The nut of the Amygdalus 
communis. Amygdala. 

atile oil of almonds. A golden yellow oil, 
obtained by distilling with water, or with 
water and salt ; the cake of bitter almonds 
from which the fixed oil has been expressed. 
It is a deadly poison. 

Almonds, Oil of. Fixed oil of al- 
monds. A bland fixed oil, usually obtained 
from either sweet or bitter almonds, but 
chiefly the former, by compression. It 
has a mild oily taste. 

Almond Paste. A popular cosmetic 
for softening the skin, made from equal 
parts of blanched bitter almonds, the white 
of an egg, and rectified spirits. 

ALMONDS. A term applied in popular 
language to the exterior glands of the neck 
and to the tonsils, as the almonds of the 
ear, &c. ; the almonds of the throat. 

AL'NUS. A genus of plants. The al- 
ders. See Betula Alnus. 

Alnus Glutinosa. Common European 

Alnus Serrtjlata. Common Ameri- 
can swamp alder. The Sambucus Cana- 
densis is also called alder. 

AL'OE. A genus of plants of the order 

AL'OES. The inspissated juice of the 
several species of aloe. The three principal 
commercial varieties are, Cape, Socotrine, 
and the Hepatic or Barbadoes. 

Aloes, Cape. The aloes obtained from 
the Aloe Spicata and other species which 
grow in great abundance in Southern Af- 
rica, near the Cape of Good Hope. This 
variety is used almost exclusively in the 
United States. 

Aloes Hepatic. Barbadoes aloes. The 
name was originally applied to a product 
from the East Indies, but from a supposed 
resemblance between this and the aloes 
from the West Indies, the name is now 
very generally applied to the latter. 

Aloes Socotorina. The aloes produced 
in the Island of Socotra. The species of 
aloe which yields this variety, is supposed 
to be the same as those which produce the 
Cape aloes. 

Aloes Wood. Lignum aloes. A fragrant 
resinous substance, consisting of the in- 
terior of the trunk ; the aquilaria ovata. 

ALOET'IC. A medicinal preparation 
containing aloes. 

Aloetic Acid. Aloetinic acid. The 
precipitate obtained by heating nitric acid 
on aloes. 

ALOIN. The bitter principle of aloes 
after the resin is removed. 

ALOGOTROPH'IA. From aloyog, dis- 
proportionate, and rpe6u, to nourish. Dis- 
proportionate nutrition, as of the bones in 
rickets. Hypertrophy of a part or organ. 

ALOPE'CIA. From alom^, a fox. Fall- 
ing off of the hair ; baldness. 

ALO'SA. The shad. A genus of fishes 
of the order Mala'opterygini. 

ALOUCH'I. A giun obtained from the 
eanella alba 

ALPAM. A Malabar shrub, from which 
an ointment for the itch is made. 

ALPHON'SIN. An instrument for the 
removal of bullets, so called from the name 
of the inventor. 

AL'PHOS. Alfyog ; from alfycuvu, to 
change ; because it changes the color of the 
skin. Lepra alphoides. 

ALPHO'SIS. The albino skin. 

ALTERATION. Alieratio ; from alter, 
other. In General Pathology, a change in 
the structure of an organ, or in the nature 
of excreted finals. In Dental Pathology ; 
applied to the changes which occur in the 
structure of the enamel of the teeth, or the 
dentinal tissue of these organs, from the 
action of morbific agents. Also, to changes 
which take place in the gums. 

ALTERATIVE. Alteram ; from altero. 
to change. A medicine given for the pur- 




pose of restoring the healthy functions of 
the body without causing any sensible 

ALTFLE'A. A genus of plants of the 
order Malvaceae. Marsh-mallow. 

Altilea Officinalis. The systematic 
name of marsh-mallow. 

ALTHIONIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from the residue of the preparation of ole- 
fiant gas. 

ALU DEL'. A subliming vessel resem- 
bling the head of an alembic, used in dis- 
tilling mercury. 

AL'UM. A double sulphate of potassa 
and alumina. 

Alum Earth. A massive mineral of a 
blackish brown color. 

Alum Curd. A coagulum made of 
alum with the white of an egg. 

Alum Root. Heuchera contusa. 

Alum Stone. A silicious subsulphate 
of alumina. 

Alum Whey. A whey made by boil- 
ing alum with milk. 

ALU'MEN. Alum. 

Alumen Catinum. Potash of com- 

Alumen Commu'ne. Common alum. 

Alumen Exsicca'tum. Burnt alum; 

Alum melted until ebullition ceases. 

Alumen Fixum. Potash. 

Alumen Roma'num. Roman alum. Red 

Alumen Rupeum. Native alum. 

ALU'MINA. Alumine. The earth of 
pure clay. 

Alumina Pura. Alumina. 

men exsiccatum. 

ALU'MINOUS. Pertaining to, or of the 
nature of, alum. 

ALUMINUM. The metallic basis of 

ALU'MINITE. An opaque, dull-white 
mineral ; the hydrated subsulphate of alu- 

ALU'SIA. Illusion ; hallucination. 

ALA r EA'RIUM. From alveare, a bee- 
hive. The bottom of the concha or hollow 
of the ear, terminating in the meatus-audi- 
torius externus, or external auditory canal. 

ALVEO-LABIALIS. The buccinator 

ALVE'OLAR. Alveolaris ; from alveus, 
a cavity. Pertaining to the alveoli. 

Alve'olar Abscess. Gum-boil. A col- 
lection of pus in a sac formed in the socket 
of a tooth at the extremity of the root, 
which generally escapes through the gum. 
The popular designation of the affection is 
gum-bile, or gum-boil, a name that by no 
means conveys a correct idea of its true 
character ; inasmuch as the gums are only 
secondarily affected, while the seat of the 
disease is always within the alveoli- 
Hence, Mr. Bell has given it the more ap- 
propriate name of alveolar abscess. 

Abscess is one of the most common af- 
fections to which the alveolar cavities are 
liable. Its effects are always exceedingly 
pernicious, not only to the socket in which 
it is seated, and the gums covering it, but, 
also, very often to the general health. 

Whenever severe inflammation of the 
periosteum of the root of the tooth, or of 
that of the alveolus is excited, an effusion 
of coagulable lymph takes place, which, 
hardening, attaches itself to the root, around 
its apex, and ultimately a sac is formed. 
This, as suppuration takes place, distends 
and presses against the surrounding wall 
of the alveolus, causing an opening to be 
formed through the socket and gum for 
the escape of the matter. 

A direct lateral passage, however, is not 
always effected through the alveolus and 
gum. The confined matter sometimes makes 
for itself a passage through the roof of the 
mouth, the cheek, or lower part of the face ; 
at other times it traverses the jaw for a con- 
siderable distance, divesting it of its perios- 
teum, causing necrosis and exfoliation ; 
at other times again it is discharged into 
the maxillary sinus. 

The formation of an abscess in the alveo- 
lus of a dens sapiential of the lower jaw, is 
sometimes attended with severe inflamma- 
tion and swelling of the tonsils, so as not 
unfrequently to render deglutition exceed- 
ingly difficult. At other times it induces 
inflammation and rigidity of the muscles 
of the cheek. 




The immediate cause of alveolar abscess 
is, inflammation of the lining or investing 
membrane of the tooth, and whatever tends 
to produce this, may be regarded as its ex- 
citing cause. It often happens that a fill- 
ing in a tooth in which the lining membrane 
has been destroyed, gives rise to the forma- 
tion of abscess by preventing the escape of 
the matter forming at the apex of its 
root. Its egress being thus prevented, it 
accumulates, and becomes a source of irri- 
tation to the investing membrane in its 
immediate vicinity, which, in consequence, 
thickens, forms a tubercle, and ultimately 
suppurates. The roots of teeth, too, on 
which artificial crowns are placed, for the 
same reason, often give rise to abscess. 

The treatment of alveolar abscess should 
be preventive, rather than curative ; for 
the latter, to be effectual, calls for the re- 
moval of the tooth. When, therefore, the 
formation of abscess is apprehended, leeches 
should be promptly applied to the gum 
over the affected alveolus. Should this 
fail to check the inflammation, nothing 
short of the removal of the tooth or the 
destruction of the pulp, will afford relief. 

When a tooth occupying the affected al- 
veolus is removed, the sac often comes 
away with it, and thus the formation of 
an exterior opening for the escape of the 
matter is prevented. 

But there are circumstances which some- 
times render the performance of this ope- 
ration inadvisable; for example, certain 
states of the constitutional health, as well 
M that of the mind of the patient. In 
such cases, the escape of the matter through 
the face or cheek, should be carefully 
guarded against by the application of fo- 
mentations to the gums, and by opening 
the tumor as soon as it becomes soft, with 
a lancet or other suitable instrument. 

The application of fomentations and 
emollient poultices to the face, is, per- 
haps, under hardly any circumstances, ad- 
visable ; unless the disease is seated in the 
socket of a front tooth, where there is no 
danger of the formation of an external 
opening, and even then it is very ques- 
tionable whether they are productive of any 

advantage. But, even where this happens, 
the opening generally, soon closes, after the 
removal of the tooth. The face, however, 
will ever after be disfigured by a scar, and 
sometimes by a depression in the cheek. 

The irritation consequent upon an ab- 
scess in the socket of a wisdom tooth is 
usually much greater than that produced 
by one in the socket of any other tooth. 
In one case which came under the obser- 
vation of the writer, it terminated in lock- 
jaw, and Dr. Greenwood, of New York, 
describes a case, in the American Journal 
of Dental Science, in which the matter 
from an abscess in the socket of a lower 
dens sapiential, made a passage for itself 
to the ear, and escaped from the meatus 
auditorius externus. Dr. Moberly, of New 
Market, Maryland, communicated to the 
writer a case which terminated in phthisis 
pulmonalis, and death. 

The occurrence of alveolar abscess, pre- 
viously to the shedding of the temporary 
teeth, frequently causes necrosis and ex- 
foliation of the alveoli of several of the ad- 
joining organs, and sometimes of considera- 
ble portions of the jaw, often injuring, and 
occasionally carrying away the rudiments 
of several of the permanent teeth. Two 
examples of this sort have fallen under the 
observation of the author. 

Alve'olar Arches. The margins of 
the two jaws in which the teeth are im- 
planted. They are more or less elliptical 
in their shape — the lower more so than the 
upper. The number of cavities which they 
contain corresponds with the number and 
shape of the roots of the teeth. They con- 
sist of two bony plates, an external and an 
internal, with transverse septa which form 
the alveoli. 

At first, the growth of the alveolar arches 
keeps pace with, and, for a time, outstrips 
that of the teeth, enclosing them in cells, 
by which admirable provision of nature, a 
firm support is given to the gums previously 
to the eruption of the teeth. 

The structure of the outer and inner 
plates of these arches is compact, while in- 
teriorly, it is cellular. Each alveolus is 
pierced at the bottom with one or more 




minute foramina for the transmission of the 
vessels and nerves which go to the lining 
membrane of the tooth. 

Alve'olar Artery. This artery arises 
from the internal maxillary, and winds 
around the maxillary tuberosity from be- 
hind forward, sending off twigs through 
the posterior dental canals which supply 
the molar teeth, and go to the maxillary 
sinus — while the main branch passes for- 
ward, furnishing the gums and alveolo- 
dental periosteum. 

Alve'olar Border. Limlnis alveola' ris. 
The parts of the jaws in which the alveolar 
cavities are situated. 

Alve'olar E^osto'sis. See Exostosis 
of the alveoli. 

Alve'olar Necro'sis. See Necrosis of 
the Alveoli. 

Alveolar Processes. The alveoli, or 
sockets of the teeth. 

Alveolar Processes, Destruction of 
the. A gradual wasting of the alveoli, 
causing the teeth to loosen and some- 
times to drop out. It is an affection of fre- 
quent occurrence, and in the majority of cases 
results from a diseased condition of the gums. 
See Wasting of the Alveolar Processes. 

Alveolar Structure. A name given 
by Hewson to the minute superficial cavi- 
ties observed in the mucous membrane of 
the stomach, oesophagus, and small intes- 

Alve'olar Vein. The distribution of 
this is similar to that of the artery. 

The membrane which lines the alveoli and 
invests the roots of the teeth. It is attached 
to the gums at the necks of the teeth, and 
Mr. Thos. Bell is of the opinion that it 
also forms the lining membrane of these 
organs. " The periosteum of the maxillary 
bones," says he, " after covering the alveo- 
lar processes, dips down into each alveolar 
cavity, the parietes of which it lines. From 
the bottom of the cavity, where the vessels 
and nerve of the internal membrane enter, 
it appears to be reflected over the root of 
the tooth, which it entirely covers as far as 
the neck, at which part it becomes inti- 
mately connected with the gum." 

In enumerating the membranes of the 
teeth, he divides them into deciduous and 
persistent. The former consists of two la- 
mellae which form the sac, and which, after 
performing the functions assigned them, 
are absorbed — the latter derived from the 
periosteum of the maxillary bones, consists 
of the periosteum of the internal dental 
cavity, which, during the formation of the 
tooth, had performed the office of secreting 
the bone, the j^eriosteum of the root, and 
the periosteum of the alveolus, of which the 
last mentioned is a reflection. 

Delabarre, and other writers, arc of the 
opinion that the alveolo-dental periosteum 
is derived 'from the membranes of the sac, 
especially the outer, and that it is continu- 
ous with the gums. 

ALVE'OLI. The cavities in which the 
roots of the teeth are implanted. 

Alveoli, Inflammation of the. Odoii- 
tobothri'tis. The immediate cause of this 
affection is inflammation of the alveolo- 
dental periosteum, and when continued for 
a considerable length of time, and esjiecially 
in bad habits of body, it is apt to ter- 
minate in necrosis. 

ALVE'OLUS. Odontouoth'rium. A di- 
minutive of alveus, a cavity. The socket of 
a tooth. 

AL'VEUS. A cavity. 

Alveus Ampullas'cens. The enlarged 
part of the thoracic duct. 

Alveus Communis. The common duct 
of the ampullae of the semi-circular canals 
of the internal ear. 

ALVIDU'CA. From alvus, the belly, 
and duco, to draw. Purging medicine. 

ALVIFLUX'US. From alvus, and fluo, 
to flow. A diarrhoea. 

AL'VINE. From alvus, the belly. Re- 
lating to the belly or bowels. 

AL'VUS. The abdomen, stomach and 

Alvus AstricTa. Constipation; cos- 

Alvus Renum. The pelvis of the kidney. 

AL'YCE. From akvu, to be anxious. 
Morbid restlessness. 

ALYS'MUS. From alvu, to be vexed. 
Anxiety ; restlessness arising from disease. 




ALYS'SUM. From a, and Ivcca, canine 
madness, because it was supposed to cure 
hydrophobia. Madwort ; water-plantain. 

AMAL'GAM. Amalgama; from a/ua } to- 
gether, and yaueiv, to marry ; or a/xa and 
fiakarru ) to soften. A combination of 
mercury with some other metal or metals. 
Within the last few years an amalgam of 
mercury and silver, either alone, or in com- 
bination with finely pulverized silex, 
glass or pumice-stone, has been much used 
by many dentists for filling teeth, but it is 
thought by eminent practitioners to be the 
most objectionable material that has ever 
been employed for this purpose. In the 
first place, being introduced in a soft state, 
it shrinks from the walls of the cavity in 
hardening. Secondly, the exposed surface 
soon oxydizes, turns black, and gives to 
the tooth an exceedingly disagreeable ap- 
pearance ; and thirdly, in the [mouths of 
individuals very susceptible to the action 
of mercury, it is liable to produce saliva- 
tion, and even in the best constitutions it 
seldom fails to exert a morbid effect upon 
the aveolo-dental periosteum, gums, and 
mucous membrane of the mouth. 

AMALGAMATION. In Metallurgy, 
the process of combining mercury with 
some other metal, as practiced in separat- 
ing silver and gold from some other ores. 

AMANITA. A genus of fungi. 

Amanita Muscaria. Fly amonita, a 
plant possessing a poisonous principle. 

AMANIT1NE. A name given by Letil- 
licr to the poisonous principle of fungi. 

AMARA DULCIS. Bitter-sweet. See 

Amara Medicamenta. Bitters ; tonics. 

AMARIN. The bitter principle of 

AMA'RUS. Bitter. The principal bit- 
ters used for medicinal purposes are, gen- 
tian, quassia, columba, cinchona, &c. 

AMASE'SIS. Amassesis ; from a, priv., 
and fiaai]aic, mastication. Impaired or 
imperfect mastication. 

AMAURO'SIS. From afiavpou, to darken 
or obscure. Gutta serena. Partial or total 
loss of sight, without any apparent altera- 
tion in the eye, arising from paralysis of 

the optic nerve, and generally character- 
ized by dilatation of the pupil, immobility 
of the iris, and want of natural expression. 

AMAUROTIC. Affected with amaurosis. 

Amaurotic Cat's Eye. Ambhjc^/ia 
senilis. An amaurotic affection, occurring 
chiefly in very old persons, and accompa- 
nied by remarkable paleness of the iris. 

AMBE. Afi(3v. The edge of a rock. 
The name of an ancient machine used for 
reducing dislocations of the shoulder. 

AMBER. Siiccinum. A hard, brittle, 
tasteless, bituminous substance, sometimes 
transparent, but often semi-transparent or 
ojiaque. It is met with of all colors, but 
is most frequently yellow, or orange. 

AM'BERGRIS. Ambragrisea. A con- 
crete substance, exhaling a pleasant aro- 
matic odor, found in irregular masses float- 
ing on the sea, near the Molucca islands, 
Madagascar, Sumatra, on the coast of Co- 
romandel, Brazil, America, China and Ja- 
pan. It is thought by some to be produced 
in the intestines of the whale. 

AMBIDEXTER. Amphidexius ; from 
ambo, both, and dexter, right. One who 
uses both hands with equal facility. 

AMBLO'SIS. Miscarriage ; abortion. 

AMBLYAPH'IA. From a^Tivg, dull, 
and apy, touch. Loss of the sense of touch 
or general feeling. 

AMBLYOTIA. From a/xfUvg, dull, and 
uip, the eye. Dimness of sight; partial 

Amblyopia Dissitorum. Shortsighted- 

Amblyopia. Proximorum. Longsight- 

AMBLYG'ONIT E. A phosphate of alu- 
mina and lithia, a rare mineral. 

AMBREIC ACID. A peculiar acid, ob- 
tained by treating ambreine with nitric acid. 

AMBREAS. Ambreate. A salt formed 
from ambreic acid with a salifiable base. 

AMBREINE. Ambreina. The fatty 
substance which forms the greater part of 
ambergris, and is somewhat analogous to 

AM'BON. The margins of the sockets 
in which large bones are lodged. 

AMBULANCE. From ambidare; to 




move about. A light caravan, furnished 
with a surgeon, surgeon's assistants and 
every thing necessary for attending upon 
the wounded in the held of battle. 

AMBUSTION. Ainbustio ; from am- 
buro, to bum. A burn or scald. 

AMELINIC ACID. An acid generated 
by the action of chlorine upon cail'eiu. 

AMENORRHEA. From a, priv., urjv, 
a month, and peu, to flow. A partial or 
totally obstructed menstruation. 

AMENTA'CEiE. Amentaceous plants. 

AMENTACEOUS. Resembling an 
ament or thong ; growing in an anient. 

AMEN'TIA. From a, priv., and mens, 
the mind. Imbecility of mind. 

AMENTUM. Anient. A species of 
inflorescence, ranged along a stalk or slen- 
der axis, as in birch, oak, chestnut, &c. 

AMEIi. The bitter principle produced 
by digesting nitric acid on raw silk. 


American Dittany. Cunila mariana. 

American Hellebore. Veratrum album. 

American Ipecacuanha. Euphorbia 
ipecacuanha, and Gillenia trifoliate. 

American Sanicle. Heuchera Ameri- 

American Senna. Cassia marilandica. 

American Spikenard. Araliaracemosa. 

AMETHYST. From a, priv., and ueVvg), 
to be intoxicated. Purple rock crystal, a 
variety of quarz. 

AMETR1A. Intemperance. 

AMIANTHUS. From a, priv., and 
(iicuvu, to pollute. Mountain flax ; asbestos, 
an incombustible mineral, consisting of fine 
silky fibres. 

AMIDES. [Saline compounds containing 
a base composed of one atom of nitrogen 
and two of hydrogen. 

AMIDOGEN. A compound of nitrogen 
and hydrogen, NII2, existing in combina- 
tion with a few metals and organic sub- 
stances. Kane regards it as the basis of 
all the ammoniacal compounds. According 
to him, ammonia is an amide (Ad H), 
and ammonium a subamide (Ad Ho ) of 
hydrogen. Its symbol is Ad. 

AMIDTNE. The soluble part of starch. 

AMILINE. Amylen. A liquid hydro- 
carbon, obtained by distilling hydratcd 
oxyd of amyl with anhydrous phosphoric 

AMMA. A truss. 

AMMI. A genus of umbelliferous plants ; 
Bishop's-wecd, comprising several species, 
of which the ammi majus furnishes aro- 
matic seeds, formerly employed as a car- 
minative and tonic. 

AMMO'NIA. A transparent colorless, 
elastic alkaline gas, of a penetrating odor 
and acrid taste, obtained by the destructive 
distillation of animal matters. It is com- 
posed of three parts hydrogen and one ni- 
trogen, and is supposed to contain a metallic 
base, ammonium. 

AMMONI'ACUM. Gum-ammoniac. The 
inspissated juice of the dorema ammonia- 
cum, an umbelliferous plant which grows 
in Persia. It is brought to this country in 
small white globules, clustered together, or 
in lumps of a brownish color. 

AMMONIACO. A term prefixed to salts 
in which ammonia has been added in suf- 
ficient quantity to combine with both the 
acid and the base. 

AMMONITE. A name given to a fossil 
shell, allied to the genus Nautilus. 

AMMO'NIUM. A name given to a hy- 
pothetical compound of hydrogen and ni- 
trogen, NH4, the supposed metallic base 
of ammonia. 

Aqua ammonia aceiatce. A solution of ace- 
tate of ammonia. 

Ammonite Carbonas. Subcarbonate of 

Ammonite Liquor. Liquor of ammonia. 

Ammonia Murias. Muriate of ammo- 

Ammonia Nitras. Nitrate of ammo- 

Ammonia Subcarbonas. Subcarbonate 
of ammonia. 

Ammonite Subcarbonatis Liquor. A 
solution of subcarbonate of ammonia. 

Ammonue Tartras. A salt composed 
of tartaric acid and ammonia. 

AMMONIURET. A compound of am- 
monia and a metallic oxyd. 




AMNESIA. From a, priv., and fivtfaif, 
memory. Loss of memory ; forgetfulness. 

AMNION. Amnios. The innermost 
membrane which surrounds the foetus in 
utero. In Botany, the innermost membrane 
which surrounds the seeds. 

AMO'MUM. A genus of Zingiber acc- 
ous plants. 

Amo'mum Cardamo'mum. Cardamo- 
mum minus. Less cardaniomum, an 
East India plant, the seeds of which, when 
chewed, impart to the mouth a grateful 
aromatic warmth. 

Amo'mum Granum Paradisi. Carda- 
momum majus. The plant which affords 
the grains ( >f paradise, or the greater carda- 
momum seeds. 

Amomum Verum. The true stony pars- 

Amomxtm Zingiber. The plant which 
affords ginger. 

AMOK. Love. 

AMOR'PHA. The name of a genus of 
plants of the order Decandria, of which 
only one species is known. The bruised 
root of this is said to possess anti-odontalgic 

AMORPH'OUS. Of an irregular shape 5 
without a determinate form. 

AMPHAPJSTEROS. From a^i, both, 
and aptarepog, left-handed. Awkward with 
the hands ; opposed to ambidexter. 

AMrilEMEEINUS. From a^t and 
yftepa, a quotidian fever. 

AMPUL Afi(pi. A Greek preposition, 
used as a prefix, signifj-ing about, on all 
sides, &c. 

AMrHIARTHRO'SIS. From a^,both, 
and apdpumg, an articulation. A mixed 
articulation, in which the articular surfaces 
of bones are united by an intermediate sub- 
stance, which admits of but little motion, 
as the vertebral by the intervertebral car- 

AMPIIIB'IA. A class of animals so 
formed as to be capable of living on land, 
and for a long time under water. 

AMPHIBTOUS. Capable of living in 
two elements, air and water, as the croco- 
dile, beaver, frog, &c. 


jileopov, a net, and ecdog, a resemblance. 
Reticular ; like a net. 

both, and dtapdpoaig, a movable articula- 
tion. The temjioro-maxillary articulation 
is so designated by "Winslow, because it 
partakes both of ginglymus and arthro- 

AM'PHORA. From a/xfopevc, that which 
can be carried on both sides, by reason of 
its two handles. A measure used by the Ro- 
mans, containing, as is supposed, about 
nine gallons. 

amjjhora, a vessel. A stethescopic sound 
like that heard on blowing into a decanter. 

AMPLEXICAUL. From amplexus, an 
embrace, and caulis, a stem. A term ap- 
plied in Botany to leaves which embrace 
the stem. 

AMPUL'LA. A term applied in Chem- 
istry, to a large bellied bottle; in Anat- 
omy, to the dilated part of the membranace- 
ous semicircular canal in the ear ; and in 
Pathology, to a water-bladder on the skin, 
hence pemphigus is sometimes called Fe- 
bris avipnllosa. 

AMPULLAS'CENS. See Alvcus Am- 

AMPUL'LULA. Dim. of ampulla, a 
bottle. A term sometimes applied in Anat- 
omy, to a sac slightly enlarged in the 

AMPUTATION. Amputatio : from am- 
putare, to cut off. The removal of a limb, 
or any projecting part of the body by 
means of a cutting instrument. 

AM'ULET. Amvletum: from amolire, 
to remove, or put away, because it was sup- 
posed to drive off evil spirits and diseases. 
Any image or substance worn around the 
neck for the prevention of disease or evil. 

AMYEL'A. From a, priv., and fJ.ve2.oc, 
marrow. A monstrosity, in which there is 
a partial or complete absence of the spinal 

AMYGDALA. From a/iv^u, to strain 
milk, from the resemblance of the blanched 
almond to curd, or milk strained and sepa- 
rated from its serum. The almond, of 
which there are two kinds ; the amygdala 




amara, and amygdala diila's. The tonsils 
are also called amygdala'. 

Amygdala Amara. The bitter almond. 
AMYGDALA Dulcis. The sweet almond. 
Amyg'dal^e Oleum. Oil of almonds. 
AMYG'DALUS. The common almond 

Amyg'dalus Communis. The system- 
atic name of the plant from which the 
common almond is procured. 

Amygdalus Per'sica. The peach-tree. 
AMYL. The radical of a class of bodies 
resembling the Ethyl Series. It is, as now 
obtained, a colorless, transparent fluid, of 
slightly etheric odor, and varj'ing taste. 
It is found as an oxyhydrate in fusel oil 
from potato whiskey. Its formula is Cio 

AMYLACEOUS. Having the proper- 
ties of starch. 
A'MYLUM. Starch. 
Amylum Marant^e. Arrow-root. 
AMYO'SIS. Imperforate iris. 
AMYRIDA'CE.E. An order of Dico- 
tyledonous plants, abounding in fragrant 

AM'YRIS. A genus of plants abound- 
ing in resin. 

Amyris Elemifera. The plant from 
which the gum elemi is obtained. 

Amyris Gileadensis. The name of 
the plant from which the opobalsamum is 
obtained. The balm of Gilead tree. 

AMYX'IA. From a, priv., and (iv$a, 
a mucus. Deficiency of mucus. 

ANA. A word, in medical prescriptions ( 
signifying, of each. Its abbreviations, a 
and aa, are more frequently employed. It 
is also used as a prefix, denoting through, 
above, upward, &c. 

ANABASIS. From avafiaivo, I ascend. 
Augmentation or paroxysm of disease. 

ANABEX'IS. From avajinrru, to cough 
up. Expectoration. 

ANABLEP'SIS. From ava, again, and 
filenu, to see. Recovery of sight. 

ANAB'OLE. From ava, up, and (ia?lu, 
least. Vomiting; expectoration. 

ANABROCHE'SIS. From ava, again, 
and /3po,vew, to absorb, Re-absorption of 

ANACARDIACE2E. The cashew tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants, which abound in 
resinous, sometimes acrid, and very poison- 
ous juice. 

ANACAR'DIUM. A genus of plants 
of the order Anacardiaceoz. 

Anacardium, Oil of. A volatile oil 
distilled from the cashew nut. It is power- 
fully irritant and vesicant. 

Anacardium Occidentale. The cashew 

Anacardium Orientale. The Ma- 
lacca bean. 

ANACATHAR'SIS. From ava, up- 
ward, and icadaipeiv, to purge up. Pur- 
gation upward ; expectoration. 

ANACATHAR'TIC. An expectorant or 

ANACHREMP'SIS. Hawking up from 
the lungs. 

ANACLA'SIS. From avanlau, to bend 
back. Recurvature of any part. 

ANACLINTE'RIUM. A recumbent 
chair or couch. 

ANACOLLE'MA. From ava, together, 
and Kollau, I glue. A collyrium com- 
posed of agglutinating substances, and 
stuck on the forehead ; also, healing medi- 

%»fa(jO t to sound as a shell. A gargarism ; 
so called, because it makes a noise in the 
throat like the sound of a shell. 

ANACTE'SIS. From avanTao/iat, to re- 
cover. Recovery of strength; recovery 
from sickness. 

ANADIPLO'SIS. From ava, again, 
and (Vtv2.og), I double. A redoubling or 
frequent return of paroxysms, or disease. 

ANADORA. Excoriation. 

AN^E'MIA. From a, priv., and ai/ia, 
blood. Exsanguinity ; deficiency of blood, 
arising either from repeated hemorrhages 
or disease, and characterized by paleness 
of the face, lips,. and general surface of the 
body ; quick, feeble pulse, impaired appe- 
tite, &c. 

ANiEMOT'ROPHY. Anamotrophia : 
from a, priv., ai/ia, blood, and rpfrj, nourish- 
ment. Deficiency of sanguineous nourish- 




AN^ESTHE'SIA. From a, priv., and 
motiavo/iai, I feel. "Want of feeling ; loss 
of the sense of touch ; insensibility. 

ANESTHETIC. Pertaining to want 
of feeling, as anaesthetic agents, those which 
prevent feeling. 

Anesthetic Agents. The agents em- 
ployed to prevent pain during surgical 
operations and parturition. It has recently 
been ascertained that the inhalation of the 
vapor of ether or chloroform will have this 
effect. The practicability of producing it 
by the inhalation of a gaseous substance 
is believed by some to have originated with 
Dr. H. Wells, a dentist of Hartford, Ct., but 
the credit of fully demonstrating that the in- 
halation of the vapor of sulphuric ether 
would do it, has been very generally 
awarded to Dr. W. T. G. Morton, a dentist 
of Boston, though the idea of employing this 
particular agent in this way, is said to have 
been suggested to him by Dr. C. T. Jack- 
son, an eminent chemist of that city. More 
recently, Professor Simpson, of Edinburgh, 
has discovered that the vaj)or of chloroform 
would produce the same effect, and more 
promptly than that of ether. 

Much judgment and care arc required in 
the employment of these agents, as loss of 
life has resulted from their use in a great 
number of instances. In general surgery, 
and during parturition, they may be often 
used, no doubt, with great advantage, but 
they should seldom be resorted to in so 
simple an operation as the extraction of a 

A variety of instruments has been in- 
vented from which to inhale the vapor of 
these agents, but the usual and best method 
of administration consists in pouring three 
or four tea spoonfuls of ether, or from 
fifty to a hundred and twenty drops of 
chloroform, into the interior of a hollow 
sponge, or on a pocket handkerchief or 
napkin, and holding it to the mouth and 
nose. In this way the vapor may be 
freely inhaled, and the desired effect will 
generally be produced in from seven to ten 
minutes with the former, and in from 
thirty seconds to two minutes with the 

pimpernel; a plant of the order Prinm- 
ANAL'CIME. Cubic zeolite. 
ANALEP'SIS. From ava?M^avu, to 
restore. Pecovery of strength after dis- 
ease. In Surgery, the support of a frac- 
tured limb by means of a suitable appa- 

ANALEPTIC. Restorative ; applied to 
medicines and food which restore health 
and accelerate the progress of convales- 

ANALO'SIS. From avakiotio, to con- 
sume. Atrophy; wasting. 

ANALYSIS. From avalvu, to resolve. 
The separation of any compound substance 
into its primary and constituent parts. 

ANAMNESTIC. From ava/ii/n>j]OKa, to 
remember. A term sometimes applied to 
medicines which have the effect of invig- 
orating and improving the memory. 

ANANAS. Bromelia ananas. The 
common pine apple. 

Xavrac, bald. Loss of the hair of the eye- 
brows, and baldness in general. 

ANAPHORYX'IS. From avcupopvaoa, 
to grind down. The reduction of any 
thing to a fine powder. 

ANAPHRODIS'IA. From o, priv., 
and atjipodtn), the Grecian name of Venus. 
Impotence ; from organic, functional, or 
other causes. 

ANAPLERO'SIS. From avaizlrtpou, to 
fill again. The restitution of wasted parts. 

ANAPLEU'SIS. From avairteu, to 
float. Looseness of an exfoliated bone, or 
of a tooth. For the latter, see Gomphiasis. 

ANAPNEU'SIS. From avanvea, to 
respire. Respiration. 

ANAPTO'SIS. From avanmru, to fall 
back. A relapse. 

ANARRHCE'A. From ava, up, and peu, 
to flow. An afflux of fluid to the head or 
towards the upper part of the body. 

A'NAS. A genus of Anserine birds. 

Anas Anser. The Goose. 

Anas Cygnus. The Swan. 

Anas Domesticus. The tame Duck. 

ANASAR'CA. From ava, through, and 




cap!;, flesh. General dropsy, or an accu- 
mulation of serum in the cellular mem- 

ANASTALTICA. From avaorEMa, to 
contract. Styptic medicines. 

ANASTOMO'SIS. From ava, through, 
and aiofia, a mouth. The communication 
of vessels with each other. 

ANASTOMOTIC. Anastomotims. Med- 
icines which were thought to open the 
pores and mouths of vessels. 

ANATASE. Pyramidal titanium ore. 
It is pure titanic acid. It occurs in octa- 
hedral or tabular crystals. Its color is 
brown of various shades, passing into indi- 
go blue or greenish yellow by transmitted 
light. It is said to accompany native 
titanium in the slags from the iron furnaces 
in Orange Co., New York. 

ANATOMY. From ava, and Tepviev, 
to cut. The dissection of organized bodies 
so as to expose the structure, situation, 
and use of the various parts. The word, 
as at present used, has reference also to 
the study of the parts of organized bodies 
and their uses. In a word, it may be 
properly called the science of organization, 
though it is commonly limited to the study 
of the human body. 

Anatomy, Comparative:. Zootomy. 
The comparative study of the organs of 
animals generally. 

Anatomy, Descriptive. The anatomy 
of the various organs of the human body, 
including their shape, mutual relations, 

Anatomy, General. This treats of 
the structure and properties of the different 
tissues common to several organs, embra- 
cing an examination of the general charac- 
ters of all the organs and humors. 

Anatomy, Morbid, or Pathological. 
This treats of diseased states or altera- 
tions of structure. 

Anatomy, Special. This treats of the 
healthy state of the organs. 

Anatomy, Transcendental. The in- 
vestigation of the plan or model upon 
which the living frame and its organs are 

ANATRE'SIS. From ava, and nrpau, 

to perforate. A perforation like that made 
by trepanning. 

ANATRIBE. Anatripsis. From avaTpifiu, 
to rub. Friction upon the body. 

ANAU'DIA. From a, priv., and aviit, 
the speech. Privation of speech. Cata- 

AN'CHILOPS. From ayxt, near to, and 
unj), the eye. An inflammatory tumor in 
the inner angle of the eye. 

ANCHORA'LIS. A name applied to 
the coracoid process. 

ANCHU'SA. A genus of plants of the 
order Boraginece. 

Anchusa Officinalis. The officinal 

Anchusa Tincto'ria. The alkana of 
the Parmacopoeias ; the alkanet plant. 

ANCHUSIN. A resinous coloring mat- 
ter, extracted from alkanet. 

ANCHYLO'SIS. Ancylosis. Ankylosis. 
From aynvkof, crooked. A stiff-joint. 

ANCONE'US. From aynw, the elbow ' 
The name of a muscle situated on the back 
of the elbow. 

Anconeus Externus. Triceps exten- 
sor cubiti. 

ANCONOID. Resembling the elbow. 

ANC'TER. A fibula or clasp to connect 
the edges of a wound. 

ANCUNNUEN'TA. A menstruating 

ANCUS. From oy/cwv, the elbow. A 
distorted or stiff elbow. 

contraction, and (iteipapov, an eyelid. A dis- 
ease of the eye, by which the eyelids are 

ANCYLOGLOS'SUM. From ayKvkv, a 
hook, and yluaaa, the tongue. Tongue- 

ANCYLO'SIS. Anchylosis. 

ANDA. An Euphorbiaceous tree of 
Brazil, the fruit of which is an oval nut, 
containing two seeds. From these an oil 
is obtained possessing strong cathartic 
properties, which has also an emetic 

ANDI'RA. A genus of plants of the 
order Mimosece. 

Andira Inermis. The cabbage tree. 




ANDRO'CEUM. From avr/p, a man, 
a term applied in Botany to the male or- 
gans in plants ; the stamens. 

ANDROG'YNUS. From avr,p, a man, 
yvvrj, a woman. An hermaphrodite. An 
effeminate man. 

ANDROMA'NIA. From avr\p, a man, 
and fiavia, fury. Nymphomania. 

ANDROM'EDA. A genus of plants of 
the order Erkacece. 

Andromeda Maria'na. Broad-leaved 
moorwort ; leather leaf. 

Andromeda Arborea. The sorrel-tree. 
The leaves have an acid taste, and have 
been used in decoction in fevers. 

ANDROTOMTA. Androtome; from 
avrip, a man, and refrvw, to cut. The dis- 
section of the human body. 

ANDRUM. A name given by Kajmp- 
fer to a species of hydrocele, connected 
with elephantiasis, endemic in the south of 

ANEBIUM. From avaflatvu, to ascend. 
The alkanet is so called because of its quick 

ANECPYE'TUS. That which is not 
likely to suppurate. 

ANEMIA. Amentia. 

ANEMOM'ETER. From avcpog, wind, 
and (iirpov, a measure. An instrument for 
measuring the force or velocity of the wind. 

ANEMONIA. A camphor obtained by 
distillation from Anemone nemorosa, Pulsa- 
tilla and pratensis. Its formula is O15 H B 
06- Boiled with baryta water, it is con- 
verted into anemonic acid, On H7 O7. 

ANEMO'NE. A genus of Ranuncula- 
ceous plants. The wild-flower. 

Anemone Hepat'ica. The Eepatica 
nobilis, or herb trinity. 

Anemone Nemoro'sa. The systematic 
name of Ranunculus albus 

Anemone Praten'sis. Meadow ani- 

ANENCEPH'ALUS. From a, priv., 
cynetyakov, the brain. A monster without 

ANE'SIS. From avirjut, to remit. Re- 
mission of a disease or symptom. 

ANE'THUM. A genus of umbellifer- 
ous plants. 

Anethum Foenic'ulum. The fceniculum 
of the shops ; sweet fennel. 

Anethum Grav'eolens. The system- 
atic name of anethum. Dill. 

ANET'ICA. From aviyfu, to remit. 
Medicines that ease pain. 

AN'EURISM. Aneurisma; from avevpv- 
veiv, to dilate or distend. A tumor formed by 
the dilatation of g an artery, or of the heart. 
There are three varieties of aneurism. 1. 
When the blood in the dilated artery does 
not escape, but is covered by the arterial 
coats, it is called True aneurism. 2. When 
there is an opening in the artery, and the 
blood escapes into the cellular tissue which 
forms a sac around it, it is called False or 
spurious aneurism. 3. When, in opening 
a vein an artery is wounded, and blood es- 
capes into the vein, and causes it to become 
varicose, it is called varicose aneurism. 

ANEURIS'MAL. Belonging to an an- 

Aneurismal Sac or Cyst. The sac or 
pouch of an aneurism. 

ANFRACTUOSTTY. Anfractus; from 
am, around, and fractus, broken. A wind- 
ing or curvature ; applied in Anatomy to 
a winding depression or grove. The fur- 
rows which separate the convolutions 
of the brain are called cerebral anfractu- 

ANGEIAL. From ayyiurv, a vessel. Vas- 
cular ; abounding with, or full of minute 

ANGEIOL'OGY. See Angiology. 

ANGEIOT'OMY. See Angiotuny. 

ANGEIOPATHPA. From ayyuov, a 
vessel, and 7rm9oc, a disease. Disease of the 

ANGEIOSPERMIA. From ayyuov, a 
vessel, and ompua, seed. A term applied 
in Botany to plants which have their seeds 
enclosed in a vessel, or pericarp, 

ANGEIOSTEO'SIS. From ayyeiov, a 
vessel, and ooreuoic, ossification. Ossifica- 
tion of vessels. 

ANGELTCA. So called from its sup- 
posed angelic virtues. A genus of umbel- 
liferous plants ; the garden angelica, the 
roots of which have a fragrant odor and 
pungent taste, possessing aromatic and car- 




urinative properties. They are used by the 
Laplanders in pectoral affections. 

Angelica Archangeli'ca. The name 
for the angelica of the shops. 

Angelica Sylves'this. Wild angelica. 

ANGELIC ACID. An acid found with 
valerianic acid in the roots of angelica. 
Formula, HOi Cio H 7 3 . 

ANGELI'NA. A Malabar tree of great 
size ; the Andira inermis. 

ANGELI'NA CORTEX. The bark of 
a tree of Grenada, called by that name. 

ANGI'NA. From angere, to strangle. 
Inflammation of the throat and air passages. 

Angina Maligna. Malignant sore 

Angina Parotidea. The mumps. 

Angina Pec'toris. A disease charac- 
terized by severe pain about the lower part 
•of the sternum, accompanied with difficult 
•breathing, palpitation of the heart, and 
great anxiety. 

Angina Tonsillaris. Cynanche ton- 

Angina Trachealis. Cynanche tra- 

ANGIOGRAPHY. Angiographia ; from 
ayyeiov, a vessel, and ypafu, I describe. A 
description of the vessels of the body. 

ANGIOL'OGY. Angeiolog'ia ; from ay- 
yeiov, a vessel, and hoyo^, a discourse. The 
doctrine of the vessels. 

ANGIOP'ATHY. Angiopathia ; from 
ayyeiov, a vessel, and Ttadog, disease. A 
term applied in Pathology to vascular dis- 
ease, or a morbid affection of the vessels. 

ANGIOPLERO'SIS. From ayyeiov, and 
nlrjpuoig, repletion. Engorgement of the 
vessels ; vascular congestion. 

ANGIOT'OMY. Angiotomia ; from ay- 
yetov, a vessel, and ti/jvo), I cut. Dissection 
of the vessels. 

ANGLE. Angulus. The incidence of 
two lines, straight or curved; the point 
where two lines or surfaces meet. In Anat- 
omy, the term is applied to parts which 
have an angular shape, as the external and 
internal angle of the eyes, the angle of the 
lower jaw, &c. 

Angle, Fa'cial. The facial angle, ac- 
cording to Camper, is formed by the union 

of two lines ; one drawn from the most 
prominent part of the forehead to the edge 
of the alveolar border of the upper jaw, 
opposite the incisors ; the other, from the 
meatus auditorius externus of the same 
point. By the size of this angle it is said 
the relative proportions of the cranium and 
face may be ascertained, and to a certain 
extent, it is thought by some, but with 
how much probability of truth the author 
is unable to say, the amount of intelligence 
possessed by individuals and animals. 
These lines form an angle, in the white vari- 
eties of the human species, of about 80° ; 
in the negro, of from 65° to 70°. In de- 
scending the scale of animals the angle 
grows less and less until it almost entirely 

Angle, Optic. Visual angle ; the an- 
gle formed by two rays of light proceed- 
ing from different points, and meeting in 
the pupil of the eye. 

AN'GLICUS SUDOR. A sweating fe- 
ver, once very prevalent and fatal in Eng- 

AN'GONE. From ayxu, to strangle. A 
nervous constriction of the fauces, in hys- 
terical women, attended with a feeling of 

AN'GOR. Intense pain about the epi- 
gastrium, attended with great anxiety, and 
often with palpitation. 

AN'GULAR. Angidaris ; from angulus, 
an angle. Belonging to an angle. 

Angular Artery. The end of the 
facial artery, which inosculates at the inner 
side of the orbit with the ophthalmic ar- 

Angular Processes. The orbitary pro- 
cesses of the os frontis. 

Angular Vein. The vein which ac- 
companies the angular artery. 

tor anguli scapulse. 

ANGULO'SUS. Angular. 

ANGUSTU'RA BARK. The product of 
a South American evergreen tree. It pos- 
sesses bitter, aromatic, tonic properties, 
and is but little inferior to the Cinchona 

Angustura Bark, False. A poisonous 




bark, which was formerly occasionally 
mixed with the genuine angustura bark, 
and which produced some unlucky acci- 
dents. It contains the alkaloid brucia. 

ANHELATION, Anhdatio ; from an- 
hdo, I pant. Shortness of breath; pant- 
ing, symptomatic of lesion of the pulmo- 
nary functions. 

ANHEL'ITUS. Panting. 

ANHYDRITE. Anhydrous gypsum. 

ANHY'DROUS. From a, priv., and 
vdup, water. A term applied in Chem- 
istry to a salt which contains no water of 
crystallization ; also, to any substance de- 
prived of water. 

ANIL. The plant from which indigo is 

ANILIN. An alkaloid obtained by the 
destruction of various organic substances. 
It is a volatile, colorless, pungent liquid. 
Formula, C12 NH7. It is found in coal, tar 
oil, and in Dippel's oil. 

AN'IMA. From ave/ioc, wind or breath. 
A word used to denote the principle of life. 
Also, a soul, or the intellectual manifesta- 
tions of man. 

Anima Aloes. Refined aloes. 

Anima Hepatis. Sal martis; sul- 
phate of iron. 

Anima Pulmonum. The soul of the 
lungs. A name given to saffron, on ac- 
count of its being used in asthmas. 

Amima Rhabarbari. The best rhubarb. 

Anima Saturni. Sugar of lead. 

Anima Veneris. A preparation of cop- 

ANIMAL. An organized animated be- 
ing, endowed with the power of locomotion. 
The term, according to its common accep- 
tation, is restricted to irrational creatures. 
Animals are divided by Cuvier into four 
classes, viz: 1. Vertebrata ; 2. Mollusca ; 
3. Articidata, and 4. Radiata. The verte- 
brated animals are those which have a 
spinal column, composed of vertebra? ; the 
mollusca are those which have soft bodies, 
with no osseous frame work, as the shell- 
fish ; the articidated are those whose 
bodies are supported by a hard external 
envelope, divided into numerous pieces, ar- 
ticulated together by a membrane in such 

a manner as to admit of free motion, and 
which are moved by means of muscles at- 
tached to them interiorly; the radiated, 
have all their parts attached in a circu- 
lar manner, with their mouth in the cen- 

Animal. Adjective. That which be- 
longs to or concerns animals. 

Animal Heat. The heat or caloric of 
the body of a living animal resulting from, 
and necessary to, its vitality, and which 
enables it to preserve nearly a uniform 
temperature, whatever may be the external 

Animal Economy. The conduct of 
nature in the preservation of the organ- 
ism. The organism itself. 

Animal Kingdom. The whole series of 
animated beings, from man to the lowest 

ANIMAL'CULE. A very small ani- 
mal, invisible to the naked eye. 

AN'IMALIZATION. The transforma- 
tion of the nutritive parts of food into the 
living structures of the body. 

ANTME GUMMI. A resinous sub- 
stance obtained from the trunk of Hymencea 
courbaril, or locust-tree. 

AN'IMUS. See Anima. 

French liquor made by distilling anise, fen- 
nel, and coriander seed, with brandy, su- 
gar and water. 


ANI'SUM. Pimpinella anisum ; the an- 
ise plant. 

a clasp, and fJleQapov, the eyelid. Adhesion 
of the eyelids to each other. 

ANKYLOGLOS'SUM. From ay K vlog, 
crooked, or contracted, and yluaaa, the 
tongue. Restricted or impaired motion of 
the tongue. 

ANKYLOMERIS'MUS. From ay K vl v , 
a contraction, and yepo i} a part. Morbid 
adhesion between parts. 

ANKYLOSIS. See Anchylosis. 

ANKYLOT'OMUS. From aynvUg, 
crooked, and re/iveiv } to cut. A curved 

ANNEAL'. From the Saxon, Annelan,, 




to heat. To heat and cool slowly, as glass, 
gold or other metals. 

ANNEALING. The process of apply- 
ing heat to a metal for the purpose of re- 
moving brittleness and increasing its duc- 
tility and malleability. Glass is rendered 
less frangible by the same process. With- 
out annealing, glass flies to pieces very rea- 
dily, as may be seen in Prince Rupert's 
drops. In many of the arts, the process of 
annealing is a matter of great importance, 
and in none more so than that of the den- 
tist. The gold employed for filling teeth, 
unless thoroughly and uniformly annealed, 
cannot be introduced, in a sufficiently 
thorough and substantial manner, to pre- 
vent its liability of coming out, and at the 
same time to secure the perfect preserva- 
tion of the organ. 

During the process of manufacturing 
gold into foil, it is necessary frequently to 
subject it to the process of annealing, which 
consists, after it is reduced to leaves, in 
heating each leaf separately to a cherry- 
red heat, either over the flame of a spirit 
lamp, or on a plate of stone or metal, over 
a furnace. But in annealing gold foil, dif- 
rerent methods are adopted by different 
manufacturers. [See Gold Foil.] In an- 
nealing gold, during its preparation for 
plate, less nicety is required. It simply 
consists in bringing the metal, after it has 
been cast into ingots, before it be planished, 
and also frequently during its lamination, 
to a cherry-red, by putting the gold upon 
charcoal or rather peats, which have a more 
equal and lively flame, and covering it 
quite up and taking care that the thin parts 
of the gold do not become hotter than the 
thick. When the gold has by this process 
acquired its proper heat, it should be re- 
moved to hot ashes to cool, without com- 
ing in contact, more than possible, with the 
cold air, by which its temperature would 
be too suddenly changed. But gold and 
•even silver are not so much affected by a 
sudden transition from heat to cold, as are 
many of the other metals, yet it does, to 
some extent, increase their brittleness. 

ANNELIDE'S. Annelida*, anndlata ; 
from annuttus, a little ring. The lowest 

order of Cuvier's class articulata. Their 
body consists of a number of segments, 
each of which is a ring. The leech and 
earth-worm belong to this order. 

ANNOTTO. Annotta. A brownish red 
substance obtained from the pellicles of the 
seeds of the Bixa oreUana, a South Amer- 
ican tree. In the Arts it has been used for 
dying silks and cotton an orange yellow; 
and in Pharmacy, to color plasters. 

AN'NULAR. Anmdaris ; from annu- 
lus, a ring. Shaped like a ring. 

Annular Bone. Oirculus osscus. A 
circular bone, situated before the cavity of 
the tympanum in the foetus. 

Annular Cartilage. The cricoid car- 
tilage of the larynx is so called from its 
resemblance to a ring. 

Annular Ligaments. A name given 
to certain ligamentous bands, as the annular 
ligament of the radius, which is of a fibro- 
cartilaginous structure, and which, with 
the lesser sigmoid cavity of the cubitus, 
forms a ring around the head of the radius ; 
and the annular ligaments of the carpus 
and tarsus, to each of which there are two. 

Annular Vein. The name of a vein 
situated between the annular, or ring fin- 
ger, and little finger. 

AN'NULARIS. The finger between 
the little and middle fingers is so called, 
because this is the one on which the wed- 
ding ring is worn. 

ANNULATE. Annidatus. Furnished 
with rings or belts ; surrounded by rings. 

AN'NULUS. A ring. In Anatomy, a 
circular orifice traversed by a tube, vessel, 
or other organs. In Botany, the name of 
the membrane which surrounds the stem of 
the fungi. 

An'nulus Abdominis. The abdominal 

Annul us Albidus. The ciliary liga- 
ment, or circle. 

Annulus Ovalis. The rounded border 
on the septum, occupying the place of the 
foramen ovale in the foetus. 

ANODE. From ava, upward, and 060c, 
a way. That part of the surface of a body 
decomposing under the influence of elec- 
tricity, at which the current enters. 




ANODOUS. Edentulus. From a, priv., 
and odovg, a tooth. Without teeth ; tooth- 

Ak'odon. From a, priv., and odov i} a 
tooth. In Zoology, tlie name of a genus 
of Lamellibranchiate Bivalves, the shell of 
which has no articular processes, or teeth, 
at the hinge. 

AN'ODYNE. Anodynus. From av, 
priv., and otivvq, pain. A medicine which 
relieves pain ; as opium and belladonna, 

nio-chloride of iron, precipitated from water 
by potassa. 

Anodynum Minebale. Nitrate of po- 

AN'ODYNIA. Absence of pain; in- 

ANOMALOTROPHY. From o, priv., 
ofiahog, regular, and rpoyr), nourishment. 
Irregular nutrition of organs. 

ANOM'ALOUS. From o, priv., and 
ofiatog , regular. Irregular ; deviation from 
that which is natural. In Medicine, some- 
thing unusual in the symptoms which 
properly belong to a disease. In Odontol- 
ogy, something unnatural in the conforma- 
tion or growth of a tooth, or of the alveo- 
lar arches ; and in Dental Pathology, in the 
phenomena of the diseases to which the 
teeth are liable. 

ANOMALY. Deviation from ordinary 
Jaws; as sometimes seen in the develop- 
ment of certain organs or parts of the 

ANOMOCEPHALUS. From », priv., 
vofios, rule, and netyafai, head. Having a 
deformed head. 

ANOM'PHALUS. From a, priv., ofi<j>a- 
&og, the navel. Without a navel. 

ANONA'CE^E. The fourth order of the 
Jassienan system. It contains nine genera, 
all trees or shrubs, and mostly tropical. 

ANON'YMOUS. From a, priv., and 
ovo/ia, name. Without a name. 

ANOPHTHAL'MUS. Anommatus; from 
av, priv., and oty$a}.[ioc, an eye. A mon- 
ster without eyes. 

ANOP'SIA From av, priv., and orp, the 
eye. A case of monstrosity, in which the 
eye and orbit are wanting. 

ANOR'CHIDES. From av, priv., and 
opx<C, a testicle. Such as are born without 
testicles are so termed. 

ANOREX'IA. From av, priv., and 
ope£i£, appetite. Want of appetite without 
loathing of food. 

ANORMAL. Abnormal; from anor- 
mis, without rule. Irregular; not in ac- 
cordance with ordinary laws. 

ANOS'MIA. From o, priv., and oa/nt, 
odor. Loss of tlie sense of smelling. 

ANSER. The goose. 

Ansee Domesticus. The domestic goose. 

ANSERI'NA. Silver weed, or wild 

ANT. See Formica. 

ANTACIDS. From anti, against, and 
acida, acids. Medicines which remove 
acidity in the stomach, as the carbonates 
of soda, magnesia, &c 

ANTAGONIST. Antagonistes ; coun- 
ter-acting. A term applied, in Anatomy, 
to muscles which act in opposition to each 
other, as the flexors and extensors of a 

ANTAL'GIC. From avri, against, and 
akyoq, pain. Medicines which relieve 

ANTAL'KALINE. From «m, against, 
and alkali, an alkali. That which neutral- 
izes alkalies. 

ANTArHRODIS'IAC. Antaphrodit'ic ; 
from avri, against, and a^podiaiaKoq , aph- 
rodisical. A term applied to medicines 
which repress the genital appetite. 

ANTAPODO'SIS. From mnmitSufn, 
I return in exchange. Succession and re- 
turn of febrile paroxysms. 

ANTARTHRTCTC. Antarihriiicus ; 
from avri, against, and apdpnig, gout. 
Remedies against gout. 

ANTEN'NiE. In Zoology, certain ap- 
pendages borne in the head of insects, crus- 
taceans, and some mollusks. 

ANTECENDENTIA. The premoni- 
tory symptoms of disease. 

ANTELA'BIA. From ante, before, and 
labia, the lips. The extremity of the lips. 

ANTEM'BASIS. From avri, mutually, 
and e(i(3aivu, I enter. The mutual recep- 
tion of bones. 




ANTENEASTklUS. From a vn, against, 
and eavTov, one's self. A description of 
madness, in which the patient attempts his 
own life. 

ANTE'RIOR. Before. 

Anterior Aur'is. The name of a 
muscle of the ear. 

Anterior Intercostal nerve. A 
branch of the great intercostal nerve, given 
ofif in the thorax. 

before, and verto, to turn. A morbid incli- 
nation of the fundus of the uterus forward. 

ANT'HELIX. See Antihelix. 

ANTHELMINTIC. Anthelmintics ; 
from avn, against, and t\uivg, a worm. A 
remedy for the destruction or expulsion of 

ANTHEMIS. From avdeu, to blossom. 
A genus of plants of the order Compositaz. 
The chamomile. 

Anthemis Cotula. The systematic 
name of the plant called cotula fartida. 
Mayweed, dog-fennel, or wild chamomile. 

Anthemis Nob'ilis. The systematic 
name of the common chamomile. 

Anthemis Py'rethrum. The plant 
from which the pyrethrum is obtained. 
The Spanish chamomile, or pellitory of 

ANTHER. From avtieu, to flourish. 
The male sexual organ in plants, forming 
the summit of the stamen, and containing 
the pollen and fecundating substance. 

ANTHETtA. From avdripoc, florid, so 
called from its having this color. The name 
of an ancient remedy, compounded of 
myrrh, sandarac, alum, &c. 

ANTHE'SIS. From avQeu, to blossom. 
The period when flowers expand. 

ANTHIARIN. The active principle of 
a gum-resin, obtained from the Anthiaris 
toxicaria, the most deadly of the upas pois- 

ANTHOTHUM. From avdodijc, full of 
flowers. The head of flowers like the this- 
tle, daisy, &c, and in all cases where a 
number of florets are combined in a head, 
with one common involucrum. 

ANTHORA. From em, against, and 
tiopa, corruption. A term applied in Bot- 

any to an European species of Aeonitum, 
or wolfsbane. 

ANTHRA'CIA. From avdpa?, coal. 
Carbuncular exanthem. An eruption of 
imperfectly suppurating tumors, with in- 
durated edges. 

Anthracia Pestis. The plague. 

ANTHRACIN. A volatile substance ob- 
tained from the distillation of coal in com- 
pany with naphthalin. Formula, C30 Hn. 

ANTHRACITE. From avtipai, a burn- 
ing coal. A species of stone-coal, con- 
taining no bituminous substance and yield- 
ing no inflammable gases by distillation. 

ANTHRACO'SIS. Anthracia, carbo-pal- 
pebrarum, from avSpa£, coal. A species of 
carbuncle, winch attacks the eyelids and 

ANTHRAKOK'ALI. From a^K coal, 
and kali, potassa. A remedy of recent in- 
troduction in the treatment of certain he- 
patic affections. 

ANTHRAX. From avtipat, a coal. A 
hard, circumscribed, inflammatory tumor, 
resembling a boil, seated in the cellular 
membrane and skin on the back, which 
soon becomes gangrenous, and discharges 
an exceedingly fetid sanies. 

ANTHROPO-. From avdpjnoc, a man. 
A prefix to many words, signifying human. 

ANTHROPOCENY. Anthropogenia ; 
from av&poKoc , man, and yevemg, genera- 
tion. The study of the phenomena of the 
generation of man. 

troc, a man, and 7po0«, to write. A descrip- 
tion of the human organism. 

ANTHROPOL'OGY. Anihropologia f 
from mrdpumc, a man, and Aoyof, a dis- 
course. The doctrine of the structure and 
functions of the human body. 

ANTHROPOMETRY. From ard^ncc, 
a man, and fterpov, measure. The admeas- 
urement of the proportions of the differ- 
ent parts of the human body. 

ANTHROPOPHAG'IA. From avtipunoe, 
a man, and ^ayw, I eat. Cannibalism; 
feeding on human flesh. 

ANTHROPOT'OMY. Anthropotomia ; 
from avdpairog, a man, and re/nvu, I cut. 
The dissection of the human body. 




ANTHYPNOT'IC. Anthypnot'icus; from 
avn } against, and vrrvuriKog t stupefying. A 
remedy against sleep or drowsiness. 

cfiondi'i'acus ; from avn, against, and vno- 
%ov6piaiio it hypochondriac. A remedy for 
hypochondriasis, or low-spiritedness. 

ANTHYSTERICA. From avn, against, 
and varepa, the womb. Medicines which 
relieve hysteria. 

ANTI. Avn, A Greek preposition sig- 
nifying against, opposed to. 

ANTIADES. The tonsils. 

ANTIADITIS. Inflammation of the 

ANTIAGRI. From avnag, a tonsil, and 
aypa, a prey. Swelling of the tonsils. 

ANTIARIN. See Anthiarin. 

ANTI ARTHRITIC. Antiarthrit'icus ; 
from avn, against, and apdpmg, the gout. 
A remedy against gout. 

ANTIASTHMATIC. Antiasthmat'icus; 
from avn, against, and acr&fca, asthma. A 
remedy against asthma. 

ANTIATROPHTC. Antiatroph'ieus ; 
from avn, against, and arpoipta, an atrophy. 
A remedy against atrophy or wasting away. 

A portion of the aponeurotic sheath, which 
envelops the whole of the upper limb, is so 

ANTICACHEC'TIC. Anticachec'ticus ; 
from avn, against, and icaxe£ia, a cachexy. 
A remedy against cachexy or a bad habit 
of body. 

ANTICAN'CEROUS. Anticancero'sus; 
Anticarcinom'atous ; from avn, against, and 
KapKtvufia, cancer. Opposed to cancer. A 
remedy against cancer. 

ANTICAR'DIUM. From avn, against, 
and napdia, the heart. The scrobiculus cor- 
dis, or pit of the stomach. 

ANTICATARRH'AL. Anticatarrha'lis ; 
from avn, against, and mrappog, a catarrh. 
Opposed to, or a remedy for, catarrh. 

ANTICHEIR. The 'thumb. 

ANTICHOL/IC. From avn, against, and 
KuliKog, the cholic. A remedy against the 

ANTIDIARRHffiTC. A remedy against 

ANTIDI'NIC. From avn, against, and 
divog, vertigo. Medicines used against ver- 

ANTIDOTE. Antid'otum; from avn, 
against, and dtdupi, I give. A remedy for 
combating or counteracting the effects of 

ANTIDYSENTERTC. Antidysmter'i- 
cus ; from avn, against, and dvaevrepta, a 
flux. Opposed to, or remedy for, dysen- 

ANTIEMETIC. Antiemet'icus ; from 
avn, against, and efienicof, a vomit. That 
which prevents vomiting. 

ANTIEPHIAL'TIC. AntiepMal'tims ; 
from avn, against, and eQtaXrrig, the night- 
mare. That which is opposed to night- 

ANTIEriLEP'TIC. Antiepilep'iicus ; 
from avn, against, and emXriipia, the epi- 
lepsy. That which is opposed to epilepsy. 

ANTIFET3RILE. Antifebrilis ; from 
avn, against, and febris, a fever. A feb- 
rifuge, or that which opposes fever. 

ANTIHEC'TIC. Aniihec'ticus ; from 
avn, against, ennnog, hectic fever. A rem- 
edy against hectic fever. 

ANTIHE'LIX. From avn, against, and 
fvlif, the helix. The inner circle of the ear 
is so named from its opposition to the outer, 
which is called the helix. 

rhoida'lis ; from avn, against, and aipoppoi- 
6eg, hemorrhoids. Remedies against the 

ANTIHERPETTC. Antiherpei'icus; from 
avn, against, and epneg, herpes. That 
which is opposed to herpes. 

phob'icus ; from avn, against, vdup, water, 
and 4>o[3og, dread. Opposed to hydropho- 

ANTIHYDROPTC. Antthydrop'icus ; 
from avn, against, and vdpuij>, dropsy. A 
remedy for dropsy. 

ANTI-ICTERIC. From avn, against, 
and iKTepog jaundice. A remedy against 

ANTILITHTCS. Antilith'ica ; from mm, 
against, "kidog, a stone. A remedy to pre- 
vent the formation of urinary calculi. 




ANTILO'BIUM. From avn, against, 
and /W?oj, the bottom of the ear. That 
part of the ear which is opposite the lobe. 

ANTILOI'MIC. Antiloi'micus ; from 
avn, against, and hoiuoc, the plague. Op- 
posed to the plague. 

ANTIMO'NIAL. Antimonia'lis ; from 
Antimonium, antimony. A preparation in 
which antimony is an ingredient. 

Antimonial Powder. A peroxyd of 
antimony combined with phosphate of lime. 

Antimoniale Causticum. Chloride of 

ANTIMONIC ACID. Acidum stibicum. 
A combination of one part of antimony 
with five of oxygen, (SbOs. ) Its salts are 
called antimoniates. The best known of 
these is antimoniale of lead, the Naples yel- 
low of the painters. 

TEAS. Tartrate of antimony and potash. 

Antimonii Oxydum. Oxyd of anti- 

Antimonii Sulphure'tom Pr-ecipita- 
TUM. Precipitated sulphuret of antimony. 

Antimonii Sulphure'tum Rubrum. 
Red sulphuret of antimony. 

Antimonii Tartarizati Vinum. Wine 
of tartarized antimony. 

Antimonii Vitrum. Glass of anti- 

ANTIMONIOUS ACID. Acidum stibi- 
osum. A white powder formed by oxy ■ 
dating antimony with nitric acid. Its salts 
are called antimonites. It colors glass 
and porcelain yellow. 

ANTIMO'NIUM. Antimony. 

Antimonium Diaphoret'icum. White 
oxyd of antimony. 

ANTIMONY. From avn, against, and 
povog, alone, because it is not found alone ; 
or according to others, from avn, against, 
and moine, a monk, because as some affirm, 
Valentine, by a careless administration of 
it, poisoned his brother monks. Antimony 
is a heavy, solid, brittle metallic substance, 
seldom found in its native state. It has a 
slight inclination to a metallic lustre and a 
steel-gray color. Its symbol is Sb j its 
combining number 129.24. 

ANTINEPHRIT'IC. Antinephrit'icus ; 

from avn, against, and vefping, inflamma- 
tion of the kidneys. A remedy for inflam- 
mation of the kidney. 

ANTIODONTAL'GIC. Antiodontal'gi- 
cus ; from avn, against and odovrafyia, 
tooth-ache. Remedies against tooth-ache. 
See Odontalgia. 

of an insect, so called from its supposed an- 
tiodontalgic properties. It is described by 
Germi, in a work published at Florence, 
1794. It is a sort of Curculio, found on a 
species of thistle, Carduus spinosissimus. 
The manner recommended for using these 
insects is, to rub a number of them between 
the thumb and fore-finger, until they lose 
their moisture, and then to touch the de- 
cayed part of the painful tooth. In some 
instances it was said to have produced im- 
mediate relief, except when the gums 
around it were inflamed, in which case it 
failed to produce the desired effect. Other 
insects are also said to possess the property 
of relieving the tooth-ache, as the Scarabaius 
ferrugineus of Fabricius; the Coccinella 
septempunctala, or lady-bird ; the Gkryso- 
mela populi, &c. These insects at one 
time, were quite popular as remedies for 
tooth-ache in Germany, but their anti- 
odontalgic virtues have not proved so great 
as represented by those who recommended 
them, and to be realized in any sensible 
degree, requires a larger amount of credu- 
lity than most persons possess; consequently 
they have fallen into disrepute. It is pos- 
sible, by exciting the gum, they might 
sometimes produce temporary relief. 

ANTIPARALYT'IC. Antiparalyt'icus ; 
from avn, against, and napalvms, the palsy. 
Medicines against palsy. 

ANTIPATHY. Antipathia ; from avn, 
against, and iza-dog, passion, affection. 
Aversion to particular objects or things. 

ANTIPERISTALTIC. Antiperistal'li- 
cus; from avn, and -nepicTeXku, I compress 
or contract. Any thing which obstructs 
the peristaltic motion of the intestinal tube. 

ANTIPHAR'MIC. Antipharmi'cus; from 
avn, against, and, <t>apnanov , a poison. 
Preservatives against, or remedies for poi- 
son. A counter-poison. 




ANTIPHLOGISTIC. AniipMogis'ticus ; 
from avn, against, and faeyo), I burn. That 
which opposes inflammation. 

ANTIPHTHIS'ICAL. Antiphthis'icus ; 
from avn, against, and <j>&iaig, consump- 
tion. Opposed to consumption. 

ANTIPHY'SIC. Antiphysi'cus; from 
avn, against, and (j>vaau, to blow. A car- 
minative or remedy against flatulence. 

ANTIPLEURIT'IC. Antipleurii'icus ; 
from avn, against, and, pleurisy. 
A remedy against pleurisy. 

ANTIPODAG'RIC. Antipodag'ricus ; 
from avn, against, and nodaypa, the gout. 
Opposed to the gout. 

ANTIPRAX'IS. From avn, against, 
and npaoou, I work. A contrary state of 
different parts in the same individual. 

ANTIPYRETIC. Antipyrel'icus ; from 
avn, against, and •nvperoc, fever. Opposed 
to fever ; a febrifuge. 

against, and quartana, a quartan fever. A 
remedy for quartan fever. 
ANTIRACHITIC. Antirhachit'icus; from 
avn, against, and rachitis, the rickets. Op- 
posed to the rickets. 

ANTIRRHI'NUM. A genus of plants 
of the order Scrophulariiiece. 

Antirrhi'num Elati'ne. The system- 
atic name of the plant called fluellen, or 
female speedwell. The elatine of the shops. 

Antirrhinum Lina'ria. The common 
toad flax, a perennial indigenous plant. 

ANTISCOL'IC. Antiscol'icus ; from avn, 
against, and okoXtj^, a worm. Opposed to 
worms. Anthelmintic. 

ANTISCORBUTIC Aniiscorbu'ticus ; 
from avn, against, and scorbutus, the scur- 
vy. Remedies for the scurvy. 

ANTISCROF'ULOUS. Antistrumo'sus; 
Opposed to scrofula. 

ANTISEPTIC. AntisejMcus ; from 
avn, against, and otjttu, to putrefy. That 
which is opposed to putrefaction. 

ANTISPASMODIC. Antispasmod'icus ; 
from avn, against, and anaafiog, a spasm. 
That which possesses the power of allaying 
or removing spasms. 

ANTISTRUMO'SUS. Anti-scrofulous. 

ANTISYPH1LITTC. Anti-venereal. 

ANTITHE'NAR. Abductor pollicia 
pedis, a muscle of the foot. 

ANTITRAG'ICUS. Antitragus ; a small 
muscle of the ear. 

ANTITRAG'US. From avn, against, 
and rpayog, the tragus. An eminence op- 
posite the tragus of the outer ear. 

ANTIVENE'REAL. From avn, against, 
and vcnereus, venereal. A remedy for the 
venereal disease. 

ANTIZYM'IC. From avn, and fyjtof, 
yeast. That which prevents or arrests fer- 

thony's fire. Erysipelas. 

ANTRITIS. From antrum, a cave, and 
itis, a terminal signifying inflammation. 
Inflammation of any cavity of the body, 
especially of the maxillary sinus. 

ANTRUM, avrpw, a cave or cavern. 
A cavity which has a small opening into it. 

An'trum Auris. The cochlea of the ear. 

Antrum Dentale. The pulp cavity of 
a tooth. See Dental Cavity. 

Antrum Highmorianum. Antrum of 
Highmore, called so after the name of the 
anatomist who gave the first correct de- 
scription of it. See Maxillary Sinus. 

Antrum Maxillare. Maxillary sinus. 

Antrum Pylori. A cavity of the 
stomach near the pylorus. 

ANTYL'ION. From Antyllus, its in- 
ventor. An astringent cataplasm, recom- 
mended by Paulus ^Egineta. 

ANURIA. From o, priv., and ovpov, 
urine. Literally ,without urine, but the term 
is usually used synonymously with is- 
churia, retention of urine. 

ANUS. A contraction of annulus, a 
ring. The opening at the inferior extremi- 
ty of the rectum. The term anus is also 
applied to an opening of the third ventricle 
of the brain which communicates with the 

Anus, Artificial. An artificial open- 
ing, made to supply the natural anus. 

Anus, Imperforate. A malformation 
in which the anus is wanting. Imperfora- 
tion of the anus. 

AN'VIL. A mass of iron with one 
smooth surface, on which metals are ham- 




mered and shaped. It is used by smiths, 
jewelers and mechanical dentists. 

AN'VILED. Shaped or wrought on an 

ANXI'ETY. Anxie'tas. Eestlessness ; 
agitation ; general indisposition, with a dis- 
tressing sense of oppression about the epi- 
gastric region. 

AOCHLE'SIA. From a, priv., and o X log, 
disturbance. Calmness ; tranquillity ; a 
state of rest. 

AORTA. From aoprij, a vessel. The 
great trunk of the arterial system. It arises 
from the left ventricle of the heart, passes 
upward, forms a curve and descends in 
front, but rather on the left side of the 
spine, into the abdomen. 

AORTITIS. From aorta, and Ms. In- 
flammation of the aorta. 

AOTUS. From a, priv., and ovg, an ear. 
A monster without ears. Also, a genus of 
Australian plants. 

APALOT'ICA. From airah>rvg, soft- 
ness, tenderness. Accidental lesions, or 
deformities of soft parts. 

APANTHRO'PY. Apanthro'pia ; from 
ano, from, and av&ponog, a man. Melan- 
choly, with aversion to society. 

APARI'NE. From pivq, a file, so called, 
because its bark is rough like a file. Ga- 
lium aparine, or goose-grass. 

APARTHRO'SIS. From roro, and ap-dpov, 
a joint. Diarthrosis. 

AP'ATHY. Apathi'a; from a, priv., and 
7rai9of , affection. Morbid insensibility ; in- 

AP'ATITE. Native phosphate of lime. 

APEL'LA. From a, priv., and pedis, 
skin. Shortness of the prepuce. 

APEP'SIA. From o, priv., and nenru, 
to concoct. Dyspepsia. 

APE'RIENT. Ape'riens ; from aperire, 
to open. A mild purgative, or medicine 
which operates gently upon the bowels. 

APERISTAT'UM. Aperistation ; a 
small ulcer not surrounded by inflammation. 

APERTOR OCULI. The levator pal- 
pebral superioris. 

APETALOUS. From a, priv., and 
itETakov, a petal. A term applied in Bota- 
ny to plants which have no petals. 

A'PEX. The point or extremity of a 
part, as the apex of the tongue, nose, root 
of a tooth, &c. 

APHiER'ESIS. The amputation or ex- 
tirpation of a superfluous or injured part. 

APHAGIA. From a, priv., and <j>ayo> t 
I eat. Inability to take food. 

APHELX'IA. From a<peto(j, I separate 
or abstract. A disease which induces ab- 
sence or abstraction of mind. 

APH'ESIS. From a+atfu, I relax. The 
remission or cessation of a disease. 

APHLOGISTIC LAMP. From a, priv., 
and <pleyu, to burn. A lamp which burns 
without a flame. 

APHIDiE. A family of insects of the 
order Hemiptera, embracing the Linnean 
genus aphis. 

APHIS. The plant-louse. A genus of 
insects remarkable for fecundity. 

APHO'XTA. From a, priv., and Qwvri, 
the voice. A loss or privation of voice. 

APH'ORISM. Aphoris'mus; from a^ptdu. 
to distinguish. A principle or maxim set 
forth in few words, or in a short sentence. 

APHRODISI'A. From a<f>podiT V , Venus. 
Venereal commerce. Puberty. 

APHRODISIAC. From a<j>po6icia, venery, 
A term applied to food or medicine which 
excites the venereal appetite. 


APHRODITARIUM. A powder recom- 
mended by Paulus iEgineta for hollow 

APHRODITE A species of Meerschaum, 
from Sweden. 

APHROSYNE. From afruv, silly. Folly 
or dotage. 

APHTHAE. From awro, I inflame. The 
thrush. A disease which consists of round- 
ish, pearl-colored ulcers or vesicles, upon the 
tongue, gums, and inner walls of the mouth, 
sometimes extending through the whole 
of the alimentary canal, and generally ter- 
minating in curd-like sloughs. 

Aphthous ulcers are supposed by Pro- 
fessor Wood, to be the result of vesicular 
eruption of the mouth, and in treating of 
the disease, he says, " The vesicle is small, 
oval or roundish, white or pearl -colored, 
and consists of a transparent serous fluid 




under the elevated epithelium. In a few 
days the epithelium breaks, the serum es- 
capes, and a small ulcer forms, more or 
less painful, with a whitish bottom, and 
usually a red circle of inflammation around 
it. The vesicles are sometimes distinct and 
scattered, sometimes numerous and con- 
fluent. The distinct variety, though pain- 
ful, is a light affection, continuing in gen- 
eral only a few days or a week, and is 
usually confined to the mouth. It produces 
little or no constitutional disorder, though 
it may be associated with fever and gastric 
irritation as an effect. It attacks equally 
children and adults ; but it is said not to 
be very common in early infancy. In 
adults it is frequently occasioned by the ir- 
ritation of decayed teeth. The confluent 
variety is much more severe and obstinate. 
This frequently extends to the fauces and 
pharynx, and is even said to reach the in- 
testinal canal, though it may be doubted 
whether the affection of the stomach and 
bowels is identical with that of the mouth. 
When it occupies the fauces, it renders 
deglutition painful. It is sometimes at- 
tended with gastric uneasiness, vomiting, 
and intestinal pains, and diarrhoea. Fever 
occasionally precedes it, and it moderates 
without entirely ceasing upon the appear- 
ance of the eruption. The fever sometimes 
assumes a typhoid character." The cause 
of the disease is obscure, though it is, prob- 
ably, dependent upon a vitiated state of 
the humors of the body and acidity of the 
gastric juices. 

In the treatment of the disease, Prof. 
Wood says, " Magnesia may be given to cor- 
rect acidity, and the diet regulated by the 
state of the stomach. In the severer cases, 
fever should be obviated by refrigerant ca- 
thartics and diaphoretics, and by a liquid 
farinaceous or demulcent diet. When the 
disease attacks the fauces or pharynx, it 
occasions painful swallowing, and is at- 
tended with much fever and a strong pulse ; 
general bleeding may become necessary, 
and, subsequently, the application of 
leeches to the throat. Diarrhoea must be 
counteracted by the usual remedies calcu- 
lated to relieve intestinal irritation, among 

which may be mentioned, as especially 
useful, emollient applications to the abdo- 
men, and the warm bath. When the fever 
assumes the typhoid form, a tonic and sup- 
porting treatment may be required. 

" In the early stages, the local treatment 
should consist of demulcent applications, 
as flaxseed tea, mucilage of gum arabic, or 
almond emulsion, with or without a little 
laudanum, or some preparation of morphia. 
But after the inflammation has somewhat 
subsided, and ulcers are left indisposed to 
heal, astringent washes may be resorted to. 
Solutions of acetate of lead, sulphate of 
zinc, and alum; water acidulated with 
sulphuric or muriatic acid, and sweetened 
with the honey of roses ; and various veg- 
etable astringent and tonic infusions have 
been recommended. The author usually 
employs a strong solution of sulphate of 
zinc, in the proportion of fifteen to twenty 
grains to the ounce of water, which he ap- 
plies by means of a camel's hair pencil, 
exclusively to the ulcers, with the almost 
uniform effect of disposing them to heal ; 
and, even in the eruptive stage, this appli- 
cation will often be found to effect an 
almost immediate cure." 

Dr. Berg, physician to the Children's 
Hospital at Stockholm, recommends the use 
of alkalies and their carbonates, giving the 
preference to soda, for correcting the disor- 
dered condition of the digestive functions, 
arising from superabundant formation of 
lactic, butyric, acetic, and carbonic acids ; 
and when excessive development of gas 
ensues, lime water and magnesia; when 
attended by colicky pains, he advises the 
use of antispasmodics. 

With regard to the local treatment, the 
last named writer says, After the aphthous 
crusts fall off, little more is necessary than 
to wash the affected parts with soft and tepid 
water ; he also advises the use of a solution 
of subcarbonate of soda and borax, varying 
the strength according to the necessity of 
the case. Nitrate of silver has been used 
in some cases with advantage. 

When it occurs in females during lacta- 
tion, weaning the child is sometimes found 




APHTHOUS. Relating to aphthae. 

APHYLLiE. The second division of 
the class Ccllulars in Botany. 

APHYL'LUS. From a, priv., and pX- 
%ov, a leaf. Leafless. A plant without 

APIC'ULATED. From apex, a sharp 
point. A term applied in Botany to a 
leaf or other part, terminated in a distinct 

APIIN. An alkaloid found in parsley. 

APIRIN. A substance obtained by 
Bixio, from the fruit of the Cocos lapidea, 
by extracting with water and hydrochloric 
acid, and precipitating with ammonia. 

APIS. A genus of hymenopterous in- 
sects. The bee. 

Apis Mellif'ica. The honey-bee. 

APITES. Apites vinum. From ano$, 
a pear tree. Wine of the pear or cherry. 

ATIUM. A genus of plants of the or- 
der umbettiferce. 

A'pium Grav'eolens. The herb small- 
age. When cultivated it is called celery. 

Apium Petroseli'num. The pharma- 
copceial name of common parsley. 

APLASTIC. From a, priv., and nlaoau, 
to form. Not plastic. A term applied to 
those effusions which are unsusceptible of 
organization ; as tubercle, &c. 

AP'LOME. The name of a very rare 
mineral ; a variety of chrystallized garnet. 


APNCE'A. From a, priv., and nvea, I 
respire. Difficult respiration. 

APNEOL'OGY. Apneologi'a. From 
anvoia } loss of breath, and 2-°yoj, discourse. 
A treatise on apncea. 

APO- Aw. A Greek preposition, sig- 
nifying from, off, out, and used as a com- 
mon prefix. 

APO'CARP^E. From otto, from, and 
napnos, fruit. Apocarpous ; a term applied 
in Botany to plants which have distinct 

APOCATHAR'SIS. From ano and ica- 
daipu, to purge. Complete purgation. 


APOCENO'SIS. From otto, out, and 
and nevoid, to evacuate. A morbid flux of 
blood or other fluids. 

APO'COPE. From ano and kottto, to 
cut. Abscission ; amputation ; extirpa- 

APOCRENIC ACID. A dark colored 
acid, soluble in water and alcohol, found in 
soils, springs, &c. It is manifestly a pro- 
duct of decomposition. It is formed arti- 
ficially by treating ulmin or humin with 
nitric acid. 

APOCYE'SIS. From ano and nvu, to bring 
forth. Parturition ; bringing forth young. 

APOCYNA'CE.E. An order of Dico- 
tyledonous plants, nearly agreeing with As- 
clepiadaceas, but of more suspicious proper- 
ties. Trees or shrubs, usually with milky 
uice, leaves opposite, sometimes inserted ; 
corolla monopetalous, hypogynous; sta- 
mens inserted into the corolla ; ovaries 
two ; fruit a follicle, drupe or berry, single 
or double. 

APOCYNINE. A bitter principle from 
Apocynun cannabinum. 

APOCYNUM. A genus of plants of 
the order Hypocynacece. Dogsbane. 

Apocynum AndrosjEmifo'lium. Dogs- 
bane; Milk-weed. The root possesses 
emetic properties — thirty grains producing 
about the same effect as twenty of ipecac- 

Apocynum Cannab'inum. Indian hemp. 
This species is powerfully emetic and ca- 
thartic, and sometimes produces diuretic 
and diaphoretic effects. 

A'PODES. From a, priv., and nov i} a 
foot. A term applied in Anatomy, to ani- 
mals destitute of feet. In Zoology, to foot- 
less animals, and fishes which have no ven- 
tral fins. 

re^u, to wean. Weaning; removal of the 
infant from the mother's breast. 

APOGEU'SIS. From ano and yevofiat, 
to taste. Impaired sense of taste ; ageustia. 

APOLEP'SIS. From ano and topPavu, 
to take from. A suppression or retention 
of any of the natural evacuations. 

APOM'ELI. From ano, from, and fieXt, 
honey. An oxymel or decoction made of 

APOMYLE'NAS. From anoftvXIaiva, I 
make a wry mouth. Projection of the lips 




by pressing them against each other ; it 
is sometimes a symptom of disease. 

APONEUROSIS. From aim and vevpov, 
a nerve. A fibrous or tendinous expan- 
sion, supposed by the ancients to be nerv- 
ous ; hence its name. 

APONEUROTIC. Relating to aponeu- 

APO'NIA. From a, priv., and novo 5 , 
pain. Without pain. 

APOPEDA'SIS. From ano and mflao, 
to jump from. A luxation. 

APOPHLEGMA'SIA. From mo and 
Qfayfia, phlegm. A discharge of mucous. 

APOPHLEGMAT'IC. Apophlegmat'icus; 
from ano and ifkeypa, phlegm. Apopldeg- 
viatizan'tia. Medicines which excite mucous 
secretions from the mouth and nose. 

APOPH'YLLITE. A mineral \ an hy- 
drated silicate of potassa and lime, some- 
times containing fluorine. 

APOPH'YSIS. From anofva, to proceed 
from. In Anatomy, a projection or process 
of a bone. In Botany, the enlarged base of 
the capsule adhering to the frondose mosses. 

APOPLECTIC. From wrevAffM, apo- 
plexy. Belonging to apoplexy. 

AP'OPLEXY. Apoplex'ia; from ano and 
nfaioou, to strike or knock down ; because 
when a person is attacked by this disease, 
he suddenly falls down. A disease charac- 
terized by a sudden loss of sense, motion, 
and stertorous breathing. The term is 
used by some to denote a sudden effusion 
of blood into the substance of organs or 
tissues, but it is usually restricted to the 
brain, and the above are among the phe- 
nomena which characterize cerebral apo- 

Apoplexy, Cutaneous. Sudden de- 
termination of blood to the skin and subja- 
cent cellular tissue. 

Apoplexy, Pulmonary. A violent 
determination of blood to the lungs, and 
effusion into the bronchial cells, followed 
by suffocation. 

APOPNIX'IS. From anonviyu, I stran- 
gle. Suffocation. 

APOPTO'SIS. From ammino, to fall 
down. The falling down of any part from 
relaxation ; the relaxation of bandages. 

APO'RIA. From a, priv., and 7ropo$, a 
duct. Restlessness caused by the stoppage 
of any of the natural secretions. 

APOSI'TIA. From ano, from, and <"- 
TOf, food. Loathing of food. 

APOSPAS'MA. From anoanaio, to tear 
off. A violent severance of a ligament or 

APOSPHACELI'SIS. Mortification, 
usually resulting from bandaging wounds 
and fractures too tightly. 

APOSTE'MA. From ano, from, and 
iotti/m, I settle, or from a^ioTe/ii, I recede. 
A term used by the ancie,nts to denote ab- 
scesses in general. 

APOTHE'CA. From anon-Stifii, to place. 
A place where medicines are kept. 

APOTH'ECARY. Apotheca'rius ; from 
ano, and ndr/fii, pono, to put : so called, 
because his employment is to prepare and 
keep the various articles of medicine, and 
to compound them for the physician's use. 
In every country, except Great Britain, one 
who sells drugs, and puts up prescriptions. 
In addition to this, apothecaries in Eng- 
land exercise in certain cases, and under 
certain restrictions, the duties of the phys- 

APPARATUS. From apparo, to pre- 
pare. A collection of instruments or means 
for any business or operation whatever. In 
Anatomy, an assemblage of organs which 
work for the accomplishment of the same 
end, or a system of organs formed of a 
similar texture or having analogous func- 
tions. In General and Dental Surgery, 
a collection of the various instruments and 
appliances necessary for an operation or 
dressing ; also, certain methods of opera- 
ting for stone. In Chemistry, the instru- 
ments required for chemical experiments 
and investigations. 

Apparatus, Dental. See Dental Ap- 

Apparatus, Pneumatic. Instruments 
by which aeriform fluids may, in distilla- 
tions, solutions, and other operations, be 
caught, collected, and properly managed. 

APPAREIL. Apparatus. 

APPENDIC'ULA. A small append- 




Appendicula C;eci Vermiformis. A 
vermicular process, about four inches long, 
of the size of a goose-quill, which hangs 
from the intestinum ccecum of the human 

Appendicula Cerebri. The pituitary 

Appendicula Epiploic^. The adipose 
appendices of the colon and rectum, which 
are filled with adipose matter. 

plied to leaves, leaf-stalks, &c., that are 
furnished with an additional organ for some 
purpose not essential to it. 

APPEN'DIX. From appewkrc, to hang 
to. An appendage ; something added to a 
principal or greater thing, though not ne- 
cessary to it. In Anatomy, a part attached 
to, or continuous with, an organ. In Bot- 
any, the parts which project from the or- 
gans of plants. 

Appendix Auricularis. A process of 
the anterior and upper part of the auricles 
of the heart. 

AP'PETENCY. From appetere, to de- 
sire. The disposition of organized beings 
to imbibe and appropriate such substances 
as serve to support and nourish them ; also, 
ardent desire for an object. 

AP'PETITE. From appetere, (ad and 
petere,) to desire. An internal desire, 
which warns us of the necessity of exert- 
ing our digestion or generative functions ; 
a relish for food ; a desire for sezisual pleas- 

AP'PLE. The fruit of the Pyrus malus. 

Apple, Acid of. Malic acid. 

Apple, Adam's. See Pomum Adami. 

Apple of the Eye. The pupil. 

APPLICATION. Applicatio; fromqp- 
plicare, to apply. In Therapeutics, exter- 
nal remedies, as opposed to medicines de- 
signed to be given internally. 

APPOSITION. Adding to, sitting to, 
addition, accretion. In Dental Prosthesis, 
it is sometimes employed synonymously 
with coaptation. 

AP'TERA* From a, priv., and nrepov, a 
wing. Insects without wings. 

APTYS'TOS. From a, priv., and mvtt, 
I spit. Without expectoration. 

APYRETTC. Apyret'icus; from"a, priv., 
and fray), fire. Without fever. A word ap- 
plied to those days in which there is no 
paroxysm of disease. 

APYIiEXTA. From a, priv., and m>p. 
c|ij, fever. Absence of fever. Intermis- 
sion between the febrile parox} ? sms. 

APYROUS. From a, priv., and nvp, 
fire. A term applied to substances which 
contain a strong heat without change of 
shape or other properties; refractory. 

A'QUA. U. S. Any natural water of 
good quality. This substance when in a 
pure state, is a transparent liquid, without 
color, taste, or smell, and is composed of 
one part hydrogen and eight of oxygen, 
by weight, and of two of hydrogen and 
one of oxygen by volume. 

Aqua Acidi Carbonici. Carbonic acid 
water. Artificial seltzer water. 

Aqua Ammonee. Water of ammonia. 

Aqua Amygdala'rum Concentea'ta. 
Water of bitter almonds. 

Aqua Anethi. Dill water. 

Aqua Brocchie'ri. A supposed styp- 
tic, which at one time attracted consider- 
able attention in France, but which is said 
to possess no efficacy. 

Aqua Calcis. Lime water. 

Aqua Calcis Composita. Compound 
lime water. 

Aqua Carbonatis Sodje Acidula. 
Acidulous water of carbonate of soda. 

Aqua Camphors. Camphor water. 

Aqua Carui. Caraway water. 

Aqua Cassia. Water of cassia. 

Aqua Chlorinii. Chlorine water. 

Aqua Cinnamomi. Cinnamon water. 

Aqua Distillata. Distilled water. 

Aqua Florum Aurantii. Orange 
flower water. 

Aqua Fluvialis. River water. 

Aqua Fontana. Spring water. 

Aqua Fortis. Weak and impure ni- 
tric acid. 

Aqua Funiculi. Fennel water. 

Aqua Lauro-cerasi. Cherry-laurel 

Aqua Marine. Beryl. 

Aqua Mentha Piperita. Peppermint 




Aqua Mentha Pulegii. Pennyroyal 

Aqua Mentha Vibidis. Spearmint 
Aqua Picis Liquids. Tar water. 
Aqua Pimento. Pimento water. 
Aqua Regia. A mixture of nitric and 
muriatic acids. 

Aqua Ros^e. Rose water. 
Aqua Sambuci. Elder water. 
Aqua Styp'tica. A powerful astring- 
ent, composed of sulphate of copper, sul- 
phate of alumina, and sulphuric acid. 

Aqua Toffana. The name of a sub- 
tile, slow-consuming poison, prepared by a 
woman of that name in Sicily. 
Aqua Yitm. Brandy. 
Aqua Vulnera'hia. From vidtnus, a 
woimd. A remedy applied to wounds ; ar- 

1 Aqu^s Distilla't^e. Distilled wateis, 
made by putting mint, pennyroyal, &c, 
into a still with water, and drawing off as 
much as is impregnated with the proper- 
ties of the plants. 
Aqu^e Minera'les. Mineral waters. 
AqujE Stillatit'le Simplices. Sim- 
ple distilled waters. 

Aqu,e Stillati'ti-s: Spirituos^:. Spir- 
ituous distilled water. 

AQ'LLEDUCT. Aquceduc'tus ; aqueduct; 
from aqua, water, and ducere, to convey. 
In Anatomy, a term applied to certain ca- 
nals, occurring in different parts of the 
body, because they were supposed to carry 

Aqueduct of Fallo'pius. A canal in 
the petrous portion of the temporal bone, 
first accurately described by Fallopius. 

Aqueduct of Sylvius. A canal com- 
municating between the third and fourth 
ventricles of the brain. 

Aquceduc'tus Cer'ebri. See Infundi- 
bulum of the Brain. 

Aquteductus Cocu'LEiE. A narrow 
canal proceeding from the tympanic scala 
of the cochlea, to the posterior edge of the 
pars petrosa. 

Aqu^ductus Vesttb'uli. A canal 

and opening at the posterior surface of the 
pars petrosa. 

AQUATTC. Aquat'icus ; from aqua, 
water. Living or growing in water, as an 
aquatic plant, bird, &c. 

A'QUEOUS. Watery; composed of 
water, or resembling it in color and con- 

Aqueous Humor of the Eye. The 
limpid fluid which fills both chambers of 
the eye. 

AQUET'TA. The name of a poison used 
by the Roman women, under the Pontifi- 
cate of Alexander VII. 

AQUIFO'LIUM. From acus, a needle, 
and folium, a leaf ; so called because it 
has a prickly leaf. Eex aquifolium. Holly. 

A'QUILA. Literally, an eagle. A name 
given by the Alchemists to sal ammoniac, 
precipitated mercury, arsenic, sulphur and 
the philosopher's stone. 

Aquila Al'ba. One of the names by 
which calomel was designated among the 

Aquila Alba Philosopho'bum. Aquila 
alba Ganymodis. Sublimated sal ammo- 

Aquila Ccelestis. A panacea, or uni- 
versal cure ; of which mercury was a con- 

Aquila Ven'ebis. An ancient prepa- 
ration made of verdigris and sublimated 
sal ammoniac. 

Aquila Lig'num. Eagle-wood. 

Aquila Ve'n2e. The temporal veins. 

AQUILE'GIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Ranunculaceae. The herb Columbine. 

Aquile'gia Vulga'ris. Columbine ; 
a perennial herbaceous plant, formerly con- 
sidered diuretic, diaphoretic, and antiscor- 
butic. It has been employed externally as 
a vulnerary. 

AQUU'LA. Diminutive of aqua, water. 

ARABIN. The chief constituent of 
Gum Arabic. Formula, C12 H10 Ojo. 

ARABIS. A genus of plants of the 
order cruciferce. 

AR'ACA MIRA. A shrub found in the 
Brazils, the roots of which are said to be 

proceeding from the vestibule near the com 
mon orifice of the two semicircular canals, | diuretic and anti-dysenteric 




ARACEiE. Aroidece. The arum tribe 
of Monocotyledonous plants. 

ARACHNI'DA. Arachni'des ; from 
apaxvT), a spider. A class of apterous Con- 
dylopeds, comprising articulated animals, 
generally with four pairs of legs, without 
wings or metamorphosis. The class con- 
tains numerous genera. The bite of some 
of the species has occasionally been at- 
tended with fatal consequences. 

ARACH'NOID. Arachnoi'des ; from 
apaxvi), a spider, or spider's web, and eiAoq, 
likeness. Cobweb-like. 

Abach'noid Membrane. Membrana ar- 
achnoides. A thin membrane, without ves- 
sels and nerves, between the dura and pia 
mater, and surrounding the cerebrum, cere- 
bellum, medulla oblongata and medulla 

A'RACK. Arac. The name of an East 
Indian spirituous liquor. 

AR^EOM'ETER. Areometer. From apau- 
Pf, thin, and fierpov, a measure. Hydrom- 
eter. An instrument for ascertaining the 
specific gravity of liquids. 

ARJSO'TICA. From apavou, to rarefy. 
Medicines supposed to possess the quality 
of rarefying the fluids of the body. 

ARA'LIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Arcdiacece. 

Aralia Nudicau'lis. False Sarsapa- 
rilla; wild Sarsaparilla ; small spikenard. 
It is a gentle stimulant and diaphoretic, 
and is sometimes used in rheumatic, syph- 
ilitic, and cutaneous affections. 

Aralia Racemo'sa. Large spikenard, 
said to possess properties similar to those 
of the other species. It has been recom- 
mended as an application to chronic ulcers. 

Aralia Spinosa. Angelica tree ; tooth- 
ache tree ; prickly ash. An indigenous ar- 
borescent shrub, possessing stimulant and 
diaphoretic properties. An infusion of the 
recent bark is emetic and cathartic. 

ARA'NEA. The spider. 

ARANEA'RUM TELA. Cobwebs. The 
web of the common house-spider. It is of- 
ten used as a domestic remedy for ague. 

scribed by Galen as moving as though 
shaken by short puffs of air. 

ARANTII CORPORA. The tubercles on 
the semilunar valves of the great arteries 
at their origin. So called from Julius Cae- 
sar Arantius, an anatomist of Bologna, born 
in 1571, who first described them. 

AR'BOR. A tree. In Botany, it signi- 
fies a plant having but one trunk, which 
rises to a great height, is durable, woody, 
and divided at its top into many branches, 
which do not perish in winter. In Anat- 
omy, the word is applied to parts which 
ramify like a tree, as the arbor vita3 of the 
cerebellum ; and in Chemistry it is applied 
to crystallizations which ramify like the 
branches of a tree. 

Arbor Al'ba. Melaleuca minor; the 
plant which is said to afford the cajuput 

Abbor Dia'n^e. The silver tree ; made 
by precipitating a solution of nitrate of sil- 
ver with mercury. 

Arbob Ma'bis. Coral. 

Arbor Toxica'ria. The Upas tree. 

Arbor Vl'TJfc Literally, the tree of life. 
A term applied in Anatomy to the arbor- 
escent appearance of the cerebellum when 
cut vertically. 

Abbob VitjE Uteri'na. An epithet 
applied to the arborescent folds of the inte- 
rior of the cervix uteri. 

ARBORES'CENT. Having the appear- 
ance of a tree, as distinguished from that of 
a shrub. 

AR'BUTUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Ericaceae. 

Ar'butus Uva Ursi. Bear's berry; 
bear's whortleberry. The leaves are as- 
tringent, tonic, and employed in diseases 
of the urinary organs. 

ARC. From arcus, an arch. Arch; 
a term applied in Anatomy to any part 
which has the shape of an arch. 

AR'CA ARCANO'RUM. Literally, a 
chest of secrets. The mercury of philoso- 
phers — the alchemical name of the philoso- 
pher's stone. 

Arca Cor'dis. The pericardium. 

ARCA'NUM. A secret ; a nostrum, the 
preparation of which is kept a secret to 
enhance its supposed value. 

Arcanum Duplex. Arcanum duplicar 




turn ; a name formerly given to sulphate 
of potassa. 

Arcanum Tartabi. Acetate of potassa. 

ARCH. A term applied in Anatomy to 
any part which exhibits the figure of an 

Arch, Alve'olar. See Alveolar Arches. 

Arch, Anastomo'tic. The union of two 
vessels, which anastomose by describing a 
curved line. 

Arch, Den'tal. See Dental Arches. 

Arch, Fem'oral. An arch formed over 
the concave border of the pelvis. 

ARCHiE'US. Arche'us; from apxv, 
commencement. A word adopted by Van 
Helmont, and used to designate the active 
principle of the material world. This uni- 
versal archajus, according to Van Helmont, 
is an immaterial principle, which exists in 
the seed prior to fecundation, and presides 
over the growth and development of the 
body, and over all organic phenomena. 

ARCHE. From apxn, the beginning. 
The beginning or first manifestations of a 

ARCHIL. A violet-red dye, or paste, 
prepared from Lichen roccella, and other 
species of Lichen, called Roccella tinctoria, 
and fuciformis. 

ARCHOPTO'MA. From apxo s , anus, 
and mivTO), to fall. Prolapsus ani. 

AR'CIFORM. From arcus, a bow, and 
forma, likeness. A term applied by Solly 
to a set of curved fibres proceeding from 
the corpus pyramidale, beneath the corpus 
olivare to the cerebellum. 

ARCTA'TIO. From arcto, I make nar- 
row. Contraction of a natural opening, as 
of a canal. A constipation of the intestines 
from inflammation. 

ARCTIUM. A genus of plants of the 
order Composite. 

Arc'tium Lap'pa. Clot-burr, or com- 
mon burdock, the roots of which are diu- 
retic, aperient, and sudorific. 

ARCTIZITE. The foliated scapolite. 

ARCTU'RA. From arcto, I straiten. 
Inflammation of the finger caused by a 
nail grown into the flesh. 

ARCUA'TIO. From arcus, a bow. An 
anterior gibbosity of the sternum. 

AR'CULiE. A diminutive of area, a 
chest. The sockets of the eyes. 

ARCULA CORDIS. The pericardium. 

AR'CUS SENI'LIS. Opacity around 
the cornea, occurring in advanced life. 

AR'DENT. Ardens ; from ardere, to 
burn. Burning, or ardent ; applied to fe- 
vers ; also to alcoholic spirits. 

AR'DOR. From ardere, to burn. Burn- 
ing or intense heat. 

Ardor Febri'lis. Feverish heat. 

Ardor Uri'n^;. A scalding sensation 
produced by the urine in the urethra. 

Ardor Ventric'uli. Heartburn. 

A'REA. A vacant space ; a term ap- 
plied by Celsus to two kinds of baldness : 

1. Area diffluens, consisting of bald plots 
on the scalp of an indeterminate figure ; and 

2. Area serpens, baldness commencing at 
the occiput and winding to each ear, and 
sometimes to the forehead. 

Area Pellu'cida. The areated space 
formed, after a few hours, around the first 
trace of the embryo in the incubated egg, 
by the middle portion of the germinal 

Area Vasculo'sa. The second space 
around the area pellucida, in which blood- 
vessels are formed. 

Area Vitelli'na. A third space, sur- 
rounding the area vasculosa, which ulti- 
mately encloses the whole yolk. 

ARE'CA. A genus of palms. 

Areca Cat'echu. Areca Indica. From 
the nut of this plant two kinds of catechu 
are extracted, the cuttacamboo and cash- 

Areca Olera'cea. Areca Americana. 
The cabbage-tree palm. 

AREFAC'TION. The process of drying 
substances previously to pulverizing them. 

ARE'NA. Sand. An old term applied 
to gravel deposited in urine. 

ARENAMEN. Armenian bole. 

ARENA'TIO. From arena, sand. A 
sand bath, or the application of hot sand 
to the body. In Anatomy, a term applied 
to the small interstices of the cellular or 
other tissues ; and in Pathology, to an in- 
flamed ring around pustules. 

ARE'OLA. A diminutive of area, a 




void space. The circle which surrounds 
the nipples of females. In Pathology, the 
disk which surrounds pustular inflamma- 
tions of the skin. 

AREOLAR TISSUE. Cellular Tissue. 
Divided into areola? or small spaces. 

AREOM'ETER. See Araeometer. 

AR'GAND LAMPS. Lamps with hol- 
low or circular wicks, so called from the 
name of the inventor. 

AR'GEMA. From apyo if white. A 
small white ulcer of the eye. 

ARGEM'ONE. A genus of plants of 
the order Papaveracece. 

Argemone Mexica'na. Thorn poppy ; 
prickly-popp3 r ; the inspissated juice of 
which is said to he useful as a hydragogue 
in dropsy and jaundice. 

AR'GENTAN. German silver ; an al- 
loy of copper, nickel, and zinc. 

uret of silver. A tasteless white powder, 
having no medical uses. 

Argen'ti Ni'tras. Argcritum nitra'tum; 
causticum lunare. Nitrate of silver. Lu- 
nar caustic ; a white salt, in the form of 
hard brittle sticks, having an intensely 
bitter taste ; is deemed tonic, alterative, and 
antispasmodic, as an internal remedy ; and 
externally it is employed as a vesicant, 
stimulant, alterative, and escharotic. 

ARGENTI'NA. A genus of abdominal 
fishes of the salmon family, characterized 
by a small mouth, without maxillary teeth, 
with curved teeth on the tongue, and a 
transverse row of small teeth on the vo- 

ARGEN'TUM. Ar 'gyrus ; from apyo i} 
white ; because it is of a white color. 

Argentum Folia'tum. Silver leaf. 
This, when not too thin, is sometimes used 
for filling teeth, but in consequence of its 
hardness and great liability to be acted 
upon by the secretions of the mouth, it- 
is seldom employed for this purpose. Tin 
is by far preferable. 

Argentum Musi'vum. Mosaic silver; 
a preparation of tin and bismuth melted 
together, with the addition of quicksil- 

Argentum Nitra'tum. Nitrate of silver. 

Argentum Vi'vum. Quicksilver ; mer- 

ARGIL'LA. From apyo$, white. Argil ; 
white clay. See Alumina. 

Argilla Pu'ra. Pure argil, or alumina. 

ARGILLACEOUS. Of, or belonging 
to argilla, or aluminous earth. 

Argillaceous Tooth Polisher. See 
Tooth Polisher, Argillaceous. 

AR'GOL. Ar'gal. Wine-stone; crude 
tartar ; a concrete acidulous salt, deposited 
by wine. 

ARICINA. An alkaloid, analogous in 
its properties to cinchona and quina, found 
in Cusco bark. 

ARIDITY. Arid'itas. A term employed 
in Pathology to express dryness of any 
part, especially of the chin and tongue. 

ARID'IUM. A new metal recently 
discovered by M. Ulgren, of Stockholm. 
It is found in the mineral chromate of iron 
of Reoras. Its oxyds are analogous to 
those of iron, but exhibit distinct reactions. 

ARIDU'RA. From areo, to be dried up. 
Atrophy, as wasting of a limb or part. 

ARIL'LUS. From arere, to be dry or 
parched. The tunic of the permanent husk 
investing a seed, which falls off spontane- 
ously as it becomes dry. 

ARIS'TA. In Botany, the sharp, stiff, 
bristle-like appendage from the husk or 
glume of grasses. In Zoology, the long 
slender bones in the muscular structure of 
fishes, unconnected with the skeleton, 
called the Ossicula muscidonim, and very 
numerous in the shad. 

ARISTALTH^'A. Althaea. The com- 
mon marsh-mallow. 

ARISTOLOCHI'A. From api<no ? , best, 
and Aoxta, or h)xeia, parturition ; because 
it was supposed to aid in parturition. A 
genus of plants of the order Aristolochiaeea. 

Aristolochia Anguici'da. The snake- 
killing birthwort ; supposed to be an anti- 
dote for the bite of serpents. 

Aristolochia Clemati'tis. ArisiUo- 
chia vulgaris. Upright birthwort. 

Aristolochia Longa, and Aristolo- 
chia Rotunda. The long and round 




Aristolochia Serpent a'ria. Virginia 
snakeroot. This species of Aristolochia is 
an herbaceous plant with a perennial root, 
consisting of numerous slender fibres, pro- 
ceeding from a short horizontal caudex. 
It is a stimulant, tonic, diaphoretic, and 
diuretic, and, when taken in large doses, 
occasions nausea, griping pains in the bow- 
els, sometimes vomiting and dysenteric 

Aristolochia Triloba'ta. Three-lobed 

ARISTOLOCHIA'CEiE. The birthwort 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 

ARM. Brachium. That part of the 
upper extremity between the shoulder and 

ARMENIAN BOLE. See Bole, Arme- 

Armenian Stone. A variety of the 
azure carbonate of copper. 

NOS./E. The annular ligaments of the 

ARMORA'CLE RADIX. The root of the 
Cochlcaria armoracia. Horse-radish root. 

AR'NICA. A genus of plants of the 
order Composite. 

Ar'nica Monta'na. The systematic 
name for the arnica of the pharmacopoeias. 

Arnica Spu'ria. See Inula Dysenterica. 

AROIDE^E. See Aracete. 

ARO'MA. Apufia, perfume; from apt, 
intensely, and o£,o, to smell. Spiritus rec- 
tor. The odorous principle of plants and 
other substances. 

AROMATTC. Aromat'ieus ; from apu- 
fia, an odor. Any thing which has a grate- 
ful spicy scent, and an agreeable pungv.' 
taste, as cinnamon, ginger, cardamoms, 
mint, &c. 

Aromatic Vin'egar. An acetic solution 
of camphor , oil of cloves, rosemary and lav- 

AROMATOPO'LA. From apo/ia, an 
odor, and 7rwAew, I sell. One who sells 
drugs and spices. 

ARQUEBUSADE'. From arquebus, a 
hand-gun. A lotion composed of vinegar, 
sulphuric acid, honey, alcohol, and various 

aromatics, so called because it was origi- 
nally applied to wounds inflicted by the 

ARRACHE'MENT. From arracher, to 
tear out. The separation of a part of the 
body, tearing it from the part with which 
it was connected. The term is sometimes 
applied to the extraction of a tooth. 

ARRACK. Arack. 

AR'RAGONITE. A mineral of a green- 
ish pearly-gray color. It is a carbonate of 
lime, containing a little carbonate of strontia. 

AR'RAPHON. From a, priv., and pa<j>v, 
a suture. Without suture. A term ap- 
plied to the cranium when it has no sutures. 

ARRHCEAl. From a, priv., and peu, I 
flow. The suppression of any natural flux. 

ARRIERE' DENT. Dens serotinus. A 
wisdom tooth. 

ARROW ROOT. The fecula of the 
root of the Maranta arundinacea, a plant 
which grows in the West Indies. See 

ARSE'NIATE. From arsenicum, arse- 
nic. A salt formed by a combination of 
arsenic acid with salifiable bases. 

Arseniate of Ammonia. Ammonias 
arsenias. A crystallized salt, formed by 
a combination of arsenic acid and ammo- 
nia, or carbonate of ammonia. 

Arseniate of Iron. Ferri arsenias. 
A salt formed by double decomposition, by 
adding a solution of sulphate of iron to one 
of arseniate of soda. It precipitates in the 
form of a dirty green powder. 

AR'SENIC. Arsenicum. The name of 
a metal of a blackish or steel-gray color. 
It is found native, as an oxyd, and a sul- 
phuret. Its symbol is As ; its combining 
number 753. Arsenic and its various pre- 
parations are among the most active of all 
poisons. Hydrated sesqui-oxyd of iron, 
freshly precipitated, is an antidote to it. 
Magnesia has also been used for the same 

Arsenic Acid. Acidum arsenicum. 

Arsenic, Oxyd of. White arsenic. 
Arsenious acid. 

Arsenic, White. Oxyd of arsenic, or 
arsenious acid. 




tion composed of two parts of levigated 
antimony and one of white arsenic. 

lution; arsenical solution. 

ARSENICAL PASTE. Pate Arsenicale. 
A French composition, used as an applica- 
tion to malignant ulcers, composed of 
seventy parts red sulphuret of mercury, 
twenty parts dragon's blood, and eight 
parts arsenious acid, made into a paste with 


ARSE'NIOUS ACID White arsenic, 
Oxyd of arsenic. Ratsbane. This com- 
pound is prepared by digesting the metal 
in dilute nitric acid. It combines with 
the earthy and akaline bases, forming arse- 

This powerful agent has been extensively 
employed, both in America and Europe, 
during the last few years, for destroying 
the pulps of decayed teeth, but in conse- 
quence of the great liability of a tooth, af- 
ter the destruction of its lining membrane, 
to give rise to inflammation of the alveole- 
dental membrane, and abscess, its indiscrim- 
inate use is rapidly falling into disrepute. 
Dr. Maynard of Washington city, how- 
ever, has proposed a plan of treatment, by 
which it is thought these effects may, in the 
majority of cases, be prevented. See Fill- 
ing Teeth. 

Dr. Spooner, of Montreal, was the first 
to use arsenious acid for the destruction of 
an exposed dental pulp, but the discovery 
was first made known to the dental pro- 
fession, by his brother, Dr. S. Spooner, of 
New York, through the medium of a popu- 
lar treatise on the teeth, published in 1836. 

The application of a fortieth or fiftieth 
part of a grain, with an equal quantity of 
the sulphate of morphia, to an exposed 
dental pulp, will destroy its vitality in 
from three to seven hours, and often with- 
out causing any unpleasant sensation, but 
in most instances it is productive of more 
or less pain. It should always be used 
with great care, to prevent it from coming 
■in contact with the mucous membrane of 

the mouth, or from becoming displaced, 
and being swallowed. To prevent any ac- 
cident of this sort, the cavity in the tooth 
should be tightly and securely sealed up 
with yellow or white wax. 

ARSENIS POTASS^E. Arsenite of 

ARSENITE. A salt formed by the 
union of arsenious acid with a base. 

Arsenite of Copper. Scheele's green. 

Arsenite of Potash. Liquor arseni- 

ARSENOVI'NIC ACID. An acid pro- 
duced by the action of arsenic upon alcohol. 

ART. The application of a system of 
rules to the performance of certain actions. 

Art, Healing. The application of the 
rules of medicine in the treatment of dis- 

Art, Dental. The application of the 
rules of dental surgery to the treatment of 
the diseases of the teeth, and the replace- 
ment of the loss of these organs. 

ARTANECK. Arsenic. 

ARTEMISIA. So called because it was 
first used by a queen of that name, or from 
kpTefiig, Diana, because it was formerly em- 
ployed in the diseases of women, over 
whom she presided. A genus of plants 
of the order Compositce. 

Artemisia Abrot'anum. Common 

Artemisia Absin'thium. Absinthium 
vulgare. Common wormwood. 

Artemisia Chinen'sis. Moxa japonica. 
Mugwort of China. 

Artemisia Glacia'lis. Mountain worm- 

Artemisia Juda'ica. Santonieum. See 
Artemisia Santonica. 

Artemisia Marit'ima. Absinthium 
maritimum. Sea wormwood. 

Artemisia Pon'tica. Absinthium pon- 
ticum. Roman wormwood. 

Artemisia Rupes'tris. Creeping worm- 
wood; sickly wormwood. 

Artemisia Santon'ica. The Tartarian 
southernwood, or wormseed. 

Artemisia Vulga'ris. Mugwort. 

ARTERIA. From arip, air, and rr\puv, 
to keep, because it was supposed by the 




ancients that they contained air. An ar- 

ARTE'RIAC. A medicine formerly pre- 
scribed for diseases of the trachea. 

ARTE'RI^E ADIPO'S.E. The arteries 
which secrete the fat about the kidneys. 

ARTE'RIAL. Arterio'sus. Belonging 
to the arteries. 

Arterial Blood. The red blood is 
so called because it is contained in the ar- 
teries. The pulmonary veins also contain 
red blood, on which account they have been 
called arterial veins. 

Arterial System. All the arteries of 
the body. 

ARTERIALIZA'TION. The conversion 
of the venous into arterial blood ; a term 
applied to the change which the blood un- 
dergoes as it passes through the lungs, pro- 
duced by the evolution of carbonic acid 
and the absorption of oxygen. 

ARTERIOG'RAPHY. Arteriographia ; 
from aprripia, artery, and ypa<t>V, a descrip- 
tion. A description of the arteries. 

ARTERI'OLA. A small artery. 

ARTERIOL'OGY. Arteriolog'ia ; from 
aprripia, artery, and ^070$, a discourse. A 
treatise on the arteries. 

ARTERIOSTEIE. From aprripta, artery, 
and ooteov, a bone. Ossification of an artery. 


ARTERIOT'OMY. Arteriotom'ia ; from 
aprr/pia, an artery, and re/jvu, I cut. The 
opening of an artery to draw blood. 

ARTERITIS. From aprr/pia, an artery, 
and itis, inflammation. Inflammation of 
an artery. 

AR'TERY. Arte'ria. A firm and elastic 
cylindrical tube, composed of three mem- 
branes, a common or external, a muscular, 
and an internal, for conveying the blood 
from the heart. There are but two main 
arteries, the pulmonary artery and the aorta; 
all the rest are branches. The first originates 
from the right ventricle of the heart, and 
the second from the left. It is by means 
of the arteries that the blood is conveyed 
to every part of the body. The pulsation 
of the arteries corresponds with that of the 

The principal arteries of the body are 
mentioned in the following table : 

Table of the Arteries. 

1. The pulmonary artery. 

The pulmonary artery, soon after emerg- 
ing from the right ventricle of the heart, 
divides into two branches, a right and a 
left, which are distributed to the lungs. 

2. The aorta. 

The aorta arises from the left ventricle 
of the heart, and is the great trunk from 
which the other arteries of the body are 
derived. These are given off in the follow- 
ing order. At its origin it gives off, 

1. The anterior cardiac, or right coronary 

2. The posterior cardiac, or left coronary 
artery. At the arch it gives off three 

1. The arteria innominata, which divides 
into the right carotid and right subclavian. 

2. The left carotid. 

3. The left subclavian. 

The carotids are divided into external 
and internal. 

The external gives off, 

1. The superior thyroid. 

2. The lingual. 

3. The labial or facial. 

4. The inferior pharyngeal. 
6. The occipital. 

6. The posterior auris. 

1. The internal maxillary, which gives 
off the spinous artery of the dura mater, 
the maxillary, and several branches which 
go to the palate and orbit. 

8. The temporal. 

The following branches are given off 
from the internal carotids, 

1. The ophthalmic. 

2. The middle cerebral. 

3. The communicans. 

The following are the branches given off 
by the subclavian arteries, 

1. The internal mammary, which sends 
off the thymic, comes phrenici, pericardiac 
and phrenico-pericardiac arteries. 

2. The inferior thyroid, from which the 
tracheal, ascending thyroid, and transver- 
salis humeri are derived. 




3. The vertebral, which forms within 
the cranium the basilar artery, which 
gives off the anterior cerebelli, the posterior 
cerebri, and many other branches. 

4. The cervicalis profunda. 

5. The cervicalis superfcialis. 
G. The superior intercostal. 

7. The supra-scapular. 

When the subclavian arrives at the ax- 
illa, it receives the name of the axillary 
artery, and the latter when it reaches the 
arm is called brachial. 

The following are the branches given off 
by the axillary artery, 

1. Four mammary arteries. 

2. The sub-scapular. 

3. The posterior circumflex. 

4. The anterior circumflex. 

The following branches are given off by 
the brachial artery, 

1. Many lateral branches. 

2. The prof inula humeri superior. 

3. The profunda humeri inferior. 

4. The great anastomosing artery. 

At the bend of the arm, the brachial 
artery divides into the ulnar and radial ar- 

The ulnar gives off, 

1. Several recurrent branches. 

2. The common intcrosseal. 

3. The palmaris superfcialis, the ^;aZ- 
mar arch, and the digital. 

The radial artery gives off the following 

1. The radial recurrent. 

2. The superfcialis voUe, after which it 
divides into the palmaris profunda, and 
the digitals. 

The arteries given off by the descending 
aorta in the thorax are, 

1. The bronchial. 

2. The oesophageal. 

3. The inferior intercostals. 

4. The inferior diaphragmatic. 

In the abdomen the aorta gives off, 
1. The celiac, which, at the distance of 
half an inch from its origin, divides into 
three branches : the gastric or coronary 
artery, 2. the hepatic, and 3. the splenic. 
The hepatic artery, before it reaches the 
liver, gives off; 1. the right gastroepiploic, 

and 2. the cystic artery. The splenic artery 
gives off the pancreatica magna, the left 
gastro-epiploic, and the vasa brevia. 

2. The superior mesenteric, which gives 
off, 1. the colica media, 2. the colica dextra, 
and 3. the ileo-colica. 

3. The inferior mesenteric. 

4. The emulgent or renal arteries. 

5. The spermatics. 

6. The lumbar arteries. 

7. The middle sacral. 

After giving off the foregoing, the aorta 
divides into two branches, called the inter- 
nal and external iliac arteries. 

The internal iliac or hypogastric artery 
gives off, 

1. The ilio-lumbar. 

2. The lateral sacrals. 

3. The obturator. 

4. The middle hamorrhoidal. 

5. The gluteal or posterior iliac. 

6. The ischiatic. 

7. The pudica interna, from which the 
inferior hemorrhoidals, the transvei'se pe- 
rineal, and the dorsalis penis arise. 

The external iliac or great artery of the 
lower extremity gives off, 

1. The epigastric. 

2. The circumflexa ilii. 

After passing under Foupart's ligament, 
the artery of the lower extremity takes the 
name of femoral artery, and gives off, 

1. Theprofunda. 

2. The anaslomotica. 

When it reaches the ham, it is called the 
popliteal artery. It here gives off articular 
branches, and below the joint divides into 
the anterior and posterior tibial. 

The anterior tibial gives off, 

1. The recurrent. 

2. The internal malleolar. 

3. The external malleolar. 

4. The tarsal. 

6. The metatarsal. 
6. The dorsalis Jiallucis. 
The posterior tibial gives off the fol- 

1. The peroneal or fbular. 

2. The nutritia tibia?. 

3. The internal plantar. 

4. The external plantar, which makes a 




curvature across the metatarsal bones, 
where it gives off four digital arteries, 
which, after reaching the base of the toes, 
divides into the digital arteries. 

Artery, Angular. See Facial Artery. 

ARTETIS'CUS. From artus, a limb. 
One deprived of a limb, or having a very 
imperfect one. 

ARTHANI'TA. From aproj, bread. 
The herb sowbread. See Cyclamen Euro- 

ARTHANITIN. A crystalline sub- 
stance found in the root of the Cyclamen 

ARTUET'ICA. The herb ground-pine, 
so called because it was supposed to be 
useful in diseases of the joints. 

ARTHOI'CUM. Artoi'cum; from apro s , 
bread. An oil formerly made by digesting 
several roots with bread. 

ARTHRAL'GIA. Arihronal'gia ; from 
apdpov, a joint, and atyo i} pain. Pain in 
the joints. 

ARTHREM'BOLUS. From ap&pov, a 
joint, ami efj.(3alXo), to impel. An instru- 
ment employed by the ancients for the 
reduction of dislocations. 
ARTHRITIC. Arthnt'icus; from ap&pm i} 
the gout. Pertaining to the gout. 

ARTHRITIS. From apdpov, a joint. 
The gout. See Podagra. 

ARTHROCACE. From apdpov, a joint, 
and nama, defect. Disease of the joints, 
and especially caries of the articular sur- 
faces. The term is also applied to spina 

ARTHRO'DIA. From aptipov, a joint. 
A movable articulation or connection of 
bones, in which the head of one is applied 
to a superficial cavity of another, so that 
it can be moved in every direction. 

ARTHRODYNTA. From apdpov, a 
joint, and odwr/, pain. Pain in a joint ; 
chronic rheumatism. See Rheumatism. 

ARTHROL'OGY. Arthrolog' la ; from 
apdpov, a joint, and foyoj, a description. A 
description of the joints. 

ARTHRON. Apdpov. A joint. 

ARTIIROPYO'SIS. From ap-dpov, a 
joint, and nvov, pus. Suppuration, or a 
collection of pus in a joint. 

ARTHRO'SIA. From apdpou, to articu- 
late. Arthritis ; inflammation of the joints. 
A genus of diseases in Good's Nosology, 
[ embracing rheumatism, gout and white 
I swelling. 

ARTHRO'SIS. From apdpou, to articu- 
late. An articulation. 

ARTHROSPON'GUS. From apdpov, a 
joint, and anoyyof, a sponge. A white 
fungous tumor of the joints. 

ARTICULAR. Articula'ris ; from ar- 
ticulus, a joint. Pertaining to a joint. 

Articular Arteries of the Knee. 
Several small branches are given off from 
the popliteal artery, which surround the 
tibio-femoral articulation, and from their 
situation, are designated by this name. 
They are divided into superior and inferior, 
and there are generally three of the former 
and two of the latter. 

Articular Veins of the Knee. These 
generally follow the course of the arteries. 

ARTICULATA. A term applied in 
Zoology to a primary division of the ani- 
mal kingdom, characterized by an external 
articulated covering, consisting of a series 
of rings corresponding to the internal skele- 
ton of vertebrated animals. 

ARTICULATION. Articulatio ; from 
ariiculus, a joint. The connection of bones 
with each other. Articulations are gener- 
ally divided by anatomists into three kinds ; 
namely, diarthrosis, synarthrosis , and am- 
phiarthrosis. In Physiology, the formation 
of distinct syllables or words by the organs 
of speech. In Botany, the connection of the 
parts of a plant by joints. 

Articulation of Dental Substitutes. 
The adjustment and arrangement of one or 
more artificial teeth, so that it or they, if 
there be more than one, when placed in the 
mouth, shall sustain the same relationship 
to the organs with which they antagonize, 
when the jaws are closed, as the natural 
teeth do previously to their loss. 

Articulation of the Teeth. See 
Teeth, Articulation of. 

Articulation, Temporo-Maxillary. 
See Temporo-Maxillary Articulation. 

Articulation of Models. See Models 
for artificial teeth, antagonizing. 




Articulation, False. A false joint 
formed between the united extremities of a 
fractured bone, or between the articular ex- 
tremity of a luxated bone and the parts 
with which it is in contact. 

ARTICULAT'US. Artk'idate. Jointed. 

ARTIFICIAL. Artificia'lis. That which 
is formed by art. 

Artificial Eye. A sort of hollow hem- 
isphere, painted so as to represent the an- 
terior part of the globe of the eye, and 
enameled, applied beneath the eyelid. The 
manufacture of artificial eyes has been 
brought to such perfection in Paris, that it 
is difficult for a common observer to dis- 
tinguish the difference between them and 
the natural organs. 

Artificial Lower Lip and Chin. It 
sometimes happens that persons are de- 
prived of the lower lip and chin by wounds 
or other causes, so as greatly to interfere 
with the utterance of speech and the reten- 
tion of the saliva. To remedy such loss, 
various contrivances have been invented, 
varied in their construction to suit the pe- 
culiarity of the cases to which they have 
been applied. 

In the construction of an appliance of 
this sort, the first thing to be done is to take 
an impression of the lip and chin of a per- 
son, resembling, as near as possible, in 
these parts of the face, the individual re- 
quiring such substitute. From this im- 
pression, suitable plaster and metallic 
models and counter-models are obtained. 
Between these a platina plate may be 
stamped, which, after being fitted to the 
parts to which it is to be applied, should 
be enameled and properly colored. 

But the best substitute of this sort which 
has been invented, is described by M. De- 
labarre in his Trait de la Partie Mecanique 
de VArte du Chirurgien Dentisie. It con- 
sists of a thin layer of gum-elastic in so- 
lution, applied to a plaster model. After 
this has become dry, another and another is 
applied, then a piece of hempen cloth, after 
which, three more layers of a solution of 
gum-elastic are put on. Upon these a piece 
of fine linen is spread, and over the whole 
a piece of kid, properly colored, is glued. 

This substitute is kept in place by means 
of two straps of cloth, covered with kid, 
properly painted. 

If the subject be a man, false whiskers 
are applied, which will more effectually 
conceal the mode of attachment. To the 
end of each strap a piece of metal may be 
fixed, and bent so as to be secured to the 
ear, or the straps may be fastened behind 
the head. For greater security it is recom- 
mended that metallic plates be fixed to the 
sides of the artificial chin, which may be 
made fast and concealed in the folds of the 

Artificial Upper Lip. In the con- 
struction of an upper lip, the method of 
procedure is very similar to that for sup- 
plying the loss of the lower ; the only dif- 
ference consists in the method of attach- 
ment. Besides the straps covered with 
beard, two plates are fastened to it, which 
pass up along the nose, and secured to a 
pair of preservers, whose branches serve 
as a means of attachment. We should 
think the best method of retaining an arti- 
ficial upper lip in its place, would be to 
fix means of attachment on the inner side, 
which might be secured to the teeth. 

But a substitute for either the upper or 
lower lip cannot be so constructed as to 
be worn without inconvenience, and it is 
fortunate that they are seldom required. 

The method of procedure consists, first, 
in taking an accurate impression of the 
void occasioned by the destruction of the 
natural organ, then making a model to fit 
the inequalities of the parts; and afterwards 
obtaining a metallic model and counter- 
model, between which a thin plate of 
gold or platina is swaged. After fitting 
this accurately to the parts, it should be 
enameled and painted to correspond with 
the rest of the face. 

Artificial Nose. As in the case of 
artificial lips, it is impossible to construct 
a substitute for the nose that can be worn 
without some inconvenience, yet the latter 
is by far more frequently called for, and 
happily can be made to subserve a much 
better purpose, as it can be more perma- 
nently and securely applied. 




The methods of attachment are various. 
The simplest is by means of a slip of 
leather, painted flesh color, passing up 
over the middle of the forehead, and made 
fast under the hair. But this method is 
objectionable. The leather is visible, and 
it does not afford a firm and secure support 
to the artificial appliance. Another method 
consists in attaching to the interior of the 
nose a superior and two lateral wings, 
which are made to act above and on each 
side in such a way as to retain the piece in 
its place ; but it has been found that these 
cause not only a loss of the soft tissues 
against which they are made to act, but 
that they are liable to give rise to disease. 
Mr. Ballif, however, reports the case of a 
woman who had lost her nose in conse- 
quence of a syphilitic disease, for whom he 
constructed an artificial substitute with 
three wings, which he moved by means of 
a spring made to work by means of a but- 
ton fixed in one of the nostrils. Although 
it caused a little pain at first, he states 
that this did not last long, and that she 
did not ultimately suffer any serious incon- 
venience from it. 

When the loss of the organ is the result 
of disease, as is almost always the case, it 
is generally complicated with the loss of 
other parts, generally of the hard and soft 
palate, which also, as far as practicable, 
require replacement ; and in this case the 
two may be connected together in such a 
way as to serve as a mutual support for 
each other. The author had an opportu- 
nity of examining a complication of appli- 
ances of this sort a few years ago, con- 
structed by his brother, the late Dr. John 
Harris, for a j r oung lady about twenty 
years of age. So far as the loss of the nose 
was concerned, an unsuccessful effort had 
been made by an eminent surgeon of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, to supply the defect, by 
the transfer of integument from the arm, 
over the deltoid muscle, by what is called 
the rhinoplasties or Taliacotian operation. 

The artificial nose, in this case, was 
made of very close-grained apple-tree wood, 
painted to correspond exactly with the 
color of the skin, and so accurately adapted 

to the parts ujton which it rested, as almost 
to elude detection. The palatine obturator 
was of fine gold, covering the entire vault 
of the palate, and secured by clasps, one 
on either side, to a molar tooth. To the 
upper surface of this plate, at a point cor- 
responding with the central portion of the 
opening in the palate, and on a line be- 
tween the two teeth, to which the clasps 
were attached, one end of a gold wire, 
three- fourths of an inch in length, was 
soldered ; this passed forward and up- 
ward through the opening of the palate, 
the upper end being parallel with, and at 
a convenient distance from the opening of 
the nares, the point of attachment between 
it and the artificial nose. Through the 
upper end of this upright wire, on a level 
with the opening in the nose, a platina 
wire, one inch in length, with a screw cut 
on it, was passed ; upon the anterior ex- 
tremity of the platina wire there was a 
hook which acted as a support to the artifi- 
cial nose, by means of a gold loop attached 
to the septum, the tightness of which was 
regulated by screwing the horizontal wire 
in or out, and by altering the position of 
the upright wire by bending it backward 
or forward. By this simple contrivance, 
which was worn with the greatest comfort 
and satisfaction, a deformity which before 
had shut this young lady out from society, 
was completely removed. 

Artificial Palate. A mechanical 
contrivance for supplying the loss of the 
whole or a portion of the hard or soft pal- 
ate, or both. The simplest description of 
substitute of this sort, consists in a thin plate 
of gold, fitted to the gums covering the pal- 
atine portion of the alveolar border, behind 
the dental arch ; concave inferiorly, and 
convex superiorly, and confined by means 
of clasps fitted to one or more teeth on each 
side of the mouth. But this, while it pre- 
vents, to some extent, the passage of fluids 
and food from the mouth into the nose, 
remedies but very partially the defective 
utterance of speech, while the sharp edge 
of the plate posteriorly, if it be extended 
sufficiently far back to separate the buccal 
from the nasal cavities, is apt to interfere 




with and irritate the tongue. But what- i 
ever may be the description of substitute | 
employed, the advantages derived from it 
will greatly depend upon the accuracy of 
its adaptation and the extent of its sur- 

In the application of an artificial palate, 
it often becomes necessary to connect with 
it one or more artificial teeth, which can 
easily be done by extending the plate over 
so much of the alveolar ridge as may be 
required for the last named substitute. 

Delabarre, Desirabode, Stearns, Hulli- 
hen, and Blandy, have invented substitutes 
of this sort, which, under certain cir- 
cumstances, answer a most excellent pur- 
pose. For a full description of the various 
appliances which have been employed for 
remedying defects of the palatine organs, 
the reader is referred to the author's Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Dental Surgery, fifth 

ARTIFICIAL TEETH. Contributing, 
as the teeth do, to the beauty and pleasing 
expression of the countenance — to correct 
enunciation, to the function of mastica- 
tion, which they are the chief agents in 
performing, and to the health of the whole 
organism, — it is not surprising that their 
loss should be considered a serious affliction, 
and that art should be invoked to replace 
such loss with artificial substitutes. So 
great, indeed, is the liability of the human 
teeth to decay, and so much neglected are 
means of their preservation, that few per- 
sons reach even adult age without losing 
one or more of these invaluable organs. 
But happily for suffering humanity, they 
can now be replaced with artificial substi- 
tutes so closely resembling those planted 
In the jaws b}- the hand of nature, as al- 
most to elude detection, even by the most 
critical and practiced observers. Though 
there is a perfection in the works of nature 
that can never be equaled by art, artifi- 
cial teeth can, nevertheless, be so construct- 
ed and applied as to subserve, to a con- 
siderable extent, in the majority of cases, 
the purposes of the natural organs, though 
not as perfectly, nor with the same con- 
venience to the person wearing them. 

There are difficulties connected with the 
insertion of artificial teeth which none but 
an experienced practitioner has any idea 
of. Besides those of properly constructing 
and applying them in such a manner, as 
that they may be easily removed and re- 
placed by the patient, and at the same 
time be securely fixed in the mouth, and 
in such a way as not to produce injury to 
the parts with which they are connected 
or associated, there are sometimes others 
equally difficult to overcome. For exam- 
ple : the loss of a tooth in one jaw is gen- 
erally followed by the gradual protrusion 
from its socket of the one with which it 
antagonized in the other, so that if that be 
replaced with an artificial tooth of equal 
size, it will strike against this at each oc- 
clusion of the mouth, and prevent the 
other teeth from coming together. This ten- 
dency of the teeth in one jaw to protrude 
is always in proportion to the number lost 
in the other ; and if not soon counteracted 
by the replacement of the latter with arti- 
ficial substitutes, it often gives rise to an 
obstacle to their proper application, which 
will require no little ingenuity and tact to 
overcome. If it were necessary, the author 
could mention other difficulties connected 
with this branch of practice, equally great, 
but will let it suffice to state that there 
are few, as formidable as they oftentimes 
are, which the well-informed and skillful 
dentist cannot overcome. 

Substances employed for Artificial Teeth. 
Among the substances which have been 
employed for replacing the loss of teeth, 
are, 1. The crowns of human teeth ; 2. The 
teeth of neat cattle, sheep, 8fC. ; 3. The 
ivory of the elephant's and hippopotamus's 
tusk; and lastly, mineral or porcelain 

Human Teeth. The crowns of human 
teeth are preferable to any other osseous 
substance, and when used for this purpose 
they should be of the same class as those 
whose place they are designed to supply. 
If well selected, and properly inserted, the 
artificial connection with the alveolar ridge 
cannot easily be detected. 

The durability of these teeth, when thus 




employed, depends on the density of their 
structure, the soundness of their enamel, 
and the condition of the mouth in which 
they are placed. If they are of a close 
texture, and have sound and perfect en- 
amel, and are inserted in a healthy mouth, 
they will last from six to twelve, or a 
greater number of years. 

Teeth of Cattle. Of the various kinds of 
osseous suhstance employed for dental sub- 
stitutes, the teeth of neat cattle are, perhaps, 
after the human teeth, the best. By slightly 
altering their shape they may be made to 
resemble very closely the incisors of some 
persons ; but a configuration similar to the 
cuspidati cannot be given to them ; and in 
the majority of cases they are too white 
and glossy to match any of the human 

There are other objections to the use of 
these teeth. In the first place, they are 
only covered anteriorly with enamel, and, 
in the second, their structure is less dense 
than that of human teeth, and conse- 
quently they are more easily acted on by 
chemical agents. They are, therefore, less 
durable, seldom lasting more than from 
two to four years. 

Ivor;/ of the Tusk of the Elephant and 
Hippopotamus. The employment of ivory 
for artificial teeth has been sanctioned 
by usage from the earliest periods of the 
existence of this branch of dentistry, but 
we must not hence conclude that it has 
been approved by experience. On the 
contrary, of all the substances that have 
been used for this purpose, this is cer- 
tainly the most objectionable. 

The ivory of the elephant's tusk is more 
permeable than that obtained from the 
tooth of the hippopotamus. So readily 
does it absorb the fluids of the mouth, that, 
in three or four hours after being placed 
there, it becomes completely penetrated 
with them. Consequently it is liable to 
chemical changes; and when several teeth, 
formed from it, are worn, they affect the 
breath to such a degree as to render it ex- 
ceedingly offensive. 

The ivory of the tusk of the hippopota- 
mus is much firmer in its texture, and, as it 

is covered with a hard thick enamel, teeth 
may be cut from it, which will, at first, 
very much resemble those given us by 
nature. There is, however, a peculiar ani- 
mation about the natural teeth which those 
made from this substance do not possess. 
They, moreover, soon change their color, 
assuming first a yellow, and then a dingy 
or dark bluish hue. They are also, like 
those just mentioned, very liable to decay, 
and to give to the air, returned from the 
lungs, an insufferably offensive odor, which 
cannot be corrected or prevented. They 
may be washed half a dozen times a day, 
and taken out and cleansed again at night, 
and it will still be grossly perceptible. 

But objectionable as this substance is, 
it is still employed by a few practitioners, 
and twenty years ago it was used by one- 
half of the dentists in the country. 

Mineral or Porcelain Teeth. The man- 
ufacture of porcelain teeth did not for a 
long time promise to be of much advantage 
to dentistry. But by the ingenuity and 
indefatigable exertions of a few, they have, 
within the last fifteen or eighteen years, 
almost entirely superseded every other kind 
of artificial teeth. 

The French, with whom the invention 
of these teeth originated, encouraged their 
manufacture by favorable notices ; and the 
rewards offered by some of the learned and 
scientific societies of Paris, contributed 
much to their improvement. They were 
still, however, deficient in so many quali- 
ties, that they received the approbation of 
very few of the profession, and then only 
in some few cases. 

It is principally to American dentists, 
that we are indebted for that which the 
French so long labored in vain to accom- 

A want of resemblance to natural teeth, 
in color, translucency, and animation, 
was the great objection urged against the 
porcelain; and, had not these objections 
been obviated, they would have pre- 
vented them from ever being extensively 
employed. Until recently, all that were 
manufactured had a dead, opaque appear- 
ance, which rendered them easy of detec- 




tion, when placed along side of the natural 
teeth, and gave to the mouth an un- 
healthy and sickly aspect. But so great 
have been the improvements in their man- 
ufacture, that few can now distinguish any 
difference between them and the natural 

The advantages which these teeth pos- 
sess over every sort of animal substance, 
are numerous. They can be more nicely fit- 
ted to the mouth, and be worn with greater 
convenience. They do not absorb its se- 
cretions, and consequently, when proper 
attention is paid to their cleanness, they do 
not contaminate the breath, or become, in 
any way, offensive. They never change 
their color. They are not acted on by the 
chemical agents found in the mouth ; and 
hence the name incorruptible, which lias 
been given to them. 

Artificial Teeth — Different Methods of 
Applying. The methods of applying arti- 
ficial teeth are, 1. On the roots of the 
natural teeth. 2. On a plate with clasps. 
3. With spiral springs. 4. By atmospheric 
pressure. The peculiar advantages of each 
of these methods we shall point out briefly, 
as well as the cases in which they are par- 
ticularly applicable. 

Artificial Teeth placed on Natural Roots. 
This method of inserting artificial teeth, 
on account of its simplicity, was formerly 
more extensively practiced than any other, 
and, under favorable circumstances, is un- 
questionably the best that can be adopted. 
If the roots on which they are placed be 
sound and healthy, and the back part of 
the jaws supplied with natural teeth, so as 
to prevent those with which the artificial 
antagonize from striking them too directly, 
they will subserve the purposes of the 
natural organs more perfectly and effect- 
ually than any other description of den- 
tal substitute. When thus placed, they 
rest on firm bases, and if they are pro- 
perly fitted and secured, their connection 
with the natural roots cannot easily be 
detected. But unfortunately the incisors 
and cuspidati of the upper jaw, are the 
only teeth which it is proper to replace in 
this way. 

The insertion of an artificial tooth on a 
diseased root, or on a root having a dis- 
eased socket, is always followed by injuri- 
ous effects. The morbid action already 
existing in the root or its socket, is aggra- 
vated by the operation, and often caused 
to extend to the contiguous parts, and, 
sometimes, even to the whole mouth. Nor 
is it always proper to apply a tooth imme- 
diately after having prepared the root. If 
any irritation is produced by this prepara- 
tory process, the tooth should not be in- 
serted until it has wholly subsided. The 
neglect of this precaution not unfrequently 
gives rise to inflammation of the alveole- 
dental periosteum and alveolar abscess. 

The manner of preparing a root and ap- 
plying a tooth to it, will be noticed in 
another article. 

Artificial Teeth mounted on a Plate with 
Clasps. This method of applying artificial 
teeth is, perhaps, in favorable cases, with 
the exception of the one just noticed, the 
best that can be adopted ; and, on account 
of its more extensive applicability, may be 
considered as more valuable even than 
that. By this means, the loss of a single 
tooth, or of several teeth, in either or both 
jaws, may be supplied. A plate may be 
so fitted to an aperture in the dental circle, 
and secured with clasps to the other teeth, 
as to afford a firm support to six, eight, 
ten, or twelve artificial teeth. 

Teeth applied in this way, when prop- 
erly constructed, will last for many years, 
and sometimes during the life of the indi- 
vidual. But it is necessary to their dura- 
bility that they should be correctly ar- 
ranged, accurately fitted, and substantially 
secured to the plate, and that the plate 
itself be properly adapted to the gums, 
and attached to teeth that are firmly fixed 
in their sockets. 

Gold, until recently, was almost the only 
metal employed for making the plate and 
clasps. This, for the former, should be from 
twenty to twenty-one carats fine, and from 
eighteen to nineteen for the latter. If gold 
of an inferior quality be used, it will be 
liable to be acted on by the secretions of 
the mouth. Platina, when the teeth are to 




be united to the plate by means of a fusi- 
ble silicious cement, answer a better pur- 
pose than gold ; but there are few persons 
in the United States who understand melt- 
ing and reconverting the scraps into plate ; 
and when this cannot be done, the use of 
it is attended with great loss. 

Artificial Teeth with Spiral Sj/rings. 
When attached to plates, the only differ- 
ence between the method last noticed, of 
applying artificial teeth and the one now 
to be considered, consists in the manner of 
confining them in the mouth. The former 
is applicable in cases where there are other 
teeth in the mouth to which clasps may be 
applied ; the latter is designed for confining 
whole sets and parts of sets, where clasps 
or other means of attachment cannot be 
conveniently employed for their retention. 

When plates are employed, the teeth 
are attached to them in the same manner 
as when clasps are used ; but instead of be- 
ing fastened in the mouth to the other teeth, 
they are kept in place by means of spiral 
springs, one on either side of the artificial 
denture, between it and the cheeks, pass- 
ing from one piece to the other. 

Atmospheric or Suction Method of Ap- 
plying Artificial Teeth. The method last 
described, of confining artificial teeth in 
the mouth, is often inapplicable, inefficient 
and troublesome, especially for the upper 
)nw ; and it is in such cases, more par- 
ticularly, that the atmospheric or suction 
method is valuable. It was for a long 
time thought to be applicable only for an 
entire upper set, because it was supposed 
that a plate sufficiently large to afford the 
necessary amount of surface for the atmos- 
phere to act upon could not be furnished 
by a piece containing a smaller number of 
teeth. Experience, however, has proven 
this opinion to be incorrect. A single tooth 
may be mounted upon a plate presenting 
a surface large enough for the atmosphere 
to act upon it sufficiently for its retention in 
the mouth. For a like reason it was thought 
that the narrowness of the inferior alveolar 
ridge would precludo the application of a 
plate to it upon this principle, and in this 
opinion the author participated j but he has 

succeeded so perfectly in confining lower 
pieces by this means, that he rarely finds 
it necessary to employ spiral springs for 
double sets. 

The firmness of the adhesion of the plate 
or base to the gums, to which the teeth 
are attached, depends upon the extent of 
the surface which the plate presents, and 
the accuracy of its adaptation. It is also 
important that the teeth should be so ar- 
ranged and antagonized, that they shall 
strike those in the other jaw all the way 
around at the same instant. This is a 
matter that should never be overlooked, for 
if they meet on one side, before they come 
together on the other, the part of the plate 
or base not pressed on, will be detached, 
and the admission of air between it and 
the gums will cause it to drop. 

The application of artificial teeth on this 
principle has been practiced for a long 
time ; but the plates formerly used were 
ivory instead of gold, and could seldom be 
fitted with sufficient accuracy to the mouth 
to exclude the air ; so that, in fact, it could 
hardly be said that they were retained by 
its pressure. Unless fitted in the most 
perfect manner, the piece is constantly lia- 
ble to drop, and the amount of substance 
necessary for such a base renders it awk- 
ward and clumsy ; and besides, ivory ab- 
sorbs the fluids of the mouth so readily, 
that after being worn for a few weeks it 
becomes exceedingly offensive. 

The application of artificial teeth upon 
this principle originated with the late Dr. 
Gardette, of Philadelphia, and we believe 
that soon after he made his first successful 
experiment, Mr. John Woffendale, of New 
York, constructed a dental substitute for 
the upper jaw, which was retained in the 
mouth in the same way ; and at the time 
he did it he was not aware that it had 
ever been done by any one else. 

The adhesion may be greatly increased by 
the formation of an air chamber in the plate 
opening upon the gum or roof of the mouth. 

Other methods, as the ligature and trans- 
planting, have been employed in the ap- 
plication of artificial teeth; but as they 
have long since been abandoned, a descrip- 




tion of them in this place is not deemed 
necessary. See Mechanical Dentistry; 
Pivot Teeth, Manner of inserting ; Metallic 
Base for Artificial Teeth ; Models, Plaster ; 
Model and Counter-model ; Mounting Ar- 
tificial Teeth upon a Metallic Base, and 
other articles on dental prosthesis. 

ARTIS'CUS. A little loaf or roll; a 

ARTOCAIl'PUS. From aproj, bread, 
and napnof, fruit. A genus of plants of 
the order Artocarpece. 

Aktocarpus Incisa. The bread fruit 

Artocarpus Integrifolia. The Jack 
fruit tree. Caoutchouc. 

ARTOM'ELI. A cataplasm of bread and 

ARUM. A genus of plants of the natu- 
ral order Jroidece. 

Arum Dracun'culus. The systematic 
name of dragonswort. 

Arum Macula'tum. Common arum, 
or wake-robin. The root is the medicinal 
part of this plant, and when recent is acri- 
monious. There are also several other 
species of Arum. 

AEUNDINA'CEOUS. From arundo, a 
reed. Peed-like ; pertaining to a reed. 

ARUN'DO. A genus of plants of the 
order Graminea*. A reed. 

AiiUNDO Bam'bos. The bamboo plant. 

Arundo Brachii Major. An old name 
for the Ulna. 

Arundo Brachii Minor. Old name 
for the Radius. 

Arundo Major. Old name for the 

Arundo Minor. Old name for Fibula. 

Arundo Phargmi'tes. The common 
reed. It has been used in syphilis. 

Arundo Saccharif'era. The sugarcane. 

ARVIC'OLA. From arvum, a field, 
and colore, to inhabit. A genus of rodents, 
of the family of the rat and mouse, char- 
acterized by the prismatic and fangless 
structure of the molar teeth. 

ARVINA. Old name for hogslard. 

ARVUM. Vulva. 

ARYT^'NO. Belonging to the ary- 
tamoid cartilage. i 

Areteno-Epiglottide'us. A muscle 
of the epiglottis, arising from the arytamoid 

ARYTENOID. Arytcenoi'des. From 
apvracva, a funnel, and «<5o$, shape. A 
term applied in Anatomy to two cartilages 
of the larynx, and the muscles, glands, &c., 
connected with them. 

Arytenoid Cartilages. The name 
of two cartilages of the larynx. 

Arytenoid Glands. Small glandular 
whitish bodies, anterior to the arytamoid 

ARYT^ENOIDE'US. The name of a 
muscle which passes from one arytamoid 
cartilage to the other. It is divided by 
some anatomists into three portions. 

Arytenoideus Major. See Arytav 
noideus transversus. 

Arytenoideus Minor. See Arytav 
noideus Obliquus. 

Arytenoideus Obliquus. The name 
of a muscle of the glottis. 

Arytenoideus. Transver'sus. An 
azygos or single muscle of the glottis. 

ARYTH'MUS. Appwfyo 5 ; from a, priv.. 
and pvdftoc, rythm — measure. A term 
sometimes applied to an irregular pulse. 

ASAB. See Borozail. 

ASA BEN. Old name for soap. 

ASAFCE'TIDA. Assafce'tida; from the 
Hebrew word asa, to heal. A gum resin ; 
the concrete juice of the Ferula asafoeUda. 
An umbelliferous plant. 

ASAGIN. Dragon's blood. 

name recently given to the plant from 
which is obtained the alkaloid veratria. 

ASAPHA'TUM. From a, priv., and 
Ga<t>T)$, clear. A cutaneous affection, con - 
sisting of collections in the sebaceous folli- 
cles of the skin, which, when pressed out, 
look like small black-headed worms. 

ASAPHIA. From a, priv., and aa^ 
clear. Defective utterance or articulation 
resulting from disease of the palate. 

ASARABAC'CA. From asarum, a kind 
of plant, and bacca berry. A small, stem- 
less, hardy European herbaceous plant, of 
the order Aristolochiacem. See Asarum 




AS'ARIN. A sort of stearoptcne ob- 
tained from the Asarum europosum. 

AS' ARUM. From a, priv., and oaipeiv, 
to adorn ; so called because it was not ad- 
mitted into ancient coronal wreaths. A ge- 
nus of plants of the order Arisiolochiacece. 

As'arum Canaden'se. Asarum caro- 
linia'num. Canada snakeroot ; wild ginger. 

As'arum Europium. The asarabacca 
of the shops, formerly used as an emetic, 
but at present seldom employed, except as 
an errhine. 

ASBESTOS. Asbes'lus. A mineral 
more or less flexible and fibrous. The an- 
cients manufactured cloth from it for wrap- 
ping up dead bodies when exposed on the 
funeral pile. In consequence of its being 
a non-conductor of caloric, the application 
of it to the bottom of cavities of very sen- 
sitive teeth was recommended by Dr. S. 
Brown, a few years since, in the American 
Journal of Dental Science, to prevent the 
painful sensation sometimes produced in 
cases of this sort, by cold or hot fluids, or 
air, when taken into the mouth. As a 
non-conductor of caloric it possesses every 
desirable property, and it is as indestructi- 
ble in a tooth as gold. 

ASBOLIN'. From acfiolt), soot. A name 
given to a substance, supposed to be a pe- 
culiar principle, obtained from soot ; but 
said by others to be only a combination of 
acid pyretin with that form of pyretin and 
pyrelain obtained from the distillation of 
pyretin. The anthelmintic qualities ascribed 
to soot have been supposed to reside in 
this substance. 

ASCARDAMYCTES. One who stares 
with fixed eyes without moving the eyelids. 

AS'CARTS. From aompd,u, to leap. 
A genus of intestinal worms, comprehend- 
ing a great number of species. 

Ascaris Vermicula'ris. The thread 
or maw-worm, found in the rectum. 

Ascaris Lumbricoi'des. The long 
round worm. 

AS'CELES. One without legs. 

ASCEN'DENS. From asoendere, to 
ascend. Ascending. A term applied in 
Anatomy to parts which have their origin 
lower than their termination. 

ASCEN'SUS MORBI. The ascent or 
increase of a disease. 

ASCIA. A name given to a kind of 
bandage from its supposed resemblance to 
a hatchet. 

ASCITES. From aaimg, a sack or bot- 
tle ; so called because of its bottle-like pro- 
tuberance. Dropsy of the abdomen, or 
rather of the peritoneum, characterized by 
fluctuation, increased size of the abdomen, 

ASCLEPIADA'CE^E. The Asclepias 
tril>e of Dicotyledonous plants. 

ASCLETIAS. A genus of plants of 
the order Asclepiadacea. 

Ascle'pias Asthmat'ica. A creeping 
plant of the Isle of France. Coromandel 
ipecacuanha ; supposed to be a specific in 

Asclepias Gigante'a. Mudar; an 
East Indian plant possessing purgative, 
alterative and diaphoretic properties. 

Asclepias Syri'aca. Syrian dogsbane, 
the juice of which is an acrid poison. 

Asclepias Tubero'sa. Butterfly- weed ; 
pleurisy-root. The root is sometimes used 
in pulmonary affections ; it is diaphoretic, 
and slightly cathartic. 

Asclepias Vincetox'icttm. Vinceton- 
icum. Swallow-wort. It is said to pos- 
sess hydragogue properties, and was for- 
merly thought to be beneficial in cutaneous 

ASCO'MA. From aoicos, a bottle. The 
eminence of the pubes of females at the 
age of puberty is so called from its shape. 

ASEPTA. From a, priv., and cyna, to 
putrefy. A term applied to substances 
not subject to putrefaction. 

ASHES. The remains of the combus- 
tion of organic substances. 

ASIATIC PILLS. Pills composed of 
one-fourteenth of a grain of arscnious acid 
and a little more than half a grain of black 

AS'INUS. The ass. The milk of the 
female ass is given to patients suffering 
under phthisis or debilitated stomach, as 
being more easy of digestion than cow's 

ASI'RACUS. The old name of a kind 




of locust, supposed to be an antidote to the 
poison of the scorpion's sting. 

ASIT'IA. From a, priv., and airoc, 
food. Abstinence from food ; want of ap- 

ASO'DES. From cuttj, disgust, satiety. 
A fever attended with a sense of nausea, 
loathing, and great internal heat. 

ASPALASO'MUS. From smaXaf, a 
mole, and oufia, body. A genus of mon- 
sters having the eye imperfectly developed. 
(J. G. St. Hilairo.) Also a malformation 
in which the lower part of the abdomen is 
opened and the viscera exposed, the uri- 
nary apparatus, the genitals and rectum 
opening externally by three distinct orifi- 

ASPARAGUS. A genus of plants of 
the order Asphoddece. 

Aspab'agus Officinalis. Common 
asparagus. The root is supposed to be 
diuretic, and the young shoots are much 
prized as an article of diet. 

ASPARAMIDE. Aspar'agin, AUhcdn, 
Malamid. A peculiar principle discov- 
ered in the juice of asparagus, the root of 
marsh-mallows and liquorice. 

ASPAR'MIC ACID. Aspariic acid, 
Malaminic acid. An acid obtained from 

ASPA'SIA. A ball of wood soaked in 
infusion of galls, used to constringe the 

AS'PEN. See Populus Tremula. 
ASPERITY. Roughness. A term ap- 
plied in Anatomy to the inequalities on the 
surface of bones, usually serving for the 
insertion of tendons of muscles ; and some- 
times, in Pathology, to inflammation of the 
eyelids on account of the sensation of rough- 
ness which attends the movements of these 
organs upon the eyeballs. 

AS'PERA ARTERIA. The trachea ; so 
called from the inequalities of its cartilages. 
ASPERMA'SIA. From a, priv., and 
onepfia, seed. Deficiency or want of se- 

ASPERMATIS'MUS. Same etymon. 
Dyspermatis' mits refiuus. Absence or non- 
emission of semen, owing to its reflux into 
the bladder. 

ASPERSION, Aspersio. From asper- 
gere, to besprinkle. The act of sprinkling 
water or other fluid on the surface of the 
body, or any part of it. 

ASPHAL'TUM. A bituminous sub- 
stance found in a soft liquid state on the 
surface of the Dead Sea, which, by age, 
becomes hard and dry. 

ASPHODE'LE^E. A tribe of Morwco- 
tyledonous plants, allied to the lilies. 

ASPHOD'ELUS. A genus of plants of 
the order Asphodelece. 

Asphod'elus Ramo'sus. The name 
for the officinal, or branched asphodel. 
The bulb was formerly supposed to be 
diuretic and emmenagogue. 

ASPHYXIA. From o, priv., and 
°f"te, pulse. This term was originally 
employed to signify privation of pulse, but 
it is now applied to suspension of all the 
vital phenomena produced by causes op- 
erating on the respiratory organs, but in 
which life is not actually extinct. Dr. 
John Mason Good divides asphyxia in- 
to four varieties : 1. Asphyxia svffoca- 
iionis, asphyxy produced by hanging or 
drowning. 2. Asphyxia mephitica, choke- 
damp ; or asphyxy, produced by inhaling 
carbonic acid or some other irrespirable 
exhalation. 3. Asphyxia Elcctrica, Elec- 
trical asphyxy, produced by a stroke of 
lightning or electricity. 4. Asphyxia Al- 
gida, frost-bitten asphyxy, produced by 
intense cold. 

The effects of asphyxy upon the teeth are 
peculiar. It causes their bony or osseous 
tissue to be slightly injected with red blood, 
giving to them a faint red or purplish tinge. 
This is particularly observable in the teeth 
of persons who have been drowned or 
hung, or who have died from the Asiatic 
cholera, and demonstrates, beyond doubt, 
the vascularity of these organs. The au- 
thor has a number of specimens of teeth 
thus injected in his cabinet. 

Asphyxia Idiopath'ica. Fatal syn- 
cope, caused by relaxation of the heart. 
Asphyxia, Local. Gangrene. 
Asphyxia Neonatorum. A term ap- 
plied to asphyxy of new-born infants. 
ASPHYX'IED. In a state of asphyxia. 




ASPIDIS'CUS. The sphincter ani. 

ASPID'IUM. A genus of plants of the 
order Filices. Male fern. 

Aspidittm Fi'lix Mas. Male fern ; po- 
lypody. The root has acquired great celeb- 
rity for its effects upon tape- worm. 

ASPIS. AffTttf. Asp, Aspic. The an- 
cient name for the Egyptian viper, sup- 
posed to be the serpent which killed Cleo- 

ASPLE'NIUM. A genus of ferns of the 
order Filices. 

Asplenium Adian'tum Nigrum. Leek 
fern ; black maiden-hair, used as an astrin- 
gent and pectoral. 

Asplenium Cet'erach. The systematic 
name of spleenwort. Miltwaste, used in 
diseases of the chest and in nephritic and 
calculous affections. 

Asplenium Filix Fcs'mina. Female 

Asplenium Ru'ta Mura'ria. Wall-rue ; 
white maiden-hair. It has been used as a 
remedy for abscess of the lungs. 

Asplenium Scolopen'drium. The sys- 
tematic name of scolopendrium. Hart's 

Asplenium Trichom'anes. The sys- 
tematic name of trichomanes. Common 
maiden-hair, or spleenwort. 

ASPRE'DO. Gr. Syn. Tpa%ufia. Asper, 
rough. A hardness and unequal rough- 
ness between the eyelids. 

AS'SALA. Old name for the nutmeg. 

ASSAFCETIDA. Asafoetida. 

ASSARABAC'CA. Asarum Europceum. 

ASSAY'. From the French, essayer, to 
try. A chemical process, the object of 
which is to determine the quantity of metal 
contained in any mineral, or metallic mix- 
ture, by analyzing a small part of it. 

There are two processes, the dry, and the 
humid or wet. By the first the metal is 
extracted by the agency of fire and fluxes, 
and it is by this assay that ores are bought 
and sold. The second is more accurate, 
and is accomplished by dissolving the ore 
or other substances in acids and precipitat- 
ing the metals from the solution. 

When the term assay is used alone with- 
out the qualifying name of any metals, it 

usually alludes to the analysis of an alloy 
of gold or silver, or both ; and is sometimes 
equivalent to parting. 

symptoms. Those which are usually but 
not always present in a disease. 

ASSIMILATION. AssimUatio ; from 
assimilare, to make like to. The conver- 
sion of food into nutriment, a function 
common to all organized things, animal 
and vegetable. Nutrition. 

sual movements. Movements which ac- 
company other voluntary motions. 

ASSODES. Asodes ; from aorj, loath- 
ing. A fever attended with internal fever, 
anxiety and loathing of food. 

AS'TACUS. A genus of shell-fish. 

Astacus Fluvia'tilis. The crevis, or 

Astacus Mari'nus. The lobster. 

ASTATIC. From a, priv., and arau, to 
stand. A term applied to the magnetic 
direction of one needle neutralized by 
another, the two standing in any position, 
but not constantly north and south. 

ASTHENIA. From a, priv., and odevoc, 
strength. Debility ; want of strength. 

ASTHMA. From aotiuafr, to breathe 
with difficulty. Difficult respiration, re- 
curring at intervals, attended with a sense 
of stricture across the breast, and in the 
lungs, with a wheezing cough. It is placed 
by Dr. Cullen in the class Neuroses, and 
order Spasmi. 

ASTHMATTC Affected with, or re- 
lating to, asthma. 

ASTIG'MATISM. From a, priv., and 
oTiyfja, a mark, spot or sign of any thing ; 
terminal, tofioe. A structural error or mal- 
formation of the crystalline lens, causing 
dimness of vision. 

ASTOMUS. Aarofioc, from a, priv., 
and aTOfia, a mouth. Without a mouth. 

ASTRAG'ALUS. From acTpayaloc, a 
die; so called because of its supposed re- 
semblance to the die used in the ancient 
games. In Anatomy, a short bone of the 
tarsus. In Botany, a genus of leguminous 

Astragalus Creticus. Astragalus trag- 



acantha. Cretan milk- vetch, a plant which 
was supposed to afford the gum-tragacanth. 

Astragalus Ex'scapus. Stemless 
milk-vetch, said to he antisyphilitic. 

Astragalus Tragacan'tha. See As- 
tragalus Verus. 

Astragalus Ve'rus. Goat's-thorn j 
milk-vetch. The gum-tragacanth of com- 
merce is said to be principally derived from 
this species. 

ASTRAN'TIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Digynia. 

Astrantia Ma'jor. Astrantia vulgaris; 
Astrantia nigra. Black master-wort ; the 
root is purgative. 

ASTRIC'TION. Astrictio. The action 
of an astringent. 

ASTRICTUS. From astringo, to bind. 
When applied to the abdomen, it signifies 

ASTRIN'GENT. Asiringens ; from as- 
tringo, to bind. That which has the pro- 
perty of contracting and rendering more 
solid the organic textures. 

Astringent Principle. Tannin or 
tannic acid. 

ASTROBOLIS'MOS. From aarpov, a star, 
and /3e/U.«, to smite. That which is planet- 
struck. Applied formerly to the blasting 
of a tree. It has been used to express apo- 
plexy and sphacelus. Obsolete. 

ASTROL'OGY. Astrologia; from aarpov, 
a star, and toyog, a discourse. The art of 
divining by inspecting the stars. 

AS'TRUM. A star. In the old chem- 
istry it signifies that vrtue which sub- 
stances acquire from preparation ; thus the 
astrum of a salt is its resolution to a fluid 
state, so that it can exert its power upon 
the oeconomy. 

As'trum Duplica'tum. A medicine 
composed of the tinctures of antimony and 
coral ; essence of amber and musk. 

ASUOLI. Soot. 

ATAVISM. From aiavus, an old grand- 
sire or ancestor, indefinitely. The re-ap- 
pearance of an anomaly or disease, after it 
had been lost in one or more genera- 

ATAX'IA. From a, priv., and raaau, 
to order. In Physiology, irregularity in the 

functions of the body, and in Pathology, in 
the symptoms of a disease. 

phus fever ; so called because of the ine- 
quality of its nervous symptoms, and the 
prostration of strength which attends it. 

ATCHAR. A condiment made of green 
plants of various kinds, garlic, ginger, 
mustard and pimento, pickled in vinegar. 
It is used in India. 

ATECH'NIA. Anaphrodisia. 

monatelectaisis. Imperfect dilatation of the 
lungs at birth, or coming on occasionally 
during the first weeks of life. 

AT'ELES. krelrig. In Zoology a genus 
of monkeys. The spider monkeys. In 
Anatomy, imperfect; defective. 

ATELOCHEI'LIA. From arefoig, im- 
perfect, and *«/toc, lip. Imperfect develop- 
ment of the lip. 

imperfect, and eynetyalov , the encephalon. 
Imperfect development of the brain. 

ATELOGLOS'SIA. From ar^m, im- 
perfect, and yXuaaa, tongue. Imperfect 
development of the tongue. 

ATELOGNATHIA. From artkrii im- 
perfect, and yvadog, the jaw. Imperfect 
development of the jaw. 

ATELOMYELTA. From artlm, im- 
perfect, and fjvelog, marrow. Imperfect 
development of the spinal marrow. 

ATELOPROSO'PIA. From artkr\g, im- 
perfect, and npocunov, the face. Imperfect 
development of the face. 

ATELOSTOM'IA. From aielr,g, im- 
perfect, and arofia, mouth. Imperfect de- 
velopment of the mouth. 

ATHAMANTA. From Athamas in 
Thessaly. A genus of umbelliferous plants. 

Athamanta Creten'sis. Candy car- 
rot. The seeds are carminative and diu- 

Athamanta Oreoseli'num. The sys- 
tematic name for the officinal oreoselinum. 
Black mountain parsley. An oil, obtained 
from the seed by distillation, was esteemed 
a valuable odontalgic remedy. 

ATHAMANTIN. An alkaloid obtained 
from the last named plant. 




ATHANA'SIA. From a, priv., and tiav- 
arog, death, because its flowers do not 
easily wither. Tansey. The term has also 
been applied to several medicines. Its 
regular meaning is immortality. 

ATHE'NA. A highly prized plaster 
used in wounds of the head, described by 
Oribasius, Aetius, Paulus iEgineta, &c. 
It was composed of oxyd of copper, galls, 
verdigris, myrrh, colophony, ammoniacum, 
galbanum, wax, pitch, &c. 

ATHELAS'MUS. From a, priv., and 
#^77, a nipple. Inability to give suck, 
either from want of a nipple, or some other 

ATHENIPTUM. An ancient collyri- 
um made from pompholyx, oxyd of cop- 
per, saffron, myrrh, spikenard, hasmatite, 
white pepper, opium, and chian wine. 

ATHERO'MA. From a&tipa, pap or 
pulp. An encysted tumor, containing a soft 
substance of the consistence of a poultice. 

ATHEROMATOUS. Pertaining to 
atheroma, as an atherom'atous tumor. 

Atherom'atous Disease. Fatty de- 

ATHLE'TA. From atilog, combat. The 
men who exercised themselves in combat 
at the public festivals were called Athletaj. 

ATHLETTC. Athleticus. Possessing 
great muscular strength. 

ATHYM'IA. From a, priv., and tivfiog, 
courage. Pusillanimity ; despondency ; mel- 

ATIN'CAR. Borax. 

ATLANTAL. Relating to the atlas. 

ATL AN'TO-AX'OID. Atloido-Axoid. 
Pertaining to both the atlas and the axis. 

cipital. Belonging to the atlas and occiput. 

AT'LAS. From ailau, I sustain, be- 
cause it sustains the head ; or from the fable 
of Atlas, who was supposed to sustain the 
world upon his shoulders. The name of 
the first vertebra. 

ATMIATRPA. Atmidiatrice. From 
aruog, vapor, gas, and larpsia, treatment. 
The treatment of disease by the action of 
vapors or gases. 

ATMOM'ETER. From aruog, vapor, 
and [lerpov, a measure. An instrument in- 

vented by Professor Leslie for measuring 
the quantity of vapor exhaled from a 
moist surface in a given time. 

AT'MOSPHERE. From arfiog, vapor, 
and a<paipa } a globe. The elastic invisible 
fluid which surrounds the earth. 

ATMOSPHERIC. Belonging, or per- 
taining to the atmosphere. 

ATO'CIA. From aw/tog, a root, which, 
with the ancients, signified barrenness, 
not from physical causes, but from avoid- 
ance of the man. Barrenness ; sterility. 
ATOCIUM. An old name for a remedy 
which was supposed to destroy the power 
of conception. 

AT'OM. From a, priv., and reuvu, to 
cut. A particle of matter incapable of 
further division. In Chemistry it is syn- 
onymous with equivalent. 

ATOMTC THE'ORY. A theory for ex- 
plaining the lawfr of definite proportions in 
chemical combinations, founded on the be- 
lief that matter consists of ultimate indi- 
visible particles, called atoms, in the same 
body, but differing in weight in different 
bodies, and that bodies combine in differ- 
ent proportions with reference to those 

ATON'IC. Atonicus. Diminished as to 
muscular power. 

AT'ONY. Atonia ; from a, priv., and 
rovog, tone. Debility. Want of tone ; 

ATRABILTARY. From ater, black, 
and bilis, bile. Black bile. An epithet 
applied by the ancients to melancholic and 
hypochondriac dispositions, because it was 
believed that the atrabilis predominated in 

ATRACHE'LUS. From a, priv., and 
rpaxv^og, the neck. Short-necked. 

ATRAC'TYLIS. A genus of plants of 
the order Composite. The distaff thistle. 
Atractylis Gummif'era. Pine this- 
tle. A gummy matter exudes from the 
root when wounded, which, when chewed, 
is said to harden the gums. 

ATRAMEN'TUM. Ink. It has been 
used as an astringent, and an external ap- 
plication in herpetic eruptions. 

ATRE'SIA. From a, priv., and rpau } . 




to perforate. Imperforation, usually ap- 
plied to deficiency of a natural opening. 

ATRE'TUS. From a, priv., and rpao, 
I perforate. Imperforate in the anus or 
parts of generation. 

AT'RICES. Small tubercles which some- 
times appear about the anus. 

ATRICHIA. Baldness. 

AT'RICI. Small sinuses about the anus, 
but which do not perforate the rectum. 

ATRIP'LEX. A genus of plants of the 
order Chenqpodiacece. 

Atriplex Fce'tida. See Chenopodium 

Atriplex Horten'sis. Atriplex saliva. 
Grass-leaved sea-orache ; the herb and seeds 
are said to be antiscorbutic. 

A'TRIUM. A name applied to certain 
cavities of the body ; as atrium vaginae, the 
vestibulum vagina} ; atrium cordis, an au- 

AT'ROPA. From krponog, the goddess 
of destiny, so called from its fatal effects. 
A genius of plants of the order Solanacece. 

Atropa Belladon'na. Belladonna. 
Deadly nightshade or dwale ; a powerful 
narcotico-acrid poison. 

Atropa Mandraq'ora. Mandrake. 
Mountebanks used to sell it as a wonder- 
working medicine, especially as an incen- 
tive to love. 

AT'ROPINE. Atropia. A highly poison- 
ous organic base found in all parts of Atropa 
Belladonna, and possessing the prop- 
erty, in the minutest proportion, of dila- 
ting the pupil of the eye. One fiftieth 
of a grain is dangerous. It is a narcotic 
and powerful sedative. The homceopa- 
thists put it in their pillicules. 

AT'ROPHY. Atrophia. From a, priv., 
and rpefyu, to nourish. Marasmus. At- 
rophy. A gradual wasting of the body, 
usually attended by fever, loss of appetite 
and impaired digestion. Any organ of the 
body thus affected is said to be atrophied. 

Atrophy of the Teeth. Odontatro- 
phia. An affection characterized either by 
perforations in, or discolored spots on the 
enamel, of a shriveled, yellowish, or 
farownish aspect, of two, four, or more 
rteeth in each jaw. But the strict applica- 

bility of the term atrophy, as the two prin 
cipal varieties of the affection consist rather 
in a congenital defect, and most frequently 
of some portion of the enamel of two or 
more teeth, than wasting, from want of 
nourishment, of any of the dental tissue, 
may, perhaps, be considered as somewhat 
questionable ; and this would seem to be 
rendered still more so by the fact that 
neither of the two principal varieties oc- 
curs subsequently to the formation of the 
enamel. But as the congenital form of the 
disease is evidently the result of altered 
function in a portion of one or more of the 
formative organs, if not of absolute degen- 
eration from vicious nutrition, the term 
may, perhaps, be regarded as the most 
applicable of any that can be applied to it. 
Atrophy of the teeth may very properly 
be divided into three varieties, each having 
distinctive peculiarities which characterize 
it from either of the others. 

The first variety is characterized by 
white, light or dark brown irregular- 
shaped spots on the labial or buccal sur- 
face of the affected tooth. This variety 
occurs oftener than the third, and less fre- 
quently than the second, rarely appearing 
on more than one or two teeth in the same 
mouth. The temporary teeth are rarely 
affected by it. The size and shape of the 
spots are exceedingly variable. 

The second variety, which may very 
properly be termed perforating or pitting 
atrophy, is characterized by irregular de- 
pressions or holes in the enamel, extending 
transversely across and around the tooth. 
These holes or pits are sometimes separated 
one from another ; at other times they are 
confluent, forming an irregular horizontal 
groove. They sometimes penetrate but a 
short distance into the enamel ; at other 
times they extend entirely through it, the 
surface of their walls presenting an irregu- 
lar but usually a glossy and polished ap- 
pearance, a peculiarity which always dis- 
tinguishes this variety from erosion. Teeth 
are sometimes marked with two or three 
rows of these pits. 

Two, four, six or more corresponding 
teeth of each jaw are always affected at the 




same time, the disease never being confined 
to a single tooth. 

In the third variety the whole or only a 
part of the crown of the tooth may he af- 
fected, the dentine being often implicated 
as well as the enamel, and in this variety 
the affected organ has a pale yellow, or 
brownish and shriveled appearance ; it is 
also partially or wholly divested of enamel, 
and its sensibility and susceptibility to ex- 
ternal impressions are greatly increased. 
The disease is often confined to a single 
tooth, hut more frequently it shows itself 
on two corresponding teeth in the same 
jaw, and the bicuspids are oftener attacked 
than the incisors, cuspids or molars. 

The first variety seems to be the result 
of the action of some cause capable of de- 
stroying the bond of union between the 
enamel and the subjacent dentine subse- 
quently to the formation of the crown of 
the tooth. When the affection occurs pre- 
viously to the eruption of the tooth, the 
intermediary membrane, which constitutes 
this bond of union, may, at the affected 
place, have perished, as a consequence 
either of local or constitutional disease; 
but when the atrophy occurs subsequently 
to this period, the destruction of this mem- 
brane at the atrophied spot is doubtless 
the result of mechanical violence. 

The second variety of dental atrophy, 
which is always congenital, we have every 
reason to believe, results from constitu- 
tional disease, whereby the secretion of 
earthy salts, deposited in the enamel cells, 
or secretory ducts of the enamel membrane, 
is interrupted, and by occurring at the 
time this process is going on, prevents 
them from being filled, causing them to 
wither and perish, and hence the pitted 
appearance which characterizes this variety 
of the affection. In other words, the secre- 
tion of the inorganic constituents of the 
enamel being interrupted for a short time, 
the horizontal row of cells in the enamel 
membrane, into which it should be depos- 
ited, will not be filled, and as a conse- 
quence as might naturally be supposed, 
they waste away, leaving a circular row 
of pits around the crown of the tooth ; but 

as soon as the constitutional disease has 
run its course, the secretion of earthy mat- 
ter for the enamel fibres will be resumed, 
and unless the child experiences a relapse, 
or has a second attack of disease capable 
of interrupting the secretory functions of 
the cells of the enamel membrane, the other 
parts of the enamel will be well formed. 

It is to the occurrence of eruptive dis- 
eases that the interruption of this peculiar 
function seems to be principally attributa- 

Atrophy, characterized by an imperfect 
development of the osseous part of the 
crown of a tooth, discoloration, &c, of the 
enamel, is doubtless the result of diseased 
action in the pulp at the time of ossifica- 

The nature of this affection, under con- 
sideration, is such as not to admit of cure. 
The treatment, therefore, must be prevent- 
ive rather than curative. All that can be 
done is to mitigate the severity of such 
diseases as are supposed to produce it, by 
the administration of proper remedies. By 
this means the effects may, perhaps, be 
partially or wholly counteracted. 

It seldom happens that atrophied teeth 
decay more readily than others, so that 
the only evil resulting from the affection 
is disfiguration of the organs. When the 
cutting edges of the incisors only are af- 
fected, the diseased part may sometimes be 
removed with a file without inflicting the 
slightest injury on the teeth. 

ATTENDANTS. Attenuans; from at- 
tenuo, to make thin. Medicines which 
increase the fluidity of the blood. 

AT'TITUDE. Law Latin, aptitudes; 
from apture, to fit. Situation or posture of 
the body. It is a very important point in 

ATTOL'LENS. From attoUo, to lift up. 
A term applied in Anatomy to certain mus- 
cles, the peculiar function of which, is to 
lift up the parts to which they are at- 

Attol'lens Aurem. A lifting muscle 
of the ear. 

Attoi/lens Oculi. A lifting muscle 
of the eye. The rectus superior. 




ATTONITUS. Thunder-struck. Ap- 

ATTRACTION. Attractio; from at- 
iraho, to attract. Affinity ; tendency of 
bodies or particles of matter to approach 
one another and adhere together. See Af- 

Attraction, Capillary. The power 
by which a liquid rises in a fine tube or 
between two plates, higher than the liquid 
which surrounds it. 

Attraction of Cohesion. Cohesion; 
the force which unites similar particles 
into masses. 

Attraction, Elective. Chemical at- 
traction. The tendency of those sub- 
stances in a mixture which have the 
strongest affinity for each other to unite. 
Thus, if sulphuric acid be poured into a 
solution containing baryta, magnesia and 
soda, it elects the baryta and forms, by its 
union with it, sulphate of baryta. 

Attraction, Electrical. The ap- 
proach of bodies dissimilarly electrified. 

Attraction of Gravitation. The 
mutual tendency of bodies to each other. 

ATTRAHENS AURIS. Anterior au- 
ris. The anterior auris muscle which 
draws the ear forward and upward. 

ATTRAHENTS. Attrakent; from ad, 
to, and traho, I draw. Remedies which 
attract fluids to the parts to which they 
are applied. Stimulants. 

ATTRITION. From ad and terere, 
to bruise. Friction ; bruising. Anciently 
applied to severe cardialgia. 

A'TYPIG. Atypus ; from a, priv., and 
rvnoc , a type. Literally without type. A 
term applied to periodical diseases which 
have no regular type. 

AU. Symbol for gold. 

AUAN'TE. A name applied by Hippoc- 
rates to a disease attended with emaciation, 
supposed to proceed from an acid ferment 
in the stomach, and a morbid state of the 
pancreatic juice. 

AUDITION. From audire, to hear. 

AU'DITORY. Anditorius ; from au- 
dire, to hear. Belonging to the organ of 

Auditory Arteries and Veins. The 
vessels which enter the auditory canals. 

Auditory Canals. See Meatus Audi- 
torius Externus, and Meatus Auditorius 

Auditory Nerve. Portio mollis of the 
seventh pair. 

AUGITE. A green, black, or brown min- 
eral, found in volcanic rock and basaltes, 

AU'RA. From aw, to breathe. Any 
subtile vapor or emanation. 

Adra Elec'trica. A cold sensation, 
that of wind blowing on a part, occasioned 
by the reception of electricity from a sharp 

Aura Epilep'tica. The peculiar sen- 
sation experienced before an attack of epi- 

Aura San'guinis. The odor exhaled 
from blood immediately after being drawn. 
The halitus. 

Aura Semina'lis. The subtile ema- 
nation from the semen, supposed, by some 
physiologists, to impregnate the ovum ; 
but the existence of this aura is not estab- 

Aura Vita'lis. The vital principle. 

AURANTIA'CE^E. The orange tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. 

AURAN'TIUM. The orange-tree; a 
species of Citrus. 

Aurantium Curassaven'tia. The Cu- 
rassoa apples or oranges. Immature or- 

AURANTII A'QUA. Aqua jlorum 
aurantii. Orange-flower water. 

Aurantii Cor'tex. Orange peel. 

AURANTINE. Aurantin. The bitter 
principle of the orange rind. 

ting gold. 

AU'RIC ACID. The peroxyd of gold, 
so called from its property of forming salts 
with alkaline bases. 


two cavities of the heart which receive the 
blood from every part of the body ; the 
right from the two vena? cava?, and coro- 
nary vein, and the left from the four pul- 
monary veins. 




AUEIC'ULA. Diminutive of auris, the 
ear. An auricle; the prominent part of 
the ear ; also a name applied to two cavi- 
ties of the heart. 
Auricula JuDiE. See Peziza Auricula. 
Auiucula Muris. Hieracium PUosella. 

AURICULAR. Auricula 'ris ; from ow- 
ns, the ear. Pertaining to the ear. 

INGS. The openings between the auricles 
and ventricles of the heart. 

AURIC'ULATE. Eared. A term ap- 
plied in Botany to leaves which have two 
rounded lobes at the base. 

gold, and pigmentum, paint. Yellow or- 

AUEISCALPIUM. From auris, the 
ear, and scalpo, to scrape. An ear- 

AU'RISCOPE. An instrument for ex- 
ploring the ear to ascertain the condition of 
the Eustachian tube. It resembles a flexi- 
ble stethoscope. 

AURIST. From auris, the ear. One 
who occupies himself with the treatment 
of the diseases of the ear. 

ringing in the ears. 

AUEU'GO. Jaundice. 

AU'EUM. Gold. 

Aurum Folia'tum. See Gold Foil. 

Aurum Ful'minans. Aurate of ammo- 
nia. The precipitate formed by putting 
ammonia into a solution of gold. 

Aurum Grap'hicum. A gold ore. 

Aurum Horizonta'le. Oil of cinna- 
mon and sugar. 

Aurum Lepro'sum. Antimony. 

Aurum Musi'vum. Mosaic gold ; a 
preparation used as a pigment for giving 
to plaster figures a golden color. It is a 
bisulphuret of tin. 

Aurum Pota'bile. Dissolved gold 
mixed with oil of rosemary. 

AUSCULTATION. AuscuUatio ; from 
ausculto, to listen. Auricular exploration, 
used as a means of diagnosis in diseases of 
the lungs, heart, &c. Auscultation is either 
mediate or immediate. In the latter the 

ear is applied directly over the walls of 
the chest — in the former a stethoscope is 
interposed between the ear and the chest. 

AUTOCARATEPA. The vital principle. 

AUTOGONIA. Equivocal generation, 
applied to a medicine given to act on 
another in its operation. 

AUTOMATIC. From avjouar^u, to 
act spontaneously. A term applied in 
Physiology to those functions which are 
performed independently of the will. 

AUTOPHO'NIA. From avrog, self, and 
<j>o)V7j, voice. An auscultatory process of 
noting one's own voice when speaking 
with the head close to the patient's chest, 
which, it is said, will be modified by the 
condition of the subjacent organs. 

AUTOPLAS'TY. The restoration of 
lost parts. 

AUTOP'SOEIN. A homoeopathic slang 
phrase used to express the disgusting prac- 
tice of those quacks of making a patient 
swallow his own scabs when he happens 
to be afflicted with the itch, cancer, pox, 

AUTOP'SIA. From avrog, himself, and 
<npig, vision. Ocular examination. Dis- 
section of a dead body. 

AUXILIARY. Assisting. That from 
which assistance is obtained. 

AVEN'TUEINE. A reddish brown va- 
riety of quartz filled with spangles of mica. 

purgative nut of the Jatropha curcas. 

AVE'NA. The oat plant. 

AVE'N^E SEMINA. Oats. The fruit 
of the Aoena Saliva, of the order Grami- 

Avesle; Fart'na. Oat-meal ; used as an 
article of diet for the sick. 

AVE'NltfS. Veinless. In Botany, a 
term applied to leaves which have no 

A'VES. From am, a bird. The fourth 
class of vertebrated animals. 

AVIS MEDTCA. The peacock. 

AVUL'SION. Avulsio; from avello, 
to tear asunder. Pulling or tearing from ; 
a rending or forcible separation. 

AXE-STONE. A species of nephrite, 
a tough silico-magnesian stone. 




AXIFEROUS. From axis, a centre, 
and fero, I bear. A term applied in Bot- 
any to plants which consist of an axis, with- 
out leaves or other appendages. 

AXIL'LA. The arm-pit, or cavity un- 
der the arm. 

AXILLARY. Axilla'ris; from axUla, 
the arm-pit. Belonging to the axilla or 

Axillary Artery. Arteria axillaris. 
The axillary artery is a continuation of the 
subclavian, extending from the clavicle to 
the insertion of the pectoralis major. 

Axillary Nerve. Nervus axillaris. 
Articular nerve. A branch of the brachial 
plexus, and sometimes of the radial nerve. 

Axillary Vein. Vena axillaris. A 
continuation of the brachial veins, which 
terminates in the subclavian. 

AXINITE. From a&v, an axe. A 
mineral, so called from its axe-shaped crys- 
tals ; an alumina-silicate of lime and iron. 

AXIS. From ago, to act. A right line 
passing through the centre of a body. In 
Anatomy, the second vertebra. In Botany, 
the part around which particular organs 
are arranged. 

AXUN'GIA. From axis, an axletree, 
and unguo, to anoint. Hogslard. 

AYALLY. A grass of St. Domingo, 
used as a laxative. 

AZA'LEA. From afaXeog, dry. A ge- 
nus of beautiful plants, so named from 
their brittleness. 

Azalea Pon'tica. Pontic azalea. It 
exudes a nectareous, intoxicating and 
poisonous juice. 

AZELATC ACID. An acid closely re- 
sembling the suberic ; a product of the ni- 
tric or oleic acid. # 

AZOBEN'ZIDE. A substance obtained 
by heating a mixture of nitro-benzid with 
an alcoholic solution of potassa. 

AZOCAR'BYLS. A name applied by 

Lcewig to organic radicals, composed of ni- 
trogen and carbon, as cyanogen, para- 
ban, &c. 

AZOERYTH'RINE. A coloring princi- 
ple obtained from archil. 

AZOLIT'MINE. A deep 'red coloring 
matter obtained from litmus. 

AZOODYNA'MIA. From a, priv., !,<*), 
life, and 6vva[ug, strength. Privation or 
diminution of the vital powers. 

AZOTANE. A compound of chlorine 
and azote. 

AZOTE'. From a, priv., frv, life. One 
of the constituents of atmospheric air. See 

Azote, Protox'yd of. A gaseous oxyd 
of nitrogen. 

AZ'OTIZED. Impregnated with azote 
or nitrogen. 

AZOTIC ACID. Nitric acid. 

AZOTU'RIC. A class of diseases char- 
acterized by a great increase of urea in the 

AZUL'MIC ACID. A black substance 
deposited during the spontaneous decom- 
position of hydrocyanic acid. 

AZURE STONE. An azure blue min- 
eral, the Lapis lazuli, from which the un- 
manageable blue color, ultramarine, is pre- 

AZURITE. Prismatic azure spar. See 

AZYGOS. From a, priv., and fyyog, a 
yoke, because it has no fellow. Applied to 
single muscles, veins, bones, &c. 

Azygos U'vul.j:. A small muscle of the 

Azygos Vein. Vena sine pari. A vein 
situated in the right cavity of the thorax, 
receiving its blood from the vertebral, in- 
tercostal, bronchial, pericardiac, and dia- 
phragmatic veins, and discharging it into 
the vena cava superior. 

AZYMUS. Unfermented bread. 





B, in the chemical alphabet, is Mercury. 
It is also the chemical symbol of Boron. 

BA. The chemical symbol of Barium. 

BABIAN'A. A genus of Cape plants 
of the order Iridacece. 

BAB'ILLARD. A small frugivorous 
Passerine bird, the Curruca gurrula, or 
babbling fauvette, or lesser white throat. 

BABOON'. A name common to several 
of the larger species of monkeys, belong- 
ing to the genus Quadrumana, and family 

BABUZICA'RIUS. From (Saj3ai<j, to 
speak inarticulately. The incubus or night- 

BAC'CA. A berry. Fruit having seeds ; 
a pulpy pericardium enclosing seeds con- 
nected by a delicate membrane, dispersed 
through the pulp, as in the gooseberry. 

BAC'CATED. Bearing berries ; set or 
adorned as with pearls. 

BAC'CIIARIS. Bamcapig. A plant with 
an aromatic root, yielding an oil, worn by 
the ancients in their garlands to destroy en- 

BAC'CHIA. From bacchus, wine. A 
red or pimpled face resulting from intem- 
perance. Gutta Rosacea. Acne. 

BACCHICA. The ivy. 

BACCIF'ERUS. From bacca, a berry. 
Berry-bearing. Plants which bear berries 
are called by this name. 

hellebore and myrrh. 

BACOPA. A Linnajan genus of plants 
of the class Pentandria, order Monogynia. 

Bacopa Aquatica. A species used in 
Cayenne as a remedy for burns. 

At Baden, six miles from Vienna, are 
twelve springs containing carbonates of 
lime and magnesia, sulphates of lime, mag- 
nesia and soda, and chlorides of sodium 
and aluminum. The water is used in dis- 
eases of the skin, rheumatism, &c. There 
are two other towns of the same name, at 
which are warm sulphur springs, one in 

Suabia, the other in Switzerland, near Zu- 

TERS OF. Thermal springs situated 
about a league from the high road between 
Basle and Frankfort. Their temperature 
is from 130° to 154° Fahrenheit. 

BADIA'GA. An alga, used in Russia 
for dispelling the livid marks of bruises. 
Its powder, applied to the part, is said to 
have this effect in a single night. 

BADISIS. From pad^u, to go. Am- 
bulation ; walking. 

BAGNIGGE WELLS. A saline spring 
in London resembling the Epsom. 

BALANCE. Bilanx; from bis, twice, 
and lanx, a dish. Literally, the double 
dish. A pair of scales for weighing bodies, 
consisting of a beam suspended exactly in 
the middle with a scale or basin attached 
to each extremity of equal weight. 

instrument for estimating the mutual at- 
traction of oppositely electrified surfaces. 

BALANITIS. Inflammation of the 
glans penis. 

BA'LANOS. Bahxnus. An acorn. The 
glans penis. 

BALANIOS. A gem, a sort of carbuncle. 

BA'LANO-POSTHITIS. Inflammation 
of the glans and prepuce, attended by a 
fetid, muco-purulent discharge. 

These are saline and thermal, are con- 
sidered tonic, and are much used. Tem- 
perature 118° Fahr. 

BALBITO'DES. BaXf3iT(o6 v5 , from BaX- 
(3ig, an oblong cavity. An ancient term, 
used by Hippocrates, to express the troch- 
lea of the humerus, which articulates with 
the ulna. 

BALAN'DA. The beech tree. 

BALBU'TIES. From balbutio, to stam- 
mer. Stammering; a defect of articula- 
tion, the causes of which are but little un- 
BALD'NESS. Galvities. Loss of the hair. 




BALLIS'MUS. From j&Aigu, to dance. 
Chorea ; St. Vitus's dance. 

BALLOON'. In Pharmacy, a spherical 
glass vessel with a cylindrical neck, to 
serve as a receiver in condensing vapors 
from a retort. 

BALLOT'A. A genus of plants of the 
order Labiatce. 

Ballota Ni'gra. Ballota fcetida. Black, 
or stinking hoarhound. 

Ballota Lana'ta. A Siberian plant, 
supposed to be diuretic, recommended by 
Brera in rheumatism, gout and dropsy. 

BALLOTTEMENT. F. The motion 
imparted to the foetus in utero, by an im- 
pulse of the fingers or hand. 

BALM. The name of several plants or 
shrubs ; any thing which soothes or miti- 
gates pain. 

Balm of Gilead. Balsam of Gilead ; 
Mecca Balsam. 

BAL'NEUM. A bath, or bathing 

Balneum Animale. An animal bath. 
A term used to indicate that application of 
heat which was made by opening a newly 
killed animal and applying it to a part or 
a whole of the body. 

Balneum Aren^:. The sand bath. 

Balneum Marine. In Chemistry, the 
salt water bath. 

Balneum Siccum. Balneum arenas. 

Balneum Vaporis. The steam bath. 

BAL'SAM. Balsamum ; from baal sa- 
men, Hebrew. The name of any natural 
vegetable resin, concrete or liquid, having 
a strong odor, inflammable, not soluble in 
water, but readily dissolved in volatile oil, 
alcohol, or ether. There are five natural 
balsams ; namely, those of Peru and Tolu, 
Benzoin, solid styrax, and liquid styrax. 
Besides these, there are a number of phar- 
maceutical preparations and resinous sub- 
stances which have a balsamic odor, that 
have received the name of balsam. But 
these hist are termed artificial balsams. 

Balsam Apple. Momordica balsamina. 

Balsam of Arcceus. An ointment made 
by melting together 2 parts of mutton suit 
and 1 of lard, 1J of turpentine and as 
much resin. 

Balsam, Canada. Canada turpentine ; 
balsam of fir; the product of the Abies 
balsamea. It is transparent when fresh, of 
a slightly yellowish color, of the consist- 
ence of honey ; has an acrid bitterish taste, 
and a strong agreeable odor. 

Balsam, Carpathian. The product of 
the Pinus cembra, or Siberian stone-jnne of 
the Alps and Carpathian mountains. 

Balsam, Chalybeate. A mixture of 
nitrate of iron, alcohol and oil. 

Balsam, Commander's. Compound 
tincture of Benzoin. 

Balsam, Cordial of Sennertus. A 
stimulant, composed of musk, ambergris 
and the oils of citron, cloves and cinna- 
mon. Dose 6 to 15 drops. 

Balsam, Friar's. Tr. Benzoin comp. 

Balsam, Green of Metz. A green 
caustic oil used in atomic ideer. It is com- 
posed of fixed oils, holding in solution sub- 
carbonate of copper, sulphate of zinc, tur- 
pentine, aloes and the essential oils of 
cloves and juniper. 

Balsam, Hungarian. A product of the 
Pinus pumilio, growing in the mountains 
of Switzerland, Austria and Hungary. 

Balsam, Hypnot'ic. A preparation of 
opium, hyoscyamus, camphor, &c, used 
externally to procure sleep. 

Balsam, Hyster'ic. A preparation of 
opium, aloes, asafcetida, castor, oils of rue, 
amber, &c. It is held to the nose, or rub- 
bed on the abdomen in hysterical cases. 

Balsam, Indian. Balsam of Peru. 

Balsam of Copaiva. The juice of the 
Cqpaifera officinalis and other species of 

Balsam of Fierabras. A Spanish vul- 
nerary balsam, mentioned by Cervantes. 

Balsam of Fioravente. This name 
has been applied to various products of the 
distillation of resinous and balsamic sub- 

Balsam of Fourcroy or of Laborde. 
A liniment used in chapped skin and 
cracked nipples. It is composed of aro- 
matic plants, balsams, resins, aloes, tur- 
pentine, theriac and olive oil. 

Balsam of Fir. Balsam of Canada. 
Canada turpentine. 




Balsam of Gilead. Balm of Gilead. 
A resinous juice of the Amyris gileadensis , 
which, by exposure, becomes solid. 

Balsam of Genevieve. An ointment 
used in contused wounds, gangrene, &c. 
It is made of wax, turpentine, oil, red 
saunders and camphor. 

Balsam of Honey, (Hill's.) A pec- 
toral mixture, made of tolu, honey, (aa lbj.) 
and spirit (a gallon.) 

Balsam of Hoarhotjnd. (Ford's.) A 
tincture of hoarhound, liquorice root, cam- 
phor, opium, benzoin, dried squills, oil of 
aniseed and honey. 

Balsam of Leictoure of Condom or 
Vincequine. A strongly stimulant and ar- 
omatic mixture of camphor, saffron, musk 
and ambergris, dissolved in essential oils. 
The ancients used it for dispelling or over- 
coming unpleasant odors. 

Balsam of Life. (Hoffman's.) A 
stimulant tincture, composed of essential 
oils and amber. 

Balsam of Locatelli, or Lucatel- 
li. A mixture formerly administered in 
phthisis. It is composed of wax, oil, tur- 
pentine, sperry and balsam of Peru, col- 
ored with red saunders. 

Balsam of Mec'ca. Balsam of Gilead. 

Balsam, Nefhrit'ic. (Fuller's.) A 
liquid medicine obtained by the action of 
sulphuric acid in certain oils, resins and 

Balsam, Nervous. An ointment com- 
posed of fat, volatile oils, balsam of Peru, 
camphor, &c, used in sprains and rheu- 

Balsam of Pareira Brava. A domes- 
tic compound of balsam, resin, chloride of 
ammonium and powder of the root of Par- 
eira brava. 

Balsam of Peru. The juice of My- 
roxylon toluiferum. 

Balsam, Paralytic of Mynsicht. 
A liniment of the essential oils of different 
aromatic plants, of turpentine and amber. 

Balsam of Rackasi'ra or of Rak- 
asi'ri. A yellowish brown substance, 
brought from India in gourd shells, and 
used in diseases of the urinary and genital 
organs, especially in blennorrhagia. 

Balsam, Riga. Balsamum carpaticum. 
The juice of the young twigs of the pinus 

Balsam of Saturn. A solution of ace- 
tate of lead in turpentine, evaporated and 
mixed with camphor. 

Balsam of the Samaritan. A lini- 
ment made by boiling together equal parts 
of wine and oil. 

Balsam, Saxon. Hoffman's balsam of 

Balsam of Sulphur. Oleum sulphu- 
ratum. An extremely fetid, acrid, viscid 
fluid, resulting from the reaction of sulphur 
upon olive oil at a high temperature. 

Balsam, Sympathetic An unguent 
made of blood, human fat and the raspings 
of the human skull, applied to the instru- 
ment which inflicted the wound. 

Balsam, Thibault's. A tincture of 
myrrh, aloes, dragon's blood, Hypericum 
flowers and chian turpentine. 

Balsam of Tolu. The juice of the 
Myroxylon toluiferum. 

Balsam, Turkey. Dracocephalum Ca- 

Balsam of Turpentine. The red res- 
idue of the distillation of oil of turpentine 
in a glass retort. 

Balsam, Vervain's. Tinctura Benzoini 

Balsam, Vulnerary of Mindererus. 
A liniment made of turpentine, resin, oil of 
clenri, oil of Hypericum and wax. 

Balsam Weed. Jewel- Aveed; touch- 

BALSAMIC. Balsamicus ; from /M- 
aauov, balsam. Having the qualities of 

BALSAMIF'ERA. Balm-bearing. 

plant of the family compositce corymbife- 
rai, common in the south of France, 
where it is used for the same purposes as 

plant of the order Terebinthacece, the tree 
which yields the gum-resin myrrh. 

BALSAMUM. A balsam. 

Balsamum Canadense. Canada bal- 




Balsamum Carpaticum. Riga balsam. 

Balsamum Gileadense. Balsam of 

Balsamum Libant. Riga balsam. 

Balsamum Peruvianum. Balsam of 

Balsamum Tolutanum. Balsam of 

Balsamum Traumaticum. Vulnerary 
balsam. Compound tincture of benzoin. 

Balsamum Vit^e. A name formerly 
applied to several artificial balsams. 

BALUX. A name applied to iron sands 
containing gold. 

BAMBALIA. Stammering. 

BAMBA'LIO. From Pa/xpaivu, I speak 
inarticulately. One who stammers or lisps. 

B A MB AX. Cotton. 

BAMBOO. A plant of the reed kind, 
growing in India and other warm cli- 

BANANA. A tropical tree ; a species 
of the Musa, the fruit of which is exten- 
sively used as an article of diet. 

BAN'DAGE. A piece of cloth for sur- 
rounding parts of the body in surgical op- 
erations, or binding up a wound. A ban- 
dage may be simple or compound. The 
first consists of a simple piece of cloth in- 
tended to encircle a limb or part. The 
second, of two or more pieces united. 
Names expressive of the manner of its ap- 
plication have been given to the simple 
bandage ; as the circular, the spiral, the 
creeping, &c. The names applied to the 
compound are expressive of its shape or 
the parts to which it is applied. 

Bandage, Fox's. See Fox's Bandage. 

BANDY LEG. A leg in which the 
bones are curved outward or inward. 

BANG. An intoxicating liquor prepared 
from the leaves of the Cannabis Indica, or 
Indian hemp. 

ment composed of half a pound of litharge, 
two ounces of burnt alum, one ounce and 
a half of calomel, half a pound of Venice 
turpentine, and two pounds of lard, well 
rubbed together. It is used in porrigo. 
BANIL'LA. Epidendrum vanilla. 
BA'OBAB. The Adansonia digitata, a 

gigantic tropical tree. The bark has been 
used as a substitute for cinchona. 

BAPTICA COCCUS. The kermes in- 

go. The root in small doses is laxative* 
but in large doses is emetic and cathartic. 

BAPTORRHaS'A. From Panrog, cor- 
rupt, poisoned, and pew, to flow. A name 
proposed by Dr. R. G. Mayne for the dis- 
ease hitherto known by the names of Gon- 
orrhoea, Blcnnorhcca, and Blennorrhagia, 

BAPTOTHECORRHffiA. From Panrog , 
infected, ■&n K V, a sheath, and pew, to flow. 
Gonorrhoea in women. Literally an infec- 
tious flow from the vagina. 

in males. 

BAR AS. An Arabic name for white 

BAR'BA. The beard. In Botany, a 
pubescence on the leaves of some plants. 

BARBA'DOES LEG. Elephantiasis 
Arabum. A disease characterized by great 
distention of the cellular tissue of the leg, 
and dark color. 

Barbadoes Nuts. The fruit of the Ja~ 
tropha curcas. 

Barbadoes Tar. Petroleum barbadense- 
A dark-colored liquid bitumen. 

BARBA'RIA. Rhubarb. 

BARBARY GUM. A variety of gum 
arabic, said to be obtained from the Acacia 

BARBA'TUS. From barba, a beard. 
A term applied in Zoology to animals 
which have a beard or an appendage re- 
sembling a beard. In Botany, the hair- 
like appendage on the leaves or other parts 
of some plants, as the Mesembryanthemum 
barbatum, &c. 

BAR'BELS. Small cylindrical vermi- 
form processes, appended to the mouth of 
certain fishes. 

BABBIERS. A term applied to a par- 
alytic affection of the tropics, followed by 
loss of voice, emaciation, and prostration 
of strength. 

These are composed of colocynth 3 ij, ex- 




tract of jalap 3 i, almond soap 3 iss, guiac. 
3 iij, emetic tartar gr. viii ; essential oils 
of juniper, carroway, and rosemary, of 
each gtt. iv, made into a mass with syrup 
of buckthorn, and divided into sixty-four 

BARDAN'A. Burdock. 

BARGES. A village on the east side of 
Pyrenees, celebrated for its thermal sul- 
phurous waters. 

BARIL'LA. Impure soda obtained 
from the ashes of different plants that grow 
on the sea shore. 

BA'RIUM. From baryta, from which 
it is obtained. The metallic basis of the 
earth baryta. 

BARK. A name formerly applied to 
three species of Cinchona. 

BARLEY. The fruit of the Hordeum 
distichon. See Hordei Semina. 

Bar net is near London, and its waters have 
cathartic properties like those of Epsom, 
though not so strong. 

weight, fianpog, long, and fierpov, a meas- 
ure. An instrument for ascertaining the 
weight and length of new-born infants. 

BAROM'ETER. From Papog, weight, 
and fierpov, measure. An instrument for 
ascertaining the weight of air. 

BAR'RAS. The resin which exudes 
from wounds made in the bark of fir trees. 

BARREES, DENTS. See Barred Teeth. 

BARRED TEETH. Teeth, the roots 
of which, after separating, come together, 
embracing a greater or less portion of the 
maxillary bone, and which cannot be ex- 
tracted without bringing away the part 
thus enclosed. 

Thermal, diuretic, and tonic waters at 
Bar re, six leagues from Strasburg. 

BARREN. Unfruitful, sterile. A term 
applied in Botany to a flower which has 
no pistile. 

BAR'RENNESS. Sterility. 

BARRY'S EXTRACTS. Extracts pre- 
pared by the evaporation being carried on 
in a vacuum made by admitting steam into 
the apparatus. 


The sublingual glands named after Bartho- 

BARWOOD. A red dye-wood brought 
from Africa. 

BARYOCOCCALON. The Datura Stra- 

BARYECOI'A. From papvg, heavy, 
and anoT), hearing. Deafness. 

BARYPHO'NIA. From Papvg, heavy, 
<j>uvri, the voice. Difficulty of speech. 

BARYTA. From Papvg, heavy; so 
called because of its ponderosity. An 
oxyd of barium. A simple alkaline earth 
of a gray color, very ponderous, and not 
easily fused. 

Baryta, Hydriodate of. Iodide of 

Baryta, Muriate of. Chloride of 

BARYTES. Baryta. 

BARYTIN. A new base obtained from 
Veratrum album. 

BASAAL. An Indian tree, the leaves 
of which, made into a decoction, are used 
as a gargle in diseases of the fauces. The 
kernels of the fruit are anthelmintic. 

ankle-joint ; gout in the foot. 

BASALT. Trap-rock of a dark-green, 
gray or black color, consisting of silica, 
alumina, oxyd of iron, lime, and magnesia. 

BASANITE. A variety of silicious 
slate, sometimes used for testing the purity 
of gold by the color of its streak. Mor- 
tars for pulverizing medicines were for- 
merly made of it. 

BASCULA'TION. A word of French 
derivation, applied to the half see-saw 
movement of the uterus, in examinations 
of that organ in retroversion, the fundus 
being pressed upward and the cervex 
drawn downward. 

BASE. Basis, from Paivu, I go, I rest 
I support myself. The foundation or sup- 
port of any thing ; the principal ingredient 
of a compound. In Chemistry it is applied 
to alkalies, earths, metals, sulphurets, or- 
ganic and other compounds, in their rela- 
tions to acids, metalloids and salts. In 
Medical Prescriptions and Pharmacy, the 




principal constituent of a compound. In 
Dental Surgery, a metallic, ivory, or hip- 
popotamus plate or cuvette, used as a sup- 
port or attachment for artificial teeth. In 
Anatomy, the lower or broader portion of 
a bone or organ. 

Bases for Artificial Teeth. In 
the construction of a base for artificial 
teeth, a transfer or model of plaster of 
Paris is first obtained. Then a metallic 
model and counter-model, if the base is to 
be of metal, is procured, and between these 
a plate of suitable size and thickness is 
swadged. In this way it is made to fit 
accurately the parts upon which it is to 
rest. If the base is to be constructed from 
the ivory of the elephant or hippopota- 
mus's tusk, the plaster model alone is suffi- 
cient. The ivory is cut to the proper size 
and then carved until it fits the model. 
But ivory is now seldom used for this 
purpose. See Metallic Base ; Osseous Base, 
and Mineral Base. 

BASIA'TOIt. Orbicularis oris. 
BASIC. Belonging to, or of the nature 
of a base. 

Basic Water. Water combined with 
an acid or other substance, as a regular 
metallic base, and not only in crystals or 
as a hydrate. 
BASIL. See Ocimum. 
BASILAR. Baslla'ris. A name given 
to several parts of the body which serve 
as bases to others. 

Basilar Artery. An artery of the 
brain, formed by the union of two verte- 
bral arteries within the cranium. 

Basilar Fossa. A fossa in the upper 
surface of the basilar process of the occipi- 
tal bone. 

Basilar Process. The inferior angle 
of the occipital bone. 

Basilar Surface. Inferior surface of 
the basilary process. 

Basilar Vertebra. The last lumbar 

BASILEION. KamliKoc, royal, from its 
excellence. An ancient collyrium reputed 
efficacious against dimness of sight. 

BASIL'IC. Basilicus ; from (iaoikiKoc, 
royal. A name given by the ancients to 

parts which were supposed to play an im- 
portant part in the animal economy. 

Basilic Vein. A large vein running 
along the internal part of the arm ; at the 
fold of the elbow it lies over the humeral ar- 
tery. The median basilic vein crosses this 
at the bend of the arm and joins the great 
vein. Either of these veins may be opened 
in the operation of bleeding. 

BASIL'ICON. An ointment composed 
of pitch, resin, wax and oil. 

to a powder, formerly composed of calomel, 
rhubarb and jalap, called the royal powder. 
BA'SIO. Muscles originating from the 
basilary process of the occipital bone are 
so called. 

Basio-Ce'rato-Glos'sits. A name given 
to the hyoglossus muscle, from its connec- 
tion with the base and horn of the hyoid 
bone and the tongue. 

Basio-Glossus. That portion of the 
hyoglossus muscle inserted into the base of 
the hyoid bone. 

Basio-Pharyng^'us. The constrictor 
pharyngis medius. 
BASIS. A base. 

Basis Cordis. The base of the heart. 
BASSI COLICA. A medicine composed 
of aromatics of honey, invented by Julius 

BASSORA GUM. A gum brought 
from the neighborhood of Bassora, on the 
Gulf of Persia, in irregular pieces of vari- 
ous sizes, white or yellow, intermediate in 
the degree of transparency between gum 
Arabic and tragacanth. 

BASSORIN. A constituent part of 
Bassora gum, as also of gum tragacanth 
and of some gum resins. It does not dis- 
solve in water, but swells and forms a 
mucilage with it. 
BASTARD. False; spurious. 
Bastard Dittany. Dictamnus fraxi- 
nella. It has no apparent medicinal prop- 

BASYLE. From fiaotg , a base, and vlrj, 
nature. A term applied by Mr. Graham 
to the metallic radicle of a salt. 

A mixture composed of tincture of castor, 




with camphor and opium, flavored with 
aniseed and colored with cochineal. 

BATH. Balaveiov • balneum. A bath. 
A receptacle of water for persons to wash 
or plunge in ; a bathing place. Baths 
are either hot or cold, natural or artificial. 

Bath, Acid. Acid hydrochloric lb. ij, 
aquae cong. lxvj. 

Bath, Alkaline. Half a pound of 
pearlash or carbonate of soda, to sixty-six 
gallons of water. 

Bath, Animal. Balneum animale. 
* Bath, Antipso'bic. Sulphuret of po- 

tassium § iv, dissolved in water, cong. lx. 

Bath, Antisyphilittc. Two drachms 
to an ounce of corrosive sublimate dissolved 
in sixty gallons of water. 

Bath, Blood. Baths of human blood 
were formerly used against leprosy. 

Bath, Cold. A bath the temperature 
of which is from 30° to G0° 

Bath, Cool. A bath at 00° to 75° 

Bath, Dry. A bath used by the an- 
cients, composed of ashes, salt, sand, &c. 

Bath, Chemical. An apparatus for 
regulating the heat in various chemical 
processes, by interposing sand or other 
substances between the fire and the vessel 
to be heated. See Bath, Sand. 

Bath, Electric. An electric bath con- 
sists in placing a person upon an insulated 
stool, connected by a metallic wire with 
the principal conductor of an electric ma- 
chine in action. 

Bath, Foot. Pedilu'vium. A bath for 
the feet. 

Bath, Half. Semicu'pium. A bath 
adapted for only half of the body, as for 
the hips or extremities. 

Bath, Hand. Manulu'vium. A bath 
for the hands. 

Bath, Head. Capitilu'vium. A bath 
for the head. 

Bath, Hot. Balneum cal'idum. A 
bath having a temperature of 98° and up- 

Bath, Med'icated. Balneum medical- 
turn. A bath consisting of decoctions or 
infusions of certain vegetable substances 
or any medicinal ingredients. 

Bath, Nitrc-Muriatic Acid. A bath 

consisting of dilute aqua regia, employed 
by Dr. Scott, of India, in hepatic dis- 

Bath, Sand. Balneum Are'nce. A 
vessel filled with sand and placed over a 
fire ; into this another is placed containing 
the substance to be evaporated. 

Bath, Shower. Implu'vium. A bath 
where the water falls like a shower on the 

Bath, Steam. The introduction of 
steam into a closed vessel or room, in place 
of water. 

Bath, Succession. Transition bath. 
The rapid succession of baths of different 

Bath, Sul'phurous. Water in which 
sulphuret of potassium is dissolved in the 
proportion of four ounces of the latter to 
thirty gallons of the former. 

Bath, Tan. An astringent bath made 
by adding a decoction of two or three 
handfuls of tan to the water of a bath. 

Bath, Tem'perate. A bath at from 
75° to 85° 

Bath, Vapor. See Vaporarium,. 

Bath, Warm. A bath .at 92° or 98° 

BATH, WATERS OF. The waters of 
Bath, England, are celebrated for their 
thermal qualities rather than their mineral 
components — their temperature being from 
112° to 117° Fahrenheit. 

BATHMIS. From (Saivu, to enter. 
Bathmus. The seat or base ; the cavity Of 
a bone which receives the head or protu- 
berance of another. 

BATHRON. From (ia-dpvv, bench. An 
instrument invented by Hippocrates for 
reducing fractures and luxations. 

BATRA'CHIA. From f^arpaxoc, a frog. 
An order of Reptilia, including among 
others the frog. The toad tribe. 


BATTARIS'MUS. Battalism'us. From 
ficiTTapifa, to stammer. Stammering with 

applied to a combination of Leyden jars 
for collecting electricity, all of which may 
be charged and discharged at the same 




Battery, Galvanic. A name applied | by the continuance of bead-like bubbles 
to pairs of zinc and copper plates. See on the surface. 
Galvanic Battery. I BEADED. Knotted like a string of 

B^TTLEY'S SOLUTION. Liquor opii beads. 
sedativus. A narcotic preparation of which | BEAK. The bill of a bird ; a point ; 
acetate of morphia is supposed to be the ! the jaws of forceps employed for the ex- 

active ingredient 

waters of Baudricourt, a town in France, 
are sulphurous. 

given to a transverse valve situated where 
the ileum opens into the coecum. 

BAU'LAC. An Arabic name for nitre 
or salt in general. From this word comes 

eral waters of Baurin, a village in the 
department of the Somnie, are strongly 

BAY BERRIES. The berries of the 
Laurus nobilis. 

Bay-Rum. Spirit flavored with bay- 

Bay-Salt. Chloride of sodium. Salt 
obtained by evaporating sea-water by the 
sun in warm countries. 

Bay Sore. A disease endemic at Hon- 
duras, and supposed by Dr. Moisely to be 
a true cancer, commencing with scirrhus. 
Bay, Sweet. See Laurus Nobilis. 
An adhesive plaster composed of six 
drachms of resin and one pound of litharge. 
Baynton's Bandage. Strips of adhe- 
sive plaster regularly encircling the leg, 
and overlapping each other They are used 
in the treatment of ulcers. 
BDELLA. A leech. 
BDELLO'METER. An artificial leech, 
consisting of a cupping glass, to which is 
attached a scarificator and an exhausting 

BDEL'LIUM.. A gum resin resem- 
bling impure myyrh. 

BDEL'LUS. Bddygmus, Bddus. A 
discharge of wind from behind. 

BDELYG'MIA. Nausea, or dislike for 
food ; also a disgusting footer. Bdolus. 

BEAD PROOF. An epithet denoting 
the strength of spirituous liquors as shown 

traction of teeth are sometimes so called. 
In Chemistry, the tubular portion of a 

BEAN. A term applied to several 
kinds of Leguminous seeds and the plants 
producing them. They belong to several 
genera, particularly the Vicia, Phaseolus, 
and Dolichos. 
Bean, French. The kidney bean. 
Bean, Malac'ca. The Fruit of the 
Semicarpus Anacardium, a tree growing 
in Malabar and other parts of India. 

Bean of St. Igna'tius. Faba Sancti 
Igna'tii. The fruit of the Strychnos Ignatii, 
a tree, native of the Philipine Islands. 

BEARD. The hair growing on the 
chin, lip and cheeks in adults of the male 

BEAR'S BERRY. See Arbutus Uva 
Bear's Breech. See Acanthus Mollis. 
Bear's Foot. Stinking hellebore. See 
Helleborus Fcetidus. 

BEAUME DE VIE. Balm of life. A 
compound decoction of aloes. 

BEAVER. An amphibious quadruped 
of the genus Castor. See Castor Fiber. 

BEBEERIA. Bebeerine. An alkaloid 
obtained from the Bebeeru, or greenheart 
tree of British Guiana. Its sulphate has 
been used as an anti-periodic. 

BEC. A French word signifying beak. 
Bec-de-corrin. A Surgical instrument ; 
forceps for the extraction of teeth. See 
Extraction of Teeth. 

Bec-de-cuiller. A surgical instru- 
ment for the extraction of balls from gun- 
shot wounds. 
Bec-de-lievre. Hare-lip. 
Bec D'Ane. A name given by Fouch- 
ard to a trenchent chisel-pointed instru- 
ment employed for the removal of salivary 

Bec De Perroqtjet. An instrument 
so called, by Fauchard, from its resem- 




blance to the point of the hill of a parrot, 
for removing salivary calculus from the 

BE'CHICS. Be'cMca, bee'ehica, from /3?/£, 
a cough. Medicines for relieving a cough. 

ican root possessing emetic properties. 

BEDEGUAR. Bed'egar. A spongy 
excrescence found on various species of 
the wild rose, produced by the puncture 
of several species of insects. 

springs, saline, chalybeate, and sulphu- 
rous, at Bedford, Pa. 

BEE. A numerous species of insects 
of the genus Apis, but of which the 
honey bee, Apis mellifica, is the most im- 

BEEF, ESSENCE OF. This is made 
by putting finely cut lean beef into a 
bottle, corking it, and then immersing it 
in boiling water. The juice of the meat, 
highly concentrated, is found in the bot- 

Beef Tea. Jus bovinum. An infu- 
sion of beef. Take two pounds and a 
half of beef free from fat, cut it in fine 
pieces into three pints of water in an 
earthen pipkin ; let it simmer, but never 
boil, till it is reduced to a pint and a half. 

BEER. Cerevis'ia. A fermented infu- 
sion of malted barley and hops. The 
term is also applied to various saccharine 
beverages in a partial state of vinous fer- 
mentation, differently flavored, as spruce 
beer, &c. 

BEESTINGS. The first milk taken 
from the cow after calving. 

BEES'WAX. See Cera. 

BEET. A plant of the genus Beta, 
See Beta Vulgaris. 

BEG'MA. From Ptjooeiv, to cough up, 
to expectorate, to spit. Expectorated 

BEGO'NIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Segoniacece. The roots of some of 
the species are used in Peru in diseases of 
the chest and in scurvy. 

Hepatized ammonia; hydrosulphate of 

BEJUIO. The bean of Carthagena 
famed as an antidote against the poison 
of all serpents. 

BELCHING. Eructation. 

BELEMNOI'DES. From petepvw, a 
dart, and «<5of, form. Having the form 
of a dart. 

Belemnoides Pbocessus. The styloid 

BELL METAL. An alloy of copper, 
zinc, tin, and antimony. 

BELLADON'NA. See Atropa Bella- 

BELLADONNIN. A volatile alkaline 
principle found in belladonna, said to be 
distinct from atropia. 

BELLIS. The daisy. This flower was 
once used as a vulnerary. 

BELLOTAS. The berries of the Ilex 

BEL'LOWS. An instrument for pro- 
pelling air through a tube or small orifice. 
It is variously constructed according to 
the purpose for which it is designed to be 
used. In the laboratory of the dentist it 
is used for blowing the fire of a furnace 
for melting gold or other metals. The air, 
being permitted to escape only by a small 
orifice, rushes out with great velocity. 

Bellows and Blow-pipe, Van Emen's. 
A circular bellows nine or ten inches in 
diameter, with a small gum-elastic tube, 
three or four feet in length, terminating in 
a tapering metallic tube, to be inserted in a 
blow-pipe leading from it. The bellows is 
worked by the foot, while with the blow- 
pipe held in the hand, a jet of flame from 
a lamp may be projected on the object de- 
signed to be heated. Although intended 
for the use of the mechanical dentist, it 
may be employed advantageously by 
chemists, mineralogists, and jewelers. 

Bellows Sound. A peculiar sound 
resembling that produced by a pair of 
bellows, sometimes heard through a steth- 
oscope, as a morbid phenomenon indicat- 
ing enlargement of the heart, or contrac- 
tion of its orifices. 

BEL'LY. The abdomen. 

BELUL'CUM. From petef, a dart, and 
e?Mo) t I draw out. An instrument used by 




surgeons for the extraction of darts and 

BEX NUT. The fruit of the Moringa 

Ben Oil. The expressed oil of the Ben 

BENEOLEN'TIA. From bene, well, 
and olere, to smell. Sweet-scented medi- 

blessed thistle. 

Benedicta Laxati'va. Rhubarb, and 
the lenitive electuary. 

Benedicta Sylves'tris. Gum rivale. 

B E N E D I C ' T U S. From benedico, 
blessed. A term formerly applied to cer- 
tain herbs and compositions on account of 
their supposed good qualities. 

BENIG'NUS. Benign; not malignant; 
applied to mild forms of disease. 

A dry, resinous, brittle substance, ob- 
tained from the styrax benzoin. See Sty- 
rax Benzoin. 

Benjamin Flowers. Benzoic acid. 

BENNE. Sesamum orientale. 

RENZ AMIDE. A substance obtained 
by saturating chloride of benzoyl with 
dry ammonia, and washing to remove the 
muriate of ammonia. 

BEN'ZIDAM. An oil of a light yellow 
color, obtained by passing sulphureted 
hydrogen through nitro-benzid. It is 
identical with Aniliii and Kyanole. 

BEN'ZILE. A substance obtained by 
passing a stream of chlorine gas through 
fused benzoin. 

BENZIL'IC ACID. An acid obtained 
from benzile. 

BEN'ZIN. Hyduret of benzid, C12, H 6 , 
obtained by heating benzoic acid with lime. 

BENZOTC ACID. Acidum benzoienm. 
An acid obtained from benzoin, by subli- 
mation. It exists, however, in nearly all 
the balsams. Its salts are benzoates. 

BENZOIN. A balsam obtained from 
incisions made in the styrax benzoin. 

BENZOYL. Benzin, which see. 

BENZONE. A colorless oily fluid, pro- 
duced by distilling, in the dry way, ben- 
zoate of lime. 

BENZONITRILE. A clear, colorless 
liquid, formed during the fusion of ben- 
zoatc of ammonia. 

BENZULE. Benzoyle. From benzoin, 
and v?,?] } principle. A compound of carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen, supposed to be 
the base of benzoic acid. 

BER'BERIN. A yellow crystalline sub- 
stance obtained from the root of the bar- 

BERBE'RIS. A genus of plants of the 
order Berberidacece. 

Berberis Yulga'ris. Barberry. The 
berries of this shrub are refrigerant, as- 
tringent, and anti-scorbutic. 

BER'GAMOT. A sj)ecies of citron or 
small orange, of an agreeable taste and 
pleasant odor. An oil is obtained from 
its bark, which is much used as a perfume. 

BERGMEIIL. Mountain- meal. An 
earth composed of the shells of infusoria, 
resembling fine flour, and celebrated for 
its nutritious qualities. 

BER'IBERI. Beribe'ria. A disease 
characterized by debility and tremor, pe- 
culiar to India. 

BERLIN BLUE. Prussian blue. 

BER'RY. See Bacca. 

BERS. An exhilarating electuary, for- 
merly used by the Egyptians. 

BER'YL. Aqua marine. A valuable 
mineral of a greenish yellow color. 

BETA. A genus of plants of the order 
Chenopodiaceai. The beet. 

Beta Rubra. The red beet. 

Beta Vtjlga'ris. The common beet 

BETEL. Piper-betel. An Indian plant, 
which, when chewed, blackens the teeth. 
Its properties are said to be tonic and 

BETON'ICA. A genus of plants of the 
order Labiatai. 

Betonica Officina'lis. Wood betony. 
A perennial European herb, having a 
warm and somewhat astringent taste, 
highly esteemed by the ancients, and em- 
ployed in numerous diseases. The leaves 
are said to possess aperient, and the root 
emetic properties. 

BET'ONY. Betonica officinalis. 




Betony, Water. See Scrofularia 

BET'ULA. A genus of plants of the 
order Betulinece. 

Betula Al'ba. White birch. The 
leaves and bark are slightly astringent and 

Betula Al'nus. The alnus of the 
pharmacopoeias. The common European 

BET'ULINE. A peculiar white sub- 
stance obtained from the bark of the Be- 
tula alba. 

BEX. From Ptjooo, to cough. A cough. 

BEXAGUILL'O. The white Ipecacu- 
anha of Peru. 

BEZAHAK. Fossil bezoar. 

BEZ'OAR. From pa-zahar, Persian, a 
destroyer of poison. Lapis bezoardicus; 
an earthy concretion found in the stomach, 
intestines and bladder of animals. These 
bezoars were formerly supposed to possess 
wonderful alexipharmic virtues. 

Bezoar Bovi'num. The bezoar of the ox. 

Bezoar German'icum. Bezoar from 
the Alpine goat. 

Bezoar Hystricis. Lapis porninus ; 
lapis malacens is ; petro delporco. Bezoar 
of the Indian porcupine. 

Bezoar Microcos'micum. The calculi 
found in the human bladder. 

Bezoar Occidentale. The occidental 
bezoar, found in the fourth stomach of the 
wild goat of Peru. 

Bezoar Orientale. Oriental bezoar 
stone, found in the fourth stomach of the 
Capra oegagrus. 

Bezoar Simile. Bezoar of the monkey. 

BEZOAR'DICUM. Bezoardic medicine. 
A name given to numerous complex bodies. 

Bezoar'dicum Jovia'le. A greenish 
powder composed of tin, antimony, mer- 
cury and nitric acid, as a diaphoretic. 

Bezoardicum Luna're. A preparation 
of silver and antimony. 

Bezoardicum Martia'le. A prepara- 
tion of iron and antimony. 

Bezoardicum Minera'le. Deutoxyd 
of antimony. 

Bezoardicum Satur'ni. A preparation 
of antimony and lead. 

Bezoardicum Sola're. A preparation 
of gold filings, nitric acid and butter of 
antimony, possessing diaphoretic proper- 

Bezoardicus Pulvis. Pulverized ori- 
ental bezoar stone. 

BI. From bis, twice ; prefixed to words 
used in anatomy, chemistry and botany, 
meaning two, twice, double, a pair, &c. 
Also, when standing alone, the chemical 
symbol for Bismuth. 

BIARTIC'ULATE. From bis, twice, 
and articulus, a joint; two- jointed. A 
term applied to the antenna! of insects 
which have but two joints. 

BIAUPJC'ULATE. From bis, twice, 
and auricula, an auricle. A term applied 
in Comparative Anatomy to a heart with 
two auricles, as in most bivalve Mollus- 
cles, «fec. 

BIBA'SIC A term applied in Chemis- 
try to acids which combine with two atoms 
of base ; also, to salts having two distinct 

BIBITO'RIUS. Bibitorious, from bibo, 
to drink, for the reason that when the eye 
is drawn inward toward the nose, it 
causes those who drink to look into the 
cup. A name formerly applied to the rec- 
tus interims oculi. 

BIBLIOG'RAPHY. From /fc/Wo f , a 
book, and ypafyu, I describe. Skill in the 
knowledge of books, their authors, sub- 
jects, editions and history. Among the 
most distinguished dental bibliographers, 
are Duval, Laforgue, Delabarre, Maury, 
Desirabode, Nasmyth, Owen, Midler, 
Fitch, Hayden, Bell and Goddard. 

BIB'ULOUS. Having the property of 
absorbing water. 

BICAP'SULAR. In Botany, having 
two capsules. 

BICAR'BONATES. Salts which con- 
tain a double portion of carbonic acid. 

BICAUDA'LIS. Two-tailed. Some- 
times applied to the Posterior auris mus- 
cle, which consists of two small bundles of 

BICEPHA'LIUM. A sarcoma on the- 
head so large as to appear like a second, 




BI'CEPS. From bis, twice, and caput, 
head. Two-headed. A term applied to 
muscles which have two heads. 

Biceps Exter'nus. The long portion 
of the triceps extensor cubiti. 

Biceps Flex'ob Cru'bis. A muscle sit- 
uated on the back part of the thigh. 

Biceps Flexor Cu'biti. Biceps Brachii. 
A flexor muscle of the forearm on the fore- 
art of the os humeri. 

BICHICHIiE. Old pectoral troches 
made of liquorice, sugar, starch, traga- 
canth, almonds and mucilage of quince- 

BICHO DI CULO. A disease endemic 
in Brazil, consisting of great relaxation of 
the anus. 

BICTIOS. Portuguese name for Indian 
worms that penetrate the toes, and are de- 
stroyed by the oil of the cashew-nut. 

BICIPITAL. A term applied to any 
thing relating to the biceps, as the bicipital 
groove between the tuberosities of the os 
humeri, which lodges the tendon of the 
long head of this muscle ; and the bicipi- 
tal tuberosity near the upper extremity of 
the radius, which gives attachment to the 
biceps muscle. 

BICON'JUGATE. Arranged in two 
pairs ; a term applied in Botany to leaves 
in which the common petiole is divided at 
its summit, and each bifurcation supports 
a pair of leaflets. 

BICUS'PID. Bicuspidatus, from bis, 
twice, and cuspis, a spear. Having two 

Bicus'pid Teeth. Denies bicuspidati. 
Bicuspides, or bicuspidati, the plural of 
bicuspis, which is derived from bis, twice, 
and cuspis, a point. The two teeth on 
each side of each jaw, between the cuspi- 
dati and the first molars. They are so 
called from their having two distinct tu- 
bercles or cusps on their friction surface, 
one outer and one inner. Their crowns are 
slightly flattened from before backward, 
and their transverse diameter is greater 
than their antero-posterior. The cusps 
upon their friction or grinding surfaces are 
separated from each other by a furrow run- 
ning in the direction of the alveolar arch. 

The external cusp is more prominent than 
the internal. In the lower jaw the cusps 
are smaller than in the upper, as are also 
the teeth themselves, and the groove which 
separates them is not so deep. The inner 
tubercle of a first bicuspis in the lower jaw 
is sometimes wanting. The roots of the 
bicuspids are generally simple, but have 
a vertical groove on their anterior and pos- 
terior surfaces, which frequently unite in 
the upper jaw, forming two roots, each 
having an opening for the vessels and 
nerves to enter. 

The bicuspid teeth belong to second den- 
tition, and replace the temporary or milk 
molars. They are sometimes termed small 

BI'DENS. A genus of plants of the or- 
der Compositaz. 

Bidens Tripartita. Hemp agrimony, 
formerly supposed to be diuretic, sudorific 
and vulnerary. 

BIDENTAL. Bidentatus. In Zoology, 
animals which have only two teeth, as the 
Physeter bidens, two-toothed Cacholot. In 
Botany, organs which have the bidental 

BIDET'. F. A chamber bathing appara- 
tus which is bestridden when used. It is 
employed in hcemorrhoids, prolapsus ani, 
diseases of the genitals and other affections 
demanding local applications to the peri- 

BIEN'NIS. Biennial. In Botany, a 
term applied to plants that are in leaf one 
year and in flower the next, after which 
they perish. Less strictly, it has been used 
to denote the fructification of perennial 
plants, like some oaks, which bear fruit 
only every other year. 

BIFA'EIOUS. Arranged in two series 
or opposite rows. 

BI'FEP*. Biferous. Applied to plants 
that bear fruit twice in every year. 

BIFTDUS. From bis, twice, and fido, 
to cleave. Forked ; divided in two ; bifid. 

BIFURCATION. Bifurcatio, from bis, 
twice, and furca, a fork. Division into 
two branches, as of a tooth into two roots ; 
of the trachea and of the aorta into two 




BIGNO'NIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Bignoniacece. 

Biononia Catal'pa. The catalpa tree. 

BILABIATE. Two-lipped ; a term ap- 
plied in Botany, to all or any of the parts 
of a flower divided into two parcels or lips. 

BILABE. An instrument for extract- 
ing foreign bodies from the bladder, through 
the urethra. 

BILAMELLA'TUS. Having two lamina. 

BILAT'ERAL. Having two symmet- 
rical sides. In Surgery, applied to an op- 
eration in which incisions are made into 
both sides of an organ, as the bilateral ope- 
ration for the stone. 

BILBERRY. The name of a shrub and 
its fruit ; a species of Vacclnlum. 

BILE. Bills. A bitter, yellow, green- 
ish fluid, secreted by the liver. The gall. 
Bile is distinguished into hepatic and cystic, 
the former flows directly from the liver, 
and the latter from the gall-bladder. 

BIL'IARY. Billa'rls, from bills, the 
bile. Pertaining or belonging to the bile. 

Biliary Apparatus. The parts con- 
cerned in the secretion and excretion of 

Biliary Concre'tions. Concretions 
found in some parts of the biliary apparatus. 

BILIFUL'VIN. Gall yellow ; a bile- 
pigment supposed to be derived from cho- 

BILIN. Picromel. The resinous or 
gummy portion of the bile. 

BIL'IOUS. Bilio'sus ; from bills, bile. 
Pertaining to, containing, or produced by 
bile. A term applied to certain constitu- 
tions, and to diseases supposed to be pro- 
duced by too great a secretion of bile. 

BILIPH^IN. Cholepyrrhine. 

BILIVER'DIN. A name given by Ber- 
zelius to the green precipitate produced by 
dropping acids into the yellow coloring 
matter of the bile. 

BILOBATE. Two-lobed. A term ap- 
plied in Botany to organs of plants divided 
into two lobes by an obtuse sinus. 

BILOC'ULAR. BUocularls ; from bis, 
twice, and loculus, a little cell. Having 
two cells ; two-celled. 

BI'MANUS. From bis, twice, and 

mantis, a hand. Two-handed ; a term ap- 
plied solely to a man, because ho is the 
only animal that has two perfect hands. 

BFNARY. Bind'rius. A term applied 
in Chemistry to a compound of two simple 
or elementary substances. 

BINATE. Binatus. In pairs. 
BINOCULAR. Relating to or affecting 
both eyes ; as binocular vision, seeing one 
object with both eyes. 

Binocular Microscope. A microscope 
contrived to be used by both eyes. It gives 
a wonderful distinctness and elevation to 
objects examined through it. 

BINOC'ULUS. From binus, double, 
and oculics, the eye. Having two eyes ; also, 
a bandage for both eyes. 
BIN'SICA. A disordered mind. 
BIOCHYMIA. Vital Chemistry. 
BIOL'OGY. Blohgla; from piog, life, 
and hoyoc, a discourse. The doctrine of life. 
BIOLYCHNION. Blolychnium. Ani- 
mal heat. Also, a secret preparation from 
human blood. 

BIOLYSIS. Destruction of life. 
BIOLYT'IC. Destroying life. 
BIOTE. From dm, life. Life. Also, 
that which is necessary for its preservation. 
BIOTHAN'ATI. From (3ta, violence, 
or (3iog, life, and davaTog , death. A violent 
or sudden death, as if there were no space 
between life and death. 

BIPARTITE. Bipartitus. A term in 
Botany, applied to an organ divided almost 
to its base. 

BI'PED. Bipes ; from bis, twice, and 
pes, pedis, a foot. Two-footed. A term in 
Zoology, applied to all two-footed animals. 
BIPINNATE. Bipinnatus; from bis, 
twice, and pinna, the fin of a fish. Dou- 
ble pinnate ; in Botany, applied to a vari- 
ety of compound leaves. 

BIRDLIME. A glutinous substance 
prepared from the middle bark of the holly. 
BIRTHW ORT. See Aristolochia. 
BISCHE. Biecho. Dysentery of a ma- 
lignant character, which often prevails in 
the Island of Trinidad. 

BIS'CUIT. From bis, twice, and cuit, 
baked. A named applied to porcelain 
paste, which, after having been moulded 




or carved, has been subjected to a red heat 
in the muffle of a furnace or a charcoal 
fire, for the purpose of hardening it suffi- 
ciently for trimming, and to receive the 
enamel. This process is termed biscuiting 

BIS'MUTH. Bismuthum ; wismuthum ; 
regidus of bismuth; marcasita. Tin glass. 
A metal of a yellowish white color, some- 
what different from lead, possessing but lit- 
tle malleability, and fusible at 400° Fah- 
renheit. When combined in the proper 
proportion with tin and lead, the alloy is 
known by the name of D'Arcet's metal, 
fusible at the temperature of boiling water, 
and was at one time used for filling teeth. 
See D'Arcet's Metal. 

Bismuth Subnitrate. Bismuthum al- 
burn. Bismuth trisnitrate. An insoluble, 
inodorous, tasteless, beautifully white pow- 
der, called pearl powder, Spanish white, 
and magistery of bismuth. 

Bismuth, Butter of. Chloride of bis- 

Bismuth, Flowers of. Sublimed oxyd 
of bismuth. 

Bismuth, Valerianate of. A salt of 
bismuth and valerianic acid. It is a ner- 
vine medicine. 

BI'SON. A species in Zoology of the 
bovine genus, improperly called the buf- 

BISTOURF CACHE. A bistoury, the 
blade of which is concealed in a sheath 
and starts out on pressing a spring. 

BIS'TOURY. From Bistort, a town 
once celebrated for the manufacture of 
these instruments. A small knife with a 
straight or curved blade, plain or guarded 
at the point, used in surgery. 

BIS'TORTA. Polygonumbistoria. Snake 

BISULPHAS. Bisulphate. 

BIT NOBEN. Supposed to be the salt 
of bitumen ; a white saline substance used 
by the Hindoos as a panacea. 

BITTER. See Amarus. 

Bitter Apple. The fruit of the Ouc- 
umis colocynthis. 

Bitter Salt. Sulphate of magnesia. 

Bitter Spar. A term applied to cer- 

tain crystallized varieties of dolomite, or 
double carbonates of lime and magnesia. 

Bitter Sweet. Solanum dulcamara; a 
plant possessing feeble narcotic properties. 

Bitter Wood. Quassia. 

BITTERN. The mother water which 
remains after the crystallization of the salt 
in sea or salt spring water. 

BITTERS. Medicines of a bitter taste. 

BITU'MEN. Asphaltum, of which 
there are several varieties. See Asphal- 
tum, Naphtha and Petroleum. 

BITUMINOUS. Of the nature of bi- 

BI VENTER. From fas, twice, and «era- 
ter, a belly. A name applied to muscles 
which have two bellies, as the digastricus 
and biventer cervicis of the lower jaw. 

BIXA. A genus of plants of the order 

Bixa Orella'na. The name of the 
plant affording the terra orellana or anotto, 
a substance used in Jamaica, in dysentery. 

BLACCIiE. Rubeola; measles. 

BLACKBERRY. The fruit of the Bubus 

Black Chalk. Drawing-slate. 

Black Draught. An infusion of senna 
with salts. 

Black Drop. A fermented aromatic 
vinegar of opium. 

Black Flux. A mixture of carbonate 
of potash and charcoal, obtained by defla- 
grating cream of tartar with half its weight 
of nitre. 

Black Jack. A name applied by mi- 
ners to Sulphuret of zinc. 

Black Lead. Plumbago. 

Black Lion. Syphilis, attended with 

Black Naphtha. Petroleum. Rock-oil. 

Black Vomit. One of the fatal symp- 
toms of yellow fever ; also, a name by 
which a disease that sometimes prevails 
during the months of August and Septem- 
ber, in some of the western and southern 
parts of the United States, is designated. 

Black Wadd. One of the ores of man- 

Black Wash. 
lime water. 

A lotion of calomel and 




BLADDER. See Urinary-bladder and 

BL^E'SITAS. From blccsus, one wbo 
stammers. Inaccurate enunciation of ar- 
ticulate sounds. 

BLAIN. An elevation of the cuticle 
filled with a watery fluid. 

BLANC-MANGE. An animal jelly to 
which has been added sugar, milk of al- 
monds and an aromatic. 

BLANCH. To whiten. 

BLAS. An unintelligible term used by 
Van Helmont to denote certain motions of 
the body. 

BLASTE'MA. From p\aoravi->, I ger- 
minate. A bud or shoot ; a germ ; a soft, 
plastic, gelatinous mass ; the rudiment of 
an organ in a state of development ; also, 
used by some of the ancients to signify a 
bud-like cutaneous pimple. 

BLASTODERMA. From (JXaorava, I 
germinate, and dep/za, skin. The germinal 

tinct granular envelope immediately sur- 
rounding the yolk of a bird's egg, and 
covered by the vitelline membrane. 

BLAT'TA BYZAN'TIA. Anguis odo- 
ratus. A marine substance obtained from 
some shell-fish and used by the ancients 
as a remedy for hysteria, epilepsy and he- 
patic obstructions. 

BLAUD'S PILLS. Pills recommended 
by M. Blaud for the cure of chlorosis. The 
following is his formula : " Take of gum 
tragacanth, in powder, six grains ; water 
one drachm ; macerate in a glass or marble 
mortar until a thick mucilage is formed ; 
then add sulphate of iron, in powder, half 
an ounce ; beat well until the mixture is 
quite homogeneous; then add subcarbo- 
nate of potassa half an ounce. Rub this 
until the mass, which quickly becomes of a 
yellowish green, passes into a deep green, 
and assumes a soft consistence. Divide into 
forty-eight pills. 

BLEACHING. A chemical process of 
whitening linen or woolen cloths. 

Bleaching Liquid. Oxymuriatic al- 
kaline water. 

Bleaching Powder. Chloride of lime. 

BLEAR-EYE. A chronic catarrhal in- 
flammation of the eyelids. 

BLEB. A bulla, or bladdery tumor, or 
small vesicle of the skin. 

BLEEDING. The operation of blood- 
letting ; also, the discharge of blood. 

BLENNA. Blewa. Blena. Mucus. 

Blenna Narium. Mucus from the nose. 

BLENNADENFTIS. Inflammation of 
mucous follicles. 

BLENNELYT'RIA. From ptewa, mu- 
cus, and elvipov, a sheath. 

BLENNEM'ESIS. Mucous vomiting. 



BLENNOP'TYSIS. From /JAewa, and 
tctvu, I spit. Expectoration of mucus. 

BLENNOP'YRA. A term applied by 
Alibert to fevers complicated with mucous 

BLENNORRHA'GIA. Gonorrhoea. 

BLENN ORRHffi'A. From (Uevva, mu- 
cus, and peo), I flow. Discharge of mucus 
from any of the mucous surfaces, but par- 
ticularly from the urethra. 

BLENNO'SES. Catarrhal affections of 
the mucous tissues. 

BLENNU'RIA. Cystorrhcea. 

BLEPHARITIS. From (Ue<j>apov, tho 
eyelid, and itis, a terminal signifying in- 
flammation. Inflammation of the eyelid. 

BLEPHARON. (31e<?apov. The eyelid. 
From this word various others are com- 

tyapov, the eyelid, and o^alfua, a disease 
of the eye. Inflammation of the eyelid. 

BLEPHAROPTO'SIS. From p^apov, 
the eyelid, and irruoie, fall. Prolapse or 
falling of the upper eyelid. 

(j>apov, the eyelid, and cTzaajiog, spasm. A 
spasmodic action of the eyelid. 


lent ophthalmia. 

an eyelid from the neighboring integument. 




BLEPHAROXYS'TUM. An instrument 
used by the ancients to scrape away cal- 
losities from the eyelids. 
BLESTRIS'MUS. Restlessness of the sick. 

BLIGHT. A term applied to the sud- 
den death of plants, or the withering and 
drying up of some of their leaves and 
branches. In Pathology, a slight palsy, 
caused by sudden cold or damp. 

BLINDNESS. Ccecitas. Deprivation 
of the power of vision. 

BLISTER. Vesicatorium. Any sub- 
stance which, when put on the skin, raises 
the cuticle in the form of a vesicle, and oc- 
casions a serous secretion. The canthar- 
ides, or blistering flies, are most frequently 
employed for this purpose, but there are 
other substances which will produce this 
effect on the cuticle. Also, elevation of the 
cuticle with a deposition of serous fluid un- 

BLISTERING FLY. See Cantharis. 

BLI'TUM. A genus of plants of the 
order Chenopodiacece. Strawberry blite. 

BLITUM FCETIDUM. The chenopo- 
dium vulnaria, or stinking orach. 

BLOCK TEETH. Two or more arti- 
ficial teeth carved from a piece of ivory, 
or from a mass of porcelain paste and af- 
terwards baked and enameled. The former 
substance, at present, is seldom used for 
this purpose. The latter has, within the 
last few years, been brought to a very high 
state of perfection. But a dental substi- 
tute of this description, unless of the most 
perfect construction, is not worn with as 
much comfort as single teeth when properly 
mounted on a gold base, and, moreover, 
it is more liable, from a fall or other acci- 
dent, to break, and when broken, cannot 
be as easily repaired. Many dentists use 
them, notwithstanding; and when well 
adapted to the inequalities of the parts 
against which they are placed, they sub- 
serve a good purpose. See Porcelain Teeth. 

BLOOD. Sanguis. A red homogene- 
ous fluid, formed chiefly from chyle, of a 
saltish taste and glutinous consistence, cir- 
culating in the cavities of the heart, arte- 
ries and veins. The average quantity of 
this fluid in an adult is estimated at twenty- 

eight pounds, and the veins are supposed 
to contain nearly four times the quantity 
that the arteries do. The blood in the ar- 
teries is of a florid red j in the veins it is 
of a dark brownish red, except in the pul- 
monary vessels. Here the color is reversed, 
the arteries containing the dark and the 
veins the red blood. 

Blood is composed of water, albumen, 
fibrin, an animal coloring matter, a little 
fat, and several salts. 

Blood-Letting. Every artificial dis- 
charge of blood procured for the preven- 
tion or cure of disease. An operation which 
consists in opening a vessel for the extrac- 
tion of blood. It is divided into general 
and topical. Venaiseclion and arterioiomy 
are examples of the first, and the applica- 
tion of leeches, or cupping glasses, after 
scarification, of the latter. 

Blood-Root. Sanguinaria canadensis. 

Blood-Shot. Distention of the vessels 
of the eyeball with red blood. 

Bloodstone. Hcematite. A dark green 
silicious mineral, variegated by red spots. It 
is a native oxyd of iron, and being sus- 
ceptible of a very high polish, it is some- 
times used by jewelers and mechanical den- 
tists as a burnisher. 

Blood- Vessel. A vessel containing and 
conveying blood. 

BLOODY FLUX. Dysentery. 

BLOW-PIPE. A cylindrical tube from 
twelve to eighteen inches long, about a 
half an inch in diameter at one end, and 
gradually tapering to a fine point or noz- 
zle, which may be straight or bent at 
right angles, according to the purposes 
for which it is to be used. With an in- 
strument of this sort, " a jet of air may 
be injected into the flame of a lamp or can- 
dle, so as to divert it in a long and slender 
cone upon a piece of charcoal or other sub- 
stance placed to receive it." The greatest 
heat of a flame when thus urged is just be- 
yond the extremity of the inner flame, for 
the reason that the greatest amount of com- 
bustion is at this point. To the mechan- 
ical dentist, as well as to the jeweler and 
chemist, the blow-pipe is an instrument of 
great importance. 




Blow- pipe, Elliot's Compound Self- 
acting. A combination of the common 
with the self-acting blow pipe. 

Blow-pipe, Hook's Self-acting. A 
brass globe composed of two hemispheres 
firmly fastened together, having an orifice 
at the top for the purpose of introducing 
alcohol, and a tube leading from the upper 
to the flame of a spirit lamp placed under- 
neath the brass globe. When this is partly 
filled with alcohol, and a lamp placed un- 
derneath it, the alcohol is soon converted in- 
to vapor, which finding no vent, excepting 
through a small tube, rushes directly against 
the flame of the lamp which ignites it and 
forms a jet of flame of great intensity. 

Blow-pipe, Oxy-Hydrogen. See Oxy- 
Hydrogen Blow-Pipe. 

Blow-pipe, Parmly's Self-acting. 
An apparatus invented by Dr. Jaliial 
Parmly of New York, consisting of a cop- 
per globe, about five inches and a half in 
diameter, and two alcoholic reservoirs, 
arranged in a small portable japanned 
tin case. One of the reservoirs is placed 
beneath the globe on the floor of the 
case, which it completely covers. This is 
about an inch and a half deep, and in 
its centre, immediately beneath the globe, 
a burner is placed. The other reservoir 
is of the same size, and placed imme- 
diately above the globe. In the top 
of one side of this, one extremity of a 
curved tube or siphon, provided with a 
stop-cock, enters, while the other extremity 
passes down through a protuberance on 
the top of the globe, to near the bottom of 
the globe. Through this tube alcohol is 
introduced from the upper reservoir into 
the globe, and when a sufficient supply 
has been let in, the stopcock is closed, and 
the communication between the two cut 
off. In the top of the other side of the 
upper reservoir, a burner is fixed. A little 
above this, a tube, communicating with 
the protuberance in the top of the globe, 
terminates. When both burners are lighted, 
the vapor, generated in the globe from the 
alcohol by the heat from the lower burner, 
rushes through the tube last described, 
into the flame from the upper burner, ig- 

nites, and throws off a jet of flame lat- 
erally five or six inches in length. Each 
burner is provided with an extinguisher, 
which can be so managed as to increase 
or diminish the volume of flame projected 
laterally by the blow-pipe or vapor-tube. 

Accompanying the blow-pipe is a small 
sheet-iron furnace, for heating a piece of 
work before soldering, and also for melt- 
ing metals for casting models. 

Blow-pipe and Furnace, Somerby's. 
An apparatus invented by Dr. R. Somerby, 
of Louisville, Ky., consisting of a furnace 
and blow-pipe, arranged in an iron frame, 
supplied with air from a bellows. 

BLUE DISEASE. See Cyanosis. 

Blue Ointment. Unguentum hydrar- 
gyri; strong mercurial ointment. 

Blue Pill. Filulce hydrargyri. Mer- 
curial Pill. 

Blue Stone. Cupri sidphas. Sulphate 
of copper. 

BLUNT HOOK. An instrument used 
by obstetricians to draw down the foetus. 

BOA. A genus of serpents, of which 
some of the species, as the Boa Constrictor, 
attain an immense size. Also, the Latin 
word for a papular eruption. 

BODY. Generally, every substance 
which is cognizable by our senses. 

It is applied by the manufacturers of 
porcelain teeth, to the paste composing the 
principal portion of the artificial organ. 

Body. In Anatomy, the collection of 
organs which compose the animal body, or 
the main part, or trunk of such body, as 
distinguished from the head and limbs ; 
also, the principal portion of a bone or mus- 
cle. In Physics, a portion of matter consist- 
ing of molecules united by cohesive attrac- 
tion, the existence of which can be perceived 
by any of our senses. Bodies are solid, 
liquid, or gaseous, according to the forms 
in which they exist. 

BOETHE'MA. A medicine ; aid ; succor. 

BOFAREI'RA . The ricinus communis, 
used as a galactagogue or stimulant to 
the flow of milk. 

BOLE. BwZof, a mass. An argillaceous 
earth, used as an absorbent and alexiphar- 




Bole, Arme'nian. Bolus Armenia. A 
pale, bright red-colored earth, supposed to 
possess astringent and styptic properties. 
It constitutes a principal ingredient in many 
of the tooth-powders vended in the shops. 
BOLETIO ACID. Acidum Boleticum. 
An acid obtained from the juice of the 
Boletus pseudo-igniarius. 

BOLE'TUS. A genus of fungi, char- 
acterized by numerous vertical tubes ar- 
ranged beneath the pileus of the plant. 

Boletus Esculen'tus. The eatable 

Boletus Ignia'bius. The systematic 
name of the agaricus of the pharmaco- 
poeias. Agaric of the oak; touchwood 
boletus; female agaric. It was formerly 
much used as a styptic by surgeons. 

Boletus Pur'gans. Boletus laricis. 
Larch agaric, a drastic purgative, in the 
dose of from one to two drachms. 

Boletus Suave'olens. The Fungus So- 
lids of the Pharmacopoeias, formerly given 
in phthisis pulmonalis and asthma. 

BOLOG'NI AN STONE. A native sul- 
phate of baryta, found at Bologna. It 
becomes a powerful solar phosphorus when 
heated with charcoal. 

BOLUS. Buloc, a bole. A bolus. Any 

medicine having the shape of a pill, but 

larger, and not too large to be swallowed. 

Bolus Armenia. Bole, Armenian. 

Bolus Armenle Albus. The white 

Armenian bole. 

Bolus Gallicus. French Bole. Bolar 
earth, of a pale red color, with irregular 
variegated veins of white and yellow, pos- 
sessing absorbent and antacid qualities. 

BOM'BAX. A genus of very large 
trees, containing many species of the order 
Bombaceaz. The cotton tree. 

BOM'BUS. BouGoc . A ringing or buz- 
zing in the ears, sometimes accompanied 
by a sensation like what might be sup- 
posed to be produced by blows repeated 
at certain intervals. See Tinnitus Aurium. 
BONE. Os, ooteov. Bones are hard, 
insensible organized parts of the body, of 
a whitish color, and a spongy compact 
structure. They constitute the solid frame- 
work of the bodies of animals of the su- 

perior classes. They serve as a support 
and protection to other organs, and give 
attachment to muscles. "With the ex- 
ception of the crowns of the teeth, they 
are covered with a fibrous and vascular 
membrane, called the periosteum, from 
which they are liberally supplied with 
vessels for their nutrition. The bones of 
an animal, united, constitute the skeleton ; 
artificial, when united by artificial means, 
such as wires, &c, and natural, when con- 
nected by their own ligaments. 

The texture of bones varies. The mid- 
dle portion of long bones is compact, with 
a cavity in their centre : their extremities 
are spongy, " and the central cavity is oc- 
cupied by a long net-work, formed of thin 
plates and fibres, called the reticulated 
tissue of the bones."** The greater num- 
ber of bones have several processes and 
cavities, which are distinguished from 
their figure, situation, use, &c. Thus, pro- 
cesses extending from the end of a bone, if 
smooth and round, are called heads, and 
condyles when flattened either above or 
laterally. That part which is beneath the 
head, and which exceeds the rest of the 
bone in smallness and levity, is called the 
neck. Rough, unequal processes are called 
tuberosities, or tubercles, but the longer 
and more acute, spinous or styloid pro- 
cesses, from their resemblance to a thorn. 
Their broad processes, with sharp extrem- 
ities, are known by the name of crista or 
sharp edges. Other processes are distin- 
guished by their form, and called alar, or 
pterygoid, maxillary, or mastoid, dentiform, 
or odontoid, &c. Others, from their sit- 
uation, are called superior, inferior, ex- 
terior and interior. Some have their names 
from their direction; as oblique, straight, 
transverse, &c, and some from their use, 
as trochanters, rotators, &c. Furrows, de- 
pressions and cavities, are destined either 
for the reception of contiguous bones to 
form an articulation with them, when they 
are called articular cavities, which are 
sometimes deeper, sometimes shallower; 
or they receive hard parts, but do not 
constitute a joint with them," &c.f 
* Wistar's Anatomy, f Hooper's Med. Die. 



According to Barzclius, every one hun- 
dred parts of bone in man contain, 

Cartilage, (gelatin,) completely 

soluble in water 32.17 

Vessels 1.13 

Neutral phosphate of lime 51.04 

Carbonate of lime 11.30 

Fluate of lime 2.00 

Phosphate of Magnesia 1.16 

Soda, with a small proportion of 
chloride of sodium 1.20 


According to some anatomists, there are 
two hundred and forty-eight bones in the 
human adult, namely : 

Bones of the cra- 
nium or skull. . . . 

Bones of the face. 

f Frontal 1 

| Parietal 2 



"j Temporal.. . 
| Ethmoid. ... 
I Sphenoid. ... 
f Sup'r Maxill 


I Nasal 2 

J Lachrymal. . 2 

* Palatine 2 

Infe'r spongy 2 

Dentes or teeth . 



Bone of the tongue, 
Bones of the ear, 
within the tem- 
poral bones 

k f Vertebrae..., 

rJ _ 

S I Sacrum 

E-, (.Coccygis os. 

The thorax , 

The pelvis 


Infe'r maxil, 1 

' Incisors 8 

Cuspidati ... 4 

Bicuspids... 8 

.Molars 12 

Hyoides os. . 1 

f Malleus 2 

J Incus 2 

j Stapes 2 

[Orbiculare os 2 

C Cervical .... 7 

1 Dorsal 12 

(Lumbar 5 



( Sternum ... 1 

J Ribs 24 

Innom'ata ossa 2 

The shoulder. 

f Clavicle .... 2 

\ Scapula 2 

The arm Humeri os.. 2 

fUlna 2 

The forearm. 



f Carpus or wrist < 

\ Radius 2 

r Naviculare os 2 
Lunareos ... 2 
Cuneiforme os 2 
Orbiculare os 2 
Trapezium os 2 
Trapezoides os 2 
Magnum os. 2 
Unciforme os 2 

E-, j Metacarpus. ., 

I Phalanges 28 


f The thigh Femur 2 

C Patella 2 













, H 

The Zeg < Tibia . 

f Fibula. 

£ . f Tarsus or instep 

Calcaneus. .. 
Astragalus. . 
Cuboides os. 
Naviculare os 

^Cuneiforme os 6 

Metatarsus 10 

Phalanges 23 

Sesamoid bones of the thumb and 
great toe, occasionally found 8 

Total, 248 

Bone Black. Ivory black ; charred 

Bone Earth. The inorganic basis of 
the bones of animals, consisting of phos- 
phate of lime. 

Bone Nippers. Forceps with cutting 
edges, furnished with strong handles, used 
by surgeons for cutting off sjilintcrs of 
bone, and by dentists for the excision of 
the decayed crowns of teeth. 

BONE'SET. Eupatorium perfoliatum ; 

Bone Spirit. Impure ammonia, ob- 
tained in the process of manufacturing 
animal charcoal from bones. 


South American tree, from which it was 
supposed the Angostura, or Cusparia bark, 
was obtained. See Galipia officinalis. 

BO'NY. Osseous. Pertaining to, of, or 
resembling bone. 

BORAC'IC ACID. Acidum boracium. 
The acid of borax. 

BO'RACITE. Native borate of magne- 

BORAGINA'CEiE. Boraginece. The 
Borage tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
The Borageworts. Most of the species are 
mucilaginous and emollient, and many of 
them are diuretic. A red coloring matter 
is obtained from the roots of several. 

BORA'GO. A genus of plants of the 
order Boraginaceai. 

Borago Officinalis. Borage ; a Eu- 
ropean plant, formerly esteemed as a cor- 
dial and diuretic. 

BO'RAS. Borate. 




Boras Sod2E. Borate of Soda. 

BO'RATE. A salt of Boracic acid and 
a salifiable base. 

BO'RAX. Boras sodce; sodce biboras. 
A saline compound of boracic acid and 
soda found in a native state in Thibet and 
South America. When purified, borax is 
white, transparent, presenting in its frac- 
ture a greasy appearance, and affecting the 
form of six-sided prisms, terminating in 
three-sided, or six-sided pyramids. It is 
used as a flux in metallurgy. In soldering 
or uniting pieces of gold or silver, it is the 
principal one employed. It is seldom used 
as a medicine, except as a lotion in aphtha). 

BORBORYG'MUS. From popPopvfa, I 
make a dull noise. Rumbling noise in the 
intestines caused by flatus. 


BOR'NEEN. The name given to a com- 
pound of carbon and hydrogen found in 
valeric acid, which acquires the properties 
of Borneo camphor on being exposed to 

BORNEO CAMTHOR. A white foli- 
aceous crystalline solid, somewhat translu- 
cent, of an odor analogous to that of com- 
mon camphor, found in longitudinal fis- 
sures of the Dryobalonops-irees, of the 
Islands of Sumatra and Borneo. These 
trees also yield a fragrant liquid, called oil 
of camphor. 

BO'RON. Bori'um. A solid substance 
of a greenish-black color, forming the com- 
bustible base of boracic acid. 

BOR'OZAIL. A disease endemic on the 
shores of the river Senegal. It affects the 
genital organs, but differs from syphilis, 
though arising from venereal excess. 

BOSWEL'LIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Terebinthaceos. 

Boswellia Sebbata. A large tree 
growing in the mountains of India, from 
which the India olibanum is obtained. 

BOTAL FORA'MEN. The foramen 
ovale of the heart. 

BOT'ANIST. Botan'icus. One who un- 
derstands the nature and history of plants ; 
one skilled in every thing pertaining to 

BOT'ANY. Botan'ica. BoraviKi], from 
(3oTavT] } an herb or grass, which is derived 
from (iou, or Pooku, to feed, because grass 
is the chief food of animals most useful to 
man. The science of plants ; a knowledge 
of every thing relating to the natural his- 
tory of the vegetable kingdom, embracing 
the terminology, classification, synonyms, 
sensible qualities, anatomy, physiology, 
&c, of plants. 

BOTANY-BAY GUM. A resinous ex- 
udation from the Acarois Resinifera. 

BOTHRENCHY'MA. From /3otfpof, a 
pit, and eyxvpa, enchyma. A term in Bot- 
any, recently applied to the pitted tissue, 
or dotted ducts of former writers. 

BOTH'RION. Bodpiov. A little pit. 
A small cavity ; the socket of a tooth j a 
small deep ulcer of the cornea. 

From (3odpiov, a pit, nefyalri, the head. 
Tainialata. The broad tape- worm. 

BOTTS. The larvaa of the horse gadfly, 
found in the stomach and intestines of 

BOTULINTC ACID. A poisonous, 
fatty acid, produced by decomposing sau- 

BOUGIE'. Literally, a wax candle. 
A slender, flexible instrument, designed to 
be introduced into the bladder through the 

BOULIM'IA. From fiovc, an ox, and 
hftoc, hunger. A canine or voracious ap- 
petite ; insatiable hunger. 

BOURBON-LANCY. A small village 
in France, where there are thermal saline 
springs, containing carbonic acid, muriates 
of soda and lime, carbonates of lime, iron 
and silica". 

BOURDONNEMENT. A name given 
by the French to certain sounds heard by 
persons while under the influence of dis- 
ease, termed, 1. Syrigmus, or singing in 
the ears ; 2. Susurrus, or whizzing sounds ; 
3. Bombus, or beating sounds. 

BOVINA FAMES. From bos, an ox, 
and fames hunger. Voracious appetite. 

BOW-DRILL. A drill turned by a 
stock with a bow and string or cord. 

Bow-Dbill, Elliot's Impboved. An 




improvement made by Dr. W. H. Elliot, 
of Montreal, which consists in using two 
cords instead of one. This prevents them 
from slipping upon the pully, and at the 
same time prevents any friction of the cord. 
The drill stock is also furnished with a 
universal joint, which enables the operator 
to drill the fangs of the back teeth. 

BOX PLATE. A metallic plate with 
an air-tight chamber, used as an obturator, 
or in connection with artificial teeth, for 
the replacement of the loss of natural 
structure. See Raised Plate. 

Box-Tree. See Buxus Sempervirens. 

Box- Wood. See Cornus Florida. 

BRACHE'RIUM. From brackiale, a 
bracelet. A truss or bandage for hernia. 

BRACHLE'US. Brachial. Belonging 
to the arm. 

BRA'CIIIAL. Brachials. That which 
belongs to the arm. 

Brachial Aponeurosis. An aponeu- 
rosis enveloping the muscles of the arm. 

Brachial Artery. Arteria brachialis. 
A continuation of the axillary artery, run- 
ning down on the side of the arm to the 
bend of the elbow, where it divides into 
the radial and cubital arteries. 

Brachial Muscle, Anterior. A mus- 
cle situated on the anterior and inferior 
part of the arm. 

Brachial Plexus. Plexus brachialis. 
A nervous plexus, seated deeply in the hol- 
low of the axilla, extending to the inferior 
and lateral part of the neck. 

Brachial Veins. Two veins, which 
frequently anastomose with each other, and 
accompany the artery. 

BRACHIALE. A bracelet. Anato- 
mists have applied the term to the car- 
pus, the part on which a bracelet is worn. 

ceps Extensor Cubiti. 

Brachialis Internus. A muscle of the 
forearm. , 

BRACHI'ATE. Brachia'tus ; from pp*- 
X iuv, an arm ; armed ; brachiated. A term 
in Botany, applied to the branches of a 
plant or tree, which go off at nearly right 
angles from the trunk or stem. 
I BRACHILUVIUM. An arm bath. 

BRACHIO-CUBITAL. Belonging to the 
brachium and cubitus or ulna. 

Brachio-Radial. Brachio-radialis. Be- 
longing to the brachium and radius. 

an arm, and nvhXuaif, curvature. Paralysis 
or loss of power from curvature of the arm. 

BRACHION'CUS. From Ppa X iuv, the 
arm, and oy/coj, a swelling. A tumor of 
the arm. 

BRACHIO'PODA. From Ppa X uov, an 
arm, and 7rov$, a foot. Arm-footed ani- 
mals ; an order of headless bivalve Mollus- 
cous animals. 

BRACIIIORRHEU'MA. Rheumatism of 
the arm. 

BRA'CHIUM. Bpaxiuv, the arm. The 
arm from the shoulder to the wrist. 

Brachium Arterius and Brachium 
Posterius. Two rounded processes which 
pass from the tubercula quadrigemina into 
the optic thalamus. 

BRACHU'NA. Nymphomania. Saty- 

short, and *|Ocwo$, time. A disease of short 

BRACHYPNCE'A. From Ppa X vc, short, 
and irvtu, to breathe. Difficulty of breath- 
ing ; shortness of breath. 

BRACIIYAU'CHEN. Short-necked. 

BRACHYGNATHUS. From ppa X vc, 
short, and yva-dog, a jaw. A monster with 
too short an under jaw. 

BRACHYPOT'IC. Persons who drink 

with too short a nose. 

BRACT. Bractea. A term in Botany, 
applied to a leaflet situated below the 
point of the insertion of flowers, and which 
it assists in covering previously to its de- 

BRACTEIFORM'IS. Resembling a bract. 

BRADY^ESTHE'SIA. From ppadv i} dif- 
ficult, and aiadr/mg, sensation. Impaired 

BRADYBOLIS'MUS. See Bradysper- 

BRADYECOIA. Deafness. 

BRADYLOG'IA. Difficulty of speech. 




BRADYMASE'SIS. Bradymasse' sis ; 
from (3pa<h if difficult, and fiaaj]at i} mastica- 
tion. Difficult mastication. Dysmasesis. 

BRADYPEP'SIA. From Ppa6v s , slow, 
itetttio, to concoct. Slow digestion. 

an emission of semen. 

BRADYSU'RIA. From ppaSu s , diffi- 
cult, and ovpew, to pass the urine. Pain- 
ful evacuation of urine ; dysuria. 

BRAIN. The cerebrum; the highest 
and largest portion of the encephalon ; but 
according to the popular acceptation of the 
word, the entire contents of the cranium. 

Brain, Little. The Cerebellum. 

BRAMBLE. The Bubusfructicosus, or 
common blackberry. 

BRAN. Furfur tritici. The proper coat 
of wheat, rye, or other farinaceous grain, 
separated from the flower. 

BRANCH. From fipaxiuv, an arm, be- 
cause branches of a tree, &c, go off like 
an arm. Generally applied to the princi- 
pal division of an artery or nerve. It is 
usually employed as synonymous with ra- 

BRANCHES. From fipayxog, hoarseness. 
Swelling of the tonsils and thyroid gland. 

BRAN'CHI^). From ppayxia, the gills 
of a fish. Gills. The respiratory organs 
of those animals which extract oxygen 
from air contained in water. 

BRANCHIO'PODA. From ppay X ia, 
gills, and nov^, a foot. An order of crus- 
taceans in which the gills perform the func- 
tions of feet. 

BRANCHUS. From Ppayxoc, hoarse- 
ness; sore throat; overstraining of the 

BRANDY. Spiritus gaMicus. A pow- 
erful and diffusible stimulant, obtained by 
distillation from wine. 

BRANKS. Mumps. 

ratus employed by Brasdor in fractures of 
the clavicle. 

EURISM. Tying the aneurismal vessel 
on the distal side of the tumor. 

BRASMA. Brasmos. From ppaoou, 
to boil. Fermentation. 

BRASS. A yellow metal ; an alloy of 
copper and zinc. 

BRAS'SICA. Cabbage, or colewort. 
Also, the name of a genus of cruciferous 

Brassica Acidulata. Sauer kraut. 

Brassica Alba. White cabbage. 

Brassica Apiana. Jagged or crimpled 

Brassica Congylodes. Turnip cab- 

Brassica Cuma'na. Red colewort. 

Brassica Eru'ca. Garden rocket. 

Brassica Flor'ida. The cauliflower. 

Brassica Lactur'ria. The Savoy 

Brassica Na'pus. Wild navew, or rape. 

Brassica Ra'pa. The turnip. 

Brassica Sativa. American garden 

Brassica Ru'bra. Red cabbage, of 
which there are several varieties. It is 
used as a test for acids and alkalies. For 
this purpose it is superior to litmus ; alka- 
lies turn it green, and acids turn it red. 

Abyssinian tree of the family Rosacea;. An 
infusion of the flowers is esteemed by the 
natives as of great value as a vermifuge, 
especially against tape-worm. 

BRAZIL NUTS. The fruit of the Ber- 
tholletia excelsa. Brazil chesnuts. 

Brazil Wood. The wood of the Cce- 
salpinia Braziliensis. It is used in dy- 

BREAD FRUIT. The fruit of the Ar- 
tocarpus incisa, a tree of the Isles of the 
Pacific ocean. 

name for Dengue. 

BRA'THU. Juniperus sabina. 

BREAST. The mamma ; also the fore- 
part of the thorax. 

Breast Glass. A glass resembling a 
small cup, adapted to the nipple, and used 
for the reception of the milk when se- 
creted in too large a quantity. 

Breast Pump. A small bell-shaped 
glass, furnished with an air pump or sy- 
ringe, and used for the purpose of drawing 
the milk from tumid breasts. 




BREGMA. From ppex u , to moisten. 
The sinciput or upper part of the head; 
the junction of the parietal hones. 

BRE'VIAVASA. Short Vessels. Ap- 
plied to several branches of the splenic 
arteries and vein3. 

BRE'VIS CU'BITI. The anconeus mus- 

quus inferior. 

BREZILIN. The coloring matter of 
Brazil wood. 

BRICK, OIL OP. Oil of Spike. 

BRICKLAYER'S ITCH. A species of 
tetter on the hands of bricklayers, pro- 
duced by the contact of lime. 

BRI'ER, WILD. Rosa canina. 

degeneration of the kidney, generally at- 
tended by the presence of albumen in the 
urine, and a train of other morbid phe- 

pectineal line leading from the tuberosities 
of the ossa pubis, outward and back- 
ward, to the prominent point of the sa- 
crum, dividing the cavity of the pelvis 
from the cavity of the abdomen. 

BRIMSTONE. Sulphur. 

spring near Bristol, England. The water 
is slightly acidulated. 

BRITISH GUM. Starch reduced to a 
gum-like state by being heated to 700° 

BRITISH OIL. Common Petroleum; 
also, a rubefacient liniment, for the prepa- 
ration of which there are various formula;. 

sided steel instrument, three or four inches 
long, with a flattened point, very grad- 
ually increasing in size towards the. ex- 
tremity intended for the handle. It is 
sometimes used by dentists for enlarging 
the canal in the root, and the opening into 
a decayed cavity in the crown of a tooth. 

BROCHUS. According to some, a per- 
son whose teeth project, or one who has a 
prominent upper lip. 

BRO'DIUM. Jus'culum. The liquor 
in which any thing is boiled j broth. 

BRO'MAL. A colorless, caustic oily 
liquid compound. 

BROMATOG'RAPHY. Bromatograph'- 
ia. From pp<->(ia, food, and jpa<pv, a de- 
scription. A description of aliments. 

BROMATOL'OGY. Bromatolog'ia, siti- 
ol'ogy. From flpu/*a, food, and Aoyor, a dis- 
course. A treatise on food. 

BROME'LIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Bromeliacece. 

Bbomelia Ana'nas. The pine-apple 

Bromelia Pen'guin. Broad-leaved wild 
ananas ; the plant that produces the pen- 
guin fruit. 

BRO'MIC ACID. A combination of 
bromine and oxygen, obtained by decom- 
posing bromate of baryta with sulphuric 

BRO'MIDE. A compound formed by 
the union of bromine with a base. 

BRO'MOFORM. A combination of bro- 
mine and fomcyl analogous to chloroform. 

BRO'MINE. From ppo/ia, a strong 
odor. An undecomposed substance, of a 
very volatile nature, offensive smell, and 
suffocating odor, resembling chlorine and 
iodine. With oxygen it forms the bromic 

BROMIUM. Bromine. 

BRONCHIA. Bron'chice; hroncM ; 
from ftpoyxog, the throat. The two tubes 
which arise from the bifurcations of the 
trachea, with their ramifications. 

BRON'CHIAL. Bronchia'lis. Belong- 
ing to the bronchia. 

Buonchial Arteriks. The arteries 
given off by the thoracic aorta which go 
off to the lungs and accompany the bron- 
chia in their ramifications. 

Bronchial Cells. The air-cells at the 
termination of the bronchia. 

Bronchial Glands. Numerous black- 
ish glands, seated in the course of the 
bronchia and trachea. 

Bronchial Nerves. The nerves of 
the bronchia, furnished by the two pulmo- 
nary plexuses. 

Bronchial Veins. The veins which 
arise from the left division of the bron- 
chial arteries. 




BRONCHIECTASIS. Dilatation of 
one or more of the bronchial tubes. 

or narrowing of the bronchi. 

BRONCHITIS. Inflammation of the 
lining membrane of the bronchial tubes. 


BRONCHOCE'LE. From j3 P o 7X og, the 
windpipe, and nrfkri, a tumor. The Der- 
byshire neck ; wen ; goitre. A tumor on 
the forepart of the neck, resulting from an 
enlargement of the thyroid gland. 

BRONCHOPH'ONY. Bronchial reson- 
ance of the voice. 

Xos, bronchus, and pneumonia. Inflam- 
mation of the bronchia and lungs. 

BRONCHORRHOZ'A. From ppoyxoc, 
bronchus, and peu, I flow. Increased se- 
cretion of mucus from the air-passages. 

BRONCHOT'OMY. Bronchotom'ia; from 
(3poyxo5, the windpipe, and te[ivu } to cut. 
Tracheotomy ; an operation which consists 
in making an opening into the larynx or 
trachea for the removal of foreign bodies, 
or the admission of air to the lungs. 

BRON'CHUS. The trachea, or wind- 
pipe ; also its first divisions. 

BRONZE. An alloy of copper and tin. 

BROOKLIME. Veronica beccabunga. 

BROWN SPAR. Pearl spar. Side- 
rocalcite. A white, red, brown or black 
spar, harder than the calcareous. 

BRU'CEA. A genus of plants of the 
order Terebinthacece. 

Brucea Ferbugin'ea. An Abyssinian 
shrub, the bark of which is employed by 
the natives in the cure of dysentery and 
diarrhoea. The second bark is known by 
the name of false angustura, 

BRU'CIA. Brucine. A vegetable alkali, 
extracted from the bark of the falso an- 
gustura, or brucea antidysenterica. 
. BRUIT'. Sound. A term from the 
French, applied, in Pathology, to the sounds 
heard on auscultation and percussion. 

Bruit i>e Craquement. Bruit de cuir. 
A sound resembling the creaking of new 
leather, produced by the friction of the 
two surfaces of the pericardium when 
roughened by inflammation. 

Bruit de Diable. A sound resembling 
that of the humming-top, heard in the 
veins and arteries of the neck, and deno- 
ting impoverishment of the blood. 

Bruit de Frottement. Friction sound. 

Bruit de Mouche. A sound like the 
buzzing of a fly, heard in chlorosis. 

Bruit Musculaire. The first sound of 
the heart. 

Bruit de Parchemin. Parchment 
sound, said to be heard when the valves 
of the heart are thickened and stiff. 

Bruit de Pot Fele. Sound of cracked 
vessels, heard when percussion is made 
over a cavern in the lungs filled with air 
and having a narrow outline. 

Bruit de Rape. Rasping sound ; heard 
in various valvular diseases of the heart. 

Bruit de Scie. Sawing sound; re- 
sembles the last. 

Bruit de Soufflet. Bellows sound. 

Bruit Tympanique. Tympanic sound ; 
the clear sound obtained by percussing 
over the stomach or intestines when these 
organs are inflated with air. 

glandule. The muciparous follicles sit- 
uated between the villous and cellular 
coats of the intestinal canal. 

of medicine founded by John Brown, in 
which all changes of the excitable powers 
are attributed to previous excitement, &c. 

Green. An ammonio-chloride of copper, 
used as a pigment. 

BRUSH. An instrument for cleansing 
the teeth ; for finishing metallic appliances 
for the mouth, and for the application of 
a solution of borax to pieces of metal that 
are to be united by soldering. See Tooth 
Brush, Polishing Brush, and Pencillus. 
Brushes are also used for other "purposes, 
as rubbing the surface of the body, paint- 
ing, &c. 

BRU'TA. Juniperus sabina. The Sa- 
vin plant. 

BRU'TIA. A resinous pitch, obtained 
from Brutia, in Italy, and used to make 
the Olium picinum. 

BRUXANELLI. A tall Malabar tree : 




the bark of which is diuretic, and the root 

BRYG'MUS. Bpvyfiog, Stridor denUum. 
Grinding of the teeth. 

BRYO'NIA. From ppvo, to abound, 
from its abundance. Bryony ; also, a ge- 
nus of plants of the order Cucurbitacece. 

Bryonia Al'ba. White bryony. The 
root is purgative, hydragogue, emmena- 
gogue, diuretic, and, when fresh, emetic. 

Bryonia Mechoacan'na Nigricans. 
Convolvulus jalapa. The jalap plant. 

BUBASTECOlt'DIUM. Artemisia vid- 
garis. Mugwort. 

BU'BO. From (iovfiuv, the groin. A 
tumor of the glands of the groin, and also 
of the axilla, resulting from local absorp- 
tion of irritating matter, such as venereal 
poison, or it may be symptomatic of con- 
stitutional disease. 

BUBON. In Botany, a genus of plants 
of the order Umbclliferce. 

Bubon Gal'banum. The name of the 
plant from which the officinal galbanum, 
at first a gummy-resinous juice, but which 
soon becomes concrete, is obtained. 

Bubon Macedon'icum. The name of 
the plant which affords the Semen petrose- 
lini Macedonici of the shops. Macedonian 

BUBONAL'GIA. From (iov(lu>v, the 
groin, and aXyof, pain. Pain in the groin. 

BUBO'NIUM. A plant formerly used 
in diseases of the groin ; a species of star- 

BUBONOREX'IS. From pov(3a>v, the 
groin, and pn&S, a rupture. Bubonocele ac- 
companied by division of the peritoneum. 

BUBONOCE'LE. From (3ovpuv, the 
groin, and kt/Xtj, a tumor. Inguinal her- 
nia, or rupture of the groin. 

BUBON'ULUS. A painful swelling of 
the lymphatics of the penis extending 
along the dorsum of that organ to the 
groin. It occasionally accompanies gon- 

BUCCA. Gnathos. The mouth. The 
hollow of the cheeks. Also, the vulva. 

BUCCAL. Buccalis, from bucca ; the 
mouth, or rather cheek. Belonging to the 
mouth, and especially the cheeks. 

Buccal Artery. The sub-maxillary 

Buccal Membrane. The mucous mem- 
brane which lines the cavity of the mouth. 

Buc'cal Gland. Follicles in the buc- 
cal mucous membrane. 

Buccal Nerve. A branch of the in- 
ferior maxillary nerve going to the Buc- 
cinnator muscles. 

Buccal Teeth. The teeth behind the 
canines are so called because they are sit- 
uated on the inside of the cheeks. In the 
human subject, they are the bicuspids 
and molars. 

BUC'CEA. From bucca, the cheek. A 
polypus of the nose, because it was sup- 
posed to come from the mouth ; also, a 
morsel, a mouthful. 

BUCCINATOR. From buccina, a 
trumpet; so named from its agency in 
forcing the wind into the trumpet. The 
buccinator, or trumpeter's muscle, which 
is broad and flat, forming a large portion 
of the walls of the cheek. 

BUCCO. Blub-cheeked or wide-mouthed. 

Bucco-Facial Obturator. An instru- 
ment for closing an opening caused by a 
wound or disease, through the cheek into 
the cavity of the mouth. The inconve- 
nience resulting from a very considerable 
ojiening from the mouth through the wall 
of the cheek, is a very serious one, and the 
closure, on replacement of it with an arti- 
ficial substitute that can be worn with con- 
venience, becomes an object of great im- 
portance. When it can be done with nat- 
ural integument, by means of a plastic op- 
eration, it is certainly better than any mere 
mechanical appliance, but inasmuch as it 
cannot always be closed by means of a 
surgical operation, an artificial obturator 
sometimes becomes indispensable, and in 
France it has been successfully applied. 

In treating upon bucco-facial obtura- 
tors, M. Delabarre says, " In order to con- 
struct a proper and capable instrument for 
filling this indication, it is only necessary 
to take an impression of the wound with 
soft wax. From the model procured from 
this, a gold or platina cap is formed, com- 
posed of two parts, entering the one within 




the other, covered with a shield or plate. 
That for the mouth should be slightly con- 
cave, whilst that for the face should be 
slightly convex. If the loss of substance 
embraces the duct from the gland, it will 
be necessary, for the escape of the saliva 
in the mouth, to form a new channel, by 
making it pass through a pipe formed in 
the machine, and opening through the buc- 
cal plate. Finally, the surface of the fa- 
cial plate may be rendered unequal by 
cutting it Avith a knife, and afterwards 
covering it with enamel, w of a pale rose 
CJlor, slightly tinged with yellow, so as 
to make it resemble the natural skin. 

Bucco-Labial. Bucco-Labialis. Be- 
longing to the cheek and lips. A name 
sometimes applied to a nerve of variable 
origin, but generally a branch of the infe- 
rior maxillary. 

Bucco-Pharynge'al. Belonging to the 
mouth and pharynx. 

BUC'CULA. From bucca, the mouth. A 
small mouth; the fleshy part under the cliin. 

BUCCELLATIO. A method of ar- 
resting hemorrhage, by the application of 
small pieces of lint to the bleeding vessels. 

BUCHU. Diosma crenata, a South 
African plant. 

BUCK'BEAN. Menyanihes Trifoliata. 
A plant of the order Gentianacece, possess- 
ing tonic, cathartic, and, in large doses, 
emetic properties. 

BUCK-EYE. The jEsculus glabra, a 
small tree indigenous in the Western 

BUCKTHORN. The popular name of 
the Rhamnus cathariicus, or common purg- 
ing buckthorn. The berries yield a deli- 
cate green, called by painters verdevissa. 

BUCK'WHEAT. A kind of grain, the 
product of the Polygonum fagopyrum ; 
cultivated in some countries as an article 
of food. 

BUCNE'MIA. From (3ov, a Greek aug- 
mentative, and Kvrj/iij, the leg. A diffuse, 
inflammatory swelling of the leg. 

Bucnemia Spargano'sis. Phlegmasia 

Bucnemia Teop'ica. Elephantiasis 

BUCTON. Old name for the hymen. 

BUFO. The Toad ; a genus of Batra- 
chian animals. 

BUF'FALO. A species of the Bovine 
genus; a name applied to wild oxen in 
general, and particularly, though incor- 
rectly, to the bison of North America. 

BUFFY COAT. Corium Phlogisti- 
cum. The grayish crust or buff which 
appears on the surface of the coagulum of 
blood drawn in certain states of disease. 

BUGAN'TIA. Chilblain. 

BUG. Cimex. 

BUG'GERY. The unnatural crime. 

BUGLOSS. The popular name of An- 
clmsa officinalis. 

BULAM FEVER. A name given to 
yellow fever by the natives of the African 

BULB. Parts of the body which have 
a bulbous shape, as the bulb of a tooth ; 
the bulb of the urethra ; the bulb or root 
of the hair ; the bulb or globe of the eye, 

BULBIF'ERUS. From bulbm, and 
fcro, to bear. Bulb-bearing. Having one 
or more bulbs. 

from its origin and insertion. The accel- 
erator urina3 muscle. 

BULBUS. A bulb. A term in Botany, 
applied to a scaly pyriform body formed 
on a plant, above or beneath the surface 
of the earth, which shoots forth a flower- 
ing stem, and sends out roots from the 
base. In Anatomy, parts of the body 
which bear some resemblance to the root 
of a bulbous plant. 

BULIM'IA. Boulimus. Oanine appetite. 

BULGA. The vulva. 

BU'LITHOS. From (3ovc, an ox, and 
lu&o$, a stone. A bezoar, or stone found 
in the kidneys, gall bladder, or urinary 
bladder of an ox or cow. 

BUL'LA. A clear vesicle arising from 
burns, scalds, or other causes. 

BU'NIUM. A genus of plants of the 
order Umbellifero3. 

Bunium Bulbocas'tanum. Earth-nut ; 
pig-nut, supposed to be useful in strang- 




BUN YON. Bun' ion; from ftovvog, an 
eminence. Inflammation and swelling of 
the bursa mucosa at the inside of the ball 
of the great toe. 

BUPHTHAL'MUS. From (3ovg, an ox, 
and ofy&akfiog, an eye. Hydropthalmia. 
Dropsy of the eye. 

BUPEI'NA. Bulimia. 

An herb formerly celebrated as a cure for 

BUR'DOCK. Arctium lappa. 

BUR'GUNDY PITCH. The prepared 
resin of the Pinus abies. 

applied by Fouchard to a long-pointed en- 
graving instrument which he employed 
for the removal of tartar from the teeth. 

BURIS. A scirrhous hernia, or hard 

BURN. Ambiistio. An injury or le- 
sion produced by the action or application 
of too great heat. 

BURNING. Brenning. Old English 
name for gonorrhoea. 

BURNT SPONGE. Spongia usta. 
Sponge cut into pieces and burnt in a close 
iron vessel until it becomes black and fri- 
able, then rubbed into very fine powder. 

BURNEA. Pinus sylvcstris ; pitch. 

BURNTSITER. One who polishes. 
Also, an instrument used in polishing dif- 
ferent kinds of metals, and in the labora- 
tory of the dentist, for finishing pieces of 
dental mechanism. The burnishers used 
by dentists are generally made of steel, 
and have differently shaped, rounded, and 
highly polished points, so that they may 
be readily applied to any part of the piece. 
Burnishers are also sometimes made of 
firm, fine-grained wood, bone, agate, or 
other stone. 

BUR'SA. From (Svpoa, a leather bottle. 
A bag or purse. 

Bursa Cor'dis. Pericardium. 

Bursa Test'ium. The scrotum. 

BURS.E MUCO'SZE. Small membra- 
nous bags or sacks, situated about artic- 
ular cavities, filled with an oily mucus 
for lubricating the tendons, muscles and 

Bursje Synovia 'les. Bursa? mucosa?. 

BURSAL'OGY. Bursalog'ia; from (3vp- 
aa, a bag, and hoyog, a discourse. The doc- 
trine or consideration of the bursa? mu- 

BURSULA. Scrotum. 

BUTIGA. Gutta rosea. 

BUT'TER. Butyrum; from fiovg, a 
cow, and rvpog, coagulum or cream. A 
concrete oil obtained from the cream of 

Butter-Nut. The fruit of an Ameri- 
can tree ; the Juglans cinerea. 

Butter-Bur. Tussilago petasites. Pes- 

BUTYRAL'. Oxyhydrate of Butyryl. 
A clear thin liquid obtained by the dry 
distillation of butyrate of lime. 

BUTYR'IC ACID. A clear, thin acid 
liquid obtained by saponifying butter. 

BUTYRIN'. The fatty matter of butter. 
It is a butyrate of oxyd of lipyl. 

BUTYRONE'. A colorless fluid, of pe- 
culiar penetrating odor and burning taste, 
obtained with butyral by cautiously heat- 
ing butyrate of lime. 

BUTY'RUM. Butter. 

Butyrum Antimonii. Murias anti- 
monii. Butter of antimony. 

Butyrum Znroi. Chloride of zinc. 

BUTYRYL. The base of butyric acid, 
&c. CaH 7 . 

BUXINE'. An alkaloid obtained from 
Buxus semp>ervirens . 

BUX'US. From 7nma£w, to become hard ; 
the box-tree. Also, a genus of plants of 
the order Euphorbiacece. 

Buxus Semper'virests. The leaves of 
this plant have been used, in decoction, in 
dropsy and asthma. 

BYRETH'RUM. A sort of cap filled 
with cephalic substances. 

BYSAU'CHEN. From (3va, to hide, 
and avxnv, the neck. Morbid stiffness of 
the neck. 

BYSSA'CEOUS. Divided into very 
fine filaments, like flax, as the roots of 
some agarics. 

BYS'SOLITE. From ilvooog, flax, and 
If&og, a stone. A fibrous mineral found 
on the Alps. 




BYS'SUS. The hairy appendages by 
which certain acephalous molluscs attach 
themselves to rocks. 

In Italy it is woven into clothes which 

are worn, it is supposed, with benefit by 
rheumatic patients. 

BYTHOS. Bviiog, deep. Applied by 
Hippocrates to the bottom of the stomach. 


C. Chemical symbol for carbon. 

CAA-AP'IA See Dorstenia Braziliensis. 

CAA-ATAY'A. A Brazilian plant, pos- 
sessing bitter and cathartic properties. 

CAB. Alchemical term for gold. 

CABALA. Kabbcda ; from the Hebrew 
Kihd, to receive; because it was said to 
have been received from the Deity by 
Moses, and transmitted, in uninterrupted 
tradition, through Joshua, the seventy 
elders, &c, to the Rabbinical doctors. A 
term applied to the whole system of occult 
philosophy cultivated by the Itabins. These 
doctrines were adopted by the Rosicru- 
cians, and by Paracelsus, who divided it 
into Judaic or theological, and Hermetic or 
medical. The latter, according to them, 
was the art of knowing the most secret 
properties of bodies by an immediate" com- 
munication with spirits; the knowledge 
thus acquired being obtained by inspira- 
tion, and consequently infallible. 

CABAL' AAN. A Mexican plant used 
for poisoning arrows. 

CAB'ALIST. Cabalista. One instructed 
in traditionary knowledge. 

CAB'BAGE, The vernacular name of 
a genus of cruciferous plants. See Bras- 

Cabbage-Bark Tree. Geoffrmja Ja- 
maicensis. The Andira inermis ; a native 
of Jamaica and other West India Islands. 
The bark is cathartic, and in large doses 
sometimes occasions vomiting, fever and 

Cabbage Skunk. See Dracontium 

CACiE'MIA. Cachaxnia; from Kcmog, 
bad, and ai/xa } blood. A bad condition of 
the blood. 

CACESTHE'SIS. From naKog, and 

cuadrjcug, feeling. Morbid sensation ; indis- 

CAC AGOG UE. An ointment composed 
of alum and honey, and applied to tho 
anus to produce alvine dejections. 

CACA'LIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Compositai. 

Cacalia Alpi'na. Strange colt's foot, 
supposed to possess desiccativc properties. 

Cacalia Hastala. A plant of Siberia, 
possessing violent purgative, and it is said 
antisyphilitic properties. 

CA'CAO. The chocolate nut. 

CACA'TION. Defecation. 

CACEPHEBOTE'SIA. From nemos, bad, 
and efcPoTTtg, puberty. Morbid puberty. 
Disease occurring at the period of puberty. 

CACHALOT. The spermaceti whale. 

CACHEXIA . From warns, bad, and 
e&g, a habit. A depraved habit or condi- 
tion of the body, as a scorbutic, cancerous, 

Cachexia Africa'na. A sort of Fica 
to which the negroes are subject. Its 
prominent symptom is a desire for eating 

Cachexia Londinen'sis. The cachexy 
of London and of other large cities. 

Cachexia Sple'nica. The cachexy 
accompanying enlarged spleen. 

Cachexia Vene'rea. Syphilis. 

CACHEX'LE. An important class of 
diseases in the Nosology of Cullen and 
Sauvages, depending upon a depressed 
habit of body. 

CACHIRI. A fermented liquor made 
in Cayenne of the rasped root of the ma- 
nioc. It resembles perry. 

CACHINNA'TION. From cachinno, I 
laugh. Excessive laughter, a symptom of 
hysterical and other affections. 




CACHLEX. Old term for a little stone 
or pebble, found on the sea-shore, which, 
when heated and quenched in whey, com- 
municates astringency; formerly used in 

CACHOLONG. A species of quartz. 

CACHOU. Catechu. 

CACHRYS. A genus of plants of the 
order Umbdliferce. 

Cachhys Libano'tis. A plant possess- 
ing aromatic and astringent properties. 

CACHUN'DB. A medicine composed 
of a number of aromatic ingredients, per- 
fumes, earths, &c, supposed, in India, 
to possess wonderful therapeutical vir- 

CACOCHO'LIA. From KaKog, bad, and 
X°hy, bile. A vitiated or depraved condi- 
tion of the bile. 

CACOCHROI. From Kmog, bad, and 
Xpoa, color. Diseases in which the com- 
plexion is changed. 

CACOCHYLTA. From Kanog, bad, and 
XvTiog, chyle. Depraved chylification. 

CACOCHYM'IA. From kokqc, bad, 
and x v H°S, juice, humor. A morbid or de- 
praved condition of the humors. 

CACOCNE'MOS. From Kanog, bad, 
and Kvrifir], the leg. A defect in the legs. 

CACOCORE'MA. From micog, bad, and 
Kopeu, I purge or cleanse. A medicine which 
purges off morbid or vitiated humors. 

CACODiE'MON. From icaxog, bad, and 
fiut/juv, a spirit. An evil spirit supposed 
to preside over the bodies of men and to 
afflict them with many disorders. The 

CACO'DIA. From Kaicog } bad, and u&>, 
to smell. Anosmia, or defect in the sense 
of smelling. 

CACODYL. From mm*, bad, and 
o'-%, odor. A limpid, ethereal liquid of a 
fetid odor, resembling arsenical compounds 
derived from acetyl. 

CACODYL'IC ACID. Alcargen ; an 
acid obtained by oxydation of cacodyl and 
its oxyd. 

CACOE'THES. From Kaicog and v$og, 
disposition. A bad habit of body, or a 
malignant sore. 
CACOGALACTIA. From itanog, an d 

yaka } milk. A bad or vitiated condition 
of the milk. 

CACOMORPHIA. From naKog, and 
fioptyri, form. Deformity. 

CACONYCHIA. From mnog and owf, 

a nail. A morbid condition of the nails. 

CACOPATHI'A. From icaKog, bad, and 

Ttadog, affection. A disordered state of 


CACOPHO'NIA. Defective articulation. 
CACOPRA'GIA. From KaKog, bad, and 
■nparru, I perform. A morbid condition 
of the chylopoietic organs. 

CACORRACHI'TIS. From micog, and 
paxv, the spine. Disease of the vertebral 

CACORRHYTH'MUS. From Ka K og, and 
pvtirjve, rhythm. Irregular pulse, or inter- 
mittent fever. 

CACOSIT'IA. From m K og, bad, and 
amov, aliment. Aversion to food. 

CACOSPHYX'IA. From mmg, bad, 
and o<t>v£ig, pulse. A bad condition of the 

CACOSTOMUS. From mKog, bad, 
and arofia, mouth. A deformity, or dis- 
eased condition of the mouth. 

CACOTHYMTA. From nmog, bad, and 
■dv/xog, the mind. A vicious or diseased 
condition of mind. 

CACOTROPH'IA. From m K og, bad, 
and rpocpTi, nutriment. Bad nutrition. 

CACOX'ENE. From Kmog, bad, and 
frvog, foreign. A mineral occurring in 
yellowish, radiating crystals, containing 
phosphoric and fluoric acids, Per oxyd of 
iron and silica. 

CACTUS. The artichoke ; also a genus 
of plants of the order Cactacece. 

Cactus Coccinell'ifeb. Napal — the 
leaves of which are inhabited by the cochi- 
neal insect. 

Cactus Opun'tia. Opuntia. The In 
dian fig, or prickly pear. 

CADA'VER. From cadere, to fall. A 
body deprived of life ; a dead body. 

Chloride of arsenic. 

CADIA. An Egyptian leguminous 
plant, used by the Arabs against colic. 
CADMI'A. A name applied to several 




metallic compounds, as Calamine, Cobalt, 
Tutly, &c. 

CADMI'I SULPHAS. Sulphate of 
cadmium ; a salt used as a colly rium in 
diseases of the eye. 

CADMI'UM. A metal found in carbon- 
ate of zinc, of a compact texture, and a 
bluish-gray color, approaching tin. It has 
recently been combined with mercury for 
the formation of an amalgam for filling 
teeth. The result of the experiments, how- 
ever, which have been made with the 
compound, has not been as satisfactory as 
was at first anticipated. 

CADU'CITY. The French use the term 
caducite' to express that portion of life 
which immediately precedes decrepitude. 

dacus, fading, and branchice, gills. A 
term, in Zoology, applied to those Bratra- 
chians, which, before they arrive at matu- 
rity, undergo a metamorphosis, and lose 
their branchial apparatus, as the frog, toad, 
salamander, and newt. 

CADU'COUS. From cadere, to fall. 
Deciduous. A term in Botany, applied to 
parts or organs of a plant which are not 
permanent, but fall early. In Anatomy, 
to the tunica decidua uteri, and the tempo- 
rary or milk teeth. In Pathology, to epi- 
lepsy, because its attacks are attended by 
the sudden falling of the patient ; and in 
Zoology, to insects, as the caterpillar, the 
legs of which do not appear in all the 
changes through which the animal passes. 

GM'GAL. Belonging to the ca3cum. 

OE'CITAS. From ccecus, blind. Blind- 
ness. See Caligo and Amaurosis. 

CiE'CUM. Ldestinum cacum. From 
caucus blind. The caacum or blind gut is 
so called from its being perforated only at 
one end. 

C^'CUS. Blind. A term applied, in 
Anatomy, to cavities or holes which havo 
but one opening. 

CiECUM Fora'men. A small cavity in 
the frontal bone at the inferior extremity 
of the external coronal crest. 

OESALPFNIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Fabacece, all of which afford 
dye-wood, known in commerce by the name 

of Brazil woods. The principal species 
are the Cozsalpinia echinata, which is the 
best ; the Ccesalpinia crista, and the Coz- 
salpinia Sappan, a Siamese tree. 

rian section. From eccdere, to cut. In 
Obstetric Surgery, an operation which con- 
sists in making an incision into the uterus 
for the removal of the foetus. 

OESTITOSE. From ccespes, turf. Ces- 
pitose. In Anatomy, growing in tufts. 

CAFFEIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from coffee in the form of a white powder. 
When heated it yields the odor of roasted 

CAFFEIN". A white, silky, crystalline 
substance obtained from coffee. Its salts 
have been lately used as nervines. 

CAIN'CA. Chainca. Caincai radix. The 
root of a species of Chiococca, celebrated 
as an antidote to the bite of serpents. It 
is tonic, emetic and diuretic. 

CAJEPUT OIL. Oleum Capipxdi. The 
volatile oil of the leaves of Melaleuca caju- 

CAL AT5 A. The Indian mastich-tree. 

CALAME'DEN. A term applied to 
various fractures. 

CAL'AMINE. Calamina. A native 
carbonate of zinc. It was used in the 
manufacture of brass. 

cined calamine reduced to an impalpable 

CALAMINTHA. Calamint. See Me- 
lissa Calamintha. 

CALAMINTA. Dry styrax. 

CAL'AMUS. The pharmacopooial name 
of the Acorus calamus. The acorus is a 
genus of seed-plants of the order Aracew. 

Calamus Aromat'icus. Acorus cala- 
mus. Sweet flag. The root is stimulant, 
tonic, and aromatic. 

Calamus Dra'co. The plant which 
yields dragon's blood. 

Calamus Sacchari'nus. Calamus In- 
dicus. The common sugar-cane. 

Calamus Scripto'rius. A small cav- 
ity or furrow at the bottom of the fourth 
ventricle of the brain, so called from its. re- 
semblance to a pen. 




CALCEOLARIA. A genus of beauti- 
ful shrubby plants, with yellow, orange, 
or purple flowers. Slipperwort. 

of the bony or dentinal part of a tooth are 
so called by Professor Owen. 

CAL'CII CHLO'RIDUM. Chloride of 

CALCINATION. From calx, lime. 
Oxydation. The act of submitting to a 
strong heat any infusible mineral substance 
for the purpose of depriving it either of its 
water, or any other volatile substance en- 
tering into its composition, and reducing 
it to ashes or cinders. 

Mercury dissolved in nitric acid and pre- 
cipitated with salt and water. 

toxyd of magnesium. 

CAL 'CIS A'QUA. Calcis liquor. Lime- 

Calcis Mu'rias. Muriate of lime ; old 
name for the chloride of lime. 

Calcis Os. The bone of the tarsus 
which forms the heel. 

Calcis Oxymurias. Chloride of lime. 

Calcis Sulphuke'tum. Hepar calcis. 
Sulphuret of lime. 

CAL'CIUM. The metallic base of 

CALCULIF'RAGUS. From calculus, 
a stone, and frango, to break. A stone- 
breaker; an instrument for breaking a 
stone in the human body — a lithontriptic 

ticular. Concretions formed in the liga- 
ments, and within the capsules of the 
joints of persons affected with gout. 

Calculi, Bil'iary. Biliary concre- 
tions ; gall-stones. 

Calculi in the Ears. Hard concre- 
tions formed in the meatus auditorius ex- 

Calculi Intes'tinal. Intestinal con- 
cretions. Bezoars. 

Calculi, Lach'rymal. Concretions 
formed in the lachrymal ducts. 

Calculi, Pancreat'ic. Concretions 
formed in the pancreas. 

Calculi of the Pine'al Gland. Con- 
cretions formed in the pineal gland. 

Calculi of the Prostate Gland. 
Concretions in the prostate gland, usually 
composed of phosphate of lime. 

Calculi, Sal'ivary. Concretions of a 
calcareous kind formed in the substance of 
the salivary glands, or in their excretory 
ducts, or upon the teeth. See Odontoli- 
thos, and Salivary Calculus. 

Calculi, Sfermat'ic. Concretions found 
occasionally in the vesicular seminales. 

Calculi of the Stomach and Intes- 
tines. Concretions formed in the stomach 
and intestines. 

Calculi of the Ton'sils. Concretions 
formed in the tonsils. 

Calculi, Urina'ry. Concretions of an 
earthy nature formed in the bladder. 

CAL'CULUS. Diminutive of calx, a 
limestone. An earthy concretion formed 
in the bladder, kidneys, mouth, or some 
other part of the body. 

Calculus Denta'lis. Salivary calcu- 

CALDAR. The old Arabic chemical 
name for tin. 

CALDA'RIUM. A cauldron. Applied 
by the old writers to the hot bath. 

baths in the neighborhood of Ferrara, in 
Italy, used against dysuria. 

CALEBASH. A gourd. 

CALDAS SPRINGS. Thermal Springs 
at Caldas, near Lisbon, containing sulphu- 
rate of iron and the common salts. 

CALEFA'CIENT. Calcfaciens ; from 
Calidus, warm, and facio, I make. To 
excite warmth. Any substance, as mus- 
tard, pepper, &c, capable of exciting 
warmth in the part to which it is applied. 

rum Ammoniatum. 

CALEN'DULA. A genus of plants of 
the order Composite . 

Calendula Officinalis. The garden 
marigold, supposed to be antispasmodic, 
sudorific, deobstruent and emmenagogue. 

CALENDULIN. A peculiar principle 
supposed by Berzelius to be analogous to 
bassorin, obtained from the marigold. 




CALENTU'RA. From ccdere, to be 
warm. Applied to a species of delirium 
to which sailors are subject in the torrid 
zone, the chief symptom of which is a 
desire to throw one's self into the sea, 
thinking, say the old writers, that it is a 
green field. A kind of phrenitis. 

CALENTURA. Cinchona. Also a 
tree of the Philippine Islands, the wood 
of which is bitter and febrifuge. 

CALE'SIUM. A Malabar tree, the bark 
of which, made into an ointment, is said to 
cure convulsions from wounds, and to heal 
ulcers ; and the juice of the bark, aptha? 
and dysentery. 

CALIBER. The diameter of any cyl- 
indrical body. 

CAL'IDUM ANIMA'LE. Animal heat. 

CALIDUM INNATUM. Animal heat, 
or Vis Vitce. 

CALI'GO. A mist. Obscurity of vis- 
ion, caused by a speck on the cornea; 
also, the speck itself. It is divided into 
six species; 1. Caligo palpebrarum, ob- 
structed vision from disorder in the eye- 
lids ; 2. Caligo corneal, opacity of the cor- 
nea; 3. Caligo lentis, cataract ; 4. Caligo 
pupiUce, blindness from closure of the iris ; 
5. Caligo humorum, blindness from loss of 
transparency in the aqueous or vitreous hu- 
mors ; 6. Caligo synizesis, blindness from 
closed pupil. 

CALISAY'A BARK. Cinchona flava. 

CA'LIX. Calyx Infundibulum ; from 
noli!;, a cup. Small membranous canals 
which surround the papillae of the kidneys, 
and open into the pelvis. 

CALLECA'MENON. Old name for 
oxyd of copper. 

CALLE'NA. Old name for a kind of 
nitre or saltpetre. 

CALLIBLEPH'ARON. An old medi- 
cine used to beautify the eyelids. 

phaclis Ipecacuanha. 

CALIPERS. Compasses with closed 

CAL'ICES. Calyces. From seven to 
thirteen funnel-shaped tubes, called the 
infundibida, into which the points of the 
papillae of the kidneys project. 

CALC SPAR. Crystallized carbonate 
of lime. Calcareous spar. 

CALCA'NEUM. From calx, the heel. 
The os calcis. 

CALC'ARATE. Calcara'tus. From cal- 
car, a spur. Spurred. A term in Botany, 
applied to the corals and nectaries of 

CALCAREOUS. From calx, lime. 
Containing lime ; of the nature of lime. 

Calcareous Spar. Crystallized car- 
bonate of lime. 


plant of South Carolina and Virginia. 
The leaves have been used in dropsy. 

CALLIDON'TIA. From *aM, beauti- 
ful, and odovg, a tooth. The art of pre- 
serving the beauty of the teeth. See Den- 
tal Hygiene. 

CALLIIXE'DIA. The art of begetting 
beautiful children, or simply the fact of 
having them. 

CALLOSTTY. Callositas. Preternat- 
ural hardness. 


CALLOUS. Callosus. Hardened ; in- 
durated, as the edges of an ulcer. 

CAL'LUS. The bony matter thrown 
out between, and uniting the fractured 
extremities of a bone. It is also applied 
to induration of a soft or fleshy part. 

CAL'OMEL. Calomclas ; from koIoc, 
good, and fieTiac, black. A term originally 
applied to black sulphuret of mercury, but 
now to Hydrargyri chloridam mite, mild 
chloride of mercury. 

CA'LOR. Heat. 

Calor Anima'lis. Animal heat. 

Calor Fer'vens. Boiling heat. 

Calor Le'nis. Gentle heat, between 
90 and 100° Fahr. 

Calor Mor'dicans. A term applied in 
Pathology to the biting and pungent heat 
of the skin. A dangerous symptom in 
typhus fever, which leaves an unpleasant 
smarting sensation on the fingers for sev- 
eral minutes after touching them. 

CALOR'IC. Caloricum ; from color. 
The matter, cause, or agent by which all 
the effects of heat are produced. 




Caloric, La'tent. Insensible heat. 
That portion of heat existing in all bodies 
not made evident by approaching the ther- 
mometer ; also heat passing into ice as it 
becomes water, and into liquids to convert 
them into vapor. 

Caloric, Specif'ic. The amount of 
heat required to raise different bodies to an 
equal degree of temperature. 

CALORIFICATION. Calorificatio ; 
from calor, heat, and fieri, to become. 
The production of heat; especially the 
function of generating animal beat. 

CALORIMETER. From calor, heat, 
and uerpov, a measure. An instrument 
by which the whole quantity of absolute 
heat existing in a body, in chemical union, 
can be ascertained. 

CALOR1 MOTOR. A galvanic appara- 
tus invented by Dr. Hare, of Philadelphia, 
for evolving caloric. 

pias Giganica. An Indian plant known 
under the name of mudar. It is alterative 
and sudorific. 

CAL'OTYPE. The name given by Mr. 
Talbot, to his improved method of pho- 
tography, by which pictures can be ob- 
tained on paper rendered sensible to light 
by the gallo-nitrate of silver. 

CALTHA. A genus of plants of the 
order Ranuncnlacex. 

Caltha Palus'tris. Populago. The 
common single marsh marigold. There 
are several other species. 

CALUM'BA. Calumbo ; a root having 
an aromatic smell, a bitter, pungent taste, 
and tonic and antiseptic properties. 

CAL'VA. Calvaria ; sometimes improp- 
erly called calcarium. From cairns, bald. 
The scalp or upper part of the cranium is 
so called because it often becomes bald. 

CALVIT'IES. Baldness. The loss or 
absence of hair upon the top of the head. 

CALX. From kulak, to burn. Chalk ; 
lime. Also, in old chemical language, an 

Calx Antimo'nii. Oxyd of antimony. 

Calx Chorina'ta. Bleaching powder. 

Calx Cum Ka'li Pu'ro. Totash with 

Calx IIydrar'gyri Al'ba. Ammoni- 
ated mercury. 

Calx, Metal'lic. A metal which has 
undergone calcination, combustion, or some 
other equivalent process. 

CALY'CES. Small membranous caps 
which cover the points of the papillae of 
the kidney. Their union forms the infun- 

CALYCIFLOTLE. From calx, a flower- 
cup, and fios, a flower. Plants which have 
their stamina inserted into the calyx. 

CALYCiFORM. Shaped like a calyx. 

CALY'CLE. In Botany, a row of small 
leaflets on the outside at the base of the 
calyx ; also the outer proper covering of 
the seed adhering to it. 

CALYC'ULATE. Calyculatus ; having 
a calycle at the base on the outside ; ap- 
plied also to a double calyx, or several 
successively diminishing in size. 

CALYPTRA. From nalvmrip, a cover. 
A veil or cover. In Botany, a membran- 
ous envelope placed over the capsule of 
mosses, enclosing their sporules. 

CALYPTRATE. Calyptra'tus. Fur- 
nished with calyptra. 

CALYX. KaAvf. From koIvtzto, to 
cover. The outermost of the enveloping 
organs of a flower. The flower-cup. 

CAMANDAG. Camandung. A tree 
of the Philippine Islands, which yields a 
milky juice, called by the natives tague, 
used to poison arrows. 

CAM'BIUM. In Physiology, the nutri- 
tious humors supposed to be elaborated 
from the blood to repair the losses, and 
accomplish the increase of the various or- 
gans of the body. In Botany, a colorless, 
viscid juice, found in the spring between 
the bark and wood of trees, which, it is 
supposed, becomes gradually organized, 
assuming the vegetable structure. 

CAMBO SPRINGS. Two Springs,— 
one acidulous and chalybeate, and the 
other sulphurous, at the village Cambo, in 
the department of Basses Pyrenees, France. 

CAMBO'GIA. From Cambodia, in the 
East Indies, where it is obtained. Gam- 

CAMBU'CA. Camhucca membrata. A 




bubo or ulcer in the groin or near the 

CAMELIDiE. From camelus, a camel. 
A family of ruminant mammalia, of which 
the Camel and Dromedary of the old 
world, and the Llama, Guanacho. and 
Yicugna, of the new world, are the exist- 
ing species. 

CAM'ERA. A chamber or cavity. 
Applied to the chambers of the eye. 

Camera Lu'cida. An instrument mak- 
ing the image of any object ajjpear on the 
wall in a light room. 

Camera Obscuba. An optical appa- 
ratus for tin-owing the image of external 
objects on a white surface, in a dark room, 
and representing them in their proper 
colors and shapes. 

at Camosiers, a canton near Marseilles, 
containing carbonate of lime, sulphur, 
chloride of soda, &c. These waters are 
purgative and recommended in diseases of 
the skin. 

CAMPAN'ULA. A genus of plants of 
the order Campanidaceai. 

Campanula Trache'lium. Great throat 
wort, the root of which was formerly used 
in decoction for sore throat and relaxation 
of the uvula. 

CAMPAN'ULATE. Bell-shaped. A 
term in Botany, applied to the calyx and 
corolla, when shaped like a little bell. 

CAMPIIIRE. Camphor. 

CAM'PHOR. From the Arabian caphur 
or kamphur. Camphor ; a concrete sub- 
stance, derived from the Laurus Catn- 
phora, and purified by sublimation; of a 
crystalline texture, strong fragrant odor, 
and possessing narcotic and diaphoretic 

Camphor, Borneo. See Borneo Cam- 

Camphor, Liquid. Camphor oil; the 
fluid obtained from the dryobalanops by 
incision into the tree. 

Camphor, Oil of. Nitrate of camphor. 
A solution of camphor in dilute nitric acid; 
also applied to liquid camphor, and lini- 
ment of camphor. 

Camphor Water. Aqua Camphoroz. 

U. S. Mitura camphor ae. Camphor mix- 
ture ; a mixture of camphor, alcohol, car- 
bonate of magnesia, and distilled water. 

Laurus Gamphora, or camphor tree, a 
native of China and Japan. 

Camphor sublimed with benzoin. 

CAMPHORA'TA. See Camphorosma. 

CAMPHORATE. Campharas. A salt 
resulting from the union of camphoric acid 
with a salifiable base. 

CAMPH'ORATED. Relating to, or 
containing camphor. 

CAMPHOR'IC ACID. Acidum cam- 
phoricum. An acid obtained by repeated 
distillation of nitric acid from camphor. 

CAMPHOROS'MA. From camphora, 
and oauij, smell. A genus of plants of the 
order Atripliceoi. 

Camphorosma Monspeliaca. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant called camphor- 
ata. The stinking ground-pine. 

CAMPHRONE. A light oily substance 
obtained by dropping pieces of camphor 
into a porcelain tube containing quick 
lime, heated to redness and condensing the 

CAMPULI'TROPOUS. From Kannvloc , 
curved, and rpenu, to turn. A term in 
Botany, applied to such ovules of plants as, 
instead of remaining upright, bend down 
upon themselves till their apex touches 
the base. 

CAMPYLO'TIS. From Ka^wvloq, bent. 
A preternatural incurvation of a part; 
also a distortion of the eyelids. 

CAMWOOD. A red dye-wood— the 
product of the Baphia nitida, a native of 
Sierra Leone. 

CANADENSIS. Canadian ; the name 
of a balsam. 

CANAL. Canalis ; ductus; meatus. 
A channel or passage for fluids or solids. 

Canal, Alimen'tary. The canal 
leading from the mouth to the anus. 

Canal, Arachnoi'dian. A canal, sup- 
posed to have been discovered by Bichat, 
formed by the extension of the arachnoid 
over the transverse and longitudinal fis- 
sure of the brain, and which surrounds the 




vena magna galeni. Cruvcilhier denies 
the existence of this canal. 

Canal, Arte'rial. Ductus arteriosus. 

Canal, Hy'aloid. A cylindrical body 
formed by the reflection of the hyaloid 
membrane into the interior of the vitreous 

Canal, Intestinal. That portion of 
the alimentary canal formed by the intes- 

Canal of Ja'cobson. Tympanic canal. 

Canal, Medulla'ry. The cylindrical 
cavity in the shaft of a long bone. 

Canal, Na'sal. Lachrymal canal. 

Canal of Nuek. A cylindrical sheath 
formed around the round ligaments of the 
uterus, by a prolongation of the perito- 
neum, into the inguinal canal. 

Canal of Sci-ilemm. A minute circu- 
lar canal at the junction of the sclerotic 
and conjunctiva. 

Canal, Spi'nal. Vertebral canal. 

Canal, Tympa'nic. A canal opening 
on the lower surface o: the petrous portion 
of the temporal bone, containing Jacob- 
son's nerve. 

duct ; a vessel through which the blood 
passes in the fcetus from the pulmonary 
artery into the aorta, but which is obliter- 
ated after birth. 

Canalis Semicircula'ris. The semi- 
circular canal. There are three in the 
posterior portion of the labyrinth of each 
ear, which open by five orifices into the 

Canalis Veno'sus. A canal which 
conveys the blood in the foetus from the 
porta of the liver to the ascending vena 
cava, but it ceases to exist after birth. 

CANALICULATE. Canalic'ulatus. 
Channeled ; furrowed. In Botany, a deep 
longitudinal furrow or groove above, and 
convex underneath ; applied to the stem- 
leaves or petioles of plants. 

CANALIC'ULI. Diminutive of canalis, 
a canal. A little canal, applied in Anat- 
omy to some large lacuna which secrete 
mucus in the urethra. 

CANA'RY-BIRD. A species of Frin- 
gilla j a singing bird from the Canary Isles. 

Canary-Seed. The fruit or seed of 
Canary grass ; a plant of the genus Pha- 

CANCELLT. Lattice-work. The re- 
ticular or spongy texture of bones. 

CANCELL'US. From cancer, a crab. 
A species of crayfish, called Bernard the 
hermit, and the wrong heir, which is sup- 
posed to cure rheumatism when rubbed on 
the affected part. 

CAN'CER. Kapnivog. Literally, a crab. 
In Zoology, a genus of crustaceous animals. 
In Pathology, a scirrhous tumor, generally 
terminating in a fatal ulcer, called by the 
Greeks carcinoma, from mpitivoc, a crab, 
from the resemblance of the affected part 
and the surrounding raised veins to that 
animal. The disease is ordinarily attended 
with severe lancinating pain, and the text- 
ure of the affected part is exceedingly vari- 
able. The following are the species enu- 
merated by Dr. Bayle : 

1. The Chondrdid ; from x ov 3p°S, carti- 
lage, and eidog, likeness, or cartilaginiform. 

2. The Hyaloid ; from valog, glass, and 
eidoc, likeness, or vitriform. 

3. The Larinoid ; from lapivoc, fat, and 
eidog, likeness, or lardiform. 

4. The Bunioid; from (3wtov, a turnip, 
and eidog, likeness, or napiform. 

5. The Encephaldid ; from eynetycfiioq, the 
brain, and euhg, likeness, or cerebriform. 

6. The Colloid; from nolle, glue, and 
eidog, likeness, or gelatiniform. 

7. The Compound cancerous, the Mixed 
cancerous, and the Superficial cancerous. 

Cancer, Gale'ni. A cancer bandage, 
or a bandage with eight tails for the head. 

Cancer Mundito'rum. Chimney sweep- 
er's cancer. An irregular superficial, pain- 
ful ulceration, occurring in the scrotum of 
chimney sweepers. 

CAN'CEROUS. Tertaining to cancer. 

or crabs' stones ; two calcareous concretions 
found in the stomach of cray-fish, Asta- 
cus Jluviatilis , when the animal is about 
to change its shell. 

CAN'CROID. Cancroideus ; from can- 
cer and u6oq, form. Having the appear- 
ance of a cancer. 




CANCRO'RUM CHELJE. Crabs' stones 
or claws, consisting of carbonate and phos- 
phate of lime. 

CANCROSUS. Cancerous. 

CANCRUM O'RIS. Canker of the 
mouth; a spreading ulceration of the 
gums, inside the lips and cheeks, and it 
may occur in any part of the buccal cavity 
or fauces, attended with a preternatural 
flow of saliva — inflammation and tume- 
faction of the neighboring parts — fetid 
breath, fever and constipation. The dis- 
ease is usually confined to children of from 
two to six years of age, and is supposed to 
result from a debilitated state of the body, 
induced by want of cleanliness and im- 
proper food. 

The disease evidently has some of the 
characteristics of gangrenous inflamma- 
tion of the gums, as well as of other affec- 
tions, which consist of ulceration of the 
gums, and exfoliation of the alveolar pro- 
cesses ; yet it differs from both of these, 
in many particulars, and therefore should 
not be confounded with either. The last 
named affection, we believe, never occurs 
among the wealthy, but seems always to 
be confined to children of the poor, and to 
be dependent upon defective nutrition, bad 
air, and a cachectic habit of the body; 
whereas cancrum oris is occasionally met 
with among children of the wealthier 
classes of society. 

In the treatment of the disease, Prof. 
Wood says, "from two to six grains of 
calomel may be given at the commence- 
ment, either associated with some other 
cathartic, such as rhubarb or jalap, in 
order to insure its operation upon the bow- 
els, or followed, should it not operate in 
six or eight hours, by a dose of castor oil. 
The bowels may afterwards be kept open 
by the occasional administration of castor 
oil, magnesia or its carbonate, or the sul- 
phate of magnesia ; small doses of the neu- 
tral mixture, or of antimonial wine, should 
be given when the fever is considerable; 
and, if the breath should be sour, a few 
grains of the bicarbonate of soda in car- 
bonic acid water, repeated three or four 
times a day, will be found useful. In 

protracted cases, attended with debility, it 
may be found advisable to have recourse to 
the mineral acids, and infusion of bark or 
sulphate of quinia. In the febrile state, 
the diet should consist exclusively of fari- 
naceous liquids. In the absence of fever, 
milk may be allowed; and, in cases of 
debility, animal broth, jelly, &c. Sour 
and acescent food should be avoided. 

" But the local treatment is chiefly to be 
relied on. Various applications have been 
recommended. Among these are mouth 
waters of tincture of myrrh, and, with 
Peruvian bark, dilute mineral acids with 
honey and solution of alum. I have found 
nothing so useful as a solution of sulphate 
of zinc, in the proportion of fifteen or 
twenty grains to the fluid ounce of water, 
applied twice or three times a day to the 
ulcer, by means of a camel's-hair pencil, 
and continued until the yellowish white 
exudation is removed, and the surface as- 
sumes the healthy reddish hue. With 
this application I have in no instance failed 
to effect a cure." Prof. W. is also of the 
opinion that a strong solution of sulphate 
of copper, or nitrate of silver, might prove 
equally efficacious, though he does not 
seem to speak from experience. 

For the purpose of correcting the fetor 
of the breath, the mouth should be gargled 
six or eight times a day with some aro- 
matic lotion or wash. 

CANDE'LA FUMA'LIS. A perfumed 
or medicated candle, used for purifying 
the air. 

CANDELA'RIA. From candela, a can- 
dle. Mullen is so called from the resem- 
blance of its stalk to a candle. See Ver- 

CANDLE-TREE OIL. A solid oil ob- 
tained from the seeds of the candle-tree, 
Oroton sebiferum, a native of China. 

CANEL'LA. A genus of plants of the 
order Meliacece. 

Canella Al'ba. The laurel-leaved 
canella, the bark of which is a stimulant 
and pungent aromatic. 

CANIC7E. Meal containing much bran. 

petite. See Boulimia. 




Canina Babies. Hydrophobia. 

CANINE. Pertaining to, or partaking 
of the nature of a dog.. 

Canine Appetite. Insatiable hunger. 

Canine Fos'sa. A depression in the 
outer surface of the superior maxillary 
bone, above the canine or cuspid tooth. 

Canine Mad'ness. Hydrophobia. 

Canine Teeth. Denies canini; cyno- 
dontcs ; denies laniarii ; denies angidares ; 
cuspidati ; conoides ; eye-teeth. See Cus- 
pid Teeth. 

CANI'NUS. From canis, a dog. A 
cuspid tooth is so called because it resem- 
bles that of a dog. See Cuspid Teeth. It 
is also the name of a muscle, the levator 
anguli oris, because it is situated near the 
canine tooth. 

CANIRAM. Strj'chnos nux vomica. 

CAN'KER. A corroding ulcer in the 
mouth. See Cancrum Oris. 

CAN'NA. A reed or hollow cane. The 
fibula has been so called from its resem- 
blance to a reed. 

Canna Fis'tula. See Cassia Fistula. 

Canna In'dica. See Sagittaria Alexi- 

Canna Ma'jor. The tibia. 

Canna Mi'nor Cru'ris. The fibula. 

Canna Starch. A variety of starch 
recently introduced from the West Indies, 
under the French name " 2hus les mois." 

CANNABIS. A genus of plants of the 
order Urticacece. 

Cannabis Sati'va. Common hemp. 
The tops of this plant have a strong nar- 
cotic smell, causing giddiness, dimness of 
sight, and a species of intoxication. 

Cannabis In'dica. The hemp culti- 
vated in the East is thought to be different 
from the common hemp, but the two 
plants are regarded by most botanists as 
identical. It is admitted, however, to be 
more powerful in its action upon the sys- 
tem. An intoxicating liquor is prepared 
from the leaves, under the name of bang, 
or ganga, in India. 

CANNULA. A surgical instrument. 
See Canula. 

CANTHARIS. Cantharis vesicatoiia ; 
nai-ifapic, a beetle. The blister-beetle; 

Spanish fly. A genus of Coleopterous 
insects containing many species. Canthar- 
ides, when taken internally, are powerfully 
stimulant, producing a peculiar effect upon 
the urinary and genital organs; applied 
externally, they excite inflammation of the 
skin, and a copious secretion of serum 
under the cuticle. 

Cantharis Vitta'ta. The potato fly. 

CANTHUS. Kan9of. The angle or corner 
of the eye. 

powder, commonly called the ° Countess of 
Kent' 's potoder ," composed of coral, amber, 
crabs' eyes, prepared pearls, &c. It was 
given in cancer. 

stance made by exposing three parts of 
calcined oyster shells with one of flowers 
of sulphur, in a covered crucible, to a red 
heat for one hour. On exposure to light, 
the resulting substance acquires the pro- 
perty of shining in the dark. 

CANULA. Diminutive of canna, a 
reed. Cannula. A small tube used in 

CAOUT'CHINE. A volatile oil ob- 
tained by the destructive distillation of 

CA'OUTCHOUC. Indian rubber; gum 
elastic. The concrete juice of the Hwvea 
guianensis, jatropha clastica and siphonia 
elastica, South American trees. It is re- 
markable for its elasticity, and, being in- 
soluble in water and alcohol, is applied to 
various valuable purposes. It is used in 
the manufacture of catheters, bougies, 
pessaries, and, recently, in the prosthesis 
of the velum palati. It did not, however, 
answer very well at first for this latter 
purpose, as the secretions of the mouth 
and nasal cavities soon destroyed it. But 
this objection has, within a feAv years, been 
completely obviated by the discovery of a 
peculiar method of preparing it, made by 
Mr. Goodyeare, a celebrated manufacturer 
of New Haven, Connecticut. Mr. Stearns, 
a surgeon of London, who has employed 
a preparation of it made by this gentle- 
man, commends it very highly. 

CATER. See Cappares Spinosa. 




CATERS. The pickled buds of the 
Capparis Spinosa. 

CAPELl'NA. A sort of bandage re- 
sembling a woman's riding hood. 

CAPHOPICRITE. From ica+eu, to in- 
hale, and Tnapog, bitter. The bitter prin- 
ciple of rhubarb. 

CAPHORA. Capliura. Camphor. 

CAPI'BARA. A rodent quadruped of 
the largest size, found along the rivers of 
South America. The water-hog. 

CAriLLAMEN'TUM. Any villous or 
hairy covering. Also, a small fibre or fibril. 

CAPILLARY. CapMaris ; from capil- 
lus, a little hair. Resembling a hair ; hair- 
like ; small. It is applied to the extreme 
radicles of the arteries and veins. Also, 
parts of plants which bear a resemblance 
to hairs. 

Capillary Attrac'tiox. The power 
by which a liquid rises higher in a fine 
tube than the surface of the liquid hi which 
one end of it is placed. 

CAPIL'LUS. The hair. 

CAITS'TRUM. Literally, a bridle. The 
single split bandage used in fractures and 
other injuries of the lower jaw. 

CAPIPLE'NIUM. A sort of catarrh. 
Also, a heaviness or disorder of the head, 
common at Rome. 

CAPITAL. Capitalis. Belonging to 
the head. Applied to surgical operations ; 
it denotes those of greater magnitude, as 
amputations, excisions, &c. 

for the head. 

CAPITATE. From caput, the head. 
Headed ; terminated in a head or sudden 

CAPITILU'VIUM. From caput, the 
head, and lavare, to wash. A lotion or 
bath for the head. 

CAITTITRAHA. Instruments to draw 
down the head of the foetus. 

CAPITO'NES. Foetuses whose heads 
are so large as to interfere with delivery. 

CAPIT'ULATE. Capitulatus. Headed; 
arranged in the form of a little head. 

CAPIT'ULUM. Diminutive of caput, 
the head. A small head or knot. In 
Chemistry, an alembic. In Botany, a spe- | 

cies of inflorescence, composed of many 
flowers, arranged in a globular form upon 
a common stem. 

CAPNIS'MOS. Fumigation. 

CAP'NOMAN'CY. From aanvoc, smoke, 
and uavreia, prophecy. Divination by 
smoke. Among the ancients this was done 
by burning the seed of poppy and other 
herbs, and observing the fancied figures 
which the smoke assumed. 

CAPNOMAR. From /canvog, smoke, 
fioipa, part. A volatile, transparent liquid, 
obtained from tar, and having the property 
of dissolving caoutchouc. 

CAPON SPRINGS. Sulphurous, cha- 
lybeate and alkaline springs in Hampshire 
County, Virginia. 

CAP'PA. The monk's-hood has been so 
called from its supposed resemblance to the 

CAP'PARIS. A genus of plants of the 
order Capparidcoz. Capers. 

Capparis Baduc'ca. A species of ca- 
per cultivated in India ; from the juice of 
which the natives make a liniment, said to 
be anodyne. The flowers are purgative. 

Capparis Spino'sa. The caper plant, a 
native of the South of Europe. The buds 
are used as a pickle. 

TOOTH. An operation recommended by 
Dr. Koecker for the purpose of protecting 
an exposed dental pulp from injury in 
filling a tooth. See Filling Teeth. 

CAPREOLA'RIS. From cqprcolus, a 
tendril, Capseolatus. Twisted ; contorted j 
applied by some to the spermatic vessels. 

CAP'RIC ACID. A volatile acid of a 
disagreeable odor, obtained from butter on 
its conversion into soap. 

CAPRIFOLIA'CE/E. A family of di- 
cotyledonous monopetalous plants, having 
for its type, the genus Caprifolium, and 
nearly allied to the Cinchonaccce. 

CAPRIFO'LIUM. From capra, a goat, 
and folium, a leaf. The genus to which 
the wild honeysuckle belongs, consisting of 
twining shrubs, having, in most cases, long 
tubular flowers of peculiar sweetness. 

CAPRILO'QUIUM. iEgophony. 

CAPRINIC ACID. An acid with a 




sweet like odor, obtained from butter in 
fine acicular crystals. 

CAPRINYL. The organic radical of 
the foregoing. Oil of rue is supposed to 
be its oxyhydrate. Its formula is 0>o 

CAr'ROMYS. From aanpog, a boar, 
and junf, a mouse. A genus of rodent 
mammalia, exclusively confined to the 
island of Cuba. They have four molar 
teeth on each side of each jaw, with three 
outer, and one inner cusp in the upper 
teeth, and in the lower this arrangement is 

CAPRON'IC ACID. A clear, oily, un- 
pleasantly smelling fluid, obtained from 
cocoanut oil, butter and Limburg cheese. 
CAPRONYL. The basis of the fore- 
going. Formula C12 Hn. 

CAP'SICIN. An acrid resin obtained 
from Cayenne pepper. 

CAP'S I CUM. From nan™, to bite ; be- 
cause of its effect on the mouth. A genus 
of plants of the order Solanacece. 

Capsicum An'nuum. Cayenne pepper ; 
Guinea pepper. It is a powerful stimulant 
and produces, when taken into the sto- 
mach, a sense of heat and a glow u]5on the 
skin. It is used as a condiment and is 
valuable as a medicinal agent. 

Capsicum Frutescens. Shrubby plants 
growing in hot climates, said to produce 
most of the Caj T enne pepper brought from 
the West Indies and South America. 

CAP'SULA. Diminutive of capsa, a 
chest or case. A capsule. A membran- 
ous bag enclosing a part of the body, as 
the capsular ligament, the capsule of the 
crystalline lens, &c. The matrices or sacs 
of the teeth are sometimes called capsules. 
In Botany, the membranous pericardium 
or seed-vessels of a plant. 

Capsula Atrabilia'ris. The supra- 
renal capsules, or supra-renal glands ; two 
flattened triangular bodies, one on each 
side surmounting the corresponding kid- 

Capsula Cor'dis. Capsule of the Heart. 
The pericardium. 

Capsula Lumba'ris. The receptaculum 


CAPSULAR. Capsularis. Having the 
form, or partaking of the nature, of a cap- 

CAPSULE. Capsula. 
Capsule, Gelatinous. An envelope 
of gelatin enclosing copaiba and other dis- 
agreeable oils. 

Capsule of Glisson. A dense cellular 
membrane surrounding the vena porta? in 
its most minute ramifications in the liver, 
described by Glisson. 

Capsule, Renal. Supra-renal capsule. 
See Capsula Atrabiliaris. 

Capsule, Seminal. A name given by 
Bartholine to the dilatation of the extrem- 
ity of the vas deferens. Some anatomists 
give this name to the vesicuke semi- 

Capsule, Syno'vial. A membranous 
bag enveloping an articulation, and secret- 
ing a lubricating fluid. 

CAPUT. The head, cranium, or skull ; 
the upper extremity of a bone, as the head 
of the femur. Also, the origin of a mus- 
cle, as the long head of the biceps ; and it 
is sometimes applied to a protuberance re- 
sembling a head, as also to the beginning 
of a part. 

Caput Gallinag'inis. Verumontdnum, 
A protuberance in the urethra in men, sit- 
uated before the neck of the bladder. 

Caput Mort'uum. Dead head. A term 
formerly applied to the inert residuum of 
chemical operations. 
Caput Ob'stipum. Wry neck. 
Caput Pur'gum. A remedy which 
causes a defluxion from the head, as an 
errhine, sialagogue, &c. 

Caput Scapulae. Acromion. 
Caput Succeda'neum. A swelling of 
the head of the foetus, which occurs in cer- 
tain cases of labor. 

Caput Tes'tis. The epididymis. 
CARABAC'CIUM. The name of a yel- 
lowish aromatic wood of India, supposed 1 
to possess stomachic and antiscorbutic prop- 

CAR'ABUS. A genus of coleopterous- 
insects. Two species, the Crysocephalus 
and Ferrugineus, were at one time much 
vaunted as a remedy for tooth-ache, and 1 




even quite recently they were highly re- 
commended in Germany for this purpose. 
They were first rubbed between the thumb 
and finger, and then applied to the affected 
tooth and gum. See Coccinella Septem- 

CARAMATA. A tree in the inland 
parts of Pomeroon, the bark of which is 
supposed to be febrifuge. 

CARAMEL. The black, shining carbon- 
aceous mass resulting from the slow com- 
bustion of sugar. 

CARAN'NA. Caran'nce gummi ; car- 
agna, A concrete resinous substance, 
having an aromatic smell and bitter taste, 
formerly used as an ingredient in vulnerary 
balsams, and in discutient and strengthen- 
ing plasters. 

CAR'AT. From the Arab hjrat, a 
weight, or from nepanov, a small weight, 
or, according to some, from kuara, an Af- 
rican term for the bean used by the natives 
of the Gold Coast for weighing gold dust. 
A weight of four grains, used in weighing 
diamonds. It is also used in reference to 
the fineness of gold. For example, sup- 
pose the mass spoken off " to weigh 24 
carats, of twelve grains each ; and the pure 
gold is celled fine. Thus, if gold be said to 
be 22 carats fine, or standard, it is implied 
that 22-24ths are pure gold, and 2-24ths 
alloy. In the process of assaying gold, 
the real quantity taken is very small, gen- 
erally from six to twelve grains ; and this 
is termed the assay pound. It is sub- 
divided into 24 carats, and each carat into 
four asiay grains, and each grain into quar- 
ters ; so that there are three hundred and 
eighty-four separate reports for gold. 
When the gold assay pound is only six 
grains, the quarter assay grain only weighs 
l-64th of a grain. This will give some idea 
of the accuracy required in the weights 
and scales used for such delicate opera- 
tions." The still further division of the 
carat brings it to l-32d of the original | 
weight. This method of exposing the | 
fineness of gold, however, is gradually 
yielding to the more scientific decimal 

* Brand's Encyclopaedia. 

CARAWAY. SeeCarum. 

CARBAZO'TIC ACID. A peculiar acid 
formed by the nitric acid on indigo. 

CARBO ANIMA'LIS. Carlo carnis. 
Animal charcoal. Ivory-black. 

Carbo Fossilis. Stone coal. 

Carbo Ligni. Charcoal. 

CARBOHYDRATES. Hydrates of car- 
bon. Organic substances composed of 
nearly equal parts of carbon, hydrogen and 
oxygen. Cellulose, starch and sugar be- 
long to this class. 

CARBOL'IC ACID. Hydrated oxyd of 
phenyl. One of the products of the distilla- 
tion of the coal of tar. When pure, it ap- 
pears as a colorless, oily liquid. 

resulting from the action of carbonic acid 
upon pyroxylic spirit. 

CAR'BON. From carbo, coal. In Chem- 
istry this term is used to signify a pure 
combustible base of the varieties of char- 
coal and other carbonaceous substances. 
The diamond is the purest form of crystal- 
lized carbon. 

Carbon, Sksqui-I'odide of. A yellow 
precipitate, obtained by adding water to 
an alcoholic solution of iodine deprived of 
its color by potassa. It has been used in 
glandular and cutaneous affections. 

Carbon, Sulphuret of. A transpa- 
rent colorless fluid, of an unpleasant taste 
and smell. It was formerly supposed to 
be diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue and 

CAR'BONAS. A carbonate. 

CAR'BONATE. A salt formed by the 
union of carbonic acid with a salifiable base. 

CAR'BONATED. Carbonatus. Aera- 
ius. That which is combined with car- 
bonic acid. 

CARBONIC ACID. Ac'idum carbon'i- 
cum. Fixed air ; carbonaceous acid ; me- 
phitic acid. A transparent, colorless, gase- 
ous acid, without smell, irrespirable, and 
incapable of supporting combustion. It 
is a compound of carbon and oxygen ; CO . 

Carbonic Oxyd. Gaseous oxyd of car- 
bon ; the protoxyd of carbon, CO. 

ate of soda. 




phuret of carbon. 

CARBO'NIUM. Carbon. 

CARBONIZATION. The conversion 
of organic substances into charcoal. 

CARBUNCLE. See Anthrax. 

CARBUN'CULUS. Diminutive of carlo, 
a burning coal. A carbuncle. 

Carbunculus Rubi'ntjs. A shining red 
gem of great value. Formerly the most 
astounding stories were told of its miracu- 
lous powers in medicine and divination. 

Carbunculus Ulcusculo'sus. Cynan- 
che maligna. 

CARBURET. Carburetum. A com- 
pound of carbon with any simple combus- 
tible substance. For example, carbureted 
hydrogen is hydrogen holding carbon in 
solution. Steel is a carburet of iron. 

Carburet op Sul'phur. A liquid com- 
pound of carbon and sulphur. It was 
formerly called alcohol of sulphur, and is 
now obtained by passing the vapor of sul- 
phur over ignited charcoal. 

bon and hydrogen ; light inflammable air ; 
defiant gas. Ifydrognrcl of carbon. There 
are two gaseous compounds of carbon and 
hydrogen, ant gas, or oil-making gas, 
so called because it forms an oily compound 
with chlorine, and light carbureted hydro- 
gen, found in some coal mines, which is 
known by the name of jire damp, and is 
the cause of the explosions which some- 
times took place previously to the inven- 
tion, by Sir Humphrey Davy, of the safety 
lamp. It is also evolved from the mud of 
stagnant pools and ditches. Olcfiant gas 
.is obtained by distilling a mixture of one 
part of alcohol and two in bulk of sulphu- 
ric acid, and collected over water, which is 
said to absorb more than one-seventh of its 
volume of the gas. 

CAIl'BYLS. A term used by Lowig, in 
his classification of animal substances, to 
denote those radicals which consist of two 
or more atoms of carbon. Thus, oxalic 
acid , Oa O3 H3 , is said to be a hydrated 
oxvd of oxotyl, Ox or C2, which is a car- 

CAR'CAROS. From Kapmipu, to re- 

sound. A fever in which the patient is af- 
fected with tremor and unceasing noise in 
his ears. 

CARCINO'MA. From Kapnivoc, a crab, 
a cancer. See Cancer. 

Carcinoma H^mato'des. Hawiatodes. 
Fungus haimatodes. Most authors use the 
term in the same sense as cancer. Some 
apply it to incipient cancer, and some to 
that species of cancer which resembles ce- 
rebral substance. 

CARDAM1NE. A genus of plants of 
the order Cruciferoz. 

Cardamine Praten'sis. The cuckoo- 
flower, or ladies' smock ; a perennial her- 
baceous plant, formerly supposed to be 
diuretic and antispasmodic. 

CAR'DAMOM. Cardamo'mum ; from 
napdia, the heart, because it was supposed 
to strengthen this organ. The fruit of 
Alpinia cardamomum is a warm and grate- 
ful aromatic, but chiefly employed as an 
ingredient in compound medicinal prepa- 

Cardamoms, Ceylon. The fruit of the 
Amomum Grana Paradisi, consisting of 
seeds of an ovate form, often angular and 
slightly cuneiform, and of a strong hot and 
peppery taste. They are rarely used as a 
medicinal agent. 

CARDAMOMUM. Cardamoms. 

CAR'DIA. Kapdta, the heart. Also, 
the upper orifice of the stomach. 

CAR'DIAC. Cardiacus, from aapdta, the 
heart. Relating to the heart. Also, to the 
superior opening of the stomach. 

Cardiac ARTERIES. Coronary arteries. 
Two arteries given off by the aorta above 
the free edges of the sigmoid valves, and 
distributed to both surfaces of the heart. 

Cardiac Nerves. The nerves of the 
heart. They are distinguished into right 
and left, and arise from the cervical gang- 

Cardiac Gano'lion. A ganglion situated 
beneath the arch of the aorta. 

Cardiac Plex'us. A net-work formed 
by the cardiac nerves at the back part of 
the aorta, near the heart. 

Cardiac Veins. The coronary veins. 
They are four in number, two anterior, and 




two posterior, and open by one orifice into 
the right auricle of the heart. 

CARDIA'GRA. Gout of the heart. 

CARDIAG'RAPHY. Gardiagra'phia, 
from napdia, the heart, and ypa<?ri, a descrip- 
tion. A description of the heart. 

CARDIAL'GIA. From napdia, the car- 
dia, and alyoq, pain. Pain of the stomach. 

CARDIALOG'IA. From napdia, the 
heart, and hoyog, a discourse. A treatise on 
the heart. 

CARDIATOM'IA. From aapdia, the 
heart, and re/nvetv, to cut. Dissection of 
the heart. 

CARDIATROPH'IA. Atrophy of the 

CARDIELCO'SIS. From napta, the 
heart, and elaoq, an ulcer. Ulceration of 
the heart. 

CARDIOMALA'CIA. From mpHia, the 
heart, and fic&cuaa, softness. Softening of 
the heart. 

CARDION'CHUS. From mpduz, the 
heart, and oy/cof, a tumor. An aneurism 
of the heart, or of the aorta near it. 

CARDIOPAL'MUS. From napSia, the 
heart, and naX/iog, pulsation. Palpitation 
of the heart. 

CARDIOPATHY. Cardiopath'ia. From 
Kapdia, the heart, and 7ra#of, disease. Dis- 
ease of the heart. 

CARIORRHEX'IS. From Kapdca, the 
heart, and pv&c, rupture. Rupture of the 

CARDIOSTEND'SIS. Contraction of 
the openings of the heart. 

CARDIOT'ROMUS. From mpSia, the 
heart, and rpo/jog, tremor. Feeble palpita- 
tion, or fluttering of the heart. 

CARDIOT'ROTUS. One wounded in 
the heart. 

CARDITIS. From mp6ia, the heart, 
and itis, inflammation. Inflammation of 
the heart. 

CAR'DO. A hinge. The articulation 
called ginglymus. 

CAR'DUUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Composite?. 

Carduus Domes'ttcus. The artichoke. 

Carduus Maria'nus. The common 

milk-thistle, or lady's thistle. Tire seeds 
yield a bitter oil. 

Carduus Pineus. Pine thistle, or gum- 
my-rooted atractylis. 

Carduus Sati'vus. Carduus domesfi- 
ais. Artichoke. 

Carduus Solstitia'lis. The common 
star thistle. 

Carduus Tomento'sus. The cotton this- 

CAREBA'RIA. From icapt, the head, 
and (3apog } weight. Heaviness of the head. 

CARE'NA. The twenty-fourth part of 
a drop. 

CA'REX ARENA'RIA. Sea sedge. The 
root has been used in affections of the tra- 
chea and in rheumatism. 

CARIBBEAN BARK. The bark of Ex- 
ostema caribozum ; a false cinchona. 

CAR'ICA. The fig-tree. See Ficus Ca- 

Carica Papa'ya. The papaw-tree; a 
native of warm climates; every part of 
which, except the fruit, yields an acrid 
milky juice, considered, while fresh, a rem- 
edy for tape-worm. 

CARIES. From netpw, to abrade. Ul- 
ceration of bone. 

Caries Dentium. See Caries of the 

Caries of the Teeth. A chemical de- 
composition of the earthy part of any por- 
tion of a tooth, accompanied by a partial 
or complete disorganization of the animal 
framework of the affected part. 

Mr. Thomas Bell has substituted for 
caries, the term gangrene, supposing the 
latter to convey a more correct idea of the 
true nature of the affection ; but as the lat- 
ter might be applied to another affection of 
the teeth, namely, nea-osis, with as much 
propriety as to the one now under consid- 
eration, the author thinks it better to con- 
tinue the use of the former. 

The occurrence of the disease is ordina- 
rily first indicated by an opaque or dark 
spot on the enamel ; and, if this bo re- 
moved, the subjacent dentine will exhibit a 
black, dark brown, or whitish appearance. 
It usually commences on the outer surface 
of the dentine, under the enamel ; from 




thence it proceeds towards the centre, until 
it reaches the pulp cavity. 

If the diseased part is of a soft and humid 
character, the enamel, after a time, usually 
breaks in, disclosing the ravages it has made 
on the subjacent dentine. But this does not 
always happen ; the tooth sometimes re- 
mains nearly perfect, until its whole inte- 
rior structure is destroyed. 

There is no portion of the crown or neck 
of a tooth exempt from the disease; yet 
some parts are more liable to be first at- 
tacked than others ; as, for example, the 
depressions in the grinding surfaces of the 
molars and bicuspids, the approximal sides 
of all the teeth — the posterior or palatine 
surfaces of the lower incisors ; and, in short, 
wherever an imperfection in the enamel ex- 
ists, it may develop itself. 

When the enamel is first attacked, the 
disease is usually called erosion ; but as the 
enamel does not contain as much animal 
matter as the subjacent osseous structure, 
the part is washed away by the saliva of 
the mouth, while in the dentine, in most 
instances, it remains, and may be removed 
in distinct laminae, after the calcareous 
molecules have been decomposed. 

In teeth that are very hard, the decayed 
part is of a much firmer consistence, and 
of a darker color, than in soft teeth. Some- 
times it is black ; at otlier times it is of a 
dark or light brown ; and at other times 
again, it is nearly white. As a general 
rule, the softer the teeth, the lighter, soft- 
er, and more humid the decay. The color 
of the decayed part, however, may be, and 
doubtless is, in some cases, influenced by 
other circumstances — perhaps by some pe- 
culiar modification of the agents upon the 
presence of which the disease is depend- 

The appellations, deep seated, superficial, 
external, and internal, simple and compli- 
cated, have been applied by some writers 
to this disease. But these distinctions are 
unnecessary, since they only designate the 
different stages of the disease. 

Equally unnecessary is the classification 
adopted by M. Duval, who enumerates 
seven varieties or species, namely, calcare- 

ous, peeling, perforating, black, deruptive, 
stationary and wasting caries. 

The roots of the teeth frequently remain 
firm in their sockets for years after their 
crowns and necks have been destroyed, but 
nature, after the destruction of the latter, 
as if conscious that the former are of no 
further use, exerts herself for their expul- 
sion, which is effected by the gradual wast- 
ing and filling up of their sockets. 

Three distinct theories of the cause of 
dental caries have, at different times, pre- 
vailed — 1st, the chemical theory ; 2d, the 
vital, and 3d, the chemico-viial. To these a 
4th might be added, viz: the endosmotic, but 
this last is merely an explanation of the 

Fauchard, Auzebe, Bourdet, Lecluse, 
Jourdain, and most of the French writers 
of the eighteenth century, on the diseases 
of the teeth, as well as nearly all of the 
more modern French authors, though their 
views with regard to the causes of dental 
caries are exceedingly vague and confused, 
express the belief that the disease is, for 
the most part, the result of the action of 
chemical agents; such, for example, as 
vitiated saliva, the putrescent remains of 
particles of food lodged between the teeth, 
or in their interstices, acids, and a corrupt- 
ed state of the fluids conveyed to these or- 
gans for their nourishment. They also 
mention certain states of the general health, 
mechanical injuries, sudden transitions of 
temperature, &c, as being conducive to 
the disease. A similar explanation, too, 
of the cause of dental caries, is given by 
Salmon, the author of a Compendium of 
Surgery, published in London, 1644. 

Since the publication of Mr. Fox's cele- 
brated treatise on the "Natural History 
and Diseases of the Teeth," in 1806, and 
until quite recently, inflammation of the 
dentine has been regarded by most Eng- 
lish writers as the immediate cause of the 
disease. Having, as this author supposed, 
discovered an identity of structure between 
the teeth and other bones, he at once came 
to the conclusion that the diseases of the 
one were the same as those of the other. 
But subsequent observation has shown the 




inference to be incorrect. There is but lit- 
tle, if any, analogy between the disease as 
it occurs in the one and manifests itself in 
the other. In the teeth it consists simply 
in the decomposition of the inorganic basis, 
and the disorganization of the animal 
framework of the affected part, whereas, 
in other bone, it is analogous to ulceration 
in soft parts, constantly discharging a fetid 
sanies and throwing out fungous granula- 
tions, phenomena which dental caries never 

If inflammation of the dentine, then, is 
not the cause of the decay of these organs, 
how is the disease produced ? This ques- 
tion can only be answered in one way. It 
is the result of the action of external chem- 
ical agents, and this explanation of the 
cause is not based upon mere hypothesis. 
It is supported by facts which cannot be 
successfully controverted. It is well known 
that the fluids of the mouth, especially the 
mucus, whtn in a vitiated condition, are 
capable of decomposing the enamel of teeth 
not possessed of more than ordinary den- 
sity. The truth of this assertion is dem- 
onstrated by the fact that dead teeth, and 
the crowns of human teeth, or those of an- 
imals, when employed as substitutes for 
the loss of the natural organs, are as liable 
to decay as living teeth, and the decayed 
part of the one exhibits about the same char- 
acteristics that it does in the other. The 
same is true, too, with regard to all artifi- 
cial teeth constructed from bone of any sort, 
or of ivory. If the disease was depend- 
ent upon any vital operation, neither dead 
teeth nor dental substitutes, composed of 
bone, would ever decay. But inasmuch 
as they do, it is reasonable to suppose 
that the cause which produces it in the 
one case is capable of producing it in the 

Inflammation may influence the suscep- 
tibility of a tooth to the action of the causes 
which produce decay, and even the ap- 
pearance of the decayed part, but it is not 
the immediate cause of the disease. 

This theory of the cause of dental caries 
explains the rationale of the treatment at 
present adopted for arresting its progress. 

By the removal of the decomposed part and 
the filling the cavity with an indestructible 
material, the presence of those agents,upon 
the chemical action of which the disease 
depends, is prevented, and its further 
progress arrested. 

Among the indirect causes of caries, the 
following may be enumerated ; depositions 
of tartar upon the teeth ; a febrile or irrita- 
ble state of the body ; a mercurial diathesis 
of the general system ; artificial teeth, im- 
properly inserted, or of bad materials; 
roots of teeth ; irregularity in the arrange- 
ment of the teeth ; too great a pressure of 
the teeth against each other ; and, in short, 
every thing that is productive of irritation 
to the alveolar and dental membranes, or 

All teeth are not equally liable to decay, 
or in other words, not equally susceptible 
to the action of the causes that produce the 
disease. Teeth that are well formed, well 
arranged, and of a compact and close tex- 
ture, seldom decay, and even when they 
are attacked by caries, the progress of the 
disease is less rapid than it is in imperfect, 
ly formed teeth, or teeth which are of a 
soft texture, or irregularly arranged. 

CARI'NA. Literally, a keel. In Bota- 
ny, the two lower petals of a papilionace- 
ous corolla, more or less united together by 
their lower margins. 

CARINATE. Keel-shaped, furnished 
with a sharp and prominent back, like the 
keel of a vessel. 

CA'RIOUS. Affected with caries. 

CARLI'NA. A genus of plants of the 
order Composite. 

Carlina Acanthifo'lia. The wild ar- 

Carlina Acaul'is. The carline thistle, 
at one time used as a vermifuge. 

CARLO SANCTO. St. Charles's root. 

CAR'MEN. A verse ; a charm ; an am- 

CARMINANTIA. See Carminative. 

CARMIN'ATIVE. Carminativus ; from 
carmen, a verse, or charm ; because their 
operation was ascribed by the ancients to 
a charm. Medicines which allay pain and 
dispel flatus from the alimentary canal. 




carnosus , 

Diminutive of caro, 
A small fleshy sub- 

CARMINE. A beautiful red pigment 
prepared from cochineal. 

CAR'NEiE COLUMNS. The fleshy 
fasciculi in the ventricles of the heart. 

CAR'NEOUS. Carneus 
from caro, flesh. Fleshy, 

flesh. The gums 

, CARNIFICA'TION. Carnificatio; from 
caro, flesh, and fieri, to become. Becom- 
ing flesh ; conversion into a substance re- 
sembling flesh ; a term applied in Pa- 
thology to a morbid alteration in which 
certain organs assume the appearance of 
flesh, as in hepatization of the lungs. 

CARNIFOR'MIS. From caro, flesh, 
and forma, likeness. Having the appear- 
ance of flesh ; usually applied to an abscess, 
having a hardened orifice. 

CARNIV'ORA. An order of animals 
which subsist on flesh. 

CARNIVOROUS. From caro, flesh, 
and voro, I eat. Feeding on flesh. Any 
thing which eats flesh. Applied also to 
substances which destroy fleshy excrescen- 
CARNO'SUS. Carneous; fleshy. 
CA'RO. Caro, carnis. Flesh ; the red 
part or belly of a muscle ; the pulp of 

CAROLI'NA PINK. Spigelia marilan- 

CARO'TID. From icapou, to cause to 
sleep. The carotid artery is so called be- 
cause, when it is tied with a ligature, the 
animal becomes comatose. 

Carotid Artery. Arteria carotidca. A 
large artery on each side of the neck for 
carrying the blood to the head. The right 
arises from the arteria innominata, and 
the left, from the arch of the aorta. Each 
is divided into an external and internal. 
The superior thyroideal, the sublingual, the 
inferior, external, and internal maxillary, 
the occipital, the external auditory, and the 
temporal, are branches of the external ca- 
rotid. The anterior cerebral, the posterior, 
the central artery of the optic nerve, and 
the internal orbital, are given off within 

the cavity of the cranium by the internal 

Carotid Canal. A canal in the tem- 
poral bone traversed by the carotid artery, 
and several nervous filaments. 

Carotid Forami'na. The foramina at 
each extremity of the carotid canals. They 
are distinguished into external and inter- 

Carotid Ganglion. See Carotid Nerve. 
Carotid Nerve. A branch from the 
superior cervical ganglion of the great 
sympathetic, ascending by the side of the 
internal carotid artery, and forming, in the 
carotid canal, with branches of other nerves, 
the carotid plexus. The carotid ganglion 
is a small gangliform swelling on the under 
side of the artery. 

CAROTIN. A peculiar crystallizable, 
ruby-red, neutral principle, inodorous and 
tasteless substance obtained from carrots. 

of the Pinus cembra. 

CARPEL. A term in Botany, applied 
to one or more whorls of modified leaves, 
constituting the pistil. 

CARPHOLOGTA. From mp^, the 
nap of cloths, and leyu, I pluck. Deli- 
rious picking of the bed clothes, a danger- 
ous symptom in disease. 

CARPAL. Belonging to the carpus. 
CARPOBAL'SAMUM. From kci P koc, 
fruit, and fialoauov, balsam. The fruit of 
the Amyris gileadensis. 

CARPOL'OGY. Carpolog'ia ; from Kap- 
irog, fruit, and hoyoc, a treatise on fruits. 

affection of the larynx and chest occurring 
in young children, with croupy cough and 
sjiasmodic contraction of the thumbs and 

CARPOTHORE. In Botany, the axis 
of the fruit in umbelliferai. 

CARPOT'ICA. The third order in the 
class Gcnetica of Dr. Good's Nosology. 
Diseases affecting impregnation. 

CARPUS. YLapnoc, the wrist. The 
wrist, consisting of eight bones, viz : the 
scaphoides, lunarc, cuneiform, pisiform, 
trapezium, trapezoides, magnum, and unci- 




CARRAGEEN MOSS. Irish Moss; the 
Chondrus crispus. 

CARRAGEE'NIN. The mucilaginous 
matter obtained by boiling carrageen moss ; 
vegetable jelly. 

CAR'ROT. An esculent root of the ge- 
nus Daucus. See Daucus Carota. 

CAR'THAMUS. A genus of plants of 
the order Compositce. 

Carthamus Tincto'rius. The system- 
atic name of the saffron flower, or bas- 
tard saffron. The seeds are cathartic, 
emetic and diuretic. The flowers are used 
for dying, under the name of safflower. 

CARTHAMIN. A brilliant red, or 
rouge coloring matter, obtained from saf- 

CAR'TILAGE. Cartilago. A white, 
hard and elastic part of the body, which 
in the foetus serves as a substitute for 
bones, but in the adult is found only 
in the joints and at the extremity of the 

Cartilages Articular. Cartilages 
which surround surfaces that are in contact 
with each other. 

Cartilages, Interarticular. Carti- 
lages situated within the joints. 

Cartilages of Ossification. The 
temporary cartilages of the foetus which are 
turned to bone. 

CARTILAGINOUS. Cartilagin'em. 
Partaking of the nature of, or resembling 

like, or caricoid cartilage. 

Cartilago Aryt.enoidea. Two carti- 
lages of the larynx. 

Cartilago Cricoidea. The cricoid car- 
tilage. A cartilage of the larynx, situated 
between the thyroid and arytenoid carti- 

Cartilago Ensiformis. The ensiform 
cartilages attached to the lowest part of the 

CARUEN. Non-oxygenated oil of Car- 
away, obtained by distilling the crude oil 
with hydrate of potassa. 

CARUM. Kapog, from Carta, a province 
in Asia. Caraway. A genus of plants of 
the order Umbelliferoe, 

Qarum Carui. The Caraway plant. 
The ^eds have a warm, aromatic and 
spicy taste. They arc used as a carmin- 
ative and stomachic. 

CARUNCLE. Caruncula. Diminutive 
of caw, flesh. A small fleshy excrescence. 

CARUN'CULA. Caruncle. 

Caruncula Lachryma'lis. A small, 
red glandular body, at the inner angle of 
each eye. 

Caruncul2E Cuticula'res Nymphaj. 

Caruncula Myrtifor'mes. Several 
small reddish tubercles near the orifice of 
the vagina, supposed to be the remains of 
the hymen. 

Caruncula Papilla'res. The papillse 
within the pelvis of the kidneys. 

CA'RUS. Kapof, from xapa, the head, 
as being the part affected. Insensibility 
and sleep. Coma. 

Carus Apoplex'ia. Apoplexy. 

Carus Asphyx'ia. Asphyxia. 

Carus Catalep'sia. Catalepsy. 

CAR'YA. A genus of plants of the or- 
der Juglandiacece. Hickory. 

CARYOCOST'INUS. A purgative elec- 
tuary prepared from the costus and other 
aromatic substances. 

weed tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 

acid. Heavy oil of cloves. 

CARYOPHYL'LIN. A sub-resin ex- 
tracted from cloves by alcohol. 

CARYOPHYLLUS. A genus of plants 
of the order Myrtacea;. Also, the clove, 
or unexj)anded flower buds of the Caryo- 
phyllus aromaticus. 

Caryophyllus Aromat'icus. The clove 

Caryophyllus Horten'sis. The clove 
pink. See Dianthus caryojuiyllus. 

CARYOP'SIS. The fruit of gramineacios, 
as of wheat, oats, rye, &c. 

of the Qroton Eleideria and some of the 
other species. It is in quills ; has an 
agreeable smell, and a slightly bitter taste, 
with considerable aromatic warmth. It is 
aromatic, tonic, and febrifuge. 

CASHEW. Anacardium orientale. 




CASEIN". Caseum ; from caseus, cheese. 
A protein compound, the only nitrogenous 
constituent of milk. It is obtained by pre- 
cipitating milk with dilute sulphuric acid, 
dissolving the precipitate in a solution of 
carbonate of soda, reprecipitating with 
acid, and washing out the fat and extract- 
ive with alcohol and ether. When dry it 
is an amber yellow mass, slightly soluble 
in water, but very readily so in an alkaline 

CASEUS. Cheese. 

glion of the fifth nerve, from which proceed 
the ophthalmic, the superior and inferior 
maxillary nerves. 

CAS'SIA. A genus of plants of the or- 
der Ler/uminosce. Also, the cassia bark. 

Cassia Ciiam^ecris'ta. A small pros- 
trate shrub, common in the United States, 
resembling Cassia Marilandka in its medi- 
cinal properties. 

Cassia Caryophylla'ta. The clove 
bark tree. See Myrtus Caryophyllata. 

Cassia Fis'tula. The purging cassia ; 
the fruit of the Cassia jistula. The pulp 
of the pods of this tree is generally lax- 

Cassia Marilan'dica. American senna. 
A native cassia, resembling the foreign in 
its medicinal qualities, but less active. 

Cassia Senna. One of the plants which 
produce senna. 

Cassia Fistula Pulpa. The pulp of 
purging cassia. 

powder used as a coloring ingredient in 
gum enamel for porcelain teeth. It is com- 
monly called purple powder, and the fol- 
lowing is Thenard's method of preparing 

" Make an aqua regia of one part of 
muriatic or chloro-hydric acid, and two 
parts of nitric, to dissolve the gold. When 
it is dissolved, dilute it with water and fil- 
ter it, then make it very dilute by the ad- 
dition of a large quantity of water, make 
also an aqua regia to dissolve the tin, of 
one pa.t of nitric acid, and two parts of 
pure water, to which is to be added one 
hundred and thirty grains of muriate of 

soda, or common salt, to each pint of the 
dilute acid. The tin should be very pure, 
and must be added to the acid, a small 
piece at a time. When the first piece is 
dissolved, add a second, and so on, until 
the acid is saturated. The solution should 
be of a yellow color, and the operation car- 
ried on very slowly, and in a cool place. 
When it is finished, filter the liquid and 
dilute it by the addition of about one hun- 
dred times its volume of water. 

" Now place the dilute solution of gold 
in a glass vessel, and add the solution of 
tin, drop by drop, stirring with a glass rod 
incessantly, until the liquid takes the color 
of Port wine, suffer it to stand, and large 
flocks of the purple will fall to the bottom 
of the vessel, decant the solution, wash and 
dry the precipitate, which will be of the 
most splendid purple color." 

CASSUMU'NIAR. A bitter aromatic 
root, brought in irregular slices from the 
East Indies. 

CASTA'NEA. A genus of trees and 
shrubs of the order Cupuliferw. The chest- 

Castanea Equina. An erroneous name 
for the horse chestnut. 

Castanea Pumila. The chinquapin. 

CASTILE SOAP. Hard, olive-oil soda 

CASTING. In Dental Surgery, running 
fused lead, tin, zinc or brass, into a mould 
made in sand with a plaster transfer of any 
portion, or the whole of the alveolar border 
and so many of the teeth as may be re- 
maining in it, and palatine arch when it 
becomes necessary to adapt a plate to it. 
The castings employed in mechanical den- 
tistry are sometimes made by pouring fused 
metal directly upon the plaster model, and 
afterwards into the mould thus formed. 
See Metallic Models. -, 

rious spring in Ross-shire, Scotland, cele- 
brated for the cure of cutaneous diseases 
and foul ulcers. 

CASTOR. A genus of animals. Also, 
a peculiar concrete substance, having a 
strong and unpleasant odor, found in bags 
near the rectum of the beaver. 




Castor Fiber. The beaver which fur- 
nishes the castor. 

Castor Oil. The oil obtained from the 
seeds of the Eicinus communis. 

CASTO'REUM. Castorium. Castor. 

CASTOKINE. A crystalline resin ob- 
tained from a hot alcoholic solution of cas- 

CASTRATION. Castra'tio. The opera- 
tion for the removal of the testicles. 

CASTRA'TUS. One deprived of his 

CATAB'ASIS. From naTa(3aivu, to de- 
scend. An expulsion of humors down- 
ward. Also, a descent, as of the testicle. 

CATABLE'MA. From naraflallu, to 
throw around. The outermost bandage or 
fillet which secures the rest. 

CATACAU'MA. From Kara/catw, to 
burn. A burn or scald. 

CATACAU'SIS. From naTaiccuo to burn. 

Catacausis Ebrio'sa. From Karaicaiu, 
to burn, and ebriosus, full of strong liquor. 
General combustibility of the body. 

CATAC'LASIS. From bowuOom, to 
break or distort. Distorted eyelids. 

CATACLEIS'. From Kara, beneath, 
kXuc, the clavicle. The first rib beneath 
the clavicle. Also, applied to the acromion, 
and the connection of the sternum with the 

CATACLYS'MUS. Cataclys'ma; from 
Karaiikv^ELv , to submerge, inundate. A clys- 
ter. Also, applied to a shower bath and 

CATAG'MA. From Kara, and cryo, to 
break. A fracture. 

CATAGMATTCS. From Karayfia, a 
fracture. Remedies supposed to promote 
the formation of callus. 

CATALEPSY. Catalep'sia; from Kara- 
/la/^avu, to seize, to hold. A disease char- 
acterized by sudden suspension of motion 
and sensation, the limbs and trunk remain- 
ing in any position in which they may be 

the family Bignoniacece. The seeds have 
been used in asthma. 

CATAL'YSIS. From Kara, and Avw, to 

loose. A term applied in Chemistry to the 
decomposition and the formation of a new 
compound of the proximate and element- 
ary principles of one or more compounds, 
by the presence of one or more substances 
which do not of themselves enter into com- 
bination ; decomposition by the catalytic 
force, or the action of presence. 

CATALYTIC. Relating to catalysis. 

Catalyt'ic Force. That modifica- 
tion of the force of chemical affinity which 
determines catalysis. 

CATAMASSE'SIS. From xara/iaaaao- 
fuu, to manducate. Grinding of the teeth, 
and biting of the tongue, as is often the 
case in convulsions and epilepsy. 

CATAME'NIA. The menses, or monthly 
discharge from the uterus of females be- 
tween the ages of fourteen or fifteen and 

CATAPAS'MA. From Kamnaaau, a 
sprinkle. A dry compound medicine pow- 
dered, to be sprinkled on ulcers. 

CATAPH'ORA. From xara^epu, to 
make sleepy. A term applied by some to 
a disposition to sleep, and by others to 
profound sleep. 

CATAPHRAC'TA. From xara^paaau, 
I fortify. A bandage for the thorax and 

CATAPLASM. Cataplas'ma, from xar- 
anXaaau, to spread like a plaster. A poul- 
tice or plaster. 

CATAPLAS'MA. A cataplasm. 

Cataplasma AcETo'siE. A sorrel poul- 

Cataplasma Alu'minis. An alum 

Cataplasma Coni'i. A hemlock poul- 

Cataplasma Dau'ct. A carrot poultice. 

Cataplasma Fermen'ti. A yeast poul- 

Cataplasma Li'ni. A linseed poultice. 

Cataplasma Sinapis. A mustard 

CATAPLEXTS. From xara, and ■kItjo- 
oto, to strike. Sudden deprivation of sen- 
sation or power in any of the organs or 
members of the body. 

CATAPSYXTS. From /carafe >, I re- 




frigerate. Coldness of the body without 

CATAPTO'SIS. From Karamnro, to 
fall down. The action of suddenly falling 
down, as in apoplexy. 

CATARACT. Catarac'ta, from koto- 
paaau, to confound, or disturb. A cataract. 
Loss of sight, caused by opacity of the crys- 
talline lens, or its capsules, which prevents 
the rays of light from passing to the optic 

Cataract is divided into true and false ; 
the former when the disease is seated in 
the lens or capsule, and the latter, when 
consisting of a deposition of matter between 
the capsule and lens. It is also distin- 
guished into idiopathic and accidental, and 
into hard, caseous and milky, according to 
its consistence; also into white, brown, gray, 
yellow, black, pearly and green, according to 
its color. It may, also, be simple or com- 
plicated with glaucoma, amaurosis, adhe- 
sion or sj)ecks on the cornea. 

CATARRH'. Calar'rhus, from Karappeu, 
I flow down. Increased secretion and dis- 
charge of fluid from the mucous membrane 
of the nose, fauces and bronchia, accom- 
panied with fever, cough, sneezing, loss of 
appetite and lassitude. It sometimes as- 
sumes an epidemic form, prevailing very 
generally throughout a whole country. 
CATARRHAL. Relating to catarrh. 
CATCH-FLY. Silene virginica. The 
root is said to possess vermifuge properties. 
Catch Pivot. See Clacking Pivot. 
CATARRHCE'TICUS. From Karappeu, 
I flow from. A catarrhal affection. 

CAT A RTI S'MUS . From aarapTiieiv, to 
repair, replace. Coaptation of a fractured 
or luxated bone. 

CATASTASIS. From K«tor«pt, I es- 
tablish. The state, condition, or consti- 
tution of any thing. 

CAT'ECHU. The various extracts from 
the Acacia catechu. It is a powerful astrin- 

Catechu Tannin. Catechu Tannic 
Acid. A tannin obtained from catechu. It 
is a yellow, amorphous mass, soluble in 
water, alcohol and ether. It gives a 
grayish green precipitate with salts of the 

peroxyd of iron, and none at all with tar- 
trate of antimony and potassa. 

humin tannic acid obtained from catechu. 
It gives a blackish blue color to persalts of 

CATEIAD'ION. From mia and eia, a 
blade of grass. A long instrument thrust 
into the nostrils to excite hemorrhage. 

CATHiERET'IC. Catharet'ica ; from 
Kadaipti, to remove. Corrosive or caustic 
substances used for the destruction of exu- 
berant granulations, warts, &c. 

CATH^E'RESIS. Exhaustion. 

CATHAR'MA. From natiaipu, to re- 
move. Matters purged from the body, 
whether caused by purgatives or otherwise. 

CATHA1VMUS. From natiaipo, to re- 
move. Purgation. Applied also to the 
cure of disease by magic. 

CATHAR'SIS. From nadaipu, to take 
away, to purge. Natural or artificial pur- 
gation by any of the passages. 

CATHARTIC. Galhar'iicus ; from kci9- 
aipu, to purge. A medicine which, when 
taken internally, increases the number of 
alvine evacuations. The medicines belong- 
ing to this class are numerous. 

CATHARTIN. The active principle 
of senna. 

CATHARTOCARTUS. Cassia fistula ; 
a leguminous tree of the East and West 
Indies. It yields the cassia pulp of the 

CATHETER. Kaderyp • from ftoftfltytf, 
to thrust into. A hollow tube to be intro- 
duced into the urinary bladder, to draw off 
the water, made of silver or elastic gum. 

Cathetek, Eusta'chian. A catheter 
for opening obstructions in the Eustachian 

Catheter Na'sal. An instrument for 
catheterizing the nasal duct. 

CATHETERIS'MUS. From natiemp, a 
a catheter. The introduction of a catheter 
into the bladder. 

CATHODE. From naia and «fof, a way ; 
the downward way, or the direction in 
which the sun sets. A term invented by 
Faraday, in his new galvanic nomenclature, 
to indicate what was formerly called the 




negative pole of the battery. When the 
poles are placed east and west, the positive 
current enters at the anode, (from ava, up- 
ward, and o(5oj, or the way in which the 
sun rises,) or eastern, and leaves at the 
western end of the circuit, whence its point 
of departure has been called the cathode. 

CATHODIC. An epithet applied by 
Dr. Marshall Hall to the downward course 
of nervous action. 

CATHOL'ICON. From nara, andoAt/coj, 
universal. A universal medicine, or rem- 
edy supposed to be capable of curing all 

CATION. From Kara and iov, that 
which goes. A term used by Faraday to 
indicate those atoms of a substance, under- 
going galvanic decomposition, which ap- 
pear at the cathode. Those appearing at 
the anode are called anions. 

CATIL'LIA. A nine ounce weight. 

CATKIN. In Botany, an ament, or 
species of inflorescence, consisting of many 
scales ranged along a stalk, as in hazel, 
oak, willow, &c, so called from its resem- 
blance to a cat's tail. See Amentum. 

CAT'LING. A long, sharp-pointed, 
double-edged knife, used chiefly for divid- 
ing the interosseous ligaments, in amputa- 
tions of the forearm and leg. 

CATOCATHARTIC. Catocathar'iiciis; 
from kbtcj, downward, and icadaipu, to 
purge. A medicine which purges down- 

CATOCHUS. From tcarexa, to detain. 
A spasmodic disease in which the body is 
held in an upright position ; a species of 

THE EYE. A means of diagnosis in 
cataract, founded on the phenomena of re- 
flected light. Thus, when a lighted candle 
is held before the eye, if the cornea, the 
cr3'stalline lens and its capsules are trans- 
parent, three images will be seen ; the first 
from the cornea, and the other two from 
the anterior and posterior surfaces of the 
crystalline lens, but opacity of any of these 
surfaces will destroy their reflecting prop- 

CATO'TICA. Cato'iicus; from koto, 

below. Diseases which affect internal sur- 
faces, and produce a morbid condition of 
the fluids. 

CAT'S EYE. A variety of chalcedony, 
or quarts, so called from the resemblance 
of the opalescent reflections from within, 
to those observed in the eye of a cat. 
Cat's Foot. Ground ivy, or gill. 
Cat's Purr. A characteristic auscult- 
atory sound of the chest. 

CAUDA. From Cado, to fall. A tail. 
Cauda Equi'na. The spinal mar- 
row, at its termination about the second 
lumbar vertebra, gives off a large number 
of nerves, which, when unraveled, resem- 
ble a horse's tail, and hence the name. 

CAUDATE. From cauda, a tail. Tailed; 
a term applied, in Botany, to organs of 
plants which have a tail-like elongation, 
and in Zoology, to an animal furnished with 
a long tail. 

CAUDEX. In Botany, the trunk of a 
tree ; the main body of a tree or root, as 
candex ascendens and caudex descendens. 
CAUL. The omentum. 
CAULE'DON. From navlos, a stalk. 
A transverse fracture. 

CAULES'CENT. Caules'cens. Having 
a true stem.- 

Excresentia syphilitica. An excrescence 
which occurs in syphilitic diseases, chiefly 
about the anus and vulva. 

CAULINE. Growing on the stem. 
CAU'MA. Kav/ia, heat, from aaiu, to 
burn. The heat of the body in fever ; burn- 
ing heat. 

CAUSE. That which produces an effect. 
An act preceding another and in which 
the former is necessary to the latter. 

CAU'SIS. From mio, to burn. To 
burn. Act of combustion. 

CAUSO'MA. From nauj, to burn. Great 
heat. Inflammation. 

CAUSTIC. Gaus'ticus ; from kom, to 
burn. A substance which, when applied 
to the body, produces a burning sensation, 
and disorganizes animal substances by 
destroying their texture. 
Caustic Alkali. Pure alkali. 
Caustic Barley. Sec Cevadilla. 




Caustic, Lunar. Nitrate of silver. 
Caustic Volatile Alkali. Ammo- 

CAUSTICITY. Having a caustic prop- 

CAUSTICUM. A caustic. 

CAU'SUS. A name applied by Hippoc- 
rates to an ardent fever, from its extreme 
heat, supposed to be a variety of bilious 

CAUTERIZATION. The act of cau- 

CAUTERY. Cautc'rium ; from kqiu, to 
burn. An instrument used for burning or 
disorganizing the part to which it is ap- 
plied. Formerly, cauteries were divided 
into actual — the hot iron, and potential, 
which consists of some escharotic ; but it 
is now restricted to the first, or hot iron. 
Potential was then applied to kali purum, 
or potassa, but this term is now used syn- 
onymously with caustic. 

CAVA, VENA. A name given to the 
two great veins of the body which meet at 
the right auricle of the heart. 

CAVER'NA. From cavus, hollow. A 
cavern, an antrum. Applied to the female 
organs of generation. 

CAVERNOUS. Caverno'sus. Filled 
with small caverns or cavities. 

CAVTTAS PULT^J. The pulp cavity 
of a tooth. See Dental Cavity. 

CAVITY. Cavitas, from cavus, hollow. 
Any hollow. 

Cavity Plate. A term applied in 
Mechanical dentistry, to a metallic base for 
artificial teeth, so constructed as to have 
one or more vacant spaces between it and 
the gums, which, when applied and the air 
exhausted, contributes very greatly to the 
firmness of its adhesion. See Metallic Base 
for Artificial teeth. 

CAVUM DENTTS. See Dental Cav- 

Cavum Nar'ium. The nares. 

Cavum O'ris. The mouth. 

CAVUS. A hollow; a cavity. 

seeds of Capsicum annum. 

CEANOTHUS. A genus of plants of 
the order Ehamnacece. 

Ceanotiius Americanus. New Jer- 
sey tea ; red root ; a small shrub growing 
throughout the United States. The root 
is astringent, and said to be useful in 
syphilitic affections. 

GEAS'MA. From keu, to split or divide. 
A fissure. 

CE'DAR. A name given to several spe- 
cies of juniper, and to a species of pinus. 

Cedar, Red. An evergreen tree, the 
Juniperus virginiana, seldom growing to 
a height of more than forty or fifty feet. 
The tops are considered stimulant, emmen- 
agogue, diuretic, and diaphoretic. 

CEDEIA. Embalming. 

GEDMA. Aneurism. Varix. 

CED'MATA. Keduara. Pains in the 
joints, particularly those of the hips. 

CEDRELE'UM. From /c«5po$, the ce- 
dar, and ehatov, oil. The oil of cedar. 

CEDREN. The liquid portion of juni- 
per oil. 

CE'DRINUM VI'NUM. Cedar wine. 
A wine prepared by steeping half a pound 
of bruised cedar berries in six French pints 
of sweet wine. It is diuretic and sub- 

CEDRIRET. A substance, crystallizing 
in red needles, obtained from the empyreu- 
matic oil of the tar of beech-wood, by 
treating it with caustic potassa, and dis- 

CEDRITES. A vermifuge wine pre- 
pared from the resin of the cedar, by treat- 
ing it with sweet wine. 

CEDROLE. The solid portion of juni- 
per oil. 

CEDRUS. From Kedron, a valley 
where this tree grows. See Pinus Cedrus. 

Cedrus Americana. The arbor vit». 

Cedrus Baccifera. Savine. 

CEI'RIA. From mpw, to abrade. The 
tape- worm is so called from its abrading 
the intestines. 

CELASTRUS. Ceanothus Americanus. 

CELE. Kv^V, a tumor ; a swelling. A 
tumor caused by the protrusion of a soft 
part, and hence the compound terms, hy- 
drocele, bubonocele, %-c. 

CELERY. The cultivated species of 
Apium. See Apium Graveolens. 




CELIA. Cerevisia. 

CELL. Cella. A cavity or chamber. 
A minute cavity in the tissues, devoted to 
purposes of nutrition, growth, develop- 
ment or secretion. 

Cells, Bronchial. The air-cells of 
the lungs, in which the finest ramifications 
of each lobular bronchial tube terminates. 

Cell, Calciu'erous. See Calcigerous 

Cell, Epidermic or Epithelial. The 
cells which cover the free membranous 
surfaces of the body. They are developed 
from germs furnished by the subjacent 

Cell Ger'minal. See Cytoblast. 

Cell-Growth. Growth by the agency 
of cells. 

Cells, Mastoid. The irregular cavi- 
ties in the substance of the mastoid process 
of the temporal bone. 

Cell, Nucleated. See Cytoblast. 

Cell, Pigment. Cells in various parts 
of the body, secreting pigment. 

CEL'LULAK. Cdlula'ris. Composed 
of small cells. 

Cellular Membrane. Membrana cellu- 
losa. Cellular tissue. 

Cellular System. The whole of the 
cellular tissue of the body. 

Cellular Tissue. The areolar tissue. 

CEL'LULE. Gellula; diminutive of 
cella, a cell. A small cell. 

CEL'LULOSE. The fundamental sub- 
stance of which vegetable tissue is com- 
posed, left after all products of secretion 
are dissolved out. Its formula is C12 IIjo 

CELOTOM'IA. From *v*V, a hernia, 
and T£ ) to cut. The operation by cut- 
ting for the cure of hernia. 

CELOTOMUS. A hernia knife. 

CELTIC NAKD. See Valeriana Celt- 

CEMENT'. The name of substances 
employed by chemists for uniting things 
together. It has also been applied to 
amalgam, a substance used by some den- 
tists for filling teeth. See Amalgam. 

Cement for the Teeth, Ostermai- 
er's. An earthy compound proposed by 

M. 0. Ostermaier for filling teeth, consist- 
ing of thirteen parts of quicklime, chemi- 
cally pure, and finely pulverized ; prompt- 
ly mixed with twelve parts anhydrous 
phosphoric acid, obtained by the combus- 
tion of phosphorus in dry air. " A suffi- 
cient quantity of this powder, which has 
become moist by the process of mixing, is 
then introduced into the cavity of the 
tooth, previously dried by means of blot- 
ting paper, care being taken to fill the 
cavity properly, and to level and polish 
the outer surface, which is afterwards 
moistened with a little water." If more 
than two minutes elapse after this mixture 
is made, the inventor says it is unfit for 
use, but when used according to the direc- 
tions, he asserts that it renders a carious 
tooth similar to a sound one ; but experi- 
ence has failed to confirm his assurances 
of its value. 

CEMENTUM. One of the substances 
or parts of a tooth. It covers the fang or 
root, and has been traced over the enamel ; 
it is thickest at the extremity of the root 
and becomes gradually thinner as it ap- 
proaches the neck of the tooth. Purlcinje 
and Fraenkel mention one case which came 
under their observation, where it covered 
the enamel of the teeth of an old man, and 
Mr. Nasmyth is of opinion that it always 
envelops the crowns of the teeth. The 
author, however, has never been able to 
detect it, except upon the roots of the 
teeth. Cementum also joins together the 
plates of compound teeth, like those of 
the elephant, and fills up the cavities and 
folds in the teeth of ruminants. It is of a 
cellular and vascular texture. 

According to Professor Owen, cementum 
" always closely corresjwnds in texture 
with the osseous tissue of the same animal, 
and wherever it occurs of sufficient thick- 
ness, as upon the teeth of the horse, sloth 
or ruminants, it is also traversed, like bone, 
by vascular canals. In reptiles and mam- 
mals, in which the animal basis of the 
bones of the skeleton is excavated by mi- 
nute radiated cells, forming with their con- 
tents the ' corpuscles of Purkinje ;' these 
are likewise present, of similar size and 




form, in the ' cement,' and are its chief 
characteristic as a constituent of the tooth. 
The hardening material of the cement is 
partly segregated and combined with the 
parietes of the radiated cells and canals, and 
is partly contained in aggregated grains in 
the cells, which arc thus rendered opaque." 

With regard to the manner of the for- 
mation of the cementum, which is the last 
to appear of the dental tissues, nothing 
positive is known. Raschkow thinks it 
may be produced by the remains of the 
enamel pulp, but as it cannot be detected 
on the crowns of the human teeth, we have 
reason for believing that it is secreted by 
the periosteum, and the fact that it in- 
creases in thickness with age, would seem 
to render this opinion, by far, more pro- 

CEMENTATION. A chemical process 
which consists in surrounding a solid body 
with the powder of other substances, and 
exposing the whole to a red heat in a closed 
vessel for a length of time. It is in this 
way that iron is converted into steel. 
It is also a process adopted in some of the 
mints for refining gold. See Gold, Refin- 
ing of. 

CEMENTE'RIUM. A crucible. 

CENEANGEI'A. From xevog, empty, 
and ayyetov, a vessel. Deficiency of blood 
in the vessels. 

CEXEMB ATE'SIS. From xevog, empty, 
and e/JiSiavcj, to enter. Paracentesis, also 
the act of probing a cavity. 

CENEONES. The flanks. 

CENTG'DAM. Geniplam ; cenigotam ; 
cenipolam. The name of an instrument 
anciently used for opening the head in 

CENO'SIS. From nevo ? , empty. Gen- 
eral evacuation ; also, sometimes applied 
to inanition. 

CENOT'ICA. Cenol'icus ; from Kevuaig, 
evacuation. Morbid or excessive dis- 

CENTAU'REA. A genus of plants of 
the order Compositce. 

Centaurea Behen. Behen album. The 
white behen. It is said to be tonic. 

Centaurea Benedic'ta. The blessed or 

holy thistle. It is tonic, diaphoretic and 

Centaurea Calcitra'pa. The common 
star-thistle, or star knap- weed. The juice 
has been used in intermittents and neph- 
ritic disorders. 

Centaurea Centau'rium. The greater 
centaury, the root has been used as an 
aperient and coroborent in alvine fluxes. 

CENTAURIN. The bitter principle 
of the European centaury. 

CENTAURIUM. The common Euro- 
pean centaury. 

batia angularis, or American centaury. 
It is tonic and is used in intermittent and 
remittent fevers. 

Centaury, European. Erythraja cen- 
taurium ; a small, annual herbaceous plant, 
possessing tonic properties analogous to 
those of gentian. It has been employed 
in dyspeptic affections and fevers. 

CENTIGRAMME. From centum, a 
hundred, and ypafifia, gramme. Centi- 
gramma. The hundredth part of a gram- 
me, which is equal to about the fifth part 
of a French grain, gr. 0.1544 troy. 

CENTILITRE. The hundredth part of 
a litre, equal to about 2,7053 fluid drachms. 

CENTIMETRE. Centimetre. The 
hundredth part of a metre, which is about 
four lines, .3937 English inch. 

CENTIPEDE. From centum, a hun- 
dred, and pes, foot. The name of the myr- 
iapodus insects of the genus Scolopendra. 
The largest, when full grown, have from 
fifty to two hundred pairs of feet. 

CENTRADIArH'ANES. Cataract due 
to opacity of the centre of the crystalline 

CENTRIP'ETAL. From centrum, the 
centre, and peto, to move toward. Ap- 
proaching the centre. In Botany, an in- 
florescence in which the marginal flowers 
open first, and the central last. 

of gravitation. The point to which bodies 
tend as a consequence of gravitation. 

CENTRES, NERVOUS. Nervous cen- 
tres. The organs, as the brain and spinal 
marrow, from whence the nerves originate. 




CENTRUM. From kevteu, to prick. 
The centre ; the middle point or place of 
any thing. 

Centrum Commu'ne. The solar plexus. 
Centrum Ova'le Ma'jus. The large 
white medullary mass, surrounded by cor- 
tical substance, seen in each hemisphere 
of the brain, when divided to a level with 
the corpus callosum. 

Centrum Ovale Minus. The white 
central mass, surrounded by a stratum of 
gray, seen in each hemisphere of the brain, 
where a horizontal section is made about 
half an inch above the corpus callosum. 

CE'PA. From icijnog, a wool-card, from 
the likeness of its roots. The onion. 

plant from which Ipecacuanha is obtained. 
CEPHA LiE'A. From Ke^alri, the head. 
The fleshy covering of the skull, also, head- 

CEPHALHEMATOMA. A bloody tumor 
under the scalp. 

CEPHALiE'MIA. Accumulation of 
blood in the vessels of the brain. 

CEPHALAGO'GUS. An instrument for 
drawing down the foetal head. 

CEPH'ALAGRA. Gout in the head. 
CEPHALAGRATHIA. From ke<$>o1t,, 
the head, and ypQ<Pn, a description. Ana- 
tomical description of the head. 

CEPHALALGIA. From nefalv, the 
head, and alyog, pain. Cephelcea. Head- 

CEPHALALO'GIA. An anatomical 
treatise on the head. 

A shrub of the natural order Jinbiacece, 
growing all over the United States, near 
streams and ponds. The bark of the root 
has been used as an antiperiodic tonic. 
CEPHALARTIC^. Cephalic remedies. 
CEPHALATO'MIA. Anatomy; dis- 
section or opening of the head. 

CEPHALE. Ketyaln. The head. 
CEPHALTC. From Ke^alri, the head. 
Pertaining to the head. 

Cephalic Remedies. Medicines, or 
remedies used for the cure of diseases of 
the head. 
Cephalic Veins. Vena cephalica. The 

anterior or outermost vein of the arm is 
so called, because taking blood from this 
vein was supposed to afford relief to affec- 
tions of the head. 

CEPHALITIS. Phrenitis, or inflam- 
mation of the brain. 

CEPHALODY'MIA. A class of double 
monstrosities, in which the heads are 
CEPHALODYNIA. Cephalalgia. 
CEPHALOMA. A medullary, or en- 
cephaloid tumor. 

CEPHALOM'ETER, Cephelometrum ; 
from Ketyakr), the head, and uerpov, a meas- 
ure. An instrument for measuring the 
dimensions of the foetal head in parturition. 
CEPHALON'OSUS. From Ka^akr,, the 
head, and vooo$, a disease. Febris Hungar- 
ica. A disease which principally affects 
the head. 

netyalr), the head, <j>apvy^, the pharynx. 
Constrictor pharyngis superior, a muscle 
of the head and pharynx. 

CEPHALO'PODA. CepJialo'pods. From 
Kefalrj, and nov i} the foot. In Zoology, an 
order of Mollusca, whose organs of locomo- 
tion are placed around the mouth, as the 
cuttle fish, &c. 

CEPHALOPONIA. From KeQafy, the 
head, and novo ; , pain. Head-ache. 

of double monstrosities in which the union 
is between the heads and the trunks. 

CEPHALO-SPINAL. Belonging to the 
head and spine, as the cephalo spinal fluid, 
a fluid found beneath the arachnoid in 
both the head and spine. 

CEPHALOTRIBE'. An instrument in- 
vented by Baudelocque for crushing the 
foetal head. 

CEPHALOTRIP'SY. The operation of 
crushing the foetal head. 

CERA. Wax. Bees-wax. A solid 
concrete animal product, prepared by the 
bees, and extracted from their combs, after 
the removal of the honey. When first 
obtained from the comb it is called yellow 
wax, or cera flava, which is of a bright 
yellow color when fresh, or recently ex- 
tracted. When softened by the fire, or in 




warm water, is very malleable and tough, 
but it becomes brittle with age, and loses 
its fine yellow color. In Dental prosthesis, 
it is used for the procurement of impres- 
sions of the jaws. But when used for this 
purpose it should always be fresh. 

By softening and reducing yellow wax 
into thin cakes, and exposing it for a long 
time to the sun and open air, it becomes 
white. This, when melted and formed in 
cakes, is termed virgin or white wax, Cera mine. 
alba. But most of the white wax sold in ! Ceratum Canthar'idis 
the shops is adulterated and brittle, and Cerate of the blistering fly. 

CERATONYXTS. Depression of the 
crystalline lens by a needle introduced 
through the cornea. 

CERATOT'OMUS. The name of a knife 
invented by Wenzel, for dividing the 
transparent cornea, in the operation of 

CERA'TUM. From cera, wax. A 

Ceratum Calamine. Cerate of cala- 

Cerahtm lyttce. 

consequently not so good for taking im- 
pressions of the mouth as the yellow. 

Cera Alba. White wax. 

Cera Flava. Yellow wax. 

Cera Vegetabilis. Vegetable wax; 
natural wax. 

CERAIN. A fatty matter obtained 
from white wax, not susceptible of saponi- 

CERASIN. One of the proximate prin- 
ciples of cherry gum, which is insoluble 
in cold water. 

CERAS'US. A genus of plants, insti- 
tuted by Tournefort, of the order Drupaceai. 

Cerasus Lauro-Cerasus. Cherry-lau- 
rel, the leaves of which possess proper- 
ties similar to those of hydrocyanic acid, 

Ceratum Ceta'cei. Ceratum sperma- 
ceti ; ceratum album. Spermaceti cerate. 

Ceratum Coni'i. Hemlock cerate. 

Ceratum Plum'bi Aoeta'tis. Ungnen'- 
tum cerus'sx aceta'tce. Cerate of acetate of 
I lead. 

Ceratum Plum'Bi Carbona'tis. Ce- 
rate of carbonate of lead. 

Ceratum Plum'bi Compos'itum. Ce- 
ratum Miliar' gyri aceta'ti compositum. Com- 
pound cerate of lead. 

| Ceratum Resi'n^;. Ceratum resince 
flava ; ceratum cii'rinum. Resin cerate. 

Ceratum SABi'NiE. Savine cerate. 

Ceratum Sapo'nis. Soap cerate. 

Ceratum Sim'plex. Simple cerate. 

CERAU'NION. From icepavvoc, thun- 

and are employed for preparing the cherry der, a thunderbolt. A meteoric stone. A 

laurel water. 

Cerasus Serotina. The wild cherry 
tree, primus virginiana, the bark of which 
is a valuable medicinal agent. 

CE'RATE. Ceratum. A composition 
of wax and oil, or lard, with or without 
other ingredients and of a consistence inter- 
mediate between that of ointments and 

CER'ATO. From Kepag, horn. A term 
used as a prefix in composition, in the 
names of muscles. See Cerato-Glossus. 

Cerato-Glossus. A muscle of the 
tongue. See Hyoglossus. 

Cerato-Hyoideus. The stylo-hyoideus 

CERATOCE'LE. From «epaj, and mM, 
tumor. Hernia of the cornea, or protru- 
Bion of the membrane of the aqueous humor 
through an opening in the cornea. 

stone believed to be formed during thunder, 
and to be possessed of narcotic and other 
virtues. It was formerly rubbed on swelled 
knees, breasts, &c. 

CERC^E. From Kipmc, a tail. The 
feelers which project from the hind part of 
some insects. 

CERCA'RIJE. From nepnoc, a tail. A 
family of infusorial animalcules, having 
an enlarged body with a slender tail-like 
appendage, one of the most curious of 
which is found in salivary calculus. In- 
deed, M. Mandl asserts that the tartar of 
the teeth consists of nothing more than a 
deposit of the skeletons of dead infusoria, 
agglutinated together by dried mucus, very 
similar to certain earths, which, according 
to M. Ehrenberg, are. composed almost 
wholly of fossil infusoria. 

If the theory of M. Mandl were correct, 




tartar would be deposited upon all teeth 
alike. But this is not the fact. Some 
teeth, as the lower incisors and the outer 
surfaces of the molars of both jaws, and 
particularly the upper, are, by far, more 
liable to have it deposited on them, than 
any of the other teeth. The infusoria found 
in salivary calculus are doubtless generated 
in the muoous fluid of the mouth, which 
is always mixed more or less abundantly 
with this substance as it is deposited upon 
the teeth. It is in this way that their pres- 
ence in the tartar of the Jeeth is to be ac- 
counted for. 

CERCH'NOS. Cerchnus. From ke 9X o, 
to be hoarse. Wheezing. 

CERCIS. A sort of pestle. Also, the 

CERCOPITHE'CUS. k£ P koc, a tail, and 
OTii97//iof, an ape. A genus of Quadruma- 
na, with long, but not prehensile tails. 
The monkeys of the old world. 

CERCO'SIS. From nepnoc, a tail. A 
term applied in Pathology to elongation of 
the clitoris ; also to polypus of the uterus. 
The clitoris. 

CEREA'LIA. From ceres, the goddess 
of harvest. Those species of graminecc, as 
wheat, corn, barley, and rye, from the 
seeds of which bread or any nutritious 
substance is made. 

CE'REA. From cera, wax. The ceru- 
men aurium, or wax of the ear. 

CEREBELLI'TIS. Inflammation of the 

CEREBEL'LUM. Diminutive of cere- 
brum. The little brain, which is that por- 
tion of the medullary mass of the cavity of 
the cranium situated in the inferior part 
of the occipital fossae, below the tentorium. 
It is divided by a septum into a right and 
left lobe, and like the other part of the 
brain is composed of cortical and medul- 
lary matter. 

CER'EBRAL. Gerebralis ; from cere- 
brum, the brain. Belonging to the brain. 
Similar to brain. 

Cerebral Apophysis. The pineal 

Cerebral Arteries. The arteries of 
the brain. There are three on each side, 

namely, the anterior, or artery of the cor- 
pus caUosum, the middle, or arteria syl- 
viana, and the posterior, or posterior and 
inferior. The first two are furnished by 
the internal carotid, and the other by the 

Cerebral Nerves. The nerves which 
arise within the cranium. 

CEREB'RIFORM. Encephaloid. 

CEREBRI'TIS. Inflammation of the 

CEREBRIC ACID. A phosphorized 
acid found in the fatty matters of the brain 
and nervous system. 

CEREBRO-SPIN AL. Pertaining to the 
cerebrum or brain, and spinal chord. 

Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. The fluid 
found beneath the arachnoid membrane of 
the brain and within the sheath of the 

Cerebro-Spinants. Narcotics have been 
so called from their effects upon the cerebro- 
spinal system. 

CERE'BRUM. The brain. A term 
sometimes applied to the whole of the con- 
tents of the cranium ; at other times only 
to the upper portion of the brain. " The 
cerebrum is divided into a right and left 
hemisphere, vertically separated from each 
other, and inferiorly into six lobes, two an- 
terior, two middle, and two posterior ; sit- 
uated within the cranium, and surrounded 
by the dura and pia mater, and tunica 
arachnoidea. It is composed of a cortical 
substance, which is external ; and a med- 
ullary, which is internal. It has three" 
distinct "cavities called ventricles; two 
anterior, or lateral, which are divided from 
each other by the septum lucidum, and in 
each of which is the choroid plexus, formed 
of blood-vessels ; the third ventricle is a 
space between the thalami nervorum opti- 
corum. The principal prominences of the 
brain are the corpus callosum, a medullary 
eminence, conspicuous upon laying aside 
the hemispheres of the brain ; the corpora 
striata, two striated protuberances, one in 
the anterior part of each lateral ventricle ; 
the thalami nervorum oplicorum, two whit- 
ish eminences behind the former," from 
" which the optic nerves " were said to 




originate; "the corpora quadrigemina, four 
medullary projections, called by the an- 
cients nates and testes; a little cerebral 
tubercle lying upon the nates, called the 
pineal gland; and, lastly, the crura cere- 
bri, two medullary columns, which proceed 
from the basis of the brain to the medulla ob- 
longata. The cerebral arteries are branches 
of the carotid and vertebral arteries. The 
veins terminate in sinuses, which return 
their blood into the internal jugulars. The 
use of the brain is to give off nine pairs of 
nerves, and the spinal marrow, from which 
thirty-one more pairs proceed, through 
whose means the various senses are per- 
formed, and muscular motion excited." 
The brain " is also considered as the organ 
of the intellectual functions." 

" Vauquelin's analysis of the brain is in 
100 parts ; 80 water, 4.53 white fatty 
matter, 0.7 reddish fatty matter, 7 albu- 
men, 1.12 osmazome, 1.6 phosphorus, 6.15 
acids, salts, and sulphur." 

Cerebrum Elongatum. Medulla ob- 
longata, and medulla spinalis. 

CERELjE'UM. From nvpog, wax, and 
eXaiov, oil. Cerate composed of wax and 
oil. Also, oil of tar. 

CEREOLUS. A bougie made of wax. 
CE'REUS. From cera, wax. Having 
a waxy appearance or texture. 

CEREVISTA. From ceres, corn; so 

called, because it is made from it. Any 

liquor made from grain, as beer, yeast, &c. 

CERIA. From cereus, soft, pliant. 

The flat worms found in the intestines. 

CERIC ACID. A wax obtained from 

CERIN. Cerotic acid. Beeswax con- 
sists of this acid united with miricin. 

CERION. From /c^ptov, a honey-comb. 
A species of porrigo ; also, a honey-combed 
ulcerative affection of the head. 

CE'RITE. A silicious oxyd of ce- 

CE'RTNUS. A term in Botany, denoting 
a dull yellow, slightly tinged with reddish 

CE'RTUM. A white brittle metal, dif- 
ficult of fusion, but volatile when intensely 
* Hooper's Med. Die. 

heated, found in a Swedish mineral called 

CER'NUOUS. In Botany, drooping; 
hanging down. 

CE'ROMA. From mpoc, wax. A term 
applied in Pathology to a fatty, waxy, or 
lardaceous tumor of the brain. 

CEROMANTI'A. From mpoc, wax, 
and (lavTEia, divination. The art of fore- 
telling the future from the figures which 
melted wax, when dropped on the surface 
of water, assumes. 

CEROPIS'SUS. From unpeg, wax, and 
niaaa, pitch. A plaster composed of pitch 
and wax. 

CEROPLAS'TIC. From nypog, wax, 
and nTiaarucj] rexvi), the art of the modeler 
or carver. The art of modeling in wax. 
This art is of great antiquity, and to the 
dental surgeon who is anxious to preserve 
a transfer of the various cases of irregulari- 
ty of the teeth which may come under his 
notice, is particularly valuable. 

CEROS'SIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from sugar-cane wax. 
CEROTUM. Cerate. 
CE'RULIN. Indigo dissolved in sul- 
phuric acid. 

CERU'MEN. From cera, wax. See 
Cerumen Aurium. 

Cerumen Au'rium. The unctuous se- 
cretion, which is of a waxy consistence, 
found in the meatus auditorius externus. 

CERU'MINOUS. Relating to, or hav- 
ing the properties of, cerumen. 

Ceruminous Glands. The follicular 
glands, situated beneath the membrane lin- 
ing the meatus, which secrete the cerumen. 
CERUSE'. Carbonate of lead. 
CERVI SPINA. Ehamnus catharticus, 
or purging buckthorn. 

CERVICAL. Cervicalis ; from cervix, 
the neck. Belonging to the neck; also, 
every thing that concerns it. 

Cervical Arteries. The cervical ar- 
teries are three in number, namely : The 
ascending, anterior, or superficial, derived 
from the inferior thyroid ; the transverse, 
or cervico-scapulare, given off from the ax- 
illary artery ; and the posterior, which is a 
branch of the subclavian. 




Cervical Gan'glions. The three gan- 
glions of the great sympathetic nerve. The 
Jirst is situated opposite the second cervical 
vertebra; the second, or middle cervical 
ganglion is ojtposite to the interval hetween 
the fifth and sixth cervical vertebra; and the 
third, which is sometimes called the first 
thoracic, is situated between the transverse 
process of the last cervical, vertebra and the 
head of the first rib. 

Cervical Ligaments. The cervical 
ligaments, are two in number. The first is 
called the anterior, and extends from the 
basilar process of the occiptal bone to the 
anterior part of the first cervical vertebra ; 
and the second is denominated the poste- 
rior, and extends from the outer occipital 
protuberance to the spinous process of the 
last cervical vertebra. 

Cervical Nerves. The eight pairs of 
nerves first given off from the spinal mar- 

Cervical Plexus. The net-work of 
nerves formed by the first three cervical 

Cervical Veins. These veins have 
nearly the same distribution as the cervical 

Cervical Vertebra. The seven up- 
permost vertebra? of the spinal column. 

upper continuation of the sacro-lumbalis. 

GERVICA'RIA. From cervix, the neck. 
The Campanula trachelium, or herb throat- 
Avort, so called because it was supposed to 
be beneficial in affections of the throat and 

of the facial nerve, distributed to the neck 
and face. 

CERVIX. Collum. The neck. Ap- 
plied also to organs or parts, as the cervix 
uteri, neck of the uterus, &c. 

CER'VUS. A genus of rnminantia. 

Cervus Al'ces. The moose deer, or elk. 

Cervus Ax'is. The spotted Indian deer. 

Cervus Canadensis. The Wapiti deer. 

Cervus Capre'olus. The European roe- 

Cervus Da'ma. The fallow deer. 

Cervus El'aphus. The stag, from the 

horns and hoofs of which hartshorn shav- 
ings are obtained. 

Cervus Muntjac The Indian roebuck. 
Cervus Taran'dus. The rein-deer. 
Cervus Virginian'us. The Virginia deer. 
CESTOI'DEANS. From ksotos, a 
girdle, and eidoe, likeness; ribbon-like. 
The order of Sterelmintha, or parenchyma- 
tous entozoa, to which tape- worm belongs. 
CESTRA'CION. From Keorpatos, the 
name of a fish. A genus of sharks, with 
two kinds of teeth, arranged in oblique 
subspiral rows. Those at the anterior part 
of the jaws are pointed, and those at the 
back part are flattened. 

CESTRON. Betonica officinalis. Betony. 
CETA'CEA. Cetacean. In Natural 
IRstory, an order of marine mammalia, in- 
cluding the whale, dolphin, porpoise, &c. 
CETA'CEUM. From ktitoc, a whale. A 
white, insipid, unctuous substance, ob- 
tained from the brain of the spermaceti 
and other varieties of whale. 

CETIC ACID. The result of the action 
of alkalies upon cetine. 

CETINE. Pure spermaceti. 
landicus. Iceland moss. It is demulcent, 
nutrive and tonic. 

CETRARINE. The bitter principle of 
Iceland moss. 

CETYL. A hypothetical radical of a 
series of compounds obtained from sperma- 
ceti. Its formula is C32 H33. 

CEVADIC ACID. An acid resulting 

from the action of potash on the oil of the 

Veratrum sabadilla. 

CEVADIL'LA. See Veratrum Sabadilla. 

CEYLANITE. The name of a mineral 

of an indigo blue color. 

CEYLON MOSS. A Cryptogamic plant 
of the order Algai, recently introduced in 
Europe as an article of food. 

CHABAZITE. The name of a crystal- 
lized silicate, of a faint rose color. 

CHABERT'S OIL. Three parts oil of 
turpentine and one of DippePs oil, distilled. 
CILEROPHYL'LUM. A genus of plants 
of the order Umbillifera:. 

Ch^rophyllum Odoratum. Sweet ci- 




Oxerophyllum Sylvestre. Bastard 

CHAIN SAW. A saw made of a watch 
spring, having seratnres on one side. One 
end is attached to a handle and the other to 
a hook. It is used in the operation for the 
removal of the lower jaw. 

CHALA'SIS. From xalau, I relax. Re- 

CHALAS'TICUS. From xa*™, I re- 
lax. A relaxing medicine. 

CHALA'ZA. In Botany, a vascular disk 
at the base of the nucleus of an ovule. The 
cicatrula of the egg. With the ovologists, 
the chalazce or jwlcs are the spirally twisted 
bands of the dense internal layer of albu- 
men in the egg, adhering to the yolk and 
the extremities of the egg. 

CHALAZIUM. From XaMa, a hail- 
stone. A species of hordeolum, or mova- 
ble tumor on the margin of the eyelid, 
commonly called a stye. 

CHALCANTHUM. From x^m, brass, 
and avtfoc, a flower. Red calcined vitriol, 
or the flowers of brass. 

CHALCED'ONY. A mineral, so called 
from having been found by the ancients in 
Chalcedon, in Asia Minor, supposed to be 
pure silica with a little water. 

CHALCITES. Colcothar, or the red 
oxyd of iron. 

CHALCOI'DEUM OS. The cuneiform 
bone of the foot. 

CHALK. A calcareous earth of a white 
color. Carbonate of lime. See Creta. 

Chalk, Black. Drawing slate, used in 
crayon drawing. 

Chalk, Red. A clay, colored with oxyd 
of iron. 

Chalk-Stone. Earthy concretions found 
in the hands and feet of persons affected' 
with gout. 

CHALYB'EATE. Ghalybea'tus ; from 
■chalybs, iron or steel. Of, or belonging to, 
iron. Any medicine into which iron en- 
ters, as chalybeate mixture, pills, waters, 

Chalybeate Waters. Any mineral 
water containing iron. 

CHALYBS. From Chalybes, a people 
of Pontus, who dug iron out of the earth. 

Acies, steel, or the proto-carburet of iron. 
In its medicinal virtues, steel does not dif- 
fer from iron. 

Chalybs Rubigo. Sub-carbonate of 

Chalybs Tartarizatus. Ferrum tar- 
tarizatum. Tartrate of iron and potash. 

CHAM^ME'LUM. See Anthemis No- 

CHAM^'MORUS. Xafiai/iopea ; from 
xafJ-at, on the ground, and /xopea, the mul- 
berry tree. See Rubus Chamamiorus. 

CHAMjE'PITYS. Ajuga Chamcepitys. 
Ground pine. 

Chamcepitys Moschata. Teuwium iva. 
The French ground pine. 

CHAMBAR. Magnesia. 

CHAMBER. Camera; a term employed 
in Anatomy, in speaking of the eye, in 
which there are two chambers ; an anterior 
and a posterior. The space before the iris 
is termed the anterior chamber, and that 
behind it the posterior. 

CHAME'LEON. From x^ai, on the 
ground, and leuv, a lion, i. e. dwarf lion. 
The chameleon, an animal able to change 
his color at pleasure. It is also applied to 
many thistles, from the variety and uncer- 
tainty of their colors. 

Chameleon Mineral. A compound of 
manganesic acid and potash, presenting a 
variety of tints when dissolved in water. 

heads of the Anthemis nobills. They pos- 
sess mild tonic properties, and in large 
quantities act as an emetic. They are also 
valuable as a febrifuge. 

Chamomile Drops. Alcoholic spirits, 
impregnated with essential oil of chamo- 

Chamomile, German. See Matricaria 

Chamomile, Wild. See Anthemis Co- 

CHAMOMIL'LA. Chamomile. 

CHAN'CRE. From napnivog, cancer. A 
sore resulting from the direct application 
of the venereal poison to any part of the 
body. The term is never applied to sores 
occurring in other parts of the body from 
absorption or general contamination of the 




system. The French apply the word chan- 
cre to cancerous ulcers, and malignant 
aphthae of children. 

CHANDOO. A preparation of opium 
used by the Chinese for smoking. 

CHAOMANTI'A. A term used by the 
ancients to signify the art of predicting the 
future from observations of the air. 

CHARA'CE^E. A family of Acrogens, 
destitute of a vascular system, and inhab- 
iting fresh and salt waters. They are chiefly 
composed of tubes, and the rotation of 
their fluids may be distinctly seen under the 

CHARACTER. XapaKTr/p, a mark or 
impression. In General Medicine the term 
is used synonymously with stamp or ap- 
pearance. Thus, " a disease is of unfavor- 
able character," or " has a bilious charac- 
ter," &c. In Dental Surgery it is applied 
to the appearances which the teeth present 
in their physiological and pathological con- 
ditions. It has, also, the same signification 
when applied to the gums. 

See Teeth, Characteristics of. 

CHARAD'RIUS. A genus of wading 
birds, or Grallatores, including the British 
plover and allied species. 

CHARANTIA. Momordica elaterium. 

CHAR'COAL. Carbo. An impure form 
of carbon, obtained by burning wood with 
imperfect access of air, or exposing it to a 
strong heat in a distilling apparatus com- 
posed of cylinders of iron, so constructed 
that the volatile product may be collected. 
Among this there will be a certain propor- 
tion of tar and pyroligneous acid, or im- 
pure vinegar. This, when it is wished to 
procure a pure article, should be suffered 
to escape, while the reiibsorption of the 
crude vapor should be prevented, by cut- 
ting off the communication between the 
interior cylinders and the apparatus used 
for condensing the pyroligneous acid, after 
the removal of the fire from the furnace. 

The charcoal obtained for common pur- 
poses, as fuel, &c, is made from wood, 
piled up in the shape of a pyramid, co- 
vered with earth, with a few air holes, but 
which, as the pile becomes well lighted, 

are closed. In this way the wood is de- 
prived of its volatile parts and converted 
into a black, brittle, porous substance, 
called charcoal, but retaining the shape of 
the vegetable from which it is obtained. 

Charcoal, Animal. The carbonaceous 
residue of bones or of blood, usually the 

CHARDS. The footstalks and midrib 
of artichokes, cardoons, and the white beet. 
They are used as an article of diet. 

CHAR'LATAN. A quack ; a mounte- 
bank; an empirical pretender — one who 
sells medicines to which he attributes mar- 
velous virtues. Any one who attempts 
to deceive others by pretending to have 
more skill than he really has. 

CHARM. A trick, words, sound, phil- 
ters, or characters of occult power, en- 
chantment, spell, incantation, magic ; a 
sort of superstitious practice, by which it 
was supposed a person might be deprived 
of life, struck with sickness, or restored to 

CHARPIE'. A French word signifying 
scraped linen, or old linen torn in small 
pieces, or lint, used in dressing wounds 
and ulcers. 

CHAS'ME. From fcaww, to gape. 
Yawning ; gaping. 

Denlktm crepitus; Odontosynerismus; cla- 
quement. A phenomenon resulting from 
tremor of the muscles of the inferior max- 
illa, and commonly dependent on rigo* 
arising from cold or mental emotion. 

CHAUDEPISSE. Gonorrhoea. 

CHAY. Chaya. The oldenlandia um- 
bellata, the root of which is used in Madras 
as a red dye-stuff. 

CHEEK. The side of the face, extend- 
ing from the lower eyelid to the base of 
the jaw, and from the nose and commissure 
of the lips to the ear. 

Cheek-Bone. Malar bone. 

Cheek-Tooth. The hindermost tooth 
has been so termed. 

CHEESE. Ca'seus. The coagulum of 
milk compressed into a solid mass. 

xe&QQ, a lip. Inflammation of the lips. 




CHEILOC'ACE. From x^K, a lip, 
and KaKos, evil. Swelling and induration 
of the lip, but without suppuration. 

a lip, and KapKivuy.a } cancer. Cancer of 
the lip. 

CHEILON'CUS. A swelling of the lip. 

CHEILOPLAS'TICE. Ghiloplastice ; 
from X £ &°S, a lip, and irfaumicog, forming. 
The operation for an artificial lip. 

CHEILOS. The lip. 

CHEIRAN'THUS. A genus of plants 
of the order Oruciferce. 

Cheiranthus Cheiri. From x"P, a 
hand. The common yellow-wall flower. 

CHEIRIA'TER. From xwp, the hand, 
and larpoi, a physician. A surgeon. 

CHEIRIS'MA. From x^P^ ^, to labor 
with the hand. Any manual operation ; 
the act of touching or handling. 

CHEIRIXIS. From x^o/tai, to labor 
with the hand. Surgery in all its branches. 

CHEIRONOMTA. From x^ovofieu, I 
exercise with the hands. An exercise con- 
sisting in using the hands, as in the exer- 
cise with the dumb-bells. 

CHEIROPTERA. From xw, the hand, 
and nrepov, a wing. An order of Manv 
miferous animals, having the anterior ex- 
tremities so modified as to serve the office 
of wings, as the bat. 

CHE'LA. X?;At7, forceps ; from x e ", to 
take. A bifurcated probe used for the ex- 
traction of nasal polypi. Applied also to 
a fissure in the feet and to the claws of a 

CHE'LiE. Chaps or cracks in the skin. 

Chelae Cancro'rum. Crab's claws. 

CHELIDON'IUM. Bryony. Also a 
genus of plants of the order Ranunculacece. 

Chelidonium Ma 'jus. Tetter-wort, and 
the common celandine. The fresh juice has 
been used to destroy warts and films on 
the eyes. 

Chelidonium Minus. Celandine; a 
papaveraceous plant, yielding an acrid 
yellow juice, often applied to warts and 
corns. The herb and root are purgative, 
diuretic, diaphoretic and expectorant. 

CHELO'NE. XtluvTi. A tortoise. A 
term applied in Surgery to an instrument 

for extending a limb, because the slow- 
ness of its motion resembles that of a tor- 
toise. Also, a genus of plants. 

CHELO'NION. From x&™n, a tor- 
toise, from its resemblance to the shell of 
a tortoise. A hump or gibbosity of the 

for rheumatism, composed of one drachm 
of guaiac, two drachms of rhubarb, one 
ounce of cream of tartar, one ounce of 
flowers of sulphur, one nutmeg, and a 
pound of clarified honey. 

CHELYS. XeAvS, the chest. The thorax. 

CHELYS'CION. From x&vs, the chest. 
A dry hacking cough, attended with sore- 
ness of the muscles of the chest. 

CHEMICAL. Of, or belonging to, 

Chemical Affinity, or Attraction. 
The force which draws dissimilar particles 
of matter together, causing them to com- 
bine and form new bodies endowed with 
new properties. It acts only at insensible 

Chemical Formula. A symbolic ex- 
pression of a chemical compound, but in 
the composition of chemical formula?, alge- 
braic representations are employed. 

Chemical Nomenclature. The tech- 
nical terms appropriated to chemistry. 

Chemical Symbols. The abbreviations 
used to designate the elements and radi- 
cals. See Equivalents, Chemical. 

of the organic chemistry and morphology 
of tissue. 

CHEM'IST. One versed in chemistry. 

CHEMISTRY. A word supposed to 
be derived from the Arabic, chema, a se- 
cret. It is defined by Brande, to be " a 
department of science the objects of which 
are to investigate the nature and proper- 
ties of the elements of matter, and their 
mutual actions and combinations; to as- 
certain the proportions in which they unite, 
and the modes of separating them when 
united ; and to inquire into the laws and 
powers which preside over and affect these 

CHEMO'SIS. From x aivu , to gape, or 




from xw°i, fin humor. Inflammation of 
the conjunctiva of the eye, characterized 
by distention of its vessels and the forma- 
tion of an elevated ring around the cor- 

CHENOC'OPRUS. Goose-dung. It 
was formerly employed as a febrifuge and 

CHENOrO'DIUM. A genus of plants 
of the order Chenopodiacece. 

Chenopodium Ambrosioi'des. Mexico 
tea ; Spanish tea. This species of cheno- 
podium is said to have been used with ad- 
vantage in chorea. 

Chenopodium Anthelmin'ticum. Che- 
nopodium. Wormseed; Jerusalem oak; 
stink weed. The fruit of this plant is cele- 
brated for its anthelmintic properties. 

Chenopodium Bonus Henri'cus. The 
systematic name of the English mercury. 

Chenopodium Botrys. The systematic 
name of the Jerusalem oak. Tins species 
possesses anthelmintic virtues. 

Chenopodium Vulva'ria. The stink- 
ing orach, sometimes employed as an em- 

OHEQUERBERRY. See Gaultheria. 

CHERRY. The fruit of the primus 

■ CHESIS. A frequent desire to evacuate 
the bowels. 

CHESTNUT. See ^Esculus and Fagus. 

Chestnut, Horse. See iEsculus Hip- 

CHEVAS'TER. A double-headed roller, 
applied round the head, the middle sup- 
porting the chin, in cases of fracture or 
luxation of the lower jaw. It has received 
the names of simple, double, and oblique, 
according to the manner in which it is ap- 
plied. This bandage, however, has, to 
some extent, been superseded by one con- 
trived by Mr. Fox. See Fox's Bandage. 

signifying, in General Surgery, the riding 
of the extremities of a fractured bone on 
each other ; and in Denial Surgery, defect- 
ive arrangement of the teeth, consisting in 
the gradual displacement of a cuspid or 
incisor, which assumes a position in front 
of the dental arch and obliquely across 

one of the adjoining teeth. See Irregu- 
larity of the Teeth. 

CHEZANAN'CE. From *£&>, to go to 
stool, and avayKTj, necessity. An ointment 
composed of honey and alum, rubbed on 
the anus to occasion evacuation. 

CHI A. Chia terra; from Chios, the 
island where it was originally found. A 
variety of white earth, formerly used for 

CHIADUS. Furunculus. 

CHIAS'MOS. From *«$», to form like 
the letter x. A bandage shaped like the 
Greek letter x, chi. Also, the crucial union 
of parts. 

CHIASTOLITE. A mineral having 
some resemblance to the steatite. 

CHIASTOS. A crucial bandage, so 
called because it resembles the letter X. 

CHIASTER. See Kiaster. 

CHICKEN POX. See Varicella. 

CHIGRE. Chiggre ; eliegre, Chique. 
From the Spanish, chiquito, small. A small 
insect of the Southern States and the West 
Indies, which penetrates the skin, causing 
slight inflammation and intolerable itching. 

CHII/BLAIN. Fer'nio; bugan'tia; cry- 
the'ma pernio; from chill, cold, and Main, 
a pustule. Erythematous inflammation of 
the feet, hands, or other part of the body, 
resulting from exposure to cold. 

CHILD-BED FEVER. Puerperal fever. 

CHILO. From x s &°C, a lip. A word 
used as a prefix. 

CHILOGNA'THES. Ghilognatha; from 
Xeiloc, a lip, and yvatiog, a jaw. The my- 
riapoda or centipedes, in which the two 
mandibles, or jaws, and tongue are so 
united as to form a larger lower lip. 

CHFLON. Ghei'lon; cheilitis, from 
Xe&og, a lip. Inflammation and swelling 
of the lips. 

CIIILO'MA. A term applied in Zoology 
to the upper lip or muzzle of a quadruped, 
when it is tumid and continued without in- 
terruption from the nostril. 

CHIMAPHILA. A genus of plants 
of the order Pyrolaceod. 

Chimaphila Umbel'lata. Chimaph- 
ila, U. S. Pipsissewa; winter green; 
ground-holly. The fresh leaves have a 




fragrant odor and a bitterish, astringent 
and aromatic taste. They are diuretic, as- 
tringent and tonic. 

Chimaphila Macula'ta. Poison pip- 
sissewa. Its properties are supposed to be 
identical with the preceding. 

CHI'MIA. Chemistry. 

CHIMIA'TEIt. From XW M , chemistry, 
and larpog, a physician. One who applies 
the science of chemistry to medical pur- 

Cancer of the scrotum. 

CHIMPAN'ZEE. The African orang, 
simia troglodytes, which is of a black color 
and from four to five feet in height. It 
approaches nearer to man than any other 
animal of the brute creation. 

CIIIXCIIIL'LA. A genus of gnawing 
mammalia, or rodents, peculiar to South 

CHI'NA GLAZE. A blue frit composed 
of ten parts glass, two parts lead, and three 
of blue calx. 

China Nova. A variety of red bark, 
the produce of Cinchona oblong [folia. 

China, Pride of. Melia azedarac. 

China Root. The root of the Smilax 
China. It has the same properties as Sar- 

CHINA ROTH. A red substance, de- 
posited from cinchona tannin, on the ab- 
sorption of oxygen. 

CHINCHINA. See Cinchona. 

CHINCOUGH. Pertussis. 

CHININUM. See Quinia. 

CHINIOIDINE. Chinoidine; chinoi- 
dina; from China, cinchona. A sub- 
stance separated from cinchona, supposed 
to be an alkaloid, and to consist of a 
mixture of quinia, cinchonia, and a pecu- 
liar resinous matter. It is really impure 

CHINQUAPIN. Cutanea pamila. 

CHI'RAGRA. From x^P, the hand, 
and aypa, a seizure. Gout in the joints of 
the hand. 

CtirilOMANCY. Chiromanti'a; palm- 
istry ; from %ttp f the hand, and (lavieia, di- 
vination. The pretended art of divination 
by an inspection of the lines of the hand. 

CHIRO'NIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Gentianeas. 

Chironia Angula'ris. The American 
centaury. It has the tonic properties of 
simple bitters, and is used with advantage 
in autumnal intermittent and remittent fe- 
vers in the form of decoction, extract and 

Chiuonia Centau'ritjm. Centau'rmm; 
erythra'a centaurium. Common European 
centaury, which has tonic properties simi- 
lar to those of gentian, and has been used 
in fever and dyspeptic affections. 

CHIRONPUM. From x<*P<<>v, the Cen- 
taur, who is said to have been the first to 
heal them. A malignant ulcer, with cal- 
lous edges, difficult to cure. 

CHIROP'ODIST. From *eq>, the hand, 
and novc, the foot. One whose profession 
is to remove corns and bunyons from the 

CHIROTHE'CA. From XW, the hand, 
and Vw"l, a sheath. A bandage, applied 
in spiral turns, so as to envelop the hand 
and fingers. 

CHIRUR'GEON. A surgeon. 

CHIRUR'GIA. From *«p, the hand, 
and epyov, a work. Surgery. 

CHIRUR'GICUS. Surgical. 


CII1TINE. A chemical principle exist- 
ing in the wings and elytra of coleopterous 

CHITON. From x"w, a garment. A 
genus of Gastropodous Mollusca; also, a 
membrane or tunic. 

CHIUM VINUM. Chian wine ; wine 
grown in Chios. 

CHIVE. In Botany, a stamen; also, 
a species of leek, of the genus Allium, 
growing in tufts. 

CHLIARUS. A name given to slight 

CHLIAS'MA. A tepid and moist fer- 

CHLOAS'MA. Chloasma pseudo-jior- 
rigo. Liver spots. Blotches on the skin, 
of irregular shape and yellowish brown hue. 

tion of acetic acid, in which three atoms of 




chlorine take the place of three atoms of 
hydrogen. Formula C4 CI3 O3, HO. 

CHLORACETYL. A modification of 
acetyl. C4 CI3. 

CHLORAL. A new compound of chlo- 
rine, carbon and oxygen. It is an oxy- 
hydrate of chloracetyl. HO (C 4 Cl 3 , ) 0. 

CHLORAN'THUS. A genus of plants 
of the order Chloranthacece; allied to Pi- 
peracece. It is a most powerful stimulat- 
ing agent. 

CHLORAS'MA. Chlorosis. 

CHLORATE. A compound of chloric 
acid with a salifiable base. 
, CHLORIC ETHER. A compound ob- 
tained by passing hydrochloric acid gas 
into alcohol to saturation and distilling the 

CHLO'RIDE. A compound of chlorine 
with different bodies. 

CHLO'RINE. From x^pos, green. A 
yellowish green colored gas, of a disagreea- 
ble taste and strong, suffocating odor, ex- 
citing great irritation and spasm of the 
glottis when inhaled, even in a diluted 
Btate ; incapable of supporting combustion, 
and soluble in water. It is obtained by 
the action of hydrochloric acid on peroxyd 
of manganese. 

Chlorine Water. Aqua chlorinii. A 
solution of chlorine gas in water. 

of chlorine and iodine. 

CHLORITE. An earthy mineral of va- 
rious tints of green. 

CHLORO. A term formed from the 
Greek, and used to indicate a clear, lively- 
green color. 

CHLO'ROFORM. Terchloride offormyl; 
so called because it is a combination of chlo- 
rine with formyl, the basis of formic acid. 
A dense, colorless liquid, possessing a fra- 
grant, fruit-like, ethereal odor, and a sac- 
charine taste. 

It consists of two atoms of carbon, 
one of hydrogen, and three of chlorine- 
Its formula is therefore (C2 H) CL3, or 
Fo CI3, 0> H, being the expression for 
formyl, otherwise written Fo. Its specific 
gravity is 1.48.0, and the density of its va- 
por is 4.2. It is uninflammable, and boils 

at 141°. It is recommended in asthma, 
and when taken into the stomach, produ- 
ces a grateful and soothing effect. 

Professor Simpson, of Edinburg, has re- 
cently discovered that the vapor of chloro- 
form, when inhaled, acts as a powerful 
anaesthetic agent, producing complete in- 
sensibility in from thirty seconds to three 
or four minutes, and during the last three 
or four years it has been extensively used, 
both in Europe and America, not only for 
the purpose of producing insensibility in 
surgical operations, but also to prevent the 
pain attending parturition. Its use, how- 
ever, has, in a number of instances, been 
attended with fatal effects. 

plied to the aggregate of the symptoms 
produced by the administration of chloro- 

CHLOROPHiEITE. A mineral which 
when recently broken is green, but after- 
wards becomes black. 

CHLOROPHANE. A species of fluor 
spar, transmitting a beautiful pale green 
light when heated. 

CHLOROPHYLL. The green matter of 
the leaves of plants. 

CHLORO'SIS. From ^upof, green. The 
green sickness. A disease affecting young 
females, particularly before menstruation, 
or those laboring under a suppression of 
menses, characterized by languor, palpita- 
tion of the heart, pain in the loins, fatigue, 
a pale, greenish hue of the face, a small, 
quick pulse, and sometimes with cedema- 
tous swellings of the feet. 

CHLOROT'IC. Affected with, or per- 
taining to, chlorosis. 

CHLORUM. Chlorine. 

CHLO'RURET. Chloride. 

CHOCOLATE. A paste prepared from 
the cacao-nut, with sugar. It is a nourish- 
ing article of diet. 

Chocolate Tree. Theobroma cacao. 

CHOKE-DAMP. A term applied by 
miners to irrespirable gas, or vapors con- 
taining carbonic acid. 

CHOLiE'MIA. From xo^v, bile, and 
aifta, blood. A morbid state in which bile 
is found in the blood. Jaundice. 




CHOL^US. Biliary. 

CHO'LAGOGUE. Cholagogus ; from 
X°%y, bile, and ayu, I expel. Purgative 
medicines which excite biliary secretions. 

CHOLE. Cholos. Bile. 

CHOLEC'CHYSIS. Effusion of bile. 

CHOLED'OCHUS. From *•»*, bile, 
and doxog, containing or receiving. Receiv- 
ing or containing bile. 

Choledochus Ductus. Ductus commu- 
nis choledochus. The duct which conveys 
the bile from the liver to the duodenum. 

CHOLEDOCITTS. Inflammation of the 
choledoch duct. 

CHOLEDOG'KAPHY. Choledogra'phia, 
from x°M, bile, and ypa<j>eiv f to describe. A 
description of that which relates to the bile. 

CHOLEDOL'OGY. Gholedologia, from 
X°M, bile, and h>yog, a discourse. A treat- 
ise on the bile. 

CHOLE'IC ACID. Taurocholic acid. 
Bilin. According to Liebig, that part of a 
bile soluble in alcohol, and containing the 

CHOLELITHUS. From x°M, and Tudog, 
a stone. Biliary calculi. 

CHOLEME'SIA. Vomiting of bile. 

CHOLEPYR'RHIN. The brownish- 
yellow coloring matter of the bile. 

CHOLER. Bile. Anger was supposed 
to proceed from a superabundance of bile, 
hence the application of the term choler to 

CHOL'ERA. Cholera morbus; from 
X°M, and pew, I flow. Purging and vomit- 
ing, generally of bile, with gripings and 
spasms of the abdominal muscles, and 
often in the legs and arms. In the Asiatic 
cholera, or cholera asphyxia, the discharges 
resemble rice-water and the disease is gen- 
erally of a more malignant and fatal char- 
acter. Its pathology is but little understood. 

Cholera Infantum. Cholera of infants. 

CHOL'ERIC. Gholeri'cas. Belonging 
to cholera morbus or to the bile. 

CHOLERINE. A slight diarrhoea du- 
ring the prevalence of cholera — a premoni- 
tory symptom of the disease. 

CHOLEROMA'NIA. Dread of cholera 
so great that the patient believes himself 
to be affected with it. 

CHOLEROPHO'NE. The peculiar voice 
of a patient affected with cholera 

CHOLEROPROSOTON. The facial ex- 
pression of one affected with cholera. 

obtained by heating cholesterine with ni- 
tric acid. 

CHOLES'TERINE. Cholesierina ; from 
X°M, bile,, and erepeog, solid, or oreap T 
suet. An inodorous, pearly white, insipid, 
shining substance, found in certain bili- 
ary calculi, and in nearly all the animal 

CHOLICE'LE. From *«*#, bile, and 
K-rfki], a tumor. A swelling caused by an 
accumulation of bile in the gall-duct. 

CHOLIC ACID. A resinous acid ob- 
tained from bile. It has been supposed to 
be oleic acid, conjugated with a radical C12 
H6 06, though other chemists regard it as 
a nitrogenous acid, and Lowig puts it 
among his hydroazocarbyls. The truth is 
that the same acid has received several 
different names, and the cholic acid of 
Demarcay, Lehmann, and other organic 
chemists, is the cholalic acid of the classifi- 
cation of Lowig, who has followed Strecker. 

CHOLINIC ACID. A white floculent 
acid, obtained, by Berzelius, from cholic 
acid. It must not be confounded with 
Lowig's choleinic acid, which is the tauro- 
cholic acid of Lehmann. 

CHOLOLITHUS. Biliary calculi. 

CHOLO'MA. From x^og, lame, or 
maimed. Lameness or distortion of a leg. 

CHOLO'SES. Frome xo*v, bile. Dis- 
eases of the liver and spleen generally. 

CHONDRIN. A gelatinous substance 
obtained from the permanent cartilages 
by boiling. 

CHONDRITIS. From X'vfyog, cartil- 
age, and His, a termination signifying in- 
flammation. Inflammation of cartilage. 

CHONDROGENESTA. Chondrogen'e- 
sis, from x ov fy°C, cartilage, and yevemc, 
formation. Formation of cartilage; con- 
version of parts into cartilage. 

CHONDROGLOS'SUS. From x<>v6pog f 
a cartilage, and yhuoaa, the tongue. A 
fasciculus of fleshy fibres, extending from 
the less cornu of the os hyoides to the 




tongue, forming part of the hyoglossus 

CHONDROG'RAPHY. A description 
of the cartilages. 

CHONDROID. Chondroi'des ; from 
Xovdpoc, cartilage, and eidoc, resemblance . 
Cartilaginous. Resembling cartilage. 

CHONDROL'OGY. Chondrolog'ia; from 
Xovdpog, cartilage, and "kayos, a discourse. 
A treatise on cartilages. 

CHONDRO'MA. A cartilaginous growth 
in bones. 

Xovdpoc, cartilage, and <j>apvy^, the pharynx. 
The fibres of the muscular coat of the pha- 
rynx, arising from the lesser cornu of the 
os hyoides, which form part of the constric- 
tor medius. 

CHONDROS. Xovdpog, cartilage. A 

CHONDRO'SES. Morbid formation or 
condition of cartilages. 

fyoc , a cartilage, and ovvdau, to tie together. 
Union of bones by means of a cartila- 
ginous ligament. 

CHONDRUS. A genus of sea-weeds. 

Chondrus Crispus. Carrageen; Irish 
moss. It possesses demulcent and nutri- 
tive qualities, and has been used in pul- 
monary diseases and bowel affections. 

CHO'RA. Xupa, a region. Any void 
space, as the orbit of the eye, &c. 

CHOR'DA. From xopfy, a string. The 
word has several significations. An inter- 
stice, a tendon, an assemblage of fibres ; 
and it is sometimes applied to a painful 
tension of the penis. 

Chorda Dorsa'us. The rudiment of 
the vertebral column in the foetus. 

Chorda Mag'na. The tendo Achillis. 

Chorda Tendin'ea. A cord-like ten- 
dinous substance connecting the corneas 
colnmnce of the ventricles of the heart to 
the auricular valves. 

Chorda Tym'pani. A branch of the 
seventh pair of nerves is so called because 
it crosses the tympanum of the ear, like a 
string across the bottom of a drum. 

CHORD AP'SUS. Constriction or twist- 
ins of the intestines. 

CHORDEE'. A French word, applied 
in Pathology to a painful spasmodic con- 
traction of the penis, attending gonorrhoea. 

CHORE' A. Xopaa, from x°P° c , a cho- 
rus, which formerly accompanied dancing. 
A disease called St. Vitus's danc,e, charac- 
terized by convulsive motions of the limbs, 
resembling the movements of a person 

CHO'RION. Xopiov, skin, from x u P a , a re- 
ceptacle. The second membrane of the foetus. 

CHORIONI'TIS. Induration of the cel- 
lular tissue. 

CHORIUM. From xopiov, skin. The 
eutis vera, or innermost layer of the skin. 

CHO'ROID. Choroi'dcus ; from xopiov, 
the chorion, and Eidoc, resemblance. A 
name applied to several parts because of 
their resemblance, in the vascularity of 
their structure, to the chorion. 

Choroid Membrane. Membrana cho- 
roides. The choroid tunic, a dark vascular 
membrane of the eye, between the sclerot- 
ica and the retina. 

Choroid Muscle. Ciliary muscle. 

Choroid Plexus. Plexus choroidals. 
Two membranous and vascular duplicatures 
of the pia mater, situated in the lateral 
ventricle of the brain. 

CHREMMA. Sputum. 

CHRISIS. Xpiaig. From XP M , I anoint. 
Inunction. The anointing of any part. 

CHRISTE'RION. An ointment or lini- 

CHROA. Chroma. Color in general. 
The surface of the body ; the skin. 

CHRO'MAS. A chromate, or salt formed 
by the union of chromic acid with salifia- 
ble bases. 

CHROMATICS. From xpopa, color. 
That part of optics which treats of the col- 
ors of light and natural objects. 

CHROMIC ACID. An acid composed 
of one part of chromium and three of oxy- 
gen. Its salts are red or yellow. It has 
been used as an escharotic in external 

CHROMIDRO'SIS. Abnormal colora- 
tion of the sweat. 

CHRO'MIUM. From XP^W, color, be- 
cause it gives color to its combinations. A 




whitish, brittle, and very infusible metal, 
extracted from the native chromate of lead 
or iron. By heating it with nitre it is 
converted into chromic acid. 

CHROMOGEN. Vegetable coloring 
matter acted upon by acids or alkalies, 
producing yellow or green tints. 

CHROMOP'SIA. Chrup'sia; from jpupft, 
color, and otpig } vision. Colored vision. 

CHROMULE. Chlorophyll. 

CHRONIC. Ghronicus; from XP 0V0 S, time. 
A term aj>plied to diseases of long continu- 
ance, and, for the most part, without fever. 

CHRONO-THERMAL. A fanciful no- 
tion that medicines are electrical in their 
action, erected, as usual, into a " system." 

CHRUP'SIA. From xpoa, color, and 
oipig, sight. A disease of the eyes, or a 
state of vision, in which a colored impres- 
sion is made on the retina. 

CHRYSALIS. From xpvaog, gold. The 
second or inactive state of a metabolion or 
changeable insect, embracing the period 
when it is enclosed in a transparent cover- 
ing, which sometimes reflects a metallic 
lustre, and hence the appellation. 

plants of the order Compositce. They have 
been naturalized in this country. 

Chrysanthemum Leucan'themum. Ox- 
eye daisy. Maudlin-wort. 

Chrysanthemum Parthe'nium. Ma- 
tricaria parthenium. Motherwort. 

CHRYSITTS. From xpwog, gold. Lith- 

gold, and ftalavog, a nut ; so called because 
it is yellow before it is dried. The nut- 
meg. See Myristica Moschata. 

CHRYSOB'ERYL. A mineral of a green 
color and vitreous lustre. 

CHRYSOCOL'LA. From xpvooc, gold, 
and /coAAa, cement. Old name for borax, be- 
cause it was employed in soldering gold. 

CHRYSOCOMA. Milfoil or yarrow. 

CHRYSOGONIA. From XP"°og, gold, 
and yivojiai, to become. A tincture of gold. 

CHRYS'OLITE. From xpvoog, gold, and 
?li$oc, a stone. Topaz. 

CHRYS'OPRASE. A silicious mineral 
of a pale-green color. 


CHRYSULCUS. From xp^oog, gold, 
and eX/cw, to take away. Aqua regia, or 
nitro-muriatic acid. 

CHURRUS. Bangue. The resinous 
juice of Indian hemp, Cannabis Indica. 
It is employed in the East as a narcotic 
and anti-spasmodic. 

CHUSITE. A very fusible yellowish- 
green, translucent mineral. 

CHYAZIC. Initials of carbon, #?/dro- 
gen and azote. Of, or belonging to a com- 
bination of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. 
Applied to prussic acid. 

CHYLE. XvAof, juice. A nutritive 
fluid of a milky appearance, found in the 
lacteal vessels of the mesentery, and in the 
thoracic duct, extracted from the food by 
the absorbents of the intestines, after it has 
been submitted to the action of digestion. 

teals, which carry the chyle from the intes- 
tines to the thoracic duct. 

CHYLIFICATTON. Ghylifica'tio; from 
Xv^og t and facere, to make. The process 
by which the chyle is formed or separated 
from the chyme. 

CHYLIS'MA. From X"^oc, juice. An 
extract, or expressed juice. 

CHYLOG 'R APH Y. From X»**C, chyle, 
and ypatyy, a description. A description of 
the chyle, and of the parts which elaborate 

CHYLOPOIET'IC. Chylopoieti'cus; from 
Xvh)g , chyle, and noieu, I make. Any thing 
connected with the formation of chyle, as 
the chylopoietic viscera, vessels, &c. 

CHYLOPOINE. A term used by CI. 
Bernard to express the active principle of 
the pancreatic juice. 

CHYLO'SIS. The process by which 
food is changed into chyle. Chylification, 
or the formation of chyle. 

CHYLOSTAG'MA. Distillation or ex- 
pression of juice from solids. 

CHYLU'RIA. From x^oc, chyle, and 
ovpov, urine. A discharge of milky urine, 
without any apparent lesion of the urinary 

CHYLUS. XvXof. Chyl*. 




CHYME. Chymiis ; from x»P°C , juice. 
A homogeneous mass, formed by the food 
in the stomach, and from which, after it 
passes into the intestines, the chyle is sepa- 

CHYMIA. Xvpta. Chemistry. 

CHYMIA'TER. A chemical physician. 

CHYMIATRI A. The art of curing dis- 
eases by chemical remedies. 

CHYMIFICA'TION. Chimijica'tio; from 
xv/xoc, juice, and facere, to make. The con- 
version of foed into chyme. 

CHYM'ISTRY. Chemistry. 

CHYTLEN, RADIX. A cylindrical 
root, of a bitterish taste, brought from 
China. The Chinese hold it in high esti- 
mation for its stomachic virtues. 

CHYT'LON. From x^, I pour out. A 
mixture of oil and water formerly used for 
bathing the body. 

CI'ATOME. An instrument for dividing 
pseudo-membranous bands in the rectum 
or bladder. 

CIBA'LIS. From cibus, food. Of, or 
belonging to, food. 

CIBA'TIO. From cibus, food. The act 
of taking food. 

CICA'DA. A genus of insects, cele- 

CICER. A genus of plants of the order 

CrcEB Arieti'num. The chick pea- 

CICHO'RIUM. A genus of plants of the 
order cichoracece. 

Cichorium Endiv'ia. The endive, a bit- 
ter salad. 

Cichorium In'tybus. Wild succory. 
The juice of the root is said to be aperi- 

CICIN'DELA. The Lampyn's noctUuca, 
or glow-worm ; formerly supposed to be an- 
odyne and lithontriptic, but not now used. 

CI'CINUM OLEUM. An oil obtained 
from the bruised seeds of Jatropha curcas, 
possessing properties similar to castor oil. 

CICO'NIA. A stork ; a genus of wad- 
ing birds of the tribe Cultrirostres of Cuvier. 

CICU'TA. A genus of plants of the 
order Aptacece. Until recently the term 
was often applied to conium maculatum, 
a different genus. 

Cicuta Aquat'ica. Cicuta virosa, an 
active poison, seldom employed medicin- 

Cicuta Macula'ta. American water 
hemlock ; spotted cowbane ; beaver poison. 

brated for their powers of song or shrill ! It is a powerful narcotic, seldom employed 
chirp, embracing the tree-hopper, frog-hop- in practice, and is supposed to be identical 
per, &c. The manna of the shops is the , with cicuta virosa. 

inspissated juice of the Fraxinus ornus, ex- 
uded from the wounds inflicted by the 
Cicada orni. 

CICATRIC'ULA. Diminutive of Ci- 
catrix. A small cicatrix ; applied also to 
the small white speck seen on the yolk of 
the fecundated egg. 

CICATRISANT. Cicatris'ans; from ci- 
catrizo, to skin over. Such applications as 

CICUTA'RIA. Cicuta, hemlock. Bas- 
tard hemlock. 

CIDER. A fermented liquor, made from 
the expressed juice of apples. 

CIL'IA. Blephar'ides. The eyelashes, 
or hairs on the eyelids. 

CIL'IARY. CUia'ris. Belonging to the 

Ciliary Ar'teries. The ciliary arteries 

are supposed to dispose wounds and ulcers are divided into short, or posterior, and 
to dry up and heal. j anterior. The first are numerous and pene- 

CICATRIX. From cicatrizo, to heal trate the sclerotic coat of the eye near the 
up, or skin over. A scar upon the skin optic nerve, and spread out upon the cho- 
after the healing of a wound or ulcer. j roid membrane and supply the iris and 

CICATRIZATION. The process by ciliary processes. They originate from the 
which a wound or ulcer cicatrizes. I ophthalmic artery in three or four branches, 

CICELY, SWEET. A plant, scandix but are divided into about twenty by the 
odorata, Myrrhis odorata, possessing arc- time they arrive at the sclerotica. The an- 
matic, aperient and diuretic properties, terior ciliary arteries are few in number, 
Scandix odorata. I and pierce the sclerotica near the cornea, 




and are principally distributed upon the 

Ciliary Body. A ring of the choroid 
coat of the eye, surrounding the crys- 
talline lens like a crown placed behind the 
iris and ciliary circle. 

Ciliary Circle. Ciliary ligament. 

Ciliary Ligament. A grayish ring 
situated between the iris, cornea and scle- 

Ciliary Margin. The border of the 

Ciliary Muscle. That part of the or- 
bicularis palpebrarum in the vicinity of the 

Ciliary Nerves. The nerves of tho 
ciliary ligament. 

Ciliary Processes. The radiated plaits 
of the choroid membrane, which resemble 
the disk of a radiated flower, lodged in the 
depressions of the anterior part of the vit- 
reous humor. 

Ciliary Stiile. Pale radiated stria? in 
the posterior part of the ciliary body, so 
covered with pigment as not to be seen 
distinctly till that is removed. 

Ciliary Veins. Vasa vorticosa. They 
follow the same course as the arteries, and 
discharge their blood into the ophthalmic 

Ciliary Zone. Ciliary crown, ciliary 
disk. The appearance, like the disk of a 
flower, which the pigment between the cil- 
iary processes leaves on the hyaloid mem- 

CILIATED. Ciliatus. Fringed with 
fine hairs like the eyelashes. 

CILIOGRADE. Ciliograda; from cti!- 
ium, and gradior, I proceed. A tribe of 
Acalephoz or sea-nettles, which swim by 
means of cilia. 

CILTUM. From cileo, to twinkle. The 

CIL'LO. From cilium, the eyelid. One 
affected with cillosis. 

CILLO'SIS. A perpetual spasmodic 
trembling of the eyelids. 

CI'MEX. A genus of Hemipterous in- 
sects, characterized by a lengthened and 
jointed proboscis, with sharp, bristle-like 
processes employed in wounding the vege- 

table and animal substances from which 
they obtain their subsistence. The Cimex 
lectularius, or bed-bug, may be regarded 
as the type of this numerous tribe of in- 

CIMICIC ACID. From cimex, a bug. 
An acid obtained by Thenard from the 

racemosa; black snake-root, a plant pos- 
sessing tonic, antispasmodic and expector- 
ant properties. 


CIMOLITE. A grayish white earth, 
consisting of silex, alumina, oxyd of iron, 
and water. Cimolian earth. 

CINA CINA. Cinchona. 

CINARA. A genus of plants of the or- 
der Compositor. 

Cinara Scolymus. The artichoke. 

CINCHO'NA. The name of several 
kinds of Peruvian bark, the use of which 
is said to have been discovered by this cir- 
cumstance : Some of the trees from which 
it is procured having been blown by the 
wind into a pool of water, they lay there 
until they had imparted to it such a bitter 
taste that every body refused to drink it ; 
but a person residing in the neighborhood, 
was seized with a fever, and not being able 
to procure other water to quench his thirst, 
drank of this, and was soon completely 
cured. This circumstance was related to 
others ill of fevers, who drank it and were 
cured. Its use, however, as a medicinal 
agent, did not become general, until about 
the year 1638, when the Spanish viceroy's 
lady, the Countess de Cinchon, was cured 
of fever by it at Lima, and hence the ap- 
pellation of cortex cinchona?, and pulvis 
comitissre, or the countess' powder. It was 
afterwards introduced into Europe by the 
Jesuits, among whom the countess, on her 
recovery, had distributed it, and thence 
arose the name of cortex or pulvis Jesuiti- 
cus, Jesuit's bark ; called also cardinal de 
Lugo's powder, because a large quantity 
of it was taken to Rome for the use of the 
religious poor by that charitable prelate. 

Cinchona is called, also, cortex; bark; 




Peruvian bark; cortex China; China 
Chinchina ; kina; kinkina ; quina quina; 
quinquina. These barks are possessed of 
bitter, astringent, tonic and febrifuge prop- 
erties, and have constituted one of the most 
valuable remedies of the materia medica, 
in the treatment of intermittent fevers, as 
well as other diseases, but since the dis- 
covery of their active principle, quinina, 
they have not been so much used. 

Cinchona Alkalies. Cinchonia; quinio, 
and aricina. They are regarded as oxyds 
of a common base, termed quinogen. 

Cinchona Barks, False. Barks pro- 
cured from trees formerly ranked among 
the Cinchonacece and distinguished from 
the true Peruvian bark by the absence of 
quinia and cinchonia. 

Cinchona Flava. Yellow Bark, called 
in commerce Calisaya Bark. There are 
several other varieties of yellow bark, but 
the Calisaya, the product of the Cinchona 
Canceolata, is the most valuable. 

Cinchona Pallida. Pale Bark, called 
in commerce Loxa Bark. There are several 
other commercial varieties, but this is the 
most highly esteemed, and is the produce 
of the Cinchona condaminea. 

Cinchona Rubra. Red Bark, called in 
South America cascarilla roxa and Colorado. 
This is from an undetermined species of 

CINCHONACE.E. The Cinchona tribe 
of dicotyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs 
with leaves opposite ; flowers in panicles ; 
stamens arising from the corolla ; fruit in- 
ferior, either splitting into two cacci or in- 

CINCHONIA. Cinchonina; cinchonine. 
The active principle of cinchona lancifolia. 
An organic, crystalline alkali, of a white 
color, bitter taste, slightly astringent, sol- 
uble in 2500 parts of boiling water, but 
very soluble in boiling alcohol, and slight- 
ly soluble in ether and the fixed and vola- 
tile oils. But the sulphate of cinchonia, 
which is formed directly from cinchonia, is 
soluble in water as well as alcohol. 

CINCHONIC ACID. Kinic acid; an 
acid found in Cinchona barks, and in the 
alburnum of Abies communis. 

Cinchonic Red. An insoluble red sub- 
stance found in Cinchona barks. 

CINCIN'NUS. The hair on the tem- 

CIN'CLESIS. Involuntary winking or 

CINERARIUM. The ash-pit of a fur- 

CFNERES. Plural of cinis, ashes. 

Cineres Clavellati. Poiassa im- 
pura. Pearl-ash. 

CINERPTIOUS. Cineritius; fromew- 
is, ashes. Of the color of ashes. The cor- 
tical substance of the brain is sometimes 
so called, from its resemblance to ashes. 

CINET'ICA. KivrinKog, having the pow- 
er of motion. Diseases affecting the mus- 
cles. Spasms. The third order in the 
class neuroses, in the Nosology of Dr. 

CINETUS. The diaphragm. 

CIN'GULUM. From cingo, I bind. A 
girdle applied to the body below the ribs. 

Cingulum Hildani. A leathern girdle 
formerly used for the reduction of luxations 
and fractures of the extremities. 

Cingulum Mercuria'le. A girdle of 
flannel applied to the loins, containing 
mercurial ointment. 

CINIS. Ashes. 

CINNABAR. Hydrargyri sulphxiretum 
rubrum. A sulphuret of mercury. It oc- 
curs native, and is made artificially. The 
former appears in the form of brilliant red 
crystals, and also in amorphous masses of 
different shades of red and brown ; the lat- 
ter is the red bisulphuret, the vermilion of 

CINNAMIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from the oil of cinnamon. 

CINNAMO'MUM. From Kinnan, He- 
brew. A genus of plants of the order 

Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. The tree 
which yields the Ceylon cinnamon, the 
Laurus cassia of the gardens. 

Cinnamomum Cassia. Cinnamomum 
Aromatkum. The cinnamon cassia, which 
yields the cassia lignea, cassia buds, and 
cassia bark of commerce. 




CIN'NAMON. The bark of Cinnamo- 
mum Zeylanicum, and of cinnamomum aro- 

Cinnamon Stone. A silicate of lime, 
alumina, and oxyd of iron ; a rare mine- 
ral, from Ceylon, of a hyacinth-red color, 
or yellowish brown. 

Cinnamon Suet. An oily and waxy 
product of the cinnamon tree s used in 
Ceylon for making candles. 

CIN'NAMYL. Cinnamide. The hypo- 
thetical radical of cinnamon oil, &c. 

CINOPLANE'SIS. From kcvsu, I move, 
and ■nlavijaiq, a wandering about. Irregu- 
lar motion. 

CTNQUEFOIL. A creeping plant, called 
five-leaved grass ; a species of PotentUla. 

CION. Kiuv. The uvula was formerly 
so called from its pyramidal shape. 

CI'ONIS. From kiuv, the uvula. Swell- 
ing and elongation of the uvula. 

CIONI'TIS. From kluv, the uvula, and 
itis, signifying inflammation. Inflamma- 
tion of the uvula. 

CIOT'OMY. Excision of the uvula. 

CIRCxE'A. From Circe, the enchantress. 
A genus of plants. Enchanter's night- 

CIR'CINATE. To make a circle; to 
compass. Applied in Botany to leaves, 
and other parts when rolled inward from 
the point to the base, like the young frond 
of a fern. 

CIRCOCE'LE. Cirsocele. 

CIR'CULAR. Gircidaris; from circu- 
lus, a circle. Having the form of a circle. 

CIRCULATION, Circtda'lio; from cir- 
culus, a circle, or from circum, around, and 
ferre, latum, to carry. In Physiology, the 
circulation of the blood through the differ- 
ent vessels of the body. In this vital ac- 
tion, the blood is ejected from the left ven- 
tricle of- the heart into the aorta and taken 
to every part of the body, passes into the 
veins and is returned to the right auricle of 
the heart, which, after distending to re- 
ceive it, contracts and forces it into the 
right ventricle. Thence it passes into the 
pulmonary artery, is conveyed to the lungs, 
and brought back to the heart by the pul- 
monary veins ; entering the left auricle, it 

is forced into the left ventricle, to be again 
conveyed by the arteries to the different 
parts of the body. 

Circulation, Capillary. The passage 
of the blood through the minute vessels 
which lie between the arteries and veins, 
and penetrate all the tissues. The blood, 
in its passage through these vessels, is 
changed from arterial to venous, 

Ciuculation, Fostal, See Fcetal Cir- 

CIRCULA'TOR. From circvlo, to com- 
pass about. A wandering quack. A char- 

CIRCULATO'RIUM. Old name for a 
digesting vessel in which the fluid is made 
to perform a circulating motion. 

CIR'CULUS. A circle or ring. In 
Anatomy, any part of the body which is 
round like a circle, as the circulus octtlL 

Circulus Arteriosus I'ridis. Th« 
artery which forms a circle round the iris. 

Circulus Articuli Vasculo'sus. The 
narrow vascular border formed around the 
articular cartilages by the abrupt termina- 
tion of the subsynovial vessels. 

Circulus Osseus. The bony ring of 
the foetus, afterwards united to the tempo- 
ral bone, forming the meatus auditorius 

Circulus Quad'ruplex. The name of 
a bandage used by the ancients. 

Circulus Tonsillaris. A plexus 
formed by the lingual and glossopharyn- 
geal nerves around the tonsil. 

Circulus Willisii. The circle of Wil- 
lis ; an anastomosis between the branches of 
the vertebral and internal carotid arteries 
within the cranium. 

CIRCUMAGENT'ES. The oblique mus- 
cles of the eye. 

The conjunctiva. 

CIRCUMCISTON. Circumcisw ; from 
eircumccedo, to cut about. An operation 
practiced among the Jews, consisting in 
the removal of a portion of the prepuce of 
the infant, by a circular operation. 

CIRCUMDUCTION. Circumdudio. 
See Perisphalsis. 






worker of circumduction ; an epithet for 
the superior oblique muscle of the eye. 

CIRCUMFLEX. A name applied to 
various arteries of the extremities. 

passing around the crest of the ilium, 
springing from the external iliac. 

CIRCUMFLEX'US. From circum, 
around, and flexus, bent. Bent circularly. 
In Anatomy, a name given to several or- 
gans of the body. A muscle of the palate. 

Circumflexus Pala'ti. Tensor palati. 
A muscle of the palate, which arises from 
the spinous process of the sphenoid bone, 
and is inserted into the velum pendulum 
palati, and the semilunar edge of the os 
palati, extending as far as the suture which 
unites the two bones. 

CIRCUMFU'SA. In Hygiene, every 
thing which acts externally and generally 
upon man. 

CIRCUMGYRA'TIO. From circum- 
gyro, to turn round. Turning a limb 
around in its socket. Vertigo. 


CIRCUMSCIS'SILE. Gircumscissus. 
From circumscindo, to cut round about. 
Circumcised. Applied in Botany to a mem- 
branous capsule cut round transversely by 
a circular fissure. 

CIR'CUMSCRIBED. In Medicine, tu- 
mors which are distinct at their base from 
the surrounding parts. 

CIRRHO'SIS. From mppog, yellow. A 
term applied in Pathology, by Laence, to 
a morbid yellow concretion of the liver. 

CIR'RIPEDS. Clrripedia. From cir- 
rus, a tendril, and pes, a foot. Curly- 
footed ; a class of homogangliatc animals, 
having a number of long, curled, articu- 
lated processes, projecting from the central 
aperture of the multivalve shell protecting 
the body. They are commonly called bar- 

CIR'ROSE. Clr'rhose; Clrro'sus ; from 
cirrus, a tendril. A term applied in Bot- 
any to organs which terminate in a spiral 
filiform appendage or tendril, as the Peti- 
ole of pisum sativum. 

CIRRUS. A tendril ; a curl. 

CIRSOCE'LE. From mpaog, a dilated 
vein, and mkri, a tumor. Morbid enlarge- 
ment of the veins of the scrotum. 

CIRSOMTHALUS. From icipaog, a di- 
lated vein, or varix, and op<j>alog } navel. 
Varicose condition of the veins surrounding 
the navel. 

CIRSOPHTHAL'MIA. From atpaog, 
and otydalfiog, the eye. A varicose condi- 
tion of the vessels of the eye. 

CIRSOT'OMY. From Kipaog, a varix, 
and to/itj, an incision. The removal, by 
incision, of varices. 

CIRSUS. Kipaog ; from mpaou, to dilate. 
A morbid distention of any part of a vein. 
A varix. 

CISSAMTELOS. A genus of plants 
of the order Menispermaceai. 

Cissampelos Pakeiba. The systematic 
name of the pareira brava, a plant, the root 
of which is said to possess anti-nephritic 
and calculous properties. 

CISSA'RUS. See Cistus Creticus. 

CIS'TA. From KUfiai, to lie. A cyst. 

CISTER'NA. From cista, a cist. Parts 
of the body which serve as repositories for 
fluids. The fourth ventricle of the brain 
is also so called. 

CISTUS. A genus of plants, of the 
order Cistacece. 

Cistus Creticus. The plant from which 
the ladanum is obtained; a gum resin 
which exudes from the leaves. 

CIT'RATE. A salt of citric acid. 

Citrate of Ammonia. Ammonia cit- 
ras. A salt formed by neutralizing ses- 
quicarbonate of ammonia with citric acid. 

Citrate of Potash. A salt formed 
by evaporating to dryness a solution of cit- 
ric acid, saturated by carbonate of potassa. 

CITREUM. The citron tree. 

CITRIC. Of, or belonging to, the lemon. 

Citric Acid. Acidum citricum. Acid 
of lemons. 

nitrate of mercury. 

CITRFNULA. A diminutive of citrus. 
A small lemon. 

CITRON. See Citrus Medica. 

CITRULLUS. Cucurbita citrullus. 
CITRUS. The lemon. See Citrus Medica. 




Citrus Aurantium. The systematic 
name of the orange tree. 

Citrus Medica. The systematic name 
of the lemon tree. The citron is the same 
species of tree as the lemon. 

Citrus Vulga'ris. The Citrus Auran- 

CITTA. An inordinate or voracious 

CITTARA SPRINGS. Thermal springs 
in the Isle of Ischia. The waters contain 
carbonate and sulphate of lime and muri- 
ate of soda. 

CIVET'TA. An unctuous odoriferous 
drug, obtained from a fold in the skin be- 
tween the anus and organs of generation 
of an animal called a civet cat. 

Clack-pivot ; a method of attaching an 
artificial crown to the root of a natural 
tooth invented by Maggiola. See Pivot 
tooth, manner of inserting. 

traria Islandica. 

Cladonia Rangiferina. Reindeer 
moss ; a very nutritious species of Lich- 

Ash, Fustic Tree, Yellow Locust. An in- 
digenous tree flourishing in the Western 
and Southern States. The bark and root 
are cathartic. 

CLAMP. In Mechanical Dentistry, a 
piece of round or flattened iron wire or 
other metal not easily fused, bent in such 
a manner as to hold two or more pieces of 
gold or silver in contact with each other 
while they are being soldered together. 

CLAIRVOYANCE. Clear-seeing. A 
power supposed to be communicated to 
persons by animal magnetism, by which 
they are said to discern objects not present, 
to see through stone-walls, and to have the 
quality of vision diffused over the whole 

CLAP. Gonorrhoea. 

CLAQUEMENT. A French word, sig- 
nifying chattering of the teeth. 

CLAR'ET. Claretum ; from clareo, to 
be clear. A light French wine, possessing 
tonic and anti-dyspeptic properties, used, 

sometimes, with advantage in typhoid fe- 

CLARETA. Old name for the albumen 
of the egg. 

CLARETUM. Claret. 

Claretum Laxati'vum. Old name for 
wine impregnated with senna, mechoa- 
canna, turbeth and aromatics. 

Claretum Purgato'rium. Old name 
for a vinous solution of glass of antimony 
with cinnamon water and sugar, used as an 
emetic and purgative ; called, also, vivum 
Ilippocratium antimonialc. 

CLASIS. Clasma. Fracture. 

CLARIFICATION. Glarificatio ; de- 
jmration ; from clarus, clear, and facio, I 
make. The process of freeing a fluid from 
all insoluble and heterogeneous matters. 

CLASP. In Mechanical Dentistry, a 
hook fitted to a tooth, and designed for 
the retention of a dental substitute or other 
apparatus to be worn in the mouth. See 
Metallic Base for Artificial Teeth. 

CLASP'ER. In Botany, the tendril of 
a vine or other part, which twines around 
any thing for support. 

CLASPING. In Botany, partly or 
wholly surrounding the stem with the base 
of the leaf. 

CLASS. Classis. In Natural History 
and Medicine, a group or assemblage of a 
certain number of objects having one or 
more common characters. A scientific di- 
vision or arrangement of objects. A class 
comprehends the minor divisions of order, 
genus, species and varieties. 

CLASSIFICATION. Classificatio ; 
from classis, a class. The act of classify- 
ing or arranging objects or things into 

CLAUDICATION. Claudicatio ; from 
claudicare, to be lame. Halting or limp- 

CLAUSTRUM. From claudere, to shut. 
An aperture capable of contracting itself, 
as the throat. 

CLAUS'URE. Clausura. In Anatomy, 
an imperforation of a canal or cavity. 

CLAVARIA. A genus of fungi. 

Clavaria Coralloi'des. Goat's-beard 
mushroom. Coral wort. Formerly used as 




a corroborant and astringent. It is said to 
have been found growing on the splints of 
white wood used in the treatment of frac- 
tures, at the Hotel Dieu. 

CLAVATB. Club-shaped ; larger at top 
than bottom. 

CLAVA'TIO. From clava, a club. An 
articulation which does not admit of mo- 
tion, as that of the teeth in their sockets, 
called gomphosis. 

CLAVICLE. ClavieuLa, diminutive of 
davis, a key. The clavicle or collar-bone. 

CLAVIS. The clavicle. A key. 

CLAVUS. A nail. A term applied in 
Pathology to a horny cutaneous extuber- 
ance, having a central nucleus, and sensi- 
tive at its base, as corns on the toes, pro- 
duced by pressure of tight shoes. Also, a 
painful, pulsating affection of the forehead, 
giving a sensation like what might be sup- 
posed would be produced by driving a nail 
into this part of the head. When con- 
nected with hysteria, it is termed clavus 

Clavus Occlorum. A staphyloma, 
or tumor on the eye-ball. 

Clavus Secali'nus. Ergot. * 

CLAW. In Botany, the taper base of 
a petal. In Dental Surgery, the hook of 
the key-instrument is somecimes so called. 

CLAY. Argilla. An argillaceous earth ; 
of which there are a number of varieties, 
consisting of silica, variable quantities of 
alumina, and generally of more or less 
oxyd of iron. They are used in the man- 
ufacture of pottery, and, some of them, in 
the manufacture of porcelain ware and min- 
eral teeth. See Mineral Teeth and Kaolin. 

CLEANS1NGS. Lochia. 

CLEAVAGE. The natural line of sep- 
aration exhibited in crystals when their 
laminae are separated by mechanical force. 

CLEAVERS. Galium aparine ; goose- 

CLEFT. In Botany, split or separated 
less than half-way. 

Clkft Palate. A separation or fissure 
extending, sometimes, through both the 
hard and soft palate, in the direction from 
before backward, along the median line, 
causing the buccal and nasal cavities to 

communicate with each other. See Palate, 
Congenital defects of. 

CLEIDION. The clavicle. Also, an 
astringent pastil or epithem. 

the clavicle, and uaoToeidris, the mastoid pro- 
cess. The sterno-cleido-mastoideus muscle. 

CLEIS'AGRA. Firom K*$ts , the clavicle, 
and ay pa, a seizure. Gout in the articu- 
lations of the clavicle. 

CLEM'ATIS. A genus of plants of the 
order Banunculaceoz. 

Clematis Dapiinoi'des. The less peri- 

Clematis Passiflo'ra. The passion 

Clematis Rec'ta. The systematic name 
of the upright virgin's bower ; a plant, the 
leaves of which are said to possess anti- 
venereal virtues. 

Clematis Vital'ba. The systematic 
name of the traveller's-joy. 

CLEO'NIS GLUTEN. An astringent 
formula of myrrh, frankincense, and the 
white of an egg. 

CLIMACTERIC. Climacter'ieus ; from 
K?aua.KT7ip, a step. By degrees, but com- 
monly applied to certain critical periods 
of life, or periods at which certain great 
changes occur, as the periods of puberty 
in both sexes ; the cessation of the flow of 
the menses in women, &c. 

Climacteric Diseases. A term some- 
times applied to a general alteration of 
health, occurring at a certain period of life, 
and characterized by gradual loss of the 

Climacteric Teething. The develop- 
ment of teeth at a very late period of life 
after the loss of those of the second denti- 
tion, and usually between the sixty-third 
and eighty-first year^ the grand climacteric 
years of the Greek physiologists. 

Climacteric Years. From remote an- 
tiquity, a peculiar importance has been at- 
tached to certain periods in the life of man ; 
periods at which great changes are sup- 
posed to occur in his health and fortunes. 
It is said that this superstitious belief had 
its origin in the doctrines of Pythagoras. 
Sixty-three was regarded by the ancients 




as a climacterical year of peculiar danger, 
and it was called by astrologers, " heroi- 
cus," from a prevalent belief that it was 
particularly fatal to great men. This year 
seems to have derived its peculiar import- 
ance from its being a multiple of the mys- 
tical years of seven and nine. According 
to most writers the climacteric periods in 
the life of man are multiples of the num- 
ber seven; others have applied the term 
to years resulting from the multiplication 
of seven by an odd number. Almost all 
countries have attached a peculiar import- 
ance to tb/>se years indicated by compounds 
of the number seven. Hence fourteen years 
have been fixed for the period of puberty ; 
twenty-one for adult age, and Aristotle has 
selected thirty- five for the perfection of 
bodily vigor, forty-nine for the perfection 
of the mind; sixty-three, as the grand 
climacteric, and seventy as the ordinary 
limit of the age of man. In old age, or 
after the vital powers of the system begin 
to decline, an effort is sometimes supposed 
to be made, at these periods, by the econ- 
omy, to renew the body. 

CLIMATE. From dUpa, a region. The 
word climate is differently defined. Ac- 
cording to some, it is a space upon the sur- 
face of the terrestrial globe, between two 
circles, forming a belt parallel to the equa- 
tor, and measured according to the length 
of days. But in a hygienic sense, it is the 
prevailing constitution of the atmosphere, 
relative to heat, cold, moisture and wind, 
peculiar to any region ; also, its purity or 
mixture with miasmatic and gaseous ema- 
nations. Climate depends upon a variety 
of circumstances, as its distance from the 
equator, its distance from, and altitude 
above the level of the sea, the extent, con- 
figuration, inclination and local exposure 
of the country, the nature of the soil, the 
effects resulting from cultivation, the direc- 
tion of the mountains by which it is inter- 
sected, or that are in its vicinity, and the 
actions of the winds by which the temper- 
atures of different latitudes are blended. 

The circumstances connected with cli- 
mate exert a powerful influence upon the 
animal economy ; they modify the charac- 

ter of disease as well as the action of rem- 
edies. They also determine the physical 
characteristics of the different races of man- 
kind. But for full information upon these 
subjects, we would refer the reader to the 
works of Sir James Clark and Dr. Torry. 

CLIMATTC. Belonging to, or depend- 
ent upon climate. 

CLINANTHUS. Clinanthium; from 
kIivt), a bed, and avdog, a flower. In Bot- 
any, the common receptacle of compound 

CLIN'ICAL. Clinicus ; from k?uvt), a 
bed. In Pathology, the transactions which 
take place, especially the instructions giveu 
at the sick bed. 

Clinical Lecture. A lecture given 
at the bed-side, or on a particular case of 

Clinical Medicine. That which is 
occupied with the investigation of disease 
at the bed-side, or with individual cases of 

CLI'NIUM. In Botany, the summit of 
a floral branch, of which the carpella are 
the termination. 

CLINKER. The vitreous substance 
which collects in furnaces and stoves where 
stone coal is used ; also the black oxyd of 
iron of the smith's forge. 

CLINK-STONE. A dark greenish- 
grays yellowish, bluish, or ashy-gray 
mineral, of a slaty structure, generally 
arranged in tabular masses, and usually 
translucent at its edges. 

CLINOID. CHnoideus ; from kIlvt), a 
bed, and et6og } resemblance. Eesembling 
a bed. 

Clinoid Processes. The four processes 
at the upper surfaee of the sphenoid bone, 
which surround the sella turcica, are so 
called from their resemblance to the posts 
of a bedstead; two are anterior and two 

CLINOM'ETER. An instrument for 
measuring the dip of mineral strata. 

basil, a plant formerly held in high repute 
against the bite of serpents, and also used 
to facilitate parturition. 

CLIPPINGS. A term applied, in the 




Dental Laboratory, to the small portions of 
gold, platina, or silver, which are cut from 
a plate in shaping the dimensions of a 
base, or other portions of the metallic part 
of a dental substitute, or piece of dental 

CLISEOM'ETER. An instrument for 
measuring the angle which the axis of the 
pelvis makes with that of the body. 

tor Clitoridis. 

CLIT'ORIS. From uleiu, to enclose or 
hide; so called because it is hid by the 
labia pudendorum. A small, round or- 
gan situated above the nympha3 at the 
upper part of the vulva, before the orifice 
of the urethra in females. 

CLITORIS'MUS. An enlargement of 
the clitoris ; also Sapphism. 

CLIVERS. Clevers. Goose-grass; Gali- 
um aparine. 

CLOA'CA. A cavity at the extremity of 
the intestinal canal in birds, reptiles, many 
fishes, and some mammals, in which the 
urinary ducts in both sexes, and vagina in 
females, terminate. 

CLONIC. From nlovog, agitation. Ir- 
regular s]>asmodic, or convulsive motions ; 
opposed to tonic. 

CLONODES. A term formerly applied 
to a vibrating pulse. 

CLONUS. From k2,oveu, to agitate. 
Clonic spasms. 

CLOT. Coagulum ; a clot of blood. 

CLOTTY. Made up of clots. 

CLOVE. The unexpanded flower-bud 
of the clove-tree, Caryophyllus aramati- 

Clove-Pink. Carnation pink. 

CLUB-FEET. A deformity, either con- 
genital or acquired, but usually the for- 
mer, caused by a contraction of the exten- 
sor muscles of the feet. The affection has 
been variously designated according to the 
nature of the deformity, as tip-foot, when 
the heel is drawn upward and the patient 
is compelled to walk on his toes ; knot-foot, 
when he walks on the back of his foot ; 
■cross-foot, when he walks on the outer 
edge ; out-bow-foot, when he walks on the 
inner edge, and heel-club-foot, when his 

toes are drawn upward so that he is com- 
pelled to walk on his heels. 

CLUNE'SIA. From dunes, the nates. 
Inflammation of the buttocks. 

CLU'PEA. A genus of fishes. Sprats 
and herrings. 

Clupea Alo'sa. The shad. This has 
been erected into a new genus, Alosa. 

Clupea Encrasic'olus. The anchovy. 

Clupea Hareng'us. The common her- 

Clupea Lat'ulus. The whitebait. 

Clupea Filchard'us. The pilchard. 

Clupea Thrys'sa. The yellow-billed 
sprat of the West India seas. 

CLU 'SI A. A genus of plants of the 
order Clusiacece. 

Clusia Lnsignis. A plant, the flowers 
of which exude resinous gum, highly es- 
teemed in the West Indies as a vulnerary. 
It is also employed with butter of cocoa 
on the sore breasts of nursing women. 


CLY'DON. Klvduv. Flatulence; fluc- 
tuation of the contents of the abdomen. 

roid cartilage. 

CLYP'EATE. From clypeus, a shield. 

CLYS'MA. A clyster. 

CLYSTER. Clysterivm; from nlvfa, 
to wash. A liquid thrown into the rectum 
by means of a syringe or bladder, with a 
pipe — the nozzle of the instrument being 
introduced into the anus. 

Clyster Tipe. A tube or pipe used 
for injections. 

CNE'ME. The tibia. 

CNEMO-DACTYL^EUS. Extensor lon- 
gus digitorum pedis., 

CNEMOLORDO'SIS. Bending of the 
leg forward. 

CNEMOSCOLIO'SIS. Bending of the 
leg sidewise. Bandy-leg. 

olive. It contains a powerful acrid prin- 
ciple, and was formerly used as a purga- 

CNE'SIS. From nvau, to scratch. Cnes- 
mos. Painful itching. 




CNICIN. A crystalline substance ob- 
tained from Cnicus benedidus. 

CNICUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Asteraccce. 

Cnicus Benedictus. Ccntaurea; blessed 
thistle. It is tonic, diaphoretic or emetic, 
according to the mode of administration. 

CNIDO'SIS. From Kvt&n, the nettle. 
An itching sensation like that produced by 
the nettle. A dry ophthalmia. 

CNISSOREG'MIA. From Kvtooa, the 
smell of burnt fat, and opeyu, to put forth. 
A nidorous eructation resembling rotten 


CNY'MA. A slight itching ; also a punc- 
ture or vesication. 

guinis ; plastic lymph ; a clear, colorless 
fluid, which exudes from wounds or in- 
flamed vessels, and serves for the repara- 
tion of injuries, and to produce adhesions. 

COAGULANT. That which has the 
power of coagulating the blood. 

COAGULATION. Coagulatio ; from 
con and ago, to drive together. The act 
of changing from a fluid to a jelly-like con- 

COAG'ULUM. A jelly-like, or soft 
and tremulous mass, formed in a coagula- 
ble liquid. 

Coagulum Alu'minis. A coagulum 
formed by beating the white of eggs with 
a little alum. It is used in cases of ophthal- 
mia where an astringent is required. 

COALES'CENCE. In Medicine, the 
union of parts previously separated, as in 
the case of preternatural adhesions. 

termittent fevers. 

COAPTATION. Coaptatio; from con, 
together, and aptare, to adjust, adapt. 
The act of placing the two extremities of a 
fractured bone in contact with each other, 
or of restoring a luxated bone to its proper 

COARCTA'TION. Goardatio; from 
coardare, to straighten. In Pathology, the 
contraction or straightening of a canal, as 
of the urethra or intestinal canal. 

COARTICULA'TIO. From con, and 
articulatio, an articulation. Articulation 

which admits of manifest motion. See 
Diarthrosis and Synarthrosis. 

COBALT. A brittle, reddish gray 
metal, fused with difficulty, and generally 
combined in its ores with nickel, arsenic, 
iron and copper. Its oxyd is largely used 
to color porcelain blue. It is frequently 
employed as a coloring matter in the man- 
ufacture of porcelain teeth. 

COBI'TIS. From cobio, a gudgeon. A 
genus of soft-finned fishes of the carp fam- 


CO'BRA DE CAPEL'LO. The hooded 

COCCINEL'LA. Diminutive of coccus, 
a berry ; from its resemblance to a berry. 
The cochineal insect. See Coccus Cacti. 

COCCINELLIN'. The coloring princi- 
ple of cochineal. Carmine. 

COCCO-BALSAMUM. The fruit of 
the Amyris gileadensis, the plant from 
which opobalsamum is obtained. 

COCCOLITE. A mineral of a green 
color, of various shades. 

gonaceous plant of the West Indies ; the 
sea-side grape. 

Jamaica pepper. See Myrtus pimenta. 

Cocculus Palmatus. The systematic 
name of a plant which affords the Calumba 

COCCUM. A species of capsule, or dry 
seed vessel, more or less aggregate, with 
elastic sides, projecting the seeds with 
great force. 

COCCUS. A tribe of insects. 

Coccus Cacti. The systematic name of 
the cochineal insect. Cochineal. 

Coccus Lacca. The insect from the 
supposed puncture of which, in the ex~ 
treme branches of certain East India trees, 
lac or gum-lac exudes. 

COCCYGE'US. From M**f, because 
it is inserted into the coccyx. A muscle 
which arises from the spinus process of the 
ischium, covers the inside of the sacro- 
ischiatic ligament, and is inserted at the 
extremity of the sacrum. 

COCCYGIS OS. Os coccygis. Cauda. 
From JMiacvL the cuckoo, whose bill it is 




said to resemble. A bony appendage at 
tbe point or lower extremity of the sacrum, 
terminating in an acute point. 

COCCYX. The os coccygis. 

COCHINEAL. Coccus cacti, an insect 
found on several species of cactus. 

COCH'LEA. From aoxafa, to turn 
round. The anterior of the three cavities 
constituting the labyrinth of the ear, is so 
called from its resemblance to a snail. 

COCHLE ARE. From cochlea, a cockle, 
because its bowl represents a shell. A 
spoon ; a spoonful. 

Cochleare Magnum. A table-spoon- 
ful, which is about half a fluid ounce. 

Cochleare Me'dium. A dessert-spoon- 
ful, or two tea-spoonfuls. 

Cochleare Minimum. A tea-spoonful, 
•r one fluid drachm. 

COCHLEA'RIA. From cochleare, a 
spoon. A genus of plants, of the order 

Cochlearia Armora'cia. Horseradish. 

Cochlearia Officinalis. Cochlearia 
hortensis. The common scurvy-grass, said 
to be a powerful antiscorbutic. 

COCHLEA'TUS. Cochleate. Spiral. 
Applied in Botany to leaves, leguminous 
seeds, &c. 

COCHONE. The junction of the hip 
or paunch with the seat or thigh. The 
breech. The perineum. The coccyx. 

COCOA-NUT. The fruit of the cocos 

COCOON'. An oblong envelope of silk, 
spun by the silk worm, previously to its 
transformation into the chrysalis state. 
The same name is given to the envelope of 
other larvse. 

atic name of the plant from which the 
palm oil is obtained. 

Cocos Nucifera. The systematic name 
of the plant which produces the cocoa- 

COC'TION. Coctio; from coquere, to 
boil. Digestion of the food in the stomach ; 
boiling, or decoction. A term formerly 
used in medicine to express the change 
morbific matters were supposed to experi- 
ence before elimination. 

CODEFA. Codein, from audia, a poppy 
head. An alkaloid discovered in opium 
by Robiquet. 

CODE'IC ACID. An acid formed from 

COD LIVER OIL. Oleum jecoris 

CODOCE'LE. Codoscella. Bubo. 

CCE'CUM. From ccecus, blind. That 
part of the large intestines situated below 
the ileum ; called also, the blind gut, from 
its forming a cul-de-sac, extending down- 
ward from the commencement of the colon. 

CCELACAN'THIDiE. From notTuig, hol- 
low, and anavdog, a spine. A family of 
ganoid fishes armed with hollow spines. 

CffiLELMIN'THA. From Koilog, hol- 
low, and t/t/uvf, a worm. A class of En- 
tozoa, including such of the intestinal 
worms as have an intestinal canal continu- 
ing in a distinct abdominal cavity. 

COiLES'TINE. A name applied by 
Mineralogists to sulphate of strontia, from 
its blue tint. 

C03LIA. From Koilog, hollow. A cav- 
ity in any part of the body, as the abdo- 
men, uterus, &c. 

CCE'LIAC. Cceliacus ; from Koilia, the 
abdomen. Pertaining to the abdomen. 

Ccsliac Artery. Arteria cceliaca. The 
first branch of the aorta given off in the 

Ccsliac Flux or Passion. From noilia > 
the abdomen. A chronic diarrhcea, in 
which the food is discharged in an undi- 
gested state. 

Coeliac Plex'us. A plexus formed of 
numerous nervous filaments from the semi- 
lunar ganglia of the great sympathetic, 
and from branches of the right and left 
pneumogastric nerves. It is situated be- 
hind the stomach around the trunk of the 
coeliac artery. 

CGELFACA. Cocliacus ; from KoTaa^ 
alvus venter. Diseases of the digestive 
functions ; the first class in Good's Nosolo- 
gy, containing two orders, enterica and 

COZLO'MA. From noiloc, hollow. An 
ulcer of the cornea of the eye. 

C03LOSTOMTA. From hoiTloc, hollow, 




and cTOfia, mouth. Defective enunciation, 
characterized by hollowness of voice. 

CCEN.ESTHE'SIS. Concesthe' sis ; from 
noivog, common, and aiotiTjoig, perception. 
Common perception or general sensibility 
of the system. 

CCENO'BIO. A term applied by the 
French to a fruit which consists of two or 
more carpels, united at the base and sep- 
arated at the apex, from the middle of 
which a single style arises. 

C(ENOLOG'IA. From Koivog, common, 
and hoyog, a discourse. A consultation. 

CCE'NOTES. From noivog, common. 
The methodic sect of Physiceous, who de- 
clared that all diseases arise from relaxa- 
tion, stricture, or both. 

CCE'NUEE. Ccenurus. The hydatid 
found in the brain of sheep. 

COF'FEA. A genus of plants of the 
order Itubiacece. 

Coffea Arabica. Jas'minum Arab'i- 
cum. The plant which affords the coffee. 

COF'FEE. The berry of the Coffea 

COHABITATION. The act of living 
together. In Legal Medicine, intercourse 
between the sexes. 

COHE'SION. Cohcesio ; from cohcereo, 
I hold together. Attraction or cohesion is 
that power by which particles of matter 
are connected and held together in such a 
way as to resist any attempt at separa- 

COHOBATION. Cohoba'tio. In Chem- 
istry, the distillation of a fluid, on a sub- 
stance of the same kind as that upon which 
it was at first distilled, and repeating it 
several times. 

COI'LIMA. Sudden swelling of the 
abdomen from flatulence. 

COINDICANTIA. From con, and in- 
dico, to indicate. Signs furnishing the 
same indications, or which are confirma- 
tory of the indications furnished by other 
signs. Such signs are called coindicant. 

COIKAS. Scrofula. 

COITION. Co'itus ; from co'eo, to go 
together. Copulation. Carnal union, or 
conjunction of the sexes. 

COKE. Pit coal deprived of its bitu- 

men or other extraneous or volatile matter 
by fire. 

COLATU'EA. From colare, to strain. 
A liquor which has been filtered or 

COL'CHICUM. From Colchis, the name 
of the place where this plant is supposed 
to have abounded. A genus of plants of 
the order Melanthaceoz and family colchica- 
cece. Meadow-saffron. 

Colchicum Autum'nale. Meadow- 
saffron ; a bulbous plant, found in many 
parts of Europe, usually growing in mead- 
ows. It is an irritant ; in over doses, an 
acro-narcotic poison. In small doses it is 
a nauseant, diuretic, diaphoretic, and ca- 
thartic, and is employed in the treatment 
of gout and rheumatism. All the species 
yield the alkaloid veratria. 

COL'COTHAB. Colcothar vitrioli ; 
brown-red rouge ; crocus mortis vitriolaius 
seu adstringens. A brown-red oxyd of 
iron, which remains after the distillation 
of the acid from sulphate of iron. 

COLD. Privation of heat, or the sen- 
sation produced by the abstraction of cal- 
oric from the body. Also, the common 
name for a catarrh. 

Cold Ckeam. Unguen'tuma'quazro'sce. 
U. S. Ph. Take of rose-water, oil of al- 
monds, each two fluid ounces ; spermaceti, 
half an ounce ; white wax, a drachm. 
Melt together, by means of a water bath, 
the oil, spermaceti, and wax ; then add the 
rose-water and mix until cold. 

COLEOPTEEA. An order of insects 
with sheaths to their wings, as beetles, &c. 

COLE'WOET. Cabbage. 

COL'IC. Co'licus; from kuIov, the co- 
lon. Pertaining to the colon. A term 
applied in Pathology to almost all acute 
pains in the abdomen. 

Colic Arteries. These are six in 
number. Three are given off by the su- 
perior mesenteric, which are called the 
coliccc dextrce. The other three are given 
off by the inferior mesenteric artery, and 
are called the colicce sinistrce. 

CO'LICA. The cholic. 

Colica Accidenta'lis. Colica cra- 




Colica Bilio'sa. Bilious colic. 

Colica Calculo'sa. Colic produced 
by earthy concretions in the intestines. 

Colica Callo'sa. Colic attended with 
a sense of stricture in some part of the in- 
testinal canal. 

Colica Convulsi'va. Idiopathic colic. 

Colica Crapulo'sa. Colic produced 
by eating hard and indigestible aliments. 

Colica Damnonio'rum. Metallic colic, 
a colic peculiar to Devonshire. Colic at- 
tended with fever. 

Colica Flatulen'ta. Colic from an 
accumulation of air in the intestines. Flat- 
ulent colic. 1 

Colica Hemorrhoida'lis. A colic sup- 
posed to precede hemorrhoids, or to super- 
vene on their suppression. 

Colica Hepat'ica. Hepatic colic. 

Colica Hysterica. Colic attending 

Colica Inflammato'ria. Inflamma- 
tory colic ; enteritis. 

Colica Lappon'ica. Colic peculiar to 

Colica Madriden'sis. A colic endemic 
in several provinces of Spain, resembling 
somewhat lead colic in its symptoms. 

Colica Menstrua'lis. Colic which 
precedes or follows menstruation, or de- 
pends on the suppression of that flux. 

Colica Mesenter'ica. Colic produced 
by disease of the mesentery. 

Colica Metal'lica. Metallic colic. 
Painter's colic. 

Colica Nephret'ica. Acute pains at- 
tending nephritis or calculi of the ureter. 

Colica Nervo'sa. Nervous colic. 

Colica Picto'num. Painter's colic. 
Metallic colic. 

Colica Scorto'rum. A colic to which, 
according to Dr. Martin Hassing, the pros- 
titutes of Copenhagen are subject. 

Colica Spasmod'ica. Spasmodic colic. 

Colica Sterco'rea. Colica stipa'ta. 
Colic from the retention of fseces in the in- 

Colica Vena. A branch of the upper 
mesenteric vein. 

Colica Vena Recta. A vein of the 

Colica Vermino'sa. Worm colic, or 
colic from the presence of worms in the 


COLITIS. From kuXov, the colon, and 
His, inflammation. Inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the colon. 

COLLA PISCIUM. Ichthyocolla. 

COL'LAPSE. Collapsus, 

COLLAP'SUS. From colldbor, to shrink 
down. Shrinking of the body. Prostra- 
tion of strength. 

COLLAR-BONE. The clavicle. 

age used for securing a patient during the 
operation of lithotomy. 

COLLAT'ERAL. Cdlaiera'lis ; from 
cum, with, and lahis, side. Accompany- 
ing, or proceeding by the side of another. 

COLLECTION. Cdlec'tio ; from col- 
lingere, to collect. Used in Pathology to 
denote the collection or gathering of pus, 
or some other purulent or serous matter. 

COLLET. From collum, the neck. A 
neck or collar. A term applied by some 
French writers, in Dental Anatomy, to the 
neck of a tooth. 

COLLIC'ULUS. A little hill or emi- 
nence; applied in Anatomy to various 
elevations in the body. 

Colliculus Cave^e Posterioris Ven- 
triculorum Lateralium. Hippocampus 

Colliculus Nervi Ethmoidalis. Cor- 
pus Striatum. 

Colliculus Nervi Optici. Optic Thal- 

Colliculus Seminalis. An eminence 
in the prostate gland. 

COLLIGA'MEN. From coUigo, to tie 
together. A ligament. 

all; horse-balm; an indigenous plant, used 
in domestic practice as an emetic, diuretic 
and diaphoretic. 

queo, I melt. The first rudiment of an 

COLLIQUATION. Diminution of the 
solids, with copious excretion of liquids by 
one or more outlets. 




COLLIQUATIVE. Colliquati'vus; from 
colliqueo, I melt. Applied to various dis- 
charges, as colliquative perspiration, diar- 
rhoea, &c, which occasion rapid loss of 

COLLISION. Collis' io. From coUido, to 
heat together. In Physics, the shock of two 
bodies brought into contact with each other. 

COLLOBO'MA. From KoUau, to glue 
together. Culobroma. Agglutination of 
the eyelids together. 

COLLO'DES. From noUa, glue. Gluti- 

COLLOID. From icoUa, glue. In Pa- 
thology, the jelly-like degeneration of some 
malignant tumors, as a colloid cancer. 

COLLO'DION. Collodium. Ethereal 
solution of Gun-cotton. An impervious 
adhesive plaster is made of this solution, 
peculiarly adapted to the dressing of 
w r ounds which require water dressing. 

Collodion, Canthau'idal. A vesica- 
ting solution of cantharides in collodion. 

Collodion, Elastic. A solution of 
gutta percha in chloroform. 

COL'LUM. From kuIov, a member, as 
being one of the chief; or diminutive of 
columnia, as being the pillar and support 
of -the head. The part of the body be- 
tween the head and chest. The neck. 

COLLU'TION. Collu'tio. Washing the 
mouth, or any other part. 

COLLUTO'RIUM. From colliw, to 
wash. A mouth- wash ; a gargarism. 

COLLU'VIES. From colluo, to cleanse. 
Filth ; excrement ; the matter discharged 
from an old idcer. 

COLLYR'IUM. From kuIvco, I check, 
and povc, , a defluxion ; because it stops the 
defluxion. This term was applied by the 
ancients to a medicine used to check any 
discharge, but at present it is restricted to 
a wash, or application to the eyes. The 
collyria of the jiharmacopceias are, for the 
most part, metallic lotions. 


lyrium of acetate of lead. 


A collyrium of opium and acetate of lead. 


rium of acetate of zinc. 


lyrium of sulphate of zinc. 

COLOBO'MA. KoXo^ua, any thing 
truncated or shortened. A mutilated or 
maimed organ. 

COL'OCYNTII. The fruit of the Ciir- 
cumis colocynthis deprived of its rind. It 
is a powerful drastic, hydragogue cathartic. 

COLOCYNTHTN. The bitter principle 
of colocynth. 

COLOMBO. See Columba. 

CO'LON. Colum ; Intesti'num majus. 
The portion of the large intestine which 
extends from the cajcum to the rectum. 

COLONFTIS. Acute dysentery. 

COLOPHO'NIA. So called from Colo- 
phon, the city from which it was first 
brought. The black resin which remains 
in the retort, after distilling common tur- 
pentine with a strong fire. 


COLOR. In Physics, an inherent prop- 
erty in light, which gives to bodies particu- 
lar appearances to the eye. The primary 
colors, according to Sir Isaac Newton, are 
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and 

principle existing in vegetable substances. 
The colors which adhere to cloth without a 
basis are termed substantive, and those 
which require a basis, adjective. 

COLOS'TRUM. The first milk secreted 
in the breast after parturition. 

COLPOCE'LE. Vaginal hernia. 

COLPOC'OSE. Gangrene of the vagina 
and labia. 

through the vagina. 

a portion of the mucous membrane of the 
vagina, for the cure of prolapsus of the 
vagina and uterus. 

COLPOL'GIA. Pain in the vagina. 

COLPORRHEX'IS. Rupture of the va- 

COLPO'SIS. Colpi'tis. Vaginitis. 

COLPOT'OMY. Incision of the vagina 
in parturition. 

COLPOPTO'SIS. A prolapsus of the 




COLPOTRE'SIA. Imperforation of the 

COLT'S FOOT. See Tussilago. 

COL'UBEE. In Zoology, a genus of 
serpents, having numerous subgenera. 

Coluber Bekus. The systematic name 
of the viper, a poisonous reptile. 

COLUMBA. Calumba. 

COLUMBIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from the ore of columbium. 

COLUM'BIUM. A metal discovered by 
Mr. Hatchet in Massachusetts. It is also 
termed Tantalum. 

COLUMEL'LA. Diminutive of co- 
lumna, a column. A column or little pil- 
lar ; the central column, or filament unit- 
ing the partitions in the capsules of plants ; 
also the uvula and clitoris. 

cuspid teeth are so called from their shape. 

COLUM'NA. A column. In Anatomy, 
applied to parts of the body, which resem- 
ble in shape or office a column, as the co- 
lumnar carnce of the heart ; columna nasi, 

Columna Nasi. The lowest part of the 
septum of the nose. 

Columna Oris. The uvula. 

COLUM'NA CARNzE. The small 
fleshy columns which project into the auri- 
cles and ventricles of the heart. 

COLUTORIUM. A gargle. 

CO'MA. Ku/xa. A profound sleep from 
which the individual cannot be roused. 
It occurs as a symptom in many dis- 

Coma Somnolen'tum. A deep morbid 
sleep. Lethargy. 

Coma-Vi'gil. A term for the lethargic 
condition of the patient in bad cases of ty- 
phus in which he is watchful and mutter- 
ing in delirium. Agrypno-coma. 

CO'MATA. The plural of coma. Dis- 
eases characterized by a diminution of the 
powers of voluntary motion, with sleep or 
the senses impaired. 

COMATOSE. Having a propensity to 
sleep. Affected with coma. 

COMBINATION. From cum, with, 
and binus, two. The union of two or more 
bodies in definite proportions, by chemical 

attraction, from which results a compound 
possessing new properties. 

COMBUSTIBLE. Capable of being 

COMBUS'TIO. From comburo, to burn. 
A burn. 

COMBUSTION. Conbustio; from com- 
buro, to burn. Burning. The combina- 
tion of oxygen with a combustible body. 
Among the phenomena which attend com- 
bustion, is the evolution of heat and light, 
but as these are supposed to be dependent 
on chemical action, they may also be ex- 
pected in other chemical processes. The 
presence of oxygen, therefore, is not abso- 
lutely necessary to them. 

Combustion, Spontaneous. This most 
remarkable phenomenon frequently occurs 
in accumulations of vegetable, animal, and 
even mineral substances, under circumstan- 
ces favorable to its development. It is also 
said to occur sometimes in the human body. 

COMENIC ACID. A pale yellow 
crystalline and slightly soluble substance, 
produced by the decomposition of meconic 
acid by heat. 

COM'FRY. The popular name of Sym- 
phytum officinalis. 

thet for epilepsy, because when any one 
was attacked by it in the comitia, the as- 
sembly was dissolved. 

Bark, so called because the Countess de 
Cinchon was cured by it at Lima. Cin- 

COMMANDUCATIO. From comman- 
duco ; to eat. Mastication. 

COMMEM'ORATIVE. Commemorati'- 
vus ; from commemorare, con and memor, 
to cause to remember. That which pre- 
serves the remembrance of something. 

Commemorative Signs. Signs which 
point at the previous condition of the pa- 
tient. So far as the innate constitution is 
concerned, none can be relied upon with 
more certainty than those furnished by the 
teeth. See Teeth, Characteristics of the. 

COMMI. Gum. 

COM'MINUTED. Comminu'tus ; from 
comminuere, con and minuo, to break to 




pieces. In Surgery, a bone broken into a 
number of pieces ; applied also to food af- 
ter it has been masticated or ground be- 
tween the teeth. 

COMMINUTION. The fracture of a 
bone into a number of pieces ; the tritura- 
tion, breaking to pieces between the teeth, 
or mastication of food. 

COM'MISSURE. Commissu'ra; from 
committo, I join together. A point of 
union between two parts. The commis- 
sures of the lips and eyelids are the angles 
where they come together. 

Commissure, Anterior, of the Brain. 
A small medullary-like substance, crossing 
the anterior part of the third ventricle of 
the brain, uniting the two hemispheres. 

Commissure, Posterior, of the Brain. 
A medullary substance uniting the two 
hemispheres of the brain across the pos- 
terior part of the third ventricle, and above 
the corpora quadrigemina. 

Commissure of the Uvea. The ciliary 

COMMU'NICANS. From communis, 
common. That which communicates or 
establishes a communication. Applied to 
two arteries of the cranium, one anterior, 
and one posterior. The first extends from 
one anterior cerebral artery to the other ; 
the second from the internal carotid to the 
posterior cerebral. 

Communicans Tible. The external 
saphenal branch of the tibial nerve. 

COMOSE. In Botany, ending in a 

COMTACT. Compac'tus ; from con and 
pangere, to strike, to fix. Solid, close. In 
Anatomy, applied to the hardest and closest 
parts of a bony tissue. 

COMPAGES. From compingo, to put 
together. An articulation, a commissure. 

COMPARATIVE. In Anatomy and 
Physiology, that which illustrates by com- 
paring with the human body, or any part 
of it ; as, for example, the comparative 
anatomy of the teeth embraces a knowl- 
edge of the differences that exist between 
these organs in different animals. 

COMPLEX. Complex' us; from con, 
with, and plectere, to twist. Complicated. 

COMPLEXION. The color of the face ; 
the aggregate of physical characters pre- 
sented by a body, with reference to consti- 
tution, temperament, &c. 

COMPLEX'US. Complex. Composed 
of several distinct things. 

Complexus Mi'nor. Mastoideus later- 
alis. The name of a muscle which arises 
from the transverse processes of the last 
four cervical vertebra?, and is inserted into 
the mastoid process of the temporal bone. 

Complexus Mus'culus. Complexus seu 
biven'ter cervi'cis ; complexus major ; dorso 
irachelon-occipital. A muscle situated on 
the back part of the neck. 

COMPLICATION. Complica'tio. In 
Pathology, the presence of several diseases, 
or several circumstances, foreign to the 
primary disease. 

COMPOSITION. Composii'io; from 
componere, to place together. The act of 
composing or compounding, or that which 
results from such act, as a chemical or 
pharmaceutical composition, or a compo- 
sition for the body or enamel of porcelain 

COMPOSTT2E. In Botany, the largest 
of all natural groups of plants, and so 
called because the old botanists who in- 
vented the name regarded the flower-heads 
as compound flowers. They answer to 
the Syngenesia polygamia of Linnajus, and 
are positively characterized by having cap- 
itate flowers, syngenesious anthers, and an 
inferior ovary with a single erect ovule. 
They are sometimes trees, but generally 
herbaceous plants or shrubs. 

COMPOS1TUM. A compound, or com- 
position of different things. 

COMPOTES. Preserved fruits. 

COMPOUND. To mix or unite two or 
more ingredients in one mass or body, or 
a mass or body resulting from such mix- 
ture. Compound Medicines have been di- 
vided into two classes, viz : Officinal Pre- 
parations, and Magistral or Extemporane- 
ous. The former are those ordered in the 
pharmacopoeias ; the latter are constructed 
by the practitioner at the moment. 

Compound Radicals. Substances 
which, though containing two or more 




elements, have the capacity of uniting with 
elementary bodies to form new compounds. 

COM'PRESS. Compres'sa ; from com- 
primere, to 2>ress together. Pieces of lint 
or folds of a rag, or any other substance, 
so contrived as, with the aid of a bandage, 
to make pressure upon any part. In Sur- 
gery a compress is employed to arrest 
hemorrhage, as well as various other pur- 

possessed by bodies of occupying a small- 
er space when subjected to the action of 

COMPRESSION. In Physics, the ac- 
tion exerted upon a body by external 
force whereby its constituent molecules are 
pressed more closely together. It is em- 
ployed in Surgery for the repression of 
hemorrhages, and in the treatment of 
aneurisms, wounds, sores and various in- 
juries of the animal organs. The agents 

plied by Albinus to the anterior fibres of 
the levator ani, which embrace the pros- 
tate gland. 

Compressor Urethra. A muscle aris- 
ing from the ramus of the ischium, and in- 
serted into the membranous urethra, which 
it embraces. 

COMPRESSED. Compres'sus. A term 
applied, in Surgerg, to a blood-vessel, ca- 
nal, or other organ suffering compression; 
in Botany, to the various organs or parts of 
plants; and in Mineralogy, to crystals 
which have a flattened figure. 

COMPTONIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Myricacece. 

Comptonia Asplenifo'lia. Sweet 
fern-bush ; spleenwort gall. A plant pos- 
sessing tonic and astringent properties. 

COMPUNCTIO. From compungo, to 
prick. A puncture. 

CONA'RIUM. From nuvog, a cone, be- 
cause of its conical shape. A cone. The 

ordinarily used in such cases are the torne- j pineal gland. 

quet, bandages, laced-stockings, com- 
presses, &c. 

Compression of the Brain. This may 
bo caused by cxtravasated blood, a de- 
pressed portion of bone, an accumulation 
of fluid, or a tumor. 

COMPRESS'OR. A name applied to 
muscles which draw together parts upon 
which they act. Also the name of instru- 
ments invented for compressing the fem- 
oral artery, and other purposes. 

Compressor of Dupuytren. An in- 
strument invented by Dupuytren for com- 
pressing the femoral artery, consisting of a 
semi-circle of steel with a pad at each 

Compressor Naris. Jtence'us nasa'lis ; 
transversa'lis nasi; dilatato'res ala'rum 
nasi. A flat triangular muscle arising 
externally at the root of the ala nasi, and 
inserted with its fellow into the extremity 
of the os nasi, and when the two contract, 
they draw the sides of the nose towards 
the septum. 

Compressor of Nuck. An instrument 
invented by Nuck for compressing the 
urethra in cases of incontinence. 
Compressor Prostata. A name ap- 

CONCAVUS. Hollow; depressed in 
the centre. 

CONCENTRATION. Concentra'tio ; 
from con, and centrum, a centre. In Med- 
icine, an afflux of fluids, or a convergence 
of vital force towards an organ. Also, the 
evaporation of the water of fluids for the 
purpose of increasing their strength. 

CONCEN'TRIC. Concentri'cus. Com- 
posed of many layers arranged circularly, 
one within the other. 

CONCEP'TACLES. Conceptac'ulum. In 
Botany, the cavity containing the repro- 
ductive corpuscles of cryptogamous plants. 

CONCEPTAC'ULUM. A receiver; a 
vessel ; the uterus. 

CONCEPTION. Goncep'tio; from con- 
cipio, to conceive. The impregnation of 
the ovum in the ovarium, by the contact 
of the aura seminis. 

Conception, False. Term for a blighted 
ovum or imperfect impregnation. 

CONCHA. Koyxv. The name of a li- 
quid measure among the Athenians. In 
Anatomy, applied to several hollow parts 
of the body. 

Concha ArjRic'uLiE. The concha of the 




Concha Auris. The hollow part of the 
cartilage of the external ear. 

Concha Naritjm. The turbinated part 
of the ethmoid bone, and the inferior 
spongy bones, covered by the pituitary 

CON'CHIFERS. From Chocha, a shell, 
and ferre, to carry. A term applied by 
Lamarck and other Naturalists, to all 
molluscous animals protected by bivalve 

CON'CHOID. Conchoi'des. Shell-like. 

CONCHO-HELIX. The small muscle 
of the Helix. 

CONCIIOL'OGY. From *oyxn t a shell, 
and hoyog, a discourse. The science of shells. 

CON'CHUS. From ko 7X v, a shell, so 
called from its resemblance to a shell. 
The cranium ; the sockets of the eyes. 

CONCHYLIA. The turbinated bone. 

CONCIDEN'TIA. From Concido, to 
fall down. In Pathology, synonymous 
with collapse. A wasting or falling away. 

-CONCOCTION. Concoc'tio; from con- 
coquo, to digest. Digestion. Coction. 

CONCOMITANT. Concom 'items ; from 
con, and comitare — itself from comire — 
cum, and ire, to go with. That which 
accompanies, or goes with. In Pathology, 
a symptom which accompanies other symp- 

CONCREMATION. Calcination. 

CONCRETION. Concre'tio ; from con- 
cresco, to grow together. That which has 
thickened, condensed, and become more 
solid. It was formerly used to signify the 
adhesion of parts. 

Concretion, Biliary. Gall-stones. 

Concretions, Salivary. A deposit 
of phospate of lime and animal matter 
sometimes found in the substance of the 
salivary glands, or in the ducts, and on 
the teeth. 

Concretions, Urinary. Calculi de- 
posited from the urin in the kidneys, 
ureters, bladder or urethra. 

CONCUR'SUS. From concurrere, to 
meet together. The congeries of symp- 
toms which constitute and distinguish a 
particular disease. 

CONCUS'SION. From cmcutio, I 
shako together. In Surgery, agitation 
communicated to one organ by a fall upon 
another, as the brain from a fall on the 
buttocks. Concussion of the brain often 
causes very alarming symptoms. 

Concussion of the Brain. A disturb- 
ance of the brain produced by a fall or 
blow. It has been supposed that some of 
the nervous fibres are broken under these 
circumstances. It differs from compression 
in the absence of stertorous breathing. 

CONDENSAN'TIA. Inspissaritia. Med- 
icines supposed to inspissate the humors. 

CONDENSATION. Condensa'tio; from 
condenso, to make thick. A thickening of 
a fluid. In Anatomy and Pathology, an 
increase in the density of the blood, or 
other fluids, or any of the tissues of the 
body. In Chemistry, the subjection of 
a3iiform bodies to pressure, or the conver- 
sion of vapors to fluids by cold. 

CONDENSER. An alembic. 

Condenser, Liebig's. A contrivance of 
Liebig for condensing volatile liquids du- 
ring distillation. It consists of two tubes, 
the inner of which contains the vapor, and 
the outer a stream of cold water constantly 

CON'DIMENT. Gondimen'tum ; from 
condire, to preserve or season. Any thing 
used for seasoning food, as butter, salt, 
pepper, spice, &c. 

CONDI'TUM. A pharmaceutical com- 
pound of wine, honey and some aromatics, 
especially pepper. 

CONDOM. The intestinum caxum of 
the sheep, cleansed and used as a covering 
of the penis during coition, to prevent ve- 
nereal infection, or pregnancy. Such con- 
trivances, however, are, as a witty woman 
once remarked, " bucklers against pleas- 
ure, but cobwebs against danger." 

CONDUCTOR. From conducere, to 
lead or guide. That which conducts or 
serves as a guide. In Surgery, an instru- 
ment used for directing a knife or bistoury 
in certain operations. In Physics, a body 
capable of conducting caloric and electric- 

CONDUIT. A passage of small dimen 




sions. A canal. A pipe for conveying 

by condyles. 

CON'DYLE. Con'dylus ; KovdvXog, the 
joint of the finger, a tubercle or knot. An 
articular process of a bone, flat in one di- 
rection and round in the other. 

The phalanges. 

CON'DYLOID. Condyloi'deus ; from 
Kov&vTiog, a condyle, and eidog, shape. 
Shaped like a condyle. 

Condyloid Foram'ina. Foram'ina con- 
dyloi'dea. Four foramina, two anterior, 
and two posterior, in the occipital bone. 

Condyloid Process. A condyle. 

CONDYLO'MA. Gondylus ; from kov- 
duAof, a knot, an eminence. A soft wart- 
like excrescence, of an indolent character, 
which appears about the anus and orifice 
of the genital organs, and sometimes on 
the fingers, as a consequence of syphilis. 

CONDYL/OPODS. Gondylopo'da; from 
KovdvAog , and -novg, a foot. A subdivision 
of encephalous articulate animals with 
jointed feet. 

CONDYLUS. A condyloma. 

CONE. In Botany, the conical fruit of 
several evergreen trees, as of the pine, fir, 
cedar and cyprus, 

CONEIN'. Gicutin. The active princi- 
ple of hemlock. 

CONFECTIO. Confec'tion; from con- 
Jicio, to make up. In Pharmacy, any 
thing made into a pulpy mass with sugar 
or honey. The term is nearly synonymous 
with conserve and electuary, 

Confectio Alkermes. Alkermes. 

Confectio Amygdala. A confection 
of almonds. 

Confectio Archig'enis. A confection 
of castor, long pepper, black pepper, sto- 
rax, galbanum, costus and opium. 

Confectio Aromat'ica. An aromatic 

Confectio Aurantii Corticis. A con- 
fection of orange peel. 

Confectio Casslze. A confection of 

Confectio Damocratis. Mithridate. 

Confectio Hamec. A confection com- 
posed of the bark of the yellow myrobal- 
ans, violets, pulp of colocynth, polypody 
of the oak, absintheum, rhubarb, thyme, 
fennel, red roses, pulps of prunes, raisins, 
sugar, aniseed, honey, senna, &c. 

Confectio Hyacin'thi. A confection 
of hyacinth. 

Confectio O'pii. A confection of 

Confectio Pip'eris Ni'gri. A confee- 
tion of black pepper. 

Confectio Ro's^e Cani'n.e. A confec- 
tion of conserve of dog-rose. 

Confectio Ros^e Gal'lice. A confec- 
tion or conserve of the red rose. 

Confectio Ru't^e. A confection of rue- 

Confectio De San'talis. An astring. 
ent composed of sandal wood, red coral, 
bole armenian, tormentil, &c. 

Confectio Scammo'nle. A confection 
of scammony. 

Confectio Senn^:. A confection of 

Confectio de Thure. Frankincense 

CONFER'VA. The tribe of crypto- 
gamous plants, of the order Mgoz, con- 
sisting of simple, tubular, jointed water- 

Conferva Riva'lis. This species has 
been recommended in cases of spasmodic 
asthma, phthisis, &c. 


CONFLATION. Confla'tio ; from con~ 
flo, to blow together. In Metallurgy, the 
blowing together of fires in melting met- 

CONFLU'ENT. Conflu'ens; from con, 
and jluere, to flow. Running together. 
In Pathology, applied to certain exanthe- 
matous affections, in which the eruptions 
are so thick that they run together. 

Confluent Small Pox. This disease 
is divided into distinct and confluent. In 
the latter division the pustules run into 
each other. 

CONFLUXIO. That sympathy of the 
different parts of the animal body by which 
the actions of life are sustained. 

CONFORMATION. Conforma'iio. In 




Anatomy, the natural disposition or ar- 
rangement of the parts of the body. 

CONFRICA'TION. Reduction of a fri- 
able substance to powder by rubbing it 
between the fingers. 

CONFUM FEBRES. Intermittent fe- 
vers, irregular in their paroxysms. 

CONFU'SIO. From con/undo, to mix 
together. A disease of the eye in which 
the membranes become ruptured and the 
humors run together. 

CONGELATION. Congela'tio, from 
congdo, to congeal, to freeze. The act of 
congealing, or passing from a fluid to a 
solid state, as in the case of water when it 
freezes. The word is also used synomy- 
mously with concretion and coagulation. It 
was formerly applied to diseases attended 
with stupor and numbness, as in paralysis 
and catalepsy. 

CON'GENER. Congen'erous; from con, 
with, and genus, kind. Of the same kind 
or species. In Anatomy, muscles which 
concur in the same action. 

CONGENITAL. Congen'itus. That 
which existed at birth. Thus congenital 
affections are those which exist at birth, as 
a disease or deformity. See Atrophy and 
Erosion of the Teeth. 

CONGESTION. Conges'tio; from con- 
gerere, to amass, accumulate. An accu- 
mulation of blood, bile, or other fluids, in 
an organ. 

produced by congestion. 

sociated with congestion of some viscus. 
It is attended with much oppression, ob- 
scure symptoms and slow reaction. 

CON'GIUS. Congia'rius. A gallon. 

CONGLO'BATE. Congloba'tus ; from 
conglobate, to gather into a small ball. Ap- 
plied to glands formed of a contortion of 
lymphatic vessels, connected by cellular tis- 
sue, without a cavity or excretory duct. 

CONGLOM'ERATE. Conglomera'tus ; 
from conglomerare, to heap upon. Ap- 
plied to glands which consist of a number 
of small glands. 

CONGLUTINATION. Agglutination. 

CONGRES'SUS. Congress; coition. 

CONIA. Conine, conicine. A volatile 
alkaloid of Conium maculatum, obtained 
by distilling the concentrated infusion with 

CONICE PAPILLAE. The lenticular 
papillaj of the tongue. 

CONICUS. Conical. 

CONIF'ERvE. The cone-bearing tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. 

CO'NIS. Dust ; fine powder ; ashes. 

CONI'UM. A genus of plants of the 
order Umbelliferce. All the plants belonging 
to it are poisonous. 

Conium Macula'tum. Hemlock ; poi- 
son parsley. A plant possessed of narcotic 
and poisonous properties. 

CONI VASCULO'SI. The conical con- 
volutions of the vasa efferentia of the tes- 

CONJU'GATE. Conjuga'tus. Yoked 
together; growing in pairs. Applied in 
Botany to a leaf consisting of leaflets ar- 
ranged in pairs on each side of a common 

bined with basic substances, without losing 
their saturating power. The organic sub- 
stance, combined with the acid, materially 
alters its properties, while it does not in- 
terfere with its acidity. 

CONJUGATION. Conjuga'tio, from 
conjugate, to yoke together. An assem- 
blage ; a union. Applied in Anatomy to 
the orifices on each side of the vetebral 
column which result from the conjugation of 
notches in each vertebra above and below. 

CONJUNCTIVA. Membra'na conjunc- 
tiva; conjunctiva tu'nica. A delicate, 
transparent, mucous membrane, covering 
the anterior surface of the eyeball and lin- 
ing the inner surface of the eyelids. 

CONJUNCTIVITIS. Inflammation of 
the conjunctive membrane. 

CONJUNCTUS. Conjoined. 

CON'NATE. From con and natus, born 
with. Congenital. 

CONNECTION. A term used by some 
authors in the same sense as that of union- 

CONNICTI'VUM. In Botany, the pro- 
longation of a filament supporting the lobes 
of an anther. 




CONNIV'ENT. Conniv'ens, from con- 
nivere, to close. A term in Anatomy, ap- 
plied to the valvular folds of the mucous 
membrane of the small intestines, called 
valvulce conniventes, from their approach 
to each other. It is applied in Botany to 
the calyx and corolla, the petals of which 
converge or bend inward. 

CONOID. From kuvoc, a cone, and 
ecdog, shape. Of a conical shape. 

Conoid Ligament. A ligament attached 
to the scapular extremity of the clavicle 
and to the coracoid process of the scapula. 


CONQUASSATION. Gonquassa'tio. In 
Pharmacy, the operation of bruising the 
different parts of a vegetable substance 
with a pestle. 

CONSECUTIVE. Consecuti'vus; from 
con, with, and sequor, to follow. Follow- 
ing as a consequence. 

Consecutive Symptoms. Phenomena 
which appaar after, or during the decline 
of a disease, and as a consequence of it. 

CONSEN'SUS. Sympathy; consent of 


CONSER'VA. From conservare, to 
keep. A conserve ; a preparation com- 
posed of a recent vegetable substance and 
sugar, mixed together in a uniform mass 
of about the consistence of honey. It is 
the same as confection. 

Conseiiva Absin'thii. Conserve of 

Conserva Art. Conserve of arum. 

Conserva Aurantii. Conserve of or- 
ange peel. 

Conserva Lu'julje. Confection of wood- 

Conserva Mentha. Conserve of mint. 

Conserva ScilLjE. Conserve of squills. 

CONSERVATORY. In Hmiiculture, a 
glazed structure in which exotic plants and 
shrubs are grown in a bed or floor of soil. 

CONSISTENT! A. From consisio, to 
stand still. The acme of a disease. 

CONSOLIDANTIA. A name formerly 
applied to substances supposed to be capa- 
ble of hardening recently healed wounds. 


An old ointment used in tooth-ache, and 
as a vulnerary. It was composed of earth- 
worms and bear's or wild boar's fat. 

CONSTIPATION. Constipa'tio; from 
constipare, con and stipare, to cram close. 
Costiveness. A state of the bowels in 
which the alvine evacuations take place 
less frequently than usual. 

CONSTIT'UENS. Constituent. The 
vehicle ; that which imparts an agreeable 
form. See Prescription. 

CONSTITUTION. Constiiu'tio. In 
Physiology , the general condition of the or- 
gans of the body, considered with refer- 
ence to their particular arrangement, and 
the manner in which they perform their 
functions. Individual organization. 

Constitution of the Atmosphere. 
The state of the air ; its temperature, hu- 
midity, dryness, heat, &c, with respect to 
its influence upon the human body, and 
during the prevalence of epidemics. 

CONSTITUTIONAL. Belonging to, 
or inherent in, the constitution. 

CONSTRICTIVE. Gonstricti'vus; from 
constringo, to bind together. Styptic. 

CONSTRICTOR. From consiringere, 
to straiten. To bind in a circular direction. 
Applied to a muscle which contracts any 
opening in the body. 

Constrictor Alm Nasi. The depressor 
labii superioris alteque nasi. 

Constrictor Ani. The sphincter ani. 

Constrictor Cunni. The sphincter va- 

Constrictor Isthmi Faucium. GIossg- 
staphilinus ; palato glossus. A muscle at 
the opening of the fauces, occupying the 
anterior lateral half arches of the palate ; 
it arises from the side of the tongue near 
its root, and is inserted in the velum near 
the uvula. It draws the velum down, and 
closes the opening into the fauces. 

Constrictor Labiorum. Constrictor 
oris. Orbicularis oris. 

Constrictor (Esophagi. Constrictor 
of the oesophagus. A muscle composed of 
a number of fibres, situated at the open- 
ing of the oesophagus. 

Constrictor Oris. Orbicularis oris. 




Constrictor Palpebrarum. Orbicu- 
laris palpebrarum. 

Constrictor Pharyn'gis Inferior. A 
muscle situated at the posterior part of the 
pharynx. It arises from the side of the 
thyroid cartilage and its inferior cornu, and 
from the side of the cricoid cartilage, and 
is inserted with its fellow in the middle 
line on the back of the pharynx. It as- 
sists to lessen the cavity of the pharynx, 
and thus compels the food to take the 
downward direction into the oesophagus. 

Constrictor Pharyn'gis Me'dius. A 
muscle at the posterior part of the pha- 
rynx; it arises from the appendix and 
cornu of the os hyoides, and from the 
thyro-hyoid ligament — its fibres ascend, 
run transversely and descend, giving it a 
triangular appearance; the upper ones 
overlap the superior constrictor, while the 
lower are beneath the inferior, and the 
whole pass back to be inserted into the 
middle tendinous line of the pharynx. 

Constrictor Pharyngis Supe'rior. A 
muscle on the posterior part of the phar- 
ynx, which arises from the cuneiform pro- 
cess of the occipital bone, from the lower 
part of the internal pterygoid plate of the 
sphenoid bone, from the pterygo-maxillary 
ligament, and from the posterior third of 
the mylo-hyoid ridge of the lower jaw, 
near the root of the last molar tooth, and 
is inserted with its fellow into the middle 
tendinous line on the back of the pharynx. 

Constrictor Vesica Urinaria. De- 
truser urinaB. 

CONSTRIN'GENS. Astringent ; styp- 

CONSULTATION. In Medicine, a 
meeting of two or more physicians to de- 
liberate upon any particular case of disease. 

CONSUMP'TION. Consump'tio; from 
consumere, to waste away. A gradual or 
progressive emaciation of the body, espe- 
cially in phthisis pulmonalis, and hence 
the name consumption which this disease 
has received. 

Consumption, Pulmonary. See Phthi- 
sis Pulmonalis. 


CONTACT. Contac'tus; from contin- 
gere, to touch. The state of two bodies 
which touch each other. 

CONTA'GION. Conta'gio; from con- 
tingere, to touch. The communication of 
disease from one person to another, either 
by direct or indirect contact. This term 
has been employed to signify all atmos- 
pheric and morbid poisons, effluvia, mias- 
mata, and infections which cause fevers or 
diseases that give rise to them. But ac- 
cording to the strict definition of the term, 
it means the communication of a disease 
by personal contact with the sick, or by 
the affluvium from the body of the sick. 
It is generally regarded as synonymous 
with infection. 

CONTA'GIOUS. Capable of being 
transmitted by direct or indirect contact. 

CONTENSIO. Tension. 

CONTIGUITY. Contact of bodies; a 
touching; applied to the teeth when in 
contact with each other. 

CONTINENCE. Continen'tia ; from 
continere, to hold or keep. Abstinence 
from physical indulgences, especially from 
sexual passions. 

CONTl'NENS. A term applied in 
Pathology to any disease which, in its 
course, presents no marked exacerbations 
or remissions of its symptoms. 

Continens Febris. Continued fever. 

CONTINUED FEVEK. A fever which 
proceeds without interruption. 

CONTINUITY. Continui'tas. Adher- 
ence of two things. Connection ; cohesion 
of two bodies which cannot be separated 
without fracture or laceration. 

CONTORT'ED. Twisted. 

CONTORTION. Contor'sis ; from con- 
torquere, to twist. In Pathology, violent 
movement and twisting of the affected part 
or member. 

ogy, a counter-opening to give exit to mat- 
ter which cannot escape from the opening 
that already exists. 

CONTRACTILITY. Contractu' Has. A 
property in living parts which gives to 
them the power of contracting. 

CONTRACTION. Gmtrac'iio; from 




contraherc, to draw together. Action of 
contraction arising from excited contractil- 
ity. The shortening of a muscle or fibre. 

CONTRACTU'RA. Contraction of a 
muscle. In Fathology, the state of rigidity 
which the flexor muscles slowly and pro- 
gressively assume as a consequence of 
gouty, rheumatic, paralitic, or other affec- 


Contba-Fissu'ra. From contra, against, 
and findo, to cleave. A fracture or injury 
in a part distant from that which received 
the blow. Counter-fissures occur most 
frequently in the cranium, but are not 
.always confined to it. 

Contra-Indication. Counter indica- 
tion. A symptom which forbids the em- 
ployment of a remedy which, under other 
circumstances, might be used. 

Contra-Luna'ris. A woman who con- 
ceives during menstruation. 

CONTRAYER'VA. From contra, 
against, and yerva, poison. An herb sup- 
posed to be a preventive against poison. 

Contrayerva Alba. Contrayerva Ger- 
manorum. A species of asclepias. 

Contrayerva Nova. Mexican con- 

Contrayerva Virginiana. SeeAris- 
tolochia Serpentaria. 

Contre-Coup. See Contra-Fissura. 

The waters of Contrexeville, a town in the 
department of Vosges, France, contain car- 
bonates of iron and lime, chloride of lime, 
carbonic acid, and a bituminous substance. 

which debilitates or diminishes the vital 

CONTRO-STIMU'LUS. A doctrine of 
Rasori, founded on the contro-stimulant 
property of certain medicines, as emetic 
tartar, &c. 

CONTU'SION. Contu'sio; from con- 
tundere, to knock together. A bruise ; an 
injury or lesion, in which there is extrava- 
sation of blood, caused by the shock of a 
body with a large surface. When the skin 
is divided, it is called a contused wound. 

CONUS. A cone. Strobile. 

CONVALES'CENCE. Convalesen'tia ; 
from convalescere, to grow well. Recovery 
of health after the cure of disease. 

CONVALESCENT. Recovering health 
after the cure or subsidence of disease. 

CONVALLA'RIA. From convaUis, a 
valley, from its abounding in valleys. A 
genus of plants of the order Liliaceoz. 

Convallaria Maja'lis. The lily of 
the valley. May-lily. 

Convallaria Polygon'atum. Solo- 
mon's seal. The root is astringent and 

CONVEX. A swelling on the exterior 
surface of a round or spherical form j gib- 
bous ; opposed to concave. 

CON' VOLUTE. Convoke' tus. Rolled 
up into a cylinder. A term applied in 
Anatomy to the upper and lower turbi- 
nated bones of the nose, and, in Botany, 
to leaves of a plant. 

CONVOLUTION. Convolu'tio; from 
convolvere, to roll together. A substance 
rolled upon itself. 

Convolutions of the Brain. The 
round, undulating, winding projections of 
the surface of the brain. 

Convolution Internal. Convolution 
of the corpus calhsum. A great convolu- 
tion on the inner side of each hemisphere 
of the brain, surrounding the corpus callo- 

Convolutions of the Intestines. The 
windings made by the intestines in the ab- 
dominal cavity. 

Convolution, Supra-orbital. A con- 
volution on the under side of the anterior 
lobe of the brain, resting on the orbital 

CONVOLVULA'CE^. Thebind-weed 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants — an order of 
twining herbs and shrubs with leaves alter- 
nate, entire, or variously cleft. 

CONVOLVULUS. In Pathology, in- 
tussusceptio. In Botany, a genus of plants 
of the order Convolvidacew. 

Convolvulus Bata'tas. The sweet 
potato, native of both Indies and China. 

Convolvulus Jala'pa. The Jalap 




Convolvulus Major Albus. Convolv- 
ulus sepium. 

Convolvulus Scammo'nia. The scam- 
mony plant. 

Convolvulus Se'pium. A plant, the 
juice of which is possessed of active purga- 
tive qualities. 

Convolvulus Soldanel'la. The sea 
convolvulus. Soldanella. The seeds are 
said to be a drastic purgative. 

Convolvulus Turpe'thum. The tur- 
bith plant. Turpethum. 

CONVUL'SIO. Convulsion. 

Convulsio Canina. Kisus Sardonicus. 

Convulsio Cerea'lis. Raphania; a con- 
vulsive affection supposed to be brought 
on by eating spoiled corn. 

Convulsio Habitua'lis. Chorea. 

CONVUL'SION. Convul'sio; from con- 
vellere, to pnll together. Violent agitation 
of the whole body, attended by alternate 
violent involuntary contractions and relax- 
ations of the nmscles, and, as a conse- 
quence, distortion of the limbs, muscles of 
the face, &c. When the alternate contrac- 
tion is slight, it is called tremor, but when 
violent and permanent, tetanus, trismus, 
&c. It may be general or partial. When 
general, all the muscles of the body are 
more or less affected, as in the case of 
epilepsy and hysteria. When partial, it 
affects only several muscles, as in the cases 
of chorea, risus sardonicus, &c. 

CONVUL'SIVE. Tending to convul- 
sion. Slightly spasmodic. 

CONVULSIVES. Medicines which in- 
crease the irritability of the muscles, and 
induce convulsions, as strychnia, brucia, &c. 

CONY'ZA. A genus of plants of the 
order Composites. Great fleabane. 

COOPERTORIUM. The thyroid car- 

COPAT'BA. The resinous exudation of 
various copaiferous trees. Balsam of co- 

COPAIF'ERA. A genus of plants of 
the order Fabacece. 

Copaifera Officinalis. The system- 
atic name of the plant from which the 
copaiba balsam is obtained. 


placed in capsules, formed of a concen- 
trated solution of gelatine. 

COPAIVIC ACID. The yellow, brit- 
tle resin of copaiba balsam. 

COPAL. A resinous substance used in 
making varnishes. 

COPALCHE BARK. The bark of the 
Croton Pseudo-China. 

COPHO'SIS. Copho'ma. From kw^oj-, 
deaf. Deafness. 

COPOS. A state of the body in which 
the functions are languidly performed. 

COPPER. A metal of a reddish-brown 
color, inclining to yellow, of a disagreea- 
ble taste and smell ; very malleable and 
ductile, but possessing the former quality 
in a higher degree than the latter. It is 
possessed of greater tenacity than either 
gold, silver, or platinum. It is found na- 
tive, and in many ores — the most import- 
ant of which are the varieties of pyrites, 
sulphurets of copper and iron. Its spe- 
cific gravity is 8.6. It fuses at about 
20Q0° of Fahrenheit's scale. It readily 
tarnishes, forming a red sub-oxyd. The 
salts of copper are, for the most part, of a 
green color, and those which are soluble 
are poisonous. But for its medicinal pre- 
parations, see Cuprum. In Mechanical 
Dentistry, it is used for alloying gold, and 
in gold solders. See Gold, Alloying of, 
and Gold Solder. 

COPPERAS. Sulphate of iron. A 
common name for the metallic sulphate. 

COPPERNICKEL. A copper colored 
mineral of Westphalia; a native arseniuret 
of nickel. 

COPPER NOSE. Gutta rosea. 

COPRAGO'GUM. From Konpog, the 
excrement, and ayu, I bring away. A 

COPREM'ESIS. From Konpog, fasces, 
and efieu, I vomit. Vomiting of fa?ces. 

COPREM'ETUS. One affected with 

COPROCRIT'ICUS. A mild cathartic j 
an eccoprotic. 

COPROPHORTA. Old term for cathar- 

COPROSCLERO'SIS. Induration of 
fzecal matters. 




COPROSTA'SIS. Constipation; cos- 

COPTE. A cake made of vegetable 
substances and placed externally over the 
stomach or liver. 

COPTTS. Cqptis trifolia ; a bitter plant, 
sometimes used in aphthous and other ul- 
cerations of the mouth. 

COPULA. Ligament. 


COPYO'PIA. Weakness of sight. 

COR. Tho heart. 

situated at the inner and upper part of the 
arm. It arises from the forepart of the 
coracoid process of the scapula, and is in- 
serted about the middle of the inner side of 
the os humeri. 


ligament which serves to unite the clavicle 
to the coracoid process of the scapula. 

Cobaco-Hyoideus. A muscle between 
the os hyoides and shoulder. See Omo- 

CORACOID. Coracoi'deus; from nopal-, 
a bird, a crow, and eidog, resemblance. 
Resembling the beak of a crow. A name 
applied to some processes from their fan- 
cied resemblance to a crow's beak. A pro- 
cess situated at the anterior part of the 
upper margin of the scapula is designated 
by this name. 

CORAL. From nopeu, I adorn, and als, 
the sea. A beautiful production, attached to 
sub-marine rocks, in the form of a shrub. 
It is of a bright red, black, or white color, 
and is principally composed of calcarious 
substance, secreted by tho animals which 
form it. 

CORALLATUM. Old name for red 

CORALLI'NA. A genus of marine 
productions, supposed to be polypifers, 
having the appearance of a plant, and con- 
taining gelatine, albumen, chloride of sodi- 
um, phosphate, carbonate and sulphate of 
lime, carbonate of magnesia, silica, oxyd 
of iron, and a coloring principle. 

CORAL'LIUM. Coral. Marine poly- 
pifers, having a stony or horny axis. 

Coballium Album. White coral. 

Corallium Nigetjm. Black coral. 

Coballium Rubbum. Red coral, the 
hard calcarious substance of the his no- 

CORD, UMBILICAL. The cord formed 
by the union of the umbilical vessels and 
integuments, which connects the foetus with 
the placenta. 

CORDA. A cord. 

CORDATE. From cordis, the heart. 

COR'DIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Cordiacece. 

Cobdia Myxa. The Sebesten plant. 
The fruit is black, mucilaginous, and gent- 
ly laxative. It has been used in bronchial 

COR'DIAL. Cordia'lis ; from cor, cor- 
dis, the heart. Warm and exciting medi- 
cines, formerly supposed to be strengthen- 
ing to the heart. 

CORDINE'MA. Vertigo. 

CORDIS. The heart. 

CORDS, VOCAL. The ligaments of the 

CORDOLIUM. From cor, the heart, 
and doler, pain. Cardialgia, or heart-burn. 

CORDY'LEA. Old term for the dung 
of the Laccrta Stdlis, prized in the East as 
a remedy for cutaneous diseases, and as a 

CORE. In Anatomy, the pupil of the 
eye. In Pathology, the slough in the cen- 
tral part of boils. 

the pupil ; eKTtfivu, to cut out, and dcaTiou, 
to liberate. Formation of artificial pupil 
by detaching the iris from the ciliary liga- 

CORECTOMTA. Formation of artifi- 
cial pupil by removal of a part of the 

CORECTOPTA. From Kopn, the pupil, 
en, out, and tokqq, place. A deviation of 
the pupil of the eye from the centre, occa- 
sioned by one segment of the iris being 
larger than the other. 

COREDIALY'SIS. Formation of arti- 
ficial pupil by separating a part of the ex- 
ternal margin of the iris from the Corpus 
ciliare, ciliary folds or processes. 




CORE'MATA. From Kopeu, I cleanse. 
Remedies for cleansing the skin. 

COREMORPHO'SIS. The operation 
for artificial pupil. 

CORENCLEI'SIS. Operation for arti- 
ficial pupil, by drawing out a portion of 
the iris through an incision in the cornea 
and cutting it off. 

COREON'CION. Goron'cion; from Kopri, 
the pupil, and ojkivov, a hook. An instru- 
ment used for the formation of an artificial 

COREPLAS'TICE. Term for the op- 
eration for artificial pupil in general. 

CORETOM'IA. From uopl, the pupil, 
and TEfiveiv, to cut. The operation for the 
formation of an artificial pupil, consisting 
of a simple cut through the iris without 
the removal of any part of it. 

CORIA'CEOUS. Coria'ceus ; from co- 
rium, leather. Leathery. 

CORIANDER. Coriandrum Sativum. 

CORIAN'DRUM. A genus of plants of 
the order Apiacem. 

Corian'drum Sati'vum. The coriander 
plant. The seeds of this plant have a 
slightly warm and grateful pungent taste ; 
and are moderately carminative. 

CORIAN'NON. Coriandrum sativum. 

CO'RIS. From iceipu, to cleave, or cut, 
because it was used to heal wounds. St. 
John's-wort. Also, a genus of plants. 

Coins Monspelien'sis. Symphjtum 
petrceum. Heath-pine j a nauseous, bitter 

CORIUM. Corion. Leather. The cutis 

Corium Phlogis'ticum. The grayish 
crust or buff which forms on blood taken 
from a vein during inflammation, &c. 

CORK. The bark of Quercus suber. 

CORMOPHY'TES. Stem-growing 


CORMUS. Kop/iOf, a bulbous enlarge- 
ment of the stem of a plant distended un- 
der ground. 

CORN. From cornu, a horn. Clavus; spi- 
na pedis. In Pathology, a horny induration 
of the skin, formed generally on the toes. 

CORNA'CEiE. The natural group to 
which the dogwood trees belong. 

in honor of Cornachini, a physician of Pisa. 
A preparation made of scammony, dia- 
phoretic antimony and cream of tartar. 
The names varied with the formulas, as 
Pulvis de tribus, Pvlvis trium didbolorum, 
Pidvis comitis Warwicensis. 

COR'NEA. Membrana cornea; from 
cornu, horn. The anterior transparent 
tunic, or sclerotic membrane of the eye, 
is so called from its horny consistence. 

Cornea Opaca. The sclerotic coat of 
the eye. 

Cornea, Opake. Caligo. 

CORNEI'TIS. Inflammation of the 

CORNEOUS. Horn-like ; of a horny 

CORNIC'ULA. An old cupping in- 
strument, shaped like a trumpet, with a 
hole at the small end for exhausting the 
air by sucking. 

Cornic'ula Process'us. The coracoid 
process of the scapula. 

CORNICULATE. Having horn-like 

CORNIFOR'MIS. Shaped like a horn. 

COR'NINE. An alkaline substance dis- 
covered in the bark of the Cornus Florida. 
It has properties similar to quinine. 

CORNU. A horn ; a corneous excres- 
cence, as a wart on the skin ; a corn ; the 
angular cavities formed by the termination 
of the ventricles of the brain are called 
cornua, or horns. 

Cornu Acousticum. An ear-trumpet. 

Cornu Ammonis. Cornu arietis. The 
cortical substance of the human brain, as 
shown by cutting transversely through the 
pes hippocampi, is so called from its re- 
semblance to the horn of a ram. The pes 
hippocampi is also sometimes called the 
cornu ammonis. 

Cornu Ante'rius Seu Anti'cum Ven- 
triculi Lateralis. Anterior cornu of 
the Lateral Ventricle The curved process 
of the lateral ventricle advancing forward. 

Cornu Cervi. Heartshorn. The horns 
of several species of the stag contain a con- 
siderable quantity of gelatin, which they 
impart to water when boiled. When 




burnt they afford the cornu ustum ; and 
the spirit of hartshorn, (liquor volatilis 
cornu cervi,) at present superseded by am- 
monia, is obtained from them by distilla- 

Cornu Descen'dens Ventric'uli Lat- 
eralis. The termination of the lateral 
ventricle of the brain in the middle lobe, 
behind the fissure of Sylvius. 

Cornu Poste'rius Ventric'uli Lat- 
eralis. The triangular prolongation of 
the lateral ventricle backward into the 
occipital lobe of the brain. 

Cornu Ustum. Cornu cervi calcina- 
tum. Calcined cornu cervi, which consists 
of phosphate of lime with a very small 
proportion of carbonate of lime and phos- 
phate of magnesia. 

CORNUA. The turbinated bones ; also, 
applied to the processes of the hyoid and 
other bones. 


Eminences on the thyroid cartilage, the 
superior of which are articulated with the 
hyoid bone, and the inferior with the cri- 
coid cartilage. 

Corntja Coccy'gis. Two tubercular 
eminences at the base and outer side of 
the coccyx, articulated with those of the 

Cornua Cutanea. Horny excrescences. 

Cornua Hyoidei Ossis. The cornua of 
the hyoid bone, situated above its body, 
and designated by small or superior, and 
great or lateral. 

Cornua Lachrymalia. The lachry- 
mal ducts. 

Cornua Sacra'lia. The cornua of the 

Cornua Sphenoida'lia. Cornets Sphe- 
noidaux. Ossicula Bertini. Two small 
turbinated bones blocking up the orifices 
of the sphenoidal cells. They have been 
very carefully described by Wistar. 

Cornua U'teri. The cornua of the 
uterus are the angles where the Fallopian 
tube arises. 

CORNUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Cornacece. 

Cornus Circina'ta. Round-leafed dog- 

Cornus Flor'ida. Dogwood. The bark 
of this, as well as that of the preceding, 
is tonic, and has been used in the treat- 
ment of intermittents. 

Cornus Seri'cea. Swamp dogwood. 

COROA. Coruova ; cornova. The name 
of a very bitter bark, possessing febrifuge 
properties, obtained in the East Inches, 
and recently brought to Europe. 

COROL'LA. From coronula, a little 
crown. That part of a flower within the 
calyx which immediately surrounds the 
organs of fructification. 

COROLLARY. A consequent truth, 
drawn from a proposition already demon- 

COROLLIF'ERUS. Bearing a corolla. 

COROLLIFORM. Of the form and 
consistence of a corolla. 

COROL'LULA. A little corolla or 

CORO'NA. A crown. A term used in 
Anatomy and Botany, to designate parts 
which are supposed to resemble a crown. 

Corona Cilia'ris. The ciliary liga- 

Corona Dentis. The crown of a 

Corona Glandis. The margin of the 
glans penis. 

Corona Imperia'lis. Eritillaria impe- 
rialis. A plant used by the Turks as an 

Corona Ra'dians. The radiating fibres 
of the optic thalamus. 

Corona Regia. Trifolium melUotus of- 
ficinalis. The plant melilot. 

Corona Terrj?:. Ground-ivy. 

Corona Turulo'rum. A circle formed 
by the minute mouths of the excretory 
ducts of the glands of Peyer. 

Corona Veneris. Venereal blotches, 
or pustules, on the forehead. 

CORO'NAD. Towards the coronal as- 

CORO'NAL. Corona'lis ; from corona, 
crown. Belonging to a crown; a name 
formerly given to the os frontis, because it 
is the part on which the crown of kings 
partly rests. 

Coronal Aspect. An aspect towards 




the place of the corona, or crown of the 

Coronal Sutube. The suture which 
extends over the head from one temporal 
hone to the other, uniting the parietal 
hones with the frontal. 

COR'ONARY. Coronarius, from co- 
rona, a crown. In Anatomy, applied to 
parts which are supposed to resemble a 

Coronary Arteries of the Heart. 
The two arteries which supply the heart 
with blood. 

Coronary Artery of the Stomach. 
Arteria coronaria ventricvli. A branch of 
the coeliac artery, distributed upon the 
less curvature of the stomach. It is ac- 
companied by a vein called the vena coron- 
aria ventriculi. 

Coronary Ligament. A reflection of 
the peritoneum which surrounds the poste- 
rior margin of the liver. 

Coronary Veins. Veins following the 
coronary arteries. 

COR'ONATE. Gorona'tus. A term in 
Botany, applied to a petal having little 
crown-like eminences. 

CORO'NE. Kopuvv, a crow. The cor- 
onoid process of the lower jaw is so called 
from its resemblance to the bill of a crow. 

COR'ONOID. Coronoi'des, from Kopuvrj, 
a crow, and eidog, likeness. Like the beak 
of a crow ; applied to a process of the in- 
ferior maxillary, and to one of the ulna. 

CORPO'RA. The plural of corpus, a 

Corpora Albican'tia. Two white em- 
inences, each about the size of a pea, at 
the base of the brain. 

Corpora Aran'tii. Small tubercles on 
the semilunar valves. 

Corpora Caverno'sa. Two cylindrical, 
fibrous distensible bodies constituting the 
greater part of the penis and clitoris. 

Corpora Genicula'ta. Two small em- 
inences situated at the lower and outer part 
of the optic thalami. 

Corpora Malpighia'na. Acini of Mal- 
pighi. A number of small dark points 
scattered through the plexus of blood- 
vessels and urinary tubes in the kidney. 

Corpora Mammilla'ria. Corpora albi- 

Corpora Oliva'ria. Two whitish ob- 
long eminences of the medulla oblongata, 
exterior to the corpora pyramidalia. 

Corpora Pyramida'lia. Two small 
eminences, one on each side of the occipital 
surface of the medulla oblongata, and be- 
tween the corpora olivaria. 

Corpora Quadrigem'ina. Tubercula 

Corpora Restifor'mia. Two oblong 
medullary eminences, one on each side of 
the upper extremity of the medulla ob- 

Corpora Stria'ta. Eminences of a 
light brownish gray color, of a pyriform 
shape, which form part of the floor of the 
ventricles of the brain. 

Corpora Striata Superna Posteri- 
ora. The thalami nervorum opticorum. 

COR'PULENCY. From corpus, the 
body. Excessive increase of the human 
body from accumulation of fat. 

COR'PUS. A body. This term is ap- 
plied to many parts of the human body, 
as the corpus callosum, &c. 

Corpus Annula're. Pons Varolii. 

Corpus Callo'sum. The white medul- 
lary part of the brain joining the hemi- 

Corpus Denta'tum. An oval nucleus 
of cineritious matter, seen in the cerebel- 

Corpus Fimbeia'tum. The flattened ex- 
tremity of the posterior crus of the fornix. 

Corpus Glandulo'sum. The prostate 

Corpus Glandulosum Mulie'rum. A 
vascular, spongy body, surrounding the 
orifice of the female urethra. 

Corpus Highmoria'num. An oblong 
eminence, running along the superior edge 
of the testicle. 

Corpus Lu'teum. A yellow spot ob- 
served in the ovarium from which the ovum 
has proceeded. 

Corpus Muco'sum. The second layer 
of the skin, situated between the cutis 
vera and cuticle, which gives color to the 




Corpus Nervo-Spongio'sum. The cav- 
ernous substance of the penis. 

Corpus Nervo'sum. The cavernous body 
of the clitoris. 

Corpus Pampinifor'me. Pampiniforme; 
from pampinus, a tendril. The plexus of 
veins which surrounds the spermatic arterj' 
in the abdomen. 

Corpus Papilla're. The nervous and 
vascular papillae of the rete mucosum. 

Corpus Psalloi'des. See Lyra. 

Corpus Pyramida'le. The corpora 

Corpus Reticula're. The rete muco- 

Corpus Rhomboid'eum. Corpus denta- 

Corpus Spongiosum Ure'thr^;. The 
spongy structure around the urethra. 

Corpus Stria 'tum. The corpora stri- 

Corpus Varico'sum. The spermatic 
plexus of vessels. 

Corpus Vit'reum. "Vitreous humor. 

Corpus Wolffi'anum. Two bodies sit- 
uated in the region of the kidneys in the 
young foetus, wluch disappear about the 
tenth week. 

CORPUS'CLE. A very minute body; 
a mere atom. 

Corpuscles, Blood. The globules of 
the blood. 

Corpuscles, Exudation. The organi- 
zable nuclei contained in fibrinous fluids, 
constituting the organizing centres of new 

Corpuscles, Pacin'ian. Small oval 
bodies connected with the terminations of 
some nervous fibrils. 

lar action. 

COR'RIGENT. Cor'rigens; correcto'rius. ' 
That which corrects ; in a Medical pre- ■ 
scriplion, the addition of a substance to 
modify or render the action of another 
more mild. 

CORRIGTA. A leather strap; also, 
applied to tendons and ligaments. 

CORROB'ORANT. Corrob'orans ; from 
eorroborare, to strengthen. Strengthening 
medicines; medicines which impart tone 

and vigor to the body, as wine, cinchona 
and iron. 
CORRO'SION. Corro'sio; ero'sio; from 
con, and rodere, rosum, to gnaw. The ac- 
tion of corrosive substances. 

CORRO'SIVE. Substances which cor- 
rode, or when placed in contact with liv- 
ing parts disorganize them. 

Corrosive Sub'limate. Corrosive chlo- 
ride of mercury; bichloride of mercury. 
Hydrargyri chloridum corrosivum. 

CORRUGATION. Corruga'lio ; from 
con, and ruga, a wrinkle. Wrinkling, 

CORRUGA'TOR. Applied to muscles, 
the office of which is to corrugate the parts 
upon which they act. 

Corrugator Supercil'ii. A small mus- 
cle of the eyebrow. 

invented by Brasdor, for keeping in place 
the fragments of a fractured clavicle. 

COR'SICAN MOSS. A Cryptogamic 
plant, the Gigartina hehniihocorton, native 
of the Mediterranean, formerly much es- 
teemed as a vermifuge. It has also been 
used as a remedy for cancer. 

COR'TEX. Bark or the common integ- 
uments of plants. It is sometimes ap- 
plied exclusively to the Peruvian bark, or 
cortex cinchona. 

Cortex Adstring"ens Brazilien'sis. 
An astringent bark from Brazil, introduced 
into Germany in 1828. It is said to be ob- 
tained from the Mimosa cochlea carpa. 

Cortex Angelina. The bark of a tree 
which grows in Grenada, the Andira iner- 
mis, or cabbage-tree. 

Cortex Angustu'r^e. Cusparia. 
Cortex Antiscorbu'ticus. The canella 

Cortex Bela-aye. Bark of the Nerium 
antidysentericum or codaga-pala bark. 

Cortex Canella Malabaric^e. Lau- 
rus cassia, or wild cinnamon tree. 

Cortex Cardinalis de Lugo. The Pe- 
ruvian bark. 

Cortex Cer'ebri. The gray portion of 
the brain, seen at the exterior of the cere- 
brum and cerebellum. 




Cortex Cinciio'n^e Cordifo'li^e. Yel- 
low or Calisaya bark, obtained from the 
Cinchona Lanceolata, in flat or curled 
pieces. The quina is chiefly obtained 
from this species. 

Cortex Cinchona Lancifo'lle. Lance- 
leaved cinchona. Pale, loxa, or crown 
bark, the produce of the Cinchona conda- 

Cortex Cinchona Oblongifo'lle. Eed 
bark. See Cinchona Rubra. 

Cortex Chinee Regius. Cinchona. 

Cortex Jamaicen'sis. Bark of Achras- 

Cortex Massoy. Massoy bark. 

CORTICAL. Corlica'lis ; from cortex, 
bark or rind. Belonging to, or resembling, 
bark. A term applied in Anatomy to the 
exterior gray portion of the brain and kid- 

CO'RU. The name of a tree which grows 
in India ; the juice of the bark of which 
is employed in diarrhoea and dysentery. 

CORUNDUM. A very hard crystalline 
mineral composed of nearly pure alumina ; 
it is almost opaque, and of a reddish color. 
It is allied to the sapphire. 

Corundum Wheels and Slabs. Wheels 
and slabs composed of corundum, reduced 
to powder, and gum shellac — an article of 
recent manufacture, and used for grinding 
mineral teeth. 

CORYBAN'TIASM. In Pathology, a 
species of phrenzy, in which the patient 
has fantastic visions, with constant watch- 

CORYD'ALIN. An alkaloid found in 
the root of the Corydalis bulbosa and Fu- 

ria Bulbosa. 

CORYLUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Corylacece. 

Corylus Avella'na. The hazel-nut 

CORYMB'. Corymbus. A species of 
inflorescence, formed by many flowers, the 
partial flower stalks being produced along 
the common stalk on both sides, and, 
though of unequal length, rising to the 
same height, and forming an even surface. 

CORYMBIF'ERiE. From corymbus, a 
corymb, and fero, I bear. In Botany, 
plants which bear a corymb, or produce 
flowers or fruit in clusters. 

CO'RYPHA. A genus of plants of the 
order Palmacece. 

Corypha Umbraculif'era. The Tali- 
pot palm of Ceylon and Malabar, the 
leaves of which are of immense size. The 
pith of the young plant is used as an ar- 
ticle of food. 

CORY'ZA. Kopvfa. From Kapa, the 
head, and £«•), to boil. Inflammation at- 
tended with increased discharge of mucus 
from the nose. A cold in the head; a 

Coryza Maligna. Malignant coryza. 

COSMET'IC. Cosmet'icus ; from kog/ieu, 
to adorn. An external medicine used for 
beautifying the skin. 

COSMOL'OGY. Cosmolog'ia; from koo- 
fjioc, the universe, and hoyoc, a discourse. 
A treatise on the physical laws of the 

COS'MOS. Koafxog. Order; arrange- 
ment ; the system of the world — the uni- 
verse. Sometimes applied, in Pathology, 
to the order which is supposed to preside 
over critical days. 

COS'SUM. A malignant ulcer of the 

COS'SIS. A little pimple on the face, 
caused by inflammation, or an enlarge- 
ment of a sebaceous follicle. 

COST A. In Anatomy, the rib of an 
animal ; in Botany, the thick fibres of a 
leaf which proceed from the base to the 
apex are called ribs. 

COSTAL. Costa'lis ; from costa, a rib. 
Belonging to a rib; a name applied to 
some muscles, arteries, nerves, ligaments, 

COSTA'TUS. Ribbed. 

COS'TIVENESS. Constipation. 

COSTO. From costa, a rib. A prefix, 
applied to muscles, nerves, &c. connected 
with the ribs. 

COSTUS. From hasta, Arabian. A 
genus of plants of the order Asieraceos. 

Costus Arabicus. Costus indicus. The 




aweet and bitter costus are considered dia- 
phoretic, diuretic, and emmenagogue. 

Costus Cortico'sus. The canella alba. 

COTTON. A white, soft, downy sub- 
stance, resembling fine wool, the produce 
of the pods of Gossypium herbaceum. It 
is employed, in Dental Surgery, for wiping 
out and drying the prepared cavity of a 
carious tooth preparatory to filling. See 
Filling Teeth. 

COTU'LA. Colula foetida; anthemis 
cotvla. The May-weed, or wild chamo- 

Aquzeductus cochlea? and vestibuli. 

Cotunnius, Liquor of. A transpar- 
ent fluid of the labyrinth of the internal ear. 

Cotunnius, Nerve of. The nasopala- 
tine nerve. 

COT'YLE. Korvkn. Any thing hollow. 
The acetabulum. 

COTYLE'DON. The seminal leaves, 
or lobe that nourishes the seed of a plant. 

COTYLEDONE^E. Phonerogamia, or 
flowering plants. 

COTYLEDONS. In Comparative An- 
atomy, the cup-like processes of the cho- 
rion, which form the placenta. 

COT'YLOID CAVITY. The cavity in 
the ilium, which receives the head of the 
thigh-bone, called the acetabulum. 

COUCHING. A surgical operation for 
the removal of the opaque lens from the 
axis of vision, by means of a needle con- 
structed for the purpose. 

COUGH. A sonorous and energetic ex- 
pulsion of air from the thorax and fauces. 
It occurs as a symptom of asthma, phthi- 
sis, pneumonitis, catarrh, &c, and is often 
attended with expectoration. 

Cough, Hooping. See Pertussis. 

COUMAPJN'. A concrete volatile sub- 
stance, constituting the odoriferous princi- 
ple of the Tonka bean, Dipteryx odorata. 

tension. In Surgery, holding one end of 
a dislocated or fractured limb firmly by 
means of bandages or otherwise, while 
traction or extension is made upon the 
other end. 
Counter-Indication. Contra-indication. 

Counter-Ir'ritation. Contra-irrita- 
tion. Irritation excited in a part, not the 
seat of the disease, for the purpose of in- 
ducing a derivation of blood, and changing 
the seat of the morbid action to a part less 
important than the affected organ. 

Counter-Opening. See Contra-aper- 

Counter-Sink. A steel stem fixed in 
a handle, with a cone-shaped burr at the 
opposite extremity, employed in the labor- 
atory of the dentist for enlarging the ori- 
fice of a hole in a metal plate for the recep- 
tion of the head of a rivet. Also, a steel- 
burr so constructed as to be attached to 
the extremity of the mandrel of a lathe, 
and used for excavating ivory and osseous 
bases for artificial teeth, and for cutting 
solder from a metallic plate. 

COUP. A blow, shot, or stroke. 

Coup de Maitre. The introduction 
of a sound or catheter into the urethra, 
with the convexity towards the abdomen, 
and afterwards giving it a half-turn to 
enter the bladder. 

Coup de Sang. Sudden congestion of 
an organ without hemorrhage ; also, loss 
of sensation and motion caused by conges- 
tion or hemorrhage in an important organ. 

Coup de Soleil. A stroke of the sun. 
An affection produced by exposure to the 
rays of the sun, as the phrenitis, &c. It 
is generally the result of exposure of the 
naked head to the sun's rays, and usually 
occurs in hot climates, or during the hot- 
test days of summer. 

Coup de Vent. An affection produced 
by exposure to a keen wind, extremely 
cold or with rain and sleet ; a wind-blast. 

COUPEROSE. An old term for the 
metallic sulphates. 

COURAP. An Indian name for an 
eruptive disease attended with perpetual 
itching and discharge of matter. 

COURBARIL. The name of the tree 
from which the gum anime is obtained. 

COURONDI. An East Indian ever- 
green tree said to be anti-dysenteric. 

cups. A galvanic apparatus consisting of a 
circle of cups containing salt or acid water, 




and connected by compound metallic arcs 
of copper and zinc. 

COURSES. The menses. 

COURT PLASTER. Emplastrum ad- 
hcesivum anglicum. Black, white, or flesh- 
colored silk, covered on one side with some 
adhesive substance, most frequently with 
a solution of isinglass. 

rock alum 3 ij» tine, of myrrh and aloes 
3 i, camphor 3 i, brandy 3 viij. Mixture 
to be used as a gargle, and applied to the 
ulcerated gums several times a day. 

COUTOU'BEA ALBA. A bitter plant 
of Guiana, supposed to be anthelmintic, 
emmenagogue, and anti-dyspeptic. 

COUVRE-CHEF. A bandage for the 
head made by folding a handkerchief. 

COVOLAM'. SeeCratseva. 

COWBANE. Cicuta aquatica. Water 

COWDIE GUM. Cowdie pine resin. 
The resinous juice from the Dammara aus- 
tralis, a coniferous tree of New Zealand. 
It is one of the ingredients of copal var- 

COWHAGE. Cow-itch. See Dolichos 

COWPER'S GLANDS. Glandules Cow- 
peri. Two small groups of mucous follicles, 
situated before the prostate gland, behind 
the bulb of the urethra, into which their 
excretory ducts open. 

Cowper's Glands in the Female. 
Two small glands on each side of the en- 
trance of the vagina, beneath the skin at 
the posterior part of the labia. 

COW PARSNIP. Masterwort. See 
Heracleum Lannatum. 

Cow-Pox. Vaccina; vacciola. Kine-pox. 
A pustular disease of the teats of cows, 
consisting of vesicles of a bluish and livid 
color, elevated at their margins and de- 
pressed in the centre, containing a limpid 
fluid. One of the greatest blessings that 
have ever been conferred upon mankind 
consists in the discovery, by Dr. Jenner, 
that the introduction of this matter under 
the skin of the human subject produces a 
similar disease, and is a preventive against 
small-pox. See Vaccination. 

COWSLIP. Cow's lip. A plant of the 
genus Primula or primrose, of several va- 
rieties. The American belongs to the 
genus Dodecantheon ; the Jerusalem and 
mountain, to the genus Pulmonaria. 

COXA. The haunch, or hip-joint ; also, 
the ischium and os coccygis. 

COX^ELU'VIUM. From coxa, and lavo, 
to wash. A hip-bath. 

COXAG'RA. A neuralgic affection of 
the thigh. 

COXAL'GIA. From coxa, hip, and 
ahyog, pain. Pain in the hip. 

Hip disease. 

COXEN'DIX. Coxa or haunch. Ap- 
plied to the ischium and sometimes to the 

COXI'TIS. Inflammation of the hip- 

COXO-FEM'ORAL. Coxo-femora'lis. 
Belonging to the coxal bone or ilium, and 
os femoris. 

Coxo-Fem'obal Articulation. The 

CRAB. A genus of shell-fish, compris- 
ing many species, the body and limbs of 
which are covered with an articulated 
crust, renewed annually. 

Crab's Eyes. Cancrorum chela. Con- 
cretions found in the crayfish, consisting 
principally of carbonate and phosphate of 

Crab-Louse. See Pediculus. 

Crab-Yaws. A West Indian name for 
a kind of ulcer on the soles of the feet. 
See Frambcesia. 

CRADLE. A semi-cylindrical apparatus 
used by surgeons to prevent the contact of 
bed clothes with diseased parts. 

CRAM'BE. A genus of plants of the 
order Cruciferoz. 

Crambe Marit'ima. Sea-Kale, a plant 
of a delicate flavor when blanched and cul- 
tivated for the table. 

CRAME'RIA. Krameria. 

CRAMP. Sudden and involuntary con- 
traction of one or more muscles. See 

CRAN'BERRY. The fruit of the Vac- 
cinium oxycoccus. These berries form a 




sauce of a delicious flavor, and are used 
for tarts. 

CRANIOMETRY. Measurement of the 

CRANIOL'OGY. Phrenology. 

CRANIOS'COPY. From Kpavtov, the 
skull, and okoiteu, to explore. The exam- 
ination of the skull. 

CRANIUM. From Kpavtov, the head. 
The bony encasement of the brain and 
its membranes. It is composed of eight 
bones ; namely, the os frontis, the two 
ossa parietalia, the two ossa temporum, 
the os occipitis, the os ethmoides, and the 
os sphenoides. The two last are common 
to the cranium and face. 

Cranium Huma'num. The human 
skull, or cranium. 

Cranium, Perforation of. Crani- 
otomy. An operation sometimes performed 
by the accoucheur, when from deformity 
of the pelvis, the head of the foetus cannot 
pass through it. It consists in the intro- 
duction of a perforator, invented by Smel- 
lie, through the fontanelle, and rotating it 
so as to break up the brain. 

CRANTER. From upaivuv, to finish, 
render perfect. The dentes sapientire are 
sometimes so called, because the presence 
of these teeth is necessary to a perfect 

CRA'SIS. From nepavvvfti, I mix. A 
mixture of the constituents of a fluid. The 
term is applied to the fluids of the body. 
When their constituents exist in the proper 
proportion, health results, but when some 
predominate, as in dropsy, scurvy, &c, 
the healthy mixture of the principles of 
the blood or crasis is destroyed. 

CRASSAMEN'TUM. From crassus, 
thick. The thick part of any fluid. The 
clot of the blood. 

CRASSULA'CE^E. A natural order of 
herbaceous or shrubby exogens, remarka- 
ble for the succulent nature of their stems 
and leaves. 


CRASSUS PULSUS. A strong, full 

CRATiEVA. A genus of plants of the 
order Capparinacece. The fruit of nearly 

all the species have been called garlic 
pears, from their peculiar alliaceous odor. 

CRAW-FISH. A species of Crustacea, 
of the genus of the lobster, but smaller, 
and found in fresh water. 

CREA. Ocrea. The anterior part of 
the leg. The shin. 

CREAM. A thick unctuous matter 
which rises to the surface of milk, com- 
posed of butter, serum and casein. 

Cream of Tartar. See Potassa? Bitar- 

CRE'ASOTE. Creasotum; creasoton; 
from Kpeag, flesh, and oufc, to preserve. 
A colorless, transparent fluid, of a disa- 
greeable penetrating odor, soluble in alco- 
hol and acetic acid, obtained from tar by 

CREATINE'. A neutral, colorless, 
transparent, crystalline body, obtained by 
Liebig, from the juice of muscles. It is 
one of the first steps in the metamorphosis 
of the products of decay to urea. 

CREATININE'. A base formed from 
creatine by heating it in hydrochloric or 
nitric acid. 

ous form of ergotism. 

CREMAS'TER. From Kpe/xau, I sus- 
pend. The muscle by which the testicle 
is suspended, drawn up and compressed 
during the action of coition. 

CREMNON'CUS. From Kpvfivoc, the 
labia pudendi, and oyKog, a tumor. A 
swelling of the labia pudendi. 

CRE'MOCARP. The fruit of umbellif- 
erous plants. 

CRE'MOR. Cream. Any substance float- 
ing on the top of a liquid., and skimmed 

Cremor Tartari. Cream of tartar. 

CRE'NIC ACID. A sulphur-yellow 
acid, the product of vegetable decomposi- 
tion found in soils and springs. 

CRENA. Crenatura. The irregular 
projection, or serratures by which an accu- 
rate junction of the bones of the cranium is 
formed by the sutures. 

CREOSOTE. Creasote. 

CREPITANT. Crepitans. A term 
applied in Pathology, to the peculiar rat- 




tling sound heard during respiration in the 
first stages of pneumonia, and in oedema 
of the lungs. In Zoology, the name of an 
insect of the Brachinus genus, which emits 
a crackling sound when assailed. 

CREPITATION. From crepitare, to 
crackle. In Surgery, the noise made by 
the friction of the extremities of fractured 
bones against each other when moved in 
certain directions. In Chemistry, the 
crackling noise made by certain salts du- 
ring calcination. The term is also applied 
to the crackling noise made by effused air 
into the cellular membrane when pressed 
between the fingers. 

CREPITUS. From crepo, to make a 
noise. Crepitation ; the noise made by 
the discharge of wind from the bowels, or 
by joints when there is a deficiency of 
synovial fluid. 

CRESCEN'TIA. Increase; augmenta- 
tion; growth. 

Crescen'tia Cuje'te. The narrow- 
leaved calabash tree ; a West India plant, 
the pulp of the fruit of which is acidulous 
and is used in diarrhoea, &c. 

CRESCENTI^E. Enlargement of the 
lymphatics in the groins. Waxing kernels. 

CRESS. The name of several species of 
plants ; a number of them have a pungent 
taste and are used as salads, and are es- 
teemed in medicine for their anti-scorbutic 

Cress, Garden. Lepidium sativum. 

Cress, Indian. Tropceolum majus. 

Cress, Water. Sisymbrium aquati- 

CREST. See Crista. 

CRESTED. See Cristate. 

CRE'TA. From Greta, the island where 
it was first found. Chalk. Native friable 
carbonate of lime. 

Creta Pr^epara'ta. Prepared chalk. 

CRETA'CEOUS. Chalky. Containing 
or relating to chalk. 

CRETIN. One affected with cretinism. 

CRETTNISM. Cretinismus. Supposed 
to be derived from cretira, old Italian for a 
poor creature. A peculiar endemic affec- 
tion common in some parts of Valois, 
Tyrol, Switzerland, and the Pyrenees, 

characterized by an idiotic expression of 
countenance, enfeeblement of the mental 
faculties, obtuse sensibility and goitre. 

CRI DE CUIR. Friction sound of per- 

CRIBRA'TUS. Cribro'sus. Like a 
sieve ; perforated with holes. 

CRIB'RIFORM BONE. Cribriformis ; 
from cribrum, a sieve, and forma, likeness, 
because it is perforated like a sieve. The 
ethmoid bone. 

CRICK IN THE NECK. An exceed- 
ingly painful rheumatic affection of the 
muscles of the neck, causing the person to 
hold his head to one side, and preventing 
him from turning it in any other direction. 

CRI'CO-ARYTENOID. Crico-aryier^- 
oidceus. Pertaining to the cricoid and 
arytenoid cartilages. 

Crico-Arytenoid, Lateral. A mus- 
cle which arises from the cricoid cartilage, 
and is inserted into the anterior part of the 
base of the arytenoid cartilage. 

Crico-Arytenoid, Posterior. A tri- 
angular muscle situated at the back part 
of the larynx, arising from the middle of 
the posterior surface of the cricoid carti- 
lage, and inserted into the base of the ary- 
tenoid cartilage. 

CRico-PHARYNGiETjs. See Constrictor 
Pharyngis Inferior. 

Crico-Thyroideus. Crico-thyroid. A 
muscle of a triangular shape at the an- 
terior and inferior part of the larynx. It 
arises from the side and anterior part of 
the cricoid cartilage, and is inserted into 
the inferior margin of the thyroid carti- 

Crico-Tiiyro-Pharyng^us. The con- 
strictor pharyngis. 

CRICOID. Cricoides, cricoideus ; from 
KpiKog, a ring, and eidog, resemblance. The 
name of one of the cartilages of the larynx. 
It is round like a ring. 

CRICOS. KpiKog. A ring. 

CRIMNO'DES. Crimnoides, from Kptf*. 
vov, coarse meal, and eidog, resemblance. 
Resembling meal. A term applied to 
urine, when it deposits a sediment like 
coarse meal or bran. 

CRINA'LE. From crmis, hair. A com- 




pressing instrument formerly used in cases 
of fistula lachrymalis. One end of the in- 
strument consisted of a cushion stuffed 
with hair, and hence its name. 

CRINIS. The hair. 

CRINOM'YRON. An ointment made 
of lilies and aromatics. 

CRINO'NES. An infantile disease, con- 
sisting in the eruption of hlack hairs from 
the skin of the back, arms and legs, with 
febrile emaciation and irritation. 

CRIO'GENES. Ancient name for troches 
used for cleaning foul ulcers. 

CRIOMYX'OS. Ancient name for one 
who had much mucus flowing from his 
nasal fossae. 

CRISIS. Diacrisis ; decision; from 
Kpivu, I decide ; apioic, the final issue. A 
sudden change in diseases, especially fe- 
vers, for the better or worse. Its meaning 
is restricted by some to favorable changes. 

CRISPA'TION. Crispatura; frommV 
pare, to wrinkle. Contraction of any part, 
whether natural or the result of a morbific 

CRISTA. The comb of a cock ; a crest. 
A term applied in Anatomy to several pro- 
cesses and parts of bones, and also to the 
clitoris. In Surgery, excrescences about the 
anus, and near the genital organs, pro- 
duced by syphilitic diseases are so called 
from their resemblance to the comb of a 

Crista Gai/li. A triangular process, or 
eminence of the ethmoid bone above the 
cribriform plate, which gives attachment 
to the anterior part of the falx cerebri, so 
called from its resemblance to the comb of 
a cock. 

Crista of the Il'ium. The superior 
margin of the ilium. 

Crista Urethra'lis. The caput Gal- 

Crista Vestib'uli. A crest which di- 
vides the vestibulum of the ear into two 
fossas, the fovea hemispherica and fovea 

CRISTATE. Oristatus. Crested. Hav- 
ing an appendage like the comb of a cock. 

CRITH'MUM. From npivu, to secrete, 
from its supposed virtues in promoting a 

secretion of urine and a discharge of the 
menses. Samphire ; sea-fennel. 

Crithmum Marit'imum. The Linnaean 
name of the samphire or sea- fennel. 

CRIT'ICAL. Criticus ; from crisis, and 
Kpivu, to judge. Belonging to a crisis, or 
determining the result of a disease from 
certain symptoms. 

Critical Days. The days on which 
the ancients supposed the crisis of fever 
would be likely to happen. According to 
Hippocrates and Galen, the seventh and 
fourteenth were the most favorable; then the 
ninth, elvenih and twentieth ; then the sev- 
enteenth and fifth, and, lastly, the fourth, 
third and eighteenth. The sixth day was re- 
garded by Galen as unfavorable for the 
crisis. The most unfavorable days for the 
crisis, after the sixth, were the eighth, tenth, 
twelfth, sixteenth and nineteenth. The thir- 
teenth is a day not marked by any particu- 
lar change, either favorable or unfavorable. 
Physicians of the present time place little 
reliance in the doctrine of critical days of 

CRO'CI STIG'MATA. The dried stig- 
mas of Crocus Sativus, or common crocus. 

CROCI'NUM. From k P okoc, saffron. 
Made with saffron ; colored with saffron. 
A mixture of oil and saffron. 

CROCODIL'EA. Excrements of the 
crocodile, used by the Arabs against cuta- 
neous diseases, and as a cosmetic. 

CROCOMAGMA. An ancient troche 
made of oil of saffron and spices. 

CROCONTC ACID. Rhodizonic acid. 

CRO'CUS. A genus of bulbous-rooted 
plants. Saffron ; the pharmacopceial name 
of the prepared stigmata of saffron. Also, 
the name of several preparations of me- 
tallic substances, as Crocus Martis and 
Crocus Veneris. 

Crocus Antimo'nii. A sulphureted 
oxyd of antimony. 

Crocus German'icus. Carthamus tinc- 
torius, or bastard saffron. 

Crocus In'dicus. The turmeric plant. 

Crocus Mar'tis. Calcined sulphate of 
iron. See Polishing Rouge. 

Crocus Sati'vus. The saffron plant, 
which has a sweetish, fragrant odor; a 




warm, pungent, bitter taste, and is of a 
deep orange-red color. It is sometimes 
used in exanthematous diseases and nervous 
affections, but more frequently as a color- 
ing ingredient in compound preparations. 
Crocus Veneris. Oxyd of copper, 
formed by calcining the metal. 

CROMMYOXYREG'MIA. Sour, foetid, 
onion-like eructations. 

CROP. Craw; the first stomach of a 
fowl, formed by an expansion of the oeso- 

CROSS-STONE. A species of harmo- 
iome, so called from the intersection of its 

CROSS WORT. Eupatorium perfolia- 
tum. Boneset ; thorough wort. 

CRO'TALUS. From Kpoialov, a rattle. 
A genus of poisonous serpents, character- 
ized by the appendage of a rattle at the 
tail ; a rattle-snake. 

CROTAPHI'TES. From Kpora+oc, the 
temple. Pertaining to the temples. A 
term applied to the temporal artery, vein 
or nerve. 

CIIOT'APHOS. Crota'phhim ; from icpo- 
teu, to pulsate. Pulsating pain in the 

CROTCH'ET. A small hook. Applied 
by the French, in Dental Prosthesis, to 
clasps employed for the retention of a den- 
tal substitute in the mouth. In Obstetric 
Surgery, a curved instrument with a sharp 
hook for the extraction of the foetus in the 
operation of embryotomy. 

CRO'TON. A genus of plants of the 
order Euphorbiaceaz. 

Croton Benzoe. See Sty rax Benzoin. 
Croton Cascaril'la. See Croton Eleu- 

Croton Eleuthe'ria. The plant which 
affords the cascarilla bark. 

Croton Laccif'erum. The name of an 
East Indian tree, the resinous juice of which 
affords gum lac. 

Croton Oil. O'leum tig'lii. The ex- 
pressed oil of the seeds of the croton tig- 
lium, which, when pure, is a drastic purge, 
operating with great rapidity ; but its use 
is dangerous from the irritation it some- 
times produces. 

Croton Tig'lium. A Ceylonese plant, 
every part of which is said to possess medi- 
cinal properties. The root acts as a drastic 
cathartic. From the seeds, the croton oil, 
oleum tiglii, is expressed. 

Croton Tinctorium. The lac plant. 
CROTONATE. A salt formed from 
crotonic acid with a base. 

CROTO'NE. A fungus found on trees, 
produced by an insect like a tick. Also, 
by extension, applied to small fungous tu- 
mors of the periosteum. 

CROTON'IC ACID. An acid obtained 
from the seeds of Croton tiglium. 

CROUP. Cynanche trachealis. Suffo- 
cating breathing, accompanied by a stridu- 
lus noise, dry cough, and expectoration of 
tough membranous sputa. 

Croup Hysteric. A spasmodic affection 
of the larynx attacking hysterical females. 
CROW-BERRY. A plant of the genu* 
Empetrum, or berry-bearing heath. 

Crow's Bill. In Surgery, a kind of for- 
ceps for extracting balls and other foreign 
bodies from wounds. 

Crowfoot. See Ranunculus. 
Crowfoot-Crane's Bill. See Gera- 
nium Pratense. 

CROWN. Coro'na. In Anatomy, ap- 
plied to parts of a circular form surmount- 
ing other portions of the same body, as the 
crown of a tooth, corona dentis, &c. 

Crown Bark. Loxa bark ; cortex cin- 
chonas lancifolise ; the bark of the Cin- 
chona condaminea. 

Crown of a Tooth. The exposed part 
of a tooth above the gums, covered with 
enamel. See Teeth. 

CRU'CIAL. Crucia'lis ; from crux, a 
cross. Having the shape of a cross. 

Crucial Bandage. A bandage shaped 
like a capital T. 

Crucial Incis'ion. An incision made 
in the shape of a cross. 

Crucial Ligaments. Two ligaments 
of the knee joint. 
CRUCIATE. Crucia'tus. Cruciform. 
CRU'CIBLE. From crucio, I torment, 
because metals were tortured by fire to 
yield up their various virtues. A vessel of 
a conical shape in which substances are 




exposed to the heat of a fire or furnace, 
formed of earthenware, porcelain, black- 
lead, silver or platina. They are used by 
dentists, goldsmiths and jewelers, for re- 
fining and alloying gold and silver, and for 
this purpose they should be formed of sub- 
stances capable of bearing considerable al- 
ternations of temperature without break- 
ing or cracking. The best crucibles are 
formed from pure clay, mixed with pulver- 
ized old crucibles, black-lead, and pounded 

CRUCIF'ER^E. The cruciferous tribe 
of dicotyledonous plants. 

CRU'CIFORM. From crux, cruris, a 
cross, and forma, shape. Cruciformis ; 
cross-shaped. Applied, in Anatomy, to the 
ligaments which close the articulations of 
the phalanges and to the crucial ligaments. 

CRUDE. Unprepared; raw. Applied 
to natural or artificial products which re 
quire purification. 

CRU'DITY. Cru'ditas; from crudus, 
crude, unprepared. Rawness, crudeness. 
Applied to aliments in a raw state ; also, 
to undigested substances in the stomach. 

CRUOR. Coagulated blood. 

CRU'RA. The plural of crus, a leg. Ap- 
plied to some parts of the body from their 
resemblance to a leg, as crura cerebri, 
crura cerebeUi, crura of the diaphragm, &c. 

CRURiE'US. From crus, a leg. Cru- 
ra'lis. A muscle of the anterior part of 
the thigh. 

CRU'RAL. Crura'lis. Belonging to the 
leg, or lower extremity. 

Crural Arch. The inguinal arch. 

Crural Artery. The femoral artery. 

Crural Canal. The femoral ring. 

Crural Hernia. Femoral hernia. 

Crural Nerve. A nerve situated on 
the outside of the psoas muscle and fem- 
oral artery, proceeding from the lumbar 

Crural Plexus. A plexus formed by 
the union of the last four pair of lumbar 

CRURA'LIS. Crurams. 

CRUS. The leg; also the thigh. 

CRUST A. A scab; a shell; the scum 
of a fluid. 

Crusta Adamantina Dentium. The 
enamel of the teeth. 

Crusta Carno'sa. The middle tunic 
of the intestines. 

Crusta Ge'nu Equi'n^:. Knee scab. A 
scab or corn formed on the knees of some 

Crusta Inflammato'ria. The buffy 
coat of inflamed blood. 

Crusta Lac'tea. Porrigo larvalis. 

Crusta Petro'sa. The cementum of 
the teeth. 

Crusta Villo'sa. The inner or mucous 
coat of the stomach and intestines. 

CRUSTA'CEA. A class of articulated 
animals protected by a hard shell. 

CRUSTA'CEOUS. Covered with a 
shell, or resembling a shell. 

CRUSTULA. A small shell or scab; 
also an effusion of blood under the con- 
junctive membrane of "the eye. 

CRYMO'DES. Kpvfiudeg. From Kpv/wg, 
cold. A fever in which the internal parts 
are hot and the external cold. 

CRYMODYNTA. From ttpv/ioc, cold, 
and oSvvri, pain. Chronic rheumatism. 

CRYMO'SES. From itpvuoc, cold. Dis- 
eases caused by the action of cold. 

CRYO'LITE. From icpvog, ice, and fodog , 
stone. A rare mineral, fusible in the flame 
of a candle ; a double fluoride of sodium 
and aluminum. 

CRYPSOR'CHIS. Cryptor'chis. From 
Kpvirru, I conceal, and opxtg, a testicle. 
One in whom the testes have not de- 

CRYPTA. From Kpvnrog, concealed. In 
Anatomy, a small oval hollow body; a 
follicle or small pit ; a follicular gland. In 
Botany, the round receptacles for secretion, 
observed in the leaves of some plants, as 
in the myrtle and orange. 

CRYPT^E. The rounded excrescences 
at the ends of the small arteries of the cor- 
tical substance of the kidneys. 

concealed, and nefyalj), a head. A monster 
with a small head which does not project 
from the trunk. 

CRYPTOGAMOUS. Cryptogam' icus ; 
from KpviTTog, concealed, and yaftog, a mar- 




riage. Plants whose organs of fructifica- 
tion arc concealed or not manifest. 


CRYSTAL. Orystal'lus; KpvoraMog. 
When fluids become solid, their particles 
unite and frequently assume regular deter- 
minate forms which are termed crystals. 
Crystallized quartz was supposed by the 
ancients to be water congealed by intense 
cold, and hence, says Cleaveland, the term 
Kpvarallog, which signifies ice ; and as regu- 
larity of form is no where more beautifully 
exhibited than in " crystallized quartz, the 
name has been extended to all mineral and 
inorganic substances which exhibit them- 
selves under the form of regular geometri- 
cal solids." 

CRYSTAL'LI. Vesicles filled with a 
watery fluid. Pemphigus. 

Crystalli Taetari. Cream of tartar. 

CRYSTALLIN. The protein compound 
of the fluid of the crystalline lens. See 
Globulin. The name has also been given 
to one of the products of the distillation of 

CRYSTAL'LINA. A vesicle or phlyc- 
tama on the prepuce, surrounded by a red 

Crystallina Membrana. The arach- 
noid membrane. 

CRYSTALLINE. Crystalli' nus. Crys- 
tal-like. Having the form or appearance 
of crystal. 

Crystalline Lens. A clear, trans- 
parent, spherical body, situated in a de- 
pression of the anterior part of the vitreous 
humor of the eye, and enclosed in a mem- 
branous capsule. It transmits and refracts 
the rays of light. 

CRYSTALLIZATION. Crysialliza'lio ; 
from crystallus, a crystal. The act of 
crystallizing, or that process by which the 
particles of crystallizable bodies unite and 
assume a regular and determinate solid 
form. This property is possessed by most 
minerals, but in a more eminent degree 
by saline substances. 

Crystallization, Water of. The 
water which combines with certain salts 
to give them the form of crystals 

raXkog, a crystal, and ypapw, I describe. 
The doctrine of the modifications and forms 
of crystals. 

CRYSTALLOID. From upvoraUog, a 
crystal, and eidog, form, resemblance. Re- 
sembling crystal or the crystalline lens. 
The capsule or membrane of the crystal- 
line ; also, the crystalline lens itself. 

CTEDONES. Old name for the fibres 
and filaments of the tissues of the body. 

CTEIS. From wig, a comb. Old 
name for the pubis. 

CTENES. Kreveg. Incisor teeth. 

CUBEBA. The berries of the Piper 
cubeba. Cubebs ; Java pepper. They are 
stimulant, carminative and stomachic, and 
act specially on the genito-urinary or- 
gans, and are sometimes employed in gon- 

CUBEBIN. A peculiar neutral principle 
contained in cubebs. 

CUBEBS. See Cubeba. 

Cubebs, Oil of. Oleum cubeba?. 

CUBIFORME OS. Os cuboides. 

tensor muscle of the fingers. 

Cubit^ius Internus. A flexor muscle 
of the fingers. 

CUBITAL. Oubita'lis ; from cubitus, 
the forearm. Connected with, or relating 
to, the forearm. 

Cubital Artery. Arte'ria cubita'lis ; 
arieria ulna'ris. A branch of the humeral 
artery, given off a little below the bend of 
the elbow, which passes down along the 
inner part of the forearm. 

Cubital Nerve. The ulnar nerve. 

CUBITUS. From cubo, to lie down. 
The forearm ; also the larger of the two 
bones of the forearm, called os cubitus. 

CUBOI'DES OS. From nvpog, a cube 
or die, and eidog, a likeness. A tarsal bone 
of the foot. 

CUCULLA'RIS. From cucullus, a 
hood. The trapezius muscle has been so 
called from its broad hood-like appear- 

CU'CULLATE. CucuUa'tus. Hooded. 
In Botany, rolled or folded in, as in the 
spatha of the wild turnip. 




CUCUL'LUS. A hood; an odoriferous 
cap or bandage for the head. 

CU'CULUS. The cuckoo, an interest- 
ing genus of Passerine birds, characterized 
by having two toes before and two behind. 
CUCUMBER. See Cucumis. 
CU'CUMIS. A genus of plants of the 
order Cucurbitacece. Also the pharma- 
copoeial name of the common garden cu- 

Cucumis Agres'tis. The wild or squirt- 
ing cucumber. See Momordica Elaterium. 
Cucumis Colocyn'this. Cdocynth. Bit- 
ter apple ; bitter cucumber ; an annual 
plant, native of Syria and Africa. The 
fruit is a round pepo, the size and color of 
an orange. The pulp is bitter and nauseous; 
the extract of which is a drastic purgative, 
producing severe griping. It is generally 
given in combination with other drugs. 

Cucumis Me'lo. The melon plant. 
Cucumis Sati'vus. The cucumberplant. 
CU'CUPHA. See Cucullus. 

The bites of these insects often cause con- 
siderable local inflammation. 

CULBUTE. A French word signifying 
somerset, a turning heels over head, and 
applied in Obstetrics to the movement 
which the foetus was supposed to make at 
the seventh month of gestation. 

CULM. In Mineralogy, a provincial 
synonym of anthracite; in Botany, the 
stem of grasses. 

CULMIF'EILE. A term applied in Bot- 
any to plants which have soft smooth stems. 

CULUS. The anus. 

CUMIN SEED. The fruit of the Gu- 
minum cyminum. It has a bitter, aromatic 
taste, and very peculiar odor. 

CUMINUM. A genus of plants of the 
order Apiaceaz. 

Cuminum Cymi'num. The systematic 
name of the cumin plant. 

CUMYL. An hypothetical radical exist- 
ing in the oil of cumin. 

CUNEA'LIS SUTU'RA. The suture 
between the great and little ala of the 

CU'CURBITA. A genus of plants of sphenoid bone and the os frontis. 

the order Cwurbitacea. Also, a chemical 
vessel shaped like a gourd ; a retort. 

Cucurbita Citrul'lus. The water- 
melon plant. 

Cucurbita Cruen'ta. A cupping-glass. 

Cucurbita Lagena'ria. The gourd. 

Cucurbita Melo Pepo. The large 

Cucurbita Pepo. The common pump- 
kin. The seeds have been recently used 
as a remedy for tape-worm, and are said to 
be more powerful than any of the common 
vermifuges against this form of disease. 

CUCURBITA'CE^E. From cucurbita, 
a gourd. Plants resembling the gourd. 

CUCURBITI'NUS. A species of worm, 
the tenia solium. See Tamia. 

CUCURBIT'ULA. A cupping-glass. 

CucuitBiTULA Cruenta. Cupping with 

Cucuiibitula Sicca. Dry cupping. 

CUDBEAR. A powder of a violet red 
color, prepared from lichen, lecanora tar- 
tarea, used for dying. 

CU'LEX. A genus of insects compre 
hending the gnat and musquito family. 

CUNEIFORM. Cuneifor'mis ; from cu- 
neus, a wedge, and forma, shape. Shaped 
like a wedge. Cuneate ; a name applied to 
several bones, leaves, &c. It is applied to 
one of the bones of the carpus, and to three 
of the tarsus ; also to the basilary process 
of the occipital bone. 

CUNILA. A genus of plants of the 
order Lamiaceaz. 

Cunila Maria'jta. Dittany ; mountain 
dittany; stone-mint; a plant possessing 
stimulant, carminative, and aromatic prop- 

CUPEL'. A' shallow earthen vessel, 
somewhat like a cup, generally made of 
bone-earth, and used in assaying and re- 
fining gold and silver. 

CUPELLA'TION. A process of purify- 
ing or refining gold or silver by means of 
an addition of lead, which, at a sufficiently 
high temperature, vitrifies and promotes 
the vitrification and calcination of such 
base metals as may be in the mixture, 
which are carried off in the fusible glass 
thus formed, while the precious metals are 
left in nearly a pure state. 




CUPPING. The abstraction of blood 
by means of a scarificator and a cupping 

CUPRES'SUS. A genus of plants of 
the order Coniferce. 

Cupres'sus Semper'virens. The sys- 
tematic name of the cupressus, or cypress 

prum Ammoniatum. 

Cupri Ammoniati Liquor. See Liquor 
Cupri Ammonio-sulphatis. 

Cupri Rubi'go. Verdigris. Impure 
tnibacetate of copper. 

Cupri Subace'tas. Subacetate of cop- 

Cupri Sulphas. Sulphate of copper. 
Blue vitriol. 

CU'PRUM. From avnpoc, the Greek 
name of the island Cyprus, where it was 
first found. Copp'er. 

Cuprum Ammonia'tum. Ammomated 
copper. Ammoniacal sulphate of copper. 
CUPULA. The cup of the acorn. 
CUPULTF'ERiE. The oak and chest- 
nut tribe of dicotyledonous plants. 

CURA'TIO. The treatment or cure of a 
disease or injury. 

CU'RA AVENA'CEA. A decoction of 
•oats with nitre and sugar. 

Cura Fa'mis. Abstinence from food. 
CURA'RI. Wourari. A powerful poi- 
son used by the South American Indians 
on their weapons of war. 

CU'RATIVE. Relating to a cure ; sus- 
ceptible of cure. 

CURCU'LIO. A genus of Coleopterous 

CURCUMA LONG A. The systematic 
name of the turmeric tree. 

Curcuma Paper. Paper dyed in a 
decoction of turmeric, and employed as a j 
test of free alkali, which gives to it a brown 

CURCUMIN'. The coloring matter of 

CURD. Coagulum of milk. 
CURE-DENT. A French word signi- 
fying a tooth-pick. 

Cure-Langue. A French word signify- 
ing a tongue-scraper. 

CURETTE. An instrument for the re- 
moval of any opaque matter which may 
remain after the extraction of a cataract. 

CUR'RANT. The fruit of two specie* 
of Mibes. 

CURRY. A condiment formed of vari- 
ous spices. 

of the coccyx. 

CURVATE. Curva'tus. Bent. 
CURVATURE. From curvare, to bend. 
Curved or bent ; a departure from an erect 
or straight line, as in the case of the spine, 
duodenum, &c. 

Curvature of the Spine. A devia- 
tion of the spinal column from its regular 

CUSCU'TA. Dodder. A genus of para- 
sitical plants. 

Cuscuta Epith'ymum. The dodder of 
thyme, a parasitical plant of a strong, dis- 
agreeable smell and pungent taste. 
Cuscuta Europoo'a. Flax dodder. 
CUSPA'RIA. Cusparice cortex. Cus- 
paria, or Angostura bark. 

Cusparia Febrifuga. Bonplan'dia tri- 
folia'ta. The South American tree which 
furnishes the cusparia, or Angostura bark. 
CUSPID TEETH. Dentes cuspidati ; 
denies canini ; angidares ; dentes laniarii; 
and the conoides of Chaussier. The four 
teeth which have conical crowns. They 
are situated, one on each side, in each jaw 
between the lateral incisor and first bicus- 
pis. Their crowns are convex externally 
and slightly concave and unequal posteri- 
orly, and pointed at the extremity. Their 
crowns, when not worn, are longer than 
those of any of the other teeth. Their 
roots are larger and also the longest of all 
the teeth, and like the incisors, are single, 
but have a vertical groove on each side, 
laterally, extending from the neck to the 
extremity, showing a step towards the 
formation of two roots. 

The upper cuspidati, sometimes called 
the eye-teeth, are larger than the lower, 
which have been called the stomach teeth. 
The enamel upon these teeth is thicker 
than on the incisors. Both anteriorly and 
posteriorly, a slight curve is seen in the 




neck, and the crown projects a little from 
the parabolical curve of the dental arch. 

The cuspidati of second dentition are 
larger and longer than those of first denti- 
tion, and as the teeth are situated nearer 
the attachments of the muscles which move 
the lower jaw than the incisors, which are 
at the extremity of the lever, they are ena- 
bled to overcome greater resistance. Being 
pointed at their extremities, they are in- 
tended for tearing the food, and in some of 
the carnivorous animals, where they are 
very large, they not only serve to rend, 
but also to hold prey. 

CUSPIDATE. A term applied in Bot- 
any to a part terminating in a stiff point. 

CUSPIDATI. The plural of cuspidatus. 
The cuspid teeth. 

CUSPIDATUS. From cuspis, a point. 
A cuspid tooth. 

CUTAM'BULUS. From cutis, the skin, 
and ambulo, to walk. Old name for a 
small worm under the cuticle, supposed to 
be the Gordius medinensis. 

CUTA'NEOUS. Cutaneus; from cutis, 
the skin. Belonging to the skin. 

Cutaneous Absorp'tion. Absorption 
by the skin. 

Cutaneous Diseases. Diseases at- 
tended with eruption on the skin. 

Cutaneous Exhalation. Exhalation 
from the skin. 

Cutaneous Nerves. Two nerves given 
off by the brachial plexus, an internal and 
an external, to supply the arm and hand. 
Also, four nerves given off by the lumbar 
plexus, or anterior crural nerve, which go 
to the leg. 

jaame for the fruit of Anona reticulata. 

CUTCH. Catechu. 

CUTICLE. In Anatomy, the epidermis 
<sr scarf-skin. In Botany, the thin vascu- 
lar membrane covering the external sur- 
face of vegetables. 

CUTIS. Dermis ; pellis. The skin, 
which is said to consist of three parts, the 
cutis vera, or true skin, the rete mucosum, 
or mucous net, and epidermis, or scarf-skin. 
Others consider it as consisting of only two 
layers, the cutis vera, and epidermis, the 

rete mucosum being the vascular net-work 
of the former. The outer surface of the 
skin is covered by conical eminences called 
papilla;, which are very nervous and vas- 
cular. The skin serves as a medium of 
communication with external objects, while 
it protects the subjacent parts, and is the 
seat of touch. Its color, which is deter- 
mined by the rete mucosum, varies accord- 
ing to age, sex, races, &c. 

Cutis Anseri'na. fforrida cutis. Goose- 
skin. That contracted state of the skin 
which accompanies the cold stage of an in- 
termittent, in which the papillae become 
prominent and rigid. 

Cutis Exter'na. The epidermis. 

Cutis Ve'ra. The true skin. 

CUTITIS. Erysipelatous inflamma- 

CUTTLE FISH. A genus of mollus- 
cous animals of the order Cephalopoda, and 
genus* Sepia. 

CUTTUBUTH. Arabian name for a 
kind of Melancholia, accompanied with 
great restlessness. 

CUUHDO CANELLA. Laurus cinna- 



CYA'NIC ACID. A compound of cy- 
anogen and oxygen. 

CYANITE. From tcvavog, blue. A mas- 
sive crystallized mineral, of pearly lustre, 
translucent, and of various shades of blue. 

CYANOGEN. From nvavoe and yiyvo. 
fiai, I am produced, because it is an essen- 
tial ingredient of Prussian blue. Bicarburet 
of nitrogen ; a colorless gas, of a strong 
pungent odor. It is condensed into a 
limpid liquid at a temperature of 45° and 
under a pressure of 3.6 atmospheres. It 
extinguishes burning bodies, but burns 
with a light purple flame, and supports a 
strong heat without decomposition. It is 
composed of nitrogen and carbon. 

CYANOM'ETER. From kvqvoc, and 
fjeTpov, measure. An instrument for de- 
termining the deepness of the tint of the 




CYANOP'ATHY. Cyanopathi'a ; from 
Kvavog, and na-dog , disease. Cyanosis. 

CYANO'SIS. From icvavuotc, the giv- 
ing a blue color. The blue disease. A 
disease in which the skin of the whole body 
assumes a blue color, arising, generally, 
from congenital malformation of the heart, 
consisting of a direct communication of the 
right and left cavities, thus preventing the 
whole of the blood from being oxygenated 
in the lungs. 

CYAN'URET. Cyanide. A compound 
of cyanogen with a base. 

Cyanuret of Mercury. Cyanide, or 
bicyanide of mercury. See Hydrargyri 

Cyanuret of Potassium. Cyanide of 

Cyanuret of Silver. Cyanide of sil- 

Cyanuret of Zinc. Cyanide of zinc. 

CYANURIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by decomposing urea by heat. 

CYANURIN. A very rare substance 
deposited from urine as a blue powder. 

CY'AR. The meatus auditorius inter- 

CYATHIS'CUS. A probe with a hol- 
low at one end. 

CY'ATHUS. Kvadog, a cup. A meas- 
ure both of the liquid and dry kind, equal 
to about an ounce and a half. 

CY'CEON. An ancient medicine, com- 
posed of wine, water, honey, flour, barley 
meal and cheese. 

CY'CAS. A genus of plants of the or- 
der Cycadacece. 

Cycas Circina'lis. The meal-bark tree, 
which furnishes the Japan sago. The pulp 
of the fruit is bitter and emetic in its nat- 
ural state, but edible when cooked. 

Cycas Iner'mis. Another species, which 
also furnishes a kind of sago. 

Cycas Revouj'ta. This has similar 

CYCLA'MEN. A genus of plants of 
the order Primidaeece. 

Cyclamen Europium. The sow- 
bread. The root is bitter, and is a drastic 
purgative and anthelmintic. 

CYCLAMINE. A crystalline principle 

obtained from the root of Cyclamen Euro- 
pceum, possessing acrid, purgative and 
emetic properties. 

CY'CLE. Cyclas ; from icvicXog, a circle. 
A determinate period of a certain number 
of days or years, which finishes and com- 
mences perpetually. 

CYCLIS'MOS. Cyclisus. A lozenge. 
Also, a circular rasp for bones. 

CYCLOBRAN'CHIANS. Cyclobranchi- 
ata ; from kvkIos , and fipayxta, gills. An 
order of hermaphrodite Gastropodous Mok 

CYCLOCEPH'ALUS. A monster whose 
eyes are in contact or united into one. 

and yaykiov, a nerve knot. A subdivision 
of Mollusks, distinguished by ganglia ar- 
ranged in a circular manner around the 

CYCLONEU'RA. From kvkIos, and 
vevpov, a nerve. The first division of radi- 
ate animals. 

CYCLOPHO'RIA. Circulation. 

CYCLOPS. From aviikoq, and urp, an 
eye. A monster with one eye, situated in 
the middle of the forehead. 

CYCLO'SIS. In Botany, the circulation 
of the latex or the vital fluids in plants. 

CYCLOS'TOMA. A genus of air-breath- 
ing gastropods or snails. 

The quince tree. 

CYE'MA. Kvrjfia; from kvu, to bring 
forth. The product of conception. 

CYESIOL'OGY. Cyesiologi'a ; from 
Kvrjmg, pregnancy, and toyoq, a description. 
The doctrine of generation. 

CYESIS. Conception. 

CYL'INDER. From nvXivdu, I roll. A 
long, circular body of uniform diameter. 
A round tube is a hollow cylinder. The 
long bones are called cylindrical. 

CYLINDRICAL. Cyl'indroid. Resem- 
bling a cylinder. 

CYLLO'SIS. KvM,G)oi if distortion. Lame- 
ness, mutilation, mal con formation. 

CYCLOPHO'RIA. Circulation. 

CYCLO'PION. The white of the eye. 

CYMA. From Kv/irja, a foetus. In Bota- 
ny, a species of inflorescence consisting of a 




solitary flower seated in the axilla of di- 
chotomous ramifications. 

CYMATO'DES. Kvpamttom An undu- 
lating, unequal pulse. 

CYMBIPORM. Boat-shaped. 

CYM'BIUM. A sea-shell belonging to 
the genus Choncha globosa, or dolium. 

CYNAN'CHE. From ***, a dog, and 
ayx u , I suffocate. So called from dogs 
being said to be subject to it. Sore throat ; 
inflammation of the upper part of the air 
passages and the supra-diaphragmatic por- 
tion of the alimentary canal. 

Cynanche Epidemica. Cynanche ma- 
lig'na ; cynanche fau'cium ; cynanche gan- 
grenosa ; tonsillitis. Epidemic sore throat. 

Cynanche Malio'na. Cynanche gan- 
grenosa; angi'na ulcero'sa. Putrid ul- 
cerated sore throat. Gangrenous inflam- 
mation of the pharynx. 

Cynanche Parotid^'a. Cynanche 
maxilla' r is ; inflamma'lio paro'lidum. The 

Cynanche Pharynge'a. Inflamma- 
tion of the pharynx. 

Cynanche Tonsillaris. Inflamma- 
tory sore throat, characterized by redness 
and swelling of the mucous membrane of 
the fauces and tonsils, accompanied by 
pain, fever, and difficult deglutition. 

Cynanche Trachea'lis. Cynanche 
larynge'a ; suffoca'tio strid'ula. Croup. A 
disease, for the most part, peculiar to chil- 
dren, and characterized by inflammatory 
fever, sonorous suffocative breathing ; the 
formation of false membrane in the tra- 
chea beneath the glottis, which is some- 
times coughed up or expectorated, and at 
other times causes dyspnoea and suffocation. 

CYNAN'CHICA. Medicines for the 
relief of quinsy. 

CYNAN'CHUM. A genus of plants of 
the order Asclepiadacece. 

Cynanchum Monspeliacitm. A black 
resinous gum, possessing purgative prop- 
erties. Montpellier scammony. 

Cynanchum OlejEfo'lium. A plant, 
the leaves of which are frequently mingled 
with those of Alexandrian Senna, which 
it resemhles in its action. 

Cynanchum Vincetox'icum. A Eu- 

ropean plant, the leaves of which are 

Cynanchum Yomito'rium. The ipecac- 
uanha of the Isle of France. 

CYNANTHROTIA. From kwp, dog, 
and avdpunoc, a man. A sort of melan- 
choly in which the patient fancies himself 
changed into a dog. 

CYN'ARA. The artichoke. 
CYNARA'CE^E. Cyna'rce. One of the 
divisions of the great group of composites, 
containing the thistle, artichoke, &C. 

CYNARRHO'DIUM. In Botany, a 
fruit with distinct ovaria, and hard in- 
dehiscent pericarpia enclosed within the 
fleshy tube of the calyx, as Rosa. 

CYN'ICUS. From kvcjv, a dog. Re- 
lating to, or resembling, a dog. A cynic 
spasm is characterized by a contortion of 
one side of the face, in which the eye, 
cheek and mouth are dragged downward. 
CY'NIPS. From kvu, I am pregnant. 
A genus of hymenopterous insects, belong- 
ing to that section which has not a poison- 
ous sting. 

Cynips Quercus Folii. Cynips gaUat 
tinclorice. The oak-gall insect. 

Cynips Rosje. The insect that pro- 
duces the excrescence on rose-trees, called 

CYNODEC'TUS. One bitten by a mad 

CYNODES'MION. The framum of the 

CYNODONTES. From kvuv, a dog, 
and odovg, odoi'Toc, a tooth. The canine 
teeth are so called from their resemblance 
to the teeth of a dog. See Cuspid Teeth. 
CYNOGLOS'SUM. From kvuv, a dog, 
and yAuCTCTQ, a tongue. Dog's-tongue. A 
genus of plants of the order Boragineai. 

Cynoglossum Officinale. Hound's- 
tongue, a plant said to possess poisonous 
and narcotic powers. 

CYNOLOPHOI. The spinous processes 
of the vertebra?. 

CYNOLYSSA. Hydrophobia. 
CYNOMO'RIUM. A genus of plants 
of the order Graminacece. 

Cynomo'rium Coccin'eum. Fungus 
melitensis, formerly used as an astringent. 




CYNOHEX'IA. Canine appetite. Bou- 

CYTERUS. From Kvnapoc, a little 
round vessel. A genus of rushes of the 
order Oyperacece. 

Cyperus Esculen'tus. The rush nut. 

Cyperus Lon'gus. Galangale. Its root 
is aromatic and hitter. 

Cyperus Pap'yrus. Cyperus Byb'los ; 
Gyperus Anliquo'rum. The large rush of 
Syria and Egypt, which furnished the 
ancient papyrus. 

Cyperus IIotun'dus. The round cy- 
perus. The root is aromatic. 

CYPHO'SIS. Cypho'ma; from kv^oc, 
gihbosity. Gibbosity of the spine. 

CYP'RINUM O'LEUM. Oil of cy- 
press, composed of oil of unripe olives, 
cypress flowers, calamus, myrrh, carda- 
moms, &c. 

CYP'HINUS. A lituueaa genus of fishes. 

Cyprinus Albur'nus. The bleak. 

Cyprinus Bar'bus. The barbel. 

Cyprinus Carp'io. The carp. 

Cyprinus Go'bio. The gudgeon. 

Cyprinus Leucis'cus. The dace. 

CYPRIPE'DIUM. Lady's slipper; moc- 
casin flower. Some of the species are said 
to be nervine. 

CYRTO'SIS. Cyrto'ma ; from Kvproc, 
curved. Gibbous ; a tumor. 

Cyrtosis Cretinis'mus. Cretinism. 

Cyrtosis Rachia. Rachitis. 

CYS'SARUS. The rectum. 

CYS'SOTIS. Inflammation of the anus. 

CYST. Kyst. From kvotiq, a bladder. A 
membranous sac or cavity, in which mor- 
bid matters are collected. 

CYSTAL'GIA. From kvotiq, a bladder, 
and alyog, pain. A painful spasmodic af- 
fection of tbe bladder. 

CYSTAUX'E. Hypertrophy of the blad- 

CYSTEOL'ITHUS. A stone in the 
urinary or gall bladder. 

CYSTIC. Cys'licus, from nvarig, a bag. 
Belonging to the urinary or gall bladder. 

Cystic Artery. The artery of the gall 

Cystic Duct. The duct proceeding 

from the gall bladder, and which, after 
uniting with the hepatic, forms the ductus 
communis chdedochus . 
Cystic Oxyd. See Cystin. 
CYSTICA. Remedies used for diseases 
of the bladder. 

CYSTICER'CUS. From kvotic , a blad- 
der, and KepKog, a tail. The tailed bladder- 

CYSTIN. Cystic oxyd. A peculiar 

animal matter found in certain conditions 

of the urine, and in some urinary calculi. 

CYSTIRRHAG'IA. Hemorrhage from 

the bladder. 

CYSTIRRHCE'A. From kvotic, and peo, 
to flow. A copious discharge of mucus 
from the bladder, passing out with the 
urine. Vesical catarrh. 

CYSTIS. From kvotic, a bag. A cyst, 
bladder, or small membranous bag. The 
urinary bladder, or membranous bag en- 
closing any morbid matter. 

Cystis Urinaria. The urinary bladder. 
CYSTITIS. Inflammation of the blad- 

tic, the bladder, and j3ov,3ov, the groin. A 
species of hernia in which the urinary blad- 
der is protruded through the abdominal 

CYSTOCE'LE. From kvotlc, the blad- 
der, and ktjXtj, a tumor. Hernia of the 

CYSTODYNTA. Pain in the bladder. 
CYSTO-MEROCE'LE. Protrusion of 
the bladder through the crural arch. 

CYSTOPLASTY. An operation for the 
cure of fistulous openings into the bladder, 
consisting in the dissection of skin from a 
neighboring part, and uniting it by suture 
to the edges. 

CYSTOPLE'GIA. From kvotic, the 
bladder, and tvIt/oou, I strike. Paralysis 
of the bladder. 

CYSTOPTO'SIS. From kvotic , the blad- 
der, 7U7rrw, to fall. Protrusion of the in- 
ternal coat of the bladder into the canal of 
the urethra. 

CYSTOTOMY. Cysiotom'ia; from kvo- 
tic, the bladder, and te[ivg>, to cut. Cut- 
ting or puncturing the bladder. 




CYT'INUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Cystinaceae. 

Cyttnus Hypocist'is. Rape of cystus ; 
a fleshy, pale yellowish parasitical plant, 
found on the roots of several species of cys- 
tus, and from which the succus hypocistidis 
is obtained. 

CYTOBLAST. From kvtoq, a cell, and 
PAaarog, a germ. A cell-germ, nucleus, or 
areola. A primary granule, or minute 

spot on the growing cell, from which all 
animals and vegetables are supposed to be 
developed. The rudiment of every new 

CYTOBLASTE'MA. Blastema. The 
fluid which nourishes the cytoblast. The 
dextrine in plants, and liquor sanguinis 
in animals. 

CYZICE'NUS. Old name for a plaster 
for obstinate ulcers and wounds of tendons. 


DACHAUSSOIR. A French name for 
gum-lancet, but particularly applied by 
Laforgue to a curved, sharp-pointed knife 
used for separating the gum from the neck 
of a tooth previous to extraction. 

DACNE'RON. An old collyrium of 
copper, pepper, cadmia, saffron, myrrh, 
gum arabic and opium. 

DACRYALLCEO'SIS. A morbid con- 
dition of the tears. 

DACRYDION. Scammony. 

DACRYGELO'SIS. A species of in- 
sanity in which the patient laughs and 
weeps at the same time. 

DACRYOADENITIS. From taicpv, a 
tear, adrjv, a gland, and the terminal itis. 
Inflammation of the lachrymal gland. 

of tears mixed with mucus. 

DACRYOCYSTIS. The lachrymal sac. 

Discharge of mucus from the lachrymal 

TAKLEI'STS. A term applied by 
Dieffenbach to the cure of lachrymal fis- 
tula; by transplantation. 

tears mixed with blood. 

DAC'RYOLITE. A concretion in the 
lachrymal passages. 

DAORYO'MA. From f5a/cpuw, to weep. 
See Epiphora. 

DACRYOP(E'US. That which causes 
the tears to flow. 

DACRYOPYORRH(EA. Flow of tears 
mingled with pus. 

DACTYLE'THRA. Substances intro- 
duced into the throat to excite vomiting. 

DACTYLTON. Dactyl'ium ; from 6ok- 
Tv"kog } a finger. Adhesion of the fingers to 
each other. It may be a congenital de- 
formity, or caused by a burn. 

DACTYLITIS. From daKtvlog, a fin- 
ger, and itis, a terminal signifying inflam- 
mation. Inflammation of the finger ; a 
whitlow. See Paronychia. 

DACTYLITIS. A ring; any thing 

Dactylitis Aculea'tus. A cylindrical 
worm of a light color, sometimes found in 
diseased urine. 

and nrepov, wing, or fin. Finger-finned. A 
term applied to a fish when the inferior 
rays of i f s pectoral fin are partially or en- 
tirely full. 

DAC'TYLUS. kanTvloq. A finger; 
also, the shortest Greek measure of length, 
a finger's breadth, which is about seven- 
tenths of an inch. 

DiEDION. A bougie. 

DiEMONOMA'NIA. Damonia ; from 
Sai/iuv, a demon, and fiavia, madness. A 
melancholy in which the patient fancies 
himself to be possessed by demons. 

DAF'FODIL. A plant of the genus 

DAFFY'S ELIXIR. Compound tinc- 
ture of senna, aniseed and elecampane root. 




DAGUERR'EOTYPE. A process re- 
cently introduced by Daguerre, a French 
artist, whereby the images of objects formed 
on a camera-obscura are made to depict 
themselves on the surface of metal plates. 
DAH'LIA. A South American plant, 
bearing a large compound flower of every 
variety of hue. 

DAH'LIN. The fecula obtained from 

DAI'SY. A plant of the genus BeUis, 
of several varieties. 

Daisy, Ox-Eye. A plant of the genus 

brated carminative nostrum, composed of 
carbonate of magnesia, oil of peppermint, 
oil of nutmeg, oil of aniseed, tincture of 
castor, tincture of assafcetida, tincture of 
opium, spirit of pennyroyal, compound 
tincture of cardamoms and peppermint. 

DALTONIAN. One who cannot dis- 
tinguish colors, so called because the cele- 
brated chemist, Dalton, had this defect. 
DAMA. A deer. 

erous tree of New Zealand. See Cowdie 

DAMMARIC ACID. A resinous acid 
of cowdie gum. 

DAM'SON. A plum tree, the Prunus 
domestica ; also, the fruit of the tree. 

DANDELION. A plant of the genus 
Leontodon, having a naked stalk with one 
large flower. 

DAN'DRUFF. Dan'driff. A scurf 
which forms on the head and comes off in 
small scales. See Pityriasis. 


DAPH'NE. A genus of plants of the 

order Thymelacece. The laurel or bay tree. 

Daphne Alpi'na. Chamcel'ea. Dwarf 

olive. It is said to be purgative. 

Daphne Gnid'ium. Spurge flax ; flax- 
leaved daphne. The plant which affords 
the garou bark. 

Daphne Laureola. The systematic 
name of spurge laurel. 

Daphne Meze'reum. The systematic 
name of the mezereon, or spurge-olive; a 
violent irritant poison when taken in large 

doses. It is generally given in combina- 
tion with other drugs. The bark of the 
root is the officinal part. 

DAPHNELiE'ON. Oil of bay berries. 

DAPH'NIA. A genus of Entomostra- 
cans, or crustaceous insects belonging to 
the order Branchiopoda. The Monoculus 
pulex is the type and most common species 
of this genus. 

DAPH'NINE. The bitter crystalline 
principle of daphne alpina, mezerion, &c. 

DAROO' TREE. The Ficus sycamarus, 
or Egyptian sj'camore. 

DARSIS. From cJepw, I excoriate, I 
skin. Excoriation. 

DARTA. See Impetigo. 

DARTOS. From 6epu } I excoriate. A 
condensed cellular structure under the skin 
of the scrotum, which the ancients sup- 
posed to be muscular, and by means of 
which the outer covering is corrugated. 

DARTRE. Herpes. Impetigo. 

DASYMA. From daavg, rough, hairy. 
A disease of the eye. See Trachoma. 

DAS'YTES. Roughness, particularly 
of the tongue and voice. Hairiness. 

DATE. Pal'mula ; dac'tylus. The fruit 
of the phoenix dactylifera. 

DATH'OLITE. Dat'olite. A mineral 
composed of silica, lime, and boracic acid. 
A borosilicate of lime. 

DATU'RA. A genus of plants of the 
order Solan acece. 

Datura Stramo'nium. Thorn apple ; 
Jamestown weed ; Jimson weed. The her- 
baceous part of the weed and the seeds are 
narcotic and poisonous. The plant has a 
foetid odor, and a nauseous, bitter taste. It 
relieves pains, causing sleep, and the inha- 
lation of the smoke affords much relief in 
asthma. The seeds are more powerful 
than any other part of the plant. 

DA'TURINE. Datu'ria; daturi'na; da- 
tu'rinum. A poisonous alkaloid ; the active 
principle of datura stramonium. 

DAUCI'TES VINUM. Wine in which 
wild carrot has been steeped. 

DAUCUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Umbdliferce. 

Daucus Caro'ta. The carrot plant. 
The officinal root is of the variety culti- 




vatcd in gardens. The seeds are from the 
wild carrot, and have an aromatic odor. 
Daucus Sylves'tris. The wild carrot. 
D'ARCET'S METAL. An alloy fusible 
at 212° Eahrenheit, composed of eight 
parts bismuth, five parts lead, and three 
parts tin. It was at one time much used 
for filling teeth, especially of the lower 
jaw, into the cavities of which, while in a 
fused state, it can be easily introduced. 
The use of it, however, for this purpose, 
was soon abandoned, for the reason that 
the temperature at which it had to be ap- 
plied could not, in all cases, be borne, 
and it frequently caused inflammation of 
the lining membrane. Besides, it was 
found that it shrank from the walls of the 
cavity in cooling, so as to admit the secre- 
tions of the mouth, consequently it did not 
prevent a recurrence of disease. 

In preparing the alloy, the lead is first 
melted, the tin is then added, and after- 
wards the bismuth. It may be rendered 
still more fusible by adding a small quan- 
tity of mercury. 

DAVIER. A French word, signifying 

surrounded by a net-work of gauze wire, 
to prevent explosion in coal mines. 

DAY'MARE. A species of incubus oc- 
curring during wakefulness, and attended 
by that peculiar pressure of the chest char- 
acteristic of night-mare. See Ephialtes. 

DAY-SIGHT. See Nyctalopia and 

the genus Atropa. See Atropa Belladonna. 

DEAFNESS. Diminution or complete 
loss of hearing. See Dysecoea. 

DEALBATIO. Paleness. 


DEATH. The final cessation of all the 
vital functions, the aggregate of which 
constitutes life. 

Death, Apparent. Asphyxia, or 
merely a suspension of the vital functions. 

Death, Black. The plague of the 
fourteenth century was so called. 

Death, Partial. Gangrene; mortifi- 

DEAURA'TIO. Tincture of metals, 
&c, of a golden color ; also, the operation 
of gilding pills. 

DEBIL'ITANTS. Remedies which, 
when exhibited, reduce excitement. Anti- 

DEBILTTAS. Debility. 
DEBILITY. Debil'itas ; asiheni'a. 

DEBRIDEMENT. Literally, unbri- 
dling. A French word applied in Surgery 
to the removal of strangulation of certain 
parts or organs by the division of other 
structures that exercise compression on 

DEBRIS'. A French word signifying, 
literally, remains, wreck, ruins. Applied 
in Dental Surgery to the remains of de- 
cayed teeth ; also to the fragments and 
small particles removed from a carious 
tooth in the preparation of a cavity for 

DECAGRAMME. Ten French gram- 
mes, equal to 5.65 drams avoirdupois, or 
154.34 grains troy. 

DECAGYNTA. An order of plants 
with ten pistils. 

DECALITRE. A French metrical meas- 
ure of ]0 litres, equivalent to 010.28 Eng- 
lish cubic inches. 

DECAMETRE. A French measure of 
10 metres, or 393.71 English inches, about 
32.75 feet. 

DECAN'DRIA. A class of plants with 
ten stamens. 

DECANTA'TION. Decanta'tio. A phar- . 
maceutical operation, consisting in pouring 
off a liqxior clear from the sediment, by 
decanting the vessel which contains it. 


DECAPOD. From <5fA.a, ten, and novg, 
a foot. Having ten feet. An order of 

ogy, the transformation of venous into ar- 
terial blood by respiration. ILraiatosis. 
DECATORTHOMA. A medicine com- 
posed of ten ingredients. 

applied, in Dental Surgery, to the separa- 




tion of the gum from the neck of a tooth 
previously to extraction. 

DECHAUSSOIR. A French word sig- 
nifying gum-lancet. 

DECIDEN'TIA. Cataptosis. Epilepsy. 

membrane of the uterus during pregnancy. 

DECID'UOUS. Deciduus; from de- 
cidere, to fall off or down. Falling oft*. 
In Botany, applied to trees and shrubs 
which lose their leaves on the approach of 
winter ; in Dental Anatomy, to the milk or 
temporary teeth. Also, the membranes 
which form the sacs that enclose the teeth 
of both dentitions previous to their erup- 
tion. In Physiology, the outermost mem- 
brane of the foetus in utcro. 

Deciduous Membranes of the Teeth. 
A name applied by Mr. Thomas Bell, to 
the two lamellae, which form the sacs that 
envelop the rudiments of the teeth, and 
which, on the eruption of these organs, 
disappear, being, as he supposes, wholly 

Deciduous Teeth. The temporary or 
milk-teeth are so called because, after sub- 
serving the purposes of early childhood, 
they are removed by an operation of the 
economy, to give place to others of a larger 
size, and of a more solid texture. See 
Teeth, Temporary. 

DECIGRAMME. The tenth part of a 
gramme, equal to 1.543 grains troy. 

DECILITRE. The tenth part of a litre ; 
6.1028 English cubic inches. 

DECIMA'NA FEBRIS. A fever ap- 
pearing on every tenth day. 

DECIMETRE. A French measure, the 
tenth part of a metre, equivalent to 3.937 
English inches. 

DECLINE. Declina'tio. The abate- 
ment of a disease or paroxysm. Enfeeble- 
rnent of the vital powers of the body from 
age. Wasting of the powers of the body, 
accompanied by fever and emaciation, as 
in the case of tabes. It is also applied to 
persons affected with phthisis pulmona- 

DECOCTION. The process of boiling 
certain ingredients in a fluid for the pur- 
pose of extracting the parts soluble at that 

temperature. Also, the product of this 

DECOCTUM. From decoquere, to boil. 
A decoction. 

Decuctum Al'bum. See Mistura Cornu 

Decoctum Al'oes Compos'itum. Com- 
pound decoction of aloes. 

Decoctum Althte'^e. Althece offici- 
nalis. Decoction of marsh mallows. 

Decoctum Ama'rum. Bitter decoction ; 
decoction of gentian. 

Decoctum Anthem'idis. Decoctum an- 
themidis nobilis . A decoction of chamomile. 

Decoctum Cassi^e. Decoction of cassia. 

Decoctum Cetra'hi^e. Decoction of 
Iceland moss. 

Decoctum Cincho'n^e. Decoction of 

Decoctum Colum'b^e Compos'itum. 
Compound decoction of columba. 

Decoctum Cornus Flok'id^e. Decoc- 
tion of dogwood bark. 

Decoctum Daphnes Meze'bei. De- 
coction of mezereon. 

Decoctum Diaphoheticum. Com- 
pound decoction of guaiacum. 

Decoctum Digita'lis. Decoction of 

Decoctum Dulcama'r^e. Decoction of 
woody nightshade. 

Decoctum Gxoff&s'jB Inermis. De- 
coction of cabbage-tree bark. 

Decoctum Glycyrrhi'z^e. Decoction 
of liquorice. 

Decoctum Guaiaci Compos'itum. Com- 
pound decoction of guaiacum. 

Decoctum ELematox'yli. Decoction 
of logwood. 

Decoctum Hor'det. Barley water. 

Decoctum Hordei Compos'itum. Com- 
pound decoction of barley. 

Decoctum Kin^e Kin^: Compositum 
et Laxans. Compound laxative decoc- 
tion of cinchona. 

Decoctum Liche'nis. Decoction of 

Decoctum Ligno'rum. Compound de- 
coction of guaiacum. 

Decoctum Lusitan'icum. Lisbon diet 




Decoctum Mal'TJI Compos'itum. Com- 
pound decoction of mallows. 

Decoctum Papav'eris. Decoction of 

Decoctum Quercus Alba. Decoction 
of white oak bark. Take of the inner 
bark of young green white oak § ij, water 
oiss. Boil down to a pint and strain. It 
is astringent, and in the treatment of in- 
flamed, spongy and ulcerated gums, may 
be employed with advantage as a gargle. 

Decoctum Sarsaparil'la. Decoction 
of sarsaparilla. 

Decoctum Sarsaparilla Compos'itum. 
Compound decoction of sarsaparilla. 

Decoctum Scilla. Decoction of squill. 

Decoctum Sen'ega. Decoction of sen- 

Decoctum Tarax'aci. Decoction of 

Decoctum Ulmi. Decoction of elm 

Decoctum XJvje Ursi. Decoction of 
uva ursi. 

Decoctum Yera'tri. Decoction of 
white hellebore. 

DECOLORATION. Decolora'tio. Loss 
of the natural color ; the removal of color- 
ing matters from any object. 

DECOMPOSITION. Decomposi'tio. De- 
cay ; putrefaction. In Chemistry, the sep- 
aration of the component parts or princi- 
ples of compound bodies from each other. 

DECOMPOS'ITUS. A term applied in 
Botany to the stem of plants when divided 
into numerous ramifications at its base, 
and to leaves when split into many irregu- 
lar divisions. 

DECOimCA'TION. Dccortica'tio. The 
removal of the bark, husk, or shell, from 
any thing. 

sometimes applied in Dental Pathology to 
a species of caries of the teeth, designated 
by Duval, peeling decay, which consists in 
the detachment from the osseous tissue of 
the tooth of small portions of the enamel. 
See Caries of the Teeth. 

DECOS'TIS. Without ribs. 

DECREMEN'TUM. Decrease, decline. 

DECREPITATION. Decrepita'tio. A 

crackling noise, as made by salts when 
exposed to a certain degree of heat. 

DECREPITUDE. Decrepitu'do. Old 
age ; the last period of life ; last stage of 

DECRETO'RII DIES. Critical days. 

DECU'BITUS. From decumbere, to lie 
down. Act of lying down, or assuming 
an horizontal posture. Also, manner of 

DECUM'BENT. In Botany, drooping ; 
prostrate, but rising from the earth at the 
upper extremity. 

DECUR'RENT. A term applied in Bot- 
any to leaves which are prolonged down 
the stem, giving to it a winged appearance. 

DECURTATUS. Running to a point. 
Sometimes applied to a declining pulse. 

DECUS'SATE. Decussa'tus. Applied 
in Botany to leaves and spines arranged in 
pairs, which alternately cross each other. 

DECUSSATION. Decnssa'tio ; from 
decusso, to cross each other. In Anatomy, 
applied to nerves and muscles which cross 
each other, as a decussation of the optic 

DECUSSO'RIUM. An instrument used 
by the ancients for depressing the dura 
mater after trepanning. 

DEDOLATION. The infliction of a 
wound with loss of substance. 

DEER. Ruminating quadrupeds with 
deciduous horns or antlers, distinguished 
from other ruminants by not having any 

DEFECATION. From de, and foeces, 
excrements. Expulsion of the faeces from 
the body. In Pharmacy, the separation of 
any substance from a liquid in which it 
may be suspended. 

DEFECTIO ANIMI. Syncope; faint- 

DEFENSIVES. Defensiva. A term 
formerly applied to applications made to 
wounds for guarding them against injury, 
and to medicines which were supposed to 
resist infection. 

DEF'ERENS. The excretory canal of 
the testicle. See Vas Deferens. 

Deferens, Vas. See Vas Deferens. 

DEFIX'US. Impotent. 




DEFLAGRATION. Deflagra'tio. Rapid 
combustion, as that which occurs when a 
mixture of sulphur and nitre is inflamed. 

DEFLEC TIO. Derivative j revulsive. 

DEFLEX'US. Deflex. Bending slightly 

DEFLORATION. A term applied in 
Botany to an anther after the emission of 
its pollen, and in Forensic Medicine to the 
extinction of the marks of virginity by 
connection Avith the male. 

ness. Loss of the hair. 

DEFLUX'ION. Deflux'io; from defluo, 
to run off. A catarrh, or cold. A descent of 
humors from a superior to an inferior part. 

DEFOLIATION. Falling of the leaves. 

DEFORMATION. A deformity. 

DEGENERATION. Degeneracy. De- 
terioration. In Pathology, a morbid change 
in the structure of an organ. 

DEGLUTITION. Deglutit'io; from de, 
and glutire, to swallow. The act of swal- 
lowing. The various muscles of the soft 
palate and tongue are all concerned in con- 
ducting the food into the pharyngeal cavity. 
The elevators raise the palate, and at the 
same time protect the posterior nares from 
regurgitation of the food, while the tensor 
puts it on the stretch, and after having, 
by the approximation of the tongue and 
palate, been conveyed behind the velum, 
the constrictor isthmi-faucium and palato- 
pharyngeus draw the palate down, which, 
by the aid of the tongue, cuts off the com- 
munication between the fauces and mouth, 
while at the same time the passage into 
the posterior nares is nearly closed by the 
contraction of the muscles of the posterior 
palatine arch. The food is now conveyed 
by the action of the constrictor muscles 
of the pharynx into the oesophagus, 
through which it is forced by the contrac- 
tion of the muscular coat into the stomach. 

The passage of the food from the mouth 
to the oesophagus is mostly the result of 
voluntary action, but the propulsion of it 
down this duct is involuntary. 

The deglutition of liquids is always more 
difficult than solids, because the particles 
of a fluid have a greater tendency to sepa- 

rate; to prevent which it is necessary 
that it should be more accurately embraced 
by the parts which convey it from the 
mouth into the oesophagus. 

Deglutition, Difficult. Dysphagia. 

DEG'MOS. Deg'mus. A gnawing sen- 
sation ; a biting pain about the upper ori- 
fice of the stomach. 

DEGREE'. From gradus, a step. A 
step or stage. An arbitrary measure on a 
scale of temperature, &c. The French use 
it to signify the intensity or particular stage 
of an incurable disease, as phthisis, can- 
cer, &c. 

DEGUSTATION. The act of tasting. 

DEHIS'CENT. Dehiscens ; from de- 
hiseo, to gape or open. A term apjjlied in 
Botany to the opening of the capsules for 
the discharge of the seed. 

DEJECTIO ALVL The discharge of 
the faeces. 

DEJECTION. Dejec'tio ; from dejecio, 
to go to stool. The expulsion of the fieces. 

DEJECTO'RIUM. Cathartic. 

DELAP'SUS. Delap'sio. Prolapsus. 

DELETE'RIOUS. From (%A £W , 1 injure. 
Poisonous ; destructive ; hurtful ; injurious. 

DELIGATIO. From deligare, to bind 
up. The act of applying a bandage. 

DELIGATION. Deligatio. 

DELIQUES'CENCE. Deliquescen'tia ; 
from deliquescere, to melt down. The as- 
sumption of a fluid state by the absorption 
of moisture from the atmosphere. There 
are certain salts which do this, as the chlo- 
ride of lime, acetate of potassa, and car- 
bonate of potassa, and hence they are 
called deliquescent salts. Applied in Bot- 
any to a panicle which is so much branched 
that the axis disappears. 

DELPQUIUM. From delinquo, to 
leave. In Chemistry, the spontaneous so- 
lution of a deliquescent salt. In Pathology, 
fainting ; syncope. 

Deliquium Animi. Fainting ; syncope. 

Deliquium VitjE. Death. 

DELIRTOUS. One affected with delir- 

DELIRIUM. From deliro, to rave. 
Wandering of the mind, as in cases of dis- 
ease, from disturbed function of brain. It 




may be violent, as in the case of acnte 
inflammation of the membranes of the 
brain, or low and muttering, as in typhoid 

Delirium Furio'sum. Mania. 

Delirium Sen'ile. Senile insanity; 
imbecility and moral insanity resulting 
from old age. 

Delirium Tre'mens. Ma'nia a potu, 
delirium ebriosita'tis ; delirium potaio'rum. 
Delirium peculiar to drunkards, attended 
with great agitation and sleeplessness. 

DELITES'CENCE. From deliiescere, 
to hide. Sudden termination of inflamma- 
tion by reso ution. 

DELIVERY. Parturition. 

DELPHIN'IA. Delphine. A nitrogen- 
ous base, found in the seeds of Delphinium 
staphisagria. It has been used like vera- 
tria, as a local ointment in various forms 
of nervous disorder. 

DELPHIN'IC ACID. An acid extracted 
from tbe oil of the dolphin. 

DKLTHINATE. A salt resulting from 
the combination of delphinic acid with a 

DELPHINIUM. From fctytv, the dol- 
phin, so called from the resemblance of 
its flower to the head of the dolphin. The 
larkspur. Also, a genus of plants of the 
order Ranunculacece. 

Delphinium Consol'ida. The system- 
atic name of the Gonsolida regalis, or the 
branching larkspur. The root and seeds 
are bitter, and in large doses purgative 
and emetic. 

Delphinium Staphisa'gria. The sys- 
tematic name of the stavesacre. The seeds 
are bitter, acrid and nauseous, and some- 
times used in decoction as an anthelmintic. 
They contain delphinia. 

DELTA. Vulva. 

DEI/LTFORM. Deltoid. 

DELTOID. Deltoi'des. Deltoi'deus; from 
the Greek letter A, and eidoc, a likeness. 
A triangular muscle of the shoulder, ex- 
tending from the outer third of the clav- 
icle, and from the acromion and spine 
of the scapula to the middle of the os 
DE'MANUS. Without a hand. 

DEMENTIA. From de, and mens, 
without mind. Insanity; absence of thought. 

minute acarus found in the sebaceous fol- 
licles of persons living in large cities, whose 
skin is not sufficiently excited by pure air. 

DEMI-BAIN. A French term, applied 
in Hygiene and Therapeutics to a bath in 
which the lower half only of the body is 

DEM'ONSTRATOR. From demonstrare, 
to exhibit. In Anatomy, one who exhibits 
the various parts of the body ; an instruct- 
or. In Dental Surgery, one who demon- 
strates and teaches the method of perform- 
ing the various operations connected with 
this branch of medicine. 

DEMOTI'VUS LAPSUS. Sudden death. 

DEMUL'CENT. Demid'ccns; from de- 
mulccrc, to soothe. A medicine capable of 
obviating and preventing the action of acrid 
and irritating humors. 

DEMUSCULA'TUS. From de, and mus- 
culus, a muscle. Without flesh ; emaciated. 

DEN'GUE. Dandy. A fever which 
first prevailed in the West Indies and in 
the Southern States in 1827 and 1828, at- 
tended with violent pains in the joints and 
eruption on the skin. 

DENIGRATION. Derigra'tio ; from 
denigrare, to blacken. Act of becoming 
black, as in cases of a bruise, and sphac- 

DENS. A tooth. Also, the specific 
name of many herbs, from their supposed 
resemblance to the teeth of some animal, 
as dens leonis, leontodon taraxacum. 

Dens Exsertus. From dens, a tooth, 
and ex and sers, to thrust out. A gag- 
tooth ; a tooth which projects or stands out 
from the dental arch. 

DENT. A tooth. 

DENT AGRA. Denticeps, from dens, a 
tooth, and aypa, a seizure. An instrument 
for extracting teeth ; tooth forceps. The 
term is also applied to toothache. 

DENTAL. Denta'lis, denta'rius ; from 
dens. Pertaining to the teeth. 

Dental Apparatus. The teeth, to- 
gether with the alveoli in which they are 
implanted, and jaws. Also, a set of arti- 




ficial teeth. The instruments and appli- 
ances employed in dental operations are 
likewise sometimes so termed. 

Dental Ab'ches. Arcades dentaires. 
The arches formed by the teeth when ar- 
ranged in their sockets in the alveolar bor- 

Dental Ar'teries. The arteries which 
supply the teeth with blood. The teeth of 
the upper jaw are supplied from the su- 
perior dental, which winds around the 
maxillary tuberosity from behind forward, 
sending off twigs through the posterior 
dental canals to the molars and bicuspids, 
and from a twig of the infra orbitar, sent 
off just before it emerges from the infra 
orbitar foramen, which passes down the 
anterior canal to the incisors and cuspi- 
dati. The teeth of the lower jaw are sup- 
plied from the inferior dental artery, given 
off by the internal maxillary. It enters 
the posterior dental foramen, and as it 
passes along beneath the roots of the teeth, 
sends up a twig to each, until it arrives at 
the mental foramen, from which, after 
sending a small branch to the incisors, it 

Dental At'rophy. Atrophia dentalis. 
See Atrophy of the Teeth. 

Dental Bone. Dentine. The osseous 
part of a tooth. 

Dental Canals. The canals which 
perforate the alveoli, and give passage to 
the blood vessels and nerves that enter the 
teeth at the extremities of their roots. 

Dental Caries. See Caries of the 

Dental Car'tilage. The cartilagin- 
ous ridge along the margins of the gums, 
which serves as a substitute for the teeth 
during the first months of infancy. 

Dental Cav'ity. Cav' itas pulpa:; cavum 
deniis; antrum denta'le. The pulp cavity. 
The cavity occupied by the dental pulp in 
the interior of a tooth. Its shape resem- 
bles that of the tooth ; it is larger in young 
persons than in old, and when the teeth 
suffer great loss of substance, either from 
mechanical or spontaneous abrasion, it 
sometimes becomes completely obliterated. 
See Abrasion of the Teeth. 

Dental Ex'cavator. An instrument 
employed for the removal of the decayed 
part of a tooth, preparatory to the opera- 
tion of filling. A number of instruments 
varying in size and shape are required for 
this purpose by every practitioner of den- 
tal surgery, to enable him to remove with 
facility caries from any part of a tooth, 
and to give to the cavity such shape as 
may be required for the permanent reten- 
tion of a filling. Instruments of this de- 
scription should be made from the very 
best steel, and be so tempered as neither 
to break nor bend at their points. See 

Dental Exosto'sis. See Exostosis of 
the Teeth. 

Dental File. A file manufactured for 
operations upon the teeth. See File, Den- 

Dental Forceps. See Forceps for ex- 
tracting teeth. 

Dental Fol'licle. FoUic'ulas dentis; 
follicule dentaire. A follicle, formed of two 
membranes, one outer, and one inner, in 
which a tooth is situated during the early 
stages of its formation, and which ulti- 
mately becomes a sac, completely enclosing 
it. See Dental Sac. 

Dental For'mula. A notation used to 
designate the number and class of teeth 
in mammiferous animals, forming an im- 
portant generic character. In the cats, 
or genus felis, for example, the formula 
is, incisors $, canini -f, {, premolars 
or bicuspids -§, •§, molars f, f, = 30, 
signifying that they have six incisors in 
each jaw, one canine tooth on each side 
of each jaw, two premolars, or bicuspids, 
on each side, in each jaw, and two true 
molars. In man, the dental formula is, 
incisors $, canines or cuspidati |, }, 
premolars or bicuspids f, f, molars §, 
§. The upper figures refer to the upper 
and the lower figures to the lower jaw. 

Dental Instruments. Instruments 
employed in operations on the teeth, such 
as excavators, filling instruments, files, 
forceps, &c. There is no class of surgical « 
instruments in which more care and me- 
chanical skill are required in their manu 




facture than those used by the dental sur- 

Dental Lab'oeatoet. A room or 
place where the operations connected with 
mechanical dentistry are performed. The 
fixtures and implements belonging to it, 
when complete, are a small forge, anvil, 
and hammers, ingot moulds, rolling mill, 
draw- bench, lathe, with grinding and pol- 
ishing wheels and brushes, work-table, 
small bench-vice, sliding tongs, pliers, 
snips or shears for cutting plate, solder- 
ing lamp, blow-pipe, files, scrapers, bur- 
nishers, pickling pot, and sometimes the 
fixtures used in the manufacture of porce- 
lain artificial teeth. But as the manufac- 
ture of these teeth does not properly come 
within the province of the dentist, the fix- 
tures required for the purpose are not 
essential to his laboratory. 

Dental Necro'sis. Odontonecrosis. 
See Necrosis of the Teeth. 

Dental Nerves. The nerves which 
go to the teeth. The teeth of the upper 
jaw are supplied from the superior maxil- 
lary. Three or four branches descend on 
the tuberosity of the superior maxillary, 
and entering the posterior dental canals 
are conveyed to the molar teeth. The in- 
cisors, cuspidati and bicuspids are sup- 
plied by a branch from the infra orbital, 
which passes along the front of the max- 
illary sinus in the anterior dental canal, 
sending off twigs to each of these teeth. 

The teeth of the lower jaw are supplied 
from the third branch of the infanor max- 
illary, which, in its course, passes between 
the pterygoid muscles, then along the ra- 
mus of the lower jaw under the pterygoide- 
us internus to the posterior dental foramen, 
which it enters along with the artery and 
vein, sending off twigs to the roots of the 
molar and bicuspid teeth, xintil it arrives 
at the mental foramen ; here it divides into 
two branches ; the smaller is continued in 
the substance of the jaw, supplying the 
cuspid and incisor teeth ; the larger passes 
out through the mental foramen to be dis- 
tributed to the muscles and integuments 
of the lower lip, and, finally, communi- 
cates with the facial nerve. 

Dental Netjral'gia. See Odontalgia. 

Dental Opera'tion. An operation 
upon the teeth. 

Dental Orthop^cdi'a. The art of cor- 
recting deformity, occasioned by irregular- 
ity or other cause, of the teeth. See Irreg- 
ularity of the Teeth, Treatment of. 

Dental Or'ganism. The organism of 
the teeth ; the organical structure of these 
organs j the vital forces which govern 

Dental Pathol'ogy. The pathology 
of the diseases of the teeth. 

Dental Perios'teum. Periosteum den- 
tium. A white fibrous membrane which 
invests the roots of the teeth, and to which 
it is intimately united by fibrous prolonga- 
tions and numerous minute blood vessels. 
It is through the medium of this, and their 
lining membrane, that these organs receive 
their nutritive fluids. 

The dental periosteum is supposed to be 
a reflection of the alveolar ; it covers the 
root of each tooth, is attached to the gums 
at the neck, and to the blood vessels and 
nerves where they enter the extremity, and 
Mr. Bell is of the opinion that it enters the 
cavity and forms the lining membrane ; 
but this is a mere conjecture, the correct- 
ness of which, we think, it may not be 
easy to establish. This membrane consti- 
tutes the bond of union between the roots 
of the teeth and alveolar cavities. 

Dental Periosti'tis. Periosti'tis den- 
tium. Inflammation of the dental perios- 
teum. See Odontalgia. 

Dental Pulp. A soft vascular and 
highly sensitive substance, of a reddish- 
grey color, occupying the cavity of a liv- 
ing tooth. It also constitutes the rudiment 
of a tooth. See Teeth, Origin and forma- 
tion of. 

According to Mr. Nasmyth, the struc- 
ture of a dental pulp is cellular, like that 
of the osseous or dentinal part of a tooth. 
When the internal structure is examined, 
he says, "the number of minute cells" 
which present " themselves in a vascular 
form is very remarkable ; they seem, in- 
deed, to constitute the principal portion 
of its bulk." They are described by this 




able writer as varying in size from the 
smallest microscopic appearance, to one- 
eighth of an inch in diameter, and as be- 
ing disposed in different layers " through- 
out the body of the pulp." He also states 
that careful investigation has convinced 
him that they exist on the surface of the 
pulp in opposition to the ivory (dentine) of 
the tooth, and that these are essentially 
concerned in the development of the tooth. 
The correctness of this opinion would seem 
to be fully confirmed by a number of dia- 
grams representing the microscopic ap- 
pearance of the structure of this tissue. It 
would appear, by a comparison of some of 
these diagrams, that the cells or vesicles 
are arranged in a more distinct and regu- 
lar form on the surface than in the interior 
of the pulp, presenting the appearance of 
beautiful reticular leaflets. 

Dental Sac. The teeth, previously to 
their eruption, and after their rudiments 
have acquired a certain size, are enclosed 
in membranous bags which are termed 
sacs. Each sac consists of two lamina?, 
an outer and an inner — the outer is de- 
scribed by Mr. Hunter as soft and spongy, 
and without vessels, while the inner is ex- 
tremely vascular and firm. But more re- 
cent investigations show both to be vascu- 
lar ; the structure of the outer is spongy, 
the inner is of a firmer consistence, and of 
a fibro-mucous and cellular structure. See 
Teeth, Origin and formation of. 

Dental Substitute. Any mechani- 
cal contrivance used for the replacement 
of one or more of the natural teeth. See 
Artificial Teeth. 

Dental Sur'geon. Chirurgien den- 
tiste. Surgeon dentist. One who devotes 
himself to the study and treatment of the 
diseases of the teeth, and their connections. 
Dental Sur'gery. Ghirurgia denti- 
wm. That branch of medicine which has 
reference to the treatment of the diseases 
of the teeth and their connections, and 
which at the same time embraces the pros- 
thesis, or replacement of the loss, of these 
organs with artificial substitutes. 

So remote is the origin of dental sur- 
gery, and imperfect the records of ancient 

medicine, that it cannot, at the present 
time, be traced with any degree of accura- 
cy. We learn, however, from Hehodo- 
tus, the Grecian historian, that when he 
went to Egypt, from his then compara- 
tively barbarous home, to learn the sacred 
mysteries and the sciences in the world's 
earliest nursery of learning and civilization 
on the banks of the Nile, he found surgery 
and medicine divided into distinct profes- 
sions. There were surgico-physicians for 
the eye, others for the ear, others for these 
organs, and so on for the different classes 
of disease the appropriate professor was 

It is evident from the writings of Hip- 
pocrates, who flourished about three hun- 
dred and sixty years before the Christian 
era, that little was known concerning the 
anatomy, physiology and pathology of the 

The teeth were not entirely overlooked 
by Aristotle, Aret^eus and Celsus ; but 
the best writings of ancient times on these 
organs now extant, are those of Galen, 
who wrote in the second century after 
Christ, after having enjoyed the medical 
advantages offered by that eldest and most 
splendid of libraries which was so soon 
afterwards doomed to the flames by the 
hand of barbarian power. 

From the time of Galen, until the six- 
teenth century, few traces of the art are to 
be found among the records of medicine. 
In connection with the anatomy of the 
teeth, Aetius mentions the fact that they 
have an opening in their roots for the ad- 
mission of small nerves, which he regards 
as the reason that these organs are the 
only bones which are liable to become pain- 
ful, and Rhazes has described, though very 
imperfectly, the process of dentition, but 
with regard to the replacement of the loss 
of the natural teeth, Albucasis is said to 
have been the first to teach that it might 
be done, either with other human teeth, 
or with substitutes made from bone. 

Vesalius, who has been styled the re- 
storer of human anatomy, and author of 
" De Corporis Humani Fabrica," pub- 
lished at Basil, in 1543, describes the tern- 




perary teeth as constituting the germs of 
the permanent teeth, an error into which 
some other of the older writers have fallen. 
Eustachius, however, may be regarded 
as the first to have given any thing like a 
correct description of the number, growth 
and different forms and varieties of the 
teeth. Urbain Hemard, also a writer of 
the sixteenth century, gave a very good 
description of the teeth of both dentitions, 
both before and after their eruption, and 
describes some of their diseases. About this 
time the subject began to attract some atten- 
tion iu Germany, Spain and Switzerland. 
But it Avas not until near three hundred 
years ago, about the time of the revival of 
letters, that Ambrose Pare, in his cele- 
brated work on Surgery, gave evidence of 
the vitality of dentistry amidst the awak- 
ening chaos of ancient science and erudi- 
tion. From this time, the treatment of the 
diseases of the teeth began to attract much 

But it is to Pierre Fauchard that we 
are indebted for the first systematic Trea- 
tise on Dental Surgery. This was pub- 
lished in France in 1728, a work making 
two 12mo volumes, and, altogether, about 
nine hundred closely printed pages. 

Although a number of works were con- 
tributed to the literature of dental surgery, 
and among which we should not omit to 
mention those of Bunon, Lecluse, Jour- 
dain, Bourdet, Herissant and Berd- 
more, yet, with the exception of the orig- 
inal suggestions of these authors, but few 
improvements were made in practice until 
towards the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Pare wrote in 1579, and in 1771, 
John Hunter wrote the first, and in 
1778, the second part of his Treatise on 
the Teeth, on which the broad and firm 
foundation of the English school of den- 
tistry was laid. This has subsequently 
been improved and beautified by Blake, 
Fox, Koecker, Bell, Nasmyth, Robin- 
son, Tomes, and other distinguished men 
of the dental profession. 

What that eminent anatomist and sur- 
geon, John Hunter, was to the English 
school of dental surgery, Bichat was to 

the French modern school, as he, with 
others equally philosophic, taught that no 
theory should be received, however plausi- 
ble, which could not be proven by demon- 
stration. Neither Hunter nor Bichat was 
a practical dentist, but the mighty energy 
of their minds embraced the dental with 
the other branches of surgery; and the 
principles of physiology and pathology at 
large included this important branch, and 
revealed the connection and sympathies of 
the teeth with the entire frame-work of 
man. Blandin, Bichat's editor, although 
not a practical dentist, was much better 
acquainted with the science of the teeth 
than Bichat himself; and Cuvier's exten- 
sive researches into osteology, as well as 
the arcana of nature at large, all, all came 
in to aid the French dental surgeons: 
Serres, Delabarre, F. Cuvier, Rous- 
seau, Maurv, Lefoulon, and Desira- 
bode, have illustrated the modern im- 
provements of the art and science, build- 
ing, as they have, on the foundation laid 
years before, by Fauchard, Bunon, 
Bourdet, Lecluse, Jourdain, Herris- 
ant, Baume, Laforgue, and others. 

It would, doubtless, be interesting to the 
dental student, if we were to trace more in 
detail the progress of this branch of sur- 
gery through the eighteenth century, but 
the limits to which we have restricted this 
article will not permit us to do so. Among 
the writers who have contributed most 
largely to the advancement of Dental Sci- 
ence in France, since the commencement of 
the present century, are, Laforgue, Gariot, 
Baume, Jourdain and Maggiolo, Duvall, 
Delabarre, Lemair, Serres, Audibran, F. 
Cuvier, Meil, Rousseau, Maury, Blandin, 
Lefoulon, Schange and Desirabode & Sons. 
To the foregoing, we might add the 
names of many more, but those we have 
already mentioned will suffice to show the 
progress which the science of dental sur- 
gery has made in France since the com- 
mencement of the present century. 

Leaving the French school, we shall pro- 
ceed to examine very briefly the progress 
which dental surgery has made in Great 
Britain during the same period. The pub- 




lication of Dr. Robert Blake's Inaugural 
Dissertation on the Structure of the Teeth 
in Man and various Animals, at Edinhurg, 
in 1798, was followed in 1803 by the first 
part of Fox's celebrated Treatise on the 
Natural History and Diseases of the Human 
Teeth, and in 1806, by the second part. 
Both of the above works hold a deservedly 
high place in the literature of this depart- 
ment of medicine. The publication of this 
work at once gave to the subject, as a 
branch of the healing art, an importance 
which it had never before had, and awa- 
kened a spirit of inquiry which soon led 
to the adoption of a more correct system 
of practice than had hitherto been pur- 

Among the authors who have contrib- 
uted to the advancement of dental science 
in Great Britain since the publication of 
Mr. Fox's work, are Fuller, Murphy, Bew, 
Koecker, Bell, Waite, Snell, Jobson, Eob- 
ertson, J. P. Clark, Nasmyth, Tomes, Good- 
sir, Lintot, Sauders, Eobinson, Clendon 
and Professor Owen. 

The names of many other writers might 
be added to the above list, but as most of 
their contributions were intended for the 
general rather than the professional reader, 
we have not thought it necessary to men- 
tion them. 

In Germany, dental surgery, though its 
progress has been less rapid there than in 
France and Great Britain, has attracted 
considerable attention. Few works, how- 
ever, of much merit have emanated from 
that country since the commencement of 
the present century. There are two, how- 
ever, published at Berlin, particularly 
worthy of notice — one in 1803, and the 
other in 1842. The first of these works, 
written by Serre, treats of dental opera- 
tions and instruments, and forms an octavo 
volume of nearly six hundred pages, illus- 
trated with upwards of thirty plates. The 
last is by C. J. and J. Linderer, and 
treats of Dental Anatomy, Physiology, 
Materia Medica and Surgery, forming an 
octavo vohime of about five hundred pages, 
illustrated with several plates. Mr. J. Lin- 
derer is the author of two ably written 

works on the teeth, one published in 1848, 
and the other in 1851. 

The researches of Professor Ketzius, 
of Sweden, have excited much attention in 
Europe, and, though they do not go to 
confirm previous opinions with regard to 
the minute structure of the teeth, have 
nevertheless thrown much valuable light 
upon the subject. These researches are 
both curious and interesting, and consist 
of microscopic examinations of the teeth 
of man and other animals, conducted upon 
an extensive scale, and would seem to prove 
the structure of these organs to be tubular. 
Having now glanced very briefly at the 
progress of the science and art of dental 
surgery in most of the principal countries of 
Europe, we shall proceed to notice their in- 
troduction and growth in the United States. 
The first dentist in the United States, of 
whom we have any account, was Mr. R. 
Wooffendale, who came over from England 
to New York, in 1766, and remained in 
this country about two years, practicing in 
New York and Philadelphia, but not meet- 
ing with much encouragement, he returned 
to England in 1768. It is believed, how- 
ever, that Mr. Jas. Gardette, a surgeon 
from the French navy, was the first medi- 
cally educated dentist in the United Statec 
He came to New York in 1783, and the 
following year went to Philadelphia. 

Mr. John Greenwood, however, it is 
believed, was the first regular native 
American dentist. He commenced prac- 
tice in New York about the year 1778, 
and is said to have been the only dentist 
in that city in the year 1790. But Mr. 
Greenwood did not remain long alone in 
the profession in New York. About the 
year 1796, Mr. Wooffendale, son of E. 
Wooffendale, of London, came to the 
United States and commenced practice in 
this city. About the year 1805, Dr. Hud- 
son, of Dublin, commenced the practice of 
dental surgery in Philadelphia. But about 
five years previous to the last mentioned 
period, Dr. H. H. Hayden established 
himself in practice in Baltimore, where, 
in 1807, he was joined by Dr. Koecker, 
but in a short time the last named gentle- 




man moved to Philadelphia, where he re- 
mained until 1822, when he went to Lon- 

But, until 1820, Dental Surgery had made 
but little progress in the United States j 
since that period its advance has been 
more rapid. In 1839 a periodical devoted 
to the interests of the profession, entitled, 
"The American Journal of Dental Sci- 
ence," was established. In February, 1840, 
the Legislature of Maryland chartered the 
Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, and 
in July following, the American Society 
of Dental Surgeons was organized. The 
combined influence of the Journal, the 
College, and the American Society, gave an 
impetus to the science which it had never 
before had, and contributed, in an eminent 
degree, to the dignity and respectability of 
the profession. 

Since the Baltimore College of Dental 
Surgery and the American Society went 
into operation, four local associations of 
dentists have been formed—one in the 
Mississippi valley, one in Virginia, the 
third in Pennsylvania, and the fourth in 
New York. Three other colleges have 
also been established — one in Ohio, one in 
Philadelphia, and the other in Syracuse, 
New York. Four other dental periodicals 
have likewise been started, three of which 
aie still published, viz: the New York 
Dental Recorder; the Dental Register of 
the West, and the Dental News Letter. 

Although the United States may not 
have contributed as much to the literature 
of this branch of medicine as Europe, den- 
tal surgery has, nevertheless, progressed 
with as much rapidity here as there, and 
the works of American authors upon this 
subject would suffer little, if at all, by 
comparison with similar publications of 
other countries. But few elementary trea- 
tises on the subject have ever been pub- 
lished any where, and of those purporting 
to be such, which have appeared during 
the last fifteen or twenty years, American 
dentists have contributed their full share. 

In thus briefly glancing at the rise and 
progress of dental surgery, the author has 
necessarily been compelled to avoid enter- 

ing into details of particular modes of 
practice, and of improvements and inven- 
tions, which have, from time to time, been 
made, as well as from an analysis of the 
works which have been mentioned ; for, if 
he had done so, it would have swelled 
this article to a size wholly incompati- 
ble with the design of a work like the 

Dental Theeapeu'tics. Odontothe- 
rapi'a ; from dens, a tooth, and depaireva, 
to heal. That branch of medicine which 
relates to the treatment of diseases of the 

DENTA'LIS LAPIS. Salivary calcu- 
lus ; tartar of the teeth. 

DENTA'LIUM. From dens, a tooth. 
The dog-like tooth shell. A genus of shells 
resembling in shape a tooth. 

DENTA'RIA. Plumbago europcea. 

DENTAR'PAGA. From dens, a tooth, 
and apnafa, I fasten upon. An instrument 
for the extraction of teeth. Anciently, this 
operation was performed with rude and 
clumsily constructed forceps, and hence 
the operation was regarded as formidable, 
and difficult to perform. See Extraction 
of Teeth. 

DENTA'TA. From dens, a tooth. The 
second vertebra of the neck is so called 
from its having a tooth-like process at the 
upper part of its body. 

DEN'TATE. Denta'tus; from dens, a 
tooth. Having points like teeth ; applied 
to roots, leaves, &c. 

DENTES. The plural of dens. Teeth. 
See Teeth. 

Dentes Acuti. The incisor teeth. 

Dentes Adulti. The teeth of second 

Dentes Adversi. The incisor teeth. 

Dentes Angulares. The canine or 
cuspid teeth, so called, probably, because 
they are situated at the angles of the alve- 
olar arch, at the corners of the mouth, or 
from the angular shape of their crowns. 

Dentes Bicuspidati. Bicuspid teeth. 

Dentes Columellares. The molar 

Dentes Canini. The cuspid or canine 




teeth ; so called from their resemblance to 
the teeth of a dog. 

Dentes Cariosi. Carious teeth. 

Dentes Cuspidati. KwodovTEc. Cus- 
pid teeth. 

Dentes Exserti. From dens, a tooth, 
and exsertere, to thrust out. Teeth which 
project or are in front of the dental arch, 
but applied more particularly to the cus- 

Dentes Inctsores. Incisor teeth. 

Dentes Lactei. The milk, tempo- 
rary, or deciduous teeth. See Deciduous 

Dentes Molares. Molar teeth. 

Dentes Primores. The incisor teeth ; 
so called because they occupy the front or 
anterior part of the dental arch. 

Dentes Sapientle. The wisdom or 
third molar teeth. 

Dentes Tomici. From dens, a tooth, 
and tomicus, cutting. The incisor teeth. 

DENTICEPS. See dentagra. 

DENTICULATE. Denticula'im. Fur- 
nished with small teeth. 

DENTIC'ULUS. A little tooth. 

DENTIDUCUM. Dentagra. Tooth 

DENTIEE. A French word signify- 
ing a base of metal, ivory or any other 
substance, employed as a support or at- 
tachment for artificial teeth. The term is 
also sometimes applied to a set of artificial 

DENTIFORM. Dentiformis; from 
dens, a tooth, and forma, form. Having 
the shape of a tooth. 

DENTIFRICE. Dentifricfium ; from 
dens, a tooth, and f near e, to rub. A topi- 
cal remedy for the teeth ; a powder or 
paste for cleaning the teeth. Although 
the teeth can, in most cases, be kept clean 
by the use of a suitable brush and waxed 
floss silk, a powder or paste may some- 
times be advantageously employed for the 
removal of discolorations, stains, or clam- 
my mucus. 

The following are the formulas of a few 
of the many dentifrices at present em- 
ployed; others will be found in different 
parts of the work. 

I£. — Cortex cinchona, % iv. 

Cretae prep., § iss. 

Armenian bole, § iss. 

Oleum bergamii, gtt. xxv. 

Mix and reduce to an impalpable pow- 

]£. — Cretae prep., § iv. 

Pul. orris root, § iss. 

Cortex cinchona, § ijj. 

Saccharum album, § ss. 

Carb. sodae, 3 *• 

Oleum cinnamoni, gtt. xv. 

Mix and reduce to an impalpable pow- 

51. — Pul. orris root, tt ii. 

" cinnamon, § iv. 

Cretan prep. Ibi. 

Sup. carb. sodas, 5 i 8S - 

Sac. album, § vii. 

Olei rosaa, gtt. xii. 

Mix and reduce to an impalpable pow- 

Astringent and Aromatic Dentifrice. 
fy. — Pul. gallae, § iss. 

" orris root, § ij. 

Cretae prep. § ij. 

Corticis cinchonae, § i. 

Mix and reduce to an impalpable pow- 

Baume's Dentifrice. 
]£. — Prepared pumice-stone, § i. 
" red earth, § i. 

* " coral, § i. 

Dragon's blood, § ss. 

Cream of tartar, § ss. 

Cinnamon, § ii. 

Cloves, gr. xxv. 

Mix and pulverize. 

By leaving out the pumice-stone and 
cream of tartar, the last formula would 
not be very objectionable. 

Other formulas might be given, but the 
foregoing will suffice. 

Paste for Gleaning the Teeth. 
8f. — Pul. orris root, § v. 

" cinnamon, % ss. 

Cretae prep. § iv. 

Corticis cinchonae, § iij. 

Mix, pulverize to a fine powder, and 
add a sufficient quantity of honey to form 
a stiff paste. 
Dentifrice Electuary, Lelande's. 




I£. — Pumice stone, dried bone, red coral, 
a a 3 ij j Florentine orris, calcined alum, 
pulverized cinnamon, a a 9 ij ; rock alum 
3 i ; cochineal 3 i > pulverize finely, and 
add a sufficient quantity of Narbonne 
boney made into a syrup to form an elec- 
tuary. After fermenting forty-eight hours, 
stir it, and put in alcohol of cloves, 24 
drops, and 10 drops of alcohol of musk. 
Triturate the mixture again, and put it in 
tin boxes, or fine earthen pots for use. 

Dentifrice Powder, Alibert's. I£. 
Magnesia 3 vi, shell lac 3 ij , Floren- 
tine orris 3 v ^ SU P- tart, potassa 3 ij- 

Dentifrice Miailhe's. ]£. — Sugar of 
milk, 1000 grammes ; lake, 10 grammes ; 
pure tannin, 15 grammes ; oil of mint and 
oil of anise, each 20 drops ; oil of orange 
flower, 10 drops. Eub the lake with the 
tannin, and add, gradually, first the sugar 
of milk, previously powdered and passed 
through a sieve having wide meshes, and 
then the essential oils. 

DENTINE. Denti'num. Tooth-bone; 
ivory. The name given by Professor Owen 
to the tissue which forms the chief part of 
a tooth, termed, by German anatomists, 
Knochensubstanz, Zahnbein, and Zahnsub- 
stanz, and situated between the enamel 
of the crown cementum of the root, and 
the pulp-cavity. The structure of den- 
tine, according to Professor Eetzius, of 
Stockholm, is tubular. The tubes radiat- 
ing from the pulp are " directed perpen- 
dicularly to the surface of the tooth," and 
pursuing a waving course, "each tube 
having three curves like the Greek letter f. 
Besides these primary curves, the tubes 
when examined with a " high " magnify- 
ing power, are seen to present smaller 
secondary undulations, which are less per- 
ceptible in the deciduous than in the per- 
manent teeth, and less marked at the ex- 
ternal extremity of the tubes than in the 
middle of their course. The undulations 
are nearly parallel in the different tubes, 
and thus give rise to the appearance of 
concentric lines around the cavity of the 
pulp in a section of the ivory. Their di- 
ameter remains the same, (namely, 7 | T of 

a French line, or about ^ of an English 
line,) from their commencement at the cav- 
ity of the pulp to the middle of the outer 
third of their course ; it then diminishes 
rapidly, until the terminal branches cease 
to be visible, or terminate in small irregu- 
larly round cells." With a magnifying 
power of 300 to 500 diameters, it can be 
seen that the tubes are not simple, but 
branch by a dichotomous division, and in 
their whole extent give off numerous side 
twigs, which again subdivide and occupy 
the spaces between the principal tube9. 
These minute lateral branches are seen 
most readily in the deciduous teeth ; those 
from different tubes appeared to Hetzius 
not to anastomose, except, perhaps, by 
their finest extremities. The tubes have a 
more regular arrangement, their lateral 
branches are smaller, and the cells more 
minute and difficult to discover in the 
human teeth than in those of any other 

" When the wall of the cavity of the 
pulp of a tooth is regarded with a suffi- 
ciently high magnifying power, it is seen 
to be perforated by numerous small orifi- 
ces, separated by numerous narrow inter- 
spaces ; these are the openings of the den- 
tal tubes. In sections also made to the 
course of the tubes, their lumen can be 
seen, and they then appear as bright rings 
surrounding a spot, which, according to 
the variations of the light, is dark or light, 
or in part dark and in part light. Some 
of the tubes are seen to be cut obliquely. 
The rings have a different aspect from the 
substance in which they are imbedded, and 
have sometimes a yellowish color ; hence, 
as well as from the observations of Pro- 
fessor Muller, it is evident that the tubes 
have special parietes, and are not mere 
excavations in the substance of the ivory. 
Professor Retzius confirms the observation 
of Professor Muller, that the tubes contain 
an organic earthy matter in glandular 
masses, which disappears under the action 
of the dilute muriatic acid. The cells, and 
the small tubes which radiate from them, 
also contain earthy matter, as in bone. 
They are naturally white and opaque j 




but, after maceration in dilute muriatic 
acid, become colorless and transparent. 

" Examining the ivory in different mam- 
malia, reptiles, and fishes, Retzius met with 
many varieties of structure ; the most im- 
portant of which, are those which show 
the great resemblance of ivory to bone. 
The cells or corpuscles are in many mam- 
malia in greatest abundance at the super- 
ficies of the ivory ; but in others, they, to- 
gether with fine tubes which issue from 
them or terminate in them, and which are 
continuous with the larger dental tubes, 
occupy in greater part all the interspaces 
between the latter. These cells of the 
ivory contain calcareous matter, and are 
evidently analogous to the corpuscles dis- 
covered by Purkinje in bone, which also 
have fine anastomosing tubes radiating 
from them. The part of the ivory, after 
the teeth have emerged from the gum, 
namely, the extremity of the fang, and 
that part which fills up the cavity of the 
pulp, has less regularity of structure than 
the ivory previously formed ; the tubes are 
less parallel, the cells larger, and the anas- 
tomoses of the small tubes terminating in 
these more distinct ; all of which circum- 
stances give this imperfectly formed ivory 
a great resemblance to true bone. But the 
ivory in the teeth of some animals presents 
characters which assimilate it still more 
remarkably to the structure of bone. In 
the teeth of man and most mammalia, the 
ivory is formed regularly in successive lay- 
ers on the surfaces of the pulp, which, in 
the body of the teeth, undergoes no other 
change than gradual diminution in size. 
In other animals, however, as the sloth, 
(bradypus,) walrus, (trichechus,) pike, 
(essox,) ling, (gadus molva,) and wolf- 
fish, (anarrhichas lupus,) the pulp, after 
forming the most external layer of ivory, 
consisting of closely set dental tubes per- 
pendicular to the surface, divides into a 
number of processes, similar to, but more 
numerous than, those which form the fangs 
of the human molars ; and around each of 
these processes or branches of the pulp 
ivory is formed in layers. In many in- 
stances, as in the saw-fish, (pristis,) ling, 

and wolf-fish, the numerous divisions of 
the pulp anastomose with each other, like 
the medullary canals of bone. This form 
of ivory presents in many animals, partic- 
ularly in the walrus, the most striking 
resemblance to bone ; the divisions of the 
pulp are seen surrounded with concentric 
lamina?, which, like the layers of bone 
surrounding the medullary canals, con- 
tain rings of cells or corpuscles, and these 
lamina?, again, are traversed by fine radi- 
ating tubes analogous to the radiating stria? 
in bone, which were supposed by Deutsch 
to be tubes." 

Professor Retzius ascribes to the dental 
tubes and cells the office of distributing to 
the tooth a nutritive fluid secreted by the 
surface of the pulp, and while he does not 
believe that the dentinal and cortical sub- 
stances undergo any change, he is of the 
opinion that they are the seat of a vital 
process, consisting in an interchange of the 
fluid of a tooth, which operation he regards 
necessary to preserve in them that property 
by which they are enabled to endure con- 
stant pressure without injury or loss of 
substance. But that the dentinal part of 
a tooth is vascular, and, under certain cir- 
cumstances, capable of being injected with 
red blood, is now well established. The 
author has several preparations of dentine 
in which, when examined under the micro- 
scope, vessels injected with red blood are 

The researches of Professor Owen con- 
firm most of the observations of Retzius. 
He says, " The prolongation or persistence 
of cylindrical canals of the pulp cavity in 
the dentinal tissue, which is the essential 
character of vascular dentine, manifests 
itself under a variety of forms. In mam- 
mals and reptiles, these canals, which I 
have termed ' medullary,' from their close 
analogy with the so-called canals of bone, 
are straight, and more or less parallel with 
each other ; they bifurcate, though rarely j 
and when they anastomose, as in the me- 
gatherium, it is by a loop at, or near, the 
periphery of the vascular dentine. In the 
teeth of fishes, in which the distinction 

* Vide Appendix to JVfuMer's Physiology. 




between the dentinal and osseous tissues 
is gradually effaced, the medullary canals 
of the vascular dentine, though in some in- 
stances straight and parallel, and sparingly 
divided or united, yet are generally more 
or less bent, frequently and successively 
branched, and the subdivisions blended 
together in so many parts of the tooth, as 
to form a rich reticulation. The calciger- 
ous tubes sent off into the interspaces of 
the net-work, partake of the irregular 
character of the canals from which they 
spring, and fill the' meshes with a moss- 
like plexus." ° 

The microscopical researches of Mr. 
Nasmyth represent dentine to be cellular 
in its structure. The fibres he found to be 
interspersed and made up of different com- 
partments, the shape and size of which 
vary in different animals. In the human 
tooth they are oval, their long axis corre- 
sponding with the course of the fibre, and 
the extremity of each in apposition to the 
adjoining one. The cells constitute the 
frame-work in which the osseous matter is 
deposited, and thus become the fibres of 
the dentine. 

Dr. C. Johnson, of Baltimore, who has 
devoted much time to microscopical re- 
searches, is of the opinion that the bac- 
cated appearance of the fibres of dentine, 
as described and represented by Mr. Na- 
smyth, is owing to the manner in which 
the specimens for examination are pre- 

The researches of Leeuwenhoek, Fraen- 
knel, Purkinje, Schwan and Tomes, have 
also thrown much valuable light on the 
structural arrangement of dentine. 

DENTIFRICTUM. From dens, a tooth, 
and fricare, to rub. A tooth powder or 
any thing for rubbing the teeth ; a denti- 

DENTISCALTIUM. From dens, a 
tooth, and scalpere, to scrape. An instru- 
ment employed for the removal of salivary 
calculus, and for scraping the teeth. A 
number of instruments are often required 
for these purposes, so shaped that they may 
be readily applied to any part of a tooth. 
•Vide Odontography. 

The name has also been applied to a gum- 
lancet and tooth-pick, but we think it ap- 
plies more strictly to the first mentioned 

DENTIST. Dentis'ia; odontia'ter; den- 
tarius ; a dental surgeon. See Dental Sur- 

DENTISTRY. Odontotech'ny ; odwv- 
tiatri'a ; odontoiherapi'a. Dental Surgery, 
embracing every thing pertaining to the 
treatment and replacement of the loss of 
the natural teeth. 

DENTITION. Denti'tio; from dentin, 
to breed teeth. Teething. The emergence 
of the teeth from the alveoli and gums. 

With regard to the manner in which this 
operation of the economy is effected, a 
variety of explanations have been given. 
Some, and we believe by far the greater 
number, attribute it to the prolongation of 
the pulp for the formation of the root of 
the tooth, or, in other words, that a tooth 
is pushed from its socket and through the 
gum, by the formation of its root. But 
that this opinion is erroneous would seem 
evident from the fact that, if the elongation 
of the pulp commenced before the crown of 
the tooth had made any advance towards 
the gum, it would come in contact with the 
floor of the alveolus, and being in a soft 
and yielding condition, would be caused to 
assume an unnatural configuration. It is 
apparent, therefore, that the crown must 
make some progress toward the gum before 
an elongation of the pulp can commence, 
and this must be effected by some other 
agency; others believe that the tooth is 
forced from its socket by the moulding of 
the alveolus to its root, but the objections 
which apply to the other theory will ap- 
ply with equal force to this. 

M. Delabarre believes the exit of a tooth 
from its matrix and its passage through the 
alveolus and gum are effected in precisely 
the same manner as the birth of a child. 
The sac he regards as the chief agent, and 
that it is by the contraction of this, which 
is adherent to the neck of the tooth, that the 
organ is lifted from its socket, and its neck 
ultimately brought to a level with the gum. 
This is the only philosophical and truly 




plausible explanation that has ever been 
given of this most curious and interesting 
operation of the animal economy, and when 
we take into consideration that the inner 
membrane of the sac is of a fibro-mucous 
and cellular structure, it is easy to per- 
ceive how the advance of a tooth may be 
effected by the contraction of this enclos- 
ure, which is firmly attached to its neck, 
and also to the gum. 

Goodsir divides dentition into three 
stages, to wit : the follicular, the saccular, 
and the eruptive. See Teeth, Development 
of pulps and sacs of. 

Dentition, First. The dentition of 
the deciduous, milk, or temporary teeth. 
As the progress of the teeth through the 
various stages of dentition will be described 
in the article on " Teeth, Development of 
Pulps and Sacs of," it will only be neces- 
sary, in this place, to notice the periods of 
the eruption of the temporary teeth, which 
are variable; depending, probably, upon 
the state of the constitutional health of the 
child. The following, however, may be 
regarded as a very near approximation to 
the periods when they are most frequently 

The central incisors from 5 to 8 months 
after birth ; the lateral incisors from 7 to 
10; the first molars from 12 to 16; the 
cuspidati from 14 to 20 ; and the second 
molars from 20 to 36 months. 

No general rule, however, can be laid 
down from which there will not be fre- 
quent variations. But the following is the 
most remarkable variation, not only from 
the most common period, but also from the 
natural order in which the eruption of the 
teeth usually takes place, which the author 
has ever met with. In November, 1846, 
he was sent for to lance the gums of an in- 
fant only four months old. On exam- 
ining the mouth, the gums on each fole 
of both jaws, immediately over the first 
temporary molar, were found much swol- 
len and inflamed. As these teeth were 
evidently forcing their way through the 
gums, and as the child was threatened with 
convulsions, it became necessary to lance 
them immediately. A few days after, the 

teeth made their appearance, but the cen- 
tral incisors, which should have appeared 
first, were not erupted until about the usual 

Sometimes there is an extraordinary tar- 
diness in the eruption of the temporary 
teeth. There is somewhere on record the 
case of a child which did not get any of 
its teeth until it was ten years old; and 
Lefoulon states that he saw a young girl, 
seven years of age, whose inferior incisors 
had not appeared. Several cases have come 
under the observation of the author in 
which dentition did not commence until the 
fifteenth, and one not until the twentieth 
month. On the other hand, there are cases 
of precocity of action in the eruption of the 
teeth equally remarkable, as, for example, 
when the two lower incisors are cut at 
birth. Louis XIV was born with four 
teeth, and Polydorus Virgilius mentions a 
child that was born with six. Haller, in 
his Elements of Physiology, enumerates the 
cases of nineteen children who were born 
with teeth. Similar examples are on re- 
cord, and there are few physicians or den- 
tists, who have been in practice ten or fif- 
teen years, who have not met with them. 

In the eruption of the teeth, those of the 
lower jaw are said to precede the upper, 
but the latter appear first nearly as often 
as the former. 

Dentition, Morbid. Although denti- 
tion may be regarded as a healthy opera- 
tion of the economy, it is sometimes per- 
formed with difficulty, and attended with 
serious and occasionally alarming effects. 
There are few children who do not suffer 
more or less during the progress of denti- 
tion, and when we consider the early age 
at which this operation commences, and 
the irritable state of the body while it is 
going on, it will not appear strange that it 
should often be attended with painful ef- 
fects. Even in latter life, during the den- 
tition of the wisdom teeth, it is sometimes 
productive of very alarming symptoms. 

First dentition is generally regarded as a 
most critical period of life, and it has often 
proved one of bereavement and sorrow. 

The irritation resulting from difficult den- 




tition is supposed to be produced, princi- 
pally, by tbe pressure of the advancing 
tooth against the gum. When the absorp- 
tion of this keeps pace with the growth of 
the tooth, there is little pressure, but when 
the reverse happens, as is often the case, 
it sometimes becomes so considerable, as to 
be productive of great irritation, inflam- 
mation and tumefaction of the gums. It 
is not altogether unlikely that a portion 
of the irritation may be produced by the 
pressure of the tooth upon the elongated 
pulp, for when its progress is retarded by 
the resistance of the gum, it would, of ne- 
cessity, cause the ossified part to press 
upon it. This, as a matter of course, 
would give rise to great irritation. 

According to Dr. Good, the pressure of 
the advancing tooth against the gum is 
not constantly and uniformly exerted 
throughout its whole progress, " but is 
divided into distinct periods or stages, as 
though the vital or instinctive principle, 
which is what we mean by nature, be- 
comes exhausted by a certain extent of ac- 
tion, and requires rest and a state of inter- 

But with regard to the effects produced 
by the irritation, their nature and extent 
are always determined by the state of the 
health of the child and its constitutional 
susceptibilities and tendencies. When the 
irritation is merely slight, it is generally of 
short duration, subsiding as soon as the 
tooth emerges from the gum. But when 
it is great, the functional operations of 
other parts of the body are often disturbed, 
attended by febrile and other symptoms of 
a more or less aggravated character, such 
as drowsiness, constipation of the bowels, 
diarrhoea, &c. The gums inflame, swell, 
become red and hot, with a copious flow 
of saliva, circumscribed redness of the 
cheeks, cutaneous eruptions, particularly 
upon the face and scalp, green or pale 
stools, griping of the bowels, moaning and 
starting during sleep, and various other 
unpleasant phenomena, such as difficult 
micturition, sometimes attended with ve- 
hement shrieking and convulsions. 

Dr. Underwood says, "strong and 

healthy children cut their teeth earlier than 
the weak and tender." The robust, how- 
ever, he says are more subject to fever, 
and "that the extremes of high health, 
and of debility, are both dangerous ; the 
one being exposed to acute fever, or con- 
vulsions, the other to a slow hectic and 
marasmus. Therefore, air, exercise, food 
of easy digestion in small quantities, and 
taken frequently, and every thing that has 
a tendency to promote general health, and 
to guard against fever, will greatly contrib- 
ute to the safety of dentition." 

In addition to the above, the bowels 
should be kept open, when necessary, with 
mild cathartics, such as senna and manna, 
magnesia, rhubarb, or castor oil, and should 
there be much fever with constipation, a 
dose of calomel may often be advantage- 
ously given. Cold drinks and refrigerant 
diaphoretics, as the neutral mixture and the 
spirit of nitric ether, are recommended as 
serviceable in controlling irregular nervous 
action. Should eruptions appear upon the 
skin, and especially upon the face, scalp, 
and behind the ears, no attempt should 
be made to dry them up, as the irritation 
which attends them might in that case 
fall upon some more vital organ, as the 
brain. When, as is often the case, an ul- 
ceration or scabby affection appears behind 
the ears, its continuance should be encour- 
aged, and some physicians have recom- 
mended, in cases of difficult and obstinate 
dentition, when this disorder fails to ap- 
pear, irjitating it, by the application of 
blisters, and afterwards keeping them open. 

But the most important indication, as is 
justly remarked by Dr. Underwood, is to 
assist the eruption of the teeth. For this 
purpose he recommends the application of 
cooling sedatives, and demulcent applica- 
tions to the gums; rubbing them with 
some smooth hard substance, as the coral, 
and dividing them with the lancet. The 
last, after all, he says, " is the only means 
to be depended upon," and when this ope- 
ration is performed, it should be effectually 
done, cutting through not only the gum, 
but also the sac, so that they be completely 
relieved of the tension occasioned by the 




pressure of the advancing tooth. The lan- 
cet, therefore, should always be carried 
down to it by a single cut, making the in- 
cision in the direction of the curvature of 
the alveolar border. In cutting the gum 
over an incisor or cuspid tooth, the incis- 
ion should be about a line in front of the 
summit of the ridge and directed slightly 
backward, to avoid cutting behind the 
tooth, as is often done. In cutting the gum 
over a molar tooth, a crucial incision is re- 
quired, and each cut should be equal in 
extent to the diameter of the grinding sur- 
face of the tooth, in order to secure the full 
benefit of the operation. 

This is a very simple and safe operation, 
and is rarely productive of much pain, of- 
ten affording instantaneous and complete 
relief from the most painful sufferings. 

Of the advantages resulting from this 
operation, Dr. Underwood says he is con- 
vinced that it " is often inexpressibly use- 
ful, and appears to have saved many lives, 
after the most dangerous symptoms had 
taken place, and every other means of 
cure had been made use of." 

But lancing the gum will not always 
remove the irritation produced by the den- 
tition or growth of a wisdom tooth. It 
often happens that nothing short of the 
removal of the tooth itself will remove the 
morbid effects induced by it, and this be- 
comes more especially necessary in the 
lower jaw, where, for want of room be- 
tween the second molar and coronoid pro- 
cess, or some other cause, the dens sapien- 
tiaj has been forced to take a false direction 
in its growth. 

Dentition, Second. There is no ope- 
ration of the animal economy more curious 
or interesting than that which is exhibited 
in the gradual destruction of the roots of 
the temporary, and in the growth and 
dentition of the permanent teeth. The 
time of life when this occurs constitutes an 
important epoch in the history of every 

During childhood each of the alveolar 
arches forms only about the half of a circle, 
but by the gradual elongation of the jaws, 
each ultimately forms nearly the half of 

an ellipsis, so that the number of teeth 
required, at the one period, is but little 
more than half the number required at the 

The rudiments of the permanent incisors 
and cuspidati have attained their full size 
at birth, and each is situated immediately 
behind its corresponding temporary tooth. 

The following concise description of the 
relative position of the teeth, at the fifth 
year after birth, is given by Mr. Bell : " In 
the upper jaw the central incisors are situ- 
ated immediately beneath the nose, the 
lateral incisors thrown back behind the 
points of the cuspidati, and the base of the 
latter scarcely a quarter of an inch below 
the orbit. In the lower jaw the cuspidati 
are placed at the very base, with only a 
thin layer beneath them, but the crowding 
is much less considerable than in the up- 
per jaw, from the smaller comparative size 
of the incisors. 

" The permanent central incisor of the 
lower jaw is placed immediately beneath 
the temporary, with its point directed a 
little backward, behind the partially ab- 
sorbed root of the latter. The lateral inci- 
sor, not yet so far advanced, is placed 
deeper in the jaw, and instead of being 
immediately beneath the temporary, is sit- 
uated with its point between the roots of 
this and the cuspidatus. The permanent 
cuspidatus is still very deeply imbedded in 
the bone, with its point resting between 
the roots of the temporary cuspidatus 
and the first temporary molar. The two 
spreading roots of the latter encompass, as 
it were, within their span, the first bicus- 
pis; and those of the second temporary 
molar, in like manner, the second bicuspis. 
Nearly a similar arrangement is found 
to exist in the upper jaw, except that the 
teeth are altogether more crowded." 

Before proceeding further with second 
dentition, it may be proper to offer a few 
remarks on the destruction of the roots 
and the shedding of the temporary teeth. 

Shedding of the Temporary Teeth. 

With regard to the manner of the de- 
struction of the roots of the temporary 




teeth, there exists some diversity of opin- 
ion. Most writers believe they are removed 
by the absorbents, while some are of the 
opinion that it is a chemical operation. 
Laforgue, observing a fleshy body behind 
the root of the temporary tooth, which, in 
fact, had been noticed by Bourdet, and 
supposed by him to exhale a fluid which 
possessed solvent qualities, gave it the 
name of absorbing apparel, and assigned 
to it the office of removing the root of the 
primary tooth. 

Delabarre, who has treated this subject 
at greater length, and apparently investi- 
gated it more closely, corroborates the 
views of Laforgue, and gives the following 
description of the manner of the formation 
and function of the carneous substance 
spoken of by this author as the absorbing 
apparel. " While the crown of the tooth 
of replacement," says Delabarre, " is only 
in formation, the exterior membrane of the 
matrix is simply crossed by some blood ves- 
sels ; but as soon as it is completed, the 
capillaries are then developed in a very 
peculiar manner, and form a tissue as fine 
as cobweb ; from this tissue the internal 
membrane, instead of continuing to be 
very delicate, and of a pale red color, in- 
creases in thickness and assumes a redder 
hue. As was before said, it is at the in- 
stant in which commences the reaction of 
the coats of the matrix, that are conveyed 
from the gum to the neck of the tooth, 
that the plaiting of the vessels, that enter 
into their tissue, compose a body of a car- 
neous appearance, whose absorbents ex- 
tend their empire over all the surrounding 
parts ; it is, therefore, the dental matrix 
itself, which after being dilated to serve as 
a protecting envelope to the tooth, is con- 
tracted to form not only this bud-like body 
which we find immediately below the milk 
tooth, at the instant in which it naturally 
falls out, and whose volume is necessarily 
augmented as odontocia gradually goes on, 
but also a carneous mass by which the 
whole is surrounded, and whose thickness 
is the more remarkable as the organ that 
it envelops is nearer its orifice." 
After giving this description, he asks, 

" is there a dissolving fluid that acts chem- 
ically on the surrounding parts, or do the 
absorbents, without any intermediary, de- 
stroy every thing that would obstruct the 
shooting up of the tooth ?" In reply to 
this, he says, "Not possessing positive 
proof suitable to guide me in the decision 
of this question, and finding those of others 
of little importance, I shall not attempt to 
answer them." 

In as few words as possible, we have 
given the views of this ingenious writer 
on the subject under consideration, and 
although they do not seem to have at- 
tracted much attention from English wri- 
ters, and are rejected by Mr. Bell, on the 
ground, as he says, but which we have 
never known to be the case, that the de- 
struction of the root of the temporary fre- 
quently commences on a part M the most 
remote from the sac of the permanent 
tooth," we are disposed to believe them, 
for the most part, correct. As to the ex- 
istence of the fleshy tubercles, there can 
be no question, and that it is through the 
agency of these that the roots of the tem- 
porary teeth are destroyed, we are fully 
convinced. But whether it is through the 
agency of their absorbent vessels or a chem- 
ical fluid exhaled for the purpose, may not, 
as Delabarre says, be so easy to determine. 

There seems to be in this interesting op- 
eration of the economy an association of 
functions, each dependent upon all the 
others, so that if one be suspended, the 
others fail to be performed. Thus, if from 
any cause the fibres of the sac fail to con- 
tract, the fleshy tubercle is not developed, 
nor does the formation of the root take 
place— consequently the crown of the tooth 
remains in the alveolus. Harmonious con- 
sent of associated functions are no where 
more beautifully exemplified than in these 
three operations of the economy. 

It oftentimes happens that the root of a 
temporary tooth fails to be destroyed, and 
that the crown of the replacing organ 
comes through the gum in a wrong place. 
Whenever this happens, the carneous 
body is developed only beneath the parts 
through the opening of which the new 




tooth has emerged, and is not brought in 
contact with the bony partition between it 
and the root of the temporary tooth. 

The manner of the destruction of the 
roots of the temporary teeth has been a 
subject of close and critical inquiry with 
the writer for several years, and the more 
he has examined the subject, the more 
fully has he become convinced that it is 
the result of the action of these fleshy tuber- 
cles upon them. And wliile its formation 
seems to be the result of the contraction of 
the sacs of the permanent teeth and their 
appendages, for the purpose of effecting 
their eruption, they are especially charged 
with the removal of every thing that would 
obstruct their passage. 

In conclusion, it is only necessary to ob- 
serve that the temporary teeth are shed 
in the order in which they at first appear. 
After one pair has been shed, a sufficient 
time usually elapses before the shedding of 
another, for those of the same class of the 
permanent set to come forward and take 
their place. Thus, the jaws are never de- 
prived, unless from some other cause than 
the destruction of the roots of the tem- 
porary, of more than two teeth in each 
jaw, at any one time. See Teeth, Develop- 
ment of pulps and sacs of. 

Eruption of the Permanent Teeth. 

Second dentition usually commences at 
about six or seven years after birth, and 
is generally completed, as far back as the 
second molars, by the twelfth or fourteenth 
year. The dentes sapientiaj seldom appear 
before the eighteenth or twentieth year. 
The periods of the eruption of the adult 
teeth are, however, so variable, that it is 
impossible to state them with perfect ac- 
curacy. Sometimes the first permanent 
molars appear at four years, and the cen- 
tral incisors at five; at other times they 
are several years later. 

But as it is of some importance that the 
periods of the eruption of the several classes 
of the permanent teeth should be known, 
the author will state them with as much 
accuracy as possible. 

First molars, from 5 to 6 years ; central 

incisors, from 6 to 8 years; lateral inci- 
sors, from 7 to 9 years ; first bicuspids, 
from 9 to 10 years; second bicuspids, 
from 10 to 11 J years; cuspidati, from 11 
to 12 years ; second molars, from 12 to 14 
years; third molars, (dentes sapientite,) 
from 17 to 21 years. 

But, as before stated, the periods of the 
eruption of the permanent teeth, like those 
of the temporary, are very variable. The 
cuspidati often appear before the second 
bicuspids, and, in some cases, the dentes 
sapiential not until the thirtieth or even 
fortieth year, and sometimes they never 
show themselves. 

Maury fixes the period for the eruption 
of the first four molars at from six to eight 
years, and M. Desirabode at from six to 
seven. Both of these authors, too, place 
the cuspidati in the order of the eruption 
of the teeth, before the second bicuspids. 
For the proper method of managing sec- 
ond dentition, the reader is referred to the 
author's Principles and Practice of Dental 

Dentition, Third. That nature does 
sometimes make an effort to produce a third 
set of teeth, is a fact which, however much 
it may have hitherto been disputed, is now 
so well established, that no room is left for 
cavil or doubt. 

A case of this kind is related by Dr. Bis- 
set, of Knayton, in which the patient, a 
female, in her ninety-eighth year, erupted 
twelve molar teeth, mostly in the lower 
jaw, four of which were thrown out soon 
afterwards, wliile the rest, at the time of 
examination, were found more or less loose. 
Mr. Hunter witnessed the re-production 
of a complete set in both jaws, apparently 
with a renewal of their sockets. From this 
he infers that nature sometimes makes an 
effort to renew the body. 

Dr. Good says " he once attended a lady 
in the country, who cut several straggling 
teeth at the age of seventy-four ; and, at 
the same time recovered such an acuteness 
of vision as to throw away her spectacles, 
which she had made use of for more than 
twenty years, and to be able to read with 
ease the smallest print of the newspapers." 




In another case, that occurred to him, a 
lady of seventy-six, mother of the late 
Henry Hughes Eryn, printer of the Jour- 
nals of the House of Commons, cut two mo- 
lars, and at the same time completely re- 
covered her hearing, after having for some 
years been so deaf as to be obliged to feel 
the clapper of a small hand-bell, which 
was always kept by her, in order to de- 
termine whether it rung or not. He also 
informs us that the " German Ephemerides 
contain numerous examples of the same 
kind ; in some of which teeth were pro- 
duced at the advanced age of ninety, a 
hundred, and even a hundred and twenty 
years. One of the most singular instances 
on record is that given by Dr. Slade, which 
occurred to his father, who, at the age of 
seventy-five, re-produced an incisor, lost 
twenty-five years before, so that, at eighty, 
he had hereby a perfect row 'of teeth in 
both jaws. At eighty-two, they all drop- 
ped out successively ; two years afterwards, 
they were all successively renewed, so that 
at "eighty-five he had at once an entire set. 
His hair, at the same time, changed from a 
white to a dark hue ; and his constitution 
seemed, in some degree, more healthy and 
vigorous. He died suddenly, at the age of 
ninety or a hundred." 

A physician of this city informed the 
author, some years ago, that a case of third 
dentition had come under his own observa- 
tion. The subject was a female, who, at 
the age of sixty, erupted an entire set. 

The following extract of a letter to the 
author from Dr. J. C. McCabe, describes 
another very interesting case : 

"I have just seen," says Dr. M., "a 
case of third dentition. The subject of 
this 'playful freak of nature,' as Dr. Good 
styles it, is a gentleman residing in the 
neighborhood of Coleman's Mill, Caroline 
county, Virginia. He is now in his seventy- 
eighth year, and, as he playfully remarked, 
' is just cutting his teeth.' There are eleven 
out, five in the upper, and six in the lower 
jaw. Those in the upper jaw are two 
central incisors, one lateral, and two bicus- 
pids, on the right side. Those in the 

tus, and one molar. Their appearance is 
that of bone, extremely rough, without 
any coating of enamel, and of a dingy 
brown color." 

Several examples somewhat like the fore- 
going, have come under our own observa- 

Dr. W. H. Dwindle, in the second num- 
ber of the eighth volume of the American 
Journal and Library of Dental Science, 
gives the history of a case of four success- 
ive dentitions of the medial or central in- 
cisors. Other examples might be adduced, 
but the foregoing will suffice. 

No attempt, that the writer is aware of, 
has ever been made to explain the manner 
of the formation of these anomalous pro- 
ductions. The rudiments of the teeth of 
first and second dentition, are the product 
of mucous membrane, while those of third 
dentition would seem to have their origin 
in the periostial tissue, if not from the bone 

In obedience to what law of develop- 
mental anatomy are they formed ? If the 
establishment of the law which governs the 
development of a part, depends upon a 
certain condition of other contiguous parts, 
it is possible that the following may fur- 
nish a correct explanation of the phenome- 
non. Certain parts, in certain states or 
conditions, and in particular locations, per- 
form functions peculiar to the latter. In 
other words, the condition and location of 
a part determines the functions which it 
performs. For example, when the mucous 
membrane along the course of the alveolar 
border begins to assume a duplicated or 
grooved appearance, which it does about 
the sixth week of intra-uterine existence, 
dental papilla? shoot up from it, and when, 
by a similar duplication of this same tissue, 
behind the sacs of the temporary teeth, 
forming what Mr. Goodsir styles " cavities 
of reserve," the papilla? of the permanent 
teeth, one from the bottom or distal ex- 
tremity of each duplication, begins to be 
developed. Hence, it would seem that 
this particular state or condition of this 
tissue, and in these particular locations, is 

lower are the four incisors, one cuspida- necessary to determine the development of 




teeth germs. This arrangement or condi- 
tion of mucous membrane, in these partic- 
ular locations, which always results from 
the development of the foetus, may be some- 
times produced by accidental causes, after 
all the organs of the body have obtained 
their full size, or at any time during life ; 
and when it does occur, it is not unreason- 
able to suppose that a new tooth papilla 
should be formed. Proceeding still farther, 
the development of a dental papilla is the 
signal for the production of a dental folli- 
cle, which ultimately becomes a sac, and 
then an organ to supply the tooth, now 
considerably advanced in the process of 
formation, with a covering of enamel. But 
as the maxillary bone has previously at- 
tained its full size, it rarely, if ever, hap- 
pens that alveoli arc formed for these acci- 
dental productions, and, consequently, they 
seldom have roots, or if they do, they are 
very short and blunt. They arc usually 
connected to the periosteum of the alveolar 
border, and this union is sometimes so close 
and intimate, that very considerable force 
is necessary for their removal. As a gene- 
ral rule, however, they loosen in the course 
of a few years and drop out. 

But it may be asked, how arc such acci- 
dental duplications of the mucous mem- 
brane formed? This is a question, we admit, 
which it may not be easy to answer satis- 
factorily, but we do not think it at all impro- 
bable that they sometimes occur during the 
curative process that follows the removal 
of one or more teeth. The granulated 
walls of the gums surrounding an alveolus 
from which a tooth has been extracted, 
may become covered with this tissue before 
the socket is filled with a deposit of new 
bone, or, at any rate, of the surfaces of the 
duplicated membrane near the bone, and 
whenever such arrangement or condition 
of this tissue does take place upon the 
alveolar border, and that it may occasion- 
ally, we think there can be no question, 
it is probable that a new tooth papilla is 
produced, which, in the progress of its 
development, is attended by the formation 
of the various appendages necessary to the 
production of a perfect tooth. 

This, in our opinion, is the only way 
that these fortuitous productions can be 
accounted for in accordance with true phys- 
iological principles. It seems impossible 
to explain the manner of their formation 
in any other way. 

If the foregoing views which we have 
advanced be correct, these productions are 
not the result of a mere freak of nature, 
as they are sometimes facetiously styled. 
They are the result of the operation of an 
established law of the economy; and al- 
though, after the completion of the teeth 
of the second dentition, its course is sus- 
pended, the occurrence of a similar ar- 
rangement or condition of the mucous tis- 
sue in the parts in question will again put 
it in operation. 

DENTI'TIO. Dentition. 

DENTIUM CAVEKN/E. The sockets 
of the teeth. 

Dentium Cor'tex. The enamel of the 

Dentium Do'lor. Pain in the teeth; 
tooth- ache. 

Dentium Nit'or. Enamel of the teeth. 

Dentium Scalptu'ua. Lancing the 

Dentium Vacillant'ia. Looseness of 
the teeth. 

DEN'TO. From dens, a tooth. One 
who has jn-ominent teeth ; one whose teeth 

DENTOG'RArHY. Dentograjih'ia ; 
from dens, a tooth, and ypatyv, description. 
A description of teeth. 

DENTOIDEUS. Odontoid j tooth-like. 

DENTOL'OGY. Dentolog'ia; from dens, 
a tooth, and Aoyog, a discourse. A treatise 
on the teeth. 

DENTON'OMY. Dontonom'ia; from 
dens, a tooth, and vo t uo'c, a law. The ar- 
rangement of the teeth into classes. Also, 
the classification of the teeth according to 
their physiognomical characters, and their 
pathological and physiological indications. 
See Teeth, Characteristics of. 

DENTS BABBLES. See Barred Teeth. 

Dents Bicuspidees. The bicuspid 

Dents, Col Des. Neck of the teeth. 




Dents Cono'ides. The canine teeth. 

Dents de Lait. The milk or tem- 
porary teeth. 

Dents Machelieres. The molar teeth. 

Dents Molares. The molar teeth. 

Dents Multicuspidees. The large 
molar teeth. 

Dents (Eileieres. Canine teeth. 

DENTURE. A complete set of teeth ; 
the whole assemblage of teeth in both jaws. 

DENUDATION. Denuda'tio ; from 
denudare, to make bare. The laying bare, 
or deprivation of a part of its covering or 
envelope. In Surgical Pathology it is usu- 
ally applied to bones deprived of their 
periosteum; in Dental Pathology, to the 
teeth when deprived of their enamel, or 
when the roots are exposed by the reces- 
sion of the gums and the destruction of 
their sockets. 

affection which consists in the gradual 
destruction of the enamel of the anterior 
or labial surfaces of the incisors, cuspidati, 
and sometimes of the bicuspids ; the mo- 
lars are rarely affected by it. It generally 
forms a continuous horizontal groove, as 
smooth and regular as if it had been made 
with an oval file, though sometimes it 
spreads over nearly the whole of the ante- 
rior surface, completely denuding this part 
of the organs of enamel. Commencing on 
the central incisors, it extends to the later- 
als, the cuspidati, and bicuspids. After 
having removed the enamel, it attacks the 
subjacent dentine, the groove becoming 
gradually deeper and deeper until the pulp 
cavities of the teeth are exposed. The 
color of the enamel is rarely changed, but 
the bone, as soon as it becomes exposed, 
assumes, first, a light, and afterwards a 
dark brown appearance — the surface of 
the groove the whole time remaining per- 
fectly hard and smooth. This most curi- 
ous and singular affection usually com- 
mences at a single point upon each of the 
central incisors, and proceeds horizontally 
backward; but at other times it attacks 
several points almost simultaneously, but 
gradually the affected parts approach and 
unite, giving to the enamel the appearance 

of having been scooped out with a broad, 
round, or square pointed instrument. 

The cause of this affection appears to be 
involved in some obscurity. We are deci- 
dedly of the opinion that it is the result of 
the action of an acid contained in the mu- 
cous secretions of the mouth. The other 
teeth being more constantly bathed in the 
saliva than the anterior surfaces of the 
incisors, cuspidati and bicuspids, the mu- 
cous fluids of the mouth are either washed 
from them, or so diluted as to render them 
harmless, but upon the parts of the teeth 
last mentioned it is often permitted to re- 
main for days. That this is the true cause 
would seem to be rendered certain by a 
case which fell under the observation of 
Dr. E. Parmly a few years since, in which 
the crowns of human teeth, used as a den- 
tal substitute, were attacked by this curi- 
ous affection, thus proving, most conclu- 
sively, that the loss of substance was caused 
by the action of chemical agents, and if 
such cause is capable of producing it in 
one case, it is in all others. 

In the treatment of this affection, the 
most that can be done, is to widen the 
groove at the bottom, after it has gone 
far enough to require it, and fill it with 
gold. This will arrest its further progress. 
See Filling Teeth. 

DEOB'STRUENT. DcoV strums; from 
de, and obslruere, to obstruct. Medicines 
which remove obstructions, as aperients. 
The word has an indefinite meaning and is 
now seldom used. 

DEODORIZATTON. The correction of 
any foul or offensive odors through the ac- 
tion of chemical agents, capable of absorb- 
ing the odoriferous matter. 

DEOPPFLANS. Deojipila'tius. Deob- 

DEOXYDATION. From de, from, 
and oqyd, a compound of oxygen. The 
separation of oxygen from any compound. 

DEPART. In Metallurgy, an old name 
for parting, which see. 

DEPAS'CUS. Phagedenic. 

DEPAUPERATED. Impoverished in 
quality. Applied in Botany to certain stip- 
ules, bracts, &c, which are imperfectly 




developed, or shriveled, as for want of 

DEPEND'ENS. Dependent. In Bot- 
any, hanging down. 

DEPERDITIQ. Abortion. 

DEPETI'GO. Old name for tetter, ring- 
worm or itch, when the skin is rough. 

DEPH LEGMATTON. DcpMegma'tio ; 
from de, from, and phlegma, a watery dis- 
tilled liquor, as distinguished from a spirit- 
uous liquor. In Chemistry, the separation, 
by distillation or other means, of the water 
existing in admixture with another liquid. 

from, and phlogiston, the inflammable 
principle. Without phlogiston. 

Dephlogisticated Air. Oxygen gas. 

Dephlogisticated Marine Acid. Chlo- 

DEPILA'TION. Depila'tio; from de, 
and pilus, hair. Loss of hair. 

DEPILATORY. That which causes 
the loss of the hair, as caustic lime, &c. 

DEPPLIS. Hairless. 

DEPLETION". DepU'tio; from deplco, 
I unload. The act of diminishing the full- 
ness of the vascular system, by the ab- 
straction of blood, or by any system of 

DKPLETORY. That which tends to 
deplete, as blood-letting, emetics and 

DEPLUMA'TION". Depluma'tio; from 
deplumis, without feathers. A disease of 
the eyelids which causes the loss of the 

DEPOSIT. From depono, to lay down. 
In Dental Pathology, the precipitation of 
an earthy substance (commonly called tar- 
tar) upon the teeth. In General Pathology, 
the accumulation of fat in an abnormal po- 
sition, or morbid growths. The sediment 
of the urine is also called a deposit. 

DEPOSITTO. *A term applied in Sur- 
gery to the depression of the lens in the 
operation of couching. 

DEPRAVATION. Depravdtio ; from 
de, and pravus, to corrupt. A depraved 
condition, or morbid change in the solids 
or fluids of the body ; also, depravation of 
taste or sight. 

DEPRESSANTS. That which reduces 
the vital energy, by diminishing the fre- 
quency of the pulse, or the action of the 
heart and arteries. 

DEPRESSED. Dejwcs'sus. Flattened 
from above downward. Applied in Zoology 
to the whole or part of the animal body, 
when its vertical section is shorter than the 

DEPRESSION. Depres'sio; from de- 
primere, to press down. In Anatomy, a 
fossa, hollow, or excavation. Applied in 
Pathology to the pulse when its strokes are 
feeble and slow ; in Surgery, to fractures 
of the cranium in which portions of the 
bone are depressed ; also, to an operation 
for cataract, which consists in the depres- 
sion of the opaque lens from the axis of 
vision into the vitreous humor. In Dental 
Anatomy, the indentations on the grind- 
ing surfaces of the molar and bicuspid 

DEPRESS'OR. In Anatomy, any mus- 
cle which depresses the part on which it 
acts. In Dental Surgery, an instrument 
employed for confining the tongue to the 
floor of the mouth while introducing a fill- 
ing into a tooth of the lower jaw. See 

Depressor Al.*: Nasi. See Depressor 
Labii Superioris Alajque Nasi. 

Depressor An'guei Oris. A muscle 
of a triangular form, situated beneath the 
lower lip. It arises broad and fleshy from 
the base of the lower jaw at the side of 
the chin, and is inserted into the angle of 
the mouth. 

Depressor La'bii Inferio'ris. A small 
thin muscle which arises from the side and 
front of the lower jaw at its base, and is in- 
serted into the greater part of the lower lip. 

Depressor La'bii Superioris. A mus- 
cle situated above the mouth ; it arises 
from the alveolar processes of the incisor 
and cuspid teeth, and is inserted into the 
upper lip and side of the ala of the nose. 

DEPRESSO'RIUM. An instrument 
used to guard the dura mater when the 
skull is cut or sawed through. 

trahens Auris. 




DEPU'RANT. A term applied in Ther- 
apeutics to medicines which are supposed 
to purify the fluids of the body. 

DEPURATION. From depurare, to 
purify. In Pathology, a process for puri- 
fying the animal economy ; also, the clari- 
fication of any thing. 

DEPU'RATORY. Depurato'rious. That 
which purifies the body, or removes from 
it morbid humors, whether it be by disease 
or medicines and diet. 

DERADENITIS. From depn, neck, 
aSijv, a gland, and itis, signifying inflam- 
mation. Inilammation of the glands of the 

DERADENON'CUS. Tumors of the 
glands of the neck. 

ity in which but a small portion of the 
brain exists, resting on the cervical verte- 


DERBYSHIRE NECK. Bronchocele. 

Derbyshire Spar. Fluor spar. Spar 
of various colors, the large nodules of which 
are peculiar to Derbyshire, and are beauti- 
fully veined. It is found in some places in 
cubic crystals of a pale sea-green color. It 
consists of fluorine and calcium. 

DEKENCEPH'ALUS. A monster whose 
brain is in the neck. 

DERIVATION. Derioa'tio ; fromde- 
rico, to drain off. The drawing away of 
any morbid vital action from its original 
seat to a less important part, by exciting 
irritation or inflammation in it, by the ap- 
plication of some local stimulant. 

DERIVATIVE. That which procures 
a derivation. A revulsive medicinal agent. 

DERMA. Deris. The cutis or skin. 

DERMAD. Dermal aspect ; aspect to- 
ward the skin. 

DERMAL. Relating to the skin. 

DERMAL'GIA. More properly, Der- 
matalgia. From depfia, the skin, and ahyog, 
pain. Pain in the skin. Cutaneous neu- 

DERMAPTERANS. Dcrmap'tera; from 
dsppa, and nrepov, a wing. Skin-winged ; 
an order of insects characterized by having 
the elytra wholly coriaceous, and always 

horizontal; the two membranous wings 
being folded longitudinally, and the tail 
armed with forceps. 

DERM ATA GRA. Pellagra. 

DERMATITIS. Dermatis. Erysipela- 
tous inflammation. 

and fipayxia, gills. A genus of snails in 
which the branchiae consists of ramified 
productions of skin. 


DER'MATOID. Dennatoi'des ; from 
dsppa, the skin, and eifiog, form. Resem- 
bling the skin.. Applied to tissues which 
resemble the skin. 

DERMATOL'OGY. DermaMog'ia; from 
deppa, the skin, and hoyog, a discourse. A 
treatise on the skin. 

DERMATOL'YSIS. From Seppa, Ivu, 
to loosen. Cutis pendirfa. Hypertrophy of 
the skin characterized by great extension 
of this organ, whereby it hangs in large 
loose folds or in pendulous masses. 

duration of the cellular tissue. 

DERMATOPHY'MA. A tumefaction of 
the skin. 

of blood from the skin. 

DERMESTES. From fcppa, and eotfiu, 
I eat. Skin-devourcrs ; a genus of Clavi- 
corn Coleopterous insects, noted for their 
ravages on dead animal substances, espe- 
cially dried skins. 

DERMOG'RAPHY. Bermograph'ia ; 
from Aeppa, the skin, and ypapu, I describe. 
A description of the skin. 

DERMOILE'MIA. From foppa, ami 
aipa, blood. Hypcra-mia, or excessive vas- 
cularity of the skin. 

DERMOID. Dermatoid. 

1 )E RMOL'OGY. Dermatology. 

DERMOT'OMY. Dermotom'ia; from 
depfta, the skin, repveiv, to cut. The dis- 
section of the skin. 

DEROSNE'S SALT. A crystalline sub- 
stance obtained by treating opium with 

DERTRON. The omentum, peritone- 
um, or small intestines. 

DESCEN'DENS NONE The descend- 




ing cervical branch of the ninth pair, or 
hypoglossal nerves 

DESCENSUS. A term sometimes ap- 
plied in Pharmacy to distillation when the 
fire is applied at the top and sides of the 
vessel, while the orifice is at the bottom. 

DESCENSO'RIUM. A furnace in which 
the distillation is performed by descent. 

DESHLER'S SALVE. Compound resin 

DESICCATION. Desicca'tio; from de- 
sicco, to dry up. The drying up of any 
thing moist ; the act of making dry. 

DES1CCATIVE. Desiccativus ; from 
desicco, to dry up. Medicines possessed of 
drying properties, used for drying up ul- 
DES'MA. From deofiog, a ligament or 
bandage. A ligament or bandage. 
DESMATUR'GIA. Bandaging. 
DESMITIS. Inflammation of liga- 

DESMOCHAUNO'SIS. From deo/toe, 
a ligament, and xawumg, relaxation. Re- 
laxation of an articular ligament. 

DESMODYNTA. Pain in the liga- 

DESMOG'RAPHY. Desmograph'ia ; 
from (kufioc, a ligament, and ypaQn, a de- 
scription. A descrijition of the ligaments. 
DESMOID TISSUE. Ligamentous 
tissue. This tissue has a close resemblance 
to the cellular, and in some places is con- 
tinuous with it. It constitutes aponeu- 
roses and ligamentous membranes, and 
consists of condensed cellular tissue. 

DESMOL'OGY. Desmolog'ia; from 6ea- 
fj.og, a ligament, and hoyog, a discourse. A 
treatise on the ligaments. 

DESMOPH'LOGY. Desmophlog'ia ; 
from fcofiog, a ligament, and (pTioyeog, in- 
flamed. Inflammation of the ligaments. 

DESMORRHEXTS. From dee/iog, a 
ligament, and pv&, rupture. Rupture of 
a ligament. 
DESMOS. A ligament. 
DESMOT'OMY. Desmotom'ia ; from 
fiicfiog, a ligament, and te/xveiv 3 to cut. 
Dissection of the ligaments. 
DESPUMA'TION. Despuma'tio; from 

despumo, to clarify. Applied in Pharmacy 
to the clarification of a fluid by separating 
from it the scum and other impurities. 

DESQUA MA'TION. Desquama'tio ; 
from desquamare, to scale off. The sep- 
aration of scales, of a greater or less size, 
from the skin. 

Old name for a trepan for detaching lami- 
na; from exfoliating bones. 

Distillation of organic bodies at a red heat, 
whereby they are disorganized and yield 
their volatile empyreumatic products. 

DESUDA'TIO. From desudo, to sweat 
much. Profuse and excessive sweating. 
Applied also to a miliary eruption with 
which children are sometimes affected. 

DETEN'TIA. Deten'tio. Catalepsy. 

DETERMENTS. From deiergcre, to 
cleanse. Medicines which cleanse foul 
ideers, wounds, &o. 

the afflux of blood or other humors in a 
part, causing congestion. 

DETERSIVE. Detergent. 

Detersive Opiate for the Teeth, 
Maury's. J£. — Fine honey lb ij, calcined 
alum § ij, extract of bark § i, essential 
oil of peppermint % ss, essential oil of cin- 
namon § ss, spirit of amber, musk rose, 
3 ij. Reduce the honey by boiling down 
to one-third ; color it with alkanet ; mix 
the bark into it ; strain through a fine 
sieve, and, when nearly cold, incorporate 
the alum with it, but do not add the essen- 
tial oils until it is entirely cold. 

DETONATION. Detona'tio. Explo- 
sion ; the report which accompanies the 
chemical combinations or decomposition 
of certain bodies. Sudden explosion. 

Detonating Powder. Fulminating 
mercury and silver, and other compounds 
which explode suddenly on being struck 
or heated. They are used for igniting 
powder in percussion locks. 

DETRACTOR. From detraho, to draw. 
Applied to muscles which draw the parts 
to which they are attached from some other 

DETRAHENS. Detractor. 




Detrahests Quadra'tus. Platysma 

DETRITUS. From deterere, to bruise 
or wear out. The inorganic remains of a 
disorganized organic texture. 

DETRUNCATION. Detrunca'tio; from 
de, from, and truncus, the body or trunk. 
In Obstetric Surgery, the separation of the 
head from the trunk or body of the foetus. 

DETRU'SOR URI'N^E. From detru- 
dere, to thrust out. The muscular coat 
of the bladder, which, by contracting, 
causes the expulsion of the urine. 

DEURENS FEBRIS. Causus. Ardent 

DEUNX. An old weight of 11 ounces. 

DEUTERIA. Detention of the secun- 
dines. Also, old name for a weak or in- 
ferior wine. 

DEUTERION. The secundines. 

DEUTEROPATHIA. Morbus secon- 
darius ; from devrepog, the second, and 
7rai9of, disease. A sympathetic affection, 
or secondary disease. 

DEUTO. From devrepog, second. A 
j) re fix, denoting two, twice, or double, as 
deutoxijd, having two equivalents of oxy- 
gen. The second oxyd. 

DEVALGATUS. Bow-legged. 

DEVEL/OPMENT. In Physiology, in- 
crease; growth. 

DEVIATION. Devia'tio; from de, 
from, and via, the way. Vicious curva- 
ture of the spine, or other bones ; a faulty 
direction or position of one or more teeth, 

DEVONSHIRE COLIC. Painters' col- 
ic ; a species of colic occasioned by the in- 
troduction of lead into the system. 

DEW. The deposition of water from 
the atmosphere on the surface of the earth 
from cold. 

Dew-Berry. The fruit of a species of 
brier belonging to the genus Iiabas. 

Dew-Point. The temperature of the 
atmosphere at which its moisture begins 
to be deposited. 

DEX'OCARDTA. From &&of, right, 
and Kapdia, the heart. The beating of the 
heart on the right side, as in pleurisy and 

DEXTANS. An old weight of 10 
ounces, the pound containing 12. 

DEXTRINE. From dexter, right- 
handed ; so called from its possessing the 
power of reflecting the rays in the polari- 
zation of light toward the right hand. A 
gummy substance obtained from starch. 
It also exists abundantly in plants. 

DI. A prefix from <%, twice, used in 
anatomy, chemistry, &c. Hence digastri- 
cus, dioxyd, dichloride, &c. 

DIA. A prefix from &a, through. In 
Composition, extension, perversion, separa- 
tion. It was anciently used to signify the 
presence of an ingredient before which it 
was written, as diacydonium, a medicine 
containing the quince, &c. 

DIABACANNA. From paKavov, the 
seed of the radish, because that was the 
chief ingredient in the compound. An old 
remedy for diseases of the liver. 

DIABETES. From 6ia, through, and 
jiaivu, I pass. A disease attended by 
immoderate secretion of urine, excessive 
thirst, and gradual emaciation. It is di- 
vided into three species : 1. Diabetes in- 
sipidus, characterized by a superabundant 
discharge of limpid urine, having the usual 
urinary taste. 2. Diabetes mellitus, in 
which there is an excessive secretion of 
urine, of a sweetish taste, and containing 
a considerable quantity of saccharine mat- 
ter. 3. Diabetes cJiylosus, in which there 
is a copious secretion of urine of a whitish 

DIABETIC SUGAR. The sweet prin- 
ciple of diabetic urine. 

DIABRO'SIS. Corrosion; the action 
of substances which occupy an intermedi- 
ate rank between escharotics and caustics. 

DIABOTANUM. An old plaster com- 
posed of many herbs, and used by the an- 
cients as a topical application to tumors, 

DIACAR'YON. The rob of nuts. 

DIACASSIA. Old electuary of cassia. 

DIACATHOLTCON. Diacathol'icum ; 
from Aa, and Ka&oTuKog, universal, so called 
from its general usefulness. A purgative 
electuary, composed of senna leaves, the 
pulp of cassia, root of polypody, tama- 




rinds, rhubarb, violets, aniseed, sweet fen- 
nel, liquorice and sugar. 

DIACAU'SIS. From duutaoo, I burn. 
Excessive heat. 

DIACAUS'TIC. Diacaust'icus. Caus- 
tic by refraction, as a double convex lens, 
or, as it is sometimes called, a burning 

DIACENTAU'RIUM. Duke of Port- 
land's powder. 


DIACHALA'SIS. Fracture of the skull 
or opening of its sutures. 

DIACHALCIT'EOS. Diachalci'tis; from 
<5ta, and nakiunc, chalcitis or calcothar. A 
plaster consisting of a mixture of oil and 

DIACHORE'MA. Diachore'sis. Ex- 
crements, especially fteoes. 

DIACHRI'SIS. Inunction. 

DIACHYLON. Diach'ylum; from&a, 
and kvIoc f juice ; i. e., composed of juices. 
Formerly an emollient plaster made of cer- 
tain juices, but at present the term is only 
applied to the emplastrum plumbi, or lead 

Diachylon Com Gummi. Yellow di- 
achylon. Gum diachylon. 

Diachylon Simplex. The emplastrum 

DIACEIYT'ICA. Discutients. 

DIACINE'MA. From Sia, and klveu, I 
move. A subluxation. 

DIACLYS'MA. From Suuthfa, to wash 
out. A gargle ; a mouth-wash. 

DIA'COPE. Diacom'ma ; from Sia, 
through, and nonr), a stroke. In Surgery, 
a fracture or fissure of a cranial bone ; a 
deep wound or cut. 

DIACRANIAN. From&a, separation, 
and icpavtov, the skull. A term sometimes 
applied in Anatomy to the lower jaw, be- 
cause it is merely connected with the skull 
by a loose articulation. 

DIA'CRISES. From &a, and Kpivu, I 
separate. A class of diseases characterized 
by a vitiated state of the secretions. 

DIACRISIS. From Sut, and tepmc, 
judgment. Diagnosis. 

DIADEL'PHIA. Diaddpltous. From 
&?, twice, and adttyog, a brother. In Bot- 

any, the seventeenth class in the sexual 
system of Linnaais, containing those plants 
in which the filaments of the stamens are 
united into two equal or unequal bundles, 
termed brotherhoods. 

DIADE'MA. An ancient bandage for 
the head, supposed to be efficacious against 

DIADERMIATRFA. From Sia, dep/xa, 
the skin, and tarpeta, healing. The ender- 
mic method of treating disease. See En- 

DIADEXTS. From dtadexofiai, I trans- 
fer. I succeed to. The transformation of 
one disease into another of a different char- 
acter and seat. 

DIADO'SIS. StaSidufiai, to distribute. 
Distribution of nutritive matter through- 
out the whole body ; nutrition ; the cessa- 
tion of disease. 

DI^IR'ESIS. From iuupeu, J divide or 
separate. A solution of continuity, as a 
wound or ulcer, or, as in the case of a sur- 
gical operation, consisting in the division 
of some part of the body. 

DLERET'ICUS. From duupeo, I divide. 
Caustic ; escharotic. 

DLETA. Dicetema; from diairau, I 
nourish. Diet j aliment. 

DIAGNOSIS. From &o, and ytvooiui, 
I know. The art of discriminating a dis- 
ease by its symptoms, and one disease from 

DIAGNOSTIC. A pathognomic sign, 
or symptom, which is characteristic of a 

DIAHYDRIC. A term invented by 
Dr. C. J. B. Williams, to express the pe- 
culiar sign of percussing through a liquid, 
as when, in examination of the liver, an 
effusion separates that organ from the walls 
of the abdomen. 

DIALEM'MA. Intermission of fever. 

DIAL/LAGE. A mineral of a foliated 
structure, easily separated in one direction. 

DIALU'RIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by the action of hydrosulphuric acid on 
alloxantin in solution. 

DIAL'YSIS. From dcalvu, to dissolve. 
Weakness of the limbs. 

DIAMAGNETIC. ' A term invented by 




Faraday to express those bodies which are 
repelled by both poles of the magnet, so 
that, when suspended over a horse-shoe 
magnet, they take a position at right angles 
to the line joining the poles. 

DIAMASTE'MA. Masticatory. 

DIAMOND. Ad'amas ; from c, priv., 
and Safiao), I conquer, from its extreme 
hardness. Pure or crystallized carbon ; 
the most valuable of precious stones, and 
the hardest known substance. It was 
formerly supposed to possess valuable 
medicinal virtues. 

DIAMO'RUM. An old gargle made of 
hone}' and mulberry juice. 

DIAMOTO'SIS. From ftorog, charpie, 
lint. The introduction of lint into a wound 
or ulcer. 

DIAN'A. Old name for silver. 

DI ANANCAS'MOS. Dianawas'mus ; 
from foa, and avaynaCo>, I force. The re- 
duction of a dislocated or fractured limb. 

DIAN'DRIA. Dian'drous; from fy, 
twice, and avrip, a man. A class of plants 
with two stamens, the second in the Lin- 
ncean system. 

clovo pick. 

DIAPAL'MA. A plaster composed of 
litharge, olive oil, axunge, water, sulphate 
of zinc and white wax, which, when mixed 
with a fourth of its weight of olive oil, 
forms the cerate of diapalma. 

DIAPAS'MA. From dutnaaaeiv, to 
sprinkle. A medicine reduced to powder 
and sprinkled over the whole or some 
part of the body. 

DIAPEDE'SIS. From dian^au, I leap 
through. Transudation or escape of blood 
through the coats of the vessels, skin, or 
any membrane. 

DIAPHANOUS. Diaphano'sus ; from 
6ut, through, and <t>aivu, to shine. Trans- 
parent. In Anatomy, applied to delicate 
serous membranes, as the arachnoid. 

DIAPHORE'SIS. From 6ia<po P £u>, I con- 
vey, I dissipate. A perspiration more 
profuse than natural. 

DIAPHORETIC. Medicines which ex- 
cite perspiration. 

DPAPHRAGM. From iia^paoau, to 

separate by a partition. The midriff. A 
thin, almost circular muscle, tendinous in 
the centre, which separates the thorax from 
the abdomen. 

DIAPHRAG'MA. Diaphragm. 

Diaphkagma Cerebri. The tentorium. 

Diaphragma Narium. The septum 


cus. Belonging to the diaphragm ; applied 
to several vessels and nerves. 

Diaphragmatic Arteries. Phrenic 
arteries. The arteries of the diaphragm. 

Diaphragmatic Hernia. Protrusion 
of some of the abdominal viscera through 
a rupture of the diaphragm. 

Diaphragmatic Nerves. See Phrenic 

Diaphragmatic Plex'uses. These are 
two in number — one situated on the right, 
and the other on the left side of the dia- 

Diaphragmatic Ring. An aperture 
through the diaphragm giving passage to 
the vena cava ascendens. 

of the diaphragm. 

DIAITPTHORA. From fa, and ftfo- 
peiv, to corrupt. Corruption of any part. 

DIAPHTSIS. From diafvu, I rise be- 
tween. An interspace. Any thing which 
separates two bodies. It is sometimes 
applied to the middle part of a long bone, 
and to the crucial ligaments. 

DIAPLAS'MA. From 6ta-yacou, to 
anoint. The application of an unction to 
the whole or any part of the body. 

DIAPNOE. From 6icfxvew, to breathe 
through. Gentle perspiration. 

DIAP'NOIC. That which promotes 
gentle perspiration. 

DIAPOPH'YSIS. A name given by 
Owen to the homologue of the upper 
transverse process of a vertebra. 

DIAPYE'MA. Diapye'sis ; from 4tt, 
and "nvov, pus. Suppuration. 

DIAPYET'IC. DiapycU'cus ; from «J«i- 
TrvTjfia, a suppuration. Medicines which 
promote suppuration. 




DIARkLE'MIA. From 8ia, through, 
pew, I flow, and aifia } blood. Thinness of 
the blood from deficiency of the globules, 
and, as a consequence, transudation of it 
through the coats of the vessels. 

DIA'llIUS. Lasting one day; epheme- 
ral. Applied to fevers. 

DIAKRIIAGE. A fracture. 

DIARRIKEA. From Sia, through, and 
pew, I flow. Purging, looseness of the 
bowels, frequent liquid alvine evacuations, 
usually attended with slight griping pains, 
but ordinarily without any fever. There 
are several varieties of diarrhoea, as the 
bilious, serous, mucous, &c. 

Diarrhoea Al'ba. Diarrhoea coeliaca. 
Diarrhoea with white milky evacuations. 

Diarrhcea Carno'sa. Dysentery in 
which the discharges resemble pieces of 

Diarrhoea Choler'ica. A diarrhoea 
in which the alvine evacuations are loose, 
copious, and of a yellow color. 

Diarrhoea Ciiylo'sa. Coeliac passion ; 
coeliacfiux. Chylous diarrhoea. 

Diarrhoea Hepat'ica. A diarrhoea 
attended with copious bilious evacuations. 

Diarrhoea Sero'sa. A diarrhoea in 
which the alvine evacuations are of a wa- 
tery or serous character. 

Diarrhoea Urino'sa. Diabetes. 

Diarrikea Vermino'sa. A diarrhoea 
caused by the presence of worms in the 
intestines, especially in the rectum. 

DIARTHRO'DIAL. Eclating to diar- 

DIABTHBO'SIS. From Siapdpou, I 
articulate. A movable articulation of 
bones, in which there are five species; 
namely, enarthrosis, arthrodia, ginglymus, 
trochoides and amphi 'arthrosis. 

DIASAPO'NIUM. An ancient soap 

DIASATYR'ION. An ancient electuary 
believeil to be aphrodisiac, and composed 
chiefly of orchis root. 

DIASCOlt'DIUM. From dta, and oaop- 
fiiov, the water germander; so called be- 
cause scordium enters into its composition. 
An electuary. 

DIASOSTIC. Prophylactic. 

DIASPHYX'IS. The pulse. 

DIASTALT'IC. A term applied by Dr. 
Marshall Hall to the reflex system of nerves. 

DIASTASiE'MIA. From diamaoig, sep- 
aration, anol aifia, blood. Disorganization 
of the globules of the blood, and separa- 
tion of the fibrin and albumen from the 
coloring matter. 

DIASTASE. A vegetable principle 
having the property of converting starch 
into dextrine and grape sugar. It is the 
principal agent in the germination of seeds, 
and is produced when they sprout. 

DIASTASIS. From «J«*y and iottj/u, to 
place, separation, distance. Separation of 
bones and cartilages from each other, as of 
those of the cranium in some cases of hy- 
olrocephalus, &c. 

DIASTE'MA. A term applied in Zo- 
ology, by Illigcr, to the interspace which 
exists in most mammiferous animals be- 
between the canine and premolar teeth. 

tal defect consisting in a longitudinal divis- 
ion of the vagina. 

T7)fia } interstice, and x EL ^°C, the lip. Con- 
genital deviation consisting in a longitudi- 
nal division of the lip. 

re/ja } and ■y'kuoaa, tongue. A congenital 
longitudinal division of the tongue. 

acrefia, and yva&oq, jaw. An organic 
longitudinal division of the jaw. 

tal longitudinal division of the nose. 

genital longitudinal division of the uvula. 

DIAS'TOLE. From (kaoreMio, I send, 
I dilate, I open. Dilatation of the heart 
and arteries when the blood enters them. 
It is immediately followed by contraction, 
which sends forth the blood, and this latter 
movement is called systole. 

DIASTOLIC. Relating to diastole, as 
the diastolic action of the heart. 

DIASTOMO'TRIS. From 'haarofwo, J 
dilate, an aperture. Any dilating instru- 
ment, as a speculum for the mouth, &c. 

DIA STREM'MA. Distortion or sprain. 




DIAS'TROPHE. Diastremma. 
DIAT'ASIS. From diareivo, I distend. 
The reduction of a fractured limb by ex- 
tension and counter-extension. 

DIATES'SARON. An old remedy com- 
posed of four medicines — Aristolochia ro- 
tunda, gentian, laurel berries and honey. 
It was esteemed tonic, emmenagogue, and 

DIATH'ESIS. From diand W i, I dis- 
pose. Disposition, constitution; predis- 
position to certain diseases. The most com- 
mon diatheses are the scrofulous, scorbutic, 
rheumatic, gouty, cancerous, calculous, and 

achic confection made of the three peppers. 
DIAT'RITOS. From 6ta, and rpeig, 
three. Diet of three days. The plan pur- 
sued by the methodic physicians in the 
treatment of disease. 

DIATRP UM. Old name for a medicine 
composed of three ingredients. 

DIAVOLETTI. Diavoli'ni. Aphro- 
disiac lozenges made of cocoa and the most 
pungent aromatics. 

DIAZO'MA. Diazos'ma. The dia- 

DIAZOS'TER. From SiaCovvvfii, I sur- 
round. The twelfth vertebra of the back, 
because it corresponds to the girdle. 

DIBRANCH'IATES. Dibranchia'ta ; 
from 6ic, twice, and (loavxia, gills. Two- 
gilled ; an order of Cephalopo' ds , including 
those which have two gills. 

rel com ; colic weed. A plant of the order 
Fumariaceai, indigenous in the Northern 
States. It has been used in syphilis and 

DICEPH'ALUS. From &, double, and 
Ksijialri, head. Having two heads. 

DICERAS RUDE. An intestinal worm. 
DICHASTE'RES. From &*«&», to di- 
vide. Old name for incisors. 

DICHOPHY'IA. From 8t X a, double, 

and (j>vu, I grow. That condition of the 

hairs in which they split and grow forked. 

DICIIOT'OMOUS. From 6tg, twice, 

and te/ivu, to cut. Forked ; bifurcate. 

DICLIDOSTO'SIS. From tot**, a 

double door, and oarucng, ossification. Os- 
sification of valves, as of the heart. 

DICOC'COUS. In Botany, having two 
capsules united, each with one cell. 

DICOR'YPHUS. A monster with a 
double vertex or cranium. 

DI'CROTUS. From die, twice, and 
Kpvo, I strike. A pulse which seems to 
beat double, or twice as fast as usual. 

DICOTYLE'DONS. From die, twice, 
and KorvlTjduv, a seed-lobe. Plants whose 
embryo have two seed-lobes or cotyledons. 

DICTAM'NUS ALBUS. White fraxi- 
nella or bastard dittany. 

Dictamnus Cbe'ticus. See Origanum 

DID'YMI. From 'M^oc, double. The 

DIDYMITIS. Hernia humoralis. 

DIDYM'IUM. A metal recently die- 
covered united with cerium ores. 

DID'YMOUS. In Botany, growing in 

DIDYNA'MIA. A Linm-ean class of 
plants having four stamens, two long and 
two short. 

DIECBOL'ION. An ancient name for 
a medicine supposed to possess the power 
of producing abortion. 

DI'ES. A day. 

Dies Ciut'ict. Critical days, or days on 
which it was formerly supposed a favor- 
able or unfavorable change would take 
place in the progress of a disease. 

DIET. Dice'ta. Food such as is most 
conducive to health and its preservation. 
The term was formerly used to designate 
the general manner of living, comprehend- 
ing every thing necessary for the suste- 
nance of life. 

Diet Drink. A decoction of sarsapa- 
rilla and mezereon. The Lisbon diet drink, 
or compound decoction of sarsaparilla, 
which it resembles, is the most celebrated. 

DIETETIC. Dietet'icus; from diairau, 
I nourish. Belonging to diet. 

DIETETICS. Dietit'ica. Dieting ac- 
cording to medical rides. 

DIETET'ISTS. Physicians who treat 
disease only by the application of dietetic 




A thermometer showing the difference of 
the temperature of its two hulhs. 

DIFFLATIO. Transpiration. 

DIFFRACTION. The inflexion which 
the rays of light undergo in passing near 
any opaque body. 

DIFFUSE'. Diffusns. Spreading ; ap- 
plied in Pathology to diseases which spread, 
in contradistinction to those which are cir- 

DIFFU'SIBLE. A term applied in 
Materia Medica to stimulants which aug- 
ment the action of the vascular and nerv- 
ous system, but which are transitory in 
their effects, as ammonia, alcohol and sul- 
phuric ether. 

mingling of the particles of two or more 
gaseous bodies, without chemical action, 
with each other, so that ultimately, what- 
ever may have been their relative densities, 
they become thoroughly blended. The exact 
proportions with which the components of 
the atmosphere are mixed, furnish a fine 
example of the diffusion of gases. 

DIFLUAN. An indifferent body pro- 
duced by the evaporation of allexanic acid. 

in the mastoid process from which the di- 
gastric muscle arises. 

DIGAS'TRICUS. From &r, and yaortip, 
a belly. A muscle with two bellies, united 
in the middle by a tendon which passes 
through the stylo-hyoid muscle, and is at- 
tached to the hyoid bone. Of the two bel- 
lies, the one is posterior, and occupies the 
fossa at the end of the mastoid process of 
the temporal bone; the other is anterior, 
extending from the os hyoides to the base 
of the lower jaw by the side of the sym- 
physis. Its use is to depress the lower 
jaw, to raise the os hyoides, or to move 
it forward or backward, as in deglutition. 

DIG'ERENTS. From digero, to digest. 
Digestives; medicines which promote the 
secretion of proper pus in wounds and ul- 

DIGEST'ER. A strong and tight iron 
or copper vessel, with a tightly adjusted 
lid provided with a safety-valve, in which 

bodies may be subjected to the action of 
high-pressure steam. 

DIGESTIBLE. Capable of being di- 

DIGESTION. Diges'iio; from digere, 
to dissolve. In Physiology, the change 
which food undergoes on being taken into 
the body. In Chemistry and Pharmacy, 
an operation which consists in subjecting 
substances to the action of each other, at a 
slightly elevated temperature, as a solid to 
water, alcohol, or other menstruum. 

DIGESTIVES. In Surgery, substances 
which, when applied to a wound or ulcer, 
promote suppuration. 

Digestive Tube. The alimentary canal. 

DIGITAL. From digitus, a finger. Be- 
longing to, or resembling a finger. 

DIGITA'LINE. Dir/ita'lina. The ac- 
tive principle of digitalis. 

DIGITALIS. From digitus, a finger, be- 
cause its flower resembles a finger. A genus 
of plants of the order Scrophtdariaceos. 

Digitalis Purpu'rea. Foxglove. The 
leaves of this plant are powerfully sedative 
and diuretic, and require to be adminis- 
tered with great caution. 

DIGITA'TION. Divided into finger- 
like processes. Applied to muscles, as the 
serratus magnus, which exhibit digitations. 

DTGITATUS. Digitate; fingered. 

DIGITIFORM. Finger-like. 

DIG'ITIGRADES. Digiiigrada; from 
digitus, a finger or toe, and gradior, I tread. 
Carnivorous quadrupeds which walk only 
on the extremity of their toes. 

DIGITIUM. Contraction or atrophy of 
the fingers. Paronychia. 

DIGITUS. A finger. 

Digitus Annula'ris. The annular, or 
ring finger. 

Digitus Indicato'rius. The index 

Digitus Pedis. A toe. 

DIG'NATHUS. A monster with a dou- 
ble jaw. 

DIGNOTIO. Diagnosis. 

DIGYNTA. From %, twice, and yvvq, 
female. A term applied in Botany to plants 
which have two distinct pistils or female 




DIHYSTE'RIA. Double uterus. 
DILATATION. Dilala'iio; from dila- 
tare, to enlarge. Increase of bulk of a body 
by separation of some of its molecules. In- 
crease of the size of a canal or opening. 

DILATOR. Dilatato'rius. In Anatomy, 
applied to muscles the office of which is 
to dilate certain parts. In Surgery, an in- 
strument for dilating a natural or artificial 

Dilator, Arnott's. An instrument for 
removing strictures of, and dilating, the 

DILATO'RIUM. A speculum ; also, a 
piece of sponge or any other mechanical 
contrivance for dilating a wound. 

DILL. The common name of the Ane- 
tlmm graveolens. The seeds are warming, 
purgative and aromatic. 

DIL'UENTS. Medicines which increase 
the fluidity of the blood. 

DIMIDTATE. Dimidia'tus ; from di- 
midus, half. In Botany, half formed ; ex- 
tending half way round. 

DIMORPHTSM. From Sis, twice, and 
fioptyri, form. The property of crystallizing 
in two distinct forms not derivable from 
one another. 

DINANT WATERS. Chalybeate and 
saline springs at Dinant, a town near St. 
Malo, France, 

DIN'ICA. From Sivea, I turn round. 
Medicines which relieve vertigo. 
DINUS. Vertigo; giddiness. 
DINOTHE'RIUM. From deivog, terri- 
ble, and tir/pov, beast. An extinct gigantic, 
herbivorous, aquatic animal. 

DI'ODON. From Sis, and oSovs, a tooth ; 
two-toothed. A genus of plectognathic 
fishes with jaws undivided, each having a 
single and continuous dental plate. 

DIODONCEPH'ALUS. From Sis, dou- 
ble, oSovs, tooth, and KeAakrj, head. A mon- 
strosity with two rows of teeth. 

D IOC 'CIA. From Sis, twice, and oikos, 
a house. A term applied in Botany to a 
class of plants in which the stamens and 
pistils are in separate flowers, and on sepa- 
rate plants. 

DIONCO'SIS. From Sia, and oyaos, a 
tumor. Tumefaction or plethora. 

DIONYSIS'CUS. One who has a bony 
or horn like excrescence near the temporal 
or frontal region. 

DIOPTRA. From SionTo/mi, to see 

through. Dioptron. A speculum ; a dilator. 

DIOPTRICS. From Sia, through, and 

o-nro/iai, I see. That branch of optics which 

treats of refraction. 

DIOPTRIS'MUS. The dilation of a part 
or opening with a speculum. 

DIORRHO'SIS. Diorrlic'sis; from Sia, 
and oppas, the serum. The conversion of 
any part into serum. 

DIORTHO'SIS. From Siopdpoco, to di- 
rect. The reduction of a fracture or dislo- 

DIOSCO'REA. A genus of plants of 
the order Dioscoriaceos. 

Dioscorea Alata. The yam, which is 
also obtained from the Dioscorea bidbifera 
and Dioscorea Sativa. See Yam. 

DIOS'MA. A genus of plants of the 
order Bidacece. See Barosma and Buchu. 
Dios'ma Cuesta'ta. Barosma crcnata ; 
buchu. The leaves are diuretic, stimulant, 
aromatic and tonic, and in moderate doses 
promote the secretory functions of the kid- 
neys and skin. 

DIOSME.E. The Buchu tribe of Dico- 
tyledonous plants. 

DIOS'MIX. The bitter principle of 
the leaves of diosma. 

DIOS'PYROS. The persimmon ; an in- 
indigenous plant of the order Ebenaccce. 
The bark and unripe fruit are astringent, 
and have been used in diarrhoea, ulcerated 
sore throat and uterine hemorrhage. 

DIOXYD. A compound of oxygen with 
a base, in which there is one atom of the 
former and two of the latter. 

DIPET'ALOUS. In Botany, two-pet- 

DIPHTHERITIS. DipWic'ria ; from 
Sicfiepa, a skin or membrane. Angina pel- 
licularis. A name given by M. Brcton- 
neau to a form of pharyngitis, attended by 
the formation of false membranes. 
DiPHTHiiiTis Traciiealis. Croup. 
DIPHYLLUS. Two-leaved. 
DIPLASIAS'MUS. Duplicated. Re- 
exacerbation of a disease. 




DIT'LOE. From SutlMt, I double. The 
cancellated structure which separates the 

two tallies of the skull. 

Dr. Grant to articulated animals, because 
of the increased size of their ganglionic 

DIPLOGEN'ESIS. From tmloog, dou- 
ble, and yevEoig, generation. Organic de- 
fect, caused by the union of two germs. 

DirLO'MA. An instrument of writing 
conferring some privilege. In Medical af- 
fairs, a license to practice physio, or some 
one or more of its branches ; usually ap- 
plied to a document issued by a chartered 
college, certifying that the title of doctor 
has been conferred upon the person who 
has received it. In Pharmacy, a vessel 
with double walls, as a water-bath. 

DIPLONEU'KANS. Applied to verte- 
brate animals, because they have two ner- 
vous systems, the spinal and sympathetic. 
Also, by Dr. Grant, to an order of worms. 

DIPLOTIA. From fonAooc, double, and 
onTOfiat, I see. An affection of the sight, 
in which an object makes a double impres- 
sion upon the retina. Double vision. 

DIPLOSIS. Diploe. 

DIPLOSO'MA. From dinloog, double, 
and aafia, body. The diplosoma crcnata, 
is fin entozoon, having the appearance of 
two worms united, which has sometimes 
been known to pass the urinary bladder. 

reumatic oil obtained from bones and ani- 
mal substances. It is antispasmodic and 

DIPROSO'PUS. From 61, double, and 
■npoou-jov, countenance. A monster with 
two faces. 

DIPSACUS. A genus of plants of the 
order Dipsacacew. Also, Diabetes. 

Dipsacus Fullo'xum. Fuller's teasel. 

Dipsacus Sylves'tris. Cultivated tea- 

DIPHETTCUS. From M>a, thirst. Pro- 
ductive of thirst. 

DIPSOMANTA. From &V'a, thirst, and 
[uivia, madness. The thirst of drunkards. 
Also, delirium tremens. 

DIPSO'SIS. Morbid thirst. 

Dir'TERA. From &r, twice, and mepov, 
a wing. Insects which have two wings. 

DIPTERA'CE.E. A natural order of 
dicotyledonous trees, peculiar to India and 
the Indian Archipelago, distinguished by 
the petals not being fringed, and in the 
want of albumen. To it belongs the cam- 
phor tree. 

DIPTERYX. A genus of trees of the 
order Fabacece. 

Dipteryx Odorata. A tree found in 
Guiana, which yields an odoriferous seed, 
called the Tonquin bean. 

DIP'TEROUS. Having two wing-like 

wood; a small indigenous shrub, which 
grows in wet boggy places, in many parts 
of the United States. 

DIRECTOR. From dirigere, to direct. 
A grooved sound for guiding a knife in 
some surgical operations. 

DIRIG'ENT. Dirig'ens. That constit- 
uent in a prescription which directs the 
action of the associated substances. 

DIRT-EATING. A disorder of the nu- 
tritive functions common among African 
negroes, in which the desire for eating dirt 
is irresistible, and producing the Cachexia 

DISCHARGE'. In Pathology, increased 
flow from any secreting organ or part. 

DIS'COIDS. A term applied to uni- 
valve shells in which the whorls are ar- 
ranged vertically on the same plane, so as 
to form a disc. 

DISCOLORATION. Alteration of col- 
or, especially for a darker hue. 

Discoloration of the Teeth. The 
teeth often lose their natural whiteness and 
peculiar brilliancy, assuming a yellowish, 
brownish, greenish, or blackish appear- 
ance. Any of these changes may take 
place at any period of life, by the exposure 
of the teeth to the action of the causes that 
produce them, and from want of proper 
attention to their cleanliness. Discolora- 
tion of the teeth may be produced by 
the action of acidulated mucous fluids 
of the mouth, or by the habitual use 
of substances containing coloring matter, 




as tobacco, &c, and if permitted to con- 
tinue until the thirtieth year of age, when 
occasioned by the latter, can never be re- 
moved. But, when dependent upon the 
chemical action of the former, or the re- 
sult, simply, of an accumulation of viscid 
and discolored mucus, the teeth may be 
restored to their natural color. 

DISCREET'. Discretus. Distinct, sep- 
arate. Applied to exanthemata, in which 
the eruptions or pustules are not confluent, 
but are distinct and separate from each 
other. • 

DISCRETO'MUM. The diaphragm. 

DISCRl'MEN. A bandage used in 
bleeding from the frontal vein ; so called 
because it passed over the sagittal suture, 
dividing the head into two equal parts. 

Disckimen Calva'ri2E Me'dium. Diploe. 

Discrimen Na'si. An X bandage for the 

Discrimen Thoracis and Ventris. 

DIS'CUS. A term applied in Botany 
to the disk or central part of a leaf or 
compound flower. 

DISCUS'SION. Discus'sio. In Surgery, 
resolution j the subduction or subsidence of 
the inflammatory action of a tumor. 

DISCUS'SIVES. Discutients. 

DISCUT1ENTS. Discutien'tia ; dis- 
cusso'ria; from discutere, to shake apart. 
Applied to substances which have the 
power of repelling or resolving tumors. 

DISEASE. According to Chomel, a 
perceptible disorder occurring either in 
the material disposition of the parts com- 
posing the living body, or in the exercise 
of its functions. It is termed local, when 
affecting only some particular part ; con- 
stitutional, when affecting the whole sys- 
tem ; specific, when characterized by some 
disordered vital action, not common to dis- 
eases generally ; idiopathic, when not de- 
pendent on any other disease ; symptomatic, 
when the result of some other disease ; 
periodical, when recurring at fixed periods ; 
acute, Avhen severe and not of long dura- 
tion ; chronic, when not severe and of long 
continuance ; epidemic, when arising from 
a general cause ; endemic, when prevailing 

in a certain region ; intercurrent, when 
arising from adventitious causes and oc- 
curring in the midst of epidemic or en- 
demic disease ; contagious or infectiotis, 
when it can be communicated from one 
person to another by contact or effluvia 
diffused through the air ; congenital, Avhen 
existing from birth ; hereditary, when de- 
scended from parent to offspring ; acquired, 
when dependent on some cause operating 
after birth ; sthenic, when attended by 
strong activity of the vital energies ; as- 
thenic, when attended with sinking of the 
vital powers ; and sjwradic, when arising 
from occasional causes, as cold, &c, af- 
fecting the individual. 

DISECOIA. Deafness. 

DISFIGURATION. Deformation. 

DISGORGEMENT. The opposite of 
engorgement. Act of disgorging, or dis- 
charging any fluid previously collected in 
a part or viscus, as the disgorgement of 
bile, or a portion of the contents of the 
stomach, as in vomiting. 

DISGUST'. A loathing of food ; a men- 
tal repugnance to any thing. 

DISINFECTANTS. Agents which 
destroy or neutralize morbid effluvia. 

RAQUE'S. A solution of chlorinated soda. 

DISINFECTION. Disinfec'tio. The 
act of neutralizing or destroying the con- 
tagious miasmata with which the air or 
clothing may be affected. 

DISK. See Discus. 

DISLOCATION. Disloca'tio. Luxa- 
tion. Displacement of the articular ex- 
tremity of a bone. 

change in the structure of an organ, or 
even total destruction of its texture, as in 
the case of sphacelus, and some kinds of 

DISPEN'SARY. Dispensa'rium ; from 
dispendere, to distribute. A place where 
medicines are prepared ; also, a place where 
the poor are furnished with advice and the 
necessary medicines. 

DISPENSATION. In Medicine, put- 
tang up prescriptions. 

DISPENSATOR. Apothecary. 




DISPEN'SATORY. Dispensato'rium. 
A book wliich treats of the properties and 
composition of medicines. 

DISPER'MUS. From «fef, double, and 
cnepfia, seed. A term applied in Botany 
to the fruit of plants which contains two 

DISPERSION. In Optics, the angular 
separation of the rays of light when de- 
composed by the prism. 

DISPLACEMENT. A process in Phar- 
macy, by which any quantity of liquid, 
with wliich a powder may be saturated, 
may, when put into a proper apparatus, 
be displaced by an additional quantity of 
that or any other liquid. See Percolation. 

DISPOSITION. Disposit'io ; from dis, 
and ponere, to put or set. In Anatomy, a 
particular arrangement, or mutual rela- 
tions of different parts. In Pathology it 
is synonymous with diathesis, but has a 
more extensive signification. 

which insinuates itself between muscles, 
separating them from each other. 

Dissecting Aneurism. An aneurism 
in which the inner and middle coats of the 
artery are ruptured, and the blood passes 
between them and the outer coat. 

DISSECTION. Dissec'tio; from dis- 
secare, to cut asunder. The cutting to 
pieces of a dead body for the purpose of 
exposing the different parts and examining 
their structure, or cutting to pieces any 
part of an animal or vegetable for this 

DISSECTOR. Prosec'tor. A practical 
anatomist. One who cuts to pieces a dead 
body for the purpose of examining the 
structure and arrangement of its different 
parts, or for an anatomical lecture. 

DISSEPIMENT. From dissepio, to 
separate. In Botany, the partition which 
separates the cell of a capsule. 

DISSOLUTION. Dissolu'tio; from 
dissoloere, to loosen, to melt. In Humoral 
Pathology, a diminution of the consistence 
of the blood. Also, death. 

DISSOL'VENT. Dissol'vens ; hom. dis- 
soloere, to loosen. Medicines which are 
supposed to be capable of dissolving mor- 

bid concretions, swellings, &c. Also, a 

DISTAD. Away from a centre. To- 
wards the distal aspect. 

DISTAL ASPECT. An aspect of an 
extremity furthest from the trunk. 

DISTEMTER. A disease occurring 
among dogs, consisting of irritation of the 
brain and spinal marrow, and attended by 
a sort of catarrh.- It is vulgarly termed 
the snuffles. Also, disease in general. 

DISTENTION. Listen 'Ho ; from dis- 
tendere, to stretch out. Dilatation of a 
viscus by inordinate accumulation of its 

DISTICHI'ASIS. From dtp, double, 
anxog, a row. Increased number of eye 
lashes, with some turning in, irritating the 
eye, while the others retain their proper 
places, and form, with the first, two rows. 

DISTILLATION. Distilla'tio ; from 
distillare, to drop little by little. The 
separation by the aid of heat of the vola- 
tile from the fixed parts of bodies. The 
operation is effected in a retort or still. 

Distillation, Destructive. See De- 
structive Distillation. 

Distillation, Dry. Sublimation. 

Distillation in Vacuo. Distillation 
in a vessel in which there is little or no 

DISTOMA. From dig, and oto/xo., a 
mouth. Having two mouths. A genus 
of worms. 

Distoma Hepat'icum. Fasciola hepat- 
ica. The liver fluke ; a small flat worm, 
about an inch in length, and nearly an 
inch in width, sometimes found in the gall 
ducts of man. 

DISTORTION. Distor'sio; from dis- 
torquere, to wrest aside. Deformity of 
parts, as a preternatural curvature of a 
bone, curved spine, &c. Also, contraction 
of the muscles, as in strabismus. 

DISTORTOR ORIS. The zygomatic™ 

DISTRIX. From dig, double, fytj, the 
hair. A morbid condition of the hair, 
characterized by splitting at their extrem- 

DISTYLE. Disty'lus; from dig, double, 




and orvlog, a style. A terra applied in I Dividing Bandage. A bandage used 
Botany to plants which have two styles, to keep parts separated from each other, 

DITRACIIYC'ERAS. From &?, two, and preventing unnatural adhesions. 
rpaxvg, rough, and nepag, horn. A genus I DIVISIBILITY. The property which 
of intestinal worms. The ditrachyceras all bodies possess of being separated into 
rudis, or diceras rude. I parts. 

DITTAN'DER. Pepper- wort j a spe- DIVUL'SIO. In Surgery, a rupture Of 
cies of Lepidum. It has a hot, biting laceration caused by external violence, 
taste. Divul'sio Uki'n^:. Urine which has 

DITTANY. Dictam'nus cd'bus. A plant ! a cloudy appearance. 

of the genus Bictamnus, the root of which 
was formerly used as a tonic. 

Dittany, American. A plant of the 
genus Cunila. See Cunila Mariana. 

Dittany of Crete. A plant of the 
genus Origanum. 

Pills composed of aloes, scammony, rhu- 
barb and emetic tartar. 

DIZZINESS. Vertigo. 

obtaining an instantaneous light, by turn- 

DIURE'SIS. From &a, through or by, ling a stream of hydrogen gas from a reser- 
and ovpeu, I pass the urine. Abundant I voir upon spongy platina, by which the 
excretion of urine. j metal instantly becomes red hot and sets 

DIURETIC. Bhtret'icus. A medicine ! fire to the gas. 
which increases the secretion of urine. | DOCH'ME. A Greek measure equal to 

DIVARICATION. The separation of the breadth of about four fingers. 

two things previously united. 

DIVARICATE. Standing wide apart ; 
to diverge at an obtuse angle, as do some- 
times the roots of a molar tooth. 

DIVER'GENT. Diverging, receding 
from each other. 

DIVERSIFLO'RUS. A term applied 
in Botany to umbels with legular florets 
in the centre, and irregular towards the 

taculum chyli. 

DIVERTICULUM. A turning; from 
diverterc, to turn aside. Any receptacle 
capable of holding a more than ordinary 
quantity of blood, for temporary purposes, 
when the circulation is obstructed, serves 
as a diverticulum. Also, a hollow ap- 
pendage attached to, and communicating 
with the intestinal canal, or any hole to 
get out of, or by-passage. 

Diverticulum Chyli. The receptacu- 
lum chyli. 

Diverticulum Nuc'kii. An opening 
on each side through which the round liga- 
ment of the uterus passes. 

DOCIMA'SIA. From doni/Mifc, to exam- 
ine. Applied in Mineralogy to the art of 
examining minerals, for the purpose of dis- 
covering what metals, &c. they contain. 

Docimasia Pulmo'nium. The exam- 
ination of the respiratory organs of a new- 
born child for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether it had breathed after birth. 

DOCIMASTIC ART. From Souuafr, 
I prove. The art of assaying minerals or 
ores, with a view of ascertaining the quan- 
tity of metal they contain. 

DOCK. The popular name of a species 
of large-leaved Ihunex. 

DOCTOR. From doctus, learned. A 
title commonly applied to a practitioner of 
medicine, but properly confined to one who 
has received from a regularly chartered 
institution or college the degree of doctor 
of medicine, or dental surgery. The power 
for conferring the latter degree was first 
invested in the Baltimore College of Den- 
tal Surgery, by the Legislature of the State 
of Maryland, in an act of incorporation, 
granted in 1840, and conferred for the first 
time at the first annual commencement 

Diverticulum Pharyn'gis. Pharyn- ' 6f this institution, on the 9th of March, 
gocele. j 1841. 

DIVI'DING. That which separates. | DOCTRINE. In Medicine, the theory or 




principles of any medicinal sect, teacher, 
or writer. 

DOD'DER. A creeping, parasitical 
plant of the genus Cuscuta. It is almost 
destitute of leaves, fixing itself to some 
other plant, as hops, flax, and particu- 
larly the nettle, and receiving its nourish- 
ment from the plant which supports it. 

Dodder of Thyme. Cuscuta epithymunu 
A parasitical plant, possessing a strong, 
unpleasant smell and pungent taste. 


DODECAN'DRIA. Dodecan'drous ; 
from Sodem, twelve, and <zvqp, a man. A 
class of hermaphrodite plants having twelve 

DODECAGYNTA. A Linnfean order 
of plants, characterized by the presence of 
twelve pistils. 

DODECAHED'RON. A solid of twelve 
sides; a form frequently met with in crys- 

DOEGLICACID. Doeglinic acid. An 
acid found in train oil, as oleic acid is in ol- 
ive oil. It is the oxyd of a radical, Doeglyl. 

DOG-CHOKE. Cynanclie. 

Dog-Days. Dies canicula'res. The days 
comprised between the 24th of July and 
the 23d of August are so called, because 
the dog-star, Sirius, rises and sets at this 
time with the sun. 

Dog-Rose. The wild brier, Bosa ca- 
nina. The fruit, called hips, has a sourish 

Dog-Stone. A plant belonging to the 
genus orchis. 

Dog-Wood. A species of cornus or cor- 
nelian cherry. 

DOG'MATISTS. From foyua, a doc- 
trine. A set of ancient physicians, who 
founded their practice upon conclusions 
drawn from certain theoretical inferences. 

DOL'ERITE. A trap rock composed of 
augite and felspar. 

DOLTCHOS. From 5oli X oc, long. A 
genus of plants of the leguminous family, 
including a number of species. 

Dolichos Pru'riens. Cowhage. The 
pods are covered with stiff hairs, called 
dolichi pubes, which are used in medicine 
as an anthelmintic. When applied to the j 

skin, they excite an intolerable prurient 

DOL'OMITE. A magnesian limestone. 

DO'LOR. Pain. 

scented whitish turpentine, obtained from 
the Dombeya excelsa of Chili. 

practiced by unprofessional individuals in 
their own families. Also, applied to trea- 
tises written for the purpose of enabling 
unprofessional persons to treat diseases^, 
when the services of a regular physician 
cannot be procured. 

DOMINA'RUM AQUA. Old name for 
a supposed emmenagogue medicine. 

DORE'MA. A genus of plants of the 
order Apiacece. 

Dorema Ammonia'cum. The plant which 
yields ammoniacum. 

DORON'ICUM. A genus of plants of 
the order Compositce. 

Doronicum German'icum. Ar'nica mon~ 
ta'na. Leopard's bane. 

Doronicum Pardalian'ches. Doron- 
icum roma'num. Roman leopard's bane. 

DORSAD. Toward the back. 

DOR'SAL. Dorsa'lis; from dorsum, the 
back. Relating to the back, or the back 
of any organ. 

DORSE. A fish which yields some portion 
of the cod-liver oil. The cjadus caUarias. 

ia'ta ; from dorsum, back, and branchice, 
gills. An order of red-blooded worms with 
gills projecting from the middle part of the 
back or sides of the body. 

DOR'SO-COSTA'LIS. The serratus pos- 
ticus superior muscle. 

Dorso-Supra Acromia'nus. The tra- 
pezius muscle. 

Dorso-Trachealia'nus. The splenius 
colli muscle. 

DORSTE'NIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Urticacece. 

Dorstenia Brazilien'sis. Caa-apia. 
The root is emetic and anti-diarrhoeic. 

Dorstenia Contrayer'va. Contra- 
yerva. The root has a pleasant aromatic 
smell, and a rough, bitter and penetrating 




DOR'SUM. From deorsum, downward, 
because it may be bent downward. The 
back. The posterior part of the trunk. 
The vertebral column. The back of any 
part, as the dorsum pedis, back of the foot ; 
dorsum manus, back of the hand, &c. 

DO'SAGE. A term applied in Chem- 
istry to a plan of analysis in which the 
reagent is added in measured quantities, 
from a graduated tube, to a measured and 
weighed solution of the assay. 

DOSE. Dosis ; from StAuui, to give. 
The amount of medicine to be given at one 
time for producing a desired effect. 

DO'SIS. A dose. 

DOS'SIL. In Surgery, a pledget of lint 
made up in a cylindrical form, to be ap- 
plied to a wound or bleeding surface. 

DO'TAGE. Feebleness or imbecility of 
mind from old age ; dementia. 

a boil, and evrepov, an intestine. Inflam- 
mation and enlargement of the glands of 
Peyer and Brunner, and supposed by Bre- 
'tonneau to be the cause of the symptoms 
which constitute a large class of fevers. 

DOT'TED. Puncta'tus. In Botany, 
sprinkled with hollow dots or points. 

DOUBLE HEARING. Sounds heard 

Double Touch. Mode of exploration, 
in which the forefinger is introduced into 
the rectum and the thumb into the vagina. 

Double Wedge. An instrument in- 
vented by Dr. Elliott, of Montreal, for re- 
moving an artificial crown from the root of 
a tooth upon which it has been set. 

DOUCHE. A French word applied in 
Therapeutics to a dash of water, or other 
fluid, upon any part of the body. 


Douleur des Dents. Pain in the teeth. 
See Odontalgia. 

DOVE'S FOOT. The popular name of 
a species of Geranium. 

DOVER'S POWDER. Pulvis ipecac- 
uanhas et qpii. Powder of ipecacuanha, 
opium and sulphate of potassa. 

DR A'BA. A genus of plants of the or- 
der Cruciferaz. 

Draba Ver'na. Ero'ph'da vulgaris. 

Common whitlow grass. The seed is hot 
and stimulating. 

DRACiE'NA. A genus of plants of the 
order SmUaceo3. 

Drac^na Dra'co. The dragon tree. 
The inspissated juice constitutes the purest 
variety of dragon's blood. 

Dracaena Reflex'a. The young shoots 
of this species are said to possess emmen- 
agogue properties. 

Dracaena Termina'lis. The root of this 
species is said to be anti-dysenteric. 

DRACHM. Drachma. An eighth of 
an ounce, or 60 grains. 

DRACINE. A precipitate obtained from 
a concentrated alcoholic solution of dragon's 

DRACO. Apanuv, the dragon. A fabu- 
lous serpent with wings and feet. 

Draco Mitigatus. Calomel j proto- 
chloride of mercury. 

Draco Sylves'tris. Sneezewort, or 
bastard pellitory. 

Turkey balsam ; Canary balsam ; balm of 
Gilead tree. 


DRACON'TIUM. A genus of plants of 
the order Aroideai. 

Dracontium Foc'tidum. Skunk cab- 
bage. A plant which exhales a very foetid 
odor. The powder of the root is given as 
an antispasmodic. 

DRACUN'CULUS. Dracontium. Also, 
the Guinea worm, which breeds under the 
skin among the natives of Guinea. 

DRAGACAN'THA. Dragant gum. 
Dragantin. Tragacanth gum. 

DRAGAN'TIN. A mucilage obtained 
from gum tragacanth. 

DRAG'ON. The popular name of a 
genus of saurian reptiles; also, of certain 
plants of the genus Dracontium. 

Dragon's Blood. Sanguis draconis. 
A concrete resinous substance, of a blood- 
red color, used in varnishes, and sometimes 
in detifrices. 

Dragon Fly. A neuropterous insect of 
the genus Agrion or Libellula. 
Dragon Root. Indian turnip j the 




popular name of a plant of the genus 

Dragon's Wobt. The popular name 
of Arum Dracuncvlus. 

DEA'KENA. See Dorstenia Contra- 

DEASTIC. Dras'ticus; cenoi'ic; from 
ipau } I operate strongly. Generally ap- 
plied to purgatives which operate power- 

DEAUGHT. In Therapeutics, a suffi- 
cient quantity of fluid medicine for a dose. 

DEAW-BENCH. A bench for drawing 
wire, so constructed as to confine a wire 
plate at one end, with a roller and wind- 
lass at the other for drawing the wire 
through the plate. It is used in the me- 
chanical laboratory of the dentist. 

DEEAM. Somnium. Imaginary transac- 
tions which occupy the mind during sleep. 

DEEGS. Feculence. 

DRENCH. A purgative draught for a 

DEESS'EE. A surgeon's assistant, who 
applies the dressings in a hospital. 

DEESS'ING. The proper application 
of bandages, plasters and apparatus to a 
diseased part. 

DEESS'INGS. The bandages, plasters 
and apparatus used in dressing a diseased 

DEILL. A small steel instrument, 
either with a flat point or a burr at the 
end, sometimes used by dentists in the re- 
moval of caries from a tooth preparatory 
to filling, and for other purposes. 

Drill-Bow. A bow and string for 
rotating a drill-stock, which it does by 
passing the string around it, and moving it 
backward and forward. 

Drill, Burr. An instrument used in 
Dental Surgery for the removal of caries of 
the teeth, and enlarging the canal in the 
root of a tooth preparatory to the applica- 
tion of an artificial crown. It consists of 
a small steel stem attached to a handle, or 
so constructed as to be introduced into a 
socket-handle, or socket of a drill-stock, 
with a bulb at the other extremity, with a 
surface like that of a coarse single-cut file. 

Drill, Flat. A small steel stem, 

fitted to a socket, in a handle or drill-stock, 
with the other extremity flattened and pre- 
senting a sharp, triangular-shaped point. 

Drill-Stock. An instrument for hold- 
ing and turning a drill, moved either with 
the thumb and finger or with a string and 

Drill-Stock, Lewis's. A very beauti- 
ful and ingeniously contrived instrument 
fur drilling into a molar tooth. It is so 
constructed that a drill may be worked in 
it in any direction from a line with the 
handle or shaft, to a parallel with the 
same, though not with sufficient conve- 
nience to the operator to render it of much 
practical utility. 

Drill-Stock, McDowell's. A drill- 
stock upon the principle of the helix lever ; 
the drill, being inserted at the end of the 
screw, is moved by means of a female 
screw attached to the handle of the instru- 
ment. It is so arranged that drills point- 
ing in three different directions may be 
worked in it. 

DEIMYPH A'GI A . From dpi/ivc, acrid, 
and <payu } I eat. An exciting diet. 

DEIMYS WINTEEI. Wintera aro- 
matica ; winter bark tree. 

DELNK. Every liquid introduced into 
the stomach for the purpose of allaying 
thirst, diluting the alimentary mass, and 
repairing the losses which the fluids of the 
body are constantly experiencing. 

DEIV'ELING. An involuntary flow 
of saliva from the mouth, as in infancy, 
old age, and in idiots. 

DEO'MA. An old plaster. . 

DEOP. Gutta. So much of any 
liquid as coheres together when poured 
slowly from a vessel. It varies, however, 
in volume and weight, according to the 
nature of the liquid and the size of the 
orifice or mouth of the vessel from which 
it is poured. In Pharmacy it is generally 
estimated at one grain. 

DEOPS. Certain liquid medicines. 

Drops, Anodyne. A solution of ace- 
tate of morphia. 

DEOPSICAL. Affected with dropsy. 

DEOPSY. From vdup f water and uip, 
the look or aspect. An effusion of serum 




into the cellular tissue or into any of the 
natural cavities of the body. It is desig- 
nated according to the part affected by it. 
See Hydrops. 

Dropsy of the Belly. See Ascites. 

Dropsy of the Chest. Hydrothorax. 

Dropsy of the Eye. Hydropthalmia. 

Dropsy Fibrinous. Dropsy in which 
the effused fluid contains fibrin. 

Dropsy General. Anasarca. 

Dropsy of the Pericardium. Hy- 

Dropsy of the Skin. Anasarca. 

Dropsy of the Testicle. Hydrocele. 

DROSE'RA. A genus of plants of the 
order Droseracece. 

Drose'ra Rotundifo'lia. The sun- 
dew, a plant which has a bitter, acrid and 
caustic taste. 

DROSOM'ETER. An instrument for 
ascertaining the amount of dew falling at 
any given time. 

DRUG. A simple medicine. 

DRUGGIST. One who sells drugs. 

DRUM OF THE EAR. The tympanum. 

DRUNK'ENNESS. Intoxication ; ebri- 
ety. The habitual use of intoxicating 
liquors is attended by loss of appetite, 
restlessness, tremulous motion, delirium 
tremens, &c. 

DRUPA'CEOUS. Resembling a drupe. 

DRUPE. In Botany, a pulpy fruit, 
without an outer covering or valve, as the 
peach, apricot, plum, cherry, &c, usually 
called stone-fruit. 

DRY CUPPING. The application of 
the cupping-glass without previous scarri- 

Dry Pile. A galvanic apparatus, 
with pairs of metallic plates, separated by 
layers of farinaceous paste mixed with com- 
mon salt. 

Dry Rot. A disease which sometimes 
attacks wood, rendering it brittle and de- 
stroying the cohesion of its particles. 

DRYOBAL'ANOPS. A genus of large 
trees of the family Dipteracece. 

Dryobalanops Cam'phora. The name 
of a tree of the Eastern Archipelago, which , 
by incision, yields the camphor oil, and the 
trunks often contain the concrete camphor. 

DUALITY. The quality of being 
double. Applied in Physiology to a the- 
ory that the two hemispheres of the brain 
are distinct and independent organs. This 
is spoken of as the Duality of the Mind, 
as if each individual actually possessed 
two distinct minds. 

DUCK. A water fowl of the genus 
Anas. See Anas Domestica. 

DUCT. See Ductus. 

DUCTILITY. From duco, I draw. A 
property possessed by certain bodies, which 
enables them to be drawn out, or elongated, 
without causing any interruption in their 
constituent particles. This property is pe- 
culiar to some metals, as gold, silver, lead, 
&c, under all temperatures. Gold may 
be drawn into wire of only the 4000th part 
of an inch in diameter, and it may be re- 
duced, by passing it through rollers, to tho 
8000th part of an inch in thickness. 

DUCTOR. Director. 

DUCTS, BILIARY. The ductus com- 
munis coledochus. The cystic and the he- 
patic ducts. 

Ducts of Bellini. The urinary canals 
of the kidneys. 

DUCTUS. A canal or duct. 

Ductus Aquosi. The lymphatics. 

Ductus Arterio'sus. Canalis arterio- 
sus. The arterial tube which forms a di- 
rect communication between the pulmo- 
nary artery and the aorta of the foetus. It 
becomes obliterated after birth. 

Ductus Au'ris Palati'nus. The Eus- 
tachian tube. 

Ductus Bartholinian'us. From Bar- 
tholin, its discoverer. The duct of the 
sublingual gland. 

Ductus Bellin'iani. Uriniferous tubes. 

Ductus Bil'iaris. Biliary duct. 

Ductus Commu'nis Chole'dochus. The 
common excretory duct of the liver and 

Ductus Cys'ticus. The cystic duct. 

Ductus Ejaculato'rius. A duct with- 
in the prostate gland, opening into the 

Ductus Excreto'rius. An excretory 

Ductus Hepat'icus. The hepatic duct. 




Ductus Hygiiobleph'aei. Ductus Ey- 
grophthalmici. The Meibomian glands. 

Ductus Inciso'rius. A small canal 
leading from the foramen incisivum into 
the cavity of the nares. 

Ductus Lachryma'lis. The lachry- 
mal duct. 

Ductus Lactif'eri. The excretory 
ducts of the glandular substance of the fe- 
male breasts. 

Ductus Nasa'lis. The ducts which 
convey the tears from the lachrymal sac to 
the nose. 

Ductus Omphalo Mesenter'icus. Duct 
leading from the umbilical vesicle to the 
intestine in the human ovum, and becom- 
ing afterwards a constituent of the umbili- 
cal cord. 

Ductus Pancreat'icus. The pancre- 
atic duct. 

Ductus Rorif'erus. Thoracic duct. 

Ductus Saliva 'lis Inferior. Ductus 

Ductus Saliva'lis Superior. Ductus 

Ductus Steno'stis. The Stenonian or 
parotid duct. 

Ductus Thoracicus. Thoracic duct. 

Ductus Umbilica'lis. Umbilical cord. 

Ductus Urin^e. The ureter. 

Ductus Veno'sus. Canalis venoms. A 
venous canal, forming in the foetus a com- 
munication between the umbilical and left 
hepatic veins. It becomes obliterated after 

Ductus Whartonian'us. Called so 
after the name of its discoverer. The ex- 
cretory duct of the submaxillary gland. 

Ductus Wirtsungi. The Pancreatic 

DUEL'LA. Ancient weight of eight 

DULCE'DO AMO'RIS. Clitoris. 

Dulcedo Saturni. White lead. 

Dulcedo Sputorum. A term ap- 
plied by Frank to that form of ptyal- 
ism in which the saliva has a sweetish or 
mawkish taste. 

DULCAMA'RA. From dulcis, sweet, 
and amarus, bitters. Bitter-sweet ; woody 
night-shade. See Solanum Dulcamara. 

DULCIFICATION, Dulcijica'iio ; from 
dulcis, sweet, and facio, to make. A term 
applied to the act of mixing mineral acids 
with alcohol for the purpose of diminish- 
ing their caustic and corrosive proper- 

DUMASINE. An empyreumatic oil 
obtained by rectifying acetone derived from 
the acetates. 

DUMBNESS. Aphonia. Inability to 
utter articulate sounds. 

DUMOSE. From dumus, a bush. A 
term applied in Botany to a low shrub 
much branched. 

DUODENITIS. Inflammation of the 

DUODE'NUM. From duodeni, twelve; 
so called because it was supposed it did 
not exceed the breadth of twelve fingers. 
The first part of the intestinal canal. 

DUO-STER'NAL. A name given by 
Beclard to the second bone of the sternum. 

DUPLEX. Double; two-fold. 

DU'PLICATE. Duplicatus. Doubled. 

DU'PLICATURE. Duplicatu'ra; from 
duplex, double, two-fold. In Anatomy, a 
reflection of a membrane upon itself. 

An instrument for compressing the femoral 
artery, consisting of a semicircle of steel 
with a pad at each end, which, acting only 
on the thigh, does not impede the collat- 
eral circulation like the tourniquet. 

DU'RA MATER. Durameninx; from 
durus, hard. A thick, semi-transparent, 
sero-fibrous membrane, of a pearly-white 
color, which invests the brain, lines the 
cranium, and contains the spinal marrow. 

DURA'MEN. The heart wood of a 

DURUS. Hard. 

D UTCH DROPS. A preparation of oil 
of turpentine, tincture of guaiac, spirits of 
nitric ether, oil of amber and oil of cloves. 

DUTCH GOLD. An alloy of copper 
and zinc. 

DUTCH MINERAL. Copper beaten 
out into very thin leaves. 

DUTCH PINK. Chalk or whiting, 
dyed yellow with a decoction of birch 
leaves, French berries and alum. 




DWALE. The deadly nightshade. See 
Atropa Belladonna. 

DWARF. Nanus. An animal or plant 
whose average height is greatly inferior to 
the species to which it belongs. 

Dwarf Elder. A plant of the genus 
Sambucus. See Sambucus Ebulus. 

DYES. Coloring matters obtained from 
vegetable substances. 

DYNAMIC. Dynam'icus ; from fova- 
fug, strength, power. In Biology, that 
which relates to the vital forces, increased 
action or force, and used in contradistinc- 
tion to adynamic. In Pathology, synony- 
mous with sthenic. 

DYNAMICS. The science of motion ; 
or a treatise on the laws and results of mo- 

DYNAMOM'ETER. An instrument 
for measuring the comparative muscular 
power of man and animals, or of man or 
animals at different periods, and in differ- 
ent conditions. 

DYS. From fog, difficult, faulty. Used 
as a prefix, and often signifying painful ; in 
ordinary cases it implies negation, as dys- 
ecxa, want of hearing. 

DYSESTHESIA. From A*, with dif- 
ficulty, and aiotiavofiai, I feel. Diminished 
sensibility, or abolition of the senses. 

DYSESTHESIA. A term, in Gul- 
len's Nosology, used to designate an order 
of diseases, the first in the class debilitates, 
characterized by an impairment or exten- 
sion of one or all of the senses. 

DYSANAGO'GOS. Difficulty of ex- 
pectoration on account of viscidity of the 

ished absorption. 

DYSCATABRO'SIS. Difficult degluti- 

DYSCATAPO'SIS. Difficulty of swal- 
lowing liquids. 

DYSCHRCE'A. From fog, and xpoia, 
color. Morbid change in the color of the 

DYSCHE'ZIA. Difficult and painful 

culty, and klveu, 

From fog, with diffi- 
I move. Loss or diffi- 

culty of motion, as in the case of rheuma- 
tism, or paralysis. 

DYSCOPHO'SIS. From fog, with dif- 
ficulty, and ko(j)ou s I am deaf. Impair- 
ment of the sense of hearing. 

DYSCO'RIA. From fog, and Kopn, the 
pupil. Irregularity of the pupil. 

DYSCRA'SIA. From 5vg, and upamg, 
temperament. A bad temperament, or 
habit of body. 

DYSECCE'A. From fog, and okov, hear- 
ing. Deafness ; hard of hearing. 

DYSEME'SIA. Painful and ineffectual 
efforts at vomiting. 

DYS'ENTERY. Dysente'ria; from (for, 
with difficulty, and evrepou, intestine. 
Bloody flux, diarrhoea attended by excre- 
tion of blood. Inflammation of the large 
intestines, fever, and painful tenesmus. 
The stools are mostly mucus, sometimes 
streaked with blood, and mixed with hard 
substances, called scybala. 

DYSEPULOT'IC. Dysepulotus ; from 
fog, and env?.ou, to cicatrize. Applied in 
Pathology to ulcers difficult to be healed. 

DYSGENNE'SIA. From fog, and yeve- 
oog, generation. Lesion of the functions 
or organs of generation. 

DYSGEU'SIA. From fog, and yevmg, 
taste. A morbid condition, or impair- 
ment, of the sense of taste. 

DYSHiE'MIA. From fog, and aifia, 
blood. Depraved condition of the blood. 

DYSHEMORRHOJl'A. From fog, with 
difficulty, and aifioppoig, the piles. Diffi- 
culty in the hemorrhoidal flux. 

DYSHAPH'IA. From fog, and •*, 
touch. Impairment of the sense of touch. 

DYSHI'DRIA. From fog, and ifoug, 
sweat. Morbid condition of the perspiration. 

DYSLALIA. From fog, and Tialca, 
speech. Difficult or indistinct articulation 
of words. 

DYSLYSIN. A resin obtained by de- 
composing choloidic acid with dilute hy- 
drochloric acid and alcohol. 

DYSMASE'SIS. From foe, and (mori- 
otg, mastication. Difficult mastication. 

DYSMENORRHEA. From fog, and 
frrjvoppoia, the menses. Difficult, or re- 
tarded menstruation. 




DYSMNE'SIA. From fog, bad, and fivrj- 
cig, memory. Impaired or defective mem- 

DYSO'DIA. Avoudca, fetor. Diseases 
attended with foetid emanations. 

DYSODONTI'ASIS. From 6vg, with 
difficulty, and odovnaoig, dentition. Diffi- 
cult dentition. 

DYSO'PIA. From fog, bad, and uf, 
an eye. Defective vision. Inability to 
see except in an oblique direction. 

DYSOREX'IA. From Ac, with diffi- 
culty, and ope£cg, appetite. Depraved ap- 

DYSOS'MIA. From fog, with diffi- 
culty, and oona, smell. Diminished sense 
of smell. 

DYSOSPHRE'SIA. From fog, with 
difficulty, and oa^ptjaig, the sense of smell. 
An impaired condition of the sense of 

DYSOSTOSIS. From A*, and ooteov, 
a bone. A faulty conformation, or dis- 
eased condition of bone. 

DYSPEP'SIA. From fog, with diffi- 
culty, and irenTo, I concoct. Indigestion. 
Weak or impaired digestion ; a disease 
consisting, usually, of a want of appetite, 
eructations, pyrosis, a painful burning 
sensation and transient distension in the 
region of the stomach ; sometimes accom- 
panied by flatulence and frequently by 
constipation of the bowels or diarrhoea, 
together with a long train of nervous 
symptoms and other disagreeable concomi- 

DYSPHAGIA. From fog, with diffi- 

culty, and Qayu, I eat. Difficult or im- 
peded deglutition. 

Dysphagia Consteic'ta. Dysphagia 
pharyn'gea ; dysphagia cesophagea. Stric- 
ture of the oesophagus, or pharynx. 

DYSPHO'NIA. From dvg, badly, and 
(jxjvij, the voice. Alteration in the state of 
the voice ; difficulty in the production and 
articulation of sounds. 

DYSPHO'RIA. From fog, and fopeu, 
to bear. The restlessness and anxiety 
which accompany many diseases. 

DYSPNCE'A. From fog, with diffi- 
culty, and nveu, I breathe. Difficult re- 
spiration ; shortness of breath. 

Dyspncea Convuls'iva. Asthma. 

DYSSPERMATIS'MUS. From fog, and 
onep/iano/iog, emission. Impeded or slow 
emission of semen during coition. 

DYSTHETTCA. From foo&eriKa, a bad 
state of body. A bad habit of body. The 
fourth order in the class Hcemalica of Dr. 
Good, including cachexies. 

DYSTHYM'IA. From fog, bad, and 
■Qvfiog, mind. Despondency of mind. Mel- 

DYSTO'CIA. Dystochia ; from fog , and 
TucTo, to bring forth. Difficult parturition. 

DYSTOCOLO'GIA. From 6vg, and 
toyog, a discourse. A treatise on difficult 

DYSTCECHIA'SIS. From fog, and 
oroixog, a row. A vicious disposition of 
the eyelashes. 

DYSU'RIA. From fog, with difficulty, 
and ovpov, urine. Difficulty of voiding the 


EAGLE-STONE. An old pharmaceu- 
tical term applied to globular clay, iron 
stone, called lapis ostites. 

Eagle- Wood, jfltites. A fragrant wood 
used in the East for burning as incense. 

EAR. Auris. The organ of hearing, 
which is divided into external, compre- 

hending the auricle, and meatus auditorius 
externus ; middle, which includes the tym- 
panum and its connections ; and the in- 
ternal, which includes the semi-circular 
canals, cochlea, vestibule and whole laby- 
Ear Pick. A small scoop and probe 




ased for the removal of hardened cerumen 
from the meatus auditorius externus. 

Ear Trumpet. An instrument used 
by persons partially deaf for collecting and 
increasing the intensity of sound. 

Ear- Wax. Cerumen, aurium. 

Ear-Ache. Otalgia. 

EARTH. In Chemistry, the earths are 
certain metallic oxyds, of which there 
are nine, namely, baryta, strontia, lime, 
magnesia, alumina, glucina, zirconia, yttria 
and thorina. 

Earth, Aluminous. Alumina, or clay. 

Earth of Bones. Phosphate of lime. 

Earth, Bolar. Argillaceous earth of 
a pale but bright-red color. See Bole, Ar- 

Earth, Fuller's. Cimolia purpures- 
censes. • 

Earth, Heavy. Baryta. 

Earth, Japan. See Acacia Catechu. 

Earth Nuts. Bulbous substances pro- 
duced by the roots of plants. The name 
is applied in England to the nut of Cono- 
podium flexuosum; in Egypt, to the round 
tuber of Cyprus rotundus ; and in China, 
to the subterranean pods of AracJtis hy- 

Earth-Worm. Lumbricns terrestris. 

EARTHS, ABSORBENT. Earths which 
have the property of neutralizing acids, as 
magnesia, chalk, &c. 

EATON'S STYPTIC. A solution of sul- 
phate of iron in alcohol, to which some 
other ingredients have been added. 

EAU. The French name for water. 

Eau D'Arquebusade. A vulnerary 
water formerly much used, consisting of 
alcohol distilled with various aromatic 

Eau de Belloste. A compound of 
equal parts of muriatic acid, brandy and 
saffron, formerly used as a resolvent. 

Eau de Brocchieri. A styptic, said to 
be a solution of creasote. 

Eau de Carmes. The name of a French 
preparation used as a stomachic and stim- 

Eau de Cologne. Cologne water ; a 
perfumed spirit, originally prepared at Co- 

Eau de Javelle. A solution of chlo- 
ride of soda. 

Eau de Luce. Succinated spirit of am- 

Eau de Naphre. A water obtained by 
distillation from the leaves of the bitter or- 

Eau de Rabel. Aqua reibelii. A mix- 
ture of concentrated sulphuric acid and al- 

Eau de Vie. Brandy. 

EBEAUPIN SPRING. A chalybeate 
spring, containing carbonic acid, carbon- 
ates of lime and magnesia, in the depart- 
ment of Loire Inferieure, near Nantes. 

EBENACE^E. Diospyros ebenum. The 
name of a family of plants allied to the 
ebony tree. 

EBENUM. Ebe'nus. Ebony. 

EBRAC'TEATE. In Botany, without 
a bractea or floral leaf. 

EBRIETY. Ebriatas; from ebrius, in- 
toxicated. Intoxication by spirituous li- 

EBULLITION. Ebuttitio; from elnd- 
lire, to boil. The motion of a liquid by 
which it gives off bubbles of vapor, pro- 
duced by heat or fermentation. 

EBUR. Ivory. 

Ebur Ustum niorum. Ivory black. 

EBURNIFICA'TION. Eburna'tio; from 
Ebur, ivory, and jio to be made. An 
incrustation of the articular surfaces of 
bones with phosphate of lime, which gives 
them the hardness and whiteness of ivory. 
It attends the latter stages of rachitis. 

name for Momordica elaterium. 

ECBO'LIC. From £K/3aJJl(j, to expel. In 
Materia Mectica, medicines calculated to 
facilitate the expulsion of the fcetus in dif- 
ficult parturition, or to cause abortion. 

ECBRAS'MATA. From eKppafr, to 
make boil. Old term for an eruption of 
fiery pimples. 

ECBYRSO'MA. Old name for a protu- 
berance of a bone at the points appearing 
through the skin. 

ECCATHAR'TIC. Cathartic. 

ECCEPHALO'SIS. Cephalotomy. 

ECCHELY'SIS. Expectoration. 




ECCHLO'MA. An extract. 
EC'CHYMA. Eczema. 
ECCHYMO'MA. Prom m t out of, and 

XVfiog, juice. Ecchymosis. 

Ecchymoma Antebio'sum. False aneu- 

ECCHYMO'SIS. From dqw, to pour 
out. A black or blue spot, occasioned by 
an extravasation of blood. 

ECCHY'SIS. Effusion. 

ECCLI'SIS. A luxation. 

EC'COPE. Excision of any part. 

ECCOPROT'IC. Eccoprot'icus; from e£, 
and Konpog, excrement. Laxatives which 
simply remove the contents of the aliment- 
ary canal. 

ECCRINOL'OGY. Eccrinolog"ia; from 
EKupivu, I separate, and "koyog % a discourse. 
A treatise on the secretions. 

EC'CRISIS. Excretion of any kind. 

ECCRIT'ICA. Diseases of the excer- 
nent function. Also, medicines that act on 
the secretions. 

ECCYE'SIS. From etc, and Kvr/aig, gra- 
vidity. Extra uterine foetation. 

ECCYLIO'SIS. From ek, and kvTueiv, to 
turn round. A disease of evolution or de- 

EC'DORA. From ek, and fepu, I flay. 
Excoriation, especially of the urethra. 

ECDO'RIUS. That which excoriates. 

EC'DYSIS. Moulting. Desquamation. 

ECHETRO'SIS. White bryony. 

ECH'INAT E. Echina'tus. In Botany, 
bristly ; set with small sharp points ; 

ECHINOCOC'CUS. From e X ivog, a 
spine, and /co/c/coc, a cyst. A genus of Hy- 
datids or cystic Entozoons; one of the 
species is said by Rudolphi to infest the 
human subject. 

ECHIN'ODERMS. Echinoder'ma; from 
£Xw°S, a sea-urchin, and Aspfia, skin. A 
class of invertebrate animals with a cori- 
aceous skin, most commonly armed with 
tubercles or spines. 

a hedge-hog, and ofytiakfiia, an inflamma- 
tion of the eye. Inflammation of the eye- 
lids, characterized by projection of the 

ECHFNOPS. Echi'nopus. A genus of 
plants of the order Compositce. 

Echinops Sph^roceph'altjs. The 

ECHINORHYN'CUS. From e X ivog, a 
hedge-hog, and pv y X og, a beak. A genus 
of intestinal worms, of the order Acan- 
thocephalice. One species, the echinorhyn- 
cus bicornis, has been found in the human 

ECHFNUS. The hedge-hog; also, ap- 
plied to the prominent points on the sur- 
face of the pileus of mushrooms. 

Echinus Mari'nus. The sea-urchin. 

ECHTUM. A genus of plants of the 
order Boraginece. 

Echium iEGYPTTA'cuM. Wall bugloss, 
the root of which is said to be sudorific. 

ECLAMP'SIA. From EKkapjug, vivid 
light. A term applied in Pathology to the 
appearance of flashes of light before the 
eyes, occurring in some diseases ; also, to 
the epileptic convulsions of children, and to 
puerperal convulsions. 

ECLECTICS. Enlec'iicus; from e/c^o, 
I select. Writers who select from the va- 
rious works, upon the same department of 
science, such doctrines as seem most con- 
formable to truth. 

ECLEG'MA. From ek1ei X u, to lick. A 
pharmaceutical preparation of a soft con- 
sistence and a sweet flavor ; a linctus. 

EC'LYSIS. Exsolu'tio; from ekTlvo, I 
loosen. Faintness ; prostration of strength. 

ECON'OMY. From oma, a house, and 
ve/iu, I rule. Literally, the management 
of household affairs. In Animal Physiol- 
ogy, the assemblage of laws which govern 
the organization of animals. 

ECPHLY'SIS. Vesicular eruption. A 
generic term, including herpes, eczema, 
pompholyx and rupia. 

ECPHRAC'TIC, Ecphracti'cus ; from 
EKfpaaaco, to remove obstructions. Deob- 

ECPHRO'NIA. Insanity ; melancholy. 

ECPHY'MA. A cutaneous excrescence, 
as a wart, corn, physconia, &c. 

ECPHYSE'SIS. From ek<jwo(iu, to blow. 
Hurried respiration, as of a person out of 




EC'PHYSIS. Apophysis. 

ECPIES'MA. From eKmeCu, I press out. 
In Surgery, a fracture of the skull, with 
depression of the bone. 

ECPIES'MOS. From mtmntyt, I press 
out. Protrusion of the eye from an af- 
flux of humors without increase of its vol- 

ECPTO'MA. Ecpto'sis. A falling down of 
any part ; applied to luxations, expulsion 
of the secundines, falling off of gangren- 
ous parts, scrotal hernia and prolapsus 

ECPYC'TICA. See Incrassantia. 

ECPYE'MA. From e«, out of, and ttuov, 
pus. Suppuration ; an abscess ; a collec- 
tion of pus. 

ECPYE'SIS. Ecpye'ma. From eicnveu, 
to suppurate. A generic term for suppura- 
tive diseases of the skin. 

ECPYE'TIC. Suppurative; promoting 

ECREG'MA. In Pathology a segment or 
rough fragment. Also, an eruption or pus- 

ECREX'IS. Rupture; laceration, es- 
pecially of the vulva or womb. 

ECRHYTH'MOS. From «t, out of, 
pv&ftoc, rhythm, irregular. In Pathology, 
irregular pulse. 

EC'RYSIS. Ecroe. From enpeu, I run 
from. A discharge. 

ECSARCO'MA. From e«, out of, and 
<rap|, flesh. A fleshy excrescence, or sar- 

EC'STASIS. From tfmrapm, I am be- 
side myself. An ecstasy. A total suspen- 
sion of sensibility and voluntary move- 
ments, with retarded vital action. 

ECSTASY. Ecstases. 


EC'TASIS. Extension; expansion. 

Ec'tasis I'eidis. That expansion of 
the iris which occasions diminution of the 

ECTEX'IS. Emaciation. Colliquation. 

ECTHLIM'MA. Chafing or excoriation 
produced by external violence. 

ECTHYMA. From eictivu, I break out, 
as heat, &c. A cutaneous eruption of large, 
round and distinct pustules, inflamed at 

their base. They are seldom numerous 
and appear most frequently upon the ex- 
tremities, neck and shoulders. Three spe- 
cies are noticed, namely, ecthyma vulgare ; 
ecthyma infantile and ecthyma luridum. 

ECTILLOT'ICUS. Having power to 
pull out. Applied to that which eradicates 
corns or hairs, as a depilatory. 

ECTO'MIA. Excision; amputation of 
any part. 

ECTOPIA. From ek-tokoc, out of place. 
Morbid displacement of any part ; luxa- 

Ectopia A'ni. Prolapsus ani. 

Ectopia Cok'dis. Displacement or un- 
natural position of the heart. 

ECTRIM'MA. In Pathology, ulceration 
of the skin, especially of those parts of the 
body in contact with the bed after long 

ECTRO'PIUM. Ectropion. From 
EKrptnu, I avert. Eversion of the eyelids, 
so that the inner surface is turned out. 

ECTRO'SIS. Ectro'ma. Miscarriage ; 

ECTROT'IC. That which is calculated 
to cause abortion. Applied, also, to the 
treatment of disease, or that line of treat- 
ment which destroys at once the morbid 
action, without giving it a chance to in- 
volve the economy. 

ECZEMA. From e^eu, I boil out. 
Heat ; eruption. A cutaneous eruption of 
small vesicles thickly crowded together, 
without any manifest inflammation. 

Eczema Meucuria'l,e. Eczema rubrum. 
Eczema caused by the irritation of mer- 

Eczema of the Face. This sometimes 
occurs in advanced age, and in young chil- 

Eczema of the Scalp. Scald head. 

EDENTATA. Eden'tals. The name 
of an order of mammals characterized by 
the absence of the incisor, and, generally, 
of the cuspid teeth. 

EDENTULOUS. Anodon'tos; anodous; 
edentatus ; from e, and dens, dentis, a 
tooth. Without teeth ; one who never had 
teeth, or one who has lost his teeth. The 
causes which most frequently give rise to 




the loss of the teeth, are caries and chronic 
inflammation of the gums and alveole-den- 
tal membranes. See Caries of the Teeth 
and Gums, Diseases of. 

Although it is impossible completely to 
remedy this defect, yet, to such a high state 
of perfection has the prosthesis of these or- 
gans been brought, that their loss is now 
replaced with artificial substitutes which 
subserve a most valuable purpose. See 
Artificial Teeth. 
EDES. Amber. 

ing of the body in such exercises as are cal- 
culated to give strength, vigor and health 
to all of its organs. 

EDUL'CORANT. Edul'corans. Medi- 
cines which are supposed to deprive fluids 
of their acrimony. 

EDULCORATION. Edulcora'tio. The 
act of rendering substances mild, either by 
the affusion of water for the removal of 
their saline and other disagreeable qualities, 
or by the addition of saccharine matter. 

EF'FERENT. Ef'ferens; from effero, I 
carry, I transport. Applied to vessels 
which convey fluids from glands, as the 
tasa efferentia, which carry lymph from 
lymphatic glands to the thoracic duct, and 
to nerves which convey the nervous influ- 
ence from the nervous centres of the cir- 

EFFERVES'CENCE. Effervesceritia ; 
from effervescere, to boil over, to ferment. 
In Chemistry, the commotion produced by 
the escape of gas from a liquid, at the or- 
dinary temperature of the atmosphere. In 
Humoral Pathology, a supposed ebullition 
of the blood or other fluids produced either 
by elevation of temperature, or the action 
of the principles contained in them, on 
each other. 

bonated beverage, used, sometimes, as a 
vehicle for saline medicines. 

EFFETE'. Effaitus. Impoverished ; 
worn out. 
EF'FILA. Freckles. 
EFFLORES'CENCE. Efflora'tio ; from 
Efflorescere, to blow as a flower. In Chem- 
istry, the spontaneous conversion of a solid 

into a pulverulent substance. In Botany, 
act of flowering. In Pathology, acute ex- 

EFFLUVIUM. From effluo, to flow 
out. An exhalation, generally noxious or 

EFFRACTU'RA. Fracture of the cra- 
nium with much depression. 

EFFU'SION. From efundere, to pour 
out. In Pathology, extravasation of a 
fluid into a visceral cavity or into the cel- 
lular tissue. 

EGES'TA. From egero, to carry out. 
The expulsion of faeces from the healthy 
body. The excretions. 

EGG. The ovum of birds and oviparous 

Egg-Plant. The popular name of the 
solarium melongena. 

EG'LANTINE. The popular name ap- 
plied to the sweet-brier rose. 

EGOPH'ONIC. Pertaining to egophony. 

EGOPH'ONY. JEgopho'nia ; from o^, 
a goat, and (puvij, the voice. Goat's voice. 
Applied by Laennec to the human voice 
where it gives through the stethoscope a 
clear and acute sound, resembling the voice 
of the goat, and which he regards as indic- 
ative pf moderate effusion into one of the 

EGREGOR'SIS. Morbid watchfulness. 

EGYPTIAN BEAN. The popular name 
of the fruit of the Nelumbium speciosum. 

Egyptian Pebble. A species of Jasper. 

EILAMI'DES. The meninges of the 

EILE'MA. A painful convolution of 
the intestines or tormina produced by flat- 
ulence. Also used by Vogel to express a 
fixed pain in the intestines, as if a nail 
were driven into the part. 

EILEON. The ileum. 

EILEOS. Ileus. 

EISANTHE'MA. Eruption on a mu- 
cous membrane, such as aphthae. 

EISBOLE. The access of a disease or 
of a particular paroxysm. Also, injection. 

EISPNOE. Inspiration. 

EJACULATION. IJjacula'tio ; from 
ejaculare, to cast out. The act by which 
the semen is darted through the urethra. 




EJAC'ULATORY. Ejac'ulans. Con- 
cerned in the ejaculation of the semen. 

Ejaculatory Ducts. The vessels 
which convey the semen to the urethra. 

EJECTION. Ejec'tio ; from ejicere, to 
throw out. Excretion of the fajces, urine, 

ELABORATION. Elabora'tio ; from 
e, and labor are, to work. In Physiology, 
the various changes which assimilative 
substances undergo, through the action 
of living organs, before they become sub- 
servient to nutrition. 

ELiEAGNACE^E. A natural order 
of shrubby, arborescent exogens, having 
leprous leaves, superior fruit, tubular ca- 
lyx, and apetalous flowers. 

EL^EOM'ETER. A delicate glass hy- 
drometer for estimating the purity of oils. 

EL^EOM'ELI. From eTmlov, oil, and 
fieTii, honey. A purging oil, of a sweet 
taste, obtained from the trunk of a tree in 

EL/EON. Oil. 

ELiEOPHANES. From elaiov, oil, 
and <paivo/iai, I appear. Having the ap- 
pearance of oil. 

oil, and oaicxapov, sugar. A mixture of 
essential oil and sugar. 

ELAIDINE. A substance resulting 
from the action of nitrous acid upon olive, 
almond, and some other oils. It resembles 

ELAIN. From ekaiov, oil. Oleine. 
The oily principle of solid fats and oils. 

ELAIOD'IC ACID. One of the com- 
pounds resulting from the saponification 
of castor oil. Oleoricinic acid. 

ELAIS GUINEEN'SIS. A palm found 
in Guinea and the West Indies, which 
yields an emollient, fatty substance. 

ELAOLITE. From e?mcov, oil, and 
xti9oa, stone. A mineral of a brittle, 
crystalline texture, greasy lustre, grayish, 
greenish or reddish shade, composed of 
silica, alumina and potassa. 

ELA PIS. A subgenus of vipers. 

ELAS'MA. Old name for a clyster- 

ELASMOTHE'RIUM. From elaofiog, 

a plate, and Srjp, a beast. An extinct 
Pachydermatous animal, the type of a 
new genus, with teeth of a laminated 
structure, intermediate between the horse 
and rhinoceros. 

ELATERIUM. Name given to a crys- 
tallizable substance distinct from Elatin, 
found in the juice of Elaterium. 

ELASTIC. Elasti'cus ; from ekamw, 
impulsion, itself from tkavvuv, to impel; 
to push. Endowed with elasticity. 

Elastic Fluid. A gas. 

Elastic Gum. Caoutchouc. 

ELASTICITY. A property in bodies 
which restores them to their original form, 
after having been made to deviate from it 
by external force. 

ELATERS. In Botany, the loose spi- 
ral fibres found in great numbers, mixed 
with the sporules, in the conceptacles of 
some cryptogamic plants. 

ELATE'RIUM. A substance deposited 
from the juice of the wild cucumber. See 
Momordica Elaterium. 

ELATIN. The active principle of ela- 

EL'BOW. From ell, and boio. Ap- 
plied to the articulation of the arm with 
the forearm, and especially to the projec- 
tion formed by the ulna. 

EL'CAJA. An Arabian tree, the fruit 
of which is emetic. 

ELCO'SIS. From eAKOf, an ulcer. Ul- 
ceration. Applied by Sauvages to cachec- 
tic diseases attended with foetid, carious, 
and chronic ulcers. 

ELD'ER. See Sambucus. 

Elder, Dwarf. Sambucus ebulus. 

ELECAMPANE. The popular name 
of the Inula Helenium. 

ity, Elective. 

ELECTRIC. Relating to, or contain- 
ing, electricity. 

Electric Attraction. The attrac- 
tion which exists between certain electri- 
fied substances, as glass, amber, sealing- 
wax, sulphur, and other light bodies. 

Electric Aura. The current or breeze 
produced by the discharge of electricity 
from a highly charged conductor. It has 




sometimes been employed as a mild stim- 
ulant to delicate parts, as the eye. 

Electric Friction. The irritating ac- 
tion produced by the reception of sparks 
from a person in the electrical bath through 

Electric Fishes. A term applied to 
certain fish, the species of the class Pisces 
which have the power of discharging the 
electric shock. 

Electric Repul'sion. The repulsion 
of light bodies from certain electrified sub- 
stances after having come in contact with 

Electric Shocks. The partial and 
rapid convulsions produced by the sudden 
administration of a large amount of elec- 
tricity from the Leyden jar. 

ELECTRICAL. Pertaining to, or con- 
taining electricity. 

Electrical Battery. A number of 
Leyden jars placed in a box lined with tin 
foil, and communicating with each other 
by means of metallic rods. 

Electrical Column. A species of elec- 
trical pile consisting of thin plates of dif- 
ferent metals, arranged in pairs, with paper 
between them. 

Electrical Machine. A mechanical 
contrivance, consisting of a round plate or 
cylinder of glass, made to revolve upon its 
axis, and pressed during each rotation by 
a cushion of leather covered with silk and 
smeared with an amalgam of tin and zinc. 
There is also attached to the machine the 
prime conductor, usually made of brass and 
sustained by one or more glass legs. The 
end nearest the glass plate or cylinder is 
furnished with a number of small wires 
which come in such immediate proximity 
with it, that the electric condition of the 
one is immediately transferred to the other. 

ELECTRICITY. Electric 'Has ; from 
rilenTpov, amber, the substance in which 
it was first discovered. A property which 
certain bodies exhibit, either naturally or 
when subjected to the action of various ex- 
citants, causing them to attract or repel 
light bodies, emit sparks, or streams of 
light, and to produce involuntary muscu- 
lar contraction in the bodies of animals 

when it is made to pass through them. 
Also, the science which treats of the phe- 
nomena of electricity. 

Electricity, Voltaic. Galvanism. 

Plates of copper and zinc, or silver and 
zinc, employed for medical purposes. 

ELECTRO-BIOLOGY. One of the ali- 
ases of animal magnetism. 

Electro-Chemistry. That branch of 
science which treats on the application of 
electricity as a chemical agent. 

Electro-Mag'netism. The science of 
the mutual action of conductors and mag- 
nets ; magnetic electricity. 

ELECTRODE. The end of a wire 
which communicates with a voltaic circle, 
commonly called a pole, is so termed by 
Faraday, because, as he believes, it serves 
as a path or door to the electric current. 

of the conductors of electricity or galvan- 
ism upon each other when conveying this 
subtile agent. 

ELECTROL'YSIS. The direct decom- 
position of bodies by galvanism. 

ELECTROLYTE. A substance under- 
going direct decomposition by the action 
of the electric current. 

ELECTROM'ETER. An instrument 
for measuring electricity. 

ELECTROPO'LAR. A term applied to 
a conductor in which one end or surface 
is positive while the other is negative. 

ELECTROPH'ORUS. An instrument 
invented by Volta for collecting weak elec- 
tricity, consisting of a flat cake of resin 
and a disk of metal, of rather smaller 
diameter, supplied with a glass handle, 
used in electrical experiments, to show the 
generation of electricity by induction. 

tion of two or more wires into any part of 
the body and then connecting them with 
the poles of a galvanic battery. 

ELECTROSCOPE. An instrument for 
the discovery of electrical excitement. 

ELECTROTINT. A process by which 
an engraving may be made by the electro- 
type from an original painted in thick 




ELEC'TROTYrE. The precipitation, 
by means of a galvanic current, of a metal, 
from a solution, upon any metallic object 
immersed in it. 


ELECTUA'RIUM. An electuary; a 

Electuarium Cassia. A confection of 

EL'EMENT. A substance which can- 
not be divided or decomposed by chemical 

ELEMI. Amyris demif'era. A fragrant 
resinous exudation from several species of 

ELEOSELTNUM. Apium graveolens. 

EL'EPHANT. A genus of pachyder- 
matous mammalia, comprehending two 
species, the Elcphas Indicus, and the Ele- 
phas Africanus. 

ELEPHANTIASIS. From ete<j>ac, an 
elephant. A chronic inflammation of the 
skin, occurring in warm climates, as in Af- 
rica, the West Indies, Maderia, and the 
Isle of France, in which the integument 
becomes rough, indurated, wrinkled and 
scaly, like the skin of an elephant, attended 
by a diminution and sometimes a total loss 
of sensibility ; the formation of fissures in 
the skin, ulcerations, &c. 

EL'EPHAS. The elephant ; ivory. 

ELETTA'RIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Zinziberacece. 

Elettaria Cardamomum. The offi- 
cinal cardamom, the seeds of which are 
aromatic and gently pungent when chewed. 

ELEUTHERIA. Cascarilla bark. 

ELEVATOR. From devare, to lift up. 
In Anatomy, a muscle whose function con- 
sists in raising the part into which it is in- 
serted. See Levator. In General Surgery, 
an instrument used to raise depressed por- 
tions of bone, especially of the cranium, or 
for the removal of the circle detached by 
the trephine. In Dental Surgery, an in- 
strument sometimes employed in the ex- 
traction of roots of teeth. The elevator 
used in the last mentioned operation is of a 
pointed shape, bearing some resemblance 
to the tongue of a carp, and is hence called 
by the French dentists langue de carpe; it 

is flat or slightly concave on one side and 
convex on the other, attached to a straight 
or curved shank, according to the fancy of 
the operator, or the part of the jaw on 
which it is designed to be employed, and 
inserted in a large, strong, ivory, wood, or 
pearl handle. 

Elevator Ani. Levator ani. 

Elevator, Goodwin's. An instru- 
ment invented by Mr. C. T. Goodwin, of 
Philadelphia, for the extraction of the roots 
of cuspid teeth. It is shaped something 
like the punch, bent downward near the 
point. With regard to the merits of the 
instrument the author is unable to speak, 
not having seen it. 

Elevator La'bii Inferio'ris Pro'prius. 
Levator labii inferioris. 
Elevator La'bii Superio'ris Pro'prius. 
Levator labii superioris ala^que nasi. 

Elevator Labio'rum. Levator anguli 

Elevator Na'si Ala'rum. See Leva- 
tor Labii Superioris Alaxpue Nasi. 

Elevator Oc'uli. Rectus superioris. 

Elevator Pal'pebr^; Superio'ris. Le- 
vator palpebral superioris. 

Elevator Scap'ul^e. Levator scapula?. 

Elevator Testic'uli. The cremaster 

Elevator Ureth'rje. The transversus 
perinan muscle. 

ELEVATO'RIUM. The elevator; a 
surgical instrument. 

ELIQUA'TION. Liquation. In Met- 
allurgy, a process of separating two metals 
of different fusion points, by heating the 
mixture sufficiently to melt that metal 
which fuses at the lower temperature, 
when it runs out, leaving a porous cake of 
the more infusible metal. The same pro- 
cess is applied to the separation of fusible 
sulphurets, as that of antimony, from their 
ores. This operation is sometimes called 
leveating. In Pathology, colliquation. 

ELIXA'TION. Elixatio; from elixus, 
boiled, sodden. The act of boiling or seeth- 

ELIX'IR. Generally supposed to be 
from dekser, quintessence. A solution of 
various medicinal substances, or their 




active principle, in alcohol. It is analo- 
gous to tincture. 

Elixir Acidum Halleri. A mixture 
of concentrated sulphuric acid and alcohol. 

Elixir Al'oes. Tincture of aloes and 

Elixir Antiasthmat'icum Boerhaa- 
vii. Boerhaave's anti-asthmatic elixir, 
composed of alcohol, aniseed, orris root, 
liquorice, elecampane, sweet flag and as- 

Elixir for the Teeth, Argelat's. 
Take spirits of rosemary g viij, rad. py- 
rethrum § i. Put into a matrass, and in- 
fuse for some days, and filter. When used, 
mix with two parts water. 

Elixir for the Mouth, Botet's. 
Take spirits of wine, at 33°, two litres; 
pounded cloves, cinnamon, green anise, 
each 32 grammes; powdered cochineal, 
essence of peppermint, each 16 grammes. 

Elixir for the Mouth, Maury's. I£. 
Root of ratania § viij, vulnerary alcohol 
lb iv, essential oil of English mint 3 iv, 
essential oil of orange rind 3 i. Put the 
bruised root into a matrass ; pour over the 
alcohol, digest for 18 days, filter and add 
the essential oils. Add 15 or 20 drops to 
a tumbler one-third full of water, and rub 
the teeth and gums with it.- 

Elixir, Dr. Capon's Odontalgic. An 
elixir composed of the oil of cloves, oil of 
thyme, opium, alcohol of roses, and Fron- 
tignac wine. 

Elixir Paregoricum. Paregoric. 

Elixir Pectora'le Ee'gis Da'nle. A 
mixture of liquorice, Fennel water and 
Ammoniated alcohol. 

Elixir Proprieta'tis. Compound tinc- 
ture of aloes. 

Elixir, Roger's Tonic, for the Mouth. 
An elixir composed of the following ingre- 
dients : vulnerary water, rhatany root, oil 
of English mint, oil of orange peel, and 

Elixir Sacrum. Tincture of rhubarb 
and aloes. 

Elixir Salu'tis. Compound tincture 
of senna. 

Elixir Stomach'icum. Compound tinc- 
ture of gentian. 

Elixir Vitje Mathi'oli. A tincture 
of twenty-two aromatic and stimulating 
substances formerly used in epilepsy. 

Elixir Vitrioli. Aromatic sulphuric 

ELIXIVIA'TION. Lixiviation. 

ELK. The cervus aids, or moos deer. 

ELLA'GIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from nut-galls* distinct from gallic and 
taanic acids. 

ELLYCHNIO'TOS. Old name for a 
liniment because made of the material 
from which torches or candles are formed. 

ELM. The popular name of all the 
trees belonging to the genus Ulmus. 

ELMINTHO'COETON. Corallina Cor- 

ELO'DES. From eAof, a marsh, and 
etdog, resemblance. Marsh fever. 

' ELONGATION. Elongdiio ; from elon- 
gare, to lengthen. In Surgery, an imper- 
fect luxation, in which the ligaments are 
stretched and the limb lengthened. Also, 
the extension required in the reduction of 
a dislocation or fracture. 

ELUTRIA'TION. Elutria'tio; fromeZu- 
trio, to cleanse. In Chemistry and Phar- 
macy, the separation of the light from the 
heavy particles of a powder by suspending 
both in water, allowing the coarser grains 
to fall and decanting the fine powder. 

ELU'VIES. From duo, to wash out. 
A preternatural discharge of any fluid ; 
also the fluid itself. Applied sometimes to 

ELYTRATRE'SIA. Imperforation of 
the vagina. 

ELYTRI'TIS. From elvrpov, the vagina, 
and itis, inflammation. Inflammation of 
the vagina. 

ELYTROCE'LE. From elvrpov, an en- 
velope, and jfla&e, a tumor. Vaginal hernia. 

ELYTROIDE. From elvrpov, and eidoc, 
resemblance. The tunica vaginalis. 

ELYTRON. From elvio, I involve. A 
sheath; the vagina. In Anatomy, the 
membranes enveloping the spinal marrow 
are called elvrpa. In Zoology, the coriace- 
ous envelope which sheathes the inferior 
or membranous wing of Coleopterous and 
Orthopterous insects. 




From slvrpov, and 
swelling or tumor of 

0-yK.og, a tumor. A 
the vagina. 

ELYTIIOPLAS'TY. Operation for the 
cure of vesico-vaginal fistula, consisting of 
transplanting skin from the labia or nates. 
ELYTROPTO'SIS. From e?,vt P ov, a 
sheath, and nruaig, fall. Applied to inver- 
sion and prolapsus vagina. 

ELYTRORRHA'GIA. From slvrpov, 
and pyyvv/u, to burst forth. Vaginal hem- 

ELYTRORRHCEA. From elvipov, and 
pso, to flow. Passive hemorrhage from 
the vagina ; also a mucous discharge from 
the vagina. 

ELYTROR'RHAPHY. From elvrpov, 
and patyn, a suture. The restoration of the 
vagina by suture in cases of fissure and 

EMACIATION. Emaeia'iio; from em- 
aciare, to grow lean. Wasting of the flesh. 
The condition of a person who is losing 
flesh. Becoming lean. 

EMANATION. Emana'tio ; from em- 
anare, to issue from. A term applied to 
fluid or gaseous bodies, which proceed, or 
orginate from other bodies, as light from 
the sun, odors from plants, and miasmata, 
from the decomposition of animal and veg- 
etable substances. 

EMAN'SIO MEN'SIUM. Amenorrhoea, 
usually applied to that form of the disease 
in which the patient has never menstruated. 
EMAR'GINATE. In Botany, notched 
in a peculiar manner at the apex. In Zo- 
ology, having the margin broken by an ob- 
tuse notch on the segment of a circle ; and 
in Mineralogy, having all the ridges of the 
primitive forms truncated, each by one 

EMAS'CULATE. Emascula'tus. A male 
deprived of the generative power. 

EMASCULATION. Emascula'iio; from 
emasculare, to render impotent. The act 
of destroying or removing the male genera- 
tive organs. 

EMBALMING. The preservation of 
the dead body, which among the Egyptians 
was usually done by saturating every part 
with asphaltum. 

EMBAM'MA . From EjiQa-nrw, I immerse 
in. A medical condiment, or sauce in 
which the food is dipped. 

EMBOITEMENT. A French word, 
applied by Bonnet to that hypothesis of 
generation which considers the embryos of 
successive periods for hundreds of years, as 
encased within one another, each possessed 
of a complete series of organized parts. 

EMBON'POINT. A French word sig- 
nifying in good condition, or in full health. 
EMBROCATION. Emh-oca'tio; from 
ep/3pex u , I sprinkle. A fluid application, 
especially a liniment, to be rubbed on any 
part of the body. 

EMBROCHE. Embrocation. 
EM'BRYO. Em'bryon; from E/i/3pv<o, I 
grow. The foetus in utero, during the early 
stages of its development. Also the germ 
of a tooth or of a plant. 

EMBRYOG'RAPHY. Embryograph'ia; 
from efiflpvov, the embryon, and ypatyn, a de- 
scription. An anatomical description of the 

EMBRYOL'OGY. Embryolog'ia; from 
s/jfipvov, and Aoyog, an account A descrip- 
tion of, or treatise on, the embryo. 

EMBRYOTHLASTES. Embryothlas'- 
ta; from e/i(3pvov, the embryo, and -dlavu, to 
crush. In Obstetrics, an instrument for 
crushing the dead foetus to facilitate its re- 
moval in difficult parturition. 

EMBRYOTOMY. Embryotom'ia ; from 
e/ifipvov, the embryo, and, to cut. In 
Obstetric Surgery, the dismembering of 
the foetus in utero in order to its removal. 
EMBRYUL'CIA. From e^pvov, and 
eIkw, to draw. The removal of the dead 
foetus with a blunt hook. 

EMBRYUL'CUS. From evppvov, and 
e2.ko), to draw. The blunt hook forceps 
for the extraction of the foetus from the 

EM'ERY. A variety of corundum char- 
acterized by extreme hardness. The pow- 
der is used for cutting and polishing glass, 
and in the composition of wheels for grind- 
ing porcelain teeth. 

Emery Wheels. " Wheels varying in 
thickness from an eighth to three-quarters 
of an inch, and in diameter from one to 




nine or ten inches, composed of shellac and 
emery. They are employed in the me- 
chanical laboratory of the dentist for grind- 
ing porcelain or mineral teeth. When 
well made they are preferable to any other 
grinding wheel, except the corundum, used 
for this purpose. 

EM'ESIS. Eme'sia. The act of vomit- 

EMETATROPHTA. Atrophy induced 
by vomiting. 

EMETIC. Emet'ieum ; from efieu, I 
vomit. A substance capable of exciting 

Emetic Tartar. Tartarized antimony. 

Emetic Weed. Lobelia inflata. 

EM'ETIN. Emeti'na. The active prin- 
ciple of ipecacuanha. 

EM'ETO-CATHAR'TIC. Em'eto-cath- 
ar'ticus. A medicine which excites vomit- 
ing and purging at the same time. 

EMINENCE. Eminen'tia. A projec- 
tion or protuberance on the surface of an 

pons varolii. 

corpora albicantia of the brain. 

Eminentee Lenticula'res. The cor- 
pora striata. 

Eminenti^: Magn^e Cereb'ri. The 
thalami opticorum. 

Eminenti^e Quadrigem'in.e. The tu- 
bercula quadrigemina. 

EMISSA'HIA. From emiltere, to send 
or let out. A term applied in Anatomy to 
excretory ducts. 

Emissa'ria DrjRRiE Mat'is. The pro- 
cesses of dura mater which accompany the 
cerebral nerves through the cranial fora- 

Emissaria Santori'ni. The minute 
veins which communicate with the sinuses 
of the dura matter through the foramina 
of the cranium, and may, sometimes, con- 
vey to the exterior the blood circulating 

EMIS'SION. Emis'sio ; from emiltere, 
to send out, drive out. The act by which 
matter of any kind is thrown from the 


EMISSO'RIUS. Emissory ; that which 
conveys any fluid out of the body. 

EMMEN AGOGUES. Emmenago'ga ; 
from e/i/JTjvia, the menses, and ayu, I drive, 
or expel. Medicines which promote or fa- 
vor the discharge of the menses. 

EMME'NIA. The menses. 

EMMENOLOGTA. From e/i/irivia, the 
menses, and ?<oyog, a discourse. A treatise 
on menstruation. 

EMOL'LIENTS. EmoUien'tia; from emol- 
lire, to soften or relax. Substances which 
soften or relax inllammed parts, as bland 
oils, fomentations, cataplasms, &c. 

EMOTION. Emo'tio. Affection of the 
mind. Delirium. 

EMPATHE'MA. EprafoK ; from vra- 
■ST)fia } passio, ajfectio. Ungovernable pas- 

EMPEI'RIA. Empericism ; medicine 
founded exclusively upon observation. 

EM'PHLYSLS. From ev, in, and#to«f, 
a vesicular tumor or eruption. Vesicular 
eruption, with a discharge of an acrid fluid, 
as in aphtha, erysipelas, pem})higus, &C. 

EMPHRAC'TICUS. EnqJirac'tic; from 
EfKppaTTu, I close, I obstruct. A medicine 
which closes the pores of the skin when 
applied to it. 

EMPHRAG'MA. That which obstructs. 

Emphragma Lachhyma'le. Fistula 

Emphragma Saliva're. Ranula. 

EMPHRAXTS. Obstruction of any 
cavity or canal. 

EMPHY'MA. A tumor, or morbid 

EMPHYSE'MA. From e^voau, I in- 
flate. An elastic, crepitant swelling, caused 
by the introduction of air or other aeriform 
fluid into the cellular texture. 

Emphysema Abdominis. See Tympan- 

Emphysema of the Lungs. Infiltra- 
tion of the intercellular texture of the lungs 
with air. 

Emphysema Pec'toris. See Pneumo- 

EMPIR'IC. Empiri'cus; from efmnpia, 
experience. Formerly applied to one who, 
in the practice of physic, followed experi- 




ence alone, but, at present, to one who de- 
viates from the course pursued hy regular 
practitioners, and vends nostrums. The 
term is used in nearly the same sense as 
that of charlatan, or quack. 

EMPIRICISM. The practice of empir- 
ics. Quackery. 

EMPLASTICUS. An emphractic. 

EMPLAS'TRUM. From e/iirfaeoo, I 
spread upon. A plaster. A solid glutin- 
ous compound, which at the ordinary tem- 
perature of the body, adheres to the part 
on which it is placed. 

Emplastrum Adile'sivum. Emplastrum 
resince. Resin jester; adhesive plaster. 

Emplastrum Adile'sivum An'glicum. 
Court plaster. 

Emplastrum Ammoni'aci. U. S. An 
ammoniac plaster. 

Emplastrum Ammoniaci Cum Hy- 
drar'gyro. Lond. A plaster composed of 
ammoniac, mercury, olive oil and sulphur. 

Emplastrum Aromati'cum. Dub. 
Aromatic plaster. 

Emplastrum Asafce'tidje. U. S. Em- 
plastrum antihyster'icum. An asafcetida 

Emplastrum T>elladon'n2e. U. S. A 
plaster of belladonna. 

Emplastrum Calefa'ciens. Dub. A 
calefacient plaster. 

Emplastrum Cantiiar'idis. Lond. A 
plaster of Spanish flies. 

Emplastrum Cantharidis Compos'i- 
tum. Ed. Compound plaster of Spanish 

Emplastrum Ce'r^e. Lond. A wax 

Emplastrum Cicu't2e. A French prepa- 
ration of pitch plaster, with hemlock pow- 

Emplastrum Cumi'ni. Lond. Cumin 

Emplastrum Diach'ylon. Emplas- 
trum. plumbi. Litharge plaster. 

Emplastrum Epispas'ticum. Emplas- 
trum cantharidis. Blistering plaster. 

Emplastrum Fer'ri. U. S., Ed. Iron 
plaster. Strengthening plaster. 

Emplastrum Gal'bani. Dub. Gal- 
ban um plaster. 

Emplastrum Galbani Compos'itum. 
U. S. Compound plaster of galbanum. 

Emplastrum Gummo'sum. Ed. Gum 

Emplastrum Hydrar'gyri. U. S., 
Lond., Ed. Mecurial plaster. 

Emplastrum Hydrar'gyri Compos'i- 
tum. Ph., Dub. A mercurial plaster, with 

Emplastrum Lithar'gyri. Emplas- 
trum plumbi. Litharge plaster. 

Emplastrum Norimbergen'se. Anoint- 
ment of red lead, wax, oil and camphor. 
Emplastrum Opii. U. S. An opium 

Emplastrum Pi'cis. Lond., Ed. Em- 
plastrum picis compos'itum. Compound 
pitch plaster. 

Emplastrum Pi'cis Cum Cantharide. 
Plaster of pitch, with Spanish flies. 

Emplastrum Plum'bi. U. S., Lond. 
Lead plaster. 

Emplastrum Plumbi Carbona'tis. 
Plaster of carbonate of lead. 

Emplastrum Resi'n^:. U. S., Lond. 
Resin plaster. 

Emplastrum Sapo'nis. U. S. Soap 

Emplastrum Saponis Compos'itum. 
Adhesive plaster. 

Emplastrum Sim'plex. Ed. Emplas- 
trum cera. Wax plaster. 

Emplastrum Thu'ris Compos'itum. 
Compound frankincense plaster. 

Emplastrum Vesicato'rium. Emplas- 
trum cantharidis. Plaster of Spanish flies. 
EMrO'RIUM. A mart. The brain was 
formerly so called because all the affairs of 
the mind are transacted there. 

EMPRES'MA. From efinpri^u, I burn 
within. Visceral inflammation; inflam- 
mation of any of the viscera. 

EM'PRION. From ev, and npuov, a saw, 
serrated. Applied by some of the older 
writers to a pulse in which the strokes of 
the artery are unequally distended. 

EMPROSTHOT'ONOS. From e/jirpoc- 
#ev, forward, and reivu, I stretch, I ex- 
tend. A form of tetanus, in which the 
body is drawn forward. 
EMPSYCHO'SIS. From e^vxou, I an- 




imate, I vivify. The act of animating. 
The union of soul and body. 

EMPTO'SIS. Imbibition. Endosmosis. 

EMPTY'SBS. . From efimvi-), I spit out. 
Haemoptysis ; spitting of blood. 

EMPYE'MA. From ev, within, and 
ttvov, pus. A collection of pus in the cav- 
ity of the pi ura. 

EMPYE'SIS. Suppuration. A phleg- 
monous eruption, in which the pimples 
gradually fill with purulent fluid, and af- 
ter awhile dry up, leaving thick scabs. 

EMTYOCE'LE. From ev, in, ttvov, pus, 
and Kyty, a tumor. A tumor of the scro- 
tum formed by a collection of pus. 

EMPYOM'PHALUS. From ev, in, ttvov, 
pus, and ontyaloc, the navel. A suppura- 
ting tumor under the navel, or umbilical 

EMPYOS. Purulent. 

EMPYltEAL AIR. Oxygen gas. 

EMPYREU'MA. From e/nrvpevu, I 
kindle. A peculiar offensive odor which 
animal and other substances contract when 
decomposed by being exposed to a heat in 
a closed vessel. 

EMPYREUMATTC. EmpyreumaUcus. 
Possessing the qualities of empyreuma, as 
an empyreumatic smell or taste. 

Empyreumatic Oil. Oil derived from 
the destructive distillation of animal mat- 

EMUL'GENT. Emul'gens; from emnl- 
gere, to milk out, to draw out. The renal 
artery and vein are so called, because the 
ancients imagined they strained, or milked 
the urine through the kidneys. 

EMUL'SIN. Albumen of almonds. 

EMUL/SIO. An emulsion. 

Emulsio Acacle. Gum Arabic emul- 

Emulsio Amyg'dalje. Almond emul- 
sion ; almond milk. 

Emulsio Camphor a'ta. An emulsion 
composed of camphor, blanched sweet 
almonds, refined sugar and water. 

EMUL'SION. Emul'sio. A medicine 
of a milky- white appearance, composed of 
oil and mucilage. 

Emulsion, Almond. Mistura amyg- 
dalae ; almond mixture. 

Emulsion of Asafcetida. Asafcetida 

Emulsion, Camphorated. See Emul- 
sio Camphorata. 

Emulsion of Gum Ammoniac. Am- 
moniac mixture. 

Emulsion of Gum Arabic. Mucilage 
of gum arabic. 

EMUL'SIVE. Applied to seeds and 
the kernels of nuts which yield oil when 
pressed. , 

EMUNC'TORY. Emuncto'rium ; from 
emungere, to drain off. Any excretory 
organ of the body, or cavity, containing 
fluids to be excreted. 

EMUN'DANS. Cleansing or purifying; 
applied to washes for ulcers. 

EMUNDAN'TIA. Detergents. 

EMYS PALUS'TRIS. Salt-icater Ter- 
rapin. A turtle found in salt and brack- 
ish waters along the Atlantic coast of the 
United States. 

ENTE'MOS. A topical application for 
arresting hemorrhage, by agglutinating 
the parts. 

ENiEORE'MA. From ev, in, and aiu- 
P«j, I lift up, that which hangs or floats 
in. A deposit floating in the urine. 

ENAM'EL. A vitreous substance used 
for painting on porcelain, glass, and for 
covering metals with various kinds of 
ornamental work. It is composed of col- 
oring matters which consist of metallic 
oxyds, fluxes of verifiable substances, as 
silicates, borates, or boro-silicatcs. See 
Porcelain Teeth. 

Enamel of the Teeth. Cortex siria'ia ; 
adaman'tina den'tium ; crusta denthtm ada- 
man'tina ; substantia vitrca. A seemingly 
semi-vitreous substance which covers the 
crown and extends to the neck of a tooth. 
It is the hardest of all animal substances, 
is usually of a pearly milk-whito color, 
and extremely smooth and glossy on its 
surface. Like dentine, it varies in den- 
sity, being much harder on some teeth 
than others ; it is thickest on those parts- 
most exposed to friction, as on the protu- 
berances of the molars, the cutting edges 
of the incisors, and the cusps of the bicus- 
pids and cuspidati, and is thinnest towards 




the neck. The structure of the enamel is 
fibrous ; its fibres radiating from the den- 
tine to the surface of the tooth, an arrange- 
ment by which immense strength and 
power of sustaining great pressure, are 
given to it. 

In describing the microscopic structure 
of the enamel of the human tooth, Pro- 
fessor Owen says, it " consists of long and 
slender, solid, prismatic, for the most part 
hexagonal, fibres of phosphate, carbonate 
and Uuate of lime," which " are essentially 
the contents of extremely delicate mem- 
branous tubes, originaly sub-divided into 
minute depressed compartments or cells, 
of which membranes scarcely a trace can 
be detected in fully formed teeth. The 
fibres are arranged closely together, side 
by side, with occasional narrow angular 
Assures, or interspaces, which are most 
common between the ends nearest the den- 
.tine ; their general direction is perpendicu- 
lar to the surface of the dentine, where the 
ends of the prisms are fixed in shalluw de- 
pressions ; the opposite and larger ends 
form the exposed surface of the enamel ; 
the fibres proceeding to the horizontal mas- 
ticating surface are, therefore, vertical ; the 
greater number, whioh are directed to the 
circumference of the crown, are horizontal, 
or nearly so ; every fibre, as a general rule, 
having, like the tubes of the dentine, that 
direction which is best adapted for resisting 
either the external force of mastication or 
the effects of lateral pressure. Besides the 
minute pits corresponding with the inner 
• ends of the enamel fibres, the outer surface 
of the dentine sometimes presents larger 

depressions The enamel fibres 

describe a fiexuous course, the curves 
being much stronger and shorter than the 
primary curves of the dentinal tubes. The 
parallelism of the fibres continues over a 
much smaller extent of any part of the 
enamel than that of the calcigerous tubes 
in the dentine : in some parts of the 
enamel they curve in opposite directions 
to one another, like the vane of a feather. 
Sometimes the fibres may be traced through 
the entire thickness of the enamel ; where 
they fall short, and where the larger fibres 

diverge from each other, shorter comple- 
mental ones fill up the interspaces. Each 
fibre is l-5000th of an inch in thickness, 
and is marked throughout its entire course 
by faint, close set, transverse stria?. When 
a section of enamel includes several fibres 
in its thickness, certain of the overlapping 
curves intercept a portion of light, and 
occasion the appearance of dusky, brown- 
ish waves. Another appearance, more 
immediately related to the formation of 
enamel, is produced by lines crossing the 
enamel-fibres, parallel with the outer mar- 
gin of the enamel, but not always parallel 
with that attached to the dentine. These 
lines are not of equal clearness, but are 
very nearly equi-distant, being about 
l-2000th of an inch apart ; they are more 
plainly scon in transverse sections of the 
crown than longitudinal sections, and they 
have the same relation to the fibres of the 
enamel which the contour-lines of the den- 
tine bear to the calcigerous tubes. With- 
out doubt they indicate, in like manner, 
strata of segments of the fibres and stages 
in the formation of the substance. Where 
these strata, which are arranged very ob- 
liquely to the vertical surface of the den- 
tine, cross out upon that surface, they 
occasion those waves, transverse annular 
delicate markings which Leeuwenhoek no- 
ticed upon the exterior of the enamel, and 
which he supposed to indicate successive 
stages in the jn'otrusion of the tooth 
through the gum, in taking its place in 
the dental series." 

Mr. Nasmyth has demonstrated with the 
microscope that the enamel of the human 
tooth, as well as the dentinal part, is cel- 
lular. Each cell " is of a semi-circular 
form, and the convexity of the semi-circle 
looks upward toward the free external 
portion of the tooth." Thus, by this most 
peculiar structural arrangement, a capa- 
bility of resisting mechanical force is im- 
parted to the enamel, which its simple 
fibrous structure would wholly fail to 

The chemical composition, according to 
Berzelius, in every 100 parts of enamel is, 
to wit : 





Phosphate of lime, 
Fluate of lime, 
Carbonate of lime, 
Phosphate of magnesia, 
Soda and muriate of soda, 
Animal matter and water, 



These proportions, however, are not al- 
ways the .same. They vary in the enamel 
of the teeth of different individuals. 

Enamel of Porcelain Teeth. See 
Porcelain Teeth. 

ENANTE'SIS. The confluence or near 
approach of ascending and descending 
blood vessels. 

ENANTHE'SIS. Enanthe'ma; from ev, 
in, and avdeu, I flourish. An eruption on 
the skin ; rash exanthem, including scarlet 
fever, measles and urticaria. 

ENARTHRO'SIS. From ev, in, and 
apdpov, a joint. A species of diarthrosis, 
in which the round head of one bone is re- 
ceived into the cavity of another, so as to 
admit of motion in all directions. 

ENAR'THRUM. A foreign body in a 

ENCANTHIS. From sv, and navM, 
the angle of the eye. A tumor or excres- 
cence in the internal angle of the eye. 

Encantiiis Benic/na. A soft, red, and 
sometimes rather livid excrescence of the 
caruncula lachrymalis, which generally 
yields to astringent collyria. 

Encantiiis Malig'na. A malignant 
excrescence of the caruncula lachrymalis. 

ENCAR'POS. Pregnant. 

ENCATALEP'SIS. Catalepsy. 

ENCATH IS'MA. Semicupium. 

ENCAU'MA. From sv, in, and aavo, I 
burn. The scar of a burn, or the vesicle 
caused by a burn ; also, an ulcer of the 
cornea, followed by escape of humor. Also, 
the old name for nitrate of silver. 

ENCAU'SIS. A burn ; encauma ; mox- 

ENCEPHALA. A generic term ap- 
plied to mollusca which have a distinct head. 


Enckphalalgia Hydrop'ica. Hydro- 
cephalus, or dropsy of the brain. 

ENCEPHAL'IC. Encephal'iciis ; from 
sv, in, /c^aA^, the head. Relating to the 

ENCEPHALA'TA. The great sub- king- 
dom of vertebrata in which the brain is 
protected by a bony case. 

ENCEPHALITIS. Inflammation of 
the brain. 

Encephalitis Exsudato'ria. Hydro- 
cephalus interims. 

ENCEPHALOCE'LE. From ey/c^aAof, 
the brain, and, ktjTit], hernia. Hernia cer- 
ebri. Fungus cerebri. 

ENCEPHALOID. From s ixapayo?, and 
eiSoi, resemblance. Cerebriform. This 
term is applied by Laennec to a species of 
morbid substance which frequently consti- 
tutes the mass of scirrhous or cancerous 
tumors, because of its resemblance to the 
medullary substance of the brain. 

ENCEPHALO'MA. Fungus cerebri. 

cerebri, or softening of the brain. 

ENCEPHALON. Enceph'alum; from sv, 
in, and K.etya'kri, the head. The contents of 
the cranium, including the cerebrum, cere- 
bellum, and medulla oblongata, with their 
vessels, nerves and investing membranes. 

of the brain. 

ENCEPHALO'SIS. A tumor of a brain- 
like appearance. 

log, the brain, and nvov, pus. Ulceration 
of the brain. 

ENCEPHALOSIS'MUS. Concussion of 
the brain. 

ENCEPHALOZOA. A term applied 
in Zoology to that division of the animal 
kingdom which comprehends those ani- 
mals that have two nervous sj'stcms, one 
ganglionic, the other cerebro-spinal. 

ENCHARAX'IS. Scarification. 

ENCHONDRO'MA. From sv, in, and 
xovdpog, a cartilage. A cartilaginous tu- 

ENCHO'RIOS. Endemic. 

ENCHYMO'MA. Enchymo' sis ; from 
sv, in, and x vu , I pour. Infusion or pour- 
ing in of blood into the cutaneous vessels, 
caused by joy, anger, or shame. 




ENCLYS'MA. From ev, in, and kkufr, 
to cleanse out. A clyster. 

ENCOZ'LIA. From ev, in, and noi?.ia, 
the belly. The abdominal viscera. 

ENCCELITIS. Inflammation of the 
abdominal viscera. 

ENCOLPIS'MUS. Introduction of any 
medicament into the vagina. 

ENCYST'ED. From ev, in, and Kvarig, 
a bladder. Applied to a tumor or other 
matter enclosed in a cyst or sac. 

ENCYS'TIS. An encysted tumor. 

ENDAN'GIUM. Endangi'on. The 
lining membrane of vessels. 

ENDEIXIS. Indication. 

ENDEM'IC. Endem'icus ; from tv, in, 
and foipog, the people. Prevalent disease 
in a particular region or district of coun- 

ENDERMATTC. Endermat'icus ; en- 
dcr'mic; from tv, in, and dep/ianicog, cuta- 
neous. The treatment of disease by the 
application of remedies to the skin, espe- 
cially after the removal of the cuticle. 

EN'DIVE. A plant; a species of Ci- 
ehorium, used as a salad. 

ENDO. From evdov, within. A com- 
mon prefix. 

ENDO- AORTITIS. From evdov, within, 
and aortitis, inflammation of the aorta. 
Inflammation of the inner membrane of 
the aorta. 

ENDOCAR'DIAC. Within the heart; 
applied to sounds produced within that 

ENDOCARDITIS. Inflammation of 
the lining membrane of the heart. 

within, and (ipayxta, gills. A family of 
the class Annelidcs, destitute of external 

ENDOCOLITIS. Dysentery. 

ENDODONTICS. From evdov, within, 
oSovg, a tooth, and itis, signifying inflam- 
mation. Inflammation of the lining mem- 
brane of a tooth. This may arise from 
exposure of the pulp cavity and the pres- 
ence or contact of acrid and irritating 
agents, or from exposure to sudden transi- 
tions of temperature, or from mechanical 
violence, as in the case of a blow, or im- 

properly performed dental operation. It 
may also occur as the result of constitu- 
tional disease. But from whatever cause 
produced, it is always attended with the 
severest and most agonizing pain, and is 
seldom relieved, when acute, by any other 
means than the extraction of the tooth, 
or the destruction of the pulp. 


ENDO-GASTRITIS. Inflammation of 
the lining membrane of the stomach. 

EN'DOGENS. Endogence. Yvomtvb\>v, 
and yewau, to produce. In Botany plants 
which grow by successive additions to the 
inside, and the vessels of their leaves run 
parallel to each other without branches, as 
in grapes, lilacs, asparagus, &c. 

EN'DOLYMPH. The liquid contained 
in the membranous canals of the ear. 

ENDOMETRITIS. Inflammation of 
the lining membrane of the womb. 

ENDOPHLCEUM. The inner bark of 
a plant ; the liber. 

ENDOPHYL'LOUS. From evhov, and 
tyvllov, a leaf. A term applied by Du- 
mortier, to the young leaves of Monocotyle- 
dons, from their being enfolded within a 

ENDOPLEU'RA. From evZov, and 
rCkivpa, the side. In Botany, the internal 
integument of a seed. 

ENDORRHIZ/E. From evhov, and p&, 
a root. A term applied in Botany to the 
embryo of Monocotyledons, in which the 
radicle is emitted from the base of a seed 
before entering the earth, appearing to come 
from within the mother root; plants which 
have a sheathed root. 

ENDOSIS. Remission. 

ENDOSMOM'ETER. An instrument 
for measuring the force of the endosmotic 

EN'DOSMOSE. Endosmo'sis ; from 
evhov, within, and oofiog, impulse. Imbibi- 
tion. The transmission of a fluid through a 
membrane from the interior, or the passage 
of a thin fluid from without by a dense 
one within. The property depends mainly 
upon the capillary attraction of the walls 
of the cavity. Mr. Lintot, an English den- 
tist, and author of a small treatise on the 




Teeth, is of the opinion that dental caries 
is the result of the chemical action of an 
acidulated fluid of the mouth, upon the 
dentinal tissue, while undergoing an en- 
dosmotic action on it. That such ac- 
tion might, under certain circumstances, 
take place through the cells of the den- 
tine, is not improbable, and in tie event 
of its occurrence, would, it is fair to pre- 
sume, hasten the decomposition of the 
part of the tooth in which it was taking 
ENDOSMOT'IC. Relating to endosmose. 
ENDOSPElt'MIUM. From svSov, and 
cnrep/ia, seed. In Botany, the fibro-cellular 
tissue lining the anther. 

ENDOSTEI'TIS. Inflammation of the 
lining membrane of a bone. 

ENE'CIA. A generic term applied by 
Dr. Good to continued fever. 

EN'EMA. From eviq/u, to inject. An 
injection ; a clyster. 

Enema Anod'ynum. An anodyne clys- 
ter; a clyster of starch and opium. 

Enema Cathar'ticum. A purging clys- 

Enema Commd'ne. A common clyster, 
composed of water gruel, or molasses and 
water, with a little oil or lard, and com- 
mon salt. 

Enema Fcst'idum. A purging clyster 
of tincture of asafoetida. 

Enema Nicotia'n^e. A tobacco clyster. 
Enema Terebin'thinj-:. A turpentine 

ENEPIDER'MIC. Enepider'micus; from 
tv, in," &ti, upon, and depfia, the skin. The 
treatment of disease by the application of 
remedies, such as plasters, blisters, &c, 
upon the skin. 

EN'ERGY. Energi'a; from evepyeco, I 
act. In Physiology, the active operation 
of the various organs of the body. Thus 
we say, the vital energy, the muscular en- 
ergy, the nervous energy, &c. 

ENERVATION. Enerva'tio; from e, 
out of, and n&'vus, strength. The act of 
debilitating ; a state of weakness. 

ENGASTRIMY'THUS. From ev, in, 
yaorrip, the belly, and pvdeo/jai, I discourse. 
A ventriloq7iist. 

ENGEISO'MA. Engizo'ma; fromeyy^, 
I approximate. A fracture of the skull, 
in which a broken portion of bone passes 
beneath a sound portion. 

ENGOMPHO'SIS. Gomphosis. 

ENGORGE'MENT. From en, in, and 
gorge, the throat. Inordinate flow of blood 
to the vessels of a part or organ, and con- 
sequent obstruction and increase of vol- 

ENGOUEMENT. A French term sig- 
nifying obstruction ; congestion. 

ENNEAN'DRIA. From ewea, nine, 
and avTjp, man. In Botany, plants which 
have nine stamens. 

ENNUI. Mental languor ; weariness. 

ENOSTO'SIS. From ev, in, and oatsov, 
a bone. A tumor formed in the medullary 
part of a bone. 

ENRYTH'MOS. From tv and pvtiuog, 
number. Irregularity in the beating of 
the pulse. 

ENS. Being; entity; existence. In 
Chemistry, a substance supposed to con- 
tain, in a small compass, all the virtues of 
the ingredients from which it is drawn. 

Ens Mar'tis. Ammoniated iron. 

Ens Pri'mum Sola're. Antimony. 

Ens Ven'eris. Chloride of copper. 

EN'SIFORM. From ensis, a sword, 
and forma, form. Sword-like. In Anat- 
omy, applied to some parts from their re- 
semblance to a sword, as the ensiform car- 

ENSTALAX'IS. Instillation, or drop 
by drop. ' 

EN'STROPHE. Inversion of a part. 

ENTA'SIA. Entasis. 

ENTA'SIS. Enta'sia; from evreivu, to 
stretch. A term applied by Dr. Good to 
constrictive spasm, embracing wry-neck, 
cramp, locked-jaw, &c. 

ENTELMIN'THA. From evrog, within, 
and elfins, a worm. Synonymous with 

ENTERA. E^jpa, the bowels, from 
evrog, Avithin. The intestines. 

ENTERAD'ENES. From ^r fpo *, an 
intestine, and adqv, a gland. The mucous 
intestinal glands. 

ENTERAL'GIA. From evt^ov, intes- 




tine, and alyog, pain. Colic ; pain in the 

tion of the vessels of the intestine. 

ENTERATROPHTA. Erom evrepov, 
intestine, and atrophia, want of nutrition. 
Atrophy of the intestines. 

ENTERAUXE. Hypertrophy of the 
muscular coat of the intestines. 

ENTEREMPHRAX'IS. From evrepov, 
intestine, and BpQpa&c, obstruction. Ob- 
struction of the intestines. 

bilical hernia containing both omentum 
and bowel. 

ENTERIC. Entcri'cus ; from evrepov, 
an intestine. Pertaining to the intestines. 

ENTER'ICA. Diseases affecting the 
intestinal canal. 

ENTERITIS. From evrepov, an intes- 
tine, and itis, signifying inflammation. In- 
flammation of the intestines. 

Enteritis, Follicular. Typhoid fever. 

ENTERO. A prefix; from evrepov, an 

ENTEROBIASIS. From evrepov, an 
intestine, and fipuoic, the act of gnawing. 
Perforation of the intestines. 

ENTER0C4CE. Adynimic dysentery 
accompanied by diphtheritis and gangrene 
of the colon and rectum. 

ENTEROCE'LE. From evrepov, an in- 
testine, and Krikq, hernia, tumor. Intes- 
tinal hernia. 

ENTEROCYSTOCE'LE. From evrepov, 
intestine, nvarig, a bladder, and ity'toi, a tu- 
mor. Intestinal hernia in which a portion 
of the bladder is included. 

ENTERODE'LA. From evrepov, and 
detog, manifest. A section of a class of 
Pciygastrica, in which the alimentary ca- 
nal is terminated by a mouth and anus. 

pov, an intestine, emxfaiov, the omentum, 
and icrjkr}, a tumor. Hernia containing 
both intestine and omentum. 

evrepov, intestine, eirinkoov, the omentum, 
and ofifakog, the navel. Umbilical hernia, 
containing both intestine and omentum. 


repov, intestine, yaarrip, the belly, and Kr\kri, 
a tumor. Abdominal hernia. 

ENTEROG'RAPHY. Enterograph'ia ; 
from svttpov, intestine, and ypa<t>V, descrip 
tion. An anatomical description of tho 

repov, intestine, ix5wp, water, and kv?-V, tu- 
mor. Scrotal hernia, complicated with 

pov, intestine, ioxiov, the ischium, and kijTlti, 
a tumor. Intestinal hernia at the ischiatic 

ENTERO'LITHUS. From evrepov, in- 
testine, and fatiog, a stone. Intestinal cal- 
culous concretion. 

ENTEROL'OGY. Enterolog'ia ; from 
evrepov, intestine, and "kayos, a discourse. 
Anatomical treatise on the intestines. 

phus fever attended by ulceration of tho 
small intestines and enlargement of the 
mesenteric glands. 

ENTEROM'PHALUS. From evrepov, 
intestine, and ofifyalog, umbilicus. Umbil- 
ical intestinal hernia. 

ENTERON. Evrepov. Intestine. 

ENTEROPATHY. Enteropath'ia; from 
evrepov, intestine, and rra-dog, a disease. A 
generic term for intestinal disease. 


ENTERORRHAGTA. From evrepov, 
and priyvviii, to burst forth. Hemorrhage 
of the intestines. 

ENTERORRHATHIA. Enieror'raphy; 
from evrepov, intestine, and patyri, a suture. 
A suture of the intestines. 

ENTERORRHOE'A. Diarrhoea. 

pov, intestine, cap,, flesh, and nr/2.7], a tumor. 
Intestinal hernia complicated with sar- 

ENTERO'SES. A class of diseases em- 
bracing all that affect the intestines. 

ENTEROT'OMY. Enteroiom'ia. In 
Anatomy, dissection of the intestines. In 
Surgery, an operation for an artificial 
anus, or for the evacuation of accumulated 

ENTEROZO'A. Worms. SeeEntozoa. 




ENTHAL'SIS. Fracture of the cranium 
with depression of the fragments. 


ENTOMOL'OGY. From evrofia, in- 
sects, and ao/oc, a discourse. A treatise on 

ENTOMOBTRACAN8. From wropot, 
incised, and ooTpaaov, a shell. The division 
of the class Crustacea, which are Covered 
with a thin horny tegument in the form of 
a shell of one or two pieces. 

ENTO'NIA. Tension. Tonic spasm. 

ENTON'IC. Enton'icus ; from ev, de- 
noting excess, and tovoc, tone. Having 
great tension, or increased action. 

ENTOZOA. Entozoa'ria ; from svtoc, 
within, and £uov, an animal. Lowly organ- 
ized invertebrate, and generally vermiform, 
animals ; the most of which are parasitic 
on the internal organs of other animals. 

There are five sj)ccies of worms which 
infest the human intestines, viz: 1. As- 
caris lumbrico'ides, the long, round worm; 
2. Ascaris vcrmicidaris, the maw or thread 
worm ; 3. Twuia lata, or vulgaris, the 
broad tape- worm ; 4. Tcenia solium, the 
long tape worm ; 5. Trichocephalus, the 
long thread-worm. 

There is another class of entozoa which, 
though of rare occurrence, have been found 
in different parts of the body. 1. The Fas- 
ciola hepaiica, called the Distoma hepati- 
cum,or fluke, sometimes found in the gall- 
bladder ; 2. The Scarabcevs, or beetle 
grubs ; several species of which have been 
found in the ear, intestines, and vagina ; 8. 
The (Estrus, a fly, the larvae of which are 
deposited in wounds or footed ulcers ; 4. 
The Gordius, or horse-hair worm, found 
in stagnant water, and are sometimes taken 
into the stomach; G. The Musca, several 
of which genus, as the Musca carna- 
ria, or flesh-fly, the Musca vomitoria, or 
blow-ily, the Musca cibaria, or pantry-fly, 
and the Musca putris, or hopper-fly mag- 
got, deposit their eggs in the nose, maxil- 
lary antra, and rectum. 

There is still another class of entozoa 
which infest different parts of the body, 
as 1. Accphalocystis, or hydatid; 2. The 
Cysticercus, or bladder-tail hydatid; 3. 

The Polycephalus, or many-headed worm; 
4. Echinococcus, the small granular bod- 
ies found in Aceplialocysts ; 5. The Fila- 
ria medinensis, or guinea worm ; 6. The 
Acarus of the itch. 

arus Jblliculorum. An articulated ani- 
malcule, found in the cutaneous follicles. 

EN'TKAILS. The abdominal viscera ; 
the intestines. 

ENTRICHO'MA. From » t in, and rpt- 
XUfM, hair. The ciliary edge of the eye- 

ENTROP'IUM. Entropion; from ev, 
in, and Tpeiru 3 I turn. Inversion of the 
eyelids, so that the eyelashes are brought 
in contact with, and irritate and inflame 
the globe of the eye. 

ENTJRE'SIS. From evovpeu, I void 
urine in bed. Involuntary flow of urine 
from paralysis or relaxation of the sphinc- 
ter of the bladder. 

EOCENE. From yuc, aurora, and kcu- 
vog, recent. A term applied in Geology, to 
the earlier tertiary deposits, in which there 
are only a few organic remains of existing 
species of animals. 

EP-,EPH-,EPI-. Ett, e$, e<j>t, upon; 
above; used as prefixes, and meaning, 
above, exterior, augmentation, addition, 
increase, reciprocal action, repetition, &c. 

EPAORIDA'CEJE. A natural order of 
shrubby Exogens. 

EPACMAKTICOS. From ski, and an- 
/;a£w, I increase. Fevers which increase 
in violence, from the commencement to 
the crisis. 

EPANE'TUS. From enaviyfii, to re- 
mit. A generic term applied 1>3 t Dr. Good 
to remittent fevers. 

Epanktus Hec'tica. Hectic fever. 

Epaxetus Malio'nus Fla'vus. Yellow 

Epanetus Mi'tis. Remittent fever. 

EPAPHiE'EESIS. From STra^aipeu, I 
take away. Repeated obstruction, par- 
ticularly of blood. 

EPAR'MA. Epar'sis. A tumor. 

The lining membrane of the cavities of the 




EPHE'BUS. From em, towards, and 
ilfirj, i)uberty. A term applied in Physi- 
ology to one who has attained the age of 

EPHEL'CIS. From m, upon, and el. 
nog, an ulcer. The crust of an ulcer. 

EPIIE'LIDES. Promm, upon, and 
rfkiog, the sun. Freckles ; sunburns. A 
cutaneous affection characterized by small 
and large brown spots upon the skin, 
caused, as the name imports, by the direct 
action of the rays of the sun. 

EPHE'LIS. Ephelides. 

EPHEM'ERA. From em, during, and 
ijfiepa, a day. In Pathology, an epithet 
applied to disease, especially a fever, which 
lasts but a day, and also, by the French, to 
a poison which proves fatal within a day. 

EPHEM'ERANS. EpJiemeri'nce ; from 
efyrjuepoq, daily. A family of Neuroptc- 
rous insects, called day-flies, from the en- 
joyment of the last stage of their existence 
being limited to a day. 

EPHIAL'TES. From eQaMofiai, to leap 
upon. Nightmare; a distressing sensa- 
tion which occurs during sleep, in which 
the individual fancies himself threatened by 
the approach of an enemy or of imminent 
danger from which he cannot escape. 

EPHIDRO'SIS. From efidpou, to per- 
spire. A copious, morbid perspiration. 
A colliquative sweat. 

EPICARTDANS. Epicar'ides ; from 
Mi, upon, and aapig, a shrimp. A family 
of Isopodous Crustaceans, parasitic upon 

EPICANTHUS. From em, upon, and 
icavdog, the angle of the eye. A fold of 
skin extending from the exterior of the 
nose over the inner angle of the eye. 

EPICARP. From em, upon, and nap- 
nog, fruit. The epidermis or outer cover- 
ing of fruit. 

EPICAR'PIUM. From em, upon, and 
nap-nog, the wrist. Application to the wrist. 

EPICHRO'SIS. From em, upon, and 
Xpup-a, color. Discoloration of the sur- 
face. Ephelides. 

EPICOL'IC. From em, upon, and no- 
7mv, the colon. The part of the abdomen 
over the colon. 

EPICON'DYLE. From em, upon, and 
novdvlog, a condyle. A protuberance at the 
lower extremity of the os humeros, which 
gives attachment to the outer lateral liga- 
ment of the elbow joint, and to a very 
strong tendon to which several muscles of 
the posterior part of the forearm are at^ 
tached ; and so called because it is above tho 

coneus muscle. 

Epicondylo Radia'lis. The supinator 
radii brevis. 

The extensor carpi radialis brevior. 


Communis. The extensor-digitorum com- 

Mi'nimi Digiti. The extensor proprius 
minimi digiti. 

EPICOPIIO'SIS. Cophosis; deafness. 

EPICRA'NIUM. From tm, upon, and 
KpavLov, the cranium. Applied to various 
parts of the cranium, as the tendinous ex- 
pansion of the occipito-frontalis muscle, 
and even to the whole scalp. 

EPICRA'SIS. From em, upon, and 
Kepavvvpx, I temper. The treatment of dis- 
ease by soothing and demulcent remedies, 
which the humorists supposed possessed 
the power of correcting the vitiated hu- 

EPICRI'SIS. The judgment of the na- 
tural causes, treatment and probable ter- 
mination of a disease, founded on scientific 

EPICTE'NIUM. The parts upon and 
above the pubes. 

EPIDEMIC. Epidem'icus ; from em, 
upon, and <%<>£, the people. A disease 
which simultaneously attacks multitudes 
of persons at the same time, and in the 
same district, and which is dependent on 
a noxious condition of the atmosphere. 

EPIDEM'Y. An epidemic disease. 

EPIDEN'DRUM. A genus of plants 
of the order Orchidiaceoz. 

Epiden'drum Vanil'la. See Vanilla. 

EPID'ERIS. The clitoris 5 the nymphaa 
or preputium clitoridis. 




EPIDER'MIC. Epider'micus ; from 
emdepiJis, the scarf skin. Pertaining to 
the epidermis. 

EPIDER'MIS. From em, upon, un&dep- 
(ia, the skin. The cuticle, or scarf skin. 

EPIDERMOID. From emdep/ug, and 
u6og, resemblance. Resembling the epi- 

EPIDESIS. In Surgery, the act of 
binding up a wound ; also, the application 
of a ligature to a wounded vessel. 

EPIDES'MOS. A bandage or ligature. 

EPIDIDYMIS. From em, upon, and 
&i5vy.og, a testicle. A hard oblong sub- 
stance upon the testicle, formed by the 
convolutions of the vas deferens. 

EPID'OSIS. From mm, and (JwJu/u, to 
give. Increase, as of a disease, or in the 
growth of the body. 

EP'IDOTE. A massive, crystallized, 
granular mineral, of a fibrous structure, 
and of various shades of green. 

EPID'ROME. From erndpE^u, I run 
upon. An afflux of humors. 

EPIG.E'A REPENS. A sweet-scented 
running plant, flowering in early spring, 
the leaves and twigs of which are used 
like uva ursi. 

EPIGASTRIC. Epigas'tricus ; from 
em, upon, and yaoTiip, the stomach. Re- 
lating to the epigastrium. 

Epigastric Ar'tery. An artery given 
off by the external iliac when it passes 
under Poupart's ligament, ascends be- 
tween the rectus muscle and peritoneum, 
and anastomoses about the umbilicus 
with the internal mammary artery. 

Epigastric Region. The region, on 
each side, below the short ribs, extending 
from the diaphragm to within two fingers 
of the umbilicus. 

EPIGASTRIUM. The epigastric re- 
gion, or part situated immediately over 
the stomach. 

EPIGASTROCE'LE. From mm, upon, 
jacTrip, the stomach, and Krfky, a tumor. 
Hernia at or near the epigastric region, 
whether of the stomach or not. 

EPIGEN'ESIS. From mm, upon, and 
yeveoig, generation. A theory of genera- 
tion which regards the foetus as receiving 

at once from each parent the materials 
necessary for its formation. 

EITGINOM'ENA. From mm, and ye- 
vofiat, to succeed or supervene. A term 
applied in Pathology to symptoms which 
occur in the course of a disease, but not 
necessarily belonging to it. 

EPIGLOTTIC. Ejv'glot'ticus. Pertain- 
ing to the epiglottis. 

Epiglottic Gland. A collection of 
small glands situated at the base of the 
anterior surface of the epiglottis. 

EPIGLOTTIS. From mm, upon, and 
ylumg, the tongue. An oval cartilage, 
concave posteriorly, and convex anteriorly, 
situated at the root of the tongue upon the 
superior opening of the larynx. It is loose at 
its superior extremity, and attached at its 
inferior to the thyroid cartilage. Its uso 
is to ease the glottis, or superior opening 
of the larynx, and prevent the introduc- 
tion of alimentary substances into the air 
passages during deglutition. 

EPIGLOTTITIS. Inflammation of the 

EPIGLOUTIS. From mm, upon, and 
I y?.ovn£, the buttocks. The superior region 
of the buttocks. 

EPFGYNOUS. From mm, and yvvt), a 
female. A term applied in Botany to any 
organ growing upon the summit of the 

EPILEPSY. Epilep'sia. EmXt^ta; 
from emlajifiavu , I seize upon. A disease 
of the cercbro-spinal organs, attended with 
violent convulsions, coma, and, generally, 
foaming at the mouth. The disease may 
be idiopathic or symptomatic. In tho 
former case it results from a morbid affec- 
tion of the encephalon ; in the latter, from 
worms, intestinal irritation, external vio- 
lence, or from some other accidental cause. 

EPILEPTIC. Epilep'iicus ; affected 
with, or relating to, epilepsy. 

EPIMANES. A maniac in a parox- 

EPIMOR'IOS. An unequal pulse. 

EPINEPH'ELOS. Cloudy ; applied to 

EPINYCTIDES. From mm, upon, and 
vv$, night. Eruptions which appear du- 




ring the night, and disappear in the morn- 
ing. A kind of nettle-rash. 

EPIPAROXYS'MUS. The two fre- 
quent occurrence of the fehrile paroxysm. 

EPIPE'CHU. The upper part of the 

EPITHiENOM'ENON. The occurrence 
of any unusual symptom during the prog- 
ress of a disease. 

EPIPHLOGIS'MA. Prom em, upon, 
and fyXoyifa, I inflame. Inflammation or 
burning heat in any part. 

EPIPH'ORA. From em<j>epu, I carry 
to. Weeping. Continued involuntary 
flow of tears, caused by disease, or irrita- 
tion of the lachrymal passages. 

EPIPHRAG'MA. In Botany, a trans- 
verse membrane of the peristoma of mosses, 
which sometimes closes the orifice of the 
urn and remains long after the opercula 
have separated. 

EPIPHYL'LA. From em, upon, and 
(j>vl?.ov, a leaf. In Botany, parts or organs 
growing upon the leaf, as the pedicle of 
jungermannia cpiphylla ; also, to plants 
themselves, which vegetate on the leaves 
of other plants, and hence are called epiph- 
yllous fungi. 

EPIPHYMA'TA. Diseases of the skin. 

EPIPHYSIS. From em, upon, and 
tyvu, I arise. Any portion of bone sep- 
arated from the body of the bone by in- 
tervening cartilage, which ultimately be- 
comes converted into bone. The epiphysis 
then becomes a process. 

EPIPLE'GIA. Paralysis of the upper 

EPIPLERO'SIS. Repletion, distension. 

EPIPLOCE'LE. From emnloov , omen- 
tum, and KtjAr), hernia. Hernia, formed by 
the omentum. 

Scrotal hernia containing both omentum 
and gut. 

EPIP'LOIC. Pertaining to the epip- 
loon or omentum. 

Epiploic Appen'dages. Numerous 
small prolongations of the peritoneum 
filled with adipose matter, extending be- 
yond the surface of the colon and rectum. 

Epiploic Ar'teuies. The branches 

from the gastroepiploic artery which are 
distributed to the epiploon. 

2.oov, the epiploon, to%m 3 the ischium, 
and nr[Kri, a tumor. Protrusion of the 
omentum through the ischiatic notch. 

EPIPLOI'TIS. From emnloov, the 
omentum, and Ms, denoting inflammation. 
Inflammation of the omentum. 

EPIPLOMEROCE'LE. From emnloov, 
the omentum, pypog, the thigh, and ktiItj, 
a tumor. A femoral hernia, formed by a 
protrusion of the omentum. 

EPIPLOM'PHALON. From emnloov, 
the omentum, and op^alog, the navel. An 
omental umbilical hernia. 

EPIPLOMTHRASIS. From emnloov, 
the omentum, and ep<j>paoao, I obstruct. 
Obstruction of the omentum. 

EPIP'LOON. From em, above, and 
nleu, I swim, or float. The omentum, or 
caul, which consists of a duplicature of 
the peritoneum, and is so called because it 
floats, as it were, above a portion of the 

loov, the omentum, oaxeov. the scrotum, 
and ntjlr], a tumor. Omental hernia, in 
the scrotum. 

EPIPORO'MA. Emmpapa. A hard tu- 
mor about the joints j the callus of a frac- 

EPIS'CHESTS. From emaxeu, I re- 
strain. A suppression of excretions. 

mitral valves. 

EPISEMA'SIA. A sign. A symptom. 

EPISION'CUS. A swelling or tumor 
of the labia pudendi. 

EPISPADIAS. From em, above, and 
onau, I draw. A malformation of the 
urethra, consisting in its opening on the 
upper side of the penis. 

EITSPAS'TIC. Epispas'ticus ; from 
em, above, and anau, I draw. Any sub- 
stance which, when applied to the skin, 
excites inflammation and causes an effusion 
of serum under the epidermis. Among 
the substances which produce these effects, 
are cantharides and mustard. 

EPISPAS'TICUM. A blister. 




EPISPERM. From em, upon, and 
oirepua, seed. In Botany, the outer envel- 
ope of a seed ; the testa of seeds, called by 
Decandolle the Spermoderm. 

FPIS'TASIS. From m, upon, and 
amo, I rest. A substance which floats on 
the surface of urine. 

EPISTAX'IS. From m, upon, and 
0Ta& } I flow, drop by drop. Nasal hem- 

EPISTER'NAL. From em, upon, and 
arepvov, the sternum. The first or anterior 
portion of the sternum, which, in birds, 
sustains the forked clavicle. 

EPISTHOT'ONOS. From eino&ev, for- 
ward, and reivo), to extend. A variety of 
tetanus, in which the body is drawn for- 

EPISYNAN'CIIE. Spasm of the pha- 

EPIT'ASIS. From em, and miveiv, to 
extend. The period of violence of a fever, 
paroxysm, or disease. 

EITTHE'LIUM. From em, upon, and 
tin^y, a nipple. The thin layer of epider- 
mis which invests parts deprived of the 
derma, properly so called, as the nipple and 
mucous membrane in general. It is cel- 
lular in its structure, and presents itself 
under three different forms ; each differing 
somewhat from the others. 1. The tesse- 
lated epithelium, composed of oval nucle- 
ated cells, and found on the conjunctiva, 
in the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, on the 
vulva, in the vagina and some distance 
into the uterus, and in the entrance of the 
urethra. 2. The columnar, or conical epi- 
Uielium, consisting of elongated cells. This 
variety extends from the cardiac orifice of 
the stomach to the anus ; it also lines the 
principal gland ducts opening upon the 
mucous surface of this tract, and the greater 
part of the male geni to-urinary organs. 3. 
The ciliated epithelium, consisting of colum- 
nar particles, with pellucid, hair-like pro- 
cesses at their extremities, which are con- 
stantly undergoing a vibratory motion. 

There is also another variety of epithe- 
lium, called the Spheroidal, found in the 
urinary passages succeeding the columnar, 
near the inner orifice of the urethra, in the 

bladder, ureters, pelvis of the kidneys and 
some mucous glands. 

Epithelium of the Mouth. On the 
structure of that portion of the epithelium 
which lines the cavity of the mouth, Mr. 
Nasmyth observes, " In the foetal subject, 
previous to the extrusion of the teeth, it 
forms on the alveolar arch a dense pro- 
jecting layer, distinguishable from the sur- 
rounding membrane by its whiteness, and 
by the existence on its surface of ridges 
and sidci, having a waving course and a 
variable direction. The alveolar epithe- 
lium is thicker in proportion to the youth 
of the subject examined. It is most prom- 
inent where it corresponds with the molar 
teeth; its internal surface is concave, re- 
ceiving the projecting mucous membrane. 
This portion presents various objects for 

" First, as regards its composition : It 
is made up of a mass of scales, lying one 
on the surface of the other. This dis- 
position shows that the terms * dental car- 
tilage,' and the 'cartilage of the gum,' 
which have hitherto been applied to this 
structure, give an erroneous idea of its 
true nature, for cartilage always presents 
the corpuscle discovered and described by 
Purkinje. As in other portions of the epi- 
thelium, the external scales here are larger, 
and this holds good generally, until we 
come to the surface of the vascular mucous 
membrane, which presents simple cells 
with their corpuscles. 

" In the interior of this alveolar epithe- 
lium, where it corresponds to the molar 
teeth, small vesicles may be frequently ob- 
served, varying in size, from one-quarter 
to one-eighth of a line in diameter. They 
appear to the naked eye to be transparent ; 
under the microscope their parietes are 
found to consist cf attenuated scales, and 
their cavity to contain a fluid abounding in 
minute granules and cells. The internal 
surface of the epithelium, covering the al- 

* The vesicles here alluded to are most 
probably those which Serres describes as 
glands for the secretion of tartar; they are 
very numerous, even after the extrusion of 
the incisor teeth of the calf, and are seen 
with great facility internally. 




vcolar arch, frequently presents concavities 
or indentations which are from a line and 
a half to three or four lines in circumfer- 
ence : they correspond to projections from 
the mucous membrane formed by a larger 
species of vesicle. The latter is deeply im- 
planted in the vascular mucous membrane. 
The parietes of these vesicles are composed 
of a very delicate membrane ; they contain 
a transparent fluid which coagulates on the 
application of heat or acid, or on immer- 
sion in spirit, and in this fluid float nume- 
rous globules and scales similar to those of 
the epithelium generally. The internal or 
attached surface of the alveolar epithe- 
lium also presents numerous fringed pro- 
cesses measuring from one line to one and 
a half lines in length, and half a line in 
breadth, which sink into the substance of 
the subjacent mucous membrane. Under 
the microscope these fringes are found to 
be composed of elongated scales connected 
together, forming masses which divide and 
subdivide, until they attain such an ex- 
treme tenuity that the most minute termin- 
ations consist but of two scales in marginal 
apposition. If the epithelium be carefully 
separated from the surface of the mucous 
membrane corresponding to the unextruded 
molar teeth, and placed in water or in di- 
luted spirit of wine for some little time, its 
internal or attached surface presents these 
fringes much enlarged and forming a mass 
more considerable in size than the dense 
epithelium itself. 

"The epithelium covering the mucous 
membrane of the palate presents transverse 
ruga?, corresponding to those of the mu- 
cous membrane. If these palatal ruga? of 
the epithelium of the calf be carefully ex- 
amined from the internal surface with a 
magnifying power of one inch focal dis- 
tance, each will be found to consist, or to 
be composed of numerous depressions, or 
cul de sacs, which receive prolongations or 
pointed processes of the subjacent mucous 

"They are of extreme tenuity, and, 
when viewed by the aid of high magnify- 
ing powers, are observed to consist of dis- 
tinct scales." 

Epithelium Cells. The cells of the 

EP'ITHEM. EpUhe'ma; from em, upon, 
and ndrifiL, 1 put. A term which compre- 
hends all topical remedies, with the excep- 
tion of plasters and ointments. 


EPITH'ESIS. The straightening of 
crooked limbs by means of instruments. 

EPITHYM'LE. Morbid desires or long- 

EPIZO'ANS. Epizo'a; from em, upon, 
and £wov, animal. A class of parasitic an- 
imals which chiefly infest fish. 

EPIZOOTIA. Epizouty. From em, 
upon, and faov, an animal. The simulta- 
neous occurrence of a disease among a 
great number of the lower animals. In 
the Veterinary Art it has the same mean- 
ing that epidemic has in medicine. 

EPIZOOTIC. Epizobt'icns. Pertaining 
to epizootia. 

EPIZOOTY. Epizootia. 

EPODE. The treatment of disease by 

EPO'MIB. From em, upon, and w//o?, 
the shoulder. The acromion; the upper 
part of the shoulder. 

EPOSTO'MA. Eposio'sis. Exostosis. 

EPSE'MA. Decoction. 

EPSOM SALTS. Sulphate of magne- 

EPU'LIS. From em, upon, and ovlov, 
the gum. A fungous excrescence or tumor 
of the gums. It is sometimes soft, at other 
times hard, and makes its appearance upon 
the gum between two teeth, or from the 
sockets of decayed teeth. It is sometimes 
of a simple and at other times of a malig- 
nant character. See Jaws, morbid growths 
of. # 

EPULO'SIS. Cicatrization. 

EPULO'TIC. EjJidot'icus; from enwh>w, 
to cicatrize, or heal up a wound. Applied 
to remedies which promote cicatrization. 

EQUILIBRIUM. From cequus, equal, 
and librare, to weigh. In Medicine, har- 
mony in the reciprocal action of the organs 
of the body. 

EQUI'NIA. From equinus, belonging 
to a horse. Glanders. A contagious, and 




sometimes a dangerous disease, produced 
by inoculation with certain diseased fluids 
generated in the horse, mule, &c. Two 
species are met with, equinia mitls, caused 
by inoculation with the fluid of grease, and 
equinia glandidosa, a malignant and usu- 
ally fatal disease. 

EQUISE'TUM. A genus of plants, the 
Bpecies of which are called horse-tail, or 
mare's-iail. See Hippuris Vulgaris. 

E'QUITANT. Equitans. A term ap- 
plied in Botany to leaves arranged in op- 
posite rows, so as to overlap alternately 
each other's edges. 

EQUITATION. From equas, a horse. 
Exercise on horseback. 

Chemistry, a term introduced by Dr. Wol- 
laston to express the proportional weight 
in which elementary and compound bodies 
reciprocally unite. 

Elementary Substances, with their Symbols 
and Chemical Equivalents. 


Arsenic . 
Barium . 
Boron . 
Carbon . 
Cerium . 
Cobalt . 
Copper . 
Erbium . 
Gold . 
Iodine . 
Iridium . 
Iron . . 

. Al. 
. Sb. 
. As. 
. Ba. 
. Bi. 
. B. 
. Br. 
, Cd. 

. C. 
. Oe. 

, Cr. 
, Co. 
, Ta. 
, Cu. 
, D. 
, E. 
, F. 

, Au. 
. H. 
, II. 
, I. 
, Ir. 























. . La. 

Lead . . 

. . Pb. 



. . L. 



. . Mg. 



. . Mn. 



• • Mg. 



. . Mo. 


Nickel . . 

. . Ni. 


Niobium . 

. . Nb. 

Nitrogen . 

. N. 





. . Os. . 



. . O. 


Palladium . 

. . Pd. 


Pelopium . 

. . Pe. 


. . P. 


Platinum . 

. Pt. 


Potassium . 

. K. 


Rhodium . 

. . R. 



. . Ru. 


Selenium . 

. . Se. 


Silicon . 

. . Si. 


Silver . . . 

• Ag. 


Sodium . . 

. Na. 


Strontium . 

. Sr. 



. S. 


Tellurium . . 

. Te. 


Terbium . . 

. Tb. 

Thorium . . 

. Th. 


Tin . . . . 

. Sn. 


Titanium . . 

. Ti. 


Tungsten . . 

. W. 


Vanadium . . 

. V. 


Uranium . . 

. U. 



. Y. 

Zinc . . . 

. . Zn. 


Zirconium . 

. . Zr. 


E'QUIVALVE. A bivalve in which its 
two valves are of similar size and form. 

EQUIVOCAL. From cequus, equal, 
and vox, voice. Symptoms of a doubtful 
nature, or which belong to several dis- 

EQUUS. A horse. A generic name of 
the quadrupeds which have a single diget 
and hoof on each foot, as the horse, ass, 
and zebra. 

ERADICATION. Eradica'tio; from e, 
from, and radix, a root. The complete 
removal, or rooting out of a disease. 

ERADICATIVE. Any thing which 




possesses the power of rooting out, or 
completely curing a disease. 

ERBIUM. A metal occurring with 

tissue of the animal economy, clescrihed 
by some writers, but not recognized by 
others, consisting of a vascular net-work, 
liberally supplied with nerves, and sus- 
ceptible of erection by an increased flow 
of blood. It enters into the composition 
of the corpora cavernosa of the penis and 
clitoris, the inferior part of the vagina 
and corpus spongiosum urethras ; of the 
■lips, iris, nipples, nervous papilla}, &c. 
The same tissue is sometimes developed 
as a morbid structure, as exemplified in 
namis maternus, many hemorrhoidal, va- 
ricose, polypous, and other tumors. 

ERECTION. Erec'tio. The action or 
enlargement which takes place in erectile 

Erector Clitoridis. A name applied 
to certain muscles, the functions of which 
are to raise the port into which they arc 
inserted. The ischio-cavernosus. A muscle 
which, by drawing the clitoris downward 
and backward, forces the blood into it 
from its cms, and serves to make the 
body of it more tense. 

Ekector Penis. The ischio-cavernosus. 
A muscle of the penis, which, by its con- 
traction, forces the urine and semen for- 
ward, and causes the blood to flow into 
the corpus cavernosum and the glans, 
and thus to distend them. 

EREMACAU'SIS. From ep^of, waste, 
and Kavaig, combustion. The slow com- 
bustion, oxydation, or decay which takes 
place in organic bodies when freely ex- 
posed to air and moisture. 

ER'ETHISM. Erethis'mus; fromep^u, 
I irritate. Exaltation, or increase of vital 
phenomena in any organ or tissue. Irri- 
ERETHIS'MA. Rubefacient. 
ERETHIS'MUS. Irritation. 
Erethismus Ebrio'sum. Delirium 

Erethismus Hydropho'bia. Hydro- 

Erethismus Mercuria'lis. A state of 
the constitution produced by mercury, 
characterized by depression of strength, 
anxiety about the pnecordia, frequent 
sighing, irregular action of the heart, 
small, quick, sometimes intermitting, 
pulse; tremors, shriveled countenance, a 
sense of coldness, &c. 

ERETHITTC. Appertaining to ere- 

EREUC'MOS. Eructation. 
ERGOT. Spurred rye. See Secale 

ERGO'TINE. Ergolin. A peculiar 
principle discovered in ergot, consisting of 
an unctuous, reddish, neutral powder. 
ERGOTA. Ergot. 

ER'GOTISM. The effects produced by 

ERICA'CEyE. A natural order of 
shrubby exogens, differing from Vacci- 
nacece and Campanulacece in their superior 
ovary; from Epacridacece, in the anther 
being two-celled ; from Pyrolaccce and 
Monotropacece, in the structure of tho 
seeds, and in habit; and from all tho 
orders represented by Scrophulariacece , and 
Gentianacece, in the number of the cells 
of the ovary agreeing with the lobes of 
the calyx and corolla. Their general 
qualities are astringent and diuretic, but 
some few are poisonous. The Arbutus, 
Andromeda, Kalmia, Bhododendron, Aza- 
lea, all well known shrubby plants of 
great beauty, belong to this order. 

ERI'GERON. A genus of plants of tho 
order Compositce. 

Erigeron Canaden'se. Canada flea- 
bane ; a bitter, acrid, and somewhat as- 
tringent plant. 

Erigeron Philadel'phicum. Phila- 
delphia fleabane; a biennial herb, used 
in nephritic and dropsical diseases. 

ERIOCAULO'NE/E. A natural order 
of Endogens, composed of herbaceous 
plants, with their flowers growing in close 

ERO'DED. Gnawed. 

nium moschatum. 

ERO'SION. Erosio; from erodere, to 




eat away. The gradual destruction of a 
part by the action of a corrosive sub- 

Erosion of the Teeth. A species of 
caries, characterized by gradual decom- 
position, first, of the enamel, and after- 
wards of the subjacent osseous tissue of a 
tooth. It has been divided by European 
continental writers into congenital and ac- 
cidental. The former occurs previously to 
the eruption of the teeth, and is dependent 
upon an acidulated condition of the mucous 
fluid contained in the sacs of the teeth j 
the latter, at any subsequent period of 
life, and is referable to an acidulated con- 
dition of the mucous fluids of the mouth. 

Erosion, properly speaking, confines 
itself to the enamel, and is usually devel- 
oped on a series of teeth at the same time. 
When the disease occurs subsequently to 
the eruption of the teeth, it generally 
develops itself on their surfaces near the 
margin of the gums, and the decomposed 
part of the enamel is white, and of a soft, 
chalky texture. The exposed dentine is 
usually very sensitive to the touch, and to 
impressions of heat and cold. 

The enamel is sometimes so badly 
eroded on the eruption of the teeth, as to 
render their preservation almost impossible. 
But whether the disease be congenital or 
accidental, the treatment is the same; for 
a description of which, the reader is refer- 
red to the article on caries of the teeth. 

EROT'IC. Ero'ticus; from epuc, love. 
Relating to the passion of love, as erotic 
melancholy, erotic delirium, &c. 

EROTOMANIA. Eroma'nia ; from 
epoc, love, and uavia, madness. Melancholy 
or alienation of mind produced by love. 

ERPETOL'OGY. From epnerog, a rep- 
tile, and hoyoc, a discourse. That branch of 
Zoological science which treates on reptiles. 
See Herpetology. 

ERRAT'IC. Erat'icus; from errare, to 
wander. Wandering; irregular. In Pa- 
thology, applied to fevers which observe no 
regular type, and to pains and cutaneous 
diseases which shift from place to place. 

ER'RHINE. Errhi'num; from «», in, 
and ptv, the nose. A substance which, 

when applied to the nose, excites sneezing 
and increased secretion. 

ER'RHYSIS. From ev, in, and pea, I 
flow. A slight hemorrhage. 

ERROR LOCI. An epithet employed 
by Roerhaave to express deviation of flu- 
ids, when they enter vessels not destined to 
receive them ; as, for example, when red 
blood enters vessels which circulate only 
the serous part of this fluid, they become 
obstructed by eiror of place. 

EIIUCA'IC ACID. A crystalline acid 
obtained from oil of mustard seed. 

ERUCTATION. Eructa'tio; from eruc- 
tare, to belch. An emission from the mouth 
of gas from the stomach. 

ERUPTION. Erup'lio; from erumpere, 
to break or burst out. In Pathology, ac- 
cording to the usual acceptation of this 
term, the development of an exanthematous 
affection on the surface, and the exanthema 
itself. It is, however, sometimes applied to 
a copious evacuation of a fluid ; blood, 
serum, pus, or gas, from a canal or cavity. 
Also, the emergence of the teeth from the 

Eruption of the Teeth. See Denti- 

ERUPTIVE. Ernpti'vus. Applied to 
diseases, especially fevers, which are ac- 
companied by an eruption on the skin. 

ER'YUM. A genus of plants of the or- 
der Leguminosce. 

Ervum Ervil'la. The tare. 

Ervum Lens. The lentil, which are 
eaten as peas. 

ERYN'GIUM. A genus of plants of 
the order Umbellifera'. 

Eryngium Aquat'icum Eryngium ; 
water eryngo ; button snake-root. The 
root is sudorific, expectorant, and in large 
doses, emetic. 

Eryngium Marit'imum. The sea holly 
or eryngo. The root is slightly aromatic. 

ERYSIMUM. A genus of plants of 
the order Cruciferce. 

Erys'imum Allia'ria. The systematic 
name of Jack-in-the-hedge, or stinking 

ERYSIP'ELAS. From epvu, I draw in, 
and nelac, near, so called, from its tend- 




ency to spread to neighboring parts. A 
cutaneous phlegmasia, vulgarly termed St. 
Anthony's fire, accompanied with swelling, 
diffused redness, but more or less circum- 
scribed, pain and heat, and vesications. 
Several species are described by medical 

ERYSIPELATOUS. Belonging to ery- 

ERYTHE'MA. From epvdpot , red. Red- 
ness. According to Dr. Cullen, a rash, or 
inflammatory blush, without fever. It is 
regarded also, by some authors, to be anal- 
ogous to erysipelas. The term is employed 
by Dr. Willan to designate a genus of cu- 
taneous diseases of the third order, exan- 
themata; he enumerates six species. He 
•defines it to be " a nearly continuous red- 
;ness of some portion of the skin, attended 
with disorder of the constitution, but not 

Erythema An'thrax. A carbuncle. 

Erythema Centrif'ugum. Erythema 
of the face, characterized by a small red 
spot, which sometimes spreads over the 
entire face. 

Erythema Epidem'icum. See Pella- 

Erythema Fu'gax. An erythema of 
an irregular shape, and which sometimes 
occurs in febrile diseases and during den- 

Erythema L-eve. A slight shining 
redness of the skin, especially on the lower 
extremities, of persons affected with ana- 

Erythema Marginatum. Erythema 
bounded by a hard, irregular red border, 
and in which the patches are distinctly 
separated from each other. 

Erythema Mercuriale. See Eczema 

Erythema Nodo'sum. A form of ery- 
thema peculiar to females, consisting of 
oval patches on the legs which soon rise 
into hard oval protuberances. 

Erythema Papula'tum. Erythema 
which appears in irregular patches on the 
neck, arms and breast, and which in about 
two weeks disappears, leaving a bluish hue 
>upon the skin. 

mon centaury ; a plant of the order Qen- 

ERYTH'RIC ACID. Purpuric acid ; a 
red substance obtained by the action of 
nitric on uric acid. Alloxan. 

ERYTHROEI'DES. The tunica vagi- 
nalis testis. 

The coral tree. 

ERYTHRINE. A red coloring matter 
obtained from lioccella tinctoria. 

ERYTH'ROGEN. A green, tasteless 
liquid sometimes found in the gall bladder 
of persons who have died of jaundice. 

vesicle of the foetus, longer, but of the same 
diameter as the umbilical vesicle. 

ERYTHRO'NIUM. A metal called 
Vanadium. Also a genus of plants of the 
order Liliacece. 

Erythronium America'num. Yellow 
snake-leaf; adder's tongue. A plant pos- 
sessing emetic properties. 

ERYTHROPHYLL. The red color- 
ing matter of leaves and fruits. 

resulting from the action of a concentrated 
boiling solution of potash on protein. 

ERYTHRO'SIS. From epvdpoc, red. 
Florid plethora. 

ES'APHE. Examination of the uterus 
by touch. 

ES'CHAR. Es'chara; from eoxapow, to 
scab over. The crust or disorganized por- 
tion of animal substance produced by the 
application of caustic. 

ESCHAROTTC. Escharot'icus; from 
eoxapa, eschar. Any substance which, 
when applied to living tissues, is capable of 
producing an eschar. Among the sub- 
stances which produce this effect, are the 
caustic potassa, concentrated mineral acids, 
sulphate of copper, &c. 

ES'CULENT. Esculen'ius; from esca, 
food. Such plants and animals as may be 
used for food. 

ES'CULINE. An alkaloid obtained from 
JEscuLw Hippocastanum. 

ESENBECKINA. An organic alka- 
loid obtained from Brazilian Cinchona. 




ESO-. Eao>, within. A prefix signify- 
ing, in Pathology, an internal disease. 

ESOCOLITIS. Dysentery. 

ESOENTERITIS. Inflammation of 
the lining membrane of the intestines. 

ESOGASTRITIS. Inflammation of the 
inner membrane of the stomach. 

ESPAR'TO. A species of rush; the 
stipa tenacissima, found in the southern 
provinces of Spain. 

ESPHLA'SIS. From fXm, I break. A 
fracture of the skull, in which the frag- 
ments are depressed. 

ESPRIT'. A French word signifying 
spirit, or essence, tincture, volatile oil, or 

ES'SENCE. Essen'tia. A volatile oil, 
obtained from plants by distillation, di- 
luted with alcohol. 

ESSEN'TIA. An essence; also, a tinc- 

ESSENTIAL. Pertaining to an essence. 

Essential Oil. Any volatile oil. 

Essential Salt of Bark. A watery 
extract of Peruvian bark. 

Essential Salt of Lemons. A mixture 
of cream of tartar and binoxalate of potash. 

ES'SERA. Sora. Sare. A species of 
cutaneous eruption, consisting of broad, 
shining, red spots. 

ESTHIOM'ENUS. From totim, I eat. 
An eroding disease, as some forms of herpes 
and ulcers. 

ES'TIVAL. jEs'tieus. Pertaining to 
summer, as summer diseases. 

ETHER. JEther. Awfyp. In Chemis- 
try, a very light, volatile, and inflammable 
fluid, produced by distillation of alcohol, 
with a concentrated acid, especially the sul- 

Ether, Ace'tic. An acetate of the oxyd 
of ethyl. Acetic naphtha. 

Ether, Chlo'ric See Chloroform. 

Ether, Hy'dric. Sulphuric ether. 

Ether, Hydrochlo'ric. The extremely 
volatile chloride of ethyl. 

Ether, Hyponitrous. Nitrous ether. 
Nitric ether. 

Ether, Muriat'ic. JEther hydro- 
chloricus. Hydrochloric ether. 

Ether, Ni'tric. Nitrous ether. 

Ether, (Enan'thic. The aromatic li- 
quid which imparts to wines their peculiar 

Ether, Sulphu'ric. JEther sutyhuri- 
cus. Common ether, prepared by distill- 
ing alcohol with sulphuric acid. 

ETHE'REAL. Pertaining to, or of the 
nature of, ether. 

Ethereal Oil. Oleum aihereum. The 
oleum vini, found in the residuum of sul- 
phuric ether. 

ETHERIFICA'TION. The conversion 
of fluids into ethers. 

ETHERINE. A solid body deposited 
from etherole in the cold. It contains the 
same elements in the same ratio with ethe- 

ETHEROLE. An oily product of the 
decomposition of the sweet oil of wine 
when heated with water. It is insoluble, 
and isomeric with olefiant gas. 

ETHIONIC ACID. A product obtained 
by the action of anhydrous sulphuric acid 
on alcohol. 

ETH'MOID. Ethmbi'des; from ffyof , 
a sieve, and eidog, form. Sieve-like. 

Ethmoid Bone. Os ethmbides. One of 
the eight bones of the cranium, situated be- 
tween the eyes and ethmoidal notch of the 
os frontis, of a light cellular texture and 
cubical form. It is articulated with the 
frontal, lachrymal, sphenoid, superior 
maxillary, palatine, the vomer, and infe- 
rior spongy bones. 

ETHMOIDAL. Applied to parts which 
pertain to, or are connected with, the eth- 
moid bone, as the ethmoidal cells, ethmoidal 
arteries, &C. 

ETHNOG'RAPHY. From edvoc, nation, 
and ypa<f>V, description. A description of the 
different natural races and families of men. 

ETHNOL'OGY. From etivoc, nation, 
and toyos, discourse. A treatise on the dif- 
ferent natural races and families of men. 

ETH'YL. A term applied by Berzelius 
to the elementary carbo-hydrogen of ether. 
C 4 H 5 . 

ETIOLATION. Ghloro'sis. The pro- 
cess of whitening plants by depriving them 
of light, or raising them in the dark. 

ETIOL'OGY. See .Etiology. 




EILE'MIA. From ev, well, and ai/m, \ 
blood. A good state of the blood. 

EUiESTHE'SIA. From ev, well, and 
aiodrimc, perception. Good perception. 

astringent gum resembling kino. 

EUCHLO'RINE. From tv, brilliant, and 
X^upor, green. The protoxyd of chlorine, 
so called from its deep yellow-green color. | 
EUCHRO'NIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by the decomposition of the neutral mel- 
litate of ammonia by heat. 

EUCHYM'IA. From ev, well, and x v P°C, 
juice. A good condition of the humors. 

EU'CLASE. A rare mineral, consisting 
of small greenish crystals, a silicate of glu- 
cina and alumina. 

EUCUA'SIA. From ev, well, and npaaig, 
temperament. A good temperament. 

EUDIOM'ETER. From evdta, purity of 
air, and jierpov, a measure. An instrument 
for ascertaining the quantity of oxygen or 
any other gas in a given mixture of gases. 
EUDIOM'ETRY. The art of ascertain- 
ing the quantity of any gas contained in a 
given bulk of atmospheric air. 
EUETHES. Benign. 
EUEX'IA. Fromei', well, and efa, con- 
stitution. A good constitution. 

EUGE'NIA. A genus of plants of the 
order Myrtacea.'. 

Euge'nta Caryophylla'ta. The clove 
tree of India. 

EUGE'NIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from cloves and Jamaica pimento. 

EU'LABES. A genus of Passerine birds, 
belonging to the family of thrushes. 

EULI'MA. A genus of marine shell- 
clad Gastropods. 

EUNUCH. Eunu'chus ; from evvjj, the 
bed, and ex u , I keep. One who has been 
castrated, or whose genital organs have 
been so altered as to render him incapable 
of reproducing his species. 

EUPATHl'A. From ev, well, and nadog, 
suffering. Easily affected by pain ; also, 
health . 

EUPATO'PJUM. Agrimony. Also, a 
genus of plants of the order Compositce. 

Eupatorium Cannab'inum. Hemp ag- 
rimony. The juice is emetic and purgative. 

Eupatorium Perfolia'tum. Thorough- 
wort ; boneset. It is esteemed a tonic and 

Eupatorium Purpu'reum. Purple- 
stalked eupatorium. Trumpet weed. 

Eupatorium Teucrifo'lium. Wild 
hoarhound. It has properties similar to 
the eupatorium perfoliatum. 

EUPEPSIA. From ev , well, and mirTu, 
I digest. Good digestion. 

EUPHLO'GIA. From ev, well, and 
<j>2.eyu, I burn. Mild inflammation. 

EU'PHONY. Eupho'nia; from ev, well, 
and <j>wvri } voice. A good voice. 

EUPHOR'BIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Euphoi'biacece. 

Euphorbia Capita'ta. An astringent 
Brazilian plant. 

Euphorbia Corolla'ta. Tuc large 
flowering spurge, or milk-weed. 

Euphorbia Cytparis'sias. The cypress 

Euphorbia Hyperictfo'lia. A species 
of Euphorbia indigenous in the United 
States, used as an astringent and tonic. 

Euphorbia Ipecacuan'ha. Ipecacu- 
anha spurge. The root is powerfully emetic. 

Euphorbia Lath'yris. The system- 
atic name of the plant which affords the 
eataputia seeds. 

Euphorbia Officina'rum. The sytcm- 
atic name of the plant which affords the 
eiqdiorbium, an inodorous gum-resin. 

Euphorbia Palus'tris. The greater 
spurge. The juice is purgative. 

Euphorbia Paral'ias. The sea spurge. 

EUPHORBIA'CEiE. A natural order 
of exogenous plants, inhabitants of almost 
all parts of the globe. 

EUPHOR'BIUM. Euphwbiai gum res- 
ina. The concrete juice of several species 
of Euphorbia. It is emetic and cathartic, 
often acting with great violence. 

EUPHRASIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Scrofulariacece. 

Euphrasia Officinalis. Eye-bright ; 
a popular remedy for diseases of the eye. 

EUPION. A limpid, colorless liquid 
obtained by distillation from fatty oils, es- 
pecially that of rape seed. 

EUPLAS'TIC. From ev, and Klaa^, 




formation. An epithet employed by Lob- 
stein for the elaborated matter out of which 
animal tissues are formed. 

EUPYRTON. From ev, easily , and nvp, 
fire. Any contrivance for obtaining instan- 
taneous light, as the phosphorous bottle. 

EURYTH'MIA. From ev, well, and 
evdfiog, rhythm. A regular pulse. 

EURODONTIA. From wpof, caries, 
and odovg, a tooth. Caries of the teeth. 

EURONDONTICUS. One suffering 
from caries of the teeth. 

EU'ltUS. Corruption of the humors. 

EUSAR'CUS. Fleshy and robust. 

EUSE'MIA. From ev, well, and oti(teuv t 
a sign. Favorable sign. 

EUSPLANCH'NIA. A healthy state of 
the viscera. 

which forms a communication between the 
upper part of the pharynx and the ear. It 
is bony and cartilaginous, and lined by a 
continuation of the mucous membrane of 
the pharynx. The entrance from the 
pharynx is indicated by a depression in the 
mucous membrane. 

Eustachian Valve. Valvitla Eustachii. 
A membranous semilunar fold, at the 
inferior vena cava. 

EUSTHENI'A. Exuberant health. 

EUTAX'IA. A constitution in which 
every part has its proper relation. 

EUTHANA'SIA. From ev, well, and 
davaroc, death. An easy death. 

EUTHYM'IA. Mental sanity or tran- 

EUTO'CIA. An easy labor. 

EUTROPH'IA. From ev, well, and 
Tpoij>r}, nourishment. Healthy nutrition. 

EUTROPH'IC. Eutroph'icum. A term 
introduced in medical terminology by Pro- 
fessor Dunglison, " for an agent whose ac- 
tion is exerted on the system of nutrition, 
without necessarily occasioning manifest 
increase of any of the secretions." 

EUXANTHIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from Indian Yellow. 

EVAC'UANTS. Evacaan'tia; from e, 
and vacuare, to empty. Medicines which 
occasion a discharge from some emunctory, 
as emetics, cathartics, &c. 

EVACUATION. Evacua'iio. Any dis- 
charge from the animal body, whether 
from the natural passages or by an artifi- 
cial opening, or whether spontaneous or 
provoked by artificial means. 

EVAPORATION. Empora'tio; from 
e, and vaporarc, to emit a vapor. The con- 
version of a fluid or any other substance 
into a vapor, for the purpose of obtaining 
the fixed matters in a separate state, while 
the volatile parts are dissipated and lost. 

EVENTRATION. Eventra'tio; from e, 
out of, and venter, the belly. A tumor 
from general relaxation of the walls of the 
abdomen and protrusion of the viscera. 
Also, hernia which takes place through 
any other than the natural oiienings of the 
abdominal walls ; and, lastly, the protru- 
sion of the viscera through a wound of the 
walls of the abdomen. 

EVERGREEN. A term applied in Bot- 
any to plants which retain their leaves the 
whole year. 

EVERRIC'ULUM. An instrument used 
for the removal of fragments of calculus, 
or coagula of blood from the bladder, after 
the operation of lithotomy. 

EVOLUTION. Evolu'tio; from evolvere, 
to unroll. In Physiology, increase, growth 
or development. Also, that theory of gen- 
eration which supposes the germ of the 
new being to exist previous to fecunda- 
tion, and to be only developed by the pro- 
cess of generation. 

Evolution, Spontaneous. In obstet- 
rics, a term applied by Dr. Denman to 
spontaneous turning and natural delivery, 
after the protrusion of the arm and 
shoulder of the child from the vagina. 

EVUL'SION. Ecid'sio; from evellere, 
to pluck out. The forcible extraction of 
any part, as a tooth. 

EXACERBATION. Exacerba'tio; from 
exacerbare, to provoke. An increase of 
intensity in symptoms of a disease which 
recur at intervals. It is sjmonymous with 

EXiE'RESIS. From e^aipeu, to remove. 
The removal of whatever is obnoxious to 
the human body, as the extraction of a 
carious or dead tooth, the amputation of 




a limb, the removal of foreign bodies, 
tumors, &c. 

EXAL'MA. Displacement of the ver- 

FORCES. A morbid increase of action, 
as that which takes place in an inflamed 
part. It is used by some authors as syn- 
onymous with inflammation. 

EXAMBLO'MA. Abortion. 

EXANGFA. From e^ayyieu, I evacuate 
from a vessel. An enlargement or perfo- 
ration of a blood vessel without external 
opening. A genus of diseases, in the order 
Dysthetica, class Hcematica, of Dr. Good, 
which includes aneurism, varix, and cyania. 

EXAN'GUIOUS. Exsan'guis; from ex, 
out of, and sanguis, blood. Deficient in 
blood, as in those who have suffered from 

EX A'NIA . From ex, out of, and amis. 
Prolapsus of the rectum. 

EXANIMATION. Death, real or ap- 

EXAN'THEM. Exanthe'ma; from efrv- 
•deu, I flourish. A cutaneous eruption, or 
rash. The term is employed by some 
writers to designate every sort of eruption 
that appears on the skin, but Dr. Willan 
uses it as synonymous with rash. 

Exanthem Mercubiale. Eczema mer- 

Exanthem Caebun'culab. Anthrax. 

EXANTHEMATA. An order of dis- 
eases, of the class Pyrexia;, of Dr. Cullen's 


EXANTHEMAT'ICA. Eruptive fevers ; 
the third order in the class Hcematica of 
Dr. Good. 

sion of an eruption of the skin. 

MIA. Ophthalmia occurring during or 
after an exanthematous disease. 

EXANTHE'SIS. From etavdeu, I efflo- 
resce. The breaking out of an efflorescence 
on the skin ; also, the efflorescence itself. 

EXANTHROP'IA. From e$avdpunog, 
misanthropic. A misanthrope. 

EXARCHIATER. Exarchia'tros ; from 

et-apxog, a leader, and tarpog, a physician. 
The first or principal physician. 

EXAR'MA. Swelling. 

EXAR'SIO. A burning heat. 

EXARTERI'TIS. Inflammation of the 
outer coat of an artery. 

EXARTICULA'TION. From ex, out 
of, and articulus, a joint. A dislocation. 

EXCARNA'TION. Making anatomical 
preparations by corrosion. 

IMPROVED. This improvement consists 
in placing between the handles of a com- 
mon excising instrument, a joint, operated 
by a key handle, capable of closing the 
instrument with a force five or six times 
greater than can be produced by the hand 

Excising Instbument, Elliot's. An 
instrument invented by Dr. W. H. Elliot 
of Montreal, for excising the crowns of 
teeth, and which is so constructed that a 
tooth is in no danger of being moved in 
its socket by the oj)eration. The cutting 
parts of the instrument are brought to- 
gether with a force seventy-two times 
greater than that applied to the handle by 
the hand. 

EXCIS'ION. Excis'io; from ex 'cider -e, to 
cut off. The removal of a tumor or other 
small part with a cutting instrument ; also 
amputation at a joint. 

EXCITABILITY. Excitabili'tas. The 
capability of living bodies being brought 
into action, under the influence of exciting 
agents. Irritability. 

EXCITANT. A stimulant. 

EXCITATION. Excitement. The 
action of excitants upon the living body. 

applied by Dr. Marshall Hall to the fibres 
of the anterior and posterior roots of the 
spinal nerves, which are supposed to 
derive their origin and power of action 
from the cineritious matter of the spine, 
in which they arise, and to be brought into 
action by exterior agency, independently 
of the direct power of the will. 

EXCORIATION. Excoria'tio ; from 
excoriare, to remove the skin. Abrasion 
of the skin. 




EXCEEATION. The act of spitting. 

EX'CEEMENT. Excremen'tum ; from 
excemere, to separate. All matters evacu- 
ated from the animal body by the natural 
emunctories as superfluous, as the fasces, 
urine, perspiration, &c, but generally 
applied to the faeces. 

or of the nature of, excrement. 

T'lOUS . A term applied to secretions 
which are partly absorbed and partly re- 

EXCEES'CENCE. Excrescentia ; from 
excrescere, to grow out. Any preterna- 
tural growth, as a tumor, corn, or wart, 
from an organ or tissue, especially from 
the skin, mucous membrane, or an ulcer- 
ated surface. 

EXCEETION. Excre'tio; from excer- 
nere, to separate. The expulsion, by the 
various outlets of the body, of such mat- 
ters as are useless, as the urine, fa)ces, 
perspiration, &c. 

EX'CEETOEY. Excreto'rius. A vessel 
or duct which conveys a secreted fluid 
from the gland which has secreted it. 

Excretory Organ. An organ destined 
for excretion. 

brush. An instrument formerly used for 
the removal of foreign bodies from the 

EXELCO'SIS. Ulceration. 

EXELCYS'MOS. From «f, from, and 
elicvu, I draw. Extraction. 

EXEEA'MA. From efrpau, I throw out. 
The act of vomiting, or the matter vomited. 

EX'EECISE, Exercita'tio; from exer- 
cere, to work. Movements of the body 
produced by the contraction of muscles, 
in obedience to the will. 

EXEBCITATION. Exercita'tio; from 
exercere, to work. Exercise ; gymnastics. 

EXEREHO'SIS. From ef, out of, and 
pea, I flow. The discharge from insensible 

EXFCETATION. Extra uterine fceta- 
tion, or the development of the ovum in 
some organ exterior to the uterus. 

EXFOLIATION. Exfolia'tio; from ex, 

from, and folium, a leaf. Desquamation. 
The separation or detachment of dead por- 
tions of bone, cartilage, fascia, or tendon. 
The definition, however, is generally re- 
stricted to the separation of portions of 

EXFOLIATIVE. Medicines which 
promote exfoliation. Also, instruments 
for effecting or accelerating exfoliation. 

EXHA'LANT. Exha'lent; from exha- 
lare, to exhale, to throw out. A small 
vessel which performs the function of ex- 

Exhalant Vessels. A distinct system 
of vessels, which, according to Bichat, 
originate from the capillary arterial sys- 
tem, and are distributed to all the tissues 
of the body, pouring out on the surfaces 
of the mucous and serous membranes, and 
skin, a peculiar fluid. They are purely 

EXHALATION. Exhala'tio. The ema- 
nation which arises from organized and 
inorganic bodies, in the form of vapor. 

EXHAUSTION. That state of body 
which results from great fatigue, privation 
of food, excessive evacuations, great men- 
tal effort, anxiety, or from disease. Also, 
the effect resulting from the removal of 
air from a vessel with an air pump. 

EXHIL'AEANTS. Agents which en- 
liven and gently stimulate. 

EXHOEEHI'ZiE. From e£, out of, 
and pifa, root. A term applied in Botany 
to the embryo of Dicotyledons, as their 
radicle always elongates downward, from 
the outside of the base of the embryo. 

EXHUMATION. Exhuma'tio; from 
ex, and humus, the ground. The disinter- 
ment of a corpse. 

EXIS'CHIOS. From e£, out of, and 
toxiov, the ischium. Luxation of the thigh 

EX'ITUS. The outer opening of a 
canal. The termination of a disease. 

EXO-. E£u, outward. Used as a prefix 
to other words. 

EXO'CHAS. From e£u, without, and 
£#<•>, I have. A tumor at the anus. 

EXOCULATIO. Absence of eyes. 




EXOCYSTE. Exocys'tis; from ef, out 
of, and Kvang, the bladder. Prolapsus of 
the urinary bladder. 

EXODONTO'SIS. Exostosis of the 

EXOG"ENOUS. From ef, outside, and 
yeivo/xai, I grow. A term applied in Botany 
to plants whose vessels are disposed round a 
cellular substance or pith, so that the more 
recently produced parts fire in the circum- 
ference. They are also called dicotyledons, 
and constitute one of the primary classes 
into which the vegetable world is divided. 

EXOLU'TIOX. Syncope. Trance. 

EXOM'PHALUS. From ef, out of, and 
o/MpaAog, the navel. An umbilical hernia. 

EXONCO'MA. From ef, and oy/coc, a 
tumor. • A large tumor or protuberance. 

EXOPHTHAL'MIA. From ef, out of, 
and o<p$atyoc, the eye. A protrusion of 
the bulb of the eye. 

EXOSMO'SIS. From ef, out of, and 
ua/iog, impulse. Transudation. The op- 
posite, of endosmosis. 

EXOSTE'MA. A genus of trees of the 
natural family Cinchoniacece. 

Exostema Carib'BjEum. The tree which 
furnishes the Caribbean or Jamaica cin- 
chona bark. 

Exostema Peruvia'num. The tree from 
which the Peruvian bark is obtained. 

Exostema Souza'num. The Brazilian 

EXOSTOME. From if, out of, and 
cnoua, a mouth. The foramen through 
the outer integument of an ovule. 

EXOSTOSIS. Hypa-osio'sis ; from ef, 
out of, and oareov, a bone. An osseous 
tumor formed on the surface, or in the 
cavity of a bone. Three varieties are 
enumerated, namely, ivory exostosis, from 
its resemblance in structure to ivory; lamel- 
lated exostosis, from its being developed in 
laminra ; and spongy exostosis, from its 
resemblance in structure to the tissue of 

Exostosis of the Alveoli. The al- 
veoli as well as the teeth, and other osse- 
ous structures of the body are sometimes 
attacked by exostosis, which may develop 
itself in the form of a bony tumor, or in 

the thickening of their walls, and a con- 
sequent displacement of the teeth. 

Exostosis op the Teeth. Exostosis 
dentium; Exodonto'sis. The only part of 
a tooth subject to exostosis is the root, and 
the development of the affection usually 
commences at or near the extremity ; ex- 
tending from thence upward, it sometimes 
covers a greater or less portion of the exter- 
nal surface. Occasionally, however, it com- 
mences on the side, and so great a deposr- 
tion of osseous matter takes place, that a 
large irregular tubercle is formed ; at other 
times the bony deposit is diffused regularly 
over nearly the whole of the root, but more 
frequently it is irregular. The bony mat- 
ter thus deposited is generally of a denser 
structure than cementum, of a slightly 
yellowish hue, and semi-translucent ap- 

Although sound as well as carious teeth 
are liable to be attacked by exostosis, 
the occurrence of the affection is evidently 
the result of increased action of the vessels 
of the periosteum, arising sometimes from 
caries, sometimes from the loss of one or 
more antagonizing teeth, and at other 
times from pressure of the adjoining teeth, 
or from malposition of a tooth, or from 
some operation that has been performed 
upon it. But none of these causes would 
be sufficient to produce the disease, if it 
were not favored by some peculiar consti- 
tutional idiosyncrasy. As the affected part 
of the root increases in size, the alveolus 
enlarges, so that the pressure of the former 
upon the latter is rarely very great, and 
hence the deposition often goes on for years 
without being attended with much pain, 
but at other times it causes the tooth to 
ache and become sore to the touch, and in 
some instances it gives rise to neuralgia of 
the face. 

One of the most remarkable cases of 
exodontosis on record is related by Mr. 
Fox. The subject was a young lady, who, 
at the time she sought the professional 
advice and aid of Mr. Fox, had suffered so 
severely and so long, that the palpebras 
of one eye had been closed for near two 
months, and the secretion of saliva had 





for some time been so copious, that it 
flowed from her mouth whenever it was 
opened. She had tried every remedy 
which had been recommended by the 
ablest medical advisers, without realizing 
any permanent benefit, and was only re- 
lieved from her suffering by the extraction 
of every one of her teeth. 

In the Museum of the Baltimore College 
of Dental Surgery, are some very remark- 
able examples of dental exostosis. In one, 
a present from Dr. E. G. Hawes, of New 
York, the three superior molar teeth of 
one side are united by a deposit of bony 
matter. In another, a present from Dr. 
Blandin, of Columbia, S. C, two upper 
molars are united. In a third, a pres- 
ent from Dr. Ware, of Wilmington, X. 
C, there is a deposition of bone on the 
roots of a first superior molar as large as 
a hickory nut, and on the root of a cuspi- 
datus, placed there by the author, the de- 
position of osseous matter forms a bull) at 
its apex, the size of a large pea. But be- 
sides the above, there are in this institu- 
tion many other very remarkable exam- 
ples of the disease. 

The disease, having once established it- 
self, does not admit of cure, and when it has 
progressed so far as to be productive of 
pain, the loss of the affected tooth becomes 
necessary. But as the prognosis is exceed- 
ingly obscure, its existence can only be in- 
ferred from the unpleasant symptoms to 
which it gives rise. 

When the enlargement is very consider- 
able and confined to the extremity of the 
root, and has not been followed by a cor- 
responding enlargement of the alveolus 
around the neck of the tooth, its removal 
is often attended with difficulty, and can 
only be effected by cutting away a greater 
or less portion of the socket. 

Exostosis Steatomatodes. See Osteo- 
\ Steatoma. 
\ EXOT'IC. Exoticus; from e&, without, 
^at which comes from a foreign country. 
In Natural History and Medicine, animals, 
plants and medicinal agents which are pro- 
cured from abroad. 


foreign bodies or of a foreign body with 
the human. 

EXPAX'SION. Expan'sio; from expan- 
dcre, to spread out. The dilatation of an 
expandible body ; the increase of bulk or 
size which it undergoes by recession of its 
particles from one another. In Anatomy, 
the prolongation or spreading out of an 
organ, or structure, as of aponeuroses. 

tion. A theory which restricts practition- 
ers of medicine to the observation of dis- 
ease, without any effort to control or arrest 
its progress, leaving the cure to the efforts 
of nature, unless very alarming symjitoms 

EXPECTORANT. Expec' tor arts; from 
ex, out of, and pectus, the breast. A med- 
icine which promotes expectoration. 

EXPECTORATION. Expectora'tio. The 
act by which mucous and other thuds are 
expelled from the respiratorj r passages. 


EXPEL'LANT. Expulsive; driving 

EXrE'RIENCE. Experien'tia. The 
knowledge of things acquired by long 

EXPERIMENT. Experimen'tum. In 
Medical Science, a trial made upon man or 
other animals with a view of making dis- 
coveries in the structure or functions of 
organs, or for the purpose of testing the 
effects of a new medicinal agent, or of an 
unknown alimentary substance. 


EXPIRATION. Expira'tio; from ex- 
pirare, to breathe out. The expulsion of 
the air from the lungs. 

EX'PIRATORY. Expiratio'm. An ep- 
ithet applied to those muscles which, by 
their contraction, diminish the cavity of 
the chest and thus effect the expulsion of 
air from the lungs. 

EXPLORATION. Exphra'tio ; from 
czplorare, to search into. The act of in- 
vestigating the physical signs of disease 
with the eye, hand, and stethoscope. 

EXPLORATOR. Exploring needle. 
A long needle enclosed in a canula, or 




grooved on the surface, for introducing 
into tumors or cavities to determine the na- 
ture of the fluids with which they are filled. 


EXPRESSED OIL. An oil obtained 
by pressing. 

EXPRESSION. Expres'sio; from ex- 
primere, to press out. The separation, by 
pressure, of the fluids which a substance 
contains. Also, the manner in which im- 
pressions are depicted upon the counte- 

EXPUL'SIVE. Expel'lens; from ex- 
pettere, to drive out. In Surgery, a band- 
age used for the expulsion of pus or other 
fluid from a part. Also, applied to med- 
icines which are supposed to have the 
power of driving the humors toward the 

EXSANGUINTTY. From ex, out of 
and sanguis, blood. Bloodlessness. Ap- 
plied to persons who have little blood. 

EXSERTUS. Protruding ; sometimes 
applied to teeth which protrude. See Dens 


EXSPUITTON. From ex, out of, and 
spuo, I spit. Spitting. 

EXSTIPULATUS. Without stipule. 

EXSTROPHTA. Ex'sirophy ; from e£, 
out of, and orpo<j>7), turning. The displace- 
ment of an organ, especially the urinary 

EXTEMPORA'NEOUS, From ex, and 
tempore, out of time. Medicines com- 
pounded from written prescriptions made 
on the spot or at the bedside of the patient, 
and not by formula;. 

EXTENSIBILITY. Exknsibil'itas. Ca- 
pable of being extended. 

EXTEN'SION. Exten'sio; from extend- 
ere, to stretch out. In Surgery, the pull- 
ing of a limb for the reduction of a fracture 
or dislocation. 

EXTENSOR. In Anatomy, an epithet 
applied to a muscle whose function is to 
extend or straighten certain parts. 

Extensor Bhe'vis Digito'rum Pe'dis. 
A muscle of the toes situated on the foot. 

Extensor Car'pi Radia'lis Bre'vis. 
An extensor muscle of the wrist. 

Extensor Carpi Radialis Lon'gus. 
An extensor muscle of the carpus. 

Extensor Carpi Ulna'ris. A muscle 
which arises from the condyle of the os 
humeri and from the edge of the ulna, 
and is inserted in the metacarpal bone of 
the little finger. 

Extensor Digito'rum Commu'nis. A 
large flat muscle of the forearm which ex- 
tends to the fingers. 

Extensor Digitorum Longus. See 
Extensor Longus Digitorum Pedis. 

Extensor Longus Digitorum Pedis. 
A muscle of the leg, extending to the joints 
of the four small toes. 

Extensor Magnus. The gastrocnemius 

Extensor Ossis Metacar'pi Pol'licis 
Ma'nus. A muscle of the wrist situated 
on the forearm. 

Extensor Pri'mi Interno'dii. A mus- 
cle of the thumb, situated on the hand. 

Extensor Pro'prius Pollicis Pedis. 
An extensor muscle of the great toe. 

Extensor Secun'di Interno'dii In'di- 
cis Proprius. See Indicator. 

Extensor Tar'si Magnus. The gas- 
trocnemius and soleus muscles. 

EXTENUA'TIO. Emaciation. 

EXTERGEN'TIA Detergents. 

cupying the surface of the body. 

EXTER'NUS AU'RIS. The laxator 
tympani muscle. 


Extinctio Vocis. Incomplete aphonia. 

trituration of mercury with other substan- 
ces, as lard, until its metallic globules dis- 

EXTIRPATION. Extirpa'tio; from ex- 
tirpare, to root out. The complete removal 
of a part, (applied generally to a morbid 
structure,) by excision or with caustic. 

EXTIRPATOR. A name applied to an 
instrument invented by Mr. C. T. Good- 
win, of Philadelphia, for the extraction of 
the roots of cuspid teeth. It is shaped 
something like the common straight punch 
which is sometimes employed for the re- 
moval of roots of teeth. 




EXTRACT. Extract'um; from extrahere, 
to draw out. In Pharmacy, a tenacious 
substance, obtained by the evaporation of 
a vegetable solution. Also, a substance 
held in solution by the juice of a fresh 
plant, as well as that to which some men- 
struum has been added at the time of its 

EXTRACTION. Extrac'tio; from ex- 
trahere, to draw out. In Chemistry, the 
separation of a simple or compound sub- 
stance from a body of which it forms a 
part. In Surgery, the act of removing 
foreign or diseased bodies or organs, from 
any part of the body, as a urinary calculus 
from the bladder, a bullet or splinter from 
a wound, or a tooth from the jaw. 

Extraction of Teeth. "Of all the 
remedies," says Desirabode, " for diseases 
of the teeth, there is none which has been 
used so long as their extraction ; for not 
only is it spoken of in formal terms by 
Hippocrates, Avho also attempts to correct 
the abuses to which it might lead ; but a 
passage in Cicero designates Esculapius, 
the third of that name, as the person by 
whom it was first proposed." 

Indications for the Operation. 

Beginning with the teeth of first denti- 
tion, it will be sufficient to state that when 
a tooth of replacement is about to emerge 
from the gums, or has actually made its 
appearance, either before or behind the 
corresponding temporary, the latter should 
at once be removed ; and when the aper- 
ture formed by the loss of this is so nar- 
row as to prevent the former from acquiring 
its proper position, it may sometimes be 
necessary to extract even an adjoining tem- 
porary tooth. Alveolar abscess, necrosis 
of the walls of an alveolus, and pain in a 
temporary tooth, which cannot be assuaged 
by any of the usual remedies, may also 
be regarded as indications which call for 
the operation. 

With regard to the indications which 
should determine the extraction of a per- 
manent tooth, the following may be men- 
tioned as constituting the principal : 

First. When a molar, from the loss of 

its antagonizing teeth, or other causes, has 
become partially displaced, or is a source 
of constant irritation to the surrounding 
parts, it should be removed. 

Second. A constant discharge of foetid 
matter through a carious opening in the 
crown from the nerve cavity, and the canal 
of the root, may, also, be regarded as an 
indication for the operation. 

Third. A tooth which is the cause of 
alveolar abscess should not, as a general 
rule, be permitted to remain in the mouth, 
but, if it be an incisor or cuspidatus, and 
the discharge of matter through the gums 
is small, occurring only at long intervals, 
and especially if the organ cannot be 
securely replaced with an artificial substi- 
tute, it may be advisable to permit it to 

Fourth. Irregularity in the arrangement 
of the teeth, resulting from a disproportion 
between the size of these organs and the 
alveolar arch, is another indication which 
calls for the operation. 

Fifth. All dead teeth and roots of teeth, 
and teeth which have become so much 
loosened from the destruction of their sock- 
ets as to be a constant source of disease to 
the adjacent parts, or teeth which are other- 
wise diseased, and are a cause of neuralgia 
of the face, a morbid condition of the max- 
illary sinus, dyspepsia, or any other local 
or constitutional disturbance, should, as a 
general rule, be extracted. 

There are other indications which call 
for the extraction of teeth, but the forego- 
ing are among the most common, and will 
be found sufficient in most cases, to deter- 
mine the propriety or impropriety of the 

Accidents which sometimes residl from the 

The extraction of a tooth, though in the 
majority of cases, a simple operation, is, 
nevertheless, sometimes attended by tri- 
fling accidents, which the most skillful and 
prudent cannot always avoid. The con- 
formation or condition of a tooth is some- 
times such as to render its removal, with- 
out fracturing it or the aveolus, impossible, 




but no accident of a serious nature need 
ever occur if the operation be performed 
with a suitable instrument, and by a skill- 
ful hand, except such perhaps as may 
result from a hemorrhagic diathesis of 
the general system, or from peculiar states 
of the constitutional health. 

The removal of a wrong tooth, or of 
two, and even three, instead of one, are 
such common occurrences, that it were 
well if the precautions given by the illus- 
trious Ambrose Pare were more frequently 
observed. So fearful was he of injuring 
the adjacent teeth, that he always isolated 
the tooth to be extracted with a file before 
he attempted its removal. 

Instruments employed in the Operation. 

A description of the various instruments 
employed in the extraction of teeth will be 
found, each, under its appropriate name. 

Manner of Extracting Teeth with the Key 
of Garengcot. 

The key of Garengcot, although for a 
long time almost the only instrument used 
for the extraction of teeth, has recently, 
to a very great extent, been superseded by 
forceps, which, when of the proper con- 
struction, are far preferable. But inas- 
much as it still holds a place among the 
instruments employed in the operation, it 
will be proper to describe the method of 
using it. Before Ave do this, it may be 
well to observe that its use is restricted to 
the molar and bicuspid teeth. 

The first step to be taken in the opera- 
tion, after having placed the patient in a 
good light, and selected a hook with a 
curvature proportioned to the size of the 
organ, is to separate the gum from the neck 
of the tooth down to the alveolus. For 
this purpose suitable gum lancets or knives 
should be provided. 

After the tooth has been thus prepared, 
the key, with the proper hook attached, 
should be firmly fixed upon it ; the bolster, 
on the inside, resting upon the edge of the 
alveolus, the extremity of the claw, on the 
opposite side, pressed down upon the neck. 
The handle of the instrument grasped with 

the right hand, the tooth may, by means 
of a firm, steady rotation of the wrist, be 
raised from its socket. In order to pre- 
vent the claw from slippling, (an accident 
which too frequently occurs,) it should be 
pressed down with the forefinger or thumb 
of the left hand of the operator, until, by 
the rotation of the instrument, it becomes 
securely fixed to the tooth. 

If the tooth be situated on the left side 
of the mouth, the position of the operator 
should be at the right side of the patient ; 
but if it be on the right side of the mouth, 
he should stand before him. 

For the removal of a tooth on the left 
side of the lower jaw, or the right side in 
the upper, the palm of the hand should be 
beneath the handle of the instrument ; 
and, vice versa, in the extraction of one on 
the right side in the lower jaw, or on the 
left side in the upper. The manner of 
grasping the instrument is, perhaps, of 
more consequence than many imagine. If 
it be not properly done, the operator, to a 
great extent, loses his control over it, and 
applies the power to it disadvantage- 

Manner of Extracting Teeth with Forceps. 

In describing the manner of extracting 
teeth with forceps, the author will begin 
with the incisors and cuspidati of the up- 
per jaw. 

Incisors and Cusjridati of the Upper 
Jaw. — The patient being seated, the gum 
should be completely separated from the 
neck of the tooth. This done, it may be 
grasped with a pair of straight forceps, 
with thin crescent-shaped jaws, made 
sufficiently concave on the inside to press 
upon the crown of the tooth, which should 
be firmly forced outward and inward 
several times in quick succession, giving 
it at the same time a slight rotary motion, 
and as soon as it is found to .yield, it 
may be removed from the socket. 

The position of the operator, while ex- 
tracting the above mentioned teeth, should 
be partly at the right and partly behind 
the patient, as, indeed, it should be for the 
removal of most teeth with forceps, as it 




enables him to control the patient's head 
with his left arm, and to separate the lij>s 
with the hand of the same. Sometimes, 
however, it may be necessary to occupy a 
different position, but of the propriety of 
this he alone must be the judge. 

Incisoi's of the Lower Jaw. — The direc- 
tions which have been given for the 
extraction of the upper incisors and cus- 
pidal i, will be found, for the most part, 
applicable for the removal of the incisors 
of the lower jaw ; but forceps of a some- 
what different construction are required. 
The jaws of the instrument should not be 
more than one-third as wide, and they 
should be bent downward, so as to form 
an angle of thirty degrees with the handles ; 
for, if they are straight, the hand of the 
operator will frequently come in contact 
with the teeth of the upper jaw. 

Superior and Inferior Bicuspids and 
Inferior Cuspidati — The roots of the up- 
per bicuspids, being considerably flat- 
tened and often bifid, will seldom admit of 
much rotary motion. But in the extrac- 
tion of one of those teeth after the gum 
has been separated, and the tooth grasped 
as high upon its neck as possible, its con- 
nection with the alveolus is, first, to be 
partially broken up by several quick 
motions outward and inward, then, by 
a downward pull, it may, in most cases, 
be removed from its socket. In the 
extraction of a lower bicuspis, or infe- 
rior cuspidatus, a slight rotary motion 
joined to the outward and inward move- 
ment, will facilitate the destruction of the 
bond of union between the tooth and 
alveolus, and then, by an upward effort, 
it may be removed from the socket. But 
one pair of forceps is required for the re- 
moval of the upper and lower bicuspids 
and lower cuspidati. 

Upper Molars. — For the extraction of 
upper molars two pair of forceps, one for 
the right, and one for the left side, are 
needed. The directions for the removal 
of these are few and simple. The gum 
should be separated in the manner as 
before described, the tooth then grasped 
with the appropriate forceps, as high up 

under the gum as possible, and after 
having thoroughly loosened it by an out- 
ward and inward movement, repeated a 
sufficient number of times, it may be re- 
moved, by a downward effort, from the 
socket. The head of the patient during 
the operation should be firmly confined 
with the left arm of the operator against 
the back or head-piece of the operating 
chair, while the corner of the mouth is re- 
tracted with the fingers of the same hand, 
and one of which should, when practica- 
ble, be placed on either side of the tooth. 

Upper Denies Sapientice. — These teeth 
are generally less firmly articulated than 
either the first or second superior molar*, 
and consequently are more easily removed. 
But the directions for the removal of the 
one will be found applicable for the re- 
moval of the other. In most cases, how- 
ever, forceps of a different shape and con- 
struction are required for their extraction. 
See Forceps for the Extraction of Teeth. 

Lower Molars. — Although the inferior 
molars have but two roots, they are some- 
times very firmly articulated, requiring 
considerable force to extract them, but 
for their removal only one pair of forccj)s 
are required, provided they are of the 
proper construction. In applying them, 
after having first separated the gum, the 
points at the extremity of the beaks should 
be forced between the roots or into the 
groove a little above where they are given 
off, as far as possible, and after having ob- 
tained a firm hold, the tooth should be 
forced outward and inward several times 
in quick succession, or until the tooth 
moves freely, then by an upward effort it 
should be lifted from the socket. If the 
crown of the tooth has been destroyed by 
caries, the upper edge of the alveolus 
should be included between the beak or 
jaws of the instrument, through which they 
may readily be made to pass, on applying 
pressure to the handles, and by this means 
a secure hold upon the tooth will be ob- 
tained, when it may generally be easily 

Lower Denies Sapiential. — The extrac- 
tion of a dens sapientia? of the lower jaw, 




when it is situated far back under the cor- 
onoid process, or the crown destroyed by 
caries, is sometimes attended with great 
difficulty. But as a general rule it can be 
removed more easily than either of the 
other molars. The gum having been sep- 
arated from around the neck, the tooth 
should be grasped as low down as possible 
with the proper forceps, and after moving 
it outward and inward several times in 
quick succession, it may, by an upward 
effort, be removed from the socket. 

In the foregoing directions, the author 
has supposed the arrangement and forma- 
tion of the teeth to be natural. It some- 
times happens that the roots of the first and 
second molars, as well as those of the dentes 
sapiential, are either bent, divergent or 
convergent in such a manner as to render 
their extraction extremely difficult. In- 
deed it cannot always be done without 
fracturing the roots, or alveoli, and some- 
times bringing away a portion of the latter, 
especially when the roots, after diverging, 
converge and come nearly or quite to- 
gether at their apices. Sometimes it is ne- 
cessary to cut away a portion of the alveo- 
lus before the tooth can be removed, which 
may be done with forceps constructed for 
the purpose, or with a sharp and strong- 
pointed instrument. Similar obstacles 
are occasionally met with in the removal 
of the bicuspids, and cuspidati. At other 
times the extraction of a tooth is ren- 
dered very difficult by the enlargement 
of the root by exostosis. It occasionally 
happens, too, when a tooth has decayed 
on one or both of its approximal sur- 
faces, that the adjoining tooth or teeth 
have so impinged upon it as to lock it in 
the jaw, and to attempt to extract it with- 
out first filing away a portion of the ad- 
joining teeth would be to fail in the opera- 
tion or to bring away two or more teeth at 
the same time. 

A dens sapientiae of the lower jaw 
sometimes occupies a horizontal position, 
the root being lodged in the base of the 
coronoid process while the grinding sur- 
face of the crown is in contact with the 
posterior surface of the crown of the 

second molar. In these cases it will often 
be necessary to extract the latter before 
removing the former. 

Other obstacles sometimes present them- 
selves in the extraction of teeth, which the 
judgment and tact of the operator alone, 
can enable him to overcome. To point 
out all of which is impossible. The na- 
ture and peculiarity of each case can 
alone suggest the method of procedure 
most proper to be pursued in the perform- 
ance of the operation. The dentist should 
never hesitate, when it may be neces- 
sary to enable him to obtain a firm hold 
upon the tooth, to remove a portion of 
the alveolus, or to include it between 
the jaws of the forceps. The removal of 
the upper edge of the socket of a tooth is 
never productive of injury, as it is always, 
soon after the extraction of the organ, de- 
stroyed by a peculiar operation of the 

In the extraction of the temporary teeth, 
the operator should be careful not to injure 
the pulps of the permanent ones, or the 
alveolar border. Accidents of this sort 
sometimes occur. 

Extraction or Koots of Teeth. 
The extraction of roots of teeth is some- 
times attended with considerable diffi- 
culty; but generally they can be more 
easily removed than whole teeth, and 
especially those of the molars, for, after 
the destruction of their crowns, an effort 
is usually made by the economy to expel 
them from the jaws. 

It sometimes happens, however, that 
they are deeply lodged in the alveoli, re- 
quiring considerable force for their re- 
moval, often defeating the efforts, and 
placing at defiance the skill of the timid 
and inexperienced practitioner. For their 
extraction a great variety of instruments 
have been invented, among which are 
a pair of narrow-beaked forceps, like 
those mentioned fo