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Full text of "The family physician, or Poor man's friend, and married lady's companion : containing a great variety of valuable medical recipes, designed to assist heads of families, travellers and sea-faring people, in curing diseases ; with concise directions for the preparation, and use of a numerous collection of vegetables made use of ; and directions for preparing and administering them to cure diseases ; together with many of the most approved from the shop of the apothecary ; all in plain English"

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 

Bethesda, Maryland 



THE 

Family Physician, 

OR 

POOR MAN'S FRIEND, 

AND MARRIED LADTS COMPANION: 

Containing a great variety of 
VALUABLE MEDICAL RECIPES, 

DESIGNED TO ASSIST 

HEADS OF FAMILIES, TRAVELLERS AND 
SEA-FARING PEOPLE, 

IN CURING DISEASES; 

With concise directions for the Preparation, and Use of 
a numerous collection of 

THE VEGETABLES MADE USE OF; 

AND DIRECTIONS FOR 

PREPARING AND ADMINISTERING THEM 
TO CURE DISEASES; 

Together with many of the most approved 
FROM THE SHOP OF THE APOTHECARY 

ALL IN PLAIN ENGLISH; 

BY A. WEYER. 



»T. CLAIRSV1LLE,0. 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR; 

HORTON J. l.OWARD PRINTFH 

1B31. 



DISTRICT OF OHIO, Set. 

Be it remembered, lhat on the 26th day of Jan- 
uary, in the fifty-fifth year of the independence of 
the'United States of America, A. D. 1831, A. Wey- 
«r ot the said District, hath deposited in this office 
the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as 
proprietor, in the words following, viz: "The Fam- 
ily Physician, or Poor Man's Friend, and Married 
Lady's Companion: Containing a great variety of 
valuable medical recipes. Designed to assist head9 
of families, travellers and sea-faring people, in cur- 
ing diseases; with concise directions for the prepa- 
ration, ni d use of a nume"ous collection of the 
vegetables made use of; and directions for prepar- 
ing and administering them to cure diseases; to- 
gether with many of the most approved from the 
shop of the Apothecary; ail in plain English, by A. 
Weyer." 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the 
United State*, entitled "An act for the encourage- 
ment of learning, by securing the copies of maps, 
charts and books to the authors and proprietors of 
such copies, during the times therein mentioned," 
and also to the act entitled "an act supplementary 
to an act entitled An act for the encouragement 
of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts 
and books, to the authors and proprietors of such 
copies, during the times therein mentioned,'' And 
extending the benefits thereof to the arts of de- 
signing, engraving, and etching historical and other 
prints." 

Attest WILLIAM MINER, 

[ L. S.J Clerk ofihe District of Ohio. 



PREFACE. 

EVERY mortal is liable to be thrown into suf- 
fering, by accident or by disease; and no situation 
or circumstance of life exempts any one from "the 
common lot." 

Physicians and Surgeons cannot be present in ev- 
ery place; nor can they alone do every thing, which 
should be done for those to whom they are called. 
The sick and wounded must depend much on nurs- 
es and attendants; and almost every individual thing 
which is done for the sick, is influenced by the no- 
tions or prejudices of the attendants. How impor- 
tant, then, that the means of information, in relation 
to the healing art, be extended to every one who 
may suffer, or can watch. There are cases, also, 
where medical aid cannot be obtained — and shall 
the sufferer lie without relief? In the following 
work I have attempted, in the plainest language, to 
inform the reader what he should do, when he is a 
witness to pain and sickness, and no one present 
better informed than himself. 

In the pursuit of this object, I have made a free 
use of any and every author, whose work I could 
obtain, without marking any quotations. This I 
should not have done, but as it became necessary to 
alter the dress of that which was designed for the 
learned, to m ike it i :telligibie to the unlearned. 

In the Surgical part, 1 hue endeavored to de- 
scribe what every mat) may do, (and they may do 
much;) in many cases, immediate and effectual as- 
sistance may be afforded, where people are now idle 
spectators; and frequently departing life may be 
staid, till a surgeon arrives to make all safe. 

The part which contains Recipes for Apotheca- 
ries' Medicines, will be found convenient. 

What is said of the preparation of roots and 
herbs, and Botanic remedies, I think may be relied 
on. The collection is sufficiently numerous to an- 



IV KREFACE; 

swer every purpose of medicine, in common hands* 
and they should always be preferred when and 
where they can be obtained. Where the common 
names are not certainly known, recourse should be 
had to a botanist, who, of all people in the world, is 
the most ready to communicate. 

It is easy to forsee who would scout the idea, that 
a work of this kind, in plain English, could be use- 
ful. Indeed, the supercilious mouthings of little, 
men dubbed Doctors, only because they can try tricks 
and talk hocus pocus. was anticipated. 

Have not the pains and sickness incident to our 
nature, travelled in company with our mother 
tongue, down the generations of our fathers even to 
us? Can any one, in his sober senses, suppose for a 
moment,that the language of a nation is not a mirror 
of troubles? If our vernacular tongue is rilled with 
signs of suffering, and types of disease; it is rich in 
the Dames of remedies; and that man is a heathen 
who would hide them under an affectation of for- 
eign gibberish. 

Let it not be supposed that it is here meant to 
lower the physician in the estimation of the people, 
or to deprecate learning; far otherwise: it is in- 
tended to enable the peeple to appreciate their 
physician acccording to his true worth, and to look 
at the sun of science through a better medium than 
smoked glass. 

Neither the arts nor the learned professions 
should be denied the aid of tecnicology; yet the ar- 
tist and the professor, should remember that the 
English language is sufficient for all the common 
purposes of intercourse; and that the man of learn- 
ing, who cannot communicate with the world, in 
the world's vernacular tongye, has no claim on the 
public: he may indeed be a very industrious man 
in the closet, but a very useless one in society — 
The perfection of art is to do without apparatus; 
and here the great man and the useful man meet, 
on common, well known ground; and here true 



PREFACE. V 

learning and common sense embrace without re- 
serve. 

It would be a God-like act, in all persons in tol- 
erable circumstances, to keep a small medicine 
chest, not only for the benefit of their own families, 
but also of their sick and indigent neighbors, who 
often suffer, and sometimes perish, for want of prop- 
e medicines, seasonably administered. It would 
not only save a great deal of time, and expense of 
sending on every trivial occasion, to a distant phy- 
sician, but must also afford to a tender parent or 
master, an infinite satisfaction, because of the very 
great advantage it gives him over a disease, when 
he can meet with a suitable remedy, at the first mo- 
ment of its attack. For there can be no doubt, 
that thousands have peiished, not because "there 
were no remedies, but because these remedies were 
at such a distance, thai the patient was lost, before 
they could be broqght to him. 

Should a very learned critic cast his eye on these 
pages, he will here learn, that this book was writ- 
ten tor the unlearned ; and he will also learn, that a 
handkerchief, tied loosely round a man's leg above 
a wounded and bleeding artery, and a stick twisted 
into it, will as effectually save life as a surgeon's 
tourniquet — and many such things. He will there- 
fore, please spare this little work," for the sake of 
him whose house is far. removed from the surgeon, 
and who has no money to pay the physician. 

On the whole, the author flatters himself, that 
the "Family Physician, or Poor Man's Friend, and 
Married Lady's Companion," will prove highly use- 
ful to his fellow citizens; and under this pleasing 
impression, he submits it to thiir per/isal and pat- 
ronage. 

The libera! patronage received from the public, 
by a subscription for this work, shall always be re- 
membered with gratitud ^ yy 
A2 



NOTE. 



Indigent Sick — Having in the course of my trav- 
els, so often witnessed the most grevious suffrrings 
of the sick, for want of suitable nourishment, and 
this occurring, too, not unfrequently in respectable 
families, who have been reduced in circumstances. 
] feel it my duty, since it is not foreign to the sub- 
ject, to call the attention of those in affluence 
throughout our numerous cities, and extensive 
country, to extend the arm of charity to the indi- 
gent sick, in their respective neighborhoods. While 
feasting in their own houses, let them listen to the 
voice of humanity, and not forget the "house of 
mourning,' 1 where the lone widow and her orphans 
pine in sick and starving solitude. It is not easy to 
estimate the good which may b- ; done to suffering 
humanity by beneficent acts of this kind. 



I have always thought it a greater happiness to 
discover a certain method of curing, even the 
slightest disease, than to accumulate the largest for- 
tune; and whoever compasses the former, I csteeiB 
not otilv happier, but wiser and betl 

Sydenham* 



THE FAMILY PHYSICIAN, &c. 



FEVERS. 

Intermittent Fever. 
The name Intermittent is given to that kind of Fe- 
ver which consists of paroxysms, between each of 
which there is a distinct and perfect intermission 
from febrile symptoms. It is generally acknow- 
ledged, that the effluvia arising from stagnant wa- 
ter or marshy ground, when acted upon by heat, 
are the most frequent exciting cause of this Fever. 

Symptoms. — Each paroxysm has three different 
stages, which are called the cold, the hot, and the 
sweating stages. The cold stage begins with lan- 
guor, a sense of debility, yawning and stretching, 
sluggishness in motion, pulse small, frequent, and 
irregular; the patient feels cold, first in the back, 
then over the whole body, followed by a universal 
shaking. 

These symptoms abating after a short time, the 
second stage commence?, with an increase of heat 
over the whole body, soreness of the flesh, pain in 
the head, pulse quick, strong and hard, tongue fur- 
red, throbbing of the temples, anxiety and restless- 
ness. If the attack has been severe, delirium will 
frequently arise. 

When these symptoms have continued for some 
time, a moisture breaks out on the forehead. 

After these symptoms have continued for some 
time, the sweating stage comes on, by a moisture 
breaking out on the forehead, and by degrees be- 
coming a sweat; and this, at length, extends over 



& The Family Physician. 

the whole body. As this sweat continues to flow, 
the heat of the body abates, the thirst ceases, the 
urine deposits a sediment, respiration is free and 
full, the most of the functions are restored to their 
ordinary state: the patient is, however, left in a 
weak and wearipd condition. 
For treatment see Recipes. 



Remittent. Fever. 

A Remittent is that kind of fever, which abates, 
but does not go off entirely before a Iresh attack 
endues; or in other word?, where one paroxysm suc- 
ceeds the other so quickl), that the patient is never 
without some degree of fever. 

Causes. — This fever, as well as the intermittent, 
is principally induced by the effluvia of stagnant 
water, and marshy ground, and is most apt to arise, 
when calm, close, and sultry weather, quickly suc- 
ceeds heavy rains or great inundations* 

Symptoms. — Preceding an attack of remittent fe- 
ver, the patient is usually heavy and languid, and is 
troubled with anxiety, listlessness, sighing, yawning, 
and alternate fits of heat and cold. On its access- 
ion, he experiences severe pains in the held and 
bark, intense heat over the whole body, with thirst, 
and difficulty of breathing. 

This fever is most favorable, when it approaches 
in form, nearly to an intermittent, or is inflammato- 
ry. If in symptoms it corresponds with nervous or 
typhus fever, the danger is to be estimated as in 
those fevers. 

If the disease assume the intermittent form, or 
especially if each rise of fever goes off with a sweat, 
or can be made to, by clearing the stomach and 
bowels with a dose of tartar emetic and ipecacu- 
anha, in the proportion of one grain of the former, 
to titteen of the latter, followed with sweating med- 
icines, then give the bark in the remission, in such, 
doses as the stomach will bear;, and if about twen- 
ty drops of the diluted. sulphuricacid.are.added .to- 



The Family Physician. $ 

each dose, the effect will be increased. If the bark 
in substance should prove disagreeable, it may be 
given in decoction. J 

In places where this fever prevails, a proper dose 
of the compound tincture of Peruvian bark, taken 
in the morning, will be found an excellent prevent- 
ative. r 



Typhus Mitior, or Nervous Fever. 
This (ever generally attacks persons of weak, lax 
hares; those who lead a sedentary life,an<3 neglect 
proper exercise; those who study much; and (hose 
who indulge freely in enervating liquors. Owine 
to the relaxed habits of those who reside in warm 
o imates, this type of fever frequently occurs, and 
all other continued fevers are apt to degenerate in- 
to this, or malignant typhus. 

This fever may be induced by whatevor impov- 
erishes the blood, debilitates the genera! f-vstr m, or 
depresses the mind; but the most general cause is 
•ontagion. 

Symptoms.— This fever generally comes on with 
a remarkable mildness in all its symptoms; and al- 
though the patient experiences some trifling indis- 
position for several days, still he has no reason to 
suspect the approach of any severe disease. At 
first there is only a slight chilliness perceived, suc- 
ceeded by an unusually pale and sunk tare. The 
patient perceives, however, some degree of lassi- 
tude and debility, with anxiety, dejection of spirits, 
sighing, and a loathing of food; and towards even- 
ing these affections are increased. 

In the course of a few days, and as the disease 
advances, there arise confusion of thought, giddi- 
ness, pain in the head, aching pain in°the back, 
limbs, and flying over the whole body; nausea and 
vomiting; short, anxious breathing; pulse weak, 
quick and often intermitting; the tongue becomes 
dry, and is covered with a dark brown fur; counte- 
nance flushed, urine scanty, high coloured, and fy- 



10 The Family Physician. 

tid ; cold clammy sweats break out on the forehead 
and backs of the hands, while the palms glow with 
heat; profuse diarrhoea, lethargic sleep, involunta- 
ry evacuations, cold extremities, convulsions, death. 
Such is usually the progress of the disease. Some- 
limes, however, the patient gradually, almost im- 
perceptibly sinks, no threatning symptoms, anxiety, 
pain, or distress; yet, in such cases, the arteries are 
seen to tremble or throb, under the chin, and a 
dark rose or piony-coloured spot appears on one of 
the cheeks, while the limbs are apt to be cold. 

An emetic or cathartic, should begin the treat* 
ment; especially if nausea, vomiting, or costivenesg 
prevail. For a genlle emetic, if will be right to 
recommend about fourteen or sixteen grains of ; p- 
ecacuanha, in case of nausea or vomiting; :• 
case of cosfiyeness, some lax .Jive medicii e should 
be given to carry off the feculent matter; and to 
ensu e and keep up a regular alvirie • vacuation in 
the further coarse of the disease, ii svHI be proper 
to repeat this from time- to lime, or to have recourse 
to emollient laxative clysters. 

After the stomach and bowels are cleared, and a 
moisture appears, tonics should be prescribed. 
Throughout the whole course of the disease the pa- 
-houid be kept perfectly quiet, and none but 
those whose business it is to attend on him ought 
to go near him, xrept the symptoms are very mild, 
with liille or no affection of the head. In such ra- 
ses the presence of a friend may soothe the mind 
and help to dispel gloomy ideas. The chamber 
should be kept freely ventilated and cool, and his 
bed be lightly covered with clothes; he should he 
comforted with the hope of a speedv recovery, and 
his thoughts be diverted from that anxiety and 
dread of danger which invariably attend the dis- 
ease. 

After the fever ha* gone off and the patient has 
somewhat regained i' ; -> strength-, he may take daily 
exercise on horseback or in a carriage; and in or- 



The Family Physician. \ \ 

der to remove the irritability and weakness which 
are left behind, he should enter on a course of the 
Peruvian bark and other tonic*. After a little lime, 
the cold bath will be a proper remedy, if the season 
of the year is such as to admit of it. 

Typhus Fever. 
This fever is also called malignant, putrid, spot- 
ted, and jail fever; and takes its name from^ie ma- 
lignancy of its nature, and the evident symptoms of 
putrefaction which are to be observed, after a con- 
tinuance of some days. 

Symptoms.— The attack is much more sudden 
than that of nervous fever, and on the first coming 
on, the person is siezed with languor; dejection ot 
spirits; amazing depression and loss of muscular 
strength; universal weariness and soreness; pains 
in the head, back, and extremities, ringing in the 
cars, throbing in the temples, beating of the arte- 
ries visible in the neck. Sometimes a great heat, 
load, and pain, are felt at the pit of the stomach, 
and a vomiting of bilious matter ensues. 

As the disease advances, the patient experiences 
oppression at the breast, anxiety, sighing, and moan- 
ing; the pulse increases in frequency, great debili- 
ty, heat, and dryness of skin; the tongue, mouth, 
lips, and teeth, are covered with a brown or black 
fur; the? patient mutters much, and delirium arises; 
bleedings take place from different parts of the bo- 
dy; red, blue, purple, or black spots appear under 
the skin, the pulse intermits and sinks, the extremi- 
ties grow cold, hiccups ensue, convulsions and death 
close the scene. 

So soon as any of the symptoms -of this fever are 
perceived, they should be immediately attended to, 
in order to prevent any bad consequences from en- 
suing, as they will never gooff of themselves, but 
will continue to increase, until ? disease of a most 
dangerous nature takes place. The most proper 
remedy at first will be an emetic, and the clearing 



12 The Tamily Physician. 

of the stomach is not the only good effect to be ex- 
pected from this remedy. After its operation is over, 
the bowels may be opened with some gentle laxa- 
tive. The patient's body may be sponged with 
warm or cold water, as best suits his feelings; his 
bed and linen should be frequently changed, his 
room sprinkled with vinegar and water, pure air 
admitted, and every attention paid to cleanliness. 
Decoctions of oak bark, Virginia snake-root, cinna- 
mon tea, or orange peel tea, should be given; to 
which may be added about ten or twtlve drops of 
the elixir vitriol, nitric or muriatic acids. Through 
the whole the bowels should be kept open by some 
gentle axative. 

The diet should be light and nourishing, as jel- 
lies, broths, &lc. After the disease has abated, and 
the patient is in a fair way of recovery, he should 
be cautioned not to make any sudden exertion of his 
strength, or be suddenly raised to a perpendicular 
poslure, which has sometimes proved fatal. 

Yellow Fever. 
This fever generally comes on with lassitude and 
weariness, chilly fits, listlessness of every thing 
around, faintness, giddiness, flushing of the face, 
redness of the eyes, pains in the eyeballs and lower 
part of the forehead, as likewise in the back, de- 
bility and sighing, and thirst: the urine is high col- 
ored, small in quantity, and turbid; the perspiration 
is irregular, interrupted, and diminished; the sali- 
va is viscid; the tongue is covered with a dark fur; 
the bile is secreted in unusual quantities, and 
thrown into the stomach, from which it is again 
speedily ejected ; and the skin is hot, dry, and hard, 
the eyes, face, and breast, put on a d?ep yellow 
tinge: a peculiar delirium arises, the sweats are of 
a yellow color, and highly offensive; livid spots ap- 
pear in the skin; the patient in an agony, throw* out 
and draws back his extremities in violent succes- 
sion ; black fetid stools are discharged : hiccup, pulsfe 
.sinks, and death ensues. 



The Family Physician, 1 5 

Such are the usual appearances; yet so irregular 
and so varied in this disease, that the most eminent 
physicians consider it only as a remittent fever- de- 
ranged as to its form, by appearing in subjects' un> 
accustomed to hot climates, so that if all would stay 
in their native climate the disease would disappear 

The causes of this fever are, exposure to noxious 
exhalations from swamps, rivers, lakes, ponds, and 
marshes, or the filth of cities and towns, accumula- 
ted under a burning sun. The poison is assisted by 
an irregular life, intemperance, exhaustion of the 
system, from whatever cause. 

Affusion and sponging the body with cold water, 
when the heat of the system is steadilv above (he 
natural temperature, may be applied early in the 
disease. After the bowels have been loosened by 
some mild purgative, when malignant symptoms 
threaten, the bark may be used in substance or de- 
coction, as best suits the stomach. The bark should 
be continued till health is completely restored. 

The patient's strength is to be supported through- 
out the disease, with preparations 0/ barley, sago, 
Indian arrow root, &c. mixed with wine. 

^ Inflammatory Sore Throat, or Quimcy. 

This disease principally attacks the youthful, and 
those of a full and plethoric habit, and is chiefly 
confined to cold climates, occurring usually in the 
Spring and Autumn ; whereas the putrid sore throat 
chiefly attacks those of a weak irritable habit, and 
is most prevalent in warm climates. 

It is distinguished by a sense of heat, pain and 
tightness in the fauces and throat, accompanied by 
a difficulty of swallowing, particularly fluids, in 
general, the inflammation begins in one (onsi!, then 
spreads across the palate and seizes the other ton- 
sil. When the inflammation possesses both sides, 
the pain becomes very severe, and swallowing is 
performed with exfreme difficulty; but if it Attack 
the upper part of the windpipe, it creates 1, 
B 



•i 4^ The Family Physician. 

danger of suffocation. The causes which usually 
give rise to it are, exposure to cold — wet feet — 
throwing off the neck-cloth — or drinking cold wa- 
ter when overheated. It may also be occasioned 
by violent exertions of the voice, blowing wind in- 
struments, acrid substances irritating the fauces, 
and bv the suppression of customary evacuations. 

In the treatment of this disease, the first and 
chief endeavor should be to «arry off the inflam- 
mation; for which reason an antiphlogistic plan 
must be pursued. Local applications have also 
their good effects , and in slight cases, are often suf- 
ficient to remove the inflammation. Receiving the 
steam of warm water, or vinegar and water through 
a funnel or spout of a tea-pot, will give great relief. 
Much benefit may be derived from the use of gar- 
gles. After the inflammation is abated, gargles of 
port wine, or brandy and water, answer every pur- 
pose, to restore the tone of the fibres, relaxed from 
•ver distention. External applications are, like- 
wise, of great use, as the volatile or camphorated 
liniment.* If it will go on to suppuration it should 
be poulticed with hops and flax-seed. If there is 
danger of suffocation, the swelling may be opened 
at any stage, with safety, by a surgeon. 

The patient's diet should be of a cooling nature, 
su~h as barley or rice- water, flax-seed tea, and such 
like, rendered agreeable to the palate by the addi- 
tion of jelly or honey, and should be <aken fre- 
quently, although difficult to swallow: for the pain 
consequent on swallowing, proceeds more from the 
action of the inflamed parts, by which deglutition 
is performed, than by the passage of the liquid 
which is swallowed. 



Mumps. 
This disease is manifestly contagious, affecting 
the muscles of the neck externally, chiefly arlec*- 
Ing children, and is often epidemic. 

* See Liniments. 



T7ie Family Physician. 

There is seldom much danger from this disease, 
as it is often so slight as to require very little more, 
than to keep the head and neck warm, with spare 
diet, a laxative state of the bowels, and avoid taking 
fold; but should the tumor of the neck suddenly 
di-appear, and the febrile symptoms increase, so as 
to induce an apprehension that the brain will be af- 
fected, it vvill be advisable to promote and repro- 
duce the swelling by warm fomentations and stimu- 
lating liniments. 

There is a singular peculiarity now and then at- 
tending thrs complaint; for sometimes as the swell- 
ing of the neek subsides, the testicle of the male, 
and breast of the female, are affected with hard and 
painful tumors; and frequently when one or other 
of these tumors has suddenly been repressed, a de- 
lirium of the milder sort occurs. Every endeavor 
should be exerted to prevent those swellings from 
suppurating, by the application of cooling and di> 
eutient applications and a suspensory bag. 

Croup. 

This disease generally affects children, and is a 
species of asthma, with violent catarrhal symptoms: 
and creeps on imperceptibly, with a hoarse, dry 
cough, wheezing, rattling in the throat, &c. 

There are two species of croup, the acute or in- 
flammatory, and the chronical or lingering. 

The exquisite degree of danger, which always 
accompanies this disease, and the rapidity with 
which its symptoms proceed, shews that immedi- 
ate remedies are requisite to arrest its progress. 
Therefore, on its first appearance, blood letting, 
both general and topical should be employed, and 
repeated two or three times a day according to the 
violence of the symptoms and habit of the patient. 

Inhaling the s'teams of hot vinegar and water, 
and embrocating the throat with the volatile lini- 
ment, have also their good effect. The decoction 
of seneca or rattlesnake-root, is a sovereign remedy 



iu The. Family Physician* 

for this dreadful complaint. It should be given at 
first in such doses, as to excite vomiting, and after- 
wards in smaller doses, to keep up a nausea at the 
stomach and to produce perspiration. A decoction 
of the flowers of the plant known by the name of 
hollyhoc, has been used with wonderful success in 
this disease, and has, by some, been considered as 
a specitir. 

Measles. 

This disease attacks persons only once in li/e, 
and is the effect of a specific contagion. It comes 
on with alternate heats and chills, fever, cough,, 
hoaiseness, difficulty of breathing, sneezing, sense 
of weight in the head, nausea or vomiting, drowsi- 
ness, dulness of the eyes, running from the nose, 
&,c. On the fourth day from the attack, eruptions- 
like flea bites, arise on the face and body, and in 
about four days more, these eruptions disappear 
with the fever. 

The consequences attendant on the measles are 
frequently more \o be dreaded than the immediate 
disease; tor although a person may get through it, 
and for a time appear to be recovered, still pulmo- 
nary consumption and hectic fever may afterwards 
arise and destroy him. 

When the disease is very slight, little more is ne- 
cessary, than 10 keep the patient's body open with 
some gentle cathartic. But should the febrile 
symptoms run high, with pleuritic symptoms, bleed,, 
and inhale through the spout of a tea-pot the sleam 
of hot water. If the spots suddenly disappear, im> 
merse the body in warm water, or bathe the legs 
and feei, and give freely of warm wine-whey, until 
the eruptions return. 

Hoarseness and cough, may be palliated by bran 
tea, flax-seed tea after the fever abates; these 
symptoms may also be relieved by oxymel of squills, 
and blood-root made into a tincture by shaving the 
'•oot, tilling a phial half, and. adding spirit. 



The Family Physician. 17 

Consumption. 

This disease usually commences with a slight fe- 
ver increased by the least exercise, a short dry 
cough, so slight as to become habitual before it ex- 
cites the attention of the patient, a burning and 
dryness in the palms of the hands, more especially 
towards evening; the breathing more easily hur- 
ried by bodily motion; rheumy eyes upon waking 
from sleep, increase of urine, dryness of the skin, 
as also of the feet in the morning; occasional flush- 
ing of one, and sometimes both cheeks; hoarseness, 
slight or acute pain in the breast, fixed pain in one 
side, or shooting pains in both; headach, occasional 
sick and fainty fits, appetite varying, and a general 
indisposition to exercise, or motion of every kind. 

The first appearance of this disease will vary in 
different cases; but the most constant symptoms 
which characterize it, are a cough and spitting of 
phlegm resembling matter, of which at length it 
becomes entirely composed 

The causes of this disease are very numerous; 
the following are, however, the most general: Ob- 
structions of the lungs, depending most frequently 
on the existence of small tubercles in their sub- 
stance which coming to suppuration, burst and dis- 
charge a purulent matter. It is sometimes owing 
to a hereditary disposition, marked by long neck, 
prominent shoulders, narrow chest, slender fingers, 
scrophulous constitution, known by a fine clear 
skin, fair hair, delicate rosy complexion, large veins, 
thick upper lip, weak voice,and great sensibility. 

It is also caused by other diseases, as cold, mea- 
sles, small pox, bleeding at the lungs, pleurisy, asth- 
ma, venereal disease, the dust of certain trades, as 
of stone cutters, millers, &.c. fumes of burning poi- 
sonous metals; intemperance, profuse evacuations, 
natural or artificial, depressing passions, damps. Szc. 

The treatment of this disease must be varied and 
adapted to each stage and case of tlie disease. In 
the first or inflammatory stage, moderate bleedings 

32 



iS The Family Physiccua. 

two or three times a week, according to the force 
of the pulse, are essential, unless the patient be ol 
a scrofulous habit. We have the authorities of 
some of the most respectable physicians, of the ef- 
ficacy of foxglove in this disease, but like all pow- 
erful medicines it should be used with caution. The 
most eligible method of using the foxglove is in 
tincture, beginning with a dose of about twenty 
drops, and gradually increasing it to forty, fifty or 
sixty, to an adult, morning, noon, and night. In 
giving this medicine, it should be so managed as 
not to produce vomiting or violent sickness. But 
it either happen, the patient must for a day or two 
omit the medicine, and afterwards resume the use 
of it in smaller doses. 

Iceland moss or liverwort, has been highly extol- 
led of late in this complaint as a remedy, that read- 
ily allays cough, facilitates expectoration, abates 
hectic fever, and quiets the system without consti- 
pating the bowels. It is likewise said to strength- 
en the organs of digestion, without increasing the 
action of the heart and arteriei. Indeed the phys- 
icians of both Europe and America have spoken so. 
loudly in its praise, that every patient ought cer- 
tainly to give it a trial. The most approved meth- 
od of using it, is in the form of decoction; one 
ounce of the herb to a quart of water, boiled for 
fifteen minutes over a slow fire, (o which two 
drachms of sliced liquorice root may be added,, 
about five minutes before it is taken off. A teacup 
full of this decoction should be taken four times a 
day. Another form is by boiling two drachms of 
(he herb in a pint of milk for ten minutes, and ta- 
king it for breakfast and supper. If chocolate be 
preferred, it may be blended with it, by making the 
chocolate with a decoction of the moss, (without the 
liquorice) as above directed. 

Exercise, when not carried to fatigue, in a dry, 
country air, often does more good than medicine, 
and consequently should be taken freely. Lonr 



The Family Physician. 19 

journies on horseback, are the most effectual modes 
of exercise, carefully avoiding night air, and the 
extreme heat of the day in Summer. That exer- 
cise be not fatigueing, patients should only travel a 
few miles in a day at first, and gradually increase 
the distance as they increase in strength. When 
exercise on horseback cannot be supported, sailing 
and swinging should be substituted; and no effort 
to cheer the spirits, or innocently amuse the mind, 
should be neglected. 

In order to guard against cold, the patient should 
wear a flannel waistcoat next the skin, together 
with sliders of the same, and stockings of cotton or 
worsted. Such a dress may be found a little irk- 
some at first; but time soon reconciles it, and in the 
end renders-it truly desirable and comfortable. 

Hypochondriac Disease. 

This disease is likewise known by the>name of 
low spirits or vapors; and is distinguished by listless- 
ness, languor, a disposition to seriousness, sadness, 
and timidity as to future events; an apprehension 
of the worst or most unhappy state of them, and 
therefore often, on slight ground, a dread of great 
evil. Such persons are particularly attentive to the 
state of their own health, and to the smallest change 
of feeling in their bodies; from any unusual sensa- 
tion, perhaps of the slightest kind, they apprehend 
great danger, and even death itself; and, in respect 
to all their feelings and apprehensions, there is, for 
the most part, unfortunate!) , the most obstinate be- 
lief and persuasion, 

This diseased state of the mind is sometimes at- 
tended with symptoms of indigestion, hysterical af- 
fections, and sometimes with melancholy; but these 
are merely effects,. 

The exciting causes are generally, indolence, vi- 
olent passions of the mind, the suppression of cus- 
tomary evacuations, obstructions of some of the vis- 
csra,.&c„ But, its immediate cause appears to h& 



20 The Family Physician. 

loss of energy in the bruin, or torpid state of the 
nervous system. 

To obtain a cure of this disease, we must endea- 
vor to change every habit of the patient's life, and 
every train of thought in his mind. Abandon the 
use of opium, and the immoderate use of ardent 
spirits, and tobacco; give up tea, coffee, and choc- 
olate; get up, and go to bed early; use moderate 
exercise in the open air, and engage in new and in- 
teresting pursuits. Company which engages atten- 
tion, and is at the same time of a cheerful kind, 
will always be found of great service. The occa- 
sional reading of entertaining books, or playing at 
any game, in which some skill is required, and 
where the stake is not an object of much anxiety, 
if not too long protracted, will further assist in di- 
verting the mind from itself. 

A proper diet constitutes an essential part in the 
treatment of this malady. In general, light animal 
food is what alone agrees with such patients; for 
there are faw, if any vegetables, which do not prove 
flatulent in their bowels. Acids are particularly in- 
jurious. All malt liquors, except porter, are apt to 
excite too high a fermentation in the stomach;' and 
wines are for the most part liable to the same ob- 
jection. U an exception can be made in favor of 
any, it is good old Madeira, if it can be obtained, 
which not only promotes digestion, and invigorates 
the concoctive powers, but acts, immediately, as a 
generous and wholesome cordial. The use of spir- 
ituous liquors is not to be recommended as a habit- 
ual resource, though they may be taken occasional- 
Jy, in a moderate quantity, diluted with water 
Tea and coffee, though hurtful to people of bad di- 
gestion, are often useful, however, to the hypochon- 
driac. Moderate exercise we have already observ- 
ed, is indispensable in the cure of this disease- and 
it cannot be taken any way with so much advan- 
tage, as in long journies when, convenient, accom- 
panied with such: circ umstances,. a* may, convert 
them into, an agreeabk amusement*. 



The Family Physician, c 2t 

Tetany, or Locked-jaw. 

This disease sometimes arises without any pre- 
vious injury, more especially in warm climates, and 
near the sea. Robust, vigorous, middle-aged men, 
are more liable than others. In the majority of ca- 
ses, lockjaw comes in consequence of stabs and 
punctures in tendinous parts, and about the fingers 
and toes, and this frequently when the wound heals 
kindly. It proceeds also from cold or moisture, or 
sleeping on the damp ground. Us first symptoms 
are a stiffness of the neck, incrpasing to pain, ex- 
tending next to the root of the tongue, then shoots 
into the breast, and lastly seizes the back. The 
symptoms are sometimes rapid, at others slow in 
their progress. If the patient survives the feuith 
day, there is a chance of his recovery. The symp- 
toms never recede but by slow degrees. 

Upon the first appearance of the disease two or 
three tea spoonfuls of laudanum, or three or four- 
grains of opium, may be given, and repeated every 
two hours or oftner, with a half pint or more of wine 
or strong spirits and water, between the doses. A 
tincture nude by infusing a quantity of the seeds of 
the lobelia inflata, in spirits, is an infallible remedy 
for this disease. About a tea-spoonful should be 
given at a time. 

In every stage of this disease, it is of importance 
to keep the bowels open, by some stimulating pur- 
gative or glyster. 

To recover persons apparently killed by Lightning or 
JVoxious Vapors. 
Instantly throw cold water with some force in 
large quantities on the face and head, which should 
be often repeated for some time; and if convenient,, 
the whole body may be plunged into cold water. 
and afterwards wiped dry, and warmth gradually 
applied. If the body aad extremities feel cold, in- 
stead of the application of cold water, the warm 
&ath about the temperature of the blood , should* 



2& The Family Physiciua. 

fee prepared as soon as possible, and the patient io» 
mersed in it for twenty or thirty minutes, using fric- 
tions at the same time with the hand. As soon as 
the patient is taken out of the bath, his skin must 
be wiped dry and wrapped up in warm flannel, and 
gentle stimulants employed to produce a reaction. 
When by these means, the circulation of the 
blood is increased, and the extiemities become 
warm, bleeding will be proper, and must be otten 
repeated, if the patient have fever, or complain of 
pain. Besides which, evacuations must be procured 
by purgative medicines and glysters, and the anti- 
phlogistic plan in every respect strictly, pursued un- 
til the febrile symptoms abate. After which, toric 
medicines with wine, in cases of debility, are of in* 
finite service. 



Hernia, or Ruptures. 

Some suppose that this disease is always the con* 
sequence of a rupture of some of the pans wh i h 
form the cavity of the abdomen or belly. Bu^ an- 
atomical examination has shewn, that this dis 
a: it most commonly appears, takes place in conse- 
quence of the protrusion of some of the contents of 
the abdomen, through openings, which are natural 
to the human body; and without any violent sepa- 
ration of the parts. Ruplures generally appear in 
the groin, in the upper and fore part of the thigh, 
and at the navel. Those which ap-pear, at (irst, just 
above the groin, will, in general, if neglected, soon 
descend into the scrotum of men, and into the labia 
pudenrJi of women. 

In those ruptures which are of easy reduction, as 
soon as a pressure is properly made, the protruded 
intestine generally slips up, all at once, with a kind 
of guggling noise, and the tumor immediately sub- 
sides; where the tumor has chiefly been formed bv 
omentum, that passes up more slowly, and without 
tht t particular noise which accompanies the return 
of the intestine. 



The Family Physician, "2* 

In those cases of rupture, where stricture has ta- 
ken place on the protruded parts, and the reduc- 
tion is thereby rendered difficult, the belly become! 
tense and painful, the pain of the belly, as well as 
the tumor itself, being much increased on the least 
exertion; a total stoppage of discharge by stool 
takes place, and the patient is distressed by a sick- 
ness at the stomach, which increases, until there is 
almost constant retching and vomiting. 

To prevent those evils, it is only necessary, that 
such a pressure be kept on the opening, through 
' which the part protruded, as may prevent its again 
falling out. The pressure of the fingers shows how 
effectually this may be done, and if, at the time this 
pressure is made, the patient but gently coughs, he 
will discover how forcibly the protruded parts are 
driven outwards, and how necessary it is to guard 
against their future propulsion. A mode has been 
devised, by spring-trusses, of applying a constant 
and properly adapted pressure, requiring little or 
no exertion, or even attention of the patient him- 
self. No person, therefore, in the situation just de- 
scribed, should suffer a day, more than is absolute- 
ly unavoidable to pass, without obtaining the com- 
fort and security which will follow the application 
of a truss; since, if it be adopted at the first ap- 
pearance of the disease, not only will the malady 
be stopped in its progress, but if employed with 
constancy and steadiness, a radical cure may ue 
obtained. 

The umbilical hernia, or rupture of the navel, is 
most common to childhood, and is easily cured i( 
early attended to. 

The means to be adopted., arc simply these: The 
protruded parts are to be returned, which ma} be 
easily done by slight pressure of the finger, and re- 
tailed in their proper situation by a conical piece of 
very soft sponge, thoroughly cleared by rubbing be- 
tween the thumb and fingers, of sand and minute 
shells, which may be lodged in its cavities. Tbvs 



24 The Family Physician. 

being kept to the part, by the point of one finger, id 
to be secured by several strips of adhesive plaster, 
three inches in length, crossing each other in a stel- 
lated form. 

White Swelliwg. 

This disease is generally of a scrofulous nature, 
"but sometimes produced by rheumatic affections, 
and sometimes follow strains that have been neg- 
lected, or badly treated. It is distinguished by an 
acute pain, without any external inflammation, of a 
ioint, attended with a gradual increase of its size. 
"Though all the joints are occasionally subject to it, 
yet, its most usual seat is in the knee. 

The following recipe if applied and persevered 
in, is an infallible cure for this disease. 

Take sweet oil and flax-seed oil of each one 
ounce, put them into a tin cup, set it on the coals 
and boil it until it will scorch a feather, then add 
half an ounce of camphor, and one ounce of red 
lead, stirring it well with a* stick. After it has sim- 
mered a little pour it into a basin of water, and work 
it like wax, when it will be fit for use. Where the 
swelling is broke, or has been of long standing, it 
will be best to make a lye poultice, thickened with 
rye meal, and apply it twice in twenty-four hours, 
until it begins to leel sore ; then get a handful of the 
bark of the root of rosenoble, by some called car- 
penter's square, pound it fine, boil it soft, and make 
a poultice by thickening with rye flour, and apply 
it twice in twenty-four hours for four or five days, 
then spread some of the plaster quite thin on a 
piece of soft leather, such as buck or sheep-skin: 
apply it to the running part and let it remain for 
five days; but recollect to raise the lower edge of 
the plaster every day, or oflener, so as to allow (he 
matter to escape. At the expiration of this time, 
take off the plaster, and wash the sore with the 
suds of castile soap, then apply a fresh plaster a? 
«bove. and so continue on until cured. 



The Family Physician. %5 

.'he patient should observe a spare diet, and oc- 
casionally, it" necessary, take a little physic, so as to 
keep the bowels gently open. 

Note. The above recipe is also an excellent ap- 
plication for old running sores, &c. 

Scrofula, or King's Evil. 

This disease is most frequent among the children 
of the poor, and negroes, who are ill fed, ill lougrd 
and ill clothed ; it is also hereditary, but never con- 
tagious. It most commonly occurs in children from 
the third, to the seventh year; frequently, howev- 
er, it discovers itself at abater period in habits pe- 
culiarly disposed to it. 

It is known by indolent hard tumors of the lymh- 
atic glands, particuJarly those of the neck, behind 
the ears, or under the chin. The upper lip, and di- 
vision of the nostrils are swelled with a smooth skin, 
and hard belly. In the progress of the disease! 
these tumors degenerate into ulcers of bad digest- 
ion: the discharge of which consists of a white 
cruddled matter resembling somewhat the coagu- 
lum of milk, and previous to their breaking, they 
acquire a sort of purple redness and a softness to 
tbe touch. 

As soon as those tumors are first discovered, en- 
deavor to disperse them by sea bathing, or bathing 
in salt and water, one pound to three gallons of wa- 
ter, or cold water alone, or by the frequent applica- 
tion of lead water Warm fomentations do harm, 
\aey seem only to burr;' en f> ?uppuralion, which 
if possible should be prevented. A large draugat 
of sea water every jnorning will be found a useful 
drink. Peruvian bark and steel used alternately 
every two weeks, will be of infinite service, by giv- 
ing tone to the system. The remedy however, most 
to be depended upon in this disease, is muriate of 
lime, given in doses of from, ten to eighty drops, 
gradually increased, three or four times a day, dilu- 
ted with water < • ». A powder composed of one 



2(J The Family Physician. 

pound finely powdered bark, and one ounce o£ 
.white lead in hue powder, mixed well together, or 
a fine powder of calamine stone alone, and the ul- 
cers covered with it daily, keeping it on by brown 
paper and a bandage. Where these are not to be 
obtained, the constant application of linnen rags 
moistened with a solution of one ounce of sugar of 
lead in a pint of water, may answer every purpose. 
The king's evil root, [See Herbs] a plant common 
*o our country, bruised and made into a salve, and 
.applied cold, together with a ten made of the pip- 
aisewa plant, and drank freely, will effectually cure 
this disease. 

The diet should be nourishing and easily digest- 
ible, avoiding all viscid food. Moderate exercise in 
i dry warm air is exceedingly beneficial. 
Bathing in salt-water has likewise a very good 
.effect, especially in the warm season. A course of 
bathing in salt-water and drinking it in such quan- 
tities as to keep the body gently open, has cured 
persons affected with this disease, after many other 
.medicines had been tried in vain. When salt-wa- 
ter cannot be obtained, the patient may be bathed 
in fresh water, and his body kept open by small 
quantities of salt and water, or some other mild 
purgative. 

Ne:;t to cold bathing and drinking the salt-water 
the Peruvian bank should be preferred. The cojd 
bath may be used in Summer and the bark in Win- 
ter. To an adult half a drachm of the bark in pow« 
der may be given. iuii.sl^s of red wine, four or five 
times a day. 'Children, and such as cannot take it 
In substance, may use the decoction made in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

Boii an ounce of Peruvian bark and a drachm of 
Wintir's bark, both grossly powdered, in a quart of 
water to a pint: towards the end half an ounce Of 
sliced liquorice-root, and a handful of raisins may 
be added, which will both render the decoction less 
^vreeable. and make it take up more of the bark, 



The Family Physician. 27 

The liquor must be strained, and two, three, or four 
table-spoonfuls, according to the age of the patient, 
givpn three times a day. 

Medicines which mitigate this disease, though 
they do not cure it, are not to be despised. If the 
patient can be kept alive by any means till he ar- 
rives at the age of puberty, he has a chance to get 
well; but if he does not recover at this time, in all 
probability he never will. 

There is no malady which parents' are so apt to 
communicate to their offspring as the scrofula; for 
which reason people ought to beware of marrying, 
into families affected with this disease. 



The Pleurisy. 

The true pleurisy is an inflammation of that mem 
brane called the pleura, which lines the inside of 
the breast, ll is distinguished into the moist and dry. 
in the former, the patient spHs freely; in the tetter, 
little, or none at all. There is likewise a specie? of 
tlii s disease, which is called the spurious or bastard 
pleurisy, i" which the pain is more external, and 
chiefly affects the muscles between the ribs. The 
pleurisy prevails among laboring people, especial- 
ly such as work without doors, and are of a san- 
guine constitution. It is most frequent in the spring 
season. 

Causes. — The pleurisy, like other inflammatory 
diseases, proceeds from whatever obstructs the per- 
spiration ; as exposing the body to the cold air when 
over heated. It may likewise be occasioned by 
whatever increases the circulation of the blood, as 
violent exercise, or an imprudent use of ardent 
spirits. 

Regimen* — The diet ought to be cool, slender 
and diluting. The patient must avoid all food that 
is viscid, hard of diges'.ion, or that affords much 
nourishment; as flesh, butter, cheese, eggs, milk, 
and also every thing that is of a heating nature. 
His drink may be whey, or an infusion of pectora* 
and balsamic vegetables. 



28 . The Family Physician. 

The patient should be kept quiet, cool, and ever 
ry way easy. His feet and hands ought daily to be 
bathed. in lukewarm water; and he may sometimes 
set up in bed for a short space, in order to relieve 
his head. When a fever is attended with a violent 
pain in the side, and a quick hard pulse, bleeding is 
of the greatest importance. When these symp- 
toms come on, the sooner this operation is perform- 
ed the better; and the quantify at first must be 
pretty large, provided the patient is able to bear it. 
A large quantity oi blood let at once, in the begin- 
ning of a pleuiisy, has a much better effect than 
repeated small bleedings. A man may loose twelve 
or fourteen ounces as soon as it is certainly known 
that he is seized with a pleurisy. For a younger 
person, or one of a delicate constitution, the quan- 
tity must be less. 

If, after the first, bleeding, the stitch, with the 
other fiolent symptGnAshould still continue, it will 
b'e necessary, at the distance of twelve or eighteen 
bovirfl, to let eight or nine ounces more. If the 
symptoms do not then abate, and the blood shows a 
strong buflv coat, a third or even a fourth bleeding 
may be requisite. If the pain of the side abates, 
the pulse becomes softer, or the patient begins to 
spit freely, bleeding ought not to be repeated. This 
operation is seldom necessary after the third or 
fourfh day of the fever, and ought not then to be 
performed, unless in the most urgent circumstan- 
ces. 

If the patient does not perspire, but has a burn- 
ing heat upon his skin, and passes very little water, 
some small doses of purified nitre and camphor will 
be of use. Two drachms of the former may be 
rubbed with five or six grains of the latter in a mor- 
tar, and the whole divided into six doses, one of 
which may be taken every five or six hours, in a lit- 
tle of the patient's ordinary drink. 

A decoction of the Seneca rattlesnake-root is con- 
sidered by some almost a specific in the pleurisy, 



The Family Physician. 29 '■' 

wsed in the following manner. After bleeding and 
other evacuations have been premised, the patient 
may take two, three, or four table-spoonfuls of this 
decoction, according as his stomach will bear it, 
three or four times a-day If it should occasion 
vomiting, two or three ounces of simple cinnamon- 
water may be mixed with the quantity ot decoction 
here directed, or it may be taken in smaller doses. 
As this medicine promotes perspiration and urine, 
and likewise keeps the body easy, it may be of ma- 
terial service in a pleurisy, or any other inflamma- 
tion of the breast. 

What is called the crisis, or height of the fever, 
is sometimes attended with very alarming symp- 
toms, 'is difficulty of breathing, an irregular pulse, 
convulsive motions, &c. These are apt to frighten 
the attendants, and induce them to do improper 
things, as bleeding the patient, giving him strong 
stimulating medicines, or the like. But they are 
only the struggles of nature to overcome the dis- 
ease, in which she ought to be assisted by plenty of 
diluting drinks, which is then peculiarly necessary. 
If the patient's strength however, be much exhaust- 
ed by the disease, it will be necessary at this time to 
support him with frequent small draughts of wine- 
rvhey, negus, or the like. 

When the pain and fever are gone, it will be. 
proper, after the patient has recovered sufficient 
strength, to give him some gentle purges. He ought 
likewise to use a light diet, of easy digestion, and 
hi* drink should be butter-milk, whey, and other 
things of a cleansing nature. 

The Bastard Pleurisy. 

That species of pleurisy which is called the has- 
jtrd or spurious, generally goes off. by keeping warm 
for a few days, drinking plenty of diluting liquors, 
and observing a cooling regimen. 

It is known by a dry cough, quick pulse, and a 
difficulty of lying on the affected sidej.vyhich.last ■■- 



30 The Family Physician. 

does not always happen in the true pleurisy. Some- 
times indeed this disease proves obstinate, and re- 
quires bleeding, with cupping, and scarification* of 
the part affected. These, together with the use of 
nitrous and other cooling medicines, seldom fail to 
effect a cure. 



Palsy, 

Is a disease consisting in a loss of the power of 
voluntary motion, but affecting certain parts of the 
body only, and by this it is distinguished from apo- 
plexy. In the most violent degrees ol palsy, the 
patient looses both the pow;. r of motion, and sense 
of feeling, either of one side, or the lower half of 
the body. The first is termed h&miphlegia, the lat- 
ter paraphlegia* When it affects any particular 
parts only, as the tongue, the lip, eyelid, &c. it is 
termed a local pa.lsy. It is more or less dangerous, 
according to the importance of the part affected), 
A palsy of the heart, lungs, or any part necessary 
to life, is mortal. When it affects the stomach, the 
intestines, or the bladder, it is highly dangerous. 
If the face be affected, the case is bad, as it shows 
that the disease proceeds from the brain. When 
the part affected feels cold, is insensible, or wastes 
away, or when the judgement and memory begin to 
fail, there is small hope of a cure. 

Symptoms. — If this disease be not the effect of 
apoplexy, it is often preceded by universal torpor, 
giddiness, a sense of weight or uneasiness in the 
head, du loess of comprehension, loss of memory, 
and a sense of coldness in the part about to be af- 
fected; there is also, sometimes tremor, creeping, 
and pain in the part. 

Causes. — The immediate cause of palsy is any 
thing that prevents the regular exertion of the nerv- 
ous power upon any particular muscle or part of the 
body. The. occasional and predisposing causes are 
various, as drunkenness, wounds of the brain, or 
♦Pinal marrow; pressure upon the brain or nerves; 



The Family Physician. 31 

very cold or damp air; the suppression of custom- 
ary evacuations; sudden fear; want of exercise; or 
whatever greatly relaxes the system, as drinking 
much tea, or coffee, &c. The pals} may likewise 
proceed from wounds of the nerves themselves, and 
from the poisonous fumes of metals or minerals, a^ 
mercury, lead, arsenic, &c. It is also produced, in 
consequence of extreme debility, and old age. 

Treatment. — In young persons of a full habit, the 
palsy must be treated in the same manner as the 
sanguine apoplexy. The patient must be bled, and 
have his body opened by sharp glysters or purgatiFe 
medicines. But, in old age, or when the disease 
proceeds from relaxation or debility, which is gen- 
erally the case, a quite contrary course must be pur- 
sued. The diet must be warm and invigorating, 
seasoned with spices and aromatic vegetables, as 
^ mustard, horse-radish, &c. The drink may be gen- 
erous wine, mustard-whey, or brandy and water. 
Friction with the flesh-brush, or a warm hand, is ex- 
tremely proper, especially on the parts affected. 
One of the best .external applications is electricity. 
The shocks, or rather vibrations, should be receiv- 
ed on the part affected; and they ought daily to be 
repeated for several weeks. 

The wild valerian root is a very proper medicine 
in this case. It may either be taken in an iofu?ion 
of sage-leaves, or half a drachm ol it in powder 
may be given in a glass of wine three times a day. 
A table spoonful of mustard-seed taken frequently 
is a very good medicine. The patient ought like- 
wise to ciiew cinnamon bark, ginger, or other warm 
spiceries. 

Exercise is of the utmost importance in the pal- 
sy; but the patient must beware of cold, damp, and 
moist air. He ought to wear flannel next his skin; 
and, if possible, should remove into a warmer cli- 
Hiatc, 



32 ~- The Family Physician. 

Night Mare. 

Symptoms. — An alarming oppression or weight 
about the breast or stomach, with dread of suffoca- 
tion, which the patient can by no means shake off. 
He groans, and sometimes cries out, though oftener 
he attempts to speak in vain. Sometimes he fancies 
Jhimsell in a house that is on fire, or that he is in dan- 
ger of being drowned in a river. Sometimes he 
imagines himself engaged with an enemy, and in 
danger of being killed, attempts to run away, but 
finds he cannot. He often thinks he is falling over 
aprecipice,and the dread of being dashed to pieces 
suddenly awakes him. 

This disorder has been supposed to proceed from 
too much blood; from a stagnation of blood in the 
brain, lung?, &c. But it is rather a nervous affec- 
tion, and arises chiefly from indigestion. Nothing 
te*ds more to produce it than late and excessive 
suppers — great fatigue — drunkenness, or sleeping 
on the back. Flatulent food, deep thought, anxiety, 
or any thing that oppresses the mind, ought care- 
fully to be avoided by those who are afflicted with 
this disease. 

If the patient be of a plethoric habit, bleed, 
purge, and use a spare diet. And when the disease 
is the consequence of debility and weak nerves, the 
tonic medicines, as steel, bark, or columbo, in their 
usual doses, are proper. A dram of brandy taken 
at bed time is said to prevent this disease. This 
however is a bad custom, and in time loses its ef- 
fect. We would rather have the patient depend 
upon the use of food of easy digestion, cheerful- 
ness, exercise through the day, and a light supper 
taken early, than to accustom himself to drams. 
Alter a person of weak digestion, however, has 
eaten flatulent food, a dram may be necessary; in 
this gas*: we would recommend it as the most j.rop. 
er medicine, . 



The Family Physician. 33 

Chicken, or Swine Pox. 
iN this disease an eruption which much resem- 
bles that of a very favorable small pox, appears af- 
ter a very slight fever. This eruption soon proceeds 
to suppuration, in which state it remains but a little 
time, before the disease terminates by the drying 
Up of the pustules, which seldom leave scars be- 
hind. As to the trealment, medicine is very sel- 
dom necessary, it being generally sufficient that the 
patient be kept moderately cool, and supplied 
with diluent drinks and light feod. 

Sea Sicknes$. 

Symptoms. — A most unpleasant giddiness, with 
great 'nausea and vomiting, occasioned by the. mo- 
tion of the vessel. The duration of (his complaint 
is very uncertain. Generally, it lasts but a day or 
two, but in some cases it will continue the whole 
voyage. 

Though time, perhaps, is the only cure, yet it 
will be greatly alleviated by keeping the bowels 
open. A tea-spoonful of aether in a glass of water, 
relieves the convulsive affection of the stomach. 
High seasoned food and acidulated drinks are pe- 
culiarly proper But nothing will be found more 
serviceable than exercise, cheerfulness, and fresh 
air. Persons should therefore, never go below; but 
romp on the decks, cut capers in the shrouds, and 
divert their minds, and move their bodies, as much 
as possible. 



Hydrophobia, or the Bite of a Mad Dog. 

This disease is so dreadfully alarming at all 
times, that we ought, as the best means of security, 
endeavor to prevent it. 

The poison of a rabid animal is generally com- 
municated by a wound, which however heals as 
soon as a common wound: but afterwards begins to 
feel painful, and shooting pains are lelt proceeding 
from the bitten part towards the heart. The pa- 



34 . The Family Physician, 

tient becomes heavy and listless, his sleep is unquiet 
with frightful dreams ; he sighs, looks dull, and loves 
.solitude. These are the forerunners, or rather the 
first symptoms of that dreadiul disease eecasioned 
by the bite of a mad dog. 

The medicines recommended for preventing the 
effects of the bite of a mad dog, are chiefly such as 
promote the different secretions, and antispasmod- 
ics. A 'celebrated doctor recommends the follow- 
ing as a preventative, and one which he never 
knew to fail, having used it in a great many cases: 

"Take ash-coloured ground liver-wort, cleaned, 
dried, and powdered, hall an ou >ce; of black pep- 
pei powdered, one fourth of an ounce. Mix these 
well togetln r, and divide the povi derinto four dos- 
es; o e of which must be taken ever} morning fast- 
ing, for four mornings successively, in half a pint of 
iowV milk warm. 

•• v i : these four doses have been taken, the pa- 
tient must go into the cold ball), or a cold spring or 
river, every morning fasting, for a month; he must 
be dipped ail over, but not stay in (with his head 
above water) longer than half a minute, if the wa- 
ter be very cold. After this he must go in three 
times a week for a fortnight longer. 

"The person must be bled before he begins to 
use the medicine." 

The following is the famous East India specific. 
It is esteemed a great antispasmodic; and, by many, 
extolled as an infallible remedy for preventing the 
effects of the bite of a mad dog: 

"Take native and factitious cinnabar of each 24 
grains, musk 16 grains. Let these be made into a 
fine powder, and taken in a glass of brandy or ar- 
rack. 1 ' 

This dose is said to secure the patient for thirty 
day?, at the end of which it must be repeated; but 
if he has any symptoms of the disease, it must be re- 
peated in three hours. 

Camphor may also be given in the following man- 
ner: 



The Family Physician, 3| 

"Take purified nitre half an ounce, Virginia 
snakeroot in powder, two drachms, camphor one 
drachm; rub them together in a mortar, and divide 
the whole into ten doses. Vinegar is likewise of 
considerable service, and should be taken freely, 
either in the patient's food or drink." 

A proper regimen must be observed throughout 
the whole course. The patient should abstain from 
flesh, and all salted and high seasoned provisions. 
He must avoid strong liquors, and live mostly upon 
a light and rather spare diet. His mind should be 
kept as easy and cheerful as possible, and all ex- 
cessive heat and violent passions -avoided with the 
utmost care. 



Venereal Disease. 
This disease is of two species: (he one a local af- 
fection of the genital organs, termed gonorrhoea or 
. dap; and the other a general or constitutional com- 
plaint, termed syphilis, or pox. 

The Gonorrhma, 
Of which we shall first treat, is a secretion and 
discharge of matter from the mucous membrane 
lining the urethra in men, and the vagina in wo- 
men, in consequence of an application of syphilitic 
• matter to them. In its progress it communicates 
to all the surrounding parts, and produces a variety 
of painful sensations. 

With some persons the disease will show itself in 
three or four days; while with others there will not 
be the least appearance of it before tho expiration 
of some weeks. It is most usually perceptible, how- 
ever, in the space of from six to fourteen days. It 
begins with an uneasiness and itching about the 
parte; soon after which appears a discharge of mu- 
cous, at first white, but soon turning to a yellow or 
, greenish color, an acute or scalding pain in making 
water, with most indecent erections of the penis, 
termed chorde.e, very painful, and sometimes fol- 
lowed by a discharge of blood. At times the inflam- 



36 The Family Physician, 

mation extends to the contiguous parts, occasioning 
strangur), swelled testicle, swelling in the groins 
similar to buboes, or a contraction and thk kenn g 
of the foreskin, which, when drawn over the head 
of the yard, is termed phymosis, and paraphymosis 
when retracted behind it. 

When these symptoms dance their attendance to 
the catastrophe, the clap may be said \o flourish in 
its full bloom, and the patient finds himself fairly 
seated on the stool of repentance. 

In the general treatment ol gonorrhoea, rest, to- 
gether with abstinence from strong food, and every 
thing of a heating nature, is of the greatest conse- 
quence; and this alone with little assistance from 
medicine, will complete the cure in a short period. 

As the disease is local, topical applications in the 
form of injections become necessary. The patient 
should, therefore, without delay, employ one of the 
injections, [See Recipes] which in irritable habits 
must be a little weakened, and the strength gradu- 
ally increased as the inflammation abates. Frequent 
bathing the part, and the greatest cleanliness, are 
too important to be neglected; particularly washing 
under the glands to prevent the accumulation of 
the fluids from the odoriferous glands, which produ- 
ces irritation, inflammation, and often ulcers. 

For the chordee which is more severe during the 
continuance of inflammation, and occurs mostly in 
the night, while the patient is warm in bed, take^ on 
going- to rest, a dose of laudanum, or souse the guil- 
ty member frequently in a vessel of cold water. 
Should a hemorrhage supervene, it may be remov- 
ed by rest, and immersing the part often in cold vin- 
egar and water, or lead water of the ordinary 
strength, of which the patient may throw a little up. 

la cases of phymosis, ( old applications to the pe- 
nis, as lead water or cold vinegar and water, ;od 
topical bleeding, with leeches, constilute the prop- 
er re medics. Besides which, sonp suds should be 
•tofteu injected with a syringe between the skin and 



"The Family Physician. 37 

"the gland, to prevent the stagnation of matter 
whose extreme acrimony might otherwise produce 
a mortification of the parts. When these means, 
assisted by opiates, fail, an operation becomes ne- 
cessary; it is simple, and by no means dangerous. 
A shtffp pointed knife, concealed and defended by 
a grooved directory, which must be previously in- 
troduced between the prepuce and glands, are the 
only instruments required. The point of the knife 
should pass through the prepuce at the bottom, and 
the section be made by drawing it towards the op- 
erator. Common dressings are sufficient; hut lin- 
en or lint should be interposed between the glands 
and the prepuce to prevent adhesion. 

Parapkymosis is the opposite disease, where the 
prepuce cannot be drawn over the head of the pe- 
nis; and in this case bathing the parts frequently 
in milk ai d water or soap suds, and taking some 
cooling laxative medicine, will generally effect a 
Cure. 

Such are the principle symptoms which attend 
the Clap. Its consequences, which induce a n< v: 
3tate of disease after the original affection is re 
moved, are no less important. 

Gleet. 

In consequence of repeated attacks of gonorrhoea 
and the debility of the parts occasioned thereby, ft 
not unfrequentl) happens, that a gleet or small dis- 
charge of mucus matter remains behind, after nil 
danger of infection has ceased. A discharge of this 
kind may also be occasioned by hard drinking, vio- 
lent exercise or straining. A discharge of mucus, 
if not connected with a venereal taint, even when 
accompanied with inflammation, which have been 
excited by high living or violent exercise, is not 
infedious. 

In recent cases, the disease may, in general, e;^ 
•oily be removed; but in those of long standing, 
where the mucus glands have suffered n 
D 



• £& The Family Physician. 

Jaxation,or where there is either. a stricture or car 

losity, it may continue /or life, in spite of our best 
endeavors to cure it, having, however, certain in- 
tervals. 

This is, nevertheless, to be attempted by a fre- 
.quent use ot astringent injections, and even by 
those of a stimulant nature, as solutions Of muriate 
of ammonia, balsam coj>aiva,&c. Tonics ot every 
kind, particularly cold bathing, both local and gen- 
eral, should be used. In obstinate cases, the bar- 
berry, [See Herbs'] as well as the tincture of Spanish 
flies, have often succeeded. None of the remedies 
should be continued longer than eight or ten days, 
if they produce no sajutary effects. They ollen in 
this time remove the complaint which recurs on 
their being discontinued, so thrit they should be « m- 
ployed long after the discharge has ceased. The 
titictuie of flies may be given conjointly with bul- 
sam copaiva, or alone in common drink. This rem- 
edy must be cautiously employed, beginning with 
very small doses, about fifteen drops of the tincture, 
which may be gradually increased daily, as in the 
irritable state of those organs even a common dose 
may excite dangerous inflammation. 

When an ulcer in the urethra is the cause, an in- 
jection composed of one or two grains of corrosive 
sublimate in half a pint of water, or made of suffi- 
cient strength to excite some degree of inflamma- 
tion in the part affected, may be used. 

Seminal Weakness. 

This disease is often difficult to remove, and in 
;irianv cases proves incurable; 

At the beginning of the disease there is a great 
'inclination to erections, and the emission of the se- 
men is attended with pleasure; but gradually the 
p. r.is becomes lame, the testicles hang lower than 
«.ual,and unless they are otherwise njj-ptnded, be- 
cone almost a burden to the possessor. 

Although veterans in lue wars of Venus, arc most 



The Family Physician. 3Sf 

liable to bo complimented with this kind of gleet, 
yei it may originate from other causes, as Onanism, 
a sodden lift or strain, hot clysters, straining to stool, 
or the imprudent use of strong diuretics. 

If the emission takes place on the slightest irrita- 
tion, as heat, wine, &lc. and is attended with some 
degree of spasm, it is a sign the patient is in a very 
rampant state, and can hardlv get him a wife too 
soon. But if it oozes away insensibly, cold bathing, 
and tonic medicines, as bark, steel, or balsam copai- 
va, in the usual doses, with a generous diet, are the 
best remedies. Costiveness should be carefuliy 
avoided. 



Pox. 

Tins is the venereal disease in its confirmed 
state, manifested by chancres, buboes, or warts 
about the genitals. To these succeed ulcers in the 
throat, nose, and tongue, blotches on various parts 
of the body, with nocturnal pains, especially in the 
skin, bones, and shoulders. 

When the disease is suffered to proceed, and is 
not counteracted by propei remedies, the patient 
will, in the course of time, be afflicted with severe 
pains, but more particularly in the nighttime; his 
countenance will become sallow; his hair will fall 
off; he will lose his appetite, strength, and flesh; bis 
rest will be much disturbed by night, and a small le- 
ver of the hectic kind will arise. The 
the mouth and throat being likewise suffered to 
spread, and to occasion a caries of the bones oft fie 
pal, ite, an opening will be made from the mculh to 
the nose; and the cartilages and hones of the nose 
being at length corroded away, this will sink al d 
level with the face. 

Mercury is considered the best anlidote with 
which we are acquainted, to the sypbylitic poison 
from which it is evident that recourse should be had 
to it, in ali cases where the system becomes tainted; 
This medicine requires op'jt to be so managed as ■ > 



10 The Family Physician. 

obtain full possession of tin: system; not exceeding 
it by salivation, nor falling short of il by untimely 
purging. To hit this desirable point, let one of the 
mercurial pills [See Recipes] be given night and 
morning, until the system is fully charged with the 
medicine, which may be known by a slight sorei.ess 
of the mouth and gums, and foetid breath. This 
fortunate state of things carefully supported for a 
few weeks, will remove the disease. 

If the mercury affects the bowels, lessen the dose, 
or give it at longer intervals, or use the mercurial 
ointment; and if there is an increased secretion of 
the salivary glands, we should omit the mercury for 
a lew days, and take a tea spoonful of flour of sul- 
phur, in a glass ot milk or flax-seed tea, night and 
morning. 

In this way the disease may generally be cured in 
a short time. It will always be prudent to contin- 
ue the mercury in small doses for ten or twelve days 
after the total disappearance of all the symptoms. 

There <tre cases, however, where mercury will 
not answer, as in scrofulous habits, and when the 
blood is vitiated* In these, the nitric acid should be 
preferred, and from one to two drachms of it, dilu- 
ted, may be taken in the day. This medicine seems 
especially adapted to cases where the habit ot bo- 
dy is much debilitated, from the long continuance of 
the disease, or where it has acquired great irrita- 
bility from an incautious use of mercury. It is al- 
so a sovereign cure of spongy gums, eruptions, ul- 
cers, nocturnal pains, and all the train of conse- 
quences, usually attendant on this disease, when of 
long standing and imperfectly cured. 

In the treatment, therefore, of venereal patients, 
too much attention cannot be paid to mark the pe- 
culiarities of habit; and we should always remem- 
ber, that, when unfavorable appearances supervene 
from the use of mercury, other medicines, as the ni- 
tric acid, or decoctions of mezeroon, lobelia, sarsa- 
parilla, sumach or poke bounce, [See Herbs] should 
be given. 



7%e Family Physician. - 43 

In this disease, there are certain symptoms which 
require local treatment. Thus a chancre which is 
a small red pimple, terminating in ulrer, with hard 
edges, and generally situated on some part of the 
prepuce, or the foreskin of the penis, is best re- 
moved by Hie application of caustic; or, if recent, 
washing with spirits or brandy, and applying dry 
liht to the sore, with cleanliness, will generally 
prove sufficient. 

When a bubo supervenes, which is known by 
pain and swelling in the groin, every attempt 
should be made to disperse it by rubbing in mercu- 
rial ointment on the inside of the thigh or calf of 
the leg, and 'he application of cloths, wrung out of 
Jead water, or ice, if it can be procured, to the 
swelling, renewed as often as they become warm. 

Besides which the patient should be kept stilj, 
the bowels open, and the pain alleviated by an opi- 
ate at bed time. 

The person who is under a course of mercury, 
should abstain from all salted and high-seasoned 
meats, confining his diet to plain animal food that 
is light of digestion, to their broths, preparations of " 
sago, barley, and rice custards, light puddings, 
milk, vegetables, ripe fruits, &c. He should avoid 
all spirituous liquors and acids; and it lie drinks 
wine, the quantity ought to be very small, and al- - 
ways diluted with a proper proportion of water. 

Asthma, 

Is a spasmodic affection of the lungs, which 
comes on by paroxysms most generally a Inigb/t, and 
is attended by a frequen!, difficult, a ndjhort respi- 
ration, together with a wheezing 1 oise, lightness 
across the chest, and a cough; all of which symp- 
toms are much increased when the patient is in an 
horizontal posture. When it is attended with an ex- 
pec to ration of phlegm, it is termed moist or humer- 
al; and when little or none, dry or uavoiis asthma. 

Asthma having once taken [dace, its fits are 



i-z The Family Physic 

to return periodically, and more especially when 
excited by certain causes, such as by a sudden 
change from cold to warm weather, or from heavier 
to a lighter atmosphere; by severe exercise of any 
kind, which quickens the circulation of the blood; 
by an increased bulk of the stomach, either from 
too full a meal or from a collection of air in it; by 
exposures to cold, obstructing the perspiration, and 
thereby favoring an accumulation of blood in the 
lungs; by violent passions of the mind ; by disagree- 
able odors, and by irritations of smoke, dust, and 
other subtile particles floating in the air. 

A tincture of the lobelia inflata [See Herbs] taken 
in doses of a tea spoonful several times a day, is an 
effectual remedy for this disease; so much so that 
it is considered a specific. 

A light diet, easy, digestible and not flatulent, is 
always proper for asthmatic persons; and during (he 
fit, cool drinks and fresh air are proper. It will al- 
ways be found serviceable to wear a flannel shirt 
and to keep the feet warm. 

During the absence of the paroxysm, tonic medi- 
cines and the cold bath, together with moderate 
exercise, will be most efficacious in obviating its . 
recurrence, 



Dyspepsia, or Indigestion. 

DvspEPSfA is a disease which is usually confined 
to persons between the age of 25 and 45 tears. It 
Js arranged by Dr. Thomas in class 2 of nervous dis- 
eases, and order 2, defect of vital powers. . The 
nervous system is no doubt affected in this disease, 
and there is also a detect of vital powers. The 
same effect takes place in cases of cholic, dysente- 
ry, diarrhoea, and many other bowel complaints 
and a chronic weakness is frequently produced by 
all bowel complaints. It is a disease generally- 
marked with a chronic weakness, and can there- 
fore be called a chronic disease. 

irregularity, and a sedentary; life, uneasiness of y 



The Family Physician. 43 

mind, grief, intense study, indolence, drinking of 
spirituous liquors, excess in venery, too frequent 
use of hot strong tea, tobacco and opium, overload- 
ing the stomach with stimulating food, a frequent 
rejection of saliva, a deficiency in the secretion of 
bile, much exposure to moist and cold air, and a 
want ol moderate exercise, give rise to the exciting 
or proximate cause of this disease. 

The symptoms of this disease are numerous and 
tedious; such as, loss of appetite, heart-burn, flat- 
ulency, nausea a. id vomiting, gnawing in the stom- 
ach when it is empty, uneasiness, pain ih the side 
and breast, chilliness, pale countenance, languor, 
lowness of spirits, palpitation?, vertigo, distuibed 
sleep, &c. Habitual costiveness is always, more or 
less, attended with acid eructations from the stom- 
ach, which plainly and pointedly indicate an arid 
existing in the stomach and intestines, to be the 
true cause of the disease. 

If success is to be obtained, in the method of cure, 
it greatly depends upon the patient's resolution and 
mode of living. Medicine can afford only a tem- 
porary relict, without a prqper diet and disposition 
of time. To perform a perfect cme of dyspepsia, 
it would be necessary to adopt a complete change of 
living from that in which the disease originated, and 
by which it is .kept up and continued. It the pa- 
tient, has been accustomed to a fashionable life, he 
must forsake the haunts and habits of dissipation, 
crowded rooms, where the air is rendered foul and 
unhealthy by the great number ofpersoris inhaling 
it, shun alluring amusement-, and gambling tables, 
luxurious living, indolence, intemperance, and late 
hours. 

The predominant symptom? of this disease are, 
pain in the head, with sickness of the stomach, call- 
ed sick head ache. As the stomach is the seat of 
this disease, by means of its sympathetic connexion 
with the brain, (and also with every other part of 
ie body) it causes head-ache. Acid eructations 



44 The Family Physician. 

are also a prevailing symptom, which strongly mark 
the cause in the stomach, which has already debili- 
tated its nervous functions, and rendered (tie diges- 
tion of the food difficult and inactive; and, conse- 
quently, costiveness is followed by a long train of 
other difficulties, as be/ore mentioned . 

The first step to be taken is to remove costive- 
ness, which is done by some gentle cathartic; such 
as butternut pills, (or females may use the com- 
pound pills of assafcefcida) which being accomplish- 
ed, the acid existing in the stomach must then be 
neutralized, which is done by using alkalies; such 
as sub. carbonate of potass (or salt of worm wood) 
sub. carbonate of soda, sub. carbonate of magnesia, 
lime water, &c. which must be continued for some 
length of time to keep the stomach entirely free 
from acid. After the first evacuation by cathar- 
tics, they may be joined or added to the alkalies, 
and given in small doses so as to obviate costive- 
ness. During the opeiation of the cathartics, a 
gruel made of oat meal or corn meal, salted a little, 
may be taken. The meals should be very light, and 
of easy digestion. After the bowels-are complete- 
ly evacuated, the nausea removed, and the acid in 
the stomach corrected and destroyed, the chronic 
debility remains to be remedied, and strength to be 
restored, which is effected by a course of tonics. 

The use of tonics must first be commenced in 
small doses, to be increased as the stomach will ad- 
mit of. There are a variety of tonics which will 
prove serviceable in thi* disease. But as a vegeta- 
ble tonic, 1 would recommend the use of the eu pa- 
tori um perforatum of Linnaeus. It is a plant 
which has long been familiarly known by the names 
of (horoughwort, crosswort, thorougbstem, boneset. 
Indian sage. &c. &x. and it may be found in most 
of the marshy grounds in the United States. It is 
a plant which has long been used by the Indians, as 
an emetic, from which it received the name o< veg- 
ttabiy .antimonjo iLwa&.used bj^them aUo U cuatoj 



The Family Physician. 40 

lever and ague, and other diseases of debility, wnh 
much success. 

1 would advise the leaves in substance pulveriz- 
ed, or the tincture of the leaves and flowers in proof 
spirits, or alcohol, as the best tonic preparation t« 
be used in cases of dyspepsia. The pulverized 
leaves may be used in cases of dyspepsia, in doses 
of Irom ten to twenty grains every four hours, and 
the tincture may be used by first taking one tea- 
spoonful, and then increasing thfc dose to two of 
three tea-spoonfuls eveiy four hours, as the stom- 
ach will admit without creating nausea and vomit- 
ing. 

I will here give a description of this valuable 
plant, so that it may be found by any person who 
will pay a proper attention to the following partic- 
ulars, viz. The stalk is upright and hairy, and rises 
from two to four feet high, perforating the leaves at 
each joint, (from which it is sometimes ca4!ed thor- 
ough stalk.) The leaves at each joint are horizon- 
tal, serrated and rough, from three to live inches 
Song, and from one to two indies broad at their base, 
and gradually lessening to a very shnrp point. 
They are of a dark green color, f-nd are covered 
with short hairs. Tho flowers ar« white, appear- 
ing in July and August — formed at the termination 
of the branches, and produce seed in September. 
The proper time for gathering is when the plant is 
in full bloom, when it should be carefully dryed 
without being exposed to rain or moisture. Jn this 
manner it may be preserved in its pure and native 
state for many years by puting it up in boxes, and 
pressed with a weight. 

During the use of the tonic, the alkaline reme- 
dies should not be omitted or forgotten. They 
should be given through the whole course of the 
cure, not only at the commencement, for the pur- 
pose of neutralizing or destroying the acid then ex- 
isting in the stomach and intestines, but also for 
the purpose of destroying this acid, as it may col- 



£S The Family Physiciam 

lect during the course of the cure. Particular at* 
tentioD should be paid to this part of the treatment, 
as the effect of all other means depends upon the 
removal and prevention of the presence of that sub- 
stance, which becomes the aggravating cause of the 
disease. It will also be necessary that the patient 
bear it in mind to prevent costiveness, which may 
be prevented by the use of one butternut pill, eve- 
ry other night, at bed time. 

It must not be expected that indigestion, a dis- 
ease, perhaps of some months or years standing, 
without anything more than a little temporary re- 
lief, can be completely removed in a iew days; arid 
invalids must not become impatient, if, after a short 
trial of the remedies advised, a cure is not perform- 
ed. If they will, with confidence, steadily and pa- 
tiently persevere, and submit to -a proper course, 
they may depend upon their hopes not being dis- 
appointed, in realizing perfect and substantial 
health. The desirable change which must take 
place, cannot be effected in a few days — it must be 
done slowly. The stomach resumes its former 
tone gradually only and gradual must be the means 
applied to effect a cure. The length of time will 
vary in different persons, in proportion to the vio- 
lence of the disease ; and it will greatly depend up- 
on the faithful attention with which the patient 
follows the particular advice given. 

I shall now endeavor to point out the course of 
living which should be adopted, in the cure ol this 
disease; and without a particular and rigid atten- 
tion lo the same, all medicines will prove but a 
temporary relief. 

Some persons are fortunate enough to find out 
what course of living in life is most conducive to 
health and old age, and abide by it; but others, al- 
though they have sense enough to find out this me- 
thod, have not sufficient reason and resolution to 
abide by it; and these are generally the subjects af- 
flicted with the pangs and tortures of dyspepsia*— 



Tht Family Physician. 47 

To those who wish to recover from this disease, and 
-are under the influence of medical aid for this, pur- 
pose, the following mode o( diet is offered. 

Bread is a principal part o( our daily food, and 
•is an important article to effect or to prevent a 
cure of this complaint. It should be light, and 
made of flour not bolted; and never used while 
"Warm, or eaten before it is twelve hours old. If 
corn bread be used, it should be baked thin and 
cn«p, and eaten cold. Hot com bread is poiion to 
adjspeptic person, as is also hot bread or cakes of 
any kind. However palatable this substance is, it 
proves highly injurious to the stomach, and pre- 
vents its acquiring tone, more than almost any 
other article of our diet. During the years of 
youth, when the natural vigor of digestion is con- 
stantly receiving additions to its strength, hot pro- 
visions are used without much apparent inconve- 
nience or injury to the-stomach; but with the dys- 
peptic person, a cure cannot be obtained or expect- 
ed, so long as he indulges himself in the use of this 
article of diet. 

The article of bread, therefore, should be at least 
twelve hours old , and crackers, biscuit or boiled 
rice, may be substituted for a change in this pari of 
the diet. 

That kind of animal food which proves the easi- 
est of digestion, and which perfectly agrees with 
the patient's stomach, must be chosen, and all the 
contrary wholly avoided. 

Let it be understood, that a proper method of 
cooking the provisions of a dyspeptic patient will 
much contribute to his speedy recovery, and will 
also prove in a measure, the means of preventing 
a return of the disease. Jt is e=sential that all at- 
tieles of diet should he prepared with the utmost 
simplicity. The gastric juice of a weak stomach, 
will digest with much difficulty, a dinner compos- 
ed of a large quantity of dishes. It would ' ..• a 
.duty imposed on it, which it is totally unable te 



48 The'Phmily Physician. 

<• 
perform. The dinner, therefore, should consist of 
©ne dish of flesh, or fish, only, and one or two dishes 
of vegetables, with bread, at least twelve hours old, 
made of coarse flour. Two dishes of meat at the 
same meal, may create a disturbance in the weak 
stomach, as they are no' so easily dissolved by the 
gastric juice, as one only; and the same rule will 
apply to the vegetable diet, as we daily see a dif- 
ference in the agreement of one or more vegeta- 
bles with a weak stomach. The patient may 
«hange his diet every nual, if he pleases, and go 
through the whole routine of animal and vegetable 
diet. But let him not make a variety shop or a fly 
market of his stomach, at every meal. 

Let me conclude, by saying, that whatever be the 
plain diet to be used, let it be of the very best qual- 
ity the market aflord f : Let no: the potatoes be fro- 
zen and watery, or the butter old anJ rancid. 
Fresh butter will prove an innocent and nutricious 
article of diet, while rancid and strong butter 
would prove sufhYient to occasion a dysentery or 
cholera morbus. Fat gravy should be avoided, and 
the juice of the meat only, substituted. Vinegar, 
and pickles, of all kinds, will prove injurious; but 
moderate quantities of mustard and horse-radish 
may be eaten to advantage. 

Let the invalid observe one caution: to take the 
utmost pains in masticating his food, at all times, 
and never be in a hurry at his meals. When horse- 
radish and vegetables of the like kind are uscd> 
they should be finely scraped or grated in small and 
fine particles. 

These observations should be attended to in al! 
complaints of the bowels. 

Apoplectic Fits. 
The Apoplexy is a sudden loss of sense and mo- 
tion, wherein the patient is to all appearance dead, 
the heart and lungs, however, still continue tti 
move. Though this disease often proves fatal, yc- 



J he Family Physician. 43 

■ ifmay sometimes be removed by proper care. It 
'chiefly attacks sedentary person? of a gross habit, 
who use a rich and plentiful diet, and indulge in 
strong liquors. People in the decline of lite are 
most subject to the apoplexy. It prevails most in 
winter especially in rainy seasons, and very low 
states of the barometer. 

Symptoms.— Sudden falling to the ground, will 
deprivation of sense and motion, attended by deep 
sleep and noisy breathing; the circulation remain, 
ing unimpaired, a noise in the ear?, the night maie. 
a spontaneous flux of tears, &c. 

Causes.— Plethora, hard drinking, too large doses 
of opium, blows, tight neck-cloths, or whatever in- 
terrupts the return of the blood from the head, a 
compression of the brain, occasioned by an excess 
of blood, or a collection of watery humors. 

In the cure ot a disease, threatening such sudden 
fatality, remedies must be specdilv employed. The 
patient should be kept perfectly easy and cool. 
His head should instantly be raised and supported, 
and his feet suffered to hang down. His clothes 
ought to be loosened, especially about his neck, and 
fresh air admitted into his chamber. He must be 
bled copiously, which must be repeated after a 
short time if not relieved, especially if the diseasr 
occur in a person of robust and plethoric hubii. 
Brisk purges are nextto be administered, and when 
these cannot bo swallowed, the most stimulating in- 
jections should be thrown up. 

Where the disease depends rather on a depletion 
»f the blood vessels than on too great a fulness. 
bleeding is not so necessary, particularly if the pa' 
fient's countenance appears to be sunk and palid. 
Jr. this case the patient should be placed in (he 
same po&ttife as directed above, and receive open 
lysters in the same manner. Purges here are 
likewise necessary, and the patient may d 
strong balm tea. If he he inclined to sweat, jfl 
oughMo be promoted by drinking wine a 
E 



£Q The Family Physician. 

infusion of carduus benedictus. A plentiful sweat 
kept up for a considerable time has often carried off 
a serous apoplexy. 

The diet should be of (he lowest kind, consisting 
principally for several days after the attack, of dil- 
uent drinks; such as rice or barley-water, tama- 
rind- water, flax seed tea, &c. 



Epileptic Fits. 

Symptoms. — A sudden deprivation of all the sens- 
es, wherein the patient falls suddenly down and is 
affected with violent convulsive motions in the mus- 
cles of the face and every part of the bod) . 

The epilepsy is sometimes hereditary Ji may 
likewise proceed from excessive drinking, sudden 
stoppage of the courses, severe fright, injuries of the 
head, teething, and irritation from worms in the 
stomach and intestines, intense study, excess of ve- 
nery, too great emptiness, or repletion &c. 

It the patient be of a sanguine temperament, and 
there be reason to fear an obstruction of the brain, 
bleeding and ether evacuations will be necessary. 
When the disease is occasioned by the stoppage of 
customary evacuations, these, if possible, must be 
restored ; if this cannot be done, others may be sub- 
stituted in their, plate. Issues or setons in this cage 
have often a very good effect. When there is rea- 
son to believe that the disease proceeds from, worms, 
proper medicines must be used to kill, or carry 
them off. 

When the disease is hereditary, or proceeds from 
a wrong formation of the brain, a cure need not be 
expected. When it is owing to a debility, or too 
great an irritability, of ihe nervous system, such 
medicines as tend to brace and -Htrergthen the 
nerves, may be used. 

The following preparation is highly extolled as a 
remedy in this disease: 

Reduce the seeds of the lobelia inflata to a fine 
powder, and to half an ounce of this powder add 



The Family Physician* ^ T 

the same quantity of Cayenne pepper, a gill of the 
tincture of myrrh, and a spoonful of valerian root: 
keep it closely corked in a bottle for use. Dose, a 
tea-spoonful for an adult, and children in proportion. 
It is also recommended in cases of measles, small 
pox, locked jaw, bite of a mad dog, suspended an- 
imation, &LC. 

Wounds. 
The cure of wounds is affected in two ways, ei- 
ther by adhesion or suppuration; and previous to 
attempting either of these modes, the further effu- 
sion of blood should be restrained, and any extra- 
neous substance removed. 

If the wound be made by a sharp cutting instru- 
ment, clean it with a soft sponge or cloth, and warm 
water; dry the skin with a warm soft cloth; bring 
the sides neatly and closely together with straps of 
adhesive plaster; the straps should bean inch wide, 
and extend across the wound far enough to secure 
it from gaping. The number of straps should be in 
proportion to the extent of the wound. Over the 
straps should be placed a cushion of soft lint, and 
over the whole a bandage drawn agreeably tight, 
and making equal pressure. 

Under this dressing, a clean cut wound may be 
expected to heal without the formation of matter, 
and this is what is called by surgeons, union by the 
first intention. This dressing should not be removed 
till the third or fourth day, or. longer. If pain or 
heat are felt in the wound, wet the dressing with 
spirit and water, or mineral water, frequently. 
The patient should observe a cooling diet, and 
avoid every kind of motion and disturbance of the 
part. 

All this may be performed by any ingenious per- 
son, provided the breeding from the wound ceases 
after the proper cleansing, and this is commonly the 
case, unless the bleeding proceeds from a large 
blood vessel. When an artery is cut, the blood h 



53 Hie Family Physician, 

ol a bright scarlet colour, and gushes from the 
wound in jets, with great force. When a vein is 
cut, the blood runs in an unbroken stream, of a 
dark purple red colour. 

When ligatures are necessary in consequence of 
large arteries being wounded,, the following rules 
are to be observed in applying them. If you have 
no tourniquet, take a garter or cord, nrmke a small 
linen cushion about four or five inches long, three 
broad, and about two thick, or roll up a handker- 
chief hard, in a similar form, and lay it on the trunk 
of the artery above the wounded part; pas>s the 
garter or cord, over the handkerchief round the 
limb; tie a knot, leaving a pioper space; and then 
twist the ligature with a piece of wood, until the 
bleeding is completely restrained; you are then to-, 
prepare a ligature, formed of two or three white 
waxed threads proportioned to the size of the ves- 
sel; after which, slacken the bandage, in order to 
discover the situation of the artery, and with a te- 
naculum or a crooked needle, stick its point into the 
coat of the artery, and draw out the latter (or an 
eighth of an inch, when a ligature, previously placed- 
over the instrument in the manner of a ring by one 
ofthe ends being twice put through the other, term- 
ed the surgeon's knot, is to be pulled over the point 
ofthe needle by an assistant; and when upon the 
vessel, its two ends should be gently drawn, until 
the sides ofthe latter are compressed. A second 
knot, it the artery is large, may be made, after 
which the instrument is to be removed, and the 
ends of the thread or ligature cut off, at such a dis- 
tance, that, they may hang at least one or two inch- 
es without the edge of the wound. 

When a small artery is wounded, if it is cut in 
two, it contracts, and the bleeding soon ceases. If 
it is only punctured, the wound must be enlarged; 
and then the artery may be tied, should proper 
pressure fail. 

A lacerated wound is made by violently tearing tha 



tlic Family Physician. 5£ - 

parts asunder; the edges of this kind of wound are 
unequal and jigged, and though a large bloodvessel 
is ruptured, but. little blood issue?. Whole limb9 
have been torn from the body, without the occur- 
red e of bleeding; but we know that a great wound 
with little bleeding was made with great violence. 

In such rases, as in simple cuts, the wound should 
be c loaned ; then restore the parts as near as possi- 
ble <o their natural position. Apply warm emolient 
poultices and fomentations. When the laceration 
is but slight, an union by the first intention, as in 
cuts, mil) sometimes be effected; at least the at- 
tempt should be made ; if upon trial it fail, no harm 
is done, and wc can still resort to the poultices and 
fomentations. 

Contused zuounds, made by the stroke of a blunt in- 
strument against any part of the body; the skin re- 
maining entire; black and blue spots appearing on 
the bruised parts; if slight, require only to be cov- 
ered with linen wet with vinegar and water, bran- 
dy, alum-water, or mineral water. 

The bruised part should be kept quiet with the 
muscles relaxed. A dose of salts may sometimes be 
given. When, however, the contusion is great, 
bleeding and saline-purgatives are proper. Equal 
parts of vinegar and water, or hartshorn and vine- 
gar and water, form an excellent wash. Gentle 
pressure from a bandage should not be omitted. 

Punctured wounds, made by a sharp pointed in- 
strument, as by a dagger, bayonet, scissors, &c. are 
not only dangerous on account of their dt pth, inju- 
ry to the bl^od vessels, nerves, or vital parts; they 
also give rise to extensive inflammation. Immense 
agitation of the nervous system, even to lock-jaw, 
jometimes iollows the infliction of a punctured 
wound. 

Wounds of this description are not apt to heal, . 
hut form deep seated ulcers. But as it is impossi 
ble to tell whether such wounds will heal or not, 
i result from the attempt to mi''-:..- 



i The Family Physician. 

them by the first intention, the orifice should be 
closed with straps of adhesive plaster, and gentle 
compression applied along the whole course ot the 
wound. Perfect quietude should be observed. 
When the pain is severe, laudanum may be admin- 
istered in doses of eight or ten drops every two or 
four hours; and when the inflammation runs high, 
to unload the vessels by topical bleedings; which 
may be further aided by fomentations, and emol- 
lient poultices. If these are not sufficient, and the 
pain still continues severe, it probably depends on 
a partial separation of nerves, to relieve which, a 
complete division of them should be made. The 
latter complaints are spasmodic, which vary in de- 
gree frocn the slightest convulsive twitches, to the 
highest state of spasm in the attack of the lock-jaw. 
They are frequently the effects of trifling injuries, 
a small scratch for instance, which does not pene- 
trate to a greater depth than the skin, will some- 
times induce them; and when they happen as the 
consequences of large wounds, they do not make 
their appearance until the sore is neatly healed. 

Upon the first symptoms of these affections the 
pul.ie.nt should be immersed in a bath of warm wa- 
ter; soapsuds or a ley made with ashes, as long as 
he can bear it, and the tincture of lobelia seed, [Set, 
Recipes] should be exhibited in pretty large dose; 
everytwo or .three hours, as the symptoms may in- 
dicate. 

Bile of the Rr.lllc Snake. 

A bite of this reptile produces nausea, a fuIL 
strong agitated pulse,. the whole body swells, the 
eyes are suffused with blood; sometimes bioody 
sweats; bleeding from the nose, eyes, and cars; the 
teeth chatter, and interrupted groans. 

The wound should be immediately cut or burn. 
out. A poultice of quicklime, with oil and honey, 
ia said tp;have been used effectually ; the fresh joice 
ojfplantain is by some considered an antidote. The 
tiring of gun powder on the part is also considered 
j ke's master. 



fite Family Plcysiciaa. oS 

Erysipelas or St. Anthony's Fire, 
Is an inflammation on some parts of the skin, at- 
tended with pain and heat, and when extensive, 
there is considerable fever, accompanied with 
drowsiness. 

An imprudent exposure to cold when the hody 
is heated, hard drinking, and the sudden stoppage 
of any natural evacuations, are generally the causes 
of this disease. 

Absence of fever, or if present, assuming the in- 
flammatory form, bright red color, and strength lit- 
tle diminished, are regarded as favorable symp- 
toms. The disease appearing in the face, color of 
a dark red, brown, or livid, inflammation rapidly 
extending, pulse small, hard, rapid, brown tongue, 
stupor, delirium, flabby swelling, and livid blisters 
are to be regarded as unfavorable. 

As the disease abates the skm peels offin branny 
scales; this is to be wished. Suppuration is to be 
dreaded, and mortification still more. 

If the fever be inflammatory and the swelling 
hard, wash the part with the following preparation. 
R. Sugar of lead, .... 1 drachm, 

Soft water, . . . . . i pint, 
Vinegar and spirit, of each, \ gill. 
If blisters arise, or the skin is livid, use flour or 
starch sifted in cotton. 

In severe erysipelas, evacuations are necessary, 
for it is usually connected with derangement of the 
biliary secretions. Cream tartar, Glaub. salts, 
senna, or manna, may be administered. If the pa- 
tient have a foul tongue, a bitter taste in the mouth, 
and a propensity to vomit, an emetic may be admin- 
istered. After full evacuations, and the pulse be- 
comes soft, or there is a change to a purple color; 
bark, wine, and a nourishing diet, are necessary. 

When erysipelas spreads from a wound, local ap- 
plications are necessary; the warm emollients do 
best commonly ; weak warm mineral water, is often 
an excellent application.; or spirit and water, with 
the part coy e red or not, as feels best to the patFcnt. 



56 The Family Physician. 

Mortification, 

Is generally supposed lo have place where the cir- 
culation is no longer pe rformed through the diseas- 
ed part, which generally turns black, and becomes 
putrid, pioducing a separation of the diseased sur- 
face from the sound flesh like an eschar, in conse- 
quence of a caustic being applied. 

Symptoms. — If mortification supervene on inflam- 
mation, an excessive, acute add constant pain, great 
anxiety, often delirium, followed by a sudden cessa- 
tion of all inflammation, are the symptoms. The 
part before tense, now becomes flaccid, of a livid co- 
lor, loosing its heat and sensibility. Blisters are 
formed, under which appear brown spots. 

If the event prove favorable, the mortified por- 
tion is surrounded by a white line, about which 
matter is formed. The dead part now loosens and 
sloughs out, leaving a suppurating ulcer. 

If, on the contrary, the termination be fatal, the 
mortification rapidly extends, great constitutional 
irritation arises; the pulse becomes small, rapid, 
and irregular; there is a fixed flush on the coun- 
tenance, with great anxiety and prostration of 
strength, and death soon ensues. 

Mortification is sometimes produced without pre- 
vious inflammation, by blood vessels being choaked 
by pressure, long continued cold, long continued 1 * 
pressure, violent bruises, &c. 

The best external application to arrest the course 
of mollification, is to apply a blister to the part, suf- 
ficiently large to cover one or two inches of the 
3 ound flesh, and afterwards to dress the part with 
cataphums, made of bark, charcoal powder, and 
yest, to be renewed every three or four-hours, 01 as . 
often as they acquire a putrid smell. 

When the mortified parts begin. to separate, re- 
move no- more at each dressing than comes away 
without pain or loss of blood; as soon as the gan- 
grene stops, and granulations of good flesh apjjua 
i i: to. be freaked as u siot&h 



The Family Physician. 57 

In the mortification ofthe toes and feet of old peo- 
ple, nothing is of service but opium, bark, and wine. 
This disease begins at the ends ofthe toes; first a 
blister rises, from which mortification spreads up 
the limb. 



Carbuncle, 

Is a malignant kind of bile which seldom suppu- 
rates perfectly, but discharges a thin sharp humor 
as is usual in erysipeloid inflammation. Sometimes 
they are as large as a plate; a number of small open- 
ings appear on the surface, through which the mat- 
ter is discharged. Large sloughing and sometimes 
mortification takes place. 

Carbuncles are sometimes symptoms of plague 
and malignant fevers. 

A free opening should be made in every carbun- 
cle, and an emollient poultice applied ; the matter 
and slougha will then escape and make room for a 
healthy suppuration. An emetic or cathartic to 
clear the storriach and bowels, should be given, fol- 
lowed by tonic medicines with wine and nourishing 
diet. To relieve pain and irritation, small doses of 
opium may be given. Alter the sloughing has ta- 
ken place and the carbuncle has become an ulcer, 
treat it as it is laid down for ulcers. 



Ulcers. 

No disease occurs more frequently among the 
poor and negroes, than ulcers ofthe legs; for this 
obvious reason: they are more exposed to acci- 
dents, and when they meet with a wound or contu- 
sion in the leg, the injured part inflames, and be- 
comes an ulcer for want ol proper care. Women 
with obstructed menses are also subject to this dis- 
order. 

Ulcers commonly appear as sequels to other dis- 
eases: as, external injuries, inflammation, suppura- 
tion, mortification, &c. 

When an ulcer is of a recent nature, it should bo 



06 The Family Physician 

healed as quick as possible. But when an ulcer has 
been of long standing, or has become habitual, es- 
pecially in an old person, a surgeon should be con- 
sulted, or a blister or issue should be applied and 
kept open for some time, as a substitute for the 
drain of the old ulcer. 

An ulcer not attended by any considerable de- 
gree of inflammation and pain, and which affords a 
discharge of mifd matter, of whitish consistence, the 
granulation firm, red, and of a healthy appearance, 
is called the simple purulent ulcer, and is entirely 
a topical affection. This ulcer is the most simple 
that can occur, both in its symptoms and method of 
cuie; and it is to the stale of such a sore, that eve- 
ry other species must be reduced before a perma- 
nent cure can be effected. 

The causes of purulent ulcers are, all wounds 
that do not unite without the formation of matter, 
and every external accident that terminates in sup- 
puration, with an opening as a consequence of it. 

In the cure of this species of ulcers, first remove 
anv inflammation which may attend it, by emolient 
poultices, as bread and milk, renewed every three 
hours. As soon as the inflammation subsides, omit 
the poultices, lest the granulations be rendered lax 
arid flabby, bat keep (he sore clean, and dress with 
some mild ointment, spread very thin on soft lint, 
or apply dry lint, and upon that a piece of linnen 
spread with ointment. The thorn apple [see herbsj 
is a most valuable application to heal sores. The 
frequency of dressing ulcers must depend on the 
quantity of matter discharged, but in general they 
should be dressed once in twenty- four hours in 
winter, and twice in summer, and the greatest care 
should be taken, in renewing the dressings, not to 
expose the sore for any time to (he air. When the 
ulcer is filled up with sound flesh, the remaining 
part of the cure consists in performing the cicatrix. 
This is frequently the work of nature, but, in ma, 
ny cases, when every deficiency seems to be sup» 



The'Family' Physician. $9 

plied, still a cure is tedious, the surface of the sores 
remaining raw, and discharging freely. In such 
cases the sores'should be washed twice a day, with 
simple lime water, or some astringent wash. 



RECIPES. 

Elixir Vitriol. 

Drop gradually four ounces of strong oil of vitH- 
•1 into a pint of spirits of wine, 01 brandy; let it 
stand three days, and add to it half an ounce of race 
ginger, and an ounce of red pepper, digest for three 
days and it is fit for use. 

This is good to relieve the asthma, by taking 
from ten 'o sixty drops- in a glass of water, three 
or (our times a day. 

Balsamic Ether. 

Put four ounces of spirits of wine, and an ounce 
of balsam of tolu into a vial with one ounce #f ether, 
kcrp it well < orked,or it will evaporate. 

This is also a good preparation for those who are 
afflicted with the asthma, by putting a spoonful in- 
to a quart of boiling water, and receiving the steam 
into the lungs through a fumigator, or funnel twice 
a day. 

Spitting of Blood. 

Make a strong tea of witch hazel leave?, and to 
a half pint of it add three spoonsful of ?a>e.jaice, 
and the same quantity of nettle rash juice. 

Take a wine glass full every half hour until it 

Stop?. 

■To prevent a Br.-ise from Swelling. 
Immediately apply a cloth five or mx times dou- 
ble, dipped in"cold water, and renew it when t* 
^ro'vs warm. 



$) The Family Physician. 

Burn or Scald. 
Immediately apply hog's lard and starch, well 
mixt-d together, and spread on a clean linnen or 
eotton rag A few applications will take out the 
fire. Then make a salve of white lead, by adding 
as much flax seed oil, and a little Seneca oil, as 
will make it to a proper consistence. Apply it 
once in twenty four hours, by spreading it on a 
clean rag. 

Consumption. 

Take two handsfull of sorrel, and boil it in a pint 
of whey. Strain it, and drink a wine glass full three 
times a day. 

Another. Drink three times a day two spoons- 
ful of the juice of water cresses. This is said to 
have cured a deep consumption. 

So long as the tickling cough continues, chew 
well', and swallow, a mouthful or two of hard crack- 
er or crust of bread twice or thrice a day. 

Another. Take elecampane root, spik( nard root, 
comfrey root, and sarsaparilla root, ol each a hai.d- 
ful. Indian turnip root and skunk cabbage root, of 
each about the size of a large hulled Walnut; hear 
hound, sage, ground ivy, and garden benedic, of 
each a handful; lobelia and thoroughwort, of each 
half a handful; put the whole into three gallons of 
water, and boil them down one half; squeese out 
all you can; strain it. 

Eye Water. 
Boil very lightly one spoonful of finely powdered 
coperas, and three spoonsful of fine white salt, in 
throe pints ofspring water; when cold, put it into 
vials without straining. Take up the vial without 
shaking, and put a drop or two into the eye morn- 
ing and evening. 

Falling down of the Womb. 
Boil two handfu'.s of red rose leave- in half a picf 



■The Family Physician. £1 

ofPdrt Wino, dip a cloth in it, and apply it as hot 
:is it can he borne, do this till all is used. 

Another. Take witch bifzel and raspberry 
leaves of each equal parts, and make a tea cup fu 
of strong tea, then put in one fourth of a spoonfull 
of pulverized lobelia, and as mill h Cayenne pepper 
as will lie on the point of a pen knife, stir it, and 
then let it stand a lew minutes, then strain and di- 
vide it into two parts, then with a female svringe in- 
ject one half into the vagina, and in ten or fifteen 
minutes the other half. These directions attended 
to several times a day are sure to to effect a cure. 
The patient at the same time should take a tea- 
spoonful of the heating powders, in a tea cunfu! 
of boiling water. A heated stone wrapped in damp 
cloths should be kept constantly to the feet. 

Boerhaave's Fever Powder. 
Take eight ounces of nitre, a quarter of an on\\:< 
of camphor, the eighth of an ounce of saffion, and 
eight grains of cochineal. These are to bp pow- 
dered and mixed together, and kept dry in a hoi 
tie. Ten grains taken on going to bed, abates the 
feverish heat, and procures rest. Ten grains are 
to be taken exevy three or lour hours in a contim: 
ed fever. 

Fistula. 

Take muscle shcii-. wasji them- clenn, and i. 
them to powder, and sift them. Then mix then?, 
with hogs' iard, spread it on clean soft leather, and 
apply it. It is said this h is cured when pen 
were near the point of death. 

Grind'an ounce of corrosive sublimate 
in a glass rnortar, as fine as possible, put it I 
^lass vessel and pour on it two quarts of water, 
cork it close, and for six days shake it well every 
, (hen lej it settle for twenty fotfi pour 

it off ( bar; filter it in a glass munel ; 
use close stopped. Put I all a spoonful of !l;:s ;.- 



*^2 The Family Physician 

teriuto a vial with two spoonsful of clear sprirfg 
water, shake them -well together,. and tak< 
fasting. It works both by vomit and by stooi, nlil 
very safely. Keep yourself very warm and walk 
as much as you can. The first time neither eat nor 
drink for two hours after it h;is done working. — 
Take (his every other day. In forty days this will 
also cure any cancer, old sore, or king's < vil, bro- 
ken or unbroken. After the first or second vomit, 
you may use water gruel as in other vomits. 

This medicine-ought to be given by a skilful phy- 
sician. 



Nervous Disorders. 
When the person finds an uncommon oppression, 
let him take a spoonful of tincture of valerian root. 
The tincture should be made thus: Cut 10 pieces 
six ounces of Valerian root, fresh or dried, bruise 
them in a mortar, put it inn quart of strong white 
wine, cork the bottle and let it stand for three, 
weeks, shake it every day, then press it out and 
strain it. 



Turlington's Balsam. 
Take of balsam of Peru, balsam of tolu, angeli- 
ca root, and calamus root of each half an ounce. 
gurr storax in tears, and dragon's blood of each one 
ounce, gum Benjamin ore and a hall ounce, aloes 
and frankincense of each two drachms. Let the 
roots be sliced thin, and'lhe gums bruised, put all 
the i!i;rcdients into a quart of spirits of wine, set 
the bottle by the lire in a moderate heat for eight 
days, then strain and bottle it for use. 



Tincture, of Jalap. 
Tuke three ounces of Jalap, one pinf of good 
spirits. Put them into a bottle and let them di- 
gest for seven days. A tea-spoonful or two is suf- 
ficient for a child ten years old . It is a good purge 
for children . 



The Family Physician. (tt 

King's Evil. 
Make a lea of dried burdock leaves, sweeten it 
with honey, and drink a halt pint twice a day for 
four months. Use the above tincture as a purge. 

Diabetes. 
Impregnate wine pretty strong with ginger, boil 
it a little, and drink as much and as often as the 
strength will bear. The common drink should be 
milk and water. 



Hoarseness. 
Take nettle roots, dry them in an oven; pulver- 
ize, and mix them with an equal quantity of molas; 
ses. Take a tea-spoonful two or three times s. 
day. Or, boil a large handful of wheat bran in a 
quart of water, strain and sweeten it with honey 9 
and sup it frequently. 



Jaundice. 
Take three ounces of dried burdock root?, and e 
handful of nettles; boil them in. three qua»ts of 
water {<> two thenstrain it and drink a large teacup 
ful eveiy morning. This also cures the scurvy 
by adding a table-spoonful of nettle juice to the 
cupful. 



Pleurisy. 
Make a strong decoction of nettles, take a glass- 
ful warm every half, hour and apply the boiled 
herb hot as it can be borne as a noultice. 



Rheumatism. 

Take spirit of camphor and Oorence oi! of each 
one ounce, of the spirits of hartshorn halt an ounce, 
put them into a phial, and shake them well togeth- 
er* Bathe the pan affected, and moisten a piece 
of flannel with it and apply it. 

[This preparation is also good as an external ap- 
plication in tnequinsey.] 



The Family Physician. 

Dissolve one ounce of gum Guiac in three ounces 
of spirits of wine, and take 60 or 80 drops on loaf 
sugar two or three times a day as an internal reme- 

d y ; 

Stone, or stoppage of (he kidneys. ■ 
Take an ounce of the common thistle root, dried, 
and four drachms of Liquorice. Boil them in a 
pint and a half of water, drink one half of it every 
morning, and drink strong ground-ivy tea through 
the day. 

To put back a White Szvelling. 
Take white roses, elder flowers, leaves of fox-. 
glove, and St. John's wort, of each a handful; and 
a large white lily root, cut fine, mix them with 
hog's lard and make an ointment. It will also dis- 
perse any hard swelling if applied in time. 

Bloody Urine. 
Make a strong decoction of yarrow, and drink a 
pint twice a day. 

Falling of the Palate. 
Bruise the veins of cabbage leaves and lay it on 
the head hot, repeat it if needed in two hours, and 
gargle with a decoction of hemp-seed. 

Bite of a mad dog. 
Take a pound of salt, and mix it with a quart of 
water; squeeze, bathe and wash with this for an 
hour, then bind some salt upon the wound for 
twelve hours. 

Convulsions. 
Take a tea-spoonful of valerian root, pulverized, 
in a cup of water every evening. 

Gravel. 
Dissolve three drachms of prepared natron in a 
quart ol cold water, take one hali'ol jhis quantitv 



The, Family Physician. ■• 65*^ 

in the course of the day. Continue it for a few 
davs, and th ; di-ease will be removed. It is best' 
to take it after a meal. 



Corns. 
Take peach leaves atui nriake a strong decoction, 
then make a poultice h) [tutting in rye or com 
meal, and apply it to the eonio. 

Epileptic Fite. 
Take may-apple roots dried and pulverized, take 
halt a tea spoonful in molasses every morning for 
four months* 



Vegetable Heating Poicders. X* 
R. Bay berry root bark, . . . 1 lb. 
Hemlock bark, . . . \ " )o 

Ginger, . . . \ lb. 

Cayenne pepper, . . . 1 oz. 

Cioves . . . 1 oz. 

Pulverize finely and mix. Dose, a tea-spoonful 
with the same quantity of sugar, in about a gill cf 
hot water. 

This preparation is an excellent remedy for pain 
in the stomach and bowels, dysentery, obstruction?, 
by cold, &cj A dose taken on going to bed and 
warmth applied to the body, is an excellent remedy 
^or. a bad cold. 



Cough Powder. X. 
R. Skunk cabbage root, pulv. 

Hoarhound, 

Lobelia, . 

Indian turnip root, . 

Cayenne pepper, 

Bay berry bark, 

Indian physic root bark, . 

Valerian, 
AlKmeh pulverized and well mixed. 
a tea>9fOcnful ' -i1 o»ght in molasses, ... 



2 drachms^ 


1 


do. 


i 


do. 


tt 


do. 


t( 


do. 


tt 


do. 


« 


do. 


u 


do. 


Dose, hau 



66 The Family Physician, 

Bay berry Syrup, 
R. Bay berry bark, - . - 8 ounces, 
Quakingasp bark, - 8 do. 

Water, - - - • 1 gallon; 
Boil, strain, and add sugar, - - 4 lbs. 
Then boil, skim, and add peach meats 

pounded, - - - £ lb. 

When cool add half a gallon of brandy, and bottle 
it for use. 

This is an excellent preparation for a weak stom- 
ach, and kTrostore weak patients; it is also useful 
in dysentery, bowel complaints , &c. Dose* half a 
wine glassful two or three times a-day. 

Tincture of Myrrh, 
R. Alcohol, - - - 2 qts. 

Myrrh, - - 8 ounces, 

Cayenne pepper, £ do. 

Digest for seven days, shaking it occasionally. 
Dose, one or two tea-spoonfuls. It is an excellent 
medicine in rheumatisms both externally and inter- 
nally applied. It is also good for old sores, swelled 
joints, bruises and sprains. 

Healing Ointment. 
R. Flax seed oil, - . o qt. 

Red lead, - - - 1 lb. 

Boil the oil (ill it will scorch a feather, and mix the 
lead with it while cooling; boil again, and add two 
ounces oi spirits of turpentine, stirring them well 
together 

Tin.- is an excellent ointment for healing, and 
easing pain in old sores aaid fresh wounds, scalds 
and burns, and is equally as good, if not preferable 
to the celebrated Shepherd's salve. 

Pile Ointment. 
R. F resh leaves and tender stalks of Jamef 
towfiweed, j II-, ' 

Hog'i j |fc 



The Family Physician. 



b; 



Sjmmer over a gc.,1, fii til leate> become 

crjsp Strain, and v\ i„ i - • ,,„t 

g ; -" i > •, p >onful, 

P I alum i do. 

Mix. tgellieiyand put if in boxes for use. 

Apply about the size of a hazel nut to the part three 
times a day making use 'at the same time of a tea 
made of rushes or strawberry and witch hazel 
leaves. 



Gravel. 
Take of broad leafed thyme, and rag-weed, of 
each a handful, and as much of the fibrous rools of 
the queen of the meadow as will lie on the open 
hand, pour hot water on them and drink freely of it. 
Then take as much of the wild potato root as nil! 
lie on a man's hand rut fine, put it in a quart bottle, 
together with a piece of masterwort root about two 
inches long and as thick as a man's finger, finely 
sliced, to which add half the full of the bottle of wa- 
ter, and then fill it up with good whiskey. Dose, 
a wine-glassful three times a-day betore e<-> 
But if the stomach is weak, or has sensations ot 
burning, take less. . 



Asthma or Phthisic. 

R. Mullen seeds, ! pint, 

Water, 2 qu 
Boil down one half and add 

Strong viqegar, ; 7 pint^ 

Honey, | do. 

:.)ose, two table-spoonful:, three times a day. 

Whit 

R. Venice turpentine. 

Flour, 

Loaf sugar, (fine,) each, 3 drachms. 
Mix, and make into small pills. Dose, three or 

I 



68 - 'Fhe Family Physician. 

Worms. 
R. Wormseed oil, { ox. 

Castor oil, 1-J- oz. 

Jalap, 3 gr. 

Fern root, pulverised, 10 gr. 

Skunk cabbage root, pulv. b gr. 
Mix. Shake well before using it. Dose, from one 
half to a tea-spoontul once a day (ov three or lour 
(lays. 

Another Give a tea-spoonful of flax-seed oil, for 
nine mornings in succession to a child; and a table 
spoonful to an adult. 



R. 



Mix, and boil half an hour. After the stomach and 
bowels are free, a spoonful at a time may be given 
frequently. 



Diarrhfza. 






Prepared chalk, 


A 
2 


oz. 


Powdered cinnamon, 


2 


dr. 


Gum Arabic, 


1 


oz. 


Carbonate of potass, 


1 


dr. 


Water, 


1 


pint. 



Putrid Sore Throat. 
Take bayberry root bark, sumach root bark, and 
the inner bark of hemlock, well dried and pulver- 
ized, of each equal parts. Mix well, and to two or 
three table-spoonfuls of this powder add half a ta- 
ble-spoonful of goldenseal or kert uma, and as much 
dried witch hazel and raspberry leaves as you can 
lift between your two fore lingers and- thumb, make 
a tea of the whole by pouring on it half a pint of 
boiling water, and letting it stand tor 15 or 20 min- 
utes. The mouth and throat should be frequently 
washed and gargled with this tea, and sweetened 
with sugar; some of it may be frequently taken into 
the stomaeh. From a half to a lea-spoonful of the 
tincture of myrrh should be given twice a day, 
The threat should' also be anointed oc< - 
with oppossutj '< .1 V; gre;i,sc\j; >\ ( 



'The Family Physi * Ofr- 

bpirits oi camphor. Pursue this course daily. If 
the patient should have much fever then give a dose 
of the vegetable healing powders sweatened well, 
and keep up a moderate perspiration for se. 
hours. 

Incomparable Fumigation for a Sore Throat. 
Boil a pint of vinegar and an ounie of gum 
myrrh well together, about half an hour, and then 
pour the liquor into a basin. Place over the basin 
the large end of a funnel so as to fit it, and the small 
end then being taken into the patient's mouth, the 
fumes will be inhaled and descend to the throat. 
It must be used as hot as it can possibly be borne, 
and renewed every quarter ol an hour, tili a cure 
is effected. This excellent remedy will seldom or 
never fail, if persisted in only for a day or two, and 
sometimes for a very few hours, in the most danger- 
ous state of an inflammation or putrid sore throat, 
or even a quinsy. 

Cure for a Sprai/*. 

Put an ounce ot camphor, grossly powdered, into 
a pint bottle, and adding a half pint of spirits of 
wine, nearly fill up the bottle with bullock's gall. 
Let it stand two or three days by the fireside, sha- 
king i.t frequently till all the camphor be complete- 
ly dissolved, and keep it very closely stopped for 
use. The part affected is to be bathed plentifully 
every three or four hours till relief be obtained. 

This embrocation, which i? very efficacious, may 
be quickly prepared by at once mixing common 
spirit of wine and camphor, with an equal quantity 
of ox gall. 

Expeditions and Effectual Cure fur St. Anthony's Fire. 
Take equal parts of fine spirits or oil ot turpen- 
tine, and highly rectilied spirits of wine, mix them 
well together, and anoint the part gently with a 
feather dipped in it immediately after shaking the 



70' The Family Physician. 

bottle. Do this oftei., taking care not to approach 
the eyes, and it will generally effect a cure in a da)' 
or two; for though it seems atfirst to inflame, it ac- 
tually softeus and deals. This receipt is transcribed 
from a valuable collection. 



Excellent Remedy for Contractions of the Sinews, 
Stiffness of the Joints, S/c. 

Beat as thin as possible the yolk of a new laid 
egg, and then add by a spoonful at a time three 
ounces of pure water; agitating the mixture contin- 
ually, that the egg and water may be well united. 
This liquid is to be applied to the part contracted, 
either cold or milk warm, rubbing it lor a few min- 
utes, three or four times a-day. 

West India Bitters, or ToussainPs A nti Bilious Drops. 
Take three drachms of orange peel, two drachms 
of gentian root, .one each of cardamums, grains of 
paradise, arid gajjengals, halt a drachm each of nut- 
megs and cloves, one scruple each of saffron and 
cochineal, and halfa handful each of camomile flow- 
ers and Roman wormwood. Infuse the whole in 
tjvp quarts of brandy, rum or white wine. After it 
has stood for some time, pour oil" what is clear, and 
to (he ingredients a quart more of either liquor, 
though brandy is considered the best for the pur- 
pose. This too, having lemained a somewhat long- 
er time, and been occasionally shaken, may in like 
manner be poured off' for use. Two tea-spoonfuls 
are directed to be taken an hour before dinner in 
half a glass of wine. 

Jin excellent Vegetable Balsam for Soreness of the 
Breast, Coughs, S/^c. 

Dissolve over a slow tire pee pound of white su- 
gar candy, in a quantity of white wine vinegar, say 
about three pints, until it is reduced by evaporation 
to one pint; during the operation U t as much gar- 
lie as possible be dissolved with it. This prepare 



The Family Physician. *1 

t*on will answer ail the purposes of Godbold's vege- 
table babam, and is probably the same. 

Genuine. Receipt for making the Invaluable Cordirti 
Liquor, Vespelro, recommended by the. late King of 
France's Physician, in all complaints of the Stomachy 
Indigestion, Vomiting, Colic, Obstructions, Strangury, 
Vctiigo. Rheumatism , Shortness ofbrealh,&c. 

Take a thick glass or stone bottle thai will hold 
considerably more than two quarts, and put in it 2 
quarts of the best brandy, adding the following 
seeds, one ounce of coriander, and a large pinch of 
each of fennel and anmse seeds, two drachms 61 
angelica seeds, then squeeze in the juice ot two 
fresh lemons, putting in also their yellow rinds, add 
a pound of loaf sugar, and well shaking the bottle 
from time to time, let the whole infuse for five days. 
In order to clear the liquor, then strain it through 
a cotton bag, or filtering paper, and bottle it up 
carefully and closely corked. It must be taken in a 
small wine glassful at a time, more or less olten 
according to circumstance's! A table-spoonful ta- 
ken for four or five successive mornings is said to 
kill the worms in children; and on rubbing with a 
small quantity the hose and temples fasting, il serves 
ive against the ill effects ol damp or 
unwholesome air. 

! n the. \ -.ins; a good Carminative. 
Take equal quantities of powdered liquorice, car 
away ee< ds arid sugar candyj to which add a tl ir 
part of rhubarb and the Hfce-quanliiy of cream i 
tartar, both finely pulverized. Of this miitufe, tal 
k ha spoonful two or three times a-day, either 
or in a glass of wine. It should be con tin 
It a week. It is gently laxative, and is exce 
for expelliffg wind and easing pains in the be 



Grec'c Remedy for a Weak Stomach. 

TdAmq in a pint of wine, one drachm $ich o 



79 'Inc- Family Physician. 

dered myrrh, (< m wood, and castor, 

for eight or ten days, of which Lake a gla*s after din- 
ner, and it will wonderfully assist digestion. 

For tht V> hooping Cough. 
M it of (he, essential oils of alder, 

car... :.,,i ,1 rosemary, mixed with rose \en\ sand 
chamomile flowers, and rub the pn of (he stomach 
with it 01 going to bed This is said to be an effect- 
ual remedy. 

Fur the Fiux. 

Take of pearl barlej one ounce, tartar emetic 

four grains, boil them in two quarts of water lor 

an hour. For a dose take a tea-t uptul every 

hour for an adult, and a table spoonful for a child. 

For the Dropsy. 
Take three gallons of sour cider, or cider vine- 
gar, and pui into it white pine tops, hoarhound and 
centaury, of each a double handful, and a large 
quantity of rusty iron; put the whole into a new 
earthen crock; let" it stand foi two days. For a 
dose take a wine-glassful as often as you can in a 

day, 

For Si iff Joints. 

Take Alcady soap, and camphor, of each an 

ounce; and if the joint be painful add a little opium.; 

out the whole into a pint of alcohol, and bathe the 

art several times a daj'. This is an excellent rem- 

> 

To stop Bleeding. 

"'ake oak bark and crane's bill' root, finely pu'i- 

red, of each an equal quantify; apply them to 

ound ; spread a little grated comfrey root over 

1 leave it bound up for eight days. In bleed- 

nose a little rappee snuff may be added. 

For Bilious Colic. 
vhTte walnut tree and root bark, I 



Family Physician. 73 

bark, and dogwood bark, of each a handful; boil 
them hi four quarts of «vnt< i down to one quart; 
strain it, and put in one half a table spoonful oi salt- 
petre. For a dose lake from one to two tea 
spoonsful twice or thrice a day. It has given re 
liel where; every thing else has tailed. 

To Strengthen the Stomach. 
Take quaking-asp root bark, .-wamp oak barkj 
and black haw root bark, of each a liandiui, t«oil 
them in six. quarts of water down to one quart; 
strain it well before it is too thick, let it settle, and 
pour oil the liquor, and add to it two poundsTof su- 
gar and one quart of spirits. For a dose, take a 
gill three times a day, before eati.;g, having pre- 
viously cleared the stomach and bowels by physic. 

Laxative Pitts. 
R, Powder ol Cinnamon, 10 grains, 

Soc. Aloes pulverized, 1 drachm, 
Castile Soap, 1 do. 

Beat them together in a mortar, adding one o» 
two drops of syrup of molasses. Make it into 32 
pills. Dose for an adult, two at bed time. 

Pills of Aloes and Assafcetida. 
R. Socotrine Aloes, 
Assa fcetida. and 

Castile Soap, each 1 drachm. 

Gum Arabic in solution suffiri-; t to 
erm a mass. These pills are good in indigestion, 
attended with co;tiveness,and wind in the stomach 
and bowels. 



Purgative Pills, 
R. Nitre, 8 grains, 

Aloes, 16 do. 

Gamboge, 32 do. 

Make into 25 pills. One of these piils taker* 
every two hours, till they operate, are highh re- 
mended in cases of dropsy. 
G 



-74 The Family Physician. 

Pills of Opium and Ipecac. 
R. Opium in powder, 24 gra : 

Iperacuanha in powder, 30 do. 
Camphor, 40 do. 

Mix, and make into 30 pills with balsam copaiva, 
take one every six hours, and oftener if necessary-, 
and they will be found extremely efficacious 
laying the cough, and relieving the diarrhoea, in 
consumptions. 



Hull's Colic Pills, 




R. Cloves, 


1 drachm. 


Mace, 


1 do. 


Myrrh, 


1 do. 


Saffron, 


1 do. 


Ginger, 


1 do. 


Castile Soap, 


1 do. 


Socotrine Aloes, 


1 ounce, 


Essence of Peppermint, sufficient tu 


'moisten it. Make common sized 


pills, and tak<: 


• them till they operate. 





Pills of Myrrh, &/c. 
R. Myrrh in powder, 2 drachms. 

Sulphate of Iron, 1 scruple, 

Salt of Tartar, 1 drachm. 

Extract of Gentian, 1-2 do. 
Simple syrup sufficient to form a mass, make intc 
70 pills, of which take three, three times a day, ir< 
the incipient stages of consumption. 



POWDERS. 

I Ultra Picran 
R. Socotrine Aloes, -1 lb. 

White Canella 1 oz. 

Separately powdered, and then mixed. This is e. 
good purgative. Dose, between a scruple and £ 
drachm. May be taken in syrup or molasscr, 



The Family Physician. 



15 



Porcder of the Gums. 
R. Tragacantb, in powder 
Gum Arabic, 

Starch, of each 1 12 oz.. 

Loaf Sugar, 3 oz. 

Grind to a powder. Taken in doses of one or more 
tea (spoonsful, it is an excellent medicine for coughs, 
hectic, stoppages of urine, old fluxes, &,c. 

Su)eali?ig) or Dovcrs' Powder, 
R. Ipecacuanha pulv. 

Opium, of each 1 scruple^ 

Sulphatof Potash 8 do. 

Grind them to powder. Dose from 5 to twenty 
grains, as the stomach and strength will bear it: les- 
sen the dose if it threatens to puke. Avoid much 
drinking after it. This is a powerful sweating 
remedy in fevers, rheumatism, and dropsies, excel- 
lent in colds, and suppressed perspiration. In gen- 
eral this is the best opiate, as the ipecacuanha les- 
sens the danger of a habitual use of opium— a thing 
to be avoided next to habits of intoxication. 



PLASTERS. 

Common Plaster, or Diachylon, 
R. Litharge, 6 oz. Olive Oil, 12 os. BotH 
them, adding warm water to prevent its burning, 
and constantly stirring the mixture till the oil and 
litharge be formed into a plaster. AD this should 
be done with caution; the water added should be 
neither very hot nor very cold ; it is better to remove 
the kettle from the fire while the warm water is 
added. 

This is a common application to slight flesh 
wounds; it keeps the parts soft and warm, and de- 
fends them from the air, which is all that can be ex- 
pected from any plaster. 



76 The, Family Physician. 

Slicking, or Adhesive Plaster. 
Take of common planter ten ounces, white resin 
two ounces; melt (hem together and make a plas- 
ter. This is the plaster used in dressing recent 
wounds; it supplies thepl.ace of the surgeon's nee- 
dle and stitch, and this from a simple cut finger to 
an amputated thigh. This makes the best strength- 
ening plaster. Rub opium in it and jou have the 
anodyne plaster. 

Salves (V Ointments. 
Take of hog's lard, four ounces, flowers of sul- 
phur one ounce, volatile oil of lemons, or, oil of 
lavender one set uple. This is a certain remedy for 
the itch. A pound serves for four unctions. The 
patient should he rubbed four nights in succession, 
each time one fourth part of tbebodv. 

Tar Ointment. 
Take of tar, one half pound; mutton suet, one 
hali pound. Melt them together, and strain. U 
has been successfully employed in some eruptions' 
of the skin, especially scald head. 

Simple Ointment 
Take olive oil five ounces, white wax two ounces 
melt together. It may be used for softening the 
3kin, and healing chaps and excoriations. 

Yellow Basilicum. 
T ke of yellow wax four ounces, white resin four 
ounces, frankincense four ounces, mix. Melt over 
a gentle fire, then add lard one pound; strain the 
ointment while warm. This ointment is the best 
dressing for all healthy ulcers. 



SYRUPS. 



Simple Syrup. 
Take double refined sugar 15 ounces, water % 



the Family Physician.- 77- 

•unces. Let the sugar be dissolved by a gentle 
heat, and boiled a little, so as to form a syrup. — 
This is an excellent remedy for coughs and con- 
sumption. 

Syrup of Lemons. 
Take of double refined sugar live ounces, lemon 
juice, strained, three ounces. Dissolve the sugar 
in the juice, till it forms a ?yrup. In the same way 
are prepared, syrup of mulberry juice, raspberry - 
juice, black currant juice. 

Syr-up of Ginger, 
Take of beat ginger three ounces, boiling water 
four pounds, double refined sugar seven and a half 
pounds. Sleep the ginger in the water, in a close 
vessel for 24 hours, then to the strained liquor add 
the beat sugar, so as to form a syrup. This is an 
agreeable anil slightly aromatic syrup; impregna- 
ted with the flavor and virtue of the ginger. 



TINCTURES AND ELIXIRS. 

Tincture of Myrrh and Aloes. 
Take of myrrh in powder, two ounces, alcohol, 
one and a half pounds, water one half pound. — 
Mix the alcohol with the water, and add the myrrh. 
Steep for four days, and then add socotrine aloes, 
one half ounce; saffron, one ounce; steep three 
days, and pour off the clear liquor from the sedi- 
ment. Taken in doses of one or two table spoons- 
ful, it is an excellent laxative and stomachic. 



Tincture of Senna. 
Take of senna leaves, two ounces; jalap, one 
ounce; coriander seed, one half ounce; high spirits, 
three and a half pounds ; digest for seven days, and 
add to ^e strained liquor four ounces of loaf sugar. 
This is an excellent medicine in bowel complaint?, 
and talk, especially in intemperate persci- 



78 The Family Physician 

Tincture of Assafcztida. 
R. Assafoetida, 4 oz. 

Alcohol, 21 lb. 

Digest ior seven days and strain. Dose, from ten 
to titty drops. 



Tincture of Bark. 
R. Peruvian bark, 2 oz. 

Orange peel, dried, } oz. 

Virginia snakeroot, bruised, 3 dr. 
Saffron, 1 dr. 

Proof spirit, (rum,) 2 lb. 

Steep fourteen days and strain. 

This is a good preparation of the bark taken as a 
bitter a tea spoonful to a glass of wine before eat- 
ing; it is extremely useful in low fevers. 



Tincture of Guaiac. 
R. Gum guaiac, 1 lb. 

Alcohol, 21 lb. 

Steep for seven days and strain. 

Taken in doses of a lea-spoonful in spirit, it is a 
powerful stimulating, sweating remedy in rheumat- 
ic and old gouty affections. 

Laudanum. 
R, Opium 2 oz. 

Diluted alcohol, 2 lbs. 

Digest for seven days. This is an elegant opiate. 
but separates by keeping 



Elixir Paregoric. 

R, Purified opium, 1 dr. 

Flowers of benzoin, 1 dr. 

Camphor, 2 scrup. 

Oil of Anise, 1 dr. 

Proof spirit, 1 quart. 
Digest for ten days ahd strain. 

This has been called Elixir Asthmatic; it relieve 

ghs, and the bowel complaints of childr 



The Family Physician. 79 

Bilter Tincture of Rhubarb. 
ft. Rhubarb, 2 oz. 

Gentian root, i oz. 

Diluted alcohol, . 2| ibs. 

©igest for seven days and strain. 

This is an excellent medicine in indigestion, de- 
bility of th<: bowels, diarrhoeas, colic, and other sim- 
ilar complaints. 

Tincture of Balsam Tolu. 
R. Balsam tolu, 1 oz. 

Alcohol, 1 lb. 

Digest till the balsam be dissolved, and strain, 
mix'd with simple syrup of sugar; it forms an ele- 
gant preparation called syrup of balsam: this with 
elixir paregoric in equal parts, is an excellent rem- 
edy for night coughs, and in consumption. 



LINIMENTS. 

Liniment of OU and Lime. 
R. Linseed oil, 1 pt. 

Lime water, 1 pt. 

Mix. This liniment is extremely useful in burns 
and scalds; and is efficacious in preventing inflam- 
mation alter such accidents. 

Camphorated Oil. 
R. Olive oil, 2 oz. 

Camphor, I oz. 

Dissolve the camphor in the oil. 

This is an excellent application to local pains; to 
glandular swellings, and to the bowels in tympany. 

Volatile Liniment, 
Take of spirits of hartshorn, one ounce, sweet- 
oil, two ounces. Mix. Shake the phial well. This 
• excellent medicine; for bruises, sprains. &c. 



80 The Family Physician, 

The following recipes may be found convenient "for a* 
change'" 1 in the several complaints mentioned in them. 

Cathartics. 
Take of Bowman rooi powdered) six grains, jal- 
ap ten grains, loaf sugar, ten grains. It maj be 
taken mornii g or evening, in bilious fevers, and 
slimy and obsiructed bowr's. 

Tonic. 
Take 01 simaruba in powder, one scruple, opium 
in powder, quarter of a grain. This powder may 
be taken every three hours, in dysentery, after the 
bowels-have been cleansed. 



Pills. 
Take of cream tartar, 15 grains, gamboge, five 
grains, loaf sugai, eight grains. It may be taken in 
the morning, in all dropsical cases. 

Diuretic. 
Take of cream tartar, one drachm, powdered 
squills, two grains, powdered ginger, four grains. 
It may be taken every four hours, in dropsy. 



PILLS. 

Opiate. 
Take of opium, one grain. Made into a pill, and 
taken to procure sleep in ordinary cases. 

Antispasmodic. 
Take of opium, one half grain, castor, six grains, 
fox-glove, one grain, syrup, a sufficient quantity. 
Make it into a pill, and repeat it three times a-day. 

Cathartics 
Take of scammony in powder, four grains, ex- 
tract of dandelion, sixteen grains. Make it into 
pills; take three morning and evening, in hvpi 
di-iasis and chronic iiver .comnlf hit, 



The Family Physician. 81 

Take of Bowman root, six grains, jalap, six grs., 
mucilage of gum Arabic, a sufficient quantity. 
Make into three pills, to be taken at night, to emp- 
ty the bowels in bilious affections. 

Take of rhubarb one and a half drachms, castile 
soap, 1 5 grains. Moisten with water, and malic 24 
pills ; to be taken as occasion may require. They 
are used in costiveness arising from a deficiency of 
bile in the intestinal canal. 

Diuretic. 
Take of foxglove in powder, twelve grains, Bow- 
man root, five grains, extract of dandelion, a suffi- 
cient quantity. Make twelve pills, to be taken ev- 
ery 8th hour, in dropsy of the chest with obstruc- 
tions. 

Diaphoretic, (Sweating.) 
Take of tartar emetic, 2 grains, opium, 6 grains, 
camphor, 86 grains, alcohol, 3 drops. Make twelve 
pills; take one every four hours, in fevers. 

Expectorant, (raising' from the Lungs.) 
Take of squills, in powder, thirty grain?, gum 
ammoniac, one and a half drachms, lobelia, thirty 
grains. Make thirty pills; take one or two every 
six hours, in asthma and chronic catarrh. 

Tonic and Purgative. 
Take of ammoniated iron, one drachm, extract 
of aloeo, one half drachm, extract of gentian, one 
halt drachm. Make into thirty pills; take two or 
three every day, in indigestion, hysterics, scrofula, 
and obstructions. 



Ointment for Wliite Swelling. 
Take of lard, one pint, copperas, two drachms, 
alum, two drachms, tar, one quart. Boil and skim 
until it gets clear on the top. Spread it on thin 
sheep or buck skin, and apply it twice in 24 hours. 
Then take of corrosive sublimate and gun powder, 



4& The Family Physician. 

of each equal parts, and put as much of the mix- 
ture as will lay on the point of a small ca*e knife 
•into a pint of tanzy fea, ol which take a tea-spoonful 
every morning 

Ointment for the Itch. 
Take of venice turpentine, four ounces, red pre- 
cipitate, four ounces, fresh butter, one pound. Stir 
it well before anointing. 

For the Dropsy. 
Take of red chick weed, one ounce, hops, one 
ounce, water, one quart Boil and strain it; put it 
in a bottle well corked. For a dose, take a gill two 
or three times a-day. 

Dropsy. 
Take of cider, three quarts, mustard-seed, one 
gill, horse radish, (scraped, J one half pint, rusted 
iron, three pounds. Put the whole into an earthen 
vessel, closely covered ; thus let it stand for twenty- 
four hours; drink it to quench the thirst. The pa- 
tient should abstain from milk, tea, or water. 



Diseases of the Stomach, and Purification of the Blood. 
Take of gentian root, one half ounce, sassafras 
root bark, one half ounce, horehound, one half 
ounce, burdock, one half ounce^ rosin of pine, one 
fourth ounce, rye whiskey, one quart. Pirt it into 
a bottle and let it stand for twenty-four hours, and 
it is fit for use. Dose, a tea-spoonful in the more*. 
ing, at noon and niyht. 
Jlnother. R. Mace, 

Flour sulpher, 
Cloves, 

Saffron — each 2 oz. 

Small snakeroot, £ oz. 

Wine, 1 qt. 

Let it stand 24 hours. Dose, a tea-spoonful. 

The patient must abstain from strong vinegar 
and pork. 



The Family Physician, ^ 

An Oil for Wounds. 

R. White lilies, 1 ha Jful, 

Rr el rose leaves, 1 do. 

Bnlm of Gilead buds, 2 pill, 

Rye whiskey, 1 pint, 

Brandy, 1 pint, 

Camphor, 1 oz. 
Drge&t in the sun for three days, and to a pint of the 

liquor, add Oil juniper, 2 gill, 

Oil spike, 4t oz. 

Brown sugar, ' 3 drachms, 

Oil of stone, 2 oz. 
Digest as before, shaking it every day. 

For the Flax 
R. Sumach bark, 1 handful, 

New milk, 1 pint, 

Loaf sugar, 1 ounce, 

Brandy, 1 gill, 

Cinnamon or cloves, f pulv.) 10 grains. 
Mix. For a dose take half a tea cupful every hour. 
Another. Take uf French brandy, one gill, loaf 
sugar, one ounce; burn till out; then add essence of 
peppermint, sixty drops, essence pennyroyal, one 
half ounce. This is a dose for an adult,- immedi 
ately before going to bed. 

For Pains > 
Take of spirits of wine, three ounces, oi! organ - 
nm, one half ounce, spirits lavender, one halt ounce, 
spirits camphor, one half ounce. Shake well to- 
gether; and when about (o be used, add one half 
the quantity of tincture of myrrh and Cayenne; then 
- bathe the part affected, and wrap a piece of flannel 
round it. 



For a Cold. 
Take of flax-seed, one tea cupful, liquorice, two 
pennys worth, raisins, one quarter pound, soft wa- 
ter, five pints. Boil down one half; then add sugar 
candy, one quarter pound, rum, one table-spoonful^ 



3i The Family Phyician. 

vinegar, one ' >ble spoonful Drink one half pint on 

go'uio t<. bed, and take a liuie when the cough i? 
trouolesome. 



For the Ague. 

This disagreeable disorder may be effectually 
eured by the following prescription, and that loo, 
in the short space of two or three days, il uioj erly 
attended to. 

Take of Peruvian bark, two ounces; rheubarb, 
one ounce; columbo, pulv.one fourth ounce; Cay- 
enne, 10 grains; cloves pulv. 10 grains; mix. — 
Then take French brandy, one pint; Gentian, one 
half ounce; wormwood one half ounce. Digest 
for 24 hours and mix with the above to about the 
consistence of cream, adding three table spoonsful 
of honey. Dose for an adult from a half to a 
whole wine glassful four or five times a day, for 
children half the quantity; An emetic and cathar- 
tic should precede the medicine. 

Ointment for Tetters, Eruptions, 6,-c. 
Take a table spoonful of fine verdigris, and the 
same quantity of honey, and half a pint of strong 
vinegar, stew it down to the consistence of tar. — 
Spread it on paper or a linen rag and apply it to 
the sore, renewing it every 24 hours. Good for 
any old, or running sores. 

Contracted Joint. 
Take a new egg, and blow all the white out, 
then put the yellow into a cup and beat i I well, add- 
ing by a spoonful at a time three ounces of pure wa- 
ter. Rub the sinews and the joint affected with it 
once or twice a-day, and wrap a linen rag round the 
joint, and so continue till cured. 



Fell on. 

Bathe the part affected in ashes and water; then 
take the yolk of an egg, six drop- of tlte spirits of 
turpentine, a few beet leaves cut fine, a small quan 



The Family Physician. 85 

tity of hard soap, one tea-spoonful of burnt salt, one 
oflndian meal, and one of snuff; mix them well to- 
gether and lay it on the part, it never fails affect- 
ing a cure. 

To prevent the ill effects of drinking cold zcater. 
Dissolve half an ounce of camphor in a gill of 
brandy,divide this into three doses, and give them 
at intervals of three minutes and it will soon give 
relief. 



Consumption. 
Take harts tongue, lungwort, liverwort, lobelia, 
and sarsnparilla root, of each a small handful, white 
clover blossoms a double handful, put the whole 
into a clean earthen pot adding thereto three 
quarts of good wine, then boil it slowly over a coal 
fire. The pot must be kept covered, the mixture is 
to be stirred every five minutes with a clean stick. 
Boil it about a quarter of an hour, then take it oft* 
and let it cool until milk warm, and then squeeze 
out all you can and strain it through a linen cloth 
and bottle it. Dose, a wine glassful 3 times a day 

Another. 
Gather the herb and ilowers of the violet in the 
month of May, and smoke them through a pipe. 



Pleurisy. 
A small handful of hawthorn blossom, the same 
quantity of thistle ilowers, and Peruvian balm three 
buds, with a little catnip and hoarhound: put the 
whole into a bottle and add a quart of spirits. — 
Take a tea-spoonful every two hours til! well. 

Genuine Friar's Balsam. 

Into a two quart bottle with one quart cf spirits 

of wine, put four ounces of sarsaparilla root sliced 

thin, and an ounce of Virginia snakeroot cut small; 

set it in the sun, or in any equal degree of heat, 

H 



8C The Family Physician. 

shaking it two or three times a-d;iy till the spirit be- 
comes tinctured with a tine golden yellow. Then 
strain off the infusion into another bottle, and put- 
ting into it eight ounces of gum guaiacum, set it in 
the sun or a similar heat, shaking it often till all the 
gum is dissolved except the dregs, which it will gen- 
erally be in about 10 or 1 2 days. Clear it a second 
time from the dregs, and putting into it an ounce of 
Peruvian balsam; let it be well shaken, and again 
placed in the sun for two days; after which an ounce 
of balsam of Gilead being added, it is once more to 
be shaken together, and finally set in the sun for 
fourteen days, when it will be quite fit for use, and 
keep for many years. The dose of genuine Friar's 
balsam for a cough, or any inward ulcer, &,c. is 
about half a table spoonful on a lump of sugar, or 
in any kind of tea. In any soreness of the stomach 
and in some cases of cough, twenty or thirty drops 
occasionally taken, often give complete relief. 

The famous Balm of Gilead Oil, a speedy and in- 
comparable remedy for broken shins, and other green 
wounds, burns, bruises, &c 
This excellent family oil, which should be kept 
in every house, is made in (he following simple man- 
ner: Put loosely into a bottle of any size as many 
balm of Gilead buds or flowers, as will reach to 
about one third part of its height; then nearly fill 
up the bottle with good sweet oil, and after shaking 
it a little occasionally, and letting it infuse a day or 
two, it is fit for use. ft must be very closely stop- 
ped, and will then not only keep for years, hut be 
the better for keeping. When it is about half used, 
the bottle may again be filled up with oil, and well 
shaken, and in two or three days it will be as good as 
fit first. The most alarming cuts and bruises of the 
skin which are so frequently rendered worse by 
spirituous balsams, salves, &c. are completely cureef 
in a few days, and sometimes in a few houtf 
this incomparable oil. 



The Family Physician. 87 

An admirable Beverage for a Weak Constitution. 

Boil as much good clean barley in pure water as 
will make about three pints; then straining it off, 
and having in the mean time dissolved an ounce ol 
gum Arabic in a little water, mix them, and boil the 
whole up together. The barley-water need not be 
thick, as the gun* will give it sufficient consistence. 
When used, take it milk warm; the good effect will 
soon appear. It must be substituted as a common 
beverage in place of beer, ale, &x. at meals. 

An Excellent Medicine for Shortners of Breath. 

Mix three quarters of an ounce of finely powder- 
ed senna, half an ounce of flour of sulphur, and a 
quarter of an ounce pounded ginger, in four ounces 
<;l clarified honey. Take the bigness of a nutmeg, 
cveii night and morning, for live days successively ; 
afterwards, once a week for some time, and finally 
once in two weeks. 



Dr. RadchjJ's Syrup for Shortness of Breath. 
Take balsam of tolu and colt's foot, (wild ginger) 
two ounces each, flour-water 12 ounces. Digest 
in a glazed vessel, well luted, for two hours; then 
strain it, and with a double quantity of line loaf su- 
gar, make it into a syrup. Take two spoonfuls in 
the morning, noon, and at night, fasting, or before 
eating. 



Cure for a Sprain in the Back: 
Beat up well four table spoonfuls of good cider 
vinegar, with the yolk of an egg; then add thirty 
.hops of oil or spirit of turpentine. Mix them tho- 
roughly, and drink the whole on going to bed at 
night. This dose three times repeated is an infal- 
lible cure. 



Blackberry J ait, excellent for the S(o)ie or Gravel. 
Put quite red, but not ripe, blackberries, into a 
tar, and cover it closely up. Set it in a kettle of 



86 The Family Physician 

water, over the fire, as a water bath; and when it 
has remained five or six hours, force the pulp or 
juire through a sieve, then to every pint of juice add 
two pounds of powdered loaf sugar, boiling and 
skimming it in the same manner as for any other 
jam or jelly. A tea-spoonful is to be taken every 
night, and if necessary, repeat it in the morning. 
It is said to be very effectual in giving relief. A 
good jam may be made in the like manuer, with the 
ripe blackberries, and both should be kept with 
brandy papers closely covered over. 

Curious Armenian remedy fur a Cancer , as applied with 
success in the case of a girl at Smyrna, by an 
Armenian Physician. 
Take a copper vessel newly Jined on the inside, 
a circumstance, as it appears, essential, and pouring 
into it a quantity of olive oil, boil it over a small 
fire, sufficient to keep it gently agitated; do this for 
three times in twenty-four hours. The oil wiJl then 
resolve itself into the consistency of an ointment, 
with which the part affected is to be constantly 
rubbed. A cure in this case was affected in fourteen 
days, though the cancer, which was on the lip, had 
already affected the gums. Th» European physi- 
cians who were present, and on being consulted had 
decided, as knowing no other means of cure, in 
cutting it out, attributed the efficacy of this oint- 
ment to the tin which had communicated some of 
its properties to the oil, in consequence of its long 
and repeated boilings over the fire. 

Cure for the Cramp. 
In Italy, as an infallible cure, a new cork is cut in 
thin slices, and a ribband passed through the cen- 
tre of them, tied round the affected limb, laying the 
corks flat on the skin; while thus worn, they pre- 
vent any return of the cramp. 



The Family Physician. 39 

Fo,' the Whooping Cough. 
Make an ointment of tht- essential oils of alder, 
caraway, and rosemary, mixed with rose leaves and 
chamomile flowers, and rub the pit of the stomach 
with ii on gou.g to bed. This is said to be an ef- 
fectual remedy. 



Northern Remedy for Deafness. 
In the north of Europe the following remedy for 
deafness is v vy generally used, and is said to be at- 
tended with great success. After well syringing the 
ears, so as to tree them from wax, fifteen drops of 
liquid laudanum are poured into each; and a cake 
composed of three parts of rye flour, and one part 
of finely pounded juniper berries, mixed up with a 
sufficient quantity of vinegar, being made and 
baked, when the patient is ready for bed; the hot 
cake is split in two, and applied over each ear well 
covered with flannels. By this means the head is 
kept in a continued and free perspiration for sever- 
al hours; and on the removing of the cake the hear- 
ing is commonly found restored . To prevent, how- 
ever, any ill effects from too sudden exposure to the 
air, the ears, face, and head, are bathed with Riga 
balsam, but when that is not at hand, Hungary, or 
Lavender water, or any spirit, with or without cam- 
phor, may be substituted to prevent catching cold; 
a little cotton too, moistened with the spirit, may be 
advantageously put into each ear. if at any time 
the first application should not answer, a second tri- 
al or even a third must be made; as it seldom or ne« 
ver finally fails to succeed when duly persisted in* 

Foxglove Juice for Deafness. 
Bruise in a marble mortar, the flowers, leaves, 
and stalks of fresh foxgloves; and mixing the juice 
with double the quantity of brandy, keep it for use. 
The herb flowers in June, and the juice thus pre- 
pared, will keep good till the return of that season. 
The method of using it is to drop every night, in 
h2 



SO The Family Physician. 

the ear, a single drop, and then moisten a bit of lint 
with a little of the juice, put that also into th.> car, 
and take it out next morning, till the cure be com- 
pleted. 

The true DaJJy's Elixir. 
Take five ounces of anise seed, three ounces of 
fennel seed, four ounces of parsley heed , six ounces 
of Spanish liquorice, five ounces of senna, one ounce 
of rhubarb, three ounces of elecampane root, sev- 
en ounces of jalap, twenty-one drachms of saffron, 
or ginger, six ounces et manna, two pounds oi rais- 
ins, a quarter of an ounce of cochineal, and two 
gallons of brandy. Stone the raisins, slice the 
roots, and bruise the jalap. Then mix the whole 
together, and after letting them stand closely cov- 
ered for 15 days, strain off the elixir. The stuli 
commonly sold in the shops for this elixir, is little 
more than an infusion cf anise seed, liquorice, and 
jalap, in the coarsest fiery spirits, reduced with 
common water. 



Dr. Stoughton's celebrated Stomach Elixir. 
Pare off the thin yellow rinds of six Seville oran- 
ges, and put them into a qtiart bottle, with an ounce 
of gentian root scraped and sliced, and hall a 
drachm of cochineal. Pour on these ingredients a 
pint of the best brandy; shake the bottle well sev- 
eral times during that and the following day; let it 
stand two days more to settle; and clear it off in 
bottles for use. Take one or two spoonsful morn- 
ing and evening in a glitag of wine, or cup of tea. 
As a pleasant and safe family medicine, this elixir 
of Dr. Btoughton is highly recommended. 

A speedy remedy for a bruised eye. 

Boil a handful ofhysop leaves in a little water 

till they cire quite tender, (hen put them up in linen 

apply it hot to the eye; tie it on tightly at bed 

:in*e, and the eye will next day be quite well.. !n 



The Family Physician. "SH 

the original receipt from which the ahove was ta- 
ken, it is said thai, ; 'A nan who had his thigh ter- 
ribly bruised by the kirk of a horse, was cured in 
a few hours only, by a poultice of hysop leaves cut 
and minced very small, and beaten up with unsalt- 
cd butter." 



Edinburgh Eye. Water. 
Put white vitriol the bigness of a hazle nut, into 
two gills of rose-water, with as much fine loai u- 
gar as vitriol. When it is dissolved shake the bot- 
tle, and on going to bed, wash the eyes with it, 
using a soft clean cloth. This is said to be as good 
eye water as ever was made. 

Epileptic Electuary, for the cure of the Falling Sick- 
ness, Hysterics, and even St. Vitus^s Dance. 
Take six drachms of powdered Peruvian bark, 
two drachms of pulverized Virginia snake root, 
and a sufficient quantity of syrup of piony to make it 
up into a soft electuary. This is said, by a celebra- 
ted physician, to have been experimentally found a 
most prevalent and certain remedy. One drachm 
of this electuary, after proper evacuation having 
been had, being given to grown persons, and a less 
dose to those who are younger, every morning and 
e vening for three or four months, and then repeat- 
e d three or four days before the change and full of 
the moon, absolutely eradicates epileptic and hys- 
teric diseases, and also those strange epileptic salta- 
tions called St. Vitus s dance. 



Blackberry Powder, an admirable remedy for the Flux. 
Gather blackberries when full grown, but before 
they begin to turn black, dry them in a cool oven, 
and keep them closely covered in a dry situation. 
When wanted for use beat them to powder, pasa it 
through a fire sieve, and take as much as will lay 
on a quarter of a dollar in simple cinnamon water. 
It. may be tiiken the first thing in the morning* as 



92 The Family Physician* 

well as the last at night; or even oft'mer where the 
disease is violent. 



Successful treatment of frozen limbs in Russia, 
This remedy was warm goose grease, an,d was 
not applied, as Mr. Eaton says, in the rases to 
which he was an eye witness, until the second dny 
alter frozen; the frost biUen parts had b) lhat time 
become quite black and gangrenous. They were 
well smeared with that ointment, and the opera- 
tion often repeated. The directions were never to 
permit the parts to be dry, but always covered 
with grease. The consequence was, that by de- 
grees the circulation extended lower down; (he 
blackness decreased till the iocs were merely dis- 
colored, and at length circulation was restored lo 
them. This is the general practice of the Russian 
peasants; but if a part is discovered to be frozen 
before the person comes into a warm room, the frost 
may be extracted by only plunging the part in cold 
water, or rubbing it with snow until the circula- 
tion returns. 



Simple French remedy for swelled Face. 
Put a quarter of a pound of fresh butter into a 
small saucepan, over a gentle hie; and when it be- 
gin* lo melt, add two table spoonsful of rose water, 
stirring and mingling them well together. Rub 
the affected part with this ointment quite hot, three 
or four times a day, till the swelling entirely dis- 
appears. In some very stubborn cases bleeding 
may be found necessary; but cathartics, so think 
the French Physicians, are to be avoided. 

For a Giddiness in the Head. 

Take wild valerian and mistletoe powdered of 
each one ounce, mix them in a mortar, and add to 
them as much syrup of orange peel as will make 
them into an electuary. 

Take a piece as big as a nutmeg twice a day for 



The Family Physician. 93 

tiome time, drinking after it a gill of an infusion ot 
mother of thyme made like tea. 

Strawberry Brandy for the Stone and Gravel. 
The following is considered by many persons as 
an efficacious remedy for these afflicting com- 
plaints: Fill a large bottle, four parts out of five,, 
with fresh gathered strawberries, adding as much 
Havana or loaf sugar as will make it pleasant, 
then fill up with the best brandy, or good rum; 
when it has stood for sis weeks, it is fit for use. A 
glass of this cordial, it is said, will give in mediate 
relief io the severest fit, and a continuance of its 
use entirely cure the patient. Pour off the first in- 
fusion at the expiration of six weeks, and the same 
strawberries will make a second quantity, the bot- 
tle being filled up with brandy or rum, suffered to 
stand two months and then strained off by pressure 
of the fruit. 

An excellent wash for numbed or trembling hands. 

These disagreeable complaints are said to be 
d by the simple expedient of frequent- 
ly washing the hands so affected in a strong decoc- 
tion of wormwood and mustard seed, to be strained 
and used when cold. 

A receipt for the cure of the Jaundice. 
Take salt of tartar one ounce, of castile soap, and 
gum Arabic each half an ounce, of spirits or brandy 
one pint. The ingredients should be frequently 
stirred, and shook well together, and after standing 
four or five days the medicine will befit for use.— 
The dose is two thirds of a wine-glassful mixed 
with one third of a wine glassful of water, every 
morning for three days in succession, when it may 
be left off for two or three mornings, and taken 
again in the same way if necessary, until the disease 
begins to disappear. Where the case is bad, it 
should be taken every morning until relief is pro- 
cured. 



94 The Family Physician. 

Saponaceous drauglU for the Yellow Jaundice. 
Take from two to tour scruples of Castile or Ve- 
nice 9oap, according to the age and state of the pa- 
tient, and the disease boil it in six ounces »f milk 
till reduced to four; then add three drachms of su- 
gar, and strain it for a draught. This quantity to 
be taken every morning and afternoon for four or 
five days, and is esteemed a most prevailing medi- 
cine against the jaundice. 

Webb's famous remedy for the Bite of a Mad Dog. 

Take of'the leaves of the tender buds oi rue cut 
quite small, about a gill, the same quantity ot large 
or common garden box, cut small ; to which add 
nine leaves of red sage, fair, and without blemish, 
cut small in the same manner. Take a half pint of 
new wheat fiour, and about a table-spoonful of 
yeast; mix it v\ith ihe herbs in the manner of 
dough, let it lie about halt' an hour, then bake or 
boil il over the coals; take one third ofthis qu niti- 
ty every morning in new milk. This is the quan« 
tity for a man or woman, and the same for a sheep, 
hog, or dog ; but for a cow or horse, the quantity of 
roe and box must be doubled, but only nine leaves 
; sage; give it in milk or some other liquid. — 
Half this quantity of box and rue will answer for a 
colt or ralf, but there must be nine leaves of the 
sage. Half the qnantity of rueand box will answer 
for a child, but there must be nine leaves of the 
sage. 

Webb mentions his father having cured some 
men after they were mad. In those cases he took 
a tea-cupful, the quantity first named, of the rue 
and box each, with nine leaves of the sage, boiled 
them well in a pint of milk, and gave it 3s soon as 
possible. 

Artificial Musk. 
Add to one drachm of oil of amber, by small por- 
tions at a time, four times the quantity of nitric acid 
(Aquafortis) carefully stirring them together with 



The Family Physician. 95 

a glass rod all the time, and continuing so to do till 
the whole is convened into a yellowish rosin, pos- 
sessing the smell of musk in great perfection. It 
must of coarse be kept closely stopped, like real 
musk, and may, in most medical cases, supply the 
place of that valuable and expensive drug. 

Long's Pills fur Sick Headach. 
Take castile sonp one drachm and a half; rhu- 
barb in powder, forty grains; oil of juniper twenty 
drops; syrup of ginger a sufficient quantity, to form 
the whole into twenty pills. The dose is two or 
three of these pills, to be taken occasionally. 

Oxymel of Garlic, for Asthmatic Complaints, 
Rheumatisms, fyc. 
Boil in a pint of vinegar, half an ounce each of 
cleansed caraway and sweet fennel seeds, for about 
a quarter of an hour, then take it off the fire, slice 
in three ounces of garlic, and cover it closely up. 
As soon as it becomes cold, the liquor must be strain- 
ed and expressed, and mixed, by the heat of a wa- 
ter bath, with a pound and a quarter of clarified ho- 
ney to a proper syrupy consistence, A tea-spoonful 
or two of this oxymel, taken occasionally, particu- 
larly night and morning, will scarcely ever fail of 
proving beneficial to all persons afflicted with an 
asthma It is also frequently serviceable In rheu- 
matic complaints, especially when assisted by warm 
embrocations. 

Grand Ptisan, or Diet Drink of Health and Longevity, 
by M. de Sainte Catherrne, a celebrated French phys- 
ician, who attained nearly the age of one hundred 

and twenty years. 
It is thus prepared: Take about a quart of the 
best sifted and well washed oats, and a small hand- 
ful of wild succory roots, newly drawn out of the 
earth ; boil them gently in six quarts of river water 
for three quarters ot an hour, and then add half an 



96 The Family Physician. 

ounce of chrysta! mineral, and three or four spoon- 
fuls of the best hone) , or a quarter of a pound of it 
in weight. Let the whole now boil half an hour 
longer; then strain it through linen, put the liquid 
into an earthen vessel and leave it covered to cool. 
For persons of a bilious habit, only half the quanti- 
ty of honey should be udded, as the sweetness has a 
tendency to increase the bile . Two good glasses of 
this ptisan should be drank every morning fasting 
without eating any thing for some hours; and the 
same quantity three hours after dinner. This 
course must be continued foi fourteen days, with- 
out bleeding or confinement, or taking broth, new 
laid eggs, or any other particular diet, but in all re- 
spects living as usual. The weak and infirm need 
' only take a single glass, and they will not fail to feel 
the good effect. Persons who are overburdened 
with flesh a~>d are costive, are recommended to com- 
mence drinking it by some previous purgative; af- 
ter which it will prove more efficacious. The ptisan 
is easy to take and pleasant in its operation; caus- 
ing no griping pains or other disagreeable sensa- 
tions. It is undoubtedly an excellent medicine. 

Speedy Cure for a Sprain. 
Take a large spoonful of honey, the same quan- 
tity of salt, and the white of an egg, beat the whole 
up together incessantly for two hours, then let it 
stand an hour and anoint the place sprained with 
the oil which will be produced from the mixture, 
keeping the part well rolled with a good bandage. 
This is said, generally, to have enabled persons with 
sprained ankles, to walk in twenty-four hours, en- 
tirely free from pain. 

Itch Ointment. % 
R. Hog's lard 2 oz. 

Sulphuric acid, (oil of vitriol) 2 drachms. 
Mix in a Wedgewood's or glass mortar. Aftoint 
the tody once in twenty-tour hours. 



The Family Physician. 97 

Ippcacuanha Wine. 
R. fpecapuanha root, pulv. 1 oz. 

White wii.e, 16 do. 

Macerate for seven days and strain. This makes 
a valuable emetic for children. Dose for an adult 
two table spoonfuls, children a tea spoonful every 
ten minutes till it pukes. 



Carrot Poultice. 
R. Boiled Carrots, 1 lb. 

Flour, 1 oz. 

Butter, i oz. 

Mix with a little hot water, so as to form a poultice. 
This will be found a valuable application to ulcera- 
ted sores, swellings, and scrofulous-ulcers of an ir- 
ritable kind. 



Alkaline Mixture. 
R. Sub. CaiboiiiMe ot Soda, 1 oz, 

Carbonate of Magnesia, 10 gr. 

Jalap, 10 gr. 

Mint water, 1 oz. 

Loat sugar, 1 dr. 

Elixir paregoric 1 do. 

Melt the sugar with the mint water; then add the 
other ingredients. Shake the vial before it is used. 
This is an excellent composition for young children 
that are troubled with wind, sour stomach, and 
belly ach. Dose lor a child one year old, onf tea 
spoonful, as often as occasion may require, in a lit 
tie catnip tea. 



Compound Tincture of Lavender. 
R. Spirit of Lavender, 1 lb. 

Spirit of rosemary; 4 i.z. 

Ci n iinon b irk, pulv \ < %. 

Cloves, pulv. 4 dr. 

Red Saoders, 1 dr. 

Pulverized nutmegs, 2 dr. 

.i dajs, strain, and bottle it fen 
1 



.98 The Family Physician. 

Use. This is a good cordial for debilitated persons. 
Dose for an adult, from twenty to thirty drops, in 
a little sugar and water. It relieves languor and 
faintness. 



Ague. 



R. Godfrey's Cordial, 1 bottle, 

Peruvian bark, 1 oz. 

Nutmegs powdered, 2 dr. 

Cayenne pepper 1 do. 

Shake well together. Dose, from a tea to a table 
spoonful, two or three times a day. It would be 
well to take a dose immediately before the shake. 



Godfrey's Cordial. 
R. Opium, i oz. 

Oil of sassafras, 1 dr. 

Spirits of wine, 2 oz. 

Dissolve the opium and oil in the wine, and then 
take molasses, 4 pounds; boiling water, one gallon. 
Mix, and when cool mix both solutions, and bottle 
it for use. Dose, a tea-spoonful. 



Eye Salve. 

Take of Lapis Caliminaris, two parts (in bulk) 
kirruma three parts, and white vitriol one part, 
pulverize finely, and sift through a piece of cambric 
linen or muslin. Then mix it with as much fresh 
and unsalted butter, as to form a salve ahout the 
color of Scotch snuff, say, the bulk of a common 
sized hen's egg, to a tea spoonful of the powder. 

It is to be applied to the eyes on going to bed, 
and on waking up in the morning, in small quanti- 
ties, just so as to smart the eyes, and should be ap- 
plied along the ed^es of the eyelid?. Half the size 
of a pea is sufficient for one application to both 
eyes. 

For the above I am indebted to my friend Wm. 
B. Hubbard, esq. who slates that he has kept it 
fox manj years for family use, and never applied it 



The Family Physician. 9* 

without effect. He also slates that it was exten- 
lively used during a season of sore eyes, and univer- 
sally with success. 

Rheumatism. 
Take aarsaparilla roof, 4 ounces; walnut shells, 
4 ounces; Rattle snake root, one handful; prickly 
ash bark, two ounces; spirits, three pints. Digest 
by the fire for several days, shaking it frequently. 
Dose, a wine glassful twice a day, bathing the part 
affected with the tincture of myrrh as often. Wear 
flannel round the part affected. 

Basilicon Ointment. 
Take rosin, one pound; beeswax, one pound; 
hoy's lard, one half pound. Melt them together by 
. »w fire, and strain the mixture while hot.— 
'\ his ointment thinned by being mixed with 
the oil ofturpentine,spreadcnarag and applied to 
a srald or burn, occasions great relief from pain, 
and hastens the formation of new parts. It should 
not, however, be applied to the sound skin. With- 
out the turpentine it is an excellent application to 

fresh wounds. 

To prevent Toothach, 
And to preserve the teeth and breath perfectly 
-Mind and sweet, make a strong ooze of white ash 
root hark, dip a tooth brush into it, and then into 
charcoal loolh powder, prepared in the following 
manner: 

Put lumps of charcoal a second time into the fire 
until they are red hot; then take them out, and as 
soon as they become cool blow offthe external ash- 
es, and immediately reduce them to a fine powder.. 
which roust be kept in a corked bottle. Thif 
should be done every morning. Wash the teeth af- 
ter eating, with the ooz^. 

Injections for Venereal Disease. 
Take white vitriol, ten grains; soft water, five 
ounces. Mix for use. 



100 The Family Physician. 

Another. Take white vitriol, 20 grains; sugar 
of lead, 20 grains; water, one half pint. Mix, and 
after standing 15 or 20 minutes strain. An ordi- 
nary syringe full to be thrown up the urethra six 
or eight times a day. 

Another. Take tincture of opium, forty drops: 
water, four ounces. '1 o he used as the above. 



Mercurial Pills. 
Take of calomel, one drachm; opium, ten grains, 
tartar-emetic, ten grains; bread crumbs, a srmll" 
quantity; syrup or mucilage of gum Arabic suffi- 
cient to form a mass. Divide into forty pills; one 
to be taken night and morning by adults. 

Genuine Syrup for Coughs, Spitting of Blood, &rc* 
This excellent remedy cannot be made too pub- 
lic It is thus prepared: Take six ounces of com- 
frey root, and twelve hnndfuls of plantain leaves: 
cut and beat them well; strain out the juice; and, 
with an equal weight of suyar boil it to a syrup. 
Dose, three table-spoonfuls a day. 

Fine Marmalade for a Cough or Cold. 
Stone six ounces of the best Malaga raisins, and 
beat them to a very fine paste with thn same quan- 
tity ot sugar-candy; then add half an ounce of con- 
serve of roses, twenty-five drops of oil of vitriol. 
and twenty drops of oil of sulphur. Mix the whole 
well together, and take about the size of a nutmeg 
night and morning. A less quantity will suffice for 
children according to their age. 

' Emulsion for a Cough, Cold or Hoarseness. 
Mix half a pint of hysop water, half an ounce of 
oil of almonds, two ounces of powdered loaf sugar, 
and a tea spoonful of hartshorn. Take a table 
spoonful every night and morning. If there be any 
soreness of the breast oi throat, add two tea spoon- 
fuls of Friar's balsam, or Turlington's drops. 



-The Family Physician. 101 

Cancers. 
Make a wash of a solution of sugar of lead. 
Take the inside bark of the black haw root, and 
roast it in a skillet like coffee; then pulverize it 
fin <nd sprinkle it on the sore. 

Another, Take as much black ash bark, as a 
can carry on his back, take off the ross, and 
i lie rest to ashes on a flat stone; put the ash- 
es in a kettle of water, adding a piece of unslack- 
cd lime, about a* large as a man's fist, boil and skim 
it, then settle it ; when very clear boil it down to a 
half pint, add one eighth of an ounce of corrosive 
sublimate. These drops are to be applied until 
they penetrate deep enough to kill the roots. 

Clover Piaster. 
Take red clover heads, and fill a brass kettle, 
and boil them for about an hour, strain it and 
fill it again with fresh heads, boil as before, 
press out the juice, and boil it over a slow fire, until 
it is about the consistence of tar. The above pre- 
paration is an excellent remedy for sore mouth, 
sore eyes, corns, and old sores, by being prepared as 
follows: 

For Sore Eyes. 
Take of the above, and dissolve it in spring wa- 
ter to a proper thickness, add one fourth the quan- 
tity of cogniac brandy, and wash the eyes two or 
three times a-da). 

For Corns. 
Take half a gill of the preparation, and add to 
it a large tea-spoonful of the seed of the lobelia, 
pulverized, and the same quantity of West India 
cayenne; mix, and it is fit for use. Prepared in this 
manner it is also preferable in cases of cancer and 
old son 



For a Cancer thai is broke, 
Take red oak bark, burn it to ashes, then make a 
strong lie of it, boil it down till it gels thick; gat 



The Family Physician 

this on several times a-day, until il comes out by the 
roots,. then heal it with a healing salve. 



Another Remedy for Cancers . 

Take of the best nitric acid, add blue vitriol, cor- 
rosive sublimate, and sal ammoniac, as much as the 
acid will dissolve. The above is to be poured on 
the cancer, having previously placed a piece of 
beeswax or a tube round it, to keep it from the 
sound flesh. 

Another. Take a black ash log, and la) it on the 
fire, and when the sap begins to run out of Ihe- 
ends, catch it in a plate ; rub this on the cancer till 
cured. 

Another. Take one spoonful of honey, twelve 
spoonfuls of cream, and as much flour as will make 
a paste. 



R. 



Common syrup sufficient to form a mass, and make 
into two hundred and fifty pills. Take two of (he 
pills in the evening, -and one the next morning. 
They are an excellent medicine to carry off the. 
bile, and cleanse the stomach. They are also rec- 
ommended in diseases of the liver. 



A Recipe for Pills. 
Jalap, 
Calomel, 


1 oz. 
1 oz. 


Aloes, soc. 
Gamboge, 


1 oz. 
1 oz. 



Pills* 

Take quaking asp bark, bugle, and thorough- 
wort, of each equal parts, and half as much worm- 
wood; pour boiling-water on them, boil them until 
the st length is out, then slrain off the tea and boil 
it clown to nearly the thickness of molasses; to ore 
pint thus boiled down add one gill of molasses., i igh| 
ounces of rhubarb, one ounre of ginger, one ounce 
o£ slippery elm bark, and one ounce of go'dei 

>' powdered. From five to 



¥he Family Physician. 1®& 

nine of these pilb may be taken in the morning be- 
fore ore.akfaBt. They operate m a mild manner 
from eight to twenty four hours after they are ta- 
ken, and are an excellent medicine to keep the bow- 
els in a regular state. 

Sick Headach. 
Mix a table spoonful of finger, and a lump of loaf 
sugar, in a tumbler about' two thirds tull < f warm 
water, and drink it. B tthe the feet for a quarter of 
an hour in warn, water, and apply a cloth wrung 
out ot cold water to the forehead or temples, 
whichsoever may appear the most affected. 

For the Liver complaint. 
Take Indian turnip, elecampane, and cumfrey, of 
each equal parts, say the size of a walnut, and add 
horseradish, sarsaparilla, hoarhound, and garden- 
henedic, of each one handful; * put the whole into 
a quart of tjood old rye whiskey, or spirits. Take 
a wine glassful, three times a-day. 

Venereal Disease. 
Take sweet spirits of nitre, spirits of turpentine, 
oil of juniper, and balsam copaiva, of each t qual 
parts;' mix them together and take two tea-spoon- 
fuls three times a-day, till cured. 

Croup. 
Take Seneca snakeroot, and ground ivy, of each 
equal parts; pour boiling water on it, and make a 
strong tea. It is said to be an infallible remedy. 

Sore Throat. 
Mix a wine glassful of good calcined magnesia 
aiii! honey, to the consistence of paste; take a tea- 
spoonful once an hour, for a day or two. It is cool- 
ing, healing, and a gentle cathartic. 

* By a handful is understood, as mnc'n as can be held 
between the fore finger and thumb, cut off above and be- 
low the hand. . 



104 T/ie Family Physician. 

Buters. 
R. Quaking asp bark, 4 oz 

Goldenseal, (kircuma,) 4 z. 

Buvberry bark. 6 <>z. 

Prickly ash bark, 1 oz. 

Cloves, 2 oz. 

Cayenne, 1 oz, 

Indian hemp, 1 z. 

Valerian, 3 z. 

Loaf sugar equal (o the whole, all pulverized and 
wed mixed. Take half a tea-spoonful twice a-day 
in water. 

These bitter9 are an excellent medicine to regu- 
late the stomach, and to restore the digestive pow- 
ers; and are also an excellent tonic, to restore the 
strength of persons recovering from sickness. 

Jaundice. 
Take four pacoon roots, dried and pulverized, 
put the powder in a gill of spirits, let it stand twelve 
hours, then take a tea-spoonful in a little water, for 
six mornings in succession. 



Pain in the Breast. 
Take lovage rootsand spikenard roots equal parts 
of each, put them in spirits; lake a table spoonful 
three times a-day till well. 



Cough. 
Take hoarhourd pulverized, four ounces, lobelia 
one ounce, cayenne one ounce, skunk cabbage root, 
bayberry root, Indian turnip root, valerian root, 
of each one ounce, and (horoughwort one ounce, 
all finely powdered and well mixrd together. Take 
half a tea-spoonful twice a-day in honey or molas- 
ses. 



Syrup for the Dysentery. 
Take quaking asp bark, bayberry bark, 
myrrh, of each one pound; loaf sugar, si 



The Family Physician. 105- 

spring water three gallons, eogniac brandy one gal- 
ion; put the whole into a kettle, and let them boil 
about halt an hour; strnin ofTthe liquor when cool,, 
and put it into bottles, to be kept tightly corked. 
Take a wine glassful, three or four times a-day. 
For children halt' the quantity. 

Vegetable Bitters. 
To make one bottle, take quaking asp bark, and 
the leaves and flowers of thoroughwort, of each 
equal parts; add about one fourth as much worm- 
wood; put them inio an earthen vessel, and pour 
boiling water on them; boil awhile to get the 
strength out, p'our it into a bowl, and add one tea- 
spoonful of cayenne; stir it well, and add, when 
cool, one gill of brandy or gin; put all into a bottle, 
shake it a few times and it is fit for use. These bit- 
ters are good for the jaundice, loss of appetite, in- 
Mion, pnin in the stomach and boweis, costive- 
Bess, and other oibstru< tioi a peculiar io females. &c». 
Take a wine glassful before breakfast, ore at i oon, 
an. I one in the evening. It is a safe medicine in ail 
conditions for male or fe-.naSe. 

For Obstruction of the Menses. 
Two tea-spoonfuls of valerian, and two of bitter 
root, (American ipecac,) powdered, may be added 
to a bottle of the above preparation. Shake the 
bottle well, and then take a wine glassful two or- 
three times a-day. 

Emetic for Children. 
For very young children, make a tea of penny- 
royal, and fill a tea-cup two thirds full, sweeten it, 
and then put a tea-spoonful of lobelia into a thin 
cloth, dip it in the tea and squeeze it, to get the 
strength into the tea. Give about one third of it, 
and in an interval of about ten or fifteen minutes be- 
tween each dose, give the other two thirds. If this 
does not relieve, prepare another dose, and give it 



106 The Family Physician. 

as before. Fer children from six months, to five or 
six years old T makea tea of pennyroyal, fill a lea-cup 
half lull, sweeten it, ai'd put a large tea-spoonful of 
lobelia into it; slir it, well; give ihe child ne third 
ot ii, as above, and if this does not operate suffi- 
cient to relieve, give half as much more; and be 
particular to give the child drink whenever it wants 
it, either cider, tea, or water. 

Salve Jor Burns. 

Take Seneca oil, flax seed oil, of each equal 
parts; add a small piece of beeswax, and tint ken it 
with white lead. The above is also^good for sores, 
cuts, &.C. 

Another. Take five pounds of lard, one pound of 
bee-wax, one pound of rosin, and flaxseed oil suffi- 
cient to make it of a proper consistence. Spread 
it upon a linen rag, and dress the sore once a-day. 

Frost Bite. 
When it is inconvenient to immerse the part im- 
mediately in fresh spring water, make a weak lie 
poultice, and apply it to the part as soon as possi- 
bl •. It. will be found to be an excellent remedy to 
prevent or slop a mortification; or fresh eow dung ft 
il it can be procured, will be preferaLle. 

Cordials. 

1. If a person is troubled with a looseness of the 
bowels, make a strong tea of red raspberry leaves, 
add to one quart of the tea, two ounces of peach- 
meats, pounded, half an ounce of myrrh, powdered, 
four ounces of loaf sugar, and one gill of cogniac 
brandy. Bottle it, and it is lit for use. Take a wine 
glassful two or three times a-day. 

2d. If a cordial is needed to relieve costiveness. 
make a strong tea of quaking asp bark, and tho- 
roughwort, equal parts of each, to which add five 
ounces of loaf sugar and one gill of gin. When the 
stomach is cold, add to each bottle, two tea-spoon 
fuls af American cayenne. 



TheFam !y Physician. 107 

"8(1. In cases where the appetite is small, and the 
digestion bad, make a strong tea of black birch 
bark. To one quart, add two ounces of peach- 
meats, pounded, one tea-spoonlul of American cay- 
enne, four ounces of loaf sugar, and one gill of Cog- 
niac brandy. Take three wine glassfuls in a day. 
Shake the bottle well before you pour it oul. 

4th. To relieve the bowels of cold, &c. take yel- 
low dock root, dandelion root, and the leaves of lo- 
vage,of each equal parts, add half as much saffron; 
boil them together and strain off the tea. To each 
bottle add five ounces of loaf sugar, and one gill of 
gin. Take a wine glassful -three times a-day. 
There are scarcely any complaints where one or the 
other of these cordials may not be used to advan- 
tage. Where peach-meats cannot be obtained, the 
meats of cherry stones, or bitter almonds, may be 
used, adding two ounces to each bottle. 

Cholera Morbus. 
First take a doce of castor oil, and in two hours 
afterwards take one nutmeg, one nutgall, and dou- 
ble the quantity of starch ; pulverize all together, di- 
vide it into three doses, boil each dose in milk sweet- 
ened with loaf sugar, and take them at intervals ef 
thirty minutes. It this does not stop it repeat the 
doses. 



Cough Elixir. 
Take of liquorice, two ounces, rock candy, twtj 
ounces, boiling water, one pint, paregoric, two 
ounces, gum Arabic, one ounce. Take two table 
?poor.luls three or four times a day. 

Inward Weakness and Spitting of Blood. 

Take of columbo root, one half ounce, gentian, 

one hall ounce, chamomile flowers, two drochms, 

orange peel, two drachms, cinnamon, two drachms, 

rloves, two drachms, wild cucumber, two pods. 

whole to be powdered and put into a quart o^ 



108 The Family Physician, 

port wine. A small wine glassful to be taken two or 
three times a-day. 

Old Sores. 
Take one pint of sweet oil, one fourth of a pound 
of red lead, half an ounce of shaving soap, half a 
pound of beeswax, and one ounce of camphor. Put 
the oil into a new earthen vessel, heat it on ihe tire, 
and add the other articles, boil it for an hour and a 
half, stir it well while boiling, then put it by for use. 

Fresh Wounds. 
T^ke the size of a hen's egg of rosin, the size of a 
hickory nut of beeswax, sheep's tallow equal to 
both; melt them together, and add one fourth of an 
ounce of red lead, and one ounce of sweet oil; stir 
until it becomes thick as honey. 

A Balsam, 
To take Cold and Inflammation out of a Sore. 

Take a quart of rye wniskey, one ounce of alum, 
one ounce of camphor, half an ounce of opium, and 
a quantity of white lily or mullen flowers; put the 
whole into a bottle, and saturate it in the sun for 
one month, shaking it every day, when it will be 
fit for use. 

Before using the two foregoing salves, the sore 
may be bathed with this balsam, and also all sores 
that are not broken. 



Drops. 
Take half a pint of rye whiskey, one and a half 
ounces of opium, and anise seed powdered half an 
ounce; put the whole together into a bottle, let it 
stand for several days, shaking it several times 
a-day, when it will be fit for use. These drops are 
calculated to relieve pains that are caused by cold 
in wounds, pains in the bowels and stomach, or to 
remove inflammation where there is a broken bone. 
To use this preparation, take spikenard, sasafras, 
and ground ivy, of each equal parts, make a tea. 



The Family Physician. 10f ( 

and take a table spoonful of it, and add a tea spoon- 
ful of the drops for an adult, and foui or five drops 
for a child of a year old. After taking the medi- 
cine the patient should cover up warm in bed, and 
drink occasionally of the tea, until it produces a 
sweat, which being done sufficiently, let him cool 
off gradually, and not eat or drink any thing cold 
for several hours. 



To stop a Mortification* 
R. Flowers of sulphur, 2 oz. 

Alum, 4 oz. 

Gun powder, 4 oz. 

Pulverize the whole together; take a tea-spoonful 
of the powder and put it in vinegar; stir them to- 
gether, and apply it to the sore ; repeat it every two 
hours until the mortification is stopped, and take of 
the powder inwardly several times a day. If the 
patient cannot take it in vinegar, it may be taken in 
sweet cream. 



To Purify the Blood. 
Take three pints ol good rye whiskey, four ounc- 
es of jalap, one ounce of coriander seed, two hand* 
fuls of elecampane root, and three fourths of an 
ounce of gum guaicum; put the whole into a bottle, 
saturate in the sun for .seven days, then add three 
gills of molasses; strain it through a linen cloth, 
and it will be fit for use. For a dose, take a table 
spoonful three times a-day. 

To rtsiieve Aflerpains. 
Take an ounce phial of goldeti tincture, and hah" 
as much laudanum, mix the two together. For a 
dose, take from twelve to fifteen drops on sugar, or 
in tea. They will also relieve false pains before 
birth. 



Demulcent Drinks, 
Are these which sheath the acrimony of the rm- 
K 



110 The Family Physician. 

mors, and render them mild: such as flaxseed tea, 
mucilage of quince seeds, pith of saesairas, slippe- 
ry elm, marshvmallow tea, and gum Arabic. A so- 
lution of gum Arabic is made by boiling one ounce 
of picked gum Aral ic, in little more than a quart 
of water, until it be dissolved. All these are useful 
to sheath and defend very sensible parts from the 
irritation of acrid humors, as is the case in a lick- 
ling cough, and common lax, or bloody flux, heat of 
urine, &c. in all which, the natural mucus is de- 
fective. ■ 

Dyspepsia, Pills for. 
R, Extract of Peruvian bark, and 

Extract of gentian, each 1 dr: 

Sulphat of iron, \ dr. 

Myrrh, pulv. 1 dr. 

Oil of caraway, 10 drops, 

Syrup of ginger sufficient to form a mass; make in- 
to pills; for a dose take three twice a-day, and work 
them off with the following powders: 

R. Soda, 5 * drachms, 

Rhubarb, 2£ scruples, 

Liquorice root, pulv. \\ scruples, 

Ginger, 25 grains. 

Mix and divide into twelve doses. 

Another Remedy for the thjspepiia. 

Take one quart of good whiskey, to which add 
two ounces of coperas finely powdered. Take a 
table spoonful of this preparation three times a day. 
The above has proved of infinite service to dyspep- 
tic persons. 

For Sore' Month in Children. 

Take of cohush root and kircuma root, of each 
equal parts; to which add a small quantity of the 
clover plaster, and a little water. Wash the mouth 
with it occasionally. 

Toolh-Ach. 
Take alum reduced lo a very fine powder, twc» 



The Family Physician. l ' ' 

drachm.-, nitrous spirit of setter seven drachms; 

,„. ,e worth, of*, trial £, fuhke many ol the nos ; 

mim .."the pre. da, it can do no harm, and is 

'alto have cured some of .he most desperate ca- 

"""j„<,tlL f r Take heach drops, pound or mash 
thrm ud putthem into a little French brand, or 
Kol, dip a bit of cotton or W into the tincture 
iin d put it into the hollow of the tooth. . It is sat. 
tn frive immediate reliet. , 

1J "taking equal parts ol the above tinctures and 
firing them together, it will be rendered more eU 
ficacioua than one alone. 

Dysentery or Colic. 
Take of the inner bark of white oak one ounce, , 
of-knot-grass, one gill of whortle berries, and a lit- 
?le pennyroyal, put them into a quart of brand) 
and P d?geVt for 'three days, alter which take a tea- 
spoonful three times a day, till cared. 

A a Oil for Wounds, 
Take white lilies and red rose leaves, of each a 
llamllal , Peruvian balm tree bud,, one gM^y 
one pint, and camphor one ounce. Digest for three 
aays P , and then take a pint ofthe hquor and m.i 
with it half a gill ofthe oil of juniper, half an ounce 
of the oil of spike, a table spoonful o< brown su- 
gar, and half an ounce of oil of stone. Digest again 
For three days, shaking it everyday when it will be 

fit for use. ■ 

Rupture. 
Take spleenwort root, white Solomon's seal I rpot, 
and strawberry root of each a handful, pound, and 
boil them for two hours in two quarts of good wine 
in a close stopped vessel, strain it and take a glass 
every morning, and an hour afterwards repeat the 
dose, K commonly cures in about two v 



il2 The Family Physician. 

Tave Worm. 
Make a syrup of skunk cabbage and take 
spoonful at bed-time, and one or two in the morn- 
ing. The syrup is made by sprinkling the green 
leaves with strong vinegar, pound them tine, 
squeeze out the juice and strain it; then add half an 
ounce of powdered tern root, and sweeten it with 
sugar. After taking this dose for three or four 
days, take a dose of physic. 

Itvuard Wounds. 
Make a strong tea of yarrow, and drink a tea.-. 
cupful four times a day. 

Wounded Tendons. 
Boil comfrey roots to a thick mucilage or jelly, 
ind apply it as a poultice, changing it every twen- 
ty-four hours. 



Croup. 

Take an ounce vial and fill it three parts full of 
the tincture of lobelia, and fill it up with the tinc- 
ture of myrrh, "shake well together. Dose from 
one half (o a tea-spoonful every ten or fifteen min- 
utes until it pukes. 

This is also an excellent medicine to drive out 
the measles where thev have suddenly disappear- 
ed. 



Strengthening Plaster. 
Take a quantity of burdock and mullen leaves, 
bruise, and put them in a kettle with a sufficient 
quantity of water, and boil them well; strain off the 
liquor, pressing the leaves, and boil it down till 
about half as thick as molasses; then add to it three 
parts of rosin and one of turpentine, simmer them 
well together, until the water is evaporated; 
pour it offinto cold water, and work it like shoema- 
ker's wax; if it be too hard put in more turpentine, 
and it will be fit for use. When applied it should. 



The Family Physician. I «*■ •' 

fee spread on soft leather. It is good to strengthen 
weakness in the back, limbs. &c. 

Tincture of Boneset. 
R. Boneset powdered, 1 oz. 

Cloves, do 1 dr. 

Port wine, 1 quart. 

Digest for ten days, strain and bottle it for use.-— 
Dose, one table-s-poonfui. If is an excellent tonic. . 

Syrup of Boneset. 

Steep an ounce of boneset in a pint of hot water 
for thirty minutes, strain the liquor, and add to it 
half a pound of honey, one drachm of the essence of 
spruce, one ounce of the elixir paregoric, and half 
a pint of French brandy. 

This will be found a valuable remedy in cases of 
common colds and catarrhs. The dose for an adult 
is a table-spoonful every two hours, if it pukes the 
dose ma) be divided and given every hour, 

Syrup of Lemons. 
R. Lemon juice, 3 oz. 
Loaf sugar, 5 oz. 
Mix. This pleasant mixture is used to sweeten 
and acidulate mixtures; and is a good vehicle to 
take medicine in (hat is disagreeable to the taste. 
It is an agreeable and cooling febrifuge v when ad- 
ded to water as a drink for persons labouring un- 
der fevers. — — 

Seneca Snake-root Syrup,. 
R. Seneca Snake-root, \ oz. 

Ground ivy, \ oz. 

Water, 1 pint, 

Boil to half a pnit, strain, and add two table-spoor.- 
fuls of honey. This is a valuable expectorant. 

Hoarhound Syrup. 

R. Hoarhound leaves dried, 1 oz. 

Lobelia, I oz. 

Boiling water, \ pint. 



J he Family Physician. 

Infuse for 30 mhn.il> s, si rain, and add two table- 
spoo> fufs ol Horiey, and two tea spoonfuls of et'H nee 
of |i mon. This is recommended in ho 
asllima, complaints of the breast, lungs, &c. It 
promotes the fluid secretions in gener il, and if used 
ven liberally will. loosen the bowel*. Dose lor an 
adujt, InJf table-spoonful every two hours. Lini ae« 
us prescribed this, remedy and cured a patient that 
«as thrown into a salivation by the u-e of mercu- 
rials, when every other method that had before for 
one ye. ir been used had failed, or rather in< teased 
fne disease. After using the above the patient got 
well in a short time. 



Infusion of Senna and Manna. 
R. Senna leaves, 1 dr. 

Manna, opt. \ oz. 

Preserved tamarinds, £ cz. 

Brown sugar, 2 dr. 

Coriander seed, pulv. 1 ser. 

Boiiing water, \ pint. 

Keep it in a close vessel, in a hot place for four 
hours, occasionally stirring it, then strain the li- 
quor. It is a mild and pleasant purgative. A fa- 
de spoonful may be given to children two years old, 
every half hour till it operates freely. 

Infusion of Senna and Cream tartar. 
Take of senna leaves, two drachms; raisins 
bruised, two ounces; bruised liquorice root, one 
fourth ounce; cream tart, two ounces; boiling water 
one pint. Macerate for two hours and strain. — 
Fhis is a gentle and pleasant laxative for females in 
a slate cf pregnancy, or during their illness after 
lying in. The dose may be one wine glassful eve- 
ry hour till i! operates. . 

r — : — 

fnfision of Rhubarb rath Potass and Soda. 
Take of rhubarb pulverized, one half ounce, 
of cinnamon one half ounce: boiling water, 



The, Family Physician. H5 

haif pint. Macerate in aclose vessel for six hours, 
strain, and aatfsub.carbonateoJ soda, two dracnms; 
sh'j. ■ arbonate ol potass one drachm. This is an 
excellent alkaline and gentle rathartK,and a valua- 
ble remedy to remove acidity from the stomach. 

Tiridure of Rhubarb. 
Take of rhubarb pulverized, two ounces ;.liquor- 
icc andanise seed, each one ounce; sub. carbonate 
of soda, one halt ounce; sugar one ounce; diluted 
alcohol, two ounces. Digest lor seven .days, strain, 
ami boltle it for use. It is an excellent stomachic 
and purgative* in cases of indigestion, laxity ot the 
intestines, &c. 

Compound Tincture of Myrrh and Lobelia seeds. • 
Reduce half an ounce of the seeds of the lobelia 
inflata to a fine powder, add to it the same quanti- 
ty of cayenne pepper, a tea spoonful of powdered 
valerian root, and about a gill and a half of the 
tincture of myrrh, k- ep it close stopped in a bottle 
for use. Shake it well before using. 

This is an excellent preparation for the most vio- 
lent attacks of lockjaw, fits, spasms, bite of a mad 
dog, and in all cases ofsu>pended animation, &c. 

Ihad-ache. 
Take castor or physic bean leaves, green or 
dried, steep them in hot vinegar and bind them on 
the forehead. 

Ague. 
Take a handful of rue, put it into a pintofstrong 
vinegar, atew.it down one half and drink it just as 
.the shake is coming on. If necessary repeatthedose. 



1 f 6 > The Family Physician. 

HERBS.— DESCRIPTIONS OF. 

Life's lowest, but far greatest sphere I sing, 
Of ill things that adorn tho gaudy Spring; 
Sui. as in deserts live, whom, unconfil < d, 
None but the simple laws ol Nature bind; 
And those who, growing 'ame by human rare, 
The well-bred citizej s of gardens are; 
Those that aspire to Sol their sire's bright fire, 
Or stoop into their mother Earth's embrace; 
Such as dunk streams, or wells, or those dry fed, 
Who have Jove only for their Ganymede; 
A'»d all that Solomon's lo^t work of old 
(Aii! fatal loss!) so wisely did unfold. 
Though I the oak's vivacious age should live, 
I ne'er to all their names in verse could give. 

Cowley. 

There is scarcely a plant that greens the fields, a 
flower that gems the pasture, a shrub that tufts the 
garden, or a tree that shades the earth, which does 
not contain certain medicinal virtues, to remove 
pains and heal diseases. 

The American continent, though the last found, 
is not the least favored in this respect. Embracing 
almost every clime and soil of the globe, it richly 
abounds with drugs of every healing quality. 

The common saying, that every country contains 
the best cures for its own diseases, seems fully veri- 
fied in America. Here, above all countries, is the 
ague, and here, exclusively, is the grand cure, the 
Peruvian bark tree, or dogwood. And here too. ex- 
clusively, is found the tobacco, the Jamestown 
weed, the lobelia, the pink and snakeroots, besides 
those other valuable plants, equal to the ipecacuan- 
ha, rhubarb, jalap, &,c. which have hitherto been 
imported at a great expense, though not always ge- 
nuine, but which may now be obtained in our own 
fields and woods, both unadulterated and cheap. 

Worthy cf the high character of AnaftN 



The Family Physician. 11 7 

ny gentlemen of the fi:e»t genius among us, have ex- 
plored the medical treasures ol our country, and 
have shown an eagerness to make known the pre- 
cious means to preserve the health and lives of our 
citizens. First on the list of this noble band of phi- 
lanthropist stood that bright literary and profess- 
ions) genius, the late professor Barton, from whose 
^Collections towards a Materia Medico, of the. United 
States" much valuable matter has been selected. 

Professor Chapman, succeeding the lamented 
Barton, as teacher of Materia Medica, gave addi- 
tional interest to the studies connected with his de- 
partment, and by the application of his powerful tal- 
ent.-, to the acquisition of appropriate learning and 
discovery, has made a handsome accession to the 
Stock of knowledge before extant. 

Much is due also to professors Dexter, Mitchell, 
Hosack,Cox, Baker, and to doctors Mease, Culler, 
Thomson, &c. 

From the valuable discoveries of these gentlemen 
1 have compiled a Materia Medica, exhibiting the 
names, characters, and qualities, at our best medicinal 
plants hitherto discovered, Together with the disease 
| sui!, and their proper doses, and forms of ad- 
ministration; the whole stripped of technical terms, 
and (nuking a complete system for family use. 

Barberry — Berber is Vulg aris, 
Grows along the sides of roads in hedges;— leaves 
ig, tender, and subject to the rust; the flowers 
are in clusters; the fruit oblong and acid, the stem 
is defended by three thorns. 

A double handful of the berries boiled in three 
quarts of water to two, and given in doses of a tea- 
cupful four or five times a day, sweetened with 
white sugar, is extolled as a remedy in diarrhoea, 
dysentery and jaundice. 

Bayberry— Myrica Cerifera Humilis, 
Colled also dwarf candlebcrry myrtle, grows in 



418 The Family Physician, 

swamp?, to the height of two ©r three feet, and 
bears numerous green berries, of which tallow is 
made. 

The hark of the root has been considered a good 
remedy for the jaundice. 1 he powder of it in dos- 
es of twenty or thirty grains, has been employed as 
a mild emetic. The inner hark, in poultice, ap- 
plied morning and evening to scrofulous swellings, 
and drinking a tea spoonful of a strong infusion of 
the leaves, is said to have performed surprising 
cures in a few weeks 



Blood Root — Sangui7iaria Cafiadensi . 

Has a variety of names; as red root, pacoon, In- 
dian paint, turmeric, &c. It grows about a foot high 
in rich woodlands, and flowers in April. The 
leaves are roundish and deeply indented; some- 
what like the white oak leaves — stems naked, sup- 
porting single flowers; blossoms v\hite. When the 
fresh root, which is about (he size of the little finger, 
and blood red, is broken, a juice issues in large 
drops resembling blood. 

According to Dr. Downic, the root in powder. 
from twenty to thirty grains, is strongly emetic. 
Professor Barton considers it nearly equal to (he 
Seneca or rattle snake root, in cases of ulcerous 
sore throat, croup ai.d hives, and other similar af- 
fections. 

A tint ture may be prepared by steeping a hand- 
ful of the root sliced in half a pint of spirits. It 
may also he exhibited in the form of decoction, a 
handful to a quart of boiling water, and a table 
spoonful for a do«e every two or three hours. The 
juice of the root is said to be good for destroying 
warts. Dried and pulverized, and snufLd up the 
nose, it is a certain cure for the polypus. Given in 
large and repeated doses, it has been foufid of great 
use in the incipient stages of pulmonary consump- 
tion, and in cases of great irritation it was com- 
bined with opium. It is also stated that, given in 



The Family Physician. 119 

large doses, sufficient to produce vomiting, it often 
removes the croup, if administered in the first Bta- 
ges. Some physicians rely wholly on this remedy 
for the cure of the croup. 

Bu i dock — Arctium Lappa, 
Grows on road sides, on rubbish and ditch banis, 
bearing purpleish blossoms in July and August. 

The juice oi the fresh leaves, or an infusion or 
decoction of the roots, operates gently on the bow- 
eh, sweetens the blood, promotes sweat and urine, 
and is highly recommended in scorbutic, rhumatic, 
and venereal disorders. The juice is given in dos- 
es of a wine glassful, and the decoction half a pint 
three time* a day. 

Indian Hemp, 

Grows in woods and on the borders of meadows, 
three feet high; the stalk is bare lor a loot, then 
spring many branches, leaves numerous, flowers 
whitish, similar to buckwheat, which terminate in 
seed pods resembling a cucumber. 

The bark of the root in the form of powder, in 
aoses from twenty to thirty grains or half a tea- 
spoonful, will generally operate as an emetic and 
Cathartic. In doses of five or six grains, or a wine- 
glassful of the infusion, every two hours, it promotes 
perspiration. It has been found highly beneficial in 
rheumatisms, dropsies^ and asthmatic complaints, 
A table spoonful of (he infusion, halt a handful of 
the b;irk, to a pint of boiling water, given occa- 
sionally to children in the whooping cough, throws 
olF the phlegm, and prevents straining. 



G entian — Genitalia, 
Grows on the sides of roads, two or three feet 
high. The stem is strong, smooth, and erect; the 
leaves, which rise fiom the lower part of the stem, 
are spear-shaped, large, ribbed, and rough; flowers 
yellow, in whorls, terminating in yellow bitter ber- 
ties close to the stalk. 



120 The Family Physician. 

Its virtues are equal to the imported. It has long 
occupied the fird place in all recipes lor bitters, 
whether used to provoke the appetite, or give tone 
to the system. It may al^o be taken in the form of 
infusion, a small handful of the root to a quart of 
boiling water, in doses of a tea cuplul three or four 
times a-day. It is siid to increase the appetite, 
prevent the acidification oi the food, and to enable 
the stomach to bear, and digest articles of food, 
which before produced oppression and dejection of 
spirits. In the form of decoction it is used with de- 
cided advantage in pneumonia cases, where the fe- 
ver is nervous, and it acts as a tonic and sudorific; 
a tincture of it is esteemed as a remedy in dyspep- 
sia, given in doses of one fourth of an ounce. 

Featherfe w — Matricaria Vulgaris . 
It is frequently cultivated in gardens. A handful 
of the leaves and tops infused in a quart of water, 
and given in doses of a tea-cupful three or four times 
a-day, is used by country people to raise the spirits, 
and promote perspiration in colds and fevers. A 
haud/ul of feathertew combined with a handful of 
centaur}, and the same quantity of col ush root, and 
fcrmed into a tea, and given in doses of a lea cupful 
every two hours, is found to produce the most salu- 
tary effects in cases of obstructed menstruation. 
The tea should not, however, be used longer than to 
produce the desired effect. 

Camomile — Chamcemehim, 
Grows well in our gardens. An infusion, or tea, 
made of the flowers, is excellent to warm and 
strengthen the stomach in cases of indigestion, loss 
of appetite, and other complaints arising from de- 
bility. It is also of great use in doses of a tea-cup- 
ful three times a-day, as a preventive to the ague 
and fever, and bilious fever in sickly situations. In 
the form of fomentation and poultice, it is servicea- 
ble in discussing hard tumors. 



The Family Physician. 12 1 

Caraway — Carum Carui, 
Is a choice aromatic; grows kindly in our gar- 
dens. The seeds assist digestion, strengthen the 
stomach, and are serviceable in flatulent colics. 
The dose of the seeds in powder, from one to two 
tea-spoonfuls to aduits. 

Masterwert — Imperatoria, 
Grows in meadows and rich soils, two feet high; 
leaves, three together, saw-edged, and spear-shap- 
ed; flowers in June. The root of this plant is a 
warm and grateful medicine in flatulency, weak- 
ness of the stomach and bowels, and dropsical af- 
fections. It may be taken in the form of powder, 
decoction or tincture. One drachm, or a tea 
spoonful of the powder in a glass of wine or spirits, 
and taken an hour before the fit, has frequently 
prevented the ague. The decoction or infusion is 
made of one handful of the herb in a quart ol boil- 
mg water,and the dose a tea cupful three times a 
day. 



Lobelia, or Blue Cardinal flowers— Lobelia 

Syphilitica, 
Grows abundantly in the middle and southern 
states, in moist grounds, and near springs, has an 
erect, stock three or four feet high, blue flowers; a 
milky juice, and rank smell. 

This plant is said to have been purchased from 
the northern Indians, by the late Sir Willam John- 
ston, as a remedy in the venereal disease; hence 
Us specific name syphilitica. He doubts, however, 
its power to cure the pox; though from its diuretic 
quality, it certan |y has been found useful in goa- 
orrhoea or clap. The lobelia is generally adminis- 
tered in the form of a decoction, a handful of the 
leaves boiled slowly in three pints of water to a 
quart, of which a gill or more may be taken three 
■ a day. 

h 



122 The Family °hyskian. 

Indian Physic, Bowman's rool, or American Ipe- 
cacuanha — Spira Trifoliala, 
Grows about two or three feet high, in low woods 
and meadows. The root, which is the part made 
use of, ii a safe and tfficacious emetic, in the dose 
of thirty or forty grains in powder, for an adult. — 
In broken doses of five or six grains, every iwo 
hours, it is equally valuable as a sudonfic. It may 
be also given in infusion, a handful to a pint of 
boiling water, of which a small tea -cupiul maj be 
taken every fifteen or twenty minutes until it pro- 
duces vomiting. 



Hyssop — Hystopvs, 
Is cultivated in our gardens. An infusion of the 
leaves, sweetened with honey, or in the form of a 
sjrup, is useful in humoral asthma, coughs, and 
other disorders of the breast and lungs accompa- 
nied with inflammatory symptoms. 



Ice Plant — Mcsemb ryanthemum, 
Grows in the woods to the height of six inches, 
and becomes white in September; the stock and 
leaves are like frozen jelly, and when handled, dis- 
solve as ice. The root pulverized, in doses of a 
half or tea spoonful in the morning, is said to be a 
good remedy for children troubled with fits; hence 
it is called by the country peopie Fit root. Adults 
may take it .in much larger dosvs. 

S i rsa pa ri 11a — Sm ilax Sarsaparilla, 
Grows in several parts of the United States i 
somewhat resembling ginseng, roots from one to 
three feet long, about as thick as a little finger. — 
The stocks slender and smooth, between one and 
two feel high. 

A decoction of sarsaparilla, prepared by boiling 
a handful of the root in a quart of water, till the 
third part be evaporated, has long been employed 
as an auxiliary to mercury, in the treatment of vc- 



The Family PhysicM l23 

nereal complaints. It promotes perspiration, at- 
tenuates viscid humors, relieves venereal head-ach, 
nocturnal pains, and disposes venereal ulcers to 
heal. In rheumatic affections, cutaneous disorders, 
and scrofula, it is a very useful medicine. It may 
also he exhibited in the form of powder in doses 
of two drachms, or extract in doses of one drachm, 
three or four times a day. 

Virginia, or Black Snake root— Serpcntaria 
Virviniana, 
Grows in rich woodlands, from seven to nine 
inches high, leaves heart-shaped, flowers of a pur- 
pleish color. The root is composed of a number of 
ga or fibres, issuing from one head, and matted 
together, of a brownish color on the outside, and 
pah: or yellowish within. 

Uhns an aromatic smell, and a warm bitterish 
pungent taste. K promotes perspiration, raises the 
pulse," and resists putrefaction . Hence it'is espe- 
cially adapted to the low and advanced stage of ty- 
phus, or nervous fever. It may be given in the 
form of infusion or tea. a handful to a quart of holi- 
ng water, in doses of a tea-cupful, or in powder, 
from ten to thrity grains every two or three hours. 
Conjoined with the Peruvian bark, or any of its 
substitutes, it is an admirable remedy in obstinate. 
>s of the ague and fever, and other disorders of 
general weakness. In cold phlegmatic habits, it 
has been exhibited in the form of tincture, and 
when united with double the quantity of dogwood 
•ies, or bark, it affords a good bitter. 
Externally applied, the decoction has been found 
o cure the itch. 



Thoroughwort — Ekpatorium Perfoliatum, 

Is also known by the following names, thorough- 
■rtcm, crosswort, boneset, and Indian sage. 

I grows in wet meadow?, and other moist pla- 
ces. The stock is hairy, and rises from two to fouc 



124 The Family Physician. 

feet. The flowers are white and appear in July 
and August- The leaves at each joint are hori- 
zontal, saw edged, and rough, from three to tour 
inches long, and about one inch broad at the base, 
gradually lessening to a veiy acute point, of a dark 
green, and covered with hairs. 

This plant possesses very active powers, and has 
been exhibited with uncommon advantage in inter- 
mittents, remittents, and other diseases of debility. 
The dried leaves in powder, in doses of twelve or 
fifteen grains, are said to operate gently on the 
bowels. Every part of this plant may be advanta- 
geously employed in practice. The flowers, as a 
tonic bitter, are deemed equal to the flowers of cam- 
omile, for which they might be substituted on 
many occasions. 

A wine-glassful 'of the expressed juice of the 
green herb drank every hour, is celebrated as a cer> 
tain cure for t! e bite of a rattlesnake. The biuis- 
e& leaves should be applied to the part. 

Motherwort — Leonnrus Cardiaca, 
Grows in waste places, and flowers in July find 
August. The flowers are in thorny whoils, pur- 
pleish within, and white on the outside; the leaves 
are opposite, two to each whorl; they have a strong 
disagreeable odour, and a bitter taste. 

An infusion of this plant is a common domestic 
medicine for fainting, and disorders of the stomach. 
His said to be peculiarly adapted to some consti- 
tutions affected with nervous and hysterical agita- 
tions; and that if taken at bed-time, procures re- 
freshing sleep, when opium and laudanum had fail 
ed. 



Crow Foot — Ranunculus Bulbosus, 

A very acrid plant, growing in meadows and 

aelds. The leaves and roots bruised and applied 

to any part of the body will soon raise a blister, and 

ought to be used when the Spanish flies cannot bo 



The Family Physician. i^3 

obtained. The roots collected in the fall may be 
v veil preserved through the winter by burying 
them in some fine dry sand. 



D ■'. idelion — Leontodon Taraxacum, 

Vulvar!) called piss-a-beds, grows in meadows, 

ires, load sides, and ditch-banks, with yellow 

flowers, which bloom from April till September, 

and possess the remarkable quality of expanding 

in the morning and closing in the evening. 

The root, leaves, and stalk, contain a large pro- 
portion 6t bitter milky juice, which, in doses of a 
wine-glassful two or three times a day, is good in 
chronic N A animations of the liver, dropsies, diffic- 
ulty oi making water, and other complaints arising 
from obstructions of the viscera It may also be 
taken in the form of a strong decoction, from a gill 
to a half pint two or three times a day . 

Violet Rattle Snake,. 

Grows about iour inches high, on the banks of 
rivers, and in pine woods; leaves grow in a cluster 
fiom the stock, oval shaped, fleshy, and full of small 
veins; flowers of a pale blue color. 

An infusion of this plant, a handful to a quart of 
boiling water, taken in doses of a tea-cupful three 
or four times a day, and some of the green leaves 
bruised, and applied two or three times a day to 
scrofulous tumors, or king's evil, it is said to be an 
infallible remedy. 



Tansy — Tanacetitm Vulgare. 
This plant possesses a warm bitter taste, and 
may be used as a substitute for hops. An infusion 
ofthe leaves is recommended for a weak stomach, 

ucted menses* 
s taken in doses of from a scruple to a 
l< nt vermifuge, and 
th'tt if an e he rubbed with the herb, 

•v preserved from the flesh flv, 

1 



t l 2G fhz Family Physician, 

Pleurisy Root — Asciepiob Dccwnbens, 
Has a variet) ol names, as huU< rfh weed, flux 
root, decumbent swallow root, &( . Ii is a beautiful 
plam, giowing two or three feel high under fences, 
and upland pastures. The flowers are of a t> right 
oiange color, and appear in July and August. 
These are succeeded by long slender pods, contain? 
ingihe seeds, which have a delicate kind ol silk at- 
tached to them. The root is spi.idle 01 carrot- 
shaped, of .. light brownish color on the outside, 
and white within. 

This plant possesses great medicinal virtues, and 
ought therefore to be cultivated in our gardens. It 
has long been employed as a remedy in ilie treat- 
ment of violent cold and pleurisies. No medicine 
is better calculated than this to produce general and 
plentiful perspiration without heating the body, 
and hence its well-merited fame in curing the dis- 
ease, which name it bears. After the use of an 
emetic, and the loss of some blood, in the incipient 
stage of the pleurisy, as much of the root finely 
powdered as will lay upon the point of a case knife, 
is recommended to be given in a cup of warm wa- 
ter every rtwo hours, until the patient recovers. 



Mountain Tea — Gaultheria Procumbcns. 

It spreads very extensively over the more barren 
mountainous parts of the United States. 

A strong infusion of this plant, a large handful to 
a quart of boiling water, iti doses of a tea-cupful 
three or foui times a day, is esteemed useful in asth- 
ma, and for promoting the menstrual discharge. 

Horse Radish- — Cochlear ia Armoracea, 
Grows on the sides of ditches and damp places 
but is cultivated in on* gardens for culinary and me- 
dicinal purposes. It has long been known as a most 
powerful antiscorbutic, and when taken freely, it 
stimulates the nervous system, promotes urine and 
perspiration, and is thereby (jsefqliy employed In 



The Family Physician. 1*7 

palsy, dropsy, scurvy and chronic rheumati m. 
The root should be cut into small pieces, without 
bruising, and swallowed in the dosfe ol a table- 
ipo • ful, without chewing-, once or twice a day, or 
it m;>) be steeped in wine, and taken in doses ot a 
small wine-glassful. 

Whether externally or internally employed, 
h< •-<> radish prov< s a stimulant; hence it has been 
fou id servic lable by chewing it in palsy of the 
tongue, and applied to paralytic complaints to af- 
fected parts. The root, scrap< d,,and applied in the 
form of poultice, to the feet, until some infl imma- 
tion is produced, in low stages of fever, attended 
with delirium, has also produced good effects. 

Emeth Weed or Indian Tobacco — Lobelia Inflatu. 
Grows in dry fields, and rises to the height ol two 
feet, with branched stems, flowering in July : ud 
August, with blown cups, filled with numerous small 
seed*. The blossoms are solitary, in a kind of spike 
of a pale blue color. The leaves are oblong, and 
have a very acrid and pungent taste, similar to that 
of tobacco. 

The leaves collected in August, while the plant 
is in blossom, and carefully dried and preserved, act 
as a speedy and excellent emetic, in doses from ten 
to twenty grains; or it may be exhibited in the form 
ot a saturated tincture, in dose* from a tea to a ta- 
<apoonful. 

As it is a medicine of considerable activity, : t 
should be given in small quantities; and the dose 
repeated every ten or fifteen minutes, until it ex- 
cites vomiting. From its speedy operation as an 
emetic, there is no doubt it would be an effectual 
remedy for the croup and whooping cough, hi 
small doses it must be of great use in consumptive 
I other coughs, by exciting expectoration. It jf, 
however, valued on account of its being a sj; 
in that most distressing disease, the asthma, 
hewing a small portion of it, cor. * 



128 The Family Physician. 

nore than one of tl ( proves a gentle 

emetic. If the quantity be a little increased, it op- 
erates as an emetic, and then as a cathartic, its ef- 
fects being much the same of those of the common 
emetics and cathartics. 

The active prop* :ies of the lobelia are readily 
extracts d both by water and alcohol. The ti; cfure> 
how ver,is most easily kept, and is the mo?; rotwe- 
nienl form for exhibition. The tincture is i n par- 
ed by digesting eight cmncesoflhe grten plant in a 
pint of diluted alcohol. A tea-spoonful given to an 
adult will generally produce nausea and sometimes 
vomiting. In certain instances, however, much, 
larger doses have, been given, without producing 
any other effect than a flow of saliva. 



Elecampane — Inula Helineurn, 
Grows three or four feet high, in strong places, 
and by the road-side: flowers large and yellow, in 
July and August; and the root, when dry, has an 
agreeable aromatic smell; and in a decoction 
sweetened with honey, or in the form of syrup, or a 
tea-spoonful of the powdered root in molasses, is re- 
commended for promoting expectoration in asthma 
and coughs. The fresh root in strong decoction or 
oi-ntment, is said to cure the itch. 



Indian Turnip — Aurum Triphyllum, 
Grows in meadows and swamps, six or eight inch- 
es high, purple stalks, leaves three in number, 
roundish, and berries of a bright scarlet color. 

It is a very acrid plant. An ointment prepared 
by simmering the fresh root in hog's lard, and oie 
eighth part of wax, is said to be a good application 
in the scald head. It is also said that the recenfr 
roof boiled in milt, has been advantageously used 
in cases of consumption. It is also recommended 
in the asthma, and whooping cough, and in the form 
of conserve, made of a pound of the peeled rout 
pounded finely in a morlar> with three pounds of 



The Family Physician, t2§ 

loaf sugar; dose, a tea-spoonful two or three times 
a-day. 

Prickly Ash — Zanthoxylum. 

Both the bark and berry ire of a hot acrid taste, 
and when chewed, powerfully promote spitting. 
It is used in this way to cure the toothach, as well 
as putting soxnn in the hollow, also to cure the pal- 
sy of the tongue. 

The prickly ash has a great deal of reputation in 
the United States as a remedy in chronic rheuma- 
tism. In that disease its operation seems analogous 
to that of mez^reon and guaiacum, which it nearly 
resembles in its sensible properties. It is not only 
a popular remedy in the country, but many physi- 
cians place great reliance on its powers in rheuma- 
tic complaints, so that apothecaries generally give 
it a place in their shops. It is most frequently giv- 
en in decoction, an ounce being boiled in a quart of 
water. It is found very effectual in relieving noc- 
turnal pains, and disposing venereal ulcers to heal. 

A tincture, prepared by steeping half a pint of 
the berries, or a handful of the bark, in a bottle of 
spirits, is much esteemed as a remedy in doses of a 
wine-glassful, in flatulent colic. It is sometimes em- 
ployed in this form, in cold phlegmatic habits, af- 
flicted with the rheumatism. 

Mugwort, or common Wormwood— Artemisia 
Absinthium, 

Grows two or three feet high, on road-sides and 
among rubbish; leaves deeply divided, pointed;on 
the upper side of a deep green, and on the under, 
soft or downy, flowers small and purpleish. 

An infusion, a handful of the tops to a quart of 
boiling water, in doses of a tea-cupful, or a tea- 
apoonful of the powdered leaves, three or four times 
a-day, is an admirable stomachic in weakness of the 
Stomach, lowness of the spirits, and hysterical af- 
fection, Eiternally it is applied in the form of fo» 



130 The Family Physician. 

mentation and poultice to resist putrefaction and 
relieve the pains of bruises, as well as prevent the 
swelling and discoloration of the part. 

Cohush, Poppoose, or Squaw Root — Cuuhphyllum 
Thalictrouli ;, 

Grows about two feet high, in low moist rich 
grounds near running streams, and on islands that 
have been overflowed. The leaves grow on small 
stalks near the top of th#?tem, which resemble the 
hand and fingers. The flowers tire of a pale blue 
color, which yield a berry something like grapes'. 
The root is composed of many fibres, and is crook- 
ed, resembling the rattle sr;nke root. 

An infusion of the root, a handful to a quart of 
boiling water, in doses of a tea cupful three or four 
times a c-iay, or the same quantity steeped in a quart 
of .pints, in doses of a wire <:iassful two or three 
times a day, is highly extolled as a remedy for the 
rheumatism, and serviceable in cases of obstruction 
of the menses and dropsical complaints. A strong 
decoction of the root used as a gargle is said to be 
an excellent remedy for (he putrid sore throat. 

Com fr e v — Consolida , 

Grows about two fee.t high in moist situations 
near springs, but is cultivated in our gardens. The 
are large, similar to water-dock; flowers of a 
pale blue color; the roots lon*jr, rather thicker than 
a man's finger, mucilaginous, black externally, 
and white, within. 

A handful of the roofs boiled in milk, and given 
in doses of a tea cupful three or four times a day. is 
a popular remedy for the dysentery, bowel com- 
plaints, and the lluor albus or whites. It is also be- 
n ficial as a diet-drink in the clap, or in other cases, 
attended with a burning heat in making water. 



Wild Madder — Rubin Tinctorum, 
Is cultivated in Pennsylvania and South Carolina 



The Family Physician. 131. 

for dung a (ine red color, but also possesses great 
medicinal powers. , 

[l has been highly recommended in visceral ob- 
structions, particular^ ot the uterus, in coagula- 
tions of the blood induced either by falls or bruises, 
in drppsical complaints, and especially in the rick- 
ets. It may be given in powder from hve to nUeea 
eia'ins tochildren, and from a half to a w hole drachm 
three or four times a-day to adults. When taken 
internally, it possesses the remarkable quality of 
tinging the urine of a red color, and produces sim- 
ilar effects on the bones of animals, when eaten with 
their food. 

Ginseng — Panax Quinqiiefolium. 
This plant is thinly scattered throughout the 
mountainous regions of the northern, middle, and 
western states, between the 38(h and 47th degress 
of north latitude. It inhabits rich, shady woods, 
the declivities of mountains, and the banks oftor- 
reius. The stem is smooth, round, and green, reg- 
ularly divided at the top into three branches, with 
a flower stock in the centre. It flowers in July, 
and has red berries. The root consists of one or 
more fleshy, oblong portions, of a whitish color, 
transversely wrinkled. 

This plant is precisely the same with the Asiatic, 
tiie roots of which are so highly valued in China. 
The Chinese consider the ginseng as possessing une- 
qualled medical powers, and their physicians have 
written many volumes upon the qualities ot the 
plajit. It is made an ingredient in almost all reme- 
which they give the nobility, its price being 
too expensive for the common people. The sick 
it to recover health, and the healthy to make 
themselves stronger and more vigorous. They af- 
firm that it removes all fatigue, either of body or 
mind, dissolves humours, cures pulmonary diseases, 
the stomach, increases the vital spirits, 
. prolongs life to old age. Its price at Pekin, 



The Family Physician. 

according to travellers, has been eight or nine 
times its weight in silver, and even more. 

The Chinese most readily purchase the forked 
or branching roots; and those exporters have been 
most successful who have prepared their ginseng 
by clarifying it after the Chinese manner. They 
dip it in scalding water, and scour it with a brush. 
The roots are then prepared with the fumes of a 
species of millet, to give them a yellow color. The 
millet is put in a vessel with a little water, and boil- 
ed over a gentle fire. The roots are placed over 
the vessel upon transverse pieces of wood, being first 
covered with a linen cloth or another vessel. — 
When treated in this way, they assume, upon dry- 
ings horny or semi-transparent appearance. 

As far as ginseng has been tried in this country, 
or in Europe, its virtues do not appear, by any 
means, to justify the high estimate of it by the Chi- 
nese. That it is not a very active substance, ii 
proved by the fact, that a whole root may be eaten 
without inconvenience. Its place in the Materia 
Medica is among the demulcents. 

Ginseng is principally used as a cordial; many 
persons chewing it or taking it steeped in wine or 
spirits, in doses of a wine-glassful twice a-day. A» 
a masticatory, ginseng is innocent and" refreshing. 
It forms an excellent substitute for tobacco. It has 
been recommended to those whose constitutions 
have been injured by the immoderate use of tobac- 
co, and has been found to have produced the most 
beneficial consequences. It is necessary, however, 
that the 6aliva should be swallowed. 



Frost wort — Systis Canadensis, 
Grows in wood?, about two feet high; leaves small 
and numerous, of a whitish color, like frost; the 
stalks purple; flowers of a pale color, producing a 
small pod with very small seeds. 

It is said, in cases of scrofula or king's evil, an in- 
fusion of the leaves, a handful to a quart of boiling 



The Fumily Physician. .133 

water, in doses of a tea cupful three times a-day, 
and the leaves in the form of poultice, applied to the 
swelling twice a-day, has performed, cures. 

Male Fern — Polypodinm, 

Called also sweet tern, male polypody, &c. It 
grows in woods and slony places, flowering from 
June to October. 

The root when chewed, is somewhat mucilage 
nous and sweet, and afterwards astringent and bit- 
ter. 

Sweet fern in powder, in doses from one to two 
tea spoonfuls, or a decoction, a pint a-day, followed 
on the fifth day with a dose of tastor oil, or some 
purgative medicine, is esteemed a powerful medi- 
cine against worms, and particularly the tape 
worm. 



Dill — Anethum Groveolens, 
Flourishes in our gardens, producing seed de- 
lightfully aromatic, which, in doses of one or two 
tea-spoonfuls, is excellent for flatulent colics.and to 
assist digestion. 

Devil's Bit — Veratrum Luteum. 
The root of this plant is a very pungent bitter, 
and is employed as a tonic, cither in the form of 
tincture or infusion. In this last form it has been 
employed as a vermifuge. 



American Columbo — Columba Americana, 
Grows plentifully in the western country, ic the 
vicinity of the Ohio river, and from abundant ex- 
periments, is found equal to the imported. It has 
long been esteemed a powerful antiseptic and tonic, 
and as such, has been employed with manifest ad- 
vantage in gangrene (holer a morbus, bilious fever, 
ion, want of appetite, bilious vomiting, or 
purging, £cc 1; may be given i ri powder, in doses 
ot a small tea spoonful every three or four hours. 
M 



134 IVie Family Physician. 

or in decoction in doses of a tea cupful. Two or 
three ounces of the root'steeped in a quart of spir- 
it, form an excellent bitter, which, when taken in 
mint-water, or infusion of orange peel, in doses of a 
table spoonful, is excellent lor moderating the 
retching in pregnant women. 

Ci nquefoil — Potenlilla Rrplans, 
Grows on pasture grounds, and is something sim 
ilar to strawberry. The stalks trail along the 
ground, and have buttive leaves on each stalk, pla- 
ced together of an unequal size, and bear a yellow- 
flower. 

The whole of the plant, particularly the root, in 
the form of decoction, a handful to a quart of water, 
or milk, boiled slowly, and s,weetened with loaf su- 
gar, is recommended as a remedy for the dysentery 
and bowel complaints. The do.-e for adults is a 
tea-cupful three or four times a-day, and one third 
or half the quantity for childien. 

The Greater Celandine — Chelidonium Major, 
Grows about two feet high, in meadows aid run- 
ning brooks, has many stalks, with larger joints 
than is common in other plants, very easily broken; 
the leaves large and saw-edged, the flowers, con- 
sisting of four leaves, are yellow; after which come 
long pods enclosing black seeds; the root long, red- 
dish externally, and yellow within and full of yellow 
juice. ' 

Twenty or thirty drops of the juice, or half a 
tea-spoonful of the dried root in powder, in a cup 
of new milk, morning and night, is said to be bene- 
ficial in dropsy, green sickness, and cutaneous erup- 
tions. The juice rubbed on warts, ring and tetter- 
worms, effectually destroys them. A poultice made 
of this plant boiled in milk, or the roots roasted, 
and mashed in vinegar, is ixlolled by seme as an 
excellent application to disperse scrofulous tumors 
of the neck. 



The Family Physician. 1 35 

Centaury — Ceritaurium Minor, 
Is a fine stomachic bitter, and either in a simple 
infusion, or united with calimus or angelica root, is 
excellent in relaxation of the stomach and genera* 
debility. 

Sweet Flag or Calimus — Acorus Calimus, 
Grows in marshy situations, and in shallow water, 
and may he known by the long sword-shaped leaves, 
Milling those'of the blue and yellow flags, but 
narrower, and of a brighter green. The root is 
like that of the blue flags in appearance, but has a 
strong aromatic smell, and a warm pungent taste. 
The flavor is greatly improved by drying. 

The root possesses stomach virtues, and is fre- 

iiy grated into water, and given to children for 

flatulent colics, (ree of fever. It is sometimes used 

as an ent with dogwood bark, cherry bark, 

Miry, &c. in morning bitters, as a preventive of 

the ague in low marshy situations. 

Colt's F opt — Asarum Canadensz, 
Grows about eight inches high in moist situations, 
icing yellow flowery, early in the spring, which 
ir before the leaves. These aa^soon succeed- 
ed by large roundish leaves, which have a bitterish 
mucilaginous taste. The root has a bitterish and 
very spicy taste, something resembling the Virgin- 
ia-snake root, and ginger. 

It is said a deroction of the leaves and flowers, 
two hardluls to a quart of water, with or without 
milk, taken freely, is serviceable in coughs, con- 
ptions, diarrhoeas, and dropsical complaints. 
The leaves powdered line, and used as snuff", re- 
es giddiness and obstructions of the head. 

Pennyroyal — Mentha Pulegium. 
A n infusion, a handful to a quart ot boiling water, 
>. t, i cuplul the dose three times a-day, has long 
. esteemed in hysteric complaints and obslruc- 



i iQ The Family Physician. 

lions of the menses. It is said, that the expressed 
juice of pennyroyal, with a little sugar or honey, a 
tea cupful every two or three hours, is a us*eful me-.. 
dicine in the whooping cough. 



Red Pepper or Cayenne — Capsicum. 
It is cultivated in our gardens; and is a powerful. 
Stimulant, and has been found beneficial in chronic 
rheumatism. — Those who are subject to flatulence 
will find benefit by using it with vegetables and 
soup. In cases of violent pain or cramp in the ?lo 
mach, no medicine is superior to a strong infusion of 
red pepper, one or twopcds to half a pint of spirits, 
in dose from half to a wine-glassful. It is al.o use- 
ful, both as a medicine and gargle, in pu!rid sore 
throat, when infused in water. Steeped in spirits 
and applied warm to the extremities in chronic 
rheumatism, or low stages of nervous fever, when 
the circulation is languid, it has produced the mGst 
happy effects. 

Raspberry — Id cms. 
Like the rest of the rich sub-acid fruit when ripe 
are wholesome and nourishing. Rasberries as well 
as strawberries, held in the mouth, will dissolve 
tartarous concretions on the teeth. 



Queen of the Meadows — Eupalorium Purpureum, 
Called also trumpet weed, gravel weed, &c. 
grows in hedges, and on the sides of meadows, about 
four feet high; the stalk reddish, leaves long, spear- 
shaped, from three to five round the stalk, opposite 
each other, flowers purple. The leaves have .-im- 
ilar properties to thorough-wort, and are considera- 
bly weaker and less liable to vomit and purge. A 
large handful of the roots boiled in three pints of 
water to a quart, and given in doses of a tea-cupful 
every two hours, is an excellent remedy in sup- 
pression of urine, bloody urine, and gravel. It 
strengthens the urinary organs, and weakness of 



The Family Physician. 1 37 

these parts generally; and is good in carrying off 
the water in dropsy. 

Crane's Bill — Geranium Maculatum. 
This plant is by some? improperly called crow 
foot. It grows five or six inches high in meadows 
and woods, has Jong slender stalks, with seven long 
narrow leaves at a joint. The root is crooked 
and knotted, blackish on the outside and redish 
within, hasa rough taste with an aromatic flavor. 

When applied externally, it is highly extolled for 
its styptic power, in stopping hemorrhages of wound- 
ed vessels. The powdered root in dose6 of a tea- 
spoonful three or lour times a-day, or a decoction in 
milk, used as a common drink, is excellent in check- 
ing immoderate menstrual discharges, also the 
whites and gleets, and obstinate diarrhoea. 

The following account of the efficacy of crane's 
bill, as stated by Dr. Mease, in the Medical Muse- 
um, deserves the attention o.f the reader: 

The son of Mr. David Cooper, near Woodbury, 
partially divided the artery at the wrist with the 
point of a hatchet in trimming a tree; the wound 
bled profusely, and an aneurismatic tumor of the 
size of a pullet's egg was quickly formed. Doctor 
Hendry, who was immediately called, applied a 
tourniquet, and also a fiat piece of lead to the tumor, 
and apprehending that the usual operation wodld 
be necessary, requested the assistance of Dr. Wm. 
Shippen from Philadelphia. On the arrival of that 
gentleman, the operation was resolved on; when 
the lather of the young man insisted upon the trial 
of a vegetable remedy, which he said he had learn- 
ed the use of from one of the aborigines of our 
o mtry. He immediately repaired to the woods, 
and returned will, 5 orne of" the specific, which was 
pounded in a mortar with a little cojd water, and ap- 
plied to md in a short time, to tne grc-it 
sufferer and his friends, checked 
ae tourniquet was left on asa pre. 
u2 



}38 The Family Physician. 






cautionary measu-e, but fortm ati Iv no occasion of- 
fered for using it. In tne course of a lew days the 
wound healed and the young man had no further 
trouble. 

A man in pruning a tree, divided the stout mus- 
cles of the fore arm in an oblique direction; the 
wound was full four inches in length, and bled pro- 
fusely from a large artery, and numerous smaller 
vessels. His shirt-sleeve was filled with blood; for 
being made tight round his wrist and fore arm, it 
prevented the blood from escaping, and forming a 
coagulum round the bleeding orifice, checked for a 
short time a further effusion. 

The powerful effects produced by the geranium 
in the former case, induced Dr. Hendry to apply it 
in the present; accordingly he procured some of the 
roofs, and after washing and pounding them, filled 
the wound therewith: the effect upon the smaller 
vessels was almost instantaneous in checking (he 
effusion of their consents, and the bleeding in a 
short lime entirely ceased; and although, as in the 
former case, the tourniquet was very properly Buf- 
fered to remain, yet no occasion offered for using it. 

Ai other ease occurred of a wound in (he ankle 
from a scythe, which had bled so profusely as (o 
cause the man to faint; but on the application of the 
geranium, it ceased in a short time. 
' In the instance of a violent vomiting of blood, 
which had resisted a variety of remedies, an infu- 
sion cj" the plant in water, produced the desired ef- 
fect in a few minute.-. 

In consequence of the virtues of the geranium 
having been so often experienced about Woodbury 
in cases of hemorrhage, the inhabitants have been 
induced to cultivate it in their gardens; and it 
would be well if their example were folio/wed by 
every one in the country; for though Providence 
has diffused the valuable plant over every part of 
our country, yet as it grows principally in Ihe woods 
and the accident it is intended tocure mni 



The Family Physician. 1 39 

no delay, and often happens in winter when the 
plant cannot be found, it should be transferred to 
every garden, that it may be at hand when needed. 

Ergot, or Spurred Rye — Secale Cornulum. 
Rye is subject to a disease, in low wet situations, 
or when a hot summer succeeds a rainy spring. 
Tlx' spurious substance called ergot, is found pro- 
jecting from among the leaves of the spike or car; 
it is a long crooked excrescence, resembling the 
spur ol a cock, pointed at the extremity, of a dark 
brown color externally, and white within. Some 
spikes are wholly occupied by spurs, while others 
have onlj two or three, interspersed with genuine 
seeds of rye. 

This extraordinary substance possesses consider- 
able medicinal properties. In lingering and labo- 
rious cases in child-bed, it acts as an invaluable 
medicine, speedily inducing forcible pains, and ex- 
pediting delivery It is given in the form of pow- 
der in doses of from five to fifteen grains, but it has 
sometimes been found more active in the form of 
decoction, prepared by gently boiling thirty grains 
of I lie powder in half a pint of water, of.whicit one 
third may be taken every twenty minutes, until 
proper pains have commenced. 

It is proper, however, to caution domestic prae- 
titionei'8 against employing this powerful medicine 
in cases of preternatural, or everi in every case of 
natural presentation. The powerful and continued 
efforts of the uterus, from the effects of the ergot, 
prevent the retreat of tho child's, head, alter being 
advanced, and the unceasing pressure in some in- 
stances, occasions the death of the child. Let this 
circumstance, therefore, have its due effect, and 
:e the utmost precautions in the administration 
nwerful article. 
This medicine has also been successfully employ- 
ed inca ructed menses, or monthly ev 



j 40 The Family Physician* 

Fever Bush, or Wild Allspice — Dumus Febris, 

Grows in meadows and swamps, and generally 
rises five or six feet high, leaves numerous and 
somewhat spear-shaped ; the blossoms rather of a 
reddish color; the berries are of a blood red, and 
of a pleasant smell. 

A handful of the twigs of this bush, infused in a 
quail of boiling water,and given in doses of a tea- 
cupful every hour or two, is extremely cooling and 
beneficial in fevers. 

A handful of the berries infused in a quart of 
spirits, forms a pleasant bitter. 

The powdered bark is also an excellent remedy 
hr worms. 



Mouth Root, or Golden thread — JYigelia, 
Is found in swamps; the stems erect and naked; 
the leaves grow by threes at the termination of 
the stems; the white solitary blossoms appear in 
May, the roots are thread-shaped, and of a bright 
yellow color. 

This plant is very efficacious, as a local applica- 
tion, in ulcerations of the mouth. Either alone or 
combined with spices, it may be used in the secon- 
dary stages of low fevers, in chronic weakness of 
the stomach, and in almost every case where 
strengthening remedies are proper. Its effects are 
similar to Gentian, Colombo, Quasia, &c It may 
be prepared either in spirits or made into strong 
tea. It is likewise good in substance, but is not 
easily reduced to powder. 



Lily of the Valley — Convallaria Majalis. 
The extract of the root of this article, both ii> 
sensible properties, and medicinal qualities, r< 
ble Aloes. It may be used in those cases to which 
Aloes is adapted, and in similar doses. 



Mistletoe of the Oak — Vkcum^ 
2s an evergreen, growing along the Ohio <■ 



The Family Physician* 1 41 

below the falls. Mistletoe is found on several 
kinds of tree?. That which grows on the oak has 
been taken witli success in epilepsy or fits. It is 
directed that the mistletoe be separated from the 
oak, about the last of Novembei, gradually dried, 
and when pulverized, confined in a bottle well 
corked; to be given in doses of a tea-spoonful three 
or four times a day, gradually increasing the dose 
according to its effects. 

Arrow Root — Maranta Aurundinacea, 
Is cultivated in the Southern States. A table- 
spoonfui makes a pint of the finest jelly in nature, 
which affords the most nutricious food for children 
in acute diseases. To persons labouring under 
lowel complaints, as diarrhoea and dysentery, it is 
of.itselfa remedy. 

The jelly is made in the following manner — To 
a table-spoonful of the powdered root, add as much 
cold water as will make it into a thin paste, and 
then pour on boiling water through the -pent of a 
kettle, stirring it at the same time briskly, till it be- 
comes a clear jelly; after which season it with su- 
gar and nutmeg, and to render it still more palata- 
ble, a little wine or lemon juice may be added. — 
But to children, blending it with new milk is best , 



Dog Wood — Cornvs Florida. 

The bark of this famous tree, which may well be 
termed the cinchona or Peruvian bark of North 
America, possesses, like that, all those tonic pow 
ers, which give it such admirable control over ir. 
termittents, gangrene, and all diseases proceeding 
from debility. 

It may be given in powder, or in the form of tea, 
made by boiling or steeping. Unless it is dry, and 
about a year old, it will sometimes offend the stom- 
al h. The shape, however, in which it will be 
found most agreeable, is that of an extract, which 
is easily prepared by boiling the bark, straining it^ 



442 The Family Physicia 

and then evaporating it very slowly to the consist- 
ence of honey. To prevent the fatal effects of 
burning it, the vessel in which it is evaporated 
should be of the wide-mouth sort, placed in a large 
pot of boiling water, and otten stirred towards the 
close of the operation. 

T3ie do=e is from a half to a whole lea spoonful, 
three or four times a day. The beautiful red ber- 
ries of dogwood, combined with lemon-peel, snake- 
root, calimus, or any other warm aromatic seeds, 
form a fine bitter against the common fall com- 
plaints. A strong tea made of the flowers, is a 
pleasant substitute for that of red-rose leaves. 



Fever Rooi, or Dragon's Claw, 
Grows upon mountains and the sides of hills; 
about six or seven inches high; the leaves grow in 
clusters from the top of (he root, spear-shaped ; 
blossoms yellow; the root black about the size of 
cloves, very tender, resembling the claws of the 
animal whose name it bears. When it is pulver- 
iz d and exposed to the air it wilt liquify. 

The root in the form of powder, in doses of a 
tea spoonful or in the form of decoction, a handful 
to a quart of water in doses of a tea-cupful everj 
hour, is esteemed an excellent medicine in bilious 
fever, pleurisy, colds, St. Anthony's Fire, and oth- 
er febrile diseases. 

Yarrow, or Mi II foil — Achillea Millefolium, 
Grows in dry pastures and along the sides offences, 
about a foot high ; leaves pointed, flowers white, 
tinged with a little purple beneath; and has a bit- 
ter spicy taste. The expressed juicels strength- 
ening and carminative. It is useful in ii digestion, 
air in the stomach and bowels, hysterical and spas- 
modic complaints, &c. The recent plant is better 
thai the dry. The liesh roots .vc the proper- 
ties >f the contrayerva of the shops. A tablespoon: 
ful of the expressed juice taken twice a day, ancb 



The Family Physician* 143 

the lierb bruia .!, or in the foim oi a poultice, is said 
to have cured a cancer of the breast. The green 
leaves pounded, and applied over a bruise, dissi- 
pates it in a lew dajs. 

Sweet Violet — Viota Odorala, 
Is cultivated in our gardens; leaves heart shaped, 
notched; flowers deep purple, odoriferous. 

A tea-spoonful of the powdered herb is a mild 
laxative. To children, a strong infusion or decoc- 
tion lormed into a syrup with molasses, honey, or 
sugar, in doses of a wine-glassful, will be more ac- 
ceptable. 



Wild Valerian — Valeriana Officinalis, 
Grows abundantly in the vicinity of the Ohio 
rivt'r. It rises two or three .feet high — the leaves 
in pairs, large, hairy, and of a dusky, green color; 
flowers stand in large tufts on the tops of the branch- 
es, of a pale whitish red color. 

The root, which is the part used in medicine, 
consists of a number of slender fibres, matted to- 
gether, and attached to one head, of a brown col- 
or, having a strong unpleasant smell. Valerian 
has long been recommended by the most learned 
physicians as a medicine of great use in nervous 
disorders;and is particular!) serviceable in hysteric 
cases, as well as in epilepsy, proceeding from a de- 
bility of the nervous system. It should be gives 
in doses of from one to two tea spoonfuls or more, 

•wder, two or three times a day. it seems 
must useful when given in substance, and large do- 
ses. There are four species of this plant, one male 
and three female; the male is mostly used, and 
grows in wet land; has a large cluster of fibrous 
roots, matted together and joined to a solid root, 
from which preceed several stalks about two feet 
high; flowers yellow, resembling a moccosin; its 
leaves somewhat resemble the poke leaf, but rough 

hairy, generally known by the country people 



144- Tlie Family p hysician. 

Hythe name of lady's slipper, from the shape ofthe 
flower. 

Garden Thyme— Thymus Vulgaris, 
Is one of the most powerful aromatic plants, and 
as such is frequently employed in the form ol tea, 
in those complaints where medicines of this class 
are indicated. 



Common Sumach— Rhus Copallmum. 

The berries or seeds, when ripe, are red and ve- 
ry acid. An infusion of them, sweetened "with 
honey, is a good gargle for the sore throat, and for 
cleansing the mouth in a putrid fever. 

The bark ofthe root oi the sumach is considered 
as one ofthe best anti-ceptics produced b) vtgcta- 
tion. Corroding ulcers defying every common ap- 
plication, immediately begin to heal by washing 
them with a strong decoction and applying the boil- 
ed bark as a poultice. It is also a very important 
material in decoctions for hectic and scrofulous dis- 
eases. It is a specific in the venereal disease. — 
(See venereal disease.) 

Rattle, or Seneca Snake Root—Pollygala Senega, 
Grows nearly a foot high, the leaves pointed, and 
somewhat oval; the stalks upright and branched, 
the flowers white; the root variously bent and joint- 
ed, whence it is supposed to resemble the tail of 
the animal whose name it bears. 

In violent colds, croup, pleurisy, acute rheuma- 
tism, and all inflammatory complaints, it is an admi- 
rable medicine to promote perspiration. The best 
form of using it is in decoction, a handful to a 
quart of boiling water, a wine-glassful to adults, 
every two or three hours, increasing or lessening 
the quantity to avoid vomiting and purging. 

It is also recommended in obstructions of the 
menses; four ounces ofthe decoction to be taken in 

the course ofthe dny, increasing the quantity when 



The Family Physician. I 4 ' 

the menstrual effort is expected, as far as the stom 
ech will allow. If this excite nausea, aromatics are 
to be added, as cinnamon, calamus, and angelica. 

In various forms of dropsy, the Seneca root ha? 
been considered as highly serviceable. Its cathar- 
tic and diuretic effects are very considerable, when 
persevered in, in large quantities; and have, in ma 
ny instances, effected the dissipation of dropsica 

swellings. 

Peppermint — Mentha Piperita, 

Is an excellent stomachic in flatulent colics, Ian 
.^uors, hysteric cases, and vomiting. The usual 
modes of administering it, are infusion, the distil- 
led water, and the essential oil. This last, united 
with rectified spirits of wine, forms the essence of 
peppermint,- so highly esteemed. 

In nausea, cholera morbus, obstinate vomiting, 
and griping, peppermint, infused in spirits, and ap- 
plied as hot as can be endured, to the stomach and 
bowels, will be found a most valuable remedy. 

Wild Potato — Convolvulus Canduratus, 
Grows in low grounds and sandy soils, near run- 
ning water. — It trails along the ground several 
feet, much like a grape vine, the root very large, 
hard, and white, running very deep in the earth; 
the leaves triangular; the flowers are whitish, 
with a purple tinge, and hell-shaped. It is called 
wild rhubarb, and from the article whose name it 
bears, is employed as a purgative in doses from a 
tea to a table-spoonful of the powdered root. It 
is said the root in powder or decoction has been 
much recommended in Virginia, and other parts 
of the United States, in cases of gravel. The 
decoction is prepared by boiling a handful of the 
root sliced or bruised in three pints of water to 
a qunrt, of which in gravel complaints, a tea cupfu! 
may be taken four or live times a-day. 
N 



?46 The Family Physician, 

Spikenard cr Wild Liquorice — Alalia Racemosa, 
Grows in low rich grounds and among rocks, to 
the height of three or /our feet; the leaves are ma- 
ny, on long branches, from a thick purpleish stalk, 
flowers very small, of a blucish color, producing 
berries much resembling those of the'elder, of a 
sweetish pleasant aromatic taste. The roots are 
very long, about the thickness of a tiiger. 

A pint of the berries steeped in a quart of spirits 
in doses of a wine glassful, is said to be a speedy 
cure for the gout in the stomach. The roots in the 
form of infusion, a handful to a quart of water, and 
given in doses of a tea-cupful three or four times a- 
day, have been found efficacious in gouty com- 
plaints. The fresh root applied in the form ofpoul- 
tice, is an excellent application for wounds or ul- 
cers. 



Maish Mallow — Althaea Officinalis, 
Grows in marshes and wet places. The leaves 
have a soft woolly surface, feeling like velvet. The 
flowers are of a white pale flesh color, and appear 
in August. 

Every part of the marsh mallow, and especially 
the root, when boiled, yields a copious mucilage, 
on account of which it is employed in emollient ca» 
taplasms or poultices, for softening and maturing 
hard tumors. It is likewise of eminent service ia 
the form of infusion, in asthma, hoarseness, dysen- 
tery and gravel. 

Heart's Ease, or Herb Trinity — Flepatica Triloba, 
Grows generally in corn-fields, producing white 
and yellow blossoms, intermixed with purple, which 
flower from May to September; leaves moderately 
astringent. 

A decoction of a handful of the fresh leaves, or 
half the quantity of the dried, in a pint of milk, 
used daily for some weeks, is a certain remedy for 
that disorder in children, called milkscab, or that 



Tfic FamVy Physician. 14T 

species ofscajd head Ivhicli affects the faces of chil- 
dren. It is also recommended in cases of disorder- 
ed stomach and liver. 



Lichen, or Lungwort — Lichen, 
Is a thin shell or skin which grows on the bark of 
ihe white oak tree, resembling the lungs, from 
whence its name. 

It is said to possess the same qualities as the Ice- 
land moss, or lichen, so celebrated in tne cure of 
consumption. 

An infusion, a handful to a quart of boiling wa- 
used as a common drink, or a strong decoction 
formed into syrup, with honey or sugar, may be ta- 
ken in doses of a wine glassful three or four times 
a -da v. It is also a useful medicine in the whooping 
gh. 

Pink Root — Spigehn Marcdandica, 
Grows abundantly in the Southern States, and is 
deservedly esteemed a vermifuge, or destroyer of 
worm?. An infusion, a handful to a quart of boiling 
water, and one or two tea-cupfuls night and morn- 
ing, is the usual form and dose. With the addition 
of milk and sugar, children will take it almost as 
readily as their tea. It sometimes occasions disa- 
greeable affections of the eyes; when this occurs, 
suspend the use of the medicine until these symp- 
toms disappear, and then select from another par- 
cel, or make tea of the tops only, as it is supposed 
deleterious effects are in consequence of seme 
i' root bring attached to it. 
Pink root is also a valuable medicine in fevers, as 
is verified daily, when given to children in a febrile 
state whore no other effect was produced than a 
loss of fever. 



Snake Head, or Balmony— Chclonc Glabra, 
■ ■■ in moist meadow-, and by (he side of 
brooks, between two and three feet high ; the leaves 



148 The Family Physician. 

are of a dark green, of a sweetish bitter taste, re- 
sembling mint; the stalk is four square; it has a 
white blossom resembling a snake's head with the 
mouth open, from whence it has its name. 

This plant is a good strengthening remedy. It 
may be used in the form of strong tea made by steep- 
ing or boiling. It is proper in cases of indigestion, 
loss of appetite, and weakness in general. 

Rag-Weed — Ambrosia Elatior, 
Called also bitter-weed, Roman-worm-wood, and 
iron-weed. The whole of this plant has a bitter dis- 
agreeable taste, but in the form of a strong tea, it ie 
useful in nervous and hysteric affections, and in af- 
terpains. Combined with sassafras root bark 
mads bio a p^ijlic.?, aad applied to xhv neck, to- 
gether with a strong tea of the herb, is an excellent 
remedy for the quinsey. It promotes perspiration, 
and is composing and strengthening. It should be 
drank freely. 

Thorn-apple — Datura Stramonium, 
Called also Jamestown weed, jimson, apple Peru, 
stink-weed, &c. grows plentifully in this country, 
along the sides of roads and fences. Taken inward- 
ly it is a severe poison — but on extracting its mucil- 
aginous matter, the juice from the leaves and stalks, 
>he extract has an effect upon the system of man, or 
beast, peculiarly efficacious. It may be termed the 
vegetable mercury, for its effects are very similar 
to those of mercury, without any of those bad ones 
produced by that powerful metallic preparation. 
It is certainly a great purifier of the blood; it heals 
generally with quickness and correctness; to sprains 
and all scrofulous humors, it is an admirable appli- 
cation — and affections of the lungs, may no doubt 
be removed, if it is rubbed into the system in time. 
It will generally give relief to chronic rheumatism, 
and no doubt, a cancerous system may also be re 
Heved by it. 



The Family Physician. \4d 

To obtain the extract, collect at any time before 
the frost, one pound of the leaves and stems; cut 
them up, and add one pound of lard, and about the 
same quantity of sweet oil, stew it on the (ire until 
the vegetable becomes soft as done greens; then get 
all you can by squeezing it through a linen cloth. 
The contents squeezed out is ready for application 
to the part affected. It muA be well rubbed in. 
Persons using it should be careful to avoid expos- 
ure to cold; it is a good plan to cover the part af- 
fected with flannel. The preparation will keep any 
length of time and have its effects. 

Scull Cap, or Hooded Widow Herb — Scutellaria 
Laterajlora. 
This herb is found in abundance on the banks of 
rivers, and on the borders of ponds, flowering in Ju- 
ly and August. The stem is square, branched, and 
grows from one to three feet high ; the branches and 
leaves opposite, leaves narrow pointed, on long foot-- 
stalks; the blossoms small, of a violet color, inter- 
mixed with small leaves. The pod is hooded, from 
whence it obtained the name scull-cap, or scutella' 
ria. 

The leaves should be gathered when In full 
bloom, carefully dried without exposure to rain or 
moisture, ground to a fine powder, and put up in 
bottles well corked. In this manner it may be pre- 
served in its pure and native state for many years. 
A strong tea of this herb, takerr in doses of a gill 
three or four times a-day, is highly recommended 
for the bite of a mad dog, taking at the same timea 
spoonful of sulphur in the morning and evening of, 
v other da). 



Sor rel — Oxalis Acetosella. 

It is also called sour tree foil or cuckoo bread. It 

i expression,.a grateful acid juice, which 

i is been beneficially used in scurvy and scorbutic 

►tions. An infusion of the leaves makes a pal- 



ibyj The Fatuity Phystcian t 

citable diet-drink in fevers; and on being boiled u 
milk, forms an agreeable whey A conserve made 
of the leaves, with double their weight of loaf su- 
gar, forms an excellent substitute for lemons, and 
may be given with advantage, in all putrid and oth- 
er fevers, where anti-septics are indicated. The 
leaves bruised, and externally applied to scrofulous 
ulcers, have produced excellent effects, by promo- 
ting suppuration and granulation. 

A handful of this herb wrapped in wet paper, 
roasted, mixed with sifted ashes, and formed into a 
poultice, is said to be an excellent remedy to re r 
move a soft wen. 



King's Evil Root, 

Grows in plains, and sandy, gravelly lands, froms 
six to twelve inches high, very much resembling 
cockle, blossoms in May, a single one to a stalk, of a 
beautiful yellow color. The root grows deep in the 
ground, about the siz ■ of a large goose-quill — from 
six to ten inches long, of a dark color on the outside 
and whitish within, with small fibrous red veins run- 
ning through them, and when broken and rubbing 
the ends on the finger nail, it will stain it redy 
When dried and powdered it is of a bright red co- 
lor. 

An ointment made by mixing a large quantity of 
the powdered root with a small quantity of sheep's 
?ne(, and applied cold, is an excellent remedy hr 
the king's evil or scrofula, where it is broke. It 
should be applied twice in twenty-four hours, 
king usp at the same time of the burdock tea as rec- 
ommended in the recipes, wjhich see. 

Black Snake Weed., or Rattle Snake's Muster. 
This herb is to be found on ri>:li hill sides, grow- 
ing from one to two feel high. Sometimes there are 
two i ■ -ta'ks fiprn the same root, brani 

towai ; d bearing a small burr, which, 

•a dark bn vn color, and divide- 



The Family Physn lot 

three parts about the size of a buckwheat grain, 
smooth and flat on the inside, and in shape very 
much resembles a bed-hug. Ttie leaves resemble 
strawberry leaves, but are much larger The root 
is fibrous, black on the outside and white within- 
There is another species growing like this, but it is 
something larger, the roots white, and not so strong. 
This has ;ilso been used, but is not so efficacious. 

A handful of the roots pounded and boiled in ^i 
quart of new milk, and a good draught taken several 
times a day, together with some of the roots thus 
boiled, applied to the wound, having previously 
scarritied il wilh a lancet or knife, is said toe ure any 
poisonous snake bite. If the root cannot be obtain- 
ed soon aftei the person is bit it will sometimes be 
necessary to use it tor. several days. 

Common Ave ns, 
Grows a foot high, about fences and borders of 
fields. The blossoms are white or yellowish in Ju- 
ly; its smell resembles that ol cloves. A strong 
tincture of the root, two handfuls steeped in a 
quart of spirits, given in the quantity of half a 
wine glassful; or the powder, in doses of a lea- 
spoonful several times a day, has afforded an ex- 
cellent remedy in intermittent?, and other disor- 
ders where strengthening remedies arc requisite* 
There is another variety of this plant, called water 
avens, throat root, and cure all, which is to be 
fou 'd in boggy meadow?. The blossoms are pur- 
pleish, and appear in May. Its properties are the 
same as the preceding. A decoction of it is benefi- 
cial as a gargle in ulcerated sore throats, which 
probably gave rise to the name of throat root of 
tbroat \\ ort. 



Beth Root) 
Grows in meadows, abou a ot high,leavesoval, 
he top of each stalk; o e (lower 

pie coi;»r, bel! shaped, producing a small. ! 



Tti>2 The Family Physician* 

which contains the seed; the root of a brown color 
externally, bulbous, and full of small fibres. The 
powder of the root, in doses of one tea-spoonful two 
or three times a day, is exceedingly useful in spit- 
ting of blood, immoderate discharge of the menses, 
or in cases of discharging bloody urine. It is also 
a good application in the form of poultice, to pu- 
trid ulcers, and to obviate gangrene or mortifica- 
tion. 



Broomrcpe, 
Grows spontaneously in the western part of the 
United States; and rises six or eight inches high, of 
a brown color, brittle sprigs, but no leaves; the 
root is bulbous. It is generally found under the 
shade of the beach tree, hence it is sometimes call- 
ed beech drops, but more generally cancer root. — 
Every part of this plant is considerably astringent, 
and along with the astringency-, especially in the re- 
cent plant, there is combined a peculia" and ex- 
tremely nauseous bitterness. It has been celebra- 
ted as a remedy in dysentery, but its principal rep- 
utation is in cancerous affections. The powder of 
cancer root has been of great service, externally 
applied to obstinate ulcers, some of which had re- 
sisted all the ordinary applications. The fresh 
bruised roots have also been applied with good ef- 
fects to cancerous sores. In the form of decoction 
it has been found useful as a wash for gallings in 
warm weather, or excoriating of the skin. It is 
also esteemed a good application in cases of St. 
Anthony's fire. 



Red Chick weed — Annvgallis Phtvicca, 
Called also red pimpernel, and guach-hul, is cul- 
tivated in man) gardens, and grows spontaneously 
near Baltimore and Havre de Grace. According 
to the deposition of Valentine Ketterieg to the 
legislature of Pennsylvania, and report made by 
their committee, the red chick-weed is. a specific. 



The Family Physician. 1 53 

in that most dreadful of all diseases, the Hydro- 
phobia, or bite of a mad dog. The dose for ao 
adult is a small table-spoonful of the dried leaves 
in powder. For brutes the dose is much larger. 

Female Fern, or Back ach Brake, 
Grows near ponds, and in moist pastures, about 
twelve inches high. The leaves are single, winged 
and about the size of a goose quill, of a brown col- 
or, very sweet, and of a mucilaginous taste. 

A quart of a strong decoction of the roots, and a 
pint of honey, formed into a syrup by gentle sim- 
mering, a i f« (idle spoonful eve- 

ry hoar or two, is highly beneficial in all violent 
jhst 

is said that three parts of the roots of this 
plant, and one part of'sumish root, boiled elowly 
in any kind of spirits, until it becomes slimy, and 
then Hpplied warm to she spine, has frequ-'S'y re« 
lievcd the back ach; hence the v vie back- 

rake. It is also employed as a remedy for 
ickete in children. 

Garlic, 
Is highly stimulating, and therefore useful to per- 
sons of cold phlegmatic constitutions. It provokes 
ippetite, assists digestion, n moves flatulence, 
promotes expectoration and urine, and hence has 
long been used in scurvy, asthma, and dropsy. It 
is said, in cases of deafness, a small clove of the 
root, wrapped in gauze, cotton, or wool, moistened 
with the juice, and introduced into the ear, has fre- 
quently proved an efficacious remedy, wheu re- 
pealed twice or thrice a-day. 

Goose Grass, 

Called by some 'poor robin's plantain', from its 

efficacy in curing the gravel. Grows in hedges, 

low grounds, and near brooks, to the height of five 

or six feet, climbing on the bushes near it. The up- 



154 The j cian. 

per side of the leaves are white, will) s ; > a r p priikleS' 
the flowers sm ill a!;d divid".l into four segments: 
these change into a fruit rath) r large, composed of 
two berries slightly adhering together, and cover- 
ed with hooked prickles, containing two seeds. — 
The leaves in the form of decoction, a handful to a' 
quart of water, are highly celebrated as a remedy 
in gravel complaints, and suppression of urine, in 
doses of a tea-cupful every hour or two, until re- 
lieved. It has also been recommended in the cure 
of scurvy, spitting of blood, and epilepsy, or fits. 



Ground Holly — Pyrote Umbellate* 
It is sometimes called pipsissewav, which is its 
Indian appellation. 

This herb grows on hilly poor land where il 
stony, It is an evergreen, and grows from 
three to six inches high; has a'nurnber of dark ■ 
leaves, with whftish streaks through them. The 
leaves are about half'an inr-h wide, and from rno to 
two inches long, with a scolloped edge; bears a lit- 
tle brown seed on (lie top, resembling allspice. — 
The top- and roots are used lor medicine. The 
roots when chewed are very pungent, which will be 
ielt for several hours on the tongue. A strong tea 
made of this plant is good for cancers and all scrofu- 
lous humors, by drinking freely of the tea, and ba- 
thing with it the pails alio ted. It is also highly, 
recommended in rheumatic complaints. 

Hogbed, or Hogweed, 
Grows near farm yards, and on stony soils, likr- 
moss, about three inches high. The leaves are of 
a deep green color, small and curly. The hogs 
delight to make their bed on it, from whence it de- 
rive- its name. A handful of this plant infused in a 
quart of boiling water, and given in do*es of a tea- 
cupful three or four times a day, is a popular reme- 
dy among women to promote the menses or c.our?- 
ea. 



The Family Physician. 15S 

Life Root, 

Grows on the borders of meadows, about two 
feet high ; leaves large, aid saw-edged ; flowers yel- 
low, and the roots small and fibrous. 

An infusion of this plant, a handful to a quart of 
boiling water, taken in doses of a tea-cupful five or 
six times a day, is said to be an excellent remedy 
for the gravel. 

Mandrake, or May apple, 

Grows on low ground*, one or two feet high; 
leaves generally three, broad at the base, and ter- 
minating in a sharp point; flowers yellowish; the 
fruit resembling a lime or small yellow apple, which 
is much admired by some. 

The root is an excellent purgative, and may be 
taken in doses of from ten to thirty grains in sub- 
stance, or double the quantity infused in a gill of 
water. Dr. Little, of Pennsylvania, esteems it 
preferable to Jalap. The hon. Paul Hamilton, 
who often used it, directs equal parts of the juice 
and molasses to be mixed, and a table spoonful ta- 
ken every hour or two until it operates. 

The best time of gathering the May-apple, for 
medicinal purposes, is in autumn, when the leaves 
have turned yellow, and are about falling off. 

The Indians dry it in the shade, and powder k 
for use. It is also highly recommended in curing 
epileptic fits. [See Receipt. 

Mid or Silk Weed, 

Grows by the road sides, and on sandy ground, 
about three feet high; the stalk square; leaves oval, 
and milky; flowers yellow, and terminating in a 
pod resembling a cucumber, filled with down, which 
when ripe, is blown away. 

A handful of the root boiled slowly in a quart of 
water for half an hour, and given in doses of a gill 
or more three or four times a day, is reputrd to be 
an effectual remedy in the care of the dropsy, and 



156 'fhe Family Physician, 

serviceable in catarrhs, scrofulous and rbeumatu 
disorder.-, and gravel complaints. 



Mulberry Tree — Morus, Nigra et Alba. 

Its truit has the common quality of all other 
sweet fruits, quenching thirst, abating heat, and 
proving laxative in its effects. A syrup made of 
the juice of the fruit, serves as an excellent gargle 
for mitigating inflammation of the throat and ul- 
cers of the mouth. 

The bark of the root of the black mulberry tree, 
in doses of thirty grains, or halt a tea-spoonful of 
the powder, ordouble the quantity infused in a gill 
or half a pint of boiling water, or equal parts of a 
strong decoction and molasses, formed into a syrup, 
in doses of a wine-glassful, is an excellent purgative, 
arid has been used witli success as a worm medicine, 
particularly for the tape worm. 

Mullein — Verbascum. 

The leaves, a handful to a quart of milk, is a 
common remedy in bowel complaints. 

In the form of fomentation or poultice, it is em- 
ployed to relieve painful swellings; and in a dry and 
pulverized state, to destroy fungus or proud flesh. 

The seeds are highly recommended in the asth- 
ma; for a preparation of them see asthma, page 67 c 

Mustard, Black and White. 
Mustard used with our food, provokes the appe- 
tite, assists digestion, and promotes the fluid secre- 
tions, and is especially adapted to persons of weak 
stomachs, or where much acid prevails, as it acts 
upon the system generally without producing much 
heat. A table spoonful of prepared mustard in a 
pint of warm water, on an empty stomach, operates 
as an emetic in nervous disorders. A table-spoon- 
ful of the unbruised seed taken twice or thrice a- 
day, proves a gentle laxative, increases the urinary 
discharges, and is useful in chronic rheumatism, pal- 



i r, e Family i 'hysician. 1 57 

sy, and dropsy. In languid constitutions, or low 
st iges of levers, a gill ot the seeds mixed with a 
small handful of horse radish, and infused in a quart 
of wine, in doses of a wine-glassful occasionally, is a 
most cordial stimulant. 

Another excellent form in which mustard may 
be taken, is that oi whey. It is prepared by boil- 
ing two or three table-spoonfuls 0/ the seeds bruis- 
ed, in half a pint of milk, and as much water, until 
the curd be perfectly separate d, <o which a little 
sugar may be added, and of this drink, a tea cupful 
may be taken three or four times a day, in nervous 
fevers. 

The powder of the seeds, mixed with the crumbs 
of bread or flour, and formed, into a poultice with 
sharp vinegar, is an excellent application to the 
parts affected with rheumatism, and to the soles of 
the feet and palms of the hands, in fevers, where 
there is a languid circulation, or cold extremities, 
or in cases of delirium. 



Mezereon, 

Called also Spurge Laurel, Dwarf Bay, grows 
plentifully in woods and shady places near the Ohio, 
and flowers in the month of February or March. — 
The fruit is a berry, in which is found a single seed. 
The leaves aYe spear-shaped, and the flowers grow 
of a beautiful red or rose color. 

The bark of the root of this plant is the part used 
as medicine, and has an extremely acrid, burning 
taste in the mouth and fauces. Dr. Witheiing as- 
serts, that a patient who lived under extreme diffi- 
culty of swallowing for three years, was effectually 
cured in two months, by chewing the root as often 
as she could support its irritating effects. The fresh 
root scraped, and applied to the surface of the skin, 
affords an efficacious blister. When taken intern- 
all> it determines to the surface, and has been found 
greatly serviceable in rheumatism and obstinate 
cutaneous diseases. Its principal use, however, is 
O 



158 The Family Physician. 

in the venereal disease, in ihc last stage, or when 
mercury has failed. (M;irk this.) It is particular- 
ly efficacious in relieving nocturnal pains, and re- 
moving venereal nodes. One gill to a half pint of 
the decoction, made of two drachms, or a handful 
ot t he bark, with an equal quantity of the liquorice 
root, boiled in three pints of water to a quart, may 
be taken three or four times a-day. 

Plan lain — Plantago^ 
Has long been employed as an antidote against 
the bites of snakes, spiders, and other venomous in- 
sects. The juice, extracted from the whole of the 
plant, is generally given in doses of two table-spoon- 
fuls, every hour, or oftener, until the patient is re- 
lieved. It is sometimes given in conjunction with 
li'orehound or rue. The leaves bruised are consid- 
ered by some a good application to fresh wounds. 



Soapwort, 
Grows in moist swamps and meadows, particu- 
larly on the Ohio river. It is sometimes used as a 
substitute for soap. It rises about a foot high, the 
leaves are pointed, and furnished with three ribs, 
the flowers numerous, large, and of a pale pink co- 
lor. A handful of this plant, boiled in three pints 
of water to a quart, in doses of half a pint, three or 
four times a-day, has been found useiul in the pun- 
dice, obstructions of the liver, and the venereal dis- 



Sampson Snake Foot. 
Grows from six to twelve inches on drj land, and 
hears on the top two or three pale blue flowers; 
leaves opposite, sword shaped; the root mailed, va- 
riously bent, and has an agreeable bitter tasle. Up- 
on the respectable authority of the honorable Wil- 
liam Mayrant, of South Carolina, the root of this 
plant possesses, in a very great degree, tonic pow- 
ers. He stales that being himself reduced to a 



The Family Physician. 159 

mere skeleton, by dyspepsia, or indigestion, and 
having tried the U9ual remedies employed in such 
cases, without receiving any benefit, he was at 

length induced, as his last hope, to try the virtue 
of this plant, which had been recommended to him 
by a negro man. He was directed to steep a hand- 
ful of the root in a bottle of spiri(s,of which he was 
to take halfsa wine-glassful, diluted with water, 
three times a day; and such was the astonishing ef- 
fect wrought by this medicine, that in a few weeks 
bis health was perfectly reinstated. He discover- 
ed I he plant to grow near Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
and collected some of it to exhibit in Washington. 
Several persons in delicate health, and troubled 
with dyspepsia, were readily persuaded, from the 
recommendation of Col. Mayrant, to use of his fa- 
vorite remedy, and not without receiving considera- 
ble benefit. It may be taken in the form of pow- 
der, tincture, or decoction. 

Strawberry. 

The fruit of this plant is delicious, and being of a 
cooling and laxative nature, may be considered as 
medicinal. IHrecly eaten they impart their pecu- 
liar fragrance to the urine, and when retained in 
the mouth for some time, dissolve tartarous con- 
cretions on the teeth. They are of great service 
in cases'of scurvy, and according to Linnseus, a co- 
pious use of them has proved a certain prevent- 
ive of the stone in the kidneys. An infusion of 
strawberry leaves, while young and tender, makes 
excellent lea; but for such purpose they ought to 
be dried in the shade, being slightly bitter and styp- 
tic. They have been used with advantage in lax- 
ity and debility of the intestines, as likewise in hem- 
orrhages and other fluxes. Lastly, they are of 
considerable service as aperients, in suppression of 
jriue. visceral obstructions, and jaundice , 



160 The Family Physician. 

Sweet Violety 
Is cultivated in our gardens; leaves heart shaped, 
notched, (lowers deep purple, odoriferous. A tea- 
spoonful of the powdered herb is celebrated as a 
mild laxative. To children, a strong infusion or de- 
coction formed into s v rap with molasses, honey or 
sugar, in doses of a wine glassful, will be more ac- 
ceptable. m 

Water Cresses^ 
Grow in running brooks and wet ditches. The 
green herb, eaten as a vegetable, and the ext 
ed juice in doses of a table-spoonful two or thref 
times a day, is an effectual remedy for the scurvy. 



Onions — A Hum Crprt, 

Possesses similar virtues with the garlic, only io 
.1 less degree. The disagreeable smell which they 
impart to the breath may be effectually obviated, 
by eating a few leaves of parsley immediately after 
the onions. 

Onions are justly reputed an efficacious remedy 
in suppression of urine, in dropsies, and in abcess 
of the liver. The following exemplification of the 
virtue of onions in liver complaints, deserves the 
attention of the reader. 

Capt. Bureh,of the District of Columbia, was af- 
flicted with an abcess of the liver, deemed incura- 
ble by the physicians, and seeing some onions in the 
room, expressed a wish to eat one. Thinking his 
case desperate, and no longer a matter of conse- 
quence what he ate, his wife immediately gratified 
his appetite. After eating one or two onions, he 
found himself much better, which induced him fur- 
ther to indulge his appetite. He subsisted for sev- 
eral weeks entirely on onions, with only the addi- 
tion of a little salt and bread; and from using this 
diet he was restored to perfect health. This, with 
innumerable instances of a similar sort, ought to 
convince the young practitioner, that in the cure o£ 



'The Family Physician. lo'l 

this disease, nature ought always to be consulted, 
as she seldom or never errs. 

Upon the high authority ofour virtuous and able 
-man, the honorable William H. Crawford, 
onions externally applied, is an invaluable remedy 
in violent sore throats. He states that while at 
Paris, lie was afflicted with a violent sore throat, 
which did not yield to the usual remedies; he di- 
rected some onions to be beaten, and had them ap- 
plied to the soles of his feet and legs, over which 
his stockings were drawn. The happy result was, 
that he had a good night's rest, and in the morning 
found his throat entirely cured. He communicat- 
ed the cure wrought on himself to a French lady, 
who was greatly distressed with a sore throat, which 
induced her to make the experiment, and thg for< 
tunate result was very remarkable. 



Willow — Sulix. 

Professor Barton thinks that our willows possess, 
nearly the same virtues that have been ascribed to 
those of Europe, and that they might be substituted 
for the Peruvian bark. The bark of the white wil- 
low, smooth willow, and crack willow, so called 
from the remarkable bitterness of its branches, coi 
lected when it abounds with sap, has been success 
fully employed in intermittent or ague and fever, in. 
doses of one or two drachms. The bread-leafed 
willow is said to possess greater virtues than either 
of the above. This species may be distinguished 
by the shape of its ieaves from all others except tht». 
bay-leafed willow. The leaves of the latter are 
smooth and shining, and of a deeper green, and 
have not the downy appearance on the under sur- 
face which is so remarkable in this. It is found in 
woods and hedges, on hilly situations, and delight* 
in cold clayey moist grounds. 

A strong decoction of this bark resembles port 
wine in color. It is astringent to the taste, and some- 
what bitter. According to Dr. Wilkinson, it is a 
o2 



162 i'he Family FJiys, 

remedy of great efficacy in most cases where the 
Peruvian bark is indicated. He directs one ounce 
and a half of the barkto be infused in one quart of 
water for six hours, then boil it over a gentle tire 
for a quarter of an hour, and strain for use. Of this 
the ordinarj dose is a wine glassful three or tour 
times a-day. But in ague and fever, the dose may 
be repeated every third hour in the interval of the 



Virgin's Bower, 

Grows about two feet high, near ponds and low 
pastures; leaves opposite, in pairs, and terminated 
by <td odd one; the flowers somewhat resemble the 
appearance of feather tails. 

A small handful of the leaves infused in a quart 
of boiling wnter, and given in doses of a gill three 
times a-day, is said to be very beneficial in venere- 
al sores, or cutaneous eruptions of long standing, 
particularly if the sores are washed with the same. 
The bruised green leaves have been applied to ul- 
cers, as an escharotic, to destroy proud flesh. 



Poke Weed — Phytollaca Decandra. , 
It is known by a variety of names; as American 
night shade, coacum, garget, skoke, &c. The ber- 
ries steeped in spirits, have been long employed in 
the chronic rheumatism. It has, however, some- 
times failed, which may have been owing to the pe 
culiarity of constitution, or to the inertness of the 
tincture from age. From the authority of pr-ofesso? 
Barton, the juice of the ripe berries, inspissated to 
the stale of an extract, and spread upon a rag, or 
upon the leaf of tie plant, is an excellent applica- 
tion to scrofulous or indolent tumors. The juice of 
the Leaves iris been applied in the san*e manner 
equal advantage. An ointment of the leaves 
with lard is good in various kinds of ulcers. The 
roots, bruised, are sometimes applied to the hands. 
xn r \ feet of the patients in ardent levers. To a 



The Family Physician. 1 63. 

an extract, expose to moderate and continued heat, 
the juice ot the berries or leaves, until, by evapora- 
tion, it thickens to the consistence ot honey. It may 
aho be made from the loot which is equally effica- 
cious. Boil the roots for some time, strain the de- 
coction, aid then reboil it -to a thick consistence. 
Other virtues have been recently ascribed to this 
plant by respectable physicians. 

An infusion of the leaves is recommended exter- 
nally as an admirable remedy for. the piles One 
ounce ot the root steeped in a pint of wine, and giv- 
en in the quantity of two table-spoonfuls, is said to 
operate mildly as an emetic. It is also said that this 
plani may be relied on as an efficacious remedy for 
the venereal disease in its various, stages, even with- 
out the aid of mercury. 

It is a most valuable medicine in rheumatic and 
gouty affections, as also in nocturnal pain, and ob- 
stinate ulcerations in the venereal disea.-c, brought 
on by the excessive use of mercury. The usual 
form of exhibiting it is she tincture, a wine-glassful 
three times a-day. The tincture is prepared by fill- 
ing a jug with the whole berries when ripe, and 
then pouring as much spirits to them as the vessel, 
will contain. 

An ointment, prepared by simmering slowly the 
leaves or a handful of the root scraped in a pint of 
hog's lard, with a small portion of beeswax, has 
been used with great success in cancers, and vari- 
ous kinds of ulcers, 



Horehound — Marubrum Vulgar e. • 
It grows among rubbish, flowering from July to 
September. The leaves have a very bitter taste. 

An infusion or tea of the leaves sweetened, is a 
very common remedy for colds. A syrup prepared 
by simmering slowly for an hour* a pint of honey in 
a quart of a strong decoction of the plant, is an ex- 
cellent -medicine in coughs, or complaints ol 
breast, in doses of a table- spoonful every t\, 



lt>4 The Family Physician. 

three hours, or ofteru r, when the cough is very trou- 
blesome. I i like manner a candy prepared by sim- 
mering slowly half a pint of the juice with a pound 
of sugar, will be found equally serviceable. 

In the Southern States there is a plant, called 
wild horehound, growing to the height of one or 
two feet, of which a tea, prepnred by adding one or 
two handfuls of the fresh leaves, or half the quanti- 
ty of the dried to a quart of water, in doses of a g 11 
or more, every two or three hours, acts gently on 
the skin and bowels, and is used like the Peruvian 
bark as a tonic in the cure of ague, and bilious fe- 
ver. 



Flax-seed — Linum, 
Possesses great medicinal virtues. An infusion, 
or tea, is the most suitable drink for patrents labor- 
ing under violent colds, coughs, difficulty or burn- 
ing in making water. The flax seed syrup which 
is prepared by adding a pint of honey to a quart of 
strong tea, and simmering it away slowly by a gen- 
tle fire for an hour, observing to take off the scum 
as it rises, is a most valuable medicine in diseases 
of the breast and lungs, in doses from a tea to a ta- 
ble spoonful, every hour or two, or oftener when the 
cough is troublesome. The flax-seed bruised, also 
forms one of the best emolient poultices with which 
we are acquainted. 

Rarps Tongue. 

It grows among rocks and shady places; the 
leaves being of a shining black color, long, pointed, 
and tongue-shaped. 

This herb in the form ol infusion, a handful to a 
quart of boiling water, in doses of a tea-cupiul two 
or three times a day, is said to be a good remedy for 
the diarrhoea and dysentery; and in the form of 
ointment, prepared by simmering a handful oi the 
leaves in half- i pint or more of lari, is a good appli- 
cation to scalds and burns. 



The Family Physician. 1 6ti 

Maiden Hai r — Asplt nium Triehorkanes^ 
Called also nnikwaste, and spicenwort. It grows 
on old wails, rocks, and shady stony places, general- 
ly to the height of seven or eight inches; leaves fine 
and soft, and spotted underneath; stalks of a dark 
purple color; flowers from May to October. Us 
leaves have a mucilaginous sweetish taste without 
any peculiar odor. 

An infusion, by pouring a quart of boiling water 
on a handful of the dry herb sweetened with honey, 
and taken in the quantity of a tea cupful every hour 
or two, or a tea-spoonful in the form of syrup, is 
said to be good in tickling coughs, hoarseness, and 
disorders of the breast, pro< from acrid hu- 

mors in irregularities of the menses, and obslruc 
cions of the viscera. 



Squirrel Ear or Edge Leaf, 
This herb, according <o (he late Paul Hamilton, 
Esq. is produced on barren pine land, in C,n: 
and Georgia. It is a species of sage, and very effi- 
cacious as an antidote to the poison of the snake 
lt"is known by the remarkable charact i which 

forms its name; the leaf, instead of the surface, pre- 
its edge to the sun, and is in color and shape, 
very much like the ear of a squirrel, although larg- 
The stalk never rises beyond three feet, ajid 
Us leaves alternate and transverse. 

A wine-glassful of the juice of this plant has been 
known to rescue from death persons bitten by the 
rattlesnake, who were so f,r gone as to be incapa- 
ble of speaking. The flowers of this plant are white 
and fuzzy, and appear in every warm month of the 
year; the smell like that of melliot, with a slight 
tincture of the aromatic. 

Lady in the Bower, or Deil in the Hedge, v 
Gron-i in our gardens, from one to two fee! hij^h, 
flowers of a pale blue color, intermixed with fine 
leaves; the pod on the top resembles a star witt\ 
five points, 



16G The Family Physician. 

An infusion of this herb, a sm;i!l handful to a pint 
of boiling water, in doses of a tea-cupful every 
hour to an adult, is an infallible remedy lor the col- 
ic, children in proportion to their age. 1 would ad- 
vise every family to keep it constantly. 

Hemlock, Canadian Fir — Abies Canadensis. 

This is the common hemlock tree, by some called 
spruce-pine, and grows in various parts of the Uni- 
ted States. The part generally made use of is the 
inner bark carefully dried and ground to a fine pow- 
der. A tea made by steeping a table-spoonful of 
the powder in a tea cupful of boiling water, forms 
a good medicine for canker and many other com- 
plaints. The boughs made into a tea, are good for 
gravel and otiier obstructions of the urinary passa- 
ges, and for rheumatism. 

This tree also affords a liquid resin, or turpen- 
tine, which has all the properties of the balsam nr, 
and which may be used in the same way. From 
this tree as well as the balsam fir, an essential oil 
may be obtained, which has all the properties of 
common oil of turpentine. This oil dissolved in 
spirits of wine, is in much popular repute under the 
name oi essence of hemlock. 



Goldenrrnl or Kcrcnma, 

Grows in rich wood land and hill sides, from ten 
to fourteen inches high, stalks smooth and round 
with a large leaf, serrated, and deeply indented; 
bears a bunch of red berries at the heel of the leaf, 
somewhat resembling the ginseng berry. The root, 
which is the part made use of, is a beautiful yellow 
color, having an impression on it resembling the 
stamp of a seal, from whence its name. 

The root dried and powdered and taken in doses 
of a tea spoonful in a little hot water, is an exccl- 
'ent medicine where the food cause* distress in the 
stomach of weak patients. It is also an excellent 
corrector of the bile. The green root pounded, and 



The Family Physician. J 67 

a little wafer added to it, and strained, forms an ex- 
cellent eye water. 

Indian Snake Root, 

By some called abcess roof, grows on the sides of 
running stream? and on hill sidts, most rommonly 
on the north.; from twelve to eighten inehes high, 
the stalk is hare for some distance, (hen come leaves 
which are opposite, and in shape veiy much resem- 
ble the common locust leaves; flowers io April and 
May. of a bright purple color, terminating in seed 
pods, somewhat resembling those of flax, enclosed 
by small leaves. The root is matted and fibrous, 
and intensely hitler. 

A handfull of the root, green or dried, pounded, 
and steeped in hot or cold water, or spirits, and 
drank freely through the day, is highly exfolled, 
and from my own experience has proved benefit ial 
in diseases of the breast, pulmonary consumption, 
and diseases of the liver. 



Spearmint — Mentha Viridis . 
This plant is too well known to need a descrip- 
tion. It makes a very pleasant tea, and may be 
used freely in sickness. The infusion or escerce 
is a warm aromatic, and expels wind, and relieves 
pain in the bowels and stomach. The most valua- 
ble property it possesses is to stop vomiting. 

Skunk Cabbage, Bears-foot — Symploearpus Fatida, 
This plant grows in various- parts oi the United 
Slates, and is generally found in meadows and wet 
land, and along the sides of runs; the leaves are 
large, and have a very foetid smell, like that of the 
animal whose name it bears. The root has a pun- 
gent ta<.lo, which, when dug, dried and icduced to 
a powder, and taken in doses of?, tea spoonful, in a 
little honey, in (he morning or at night when goii g 
to bed. is said to be very efficacious in the asthma, 
cough, difficulty of bieulhii g, and other disorders 



V68 The Family Physician, 

of the lungs, colics, griping of the bowels, &lc. The 
leaves bruised, made iiito a poultice and applied, 
relieve painful swellings, whitlows, sore breasts, &c 

Quaking asp. 

This tree grows in many parts of this country, 
and is a species of poplar; the twigs are short, brit- 
tle, and extremely bitter to the taste. 

The bark should be taken from the tree, the out- 
side shaved off, and the inner carefully dried and 
preserved for use. The inner bark made into a 
tea, and drank freely, is an excellent medicine to 
regulate the bile, and to restore the digestive pow- 
ers, &c. 

Vervain — Verbena Haaiata. ■ 
There are two species of this plant, the blue and 
the white, growing very common in various parte 
of the country, and is a well known herb . Used in 
the torm of tea, or in powder, it is an excellent emet- 
ic, either alone, or combined with the thorough- 
wort. It has also been used with success in the 
first stages of consumption, and fevers. 

Witch Hazel, 
Is a small tree or bush, and grows very common 
especially in new land, and is too we'll known to 
need a description. A tea made of the leaves is an 
excellent medicine in many complaints, and may be 
freely used. It is highly recommended in cases of 
bleeding at the stomach, either in the form of tea, 
or by chewing the leaves and swallowing the juice. 
A tea made of the bark and drank freely, is some- 
times made use of in chronic rheumatism. 

Wild Sun Flower, or Negro Head, 

Grows on rich land and along fences, from five 

to seven feet high, the stalk and leaves are rough, 

leaves narrow pointed, opposite, on long foot stalks ; 

flowers in July and August, somewhat resembling a 



The Family Physician. 16? 

common sunflower, enclosing a round head aboul 
the s Zc ol a small hi< kory nut, ofa dark color, from 
whence ils name Negro- head. 

A stro g decoction of the roots taken in doses of 
a tea cuplul ever) half bour until it operates, mak- 
ing use at the same time of an injection of the same, 
has proved an e\< ellent remedy in bilious colic, giv 
i'ng relief where every other remedy had failed. 



Rose Noble, or Carpenter's Square, 
Grows on rich land, and along the sides offences 
and ditches, about six or seven feet high; stalk 
square and hollow, branching towards the top, 
leaves opposite, large, rough, serrated, and of a 
deep green color; the seed pods are small, some 
what resembling those of rattle weed. 

A poultice made oi the bark of the root is an ex 
eellent application to ulcers and white swelling. 
[See Wiiite Swelling^ 

Bedonian Plant, 

Is frequently cultivated in the gardens of this 
country, and possesses many medicinal qualities. 
The leaves and flowers are of a warming nature — 
strengthen the nerves, breast, and kidneys. Put 
into wine and drank freely, it is efficacious in re- 
moving obstructions of the liver and melt, and dis- 
solving calculi in the kidneys, removing dizziness in 
the head, croup, palsy, and trembling of the limbs. 
The flowers powdered and snuffed up the nose, re- 
lieve head ache. It may be used either in the form 
of tincture, decoction or conserve. 

Take bedonian and wormwood, of each equal 
parts; put them into wine, digest for a few days, 
and drink a wine-glassful every morning, and it 
will be found a good preservative of health. A 
m ine glassful taken every morning for sometime 
previous to the confinement of pregnant women, is 
to produce very salutary effects. A strong t< a 
o( tiiis herb is atso recommended in hysteric fits; \ f 
P 



1 ?0 fhe Family Physician, 

eases the pain and stops the spasm. . It is undoubt- 
edly a valuable plant, and should be cultivated by 
every family. Any person wishing to obtaii the 
seed can be supplied on application to the author. 

White Walnut, or Butternut — Juglans Alba, 
Affords one of the finest cathartic medicines in the 
whole American Materia Medica. An extract irom 
the inner bark of this tree, especially of the root, 
operates as a purgative in doses of fifteen, twenty, 
or thirty grains. Age impairs its power. 

The bark of the root should be collected in May 
or June. After cleaning, cutting, and bruising, it 
should have eight times its weight of water added 
to it. It should then be boiled to one half, strained 
through a thick cloth, and afterwards evaporated 
to the consistence of thick honey, at such a dis- 
tance from the fire that it shall net be burnt in the 
least . It may then be dried in a warm oven till it 
will pill. Take four or rive pills the size of a pea 
for a purge. A common sized pill or two on going 
to bed, is admirable to relieve those costive habits, 
which occasion head aches, loaded stomachs, colics, 
&c. And in increased doses, say double quanti- 
ties, it will be found a sovereign medicine in dys- 
pepsia, dysentery, bilious fever, and all other com- 
plaints requiring aperient medicines. 

The bark of the root is excellent to raise a blister, 
and therefore may be substituted for Spanish flies. 



Red Chick- Weed, Description of, fye. 

It is a small plant, growing something like pers- 
ley, only the leaves are considerably smaller, with 
small black spots on the under side, bears a small 
red blossom in June. It ought to be gathered when 
in full bloom, thoroughly dried in the shade, and 
carefully preserved. 

A decoction made by boiling an ounce of the herb 
with the same quantity of hops, in a quart of water, 
in a clean earthen pot, strained, cooled, and tberj 



The Family Physician. 171. 

bottled, and taken in doses of a gill two or three 
limes a-d.iy, it is said to be an effectual remedy for 
the bite of a mad dog. It is no doubt a valuable 
plant, and should be cultivated in our gardens. 

Narrow- Leafed, or Sour Dock. 

This plant grows plentifully in this country, and 
is too well known to need a description. 

A decoction rnnde by boiling a quantity of the 
roots in soft water, and applying it, is highly rec- 
ommended in cancers. It should be applied as warm 
as it can be borne. The cavity of the ulcer should 
ie tilled with the liquor for a few minutes; then 
scrape some of the root and pound it fine, put it on 
gauze and lay it over every part of the ulcer, then 
dip a linen rag in the decoction and apply it over 
the gauze; repeat it three times in twenty-four 
hours, drinking each time a wine-glastful of the de- 
coction in the third of a glass of port wine sweet- 
ened with honey. 

Sumach, Common, use of fyc, 
The bark of the root of sumach is considered one 
of the best antiseptics produced by vegetation. 
Corroding ulcers, defying every common applica- 
tion, have immediately began to heal by washing 
them with a strong decoction, and applying the 
boiled bark as a poultice. It is a very important 
material in decoctions for hectic or scrofulous dis- 
eases. Prepared in the following manner it is of in- 
finite service in the venereal disease. 

Of the inner bark of pine and swamp elm, ?.nd 
the bark of the root of sumach, take each one pound 
—boil them in a gallon of water to three quarts, 
drink half a pint three times a-day; if cosliveness 
be produced, a dose of salts may be used. If there 
be ulcers, they are to be washed with a decoction 
made warm*. The detergent effects will appear in 
a ve-y short time. Abstinence from too much stim- 
ulants wilt accelerate the cure. Instances can be 



172 The Fam ily Pk\js i ■ 

produced of the effects of this remedy which would 
stagger credulity. Mercury and nitric acid have 
failed, but this has never been known to fail when 
properly applied It is, moreover, a tine application 
in dysenteric affections. 



Hemp, Common. 

This article is too well known to need a descrip- 
tion, and possesses the most active medicinal prop- 
erties, especially in female complaints, and cannol 
be too highly valued. 

A strong tea made by steeping a handful of the 
leaves, green or dried, in boiling water, and taken 
in doses of a tea cupful every fifteen or twenty min- 
utes, is an effectual remedy for the hysterica. A gill 
of the seeds pounded, and infused in a pint of boil- 
ing water, and taken in doses of a gill every fifteen 
minutes, is an admirable remedy to check the Hood- 
ing after abortion. It will also prevent abortion if 
taken in time. This plant has proved of such infin- 
ite service in those case*, that it cannot be too high- 
ly valued; and should be constantly kept by every 
family. 

Bitter~I\oot, or Wandering Milk-Weed ^ 
Grows in fiejds about two feet high, branches nu- 
merous, and smooth, resembling buckwheat, with 
similar white blossoms; when the stalk is broken it 
discharges a milky juice. The roots are long, from 
which spring other stalks, from whence its name 
wanderings 

The bark of the roots is the part used as medi- 
cine. They should be dug and dried; and when 
dry, the bark is easily separated from the wood by 
pounding it in a mortar. It is intensely bitter, and 
is an excellent corrector of the bile, and is esteem- 
ed as a cathartic in cases ol costiveness. In the 
form of inlusion it sometimes acts as an emetic. 



The Family Physician. 173 

Seneca Snakeroot, use of y 8tc 
Half an ounce of tins root, bruised, and boiled 
gently in a pint of water until it is reduced to one 
half the quantity, and given in doses of a tea spoon- 
ful every hour, and in doses of five or six drops in the 
intervals, until it vomits or purges, is said to be an 
effectual remedy for the croup. After it has ope- 
rated it should be continued in dose of six or seven 
drops to keep up the stimulus in the mouth and 
throat. It has also been administered in cases of 
inflammatory sore throat, with the happiest effects. 



Directions respecting the Collection and Preservation of 
Vegetable Substances. 

Vegetable matters intended tor medicine should 
be gathered from 'where they grow spontaneously^ 
in general from high and dry soil-. They should be 
gathered in dry weather, after the dew is off them, 
and are to be freed from decayed, withered, or for- 
eign leaves. They are usually tied in bundles, and 
hung up in a shady, warm, and airy place, or spread 
upon the floor and frequently turned. If very jui- 
cy, they are laid upon a sieve and dried by a gentle 
degree of artificial warmth. They should be dried 
in such quantities at a time that the process may be 
finished as quickly as possible; for by these means 
their powers are best preserved; the test of which 
is, the perfect preservation of their natural color. 

Roots which are annual should be gathered be- 
fore the plant shoots, or after the sap has returned 
in autumn. Thosj which are worm-eaten or de- 
cayed are to be rejected. The others should be 
dried without washing; after drying they should be 
cleaned with a brush, and the fibres and little roots, 
when not essential, are to be cut away. Roots that 
lose their virtues by drying, or are directed to be 
d in a Iresii state, are to be kept buried in 
dry sand. 

Seeds and fruits are to bo hen ripe, 

. -. ! y , 



174 The Family Phyiician, 

Barks and woods should be collected in spring* 
and autumn, when the most active part of the vege- 
tables are concentrated in them. Spring is prefer- 
red for resinous barks, and autumn for those that 
are gummy. Barks should be taken from young 
trees, and freed from decayed parts and all impu- 
rities. 

The proper drying of vegetable substances is of 
thp greatest importance. It is often directed to be 
done in the shade, and slowly, that the volatile and 
active particles may not be dissipated b) too great a 
heat; but this is an error, for they always lose infi- 
nitely more by slow than by quick drying. When 
on account of the <:olor, they cannot be exposed to 
the sun, and the warmth of the atmosphere is insuf- 
ficient, they should be dried by an artificial warmth 
less than 100 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, 
and well exposed to a current of air. When per- 
fectly dry and friable, they have little smell ; but af- 
ter being kept some time, they attract moisture 
from the air, and regain their proper odor. 



Explanation of Wtighls and Measures. 

WEIGHTS. 

20 grains make 1 scruple, 

3 firuples 1 ih.iohm, 
8 drachms - - 1 ounce, 

12 ounces - - - 1 pound. 

MEASURES. 

60 drops make 1 drachm, 

8 drachms 1 ounce, 

12 i unces 1 pint, 

2 pints ... i quart, 

4 quarts - - - 1 gallon. 

A drop will contain a quantity proportioned to 
the size of the mouth of the phial from which it 
falls; a common ou:ice phial should be i 
size, 



PART SECOND, 



MARRIED LADY'S COMPANION, 



To the Married Ladies of the United States, this part of 
this little work is respectfully inscribed. 

Cariosity, a thirst for knowledge, and a desire for 
improvement, seems more natural to the female 
than to the male part of the community. In former 
ages females were almost the only physicians to at- 
tend the sick; although kept in ignorance gener- 
ally, upon literary and philosophical subjects. The 
diseases of the human system, and. the artu les of 
the materia medica, then known, were objects of 
their study and care. And though in the present 
age of civilization and refinement, more attention 
is paid than formerly, to the enlargement and cul- 
tivation of their mental powers and to their im- 
provement in scientific and literary attainments, it 
is to be hoped that they may never be induced to 
abandon or neglect that attention to studies, which 
may teach them to preserve human life, and to al- 
leviate human suffering;; and which must necessa- 
rily be of constant service to them in after life, whe- 
ther as individuals or heads of families. The mis- 
tress and mother of a family, occupies one of the 
most important stations in community; and it is 
highly necessary that she should have some ac- 
quaintance with the theory of medicine, and some 
skill in it? practice, to enable her to perform the 
duties of her station with credit to herself, and with 
advantage to her family. 

This treatise is intended for the service oft! ose 
married ladies who are bringing up families of 



17(3 The Family Physician. 

young children, and who are unacquainted with the 
numerous diseases to which they will be exposed. 
Many of them may be easily remedied with little 
expense to their husbands, by a knowledge of their 
causes, and of such articles as will destroy those 
causes. 

The means of preventing diseases, are do less im- 
portant than the method of cure. An intelligent 
mother, who has taken pains to inform herself in the 
pi j triples of complaints in general, as respects they 
nature, cause, cure, and method of prevention, may 
with small expense and proper attention to their 
diet, during the summer months, keep her family 
in sjood health; while the neighboring children, 
whose parents are ignorant of those things, are sick, 
and dving with the dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera 
morbus, &c. &c. 

This treatise is also intended for the considera- 
tion of those elder married ladies, who are fitting 
V ■ ' r daughters to fill stations similar to those in 
whi< h they themselves are placed. It may put in 
their possession principles of certain diseases, and 
methods to relieve them, which before had not come 
within their reach, and which they are perfectly 
capable of understanding; which may better enable 
thern to counsel and advise those who are still un- 
der their charge. 

Men whose thoughts are occupied with the diffi- 
culties of business, and who are obliged to devote 
their whole attention to it, generally leave the 
charge of their children solely to their wives. How 
pleasing it is to a man of understanding, to see that 
his wife, not onI\ governs the conduct and deposi- 
tion of his children with care and correctness, but 
that she also watches their health, and is alwas - 
first to know when they are indisposed. And would 
it not be still more pleasing to such a man, it I 
wife understood the nature and cause of his cl 
Bren's illness, and the remedy to remove that c 
before they became very sick and confi , 



The Family Physician. 177 

and before necessity compelled him to employ a 
physician? The children are always under the eye 
Ot their molhei ; she is always the first person to 
whom they mention their pains, and make their 
Complaints. The mother, therefore, is (he proper 
person to direct their diet and their conduct. She 
hasa better opportunity and more leisure than her 
husband, to inquire into the nature and cause of 
her children's complaints, and consequently more 
leisure to exercise he; mind in obtaining a know- 
ledge of the remedies which may relieve those com- 
plaints. 

For this and other useful purposes, this, work is 
addressed to the female heads of families, with a 
hope that it may in somj decree prove a source of 
benefit to themselves and their families. 

ItcannoL be expected that a work of this kind 
will consist of such interesting matter, (to some per- 
sons) as that of a novel, a tale, &c. is generally com- 
posed. If this treatise should excite curiosity, or 
even create amusement i • the minds of some of its 
readers, I trust that it may, in the minds of others, 
prove an entertainment which may contribute, in 
some measure, to their improvement. 

The observations on dyspepsi \ for indigestion.) if 
strictly attended to. are such as may be advantage- 
ous to those who lead a itarj life, and who are 
subject to the distressing phenomena, which accom- 
pany this disease. If those who live in opulence 
will exchange some of the luxuries of their tables 
for the pleasures of temperance, industry and ex- 
ercise, by riding frequently in the open and pure 
air, retiring early at night, and rising early in the 
morning, although they may lose the pleasures of 
the former, for a few years, they may enjoy the 
pleasures of the latter to a good old age. 

What a mystery is the mind of mankind to itselfl 
Good living, with moderation, generally proves in- 
nocent, and has a friendly influen< e upon health and 
long life; but iutemperance in eating and drinking, 



178 The Family Physician. 

creates destructive effects upon the human system. 
These effi ts impair the memory, and render per- 
sons unfit for business. They weaken the under- 
standing, and corrupt the moral faculties; are the 
predisposing causes of disease, and gradually short 
en the lives of those who are under its baneful influ- 
ence. 1/ he chance to be a husband, who is addict- 
ed to ihesecusfo ns and vices, who can imagine (he 
anguish he causes in the bosom of his wife! If she 
is a wife, under the same influence, what shame 
and disgrace does she bring upon her husband and 
family! But if both husband and wife are under 
this baneful influence, their children may picture 
misery, crime, infamy, and disease, with every oth- 
er aggravation of wretchedness that occurs to fall- 
en man. 

Females have sometimes been led to seek relief 
from the disagreeable sensations called breeding 
sickness.by the use of ardent spirits, aid have there- 
by acquired a loudness for, arid a habit of using this 
substance, much to their injury, and but little to 
their relief. They will find the use of alkaline- 
preparations, such as soda powders, soda water, 
lime-water, salt of wormwood, &c. together with a 
little gingerbread or biscuit, to keep the stomach 
from being empty between meals, much better rem- 
edies, and contribute more to their relief, than even 
wine or spirituous liquors. In those cases there 
seems to be a tendency to the accumulation of acid- 
ity in the stomach. The use of spirituous liquors 
■will serve to increase this tendency, while the use 
of alkalies or antiacids wiM serve to destroy and 
correct it. 

Such remedies are offered as have proved useful 
in the cases for which they are recommended. It 
is not my wish to advise sole dependence on this 
work. In malignant cases, when danger and diffi- 
culty occur, no time should be lost in applying to a 
skilful physician. Such remedies as are useful in 
the hands of the mother and the nurse, prove still 



The Family Physician. 175 

more useful in the hands of an eminent physician, 
who lias a superior judgment for increasing or di- 
minishing the doses, according to the circumstances 
of the paiient. 

The object most dear to the author, in putting 
this work together, has been, to mitigate the suffer- 
ings, relieve the miseries, and alleviate the distress- 
ing pains of the human family. Such as it is, pe- 
ruse it in your leisure hours — and when you are 
watching the distresses and pains of your helpless, 
sick infants, it may perhaps put you in mind of some 
thing that will afford them comfort or relief; and 
surely, 1 believe, it will never tend to injure your 
reputation in society, or corrupt your morals. 

Accept, dear ladies, my earnest wishes for your 
information on this subject. And that it may prove 
to you a source of comfortable reflection, and a 
means ofenlarging your capacities and opportuni- 
ties for usefulness, through the many trying scenes 
in this life, is the sincere prayer of your cordiaJ 
friend.. A* W„ 



MARRIED LADY'S COMPANION. 



Menstruation, 

The monthly evacuation is one of the principal 
constitutional charac teristics of the female s< x. It 
generally takes place at the age of from twelve to 
fifteen, and continues until between forty and fifty. 
Some women begin to menstruate without any pre- 
vious indisposition; but, with most of them, the first 
appearance ol the discharge is preceded by a swel- 
ling of the breasts, together with a sense of fulness 
in the lower region of the belly, pains in the back 
and lower extremities, and some blight hysteric af- 
fections; all of which cease as soon as the flow takes 
place. 

It is of importance for women to know that occa- 
sional irregularities are not always the consequence 
of this disease. Constitutions vary as much in re- 
spect to the regular returns of this discharge, as 
they do with regard to its first appearance, or its 
final cessation. Those in whom the change occurs 
very early, from vigor of constitution, require little 
to be done for them; but in weaker and less ple- 
thoric young women, the non-appearance of this 
evacuation is too often considered the cause, where- 
as it ought to be viewed as the effect of the state of 
the habit, unpropitious to its taking place. And 
according to family practice, under this false impres- 
sion, warm teas and forcing medicines are employ- 
ed at the approach of the disease, which have often 
done much harm. * 

Nature is not so defective in her own judgment 
asto require such auxiliaries. Care should be ta- 
ken so to manage the habits of their lives, as to im- 
prove the general state of their health, by attention 



The Family Physician. 181 

to diet, moderate exercise, change of air, and cheei- 
fulness; which will be found to have the happiest 
influence on the body and mind, a;id give a saluta- 
ry impulse on the circulation of the blood. 

For the two or three tirst times of its appearing, 
it is apt to be somewhat irregular, both as to the 
quantity of the blood which is discharged, and the 
period of its return; but after these, it commonly 
observes stated periods, and nearly the same quan- 
tity is lost at each visitation, unless some irregular- 
ity takes place. 

To ascertain the quantity generally discharged, 
with exactness, is impossible, as it varies in differ- 
ent women, and greatly depends on the constitu- 
tion. Those of a delicate habit and lax fibre have 
a more copious discharge, than women of a robust 
constitution. However, in general, the menses con- 
tinue to flow from four to six days, and the quanti- 
ty discharged is about five ounces. 

When the habit of a young woman is full, and the 
complexion fair and florid, a low diet, cooling ca- 
thartics, and bleeding, will be proper to relieve 
some occasional indisposition; but the same com- 
plaint must be treated differently, if the constitu- 
tion be backward, the frame delicate, and the per- 
son of a melancholic temperament. In such cases, 
a nourishing diet, change of air, gentle exercise, 
particularly riding on horseback, with strengthen- 
ing medicines, as the rust or tincture of steel, or oth- 
er tonics, together with the occasional use of some 
stimulating purgative to keep the bowels open, are 
the best to a-sist nature. 

When an immoderate flow of the menses arises 
from a full habit, it is often preceded by headach 
and giddiness, and is afterwards attended with pains 
in the back and loins, some degree of thirst, univers- 
al heat, and a frequent, strong, hard pulse; but 
when it arises in pons* (juenee of a laxity of the or- 
gan, or of general debility, the symptoms attending 
dtness of visage, chilliness, unusual fa- 
Q 



182 The Family Physician. 

tigue in exercise, pains in the back, together with 
a loss of appetite, and indigestion. 

Where a profuse flow of the menses is attended 
with pains in the back, and the patient is of a lull 
robust habit, the body should be kept gently open 
with laxatives that give but little stimulus; admin- 
istering cooling medicines, drinking freely of cool 
acidulated liquors, such as lemonade or tamarind 
beverage. 

Where we suppose that it proceeds from a laxity 
of the vessels, besides keeping the woman in a re- 
cumbent posture, shunning much external heat, and 
avoiding costiveness, and the other remote causes, 
we should apply sedatives and astringents, both of 
which may be used externally as well as internally. 

In those cases where the hemorrhage is profuse, 
or of long continuance, and resists the means already 
pointed out, it will be proper to inject into the ute- 
rus from a gill to a half pint of a strong decoction of 
oak bark, in which one or two drachms of alum has 
been dissolved, or as much of the saturated solu- 
tion of alum in water, in order to constringe and 
strengthen the vessels of the womb. This may be 
repeated two or three times a-day. 

To prevent a recurrence of the attack in those 
who are subject to it, the patient must necessarily 
avoid the causes by which it has been produced. 

Suppression of the Menses. 

Whenever any interruption occurs after the men- 
strual discharge has once been established in its 
regular course, except when occasioned by preg- 
nancy, it is always to be considered as a case of sup- 
pression. 

When suddenly checked, it is usually attended 
with considerable pain in the stomach, bowel?, or 
bade, and sometimes in (he chest, fn persors of a 
full habit the face is generally flu-lied, the pulse 
hard and frequent, flying pains in the chest, per- 
haps spitting of blood, cough, palpitation, and diffi- 
culty of breathing. 



183 

' a melancholic 

temperament, and especially th >se who have suffer- 
ed iVom some debilitating cause have different symp- 
toms, constituting what has been called green sick- 
ness, a disease always connected with, and depend- 
ing on, some derangement of the sensual organs. 

The cause which evidently produces a suppress- 
ion of the menses, is a constriction of the extremi- 
ties of the vessels of the uterus, arising from acci- 
. dental circumstances, such as anxiety of the mind, 
cold, inactivity of the body, fear, the frequent use of 
acids and other sedatives, &c. In some constitu- 
tions, particularly in those where pain attends the 
discharge, very slight occurrences suddenly inter- 
rupt the flow, and prevent its usual return; such as 
passions of the mind, fright, fatigue, irregularities of 
diet, putting on damp clothes, &.c. This fact shows 
the necessity /or certain cautions and attention du- 
ring I he discharge. 

The principal object we are to have in view in 
the treatment of this complaint, is to remove the 
constriction by a use of relaxants, antispasmodics, 
&.c. As relaxants, bladders filled with warm water 
may be applied to the lower pait of the abdomen, 
or by receiving warm vapors by seating the patient 
on a chamber-pan filled with hot water. These ap- 
plications should be employed particularly at the 
time when nature seems to be making some effort to 
produce the discharge, in order that they may have 
their due effect. 

An emetic administered about the time when the 
evacuation should appear, and the patient during 
the operation sitting in a warm bath, has sometimes 
been of infinite service. An obstruction may, in 
some instances, continue in young and healthy wo- 
men, for many months without any inconvenience. 
This is chiefly the case in those who are very cor- 
pulent, or who have been in the pernicious practice 
of employing vinegar and strong purges to reduce 
their size. By the regular use of exercise, rising 



1 84 The Family Physician. 

early in the morning, avoiding supper, keeping the 
bowels regular, and living rather abstemiously, the 
health will be preserved, and in course of time the 
desired alteration will take place. 

With the view of exciting into action the uterine 
vessels, the surface of the body should be kept 
warm by means of a flannel smock and drawers, by 
frequent friction of the lower part of the abdomen 
and limbs with flannel or a flesh-brush, and by the 
exercise of jumping, walking, and dancing. By 
marriage, or a change in the mode of life, the dis- 
order has frequently been removed, alter having re- 
sisted all the ordinary remedies. No remedy appli- 
cable to every case can possibly be discovered; 
therefore, medicines, with a view to restore the pe- 
riodical evacuation, ought to be administered with 
the greatest caution. 

Fluor Albus, or Whites. 

This is a complaint to which women are peculiar- 
ly subject, and is marked by the discharge of a thin 
white or yellow matter from the vagina and uterus, 
attended with an offensive smell, smarting in mak- 
ing water, pains in the back and loins, chilliness, 
languor, paleness of the face, and indigestion . I;t 
process of time, every symptom becomes highly ag- 
gravated, the feet and ankles swell, palpitations and 
difficulty of respiration are experienced, the mens- 
trual discharge is rendered irregular, the mind is 
dejected, and cither dropsy or consumption super- 
venes and terminates fatally. 

The causes which give rise to this disease arc, in- 
jury done to the parts by difficult and tedious labors, 
frequent miscarriages, immoderate fiowings of the 
menses, an inactive and sedentary life, poor diet, 
profuse evacuations, &c. 

In some instances it appears to depend on a full 
and irritable habit of body, and, in other ch*ps, f 
local irritation; such as disorders of the womb, or of 



iru Family Physician. 185 

the urinary organs, or a collection in the gut of the 
small thready worms called ascatides. 

In the treatment of this disease regard must bt 
had to the apparent cause, and to the state of the 
patient. The discharge is too often considered by 
the sex as the effects of general weakness in their 
habit, and, therefore, are led to the indiscriminate 
use of heating medicines, as balsam copaiva. wine, 
&c. without paying attention to the habit of the bo- 
dy, or cause of the disease. 

The cold bath, as sponging the thighs and loins 
with cold water every morning, proper exercise, 
due attention to cleanliness, change of air, and a 
milk diet, are often sufficient to arrest the disease, 
if applied in time. 

When the disease proceeds from worms, bitter 
clysters, and purgative medicines, will be proper. 

To obviate debility and fainting, a generous nu- 
tritive diet, consisting of isinglass, boiled up in milk, 
jellies, sago, and light'meats, together with cordial 
medicines, particularly port wine, are very proper. 
Women afflicted with this disease, should by no 
means indulge in the use of teas — should lie on a 
matrass in preference to a feather bed; they should 
rise early, and take daily exercise on horseback. 

Diseases of Pregnancy. 
We cannot be surprised that it should be the 
source of many disagreeable sensations, and the 
cause of many diseases, when we reflect on the 
changes which are produced by pregnancy. No 
part of the human body is possessed of greater irri- 
tability than the womb; nor any part of the increas- 
ed irritability of which is more readily communi- 
cated to the system in general. The breasts are so 
connected with the womb by their office,that every 
affection of that organ is immediately accompanied 
by some change in the breasts. The stomach, next 
to the breasts, most readily sympathises w.th the 
womb- and through the stomach, the head and the 



186 'fhe Family Physician. 

heart are very soon brought to participate in itc 
changes and complaints. 

Nausea and Vomiting — Pregnant women are apt 
to be troubled with frequent nausea and vomitings 
and in many cases it reduces them to a state of great 
debility. It is generally sufficient to keep the bow- 
els open But when it becomes troublesome, it is 
necessary to interfere in time, otherwise alarming; 
nervous complaints may be induced. The most ef- 
fectual means of affording relief in those cases are 
blood letting, and gentle laxatives regularly admin- 
istered. Laudanum or mint, rubbed on the pit of 
the stomach, or administered in the form of injec- 
tion, has sometimes been useful. This sickness most 
frequently arises in the morning immediately upon 
getting up, and in those cases a cup of tea or coffee 
should be taken before rising. 

Heartburn sometimes accompanies every plage of 
pregnancy, but is commonly confined to the early 
stages. To obviate it, half a drachm of magnesia 
may be taken morning and evening. When the 
heartburn is attended with a constant desire to 
hawk up phlegm, the stomach should be emptied 
by a gentle emetic. 

Codiveness and Piles — commonly attendant on a 
state of pregnancy, and if neglected, may produce 
serious consequences. Women in (his situation, 
should never allow more than one day to pass with- 
out having a motion. Some gentle laxative should 
be used daily; such as a solution of manna, <Slc. In 
troublesome piles, the best application will be to 
make use of the pile ointment, [sec Recipes] which 
will generally be successful. 

Suppression of Urine, <yx\ — In some cases, there is 
great pain or heat in making water, and sometimes 
the more serious affection of suppression, during 
pregnancy. In the former it will be proper to bleed, 
to drink freely of some diluent liquors, keep the 
bowels open with some cooli' « laxative, and to wash 
the parts three or four times a-day with lead-water. 



The Family Physician. 1 87 

A suppression is apt to happen in the advanced 
stage of pregnancy, and should be treated by mak- 
ing use of emollient fomentations, and gentle pur- 
gative medicines; such as castor oil, &c. 

Longings. — Unnatural cravings, or what are 
termed longings, which, however absurd they may 
appear on some occasions, are frequently involunta- 
ry in pregnant women; and should always, if possi- 
ble, be gratified, as women are apt to miscarry from 
the «mxiety these occasion when not indulged in 
them. These affections of the mind are often sup- 
posed to reach the infant in the womb, and to occa- 
sion marks <md other deformities. But every mo- 
ther may feel confident, that Providence has better 
guarded the unborn innocent, than to have exposed 
it to injury, from every variation in the feelings of 
the parent. Numberless examples could be pro- 
duced to convince women, that the notion which 
most of them have, that figures of animals, or other 
extr; ordinary marks, are stamped on the face of 
the child in the womb, by the mere foice of the wo- 
m;;n's imagination, is a gross error. 

Fainting Fits, — Should hysterical or fainting fits 
arise, and the patient be of a full habit, a little 
blood may be taken occasionally, keeping her bow- 
els open, and putting her on a spare diet. But if 
she be thin, and there is appearance of nervous del- 
icacy, strengthening remedies, as the cold bath, 
nourishing diet, cheerful society, regular exercise 
in the open air, with attention to the state of tae 
bowels, will be proper. 

Cramps. — Cramps of the legs and thigh«, which 
occur most frequently when lying in hectare to be 
relieved by rubbing' the parts with cold vinegar, 
flannel, or'a flesh-brush, the person wearing stock- 
in bed. At an advanred period of p! 
they are only 10 be relieved by labor removing the 
eause. 

in, of Urine.— This is a very disagreea- 

ble complaint, as it keeps tbe woman constat 



188 The Family Physician, 

an uncomfortable state. It can be moderated by a 
frequent horizontal posture, but is to be* removed 
only by labor. Its bad effects may be prevented by 
attention to cleanliness, and the use of a thick com- 
press of linen or sponge. 

Palpitation, is another distressing affection to 
which some women are liable during the whole of 
pregnancy. In general, invigorating diet, moderate 
exercise. in the open air, keeping the bowpls rpgu- 
lar, avoiding every thing that disagrees with the sto- 
mach, and whatever agitates the mind, will render 
the attack less frequent. 

False Pains. — Pains resembling the throes of la- 
bor, and known by the name of false pains, are apt 
to come on at an advanced stage of pregnancy, and 
often to occasion unnecessary alarm. 

In such cases, confinement in an horizontal pos- 
tm, bleeding if plethoric, and laxative medicines 
if costive, will be necessary. 

Shivering not unfrequently occurs in the end of 
pregnancy, especially in the nighttime; and, as la- 
bor sometimes begins with this, it creates an un- 
founded belief that delivery is approaching, h is 
either unattended with pain, or the pain is irregu- 
lar, affecting chiefly the bowels or sides. It goes 
off by taking a few drop6 of laudanum, in a glass of 
warm tea or gruel. 

Convulsions. — Puerperal convulsions bear some 
likeness to epileptic fits, and it is only by being 
aware ot the different degree of violence attending 
each, that at first sight they can be distinguished. 
Alii of puerperal convulsion is much more severe 
than one of epilepsy; and a paroxysm of the former 
is usually so violent, that a woman, who, when in 
health, was by no means strong, has been so convuls- 
ed, as to shake the whole room, and to resist the 
powers of many attendant. No force indeed can 
restrain a woman when in these convulsions. 

Puerperal convulsions seldom happen before the 
sixth month, but may occur at any time between 



The Family Physician. 1 89 

this period and the completion oflabor, or after the 
labor is finished. At whatever period of pregnan- 
cy they do take place, we uniformly rind, that if they 
are repeated, and do not prove fatal, they bring on 
labor, or at least open the mouth of the womb. 
But there are many instances where, by proper 
measures, the repetition of the fits may be prevent- 
ed, and the patient go safely to the full time. 

The formation of too large a quantity of blood, 
and an increased susceptibility of impression of the 
nervous system, occasion the tendency to this dis- 
ease. When these exist in any considerable de- 
gree, circumstances suddenly bring on the fits, 
which, in any other condition of the body, have lit- 
tle influence ; such as over fatigue, fright, distress of* 
the mind, irritations of the stomach or bowels, over- 
distenlion of the urinary bladder, or obstruction to 
the passage of the blood through the belly and low- 
er extremities, in consequence of the pressure of the 
enlarged womb. The immediate cause of the fits 
is an overflow, or too great determination of blood 
to the vessels within the head. 

These facts explain V^o necessity for so regula- 
ting nd exercise during the latter months 
of pr as shall, prevent both loo great ful- 
e habit, and also impaired energy of the 
nervous system. . 

Under proper and active management, convul- 
sions are found to be in general more alarming than 
really dangerous. The frightful appearances which 
attend such cases having paralysed the exertions of 
practitioners, may perhaps account for the unfortu 
nate event in many cases. 

The practice consists chiefly in evacuations. The 
patient must be instantly bled, and the bleeding 
must he repeated once and again, if it does not 
prove efficacious. A prodigious quantity of blood 
has been taken away with advantage, and has been 
th. means of saving life. Two quarts of blood h«ve 
been drawn off in the course of twenty four houre 



190 

under these circumstances, and with a h , 

Alter the tint bieedirfg, the bow.'!- ghould 
opened by some mild purgative, such as salts and 
manna, which may be repeated every third or fourth 
morning, until the fulness is removed. With these 
means the patient ought to abstain from all solid 
food, nine, &zc. 

Discharge of Water — May take pi coat different 
times during pregnancy, especial!) in the two la^t 
months. The quantity is variable, and sometimes 
the discharge is accompanied or sin ceded by irreg- 
ular pains. When this is the case give a d 
laudanum, and afterwards some gentle laxative to 
prevent costiveness. At the same time the patient 
should remain quiet in bed. By these means she 
may go to the full time, lithe water continue for 
il d;iys but trifling fn quantity, a solution o( 
ordecoction of oak hark, should be injected 
up to the vagina two or three times a day. 

Discharge, of Blood — May proceed either from 
the |>.i ■ age to the womb, or from thai organ itself. 
In the former ease, no bad effects can be dreaded; 
l>Mt in the latter one the most serious consequences 
ma) ensu ■. 

The immediate cause of a flow of blood from the 
■womb, during pregnancy, is the rupture of blood- 
: , b) the partial or total separation of those 
parts which conned the child with the mother. — 
This circumstance explains the difference ott' dan- 
ger in the early and latter months; for in the form- 
er, the blood-vessels of the womb being small, are 
incapable of pouring out much blood; but in the 
latter, they are very large, and may discharge, in a 
short time, a great quantity. 

The management of these cases may be varied 
according to a number of circumstances. Tran- 
quility of mind, and confinement to bed in an airy 
room, lightly covered with clothes are of great im- 
portance. A bladder two thirds tilled with cold 
water, or cloths wrung out of cold vinegar and 



The Family Physician. 1 9 i 

water, should be immediately applied to the lower 
pari of the bellj. If the discharge continue in 
small quanttties,accompanied with irregular | 
a dose of laudanum, or an anodvne clyster should 
be administered. When it has been suddenly 
brought on by a fall, blow, or any great exertion, 
it is necessary to draw blood from the arm; but 
when the symptoms which threaten miscarriage 
have: come on, it is improper either to bleed, or to 
give laudanum. 

The languor of faintness, usually induced by 
loss of blood, frequently leads officious attendant's 
to exhibit spirits or wine, as necessary cordials. — 
As these generally increase the action'of the blood- 
vessels, they serve to promote and increase the 
discharge, and should, therefore, be strictly pro- 
hibited. In the latter stage of pregnancy, if (he 
attacks be severe or repeated, nothing can save the 
mother and child but delivery, which must not be 
too long delayed in expectation of pains coming on, 
or of their becoming brisk, if they have already ta- 
ken place. 



Abortion. 

By abortion or miscarriage is to he understood 
Jhe expulsion of the contents of the wombat a pe- 
riod of gestation so early as to render it impossible 
for the child to live. It is an accident of frequent 
occurrence which is always attended with disagree- 
able circumstances, and which, allhough it im- 
proves immediately fatal, may still be productive 
of much mischief at a future period. 

Abortions may happen at any period of preg- 
nancy, but they take place most frequently about 
the third or fourth month. 

It isalwa)s accompanied with two circumstan- 
ces, separation of the membranous bag, expulsive 
efforts, or contraction of the womb itself. The 
is productive ofdis< barge; the second of pains lii<e 
of labor. limes the 



t92 Wc Family Physician. 

tai hment of part of the conception takes place be- 
fore, any pain is felt; on other occasions, the pain or 
contraction of the womb takes place first, and pro- 
duces a separation. In the first ot these cases, the 
symptoms of abortion take place suddenly, and arc 
usually occasioned by fatigue, sudden exertion, or 
fright. In the second, the child is frequently dead 
for some little time before the pains come on, and 
there are particular feelings, and changes, which 
indicate that a miscarriage is likely to take place; 
as for instance, the cessation of the morning sick- 
ness, the subsidence ol the breasts, absence ol mo- 
tion of the child, a feeling of weight or heaviness 
in the lower part of the belly, &c. 

T he causes which give rise to abortions, are, vio- 
lent exertions of strength, severe exercise, as dan- 
cing or much walking, the fatiguing dissipations of 
fashionable life, 9udden frights, violent fits of passion, 
great uneasiness of mind, over-fulness ol blood, 
profuse evacuations, excessive venery, former mis- 
carriages, general debility of the system, a diseased 
.state of the womb, external injuries as blows and 
bruises, stiong acrid medicines, which are often ta- 
ken for the express purpose of exciting abortion, 
and the death of the child. 

Such criminal intentions to destroy the child by 
artificial means can never succeed, unless the most 
violent effects are produced on the organs contigu- 
ous to the womb, which seldom fail to produce in- 
flammation of these delicate parts, and occasion 
the death of the mother. Whenever, therefore, 
women comrr.il such unjustifiable crimes to conceal 
the indulgence of irregular passions, their life is ex- 
posed to the greatest danger. 

When a woman is threatened with miscarrying, 
there are two objects to attend to; the first is to 
prevent it if we can; the second is, (j manage it so 
that as little blood as possible be lost; and these are 
obtain bj the same means. With this view, 

the p ould immediately on the first alarm, 



■The Family Physician. 1«KB 

undress and go to bed, lightly covered, with a firm 
determination not to rise till the process be either 
checked or completely over. There should be lit- 
tle fire in the room though it should be in the win- 
ter, and, in summer, the windows must be opened. 
Cloths, wet with cold water, should instantly be ap- 
plied lo the lower part of the belly and back; thu 
drink must be cold, and every thing stimulating 
avoided. 

A woman that is subject to habitual abortions, 
and who is of a full plethoric habit, ought to be 
bled just before the usual time of her miscarrying. 
She should likewise keep the bod) perfectly oper; 
with gentle aperient medicines; using a spare diet, 
consisting principally of vegetables, and avoid all 
agitations of the mind, severe exercise, violent ef- 
forts, and such objects as may be likely to make a 
disagreeable impression on her. The sleep should 
be abridged in duration, and not be taken on a bed 
of down, but on a firm mattress, preventing at the 
same time the accumulation of too much heat about 
the body. Every day she ought to take regular 
and moderate exercise, being cautious at the same 
time not to carry it to the length of exciting fa- 
tigue. — [See Hemp.] 

In women of a lax habit, bleeding would be 
highly improper as a means to prevent habitual 
abortion. For such, a nutritive and generous diet, 
moderate exercise in a carriage, cold bathing, to- 
gether with tonic medicine will be necessary, the 
patient at the same time avoiding the exciting caus- 
es. 

In all cases during the last stage of pregnancy, 
where our endeavors to stop or repress the hemor- 
rhage prove abortive, and the life of the woman be- 
comes endangered by its severity, it will be advisa- 
ble to deliver her as soon as possible. If the ovum 
be still entire, and the pregnancy considerably ad- 
vanced, the expulsive action is to be excited b^ 
rupturing the membranes. 



i94 The Family Physician* 

When the whole conception comes away at once, 
the pain and discharge usually go off, but, if only 
the child come away, all the symptoms cither con- 
tii ue and increase till the afterbirth comes 
away, or, tf they be for a time suspended they are 
sure to return. 

After the process is over, if the discharge be 
profuse, and does not stop on the application of 
cold water to the lower part of the belly, it will be 
proper to plug up the vagina, and this is bes-t done 
by taking a pretty large piece of soft cloth, dip- 
ping it in oil and then wringing it gently. This is 
io be introduced with the finger portion after por-t 
tion, until the lower part of the vagina be pretty 
well filled. The remainder is then to be firmly 
pressed on the orifice, and held there some time 
for the effused blood to coagulate. In obstinate 
cases, previous to the introduction of the plug, we 
may insert a little pounded ice, or snow, tied up in 
a rag, if it can be procured, but neither of these 
should be continued so long as to produce pain or 
much shivering. In addition to this mode of treat- 
ment, it will be advisable to have recourse to as- 
tringent medicines as advised in immoderate flow of 
the menses. 

Indian arrow root, sago, panado, rice milk, &c. 
constitute a proper regimen in this disease. If the 
process be protracted and the strength much im- 
paired, the diet may be more liberal. In every 
case ripe fruit is safe and useful. The bowels are 
to be kept regular, and sleep, if necessary, is to be 
procured by an anodyne. 

It requires great attention to prevent abcrliou 
in subsequent pregnancies, whenever it has hap- 
pened. 

In all such cases, it will be highly necessary to 
attend to the usual habitudes and constitution of 
the woman, and to remove that condition which it; 
found to dispose to abortion, which may be don? 
by attending to the rules already laid down. 



The Family Physician. 195 

Of Labor. 
Labor generally happens in about nine calender 
months, that is, from thirty-nine to forty weeks. — 
In some cases (his time is considerably shortened, 
and, in others is certainly protracted. There are 
two methods of reckoning, viz. from the time ob- 
struction takes place, and from the sensation o£ 
quickening. If the former be depended on the 
date of conception should betaken at a fortnight 
before obstruction; if the latter be preferred, five 
callender months may be allowed from the time 
that the movement of the infant was distinctly 
I rceived. 
There are three different steps in the delivery of 

Id: First, the mouth of the womb must be 

uaily opened ; second, the child must be expel- 
led; and third, the after-birth must be thrown off", 
Tne first of these effects must be accomplished by 

epeated contractions of the womb, which pro- 
duce sharp or grinding pains. The second is fulfil- 
led by more forcible efforts, productive of bearing 

i pains, which at last, increase to great severi- 
ty. The third takes place a short time after (he 
child is born, and is attended with very slight pain. 
These pains proceed from the attempt made by 
nature to dilate the mouth of the womb, and they 
must be continued until this be accomplished. The 
complete dilation is assisted, and rendered both eas- 
ier, and frequently more speedy, by ihe protrusion 
through the mouth of the womb, of part of the mem- 
branous hag, which contains the child and the wa- 
ter. The degree to which it is pushed out of the 
womb, during a pain, varies much in different cases. 
Sometimes it forms a very slight projection, at oth- 
er times it is very bulky, being little less than the 
child's head. When the membranes begin to be 
pushed the water is said to "gather." 

■ rnouth of the womb being considerably 

I, efforts are next made ti own liie 

child, or to empty the womb. There produce a 



196 The Family Physician. 

change in the pains, which are attended with a lit- 
tle inclination to press down. This gradually in- 
creases, and, at last, the sensation of hearing down 
becomes very strong and irresistable ; and it is ob- 
served, that though the pains are strong and forcing, 
they are productive of less complaint than those 
which, in the beginning of labor, appeared to be 
less severe. There is a great variety in the dura- 
tion of this part of the process. It is sometimes 
gradual and slow, in other cases sudden and rapid. 
The pains may be strong and forcing, and have very 
little interruption, or they may come on at very reg- 
ular intervals of ease. 

During this period the membranous bag, inwhich 
the child lies, usually bursts, and the water which 
it contains is discharged. This event is succeeded 
by an increase of the pain, which becomes more 
forcing, and the spirits of the woman rise in propor 
tion. At length the head of the child comes to the 
birth, and, by repeated efforts, is at last expelled. 
This is followed by the gradual delivery of the bo- 
dy. After an interval of ease, one or two slight 
pains are felt, which serve to throw olf and expel 
ihe after-birth. The duration of this process is va- 
rious, but it is generally longer in a first child than 
afterwards. This is particularly the case with re- 
gard to the second stage. Some women are uniform- 
ly expeditious, others always tedious. Some have 
the Jirsl stage slow, and the second quick; some have 
»"he water discharged early, others not until the 
child is born. Some have much sickness, or retch- 
mg, or shaking; others none at all. In short, there 
is a great variety in these respects with different 
<vomen, or even with the same woman in different 
labors. In a natural labor, the whole course is con- 
eluded within twenty-four hours after its commence- 
ment, often in a much shorter period. 

When a woman, after a preceding day of ease, 
and unusual activity, about the period of her k ck- 
oning, begins to feel some restlessness about her, 



The Family Physician. 1 97 

with occasional pains in her loins, and side; if she 
further perceive thrtt the bulk of her belly has fall- 
en, that the motion of the child has not been for 
some time so sensibly, frequently, felt, and thatshe 
has a nervous hurry of spirits upon her, with a fe- 
verish glow of heat, she may then conclude that na- 
ture feels an inclination to prepare her for the ter- 
mination of her pregnancy. 

When labor has actually commenced, the bed on 
which the patient is to be delivered should be prop- 
erly prepared, that it may not remain wet and disa- 
greeable after delivery. It should be placed in such 
a situation that the room may be freely ventilated,, 
without exposing the patient to a current of air. 
mattrass is to be put uppermost, as being more 
comfortable than a feather bed when it is not daily 
made up. A folded blanket, or dressed sheep-skin 
is put next to this in order to prevent it from being 
wet and soiled. Over this the undermost bed-sheet 
is thrown, and the bed made up as usual. After- 
wards, a sheet, in five or six folds, is laid across the 
bed, and these being removed when the child is de- 
livered, and the woman is laid up, she finds herself 
dean and dry, without further trouble. 

Every thing ought to be in readiness before it can 
possibly be needed, particularly the baby-linen and 
such articles of dress as the mother may require. 
The dress of the woman, during labor, ought to be 
as li., r ht and simple as possible, and so prepared that 
it m \y not be necessary to disturb them soon after 
delivery, by a change of apparel. When this :s 
properly managed, they avoid an unreasonable fa- 
tigue, and the hazard arising from linen which may 
not have been cautiously aired. Little things are 
often ol great importance, and are sometimes found 
so when (oo late. 

Premature labor is sometimes threatened by 
pains, which produce, for awhile, some real change 
in the womb, sufficient even to eive the practition- 
er just rLa?on to expect that they will terminate ; r> 
a2 



198 The Family Physician. 

delivery. Bat things again recover their pristine 
state, the alarm of nature subsides, and the woman 
proceeds in her pregnancy, for several days longer, 
and sometimes for weeks. 

As the change in the womb above mentioned does 
certainly occur, even on a false alarm, it should put 
young and female practitioners on their guard, lest 
they promote labor too hastily either by general 
treatment, or any manual operation; for these would 
only fruitlessly tease the patient, when the judi- 
cious exhibition of an anodyne would do every 
thing that can be wished for. 

When in consequence of irregular premature 
pains, the membranes containing the water with 
which the child is surrounded have been broken be- 
fore labor has really commenced, it must be expect- 
ed soon to take place, though if the pains should 
have entirely ceased, on the discharge of the wa- 
ters, it may be delayed for some days; but it most 
frequently happens within twenty-four hours. 
There is nothing in this circumstance alarming. It 
may occasion the first part of labor slow, but not in 
any degree less safe in the end. It arises wholly 
from the fineness of the membranes, which contain 
the waters, and which must rupture in every labor, 
at some period or other, and hence the waters are 
unexpectedly discharged, in a gudden manner, with- 
out the least preceding pain. 

In a slow labor, especially if it be the commence- 
ment, the time commonly spent in the lying-in 
apartment might, with the more propriety, be pass- 
ed in the usual domestic habits. It would serve to 
less-en the too anxious expectation of a speedy de- 
livery, as vveil as to prevent the impatience ot the 
attendants, both of which are often improperly in- 
dulged. 

A sensible Woman should always consider, that in 
a slow labor she may be afflicted with many dislress- 
iug, or what have been called, false or spurious- 
it there are very few by which na<u~e does 



'fhe Family Physician. 199 

not mean some good in the end. She must, there- 
fort:, give her mind to patience, as all unnecessary 
interference would rather retard than assist the la- 
bor, and will only he employed by the designing or 
Ul'Sk'i i'ul. 

In the first stage of labor, the bowels should, if 
necessary, be emptied by a clyster, or a dose of some 
gentle aperient medicine. All heating drinks and 
stimulants are carefully to be avoided, as they in* 
l e the .latural tendency to fever which women 
have at that time, and the temporary vigor they in- 
duce is soon followed by a great degree of languor, 
that retards the delivery. 

V" >lent agitations of the body must be carefully 
guarded against, that the waters may not be prema- 
turely discharged, which might be productive of the 
worst consequences. For these reasons the fre- 
quent interference of the practitioner in the begin- 
ning of labor, esc ept where there is some unusual 
resistance to the opening of the womb, or the water 
has drained off too early, might do much harm, and 
could be attended with no good effects. At that pe- 
riod no medicine, or other expedient for increasing 
the force of the pains, should be prescribed, as the 
m- r : slowly the passages are enlarged, the less in- 
jury will (he patient suffer. In every instance she 
should be kept quiet and cool, though she ought not 
to i.e coi. fined to one position. She may be allow- 
ed to stand, walk, or sit, or remain in bed, as is most 
agreeable to her feelings; but she ought by no 
means, to stand so long or walk so much, by way of 
forwarding the labor, as is productive of fatigue; 
and, after the pains become very frequent and 
pressing, it will be, in general, most prudent not to 
c< ::i r - out of bed, 

When the first stage is nearly completed, the wo- 
man should be placed on her left si l< i • bed, with a 
folded pillow between her knees ► 

The bearing down pains, by which the child is 
forced through the passage, should be the eiL 



200 TVie Family *hysician, 

nature alone, and ought not to be assisted by the 
ex i lions of the mother; for, in that event, either 
tbe deliver} might be hurried on before the | 
ges are sufficiently prepared, or the woman would 
be so much worn out lhat she could not undergo 
thr necessary fatigue that attends the complete ex- 
pulsion of the infant. 

Voluntary bearing down must be particularly 
guarded against, at the time when the head of the 
child is only prevented from being born b) the soft 
parts at the outlet of the basin: for if the delivery 
then be hastened, these parts may be readily torn. 
T te utmost attention of the practitioner is indis- 
pensably necessary, to prevent so unfortunate an 
accident, in every ease where, from the acute feel- 
ing of the patient, violent bearing down at that pe- 
riod cannot be resisted. When the child's head 
press against the perineum, it should be supported 
b\ gently pressing with the hollow of the hand dur- 
ing the pain, to prevent its tearing. 

After the head of the child is excluded, the wo- 
man should be allowed to enjoy, for a little time, 
the temporary relief she feels, and therefore the bo- 
dy ought not to be immediately taken out with 
force, as is oft< j n done; for, besides the injuries 
which maybe occasioned by not allowing the patient 
a little rest, the extraction of the afterbirth will be 
therebv rendered difficult. Two or three minutes 
may therefore be allowed, before the body be drawn 
forward. 

If the patient have a rapid labor, and the mid 
wife is at a distance, she ought to be kept cons!... it- 
ly in bed, and refrain as much as possible from 
bearing down. If the child should be born before 
assistance is procured, the most experienced wo- 
man present should take the navel string between 
the thumb and finger, and. so soon a? - 
pulsation in (he cord stopped, ti 
near the navel, and apply another liguuie ; 
three inches from the fust, and cut i 



The Family Physician. 201 

these; or, if she be affraid to do this, the child must 
lie beside the mother till the midwife comes, taking 
care that the face be uncovered, to permit of breath- 
ing. 

Thi midwife must carefully attend to the degree 
and force of contraction, which the womb is dispos- 
ed to take on immediately, or soon after, the birth of 
the infant. The experienced practitioner will, in- 
deed, have a presentiment, even while it is coming 
into the world, of what is likely to take place after- 
wards, from the manner in which the expulsion of 
the infant is completed. This should fected 

slowly, as we have already observed, because such 
a practice favors that kind of action of the womb 
necessary to detach the after-birth . Premature or 
active endeavors to loosen it, must, however, be 
avoided, if its separation should not readily take 
place, by the seasonable contraction of the womb. 
Let the operations of nature be watched, she will 
prove the surest guide, though in this part of the 
delivery, she ought never to be wholly depended 

upon. 

We generally find, when there has not been any 
sudden or hurried delivery of the infant, the after- 
birth is soon expelled, without any assistance. 

A woman should avoid expressing any impatience 
about the expulsion of the after birth, as it might 
induce some practitioners to use that despatch 
winch many have done, that the patient or her 
friends might not insinuate that they were^ a long 
while in bringing away the after birth. This kind 
of censure is too frequently passed upon the just 
conduct of the midwife, from the improper preju- 
dice too often indulged in favor of a speedy delive- 
ry of the after-birth. Women are apt to deem that 
practitioner the most skilful, who is the shortest 
time in finishing that part of her labor. Fa- 
tal, therefore, have sometimes been the consequenc- 
es <»f this ill-judged management, particularly 
among the female practitioners. 



202 The Family Physician. 

It is a mi stake D idea, that iti general some exter- 
nal mechanical force is necessary in order to expel 
the placenta. We cannot, therefore, approve of 
the modes occasionally recommended, of coughing, 
sneezing, blowing on (he hack of the hand, or mik- 
ing general pressure over the belly, witn a view oi 
helping its descent, by any kind of tight bandage 
applied to the abdomen immediately alter the birth 
of the child. 

We would also observe that there can hardly ev- 
er be occasion for a woman to boar down during 
the delivery of (he placenta Indeed, on many oc- 
■ js it must be care full) avoided, lest it should 
produce, or increase, a disposition to the falling 
down of the womb. The throes which take place 
naturally, are caused by the contractions of the 
.womb; and with them alone the practitioner can, 
rally, in due season, safely bring it away. 

When the effects of nature do not tend to di 
the sec undines within an hour alter the birth 
p infant, the interference of art ought to be 
submitted to. For if it be not thrown off within a 
short lime after the infant is born, it becomes pu- 
trid, and induces an alarming fever, from which 
lew women have recovered. In assisting (he ex- 
pulsion of the after-birth, unless the practitioner 
w lit lor the contraction of the womb, that part may 
be turned inside out. This circumstance should 
be properly understood by all those who happen l© 
be out of the reach of regular assistance; for the 
patient's life, after an easy labor, may be d Iroyed 
by the rashness of an ignorant practitioner. By ex- 
plaining, however, the case of danger, those who 
are prevented from being under the care of persons 
ot skill, may thereby escape those hazards to which 
they might otherwise be exposed* 

The after-birth is generally fixed to the bottom 
•fthe womb, and a-; the greater portion of the womb 
*t the lull period of pregnancy, is not attached to 
the adjoining parts, if the navel string be pulled vi- 



The Family Physician. 203 

olentlj before the after birth be separated, the 
womb must be turned inside out, the ordinary con- 
sequence of which is fatal. 

When the grinding pains are felt, by which the 
contiac'ion of the womb is distinguished, the prac- 
titioner should assist by gently pulling the naval- 
string during a pain, and by endeavoring to bring 
down the after-birth through the basin, in such a 
manner that its progress may not be interrupted by 
any of the neighboring parts. 

Until the afterbirth is expelled, the patient and 
midwife should be attentive lest there should be a 
great discharge, and if this occur no time is to be 
lost in checking it. This is done by exciting the 
contraction of the womb, by the application of 
cloths wet with cold water, to the lower part of the 
belly and to the passage, or by pouring cold water 
out of a pitcher from a height on the abdomen: 
and also by the introduction of the hand of the mid- 
wife to stimulate the womb. Some do this for the 
sole object of extracting the placenta, considering 
the retention of this as the cause of the flooding.. — 
But this is wrong, and the mere extraction of (he 
placenta can only do good, so far as the introduc- 
tion of the hand and the means used to effect this, 
serve to excite the action of the womb itself. 

We do not approve of a free and indiscriminate 
use of greasy applications, in the progress of tabor. 
They are wholly unnecessary in the first stage cfit, 
and in the hitler part they interfere with the chang- 
es which then t;>ke place naturally, and produce 
that mucous >e( ret ion, by which the parts are most 
favorably lubricated, for the easy termination of 
the labor. But after the complete removal of the 
placenta, it will be proper to apply a small quanti- 
ty of pomatum or fresh hud, \o defend the parts 
from the a< rwanony of the ensuing discharg -. 

nent of Child-Bed, 

A child-bed woman, so soon as all the circumstan- 



204k The Family Physician. 

ces of her labor have been adjusted, may with pro 
pr'uty, consider herself as stili in a state ot health, 
and as requiring tittle more than the common cau- 
tions, and good management on all occasions neces- 
sary to preserve it. 

The first hours after delivery, provided some 
light nourishment has been taken, should be dedica- 
ted to quiet and sleep; and no person should be al- 
lowed to enter the patient's chamber, except such 
as are absolutely necessary. The chamber door 
and even the windows, if the weather be warnv 
should be opened; and the room, in every respect, 
kept as clean and as free from every disagreeable 
smell, as any other part of the house. 

The patient should often be supplied with clean 
linen,well aired; for cleanlinesa-and pure airfare es- 
sential in this situation; and upon the strictest ex- 
amination^ appears that there never was miliary 
eruption produced without a sweat, nor puerperal 
fever without foul air. The heat of the room ought 
to be so tempered, that the patient may neither be 
chilled with cold, nor jet suffer from sweat or burn- 
tag. 

The strictest attention should be observed-to have 
an evacuation daily, by the use, if necessary, of 
mild laxatives, or by the exhibition of clysters com- 
posed of milk, oil and sugar, or of soap-suds. It is 
a security against fever and inflammation, and even 
forms one prneipal mode of relief when they oc- 
cur. An equal regard should also be paid to get 
out of the bed as soon as they ran with propriety, 
and to setup as long as possible without fatiguing 
themselves. 

Women were formerly obliged to remain in bed 
for a certain number of days after delivery, by 
which they were much weakened and fatigued. In 
modern times the practice has passed from one ex- 
treme to another. 

This circumstance should surely be regulated 
according to the strength of the patient. When 



The Fumily Physician. 205 

the woman feels that she can easily undergo the fa- 
tigue of rising, which in ordinary cases, happens 
about the second, third, or fourth day, she ought to 
be taken out of bed that it may be properly adjust- 
ed. If she be made to sit upright, she will suffer 
considerable uneasiness, and, at the same time the 
bulky womb, (for that organ does not ivsume its 
natural state till two or three weeks alter delive- 
ry,) pressing forcibly on the soft parts at the bot- 
tom of the basin, the foundation lor a very trouble- 
some and disagreeable complaint, viz the falling 
down of the womb must unavoidably be laid. She 
ought, therefore, to be placed in a position hall sit- 
ting and half lying, when out of bed, as loi g as the 
womb continues enlarged, by which means these 
inconveniences will be avoided. 

For the same reason, walking, even from one 
room to another, at least as long as thelochial dis- 
charge continues, and the womb is bulk) is highly 
improper. Many women boast that tin > have been 
able to go through the whole house within a few 
days after their delivery; but they often find, at a 
subsequent period of life, by the complaints which 
they suffer, that they had little cam to be satisfied 
wiih their own prudence, or the attention of the 
practitioner who indulged them in such liberties. 



Diseases of Child- Bed. 

After Pains. — Shortly after delivery, these usual- 
ly come on, and with some women prove temarka- 
bly severe. The quicker the labor has been, the 
slighter will they prove in general. Women with 
their first child, are seldom much troubled with af- 
ter pains: but as the womb contracts less readily 
after each future labor, so they are more liable to 
suffer from them in eaeh succeeding delivery, 
in the first. 

When after-pain? prove so troublesome as fc 
;:t of her rest, it will 
to have recourse to opiates. He hs*.ar 



206 The Family ^hysiaan. 

bladders filled with warm water, may be applied 
as an external fomentation. These means are to 
be assisted by keeping up a sufficient pressure on 
the belly at the same time, by means of a broad 
bandage. 

Costiveness — is apt to prevail after delivery, and 
should always be removed b) a laxative gljster, or 
some gentle purgative, such as a solution of some 
neutral salt and manna, or about an ounce of castor 
oil. 

Flow of the Lochia. — In all women, a quantity of 
blood is discharged after delivery, produced by the 
removal of the placenta, which thereby lays bare 
the mouths of the bloodvessels in the inside of the 
womb ; and this commonly continues until the womb 
contracts to such a size as to close them up again. 
The discharge for the four or five first days consists 
usually of florid blood, alter which time it assumes 
a mucous appearance, and so ceases gradually. 

In weak and relaxed habits, it sometimes hap- 
pens, that, instead of saturating a cloth now and 
then as is natural to all woiien, the blood gushes 
out with such rapidity and violence as fo run quick- 
ly through all the bed clothes, and even to soak 
through the bed itself; in which case the patient 
willb* reduced to a state of great debility, if the 
flow of blood is not soon restrained. To effect this 
ttie means recommended for immoderate flow of the 
menses, must be adopted. 



The. Milk Fever. 
About the third or fourth day after delivery, the 
breasts become turbid and painful, from the secre- 
tion of miik which then takes place in them. — 
When this is moderate and free, no incotrvenience 
will be experienced; but when copious and accom- 
panied by any obstruction in the lactiferous lubes, 
in consequence of the use of some repellent appli- 
cation, c: r of an exposure to cold, the breasts will 
'hen become hard, and painful, and a small fever 



The Family Fhysician. 207 

will arise, accompanied by nausea, restlessness, 
pains in the head and back, and a considerable de- 
gree ui thirst. 

To prevent any consequences of this kind, it will 
always be advisable to apply the child to the 
breasts at a very early period afterbirth. By de- 
laying to do so immediately on the secretion of 
miik commencing, the breasts are not only apt t« 
become much enlarged and distended, but the nip- 
ples are often so much retracted, that the child can- 
not lay hold of them without the greatest difficulty. 

Where the mother's health will not admit of her 
suckling the child, or any other thing happens to 
prevent it, she should be careful to have her breasts 
drawn three or four times a day by some other per- 
and with a view of preventing a copious se- 
cretion of milk, she should use a very spare diet, 
keep her body perfectly open with laxative medi- 
cines, and' abstain as much as possible from all li- 
quids. This mode of proceeding will be far pref- 
erable to the use of repellent applications to dry 
up, or put a stop to the secretion. 

If any degree of (ever arises, besides confining 
the patient to a spare diet, she should be >cpt qui- 
et, and avoid costiveness by means of cooling laxa- 
tives. 



Inflammations and Tumors in the Breasts. 

From exposure to cold, and neglecting to put the 
child at an early period to the breasts, or get them. 
drawn by some other person, accidents of this na- 
ture happen very frequently to lying-in women. 

With respect to the mode of treating these kind 
of tumors, a discussion of them ought by all means 
to be attempted on its first appearance: the distress 
and pain which always attend on a suppuration of 
the breasts being very throat. When the inflamma- 
tion and swelling have been of such Ions; standing 
as to show an evident I > to suppurate,, any 

attempt to discuss the tumor will not be advisable. 



208 The Family Physician. 

Where discussion is proper the strength is to be 
supported by a cool span; diet; the tody is to be 
kept perfectly open with mild laxatives, pain and 
irritation are to be allayed by small doses of opium; 
and the inflammation, when considerable, is to be 
allayed by the application of linen cloths dipped iu 
some sedative lotion, such as liquor acetate of am- 
monia, rectified spirits and pure water of each 
equal paits. To assist the effect ot these means* 
the breasts are to be evacuated frequently through- 
out the day, but more particularly the one diseas- 
ed, either by the infant or some other person accus- 
tomed to the business. When they are so much- 
swelled as not to allow of laying hold of the nipple, 
the proper glasses made for that purpose should be 
employed. 

If the tumor proceeds io suppuration, notwith- 
standing we mav have used every endeavor to pre- 
vent it, we should then assist the operations of na- 
tare l.y the application of emollient poultices and 
fomentations. As so:>n ;is the suppuration is com- 
pleted, the tumor should be opened, after which it 
may be dressed with dry lint, and a pledget spread 
with some kind of digestive ointment be laid over 
all. Should any fresh suppuration ensue, which 
not unfrequently happens, the same mode of treat- 
ment must be adopted : and that proper pus may be 
formed, the Peruvian bark, with a moderate quan- 
tity of wine, will be necessary. 

GLOSSARY, OR EXPLANATION OF TECHNICS. 

Abdomen, the belly. 

Abortion, miscarriage. 

Abcess, a tumor containing matter. 

Absorbents, medicines to correct acidity. 

Accelerate, to quicken. 

Acrid, sharp and corrosive. 

After-birth, is the substance connecting the child 

with the mother in the womb. 
After pains, pains that occur after labor. 



7%e Family Physician. 209 

Alkali, any substance which mingled with acid pro- 

duces fermentation. 
A itiphlogistic, counteracting inflammation. 
A it scorbutic, good for scurvy. 
Antispasmodic, that which tends to prevent or re- 
move spasm. 
Antiseptics, medicines to correct putridity or rot- 
tenness. 
Aperient, opening. 
Aromatic, spicy, pungent. 

Astringents, medicines to correct looseness and de- 
bility. 
Bile, or Gall, a fluid secreted by the liver into the 
gall-bladder, and thence discharged into the in- 
testines for the purpose of promoting digestion. 
Bolus, a form of medicine in a masslarger than pills. 
Calculous, stony or gravelly. 
Callous, hard or firm. 
Capsule, a dry hollow vessel containing the seeds of 

plants, &lc. 
Cataplasm, a poultice or soft plaster. 
Catarrh, a discharge from the throat or. head. 

Cathartic, a purge. 

Caustics, burning applications. 

Cautery, the act of burning with a hot iron or caus 
tic. 

Cutaneous, belonging to the skin. 

Contagion, infectious matter. 

Contusion, a bruise. 

Convulsions, violent motions, fits. 

Corrosive, substances that consume or eat away., 

Debility, weakness. 

D coction, a preparation by bailing. 

Deleterious, poisonous, deadly. 

Delirium, light headedness. 

D^n-niicent, softening, sheathing, 

Di iphoretic, promoting sweat, 

.Diarrhoea, looseness. 

]) : ibet 59, incontinence of urine. 

Diuretic, whatever promotes the secretion of urkei 



210 The Family Phy stria*. 

Dyspeptic, bad digestion. 

Efflorescence, eruption, or the redness round it* 

Effluvia, exhalation. 

Epidemic, contagious. 

Eructation, a belch. 

Excoriation, loss of skin* 

Exhibit, to administer. 

Expectoration, a discharge from the breast 

Extremities, arms and legs. 

Febrifuge, removing fever. 

Febrile, feverish. 

Foetid, of an offensive smell. 

Flatulent, producing wind. 

Flooding, an overflow of the menses. 

Fomentation, partial bathing, by the application ci 

flannels dipped in liquids. 
Friction, the act of rubbing. 
Fungus, proud flesh. 
Fumigation, a vapor raised by burning. 
Gargle, a wash for the mouth and throat. 
Gland, a secretory organ. 
Hemorrhage, a flow of blood. 
Hepatic, relating to the liver. 
Hypochondriacal, melancholy, low spirits. 
Immersion, plunging under water. 
Indigestible, difficult of digestion. 
Infection, contagion. 

Inflammation, an increased action in the part. 
Infusion, steeping any thing in liquor without boiL 

ing, as tea is made. 
Intestines, the internal part of the body. 
Languor, want of spirits or strength. 
Laxatives, relieving costiveness. 
Ligature, a bandage, any thing tied round another. 
Liniment, a composition of the consistence of oil. 
Lochial Discharge, or Cleansings, a discharge from 

the womb. 
Membrane, a web of fibres interwoven, for covering 

certain parts. 

Menses, ) .. .... 

■». . ' • > the monthly courses* 
Menstruation, $ J 



Tiie Family Physician, 21 1 

Morbid, diseased, corrupt. 

Mir ilage, a glutinous, slimy substance. 

Mucus, resembling the matter discharged from the 
nose, lungs, &c. 

Narcotics, medicines producing torpor and sleep. 

Nausea, an inclination to vomit. 

Nervous, irritable. 

Oblong, considerably longer than broad, and nar- 
rowed, though rounded at the ends. 

Opiates, medicines which promote sleep. 

Paralytic, relating to palsy. 

Paroxism, a periodical fit or attack. 

Phlegmatic, relax d and abounding with phlegm. 

Phlogistic, inflammatory. 

Placenta, see After Birth. 

Plethoric, of a full habit. 

Preternatural, unusual, not natural. 

Puerperal, of, or belonging to child-bed. 

P il.nonary, belonging to the lungs. 

Pu<, matter. - 

Regimen, regulation of food, air, exercise, &c. 

Retention, the retaining some natural discharge- 

Rbeumf, an acrid discharge. 

Saline, consisting of salt. 

Saliva, spittle. 

Scorbutic, of, or belonging to scurvy. 

Scrofulous, of, or belonging to the king's evif. 

Secretion, the separation of fluids from the body. 

Secui'dines, the after-birth and membranes. 

Sedatives, composing medicines. 

Serous, thin, watery. 

Serrated, notched like a saw. 

Slough, the parts that separate from a sore- 
Spasm, crimp, convulsion. 

Specific, an infallible remedy. 

Stimulants, irritative medi-mes. 

Stomachic, medicine for the stomach. 

Strangury, a difficulty of making water. 

Su lonties. medicines to promote sweating 

Syncope, fainting. 



212 



The Family Physician* 



Tetany, locked jaw. 

Tonic, strengthening. 

Topical, local. 

Tumor, a swelling. 

Ulcer, a sore. 

Umbilical cord, the navel string. 

Urethra, the canal which conveys the urine* 

Uterus, the womb. 

Vagina, the passage to the womb. 

Ventilation, a free admission of air. 

Virulent, poisonous. 

Vermifuge, worm dispelling medicines. 

Vertigo, giddiness. 

Viscera, the entrails. 

Viscid, glutinous, tenacious. 

Whites, the discharge from the womb. 



Abortion 

After-pains, to relieve 109 

Ague 84,98,115 



Alkaline mixture 


97 


American Columbo 


13* 


Ipecac 


122 


Apoplectic Fits 


48 


Arrow root 


141 


Artificial Musk 


94 


Asthma 41, 67 


Avens, common 


151 


Back-ach break 


153 


Balmony 


147 


Balm of Gilead Oil 


86 


B; lsam 


108 


Balsamic Ether 


59 


Basilicon 


99 


Barberry 


117 


Bayberry 


ib. 


Syrup of 


66 


Bear's foot 


167 


Bedonian plant 


169 


Beth root 


151 


Beverage fora weak 




constitution 


87 


Pilious Colic 


72 



INDEX. 

191 Bite of a Rattle snake 6* 
Mud dog 33, 64, 94. 
Bitters 104 

Bitter root 172 

Blackberry jam 87 

Black Snake root 123 

BJack Snake weed 150 

Blackberry powder 91 

Blazing star 133 

Bleeding, to stop 72 

Blood, to purify 109 

Blood root 118 

Bloody urine 64 

Boerhave's fever powder 61 
Bowman's root 122 

Broomrape 152 

Bruise, to prevent from 

swelling 50 

Bruised eye 99 

Burdock 119 

Bii'-n or scald 60 

Cancer 101,102 

Armenian remedy for 88 
Carbuncle 57 

Carrot poultice 97 

Caraway 121 



The Family Physician. 



215 



Carpenter's square 109 
Calamus 135 

Camomile 120 

Cathartic powder 80 

Cayenne 1:>G 

Celandine 134 

Centaury 135 

Chicken or swine pox 33 
Chickweed, red 152 

description of &c. 170 
Cinquet'oil 134 

Cholera Morbus 107 

Chi Id-bed, tnanagement203 
Clap 35 

Cohush 130 

Cold -83 

Colt's foot 135 

Columbo, American 138 
Comfrey 130 

Compound tincture of 

lavender 97 

Consumption 17, 85, 60 
Contracted joints 84 

Contraction of the sin- 
ews, <fec. 70 
Convulsions 64 
Cordials 106 
Corns 65, 101 
Cough powder 65 
Cough 100, 104, 107 
Cramp 88 
Crane's bill 137 
Crow foot 124 
Daffy's elixir 90 
"Dandelion 125 
Deafness 89 
Demulcent drinks 109 
Devil's bit, or blazing 

star 133 

Diarrboea 68 

Diabetes 63 

Diet drink 95 

Dill > 133 

Diseases of pregnancy 185 
of the stomach 82 

ofcbild-bed 205 

Diuretic powder 80 

Dog-wood 141 



Dover's powder 7& • 

Drinking cold water,to 

prevent the ill effects 8& 
Draggon's claw 142 

Drops 10S 

Dropsy 72, 82 

Dy cntery 104, 111 

I);, pepsia 4'2, 110 

Directions for the col- 
lection and preserva- 
tion of vegetable sub- 
stances 173 
Edge leaf 165 
Elixir vitriol 59 
Elecampane 128 
Emetic for children 105 
Emetic weed 127 
Epileptic Fits 50, 65 
Electuary 91 
Ergot 139 
Erysipelas 55 
Explanation of weights 

and measures 174 

Eye water 60 

Edinburg 91 

Eye salve 98 

Eallirg down of the 

womb 69 

ofthe palate 64 

Fellon 84 

Featherfew 120 

Fern, female 153 

Fever Bush or Spice 

wood 140 

Fever, intermittent 7 

remittent 8 

typhus 9 

maligna 11 

Yellow 12 

Fever root 142 

Fistula 61 

Flax seed 164 

Fluor albus 184 

Flux 72, 83, 91 

Fresh wounds 108 

Friar's balsam 85 

Spearmint 167 

Spitting of blood 59, 107 



c 2li 

Frost bite 
Frost wort 
Frozen limbs 
Garlic 

Garden thyme 
Gentian 
Geranium 



The Family Physician. 



106 
132 
92 
153 
144 
119 
187 



Giddiness in the head 92 
Ginseng 131 

GLeet 37 

Golden thread 140 

Golden seal 166 

Gonorrhoea, or clap 35 

Goose grass 153 

Grand ptisan 95 

Ground holly 154 

Hart's tongue 164 

Healing ointment 66 

Head-ach - 115 

Heart's ease or herb 

trinity 146 

Hemlock . 166 

Hemp, common 172 

Herbs, description of 116 
Hernia 22 

umbilical i.'3 

Hierapicra 74 

Horehound 103 

Hog bed or hog weed 154 
Horeseness 03 

Hooded widow herb 149 
Horse radish 126 

Hull's cclic pills 74 

Hydrophobia, or bite of 

a mad dog 33, 94 

Hypochondriac disease 19 
Hysop 122 

I'.-eplant ib 

ludian hemp 119 

Indian physic 122 

ludian snake root 167 

Indian tobacco 127 

Irdian turnip 128 

Indigestion 42 

Inflammatory sore throatl3 
fumigation for 69 
Inward weakness 107 

Infusion of senna and 



manna 114 

of senna and cream 
tartar ib 

of j'heubarh with pot- 
ass and soda ib 
Itch ointment 82, 96 
Intermitent fever 7 
Ipecacuanha wine 9T 
Inflammation and tum- 
ors in the breast 207 
Jaundice 63,93,104 
King's evil 25, 63 
King's evil root 150 
Kirkuma 166 
Labor 195 
Lady in the bower 165 
Liniments 79 
cf oil and lime ib. 
camphorated oil ib. 
volatile ib. 
Lichen or lungwort 147 
Life wort 155 
Lily of the valey 140 
Liver complaint 108 
Lobelia inflata 127 
B) phylitica 121 
Long' pills 95 
Management of child- 
bed 203 
Maiden hair 165 
Male fern ]33 
Mandrake orMay applel55 
Marsh mallow 146 
Master wort 121 
Measles 16 
Menstruation 180 
Menses, immoderate 
flow of 181 
suppression of 182 
Meaereon 157 
Milk, or silk weed 155 
Millfoil 142 
Mistletoe of the oak 14Q 
Milk »ever 206 
Mortification 56 
to stop 109 
Mother wort 124 
Mountain, tea 126 



The Family Physician. 



215 



Mouih root 
Mugwort 
Mullen 
Mulberry tree 

Mumps 



140 
129 
156 

ib. 

14 



Mustard, black & whitel56 
Negro head 168 

Nervous disease 19,62 

Niglit mare 32 

Obstruction of the men- 
ses 105, 182 
Ointments, for tetter 84 
yellow basilicum 76 
tar ib. 
simple ib. 
Oxvmel of garlic 95 
Old sores 108 
Pain in the breast 104 
Palsy 30 
Pains 83 
Pennyroyal 135 
Peppermint 145 
Persons apparently kill- 
ed by lightning, how 
to restore 21 
Pile ointment 66 
Pills, laxative 73 
<w" .noes <So assafoetida 73 
mercurial 100 
purgative 73 
of opium and ipecac 74 
opiate HO 
of myrrh 74 
Hull's colic ib. 
antispasmodic 80 
of calomel and jalap 102 
cathartic 80 
vegetable 102 
diuretic 81 
diaphoretic ib. 
expectorant ib. 
tonic and purgative ib. 
Pink root 147 
Pleurisy 27,63,85 

bastard 
Plantain 158 

Pleurisy root 126 

P sters, common 75 



sticking or adhesive 76 

Poppoose root 130 

Poke weed 162 

Potato, wild 145 

Powder of the gums 75 

Pox 39 

Pregnancy, diseases of It 5 

Prickly ash K9 

Ptisan 95 

Putrid sore throat 68 

tiuukingasp 168 

Q-ueen of the meadow 136 

Q,uinsey 13 

Rag weed 148 

Raspberry 136 

Rattle snake root 144 

Rattle snake's master 150 

Red chick weed 152 

description of &c. 170 

Red pepper 136 

Rose noble 169 
Rheumatism 63, 99 

Rupture 111 

Salves and ointments 76 

for burns 106 

simple ">Q 

yellow basilicum ib. 

Sarsaparilla 3 22 

Sampson snake root 158 

Saponaceous draught 95 

Scul cap 194 
Sea sickness 
Scrofula 

Seminal weakness 38 

Seneca snake root 144 

use of, <^rc. 173 

Shortness of breath 87 
Radcliff's syrup forib. 
Sick head-ach 95, 103 

Skunk cabbage 167 

Snake head 147 

Snake weed, black 150 

Soap wort 158 

Sore throat 103 
Sore mouth-in children 110 

Sorrel 149 

Sour dock 171 

Spurred rye I(j9 



216 



The Family Physirinn. 



Spire wood 140 

Sprain 69,96 

in the back 87 

Spikenard 146 

Squaw root 130 

Squirrel ear 165 

St. \nthony's fire 55,69 
StifTjoints 72 

Stomach, to strengthen 73 
elixir 90 

Stone or gravel 87 

Strengthening plaster 112. 
Strawberry 159 

Stone or stoppage in the 

kidneys 64 

Sumach 144 

use of, &c> 171 

Sweet flag 135 

Sweet violet 143 

Swelled face 92 

Syrup, simple 76 

of lemons 77 

of ginger lb. 

of boneset 113 

for dysentery 104 

of lemoos 113 

of Seneca snake 

root 113 

of hoarhound it. 

Tansy 125 

Tape worm 112 

Tetters, eruptions, &c. 84 

Tinctures and elixirs 77 

of myrrh 66 

of senna 77 

of assafoetida 78 

of jalap 62 

df guaiac 78 

of myrrh and aloes 77 

of bark 78 

of boneset 113 

laudanum 78 

Stoughton's 90 

of rhubarb 79—115 

paregoric 78 

of balsam Toiu 7*) 

Cough 107 

=of lavender comp. 97 



of myrrh and lobe- 
lia seeds comp. 115 
Tonic powder HO 
Toothache HO 
to prevent 99 
Thornapple 148 
Thorcughwort 123 
Thyme 144 
Turlington's balsam 62 
Ulcers 57 
Valerian, wild 143 
Vegetable heating pow' 

ders 65 
Venereal disease 35 — 103 

injections for 99 

Vervain 168 

Vespetro 71 

Virginia snake root 123 

Virgin's iiower 162 

Violet rattle snake 125 
Wash for numbed and 

trembling hands 93 

Water cresses 160 

Weak stomach 71 

West-India bitters 70 
Whites 67—184 

White swelling 24 

to put back 64 

White walnut 170 

Whooping cough 72 

Wild madder 13Q 

Wild allspice 140 

W 7 ild ginger 135 

Wild potato 145 

Wild sunflower 168 

Willow 161 

Wind in the veins 71 

Witch hazel 168 

Worms 68 

Wormwood 129 

Wounds 51 

lacerated 52 

contused 53 

punctured in. 

inward 112 

oil for 63 
Wounded tendons 

Yarrow 142 



I 



I