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3SntercD according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1839, 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 

Wm. S. Young, Printer. 



My dear Doctor, 

When I dedicated the first edition of this work to you, we were colleagues 
in the University of Virginia. Since that period, we have been placed in 
various relations with regard to each other; and in all you have maintained 
those sterling qualities which led me at the time to inscribe it to you. 
Need I add, that I embrace with eagerness the opportunity a sixth time af- 
forded me of manifesting to you the regard and esteem with which I am 

Faithfully Yours, 




It is not necessary for the author to say more, as a preface to 
this sixth edition of his dictionary, than that he has bestowed the 
same care on its revision and improvement, which he did on the 
others. In proof of this, he may remark, that the present edi- 
tion comprises nearly two thousand five hundred subjects and terms 
not contained in the last. Many of these have been introduced 
into medical terminology in consequence of the progress of the 
science; and others had escaped him in previous revisions. 

It is the author's anxious wish to render the work a satisfactory 
and desirable — if not indispensable — Lexicon, in which the student 
may search without disappointment for every term that has been 
legitimated in the nomenclature of the science. This desidera- 
turn he is enabled to attempt in successive editions, by reason of 
the work not being stereotyped ; and the present edition certainly 
offers stronger claims to the attention of the practitioner and stu- 
dent than any of its predecessors. 

It is but an act of justice to add, that for the general typogra- 
phical accuracy of the work, the author is greatly indebted to the 
assiduity bestowed on his department by Mr. Young, who printed 
also the three preceding editions. 


Philadelphia, 109 South Tenth Steeet, ) 
May,1846. 5 



The present undertaking was suggested by the frequent complaints, made 
by the author's pupils, that they were unable to meet with information on 
numerous topics of professional inquiry, — especially of recent introduction, — 
in the medical dictionaries accessible to them. 

It may, indeed, be correctly affirmed, that we have no dictionary of me- 
dical subjects and terms which can be looked upon as adapted to the state of 
the science. In proof of this, the author need but remark, that he has found 
occasion to add several thousand medical terms, which are not to be met with 
in the only medical lexicon at this time in circulation in the country. 

The present edition will be found to contain many hundred terms more 
than the first, and to have experienced numerous additions and modifications. 

The author's object has not been to make the work a mere lexicon or dic- 
tionary of terms, but to afford, under each, a condensed view of its various 
medical relations, and thus to render the work an epitome of the existing 
condition of medical science. In its preparation, he has freely availed him- 
self of the English, French, and German works of the same nature, and has 
endeavoured to add every subject and term of recent introduction, which 
has fallen under his notice; yet, with all his care, it will doubtless be found 
that subjects have been omitted. The numerous additions, however, which 
he has made, and his strong desire to be useful, "by removing rubbish and 
clearing obstructions from the paths through which learning and genius press 
forward to conquest and glory," will, he trusts, extenuate these and other 
objections that might be urged against the work; especially when the toil, 
which every compiler of a dictionary must endure, is taken into considera- 
tion; a toil which has been so forcibly depicted by the great English Lexi- 
cographer, as well as by the distinguished Scaliger: 

" Si quelqu'un a commis quelque crime odicux, 
S'il a tuo son pere, ou blaspheme les Dieux, 
Qu'il fasse un Lexicon: s'il est supplice au montle 
Qui le punissc mieux, je veux que Ton me tonde." 


If the simple synonymy of any term be needed, a mere reference to the 
term may be sufficient; but if farther information be desired, it may be ob- 
tained in the body of the work, under the term referred to. For example, 
the French word Tronc is said to be synonymous with Trunk. This may 
be sufficient: should it not, the requisite information may be found by turn- 
ing to Trunk. 














F. or Fah. 














Ph. D. 

Pharmacopoeia of Dublin. 

Ph. E. 


of Edinburgh 

Ph. L. 


of London. 

Ph. P. 


of Paris. 

Ph. U. S. 


of America, 
(Edit. 1842. 





S. G. 

Specific Gravity. 







A, before a consonant; An before a vowel, a, 
ar, have, in the compound medical terms, a 
privative or debasing signification, like that of 
the particles in, im, an, ir t in English. Thus: 
Slkeni'a means strength. Asthcni'a, want of 
strength. Anaemia, want of blood, &c. Occa- 
sionally, in compound words, thej r have an in- 
tensive meaning. 

AACHEN, Aix-la Chapelle. 

A, or a a. See Abbreviation. 

is in the canton of Berne in Switzerland. The 
chief spring contains chlorides of calcium and 
sodium, sulphates of lime and soda, oxyd of iron, 
and sulphohydric acid gas. 

sulphuretled saline spring, not far fromRatisbon 
or Recrontsberg in Bavaria. 

ABAISSEMEJYT, Depression: see Cataract 
— a. i!e la Matrice, Prolapsus uteri. 

pressor alas nasi — a. de Vangle des levres, De- 
pressor angnli oris — a. de la levre infcrieure, 
Depressor labii inferioris — a. de la Machoire in- 
fcrieure, Digastricus — a. de Cecil, Rectus inferior 

ABA LIEN A'TUS. Corrup'lus. Corrupted, 
from ab, and alienus, 'different.' Membra aba- 
liena'la. Limbs dead, or benumbed. — Cclsus, 
Scribonius Largus. 

ABANGA. Name given by the inhabitants 
of St. Thomas to the fruit of a palm tree, the 
seeds of which they consider very useful in 
diseases of the chest, in the dose of three or 
four, oiven two or three limes a day 

ABABTIST'A. Abaptislon, from a privative, 
and fianritw, 'to plunge.' A term applied to 
the old trepan, the conical shape of which 
prevented it from plunging suddenly inio the 
cavil y of I he cranium. 

ABAREMO-TEMO. A Brazilian tree, which 
grows in the mountains, and appears to be a 
mimosa. 1'iso relates that the decoction of its 
bark, which is bitter and astringent, was ap- 
plied, in that country, to ulcers of a bad cha- 


A B. 7 T.I I! DfSSE MEJtT, Dege neration. 

ABARTICULA'TIO, Diarthrosis and Synar- 

A HA TTEMEXT. Prostration. 

ABATTliS, Giblets. 


A chalybeate spring, six leagues from Paris, 
and one from Poissy. It was once much fre- 
quented, but is now abandoned. 

An acidulous chalybeate at Abbeville, in the 
department of Somme, France. 

ABBREVIATION, Abbrevia'tio, Brachyn'sis, 
Brachys'mos, Mbrevi.atu'ra. (F.) Abriviation, 
from brevis, 'short.' Abbreviations are chiefly 
used in medicinal formula?. They are by no 
means as frequently employed now as of old, 
when every article had its appropriate symbol. 
The chief abbreviations now adopted are the 

%. Recipe, Take. 

A. aa, ana, (ura) utriusque, of each. 
Abdom. Abdomen. 

Abs. Febr. Absenle febre, In the absence of 

Ad. or Add. Addc or addatur. 

Ad. Lib. Ad libitum, At pleasure. 

Admov. Admoveatur, Let it be applied. 

Altern.hor. Alternis Itoris, Every other hour. 

Alv. Adstiuct. Alvo adstricta, The bowels 
being confined - 

Aq. Aqua, Water. 

Aq. Com.m. Aqua communis, Common water. 

Aq. Font. Aquafontis, Spring water. 

Aq. Bull. Aqua bulliens, Boiling water. 

Aq. Ferv. Aquafervens, Hot water. 

Aq. Marin. Aqua marina, Sea water. 

B. A. Balneum arcnx, A sand-bath. 
Bals. Balsamum, Balsam. 

B. B. BBDS. Barbadcnsis, Barbadoes. 

Bib. Bibe, Drink. 

Bis Ind. Bis indies, Twice daily. 

B. M. Balneum marine, A salt water bath. 

Bol. Bolus. 

Bull. Bul/ial, Let it boil. 

But. But y rum, Butter. 

B. V. Balneum vapor is, A vapour- bath. 
Cjerul. Cxruleus, Blue. 

Cap. Capiat, Let him take. 

C. C. Comu cervi, Hartshorn. 

C. C. U. Cornu cervi ustum, Burnt hartshorn 

C. M. Cms inane, To-morrow morning. 

Cochl. Cochleare, A spoonful. 

Cochl. Amit.. Cochleare amplum, A large 

Cochl. Inf. Cochleare Infantum, A child's 





Cochl. Mod. or Med. Cochleare modicum or 
medium, A dessert-spoonful. 

Cochl. Parv. Cochleare parvum, A tea- 

Col. Cola, colaturce, Strain, and to the 

Comp. Compositus, Compound. 

Conf. Confectio, Confection. 

Cons. Conserva, Conserve. 

Cont. Continuetur, Let it be continued. 

Coq. Coque, Boil. 

Cout. Cortex, Bark. 

Crast. Craslinus, For to-morrow. 

Cuj. Cujus, Of which. 

Cujusl. Cvjvslihet, Of any. 

Cvath. Cyathus, A glassful. 

Cvath. Thes, A cup of tea. 

D. Dosis, A dose. 

D. et S. Detur el signetur, (placed at the end 
of a prescription.) 

D. D. Detur ad, Let it be given in or to. 

D. D. Vitr. Detur ad vitrum, Let it be given 
in a glass. 

Deaur. Pil. Deaurcntur pilulx, Let the pills 
be gilded. 

Deb. Spiss. Dcbita spissitudo, A due con- 

Dec Decanta, Pour off. 

Decub. Decubitus, Lying down, going to bed. 

De D. in D. De die in diem, From day to day. 

Dej. Alv. Dejectiones alvi, Alvine evacuations. 

Dep. Depuralus, Purified. 

Det. Detur, Let it be given. 

Dieb. Altern. Diebus altcrnis, Every other 

Dieb. Tf.rt. Diebus tertiis, Every third day. 

Dig. Digeratur, Let it be digested. 

Dil. Dilutus, Dilute. 

Dim. Dimidius, One half. 

Dist. Distilla, Distil. 

Biv. Divide, Divide. 

Donec Alv. Solut. Fuer. Donee alvus so- 
lutafuerit, Until the bowels are opened. 

Dkach. Drachma, A drachm. 

Ejusd. Ejusdem, Of the same. 

En em. Enema, A clyster. 

Exhib. Exhibentur, Let it be exhibited. 

Ext. Super Alut. Extende super alutam, 
Spread upon leather. 

F. Fiat, Let it be made. 

F. Pil. Fiat pilula, Make into a pill. 

F. Venues, or F. V. S. Fiat venxsectio, Let 
bleeding be performed. 

Ff.b.Dur. Febre durante, The fever continuing. 

Fem. Intfrn. Femoribus internis, To the in- 
side of the thighs. 

Fist. Akm at. Fistula armata, A bug and pipe, 
a clyster pipe and bladder fitted for use. 

Fl. Fluidus, and Flores, Fluid, and Flowers. 

Frust. Frustillatim, In small pieces. 

Gel. Quavis. GelatinU quavis, In any kind 
of jelly. 

G. G. G. Gummi guttx Gambix, Gamboge. 
Gr. Granum, A grain. 

Gtt. Gutta, A drop. 

Gtt. or Gutt. Quibusd. Gutlis quibusdam, 
With some drops. 

Gum. Gummi, Gum. 

Guttat. Guttatim, By drops. 

Hor. Df.cub. Horn decubitus, At bed-time. 

Hor. Interm. IJoris intermedins, At interme- 
diate hours. 

H. S. Hord somni, At bed-time. 

Inf. Infunde, Infuse. 

Ind. Indies, Daily. 

Inj. Enem. Injiciatur enema, Let a clyster be 

In Pulm. In pulmenlo, In gruel. 

Jul. Julepus, a julep. 

Lat. Dol. Lutcri dolcnli, To the pained side. 

Lb. and Lib. Libra, A pound weight. 

Lib. Llb. Librce, Pounds. 

Liq Liquor. 

JV1. Misce, Mix. 

Mac. Mater a, Macerate. 

Man. Manipulus, A handful. 

Man. Prim. Mane primo, Early in the morn- 

Mic. Pan. Mica pani.i, Crumb of bread. 

Min. Minimum, The GUth part of a drachm, 
by measure. 

Mitt. Mitte, Send. 

Mitt. Sang. Mittutur sanguis, Let blood be 

Mod. Prescript. Modo prxscriplo, In the 
manner directed. 

Mor. Sol. More solito, In the usual manner. 

Muc. Mucila go, Mucilage. 

N. M. Nux moschata, INutmeg. 

0. Octarius, A pint. 

01. Oleum, Oil. 

Ol. Lini, S. 1. Oleum lini sine ignc, Cold- 
drawn linseed oil. 

Omn. Bid. Omni biduo, Every two days. 

Omn. Bih. Omni bihorio, Every two hours. 

Omn. Hor. Omni, hora, Every hour. 

Omn. Man. Omni mane, Every morning. 

Omn. Nocte, Every ni^ht. 

Omn. Quadr. Hor. Omni quadrante horx, 
Every quarter of an hour. 

O O. O. Oleum olivx optimum, Best Olive oil. 

Ov. Ovum, An egg. 

Ox. Oxymel. 

Oz. Uncia, An ounce. 

P. Pondere, by weight. 

P. and Pug. Pugillus, a pugil. 

P. M. Partes aquales, Equal parts. 

Part. Vic. Partitis vicibus, In divided doses. 

Peract. Op. Emf.t. Peractd operalione emetici, 
The operation of the emetic being over. 

Pil. Pilula, A pill. 

Post Sing. Sed. Liq. Post singnlas sedes li- 
quidas, After every liquid evacuation. 

Pot. Potio, A potion. 

P. P. Pulvis patrum, Jesuits' bark. 

P. Rat. ^Etat. Pro lalione xtatis, According 
to Ihe n<je. 

P R. N. Pro re nata, As occasion may be. 

Pulv. Pulvis, A powder. 

Q P. Quantum placcat, As much as may 

Q. S. Quantum sufficiat, as much as is suffi- 

Quon. Quorum, Of which. 

Q. V. Quantum volueris, As much as you wish. 

Rad. Radix, Root. 

Ras. Rnsurx, Shavings. 

Rect. Reclificatns, Rectified. 

Red. or Redig in Pulv. Redadus in puhe- 
rum, or Redigatur in pulverum, Powdered, or 
Let it be powdered. 

Reg. Umbil. Regio umbilici, The umbilical 
region. Repetatur, Let it be repeated. 

S. A. Secundum artem, According to art. 

Sem. Semen, Seed. 

a neks 



Semi-dh. Semi-drachma, Half a drachm. 

Sxhi-H. Scmi-horu, Half an hour. 

Serv. Serva, Keep, preserve. 

Sk«q,uih. Sesquikora, An hour and a hnlf. 

Sesunc Sesuncia, An ounce and a half. 

Si IN on Val. Si nun valeat, If it does not an- 

Si Op. Sit. Si opus sit, If there be need. 

Si Vik. Perm. Si vires permittant, If the 
strength will permit. 

Solv. Solve, Dissolve. 

Sp. and Spir. Spiritus, Spirit. 

Ss. Semi, One half. 

St. Stet, Let it stand. 

Sub Fin. Coct. Subjinem coctionis, Towards 
the end of the boiling. 

Sum. Sumat, Let him take; also, Summitates, 
The tops. 

S. V. Spiritus vini, Spirit of wine. 

S- V. It. Spiritus vini rectificulus, Rectified 
spirit of wine. 

S. V. T. Spiritus vini tenuior, Proof spirit of 

Syr. Syrupus, Syrup. 

Temp. Dext. Tempvri dtxtro, To the right 

T. O. Tinctura opii, Tincture of opium. 

Tr., TJi and Tisct. Tinctura, Tincture. 

Trit. Tritura, Triturate. 

V. O. S. or Vrr. Ov. Sor.. Vitello ovi solutus, 
Dissolved in the yelk of an egg. 

Z. Z. anciently myrrh: now zinziber, or gin- 

lb, Libra, a pound. 

,5, Uncia, An ounce. 

,sj, Drachma, A drachm. 

►)> Scmpulum, A scruple. 

11)/ , Minimum, a minim. 

ss, Scmissis, or half; iss, one and a half. 

j, one; ij, two; iij, three; iv, four, &c. 

The same system is not always followed in 
abbreviating. The subjoined will exhibit the 
usual mode: 

I a f us. Colomb. f. ^iss 

Tinct gent. c. F. %i 

Syr. Cort. Aurunl. f. t "ss 

Tinct. Caps. gtt. XL. M 

Capt Coch. ij. p. r. n. 

This, written at length, is as follows: 

Infi/si Colombss, sesqni -fluiduneiam, 
Tinctura Gentianx Composites., fluidrach- 

Syrupi Corticis Auranliorum, semi fiui- 

Tinctvras Cc/psici, guttas quadr >ginta. 

Capiat cochlearia duo pro re natA. 

ABCkS, Abscess — a. aigu, see Abscess, — a. 
Chuud,see Abscess, — a. Chrouiaue,see Abscess, 
— a. Par congestion, see Abscess. — a. Diathisiaue, 
Bee Abscess, — a. Froifl, see Abscess, — a. Mclustii- 
t.'auc, see Abscess, — a. Scrofuleux, see Abscess, 
— a. Snvdain, see Abscess. 

ABDO'MEN. from ab'dere, 'to conceal;' 
Etrnn, Hijpogas'trion, Epis'chion, Lap'ara, Hypo- 
choi'lion, Guster, llypou'trion, JS'cdi/s, Abdu'men, 
Venter imns. Venter in'fimus, Alcus, Uterus. 
(F.) Ventre, V.inferieur, Bus ventre. The largest 
of the three splanchnic cavities, bounded, above, 

by the diaphragm; below, by the pelvis; be- 
hind, by the lumbar vertebra; and at the sides 
and fore part, by muscular expansions. It is 
distinguished into three anterior regions, from 
above to below; viz. the epigastric, umbilical, 
and hypogastric, each of which is itself divided 
into three others, one middle, and two lateral: 
thus, the epigastric region comprises the epigas- 
trium and hypochondria; the umbilical, the um- 
bilicus and flunks or lumbar regions; and the 
hypogastric, the hypogastriurn and iliac regions. 
None of these regions has its limits well defined. 
The chief viscera contained in the Abdomen 
are the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pan- 
cteas, kidneys, &c. It is lined by the perito- 

ABDOM'INAL, Abdomina'lis. That which 
belongs to the Abdomen, as abdominal muscles, 
abdominal viscera, &c. 

ABDOMINOSCOP'IA. A hybrid word, 
from Abdomen, 'the lower belly,' and oxontio, 
'I view.' Lupuroscop'ia, examination of the 
lower belly as a means of Diagnosis. See Aus- 

ABDUCENS LABIORUM, Levator anguli 

ABDUCENTES. Motor oculi externus. 

ABDUCTEUR BE LCEIL, Rectus externus 
oculi — a. de ioreilk, Abductor auris — a. du 
gros, Abductor pollicis pedis — a. du petit 
ortcil, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — a. court 
du poucc, Abductor pollicis brevis — a. loan du 
pouce, Abductor longus pollicis. 

ABDUCTION. Abduc'tio, from abdu'cere,xo 
separate, (ub and ducere, 'to lead.') The move- 
ment which separates a limb or other part from 
the axis of the body. 

The word has also been used synonymously 
with Abru/i'tio, Apag'ma, Apoclus'ma, a fiacture 
near the articular extremity of a bone, with 
separation of the fragments. 

ABDUCTOR, same etymon. (F.) Abducteur. 
A muscle which moves certain parts by sepa- 
rating them from the axis of the body. 

Abductor Auricularis, Abductor aaris — 
a. Indicis pedis, Prior indicia p^dis, Posterior 
indicis pedis— a. Medii digiti pedis, Prior medii 
digiti pedis— a. Minimi digiti, Flexor parvus 
minimi digiti — a. Minimi digiti, Prior minimi 
digiti — a. Oculi, Rectus externus oculi — a. Pol- 
licis manus, and a. Brevis alter, Abductor pol- 
licis brevis. 

Abductor Auris, Abduetur auriculafris. (F.) 
Abducteur de Porcillc. A portion of the poste- 
rior auris, the existence of which is not con- 
stant, and which passes from the mastoid pro- 
cess to the concha. 

Abductor In'dicis. Semi-interos'scu* in' di- 
ets. A muscle which, arises from the os trape- 
zium and metacarpal bone of the thumb, and is 
inserted into the first bone of the fore fi.n <rer. Its 
use is to bring the forefinger towards the thumb. 

Abductor Mik'imi Dig"iti, Ga-rpo phalan'- 
gcus min'imi digiti, Carpo-phalangien du petit 
doigt, Exten'sor ter'tii iuterno'dii minimi, digiti 
— (Douglas ) Hypoth'enar minor mctucarpeus. 
See Flexor parvus. It originates fleshy from 
the os pisiforme, and from the annular ligament 
near it; and is inserted, tendinous, into the 
inner side of the base of the fiist bone of the 
little finger. Use, to draw the little finger from 
the rest. 

Abductor Miami Digiti Pedis, Calco-sub- 




pliahngevs minimi digit i, Cakaneo-phalangien 
du petit orteil, Paroth'enar major — (Winslow, 
by whom the muscle is divided into two por- 
tions. Parathcnar major and metatarsals.) Cal- 
caneo-sous-phalangien du p-.til orteil — (Ch.) (F.) 
Abducteur du petit orteil. This muscle forms 
the outer margin of the sole of the foot, and is 
immediately beneath the plantar aponeurosis. 
It arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the outer 
side of the protuberance of the os calcis, and 
from the root of the metatarsal bone of the lit- 
tle toe, and is inserted into the outer part of the 
root of the first bone of the little toe. Use. To 
draw the little toe outwards. 

Abductor Pol'licis Bkevis, Mduclor Pol- 
licis Manus, Scapho-curpo-super-phulangeus Pol- 
licis, Sus-plialungicn du pouce, A. pallid s manus 
and A. brevis alter— (Albinus.) (F.) Abducteur 
court du pouce. Carpo-sus-phalangien du pouce 
— (Ch.) A short, flat, triangular muscle, which 
arises from the anterior surface of the os sca- 
phoides and the annular ligament of the car- 
pus, and terminates at the outside of the upper 
extremity of the first phalanx of the thumb. A 
particular portion, on the inner side of this 
muscle, is called, by Albinus, Mduc'tor brevis 

Abductor Long us Pollicis, A. 1. P. .Manus, 
Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis manus, Exten- 
sor primi internodii — (Douglas,) Extensor pri- 
mus Pollicis, Cuhitoradisus-me'tucarpien du 
pouce, Cubito-sus-metacarpien du pouce, — (Ch.) 
(F.) Mductcur long du pouce. A long, thin 
muscle, arising from the posterior surface of the 
ulna, radius, and interosseous ligament, and in- 
serted at the outer side of the upper extremity 
of the first metacarpal bone. 

Abductor Pollicis Pedis, Calco- sub pha- 
lungeus Pol'licis. (F.) Mductcur du gros orteil. 
This muscle arises, fleshy, from the anterior 
and inner part of the protuberance of the os 
calcis, and tendinous from the same bone 
where it joins' with the os naviculare. It is 
inserted, tendinous, into the internal os sesa- 
moideuin and root of the first bone of the oreat 
toe. Use. To pull the great toe from the rest. 
The name Abductor lias been given also to 
all those interosseous muscles of the hand and 
foot, which perform the motion of abduction 
on the fingers or toes, and to muscles which 
execute the same function on other parts of the 
ABDUMEN, Abdomen. 

ABEBJE'OS, from a neg. and ptfaio?, 'firm,' 
in fir 1 mu s, deb' His. Weak, infirm, unsteady. 
ABE1LLE, Bee. 

ABELMEI/UCH. One of the names of the 
Ricinus, according to some authors. — Prosper 
Alpinus says that a tree, which grows about 
Mecca, is so called. Its seeds, which are black 
and oblong, are said to be a most violent ca- 

ABELMOSCHUS, Hibiscus Abelmoschus. - 
a. Moschatus, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 
ABELMUSK, Hibiscus Abelmoschus. 
A. is a city of Bavaria, where there is a cold, 
sulphureous spri nir. 

ABERRATIO MENSIUM, Menstruation, vi- 1 

ABERRA'TION, Merru'tio, from nbrrra'rc,\ 
{nb and trrare,) 'to stray,' 'to wander from.' 
This word has several meanings. I 

I. The passage of a fluid of the living body 
into an order of vessels not destined for it. The 
passage of red blood, for example, into white 

In this sense it is synonymous with the Er- 
ror Loci of Boerhaave. 

2. The flow of a fluid towards an organ dif- 
ferent from that to which it is ordinarily di- 
rected; as in cases of vicarious hemorrhage. 
Aberrations of sense or judgment are certain 
errors in the images perceived or certain de- 
rangements of the intellectual faculties. 

The word is used in optics to designate the 
dispersion of the rays of light in passing through 
a lens. 

The Aeerration ok Spheric"jty, or spher'- 
ical aberra'tion, takes place, when the raj's, as 
in a common lens, which pass through the cen- 
tre of the lens, and those which pass near the 
circumference, are unequally refracted, so that 
they do not meet at a common focus. 

This aberration of sphericity in the human 
eye is corrected by the iris. 

The Aberration of Refrangibil'ity ex- 
ists, when, as in a common lens, the rays that 
pass near the circumference of the lens are de- 
composed, so that a coloured image is observed. 
This aberration in the human e}'e is corrected 
by the iris, which does not permit the rays to 
fall near the circumference of the lens, and also 
by the crystalline lens itself, which, owing to 
its structure, serves the purposes of an achro- 
matic crlass. 

ABESSI, Realo-ar. 

ABE VACUATIO. Apoceno'sis, from ab, and 
evueuare, 'to empty.' An evacuation. A par- 
tial or imperfect evacuation. By some, it i3 
applied to an immoderate evacuation.— Kraus. 
ABHAL. A fruit well known in India, and 
obtained from a species of cypress. It passes 
for an emmenagogne. 

ABIES, Pinus Picea — a. Balsamea. Pinus 
balsamea— a Canadensis. Pinns Canadensis — 
a. Excelsa, see Pinus abies— a. Gallica, Pinus 
picea— a. Pectinata, Pinus picea— a. Picea, Pi- 
nus picea— a. Rubra, Pinus rubra. 
ABIGA, Teucrium Chamaepitys 
ABIOTOS, Conium Maculatum. 
ABIRRITATION. Ab-irrita'tio, from ab, pri- 
vative, and trrila'tio, 'irritation.' This word 
strictly means absence or defect of irritation. 
1 he disciples of Broussais used it to indicate a 
pathological condition, opposite to that of irri- 
tation It may be considered as synonymous 
with debility, asthenia, &c. 
ABLATIO. Extirpation ° 
ABLUENS, Abstergent. 
ABLUTION, Allu'lio, Aponip'sis. Cata- 
ctys mus, from ablu'trg, (ab and lucre.) ' to wash.' 
A name given to legal ceremonies in which the 
body is subjected to particular affusions. Ab- 
lution (especially of the extremities) with cold 
or tep,dwa,er j s employed, therapeutically to 
reduce febnle heat. Also, the washing by which 
medicines are separated from the Extraneous 
matters mixed with them. ^raneous 

ABNORMAL, Abnormous. 

ABNOR'MOUS, Abnor'mul (F ^ Anormnl 
from ab Mrom- and norma, <ruYe/ Not Ton! 
formable to rule, irregular 

ABOLI'TION, AbZu"d 0> destruction or sup . 




pression, from ah and lucre (?) 'to wash.' A 
word, often employed, especially by the French, 
to express the complete suspension of any 
symptom or function. Abolition of the sight, 
e. g. is the complete loss of sight. 

ABOMA'SUS, Aboma'sum, Enys'tron, Ren- 
net. The lowermost or fourth stomach of rumi- 
nating animals. 


ABUNDANCE, Plethora. 

ABORSIO, Abortion. 

ABORSUS, Abortion. 

ABORT1F, Abortive. 

ABORTION, Mor'tus, Abor'svs, Mor'sio, 
Dystu'cia aborti'va, Ornoto'cia, Paracye'sis abor- 
tus, Amblo'sis, Amblo'tna, Diaph'thora, Eclro'sis, 
Examblo'ma, Examblo'sis, Ectros'mos, Apopnl- 
le'sis, Apopai'sis, Apoph'thora, Phthora, Convul'- 
sio u'tcri, Depcidi'tio. (F.) Avortement, Bks- 
sure, Miscarriage, from ab and oriri, ' to rise,' 
applied to that which has arisen out of season. 
The expulsion of the foetus before the seventh 
month of utero-gestation, or before it is viable. 
(q. v.) The causes of this accident are rcferri- 
ble either to the mother, and particularly to the 
uterus; or to the foetus and its dependencies. 
The causes, in the mother, may be:— extreme 
nervous susceptibility, great debility, plethora; 
faulty conformation, &c; and it is frequently 
induced immediately by intense mental emo- 
tion, violent exercise, &c. The causes seated 
in the fectus are its death, rupture of the mem- 
branes, &c. It most frequently occurs between 
the 8th and 12th weeks of gestation. The symp- 
toms of abortion are. — uterine hemorrhage with 
or without flakes of decidua, with intermitting 
pain. When abortion has once taken place, it 
is extremely apt to recur in subsequent preg- 
nancies about the same period. Some writers 
have called abortion, when it occurs prior to 
three months, Effluxion. The treatment must 
vary according to the constitution of the patient 
and the causes giving rise to it. In all cases, 
the horizontal posture and perfect quietude are 

Abortion is likewise applied to the product 
of an untimely birth. Amblothrid'ion, Ectio'ma, 
Abortment. (F.) Avorton, Atortin. 

TO ABORT', Abori'ri. To miscarry. (F ) 

ABOR'TIVE, Aborli'vus, Ecbol'ius Ambln'ti- 
cus, Phthor'ius, Apophthor'ius, Ectroi.'i.cus, Par- 
turient, (q. v.) Parturifa' cicnt, Ec'bolic. (F.) 
Abortif. A medicine to which is attributed the 
property of causing abortion. There is proba- 
bly no direct agent of the kind. 

ABORTMENT, Abortion. 

ABORTUS, Abortion. 

ABOUCHEMENT, Anastomosis. 

ABOULAZA, a tree of Madagascar, used, 
according to Flacourt, in the practice of the 
country in diseases of the heart. 

ABOUTISSEMENT, Suppuration. 

ABRABAX, AbrasaX, Abraxas. A mystic 
term expressing the number 305, and to which 
the Cabalists attributed miraculous properties. 

ABRACADA'BRA: the name of a Syrian 
Idol, according to Selden. This word, when 
pronounced and repented in a certain form and 
a certain number of times, was supposed to 
have the power of curing fevers and preventing 
many diseases. It was figured on amulets and 
worn suspended around the neck. 





A D A B R A 

A D A B E A 

D A B R A 

A B R A 


R A 


ABRACALAN, A cabalistic term to which 
the Jews attributed the same virtue as to the 
word Abracadabra. 

ABRASAX, Abrabax. 

ABR-A'SION. Abra'sio, Aposyr'ma, Apoxys'- 
mus, from abra'dere, (ab and indcre.) ' to rasp.' 
A superficial excoriation, with loss of substance, 
under the form of small shreds, in the mucous 
membrane of the intestines. (F ) Raclure des 
Boijnux. Also, an ulceration of the skin, pos- 
sessing similar characters. According to Vicq 
d Azyr, the word has been used for the absorp- 
tion of the molecules composing the various 

ABRATHAN, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABRAXAS, Abrabax. 

ABBREVIATION, Abbreviation. 

ABRICOT, Primus Armeniaca. 

ABROSIA, Abstinence. 

ABROTANUM, Artemisia abrotanum — a. 
Cat.hsum, Artemisia abrotanum — a. Mas, Arte- 
misia abrotanum. 

ABROTONITES, aft,oT<mT>;c. (onoc, 'wine' 
understood.) Wine impregnated with the Ar- 
temisia Abrotanum or Southernwood. 

ABROTONUM, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABRUPTIO, Abduction 

ABRUS PRECATO'RIUS, Liq'uorice Rush, 
Red Bean, Love pea. A small ornamental shrub, 
found from Florida to Brazil, as well as in 
Egypt and the West Indies; Nat. Ord. Legu- 
minosEe Sex. Syst. Monadelphia enneandria; 
having beautiful scarlet seeds with a black 
spot. The roots and leaves are sweet and mu- 
cilaginous demulcents. The seeds of the Ame- 
rican kind are considered to be purgative and 

ABSCESS, from abscedo, (abs, and cedere,) 
' I depart,' or ' separate from.' Absces'sus, Ab- 
scrs'sio, Aphisle'sis, Aposte'ma, linpo/thttnie, 
Ecpije'ma, Ecpye'sis, Reces'sus. (F.) Abces, 
Depot. A collection of pus in a cavity, the re 
suit of a morbid process. See Fyogenia and 

The French have various distinctive terms 
for Abscesses. 

which follows violent inflammation. 

LEUX, one which is the result of chronic or 
scrofulous inflammation. 

ABCES PAR CONGESTION, A. diathisiyne, 
is a symptomatic abscess, one which occurs in 
a part at a distance from the inflammation by 
which it is occasioned: e. g. a lumbar absecss ; 
(q. v.) in which the inflammation may be in 
the lumbar vertebra;, whilst the pus exhibits 
itself at the groin. 

Abscess Metastatic, (F.) Abets me'lasta- 
tique; A. consicutif, nn abscess, which forms 
suddenly, and sometimes without any precur- 
sory signs of inflammation in a part of the body 




remote from one in a state of suppuration, and 
without presenting a sufficient reason for its 
development in the place which it occupies. It 
is a consequence of phlebitis. 

Abscess, perforating of the Lung, See 
Lung, perforating abscess of the — a. Psoas, 
Lumbar abscess. 

NEONATORUM, Cephalhematoma— a. Gan- 
graenescens, Anthrax — a. Gangramosus, An- 
thrax — a. Lumborum, Lumbar abscess — a. Mam- 
ma, Mastodynia apostematosa — a. Nucleatus, 
Furunculus — a. Oculi, Hypopyon— a. Pectoris, 
Empyema — a. Pulmonum, Empyema — a^ Spiri- 
tuosus. Aneurism — a. Thoracis, Empyema, 

ABSCIS'lON, Abscis'io, Abecis'sio, from ab- 
sci'dcre or abscin'dere, ' to cut off,' Apoc'ope, 
Apotlirau'sis, Diac'opS. Excision or extirpation 
of a part, especially of a soft part.— Fabricius 

A fracture or injury of soft parts with loss of 
substance. — Hippocrates. 

Diminution, or loss of voice. — Celsus. 

Sudden and premature termination of a dis- 
ease. — Galen. 



See Murmur, respiratory. 

ABSINTHI'TES, mpiv9irrig, Apsinthi'tes, 
Wine impregnated with Absinthium or Worm- 
wood. — Dioscorides. 

ABSINTHIUM, (Ph. U. S.) Artemisia ab- 
sinthium — a. Maritimum, Artemisia maritima — 
a. Ponticum, Artemisia pontica — a. Romanum, 
Artemisia pontica — a. Santonicum, Artemisia 
santonica — a. Vulgare, Artemisia absinthium. 

ABSORBAjYT, Absorbent. 

ABSOR'BENT, Absor'bens, from absorbere, 
(ab and sorberc,) 'to drink, to suck up.' (F.) 
Msorbant. That which absorbs. 

Absorbent System is the collection of ves- 
sels and glands, which concur in the exercise 
of absorption. 

A medicine used for absorbing acidity in the 
stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, &c. 

Also, any substance, such as cobweb, sponge, 
&c, which, when applied to a bleeding surface, 
retains the blood, and forms with it a solid and 
adhesive compound, which arrests the hemor- 

ABSORPTION, Resorp'lio, hihala'lio, Tmbi- 
bi"lio, Absorp'tio, Catarrlwphc' sis, Qatar' r ho phi; 
same etymon. The function of absorbent ves- 
sels, by virtue of which they take up substances 
from without or within the body. Two great 
divisions have been made of this function. 1. 
External absorption, or the absorption of compo- 
sition, which obtains from without the organs, 
the materials intended for their composition: 
and, 2. Internal absorption, or the absorption of 
decomposition, which takes up from the organs 
the materials that have to be replaced by the 

By external absorption is meant not only that 
which takes place at the external surface of the 
body, but also that of the mucous membranes of 
the digestive and respiratory passages. Hence, 
again, the division of external absorption into 
cutaneous, intestinal, or digestive, and pulmonary 
or respiratory. 

Internal absorption is also subdivided into, 1. 
Molecular or interstitial, nutritive or organic, 

which takes up from each organ the maienaL 
that constitute it, so that the decomposition is 
always in equilibrio with the deposition, i. 1 he 
absorption of rccrementilial secreted fiuios, such 
as the fluid of serous membranes, synovia, &c, 
As these are constantly exhaled on surfaces, 
which have no external outlet, they would aug< 
ment indefinitely, if absorption did not remove 
them in the same proportion as that in which 
they are deposited. 3. The ubsorption of a part 
of the excrementitial secreted fluids, as they pass 
over the excretory passages. 

Absorption does not effect the decomposition 
of the body immediately. It merely prepares 
the fluid which has to be eliminated by the se- 
cretory organs. 

The great agents of external absorption are 
the veins and chyliferous vessels; of internal 
absorption, probably the lymphatics. In the chy- 
liferous vessels and lymphatics the fluid is al- 
ways found to possess the same general pro- 
perties. In them, therefore, an action of elabo- 
ration or selection must have taken place. 

The veins, on the other hand, seem to exert 
no selection. Any fluid, possessing the neces- 
sary tenuity, passes through the coats of the 
vessel readily by imbibition, and proceeds along 
with the torrent of the circulation. Watery 
fluids in this manner enter the blood when they 
are taken into the stomach. Substances that 
require digestion, on the olherhand, must pas9 
through the chyliferous vessels and thoracic duct. 

ABSTkME, Abstemious. 

ABSTE'MIOUS, Absle'mivs, Aoi'nos, from 
abs, ' without,' and teme'tum, ' wine,' (F.) 
Absteme. Used by the ancient writers as well 
as by the French in the sense only of its roots; 
one who abstains from wine or fermented li- 
quors in g-eneral. 

ABSTEB/GENT, from abster'gere, i to clean,' 
(abs and tergcre,) Abstci si'vus, Abste.r' sice , Ab'- 
lue.ns, Absterso'rius, Deter' <rens, Rhyp'tirus, Trau- 
mat'icus. A medicine that cleanses the part to 
which it is applied. 

ABSTERGENTIA, Determents. 

ABSTERSIVUS, Abstergent. 

ABSTERSOR1US, Abstergent. 

AB'STINENCE, Mstinen'tia, from abs, 'from,' 
and tene're, 'lo hold,' Abros'ia,Asit'ia, Liman'ehia, 
Limocton'ia,Fns\\ng. Privation, usually 7 volun- 
tary, as when we speak of abstinence from plea- 
sure, abstinence from drink, Sec. It is more par- 
ticularly used to signify voluntary privation of 
certain articles of food. Fasting is a useful 
remedial a<rent in certain diseases, particularly 
in those of an inflammatory character. 

ABSUS, a kind of cassia — C. Absus — which 
grows in Egypt and in India, the seeds of 
which, pulverized and mixed with powdered 
sugar, have been employed, in form of a dry 
collyrinrn, in the endemic ophthalmia of E<rypt. 

ABUS DE SOl-M E ME, Masturbation. 

ABUTA. Pareira brava. 

ABUTILON CORDA'TUM, Sida abutilon, 
Yellow mallow. An indigenous plant common 
from Canada to Mexico, which resembles com- 
mon mallow in its medical virtues, beinn- mu- 
cilaginous and demulcent. 

A BVACUA'TIO, an excessive or colliquative 
evacuation of any kind. 

ACACIA (Ph. U. 8.) Acaci» gummi— a. Ca- 
techu, Catechu— a. Germanica, see Prunus spi- 
nosa — a. Indica, Tamarindus — a. Nostras see 




Piunus spinosa — a. Vera, see Acaciae gurarai 
— a. Zeylonica, Haematoxylon Campechianum. 

ACACIA GUMMI, Aca'cia, from ax>;,'a point,' 
so called in consequence of its spines, G. Aca r * 
cix Arab'icse, G. Arab'icum, G. Ae.anth'inum, G. 
L? ucum, G. Theba'icum, G. Serapio'nis, G. Lnmac, 
G. Si nega, or Seneca, Gum Ar'ubic. (F.) Gomme 
Arabique. The gum of the Mimosa JVilot'icu, 
Aca'cia vera, Spina JEgyptinca, of \Jp\ier Egypt, 
A'uU Oril. MimosejE, Sex. Syst. Polygamia Mo- 
ncecia. It is in irregular pieces, colourless, or 
of a pale yellow colour, hard, brittle, of a 
shining fracture, transparent, soluble in water, 
and insoluble in alcohol, s. g. 1.4317. 

It is mucilaginous ; but is rarely used, except 
in Pharmacy. Sometimes it is administered 
alone as a demulcent. 

ACAJOU, Anacardium occidentale. 

ACAM'ATOS, from a priv., and xaurw, ' I 
labour.' This word has been sometimes us«d 
for a iiootl constitution of the body. According 
to Gahen, it means that position in which a 
limb is intermediate between flexion and ex- 
tension; a position which may be long main- 
tained without fatigue. 

ACAMPSIA, Cotitractura. 

ACANOS, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHA, Vertebral column. Also, Spi- 
nous process of a vertebra. 

ACANTHAB'OLOS, Acan'lhulus, Vols el' la, 
from ar.urdu, ' a spine,' and (Su?.?.a>, ' 1 cast out.' 
A kind of forceps for removing extraneous sub- 
stances from wounds. — Paulus of iEgina, Fa- 
bricius ab Acquapendente, Scultetus, «fec. 



ACANTHIUM, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHULUS, Acanthabolos. 

ACAiNTHUS MOLLIS, Same etymon as 
Acacia, (q. v.) Melumpliyl' turn, Bran'cu ursi'na, 
Brankvr'sine, Bear's Breech. (F.) Pied d'ours. 
This plant is mucilaginous like Altha;a, and 
is used as a demulcent. 

ACAPATLI, Piper longurn. 

ACAR'D'A, from a priv., and xanSta, 'the 
heait.' The state of a foetus without a heart. 

ACARDJOTROPHIA, Heart, atrophy of the. 

ACARICOHA. The Brazilian name for the 
HyJrocul'yle unibclla'tum, used by the Indians 
as an aromatic, alexipharmic, and emetic. 

ACAKON, Myrica gale. 

ACARUS, from a privative, and xao^c, 'di- 
visible.' A minute insect, one species of which 
has been noticed by several observers, in the 
itch. The Acarus Scaliiei, Sarceiptc, Ciron. 

Ac'akus Ciko, see Psora. 

Acakus Foli.iculo'rum, Entnzo'on Follicu- 
lu'nim. An articulated animalcule, discovered 
in the sebaceous substance of the cutaneous 

Acarus Soabiei, see Psora. 

ACATALEP'STA, from a privative, and xu- 
raluu(ia\a), ' I comprehend.' Uncertainty in 
diagnosis. Its opposite is Catalepsia. — Galen. 

ACATAP'OSIS, from a privative, and xara- 
7iodij, 'deglutition' Incapacity of swallow- 
ing. Vogel has given this name to difficulty 
in deglutition. 

ACATASTAT'lC, Aratustal'icus, from a priv., 
and xudioT^ui, ' to determine.' An epithet given 
to fevers, &c, when irregular in their periods 
or symptoms — Hippocrates. 

AGATHAR'SIA,from a priv., and xaSatnitw 

' I purge.' Sordes, Impurities. Omission of a 
purgative — Foesius. 

AGATSJAVAL'LI, a Malabar plant, which is 
astringent and aromatic. A bath of it is used in 
that country in cases of hemicrania. It is sup- 
posed to be the Cassylha Jiliformis of Linnasus. 

ACAWER1A, Ophioxylum serpentinum. 


ACClLtiRATEUR, Accelerator urinae. 

ACCELERATOR URl'N^E, Buibo-caverno'- 
sus, Bulbouretral — (Ch.) Ejaculu'lvr Semi'nis, 
Bulbo-syndesmo-caverneux- (F.) Acciltr ateur , 
from ad and ccler, ' quick.' A muscle of the 
penis, which arises, fleshy, from the sphincter 
ani and membranous part of the urethra, and 
tendinous from the crus and beginning of the 
corpus cavemosum penis. In its course it forms 
a thin, fleshy layer, the inferior fibres of which 
run more transversely than the superior, which 
descend in an oblique direction; the muscles 
of both sides completely enclosing the bulb of 
the urethra. It is inserted into its fellow by a 
tendinous line running longitudinally on the 
middle of the bulb. Its use is to propel the 
urine or semen forwards. 

ACCENT, Sonus vocis, from ad, and canere, 
canlum, to sing. Inflection or modification of 
the voice, which consists in raising or dropping 
it on certain syllables. 

The accent exhibits various alterations in 

ACCtS, Paroxysm. 

ACCES'SION. Acces'sio, from acce'do, (ad 
and cedere,) '1 approach.' The invasion, ap- 
proach, or commencement of a disease. 

ACCESSOIRE, Accessory,— «. du lung fld- 
chisseur commun desorteils: see Flexor longusdi- 
gitorum pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) 
— a.c?eZ'OMura*e!!ri/^mic,Ischio-trochanterianus 
— a du pied d' Hippocampe: see Comu arnmonis 
— a. du Sacro-lombaire: see Sacro-lumbalis. 

TORUM PEDIS; see Flexor iongus digitorum 
pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) — a. 
Pedis hippocampi. See Comu arnmonis. 

ACCESSORY, Accesso'rius, (F.) Accessoire, 
Annexe, same etymon. A consequence or de- 
pendence on any thing; as accessory ligament, 
muscle, nerve, &e. 

Accessory of the Parot'id is a name given 
by Haller to a small gland, which accompanies 
the parotid duct, and which is commonly a mere 
prolongation of the parotid itself. 

Accessory Sconces to Medicine are those 
which do not relate directly to the science of 
man in a stilte of health or disease; as physics, 
chemistry. &c. 

Accessory of the Par VAGUM,Spinal nerve. 

The term accessory is also given to several 

ACCESSUS, Coition. 

ACCIDENS, Symptoma — a. Consecutifs,Con- 
secutive phenomena. 

ACCIDENT, Ac'cidens, from acciderc, (ad 
and cedere,) 'to happen.' A casualty; an un. 
foreseen event. The French use the term in 
nearly the same sense as symptom. It means 
also an unexpected symptom, 

ACCIDENTAL, adventitious. That which 
happens unexpectedly. 

The Frencli give the name Tissus accidenle/s 
to those adventitious textures, that are the re- 
sult of a morbid process. 




ACCIPTTER, Hi'erax,it ?a *,'lhe hawk,' from 
accipere (ad and capio,) ' to take.' Mcnec'ratis 
Accip'itcr. (F.) Epervier. A bandage applied 
over the nose, so called from its likeness to the 
claw of a hawk. 

AC'CLl'MATED, CUma'li assuc'tus, from 
ad and clima, a word of recent introduction 
from the French, which means ' accustomed to 
a climate.' 
ACCLIMATION, Seasoning. (F.) Acclimate- 
mcnt. The act of becoming acclimated, or ac- 
customed to a climate. 

The constitution of a person, who goes to 
live in another and very different climate, 
usually experiences changes, which are fre- 
quently of an unfavourable character, and the 
study of which is of considerable importance 
in medicine. 

ACCOM'PANIMENT, Adjun'ctum. (F.) Ac- 
compagnement, (compngnon, 'an associate.') 
That which is joined to any thing. 

Accompaniment to the cataract is a whitish, vis- 
cid substance, which sometimes surrounds the 
opaque crystalline and remains after the opera- 
lion for cataract, causing a secondary cataract. 
ACCOUCHJiE, Puerpera. 
ACCOUCHEMENT, Parturition— a. Labo- 
rious, Dystocia — «. Contre nature, see Presen- 
tation, preternatural — a. Laborieux, Laborious 

ACCOUCHEUR, (F.) Adju'tor Partus, Ob- 
stct'i icans, Maieu'ter. He who practises the art 
of midwifery. A physician- Accoucheur, a Sur- 
geon-Accoucheur, a Man-midwife, &c. 
ACCRE'TION, Accre'tio, from ad, < to,' and 
crescere, ' to increase.' Augmentation; also, in- 
crease by juxtaposition. 
ACCUSATIO, Indication. 
ACE'DIA. lncu'ria, from a privative, and 
xrjdo?, 'care.' Want of care, neglect. Also, 
fatigue. — Hippocrates. 
ACELLA, Axilla. 

ACEPH'ALOBRACHUS, from a privative, 
nKpaXr;, 'head,' and (ina/iuir, 'arm.' A fcetus 
without head or arms. 

ACEPH'ALOCHI'RUS, from a privative, 
xt<fa?.Tj, ' head,' and x il Q> ' hand.' A foetus with- 
out head or hands. 

ACEPH'ALOCYST, Acephalocysl'is, from a 
privative, y.i<pa?.->], ' head,' and y.vartg, ' bladder.' 
An hydatiform vesicle, without head or visible 
organs, ranked amongst the Entozoa, although 
possessed of few animated characteristics. In 
no organ of the body, are acephnlocysts so fre- 
quently found as in the liver. Generally it is 
the 'multiple acephalocyst,' A.socia'lis seu pro- 
lifera, which is met with. At times, however, 
it is the ' solitary acephalocyst,' A. ercmi'ta seu 

The acephalorystis cndos"ena has a firm coat, 
and is composed of different layers, which have 
numbers of smaller hydatids within them, and 
nre thrown off' from the inferior of the parent 
cvst. This species has hence been termed en- 
do<rena,\.o distinguish it from the A. ezog"ena of 
ruminant animals, in which the young vesicles 
are developed from the exterior of the parent 
vesicle. — See Hydatid. 

ACEPH'ALOGAS'TER, Atho' racocrph'alus, 
from a. privative, yiQcdy, 'head,' and yuOT),Q, 
' the belly.' A name given to monsters devoid 
of head, chest, and abdomen; or to those which 
have an abdomen but no chest or head. 

ACEPH'ALOS'TOMA, from a privative, 
y.tyafa}, 'head,' and arojuu,' mouth.' An acepha- 
lous fcetus, at the upper part of which there ia 
an opening resembling a mouth 

ACEPH'ALOTHO'RUS, from a privative, 
y.i<Sfalr\, ' head,' and dwoa$, ' chest,' Apcctocephu- 
lus. A monster, devoid of head or chest. 

ACEPH'ALOUS, from a priv., and xiqu'/.);, 
'head.' A monster born devoid of head. The 
condition is called Acepha'lia. 

ACER, Acrid. 

Acer Sacchaiu'num. Maple, Sugar Maple, 
(F.) Arable. This tree contains a large amount 
of sweet sap, whence a considerable quantity of 
sugar maybe extracted. When purified, this 
sugar can scarce!}' be distinguished from that 
obtained from the cane. — See Saccharum. 

ACERB', Acer' bus, Sir yphnos, from acer, 'sharp.' 
A savour, or taste, compounded of the acid, 
bitter, and astringent; such as is met within 
unripe fruits, &c. 

ACER'CUS, from a privative, and y.toxog, 'a 
tail.' A monster devoid of tail. — Gurlt. 

ACE'RIDES, from a privative, and *»;§<;?, 
' wax.' Plasters devoid of wax. — Galen. 

ACERO'SUS, Achyro'des, Pithyri'nus, from 
a/vgov, 'chaff - .' Furfura'ceous. An epithet used, 
by Hippocrates, for the coarsest bread, made of 
flour not separated from the chaff — Foesius. 


ACES'CEiNCY, Accscen'tia, from aces' cere, 
'to grow sour,' (ay.ic, ' a point,' acer, 'sharp.') 
A disposition to acidity. The humourists be- 
lieved that the animal humours are susceptible 
of this change. 

ACESIS, Curation, Medicament. 

ACESMA, Modicament. 

ACESTOR, Physician. 

ACESTOR1S, Midwife. 

ACESTOS, Curable. 

ACESTRA. Needle. 



ACETAB'ULUM, from act'lum, 'vinegar,' 
because it resembles the old vinegar vessel oxy- 
baphon, osvpayor. A measure capable of con- 
taining the eighth part of a modern pint — 
Athenfeus. Galen. See Cotyloid. According 
to Castelli, the lobes or cotyledons of the pla° 
centaj of ruminating animals have been so 

Acetabulum, Cotyle, Cotyloid— a. Marinum, 
Umbilicus marinus. 

ACETA'RIA, same etymon. A salad or 

ACETAS, Acetate. 

ACETATE, Ace'tos. A salt formed bv the 
union of the acetic acid with an alkaline 
earthy, or metallic base. The ncetales, chiefly 
used in medicine, are the acetates of ammonia 
lead, potash, and zinc. 

ACE'TICA, Aee'ta Mtdiea'ta, (F ) Vivairrres 
Medicinavx. Pharmaceutical preparations of 
V inegar. 

ACETICUM ACIDUM, Acidum Ace'ticum 
fort'vs A. A. forts. A. Jluftii urn purum, Ace'tuni 
rudicu/r:. Oxos, Ace' tic Acid, Strong ictftous 
Acid, Actdum Aceto' sum forte, Rad'ical Viu'r*ar 




Kuir'itus Ycn'cris (ichen made from verdigris.) 
Spirit of Verdigris. Concentrated acetic acid, 
prepared by decomposing an acetate and re- 
ceiving the acetic acid by distillation, has a 
very pungent and grateful odour, and an acid 
and acrid taste. Its s. g. is about 1046, and 
it is very volatile. 

It is stimulant, rubefacient, and escharotic, 
and is applied to the nostrils in syncope, as- 
phyxia, headache, ike. It destroys warts. 

An Aromatic Spirit of Vinegar, Ad'idum 
Ace'ticum Camphora' turn, A. aceto'svm campho- 
ra'tum, is formed of this strong acid, §vj, Cam- 
fhor §ss, 01. Caryoph. gtt. xv. 

A strong Acetic Acid was ordered by the Lon- 
don pharmacopoeia prepared from wood. It was 
called Vinegar of icood, Improved distilled Vine- 
gar, Fyroli g' neous Acid, Ace'tum Ligno'rum, and 
its strength was such, that 87 gr. of crystallized 
subcarbonate of soda should saturate 100 grains 
of the acid. 

Ac"idum Acf/ticum Dilu'tum, A. a. ten'uS, 
Ace'tum destilki'lum, Acidum ace'ticum, Acid- 
7im aceto'sum dcstilla'tum, Acidum ace'ticum 
debil'ius, Distil'led vin'egar, (F.) Jicide Acetique 
faible, Vinaigre distille, is prepared by distilling 
vinegar, until seven-eighths have passed over. 
An Acidum aceticvm dilutum, Diluted acetic acid 
is made by mixing half a pint of the strong ace- 
tic acid with five pints of distilled water, — Ph. 
U. S. Its properties are like those of vinegar. 

ACETONE, from acetum, ' vinegar.' Fyro- 
ace'tic spirit, Pyro-acetic Ether, Mesit'ic M'cohol, 
Bihydrate of Mesit'ylene; erroneously called 
Nap h th a and Wood Naphtha. A limpid, colourless 
liquid, having a peculiar penetrating and slightly 
empyreumatic odour. Its density in the liquid 
state is almost the same as that of alcohol, 
0.7952 1 . Its taste is disagreeable, and analogous 
to that of peppermint. It is miscible in all pro- 
portions with water, alcohol, and ether. It may 
be prepared by distilling a mixture of two parts 
of crystallized acetate of lead and one part of 
quicklime in a salt-glaze jar (gray-beard), the 
lower part of the jar being coated with fire-clay: 
and a bent glass tube, half an inch in diameter, 
adapted to the mouth by a cork, so as to form a 
distillatory apparatus. The jar is supported on 
the mouth of a small furnace, by which the 
lower part only is heated to redness, and the 
vapours are conducted into a Liebig's conden- 
ser. The product is repeatedly redistilled from 
quicklime, until its boiling point is constant at 

It has been brought forward, of late, as a re- 
medy in phthisis pulmonalis; but evidently with 
unfounded pretensions. It is an excitant, and 
may he serviceable in chronic bronchitis. The 
dose is ten to forty drops three times a day, di- 
luted with water. 

ACETOSA NOSTRAS, Rumex acetosa— a. 
Pratensis, Rumex acetosa — a. Romana, Rumex 
scutatns — a. Rotundifolia, Rumex scutatus — a. 
Vulgaris, Rumex acetosa. 
ACETOSELLA, Oxalis acetosella. 
ACE'TUM, <>'ivc, Oxys, Ace'tum Vini, Com- 
mon Vinegar, Acidum aceto'sum , A'legar, Ace'- 
tum Ci irris'ix, (F. ) Vinaigre; from «*/c, 'a 
point,' ac.c.r, 'sharp.' A liquor obtained by the 
acetous fermentation. Vinegar has a pungent 
odour, and a pleasant acid taste. One fluid 
ounce of the aceluin of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia is saturated by about 35 grains of 

crystallized bicarbonate of soda. It is refrige- 
rant in fevers; antiseptic, and anti-narcotic; and 
externally is stimulant and discutient. 

Ace'tvm Aromat'icum, Acidum Ace'ticum 
Aromat'icum, Ace'tvm Theriacale', Thieves' Vi~ 
negar, Vinegar of the four Thieves, Marseilles 
Vinegar, (F.) Vinaigre Aromalique, V. des qua- 
tre voleurs, (Rorismarin cacum. sice, Fol. Sal- 
via? sing. 3J. Lavand. for. sice. giv. Caryoph. 
cont. gss. Acid. Acet. Oij. Macerate 7 days, and 
filter. Ph. E.) Odour pungent and aromatic. 
Used as a perfume. 

Ace'tum Canthar'idis, Vinegar of Cant ha- 
rides, (Cantharid. in pulv. giij. Acid, acet.f.^v., 
Acid, pyrolign. f. ^xv: Euphorb. in pulv. crass, 
^ss. Mix the acids; add the powders; macerate 
for seven days; strain, express strongly, and 
filter the liquor.— Ph. E. _The London Col- 
lege macerates cantharid. §ij in acid. acet. Oj 
for eight days; expresses and strains) It is 
used as a prompt vesicant. 

Ace'tum Col'chici, Vinegar of meadow saf- 
fron. (Colchic. rad. contus. v ^ij; Acet. destillat. 
Oij; Alcohol, f. gj: Ph. U. S. It may also be 
made by displacement.) It is used as a diuretic, 
and also in gout. Dose f. gss to ziss. 

Acetum Destillatum: see Aceticum acidum 
— a. Lignorum: see Aceticum acidum — a. Mul- 
sum dulce, Oxyglycus — a. Opii, Guttas Nigras 
— a. Radicale, Aceticum Acidum. 

Ace'tum Scill^:, Acidum Ace'ticum Scillit'- 
icum. Vinegar of Squills, Vinaigre scillitiqve. 
(Scilla contus. §i v; Acet. destillat. Oij; Alcohol f,j. 
Ph. U S. It may also be made by displacement.) 
Diuretic, expectorant, and emetic. Dose f. gss 
to ^ij as a diuretic and expectorant. 

Acetum Theriacale, Acetum aromaticum. 
ACEYTE DE SAL. A remedy for bron- 
chocele used in S. America. Roulin found it to 
contain a portion of iodine. 

ACHACANA. A species of cactus, in the 
province of Potosi in Peru. Its root is thick 
and fleshy, and of a conical shape. It is a good 
edible, and is sold in the markets of the 

ACHANACA. A plant of the kingdom of 
Mely in Africa. It is used by the natives as an 

ACHAOVAN, a species of Egyptian chamo- 
mile. — Prosper Alpinus. 

ACHAOVAN-ABIAT. TheEgyptian nameof 
the cineraria, maritima, used in female diseases. 
ACHAR, Atchar. 

ACHE, Apiuin graveolens — a. des Montagues, 
Ligusticum levisticum. 

ACHEI'LIA, from « priv. and ^e/^o?, 'lip.' 
A malformation, consisting in. a deficiency of a 
lip or lips. 

ACHEIR, De'manus. from a privative, and 
££io, hand. One devoid of hands. — Galen. 
A'CHEROIS, Populus. 

ACH1A, Achifir. A name given in India to 
the pickled shoots of the bamboo. 
Achia, Atchar. 
ACHIAR, Achia. 

ACHIC'OEUM, Achit'olus. Hidrote'rion, Su- 
da'rium, Fornix, Thobis, Sudalo'rium. The 
sweating-room in the ancient bagnios. 

A C H ILLE'A A G E' R AT (J M, Balsami'ta /«- 
min'ca.Eupnto'riinn mt.s'vf.3, Agt'ratum, Cos' t as 
horto'rum minor. Maudlin, Maudlin Tuiory. (F.) 
Aehiltee Visqueuse. Nat Ord. Composite. Sub. 
Ord. AnthemidesB Sex. SyM. Syngenesia Po- 




lygamia superflua. Has the same properties as 
tansey, bitter and aromatic, and is used in like 

AcHii.t.B'A Atra'ta, Herba Gen'ipi vcri, (F.) 
Achdlee Noire, has similar virtues. 

Aciiillf/a Millefolium, Achille'a Myrio- 
phijl'lon, Cltrysoc'oma, Millefo'lium, Chiliophyt- 
Ion, Lumbus Ven'eris, Milita'ris herba, Strutiv'tes, 
Carpentaria, Spec'ulum Ven'eris, Common Yar- 
row or Milfoil. (F.) Millefeuilte. The leaves 
and flowers have an aromatic smell, and a 
rough, bitterish, somewhat pungent taste. They 
have been used in dyspepsia, flatulence, &.c. 

Achille'a Ptak'mica, Pseudo pyfrelhrum, 
Py'relhram sylces'tre, Draco syhes'tris, Tarchon 
sylves'tris, Slernutamento'ria, Draciin' cuius Pra- 
ten'sis. Sneeze-wort, Bastard Pel'litory, Plar'ini- 
ca. (F.) Herbe a The roots and flow- 
ers have a hot, biting taste, approaching that of 
pyrethrum. Their principal use is as a masti- 
catory and sialogogue. 

JICHILLEE NOIRE, Achillea atrata— a. Vis- 
queuse, Achillea ageratum. 

ACHILLE'lS, a beautiful species of barley, 
mentioned by Theophrastus and Galen, called 
after Achilles, a labourer. The decoction was 
used in fevers and jaundice. — Hippocrates. 

AGHIL'LIS TEN DO, Funis Hippoc'ratis, 
Corda Hippoc'ratis, Corda magna, Nervus, (F.) Tendon d'Achille. The strong tendon 
of the gastrocnemii muscles above the heel: so 
called, because it was the only vulnerable part 
of Achilles, or because of its strength. See 

ACHIMBASSI. An archiater or chief of 
physicians. A name Grand Cairo, to 
a magistrate who licenses physicians. 
ACHITOLUS, Aehicolum. 
ACHLYS, Caligo. 
ACHMELLA, Spilanthus acmella. 
ACI1NE. Lint. See Linteum. Also, small 
mucous flocculi seen in front of the cornea. — 

A'CHOLUS, from a privative, and /oXy, 
'bile.' One deficient in bile. 
ACHOR, Porrigo larvalis. 
ACHO'RES. A term often employed by the 
ancients to designate both the crusla lad tea, and 
small superficial ulcerations on the skin of the 
face and head. See Porrigo Larvalis. 
Achorks Capitis, Porrigo scutulata. 
ACHORIS'TOS,from a priv.,and zwQitu, ' I 
separate.' Any sign which necessarily accom- 
panies a state of health or disease. 

ACHOLJROU. The Caraib name for a spe- 
cies of myrtle used in dropsy. 

ACHRAS S A POT A. El A'ispero. A very 
abundant tree in South America, the fruit of 
which is excellent. It is astringent. The 
leaves are likewise astringent. The seeds are 
aperient and diuretic. It belongs to the family 
Sapotete. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. 

ACHROI, from a privative, and xqmua, 'co- 
lour.' Pale individuals. — Hippocrates. It is 
nearly synonymous with ItKpaifiot, persons 
without colour, bloodless. 

ACHROMAT'lC, Achromat'icus; same ety- 
mon. A lens so constructed as to correct the 
aberration of refrangibility of common lenses. 
The Crystalline is an achromatic lens. 

AC hi ROM ATO P'SI A, Chromatopseudop'sia, 
Chromatometablep'sia, Colour blindness, Idi- 
op'tcy, Dal'lonistn, from a privative, XQWfia, 'co- 

lour ' and onronai, ' I see.' Incapability of dis- 
tinguishing colours. A defect situate in the 
cerebral part of the visual organ. See Acyano- 

ACHYRODES. Acerosus. 
ACHYRON, Furfur. 

ACIA, from axis, a point. A word used by 
Celsus, which has puzzled commentators; some 
believing it to have meant a needle; others the 
thread; and others, again, the kind of suture. 
"Ada mollis, non nimis torta."— Celsus, Galen. 
(Chifflet thinks it meant the thread, Antwerp, 
I63H > „„ . 

acidum— a Aerial, Carbonic acid— a. Antimo- 
niotis, Antimonium diaphoret.icum — a. Arseni- 
ous, Arsenicum album— a Azotic, Nitric acid 
—a. Benzoic, Benjamin, flowers ol— a. Boric, 
Boracic acid — a. Calcareous, Carbonic acid— a. 
Carbonaceous, Carbonic acid— a. Carbonous, 
Oxalic acid— a Cyanhydric, Hydrocyanic acid 
—a. Cyanohydric, Hydrocyanic acid— a. Gas- 
tric, Gastric juice. 

Acjd, Gallic, Ad'idum Gafficum. This acid 
is found in most of the astringent plants that 
contain tannic acid of the kind obtained from 
galls, it is in delicate silky needles, usually 
somewhat yellowish, inodorous, and of a harsh, 
somewhat astringent taste. It dissolves in one 
hundred parts of'cold and tlnee parts of boiling 
water. It is very soluble in alcohol, and but 
slightly so in ether. 

It has been highly extolled in internal he- 
morrhage, especially from the urinary organs 
and uterus 

Its do?e is from ten to twenty grains. 
Acid, Hip'puric, Atf'idum Hippv'ricum, Uro- 
ben' zoic acid. An acid found in the urine ot gra- 
minivorous animals. It is contained in human 
urine, especially after benzoic acid has" been 

Acid, Hydui'othc, /tc'idum Bydriod'icum. 
This acid is made by mixing solutions of iodide 
of potassium and tartaric acid; filtering the li- 
quor to separate the bitartrate of potassa, arid 
addinar water to make the resulting hydiiodic 
acid of definite strength. 

It has been used in the same cases as the 
preparations of iodine in general, but is rarely 

Aciu, Hvdrockloronitric, Nitro muriatic 
acid — a. Hydrocyanic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. 
Igasuric: see Jatropha curcas — a. of Lemons, 
Citric acid — a. Lithic, Uric acid — a. Dephlogis- 
licated marine, Chlorine — a. Mephitic, Carbonic 
acid — a. of Milk. Lactic acid — a. Muriatic, see 
Muriaticum acidum — a Nitric, see Nitric acid 
— a. Nitro hydrochloric, Nitro muriatic acid. — 
a. Nitro-Muiialic, see Nitro-Murialic Acid — a. 
Nitrous dephlogisticaled, Nitric acid — a. Oxy- 
septonic, Nitric acid — a. Polygalie; see Poly- 
gala senega — a. Prussic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. 
Pyroligneous: see Aceticum acidum — a. Py- 
rolignic, Pyroligneous acid — a of Sorrel, Ox- 
alic acid — a of Sugar, Oxalic acid — a. Sulphu- 
ric, see Sulphuric acid — a. Uric, Uric acid a. 

Urobenzoic, a. Hippurie. 
ACIDE AClTiqilE FAIBLE, see Aceticum 

acidum— a. Sulphnrevx, Sulphurous acid «. 

Sulfuiique detuye, Sulphuricum acidum dilu- 

ACIDS, Ac"ida,Aco'res, from axic, 'a point ' 
genitive «x«5os. Any liquid, solid or gaseous 




body, possessed of a sour, more or less caustic 
taste, and the principal character of which is 
the capability of saturating, wholly or in part, 
the alkaline properties of liases. 

Acids, in general, are refrigerant and anti- 
septic. Their particular uses are pointed out 
under the individual articles. 

ACID'ITIES, Aco'res, Acidita'lio, Ac"idum 
morbo'sitm, Ac'idum prima'rum via'rvm, (F.) 
Aigrcurs. Sourness of the stomach, the result 
of indigestion, indicated by acid eructations, 
&c. The affection is very common in children, 
and must be obviated by absorbents, as magne- 
sia, chalk, &c, and by regulated diet. 

To ACID'ULATE." To render acidulous, or 
slightly acid. (F.) Aigaiser, Aciduler. 

ACID'ULOVS, Aeid'ulus, Oxu'des. (F.) Acid- 
ti/e, Aigrc, Aigrelit. Substances are called acid- 
ulous, which possess a sourish taste, as tama- 
rinds, cream of tartar, &c. 

Acidulous Fruits, Oranges, gooseberries, &e. 

Acidulous Waters, Aquce acid'ulte. Mineral 
waters containing carbonic acid gas sufficient 
to render them sourish. See Waters, Mineral. 

Simple Acidulous Water, Aqua Ac"idi 
Carbon' ici, (Ph. U. S .) Aqua a/eris fixi, A'qua 
acid'ula simplex. (F.) Eau Acidule simple, is 
water impregnated with fixed air. 

Water, so impregnated, is cooling, and slight- 
ly stimulating. Jtis used beneficially in dys- 
pepsia, and in cases of vomitinc, &c. 

ACIDUM ACETICUM, Aceticum acidum— 
a. Aceticum aromaticum, Acetum aromnticum 
— a. Aceticum camphoratum: see Aceticum aci- 
dum — a. Aceticum empyreumaticum, Pyrolig- 
neous acid — a. Aceticum Scilliticum, Acetum 
scillse — a. Acetosellae, Oxalic acid — a. Aceto- 
sum, Acetum — a. Allantoicum, Allantoic acid 
— a. Amnicum, Amniotic acid — a. Arsenico- 
sum, Arsenious acid — a. Arseniosnm, (Ph. U. 
S ) Arsenious acid — a. Azoticum, Nitric acid — 
a. Benzoicurn, Benjamin, Flowers of — a. Bo- 
racicum, Boracic acid — a. Borussicum, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Carbonicum, Carbonic acid — 
a. Citricum, Citric acid — a. Gallicum, Acid 
Gallic — a. Hydriodicnin, Acid hydriodic — a. 
Hydrocarbonicum, Oxalic acid — >a. Hydrochlo- 
ricum, Muriaticum acidum — a. Hydrocyani- 
cum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydrothionicum 
liquidum, see Hydrosulphuretted water — a Ja- 
trnphicurn, see Jatropha curcas — a. Lacticum, 
Lactic acid — a. Ligneum, Pyroligneous acid — 
a. Ligni pyro-oleosuni, Pyroligneous acid — a. 
Lilhicum, Uricacid — a. Marinumconcentratum, 
Muriaticum acidum — a. Morbosum, Acidities 
— a. Muriaticum, Muriaticum acidum — a. Mu- 
riaticum nitroso-oxygenaturn, Nitro-muriatic 
acid — a Nitri, Nitric acid — a. Nitricum, Ni- 
tric acid — a. Nitro-Muriaticum, Nitro-muriatic 
acid — a. Oxalinum. Oxalic acid — a. Phosphori- 
cum, Phosphoric acid — a. Primarum viarum, 
Acidities — a. Prussicum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. 
Pyro-acelicum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Querci- 
tannicum, Tannin — a. Sacchari, Oxalic acid 
— a. Saccharinum, Oxalic acid — a Salis, Mu- 
riaticum acidum — a. Salis culinaris, Muriati- 
cum acidum — a Salis marini, Muriaticum aci- 
dum — a. Septicum, Nitric acid — a. Succini- 
cum, Succinic acid — a. Sulph uric urn. Sulphuric 
acid — a. Sulphuricum alcoolisatum, Elixir aci- 
dum flalleri — a. Sulphuricum aromaticum, Sul- 
phuric acid, aromatic — a. Sulphuricum dilu- 
tum, Sulphuric acid, diluted — a. Sulphuris vo- 

latile, Sulphurous acid — a. Sulphurosicum, Sul- 
phurous acid — a. Tannic um, Tannin — a Tartar! 
essentiale, Tartaric acid — a. Tartaricum, Tarta- 
ric acid — a. Tartarosum, Tartaric acid — a. Uri- 
cum, Uric acid — a. Vitriolicum, Sulphuric acid 
— a. Vitriolicum aromaticum, Sulphuricum aci- 
dum aromaticum — a. Vitriolicum alcohole aro- 
maticum, Sulphuricum acidum aromat. — a. Vi- 
triolicum vinosum, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. 
Zootieum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Zootinicum, 
Hyamcyanic acid. 

ACIDURGIA, Surgery, (operative.) 

ACIER, Chalybs. 

ACIES, Chalybs — a. Digitorum manus, Pha- 
langes of the fingers — a Oiurna, Hemeralopia. 

ACIES1S, Sterilitas. 

ACIN E'SI A, Acine'sis, Akine'sia, Jmmobil'itas, 
Quits, Esych'ia, Ertm'iu, from « privative, and 
annate, 'motion' (xntu, 'I move.') Immobility. 
Also, the interval between the systole and 
diastole of the heart. 

Under tile term Acineses. Remberg includes 
the paralytic neuroses,— or those that are cha- 
racterized by defect of motive power. 

ACINI OF MA LPIGHI, Corpora Malpighiana. 

ACINIFORMIS, (TUNICA.) Choroid, Urea. 

AC" I NU S, Ac"inus gland ulo'sus, from ac"inus, 
' a grape-stone.' A glandiform corpuscle or gran- 
ulation. A fancied termination of a secretory 
artery of a gland in a granular bod}', in which 
the secretion is supposed to take place, and the 
excretory radicle to take its rise. Acini are 
the glob'uli arteria'mm ter' 'mini of Nichols. 
The term acini gland ulosi has also been given 
to glands, which, like the pancreas, are arranged 
as it were in clusters. See Lobule. 

ACLE1TROCARDIA, Cyanopathy. 

ACMAS'TICOS, from ax^, 'the top,' and 
a-rav>, 'I remain.' A fever which preserves an 
equal degree of intensity throughout its course. 
It is also called Homot'onos. The Greeks gave 
it the name of Eparmas'ticos, and Syn'ochos, 
when it went on increasing, — and Ear acinus' ti- 
cos, when it decreased. — Galen. 

ACME, Vigor, Status, Eustig"ium. The pe- 
riod of a disease at which the symptoms are 
most violent. Aq/ij, is 'the commencement;' 
urafiaric, 'the period of increase;' and a*,ut;, 
'the heiffht.' 

ACMON, Incus. 

ACNE, Actio, Ion' thus varus. Varus, Psydra'- 
cia Acne, Stone Pork, Whelk, Bubucle. (F.) Dartre 
pustuleusr, dissemin&e. A small pimple or tu- 
bercle on the face. — Gorraeus. Foesius thinks 
the word ought to be Acme, and, according to 
Cassius, it is, at all events, derived from axiirj, 
'vigour;' the disease affecting those in the 
vigour of life, especially. 

Willan and Bateman have adopted the term 
in their Nosology of cutaneous diseases, and 
placed it in the Older, Titbercula. Acne, 
with them, is an eruption of distinct, hard, in- 
flamed tubercles, sometimes continuing for a 
considerable length of time, and sometimes 
suppurating slowly and partially. They usually 
appear on the forehead, temples, and chin ; and 
are common to both sexes ; but the most severe 
forms are seen in young men. They require 
but little management, and consist of four varie- 
ties; Acne indura'tu, A simplex, A puncta'ta 
(Ion' thus Burns punclu'tus, Punrtas muco'sa, Co- 
medones or Maggot Pimple,) and A. rosa'cea. — 
See Gutta Rosea. 




Acne Rosacea, Gutta rosea. 

ACNES'TIS, from a privative, and xvastv, ' to 
scratch.' The part of the spine which extends, 
in quadrupeds, from between the shoulders to 
the loins. According to Pollux, the middle of 
the loins. 

ACNESTOS, Cneorum tricoccum. 

ACCE'LIOS, from a privative, and y.oilia, 
'belly.' Devoid of belly. One who is so ema- 
ciated as to appear to have no belly. — Galen. 

ACOESIS, Audition. 

ACOLASIA, Intemperance. 

ACOLOGY, Materia Medica. 

ACONE, Mortar. 

cammarum — a. Salutaire, Aconitum anthora. 

ACONITE, Aconitum. 

ACONITIA, See Aconitum napellus. 

ACON1T1NE, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONI'TUM, from Ac' one, a place in Bithy- 
nia, where it is common. Cijnoc'tonon, Cani- 
ci'da, Ac'onite, Wolfsbane, Monkshood. Nat. Ord. 
Ranunculaceae. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Trigynia. 

Aconitum, Aconite, in the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States is the leaves of Aconitum 
JNapellus, and of A paniculatum. 

Aconi'tum An'thora. Aconi'tum Salutif'e- 
rum,, An'lhora vulgaris, Antith'ora, Sal'utary 
Monks' hood. (F.) A conit salutaire. The root of 
this variety, like all the rest, is poisonous. It is 
used as a cathartic and anthelmintic. Dose 

9 sst0 9J- 

Aconi'tum Cam'marum. A. panicula'tum (F.) 
Aconit a grands fleurs, resembles Aconitum ' 
JNapellus in properties. 

Aconi'tum Napel'lus, Napellus verus, Aco- • 
ni'tum, Common Monkshood br Wolfsbane, A. ' 
JYeomonta'num. (F.) Chaperon de Maine. The 
leaves are narcotic, sudorific, and deobstruent (?) 
They have been used in chronic rheumatism, 
scrofula, scirrhus, paralysis, amaurosis, &c. The 
active principle is called Aconit'ia or Aconitine. 
It has been used of late, applied externally, in 
neuralgic cases, iatraleptically and endermi- 
cally. Dose of the Aconitum, gr. j. to gr. iij. 

ACONU'SI,froin ay.oij, 'audition,' and rcuao?, 
'disease.' Morbi au'rium et audi'lus. Diseases 
of the ears and audition. 

AC'OPIS. Same etymon as the next. Pliny 
gives this name to a precious stone, which was 
boiled in oil and used against weariness. 

AC'OPON,from u privative, and yono;,' wea- 
riness.' A remedy against weariness —Foesius, 
Gorraeus, &c. Acopum, — Celsus, Pliny. See 

ACOR BENZOINUS. Benjamin— a. Boraci- 
cus, Boracic acid — a. Succineus, Succinic acid 
— a. Sulphuris, Sulphuric acid — a. Tartaricus, 
Tartaric acid. A 

ACORE BATARD, Iris pseudacorus — a. 
Faux, Iris pseudacorus — a. Odorant, Acorus 

ACORES, Acids, and Acidities. 

ACOR'IA, from a privative, and y.ooew, 'I 
satiate.' An inordinate or canine appetite. — 

ACORI'TES. A wine made of Acorus — 

ACOR'MUS, from a 'privative,' and y.iopos, 
•trunk.' A monster devoid of a trunk. 

ACORN, J UP ITER'S, Fagus castanea— a. 
Oily, Guilandina moringa— a. Sardinian, Fagus 

ACORNS. See Quercus alba. 

ACORUS ADULTERINUS, Iris pseudacorus. 

Sweetfiag or Ac'orus, Flagroot, Sweet cane, Altjr- 
tie Flag, Sweet grass, Sweet root, Sweet rush. ( H .) 
.Tone Roseau ou Canne aromatique, Acore odo- 
rant. Nat. Ord. Aroida; Acoracea? (Lindley.) 
Sex. Si/st. Hexandria AJonogynia. 1 he rhi- 
zoma— Cal'amus (Ph. U. S.)— is a stomachic 
and carminative,but is rarely used. It is regarded 
a good adjuvant to bark and quinia in inter- 

Ac'orus PAi.usTRis.Iris pseudacorus — a. Vul- 
garis, Iris pseudacorus. 

ACOS, Medicament. 

ACOS'MIA, from «, 'privative,' and Koquoj, 
'order, ornament.' Disorder, irregularity in 
the critical days, according to Galen, who uses 
the word xja-fia? for regularity in those days. 
Others, and particularly Pollux, call bald per- 
sons uy.oo-fjt.oi, because they are deprived of one 
of their most beautiful ornaments. 

ACOUM'ETER, Acouoni'eter, from axouoi, 
"I hear,' and ^uErof.v, 'measure.' An instrument 
designed by ltard for measuring the degree of 

ACOUOPHO'NI A, Copho'nia; from ukovw, ' I 
hear,' and tpwvij, 'voice,' " Auscultatory Percus- 
sion." A mode of auscultation, in which the ob- 
server places his ear on the chest, and analyzes 
the sound produced by percussion. — Donne. 

ACOUS'MA, an imaginary noise. Depraved 
sense of hearing. 

ACOUS'TIC, Acus'licus, that which belongs 
to the ear; as Acoustic nerve,Acoustic trumpet, &c. 

Acoustic Medicine is one used in diseased 

Acous'tics, Acus'tica, (F.) Acoustique. The 
part of physics which treats of the theory of 
sounds. It is also called Phonics. 

ACOUSTIQUE, Acoustics. 

ACQUA BlNELLI,AquaBinellii— a. di Na- 
poli, Liquor arsenicalis — a. dellaToffana, Liquor 

ACQUETTA, Liquor arsenicalis. 

thermal sulphureous springs are in Pieinont. 
Their temperature is 1(>7° Fahr.; and they con- 
lain sulphohydric acid, and chloride of sodium. 

ACQUIRED DISEASES, Morbi acquisi'ti, 
Adventitious diseases, M.Adventi'tii. (F.) Maladies 
acquises. Diseases which occur after birth, and 
which are not dependent upon hereditary pre- 

ACRAI'PALA, from a 'privative,' and xnui- 
nah], 'drunkenness,' Remedies against the 
effects of a debauch. — Gorraeus. 

ACRA'LEA, from axooc, 'extremity.' The 
extreme parts of the body, as the head, hands, 
feet, nose, ears, &c. — Hippocrates and Galen. 
See Acrea. 

ACRA'NIA, from a privative, and xactviov 
'the cranium.' Want of cranium, wholly, or 
in part. 

ACR.VSIA. from a privative, or 'bad,' and 
y.oaa-iQ, 'mixture.' Intemperance. Excess of 
any kind. — Hippocrates. 

It has been employed to denote debility, sy- 
nonymously with Acrutia ; but this mav have 
been a typographical inaccuracy. 




ACRATI'A, from a privative, and tncnog, 
'strength.' Impotence; weakness. 

ACRATIS'MA, from « privative, and xtQuv- 
Wfii, *to mix.' A breakfast, consisting of bread 
steeped in wine, not mixed with water. — 
Galen, Athenaaus. 

ACIIATOM'ELI, from clxqcctiv, 'pure wine," 
and uiXt, ' honey.' Wine mixed with honey. 

ACRATURE'SIS, from Acratia, 'weakness,' 
and ouooi, 'urine.' Inability to void the urine 
from paralysis of the bladder. 

ACRE. The extremity or tip of the nose. 

A'CREA, Acrote'ria, from axoog, 'the summit.' 
The extreme parts of the body, as thefeet, hands, 
nose, cars, iSsdc. 

Also the extreme parts of animals that are 
used as food. Acroco'lia. 

ACRID, from ukqoc, 'a point or summit,' or 
from uxig, 'a point,' Acer. An epithet for sub- 
stances which occasion a disagreeable sense of 
irritation or of constriction at the top of the 

Acrid heat, (F.) Chaleur acre, is one that 
causes a hot tingling sensation at the extremi- 
ties of the fingers. 

Acrids, in Pathology, are certain imaginary 
substances, supposed, by the humourists, to 
exist in the humours, and to cause various dis- 
eases. See Acrimony. 

ACRIDOPH'AGI, from axoig, 'alocust,' and 
yayw, '1 eat.' Locust-eaters. Acridophagous 
tribes are said to exist in Africa. — Strabo. 

ACRIMONY, Acu'itas, Acrimo'nict, from 
acer, 'acrid,' axtg, 'a point.' Acrimony of the 
humours. An imaginary acrid change of the 
blood, lymph, &c , which, by the humourists, 
was conceived to cause many diseases. 

ACRIN'IA, from a privative, and xnn-ia, 'I 
separate.' A diminution in the quantity, or a 
total suspension, of the secretions. 

ACRIS, a sharp bony prominence. Also the 

ACRIS'IA, from a privative, and xotrtg, 
'judgment.' A condition of disease, in which 
no judgment can be formed; or in which an 
unfavourable opinion must be given. — Hipp, 
and Galen. 

ACRIT'ICAL, Ac'ritos, from a privative, and 
xotric, 'judgment.' That which takes place 
without any crisis, or which does not foretell a 
crisis; as a critical symptom, abscess, &c. 

ACRITOS, Acritical. 

ACRIVTOLA, Tropoeolum majus. 

ACROUYS'TIA, Acropos' tkiu, from axoog, 
•top,' and (Juoi, ' I cover.' The extremity of the 
prepuce. — Hippocrates. Rufus. 

ACROGHEJR', Acrocliir' ', Acrocheir'on, from 
(.v.o:c, ' extremity,' and /si§, ' the hand.' The 
fore arm and hand.— Gorracus. Also, the hand. 

ACHROCHOR'DON', from nxqtg, « extremi- 
ty,' and rogflij, 'a string.' A tumour, which 
hangs by a pedicle. A kind of hard wart. — 
Actios, Celsus. 

ACIIROCHORIS'MUS, from uxnoc, ' extre- 
mity, ' nnd xoqtvot, ' I dance.' A kind of dance, 
with the ancients, in which the arms and legs 
were violently agitated. 


\( HOD'RYA, from socgo;, ' extremity.' and 
S^vst 'a tree.' Autumnal fruits, as nuts, ap- 
ples, t C vC. 

ACRODYiVIA, Enjthe'ma acrodijnum, E. 

acrodyn'ia. (F.) Acrodynie, from ax^og, 'ex- 
tremity,' and 00W17, ' pain.' A painful affection 
of the wrists and ankles especially, which ap- 
peared at Paris as an epidemic, in 1828 and 
1829. It was supposed by some to be rheuma- 
tic, by others to be owing to spinal irritation. 

ACROLENION, Olecranon. 

ACRO'MIAL, Acromia'lis. Relating to the 
Acromion, (q. v.) 

Acromial Artery, External Scap'ular, A. 
Arte'ria Tkorac"ica humera'lis, Artere troisihnc 
des T/ioracirjues, — fCh.) A. Thoracique humirak, 
arises from the anterior part of the axillary ar- 
tery, opposite the upper edge of the pectoralis 
minor. It divides into two branches: one, su- 
pcrior; the other, inferior: the branches of 
which are distributed to the subclavius, serra- 
tus major anticus, first intercostal, deltoid, and 
pectoralis major muscles, as well as to the 
shoulder joint, &c. They anastomose with 
the superior scapular, thoracics, and the cir- 
cumflex arteries. 

Acromial Vein. Has the same arrangement 
as the artery. 

the acromion and coracoid process. 

The triangular ligament between the acro- 
mion and coracoid process of the scapula is so 

ACRO'MION, Acro'mium, from axoog, ' the 
top,' and wjuog, 'the shoulder,' Os Acro'rnii, 
Hu'merus summus, Armus summits, Mucro-hu'- 
meri, Rostrum porci'num, Caput Scap'ula. The 
process which terminates the spine of the sca- 
pula, and is articulated with the clavicle. 

ACROM'PHALON, Acrompha'liun, from 
axoog, 'the top,' and ojwpulog, 'the navel.' The 
extremity of the umbilical cord, which remains 
attached to the foetus after birth. 

ACROPOSTHIA, Acrobystia. 

ACROPSI'LON, from ax^og, 'extremity,' and 
xpiloc, 'naked.' The extremity of the glans penis. 

ACROS, <*xgng, ' extremity, top.' The strength 
of the Athletaa, and of diseases: the promi- 
nences of bones : the extremities of the fingers, 
»&c. S$e Acrocheir, Acromion, &c. 


ACROTERIAS'MUS, from ax^rr lQ ia, ' the 
extremities;' hence uxncir^tatcn,' to mutilate.' 
Amputation of the extremities. 

ACROTHYM'ION, from axgog, 'top,' and 
■Suitor, ' thyme.' A kind of conical, rugous, 
bloody wart, compared by Celsus to the flower 
of thyme. 

ACROT'ICA, from axoog, 'summit.' Dis- 
eases affecting the excernent functions of the 
external surface of the body. 

Pravity of the fluids or emunctories that open 
on the external surface ; without fever or other 
internal affection as a necessary accompani- 

The 3d order of the class Eccrit'ica of Good. 

ACROTISMUS, Asphyxia. 

ACT, Actus, from actum, past participle of 
agere, ' to do,' ' a thing done.' The effective 
exercise of a power or faculty. The action of 
an agent. Acte is used by the French, to signi- 
fy the public discussion, which occurs i:i sup- 
porting a thesis: — thus, sontenir i/n Acte avx 
Jlco/rs do Mfidccine, is, ' to defend a Thesis in 
the Schools of Medici rte.' 

ACTJS'A EACEMO'SA, Cimidf'uga, (Ph. 




U. S.) C. racemo'sa Macro' trys racemo'sa. 
Bol'rophis Strpenta'ria{?) Serpentu'ria nigra, 
Black snakcroot, Riehteeed, Cohosh, Squaw rout, 
Ruttlewecd, Black Cohosh. [T.) Act ha grappes. 

SerperUaire noire. Nat. Ord. Ranunculacese. Sex. 
Syst. PolyandriaPentagynia. A common plant 
in the United States. The root is astringent; 
and, according to Barton, has been successfully 
used in the form of decoction, as a gargle in 
putrid sore throat. A decoction of the root 
cures the itch. It is acronarcotic, and has 
been used in rheumatism, acute and chronic; 
chorea, &.c. . . 

Act^'a Spic a'ta, Bancbcrry, Herb Christo- 
pher. A perennial herbaceous European plant, 
the root of which resembles that of the black 
hellebore. The root is cathartic, and sometimes 
emetic, and in overdoses may produce danger- 
ous consequences. 

Actxa Americana, of which there are two 
varieties, A. alba and A. rubra,— while and red 
cohosh, is indigenous in the United States, it 
has the same properties as A. spicata 

ACTE, Sambucus. 

ACTE, Act. 

ACTliE a GRAPPES, Acta:a racemosa. 

AC1IF, Active. 

ACTION, Actio, Opera' t'o, Energi'a, Praxis: 
from agere, actum, 'to act.' Mode in which 
on<» object influences another. 

The animal actions are those that occur in 
the animal body : the vital, those that are seen 
in bodies endowed with life : the physiological, 
those of a healthy character: the, 
or morbific," that occur in disease, &c. 
The. ancients divided the physiological actions 
into vital, animal, natural, sexual, particular. 
general, &e. See Function. 

ACTIVE, same etymon. Drns't'cns. Acti'vus, 
Sthen'ieus, Hyprrsthr.n'icus. (F.) Actif. This 
adjective is used, in Pathology, to convey the 
idea of superabundant energy or strength. Ac- 
tire symptoms, e. g. are those of excitement In 
Therapeutics, it signifies energetic :— as, an ac- 
tive treatment. The French use the expression 
Medecine ugissantc, in contradistinction to M&- 
decine rxpertnnte. In Physiology, active has a 
similar signification, many of the functions be- 
ino- divided into active and passive. 

ACTON. A village near London, at which 
there is a purgative mineral spring, like that at 

ACTUAL. Same etymon as active. That 
which acts immediately. A term usually re- 
stricted to the led hot iron, or to heat in any 
form ; in contradistinction to the potential or 
virtual, which is applied to caustics or escharo- 


ACTUA'RIUS. Originally a title of dignity 
given to the Bvzuntine physicians. 

ACU1TAS, Acrimony. 


A'CUPUNCTURF, Acupunctu'ra, from acus, 
'a needle,' and punclu'ra, 'a puncture.' A 
surgical operation, much in use amongst the 
Chinese and Japanese, which consists in punc- 
turing parts with a very fine needle. It has 
been employed, of late years, in obstinate rheu- 
matic affections, &c, and apparently with suc- 
cess. Acupuncture is likewise a mode of in- 
fanticide in some countries; the n.edle being 
forced into the brain through the fontanelles, 
or into the spinal marrow, &c. 

ACURGIA, Surgery (operative.) 

ACUS, Needle-a. Capitata Pin-*, lnva 
ginata. See Needle -a. Ophthalmic^ See 
Needle— a. 1'aracentica, Trocar— a. 1 nquetra 
vulgaris, Trocar— a. Veneris, Eryngium cam- 

ACUS1S, Audition. 

ACUSTICA, Acoustics. . 

A. CUTE, Acu'tus, ojuc, {axis, ' a point. ) (i 1 .) 
Ai<ru. A disease which, with a certain degree 
of "severity, has a rapid progress, and short du- 
ration. Oxynose'ma, Oxyn'osos, Oxynu'sos. 

Diseases were formerly subdivided into Mnr- 
bi acutis' sirni, very acute, or those which last 
only three or four days : M. suba cutis' simi, 
which continue seven days: and M. subaa/ti, 
or those which last from twenty to forty days. 

The antithesis to acute is chronic. Acute, 
when applied to pain, sound, cries, &c, means 

ACUTENACULUM, Porte-aiguille 

ACYANOBLEP'SIA.from a privative,xiaio?, 
'blue,' and fiXiTta, 'I see.' Defective vision, 
which consists in incapability of distinguishing 
blue. — Gbthe. 

ACYES1S, Sterilitas. 

ACYRUS, Arnica montana. 

ADACA. The Sphxran'tlius hi'dicus, a Ma- 
labar plant, which is acrid and aromatic. 

AD.EMONlA. Anxietv. 

ADAKO'DIEN. A Malabar plant of the 
family Apocynea?, used in that country in dis- 
eases of the eyes. 

AD'ALI. Lip'pia. A Malabar plant, which 
the Orientals regard as an antidote to the bite 
of the naja. 

ADAMAS, Diamant. 

ADAMl'TA, Adamitum. A very hard, white 
calculus. — Paracelsus. 

The first word has been used for stone in the 
bladder: the second for litlr.asis or the calcu- 
lous condition. 

ADAM'S APPLE, Pomum Adami 


ADAR'CE, Adar'cion, Adar'cis. A concre- 
tion found about the reeds and grass in the 
marshy regions of Galatia. and hiding them, as 
it were: hence the name, from a privative, and 
dinxot, 'I see.' It was formerly in repute for 
cleansing the skin from freckles, <&c. 

ADARIGO. Orpiment. 

ADARNECH, Orpiment. 


ADDAD. A Numidian plant. Bitter and 

ADDEPHAG"IA, Adephag"ia, from «<lh,v, 
'much,' and Qaynr, 'to eat.' Voraciousness. 
Galen and Hoffman have given this name to 
voracious appetite in children affected with 
worms. Sauvagrs refers it to Bulimia. Also, 
the goddess of glutton?. 

ADDER'S TONGUE. OphiogWurn vul- 

ADDITAMEN'TUM. A term once used sy- 
nonymously with Epiphysis, q. v. It is now 
restricted to the prolongations of two cranial 
sutures, the lambdnidal and squamous. 

Aduitamentum Coi.i. Appendix vermiformis 
Cffici — a. Necatum, Olecranon — a. ad Sacrolum- 
balem, see Sacrolumbalis — a. Uncatum ulna> 
Olecranon — a. Ulnre, Radius. 

ADDUCENS 0CUL1, Rectus internus ocnli 

ADDUCTEUR DE L'CEIL, Rectus internus 




oculi — a. du gros orteil, Adductor pollicis pedis 
— a. Premier ou moyen, Adductor longus femo- 
ris — a. du pouce, Adductor pollicis manus — a. 
Second ou petit, Adductor brevis — a. Troisieme 
ou grand. Adductor magnus. 

ADDUCTION, Adduc'tio, from ad, 'to,' and 
ducere, ' to draw.' Parago'ge. The action by 
which parts are drawn towards the axis of the 

The muscles which execute this function 
are called Adduc/tors. 

terior medii digiti pedis — a. Oculi, Rectus inter- 
nus oculi. 

Adduc'tor Metacar'pi min'imi DiG"iTr, Me- 
tacar'peus, Car' po- mctacar' pcus min'imi dig"iti, 
is situate between the abductor and flexor, next 
to the metacarpal bone. It arises, fleshy, from 
the unciform process of the os unciforme, and 
from the contiguous part of the annular liga- 
ment of the wrist, and is inserted, tendinous 
and fleshy, into the fore-part of the metacarpal 
bone of the little finger, from its base to its head 

Adduc'tor Poi/licis Manus, A Pollicis, A. 
ad min'imum dig"itnm, Metacar'po-pkolunga'us 
pol'licis — (Ch.) (F.) Adducteur du pouce. A 
muscle which arises, fleshy, from almost the 
whole length of the metacarpal bone of the 
middle finger, and is inserted into the inner part 
of the root of the first bone of the thumb. 

Adpuc'tok Poi/licis Pedis, Antilh'ennr, Me- 
tatarsosuhphulangseus pollicis. — (Ch.) Torso- 
metatarsi phalungien du pouce. (F.) Addwteur 
du gros orteil, arises by a long, thin tendon, 
from the under part of the os calcis, from the 
os cuboides, os cuneiforme externum, and from 
the root of the metatarsal bone of the second 
toe. It is divided into two fleshy portions, and 
is inserted into the external sesamoid bone, and 
root of the metatarsal bone of the great toe. 

Bichat has given the general name, Adduc'- 
tors, to those of the interosseous muscles of the 
hand or foot, which perforin the action of ad- 

Adductor Tertii Digiti Pedis, Prior tertii 
digiti pedis. 

Adductors of the thigh. These are three 
in number, which have, by some anatomists, 
been united into one muscle — the Triceps Ad- 
duc'tor Fern' oris. 

I. Adduc'tor longus fern' oris, Adduc'tor fem'- 
oris primus, Triceps minor, Pu' 'bio-femora lis. — 
(Ch ) (F.) Premier ou moycnadducteur. Arises 
by a strong tendon from the upper and fore 
part of the os pubis and ligament of the sym- 
physis, at the inner side of the pectinalis. It 
runs downwards and outwards, and is inserted 
by a broad, flat tendon, into the middle of the 
linea aspera. 

2. Adduc'tor breris, A. fern' oris sccun'dus, 
Triceps sccun'dus, Sub-pubio-femora'lis. — (Ch.) 
(F.) Second ou petit Adducteur. Arises tendi- 
nous from the os pubis, at the side of its sym- 
physis, below and behind the last muscle. It 
runs obliquely outwards, and is inserted by a 
short, flat tendon into the inner and upper part 
of the linea aspera, from a little below the tro- 
chanter minor to the beginning of the insertion 
of the adductor longus. 

3. Adduc'tor magnus, Adduc'tor fern' oris tcr'- 
tius et quartus. Triceps magnus, Is'chio-femo- 
ra'lis — (Ch.) (F.) Troisieme ou grand adduc- 
teur, is much larger than either of the others. 

It arises from the ramus of the pubis, from that 
of the ischium, and from Ihe tuber ischii, and 
is inserted into the whole length of the linea 
aspera. Near the lower part of the linea aspera 
it is pierced by a kind of oblique, fibrous canal, 
through which the crural artery and vein pass. 

ADEC. The inner man. — Paracelsus. 

ADECTA, Sedatives. 

ADELIPARIA, Polysarcia. 

ADELODAGAM. A bitter Malabar plant, 
used in asthma, catarrh, and gout. 

ADELPHIA. see Adelphixia. 

ADELFHIX'IA, Adelphiafis; from aiiXyoq, 
'brother.' Consanguinity of parts in health or 
disease. Frater', Fratra'tio. Hippocrates 
used the epithet Adetphia, for diseases that re- 
semble each other 

ADELPHIX1S, Sympathy. 

ADEN, adtjv, 'a gland;' hence Adenalgia, 
Adeniform, &c. — See Gland. 

ADENAL'GIA, from aStjv, 'a gland,' and 
aXyoc. ' pain.' Glandular pain. 

ADENEMPHRAX'IS, from adijv, 'a gland,' 
and tfiipQu^tg, 'obstruction.' Glandular obstruc- 

ADEN'IFORM, Adeniform'is, Adcnot'des, 
ucTf i oitdijg, from Aden, 'a gland,' and Forma, 
'form or resemblance.' Glan'diform, or resem- 
bling a gland. 

ADENITIS, from «-V- 'a gland,' and hit, a 
termination denoting inflammation. Glandular 

Adeni'tisMesknteu'ica, Mesenteric Ganglio- 
ni'lis. Inflammation of the mesenteric glands. 

gland,' /ttQ, 'the hand,' amvt. ' 1 lay hold of,' 
and Zoyug, 'a description.' The doctrine of 
curing scrofula or the king's evil by the royal 

ADENOG'RAPHY, Adenogra'phia, from a 3„ r , 
'a gland,' and yoaipvi, 'I describe.' That part 
of anatomy which describes the glands. 

ADENOIDES, Adeniform. 

ADENOL'OGY, Adenolog"ia, from aSr t v, 'a 
gland,' and Zoycc, ' a description.' A treatise on 
the glands. 

ADE'NO PHARYNGEUS, from «<V, 'a 
gland,' and <fitovy;, ' the pharynx.' Some fleshy 
fibres, which pass from the constrictor pharynois 
inferior to the thyroid gland, have received this 
name. Their existence is not constant. 

ADE'NO-PHARYNGI'TIS. Same etymon. 
Inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx. 

ADENOPHTHALM1A, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

ADENOPHY'MA, Adenon'cus: from adqv, 'a 
gland,' and <pvfia, 'a swelling.' Swelling of a 
gland, or glandiform ganglion. (F.) Glandage. 
Adenophyma is used by some to signify a soft 
glandular swelling;— Adcnoncus, one of a harder 
character. — Kraus. 

Adenophyma Inguinams. Bubo. 


ADENO'SUS, (Absces'sus.) A hard, glandu- 
lar abscess, which suppurates slowly. — M. A. 

ADENOT'OMY, Adenotom'ia, from «<V, < a 
gland,' and Tturto, 'I cut.' Dissection of the 

ADEPHAGIA, Addephagia, Boulimia. 

ADEPS, Adeps Suilla, Oxyn'gium, oivyytov, 
Pingue'do. Pig's flare. The fat of the hog. In 
the Ph. U.S. the prepared fat of Sus scrofa, free 
from saline matter. 




Adeps Anskri'na, A'deps an's'eris or Goose 
grease. (F.) Graisse d.' r, is also emollient. It 
lias been used as an emetic. 

Aijkps Canth a 111 dibits Medicatus, Unguen- 
tum lyttaj medicatum — a. Oortice Daphnes gnidii 
medicatus, Unguentum epispasticum de Daphne 
gnidio — a. Humanus, Liquamumia — a. Hydrar- 
gyro medicatus, Unguentuin Hydrargyri — a. ex 
Hydrargyro mitius dictum cinereum, Unguen- 
tuin oxidi hydrargyri cinereum — a. Hydrargyri 
miniate oxygenato medicatus, Unguentuin mu- 
riatis hydrargyri oxygenati medicalum — a. Hy- 
drargyri nitrate medicatus, Unguentuin hy- 
drargyri nitratis— a. Hydrargyri oxido rubro et 
plumbi acetate medicatus, Unguentum oph- 
tlialmicum — a. Lauro medicatus, Unguentum 
laurinum — a O villi, Sevum— a. Papavere, liy- 
oscyamo, et belladonna medicatus, Unguentum 
populeum — a. Sulfure et ammonia? muriate me- 
dicatus, Unguentum sulphuratum ad scabiem — 
a. Sulfure et carbonate potassae medicatus, Un- 
guentum sulphuratum alcalinum ad scabiem — 
a. Tartaro stibii medicatus, Unguentum anti- 
monii tartarizati — a. Oxido zinci medicatus, 
Unguentum oxidi zinci impuri. 

Adeps Pr^para'ta, Hog's lard, Barrow's 
grease, Lard, Ax'vnge, Axun'gia, Jideps suil'la 
praeparu'ta, A. praeparu'ta, Azun'gia porci'na, 
(F.) Graisse de Pore, Saindoux, is prepared by 
melting pig's flare, and straining it. This is 
called rendering the lard. Lard is emollient, 
but is chiefly used for forming ointments and 

ADEPT, Alehymist. 

ADEP'TA MED1CPNA. Medicine, which 
treated of diseases contracted by celestial ope- 
rations, or communicated from heaven. 

Adepta Philosophia. Alchymy. 

ADFLATUS. Afflatus. 

ADIUERENS1A, Adherence. 

ADH^ESIO, Adherence. 

ADHATO'DA, Justic"ia adliato'da. The Ma- 
labar Nut Tree. (F.) Noyer de Ceylon. Used 
in India for expelling the dead foetus in abor- 
tion. The word is said to convey this meaning 
in the Ceylonese. 

ADHE'RENCE, Adhe'sion, Adhmren'tia, Con- 
cre'tio, Atre'sia, Pros'physis, Proscollc'sis, Ad- 
lue'sio, from adhserere, (ad and hxrere,) 'to stick 
to.' These words are usually employed syno- 
nymously. The French often use adherence for 
the state of union, and adkesion for the act of 

ADHESION, Adherence. 

flammation which terminates by an adhesion 
between inflamed and separated surfaces. 

Adhe'sive is also an epithet for certain plas- 
ters, which stick closely to the skin. 

AD1ANTUM ALBUM, Asplenium ruta mu- 
raria — a. Aureum, Polytrichum. 

Adian'tum Capil' Ven'eris, from a, pri- 
vative, and Siairio, ' to grow wet,' from the 
leaves not bemjr easily moistened. Maiden 
hair. Nat. Qui. Filices. Sex. Syst. Cryptoga- 
mra Filices. (1-'.) Capillaire de Mnntpeltier. A 
European plant, of feeble aromatic and demul- 
cent properties. It is used for forming the Strop 
de Capl/aire or Capilluire. 

Adian'tum Peda'tuh, A. Canndcn'si, Ca- 
vil lus Canndtn'sis, Herba Ven'eris, Filix Ven'- 
eris. Canada Maidenhair, American Maidenhair, 

Rockfern, Sweetfern, (F.) CapUUdre da Canada, 
has the same properties. Capillaire was once 
made from this _ . 

Adiantum Rubrum, Asplenium trichoma- 
noides. . 

ADIAPHORO'SIS, Adiaphore'sis, from a 
privative, dux, 'through,' and pooo;, 'a pore.' 
Defect or suppression of perspiration, Adiap- 


ADIAPH'OROUS, Adiaph'orus, Jndijf'erens, 
Neutral. A medicine which will neither do 
harm nor good. 

ADIARRHCE'A, from a privative, and Sian- 
qsiv, ' to flow.' Retention of any excretion. — 

ADICE, Urtica. 

ADIPEUX, Adipose. 

ADIPOCERA, Adipocire—a. Cetosa, Ceta- 

AD'IEOCIRE, Adipoce'ra, from adeps, 'fat,' 
and cera, ' wax.' The base of biliary calculi, 
called also Choi' eslerine. (F.) Gras desCadavres, 
Gras des Cimetieres. Also, a sort of soap, 
formed from animal matter under certain cir- 
cumstances. The human body, when it has 
been for some weeks in water, assumes this 
appearance; and it has been a subject of legal 
inquiry, what length of time is necessary to 
produce it. This must, of course, depend upon 
various circumstances, as climate, season, &c. 


AD'IPOSE, Ad'ipous, Adipo'sus, from adeps, 
' fat.' (F.) Adipeux. That which relates to 
fat — as Adipose membrane, A. vessels, &c. See 

Ad'ipose SAHco'MAof Abetinethy, Emphy'ma 
sarco'ma adipo'sum, is suelty throughout, and 
enclosed in a thin capsule of condensed cellu- 
lar substance, connected by means of minute 
vessels. It is chiefly found on the fore and 
back part of the trunk. See Sarcoma. 

ADIPOSIS. See Polysarcia. 

Adipo'sis Hepat'ica, Pimelo'sis hepat'ica, 
Fatly liver, Fatty degeneration of the liver, 
(F.) Ddgenercscence graisseuse du Foie. Fatty 
disease of the liver. 

AD1POSUS, Fattv. 

ADIPOUS, Fatty". 

ADIP'SIA, Dipso'sis expers. Absence of thirst. 

ADIP'SON, from a privative, and dirf/A, 
'thirst.' Any substance which relieves thirst. 
Applied to a decoction of-barley to which oxy- 
mel was added. — Hipp. 

ADIPSOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

AD'ITUS, 'an entrance,' 'an approach;' 
from adere, aditum, 'to go to.' Pros' odos. The 
entrance to a canal or duct, as Aditus ad Aquae- 
ductum Fiillofiii. 

ADIULIS'TOS, from a privative, and (JivAato, 
' I run.' Unstrained wine for pharmaceutical 
purposes. — Gorraeus. 

AD.1UNCTUM, Accompaniment. 

ADJUTOR PARTUS, Accoucheur. 

AD'JUVANT, Ad'jvvans, from adjuva're, 
'to aid.' A medicine, introduced into a pre- 
scription to aid the operation of the principal 
ingredient or basis. Also, whatever assists in 
the removal or prevention of disease 

ADNATA (TUNICA) Conjunctiva. 

ADME (MEMBRANE.) Conjunctiva. 

A I)! )1 .ES'CENCE, Adolescen'iin, Juvt n'/us 
.-j-Jns bona, Youth; from adolesnere (ail and ales- 
cere) 'to grow.' (F.) Jrvncsse. The period 




between puberty and » that at which the body 
acquires its full development; being, in man, 
between the 14th and 25th year; and.ln woman, 
between the 12th and 21st. 

ADO'LIA. A Malabar plant, whose leaves, 
put in oil, form a liniment, used in facilitating 

ADOR, Zea Mays. 

AUORION, Daucus carota. 

ADOUCISSM'T, Demulcent. 

AD POND US OM'NIUM. The weight of 
the whole. In a prescription it means, that 
any particular ingredient shall equal in weight 
the whole of the others. 

ADRA RIZA, Aristolochia clematitis. 

ADROBO'LON, from aiqot, 'great,' and 
PvjXoc, 'mass.' The bdellium of India, which 
is in larger pieces than that of Arabia. 

ADROS, uSqoc, 'plump and full.' Applied 
to the habit of body, and also to the pulse. — 

ADSARIA PALA, Dolichos pruriens. 

ADSPJRATIO, Aspiration, Inspiration. 


ADSTRICTIO, Constipation. 

ADULAS'SO. The Justitia bivalvis. A small 
shrub, used in India as a local application in 

ADULT AGE, Jlndri'a, from adolcscere, 
'to grow to,' (ad and olere, olitum, 'to grow.') 
J'iril'ity. The age succeeding adolescence, and 
preceding old age. Adult, AduL'tus, is also used 
tor one in the adult age. 

ADULTERATIO, Falsification. 

ADURION, Rhus coriaria. 

ADUST, Advs'lus, from adurere, (ad and 
vrere.) 'to burn.' The blood and fluids were 
formerly said to be adust, when there was much 
heat in the constitution and but little serum in 
the blood. 


ADUS'TION, Adus'lio. State of the body 
described under Adust. In surgery, it signifies 


ADVENTITIUS, Accidental. 

ADYNA'MIA, Impoten'tia; from a, privative, 
and dvrauig, 'strength.' Adyna'sia, Adyna'lia. 
Considerable debility of the vital powers; as in 
typhus fever. Some Nosologists have a class 
of diseases under the name Adynamix. 

Adynamia Vikilis, Impotence. 

A DYN ASIA, Adynamia. 

ADYNATIA, Adynamia. 

ADYNATOS, Sickly. 

yEDGEA, Genital organs. 

^EDCEAG'RAPHY, JEdaagraph'ia, from 
aiSoia, 'organs of generation,' and y^a^ei, t l 
describe.' A description of the organs of gene- 

^EDCEAL/OGY, JEdcoalog"ia, from aiSoia, 
'the pudendum,' and z.oyog, 'a description.' 
A treatise on the organs of generation. 

^EDCEAT'OMY, JEda-alom'iu, from aiSoia, 
'the pudendum,' and rtftvw, 'I cut.' Dissec- 
tion of the parts of generation. 

JEDCE1TIS. Inflammation of' the genital 


^SDCEOMANIA, Nymphomania. 

^EDCEON, ln-ruen. 

JEDOPSOPH'IA, from ««*<><«, 'the puden- 

dum,' and \pz<pttr, 'to make a noise.' Emission 
of wind by the urethra in man, by the vagina 
in woman. — Sauvaoes and Sagar. 

^EDOPTOSIS, Hysteroptosis— a:. Uteri, Pro- 
lapsus uteri — ffi. Uteri inversa, Uterus, inver- 
sion of the — ce. Uteri retroversa, Retroversio 
uteri — a3. Vaginas, Prolapsus V. — w.. Vesica?, 

jEEIG'LUCES, Acig'lvccs, from an, 'al- 
ways,' and, ' sweet' A kind of sweet 
wine or must. Gorraeus. 

jEGAGROP'ILA, from uiyayqog, 'the rock 
goat,' and niTiog, ' hair.' Bezoar d' AUemagnc, 
Pi/a Dama'rum seu Rupicapru'rum. A ball, 
composed of hairs, found in the stomach of the 
goat; once used medicinally. See Bezoar. 

jEGEIROS, Populus. 

^EGER, Sick. 

iE'GIAS, JEgis, JEglla, JEgidcs, from au, 
'the goat;' why, is not known. (F.)\-lige or 
Mgle. There is obscurity regarding the pre- 
cise meaning of this word. It was used to 
designate an ulcer, or speck on the transparent 
cornea. Hippocrates. 

Maitre Jean uses it for a calcareous deposite 
between the conjunctiva and sclerotica. 

.EG1DES, iEgias. 

iE'GILOPS, An'cfrilops, An'kylops, from ui%, 
'goat,' and unp, ' the eye.' An ulcer at the 
greater angle of the eye, which sometimes does 
not penetrate to the lachrymal sac, but at others 
does, and constitutes fistula lachrymalis. Ga- 
len, Celsus, Oribasius, Aetius, Paulus of ^Egi- 
na, &c. 

.-EGl'RINON. An ointment of which the 
fruit or flower of the poplar was an ingredient; 
from aiynqo:, 'the black poplar.' 

.ffiGLlA, .Egiaa. 

^GOCERAS, Trigonella Fcenum. 

iEGONYCHON, Lithospennuui officinale. 

iEGOPHONIA, Effophony. 


iEGRlPPA, Agrippa. 

^EGRITUDO, Disease— s. Ventriculi, Vo- 

iEGROTUS, Sick. 

iEGYP'TlA. An epithet for several medi- 
cines, mentioned by Galen, Paulus of ^gina, 
and Myrepsus. 

^3gyptia Moschata, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

^Egyp'tia Styptk'ria, AtyVTTia o"Ttiwr>,g/u, 
JEgyptian alum. Recommended by Hippocra- 

./Egyp'tia Ul'cera; JEgyptian ulcers. Ul- 
cers of the fauces and tonsils, described by 
Aretseus, as common in Egypt and Syria. 

iEGYPTlACUM, JEgyp'tion, Mendc'sion, 
Mel JEgyptiacum, Phar'macum JEgyptiacum. 
A preparation of vinegar, honey, and verdigris, 
scarcely used now, except by veterinary sur- 
geons as a detergent. See Linimentum ^Eru- 

jEGYPTION, ^C^vptiacum. 

RES, Pharmacum ad aures. 

jEGYP'TIUS PESSUS; JEgyptian pessary. 
A pessary, composed of honey, turpentine, but- 
ter, oil of lily or rose, saffron, each one part; 
with sometimes a small quantity of verdigris. 


jEIPATHEIA, see Continent (disease.) 

AEIPATHIA, see Continent (disease.) 




JiNEA, Catheter. 

.EOLECTHYMA, Variola. 

iEOLLION, Varicella. 

./EON, aimv. The entire age of a man from 
birth till death. — Hippocrates, Galen. Also the 
spinal marrow. See Medulla Spinalis. 

jEONESIS, Fomentation. 


iEO'RA, from ait»Qito, 'I suspend.' Gesta- 
tion, swinging. — Aetius, Celsus, &c. 

/EQUALIS, Equal. 

.EQUATOR OC'ULl. The line formed by 
the union of the upper and under eyelid, when 
they are closed. It is below the middle of the 

.EQUIVOCUS, Equivocal. 

AER, Air. 


AERATUS, Carbonated. 

A&R&, Carbonated. 

VEREOLUM, JErcolus, Chalchus. The sixth 
part of an obolus by weight, consequently about 
2 grains. 

TRESIS, ai^caicj'the removal of any thing.' 
A suffix denoting a removal or separation, as 
Aphartsis, Diargsis, &c. 

AERIF'EROUS, Mrifer, (F.) A6?ifere, from 
aer, 'air,' and ferre, ' to carry.' An epithet for 
tubes, which convey air, as the larynx, trachea, 
and bronchia. 

AERIFLUX'US. The discharge of gas, and 
the fetid emanations from the sick. — Sauvages, 


AEROL'OGY ; Aerolog"ia, Jicrolog"ite, from 
itrft, ' air,' and toyoc, ' a description.' That part 
of physics which treats of the air, its qualities, 
uses, and action on the animal economy. 

AER'OMANCY, Acromanti'a, from a>;o, 'air,' 
and fA-avTua, 'divination.' An aTt in judicial 
astrology, which consists in the foretelling, by 
means of the air or substances found in the at- 

AEROMELT, Fraxinus omus. 

AEROPERITONIE, see Tympanites. 

AEROPHO'BIA, from ar ti , 'air,' and </>o,Soc, 
•fear.' Dread of the air. This symptom often 
accompanies hydrophobia, (q. v.) and sometimes 
hysteria and other affections. 

JERUCA, Cupri suhacetas. 

^ERU'GIlNOUS, JErugino'sus, io>c%, from 
JErugo, ' verdigris.' (F.) Lrugineux. Resem- 
bling verdigris in colour; as the bile when dis- 
charged at times from the stomach. 

iERU'GO, ioc, from ses, ' copper.' The rust 
of any metal, properly of brass. See Cupri Sub- 

MS, Cuprum. 

iESCHOS, aia/o;. Deformity of the body 
generally or of some part. — Hippoc. 

food,' [?] Casta' nea cqui'na, Pavi'na, Horse- 
chestnut, Buck-eye. (F.) Marronicr d'Inde. Nat. 
Ord. Hippocastanese. Sex. Syst. Heptandria Mo- 
nogynia. The bark has been advised as a sub- 
stitute for the cinchona. Both bark and fruit 
are astringent. Externally, it has been em- 
ployed, like the cinchona, in gangrene. 

iESECAVUM, Brass. 

RESTATES, Ephelides. 

.ESTHE'MA, aiodtjua, gen. aia&^uaT.*;, 'a 
sensation, a perception.' See Sensation and 

■ESTHEMATONU'SI, from aiao h na, and 
nvroi. 'diseases.' Diseases affecting sensation. 

the organs of sensation. 

jESTHE'SIS, aiadnai?, Alslhesis, from a«f- 
tfarouai.'I feel.' The faculty of being affected 
by a sensation. Perception. Sensibility, as 
well as the senses themselves. See Sense. 

iESTHETERION, Sensorium. 

^ESTHET'ICA, from aiadavopai, ' 1 feel.' 
Diseases affecting the sensations. Dulness, de- 
pravation or abolition of one or more of the ex- 
ternal organs of sense. The 2d order, class 
Neurotica of Good. 

^ESTIVUS, Estival. 


^ESTUATIO, Ardor, Ebullition, Fermentation. 

JUSTUS, Ardor. 

iEsxus Volat'iccs. Sudden heat, scorching 
or flushing of the face. — Vogel. 

/ETAS, Age — ae. Bona, Adolescence — eg. De- 
crepita, Decrepitude — a?. Mala, Senectus. 

AETHER, Ether, from cu^yo, ' air,' or from 
ai&ta, ' I burn.' Liquor sethe'rcus. A volatile 
liquor obtained by distillation from a mixture 
of alcohol and a concentrated acid. 

iETHER Chloricus, Chloric Ether, has been 
administered in spasmodic asthma, and in ady- 
namic conditions of the nervous system, in the 
dose of f. 3 SS - 

^Ether Hydrocyan'icus, JEther Prus'sicus, 
Hydrocyan'ic Ether, Hydrocy'anate of E'therine, 
Cyan'uret of Ethuie, has been advised in hoop- 
ing cough, and where the hydrocyanic acid is 
indicated. Dose, 6 drops. 

/Ether Martiams, Tinctura seu Alcohol 
sulfurico-aHhereus ferri — a?. Nitricus alcoolisa- 
tus, Spiritus setheris nitrici — se. Pyro-aceticus, 

^Ether Sulphu'ric cs, JE. Vitriol kus, 
Naphtha Fitrioli, Sulph'uric Ether. Ether pre- 
pared from sulphuric ether and alcohol. (Sp. 
rectificat; Acid. Sulph. aa Ibiss. Distil until a 
heavier liquid passes over. Ph. L.) 

Rectified Ether, JEther rectifica'tus, prepared 
by distilling 12 oz. from a mixture of sulphuric 
ether, f. 3 x1V, fused potass,£ss, and distill edwater, 
f. Sij, is a limpid, colourless, very inflammable, 
volatile liquor; of a penetrating and fragrant 
odour, and hot pungent taste. Its s. g. is 0.732. 

It is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and anti- 
spasmodic, and is externally refrigerant. Dose 
gtt. xxx to giss. 

JEther Sulphuricus, of the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States, (1842,) is formed from al- 
cohol, Oiv; sulphuric acid, Oj; potassa, gvj; 
distilled water, f. giij, distilling and redistilling 
according to the process there laid down. 

jn.ui.tT ni incus seu ?utro'sus, and an JEtlier 
phosphara'tus. They all possess similar virtues. 
./Ether Sulphuricus Acidus, Elixir acidum 
Halleri — e. Sulphuricus cum alcohole, Spiritus 
rethens sulphurici — re. Sulphuricus cum alco- 
hole -- 

^'HE'KEAL, Ethe'real, Eihe'reous, JElht'- 
reus. (F.) £th6r6e, Tcinture itherte. An ethe- 
real tincture is one formed by the action of sul- 
phuric ether, at the ordinary temperature 
medicinal eubstanees. An ethereal oil i 
volatile oil. See Olea Volatilia 

oil is a 




.ETHEROLEA, Olea volatilia. 

.ETHIOP'ICUS LAPIS, Ethiopian stone. A 
stone formerly supposed to be possessed of con- 
siderable virtue. — Oribasius. 

JETHIOPIS, Salvia sclarea. 

.E'THIOPS, from artto, ' I burn,' and ay, 
' countenance.' A black or burnt countenance. 
The ancients gave this name to certain oxides 
and sulphurets of metals, which were of a 
black colour. 

^Ethiops Albus, Albino — ae. Alcalisatus, Hy- 
drargyrum cum creta. — ae. Animal, see Choroid. 

^Ethiops Martial, Deutox'ydum Ferri ni- 
grum. The black deutoxide of iron : once in 
repute as a tonic. 

■ZEtiiiops Mineralis, Hydrargyri sulphure- 
tum nigrum — 33. Narcoticus, Jlydrargyri sul- 
phuretum nigrum — oe. per se, Hydrargyri oxy- 
dum cinereum — ae. Saccharatus, Hydrargyrum 
saccharatum — ae. Vegetabilis, see Fucus vesicu- 

jETHOL'ICES, from ai$u, 'I burn.' Fiery 
pustules on the skin. Some have considered 
them to have been boils. 

.ETHU'SA CYNATIUM, Fools Parsley, 
\Y.) Faux Persil, Petite Cigu'e, Family, Umbel- 
Jiferas. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. A poi- 
sonous plant, which has been mistaken for true 
parsley, producing nausea, vomiting, headache, 
giddiness, sopor, and, at times, fatal results. It 
resembles conium in its action. 

^Ethu'sa Meum, Meum, Meu, Spignel, Bald- 
money. (F.) Ethuse Meum. The root has been 
advised as carminative, stomachic, &c. 

--ETIOL'OGY, JEtiolog"ia. Etiology, Aitio- 
lag"ia, from aina, ' cause,' and Xoyo?, 'a dis- 
course.' The doctrine of the causes of disease. 

.ETI'TES, from atrog, ' an eagle.' Eagle- 
stone, Pierre d'Aiglc, Hydrate de tritoxide de 
j'er. This stone was formerly supposed to fa- 
cilitate delivery, if bound on the thigh; and to 
prevent abortion, if bound on the arm. It was, 
also, called Lapis Collymus. 

.ETOI PHLEBES, Temporal veins. 

.ETOLION, Cnidia grana. 

.ETOI PHLEBES, Temporal veins. 

AFFAD1SSEMENT. (F.) from fade, 'in- 
sipid.' That condition of the digestive function 
in which the appetite is diminished, the sense 
of taste blunted, and the action of the stomach 
enfeebled; a state usually accompanied by ge- 
neral languor. 


AFFAIRES, Menses. 


chondriasis — a. Hysterica, Hysteria — a. Tym- 
panilica, Tympanites. 

AFFECTION, Affec'tio, from officio or affec- 
tare (ad and facere,) ' to move or influence.' 
Any mode in which the mind or body is affected 
or modified. 


Affections of the Mind. Affec'tus An'imi, 
(F.) Affections de Came, include not only the 
different passions, as love, hatred, jealousy, &c, 
but every condition of the mind that is accom- 
panied by an agreeable or disagreeable feeling, 
as pleasure, fear, sorrow, &c. 

In Pathology, Affection, Pathos, Pathe'ma, is 
synonymous with disease: thus we speak of a 
pulmonary affection, a calculous affection, &c. 

AFFECTIONS DE UA.ME. Affections of 
the Mind. 

AFFECTIVE. That which affects, touches, 
&c. Gall gives the term affective faculties, (F.) 
Facultis affectives, to functions dependent upon 
the organization of the brain, comprising the 
sentiments, affections, &c. 

AFFECTUS, Passion — a. Faucium pestilens, 
Cynanche maligna— a. Hyderodes, Hydrops. 

AF'FERENT, Afferens, from affero, (ad and 
fero, 'to carry,') '1 bring,' The vessels which 
convey the lymph to the lymphatic glands, are 
called afferent. Also, nerves that convey im- 
pressions towards the nervous centres. 

AF'FION or OF'FIUM, O'pium, (q. v.) The 
Bantamese thus designate an electuary of which 
opium is the basis, and which they use as an 

from ad, ' to,' and flare, ' to blow.' Any air 
that strikes the body and produces disease. 

AFFLUENCE and AFFLUX, from affluere, 
(ad and fluere, 'to flow,') 'to flow to.' A flow 
or determination of humours, and particularly 
of blood, towards any part. 

AFFLUXUS, Fluxion. 


from ad, 'to,' and f under e, fusum, 'to pour.' 
The action of pouring a liquid on any bodv. 
Affusions, cold and warm, are used in different 
diseases. The cold affusion is said to have been 
beneficial in cutting short typhus fever and 
scarlatina, if used during the first days. It con- 
sists in placing the patient in a tub, and pouring 
cold water over him ; then wiping him dry, and 
putting him to bed. The only precaution ne- 
cessary, is, to use it in the state of greatest heat 
and exacerbation; not when chilliness, or topi- 
cal inflammation is present. 

AFIUM, Opium. 

AFTER-BIRTH, Secundines. 

AFTER-PAINS, see Pains, labour. 

AGACEMENT, (F.) from axaLur, 'to sharp- 
en.' The setting on edge. 

able sensation experienced when acids are 
placed in contact with the teeth. Tooth edge. 
Setting the teeth on edge. 

AGACEMENT DES NERFS. A slight irri- 
tation of the system, and particularly of the or- 
gans of sense and locomotion, corresponding 
nearly to the English Fidgets. 

AGALACTATIO, Agalactia. 

AGALACTIA, Agalax'is, Agalac'tio, and 
Agalacta'tio,Defedtus lac' lis, Oligoga'lia, from a, 
privative, and ya?.a, 'milk.' Absence of milk 
in the mammae. 

AGALAXIS, Agalactia. 

AG AL'LOCHUM, from ayalXopai,' to become 
splendid,' Calambac, Calamhoukf.Lig'num Agal'- 
lochi veri, Ligfnum Allots, L. Aspal'alhi, Xylo- 
aloes, Aloes tcood. A resinous and very aro- 
matic wood of the East Indies, from Excsecaria 
Agallocha. Used in making pastils, &c. — Dio- 
scorides, Oribasius, Paulus. 

AGAMOUS, see Cryptogamous. 

AG' AHIC, A gar'icum. A genusof plantsinthe 
Li nnasan system, some of which are edible, others 
poisonous. It was so called from Agaria, a re- 
gion of Sarmatia. — Dioscorides. Among the edi- 
ble varieties of the Boletus, the following are 




the chief. 1. The Agar'icus edu'lis, (F.) Agaric 
comestible ct champignon dc couchc. 2. The 
Agar'icus odora'tus, (F.) Mousseron. The most 
common poisonous varieties are the Agar'i- 
cus JVeca'lor (F.) Agaric, mcurlricr : and 2. 
The Agar'icus acris, (F.) Agaric dcre; besides 
the Auranite, a sub-genus, which includes se- 
veral species. One of the most delicate is the 
Agaricus Aurantiacus, butcare must betaken not 
to confound it with the A. Pseudo-Auruntiacus, 
which is very poisonous The A. aurantiacus is 
called, in French, Oronge. See Poisons, Table of. 

Agaric, see Boletus igniarius — a. Blanc, 
Boletus laricis — a. de C/tene, Boletus ignia- 
rius — a. Female, Boletus igniarius — a. of the 
Oak, Boletus igniarius — a. Odorant, Boletus 

AGARICUS, Boletus igniarius— a. Albus, 
Boletus laricis — a. Aurantiacus, Amanita — a. 
Aurantiacus, Bolites — a. Auriculreforma, Peziza 
auricula — a. Chirurgorum, Boletus igniarius — 
a. Pseudo-aurantiacus, Amanitas — a. Quercus, 
Boletus igniarius. 

AGATHIS DAMARRA, Finns Damarra. 


ravita. _ 

AGA'VE AMERICA'NA. American Agave, 
from ayavo$, 'admirable.' J\'at. Ord. Bromelia- 
ces. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. This 
plant has been considered diuretic and antisy- 

AGE, i/.txta, Helihia, JE'tas. Of uncertain 
etymon. Period of life. Time that has elapsed 
since birth, &c. Five ages are often designated 
in the life of man. 1 . First infancy (Infan'lia .) 
2. Second infancy (Pueji"tia;) 3. Adolescence 
(Adolescen'tia:) 4. The adult age (Viril'itas :) 
5. Old age (Senec'tus;) all which see. 

AGENEIOS, Imberbis. 

AGEN'ESIS, from a, privative, and yevtoig, 
'generation.' Imperfect development of any 
part of the body ; as cerebral agenesis, i. e. im- 
perfect development of the brain in the foetus. 


AGENT, Agens, from ag"ere, ' to act.' Any 
power which produces, or tends to produce an 
effect on the human body. Morbific agents, 
(F.) Agens moibifiques, are the causes of dis- 
ease;— therapeutical agents, (F.) Agens thera- 
peut'upies, the means of treating it, dec. 


and yj;/jac,'oldage.' A vigorousand green old aoe. 

AGERATUM, Achillea ageratum. 

AGE'RATUS LAPIS. A stone used by 
cobblers to polish shoes. It was formerly es- 
teemed discutient and astringent — Galen, Ori- 
basius, Paulus. 

AGES, Palm. 

Apogeu'sis, Dyssesthe'sia gustato' ria, Puragcu'- 
sis, from a,priv., and yivan?, 'taste.' Diminu- 
tion or loss of taste, Ansesthe'sia linguse* — Sau- 
vaces, Cullen. 

AGGLOM'ERATE, Agglomera'tus, from ag- 
glomerare (ad and glomerare, 'to wind up yarn 
in a ball,') ' ta, collect together.' Applied to 
humours or glands in aggregation. 

AGGLU'TIN ANT, Agglu'tinans, Collet! icus, 
Glu'tinans, from gluten. ' glue.' (F.) Aggluti- 

nant, Agglutinatif, Glutinatif. Remedies were 
formerly so called, which were considered ca- 
pable of uniting divided parts — Paulus. 

Plasters are called agglutinants, (F.) agglu- 
tinatifs, which adhere strongly to the skin. 
Certain bandages are likewise so termed. (F.) 
Bandelcttes agglutinatives. 

TO AGGLUTINATE. The French use the 
word agglutiner, in the sense of 'to reunite;' as 
agglutiner Irslevres d'une j>laie, 'to unite the lips 
of a wound.' 

AGGLUTIJYAT1F, Agglutinant. 


AGGLUTINA'TION, Colle'sis, Epicolle'sis, 
Proscolle'sis, Glutina'tio, from agglutinare, ' to 
glue together.' The first degree of adhesion. 
Also, the action of agglutinants. 

AGGLUTINER, To agglutinate. 

AG'GREGATE, Aggrega'tus, from aggrc 
gare, (ad and gregare,) ' to flock together,' 'to 
assemble together.' Glands are called aggre- 
gate which are in clusters. Aggregate pills, 
(F.) Pilules aggregatives, signified, formerly, 
those which were believed to contain the pro- 
perties of a considerable number of medicines, 
and to be able to supply their place. 

AGHEUSTIA, Ageustia. 

HA'L-ID. An Egyptian and Ethiopian shrub, 
similar to the Ximenia. The Ethiopians use it 
as a vermifuge. The fruit is purgative. 

AGIHAL1D, Agiahalid. 

AG1SSANT, Active. 

AGITA'TION, Agita'do: Done'sis; from agere, 
'to act.' Constant and fatiguing motion of the 
body (inquiesA or distressing mental inquietude 
{An'imi agita tio.) 

AG1TATORIUS, Convulsive. 

AGLOS'SIA, from a, priv. and yXuiarct, 'the 
tongue.' A malformation which consists in the 
want of a tongue. 

mogra'phia, from a, priv. y/.woo-a, ' the tongue,' 
ciroua, ' the mouth,' and yna<poj, ' I describe.' 
Description of a mouth without a tongue. — Ro- 
land (of Saumur.) 

AGLUTI'TION.^/w^zo, from a, priv., and 
glatire, 'to swallow.' A hybrid term, desig- 
nating impossibility of swallowing — Linnaeus. 

A GMF, Fracture. 

langes of the fingers — a. Membrana, Amnios. 

AGNA'THIA.jfrom a, priv. and yiaflsj, 'jaw.' 
A malformation which consists in the want of 
the jaw, especially of the lower. 

AGNOlA, from a, privative, and ynos-zm,'! 
know.' State of a patient who does not recog- 
nise individuals. — Hippocr., Galen, Foesius. 


AGO'GE, aywyrj. The order or condition of a 
disease, — Hippoc, Galen. Likewise the state 
of the air. — Hippoc, Galen, Gonaeus, Foesius. 

AGOGUE, uyviycc, 'a leader,' from ayw, ' I 
lead or expel.' Hence Cholagogue, an expeller 
of bile : Hi/dragogue, &c. 

AGOMPHI'ASIS, Agompho'sis, from «, pri 
vative, and youyow, ' 1 nail.' Looseness of the 
teeth. Gorrseus. See Gomphiasis 

AGOMPHOSIS, Agomphiasis. 

AGONF, Hyoscyamus. 

AGON1A, Sterilitas. 

AGONISTICA, from «)<!»,., 'a combat.' The 




part of ancient gymnastics, which had reference 
to the combats of the Athlete. 

Also, very cold water, given internally, to 
calm febrile heat. Paulus of zEgina. 

AG'ONY, Ago'nia, An'gor, from ayasv, 'a 
combat.' The last struggle of life.— Galen, 
Gorraus, &c. The agony, which is of lounger 
or shorter duration, is characterized by great 
change in the features, gradual abolition of sen- 
sation and motion, loss of voice, dryness or li- 
vidity of the tongue and lips, rattling in the 
throat, small and intermittent pulse, and cold- 
ness of the extremities. This state is not pre- 
sent in those who die suddenly. See Facies 

AGOS'TUS, from uyw, 'I lead.' The fore 
arm from the elbow to the fingers. Also, the 
palm of the hand. — Gorrasus. See Palm. 

AGRA, ayqa, from uyoiw, 'I seize hold of.' — 
A seizure, as Odontagra, a tooth seizure, tooth- 
ache; Chiragra, Podagra, &c. 

AGRAFE DE VALENTIN. A kind of for- 
ceps with parallel branches, employed by 
Valentin in the operation for hare lip, to effect 
the approximation of the edges of the wound. 

AGRAHAL1D, Agiahalid. 

A G R£ GA 77 FES PIL ULES. See Aggregate. 

AGR1A, Herpes exedens. 

AGRIAMPELOS, Bryonia alba. 

AGR1COCCIMELEA, Prunus spinosa. 

AGRIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium. 

AG'RIMONY, Eupalo'rium, CafaT, Lap'pula 
hepat'ica (F.) Aigremoine. The Agrimo'nia 
Eupato'rium. Cockle-bur, Stickwort. Nat. Ord. 
Rosaceae. Sex. Syst. Icosandria Digynia. A mild 
astringentand stomachic. Dose,ln powder, from 
9J to gj. 

Agrixony Hemp, Eupatorium cannabinum. 

AGRIOCASTANUM, Bunium bulbocasta- 
num, Lycoperdon tuber. 

AGRIOCINARA, Sempervivum tectorum. 

AGRIORtGANUM, Origanum majorana. 

AGRIOSELINUM, Smyrnium olusatrum. 

AGRIOTHYM'IA, from ayomg, 'ferocious,' 
and Svuog, ' disposition.' Ferocious insanity. 
— Sauvages. 

A GRIPALMA GALLIS, Leonurus cardiaca. 

AGRIPAUME, Leonurus cardiaca. 
- AGRIP'PA or-EGRIP'PA, from xger partus, 
'difficult birth :' or perhaps from ayoa, 'taking 
or seizure,' and nov;, ' the foot.' This term has 
been given to those born by the feet. It is pre- 
tended that the family of Agrippa obtained 
their name from this circumstance. Parturi- 
tion where the feet present, is called Agrippx 
partus. Agrippinvs partus. 


AGRO DI CEDRO. See Citrus medica. 

AGROSTJS, Bryonia alba. 

AGRUNA, Prunus spinosa. 

AGRYPN1A, Insomnia. 

AGRYPNOCOMA, Coma vigil. 

A G RTPNO'DES, ayeuTzvu)^?, from aj'^tiTrvo ?, 
'sleepless.' Characterized by sleeplessness, as 
Febris agrypnodes, a fever accompanied with 

AGRYP'NUS, aynvnrog, 'sleepless,' 'vigi- 
lant' Hence Agrypnodes (Febris,) fever attend- 
ed with watching. 

AGUE, from Gothic agis, ' trembling.' [?] 
Intermittent fever. 

Ague and Fever, Intermittent fever. 

A'gue Cake, Placenta febrilis, Physco'nia 

splen'icum, P. splenica, Splenis Tumor; (F.) Ga- 
teau febrile. A visceral obstruction ('generally 
in the spleen,) which follows agues, and is dis- 
tinctly felt by external examination. To a 
greater or less degree, it is not uncommon. 

Ague, Dead. See Fever, masked. 

Ague, Dumb. See Fever, masked. 

Ague, Free, Laurus sassafras — a. Leaping, 
see Leaping ague — a. Quartan, Quartan — a. 
Tertian, Tertian fever — a. weed, Eupatorium 

AGUL or ALHA'GI, the Hedisa'rum alliagi. 
A thorny shrub of Persia and Mesopotamia, 
which affords manna. The leaves are purgative. 

AGY'ION, from a, priv., and yviov, 'limb.' 
Mutilated, or wanting limbs. — Hippocr. Weak, 
feeble. — Galen. 

AGYR'IAS, from ayvQtg, 'a collection.' Opa- 
city of the crystalline. — Aetius, Pare. 

AGYll'TA, from ayvQis, 'a crowd.' For- 
merly meant a stroller, who pretended to su- 
pernatural powers. Subsequently, a quack or 
illiterate pretender. See Charlatan. 

AGYRTIA, Charlatanry. 

AHOUAI, Thevetia Ahouai. 

AHUSAL, Orpiment. 

AIDE, (F.) Ad'jutor min'ister. An assistant 
to a surgeon in his operations. 

AIDOROMAN1A, Nymphomania. 

A1ERSA, Iris Germanica. 

A1GE, /Egias. 

the city of this name, in Normandy, is the 
chalybeate spring of Saint Xantin, much used 
in the 16th and 17th centuries. 

AIGLE, /Egias. 

AIGRE, Acidulous. 

AIGRELET. Acidulous. 

AIGREMOINE, Agrimony. 

AIGREURS, Acidities. 

AIGU, Acute. 

AIGUILLE, Needle — a. a Acupuncture, 
see Needle — a. a Appareil, see Needle — a. a 
Bee De Lievre, see Needle — a. a Cataracts, see 
Needle — a. de Dcschamps, see Needle — a. En- 
gainde, see Needle — a. a Fistu/e, see Needle 
— a. a Gaine, see Needle — a. a Ligature, see 
Needle — a. a Manche, see Needle — a. a Seton, 
see Needle — a. a Suture, see Needle. 

AIGUILLON,(F.) Spina Helmon'tii. A term 
used since the time of Van Helmont to desig- 
nate the proximate cause of inflammation. Ac- 
cording to him, an inflamed part is in the same 
condition as if an aiguiilon or thorn were thrust 
into it. 

AIGUISER, to Acidulate. 

AIL, Allium. 

AILE, Ala, Aileron. 

AILERON, (F.) Extrc'ma ala vel Pin'nula, 
diminutive of (F.) Aile,a. wing. The extremity 
of the wing of a bird, to which the great feathers 
are attached. 

at the base of the broad ligaments of the uterus, 
which are occupied by the ovary and its liga- 
ment, the Fallopian tube,and the round ligament. 

AIM A, 'ai/ma, See Hasina. 

AIMANT, Magnet. 

AIMATERA, Hepalirrhoea. 

A1MORRHCEA, Hsemorrhagia. 

A1MORRHOIS, Hasmorrhois. 

AIMORROIS, Hajmorrhois. 

AINE, Inguen. 


AIPI, Jatropha manihot. 

AIPIMA COXERA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIPIPOCA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIR, Acr, from aw, '1 breathe.' Common air, 
Atmospheric air, is an invisible, transparent, 
inodorous, insipid, ponderable, compressible and 
elastic fluid, which, under the form of the at- 
mosphere, surrounds the earth to the height of 
15 or 16 leagues. 

Air is essentially composed of two gases, 
oxygen and azote, in the proportion of 20 of 
the former to 80 of the latter. Oxygen is the 
vital portion, but the azote is necessary to 
dilute it. Air also contains a small portion of 
carbonic acid gas, and it has always floating in 
it aqueous vapour, different terrestrial ema- 
nations, &c. Its effects upon the human body 
vary according to its greater or less density, 
temperature, moisture, &c; hence, change of 
air is found extremely serviceable in the pre- 
vention and cure of certain morbid conditions. 
See Climate. 

acid — a. Mcalin, Ammonia. 

Air Cells of the Lungs, Bronchial cells; 
see Cellule — a. Dephlogisticated, Oxygen— a. 
Empyreal, Oxygen — a. Du feu, Oxygen — a. 
Factitious, Carbonic acid — a. Fixed, Carbonic 
acid — a. Gat6, Azote — a. Inflammable, Hydro- 

Air Passages, (F.) Votes aeriennes aerifercs, 
are the larynx, trachea, bronchia, &c. 

Air, Pure, Oxygen — a. Solid, of Hale, Car- 
bonic acid — a. Vici6, Azote — a. Vital, Oxygen. 

AIRAIJY, Bell-metal, Brass. 

AIRE, Areola. 

AIRELLE ANGULEUSE, Vaccinium myr- 
tillus — a. Ponctuie, Vaccinium vitis idsea. 

A1RIGNE, Hook. 

is situate about two miles north of Stirling, 
Scotland. — The waters are saline cathartics; 
containing chloride of sodium, chloride of cal- 
cium, sulphate of zinc, and chloride of magne- 

AISSELLE, Axilla. 

A1STHES1S, iEsthesis. 

AITHOMO'MA, from atdog, 'black.' A 
black condition of all the humours of the eye. 
A. Pare. 

AITIA, Cause. 

AITIOLOGY, jEtiologia. 

AITION, Cause. 

TERS OF. Called by the Germans, Aachen. 
A thermal, sulphureous, mineral water, which 
contains, in 1000 grammes, 28.54 cubic inches 
of sulphohydric acid gas, 18.05 cubic inches of 
carbonic acid gas, 0.1304 grammes of carbonate 
of lime, 0.0440 grammes of carbonate of mag- 
nesia, 0.5444 grammes of carbonate of soda. 
2 3697 grammes of chloride of sodium, 0.2C37 
of sulphate of soda, and 0.0705 of silica. The 
temperature is 134° Fahr. 

The factitious water of Aix-Ja-Chapclle, A' qua 
Aquisgranen' sis , (F.) Eau cV Aix-la-Chapellc , is 
made by adding pure water f. ^xvijss, to hydro- 
sulphuretted water f. §iv, carbonate of soda gr. 
xx, chloride of sodium gr. ix. Ph. P. 

There are thermal sulphureous springs at 
Aix in Savoy, (98°) and some thermal springs 
at Aix in Provence (91°.) 

A1ZOON, Sempervivum tectorum. 


Ai\5'GA. A. pyramida'lis, Consol'ida Mfdik, 
Bu'vula, Upright Bugloss, Middle Consound. (r .) 
Bugle pyramidale. This plant is subastringent 
and bitter. , 

Ajuca Ciiamjepitys, Teucnum chamsepitys. 

Aju'ga Reptans, Bu'gula, Common Bugle. 
(F.) Bugle rampante, has similar properties. 

AKATALIS, Juniperus communis. 

AKATERA, Juniperus communis. 

AKINESIA, Acinesia. 

AKOLOGY, Materia Medica. 

ALA. Pinna, Pteryx, 'a wing.' (F.) Aile. A 
term often used by anatomists for parts which 
project like a wing from the median line; as 
the Mai nasi, Ala of the uterus, &c. See Axilla 
and Pavilion of the Ear. 

Ala Extrema, see Mleron. 

ALABASTER, Mabas'trum. (F.) Allaire, 
Alabastri'tes. A variety of compact gypsum; 
of which an ointment was once made; — the 
unguenlum alabastri'num; used as a discutient 
Alabaster likewise entered into several denti- 

ALABASTR1TES, Alabaster. 

DIS, Nymphoe — a. Majores, Labia pudendi — a. 
Minores, Nymphae. 

ALA ITER, from (F.) lait,' milk.' To suckle. 

ALALIA, Mutitas. 

ALAMBIC, Alembic. 

ALANFU'TA. A name given by the Ara- 
bians to a vein, situate between the chin and 
lower lip, which they were in the habit of open- 
ing in cases of foetor of the breath. — Avicenna. 

ALAQUE'CA. The Hindusthanee name of 
a stone, found in small, polished fragments, 
which is considered efficacious in arresting 
hemorrhage when applied externally. It is a 
sulphuret of iron. 

ALARES MUSCULI, Pterygoid muscles. 

Ala'res Ven^e. The superficial veins at the 
fold of the arm. 

Ala'ria Ossa. The wing-like processes of 
the sphenoid bone. 

ALATERNUS, COMMON, Rhamnus ala- 

ALA'TUS. Plerygo'des. One whose scapu- 
lae project backwards like wings. 

ALBADA'RA. The sesamoid bone of the 
metatarso-phalangal joint of the great toe. The 
Rabbis and Magicians attributed extraordinary 
virtues to it. — Arabians. 


ALBAMENTUM, Albumen ovi. 

OF. A French acidulous chalybeate, in the 
department of the Loire. 

ALBARA, Lepra alphoides. 

ALBARAS NIGRA, Lepra nigricans. 

ALBAR^S. Lepra alphoides° 

ALBAROS, Lepra alphoides. 

ALBATRE, Alabaster. 

tia, from albico, ' I grow white.' Willis's glands 
in the brain, anterior to the tuber annulare. 
See Mammillary Eminence. 

ALBFJY D'(EUF, Albumen ovi. 

ALBI'NO. 'White.' Lcucztthiops, JEthiops 
albus, Dondu, from albus, 'white.' (F.) Blafard, 
JVegre-blanc. A Spanish word applied to indi- 
viduals of the human race who have the skin 
and hair white; the iris very pale, bordering on 
red; and the eyes so sensible, that they cannot 




bear the light of day. This condition, which 
has been called Lcvcalhio'pia, Alpho'sisJEthiop'- 
ica, Albinois'mus, Leucopathi'a, is seen more fre- 
quently in the Negro. Both sexes are exposed 
to it; but it does not seem to be true, that there 
are tribes of Albinos in the interior of Africa. 


ALBOR OVI. Albumen ovi. 

AL'BORA. A kind of itch or complicated 
leprosy. — Paracelsus. 

ALBOT, Crucible. 

ALBOT1M, Terebinthina. 

ALBUGIN'EA, Tu'nica albugin'ea, A. Testis, 
Feritestis, Membra'na capsula'ris testis. (F.) Al- 
bugin6e, Tunique albuginde. A strong, fibrous, 
and resisting membrane, which immediately 
envelops the testicle, and has, at its upper part, 
an enlargement, called corpus Highmorianum. 
From its inner surface it sends off a number of 
flat, filiform prolongations or septa, between 
which are contained the seminiferous vessels. 
Externally, it is covered by the tunica vaginalis 

ALBUGIXEE, Albuginea, Albugineous. 

ALBUGIN'EOUS,^Ai/o7Vei/s,' white,' from 
albus, (Y.)Albuginie. A term applied to textures, 
humours, &c, which are perfectly white. 

Albijgin'eous Fibre, (F.) Fibre ulbuginee. A 
name given by Chaussier to what he considers 
one ot the four elementary fibres. 

The albugineous fibce is linear, cylindrical, 
tenacious, elastic, but little extensible, and of a 
shining, satiny appearance. It always forms 
fasciae or fasciculi, which constitute the tendons, 
articular ligaments, and aponeuroses: hence the 
name Albugineous membranes, given by Chaus- 
sier to the fibrous membranes. 

Gauthier considers that the rete mucosum 
consists of four layers, to two of which he 
gives the names, — membra'na albugin'ea pro- 
fun' da, and membra'na albugin'ea superficiu'lis, 

ALBUGINI'TIS, (F.) Albuginite. A term 
employed by some authors for inflammation of 
the albugineous tissue. Thus, gout and rheu- 
matism are regarded as species of the genus 

ALBUGO OCULORUM, Leucoma— a. Ovi, 
Albumen ovi. 

ALBULA, Leucoma. 

ALBUM CANIS, Album gra?cum— a. Ceti, 

Album Grschm, Cynoc'oprus, Spo'dium Gra- 
co'rum, Album Canis, Stcrcus Cani'num Album. 
The white dung of the dog. It consists almost 
wholly of phosphate of lime, from the bones used 
as food. It was formerly applied as a discutient 
to the inside of the throat in quinseys, but is 
now justly banished from practice. 

Album Nigrum. The excrementof the mouse. 

ALBU'MEN, from albus,' white.' (F.) Al- 
bumins. An immediate principle of animals 
and vegetables, which constitutes the chief part 
of the white of egg. It is found in the serum, 
chyle, synovia, serous fluids, &c. There is not 
much difference in chemical composition be- 
tween animal and vegetable albumen. 

Albu'men Ovi, Albu'mor, Albu'go Ovi, Albor 
Ovi, Can'didum Ovi, Albu'men, Clare' ta, Ovi 
albus liquor, Albumen' turn, Lac avis or white of 
egg. (F.) Blanc d'eeuf, (Old F.) Albin d'oiuf, is 
used in pharmacy for suspending oils, &c, in 
water. See Ovum. 

ALBUMINE, Albumen. 

ALBUMINU'RI A. A hybrid term from' Albu- 
men,' and ovnor, 'the urine.' The condition of 
the urine in which it contains albumen, the pre- 
sence of which is indicated by its coagulation 
on the application of adequate heat. 

ALBUMIA'URORRHEE, Kidney, Brights 
disease of the. 

ALBUMOR, Albumen ovi. 

AL'CAEST, Al'cahest, Al'chaest, perhaps from 
(G.) all, 'all,' and geist, 'spirit.' A word 
invented by Paracelsus to designate a liquor, 
which, according to him, was capable of re- 
moving every kind of swelling. 

The same word was used by Van Helmont 
for a fancied universal solvent, capable of re- 
ducing every body to its elements. 

Alcaest of Glauber is a thick liquor ob- 
tained by detonating nitrate of potassa on hot 
coals, which transforms it into subcarbonate of 

Alcaest of Respoub. is a mixture of potassa 
and oxyd of zinc. 

ALCAHEST, Alcaest. 

ALCALES'CENCE, Al kales' cence, Alcales- 
cen'tia. The condition in which a fluid becomes 

Alcalescence of the Humours was an old 
notion of the Humorists. It can only occur 
during the putrid fermentation of animal mat- 
ters, which contain azote, and produce ammo- 
nia. Alcalin'ity is the quality of being alca- 

AL'CALI or AL'KALI, from al (Arab..) 
'the,' and kali, the name of the Sa/so'la Soda. 
A plant which contains a large quantity of one 
of the principal alkalis — soda. The alkalis are 
substances soluble in water, possessing gene- 
rally a urinous, acrid, and caustic taste, turning 
the syrup of violets green, and restoring to 
blue the infusion of litmus, which has been 
reddened by acids; reddening the yellow of 
turmeric, and having the greatest tendency to 
unite with acids, whose character they modify, 
and form salts with them. In medicine we un- 
derstand by this term Potassa, Soda, or Ammo- 
nia (q. v.) 

Alcali, Caustic, Al'kali Caus'ticvm. A pure 
alkali. One deprived of its carbonic acid. 

Alcalis, Fixed, are soda and potassa; Vola- 
tile Alcali, ammonia. 

Alcali Ammoniacum Acf.tatum, Liquor am- 
monias acetatis — a. Ammoniacum fluidum, Li- 
quor ammonia: — a. Fixum tartarizatum,Polassv 
tartras — a. Minerale sulphuricum, Soda, sul- 
phate of — a. Tartari aceto saturatum, Potassa? 
acetas — a. Vegetabile salito dephlogisticatum, 
Potassa? murias hyperoxygenatus — a. Vegeta- 
bile tartarizatum,Botass33 tartras — a. Vegetabile 
vitriolatum, Potassa? sulphas — a. Volatile ace- 
tatum, Liquor ammonia? acetatis — a. Volatile 
aeratum, Ammonia? carbonas — a. Volatile er. 
sale ammoniaco, Ammonia? carbonas. 


ALCALINITY. See Alkalescence. 

ALCANA, Anchusa officinalis. 

TATA, Prinos — a. Orientalis, Lawsonia iner- 
mis— a. Spuria, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Vera, 
Lawsonia inermis. 

ALCEA, Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. ,/Egyp- 
tiaca, Hibiscus abelmoschus— a. Indica, Hibis- 
cus abelmoschus. 




Alce'a Ro'sea, Common hollyhock. Emol- 
lient, like Althrea. 
ALCHACHIL, Rosmarinus. 
ALCHAEST, Alcahest. 

ALCHEMIL'LA, said to have been celebrated 
with the Alchemists [?] A. vulgaris, Common 
Ladies' Mantle, Pes Leo'nis, Leontopo'dium (F.) 
Pied de Lion. Formerly in great repute as an 
astringent in hemorrhage. 
ALCHEMY, Alchymy. 
ALCII1TRAM. See Pinus Sylvestris. 
ALCHITURA. See Pinus Sylvestris. 
ALCHYMY, Mchemy, Alchemi'a, Mckimi'a, 
Adep'ta PhUosoph'ia, from al, an Arabic particle, 
signifying ' superiority,excellence,' and Chimin, 
1 Chymistry.' This word was formerly synony- 
mous with Chymistry; but, from the 7th cen- 
tury, it has been applied to the mysterious art 
of endeavouring to discover a universal remedy, 
and a mode of transmuting the baser metals 
into gold: an operation to which they gave the 
name Opus magnum, and Philosopher s stone. 

Alchymy has also been called Scien'tia vel 
Philosopk'ia Hermel'ica, from an idea that Her- 
mes or Mercury was its inventor. 

Harris has well defined this chimerical art: 
' Ars sine arte, cujus principium est mentiri, me- 
dium laborarc, et finis mendicare.' 

Al'chymist, Flalua'rius, Adept'. One pre- 
tending to alchymy. 

ALCOCALUM, Cynara scolymus. 
AL'COHOL, Al'cool,Al'kool. An Arabic word, 
formerly used for an impalpable powder, and 
signifying 'very subtile, much divided.' At the 
present day it is applied to highly rectified spi- 
rit of wine. See Spiritus rectificatus, or rectified 
spirit, distilled from dried subcarbonate of po- 
tassa. In the Ph. U. S. Alcohol is rectified spi- 
rit of the specific gravity 0.835. 

Alcohol is an inflammable liquor, lighter than 
water, of a warm, acrid taste, colourless, trans- 
parent, and of a pungent, aromatic smell. It is 
the product of the distillation of vinous liquors; 
is miscible with water in all proportions, and 
is the direct solvent of resins, balsams, &c. 
Various other vegetable principles are soluble 
in it, and hence it is used, in different states of 
concentration, in the preparation of elixirs, tinc- 
tures, essences, etc. 

Alcohol acts on the animal body as a power- 
ful stimulus: as such, in a dilute form, it is 
used in the prevention and cure of disease. Its 
habitual and inordinate use is the cause of many 
serious affections, of a. chronic character espe- 
cially, as visceral obstructions, dropsy, &c. 

Alcohol JEtiiereus Ferratus, A. sulfurico- 
nethereus ferri— a. cum Aloe perfoliata, Tinc- 
tura aloes — a. Ammonise et guaiaci, Tinctura 
guaiaci ammoniata — a. Ammoniatum, Spiritus 
ammoniaj— a. Ammoniatum aromaticum, Spi- 
ritus ammonia; aromalicus — a. Ammoniatum 
foetidum, Spiritus ammoniae foetidus — a. cum 
Aromatibussulphuricatus, Sulphuricum acidum 
aromaticum— a. cum Aromatibus compositus, 
Tinctura cinnamoini composita — a. Castoria- 
tum, Tinctura castorei — a. cum Crotone casca- 
rillu, Tinctura cascarillae — a. Dilutum, Spiritus 
tenuior— a. Ferratus, Tinctura ferri murialis — 
a. cum Sulphate ferri tartarisatus, see Ferrum 
tartarizatum— a. cum Guaiaco officinale ammo- 
niatua, Tinctura guaiaci ammoniata— a. lodii, 
Tinctura Iodinae — a. cum Opio, Tinctura opii 

—a. Sulphuricatum, Elixir acidum Hallcri— a. 
Sulphuricum, Elixir acidum Halleri— a. Sul- 
phuris, Carbonis sulphurctum. 

ALCOOL, Alcohol— a. Camphre, Spiritus 

ALCOOLAT, Tincture. 

ALCOOLATUM, Tincture— a. Antiscorbu- 
ticum, Tinctura de cochleariis — a. Carminati- 
vum Sylvii, Tinctura carminativa Sylvii — a. de 
Cochleariis, Tinctura de Cochleariis — a. de 
Croco compositum, Tinctura de croco compo- 

ALCOOLISER (F.) Formerly, 'to reduce 
into an impalpable powder.' No longer used. 
ALCORJYOQUE (F.) Cortex Alcornoco. A 
bark, but little known and distributed in France, 
which has been considered capable of curing 
phthisis. It is bitter, tonic and slightly astrin- 
gent. Dose of the powder ^i to ^ss. 

AL'CYON, Hal'cyon. A swallow of Cochin 
China, whose nests are gelatinous and very nu- 
tritious. They have been proposed in medicine 
as analeptic and aphrodisiac. 

ALCYO'NIUM, Bastard sponge. The ashes 
were formerly employed as dentifrices: they 
were believed proper for favouring the growth 
of the hair and the beard, and were used in 

ALDER, American, Alnus serratula — a. 
Black, Prinos, Rhamnus frangula — a. Euro- 
pean, Alnus glutinosa. 
ALE, Cerevisia. 
ALEACAS, Glycyrrhiza. 
ALECOST, Tanacetum balsamita. 
ALECTO'RIUS LA'PIS, Alecto'ria; from 
ukty.TvM, ' a cock.' The name of a stone, sup- 
posed to exist in the stomach of the cock, or, 
according to others, in that of the capon, four 
years old. Many marvellous properties were 
formerly attributed to it, which are as ground- 
less as its existence. There are no stones in the 
stomach, except what have been swallowed 
ALEGAR, Acetum. 
ALEHOOF, Glechoma hederacea. 
ALEIMMA, Liniment. 
ALEIPHA, Liniment. 

ALEIPTE'RIUM, from u/.mcvj, 'I anoint. 
The place in the ancient gymnasium where the 
combatants anointed themselves. 

ALEIP'TRON. Same etymon. A box for 
containing ointments. 
ALEMA, Farina. 

ALEM'BIC (Arab.) Moorshead, Caphcl'lium, 
< apdulum, (F.) Alambic. A utensil made of 
glass, metal, or earthen ware, and adapted for 
distillation. It consists of a body or cucurbit, to 
which is attached a head or capital, and out of 
this a beak descends laterally to be inserted into 
the receiver. 

• AL , KM ' BR 9TH {Salt.) The alchymists de- 
signated by this name, and by those of Sal 
supiemtux Salvit.x and S. Scien'tia:, the product 
resulting from the sublimation of a mixture of 
corrosive sublimate and sal ammoniac It is 
stimulant, but not employed 

ALkSE (F.) Alhze, Lin'teum, from u !^- w <I 
preserve. A guard. A cloth arranged in'seve- 
ral folds, and placed upon a bed, so as to <r U ard 
it from the loclnal or other discharaes 

A LETON, Farina. 

ALETRIS, A. farinosa. 

Al'ettus, A. Farino'su, Star grass, Startcort 




Blazing slur, Aloe-root, Bitter grass, Blade root, 
Unicorn root, Ague root, Ague grass, Devil's bit, 
Mealy star wort, (F.) Alctris Meunier. jYat. Ord. 
Asphodeleos. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. 
This plant is an intense and permanent bitter, 
and is used as a tonic and stomachic. It is 
common in the United States. 
ALEURON, Farina. 
ALEUROTESIS. See Cribration. 
ALEXANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrum. 

ALEXAN'DRINE, Emplas'lrum Alcxan'dri. 
A garlic plaster, invented by Alexander, con- 
temporary of Mesue. Other ancient prepara- 
tions were called ' Alexandrine;' as the Alex- 
an! dri antid'otus au'rea, used in apoplexy; the 
Collyr'ium siccum Alexundri'num, or ' Collyrium 
of Kino- Alexander,' mentioned by Aetius. 
ALEXICACUM, Amuletuin, Alexipharmic. 
ALEXIPHAR'AllC, Alexiphar'macus, Anii- 
pliar'macus, Alcxica'cus, Caco-alexitc'ria, Lexi- 
pkar'macus, (F.) Alexipharmai/ue, from aXi $uv, 
; to repel,' and (paQuaxov, ' poison.' A term for- 
merly used for medicines which were consi- 
dered proper for expelling from the body vari- 
ous morbific principles, or for preventing the 
bad effects of poisons taken inwardly. 
ALEXIR, Elixir. 

ALEXITE'RIA, from al.tiaodcu, 'to assist.' 
Originally, alcxiterium was used synonymously 
with remedy. In more modern times it has 
been applied to a class of medicines, that coun- 
teract poisons placed in contact with the exte- 
rior of the body, in contradistinction to alexi- 

fection— a. Nitricum, see Disinfection. 
ALEZE, Alese. 
ALFUSA, Tutia. 
ALGALIE, Catheter. 

AL'GAROTH, Al'garot, Algaro'thi Pulvis, 
Pulvis Angel' icus, Ox'idum seu submu'rias Stib'ii 
prsecipitan'do para'tum, Antimo'nii Ox'ydum, 
Ox'idum antimo'nii jVitro-murial'icum, Ox'idum 
Stib'ii Ad'ido Muriat'ico oxygena.'to para'tum, 
Mrrcu'rius Vila, Mcrcu'rius Mortis, so called 
from Victor Algarothi, a Veronese physician. 
The sub- muriate of protoxide of antimony, sepa- 
rated from the muriate of antimony by wash- 
inn- away some of its acid. It was formerly 
much used as an emetic, purgative, and dia- 

ALGE'DO, from aXyos, ' pain.' Violent pain 
about the neck of the bladder, occasionally oc- 
curring in gonorrhoea. — Cockburn. 
ALGEMA, Pain. 
ALGETIC US. See Algos. 
AL'GIDUS, from algor, ' cold.' That which 
is accompanied by coldness. 

Ai'cida Fkbius, F. Iiorrif'ica, F. quer'quera. 
(F.) Fievrc atgide. A pernicious intermittent, 
accompanied = by icy coldness, which is often 
fatal in the second or third paroxysm. 
ALGOR, Rigour. 

ALGOS, alyoc, 'pain.' See Pain. Hence, 
Alirct'icus, 'painful,' as Epilep'sia a/get'ica. The 
tutrix a/jria has th4 same signification, as in 
Cephalalgia, Pleuralgia, .Xeuralgia, &c. 

ALHAGI, Agul. 

ALIB1L1S, Nutritious. 

Ah'lCA,Hal'ica, Farina 1 rium, Chondrus, from 
alere, ' to nourish.' A grain from which the 
ancients made their tisanes; supposed, by some, 
to have been the Triticum Spt'ta. At times, it 
seems to have meant the tisane itself. 

AI/1CES, from uXilvj, 'I sprinkle.' Spots 
which precede the eruption of smallpox. 

AL1ENATIO, Anomalia. 


ALIENUS, Delirious. 

ALIFORMES MUSCULI, Pterygoid mus- 

AL1FORMIS, Pterygoid. 

ALIGULUS, Confection. 

ALIMELL.^, Parotid. 

AL'IMENT, Alimen'tum, Ciba'rium, Broma, 
Comis'te, Cibus, Esca, Jsutri'tus, Nutrimen'tum, 
Sitos, TrophS, (F.) Aliment, Nourriture, from 
alere, 'to nourish.' Food. Any substance which, 
if introduced into the system, is capable of nou- 
rishing it and repairing its losses. 

The study of aliments forms one of the most 
important branches of hygiene. They are con- 
fined to the organized kingdom, — the mineral 
affording none. 

As regards the immediate principles which 
predominate in their composition, the)' have 
been classed, but imperfectly, as follows. 

t Wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, In- 

1. Feculaccous. < dian corn, potato, sago, peas, 

( beans, &c. 

t Carrot, salsify, beet, turnip, aspa- 

2. Mucilaginous. I ragus, cabbage, leituce, arti- 

( choke, melon, &c. 
Sugar, fig, date, raisin, apricot, 

Orange, currant, gooseberry, 
cherry, peach, strawberry, rasp- 
berry, mulberry, prune, pear, ap- 
ple, sorrel, &c. 
, i Cocoa, olive, sweet almond, nut, 

5. Oleaginous and J wa i n ut. animal fat, oil, butter, 

Fatty. ( &c 

6. Caseous. Different kinds of milk, cheese. 

(Tendon, aponeurosis, true skin, 

7. Gelatinous. < cellular texture; very young 

( animals. 

8. Mlbuminous. Brain, nerve, eggs, &c. 
<J. Fibrinous. Flesh and blood. 

Dr. Prout has four great classes — the aqueous, 
saccharine, oleaginous, and albuminous :— Dr. 
Pereira twelve; — the aqueous, mucilaginous 
or gummy, saccharine, amylaceous, ligneous, 
pectlnaceous, acidulous, alcoholic, oily or fatty, 
proteinaceous, gelatinous, and saline. 

ALIMENTARY TUBE, Canal, alimentary. 

ALIMENTATION, Alimenta'tio. The act 
of nourishing. 

ALIMENTUM, Pabulum. 

ALIMOS, Glycvrrhiza. 

ALINDE'SIS, from alivdouai, 'to be turned 
about.' A species of exercise, which consisted 
in rolling in the dust, after having been anointed 
with oil. — Hippocr. 

ALIPJE'NOS. Alipx'num, Alipan'tos, from a, 
priv. and iwravnir, 'to be fat.' An epithet for- 
merly given to every external remedy, devoid 
of fat or moisture; such as powders. — Galen. 

ALIPANTOS, Alipcenos. 

ALIP'TA, Aliptcs, fr»m «Af«p>, 'I anoint.' 
He who anointed the Athletes after bathing. 
The place where this was done was called 

3. Saccharine. 

4. Acidulous. 




ALIP'TICA, s.ime etymon. Tlie part of an- 
cient medicine, which treated of inunction, as 
a means of preserving health. 

ALISIER BLANC, Cratcgus aria. 
ALISMA, Arnica montana.'ma Planta'go, Water Plantain, (F.) 
Plantain d'Eau. Nat. Ord. Alismacea?. Sex. 
Syst. Hexandria Polygynia. The fresh root 
is acrid, and the dried leaves will vesicate. 
The leaves have been proposed as substitutes 
for Uva Ursi. 
ALITURA, Nutrition. 

AL'KALE, O'leum Galli'na. An ancient phar- 
maceutical name for pullets' fat. 
ALKALESCENCE, Alcalescence. 
ALKALI, see Alcali — a. Ammoniacum caus- 
ticum, Ammonia — a. Ammoniacum spirituo- 
eum, Spiritus ammonia? — a. Minerale nitratum, 
Soda, nitrate of — a. Minerale phosphoratum, 
Soda, phosphate of — a. Minerale salinum, Soda, 
muriate of — a. Vegetable, Potash — a. Vegetabile 
cum aceto,Potassa? acetas — a. Vegetabile fixum 
causticum, Potassa fusa — a. Volatile, Ammonia 
— a. Volatile causticum, Ammonia — a. Volatile, 
concrete, Ammonia? carbonas — a. Volatile nitra- 
tum, Ammonia? nitras — a. Volatile tartarizatum, 
Ammonia? tartras — a. Volatile vitriolatum, Am- 
monia? sulphas. 

A LKANET, BASTARD, Lithospermum offi- 
cinale — a. Dyer's, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Gar- 
den, Anchusa officinalis — a. Officinal, Anchusa 

ALKAR. Medicament. 
ALKEKENGI, Physalis. 
ALKER'MES, Confec'tio Alker'mcs, Alcher 1 - 
mes. A celebrated electuary, composed of a 
multitude of substances. It was so called from 
the grains of kermes contained in it. It was 
used as a stimulant. Also, kermes (q. v.) 
ALKERVA, see Ricinus communis. 
ALKITRAN, Cedria. 
ALKOOL, Alcohol. 
ALLA, Cerevisia. 
ALLAITEMENT, Lactation. 
ALLAMAN'DA,^!. Calhar'tica, Ore 'Via gran- 
diflora, Gal'arips, Echi'nus scandens, Apoc"ynum 
scan'dcns. A shrub, native of Guiana, the infu- 
sion of whose leaves is said by Linna?us to be 
useful in colica Pictonum. 

ALLANTOIC ACID, Ad'idum allanto'icum. 
A peculiar acid, found in the liquor of the 
atlantois of the cow. 

ALLAINTOIS, Allantotdes, Membra'na uri- 
na'ria, M. Farcimina'lis, M. Intestina'lis, the 
Allantoid Vesicle, from alias, 'a sausage,' and 
udog, 'shape.' A sort of elongated bladder, be- 
tween the chorion and amnion of the foetus, and 
communicating with the bladder by the urachus. 
It is very apparent in quadrupeds, but not in the 
human species. The fluid of the allantois has 
been considered inservient to the nutrition of 
the fcetus; but our ideas, in regard to the vesi- 
cle, in man, are far from beinor determinate. 

ALLANTOTOX'ICUM, from alXac, 'a sau- 
sage,' and Tofctxev, 'a poison.' The Germans 
have given this name to a poison developed in 
sausages formed of blood and liver. 
ALLELUIA, Oxalis acetosella. 
ALLE'VIATOR : from ad, 'to,' and levare, 'to 
raise.' A soother. An instrument for raising 
invalids, invented by Mr. Jenks of Rhode 
Island. It consists of two upright posts, about 
six feet high, each supported by a pedestal; of^ 

two horizontal bars at the top, rather longer 
than a common bedstead; of a windlass of the 
same length; placed six inches below the upper 
bar; of a cog-wheel and handle; of linen belts 
from six to twelve inches wide; of straps se- 
cured at one end of the windlass; and at the 
other having hooks attached to corresponding 
eyes in the linen belts, and of a head piece 
made of netting. The patient lying on his 
mattress, the surgeon passes the linen belts be- 
neath his body, attaching them to the hooks on 
the ends of the straps, and adjusting the whole 
at the proper distance and length, so as to ba- 
lance the body exactly, and then raises it from 
the mattress by turning the handle of the wind- 
lass. To lower the patient again, and replace 
him on the mattress, the windlass must be re- 

ALLGOOD, Chenopodium bonus Henricus. 

ALLHEAL, Heracleum spondylium. 

ALLIA'CEOUS, Allia'ceus, from allium, 'gar- 
lic' Belonging to garlic, as alliaceous odour. 

ALLIAIRE, Alliaria. 

ALLIA'RIA, from allium, its smell resem- 
bling garlic. A. qficina'lis, Erys'imum allia'ria, 
Jack-in-the-hedge, Stinking hedge Mustard, 
Fledge Garlic, Sauce-alone, Hes'peris allia'ria, 
(F.) Alliaire. This plant has been sometimes 
given in humid asthma and dyspnoea. It is re- 
puted to be diaphoretic, diuretic, and antiscor- 

The Parisian Codex has a compound syrup 
of alliaria, Sirop a" erysimum compost, which i3 
used in hoarseness. 

ALLIGATURA, Fascia, Ligature. 

AL'LIUM, from oleo, 'I smell.' A. sati'vum. 
Theriaca rustico'rum., Ampelop'rasum, Scoi'o- 
don, Garlic^ (F.) Ail. Nat. Ord. Asphodelea?. 
Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. A native of 
Sicily, but cultivated for use. The bulbs or 
cloves, Ag'lithes, have a strong, offensive, and 
penetrating odour; and a sweetish, biting, and 
caustic taste. Internally, garlic is stimulant, 
diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue (?), dia- 
phoretic, and anthelmintic. Externally, it is 
rubefacient, maturative, and repellent 

Dose, one to six cloves, swallowed whole, or 
from f. gss to f. ^ij of the juice. 

Taylor's Remedy for Deafness, a nostrum, 
appears to consist of garlic, infused in oil of 
almonds, and coloured by alkanet root. 

Allium Ascalonicum, kchalotte. 

Al'lium Cepa, Common Onion, Cepul'la, 
Crom'mijon. (F.) Oignon. Acrid and stimu- 
lating, and possessing very little nutriment. 
Onions have been used as stimulants, diuretics, 
and anthelmintics. The boiled or roasted 
onion, as a cataplasm, is emollient and matu- 
rating. The fresh root is rubefacient. The 
expressed juice is sometimes used in otalgia 
and in rheumatism. 

Allium Gallicum, Portulaca. 

Al'lium Porrum, Porrum, Prasum, noaaov, 
the Leek or Porret; (F.) Poireau, Porreau. It 
possesses the same properties as the onion. 

The virtues of the genus Allium depend upon 
an acrid principle, soluble in water, alcohol, 
acids, and alkalies. 

Allium Redolens, Teucrium scordium 

Al'lium Victokia'lL, Vietoria'lis longa. 
J he root, which, when dried, loses its allia- 
ceous smell and taste, is said to be efficacious 




in allaying the abdominal spasms of pregnant 
women (?) 

ALLOCHOOS, Delirious. 
ALLOCHROMA'SIA, from aU.og, 'another,' 
and xQwua, 'colour.' A change of colour. 

ALLOIOSIS, Alteration. 
ALLOIOTICUS, Alterative. 

ALLOAGEMEJYT, Elongation. 

ALLOPATH, Allopathist. 

ALLOPATHIC, Allopath' icvs, Hcteropath'ic, 
from alXog, 'another,' and naScg, 'affection.' 
Relating to the ordinary method of medical 
practice, in contradistinction to the homoeo- 

ALLOP'ATHIST, Atlopath, same etymon 
One who follows allopathy. 

ALLOP'ATHY, Allopathi'a, same etymon. 
The opposite to homceopathy. The ordinary 
medical practice. 

ALLOPHASIS, Delirium. 

ALLOTRIODON'TIA, from aXlorqto(, 'fo- 
reign,' and oSovg, 'a tooth.' Transplantation of 

ALLOTRIOGEUST1A, Parageustia. 


ALLOTRIU'RIA, from aUoTQiog, 'foreign,' 
and oj.'gor, 'urine.' Admixture of foreign mat- 
ters with the urine. 

AL'LOTROPISM; from aUcg, 'another,' and 
T^o-nog, 'a turn or change.' A term recently 
introduced into chemistry; the object of which 
is to express the property possessed by certain 
simple bodies, of assuming different qualities on 
being subjected to certain modes of treatment. 
Carbon, for example, furnishes three forms — 
plumbago, charcoal, and diamond. 

ALLSPICE, see Myrtus pimenta — a. Bush, 
Laurus Benzoin — a. Wild, Laurus Benzoin. 

ALLUC1NATIO, Hallucination. 

ALLURE, Influenza. 

ALMA, Water. 

ALMARIAB, see Plumbi oxydum semivi- 

ALMEZERION, Cneorum tricoccum. 

ALMOND, Amygdala. 

Almond Bloom. A liquid cosmetic, formed 
of Brazil dust, §j, water, Oiij; boil and strain; 
and add isinglass gvj, grand sylvestria gij, or 
cochineal gij, alum ^j, borax ^iij; boil again, 
and strain through a fine cloth. 

Almond Cake, see Amygdala — a. of the Ear, 
Tonsil — a. Paste, see Amygdala — a. Powder, 
see Amygdala — a. of the Throat, Tonsil. 

ALNUS G LUTINO'S A, Europe'an A Ider. A 
tree which grows in Europe, in moist places. 
The bark and leaves are astringent and bit- 
ter; and hence are employed in intermittents, 
and as a tonic and astringent. 

Alnus Serrat'ula, American Alder, has 
similar properties. 

Alnus Nigra, Rhamnus frangula. 

ALOEDA'RIUM. A compound medicine, 
containing aloes. — Gorroeus. 

ALOE ROOT, Aletris farinosa. 

AL'OES, Al'oe, Fel Na'tura. The inspissated 
juice of the aloe. JVal. Ord, Asphodelece. Sex. 
Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. 

Aloes Caballi'na, A. Guinien'sis, Horse- 
aloes. Used chiefly for horses. It is collected 
in Spain and Portugal, and is very coarse. 

Aloes Hepat'ica, A. vulga'ris, A. Barba- 
dcn'sis, Hepat'ic aloes, Bombay aloes, Barbadoes 
aloes, A. vulgaris exlractum, (F.) Aloes en 

calibasscs, A. des Barbades. This species has 
a very disagreeable odour, and an intensely 
bitter and nauseous taste. Properties the same 
as the last. 

Aloes Succotori'na, Sdc'otrinealocs, Turkey 
aloes, East India aloes, Aloes lu'ci,da,A. Zoctori'- 
nia, A. spica'ta, A. spica'ttB extrac'tiim, A. extrac- 
tum,An'ima Aloes, is the best species. Its odour 
is not unpleasant, taste very bitter, and slight- 
ly aromatic ; colour reddish-brown, with a shade 
of purple; mass hard, friable; fracture conchoi- 
dal and glossy ; soluble in dilute alcohol. 
Powder of a bright cinnamon-yellow colour. 
It is cathartic, warm, and stimulating; ernme- 
nagogue, anthelmintic, and stomachic. As a 
cathartic, it affects the rectum chiefly. Dose, 
as a cathartic, gr. v to 9J in P' 11 - 

Aloes Wood, Agallochum. 

A LOET'IC, Aloet'icus. A preparation which 
contains aloes. 

ALOGOTROPH'IA, from aloyog, ,' dispro- 
portionate,' and Tgo<pj;, 'nutrition.' Irregular 
nutrition. Used particularly to designate the 
irregular manner in which the nutrition of 
bones is operated in rickety individuals. 


ALOPE'CIA, from alomfc, 'a fox;' (this 
animal being said to be subject to the affec- 
tion.) Capillo'rum defiu'vium, Athrix depi'lis, 
Phalacro'tis, A'rea, Depila'tio, Tricho'sis Ath- 
rix, Gangra'na Alope'cia. Falling off of the 
hair; loss of the hair. When this is confined 
to the crown of the head, it is called calvities 
(q. v.), although the terms are often used sy- 

Alopecfa Areata, Porrigo decalvans. 

ALOUCHE, Crataegus aria. 

ALOUCH'l. The name of a gum procured 
from the canella alba tree. 

ALOUCHIER, Crataegus aria. 

ALPAM. A shrub which grows on the coast 
of Malabar. Certain parts of this, infused in 
oil, form an antipsoric ointment. The juice of 
the leaves, mixed with that of calamus, is em- 
ployed against the bites of serpents. 

ALPHENIO, Saccharum candidum. 

ALPH1TEDON, see Fracture. 

ALPH1TON, aXyirov, Polen'ta, Fari'na. 
Any kind of meal. Toasted barley-meal. — Hip- 
pocrates. Polenta means also a food composed 
of Indian meal, cheese, &c. See Farina. 

ALPHON'SIN, Alphonsinum. A kind of 
bullet forceps, similar to a Porte-crayon, so 
called from the inventor, Alphonso Ferri, of 
Naples. — Scultetus. 

ALPHOS, Lepra alphoides. 


damomum — a. Galanga, Maranta galanga. 

ALPISTE, Phalaris Canadiensis. 

ALSANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrum. 

ALSl'NE ME'DIA, from aloog, ' a grove,' 
because growing abundantly in woods. Morsus 
Galli'na, Holos'tcum Alsi'ne, Mouse-ear, Chick- 
icced, (F.) Mouron des Oiseaux, Morgeline. This 
plant, if boiled tender, may be eaten like spi- 
nach, and forms an excellent emollient poul- 
tice. It was formerly regarded as a vulnerary 
and determent. 

ALTAFOR- Camphor. 

ALTER SEXUS, Sex female. 

ALTERA NS, Alterative. 

ALTERANT, Alterative. 




ALTERATION, Alteru'tio, from alter, ■ other," 
Alloio's/s. This word is used in France to ex- 
press a morbid change which supervenes in the 
expression of the countenance (alteration de la 
face,) or in the structure of an organ (alteration 
organique,) or in the nature of fluids excreted 
(alteration de I'urine, des larmes, du lait, fyc.) 

Alteration is also used in an entirely differ- 
ent sense, to express intense thirst in disease. 
In this' case its etymology is different. It 
comes from haleter, and was formerly written 
huhte' ration. 

ALTERATIVE, Al'terans, AUoiot'icus. A 
medicine considered to be capable of producing 
a salutary change in a disease, but without 
exciting any sensible evacuation. As Me- 
dicine improves, this uncertain class of re- 
medies becomes, of necessity, diminished in 

(F.) Alterant. (The French term likewise 
means, that which causes thirst, — Siticulo'sus. 
Dipscl'icus, as Altirer means both to change 
and to cause thirst. S'altercr, is, to experience 
a change for the worse, — corrurn'pi.) 


ALTERCUM, Hyoscyamus. 

ALTILE'A, from aX&tiv, 'to heal;' A. offi- 
cinalis, Malvavis'cum, Aristalthse'a, Hibis'cas, 
Ibis'cka mismal'va, Bismal'va, Marsh-mallow. 
(F.) Guimauve. Nat. Ord. Malvaceae Sex. 
Syst. Monodelphia Polyandria. The leaves 
and root contain much mucilage. They are 
emollient and demulcent, and are employed 
wherever medicines, possessing such proper- 
tips, are required. In the Ph. U. S., Althaea is 
the root of Althaea officinalis. 

ALTHANAIHA, Orpiment. 

ALTHEUS, Physician. 

ALTHEXIS, Curation. 

ALTIL1BAT, Terebint'hina. 

ALU'DEL, Alu'tel, Vitrum subiimato'rium. 
A hollow sphere of stone, glass, or earthenware, 
with a short neck projecting at each end, by 
means of which one glass might be set upon 
the other. The uppermost had no aperture at 
the top. Aludels were formerly used in the 
sublimation of various substances. 

ALUM, Symphytum — a. Egyptian, ^Egyptia 

Alum, Roche, Alu'mcn de Rochi, (F.) Alun de 
Roche. So called from Roccha in Syria, where 
there was a manufactory. It is in pieces of the 
size of an almond, covered with a reddish efflo- 

Common Roche Alum, A. Rochi Gallis. Frag- 
ments of common alum, moistened and shaken 
with prepared bole. It is white when broken. 

Alum Root, Geranium maculatum, Heu- 
chera cortusa — a. Solution of, compound, Liq. 
aluminis compos. 

ALU'MEN, (an Arabic term, alum') Alum, 
llypcrsul'phas alu'minx el Potas'sx, Potas'sx 
alumino- sulphas, Sul'phas Alumina; Acid'ulus 
rum Potas'su, Sulphas Ala'mina, Sul'phas KaV- 
ico-alumiu'icum, Super sul'phas alu'minx et po- 
tas'sa, Argil'la sulphu'rica alcalisa'ta, A. vilrio- 
Ia'ta,Stypte'ria, Supersul'phas Argil'la atcalisu'- 
tum, Argilla Kalisulphurica, (F.) Alun. 

Alumen Catinum, Potash of commerce — a. 
Fixum, see Potash — a. Kinosatum, Pulvis sul- 
phatis alumince compositus. 

Alu'men Commu'ne, Common alum, English 
alum, Rock alum, Alumen facti"tium, A. crys- 

taU'inum, A. ru'peum, (F.) Alun uVAnglclerre, 
is the variety usually employed. It is in octa- 
hedral crystals, but generally in larye, white, 
semitransparent masses; has a sweetish, styptic 
taste; effloresces in the air, and is soluble in 16 
parts of water at 60°. It is tonic and astrin- 
gent, and as such is used internally and exter- 
nally. Dose, gr. v. to xv. 

Alu'men Exsicca'tum, Alu'men uslum, A. 
calcina'tum, Sulphas alu'minx fusus, Argil'la 
sulphu'rica usta, Burnt alum, dried alum. (F.) 
Alun calcine, (Alum melted in an earthen vessel 
until ebullition ceases.) Escharotic. 

Alu'men Roma'num, Roman alum, A.Ru'tilum, 
A. Rubrum. (F.) Alun de Rome, in crystals, 
which are of a pale red when broken, and co- 
vered, with a reddish efflorescence. 

tas — a. Pura, Argilla pura — a. Sulphate of, 
Alumince Sulphas. 

ALU'MIJNLE ACE'TAS, Ac"etate ofAlu'mina, 
A deliquescent salt, obtained by the addition of 
acetate of lead to sulphate of alumina and po- 
lassa. It possesses the same properties as the 
sulphate of alumina. 

Alu'minje et Potassje Hvpersulphas, Alu- 
men — a. et Potassse supersulphas, Alumen — a. 
sulphas, Alumen. 

Alu'minx Sulphas, Sulphate of Alu'mina. 
Simple sulphate of alumina may be made by the 
direct combination of alumina and sulphuric 
acid, and contains 30 per cent, of the former, 
to 70 per cent, of the latter. It is a deliquescent 
salt; and is an excellent antiseptic and deter- 
gent to ulcers. It is chiefly used to preserve 
dead bodies — a strong solution being injected 
into the arteries. 

Aluminje Sulphas Acidulus cum Potassa, 
Alumen — a. Sulphas fusus, Alumen exsiccatum. 

ALUMINE FACTICE, Argilla pura. 

ALlhY, Alumen. 

ALUNSEL, Gutta. 

ALUS, Symphytum. 

ALUSIA, Hallucination — a. Hypochondriasis, 

ALUTEL, Aludel. 

ALVAQUILLA, Psoralea glandulosa. 

ALVEARIUM, Auditory canal, external. 

ALVE'OLAR. Alveola'ris, from alveus, 'a 
cavity.' (F.) Alveolairc. That which relates 
to the alveoli. 

Alve'olar Arches. (F.) Arcades alvdo- 
laires, are formed by the margins of the two 
jaws, which are hollowed by the Alveoli (q. v.) 

Alve'olar Artery, Supra- mamillary A. 
(Artere sus-maxillairc of Chaussier,) arises from 
the internal maxillary, descends behind the tu- 
berosity of the upper jaw, and gives branches 
to the upper molar teeth, gums, periosteum, 
membrane of the maxillary sinus, and buccina- 
tor muscle. 

Alve'olar Membranes are yery fine mem- 
branes, situate between the teeth and alveoli, 
and formed by a portion of the sac or follicle 
which enclosed the tooth before it pierced the 
gum. By some this membrane has been called 
the alvcolo-dental periosteum. 

Alve'olar Vein. This has a similar distribu- 
tion with the artery. 

ALVAOLE, Alveolus. 

ALVtiOLO-LABlAL, Buccinator. 

ALVE'OLUS, same etymon. Bo' Irion, Bo'- 
thrwn, Frcna, Mortariolum, Ilol'micos, Prxsepio- 



ium,Phat'nion,Pra'.se'pium,PatnS,PathnS. (F.) 
Alvdole. The alveoli are the sockets of the teeth, 
into which they are, as it were, driven. Their 
size and shape are determined by the teeth 
which they receive, and they are pierced at 
the apex by small holes, which give passage 
to the dental vessels and nerves. 

ALVEUS, Auge — a. Ampullosus, Recepta- 
culum chyli — a. Ampullescens, thoracic duct — 
a. Communis: see Semicircular canals — a. 
Utriculosus: see Semicircular canals. 

ALVI EXCRETIO, Defecation— a. Fluxus 
aquosus, Diarrhoea — a. Pronuvium, Diarrhcea. 
ALVIDUCUS, Laxative. 
ALVINE, Alvi'nus, from ahus, 'the abdo- 
men.' That which relates to the lower belly, 
as alvine dejections, alvine flux, alvine obstruc- 
tions, (q. v.) &c. 

ALVUS, Abdomen, Uterus— a. Adstricta, 
Constipation — a. Dura, Constipatio — a. Re- 
num, Pelvis of the kidney— a. Tarda, Consti- 
ALYCE, Anxiety. 

AL'YPON, from a, privative, and Xvrrr„ 'pain.' 
An acrid, purging plant, described by Matthio- 
lus. By some it has been supposed to be the 
Globula'ria alypum of botanists. 
ALYS1S, Anxiety. 
ALYSM US, Anxiety. 
ALYSSUM PL1NII, Galium Mollugo. 
AL'ZILAT. In some of the Arabian writers, 
a weight of three grains. — Ruland and John- 
AMADOU, Boletus igniarius. 
AMADOUVIER, Boletus igniarius. 
AMA1GRISSEMENT, Emaciation. 
AMAJYDES, See Amygdala. 
AMANI'TJE, from a, priv. and uarta, 'mad- 
ness:' i. e. ' not poisonous.' A name given, by 
the Greeks and Romans, to the edible cham- 
pignons. Amanita forms, at the present day. a 
genus, some of which are edible, others poison- 
ous. Amongst others, it contains the Agaricus 
aurantiaens and A. pseudo-auruntiacus. 
AMARA DULCIS, Solanum dulcamara. 
AMARACl'NUM. An ancient and esteemed 
plaster, containing several aromatics, the mar- 
joram, aiiuQcxxoc, in particular. 

AMARACUS, Origanum majorana. 
AMAR1TIES. Bitterness. 
AMARITUDO, Bitterness. 
AMAROR, Bitterness. 

AMA'RUS, Picros, bitter. (F.) Amer. The 
bitter principle of vegetables is the great na- 
tural tonic, and hence bitters, as they are termed 
collectively, belong to the class of tonics. Se- 
veral are used in medicine; the chief are, gen- 
tian, quassia, cinchona, calumba, dog-wood, 

AMASE'SIS, Amassc'sis, from a, privative, 
and fiuorjOt?, 'mastication.' Mastication when 
impeded or impracticable. 

AMATORII, Oblique muscles of the eye. 


rior oculi. 

AMAURO'SIS, Obfurca'tio, Offusca'tio, from 
auavQoc, 'obscure.' Drop serene, Gutta sere'na, 
Catarac'ta nigra, Parop'sis amaurosis, Immo- 
bil'itas pvpil'lse, Black cut'aract. (F.) Goutle- 
sercine, Cataracte noire, Anopticnnervie (Piorry.) 
Diminution, or complete loss of sight, without 
any perceptible alteration in the organization 

of the eye; generally, perhaps, owing to loss of 
power of the optic nerve or retina. Counter- 
irritants are the most successful remedial 
agents, although the disease is always very 
difficult of removal, and generally totally in- 

AMAUROTIC, Amaurot' icus ; same etymon. 
Affected with amaurosis. 

Amaurotic Cat's Eye. A name given by 
Beer to an amaurotic affection, accompanied 
by a remarkable change of colour in the pupil, 
which presents, apparently in the fundus of the 
eye, a lighter tint, yellowish or brownish yel- 
low, instead of its natural clear black. 

AMBARUM, Ambergris— a. Cineritium, Am- 
bergris. _ 

AMBE, from au(iairw, ' I ascend;' Ambi. A 
superficial eminence on a bone. Also, an old 
surgical machine for reducing dislocations of 
the shoulder; the invention of which is ascribed 
to Hippocrates. It is no longer used. — Hipp., 

AMBER, Succinum— a. Liquid: seeLiquid- 
ambar styraciflua. 

AM'BERGRIS. Ambra gri'sea, Ambor,Am- 
bra cinera'cea, A. ambrosiaca, Ain'barum, Suc'ci- 
num cine'reum, S. gri'seum, Ain'barum eincri" - 
tium. A concrete substance, of the consistence 
of wax, cineritious colour studded with yellow 
and blackish spots, and exhaling a very pleasant 
odour. It seems highly probable that ambergris 
is formed in the intestines of the whale, and 
voided with its excrements. Like all aromatic 
substances, ambergris is slightly antispasmodic 
and excitant; but it is oftener employed as a 
perfume than as a medicine. 

AMBIA. A liquid, yellow bitumen, the 
smell and virtues of which are similar to those 
of the resin tacamahaca. It is obtained from a 
spring in India. 

AMBIDEX'TER, Amphidex'ios, from amb<>. 
'both,' and dexter, 'right.' One who uses both 
hands with equal facility. Celsus says the sur- 
geon ought to be 'non viinus sinistra quam 
dextrd promptus' One of the aphorisms of 
Hippocrates says, that a woman is never ambi- 
dexter. This is a mistake. 

AMBIL^EVUS, Ampharisteros. 
AMBLOMA, Abortion. 
AMBLOSIS, Abortion. 
AMBLOTICUS, Abortive. 
AMBLUS, xufiXvs, 'obscure.' Hence, 
AMBLYOGMOS, Amblyopia. 
AMBLYO'PIA, from au (five, 'obscure,' and 
unV, 'the eye.' AmblyoJmos, Amblyog'mos, 
Amplio' pea (so called by some, according to 
Castelli, oh ignorantiam Grsccas linguae,) Hebe- 
tu'dovisus. 'Feebleness of sight. (F.) Vuefaible. 
First degree of Amaurosis. — Hippocr. 

Amblyopia Crepuscularis, Hemeralopia — 
a. Dissitorum, Myopia — a. Meridiana, Nyctalo- 
pia — a. Proximorum, Presbytia. 
AMBEYOSMOS, Amblyopia. 
AMBON, appwv, ' the raised rim of a shield 
or dish,' from aftpaivto, 'I ascend.' The fibro- 
cartilaginous rings or bourrclets, which surround 
the articular cavities, as the glenoid cavity of 
the scapula, the acetabulum, &.c, have been so 
called — Galen. 

AMBOR, Ambergris. 

AMBRA, Succinum — a. Ambrosiaca, Amber- 
gris — a. Cineracea, Ambergris. 




AMBRAGRISEA, Ambergris. 

AMBRE BLANC, Succinum (album)— a. 
Jaune, Succinum. 

AMBRETTE, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

AMBRO'SIA, from a, privative, and (loirc?, 
' mortal.' Food which makes immortal, or the 
food of immortals. The food of the gods. — 
Homer. See also, Chenopodium Botrys. 

Ambro'sia Marit'ima. A plant which grows 
on the shores of the Levant, and has a pleasant, 
bitter and aromatic taste. It is given in infu- 
sion, as a tonic and antispasmodic. 


AMBULANCE, (F.) from ambulare, 'to 
walk.' A military hospital attached to an army, 
and moving along with it. Also called Hopital 

AMBULANT, (F.) Am'bulans, Ambulnli'vus, 
Arn'bulative. A morbid affection is said to be 
ambulante, when it skips from one part to ano- 
ther; as Erisypeles ambul tints, &c. When blis- 
ters are applied successively on different parts 
of the body, they are called Vtsicatoires am- 
bulant s. 

AMBULATIO, Walking. 

AMBULE1A. Cichorium intybus. 

AM'BULI. The Brachmanic name for an 
Indian aquatic herb, which appears to belong to 
the family Lysimachise. The whole plant has a 
sweet smell. Its decoction has a very bitter 
taste, and is an excellent febrifuge. It is also 
taken in milk in cases of vertigo. 

SUS. Flatus furio'sus, Vare'ni. Painful, mo- 
bile, and periodical tumours affecting different 
parts, which were once considered as the effect 
of very subtile vapours — Michaelis. Their na- 
ture is by no means clear. 


AMBUTUA, Fareira brava. 

AMBUYA-EMBO. A very beautiful, creep- 
ing aristolochia of Brazil, the decoction of 
which is exhibited successfully in obstructions. 
It is also used in fumigation and in baths as a 

JME, Anima. 

AMELI. A Malabar shrub, belonging to a 
genus unknown. The decoction of its leaves 
is said to relieve colic. Its roots, boiled in oil, 
are used to repel tumours. 

AMENIA, Amenorrhea. 

AMENOMA'JSTA. A hybrid word, formed 
from the Latin amamus, ' agreeable,' and parta, 
'mania.' A gay form of insanity. 

AMENORRHCE'A. Parume'nia obstructio'- 
nis, Mcnocryph'iii, Menosta'sia, Apophrax'is, 
Arrha'a, Defe.c'tus men' slum, Menstrua'tio im- 
perli'ta, Ischome'nia, Ame'vin, from a, privative, 
tup-, ' a month,' and nto>, ' I flow.' Suppression 
of the menses. (F.) Suppression du flux men- 
struel. This suppression is most commonly 
symptomatic, and hence the chief attention must 
be paid to the cause. Usually, there is an atonic 
state of the system generally, or of the uterus 
in particular, and hence chalybeates and other 
tonics are advisable. 

Two great varieties of Amenorrhoea are com- 
monly reckoned. I. A. Emansio' nis , Eman'sio 
men'sium, Menos'chesis, Menstrua'tio rctenta, or 
Retention of the, menses, when the menses do 
not appear at the usual age: and, 2, Svppres'sio 
Men'sium, Amenorrha'u Supprcssio'nis, Inter- 

rup'tio menstruatio'nis, Menstrua'tio supprcssa, 
in which the catamenia are obstructed in their 
regular periods of recurrence. See Emansio 
Mensium, and Menses. 

Amenorrhea Difficims, Dysmenorrhea. 

AMENTIA, Dementia. See, also, Fatuitas, 
and Idiotism. 

AMkR, Amarus. 


AMERTUME, Bitterness. 

AM'ETHYST, Amcthys'tus, from «, privative, 
and fAtQvm, ' I am drunk.' A precious stone, to 
which the ancients attributed the property of 
preventing drunkenness. It was also used as 
an anti-diarrhceic and absorbent. — Pliny, Al- 
bertus Magnus. 

AMETIIIA, Intemperance. 

AMICULUM, Amnios. 

AMIDUM, Amylum. 

AMIN^EA, Anime. 

AMIN.-E'UM VlNUM,Amincan wine, highly 
esteemed as a stomachic. Virgil distinguishes 
it from the Falernian. — Pliny, Macrobius, &c. 

AMMA, Truss. 

AMMI, Ammi majus, Bishop's weed, A. Vul- 
ga're. The seeds of this plant are aromatic 
and pungent. They are said to be carminative 
and diuretic, and are tonic and stomachic. 

AMiMi Verdm, see Sison Ammi — a. des Bou- 
tiques, see Sison ammi. 

AMMION, Hydrargyri sulphuretum rubrum. 

AMMOCHO'SIA, from a/upoc, ' sand,' and 
/jo), 'I pour.' Arena'tio. Putting the human 
body in hot sand, for the cure of disease. 

AMMO'NI A, Ammo'nia, or Ammoni acal gas, 
Volatile al'kali, Al'caii ammoni'acum caus'ticum, 
A. volal'ilS caus'ticum, Ammo'nia caus'tica, A. 
pura, Ammoni'acum, A. caus'ticum, (F.) Ammo- 
niiique, Air alcalin, Gaz ammoniacal. An alcali, 
so called, because obtained principally by de- 
composing sal ammoniac (muriate of ammonia) 
by lime. This gas is colourless, transparent, 
elastic, of a pungent, characteristic odour, and 
an acrid urinous taste. It turns the syrup of 
violets green, and its specific gravity is 0.596. 
When inhaled, largely diluted with common 
air, it is a powerful irritant. W r hen unmixed, 
it instantly induces suffocation. 

Ammonia, Acetate, Solution of, Liquor am- 
monias acetatis — a. Caustica liquida, Liquor am- 
monia? — a. Chlorohydrate of, Ammonias murias 
— a. Citrate of, Ammonias citras — a.Hydriodate 
of, see Iodine— a. Hydrochlorate of, Ammoniae 
murias— a. Hydrosulphuret of, Ammonias sul- 
phuretum— a. Iodide of, see Iodine— a. Lini- 
ment of, strong, Linimentum ammonias fortius— 
a. Liquid, Liquor ammonias — a. Muriatica, Am- 
monias murias— a. Nitrata, Ammonias nitras— a. 
Prasparata, Ammonias carbonas— a. Pura liquida, 
Liquor ammonias— a. Solution of, Liquor ammo- 
nias— a. Solution of, stronger, Liquor ammonias 
fortior— a. Tartrate of, Ammonias tartras. 

AMMO'NIAC, GUM, Ammoni'acum (Ph.U. S.) 
Gum'mi Ammoni'acum, Armoni'acum, (F.) Am- 
moniac, Gommc ammoniaquc, so called from 
Ammonia in Libya, whence it is brought A 
gum-res.n the concrete juice of Dore'ma ammo- 
ni acum, of Persia: a species of a genus allied to 
* erula. It is m irregular, dry masses and tears, 
yellow externally, whitish within. Its odour 
is peculiar and not ungrateful: taste nauseous, 
sweet, and b.tter. It Conns a white emulsion 




with water: is soluble in vinegar; partially so 
in alcohol, ether, and solutions of the alcalies. j 

Gum ammoniaeum is expectorant, deobstru- 
ent (?) antispasmodic, discutient, and resolvent. 
It is chiefly used, however, in the first capacity, 
and in the formation of certain plasters. 

Two varieties are met with in the market, 
Gutta ammoni'aci, the best; and Lapis ammo- 
ni'aci, the more impure. 

AMMON1ACLE JNITRAS, Ammonia nitras 
— a. Sulphas, Ammonia sulphas. 

AMMONIACUM, Ammonia, Ammo'niac 
Gum — a. Succinatum, Spiritus ammonia fccti- 
due — a. Volatile mite, Ammonia; carbonas. 

AMMONLE ACETAS, Liquor ammonia; 
acetatis — a. Arsenias, Arseniale of Ammonia. 

Ammonia Caii'bonas, A. Subcar'bonas, Salt 
of bones, Sal Os'sium, Salt of wood soot, Sal Fu- 
lig''inis, Suit of urine, Volatile Sal Ammoniac, 
Baker's salt, AH call volqt'ils a'era' turn, A.volut'ile 
atnmoniaca'ls, A. volat'ile ex sals ammonia'co, 
Ammoni'acum volat'ilS mite, Ammo'nium car- 
bon'icum, A. subcarbo'neum, Carbonas ammo'nia: 
alkali'nus seu incomple'tus seu superammoni'- 
acus, Hijpocar'bonas ammo'niai, Flures salt's am- 
moni'aci, Sal cornu cervi volat'ile, Sal volat'ilis 
salis ammoni'aci, Concrete volatile alkali, Carbo- 
nate or subcarbonate of ammonia, Ammo'nia pruz- 
para'ta, Sal volat'ilt, Smelling salt. (F.) Car- 
bonate d'ammoniaque, Scl volatil d'Ang/eterrc, 
(Amman, muriat. Kj; Or eta ftiss. Sublime. — Ph. 
U. S.) A white, striated, crystalline mass, 
odour and taste pungent and ammoniacal: so- 
luble in two parts of water: insoluble in alcohol: 
effloresces in the air. It is stimulant, antacid, 
diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. Dose, gr. v. to 

Ammonia Citras, Citrate of Ammo'nia. Made 
by saturating lemon or lime juice, or a solu- 
tion of citric acid, with carbonate of ammonia. 
Dose, f. t ^ss. 

It may be made extemporaneously, and taken 
in an effervescing draught. Seventeen grains 
of citric acid or half a fluidounce of lemon juice 
will be sufficient for thirteen grains of carbonate 
of ammonia. 

Ammonia: et Ferri Murias, Ferrum ammo- 
niatum — a. Hydrosulphuretum, Liquor funians 
Boylii — a. Hypocarbonas, Ammonia Carbonas 

Ammo'nia: Mi/rias, Muriate of Ammonia, Ihj- 
druchlo'rate of Ammo'nia, Chlorohydrate of Am- 
mo'nia, Sal. Ammoni'acum, Sal Ammo'niac, Sal 
A m moni'acus, Ammo'nia Muriat' ica, Ammo'nium 
Maria' turn, Hydrochlo'ras Ammo' nice, Sal Arma- 
ni' 'acum, Salmiac, Fuli'go Alba Philosopho'rum, 
(F.) Muriate d Ammonia que. A saline concrete, 
formed by the combination of the muriatic acid 
with ammonia. In Egypt it is manufactured 
in large quantities by subliming the soot formed 
by burning camel's dung — 2b' pounds of the 
soot yielding G pounds. It is also prepared, in 
great quantities, by adding sulphuric acid to 
the volatile alkali obtained from soot, bones, 
&c, mixing this with common salt, and sub- 

Muriate of ammonia is inodorous, but has an 
acrid, pungent, bitterish, and urinous taste. 
Three parts of cold water dissolve one. Solu- 
ble also in 4 5 parts of alcohol. It is aperient 
and diuretic, but seldom used internally. Ex- 
ternally, it is employed, producing cold during 
its solution, in inflammations, &c. 

Ammo'nia; Nitras, Nitrate of Ammonia, Al'- 

kali volat'ile nilru'tum, Sal ammoni'acus niirn* 
sus, Ammo'nia nitra'ta, JVitras ammoru'acx, JW» 
trum flammans. (F.) JVilrate u" Ammonia que. A 
salt composed of nitric acid and ammonia. Jt 
is diuretic and deobstruent.(P) Externally, it 
is discutient and sialogogue. 

Ammo'nia: Sulphas, Sulphate of Ammo'nia^ 
Sulphas ammoni'acx, Ammo'nium sulphu'ricum, 
Alkali volai'ilp. vitriola'tum, Sal Ammoni'acum 
secrctum Glauberi, Sal sccre'tus Glauberi, 
Vilriolum ammoniaca'le, (F.) Sulphate a" Ammo- 
niaquc. Formed by adding sulphuric acid either 
to sal ammoniac or to ammoniacal liquor. Its 
properties are like those of the muriate of am- 

Ammo'nia: SvLFUvRK r rvM,Sul'phuret of Am- 
mo'nia, Hijdrosul'jihuret of Ammo' nia, Hydro- 
sul'phas Ammonix, Spir'itus Begui'ni, Sp. fu- 
mans Begui'ni, Sulphur c' turn ammoni'actt, Sp. 
salis ammoni'aci sulphura'tus, Liquor ammo'nii 
hydrothiodis, tlydrosvlphure'tum Ammonicum, 
Hydrarg. ammoniaca'/B aquo'sum, llydrog" eno- 
sulph are' turn ammoni'acx Uq'uidum, Spir'itus 
sul'phuris volat'ilis, Hcpar sulphuris volat'ilt, 
Boyle's or Beguine's fuming spirit. (F.) Hy- 
drosu/phate sulfuri d' Ammoniaquc, Liqueur fu- 
mante de Boyle, Su/fure hydrogdne d'ammo- 
niaque, Hydrosulfurc d'Ammoniaque, Odour 
very fetid; taste nauseous and styptic; colour 
dark yellowish green. It is reputed to be se- 
dative, nauseating, emetic, disoxygenizing, (?) 
an*d has been given in diabetes and diseases 
of increased excitement. Dose, gtt. viij. to g»- 

Ammo'nia Tartras, Al'kali volat'ile tartari- 
za'tum, Sal Ammoni'acum tarta'reum, Tar'tarus 
ammo'nia, Tartrate of Ammo'nia, (F.) Tartrate 
d'Ammoniaque, A salt composed of tartaric 
acid and ammonia. It is diaphoretic and diu- 
retic; but not much used. 

AMMOMAQUE, Ammonia— a. Hydrosul- 
fure d,' Ammonia? sulphuretum — a. Hydrosul- 
fate sulfurt d\ Ammonia; sulphuretum — a. Li- 
quide, Liquor ammonia — a. Sulfurc hydrogene 
d\ Ammonias sulphuretum. 

Cuprum ammoniatum. 

AMMO'NION, from auuo?, 'sand.' An an- 
cient collyriuin of great virtues in many dis- 
eases of the eye, and which was said to remove 
sand from that organ. 

ammonia — a. Carbonicum, Ammonia carbonas 
—a. Iodide of, see Iodine — a. Muriaticum mar- 
tiaturn seu martiale, Ferrum ammoniatum — a. 
Muriat um, Amnion iamurias — a.Subcarboneum, 
Ainmoniacarbonas — a. Sulphuricum, Ammonia 

AMNA ALCALIZATA, Water, mineral, sa- 

AM S &' SI A, Am nes'ti a, from a, privative, and 
/jirr^tQ, ' memory.' Maria imbec"ilis am'nesia, 
Oblin'io, Rccollcctiu'nis jactu'ra , Dysxsthe'sia in- 
trr'na, Debii'itas memo'rix, Memo' rue dele'ta, (F.) 
Perte de Mtmoire, ' loss of memory.' By some 
Nosologists, amnesia constitutes a genus of 
diseases. By most, it is considered only as a 
symptom, which may occur in many diseases. 

AMNESTIA, Amnesia. 

AMNIOCLEP'SIS,fiom^mft; w, and /Icnc, 
' I steal or take away clandestinely.' Prema- 
ture escape of the liquor amnii. 

AM'NIOS, Am'nicn, Am'nium, Charla vir- 




gin'ea, Armatu'ra, Agni'na membra' na, Pellu'ci- 
da membra' na, Galea, Indvtsium, Amic'ulum, 
Membra' nafmtvm invol'vens. The innermost of 
the enveloping membranes of the fcctus. So 
called because first observed in the sheep.(r) 
auyog, ' a sheep.' It is thin, transparent, per- 
spirable, and possesses many delicate, colour- 
less vessels, which have not been injected. It 
sends a prolongation, which serves as a sheath 
to the umbilical cord, its external surface is 
feebly united to the chorion by cellular and 
vascular filaments. Its inner surface is po- 
lished, and is in contact with the body of the 
fcetus and the liquor amnii, (q. v.) 

AMNIOTIC ACID, Ac"idum Am'nicvm vel 
amniot'icum. A peculiar acid, found by Vau- 
quelin and Buniva in the liquor amnii of the 

AMNl'TlSor AMNJI'TJS, from Amnion and 
ills, inflammation. Inflammation of the Amnion. 

AMOME FAUX. Sison amomum. 

surn, A. verum, Atpin'ia car dam o' 'mum, Caro'pi. 
Mal.o'nia Cardamo'mum, Eletta'ria Cardamo'- 
mum, Cardumu'mum Minus, Lesser or officinal 
Car'damom, Amo'mum repens. (F.) Cardamome 
de la Cote de Malabar, Cardamome. The seeds 
of this East India plant have an agreeable, 
aromatic odour; and a pungent, grateful taste. 
They are carminative and stomachic: but are 
chiefly used to give warmth to other remedies. 
The fruit is called Amomis. Dose, gr. v. to Qj. 

Amomum Galanga, Maranta G. 

Amomum Granum Paradi'si, Cardamo'mum 
majus, Melegutl'la, Maniguci'ta, Cardamo'mum 
pipera'tum, A. max'imum, (F.) Graines de Pa- 
radis. Greater cardamom seeds resemble the 
last in properties. They are extremely hot, 
and are not much used. 

Amomum Pimenta: see Myrtus pimenta — a." 
Zedoaria, Koempferia rotunda. 

Amomum Zin'gibf.r, Zin' giber officina'ls, Zin- 
giber album, Z. nigrum, Z. commu'nc, Zin'ziber, 
Ginger, (V.) Gingembre. The white and black 
ginger, Zi n' ziher fuscv m and album, are the 
rhizoma of the same plant, Zin! giber officinale, 
the difference depending upon the mode of pre- 
paring them. 

The odour of ginger is aromatic; taste warm, 
aromatic, and acrid. It yields its virtues to 
alcohol, and in a great degree to water. It is 
carminative, stimulant, and sialogogue. 

Preserved Ginger, Zing.'b'eris Radix Condi' ta, 
Radix Zhigib'eris condi'ta (X India allu'ta is a 
condiment, which possesses all the virtues of 

Ginger-Beer Powders, may be formed of 
white sugar, t "j and 7) ij. ginger, gr. v. subcaibo- 
nale of soda, gr. xxxvj in each blue paper: acid 
of tartar, ^iss in each while paper, — for half a 
pint of water. 

Ox'ey's Conccntratfd Esse7ice of Jamaica 
Ginircr, is a mere solution of ginger in rcctfied 

AMOR. Love. 

AMORGE. Amurca. 

AMORPHUS. Anideus 

AMOSTEUS. Osteocolla. 

AMOUR, Love. 

AMOTIREUX (muscle.) Obliquus superior 

AMP AC, Amp' An East India tree, the 
leaves of which have a sir' ng odour, and are 

used in baths as detergents. A very odoriferous 
resin is obtained from it. 

AMPAR, Succinum. 

\MPELOOARPUS, Galium apanne. 


AMPELOS, Vitis vinifera— a. Agna, Bryonia 
alba— a. Idcea, Vaccinium vitis ida?a — a. Oino- 
uhoros, Vitis vinifera. _ 


AMPHARIS'TEROS, Ambilx'vus, " awk- 
ward;" from ai.i<pi, and aoia-xt^g, 'the left.' Op- 
posed to ambidexter. 


AMPHI, a up i, 'both, around, on all sides.' 
Hence, a prefix in many of the following terms. 

AMPHIAM, Opium. 

AMPHIARTHRO'SIS, from aucpi, 'both,' 
and a(i&nu)(rtg, 'articulation.' A mixed articu- 
lation^ in which the corresponding surfaces of 
bones are united in an intimate manner by an 
intermediate body, which allows, however, of 
some slight motion. Such is the junction of 
the bodies of the vertebras by means of the in- 
tervertebral cartilages. This articulation has 
also been called Diarthrose. de Continuiti. The 
motion it permits is but slight. 



AMPHIBRAN'CHJA, from au<pi, 'around.' 
and (Sgay^iaj'the throat.' Amphibron'chia. The 
tonsils and neighbouring parts — Hippoc. 


AMPHIDEXIOS, Ambidexter. 

AMPHIDIARTHRO'SIS, from a.Kfi, 'about,' 
and diaQdnwoig, 'a moveable joint.' A name 
given by Winslow to the temporo-maxillary ar- 
ticulation, because, according to that anatomist, 
it partakes both of o-ino-lymus and arthrodia. * 

AMPHIMERINA, Pertussis— a. Hectica. 
Hectic fever. 

AMPHIMER1NOS. Quotidian. 

AMPHION, Maslach. 

AMPHIPLEX, Perinamm. 

AMPHISMELA, Knife, double-edged. 

AMPHISMILE, Knife, double-edged. 

AMPHISPIIAL'SIS, Circumac'tio, Circum- 
duc'tio, from au<pi, 'around,' and sr^oAxco, 'I 
wander.' The movement of circumduction 
used in reducing luxations. — Hippoc. 

AM'PHORA, per syncop. for au<piq>o^ivg, from 
<xu<pi,' on both sides,' and <?too>, 'I bear:' because 
it had two handles. A liquid measure among 
the ancients, containing above 7 gallons. Also 
called Quudrantal, Cera'mium, Ceram'nium, 

nous Respiration. 



AMPLEXUS, Coition. 

AMPLIOPEA, Ambliopia. 

AMPOSIS. Anaposis. 

AMPOULES, Essera. 

AMPULLA, Cavitas elliptica— a. Chvlifera 
seu chyli, Receptacnlum chyli. 

AMPUL'LjE. Phlyctaenae. 

AMPUTATION, Amputu'tio, from ampulan, 
{am, 'around,' and pulart,) 'to cutoff.' Apot'o- 
me, Apotom'ia. The operation of separating 
by means of a cutting instrument, a limb or a 
part of a limb, or a projecting part as the 
mamma, penis, &c, from the rest of the bodv 
In the case of a tumour, the term excision re- 




moval, or extirpation, (F.J Resection, is more 
commonly used. 

Amputation, Circular, is that in which the 

integuments and muscles are divided circularly. 

Amputation, Flap, (F.) A. a lambeaux, is 

when one or two flaps are left so as to cover the 

stump, when the limb has been removed. 

Amputation, Joint, (F.) A. dans Varticle ou 
dans la contiguite des membres, is when the 
limb is removed at an articulation. 

Each amputation requires a different process, 
which is described in works on operative surgery. 
AMULETTE, Amuletum. 
AMULE'TUM, from Amoli'ri, Ho remove.' 
An Amulet, — Periam'ma, Apotropasfum, Peri- 
ap'ton, Phylacte'rion, Apoteles'ma, Exarte'ma, 
Alexica'cum, (F.) Amulctte. Any image or sub- 
stance worn about the person for the purpose 
of preventing disease or danger. 

AMUROA, auooyi;. The marc or grounds 
remaining after olives have been crushed and 
deprived of their oil. It has been used as an 
application to ulcers. 

AMUSA, Musa Paradisiaca. 
AMYCE, Excoriation, Scarification. 
AMYC'TICA, from ajuuaata, ' I lacerate.' 
Medicines which stimulate and vellicate the 
skin. — Ctelius Aurelianus. 
AMY DRIASJS, Mydriasis. 
AMYE'LIA, from a, 'privative,' and uvtXoc, 
'marrow.' A monstrous formation, in which 
there is an absence of spinal marrow. 

AMYG'DALA, same etymon as Amyctica; 
because there seem to be fissures in the shell. 
The Almond, of which there are two kinds; the 
Amyg'dalxama'rx and A. dukes, (F.) Amandes 
douces, A. ameres, obtained from two varieties 
of Amyg'dalus communis; or A. sati'va, a native 
ofBarbary. Nat. Ord. A mygdalese. Sex. Syst. 
Icosandria Monogynia. 

The taste of the Amygdala dulcis is soft and 
sweet; that of the A. amara, bitter. Both yield, 
by expression, a sweet, bland oil. The bitter 
almond contains Prussic acid. They are chiefly 
used for forming emulsions. 

Amyg'dalje Placenta, Almond Cake, is the 
cake left after the expression of the oil. The 
ground Almond Cake, Almond Powder, Fari'na 
Amygdala! rum, is used instead of soap for 
washing the hands. 

Amyg'dal;e Pasta, Almond Paste, a cosmetic 
for softening the skin and preventing chaps, is 
made of hitler almonds, blanched, giv, white of 
one tag ; rose water, and rectified spirit, equal 
parts, or as much as is sufficient. 

Amygdala, Tonsil. Also, a lobe of the cere- 
bellum, so called from its resemblance to an en- 
larged tonsil. This and its fellow of the opposite 
side form the lateral boundaries of the anterior 
extremity of the valley, (q. v.) arid are in great 
part covered by the medulla oblongata. 
AMYGDALATUM, Emulsio Amygdalce. 
AMY G DALE, Tonsil. 
AMYGDALITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

Amvg'dalus Per'sica. The common peach- 
tree, (F.) Pecher. The leaves and flowers have 
Icon considered laxative. They are bitter and 
aromatic, and have been givn in hematuria, 
nephritis, &c. The fruit is one of the pleasant 
and wholesome summer fruits, when ripe. The 

kernels, Amyg' dalse Per'sicse, contain prussic 
acid, as well as the flowers. 

Peach Brandy is distilled from the fruit, and 
is much used in the United States. 
Amygdalus. See Amygdala. 
AMYGMOS, Scarification. 
AMYLEON, Amylum. 
A'MYLUM, A'midum, Fedula, Amyl'eon, 
Amyl'ion, from a, priv., and p.vXij, ' a mill,' be- 
cause made without a mill; Starch. (F.) Ami- 
don, Amylon. Starch of Wheat, Fari'na, Trit!ici 
fari'na, Fec'ula Amyla'cea, is inodorous and 
insipid, white and friable. It is insoluble in 
cold water and alcohol; but forms with boiling 
water a strong, semi-transparent jelly. It is 
demulcent, and is used as an emollient glyster, 
and as the vehicle for opium, when given per 
anum. Starch is met with abundantly in all 
the cereal grains, in the stalks of many of the 
palms, in some lichens, and in many tuberous 
roots, particularly in the bulbs of the orchis. 
Amylum Iodatum. See Iodine. 
A'MYON, from a, priv., and uvcov, 'a muscle,' 
Emusculu! tus. Without muscle. Applied to the 
limbs, when so extenuated that the muscles 
cannot be distinguished. 
AMYOSIS, Synezizis. 
Am'yris Elemif'efa. (F.) Balsamier Ele- 
mifere. Nat. Ord. Terebinthacene. Sex. SysL. 
Octandria Monogynia. The plant whence it 
is supposed the Gum El'f.mi is obtained. This 
gum or resin is brought from the Spanish West 
Indies. It is softish, transparent, of a pale 
whitish colour, inclining a little to green, and 
of a strong, though not unpleasant smell. It 
is only used in ointments and plasters, and is a 

Amyris Gileapensis. See A. opobalsamum. 
Am'yris Opoeal'samum, (F.) Balsamier de la 
Mecque, Bal'sem, Bat samum. The plant from 
which is obtained the Balsam of Mecca, Bal'~ 
samum genui'num antiquo'rum, Balsamelse'on, 
JEgyptiacum Ball samum, Bal'samum Asiat'i- 
cum, B. Juda'icum, B. Syriacum, B. e Mecca, 
CocobaV samum, B. Alpi'ni, Oleum Bal'sami, Opo- 
bal'samum, Xylobal' samum, Balsam or Bairn 
of Gilead. (F.) Baume Blanc, B.dc Constantino- 
ple blanc, B. de Galaad, B. du Grand Caire, B- 
Vrai, Tiribinthine de Gilead, T. d'Egtjple, T. 
du Grand Kaire, T. deJudie. A resinous juice 
obtained by making incisions into the Amyris 
opobal samum and A. Gilcadensis of Linnssus, 
Balsamaden'dron Gilcadcn'sS of Kunth. The 
juice of the fruit is called Carpobal' samum ; that 
of the wood and branches Xylobal' samum. It 
has the general properties of the milder Tere- 
Amyris Tomentosum, Fagara octandra. 
AMYRON, Carthamus linctorius. 
AMYX'lA,from a, privative, and juvla, 'mu- 
cus.' Deficiency of mucus. 
A MYXIS, Scarification. 
ANA, ara, a word which signifies 'of each." 
It is used in prescriptions as well as a and aa, 
its abbreviations. As a prefix to words, it means 
'in,' 'through,' 'upwards,' 'above,' in opposi- 
tion to Cata, (q. v.;) also 'repetition,' like the 
English re. Hence, — 

ANAB'AS!S,from ava^aivw, 'I ascend.' The 
first period of a disease, or that of increase. — 
Galen. See Augmentation. 
ANABEXIS, Expectoration. 




ANABLEP'SIS, from <*>•«, 'again,' and 
/S/.t.Tu), ' I see.' Kestoiation to si»-|)t. 

ANABOLuE'ON, Anabole'us, from avafiaXXm, 
1 1 cast up." An ointment for extracting darts 
or other extrajieous bodies. 

ANAB'OLE, from ara, 'upwards,' and fiaXXw, 
'least.' Anago'ge, Anapk'ora. An evacuation 
upwards. An act by which certain matters are 
rejected by the mouth. In common acceptation 
it includes, cxpuition, expectoration, regurgita- 
tion, and vomiting. 

avu, 'with,' and /^ /f°s> 'a running knot.' An 
operation for removing the eye-lashes, when 
they irritate the eye, by means of a hair knotted 
around them — Hippocr., Galen, Celsus, &c. 
ANABRONCHISMUS, Anabrochismus. 
ANABROSIS. Corrosion, Erosion. 
ANACAMPSEROS, Sedum telephium. 
su'viurn pomif'erum, Cashew (IV. Indies.) (F.) 
Ac'ajou. Nat. Ord. Terebinthaceas. Sex. Syst. 
Enneandria Monogynia. The Oiloftlie Cashew 
Nut, O'leum Anacar'dii, (F.) Huile d' 'Acajou, is 
an active caustic, and used as such in the coun- 
tries where it grows, especially for destroying 
warts, &c. 

Anacardium Orientals, Avicennia tomen- 

ANACATHAR'SIS, from «»■<*, 'upwards,' 
and y.aSaiQitv, 'to purge.' Purgation upwards. 
Expectoration, (q. v.) See, also, Repurgatio. 

Anacatharsis Catarrhalis Simplex, Ca- 
ANACHREMPSIS, Exspuition. 
ANACLAS1S. Repercussion. 
ANACLINTE'RIUM, Recubito'rium, from 
avaxXtrta, 'I recline.' A long chair or seat, so 
formed, that the person can rest in a reclining 

ANACOLLE'MA, from ava, 'together,' and 
xoXXaw, 'I glue.' A healing medicine. 
Anacoi.lemata, Frontal bandacres. 
ANACOLUP'PA. A creeping plant of Mala- 
bar, the juice of which, mixed with powdered 
pepper, passes in India as a cure for epilepsy, 
and as the only remedy for the bite of the naja. 
It is supposed to be the Zapania Nodiftora. 
ANACOLUTHIE, Incoherence. 
ANACOMIDE, Restauratio. 
ANACTESIS, Restauratio. 
ANACTIRION, Artemisia. 
ANACYCLEON, Charlatan. 
themis Pyrethrum — a. Pyrethrum, Anthemis 
ANADIPLO'SIS, from ara, 'again,' and 
SmXow, 'I double.' Epanadiplo'sis, Epanalep'- 
sis, Reduplica'tio. The redoubling which oc- 
curs in a paroxysm of an intermittent, when 

its type is double. Galen, Alexander of 


AN^EDCE'US, from ett, privative, and aidoia, 
' oro-ans of generation.' A monster devoid of 
sexual organs. 
AN ADO R A, Ecdora. 

ANAD'OSIS, from avaStSceut, * I distribute.' 
Purgation upwards, as by vomiting. Anadosis 
seems also to have meant, occasionally, chylifi- 

cation, whilst diadosis meant capillary nutri- 
tion. — Hippocr., Galen. 

ANAD'ROME, from ara, 'upwards,' and 
Sqchw, 'I run.' The transport of a humour or 
pain from a lower to an upper part. — Hippocr. 

ANiEMATOPOIE'SIS, from a, av, privative, 
atjua, 'blood,' and noeiui, 'I make.' Impeded 
or obstructed hoematosis. 

AN/E'MIA, Anamasis, Anhai'mia, Anhafma- 
to' sis, Eolyanhaz'mia, Anamo'sis, Oligse'mia, Hy- 
pas'mia, (q. v.) Hydrose'mia, (q. v.) Hydra'mia, 
Ane'mia, (F.) An'emie, Polyanhemie, Hydrohe- 
mie, Exsanguin'ity, Blnodlessness: from a., priv. 
and at/ux., 'blood.' Privation of blood. The 
opposite to plethora, (q. v.) It is characterized 
by every sign of debility. Also, diminished 
quantity of fluids in the capillary vessels:— the 
opposite to Hypermmia,. — The essential charac- 
ter of the blood in anaemia is diminution in the 
ratio of red corpuscles. 

AN.EMOSIS, Anaemia. 
AN^EMOT'ROPHY, Anmmotroph'ia: from *r, 
privative, 'au/nx, ' blood,' and -tooy^, ' nourish- 
ment.' A deficiency of sanguineous nourish- 
ment. — Prout. 

ANJESTHE'SIA, Insensibil'itas, Analge'sia, 
Parap'sis expers, (F.) Anesthe'sie: from a , priva- 
tive, and a.ia-&'J.rof.ia.i, 'I feel.' Privation of sen- 
sation, and especially of that of touch, accord- 
ing to some. It may be general or partial, and 
is almost always symptomatic. 

Anaesthesia Lingce, Ageustia — a. Olfacto- 
ria, Anosmia. 

ANiESTHISIA, Insensibility. 
ANAGAL'LIS, from av& and ynXa., 'milk,' 
from its power of coagulating milk. A. arven'- 
sis, A. Pliwnic"ca, Red Pimpernel, Scarlet Pim- 
pernel. Nat. Ord. Primulaceae. Sex. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Monogynia. (F.) Mouron rouge. A 
common European plant; a reputed antispas- 
modic and stomachic. 

Another species — Anagal'lis cccru'lea is a mere 
variety of the above. 

Anagallis Aquatic a, Veronica Beccabunga. 
ANAGLYPHE, Calamus scriptorius. 
ANAGOGE, Anabole, Rejection. 
ANAGRAPHE, Prescription. 
ANAG'IRIS, Ac'opon, Anag'yris fw'tida, 
Stinking Bean Trefoil. Native of Italy. The 
leaves are powerfully purgative. The juice is 
said to be diuretic, and the seeds emetic— 
Dioscorides, Paulus. 

ANAL, Ana' lis. That which refers to the 
anus;— as Anal region, &c. 

ANALDIA, (F.) Anuldie; from a, privative, 
and aXdav, 'to grow.' Defective nutrition. 
ANALEMSIA, Analepsia. 
ANALENTIA, Analepsia. 
ANALEP'SIA, Analep'sis, Analen'tia, Ana- 
Icrn sia, from ava, 'afresh,' and Xaufiavuv, 'to 
take. Restoration to strength after disease.— 
Galen. A kind of sympathetic epilensv, origi- 
nating from gastric disorder. See Epilepsy 

Also, the support given to a fractured ex- 
tremity. Appensio.— Hippocr. 
ANALEPSIS, Restauratio. 
ANALEP'TICA, same etymon; Analeptics 
Restorative medicines or food; such as are 
adapted to recruit the strength during conva- 
lescence:-as sago, salep, tapioca, jelly, & c 




Analeptic Pills, James's, consist of James's 
Powder, Gum Ammoniacum, and Pill of Aloes 
and Myrrh, equal parts, with Tincture of Cas- 
tor sufficient to form a mass. 

AN ALG E'SIA, from «, priv. and aXyo?, 'pain.' 
Absence of pain both in health and disease. 
See Anaesthesia. 


ANALOSIS, Atrophy. 

ANALTESIS, Restauratio. 

ANAMNES'TIC, from *vs, 'again,' and py*- 
ejtai, ' I remember.' A medicine for improving 
the memory. See, also, Commemorative. 

ANANAS, Bromelia ananas — a. Acostoe ova- 
te?, &c, Bromelia ananas — a. Americana, Bro- 
melia pinguin — a. Wild, broad-leaved, Bromelia 

ANANAZIP'TA. A word formerly scrawled 
on amulets to charm away disease. 

ANANEO'SIS, Renova'tio ; from svs, ' again,' 
and nog, ' new.' Renovation or renewal, — as 
of the blood by the chyliferous vessels and 

ANAPETf A, Expan' sio mea' tuurn, from ai«, 
and TTtrato, ' 1 dilate.' A state opposite to the 
closure of vessels. — Galen. 

ANAPHALANTI'ASIS, from <Lvnqs.Xa.vTi*?, 
' bald.' Loss of the hair of the eyebrows. Also, 
baldness in general. 

ANAPH'IA, Anhaph'ia; from *, *v, priv. and 
l sqt], ' touch.' Diminution or privation of the 
sense of touch. 

AN APHONE'SIS, from *v<t, « high,' and <pmv V , 
1 voice.' Exercise of the voice: vociferation: — 
the act of crying out. Vocifera'lio, Clamor. 

ANAPHORA, Anabole. 

ANAPHRODIS'IA, from *, priv. and A<p ? o- 
iiTtj, ' Venus.' Absence of the venereal appetite. 
Sometimes used for Impotence and Sterility. 

ANAPHROMELI, Mel despumatum. 

ANAP'LASIS, from svs.71Xx.aow, ' I restore.' 
Confirma'lio. Union or consolidation of a frac- 
tured bone — Hippocr. 

ANAPLERO'SIS, from svavX^ow, 'Ifill up .' 
Repletion. That part of surgical therapeutics 
whose object is to supply parts that are wanting. 
Also, Apposition or Prosthesis, (q. v.) 


ANAPLEU'SIS, Fluctva'tio, Innata'tio, from 
avanXeiv, ' to swim above.' The looseness or 
shaking of an exfoliated bone; or of a carious 
or other tooth, &c. — Hippocr., Paulus. 

ANAPNEUSIS, Respiration. 

ANAPNOMETER, Spirometer. 

dophyllum peltatum. 

ANA\"OSlS,Am , posis, from a\ a, 'again,' and 
7tort?, 'drink.' A recession of humours from 
the circumference to the centre of the body. — 

ANAPSE, Auante. 


ANAPTYSIS, Expectoration. 

ANARRHEGNU'MINA, from avaooriyvvpai, 
'I break out again.' Fractures are so called 
when they become disunited; as well as ulcers 
when they break out afresh. 

ANARRHPNON, from ava, 'upwards,' and 
piv, 'the nose.' That which returns by the 
nose. — Gorraaus. 

According to others, that which issues by the 
skin, from ava, and ftvo?, 'the skin.' 

ANARRHCEA, Anarrho'pia,Anu s'lasis, from 
ava, ' upwards,' and qiw, ' I flow.' Afflux of fluid 
towards the upper part of the body. 

ANAR11HOPIA, Anarrhoea. 

ANAR'THROS, avaodpo?, from av, priv.and 
aQdgov, ' a joint.' One who is so fat, that his 
joints are scarcely perceptible. — Hippocrates. 

AN ASAR'CA, from ava, ' through,' and <raa%, 
' the flesh.' Anasarch'a, Aqua inter cutem, Hy- 
posar'ca, Hydrops cellula'ris totius cor'poris, Ka- 
tasar'ca, Episarcid'ium, JHy'deros, Hydrosar'ca, 
Hydroder'ma, Sarci'tes, Polylym'phia, Hyposar- 
cid'ios, Leucophlegma'tia, General dropsy, 
Dropsy of the cellular membrane. (F.) Ana- 
sarque. Commonly, it begins to manifest itself 
by swelling around the ankles; and is charac- 
terized by tumefaction of the limbs and of the 
soft parts covering the abdomen, thorax, and 
even the face, with paleness and dryness of the 
skin, and pitting when any of these (especially 
the ankles) are pressed upon. Like dropsy in 
general, Anasarca may be active or passive; and 
its treatment must be regulated by the rules 
that are applicable to general dropsy. See 

Anasarca Hvstericum, Anathymiasis — a. 
Pulmonum, CEdeina of the Lungs — a. Serosa, 
Phlegmatia dolens. 

ANASARCHA, Anasarca. 

AJVASARQUE, Anasarca. 

ANASPADLE'US, Anaspa'dias, from ava, 
'upwards,' and cnam, ' I draw,' One whose 
urethra opens on the upper surface of the penis. 

ANASTASIS, from avarnaw^ 'I contract' 
Retrac'tio, Contraction, especially of the sto- 
mach. — Hippocrates. 

ANASSA, Bromelia ananas. 


ANASTASIS, Anarrhoea. 

ANASTCECHEIO'SIS, from ara, 'again, 'and 
croi^siov, 'element.' Re-elementa'tio. Resolu- 
tion of a body or its parts into their elements. — 

ANASTOMO'SIS, from ava, ' with,' and <tto- 
,11a, 'a mouth.' lnoscula'tio, Exanastomo'sis, 
Concur'sus. (F.) Abouchement. Communica- 
tion between two vessels. By considering the 
nerves to be channels, in which a nervous fluid 
circulates, their communication likewise has 
been called Anastomosis. By means of anasto- 
moses, if the course of a fluid be arrested in 
one vessel, it can proceed along others. 

Anastomosis, J acobson's. See Petrosal gan- 

ANASTOMOT'ICS, Anastomot' ica. Same 
etymon. Certain medicines were formerly so 
called, which were believed to be capable of 
opening the mouths of vessels: — as aperients, 
diurptics o&c 

(F.) Artere collatirale interne, A. collaterale du 
coude, is a branch of the brachial artery which 
comes off a little above the elbow, and bestows 
branches to the brachialis internus, to the under 
edge of the triceps, and to the muscles, liga- 
ments, &c, about the elbow-joint 

AN ATA SIS, Extension. 

AN ATHYMPASIS, from ava, ' upwards,' and 
6vua, ' fumigation.' (Ede'ma fugax, CEde'ma 
spas'ticum, CEde'ma hyster'icum, Anasar'ca hys- 
ter'icum. An uncertain and transient swelling, 
said to have been observed at times in nervous 




and hysterical persons. It also means Exhala- 
tion, Fumigation, and Hypochondriasis, (which 


ANATOMIA VIVA, Physiology. 

ANATOMIE, Anatomy. 

ANAT'OMIST, Anatom'icus. One who oc- 
cupies himself with anatomy. One versed in 

ANATOMY, Anat'omS, A natom! 'ia , from arx, 
and retain; ' to cut.' (F.) Anatomie. 

The word Anatomy properly signifies dissec- 
tion; but it has been appropriated to the study 
and knowledge of the number, shape, situation, 
structure, and connexion, — in a word of all the 
apparent properties of organized bodies. Ana- 
tomy is the science of organization. Some have 
given the term a still more extended accepta- 
tion, applying it to every mechanical decom- 
position, even of extra-organic bodies. Thus, 
Crystallography has been termed the Anatomy 
of crystallized minerals. Anatomy has also been 
called Morpho'logy, Somatology, Somatot' omy, 
Organology, &c. It assumes different names, 
according as the study is confined to one orga- 
nized being, or to a species or class of beings. 
Thus Androt'omy, or Anthropot'omy, or Anthro- 
pogfraphy, or Anthroposomatol'ogy, is the Ana- 
tomy of man: — Zootomy, that of the other spe- 
cies of the animal kingdom: and Vetf erinary 
Anal! omy, is the anatomy of domestic animals: 
but when the word is used abstractedly, it 
means human Anatomy, and particularly the 
study of the organs in a physiological or healthy 
state. Physiological Anatomy is occasionally 
used to signify the kind of anatomy which in- 
vestigates structure with a special view to func- 
tion. The Anatomy of the diseased human body 
is called Patholog"ical or Morbid Anatomy, and 
when applied to Medical Jurisprudence, Fo- 
ren'sic Anatomy. Several of the organs possess- 
ing a similarity of structure, and being formed 
of the same tissues, they have been grouped into 
Systems or Genera of Organs; and the study of, 
or acquaintance with, such systems, has been 
called General Anat'omy, Histol'ogy, or Morphot'- 
omy, whilst the study of each organ in particu- 
lar has been termed Descriptive Anatomy. De- 
scriptive Anatomy has been divided into She- 
Ictol'ogy, which comprises Osteol'ogy and Syn- 
desmol'ogy; and into Sarcol'ogy, which is sub- 
divided into Myol'ogy, Neurol' ogy, Angiul'ogy, 
Adenol'ogy, Splanchnology, and Derrnol'ogy. 
Sur'gicat Anat'omy, Medico- Chirurgical Anato- 
my, Topograph' ical Anat'omy, Regional Anato- 
my, (F.) Anatomic Chirurgicale,A. des Regions, 
is the particular and relative study of the bones, 
muscles, nerves, vessels, &c, with which it is 
indispensable to be acquainted before perform- 
ing operations. Comparative Anat'omy is the 
comparative study of each organ, with a view 
to an acquaintance with the modifications of 
its structure in different animals or in the dif- 
ferent classes of animals. Transcendent' al or 
Philosopk' ical Anatomy inquires into the mode, 
plan, or model upon which the animal frame or 
oro-ans are formed; and Artific"ial Anat'omy is 
the art of modelling and representing in wax or 
other substance, the different organs or diffe- 
rent parts of the human body, in the sound or 
diseased state. Phytot'omy is the anatomy of 
Anatomy, Practical, see Dissection. 

ANATON, Soda. 

ANATREPSIS, Restauratio. 

ANATRES1S, Perforation, Trepanning. 

ANATR1BE, Friction. 

ANATRIPS1S, Friction. 

ANATRIPSOL'OGY, Anatripsohg"ia, from 
arccTPirpic, 'friction,' and Xoyog, 'a discourse.' 
A treatise on friction as a remedy. 


ANAT'ROPE, from ara, ' upwards,' and 
Toenu), ' I turn.' A subversion. A turning or 
subversion or inverted action of the stomach, 
characterized by nausea, vomiting, &c. — Galen. 
We still speak of the stomach turning against 
any thing. 

ANAUDIA, Catalepsy, Mutitas. 

ANAXYR1S, Rumex acetosa. 

ANAZESIS, Ebullition. 

ANAZOTURIA, see Urine. 

ANGHA, Haunch. 



gua Bovis, Buglos'sum sylvcs'trl, Offic"inal or 
Garden Al'lianet or Bugloss; Nat. Ord. Borajri. 
neae. Sex- Syst. Pentandria Monogynia. (F.l 
Buglose. A native of Great Britain. The herb 
was formerly esteemed as a cordial in melan- 
cholia and hypochondriasis ; but it is now rarely 
used. It is also called Buglos'sa, Buglos'sum 
a.nguslifo' Hum majus, B. vulga'rl majus, B. sa- 

Anchu'sa Tincto'ria, Alcan'na spu'ria, Dy- 
er 's Bugloss, Ane'bium, Buglos'sum Tincto'rum, 
Litkosper 1 'mum villo'sum, Dyer's AL'kanet. (F.) 
Orcanette. A European plant. The medical 
properties are equivocal. It is used to give a 
beautiful red colour to ointments. 

ANCHYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 

ANCISTRON, Hamulus. 

AJVCOLIE, Aquileofta vulgaris. 

ANCON, Elbow, Olecranon. 

AKCONE, Anconeus. 

ANCONE'US, from, 'the elbow.' A 
term once applied to every muscle attached to 
the olecranon. Winslow distinguished four: 
— the great, external, internal, and small; the 
first three being portions of the same muscle, 
the triceps brachiulis. The last has, alone, re- 
tained the name. It is the Ancone'us minor of 
Winslow, the Ancone'us vel Cubita'lis Riola'm 
of Douglass, the Epicon dyl o-Cubita' lis of Chaus- 
sier, the Brevis Cu'biti (F.) Ancone, and is si- 
tuate at the upper and back part of the fore-arm. 
It arises from the external condyle of the os 
humeri, and is inserted into the posterior edge 
of the upper third of the ulna. Its use is to aid 
in the extension of the fore-arm. 

Anconeus Externcs, see Triceps extensor 
cubili — a. Internus, see Triceps extensor cubiti 
— a. Major, see Triceps extensor cubiti. 

A NOTE' RES. Fibulx or Clasps, by which 
the lips of wounds were formerly kept together. 
— Celsus. Galen. 

ANCTER1ASMUS. Infibulation. 

ANCU'BITUS, Petrifac'tio. An affection of 
the eye, in which there is a sensation as if sand 
were irritalintr the oro-an. 

ANCUNNUEN'TiE. A name formerly given 
to females during menstruation. 

ANGUS, Ankus, from ayxoir, 'the elbow.' 
One who cannot extend his arms completely. 




Also, the deformity resulting from a luxation 
of the humerus or fore-arm. — Hippocr. 

ANCYLE, Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOBLEPHARON, Ankyloblepharon. 

ANCYLOGLOSSUM, Ankyloglossum. 

ANCYLOMELE, Ankylomele. 

ANOYLOMER1SMUS, Ankylomerismus. 

ANCYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOTOMUS, Ankylotbmus. 

ANCYRA, Hook. 


ANDA. A tree of Brazil, Anda Gome'sii, 
Joanne' sia princeps. Nat. Order, Euphorbiacea. 
Sex. Syst. Moncecia Monadelphia. An oil is ob- 
tained from the seeds by pressure, 50 to 60 drops 
of which act as a cathartic. The fruit is an oval 
nut, containing two seed?. These have the taste 
of the chestnut; but are strongly cathartic, and 
even emetic. The shell is astringent, and used 
as such in diarrhoea, &c. 

is in France, near Gysore, and 8 leagues from 
Rouen. The water is a cold and weak chaly- 
beatp. It is used in chlorosis and abdominal ob- 

ANDIRA LNERMIS, GeofTraea inermis— a. 
Surinamensis, GeofFrsea Surinamensis. 

ANDRACHAHARA, Sempervivum tecto- 

ANDRACHNE, Arbutus unedo, Portulaca. 

ANDRANATOM'IA, Andranat'ome, Andro- 
tom'ia, Androt'ome", Anthropot' omy, from avtjQ, 
genitive avJ^o?, « a man,' and re/trsiv, 'to cut.' 
The anatomy of man. 

ANDRI'A. Adult age. 

Andri'a Mu'lier, Mu'lier Hermaphrodit'ica. 
A female hermaphrodite. 

ANDROGEN'IA, from avr,Q, 'man,' and 
ycvsaig, ' generation.' The procreation of males 
— Hippocr. 

ANDROG'YNUS, from ov^, 'a man,' and 
yvvt}, 'a woman.' An hermaphrodite. An ef- 
feminate person. — Hippocr. 

ANDROMANIA. Nymphomania. 

Sour Tree, Sour Wood, Elk Tree, Elk Wood, 
Sorrel wood, Sour Leaf. (F.) Andromedier. A 
small indigenous tree; Nat. Ord. Erices. Sex. 
Syst. DecandriaMonogynia; found in the Alle- 
ghany Mountains and the hills and valleys di- 
verging from them, as far as the southern limits 
of Georgia and Alabama; but seldom north of 
Virginia. The leaves are refrigerant and astrin- 
gent, and have been used to make a kind of 
lemonade, which has been given in fevers. 

Androm'eda Maria'na. Broad-leaved Moor- 
worL A decoction of this American plant is 
said to have been successfully employed as a 
wash, in a disagreeable affection, — not uncom- 
mon amongst the slaves in the southern parts 
of the United States, — called the Toe Itch, and 
Ground Itch. — Barton. 

odoratus — a. Nardus, Calamus Alexandrinus, 
Nardns Indica. 

ANDROSACE, Umbilicus marinus— a. Mat- 
thioli, Umbilicus marinus. 

ANDROS^EMUM. Hypericum perforatum. 

ANDROTOMY, Andranatomia. 

ANDRUM. An East India word, Latinized 
by Kcempfer, signifying a kind of elephantiasis 
of the scrotum, endemic in southern Asia. 

AJMAJYTISSEMENT, (F.) Vir'iumeztinc'tio. 

This word is often employed hyperbolically by 
patients, in France, to signify excessive fatigue, 
debility or syncope. 

ANEBIUM. Anchusa Tinctoria. 

ANEBUS. Impuber. 

ANECPYE'TUS, from *v, for ttvtvo, 'with- 
out,' and nvitu, ' I promote suppuration.' That 
which does not suppurate, or is not likely to 

ANEGER'TICE, from ctveysiou, ' I awaken.' 
The art of resuscitating the apparently dead. 

ANEILE'MA, Aneile'sis, from avtiUo^mi, ' to 
be rolled upwards.' Applied particularly to the 
motion of air in the intestines and the tormina 
accompanying it. — Hippocr. 

ANEILESIS, Aneilema. 

ANEMIA, Anaemia. 

ANEMO'NE. The Wind Flower: from *»*• 
/nog, ' the wind,' because it does not open its 
flowers till blown upon by the wind. 

AJVliMOJVE DES BOIS, Anemone nemorosa. 

Anemo'ne Hepat'ica, Hepat'ica nob'ilis, Her- 
ba Trinita'tis, Hepat'ica or Herb Trinity, Hepat'- 
icus Flos, Trifo'lium Hepal'icum, Anem'ony. 
The plant is a mild astringent and tonic. Dose 
5J of the powder. It may be given in infusion. 

Anemo'ne Nemoro'sa, Ranun'culus albus, 
Wood anem'ony. (F.) des hois. The 
herb and flowers are poisonous, acrid, and cor- 
rosive. They have been used as rubefacients. 

Anemo'ne Praten'sis, Pulsatilla nigricans. 
This plant has similar properties with the last. 
It is also called Meadow Anemony. (F.) Pulsa- 
tille noire, P. des pris. 

Anemo'ne Pulsatilla, Pulsatilla vulga'ris, 
Herbaventis,JVola culina'ria, Pasqueflower, (F.) 
Coquelourde, possesses like properties. 

ANEMONY, Anemone hepatica — a. Mea- 
dow, Anemone pratensis — a. Wood, Anemone 

ANEMOS, Wind. 

ANENCEPHALIA, see Anencephalus. 

tive ; syxttpaXog, 'the encephalon,' and Tgcx/))j, 
'nourishment.' Atrophy of the encephalon. 

ANENCEPHALUS, from a, priv, and tyy.s- 
(paloc, 'brain.' A monster devoid of brain. — 
Bonetus. G. St. Hilaire. Also one that has a 
part only of the brain. Paraceph'alus. The 
condition has been called Anencephal'ia. A 
weak, silly person. — Hippocr. 


' desire.' Many nosologists have used this 
word for a loss of the appetites; as of those of 
hunger, thirst, venery, &c. 

Anepithvmia Chlorosis, Chlorosis. 

ANERETHIS'lA, Inirritabil'itas, from <t, 
priv. and iqtdioa;, 'irritability.' Defect of 
irritability. — Swediaur. 

ANESIS, Remission. 

ANESTH&SIE, Anaesthesia. 

gate of phenomena of impaired feeling produced 
especially by the manipulations of the animal 
magnetizer. — Andral. 

ANESON, Anethurn. 

ANESUM, Pimpinella anisum. 

ANET, Anethum. 

ANETH, Anethum graveolens. 

ANE'THUM, And son, And ton, Anefthum 
Famidulum , Famidulum, F. vulg'arS, F. DulcS, 
Ligus'ticum fanic'ulum, Fennel or Finckle, 




Mar'athrum, Anct, Sweet Fennel, (F.) Fenouil 
ou Anis doux. Nat. Ord. Umbelliferse. Sex. 
Syst. Pentandria Digynia. The seeds, Fcr- 
nic'ulum, (Ph. U. S.) have an aromatic odour, 
and warm sweetish taste. They are carmina- 
tive. The oil — Oleum Fcenic'uli — is officinal in 
the Pharm. U. S. The root is said to be pecto- 
ral and diuretic. 

Anethum Fceniculum, Anethum. 

Ake'thum Grav'eolens, Anethum, A. hor- 
ten'se", Dill, (F.) Aneth, Fenouil puant. A na- 
tive of the south of Europe. The seeds are 
stimulant and carminative. Dose, gr. xv to jj. 

Oleum Ane'thi, Oil of Dill, (F.) Huile d'Aneth, 
possesses the carminative properties of the 

ANETICUS, Anodyne. 

ANETON, Anethum. 

ANETUS, Intermittent fever— a. Quartanus, 
Quartan — a. Quotidianus, Quotidian — a.Tertia- 
nus, Tertian fever. 

AN'EURISM, Aneurys'ma, Aneuris'ma, from 
avevQvvuv, 'to dilate or distend.' Dilata'tio 
Arterial rum, Ecta'sia, Emboris'ma, Exangi'a 
aneuris'ma, Arterieurys'ma, Absces'sus spirituo'- 
sus, Arteriec'tasis, (F.) Andvrysme, Aneurysme. 
Properly, Aneurism signifies a tumour, pro- 
duced by the dilatation of an artery; but it has 
been extended to various lesions of arteries, as 
well as to dilatations of the heart. 

There are various kinds of aneurism. The 
following are the chief. 

I. When the blood, which forms the tumour, 
is enclosed within the dilated coats of the arte- 
ry. This is the true aneurism, Aneuris'ma 
verum, Hernia Artcria'rum. (F.) Andvrysme 

II. When the blood has escaped from the 
opened artery, it is called spurious or false an- 
eurism, Aneuris'ma spu'rium, Ruptu'ra Arte'- 
rice, Arteriorrhex'is, Arte' riodial'y sis, Ecchymo'- 
ma arterial 'sum. (F.) Anevrysme faux. The 
latter is divided into three varieties. 

1. The diffused false aneurism, (F.) Andv- 
rysme faux, primitif diffus, noncirconscrit, ou 
par infiltration, which occurs immediately after 
the division or rupture of an artery, and consists 
of an extravasation of blood into the cellular 
texture of the part. 

2. The circumscribed false aneurism, (F.) A. 
faux consdcutif, circonscrit ou par ipanchement, 
enkystd ou sacciforme, tumeur himorrhagiale 
circonscrite, in which the blood issues from the 
vessel, some time after the receipt of the wound, 
and forms itself a sac in the neighbouring cel- 
lular membrane. 

3. The An'eurism by Anastomo'sis, or Var'- 
icose An'eurism, Phlebarteriodial'ysis, Aneurys'- 
ma venoso-arteriosum, A. varico'sum, (F.) An- 
evrysme par anastomose ou variqueux, A. par 
e'rosion, A. de Pott, A. des plus pelitcs arteres, 
which arises from the simultaneous wounding 
of anartery and vein ; — the arterial blood passing 
into the vein, and producing a varicose state of 

III. Mixed Aneurism, (F.) Anevrysme mixte, 
is that which arises from the dilatation of one 
or two of the coats, with division or rupture of 
the other. Some authors have made two va- 
rieties of this. 

1. Mixed external Aneurism, where the inter- 
nal and middle coats are ruptured, and the cel- 
lular is dilated. 

2. Mixed internal Aneurism, in which the 
internal coat is dilated, and protrudes like a 
hernial sac, through the ruptured middle and 
outer coats. This variety has been called Aneu- 
ris'ma Her'niam Arte'ria sis'tens. 

Aneurisms have been likewise termed Trau- 
mat'ic and Spontaneous, according as they may 
have been caused by a wound, or have origi- 
nated spontaneously. They have also been 
divided into internal and external. 

The internal aneurisms are situate in the 
great splanchnic cavities, and occur in the 
heart and great vessels of the chest, abdomen, 
&c. Their diagnosis is difficult, and they are 
often inaccessible to surgical treatment. 

The external aneurisms are situate at the 
exterior of the head, neck, and limbs, and are 
distinctly pulsatory. 

Aneurisms, especially the internal, may be 
combated by a debilitant treatment, on the plan 
of Valsalva, which consists in repeated blood- 
letting, with food enough merely to support 
life. In external aneurism the artery can be 
obliterated. This is usually done by applying 
a ligature above the aneurismal tumour. 

Aneurism, Dissecting, is one in which, 
owing to rupture of the inner and middle coats 
of an artery, the blood makes itself a channel 
between these coats and the outer coat. 

In many cases, the lesion appears to consist 
in a separation of the lamina of the middle coat, 
between which the blood forms itself a channel. 

Aneurisms of the Heart, Curdion'chi, Car- 
dieurys'ma, (F.) An'tvrysmes du cceur, have been 
divided into active and passive. The former can 
scarcely be esteemed aneurisms, as they most 
commonly consist of increased thickness of the 
parietes of the heart, which diminishes its cavity 
instead of increasing it. The term Hypertrophy 
of the heart, (q. v.) better indicates their charac- 
ter. Passive aneurism, Cardiectasie, on the con- 
trary, is attended with extenuation of the pari- 
etes of the organ, and enlargement of the cavi- 
ties. The physical signs of dilatation of tin 
heart are the following: — The action of the 
heart is not visible, and no impulse is conveyed 
to the hand. On percussion, there is a loss of 
resonance over a larger surface than usual, but 
the dulness is much less intense than that which 
accompanies hypertrophy. On auscultation, the 
action of the heart is only slightly felt, and com- 
municates at once the impression of its dimi- 
nished power. The impulse is feebler than 
usual. Both sounds are widely transmitted 
over the thorax, and are not much fainter at a 
distance from their point of origin. 

The name Aneurism of the Valves of the heart 
has been given to pouch-like projections of the 
valves into the auricles. 

ANEURIS'MAL, Aneurys'mal,Aneurismat'ic, 
Aneurisma'lis. That which belongs to Aneurism. 

Aneurismal Sac or Cyst, (FT) Sac ou Kyste 
anevrysmal, is a sort of pouch, formed by the 
dilatation of the coats of an artery, in which 
the blood, forming the aneurismal tumour, is 

ANEUR1SMATIC, Aneurismal. 

ANEURYSM, Aneurism. 

ANEVRYSME, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMUS, Dilatation. 

ANEVRYSME, Aneurism-a. de I'Aorle, 

ANFION. Maslach. 



fractuosities, cerebral— a. Ethmo'idales, see An- 

ANFRACTUOS'ITY^n/Vac'fus, Gyrus, from 
am, ' around,' and frangere, fraclum, 'to break.' 
A groove or furrow. Used in anatomy to signify 
sinuous depressions, of greater or less depth, 
like those which separate the convolutions of 
the brain from each other. These 

Anfractcosities, Cerebr Ai.,Anfrac'lus Cer- 
ebri, Gyri Cer'ebri, Intestin'ula Cer'ebri, (F.) An- 
fractuosites Ciribrales, are always narrow, and 
deeper at the upper surface of the brain than at 
its base; and are lined by a prolongation of the 

The Ethmoid Cells are, sometimes, called 
Anfractuositis cthmoidales. 

ANFRACTUS, Anfractuosity— a. Cerebri, 
Anfractuosities (cerebral.) 

ANGEIAL, Vascular. 

Angeiograph'ia, from ayytiov, 'a vessel,' and 
■yoaipr;, ' a description.' The anatomy of the 
v esse ]s 

raphy,Angeiondrog / raphy,Angeiohydrogra'phia, 
from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' 'lkJcuo, ' water,' and y^a- 
<pto, ' I describe.' A treatise on the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOH YDROT'OMY , Angiohydrot'omy, 
Angeiondrot'omy, Angeiohydrotom'ia, from ay- 
ytiov, • a vessel,' 'vSwq, ' water,' and jtfivtiv, i to 
cut.' Dissection of the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOLEUCl'TIS, Angioleuci'tis, Lym- 
phangei'tis, Lymphangi'lis, Lymphi'tis, Lympha- 
ti'tls, from ayytiov, 'a vessel.' Xtvxog, 'white,' 
and itis, inflammation. (F.) Inflammation des 
tissus blancs. Inflammation of the lymphatics: 
lymphatic or scrofulous inflammation. 

ANGEIOL'OGY, Angiol'ogy, Angeiolog"ia, 
from ayytiov, ' a vessel,' and Aoyog, ' a discourse.' 
A description of the vessels. The anatomy of 
the vessels. It includes Arteriol'ogy, PhleboU- 
ogy, and Angeiohydrol'ogy. 

ANGEION, Vessel. 


ANGEIONDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomy. 

ANGEIOPATHI'A, Angiopathi'a, from ay- 
ytiov, ' a vessel,' and na6og, 'a disease.' Dis- 

C3.SC of* the V6SS6IS. 

ANGEIORRHAGIA, Haemorrhagia activa. 

ANGEIORRHCE'A, (F.) AngiiorrMe; from 
ayytiov, ' a vessel,' and ota), ' I flow.' Passive 

ANGEIOSTEO'SIS, Angiosto'sis, from ay- 
ytiov, 'a vessel,' and oortwoig, 'ossification.' 
Ossification of vessels. 

ANGEIOT'OMY, Angiot'omy, Angeiotom'ia, 
from ayytiov, ' a vessel,' and rt^vtiv, ' to cut.' 
Dissection of the vessels. 

ANGEI'TIS, Inflamma'tio vaso'rum, (F.) 
Angeitc. Inflammation of vessels in general. 

ANGEL'ICA. Angcl'ica Archangel' ica, A. 
Hispa'na, Garden Angelica. (F.) Angelique, Ra- 
cine de Saint Esprit. So called from its sup- 
posed angelic virtues. Nat. Ord. Umbelliferae. 
Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. Native of Lap- 
land. The roots, stalk, leaves, and seed are 
aromatic and carminative. A sweetmeat is 
made of the root, which is agreeable. 

Angel'ica Atropurvu'rea, Angelica, (Ph. U. 
S.) Master wort. An indigenous species, grow- 
ing over the whole of the United States, and 

admitted into the secondary list of the Pharma- 
copoeia of the United States. Virtues, same as 
those of the Angelica of Europe. 

Angel'ica Svlves'tkis, A. sati'va, Wild An- 
gelica. (F.) Angelique sauvage. Possesses si- 
milar properties to the last, but in an inferior 
degree. The seeds, powdered and put into the 
hair, are used to destroy lice. 

Angelica Sylvestris, Ligusticum podagra- 
ria — a. Tree, Aralia spinosa. 

ANGELI'N^E CORTEX. The bark of a 
Grenada tree, which has been recommended as 
an anthelmintic and cathartic. 

ANG&LIQUE, Angelica — a. Sauvage, An- 
gelica sylvestris. 

ANGELOCACOS, Mvrobalanus. 


ANGIEC'TASIS, from ayytiov, 'a vessel,' 
and txraaic, ' dilatation.' Any dilatation of 
vessels. — Gr'afe and Alibert. 

AJYGIITE, Inflammation, Angeitia. 

ANGIITIS, Angeitis. 

ANGI'NA, FebrisAngino'sa, Isthmi'tis, Quin- 
sey or Sore Throat; from angere, ' to suffocate.' 
Inflammation of the supra-diaphragmatic por- 
tion of the alimentary canal, and of the air pas- 
sages. The Latin writers applied the term to 
every disease in which deglutition or respira- 
tion, separately or united, was effected, pro- 
vided that such affection was above the sto- 
mach and lungs. — Boerhaave speaks of the an- 
gina of the moribund, which is nothing more 
than the dysphagia or difficult deglutition pre- 
ceding death. — See Cynanche. 

Angina Aquosa, CEdema of the glottis. 

Angina Aphthosa, Aphthae — a. Bronchialis, 
Bronchitis — a. Canina, Cynanche trachealis — 
a. Cordis, Angina pectoris — a. Cum tumore, Cy- 
nanche tonsillaris — a. Epidemica, Cynanche 
maligna — a. Epiglottidea, Epiglottitis — a. Exu- 
datoria, Cynanche trachealis — a. Externa, Cy- 
nanche parotidaea — a. Gangrenosa, Cynanche 
maligna — a. Humida, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Inflammatoria, Cynanche, Cynanche trachealis 
— a. Laryngea, Laryngitis — a. Linguaria, Glos- 
sitis — a. Maligna, Cynanche maligna, Pharyn- 
gitis diphtheritic — a. Maxillaris, Cynanche pa- 
rotide — a.Membranacea, Cynanche trachealis. 

Angi'na Nasa'lis, JYasi'tis posti'ca. An in- 
flammation of the posterior portion of the 
Schneiderian membrane lining the nose. 

Angi'na CEdemato'sa, (F.) Angine acdima- 
teuse, GUdhne de la Glotte. An eedematous 
swelling of the glottis; the effect of chronic 
cynanche laryngea. See QEdema of the Glottis. 

Angina Palatina, Hyperoitis — a. Paralyti- 
ca, Pharyngoplegia — a. Parotidsea Externa, Cy- 
nanche parotidsea. 

Angi'na Pec'toris, A. cordis, Sternal'gia, 
Asthma spas' tico- arthr it' icum incon'stans, Asth- 
ma diaphragmat! icum, Arthr i' lis diaphragmatica, 
Orthopnaz'a cardi'aca, Sternodyn' ia syncoptica et 
palpilans, S. syncopa'lis, Cardiog'mus cordis 
sinistri, Astheni'a pectoralis, Angor pec'toris, 
Stenocardia, Diaphragmat' ic gout, Asthma con- 
xiilsi'vum, Asthma arthrit'icum, Cardioneural'- 
gia, Neural' gia brachiotltorac" ica, Hypereesthe'- 
sia plexus cardi'aci, A. dolorif'icum, Syn'copB 
angina' sa, Pneumonal' gia, Suffocative Breast- 
pang. (F.) Angine de Poitrine, Necrose du 
Caur. A disease, the precise pathology of 
which is not well known. The principal 
symptoms are, violent pain about the ster- 




num, extending towards the arms; anxiety, 
dyspnoea, and sense of suffocation. It is an af- 
fection of great danger, and is often connected 
with ossification, or other morbid affection of 
the heart. It appears to be neuropathic, and 
has been termed JVeura/gia of the Heart. Some, 
however, employ this last term for an acutely 
painful intermittent affection of the heart, 
which seems to differ from angina pectoris 
more in regard to the small number of parts 
which are drawn into morbid consent with the 
affected cardiac nerves, than in regard either 
to its nature or appropriate treatment. The 
most powerful stimulating and narcotic anti- 
spasmodics are required during the paroxysm. 

Angi'na Pellicula'ris, Diptheri'tis (q. v.) 
of the throat. A name given to those inflam- 
mations about the throat, in which exudations 
or false membranes are thrown out, during the 
phlogosis of mucous membranes. Aphtha, Tra- 
cheitis, when accompanied with the membrani- 
form exudation, are, with some, examples of 
diphtheritic inflammation. 

Angi'na Pekniciosa, Cynanche trachealis — 
a. Polyposa, Cynanche trachealis — a. Polyposa 
seu membranacea, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Pulposa, Cynanche trachealis. 

Angi'na Sanguinf.a, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

Angi'na Sicca, (F.) Angine seche, is a chro- 
nic inflammation of the pharynx, with a dis- 
tressing sense of dryness and heat, in chronic 
diseases of the stomach and lungs. See Pae- 

Angi'na Squirro'sa, (F.) Angine squirreuse, 
consists in difficulty of deglutition, caused by 
scirrhous disorganization of the pharynx or 
oesophagus, or by enlarged tonsils. 

Angi'na Strepitosa, Cynanche trachealis — 
a. Suffocatoria, Cynanche trachealis — a. Syno- 
chalis, Cynanche tonsillaris — a. Tonsillaris, Cy- 
nanche tonsillaris — a. Trachealis, Cynanche tra- 
chealis— a. Ulcerosa, Cynanche maligna — a. 
Uvularis, Staphylcedema, Uvulitis — a. Vera et 
legitima, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

ANGIjYE GUTTURALE, Cynanche tonsil- 
laris — a. Laryrtgie, Laryngitis — a. Laryngf.e et 
tracheale, Cynanche trachealis — a. Laryngee 
ademateuse, Oedema of the glottis — a. (Esopha- 
gienne, Oesophagitis— a. Pharyngdc, Cynanche 
parotida?a — a. de Poitrine, Angina pectoris — a. 
Sdche, Angina sicca — a. Squirreuse, Angina 
squirrosa — a. TonsiUaire, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

ANGlNEbX, Anginosa. 

ANGINO'SA, (F.) Angineux. That which 
is accompanied with angina; as Scarlati'na an- 

ANGIOCARDITIS, frftm ayyuov, 'a vessel,' 
and carditis, ' inflammation of the heart.' In- 
flammation of the heart and great vessels. 

ANGIOGRAPHY, Angeiography. 

ANGlOHllMIE, Hypersemia. 


ANGIOHYDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomy. 

ANGIOLEUCITIS, Angeioleucitis. 

ANGIOLOGY, Angeiolocy. 

ANGIOFATHIA, Angeiopathia. 

ANGIOPYRA, Synocha. 

ANGIO'SIS, from ayyuov, 'a vessel.' An- 
geio'sis. Under this term Alibert includes every 
disease of the blood-vessels. 

ANG10STOS1S, Angeiostosis. 

ANGIOTEN'IC, AngeioUn'ic, Angioten'icvs, 

seu Angcioten'icus. From ayyuov, a vessel 
and timff, 'to extend.' An epithet given to 
inflammatory fever, owing to its action seeming 
to be chiefly exerted on the vascular system. 

ANGIOTOMY. Angeiotomy. 

ANGLE, An' gulus, from ayxvXoc, <a hook. 
The space between two lines which meet in a 


Angle, Fa'cial, pointed out by Camper, is 
formed by the union of two lines, one of which 
is drawn from the most prominent part of the 
forehead to the alveolar edge of the upper jaw, 
opposite the incisor teeth, and the other from 
the meatus auditorius externus to the same 
point of the jaw. According to the size of the 
angle it has been attempted to appreciate the 
respective proportions of the cranium and face, 
and, to a certain extent, the degree of intelli- 
gence of individuals and of animals. In the 
white varieties of the species, this angle is ge- 
nerally 80° ; in the negro not more than 70°, 
and sometimes only 65°. As we descend the 
scale of animals, the angle becomes less and 
less; until, in fishes, it nearly or entirely dis- 
appears. Animals which have the snout long 
and facial angle smali, are proverbially foolish; 
at least they are so esteemed, such as the snipe, 
crane, stork, &c, whilst intelligence is ascribed 
to those in which the angle is more largely de- 
veloped, as the elephant and the owl. In these 
last animals, however, the large facial angle is 
caused by the size of the frontal sinuses:— so 
that this mode of appreciating the size of the 
brain is very inexact, and cannot be depended 

The following is a table of the angle in man 
and certain animals: 


Man from 65° to 85" 

Sapajou ....... 65 

Orang-Utang - - - - - - 56 to 58 

Guenori .....-- 57 

Mandrill 30 to 42 

Coati .....-.- 
Pole-cat -----.- 
Pug-dog .-...-- 



Ram ....... 

Horse .--..--- 







Angle, Optic, (F.) Angle oplique,\s the angle 
formed by two lines, which shave the extremi- 
ties of an object, and meet at the centre of the 

AJVGOrSSE, Angor. 

ANGOLAM. A very tall Malabar tree, which 
possesses vermifuge properties. 

AN'GONE, Prtefoca'tio Fau'cium, Globus 
hystericus, Orthopna'a hysler'ica. Dijspha'gia 
globo'sa, D. hysterica, J\'crvous Quinsey. A 
feeling of strangulation, with dread of suffoca- 
tion. It is common in hysterical females, and 
is accompanied with a sensation as if a ball 
arose from the abdomen to the throat. 

ANGOR, Anguish, (F.) Angoisse. Extreme 
anxiety, accompanied with painful constriction 
at the epigastrium, and often with palpitation 
and oppression. It is frequently an unfavoura- 
ble symptom. 

Angor, Agony, Orthopnoea — a. Pectoris, An- 
gina pectoris. 

ANGOS, Bubo, Uterus, Vessel. 

ANGOURION, Cucumis sativus. 

ANGU1S, Serpent. 

ANGUISH, Angor. 




Anguish, Febrile, Jlngor Ftbri'lis., The 
combination of weariness, pain, anxiety and 
weakness affecting the head and neck, which 
is so generally observed at the commencement 
of fever. 


AN'GULAR, Angula'ris, from angulus, ' an 
angle.' (F.) AnguLaire. That which relates to 
an angle. 

Angular Artery and Vein. A name given, 
1. to the termination of the facial artery and 
vein, because they pass by the greater angle of 
the eye; and, 2. to the facial artery and vein 
themselves, because they pass under the angle 
of the jaw. See Facial. 

Angular Nerve is a filament furnished by 
the inferior maxillary, which passes near the 
greater angle of the eye. 

Angular Processes of the frontal bone are 
seated near the angles of the eyes. See Orbitar. 

ANGULARIS, Levator scapulee. 



ANGURIA, Cucurbita citrullus. 


ANGUS'TIA, Angusta'tio, Stenocho'ria. Anx- 
iety or constriction. 

Angustia Abdominalis, Pelvis, (Brim) — a. 
Perinaealis, Pelvis (Outlet.) 

ANGUSTURA, Cusparia febrifuga— a. Spu- 
ria, Brucea antidysenterica. 

AJVGUSTURE, FAUSSE, Brucea antidysen- 
terica — a. Femigi7ieuse, Brucea anti-dysente- 
rica — a. Vraie, Cusparia febrifuga. 

ANH^MATOSIA, Asphyxia, Anaemia. 

ANtLEMIA, Ancemia. 

ANHAPHIA, Anaphia. 

ANHELA'TIO, from anhelo, ' I pant.' An- 
hel'itus, Panting, Anhelation. (F.) Essovflemenl. 
Short and rapid breathing. See Dyspnoea. 

Anhela'tio is sometimes employed synony- 
mously with asthma. 


AJNHIS'TOUS, from «, av, 'privative,* and 
laroc, 'organic texture,' 'anorganic' The tu- 
nica decidua uteri is termed by Velpeau the 
anhistous membrane. 

ANHUIBA, Laurus sassafras. 

ANICE'TON, Mesia'mum, from a, privative, 
and \ ixrj, ' victory,' ' invincible.' A plaster much 
extolled by the ancients in cases of achores. It 
was formed of litharge, cerusse, thus, alum, tur- 
pentine, white pepper, and oil. 

ANI'DEUS, from av, 'privative,' and tiSog, 
' shape,' Amorphus, A monster devoid of shape. 
— J. G. St. Hilaire. 

AJNIDRO'SIS, from a, privative, and Idgoig, 
' sweat.' Sudo'ris nul'litas vel prioa'tio. Ab- 
sence of sweat. Deficiency of perspiration. — 

ANILITAS. See Dementia. 

AN'IMA, An'imus,Mens, Psychs. The mind, 
breath, &c, from aveuog, 'wind or breath.' (F.) 
Ame. The principle of the intellectual and 
moral manifestations. Also, the principle of 
life: — the life of plants being termed Jin'ima ve- 
get'Ui'va, (F.) Ame vegetative; that of man, 
An'ima sensiti'va, (F.) Ame sensitive. 

Under the term Anima Mundi, the ancient 
philosophers meant a universal Spirit, which 

they supposed spread over every part of the 

The precise seat of the mind in the brain has 
given rise to many speculations. The point is 

Anima Aloes : see Aloes — a. Articulorum, 
Hermodactylus — a. Hepatis, Ferri sulphas — a. 
Pulmonum, Crocus. 

AN'IMAL, Zoun, uiov. A name given to every 
animated being provided with digestive organs: 
even if such be merely a simple tube, as in the 
polypi. The greater part of animals have the 
power of locomotion; some can merely execute 
partial movements, such as contraction and 
dilatation. In other respects it is often a mat- 
ter of difficulty to determine what is an animal 
characteristic. The study of animals is called 

An'imal, (adjective,) Anima'lis. That which 
concerns, or belongs to, an animal. 

Animal Heat, Color anima'lis, Cal'idum ani- 
ma'lE, C. inna'tum, Biolych'nion, (F.) Chaleur 
animate, is the caloric constantly formed by 
the body of a living animal, by virtue of which 
it preserves nearly the same temperature, what- 
ever may be that of the medium in which it is 
placed. This formation seems to take place 
over the whole of the body, and to be connected 
with the action of nutrition. 

The following are the natural temperatures of 
certain animals; that of man being 98° or 100°. 


Arctic fox, 

Arctic wolf, 




Arctomys citillus, ziiil— in summer,. 

Do. when torpid, 80 to 84 

Goat, 103 

Bat, in summer, J , no 

Musk, ; 

Marmota bobac, — Bobac, 101 or 102 

House mouse, 101 

Arctomys marmota, marmot,— in summer,... 101 or 102 

Do. when torpid, 43 

Rabbit 100 to 104 

Polar Bear, 100 

Dog, \ 

Cat, | 

Swine, j- 100 to 103 

Sheep, | 

Ox, J 

Guinea-pig 100 to 102 

Arctomys glis, 99 

Shrew, 93 

Young wolf, 96 

Fringillaarctica, Arctic finch, j iji 

Rubecola, ndbreast, i 

Fringilla linaria, lesser redpoll, 110 or 111 

Falco palumbarius, goshawk, ) 

Caprimulgus Europ*us, European goal- > 100 

sucker ) 

Emberiza nivalis, snow-bunting, 109 to 110 

Falco lanarius, lannir, "| 

Fringilla carduelis, goldfinch,. 

Corvus corax, raven, } 

Turdus. thrush, (of Ceylon,)... 

Tetrao perdrix, partridge, 

Anas clypeata, shovelir, 

Tringa pugnax, ruffe 

Scolopax limosa, lesser godwit,. 

Tetrao tetrix, grouse, ! 

Fringilla brumalis, winterfinch,. 

Loxia pyrrhula, 

Falco nisus, sparrowhawk, 

Vultur barbatus, 

Anser pulchricollis,. 



"I 105 

.' .' } 104 



Colynibus auritus, dusky grebe, i ,q^ 

Tringa vanellus, lapwing, (wounded,) J 

Tetrao lagopus, ptarmigan, J 

Fringilla domestica, house sparrow, 107 to 111 





Stri.x passerina, little owl, 

Hocmatopus ostra!e«us, sea-pie, 

Anas penelope, widgeon, 

Anas strepera, gudwall, I 

Pelecanus carbo, J 

Falco ossifragus, sea-eagle, 

Fulica atra, coot 

Anas acuta, pintail-duck 

Falco milvus, kite, (wounded,) 

Merops apiaster, bee eater, J 

Goose, 1 

Hen ' 

Dove, r 


103 to 107 


Ardea stellaris, ) 

Falco albicollis, \ 103 

Picus major, j 

Cossus liguiperda, 89 to 91 

Shark 83 

Torpedo marmorata, 74 

Animal Kingdom, (F.) Regne Animal, com- 
prises all animated beings. 

ANIMAL'CLJLE, Animal' culum; diminutive 
of animal. A small animal. An animal per- 
ceptible only by means of the microscope. 

ANIMAL'CULIST, An'imalist. One who at- 
tempts to explain different physiological or pa- 
thological phenomena by means of animalcules. 
ANIMALIST, Animalculist. 
AN1MALTTY, Animal' 'Has. Qualities which 
distinguish that which is animated. That which 
constitutes the animal. 

AN'IMALIZATION, Animalisa'tio. The 
transformation of the nutritive parts of food 
into the living substance of the body to be 

To AN'IMATE, Anima'rS. To unite the 
living principle with an organized body. The 
French use it in the sense of, — to excite or ren- 
der active; as, animer un visicatoire: to excite 
a blister to suppurate. 

ANIMATION, Zoo'sis, Anima'tio, from ani- 
ma, ' the soul or mind.' The act of animating. 
The state of being enlivened. 

Animation, Suspended, Asphyxia. 
AN'IME, Gum an'irne, Amince'a, Can'camy, 
Gummi an'imS, Can'camum. A resin obtained 
from the trunk of Hymencc'a cour'baril. It has 
been given as a cephalic and uterine. It is 
not used. The plant is also called Cour'baril. 

AJYIlW, (F.) An epithet applied to the coun- 
tenance, when florid, in health or disease. 
ANIMELL.E, Parotid. 

liquium, Syncope — a. Pathemata, Passions. 

AN'IMIST, from an'ima, 'the soul.' The 
Animists are those who, following the example 
of Stahl, refer all the phenomena of the animal 
economy to the soul. 

The soul, according to Stahl, is the imme- 
diate and intelligent agent of every movement 
and of every material change in the body. 
Stahl therefore concluded, that disease was 
nothing more than a disturbance or disorder in 
the government of the economy, or an effort by 
which the soul, attentive to every morbific 
cause, endeavoured to expel whatever might be 
deranging the habitual order of health. 
ANIMUS, Anima, Breath. 
ANIS, Pimpinella anisum — a. Aigre, Cumi- 
num cyminum — a. de la Chine, Illicium ani- 
satum — a. Doux, Anethum — a. Jitoile, Illicium 

ANISA'TUM, from Anisum, Anise. A sort 
of medicated wine, formerly prepared with ho- 
ney, wine of Ascalon, and aniseed. 

Temperatures. ANISCALPTOR, Latissimus dorsi. 

ANISE PLANT, Pimpinella anisum — a. 
Star, Illicium anisaturn, I. Floridanum — a. Tree, 
Florida, Illicium Floridanum — a. Tree, yellow- 
flowered, Illicium anisaturn. 

ANISEED, See Pimpinella Anisum. 

ANISI SEMINA. See Pimpinella anisum. 

ANISOS'TUENES, lnaqua'li rub' ore pol'- 
lens. That which is unequal in strength: from 
a, priv., toog, 'equal,' and adeioc, 'strength.' 
An epithet applied particularly to the muscular 
contractility, which, in the sick, is sometimes 
augmented in certain muscles only: in the 
flexors, for example. 

ANISOT'ACHYS, from a, priv., too;, 'equal,' 
and ra/v <;, 'quick.' An epithet for the pulse 
when at the same time quick and unequal. — 

ANISUM, Pimpinella anisum — a. Africanum 
frutescens, Bubon Galbanum — a. Fruticosum 
galbaniferum, Bubon galbanum — a. Sinense, 
Illicium anisaturn — a. Stellatuni, Illicium ani- 

ANKLE, Astragalus, Malleolus. 

ANKUS, Ancus. 

ANKYLOBLEPH'ARON, Ancylobleph'aron, 
Palpebra'rum coal'itus, from ayxvXr;, ' contrac- 
tion,' and pXtipctQov, ' eyelid.' A preternatural 
union between the free edges of the eyelids. 
Likewise called Symbleph'aron, Symblepharo'sis, 
and Pros' 'p/tysis. 

Also, union between the eyelids and globe of 
the eye. — Atitius. 

ANKYLOGLOS'SUM, Ancyloglos'sum, Con- 
cre'lio linguae, from ayy.vXog, ' crooked,' or 'con- 
tracted,' and yXuooa, ' the tongue.' Impeded 
motion of the tongue in consequence of adhe- 
sion between its margins and the gums; or in 
consequence of the shortness of tlie franum: 
the latter affection constituting Tongue-lie, 
Olopho'nia lin'guae frxna'ta. It merely re- 
quires the frsenum to be divided with a pair of 

ANK YLOME'LE, Aneylome'le, from ayy.vXoc., 
' crooked,' and fitjXr], ' a probe.' A curved probe. 
— Galen. 

ANKYLOMERIS'MUS, Ancylomeris'mus, 
from ayxvli], 'a contraction,' and /.uQog, 'a 
part.' Morbid adhesion between parts 

AN'KYLOPS, ^gilops. 

ANKYLO'SIS, Ancylo'sis,Anchij!o'sis, Ortho- 
colon, Orthocyllo'sis, An'cyle, Stiff Joint, from 
aynvXog, 'crooked.' An affection, in which 
there is great difficulty or even impossibility of 
moving a diarthrodial articulation. It is so 
called, because the limb, commonly, remains 
in a constant state of flexion. Anchylosis is 
said to be complete or true, when there is an 
intimate adhesion between the synovial sur- 
faces and union of the articular extremities of 
the bones. In the incomplete or false anchylo- 
sis, there is obscure motion, but the fibroua 
parts around the joint are more or less stiff and 
thickened. In the treatment of this last state, 
the joint must be gently and gradually exer- 
cised; and oily, relaxing applications be assi- 
duously employed. 

ANKYLOT'OMUS, Ancylofomus, from «v- 
xvXo? , 'crooked,' and iifxvuv, 'to cut.' Any 
kind of curved knife — Paulus. An instrument 
tor dividing the frsenum lingute.— Scultetus. 

ANNEAU, Ring— a. Crural, Crural canal— 




a. Diaphragmatique, Diaphragmatic ring — a. 
Fimoral, Crural canal— a. Inguinal, Inguinal 
ring — a. Ombilical, Umbilical rinor. 
ANNEXE, Accessory, Appendix. 
ANiNl CRITIC1, Climacterici (anni)— a. De- 
cretorii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Fatales, Cli- 
maclerici (anni) — a. Genethliaci, Climacterici 
(anni) — a. Gradarii, Climacterici (anni) — a. 
Hebdomadici, Climacterici (anni) — a. Heroici, 
Climacterici (anni)— a. Natalitii, Climacterici 
(anni) — a. Scalares, Climacterici (anni) — a. 
Scansiles, Climacterici (anni.) 

ANNOTA'TIO, Episema'sia. Under this 
term some have included the preludes to an at- 
tack of intermittent fever — as yawning, stretch- 
ing, somnolency, chilliness, &c. 
ANNOTTO. See Terra Orleana. 
AN'NUAL DISE'ASES, Morbi an'nui, M. 
anniversa'rii. (F.) Maladies annueltes. A name 
given, by some, to diseases which recur every 
year about the same period. Febris annua is a 
term used for a fancied intermittent of this 
type. (F.) Fievre annuelle. 
ANNUENS, Rectus capitis internus minor. 
ANNUIT'IO, Nodding, from ad, 'to,' and 
nutus, 'a nod.' A gesture denoting assent in 
most countries. Also, the state of somnolency, 
(when the individual is in the erect or sitting 
posture, with the head unsupported,) in which 
the power of volition over the extensor muscles 
of the head is lost, and the head drops forward. 
AN'NULAR, Annula'ris, Cricoi'des, (annus, 
'a circle.') Any thing relating to a ring, or 
which has the shape or fulfils the functions of 
a ring; from annulus, 'a ring,' itself. 

Annular Finger, or Ring Finger, Dig"itus 
annula'ris, Param'esos, is the fourth finger; so 
called from the weddi ng-ring being worn thereon. 
An'nular Lig'ament of the Ra'dius, is a 
very strong fibro-cartilaginous band, which 
forms, with the lesser sigmoid cavity of the 
cubitus, a kind of ring in which the head of 
the radius turns with facility. 

Annular Lig'aments of the Carpus, A- 
mil'lse manus membrano' sse, are two in number. 
The one, anterior, is a broad, fibrous, quadrila- 
teral band, extending transversely before the 
carpus, and forming the gutter, made by the 
wrist, into a canal. It is attached, externally, 
to the trapezium and scapho'ides; and internally 
to the os pisiforme and process of the unciforme. 
It keeps the tendons of the flexor muscles, me- 
dian nerve, &c., applied against the carpus. 
The posterior ligament is situate transversely 
behind the joint of the hand, and covers the 
sheaths of the tendons, which pass to the back 
of the hand. Its fibres are white and shining, 
and are attached, externally, to the inferior and 
outer part of the radius; internally, to the ulna 
and os pisiforme. 

An'nular LYg'aments of the Tarsus are two 
in number. The anterior is quadrilateral, and 
extends transversely above the instep. It is 
attached to the superior depression of the os 
calcis, and to the malleolus internus. It em- 
braces the tendons of the extensor muscles of 
the toes, the tibialis anticus, and peroneus anti- 
cus. The internal is broader than the last. It 
descends from the malleolus internus to the 
posterior and inner part of the os calcis, with 
which it forms a kind of canal, enclosing the 
sheaths of the tendons of the tibialis posticus, 
flexor longus digitorum -pedis, and F. longus 

pol/icis pedis, as well as the plantar vessels and 

Annular Vein, Vena annula'ris, is situate 
between the annular finger and the little finger. 
Aetius recommends it to be opened in diseases 
of the spleen. 

ANNULARIS, Cricoid: see Digitus— a. Ani, 
Sphincter ani. 

Lumbricales manus. 

A NNULUS,Dactylius,Vulva— a. Abdominis, 
Inguinal ring — a. Fossae ovalis: see Ovalis fossa 
— a. Albidus, see Ciliary (body) — a. Cellu- 
losus, Ciliary ligament — a. Ciliaris, Ciliary 
ligament — a.Gangliformis, see Ciliary (body) — 
a. Repens, Herpes circinatus — a. Umbilicalis, 
Umbilical ring — a. Ventriculi, Pylorus. 
ANO, arm. A prefix denoting 'above, up.' 
ANOCCELIA, Stomach. 
ANO'DIA, from av, priv. and wfy, ' song.' 
An unconnected or dissonant mode of speech. 
ANOD1N, Anodyne. 
ANODOS, Edentulus. 

AN'ODYNE, Anod'ijnus, Antod'ynus, Antid'- 
ynous, (improperly,) Paregor'icus, Hypnot'icus, 
Anet'icus, Antal' gicus, (F.) Anodin ou Anodyn, 
from a, av, priv. and odurrj, 'pain.' Anodynes are 
those medicines which relieve pain, or cause it 
to cease; as opium, belladonna, &c. They act 
by blunting the sensibility of the brain, so that 
it does not appreciate the morbid sensation. 

ANODYN'IA, Indolcn'tia. Cessation or ab- 
sence of pain. Vogel has given this name to a 
genus of diseases, characterized by a cessation 
of pain, and the exasperation of other symp- 
toms; as we see in gangrene. 

ANODYNUM M1NERALE, Potassce nitras 
sulphatis paucillo mixtus. 

ANCE'A, from a, privative, and voo$, 'mind.' 
Delirium, imbecility. See Dementia and Idiot- 
ANOMAL, Anomalous. 

ANOMA'LIA, from av, priv. and ojuaXog, 're- 
gular.' Abnor'mhas, Aliena'lio. Anomaly, irre- 
gularity. In Pathology, anomaly means some- 
thing unusual in the symptoms proper to a dis- 
Anomalia Nervorum, Nervous diathesis. 
ANOMALOTROPHIES, from av, privative, 
otiaXog, 'regular,' and TQocprj, 'nourishment.' A 
class of diseases, which consist in modifications 
in the nutrition of organs. — Gendrin. 

ANOM'ALOUS, Ano'malus; the same etymon. 
Irregular; contrary to rule. (F.) Anomal. In 
Medicine, a disease is called anomalous, in 
whose symptoms or progress there is something 
unusual. Affections are also called anomalous, 
which cannot be referred to any known species. 
ANOMALUS, Irregular. 
ANOMMATUS, Anophthalmus. 
ANOMOCEPH'ALUS, from «, priv. vouog, 
'rule,' and y.tya/Lrj, 'head.' One whose head is 
deformed. — Geoffroi Saint-Hilaire. 

ANOMTHALOS, from av, privative, and 
o/uyaXo?, 'the navel.' Devoid of navel. Many 
writers have endeavoured to show that Adam 
and Eve must have been avou<paXoi, as they 
could not have been nourished by umbilical 
ANONYMS, Innominatum. 
ANON'YMOUS, Anon'ymus, Jnnomina'tus, 
(F.) Anonyme, from av, priv. and ovouu, 'name.' 
That which has no name. 




The word has been applied to many parts of 
the body: — to the Anonymous bone or Os imo- 
mlnatum: — the Anonymous foramen or Fora- 
men innomina'7im, fyc. 

ANOPHTHAL'MUS, Anom'matus, from av, 
privative, and o<p6aljuog, 'an eye.' A monster 
devoid of eyes. 

ANOPSTA, from av, priv. and otp, 'the eye.' 
A case of monstrosity in which the eye and 
orbit are wanting. 


ANOR'CHIDES, from av, priv. and cq X iq, 
'a testicle.' Those born without testicles. — 
Fortunatus Fidelis. 

ANOREX'IA, from *v, priv. and cgsS«5, 'ap- 
petite.' Inappeten'tia, Limo'sis expers. (F.) 
Perte d'appctit. Absence of appetite, without 
loathing. Anorexia or want of appetite is symp- 
tomatic of most diseases. Also, Indigestion, 
Dyspepsia (q. v.) 

Anorexia Exhausto'rom, Frigidity of the 
stomach — a. Mirabilis, Fasting. 

ANORGANIC. See Anhistous, and Inorganic. 

ANORMAL, Abnormous. 

ANOS'lA, from a, priv. and voo-og, 'disease.' 
Health. Freedom from disease. 

ANOS'MIA, from a., privative, and oa-uy, 
'odour.' Loss of smell. Diminution of the 
sense of smell. Called, also, Anosphrdsia, Pa- 
ras' mia, Olf actus amis' sio, 0. defid'iens, Dysaes- 
the'sia olfacto'ria, Anassthe' sia olfacto' ria,Odora' ■ 
tus deper'ditus, Caco'dia, (F.) Perte de VOdorat. 

ANOSPHRES1A, Anosmia. 

JINSE (F.), Ansa (L.) signifies, properly, the 
handle of certain vessels, usually of an arched 
form. By analogy, it has been applied to that 
which is curved in the form of such handle. 
Thus, the French speak of Anse intestinale to 
signify a portion of intestine, supported by its 
mesentery, and describing a curved line : — also, 
of Anse nerveuse, Anse anastomotigue, fyc. 

Anse defil. is used, in Surgery, to designate a 
thread, curved in the form of an Anse. 

ANSERINA, Potentilla anserina. 

ANS&RINE, Chenopodium ambrosioides — a. 
Anthelminlique, Chenopodium anthelminticum 
— a. Bon Henri, Chenopodium Bonus Henricus 
— a. Dotrys, Chenopodium Botrys — a. F'etide, 
Chenopodium vulvaria — a. Vermifuge, Cheno- 
podium anthelminticum. 

ANTACIDS or ANTI-ACIDS, Antinc"ida, 
from anti, 'against,' and acida, 'acids.' Reme- 
dies which obviate acidity in the stomach. 
They are chemical agents, and act by neutral- 
izing the acid. Those chiefly used are ammo- 
nia, calcis carbonas, calx, magnesia, magnesia 
carbonas, potassa, potassoe bicarbonas, p. car- 
bonas, sodse bicarbonas, and s. carbonas. They 
are, of course, only palliatives, removing that 
which exists, not preventing the formation of 

ANTAG'ONISM, Antagonis'mus, from slvti, 
'against,' and ctywvittiv, 'to act.' Action in an 
opposite direction. It applies to the action of 
muscles which act in a contrary direction to 
others. In estimating the force of the muscles, 
this antagonism must be attended to. 

ANTAG'ONIST, Antagonis'ta. A muscle, 
whose action produces an effect contrary to 
that of another muscle. Every muscle has its 
antagonist, because there is no motion in one 
direction without a capability of it in ano- 

A.NTALGICUS, Anodyne. 

DIT'IC, Antaphrodisiacus, Anterot'icus, from 
olvti, 'against,' and aupouSicrizxic, 'aphrodisiac' 
A substance capable of blunting the venereal 

ANTAPOD'OSIS, from a.vT4.no5idw/.ti, <I 
return in exchange.' The succession and re- 
turn of the febrile periods.— Hippocr. 

ANTATROPH'IC, Antatroph'icus, Antia- 
troph'icus, from cciti, 'against,' and aroocpta, 
' atrophy.' A remedy opposed to atrophy or 

ANTEBRACHIAL. See Antibrachial. 

ANTECENDEN'TIA. The precursory or 
warninir symptoms of a disease. 

ANTELA'BIA. Prochei'la, from ante, 'be- 
forehand labia, 'the lips.' The extremity of 
the lips. 

ANTELOPE, Antilopus. 


ANTEM'BASIS, from avn, and t/x^mvm, « I 
enter.' Mu'tuus ingres'sus. The mutual re- 
ception of bones. — Galen. 

ANTEMETIC, Antiemetic. 

ANTENDEIXIS, Counter-indication. 

ANTENEAS'MTKS, from avn, 'against.' 
and vtav, ' audacious.' One furious against 
himself. Mania, in which the patient attempts 
his own life. — Zacchias. 

Dioicum, Hispid' ula, P es cati, Elich'rysum mon- 
ta'num, Calsfoot, (F.) Pied de chat. A com- 
mon European plant, which has been advised 
in hemorrhage, diarrhoea, &c. 

ANTEPH1ALTIC, Antiephialtic. 

ANTEP1LEPTIC, Antiepileptic. 

ANTEREl'SIS, from avn, 'against,' and 
eqeiSoi, 'I support.' The resistance — the soli- 
dity — of bones. — Hippocr. 

pani — a. de [ Oreille, Anterior auris. 

ANTE'RIOR, Anti'cus, from ante, 'before.' 
Situate before. Great confusion has prevailed 
with Anatomists in the use of the terms be- 
fore, behind, &c. Generally, the word anterior 
is applied to parts situate before the median 
line, the body being in the erect posture, with 
the face and palms of the hands turned forwards; 
and the feet applied longitudinally together. 

Ante'kior Au'ris (Muscle,) Auricu/a'ris an- 
te' rior, (F.) Auriculaire antdrieur, Anteritur de 
I'oreille, Zygomato-oriculaire. A small muscle, 
passing from the posterior part of the zygoma 
to the helix. Use. To draw the ear forwards 
and upwards. 

Anterior Mallei, Laxator tympani. 

ANTEROTICUS, Antaphrodisiac. 


ANTEVER'SI0N,^rt« e per'5io,from ante, 'be- 
fore,' and verlere, versum, ' to turn.' Displace- 
ment of the uterus, in which the fundus is 
turned towards the pubes, whilst its orifice is 
towards the sacrum. It may be caused by ex- 
traordinary size of the pelvis, pressure of the 

viscera on the uterus, &c.; and is recognised 
by examination per vaginam. See Retroversio 

ANTHEL1TRAGUS, (F.) Anth'dilmgien. 
Une of the proper muscles of the pavilion of 
the ear. 

' before,' and hit*, 'the helix.' An emi 

m am, 




on the cartilage of the ear, in front of the helix, i 
and extending from the concha to the groove 
of the helix, where it bifurcates. 

ANTHELMINTIC, Antihelmin'ticus, Anti- 
scot icus, Antivermino'sus, Vermif'ugus, Ver'- 
mi f u g e > from avzt, 'against,' and ttfiivs, 'a 
worm.' A remedy which destroys or expels 
worms, or prevents their formation and deve- 
lopment. The chief anthelmintics are, the 
Chenopodium, Mucu'na, Oleum animale Dip- 
pelii, Oleum Terebinthinas, Sodii Chloridum, 
Spigelia, and Pulvis Stanni. See Worms and 


AN'THEMIS COT'ULA, from arttm, 'I 
flower.' Cot'ula, C.fa'tida, Cota, Cynan'thtmis, 
Chamaeme' lum fae'tidum, An'themis Novcboracen' - 
sis, Chamomil'/a spu'ria, Mayflower, Mayweed, 
Stinking Chamomile, Wild Cham'omile, Dog's 
fennel, Dilly, Dilweed, Fieldweed, Fissweed, 
Nat. Old. Compositae Corymbiferffi. Sex. Syst. 
Syngenesia Superflua. (F.) Maroute, Camomille 
fetide, Camomille puantc. This plant has a 
very disagreeable smell; and the leaves have 
a strong, acrid, bitterish taste. It is reputed to 
have been useful in hysterical affections. 

An'themis No'bilis, Chamxme'lum, Ckame- 
mse'lum No'bile, Chamomil'la Roma'na, Euan'- 
themon, An'themis, Chameeme'Lum odora'tum, 
Leucan'tkemum, Matrica'ria, (F.) Camomille Ro- 
maine. The leaves and flowers, — Anthemis, Ph. 
U. S. — have a strong smell, and bitter, nauseous 
taste. The flowers are chiefly used. They pos- 
sess tonic and stomachic properties, and are 
much given as a pleasant and cheap bitter. A 
simple infusion is taken to produce, or to assist 
vomiting. Externally, they are often used in 

The O'lcum Anthem' idis possesses the aro- 
matic properties of the plant, but not the bitter 
and tonic. Consequently, the ' Chamomile 
Drops,' as sold by the druggists, must be devoid 
of the latter qualities. They are made by add- 
ing 01. anthem, f. ^j. to Sp. vini rectif. Oj. 

Anthemis Noveboracensis, A. Cotuln. 

An'themis Py'rethrcjjvt, Pi/rcthrum, Ana- 
cyc'lus pyrethrum, Pyrethrum ve.rum, Baph- 
thal'mum Cre'ticum, Denla'ria, Herba saliva'ris, 
Pes ALexandri'nus, Spanish Chamomile, Pelli- 
tory of Spain, (F.) Pyrethre, Racine salivaire, 
Pied d' Alexandre. The root is hot and acrid; 
its acrimony residing in a resinous principle. 
It is never used except as a masticatory in 
toothache, rheumatism of the face, paralysis of 
the tongue, &c. It acts as a powerful sialo- 

The Pellitory of the shops in Germany is 
said to be derived from Anacyc'lus qfficina'rum; 
a plant cultivated in Thuringia for medicinal 

An'themis Tincto'ria, Buphthal'mi Herba, 
Dyer's Chamomile, a European plant, has a 
bitter and astringent taste, and has been re- 
garded stomachic and vulnerary, (F.) Camo- 
mille des Teinturiers, OZil de Bauf. 

ANTHE'RA, from «*0ijgos, ' florid,' so called 
from its florid colour. A remedy compounded 
of several substances, myrrh, sandarac, alum, 
saffron, &c. It was used under the form of 
liniment, collyrium, electuary, and powder. — 
Celsus, Galen. 

AiNTHEREON. Mentum. 

ANTHORA VULGARIS, Aconitum anihora. 

ANTHOS: see Rosmarinus — a. Sylvestris, 
Ledum sylvestre. 

ANTHRA'CIA, from avdva*, 'coal.' Car- 
bun'cular Exan'them. An eruption of tumours, 
imperfectly suppurating, with indurated edges, 
and, for the most part, a sordid and sanious core. 
A genus in the order Exanthematica, class Hm- 
maticaof Good, and including Plague and Yawa. 

Antmracia, Anthracosis — a, Pestis, Plague 
— a. Rubula, Frambcesia. 

ANTHRACION. See Anthrax. 

AN'THRAOOID. Anthraco'des, from avdoa^, 
'coal,' and tidog, 'resemblance.' (F.) CharboTi- 
neux. As black as coal. Accompanied by, or 
resembling anthrax. 


ANTHRACOS1A, Anthrax. 

ANTHRACO'SIS, Anthra'cia, Carbo Palpe- 
bru'rum, from avdqa^, 'a coal.' A species of 
carbuncle, which attacks the eyelids and globe 
of the eye. — Paulus of iEgina. Also, a carbuncle 
of any kind. It has been used recently for the 
"black lung of coal miners," which is induced 
by carbonaceous accumulation in the lungs. 
When ulceration results from this cause, black 
phthisis exists. 

- ANTHRAKOK'ALT, from ai^ct;, ' coal,' and 
kali, ' potassa.' An article recently introduced 
as a remedy in cutaneous diseases. It is formed 
by dissolving carbonate of potassa in 10 or \2 
parts of boiling water, and adding as much 
slacked lime as will separate the potassa. The 
filtered liquor is placed on the fire in an iron 
vessel, and suffered to evaportite, until neither 
froth nor effervescence occurs, and the liquid 
presents a smooth surface like oil. To this, 
levigated coal is added in the proportion of 160 
grammes to 192 grammes of potassa. The mix- 
ture is stirred, and removed from the fire, and 
the stirring is continued, until a black homoge- 
neous, powder results. A sulphuretted anthra- 
kukali is made by mixing accurately 1 G grammes 
of sulphur with the coal, and dissolving the 
mixture in the potassa as directed above. The 
dose of the simple and sulphuretted prepara- 
tions is about two grains three times a day. 

ANTHRAX, arbors, 'a coal,' An'trax, Carbo, 
Rubi'nus verus, Codcscl'/a, Erytht'ma gangrc- 
no'sum, Grantris'tum, Prima, Per'sicus Ignis, 
Granatris'tum, Phyma anthrax, Erythe'ma an- 
thrax, Carbun' cuius Anthroco'sia, Anthroco'ma, 
Absces'sus gangramescens, A. gavgrxno'sus, 
Furun'culus malig'nus, F. gangranosus, Car- 
buncle, (F.j Charbon. An inflammation, es- 
sentially gangrenous, of the cellular membrane 
and skin, which may arise from an internal or 
external cause. In the latter case it is called, 
Anthra'cion, Vcsic'itla gangrxnes'cens, Pustule 
maligne; Boulon d'Alep, Feu Persique (Persia?i 
Fire) Mal-vat, Boulon malin, Pu:e maligne, and 
is characterized at the outset by a vesication or 
bleb filled with a sero-sanguinolent fluid, under 
which a small induration is formed, surrounded 
by an areolar inflammation, which becomes 
gangrenous. It has been thought by some to 
be induced altogether by contact with the mat- 
ter of the carbuncle of animals, or of the exuviae 
of bodies of such as had died of the disease. 
But it is now known to arise primarily in the 
human subject. 

Anthrax is a malignant boil, and its treat- 
ment is similar to that which is required in 
cases of gangrene attacking a part. 




Anthrax Pulmonum. Necropneumonia. 



ANTHROPOCHYMY, Chymistry (human.) 

ANTHROPOGENTA, Anthropog"eny, from 
av9gu)n<>$, 'man,' and ytvtatg, 'generation.' 
The knowledge or study, or phenomena of 
human generation. 

ANTHROPOL'OGY, Anthropohg"ia, from 
avSQumog, 'man,' and Xoyog, ' a discourse.' A 
treatise on man. By some, this word is used 
for the science of the structure and functions 
of the human body. Frequently, it is employed 
synonymously with Statural History and Phy- 
siology of man. 

A N TH ROPOMANCY, Anthropomanti'a, 
from av&Qomo?, 'a man,' and /x^vrtut, ' divina- 
tion.' Divination by inspecting the entrails of 
a dead man. 

ANTHROPOM'ETRY, from bi^wto?, 'a 
man,' and utxqov, ' measure.' An acquaintance 
with the dimensions of the different parts of 
the human body. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGUS, (F.) Anthropophage, 
from avSownog, 'a man,' and <payw, ' I eat.' A 
name given to one who eats his own species. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGY, Anthropopha' gia, 
same etymon. The custom of eating human flesh. 
A disease in which there is a desire to eat it. 


ANTHROPOTOMY, Andranatomia. 

' against,' and 'vjivanxog, 'stupefying.' A re- 
medy for stupor. 

dri'acus, from avri, ' against,' and vTro^ovSqia- 
y.og, ' hypochondriac' A remedy for hypo- 

ANTHYSTER'IC, Antihyster'ic, Antihyster'- 
icus, from am, ' against,' and 'vort^st, 'the ute- 
rus.' A remedy for hysteria. 

ANTL, xvti, as a prefcx, in composition, gene- 
rally means ' opposition.' 

ANTIADES, Tonsils. 

ANTIADITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

ANTIADON'CUS,from*,r.*<?sc, 'the tonsils,' 
and oyxog, ' tumour.' A swelling of the tonsils, 
— Swediaur. Anti'age.r has a similar meaning. 

Antiadokcus Inflammatorius. Cynanche 

etvri, ' against,' and a.noTi.rfeix, ' apoplexy.' A 
remedy for apoplexy. 


ANTIARTHRIT'iC, Antartkrit'ic, Antiar- 
thrit'icus, Antipodagric, from am, 'against,' 
and oloSqitis, ' the gout,' (F.) Antigoutteuz. A 
remedy for gout. 

ANTIASTHMATIC, Antiasthmat'icus, from 
etvri, ' against,' and ctad^ia., ' asthma.' A reme- 
dy for asthma. 


ANTIBRA'CHIAL, Antibradua'lis. That 
which concerns the fore arm. Bichat. J. Clo- 
quet suggests that the word should be written 
antebrachial, from ante, 'before,' and brochium, 
'the arm:' — as antebrachial region, antebrachial 
aponeurosis, &c. 

Antebrachial Aponeurosis, (F.) Aponi- 
vrose antebrachiale, is a portion of the aponeu- 
rotic sheath which envelops the whole of the 
upper limb. It arises from the brachial aponeu- 
rosis, from a fibrous expansion of the tendon of 

the biceps muscle, from the epicondyle, em- 
trochlea, and, behind, fiom the tendon of the 
triceps brachialis. Within, it is inserted into 
the cubitus, &c; and, below, is confounded 
with the two annular ligaments of the carpus. 
It is covered by the skin, by veins, lymphatics, 
and by filaments of superficial nerves; it covers 
the muscles of the fore-arm, adheres to them, 
and sends between them several fibrous septa, 
which serve them for points of insertion. 

ANTICACHEC'TIC, Anticachec'licus, Anti- 
cacochym'ic, from avri, ' against,' and^ia, 
'cachexy.' A remedy against cachexy. 

ANTICACOCHYMIC, Anticachectic 

ANTICAN'CEROUS, Anticancero'sus, An- 
ticancro'sus, Anticarcinom'atous, from avrt, 
'against,' and xaoxtvwpa, 'cancer,' carcinoma. 
Opposed to cancer. 

ANT1CANCROSUS, Anticancerous. 


ANTICARDIUM, Fossette du cceur, Scrobi- 
cuius cordis. 

ANTICATAR'RHAL, AnticatarrhaUis, from 
stvri, 'against,' and xaxaqoog, 'catarrh.' A re- 
medy for catarrh. 

ANTIC AUSOD'IC, Anticausot'ic,Anticausod'- 
icus, from avri, ' against,' and x.av<rog, 'a burning 
fever.' A remedy for causus, or inflammatory 

ANTICAUSOTIC, Anticausodic 

ANTICHE1R, Pollex. See Digitus. 

ANTICHOLERICA, Sophora heptaphylla. 

ANTICIPATING, Antid'ipans, Prolcpt'icus. 
A periodical phenomenon recurring at pro- 
gressively shorter intervals. An anticipating 
intermittent is one in which the intervals be- 
tween the paroxysms become progressively less. 


AJVTICCEUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 

ANTICOL'IC, Anticol'icus, from ovti, 
' against,' and xwlixog, ' the colic' That which 
is opposed to colic 

ANTICUS, Anterior. 

ANTWARTREUX, Antiherpetic. 

ANTIDIARRHCE'IO, Antidiarrhm'icus. A 
remedy for diarrhoea. Opposed to diarrhoea. 

ANTWINIC, Antidin'icus, from avrt, 'against,' 
and Snog, 'vertigo.' Opposed to vertigo. 

ANTIDOTA'RIUM, from avT«JoTov,'an anti- 
dote.' A dispensatory (q. v.) A pharmacopoeia 
or formulary. 

AN'TlDQTE,Antid'otum, from avrt, 'against,' 
and StSuipt, 'I give.' Originally this word sig- 
nified an internal remedy. It is now used sy- 
nonymously with counter-poison, and signifies 
any remedy capable of combating the effect of 
poisons, by decomposing them. 


Antidotcm Mithridaticum, Mithridate, 


ANTIDYSENTER'IC, Antidysenter'icus, 
from arm, 'against,' dug, 'with difficulty,' and 
tvrte,ov, 'intestine.' Opposed to dysentery. 

emet'icus, from avrt, 'against,' and tjuirtxog, 
'emetic' A remedy for vomiting. 

Anti'phial'ticus, from a>n, 'against,' and tipi- 
aftrijs, 'nightmare.' A remedy for nightmare. 

Antiepilep'dcus, from am, 'against,' and nft- 
^«'™£ lleps y-' A rp medy for epilepsy. 




ANTIGALACTIC, Antigalac'tkus, Anlilac'- 
teus, from coti, 'against,' and yala, 'milk.* 
(F.) Antilaiteux. Opposed to the secretion of 
milk, or to diseases caused by the milk. 

Black collyrium of Antig'onus. It was com- 
posed of cadmia, antimony, pepper, verdigris, 
gum Arabic, and water. 
ANTIGUA. See West Indies. 

ANTIHEC'TIC, Anlithec'ticus, from avri, 
'against,' and 'e|is, 'habit of body.' The Anti- 
hec'ticum F or e' mi is the white oxyd of antimo- 
ny; also called Dlaphoret'icum Jovia'lS. 


ANTIHEMORRHOIDS, Antihsemorrhdi- 
da'lis, from avri, 'against,' and 'at/uoQQoidtc, 
'hemorrhoids.' A remedy for hemorrhoids. 

ANTIHERPET'IC, Antiherpet'icus, from 
avri, 'against,' and 'tones, 'herpes.' (F.) Anti- 
darlreux. A remedy for herpes. 

ANTIHYDROPHOB'IC, Antihydrophol/icus, 
Antilys'sus, from avri, 'against,' ' vdu>%, ' water,' 
and <popos, 'dread.' A remedy for hydrophobia. 

ANTIHYDROP'IC, Antihydrop'icus, from 
am, 'against,' and 'vdoaup, 'dropsy.' A reme- 
dy for dropsy. 

ANTIHYSTERIC, Antihysteric. 

ANTI-ICTERIC, from avrt, 'against,' and 
ttcrteoc, 'jaundice.' A remedy for jaundice. 

Liquor hydrargyri oxymuriatis. 

ANTILACTEUS, Antigalactic. 

ANTILAITEUX, Antigalactic. 

ANTILEP'SIS, Apprehen'sio, from «mAa/c- 
(ixvoi, 'I take hold of.' The mode of attaching 
a bandage over a diseased part, by fixing it 
upon the sound parts. — Hippocrates. The mode 
of securing bandages, &c. from slipping. 

ANTILITH'ICS, Antililh'ica, from *vrt, 
'against,' and Aido?, 'a stone.' A substance 
that prevents the formation of calculi in the 
urinary organs. 

The chief antilithics — according as the calculi 
are lilhic acid or phosphatic — are alkalies or 
acids; with revellents, especially change of 
air; tonics, as the diosma crenata, (?) and uva 
ursi. (?) 

celebrated French medicinal spring, near 
Meaux, in France. The waters have not been 
analyzed; but astonishing and chimerical ef- 
fects have been ascribed to them. 


ANTILOI'MIC, Anti/oi'micus, Antipeslilen- 
tiaflis, from a.m, 'against,' and xctiio?, 'the 
plague.' A remedy for the plague. 

ANTIL'OPUS. The An'telopc. (F.) Gazelle. 
An African animal, whose hoofs and horns 
were formerly given in hysteric and epileptic 

ANTILYSSUS, Antihydrophobic. 

ANTIMELANCHOL'IC, Antimelanchol'icus, 
from curt, 'against,' and fieA*y%oAi!x., 'melan- 
choly.' A remedy for melancholy. 

AJYTIM01ME, Antimonium — a. Beurre d\ 
Antimonium muriatum — a. Chlorvre d', Anti- 
monium muriatum — a. Oxide blanc d', Antimo- 
nium diaphoreticum — a. Sovfrc dori d', Anti- 
monii sulphuretum prajcipitatum — a. Sulfure 
hydrosulphure rouge d\ Antimonii sulphuretum 
rubrum — a. Verre d\ Antimonii vitrum. 

ANTIMO'NIAL, Antimonia'lis, Stibia'lis, 
from antimo'nium, 'antimony.' A composition 

into which antimony enters. A preparation of 

Antimo'nial Powder, Pulvis untimonia'lis, 
Ox'idum antimo'nii cum phos'phulS calcis, Phos- 
phus calcis stibia'tus, P. Cal'cicum stibia'tum, 
Pulvis Jame'sii, Pulvis stibia'tus, Pulvis de 
phos'phatS calcis et stib'ii compos' itus, Factitious 
James's Powder, Schwanberg's Fever Poicder, 
Chenevix's Antimonial Powder. (F.) Pnudre 
antimoniale composie ou de James. A peroxide 
of antimony combined with phosphate of lime. 
(Take of common sulphur et of antimony, lb j ; 
hartshorn shavings, Rsij. Roast in an iron pot, 
until they form a gray powder. Put this into 
a long pot, with a small hole in the cover. 
Keep it in a red heat for two hours, and grind 
to a fine powder.) This preparation has long 
been esteemed as a febrifuge : but it is extremely 
uncertain in its action. The ordinary dose is 
6 or 8 grains. 

nium muriatum. 

sulphuretum prsecipitatum — a. Tartar, Antimo- 
nium tartarizatum. 

ANTIMONII (BUTYRUM,) Antimonium mu- 
riatum — a. Calx, Antimonium diaphoreticum — 
a. Cerussa, Antimonium diaphoreticum— a. Mu- 
rias, Antimonium muriatum — a. Oleum, Anti- 
monium muriatum — a.Oxydulum hydrosulphu- 
ratum aurantiacum, Antimonii sulphuretum 
prrecipitatum — a. Oxydum, Algaroth — a. Oxy- 
dumauratum, Antimonii sulphurutum praecipita- 
tum — a. Oxidum nitro-muriaticum, Algaroth — 
a.Oxydumcumsulphure vitrif'actum, Antimonii 
vitrum — a. Oxydum sulphuretum vitrifactum, 
Antimonii vitrum — a. Rpgulus medicinalis, An- 
timonium medicinale — a. Sal, Antimonium tar- 
tarizatum — a. Sulphur auratum, Antimonii sul- 
phuretum praecipitaturn — a. Sulphur pracipita- 
tum, Antimonii sulphuretum praecipitaturn — a. 
Sulphuretum, Antimonium— a. Tartras, Anti- 
monium tartarizatum — aif Tartras et Potassaa, 
Antimonium tartarizatum — a. Vitrum hyacinth- 
inum, Antimonii vitrum. 

Antimonii et Potassje Tartras, (Ph. U.S.) 
Antimonium tartarizatum. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tcm Precipita'tum, 
Sulphur anlimonia' turn, Hydrosulphure' turn sti- 
bio'sum cum sul'phure, Oxo'des stib'ii sulphur a' - 
turn, Oxyd'ulum antimo'nii hydrosu/phura' 'turn 
aurantiacum, Ox'ydum aura' turn antimo'nii, Sul- 
phur c' turn stib'ii oxydula'ti, Hydro-sulfur e' turn 
lu'teum ox'ydi stib'ii sulfura'ti, Sulphur antimo'- 
nii prsecipita'tum, Sulphur aura'tum antimo'nii, 
Golden Sulphur of Antimony. 

Antimo'nii Sulphur e' turn Praecipitaturn, (F.) 
Soufre dore d'Antimoine, of the London Phar- 
macopoeia, is nearly the same as the old 
Kermcs Mineral. It is a powder of an orange 
colour, and of a metallic, styptic taste. It is 
emetic, diaphoretic, and cathartic, according to 
the dose; and has been chiefly used in chronic 
rheumatism, and in cutaneous affections. Dose, 
gr. j. to gr. iv. 

Antimonii Sulphuretum Prsecipitatum of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia. (1842,) is made 
by boiling together Sulphuret of Antimony, in 
fine powder, Solution of Potassa, and distilled 
water; straining the liquor while hot, and 
dropping into it Diluted Sulphuric Acid so long 
as it produces a precipitate. 

Antjmo'mi Sulphure'tum Rubrusi, Red 




Svtphurct ofAn'timony, Hydrosulfurc'tum stib'ii 
rubrum, Sub-hydrosut'f as stib'ii, Hydrosulphure'- 
tum rubrum stib'ii sulphura'ti, Pulvis Carthu- 
siano'rum, Kermes mineral. (F.) Hydrosulfure 
rouge a" Antimoine sulfuri, Vermilion de Pro- 
vence. Properties the same as the last. Dose, 
gr. j. to gr. iv. 

Antimo'nii Vitrum, Glass of Antimony, An- 
timo'nii ox'ydum su/pkure'lum vitrifac'tum, Oxf- 
ydum stib'ii scmivit'reum, Antimo'nium vitri- 
fac'tum, Ox'idum antimonii cum sul'phure vitri- 
fac'tum, Vitrum stib'ii, Antimo'nii vitrum hyacin'- 
thinum, Oxyd'uhim stib'ii vitreaftum. (F.) Verre 
d' Antimoine. (Formed by roasting powdered 
common antimony in a shallow vessel, over a 
gentle fire, till it is of a whitish gray colour, and 
emits no fumes in a red heat; then melting it, 
in a quick fire, into a clean, brownish-red glass.) 
It has been used for preparing the tartarized 
antimony and antimonial wine. 

ANTIMONIOUS ACID, Antimonium dia- 

ANTIMO'NIUM, from am, < against,' and 
ftoi'Of, ' alone:' ?'. e. not found alone: or accord- 
ing to others, from a.m, 'against,' and moine. 
'a monk;' because, it is asserted, certain monks 
suffered much from it. Stibi, Slib'ium, Reg'u- 
lus Antimo'nii, Miner a' Hum, Gynxeelum, Mag- 
ne'sia Satur'ni, Marcasi'ta pJum'bea, Platyoph- 
lhal'mon,Slim! ' mi,Aurvmlepro' 'sum, Antimo'nium 
crudum, Antimo'nii sulphur e! turn, Sulpkure'tum 
stib'ii nigrum, Common Antimony, Sulphuret 
of Antimony, (F.) Antimoine. Sulphuret of 
antimony is the ore from which all the pre- 
parations of antimony are formed. In Pharmacy 
it is the native sesquisulphuret of antimony, 
purified by fusion. When prepared for medi- 
cal use, by trituration arid levigation, it forms 
a powder of a black, or bluish gray colour, 
which is insoluble. It is slightly diaphoretic 
and alterative, and has been used in chronic 
rheumatism, cutaneous diseases, &c. 

Antimonium Cal«natum, Antimonium dia- 

Antimo'nium Diaphoret'icum, Diaphoret'ic 
Antimony, Antimo'nious Acid, Min'eral Bcz'oard, 
Antimo'nium Calcinaftum, Mineral Diaphoret'ic, 
Mutiere per lie de kekkring. Peroxide of Anti- 
mony. Calx Antimo'nii, Antimo'nium diaphoret'- 
icum lolum, Ccrus'sa Antimo'nii, Calx Antimo'nii 
elo'ta, Oxo'des slibii album, Ox'idum stibio'sum, 
Deutoxide of Anftimony, Ox'idum stih'ii album 
median' tl nitro con fee turn. (F.) Oxide blanc d' An- 
timoine pripari pur lemoyendu nitre. {Common 
antimony, lbj; purified nitre, Biij. — Throw it by 
spoonfuls into a red hot crucible; powder and 
wash. The flowers that stick to the side of the 
crucible must be carefully separated, otherwise 
they render it emetic.) Dose, gr. x to xxx 

Antimo'nium Mkdicina'le, Iteg'vlus Anti- 
mo'nii Medicina'Lis, Medicinal Reg'ulus of Anti- 
mony. (Antimon. sulphur. 5 v, Potass. subcurb. z i. 
Sodii chlorid. ^iv. Powder, mix, and melt. 
When cold, separate the scorice at top, powder 
the mass, and wash it well.) It is conceived to 
be more active than common antimony. 

Antimo'nium Muria'tum, Antimo'nii Mu'- 
rins, Chlor'vrct of An'timony, Chkrure'tum 
stib'ii, Spuma trium draco'nvm, Dcuto-mn'rias 
stib'ii sublimu'tiis, Butter of Antimony, Muriate 
of Antimony, Chloride of Antimony. Butifntm 
Antimo'nii. O'lcum Antimo'nii. Buty'rum stib'ii, 
Cuus'Lcum untimoni V ' tl; Antiiuontum suli'lum. 

(F.) Cldorure d' Antimoine, Bcurre d' Antimoine. 
(Common antimony and corrosive sublimate, 
of each equal parts: grind together, and distil 
in a wide-necked retort, and let the butyraceoua 
matter that comes over, run, in a moist place, 
to a liquid oil.) A caustic, but not much used 
as such. Sometimes taken as poison. 

Antimonium Salitum, Antimonium muria- 

Antimo'nium Tartariza'tum, Tarlris Anti- 
mo'nii, Tartar Antimonia'tum, Sal Antimo'nii, 
Tartras Potas'sx stibio'sus seu stibia'lis, Tarlris 
lixiv'ise stibia'tus, Deuto-tartras potas'sx et stib'ii, 
Tar'tai'us emet'icus, Tur'tarum emet'icum, Tar- 
tras antimo'nii, Tartras Antimo'nii et Potassse, 
Antimo'nii et Potassx Tartras. (Ph. U. S.) Tar- 
tarized Antimony, Emetic Tartar, Tartar Emetic. 
(F.) Tartrestibii, Tartre £mitique, itmetique. In 
some parts of the United States, vulgarly and 
improperly called Tartar: (Made by digest- 
ing sulphuret of antimony in a mixture of nitric 
and muriatic acids with the aid of heat; filtering 
the liquor, and pouring it into water: freeing 
the precipitate from acid, by washing and dry- 
ing it; adding this powder to bitartrate of po- 
tassa in boiling distilled water; boiling for an 
hour, and after filtering the liquor while hot, 
setting it aside to crystallize. — Ph. U. S.) Tar- 
tarized antimony is emetic, sometimes cathartic 
and diaphoretic. Externally, it is rubefacient. 
Dose, as an emetic, gr. j. to gr. iv. in solution ; 
as a diaphoretic, gr. one-sixteenth to gr. one- 

The empirical preparation, called Norris's 
Drops, consists of a solution of tartarized anti- 
mony in rectified spirits, disguised by the addi- 
tion of some vegetable colouring matter. 

Antimonium Vitrifactum, Antimonii y[- 

muriatum — a. Chloride of, Antimonium muria- 
turn — a. Chloruret of, Antimonium muriatum— 
a. Deutoxide of, Antimonium diaphoreticum— 
a. Glass of, Antimonii vitrum — a. Golden sul- 
phur of, Antimonii sulphuretum praecipitatum— 
a. Medicinal, regulus of, Antimonium medici- 
nale — a. Muriate of, Antimonium muriatum— 
a. Peroxide of, Antimonium diaphoreticum— a. 
Submuriate of, Protoxide of, Algaroth — a. Sul- 
phuret of, red, Antimonii sulphuretum rubrum 
— a. Tartarized, Antimonium lartarizatum-a. 
Vegetable, Eupatorium perfoliatum. 

ANTINEPHRITTC, Antinephret'ic, Amine- 
phret'icus, from am, 'against,' and vstpQins, 
'nephritis.' A remedy for inflammation of the 



ANTI'OCHI HI'ERA. A preparation ex- 
tolled by the ancients, in melancholy, hydro- 
phobia, epilepsy, &c. It was formed of ger- 
mander, agaric, pulp of colocynth, Arabian 
stcechas, opoponax, sagapenum, parsley, aristo- 
lochia, white pepper, cinnamon, lavender, 
myrrh, honey, &c. 

Anti'ochiTheriaca. A theriac emplovedby 
Anliochus against every kind of poison, "it was 
composed of thyme, opoponax, millet, trefoil, 
fennel, aniseed, nin-ella saliva &c 

AN'TIODONTAL'GIO, Antodontafmc, An- 
itodontal gims, Odontalgic, Odonl'ic, Antiodotk 
l7^"V r ! ;m / ,T '- 'against,' and oSovT^yta, 
toothache. A remedy for toothache 



ANTIORGASTIC, Antiorgas'ticus, from 
inn, 'against,' and ooyuw, 'I desire vehement- 
ly.' A remedy for orgasm or erethism, and for 
irritation in general. 

ANT1PARALYTIC, Antiparalyt'icus, from 
avxi, 'against,' and naquluoig, 'palsy.' Op- 
posed to palsy. 

ANTIPARASITIC, Jlntiparasit'icus, An- 
iipfuiteiri r acus,rarasit'icide; from am, 'against,' 
7i apanrog, 'a parasite,' (q. v.) An agent that 
destroys parasites, as the different vermin that 
infest the body. The chief antiparasitics are 
Coccvlus, Staphisagria, Veratrum album, and 
certain of the mercurial preparations. 

ANTIPATHl'A, from am, 'against,' and 
iraQog, 'passion, affection.' Aversion. A na- 
tural repugnance to any person or thing. 

ANTIPATH'IC, Antipath'icus (F.) Antipa- 
thique. Belonging to antipathy. Opposite, 
contrary; as humeurs antipatlvques ; humours 
opposed toeach other. Also, palliative, (q. v.) 

tip'ater. A farrago of more than 40 articles: 
used as an antidote against the bites of serpents. 

ANTIPERIOD'IC, Jlntiperiod'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and -niqioSog, 'period.' A remedy 
which possesses the power of arresting morbid 
periodical movements; — e. g. the sulphate of 
quinia in intermittents. 

ANTIPERISTAL'TIC, Antiperistal'ticus, 
Antivcrmidular, from avxi, ' against,' and TreQir- 
xO.Xw, 'I contract.' An inverted action of the 
intestinal tube. 

ANTIPERIS'TASIS, from avn, 'against,' 
and ntQioraoig, 'reunion, aggregation.' A 
union of opposite circumstances : the action of 
two contrary qualities, one of which augments 
the force of the other. The peripateticians as- 
serted, that it is by Antiperistasis, that fire is 
hotter in winter than in summer. Theophras- 
tus attributes the cause, which renders man 
more vigorous, and makes him digest more 
readily in winter, to the augmentation of heat 
caused by Antiperistasis. 

ANTIPERTUSSIS, see Zinci sulphas. 


ANTIPHAR'MACON, from am, 'against,' 
and (, 'poison.' A counter-poison. An 
antidote. — Dioscorides. 

ANTIPHARMACUS, Alexipharmic. 

ANTIPHLOGIS'TIC, Anliphlogis'ticus, from 
avn, 'against,' and (p'/.iyo>, 'I burn.' Opposed 
to inflammation; — as Antiphlogistic remedies, 
A. regimen, &c. 

ANTIPHTHEIRIACA; from am,' against,' 
and qdeiptuu), 'I am lousy.' A remedy which 
is used to destroy lice. 

ANTIPHTHIS'ICAL, Antiphthis'icus, from 
avn, 'against,' and q9ioig, 'consumption.' Op- 
posed to phthisis. 

ANTIPHYSICA, Carminatives. 

ANTIPHYS'ICAL, Antiphys'icus, from avxi, 
1 against,' and (pvoea), ' 1 blow.' An expeller of 
wind: a carminative, (q. v.) 

It has also been used for any thing preter- 
natural; here, the derivation is from am, 
'against,' and qvoig, 'nature.' The French 
sometimes say, ' Un gout antiphisique.' 

ANTIPLEURITIC, Antipleu'reticus, Anti- 
pkurcl'ic, from am, 'against,' and nXtvpixig, 
'pleurisy.' Opposed to pleurisy. 

ANTIPODAGRIC, Antiarthritic. 

ANTIPRAX'IS, from am, 'against,' and 

7rua<rno>, ' I act.' A contrary slate of different 
parts in the same patient: e. g. an increase of 
heat in one organ, and diminution in another. 

ANTIPSOR'IC, Antipso'ricus, from am, 
' against,' and xpuoa, 'the itch.' (F.) Antiga- 
hux. Opposed to the itch. 

ANTIPUTRID, Antiseptic. 

ANTIPY'IC, Antipificus, from am, 'against,' 
and^-vov, 'pus.' Opposed to suppuration. 

ANTIPYRETIC, Jlntipyret'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and nvQtxog, 'fever.' A febrifuge, 
(q. V.) 

ANTIPYROTIC, Antipyrot'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and ttvq, 'fire.' Opposed to burns. 

ANTIQUARTANA'RIUM, Antiquar' ticum. 
A remedy formerly used against quartan fever. 

ANTIRHACHITIC, Antirhacldt'icus, from 
eLvri, 'against,' and rachitis. Opposed to ra- 
chitis, or rickets. 

vulga'ris, Osy'ris, Urina'ria, Common Toad Flax. 
(F.) Linaire. The leaves have a bitterish taste. 
They are reputed to be diuretic and cathartic. 
An ointment made from them has been extolled 
in hemorrhoids. 

Antirhi'num Elati'ne, Elati'nS, Fluellen 
or Female Speedwell, was formerly used against 
scurvy and old ulcerations. 

AN'TISCOLICUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANTISCORBU'TIC, Antiscorbu'ticus, from 
avxi, 'against,' and scorbutus, 'the scurvy.' 
Opposed to scurvy. 

ANTISCROF'ULOUS, Antistrumo'sus. Op- 
posed to scrofula. 

avxi, 'against,' and oij-rxog, ' putrid.' Antiputre- 
dino'sus. Opposed to putrefaction. The chief 
Antiseptics, internally or externally employed, 
are Acidum Muriaticum, Acidum JVitricum, 
Acidum Sulphuricum, Carbo Ligni, Calx chlori- 
nala, Chhrinum, Cinchona and its active prin- 
ciples, Creosote, Dauci Radix, Fermentum 
Cerevisiee, and Soda Chlorinata. 

ANT1SPASIS, Revulsion. 

ANTISPASMODIC, Antispasmodics, from 
avxi, 'against,' and <rnaw, 'I contract.' Opposed 
to spasm. The whole operation of antispasmo- 
dics is probably revulsive. The following are 
the chief reputed antispasmodics. JEther Sul- 
phuricus, Asafoztida, Castoreum, Dracontium, 
Moschus, Oleum Animate Dippelii, and Valeri- 
ana — with the mental antispasmodics, abstrac- 
tion, powerful emotions, fear, &c. Of direct 
antispasmodics, we have not an example. 

ANTISPASTIC, Derivative. 

ANTISTERIG'MA, from am, ' against,' and 
a-xrjQVYfitt, 'a support.' A fulcrum, support, 
crutch. — Hippocrates. 

ANTISTER'NUM, from avn, 'against,' and 
axsgror, ' the sternum.' The back. — Rufus. 

ANTISTRUMOSUS, Antiscrofulous. 

ANT1SYPHIL1TIC, Antisyphilit'icus, And- 
syphilit'ic,from avri, 'against,' and syphilis, ' the 
venereal disease.' Opposed to the venereal dis- 

ANTITASIS, Counter-extension. 

ANTITHENAR, Opponens pollicis, Ad- 
ductor pollicis pedis. 

ANT1THORA, Aconitum anthora. 

(F.) Muscle de VAntitragus, M. antitragien. — 
(Ch.) Belonging to the Antitragus. A small 
muscle is so called, the existence of which is 




not constant. It occupies the space between 
the antitragus and anthelix. 

AJVT1TRAG/EJV, Antitragicua. 

ANTJT'KAGUS, from avri, ' opposite to,' and 
TQttyog, ' the tragus.' A conical eminence on 
the pavilion of the ear, opposite the tragus. 

ANTITXT'IA, from mi, 'against,' and 
tvtttw, 'I strike.' Resistance. Hardness. 

'against,' and Venus, 'Venus.' The same as 
Antisyphilitic. Formerly it was used synony- 
mously with Antaphrodisiac. 

AN tl VERMICULAR, Antiperistaltic. 


ANTODONTALGIC, Antiodontalgic. 

ANTODYNUS, Anodyne. 

ANTRAX, Anthrax. 

ANTRE, Antrum— a. d'Hyghmore, Antrum 
of Highmore. 

ANTRUM. ' A cavern,' Cavern' a (q. v.) Bar'- 
athrum, (F.) Autre. A name given to certain 
cavities in bones, the entrance to which is 
smaller than the bottom. 

Antkum Auris, Tympanum — a. Buccinosum, 
Cochlea, Labyrinth — a. Dentale, see Tooth — a. 
Pylori, see Stomach. 

Antrum of Highmore, Antrum Highmoria'- 
num, Antrum Gense, Antrum maxilla' rl vel max- 
Wise superio'ris, Genyan'lrum, Maxillary Sinus, 
Sinus Gense pituita'rius, (F.) Autre d" 1 Hyghmore, 
Sinus Maxillaire. A deep cavity in the sub- 
stance of the superior maxillary bone communi- 
cating with the middle meatus of the nose. It 
is lined by a prolongation of the Schneiderian 

ANULUS, Fossette. 

ANURIA, Ischuria. 

ANUS, Podex,Potex, Mol'ynS, Cath'edra, Cyr'- 
ceon, Cys'saros, Cysthos,Hedra, Proctos, Archos, 
Sedes, Cuius, 'a circle.' The circular opening 
situate at the inferior extremity of the rectum, 
by which the excrement is expelled. The fun- 
dament. The seat. (F.) Siege. The body. The 

Anus also signifies the anterior orifice of the 
Aqueduct o/Sylvius. By some, this Anus, called 
also Fora'men commu'nB poste'rius, has been 
supposed to form a communication between the 
back part of the third ventricle and the lateral 
ventricles. It is closed up, however, by the 
tela choroidea, and also by the fornix, which 
is intimately connected with this. The foramen 
is situate between the commissura mollis of the 
optic thalami and the pineal gland. 

Anus, Artificial. An opening made arti- 
ficially, to supply the natural anus. The term 
is often used to include preternatural anus, 
(q. v.) 

Anus, Contracted, (F.) Anus retrod. A state 
of the anus when, from some cause, it is con- 

Anus, Imperforate, A malformation in 
which there is no natural anus. See Atresia 
ani adnata. 

Anus, Preternat/ural, (F.) Anuscontrc na- 
ture or A. anormal. An accidental opening 
which gives issue to the whole or to a part of 
the faeces. It may be owing to a wound, or, 
which is most common, to gangrene attacking 
the intestine in a hernial sac. 

This term is also employed, as well as Anus 
dcvii, devious anus, to the case where the anus, 
instead of being in its natural situation, is in 

some neighbouring cavity, as the bladder, va- 
gina, &c. a . , 

ANXl'ETY, Anxi' etas, Anxi' etude, Adsemo . 
nia, Dysphoria anxi'etas, Alysmus, Al'ycl, 
Al'ysis, Ase, from angcre, Gr. a.y/tiv, ' to stran- 
gle, to suffocate.' A state of restlessness and 
agitation, with general indisposition, and a dis. 
tressing sense of oppression at the epigastrium. 
Inquietude, anxiety, and anguish, represent de- 
grees of the same condition. 

AOCHLE'SIA, from a., priv. and o x lo ? , 'dis- 
turbance.' Tranquillity. Calmness. 

AOR'TA, Arte'ria magna, A. crassa, A. maxi- 
ma. (F.) Aorte. This name was given by 
Aristotle to the chief artery of the body. It 
may have been derived from ctoQrtofiai, 'I am 
suspended,' as it seems to be suspended from 
the heart ; or from «>;(>, ' air,' and rr^t a>, ' I 
keep,' because it was supposed to contain air. 
It is probable that Hippocrates meant by *got*i, 
the bronchia and their ramifications. The 
aorta is the common trunk of the arteries of the 
body. It arises from the left ventricle of the 
heart, about opposite to the fifth dorsal vertebra, 
passes upwards (ascending Aorta,) forms then-rent 
arch of the Aorta, and descends along the left 
of the spine (descending Aorta,) until it reaches 
the middle of the fourth or fifth lumbar verte- 
bra, where it bifurcates, to give origin to the 
common iliacs. The aorta is sometimes divided 
into the Thoracic or pectoral, and the Abdomi- 
nal. For the arteries which arise from it, &c, 
see Artery. 

AORTEURYS'MA, from aoQtJj, 'the aorta,' 
and tvQvg, ' dilated.' Aneurism of the Aorta. 
(F.) Andvrysms de V Aorte, Aortieclasie. By 
carefully auscultating over the dorsal vertebrae, 
a bellows' sound, with a deep and not always 
perceptible impulse, may be detected. 

AOR'TIC, Aor'ticus. Relating to the Aorta. 
The Aortic ventricle, (F.) Ventricle aortique, is 
the left ventricle. The Aortic valves are the 
sigmoid valves at the origin of the Aorta, &c. 

AORTIECTASIE, Aorteurysma. 

AORTITIS, Injlamma'tio Aor'tse, from Aorta, 
and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflammation 
of the aorta. 

AORTRA, AORTRON, aooroa, aoQTQor. A 
lobe of the lungs. — Hipp. 

AO'TUS, from a, privative, and ov?, 'an ear.' 
A monster devoid of ears. Gurlt. 

APAG'MA, Apoclas'ma, Apocecaulis'menon, 
from una, 'from,' and ayta, 'I remove.' Separa- 
tion, abduction, (q. vS Separation of a frac- 
tured bone. — Galenus, Foesius. 

APAGOGE, Inductio. 

APALACHINE, Ilex vomitoria— a, a feuilles 
de Prunier, Prinos — a. Gallis, Ilex vomitoria. 

APAL'LAGE, from anaXarTio, 'I change.' 
Mutation, change. It is generally taken in a 
good sense, and means the change from disease 
to health. — Hippocr. 

APALOT'ICA, from atixXot^, 'softness, ten- 
derness.' Fortuitous lesions or deformities af- 
fecting the soft parts. The first order in the 
class Tychica, of Good. 

APANTHIS'MUS, from cltzo, 'from,* and 
ttjflew, ' I flower.' The obliteration of parts 
previously inservient to useful purposes, as of 
the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus, which 
are essential to foetal existence, but are subse- 
quently unnecessary. See, also, Stuprum. 

APANTHRO'PIA, from xno, ' from,' and 




avSQwrcc;, 'man.' Detestation of man; desire 
for solitude. — Hippocrates. One of the symp- 
toms of hypochondriasis. 

APAPHRISMOS, Despumation. 
APARACH'YTUM VINUM, from a, priv. 
and naf!t X vm, ' I pour over.' The purest wine ; 
that which has not been mixed with sea-water. 

APARINE, Galium aparine. 

APARTHROSIS, Diarthrosis. 

AP'ATHY, Apathi'a, from a, privative, and 
na.&os, < affection.' (F.) Apathic. Accidental 
suspension of the moral feelings. It takes place 
in very severe diseases, particularly in malig- 
nant fevers. 

APECHE'MA, from &no, 'from,' and 77*0?, 
' sound.' Properly the action of reflecting 
sound. In medicine, it is synonymous with 
the Latin Contrajissu'ra, a counter-fissure, a 
counter-blow. — Gorrceus, Celsus. 

APECTOCEPHALUS, Acephalothorus. 

APEL'LA or APPEL'LA, Leipodermos, from 
a, priv. and pellis, 'skin.' One whose prepuce 
does not cover the glans. — Galenus, Linna?us, 
Vogel. Retraction or smallness of any other 
soft appendage. — Sagar. 

APEPS1 A, Dyspepsia. 

APE'RIEiNT, Ape'riens, Aperiti'vus, from 
aperire, (ad and pario,) 'to open.' A laxative, 
(q. v.) (F.) Aptrilif. A medicine which gently 
opens the bowels. The term had, formerly, a 
much more extensive signification, and was 
given to every substance supposed to have the 
power of opening any of the pa'ssages, and even 
the blood-vessels. 

APEE1ST ATON, Aper is' latum, from a, pri- 
vative, and TriQiOTija, 'I surround.' An epi- 
thet for an ulcer not dangerous nor considerable, 
nor surrounded by inflammation. 

APERITIF, Aperient. 

APER1T1VUS. Aperient. 

APERTOR OCULI, Levator palpebral supe- 

APERTO'RIUM, from apcrio, < I open.' An 
instrument for dilating the os uteri during la- 


APEX. The point or extremity of a part: — 
as the apex of the tongue, nose, &c. 

APH^ERESIS, Apheresis, Extirpation. 

APHASSOM'ENOS, from eLcpuacu,, 'I touch, 
I feel.' The touching of the parts of generation 
of the female as a means of diagnosis. — Hip- 
pocr. See Esaphe. 

APHELI'A, aipeXrjs, 'simple.' Simplicity. 
The simple manners of the sect of Methodists 
in teaching and practising medicine. 

APHELX'IA, from utpO.y.w, <I abstract.' Vo- 
luntary inactivity of the whole or the greater 
part of the external senses to the impressions 
of surrounding objects, during wakefulness. 
Rcverij (F.) Reverie. Dr. Good has introduced 
this into his Nosology, as well as Aphelx'ia 
socors or absence of mind — A. inten'ta or abstrac- 
tion of mind: and A. otio'sa, Stu'dium ina'nB, 
broicn study or listless musing. 

APHEPSEMA, Decoction. 

APHEPSIS, Decoction. 

APHE'RESIS or APH^'RESIS, from *<j>*i- 
qiw, ' I take away.' An operation by which any 
part of the body is separated from the other. 
Hippocrates, according to Foesius, uses the ex- 
pression Aplicercsis Sanguinis for excessive he- 

morrhage; and Sennertus, to express the condi- 
tion of an animal deprived both of the faculties 
of the mind and of the mind itself. 

APH'ESIS, from ttqnrjut, ' I relax.' A remis- 
sion. This word expresses sometimes the di- 
minution or cessation of a disease; at others, 
languor and debility of the lower extremities. 
See Languor and Remission. 

APH1LANTHROPY, Aphilanthrofpia, from 
tt, privative, (piltw, 'I love,' and a.v$oumoq, 'a 
man.' Dislike to man. Love of solitude. Vogel 
has given this name to the first degree of me- 

APH1STESIS, Abscess. 

APHODOS, Excrement. 

APHO'NIA, (F.) Aphonie, Perte de la Voix, 
from a, privative, and (/koi-jj, ' voice.' Privation 
of voice, or of the sounds that ought to be pro- 
duced in the glottis. When aphonia forms 
part of catarrh or of 'cold,' it is commonly of 
but little consequence: but when produced by 
causes acting on the nervous system, as by 
some powerful emotion, or without any appre. 
ciable lesion of the vocal apparatus, it frequently 
resists all remedies. 

Aphonia, Catalepsy — a. Surdorum, Mutitas 


APHOR'ME, dLifonurj, 'occasion.' The ex- 
ternal and manifest cause of any thing. The 
occasional cause of a disease. — Hippocrates. 

APHRCDES, 'fiothy,' from at^oc, 'foam,' 
and siSug, 'resemblance.' Applied to the blood 
and the excrements. — Hippocrates. 

APHROD1SIA, Coition, Puberty. 

APHRODISIAC, Aphrodisiacus, from A^q. 
dirt;, 'Venus.' (F.) Aphrodisiaque. Medicine 
or food believed to be capable of exciting to the 
pleasures of love; as ginger, cantharides, &c. 
They are generally stimulants. 



'Venus,' and yQxcpw, 'I describe.' Etymolo- 
gically, this term means a description of the 
pleasures of love, but it has been placed at the 
head of a work describing the venereal disease. 

APHROGALA, from *<ppog, ' foam,' and yzXx, 
'milk.' Lac spumo' sum. A name formerly given 
to milk rendered frothy by agitation. 

APHRONIA, Apoplexy. 


APHROSYNE, Insanity. 

APHTHAE, Aphtas, Apthse, from cltitw, ' f 
inflame.' Osce'du, Thrush or sore mouth, Aphtlui 
laclu'cimcn, A. lnfant'um, Lactu'cimen, Laclu- 
cim'ina, Lactu'mina, White Thrush, Milk Thrush, 
Em'phlysis aphtha, Ulcera serpen'tia Oris, Pus'- 
tula oris, Febris aphtho'sa, Angi'na aphtho'sa, 
Yesic'ulce gingiva'rum, Typhus aphthdideus. A. 
consist of roundish, pearl-coloured vesicles, 
confined to the lips, mouth, and intestinal canal, 
and generally terminating in curd-like sloughs. 
In France, the Aphthae of children, Aphthes des 
enfans, is called Muguct, Millet, Blanchet, Ca- 
tarrhe buccal and Stomatlte cremeuse pultac6e, 
Pultaceous Inflammation of the Mouth; and ge- 
nerally receives two divisions — the mild or dis- 
creet, (F.) Muguct binin oil discret, and the ma- 
lignant, (F.) Muguet malin ou confluent, the 
Black Thrush. Common Thrush is a disease 
of no consequence, requiring merely the use of 




absorbent laxatives. The malignant variety, 
which is rare, is of a more serious character. 
and is accompanied with typhoid symptoms. 

AfhthjE Adultorum, Stomatitis, aphthous — 
a. Serpentes, Cancer auuaticus. 

APHTHE G.WGR&NEVX, Cancer aquati- 


APHTHE UX, Aphthous. 

APHTHOUS, Aphtho'sus, (F.) Aphtheux. 
Belonging to aphthse; complicated with aph- 
thae; as Aphthous Fever. 

AP1ASTRUM, Melissa. 

GATA, Corpora striata. 

APILEPSIA, Apoplexy. 

APIOS, Pyrus communis. 

APIS, Bee. 

API'TES, from amov, ' a pear.' Perry.— Gor- 
roeus. i 

A'PIUM GRAV'EOLONS, Apium, Paludd- 
pium, Beli'num, Smallage. (F.) Ache. Nat. Ord. 
Umbellifera?. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. 
The plants, roots, and seeds are aperient and 
carminative. Selery is a variety of this. 

Apium Petr;eum, Bubon Macedonicum. 

Apium Petrosei.i'num, A'pium Hortcn'sS, 
Eleoseli'num (?), Grielum, Petroseli'num or 
Common Parsley. (F.) Pers'd. The root — Pc- 
Lroselinum, (Ph. U. S.) — and seeds are diuretic 
and aperient. 

APLAS'TIC, Jlplas'ticus, from a, privative, 
and 7iP.2t(Tou), 'I form.' That which is not capa- 
ble of forming; that which does not serve to 
form, or is not organizable. 

Aplastic Element; one which is unsuscep- 
tible of any farther amount of organization. — 

APLESTIA, Ingluvies, Intemperance. 

APLEU'ROS, from a, privative, and nXevQog, 
'a rib.' One without ribs. — Hippocrates. Ga- 

APLOT'OMY, ApJotom'ia, from *n?.oog, 'sim- 
ple,' and teiuo), ' 1 cut.' A simple incision. 

APNEUSTIA, Apncea, Asphyxia. 

APNCE'A, from a, privative, and nvtui, 'I re- 
spire.' Asphydcfia,Apneus'tia. Absence of respi- 
ration, or insensible respiration. Also, Or- 
thopncea, (q. v.) 

Apn(EA Infantum, Asthma Thymicum. 


APJNUS, oinvooq, same etymon. One devoid 
of respiration. An epithet applied by authors 
to cases in which the respiration is so small and 
slow, that it seems suspended. — Castelli. It is 
probable, however, that the word was always 
applied to the patient, not to the disease. 

APO, (xtzo, a prefix, denoting ' from, of, off, 
out.' Hence — 

APOBAINON, Eventus. 



APOCAPNISMUS, Fumigation. 

APOCATASTAS1S, Considentia, Restau- 




APOCENO'SIS, from uno, 'out,' and xtvtoots, 
'evacuation.' A partial evacuation, according 
to some, in opposition to Cenosis, which signi- 
fies a general evacuation. — Cullen and Swe- 
diaur apply it to morbid fluxes. 

Apocenosis, Abevacuatio— a. Diabetes melli- 
tus see Salivation— a. Vomitus pyrosis, Pyrosis. 

\POCHOREON, Excrement. 

APOCHREMPS1S, Exspuition. 

APOCH'YMA, from anoyj^u 'I pour out.' 
A sort of tar, obtained from old ships; which is 
impregnated with chloride of sodium. — Aetius, 
Paulus, Gorraus. 


APOCLASMA, Abduction, Apagma. 

APOCOPE, from ano, and y.onruv, * to cut.' 
Abscission, (q. v.) A wound with loss of sub- 
stance. Fracture with loss of part of the bone. 

APOCOPUS, Castratus. 

APOCRISIS, Contagion, Excrement, Secre- 

APOCROUS'TIC, Apocrous'tica rcmed'ia, 
from ano, 'out,' and xooviu, 'I push.' An as- 
tringent and repellent. — Galenus. 

ATOCRUSTICA, Repellents. 

APOCYESIS, Parturition. 

from ano, and xvwv, 'a dog,' because esteemed, 
of old, to be fatal to dogs. Dog's Bane, Bitter 
Dog's Bane, Milkweed, Bitterroot, Honeybloom, 
Catchfly, Flytrap, Ip'ecac. (F.) Apocin gobe- 
mnuche, A. amcr. Nat. Ord. Apocynea?. Sea;. 
Syst. Pentandria Digynia. The root of this 
plant is found from Canada to Carolina. Thirty 
grains evacuate the stomach as effectually as 
two-thirds of the amount of Ipecacuanha, by 
which name it is known in various parts of the 
eastern states. It is in the secondary list of 
the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 

Apoc"ynum Cannab'inum, Indian Hemp. 
This American plant possesses emetic, cathar- 
tic, diaphoretic and diuretic properties, and 
has been strongly recommended in dropsy. 
It has been given in decoction, — £ij of the root 
boiled in three pints of water to two. A wine- 
glassful for a dose. 

Apocynum Novje Anglije Hirsutum, Ascle- 
pias tuberosa — a. Orange, Asclepias tuberosa— 
a. Scandens, Allamanda. 

APODACRYT'ICUS, Delachrymati'vus, from 
ano, 'from,' and day.ovto, 'I weep.' A substance, 
supposed to occasion a flow of the tears, and 
then to arrest them.— Columella, Pliny,Galenus. 

APODYTK'RIUM, Coniste'rium, Spoliata 1 - 
rium, Spolia'rium, from anoSvw, ' I strip off.' 
The ante-room, where the bathers stripped 
themselves in the ancient Gymnasia. 



APOGEUSIS, Ageustia. 

APOGEUSTIA, Ageustia. 

APOGLAUCOS1S, Glaucosis. 

APOGON, Imberbis. 

APOG'ONUM, from ano, and yivouai, <I 
exist.' A living foetus in utero. — Hippocrates. 

APOLEP'SIS, from aTroXait ffatoj, <1 retain.' 
Retention, suppression. — Hippocrates. As- 

APOLEX'IS, from airolrjyw, 'I cease.' Old 
age, decrepitude. 

APOLINO'SIS, from avo, and ^,w,'a flaxen 
thread. The mode of operating for fistula in 
ano, by means of a thread of Uomolinon or Li- 
num. crudum — Hippocrates, Paulus 





APOLUTICA, Cicatrisantia. 

APOLYS'IA or APOL'YSIS, from amlvco, 
'Iloosen.' Solution. Relaxation. Debility of the 
limbs or looseness of bandages.— Erotian. Ex- 
pulsion of the foetus and its dependencies. Ter- 
mination of a disease. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

u7io, and /uav&mo, 'I learn.' Forgetfulness of 
things taught.— Hippocr. 

APOM'ELt, from ano, ' of,' and /uiXt, ' honey.' 
An oxymel (q. v ) or decoction made of honey. 
— Galen, Aetius, Paulus, &c. 

APOMEXIS, Munctio. 

APOMYEE'NAS,from anofAvVf.<tivw, 'I make 
a wry mouth.' One who pushes his lips for- 
wards, pressing them against each other. Oc- 
casionally a symptom of nervous fever. — Galen, 

APOMYTHO'SIS, from cmo/Avara, < I snore.' 
A disease in which there is stertor. — Sauvages, 

APONEUROG'RAPHY, Aponeurogra'phia, 
fiom u7rorivQtx><rig, an 'aponeurosis,' and y^a<f»;, 
' a description.' A description of the Aponeu- 

APONEUROL'OGY, Aponeurolog"ia, from 
ccroif i (iwoii;, ' an aponeurosis,' and Aoyog, ' a dis- 
course.' Jiponeurosiol'ogy. The Anatomy of 
the Aponeuroses. 


euro, 'from,' and vtvoov, 'a nerve.' Pronerva'- 
t'to, Expau'sio nervo'sa. (F.) Aponeurose, Apo- 
nivrose. The ancients called every white part 
vsvgov, and regarded the Aponeurosis as a ner- 
vous expansion. The Aponeuroses are white, 
shining membranes, very resisting, and com- 
posed of fibres interlaced. Some are continuous 
with the muscular fibres, and differ only from 
tendons by their flat form. They are called 
Aponeuroses of insertion, (F.) Aponivroses ^in- 
sertion, when they are at the extremities of 
muscles, and attach them to the bone; — Aponeu- 
roses of intersection, (F.) Aponicroses d'intersec- 
tion, if they interrupt the continuity of the 
muscle, and are continuous on both sides with 
muscular fibres. Others surround the mus- 
cle, and prevent its displacement: they are 
called enveloping Aponeuroses, (F.) Aponeuroses 
(V envcloppe. 

Aponeurosis, Fascia — a. Crural, Fascia lata 
— a. Femoral, Fascia lata — a. Iliac, Fascia iliaca. 

APONEUROTIC, Aponeurot'icus. What re- 
lates to Aponeuroses: — thus we say, Aponeuro- 
tic expansion, Aponeurotic muscle, &c. 

APONEUROT'OMY. Aponcurotom'ia, from 
anon v^wffic, ' aponeurosis,' and rt/uro), ' I cut.' 
Anatomy of aponeuroses. 

A. has, also, been proposed for the division, 
(debridement) of filaments, &c. in aponeurotic 
oponino-s, and for the section of fasciae. 


APONEVROS1S, Aponeurosis 

APON1A, from *, privative, and mvog, 
1 pain.' Freedom from pain. 

APON1PS1S, Ablution. 

APOPALLE'SIS or APOPAL'SIS, from,7i'J.).Xu), ' I throw off.' Expulsion. Protru- 
sion. — Hippocr. Also, Abortion, (q. v.) 


excrements, and the place where they are de- 
posited. — Dioscorides, Erotian. 

APOPEDASIS, Luxation. 

Errhine — a. per os, Sialogogue. 

lison'ta, Apopklcgmatis' mi, from mo, ' out,' and 
<p/.ty //*, ' phlegm.' Medicines which facilitate 
the upward expulsion of mucus from the mu- 
cous membrane of the digestive or air passages ; 
as gargles, masticatories, &c. 

APOPHLEG'MATISM, Apopklcgmatis 'mus. 
The action of Apophlegmatisantia. — Galen. 

APOFHLEGMATISMI, Apophlegmatisantia. 

APOPH'RADES, from an^q^q, < unlucky.' 
An epithet applied to unlucky days, (dies ne- 
fandi.) Days on which a favourable change is 
not expected to occur in a disease. — A. Lau- 

A POPH RAXIS, Amenorrhoea. 

from ana, and $3£(§<u, ' I corrupt.' Abortion, as 
well as a medicine to procure abortion. 

APOPHTHORA, Abortion. 


APOPHYADES, from aT», 'from,' and ifvw, 
' I spring.' The ramifications of veins and ar- 
teries. — Hippocr. 

APOPHYSE BAS1LAIRE, Basilary process 
— a. Engainunte ou vaginale, Vaginal process — 
a. Pyramidale, see Temporal Bone — a. Petree, 
see Temporal Bone. • 

cesses of the vertebrae. 

APOPH'YSIS, from anc, 'from,' and (pvu, 
' I rise,' Edphysis, Proces'sus, Appendix. A pro- 
cess of a bone. When the apophysis is yet 
separated from the body of the bone by inter- 
vening cartilage, it is called Epiphysis. The 
apophyses or processes are, at times, distin- 
guished by epithets, expressive of their form: 
as A. styloid, A. coracoid, &c. Others are not 
preceded by the word apophysis; as Trochanter, 
Tuberosity, &,c. 

Apoph'vsis of Ingras'sias is a term applied 
to the lesser ala of the sphenoid bone. 

Apophysis of Rau, Grele apophysc du Mar- 
teau: see Malleus. 

APOPIES'MA, from enronutw, ' I compress.' 
Hippocrates uses the term to signify a fancied 
expression or forcing out of humours, by the ap- 
plication of bandages in wounds and fractures. 

APOPLANESIS, Error loci. 

APOPLECTIC, Apoplec'ticus. Referring to 
Apoplexy. This word has various significa- 
tions. It is applied, ]. To individuals labour- 
ing under apoplexy: 2. To remedies proper for 
combating apoplexy: 3. To the constitution, 
lcmperament,or make, Arcliilectu'ra apop!ec'tica, 
which predisposes to it: and, 4. To the symp- 
toms, which characterize apoplexy; as Apoplec- 
tic sleep, A. stroke, (q. v.) A. stertor, &c. The 
jugular veins have also, by some, been called 
Apoplectic veins. — Vena apoplec' ticcc. 

Apoplectic Cell. The cavity remaining in 
the encephalon, after the effusion of a clot into it. 

APOPLEXIA, Apoplexy— a. Catalepsia,Cata- 
lepsia — a. Cordis, Hcemocardiorrhagia — a. Hy- 
drocephalica, Hydrocephalus intemus — a. He- 
patica, Hepatorrhagia — a. Medullaris,Apoplexia 
myelitica — a. Mpningosa, Apoplexy, meningeal 

Apoplexia Myelitica; A. Medvllaris, A. 
Spina' lis. A. Rhachiu'lis, Hamorrha'chis, (F.) 




Apoplexie de la Moelle ipinihc, Hemorrhagic de 
la Moelle ipiniere, He'mato-mydlie, Htm.o-my'elor- 
rhagie. Hemorrhage into the spinal marrow. 

Apoplexia Nervosa, Apoplexy, nervous— a. 
Pulmonalis, see Hemoptysis — a. Pulmonum, 
see Hemoptysis — a. Renalis, Apoplexy, renal — 
a. Rhachialis, A. myelitica — a. Spasmodica, 
Apoplexy nervous — a. Simplex, Apoplexy, ner- 
vous — a. Spinal, Apoplexia myelitica — a. Temu- 
lenta, see Temulentia. 

rebri — a. Cerebrate, Apoplexy, Hemorrhagic ce- 
rebral c. 

dering Apoplexy.' A form of apoplexy, which 
is intense and rapidly fatal. 

APOPLEXIE MEKWGltE, Apoplexy, me- 
ningeal — a. De la Moelle itpiniere, Apoplexy, 

AP'OPLEXY, Apoplexia, from aTon?.t;rrttv, 
' to strike with violence.' At the present day, the 
term apoplexy is employed by many writers to 
signify interstitial hemorrhage, (F.) Hemor- 
rhagic inter slilielle, or every effusion of blood, 
which occurs suddenlj' into the substance of or- 
gans or tissues. Hence, we speak of cerebral 
apoplexy, pulmonary apoplexy, ike. &c. For- 
merly it was always — and still is by many — used 
in an entirely symptomatic sense, — to signify, 
in other words, the train of phenomena, which 
characterize cerebral apoplexy This disease, 
Hamorrha'gia Cer'ebri, Aphro'nia, Cams Apo- 
plex'ia, Coma Apopkx'ia, Pulpez'ia, Sidera'tio, 
Apilepsia, Morbus atton'itus, Gutta, Theople'gia, 
Theoplex'ia, (F.) Apoplexie, A. cdrebrak, He- 
mato-encephalie, Coup de sang, is characterized 
by diminution, or loss of sensation and mental 
manifestation ; by the cessation, more or less 
complete, of motion ; and by a comatose state, — 
circulation and respiration continuing. It ge- 
nerally consists in pressure upon the brain; 
either from lurgescence of vessels, or from ex- 
travasation of blood; hence the terms Hwmcn- 
ceph'alus, Hemorrhagic cerdbrale, and Hemo- 
mcephalorrhagie, applied to it by some. The 
general prognosis is unfavourable ; especially 
when it occurs after the age of 35. When A. 
is accompanied with a hard, full pulse, and 
flushed countenance, it is called Apoplexia sail- 
guinea, Cataph'ora coma; when with a feeble 
pulse and pale countenance, and evidences of 
serous effusion, Apoplexia serosa, A. pituitosa, 
Serous apoplexy, Cataphora hydroccphalica, Hy- 
dro-encephalorrhee. (Piorry.) Hydropisic cire- 
brale suraigu'e, Hydr or rhagie 1 . 

In Nervous Apoplexy, Apoplexia nervosa, seu 
spasmodica, A. simplex, simple apoplexy, no le- 
sion whatever may be perceptible on dissection, 
although the patient may have died under all the 
phenomena that are characteristic of apoplexy. 

Apoplexy of the Heart, Haemo-cardiorrhao-ia. 

Apoplexy MEXitiGi.' al, Apoplex'iavicningse'a, 
(F.) Apoplexie miningee, Hemorrhagic mtnin- 
gie. Hemorrhage from the meninges of the 
brain or spinal marrow — generally into the 
great cavity of the arachnoid. 

Apoplexy, Nervous, see Apoplexy — a. Pul- 
monary see Hemoptysis — a. Simple, A. Nervous. 

Apolexy, Renal, Apopkx'ia rena'lis. A con- 
dition of the kidney, characterized by knotty, 
irregular, tuberculated eminences, some of a 
deep black colour. Effusion of blood into the 
substance of the kidney. 

Apoplexy, Spinal, Apoplexia myelitica. 

APOPNIXIS, Suffocation. 


APOPTO'SIS, from a-roTrtTrrw,' I fall down.' 
A relaxation of bandages. — Erotian. 

APORRHCE'A, from aTroootu, ' 1 flow from.' 
An emanation, effluvium, contagion, (q. v )— . 
Moschion. A falling off of the hair, according 
to some. 

ctnoo-xijTw, 'I lie down, 1 direct myself to- 
wards.' Afflux of fluids towards a part. Me- 
tastasis. The first word has been applied to 
the excrements. — Hippocr., Galen. 

APOSCEPARNIS'MUS, Deascia'tio, from 
ano and <ry.t7raprov, ' a hatchet.' Wound of the 
cranium, by a cutting instrument, in which a 
piece of the bone has been cut out, as with a 
hatchet. — Gorrseus. 

APOSCEPSIS, Aposcemma. 

aTroa-yaZia, ' I scarify.' Scarification. A slight 
superficial incision in the skin. Also, blood- 
letting. — Hippocr. 

APOS'lA, Sitis defied tus, from «, privative, 
and Trooig, ' drink.' Want of thirst, absence of 
desire for liquids. 

APOSI'TIA, from ano, 'from,' and o-no;, 
'food.' Aversion for food.— Galen. See Disgust. 

APOSIT'IC, Aposit'icus; the same etymo- 
logy. Any substance which destroys the ap- 
petite, or suspends hunger. 

APOSPAS'MA, from cwrsa-rraw, ' I tear or la- 
cerate.' Rhegma ligamenta'rS, Lacera'tio liga- 
menta'ria. (F.J Arrachement (q. v.) A solu- 
tion of continuity, especially of a ligament. 

APOSPHACELE'SIS, Aposphacelis'mus, 
from «?ro, and o~<p axtXog, ' mortification.' Gan- 
grene in wounds and fractures, owing to the 
bandages being too tight — Hippocr. 

APOSPHINXTS, a7r<,o-<piy--i;; constriction, 
compression. The action of a tight bandage.— 

APOSPONGIS'MUS, the act of sponging for 
any purpose. — Gorroeus. 

from ano, 'from,' and orulatw, 'I flow.' The 
ancient name for the saccharine liquor which 
flows from grapes when not yet pressed. 

APOS'TASIS, from ct;ro,and io-r»;iii, ' I stop.' 
The ancients had different significations for this 
word. It was most commonly used for an ah- 
scess. The separation of a fragment of bone 
by fracture. Removal of disease by some ex- 
cretion, &c. 

APOSTAX'IS, from a7raora$o>, 'I distil 
from.' The defluxion of any humour, as of 
blood from the nose.— Hippocr. Staxis (q. v.) 

APOSTE'MA,from ano, 1 from,' and is-ryu, 
'I settle,' or from acpio-jr^a, <I recede from.' 
This word is used by the ancients, somewhat 
vaguely. It meant an affection in which parts, 
previously in contact, are separated from each 
other by a fluid collected between them. The 
moderns regard it as synonymous with Abscess. 
(q. v.) Some, even of the moderns, have ap- 
plied it to any watery tumour, and even to 
tumours in general. 

Aposte^a Cerebri, Encephalopyosis— a. 
Empyema, Empyema— a. Parulis, Parulis— 
a.Phalangum, Fourche— a. Psoaticum, Lumbar 

APOSTERIG'MA, from «.^ T ,,^ W , < I sup . 



port.' Any thing that supports a diseased 
part, as a cushion, a pillow, &c. — Galen. A 
deep-seated and inveterate disease of the intes- 
tines. — Hippocr. 

caphar 1 inacwm , Ointment of the Apostles. So 
called, because as many solid ingredients en- 
tered into its composition as there were Apos- 
tles. It contained several resins and gum 
resins, yellow wax, oil, vinegar, verdigris, &c. 
and was formerly employed as a vulnerary. 

APOS'TROPHE, from <wro, and axqiifm, ' 1 
turn.' An aversion or disgust for food. — Pau- 

APOSYRMA, Abrasion, Desquamation. 

APOTELES'MA, from ano, and xe/Lio/ua, 
'completion.' The result or termination of a 
disease. See, also, Amuletum. 

APOTHANASIA, see Death. 

APOTHE'CA, FAar mace' urn, from a-ro, and 
t;<\ui, 'to place.' Any place where things 
are kept, and therefore 'a shop.' A place, 
where medicines are kept. See Pharmacopo- 

the Corporation or Society of Apothecaries of 
London, where medicines are prepared and sold 
under their direction, &c. This Company ob- 
tained a charter of incorporation in the 15th 
year of James the First. TSo general practi- 
tioner can establish himself in England or 
Wales, without having obtained a license from 
the Court of Examiners of the Company. 

APOTHECARY, Apotheca'rius, Dispensd- 
tor, Pliarmacopo'la, Pigmenta'rius, Pkarmaco- 
jtm'us, Rhizot'omus, Myropo'les, same derivation. 
(F.) Apotkicaire, Pliarmacien, Pharmacopole. 
In every country, except Great Britain, it 
means one who sells drugs, makes up prescrip- 
tions, &c. In addition to these offices, which, 
indeed, they rarely exercise, except in the case 
of their own patients, the Apothecaries in Eng- 
land form a privileged class of practitioners — 
a kind of sub-physician. 

APOTHERAPEI'A, from ano&iqantvia, {a-ro 
and AiQairsvui,) ' I cure.' A perfect cure. — Hip- 
pocr. In the ancient Gymnastics, it meant the 
last part of the exercises: — the friction, inunc- 
tion, and bathing, for the purpose of obviating 
fatigue, or curing disease. — Galen, Gorrasus. 

APOTHER'MUM, from *tio, and »%qpt n , 
1 heat.' A pickle made of mustard, oil, and 
vinegar. — Galen. 

APOTH'ESIS, from anori^rjui, »I replace.' 
The position proper to be given to a fractured 
limb, after reduction. 

APOTHICAIRE, Apothecary. 

APOTHWAIRERIE, (F.) from anod^r,, 
' a warehouse, shop.' The same as Apotheca; 
also, a gallipot. 

APOTHLIM'MA, from ano, and &X t p<a, 'I 
press from.' Anciently, the dregs, and some- 
times the expressed juice of plants. — Gorraus. 

APOTHRAU'SIS, from ano^auos, ' I break.' 
Fractuie of a bone, with spicula remaining. 
Extraction of a spiculum of bone. — Gorraeus. 
Also, Abscision, (q. v.) 

APOTILMOS, Evulsion. 

APOT'OKOS, from uxo, and tixtw, ' I bring 
forth.' An abortive foetus. — Hippocr. 

APOTOME, Amputation. 

APOTROPiEUM, Amuletum. 

APOTROPE, Aversion. 

APOXYSMUS, Abrasion. 

APOZEM, Decoction. 

A¥PARA'TlJS,lParasceu r e, from ad and pa- 
rare, ' to prepare.' This word signifies, — a col- 
lection of instruments, &c. for any operation 
whatever. (F.) Appareil. 

In surgery it means the methodical arrange- 
ment of all the instruments and objects neces- 
sary for an operation or dressing. By exten- 
sion, the French give the name Appareil, Cap- 
sa chirurgica, to the case or drawers in which 
the apparatus is arranged. 

Apparatus has likewise been applied to the 
different modes of operating for the stone. — See 

In Physiology, Apparatus (Appareil) is ap- 
plied to a collection of organs, all of which 
work towards the same end. A system of or- 
gans comprehends all those formed of a similar 
texture. An apparatus often comprehends or- 
gans of very different nature. In the former, 
there is analogy of structure ; in the latter, ana- 
logy of functions. 

Apparatus Altos, see Lithotomy. 

Apparatus, Immovable, (F.) Appareil immo- 
bile, Immovable Bandage, Permanent Bandage. 
An apparatus used for fractures, which is gene- 
rally formed by wetting the bandages in some 
substance, as starch or dextrin, which becomes 
solid, and retains the parts in situ. 

Apparatus Lateralis, see Lithotomy — a. 
Major, see Lithotomy — a. Minor, see Litho- 

APPAREIL, Apparatus, Boitier — a. Grand, 
see Lithotomy — a. Haut, see Lithotomy — a. Im- 
mobile, Apparatus, immovable — a. Lateralise, 
see Lithotomy — a. Petit, see Lithotomy — a. 
Pigmental, Pigmental apparatus. 

admits, in the brain, two kinds of fibres; the 
one, divergent, proceeding from the cerebral 
peduncles to the convolutions, and constituting 
what he calls appareils de formation : the other, 
convergent, and proceeding from the convolu- 
tions to the centre of the organ, constituting 
what he calls appareils de reunion. The first, 
as a whole, form the organs of the mental fa- 
culties : the latter are commissures, which unite 
parts of the organ that are double and in pairs. 

APPAUVRI, Impoverished. 

APPENDICE, Appendix— a. Cxcal, Appen- 
dix vermiformis caeci — a. Digital, Appendix 
vermiformis caeci — a. Itpiplo'iques , Appendicular 
epiploic^ — a. Sous-sternale, Xiphoid cartilage — 
a. Sus-spheno'idale du cerveau, Pituitary gland — 
a. Xipholde, Xiphoid cartilage. 

Appendices Coli Adipose, Appendicular 

gland — a. Vermiformis caeci, see Appendix — a. 
Epiploica, Epiploic appendage. 

ploic appendages, (q. v.) Appendic'ulx Epiplo- 
icae, Appendices coli adipo'sa. (F.) Appendices 
Epiploiqucs. Prolongations of the peritoneum 
beyond the surface of the great intestine, which 
are analogous in texture and arrangement to 

APPEN'DIX, Epiphysis, from appendere, 
'to hang from.' Any part that adheres to an 
organ or is continuous with it: — seeming as if 




added to it. An appendage, an apophysis, (q. v.) 
(F) A ppendice, Annexe. 

Appen'dix or Appendic'ula Vermifou'mis 
Cje'ci, Ec'phyas, Additamen' turn Coli, Appen'- 
dix Cceei. (F.) Appcndice vermiforme, A. cae- 
ca! ou digital. A vermicular process, the size 
of a goose-quill, which hangs from the intesti- 
num ccecum. Its functions are unknown. 

Appendix Cerebri, Pituitary gland— a. ad 
Cerebrum, Cerebellum— a. to the Epididymis, 
Vasculum aberrans — a. Ventriculi, Duodenum. 
APPENSIO, see Analeptia. 
AP'PETENCE, Appeten'tia, from appetere, 
(ad and petere,) ' to desire.' An ardent, passion- 
ate desire for any object. 
APPETIT, PERTE D\ Anorexia. 
AP'PETITE, Appeti'tus, Appeten'tia, Appc- 
ti"tia, Cupi'do, Orexfis, Orme, same etymology 
as the last. An internal sensation, which warns 
us of the necessity of exerting certain func- 
tions, especially those of digestion and genera- 
tion. In the latter case it is called venerealap- 
petile, (F.) Appetit neniricn; in the former, 
simply appetite, (F.) Appetit ou Appetition. If 
the desire for food, occasioned by a real want, 
be carried to a certain extent, it is called hun- 
ger, when solid food is concerned; thirst, when 
liquid. Appetite and hunger ought not, how- 
ever, to be employed synonymously: they are 
different degrees of the same want. Hunger is 
an imperious desire: it cannot be provoked, 
like the appetite. It is always allayed by eat- 
ing: but not so the appetite; for, at times, it 
may be excited in this manner. They are very 
generally, however, used synonymously. 
Appetite, Morbid, Limosis. 
APPLE, ADAM'S", Pomum adami— a. Bitter, 
Cucumis colocynthis — a. Curassoa, Aurantium 
curassaventium — a. May, Podophyllum pelta- 
tum — a. Root, Euphorbia corollata — a. Tree, 
Pyrus malus. 

APPLICA'TA, from applicare, (ad and pli- 
eare,) 'to apply.' A word, unnecessarily in- 
troduced into medical language, to express the 
objects which are applied immediately to the 
surface of the body, as clothes, cosmetics, 
baths, &,c. — Halle. 

APPLICATION, Applica'tio, in a moral sig- 
nification, is synonymous with Attention. Also 
the act of applying one thing to another; as the 
A. of an apparatus, of a bandage, blister, &c. 

APPREHEN'SIO, from ad and prehendcre, 
'to take.' This word is employed in various 
senses. It means catalepsy, (q. v.) or cato- 
chia. — Paul Zacchias. A kind of bandage 
for securing any part. Also, a therapeutical 

APPROCHE, Coition. 

APPROXIMATION, Appraxima'tio, from 
ad and proximus, ' nearest.' Eltmuller gave 
this name to a pretended method of curing dis- 
ease, by making it pass from man into some 
animal' or vegetable, by the aid of immediate 

APRAC'TA, from a, priv. and vqcktow, '1 
act.' Without action. An epithet for the 
parts of generation, when unfit for copulation 
or generation. 

A PRICATIO, Isolation. 
APRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca. 
APROSO'PIA, Triocephal'ia, from a. priv. 

and nvovrov, 'the face.' A malformation, 
which consists in the face being denc.ent. 

AFSINTHIA'TUM, from «i//u-5co», 'worm- 
wood.' A sort of drink made of wormwood— 

APSINTHITES, Absinthites. 

APSYCH1A, Syncope. 

At'TH^, Aphthae. 

APTYS'TOSr from a, priv. and mvoj, '1 
spit.' Devoid of expectoration. An epithet 
given to certain pleurisies, in which there h 
no expectoration. — Hippocr. 

APYETOS, from a, priv. and irvov, ' pus.' 
An external affection, which does not end in 

APYiqUE, Apyos. 

AP'YOS, from a, priv. and irvor, ' pus,' (?.) 
Apyique. That which does not afford pus. 

APYRENOMELE, Apyromele. 

APYRET'IC, Apyret'icus, from a, priv. and 
ttvq, 'fire, fever.' 'Without fever. This epi- 
thet is given to days in which there is no pa- 
roxysm of a disease ; as in the case of an inter- 
mittent ; as well as to some local affections 
which do not induce fever. Urticaria is some- 
times called an apyretic exanthem. 

APYREX'IA. The same etymology. Ab- 
sence of fever : Dialeim'ma, Intermissio. Apy- 
rexia is the condition of an intermittent fever 
between the paroxysms: the duration of the 
apyrexia, consequently, depends on the type of 
the intermittent. Occasionally, the term has 
been applied to the cessation of the febrile con- 
dition in acute diseases. _ 

a, priv. WQtjv, ' a nut,' and /ujjAjj, ' a sound.' A 
sound or probe, without a button or nut. It is 
the Melo'tis, Specil'lum auricula' rium or Auricu- 
lar sound of Galen. 

AQUA, Water— a. Acidi carbonici, Acidu- 
lous water — a. Acidula hydrosulphurata, Na- 
ples water (factitious) — a. Aeris fixi, Acidulous 
water (simple) — a. Alkalina oxymuriatica, Eau 
de Javelle — a. Aluminis compositus, Liquor a. 
c. — a. Aluminosa Bateana, Liq. aluminis com- 
positus — a. Ammonias, Liquor ammonia?— a. 
Acetatis ammonia, Liquor ammonia? acetatis— 
a. Ammonia? carbonatis, Liquor ammonias 
subcarbonatis — a. Ammonia? caustica, Liquor 
ammonia? — a. Amnii, Liquor Amnii. 

Aqua Amygdala'rum Concentka'ta, (F.) 
Eau d'Amandes ameres. Water of bitter al- 
monds. Made by bruising well two pounds of 
bitter almonds; adding, whilst triturating, ten 
pounds of spring water, and four pounds of al- 
cohol, letting the mixture rest in a well-closed 
vessel, and then distilling two pounds. Used 
instead of the Aqua Laurocerasi and the Hydro- 
cyanic acid. 

Aqua Anisi Fortis, Spiritus anisi — a. Aquis- 
granensis, see Aix-la-Chapelle — a. Ardiente, 
see Spirit — a. Auditoria, Cotunnius, Liquor of 
— a. Aqua balsamica arterialis, Aqua Binelli — a. 
Bareginensis, Bareges water — a. Bellilucana, 
Balaruc waters — a. Benedicta, Liquor calcis — 
a. Benedicta composita, Liquor calcis composi- 
tus — a. Benedicta Rulandi, Vinum antiinonii 

Aqua Bineleij, Acqua Binelli, Aqua Bal- 
sam'ica arteria'lis. A celebrated Italian he- 
mostatic, invented by one Binelli. Its compo- 
sition is unknown, but its virtues have been 
ascribed to creasote ; although there is reason 




for believing it to possess no more activity 
than cold water. 

Aqua Beocchiabi. A supposed styptic, 
Which made much noise at Paris at one time. 
It is devoid of efficacy. Dr. Paris found no- 
thing in it but water perfumed by some vege- 
table essence. 

Aqua Borvonensis, Bourbonne-les-Bains, 
mineral waters of— a. Bristoliensis, Bristol wa- 
ter—a. Calcanae usta?, Liquor calcis— a. Calcis, 
Liquor calcis— a. Calcis composita, Liquor cal- 
cis compositus— a. Camphor, Mistura cam- 
phors— a. Camphorata, Bates's, see Cupri sul- 
phas—a. Catapultarum, Arquebusade eau a". 

Aqua Cinnamo'mi, Cinnamon Water. Dis- 
tilled water of Cinnamon Bark. Prepared also 
in the following manner. 01. Cinnam. f. Zss; 
Magnes. Carbon, gss: Aq. destillat. Oij. Rub 
the oil and carbonate of magnesia ; add the 
water gradually and filter. (Ph. U. S.) 

Aqua Cinnamomi Fortis, Spiritus Cinna- 
momi — a. Colcestrensis, Colchester, mineral 
waters of — a. Cupri ammoniata, Liquor c. a. — 
a. Cupri vitriolati composita, Liquor cupri sul- 
phatis composita — a. inter Cutem, Anasarca — 
a. Destillata, Water, distilled— a. Fluviatilis, 
Water, river. 

Aqua F<enic'uli, Fennel Water. The distilled 
water of fennel seed. It may be prepared also 
like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Fontana, Water, spring — a. Fortis, Ni- 
tric acid — a. Hepatica, Hydrosulphuretted water 
— a. Hordeata, Decoctum hordei — a. Juniperi 
composita, Spiritus juniperi compositus — a. Kali, 
Liquor potass® subcarbonatis— a. Kali caustici, 
Liquor potassa? — a. Kali praparati, Liquor po- 
tassae subcarbonatis — a. Kali puri, Liquor po- 
tassa? — a. Kali subcarbonatis, Liquor potassa? 
subcarbonatis — a. Labyrinthi, Cotunnius, liquor 
of— a. ex Lacu, Water, lake — a. Lithargyri ace- 
tati composita, Liquor plumbi subacetatis dilu- 
tus — a. Lucia?, Spiritus ammonia? succinatus — 
a. Marina, Water, sea— a. Medicata, Water, mi- 

Aqua Mentha Pipehi't^;, PeppermintWater. 
The distilled water of peppermint. It may be 
prepared like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Mentha PipehitidisSpikituosa, Spi- 
ritus mentha? piperita — a. Menthoe viridis, Spear- 
mint water, see Aqua mentha? piperita? — a. Men- 
tha? vulgaris spirituosa, Spiritus menthae viridis 
— a. Mineralis, Water, mineral— a. Mirabilis, 
Spiritus pimentoe — a. Mulsa, Hydromeli — a. 
Natri Oxymuriatici, Liquor soda; chlorinate — 
a. Neapolitana, Naples water (factitious) — a. 
Nephritica, Spiritus myristicee— a. Nivata, Wa- 
ter, snow — a. Nucis moschatae, Spiritus myris- 
tica? — a. Ophthalmica, Liquor zinci sulphatis 
cum camphora — a. Paludosa, Water, marsh — a. 
Picea, see Pinussylvestris — a. Pluvialis, Water, 
rain — a. Potassa?, Liquor potassa? — a. Pulegii 
spirituosa, Spiritus pulegii — a. Putealis, "Water, 
well — a. Rabelii, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. Ra- 
phani composita, Spiritus armoracia? compositus 
— a. Regia, Nitro-muriatic acid. 

Aqua Ro ste, Rose Water. (Ros.centifol-V5v\iy. 
Aqua, cong. ij. M. Distil a gallon — Ph. U. S.) 

Aqua Saeubrjs, Water, mineral — a. Sappha- 
rina, Liquor cupri ammoniata — a. Saturni, Li- 
quor plumbi subacetatis dilutus — a. Sclopetaria, 
Arquebusade eau d' — a. Seminum anisi compo- 
pita, Spiritus anisi — a. Seminum carui fortis, 
Spiritus carui — a. Soteria, Water, mineral— a. 

Stygia, Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Styptica, Liquor 
cupri sulphatis composita — a. Sulphurata sim- 
plex, Hydrosulphuretted water — a. Sulphureti 
ammonia?, Liquor fumans Boylii — a. Thediana, 
Arquebusade eau d' — a. Theriacalis Bezoardica, 
Chylostagma diaphoreticum Mindereri — a. To- 
fana, Liquor arsenicalis — a. Traumatica The- 
denii, Arquebusade eau d' — a. Vegeto-mineralis, 
Liquor plumbi subacetatis dilutus — a. Viciensis, 
Vichy water — a. Vitriolica camphorata, Liquor 
zinci sulphatis cum camphora — a. Vitriolica 
caerulea, Solutio sulphatis cupri composita — a. 
Vulneraria, Arquebusade eau d" 1 — a. Zinci vitri- 
olati cum camphora, Liquor zinci sulphatis cum 

AQUiE ACIDUL^E, Acidulous waters— a. 
Badiguae, Bath, Mineral waters of— a. Badiza?, 
Bath, Mineral waters of — a. Bathonia?, Bath, 
Mineral waters of— a. Buxtonienses, Buxton, 
Mineral waters of — a. Cantuarienses, Canter- 
bury, waters of. 

Aquje Destilla'jve, Distilled Waters, Hydro- 
la'ta,(F.) Hydrolats. These are made by putting 
vegetable substances, as roses, mint, penny- 
royal, &c, into a still with water, and drawing 
off as much as is found to possess the aromatic 
properties of the plant. To every gallon of the 
distilled water, 5 oz. of spirit should be added 
to preserve it. The simple distilled tcaters are 
sometimes called Aquse stillatit" isa sim'pliccs : the 
spirituous, Aquse stillalil" iee spiriluo' sa, but more 
commonly Spir'ilus. 

Aqu.5: Minerales Acidclje, Waters, mine- 
ral, gazeous — a. Minerales ferruginosa?, Waters, 
mineral, chalybeate — a. Minerales sulphurea?, 
Waters, mineral, sulphureous — a. Stillatitia?, 
Aqua? destillata? — a. Solis, Bath mineral waters. 
AQUjEDUC'TUS, Aq'ueduct, from aqua, 'wa- 
ter,' and ducere,ductum, 'to lead.' (F.) Jlqueduc. 
Properly, a canal for conducting water from 
one place to another. Anatomists have used 
it to designate certain canals. 

Aqujeductus Cerebri, lnfundibulum of the 
brain — a. Cotunnii, Aqua?ductus vestibuli. 

Aqu^educ'tus Coch'leje, (F.) Aqueduc du 
Limagon; — a very narrowcanal, which proceeds 
from the tympanic scala of the cochlea, to the 
posterior edge of the pars pctrosa. 

Aqu^duc'tus Fallo'pii, Canal spiro'ide de 
I'os temporal of Chaussier, Aqueduc de Fallope. 
A canal in the pars petrosa of the temporal 
bone, which extends from the meatus audito- 
rius internusto the foramen stylo-mastoideum. 
and gives passage to the facial nerv<?. The 
opening into this aqueduct is called Hia'tus 

Aqu^duc'tus Syl'vii, Aqueduc de Sylvius, 
Iter ad quartum ventric'ulum, Cana'lis me'dius, 
Canal inter mid iaire des ventricules of Chaussier. 
A canal forming a communication between the 
third and fourth ventricles of the brain. 

Aqu/educ'tus Vestib'uli, or Aquseductus 
Cotun'nii, (F.) Aqueduc du vestibuleou Aqueduc 
da Cotugno. This begins in the vestibule, near 
the common orifice of the two semicircular ca- 
nals, and opens at the posterior surface of the 
purs petrosa. 

AQUALIC'ULUS, from aqualis, 'a water- 
pot.' That part of the abdomen which extends 
from the umbilicus to the pubes. See Hypo- 
gastrium. It has also been applied to the 
stomach or intestinal canal. 

AQUASTER. A word used, by Paracelsus, 




to express the visions or hallucinations of pa- 

AQUEDUC, Aqueduct — Colvgno, Aqua> 
ductus vestibuli — a. de Fallope, Aquasductus 
Fallopii — a. du Limaron, Aquaeductus cochleae 
—a. de Sylvius, Aqueeductus Sylvii — a. du Ves- 
tibule, Aquscductus vestibuli. 

AQUEDUCT, Aquasductus. 

A'QUEOUS, Aquo'sus, Hydato'dcs, Hijdro'- 
des, from aqua, 'water,' (F.) Aqueux. Watery. 

The absorbents or lymphatics are sometimes 
called, in France, Conduits ou Canaux aqueux. 

Aqueous Humour ok the Eve, Humor 
aquo'sus, Albugineous humour, Ooei'des, wcsi- 
^ii;,Hijdatoi'des,'vduTon3rjc, Oca'tus seu Ovifor 1 - 
tnis humor, (F.) Humeur aqueuse. The lim- 
pid fluid which fills the two chambers of the 
eye, from the cornea to the crystalline, and 
which is, consequently, in contact with the two 
surfaces of the iris. Quantity, 5 or 6 grains: s. g. 
1.0003. It contains gelatin, albumen, chloride of 
sodium, and phosphate of lime in small quantity; 
and is enveloped in a fine membrane: — the mem- 
brane of the aqueous humour — Tunica propria seu 
VagHna humo'ris a'quei, seu Membra'na Demu- 
ria'na seu Descemet'ii, Membra 'ne of Dcmours, or 
of Descemet ; although these last terms are by 
some appropriated to a third layer of the cornea. 

AQUIDUCA, Hydragogues. 

AQUIFOLlUxW, Ilex aquifolium — a. Foliis 
deciduis, Prinos. 

AQU1LA, Hydrargyri submurias, Sulphur. 

The alchymists used this word for sublimed 
sal ammoniac, precipitated mercury, arsenic, 
sulphur, and the philosopher's stone. See Hy- 
drargyri Submurias, and Sulphur. 

Aq/uila Ccelest'is; a sort of panacea, of 
which mercury was a constituent. 

Aq'uu.a LACH'citvjriE; a liquor prepared from 
several ingredients, especially from calomel. 

Aq/uila Philosopho'rum. The alchymists, 
whose terms were always mysterious, called 
mercury thus, when reduced to its original 

Ao.'uila Ven'eris; an ancient preparation, 
made by subliming verdigris and sal ammoniac. 

AQUIL^E VEN.E, Temporal veins. 

lombine or Columbine, (F.) Ancolie. The seeds, 
herb, and flowers were formerly used in jaun- 
dice and cutaneous diseases. They are still 
retained in many of the Pharmacopoeias of con- 
tinental Europe. 

AQUO-CAPSULITIS, Aquo-membranitis. 

AQUO-MEMBRAN1TIS, Kcratolri'tis, Aquo- 
capsuli'tis. Inflammation of the anterior cham- 
ber of the eye. A badly compounded term, de- 
noting inflammation of the capsule or mem- 
brane of the aqueous humour. 

AQUULA. Ceratocele, Hydatid, Hydroa — 
a. Acustica, Cotunnius, liquor of. 

Aquula seu Aqua Morgagnii. The minute 
portion of water, which escapes when an open- 
ing is made into the capsule of the crystalline. 

ARA PARVA, a small altar; — a kind of ban- 
dage invented by Sostratus, which represents 
the corners of an altar. — Galen. 

AR'ABE; a wound, a blow. — Erotian. 

Ar'uMc Htpat'ic An'lidote. A powder, com- 
posed of myrrh, costus, white pepper, &c. It 
was administered in new wine. 

ARAB'ICUS LAPIS. A sort of white mar- 

ble found in Arabia, and analogous to alabaster. 
It was regarded as an absorbent and desicca- 
tive and was employed in hemorrhoids. 

AR'ABIS MALAG'MA. An anti-scrofulous 
medicine, composed of myrrh, olibanum, wax, 
sal ammoniac, iron pyrites, &c. — Celsus. 

bians kept the torch of medical science illumi* 
nated during a dark period of the middle ages. 
Before the year of the Hegira, they had schools 
of medicine; but these were most flourishing 
during the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries. The 
chief ^additions made by them to medical sci- 
ence were in the departments of pharmacy 
and in the description of diseases. Their prin- 
cipal writers were Avicenna, Serapion, Aver- 
rhoes, Hali Abbas, Moses Maimonides, Aven- 
zoar, Rhazes, Albucasis, *fec. 

AR'ACHIS HYPOGE'A, Ground nut, Pea 
nut; erroneously called Pistachio nut, in the 
South ; Pindars of the West Indies. Cultivated 
in the Southern States. The seeds are oily and 
are eaten. A kind of inferior chocolate may 
be made of them. 

ARACH'NE, xoxxvy, 'a spider, a cobweb.' 
Hence — 

flammation of the Arachnoid. A variety of 
phrenitis; which see. 

dia, Arachno'ideus, Arachno'des, from aoa/vr], 'a 
cobweb,' and eidoc, 'form, resemblance.' Tu- 
nica ara'nta, Tu'nica arachno'des, Menin' gion. 
A name given to several membranes, which, by 
their extreme thinness, resemble spider-webs.— 
Celsus and Galen called thus the membrane of 
the vitreous humour, — the tunica hyaloidea. 
The moderns use it now for one of the mem- 
branes of the brain, situate between the dura 
mater and pia mater. It is a serous membrane, 
and composed of two layers; the external being 
confounded, in the greater part of its extent, 
with the dura mater, and, like it. lining the in- 
terior of the cranium and spinal canal: the 
other being extended over the brain, from which 
it is separated by the pia mater, without pass- 
ing into the sinuosities between the convolu- 
tions, and penetrating into the interior of the 
brain by an opening at its posterior part under 
the corpus callosum. It forms a part of the 
investing sheath of the nerves, as they pass 
from the encephalic cavities. Its chief uses 
seem to be; — to envelop, and, in some mea- 
sure, protect the brain, and to secrete a fluid 
for the purpose of keeping it in a state best 
adapted for the proper performance of its func- 


ARACK/, Arrack'; (East Indian.) Aspirituous 
liquor made in India in various ways, often from 
rice, sometimes from sugar fermented along 
with the juice of the cocoa nut: frequently from 
toddy, the juice which flows from the cocoa nut 
tree by incision, and from other substances. It 
is a strong, heating spirit. 

Arack, Mock, is made by adding Qijof Ben- 
zoic acid to a quart of rum. The celebrated 
Vauxhall punch is made with such arack. 

ARACOUCH1NI, Icica aracouchini. 


AR'ADOS, from u^aStu,, 'I am turbulent.' 
Ihe agitation excited in the stomach by the 
coction of aliments of different nature —Hip- 



pocr. Likewise, the motion produced by ca- 

AR.EOT'ICA, from anaioui, 'I rarefy.' Me- 
dicines supposed to have the quality of rarefy- 
ing the humours. See Rarefaciens. 

ARAKI, see Spirit. 

ARALIA CANADENSIS, Panax quinquefo- 

Ara'lia His'pida, dicurf elder, is said to be 
diuretic, and has been recommended, in decoc- 
tion, in dropsy. 

Ara'lia Nudicau'lis, JVardus America'nus, 
Small Spikenard, Wild Liq'uoricc, Sweet root, 
False Sarsaparil'la, (F.) Petit nard. This Ameri- 
can plantissaid to beamildstimulantand diapho- 
retic, and has been recommended as a substitute 
for the sarsaparilla. It is used, also, as a tonic. 
It is in the secondary list, Pharm. United States. 

Ara'lia'sa, American Spikenard, has 
the same properties as A. Nudicanlis. 

Ara'lia Spino'sa, Angel'ica Tree, Prickly 
Ash, Toothacli Tree, Spikenard Tree, Prickly 
Elder, Shotbus/t, Pigeon Tree. Its properties 
are not clear. The berries, and a tincture of 
them have been employed, it is said, success- 
fully in tootliach. A spirituous infusion has 
also been used in colic. 

ARANEA, Araneffi Tela — a. Tarentula, see 

ARA'NEiE TELA, Ara'nea, Ara'neum, Cob- 
web, (F.) Toilc d'Araignde. Formerly, this 
substance was much employed, and supposed 
to possess extraordinary virtues, especially 
when applied to the wrists. It has been re- 
cently used again in intermittents. It is a me- 
chanical styptic, and is so applied, externally, 
at times. 

ARANEO'SA URI'NA. A term applied to the 
urine when loaded with filaments, like cobwebs. 

ARANEO'SUS PULSUS; a term employed 
to express extreme weakness of pulse; when 
the movements resemble those of a delicate net 
raised by the wind. 

ARANEUM, Aranete Tela. 

Ara'neum Ulcus, Astakil'los. A name given 
by Paracelsus to a malignant, gangrenous ul- 
cer, extending from the feet to the legs. 

ARARA, Myrobalanus citrina. 

ARASCON, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 

ARATRUM, Vomer. 

ARAUCARIA DOMBEYI, Dombeya excelsa. 

ARBOR BENIVI, Benjamin— a. Indica, Lau- 
rus cassia — a. Maris, Coral — a. Thurifera, Ju- 
niperus Lycia. 

Arbor Vit^e, (F.) Arbre de vie. A name 
given to an arborescent appearance, observed 
on cutting the cerebellum longitudinally; and 
which results from the particular arrangement 
of the white substance with the cineritious. 
Also, the Thuya occjdentalis, (q. v.) 

AR'BORES. A morbid alteration of the skin, 
which precedes its ulceration. Ruland. 

ARBOUSIER, Arbutus unedo. 

ARBRE DE VIE. Arbor Vita;. 

ENSIS, Hypericum Bacciferum. 

AR'BUTUS UVA URSI, ArctoslapU'ylos, 
Uvae Ursi Fo'lia. Nat. Ord. Ericeoe. Sex. Syst. 
Decandria Monogynia. (F.) Busserolle ou Rai- 
sin d'Ours. The leaves — ( Uvu Ursi, Ph. ti.*.) — 
of this plant are tonic and astringent, and have 
been employed, chiefly, in diseases of the uri- 
nary organs. Dose of powder from gr. xv. to 

3ss. The English names are Bear , s Whortleberry, 
or Bcarberry, Mountainbox, Rcdberry, Upland 
Cranberry, Foxberry, Checkerbcm/. 

Ak'cutus Une'uo, Andrach'nS, line' do, line' do 
papyra'cea, xopaoog, (F.) Arbousicr. A decoc- 
tion of the leaves is astringent, and has been 
used in diarrhoea. 

ARC or ARCH, Arms. Any part of the body 
resembling an arch in form; as the Arch of the 
colon, (F.) Arc du colon: — the transverse portion 
of that intestine: — Arch of the aorta, Arcus 
aor'tm, (F.) Crosse de I'Aorte, &c: the turn 
which the aorta takes in the thorax. 

Arch, Anastomotic, (F.) Arcade anastomo- 
tiquc, is the union of two vessels, which anas- 
tomose by describing a curved line. The ves- 
selsofthe mesentery anastomose in thismanner. 

Arches of the Palate. These are two in 
number on each side of the throat, one of 
which is termed anterior, the other posterior. 

The anterior arch arises from the middle of 
the velum palati, at the side of the uvula, and 
is fixed to the edge of the base of the tongue. 

The posterior arch has its origin, likewise, 
from the side of the uvula, and passes down- 
wards to be inserted into the side of the pha- 
rynx. The anterior arch contains the circum- 
flexus palati, and forms the isthmus faucium. 
The posterior arch has, within it, the levator 
palati: and between the arches are the tonsils. 

ARCA ARCANORUM, Hydrargyrum— a. 
Cordis, Pericardium. 

tomotic — a. Crurale, Crural arch — a. Inguinale, 
Crural arch — a. Orbilaire, Orbitar arch — a. Pit- 
bienne, Pubic arch — a. Zygomatique, Zygomatic 

ARCADES DEJVTAIRES, Dental arches— u. 
Palmaires, Palmar arches. 


(F.) Baumed'Arcceus. A kind of soft ointment 
used in sores, contusions, &c. It is made by 
melting two parts of mutton suet, one part of 
hog's lard: of turpentine and rosin, each one 
part and a half: straining and agitating till cold. 

ARC ANSON, Colophonia. 

ARCA'NUM, from ar'ca,' a chest.' A secret, 
a nostrum, (F.) Arcane. A remedy whose com- 
position is kept spcrel; but which is reputed 
to possess great efficacy. 

Arcanum Corallinum, Hydrargyri nitrico- 
oxydum — a. Duplicatum, Potassre sulphas — a. 
Tartari, Potassae acetas. 

ARCATOS, Meros. 

ARCEAU, Arculus, Cradle. 

ARCEUTOS, Juniperus communis. 

ARCHjE'US, Archeus, from un/r^, 'com- 
mencement,' (F.) Archee. A word invented by 
Basil Valentine, and afterwards adopted by 
Paracelsus and VanHelmont. The latter used 
it for the internal principle of our motions and 
actions. This archosus, according to Van Hel- 
mont, is an immaterial principle, existing in 
the seed prior to fecundation, and presiding 
over the development of the body, and over all 
organic phenomena. Besides this chief ar- 
chaius, whose seat Van Helmont placed in the 
upper orifice of the stomach, he admitted seve- 
ral of a subordinate character, which had to 
execute its orders; one, for instance, in each 
organ, to preside over its functions; each of 




them being subject to anger, caprice, terror, and 
every human failino-. 

ARCHANGELICA, Lamium album. 

AROHE, cLQxr t ,Inil"ium, Princip'ium. Inva'sio. 
The first attack of a disorder. 

ARCHEE, Archaus. 

AFLCHELL, CANARY, Lichen roccella. 

ARCHELOG"IA,from«(>; r »;,'beginning,'and 
Zoyoc;, 'a discourse.' A treatise on fundamental 
principles; — of medicine, for example. 

ARCHEN'DA. A powder of the leaves of 
the ligustrum, used by the Egyptians after 
bathing, to obviate the unpleasant odour of the 
feet. — Prosper Alpinus. 

ARCHIA'TER; Protomed'icus, Protia'tros, 
from agytj, ' authority,' and iciroog, ' physician. 
The original signification of this word is a 
matter of dispute. Some consider with Mer- 
curialis, that it meant physician to a prince, 
king, emperor, &c; others, with C. Hoffman, 
apply it to every physician who, by his situa- 
tion, is raised above his colleagues. The former 
opinion seems to have prevailed, — Archiatre des 
Rois de France, being applied to the chief phy- 
sician to the king. 

ARCHIG"ENT MORBI. Acute diseases; be- 
cause they hold the first rank: from zqxVi '^ e ' 
ginning,' and yirouai, ' I am.' 

ARCHIMAG1A, Chymistry. 

Archingeay is situate in France, three leagues 
from St. Jean d'Angely. The waters are prized 
in all diseases. They seem to contain carbo- 
nate of lime, a little chloride of sodium, carbo- 
nate of iron, and some bitumen. 

plectic make. 

ARCHITIS, Proctitis, Rectitis. 

ARCHOPTOSIS, Proctocele. 

ARCHORRHA'GIA from aQ X e s , 'the anus,' 
and Qtw, ' I flow.' Archorrha/a. Hemorrhage 
from the anus. 

ARCHORRHCEA, Archorrhagia. 

ARCHOS, Arcus, Rectum. 

ARCHOSYRINX, Fistula in ano. 

AR'CIFORM, Arcifur'mis, from arx, arris, 'a 
top or ridge,' and forma, 'shape.' An epithet 
given to certain fibres of the anterior pyramids 
of the medulla oblongata, which take a curved 
course around the inferior extremity of each cor- 
pus olivare and ascend towards the cerebellum. 

ARCTA'TIO and ARCTITU'DO, from arc- 
to, '1 make narrow.' Contraction, (F.) Retre- 
cissement, of a natural opening or of a canal, 
and especially of the vulva, of the orifice of the 
uterus, orof the intestinal canal. Constipation. 
Reunion by suture or infibulation. — Scribonius 
Largus, Paul Zacchias, &c. 

ARCTITUDO, Arctatio. 

ARCTIUM LA PPA. The root and seed of 
the Clit-lnir, Barda'na, Arctium, Flaphis, Lappa 
glabra, Lappa major, L. persona' tu, Burdock, 
(F.) Bardane, Glouteron. Nat. Ord. Com positae. 
Sex. Sijst. Syngenesia requalis. Root diuretic: 
seed cathartic. It has been used in decoction 
in diseases of the skin and in syphilis. 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS, Arbutus uva ursi. 

ARCTU'RA, from arcto, ' I straighten.' The 
effects of a nail grown into the flesh, .irctu'ra 
unguis. — Linnius. 

ARCUA'TIO, Concava'tio. An anterior gib- 

bosity or projection of the sternum 

ERS OF. Ar- 

cueil is about one league south of Paris. The 
water contains carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, 
sulphate of lime, chloride of sodium, and some 
deliquescent salts. 

A celebrated society held its meetings at this 
village, of which Berthollet, Humboldt, La 
Place, &c. were members. 

ARCULA CORDIS, Pericardium. 

ARCUL^E. The Orbitar Fossa?: vothdcg.— 
Rufus of Ephesus. 

ARCULUS, diminutive of arcus, 'an arch.' 
A small arch; a cradle, (q. v.) (F.) Arccau, Ar- 
diet. A semicircular box or basket used for 
preventing the coverings of the body from 
coming in contact with injured or diseased 
parts. An ordinance of the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany forbade mothers to sleep with an in- 
fant near them, unless it was put under a solid 

ARCUS MEDULLARIS, Fornix— a. Seni- 
lis, Gerotoxon. 

ARDALOS, Excrement. 

ARDAS, Excrement. 

ARDENT, ardens, from ardcre, ' to burn.' 

Ardent Fever, (F.) Fievre ardente. The 
Causus, Synocha, or inflammatory fever. 

Mal des Ardens. A name given to a spe- 
cies of pestilential erysipelas, or Saint Anthony's 
Fire, which reigned epidemically in France in 

Ardent or Inflamed Eyes, (F.) Yeux ar- 
dens. So called when they are injected red. 

Ardent Urine, (F.) Urine ardente. When 
it is of a deep red. 

ARDESIA HIBERN1CA, Hibernicus lapis. 

ARDEUR, Ardor — a. du Cozur, Cardialgia— a. 
d'Estomac, Ardor ventriculi, Pyrosis — a.dela 
Fievre, Ardor Febrilis — a. a" Urine. Ardor Urine. 

AR'DOR, (F.) Jirdeur. Heat,'(q. v.) A feel- 
ing of burning, of violent heat; JEstus, JEslu- 
a'tio, Causo'ma. 

Ardor Feeri'lts, (F.) Ardour de la Fievre. 
The hot period of fever. 

Ardor Stomaciii, Pyrosis. 

Ardor Uiu'nje, (F.) Ardeur d'Urine. A scald- 
ing sensation occasioned by the urine in pass- 
ing over the inflamed mucous membrane of the 
urethra, or over the neck of the bladder. 

Ardor Veneheus, Heat. 

Ardor Ventric'uli, (F.) Ardeur d'Estomac 
Heartburn. See Cardialgia and Pyrosis. 

A'REA, 'a void place.' A Latin word used 
by some authors to designate a variety of Alo- 
pecia, (q. v.) in which the hair changes colour, 
but does not fall off; also, Porrio-o decalvans, 
(q. v.) 

ARE'CA. The fruit of Are'ca Cat'echu, Co- 
un'ga; Are'ca nut, Betel nut. Nat. Ord. Palmae; 
Sex. Syst. Moncecia Monadelphia; (F.) Arte, is 
astringent and tonic, and enters into the com- 
position of the Betel, the great masticatory of 
the Orientals. 

A REFACTION, Arefac'tio, paving, from 
arefacere, 'to make dry.' (arere, 'to dry,' and 
facere, «to make.') The process of drying sub- 
stances, prior to pulverization. 

ARENAMEN, Bole Armenian. 

ARENA'TIO. Sand or Earth Beth; from 
arena, 'sand.' Saburra'tio. The application of 
hot sand to the body. Peddu'via of sand were 
formerly used in Ascites. 

A RENO'S A URI'NA. Sandy Urine. Urine 
when it deposits a sandy sediment. 



ARENO'SUS, Sabulous, (q. v.) Also, one 
who passes sandy urine. 

ARE'OLA. A diminutive of A' rea. Anato- 
mists understand by Areolae, the interstices be- 
tween the fibres composing organs; or those 
existing between lamina?, or between vessels 
which interlace with each other. 

Areola is, also, applied to the coloured circle 
or Halo, which surrounds the nipple; and which 
becomes much darker during pregnancy; as 
well as to the circle surrounding certain vesi- 
cles, pustules, &c.,as the pustules of the small- 
pox, the vaccine vesicle, &c. Chaussier, in 
such cases, recommends the word Aure'ola. 
(F.) Aureole, Aire. 

AREOLAR, Areola'ris. Appertaining to an 

Areolar Exhalations are those recremen- 
titial secretions, which are effected within the 
organs of sense, or in parenchymatous struc- 
tures, — as the aqueous, crystalline and vitreous 
humours, &c. 

AREOM'ETER, Gravim'cter, Alcoblom'eter, 
ASrostal'ic Bal'ance, from aoaiog, 'light,' and 
fitTQov, 'measure:' i. e. 'measure of lightness.' 
An instrument, so called, because first employed 
to take the specific gravity of fluids lighter than 
water. The Areometer of Beaume' , which is the 
most used in Pharmacy, particularly in France, 
consists of a tube of glass, largely expanded 
towards its inferior extremity, and terminating, 
below, by a small ball, containing mercury or 
lead, which serves it as a balance, so that it may 
remain upright in the fluid. This tube is fur- 
nished with a graduated scale. If the fluid, 
into which the Areometer is plunged be 
heavier than water, the instrument rises: if 
lighter, it sinks. There are various Areometers, 
as those of the Dutch, of Fahrenheit, Nichol- 
son, &c. The Areometer is also called Hydrom'- 
eler, (F.) Ari.ovn.ltre, Ptse-liqueur . 


1. Ascending Scale for light liquids. 

Scale of 




Pure hydrocyanic acid —Oay Lus- 



Very pure sulphuric ether. 



The same concentrated. 





Equal parts of alcohol, and ether. 


819 ( 

Very pure alcohol for pharmaceuti- 


827 j 

cal purposes. 



Pure alcohol. Naphtha. 



Alcohol of commerce. 



Essential oil of turpentine. 



Hydrocyanic acid of Scheele and 


900 ) 

pure hydrocyanic acid, mixed with 

an equal portion of water. (Ro- 




906 ) 
915 i 

Acetic ether. 
Nitric ether. 



Muriatic ether. 


923 1 

Liquid ammonia. 
Olive oil. 




935 > 






Burgundy wine. 





Bordeaux wine. 


1000 Distilled wa!er. 

Descending Scale for heavy liquids. 

Scale of 










1009 I 


1180 ? 
1310 5 

1321 | 

1398 <• 


Common distilled water. 
Distilled vinegar. 
Common vinegar. 
Cow's milk. 

Concentrated acetic acid. 

Liquid hydrochloric acid. 

Boiling syrup. 
Cold syrup. 
Common nitric acid. 

Concentrated nitric acid. 

Phosphoric acid for medical use. 

Very concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Very concentrated phosphoric acid 

ARES. A term invented by Paracelsus to 
designate the principle on which depends the 
form of mercury, sulphur, and salt. These the 
alchymists regarded as the three bodies that 
give birth to every other. 

AR'ETE, aQirij, ' virtue.' Mental or corpo- 
real vigour. Hippocrates. 

A'REUS. A pessary, mentioned by Paulus 
of iEgina. 

AR'GEMA and AR'GEMON, from aqyog, 
' white.' Fos'sula. (F.) Encavure. A white 
spot or ulceration of the eye. Hippocr. See 
Leu co ma. 

A native of Mexico, but naturalized in most 
parts of the world. Nat. Ord. Papaveraceas. 
Sex. Syst. Polyandria Monogynia. The juice 
resembles gamboge, and has been used as a hy- 
dragogue. The seeds are employed in the West 
Indies as a substitute for ipecacuanha. They 
are also used as a cathartic. 

A chalybeate situate at Argenson in Dauphiny : 
used in cases of obstruction, jaundice, &,c. 

ARGENT, Argentum. 

ARGENTERIA, Potentilla anserina. 

— a. Cyanuretum, see Argentum — a. lodidum, 
see Argentum. 

Argen'ti Nitras, Ar gen' turn Nitra'lum, Sal 
argen'ti, Argentum Nit'ricum., (F.) Nitrate 
d" 1 Argent, Azotate d' Argent, Nitrate of Silver. 
This preparation is sometimes kept in crystals, 
the Nitras Argen'ti in crystal'Ios concre'tus, 
Nitrate d) Argent cristallisd of the Codex of Paris. 
Crystalli Lunas, Argen'tam nit'ricum crystal- 
lisa'tum, Nitras argenti crystal' linus, Nitrum 
luna're, Hydrago'gum Bov'i.ei. Generally, 
however, it is in the fused state : and it is this 
which is admitted into most Pharmacopoeias, 
and which, besides the name Nitras Argenti, is 
called Ni'tras argen'ti fu'sus, Caus'ti'cum lu- 
na're, Lapis inferna'lis, Argen'tum nit'ricum 
fusum, and lunar caustic. (F.) Nitrate d 'argent 
fondu, Pierre infernale. 

In the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, 
it is directed to be prepared as follows : Take 
of silver, in small pieces, §j.; nitric acid, f. ^v. 
distilled water, f |ij. Mix the acid with the 




water, and dissolve the silver in the mixture 
in a sand bath; then gradually increase the 
heat, so that the resulting salt may be dried. 
Melt this in a crucible, over a gentle fire, and 
continue the heat until ebullition ceases; then 
immediately pour it into suitable moulds. 

The virtues of nitrate of silver are tonic, 
and escharotic. It is given in chorea, epilepsy, 
&c; locally, it is used in various cases as an 
escharotic. Dose, gr. 1-8 to gr. 1-4 in pill, three 
times a day. 

When silver is combined with iodine, it is 
said to have the same effect as the nitrate, and 
not to produce the slate colour of the surface, 
which is apt to follow the protracted use of the 

ARGENTINE, Potentilla anserina. 

AKGEN'TUM,^f«s, from aoyo?,' white.' 
Silver, Luna, Dia'na, (F.) Argent. A solid 
metal of a shining white appearance: insipid; 
inodorous; highly sonorous ; malleable and 
ductile; somewhat hard ; crystallizable in tri- 
angular pyramids; fusible a little above a red 
heat, and volatizable; s. g. 10.4. Not used at 
all in medicine, unless in some places for silver- 
ing pills. Silver Leaf, Argen'tum folia' turn, 
is the state in which it is used for this purpose. 

Argentum Divi'sum, metallic silver in very 
fine powder has been recommended internally 
in syphilis. 

The Chloride Cyakuret and Iodide of 
Silver, the Oxide and the Chlorhje of Am- 
monia and Silver, have been used in syphilis. 
At first, these different preparations were ad- 
ministered iatraleptically on the gums ; the 
chloride, the cyanide and the iodide in the dose 
of l-12th of a grain; the chloride of silver and 
ammonia in the dose of l-14th of a grain, and 
the oxide of silver and divided silver in the 
dose of l-8th and l-4th of a grain. M. Serre, 
of Montpellier, who made many trials with 
them, soon found that these doses were too 
small ; he therefore raised that of the chloride 
to l-10th, and of the iodide to l-8th of a grain, 
without any inconvenience resulting. The 
dose of the other preparations was likewise in- 
creased in a similar ratio. M. Serre extols the 
preparations of silver — used internally as well 
as iatraleptically — as antisyphilitics, but they 
are not to be depended upon. 

The Cyanuret or Cyanide of Silver, Argenti 
Cyanurctum, A. Cyanidum. Argentum cyanoge- 
na'tum, (F.) Cyanure d'urgent, is thus directed 
to be prepared in the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, (1842.) Argent. Nit. %xv. Acid 
Hydrocyan. Aq. destillat. aa Oj. Having dis- 
solved the nitrate of silver in the water, add 
the hydrocyanic acid, and mix them. Wash 
the precipitate with distilled water and dry it. 

Argentum Fogitivium, Hydrargyrum — a 
Fusum, Hydrargyrum — a. Mobile, Hydrargy- 
rum — a. Vivum, Hydraro-yrum. 


— a. Bolus rubra, Bole Armenian — a. Ferru- 
ginea Rubra, Bole Armenian — a. Kalisul- 
phurica, Alumen — a. Pallida, Bolus alba. 

Argilla Pura, Terra Alu' minis, T. bolaris 
seu argilla'cea pura, pure Argil or Alumina, 
Alumine facticc. This substance, which is pre- 
pared by drying alum and exposing it, for 
twenty or twenty-five minutes to a red heat, 
until the sulphuric acid" is driven off, has been 

recommended in indigestion as antacid, as 
well as in vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied 
with acidity. The dose to a very young child 
is from gss to gj.; to older children from ft 

to zij. 

Argilla Sulphurica Alcalisata, Alumen 

a . Sulphurica usta, Alumen exsiccatum— a. 

Supersiilphas alcalisatum, Alumen — a. Vitrio 
lata, Alumen. 

A RGOL, RED, Potassa? supertartras impurug 
a White, PotassEe supertartras impurus. 


ARGYROCHiETA, Matricaria. 

ARGYROPH'ORA, from aoyvoo?, 'silver,' 
and QcQw, 'I bear.' A name given, by Myrep- 
sus, to an antidote which he regarded as ex- 
tremely precious. 


ARGYRUS, Argentum. 

ARHEUMAT'IC, Arheumat'icus, from a, pri- 
vative, and Qf vpn, ' fluxion or rheumatism.' One 
without fluxion or rheumatism. 

ARIA, Crataegus aria. 

ARIC'YMON, ao t y.vftov, from aoi, an inten- 
sive particle, and xviir, ' to conceive.' A name 
given to a female who conceives readily.— 

ARIDE'N A. A Latin word employed to de- 
signate the leanness of any part. — Ettmuller, 

ARIDTTY. Arid.' itas, (F.) Aridite, from arm, 
' to dry.' The French use the word AridiU to 
express the dryness of any organ, and particu- 
larly of the skin and tongue, when such dry- 
ness is so great as to render the organ rough to 
the touch. Aridite, also, means the lanuginous 
appearance of the hair in some diseases in 
•which they seem covered with dust. 

ARIDU'RA. Wasting or emaciation of the 
whole or of any part of the body. — Marasmus, 
Atrophy, (q. v.) 

Aridtra Cordi?, Heart, atrophy of the. 

ARIKA. See Spirit. 


ARISTOLOCHI'A from aQtarcg, ' very gooi,' 
and I'.yuu, 'parturition;' so called, because the 
different varieties were supposed to aid partu» 
rition. Birthwort. (F.) Aristoloche. Several va- 
rieties were once in use. 

Aristolochi'a Clemati'tis, Aristolochi'a 
Vu/ga'ris, Adra Riza, Aristolochi'a ten'uis. (F.) 
Aristoloche ordinaire, Upright Birlhioort. The 
root has been considered stimulant and em- 
menagogue,and as such has been used in ame- 
norrhcea, chlorosis, and cachexia. 

Aristolochia Fabacea, Fumaria bulbosa, 
Aristolochi'a Longa and A. Rotun'da, (F.j 
Aristoloche longue ct ronde, Long and round 
Birthwort. Virtues the same as the preceding. 
Aristolochi'a Pistolochi'a, Pistolochi'a, 
Aristolochi'a po/yrxhi'za. This variety has an 
aromatic odour, and an acrid and bitter taste. 
(F.) Aristoloche cre'nelie. 

Aristolochi'a Serpenta'ria, Serpcntd 'ria, 
Vipera'ria, Viperi'na Virginia'na, Colubri'na Vfa 
ginia'na, Contraycr'va Virginia' na, S. Virginia'- 
va, (F.) Scrpentahe et Aristoloche serpentaire de 
Virginie, Coluvrine dc Virginic, Virginia Snake 
root, Snalicroot Birthwort, Snakeweed, SnagTeL 
Virtues— tonic, stimulant; and, as such'em- 
ployed in debility, intermittents, &c. 

Aristolochi'a Tiuloba'ta. (F.) Aristolockt 




trilobic. A plant of Surinam and Jamaica; 
possessing the general virtues of the Aristolo- 
chise. The other varieties of Aristolochia have 
similar properties. 

ARISTOLOCH'IC. Same etymology. An old 
term for remedies supposed to have the pro- 
perty of promoting the flow of the lochia. — 
Hippocr., Theophrastus, Dioscorides, &c. 
VUM. These names were formerly given to 
pharmaceutical preparations, used in phthisis, 
tormina, and fever. — Avicenna. 

AllISTOPHANEI'ON. A sort of emollient 
plaster, prepared with four pounds of pitch, two 
of apochyma, one of wax, an ounce of opopo- 
nax, and half a pint of vinegar. — Gomeus. Not 

About 5 miles from the Washita river, and 
about a quarter of a degree north of the Lou- 
isiana line, there are 70 of those springs. They 
are thermal, upwards of 100° Fahrenheit, and 
are employed in rheumatism, cutaneous affec- 
tions, &c. 

ARLADA, Realgar. 

mal sulphureous springs in the department of 
Pyrenees Orientales, France. Their tempera- 
ture is 103° to 1450 of Fahr., and they contain 
sulphohydric acid. 

ARM, Brachium. 

ARMA, Penis — a. Ventris, Penis. 


ARMATORY UNGUENT, Hoplochrysma. 

ARMATURA, Amnios. 

ARME, aQpt), from aou, ' I adapt.' Any phy- 
siological or mechanical junction or union of 
parts. — Hesychius. A suture, as of the cra- 
nium. — Galen. 


ARMENIAN STONE, Melochites. 

ARMENITES, Melochites. 

Annular ligament of the carpus. 

ARMOISE BLANC, Artemisia rupestris— a. 
Estragon, Artemisia dracunculus — a. Ordinaire, 
Artemisia vulgaris. 

ARMONIAOUM, Ammoniac, gum. 

ARMORA'CIA. In the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, the fresh root of the Cochlearia 

ARMOUR, Condom. 


ARMUS, Humerus — a. Summus, Acromion. 

AR'NICA MONTA'NA. Derivation uncer- 
tain. Arnica, Leopard's Bane, Doron'icurn Ger- 
man' icum, Alis'ma, Ad'yrus, Diuret'ica, Arnica 
Plauen'sis, Panace'a hpso'rum, Ptar'mica mon- 
ta'na, Caltha seu Calen'dula Alpi'na, (F.) Ar- 
nique, Bitoine des Montagnes. Tabac des Vos- 
ges. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Polygamia super- 
flua. Nat. Ord. Synantherea?. The plant and 
flower are considered, or have been considered, 
narcotic, stimulant, emmenagogue, &c; and, 
as such have been given in amaurosis, paraly- 
sis, all nervous affections, rheumatism, gout, 
chlorosis, &c. Dose, gr. v to x in powder. In 
large doses, it is deleterious. 

Arnica Spuria, Inula dysenterica — a. Sue- 
densis, Inula dysenterica. 


ARO'MA, ciqwuu, 'perfume:' (ant, 'very,' and 
oaui] or otfy?;, 'odour.') Spir'itus Rector. (F.) 
Arome. The odorous part of plants. An ema- 
nation — frequently imponderable — from bo- 
dies, which acts on the organ of smell, and va- 
ries with the body exhaling it. 

AROMAT'IC, Aromat'icvs, (F.) Aromate. 
Any odoriferous substance obtained from the 
vegetable kingdom, which contains much vola- 
tile oil, or a light and expansible resin. Aro- 
matics are used in perfumes, in seasoning, and 
embalming. In medicine they are employed 
as stimulants. Ginger, cinnamon, cardamoms, 
mint, &c, belong to this class. 

AROMATOPO'LA, from ana^a, 'an odour,' 
and nvdao, 'I sell.' An apothecary or drug- 
gist. One who sells spices. 

AROPH. A barbarous word, which had va- 
rious significations with the ancients. Para- 
celsus employed it to designate a lithontriptic 
remedy. The mandragora, according to some. 
Also, a mixture of bread, saffron and wine. — 
Van Helmont. 

Aroph Paracf.lsi, Ferrnm ammoniatum. 

ARQUEBUSADE EAU D', Aqua traumat- 
ica Thede'nii,Aqua Thcdia'na, Aqua sclopeta'ria, 
Aqua vulnera'ria, Aqua catapulla'rum, Mistu'ra 
vulnera'ria ac"ida. A sort of vulnerary water, 
distilled from a farrago of aromatic plants. 
(Rosemary Ibiss, millefoil, thyme, each Hiss. 
Proof spirit 2 gallons — distil a gallon. This is 
one form.) 

ARRABON, Arraphon. 

ARRACHEMENT, (F.) from arracher, ' to 
tear out,' Apospas'ma, Abrup'tio, Avul'sio. Act 
of separating a part of the body by tearing it 
from the bonds connecting it with others. Evul- 
sion (q. v.) Laceration (q. v.) 

Arrachement, is applied to certain operations, 
as to the extraction of a tooth, the extirpation of 
a polypus, &c. 

ARRACK, Arack. See Spirit. 

AR'RAPHON or AR'RABON, from «, priv. 
and Qu<pi], 'a suture,' — 'without suture.' A 
term applied to the cranium when it presents 
no sutures. 

ARRECTIO, Erection. 

ARREPTIO, Insanity. 

ARRESTA BOVIS, Ononis spinosa. 

ARRET D'HILDAJY, Remora Hildani. 

ARRETEBCEUF, Ononis spinosa. 

ARRHOS'A, from a, privative, and otto, ' 1 
flow.' The suppression of any flux. Ame- 
norrhoea, (q. v.) 



ARRHOSTIA, Disease. 

ARRH YTHMUS, Cacorrhythmus. 

ARRlkRE-BOUCHE, Pharynx— a.-dent, See 
Dentition — a.-Faix, Secundines. 

ARRlkRE-GOUT, (F.) 'after taste.' The 
taste left by certain bodies in the mouth for 
some time after they have been swallowed, 
owing probably to the papillae of the mouth 
havinc imbibed the savoury substance. 

ARRIkRES JYARIJYES, Nares, posterior. 

ARROCHE, A triplex hortensis— a. Puant, 
Chenopodium vulvaria. 

ARROSEMENT, Aspersion. 

ARROW ROOT. The fecula of the rhizo- 
ma of Maran'ta Arundina'cea, Fec'ula Maran'tse, 
which, like all fecuke, is emollient and nutritive, 
when prepared with water or milk. 




Dr. Carson has shown, that Florida airoic- 
root is derived from Zamia inUgrifolia or Z. 
pumila, Sugar pine; Bermuda arrow root being 
obtained from Maranta arundinacea. Florida 
arrow root as well as the farina is known in 
the Southern States under the name Coonti or 

Arrow Root, Brazilian. The fecula of 
Jatropha Manihot. 

Arrow Root, Common. See Solanum tube- 

Arrow Root, East Imdian. The fecula of 
the tubers of Curcuma angustifolia or narrow- 
leaved Turmeric. 

Arrow Root, English, Arrow root, common. 

ARS CABALISTICA, Cabal— a. Chymia- 
trica, Chymiatria — a. Clysmatica nova, Infusion 
of medicines — a. Coquinaria, Culinary art — a. 
Cosmetica, Cosmetics— a. Culinaria, Culinary 
art — a. Empirica, Empiricism — a. Hermetica, 
Chymistry — a. Infusoria. Infusion of medicines 
■ — a. Machaonia, Medicina — a. Majorum, Chy- 
mistry — a. Medica, Medicina — a. Obstetricia, 
Obstetrics — a. Sanandi, Art, healing — a. Sepa- 
ratoria, Chymistry — a. Spagirica, Chymistry. 

ARSALTOS, Asphaltum. 

ARSATUM, Nymphomania. 

ARSENAL (F.) Chirapothe'ca, Armamenta'- 
rium. A collection of surgical instruments. A 
work containing a description of surgical in- 

ARSEN'IATE, Arstn'ias. A salt formed by 
a combination of arsenic acid with a salifiable 

Arseniate of Ammonia, Arscn'ias Ammo'- 
nice, Ammo'nium Arsen'icum, (F.) Ars6niate 
d'Ammoniaquc. This preparation is highly ex- 
tolled in cutaneous diseases. A grain of the 
salt may be dissolved in an ounce of distilled 
water, and 20 to 25 drops be commenced with 
as a dose. 

Arseniate of Iron, Jlrsen'ias Ferri, Ferrum 
Arsenia'tum, F. Arsen'icum oxydula! turn, (F.) 
Arsiniate de Fer. This preparation has been 
applied externally to cancerous ulcers. An 
ointment may be made of gss of the arseniate, 
gij of the phosphate of iron and gvj of sperma- 
ceti ointment: the arseniate has also been given 
internally in cancerous affections, in the dose 
of one-sixteenth of a grain. 

Arseniate of Protox'ide of Potas'sium, 
Proto-arsen'iate of Potas'sium, Arsen'iale of 
Potassa, Arsen'ias Potassce, Arscn'ias Kali. Pro- 
perties the same as those of the arsenious acid. 

ARSENIC, Arsen'icum. A solid metal; of a 
steel-gray colour; granular texture; very brit- 
tle; volatilizing before melting; very combus- 
tible and acidiriable. It is not dangerous of 
itself, and only becomes so, by virtue of the fa- 
cility with which it absorbs oxygen. 

Arsenic, Iodide of, Arscn'ici Io'didum, A. 
lodure'tum, Arsen'icum Ioda'tum. This prepa- 
ration has been highly extolled by Biett in va- 
rious cutaneous affections, applied externally, 
The ointment he uses contains three grains of 
iodide to §j of lard. 

Arsenic, Oxide of, Arsenious acid — a.White, 
Arsenious acid. 

Arsenic and Mercury, Iodide of, Hydrar'- 
gyri et Arsen'ici Io'didum, Double J'odide of 
Mer'cury and Ar'scnic, lodo-ars' cnitc of Mer'cury. 
A compound, which has been proposed as more 
efficacious than either the iodide of arsenic or 

the iodide of mercury. It is made by triturating 
G.06 grains of arsenic; 15.38 grains of mercury; 
50 of iodine, with a fiuidrachrn of alcohol, until 
the mass has become dry, and from being deep 
brown has become pale red. Eight ounces of 
distilled water are poured on, and after tritura- 
tion for a few moments, the whole is transferred 
to a flask; half a drachm of hydriodic acid, pre- 
pared by the acidification of two grains of iodine 
is added, and the mixture is boiled for a few 
moments. When the solution is cold, make 
the mixture up to f. gviij with distilled water. 
This is called by Mr. Donovan, the proposer, 
Liquor Arsen'ici et Hydrar'gyri lo'didi, each 
drachm of which by measure consists of water 
^j, protoxide of arsenic gr. l-8th; protoxide of 
mercury gr. l-4th, iodine converted into hy- 
driodic acid gr. 4-5ths. The dose of this Dono- 
van's Solution is from flt^. xv to f. £ss two or 
three times a day. 

It has been used successfully in inveterate 
cutaneous diseases. 

ARSEN'ICAL PASTE, (F.) Pale Arsinicalt. 
This application to cancers is formed of 70 parts 
of cinnabar, 22 of dragon's blood, and 8 of ar- 
senious acid; made into a paste with saliva, 
when about to be applied. 

ARSEN'ICUM ALBUM; mite Ai'senk, 
Oxide of Ar'senic, Ratsbane, Arsen'ici oz'ydum 
album, Ac"idum Arsenico' sum, A. Arseniu' sum, 
(Ph. U. S.) Arsen'ious acid, Calx Arsen'ici alba. 
An acid which is met with in commerce, in 
compact, white, heavy, fragile, masses; of a 
vitreous aspect, opaque, and covered with a 
white dust: of an acrid and nauseous taste; 
without smell when cold; volatilizable by heat, 
and exhaling the odour of garlic: soluble in 
water, alcohol and oil; crystallizable in regu- 
lar octahedrons. It is this that is meant by 
the name Arsenic, as commonly used. 

Arsen'icum Album Sublima'tum, Sublimed 
Oxide of Arsenic, is the one employed in me- 
dicine. It is tonic and escharotic, and is 
the most virulent of mineral poisons. It is 
used in intermittents, periodical headachs, neu- 
roses, &c. Dose, gr. one-tenth to one-eighth 
in pill. See Poisons, Table of. 

Arsenicum Rubrum Factitium, Realgar. 

ARSENIS POTASSA, Arsenite of protox- 
ide of potassium — a. Potass® aquosus, Liquor 
arsenicalis — a. Potassae liquidus, Liquor arse- 

ARSENITE, Ar'senis. A salt, formed by a 
combination of the arsenious acid with a salifi- 
able base. 

Ar'senite of Protox'ide of Potas'sium, 
Proto-ar' senite of Potas'sium, Ar'senite of Potassa. 
Ar'senis Potassa;. An uncrystallizable and co- 
lourless salt, which forms the basis of the li- 
quor arsenicalis, which see. 

ARSE-SMART, Persicaria— a. Biting, Poly- 
gonum hydropiper. 

ART, HEALING, Ars sanan'di, Medici'na, 
(q. v.) The appropriate application of the pre- 
cepts of the best physicians, and of the results 
of experience to the treatment of disease. 

AR'TABE, aQra(ir t . Name of a measure for 
dry substances, in use with the ancients, equal, 
at times, to 5 modii: at others, to 3; and at 
others, again, to 7. — Galen 

OF. These German waters have been much 
recommended in hysteria, gout, palsy, &c 




Their physical or chemical properties have not 
been described. 

ARTEMIS'IA, Anacti'rion. Called after a 
queen of the name, who first employed it; or 
from AoTtdic, 'Diana;' because it was formerly 
used in diseases of women, over whom she pre- 
sided. The Gauls called it Bricumum. 

Artemis'ia Abkot'anu M) Abrot'anum,Abrot'- 
onum, Abrol'anum Cathsum, Abrol'anum mas, 
Abrathan, South' tmwood, (F.) Aurone, Aurone 
male, Auront des jar dins, Gardcrobe, Citronelle. 
Supposed to be possessed of stimulant properties. 

Oil of Southernwood, O'lcum Abrot'ani, (F.) 
Huile d' Aurone, possesses the aromatic proper- 
ties of the plant. 

Artemis'ia Absin'thium, Absin'lhium, Ab- 
sin'lhium zulga're, Barypi'cron, Common Worm- 
wood, (F.) Absinthe. Properties: — tonic and 
anthelmintic. The Oil of Wormwood, O'leum 
Absin'thii, (F.) Huile d* Absinthe, contains the 
aromatic virtues of the plant. 

Artemisia Botrvs, Chenopodium ambro- 

Artemis'ia Campes'tris, Field Southernwood, 
(F.) Aurone des Champs. This possesses the 
same properties as A. Mrot'anum. 

Artemisia Chenopodium, Chenopodium bo- 

Artemisia Chinensis. From this the Chi- 
nese form their moxas. 

Artemis'ia Dracun'culcs, Tar'agon, (F.) 
Armoisc cstra gon. Virtues: — the same as the last. 

Artemis'ia Glacia'lis or Silky Wormwood; 

Artemisia Indica, Artemisia santonica; 

Artemis'ia Marit'ima, Absin'thium Marit'- 
imum, Sea Wormwood, Maritime Southernwood. 

Artemis'ia Pon'tica, A. Roma'na, Absinthium 
Pon'ticum seu Romanum, Roman Wormwood, 
Lesser Wormwood, possess like virtues; — as well 

Artemis'ia Rupes'tris, Creeping Wormwood, 
Gen'ipi album, (F.) Armoise blanc, Genipi blanc. 
This variety has aromatic virtues, and is used 
in intermittents and in amenorrhcea. 

Artemis'ia Santon'ica, Santon'icum, Arte- 
mis'ia contra, Semen contra Vermes, Semen con- 
tra, S. Zedoa'ria, Canni Herba, Chamacedris, 
Chamxajparis' sus, Semen Cinas, Hagiospermum, 
Sanctum Semen, Absin'thium Santon'icum, Se- 
menti'na, Xantoli'na, Scheba Ar'abum, Artemis'ia 
Juda'ica, Wormsced, Tartarian Southernwood, 
(F.) Barbotine. Virtues: — anthelmintic and 
6timulant. Dose, gr. x. to gj in powder. 

Artemis'ia Vulga'ris, Artemis'ia rubra et 
dlba, Cin'gulum Sancti Joannis, Mater Herba' - 
rum, Bercnisecnm, Bubastecor'dium, Canapa'- 
cia, Mug'wort, (F.) Armoise ordinaire, Herbe de 
Saint Jean. This, as well as some other varie- 
ties, possesses the general tonic virtues of the 
Artemisia?. The Artemisia vulgaris has been 
highly extolled by the Germans in cases of 
epilepsy. Dose of the powder in the 24 hours 
from ^ss to gj. 

ARTERE, Artery — a. Brachial, Brachial ar- 
tery — a. Bruchio-cephalique, Innominata arteria 
— a. Bronchiquc, Bronchial artery — a. Ciliairc, 
Ciliary artery — a. Clitorienne: see Clitoris — a. 
Caicale: see Colic arteries — a. Collaterale du 
covdc, Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a. Col- 
laterale ezterne, Arteria profunda humeri — a. 
Collaterale interne, Anastomoticus magnus ra- 
mug — c . Coronaire des levres, Labial artery — a. 

Coronaire Stomachiquc, Coronary artery — a. 
Crurale, Crural artery — a. Deuxieme des thora- 
ciques, Arteria thoracica externa inferior — a. 
£pineuse, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Ftmoro- 
poplilit, Ischiatic artery — a. Fessiere, Gluteal 
artery — a. Gastrique droite, petite, Pyloric arte- 
ry — a. Gutturo-maxillaire, Maxillary artery, in- 
ternal — a. Honteuse externe, Pudic, external, 
artery — a. Honteuse interne, Pudic, internal, ar- 
tery — a. Humerale profonde, Arteria profunda 
humeri — a. lliaque primitive, Iliac artery — a. 
Innominie, Innominata arteria — a. Jrienne, Ci- 
liary artery — a. Ischio-penienne : see Pudic, in- 
ternal, artery — a, Mediane antdrieure, Spinal 
artery, anterior — a. Mediane postirieure du 
rachis, Spinal artery, posterior — a. Meninges 
moyenne, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Menton- 
niere, Mental foramen — a. Mesocdphalique, Basi- 
lary artery — a. Mesocolique: see Colic artery — 
a. Musculaire du bras, Arteria profunda humeri 
— a. Musculaire du bras, grande : see Collateral 
arteries of the arm — a. Musculaire grande de la 
cuisse, Arteria profunda femoris — a. Opislho- 
gastrique, Cceliac artery — a. Orbitaire, Oph- 
thalmic artery — a. de VOvaire, Spermatic arte- 
ry — a. Pelvi-crurale, Crural artery — a. Pelvi-cru- 
rale, Iliac artery — a. Pelvienne, Hypogastric 
artery — a. Premiere des tkoraciques, Arteria tho- 
racica externa superior — a. Radio -carpienne 
transversale palmaire, Radio-carpal artery — a. 
Scrotale, Pudic, external, artery — a. Sous-cla- 
viere, Subclavian artery — a. Sous-pubio-fe'mo- 
rale, Obturator artery— a. Sous-pubienne, Pudic, 
internal, artery — a. Sous-sternal, Mammary, in- 
ternal — a. Sphino-epineuse, Meningeal artery, 
middle — a. Stomogastrique, Coronary artery — 
a. Sus -carpienne, see Sus-carpien — a. Sus-maxil- 
laire, Alveolar artery — a.Sus-maxillaire, Buccal 
artery — a. Sus-Metalarsienne, Metatarsal artery 
— a. Sus-pubienne, Epigastric artery — a. Testicu- 
laire, Spermatic artery — a. Thoracique humdrale, 
Acromial artery — a. Trachelocervical, see Cere- 
bral arteries — a. Trochanlerienne, Circumflex ar- 
tery of the thigh — a. Troisieme des thoraciques, 
Acromial artery — a. Tympanique, Auditory ar- 
tery, external — a. Uveale, see Ciliary artery — a. 
Vulvaire, Pudic, external, artery. 

ARTERIA, Artery — a. Anonyma, Innomina- 
ta artery — a. Aspera, Trachea — a. Cerebralis, 
Carotid, internal — a. Cervicalis, Basilary artery 
— a. Coronaria dextra, Pyloric artery — a. Cras- 
sa, Aorta — a. Externa cubiti, Radial artery — a. 
Dorsalis metacarpi, Metacarpal artery — a. Du- 
ra matris media maxima, Meningeal artery, 
middle — a. Encephalica, Carotid, internal — a. 
Gastrica superior, Coronary artery — a. Ileo-co- 
lica: 6ee Colic arteries — a. Iliaca interna, Hy- 
pogastric artery — a. Iliaca posterior, Hypogas- 
tric artery — a. Magna, Aorta — a. Malleolaris 
externa: see Tibial arteries — a. Malleolaris in- 
terna: see Tibial arteries — a. Mammaria exter- 
na, A. Thoracica externa, inferior — a. Maxima, 
Aorta — a. Media anastomotica: see Colic arte- 
ries — a. Meninga?a media, Meningeal artery, 
middle — a. Muscularis femoris, A. Profunda le- 
mons — a. Pharyngea suprema, Pterygoid arte- 
ry — a. Profunda cerebri: see Cerebral arteries 
— a. Pudenda communis, Pudic, internal, artery 
— a. Pudica, Pudic, internal, artery — a. Ramu- 
lus ductus Pterygoidei, Pterygoid artery — a. 
Spheno-spinosa, Meningeal artery, middle — a. 
Spinalis, A. Profunda humeri — a. Sternalia, 
Mammary, internal — a. Supra-orbitalis, Frontal 



artery — a. Sylviana: see Cerebral arteries— a. 
Thoracica axillaris vel alaris, Scapular artery, 
inferior — a. Thoracica humeralis, Acromial ar- 
tery — a. Transversalis colli: see Cerebral arte- 
ries — a. Transversalis humeri, Scapular artery, 
superior— a. Ulnaris, Cubital artery— a Uterina 
hypogastrica, Uterine artery — a. Vasta poste- 
rior, A. Profunda femoris. 

ARTE'RrAC, Arteriacus. A medicine pre- 
scribed in diseases of the windpipe. 

ARTE'RliE ADIPO'SJE. The arteries which 
secrete the fat about the kidneys, are sometimes 
so called. They are ramifications of the capsular, 
diaphragmatic, renal, and spermatic arteries. 

Arteris Apoplectics, Carotids — a. Capi- 
tales, Carotids— a. Ciliares, Ciliary arteries— a. 
Jugulares, Carotids— a. Lethargicas, Carotids 
— a. Prseparantes, Spermatic arteries — a. Som- 
niferoe, Carotids — a. Soporales, Carotids — a. 
Soporaria?, Carotids— a. Veriosre, Pulmonary 

ARTE'RIAL, Arterio'sus. Belonging to ar- 

Arterial Blood, (F.) Sang artiriel. Red 
blood is so called because contained in the arte- 
ries. The pulmonary veins, however, also con- 
tain red blood: hence the name arterial veins, 
(F.) Veines artirielles, applied to them. 

Arte'rial Duct, Cana'lis arterio'sus, Ductus 
arterio'sus, D. Dotalli, (F.) Canal arteriel, C. 
Pulmo-aortique, is the portion of the pulmonary 
artery which terminates in the aorta in the 
foetus. When this duct is obliterated after 
birth, it is called Arte'rial Lig'ament, (F.) Liga- 
ment artiriel. 

Arterial System includes all the arteries, 
from their origin in the heart to their termina- 
tion in the organs. See Vascular System. 


ARTERFARCTIE, from agri/oia, 'artery,' 
and arcto, ' I straiten.' Contraction of an artery. 



ARTERIITIS, Arteritis. 


ARTERIOGRAPHY, Artcriogra'phia; from 
olotiiQix, 'artery,' and yoa<pij, 'a description.' A 
description of the arteries. 

ARTERIOLA. A small artery. 

ARTERIOL'OGY, Arteriolog"ia; from uoTtj- 
g/«, 'artery,' and J.oyog, 'a discourse.' A trea- 
tise on the arteries. 

ARTE'RIO-PITUTTOUS. An epithet ap- 
plied to vessels which creep along the interior 
of the nostrils. — Ruysch. 

ARTERIORRHEXIS, see Aneurism. 

ARTERIOSTEIE, from agri^i*, 'artery,' 
and oo-T63v, ' a bone.' Ossification of an artery. 
— Piorry. 

ARTERIOT'OMY, Arteriotom'ia, from a^rrj- 
Pta, 'an artery,' and rcpra, ' I cut.' This word 
has been used for the dissection of arteries. 
Most commonly, however, it means a surgical 
operation, which consists in opening an artery, 
to draw blood from it. Arteriotomy is chiefly 
used in inflammatory affections of the head, 
\\ hen the blood is generally obtained from the 
temporal artery. See Blood-letting. 

ARTERITIS, Artcrii'tis, Inflamma'tio Arte- 
ria'ritm, (F.) Arterite, Inflammation des arteres ; 
from ǤT?;gia, 'an artery,' and itis, a termina- 
tion denoting inflammation. Inflammation of 

an artery. Inflammation of the inner coat of 
the artery is termed Endo-artcri'tis or Endoiun- 
tvri'lis ; of the outer, Exo-arteritis or Exartcri'tis. 
ARTERY, Arteria, (F.) Ailire, from or ?) 
'air,' and Tr&uv, ' to preserve,' quasi, ' recepta- 
cle of air,' because the ancients believed that it 
contained air. They, at first, gave the name 
Artery to the trachea, ajm/ota rga^fia, because 
it is filled with air; and afterwards they used 
the same term for the arteries, properly so 
called, probably because they commonly found 
them empty in the dead body. We find, also, 
yAtflts to designate the arteries, called by the 
Latins Vence micajites pidsatilcs. Arteries, with 
the moderns, signify that order of vessels, which 
arise from the two ventricles of the heart, and 
have valves only at their origin. They are cy- 
lindrical, firm, and elastic canals: of a yellow- 
ish white colour; little dilatable; easily lace- 
rable; and formed, l.Of an external, laminated 
or cellular membrane, of a dense and close cha- 
racter. 2. Of a middle coat composed of fibres, 
which does not, however, contract on the applj. 
cation of the galvanic stimulus; and 3. Of an 
inner coat, which is thin, diaphanous, reddish, 
and polished. 

The use of the arteries is to carry the blood 
from the heart to the various parts of the sys- 
tem. It will be obvious, however, that they 
cannot all convey arterial blood. The pulmo- 
nary artery, for example, is destined to convey 
the venous blood to the lungs, there to be con- 
verted into arterial; whilst the pulmonary veins 
convey arterial blood back to the heart. 

table of the frincipal arteries of the 


All the other arteries take their rise from the 
Pulmonary Artery, or the Aorta: and the names 
generally indicate the parts to which they are 

1. Arteria Pulmonaris. 

The Pulmonary Artery arises from the right 
ventricle, and soon divides into a right and left 
branch, one of which is distributed to each lung. 
II. Arteria Aorta. 

The Aorta arises from the left ventricle. Itis 
the common trunk of the arteries of the body, 
and may be divided into five portions. 

a. Arteries furnished by the Aorta at its origin. 

1. A. Cardiaca or coronaria anterior. 

2. A. Cardiaca or coronaria posterior. 

b. Arteries furnished by the Aorta at its arch. 

The arch of the Aorta gives off, to the left, 
two considerable trunks— the Arteria carotidea 
primitiva, and A. subclavia; and, to the right, a 
single trunk, which is larger— the A. innomi- 
nate or Brachio-cephalica, which divides into the 
primitive carotid and subclavian. 
A. Arteria. Caro- ( Divides into A. Carotidea externa, 
A. Carotidea interna. 
'Furnishes, \.A. Thyroidea superior. 

2. A.lingualis, which gives oft' the A. dorsa- 
lis lingua; and A. sublingualis. 

3. A. facialis or A. Maxillaris externa, which 
furnishes the A. palatina inferior, the 
A. submentals, and A. coronaria supe- 
rior and inferior. 

4. A. occipitalis, which gives off the A. mas- 
toidea posterior. 

5. A. auricularis posterior, which gives ofl 
A. stylo-mas oidea. 

I 0. A. pharyvgea inferior. 


a. A. Ca- 
rol idea - 




\. A. i 

Tempo- < 

ralis. { 


2. A. I 

Maxilla- J 

n's inter- ' 

b. A.Ca- 


Tlie external carotid ultimately divides into the tem- 
poral artery and internal maxillary. 

Furnishes A. transversalis faciei, A. auricularis 
anterior, and A. temporalis media. 

f Furnishes 13 branches, viz. A. menitigea media, 
A. dentaris inferior, A. temporalis profunda 
posterior, A. masseterina, A. pterygoidea, A. 
buccalis, A. temporalis profunda anterior, A. 
alvcolaris; A. suborbitaris, A. vidiana, A. 
ptcrygirpalatina or pkaryngca superior, A. 
palatina superior, and A. sphenopalatine). 

'Furnishes, 1. A. ophthalmica, which gives off 
A. lachrymalis, A. centralis retina?, 'A. su- 
praorbital vcl superciliaris, A. ciliares pos- 
teriores, A. ciliares longs, A. muscularis 
superior et inferior, A. ethmoidalis posterior 
et anterior, A. palpebralis superior et infe- 
rior, A. nasalis, and A. frontalis. 2. A. com- 
munieans, Willesii. 3. A. ehoroidea. 4. A. ce- 
rebralis anterior. 5. A. cerebralis media. 
Furnishes, 1. A. vertebrali,s, which gives off 
A. spinalis anterior et posterior, A. cere- 
bellosa inferior, and forms— by uniting it- 
self with that of the opposite side— the A. 
basilaris, divided into A. cerebellosa supe- 
rior and A. cerebralis posterior. 2. A. thy- 
roidal inferior, which gives off A. cervicalis 
ascendens. 3. A. mammaria interna, which 
gives offthe A. mediastina anterior and A. 
diaphragmatica superior. 4. A. intercostalis 
superior. 5. A. cervicalis transversa. 6. A. 
scapularis superior. 7. A. cervicalis posterior 
vel profunda. Farther on, the subclavian 
artery continues i ts progress under the name 
Jl. axillaris. 

f Furnishes, 1. A. acromialis. 2. A. thoracica 

I superior. 3. A, thoracica inferior vel longa 
vel mammaria externa. 4. A. scapularis infe- 
rior vel communis. 5. A. circumflexa poste- 
rior, ii. A. circumflexa anterior. Farther on, 
the axillary artery continues under the 
name A. brachialis. 

Furnishes A. humeralis profunda or collatera- 
lis externa. 2. A. collateralis interna. It 
afterwards divides into the radial and cu- 
bital arteries. 

Gives off A. recurrens radialis, A. dorsalis 
carpi, A. dorsalis metacarpi, A. dorsalis pol- 
licis, and terminates in forming the Arcus 
palmaris profundus. 

Gives off A. recurrens cubitalis anterior and 
posterior : A. in'erossea anterior and poste- 
rior, which latter furnishes ii. recurrens ra- 
dialis posterior. It terminates in forming 
the superficial palmar arch, which gives off 
(. A. Collattrales dig,torum. 

c. Arteries given off by the Aorta in the Thorax. 

f 1. A. Bronchica, dextra et sinistra. 

J 2. A. ozsophage® (to the number of four, five, 

ai terics 

B. Ar- 


A. Axil- 

A. Bra- 

1 A Ra- 

2. A. Cu- 

I 2. A. ozsophaga. 
J or six.) 

; 3 A. mediaslin 

mediastina?. posteriores. 
4. A. intercostales inferiores vel Aoriica: (to 
the number of eight, nine, or ten.) 

d. Arteries furnished foj the Aorta in the Abdo- 

"hese ( . 
'inches < 
ate, ( 

The A. diaphragmatica vel phrcnica, dcx- 
tra et sinistra. 

f Which divides inlo three branches, 1. A. co- 
| ronnria ventriculi. 2. A. Hcputica, which 

2. A. \ gives off A. pylorica, A. gastro epiploica 
Caliaca. | dextra and A. cystica; and, lastly, the A. 

| splenica, which gives off A. gastro epiploica 
[ sinistra and vasa brevia. 

3. A. ( Which gives off at its concavity the A. colica 
Mcsente-\ dextra superior, media et inferior, and nt iis 
nca su-\ convex part from 15 to 20 Rami intcsti- 

pcrinr. { nales. 

. colica superior media, and 

I divides into A. hremorrhoidales 



5. The A. Capsulites media: (to the number of two on 

each side.) 
P. A. Renal: s or Emulgcntcs. 
7. .*/. Spermaticie. 

8." A. Lumbarcs (to the number of four or five on each 

jicnor. { nales. 

m 4 ***# (Which gives off A. 
• »''••''"' '- J inferior, and divid 
rua in- \ SU p Cr j ores# 

fir tor. \ 

e. Arteries resulting from the Bifurcation of the 

The Aorta, a little above its Bifurcation, gives off the A. 
sacra media, and divides into A. iliaca: primitives. 

A. Iliaca (. Divides into A. Iliaca interna and A. Riaca cx- 
primili- < . 
va. (terna. 

f Furnishes, 1. A. ilio-lumbaris. 2. A. sacra la- 
| teralis. 3. A. glutea or iliaca posterior. 4. 

I A. umbilicalis. 5. A. vcsicalis. 6. A. obtu- 
ratorea. 7. A. luemorrhoidaa media. 8. A. 
iaca in- { uterina. 9. A. vaginalis. 10. A.ischiatica. 
terna. j 11. A. pudenda interna, which gives off the 
A. hemorrhoidules inferiores, A. of the sep- 
tum, A. transversa perinea, A. corporis ca- 
vernosi, and A. dorsalis penis. 
b. A. 11- C Furnishes 1. A. epigastrica. 2. A. iliaca an- 
iaca ex- < teiior or circumflexa ilii, and is continued af- 
terna. f terwards under the name of Crural Artery. 
'Furnishes, 1. A. subcutanca abdominalis. 2. A. 
pudenda supcrficialis and profunda. 3. A. 
muscularis supcrficialis. 4. A. musculaiis 
A. Cru-j profunda, which givesoff the A. circumflexa 
ralis. ' externa and interna, and the three Perfo- 
rantes, distinguished into superior, middle, 
and inferior. Farther on, the crural artery 
continues under the name A. Poplitcea. 
' Furnishes, Y.A. Articularcs superior es, interna, 
media, et externa. 2. A. gemellce. 3. A. ar- 
ticularcs inferiores, interna et externa. 4. A. 
A. pop- , tibialis antica, which at the foot, takes the 
litaea. *) name, A. dorsalis tarsi, and gives off the 

i tarsal and metatarsal arteries In the leg, 
the popliteal artery divides into the pero- 
neal and posterior tibial. 
1. A.Pe- I Divides into A. pcronma antica andA. peronaa. 
ronasa. \ postica. 

("Divides into A plantaris interna and A.plan- 

a a rp- \ taris externa. The latter by anastomosing 

*"..,. J with the A. dorsalis tarsi, forms the plantar 

la IS j arch, whence arise Rami superiores or per- 

pos i . | f ora ntes postici, R. Inferiores postici et an- 

^ flici, which give off Rami perforantes antici. 

ARTERY, ANGULAR, Facial artery— a. Ar- 
ticular, Circumflex artery — a. Central of the 
retina, Central artery of the retina — a. Central 
of Zinn, Central artery of the retina — a. Ce- 
phalic, Carotid — a. Cerebral posterior, Verte- 
bral — a. Cervico-scapular, see Cervical arteries 
— a. Coronary of the lips, Labial artery — a. Cro- 
taphite, Temporal artery — a. Fibular, Peroneal 
artery — a. Gastric inferior, Gastro-epiploic ar- 
tery — a. Gastro-hepatic, see Gastro-epiploic 
artery — a. Genital, Pudic (internal) artery — a. 
Guttural inferior, Thyroideal, A. inferior — a. 
Guttural superior, Thyroideal, A. superior — a. 
Humeral, Brachial artery — a. iliac posterior, 
Gluteal artery — a. lliaco-muscular, Ileo-lumbar 
artery — a. Labial, Facial artery — a. Laryngeal 
superior, Thyroideal artery superior — a. Lateral 
large, Spheno-palatine artery — a. Maxillary in- 
ternal, Facial artery — a. Median of the sacrum, 
Sacral artery, anterior — a. Palato-labial, Facial 
artery — a. Pericephalic, Carotid (external) — a 
Pharyngeal, superior, Pterygopalatine artery 
— a. Phrenic, Diaphragmatic artery — a. Poste- 
rior of the brain, see Cerebral arteries — a. Ex- 
ternal scapular, Acromial artery — a. Spinal, 
Meningeal artery, middle — a. Subclavian right, 
Innominata arleria — a. Subscapular, Scapular 
artery, inferior — a. Supramaxillary, Alveolar 
artery — a. Suprarenal, Capsular artery — a. Tho- 
racic, internal, Mammary internal — a. Urethro- 
bulbar, Transverse perineal artery — a. Vesico- 
prostatic, Vesical artery — a. Vidian, Pterygoid 

ARTETIS'CUS ; from artus, ' a limb.' One 
who has lost a limb. 

ARTHANI'TA, from agrog, 'bread:' the 
Cyc'lamen or Soxcbrend. It was formerly made 
into ointments, with many other substances, 



and was employed as a purgative, being rubbed 
on the abdomen. It formed the JJnguen'tum 

Arthanita Cyclamen, Cyclamen. 

ARTHETICA, Teucrium chamaepitys. 

ARTHRALGIA, ArthronaH gia, from agSgor, 
'a joint,' and alyoc, < pain.' Bain in the joints. 

ARTHREM'BOLUS, from *q9qov, 'a joint,' 
tv, 'in,' and fiaXXio, ' I cast.' An ancient instru- 
ment used in the reduction of dislocations. 

ARTHRETICA, Teucrium chamaepitys. 

ARTHRIT'IC, Arthrit'icus, from aqdoov,'*. 
joint.' (F.) Artkritique, Goutteux. That which 
relates to gout or arthritis, as arthritic symp- 
toms, &,c. 


ARTHRITIS, Gout, Arthrosia— a. Aberrans, 
Gout (wandering)— a. Acuta, Gout (regular)— 
a. Arthrodynia, Rheumatism, chronic — a. Ato- 
nic, Gout (atonic)— a. Asthenica, Gout (atonic) 
— a. Diaphragmatica, Angina Pectoris — a. Er- 
ratica, Gout (wandering)— a. Hydrarthros, Hy- 
drarthrus — a. Inflammatoria, Gout (regular) — 
a. Nodosa, Gout (with nodosities) — a. Podagra, 
Gout — a. Rheumatismus, Rheumatism, acute — 
a. Retrograda, Gout (retrograde.) 

ARTHROC'ACE,from *q#q<>v, ' a joint,' and 
xnxoc, ' bad.' Disease of the joints ; and espe- 
cially caries of the articular surfaces. Spina 
ventosa, (q. v.). 

Arthrocace Coxahum, Coxarum morbus. 

ARTHROCACOLOG'TA, from arthrocacia, 
— according to Rust, a chronic disease of the 
joints; and foyog, ' a description.' The doctrine 
of chronic disease of the joints. 

ARTHRO'DIA, from oq&qov, 'a joint,' 
Adarticula'tio. A moveable joint, formed by 
the head of a bone applied to the surface of a 
shallow socket, so that it can execute move- 
ments in every direction. Arthrodium ia 'a 
small joint:' diminutive of Arthrodia. 

ARTHRODYN'IA, Arthronal'gia, from *q- 
■9qov, 'articulation,' and civvy, 'pain.' Articu- 
lar pain. Pain in the joints. See Rheumatism, 

ARTHROL'OGY, Arthrolog"ia, from aefyov, 
'a joint,' and Xoyog, 'a description.' A de- 
scription of the joints. The anatomy of the 

ARTHROM'BOLE, from ao^oor, and p*Uu, 
'least.' Coaptation, reduction. Reduction of 
a luxated or fractured bone. 

ARTHRON, 'a joint.' The ancients used 
the word Art/iron, for the articulation of bones 
with motion, in opposition to Symphysis, or ar- 
ticulation without motion. 

ARTHRONALGIA, Arthralgia, Arthrodynia. 

ARTHROPHLOGO'SIS, from aQ d Q ov, 'a 
joint,' and tpXtyto, 'I burn.' Inflammation of 
the joints. 

ARTHROPUO'SIS, from ct Q 9 Q or, 'a joint,' 
and ttvov, ' pus.' Suppuration or abscess of the 


ARTHRO'SIA, from *q9oo u , 'I articulate.' 
Arthritis, (of some.) Inflammation mostly con- 
fined to the joints; severely painful; occasion- 
ally extending to the surrounding muscles. A 
Teiius of diseases in the Nosology of Good, in- 
cluding Rheumatism, Gout, Articular inflam- 
mation, Joint-ache, &c. 


Arthhosia Acuta, Rheumatism, acute— a. 
Chronica, Rheumatism, chronic— a. Lumboruro, 
Lumbago— a. Podagra, gout— a. Podagra com- 
plicata, Gout (retrograde)— a. Podagra larvata, 
Gout (atonic)— a. Podagra regulans, Gout 

ARTHROSIS, Articulation. 

ARTHROSPON'GUS, from uq9q»v, 'a joint,' 
and <rnoyyog, 'a sponge.' A white, fungous 
tumour of the joints. 

ARTIA. According to some, this word is 
synonymous with aor^Qia.; others use it syno- 
nymously with Trachea. 

ART1CHAUT. Cynara scolymus. 

ARTICHOKE, Cynara scolymua. 

ARTICLE, Articulation. 

ARTICOCALUS, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTICULAR, Arliculdris: from artus, <a 
joint;' articulus, 'a small joint.' That which 
relates to the articulations; — as the articular 
capsules, &c. 

Artic'ular Ar'teries of the Knee arise 
from the popliteal artery, and surround the 
tibio-femoral articulation. Although of a small 
size, they are important, as they furnish blood 
to the lower extremity after the operation for 
popliteal aneurism. They are distinguished 
into superior and inferior. The superior articu- 
lar arteries, popliteal articular arteries, are com- 
monly three in number: one of which is inter- 
nal, another external, and another middle. The 
first anastomoses by one branch with the ex- 
ternal circumflex; and by another with the ex- 
ternal superior articular. The second anasto- 
moses with the external circumflex, the superior 
internal articular, and the inferior external ar- 
ticular ; and the third is distributed within the 
joint. The inferior articular arteries are two ia 
number: an internal and external. The former 
anastomoses with the internal superior articu- 
lar and the external inferior articular. The 
latter anastomoses with the recurrent branch 
of the anterior tibial, and the external superior 

Artic'ular Facettes are the contiguous 
surfaces, by means of which the bones are ar- 

Artic'ular Veins of the knee follow the 
same course as the arteries. 

ARTICULA'TION, Joint, Articula'tio, Ar- 
thro 1 'sis,' sis, Artid 'ulus ,Junctu 'ra, Cola, 
Conjunc'tio, JVodus, Commissu'ra, Compages, 
Syntaafis. (F.) Articulation, Article. Same ety- 
mon. The union of bones with each other, as 
well as the kind of union. 

table of articulations. 
Articulations are generally divided into Diar- 
throses or moveable articulations, and Synar- 
throses or immoveable. 

f I. Amphiarthroses. 
I 2. Diarthros' s, Orbicu- ( Enartlirosis. 
Diarthroses. -J lar vajiue. \ Arthrodia. 

I 3. Alternative or Ginglymus, which ad- 
( mit9 of varieties. 

!1. Suture. 
% Harmony. 
3. Goroph'ises. 
4. Schindylesis. 
The articulations are subject to a number of 
diseases, which are generally somewhat severe. 
These may be physical, as wounds, sprains, 
luxations, &c; or they may be organic, as an- 
kyloses, extraneous bodies, caries, rheumatism, 
gout, hydrarthroses, arthropuosis, &c 



Articulation means also the combination of 
letters which constitute words. See Voice. 

Articulation, False, Pseudar thro' sis, Ar- 
tic'ulus falsus, (F.) A. fausse, A. accidentdle, 
A. contre nature, A. anormule. A false joint, 
formed between fragments of bone, that have 
remained ununited ; or between a luxated bone 
and the surrounding parts. 

glymus — a. de la Hanche, Coxo-femoral articu- 

langes of the fingers — a. Digitorum pedis, Pha- 
langes of the toes. 

ARTIFICIAL, Artificia'lis. (F.) Artificiel; 
from ars, artis, ' art,' and facere, ' to make.' 
That which is formed by art. 

Artificial Eyes are usually made of enamel, 
and represent a sort of hollow hemisphere, 
which is applied beneath the eyelids, when 
the eye is lost. 

Artificial Teeth are teeth made of ivory, 
porcelain, &c. 

are preparations of anatomy, modelled in wax, 
plaster, paper, &c. 

ARTISCOCCUS L^EVIS,Cynara scolymus. 

ART1SCUS, from aqrog, 'bread.' See tro- 
chiscus. A troch of the shape of a small loaf. 
Also, and especially, a troch made of vipers. 

ARTOCAR'EUS. The Bread-fruit Tree. (F.) 
Jaquier. A Polynesian tree, so called because 
the fruit, which is milky and juicy, supplies 
the place of bread to the inhabitants. It grows 
to the height of 40 feet. 

Artocarpus Integrifolia, Caoutchouc. 

ARTOC'REAS. from uqtos, 'bread,' and 
xotug, 'flesh.' A kind of nourishing food made 
of various aliments boiled together. — Galen. 

ARTOG'ALA, from uorog, 'bread,' and y-*.lu, 
' milk.' An alimentary preparation of bread 
and milk. A poultice. 

ARTOM'ELI, from goto?, < bread,' and peJU, 
' honey.' A cataplasm of bread and honey. 

ARTUS, Mernbrum. 

ARTYMA, Condiment. 

ARUM, A. maculatum, and A. triphyllum. — 
a.Americanum beta3foliis,Dracontium foetidum. 

Arum Dracun'culus, Dracun'culus poly- 
phyl'lus, Colubri'na Dracon'tia, Erva de Sancta 
Maria. Gig'arus scrpenta'ria, Arum polypltyl' '- 
ium, Scrpenta'ria Gallo'rum. Family, Aroidea?. 
Sex. Syst. Monoecia Polyandria. The roots and 
leaves are very acrimonious. The plant resem- 
bles the A. macula'tum, in its properties. 

Arum Esculen'tum, Cala'dium esculen'tum, 
Taro. The foliage and roots possess acrid 
qualities, which are dissipated by baking or 
boiling; in which form it is used as food by the 
people of Madeira, the Polynesians, &c. 

Arum Macula'tum, Arum (of the older wri- 
ters) Cuckow Pint, BarbaAaro'nis, Serpenta'ria 
minor, Zin' giber German'icum, Wake Robin. (F.) 
Gouet, Pied de Veau. The fresh root is stimu- 
lant internally. Dose, h)j. of the dried root. 
Externally, it is very acrid. From the root of 
this Arum a starch is prepared, which is called 
Portland Island Sago, Gersa serpcnta'rise, Cerus 1 - 
sa serpentu'rix, Fec'ula ari macula' ti. 

Arum, Three-leaved, Arum triphyllum. 

Arum Triphyl'lum, Three-leaved arum, (F.) 
Fied-dc- Veau tripliylle, Indian Turnip, Dragon 

Root, Dragon Turnip, Pepper Turnip. This 
plant grows all over the United States, and 
is received into the Pharmacopoeia under the 
title of Arum. The recent root, or Cormus — 
Arum, (Ph. U. S.) — is very acrimonious, and 
has been employed in asthma, croup, and hoop- 
ing-cough. Boiled in lard, it has been used in 
tinea capitis, and in milk in consumption. 

ARUMAR1, Caramata. 

ARUNDO BAMBOS, Bamboo— a. Brachii 
major, Ulna — a. Brachii minor, Radius — a. In- 
dica, Sagittarium alexipharmacum — a. Major, 
Tibia — a. Minor, Fibula— a. Saccharifera, see 

ARVUM, Vulva — a. Naturae, Uterus. 

ARY-ARYTENOID./EUS, Arytenoidseus— 
a.-epiglotticus, Arytasno-epiglolticus. 

ARYT^E'NA, upv.Taiva, 'a ladle.' Hence, 

epiglottidas'us, Ary-epig/otticus. That which be- 
longs to the arytenoid cartilages and epiglottis. 
Winslow gives this name to small, fleshy fasci- 
culi, which are attached, at one extremity, to 
the arytenoid cartilages, and, by the other, to 
the free edge of the epiglottis. These fibres do 
not always exist. They form part of the ary- 
tenoid muscle of modern anatomists. 

A R YT'ENOID, Arytanel'des, Arytenoids' us, 
from aqvTuua, 'a ladle,' and udog, 'shape.' 

Arvt'enoid Car'tilages, Cartilag"ines ary- 
tenoi'des, C. guttura'/es, C. gutturi'na, C. gut- 
turifor'mes, C. triq'uetroe, Guttur'nia, are two 
cartilages of the larynx, situate posteriorly 
above the cricoid, and which, by approximation, 
diminish the aperture of the glottis. Their 
upper extremities or cornuaare turned towards 
each other, and are now and then found loose, 
in the form of appendices, which are consi- 
dered, by some, as distinct cartilages, and termed 
cuneiform or tuberculated Cartilages, or Cornid- 
nh Laryn'gis. 

Aryt'enoid Glands, Glan' dulse Arijtenoldse'se, 
are small, glandular, whitish bodies, situate an- 
terior to the A. cartilages. They pour out a 
mucous fluid to lubricate the larynx. 

ARYTENOID^E'US. (F.) Arylenoidien. A 
small muscle, which passes from one arytenoid 
cartilage to the other, by its contraction brings 
them together, and diminishes the aperture of 
the glottis. Winslow divided the muscle into 
three portions; — the Arytenoids' us transver'sus, 
or Ary-arytenoidasus, and two Ari/tenoidse'i oblif- 

ARYTH'M, Aryth'mus, from a, privative, and 
ovduog, 'rythm,' 'measure.' Irregular. This 
word is applied chiefly to the pulse. 

ASA, Asafoetida. 

ASAFGE'TIDA, Assafcc'tida, Stercus diuh'oli, 
Asa, Devil's dung. A gum resin — the concrete 
juice of the Fer'ula Assafastida. Order, Um- 
bellifera?. It is in small masses of a whitish, 
reddish, and violet hue, adhering together. 
Taste bitter and subacrid: smell insupportably 
alliaceous. The Asiatics use it regularly as a 

Its medical properties are antispasmodic, sti- 
mulant, and anthelmintic. Uose, gr. v. to xx, 
in pill. 

AS'APES, 'crude,' Ascp'ton. A term ap- 
plied to the sputa, or to other matters evacu- 
ated, which do not give signs of coction. 

ASAPH'ATUM, from a, privative, and trayi^g, 




'clear.' This term has been applied to collec- 
tions in the sebaceous follicles of the skin, 
which may be pressed out like little worms, 
with a black head. See Acne. 

ASAPH FA, from «, privative, and aaipr^, 
'clear.' Dyspho'nia immodulafta palati'na, Pa- 
rapho'nia gutlura'lis; P. palati'na. Defective 
articulation, dependent upon diseased palate. — 
Hippocr., Vogel. 

ASARABACCA, Asarum— a. Broad-leaved, 
Asarum Canadense. 

ASAR'CON, from «, privative, and oa$, 
'flesh.' Devoid of flesh. Aristotle uses the 
term for the head when it is but little fleshy, 
compared with the chest and abdomen. 

ASA RET, Asarum— a. du Canada, Asarum 

ASARI'TES, from aoaoov, 'the asarum.' A 
diuretic wine, of which asarum was an ingre- 
dient. — Dioscorides. 

AS'ARUM, from a, privative, and aaiqtiv, 1 to 
adorn:' because not admitted into the ancient 
coronal wreaths; As 1 arum Europas'um, JVardus 
Monta'na, Nardus Rnst'ica, Azarum. (F.) Asa- 
ret ou Cabaret, Oreille d'homme, Oreillette, Gi- 
rard-Roussin, JVard Sauvage. Fam. Aroideae. 
Sex. Syst. Dodecandria Monogynia. The plant, 
used in medicine, is the As'arvm Europse'um, 
Asarabadca, and of this the leaves. They are 
emetic, cathartic, and errhine, but are hardly 
ever employed, except for the last purpose. 

A'sarum Canaden'se, A. Carolinia'num, Ca- 
nada Snakeroot, Wild Ginger, Colt's Foot, Broad- 
leaf Asarabacca, Indian Ginger, Heart Snake- 
root. (F.) Asaret du Canada. The root As'arum 
(Ph. U. S.) is used as a substitute for ginger, 
and is said to act as a warm stimulant and dia- 

Asarum Carolinianum, A. Canadense. 

ASBESTOS SCALL, See Eczema of the 
hairy scalp. 

cain is a village, situate about a league from St. 
Jean-de-Luz in France. The water is a cold 

ASCARDAMYC'TES, from a, privative, and 
axaQdafivrro), ' I twinkle the eyes.' One who 
stares with fixed eyes, and without moving the 
eyelids. — Hippocr. 

nonia anthelmintica. 

bricoides — a. Vermiculaire, Ascaris vermicularis. 

AS'CARIS, pi. ASCAR'IDES, from aaxa- 
Qitw, 'I^leap.' A genus of intestinal worms, 
characterized by a long, cylindrical body, ex- 
tenuated at the extremities; and having a mouth 
furnished with three tubercles, from which a 
very short tube is sometimes seen issuing. For- 
merly, there were reckoned two varieties of the 
Ascaris — the As'caris lumbricoi' des, Lumbri'cus, 
L. teres hom'inis, As'caris gigas hom'inis, (F.) 
Lombrico'ide, Ascaride lombrico'ide, Lombric, L. 
Teres, or long round worm; and the As'caris Ver- 
mieufo'ris — the Ascaris proper — the thread worm 
or maw worm. The former is alone included 
under the genus, at present — a new genus 
havinnr been formed of the A. vermicularis un- 
der the name Oxyuris. It is the Oxyu"ris ver- 
micula'ris, (F.) Ascaride, A. vermiculaire, Oxyure 
vermicuhire. r 

A new species of entozoa has been found by 
Dr. Bellingham, the As'caris ala'ta. 

Ascaris Alata, See Ascaris— a. Trichuria, 

AS'CELES or AS'KELES, Carcns cru'nbus, 
from a, privative, and oxtlos, ' a leg.' One who 
has no legs. 

ASCELLA, Axilla. 

ASCEN'DENS, from asccndere, {ad and 
scandere,) 'to ascend.' (F.) Ascendant. Parts 
are thus called, which are supposed to arise 
in a region lower than that where they ter- 
minate. Thus, Aorta ascendens, is the aorta 
from its origin to the arch: Vena cava ascen- 
dens, the large vein, which carries the blood 
from the inferior parts to the heart; Obliquus 
ascendens (muscle,) the lesser oblique muscle 
of the abdomen, &c. 

ASCEN'SUS MORBI. The period of in- 
crease of a disease. 

ASCESIS, Exercise. 

ASCHIL, Scilla. 

ASCHISTODACTYLUS, Syndac'tylus: from 
a, privative, a^iarog, 'cleft;' and dax.TvXog, 'a 
finger.' A monster whose fingers are not se- 
parated from one another. — Gurlt. 

ASCIA, Axine, ' an axe,' Sccpar'nos, Dola- 
bra, Fas'cia spira'lis. Name of a bandage men- 
tioned by Hippocrates and Galen, and figured 
by Scultetus, in the shape of an axe or hatchet. 
— Galen. See Doloire. 

ASCILLA, Axilla. 

ASCFTES, from aaxo;, ' a bottle:'— Aski'tes, 
Hydroce'le Peritonei, Hy' drops Abdom'inis, Htj- 
drogas'ter, Ascli'tes. Dropsy of the lower belly. 
Dropsy of the Peritonc'um. (F.) Ascite, Hydro- 
peritonie, Hydropisie du Bas-ventre. A collec- 
tion of serous fluid in the abdomen. Ascites 
proper is dropsy of the peritoneum ; and is cha- 
racterized by increased size of the abdomen, 
by fluctuation and the general signs of dropsy. 
It is rarely a primary disease; but is always 
dangerous, and but little susceptible of cure. 
Most generally, it is owing to obstructed circu- 
lation in some of the viscera, or to excitement 
of the vessels of the abdominal organs. The 
treatment is essentially the same as that of 
other dropsies. Paracentesis, when had re- 
course to, can only be regarded as a palliative. 

Ascites Hepato-Cysticus, Turgescentia ve- 
sicular fellece — a. Ovarii, Hydrops ovarii — a. Sac- 
catus, Hydroarion, Hydrops ovarii. 

ASCLEPIADE, Asclepias Vincetoxicura. 

cuanha blunc de Vile de France. A creeping 
plant of the Isle of France, regarded as a spe- 
cific in asthma. 

Asclepias Curassav'ica. The leaves are 
emetic in the dose of one or two scruples. Jt 
is the Ipecacuanha blanc of St. Domingo. 

Asclepias Decum'bens, the root. Escharc- 
tic, cathartic, sudorific, diuretic. 

Asclepias, Flesh-coloured, A. Incarnata. 

Asclepias Gig ante'a. The milky juice is very 
caustic. It is used in Malabar against herpes; 
and, mixed with oil, in gout. See Mudar. 

Ascle'pias Incarna'ta, Flesh-coloured as- 
clepias. The root of this plant, which grows 
in all parts of the United States, has the same 
virtues as the A. Syriaca. 

Asclepias Proc"era (?) Beidelossar; Beidel- 
sar. An Egyptian plant, the leaves of which 
are made into a plaster, and applied to indolent 
tumours. The milky juice is caustic, and is 
used as such. 




Asclepias Pseudosarsa, Hemidesmus Indi- 

Asclp.pias Syriaca, Common SifJaceed, Milk 
Weed, (F.) Hcrhe a la houette. The cortical 
part of the root has been given, in powder, in 
asthmatic and pulmonic affections in general, 
and, it is said, with success. 

Ascle'pias Tubeho'sa, Butterfly Weed, Pleu- 
risy Root, Flax Root, Wind Root, White Root, 
Orange Swalloio Root, Silk Weed, Canada Root, 
Orange Apod'ynum, Tuberous Rooted Swal'loic 
Wort. Ant. Ord. AsclepiadeaB. Sex. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Digynia. Said to have been first re- 
commended by AoxXtjTiiadri?. In Virginia and 
the Carolinas, the root of this plant has been 
long celebrated as a remedy in pneumonic 
affections. It is sudorific, and the powder acts 
as a mild purgative. Its chief powers are said 
to be expectorant, diaphoretic, and febrifuge. 
It is occasionally given to relieve pains of the 
stomach from flatulence and indigestion. 

Asclepias Vincetox'icum, Cynan'chum Vin- 
cetox'icum, Vincetox'icum Jl / poc"ynum Nova An'- 
glix hirsu'tum,&c. Swallow Wort, White Swal- 
low Wort, (F.) Asclcpiade, Dompte-venin. The 
root is said to be stimulant, diuretic, and em- 
menagogue, but is hardly ever used. It is 
called also, Hirundina'ria. 

ASCLITES, Ascites. 

ASCO'MA, from aor.og, « a bottle.' The emi- 
nence of the pubes at the period of puberty in 
females. — Rufus of Ephesus. 

ASE, Anxiety. 

ASELL1, Onisci aselli. 

ASELLUS, Oniscus. 

ASE'MA CRISIS,; ao^ua, from «, pri- 
vative, and or t ua, * a sign.' A crisis occurring 
unexpectedly and without the ordinary precur- 
sory signs. 

ASEPTON, Asapes. 

ASH, BITTER, Quassia. 

Ash Tree, Fraxinus excelsior— a. Mountain, 
Sorbus acuparia — a. Prickly, Aralia spiposa, 
Xanthoxylum clava Herculis — a. Prickly, shrub- 
by, Xanthoxylum fraxineum. 

ASIT'IA, from a, privative, and otrog, 'food.' 
Abstinence from food (q. v.) Want of appetite. 

ASJAGAN, As'jogam. An Indian tree, the 
juice of whose leaves, mixed with powdered 
cumin seeds, is employed in India in colic. 

ASJOGAM, Asjagan. 

ASKELES, Asceles. 

ASKITES, Ascites. 

ASPALASO'MUS, from aortaXa;, 'a mole,' 
and awfia, 'body.' A genus of monsters in 
which there is imperfect development of the 
eyes.— 1. G. St. Hilaire. 

ASPALTUM, Asphaltum. 

ASPARAG1NE. See Asparagus. 

ASO'DES, Asso'des, from aoij, 'disgust,' 
'satiety.' A fever accompanied with anxiety 
and nausea. Fe'bris aso'des vel uzo'des. 

ASPAR'AGUS, Aspar'agus officinalis, Com- 
mon Asparagus, Spar'agus, Sparrow Grass, 
Grass. Nat. Ord. Asphodelese. Sex. Syst. Hex- 
andria Monogynia. Aspar'agi officinalis Tu- 
rio'ncs. (F.) Aspcrge. The fresh roots are 
diuretic, perhaps owing to the immediate, 
crystallizable principle, Jisparagine. The young 
shoots are a well known and esteemed vegeta- 
ble diet. They communicate a peculiar odour 
to the urine. A syrup made of the young 

shoots and an extract of the roots has been 
recommended as a sedative in heart affections. 

ASPA'SIA. A ball of wood soaked in an 
infusion of galls, and used by females for con- 
stringing the vagina. 

ASPEiN, AMERICAN, Populus tremuloides 
— a. European, Populus tremula. 

JiSPERGE, Asparagus. 



ASPER'ITY, Asper'itas, roughness. Aspe- 
rities are inequalities on the surfaces of bones, 
which often serve for the insertion of fibrous 

ASPERMATIS'MUS, from a, privative, and 
OTitQua, 'sperm.' Reflux of sperm from the 
urethra into the bladder, during the venereal 

ASPERSIO, Catapasma, Fomentation. 

ASPER'SION, Asper'sio, from aspergerc (ad 
and spargere,) (F.) Arrosement. Act of sprink- 
ling or pouring a liquid gultatim over a wound, 
ulcer, &c. 

ASPERULA, Galium aparine. 

Asper'ula Odora'ta, Matrisyl'va, Hcpat'ica 
stclla'ta, (F.J Asptrule odorantc ou Muguet des 
hois, Hipatique btoilte. Fam. Rubiaceae. Sex. Syst. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. Sweet-scented Woodroqf. 
Said to be diuretic, deobstruent, tonic, and vul- 

ASPERULE ODORANTE, Asperula odorata. 

ASPHALTl'TES, same etymon as asphal- 
tum. A name given by some to the last lum- 
bar vertebra. — Gorraus. 

ASPHAL'TUM, Ncp'la, Arsal'tos, Aspal'tum, 
from aaifaXitav, ' to strengthen.' With the 
Greeks, this word signified any kind of bitu- 
men. It is now restricted chiefly to the Bit'- 
umen of ivDS.\,B.Juda'icum,A.sol'idum,Jew , s 
Pitch, or Karabl of Sodom. (F.) Jisphalte. It 
is solid, friable, vitreous, black, shining, in- 
flammable, and of a fetid smell. An oil is ob- 
tained from it by distillation. It enters into the 
composition of certain ointments and plasters. 

It is collected on the surface of the water of 
the Dead Sea, or Lake Asphaltites, in Judaea. 

ASPHARINE, Galium aparine. 

A. Alius, A. Maris, Has' tula Regis. (F.) Lis 
asphodele. The bulbs of this southern Euro- 
pean plant have an acrimony, which they lose 
in boiling water. They contain a fecula with 
which bread has been made, and have been 
considered diuretic. They have been used as a 
succedaneum for the squill. 

ASPHYX'IA.from a,priv., and (r^uJi?,' pulse,' 
Defedtus Pulsus, Acrotis'mos. For a long time, 
Asphyxia was confined to the sense of ' sus- 
pension of circulation or Syncope,' (q. v.) It 
now generally means suspended animation, 
produced by the nonconversion of the venous 
blood of the lungs into arterial blood, Apna'a, 
(q. v.) Apneus' tia, Jlpnasphijz'ia, Anhamato' - 
sia, Ec'lysis pneumo-cardi'aca. Owing to the 
supply of air being cut off*, the unchanged ve- 
nous blood of the pulmonary artery passes into 
the minute radicles of the pulmonary veins, but 
their peculiar irritability requiring arterial blood 
to excite them, stagnation takes place in the 
pulmonary radicles, and death occurs chiefly 
from this cause, — not owing to venous blood 
being distributed through the system, and ' poi 




eoning* it, as was the idea of Bichat. Cams 
asphyx'ia,Mors appa'rens,Mors putati'va, Pseudo- 
tlian'atos, Apparent death, Mort apparente, is 
characterized by suspension of respiration, of 
the cerebral functions, &c. Several varieties 
of Asphyxia have been designated. 

1. AsFHYX'lA OF THE NeW-BoRN, A. nCOllCl- 

to'rum. This is often dependent upon the 
feeble condition of the infant, not permitting 
respiration to be established. 

2. Asphyx'ia by Noxious Inhala'tion, or 
inhalation of gases, some of which cause death 
by producing a spasmodic closure of the glot- 
tis: others by the want of oxygen, and others 
axe positively deleterious or poisonous. 

3. Asphyx'ia by Strangula'tion or Suffoca'- 
tion; produced by mechanical impediment to 
respiration, as in strangulation. 

4. Asphyx'ia by Submer'sion, A. by Droicn- 
ing, A. Immcrso'rum, as occurs in the drowned, 
who perish in consequence of the medium in 
which they are plunged being unfit for respi- 
ration. See Submersion. 

Mr. Chevalier has used the term Asphyx'ia 
Idiopalh'ica, for fatal syncope owing to relaxa- 
tion of the heart. See Suffocation. 

Asphyxia Immersorum, A. by submersion — 
a. Local. See Gangrene — a. Neonatorum, A. 
of the new-born. 

lente des nouveau-nds, Induration of the cellu- 
lar tissue. 

ASPHYX'lED, same etymon. In a state of 

ASPIC, Aspis; also, Lavendula. 

ASPIDISCOS, Sphincter ani externus. 

ASPlDIUMCORIACEUM,Calaguals! radix 
— a. Filix fcemina, Asplenium filix fcemina — a. 
Filix mas, Polypodium filix mas, 

ASP1RATIO, Inspiration. 

ASP1 RATION, Adspira'tio, Aspira'tio, from 
aspira're (ad and spirare) 'to breathe.' The 
French sometimes use the term synonymously 
with inspiration. It also means the act of at- 
tracting or sucking like a purnp. Imbibition, 
(q. v.) Also, the pronunciation of a vowel 
with a full breath. 

ASPIS, acinic. A name given by the an- 
cients to a venomous serpent — the JEgyptian 
viper of Lacfepede. (F.) Aspic. Its bite is very 
dangerous, and it is supposed to have been the 
reptile which Cleopatra used for her destruction. 

ASPLE'NIUM, from a, priv.,and anl^v, ' the 
spleen.' Sp/eenwort, Miltwasle. 

Asple'nium Cet'erach, Doradil'la, Blech- 
mim squamo'sum, Scolopen'dria, Atliy'rion, Cet'- 
erach offtcina'rum. (F.) Doradille. Supposed 
to be subastringent and mucilaginous, and has 
been recommended as a pectoral. It has also 
been given in calculous cases. 

Asple'nium Filix Fce'mina, Polypo'dium filix 
fcemina, Aspidium filix fcemina, Athyrium filix 
fcemina, Female fern, (F.) Fouqire femelle. 
The root of this plant resembles that of the 
male fern, and is said to possess similar anthel- 
mintic virtues. The name female fern is also 
given to the Pteris aqidlina, (q. v.) 

Asple'nium Ruta Mura'ria, A. mura'le, Pa- 
ronychia, Wallrue, White Maidenhair, Tenticort, 
Adian'tum album, Ruta mura'ria, Salvia Vitse. 
(F.) Rue des mur allies, Sauvcvie. Used in the 
same cases as the last. 

Asple'nium Scolopen'diuum, Scolopen'drium 

officina'rum, Hart's Tongue, Splccmcort, Pliylh - 
lis, Lin vita cervi'na, Blecknum hgnifo hum. (F.) 
Scolopcndre, Langue de cerf. Properties like 
the last. . '; 

Asple'nium Trichomanoi des, A. I rictioni • 
anes, Calliphy' 'turn, Trichom'anes, Adian'tum ru- 
brum, Common Maidenhair, Polyl'ricum com- 
mu'nS, (F.) Polytric. Properties like the last. 

ASPREDO, Trachoma — a. Miliacea, Miliary 

ASPRELE, Hippuris Vulgaris. 

ASSA DOUX, Benjamin — a. Dulcis, Benja- 
min—a. Odorata, Benjamin. 

ASSABA. A Guinea shrub whose leaves are 
considered capable of dispersing buboes. 

ASSAFCETIDA, Asafostida. 

ASSA1ERET. A compound of bitter, sto- 
machic, and purgative medicines in the form of 
pill. — Avicenna. 


ASSAKUR, Saccharum. 

ASSALA. See Myristica moschata. 

ASSARTHROSIS, Articulation. 

ASSA'TIO, Opte'sis. The boiling of food or 
medicines in their own juice, without the addi- 
tion of any liquid. Various kinds of cooking 
by heat. — Galen. 

ASSELLA, Axilla. 

AS'SERAC, Assis. A preparation of opium 
or of some narcotic, used by the Turks as an 


ASSERVATWJY, Conservation. 

AS'SIDENS, from ad, 'to,' and sedere, 'to 
be seated.' That which accompanies or is con- 
comitant. An epithet applied to the accessory 
symptoms and general phenomena of disease. 

ASSIMILATION, Assimila'tio, Apprnpria'- 
lio, Exomoid sis , Homoio'sis, Threpsis, Thrtp'- 
ticS: from assimilare, (ad and simi/are,) ' to ren- 
der similar.' The act by which living bodies 
appropriate and transform into their own sub- 
stance matters with which they may be placed 
in contact. In man, assimilation is a function 
of nutrition. 

ASSIS, Asserac. 

AS'SIUS LAPIS, A'sius Lapis. A sort of 
stone or earth found near the town of Assa in 
the Troad, which had the property of destroying 
proud flesh. 

ASSODES, Asodes. 


ASSOURON. See Myrtus pimenta. 


ASSULA, Splint. 

ASSUMPTIO, Prehension. 

Cancrorum chelte. 


ASTAKILLOS, Araneum ulcus. 

ASTASIA, Dysphoria. 

ASTARZOF. An ointment, composed of 
litharge, frog's spawn, &c. Also, camphor dis- 
solved in rose water. — Paracelsus. 

ASTER ATTICUS, Bubonium— a. Ingui- 
nalis, Eryngium enmpestre. 

ASTE'RIA GEMMA, Aste'rius, Astroi'Les, 
As'lrios, Aslrob'olus. The ancients attributed 
imaginary virtues to this stone,— that of dis- 
persing Nxvi Materni, e. g. 

ASTHENI'A, from a, privative, and oSivjc, 
1 force,' ' strength.' Want of strength, debility, 
(q. v.) (F.) Affaiblissement. Infirmity, (q. v.) 




A word used in this sense by Galen, and em- 
ployed, especially by Brown, to designate de- 
bility of the whole economy or diminution of 
the vital forces. He distinguished it into di- 
rect and indirect: the former proceeding from 
diminution of stimuli; the latter from exhaus- 
tion of incitability by the abuse of stimuli. 

Asthenia Deglutitionis, Pharyngoplegia — 
a. Pectoralis, Angina pectoris. 

ASTHENOPIA, Debil'itas visds, (F.) Af- 
faiblissement de la Vue, from a, privative, ahtvoc, 
•strength,' and toxp, 'the eye.' Weakness of 
sight. Weaksigliledncss. 

ASTHMA, from mrd/na,' laborious breathing;' 
from aw, ' I respire.' A. spas'ticum adulto'rum, 
A. Senio'rum, A. Convulsi'vum, A. spas'ticum in- 
termit'tens, Dyspnoea et orlhopnce'a convulsi'va, 
Malum Caducum pulmo'num, Brokenwindcd- 
ncss, Nervous asthma, (F.) Asthme, A. nerzeux. 
Difficulty of breathing, recurring at intervals, 
accompanied with a wheezing sound and sense 
of constriction in the chest; cough and expec- 

Asthma is a chronic disease, and not curable 
with facility. Excitant and narcotic antispas- 
modics are required. 

There are no pathognomonic physical signs 
of asthma. In some cases, the respiration is 
universally puerile during the attack. In the 
spasmodic form the respiratory murmur is very 
feeble or absent during the fit; and in all forms 
percussion elicits a clear pulmonary sound. 
The disease generally consists in some source 
of irritation, and occasionally, perhaps, in pnra- 
lysis of the pneumogastric nerves; more fre- 
quently of the former — all the phenomena indi- 
cating constriction of the smaller bronchial ra- 
mifications. The treatment is one that relieves 
spasmodic action — narcotics, counter-irritants, 
change of air, &c. 

Asthma Acu'tum, of Millar, A. spasticum in- 
fantum, Cynan'chl trachea' Us spasmod'ica. (F.) 
Asthme aigu. Probably spasmodic croup. (?) 
See Asthma Thymicum. 

Asthma Aerium, Pneumothorax. 

Asthma Aerium ab Emphysemate Pulmo- 
sum, Emphysema of the Lungs., . 

Asthma Arthriticuai, Angina pectoris. 

Asthma, Car'diac. Dyspnoea dependent 
upon disease of the heart. 

Asthma Convulsivum, Angina pectoris — a. 
Diaphragmaticum, Angina pectoris — a. Dolo- 
rificum, Angina pectoris — a. Emphysematicum, 

Asthma, Grinders'. The aggregate of func- 
tional phenomena, induced by the inhalation of 
particles thrown off during the operation of 
grinding metallic instruments, &c. The struc- 
tural changes induced are enlargement of the 
bronchial tubes, expansion of the pulmonary 
tissue, and phthisis. 

Asthma Gypseum, A. pulverulentum — a. 
Hay, Fever, hay. 

Asthma Hu'midum, Humid, Common, or spit- 
tins asthma, is when the disease is accompanied 
with expectoration. It is also called A. Iiumo- 
ra'le, A . flatulen' turn , A. pneumon'icum, Blcnno- 
tho'rax chro'nicus, &.c. 

Asthma Infantum, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Infantum Spasmodicum, A. Thymicum — a. Kop- 
;iian, A. Thymicum — a. Laryngeum Infantum, 
A. Thymicum— a. Montanum, A. pulverulentum 
— a. Nocturnum, Incubus. 

Asthma Pulvehulen'tum, A. gyp'stum, A. 
monta'num. The variety of asthma to which 
millers, bakers, grinders and others are subject. 

Asthma Siccum, so called when the parox- 
ysm is sudden, violent, and of short duration; 
cough slight, and expectoration scanty; spas- 
modic constriction. 

Asthma Spastico-Arthriticum Inconstans, 
Angina pectoris— a. Spasticum Infantum, A. 

Asthma Thy'micum, A. T. Koppii, A. spasti'- 
cum infnn'tum, A. infantum spasmod'icum, Cy- 
nanche trachea'lis spasmod'ica, Croup-like inspi- 
ration of infants, Child-crowing, Spasmodic croup, 
Pseudo-croup, Spu'rious croup, Cer'ebral croup, 
Suffocating nervous catarrh, Spasmus glot'tidis, 
Asthma larynge'um infantum, A. intermillens in- 
f an' turn, A. Dentien'tium, A.pcriod'icum acu'tum, 
Koppian Asthma, Thymic Asthma, Laryngis'mus 
strid'ulus, Apnaz'a infan'tum, (F.) Laryngite 
striduleuse, Faux Croup. A disease of infants, 
characterized by suspension of respiration at 
intervals; great difficulty of breathing, espe- 
cially on waking, swallowing, or crying, ending 
often in a fit of suffocation with convulsions. 
The pathology of the disease has been supposed 
toconsist in enlargementof the thymus gland, (?) 
or of the glands of the neck pressing on the 
pneumogastric nerves. The ear.on auscultation, 
at a distance from the chest, detects an incom- 
plete, acute, hissing inspiration, or rather cry; 
whilst the expiration and voice are croupal, 
both at the accession and termination of the pa- 
roxysm. The heart's action has been observed 
to be distinct and feeble. 

These symptoms are often accompanied by 
rigidity of the fingers and toes; the thumb being 
frequently drawn forcibly into the palm of the 
clenched hand, whence the name Carpopedal 
spasm, (q. v.) applied, at times, to the disease. 

Asthma Uteri, Hysteria — a. Weed, Lobelia 

ASTHMATIC, Asthmal'icus ,* one affected 
with asthma. Relating to asthma. 

ASTHME AIGU, Asthma acutum— a. Aer- 
veux, Asthma. 

AS'TOMUS, aarcuot;, from a., privative, and 
(TToua,'a mouth.' One without a mouth. Pliny 
speaks of a people in India without mouths, 
who live anhelatu ct odore! 

ASTRAGALE COL D', Collum astragali. 

ASTRAG'ALUS, Talus, the Ankle, Qua'trio,- 
Diub'elios, Peza, Cavic'ula, Cavil'la, Tctro'ros, 
As'trion, Os Ballisl'a, from vLnfuyxloc, ' a die,' 
which it has been considered to resemble. (?) A 
short bone situate at the superior and middle 
part of the tarsus, where it is articulated with 
the tibia. It is the ankle bone, sling bone, or fint 
bone of the foot. The anterior surface is con- 
vex, and has a well-marked prominence, sup- 
ported by a kind of neck, and hence has been 
called the head of the Astragalus. The astraga- 
lus is developed by two points of ossification. 

Astrag'alus Exs'capus, Slemlcss Milk-cttcli, 
(F.) Astragale a gousscsvelus. Nat. Ord. Legu- 
minosaj. Sex. Syst. Diadelphia Decandria. The 
root is said to have cured confirmed syphilis. 

Astrag alus Trag acanthus, see Tragacant'n. 

Astrag'alus Verus, Gout's thorn, Milk-vetch, 
Spina hirci, Astrag'alus aculea'tus. The plant 
which affords Gum Trag'acanlh. See Tra<<a- 

ASTRANTIA, Imperatoria. 




AS'TRAPE, Corusca'tio, Fulgur, Lightning. 
Galen reckons it amongst the remote causes of 

ASTR1CTION, Aslric'tio, orvxftg, from as- 
tringere, (W, and stringcre ,) ' to constringe.' 
Action of an astringent substance on the ani- 
mal economy. 

A STRICT ORIA, Astringents. 
ASTRINGENT ROOT, Comptonia asple- 

ASTRINGENTS, Astringen'lia, Cataslal'- 
tica, Constringen'titi, Cuntrahen'tia, Slcgno'tica, 
Syncrit'ica, Astricto'ria. Same etymon. Medi- 
cines which have the property of constringing 
the organic textures. External astringents are 
called Styptics. 

The following are the chief astringents : Aci- 
dum Sulphuricum, A. Tannicum, Alumen, Ar- 
genti Nitras, Catechu, Cupri Sulphas, Tinct. 
Ferri Chloridi, Liquor Ferri Nitratis, Ferri Sul- 
phas, Galla?, HaBmatoxylon, Kino, Krameria, Li- 
quor Calcis, Plumbi Acetas, Quercus Alba, 
Quercus Tinctoria, Zinci Sulphas, Creasoton. 
ASTRION, Astragalus. 
ASTRIOS, Asteria gemma. 
ASTROB'LES, from uotqov, 'a star,' and 
fiodXu, ' I strike.' One struck by the stars (si- 
dera'tus.) One who is in a state of sideration — 
in an apoplectic state. — Gorrasus. 

ASTROBOLIS'MOS, same etymology. Si- 
dera'tion or action of the stars on a person. 
Apoplexy. — Theophr., Gorraeus. 
ASTROBOLOS, Asteria gemma. 
ASTROITIS, Asteria gemma. 
ASTROL'OGY, Astrolog"ia, from arroov, 'a 
star,' and loyos. 'a discourse.' The art of di- 
vining by inspecting the stars. This was for- 
merly considered to be a part of Medicine ; and 
was called Judicial Astrology, to distinguish 
it from Astronomy. 

ASTRON'OMY, Astronom'ia, from aaroov, 'a 
star,' and vof*og, 'a law,' 'rule. 1 A science 
which makes known the heavenly phenomena, 
and the laws that govern them. Hippocrates 
places this and astrology amongst the neces- 
sary studies of a physician. 
ASTYSIA, Impotence. 
ASUAR, Myrobalanus Indica. 
ASULCI, Lapis lazuli. 
ASYNOD1A, Impotence. 
ATACTOS, Erratic. 

AT'AVISM ; from At'avus, ' an old grand- 
sire or ancestor, indefinitely.' The case in 
which an anomaly or disease, existing in a 
family, is lost in one generation and reappears 
in the following. 

ATARAOTAPOIE'SIA, from a, privative, 
Taqaxrog, 'troubled,' and noisiv, 'to make.' In- 
trepidity, firmness. A quality of which, ac- 
cording to Hippocrates, the physician ought to 
be possessed in the highest degree. 

ATARAXTA, from a, privative, and r*.Qa%ig, 
'trouble,' 'emotion.' Moral tranquillity, peace 
of mind. 

ATAXTA, from a, privative, and raJi?, 'or- 
der.' Disorder, irregularity. Hippocrates em- 
ploys the word in its most extensive accepta- 
tion. Galen applies it, especially, to irregu- 
larity of pulse ; and Sydenham speaks of Jilaxiu 
Spirituum for disorder of the nervous system. 
Ataxia, now, usually means the state of disor- 
der that characterizes nervous fevers, and the 
nervous condition. 

Ataxia Spirituum, Nervous diathesis. See 

ATCHAR,A/im, Achar. A condiment used 
in India. It is formed of green fruits of various 
kinds, — garlic, ginger, mustard, and pimento, 
pickled in vinegar. 

ATECNIA, Sterilitas. 

AT'ELES, artXrji, 'imperfect,' 'defective.'— 

ateledtasis. Imperfect expansion of the lungs 
at birth; from arekijg, 'imperfect,' and exTari;. 

ATELOCHEI'LIA, from aziltjg, 'imperfect/ 
and zsi/Log, 'lip.' A malformation which con- 
sists in an imperfect development of the lip. 

ATELOENCEPHAL'IA, from ctTtl^g, 'im- 
perfect,' and syxiyuXov, 'the encephalon.' State 
of imperfect development of the brain. — Andral. 

ATELOGLOS'SI A, from an?.r 1? , ' imperfect,' 
and yktoooa, 'tongue.' A malformation which 
consists in an imperfect development of the 
tono-ue. •> 

ATELOGNA'THIA, from cm^c, 'imper- 
fect,' and yvtt&og, 'the jaw.' A malformation 
which consists in an imperfect development of 
the jaw. 

ATELOMYEL'IA, from cnil n?1 'imperfect,' 
and nvcXog, 'marrow.' State of imperfect de- 
velopment of the spinal marrow. — Beclard. 

ATELOPROSO'PIA, from uTthjg, 'imper- 
fect,' and nQoocnnov, 'the face.' A malforma- 
tion which consists in imperfect development 
of the face. 

ATELORACHID1A, Hydrorachis. 

ATELOSTOM'IA, from art/jjc, 'imperfect,' 
and oTo/ua, 'mouth.' One whose mouth is im- 
perfectly developed. 

ATER SUCCUS, Atrabilis. 

ATHAMAN'TA, from Alhamas, a place in 
Thessaly. A genus of plants. . 

Athaman'ta Aureoseli'num, Oreoseli'mim, 
Black Mountain Parsley. (F.) Persil de Mon- 
tague. The plant, seed and roots are aromatic. 
It has been considered attenuant, aperient, de- 
obstruent, and lithontriptic. The distilled oil 
has been used in toothache. 

Athaman'ta Creten'sis seu Cret'ica, Dau- 
cus Crcticus; D. Candianus, Myrrhis annua, 
Candy Carrot. The seeds of this plant are 
acrid and aromatic. They have been used as 
carminatives and diuretics. 

ATHANASIA, Tanacetum. 

Atiiana'sia, from a., privative, and Savarcg, 
'death.' An antidote for diseases of the liver, 
jaundice, gravel, &c. It consisted of saffron, 
cinnamon, lavender, cassia, myrrh, juncus odo- 
ratus, honey, &c. and was esteemed to be su- 

ATHARA, Athera. 

'a breast or nipple.' Impracticability of giving 
suck; from want of nipple or otherwise. 

ATHELXIS, Sucking. 

ATHE'NA. Name of a plaster, recommend- 
ed by Asclepiades, and composed of oxide of 
copper, sublimed oxide of zinc, sal ammoniac, 
verdigris, gall nuts, and a variety of resinous 
and other ingredients. — Oribasius, Aetius, and 
P. jEgineta. 

composed of myrrh, pepper, castor, and opium; 
used to allay coughing. — Celsus. 




ATHE'RA, Mha'ra, from oflijp, 'an ear of 
corn.' A kind of pap for children: also, a 
kind of liniment.— Dioscorides, Pliny. 

ATHERO'MA, from a&nqa, 'pap or pulp.' 
Emphy'macncijs'tisathero'ma,Mollus'cum. (q.v.) 
A tumour formed by a cyst containing matter 
like pap or Bouillie. 

ATHEROMATOUS, Atheromalo'des. 
Having the nature of Atheroma. 

ATHLE'TA, from aS\og, ' combat.' Athletae 
were men who exercised themselves in com- 
bat at the public festivals. — Vitruv. 

ATHLET'JC, Mhlet'icus; concerning Mh- 
le'lse. Strong in muscular powers. — Foesius. 
ATHORACOCEFHA LUS, Acephalogastew 
ATHYM'IA, An'imi defec'tus et anxi'etas, 
An'imi dcmis'sio, Tristia, from a, priv. and 
&v(Aog, 'heart,' 'courage.' Despondency. The 
prostration of spirits, often observable in the 
sick. — Hippocr. Melancholy. — Swediaur. See 

ATHYRION, Asplenium ceterach. 
filix fcemina — a. Filix mas, Polypodium filix 

ATLAS, Atlantion, from etr?.aw, ' I sustain.' 
The first cervical ver'tebra; so called, from its 
supporting the whole weight of the head, as 
Atlas is said to have supported the globe on hi3 
shoulders. Chaussier calls it Atloid. This ver- 
tebra in no respect resembles the others. It is a 
kind of irregular ring, into which, anteriorly, 
the processus dentatus of the second vertebra is 
received. Posteriorly, it gives passage to the 
medulla spinalis. 

ATLOFDO-AXOID, (F.) Alloido-axoMien. 
Relating to both the Atlas and the Axis or Ver- 
tebra Dentata. 

Atloido-axoid Articulation. The articu- 
lation between the first two cervical vertebra. 
Atloido-axoid Lig'aments. These are two 
in number; one anterior and another posterior, 
passing between the two vertebra. 

ATLOrDO-OCCIPTTAL. Relating to the 
atlas and occiput. The Mot 'do-occip 'ital At- 
ticula'lion is formed by the condyles of the oc- 
cipital bone and the superior articular surfaces 
of the Atlas. The Atloidu-occipital muscle is 
the Rectus capitis posticus minor. 

superior oculi — a. Sous-occipitale, Rectus capitis 

ATM1ATRFA, Atmidiat'ricP, from aruog, 
'vapour,' and izrftia, 'treatment.' Treatment 
of diseases by fumigation. 
ATMISTERION, Vaporarium. 
ATMOS, Breath. 

AT'MOSPHERE, Atmosphse'ra, from arpog, 
'vapour,' and trqaioa, 'a sphere:' — as it were, 
Sphere of vapours. The atmosphere is a spheri- 
cal mass of air, surrounding the earth in every 
part ; the height of which is estimated at 15 or 
16 leagues. It presses on the surface of the 
earth, and this pressure has, necessarily, sensi- 
ble effects on organized bodies. The surface 
of the human body being reckoned at 15 square 
feet, it is computed that a pressure of 33,000 
pounds or more exists under ordinary circum- 
stances, and this pressure cannot be increased 

or diminished materially, without modifying 
the circulation and all the functions. 
ATOL'MIA, from a, priv. and rc?./ua, 'con- 
fidence.' Want of confidence ; discouragement. 
A state of mind, unfavourable to heallh, and in- 
jurious in disease. It is the antithesis of Eu- 

AT'ONY, Aton'ia, Irtfir'mitas et Remis'siovi'- 
rium, Languor, Laxfilas, from a, priv. and 
rojoff, 'tone,' 'force.' Want of tone. Weak- 
ness of every organ, and particularly of those 
that are contractile. Violent gastritis has been 
described by Scribonius Largus under a simi- 
lar name, arorov, M'onon. 

ATRABIL/IARY, Atrabil'ions, Atrabilia'ris, 
Atrabilio'sus, from atcr, ' black,' and bilis, ' bile.' 
An epithet given by the ancients to the melan- 
cholic and hypochondriac, because they be- 
lieved the Atrabilis to predominate in such. 

Atrabiliarv Capsules, Arteries and 
Veins. The renal capsules, arteries and veins ; 
the formation of Atrabilis having been attri- 
buted to them. 

ATRABl'LIS, same etymon. Ater sur.cus, 
Black Bile or melancholy. According to the 
ancients, a thick, black, acrid humour, secreted, 
in the opinion of some, by the pancreas; in 
that of others, by the supra-renal capsules. 
Hippocrates, Galen, Aetius, and others ascribe 
great influence to the Atrabilis in the produc- 
tion of hypochondriasis, melancholy, and ma- 
nia. There is really no such humour. It was 
an imaginary creation. — Aretaius, Rufus of 
Ephesus, &c. 

ATRACHELOCEPH'ALUS, from «, priv. 
rpax^jiog, ' neck,' and y.«pa).r], 'head.' A monster 
whose neck is partially or wholly deficient. 

ATRACHE'LUS. Same etymon. One who 
is very short-necked. — Galen. 

pineus, IxinS, Gummy-rooted Atractylis, Pine 
Thistle. The root, when wounded, yields a 
milky, viscid juice, which concretes into tena- 
cious masses, and is said to be chewed with the 
same views as mastich. 

ATRAGENE, Clematis vitalba. 
ATRAMENTUM, A. Suto'rium, Ink, Cal- 
can'thon, (F.) Encre. It has been advised as 
an astringent, and as an external application in 
herpetic affections. 
Atramentum Sutorium, Ferri sulphas. 
ATRESIA, Adherence, Imperforation. 
Atre'sia Ani Adna'ta, Anus Imperforatus, 
Imptrforatio ani, (F.) Imperforation de fanus. 
Congenital imperforation of the intestinal ca- 

ATRET1SMUS, Imperforation. 
ATRETOOEPH'ALUS, from aTprjog, 'im- 
perforate,' and xtipaXTj, 'head.' A monster, in 
which some of the natural apertures of the 
head are wanting. — Gurlt. 

ATRETOCOR'MUS, from arprjog, « imper- 
forate,' and xoouog, 'trunk.' A monster, in 
which the natural apertures of the trunk are 
wanting — Gurlt. 

ATRE'TUS, from a, priv. and tquvi, 'I per- 
forate.' One whose anus or parts of genera- 
tion are imperforate. 

AT'RICES. Small tumours, which appear 
occasionally around the anus. Some commen- 
tators consider the word to be synonymous 
with condylomata. — Forestus. 



AT'RICI. Small sinuses in the vicinity of 
the anus, not penetrating the rectum. 

ATRIPLEX FCETIDA, Chenopodium vul- 

At'ripi.ex Horten'sis, A. Sat'i'va. (F.) Ar- 
roche, Bonne Dame. The herb and seed of this 
plant have been exhibited as antiscorbutics. 

At'riplex al'imus, A. Portulacoi'des, and A. 
Pat'nla, are used as pickles, and have similar 

At'riplex Odorata, Chenopodium botrys — 
a. Olida, Chenopodium vulvaria. 

cordis — a. Cordis sinistrum, Sinus pulmonalis. 

AT'ROPA, from Ar^oa-oc, 'immutable,' ' the 
goddess of destiny;' so called from its fatal 

Atropa Belladon'na, Beliadon'na, Deadly 
yightshade. Sola'num letha'le, Sola'num mdni'a- 
cum, S. Furio'sum, Sola'num melanocer 1 asus. (F.) 
Belladone, Morelle furieuse. Belle Dame. Nat. 
Ord. Solanese. Sex. Syst. Tetrandria Monogynia. 
The leaves — Belladonna (Ph. U. S.) are power- 
fully narcotic, and also diaphoretic, and diu- 
retic. They are occasionally used where nar- 
cotics are indicated. Sprinkling the powdered 
leaves over cancerous sores has been found to 
allay the pain; and the leaves form a good 
poultice. Dose, gr. £ to gr. j. of the powdered 

Atropa Mandrag'ora, Mandrag'ora, Man- 
drake. The boiled root has been used in the 
form of poultice in indolent swellings. 

ATROPHIA, Tabes— a. Ablactatorum, Brash, 
weaning — a. Cordis, Heart, atrophy of the — 
a. Glandularis, Tabes mesenterica — a. Infantum, 
Tabes mesenterica — a. Intestinorum, Enter- 
atrophia — a. Mesenterica, Tabes mesenterica. 

A TR OP HIE, Atrophy —a. Mesentirique, Tabes 

AT'ROPHIED, see Atrophy. 

AT'ROPHY, Maras'musAlro'phia, Atro'phia, 
Maras'mits, Macies, Contabescen'tia, Tabes, 
Marco' res, Analo' sis, from a., privative, and Tooipr n 
'nourishment.' (F.) Alrophie, Dess'echement. 
Progressive and morbid diminution in the bulk 
of the whole body or of a part. Atrophy is 
generally symptomatic. Any tissue or organ 
thus affected is said to be atrophied. 

Atrophy of the Heart. See Heart, Atro- 
phy of the. 

AT'ROPINE, Alropi'na, Atro'pia, Alro'pium. 
The active principle of Atropa Belladonna, 
separated by Brandes, by a process similar to 
that for procuring Morphia. 

ATTACHE, Insertion. 

ATTAGAS, Attagen. 

ATTACK, Insul'tus, Irrept'io, Inva'sio, Eis'- 
bole, Lepsis, (F.) Attaque. A sudden attack, in- 
vasion or onset of a disease. A seizure. 

AT'TAGEN, At'tagus, the Fran'colin. Cele- 
brated with the ancients both as food and medi- 
cine. — Martial, Aristophanes. 

OF. A mineral water in France at Attancourt, 
in Champagne; about 3 leagues north of Join- 
ville. The water is a chalybeate, and contains 
sulphate of lime. In large doses it is puro-ative. 

ATTAQUE, Attack— a. des JVer/s, Nervous 

ATTELLE, Splint. 



in Bavaria. The water contains carbonic acid, 
carbonates of lime and soda, sulphates of hm e 
and magnesia, chloride of sodium, iron, and 
alum, ft is much used in skin diseases, fistula, 
old ulcers, calculi, and hemorrhoids. 

ATTEN'UAINTS, Attcnuan'tia Leptun'tica, 
(F.) Lcptonliques, from ten'uis, 'thin.' Medi- 
cines which augment the fluidity of the humours. 

ATTIRAJVT, Attrahent. 

ATTITUDE, Situs Corporis. Low Latin, 
aptitudo; from Latin aptare, ' to fit.' Situation, 
position of the body. The attitudes are the dif. 
ferent postures which man is capable of as- 
suming. In General Pathology, the attitude will 
often enable the physician to pronounce at 
once upon the character of a disease, or it will 
aid him materially in his judgment. In St. 
Vitus's dance, in fractures, luxations, &c, it is 
the great index. It will also indicate the de- 
gree of nervous or cerebral power; hence the 
sinking down in bed is an evidence of great 
cerebral debility in fever. The position of a 
patient during an operation is an interesting 
subject of attention to the surgeon. 

ATTOL'LENS AUREM, Attol'lens Auric'- 
ulas, Leva'tor Auris, Supe'rior Auris, Attol'len) 
Auric'ulam, (F.) Auriculaire superieur, Tempo- 
ro-auriculaire. A muscle of the ear, which 
arises, thin, broad, and tendinous, from the ten- 
don of the occipito-frontalis, and is inserted 
into the upper part of the ear, opposite to the 
anti-helix. It raises the ear. 

Attollens Oculi, Rectus superior oculi. 

ATTOUCHEMEJYT, Masturbation. 

hesion, force of. 


ATTRACTIVUS, Attrahent. 


AT'TRAHENT, At'trahens, Attracti'vus, M- 
tracto'rius, from ad, ' to,' and traho, ' I draw.' 
(F.) Atlractif, Attirant. Remedies are so called, 
which attract fluids to the parts to which they 
are applied, as blisters, rubefacients, &c. 

ATTRAPE-LOURDAUT, (F.) A bistoury 
invented by a French surgeon, called Bien- 
naise, and used in the operation for hernia. See 
Bistouri cache. 

ATTRITA, Chafing. 

ATTRITION ,Attri"tio, Eclhlimma, from ad, 
'and' terere, 'to bruise.' Friction or bruising. 
Chafing. — Galen. Also, a kind of cardialgia.— 
Sennertus. Likewise, a violent contusion. 

ATYPTC, Atyp'icus, At'ypos, from a, priva- 
tive, and rvTzog, '4ype.' That which has no 
type. Irregular. Chiefly applied to an irregu- 
lar intermittent. — Ftbris atypica. 

ATYPOS^ Erratic. 

AUAN'TE, Anap'sS, from zvctvoic, 'desicca- 
tion.' Hippocrates gave this name to a disease, 
the principal symptom of which was emaciation. 

AUBE-VIGJVE, Clematis vitalba. 

AUBtiPIJYE, Mespilus oxyacantha. 

AUBERGINE, Solanum Melongena. 

AUBIFOIJY, Cyanus segeturn. 

AUCHEN, Collum. 

AUDE, Voice. 

Audinac is situate in jhe department of Ar- 
ricge, France. The water contains a small 
quantity of sulphohydric acid, carbonic acid, 
sulphates of lime and magnesia, carbonates of 




lime and iron, and a bituminous substance. 
Temp. 07° Fahr. It is much used in chronic 
rheumatism, herpes, scrofulous diseases, &c. 

AUDIT'lON, from audire, < to hear.' Ac'oS, 
Audi"tio, Audi'tus, Acoe'sis, Acu'sis. Hearing. 
The act of hearing. The sensation arising 
from an impression made on the auditory nerves 
by the vibrations of the air, produced by a so- 
norous body. The physiology of Audition is 
obscure. It probably takes place: — 1. By the 
vibrations being communicated from the mem- 
brana tympani along the chain of small bones 
to the membrane of the foramen ovale. 2. By 
means of the air in the cavity of the tympanum, 
the membrane of the foramen rotundum is agi- 
tated. 3. The transmission .may be made by 
means of the bony parietes. In these three 
ways the vibrations produced by a sonorous 
body, may reach the auditory nerve. Audition 
may be active or passive: hence the difference 
between listening and simply hearing. 

AU'DITORY, Audito'rius, Auditi'vus. That 
which relates to audition. 

Auditory Arteries and Veins, are vessels 
which enter the auditory canals, and are, like 
them, distinguished into internal and external. 
The external auditory artery, A. Tympaniquc — 
(Ch.), is given off by the styloid, a branch of 
the external carotid: the internal is a branch of 
the basilary artery, which accompanies the au- 
ditory nerve, and is distributed to it. The Au- 
ditory Veins empty into the internal and exter- 
nal jugulars. 

Auditory Canal, External, Med Ins audi- 
to'rius exter'nus, Alvca'rium, (F.) Conduit ate- 
ditif externe, Conduit auriculaire, commences 
at the bottom of the concha, at the Foramen 
auditi'vum ezler'num, passes inwards, forwards, 
and a little downwards, and terminates at the 
membrana tympani. It is partly cartilaginous, 
partly osseous, and partly fibrous. 

Auditory Canal, Internal, Mea'tvs audito'- 
rius intcr'nits, Cyar, (F.) Conduit auditif in- 
terne, C. labyrinthique, is situate in the poste- 
rior surface of the pars petrosa of the temporal 
bone. From the Fora'men auditivum inter 1 num, 
where it commences, it passes forwards and 
outwards, and terminates by a kind of cul-de-sac, 
perforated by many holes, one of which is the 
orifice of the Aqua?ductus Fallopii ; and the 
others communicate with the labyrinth. 

Auditory Nerve, Nerf labyrinthique — (Ch.) 
is the Portio Mollis of the seventh pair. It 
arises from the corpus restifonne, from the floor 
of the fourth ventricle, and by means of white 
stria?, from the sides of the calamus scriptorius. 
As it leaves the encephalon, it forms a flattened 
cord, and proceeds with the facial nerve through 
the foramen auditivum internum, and as far as 
the bottom of the meatus, where it separates 
from the facial and divides into two branches, 
one going to the cochlea; the other to the ves- 
tibule and semicircular canals. 

AUGE, At'veus. Some of the older Ana- 
tomists gave this name to a reservoir, into 
which liquids flow in an interrupted manner, 
so that it is alternately full and empty. Such 
are the ventricles and auricles of the heart 

AUGMENTATION, from aitgere, 'to in- 
crease.' Augmen'tum, f iter emen' turn, Annh'asis, 
Auc'tio, Auxe'sis. The stage of a disease in 
which the symptoms go on increasing. 

AUL1SCOS, Canula. 

AULOS, Canula. See Vagina, and Foramen. 


Aumale is a town of Upper Normandy, in the 
country of Caux. Several springs of ferrugi- 
nous mineral waters are found there, whose 
odour is penetrating, and taste rough and as- 
tringent. They are tonic, and employed in 
debility of the viscera, &c. 

AVNE A'OIR, Rhamnus frangula. 

AUNEE, Inula helenium — a. Dyscntirique, 
Inula dysenterica. 

AURA, Pno'e. A vapour or emanation from 
any body, surrounding it like an atmosphere. 
Van Helmont regarded the vital principle a3 
a gas and volatile spirit, which he called Aura 

In Pathology, Aura means the sensation of 
a light vapour, which, in some diseases, appears 
to set out from the trunk or limbs; and to rise, 
towards the head. This feeling has been found 
to precede attacks of epilepsy and hysteria, and 
hence it has been called Aura epilcp'tica, and 
A. hyste/ica. 

Aura San'guinis. The odour exhaled by 
blood newly drawn. See Gaz Sanguinis. 

Aura Sem'inis or A. semina'/is; — A volatile 
principle fancied to exist in the sperm, and re- 
garded by some as the fecundating agent. Such 
is not the case. 

AURANCUM. See Ovum. 

AURAJV1TE. See Agaric. 

so'a apples or oranges. Immature oranges, 
checked, by accident, in their growth. They 
are a grateful, aromatic bitter, devoid of acidity. 
Infused in wine or brandy they make a good 
stomachic. They are also used for issue peas. 

Aurantia Curassavica, see Citrus auran- 
tium — a. Roma, see Citrus aurantium. 

Aurantii Cortex. See Citrus aurantium. 

AURANTIUM, Citrus aurantium. 


AUREOLA, Areola. 

NATRII, see Gold— a. Chloridum, Gold, muri- 
ate of— a. Chloretum, Gold, muriate of — a. 
Cyanidum, see Gold — a. Cyanuretum, see Gold 
— a. et Natri chloruretum, see Gold — a Murias, 
Gold, muriate of— a. Nitro-murias, see Gold — 
a. Oxidum, see Gold — a. Terchloridum, see 
Gold — a. Tercyanidum, see Gold. 


AURICULA. Diminutive of auris, an ear. 
The auricle of the ear. See Pavilion. 

Auricles of the Heart, Cavitoftcs innomi- 
na'tse, (F.) Oreillettes, are two cavities; one 
right, the other left, each communicating with 
the ventricle of its side. These two cavities 
receive the blood from every part of the body. 
Into the right auricle, the two vena? cavas and 
coronary vein open: into the left, the four pul- 
monary veins. Chaussier calls the former the 
Sinus of the Vense Cavas : — the latter, the Si7ius 
of the Pulmonary Veins. See Sinus. 

Auricula Juvje, Peziz.i auricula — a. Muris, 
Hieracium Pilosella — a. Muris major, Hiera- 
cium iiurorum. 

AURICULAIRE, see Digitus— a. Posterieur, 
Retrahens auris — a Suptrieur, Attollensaurem. 

AURICULAR, Oric'ular, Auricula'ris, from 
auricula, ' the ear.' That which belongs to the 
ear, especially to the external ear. 





(aires — (Ch), are divided into anterior and 
posterior. The anterior are of indeterminate 
number. They arise from the temporal artery, 
and are distributed to the meatus auditorius 
externus, and to the pavilion of the ear. The 
posterior auricular is given off by the external 
carotid, from which it separates in the substance 
of the parotid gland. When it reaches the in- 
ferior partof the pavilion of the ear it bifurcates; 
one of its branches being distributed to the in- 
ner surface of the pavilion, the other passing 
over the mastoid process, and being distributed 
to the temporal and posterior auris muscles, &c. 
Before its bifurcation it gives off the stylo-mas- 
toid artery. The Anterior and Posterior Auri- 
cular Veins open into the temporal and external 

Auricular Finger, (F.) Doigt auriculaire, is 
the little finger, so called because, owing to its 
size, it can be more readily introduced into the 
meatus auditorius. 

Auricular Nerves are several. 1. The au- 
ricular branch, Zygomata-auricular, is one of the 
ascending branches of the cervical plexus. It 
ramifies and spreads over the two surfaces of 
the pavilion. 2. The auricular or superficial 
temporal, Temporal-cutaneous — (Ch.) is given 
off from the inferior maxillary. It ascends be- 
tween the condyle of the jaw and the meatus 
auditorius externus, sends numerous filaments 
to the meatus and pavilion, and divides into 
two twigs, which accompany the branches of 
the temporal artery, and are distributed to the 
integuments of the head. There is also a. pos- 
terior auricular furnished by the facial. 


AURICULE. Pavilion of the ear. 

ventricula'ris. That which belongs to the au- 
ricles and ventricles of the heart. The com- 
munications between the auricles and ventri- 
cles are so called. The Tricuspid and Mitral 
Valves are auriculo-ventricular valves. 

AURI'GA. A species of bandage for the ribs, 
described by Galen. See, also, Liver. 

AURIGO, Icterus — a. Neophytorum, Icterus 

AURIPIGMENTUM, Orpiment— a. Rubrum, 
Real (jar. 

AURIS, Ear. 


AURIST, from auris, 'the ear.' One who 
occupies himself chiefly with the diseases of the 
ear and their treatment. 

morata. Cerumen — a. Sibilus, Bombus — a. So- 
nitus. Bombus — a. Sordes, Cerumen — a. Susur- 
rus. Bombus. 

AUROJYE, Artemisia abrotanum — a. des 
Champs, Artemisia campestris — a. des Jardins, 
Artemisia abrotanum — a. Male, Artemisia abro- 

AUIiUGO, Icterus. 

AURUM,'Gold,'(q.v.)— a.Chloratum, Gold, 
muriate of — a. Chloratum natronatum, see Gold 
— a. Foliatum, Gold leaf— a. in Libellis, Gold 
leaf — a. Leprosum, Antimonium — a. Limatum, 
see Gold — a. Muriaticum, Gold, muriate of — a. 
Muriaiicum, see Gold — a. Muriaticum natrona- 
tu m, see Gold. 

Auuuh Mvsi'yvm, Aurum Mosa'icum, Sulpha- 

ret of Tin, Dcutosu/p/iurct or persulphurct of tin. 
(Quicksilver, tin, sulphur, sal ammoniac, aa, 
equal parts. The tin being first melted, the 
quicksilver is poured into it, and then the whole 
are ground together, and sublimed in a bolt- 
head. The aurum musivum lies at the bot- 
tom.) It is used in some empirical prepara- 

Aurum Oxydatum, see Gold— a. Oxydula- 
turn muriaticum, Gold, muriate of— a. Nitro- 
muriaticum, see Gold— a. Salitum, Gold, mu- 
riate of. 

AUSCULTATE, TO; from auscultare, 'to 
listen.' To practise auscultation, (q. v.) 'To 
auscult' is at times used with the same signifi- 

AUSCULTA'TION, Ausculla'tio, act of list- 
ening. Buisson has used it synonymously with 
listening. Laennec introduced auscultation to 
appreciate the different sounds, which can be 
heard in the chest, and in the diagnosis of dis- 
eases of the heart, lungs, &c. This may be 
done by the aid of an instrument called ask- 
Otoscope (q. v.), one extremity of which is ap. 
plied to the ear, the other to the chest of the 
patient. This mode of examination is called 
Mediate Auscultation, (F.) Auscultation mediate, 
— the application of the ear to the chest being 
immediate auscultation. 

The act of exploring the chest is called Sit- 
thoscop'ia, and Thoracoscop'ia; of the abdomen, 
Abdominoscop' ia, (q. v.) 

AUSCUL'TATORY, Auscultato'rius ; Ms- 
cul'tic, (with some.) Belonging or having re- 
lation to auscultation. 

Auscultatory Percussion, see Acouophonia. 

AUSTE'RE, Austc'rus. Substances, which 
produce a high degree of acerb impression on 
the organs of taste. 

AUSTRUCHE, Imperatoria. 

AUTALGIA DOLOROSA, Neuralgia, facial, 
Pleurodynia — a. Pruriginosa, Itching — a. Ver- 
tigo, Vertigo. 

AUTARCI'A, from avro ? , 'himself,' and 
aQKeu), '1 am satisfied.' Moral tranquillity. — 

AUTEMES'IA, from uvrog, 'self,' and m&t(, 
'vomiting.' Spontaneous or idiopathic vomit- 
ing. — Alibert. 

AUTHE'MERON. A medicine which cures 
on the day of its exhibition; from ttvrog, 'the 
same,' and Juitoa, ' day.' 


AUTOC'RASY, Autocrati'a, Autocrato'ria, 
from avrog, 'himself,' and zgaro?, 'strength.' 
Independent force. Action of the vital prin- 
ciple, or of the instinctive powers towards the 
preservation of the individual. — See Vis Medi- 
catrix Naturae. Also, the vital principle. 

AUTOCRATIA, Autocrasy, Vis medicatrix 

AUTOCRATORIA, Autocrasy— a. Physia- 
trice, Vis medicatrix naturae. 


avroq, 'himself,' Zidog, 'a stone,' and xepivuv, 
'to cut.' One who operates upon himself for 
the stone. 

AUTOMATIC, Automat'icus, from avrc f ta- 
toc, 'spontaneous.' That which acts of itself. 
Those movements are called automatic, which 
the patient executes without any object; appa- 
rently without volition beinor exercised.' 




AUTOMNALE, Autumnal. | 

AUTONOM'IA, Vis medicatrix nature The 
word Jlutonomiu is occasionally employed by 
the French and Germans for the peculiar me- 
chanism of an organized body. Thus, although 
individuals of the same species may differ in 
outward conformation, their mechanism or in- 
stinctive laws (Autonomia,) may be the same. 

AUTOPEP'SIA, from ouzo?, 'self,' and *tn- 
Tu>, ' I concoct. 7 Self-digestion, — as of the 
stomach after death. 

AUTOPHIA, Autopsia. 

AUTOPHO'NIA, froma„To S , 'self,' and <?am;, 
'voice.' An auscultatory sign pointed out by 
M. Hourmann, which consists in noting the 
character of the observer's own voice, while he 
speaks with his head placed close to the pa- 
tient's chest. The voice, it is alleged, will be 
modified by the condition of the subjacent or- 
gans. The resonance thus heard, he terms 
retentissement autophonique. ' 


AUTOPLASTY, Morioplastice. 

AUTOP'SIA or AU'TOPSY; from avrog, 
'himself,' and oipi?, 'vision.' Autoph'ia. At- 
tentive examination by one's self!, Improperly 
used occasionally for the following: 

Autop'sia Cadaver'ica, (F.) Autopsie, Ou- 
verture cadaverique. Attentive examination af- 
ter death, Examination post mortem, Sectio Ca- 
dav'eris, Dissection, Nic'roscopy, Nec'ropsy: 
— practised for the purpose of investigating the 
causes and seat of an affection of which a per- 
son may have died, &c. 

AUTOPYROS, Syncomistos. 

AU'TOSITE, from *</to?, 'self,' and <t,toc, 
'nourishment.' A single monster, capable of 
deriving nourishment from its own proper or- 
gans, in contradistinction to Omphalosite, (q. v ) 

AUTUMN, Autum'nus, Pldhiropo'ron, (F.) 
Automnc. One of the seasons of the year, be- 
tween the 2:3d of September and the 21st of 
December. In all climates, the Autumn or Fall 
is liable to disease; a combination of local and 
atmospheric causes being then present, favour- 
able to its production. 

AUTUM'JVAL; Autumna! lis. (F.) Autom- 
nale. Relating to Autumn; as Autumnal Fruits, 
Autumnal Fevers, &c. 

Autumnal Fever, generally assumes a bilious 
as[>ect. Those of the intermittent kind are much 
more obstinate than when they appear in the 

AUXES1S, Augmentation, Increase. 

AUXIL'IARY, Auxilia'ris, from auxilium, 
•aid.' (F.) Auxiliare. That which assists, — 
from which assistance is obtained. 

Auxiliary Medicine is one which assists 
the principal medicine or basis. It is synony- 
mous with Adjuvant. 

Auxiliary Muscles are those which concur 
in the same movement. Some anatomists 
have applied the term to several ligaments, as 
well as to the fleshy fibres, which hang from 
the sacro- spinalis muscle. 

AUXILIUM, J u vans, Medicament. 

AVA, Kava. An intoxicating narcotic drink 
made by chewing the Piper methisticum. It 
is much used by the Polynesians. 

AVAILLES, WATERS OF. A small vil- 
lage in France, 13 leagues S. S. E. of Poitiers, 
at which there is a cold saline chalybeate. It 

contains chlorides of sodium and calcium, sul- 
phate and subcarbonate of soda, iron, &.c. 

AVANTBOUCHE, (F.) Osanti'cum. This 
name has been applied by some to the mouth, 
properly so called — in contradistinction to the 
Arriere Louche or Pharynx- 

AVANT-BRAS, Forearm. 

AVAJYT-C(EVR, Scrobiculus cordis. 

AVANT-GOUT, (F.) Prcegusta' tio ; a fore- 
taste ; prtegustation. 

AVANT-MAIN, (F.) Adver'sa Manus. The 
inside of the hand, when extended. 

AV ANT-PIED, (F.) The most advanced part 
of the foot. 

AVANT-POIGNET, (F.) The anterior part 
of the wrist. 

AVELINE, Corylus avellana (nut.) 


AVE'NA, Oats, Bromos. The seeds ofAve'na 
sati'va. Nat. Ord. Graminese. Sex. Syst. Trian- 
driaDigynia. (F.) Avoine. Oats are used as food 
for man, in some parts, particularly in the North 
of England and Scotland. When deprived of the 
husks they form Groats, (q. v.) Reduced to 
meal, — Avenm Fari'na, Oatmeal — they are ap- 
plied ascataplasms to promote suppuration. The 
dry meal is sprinkled over erysipelatous parts. 


Avenheim is three leagues from Strasburg; 
near it is an aperient mineral water. 

Avennes is a village in the department of He- 
rault in France: near if" is a saline spring, the 
temperature of which rises to 84° Fahrenheit. 

AVENS, COMMON, Geum urbanum— a. 
Water, Geum rivale — a. White, Geum Virgi- 

AVER1CH, Sulphur. 

AVERRHO'A BILIM'BI, Bilim'bi, Bilimbing 
tens. An Indian tree, which has a fruit, that 
is too acid to be eaten alone. It is used as a 
condiment, and in the form of syrup as a refri- 

Averrho'a Caram'bola, called after Aver- 
rhoes; Malum Coen'sS, Prunum stclla'tum, Tavi'- 
ara, Conga, Curam'Lolo. An Indian tree, whose 
fruits are agreeably acid. The bark, bruised, is 
employed as a cataplasm, and its fruit is used 
as a refrigerant in bilious fever and dysentery. 

AVER'SION, Aver'sio; Apot'ropS, from aver- 
tere, (a and vertere) 'to turn from.' Extreme 
repugnance for any thing whatever. 

AVERSION (F.) also means, in therapeu- 
tics, the action of medicines which turn the 
afflux of fluids from one organ, and direct them 
to others; being synonymous with counter-irri- 
tation, or rather revulsion or derivation. 

AVERT1N, (F.) A disease of the mind, 
which, according to Lavoisien, renders the pa- 
tient obstinate and furious. 

AVEUGLE, Caecns. 

AVEUGLEM ENT,Cwc\t*s— a deJour,Nyc- 
talopia — a. de Nuit. Hemeralopia. 

AVICEN'NIA TOMENTO'SA, called after 
Avicenna. The plant which affords the Malac- 
ca Bean or Anacar'dium Orienla'lS of the Phar- 
macopoeias, Semecar'pus Anacar'dium. The oil 
drawn from the bark of the fruit is a corrosive, 
and active vesicatory, but it is not used. 

AVICULA CIPRIA, Pastil-a. Margaritifera, 
see Pearl. 



AVOIN, Avena. 

AVORTEMENT, Abortion. 

AVORTER, to Abort. 

AVORTIN, Abortion. 

A VORTOJf, Abortion. 

A VULSIO, Arrachcment. 

AVULSION, Evulsion. 

small town in the department of Arriege, 
France; where there are several sulphurous 
springs, the temperature of which varies from 
77° to 162° of Fahrenheit. 

AXE, Axis— fCEil, Axis of the eye. 

AX'EA COMMISSU'RA, Trochoi'des. A 
pivot-joint. See Trochoid. 

AXIL'LA, Ala, Ascel'la, AsseFla, Ascil'lu, 
Acefla, Cordis emuncto'rium, Mall, Hypo'mia, 
Fo'vea axilla'ris, Mas'chale, (F.) Aissclle. The 
cavity beneath the junction of the arm with the 
shoulder; the armpit; (F.) Creux de I'Aisselle. 
It is bounded, anteriorly, by a portion of the 
pectoralis major; posteriorly, by the latissimus 
dorsi. It is covered with hair, contains much 
cellular membrane, lymphatic ganglions, im- 
portant vessels and nerves, and numerous seba- 
ceous follicles, furnishing an odorous secretion. 
In consequence of such secretion, the ancients 
called it emunctn'rivm cordis. 

AXTLLARY, (F.) Axillairc, from axilla, 
'the armpit.' Belonging to the armpit. 

Axillary Artery, Arte'ria axilla'ris; a con- 
tinuation of the subclavian, extending from 
the passage of the latter between the scaleni 
muscles as far as the insertion of the pectoralis 
major, when it takes the name of Brachial. 

Axillary Glands are lymphatic glands, 
seated in the armpit; into which the lymphatic 
glands of the upper extremity open. 

Axillary Nerve, {Scap'ulo- hu' nteral (dr.), 
JYeif circonjlcxe, Articular nerve; arises from the 
posterior part of the brachial plexus, particu- 
larly from the last two cervical pairs and the 
first dorsal. It is chiefly distributed to the pos- 
terior margin of the deltoid. 

Axillary Vein, Vena Axilla'ris, Vena Suhu- 
ln'ris. This vein corresponds with the artery; 
anterior to which it is situate. It is a continua- 
tion of the brachial veins; and, at its termina- 
tion, assumes the name Subclavian. 

AX1NE, Ascia. 

AX1RNACH, An Arabic word, used by Al- 
bucasis to designate a fatty tumour of the up- 
per eyelid, observed particularly in children. 

AXIS, Axon, (F.) Axe. A right line which 
passes through the centre of a body. 

Axis, Cerebro-Spinal. See Encephalon. 

Axis ok the Eye, (F.) Axe de I mil, called, 
also, Visual Axis and Optic Axis, is a right line, 
which falls perpendicularly on the eye, and 
passes through the centre of the pupil. 

Axis, is also the second vertebra of the neck, 
Axon, Epistropheus, Mascha lister ; the Ver'te- 
Lra Dentafta. (F.) Essieu. So called because 
it forms a kind of axis on which the head 
moves. Chaussier calls it Axo'idc, from tfgw, 
'axis.' and etdos, 'shape.' 

AXOIDE, Axis— a. Occipitale, Rectus capitis 
posticus major. 

AXOI'DO-ATLOiDEUS. What refers to 
both the axis and alias; Axoido-utloidean ar- 

The lesions of the Axoido-atloidean articula- 
tion, are, 1. Fracture of the Proccs'sus Dcnta'- 

tus. 2. Rupture of the odontoid ligament, and 
consequently passage and pressure of the pro- 
cess behind the transverse ligament: and, 3. 
The simultaneous rupture of the odontoid and 
transverse ligaments. These different accidents 
are fatal. 

AXOIDO-ATLOIDIEN, Obliquus inferior 

AXON. Axis. 

AXUNGE, Adeps prsparata. 

AXUNGIA, Pinguedo — a. de Mumia, Mar- 
row — a. Articularis, Synovia — a. Porcina, 
Adeps praeparata. 

AZARNET, Orpiment. 

AZARUM, Asarum. 

AZEDARACH, Melia Azedarach. 


AZOODYNA'MIA, from a, priv., uo>/, 'life/ 
and Swa/u i?, 'strength.' Privation or diminu- 
tion of the vital powers. 

AZORES, CLIMATE OF. The Azores or 
Western Islands are said to afford one of the 
best examples of a mild, humid, equable cli- 
mate to be met with in the northern hemi- 
sphere. It is slightly colder and moister than 
that of Madeira, but even more equable. Sir 
James Clark thinks, that a change from Azores 
to Madeira, and from thence to Teneriffe — one 
of the Canaries, would prove more beneficial 
to the phthisical valetudinarian than a residence 
during the whole winter in any one of these 

AZOTATE D'ARGEXT, Argenti Nitras. 

A'ZOTE, AZO'TUM, from a, priv. and tar„ 
1 life.' Azote or JYi'trogen, Alcaligene, Gas azd- 
ticum, (F.) Air gate, Air vide, is a gas which is 
unfit for respiration. It is not positively de- 
leterious, but proves fatal, owing to the want of 
oxygen. It is one of the constituents of atmo- 
spheric air, and is a distinguishing principle of 
animals. Vegetables have it not generally dif- 
fused, whilst it is met with in most animal sub- 
stances. It has been variously called, phlogistic 
air, vitiated air, &c; has been looked upon as 
sedative, and recommended to be respired, when 
properly diluted, in diseases of the chest. 

Azote, Protoxide of, Nitrogen, gaseous 
oxide of. 

AZOTENkSES, from azote, and roao?, 'dis- 
ease.' Diseases fancied to be occasioned by the 
predominance of azote in the body. — Baumes. 

AZOTURIA. See Urine. 

AZUR. Coral, Smalt. 

AZU'RIUM. A compound of two parts of 
mercury, one-third of sulphur, and one-fourth 
of sal ammoniac— Albert the Great. 

AZ'YGES, Az'ijgos, sine pari, from a, priv. 
and tvyoc, 'equal.' Unequal. The sphenoid 
bone, because it has no fellow. Also, a process, 
Proccs'sus Az'yges, projecting from under the 
middle and forepart of this bone. 

AZYGOS MUSCLE, Azygos Uvulae, is the 
small muscle, which occupies the substance of 
the uvula. — Morgagni. The name is, however, 
inappropriate, as there are two distinct fasci- 
culi, placed along side each other, forming the 
Palato-staphy/i'ni, Staphyli'ni, or Epistaphyli'ni 
muscles, Staphyli'ni me'dii of Winslow. 

Azygos Vein, Vena Azygos, Veine Prelombo- 
tlioraciquc—(Ch.) Vena sine pari, Vena pari ca- 
rens (Y.) Veine sans Paire. This vein was so 




called by Galen. It forms a communication be- 
tween the V. cava, inferior and V. cava supe- 
rior, permitting the blood to pass freely between 
the two. It rises from the vena cava inferior, 
or from one of the lumbar or renal veins, passes 
through the diaphragm, ascends along the spine 
to the right of the aorta and thoracic duct, and 
opens into the V. cava superior, where it pene- 

trates the pericardium. On the left side, the 
skmi-az'ygos, Left bron'chial or left superior in- 
tercos'tal. vein, V. demi-azygos, Veine petite pri- 
lombo-tboracique — (Ch.J presents, in miniature, 
nearly the same arrangement. 

AZ'YMUS, from a, priv. and tvfit), 'leaven.' 
Azymous bread is unfermented, unleavened 
bread. — Galen. 


BABEURRF, Buttermilk. 
BABILLEMENT, Loquacity. 
B AC'ARIS, Bach' oris. A name given by the 
ancients to an ointment described by Galen 
under the name Ointment of Lydia. It was 
sometimes employed in diseases of the womb. 
— Hippocr. 

BACCjE BERMUDENSES, Sapindus sapo- 
naria — b. seu Grana actes, see Sambucus ebu- 
lus— b. Myrtillorum, see Vaccinium myrtillus 
— b. Norlandicae, Ftubus arcticus — b. Piscato- 
riae, see Menispermum cocculus. 

An herb used by the ancients in their garlands, 
to destroy enchantment. Perhaps the Digita- 
lis purpurea (q. v.) Some authors have erro- 
neously thought it to be the Asarum. 

BACCHl'A, from Bacfchus, ' wine.' A name 
applied to the red or pimpled face of the drunk- 
ard. See Gutta rosea. 

BACCHICA, Hedera helix. 

BACHARIS, Bacaris. 

nos nnx vomica. 

BACILE, Crithmum marilimum. 

BACIL'LUM, Badulus, Bac'culvs : 'a stick.' 
This name has been applied to a kind of troch, 
composed of expectorants, and having the shape 
of a stick. Bacillum was used by the ancient 
chemists for several instruments of iron. 


pulse, diastolic. 

BACOVE, Musa sapientum. 

BACULUS, Bacillum. 

den is a town six miles from Vienna. Here 
are Yi springs, containing: carbonates of lime 
and magnesia ; sulphates of lime, and magnesia, 
and soda: and chlorides of sodium and alu- 
minum. The water is used in diseases of the 
skin, iheumatism, (\c. There are two other 
towns of the same name; one in Suabia, and 
the other in Switzerland, about 12 miles from 
Zurich, where are mineral springs. The wa- 
ters of the last two are thermal sulphureous. 

BADIAGA. A kind of sponge, sold in Rus- 
sia, the powder of which is said to take away 
the livid marks from blows and bruises in a few 
hours. Its nature is not understood. 

BADIANE, lllicium anisatum. 

BADISIS, Walking. 

BADUKKA. Capparis badukka. 

BAGEDIA, Pound. 

TERS OP. Basmeres-Adour is a small town 
in the department of the Hautes Pyrdndes, 

having a great number of mineral springs; 
some, cold chalybeates; others, thermal sa- 
lines; but the greatest part sulphureous and 

BAGNERESDE LUCHON is a small town 
in the department of Haute Garonne, on the 
frontiers of Spain. It has been for a long time 
famous for its numerous sulphureous springs, 
the temperature of which is from Gt)° to 146° 
of Fahrenheit. 

BAGNIGGE WELLS. A saline mineral 
spring in London, resembling the Epsom. 

BAGNIO, Baignoire. 

Bajrnols is a village, two leagues from Mende, 
in the department of Lozcre. The waters are 
hydrosulphurous and thermal : 109" Fahren- 

Bagnoles is a village in the department of Orne. 
The water resembles that of the Bagnercs de 

BAGOAS, Castralus. 

BAGUEJVAUDIER, Colutea arborescens. 

climate of the Bahamas is not considered to be 
well adapted for consumptive patients, on ac- 
count of the rapid alternations of temperature, 
and the prevalence of winds, often of a dry, 
cold character. Still the phthisical valetudina- 
rians from most portions of the United States 
might derive advantage from a residence there 
during the winter months. The accommoda- 
tions are not, however, good, or numerous. 

BAHEL, Colum'nea longifo'lia. A labiated< 
plant of Malabar, whose leaves, bruised, are ap- 
plied as cataplasms to suppurating tumours. 

Bahki., Genista spinosa Indica. 

BAIGJ\ EUR, Bather. 

BAIGNOIRE, (F.) Baptiste'rium, a Bathing 
tub, Bagnio, Solium, Fisci'na. The vessel or 
place in which bathing is performed. Baig* 
noire oculaire, an eye-bath, — a small vessel for 
bathing the eyes. 

RAILLON, Speculum oris. 

BAIN, Bath— b. Chaud, Bath, hot— b. Alcclri- 
que, Bath, electric, see Electricity — b. Entier, 
Bath, general — b. de Fautevil, Bath, hip— b. 
Fiats, Bath, tepid— b. Froid, Bath, cold— ft. Ma- 
rie, Bath, water — b. Medicinal, Bath, medicated 
— b. dePied, Bath, foot, Pediluvium — Sable, 
Bath, sand— b. de Siege, Bath, hip— b. Tempdrd, 
Bath, tepid. B. Temperate— b. de Tele. Bath, 
head— b. Tied*, Bath, tepid— *. Tres froid, Bath, 
cold — b. de Vapeur, Bath, vapour. 




are situate at Plombieres, department of the 
Vosges. They are said to be saline and ther- 
mal by some; others deny them any medical 
propel ties 

BALAMPULLI, Tamarindns. 


BALA N DA, Facnis Sylvatica. 


BALANITIS, Gonorrhosa spuria. 


BALANOCASTANUM, Bunium Bulbocas- 

BALANORRHCEA, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BA'LANOS. fizXavc,?, 'glans,' 'an acorn.' 
The glans penis. Hence, Balanoblcnnorrha/ a, 
Blennorrhcea of the glans; and Balani'lis, In- 
flammation of the glans. Suppositories and 
pessaries were, also, so called. 

Balanos Phcenicos, Date. 

BALANUS, Glans— b. Myrepsica, Guilan- 
dina moringa. 

laruc is a town in the department of Herault, 
in France. The waters are saline and ther- 
mal. They contain carbonic acid, carbonate of 
lime, carbonate of magnesia, chlorides of so- 
dium, calcium, and magnesium, sulphate of 
'lime, and a little iron. They are considered 
tonic, and are largely used. Their tempera- 
ture is about 1 18° Fahrenheit. 

Balardc Water, Factitious, (F.) Eau dc 
Balaruc; Aqua Bcllilucana, is made of simple 
acidulous water (containing twice its bulk of 
carbonic acid) f. jjxxss; chloride of sodium, giss; 
chloride of calcium, gr. xviij; chloride of magne- 
sium, or. 56; carbonate of magnesia, gr. j. 

BALATRO. Bambalio. 


BALB1S, p*lpi?, 'a foundation.' Any ob- 
long cavity. — Galen. Hippocrates, in his trea- 
tise on the joints, gives the name Bulbitu' des to 
the olecranon cavity of the humerus. 

BALBUS. (F.) Begue. One habitually af- 
fected with stammering. A stammerer. 

BALBU'TIES, Psellis'mus, Fsel'htes, Bla f - 
sitas, Baryglos'sia, Dysla'lia, Mogila'lia, Isclto- 
pho'nia, Baltaris'rnus, Bamba'/ia; (F ) Balbutie- 
meat, Bevaiement. Stammering, St. Vitus's 
Dance of the Voice. Also, vicious and incom- 
plete pronunciation, in which almost all the 
consonants are replaced by the letters B and L 

RALCHUS, Bdellium. 

BALDMONEY, iEthusa Meum. 

BALENAS, Leviathan penis. 

BALIMBAGO, Hibiscus populeus. 


BALL, Pila. 


BALLONNEMEXT, Tympanites. 

B AL' LOTA FCF/n D A) Murru'bium nigrum, 
'Black Hor e hound, Stinking H. (F.) Mar rube 
noir. This plant is esteemed to be anti-spas- 
modic, resolvent, and detersive.(?) 

Ballota Lava'tv, Leanu'rvs lunn'tus. A 
plant of the Nat. Family Labiate, Sex. Sijsl. 
Didynamia Gymnospermia, which grows in 
Siberia. The whole plant, with the exception 
of the root, has recently been recommended in 
dropsy, and in rheumatism and gout, as a 

diuretic It is usually given in decoction (|gg 
to 5j, to f ijviij of water.) 

BALLOTTEMEXT (F.J Agitation, Succus- 
sion, Mouvement de Ballottement, Repercussion, 
means the motion impressed on the fetus in 
utero, by alternately pressing the uterus by 
means of the index finger of one hand intro- 
duced into the vagina; the other hand beinc 
applied on the abdomen. It is one of the least 
equivocal signs of pregnancy. 

'BALLSTON SPA. This village is situate 
in Saratoga County, New York. The spring 
Sans Souci belongs to the class of Acidulous 
Chalybeates. It contains iodide of sodium. 
There is also a sulphur spring. 

BALM, Melissa — b. Apple, Momordica bal- 
samina — b Bastard, Melitis Melissophyllum— 
b. of Gilead, Solomon's, see Tinctura cardamo- 
mi — b. of Gilead tree, Dracocephaluni cana- 
riense — b. Indian, Trillium latifolium — b. Moun- 
tain, Monarda coccinea — b. Red, Monarda coc- 
cinea — b. Slinking, Hedeoma. 

BALNEA CCENOSA, Bout des cam. 

BALNEARIUM, Hvpocaustum. 



BALNEOL'OGY, Balncolog"ia, from (lain- 
i*n.i', ' a bath,' and Xoyo$, ' a description.' A 
treatise on baths. 

BALNEUM, Bath— b. Animale. Bath, ani- 
mal — b. Arenas, Bath, sand— b. Marine, Bath, 
water — b. Medicalum, Bath, medicated. 

BALSAM. Bal'samum, (q. v.; Bol'eson, Bel> 
csan. (F ) Bourne. This name is given to na- 
tural vegetable substances, concrete or liquid, 
but very odorous, bitter, arid piquant: com- 
posed of resin, benzoic acid, and sometimes of 
an essential oil; — which allow benzoic acid to 
be disengaged by the action of heat; readily 
dissolve in volatile oil, alcohol, and elher; and, 
when treated with alcalis, afford a soluble ben- 
zoate. and throw down resin. We know of 
only five balsams: — those of Peru, and Tolu, 
Benzoin, solid Sty rax or Storax, and liquid 
Styrax. See those different words. There are, 
however, many pharmaceutical preparations 
and resinous substances, possessed of a balsamic 
smell, to which the name balsam has been 
given; but they differ essentially in compo- 
sition and properties: hence the distinction of 
balsams into natural and artificial. The natu- 
ral balsams include the five before mentioned; 
the artificial the remainder. 

Balsam, Acous'tic. Bal'samum. Acnus'ticum. 
(F.) Baume acoustique. A mixture of fixed and 
essential oils, sulphur, and tinctures of fetid 
gums. Used in cases of atonic deafness, dropped 
into the ear. . 

Balsam, American, see Myroxylon Peruife- 
rum — b. Anodyne, Bates's, Linimentum sa- 
ponis et opii. 

Balsam, Apoplec'tic, Bal'samum Jlpnpltc 1 - 
licum, (F.) Baume apoplectique. A medicine, 
composed of several balsams properly so called, 
resins, and volatile oils. It is of a stiff consist- 
ence, is worn in ivory boxes about the person, 
and is smelled at in headachs, &c. 

Balsam Apple, Momordica balsamina. 

Balsam ok Arcos'us, Bal'samum Jrcai. Un- 
guen'tum Etemi, (F.J Baume d'Arcaus. A soft 
ointment; sometimes employed in wounds, ul- 
cers. &c. It is made by melting, with a o-e'iitle 




heat, two parts of mutton suet, one oflard, one of opium, aloes, asafcetida, castor, distilled oils 

and a half of turpentine, and as much resin 

Balsam Canada, see Pinus balsamea — b. Ca- 
nary, Dracoceplialum canariense — b. Capivi, 

Balsam of Carpa'thca, Bal'samum Car- 
patli'icum. (F ) Baume de Carputhie. The resin 
of the Pinus Cembra, (q. v.) a tree, which grows 
in Switzerland, Libya, and the Krapac moun- 
tains in Hungary. 

Balsam, Chalyb'eate, Bul'samum Chaly- 
Beaftum, (F.) Baume d'acier ou d' aiguilles. A 
mixture of nitrate of iron, alcohol, and oil, pre- 
pared by dissolving needles in nitric acid. Jl 
was formerly employed in frictions in pains of 
the joints. 

Balsam, Commander's, Tinctura benzoin! 
composila— b. for Cuts, Tinctura benzoini com- 

Balsam, Cordial, of Senner'tus, Bal'sa- 
mum Cordia'ls Seiuicr'ti, (F.) Baume cordiule de 
Sennert. A stimulant medicine, composed of the 
essential oils of citron, cloves, and cinnamon, 
of musk, and ambergris. Dose, 6 to 15 drops. 
Balsam, Sriu'rruoi's, of Fioraventi, Bul'- 
samum Fioravcn'ti spirituo'sum, (F.) Baume de 
Fioraventi spiritueux. Different products of the 
distillation of resinous and balsamic substances, 
and of a number of aromatic substances, pre- 

of rue, amber, &c. It is held to the nose, ap- 
plied to the navel, or rubbed on the hypogas- 
trium in hysterical cases. 

Balsam, Indian, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

Balsam of Leictoure, of Condom or Vin- 
ceguere, Bul'samum LectorensS. A strongly 
stimulant and aromatic mixture of camphor, 
saffron, musk, and ambergris, dissolved in es- 
sential oils. The ancients burnt it for the pur- 
pose of purifying the air of a chamber, when 
infested with a disagreeable odour. 

Balsam of Life, of Hoff'man, Bal'samum 
Vita Hoffman! ni, (F.) Baume de Vie d' Hoffman. 
A tincture, composed of essential oils and am- 
bergris, employed internally and externally as 
a stimulant. A mixture of essential oils with- 
out alcohol constitutes the Saxon Balsam, BaH- 
sarnum apoplec'ticum, B. aromut'icum, B. ce- 
plml'icum, B. Saxon'icum, B. nervinum, B. 
Scherzeri, B. Stomach' icum. Employed in 
friction as a stimulant. 

Balsam of Life. Decoctum aloes composi- 
tum — b. of Life, Turlington's, see Tinctura 
benzoini composita. 

Balsam of Locatel'li or Lucatel'li, Bal'- 
samum Lucutei'li, (F.) Baume de Lucatel. A sort 
of ointment, composed of wax, oil, turpentine, 
sherry, and balsam of Peru, coloured with red 

viously macerated in alcohol, have been thus j saunders. It was once administered in pulmo- 
called. The Spirituous Balsam of Fioraventi, nary consumption. 

the only one now used in friction, in chronic 
rheumatism, is the first product of the distilla- 
tion from a sand-bath. It is entirely alcoholic. 
The Oily Balsam of Fioraventi is obtained by 
removing the residue, and distilling it in an 
iron vessel, at a while heat. It has the appear- 
ance of a citrine-coloured oil. The Black Bal- 
sam if Fioraventi, is the black oil, obtained 
when the temperature is sufficient to carbonize 
the substances in the cucurbit. 

Balsam of Fir, see Pinus balsamea 

Balsam of Mecca, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— b. Mexican, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. 
Natural, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

Balsam, Green, of, Bal'samum Vir'idZ 
Meten'sium, Bal'samum Vir'ide, (F.) Baume vert 
de Metz, Baume de Feuillct, Huile verte, O'leum 
ox'ydi cupri vir'idB. This is composed of seve- 
ral fixed oils, holding, in solution, subcarbonate 
of copper, sulphate of zinc, turpentine, aloes, 
and the essential oils of cloves and juniper. It 
is green and caustic, and is employed to hasten 

Balsam of Fouhcroy or of Laborde, (F.) j the cicatrization of atonic ulcers 
Baume de Fourcroy ou de Labordc. A kind of I Balsam, Nephrit'ic, of Fuller, Bal'samum 
liniment composed of aromatic plants, balsams, ! A'ephret'icum Fulleri. A liquid medicine, com 

resins, aloes, turpentine, theriac, and olive oil 
Used in chaps of the skin and nipples. 

Balsam, Friar's, Tinctura benzoini compo- 

.Balsam of Genevieve, (F.) Baume de Gene- 
vihee. An ointment composed of wax, turpen- 
tine, oil, red saunders, and camphor. Used in 
contused wounds, gangrene, &c. 

Balsam of Honey ('Hill's.) A tincture 

posed of oils, resins, arid balsams, which have 
experienced an incipient state of carbonization 
from concentrated sulphuric acid. It was given 
in the dose of 15 to 30 drops in certain affec- 
tions of the kidneys. 

Balsam, Nervous, Bal'samum Nervinum, (F.) 
Baume nervin ou nerval. A kind of ointment, 
composed of fatty bodies, volatile oils, balsam 
of Peru, camphor, <fcc. It is employed by 

made of tola, honey (aa lb j ) and spirit, (a gallon.) I friction in cases of sprains and rheumatic pains. 

A pectoral, used in coughs. The committee of 
the New York College of Pharmacy recom- 
mend the following formula: — (Gum Benzoin 
^v, Bals. Tolut sJ,Mellis, .^viij, Alcohol Oiij— 
digest for 10 days and filter ) See Mel. 

Balsam of Horf.hound (Ford's ) A tinc- 
ture of horeliound, liquorice-root, camphor, opi- 
um, benzoin, dried squills, oil of aniseed, and 
honey. It has the same properties as the above. 
.See Mairubinm. 

Balsam, Hungarian, see Pinus mughos. 

Balsam, Hypxo-i'ic, Bui' ytnnum Hypnol'icum, 
(F.) Baume Hypnolique. A preparation of which 
opium, hyoscyamus, camphor, and some other 
sedative substances form the basis It is used, 
externally in friction, to provoke sleep. 

Balsam, Hvsti.r'ic, Bul'samum Hyste/icum, 
(F.) Baume llyslirique. A preparation made 

Balsam, Paralyt'ic of Mynsicht. A sort 
of liniment or soft mixture of the essential oils 
of different aromatic plants, oils of turpentine 
and amber. — Leinery. 

Balsam of Parei'ra brava, Bal'samum Pa- 
rei'ra-bravx. A soft mixture of balsam, resin, 
muriate of ammonia, and powder of the root of 
Pareira-brava. It is given internally, to excite 
the urinary secretion. 

Balsam, Peruvian, see Myroxylon Peruife- 
rum — b. of Peru, red, see Toluifera balsamum 
— b. of Peru, white, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

Balsam of Rackasi'ra or of Rakasi'ri. This 
substance is of a yellowish-brown colour; semi- 
transparent; fragile, when dry, but softening 
by heat; adhering to the teeth, when chewed. 
It has a smell similar to that of the Balsam of 
Tolu, and is slightly bitter. It is brought from 




India in gourd shells, and has been employed 
in diseases of the urinary organs, especially in 

Balsam, Riga. Prepared from the shoots of 
the Scotch Fir, macerated in spirit of wine. 
Internally, stimulant and diuretic; externally, a 
vulnerary. See Pinus Cembra. 

Balsam ok Sat'urn, Bal'samum Satur'ni. A 
solution of acetate of lead in spirit of turpen- 
tine, concentrated by evaporation ; and to which 
camphor has been added. This balsam was ap- 
plied to hasten the cicatrization of wounds. 

Balsam of the Samar'itan, (F.) Baume du 
Samariluin. A sort of liniment, prepared by 
boiling together, at a gentle heat, equal parts 
of wine and oil. It is said to have been the 
ointment used by the Samaritan of the Gospel 
to cure a patient covered with ulcers. 

Balsam, Saxon, Balsam of Life of Hoff- 

Balsam of Sulphur, Bal'samum Sul'phuris, 
(F.) Baume de Soufre. A solution of sulphur 
in oil. — B. suljih. anisa'tum, (F.) B. de Sovfre 
anise. A solution of sulphur in essential oil of 
aniseed; given as a carminative. — B. Sulph. 
succina'tum, (F.) B. de Sovfre succini. A solu- 
tion of sulphur in oil of amber — B. Sulphur is' turn, Common Dutch Drops. (F.) B. 
de sovfre lerebinlhine. A solution of sulphur in 
essential oil of turpentine, administered as a 
diuretic. — The Balsam of Sulphur o/Ruland is 
a solution of sulphur in linseed oil or nut oil. 

Balsam of Svm'pathv, Balsamum Sympath'- 
icum. (F.) Baume de Symputhie. A balsam, used 
in the days when sympathetic influence was 
strongly believed in. It was composed of the 
raspings of a human skull, blood, and human 
fat, and was applied to the instrument which 
had inflicted the wound. 

Balsam, Thibaot's. A tincture of myrrh, 
aloes, dragon's blood, flowers of St. John's wort, 
and Chio turpentine. Internally, diuretic; ex- 
ternally, vulnerary. ' 

Balsam of Tolu, see Toluifera Balsamum. 

Balsam, Tranquil, Bal'samum tranquil lum. 
(F.) B. tranquil/e. A liquid medicine employed, 
externally, in the shape of friction : it is pre- 
pared by macerating and boiling, in olive oil, 
narcotic and poisonous plants, — belladonna, 
mandragora, hyoscyamus, &c. — and afterwards 
infusing, in the filtered decoction, different aro- 
matic plants. It was employed as an anodyne. 

Balsam, Turkey, Dracocephalum Cana- 

Balsam of Turpentine, Dutch Drops, Bal'- 
samum Terebin' thinx. Obtained by distilling 
oil of turpentine in a glass retort, until a red 
balsam is left. It possesses the properties of 
the turpentines. 

Balsam, Vervain's, Tinctura Benzoini com- 

Balsam, Vul'nerarv, of Mindere'rus, Bal'- 
samum vainer a' rivm Minder e'ri, (F.) B. vvlnt- 
raire de Mindeher. A kind of liniment, com- 
posed of turpentine, resin elemi,oil of St. John's 
wort, and wax. Employed in friction, and as 
a dressing to wounds. 

Balsam Wf.kd, Impntiens fulva. 

Balsam, Wound, Tinctura Benzoini com- 

Amyris Gileadensis — b. Myrrha, see Myrrha. 

BALSAMELiEON, Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

BALSAM'IO, Balsam'tcus, from (talaauor, 'bal- 
sam.' Possessing the qualities of balsams. Bal- 
samic odour: — a sweet, faint, and slightly nau- 
seous smell. Balsamic substance ; — One resem- 
bling the balsams in property. 

BALSAMIER ELiMIFkRE, Amyris elemi- 
fera — b. de la Mecque, Amyris opobalsamum. 

BALSAMINA, Momordica balsamina. 

BALSAMINE, Momordica balsamina. 

tum — b. Mas,Tanacetum balsamita. 

Balsami'ta Suav'eolens, B. odora'ta, B. 
maris, Mentha Saracen' ica, M. Roma'na. Fam. 
Composite Corymbifera. Sex. Syst.Syngenesia. 
Polygamia superflua. A plant, common in the 
south of France, and cultivated in the gardens; 
where it bears the names Menthecoq, Grund 
baume, Baume des Jardins. Its smell is strong 
and aromatic, and taste hot. It is used' for the 
same purposes as the tansey, i. e. as a stimulant, 
vermifuge, &c. 

Balsamita Suaveolehs, Tanacetum balsa- 


BALSAMUM, see Balsam, Amyris opobalsa- 
mum — b. ^Egyptiacum, see Amyris opobalsa- 
mum — b. Album, see Myroxylon peruiferum — 
b. Alpini, Dracocephalum canariense — b. Al- 
pini, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Anodynum, 
Linimentum saponis et opii — b. Apoplecticum, 
Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. Aromaticum, 
Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. Asiaticum, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — b. Braziliense, Copaiba 
— b. Calaba, see Fagara octandra — b. Catholi- 
cum, Tinctura benzoini composita — b. Cepha- 
licum, Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. Copaibse, 
Copaiba — b. Genuinum antiquorum, see Amy- 
ris opobalsamum — b. Hyperici simplex, see Hy- 
pericum perforatum — b. Judaicum, see Amyris 
opobalsamum — b. Libani, see Finns cembra — 
b. Maria;, see Fagara octandra — b. e Mecca, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — b. Mercnriale, Ungtien- 
tum hydrargyri nilratis — b. Nervinum, Balsam 
of life of Hoffmann — b. Ophtbalmicum rubrum, 
Unguentum hydrargyri nitrico-oxydi — b. Persi- 
cum, Tinctura benzoini composita — b. Perua- 
num, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. Satuminum, 
Unguentum plumbi superacetatis — b.Scherzeri, 
Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. Stomachicum, 
Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b.Styracis, Styrax 
— b. Styracis benzoini,. Benjamin — b. Succini, 
see Succinum — b. Sulphuris Barbadense, Pe- 
troleum sulphuratum— b. Sulphuris simplex, 
Oleum sulphuratum — b. Syriacum, see Amyris 
opobalsamum — b. Tolulanum, see Toluifera bal- 
samum — b. Traumaticum, Tinctura benzoini 
composita — b. Universale, Unguentum plumbi 
superacetatis — b. Viride, Balsam, green, of Metz, 
see Fagara octandra. 

BALSEM, Amyris opobalsamum. 

BAMBA, Bamboo. 

BAM BALI A, Balbuties. 

BAMBA'LIO, Bala'tro, from (laufiatrw, 'I 
speak inarticulately.' One who stammers or 
lisps, or utters inarticulate sounds. According 
to Krause, one who speaks as if he had pap 
in his mouth, or as if the tongue were para- 

BAMBOO, (F.) Bambou, Bamhu. Fam. Gra- 
mineje. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. The 
young shoots of the Bumbo* arundimfcea or 
Arun'do bambos, and of the Bambos vcrticiUa'ta 




contain a saccharine pith, of which the people 
of both the Indies are very fond. They are 
sometimes made into a pickle. 

Verticillata, Bamboo. 

BAM IX MOSCHATA, Hibiscus abelmos- 

BAMMA, from fonTw, 'I plunge,' 'a paint; 
a dye.' Anciently, liquids were so called, in 
which certain bodies were plunged, to moisten 
or soften them. In the case of tea, for instance, 
into which bread is dipped, the tea would be 
the bamma. 

BANANA, Musa sapientum. 

BANAjYIER, Musa sapientum. 

BANAUSIA, Charlatanry. 


BANCAL, (F.) One who has deformed legs. 
It includes the valgus compernis, and varus, 
which see. 

BANCROCHE, (F.) A vulgar epithet for a 
rickety individual. 

B A N'DA G E Desma, Hypodes'mis, from Sax 
bindan, ' to bind.' This word, with the French, 
is generally used to express the methodical ap- 
plication of rollers, compresses, &c, to fix an 
apparatus upon any part: corresponding to the 
words delicti' I in, fascia' tio, fascia' rum applica'tio, 
epid'esis. With us the noun is usually applied 
to the result of the application : or to the ban- 
dage itself; — a sense in which the French em- 
ploy the word Bunde. Bandages are simple or 
compound. The simple bandage is equal, if the 
turns are applied circularly above each other; 
unequal, if the turns are not accurately applied 
upon each other. If each turn of the bandage 
be only covered one-third, it forms the doloire 
of the French; if the edges touch only slightly, 
it is the mousse ; if the turns are very oblique 
and separated, it is the spiral or creeping, (F.) 
rampant ; if folded upon each other, it is termed 
the reversed, (F.) renverse. By uniting various 
kinds of bandaging, we have the compound; and 
these compound bandages have received various 
names expressive of their figure, or of the parts 
to which they are applied, as capislrum, spica, 
Ac. Bandages are divided, also, as regards 
their uses, into uniting, dividing, retaining, ex- 
pelling, compressing, fyc. 

Bandage or Roller, Fascia, (q. v.) Taenia, 
Epides'rnos, Vin'culum, the Bande of the French 
is derived from (G.) b i n d e n, 'to bind.' It 
may be made of linen, flannel, or other stuff 
capable of offering a certain resistance. The 
two extremities of a bandage are called tails, 
(F.) chefs, and the rolled part is termed its 
head, (F.) globe. If rolled at both extremities, 
it is called a double-headed roller or bandage, 
(F.) Bande a deux globes. 

Bandage, Bodv, Manti'lS, (F.) Bandage de 
Corps, is used for fixing dressings, &c. to the 
trunk. It is formed of a towel, napkin, or some 
large compress, folded three or four times; the 
extremities of which are fastened by pins. 
This is again fixed by means of the scapulury 
bandage, which is nothing more than an ordi- 
nary bandage, stitched to the anterior and mid- 
dle part of the napkin, passing over the clavi- 
cles and behind the head, to be attached to the 
back part of the napkin. 

Bandage, Compressing, or Roller, Fascia 
compression squ conrolu'ta, (F.J Bandage com- 
prestif ou roule, is the simple roller with one 

head; and is employed in cases of ulcers, va- 
rices, &c. of the limbs. Whenever this roller 
is applied to the lower part of the limbs, it is 
carried upwards by the doloire and reversed 
methods above described. 

Bandage, Eighteentailed, Fascia octod'- 
ecim capit'ibus (F.) Bandage a dix huit chefs. 
This bandage is made of a longitudinal portion 
of a common roller; and with a sufficient num- 
ber of transverse pieces or tails, to cover as 
much of the part as is requisite. It is a very 
useful bandage, inasmuch as it can be undone 
without disturbing the part. 

Bandage, Galen's, or B. for the Poor, Fas- 
cia Galeni seu Pau'perum, (F.) Bandage de 
Galien ou des pauvres, Galea, is a kind of cu- 
cul.'lus or hood, (F.) Couvrechef, divided into 
three parts on each side; and of which Galen 
has given a description. See Cancer Galeni. 

Bandages, Hernial, see Truss. 

B a nd a ge,Immov able, Apparatus, immovable. 

Bandage, Inguinal, Fascia inguina'lis. A 
bandage for keeping dressings applied to the 
groin. It consists of a cincture, to which is 
attached a triangular compress, adapted for 
covering the groin. To the lower extremity 
of this, one or two bandages are attached, 
which pass under the thigh, and are fixed to 
the posterior part of the cincture. This band- 
age may be either simple or double. 

Other bandages will be found described un- 
der their various names. 

Bandage, Permanent, Apparatus, immova- 
ble — b. of the Poor, see Cancer Galeni; and 
Bandage, Galen's. 

Bandage of separate Strips, or B. of 
Sculte'tus, Fas'ciafasci'olis separa'tim dispos'- 
itis seu Sca/te'ti, (F.) Bandage a bandeletles si- 
paries ou dc Scul.let. This is formed of linen 
strips, each capable of surrounding once and a 
half the part to which they have to be applied, 
and placed upon each other, so as to cover, 
successively, one-third of their width. It is 
used chiefly for fractures, Requiring frequent 

BANDAGE DIVISIF, Dividing bandage— 
b. en Doloiie, Doloire — b. Unissunt, Uniting 

BAN'DAGIST. Qne whose business it is to 
make bandages, and especially those for hernia. 

BAJYDE, Bandage. The word Bande, in 
anatomy, is used by the French for various 
narrow, flat, and elongated expansions. Bande 
a" lliliodore, is a kind of bandage for support- 
ing the mammae. 

^BANDEAU (F.) A kind of simple bandage, 
which consists of a piece of cloth, folded four 
times, and applied round the head. There is 
also the Bandeau ou Mouchoir en triangle or 
triangular bandage, a kind of couvrechef 
(which see,) made of a square piece of cloth, or 
of a handkerchief, folded diagonally, and ap- 
plied round the head, 

BANDELETTE (F.) Diminutive of Bande, 
Fasciula, Tieniola, Vitta; a narrow bandage, 
strip or fillet. Also Taenia semicircularis (q. v.) 

small strips, covered with a glutinous plaster. 
Vittse agglutinan'tes. See AgglulinanL 

of linen, notched on one edge, and covered, on 
one side, with ointment. They are applied to 




wounds to prevent the lint from sticking, and 
the laceration of the cicatrix. 

nia semicircularis — b. ties Cornes d'ammon, Cor- 
pus fimbriatuin — b. des Eminences pyriformcs, 
Taenia semicircularis — b. de I'Hippocampe, Cor- 
pora fimbfiata. 

BANDURA, Nepentha destillatoria. 

BAN EBERRY, Aciaia spicata. 

BANGUE or BANG1 or BENG, Indian 
hemp, Gunjuh. Adanson believes this to be the 
Nepenthes of the ancients, Can'nabis In'dica, 
probably identical with C. sativa. Family, 
Urticeee. Sex. Syst. Dicecia Pentandria. Its 
leaves and flowers are narcotic and astringent 
They are chewed and smoked. Its seeds, mixed 
with opium, areca, and sugar, produce a kind 
of intoxication, and are used for this purpose by 
the people of India. An alcoholic extract of 
the plant has been used in India, and since then 
in Europe and this country as a narcotic, and 
anti-convulsive, in the dose of from half a grain 
to ten or more. It requires, however, great 
caution in its administration. See Gunjah 
and Chukrus. 

BANICA, Pastinaca sativa. 

BANILAS, Vanilla. 

BANILLA, Vanilla. 

BANILLOES, Vanilla. 

in Brazil and the Antilles, passes for a power- 
ful sudorific, and an antidote to the poison of 

Bannieres is a village in Quercy, diocess of 
Cahors, France. The waters are probably 
chalybeate. They are celebrated in amenor- 
rhcea, cachexia, jaundice, &c. 

B A'O BAB. The Adanso'nia digita'ta , of A f- 
rica; Nat. Ord. Bombaceoe ; one of the largest 
productions of the vegetable kingdom. Its 
fruit is called, in the country, Pain de singe. 
The pulp is sourish, and agreeable to eat : and 
a refreshing drink is made from it, which is 
used in fevers. Prospero Alpini and Dr. L. 
Franck, think that the Terra Lcmnia was pre- 
pared, in Egypt, from the pulp. All the parts 
of the Baobab abound in mucilage. 

B APTISI A Tl NCTORIA , Sophora tinctoria. 


BARAQUETTE, (F.) A name givtm by Ra- 
sous, physician at Nimes in France, to a ca- 
tarrhal epidemy, which occurred there in 1761. 
See Influenza. 

BARATHRON, Juniperus sabina. 


BARBA, Beard — b. Aaronis, Arum macula- 
turn— b. Capree, Spiraea ulmaria — b. Jovis, Sem- 
pervivnm tectorum. 

BARBA DOES, see West Indies— b. Leg, see 

BARBA REA, Erysimum Barbarea. 

BARBAROS'S^E PIL'ULiE, Barbarossa's 
Pills. An ancient composition of quicksilver, 
rhubarb, diagridium, musk, &c. It was the 
first internal mercurial medicine, which ob- 
tained any real credit. 

BAR BE, Beard— b. de Bouc, Tragopogon. 

BAR BEAU, Cvanus segelum. 

of London, instituted by king Edward IV. The 
barbers were separated from the surgeons, by 
18 Geo. II. c. 15; and the latter were erected 

into a Royal College of Surgeons at the com- 
mencement of the present century. » 

These mineral waters are half a league from 
Nantes. They contain carbonic acid, chlorides 
of magnesium and sodium, sulphate of magne- 
sia, carbonates of magnesia, lime, and iron. 
They are used as chalybeates. 

BARBERRY, Oxycantha Galeni— b. Ame- 
rican, see Oxycantha Galeni. 

BARBIERS. A variety of paralysis chiefly 
prevalent in India, and by many considered to 
be the same as Beriberi (q.v.) Beriberi is com- 
monly an acute disease. Barbiers is generally 

BARBIT1UM, Beard. 
BARBOTIJYE, Artemisia Santonica. 
BARBULA CAPRINA, Spiraea ulmaria. 

BARDANA, Arctium lappa — b. Minor, Xan- 
Bareges is a village in the department of 
Hautes Pyrenees, near which are several 
springs. They are sulphureous and thermal, 
the heat varying from 83° to 112° Fahrenheit. 
They contain chlorides of magnesium and sodi- 
um, sulphates of magnesia and lime, carbonate 
of lime, sulphur, &c. These springs have long 
enjoyed a high reputation, and are daily ad- 
vised in cutaneous and scrofulous affections, 

Factitious Bareges Water, Aqua Baic- 
ginen'sis, (F.) Eau de Bareges, is made by 
adding, hydrosulphuretted water, f. giv, to pure 
water, f. Jjxvijss, carbonate of soda, gr. xvj, 
chloride of sodium, gr. ss. Bottle closely. 
BARGADA, Convolvulus pes caprice. 
BARIGL1A, Soda. 

BARII CHLORlDUM,Baryta, muriate of-b. 
lodidum, Baryta, hydriodate of. 

BARILLA, Soda— b. Alicant, Soda— b. Car- 
tbagena, Soda — b. Turkey, Soda. 

BARlUM,CHLORlDEOF,Baryta, muriate 
of— -b. iodide of, Baryta, hydriodate of— b. pro- 
toxide of, Baryta. 

BARK, Cinchona — b. bitter, Pinckneya pu- 
bens— b. Calisaya, Cinchona cordifolia cortex— 
b. Caribeean,Cinehonae Caribaese cortex — b. Car- 
thagena, see Cinchona — b. Crown, Cinchona 
lancifoliae cortex— b. Elk, Magnolia glauca— b. 
Essential salt of, see Cinchona — b. Florida. 
Pinckneya pubens— b. Georgia, Pinckneya pu- 
bens—b. Gray, see Cinchona — b. Huanuco,see 
Cinchona— b. Indian, Magnolia glauca — b. Je- 
suit's, Cinchona— b. Loxa, Cinchona: lancifolia? 
cortex— b. Pale, Cinchona? lancifolise cortex— b. 
Maracaybo, see Cinchona— b. Peruvian, Cin- 
chona— b. Pitaya, Cinchona? Caribsese cortex— h 
Red,CinchonaeoblongifoliaD cortex — b. Saint Lu- 
cia, Cinchona? Caribajee cortex — b. Santa Mar- 
tha, see Cinchona— b. Silver, see Cinchona— 
b. Yellow, Cinchona; cordif'oliee cortex 

BARLEY, PEARL. seeHordeum—b. Scotch, 


net is not far from London. The water is of a 
purging quality, like that of Epsom, and about 
half the strength. 




BAROMACROM'ETEE; from /Sago;, 
' weight,' fiaxnog, ' long,' and ^utrgov, 'measure.' 
An instrument, invented by Stein to indicate 
the length and weight of a new-born infant 

BAROM'ETER, from p^cc, 'weight,' and 
fiiroov, 'measure.' (F.) Baromhre. An instru- 
ment which measures the weight of the air. 
A certain degree of density in This medium is 
necessary for health: when we ascend high 
mountains great, inconvenience is experienced, 
owing to the diminished density. Changes of 
this character are indicated by the Barometer 
or weather-glass. 

BA'ROS, (iagoq, 'heaviness.' Employed by 
the Greek physicians to designate the feeling 
of lassitude and heaviness observable in man}' 
diseases. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

BAROSMA CRENATA, Diosma crenata. 

BAROTES SALITUS, Baryta, muriate of. 

BARRAS. See Pinus Sylvestris. 

BARRE (F) Bar'rure, Vara, 'a bar.' A 
projection or prolongation of the symphysis pu- 
bis; — a deformity rendering delivery difficult. 

BARRltE (F.) A term applied, in France, to 
a female whose pelvis has the deformity de- 
scribed under Barre. 

BARR£ES,(DEJYTS.) The molar teeth, when 
the roots are spread or tortuous, so that they 
cannot be extracted without being broken; or 
without a portion of the alveolar arch being 

is a small town, six leagues from Strasburg. 
The waters are thermal, and contain much 
iron, calcareous salt, &c. They are diuretic 
and tonic. 


BARRENNESS, Sterilitas. 

BARROS, Terra Portugallica. 

BARRURE, Barre. 

BARYCOCCALON, Datura stramonium. 

BARYCOITA, Baryecoia. 

BARYECOIA, Deafness. 

Baryecoi'a or Barycoi'ta, Bradyecoi'a, Pa- 
racusia obti/sa, Disecoi'a, Dyseca'a, Audi'tus 
diffic"ilis, Obaudi"tio, A. gravis, A. irnminu'tus, 
Hypocopho'sis, (F.) Durete d' Oreille, from pa- 
Qvg, ' heavy,' and axotj, 'hearing.' Hardness of 
hearincr, incomplete deafness. See Cophosis. 

BARYGLOSSIA, Balbuties. 

BARYi HYDRAS 10DATI, Baryta, hydrio- 
date of. _ 

BARYOD'YNE, from fia^vg, 'heavy,' and 
*$vv>i, 'pain.' A dull, heavy pain. 

BARYPHO'NIA, from @aovg, 'heavy,' and 
tfunr], 'voice.' Difficulty of speech. 

BARYPICRON, Artemisia abrotanum. 

BARY'TA, from pzovc, 'heavy,' Terra pon- 
dero'sa, Bari/tes, Protox'ide of Ba'rium, Henry 
E'irth, Ponderous Earth, (F.) Baryle, Barite, 
Terre pesante. This earth and its soluble salts 
are all highly corrosive poisons. It is n?ver 
employed in medicine in the pure state. When 
externally applied, it is caustic, like potassa 
and soda. 

Batiy'ta, Car'bonate of, Bory'tm Car bonas, 
is only used oflicinally, to obtain the muriate. 

Baryta, Hydri'od ate ok, Baryta Hijdriodajs, 
Baryta Hydiiod'irn, Hydras Bu.ryi loda'ti, (in 
the dry state,— Iod ide of Barium, Burn lod'i- 
dura, B. Toda'lum,) has been given in scrofulous 
and similar morbid conditions. It may be ad- 
ministered internally in the dose of one-eighth 

of a grain three or four times a day, and be ap- 
plied externally to scrofulous swellings, in the 
form of ointment, (gr. iv. to gj. of lard.) 

Baryta Hydriodica, Baryta, hydriodate of. 

Baryta, Mu'riatk or Hydrochlo'rate of. 
Ban/tse mu'rias, Chlo'ride of Ba'rium, Ba'rii 
Chufridum (Ph. U. S.) Cldo'ruret of Ba'rium, 
Terra pondero'sa suli'ta seu muria'ta, Sal muri- 
at'icuui barot'icum, Baro'tes sali'tus, is the com- 
bination chiefly used. The Muriate of Baryta 
may be formed as follows: Baryt. Carbon., in 
fragments, R>j. Acid. Muriat. f. ^xij. Aquas, Oiij. 
Mix the acid with the water, and gradually add 
the Carbonate of Baryta. Toward the close of 
the effervescence, apply a gentle heat, and, 
when the action has ceased, filter the liquor, 
and boil it down so that crystals may form as it 
cools. Ph. U. S. 

It is given in the form of the Solu'tio Muria' - 
tis Burytx, Liquor Barii Chloridi, (F.) Solution 
de Muriate de Baryle. (Muriate of Baryta, one 
part; distilled looter, three parts,) and is em- 
ployed in scrofulous cases, worms, and cutane- 
ous diseases. External!}', to fungous ulcers 
and to specks on the cornea. 

Baryt* Carbonas, Baryta (Carbonate) — b. 
Hydriodas, Baryta, hydriodate of — b Murias, 
Baryta, muriate of. 

BARYUM, see Barium. 

BAS-FOAD, see Urinary Bladder. 

BAS-LASSE, Stocking, laced. 

BAS VENTRE, Abdomen. 

BASAAL. The name of an Indian tree, the 
decoction of whose leaves, in water, with gin- 
ger, is used as a gargle in diseases of the fauces. 
The kernels of the fruit are vermifuge. 

BASANASTRA'GALA, from pa<r*vog, ' tor- 
ture,' and zc-ToayaXog, 'the astragalus.' Pain 
in the ankle joint; gout in the foot. 

BASANIS'MOS, from (lafaviiuv, 'to ex- 
plore.' 'A touch-stone.' Investigation or exa- 
mination. — Hippocr., Galen. 

BASE, Basis, from pan-to, 'I proceed,' '1 
■rest,' 'I support myself.' That which serves as 
a foundation or support. That which enters, 
as a principal matter, into a mixture or combi- 
nation. In anatomy, it is employed in the for- 
mer sense, as Base of the Cranium, Base of a 
Process, fyc Base of the Heart, Basis vel coro'na 
cordis. In the art of prescribing, Basis is the 
chief substance which enters into a compound 

BASIATIO, Coition. 

BASIATOR, Orbicularis oris. 

BASIL, BUSH, Ocymum caryophyllatum— 
b. Citron, Ocymum basilicum — b. Common, 
Ocymum basilicum — b. Small, Ocymum caryo- 
phyllatum — b. Wild, Chenopodium vulgare — 
b. Wild, Cunila mariana. 

BAS'ILARY Basila'ris, (F.) Basilaire. That 
which belongs to the base, from (fang, 'base.' 
This name has been given to several parts, 
which seem to serve as bases to others. The 
sacrum and sphenoid have been hence so called. 

Basil ary Artery, A. basila'ris, A. ccrvica'- 
lis, (F.) Art'ere ou Tronc basilaire, A. mesoce- 
pba/ique (Ch.) The union of the two vertebral 
arteries. It ascends along the middle groove 
on the inferior surface of the tuber, and is sup- 
ported, beneath, by the Fossa basilaris. It ter- 
minates in the posterior cerebral arteries. 

Basilary Fossa, (F.) Gouttiere ou Fosse ba- 
silaire, is the upper surface of the basilary pro- 




cess, — so called because it is channeled like a 
fossa or Gutter. The Tuber annulare rests 
upon it. 

Basilahy Process, Proces'sns basila'ris ossis 
occip'itis, P. ctmeifoi'mis ossis occip'itis, (F.) 
Apopliyse Basil aire, Prolongement sous-occipital, 
Cu'nciform Process, is the bony projection, 
formed by the inferior angle of the os occipilis, 
which is articulated with the sphenoid. 

Basilaky Surface, (F.) Surface basilaire, is 
the inferior surface of the process. It is covered 
by the mucous membrane of the pharynx. 

Basilary Vertebra. The last vertebra of 
the loins. 

BASI1/1C, Bnsil'icus, from p*<ri).ty.c<;, 'royal.' 
This name was given, by the ancients, to parts 
which they conceived to play an important part 
in the animal economy. 

Basilic Vein, Vena Basil'ica, V. Cu'iiti in- 
terior, (F.) Veine Basilique, Veine cubitale cu- 
tanie of Chaussier. This vein is one of those 
on which the operation of blood-letting is per- 
formed. It is situate at the internal part of the 
fold of the elbow, in front of the humeral arte- 
ry, and is formed by the anterior and posterior 
cubital veins, and by the median basilic. It ter- 
minates, in the arm-pit, in the axillary vein. 
The ancients thought, that the basilic of the 
right arm had some connexion with the liver, 
and hence they called it hepatic. The vein of 
the left aim, for a similar reason, they called 
splenic. The Median Basilic Vein, (F.) Veine 
midiane basilique, is one of the branches of the 
preceding vein. It joins the median cephalic at 
an acute angle, or rather by a transverse 
branch, and receives some branches of the deep 
radial and cubital veins, and a considerable 
subcutaneous vein — the common median. 
BASILIC COMMUjY, Ocymum basilicum. 
dium vulgare. 

BASIL'ICON or BAS1LTCUM. 'Royal,' or 
of great virtue. An ointment, composed of 
yellow wax, black pitch, and resin, of each one 
part, olive oil four parts. Hence it was called 
Unguen'tum Tetrapliur'macnm, (niQafa^uaxu, 
4 four drugs.') — Celsus. Scribonius Largus. 

Basilicon or Basilicum, of the Parisian 
Codex, is the Onguent dc Poix et dc Cire. In 
most Pharmacopoeias, it is represented by the 
Unguen'tum or Cera! turn Resi'nx. It is used as 
a stimulating ointment. See Ceratum Resina?, 
and Unguentum Resinas Nigra;. 

BASILICUM, Basilicon, Ocymum Basilicum 
— b. Citratum, Ocymum basilicum — b. Majus, 
Ocymum basilicum. 


BA'SIO CER'ATO GLOSSUS, from jiaat?, 
'base,' mQa?, 'cornu,' and ykwoaa, 'tongue.' 
A name given to a part of the hyoglossus, 
which is inserted into the cornu of the os hy- 
oides and base of the tongue. 

BASIOCES'TRUM, from p a <r,g, 'the base,' 
and xiaTya, 'a dart.' An instrument for open- 
ing the head of the foetus in utero, invented by 
Mesler, a German. 

BA'SIO-GLOS'SUS, Hijpseloglos'sus, Hyo- 
brtsioglossus, Ypscloglos'sus, from p*<rtQ, 'base,' 
and yXoxrru, 'the tongup.' A name formerly 
given to the portion of the hyoglossus which is 
inserted into the base of the os hyoides. — Riolan, 
Thomas Bartholine. See Lingual Muscle. 

BASIO PHARYNGiE'US.from /Jasu.'base/ 
and w*tv Y ;, 'the pharynx.' A name given to 
some fibres of the constrictor pharyngis me- 
dius. — Winslow. _ 

BASSI-COL'ICA. Name of a medicine com- 
posed of aromatics and honey. — Scribonius 

BASSLY, Pelvis— b. Oculaire, Scaphium ocu- 

BASSLYER, to foment. 
BASSINET, Pelvis of the kidney, Ranuncu- 
lus bulbosus. 
BATA, Musa paradisiaca. 
BATABAS, Solan um tuberosum. 
BATATAS. The inhabitants of Peru gave 
this appellation to several tuberous roots, espe- 
cially to the Convolvulus Batatas, or Sweet Po- 
tato, (q. v.) Our word, Potato, comes from this. 
BATERION. Bathron. 

BATH, Anglo-Saxon, baft, Balneum., Bala- 
ne'um, Loutron (F.) Bain. Immersion, or slay, 
for a longer or shorter duration, of the whole 
or a part of the body, in some medium, as wa- 
ter. Act of plunging into a liquid, sand, or 
other substance, in which it is the custom to 
bathe. Also, the vessel in which the water is 
put for bathing. Also, a public or private esta- 
blishment for bathing. 

In Pkarmacij,a. vessel, placed over a fire, and 
filled with any substance, into which another 
vessel is placed, containing matters for diges- 
tion, evaporation, or distillation. 
Bath, Air, Hot, see Bath, hot. 
Bath, Air, Warm, see Bath, hot. 
Bath, A nimal, Balneum Animal I B, consists in 
wrapping an animal, recently killed, or its skin, 
around the body, or some part of it. 
Bath, Cold, see Bath, hot. 
Bath, Cool, see Bath, hot 
Bath, Dry, is one made of ashes, salt, sand, 
&c. The ancients used these frequently for 
therapeutical purposes. 
Bath, Earth, Arenatio. 
Bath, Elec'tric, (F.) Bain ilectrique, con- 
sists in placing the person upon an insulated 
stool, communicating, by a metallic wire, with 
the principal conductor of the electrical ma- 
chine in action. The Electric Bath produces 
general excitement of all the functions, and 
especially of the circulation and secretions. — 
See Electricity. 

Bath, Foot, Pedilu'vium (F.) Bain de Pied, 
a bath for the feet. 

Bath, General, (F.) Bain Entier, is one, in 
which the whole body is plunged, except the 
head; in contradistinction to the partial bath, 
Merobalane'um, Merobal'neum. 

Bath, Half, Scmicu'pivm, (q. v.) Exccthis'- 
ma. (q. v.) Inccssio, luces' sits, is one adapted 
for half the body. One, for receiving only the 
hips or extremities, is also so called. 

Bath, Hand, Manulu'vium, (F.) Bain de 
Main ou Manuluve, is a bath for the hands. 

Bath, Head, Capililu'vium (F.) Bain de 
Tele ou Capitiluve, a bath for the head. 

Bath, Hip, Coxmlu'vium, (F.) Bain de Fail- 
teail, Bain de Siege, is one in which the lower 
part of the trunk and upper part of the thighs 
are immersed. 

Bath, Hot, Balneum cal'idum, (F.) Bain 
rhaud, is a bath, the temperature of which is 
98° and upwards; the Warm Bath, from 92? to 




98°; theTKPiD Bath, (F.) Bain Tiede, Balneum 
tep'idum, from H5° to 1)2°; the Temperate 
Bath (F.) Bain Tempore, from 75° to 85°; the 
Cool Bath,(F.) Bainfrais, from (i() a to 75°; the 
Cold Bath, Balneum frig" idum, Frigida'rium, 
(F.) Bain fr oid, Bain trisfruid, (of some) from 
30° tofiO ; and the Vapour Bath, Balneum va- 
po'ris, (F.) Bain de Vapeur, Jituve Humide, from 
100" to 130",and upwards. See Vaporarium. A 
Warm Air Bath, or Hot Air Bath, consists 
of air the temperature of which is raised. 

Bath, Mf.dicateu, Balneum, Medicu'tum, 
(F.) Bain medicinal, is a bath, formed of decoc- 
tions or infusions of vegetable substances, or 
of any ingredient, introduced into the water 
for therapeutical purposes. 

Bath, Nitro-Muriatic Acid, Scott's acid 

Bath, Sand, Balneum Are'nx, (F.) Bain de 
Sable, consists of a vessel filled with sand, and 
placed over the fire. Into this vessel, the one 
is put, which contains the substance to be eva- 

Bath, Sea Water, Balneum Mar'ia, (F.) 
Bain Marie, consists of a vessel filled with boil- 
ing sea water, or salt water, in which the ves- 
sel is placed, that contains the substance to be 
evaporated. Bain Marie, is, however, at the 
present day employed for any form of water 

Bath, Shower, Implu'vium, is one in which 
the water is made to fall like a shower on the 
body. See Douche. 

Bath, Steam, may be formed by introducing 
steam into a properly closed vessel in place of 
water, as in the water bath. 

Bath, Temperate, see Bath, hot. 

Bath, Tepid, see Bath, hot. 

Bath, Vapour, see Bath, hot, and Vaporarium. 

Bath, Warm, see Bath hot. 

Bathing is much employed in the treatment of 
disease. The cold bath, especially the cold sea 
bath, is a sedative and indirect tonic: the warm 
bath is a relaxant; and the hot bath stimulates. 

The regular use of the bath is extremely con- 
ducive to health; but if too much indulged in, 
it is apt to produce injurious effects. 

Balho'nia. vel Bad'izse, Aquae Soils, Aqua Bud'- 
iguce. Celebrated thermal springs at Bath, in 
England. They contain but little impregna- 
tion, and are chiefly indebted to their tempera- 
ture, from 112° to 117" Fahrenheit, for their 
utility. The main ingredients are sulphate 
of lime, chloride of sodium, sulphate of soda, 
carbonate of lime, protoxide of iron, free car- 
bonic acid and azote. 

These waters are employed in the most hete- 
rogeneous cases; and are serviceable where the 
simple thermal springs are indicated, as in rheu- 
matism, paralysis, &.C. 

BA'THER, Same etymon; Balnea' rius,Bali- 
nea'tor, Bahua'tor. (F.) Baigneur. One who 
bathes. Anciently, the name was given to 
those that administered baths to the diseased, — 
the liliinistes of the French. 

BATHMIS, Batlima, 'base, support.' The 
cavity of a bone, which receives the eminence 
of another; and especially the two Fosseltes at 
the inferior extremity of the humerus; into 
which the processes of the ulna are received, 
duiing the flexion and extension of the fore- 

BATHRON, Scamnum Hippoc'ralis (q. v.) 
Bale'rion, 'a step, a ladder.' (F.) Bane, ti Ilip- 
pocrate. An instrument, used for the exten- 
sion of a limb, in cases of fracture or luxation. 
The description of it is found in Galen, Oriba- 
sius, and Scultetus, with a figure. 

BATIA, Retort. 

tisse is three leagues from Clermont in France. 
The water is tepid, and contains subcarbonate 
and sulphate of soda, sulphates of lime and 
iron, muriate of magnesia, and carbonate of lime. 

BATOS, Rubusldaeus. 


BATTARISMUS. Balbuties. 


BA TTEMEAS DOUBLES,see Bruit du Cccur 
fatal . 

BATTEMEKT, Pulsation. 

OF. Baudricourt is a town of France, two 
leagues and a half from Mirecourt. The wa- 
ters are sulphureous. 


BAUHIN, VALVE OF, Valve of Tulpius, 
Fallopius or Varolius, ll'to-caical. Valve, Ileo- 
colic Valve, Val'vula Ilei, Val'vula. Call, V. Caci, 
Oper'culum Ilei, Sphincter llei. This name is 
given to the valve situate transversely at the 
place where the ileum opens into the coecum, 
and which Banhin says he discovered at Paris, 
in 1759. It had, however, been previously de- 
scribed by several anatomists; as by Vidus 
Vidius. Poslius, &c. 

BAUME, Balsam — b. d'Acicr, Balsam, chaly- 
beate — /;. Aromatique, Balsam, aromatic — /;. 
d? Aiguilles, Balsam, chalybeate — b. Apaplec- 
tique, Balsam, apoplectic — b. d'Arcxus, Arcoeus, 
balsam of — see, also, Balsam of Arcasus — b. 
d'Arcius, Unguenlum elemi 'compositurn — b. 
Benjoin, Benjamin — b. Blanc,see Amyrus Opo- 
balsamum — b. du Bresil, Copaiba — b. de Ca- 
nada, see Pinus balsamea — /'. de Cannelle, 
Laurus cinnamomum — b. de Carpatliie, Bal- 
sam of Carpatliia — b. de Carihasene, see To- 
luifera balsamum — b. de Constantinople Mane, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. de Copaku, Co- 
paiba — h. Cordiale de Sennerte. Balsam, cordial, 
of Sennertus — b. d'Eau a fntilles ridies, Men- 
tha crispa — b. de Feuillet, Balsam, sjreen, of 
Metz — b. de Fioruventi spiritueuse, Balsam, spi- 
rituous, of Fioraventi — b. de Fourcroy ou de 
Laborde, Balsam of Fourcroy or Laborde — b. de 
Galuad, see Amyris opobalsamum — h. de Gene- 
vieve, Balsam of Genevieve — b. Grand, Tana- 
cetum balsamita — b. du Grand Caire,aee Amy- 
ris opobalsamum — b. Hypnotique, Balsam, hyp- 
notic — b- Hysterique, Balsam, hysteric — b. des 
Jardins, Mentha viridis — b. de Lucatel, Balsam, 
Lucatelh's — //. Kervin, Balsam, nervous — b. de 
Perou, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. du Sa- 
maritain, Balsam of the Samaritan — b. Saxon, 
Balsam, Saxon — /;. de Soufre, Balsam of sul- 
fur — b. de Sympathie, Balsam of sympathy — 
b. Tranquille, Balsam, tranquil — b. de Tola, see 
Toluifera balsamum — b. de Vanille, Vanilla — b. 
Vert, see Fagara octandra — b. Vert de Metz, 
Balsam, green, of Metz — b. de Vie d'Hoff- 
mann. Balsam of Life, of Hoffmann — b. de Vie 
de Lelievre, Tinctura aloes composita — /'. Vrai, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Vulnerairc de 
Minderer, Balsam, vulnerary, of Mindererus. 



13 EG MA 

B A U RAC, {Arab.) Nitre, or salt in general 
Prom this word comes Borax. 

rin is a village four leagues from Roye, depart- 
ment of So in me. The waters are strongly cha- 

BAVE (F.) Sali'm ex ore fluens, Spuma, 
Humor SaL'cus. Frothy, thick, viscid saliva, 
issuing from the mouth. This driveling, or, 
slavering, (q. v.) we see in children, old peo- 
ple, &c. The term is, also, applied to the 
frothy liquid, which flows from the mouth of 
rabid animals. Sauvages uses it synonymous- 
ly with salivation. 

BAY, CASTOR, Magnolia glauca— b. Rose, 
Rhododendron chrysanthemum — b. Sweet, Lau- 
rus — b. While, Magnolia glauca and M. macro- 

BDALSIS, Sucking. 

BDELLA, Hirudo. 

BDELLIUM, pdsXXicv, Myrrha imperfec'ta, 
Dolchon, Madeleon, Balchus. A gum-resin, 
brought from the Levant and India, and sup- 
posed to be obtained from a species of Amyris, 
little known. It is solid, brittle, of a deep 
brown colour, of an acrid and bitter taste, and 
sweet odour. It was much vaunted by the an- 
cients, but is now little employed. Two differ- 
ent gum-resins have been in the shops distin- 
guished by the names Indian and African bdel- 
lium. Dr. Royle was informed that the former 
was obtained from Am'yris commiph'ora, grow- 
ing in India and Madagascar. The latter is said 
to be from Heudelu'lia Africa' na, which grows 
in Senegal. 

BDELLOM'ETER, from pSrUa, <a leech,' 
and utr^or, 'measure.' An instrument, pro- 
posed as a substitute for the leech; inasmuch 
as we can tell the quantity of blood obtained by 
it, whilst we cannot by the leech. It consists 
of a cupping-glass, to which a scarificator and 
exhausting syringe are attached. 


BEAD TREK, Melia Azedarach. 

BEAN TREE, WHITE, Crata?o-,isaria. 

BEAN, CARTHAGENA, Habilla de Car- 
thagena — b. Egyptian, Nympha?a nelumbo — b. 
French, Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Garden, com- 
mon, Vicia faba — b. Kidney, Phaseolus vulga- 
ris — b. Malacca, Avicennia lomentosa — b. Pon- 
tic, Nyniphaea nelumbo — b. Red, Abrus preca- 
torins — b. Sacred, Nelumbium luteuin — b. St. 
Jgnatius's, Ignatia amara — b. Trefoil tree, see 
Cytisine. • i 

BEARBERRY, Arbutus uva ursi. 

BEAR'S BREECH, Acanthus mollis— b. 
Foot, Helleborus fcetidus — b. Fright, Heptallon 
graveolens— b. Whortleberry, Arbutus uva 

BEARD, B'irba. Pogon, Gcneion, Bnrbitium, 
(F.) Barbe. The hair which covers a part of 
the cheeks, the lips, and chin of the male sex, 
at the age of puberty. 

BEARWEED, Veratrum viride. 

BEASTINGS, Colostrum. 


Beaugenny is a quarter of a league from Or- 
leans. The waters contain subcarbonate of 
6oda, iron, magnesia, and lime. They are tonic 
and aperient. 

BEAUMONT ROOT. Gillenia trifoliata. 


These waters are chalybeate. Beauvais is in 

BEAVER, Castor fiber— b. Wood, Magnolia 
glauca— b. Tree, Magnolia macrophy lla. 
BEBEERINE. See Bebeeru. 
BEBEERU. A tree of British Guiana, which 
yields two alkalies — Bcbcerin and Slsseerin; 
and in its properties resembles the Cinchona. 
The Sulphate of Bebeerin has been employed in 

BEC (F.) Rostrum, (q. v.) Beak. This name 
has been applied to various parts. 

Bec Coracoidien, (F.) Cor'acoid Beak, is 
the end of the coracoid process. Bec de la 
plume a ecrire, (F.) Beak of the Calamus Scrip, 
to'rius, is a small cavity at the superior part of 
the medulla oblongata, which forms part of the 
4th ventricle. 

BEC DE CHILLER, Ham'ulus. An inslru- 
ment used for the extraction of balls. It con- 
sists of an iron rod, 7 or 8 inches long, having 
at one extremity a small cavity, into which the 
ball is received to be drawn outwards. See 

BEC DE GRUE MUSQUE, Geranium Mos- 
chatum — b. de Grue Robertin, Geranium Ro- 
bertianum — b. de Lievre, Harelip. 

is six leagues from Rouen in Normandy. The 
water is strongly chalybeate. 

BECCABUNGA, Veronica Beccabunga. 
BE'CHIC, Bt'chica, Becha, Bec'chica, Be'- 
chila, from |9>,t, 'cough,' (F.) Bechique. Me- 
dicines adapted for allaying cough. 
EECHITA, Bechic. 
BECHIUM. Tussilaao. 
BECUIBA, Ibicuiba. 

Spon'gia Cynos'bati, Fungus Rosa' rum, F. Cy- 
nos'btiii. (F.) Pomme motisseuse, Epunge d'eg- 
lantir.r. An excrescence, which makes its 
appearance on different species of wild roses, 
and which is produced by the puncture of a 
small insect, — the Cynips Rosse. It was for- 
merly employed as a lithontriptic and vermi- 
fuge, but is not now used. It was slightly 

Bedford is a village, situate on the great West- 
ern Turnpike road from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burg, a few miles east of the chief elevation 
of the Alleghany mountains. There are various 
springs, saline, chalybeate, and sulphureous. 
The most celebrated contains carbonic acid, 
sulphate of magnesia, chlorides of sodium and 
calcium, and carbonate of iron. 

BEDSTRAW, Galium verum— b. Ladies, 
greater, Galium mollugo, Galium verum. 

BEE. Sax. beo. Apis, Melis'sa, Melitta. (F.) 
Aheille. This insect was formerly exhibited, 
when dried and powdered, as a diuretic. 
BEE15READ, Propolis. 

BEECH, Fagus sylvatica — b. Drop, Orobin- 
che Virginiana — b. Albany, Pterospora Andro- 
medea — b. Mast, see Fagus sylvatica. 
BEER, Cerevisia. 
BEET, Beta. 

B&GA1EMENT, Balbuties. 
BEGMA, (iijytia, according to some Bregma, 
fSntjyua, from p'jaatir or poijciniu; ' to expectorate 
after coughing.' The sputum or expectorated 
matter. — Hipp. 




BEGO'NIA. The Begonia grand/flora and 
B. tomentosa have astringent roots, which are 
used in Peru in cases of hemorrhage, scurvy, 
low fevers, &c. 

BkGUE, Balbos. 

BEHEN AB1AD, Centanrea behen— b. Al- 
burn, Centaurea behen — b. Officinarum, Cucu- 
balus hehen— b. Rov(tr. Statice limonium. 

BEHMEN AOKMAR, Statice limonium. 

BEIAHALALEN, Sempervivum tectorum. 

BEIDELSAR, Asclepias procera. 

BEJUIO, Habilla de Carthatrena. 

BELA-AYE or BE-LAHE! A tonic and 
astringent bark of a Madagascar tree. Du-petit- 
Thouars and Sonnerat think it may be substi- 
tuted for t he Simarouba. 

BE-LAHE. Bela-aye. 

BEL'S EYE, Belloculus. 

BELADAMBOC. A species of convolvulus 
of the Malabar coast r which contains an acrid 
milky juice. From this a liniment is formed 
with oil and ginger, which is used against the 
bites of rabid animals. 

BELA-MODAGAM. A kind of Scsevola of 
the Malabar coast, the leaves of which are con- 
sidered diuretic and emmenagogue. 

BELAJYDRE, (F.) A litter, surrounded with 
curtains, in which patients are sometimes car- 
ried to hospitals. 

BELCHING, Eructation. 




or BELOID, Bclcnoi'des or Belemnoi'des Pro- 
ces'sus,from piXoc, 'an arrow,' and tt3o$, 'shape.' 
This name has been given to the styloid pro- 
cesses in general. 

BELESON, Balsam, Musssenda frondosa. 

BEL1 OCULUS, Belloculus. 

BELILLA, Mussaenda frondosa. 

BELINUM. Apium graveolens. 

BELL, CANTERBURY, Campanula tra- 

BELLADON'NA, in the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States, is the officinal name of the 
leaves of Atropa Belladonna, (q. v.) 

BELLE DAME, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLEGU, Myrobolanus. 

BELLEREGI, Myiobalanus. 

Bellesme is about three leagues from Montagne 
in France. The waters are chalybeate. 

waters at Belley, department of Ain, in France, 
are saline aperients. 

BELLIDOIDES, Chrysanthemum leucan- 

B ELLIS, Bellus ('pretty,') B. peren'nis, B. mi- 
nor, Bruiseicort, Common Daisy. (F.) Paque- 
relte vivace, petite Marguerite. The leaves and 
flowers are rather acrid. They were, at one 
time, considered to cure different species of 
wounds. It is called also Sym'phytum miri- 
imnm. Major, Chrysanthemum leucanthcmum. 

BELL METAL, Cal'cocos. (F.) Airain, 
Mdtal dcs cloches. An alloy of copper, zinc, 
tin, and a small quantity of antimony, used for 
makinsr bells. The mortars of the apothecary 
are often formed of this material. They re- 
quire to be kept clean, to avoid the formation 
of verdigris. 

BELLOCULUS, Beli Oc'vlus. A kind of 
gem, which the Assyrians considered eibca- 
cious in the cure of many diseases. They ima- 
gined that the figure of an eye could be seen 
in it. and hence its name, BeVs Eye. 

BELLON, Colic, metallic. 

BELLOTAS. See Ilex major. 

BELLOWS' SOUND, Bruit de sovfflct—b. 
Encephalic, see Bruit de souffltt — b. Placental, 
Bruit placentaire. 

BELLUS, Be II is. 

BELLY-ACHE, Colica— b Dry, Colic, me- 
tallic — b. Root, Angelica lucida. 

BELMUSCHUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

BELNILEG, Myrobalanus. 

BELOID, Belennid. 


BKLONE, Needle. 
BELONODES, Styloid. 
BELONOID, Belenoid. 

BELUL'CUM, from (liXoc, 'a dart,' and 
tXxw, 'J draw out.' An instrument used for 
extracting darts or arrows. Many instruments 
of this kind have been noticed by surgeons. — 
Ambrose Pare, Fabricius ab Acquapendente. 
BELZOE, Benjamin. 
BELZOIM. Benjamin. 

BELZOINUM, Benjamin. 
BEN, Guilandina moringa — b. of Judasa, 
Benjamin — b. Nut, Guilandina moringa. 

BEN MOENJA. A Malabar tree. An alex- 
ipharmic decoction is made of ils roots, in the 
country, which is much praised in cases of ma- 
lignant fever. Its bark, boiled with Calamus 
aromaticus and salt, forms a decoction used in 
bites of poisonous serpents. 

BENATH. Pustule. 


naturse — b. de Ventre, see Beneficium naturse. 

de la nature. This term is used, by the French 
pathologists, for cases, in which diseases have 
got well without medical treatment. With 
them, Blnifice de nature, or B. de ventre, is sy- 
nonymous also with Alvi Proftu'mum; — a spon- 
taneous diarrhoea, often acting favourably either 
in the prevention or cure of disease. 

BENEL, Croton racemosum. 

BENEOLEN'TIA, from bene, 'well,' and 
olere, ' to smell.' Euo'dts. Sweet-scented me- 
dicines, as gums, &.c. 

BENG, Bangue. 

BENGAL ROOT, Cassumuniar. 

BENGALE IN DORUM, Cassumuniar. 

BENGI. Hyoscyarnus. 

BENIGN', Bcnig'nus, Eueth'es, (F.) Bdnin, 
B'enigne. Diseases of a mild character are so 
called: as well as medicines, whose aclion is 
not violent, as a Benign Fever, Febris benig'na 
impu'tris, &c. 

BiiJY/JY, Benign. 

BEN'JAMIN or BEN'ZOIN, Benzo'invm, (Ph. 
V. S.) Benzo'invm vc.rum, Benzo'inmn, Assa odo- 
ra'ta, Bevjui. Benjuin, Jis&a dulcis, Ben'jaoy, Ben- 
jo' 'inum, Belzol, Belzoim, Benzol, Sly'racis Be?i- 
zo'ini Bul'samum, Liquor Cyreni'acit<, Croton 
Benzoe, Ben of Judge' a, Acor Benzo'inus, Sal 
Ac"idum sen essentia' 1 1 seu voloi.'ile Benzoes. 
(F.) Bcnjoin, Baume Benjoin, Assa douX- A 
resinous, dry, brittle substance, obtained from 




Styraz Benzoin, Arbor Br.nivi, of Sumatra. The 
odour is extremely fragrant, and taste slightly 
aromatic. It is principally used for the prepa- 
ration of the acid which it contains. It is also 
employed in some vulnerary tinctures, and as 
an expectorant. Benzoic Acid, Ac"idum Ben- 
zo'icum, is obtained from it by sublimation. 
The purest Benjamin is in amygdaloid masses: 
hence called (F.) Bcnjoin amygdaloide, 

Ben'jajiin, Flowers of, or Benzo'ic Acid, 
Ac"idum Benzo'icum, Flores Benzoes, Flores 
Benzo'ini, Ad'idum Benzo'icu/n per sublima- 
lio'nern. (F.) Acide Benzoique. This acid ex- 
ists in all the balsams, but chiefly in Benzoin, 
from which it is obtained by sublimation. It is 
in the vanilla, canella, the urine of infants, and 
of herbivorous animals. Its odour is aromatic 
and fragiant; taste hot, slightly acidulous, and 
agreeable. The crystals consist of white, satiny 
flakes, slightly ductile. It is probably stimu- 
lant; and has been used, as such, in chronic 
catarrh; but it has little efficacy. 

BENJAOY, Benjamin. 

BEN JOIN UM, Benjamin. 

BENJUI, Benjamin. 

BENNE. Sesamum orientale. 

BENNET, HERB, Geum urbanum and G. 

BltNOITE, Geum urhanum— b. Aquatiqae, 
Geum rivale — b. des Ruisseaux . Geum rivale — 
0. de Virginie, Geum Virginianum. 

BENZOE, Benjamin. 

BENZOENIL, Vanilla. 

BENZOIN, Benjamin — b. Odoriferum, Lau- 
rus Benzoin. 

BERBERIS, Oxycantha Galeni— b. Cana- 
densis, see Oxycantha Galeni. 

BERCE, Heraclemn spondylium. 

BERENDAROS, Ocymum basilicum. 

BERENICE Succinum. 

BERFiNICIUM, Polassse nitras. 

BERENlSECUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BERGAMOTE, Bcr gamot 'ta, (F ) Bcrga- 
motle. A small orange, of a very agreeable 
taste; and peculiar odour. From its bark an 
oil, Oleum Berga'mii, (Ph. U. S.) is obtained, 
which is much employed as a perfume, and 
sometimes in medicine. 

BER'IBERI, Beribc'ria, Syn'clonus Beribe'ria, 
Parai'ysis Ber'iberi, from beri in the Singhalese 
language, which signifies 'weakness;' there- 
fore, beriberi, 'great weakness.' This word is 
also said to be Hindusthanee, and to mean a 
sheep. — Bontins. Beriberi is an Indian disease, 
little known in Europe. It consists in debility 
and tremors of the limbs, — sometimes, indeed, 
of the whole body; with painful numbness of 
the affected parts, &c: — the patient walking 
doubled; and imitating the movements of sheep! 
Some authors have esteemed it rheumatic ; 
others, paralytic; others, to be a kind of chorea. 
It is, almost always, incurable, but rarely fatal; 
and is treated by exercise, stimulant frictions, 
sudorifics, &c. It is sometimes called Bar'biers, 
but this would seem to be a different disease. 

BERIOOCOE. Prunns armeniaca. 


BERLUR, Metamorphopsia. 

invalids are occasionally sent to Bermuda, but 
the principal objection to a winter residence 
there, is the prevalence of strong winds; espe 
cially of the dry, sharp, and cold north-west 

winds, during the winter and spring. Still, it 
affords a good winter retreat for the phthisical, 
from any part of the United Stales, provided 
due cate be selected in choosing a suitable lo- 
cality. The neighbourhood of Hamilton has 
been strono-ly recommended with this view. 


BERRIES, INDIAN, see Menispermum coc- 
culus— b. Turkey, yellow, see Piper cubeba. 

BERS. A sort of electuary, composed of 
pepper, seed of the white hyoscyamus, opium, 
euphorbium, saffron, &c. The Egyptians used 
it as an excitant.— Prospero Alpini. 

Champagne, France. The waters are slightly 


BESICLES, Spectacles. 

BESOIN, Want — b. de Respirer,see Want— b, 
de la Vie, Necessary of life. 

BESSANEM. A word used by Avicenna, 
for redness of the skin, limbs, and face, pro- 
duced bv the action of cold. 

Sg&£J SeeGeme,luS - 

BETA. The Beet, Sic'ula, (F.) Bate, Bet- 
terave. Family, Chenopodeae. Sex. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Digynia. A genus of plants, of which 
the following are the chief varieties. 

Beta Hy'buida, Root of Scarcity. Root red, 
outside; white, within. Very nutritive; yields 

Beta Vulga'ris Alba, White Beet. The 
root yields sugar, and the leaves are eaten as a 
substitute for spinach. 

Beta Vulga'ris Rubra, Red Beet. Root red 
and nutritive; yields a small quantity of sugar. 

BETEL, Piper Betel. A species of pepper, 
cultivated in several parts of India. The In- 
dians are in the habit of chewing the leaves 
with lime and areca; and they give the name 
Betel to this preparation. It is used in all the 
equatorial countries of Asia. Betel is said to 
be tonic and astringent. It is also called Belle, 
Betre, Bctle. See Areca. 

BETH ROOT, Trillium latifolium— b. broad- 
leaf, Trillium latifolium. 

B/iriSE. Dementia. 

BETOINE, Betonica officinalis— b. des Mon- 
tagues. Arnica montana. 

BliTON, Colostrum. 


Beton'ica Officinalis, Cestron, Beton'ica 
purpu'rea, Veton'ica Cordi, &c., Bet'ony, Wood 
Betony, Psychol' rophum, Veroni'ca purpu'rea, 
(F.) Betoine, Family, Labiatae. Sex. Syst. Didy- 
namia Gymnospermia. Betony was in much 
esteem amongst the ancients, who employed 
the flowers and leaves, in decoction, in gout, 
sciatica, cephalalgia, &c. It was so called, 
according to Pliny, from being in great repute 
among the Vettones, or Bettones, an ancient 
people of Spain. Antonius M usa is said to have 
written a volume in praise of it; recommending 
it in no less than 47 different diseases. It has, 
however, little or no virtue. The leaves are 
said to be aperient, and the root emetic. 

Betonica Paui.i, Veronica. 

BETONY, Betonica officinalis— b. Paul's, 
Lycopus Virginicus— b. Water, Scrophularia 
iquatica— b. Wood, Betonica officinalis. 

BkTRE, Betel. 




BETTE, Beta. 


BET'ULA ALBA. The Birch, (F ) Bouleau 
commun. The young leaves are slightly odo- 
rous, astringent, and bitter. They are applied 
to wounds and ulceis. They have been regard- 
ed as antiscorbutic and anthelmintic. The tree 
furnishes a saccharine juice, which is consider- 
ed antiscorbutic and diuretic. 

Betula Lenta, Sweet Birch, Black Birch, 
Cherry Birch, Mountain Mahogany, is an Ame- 
rican species, the bark and leaves of which have 
the smell and taste of Gaultheria procumbens. 
An infusion is sometimes made of them, and 
used as an excitant and diaphoretic. The vola- 
tile oil is nearly if not wholly identical with 
that of Gaultheria. 

BEURRE, Butter— b. de Bambouc, Butter of 
bambouc — b. dc Cacao, Butter of cacao— b. de 
Coco, Butter of cocoa. 

Beuvrigny is in the viciniiy of Bayeux in Nor- 
mandy. The water is chalybeate. 

BtiVVE, Diplopia. 

BEX, Tussis — b. Convulsiva, Pertussis — b 
Humida, Expectoration — b. Theriodes, Per- 

BEXIS, Tussis. 

BEXU'GO. Under this name, a purgative 
root was formerly introduced into Europe, from 
Peru. It is supposed to have been the root of 
a Hippocratea. 

ZAHAR, from Persian Pu, 'against,' and zahar, 
1 poison.' Lapis Bezoar'dicus, Cat' cuius Biz' oar, 
Enlerol.'ithus Btzoar'dus, Bczoard. A calculous 
concretion, found in the stomach, intestines, 
and bladder of animals. Wonderful virtues 
were formerly attributed to these Bezoars. 
There were two great varieties: the Bez'oar 
orienta'lg, An'imal Bczoar'ticum orienta'te, form- 
ed in the fourth stomach of the gazelle of India 
(Gazella Indica, or rather Jtnlilopc cervicapra .') 
and the Bez'oar occidentals, Animal Bezoar'ti- 
cumoccidenta'/e, found in the fourth stomach of 
the wild goat or chamois of Peru. These sub- 
stances were esteemed to be powerful alexiphar- 
inics; but the former was the more valued. It 
was believed, that no poison, and no eruptive, 
pestilential, or putrid disease could resist its in- 
fluence. As so many virtues were ascribed to it, 
other animal concretions were substituted for 
it; and factitious Bezoards were made of crab's 
eyes and claws, bruised and mixed with musk, 
ambergris, &c. 

Bez'oar Bovi'num, (F.) Bizoard de Bavf, 
Bezoard of the beef. A concretion fortned in 
the fourth stomach of beeves: also, a biliary 
calculus found in the gallbladder. 

Bez'oaiid of Cayman. This was once much 
prized. It is now unknown. 

BtiZOARD (VALLEMAGKE, jEgngrophila. 

Bkz'oahd of the Chamois, House, &c, ex- 
hibits its origin in the name. 

Bkz'oahd of the Indian Por'cupine, Bez'- 
oAn Hys'timcis, Lapis Porci'nus, Lapis Malu- 
cen'sis, retro del Porco, (F.) Bizoard de Pore 
Epic, was formerly the dearest of all the Be- 
zoards, and was sold at an enormous price in 
Spain and Portugal. 

Bez'oaiid Mineral, Antimonium diaphorcli- 
cun , — b. Vegetable, see Calappite. 

BEZOAR'DIC, Bezoar'dicus, (F.) Bezoar- 

dique; concerning the bezoard. Bezoardic me- 
dicines are those supposed to posses the same 
properties with the bezoard; as antidotes, alexi- 
teria, alexipharmics, cordials. 

BEZOAUDICA RADIX, Dorstenia contra- 

ceutical preparation, regarded by the ancients 
as antihysteric. It was formed of protoxide of 
lead, butler of antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Huma'num. Urinary calculi 
were formerly employed under this name as 
powerful alexipharmics. 

Bezoaii'dicum Jovia'lk. A sort of greenish 
powder, used as a diaphoretic, and formed of 
antimony, tin, mercury, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Luna' re. A medicine former- 
ly regarded as a specific in epilepsy, convul- 
sions, megrim, &c. It was prepared of nitrate 
of silver, and butter of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Martia'i.e. A tonic medi- 
cine, used by the ancients in diarrhoea. It was 
prepared from the tritoxide of iron and butter 
of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Mekcuria'i.e. A medicine, 
formerly vaunted as an antisyphilitic, and pre- 
pared from the mild chloride of mercury, butter 
of antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bezoaii'dicum Minf.ra'le. The deutoxide of 
antimony; so called, because its properties 
were supposed to resemble those of animal bezoard. 

Bezoaii'dicum Sola'rk. A diaphoretic me- 
dicine, prepared of gold filings, nitric acid, and 
butter of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Ven'eris. A pharmaceutical 
preparation, formerly employed in lepra, dis- 
eases of the brain, &c; and which was made 
from filings of copper, butter of antimony, and 
nitric acid. 

BI, as a prefix to words, has the same signi- 
fication as Di. 

BIAIOTHANATI, Biothanati. 

BIBITORIUS, Rectus internus oculi. 

'a book,' and yQaqxo, 'I describe.' Skill in the 
knowledge of medical books. The most distin- 
guished medical bibliographers have been : J. A. 
Van der Linden, Anistelod. 1662, Svo. (L.) 
M. Lipenius, Francf. ad Mcen. 1G79. fol. (L.i 
G. A. Meiicklein, Norimb. 1G86, (L.) J. J. 
Manget, Genev. 1695 to 1731, (L ) Tarin (ana- 
tomical,) Paris, 1753, (F.) A. von Haller, 
Zurich, 1774, &c. (L.) Vjgiliis von Creut- 
zenfei.d (surgical,) Vindob 1781, (L.) C. G. 
Kuhn, Lips. 1794, (L.) C. L. Sciiweickard 
(anat., phys., and legal medicine,) Stottgard, 
17(16 to 1800, (L ) G. G. Ploucquet, Tubing. 
1808 to 1814, (L ) C F. Bukdach, Gotha, 1810 
to 1821. (G.) J. S. Ersch, (since 1750,) Leipz. 
1822, (G.) Th. Ch Fr., (of Germany, 
since 1750,) Berlin. 1820, (G.) J. B. Mont- 
fai.con, Paris, 1827, (F.) J Forbes, M. D , 
F. R. S., Lond. 1835. A. C. P. Callisen, Copen- 
hagen, 1845, (G.) 

BICAUDALIS, Retrahens anris. 

BICAUDA'TUS, Cauda' 'tus, 'double tailed.' 
A monsier having two tails. 

BICEPHA'LIUM, Dicrphn'lhnn. A hybrid 
word, from hi and xttpaltj, 'head.' Sauvages 
applies this epithet to a very large sarcoma on 
the head, which seems to form a double head. 

BICFPF1ALUS, Dicephalus. 

BICEPS, from bis, 'twice,' and caput, 'head.' 




That which has two heads. This name has 
been particularly given to two muscles; one 
belonging to the arm, the other to the thigh. 

Biceps Exter'nus, Mus'culus. The long 
portion of the Triceps Brachial lis. — Douglas. 

Bickps Flkxoii Cruris, Biceps Cruris, Bi- 
ceps, (F.\ Biceps Crural, Biceps Fern' oris, ls'- 
chiofem oro peronicr — (CI).) A muscle on the 
posterior part of the thigh; one head arising 
from the tuberosity of the ischium, and the 
other from a great part of the linea aspera. Jt 
is inserted into the top of the fibula. It serves 
to bend the leg on the thigh. 

Biceps Flexor Co'biti, Biceps Bra'chii, 
Cor' aco-radiu' lis, Biceps, Biceps manus, Bi- 
ceps inter' nus, Biceps inter' nus hu'meri, (F.) 
Sea p'ulo- radial (Ch.,) — Biceps Brachial. A 
muscle, situate at the anterior and internal part 
of the arm; extending from the edge of the 
glenoid cavity and from the top of the coracoid 
process to the tuberosity of the radius. It 
bends the fore-arm upon the arm. 

B1CHE DE M ER, Sea Slug. A molluscousani- 
mal belonging to the genus Holothuria, which is 
caught amongst the islands of the Feejee group, 
New Guinea, &c, and when prepared finds a 
ready sale in China, where it is used as an in- 
gredient in rich soups 

BICI1ET. Terra Orleana. 

B1CH1CITLE Pectoral medicines, com- 
posed of liquorice juice, sugar, blanched al- 
monds, &c. — Rhazes. 

BICHIOS, Dracunculua. 

BICHO, Dracunculus. 

Bicno ru culo, (S ) A disease about the 
anus, said to be endemic in Brazil. It is attri- 
buted to bad food; the use of pimento, &.c; 
and is treated by astringents. 

BICHOS. A Portuguese name for the worms 
that get under the toes of people in the Indies; 
and which are destroyed by the oil of the ca- 
shew nut. 

BICIPITAL, from biceps (bis and caput) 'two- 
headed.' Relating to the biceps. 

Bicip'itai, Groove, (F.) Coulisse ou Gout- 
litre bicipitale, Coulisse humerule, (Ch.,) is a 
longitudinal groove, situate between the tube- 

fosities of the os humeri, which lodges the 
ong head of the biceps. 

Bicip'itai. Tu'jbercle or Tuberosity, (F.) 
Tuberosity bicipitale; — a prominence near the 
upper extremity of the radius, to which the 
tendon of the biceps is attached. 

BICORNE RUDE, Ditrachyceros. 

BICUS'PID, B cuspida'lus, from bis, ' twice,' 
and cuspis, 'a spear.' That, which has two 
points or tubercles. 

Bicus'fid Teeth, Dtnte.s Bicuspida'ti, (F.) 
Dents bicuspid ees, the small molares. See 

BIECHO, Bische. 

BlkRE, Cerevisia. 

B1ESTINGS, Colostrum. 

BIFEMORO CALCAJflEJf, Gastrocnemii. 

and fiiica. 'a fork.' Division of a trunk into 
two branches; as the bifurcation of the trachea, 
aorta. &<•■ 

BIGASTER. Digaslricus. 

BIG BLOOM. Magnolia imcrophylla. 

•BIGG Alt A disease of Bengal, remarkable 
for the intensity and dagger of (he cerebral 
pymptomfl —Twining. 

BIG-LEAF, Magnolia macrophylla. 

BIGLES. See Strabismus. 


Bigno'nia In'dica. The leaves are employed 
in India, as emollients, to ulcers. 

B1JON. See Pinus sylvestris. 

lazay is a town in France, two leagues from 
Tiiouar, department of Deux Sevres, near 
which is a thermal sulphureous spring. Tem- 
perature about 77° Fahrenheit. 

BILBERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus— b. Red, 
Vaccinium vitis idsea. 

BILE, Bilis, Fel, Chol'os, Choll, (F.) Bile, 
Fiel. A yellow, greenish, viscid, bitter, nau- 
seous fluid, secreted by the liver. It is distin- 
guished into hcpat'ic and cystic; according as it 
flows immediately into the duodenum from the 
liver or from the gall-bladder. It contains, ac- 
cording to Muratori, water, a peculiar fatty 
matter, colouring matter, (Cholepyr'rhin or Bi- 
liphce'in,) cholesterin combined with soda; pi- 
cromel or bilin; extract of flesh, mucus; soda, 
phosphate of soda; phosphate of lime, and 
chloride of sodium. 

The use of the bile is to remove from the 
body superfluous hydro-carbon; and it is pro- 
bably inservient to useful purposes in digestion. 

Bii.e, Furunculus. 

Bile, Black, Alrabilis — b. de Bcevf, see Bile 
— b. Repandue, Icterus. 

Bile or Gall of the Ox, Ox Gall, Fel Tauri, 
Fel Bovis, F. Bovi'nvm, (F.) Bile de Basuf, was 
once reputed cosmetic and detergent, anti-otal- 
gic and emmenagogue; as well as to possess 
the power of facilitating labour. It has also 
been given as a bitter stomachic and anthel- 
mintic; and recently, as a tonic and laxative, in 
cases of deficiency of the biliary secretion. 

Bile or Gall of the Bear, Fel Ursi, was 
thought to be antiepileptic; and that of the Eel, 
Fel anguil'la, to facilitate labour. 

BILIARY, Bilia'ris, Bilia'rius. That which 
relates to bile. 

Bil'iary Appara'tus, B. organs, B passages. 
The collection of parts that concur in the se- 
cretion and excretion of bile:— viz. the liver, 
pori biliarii or tubuli biliferi; hepatic, cystic, 
and choledoch ducts and gall-bladder. 

Bil'iary Concre'tioss are concretions found 
in some parts of the biliary apparatus. 

BILIEUX, Bilious. 

B1LIMBI, Avenhoa bilimbi. 

BILIMBING TERES, Averrhoa bilimbi. 

BILIN, Picromel. 

BIL'IOUS, Bilio'sus, Epich'olos, Picroch'olos, 
(F.) Bilieux. That which relates to bile, con- 
tains bile, or is produced by bile. An epithet 
given to certain constitutions and diseases, 
which are believed to be the effect of super- 
abundance of the biliary secretion; as Bilious 
temperament, B. symptoms, B. fever. 

BILIPLLEIN, see Bile. 

BIL1VERDIN, from Bilis, ' bile,' and riridis, 
' green.' On adding an acid to a solution of the 
yellow colouring matter of bile, a precipitate of 
green flocculi takes place, which possesses all 
the properties of chlorophyll, or the ereen co- 
louring matter of leaves. This is the biliverdin 
of Berzclius. 


Bl'MANUS, from his and manus, -a hand.' 
One that has two hands. A teim applied only 




to man, because lie is the sole mammiferous 
animal that possesses two perfect hands. 

BINDWEED, Polygonum aviculare — b Fid- 
dle-leaved, Convolvulus panduratus — b. Great, 
Convolvulus sepium— b. Lavender-leaved, Con- 
volvulus cantabrica — b. Sea, Convolvulus solda- 
nella— b. Virginian, Convolvulus panduratus. 

BINKOHUMBA, Phyllanthus urinaria. 

BINOC'ULUS, Bin' ode, Diophthalfmica Fas- 
cia, Oculis duplex, from bis, ' twice,' and oculus, 
'an eye.' (F.) CEil double. A bandage applied 
over both eyes. It was, also, formerly called 

BIN'SICA. Disorderof the mind. Accord- 
ing to Van Helmont, an atrophy of the organ 
of imagination. 

BIOCHYMIA, Chymistry, vital. 

BIODYNAM'ICS, Biodynam'ica, Biodynam'- 
tcS; from piot, 'life,' and dvrapig, 'power.' 
'force.' The doctrine of the vital activity, or 

BIOGAM1A, Magnetism, animal. 

BIOLOGY. Physiology. 

BIOLYCHNION, Animal heat. 

BIOLYCH'NIUM, from (1tog, 'life,' and 
Ivyviov, 'a lamp.' Innate heat, vital heat. Also, 
a secret preparation of which Beguin and Buk- 
crave make mention. 

BIOMAGNETISMUS, Mao-netism, animal. 


BIOS, (}ioq. Life, (q. v.) Also, what is ne- 
cessary for the preservation of life. 

BIOTE, Lite. 

BIOTHAN'ATI, Biaiothan'ati, from fro?, 
'life,' and Saruroi;, ' death.' Those who die of 
a violent death, — very suddenly, or as if there 
was no space between life and death. 

BIOTICS, Physiology. 

B1R, Thorax. 

B1RA, Cerevisia. 

BIRCH, Betula alba— b. Black, Betula lenta 
— b. Cherry, Betula lenta — b. Sweet, Betula 

BIRTH, CROSS, Presentation, preternatural. 

BIRTH WORT, Aristolochia— b. Snakeroot, 
Aristolochia serpentaria. 

BISCHE, Bieclw. A malignant kind of dy- 
sentery, which often prevails in the island of 

BlS'CUlT,Biscoc'tus, 'twice baked.' A kind 
of dry. hard bread, or cake, which is variously 
made; and, when without ejrgs or butter, is 
easy of digestion. It was formerly called Dipy- 
rites. and Dipyros. 

BISERMAS, Salvia sclarea. 
. BISFERiENS. Dicrotus. 


BISLINGUA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 

BISMALVA, Althaea. 

BISMUTH, Bismu'thum, Wismn'thum, Rr S '- 
vlus of Bis'muth, Marcasi'ta, Tin Glass. (F ) 
Alain gris, E. de Glace. A metal, in spicular 
plates, of a yellowish-white colour; s. gr.9.822. 
Fusible at 400° Fahrenheit, and volatilizable at 
a high temperature. It is used only in the pre- 
paration of the subnitiale. 

Bismuth. Subni'trate of, Marcasi'ta alba, 
Pluwbam cine'reum, Magiste'rivm Marcasi'ta, 
Bismu'thum Kil'rieum, B. Subnii'rinim, Mtras 
Subbionu'thicum, Nitras Bismuthi, Calx Vistnu'- 
thi, Bismu'thum oxydula'tum alburn, Oxyd of 
Bismuth, Mag"istery of Bismuth, Pcail White, 

Spanish White, (F.) Sousnitrate de bismuth, Oxide 
blanc de B ., Blanc defard, Blanc de pale. (Bis- 
muth, in frustulis, ^j. Acid nitric, f. giss. An. 
destill. q. s. Mix a fluidounce of distilled water 
with the nitric acid, and dissolve the bismuth 
in the mixture. When the solution is com- 
plete, pour the clear liquor into three pints of 
distilled water, and set the mixture by, that the 
powder may subside. Lastly, having poured 
off tbe supernatant fluid, wash the subnitrate 
of Bismuth with distilled water, wrap it in bibu- 
lous paper, and dry it with a gentle heat. Ph. 
U. S.) It is considered to be tonic and anti- 
spasmodic, and has been chiefly used in gas- 

BLSP1RUS, Dipnoos. 

B1SSUS. The silky filaments which fix the 
Pinna Mari'na to the rooks. In Italy and Cor- 
sica, clothes are made of these, which are con- 
sidered to favour perspiration, and are recom- 
mended to be worn next the skin in rheuma- 
tism, gout, &c. — See Byssus. 

BISTORT, OFFICINAL, Polygonum bis- 

B1STORTA, Polygonum bistorta. 

BISTORTIER, (F.) A name given, by the 
Pharmacien, to a long wooden pestle used for 
reducing soft substances to powder, and in the 
preparation of electuaries. 

BISTOURI, (F.) Pistorien'sis gla'dius, 
pel'lus. A Bistoury. A small cutting-knife, 
used in surgery, — so called, according to Huet, 
from the town of Pistori, which was formerly 
celebrated for the manufacture of those instru- 
ments. A bistoury has the form of a small knife, 
and is composed of a blade and handle. The 
blade, which is most commonly movable in the 
handle, may be fixed by a button, spring, &c. 
When fixed in the handle, the bistouri is called 
by the French, B a lame fixe ou dormaule. 

The chief bistouries are:— 1. The straight 
B (F.) B. droit, in which the blade and cutting 
edge are straight: the point being fine, round, 
or square. 2. The convex B. (F.) B. convexe; 
the blade of which is convex at the cutting 
edije. concave at the back. 3. The concavk 
B. (F.) B. concave; the blade of which is con- 
cave at its edge, and convex at the back. 4. 
blunt-pointed B. (F.) B. boutonne ; the blade 
of which has a button at its extremity. 5. The 


concave at its cutting edge, and its point blunt; 
so that it can be carried on the palmar sur- 
face of the index finger, to divide the stric- 
ture, in strangulated hernia. Sir Astley Cooper 
has recommended a useful modification of this, 
to avoid wounding the intestine, should it come 
in contact with the edge of the knife. Hi3 
Bistouri has an edge of not more than eight 
lines in length, situate about five lines from 
the point. G. Bistouri a la lime, (F.) is a 
straight Bistoury ; the blade fixed in the handle, 
the extremity with a button, and the edge 
made with a file. It is chiefly used for dilating 
parts. 7. Bistouri hoval, (F.) A Bistouri 
used in operating upon Louis XIV., for fistula 
in ano. 8. Bistouiu gastriq.ue, (F.) A com- 
plicated instrument, invented by Morand, for 
dilating wounds of the abdomen. 9. Bistouri 
cache. B. herniaire. ou Jlllrnppeluurdaud de 
Biennaise. A curved bistouri, the blade of which 
is placed in a canula, whence it issues on press- 
ing a spring. 




The word Bistouri is used by the French, at 
times, where we would employ knife. 

BIT NOBEN, Salt of BU'umen, Padnoon, 
Soucherlooii, Khala mimuc. A white, saline 
substance, which is a Hindoo preparation of 
great antiquity, and has been supposed to be 
the Sal asphulli'les and Sal Sndome'nus of the 
ancients. It is used by the Hindoo in the pre- 
vention or cure of almost all diseases. 

unmeaning words, used by Dolasus, to designate 
an active principle supposed to have its seat in 
the stomach, and preside over chymjfication,&c. 

BITTER, Amarus— b. Bark, Pinckneya pu- 
bens — b. Bloom, Chironia annularis — b. Holy, 
Hiera picra — b Redberry, Cornus Florida — b. 
Root, Apocynum androssemifolium, Gentiana 
Catesbffii, Menyanthes verna — b. Sweet night- 
shade, Solanum Dulcamara — b. Sweet vine, So- 
lanum Dulcamara. 

BITTERN ESS, Amaritu'do, Amaril'ies, Jim- 
a'ror, Pi'cria.,(F.) Amertume. A particular taste, 
which belongs to many substances. In some 
diseases there is a sense of bitterness felt in 
the mouth. 

R1TTERS. COLUMBO, Tinctura Caiumba? 
— b. Spirit, Tinctura gentianae composita — b. 
Wine. Vinum gentiana? compositum. 

BITTERSWEET, Solanum dulcamara. 


BITTOS. A disease, in which the chief 
symptom is an acute pnin in the anus. — Choinel. 

BITUMEN, GLUTINOUS, Pissasphaltum— 
b. Judaicum, Asphaltum — b. of Judaea, Asphal- 
tum — b. Petroleum, Petrolaeum — b. Malta, Piss- 
asphaltum — b. Salt of, Bitnoben — b. Solidum, 

Bl VENTER, Digastricus— b. Cervicis, Com- 
plexus musculus. 

LUM, see Lobe, biventral. 

BIXA ORLEANA, Terra Orleana. 

BLABE, Wound. 

BLACCIiE, Rubeola. 

BLACIA. Debility. 

fruticosus — b. High or standing.see Rubusfruti- 

BLACK DRAUGHT, see Infusum Sennas 

BLACK DOSE, see Infusum Senna? com- 

BLACK ROOT, Aletris farinosa, Leptan- 
dria purpurea. 


BLADDER, IRRITABLE, Cyslerethismus. 


BL./ESITAS, Balbuties. 

Bi.^'si tas, Blxsa lingua. Some authors have 
used this word as synonymous with stam- 
mering. See Balbuties. Sauvages understands 
by it a defect in pronunciation, which consists 
in substituting soft consonants for those that 
are hard; as the z for s, the n for t, the s for g 
and J, &c. Also. Lisping, Traulis'mus, Trau'- 
lotes, (F.) Blisit'e, Bit (purler.) 

BLiESOPODES, see Kyllosis. 

BL^ESOPUS, see Kyllosis. 

BL/ESUS. A distortion; especially the out- 
ward distortion of the legs. Also, a stammerer. 

BlJlF.lRD, (F.) Pallidas, Pallid'vlus. This 
epithet is sometimes given to the skin, when 
pale and dull; but, most frequently, to the flesh 

of a wound, when it has lost its colour, and be- 
come white. The word is, also, sometimes used 
synonymously with Albino, (q. v.) 

BLANC DE BALE1JYE, Cetaceum— b. de 
Fard, Bismuth, subnitrate of— b. dc PlEil, Scle- 
rotic — b. d'CEiif, Albumen ovi— b. de Perle, Bis- 
muth, subnitrate of. 

BLANC MANGER, (F.) Cibus albus, Leuco- 
pha'gium, Argyrotrophc'ma. An animal jelly, 
(so called on account of its colour,) combined 
with an emulsion of sweet almonds, to which 
suo-ar has been added, and some aromatic. It 
is sometimes prescribed as a nutrient in conva- 
lescence and chronic diseases. 

ointment composed of cerusse, white wax, and 
olive oil. 

BLANCA, Plumbi subcarbonas. 

TO BLANCH, from (F.) blanchir,' to whiten, 
to bleach.' To deprive of the outer rind; as 'to 
blanch almonds;' i. e. to peel them. 

BL.dJYCHET,(F.) A blanket. A term given, 

by i he French Pharmaciens, to the woollen 

strainer through which they filter syrup and 

other thick fluids. See, also, Aphtha?. 


BLAS. An unmeaning term, invented by 
Van Helmont to designate a kind of movement 
in the body; at times, local, at others, under ex- 
traneous influence. Thus, he speaks of the 
Bias mcteoros, or of the heavenly bodies, and 
the Bias huma'num, that which operates in man. 

BL.ISlt, (F.) An epithet given to one whom 
the abuse of enjoyment has prevented from any 
longer deriving satisfaction or pleasure from it. 

BLASTE'MA, Blasle'sis, from p.xtrxarw, 'I 
bud.' A germ, (q. v.) The sense of this word, 
which is often used by Hippocrates, is obscure. 
Castelli thinks it means the eruption of some 
morbific principle at the surface of the body. 
Also, the matrix or general formative element 
of tissues. 

BLASTODERMA. see Molecule. 

BLATTA BYZAN'TIA, Unguis odora'tus, 
(F ) Blatte de Byzance. This name seems, for- 
merly, to have been given to a marine produc- 
tion from some of the Conchylia. It had an 
agreeable smell, a reddish tint, and the shape 
of a nail. It was prescribed in epilepsy, hyste- 
ria, and hepatic obstructions. Rondelet affirms 
that it was the production of the shell-fish mu- 
rex or purpura ; and that the name Blalta is de- 
rived from the Greek /W.arroc, 'purple.' 

BLAVELLE, Cejitaurea cyanus. 

BLAVEOLE, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLAVEROLLE, Centaurea cyanus. 


BLE, Bladum. This word answers, in 
France, to the word Corn (q. v.) in England; 
i.e. any kind of grain employed ibr making 
bread. Wheat being most commonly used for 
this purpose, Bit is sometimes restricted to this. 
Bit. viiteil is a mixture of wheat and rye. 

BLE, CORNU, Ergot— b. d'Espagne, Zea 
mays — //. d Italic, Zea. Mays — b. JYoir, Polygo- 
num fagopyrum — b. de Turnuic. Zea. Mays. 

BLA (PARLER,) Bleesitas. 

BLEABERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus. 

BLEACHING LIQUID, Eau dcjavttle. 

BLEAR EYE, Lipp.tudo. 

BLEB, Bulla. 

BLECHNON, Polypodium filix mas. 





Gcolopendrium— b. Squamosum, Asplenium ce- 

BLECHROPYRA. See Blechros. 

BLECHROPYRUS, Typhus mitior. 

BLECHROS, §Xr lX o 0? , ' weak, feeble, slow.' 
An epithet, applied to different affections, and 
particularly to fevers. Hence Bleckropy'ra, 'a 
Blow fever:' Blechrosphjr'mia, < a slow pulse.' 


BLED, Corn. 


BLEEDING HEART, Cypripedium luteum. 

BLEME, (Y.) This word lias nearly the same 

signification as Blafard. Generally, however, 

it includes, also, emaciation of the countenance! 

BLENNA, Mucus— b. Narium, Nasal mucus. 

BLENNELYT'RIA, from |H«»va, 'mucus,' 

and cXvtqov, ' a sheath.' A discharge of mucus 

from the vagina. Leucorrhcea. (q. v.) Alibert 

BLENNEM'ESIS. Blennoem'esis, Vom'itus 
pituito'sus, from pXtwa., ' mucus,' and citing 
'vomiting.' Vomitincr of mucus. 
BLENNISTH'MIA, from (iXtwct, 'mucus,' 
and ta9uog, 'the gullet.' Increased flow of 
mucus from the pharynx and larynx. — Alibert 
BLENNOEMESIS, Blennemesis. 
BLENNOG"ENOUS, B/.ennog"enus: from 
(iXtvv*., ' mucus,' and yt\xu>, ' i form.' Forming 
or generating mucus. Breschet and Roussel 
de Vauzeme describe an apparatus of this kind 
for the secretion of the mucous matter that con- 
stitutes the cuticle, composed of a glandular pa- 
renchyma or organ of secretion situate in the 
substance of the true skin, and of excretory 
ducts, which issue from the organ, and deposite 
the mucous matter between the papilla?. 

BLENNOPHTHALMIA, Ophthalmia, (pu- 

BLENNOP'TYSIS, from (tl fV v<t, and nrvw, ' I 
spit.' Expectoration of mucus. Catarrh (q. v.) 
BLENNOPY'RA, from ffXtwa, and „vq, 
'fire.' Alibert has classed, under this head, 
various fevers with mucous complications ; as 
Mesenteric fever, Adeno -meningeal fever, &c. 

BLENNORRHAGIA, Gonorrhoea— b. Geni- 
talium, Leucorrhosa — b. Notha, Gonorrhoea spu- 
ria — b. Spuria, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

nia humoralis. 

spuria — b. du Gland, Gonorrhoea spuria. 
BLENNORRHEA, Blennorrlioe, Blennor- 
rhag"ia, Phlegmorrkcea, Phlegmorrhag" ia, from 
fiXivva,' mucus,' and pew, ' I flow.' Inordinate 
secretion and discharge of mucus. Also, Go- 

Blennorrhea Chronica, (gleet,) see Go- 
norrhoea — b. Genitalium, Leucorrhoea — b. 
Luodes, Gonorrhoea impura — b. Nasalis, Co- 
ryza — b. Oculi, see Ophthalmia — b. Oculi go- 
norrhoea, see Ophthalmia — b. Oculi neonato- 
rum, see Ophthalmia — b. Oculi purnlenta, see 
Ophthalmia — b. Urethrals, Gonorrhoea — b. 
Urinalis, Cystorrhcea — b. Ventriculi, Gastror- 
rhoea — b. Vesicae, Cystorrhcea. 

BLENNO'SES, from fiXevva, 'mucus.' Af- 
fections of the mucous membranes. — Alibert. 

I3LENNOTHORAX, Catarrh, Peripneumo- 
nia notha — b. Chronicns, Asthma humidum. 
BLENNURETHR1A, Gonorrhoea. 

BLENNURIA, Cystorrhcea. 

BLEPHARITIS, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

mia, purulent. 

the 'eyehd,' dvc, 'with difficulty,' and /09 *i 
'colour.' Discoloration of the eyelid. Nee-Vus* 
of the eyelid. — Von Amnion. 


BLEPHARON, Palpebra— b. Atoniaton, Ble- 

BLEPHARONCO'SIS, Palpebrarum Tumor, 
from (fXcyxoov, 'eyelid.' A tumour on the eyelid 
tarsi— b. Neonatorum, see Ophthalmia. 

LOSA, Ophthalmia, purulejit, of infants 

BLEPHAROPLAS'TICE, Blepharidoplas'- 
ticS, Insitio Cilio'rum, from (jXvpagov, ' the eye- 
lid,' and TrXaoriy.o?, ' forming,' 'formative.' The 
formation of a new eyelid 

BLEPHAROPLEGIA, Blepharoptosis. 
BLEPHAROPTO'SIS, Blepharopk'gia, Ca- 
sus pal'pebras supeno'ris, Delap'sus pal'pebrce, 
Prolap'sus pal'pebras, Propto' 'sis pal 'pebrse, Pto'sis 
pal'pebras, Atoniaton blepkaron, from pXewapor, 
' the eyelid,' and nrmaig, < fall.' A falling down 
of the upper eyelid over the eye, caused by a 
paralysis of the Levator pal'pebras superioris 
muscle. This paralysis is an unfavourable 
symptom, as it is generally connected with a 
state of the brain favouring apoplexy or palsy. 

Blepharoptosis Ectropium, Ectropium— b. 
Entropion, Entropion. 

BLEPHAROSPAS'MUS: from /M.** ? . P| 
'eyelid,' and o-nanfxog, 'spasm.' A spasmodic 
action of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle 
BLEPHAROT1S, Ophthalmia tarsi. 
BLEPHAROTITIS, Ophthalmia tarsi. 
BLEPHAROXYS'TUM, from (SX^aoov, 'eye- 
lid,' and £ wt0 , ' I scrape.' An instrument used, 
by the ancients, for removing callosities, which 
made their appearance in the affection called, 
by the Greeks, r^w^a.— Paulus of JEo-ina' 
Gorrceus. ° 

£L£SVT£, Blsesitas. 
BLESSURE, Abortion, Wound. 
BLESTRIS'MOS. Restlessness of the sick.,. 
— Hippocr. 

BLETA. A word, used by Paracelsus for 
white or milky urine, arising from diseased 
kidneys. Biota alba has the same meaning-. 

Bleville is a village about two miles from Havre. 
The waters are acidulous chalybeate*. 

BLIGHT JN THE EYE, Ophthalmia, ca- 

BLINDNESS, Cjecitas-b. Colour, Achroma- 

BLISTER, Vesicato'rium, Emplas'trum Vesi- 
cato'rium, Emplas'trum Lyttas, Epispas'ticum, 
from Vesi'ca, ' a bladder,' (F.) Vesicatoire, Ve- 
sicant. Any substance which, when applied to 
the skin, irritates it, and occasions a serous se- 
cretion, raising the epidermis, and inducing a 
vesicle. Various articles produce this effect, 
as canlharidcs, mustard, garou, euphorbium,gar- 




lie, ammonia, fyc. Blisters are used as counter- 
irritants. By exciting a disease artificially on 
the surface, we can often remove another which 
may be at the time existing internally. A perpe- 
tual blister is one, that is kept open for a longer or 
shorter time by means of appropriate dressings. 

Blister or vesication also means the vesicle 
produced by vesicatories. 


BL1STERWEED, Ranunculus acris. 

BL1TUM AMERICANUM, Phytolacca de- 

BLOOD, Anglo Saxon, blob, from bleban, 
' to bleed.' Sanguis, Cruor, Lapis anima'lis, 
Hsema, 'at^a. (F.) Sang. An animal fluid, 
formed chiefly from the chyle; acquiring im- 
portant properties during respiration ; entering 
every organ through the circulation ; distribu- 
ting the nutritive principles to every texture, 
and the source of every secretion. The blood 
is white in the molluscous and inferior ani- 
mals, which have been, hence, called white- 
blooded, to distinguish them from the red- 
blooded; which class includes the mammalia, 
birds, reptiles, and fishes. Human blood is 
composed of water, albumen, fibrin, an animal 
colouring substance, a little fatty matter, and dif- 
ferent salts; as chlorides of potassium and sodium, 
phosphate of lime, subcarbonate of soda, lime, 
magnesia, oxide of iron, and lactate of soda, 
united with an animal matter. Arterial blood 
is of a florid red colour, strong smell, temp. 
100°; s. g. 1.049. Venous blood is of a brownish- 
red : temp. 98°; s. g. I. 051. This difference in 
colour has given occasion to the first being 
called red blood; the latter black. The former, 
which is distributed from the heart, is nearly 
the same through its whole extent: the latter 
is the remains of the arterial blood after the 
different elements have been taken from it, in 
nutrition, and probably differs in composition. 
It likewise contains different substances ab- 
sorbed. Venous blood, taken from a vessel and 
left to itself, becomes solid ; and separates into 
two distinct parts, — the serum or watery, su- 
pernatant fluid ; and the cruor, coag'uluni, cras- 
samen'tum, hepar san'guinis, placen'ta, in'sula, 
or clot. The serum is chiefly water, holding 
albumen in solution and the salts of the blood. 
The clot contains the fibrin, colouring matter, 
hxmatosin, (q. v.) a little serum, and a small 
quantity of salts. M. Lecanu found the blood to 
be composed — in 1000 parts — of water, 785.590; 
albumen, 69.415; fibrin, 3.565; colouring mat- 
ter, 119.6-26; crystallizable fatty matter, 4.300; 
oily matter, 2.270; extractive matter soluble in 
alcohol and water, 1.920; albumen combined 
with soda, 2.010; chlorides of sodium and po- 
tassium; alkaline phosphates, sulphates, and 
subcarbonates, 7.304; subcarbonate of lime and 
magnesia, phosphate of lime, magnesia and 
iron, peroxide of iron, 1.414; loss, 2.586. The 
following table exhibits the computations of 
different physiologists regarding the weight of 
the circulating fluid — arterial and venous. 

Harvey, lbs. 

Lister, J 

Moulins, 1 8 

Abilguard, (. 

Bluinenbach, I 

Lobb, < 10 

Lower, ( 

Sprengel,... 10 to 15 

Miiller and Burdach, £0 

Qucsnai, ~[ 

P. Hoffman, • ■ ■ ■« 

Halter, 2b t0 * 

Vouim ™ 

Hamberger, •° u 

Keill, 10u 

The proportion of arterial blood to venous is 
about 4 to 9. 

Of late, much attention has been paid to the 
varying condition of the blood in disease. The 
average proportion of each of the organic ele- 
ments in 1000 parts of healthy blood is as fol- 
lows, according to Lecanu, and MM. Andral, 
and Gavarret,— fibrin, 3; red corpuscles, 127; 
solid matter of the serum, 80: water, 790. 

Dried human blood was, at one time, con- 
sidered to be antiepileptic; that of the goat, 
dried, Sanguis hirci sicca'tus, sudorific, and an- 

Blood, Black, vascular System of, see 
Vascular — b. Casein, Globulin — b. Corpuscles, 
Globules of the blood— b. Disks, Globules of 
the blood — b. Loss of, Hsemorrhagia — b. Red, 
system of, see Vascular — b. Spitting of. Hae- 
moptysis — b. Vomiting of, Haematemesis— b. 
White, Lymph. 


BLOOD-LETTING, Missio Sanguinis, Hz- 
maxis. (F.) Saignie. A discharge of a certain 
quantity of blood produced by art: — an opera- 
tion which consists in making an opening into 
a vessel to draw blood from it. When practised 
on an artery, it is called Arleriot'omy; on a 
vein, Phlebot'omy; and on the capillary vessels, 
local or capillary, in contradistinction to the 
former, which is termed general. Blood-letting 
is used both during the existence of a disease,' 
as in inflammation, and in the way of prophy- 
laxis. It is employed to fulfil various indica- 
tions. 1. To diminish the actual mass of blood; 
— when it is termed, by the French Patholo- 
gists, Saignee ivacuative. In such case, fluids 
ought not to be allowed too freely afterwards. 
2. To diminish the turgescence in any particu- 
lar organ — ( (F.) Saignie revulsive, when per- 
formed far from the part affected; and Saignie, 
derivative, when near.) 3. To diminish the 
consistence of the red particles of the blood, 
( (F.) Saignie. spolialive.) The immediate ef- 
fects of blood-letting are: diminution of the 
mass of blood and of heat; retardation of the 
pulse, and sometimes syncope. Bloodletting 
from the veins, or phlebotomy, vencsec'tion, is 
practised on the subcutaneous veins of the 
neck, the face, the fore- arm, and the le<r ; some- 
times on those of the hand or foot. The neces- 
sary apparatus consists of a bandage or riband, 
a compress of rag, and a lancet or phleam. 

The veins selected for the operation, are, 1. 
In the fold of the arm, five ; — the cephalic, ba- 
silic, the two median, and the anterior cubital. 
2. In the hand, the cephalic and salvatella. 3. 
In the foot, the great and little saphena. 4. In 
the neck, the external jugular. 5. In the fore- 
head, the frontal. G^ln the mouth, the ranine. 
The operation of phlebotomy in the limbs is per- 
formed by tying a circular bandage round the 
limb, in order that the subcutaneous veins may 
become turgid, by the course of the blood being 
obstructed : the bandage not being so tight, 
however, as to compress the arteries of the 
limb. A puncture is made into the vein, and 
the desired quantity allowed to flow. The liga- 




lure is now removed; and a compress and re- 
taining bandage applied. Capillary or local 
blood-letting is practised on the skin or mucous 
membranes, by means of leeches, the lancet, or 

BLOODROOT, Sanguinaria canadensis. 

BLOODSTONE, Hematites. 

BLOOD VESICLE, Globule of the blood. 

BLOOD VESSEL, (F.) Vaisseau sanguin. 
A vessel destined to conHin and convey blood. 

Blood Vessel, breaking, bursting, bup- 
turing of a. — Hsemorrhagia. 

BLOODWORT, Sanguinaria canadensis. 

BLOOM, HONEY, Apocynum androssemifoli- 


BLOW, Ictus, PlegS, (F.) Coup. Effect pro- 
duced by one body striking another. The im- 
pression made by any body, which strikes us, 
or against which we strike; — a common cause 
of wounds, contusions, fractures, &c. 

BLOWING SOUND, Bruit de Souffle. 

BLUE-BELLS, Genliana Catesbsei. 

BLUE-BERRY, Caulophyllum thalictroides, 

BLUE BOTTLE, Centaurea cyanus, Cya- 
nus segetum. 

BLUE STONE, Cupri sulphas. 

BLUET DES JUOISSOJYS, Cyanus segetum. 

BLUSH, CUTANEOUS, see Efflorescence. 

BOA. An eruption of red, ichorous pimples. 
Pliny. See, also, Hidroa and Sudamina. 

Boa Upas, Upas. 

BOBERRI, Curcuma longa. 

BOCHIUM, Bronchocele. 


The springs of Booklet _in Bavaria are acidu- 
lous chalybeates. 

BODY, Corpus, Soma, (F.) Corps. From 
boden, the 'fundus or bottom.' (?) The human 
body is the collection of organs, which com- 
pose the frame. At times, however, body is 
used synonymously with trunk. We say, also, 
body of the femur, of the sphenoid, &c, to de- 
signate the shaft or middle portion of those 
bones; body of the uterus, &c. Also, the rectum. 

Body, Coming down ok the, Proctocele. 

BODY-SNATCHER, Resurrectionist. 

BOETHEMA, Medicament. 

BOG-BEAN, Menyanlhes trifoliata. 


BOIL, Furunculus — b. Gum, Parulis — b. 
Malignant, see Furunculus — b. Wasp's nest, 
see Furunculus. 

BOIS DE CAMPECHE, Hsematoxylum 
Campechianum — b. de Chyprc, Rhodium lig- 
num — b. de Couleuvre, see Strychnos — b. de 
Alarais, Cephalanthus occidentalis — b.dc Plomb, 
Dirca palustris — b. Puant, Prunus padus — b. de 
Rose, Rhodium lignum — b. de Sappan, Caesal- 
pinia sappan — b. Sudorifique, Wood, sudorific. 

waters are situate about half a league from Fon- 
tenay-le-Comte in France. They are purgative, 
and seem to contain carbonate and sulphate of 
lime and chloride of sodium. 

J50/SSOJV, Drink. 

BOITE, (F.) A box or case, Capsa, Pyxis. 
An apparatus for the reception of any matters, 
which it may be desirable to preserve. In Sur- 
crery and Anatomy, Bottes a dissection, B. a am- 
putation, B. a trepan, B. a cataracte, &c, mean 

the cases in which these various instruments 
are kept. Boite du Crane is the bony case 
which receives the brain. Boite is, also the 
portion of the stem of the trephine, which re- 
ceives the pyramid or centrepin. Boite de Petit 
is a machine, invented by M. Petit to retain 
the fractured portions of bone in apposition, 
when the leg has been fractured in a compli- 
cated manner. Boite is, also, a kind of case 
put before an artificial anus to receive the 
faeces, which are continually being discharged. 
The vulgar, in France, give the name Boite to 
various articulations, — B. de genou, B. de la 
hanche; "Knee-joint, Hip-joint." 
BOITEMEJYT, Claudication. 
BOITIER, (F.) Appareil, Cap'sula unguenta'- 
ria. A Dressing-case. A box, containing salves 
and different apparatus, used more particularly 
by the dressers in hospitals. 

BOL, Bolus — b. d'Armdnie, Bole, Armenian 
— b. Blanc, Bolus alba. 
BOLA, Myrrha. 
BOLCHON, Bdellium. 

BOLE, Bolus, (F.) Bol, Terre bolaire, meant, 
with the older writers, argillaceous earth, used 
as an absorbent and alexipharmic. The various 
boles had different forms given to them, and 
were stamped, as in the following: 

Bole Arme'nian, Bole Arme'niac, or B. 
Ar'menic, Argil' la ferrugin'ea rubra, A. Bo- 
lus rubra, Sinapi'sis, Arena'men, Bolus Oriental - 
lis, Bolus Armeniaca, B. Arme'nias, B. rubra. 
(F.) Bol d'Armdnie. A red, clayey earth, 
found not only in Armenia, but in several 
countries of Europe, — in Tuscany, Silesia, 
France, &c. It was once esteemed a tonic 
and astringent, and was applied as a styptic. It 
is now scarcely, if ever, used. It consists of 
argil, mixed with lime and iron. 
BOLESIS, Coral. 
BOLESON, Balsam. 

BOLET ODORAJYT, Dasdalia suaveolens. 
BOLETUS ALBUS, Boletus laricis. 
Bole'tus Esculen'tus, (F.) Morelle. An 
eatable mushroom, found in the woods in Eu- 
rope, and much admired by Gastronomes. It 
was formerly esteemed to be aphrodisiac. 

Bole'tus Ignia'bius. The systematic name 
for the Ag'aric, Agar'icus of the Pharmacopoeias. 
Agar'icus Chirurgo'rum, Agar'icus Quercus, 
Isfca, itry.a., Bole'tus Ungulatus, Spunk, Am'adou, 
Punk, Fungus Ignia'rius, Fungus Qucrci'fius, 
Agaric of the Oak, Touchicood Boletus, Female 
Agaric, Tinder, (F.) Agaric de chene, Amadou- 
vier. It was formerly much used by surgeons 
as a styptic. 

Bole'tus Lar'icis, B. Larici'nus, Fun'gus 
Lar'icis, Polyp' orus ojficina'lis, Agar'icus albus, 
A. albus op'timus, B. purgans, B. albus, (F.) 
Agaric blanc. On the Continent of Europe it 
has been given as a cathartic and emetic, as 
well as to moderate the sweats in phthisis — 
(De Haen.) Externally, styptic. 

Boletus Purgans, Boletus laricis — b. Salicis, 
Daedalea suaveolens. 

Bole'tus Suav'eolens, Fungus sal'icis, Fun- 
gus albus salig'neus, Dsedale'a suav'eolens. (F.) 
Agaric odorant. It has been used in phthisis 
pulmonalis, and asthma, in powder. Dose, 
from gss to Zij. 

Boletus Touchwood, Boletus igniarius. 
BO LI MART1S, Ferrum tartarisatum. 
BOLISMOS, Boulimia. 




BOLI'TES. The mushroom; perhaps the 
Jigar'icus— Pliny, Martial, Seuto- 
nius, Galen. It was so called, in consequence 
of its shape, from Bolus. 

BOLUS, (SwXos, a morsel, a mouthful, a bole, 
(q. v ) (F.) Bol. A pharmaceutical preparation, 
having a pilular shape, but larger; capable,how- 
ever, of being swallowed as a pill. 

Bolus Alba, Terra SigiHa'ta, Argil' la pallid' - 
ior: called sigilla'ta, from being commonly 
made into small cakes or flat masses, and 
stamped or sealed with certain impressions. 
(F ) Bol blanc, Terre sigillee, Jirgile ochrcuse 
pate. It was used like the Bolus Armenix, and 
was brought from Etruria. See Terra. 

Bonis, Alimen'tarv. Bolus alimenta'rius. 
The bole, formed by the food, after it has un- 
dergone mastication and insalivation in the 
mouth; and been collected upon the tongue 
prior to deglutition. 

Bolus Ohienta'lis. A kind of bolar earth 
only distinguished from Bole Armenian, in be- 
ing brought from Constantinople. See Bole, 
Armenian. — 

Bolus Rubra, Bole, Armenian. 
BOMA'REA SALSIL'LA. The inhabitants 
of Chili use this plant as a sudorific. It is 
given in infusion, in cutaneous diseases. 
BOMBAX, Gossypium. 
BOMB US, Au'rium fluctua'lio, A. sib'ilus, A. 
son'itus, A. susur'rus, (F.) Bombement. A kind 
of ringing or buzzing in the ears; — character- 
ized, according to Sauvages, by the perception 
of blows or beating repeated at certain inter- 
vals. See Flatulence, and Tinnitus Aurium. 
BOMBYX MORI, see Sericum. 
BON, Coffea Arabica. 
BONA, Phaseolus vulgaris. 
BONDUE, Gymnocladus canadensis. 
BONE, Os, Osteon, carter, (F.) Os. Saxon, 
ban. The bones are the solid and hard parts, 
which form the basis of the bodies of animals, 
of the superior classes; and the union of which 
constitutes the skeleton. The human body has, 
at the adult age, 208 bones, without including 
the 32 teeth, the ossa Wormiana and the sesa- 
moid bones. Anatomists divide them, from 
their shape, into 1. Long Bones, which form 
part of the limbs and represent columns for 
supporting the weight of the body, or levers of 
different kinds for the muscles to act upon. 2. 
Flat Bones, which form the parietes of splanch- 
nic cavities; and, 3. Short Bones, met with in 
parts of the body, where solidity and some mo- 
bility are necessary. Bones are formed of two 
different textures; spongy and compact. They 
afford, on analysis, much phosphate and carbo- 
nate of lime, a little phosphate of magnesia, 
phosphate of ammonia, oxides of iron and man- 
ganese, some traces of alumina and silica, gela- 
tin, fat, and water. The uses of the bones are 
mentioned under each bone. They give shape 
to the body, contain and defend the viscera, 
and act as levers to the muscles. 


f fFrontal 1 

Bones ok j Bones of the j ^g! i{ ;;;•;•;■■; ........2 

the < Lra- inn or < „ * . J 

Ti i bi n ! Temporal 2 

Head. Skull. 

Bones c 



Dr.ntts or 

Bones o: 




I Ethmoid.. 


Bones op 
the Up<> "2 j 

PER Ex- | >2 



f fSuperior Maxillary 2 

I Jugal or Cheek 2 

| Nasal 2 

1 Bones of the 1 Lachrymal 2 

Face. ] Palatine 2 

\ Inferior Spongy. 2 

| Vomer 1 

I Inferior Maxillary 1 

Incisores 8 

Cuspidal) 4 

Molares 20 

\ B To: g r ue the ^y^ » 

i Malleus 2 

Bones of the \ Incus 2 

Ear. j Orhiculare 2 

(_ (Stapes 2 

f (Cervical 7 

Vertebra;. < Dorsal 12 

( Lumbar 5 

J Sacrum 1 

) Os Coccygis 1 

t>u~ rr,i„ ( Sternum 1 

The Thorax, j Rjbs '£ 

(.The Pelvis. Innominatum 2 

The Shout- f Clavicle 2 

dcr. \ Scapula 2 

The Aim. Humerus 2 

CUlna 2 

\ Radius 2 

f Naviculare 2 

j Lunare 2 

n „ Cuneiforme 2 

Ca 'Z" S J Orhiculare 2 

j Trapezium 2 

Trapezoides 2 

i Magnum 2 

I Unciforme 2 

| Metacarpus 10 

I yPhal mges 28 

fThe Thigh. Femur 2 

( Patella 2 

The Leg. -{Tibia 2 

( Fibula 2 

f (Calcis Os 2 

Bones of I *S I Tarsus | Astragalus 2 

the Low-{ ^ | or { Cuboides 2 

erExtre-|^<{ Instep, j Naviculare 2 

mitt. | _| I (.Cuneiforme 6 

j f| I Metatarsus 10 

L I Phalanges 28 

Total 240 

Bone, Back, Vertebral column— b. Blade, 
Scapula— b. Boat-like. Osscaphoides — b. Breast, 
Sternum— b. Haunch, Ilion— b. Share, Pubis— 
b. Splinter, Fibula. 

Bone Nippers, Tenac'nla, from icneo, '[I 
hold.' (F.) Tenaille incisive. An instrument 
used for cutting off splinters and cartilages. It 
is a kind of forceps, the handles of which are 
strong, and the edges, which touch each other, 

BONEBINDER, Osteocolla. 

litas ossium— b. Friability of the, Fragililas os- 
sium — b. Salt of, Ammonise carbonas— b. Soft- 
ening of the, Mollities ossium. 

BONESET, Eupatorium perforatum. 

BONIFACIA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 

BONNE DAME, Atriplex horlensis. 

Bonnes is a village six leagues from Pau, in 
the department Basses Pyrenees, France. 
Here are several thermal springs. They were 
celebrated as early as the time of Francis I , 
under the name Eavx d'Arqucbusadc. They 
contain chlorides of sodium and magnesium, 
sulphates of magnesia and lime, sulphur, and 
silica. The temperature is from 78° to 96° 

The factitious Eau de Bonnes is made of 
Hydrosulphuretted water, f. §iv: pure water, Oj 




and f.^ss; chloride of sodium, 30 grains; sul- 
pliate. of magnesia, 1 grain. 

BONNET, Reticulum. 

d' Hippocrate. 

pocrates, Mitra Hippocrat'ica, Fas'cia capita'lis, 
Pi'leus Hippocral'icus. A kind of bandage, the 
invention of which is ascribed to Hippocrates. 
It consists of a double-headed roller, passed 
over the head so as to envelop it like a cap. 
The French, also, name it, Bonnet a deux globes, 
Capeline do In tele. 

BONN YCLABBER, from Irish, baine, < milk,' 
and clabar, 'mire.' Sour milk. 


BONUS GENIUS, Peucedanum— b. Hen- 
ricus, Chenopodium bonus Henricus. 


BOONA, Phaseolus vulgaris. 

BORAC'iC ACID, Ad'idum Borac"icum, Sal 
sedati'vus Homber'gi, Boric Acid. An acid ob- 
tained from Borax, which was once looked upon 
as sedative. It was also called ficor Borad'ieus, 
Sal vilrio/i narcoticum,Sal volat'ile Bora 1 cis, and 
Flores Bora'cis. 

BORAGE, Borago officinalis. 

BORA'GO OFFICINALIS, Buglos'sum ve- 
rum, Bug. latifo'lium, Borru'go, Corra'go, Bo- 
rag, liortcn'sis, Borage, (F.) Bourracke. Nat. 
Ord Boragineae. Sex. Si/st. Pentandria Mono- 
gynia The leaves and flowers have been con- 
sidered aperient. 


BORATHRON, Juniperus Sabina. 

BORAX, Boras Sodas, Sodas Bibo'ras, Subbo- 
ras Sodx, Boras supersat'urus soda, Soda Bo- 
raxata, Ckrysocol' la , Capis'trum auri, Subborate 
of prolox'tde of Sodiam, Subprotobo'rate of Sodi- 
um, Boras Sodas alcn/es'cens seu alcah'num, 
Boras supcrsa'dicus, Borax Ven'elus, Subbo'ras 
Nu'lricum, Borax' trion, Nilrum facti'tium, &.c. 
Subbo'rute of Soda, (F.) Sous-boraie de Soude, 
Borate sursature) de soude. It is found in an 
impure state in Thibet and Persia. It is ino- 
dorous; taste cool, and somewhat alkaline; so- 
luble in 12 parts of water. Borax is seldom 
used except as a lotion in aphthae. 

Borate of Mercury has been recommended 
as an nntisvphilitic. 


BORBORYGMUS, from poopoovtm, 'I make 
a dull noise.' Murmur, Motus intestino'rum, 
(F.) Gargouillement, Grouillement d'Entr allies. 
The noise made by flatus in the intestines. 
This happens often in health, especially to ner- 
vous individuals. 

BORD (F.), Margo, Edge, Margin. Anato- 
mists have so named the boundaries of an or- 
gan. Thus, the bones, muscles, &c. have bords 
as well as bodies. The 'dee edge,' bord libre, 
is one not connected with any part; the 'ad- 
hering ednre,' bord adherent, one that is con- 
nected; and the bord articulaire, or 'articular 
maigin,or edge,' that which is joined to another 

BORD CJLTAIRE, Ciliary margin. 

Near 111 is great city, in the south-west of France, 
is a saline, chalybeate spring. It contains ox- 
ide of iron, carbonate and sulphate of lime, 

chlorides of sodium and calcium, subcarbonate 
of soda, and sulphate of magnesia. 

BORGNE, (F.) Codes, Unoc'ulus, Luscus. 
One who has only one eye, or sees only with 
one. The word has been used, figuratively, for 
blind, in surgery and anatomy. See Caecus. 

BOR'OSAIL, Zucl. Ethiopian names for a 
disease, very common there, which attacks the 
organs of generation, and appears to have con- 
siderable analogv with syphilis. 

BORRAGO, Borago officinalis. 

BORRI, Curcuma longa. 

BORR1BERRI, Curcuma longa. 

is a village in Beam. The waters are chaly- 

BO'SA. An ^Egyptian name for a mass, 
made of the meal of darnel, hempseed, and 
water. It is inebriating. — Prospero Alpini. 

BOSOM. See Mamma. 

BOSSE, Hump, Protuberance — b. Nasale, 
Nasal protuberance. 


BOTAL FORA'MEN, Fora'men Bota'lS; 
the Fora'men ova'Ie, (F.) Trou de Botal. A 
large opening which exists in the foetus in the 
partition between the two auricles of the heart; 
and by means of which the blood passes from 
one to the other. Its discovery is generally at- 
tributed to Leonard Botallus or Botal, who 
wrote in 1562. It was spoken of, however, by 
Vesalius, and even by Galen. 

BOTAMQUE M6DICALE, Botany, medi- 

BOT'ANY, MEDICAL, Botan'ica Med'ica, 
Medici' na Botan'ica, Phytolog"ia med'ica; from 
(ifravrj, 'an herb,' (F.) Botanique Medicate. The 
knowledge of the properties, characters, &c, 
of those vegetables which are used in Medi- 

BOTAR'GO, (F.) Bolargue. A preparation 
made in Italy and the south of France, with 
the eggs and blood of the Mugilcepk'alus or 
Mullet; strongly salted, after it has become pu- 
trescent. It is used as a condiment. 

BOTARGUE, Botargo. , . 

BOTHOR. An Arabic term for abscess in 
the nares. It means, also, tumours in general; 
especially those which are without solution of 

ALUS LATUS, from po&Qtor, 'a small pit,' and 
xttpah], 'head,' Tx'nia, lata, T. vu/ga'ris, Lum- 
bn'cus lulus, Plate' a, T. os' 'cutis lateral' ibus gem' '- 
inis, T. grisea, T. membra na'cea, T. tenet' la, T. 
denta'ta, T. huma'nu iner'mis, Hal'ysis mem- 
brana'cea, T. prima, T. os'culis lateral' ibus soli- 
tu'riis, T. aceph'ala, T. os'culis superficial' ibus, 
T. a anneaux courts, T. non arm6, Ver solitaire, 
Broad Tape worm. Common in Switzerland, 
Russia, and some parts of* France. It inhabits 
the intestines of man, and extends to an enor- 
mous length. A broken specimen has been ob- 
tained ("0 yards long. — Goeze. 

BOTH RION, from /SoSno?, 'a pit, cavity, '&c. 
An alveolus, (q. v.) or small fossa. A small 
deep ulcer on the cornea. — Galen, Paulus of 
JEo-ina. See Fossctte. 

BOTHRIUM, Fossctte. 

BUTHROS, Fovea. 

BOTIN. Terebintliina. 

BOT1UM, Bronchocele. 




BOTOTHINUM. An obscure term, used by 
Paracelsus to denote the most striking symp- 
tom of a disease: — the Flos morbi. 


BOTRIOCEPHALUS, Bothriocephalus. 

BOTRION, Alveolus. 


BOTRYS, Chenopodium botrys, see Vitis 
vinifera — b. Ambrosioides, Chenopodium am- 
brosioides — b. Americana, Chenopodium am- 
brosioides— b. Anthelminticum, Chenopodium 
anthelminticum— -b. Mexicana, Chenopodium 

BOTTINE, (F.) A thin boot or buskin, O'crea 
le'vior. An instrument, which resembles a small 
boot, furnished with springs, straps, buckles, 
&c, and used to obviate distortions of the lower 
extremities in children. 

BOTTLE NOSE, Gutta rosea. 

BOUBALIOS, Momordica elaterium, Vulva. 

BOUBON, Bubo. 

BOUCAGE MJIJEUR, Pimpinella magna— 
b.Mineur, Pimpinella saxifraga — b. Petit, Pim- 
pinella saxifraga. 

BOUCHE. Mouth. 

BOUCLEMENT, Infibulation. 

BOUES DES EAUX, (F.) Boues Minirales. 
Balnea Cceno'sa. The mud or swamp, formed 
near mineral springs; impregnated with the 
substances contained in such springs, and con- 
sequently possessing similar properties. The 
Boues are applied generally and topically, in 
France, at the springs of St. Amarid, Bagneres 
de Luchon, Bagnols, Bareges; in the United 
States, the White Sulphur in Virginia, &c. 

BOUES MlMRALES, Boues des eaux. 

BOUFFE, (F.) The small eminence, formed 
by the junction of the two lips. — Dulaurens. 

BOVF FISSURE, Puffiness. 

BOUGIE, (F.) A wax candle, Candel'ula, 
Cande'la ce'rea, Cande'la medica'ta, Ce'reum 
medico' turn, Cercolus Chirurgo'rum, Da'dion, 
SpccU'lum ce'reum, Virga ce'rea, Cereola. A 
flexible cylinder, variable in size, to be intro- 
duced into the urethra, oesophagus, rectum, &c. 
for the purpose of dilating these canals, when 
contracted. A Simple Bougie is composed of 
solid and insoluble substances; as plaster, elas- 
tic gum, catgut, &c. It acts of course only 

Bougie, Medicated, (F.) B. Medicamenlcuse, 
has the addition of some escharotic or other 
substance to destroy the obstacle; as in the 
Caustic Bougie, which has a small portion of 
Lunar Caustic or Common Caustic, inserted in 
its extremity. Ducamp has recommended a 
Bougie, which swells out near its extremity for 
the better dilating of the urethra. This he calls 
B. a ventre. The metallic Bougie, invented by 
Smyth, is a composition of metal, allowing of 
great flexibility; and a hollow Bougie is one, 
with a channel running through it, to be used in 
the same manner as the catheter, or otherwise. 

BOUILL1E, (F.) Pultiduk, Pap, from (F.) 
bouillir, ' to boil.' Flour, beaten and boiled with 
milk. It is a common food for infants. 

BOUILLON, (Fjfrom bouillir, 'to boil,' Jus, 
Sorbi'tio. A liquid food, made by boiling the 
flesh of animals in water. The osmazorne. gela- 
tin, and soluble salts dissolve; the fat melts, 
and the albumen coagulates. B. is nourishing, 
owing to the gelatin and osmazorne. The Jus 

de Viande is a very concentrated Bouillon, pre- 
pared of beef, mutton, veal, &c. 

BOUILLON,\n common language, in France, 
means a round fleshy excrescence, sometimes 
seen in the centre of a venereal ulcer. 

BOUILLON BLANC, Verbascum nigrum. 

CEUTIQUES. Medicinal or Pharmaceutic Bouil- 
lons, contain infusions or decoctions of medicinal 
herbs. The Bouillon aux hcrbes is generally 
composed of sorrel or beet. 

BOUILLON d' OS, (F.) Bouillon from bones, 
is obtained by treating bones with murintic 
acid, in order to dissolve the earthy parts. The 
gelatin, which remains, is then boiled with a 
little meat and vegetables. — D' Arcet. Bouil- 
lon, however, can be easily obtained from the 
bones of roast meat by simple coction. 


BOUIS, Buxus. 

BOULE D'ACIER, Ferrum tartarizatum— 
b. de Mars, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. de Mol- 
sheim, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. de Nancy, Fer- 
rum tartarizatum. 

BOULE AU COMMUN, Betula alba. 

BOULIM'IA, Bui 'im'ia, or Bulim'ius, Bou'li- 
mos, Bulimiasis, Bolismos, Eclim'ia, Fames ta- 
ni'na, Jippeti'tus caninus, Appeten' tia. cani'na, 
Mepha'gia, Cynorex'ia, Bupei'na, Phagsina, 
Phagedas'na, Fames Bovi'na, F. Lupina, from 
povg, 'an ox,' and lipos, 'hunger;' or from (?», 
augmentative particle, and hpoc, 'hunger.' (F.) 
Boulimie, Faim canine, F. divor ante, Polyphagia 
An almost insatiable hunger. A canine appe- 
tite. It is sometimes seen in hysteria and preg- 
nancy; rarely under other circumstances. 

BOULIMIE, Boulimia. 

B. is in the department Pas-de-Calais, France. 
The waters are chalybeate. 

(F.) from bouquet, a collection of flowers or 
other substances tied together. A name given, 
by some anatomists, to the collection of liga- 
ments and muscles, inserted into the styloid 
process of the temporal bone. 

Bouquet Fever, Dengue. 

BOURBILLON, see Furunculus (core.) 

OF. Bourbon-Lancy is a small village in the 
department of Sa6ne-et-Loire, France; where 
there are thermal saline springs, containing car- 
bonic acid, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
soda, chloride of calcium, carbonate of lime, 
iron, and silica. Their heat is from 100° to 135° 

RAL WATERS OF. This town is in the de- 
partment of the Allier, six leagues west from 
Moulins, and has been long celebrated for its 
thermal chalybeate waters. They contain sul- 
phohydric acid, sulphate of soda, magnesia, and 
lime, carbonate of iron, and silica. Their tem- 
perature varies between 136° and 145° Fahren- 

WATERS OF. These springs are seven 
leagues from Langres, department of Haute- 
Marne, France. They are thermal and saline, 
and have been long celebrated. Temperature 
from 10(5° to ]33 J Fahrenheit. The Factitious 
water, (F.) Enu de BourbonnelesBains, Aqua 
Borvonen'sis, is composed of water, containing 




twice its bulk of carbonic acid, f. 5xx~s; chloride 
vf sodium, f 'Z], chloride of calcium, or. x. &.o. 

A village near Mont d'Or, where there are 
two thermal saline springs. 
BOURDAINE, Rhamnus frangula. 

BOURDOKKEMEA'T, (F.) Bruisscmcnt, 
Murmur, Susurrus. A sensation of buzzing or 
humming in the ear, which may be either°de- 
pendent on some modified condition of the ear 
itself, or may be seated in the brain. 

BOURDONNET, PuloU'lus. A term used in 
French surgery for charpie rolled into a small 
mass of an olive shape, and which is used for 
plugging wounds, absorbing the discharge, and 
preventing the union of their edges. In cases 
of deep and penetrating wounds, as of the abdo- 
men or chest, a thread is attached to them by 
which they may be readily withdrawn, and be 
prevented from passing altogether into those 
cavities. — J. Cloquet. 

BOURGtNE, Rhamnus fran?u]a. 

BOURGEON, Granulation, Papula— b. Char- 
nu, Granulation. 

BOURGEONS, Gutta rosea. 

BOURRACHE, Borago officinalis*. 

BOURRELET, (F.) A Pad, a Border. A 
fibrocartilaginous border, whicli surrounds cer- 
tain articular cavities, such as the glenoid ca- 
vity of the scapula and the acetabulum; and 
by which the depth of those cavities is aug- 

BOURRELET ROULE, Cornu ammonis. 

BOURSES, LES, Scrotum. 


BOUTOK, Papula— b. d'Alep, see Anthrax— 
b. Ma I in, see Anthrax — b.d'Or, Ranunculus acris. 

BOUTOjYNIERE, (F.); Fissu'ra, Incis'io. A 
small incision made in the urethra to extract a 
calculus from the canal, when it is too large to 
be discharged. 

Also, a small incision or puncture, made in 
the peritoneum, or above the pubis, to pene- 
trate the bladder in certain cases of retention 
of urine. 

BOVILLiE, Rubeola. 

BOVISTA. Lycoperdon. 

BOWMAN'S ROOT, Euphorbia corollata, 
Gillenia trifoliata, Leptandria purpurea. 

BOXBERRY, Gaultheria. 

BOX. MOUNTAliN, Arbutus uva ursi. 

BOX TREE, Buxus, Cornus Florida. 

BOXWOOD, Cornus Florida. 

BOYAU, Intestine. 

BRABYLON, Prunum Damascenum. 



BRACHIvEUS, Brachial— b. Internus, Bra- 
chialis anterior. 

BRA'CHIAL, Brachia'lis, Brachis/us, from 
Brachium, ' the arm.' What belongs to the arm. 

Brachial Aponeurosis. An aponeurosis, 
formed particularly by expansions of the ten- 
dons of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, 
and deltoides muscles, and which completely 
envelops the muscles of the arm. 

Brachial Arterv, Artt'ria brachia'lis, Hu'- 
meral Artery, (F.) Artere ou Tronc brachial. The 
artery, which extends from the axilla to the 
bend of the elbow; where it divides into A 
cubitalis and A. radialis. It passes along the 
internal edge of the biceps, behind the median 
nerve and between the accompanying veins. 

Under the name Brachial Artery, M Cliaussier 
includes the subclavian, axillary, and humeral; 
the last being the brachial proper. 

Brachial Muscle, Antf.rior,j1/ms'cm/ws Bra- 
chia'lis Ante'rior, Brachia'lis internus. Brachial - 
us, Brachial' us internus, (F.) Muscle brachial in- 
terne, Humero cubital — (Ch.) This muscle i3 
situate at the anterior and inferior part of the 
arm, and before the elbow-joint. It arises, 
fleshy, from the middle of the os humeri; and 
is inserted into the coronoid process of the ulna. 
Use. To bend the forearm. 

Brachial Plexus, Plexus Brachia'lis, is a 
nervous plexus, formed by the interlacing of 
the anterior branches of the four last cervical , 
pairs and the first dorsal. It is deeply seated 
in the hollow of the axilla, and extends as far 
as the inferior and lateral part of the neck. It 
gives off the thoracic nerves, supra and infra 
scapular, and the brachial (which are six in 
number,) the axillary, cutaneous, musculo -cuta- 
neous, radial, cubital, and median. 

Brachial Veins are two in number, and ac- 
company the artery, frequently anastomosing 
with each other: they terminate in the axillary. 
Under the term Brachial Vein, Chaussier in- 
cludes the humeral, axillary, and subclavian. 
BRACH1ALE, Carpus. 
extensor cubiti. 

BRACHIO CU'BITAL, Brachio-cubita'lis. 
That which belongs both to the arm and cubi- 
tus. This name has been given to the internal 
lateral ligament at the elbow-joint; because it 
is attached to the os brachii or os humeri and 
to the cubitus or ulna. 

Brachio-Radial, Brachio-radia'lis. That 
which belongs to the brachium and radius. 
This name has been applied to the external 
lateral ligament of the elbow-joint, because it 
is attached to the humerus and to the radius. 
See Supinator Radii longus. 

BRACHIUM, Lacer'lus, (F.) Bras, the arm. 
The arm from the shoulder to the wrist, or the 
part between the shoulder and elbow. See 
Humeri, Os. 

Brachium Movens Quartus, Latissimus 

BRACHUNA, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 
BRACHYAU'CHEN, from §e,a X vg, 'short,' 
and av X r\v, 'neck.' One who has a short neck. 
BRACHYCHRO'NIUS, from fea X v<;, 'short,' 
and xQ ov0 $i 'time.' That which continues but 
a short time. A term applied to diseases which 
are of short duration.— Galen. 

BRACHYGNA'THUS, from fe<t X v?, 'short,' 
and yva&ug, the ' under jaw.' A monster with 
too short an under jaw. — Gurlt. 
BRACHYNSIS, Abbreviation. 
BRACHYP'OTl, from pga X v?, ' short,' and 
nori;g, ' drinker.' They who drink little, or 
who drink rarely. Hippoc, Galen, Foesius. 

BRACHYRHYN'CHUS: from PQo. X vg,' short,' 
and Qvypcog, ' snout.' A monster with too short 
a nose. 

BRACHYSMOS, Abbreviation. 
BRACING, Corroborant. 
BRADYiESTHE'SIA, from ftqaSvg, 'diffi- 
cult,' and aiod^oig, 'sensation.' Impaired sen- 

BRADYCOIA, Baryecoia. 
BRADYMASE'SIS, Bradijmasse'sis, from 




PqoSvs, 'difficult,' and /uuor^ig, 'mastication.' 
Difficult mastication. See Dysmasesis. 

BRADYPEP'SIA, Tarda cibo'rum concoc'tio, 
from ppuSvg, 'slow.' and Twnw, 'I digest.' 
Slow digestion. — Galen. See Dyspepsia. 

'slow,' and aneqiia, ' sperm.' A slow emission 
of sperm. 

BRADYSU'RIA, Tmcs'mus vcsi'cm, (F.) T6- 
nesme vesica/, from finudv?, ' difficult,' and ougetv, 
' to pass the urine.' Painful evacuation of the 
urine, with perpetual desire to void it. Dysuria 

BRAG'GET, Braggart, Bragicort. A name 
formerly applied to a tisan of honey and water. 
See Hydromeli. 

BRAI, LIQUIDE, see Pinus sylvestris— b. 
Sec, Colophonia. 

BRAIN, Cerebrum— b. Little, Cerebellum. 

is a small village, three leagues from Soissons, 
France, which has purgative waters similar to 
those of Passy. 

BRAKE, COMMON, Pterisaquilina— b.Rock, 
Polypodium vulgare — b. Root, Polypodium vul- 

bus fruticosus — b. Common, Rubus fruticosus. 

BRAN, Furfur. 


BRANCA URSINA, Acanthus mollis— b. 
Germanica, Heracleum spondylium. 

BRANCH, from (F.) Branchc, originally 
probably from ^Qa^iur, 'an arm,'(?) because 
branches of trees, &c, go off like arms. A term 
applied, generally, to the principal division of 
an artery or nerve. The word is commonly 
used synonymously with Ramus: but often, 
with the French, Blanche, signifies the great 
division; — Ramcau, Lat. Ramus, the division of 
the branches; and Ramuscules, Lat. Ramusculi, 
tlie divisions of these last. 

The French, also, speak of the branches of 
the pubis, for the Rami of that bone, branches of 
the ischium, for the rami of the ischium, &c. 

GltE (PETITES) Corpora restiformia. 

BRANCHI or BRANCHY. Swellings of 
the tonsils, or parotid, according to some; — of 
the thyroid gland, according to others. 

BRANCHES, (tgzyxos, Rauce'do (q. v.) A 
catarrhal affection of tlie mucous membrane of 
the fauces, trachea, &c. — Galen. 

BRANCIA, Vitrum. 

BRANDY. (G.) 13 r a n t w e i n, Dutch, 
B r a n d w i j n, 'burnt wine.' Aqua Vita:. (F.) 
Eau de vie. The first liquid product obtained 
by distilling wine. It is composed of water, 
alcohol, and an aromatic oily matter, which 
gives it its flavour. Br.indy is a powerful and 
diffusible stimulant, and as such is used in me- 
dicine. It has been also called Liquor Aquilt'- 
gius. See Spirit. 

Brandy. Apple, see Pyrus malus. 

BRANKS, Cynanche parotidcea. 

BRA NKURS1NE, Acanthus mollis. 

BRAS, Brachium — b. du Ctivtlet, Corpora 

Brasegur is a place in the diocess of Rhodez, 
where there are cathartic waters. 

BRASEMA. B. Hydropeltis. 

Brase'nia Hydropej.'tis, Brase'nia, Gelati- 
na aquat'ica, Frogleaf, Little Water Lily, Water 
Jelly, Decrfood. An indigenous plant, Nut. Ord. 
RanuncnJacese, Sex. Syst. Polyandria Polygynia, 
flouiishing from Carolina to Kentucky and 
Florida; and covering the surface of ponds, 
marshes, &c. The fresh leaves are mucilagi- 
nous, and have been used in pulmonary com- 
plaints, dysentery, <&c, like cetraria. 

BRASH, WATER, Pyrosis. 

Brash, Weaning, Atrophia Ablactato'rum. 
A severe form of diarrhoea, which supervenes 
at times on weaning. The Maladie de Cruveil- 
hier appears to be a similar affection. 

BRASILETTO, see Causal pinia. 


BRASMOS, Fermentation. 

BRASS, Sax. bpar, Welsh, pres. Aurichal- 
cu/u, Orichal'cum,JEsecavum, Chrysochakos, (F.) 
Airain. A yellow metal, formed by mixing cop- 
per with calamine. The same remarks apply 
to it as to copper. See Cuprum. 

BRAS'SICA, CrarnbS, xQaiiHtj. Bras'sica ole- 
ra'cea: B. capita'ta, seu cuma'na of the old Ro- 
mans. The Cabbage. (F.) Chou potager. Fa- 
mily, Cruciferae. Sex. Syst. Tetradynamia Sili- 
quosa. Cato wrote a book on its virtues. It is 
a vegetable by no means easy of digestion 
when boiled; when raw, it appears to be more 
digestible. When forming a solid globular 
mass, like a head, it is the B. Capita'ta, (F.) 
Chou- Cabas, Chou Pommel. 

Brassica Canina, Mercurialis perennis. • 

Bras'sica Eru'ca, Eru'ca, Garden Rocket, 
Roman Rocket, &c. (F.) Chou Roquette, Ro- 
quette. This was considered, by the Romans, 
an aphrodisiac, — Columella. The seeds were 
ordinarily used. 

Bras'sica Flor'ida, — Bras'sica Pompeia'na 
of the ancients — the Cauliflower, Caul is Flo- 
rida, (F.) Chou-fleur is a more tender and diges- 
tible variety. 

The Broc'coli, B. Sabcl'Lica of the Romans, 
B. Ital'ica, belongs to this variety. 

Brassica Marina, Convolvulus soldanella — 
b. Pompeiana, Brassica Florida. 

Bras'sica Napus, Napus Sylves'tris or 
Bu'nias, Rape, (F.) Navette. The seed yields 
a quantity of oil. 

Brassica Niora, Sinapis nigra. 

Bras'sica Rapa, Rapa rotun'da, Rapum ma- 
jus, Rapa napus, the Turnip. (F.) Chou navet, 
JYavct, Rave. The turnip is liable to the same 
objection (but to a less extent) as the cabbage. 

BRATHU, Juniperus sabiria. 

BRATHYS, Juniperus sabina. 

BRAYER, Truss. 

sinian plant, of the Family Rosacea?. Sex. Syst. 
Icosandria Digynia. The flowers have been 
higlhly extolled as an anthelmintic, especially in 
cases of tapeworm. They are given in decoction. 

BRAZIL WOOD, Caesalpinia echinata. 

BREAD, see Triticum— b. Household, Syn- 

BREAD-FRUIT TREE, Artocarpus. 

BREAST, Thorax, Mamma— b. Abscess of 
the, Mas tody nia apotslemutosa. 


BREATH, Sax. bpafce, Hal'itns, Anhel'itus, 
An'imus, Spi/itus, Al'mos. (F.) Haleine. The 
air expelletLirorn the chest, at each expiration. 




It requires to be studied in the diagnosis of tho- ] 
racic diseases especially. 

Breath, Offensive; Fator Oris. An offen- 
sive condition, which is usually dependent upon 
carious teeth, or some faulty state of the secre- 
tions of the air passages. The internal use of 
the chlorides may be advantageous. 

Breath, Short, Dyspnoea. 


BRECHET, (F.) The Brisket. This name 
is given in some parts of France to the carti- 
lagu ensiformis, and sometimes to the sternum 

BR/ZDISSURE, (F.) Trismus Capistra'tus. 
Incapacity of opening the mouth, in conse- 
quence of preternatural adhesion between the 
internal part of the cheek, and gums; often oc- 
casioned by the abuse of mercury. 

BREDOU1LLEMEJYT, (F.) Tituban'tia. A 
precipitate and indistinct mode of utterance, in 
which a part only of the words is pronounced, 
and several of the syllables viciously changed. 
This defect is analogous to stuttering, but dif- 
fers from it in being dependent on too great ra- 
pidity of speech; whilst stuttering is charac- 
terized by continual hesitation, and frequent re- 
petition of the same syllables. 

BREGMA, from poi^iw, 'to sprinkle;' Fan- 
tanclt'a, (q. v.) Sin'ciput (q v.) The top of the 
head was thus called, because it was believed 
to be humid in infants; and, according to some, 
because it was conceived to correspond to the 
most humid part of the brain. 

BRENNLNG. Burnino-. 

BREPHOCTONON. Conyza squarrosa. 

BRJiSlLLET, Caesalpinia sappan. 

BRE'VIA VASA, Short Vessels. This name 
has been given to several branches of the 
splenic arteries and veins, which are distribu- 
ted to the oreat cul-de-sac of the stomach. 

BREVIS CUB1TI. See Anconeus. 

BRIER, WILD, Rosacanina. 

BRICK, (F.) Brique. Hot bricks are some- 
times used to apply heat to a part, as to the ab- 
domen in colic, or after the operation for popli- 
teal aneurism; or, reduced to very fine powder, 
and mixed with fat, as an application to herpe- 
tic and psoric affections. 

Bricks, Fornu'cex Testae or Tiles, were for- 
merly bruised in vinegar, and the liquid was 
used as a specific in cutaneous affections. They 
entered, also, into a cerate used for scrofulous 
humours, &-c. To the Terra Forna'cum, or 
Brick earth, the same virtues were assigned. 

BRICUMUM, Artemisia. 

BRIDE, (F.) A bridle. Frenulum, Retinad- 
uluvi. This term is given, in the plural, to 
membranous filaments, which are found within 
abscesses or deep-seated wounds, and which 
prevent the exit of pus. The term is, also, ap- 
plied to preternatural adhesions, which occur 
in cicatrices in the skin, in the urethra, or in 
inflamed serous or synovial membranes. 

see Kidney, Bright's disease of the. 

this fashionable watering place, on the soutli 
coast of England, is dry, elastic, and bracing. 
According to Sir James Clarke, its climate ap- 
peal's to The jrreatest advantage in the autumn 
and early part of the winter; when it is some- 
what milder and more steady than that of Has- 
tings. Accordingly, it is adapted for all cases 

in which a dry and mild air at this season of 
the year proves beneficial. In the sprincr 
months, owing to the prevalence of, and its 
exposure to, north-east winds, the climate is 
cold, harsh, and exciting to the delicate. It is 
well adapted for convalescents, and for all who 
require a dry and bracing sea air. 

BRIMSTONE, Sulphur. 

BRINE, Muria. 

BRINTON ROOT, Leptandria purpurea. 

BRION, Corallina. 

BRIQUE, Brick. 

This town is three leagues from Cherbourg, in 
France. The water contains chloride of iron. 

strument invented by Jacobson for crushing 
the stone in the bladder. 

Bristol is about thirteen miles from Bath, in 
England. The water is an almost pure ther- 
mal; slightly acidulated. It contains chlorides 
of magnesium and sodium, sulphate of soda, 
sulphate of lime, carbonate of lime, carbonic 
acid, oxygen and azote. Temperature, 74° 
Fah. The Hot Well has been long celebrated. 
Its action is like that of the thermal waters in 
general. The climate of Bristol is mild, and 
hence the water has been celebrated for the 
cure of incipient pulmonary consumption. See 


BROAD, Sax. bpah, Lalus, (F.) Large. Any 
body is so termed whose transverse extent is 
considerable compared with its length. The 
Broad Bones, such as the frontal, parietal, occi- 
pital, iliac, aid in forming the parietes of 
splanchnic cavities. Broad Muscles oenerally 
occupy the parietes of cavities, and especially 
those of the chest and abdomen. The epithet 
has also been applied to other parts — as to the 
broad ligaments of the womb, &c. 

BROCCOLI, Brassica sabellica. 

BROCHOS, [Soo/os, Luqueus, (q. v.) A ban- 

BROCH'THUS, poo/Soc, Gala. The throat. 
Also, a kind of small drinking vessel. — Hippocr. 

BROCHUS, (Sqoxo?. This name has been 
given to one who has a very prominent upper 
lip. — Caslelli. According to others, it means 
one whose teeth project in front of the mouth. 

BRO'DIUM. A synonym of Jus or Jus'cu- 
lum. Broth, or the liquor in which any thing 
is boiled. Bro'diurn sa/is — a decoction of salt. 

BROIEMENT. see Cataract. 


BROMA, Aliment. 

BROMATOG'RAPHY, Bromatograph'ia, from 
flou'ita, 'food,' and YQ a f y h <a description.' Bro- 
mog'raphy. A description of aliments. 

BROMATOL'OGY, Bromalolog"ia, Sitiol'- 
ogy, from (lochia, 'food,' and koyug, 'a discourse.' 
A treatise on food. 

BROME, Bromine. 

BROME'LIA ANA'NAS, called after Olaus 
Bromel, a Swede. Ca/duus BraziHa'niis, Ana'- 
nas acostse ova'tx seu aculea'tus, Anas'ui, Capa- 
Isiak'ka, Jlna'nas, or Bine, Jipple. A West In- 
dia tree, which produces the most delicious of 

Bromf/lia Pinguin, Ana'nas America'na, 
Einguin, Broad-leaved wild Jlna'nas, &c. The 
West India plant, which affords tho Pinguin 




fruit. The fruit is refrigerant, and the juice, 
when ripe, very austere. It te used to acidu- 
late punch. A wine is made from the Pinguin, 
which is very intoxicating, and has a good fla- 

BROMIDE OF IRON, see Bromine— b. of 
Mercury, see Bromine — b. of Potassium, see 

BROMINE, Bro'minum, Bromin'ium, Brome. 
A simple body, of a very volatile nature, and 
highly offensive and suffocating odour, whence 
its name, from (Squhio?, 'a stench.' It is met 
with chiefly in sea-water, and in many animal 
and vegetable bodies that live therein. It has 
likewise been found in many mineral waters of 
this and other countries. In its chemical rela- 
tions, it may be placed between chlorine and 
iodine. With oxygen it forms an acid, the 
Bromic, and with hydrogen another — the Hy- 

Pure Bromine, Bromide of Iron, (dose gr. 
i or ij) and Bromide of Potassium or Hydro- 
bromate of Potassa, (dose gr. iv to viij in the 
day,) have been used medicinally, and chiefly 
in scrofulosis, internally, as well as applied ex- 
ternally. Bromine may be dissolved in forty 
parts of distilled water, and six drops be com- 
menced with as a dose. Bromides of Mercury 
(Hydrar'gyri Bro'mida) have been given in 
syphilis. The protobromide and the bibromidc 
are analogous in composition and medicinal 
properties to the corresponding iodides of mer- 

BROMINIUM; Bromine. 

BROMINUM, Bromine. 

BROMOS, (totofiog. One of the cerealia, sup- 
posed, by some, to be oats. See Avena. 

BROACHES, Bronchia— b. Ganglions lym- 
phatiques des, Bronchial elands. 

BRON'CHIA, Bron'cliia:, Bronchi, from /Sooy- 
;poj, ' the throat.' The Latins used the term 
Bronchus, for the whole of the trachea; whilst 
they called its ramifications Bronchia. Bron- 
chia, Bronchix, and Bronchi, (F ) Bronches, 
now mean the two tubes, with their ramifica- 
tions, which arise from the bifurcation of the 
trachea, and carry air into the lungs. 

Bronchia. Dilatation of the. Dilated 
Bronchia. The physical signs of this condition 
are the following: — Percussion usually clear, 
but not unfrequently les3 so than natural, al- 
though very seldom quite dull. Auscultation 
detects coarse mucous or gurgling rhonchi, in- 
creased by the cough, combined with, or re- 
placed by, bronchial or cavernous respiration, 
which is often effected as if by a sudden puff or 
whiff*. The resonance of the voice is increased, 
but it seldom amounts to perfect pectoriloquy. 
The most common situations for dilated bron- 
chia are the scapular, mammary, or lateral re- 
gions. They are almost always confined to one 

Bronchia, Obliteration, or Compression 
of the. The inspiratory murmur on auscul- 
tation is weaker or wholly suppressed over a 
limited portion of the chest; the expiration is 
generally more distinct and prolonged: all the 
other conditions are natural. 

relates to the bronchia. 

Bron'chial Arteries, (F.) Arteres Bron- 
chiques. These are generally two in number, 
one going to each lung. They arise from the 

thoracic aorta, and accompany the bronchia in 
all their ramifications. 

Bron'chial Cklls, (F.) Cellules bronchiquts. 
The Air-cells; the terminations of the bronchia. 

Bronchial Cough, (F.) Toux broiuhique, 
T. tubaire. This generally accompanies bron- 
chial respiration. They both indicate obstruc- 
tion to the entrance of air into the air-cells. 

Bron'chial Glands. (F.) Glandes bron- 
chiqucs ou Ganglions lymphatiques des bronches, 
are numerous glands of an ovoid shape; of a 
reddish hue in the infant, and subsequently 
brown and black, seated in the course of the 
bronchia. Their functions are unknown. The 
Bronchial glands may be presumed to be af- 
fected by scrofulosis, when, in addition to the 
existence of tumours in the neck, percussion 
gives a dull sound under the upper and central 
part of the sternum, whilst there is no appre- 
ciable lesion of the lungs. 

Bron'chial Nerves, (F.) Nerfs Bronchiquts, 
are furnished by the two pulmonary plexuses. 

Bronchial Phthisis, see Phthisis bronchial 
— b. Respiration, see Murmur, Respiratory 

Bron'chial Veins, arise from the last divi- 
sions of the arteries of the same name, and pass, 
on the right side, into the vena azygos; on the 
left, into the superior intercostal. 

BRONCHIC, Bronchial. 

BRONCHIECTASIS, Dilata'tio bronchio'rum, 
from ftpoy/og, ' a bronchus,' and sxranig, 'dilata- 
tion.' Dilatation of one or more bronchial tubes. 


BRONCHI'TIS, Inflamma'tio bronchio'rum, 
Calarrhns Pulmo'num, C. bronchiorum, Pleu- 
ri'tis hu'mida, P. bronchia'lis, Bronchos' tasis, 
Pul'monary Catarrh, Angi'na bronchialis. (F.) 
Inflammation des Bronches. Inflammation of 
the lining membrane of the bronchial lubes. 
This is always more or less present in cases of 
pulmonary catarrh ; and is accompanied by 
cough, mucous expectoration, dyspnoea, and 
more or less uneasiness in breathing. The acute 
form is accompanied with all the signs of inter- 
nal inflammation, and requires the employment 
of antiphlogistics followed by revulsives. The 
chronic form, Tussis scni'lis, Calar'rhus seni'lis, 
Rheuma catarrha'le, Peripneumo'nia notha (q. 
v.) Bronchorrhce'a acu'ta, Winter cough, Chronic 
Catarrh, may be confounded with phthisis; 
from which it must be distinguished mainly 
by the absence of hectic fever and of the phy- 
sical signs that are characteristic of the latter, 
as well as by the nature of the expectoration, 
which is generally mucous, although at times 
muco-purulent. When the expectoration is 
little or none, the bronchitis is said to be dry, 
dry catarrh, (F.) Catarrhe Sec. 

Bronchitis, Catarrh — b. Aslhenica, Perip- 
neumonia notha — b. Membranacea, Polypus 
bronchialis — b. Plastic, Polypus bronchialis— 
b. Pseudomembranous, Polypus bronchialis — 
b. Summer, Fever, hay. 

BRONCHIUS, Sterno-thyroideus. 

BRONOHLEMMITIS, Polypus bronchialis. 

BRONCHOCE'LE, from /Vx/o?, <a bron - 
chus,' and xijhj, ' tumour.' An inaccurate name 
for the affection which is called, also, Bo'chium, 
Botium, Hernia gut'turis, Gultur tu'midum, 
Trachelophy'ma, Hernia gutlnra'lis, Thyroce'li, 
Thyrcoce'le, Thyremphraxis, Thyreon'cus, Thy- 
ron'cus, Deironcus, Deron'cus, Thyrophrax'ia, 
Gossum, Exechebron'chus, Gongro'na, Struma, 



liocium, Hernia bronchia'lis, Trache/nce'lg, &c, 
the Derbyshire neck, Swelled neck, Wen, Goitre, 
&c. (F.) Goitre, Gouelre, Hypertrophic du Corps 
Tlnjru'ide, Grossc Gorge, Gros Cou. This is no 
rupture, but consists of an enlargement of the 
thyroid gland. It is common at the base of 
lofty mountains in every part of the world; and 
has been supposed to be owing to the drinking 
of snow-water, but it occurs where there is no 
snow. The tumour is sometimes very exten- 
sive. Jodine has great power over it, and will 
generally occasion its absorption, when the case 
has not been of such duration as to have ended 
in a cartilaginous condition. 


BRONCHOPLAS'TIC, Bronchoplas'ticus; from 
PQ YX ?> ' a bronchus,' and -nlaaaw, ' I form.' An 
epithet given to the operation for closing fis- 
tula? in the trachea. 

BRONCHOPNEUMONIA, from /Spoy^o?, 'a 
bronchus,' and Pneumonia. Inflammation of 
the bronchia and lungs. 

BRONCHORRHCE'A, (F.) Bronchorrlde, 
Catarrhe pituiteux, Phiegmorrhagie pulmonaire, 
Flux bronchique, from fipoyxoc, ' bronchus,' and 
fcio, 'I flow.' An increased secretion of mucus 
from the air passages, accompanied or not by 
inflammation: — a gleet (q. v.) as it were, of the 
pulmonary mucous membrane. 

Bronchoriihcea Acuta, Bronchitis (chronic.^ 


BROJYCHOTOME, Broncho? omus, from 
PQ YX S ana " TSfive*v, 'to cut.' A kind of lancet, 
with a blunt and rounded point, mounted on a 
handle, and fitted to a canula, which passes in 
along with it, and is allowed to remain in the 
opening made in the trachea. The instrument 
is not much used. 

BRONCHOT'OMY, Bronchotom'ia, (F.) Bron- 
chotomie. Same etymology. A surgical ope- 
ration, which consists in making an opening 
either into the trachea, (Trarlteot'omy:) into the 
larynx, (Laryngot'omy:) or into both, (Tracheo- 
laryngot'omy,) to extract foreign bodies or to 
permit the passage of air to the lungs. These 
different parts are divided transversely or ver- 
tically, according to circumstances. 

BRONCHUS, Trachea. 

BROOKLIME, Veronica beccabunga. 

BROOM, Sophora tincloria, Spartium scopa- 
rium — b. Butcher's, Ruscus — b. Clover, So- 
phora tinctoria — b. Indigo, Sophora tinctoria — 
b. Rape, of Virginia, Orobanche Virginiana — 
b. Spanish, Spartium junecum— b. Yellow, So- 
phora tinctoria. 

OF. Brossardiere is a chateau in Bas-Poitou, 
France. The waters contain carbonates of iron 
and lime, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
lime. They are aperient. 

BROSSE, Brush. 


BROUSSAIST. One who is a believer in, 
and professor of, the physiological and patholo- 
gical opinions of Broussais. The system itself is 
called BaooasAiSM or the Physiological Doctrine. 

BROW, Front. 

Brow-Agije, Neuralgia frontalis. 

BROWN RED, Coloothar. 

NO'NIA N. Relating to the system or opinions 
of John Brown. 

N IAN ISM. The doctrines of Brown. 

NO'NIAN. A follower of the system of Brown. 

after Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller. B. fer- 
rugin'ea, Angustu'ra spuria, (F.) Fausse Angus- 
lure, A. Ferrugineuse. The systematic name of 
the plant, whence is obtained the false Angus- 
tura Bark. It affords Brucia. 

BRUCIA, Brucine. 

An organic, salifiable base, discovered in the 
false Angustura — Brucea anti-dysenterica, and 
obtained from Strychnos nux vomica. It is of a 
pearly white; crystallized in oblique prisms 
with a parallelogrammatic base; very bitter, 
slightly acrid and styptic, and soluble in water, 
but more so in alcohol. Brucia is a less active 
poison than strychnia. It resembles it, how- 
ever, and may be used as 'a substitute for it and 
for the extractof nux vomica. Hose, half a grain. 

These springs are in Bavaria, and contain car- 
bonic acid and iron. 

Brucourt is three leagues and a half from Caen 
in Normandy. The waters contain carbonic 
acid, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of soda, 
much sulphate of lime, &.c. 

BRUISE, Contusion. 

BRUISE WORT, Bellis Saponaria. 

BRUISSEMENT, (F.) Frcrn'itus. This word 
has much the same signification as Bourdonne- 
ment, (q. v.) as well as Bruit. 

BRUIT, (F.) ' Sound.' A term applied to 
various sounds heard on percussion and auscul- 
tation, viz. 

ment, Bruit de cuir neuf, 'sound of crackling, 
or bursting, or of new leather.' A sound pro- 
duced by the friction of the pericardium, when 
dried and rouo-hened by inflammation. 

BRUIT DUCCEUR F(ETAL,Battcmens dou- 
bles; Double bruit du Caeur du Fatus. The pul- 
sations of the foetal heart heard in auscultation 
in the latter half of utero-gestation. 

BRUIT DE CUIR NEUF, Bruit de craque- 

BRUIT DE DIABLE, Ronflement de Diable, 
Bruit de souffle a double covrunt, ' noise of the 
diable or humming-top.' Venous Hum. A high 
degree of Bruit de soufflcl, heard on auscul- 
tating the arteries. It denotes an impoverished 
state of the blood. 

Bruit du Cceur fatal — 0. de Frolcmcnt, see Frole- 

ET DESCENDANT, ' Sound of friction of as- 
cent and descent.' Sounds produced by the 
rubbing of the lung against the parietes of the 
chest, as it rises and falls during inspiration 
and expiration. It is distinctly heard in pleu- 
ritis, when the pleura has become roughened 
by the disease. Friction sounds or To-and-fro 
sounds, are also heard in pericarditis and pe- 

The sound afforded on percussion when organs 
are filled with liquid and air. 





BRUIT MUSCULAIRE. The sound accom- 
panying the first sound of the heart, referred by 
some to muscular contraction. Called, also, Bruit 
rotatoire, in consequence of its having been 
thought to resemble the rumbling of distant 

BRUIT MUSICAL. Sifflcment module. 

tone.' A sound as if produced by two sheets of 
parchment applied to each other. It is said to 
be produced by thickening and rigidity of the 
valves of the heart. 

BRUIT PLACEJVTAIRE, B. de sovfflet pla- 
cental™, B. ul'erin. Souffle uterin, Souffle placen- 
lalre, Placental bellows' sound, Utero-placen'tal 
murmur, Uterine murmur. The bellows' sound 
heard on auscultating over the site of the pla- 
centa in a pregnant female. It does not appear 
to be owing to the placental vessels: but to the 
uterine tumor pressing upon the large vessels 
of the mother. 

BRUIT DE POT F£Ll£; 'Sound of a cracked 
vessel.' This sound is heard on percussion, 
when a cavern in the lungs is filled with air, 
and has a narrow outlet. 

BRUIT DE RACLEMENT, ' Sound of scra- 
ping.' A sound produced by the scraping of 
hard, solid membranes, as the. pericardium, 
against each other. 

BRUIT DE RJPE, ' Sound of a rasp.' A 
sound heard during the contraction of either 
the auricles or ventricles. It is constant; and 
the contraction of the cavity is more prolonged 
than natural, and emits a hard, rough, and — as 
it were — stifled sound. 

It indicates contraction of the valvular ori- 
fices, by cartilaginous deposites, or ossification, 
and accompanies the contraction of the auricles 
if the auriculo-ventricular valves be concerned, 
— that of the ventricles if the semilunar valves 
be the seat of the disease. 

BRUIT ROTATOIRE, Bruit, musculaire. 

BRUIT DE SCIE, or 'saw-sound,' and 
Bruit de lime a Bois,or 'file-sound,' resemble 
the Rruk de. Rape, (q. v.) 

RANT, Bruit de Diable. 

BRUIT DE SOUFFLET, Bruit de Souffle, 
' bellows' sound,' ' Blowing sound.' A sound 
like that of a bellows, heard occasionally by the 
ear applied to the chest during the contraction 
of the ventricles, auricles, or large arteries. It 
coexists with affections of the heart, but is 
heard, also, without any disease in (hat organ, 
— whenever, indeed, an artery is compressed. 
An Encephalic bellows' sound, has been described 
by Dt. Fisher, of Boston. It is heard on apply- 
ing the ear to the occiput or to the top of the 
head; and is considered to indicate turgescence 
of vessels, or inflammation. When such tur- 
gescence exists, the vessels are compressed, 
and the compression gives rise to the sound in 

Bruit placentaire — b. de Tiraillement, Bruit de 

BRUIT DE TAFFETAS. 'Sound of Taf- 
feta.' ' Sarcenet sound.' A respiratory sound 
so named by M. Grisolle, from its resembling 
the sound caused by the tearing of a piece of 
taffeta; and which he considers to indicate 
hepatization of the lung limited to the surface 
in pneumonia. 

BRUIT TYMPANI QUE, 'Tympanic sound.' 
The clear sound afforded by percussing the 
stomach and intestines when containing air. 

BRUIT UTERW, B. placentaire. 


BRUXELLE, Prunella. 

BRQNNER'S GLANDS, Brunncri Glanfi 
dulse, Glnndulm sollta'riae. Muciparous follicles 
of a small size, seated between the mucous and 
muscular coats of the stomach, along the two 
curvatures of that organ, and in the small in- 
testines, especially the duodenum; so called 
from their discovery having generally been at- 
tributed to Brunner. 

BRUNONIAN, Brownian. 

BRUNON1ANISM, Brownism. 

B RUN US Erysipelas. 

BRUSCUS, Ruscus. 

BRUSrI,&n//u/a. (F.) Brosse. A well known 
instrument, used in medicine chiefly for the 
following purposes. 1. To clean the teeth. 
2. To remove the saw-dust, which adheres to 
the teeth of the trephine, during the operation 
of trephining. 3. To rub the surface of the 
body, for the purpose of exciting the skin, and 
favouring transpiration. Westring, a Swedish 
physician, has recommended metallic brushes 
for the purpose of conveying galvanism to a 
part. These brushes consist of a plate of ebony 
fitted to another of gold, in which threads of the 
same metal are fixed; — the brush being con- 
nected with one of the poles of the galvanic pile. 

Brush. Stomach, Excutia ventriculi. 

BRUTA, Juniperus sabina. 

BRUTIA. A sort of thick pitch, obtained 
from Brutia in Italy. From the PixBrutia was 
obtained the Oleum Picinum. 

Brutia, Instinct. 

BRUTINO, Terebinthina. 

BRUXANEL1. A Malabar tree, the bark 
and leaves of which have a strong smell, and 
are astringent. On the coast of Malabar, its 
juice, mixed with butter, is applied to boils. 
Its bark is esteemed to be diuretic, and its roots 

BRUYkRE VULGJiIRE, Erica vuWis. 

Bruyeres is a small village, 7J leagues from 
Luneville. The waters are acidulous and cha- 


BRYGMUS, (jovyuos, Stridor Den'tlum. (q. v.) 
Grinding of the teeth. 

BRYO'NIA ALBA; Write Bry'ony, Vitis 
alba sylves'lrls, Agros'tis, Agriam'pelos, Am'pe- 
los agria, Archeos'trls, o' sis, Bryo'nia as'- 
pera, Cedros'tls, Chclldo'nlvm, Labrus'ca, Me- 
lo' thrum, Ophrostaph'ylon, Psllo'thrum, Bryonia 
Dioi'ca. Nat. Ord. Cucurbitaceas. Sex. Syst. 
Moncecia Monadelphia. (F.) Couleuvree, Vlgne 
vlerge, V. blanche. The root is large and succu- 
lent, and has an acrid, bitter, and disagreeable 
taste. It is a drastic cathartic. Externally, it 
has been applied, in form of cataplasm, in irout. 
When repeatedly washed, a good starch is ob- 
tained from it. The active principle has been 
separated from it, and called Bry'onine. 

Bryonia Mkchoacanna Nigricans, Convol- 
vulus jalapa — b. Peruviana, Convolvulus jalapa. 

BRYONINE, see Bryonia alba. 

BRYTIA, Mnrc of grapes. 

BRYTON, Cerevisia. 

BU,puv, abbreviation of fovt, 'an ox;' in com- 




position expresses, 'excess, greatness.' Hence 
Bu/irnvs, BuphthaFmia, &c. 

BU BASTEUORDIUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 
BUBE, Pustule. 

BUBO, (Sivflwr, Fano'chia, Partus inguina'lis, 
Adenophy'ma inguinatis, Bubonopa'nus, Cam- 
bu'ca, Angus, Boubon, Codocel$,Codoscclla, (F.) 
Bubon, Poulain. In the works of Hippocrates 
and Galen, this word sometimes signifies the 
groin; at others, the inguinal glands; and at 
others, again, swelling or inflammation of these 
parts. The moderns apply the term to an in- 
flammatory tumour seated in the groin or axilla, 
and they generally distinguish, 1. Simple or 
sympathetic Bubo, which is independent of any 
virus in the economy. 2. Venereal Bubo, (F.) 
Bubon venerien, which is occasioned hy the ve- 
nereal virus. 3. Pestilential Bubo, or B. symp- 
tomatic of the Plague. The last two have by 
some been called malignant Bubo, (F.) Bubon 
rnalin. Primary Bubo, (F.) Bubon primilif, 
shows itself with the first symptoms of syphilis: 
the consecutive not till afterwards. 

BUBON, Bubo, Inguen — b. Gummiferum, 
see Ammoniac gum. 

Bubon Gal'banum. The systematic name of 
a plant which has been supposed to afford the 
galbanum. Meto'pion. The plant is also called 
Fer'ula Africa' na, Oieoseli'num Africa' num., Ani' - 
sum frutico'sum galhanif erum, Anisum Africa' - 
num frutes'ctns. The long-leaved or lovage- 
leaved Gal'banum. JVat. Ord. Umbelliferce. The 
plant can scarcely, however, be considered to 
be determined. Galbanum is the gummi-resin- 
ous juice of this tree. Its odour is fetid, and 
taste bitter and acrid : the agglutinated tears are 
of a white colour, on aground of reddish -brown. 
It forms an emulsion, when triturated with 
water, and is soluble in proof spirit of wine, 
and vinegar: s. g. 1.212. It has been given as 
an antispasmodic, and expectorant, in pill or 
emulsion. Dose, from gr. 10 to GO. Externally, 
it is applied as a cataplasm. 

Bubon Macedon'icum, Petrose/i'num Mace- 
don' icum, A' pium petra'um, Pctra'pium,(F.) Per- 
sil de Macidoine, Macedonian Parsley. Its pro- 
perties are similar to those of common parsley, 
but weaker and less grateful. The seeds are 
an ingredient in the celebrated compounds — 
Mithridate and Theriac. 

BUBO'NIUM, Aster At'ticus, Golden Starwort. 
A plant anciently supposed to be efficacious 
in diseases of the groin, from (iovfivw, 'the groin.' 
BUBOJNOCE'LE, from |?o«/W, 'the groin,' 
and «»;A?;,' tumour,' 'rupture.' Hernia inguina'- 
lis, (F.) Hemic inguinale, In'guinal Hernia, or 
Rupture of the Groin. Some surgeons have 
confined this term to hernia when limited to the 
groin , and have called the same affection, when 
it has descended to the scrotum, Oscheocele or 
Scrotal Hernia. The rupture passes through 
the abdominal ring: and, in consequence of the 
greater size of the opening in the male, is more 
frequent in the male sex. 
BUBONOREX'IS, from jSst^wr, 'the groin,' 
and Qtjlig, 'a rupture.' A name given to bubo- 
nocele when accompanied with a division of the 
peritoneum, or when, in other words, it is de- 
void of a sac. 

BUBON'ULUS. A diminutive of Bubo, (q. 
V.) A painful swelling of the lymphatics of the 
penis, extending along the dorsum of that organ 

to the groin. It is an occasional accompani- 
ment of gonorrhoea. 

BUCAROS, Terra Portugallica. 
BUCCA, Gnnthos. The mouth. The cheeks 
and hollow of the cheeks. Also, the vulva. 

BUCCACRATON, from Bucca, and zoaw, 
'I mix.' A morsel of bread sopped in wine, 
which served of old for a breakfast, — Linden. 

BUCCAL, Bucca' lis, from Bucca, ' the mouth,' 
or rather 'the cheek.' That which concerns 
the mouth, and especially the cheeks. 

Buccal Artery, A. Sus-maxillaire, — (Ch.) 
arises from the internal maxillary or from some 
of its branches, as the Temporalis profunda an- 
tica, or the Alveolar. It distributes its branches 
to the buccinator muscle, and to the buccal 

Buccal or Molar Glands. Mucous folli- 
cles, seated in the buccal membrane, opposite 
the molar teeth. They secrete a viscid humour, 
which mixes with the saliva, and lubricates the 

Buccal Membrane, (F.) Membrane Buccale. 
The mucous membrane, which lines the inte- 
rior of the mouth. 

Buccal Nerve, or Buccinator Nerve, Bucco- 
labial — (Ch.,) is given off by the inferior maxil- 
lary. It sends its branches to the cheek, and 
especially to the buccinator muscle. 
Buccal Vein, follows the artery. 
BUCCEA and BUCCEL'LA. The fleshy 
excrescence of nasal polypus, so called because 
it was believed to proceed from the mouth. — 
Paracelsus. Also, a mouthful. 

loaf-shaped cathartic medicine; made chiefly of 
scammony. — Aetius, Paulus of iEgina. 
BUCCINA, Turbinated bones. 
BUCCINA'TOR, from buccinare, 'to sound 
the trumpet.' The Buccina'tor Muscle, Rctrac'- 
tor An'guli Oris, Bucco-Alviolo-maxillaire, Al- 
violo-labial — (Ch.,) Manso'rius, is situate in 
the substance of the cheeks. It extends be- 
tween the posterior portions of the alveolar 
arches of the two jaws and the commissure of 
the lips, which it draws backward. Jt assists 
in mastication, by pushing the food back to- 
wards the teeth; and, if the cheeks be distend- 
ed by air, its contraction forces it out. 

BUCCO. One who is blub-cheeked, or wide- 


BUCCO-LABIAL NERVE, Buccal nerve. 
BUCCO- PHARYNGEAL, Buccopharynge'- 
us, (F.) Bucco-pharyngien. Belonging to the 
mouth and pharynx. The Bucco-pharynge'al 
Aponeurosis, or Intermax' 'illary Lig'ament, ex- 
tends from the internal ala of the pterygoid 
process to the posterior part of the lower alveo- 
lar arch, and affords attachment, anteriorly, to 
the buccinator, and posteriorly to the constric- 
tor pharyngis superior. 

BUC'CULA, from Bucca, 'the mouth.' A 
small mouth. The fleshy part beneath the 
chin. — Bartholine. 

BUCCELLA'TIO. A mode of arresting he- 
morrhage, by applying a pledget of lint to the 
bleeding vessel. — Avicenna, Fallopius. 
BUCERAS. Trigonella fecnum. 
BUCHU-LEAVES, Diosma crenata. 
BUCKBEAN, Menyanthes trifoliata — b. 
American, Menyanthes verna. 





BUCKEYE, JEJsculus hippocastanum. 

BUCKHO, Diosma crenata. 


BUCKWHEAT, Polygonum fagopyrum— b. 
Plant, eastern, Polygonum divaricatum. 

BUCNEMlA.seVElephantiasis— b. Tropica, 
see Elephantiasis. 

BUCTON, Hymen. 

gistic um. 

BUFFY COAT, Corium phlogisticum. 


BUGANT1A, Chilblain. 

BUGLE, Prunella— b. Common, Ajuga rep- 
tans— b. Pyramidale, Ajuga— 6. Rampante, Aju- 
ga reptans — b. Water, Lycopus virginicus— b. 
Weed, Lycopus. 

BUGLOSE, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGLOSS, Dyer's, Anchusa tinctoria — b. 
Garden, Anchusa officinalis — b. Upright, Ajuga. 

BUGLOSSA, Anchusa officinalis. 

JUS, Anchusa officinalis — b. Lati folium, Bora- 
go officinalis— b. Sativum, Anchusa officinalis — 
b. Sylvestris, Anchusa officinalis — b. Tincto- 
rum, Anchusa tinctoria — b. Verum, Boracic 
acid — b. Vulgare majus, Anchusa officinalis. 
, g BUGULA°, Ajuga. 
" BU GRANDE £PLYEUSE, Ononis spinosa. 

BUGRAJYE, Ononis spinosa — b. des Champs, 
Ononis arvensis. 


sard is two leaoues from Chateau-Thierry, in 
France. The water contains chloride of cal- 
cium and carbonate of lime. 

BULB, Bulbus, (F.) Bulbe. A name, given 
by anatomists to different parts which resem- 
ble, in shape, certain bulbous roots. The Bulb 
of the Aorta is the great sinus of the Aorta. 
Bulb of a Tooth; the vascular and nervous pa- 
pilla contained in the cavity of a tooth. The 
Bulb or Root of the Hair is the part whence the 
hair originates. The Bulb of the Urethra is the 
dilated portion formed by the commencement 
of the Corpus spongiosum towards the root of 
the penis. We say, also, Bulb, for Globe, of the eye. 

Bulb, Rachidian, see Medulla oblongata. 

LIERS, Mamillary tubercles. 

Mamillary tubercles. 

BULBOCASTANEUM, Bunium bulbocas- 

BU LBO-CAVERNOSUS, Accelerator urinae 
— b. Sijndesmo-caverneux, Accelerator urinae — b. 
Ur6lral, Accelerator urinae. 

BULBONACH, Lunaria rediviva. 

Bulb: a particular kind, so denominated by the 
ancients. It is supposed to have been the Ccpa 
Ascalon'ica. — Dioscorides, Celsus, Pliny, &c. 

Bulbus Vomito'rius. A plant, said by Dios- 
corides to be emetic and diuretic. It is the 
Mush-grape flower, according to Ray : — the 
Hyacinthus Muscari. 
BULGA, Vulva. 
BULIMIA, Boulimia. 

BU'LITHOS, from five, 'an ox,' and Zt9oc, ' a 

stone.' Abezoaror stone, found in the kidneys, 

gall-bladder, or urinary bladder of an ox or cow. 

BULLA. (F.) Bulk. A Bleb. A portion of 

the cuticle, detached from the skin by the inter- 
position of a transparent, watery fluid. It forms 
the 4th order in Willan's and Bateman's ar- 
rangement of cutaneous diseases, and includes 
erysipelas, pemphigus, and pompholyx By 
some, Bulla has been used synonymously with 
Pemphigus, (q. v.) See, also, Hydatid. 

BULLACE PLUM. Prunus invitia. 

Nabolhi glandular. 

BULL-FISTS, Lycoperdon. 

BUMELLIA, Fraxinus excelsior. 

BUNA, Coffea Arabica. 

BUNDURH, Corylus avellana. 

BUNIAS, Brassica napus. 

BU'NIOID, Bunioi'dcSjNa'piform; from flov- 
viov, ' a turnip,' and tiSog, 'resemblance.' An 
epithet for a form of cancer, bearing some re- 
semblance to a turnip. 

BUNION, Bunyon. 

BUNITES V1NUM. A wine, made by in- 
fusing the Bunium in must. It is stomachic, 
but scarcely ever used. 

called, it has been supposed, from growing on 
hills, from povvog, 'a hill.' Balanocas'lanum. 
The systematic name of a plant, whose root is 
called the Pig-nut, (q. v.) Agriocas 1 tanum, 
Nu'cula terres'tris, Bulbocastu' neum, Bulbocas 1 - 
tanum majus ct minus, Earth-nut, Hawk-nut, 
Kipper-nut, (F.) Terrenoix. The root is tube- 
rous, and is eaten raw or roasted. It has been 
supposed of use in strangury. It is not em- 
ployed in medicine. 

BUNNIAN, Bunyon. 

BUN'YON, Bun'ion, Bun'nian, from (3owoc, 
'an eminence.' (?) An enlargement and in- 
flammation of the bursa mucosa at the inside 
of the ball of the great toe. 

BUPEINA. Boulimia. 

BUPHTHALMIHERBA,Anthemis tinctoria. 

BUPHTHAL/MIA, Buphthal'mos, from |fe«s, 
' an ox,' and (updating, 'an eye.' Ox eye. Un- 
der this name, the generality of authors have 
designated the first stage of hydrophthalmia. 
Others, with Sabatier, mean, by it turgescence 
of the vitreous humour, which, by pushing the 
iris forwards, forms around the crystalline a 
sort of border. 

Pyrethrum — b. Majus, Chrysanthemum leu- 

BUPHTHALMUS, Hydrophthalmia, Sem- 
pervivum tectorum. 

BUPLEUROIDES, Bupleurum rotundifo- 

pleu'ron, Bupleuro'i'des, from (iov, augmentative, 
and -nltvQor, 'side.' (F.) Buplevre, Percefeuille, 
Round-leaved Hare's-Eur, or Thoroio-wux. The 
herb and seeds are slightly aromatic. It was 
formerly celebrated for curing ruptures, being 
made into a cataplasm with wine and oatmeal. 

BUPLkVRE, Bupleurum rotundifolium. 

BURAC, Borax. Also, any kind of salt 

BURDOCK, Arctium lappa— b Lesser, Xan- 

BURIS. Hernia, accompanied by scirrhous 
tumefaction; or, perhaps, a scirrhous tumour 
only. — Avicenna. 
BURN. Sax. bernan or bypnan, 'to burn 




or bren.' Ustio, Ambus'tio, Adus'tio, Tresis 
Causis, Erytlie'ma Ambus' tio, Causis, Encau'- 
sis, Cumbustu'ra, Catacau'ma, Combus'tio, (F.) 
Brulure. An injury produced by the action of too 
great heat on the body. Burns are of greater 
or less extent; from the simple irritation of the 
integument to the complete destruction of the 
part. The consequences are more or less se- 
vere, according to the extent of injury, and the 
part affected. Burns of the abdomen, when ap- 
parently doing well, are sometimes followed by 
fatal results. Their treatment varies: at times, 
the antiphlogistic being required; at others, 
one more stimulating. 

BURNEA, see Pinus Sylvestris. 

BURNING, orBRENNING. A disease men- 
tioned by old historians, from which authors 
have unsuccesfully endeavoured to demonstrate 
the antiquity of syphilis. — Farr. 

Spirit of Burrhus for diseases of the Womb. It 
is prepared by digesting, in alcohol, equal parts 
of myrrh, olibanum, and mastic. Boerhaave 
frequently prescribed it. 

BURSA TEST1UM, Scrotum— b. Virilis, 

B U RS.J3 MUCOSAE , Bursas muco'sce vesicu/u'- 
res, Bursa synovia'les, Synovial Crypts or Fol- 
licles, (F.) Bourses Synovialcs. Small membra- 
nous sacs, situate about the joints, particu- 
larly about the large ones of the upper and 
lower extremities, and, for the most part, lying 
under the tendons. They are naturally rilled 
with an oily kind of fluid, the use of which is 
to lubricate surfaces over which tendons play. 
In consequence of bruises or sprains, this fluid 
sometimes collects to a great extent. The Bur- 
sa are, generally, either of a roundish or oval 
form, and they have been arranged under two 
classes, the spherical and vaginal. 

BURS^E SYNOVIALES, Bursa? mucosae. 

BURSALIS, Obturator internus. 

BURSE'RA GUMMIF'ERA, Terebinlh'us 
gumrnif'era, Jamaica Bark Tree. A resin ex- 
udes from this tree, which is solid externally, 
as met with in the shops; sottish internally; of 
a vitreous fracture; transparent; of a pale yel- 
low colour; turpentine smell, and sweet, per- 
fumed taste. It has been used like balsams 
and turpentines in general, and is called, by 
the French, Cachibou, Chibou, and Resine de 

BURSUL A, Scrotum. 

BURWEED, Xanthium. 

BUR WORT, Ranunculus acris. 

BURTHISTLE, Xanthium. 

sang is a village in the department of Vosges, 
France. The waters are acidulous chalybeates. 

BUSSEROLLE, Arbutus viva ursi. 

Bezoar'dic Spirit of Bussius. A preparation, 
regarded as sudorific, diuretic, and antispas- 
modic; obtained by distilling subcarbonate and 
muriate of ammonia, amber, oil of cedar or 
iuniper, »tc. 

island is in the Frith of Clyde, about Id miles 
below Greenock. The climate is mild and 
equable, but rather moist; and, as a winter re- 
sidence, it holds out advantages for those only 
as appear to demand such a condition of the 
atmosphere. The climate resembles, in cha- 

racter, that of the S. W. of England and France 
and the channel islands; although its tempe- 
rature is lower. 

BUTEA FRONDOSA, see Kino. A tree 
common in Bengal, and in the mountainous 
parts of India; Nat. Ord. Leguminoss; from 
which gum butea flows. Dr. Pereira found this 
gum to be identical with a specimen marked 
gu/nmi rubrum astringens — the gomme astrin- 
gente de Gambie of M. Guibourt. By some 
this gum has been confounded with kino. 

BUTIGA, Gutta rosea. 

BUTOMON, Iris pseudacorus. 

BUTTER, from povrvpov, itself from fiov?, 
'ox,' and jvqoq, 'any thing coagulated.' Buty'- 
rum, Fice'rion, (F.) Beurre. A sort of concrete 
oil, obtained from the cream that forms on the 
surface of the milk furnished by the females of 
the mammalia; especially by the cow and the 
goat. Fresh butter is very nutritious, whilst 
the rancid is irritating. The ancient chemists 
gave the name Butter to many of the metallic 
chlorides. It has also been applied to vegeta- 
ble substances, which resemble, in some re- 
spects, the butter obtained from milk. 

Butter of Bambouc orBAMBUc, (F.) Beurre. 
de Bambouc ou Bambuk. A vegetable oil ob- 
tained from a species of almond, and used in 
Senegal in neuralgic and rheumatismal pains. 

BuTrER of Cacao, Oil of Cacao, Oleum Ca- 
cao spissa'tum, 0. Theobrn'mee Cacao expres'sum, 
(F.) Beurre de Cacao, Huile de Cacao. A fat 
substance, of a sweet and agreeable taste, ob- 
tained from the Theobroma cacao, or chocolate 

Butter of Cocoa, (F.) Beurre de Coco. A 
fatty, concrete substance, which separates from 
the milk of the cocoa nut. It is sweet and 

BUTTERBUR, Tussilago petasites. 

BUTTERCUPS, Ranunculus acris. 

BUTTERFLY-WEED, Asolepias tuberosa. 

BUTTERMILK, (F.) Babeurre, Lait de 
Beurre. The thin, sour milk, separated from 
the cream by churning. It contains caseum 
and a little butter. It is a refreshing drink when 
newly made. 

BUTTERWORT, Pinguicola vulgaris. 

BUTTONBUSH, Cephalanthus occidentalis. 

BUTTON WOOD SHRUB, Cephalanthus 

BUTUA, Pareira brava. 

BUTYRUM, Butter— b. Amygdalarum dul- 
cium, Confection (almond) — b. Saturni, Un- 
guentum plumbi superacetatis — b. Zinci, Zinci 

BUVEUR, Rectus internus oculi. 

tonien! sis Aqux. Buxton is a village in Derby- 
shire. The springs are thermal, and about 82° 
Fahrenheit. They contain sulphate of soda, 
chloride of calcium, chloride of sodium, chlo- 
ride of magnesium, carbonate of lime, carbonic 
acid, and azote. They are used in cases in 
which thermal springs, in general, are recom- 
mended. They contain little or no mineral im- 

BUXUS, Buxvs sempervi'rens. The Box- 
tree. (F.) Bids ou Bonis. The leaves are bit- 
ter and aromatic, and, as such, have been used 
in medicine, in cases of worms, dyspepsia, &.c, 
in the form of decoction. They are sometimes. 




also, added to beer. The seed was anciently 
called Carthtfgon. 

BYNE, Malt. 

BY'RETHRUM. A sort of cap or Couvre- 
chef, filled with cephalic substances. — Foreslus. 

BYR3A, (Ivnoa. A leather skin to spread 
plasters upon. 

BYRSODEP'SICON. A tan stuff, with 
which Cslius Aurelianus sprinkled wool, 
which he applied in certain cases to the umbi- 
lical region: from (luQoaj 'leather,' and dexptto, 
'I tan.' 


BYSAU'CHEiN, from pvw, 'I stop up,' and 

av/ir, ' the neck.' A morbid stiffness of the 

BYSSOS, Vulva. 

BYSSUS or BYSSUM. The ancients gave 
this name to several vegetable substances, 
which were used for the fabrication of stuffs, 
prized for their fineness, colour, and rarity of 
material. It is now chiefly applied to the fila- 
menls, by the aid of which the acephalous mol- 
lusca attach their shells to the rocks. B. was 
formerly also applied to the female pudendum. 

BYTHOS, ftvdoc, 'depth.' An epithet used 
by Hippocrates for the fundus of the sto- 

C. This letter in the chemical alphabet sig- 
nifies nitre. It is also sometimes used in pre- 
scriptions for calx. 

CAA-AP'IA, Dorstc'nia Brazilicn'sis. The 
root, according to Piso, is employed as emetic 
and anti-diarrhceic. 

CAA-ATAY'A. A plant of Brazil, supposed 
to be a species of gratiola. It is very bitter, 
and considered to be one of the best indigenous 

CAACICA, Euphorbia capitata. 

CAA-GHIYU'YO, Frutex badcifer Brazili- 
cn'sis. A shrub of Brazil, whose leaves, in 
powder, are considered detersive. 

CAAOP1A, Hypericum bacciferum. 

CAAPEBA, Pareira brava. 

CAAPONGA, Crithmum maritimum. 

CAAROBA. A Brazilian tree, whose leaves, 
in decoction, promote perspiration. — See Cera- 

CABAL, Cal/ala, Cabal' la, Cal'bala, Cabalia, 
Kabala, Gaballa. This word is from the He- 
brew, and signifies knowledge transmitted by 
tradition. Paracelsus and several authors of 
the Kith and 17th centuries have spoken much 
of this species of magic, which they distin- 
guished into Judaic or ikcohgian, and Hermetic 
or medicinal; the latter being, according to 
them, the art of knowing the most occult pro- 
perties of bodies by an immediate communica- 
tion with spirits; — the knowledge being thus 
acquired by inspiration, and incapable of in- 
ducing error. It was also called Ars cabalis'tica, 
' cabalistic art.' 

CABAL/HAU. A plant of Mexico, accord- 
ing to Dalechamps, which passes for an anti- 
dote to white hellebore, and yet is used for poi- 
soning arrows. It is unknown to botanists. 

CAB'ALIST, Cabalis'ta. One instructed in 
the Cabal. 

CABALLATION, Cynoglossum. 

CABARET, Asarum. 

CABBAGE, Brassica — c.Cow, Nymphceaodo- 
rata — c. Irish, Dracontium foetidum — c. Skunk, 
Dracontium foetidum — c. Swamp, Dracontium 
foetidum — c. Water, Nymphseaodorata — c.Tree, 
GeofTraea inermis — c. Bark tree, Geoffrsea iner- 

CABUREIBA, Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CABUREICIBA, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CAC^E'MIA, Cuchae'mia, from xaxog, 'bad,' 

and 'aiu*-, ' blood.' A faulty or morbid condi- 
tion of the blood. 

CACiESTHESIS, Indisposition. 

CAC'AGOGUE, Cacago'gus, from xaxxrj, 
'excrement,' and ayar, 'to expel.' An oint- 
ment, composed of alum and honey; which, 
when applied to the anus, produced an evacua- 
tion. — Paulus of iEgina. 

phor'bium. A plant, which Dodoens and others 
considered to be capable of tempering the caus- 
tic properties of the euphorbium. It is also 
called Kleinia. 

Man}' varieties of the Cacalia are used, in 
different countries, chiefly as condiments. 

CA'CAO, Ca'coa, Co'coa Cacavif era, Caca'vi, 
Qua/toil, Cacana'ta. The cocoa or chocolate 
nut; fruit of Thabro'ma Cacao; Family, Mal- 
vaceae. Sex. Syst. Polydelphia Pentandria. 

CACATION, Defecation. 

CACATORIA, Diarrhcea. 

CAC'ATORY, Cacato'rius, from cacarc, ' to 
go to stool.' Febris cacato'ria; a kind of inter- 
mittent fever, accompanied by copious alvine 
evacuations. — Sylvius. 


CACAVI, Cacao, Jatropha manihot. 

CACCE, Excrement. 

CACCION'DE. A sort of pill, chiefly formed 
of catechu, recommended by Baglivi in dysen- 

CACHANG-PARANG. A sort of bean of 
Sumatra, mentioned by Marsden, whose seeds 
are given in pleurisy. Jussieu considers it to 
be the Mimo'sa. scandens. 

CACHECTIC, Cachec'ticus, same etymon 
as Cachexia. One attacked with cachexia. Be- 
longing to cachexia. Cachec'tica rctncdia are 
remedies against cachexia. 

CACHEN LAGUEN, Chanchalagua, Chi- 
ronia chilensis. 

CACHEX'IA, from xaxog, 'bad,' and 'tij<?, 
'habit.' Status cachec'ticus. A condition in 
which the body is evidently depraved. A bad 
habit of body; chiefly the result of scorbutic, 
cancerous, or venereal diseases when in their 
last stage. Hence we hear of a Scorbutic C, 
Cancerous C, &c. Sauvages and Cullen have 
included under this head a number of diseases 
— consumptions, dropsies, &c. Cachexia has 
been sometimes confounded with diathesis. 




The Cachexia Iclerica is jaundice or icterus 
sfself, or a disposition thereto. The fluor albus 
is sometimes called Cachexia Uterina. 

Cachexia Africana, Chthonophagia — c. 
Calculosa, Lithia — c. Cancerous, see Cancer — c. 
Chlorotic, Chlorosis— c. Dysthetica, Dyscrasia 
— c. lcterica, Icterus. 

Cachexia Londinensis. The paleness and 
other evidences of impaired health presented 
by the inhabitants of London: a similar cachexia 
is seen in those of other crowded cities. 

Cachexia, Scorbutic, see Purpura— c.Scro- 
phulosa, Scrofula. 

Cachexia Sple'nica. The state of scorbutic 
Cachexia, which often accompanies diseases of 
the spleen, especially in India. 

Cachexia Venerea, Syphilis — c. Venous, 
Venosity — c. Virginum, Chlorosis. 

CACHIBOU. See Bursera gummifera. 

CACHINNA'TIO, from cachin'no, < I laugh 
aloud.' A tendency to immoderate laughter, 
as in some hysterical and maniacal affections. 

CACHIRI. A fermented liquor made, in 
Cayenne, from a decoction of the rasped root 
of the manioc. It resembles perry. 

CACHLEX. A small stone or pebble, found 
on the seashore. One of these, when heated in 
the fire, and cooled in whey, communicates an 
astringency to the liquid, so that it was anciently 
esteemed to be useful in dysentery. — Galen. 

CACHOS. An Oriental fruit, apparently of 
a Solanum, whrch is esteemed lithontriptic. 

CACHOV, Catechu. 

CACHRYS LIBANO'TIS. An umbellife- 
rous plant, which grows in Africa and the South 
of Europe. It is aromatic and astringent. Its 
seeds are extremely acrid. 

CACHUN'DE. An Indian troch or pastile 
composed of amber, mastic, musk, cinnamon, 
aloes, rhubarb, galanga, pearls, rubies, eme- 
ralds, garnets, &c. It is regarded by the peo- 
ple of India as an antidote, stomachic and anti- 

CACO-ALEXITERIA, Alexipharmic. 

CACOCHO'LlA,from xaxog,'bad,' and /oh], 
' bile.' Diseases induced by a depraved condi- 
tion of the bile. 

CACOCHROI, from xaxog, 'bad,' and /ooa, 
' colour.' Diseases in which the complexion is 
morbidly changed in colour. 

CACOCHYL'IA, from xaxog, 'bad,' and 
jftiAoc, 'chyle.' Depraved chylification. 

CACOCHYM'IA, Corrup'tio Humo'rum, from 
y.uxog, ' bad,' and /vuoc, 'juice,' ' humour.' Ca- 
coch'ymy. Depravation of the humours. 

Cacochymia Scorbutica — See Purpura — c. 
Scroplmlosa, Scrofula — c. Venerea, Syphilis. 

OACOCH'YMUS, Cacoclnjm'icus. One at- 
tacked with cacochymia. Belonging to caco- 

CACOCNE'MOS, Mails suris praedi'tus; from 
xaxog, 'bad,' and *:>)„">/, 'the leg.' One who 
has bad legs. 

CACOCORE'MA, from xaxog, 'bad,' and 
xoniuj, ' I purrre, or cleanse.' A medicine which 
purees off' the vitiated humours. 

CACCD/E'MON. from xuxo:, 'bad,' and Sut- 
„,„, , • a B] irit.' An evil spirit, to which were 
ascribed many disorders. The nightmare. 

CACODIA. Anosmia. 

CACOETHES, from xaxog, ' bad,' and r t dog. 

' disposition^ habit,' &c. Of a bad or vi 

CACOGALAC'TIA, from xaxog, 'bad,' and 
■/ala, gen. yaXaxroc, 'milk.' A bad condition 
of the milk. 

CACOMORPHIA, Deformation. 

CACOPATHl'A, Fassio Mala, from xaxog, 
'bad,' and nadog, 'affection.' A distressed 
state of mind. — Hippocr. 

CACOPHO'iSIA, from xaxog, 'bad,' and <pwvij, 
' voice,' vitia'ta vox. A dissonant condition of 

CACOPLAS'TIC, Cacoplas'licus, Dysplas- 
mat'ic; from xar.oc, 'bad,' and nlaarw, '1 form.' 
Susceptible of only a low degree of organiza- 
tion, as in the indurations resulting from low or 
chronic inflammation, in fibrocartilage, cirrho- 

SIS t&C 

CACOPRA'GIA, from xaxog, ' bad,' and 
ttquttw, ' I perform.' Depraved condition of 
the chylopoietic organs. 

CACORRHACHl'TIS, from xaxog, 'bad,' 
and qayig, 'the spine.' Cacorrka'chis, Spon- 
dylalgia. Deformity of the spine. Disease of 
the spine. Spontaneous luxation of the verte- 
brae and ribs dependent upon internal causes. 

CACORRrlYTH'iMUS, Arrhyth'mus, from 
y.axog, ' bad,' and ovdfiog, ' rhythm,' ' order.' Ir- 

CACO'SIS. Maladisposi"tio, (F.) Vice. A bad 
condition of body. — Hippocr. 

CACOSIT'IA, from xaxoe, 'bad,' and antov, 
' aliment.' Disgust or aversion for food. — Fas- 
tid'ium cibo'rxim. 

CACOSOMIUM, from xaxog, 'bad,' and ooyta, 
' the body.' An hospital for leprosy, and incu- 
rable affections. 

CACOSPHYX'IA, from xaxog, 'bad,' and 
ocpvztg, ' pulse.' — Vilio'sus pulsus. Bad state of 
pulse. — Galen. 

CACOSTOM'ACHUS, from r.ay.og, 'bad,' 
and aroiiayos, ' the stomach.' What disagrees 
with the stomach. Indigestible. — Gorraius. 

CACOS'TOMUS, from x*r.og, 'bad,' and 
ittou-i., 'a mouth.' Having a bad mouth. 

CACOTHYM'IA, Vifium An'imi, from r.*y.c<, 
'bad,' and 9v[*os, 'mind,' 'disposition.' A vi- 
tious state of mind. — Linden. 

CACOTRIBULUS, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CACOTROPH'IA. from xaxog, 'bad,' and 
T£&(prj, 'nutrition.' — Vitio'sa nutri"tio; — disor- 
dered nutrition. — Galen. 

CACOU, Cao-nt, Catechu. 

CACOU'CIA COCCIN'EA, Courin'ea Coc- 
cin'ea, Schousbx'a coccin'ea, Tikimma. A pe- 
rennial twining shrub of South America, the 
plant of which, as well as the fruit, is pos- 
sessed of emeto-cathartic properties. 

CACTIER, Cactus opuntia. 

CACTUS OPUN'TIA, Opun'tia. The Indian 
Fig, (F.) Cacticr, Ra quelle, Figuier delude. 
This plant grows in South America, Spain, 
Italy, &c. Its fruit, which has the shape of 
the fig, is of a sweetish taste, and colours the 
urine red when eaten. Its leaves are consi- 
dered refrigerant. 

CADA'BA, Stroe'mia. A genus of the fami- 
ly Capparidese, natives of India and Arabia. 
The young shoots of the Cada'ba farino'sa are 
considered to be an antidote against venomous 

CADA'VER, Ptoma. Necron. A dead body; 
a subject; a carcass, (F.) Cadavre. The word 




has been supposed to come from caVo, '1 fall ;' 
and by some, to be a contraction from caro data 
vermibus, 'flesh given to the worms!' 

CADAVEROUS, Cadav'eric, Cadavcro'sus, 
Necro'des. (F.) Cadavereux. Belonging to the 
dead body; as cadaverous smelt. The "Cadav'- 
erous or Hippocrat'ic face (see Face.) is an un- 
favourable sign in disease, and generally de- 
notes a fatal termination. 

Cadav'erous or Cadav'eric Hyperemia. 
The hypostatic hyperemia observed in depend- 
ing parts of the dead body. 
CADEJI-INDJ, Malabnthrum. 
CADEL-AVANACU, Croton tiglium. 
CADIA. An Egyptian, leguminous plant. 
The Arabs attribute to its fresh leaves the 
power of relieving colic. 
CADMIA, Calamina, Tutia. 
CAD'MII SULPHAS, Cad'mium suiphu'ri- 
cum. Sulphas Cad'micus, Meli'ni. Sulphas, Klap- 
ro'tltii Sulphas, Klapro'thium Sulphuricum, Me- 
liaum Sulphu'ricum, Sulphate of Cad'mium. 
Used in spots on the cornea, and in chronic 
torpid inflammation of the conjunctiva, in the 
quantity of half a grain to a grain to the ounce 
of water. 


CADTCHU, Catechu. 
CADU'CITY, Imbecil'litas, Debil'itas, Cadu'- 
citas, from cadere, 'to fall.' The French use 
the word Caducite for the portion of human 
life which is comprised generally between 70 
and 80 years. The age which precedes de- 
crepitude. It is so termed in consequence of 
the limbs not usually possessing sufficient 
strength to support the body. The precise age 
must of course vary in individuals. 

CADUS, y.zdoc. A Greek measure, equal to 
ten gallons English. — Pliny. 
Cadus, Amphora. 

C^ECAL, Cseca'iis. Belonging to the coscum, 
from cxrus, 'blind, hidden.' The Ccrxal. urleries 
and veins are the branches of the Arterisc et 
venx colicat dextrx inferiores, distributed to the 

CICATRIX, Cicatrix. 

CiE'CITAS, Blindness, Anap'sia, Ti/phlotes, 
Typhlu'sis, (F.) Jivcuglcmcjit, Cecite, Perte de la 
vue. C. may be dependent upon many different 
diseases, — as upon amaurosis, specks, hypopy- 
on, cataract, glaucoma, ophthalmia, atrophy of 
the eye, &c. 

Cecitas Crf.puscularis, Hemeralopia — c. 
Diuma, Nyctalopia. 

CjECUM or CCECUM, Intesti'num caxum, 
Monom'achon, Monaco' ton, Monocit 'lurn, Tuphlo'- 
teron monoco' Ion, Ini/'tium intesti'ni. crassi, Sac- 
cus, Cazcam Caput Coli, Prima cella coli, from 
csecus, 'blind.' The Blind Gut, so called from 
its being perforated at one end only. That por- 
tion of the intestinal canal, which is seated be- 
tween the termination of the ileum and com- 
mencement of the colon; and which fills, al- 
most wholly, the right iliac, fossa; where the 
peritoneum retains it immovably. Its length 
is about three or four fingers' breadth. The 
lleo rascal valve, or Valve o/Bauhin shuts off' all 
communication between it and the ileum ; and 
the Appendix vtrmiformis cseci is attached to it. 

C/Eccm, Phlegmonous Tumour of the, Ty- 

C^CUS. 'Blind.' One deprived of sight. 
(F.) Aveug/e, Borgne. In anatomy, it is used 
to designate certain holes or cavities, which 
end in a cul de-sac ; or have only one opening, 

Blind Ducts of the Ure'thra, (F.) Conduits 
aveugles de I'urethre, are the Mucous Lacu'nx 
of the Ure'thra. 

Oxcum, Foua'men, of the frontal bone is a 
small cavity at the inferior extremity of the in- 
ternal coronal crest or crista. — Fronlo-ethmoidul 
foramen — (Ch.), (F.) Trou aveugle ou borgne.. 
Morgagni has given the same name to the small 
cavity, in the middle of the upper surface of the 
tongue, near its base; the sides of which are 
furnished with mucous follicles — Lacune de la 
langue — (Ch.) 

C.i:ca,Foram'ina, — Anterius et Postf.rius, 
are situate at the fore and back parts of the tu- 
ber annulare of the brain, and at the extremi- 
ties of the depression made by the vertebral 
artery. The former is placed between the 
nerves of the 3d, and the latter between those 
of the Cth pair. 

Cjecje. HyEMonRHoi'nEs, Blind Piles, (F.) He- 
morrhoidfs aveugles, are those unaccompanied 
by anv discharge. 

CJELA-DOLO, Torenia Asiatica. 


blue — c. Borussicum. Prussian blue. 


Sappan or Sampfen wood, (F ) Brdsil/et, Bnis 
de Sappan. A small Siamese tree, the wood of 
which is used in decoction, in cases of contu- 

Brazil ivood, Pernamhur.o or Fernambucowood, 
formerly used as an astringent, is the wood of 
C^salpin'ia Echina'ta. This is the proper 
Brazil wood; but another variety in commerce 
is the Brasiletto, from Casalpinia Brasiliensis, 
and C. crista, which grow in the West Indies. 

The Nicaragua or peach-icooil, is analogous 
to this, and is said to be derived from a species 
of Csesalpinia. 

The kernel of CjESAlpis'ia Bondcjcell'a, 
the seed of which is called in India Kutkulrja 
and Kutoo Kurunjo, is given as a febrifuge 
tonic. Dose ten crrains 

Tomoto'cia, Cxsa'rea. sectio, Partus ca?sa'reus, 
Opera' t/o escsa'rea, Metrotom'ia, (F.) Opt ration 
Cisarienne, from cadere, 1 to cut.' An incision 
made through the parietes of the abdomen and 
uterus to extract the foetus. In this manner 
Julius Cffisar is said to have been extracted. — 
Pliny. It is also called Hysterotom'ia, 
tomato'eia, and Gastrohy sterol' amy, (F.) Opera- 
tion Cisarienne. An incision has been made 
into the uterus through the vagina; consti- 
tuting the Vaginal Ccesarean Sect.wn, (F.) Opi- 
ration cesarienne vaginale. The Caesarean Sec- 
tion may be required when the mother dies 
before delivery; — when there is some invinci- 
ble obstacle to delivery, from the faulty con- 
formation of the pelvis; or when the child has 
passed into the abdominal cavity in conse- 
quence of rupture of the uterus. 

OESAR1ES, Cnpillus. 
CJBSIUS, Glaucoma. 




OESONES, CJESARES. Children brought 
into the world by the Ccesarean operution. 

CyESU'LIJE. They who liave gray eyes. 


C.ETCI1U, Catechu. 

CAF, Camphor. 

CAFAL, Agrimony. 

CAFAR, Camphor! 

CAF A, Cuff;' a. 

CAFl A LA SVLTAKE. This name has 
been given to an infusion or decoction of the 
ground corpus or pericarps which surround the 

CAF£ CrrillN. The aqueous infusion of un- 
roasted coffee, so called on account of its yel- 
lowish tint. 

CAFEYER, Coffea Arabica. 

CAFFA, Camphor. 

CAFIER, Coffea Arabica. 

CAGAS'TRUM. The principle or germ of 
diseases, which are communicable. Paracel- 

CAGNEUX, Cagot. See Kyllosis. 


CAGOT, (F.) A name given to deformed 
and miserable beings, met with in the Pyre- 
nees, Bern, and Upper Gascony in France, 
where they are also called Capots. In other 
districts they are called, Gizits, G6zitains, Cre- 
tins, Gahets, Capons, Coiiberts, Cacous, Cag- 
neux, &c. See Cretin. The word Cagot is 
supposed to be an abbreviation of Canis Gothus, 
'Dog of a Goth.' 

CAGUE-SANCUE, Caquesangue. 

CAHINCjE RADIX, Caincaj radix. 

put'ty, Cajupu'ti Oleum. The volatile oil of the 
leaves of Melaleu' ca Cajapu'ti, a native of the 
Moluccas. The oil has a strong, fragrant 
smell, like camphor; taste pungent and aro- 
matic: limpid. It is stimulant, and useful 
where the essential oils in general are em- 
ployed. It has also been called Oil of Witne- 
ben, from the person who first distilled it. 

CAILLEAU, Lantana. 

CAILLE, Tetrao coturnix. 


CAILLELAIT BLAXC, Galium mollugo— 
c. Vraie, Galium verum. 

CAILLOT. Coagulum. 

CAINANiE RADIX, Caincse radix. 

CAIN'C/E RADIX, Radix Chiococ'cx, R. 
Catna'nce, Caninana, Cahincx, Kahinca, Serpen- 
ta'rix Brazilien' sis, Cainca Root. The bark of 
the roots of Cliiococr.'a anguifuga, Ch. densi- 
fo'lia, and perhaps Ch. raceme/ sa, a plant of the 
Family Rubiacese. Sex. Sysl. Pentandria. Mnno- 
gynia, of Linnaius. It is bitter, tonic, and diu- 
retic, but has not been long introduced. Dose 
of the powder from 7)j. to gss. 

Dr. John H. Griscom, of New York, consi- 
ders there is a remarkable analogy between 
the Cainca and the Apocynum cannrwinum. 

CA1NITO, Chrvsophyllum Cainito. 

CAIPA SCHORA. A cucurbitaceous Mala- 
bar plant, the fruit of which has a pyriform 
shape. The juice is drunk in that country for 
the purpose of arresting hiccough. The fruit, 
when unripe, is emetic. 

CAISSE, Case— c.du Tambour, Tympanum. 

CAITCHU, Catechu. 

CAJAN. Phaseolus creticus. 

CAJUPUTI, Cajeput. 

CAKES, WORM„STORY'S. These were 
composed of calomel and jufap ,made into cakes, 
and coloured with cinnabar. 


Crescentia Cujete. 


CALAF, Salix JEgyp'tiaca. A large-leaved 
Egyptian willow, called, also, Ban. The dis- 
tilled water of the flowers, called Maccihalff, 
passes, in that country, for an excellent anti- 
aphrodisiac. It is also used as an anliloimic, 
antiseptic, and cordial. 

CALAGERI, Vernonia anthelmintica. 

CALAGIRAH, Vernonia anthelmintica. 

CALAGUA'L./E RADIX, Calague'lse Radix. 
The root of Polypo'dium Calagua'la, or As- 
pid'ium coria'ceum. It has been exhibited in 
Italy in dropsy, pleurisy, contusions, abscesses, 
&c. Its properties are not, however, clear. 

CALAMBAC, Agallochum. 

CALAMANDRINA, Teucrium chamsedrys. 

CALAMBOUK, Agallochum. 

CALAME'DON, from x*X*/uos, 'a reed.' 
This word has had various significations. Some 
have used it for an oblique fracture of a bone; 
the fractured portions having the shape of the 
nib of a pen. Others have used it for a longi- 
tudinal fracture, and others, again, for one that 
is comminuted. — Dictionaries. 

CALAMI'NA, Calamine, from calamus, 'a 
reed,' so called from its reed-like appearance. 
Cadmia, Cathmir, Cadmia lapido'sa aero'sa, 
Cadrnia Fos'silis, Lapis Aero'sus, Cafim'ia, 
Lapis Calamina'ris, Calamina'ris, Car'bonas 
Zinci impu'rus, (F.) Pierre calaminair e. Na- 
tive impure carbonate of zinc. Calamine is 
chiefly used for pharmaceutical purposes in the 
form of the Calamina pr^para'ta, Lapis Ca- 
lamina'ris prapara'lus, Car'bonas zinci impu'rus 
prapara'tiis, Zinci car'bonas prxpara'lus, Pre- 
pared Calamine; — Calamine reduced to an im- 
palpable powder by roasting and levigation. In 
this state it is sprinkled or dusted on exco- 
riated parts, or to prevent excoriation, &c. 


CALAMINT, Melissa Calamintha— c. Field, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Mountain, Melissa grandi- 
flora — c. Spotted, Melissa nepeta. 


CALAMINTHA, Melissa C— c. Anglica-, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Erecta Virginiana, Cunila 
Mariana — c. Magno flore, Melissa grandiflora- 
— c. Montana, Melissa grandiflora — c. Pulegii 
odore. Melissa nepeta. 

CAL'AMUS, xaX*f<oc, 'the reed' In the 
Pharmacopoeia of the U. S. the rhizoma of aco- 
rus calamus (q. v.) 

Calamus Alexandri'nus. Celsus has thus 
called a medicine, which was long confounded 
with Calamus Aromoticus. It is not a root, 
however, but the stalk of a plant of India and 
E<jypt, probably the Andropo'gon JVardns. It 
entered into the theriaca, and has been regarded 
antihysteric and emmenugogue; Calamus aro- 
maticus verus. 

Calamus Akomaticus, Acorns calamus — c. 
Aroinaticus verus. Calamus Alexandrinus — c. 
Indicus, see Saccharum — c. Odoralus, Acorua 
calamus, Jnncus odoratus. 

Calamus Rotang. The systematic name of 
a plant, whence Dragons Blood, Sanguis Dra- 




cn'nis, Cinnah'aris Graco'rum, Dracovthiv'ma, 
(F.) Sang-Dragon, is obtained. It is the red, 
resinous juice, obtained, in India, from wound- 
ing the bark of the Calamus Rotang. It has 
been used as an astringent in hemorrhages, 
&c.; but is now rarely employed. 

Calamus Sacchaiiinus, see Saccharum. 

Calamus Scrii'to'uius, Anag'hjphe, Ilhom- 
bohiul Sinus. 'A Writing pen,' (F.) Fossette 
angulaire ilu quatrieme ventricule. A small, 
angular cavity, situate at the superior extremity 
of the medulla, in the fourth ventricle of the 
brain, which has been, by some, supposed to 
resemble a pen. 

Calamus Vulgaris, Acorus calamus. 

CALAPPITE. Rumphius has given this 
name to calculous concretions, found in the in- 
terior of some cocoa nuts. The cocoa tree it- 
self the Malays call These stones 
are, likewise, termed Vegetable Bezoards. The 
Malays attribute potent virtues to them, and 
wear them as amulets. 

CALASAYA, Cinchonas cordifoliae cortex. 

CALBALA, Cabal. 

CALBIA'JNUM. The name of a plaster in 
Myrepsus, the composition of which we know 

CALCADINUM, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCAIRE, Calcareous. 

ORTEIL, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c.Pha- 
langinien commun, Extensor brevis digitorum 
pedis — c. Sous-phulangetlicii commun, Flexor 
brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous-phalanginicn 
commun, Flexor brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous- 
phalangien da petit orteil, see Abductor minimi 
digiti pedis — c. Sus-phalangettien commun, Ex- 
tensor brevis dicitorum pedis. 

CALCA'NEUM, from calx, ' the heel.' Cal- 
caneus, Catcar, Os Calcis, Ptcrna. The largest 
of the tarsal bones; that which forms the heel. 
It is situate at the posterior and inferior part of 
the foot; is articulated above and a little ante- 
riorly with the astragalus; anteriorly, also, with 
the os cuboides. Its posterior surface, — called 
Heel, Talus, Calx, (F.) Talan, —gives attach- 
ment to the tendo achillis: the lower has, pos- 
teriorly, two tuberosities, to which the superfi- 
cial muscles of the sole of the foot are attached. 
The small Apopk 'ysis or lateral Apophysis of the 
Calca'neum, (F.) Petite Apophyse ou Apophyse 
lateral e du Calcaneum, is a projection at the up- 
per surface of this bone, on which is formed the 
posterior portion of the cavity, that receives 
the astragalus. The great Apoph'ysis, anterior 
Apoph'ysis of the Calca'neum is the projection, 
which corresponds, on one side, with the cu- 
boides; and on the other forms the anterior 
part of the facette, which receives the astra- 

CALCANTHON, Atramentum. 

CALCAR, Calcaneum, Ergot — c. Avis, Hip- 
pocampus minor. 

CALCA'REOUS, Calcofreus, Calca'rius; from 
calx, Mime.' (F.) Calcaire. Containing lime: — 
as earcareous concretions, C. depositions, &c. 


CALCARIA CHLORATA, Calcis chloridum 
— c. Ch'lorica, Calcis chloridum— c. Phospho- 
rica, see Cornu cervi — c. Pura, Calx— c. Pura 
liquid.i, Liquor ca'cis. 

CALCARI/E CHLORUM, Calcis chloridum. 

CALCATORj Ferri sulphas. 

CALCATREPPOLA. Centanrea calcitrapa. 

NIA, CALCINO'JNIA. Words employed by 
Paracelsus, to designate the concretions of tar- 
trate of lime, which form in the human body. 

CALCENOS, Calcetus. 

CALCEOLA'RIA, from calceolus, 'a small 
slipper;' Slipperuwrt. 

Calceolaria Prima'ta is used in Peru as a 

Calceola'ria Trif'ida is esteemed to be 

CALCE'TUS, Calccno'nius, Calce'nos. That 
which abounds in tartrate of lime. An adjec- 
tive used, by Paracelsus, in speaking of the 
blood; Sanguis ca/re'tus. Hence came the ex- 
pression Calcined blood. Sang calcini. 



CALCIG'RADUS, Pternobates, from Calx, 
TiTtova, 'the heel,' and (laira, 'I walk.' One 
who walks on his heels. — Hippocr. 

— c. Oxychloruretum, Calcis chloridum— c. 
Oxydum, Calx viva — c. Protochloruretum, 
Calcis chloridum. 

CALCINATION, Calcina'do, Calci'non, Con- 
crema'tio, from calx, ' lime.' The act of sub- 
mitting to a strong heat any infusible mineral 
substance, which we are desirous of depriving 
either of its water, or of any other volatilizable 
substance, that enters into its composition; or 
which we wish to combine with oxygen. Alum 
is calcined to get rid of its water of crystalliza- 
tion; — chalk, to reduce it to the state of pure 
lime, by driving off the carbonic acid; and cer- 
tain metals are subjected to this operation to 
oxidize them. 

drarfvrum prjecipitatum. 

OALCliNONIA, Calcena. 

ridum — c. Carbonas, Creta — c. Carbonas durus, 

Calcis Chlo'ridum ; Chlo'ride of Lime, 
Calx chlorina'ta (Ph. U. S.) Protoxi-chhr'uret 
of Calcium, Ca/ca'ria chlora'ta, Chlorum Calca'- 
riot, Chlorc'tum Calca'ria, Calcaria Chlo'rica, 
Oxrjchlorure'tum Calcii, Protocltlorure' 'turn Cal- 
cii, Chlar are' turn Oxidi Calcii, Bichlorure'tum 
Calcis, Oxymu'rias Calcis, Bleaching Powder, 
Pennant's Powder. A compound resulting from 
the action of chlorine on hydrate of lime. The 
Chloride of lime is a most valuable disinfect- 
ing agent, (see Disinfection.) when dissolved 
in the proportion of one pound, to six gallons 
of water. It has likewise been employed both 
internally and externally in various diseases, 
as in scrofula, factor oris, foul ulcers, &c. &c. 

Calcis Hepar, Calcis sulphuretum. 

Calcis Murias; Muriate of Lime, Calx sa- 
U'ta, Calcii Chlorure'tum seu Chlo'ridum, Chlo- 
ride of calcium. This salt has been given, in 
solution, as a tonic, stimulant, &c, in scrofu- 
lous tumours, glandular obstructions, general 
debility, »'v,c. The Solu'tio Muria'tis Calcis, 
Liquor Calcis Muria'tis, Solution if Muriate of 
Lime, Liquid Shell, may be formed of muriate of 
lime ~j. dissolved in distilled water f. 5iij. The 
Liquor Calcii Chloridi, or Solution of Chlo- 
ride of Calcium, of the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, is formed as follows: — Marble, 
in fragments, gix. Muriatic acid, Oj; Distilled 




water, a sufficient quantity. Mix the acid with 
a half pint of the water, and gradually add the 
marble. Towards the close of the efferves- 
cence apply a gentle heat, and, when the ac- 
tion has ceased, pour off the clear liquor and 
evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residuum 
in its weight and a half of distilled water, and 
filter. Dose, from gtt. xxx to f. £j in a cupful 
of water. 

Calcis Oxvmurias, Calcis chloridum. 
Calcis Sulphurk'tum ; Hepar Calcis, Sul- 
phuret of [Awe, (F.) Protfrltydrosulfule de Cal- 
cium, Hydrosulfate de cliavx. Principally used 
in solution, as a bath, in itch and other cutane- 
ous affections. 

CALCITEA, Ferri sulphas. 
CALC1TEOSA, Plurnbi oxydum semivi- 

CALCITHOS, Cupri subacetas. 
CALCITRAPA, Oentaurea Oalcitrapa — c. 
Stellata, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

OALOITRAPPA, Delphinium consolida. 
CALCIUM, CHLORIDE OF, Calcis rnurias 
— c. Pratohydrosulphate de, Calcis s,ulphuretum 
— c. Protoxichloruret of, Calcis chloiidum — c. 
Protoxide of, Calx. 

CFi'l, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. Sub- 
phalangeus pollicis, Abductor pollicis pedis. 
CALCOCOS, Bell metal. 
CALCOIDEA, (ossicula,) Cuneiform bones. 
CALCOTAR. Ferri sulphas. 
CALCVL, Calculus. 
C1LCULEUX. Calculous. 
Arthritic; and Concretions, Articular. 

Calculi, Arthrit'ic, Tophi, Tuber'cula ar- 
thrit'ica, Chalk stones, (F.) Picrres crayeuses, 
Ca/culs arthritiques, Nauds. Concretions, which 
form in the ligaments, and within the capsules 
of the joints, in persons affected with gout. 
They are composed of uric acid, soda, and a 
little animal matter; very rarely, urate of lime 
and chloride of sodium are met with. Similar 
calculi are found in other parts besides the 

Cal'culi, Bil'iarv, Cal'culi bilio'sl seu 
fell'ei seu bitia'rii, Cyslhepatolithi'asis, BU'iary 
Concre'tions, Gall-stones, Choloi'ilhus, Cholel'i- 
t/ius, Cho/elilh'ia, (F.) Calcvls biliuires, Pierres 
aufi.el. Some of these contain all the materials 
of the bile, and seem to be nothing more than 
that secretion thickened. Several contain Pi- 
cromel; and the greater part are composed of 
from 88 to 94 parts of Cholesterin, and of from 
6 to 12 of the yellow matter of the bile. Bi- 
liary calculi are most frequently found in the 
gall-bladder: at other times, in the substance of 
the liver, in the branches of the Ductus lupati- 
cus, or in the Ductus Communis Cholcdochvs. 
The first are called Cystic; the second Hepatic; 
and the last, sometimes, Hepatocystic. The 
causes which give rise to them are very ob- 
scure. Often they occasion no uneasiness, and 
at other limes the symptoms may be confounded 
with those of hepatitis. At times, they are re- 
jected by the mouth, or by the bowels, along 
with a considerable quantity of bile, which had 
accumulated behind them; at other times, they 
occasion violent abdominal inflammation, ab- 
scesses, and biliary fistula;, rupture of the gall- 
bladder, and fatal effusion into the peritoneum. 
The passage of a gallstone is extremely painful; 

yet the pulse is not affected. Antiphlogistics, 
when there is inflammatory action, and strong 
doses of opium, to allay the pain and spasm, 
with the warm bath, are the chief remedies. 
Solvents are not to be depended upon. They 
cannot reach the calculi. 

Cal'ccli in the Ears, (F.) Calculs dc V 0- 
rcille. Hard, light, and inflammable concre- 
tions, which occur in the meatus auditorius ex- 
ternus, and are merely indurated cerumen. 
They are a frequent cause. of deafness. They 
can be easily seen, and may be extracted by 
appropriate forceps, after having been detached 
by injections of soap and water. 

Calculi Fellei, Calculi, biliary. 

Cal'ccli, Lach'rymal, (F.) Calculs lacry- 
maux. Concretions sometimes, but rarely, form 
in the lachrymal passages, where they occasion 
abscesses and fistula;, which do not heal until 
they are extracted. No analysis has been made 
of them. 

Calculi of the Mamm/e, (F.) Calculs des 
Mamellcs. Haller gives a case of a concre- 
tion, of a yellowish-white colour, which had the 
shape of one of the excretory ducts of the mam- 
mary gland, having been extracted from an 
abscess seated in that organ. 

Cal'culi of the Pan'creas, (F.) Calculs du 
Puncreas. These are but little known. Ana- 
logy has induced a belief that they resemble 
the salivary. Some have supposed that certain 
transparent calculi, rejected by vomiting-, or 
passed in the evacuations, have proceeded from 
the pancreas, but there seems no reason for this 

Cal'culi of the Pine'al Gland, (F.) Cal- 
culs de la Glande Pineale, These have been 
frequently met with. No symptom announces 
their presence during life. They are composed 
of phosphate of lime. 

Calculi of the Prostate, Prostatic cal'- 
culi. These are not very rare. They have ge- 
nerally the same composition as the preceding. 
They usually present the symptoms common to 
every tumefaction of the prostate, and some- 
times those of calculi in the bladder. 

Cal'culi Pul'monarv, (F.) Calculs pul- 
monaires. These concretions are very fre- 
quently met with in the dead body, without 
seeming to have produced unpleasant symp- 
toms during life. At other times, they are 
accompanied with all the symptoms of phthisis, 
Phthisic calculeuse of Bayle. At times, they are 
expectorated without the supervention of any 
unpleasant symptom. They are usually formed 
of carbonate of lime and animal matter. 

Cal'culi Sal'ivary, Cal'culi saliva' les, Sia- 
lol'ithi, (F.) Calculs salivaires. Concretions, 
usually formed of phosphate of lime and ani- 
mal matter, which are developed in the sub- 
stance of the salivary glands or in their excre- 
tory ducts. In the first case, they may be mis- 
taken for a simple swelling of the gland; in the 
second, they may be generally detected by the 
touch. They may be extracted by incision in 
the interior of the mouth. 

Cal'culi, Spermat'ic, (F.) Calculs sper- 
matiquts. These have been sometimes found 
in the vesicula; seminales after death. They 
cannot be detected during life. No analysis 
has been made of them. 

Cal'culi of tiik Stomach and Intf.s'tines, 
Enteral' ithus, E. Cal' cuius, Concrc'tio alci'na, 



(F.) Calculs de Vestomac, C. intestinauXf Picrres 
stercoraks, Concretions intestinales. Calculi of 
the stomach are rare, and have almost always 
been carried thither by the antiperistaltic action 
of the intestines. The symptoms occasioned 
by them are those of chronic gastritis. It has 
been imagined that the continued use of ab- 
sorbent powders, as magnesia, will give occa- 
sion to them. 

Intestinal concretions, (F.) Calculs intcsli- 
naux, are not uncommon in animals (see Be- 
zoard :) but they are rare in man. The causes 
which give rise to them are little known: 
sometimes a biliary calculus affords them a 
nucleus. Their composition varies. They are 
light, hard, very fetid, and not inflammable. 
They are formed, ordinarily, between the val- 
vulae of the small intestines, or in the cells of 
the large, and sometimes in old hernia?. Whilst 
they do not obstruct the passage of the alimen- 
tary mass, they produce no unpleasant symp- 
tom. At times, the movable tumour which 
they form, may be felt through the parietes of 
the abdomen. They are generally evacuated 
per anum. 

Cai/culi of the Tonsils. Calculous con- 
cretions, which sometimes form in the tonsils. 
(F.) Calculs des Amygdalcs. They are easily 
recognised by the sight and touch: sometimes 

they are discharged by spitting, either alone 
or with the pus of an abscess occasioned by 
their presence. They have not been analyzed. 

Cai/culi, U'rinauy, Urol' U hi, (F.) Calculs 
urinaires. Picrrrs vrinaires. Concretions, which 
form froni the crystallizable substances in the 
urine, and which" are met with not only in the 
whole course of the urinary passages, but in 
fistulous openings wherever the urine stagnates 
naturally or accidentally. Their causes are but 
little known. They are more common at the 
two extremities of life than at the middle, and 
more so in some countries and districts than in 
others. At times, a clot of blood, a portion of 
mucus, &c, will form the nucleus. The symp- 
toms and treatment vary according to the seat 
of the calculus. There is no such thing pro- 
bably as a medicinal solvent. See Urinary 

Modern chymists have demonstrated the ex- 
istence of several components of urinary cal- 
culi, viz. Lilldc Acid, Phosphate of Lime, Am- 
rnoniaco-Mugnesian Phosphate, Oxalate of Lime, 
Cystic Oxide, and Xanthic Oxide, with an ani- 
mal cementing ingredient. The varieties of 
calculi, produced by the combination or inter- 
mixture of these ingredients, are thus repre- 
sented by Dr. Paris. 


< ULT. 




Forjh, a flattened oval. S. G. 
generally exceeds 1.500. Colour, 
brownish or fawn-like. Surface, 
smuoth. Texture, laminated. 

It consisls piincipally of Lit/tic 
.Hcid. When tieatej with nitric 
acid, a beautiful pink sub-tance re- 
sults. This calculus is slightly so- 
luble in water, abundantly so in the 
pure alkalies. 

It is the prevailing 
species; but the surface 
sometimes occurs fine- 
ly lubeieulated. It fre- 
quently constitutes the 
nuclei of the othtr spe- 


Colour, dark brown. Texture, 
harder than that of ih.' oiler spe- 
cies. S. G. 1.4-28 to 1.970. Sur- 
face, studded with tubercles. 

It is oxalate of lime, and is deconi- 
p ised in the flame of a spirit lamp 
swelling out into a white efflores- 
cence, which is quicklime. 

This species in- 
cludes some varieties, 
which are remarka- 
bly smooth ami pale- 
coloured, resembling 
kemj seed. 


Colour, pah' brown or gray; sur- 
face, smooth and polished : sti ucture, 
regularly laminated; the lamina; 
easily sepaiating into concrete 

Principally phosphate of lime, li 
is soluble in muriatic acid. 

4. TRir-LE. 

Colour, generally brilliant white. 
Surface, uneven, studded with 
-hining crystals, less compact than 
the preceding sp pies. Between its 
laminie smali c. lis occur, tilled wi.h 
sparkling particles, 

It is an amnioniaeo-maffiiesiaii 
phosphate, generally mixed with 
ph sphate of lime. Pure alkalies 
decompose it, extracting its ammo- 

This species attains 
a larger size than any 
of the others. 

It is very fusible, 
melting into a vitreous 

5. Fusible. 

Colour. Grayish white. 

A compound ot the two foiegoing 


Very like the triple calculus, but 
it is unst. atifn d and more compact 
and homogeneous. 

It consists of cystic unite. Under 
the blowpipe it yitlds a peculiarlj 
fetid odour. It is soluble in acids 
and in alkalies, even if they art 
fully satura ed with carbonic acid. 

It is a rare species. 


Its section exhibits ..ifi'ereut con- 
cern i ic lamina;. 

Compounded of several species 
alternating with each other. 


No characteristic form. 

The ingredients aie separable 
only by cbymical analysis. 

1. Renal Calculi, (F.) Calculs rinaux. These 
have almost always a very irregular shape: at 
times, there will be no indication of their pre- 
sence: at others, they occasion attacks of pain 
in the kidneys, sometimes accompanied with 
bloody or turbid urine. Often, they cause in- 
flammation of the kidneys, with all its unplea- 

sant results. They are generally formed of 
uric acid, animal matter, and oxalate of lime, 
with, sometimes, phosphates. The treatment 
will have to vary, according to the absence or 
presence of inflammatory signs, — relieving the 
irritation by opiates. A surgical operation can 
rarely be applicable. 




2. Calculi in the Ureters. (F.) Calculs des 
Ui tltres. These come from the kidneys, and do 
not produce unpleasant effects, unless they are 
so large as to obstruct the course of the urine, 
and to occasion distention of the whole of the 
ureter above them; or unless their surface is so 
rough as to irritate the mucous membrane, and 
occasion pain, hemorrhage, abscesses, &c. 
The pain, during the passage, is sometimes 
very violent, extending to the testicle of the 
same side in the male; and occasioning a 
numbness of the thigh in both sexes. The treat- 
ment consists in general or local blood-letting, 
warm hath, and opiates. 

3. Calculi, Vesical, Stone in the Bladder, 
Litk'ia Vesica'lis, Lithi'asis cys'tica, Lithi'asis 
vesicu'lis, Ci/sto-lithi'asis, Di/su'ria calculo'sa, 
D. irritata, Cal'culus vesi'ca, (F ) Calculs visi- 
caux. These are the most common. Some- 
times, they proceed from the kidneys: most 
commonly, they are formed in the bladder itself. 
Sense of weight in the perinasum, and some- 
times of a body rolling when the patient changes 
his position; pain or itching at the extremity 
of the glans in men; frequent desire to pass 
the urine; sudden stoppage to its flow; and 
bloody urine — are the chief signs which induce 
us to suspect their existence. We cannot, 
however, be certain of this without sounding 
the patient. Sometimes, when of a small size, 
they are expelled: most commonly, they re- 
main in the bladder, the disorganization of 
which they occasion, unless removed by a sur- 
gical operation. 

4. Calculi, Ure'thral. They almost always 
proceed from the bladder. The obstruction, 
which they cause to the passage of the urine, 
the hard tumour, and the noise occasioned 
when struck by a sound, indicate their presence. 
They are removed by incision. 

5. Calculi bi'Fis'tuluus Passages. These arise 
when there is some fistulous opening into the 
urethra. They can be readily recognised, arid 
may generally be extracted with facility. (F.) 
Calculs //lure's hors des voies urinaires. See 
Urinary Calculi. 

Cai/culi of the U'terus. (F.) Calculs de 
I Uterus. These are very rare. The signs, 
which indicate them during life, are those of 
chronic engorgement of the uterus. Their ex- 
istence, consequently, cannot be proved till after 

CALCULIFRAGUS, Lithontriplic. 

CAL'OULOUS, (F.) Calculeux, Graveleux. 
That which relates to calculi, especially to those 
of the bladder. 

CALCULS BfLIAlRES, Calculi, biliary— & 
de I Estomac, Calculi of the stomach — c. de la 
Claude //Male, Calculi of the pineal gland— c. 
Intestinaux, Calculi of the stomach and intes- 
tines — c. Laerymaux, Calculi, lachrymal — c. des 
Mumelles, Calculi of the mammas— c. de I' Oreille, 
Calculi in the ears— c. du Pancrias, Calculi of 
the Pancreas — c. Placds hors des votes urinaires, 
Calculi in fistulous passages— c. Pulmonaires, 
Calculi, pulmonary— e. Renaux, Calculi, renal— 
c. Sulicaires, Calculi, salivary — c. Spermatiques. 
Calculi, spermatic— c- Urinaires, Calculi, uri- 
nary — c. des Ureteres, Calculi in the ureters — 
c. de illt&rus, Calculi of the uterus— c. Vdsi- 
caux, Calculi, vesical. 

CAL'CULUS, Lapis, Lithos, ?.i$c?. A di- 
minutive of calx, a lime stone. (F.) Calcul, 

Pierre. Calculi are concretions, which may 
form in every part of the animal body, but 
which are most frequently found in the organs 
that act as reservoirs, and in the excietory 
canals. They are met with in the tonsils, 
joints, biliary ducts, digestive passages, lachry- 
mal ducts, mammas, pancreas, pineal gland, 
prostate, lungs, salivary, spermatic and urinary 
passages, and in the uterus. The causes which 
give rise to them are obscure. 

Those that occur in reservoirs or ducts are 
supposed to be owing to the deposition of the 
substances, which compose them, from the fluid 
as it passes along the duct; and those which 
occur in the substance of an organ are regarded 
as the product of some chronic irritation. Their 
general effect is to irritate, as extraneous bodies, 
the parts with which they are in contact; and to 
produce retention of the fluid, whence they have 
been formed. The symptoms differ, according 
to the sensibility of the organ and the irnpor* 
tance of the particular secretion whose discharge 
they impede. Their solution is generally imprac- 
ticable : spontaneous expulsion or extraction is 
the only way of oettino- rid of them. 

CAL'CULUS BEZOAR, Bezoard— c. Encys- 
ted, Calcul chatonni — c. Vesicse, Calculus, 

CALDAS, WATERS OF. Caldasis a small 
town, ten leagues from Lisbon, where are mine- 
ral springs; containing carbonic and hydrosul- 
phuric acid gases, carbonates and muriates of 
lime and magnesia, sulphates of soda and lime, 
sulphuret of'iron, silica, and alumina. They are 
much used in atonic gout. They are thermal. 
Temperature 93° Fahrenheit. 

CALDE'RL'E ITAL'IC^E. Warm baths in 
the neighbourhood of Ferrara, in Italy, much 
employed in dysuria. 

CALEBASSES, Cucnrbita lagenaria. 

CALEFA'CIENTS, Calrfacien'tia, Tkerman'- 
tica, from calidus, 'warm,' and facia, ' I make.' 
(F.) Echavffants. Substances which excite a 
degree of warmth in the part to which they are 
applied, as mustard, pepper, &c. They belong 
to the class of stimulants. 

CALEFACTIO, Echuufement. 

CALENDULA ALITiNA. Arnica montana. 

Calen'dula Arven'sis, Cal tha Arvin' sis , Wild 
Mar'igold (F.) Souci des Charnps. This is, some- 
times, preferred to the last. Its juice has been 
given, in the dose of from f. *;j to f.^iv, in jaun- 
dice and cachexia. 

Calen'dula Officinalis, C. Sati'va, Chrij- 
san' themum, Sponsa sot 'is , Calthavulga' ris ; Single 
Mar'igold, Garden Mar'igold. Family, Synan- 
therefE,Syngenesia necessaria, Linn.(F.) Sottci. 
So called from flowering every calcnd. The 
flowers and leaves have been exhibited as ape- 
rients, diaphoretics, &c, and have been highly 
extolled, of late, in cancer. 


CALENTU'RA, from cal ere, 'to be warm.' 
The word, in Spanish, signifies fever. A spe- 
cies of furious delirium to which sailors are 
subject in the torrid zone : — a kind of phrenitis, 
the attack of which comes on suddenly after 
a broiling day, and seems to be characterized by 
a desire in the patient to throw himself into 
the sea. It is only a variety of phrenitis. 

CALENTU'RAS; Palo de Calentu'ras. Po- 
met and L<':mery say, that these words are, 




sometimes, applied to cinchona. Camelli says, 
they mean, also, a tree of the Philippine Isles, 
the wood of which is bitter and febrifuge. 
CJiLICE, Calix. 

CALICO BUSH, Kalmia latifolia. 


CAL1DUM AN1MALE, Animal heat— c. 
Innatum, Animal heat. 

CALIGATIO, Dazzling. 

CALI'GO. 'A mist.' Achlys. (F.) Brouil- 
lard. An obscurity of vision, dependent upon 
a speck on the cornea: also, the speck itself; 
Caligo cor'nex, Mac'ula cornea, M.s'emipcllu'cida, 
Phtlunma caligo, C. a nephel'io, Rtbctu'do visus, 
C. a leuco'male, Neb'ula. (q. v.) Opalce cornea, 
Web-eye. (F.) JYouagc de la Cornee, Taye, Ob- 
scurcissement de la vue. 

Caligo Lentis, Cataract — c. Pupilla?, Syne- 
zisis — c. Synizesis, Synezisis — c. Tenebrarum, 

CALIHACHA CANELLA, Laurus cassia. 

CALIX, Infandib'ulum, from x.z\r£, 'a cup.' 
(F.) Calice, Entonnoir. Anatomists have given 
this name to small membranous canals, which 
surround the papilla; of the kidney, and open 
into its pelvis, whither they convey the urine; — 
Cdliccs relinks, Cylind'ri membmnu'eei Rennm, 
Fis'lulo?. urc'terum renum, Canales membra' nei 
Renum, Tu'buli pelvis renum. Their number 
varies from to 12 in each kidney. 

Calix Vomitoria, Goblet, emetic. 

CALLEUX, Callous. 


CALLICREAS, Pancreas. 


CALLIP/E'DIA, from x.ctXog, ' beautiful,' and 
none, naiSuc, 'a child.' The art of begetting 
beautiful children. This was the title of a poem 
by Claude Quillet, in 1655. Ca/lipsedia sive de 
pulchra. prolis habenda ratione. The author ab- 
surdly supposes, that the beauty of children is 
affected by the sensations which the mother 
experiences during her pregnancy. 



CALLIPHYLLUM, Asplenium trichoma- 

' CALLOSITAS, Induration— c. Palpebrarum, 

CALLOSITY, Catlos'itas, Sajros, Tylo'ma, 
Ti/Io'sis, Dermatol' yhis, Ecphy'ma Callus. Hard- 
ness, induration, and thickness of the skin, 
which assumes a horny consistence, in places 
where it is exposed to constatit pressure. (F.) 
Durillon. Also that induration, which is ob- 
served in old wounds, old ulcers, fistulous pas- 
sages. &c. 

CALLOUS, Callo'sus, Ochtho'drs, from eal- 
lus, 'hardness.' (F.) Callevx. That which is 
hard or indurated. A Callous Ulcer, is one 
whose edores are think and indurated. 


The bony matter, thrown out between the frac- 
tured extremities of a bone, which acts as a 
cement, and as a new bony formation. The 
words, are, likewise, used occasionally in the 
same sense as Callosity. 

CALMAjYTS, Sedatives. 

CALME, (F.) The interval that separates 
the paroxysms of an acute or chronic disease. 
When the type is intermittent, the word inter- 
mission is used. 

CALOMBA, Calumba. 

Calomklanos Tcjrqueti. A name given by 
Riveri us to purgative pills, prepared with calo- 
mel, sulphur, and resin of jalap. — Dictionaries. 

CALOMELAS, Hydrargyri submurias. 
CALO'NIA, y.almvia,. An epithet formerly 
given to myrrh — Hippocr. See Myrrha. 

gara octandra. 

CALOR, Heat — c. Animalis, Animal heat. 
CALORICIT£,(F.) Calorid'itas. The faculty 
possessed by living bodies, of generating a suf- 
ficient quantity of caloric, to enable them to 
resist atmospheric cold, and to preserve, at all 
times and in every part, a temperature nearly 
equal. See Animal Heat. 

CALORIFICA'TION, Calorifica'tio, from 
color, 'heat,' and fieri, 'to become.' The func- 
tion of producing animal heat. 

CALORWkSES, from color, 'heat.' The 
name under which M. Baurhes proposes to ar- 
range all diseases, characterized by a sensible 
chano-e in the quantity of animal heat. The 
Calorinhes form the first class of his Nosology. 

darii, Mudar. 

CALOTTE, (F.) Pile'olum. Anatomists some- 
times ffive the name — Calotte apontvrotique — 
to the aponeurosis of the occipito-fronlalis mus- 
cle, which covers it externally ; and that of Ca- 
lotte du crane to the scu/lcap. 

Calotte is also applied to an adhesive plaster, 
with which the head of a person labouring 
under tinea capitis is sometimes covered, after 
the hair has been shaved off. This plaster is 
pulled suddenly and violently off, in order to 
remove the bulbs of the hair. It means, also, 
a sort of coif made of boiled leather, worn by 
those who have undergone the operation of 
trepan, &c. 


CALTHA ALP1NA, Arnica montana— c. Ar- 
vensis, Calendula arvensis — c. Vulgaris, Ca- 
lendula officinalis. 

CALTROPS, see Trapa natans. 

CALUM'BA, Colom'bo, Calom'ba, Colom'ba, 
(Ph. U. S ;) Columbo, Radix Columhx. (F.) 
Calumbc ou The root of Menisper 1 - 
mum pahna'tum, Coc'cidus palma'lus, indige- 
nous in India and Africa. Its odour is slightly 
aromatic; taste unpleasantly bitter. It is tonic 
and antiseptic. Dose, gr. 10 to Zj. in powder. 

Calumba, American, Frase'ra IValtrri. F. 
Cinofinicn'sis, (F.) Officinalis, Swer'tia difj'orm'- 
is, Sw. Frase'ra, American or Marietta Colombo, 
Indian Lettuce, Yellow Gentian, Golden Krai, 
Meadow pride, Pyramid, is used in the same 
cases as the true Calumba. 

CALUS, Callus. 

CALVA. Cranium. 

Calva, Calra'ria. The cranium; — the up- 
per part especially; — the Vault of the Cranium, 
Cam' era . 

CALVARIA, Cranium. 

struments, which have a head or button. 

CALVER'S PHYSIC, Leptandria Viro-inica. 




CALVF'TIES, Calvi"tium, Pkalacrtfsis, Gla- 
bri'ties, Opki'asis, Dcpi/u'lio Capitis, Bhala- 
cro'iun, Madaro'sis, &c. from ealvus, 'bald.' 
(F.) Chauveti. Absence of hair, particularly 
at tJie top of, and behind the bead. Calvi"tics 
palpebrarum: — loss of tbe eye-lashes. 

CALX, Lime, Ca'rium Tense, Protox'ide of 
Cal'cium, Cat'caria pura. The lime, employed 
in pharmacy, should be recently prepared by 

Calx, see Calcaneum — c. Cblorinata, Calcis 
cbloridum — c.Cum kali puro,Potassa cum calce 
— c. Salita, Calcis murias — c. Bismuthi, Bis- 
muth, subnitrate of. 

Calx e Testis; lime prepared from shells. 
It has probably no medicinal advantages 'over 
that prepared from marble. 

Calx Viva, Oxfidum Cakii, Calx recens, Fu- 
mans nix, Calx vsta, Calx et Calx viva. Lime 
or Quicklime. (F.) Cltaux vive. The external 
operation of calx viva is escharotic, but it is 
rarely used. Lime is a good disinfecting' agent. 
It is employed internally in the form of Liquor 
Calcis, (q. v.) 

lus soldanella. 

CAMARA, Calva. 

Carnarez is a small canton near Sylvanes, in 
the department of Aveyron, France, where 
there are some acidulous chalybeates. 

CAMARO'SIS, Camaro'ma, from y.*nctnx, 'a 
vault;' Camera! do, Testudina'tio Cranii. A 
species of fracture of the skull, in which the 
fragments are placed so as to forma vault, with 
its base resting on the dura mater. — Galen, 
Paulus of ^Egina. 

CAMBING. A tree of the Molucca Islands, 
from the bark of which a kind of gum-resin ex- 
udes, which has been highly extolled in dysen- 
tery. It appears to have some resemblance to 
tbe simarouba. — Rumpbius. 

CAMBIUM, ' Exchange.' A name formerly 
given to a fancied nutritive juice, which was 
supposed to originate in the blood, to repair 
the losses of every organ, and produce their in- 
crease. — Sennertus. 

lage in the department of Basses Pyrenees, 
France, where there are two mineral springs; 
the one an acidulous chalybeate, the other sul- 
phureous. Temperature, 02° to 09° Fahrenheit. 

CAMBODIA, Cambogia. ' 

CAMBO'GIA, from Cambodia, in the East 
Indies, where it is obtained. Hence, likewise, 
its names Camho'dia, Cambo' gium, Gambo'gia, 
Gambo'irium, Gambu' gium. It is called, also, 
Gulla, Gulta gamba, Gummi Gutla, Cutagnu'na, 
Callagau'ma, Chryso'pus, Lnxati'vus Indicus, 
Gummi Bogia, G. gamau'drx, G. de Goa, G. 
de Jcmu, Chilta jemoco, Gutla Gamundrx, 
(,' iniim i ad Pad' agram.Cambogeox Gamboge, &c. 
(F.) Gumme Gutte. Ord. Guttiferse. A yellow 
juice obtained from StaJagmi'tis Cambogio'Udes 
and other plants of the natural family Guttiferse, 
but it is not known from which of them the 
officinal Gamboge is obtained. It is inodorous, 
of an orange yellow colour ; opake and brittle: 
fracture glassy; is a drastic cathartic, emetic, 
and anthelmintic; and is used in visceral ob- 
structions and dropsy, and wherever powerful 
hydragogue cathartics are required. Dose from 

gr. ij. to vi. in powder, united with calomel, 
squill. &c. 

CAMBU'CA, Camluc'ca membra' la. Buboes 
and venereal ulcers, seated in tbe groin or near 
the genital organs. — Paracelsus. See Bubo. 

CAMELEE, Cneorum tricoccum. 

CAMERA, Chamber, Fornix, Vault— c. Cor- 
dis, Pericardium. 

CAMERATIO, Camarosis. 

CAMIlNGA, Canella alba. 


CAMISOLE, Waistcoat, strait. 


CAMOMILLE FETIDE, Anthemis cotula 
— c. Puante, Anthemis cotula — c. Romaiuc, 
Anthemis nobilis — c. des Teinturiers, Anthemis 
tinctoria — c. Vulgaire. Matricaria chamomilla. 

ton, two leagues from Marseilles, where are 
springs containing carbonate of lime, sulphur, 
chloride of sodium, &c. They are purgative, 
and used in skin complaints. 

Campagne is in the departmentof Aude, France. 
The waters contain sulphate and chlorohydrate 
of 'magnesia. Temperature 80° Fahr. 

CAMPAN'ULA. Diminutive of Campa'na. 
A bell. 

Campanula Trache'lium, Canterbury Bell 
or Throatwort, was formerly used, in decoction, 
in relaxation of the fauces. It is, also, called 
Cervical ria. 

CAMPE, Flexion. 

CAMPHIRE. Camphor. 

CAMPHOR, from Arab. Caphur or Kam'phur, 
Cam'phora, Cam'phura, Caffa, Caf, Cufar, 
Cuph'ora, Al/afor, Camphire, Camphor, fyt. (F.) 
Camphre. A concrete substance, prepared, by 
distillation, from the Laurus Cam'phora, an in- 
digenous tree of the East Indies. Order, Lau- 
rinem. Its odour is strong and fragrant : it is 
volatile, not easily pulverizable ; texture crys- 
talline. Soluble in alcohol, ether, oils, vine- 
gar; and slightly so in water. Its properties 
are narcotic, diaphoretic, and sedative. Dose, 
gr. v. to 9j. Dissolved in oil or alcohol, it is 
applied externally in rheumatic pains, bruises, 
sprains, &c. 

Camphor Water, Mistura Camphora?. 

SPELIENSIUM, Camphorosma monspeliaca. 

CAMPH'ORATED, Camphora'tus, (F.)Cam- 
phre\. Relating to camphor; containing cam- 
phor; as a camphorated smell, a camphorated 
di aught. 

Camphor, and 0270/, 'odour.' Scla'go, Cam- 
phora'la hirsu'la seu Monspelicn' slum, Hairy 
Camphor os' ma, (F.) Camphrte de Montpellier. 
Family, Atriplicete. Sea;. Syst. Tetrandria Mono- 
gynia. This plant, as its name imports, has an 
odour of camphor. It is regarded as diuretic, 
diaphoretic, cephalic, antispasmodic, &c. It is 
also called Chamxpcuce. and Stinking Ground 

CAMPHRE, Camphor. 

CAMPHRE, Camphorated. 

phorosma monspeliaca. 

CAMFSIS, x.*jurpic,Flex'io, Curva'tio, Inflfx'- 
io. Rone or cartilage, forcibly bent from its 
proper shape, without breaking. — Good. 

Campsis depressio, Depression. 




CAMPYLOR'RHACHIS; from tmatvUg, 

crooked,' and pa/i;, -spine.' A monster, 
whose spine is crooked. — Gurlt. 

CAMPYLORRHI'NUS; from xa/unvXog, 
' crooked,' and piv, 'nose.' A monster whose 
nose is crooked. — Gurlt. 
CAMPY LOTIS, Cataclasis. 
CAMPYLUM. Cataclasis. 
CAMUS (F.) Simus, Resi'mus. One who lias 
a short nose. The French speak of Nez camus, 
' short nose.' 

CANAL, Cana'lis, Ductus, Mca'tus, Poros, 
Och'elos, (F.) Conduit. A channel, for afford- 
ing passage to liquids or solids or to certain or- 

Canal, Alimen'tary or Diges'ttve, Cana'lis 
ciba'rius vel digesti'vus, Diges'tive Tube, Alimen- 
tary Duct or Tube, Ductus ciba'rius. The canal 
extending from the mouth to the anus. 

Canal, Arachnoi'dian, Cana'lis Bichal'ii, 
Canal of Bichat. A canal formed by the exten- 
sion of the arachnoid over the transverse and 
longitudinal fissures of the brain, and which 
surrounds the vena magna Galeni. 

CANAL ARTdRIEL, Arterial duct— c. de 
Bartholin, Ductus Bartholinus — c. of Bichat. 
Canal, arachnoidian — c. Bullular, of Petit, God- 
ronne canal — 3. Carotidien, Carotid canal — c. 
Chol&doque, Choledoch duct — c. Goudronne, Go- 
dronni, canal — c. Hipatique, Hepatic duct — c. 
Infra-orbitar, Suborbitar canal — c. Inflexe del'os 
temporal, Carotid canal — c. Intermidiare des 
ventriculcs, Aquoeductus Sylvii. 

Canal, Intes'tinal. Cana'lisseu Ductusin- 
testina'lis. The portion of the digestive canal, 
formed by the intestines. 

CANAL DE PETIT, Godronni. canaf—c 
Pulmo-aortique, arterial Duct — c. Rachidian, 
Vertebral canal. 

Canal of Schlemm. A minute circular ca- 
nal, discovered by Professor Schlemm, of Ber- 
lin. It is situate at the point of union of the 
cornea and sclerotica. 

Canal Spinal, Vertebral canal — c. Spiroide 
de L'os temporal, Aquajductus Fallopii — c. de 
Stcnon, Ductus salivalis superior — c. Thoracique, 
Thoracic duct — c. Vcineux, Canal, venous — c. 
Vulvo-uterine, Vagina — c. de Wartlton, Ductus 
salivalis inferior. 

Canal Venous, Cana'lis seu Ductus veno'sus, 
(F.) Canal veineux. A canal, which exists only 
in the fcetus. It extends from the bifurcation 
of the umbilical vein to the vena cava infe- 
rior, into which it opens, below the diaphragm. 
At times, it ends in one of the infrahepatic 
veins. It pours into the cava a part of the 
blood, which passes from the placenta by the 
umbilical vein. After birth, it becomes a fibro- 
cellular cord. 

canals— c. Lachrymales, Lachrymal ducts — c. 
Membranei renum, see Calix — c. Tubeeformes, 
Semicircular canals. 

CANALICULATUS, Cannil'e, Grooved. 

mal ducts — c. Limacum, Lachrymal ducts — c. 
Semicircularcs, Semicircular canals. 

CANALIS ARTERIOSUS, Arterial duct— c. 
Bichatii, Canal arachnoidian — c. Canaliculars, 
Gorget — c. Caroticus, Carotid canal — c. Lacry- 
malis, Lachrymal or nasal duct — c. Medius, 
Aqnceductus Sylvii — c. Nerveus fistulosus re- 
num, Ureter — c.-Orbilee nasalis, Lachrymal or 

nasal duct— c. Scalarum communis, Infundibu- 
luin of the cochlea— c. Urinarius, Urethra— c. 
Vidianus, Pterygoid canal. 

TRITION OF BONES, Ductus nutn'ai, (F.) 
Canavx nour riders oil de Nutrition des os.— 
Conduits nuvrriciers ou nulriciers. The canals, 
through which the vessels pass to the bones. 
They^are lined by a very fine lamina of com- 
pact texture, or are formed in the texture itself. 
There is. generally, one large nutritious canal 
in a lono- bone, situate towards its middle. 

CANAPACIA, Artemisia vulgaris. 

CANARIES, CLIMATE OF. The climate of 
the Canaries greatly resembles that of Madeira. 
That of the latter is however more equable, and 
the accommodation for invalids much superior. 

CANARY-SEED, Phalaris Canadensis. 

CANAUX AQUEUX,see Aqueous— c. Demi- 
circulaires, Semicircular canals — c. EjaculaUurs, 
Ejaculatory ducts — c. Nourriciers, Canals, nu- 
tritive — r . dc Nutrition des os, Lanals, nutritive. 

ino- to Bichat, the bony canals intended to give 
passage to vessels and nerves going to parts 
more or less distant; as the Cana'lis Carot'icus, 

CANAUX VEJNEUX. Venous Canals. The 
canals situate in the diploe, which convey ve- 
nous blood. 

CAN'CAMUM. A mixture of several gums 
and resins, exported from Africa, where it is 
used to deterge wounds. Dioscorides calls, by 
the name y.ay/.a^iov, the tears from an Arabian 
tree, which are similar to myrrh, and of a dis- 
agreeable taste. He advises it in numerous 
diseases. This name is given, also, to the Anime, 
(q. v.) 

CANCAMY. Anime. 

CANCEI/LI. La/ticc-icoik. The Cellular or 
Spongy Texture of Bonts, (F ) Tissu celluleux', 
consisting of numerous cells, communicating 
with each other. They contain a fatty matter, 
analogous to marrow. This texture is met with, 
principally, at the extremities of long bones; 
and some of the short bones consist almost 
wholly of it. It allows of the expansion of the 
extremities of bones, without adding to their 
weight; and deadens concussions. 

CANCEL'LUS, from cancer, 'a crab.' A 
species of crayfish, called the Wrong Heir, and 
Bernard the Hermit: which is said to cure rheu- 
matism, if rubbed on the part. 

CANCER, y.ctqy.irog, Car'cinos, Lupus cancro'- 
sus, Ulcus cancro'sum, ' a crab.' (q. v.) A dis- 
ease, so called, either on account of the hideous 
appearance which the ulcerated cancer presents, 
or on account of the great veins which sur- 
round it, and which the ancients compared to 
the claws of the crab; called also Carcino'ma. 
It consists of a scirrhous, livid tumour, inter- 
sected by firm, whitish, divergent bands: and 
occurs chiefly in the secernent glands. The 
pains are acute and lancinating, and often ex- 
tend to other parts. The tumour, ultimately, 
terminates in a fetid and ichorous ulcer. It is 
distinguished, according to its stages, into oc- 
cult and open; the former being the scirrhous, 
the latter the ulcerated condition. At times, 
there is a simple destruction or erosion of the 
organs, at others, an encephaloid or (cribriform, 
and at others, again, a colluid degeneration. 




For its production, it requires a peculiar dia- 1 The use of irritants, in cancerous affection?, 
thesis, or cachexia. The following table exhi- is strongly to be deprecated. When the disease 
bits the characters of the three species of carci- is so situate that excision can be practised, the 
noma, from Dr. Walshe: I sooner it is removed the better. 


Resembles tabulated ccrebial mat- 

Is commonly opaque fiom its ear- 
liest lb mation. 

Is of a dead white colour. 

Contains a multitude of minute 

la less hard and dense thin scir- 

Is frequently found in the veins 
issuing from the diseased mass. 

The predominant microscopical 
elements are globular, not alway- 
disiinctly cellular, and caudate cor 
|iu-< ula. 

Occasionally attains an enormous 

Has been observed in almost every 
tissue of the body. 

Very commonly coexists in several 
parts or organs of the same subject 

Is remark. ible for its occasional 
vn>t rapidity of growth. 

Is frequently the seat of inters itial 
hemorrhage and deposition of black 
or bistre-coloured matter. 

When softened into a p::lp appears 
as a dead white or pink opaque mat- 
ter of creamy consistence. 

Subcutaneous tumours care slow to 
contract adh sion with the skin. 

Ulci rated encephaloid is frequent 
ly the seat of hemorrhage, followed 
by rapid fungous development. 

The progress of the disease after 
ulceration is commonly very rapid. 

It is the most common form under 
which secondary cancer exhibits it- 

Is the species of cancer most fre- 
quently observed in young subjects. 

Resembles rind of bacon traversed 
>y Cf llulo-fibrous septa. 
Has a semitianspare.nt glossiness. 

Has a clear whitish or bluish yel- 
low tint. 

Is comparatively ill-supplied with 

Is exceedingly firm and dense. 

Has not been distinctly di tccted in 
this siiuatiou. 

The main microscopical constitu 
ems are juxtaposed nuclear cells: 
caudate corpusculado not exist in it. 

Rarely acquires larger dimensiom 
than an otanue. 

Its seat, as ascertained by observa- 
tion, is somewhat more 1 mitcd. 

Is not unusually solitary. 

Ordinarily grows slowly. 

Is comparatively rarely tho seat of 
these changes. 

Resembles, when softened, a yel- 
lowish brown semitratupaient gela- 
tinous matter. 

gcirrhus thus situate usually be- 
comes adherent. 

cirrhons ulcers much less fre- 
quently give rise to homo, rhage; and 
fungous growths (provided they re- 
tain the scirrhous character, are now 
more slowly and less abundantly de- 

There is not such a remarkai le 
change in the rate of progress of the 
disease after ulceration has set in. 

Is nflich less common before pu 


Has t lio appearance of particles of 
jelly inlaid in a regular alveolar bed 

The contained matter is strikingly 

I Greenish yellow is its predominant 

Its vessels have not been sufli 
cient y examined as yet. 

The jelly-like matter is exceedingly 
soft; a colloid mass is, however, firm 
and resisting. 

The pufaceous variety has been 
detected in the veins. 

Is composed of shells in a state of 

Observes a mean in this respect. 

Has so far been seen in a limited 
number of parts only 

Has rarely been met with in more 
than one organ. 

Grows with a medium degree of 

Undergoes no visible change of the 

Has so far been observed in adulis 

Cancer Aquat'icus, Gan'grenoas slomati'tis, 
Cancrum Oris, Gungrxnop'sis, Canker of the 
month, Gangrenous soremoulh, Sloughing Pha- 
gedena (if the month, Water Canker. Called, 
also, Aphthae serpen' tes, Gangrx'na Oris, Noma, 
Stomac'ace' sa, Cheiloc'acl, Uloc'ace, 
Cheilomala'cia, Scorbu'tus Oris, Slomatomala'cia 
pu'trida, Stomatoscp'sis, Slomutonecro'sis, Car- 
Oun'culus labio'rum et gcna'ium. <^-c. (F.) Can- 
cer aquatiqve, Stomatite, S. Chtir- 
lonneuse, Gangrene de la Bouchc, Sphacele de 
la Bouc.he, Figarile, Jjpthe gangrinevx. Cer- 
tain sloughing or gangrenous ulcers of the 
mouth, — so called, perhaps, because they are 
often accompanied with an afflux of saliva. 
The disease is not uncommon in children's asy- 
lums, and demands the same treatment as hos- 
pital gangrene; — the employment of caustics, 
and internal and external antiseptics. 

CANCER JlQUATlQUE, Cancer aqualicus, 
Stomacace — c. Astacus, see Cancrorum chelae 
— c. Black, Melanosis — c. Caminariorum, Can- 
cer, chimney sweepers' — c. Cerebri for me, see 

Canceu. Chimney-sweepers', Sooticart, Can- 
cer mundilo'rum, Cancer pwgato'ris inf tunic uli , 
Cancer scroti, Cancer caminario'rum, Oscheacar- 
cino'ma, (F.) Cancer des Ramoneurs. This af- 

fection begins with a superficial, painful, irre- 
gular ulcer, with hard and elevated edges, oc- 
cupying the lower part of the scrotum. Extir- 
pation of the part affected is the only means of 
effecting a cure. 

Cancer, Davidson's Remedy for, see Coni- 
um rnaculatum— c. du Foie, Hepalosarcomic. 

Cancer Gale'ni, (F.) Cancer de Ga/ien. A 
bandage for the head, to which Galen gave the 
name Cancer, from its eight heads resembling, 
rudely, the claws of the crab. It is now sup- 
plied by the bandage with six chefs or heads, 
which is called the Bandage of Galen or B. of 
the Poor. 

CANCER DE GALIEN, Cancer Galeni 
— c. lntestinorum, Enteropathia cancerosa — 
c. des Intestins, Enteropathia cancerosa — c. 
of the Lung, Phthisis, cancerous — c. Lupus, 
Lupus — c. Mollis, see Encephaloid — c. Mundito- 
rum, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Oris, Sto- 
macace — c. Ossis, Spina ventosa — c. Purgato- 
ris infumiculi, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. 
Scroti, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Soft, 
Ha?mafodes fundus— c. Uteri, Metro-carcinoma. 

CANCEREUX, Cancerous. 

CANCER. ROOT, Orobanche Virginiana, 
Phytolacca decandra. 

CAN'CEROUS, Cancro'sus, (F.) Cancireux. 




Relating to cancer; as Cancerous ulcer, Cancer- 
ous Diathesis, &c. 

CANCHALAGUA, Caehenlaguen, Cochin 
lagua, Chance lasua. Erylhr&fn Chilen'sis. A 
bitter Chili plant, which is considered nperient, 
sudorific, stomachic, vermifuge, and febrifuge. 

CANCRENA, Gangrene. 

CAN'CROID, Cancidi'deus, from cancer and 
ctdog, 'form.' That which assumes a cancer- 
ous appearance. A name given to certain cu- 
taneous cancers by Alibert: called also, Cheloid 
or Keloid (/i?.ug, 'a tortoise,' and ti<?;c, 'like- 
ness,') from their presenting a flattish raised 
patch of integument, resembling the shell of a 

CANCRO'RUM CHELAE, Oc'uli vel Lap'- 
ides Cuncro'rum, Lapil'li cancro'rum, Concre- 
men'ta, Jis'laci ftuviat'ilis, CraUs stones or eyes, 
(F.) Yeux d'ecrevise. Concretions found, par- 
ticularly, in the Cancer As'tacus or Crayfish. 
They consist of carbonate and phosphate of 
lime; and possess antacid virtues, but not more 
than chalk. 

CANCROSUS, Cancerous, Chancrcuse. 

CANCRUM ORIS, Cancer aquaticus, Sto- 

CANDELA FUMALIS, Pastil— c. Medicata, 
Bougie — c. Regia, Verbascum nigrum. 

CANDELARIA. Verbascum nigrum. 

CANDI, Caivlinn, Canthum. Caution; 1 ■white, 
bleached, purified.' Purified and crystallized 
sugar. See Saccharum. 

CANDIDUM OVI, Albumen ovi. 

CANE, SUGAR. See Saccharum — c. Sweet, 
Acorus Calamus. 

CAJYELE, Grooved. 

CANELEA. See Canella alba. 

Canel'la Alba, diminutive of Canna, 'a 
reed,' so called because the bark is rolled up 
like a reed. Cortex Winlera'nus spu'rius, Ca- 
nella Cuba'na, C. Wintera'nia, Cinnamo'mum al- 
bum, Cortex Antiscorbu'ticus, C. Aromat' icus , 
Costus cortico'sus, Camin'ga, Canella of Lin- 
naeus, and of Ph. U. S., Canella Bark, Canella, 
(F.) Canelle ou Canelle blanche, Fausse Jicorce 
de Winter, licorce Cariocostine. Fam. Magnoli- 
aceae. Sex, Sijst. Dodecandria Monogynia. This 
bark is a pungpnt aromatic. Its virtues are 
partly extracted by water; entirely by alcohol. 
It is a stimulant, and is added to bitters and ca- 

Canella Cakyophyllata, Myrtus caryo- 
phyllata — c. Cubana, C. alba, Laurus cassia — 
c. Malabarica et Javensis, Laurus cassia. 


CAJYEPIJY. (F.) A fine lamb's skin or goat's 
skin, used for trying the quality of lancets. 

CANICACEOUS, Furfuraceotis. 

CANTC.E. Meal, in which there is much 
bran. Also, course bread; or bread in which 
there is much bran — Panis Canica'ceus. 

CANICIDA, Aconitum. 

CANIC'ULA; the Dogstar, from ranis, 'a 
dosr;' 2eioioc, Sirius, (F.) Caniculc. This star, 
which gives its name to the Dogdaijs, because 
they commence when the sun rises with it, was 
formerly believed to exert a powerful influence 
on the animal economy. The Dog-days occur 
at a period of the year when there is generally 
great and oppressive heat, and therefore — it has 
been conceived — a greater liability to disease. 

CAN IF, Knife. 

CANIN, Canine. 

CANlNANiE RADIX, Caincee radix. 

CANINE, Cani'nus, Cyn'icus, xvny.og, from 
canis, 'a dog,' (F.) Canin. That which has a 
resemblance to the structure, &c. of a dog. 

Canine Fossa, Fossa Cani'na, (F.) Fosse Ca- 
nine. A small depression on the superior max- 
illary bone, above the dens caninus, which gives 
attachment to the caninus or levator unguli oris 

Canine Laugh, Sardon'ic laugh, Risus Ca- 
ni'nus, Risus Sardon'icus, Sardi'usis, Sardoni'- 
asis, (F.) Ris canin, sardonique, moqucur. A 
sort of laugh, the facial expression of which 
is produced particularly by the spasmodic con- 
traction of the Caninus muscle. Probably, this 
expression, as well as Cynic spasm, Cani'nus 
spasmus, may have originated in the resem- 
blance of the affection to certain movements 
in the upper lip of the dog. 

Canine Teeth, Denies Cani'ni, Cynodon'tes, 
D. Lania'rii, D. angula'res, cuspida'ti, columel- 
la'res, ocula'res, morden'tes, Eye Teeth, (F.) 
Dents canines, laniaires, angulaires, oculaires, 
a>illeres, ou conoides. The teeth between the 
lateral incisors and small molares of each jaw; 
— so named because they resemble the teeth of 
the dog. 

CANINUS, Levator anguli oris — c. Sentis, 
Rosa canina. 

CAN 1 RAM, Strychnos nux vomica. 

CANIRUBUS, Rosa canina. 

CANIS INTERFECTOR, Veratrum saba- 
billa — c. Ponticus, Castor fiber. 

CANFTIES, from canus, 'white.' Whiteness 
or grayness of the hair, and especially of that of 
the head, (F.) Canitie. When occurring in 
consequence of old age it is not a disease. 
Sometimes, it happens suddenly, and appa- 
rently in consequence of severe mental emo- 
tions. The causes, however, are not clear. 
See Poliosis. 

CANKER, Stomacace — c. of the mouth, 
Cancer aquaticus — c. water, Cancer aquaticus. 

CANNA, see Tous-les-Mois, Cassia fistula, 
Trachea — c. Brachii, Ulna — c. Domestica cru- 
ris, Tibia — c. Fistula, Cassia fistula — c. Indica, 
Sagittarium alexipharmacum — c. Major, Tibia 
— c. Minor, Fibula, Radius — c. Solutiva, Cassia 

CANNABIS INDICA, Bangue. See, also, 
Churrus and Gunjah. 

Can'nabis Sati'va, (F.) Chanrre, Chamhrie. 
The seed of this — Hempseed, Sem'ina Can'nabis, 
(F.) Chenevis, is oily and mucilaginous. The 
decoction is sometimes used in gonorrhoea. 

cuma longa. 

CANJVAMELLE, see Saccharum. 

CAJYNE AROMATJQUE, Acorus calamus— 
c. Congo, Costus— c. de Riviere, Costus — c. a 
Sucre, see Saccharum. 

CANNEBERGE, Vaccinium oxycoccos— c. 
Ponctue'e, Vaccinium vitis idsea. 

CANNELA ou CANEL& (F.) from cana'lis, 
'a canal;' Sulca'lus, Stria' tus, Canalicula'tus. 
Having a canal or groove — as, 31/tsc/e cannele 
(Lieutaud,) the Gemini; Corps canneles ou 
stries, the Corpora striata; Sonde canneUe, a 
grooved sound, &c. See Grooved. 

CANNELLE, Laurus cinnamomum — c. 
Blanche, Canella alba — c. de fa Chine, Laurus 
cassia — c. de Coromandcl, Laurus cassia — c. 




Fausse, Laurus cassia — c. Girofec, Myrtus ca- 
ryophyllata — c. des Indcs, Lauras cassia — c. dc 
Java, Laurus cassia — c. de Malabar, Lauras 
cassia — c. Matte, Laurus cassia — c. Officinale, 
Laurus cinnaniomurn — c. Poivree, see Wintera 
aroma tica. 

CANNULA, Canula. 

CANOPUM, see Sambucus. 
CANTABRICA, Convolvulus cantabrica. 


CANTARELLUS, Meloe proscarabams. 


tuarien'scs. The waters of Canterbury in Kent, 
England, are impregnated with iron, sulphur, 
and carbonic acid. 

CANTER1UM, Canlherius. 


CANTHARIDINE, see Cantharis. 

CAN'THARIS, from y.avSaqos, 'a scar alee' us;' 
Musca Hispan'ica, Mtl'oe vesicato'rius, Cantha- 
ris vesieato' r ia , Lytta vesieato' ria ; Blistering Fly, 
Spanish Fly, Fly, (F.) Canlharidrs, Mourhes,M. 
d Espagne. This fly is much employed in me- 
dicine. It is the most common vesicatory. 
Given internally, and even when absorbed from 
the skin, it affects the urinary organs, exciting 
strangury. This may be prevented, in cases of 
blisters, by interposing between the blistering 
plaster and skin a piece of tissue paper. Dilu- 
ents will relieve the strangury. Dose, half a 
grain to one grain. If kept dry, the flies will 
retain their activity for many years. Their ac- 
tive principle, Can'tharidin, Cantharidi'na, has 
been separated from them. 

Canthakis Vittata, Lytta vittata. 

CANTHE'RIUS, Cante'rium. The cross 
piece of wood in the apparatus, used by Hippo- 
crates for reducing luxations of the humerus. 

CANTHI'TIS. Inflammation of the Canthus 
of the eye. 

CANTHUM, Candi. 

CANTHUS, y.urdoQ, Epican'this, An'gulus 
ocu/a'ris; the corner or angle of the eye. The 
greater canthus is the inner angle, Hir'quvs, 
Rhanttr ; the lesser canthus, the outer angle, 
Paro'pia., Pcra. 

CANTIA'NUS PULVTS. A cordial powder, 
known under the name, ' Countess of Kent's 
powder,' composed of coral, amber, crab's eyes, 
prepared pearls. &c. It was o-iven in cancer. 

CANTION, Candi. 

CAN'ULA. or CAN'NULA, Au'liscos, Aulas 
Diminutive of Carina, 'a reed;' Tu'bulus, (F.) 
Canule ou Cannule. A small tube, of gold, sil- 
ver, platinum, iron, lead, wood, or elastic gum, 
used for various purposes in surgery. 

CAOUTCHOUC. The Indian name for In- 
dian Rubber, Elastic Gum, Cum Elastic, Cau- 
rlntr. Resi'na elasftica, Cayenne Resin, Cautchu'c. 
A substance formed from the milky juice of the 
a (seu Hevea) Qvianen'sis, Jat'ropha elas'- 
tica, (Sipho'nia Cahuchu,) S. elas'tica, Ficus In- 
dica. and Artocar'pus integrifo' lia: — South Ame- 
rican trees. It is insoluble in water and alco- 
hol; but boiling water softens and swells it. It. 
is soluble in the essential oils and in ether, 
when it may be blown into bladders. It is used 
in the fabrication of catheters, bougies, pessa- 
ries, <fcc. 

CA PA-ISIAKKA: Bromelia ananas. 

CAP BERN, WATERS OF. C. is in the 
department, France. The wa- 

ters contain sulphates, and carbonates of lime 
and magnesia, and chloride of magnesium. 
Temperature, 75° Fahrenheit. They are pur- 

CAFELET, Myrtus caryophyllata. 

CAPELIjYE; 'A Woman's Hat; in French; 
Capis'trum, from caput, 'head.' A sort of band- 
age, which, in shape, resembles a riding-hood. 
There are several kinds of Captlines. 1. That 
of the head, C. de la tele. See Bonnet d'Hip- 
pociate. C. of the clavicle, employed in frac- 
tures of the acromion, clavicle and spine of the 
scapula. C. of an amputated limb — the bandage 
applied round the stump. 

CAPER BUSH, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPER PLANT, Euphorbia Lathyris. 

CAPERS, see Capparis spinosa. 

CAPETUS, Imperforation. 

CAPHORA, Camphor. 

CAPILLAIRE, Capillary, see Adiantum 
capillus veneris — c. du Canada, Adiantum 
pedatum — c. de Montpellier, Adiantum capil- 
lus veneris. 

CAPILLAMEN'TUM, from Capil'lus, 'a 
hair," Capilli"tium, Tricho'ma, Trichoma' 'Hon, 
Any villous or hairy covering. Also, a small 
fibre or fibril. 

CAPTLLARY, Capilla'ris, Capilla'ceus, from 
capil'lus, 'a hair.' (F.) Capillairc. Hair-like; 

Cap'illary Vessels, (F.) Vaisseaux capil- 
laires, are the extreme radicles of the arteries 
and veins, with perhaps a sponoy tissue or pa- 
renchyma between the two. These, together, 
constitute the Capillary, intermediate, or periph- 
eral vascular system. In this system, secretion 
and nutrition are performed, and animal heat is 
probably elicited. They possess an action dis- 
tinct from that of the heart, and are the seat of 
febrile, inflammatory and other diseases. 

CAPILEATIO, Trichismus. 


CAPILLITIUM, Capillamentum, Entropion, 


CAPIL'LUS, quasi Capitis Pilus, Coma, 
Clitefe", Crinis, Pilus, Thrix, Ccesa'ries, (F.) Che- 
ven. This term is generally applied to the hair 
of the head, the characters of which vary, ac- 
cording to races, individuals, &c. Hairs arise 
in the cellular membrane, where the bulb is 
placed, and are composed of two parts— one, 
external, tubular, and tiansparent, of an epi- 
dermoid character; the other, internal and sui 
generis, which communicates to them their 
colour. The hair is insensible, and grows from 
the root. Canadensis, Adiantum pedatum. 

CAPIPLE'NIUM, from caput, 'the head,' 
and plenum, ' full.' A word, employed with 
different significations. A variety of catarrh. — 
Schneider. A heaviness or disorder in the head 
common at Rome, like the nccoij^laQia, Carebaria, 
of the Greeks. — Baglivi. 
CAP1STRUM, Cupeline, Chevcstre, Trismus 
— c. Auri, Borax. 

Capis'trum, Phimos, Cemos, y.'fio;, 'a halter.' 
This name has been given to several bandages 
for the head. — See Cupeline, Chovestre. 

CAPITA LIA REMEDIA, Cephalic remedies. 
CAPITA LIS, Cephalic. 




CAP1TELLUM, see Caput. 

CJiPITEUX. Heady. 

CAPITILU'VIUM, from caput, 'the head,' 
and lamre, to < wash.' A hath for the head. 

CAPI'FO'NES, from caput, ' the head.' Foe- 
tuses whose heads are so large as to render la- 
bour difficult. 

CAPITULUM, Alembic, Condyle, see Caput 
— c. Marlis, Ery ngium campestre — c. Santorini, 
Corniculum laryngis. 

CAPlTULUVllJM. Bath, (head.) 

CAPN1SMOS, Fumigation. 

CAPNIT1S, Tutia. 

CAPNORCHIS, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNOS, Fumaria. 

CAP OK, Cugot. 

CAPOT, Co got. 

CAP'PARIS SPINO'SA, Cap'paris, Cappar, 
Ca'prin, Prickly Caper Bush, (F.) Caprier. Fa- 
mily, Capparidece. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Mo- 
nogynia. The bark of the root, and the buds 
have been esteemed astringent and diuretic. 
The buds are a well known pickle. — Capers, 
(F.) Caprcs. 

Capparis Batiuc'ca, Baduk'ka. A species of 
caper, cultivated in India on account of the 
beauty of its flowers. The Orientals make a 
liniment with its juice, with which they rub 
pained parts. The flowers are purgative. 

CAPPONE, WATERS OF. At Cappone, in 
the isle of Ischia, are waters containing carbo- 
nate of soda, chloride of sodium and carbonate 
of lime. Temp. 100°. Fah. 

CAPREOLA'RIS, from capreolus, 'a tendril,' 
Cisso'ides, Elico'idcs, (F.) Capreolaire. Twisted. 

Capreola'ria, Vasa. Some have called thus 
the spermatic arteiies and veins, on account of 
their numerous contortions. 


CYPRES, see Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRI A, Capparis spinosa. 


CJiPRIER, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRIFOLIA, Lonicera periclymenum. 


CAPRI'ZANS, Dorcad r ixon,ioQxaiitmv. That 
which leaps like a goat. An epithet used by He- 
rophilus for the pulse when irregular and un- 

CAPS A , Butte, Capsule, Case — c. Cordis, Pe- 

CAPSICUM, see Capsicum annuum. 

Cap'sicum An'nudm, from xami», 'I bite.' 
The systematic name of the plant whence Cay- 
enne Pepper is obtained. — Piper In'dicum, Sufa'- 
num vrrns, Siliquas'trum Plin'ii, Piper Brazilia'- 
nvm, Piper Gvineen'sB, Piper Ca/ecu'ticum, Pi- 
per Tur'cicum, C. Hispan' icum, Piper Lusitan'- 
inun, Cayenne Pepper, Guin'ea Pepper, (F.) 
Piment, Fuirrc a" hide, Poivrc de Guinee, Co- 
rail iles Jurdins. The pungent, aromatic pro 
perties of Baccce Cap'sici, Capsicum Berries, 
Capsicum (Ph. U.S.), are yielded to ether, alco- 
hol, and water. They are highly stimulant and 
rubefacient, and are used as a condiment. 
Their active principle is alcaloid, and is called 

Capsicum Hispanicum, Capsicum annuum. 

CAPSIQVE, Capsicum annuum. 

CAPSITIS, Phacitis. 

CAPSULA, Dottier— c. Articularis, Capsular 
liffament— c. Cordis, Pericardium — c. Dentis, 
Dental fullicle — c. Nervorum, Neurilemma. 


CAPSULAIRE, Capsular. 

CAP'SULAR. Relating to a capsula or cap- 
sule, Capsnlalris, (F.) Capsulaire. 

Capsular or Suprarenal Arteries and 
Veins. Vessels, belonging to the suprarenal 
capsules. They are divided into superior, mid- 
dle, and inferior. The first proceed from the 
inferior phrenic, the second from the aorta 
itself, and the third from the renal artery. The 
corresponding veins enter the phrenic, vena 
cava, and renal. 

Capsular Lig'ament, Ligamen'tum capsu- 
la're, Cap'sula articula'ris, Artic'u/ar capsule, 
Fibrous capsule, &c, (F.) Ligament capsulaire, 
Capsule articulaire, Capsule fibreux, &c. Mem- 
branous, fibrous, and elastic bags or capsules, 
of a whitish consistence, thick, and resisting, 
which surround joints. 

CAPSULE, Cap'sula, Capsa, a box, or case, 
(F.) Capsule. This name has been given, by 
anatomists, to parts bearing no analogy to each 

Capsule, Fibrous, Capsular ligament. 

Capsule. Gelat'inous, Cap'sula gelat'inx, 
Capsule of gelatin. A recent invention by 
which copaiba and other disagreeable oils can 
be enveloped in gelatin so as to conceal their 

Capsule of Glisson, Cap'sula Glisso'nii, 
C. commu'nis Glisso'nii, Vagi'na Portae, V. 
Glisso'nii. A sort of membrane, described by 
Glisson, which is nothing more than dense cel- 
lular membrane surrounding the vena porta and 
its ramifications in the liver. 

Capsule of the Heart, Cap'sula cordis. The 
Pericardium, (q. v.) 

Capsule, Renal or Supra-rf.'nal or Atra- 
bil'iarv, Renal Gland, Glan'dula suprarena'lis, 
Cap'sula rena'lis, suprarena'lis vel atrabi/ia'ris, 
Ren sucrenturi.a'tus, (F.) Capsule surrenale ou 
atrabiliaire. A flat, triangularbody, which covers 
the upper part of the kidney, as with a helmet. 
A hollow cavity in the interior contains a brown, 
reddish or yellowish fluid. The renal capsules 
were long supposed to be the secretory organs 
of the fancied atrabilis. They are much larger 
in the foetus than in the adult. Their uses are 
not known. 

Capsule, Sem'inal, Capsula seminal lis. Bar- 
tholine thus designates the extremity of the 
vas deferens, which is sensibly dilated in the 
vicinity of the vesicoloe seminales. Some ana- 
tomists apply this name to the vesiculee them- 

Capsule, Syno'vial, Capsula Synovia' lis. A 
membranous bag, surrounding all the movable 
articulations and canals, which gives passage to 
tendons. Synovial capsules exhale, from their 
articular surface, a fluid, whose function is to 
favour the motions of parts upon each other. 
See Bursa Mucosa, and Synovia. 

L1ARE, Capsule, renal. 

CAPSULITIS, see Phacitis. 

CAPUCHON, Trapezius. 

CAPUCINE, Tropreolum majus. 

CAl'ULUS, Scrotum. 

CAPUT, ' the head,' fq. v.) Also the top of 
a hone or other part, (F.) Tele. The bead of 
the small bones is sometimes termed capi/'ulum, 
capitell'um, cephalid'ium, cephaHum. Also, the 
glans penis. 




Caput Asper* Arterije, Larynx. 

Caput Galmnag"inis, Veruinonla'num, (F.) 
Crete uretrulc. A projection, situate in the 
prostate, before the neck of the bladder. It is 
like the head of a woodcock in miniature, and, 
around it, open the seminal ducts and the ducts 
of the prostate. 

Caput Genitale, Glans— c. Lubricum, Pe- 
nis — c. Monachi, Leontodon Taraxacum — c. 
Obstipum, Torticollis — c. Penis, Glans. 

Caput Purhia. Remedies, which the ancients 
regarded as proper for purging the head: — tr- 
rhines, sternutatories, apojihlegmatisanlia, &c. 
Prosper Alpinus makes the caput jturgia to be 
the same as errhines; and the opophlegmatismi 
the same as the masticatories of the moderns. 

Caput Scapulje, Acromion. 

Caput Succeda'neum. A term sometimes 
used for the tumefied scalp, which first presents 
in certain cases of labour. 

Caput Testis, Epididymis. 

Old French words which signify Bloody eva- 
cuations, (F.) Dejections sanguinolentes. They 
come from cacare, 'to go to stool,' and sanguis, 
'blood.' Under this term was comprehended 
every affection, in which blood is discharged 
from the bowels 

CAR A SCHULLI, Frutex Ind'icus spina' sus, 
Barle'ria buxifo'lia. A Malabar plant, which, 
when applied externally, is inaturative and re- 
solvent. The decoction of its root is used, in 
the country, in ischuria. 

CARABAC'CIUM. An aromatic wood of 
India, of a yellowish colour, and a smell like 
that of the clove. lis decoction and infusion 
are given as stomachic and antiscorbutic. 

C.AR'ABUS. A genus of coleopterous in- 
sects. Two species, the chrysoceph'alvs and 
ferrvgin'eus, have been recommended for the 
toothache. They must be pressed between the 
fingers, and then rubbed on the gum and tooth 

CARACTkRE, Character. 

CARAGNA, Caranna 

CARA M ATA, Amman. A tree in the in- 
land parts of Pomeroon. It furnishes a fe- 
brifuge bark, which Dr. Hancock says may be 
used in typhoid and lemitlent fevers where 
the cinchona is either useless or pernicious. 

CARAMBOLO, Averrhoa carambola. 

CARAM'NA, Caragna, Tacumahaca Carag- 
na, Caran'nas Gum' mi, G. Brcli'sis, Gum Ca- 
ran'na, (\P.) Caragne, Gomme Caragne ou Ca- 
rant- A gum-resinous substance, which flows 
from a large tree in New Spain, and is obtained 
from South America in impure masses. It pre- 
serves its softness for a loner time, has an aro- 
matic smell, and a slightly acrid and bitter 
taste. It was formerly used as a vulnerary 
and in plasters. 

CARAWAY, Carum. 

CAR'BASUS, Car'basa, Car'pasa, Linteum 
Carptum, Carpia, Motos, Linamen'tum, from 
y«£ t jcc, 'a filament,' or from carpere, 'to card.' 
Celsus; Char pie, Lint. The filaments, ob- 
tained by unravelling old linen cut into small 
pieces; or by scraping it with a knife. The 
former is termed Char/iie brute, the latter Char- 
pie rapee. Charpie is applied to many useful 
purposes in surgery. Of it are formed com- 
s, tents, &c. 

CARBO, Carlo L'gni, Charcoal, (F.) Chor- 

ion. Fresh charcoal is antiseptic. It is used 
to improve the digestive organs in cases of 
worms, dyspepsia, &c; as a cataplasm to <ran- 
gienous and fetid ulcers, tinea, &c, and forms 
a good tooth-powder. Dose, gr. x. to gj. Also, 
Anthrax, (q. v.) 

Carbo Anima'lis, Carlo carnis, Animal 
charcoal, (F.) Chnrbon animal. In the Phar- 
macopoeia of the United States, it is directed to 
be prepared from bones. It is given in the 
same cases as the Carbo Ligni, and has been 
extolled in cancer. Dose, gr. ss. to gr. iij. 

The Pharmacopoeia of the United States con- 
tains a formula for the preparation of Carbo 
Anima' Purifica'tus, purified animal char- 
coal (Carlon animal, ftj ; Acid, muriat., Aqua 
aa f. §xij.) Pour the muriatic acid, previously 
mixed with the water, gradually upon the char- 
coal, and digest with a gentle heat for two 
days, occasionally stirring the mixture. Having 
allowed the undissolved portion to subside, 
pour off the supernatant liquor, wash the char- 
coal frequently with water until it is entirely 
free from acid, and lastly dry it. 

Carbo Huma'kum. The human excrement. 
— Paracelsus. 

Carbo Mineralis, Graphites — c. Palpebra- 
rum, Anthracosis. 

nis sesqui-iodidum — c. Bisulphuretof, Carbonis 
sulphuretum — c. Sulphuret of, Carbonis sul- 
phu return. 

nate, (F.) Carbonate. A salt, formed by the 
combination of carbonic acid with a salifiable 

Carbonas Natricum, Sodae carbonas. 

nia? carbonas. 

CAR'BONATED, Car bona' tits, Air a-'tus,(F.) 
Carboni, Air6. That which is impregnated 
with carbonic acid. 

CARBONS. Carbonated. 

CARBON'IC ACID, Ac"idum Carbon'icvm, 
Solid Air of Hales, Factitious Air, Fixed Air, 
Cariona' ceous Acid, Calca'reous Acid, Aerial 
Arid, Mephit'ic Acid, (F.) Carlmnique. 
This gas, which neither supports respiration 
nor combustion, is not often used in medicine. 
It is the refreshing ingredient in effervescent 
draughts, poultices, &c. It is often found occu- 
pying the lower parts of mines (when it is 
called the choke damp,) caverns, tombs, wells, 
brewers' vats, &c, and not unfreqtiently has 
been the cause of death. Lime thrown into 
such places soon absorbs the acid. 

qui Iodine' turn, Sestjui- Iodide or Sesqui-Iodurct 
of Carlon. This is made by mixing concen- 
trated alcoholic solutions of iodine and polassa, 
until the former loses its colour; a solution is 
obtained from which water throws down a yel- 
low precipitate — the sesqui-iodide of carbon. It 
lias been used iti enlarged glands and in some 
cutaneous affections, applied externally, (^ss, 
to ^vj. of cerate.) 

Carbo'nis Swphvkz'tvm, Sulphure'tum Car- 
bo'nii, Sul'Jidum Carbo'nii, Carho'nium Sulpha- 
ra'tvm, Al'cohol Sul'phuris, Bisutphvre'tum Car- 
In/ nii. Sulphuret of Carbon, Bisulphuretof Car- 
lon, Carburet of Sulphur, (F.) Sulfure de Carbon, 
This transparent, colourless fluid, which has a 
very penetrating, disagreeable odour, and a 




taste which is cooling at first, but afterwards 
acrid and somewhat aromatic, is a diffusible 
excitant. It- is diaphoretic, diuretic, and lias 
been said to have proved emmenagogue. It is 
also used in nervous diseases as an antispasmo- 
dic. Dose, one drop to four, repeated fre- 

It is used externally, where a cooling influ- 
ence has to be rapidly exerted. 


CARBUNCLE, Anthrax— c. Fungous, Ter- 
minthus — c. of the Tongue, Glossanthrax— c. 
Berry, Terminlhus. 

CARBUNCLED FACE, Gutta rosea. 


CARBUNCULUS, Anthrax— c. Anginosus, 

Cynanche maligna — c. Labiorum et genarum, 

Cancer aquaticus — c. Pulmonum, Necropneu- 


Carbun'colus Robj'nus. A red, shining, 
and transparent stone, from the Isle of Ceylon ; 
formerly employed in medicine as a preserva- 
tive against several poisons, the plague, tec. 

Careunculus Ulcusculosus, Cynanche ma- 

CAR'CAROS, from xaoxatqo), 'I resound,' 
' I tremble.' A fever, in which the patient has 
a general tremor, accompanied with an unceas- 
ing nnise in the ears. 

CARCI NODES, Carcinomatous, Charter evse. 
CARCINO'MA, from z«oxuoc,'acrab.' Some 
authors have called thus, indolent tumours dif- 
ferent from cancer; others, incipient cancer; 
and others, again, the species of cancer in 
which the affected structure assumes the ap- 
pearance of cerebral substance; but the majo- 
rity of authors use Carcinoma in the same sense 
as Cancer. 

Carcinoma H/ematodes, Hsematodes fungus 
— c. of the Liver, Hepalosarcomie — c. Melano- 
ticum, Melanosis — c. Spongiosum, Hsematodes 
fungus — c. Ventriculi, see Gastroatenosis car- 
diaca et pyloriea. 

CARCINOM'ATOUS, Carciit'odes, Card- 
no'i'ites. Relating to Cancer. 


CARCINOS, Cancer. 

CARDAMANTICA, Cardamine pratensis, 
Lepidium Iberis. 



Caudami'ne Praten'sis, Cardami'ne, Carda- 
manUica, Nasturtium Aquat'icvm, Car'damon, 
Cull flos, lbc'ris soph'ia, Nasturtium praten'sB, 
Ladies-smock, Cuckooflower. (F.) Cressone'16- 
gant, Crcsson des pres, Passerage sauvage. 
Ord. Crnciferce. The flowers have been consi- 
dered useful as antispasmodics, in the dose of 
rz] to ^ij. They are probably inert. 
' CARDAMOM, LESSER, Amomum carda- 

CARDAMOME, Amomum cardamomum— c. 
de la Cote de Malabar. Amomum cardamomum. 
CARDAMOMUM MAJUS, Aim. mum grana 
paradisi — c. Minus. Amomum cardamomum — 
c. Piperatum, Amomum grana paradisi. 
CARDAMOM, Cardamine pratensis. 
CARDMRE, Dipsacus sylvestris— c. Cultivi, 
Dipsacus fullonum. 

CARDIA, xoqSia, -'the heart' Stom achut, 

Orific"i:im simsflrum ventviduli. The superior 
or oesophageal orifice of the stomach. Also, the 
Heart, (q. v.) 

CAR'DIAC, Cardt'acus, from xatfict, 'the 
hearf' or the upper orifice of the stomach, (F.) 
Cardiaque. Relating to the heart or to the 
upper orifice of the stomach. 

Cardiac or Cor'onarv Ar'terif.s, (F.) Ar- 
teres cardiaques ou coronaires, are two in num- 
ber. They arise from the aorta, a little above 
the free edge of the sigmoid valves, and are 
distributed on both surfaces of the heart. 

Cardiac Nerves, (F.) Nerfs cardiaques. 
These are commonly three on each side ; a su- 
perior, middle and inferior, which are furnished 
by corresponding cervical ganglia. Commonly, 
there are but two on the leftside; the upper 
and middle, which draw their origin from the 
last two cervical ganglia. Scarpa calls the su- 
perior — C. super ficialis; the middle — C. profun- 
dus or C. magnus : and the inferior — C. parvus. 
There are, besides, Cardiac fil'a>nents,(F.) Fitets 
cardiaques, furnished by the par vagum or 
pneumo-gastric nerve, which become confound- 
ed with the above. 

Cardiac Plexus, Gan'glion cardi'acum. A 
nervous network, formed by the different nerves 
above mentioned. It is situate at the posterior 
part of the aorta, near its origin. It affords 
numerous branches, which are distributed to 
the heart and great vessels. The name Cardiac. 
has also been given to the glands, vessels, and 
nerves, which surround the superior or cardiac 
orifice of tli e stomach. 

Cardiac or Cor'onary Veins, (F.) Veines 
Cardiaques, are commonly four in number ; two 
anterior and two posterior. They open into 
the right auricle by one orifice, which is fur- 
nished with a valve, and is called, by Portal, 
Sinus coronaire da Catir. 

CARDIACA CRISPA, Leonorus cardiaca— 
c. Passio, Cardialgia. 

CARDIACUS, Cordial, Stomachal. 

CARDIAGMUS. Cardialgia. 

CARDIAG'RAPHY, Cardiagra'phia, from 
xa^dta, 'the heart,' and yoarf)>/, 'a description.' 
An anatomical description of the heart. 

CARDIAL'GIA, Cardi'aca Passio, Col' ha 
Ycntrir.'uli, Spas/mis I'cntric uli, Pcrodyn'ia, 
Cordo'lium, Cardilse'a, Di/spepsodun'ia, Car' 
diad'yne, Gastral' 'gia,Gastrodyn' "ta, Stomucal'gia 
Cardt'acus Morbus, Cardiog'mus : from xandia, 
'the cardiac orifice of the stomach,' and d.yog, 
'pain:' Pain of the stomach, (F.) Douleur de 
FEslomac, D. ndvralgique de VEstomac: also, 
Heartburii,(F.) Cardiaigie,Ardeur d' Estomac,A. 
du CfEitr. Impaired appetite, with gnawing or 
burning pain in the stomach or epigastrium, — 
Morsus vel ardor ventric'uh, Soda, Limo'sis car- 
dial'gia mordens, Rosio Stom'achi: — a symptom 
of dyspepsia. 

Cardialgia Inflammatory, Gastritis — c. 
Sputatoria, Pyrosis. 

CARDIALOG"IA, from xccqSi*, 'the heart,' 
and Xoyoc, 'a discourse ' A treatise on the heart. 

CARDMRCTiE, Heart, concentric hyper- 
trophy of the. 

CARDLVRIUS; same etymology. A name 
given to a worm, said to have been found in the 
heart or pericardium. 

CARDIATOM'IA, from wtqSnt, 'the heart,' 
and ts«i €n , 'to cut.' Dissection of the heart. 




CARDIATROPHIA, Heart, atrophy of the. 

CJ1RDIECT.1SIE, see Aneurism of the heart. 

CARDIE LCOSIS; from xapSm, 'the heart,' 
and l tZxo<;, 'an ulcer.' Ulceration of the heart. 

CARDIETHMOLIPOSIS, Steatosis cordis. 

CARDIEUIiYSMA, see Aneurisina. 

CARDURA. Cardialgia. 

CARDIM'ELECH, from w^u, 'the heart,' 
and ^h?, Meleck, (Hebr.,) 'a governor.' A 
supposititious active principle seated in the heart, 
and governing the vital functions. — Dolaeus. 

CARDINAL FLOWER, Lobelia cardinalis 
— c. Blue, Lobelia syphilitica. 

CARDINAL PLANT, Lobelia cardinalis. 

CARDIN AMENTUM, Ginglymus, Gom- 

CARDIOBOTANUM, Centaurea benedicta. 

CARDIOCE'LE, from x*ndia, 'the heart,' 
and x-ijXij, ' rupture.' Rupture of the heart, es- 
pecially into the abdominal cavity. 

CARDIOCLASIE, Cardiorrhexis. 

CARDIODYNE, Cardialgia. 

CARDIOG'MUS. Hippocrates employed this 
word synonymously with cardialgia. In the 
time of Galen it was used, by some writers, for 
certain pulsations of the heart, analogous to 
palpitations. Sauvages understood by Cardi- 
ogmus an aneurism of the heart or great ves- 
sels, when still obscure. 

Cardiogmus Cordis Sinistri, Angina pec- 

CARDIOMALA'CIA, JtfuWsf's, Cordis, (F.) 
Ramoltissemcnt du Cceur, from x.*Qdta, ' the 
heart,' and /uaXaxia, 'softness.' Softening of 
the heart,caused by inflammation of the organ, 
or a consequence of some lesion of the function 
of nutrition. 

CARDIOMYOLIPOSIS, Steatosis cordis. 

CARDIONEURALGIA, Angina pectoris. 
CARDIONCHL see Aneurism. 

CARDIOPALMUS, Cardiotromus. 

CARDIORRHEX'IS, Cardioclasie, (Piorry.) 
Ruptura Cordis, (F.) Rupture du Caur, from 
xaodia, 'the heart,' and ()>,;(?, 'laceration.' Lace- 
ration of the heart. 

CJlRD10SCLEROSIE,(?\orry.) from x*e<5<a, 
' the heart,' and rxXtjooc;, ' hard.' (F.) Endurcis- 
scment du Caur. Induration of the heart. 

CARDIOT'ROMUS, Paipita'tio Cordis trep'- 
idans, Cardiopal'mus, Trepida'tio Cordis, from 
xaoSia, 'the heart,' and tqouoc, 'tremor.' Ra- 
pid and feeble palpitation, or fluttering of the 

CARDIOT'ROTUS,from x*q&i*, 'the heart,' 
and titowitkv], 'I wound.' One affected with a 
wound of the heart — Galen. 

CARDIPERICARDITIS, see Pericarditis. 

CARD1TE, Carditis. 

CARDITIS, from *.*qdia, ' the heart,' and the 
termination itis. Inflammation of the fleshy 
substance of the heart. Empres'ma Cardi'tis, 
Jnflumma'tio Coidis, Inflamma'tio Cardi'tis, 
Cnuma Carditis, Myocardi'tis, Inflammation du 
Caur. (F.) Cardite. The symptoms of this 
affection are by no means clear. They are 
often confounded with those of pericarditis, 
or inflammation of the membrane investing 
the heart. Carditis, indeed, with many, in- 
cludes both the inflammation of the investing 
membrane and that of the heart itself. See 
Pericarditis, and Endocarditis. 

Carditis Interna, Endocarditis — c. Poly- 
posa, Polypi of the heart. 

CARDO. Ginglymus. 

CARDOPAT1UM, Carlina acaulis. 

CARDUUS ALTILIS, Cynara scolymus — 
c. Benedictus, Centaurea benedicta — c. Brazi- 
lianus, Bromelia ananas — c. Domesticus capite 
majori, Cynara scolymus — c. Hemorrhoidals, 
Cirsium arvense. 

Car'duus MiniA^NCs, Car'duus Ma'rioz, Sil'- 
ybum, Car'duus lac'teus, Spina alba, Common 
Milk Thistle, or Ladies' Thistle, (F.) Chardon- 
Marie, The herb is a bitter tonic. The seeds 
are oleaginous. It is not used. 

Carduus Pineus, Atractylis gummifera — c. 
Sativus, Carthamus tinctorius — c. Sativus non- 
spinosus, Cynara scolymus — c. Solstitialis, Cen- 
taurea calcitrapa — c. Stellatus, Centaurea calci- 
trapa — c. Tomentosus, Onopordium acanthium. 

CAREBARES1S, Carebaria. 

C AREBA'RIA or CAREB ARI'A, Carebare'sis, 
from xnotj, 'the head,' and ftego?, ' weight.' Scor- 
dine'ma, Cardine'ma. Heaviness of the head 
— Hippocr., Galen. 

CARE'N A, Kare'na. The twenty-fourth part 
of a drop. — Ruland and Johnson. 


CAREX ARENAR1A, Sarsaparilla Germa- 

CARIACOU. A beverage, used in Cayenne, 
and formed of a mixture of cassava, potato, and 
sugar fermented. 

C A RICA, Ficus carica. 

Car'ica Papaya. Fapaw tree, (F.) Papayer. 
Ord. Artocarpese. A native of America, India, 
and Africa. The fruit has somewhat of the 
flavour of the pumpkin, and is eaten like it. 
The milky juice of the plant, and the seed and 
root have been regarded as anthelmintic. 

CAR'ICUM; — said to have been named after 
its inventor Caricus. Car'ycum. A detergent 
application to ulcers; composed of black helle- 
bore, sandarach, copper, lead, sulphur, orpiment,. 
canlharides, and oil of cedar. — Hippocrates. 

CARIE, Caries — c. des Dents, Dental gan- 

CARI&, Carious. 

CA'RIES, Nigri'ties os'sium. An ulceration 
of bone, — Necrosis being the death of the bone. 
It resembles the gangrene of soft parts. Hence 
it has been termed Caries gangreno'sa, Gan- 
grsena Caries, G. Ossium, Tere'do, Euros, (F.) 
Carie. It is recognised by the swelling of the 
bone which precedes and accompanies it; by 
the abscesses it occasions; the ristuhe which 
form ; by the sanious character, peculiar odour 
and quantity of the suppuration, and by the 
evidence afforded by probing. The most com- 
mon causes of caries are blows; — the action of 
some virus, and morbid diathesis. When de- 
pendent on any virus in the system, this must 
be combated by appropriate remedies. When 
entirely local, it must be converted, where prac- 
ticable, into a state of necrosis or death of the 
affected part. For this end stimulants are ap- 
plied, the actual cautery, &e. 

Caries Dentium, Dental gangrene — c. of the 
Vertebrae, Vertebral disease — c. Vertebrarum, 
Vertebral disease. 

CARIEUX, Carious. 

CAR1M CURINI, Justitia ecbolium. 

CARINA, Vertebral column. 

CA'RIOUS, Cnrio'sus, (F.) Carie, Carieux 
Affected with caries. 





CARIVE, Myrtus pimenta. 

CARIVILLAiNDI, Smilax sarsaparilla. 

CARLl'NA. ' Carline Thistle.' 

Cari.i'na Acaulis, Chamx'lcon album, Car- 
dopa'tium, (F.) Carline sans tigc, which grows 
in the Pyrenees, and on the mountains of 
Switzerland, Italy, &c. has been recommended 
as a tonic, emmenao-ogue, and sudorific. 

CARLINE SANS T1GE, Carlina acaulis. 

CARLO SANCTO, RADIX. ' St. Charles's 
Root:' found in Mechoachan, in America. The 
bark is aromatic, bitter and acrid. It is con- 
sidered to be sudorific, and to strengthen the 
gums and stomach. 

Carlsbad. is a town in Bohemia, 24 miles from 
Egra, celebrated for its hot baths. The water 
contains about 47 parts in the 100 of purging 
salts. It is a thermal saline; temperature 121° 
to 1G7° Fahrenheit. The constituents are — 
carbonic acid, sulphate of soda, carbonate of 
soda, and chloride of sodium. 

CARMANT1NE, Justitia pectoralis— c. Pec- 
■torafr, Justitia pectoralis. 

CARMEN, ' a verse,' because charms usually 
consisted of a verse. A charm (q. v.:) an amulet. 

CARMINANT1A, Carminatives. 

CARMIN'ATIVES, Carminan'tia seu Cur- 
minati'va, from carmen, 'a verse,' or 'charm,' 
Antiphys' ica, Xan'tica, (F.) Carminatifs. Reme- 
dies which allay pain, and cause the expulsion 
of flatus from the alimentary canal. They are 
generally of the class of aromatics. 

The FourGueaterCarminative Hot Seeds, 
Qua'tuor sem'ina cal'ida majo'ra carminati' oa, 
were, of old, anise, carui, cummin, and fennel. 

The Four Lesser Carminative Hot Seeds, 
Qua'luor sem'ina cal'ida mino'ra, were bishop's 
weed, stone parsley, smallage, and wild carrot. 

CARMOT. A name given, by the alchy- 
mists, to the matter which they believed to 
constitute the Philosopher's stone. 

CARNABADIA, Carum, (seed.) 

CARNABADIUM, Cuminum cyminum. 

CARNATIO, Syssarcosis. 

CARNELIAN, Cornelian. 

CARNEOLUS, Cornelian. 

CARNEOUS, Car'neus, Carno'sus, Sarco'dcs, 
from caro, 'flesh,' (V.) Clturnu. Consisting of 
flesh, or resembling flesh. 

Cakneods or Fleshy Columns. Colum'na 
Carnt.a\ of the heart, (F.) Cnlonnes char nuts, 
are muscular projections, situate in the cavities 
of the heart. They are called, also, Musculi 
Papilla' res. 

Carneous, Fleshy or Muscular Fibres, (F.) 
Fibres cuarnues ou musculuires, are fibres be- 
longing to a muscle. 

Pannic'ulus Carnosus, (F.) Pannicidc char- 
nu; — Carnosa Cutis; a muscular membrane, 
adhering to the skin of certain animals, whose 
use is to move the integuments with the hair, 
leathers, &c. 

CARNEUM MARSUPIUM. Ischio-trochan- 

CARNIC'ULA. Diminutive of Caro, 'flesh.' 
The irmiis. Gingiva?, (q. v.) — Fallopius. 

CA'RNIFIUATION, Carnifica'tio, from cam, 
'flesb,' and fieri, 'to become.' Transformation 
into flesh. A morbid slate of certain organs, in 
which the tissue acquires a consistence like that 
of fleshy or muscular parts. It is sometimes ob- 
served in hard parts, the texture becoming soft- 

ened, a :3 in Osteosarcoma. When it occurs in the 
luno-s, they present a texture like that of liver. 
scess whose orifice is hard ? the sides thick and 
callous; and which ordinarily occurs in the 
neighbourhood of the articulations. — M. A. Se- 

CARNIVOROUS, Carniv'orus, Sarcoph'. 
agus, Crcatoph'agns, Creoph'agus, (F.) Carni- 
vore, from caro, ' flesh,' and voro, ' I eat.' That 
which eats flesh. Any substance which de- 
stroys excrescences in wounds, ulcers, &c. 

CARiNOS'ITAS. Carnos'itics or Car' uncles 
in the Urt'thra, (F.) Carnosites ou Caroncules 
de iurctre, (F.) Carnosites, are small fleshy 
excrescences or fungous growths, which were, 
at one time, presumed to exist in the male ure- 
thra, whenever retention of urine followed 

M. Cullcrier uses the term Carnosit'e vine- 
rienne for a cutaneous, cellular, and membra- 
nous tumour, dependent upon the syphilitic 
virus. See, also, Polysarcia. 
CARNOSUS, Carneous. 
CARO, Flesh — c. Accessoria, see Flexor lon- 
gus digitorum pedis profundus perforans, (ac- 
cessonus) — c. Excrescens, Excrescence — c. 
Fungosa, Fungosity — c. Glandulosa, Epiglottic 
gland — c. Luxurians, Fungosity — c. Orbicula- 
ris, Placenta — c. Parenchymatica, Parenchyma 
— c. Quadrata, Palmaris brevis— c. Quadratus 
Sylvii, see Flexor longus digitorum pedis pro- 
fundus perforans. (accessorius)— c. Visceruni, 

CAROB TREE, Ceratonia siliqua. 
CAROL5A ALNABATI, Ceratoniwm siliqua. 
TERS OF. In the counties of Warren, Mont- 
gomery. Buckingham, Lincoln, Buncomb and 
Rowan, there are mineral springs. They be- 
long generally to the sulphureous or acidulous 

TERS OF. They are numerous. Pacolet 
Springs, on the west bank of Pacolet River, 
contain sulphur and iron. Many, with similar 
properties, but not held in estimation, are scat- 
tered about, the stale. 

CARONCULE, Caruncle — c. Lachrymalc, 

culffi myrtiformes — c. de CUritre, Carnosities 
of the urethra. 

CAROPl, Amornum cardamomum. 
CAROSIS, Somnolency. 
CAROTA, see Dauens carota. 
CAROTICA, Narcotics. 
CAROT'ICUS, comatose, from xaoos, 'stu- 
por,' (F.) Carot-ejue. Relating to stupor or 
cams — as a carotic state, &c. 

CAROT'IDS, Carotfides (Artirix,) Carol'icx, 
Carotidea, Capita' les, Jugula'res, Sopora'lcs, 
Sopora'rix, Soporif'cra, Somnif f et<B, .ipoplec- 
ticx, Lethar'gicx, the Carol.' id Arteries, Cephai'ic 
Arteries, (F.) A. Carotidas; from xaoog, ' stu- 
por.' The great arteries of the neck, which 
carry blood to the head. They are divided 
into, 1. Primitive or common; the left of which 
arises from the aorta, and the right from a 
trunk, common to it and the subclavian. 2. 
External or pericephal'ic, a branch of the primi- 
tive, which extends from the last to the neck 



of the condyle of the lower jaw; and, 3. In- 
ternal, Jlrte'ria cerebra'lis vel encephal'ica, ano- 
ther branch of the primitive, which, arising at 
the same place as the external, enters the 
cranium, and terminates on a level with the fis- 
sure of Sylvius, dividing into several branches. 
Carotid Canal, Cana'lis Carol' icus, Canal 
inflcxe de Vos temporal — (Ch.J Canal caroto- 
dicii, is a canal in the temporal bone, through 
which the carotid artery and several nervous 
filaments pass. 

Carotid Foramina, Foram'ina Carot'ica, (F.) 
Trous carolidiens, are distinguished into internal 
and external. They are the foramina at each 
extremity of the Canalis Caroticus. 
CAROTTE, Caucus carota. 
CAROUA, Carum, (seed.) 
CAROUBIER, Ceratoniuin siliqua. 
CAROUGE, see Ceratoniuin siliqua. 
CARPASA, Carbasa. 

SUS, and CARPE'SIUM. Dioscorides, Pliny, 
Galen, &c, have given these names, and that 
of Carpasos, to a plant, which cannot now be 
determined, and whose juice, called Opoearpa- 
son, oho -/.annua or, passed for a violent, narcotic 
poison, and was confounded with myrrh. 
CARPATHICUM, see Pinus cembra. 
CARPE, Carpus. 

CARPENTARIA, Achillea millefolium. 
CARPESIUM, Carpasium. 
CARPHOLOG"lA, Tilmus, Carpolog"ia, 
Crocidis' i/ius, Flocco'rum vena'tio, Tricholog"ia, 
Crocidix'is, from y.aocpoc, 'floe' cuius,' and keyw, 
' I collect,' or ' pluck,' (F.) Carpltologie. Action 
of gathering flocculi. A delirious picking of the 
bed-clothes, as if to seek some substance, or to 
pull the flocculi from them. It denotes great 
cerebral irritability or debility, and is an unfa- 
vourable sipn in fevers, &c. 

CARPHOS, Trigonella fcenum. 
CARPIA, Carbasus. 
CARPLEUS, Palmaris brevis. 
CAR'PIAL or CAR'PIAN, Carpiu'nus, Car- 
pia'lis, (F.) Carpien. Belonging to the Carpus. 
Car'pial Lig'aments, (F.) Ligaments Car- 
piens, are, 1. The fibrous fascia?, which unite 
the bones of the carpus: and, 2. The annular 
ligaments, anterior and posterior, (q. v.) 
CARPIAN, Carpial. 
CARP JEN, Carpial. 

CARPOBALSAMUM, see Amyris opobal- 

CARPOLOGIA, Carphologia — c. Spasinodica, 
Subsultus tendinum. 

TI, Adductor metacarpi minimi digiti — c. M&- 
tacarpien du petit doigt, Opponens minimi digiti 
— c. Mctacarpicn du pouce, Opponens pollicis — 
c. Phalangeus minimi digiti, Abductor minimi 
digiti — c Plialangien du petit doigt, Abductor 
minimi digiti — c. Plialangien du petit doigt. 
Flexor parvus minimi digiti — c. Plialangien du 
pouce, Flexor brevis pollicis manus— c. Sus-pha- 
langien du pouce, Abductor pollicis brevis. 

CARPO-PEDAL, from carpus, 'the wrist,' 
and pes, pedis, ' the foot.' Relating to the wrist 
and foot. 

Cahpo fedai. Spasm, Cer'cbral spasmod'ic 
croup. A spasmodic affection of the chest and 
larynx in young children, accompanied by ge- 
neral or partial convulsions. The disease com- 

monly occurs between the third and ninth 
month, and is characterized by excessive dysp- 
noea, accompanied by a loud croupy noise on 
inspiration; the thumbs being locked, and the 
hands and feet rigidly bent for a longer or 
shorter period, The seat of the disease is evi- 
dently in the cerebro-spinal axis, primarily or 
secondarily; perhaps it is owing to erethism, 
seated elsewhere, being communicated to the 
cerebro-spinal centre and reflected to the re- 
spiratory and other muscles concerned. It 
seems to be connected with dental irritation, 
and consequently, in the treatment, where 
such is the case, the gums should be freely di- 
vided; after which, cathartics and revulsives, 
with the use of narcotics and appropriate diet, 
will generally remove the affection; for although 
extremely alarming, it is often not attended with 
great danger. 
CARPOS, Fruit. 

CARPOT'ICA, from xaqnoc, 'fruit.' Dis- 
eases affecting impregnation. Irregularity, dif- 
ficulty or danger produced by parturition; — the 
3d order, class Genelica, of Good. 

CARPUS, Carpis'mus, Brachia'le. Rasceta, 
Rastcta, the wrist, (F.) Carpe, Poignet. The 
part between the fore-arm and hand. Eight 
bones compose it, (in two rows.) In the supe- 
rior row there are, from without to within — the 
Scapho'ides or navicula're, Luna're or semiluna're , 
Cuneifor'me, and Orbicula'rS or pisifor'mS. In 
the lower row — Trape'zium, Trapezo'ides, Mag- 
num, and Unci for 1 ml. 

CARRAGEEN MOSS. Fucus crispus. 
CARRti DE LA CUISSE, Quadratus femoris 
— c. des Lombes, Quadratus lumborurn — c. du 
Menion, Depressor labii inferioris — c. du Pied, 
Extensor brevis digitorum pedis. 
CARRE AU, Tabes mesenterica. 
CARRltE. See Flexor longus digitorum 
pedis profundus perforans, (accessorius.) 

CARRELET, (F.) Arus triangularis. A 
straight needle, two or three inches long, the 
point of which is triangular; and which the 
ancients used in different operations. Also, a 
wooden, triangular frame for fixing a cloth 
through which different pharmaceutical prepa- 
rations are passed. 

CARROT, CANDY, Athamanta cretensis— 
c. Deadly, Thapsia — c. Plant, Daucus carota. 

Cnicus, Crocus Gcrinan'icus, Crocus Saracen' - 
icus, Carlhumum officirta'rum, Car'duus sati'vus, 
Saffron-flower, Safra'num, Snjjlowcr, Bastard 
Saffron, Dyer's Saffron, (F.) Carthame, Safran 
batard, Carthame des Teinturiers. Family, Vy- 
narocephaleae. Sex Syst. Syngenesia Polyga- 
mia ffiqualis. The seeds are aromatic, cathartic, 
and diuretic; yet to the parroquet they are an 
article of food, hence their name, Graines de 
Perroquet. The flowers, Car'thamus, (Ph. U. 
S.J are employed as a cosmetic, and are a re- 
puted diaphoretic. [?] 

CARTUEGON, see Buxus. 
CARTILAGE ANONYM£, Cricoid, (carti- 
lage) — c. Epiglottic, Epiglottis — c. Mucrone, 
Xiphoid Cartilage — c. Supra-arytenoid, Corni- 
culum laryngis — c. Tarsal, see Tarsus. 

noid cartilages — c. Triquetral, Arytenoid carti- 

Cartilaginis Arytjenoid/e^; Capitulum, 
Corniculum laryngis. 




CARTILAG'TNOUS, Cartilagin'eus, Carti- 
lagino'sus, Chondro'des, Chondral' des, (F.) Car- 
iilagineux. Belonging to, or resembling car- 

CARTILA'GO, Ckundros, Car'tilage, (F.) 
Cartilage. A solid part of tbe animal body, of 
a medium consistence between bone and liga- 
ment, and which in the foetus is a substitute tor 
bone, but in the adult exists only in the joints, 
at the extremities of the ribs, &c. Cartilages 
are of a whitish colour, flexible, compressible, 
and very elastic, and some of them apparently 
inorganic. They are composed, according to J. 
Davy, of .44 albumen, .55 water, and .01 phos- 
phate of lime. 

Cartilages, Articular, or Obdu'cent Car'ti- 
lages. invest bony surfaces, which are in con- 
tact; hence they are called investing or incrust- 
ing cartilages, (F.) Curtilages de revetement ou 

Cartilagf.s, lNTERARTicuLAR,aresuchasare 
situate within the joints, as in the knee joint. 

Cartilages of Ossifica'tjon are such as, in 
the progress of ossification, have to form an 
integrant part of bones ; as those of the long 
bones in tbe new-born infant. These are 
termed temporary; the others being permanent. 
All the cartilages, with the exception- of tbe 
articular, are surrounded by a membrane ana- 
logous to the periosteum, called Perichondrium. 

Cartilages of thf. Ribs are, in some respects, 
only prolongations of the ribs. Those of the 
nose, of the meatus auditorius, and Eustachian 
tube, present a similar arrangement. Other 
cartilages resemble a union of fibrous and car- 
tilaginous textures; hence their name, Fibro- 

Cartilago Clvpealjs, Thyroid cartilage — c. 
Ensiformis, Xiphoid cartilage — c. Innominata, 
Cricoid— c Mucronata, Xiphoid cartilage — c. 
Peltalis, Thyroid cartilage — c. Scutiformis, 
Thyroid cartilage — c. Uvifer, Uvula — c. Xi- 
phoides, Xiphoid cartilage. 

CARUM, from Caria, a province of Asia. 
Ca'reum, Carum Car'u'i, Carvi, Cumi'nitm pra- 
ten'sl, Curvs, Cai'uon,lhe Car' away. (F.) Carvi. 
Cumin des pres. Family, Umbel lifer*. Sex. 
Syst. Pentandria Digynia. The seeds, Carna- 
ba'dia, Car'oua, are carminative. Dose, gr. x 
to gij, swallowed whole or bruised. The oil, 
Oleum Car'ut, (F.) Huile de Carvi, has the 
properties of the seeds. Dose, gtt. ij to vj. 

CAR'UNCLE, Carun'cula, diminutive ol'caro, 
'flesh.' A small portion of flesh, Sar'cion. A 
fleshy excrescence, — Ecyhi/ma carun'cula, (F.) 

Caruncle, Carnositas. 

Carun'cula Lachryma'lis, (F.) Caroncule 
lacrymale. A small, reddish, follicular body, 
situate at the inner angle of the eye. It secretes 
a gummy substance. 


Cahuncul^eMamilla'hks. The extremities of 
the lactiferous tubes in the nipples. The olfac- 
tory nerves (q. v.) have been so called by some. 

Caruncul* Mvrtifor'mes, C. vagina'lcs, 
Glnn' dulse myrtifor'mes, (F.) Caroncults myrti- 
formes. Small, reddish tubercles, more or less 
firm, of variable form, and uncertain number, 
situate near the orifice of the vagina, and formed 
by the mucous membrane. They are regarded 
as the remains of the hymen. 

CARU5cuLiEPAFiLLAUES,Papillaof the kidney. 

CARUN'CULOUS. Relating to carunclei 
or carnosities. Carun'culur. 

CARUON, Caruin. 

CARUS, xijoc, Sopor curo'ticus, Profound 
sleep. The last degree of coma, with complete 
insensibility, which no stimulus can remove, 
even for a few instants. Sopor, Coma, Luhar- 
gia, and Cams, are four degrees of the same 

Carus Apoplexia, Apoplexy — c. Asphyxia, 
Asphyxia — c. Catalepsia, Catalepsy — c. Ecsta- 
sis, Ecstasis — c. Hydrocephalus, Hydrocephalus 
internus — c. ab Insolatione, Coup de soleil — c. 
Lethargus, Lethargy — c. Lethargus cataphora, 
Somnolency — c. Lethargus vigil, Coma vigil— 
c. Paralysis, Paralysis — c. Paralysis paraplegia, 
Paraolegia — c. Veternus, Lethargy. 

CARVI, Carum. 

CARYA, Juglans regia — c. Basilica, Juglans 

CARYEDON CATAGMA, see Fracture. 

CARYOCOST1NUM, Confectio scammonia?. 

CARYOCOSTINUS, An electuary prepared 
of the costus and other aromatic substances, &c. 
It was cathartic. 

CARYON PONTICON, Corylus avellana 

CARYOPHYLLA, Geum nrbanum. 


Myrtus pimenta — c. Aromaticus, Eugenia ca- 
ryophyllata — c. Hortensis, Dianthus caryophyl- 
lus — c. Vulgaris, Geum urbanum. 

CARYO'TI. The best kind of dates.— Galen. 

CAS RARES, (F.) Rare cases. This term in 
used, by the French, for pathological facts, 
which vary from what is usual. See a cele- 
brated, article under this head in tbe Diction- 
naire des Sciences Mcdicales, Vol. iv. 

CAS A MUM., Cyclamen, 

CASAMUNAR, Cassumuniar. 

CAS'CARA, CASCARILXA, Spanish words 
which signify bark and little bark, under which 
appellations the bark (Cinchona) is known in 
Peru. They are now applied to the bark of the 
Crolon Cascarilla. 

CASCARILLA, Croton cascarilla. 

CASCHEU, Catechu. 

CASE, Cupsa, Theca, (F.) Caisse. This 
name is given to boxes for the preservation of 
instruments; or for medicines necessary in 
hospital or other service. We say, e. g. — A. 
case of amputating, or trepanning insti uments. 

Case, Casus, from caderc, casurn, ' to fall. 1 
The condition of a patient; — as a case of fever, 
Ac. (F.) Observation. Abo, the history of a 


CASEIN, Caseine, Caseum, Caseous matter; 
from caseus, ' cheese.' The only nilrogenized 
constituent of milk. It is identical in compo- 
sition with the chief constituents of blood — 
fibrin and albumen, all being compounds of 
protein. A similar principle exists in the ve- 
getable, Vegetable Casein or Legu'min. It i« 
chiefly found in leguminous seeds — peas, beans, 
lentils. Like vegetable albumen, it is solu- 
ble in water; and the solution is not coagulable 
by heat., Blood, Globulin. 

CASEOSUS, Cheesy. 





CASEUM, Casein. 

CASEUS, Cheese— c. Equinus, Hippace. 

CASEUX, Cheesy. 

CASHEW, Anacardium occidentals. 

CASHOO. An aromatic drug of Hindus- 
tan, said to possess pectoral virtues. 

CASHOW, Catechu. 

CASIA, Laurus cassia. 

CASMINA, Cassumuniar. 

CASSA, Thorax. 

CASSADA ROOT, Jatropha manihot. 

CASSAVA ROOT, Jatropha manihot. 

CASSE AROMATiqUE, Laurus cassia— c. 
en Batons, Cassia fistula — c. en Bois, Laurus 
cassia — c. des Boutiques, Cassia fistula — c. Sme, 
Cassia senna. 

CASSELUNETTES, Cyanus segetum, Eu- 
phrasia officinalis. 

CASSEENA, Ilex vomitoria. 

CASSENOLES, see Quercus infectoria. 

CASSIA, Laurus cassia — c. Absus, Absus — 
c. Cinnamomea, Laurus cassia — c. Caryophyl- 
lata, Myrlus caryophyllata — c. Canella, Laurus 
cassia — c. Egyptian, Cassia senna. 

Cas'sia Fis'tula, Cas'sin nigra, Cassia fislu- 
la'ris, C. Alexandria no, Canna, Carina solutt'va, 
Carina fistula, Cathartocar'pus, Purging Cas- 
sia, (F.) Casse Cancficier, Casse en bdtons, Casse 
des Boutiques. The pulp of Cassia Fis'tula 
or Cathartocar'pus Fis'tula; Fam. Leguminosar, 
Sex. Sijst Decandria Monogynia, Pu/pa Cas'sia, 
Cassix Ar amentum, Cassia Fistulx Pulpa, (Ph. 
U. S.), which is obtained in long pods, is black, 
bright, and shining; sweet, slightly acid and 
inodorous. It is laxative in the dose of giv. 

^ §]• 

Cassia Lignea, Laurus cassia — c. Lignea 
Malabaiica, Laurus cassia. 

Cassia M arilaj/dica, Senna America'na, 
American Scuna, Wild Senna, Locust plant, 
(F.) Sine a" J] men' que. The leaves of this plant 
are similar, in virtue, to the cassia senna. They 
are, however, much inferior in strength. 

Cassia, Purging, Cassia fistula. 

Cassia Senna. The name of the plant which 
affords senna. It is yielded, however, by seve- 
ral species of the genus cassia. The leaves of 
senna, Se?inx Folia, Senna Alexandri'na, Senna 
Itai'ica, Sena, Senna or ^Egyptian Cassia, (F.) 
Sini, Casse Sine, have a faint smell, and bit- 
terish taste. The active part is extracted by 
alcohol and water. Their activity is injured 
by boiling water. They are a hydragogue ca- 
thartic, and apt to gripe. Dose of the powder, 
^j. to 2fj. 'Infusion is the best form. 

CASSIA ARAMENTUM, see Cassia fistula 
— c. Fistula? pulpa, see Cassia fistula — c. Flores, 
eee Laurus cinnamomum. 

CASSIALA. Hyssopus. 

CASSIDE BLEUE, Scutellaria galericulata. 

CASShNA, Ilex vomitoria. 

CASSINE, EVERGREEN, Ilex vomitoria. 

CASSIS, Ribes nigrum. 


CASSUMU'NlAR, Casamu'nar, Zenimhet, 
Casmina, Risagon, Bengali lndo'ncm, Bengal' 
Root, (F ) Racine de Benga/e. A root, obtained 
from the East Indies, in irregular slices of va- 
rious forms; some cut transversely, others lon- 
gitudinally. It is an aromatic bitter, and is 
consequently tonic and stimulant. It was once 
considered a panacea, and has been referred to 
Zingiber Cassumuniar, and to Zingiber Zerumbet. 


CASTANEA, Fagus castanea, see also Fagus 
castanea pumila — c. Equina, ^Esculus Hippo- 
castanum — c. Pumila. Fagus castanea pumila. 

OF. Castellamare di Stabia is a town in Na- 
ples, in the Principato Citra, 15 miles S. S. E. 
of Naples. There are two springs here, the 
one sulphureous, the other chalybeate. 

These wateTs, situate neat Acqui, in Italy, are 

tera-Vivent is a small village in the depart- 
ment of Gers, near which is a cold acidulous 
chalybeate, and another which is sulphureous 
and thermal. Temp. 84° Fahrenheit. 

CASTIGANS, Corrigent. 

CASTJOE, Catechu. 

phureous spring in Ross-shire, Scotland, cele- 
brated for the cure of cutaneous and other dis- 

CASTOR BAY, Magnolia glauca. 
Castor Fiber, Fiber, Cam's Pon'ticus. The 
Beaver, (F.) Castor. It furnishes the Castor. 
Rondelet recommends slippers made of its skin 
in gout. Its blood, urine, bile, and fat, were 
formerly used in medicine. 

Castor Oji. Plant, Ricinus communis. 

CASTO'REUM, Castor, Custoretim Pos'si- 
cum et Canaden'se, from y.aaraio, ' the beaver,' 
quasi yuriu^, from ywrTr^,' the belly,' because 
of the size of its belly ; or a castrando. A pecu- 
liar matter, found in bags, near the rectum of 
the beaver, Castor fiber. Its odour is strong, 
unpleasant, and peculiar; taste bitter, subacrid; 
and colour orange-brown. It is antispasmodic, 
and often employed. Dose, gr, x. to^j- 

CASTRANGULA, Scrophularia aquatica. 

C ASTRA T, Castralus. 

CASTRA'TION, Castrd'tio, Ed tome, Evira'- 
tio, Excastra'tio, Etesticula'tio , Dttesta'lio, Ex- 
sec'tio virifium, Eunu clus' mus, Celotom'ia, Or- 
chotom'ia, Orcheol'omy, Orchidvt' omy , (F.) Cliat- 
rure. The operation of removing the testicles. 
Sometimes, the term is employed for the ope- 
ration, when performed on one testicle; hence 
the division into complete and incomplete castra- 
tion. Castration renders the individual inca- 
pable of reproduction. 

CASTRATO, Castratus. 

CASTRA'TUS, (1.) CastraHo, Ectom'ius, 
Emascala'tus, Evira'lus, Exscctus, Desedtus, 
Er.ltstieula'ius, lntestab'ilis, Intesta'tus, Spado, 
Apoc'opus, Bago'as, from castrare, ' to castrate.' 
One deprived of testicles, (F.) Castrat, Chatri. 
This privation has a great influence on the de- 
velopment of puberty. It is adopted to procure 
a clearer and sharper voice; and in the East, 
the guardians of the Harem, for the sake of se- 
curity, are converted into Castra'ti or Eu'nuchs, 
ivrov/oi. Eunuchs have generally both testes 
and penis removed. 

CASUS, Prolapsus — c. Palpebraj superioris, 

CATA, Kara, ' downwards;' 'after,' applied 
to time: a common prefix, as in — 

CATAB'ASIS, from xara(ianv>, 'I descend.' 
An expulsion of humours downwards. 

CATABLE'MA, k<xt*{1kiu«, (**r* and $<tl- 




if iv,) ' any thing let fall, as a curtain,' Epible'- 
ma, Perible'ma. The outermost bandage which 
secures the rest. 

CATABYTHISMOMA'NIA, from x*t*/»u- 
(Siopog, 'submersion,' and ptavia, 'mania.' In- 
sanity, with a propensity to suicide by drowning. 


CATACAUSIS, Combustion, human— c. 
Ebriosa, Combustion, human. 

CATACERASTICUS, from teantxsQavwui, 
' I temper,' 'I correct.' The same as Epiceras- 
ticus. A medicine capable of blunting the ac- 
rimony of humours. 

CAT ACHASMOS, Scarification. 

CATACHRISIS, Inunction. 

CATACHR1STON, Liniment. 

CATACH'YSIS, Effiu'sio, Perfu'sio, from 
xara^sco, 'I pour upon.' Affusion with cold 
water. — Hippocr. Decantation, (q. v.) 

CATAC'LASIS, from xsTctx^caio, ' I break to 
pieces.' Cam'pylum, Campylo'tis. Distortion 
or spasmodic fixation of the eyes; spasmodic 
occlusion of the eyelids; also, fracture of a 
bone — Hippocr., Vogel. 

CATACLRIS'; from Kara, 'beneath,' and 
xXeig, 'the clavicle.' This term has been ap- 
plied to many parts, as to the first rib, the 
acromion, the joining of the sternum with the 
ribs, &c. 

CATACLYS'MUS, Cataclys'ma, from vara- 
y.lvttiv, ' to submerge, inundate.' A Clyster. — 
Hippocr. Others mean, by the term, a shower- 
bath, or copious affusion of water; Catxone'sis. 
Ablution, (q. v.) Douche, (q. v.) 

CATjEONESIS, Catantlema, Cataclvsmus. 

CATAGAUNA, Carnbogia. 

CATAGMA, Fracture— c. Fissura, Fissure, 
see Contrafissura — c. Fractura, Fracture. 

CATAGMAT'ICS, Catagmat'ica reme'dia, 
from Kurayu a, ' fracture.' Remedies supposed 
to be capable of occasioning the formation of 

CATALEN'TIA. Epilepsy, (q. v.) or some 
disease resembling it. — Paracelsus. 


CAT'ALEPSY, Catalep'sia, Catnlcp'sis, Cat'- 
oche, Cat'oclius, Cato'cha Gale'ni, Morbus atlon'- 
itus celsi, Hystc'ria catalep'tica, Congela'tio, 
Deten'lia, Encatalep'sis, Aphonia — (Hippocr.,) 
Anau'dia — (Antigenes.,) Apprehen'sio, Contem- 
pla'tio, Stupor vig" Hans, Prehen' sio, Carus Cata- 
lep'sia, Trance (?) Oppres'sio, Comprehen'sio — 
(Cffil. Aurelian.), Apoplcxfia Catalep'sia, from 
xarakau(iarvi, ' 1 seize hold of,' (F.) Catalepsie. 
A disease in which there is sudden suspension 
of the action of the senses and of volition; the 
limbs and trunk preserving the different posi- 
tions given to them. It is a rare affection, but 
is seen, at times, as a form of hysteria. Some 
of the Greek writers have used the word in its 
true acceptation of a seizure, surprise, &c. 

CATAL'PA, C. Arbo'rra, Bigno'nia Catalpa, 
Catal'pa Cordifo'lia, C. Arbores'cens. The de- 
coction of the pods of the Catalpa, an Ameiican 
tree, of the Nat. Farm. BignoniaceaB, Didyna- 
mia Angiospermia, has been recommended in 
chronic nervous asthma. 

CATALYSIS, Paralysis, (q. v.) from y.uia, and 
Ivm, 'I dissolve or decompose.' The action of pre- 
sence in producing decomposition; as when a 
body which possesses what has been termed 
catalytic force resolves other bodies into new 

compounds by mere contact or presence, with- 
out itself experiencing any modification. 

CATALYTIC FORCE, see Catalysis. 

CATAMENIA, Menses— c. Alba, Leucor- 

CUS, Menorrhagia. 

CATANANCE, Cichorium intybus. 


from y.aia, ' upon,' and arrXaw, ' I pour,' Cateo- 
ne'sis and Catseone'sis. Ablution with warm 
water. A fomentation. — Moschion, Marcellus 

CATAP AS'MA, from xaranaaovi, 'I sprinkle,' 
Catapas'tum, Consper'sio, Epipas'ton, Pasma, 
Sympas'ma, Empaslma, Xerion, Aspcr'sio. Com- 
pound medicines, in the form of powder, em- 
ployed by the ancients to sprinkle on ulcers, ab- 
sorb perspiration, &c. — Paulus of ./Egina. 

CATAPH'ORA, 'a fall,' from y.JjatftQw, 'I 
throw down.' A state resembling sleep, with 
privation of feeling and voice. Somnolency, 
(q. v.) According to others, Cataphora is sim- 
ply a profound sleep, which it is difficult to 
rouse from — in this sense being synonymous 
with Sopor, (q. v.) 

Cataphoua Hydrocf.phalica, see Apoplexy 
— c. Cymini, Theriaca Londinensis. 

CATAPHRAC'TA, a Cuirass, from *«t«- 
(pqaaau, 'I fortify.' A name given by Galen to 
a bandage applied round the thorax and shoul- 
ders. It was also called Q / uad?-i'ga. 
' CAT'APLASM, Cataplus'ma, Epiplas'ma, 
Baos, Poultice, Pultice, from y.aranluoour, (y.ara 
and TiXaaottv, ' to form or mould,') 'to besmear,' 
(F.) Cataplasme. A medicine to be applied ex- 
ternally, under the form of a thick pap. Cata- 
plasms are formed of various ingredients, and 
for different objects. They may be anodyne, 
emollient, tonic, antiseptic, irritating, &c. A sim- 
ple poultice acts only by virtue of its warmth 
and moisture. Meal, fatty substances, leaves of 
plants, certain fruits, crumb of bread, &c, are 
the most common bases. The chief poultices 
which have been officinal are the following: — 
Anodyne, — c. CicutEe, c Digitalis. Antiseptic, 
— c. Carbonis, c. Dauci, c. Fermenti,c. Acetosae, 
c. Cumini. Emollient, — c. Lini, c. Panis, c. 
Mali maturi. Irritating, — c. Sinapis, c. Muriatis 
Sodae, c. Quercus Marini. Tonic and Astrin- 
gent, — c. Alum, c. Goulard, c. Rosas. 

The Parisian Codex has some other officinal 
cataplasms. 1. Cataplas'ma anod'ynum, made 
of poppy and hyoscyamus. 2. Catap/as'maemol'- 
liens, made of meal and pulps. 3. Cataplas'ma. 
ad suppuratio' nem promoven'dam, of pulps and 
Basilicon. 4. Cataplas'ma rubrfa' ciens vel an- 
tipleurit'icum, formed of pepper and vinegar. 

The only cataplasms, the preparation of which 
it is important to describe, are the following: 

Cataplas'ma Fermen'ti, C.effervcs'cens, Yeast 
Cataplasm or Poultice, (F.) Cataplasme de Le- 
vure. (Take of meal By, yeast fijss. Expose to 
a gentle heat.) It is antiseptic, and a good ap- 
plication to bruises. 

Cataplas'ma Sina'pis, C. Sinn'peos, Sina- 
pism, Mustard Cataplasm or Poultice, (F.) Ca- 
taplasme dc Moutard ou Sinapismc. (Mustard 
and Linseed meal or meal aa equal parts. Warm 
vinegar, or water, q s.) A rubefacient and sti- 
mulant applied to the soles of the feet in coma, 




low typhus, &c, as well as to the pained part 
in rheumatism, &c. 

CATAPLEX'IS, Stupor, from y.ara, and nha- 
oto, ' I strike.' The act of striking with amaze- 
ment. Appearance of astonishment as exhibited 
by the eyes in particular. See Htemodia. 

CATAPOSIS. Deglutition. 


CATA PSYX'JS, from, 'Irefrige- 
rate.' Periysygfis, Considerable coldness of the 
body, without rigor and liorripilatio. — Galen. 
Perfrictio. Coldness in the extreme parts of 
the limhs. — Hippocr. 

CATAPTO'SIS, Deciden'tia, a fall. This 
word expresses, sometimes, the fall of a patient, 
attacked with epilepsy, (q. v.) or apoplexy; at 
others, the sudden resolution of a paralytic limb. 


CATAPUTIA, MINOR, Euphorbia lathyris, 
Ricinus communis. 

CAT'AUACT, Catarac'la, Catarrliac'ta, Suf- 
fu'sio Ocvli, Piliarma catarac'ta, Cali'go lentis, 
Gulta opo'ca, Hypoc'hyma, Hypoc'/iysis, Phaco- 
scoto'ma, Parop'sis catarac'la, Glaucu'ma IVoul- 
liou'si. from xaraQaoottv (zur« and ouooctv), ' to 
tumble down.' A deprivation of sight, which 
comes on. as if a veil fell before the eyes. Ca- 
taract consists in opacity of the crystalline lens 
or its capsule, which prevents the passage of 
the rays of light, and precludes vision. The 
causes are obscure. Diagnosis. — The patient 
is blind, the pupil seems closed by an opake 
body, of variable colour, but commonly whitish: 
— Ihe pupil contracting and dilating. Cataracts 
have been divided, by some, into spurious and 
genuine. The former, where the obstacle to vi- 
sion is between the capsule of the lens and the 
uvea: the latter, where it is in the lens or cap- 
sule. A lenticular cataract is where the affection 
is seated in the lens; — a capsular or membranous, 
in the capsule. The capsular is divided again, 
by Beer, into the anterior, posterior, and com- 
plete capsular cataract. When the capsule is 
rendered opake, in consequence of an injury, 
which cuts or ruptures any part of it, it thick- 
ens, becomes leathery, and has been called Ca- 
tarac'ta ar'ida sili.quo'sa. Catarac'ta Morsagnial '- 
na lactca vel purifor' mis, is the milky variety, in 
which the crystalline is transformed into a li- 
quid similar to milk, (F.) Cataracte laitevse ; or, 
as generally defined, in which there is opacity 
of the fluid situate between the lens and its 
capsule. The cap'sulo-lentic'ulur affects both lens 
and capsule, and Beer conceives the liquor Mor- 
gagni, in an altered state, may contribute to it. 
Cataracts are also called stony, (F ) {pierrcuse,) 
milky or cheesy, (laitevse ou caseuse,) according 
to their density: — white, pearly, yellow, brown, 

fray, green, black, (F.) blanche, perl6e, jaune, 
rune, grise, verte, noue, according to their co- 
lour: — -fixed or vacillating, — catarac'ta capsulo- 
lenticula'ris fixa vel trem'ula, (F.) fixe ou bran- 
lunte, according as they are fixed or movable 
behind the pupil. They are likewise called 
Cataracts viannora'cix, fenestra'lx, stc/la'tx, 
puncta'tx,dimidia'tx. &,c, according to the ap- 
pearances they present. 

They may also be simple or complicated with 
adhesion, amaurosis, specks, &c; and primary 
or primitive, when opake before the operation ; 
— secondary, when the opacity is the result of 
the operation. 

Cataract is commonly a disease of elderly in- 

dividuals, although, not ^infrequently, congen- 
ital. It forms slowly ; objects are at firs-t seen" 
as through a mist; li^ht bodies appear to fly 
before the eyes, and it is not until alter months 
or years that the sight is wholly lost. No means 
will obviate the evil except an operation, which 
consists in removing the obstacle to the passage 
of the light to the retina. Four chief methods 
are employed fortius purpose. I. Couching or 
Depression, (F.) Abaissement, Diplacement dc la 
Cataracte. This consists in passing a cataract 
needle through the sclerotica and subjacent 
membranes, a little above the transverse dia- 
meter of the eye; and at about two lines' dis- 
tance from the circumference of the transparent 
cornea, until the point arrives in the posterior 
chamber of the eye. With this the crystalline 
is depressed to the outer and lower part of the 
globe of the eye, where it is left. 2. By ab- 
sorption, — by the French termed broiement, or 
bruising. This is performed in the same manner 
as the former; except that, instead of turning 
the crystalline from the axis of the visual rays, 
it is divided by the cutting edge of the needle, 
and its fragments are scattered in the humours 
of the eye, where they are absorbed. 3. By ex- 
traction, which consists in opening, with a parti- 
cular kind of knife, the transparent cornea and 
the anterior portion of the capsule of the crystal- 
line; and causing the lens to issue through the 
opening. Each of the processes has its advan- 
tages and disadvantages, and all are used by 
surgeons. 4. Some, again, pass a cataract needle 
through the transparent cornea and pupil to 
the crystalline, and depress or cause its absorp- 
tion. This is called Keratonyxis, which see. 

Cataract, Black, Amaurosis. 

Nigra, Amaurosis. 

see Cataract — c. Diplacement de la, see Cataract 
— c. Noire, Amaurosis. 

CATARACTA, (F.) Catarac'tvs, Catarac'ta 
vitia'lus. One affected with cataract. The 
French use this term, both for the eye affected 
with cataract and the patient himself. 

CATARlA,see Nepeta. 

CATARRH', Catar'rhus, Catar'rhopus, Ca- 
tarrheu'ma, Rheuma, Deflux'io, from xara, 
' downwards,' and qsw, ' I flow.' A discharge of 
fluid from a mucous membrane. The ancients 
considered the catarrh as a simple flux, and not 
as an inflammation. Generally it partakes of 
this character, however. Catarrh is, with us, 
usually restricted to the inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the air-passages: the 
French extend it to that of all mucous mem- 
branes. (F.) Flux munueux, Fluxion catarrhale. 

Catarrh, in the English sense, Rheuma Pec'- 
toris, Dcstilta'tio Pec'toris, Catar'rhus Pec'toris, 
Blennop' lysis, Tus'sis catarrha'lis simplex, Ana- 
calhar'sis catairha'lis simplex, Grave' do (of 
many,) Febris Catarrha'lis, Blcnnotho'rax, Bron- 
chi' lis, Catar'rhus afri'gorS, (F.) Catarrhc put 
monaire, Fihvre Catarrhale, Rhume de Poilrine, 
a Cold, is a superficial inflammation of the mu- 
cous follicles of the trachea and bronchi. It is 
commonly an affection of but little consequence, 
but apt to relapse and become chronic. It is 
characterized by cough, thirst, lassitude, fever, 
watery eyes, with increased secretion of mucus 
from the air-passages. The antiphlogistic regi- 
men and time usually remove it. Sometimes, 




the inflammation of the bronchial tubes is so 
great as to prove fatal. 

Catarrh, Acutk, of the Uterus, see Me- 
tritis — c. Chronic, Bronchitis, (chronic) — c. 
Dry, see Bronchitis — c. Pulmonary, Bronchitis 
— c. Rose, Fever, hay — c. Suffocating nervous, 
Asthma Thymicum — c. Summer, Fever, hay. 

Catarrh', Epidem'ic, Catar'rhus epidem'icus, 
C. a conta'gio, Rheuma epidem'icum. Catarrh 
prevailing owing to some particular Conslitutin 
tieris, and affecting a whole country: — Influ- 
enza, (q. v.) 

Metritis — c. Buccal, Aphthae — c. Convulsive, 
Bronchitis — c. Gastrique, Gastritis— c. Guttural, 
Cynanche tonsillaris — r. latest inal. Diarrhoea — 
C. Laryngien, Laryngitis — c. Nasal, Coryza — c. 
Oculairc, Ophthalmia — c. de i Oreille, Otirrhcea 
— c. Pharyngicn, Cynanche parotidea — c. Pitui- 
Uvx, Bronchorrhoea — c. Pulmonaire, Catarrh — 
c. Sec; see Bronchitis — c. Stomacal, Gastror- 
rhoea — c. Uterin, Leucorrhcea — c. Vesical, Cys- 

CATARRH EO'TIC A, from KaTaQQrjytvut, 'I 
break down.' Remedies considered proper for 
dissolving; — as diuretics, cathartics, «fcc. — 

CATARRHEUX, (F.) Catarrho'sus. One 
subject to catarrh, affected with catarrh. 

CATARRHEXTA, Catarrluxis; same ety- 
mon as Catarr hectical the action of Catarrhec- 
tica. Also, effusion; evacuation of the bowels. 
CATARRHEXIS, Catarrhexia, Excrement, 
(q. v.) — c. Vera. Hoematochezia. 

CATARRHCE'CUS, from *.ajaqQia, 'I flow 
from.' An epithet for disease, produced by a 
discharge of phlegm; catarrhal. 

CATAR'RHOPA PHY'MATA, from varan- 
Qonoq, y.araoQoni;g, ' sloping downwards.' Tu- 
bercles tending downwards, or with their apices 

CATARRHOPHE, Absorption. 
CATARR 1-1 0'PIA, Calar'rlujsis, from *«t«, 
• downwards,' and ootd;, 'inclination.' An afflux 
of fluids towards the inferior parts, and espe- 
cially towards the viscera of the abdomen. The 
Greek word araQooma expresses an opposite 
phenomenon, or a tendency towards the upper 

CATARRHUS, Defluxion, Tussis— c. JEsli- 
vus, Fever, hay — e. Bellinsulanus, Cynanche 
parotidaea — c. Bronchiorum, Bronchitis — c. a 
Contagio, Influenza — c. Epidemicus, Influenza, 
Catarrh, epidemic — c. Gonorrhoea, Gonorrhoea 
— c. Intestinalis, Diarrhoea — c. ad Nares, Coryza 
— c. Fulmonum, Bronchitis — c. Senilis, Bron- 
chitis (chronic) — c. Suffocativus Barbadensis, 
C. trachealis — c. Urethrals, Gonorrhoea — c. Ve- 
sicae, Cystirrhoea. 

CATARRHYSIS, Catarrhopia, Defluxion. 
CATARTIS'MUS, from *.wtagxitnv, 'tore- 
pair, replace.' The coaptation of a luxated or 
i'lactuied bone. 

CATASCEUE, Structure. 
CATASTALAGMOS, Coryza, Distillation. 
CATAS'TASIS, from Ka9taryjni, 'I esta- 
blish.' The constitution, state, condition, &c. 
of any thing. — Hippoc. Also the reduction of 
a bone. See Constitution, and Habit of Body. 

CATAT'ASIS, from **tot«»«, 'I extend,' 
extension, (q. v.) The extension and reduc- 
tion of a fractured limb. — Hippoc. 

CATATHLIPSIS, Oppression. 

CATAXIS, Fracture. 

CATCH FLY, Apocynum androsaemifolium, 
Silene Virginica. 

CATCHUP, Ketchup. 

CAT'ECHU. The extract of various parts 
of the Acacia Cat'ecliu, Casetcltu, an oriental tree. 
The drug is also called Terra Japan' ica, Ex- 
trad turn Catechu, Japan Earth, Cascheu, Cadt- 
chu, Cashow, Caitchu, Castjoe, Cacau, Cale, 
Kaath, Cuti, Cutch, Cairn, Succus Japon'icus. 
(F.) Cachou. It is a powerful astringent, and 
is used in diarrhoea, intestinal hemorrhage, &c. 
Dose. gr. xv. to t ^ss in powder. 

CATEIAD'iON, from k*t*, and t,a, ' a blade 
of grass.' A long instrument, thrust into the 
nostrils to excite hemorrhage in headache.— 

CATENA MUSCULUS, Tibialis anticus. 

CATEONES1S, Catantlema. 

CATGUT, Galega Virginiana. 

CATH^E'R ES1S, xa^aioes-.c, ' subtraction, di- 
minution.' Extenuation or exhaustion, owing 
to forced exercise. — Hippoc. 

CATH.ERETICUS, Catheretic. 


CATHAR1SMOS, Depuration. 

CATHAR'MA, Purgament'um. Matterseva- 
cuated by a purgative, or by spontaneous purg- 
ing, also, a cathartic, (q. v.) 

CATHAR'MUS. Same etymon; a purga- 
tion. — Hippoc. Also, the cure of a disease by 
magic. &c. 

CATHAR'SIS, from x *#* <§{<>, (xafl' and 
atQiir, ' to take away,') 'to purge.' Pur go! tin, 
Apucathar'sis, Cvprupku'ria. A natural or arti- 
ficial purgation by any passage; — mouth, anus, 
vagina, &c. ' 

CATHARTIC, Cat har 1 liens, Catharc'licus, 
Cathar' ma, Coprocrit'ica, Dejecto'rium Remd- 
dium, Eccathar 'ticus , Hypac'ticus, Hypel'atns, 
Lapac'ticus, Apocathar 'ticus. Same etymon. (F.) 
Catharlique. A medicine, which, when taken 
internally, increases the number of alvine eva- 
cuations. Some substances act upon the upper 
part of the intestinal canal, as calomel and colo- 
cynlh; others, on the lower parts, as aloes; and 
some on the whole extent, as saline purgatives. 
Hence a choice may be necessary. Cathartics 
are divided into Purgatives and Laxitives, 
(q. v.) The following is a list of the chief Ca- 

Aloe, Cassia Marilandica, Colocynthis, Ela- 
terium, Gambogia, Hydrargyri Chloridum mite, 
Hydrargyri Oxydum nigrum, llydrarg. cum 
Magnesia, Jalapa, Juglans. Magnesia, Magne- 
sia; Carbonas, Magnesias Sulphas, Manna, Man- 
nita, Oleum Euphorbiae Lathyridis, Oleum Ri- 
cini, Oleum Tiglii, Podophyllum, Potassae 
Acetas, Potassae Bisulphas, Potassae Sulphas, 
Potassae Supertartras, Potassae Tartras, Kheum, 
Scammoniuin, Senna, Sinapis, Sodae et Potassae 
Tartras, Sodae Phosphas, Sodae Sulphas, Sodii 
Chloridum, Sulphur, Veralria, Aquae Minerales 
Sulphureae et Salinae, Enemata, Suppositoria. 

CATHARTINE, see Convolvulus jalapa. 
CATHARTIQUE. Cathartic. 
CATHARTOCARPUS, Cassia fistula. 
CATHEMERUS, Quotidian. 




CATHERETTC, Catltscrel'icus, Ectijlot'icus, 
Sarcophagus, from Kadm^etv, 'to eat,' 'destroy.' 
Substances applied to warts, exuberant granu- 
lations, &c, to eat them down. They are 
mild caustics. 

CATH'ETER, from xadir^i, (xa&\ and iijmi, 
'to send,') 'I explore.' JEne'a, Al'galie, Ca- 
thfte'ris, De.missor> Immis'sor. A hollow tube, 
introduced by surgeons into the urinary blad- 
der, for the purpose of drawing off the urine. 
Catheters are made of silver or elastic gum. 
See Bougie. The French generally use the 
word catheter for the solid sound or staff; and 
ah"ilie and sonde for the hollow instrument. 
= CATHETERIS. Catheter. 
CATHETERIS'MUS, Calhele'risis, Cathetc- 
risa'tio, Calh'ctcrism, same etymon. The intro- 
duction of a catheter or sound into the bladder, 
or Eustachian tube. 

CATHID'RYSIS, from xaSiSww, 'I place 
together.' Reduction of a part to its natural 

CATHMIA, Plumbi oxydum semi-vitreum. 
CATHMIR. Calamina. 

CATH'OLIC HUMOURS, (F.) Humeurs Ca- 
tholioues, are the fluids spread over the whole 

xa6' and oXixog, 'universal.' A remedy, be- 
lieved to be capable of curing all diseases; a 

Cathoi/icon Duplex. An ancient, purging 
electuary, chiefly composed of caseia, tamarinds, 
rhubarb, senna, &c. 

CATIL'LIA. A weight of nine ounces. 
CATLING, Knife, double-edged. 
CATO, zuro), 'below,' 'beneath.' This word 
in the writings of Hippocrates, is often used 
for the abdomen, especially the intestines. 
When he advises a remedy — xurw, he means a 
purgative; when aria, above or upwards, an 
emetic. As a prefix, Cato means 'beneath,' 
as in 

CATOCATHAR'TIC, Catocathar'ticus, from 
xarw, 'downwards,' and xu^aioiw, 'I purge.' 
A medicine, which purges downwards. One 
that produces alvine evacuations. The antithe- 
sis to Anacathartic. 

CATOCHA GALEiNT. Catalepsy. 
CAT'OCHEor CAT'OCHEIS, from x*Tf/u>, 
'1 retain,' 'I hold fast.' This word has, by 
some, been used synonymously with Catalep- 
sy, (q. v .); by others, with Coma vigil; by 
others, with Tetanus. 

CATOCHUS, Ecstasis— c. Cervinus, Teta- 
nus — c . Holotonicus, Tetanus— c. Infantum, 
Induration of the cellular tissue. 

CATOMIS'MOS, from y.urw, 'beneath,' and 
0710?, 'shoulder.' Svbhumera'tio. A mode with 
the ancients of reducing luxation of the hume- 
rus by raising the body by the arm. — Paulus of 


EYE. When a lighted candle is held before 
the eye, three images of it are seen — two erect, 
and one inverted:— the former owing to reflec- 
tion from the cornea and anterior surface of 
the crystalline; the latter owing to reflection 
from the posterior layer of the crystalline. 
This mode of examining the eye has been pro- 
posed as a means of diagnosis between cataract 

and amaurosis. In the latter, all the images 
are seen. 

and cTiTufiat.) 'a minor,' and fiavreta, 'divina- 
tion.' A kind of divination by means of a 
CATOPTER, Speculum. 
CATOPTRON. Speculum. 
CATORCHl'TES. A kind of sour wine, pre- 
pared with the orchis and black grape, or dried 
figs. It was formerly employed as a diuretic 
and emmenagogue. — Dioscorid. Called, also, 
Si/cites. — Galen. 
CATORETICUS, Purgative. 
CATOTERICUS, Purgative. 
CATOT'ICA, from xirw, 'beneath.' Dis- 
eases infecting internal surfaces. Pravity of 
the fluids or emunctoiies, that open on the in- 
ternal surfaces of orga ns. The second order in 
the class Eccritica of Good. 


CATSFOOT. Antennaria Dioica. 
CATTAGAUMA, Cambogia. 

CATULOT'ICUS, from xarouXouv, (xara 
and ovXottv,) 'to cicatrize.' A remedy for re- 
moving cicatrices.— Galen. A medicine, pro- 
per for producing cicatrization. 
CATU-TRIPALI, Piper longum. 
CAUCUEMAR, Incubus. 
CAUCHUC, Caoutchouc. 
CAUDA, Coccyx, Penis. 
Cauda Equi'na. The spinal marrow, at its 
termination, about the 2d lumbar vertebra, 
gives off a considerable number of nerves, 
which, when unravelled, resemble a horse's 
tail, — hence the name. (F.) Queue de Cheval, 
Q. de la Moilk Ephiiere. See Medulla spinalis. 
Cauda Salax, Penis. 

CAUDA'TIO. An extraordinary elongation 
of the clitoris. — Blasius. 
CAUDATUS, Bicaudntus. 
Caudiez is a small town, nine leagues from 
Perpignan, where there is a thermal spring, 
containing a little sulphate of soda and iron. 

CAUL. The English name for the omen- 
tum. Also, when a child is born, with the 
membranes over the face, it is said to have been 
"born with a caul." In the catalogue of super- 
stitions, this is one of the favourable omens. 
The caul itself is supposed to confer privileges 
upon the possessor; hence the membranes are 
dried, and sometimes sold for a high price. (L.) 
Pilus, rileolus. Galea, Vitla. (F.) Coeffe, Coiffe 
— (Etreni. coiffi— "to be born with a caul.") 
See Epiploon. 

CAULE'DON, Sicye'don, from xavXo?, 'a 
stalk.' A transverse fracture. 

CAU'LIFLOWER, Germ. Kohl, cabbage, 
and flower [?J Brassica Florida. 

Cauliflower Exckf.s'cencf., Exrrescen'tia 
Syphilitica, (F.) Choufleur. A syphilitic excres- 
cence, which appears about the origin of the 
mucous membranes, chiefly about the anus and 
vulva, and which resembles, in appearance, the 
head of the cauliflower. 

CAU LIS. Penis— c. Florida, Brassica Florida. 


LconHkl thalktroi'des, Bluefbcmj Cohosh, Co- 




hosh, Coliush, Blueberry, Papoose Root, Squaic 
Root, Blue Ginseng, Yellow Ginseng, a plant. 
of the Family Berberideoe; Sex. Syst. Hexan- 
dria Monogynia, which grows all over the 
United States, flowering in May and June. 
The infusion of the root is much used by the 
Indians in various diseases. To it are ascribed 
emmenagogue and diaphoretic virtues. 

CAULOPLE'GIA, from xauXoc, 'the male 
organ,' and nfaiyii, 'a wound,' or 'stroke.' An 
injury or paralysis of the mule organ. 

CAUMA, y.avuu, 'a burnt part,' from y.aiw, 
'I burn.' Great heat of the body or atmosphere. 
Synocha (q. v.) Empresma (q. v.) 

Cauma Bkonohitis, Cynanche trachealis — c. 
Carditis, Carditis — c. Enteritis, Enteritis — c. 
Gastritis. Gastritis — c. HoRinorrhagicum, Hsg- 
morrhagia activa— c. Ophthalmitis, Ophthalmia 
— c. Peritonitis, Peritonitis — c. Phrenitis, Phre- 
nitis — c. Pleuritis, Pleuritis— c. Rheumatismus, 
Rheumatism, acute. 

CAUNGA, Areca. 

CAUSA CONJUNCTA, Cause, proximate— 
c. Continens, Cause, proximate. 

CAUSAE ABDIT/E, Causes, predisponent or 
remote — c. Actuales, Causes, occasional — c. 
Prasincipientes, Causes, procatarctic — c. Proe- 
gumense, Causes, predisponent. 

CAUSE, Cau' sa, Ai' tia, Jii" lion. An act which 
precedes another, and seems to be a necessary- 
condition for the occurrence of the latter, The 
causes of disease are generally extremely ob- 
scure; although they, sometimes, are evident 
enough. The predisponent and occasional 
causes are the only two, on which any stress 
can be laid; but as authors have divided them 
differently, a short explanation is necessary. 

Cause, Accessory, (F.) Cause Accessoire, 
which has only a secondary influence in the 
production of disease. 

Causes, Accidental, Common Causes, (F.) 
Causes Accidentcllcs , are those which act only 
in certain given conditions; and which do not 
always produce the same disease. Cold, e. g., 
may be the accidental cause of pneumonia, 
rheumatism, &c. 

CAUSES CACHEES, C.occult—c. Common, 
C. accidental— c. Exciting, C. Occasional, — c. 
Essential, C. Specific — c. Diterminantes, C. 
Specific — c liloignces, C. predisponent. 

Causes, External, (F.) Causes exlernes, are 
such as act externally to the individual; as air, 
cold, &c. 

CAUSES FORMELLES, (F.) are such as de- 
termine the form or kind of the disease. They 
differ from the Causes materiellcs, which are 
common to a set of diseases; as, to the neuro- 
ses, phlegmasia?, &c. 

Causes, Hidden, C. occult. 

Causes, Internal, (F.) Causes internes, are 
those which arise within the body; — as mental 
emotions, &c. 

Causes, Mechanical, (F.) Causes mr'.can- 
iqites, are those which act mechanically, as pres- 
sure upon the windpipe in inducing suffocation. 

Causes, Negative, (F.) Causes negatives, 
comprise all those things, the privation of which 
may derange the functions; — as abstinence too 
long continued. They are opposed to positive 
causes, which, of themselves, directly induce 
disease; — as the use of indigestible food, spi- 
rituous drinks, &c. 

Causes, Obscure, C. occult. 

Causes, Occasional or Exciting, Causae ac- 
lua'lcs, (F ) Causes occasiorullcs, are those which 
immediately produce disease. 

Causes, Occult, Hidden causes, Obscure 
causes, (F.) Causes occu/lcs ou cacMes ou ob- 
scures. Any causes with which we are unac- 
quainted; — also, certain inappreciable characters 
of the atmosphere, which give rise to epidemics. 

Causes. Physical, (F.) Causes Physiques, — 
those which act by virtue of their physical pro- 
perties; as form, hardness, &c. All vulne- 
rating bodies belong to this class. 

Causes, Physiological, (F.) Causes Physi- 
ologiques, those which act only on living mat- 
ter; — narcotics, e. g. 

Causes, Predisponent. Remote causes, Causse 
pro'egu'menaz, Causse al/dilae. Causse remo'tx; 
{¥.) Causes prddisponantcs, Causes eloignies, 
— those which render the body liable to disease. 
They may be general, affecting a number of 
people, or particular, affecting only one person. 

Causes, Principal, (F.) Causes principales 
— those which exert the chief influence on the 
production of disease, as distinguished from the 
accessory causes. 

Causes, Procatarc'tic, Causae procatarc'ticm, 
Causse praiincipien'tes, from noc xuraoy.x ixog; — 
the origin or beginning of a thingr, (**rao/i», 
'1 begin,' and 7rqo, 'before.') These words 
have been used, in different significations. 
Some have employed them synonymously with 
predisponent or remote causes, others, with occa- 
sional or exciting causes. 

CAUSE PROCHJ1WE, C. proximate. 

Cause, Proximate, Causa proxfima vel eon'- 
tinens vel conjunc'ta (F.) Cause continente ou 
prochaine, is the disease itself. Superabundance 
of blood, e. g., is the proximate cause of plethora. 

Causes, Remote, C. predisponent. 

Causes, Specific, Essential causes, fyc. (F.) 
Causes specifujues, C. essentielles. Causes dtter- 
minanlcs; those, which always produce a deter- 
minate disease: contagion, for example. 

CAUSIS, Burn, Ebullition, Fermentation, 
Incendium, Ustion. 

CAUSOMA, Inflammation. 

CAUS'TIC, Caus'ticus, Cauleret'icus, Dix- 
rct'icus, Ero'dens, Pyrot'icus from xaico, ' I burn,' 
(F.) Caustique. Bodies, which have the pro- 
perty of causticity ; and which, consequently, 
burn or disorganize animal substances. The 
word is also used substantively. The most ac- 
tive are called Escharotics. Caustics are also 
called ' corrosives.' 

Caustic Bearer, Porte-causlique. 

CAUSTICA ADUSTIO. Cauterization. 

CAUSTICITY, Caustic" 'itas, from y.avariy.o;, 
'that which burns,' (xaiw, 'I burn.') The im- 
pression, which caustic bodies make on the 
organ of taste; or, more commonly, the" property 
which distinguishes those bodies. 

CAUSTICOPHORUM, Porte-picrre. 

— c. Americanum, Veratrum sabadilla — c. Anti- 
moniale, Antimonium muriatum — c. Commune, 
Potassa fusa — c. Commune acerrimum, Potassa 
fusa — c. Commune fortius, Potassa cum calce 
— c. Lunare, Argenti nitras — c. Potcntiale, Po- 
tassa fusa — c. Salinum, Potassa fusa. 

Causticum Commu'ne, PoLcn'tial Cau'tery, 
Common Caustic, Caute' rium potentia'le, Lapis 
scp'iicus, Caus'ticum commu'nS nut'ius. This 




consists of quicklime and black soap, aa equal 

CAUST1QUE, Caustic. 

CAUSUS, from y.aiw, 'I burn.' < A highly 
ardent fever; Diu'rens. Pinel regards it as a 
complication of bilious and inflammatory fever; 
Bronssais, as an intense gastritis, accompanied 
with bilious symptoms. See Synocha. 

Causus, Endemial, of the West Indies, 
Fever, yellow — c. Tropicus endemicue, Fever, 

CAUTER. Cauterium. 

CJiUTRRE, Cauterium, Fonticulus— c. Inld- 
rent, Inherent cautery. 


C. is a. bourg seven leagues from Bareges (Hau- 
tcs-Pyrenees,) France. The waters are hydro- 
sulphurous and thermal — temperature 1123° F. 
They are used in the same cases as the Bareges 

CAUTE'RIUM, Cauter, Cau'tcry, lauslo'rium, 
Rupto'rinm, from xaito, ' I burn,' (F.) Cautere. 
Feu nctuel. A substance, used for burning or 
disorganizing the parts to which it is applied. 
Cauteiies were divided by the ancients into 
actual and potential. The word is now restricted 
to the red-hot iron; or to positive burning. It 
was, formerly, much used for preventing he- 
morrhage from divided arteries; and also with 
the same views as a blister. The term Poten- 
tial Cautery, Caute'rium potential IS, (F) Feupo- 
tentiel, was generally applied to the causticum 
commune, (q. v.) but it is now used synony- 
mously with caustic in general. 

Cuutire. also means an issue. 

CAU'TERIZATiON, Cauterisa'tio, Exus'tio, 
lnus'lio, Caus'tica Adus'tio. The effect of a 
cautery. The French, amongst whom caute- 
rization is much used, distinguish five kinds: 
1. Cauterisation inherent e, which consists in ap- 
plying the actual cautery freely, and with a 
certain degree of force, so as to disorganize 
deeply. 2. Cauterisation transcvrrente, which 
consists in passing the edge of the Cautere cul- 
tellaire, or the point of the Cautere conique 
lightly, so as not to disorganize deeply. 3. Cau- 
tirisation par pointes, which consists in applying 
on the skin, here and there, the hot point of the 
conical cautery with sufficient force to caute- 
rize the whole thickness of the skin. 4. Cau- 
terisation lente, slow cauterization, by means of 
the tnoxa. 5. Cauterisation objective, which con- 
sists in holding the cautery at some distance 
from the part to be acted upon by it. 

To Cau'teiuze; Caus'tico adu'rere; (F.) 
Cautdriser. To apply the cautery. To burn 
with a cautery. 

CAUTERY, Cauterium— c. Potential, Caus- 
ticum commune. 

CAVA, Vulva. 

Cava. Vena. The hollow or deep-seated 
vein, (F.) Veine cave. A name given to the 
two great veins of the body, which meet at the 
right auricle of the heart. The vena cava su- 
perior, thorad'ica vel descen'dens, is formed by 
the union of the subclavians; and receives suc- 
cessively, before its termination at the upper 
part of the right auricle, the inferior thyroid, 
right internal mammary, superior diaphragma- 
tic, azygos, &c. The vena cava infe'rior, abdomi- 
nal lis vel asem'dens, arises from the union of 
the two primary iliacs, opposite the fourth or 

fifth lumbar vertebra, receives the middle sacral, 
the lumbar, rigid spermatic, hepatic, and inferior 
diaphragmatics, and opens at the posterior and 
inferior part of the rio-fit auricle. 

CAYATIO, Cavity. 

CAVEA, Cavity — c. Narium, Nares. 

CAVER' NA,rfntrum. 'A cavern.' This term 
has been used for the female organs of gene- 
ration. See Cavity, and Vulva. 

Caverna Narium, Nares. 

CAVERNS FRONT1S, Frontal sinuses. 

CAVERNEUX, Cavernous. 

CAVERNOUS, Carerno'sus, (F.) Cavcr- 
neux. Filled with small cavities or caverns, — 
as a sponge. 

Cavernous Bodies, Cor'pora Caveunos'a,of 
the Penis, Cor'pora nervo'sa, C. Ner'vco-spon- 
gio'sa Penis, (F.) Corps caverneux. The corpus 
cavernosum is a kind of cylindrical sac, sepa- 
rated, through its whole extent, by a vertical, in- 
complete septum; and forming nearly two-thirds 
of the penis. The corpus cavernosum, on each 
side, arises from the ascending portion of the 
ischium, and terminates obtusely behind the 
glans. The arteries of the corpora cavernosa 
come from the internal pudic. See Helicine 
Arteries. Nerves are found on the surface of 
the outer membrane, but they do not appear to 
penetrate the substance. 

M tiller's researches have led him to infer, 
that both in man and the horse, the nerves of 
the corpora cavernosa are made up of branches 
proceeding from the organic as well as the ani- 
mal system, whilst the nervesof animal life alone 
provide the nerves of sensation of the penis. 

Cavernous Bodies, Corpora Cavernosa, of 
the Clitoris, are two hollow crura, forming 
the clitoris. 

Cavernous Body of the Vagina, Corpus 
Caverno'sum Vagi'na, Plexus retiformis, is a 
substance, composed of blood-vessels and cells, 
similar to those of the penis and clitoris, which 
covers the outer extremity of the vagina, on 
each side. It serves to contract the entrance 
to the vagina during coition. 

Cavernous Respiration, (F.) When a ca- 
vity exists in the lungs, and one or more rami- 
fications of the bronchia terminate in it, a loud 
tubal noise is emitted, provided the cavity be 
not filled with fluid, which is called cavernous 
respiration. In this condition the cough is ca- 
vernous likewise, (F.) Toux Cavemeuse. When 
the capacity of the cavern is very great, the 
sound of respiration is like that produced by 
blowing into a decanter, with the mouth at a 
little distance from the neck. This kind of ca- 
vernous respiration has been called amphoric, 
from amphora, ' a flask;' (F.) Respiration am- 
phorique. Souffle amphorique, S. mitallifjue. 

The Veiled Pvff, (F.) Souffle voile, is a modi- 
fication of the cavernous respiration, in which, 
according to Laennec, "a sort of movable veil 
interposed between the excavation and the ear " 
seems to be agitated to and fro. It is a sign 
which is not attended to. 

Cavernous Sinus, Sinus Caverno'sus, Sinus 
pohjmor'phus seu Receptor/ ulum, S. sphenoidal is, 
(F.) Simis caverneux. The Cav'ernous Si'nuses 
are venous cavities of the dura mater, filled 
with a multitude of reddish, soft filaments, in- 
tersecting each other; and, as it were, reticu- 
lated. They commence behind the inner part 
of the sphenoidal fissure, pass backwards on 



tlie sidesof the fossa pituitaria,and terminate by 
opening into a cavity, common to the superior 
and inferiorpetrosa! sinuses. Tliey receivesome 
meningeal veins, the ophthalmic veins, &c. 

Cav'ernous Texture or Tissue, (F.) Tissu 
caverneuz. The spongy substance which forms 
the greater part of the penis and clitoris. It 
seems to consist of a very complicated lace- 
work of arteries and veins; and, probably, of 
nervous filaments, with small fibrous plates, 
which form by their decussation numerous 
cells communicating with each other. This 
spongy texture produces erection, by dilating 
and swelling on the influx of blood; and pro- 
bably, also, by virtue of some property inherent 
in it. 

CAVIARE, Kaviac. A culinary preparation, 
much used by certain people, and made on the 
shores of the Black and Caspian Sea, from the 
roe of the sturgeon, mixed with salt and other 

CAVIC'ULA or CAVIL'LA, from cavits, 
'hollow.' The Ankle, or space between the 
malleoli. Some have given this name to the 
os cuneiforme. See Astragalus. 


CAVILLA, Astragalus, Cavicula. 

— c. Buccinata, Cochlea — c. Cochleata, Cochlea. 

Cav'itas Ellip'tica, Ampulla. A dilatation 
at one end of the semicircular canals of the ear. 

Cavitas NAHiuM,Nares — c.Pulpoe,see Tooth. 

CAVITATES CEREBRI, Ventricles of the 
brain — c. Durae matris, Sinuses of the dura 
mater — c. Innominatce, Auricles of the heart. 

CAVITJL, Cavity — c. Dentuire, Dental cavity 
— r. des Epiploons, see Peritonaeum — c. du 
Tympan, Tympanum. 

CAVITY, Cav'itas, Cavum, Ccelotcs, Ccclon, 
Ca' eta, Caver'na, Cava' do, (F.) Cavile. Every 
thing hollow, as the cranium, mouth, nasal 
fossae, &c. 

Cavities, Splanchnmc, (F.) Cavitis splancli- 
niques, are those which contain the viscera. 
They are three in number; — the cranium, chest, 
and abdomen. The cavities of bones, connected 
with joints or otherwise, are described under 
their particular denominations. 

CAVUM, Cavity. 

Cavum Cra'nii, Venter Supre'mus. The cavity 
formed by the proper bones of the cranium. 

Cavum Df.ntis, see Tooth — c. Narium,Nares 
— c. Oris, Mouth — c. Tympani, Tympanum. 

CAYAN, Phaseolus creticus. 

CAZABI, Jatropha manihot. 

CEANOTHOS, Cirsium arvense. 


CEAR, Heart. 

CEASMA, Fissure. 

CEBI GALLl'N.E. The liver of the fowl, 
bruised.— Castelli. 

CEBIP'ARA. A large Brazilian tree, whose 
bitter and astringent bark is used in making 
anti-rheumatic baths and fomentations. 

CECES. see Quercus alba. 

CILCIT&. Coecitas. 

CEDAR, RED, Juniperus Virginiana. 

CEDE1A, Embalming. 

CED'MATA, zsfytara. Rheumatic pains of 
the joints, especially of the hips. A form of 
gout or rheumatism. 

CEDRELE'UM, from y.»8qo S , ( lhe cedar,' and 
i?.ai°v, 'oil.' The oil of cedar. — Pliny. 

CE'DRIA, Ce'drium, Ce'drinum, Cedri Inch', 
rijma, Alkitran. The oil or resin which flows 
from the cedar of Lebanon. It was supposed 
to possess great virtues. — Hippocr., Foosius, 
Scribonius Largus, Dioscorides. It has been 
supposed to be the same as the pyroligneous 
acid. See Pinus Sylvestris. 

CE'DRINUM V1NUM, Cctfar Wine. A wine, 
prepared by steeping half a pound of bruised 
cedar berries in six French pints of sweet wine. 
It is diuretic and subastringent. 

CEDRI'TES, from xidoos, 'the cedar.' A wine 
prepared from the resin of cedar and sweet 
wine. It was formerly employed as a vermi- 
fuge, &c. 

CEDRIUM, Cedria. 

CEDROMELA, see Citrus medica. 


CEDROS, Juniperus lycia. 

CEDROSTIS. Bryonia alba. 

CEDRUS BACC1FERA, Juniperus sabina. 

CE1NTURE, Cincrulum. Herpes zoster. 

ROIDE, Ciliary ligament. 

CELKTURE 'DARTRE USE, Herpes zoster— 
c. de Hildane, Cingulum Hildani — c. de Vif Ar- 
gent, Cingulum mercuriale. 

CELANDINE, Impatiens— c. Common, Che- 
lidonum mnjus — c. lesser, Ranunculus ficaria. 

CtiLfAQUti. Coeliac. 

CELASTRUS, Celas'tus, Ceano'thus Ameri- 
ca' nvs, JVeic Jersey Tea, Red root. Used by 
the American Indians, in the same manner as 
lobelia, for the cure of syphilis. It is slightly 
bitter and somewhat astringent. A strong in- 
fusion of the dried leaves and seeds has been 
recommended in aphthae, and as a gargle in 

CELATION, (F.) Concealment, from celare, 
'to conceal.' A word used by French medico- 
legal writers for cases where there has been 
concealment of pregnancy or delivery. 

CELE, y.j]h], 'a tumour, protrusion, or rup- 
ture;' a very common suffix, as in hydrocele, 
bubonocele, &c. See Hernia. 

CEL'ERY, (F.) Celeri. The English name 
for a variety of Apium graveolens, (q. v.) 

CE'LIS, xtjXis, 'a spot, a stain.' A macula 
(q. v.) or spot on the skin. 

CELL, APOPLECTIC, see Apoplectic cell 
— c. Calcigerous, see Tooth— c. germ, Cyto- 
blast — c. germinal, see Cytoblast. 

Cell Like. The life which is possessed by 
the separate cells that form the tissues, and by 
which the nutrition of the tissues is presumed 
to be effected. 

Cell, Nucleated, see Cytoblast. 

CELLA TURCICA, Sella Turcica. 


CEL'LULAR, Cellula'ris, (F.) Cellulaire. 
Composed of cells or cellules, from cclla or eel- 
lula, 'a cell.' 

Cel'lular. Mem'brane, Membra' na cellulo'- 
sa, M. Cellula'ris, — V. adipo'sa, pingueilinn'sa, 
of some, — Pannic'ulus adipo'sus, — Membrane 
formed of cellular tissue, (F.) Meiuhrune cellu- 
laire. Generally, it is used for the tissue itself. 

Cel'lular Svstem. The whole of the cel- 
lular tissue of the human body. 

C e l l u l a rTi s s u r., Tela cellula'ris, T. cellulo'sa : 
reticula'ted, filamentous, laminated, crib' ri form, 
porous, urt'oltr, and mucous Tissue, Rctic'ular 




or cellular substance, Contex'tus cellule/ sus, (F.) 
Tissu cellulaire, reticule', lamineux, crildeux, po- 
reuz, artoluirc, muquevx, &C, is the most com- 
mon of all the organic tissues. Anatomists do 
not agree regarding its intimate structure. It 
seems to contain cellules or irregular areola? 
between the fibres and plates; as well as serum, 
fat, and the adipous tissue. The cellular tissue 
or texture unites every part of the body; de- 
termines its shape, and by its elasticity and 
contractility, and by the fluid, which it con- 
tains in its cells, facilitates the motion of parts 
on each other. 

Cellular tissue has been divided byanatomists 
into the external, general or common cellular 
tissue — textus cellularis intermedins seu laxus, 
which does not penetrate the organs, — the cel- 
lular texture which forms the envelopes of or- 
gans— textus cellularis strictus; and that, which 
penetrates into the organs, accompanying and 
enveloping all their parts, — the textus cellularis 
stipatus, constituting the basis of all the or- 
gans. It has likewise been termed Textus or- 
ganicus seu parenrhymalis. 

Cellular Tissue of Bones, see Cancelli. 
CEL'LULE, Cel'/ula, diminutive of cella,'a 
cavity.' A small cavity, (F.) Cellule. Cellules 
are the small cavities betweep the lamina? of 
the cellular tissue, corpora cavernosa, &c. 

Cellules, or Cells, Bno$cnic,Cel'tulseBron'- 
chicce, Vesic'ulx ■pubnonalcs. The air-cells of 
the lungs. 


CELOSO'MUS, from xijAij, 'a rupture,' and 
aunia, 'body.' A monster in which the trunk 
is malformed, and eventration or displacement 
of the viscera exists. 

CELOTOM'I A . Kelotnm' ia, from x» ; i>;, 'a rup- 
ture,' and rtftriiv, 'to cut.' An operation, for- 
merly employed for the radical cure of ingui- 
nal hernia; which consisted, principally, in 
passing a ligature round the hernial sac and 
spermatic vessels. It necessarily occasioned 
atrophy and loss of the testicle; and did not 
secure the patient against the return of the dis- 
ease. The intestines weie of course not in- 
cluded in the ligature. See Castration. 

CELOT'OMUS, same etymon. A knife used 
in the operation for hernia. 

CELSA. A term, used by Paracelsus for a 
cutaneous disease, dependent, according to him, 
on a false or heterogeneous spirit or vapour, 
concealed under the integuments, and endea- 
vouring to escape. Perhaps the disease was 
Urticaria. (?) 
CELSUS, METHOD OF, see Lithotomy. 
CEMBKO NUTS, see Pinus cembra. 
CEMENTER.1UM, Crucible. 
CEMENTUM. see Tooth. 
CENCHR.ON, Panicum miliaceum. 
CENDRES GRAVELEES, see Potash— c. de 
Sarment, see Potash. 
CEjYDRE, Cineritious. 

CENEANGI'A, from xarof, 'empty,' and 
ayynor, 'a vessel.' Inanition. Empty state of 
vessels. — Galen. 

CENEMBATE'SIS, from xnos,' empty,' and 
ifijitxtroi, 'I enter.' Paracentesis, (q. v.) Also, 
the act of probing a wound or cavity; Melo'sis. 
CENEOiNES, Flanks. 

CENIGDAM, Ceniplam. 
CENIGOTAM. Ceniplam. 
CENIPLAM, Cenigdam, Cmigotam, Cmipo- 
lam. The name of an instrument anciently 
used for opening the head in epilepsy. Pa- 

OEN1POTAM, Ceniplam. 
CENO'SIS, from y.ivog, 'empty.' Ine'sis, 
lnethmos. Evacuation. It is sometimes em- 
ployed synonymously with inanition, (q. v.) 
and opposed to repletion; — Exinani"tio. 

CENOT'ICA, from ntvw<n<;, 'evacuation.' 
Diseases affecting the fluids. Morbid discharges 
or excess, deficiency or irregularity of such as 
are natural. The first order, class Genetica, of 
Good; also, Drastics, (q. v ) 

CENTAU'REA BEHEN, Brhcn abiad, Be- 
hen album or White Behen. Ord. Gentianea?. 

Clintau'rea Benedic'ta, Car'duus benedid- 
tus, Cnicus syhes'lris, Cnicus benedic'tus, Car- 
diobot'anum, Blessed or Holij Thistle, (F.) Char- 
dun benit. Fam. Cynaro( ephalcae. Sex. Syst. 
Syngenesia Polygamia frustranea. A strong 
decoction of the herb is emetic: — a strong in- 
fusion, diaphoretic (?) ; a light infusion, tonic 
and stomachic. Dose, gr. xv. to zj of powder. 

Centau'rea Calcitha'pa, Calcitra'pa, Cul- 
catrep'po/a, Car'duus so/stitia'/is, Carduus stella- 
tus, Jacea ramosis'sirna, Cacotrib'idus, Calci- 
trap pa stella' tu, Stella' la rupi'na, Centau'rea 
stclla' ta, Common Star-Thistle, Star-Knapweed, 
(F.) Centaurie etoilee, Chardon etoili, Chausse- 
trappe, Pignerole. It is possessed of tonic pro- 
perties, and has been given in intermittents, 
dyspepsia, &c. It is not much used. 

Centaurea Centau'rium, Rhupon'licum vul- 
ga're, Centaurium masrium, Centuurium majus, 
Greater Cen'taury, Centuurium ojjidna'ls, (F.) 
Cenlaui&e grundc. Jt is a bitter; and was I'or- 
meily used as a tonic, especially the root. 

Centau'rea Cv'anus, C if anus, Blue bottle, 
Corn flower, (F.) Blavtl.'e, Blareule, Bluvcrullc. 
The flowers were once much used as cordial, 
tonic, &c. They are now forgotten. 

Centacjrka Stei.lata, Centaurea calcitrapi. 

CENTAURJiE ETOILEE, Centaurea calci- 
trapa — <•. Grande, Centaurea centaurium — c. 
Fetite, Chironia centaurium. 

taurium — c. Minus vulgare, Chironia centau- 
rium — c. Officinale, Centaurea centaurium — c. 
Parvum, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTAURY, AMERICAN, Chironia angu- 
laris— c. Greater, Centaurea centaurium — c. 
Lesser, Chironia centaurium. 

CEN1ESIS, Paracentesis. 

CENTIGRAMME, (F.) from centum, 'a 
hundred,' and ynupua, 'gramme.' Centigram'- 
ma. The hundredth part of a gramme. A 
centigramme is equal to about the fifth part of 
a French £rain, nr. .1544. Troy. 

CENTILITRE, Centih'lra, from centum, 'a. 
hundred,' and it/Too, 'litre.' an ancient Greek 
measure for liquids: — the hundredth part of a 
litre — equal to nearly ten grammes or a spoon- 
ful. 2.705:1 fluidrachms. 

CENTIMETRE, Ccntim'eter: the hundredth 
part of a metre— equal to about four lines. 
.3937 English inch. 

CENTIMORB1A, Lysimachia nummularia. 

CENTINERV1A, Plantago. 

CEJYTJJYOPE, Polygonum aviculare. 




CENTINODIA, Polygonum aviculare. 


Jirldria Ccnlru'lis Rel'inse, Centrul Jlrlenj of 
Zinn. This artery is given ofF from the arte- 
ria ophtha)mica,and penetrates the optic nerve 
a little behind the bail of the eye; running in 
the axis of the nerve, and spreading out into 
many small branches upon the inside of the 
retina. When the nerve is cut across near the 
eye, the orifice of the divided artery is ob- 
servable. This was formerly called Porus Op- 

CENTRE OF ACTION. The viscus in 
which the whole or a great part of any func- 
tion is executed, and to which several other 
organs contribute. Thus, the vital activity 
seems to be wholly centred in the stomach, 
durin<r chymification ; in the duodenum, du- 
ring chylification. In like manner, the uterus 
becomes a centre of action during gestation. 

Centre, Epigas'tric The ganglions and 
nervous plexuses, formed by the great sympa- 
thetic and pneumogastric nerves, in the epi- 
gastrium, around the cceliac artery; where the 
impressions received from various parts of the 
body seem to be centred 

Centre of Fluxion. The part towards 
which fluids are particularly attracted. An 
irritated organ is said to be a centre of fluxion. 

Centres, Nervous, or Nervous Centres, 
(F.) Centres nerveux. The organs, whence the 
nerves originate; as the brain and spinal mar- 

Centre, Oval, Centrum ova'lE, C. 0. Vicus- 
se'nii, Tegumen'tum venlriculo'rum cer'ebri, — 
When the two hemispheres of the brain are 
sliced away, till on a level with the corpus cal 
losum, the medullary part is of an oval shape: 
hence called centrum ovaflS. Vieussens sup- 
posed all the medullary fibres to issue from that 
point, and that it was the great dispensatory of 
the animal spirits. 

Centre, Phrenic, or Ten'tlinous Centre of 
the Di'aphragm, Centrum Phien'icurn, C. JVer- 
veum or C. Tendino'sum, (F.) Centre phriniqus 
ou C. lendineux du Diaphragme. The central 
aponeurosis of the diaphragm. 

Centre of Sympathetic Irradia'tioxs, 
(F.) Centre d' irradiations sympnthe.tiq ucs. Any 
organ, which excites, sympathetically, the ac- 
tion of other organs, more or less distant from 
it; and with which it seems to have no imme- 
diate communication. — Marjolin. 

Centre, Tendinous of the Diaphragm, 
Centre phrenic. 


CENTRUM COMMUNE, Solar plexus -c. 
Nerveum, Centre, phrenic — c. Tendinosum, 
Centre, phrenic. 

CENTRY, Chironia annularis. 

CENTUM CAPITA. Eryngium campestrc. 

CENTUMNODIA, Polygonum aviculare. 

CEPA ASCALONICA, Bulbus esculentus, 

CEP^EA, Veronica beccabunga. 


CEPHALM A, Headache, (F.) Cephat'ee,ftom 
xsipukr], 'head.' Sonic use the term synony- 
mously with cephalalgia. Others, for a peri- 
odical headache: — others, again, for a more vio- 
lent headache than cephalalgia implies; and 

others for a chronic headache. The last was 
its ancient signification. 

Cephalct'a spasmod'ira, Cephalalgia spasmod'- 
ica, C. Kavseo'sa or Sick- headache, is character- 
ized by partial, spasmodic pain; often shifting 
from one part of the head to another: chiefly 
commencing in the morning, with sickness and 
faintness. If is extremely apt to recur, not- 
withstanding every care. 

CEPHAi./EAHEMicRANiA.ITemicrania— c.Nau- 
seosa. c. Spasmodica — c. Pulsatilla, Crotaphe. 

CEPHALiEMATO'MA.fromxf.?*^, 'head,' 
and aipta, ' blood;' rfl/sces'sus Cap'itis sanguin'- 
eus neonato'rum, Cephalophy'ma. A sanguine- 
ous tumour, sometimes developed between the 
pericranium and the bones of the head of new- 
born children. Similar tumours are met with 
occasionally above other bones, and at all pe- 
riods of existence. 

CEPH'ALAGRA, from xt-qaltj, 'the head,' 
and uyna, 'seizure.' Gout in the head. 

CEPHALAGRA'PHIA, from xiyah], 'the 
head,' and y^a^i;, ' a description.' An anatomi- 
cal description of the head. 

CEPHALAL'GIA, Cepltnlopo'nia, Homonn- 
pa'gia, from xtqxxXtj, 'the head,' and ulyo:, ' pain,' 
EntephaluFtria, Dolor Cap'itis, Pain in the hi ad; 
Headache, (F.) Cephululgie, Mai a tete. Every 
kind of headache, whether symptomatic or idio- 
pathic, is a cephalalgia. It is ordinarily symp- 
tomatic, and has to be treated accordingly. 

Cephalalgia Contagiosa, Influenza — c. In- 
flam materia, Phrenitis — c Pulsatilis, Crotaphe 
— c. Spasmodica, see Cephalaei. 

CEP! lALALOG'TA.from xt<?ah h 'the head,' 
and Xoyoc. 'a discourse.' An anatomical disser- 
tation on the head. 

lanthus occidentalis. 

toawood shrub, Butlonhush, White Ball, Little 
Snowball, Swampicood . Pond Dogwood, Globc- 
fiowcr, (F.) Cephalantlie d ' Ameriquc, Dais de 
Murais. An ornamental shrub, Nat. Ord. Ru- 
biacea? ; Sex. Syst. Tetrandna Monogynia, which 
glows all over the United States, near streams 
and ponds, and flowers in July and August. 
The bark of the root has been used as an anti- 
periodic tonic. 

CEPHALARTJOA, Cephalic remedies. 

CEPHALATOM'IA, Cephalotom'ia, from xt- 
4>«A>,, 'the head,' and reprtiv., ' to cut.' Ana- 
tomy cr dissection or opening of the head. 


CEPHAL'IC, Ccphtd', Capita' lis, from 
xsynAti, 'the head.' (F.) C&phalique. Relating 
to the head. 

Cephai/ic Vein, Vena Cephal'icn, Vena Cap'- 
itis, (F.) Veine edphatique, Veine radiate cutafiee 
of'Chaussier. The great superficial vein at the 
outer part of the arm and fore-arm. It begins 
on the back of the hand, by a number of radi- 
cles, which unite into a single trunk, called the 
Cephalic of the Thumb, Cephal'ica Pol'licis, (F.) 
i pouce. It ascends along the 
anterior and outer part of the foie-arm. where 
it forms the superficial radial. At the fold of the 
elbow it receives the median cephalic, ascends 
along the outer edge of the Liceps, and opens 
info the axillary vein. 

The name Cephalic was given to it by the an- 
cients, because they thought it had some con- 




nexion with the head, and that blood-letting 
must be performed on it, in head affections. 

Chaussier calls the internal jugular, Veinc 
c'ephaliqve, and tiie primary or common carotid, 
Jirtere ciphaliqve. 

Cephal'ic Rem'etmes, Cephal'ir.a vel Capi- 
ta'lia reme'diu, are remedies capable of reliev- 
ing affections of the head, especially headache: 
—Ceplicdar' lira. 

CEPHALIDIUM, see Caput. 

CEPMALl'NE. The base or root of the 
tongue.— Gorreus. 

CEPHALITIS, Phrenitis. 

CEP HA HUM, see Caput. 


CEPHALOM'ETER, from xupaXti, 'the head,' 
and ftejQov, ' measure.' An instrument for 
measuring the different dimensions of the fcetal 
head, during the process of accouchement. A 
kind of forceps. 

CEPHALOlYOSUS, from ustpakn, 'the head,' 
and voaog, ; disease.' This term has been ap- 
plied to the Febris Hungar'ica, in which the 
head was much affected. See Fever, Hungaric. 
Others have so called any cerebral disease or 

CEPH'ALO-PHARYNG^E'US, from *e, P aX,,, 
'the head,' and (punvyi, 'the pharynx:' belong- 
ing to the head and pharynx. Winslow has 
given this name to the portion of the constrictor 
pharyngis superior, (q. v.) which is attached, 
above, to the inferior surface of the basilary 
process of the os occipitis. The Cepli 'alo-q>ha- 
ryngc'al .Iponeuro'sis is a thin, fibrous mem- 
brane, which is attached to the basilary process, 
and gives insertion to fibres of the constrictor 
superior pharyngis. 

CEPHALOPAGES, Symphyocephalus. 

CEPHALOPHYMA, Cephakernutoma. 

CEPHALOPONIA. Cephalalgia. 

CEPHALO-RACHIDIAN, Cephalo-spinal. 

CEP H'A L OS P 1 N A L. Cephalo -spina' lis, 
Cepk'alo-rachid'ian. Belonging to the head and 

CePh'aLO-SPINAL, or Ckph alo-rachidian 
Fluid, Cerebrospinal fluid, Flufidum ct/ebro- 
spina'te, is an exhaled fluid, which is found 
between the encephnlon and pia matter; and 
which seems to have a protecting office, and 
to keep up a certain degree of pressure on the 
organ,— at least in the spinal canal. 

OMPHALOTRIBE, (F.) An instrument in- 
vented Uy Baudelocque, the nephew, for crush- 
ing the head of the fetus in utero; from Ki<f>u"/.)i, 
'the head,' and TQifim, 'I bruise.' It consists 
of a strong forceps, (lie blades of which are 
solid: 1G lines broad, and 3 thick. The handles 
are perforated at their extremity to receive a 
screw with three threads, the direction of which 
is very oblique, so as to allow great rapidity of 
rotation, and the screw is moved by a winch 
inches long, to increase the force of the pres- 
sure. The bones of the head are easily crushed 
by it. 

PHALOXIA, Torticollis. 

CEPULLA, Allium cepa. 

OER, Heart. 

Yellow and White Wax, (F.) Cire Jauns ct 
Blanche. An animal substance, prepared by 
the bee, and by some plants, as the Cerox'ylon 

and Myri'ca. ceriftra. Its colour is yellow, and 
smell like that of honey, but both are lost by 
bleaching. It is demulcent and emollient: is 
sometimes given in the form of emulsion, in 
diarrhoea and dysentery, but is chiefly used in 
cerates and ointments. 

CEH.H'.S, from zfo«c, 'a horn,' y.inuicti. 
The Cornua of the uterus, (q. v.) — Rufus of 

CERA MICE, Cerami'tis, from xepauog, 'pot- 
ter's earth.' A sort of earth, used as a cata- 
plasm in peripneumony. — Hippocr. 

CERAM1UM, Amphora. 

CERAMNIUM, Amphora. 

CERAMURIA.see Urine. 


CERAS, xtqag, 'genitive,' xtnarcc, 'horn,' 
Cornu, (q. v.) also, the Cornea (q. v.) Hence 
Cmattctomia., &c. 

CERASION, see Primus cerasus. 

CERAS'MA,from KSQavwfii, 'to mix:' some- 
thing mixed. A mixture of hot and cold water 
Melacerasma. — Gorrams. 

CERA SUM. see Prunus cerasus. 

CERASUS AVIUM, Prunus avium— e. Lau- 
rocerasus, Prunus laurocerasus — c. Padus, Pru- 
nus Padus — c. Racemosus sylvestris, Prunus 
padus— c. Serotina, Prunus Virginiana — c. Vir- 
giniana. Prunus Virginiana. 

CER AT BLANC ou DE G.1LIEN, Ceratum 
Galeni — c. de Blanc de Balcine, Ceratum celacei 
— c. de Goulard, Ceratum plumbi — c. pour les 
Lewes, Cerate for the lips — c. de Plontb compose, 
Ceratum plumbi compositum — c. de Savon, Ce- 
ratum Saponis — c. de Suracetale de plomb, Ce- 
ratum plumbi superacetatis. 

CE'RATE, Cera' turn, from xjjriac, Lat. cera, 
'wax,' Cerelse'um, Cero'ma, Cero'nivm, Cero'- 
tum, Cerulomulag'ma, (F.) Cerat. A composi- 
tion of wax, oil, or lard, without other ingre- 

Cerate, Simple Cerate, Cera' turn, Cera'tiim 
simplex, P. L. (F.) Cerat Simple. {Yellow wax 
^iv, olive oil §iv.) It is applied as an emollient 
to excoriations, &c. 

Cerate of Cat/amine, Cera.' turn Calami' ' ux, 
C. Carbonic 'tis zinc impu'ri '., C. Zinci Curbona'- 
lis, (Th. U. S.) Cera'tiim. lup'idis C alumina.' r is, 
Cera'ti'm epuht'lcum, Cerate of Carbonate of 
Zinc, Turners Cerate, Healing Salve , (F '.) Cerut 
de Pierre Calaminaire, C. de Calamine. C- (Zinci 
Carbon, preepar. Cerse flavae, aa D)ss. odipis, fbij. 
Melt the wax and lard together, and, on cooling, 
add the carbonate of zinc and stir till cool. — 
Ph. U. S.) 

Cerate of Cantiiau'ides, Cera'tiim Cun- 
thar'idis. Blister Ointment, Ointment, of Spanish 
Files, Unguen'tum ul vesicatt/ria, Vngven'tum 
Putveris MeHoes ve.sicalo'rii, Ung epispas'ticum 
fortius, Ceraftum, (F.) Cerat de Cantha- 
rides. (Spermaceti, cerate gvj. Cantharides in 
poiodi r. 2fj. The cerate being softened by heat, 
stir in the flies.) This cerate of the European 
Pharmacopoeias is used to keep open blisters, 
issues, &c. See Unguentum Lyttse. For the 
cerate of Spanish flies of the U. S. Pharma- 
copoeia, (see Emplastruui Lyttce ) 

Cerate, Goulard's, Ceratum Plumbi com- 

Cerate, Kirkland's Neutral. (Diachyl. 
jviij, olive oil 3iv , prepared chalk ,y v : when 
nearly cool, add Acct. dest. ^iv, plumb, svpera- 
cet. -Jiij.J A cooling emollient. 




Cerate or Pomma'tum for the Lips, Cera'- 
tum labia' Is rvbrum, Pom ma' turn ad labia demul- 
cent da. Ph. P. (F.) Cirat (ii) pommatle pour Us 
lecres, (JVaxi) parts; oil 1G parts;— coloured willi 

Cerate, Lead, Compound, Ceratum plurnbi 

Cerate, Marshall's. (Palm oil gvi, calo- 
mel s,], sugar of lead ,^ss, ointment of ni'.rale of 
mercury, ^ij.) 

Cerate, Resin, Compound, Ceratum Resina; 

Cerate, Savine, Ceratum sabinoe — c. Soap, 
Ceratum saponis — c. Spermaceti, Ceratum ce- 
tacei — c. of Superacetate or sugar of lead, Ce- 
ratum pluuibi superacetatis — c. Turner's, Ce- 
rate of calamine — c. of Carbonate of zinc, Ce- 
rate of calamine. 

CERATECTOM'JA, from x !? «c, ' the jfor- 
nea,' and tx.Tof*og, 'cut out.' An incision 
through the cornea. See Ceratotomia. 

CERATIA, Ceralonium siliqua. 

CERATION, Siliqua. 

CERATI'TIS, from xfoac, 'the cornea,' and 
itis, 'inflammation.' Inflammation of the cor- 
nea, Keratitis, Cerotodci'tis, Ceralomeningi' lis, 
Carnci'lis, Inflamma'tio co/nese. 

CERATIUM, Ceratonium siliqua. 

CER'ATO, in composition, in the names of 
muscles, is used for the cornua of the os hy- 
oides ; — as Cerativglossus. 

CKRATOCE'LE, .Iquula, Uca'tio, Hernia 
Cor'neoe, Ceratodeoce'le, from xsoac, 'horn,' and 
wjAij, ' tumour.' A protrusion of the transpa- 
rent cornea, or rather of the membrane of the 
nqueous humour through an opening in the 



SUS, from xiqxc, 'horn,' and yluirrv*, 'the 
tongue.' A muscle, extending from the great 
cornu of the os hyoides to the base of the tongue. 
It is a part of the hyoglossus. (q. v.) 





PHARYNGE'US, from mq*s, 'horn,' and 
(petpvyt;, 'the pharynx.' The great and small 
Cer'utopharynge'i are small fleshy bundles, 
forming part of the Hyopharyngeus of Win- 

STAPHYLl'IMUS, from K«e*c, 'horn,' and ora- 
<pv).i], 'the uvula.' Some fleshy fibres of the 
Thuro-Staphtilinus of Winslow. 

CERATO^IA-SH/IQUA. The CarobTree, 
Cera'tium, Cera'tia, Sil'ioua dulcis, Caro'ba M- 
valiati, the Siccctpod, (F.) Caroubier (Fruit. 
Carouge.) This — the fruit of the Ceratonia 
siliqua — is mucilaginous, and employed in de- 
coction, where mucilages are indicated. 

nfoac, 'the cornea,' and to<rtrw, 'I puncture.' 
An operation by which the crystalline is de- 
pressed by means of a needle introduced into 
the eye through the cornea. Some divide the 
crystalline into fragments with the needle, and 
leave them to the action of the absorbents. The i 
operation is as old as ihe 17th century. 

CERATOPLAS'TICE, from xtoaj, 'the cor- 1 

nea,' and nlaa-nxo?, 'forming, formative.' The 
operation for the formation of an artificial cor- 
nea. It has not been practised on man. 

CERATOTOM'IA, Ccratectom'ia, from xfpac, 
' horn,' ' cornea,' and xi(*vtiv, ' to cut.' Section 
of the transparent cornea. This incision is used 
in the operation for cataract: to give exit to 
pus effused in the eye, in case of hypopyon, &c. 

CERATOT'OMUS, Keratot'omus, Herat' o- 
mus, from xtpct?. 'cornea,' and iiy.rnr, 'to cut.' 
A name given by Wenzel to his knife for di- 
viding the transparent cornea, in the operation 
for cataract. Many modifications of the instru- 
ment have been made since Wenzel's time. See 
Knife, cataract. 

CERATUM, Cerate— c. Album, Ceratum ce- 
tacei, Ceratum Galeni — c. de A lthaeS., Unguen- 
tum de Althaea — c. Calamine, Cerate of Cala- 
mine — c. Cantharidis, Cerate of Cantharides, 
E rnplastrum Ly Use — c. de Cerussa, Unguentum 
plumbi subcarbonatis. 

Cera'tum Ceta'cei, Cera' turn spermaceti, 
Cera' turn album, Cera'tum simplex, C. Ceti, Vn- 
guen'tum adipoce'rx ceto'rum, Linimen'tnm album, 
Emplns'trum Spcrm'atis Ceti, Spermaceti Cerate, 
(F.) Cirat de blanc de baleine. (Spermaceti gj, 
white wax ^ij; olive oil ^vi. Ph. U. S.) A 
good emollient to ulcers, &c. 

Ceratum Ceti, Ceratum cetacei — c. Ciculs, 
Ceratum conii — c. Citrinum, Ceratum resins. 

Cera'tum Coni'i, Cera'tum Cicn'tse. (Ung. 
conii Ibj, cetacei j^ij, cerx albas ^iij ) A formula 
in Bartholomew's Hospital: occasionally ap- 
plied to cancerous, scrofulous sores, &c. 

Ceratum Epuloticum, Cerate of calamine. 

Cera'tum Gale'ni, Cera'tum album, C. re- 
frig"crans Galeni, Unguen'tum cera'tum, U. 
amygduh'num, U. simplex, Emplas'trum adfon- 
tir'ulos, Olco -ceratum aqua subactum. Cold Cream, 
(F.) Cirut blanc ou de Gai ien. (White wax 4 
parts; oil of siccct almonds ](i parts; add, when 
melted, water or rose icater 12 parts. Ph. P.) A 
mild application to chaps, Jkc. 

Ceratum Labiale Rubrum, Cerate for the 
lips — c. Lapidis calaminaris, Cerate of calamine 
— c. Lithargyri acetati compositum, Ceratum 
plumbi compositum — c. Lyttte, Cerate of can- 
tharides — c. Mercuriale, Unguentum hydrargyri 
— c. Picalum, Pisselseum. 

Ceratum Plumbi Compos'itum, Cera'tum 
Lilhai' gyri Aceta'ti Compos'itum, Goulard's 
Ointment, Cera'tum subactta'ti plumbi medico!- 
turn, C. Plumbi Subaceta'tis (Ph. U.S.), Cera'tum 
Saturni, Compound Lead Cerate, Goulard's 
Cerate. (F.) Cirat de Goulard, C de Plomb 
compose. (Lit/, plumb, subacct. liiss, cerx florae, 
giv, ol. oliv. 5 ix, camphorsB gss. Ph. U. S.) Rs 
virtues are the same as the next. 

Ceratum Plumbi Supeiiaceta'tis, Unguen'- 
tum Ce.rus'sx Acrtu'tx, Cerate of Superacetate or 
Sugar of Lead, Ceia'tum Plumbi Accta'tis, Un- 
guentum Jlcetatis Plumbi. (F.) Cirat de sura- 
retate de Plomb. (Acetate of lead jjjij, while wax 
§ij, olive oil ftjss ) Cooling and astringent. 

Ceratum Refrigerans Galeni, Ceratum 

Cera'tum Resi'n,e, C. Resi'nxflavx, C. cil'- 
rinum, Unguen'tum basiHiconfluvum, Ung.Resi'- 
nx fluvx, Ung. Rcsino'sum, Resin Cerate or 
Ointment, Yellow Basil' icon, Basil' icon Ointment. 
(Resin, flnv., 5 v. Cerx flav., ^ij; Adipis ^viij, 
Ph. U. S.) A stimulating application to old 
ulcers, &c. Digestive. 



Dr. Smellome's Ointment for the Eyes con- 
sists of finely powdered verdigris gas, rubbed 
with oil, <"nd then mixed with an ounce oi c era- 
turn rcsinse. 

Ceratum Resi'na: Compos'itum, Compound 
Resin Cerate, (Resin., Sevi, Cerse ftavx, aa Ibj ; 
Terebinth, lbss. 01. Lini, Oss. Melt together, 
strain through linen, and stir till cool. Ph. U.S.) 
Ceiiatum Sabi'NjE, Unguent. Sabinx, Savine 
Cerate (F.) Cernt de Sabine. (Savine in pow- 
der, §ij. Resin Cerate Ibj. Ph. U. S.) Irritative, 
'drawing.' Used in the same cases as the cerate 
of cantliarides. 

Ceratum Sapo'nis, Soap Cerate, (F.) Ctrat 
de Savon (Liq. Plumb, subacetat, Oij, $apon,%vy, 
Cerse albss, §x; 01. olicx, Oj. Boil the sukruon 
of subacetate of lead with the soap over a slow 
fire to the consistence of honey, then transfer 
to a water bath, and evaporate until all the 
moisture is dissipated; lastly, add the wax, 
previously melted with the oil, and mix. — Ph. 
U. S.) it is applied in cases of sprains or frac- 

Ceratum Saturni, Ceratum plumbi com- 
positum — c. Simplex, Ceratum cetacei, Cerate 
simple — c. Spermaceti, Ceratum cetacei — c. 
Subacetati plumbi medicatum, Ceratum plumbi 
compositum — c. Tetrapharmacum, Pisselaeum 
— c. Carbonatis zinci impuri, Cerate of cala- 

CERA U'NION, from r.toawot, 'thunder,' 'a 
thunderbolt.' Lapisfalniineus. A kind of stone, 
which was believed to be formed during thun- 
der; and to be possessed of the power of inducing 
sleep, and numerous other prophylactic virtues. 
It was rubbed on the knee, breast, &c. in swell- 
ings of those parts. 

CERBERUS TRICEPS, Pulvis cornachini. 
CERCA'RIA. A genus of agastric, infusory 
animalcules, one of the most curious of which 
inhabits the tartar of the teeth. The sperma- 
tozoa are presumed by some to belong to this 

CERCHNOS, Cerchnus, from x.tqx vtw > ' 1 
render hoarse.' A rough voice produced by 
hoarseness. See Rattle. 

CER'CIS, y.toy.ic. A sort of pestle for re- 
ducing substances to powder. Also, the radius 
or small bone of the arm. See Pilum and Ra- 

CERCLE, Circulus— c. de la Ch oroide, Cili- 
ary ligament — c. Ciliaire, Ciliary ligament. 

CERCO'SIS, from xsxgos, ' a tail.' Men' tula 
multtfbris, the Clit'oris. Some authors have 
employed the word synonymously with nym- 
phomania and elongation of the clitoris; and 
with Polypvs Uteri, the Sarco'ma Ccrco'sis of 

Ckkcosis Externa, Clitorism. 
CEREA, Cerumen. 

CEREA'LI A, from Ceres, 'goddess of corn,' 
(F.J Ccreales (I'lanlcs.) The cerealia are gra- 
mineous plants, the seed of which serve for the 
nourishment of man: — as wheat, barley, rye, 
&c. At limes, the same term is applied to some 
of the leguminous plants. 

CEREBEL'LA UEI'NA. Urine of a whitish 
appearance of the colour of the brain, from 
which Paracelsus thought he could distinguish 
diseases of that ortran. 

CEREBELLI'TIS, from cerebellum, and itis, 
denoting inflammation. Inflammation of the 

cerebellum: a variety of Phrenitis or Encepha- 
litis. ' 

CEREBEL'LOUS, CerebtlWsus, from rerebel'- 
lum, 1 the little brain.' (F.) Cbebelleux. Chaus- 
sier has given this epithet to the vessels of the 
cerebellum. These are three in number; two 
of which are inferior: the larger, inferior cere- 
belli, which arises from the posterior cerebral 
or vertebral; and the smaller, whose existence 
is not constant, from the meso-cephalic or 
basilary: — the third, called, A. cdribelleuse su- 
perieure (superior ccrebclli,) is also a branch of 
the basilary. 

Cerebei/lous Ap'oplexy, Apoplex'ia ccrc- 
hello' sa; apoplexy of the cerebellum. 

CEREBEL'LUM; diminutive ot Ccr'cbrvm; 
C. parvum, Appen'dix ad cer'ebrum, Ccr'ebrum 
poste'rius, Encra'vion, Encra'nis, Epcncra'nis, 
Par enceph' alls, Micrencepka'lium, Micrenceph' ■ 
alum, Little brain, (F.) Cervelet. A portion 
of the medullary mass, contained in the ca- 
vity of the cranium. It fills the lower occi- 
pital fossse below the tentorium, and em- 
braces the tuber annulare and medulla. It is 
composed, like the brain, of cortical and medul- 
lary substance, arranged in lamina;, as it were; 
so that, when a section is made of it, it has an 
arborescent appearance, called Arbor vitx. The 
cerebellum is divided into two lobes or hemi- 
spheres or lateral masses, and each lobe is again 
subdivided into Monticvli or Lobules. In the 
cerebellum are to be observed the Crura cerc- 
belli, the fourth ventricle, the valcuta magna 
cerebri, the processus vcrmicularcs, superior and 
inferior, &c. 

CER'EBRAL, Certbra'lis, from cerebrum, ' the 
brain.' Belonging to the brain, and similar to 
brain. (F.J C'cribral. 

Cerebral Apophv-sis, Pineal gland. 

Cerebral Ar'teries are three on each side: 
■ — the anterior or artery of the corpus callosurti, 
and the middle, arte'ria Sylvia' na, are furnished 
by the internal carotid: the posterior or poste- 
rior and inferior artery of the brain, A. profunda 
cerebri, arises from the vertebral. Chaussier 
calls these arteries lobaires, because they cor- 
respond with the anterior, middle, and posterior 
lobes, whilst he calls the trunks, whence they 
originate, cerebral. 

Cerebral Nerves are those which arise 
within the cranium, all of which, perhaps, with 
the exception of the olfactory, arise from the 
medulla oblongata. See Nerves. 

In Pathology, an affection is called cerebral, 
which specially occupies the brain. Fie'vre 
cerdbrale. Cerebral fever, is a variety in which 
the head is much affected. 

CEREBRIFORM. Encephaloid. 

CEREBROMALACIA, Mollities cerebri. 

CEREBRO-SPINAL, Cephalo-spinal. 


CER'EBRUM. .The brain. (F.) Cervean, 
Ccrrclle. This term is sometimes applied to 
the whole of the contents of the cranium: at 
others to the upper portion; — the posterior and 
inferior being called cerebellum. The bruin, 
properly so called, extends from the os frontis 
to the superior occipital fossm. Anteriorly, it 
rests on the orbitar vaults: behind this on the 
middle fossjE of the base of the cranium; and, 
posteriori}', on the tentorium cercbello super-tx- 
ten sum. The upper surface is divided by a deep 
median cleit (Scissure interlobaire, — Ch.) into 




two halves, called hemispheres, which are united 
at the base by the corpus callosum. At its sur- 
face are numerous convolutions. The inferior 
surface exhibits, from before to behind, three 
lobes, distinguished into anterior, middle and 
posterior. The middle is separated from the 
anterior by the fssure of Sylvius; and from 
the posterior, by a shallow furrow which cor- 
responds to the upper portion of the pars pc- 
trosa. Internally, (he brain has, on the median 
line, the corpus callosum, septum lucidum, fornix, 
pineal gland, and third ventricle: — and lateral- 
ly, the lateral ventricles, in which are the cor- 
pora striata, oplic thalami, &c. It is contained 
in a triple envelope, (see Meninges.) Its tex- 
ture is pulpy, and varies according to age. Two 
substances may be distinguished in it — the me- 
dullary or fibrous, and the cortical, cineriliuus, 
vesicular, or gray. The former is white; and 
occupies all the interior and base of the brain. 
The latter is grayish and softer. It is situate 
particularly at the surface of the organ. 

The brain receives several arterial vessels, 
furnished by the internal carotid and vertebral. 
Its veins end in the sinuses. I( is the material 
organ of the mental and moral manifestations. 
According to Gall, each part is the special 
seat of one of those faculties, and the brain and 
cerebellum, inclusive, are called by him "the 
nervous system of the mental faculties.'' The 
following table, from Haller and Cuvier, exhi- 
bits the proportion between the mass of the brain 
and that of the body in man and in animals. 

A child of six yenrs (H.vller) ( 

lb 2, oz. 3 1-2. S 
Adult (Halier) 

(From lb. 2, 3 oz. to lb. 3, 3 3-4 oz. 

Gibbon fSimia.) 

Sapajou from 1-41 to 

Ape from 1-48 to 

Baboon froin 1 101 to 

Eemur from 1-84 to 

Bat ( Vespcrtilio Noctula) 


Bea r 


Wolf. . . 
Beaver , 
Hare. . . 

Rabbit 1-140 to 



Wild Boar , 

Domestic, do 1-512 to 

Elephant (7 or lb. 10) 


Roebuck young) 

Sheep 1-351 to 

Ox 1-750 to 


1 lorse 1-100 to 


Goose. . . 
Cock. . . . 

.1-25,1-30, 1-10, 

Canary-bird . .. 











1 -88 



J -36 





1 -290 





1 672 












1 300 









1 560 

The substance of the nervous system has 
been analyzed by Vauquelin, and found to con- 
tain water 80.00; white fatty matter 4.53; red 
fatty matter, called cerebrine, 0.70; osmazome, 

1.12; albumen, 7.00; phosphorus, 1.50; sulphur, 
acid phosphates of potassa, lime, and magnesia, 

CEUEBrtUM Abdomin.w.e, Solar plexus — c. 
Elongatum, Medulla oblongata — c. Parvum, 
Cerebellum — c. Posterius, Cerebellum. 

CEREFOLIUM, Scandix cerefolium— c. His- 
panicum, Chffirophyllum odoralum — c. Sylves- 
tre, Chcerophyllum sylvestre. 

CEREL^EUM. Cerate. 

CERKOLA, Bougie. 

CERERISIA, Cerevisia. 


CEREVIS'IA, quasi, Ccrerisia, Zythos, Liquor 
Cer'eris, Vinum hordea'ceum, Barley Wine, Bira, 
Bryton, (iouTov, from Ceres, 'corn;' whence it 
is made. * Ale (Mia,) Beer, Porter, (F.) Bitrc, 
Cervoise. These fluids are drunk by the inha- 
bitants of many countries, habitually, and in 
Great Britain more than in others. They are 
nourishing, but not very easy of digestion. 
The old dispensatories contain numerous medi- 
cated ales, which are no longer in use. 

CEREEUIL, Scandix cerefolium— c.Mvsque, 
Chrerophyllum odoratum — c. Sauvage, Chsro- 
phyllum sylvestre. 

CERION, Favus, Porrigo favosa. 

CERISIER, Prunus cerasus — c. a Grappes, 
Prunuspadus — VirginicVmnns Virjriniana. 

a parish in the dioeess of St. Flour, Upper Au- 
vergne, France. The water is a chalybeate. It 
is called Eau du Cambon. 

CERNOS. Capistrum. 

Ceroe'num, from xqgoc, 'wax,' and oiroc, ' wine.' 
A plaster composed of yellow wax, mutton suet, 
pitch, Burgundy pitch, Bole Armeniac, Thus and 
wine. It was used as a strengthening plaster. 
Sometimes it contained neither wax nor wine. 

CEROMA, Cerate. 

CEROMANTI'A, from xr^nc, 'wax,' and 
uavrsm, 'divination.' The art of foretelling 
the future, from the figures which melted wax 
assumes, when suffered to drop on the surface 
of water. 

CERONIUM, Cerate. 

CEROPIS'SUS, from xi^se, 'wax,' and vm- 
<ra, 'pitch.' A depilatory plaster, composed of 
pitch and wax. 

CEROS. Cera. 

CEROSTROSIS, Hystriciasis. 

CF ROT UM. Cerate. 

CRROXYLON, see Ceraflava et alba. 

CERUA. Ricinis communis. 

CERU'MEN, from cera, 'wax.' Cem'men 
Au'rium, Ce'rea, Aurium Sordts, Marmnra'ta 
Au'rium, Cyp'sile, Ceru'minous Humor, Cyp'- 
sells, Fu'gik, (F.) Cire des Oreilles. A name 
given to the unctuous humour, similar to wax 
in its physical properties, which is met with in 
the meatus auditories externus. It is secreted by 
follicles, situate beneath the membrane lining 
the meatus. It lubricates the meatus, preserves 
the suppleness of the lining membrane, pre- 
vents the introduction of bodies floating in the 
atmosphere, and by its bitterness and unctuous- 
ness prevents insects from penetrating. 

CERU'MINOUS, Ccrumino'sus, (F.J Cdrumi- 
neux. Relating to cerumen. 

Ci:ku'minous Glands or Follicles, (F.) 
Gtandts ceruminctnes ou Folliculcs Cerumi- 




muses. Glands or follicles, which secrete the 

CERUSSA ACETATA, Plumbi superacetas 
— c. Alba Ilispanica, Plumbi subcarbonas — c. 
Alba Norica, Plumbi subcarbonas— c. Psymmi- 
thron, Plumbi subcarbonas — c. Serpentaria, 
see Arum maculatum. 

CERUSSE, Plumbi subcarbonas. 
CERUS'SEA URI'NA. Terms used by Pa- 
racelsus for the urine, when of a colour like 

CERVARIA ALBA, Laserpitium latifolium. 

CERVEAU, Cerebrum. 

CERVELET, Cerebellum. 

CERVELLE, Cerebrum. 

CERV1 ELAPHI CORNU,Cornu cervi, see 

CERVICAL, Ccrvica'lis, from cervix, 'the 
back of the neck.' Trachdlian. Every thing 
which concerns the neck, especially the back 

Cervical Ar'teries are three in number: 
I. The ascending, anterior, or superficial, a 
branch of the inferior thyroid, distributed to 
the scaleni muscles and integuments. 2. The 
transverse {Cervico-scapulaire — Ch.,) a branch 
of the axillary artery, or of the subclavian: dis- 
tributed to the levator scapula, trapezius, &c. 3. 
The posterior or profound, A. tiansversa'lis colli 
Trac/idlo-ccrvicale — Ch.) a branch of the subcla- 
vian, distributed to the deep-seated muscles on 
the anterior and posterior parts of the neck. 

Cervical Gan'glions. The three ganglions 
of the great sympathetic. The cervical glands 
or lymphatic glands of the neck are, also, so 

Cervical Lig'aments. These are two in 
number. 1. The anterior, extending from the 
basilavy process of the occipital bone to the 
anterior part of the first cervical vertebra. 2. 
The posterior or supraspinous, Ligamcn'tum 
Nu'clim, which extends from the outer occipital 
protuberance to the spinous process of the 
seventh cervical vertebra. In animals with 
large heads, it is very strong. 

Cervical Nerves are eight in number, on 
each side; and form the eight cervical pairs, 
which are the first given off from the spinal 

Cervical Plexus, Plexus Trachdlo-souscu- 
t/md (Ch.) The nervous net-work, formed by 
the anterior branches of the first three cervical 
nerves, above the posterior scalenus muscle, 
and at the outer side of the pneumogastric 
nerve, carotid artery, and jugular vein. 

Cervical Veins have nearly the same dis- 
tribution as the arteries. 

Cervical Ver'tebrjE. The first seven ver- 
tebrse.of the spine. 


CERVICARIA, Campanula trachelium. 

boideus — c. Dorso-costal, Serratus posticus su- 
perior — c- Dorso-mastoidien et dorso-trachelien, 
Splenitis — r. Mastoidien, Splenitis. 
"CERVISL'INA, Rhamnus. 

CERVIX, Collum,(a. v.) The neck. A neck. 

Cervix Obstipa, Torticollis. 

Cervix U'teri. The neck of the uterus; 
aleo the vagina. The term cervix is applied to 
other parts, as the cervix of a bone, or the part 
between the head and body, &c. Sec Collum. 

CERVOISE, Cere visia. 
CERVUS, Cava. The horn of the Cenus 
El'aphus, called Cornu, Cervi Ei'upld Cornu, 
Cornu Cervi'num, Hartshorn, (F.) Come de 
cerf, contains 27 parts of gelatin in the 100. A 
jelly made from the shavings is emollient and 

The Stag's Pizzk, Pria'pus Cervi, was once 
considered to be aphrodisiac. Dose, Qj to gj in 

Cervus Al'ces. The Elk, (F.) Elan. The 
hoof of this animal was anciently used as an 
anti-epileptic. The animal, it was asserted, 
was subject to attacks of epilepsy, and always 
cured them by putting its hoof into the ear. 
The hoof was also worn as an amulet. 

Cornu Ustum or Burnt Hartshorn has been 
used as an antacid, but it consists of 57 parts of 
phosphate, and but one of carbonate of lime. It 
is, therefore, not of much use. 


CESTRFTES. A wine prepared from be- 
tony, (x.tcrT£ov, 'betony.') 

CESTRON, Betonica officinalis. 

CETA'CEUM, from k(; to S , 'a whale.' Album 
Ccti, Jidipoct'ra ceto'sa, Spermacet'i, (F.) Blanc 
de Buleine, Celine, Adipocire dc Baleinc. An 
inodorous, insipid, white, crystallized, friable, 
unctuous substance, obtained from the brain of 
the Physe'ter Macroceph'alus or Spermaceti 
Whale, and other varieties of whale. S. g. 
.0433: melts at 112°. It is demulcent and 
emollient; has been given in coughs and dysen- 
tery, but is mostly used in ointments. Dose, 
zss to ^iss rubbed up with sugar or egg. 


CJlTlJYE, Get ace urn. 

CETRARI A ISLAiN DICA, Lichen islandicus. 

CETRARIN, see Lichen islandicus. 


CEVADILLE, Veratrum sabadilla. 


CtLEREFOLIUM, Seahdix cerefolium. 

CH^EROPHYL'LUM, from jra.ow, 'I re- 
joice,' and ipvM.ov, 'a leaf.' 

ChjErophyl'lum Odora'tum, Scandix Odo- 
ra'ta, Mijrrhis Odor a! la, Ccrcfo'lium Hi span' - 
icum, Sweet Cic"cly, (F.) Cerfeuil muyquec ou 
d'Espagne, has the smell of aniseed, and is cul- 
tivated on account of its aromatic properties. 

Ghjerophvl'lum Svlves'tiie, Cicuta'ria, 
Chaerophyl'lum Tem'ulum, Cerrfo'lium Sylves' - 
tre, Bastard Hemlock, Wild Chervilor Cow-weed, 
(F.) Cerfeuil sauvagc, Pirsil d'Jlne, is a slight- 
ly fetid aromatic; but is not used. 

ChjErophyl'lum Temulum, Chsrophyllum 

CH^TE, Capillus. 

CHAFING, Erylhe'ma Intertrigo, Intertrigo, 
Paratrim'ma, from ^chauffer, 'to heat.' Fret, 
erosions of the skin, Altri'ta, (F.) £chauffemens, 
Ecorchurrs. The red excoriations which occur 
in consequence of the friction of parts, or be- 
tween the folds of the skin, especially in fat or 
neglected children. Washing with cold water 
and dusting with hair powder is the best pre- 
ventive. When occurring between the nates 
and in the region of the perinaeum, from long 
walking, it is vulgarly designated by the 
French Entre-fcsson. 




CHAIR, Flesh. 
CHALAS1S, Relaxation. 

CHALASMOS. Relaxation. 

CHALAS'TICUS, from - /a ).«-m, 'I relax.' A 
medicine proper for removing rigidity of the 
fibres. — Galen. An emollient or relaxant, (q. v.) 

CHALA'ZA, Chain' zion, Cbalazo'sis, Poro'- 
sis, Grando, Hail. (P.) Grele, Gravellc. Certain 
hard, round, transparent tumours, developed in 
different parts of the body, more especially in 
the substance of the eyelids. 

CHALCANTHUM, Ferri sulphas— c. Al- 
bum, Zinci sulphas. 


CHALCITES, Colcothar. 

CHALCOIDEUM, (os) Cuneiform Bone. 

CHALCOS, Cuprum, iEreolum. 

CHALEUR, Heat— c. Acre, see Acrid— c. 
Animate, Animal heat — c. des Animaux, Heat. 


CHAL'INOPLASTY. Chalinoplas'tke; from 
jra/Lncg, 'frjenum,' 'a bridle," and <ru>, 'I 
form.' The operation for forming anew framum. 

CHALK, Creta— c. Red, Rubrica fabrilis— 
c. Stones, Calculi arthritic. 

CHA LYB'EATE, Cliahjbea'tus,Ferrugin'eits, 
Fcrru vino's us, Martia'lis, (F.) Ferrugineux ; 
from ckalybs, 'iron or steel.' Of, or belonging 
to iron. Any medicine, into which iron enters; 
as, chalybeate mixture, pills, waters, &c. See 
Waters, Mineral. 

CHALYBIS RUBIGO, Ferri subcarbonas. 

CHALYBS, from Chal'ybes; a people of 
Pontus, who dug iron out of the earth; A'cies, 
Steel. The Protu-carburet of iron, (F.) Acier. 
As a medicine, steel does not differ from iron. 

Chalybs Tautaiuzatus, Ferrum tartariza- 

CHAM A, Cheme. 

CHAMJ3ACTE, Sambucus ebulua. 

CHAM.EBATOS, Fragaria. 

CHAMiECEDRIS, Artemisia santonica. 

CHAMZECISSUS, Glecoma hederacea. 

CHAM^ECLEMA, Glecoma hederacea. 

CHAM^ECYPARISSUS, Artemisia santo- 

CHAMiEDROPS, Teucrium chamiedrya. 

CHAM.EDRYS, Teucrium Oh., Veronica— 
c. Incana maritima, Teucrium marum — c. 
Minor repens, Teucrium Ch. — c. Palustris, Teu- 
crium scordium — c. Vulgaris, Teucrium Ch. 

CHAM^EDRY'TES. A wine, in which the 
Teu'crium Chamxdrys has been infused. 

CHAM^GEIRON, Tussilago. 

CHAM^ELAI'TES. A. wine impregnated 
with the Chama' lea or Daphne A/pinu. 

CHAM<ELEA, Cneorum tricoccum. 

CHAMtEI^EAGNUS, Myrica gale. 

CHAMELEON ALBUM, Carlina acaulis. 

CHAM.ELEUCE, Tussilago. 

CHAM^ELINUM, Linum cathartienm. 

CHAMiEMELUM, Anthemis nobilis— c. 
Foetidum, Anthemis cotula — c. Nobile, Anthe- 
mis nobilis — c. Odoralum, Anthemis nobilis — 
c. Vulgare, Matricaria chamomilla. 

CHAM.EMORUM, Teucrium chamrepitys, 
Rubus chamsemonis. 

CHAM^EPEUCE, Camphorosma monspe- 

which the leaves of the Chama'pitys, Teu'- 
crium Cliamai'pitys, have been infused. 

CHAM.EP1TYS, Teucrium chamtepitys— 

c. Anthyllus, Teucrium iva— c. Moschata, Ten- 
crium iva. 

CHA U2E P LI ON , Ery si m u m . 

CHAM/ERAPH'ANUM, from /«,««/, 'on 
the ground,' and ga<favog, 'the radish.' So Pau- 
lus of iEgina calls the upper part of the root of 
the Apiurri. 

metto. A farina is prepared from the roots of 
this plant, which is used by the Indians in Flo- 
rida as diet. 

CHAMBAR, Magnesia. 

CHAMBER, Cam' era. (F.) Chambre. This 
term is used in speaking of the eye, in which 
there are two chambers: — an anterior and a 
posterior. (F.) Chambre antiricure el postirieure. 
The anterior is the space between the cornea 
and the anterior part of the iris : — the posterior, 
the space between the iris and anterior surface 
of the crystalline. They are filled with the 
aqueous humour, and communicate by the 
opening in the pupil. 

PILLS. This nostrum, recommended in scro- 
fula, and all impurities of the blood, has been 
analyzed by Dr. Paris, and found to consist of 
cinnabar, sulphur, sulphate of lime, and a little 
vegetable matter. Each pill weighs 3 grains. 

CHAMBRE, Chamber. 

CHAMBR1E, Cannabis sativa. 

CHAMELEA. Daphne Afpina. 

CHAMOMILE, DOGS'. Matricaria chamo- 
milla — c. Dyer's, Anthemis tinctoria — c. Ger- 
man, Matricaria chamomilla — c. Spanish, Anthe- 
mis pyrethrum — c. Stinking, Anthemis cotula 
— c. Wild, Anthemis cotula. 

CHAMOMILLA NOSTRAS, Matricaria cha- 
momilla — c. Romana, Anthemis nobilis — c. Spu- 
ria, Anthemis cotula. 

CHAMPACA, Michelia champaca. 

CHAMPIGNON, Fungus— c. de VAppareil 
des Frazturcs, Ciavaria — c. de Couclte, see Aga- 
ric — c. dt Malte, Cynomorion coccineum. 

CHANCE LAGUA, Canchalagua. 

CHANCRE, (F.) Ulcus cancro'sum, Ulcus'- 
culum cancro'sum. A sore, which arises from 
the direct application of the venereal virus; 
hence it is almost always seated, in men, on the 
penis. The French use the word Chancre, in 
popular language, for cancerous ulcers, the ma- 
lignant aphtha? of children, &c. Formerly, the 
terms Caroli and Caries pudendo'rum were used 
for venereal pustules or sores on the parts of 

CHANCREUX, Chancreuse, (F.) Cancro'sus, 
Carcino'des. Having the nature of chancre, or 
of cancer. 

Bottton C/ioncre.ux. A small tumour of a can- 
cerous nature, which makes its appearance on 
the face — most frequently on the upper lip — - 
JVoli. me tangere. 

CHANT DES ARTERES, SiJJlement moduli. 

CHANVRE. Cannabis sativa. 

CHAOMANTI'A. The nlchymista meant, 
by this word, the art of predicting the future 
from observation of the air. The word Chaos 
was used by Paracelsus for the air; (jiarrtia, 
' divination.') 

CHAOSDA. Plague. 

CHAPERON DE MOINE, Aconitum na- 

CHAPPETONADE, (F.) Vom'ilu, rabio'sus. 




Vomiting accompanied by furious delirium, 
attacking strangers in hot countries. 

CHAR'ACTER, /apaicTije, ' A mark or im- 
pression,' (F.) Caraclhe. In Pathology, it is 
used synonymously with stamp or appearance. 
We say, " A disease is of unfavourable charac- 
ter,'' "The prevailing epidemic has a bilious 
character," &c. In Menial Philosophy it means 

-that which distinguishes one individual from 


town three leagues lrom Nemours, in France. 
The waters contain alum and iron. 

CHATEAU-SALINS; a town in the depart- 
ment of La Meurlhe, France. The waters con- 
tain carbonate of lime, sulphates of lime and 
magnesia, and chlorides of magnesium and 


another, as regards his understanding and pas- Chateldon is in the department of Puy-de-D6me, 

France. The waters contain carbonic acid and 


CHARA'DRIUS. iEIian thus calls a bird, 
which was reputed to cure jaundice. The word 
now means the plover. 

CHARANTIA, Momordica elaterium. 
CHARBOK, Anthrax carbo. 
CHARBONjYEUX, Anthracoid. 
CHARCOAL, Carbo— c. Animal, Carbo ani- 

CHARDOJYAUX A/V£.S,Onopordium acan- 
thium — c. Benit, Centaurea benedicta — c. a 
Bonnetier, Dipsacus fullonum — c. Etoil6, Cen- 
taurea calcitiapa — c. a Foulon, Dipsacus fullo- 
num — c. Hemorrhoidal, Cirsium arvense — c. 
il/rm>,Carduus Marianus — c.floland, Eryngium 

CHARLATAN, from Ital. ciarlare, 'to talk 
much;' Circula'tor, Circa rnforu'neus, Period eu' les, 
Pscudomcd'icus, Agyr'la, Anacyc'leon, A Quack, 
an Empirical Pretender, Empiric. Probably, 
one who goes from place to place to sell any 
medicine, to which he attributes marvellous 
properties. By extension — any individual, who 
endeavours to deceive the public by passing 
himself off as more skilful than he really is. 
According to Menage, the word comes from 
circa lalanvs, a corruption of circulator. 

CHARLATANRY, Agyr'tia, Banau'sia, the 
conduct or action of a charlatan. (F.) Charla- 
lanerie, Churlatanisme, Quackery, Empiricism. 

CHARM, Lat. Carmen, whence comes the 
Italian Ciarma, (F.) Churme, with the same sig- 
nification, Canta'lio, Incantamen'tum. Trick. 
A sort of magic, or superstitious practice, by 
which it was believed, that individuals might 
be struck with sickness or death, or be restored 
to health. 

CHARNlkRE, Ginglymus. 
CHARJYU, Carneous. 
CHARTRE, Tabes mesenterica. 
C'H.JS (F.) Acmfora'men. The eye of a nee- 
dle. Sometimes, this opening is near the point 
of the instrument, as in the ligature needle. 
CHASME, Yawning. 
CHASPE, Variola. 

CHASSE (F.) Manu'brium. A kind of handle 
composed of two moveable lamina? of horn, shell, 
or ivory, united only at the extremity, which 
holds the blade of the instrument, — as in the 
common bleeding lancet. 

CIIASSIE (F.) Lenta, Lippa, Glama, Gra- 
tnia; the gam of the eye. A sebaceous humour, 
secreted mainly by the follicles of Meibomius, 
which sometimes glues the eyelids together. 

CHASSfEUX (F.) Lippus; covered with 
Chassie. — as Paupii-res chassieuses. 
CHATAlGjYE,see Fagus castanea — c. d'Eau, 
Trapa natans. 

CHATAIGjYIER COMMWf, Fagus castanea 
— c. jYain, Fagus castanea pumila. 

OF. A village in France, in the department. 
Puy-de Dome, near which there are five ther- 
mal and acidulous springs. Temperature, 8(jo 

CHATON {¥.), 'a husk.' In pathology, it 
means a f undo, or cavity formed by the irregu- 
lar or hour-glass contraction of tile uterus, in 
which the placenta is often retained or encha- 
lunnt after the birth of the child. It is detected 
by passing the fingers along the cord as far as 
the part which is contracted, when the placenta 
will not be discoverable. 

The treatment consists in relaxing by a large 
dose of an opiate, then passing the fingers along 
the cord, and gradually dilating the opening 
through which it passes, until it permits the 
hand to go through. The placenta must then 
be grasped and gently withdrawn. 
C HA TON, Vaginal process. 
CHATOjYKl, CALCUL,(F.) Calculus incar- 
cera'tus, Encys'tcd Calculus, Calcul enkysti. A 
urinary calculus, adherent to the inner surface 
of the bladder, so that it is immovable, and can- 
not pass to the different parts of that organ. 
This happens when calculi form in some natu- 
ral or accidental cavity of the bladder ; or when 
the organ, by ulceration, gives rise to fungi, 
which surround the calculus; or when it is 
lodged in the orifice of the ureter or urethra. 

centa when retained as above described. See 

CHATOjYjYEMEJVT, (F.) Incarcera'lio, Cha- 
tonnement du placenta. Enkystement — Hour- 
glass contraction of the uterus. See Chaton. 

CHAT0U1LLEMEjYT,{F '.) This word some- 
times means the action of tickling (q. v.) or 
titillation {Titilla'lio,) and, at others, the sensa- 
tion which gives rise to the action (Pruri'tus,) 

CUATRlt, Castratus. 
CHATRURE, Castration. 
OF. C. is three quarters of a league from Thi- 
onville in France. The waters contain iron, 
sulphate of lime, sulphate of magnesia, and 
carbonate of lime. 

CHA UDEPISSE,GonorrhcesL impura— c. Cor- 
die, Gonorrhoea cordata — c. tombde dans les 
Bourses, Hernia humoralis. 

TERS OF. A small town in the department 
of Cantal, France, where there is a number of 
saline springs containing carbonic acid, carbo- 
nate of soda, and chloride of sodium. Temp. 
190° Fahrenheit. 

CHAUFFOIR (F.) Linteum Ca/rfaclo'num. 
According to the Acad'emie, a warmed cloth, 
used either for the purpose of warming a pa- 
tient, or to apply to a female recently delivered. 




^ CHAUSSE, (F.) Chausse d' Hippoerate,Manche 
d' Hippocrate, Man'ica Hippoc'ratis, Man' tea, 
Hippocrates' Sleeve. A conical bag, made of 
flannel, for straining liquids. 

CHAUSSE-TRAPPE, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CHMJVETl, Calvities. 

sulphuretum — c. Vive, Calx viva. 

CHECKER-BERRY, Arbutus uva ursi. 

CHEEK, Gena. 

CHEESE, Sax. cere, (L.) Ca'seus, Tyros, 
(F.) Frontage. An aliment, prepared from the 
caseous and oleaginous parts of milk. Fresh 
cheeses owe their chief medical properties to 
the immediate principle, essentially cheesy, to 
which the name ca'sevm or casein has been 
applied. Those, which have been recently 
salted, are digested with comparative facility. 
The flavour of cheese is owing to an ammonia- 
cal caseate. On the whole, cheese itself is not 
easy of digestion, although it may stimulate the 
stomach to greater exertion, and thus aid in the 
digestion of other substances. 

CHEESE REjYJYET, Galium verum. 

CHEE'SY, Casea'rius, Caseo'svs, Tyro'des, 
(F.) Caseux ou Caseux. Having the nature of 

CHEF, Bandage (tail.) 

CHEILITIS, or CHI LITIS, from x"*°e> ' a 
lip.' Inflammation of the lip. See Chilon. 

CHEILOC'ACE, from X uXt>c, -a lip,' and 
xttKog, 'evil.' Labrisul'cium. A disease, cha- 
racterized, it is said, by swelling, induration, 
and slight redness of the lips without inflam- 
mation ; reputed, but without any authority, to 
be common in England and Scotland, amongst 
children. Also, the thickness of the upper lip 
of scrofulous children. See Stomacace, and 
Cancer aqualicus. 

CHEILOCARCINO'MA, from X tilog, 'a lip,' 
and xagxiru><<*, 'cancer.' Cancer of the lip. 

CHEILOMALACIA, Cancer aquaticus, Sto- 

CHEILON, Chilon. _ 

CHE1LOPLASTICE, Chiloplaslke, from 
X ulog, 'lip,' and niaariKog, 'forming.' The 
operation for an artificial lip. 


CHEIMA. Cold. 

CHEIMETHLON, Chilblain. 

CHE1MIA, Rigor. 

CHEIR, Manus. 

CHEIRANTHUS CHEIRI, from *«e, { the 
hand,' and arSog, 'flower.' The systematic 
name of the Common Yellow Wall- Flower, Vi'- 
o!a lu'tea, Lcur.o'ium lu'teum, Keyri, C/ieiri, (F.) 
Geroflie ou Violier jaune. The flowers have 
been esteemed nervine, narcotic, and deob- 

CHEIRAP'SIA. The action of rubbing or 
scratching, from /fig, 'the hand,' and a7rTw, 
'1 touch.' A troublesome symptom in the itch. 

CHEIR1ATER, Surgeon. 

CHEIRIS'M A, Chciris'mus. The act of touch- 
ing: — handling. Any manual operation. 

CHEIRIX IS, Surgery. 

CHEIRONOM'IA, Chironom'ia, from X "Q<>- 
vc/Aiv), ' 1 exercise with the hands.' An exer- 
cise, referred to by Hippocrates, which con- 
sisted in using the hands, as in our exercise of 
the dumb-bells. 

CHF-IROPLETHES, Fasciculus. 

CHEIROSIS, Subactio. 

CHELA, xrjXrj. This word has several sig- 
nifications. Chela, a forked probe used for ex- 
tracting polypi from the nose. CUtke— chaps, 
or cracks on the feet, organs of generation, &c. 
Chela likewise means claws, especially those 
of the crab. See Cancroram Cbelse. 

Chela Palpebrarum, see Tarsus. 

CHELAPA, Convolvulus jalapa. 

CH/iLIDOlJYE GRAJHDE, Chelidonium 
majus— c. Petite, Ranunculus ficaria. 

CHELIDON, X f).iSwv, the hollow at the bend 
of the arm. Hirun'do. (q, v.) 

Ranunculus ficaria. 

CHELIDONIUM, Bryonia alba. 

Chelidon'ium Majus, from X iXidwi, 'aswal- 
low,' because its flowering coincides with the 
appearance of the swallow. Papa'ver Cornicu- 
la'tum, P. lu'tevm, Common Celandine., Tetter- 
wort, (F.) Chelidoine grand e, L'ltclaire. Family, 
Papaverace®. Sea;. Syst. Polyandria Monogy- 
nia. The root and recent plant have been con- 
sidered aperient and diuretic. Externally, the 
juice has been employed in some cutaneous 

Chelidonidm Minus, Ranunculus ficaria. 

to stones, which, it was pretended, existed in 
the stomach of young swallows. They were 
formerly believed capable of curing epilepsy. 

CHELOID^ Cancroid. 

CHELO'NE, X tXwvr i , 'a tortoise.' An in- 
strument for extending a limb; so called, be- 
cause, in its slow motions, it resembled a tor- 
toise. — Oribasius. See Testudo. 

Chelo'ne Glabra, Common Snake head , Tur- 
tle head, Turtle bloom, Shellflower. An indige- 
nous plant, Sex. Syst. Didynamia angiospermia; 
blossoming from July to November. The leaves 
are bitter and tonic; without any aromatic 
smell, and with very little astringency. 

OHELO'NIA MYDAS, Tfte Green Turtle. 
This species of turtle abounds on the coast of 
Florida. It is the one so prized by the epicure. 

CHELO'NION, Chclo'nium, from jsiUinf, 'a 
tortoise,' from its resembling in shape the shell 
of that animal. The upper, gibbous part of the 
back. — Gorraeus. 

CHELONOPH'AGI, from X iX<arr n 'the tor- 
toise,' and (paytD, ' I eat.' An ancient name for 
certain tribes, who dwelt on the coasts of the 
Red Sea, and who lived only on tortoises. — 
Pliny, Diodorus of Sicily. 

CHEL'SEA PEN'SIONER. An empirical 
remedy for rheumatism, sold under this name. 
(Gum. guaiac, gj, powdered rhubarb jjij, cream 
of tartar ^j. flowers of sulphur gj, one nutmeg, 
finely powdered: made into an electuary with 
a pound of clarified honey.) Dose two spoonfuls. 

OF. C. is a town in Gloucestershire, England, 
nine miles from Gloucester, and 94 W. of Lon- 
don. Jts water is one of the most celebrated 
natural purgatives in England. It is a saline, 
acidulous chalybeate, and is much frequented. 
Its main constituents are chloride of sodium, 
sulphate of soda, sulphate of magnesia, carbonic 
acid and carbonate of iron. 

Cheltenham Water, Artificial, may be 
made of Epsom still, gr. xij, iron filings, gr. j: 
Glauber's salt, 5iv: iciitcr, 4 gallons: impreg- 
nated with the gas from marble poicder and sul- 
phuric acid, aa ^ij. 




Cheltenham Salts. These are sometimes 
made I'roni the waters; at others, factitiously. 
The following is a formula. Sotlii cklorid., mag- 
nes. sulphat.,sodsE sulph., aa Ibj: dissolve, filter, 
evaporate to dryness, then add Ferri sulph., ^ss. 
CHELYS, Thorax. 

CHELYS'C ION, from /t?.v?, 'the chest.' A 
short, dry cough. — Galen, Hippocr. Foesius. 

cient measure, equivalent to about two tea- 

CHEMEUT1CE, Chymistry. 
CHEMIST, Chymist. 
CHEMISTRY, Chymistry. 
CHEMO'SIS, from /r^n;, ' an aperture,' or 
from 2'."°?» ' an humour.' A name given to 
ophthalmia, when the conjunctiva, surrounding 
the cornea, forms a high ring, making the cor- 
nea seem as it were at the bottom of a well. 
By some, it is used synonymously with ophthal- 
mia membranarum. See Ophthalmia. 

is a town in France, two leagues from Rheims. 
The waters are chalybeate. 

Cfl£'JV£,Quercus,alba — c. Marin, Fucus ve- 
siculosus— c. Petit, Teucrium chamffidrys— c. 
Vert. Ilex aquifolium. 
CHEJVEVIS See Cannabis saliva. 
CHENOBOSCON, Potentilla anserina. 
CHENOC'OPRUS, from X r\v, ' a goose,' and 
xvnnog, 'dung.' The dung of the goose is so 
designated in some old Pharmacopoeias. It was 
formerly employed as a febrifuge and diuretic. 
^■jjr, ' a goose,' and nuvq, ' a foot.' Botrys Mex- 
ica'na, Chenopo'dium Mexico' num, Botrys, Am- 
lirosioi'dcs Mexico.' na, Botrys America' no, , Mexico 
Tea, Spanish Tea, Arlemis'ia Botrys, (F.) Anse- 
rine, The du Mexique, Ambrosie du Mexique. 
The infusion was once drunk as tea. It has 
been used in paralytic cases; and in the United 
States is said to be used as an anthelmintic in- 
discriminately with Ch. anthelminticum. 

Chenopo'dium Anthelmin'ticum, Chenopo'- 
dium, Botrys anth dmin'tica, Wormsced, Worm- 
goosefoot, Wormseed goosejoot, Jerusalem Oak 
of America, Goosefoot Stinkweed, (F.) Ansirine 
anthelminlique, A. vermifuge. This plant grows 
plentifully in the United^States. The fruit — 
Chenopodium (Ph. U. S.) — is much used in 
cases of worms. Dose of the powder, from a 
tea-spoonful to a table-spoonful or more. The 
oil, Oleum Chenopo'dii, (Ph. U. S.) from 8 to 10 
drops, is more frequently exhibited. It is as 
much used in America as the Semen Santon'ici 
with the English. 

Chenopo'dium Bonus Henri'cus. Chryso- 
lach'anum, Mer curia' lis, Bonus Henri'cus, Tola 
bona, Lap'uthum uncluo'sum, Chenopo'dium, 
English Mercury, All good. Angular -leaved goose- 
foot, (F ) Anserine Bon Henri, Epinurd sauvage. 
The leaves are emollient, and have been applied 
to ulcers, &c. It has also been considered re- 
frigerant and eccoprotic 

Chenopo'dium Botkys, Botrys, Botrys vulgu'- 
ris, Ambro'sia, Artrmis'ia Chenopo'dium, At' - 
riplex odora'ta, At'ripUx suav'eolens; the Jeru- 
salem Oak, (EngJ (F.) Ansirine Botrys, pos- 
. sesses anthelmintic properties, and was once 
given in diseases of the chest, pals)', &c. It is 

Chenopodium Fcbtidum, Chenopodium vul- 

Chenopo'dium'ria, At'riphx fm'tida, 
'riplex ol'ida, Vuha'ria, Garos'mum, Uaphtx, 
ienopo'diam Fa' lid urn, Stinking Orach or 


Goosefoot, (F.) Vukairc, Arruche puant, Anse- 
rine fttide. The fetid smell has occasioned it 
to be used as an antispasmodic and nervine. 
CHEOPINA. Chopine. 
CHEQUERBERRY, Gaullheria. 
CHERBACHEM, Veratrum album. 
CHERB AS, Lettuce. 
CHERMES. Kermes. 
CHERRY, BIRD, Prunus padus-c. Tiee, 
red, Prunus cerasus — c. Tree, black, Piunus 
avium — c. Tree, wild, Prunus Virginiana — c. 
Water, Kirschwasser — c. Wild cluster, Prunus 
padus—c. Winter, Physalis. 
CHERS.E, Faces. 

CHERVIL, Scandix cerefolium — c. Wild, 
Chairophyllum sylvestre. 
CHEST, Thorax. 

CHESTNUT TREE. Facrus caslanea. 
CHEVAUCHEMENT, (F.) Os'sium super- 
posi"tio vel equita'lio, Farallax'is, Pura/lug'ma. 
The riding of one bone over another after frac- 
ture; giving rise to shortening of the limb 
See riding of Bones. 

from caput, 'the head.' A bandage, applied 
round the head in cases of fracture or luxation 
of the lower jaw. According to the mode in 
which it is made, it is called simple, double, ob- 
lique, &c. 

CHEVEU, Capillus. 
CHEVRE-FEUILLE, Lonicera Periclyme- 

CHEZAIS'AN'CE, from % tt(,\ ' I go to stool,' 
and avu.yy.ri, 'necessity.' An ointment com- 
posed of honey and alum, and rubbed on the anus 
to occasion evacuations — Paulus of jEgina. 

CHIA, Chia terra, from Chios, an island 
where it was found. A kind of while earth, 
fornierly used for burns. — Galen. 

CH1ACUM COLLYR'JUM. A collyrium 
consisting of several drugs and Chian wine. — 
Paulus of iEgina. 

CHIADUS, Furunculus. 
CHIAS'MOS, Chias'ma, from ^-[atoj; to form 
like the letter ^. The crucial union of parts, — 
as the decussation (a. v.) of the optic nerves. 
CHIASTER, Kias'ter. 

CHIAS'TOS. Same etymon. A bandage, 
so called because it resembles the letter y_. — 

CIIIBOU, see Bursera gnmmifera. 
CH1CHA. A drink made in Peru with In- 
dian meal dried in the sun, and fermented with 
water. Its taste is that of bad cider. 
CHICKENPOX, Varicella. 
CHICKWEED, Alsine media. 
divia — c. Sauvage, Cichorium intybus. 
CH1ENDEKT, Triticum repens. 
CHIGOE, Cluque. 
CHIGGRE, Ch\que. 

CHIL'BLAIN, Pcr'nio, Bugaritia, Erythe'- 
ma Pcr'nio, Erythe'ma a Fri'gurS, Cheimeth' Ion, 
from chill, 'cold,' and b/uin, 'a pustule,' (F.) 
Engelurc. An erythematous inflammation of 




the feet, bands, &c, occasioned by cold. It is 
very common in youth — not so in the adult or 
advanced age. It is apt to degenerate into 
painful, indolent ulcerations, called Kibes 
Chilblains are prevented by accustoming the 
parts to exposure; and are treated by stimulant, 
terebinthinate and balsamic washes,-ointments, 
and liniments. 

CHILD-BED STATE, Parturient state. 

CHILDREN'S BANE, Cicuta maculata. 

CHILI, see Lima. 

most celebrated mineral springs of Chili, in 
South America, are those of i'eldehues and 
Cauquenes. The former are not far from St. 
Jago. They consist of two springs, one ther- 
mal, the other cold. The hot spring is clear, 
inodorous, and contains soda and carbonic acid. 
The cold spring contains iron and sulphate of 
soda. Cauquenes is much resorted to by inva- 
lids during the summer. Mineral waters are 
very common in Chili. 

CH1LIOGRAMMA, Kilocrramtne. 

CHILIOPHYLLON, Achillea millefolium. 

CH1LITES, Cheilitis. 

CHILL, Rigor. 

CHl'LON, Chei'lan, Cheilitis, from ^fiAsc, 
'a lip.' Inflammation of the lips. — Vogel. One 
who has a thick lip. 

CHILOPLASTICE, Cheiloplastice. 

CHIMAPHILA, Pyrola umbellata. 

CHIMIA, Chymistry. 


CHIMIATRIA, Chymiatria. 

CHIM/E. Chymistry. 

CHIMISTE, Ohynrist. 

CHIMON, Cold'. 

CHINA. Cinchona, Smilax china — c. Ameri- 
can or West India, Smilax pseudo-china — c. 
Occidentalis, Smilax pseudo china — c. Root, 
Smilax china — c. Spuria nodosa, SirSilax pseu- 

CHINCAPIN. Fagus castanea pumila — c. 
Water, Nelumbiuin luteum. 

CHINCH 10, Cimex. 

CHINCHINA, Cinchona. 

CHINCHUNCHULLLIonidium marcucci. 

CHINCOUGH, Pertussis. 

Sin'ica. Medicine Ins been long, but most im- 
perfectly, practised by the Chinese. From their 
therapeutics we have obtained the old opera- 
tions of acupuncture and rnoxibustion. 

CHINICUS ACETAS, Quinine, acetate of— 
c. Citras, Quinine, citrate of. 

CHINII ACETAS, Quinine, acetate of. 

CHIN1NI ACETAS, Quinine, acetate of. 

CH1NINUM, Quinina — c. Sulfuricum, see 

CHIN IO (DINE, Chinoidine, Chinoidina; from 
China, ' Cinchona.' A substance presumed to 
be an alkaloid by Sertiirner, who separated it 
from cinchona. It has been supposed to be a 
mixture of quiuia, cinchonia, and a peculiar re- 
sinous matter. 

CHINIUM ACETICUM. Quinine, acetate 
of — c. Ferroeyanogenatum, Quinine, Ferrocya- 
nate of — c. Hydrochloricum, Quinine, muriate 
of— c Muriaticum, Quinine, muriate of— c.Ni- 
tricum, Quinine, nitrate of — c. Phosphoricum, 
Quinine, phosphate of — c. Salitum, Quinine, 
muriate of — c Solphuricum, &c. see Quinina. 

CHINNEYWEED, Lichen roccella. 

C 1 (IN WHELK, Sycosis. 

CHINQUAPIN, Fagus castanea pumila. 

CllIOCOCCiE RADIX, Camcui radix. 

CHIOLI, Furunculus. 

CI HON. Snow. 

CM QUE, (F.) Puce ptnitrante, Fukx Pen- 
etrans, Tick, Chiggre, Chigoe. A small insect 
in America and the Antilles, which gets under 
the epidermis, and excites great irritation. 

CHIRor CHEIR, X u^ y 'the hand,' hence: 

CHI'RAGRA, from ^sig, 'hand,' and «)-gu, 
'a seizure.' Gout in the hand. 


CHIRAYITA, Gentiana chirayta. 

CHIRAYTA, Gentiana chirayta. 

CHIRETTA, Gentiana chirayta. 

CH! RHEUM A, Chirrheuma. 

CHIRIATER, Surgeon. 


CHl'ROMANCY, Chiromanti'a, Palm'istnj, 
from %f£, ' the hand,' and uui rata, ' divination,' 
(F.) Chiromancie. Art of divining by inspec- 
tion of the hand. 

CHIRONAX, Surgeon. 

CHIRO'NIA, (from Chiron, Xfigtov, the Cen- 
taur, who is said to have discovered its use.) 
A ffenus of plants. Fain. Gentianeaj. 

Cihro'ma Axgula/kis, Amer'ican Ccn'taury, 
Rosepink, Wild Suc'cury, Bi.lltrbluum, Gentry, 
Subba'tia, S. Jlngulu' ris. Every part of this 
plant is a pure and strong bitter, which pro- 
perty is communicated alike to alcohol and to 
water. It is used as a tonic and a stomachic. 

Ciiiro'nia Centau'kipm, Centau'rium minus, 
vulga're, Centau'rium parvum, Gentia'na cen- 
tuu'rium, Centau'rium minus, Erythrie'a Cen- 
tau'rium, Smullcr Centaury, Lesser Centaury, 
(F.) Centaur 6c petite. The tops of the lesser Cen- 
taury, Centaurii Cnr.u'mina, are aromatic and 
tonic, and are sometimes employed as such. 

Ciiiro'nia Chilen'sis. Genliu'na Cachenla- 
huen, Cachen-laguen, Erytluse'a Chiknsis, Gen- 
tiana Peruviana. A very bitter plant, indige- 
nous in Chili. Jt possesses the virtues of the 
Chironece. Given in infusion — f?j, to water 

CHIRONI'UM, from *eigwi', 'bad, malig- 
nant.' An ulcer difficult of cure: — of a swollen, 
hard, and callous nature. — Galen. Some have 
supposed the word to come from Chiron, the 
Centaur; who was unable to cure such ulcers. 

CHIRONOMIA, Cheironomia. 

CHIROP'ODIST, (F.) Pedicure. One who 
treats diseases of the hands and feet, or rather 
whose profession it is to remove corns and bun- 
yons, from %a», 'the hand,' and nws, 'the 

CHIRORRHEUMA, Chirrheuma. 

CHIROSIS. Snbactio. 

CHIROTHE'CA, from X nc, ' the hand,' and 
dr^tj, 'a sheath.' A bandage for the hand; a 
kind of bandage in which the fingers and hand 
are enveloped in spiral turns. When the whole 
hand and fingers are covered, it is called the 
double or complete Cbirotbcca, Cb. cumple'la, 
Vinctu'ra omnibus dig"itis; and when only a 
finger is covered, the half or incomplete, Ch. 
incomple'ta, Vinctu'ra pro una dig"ito. See 
Guntelct . 

CHIROTRI'BIA, from xi ,q, 'the hand,' and 
tqi(3u), 'I rub.' Friction with the hand. Ac- 
cording to others, dexterity in an art. — Hippo- 
crates, Galen. 




CHIRRIIEU'MA, Chirorrheu'nta, Rheuma- 

tis'mus manus, i'rom -/no, 'the hand,' and qeuu*, 
' flux. 1 Rheumatism of the hand. 
CHIRURGIA, Surgery — c. Anaplaslica, 
Morioplastice — c. Curtorum, Morioplastice — c 
Infusoria, Infusion ofmedicines — c. Transfuso- 
ria, Transfusion. 

CHIRURG1E, Surgery— c. Militaire, Sur- 
gery, military. 

CHIRLRGIEJY, Surgeon — c. Consultant, 
consulting Surgeon — c Hernieux.see Hernial. 
CHIRURGiqUE, Surgical. 
CHIRURGUS, Surgeon. 
CH1ST. An Arabic word which signifies 
the sixth part. The sixth part of the Congius 
or gallon. 

CHITON, Tunic. 
CH1TONISCUS, Indusium. 
CH1UM VINUM. From Chios, the island 
where it was produced; Chian wine, used by 
the physicians of antiquity in cases of deflux- 
ions and ophthalmias. — Scribonius Largus. 

CHU'AROS, %Xiao(is, 'tepid.' A name 
given to slight levers, in which the heat is not 
great. — Galen. 

CHLIAS'A] A, /Xiunuu,same etymon. A tepid 
and moist fomentation. — Hippocr. 

CHLOAS'MA, Pityriasis versicolor, itphk- 
tide scorbutique, MaduLa licpat'ica, P annus hepat'- 
icus, (b\) Tuclics hipatiques, Chakurs du foie, 
Liver spot, from %Xaos, • a greenish-yellow co- 
lour.' A cutaneous affection, characterized by 
one or more broad irregular-shaped patches, of 
a yellow or yellowish-brown colour, and occur- 
ring most frequently on the front of the necK, 
breast, abdomen, groins, &c. The patches do 
not generally rise above the surface. There is 
usually some degree of itching. 

The causes are not very evident. Sulphur 
externally — in any and every form — generally 
removes it speedily. Should there be difficulty, 
the external use of the remedy by baths or fu- 
migations may succeed. 
CHLORA, Chlorine. 

tassffi murias hvperoxygenatus. 
CI1LORASMA. Chlorosis. 
CHLORJASIS, Chlorosis, 
CHLORINE, from x XwQog, 'green.' Chlo'- 
rinum, Chloru, Oxymuriat'ic Jlcid Gas, Oxyge- 
nated. Muriatic Acid Gas, Depklogisticated Ma- 
rine Acid . Hal'ogene, Mu'rigene, Cldorum. So 
far as we know, this is an elementary substance!. 
Jt is a greenish, yellow gas, of a strong suffo- 
cating smell, and disagreeable taste; incapable of 
maintaining combustion and respiration, and 
very soluble in water. One of its character- 
istics is, that of destroying, almost immediately, 
all vegetable and animal colours. It is em- 
ployed in fumigations as a powerful disinfect- 
ing agent. A very dilute solution ha3 been ad- 
ministered internally, in certain cases of diar- 
rhoea and chronic dysentery. Inversion of the 
hands and arms in it has often removed itch 
and other cutaneous affections. It lias also 
been inhaled in a dilute state in the early stage 
of phthisis, but it is of doubtful efficacy, and is 
better adapted for chronic bronchitis. 

CHLO'ROFORM, Perchloride of Formyl, so 

called on account of its connexion with formic 
acid, is a colourless oleaginous liquid, of a 
sweetish ethereal odour, hot, aromatic, and pe- 
culiar taste, and of the specific gravity 1.480. It 
may be obtained by distilling from a mixture 
of chlorinated lime and alcohol, — rectifying 
the product by re-distillation, first from a great 
excess of chlorinated lime, and afterwards from 
strong sulphuric acid. It has been used with 
advantage in asthma, and in diseases in which 
a grateful soothing agent is required. Dose 
f. ^j, diluted with water. 

CHLOROPHYLLE, Fecula, green. 

CHLORO'SIS, from yXo>no?, ' green,' Pafli- 
dus Morbus, Fadus Vir' ginmn color, Pal'iidvs 
color virgin' 'eus , hterW'ia alba, h'lerus a thus, 
Moibus virgin' i us, Morbus Parthenius, Dyspep'- 
siachhro'sis, Febris amato'ria, Cachexfia vu'gi- 
num, Fehris vir'ginum., Ftbris alba, Aatpitkym'iii 
clilon/sis, Green-sickness, Chlaras'ma, CAlori'asis, 
Citto'sis. (F.) i. Morose, Pahs couleurs. A dis- 
ease which affects young females, more particu- 
larly those who have not menstruated. It is 
chaiacterized by a pale, lurid complexion, lan- 
guor, listlessness, depraved appetite and diges- 
tion, palpitation, &c. The disease generally 
goes off on the occurrence of the menstrual flux; 
but sometimes it is long before this is estab- 
lished, and at limes, the catamenia are in much 
larger quantities than usual. To this last form 
M. Trousseau has given the name Morose heiuor- 

The blood of chlorosis is generally thin, light- 
coloured, and deficient in. red corpuscles; and 
the clot, is in less proportion to the serum than 
in health. On auscultation, a bellows' sound 
has been almost invariably detected over the 
heart, and a continuous blowing sound in the 
larger arteries, (especially the carotids and sub- 
clavians ) re-enforced by each systole of the 
ventricle, and resembling the buzzing of a hum- 
ming-top, the cooing of doves, the « hislling of 
air through a key-hole, &c , (!See Bruit.) Very 
similar sounds are heard in the arteries after 
copious hemorrhage : they seem, therefore, to 
coincide with enfeebled circulation. , 

Tonics — as iron — are usually required in the 
treatment: the disease most commonly occur- 
ring in those in whom there is considerable 
torpor of the system. 

Chlorosis Amatoria, Hectic fever. 

CHLOROT'IC, Chlorot'itus, (F.) Cldoroiiquc. 
Affected with chlorosis, or pertaining to chloro- 
sis ; — as chlorotic female, chlorotic symptoms, &c. 

CHLORUM, Chlorine. 

CHLOIWRE DOR, Gold, Muriate of. 


CIIOA, Chu. 

A black plaster, mentioned by Celsus, and com- 
posed of equal parts of litharge and resin. The 
litharge was first boiled in oil. 

CHOAK, Cynanche trachealis — c. Wolf, Ly- 

CHOANA, Pelvis — c. Cerebri, Infundibulutn 
of the brain. 

CHOANE, Infundibulum. 

CHOANORRHAG1A, Epistaxis. 

CHOAVA, Coffea Arabica. 

C 1 1 OC'OLATE, Chocola'tum, Chocola'la, Sue 
coin' to. Dr. Alston says, that this word is com- 
pounded of two East Indian words: — clioco, 




'sound,' and atlc, ' water,' because of the noise 
made in its preparation. An alimentary paste 
prepared from the kernels of the Tlteobro'ma cacao 
or Cacao, with sugar, and often aromatics. (See 
Cacao.) The chocolate thus simply prepared — 
as it is met with, indeed, in commerce — is called 
in France, Ckocolat de sant6. It is not very 
easy of digestion. 

The ckocolat a la vanille contains three ounces 
of vanilla and l\vo of cinnamon to twenty pounds 
of common chocolate. The addition of the aro- 
matic renders it somewhat more digestible. 
Chocolates may likewise be medicated. 

CHOCOLATE ROOT, Geum Virginianum. 





CHCERUS, Scrofula. 

CHOIROS. Vulva. 

CHOLAGO, Cholas. 

CHOL'AGOGUE, Cholago'gus, Chole'gon. 
from y^i]i ' bile,' and a.yo, ' I expel.' The an- 
cients gave this name to cathartics, which were 
reputed to cause the flow of bile. 

CHOLAS, /oXa?, Flur. X oUSe?. The cavity 
of the hypochondres; Cholago. The intestines. 
— Homer. 

CHOLASMA, Cholosis. 

CHOLE and CHOLOS, Z oXr„ and x oXo<: > 
'bile,' (q. v.) in composition. — Hence: 

CHOLECYST, Gall-bladder. 

CHOLEC YSTI'TIS, Inflamma'lio Vesi' esc fell' - 
cse, I. cijslfidis fell/ece, Cysti' fcllca ; from 
<% r .Xri, 'bile,' and x,v?tic, 'bladder.' (F.) Inflam- 
mation de la Vesicule du Ficl, Cholecystilc. In- 
flammation of the gall-blndder. 

CHOL'EDOCH, Choled'ochus ; from ^oXn, 
'bile,' and 8o%-jc, 'containing or receiving.' 
The Ductus clioledochus, Ductus communis c.ko- 
ledochus, (F.) Conduit ou Canal C/ioledoque, is 
the duct formed by the union of the hepatic 
and cystic ducts, which pours the hepatic and 
cystic bile into the duodenum. 

CHOLEDOC1T1S, from cho/edochus, and 
ids; a suffix denoting inflammation. Inflam- 
mation of the choledoeh duct. 

CHOLEDOG'RAPHY, Chokdogra'phia, from 
<X_tl>U ' bile,' and y^uipttv, ' to describe.' A de- 
scription of what relates to the bile. 

CHOLEDOL'OGY, Choledolog"ia, from X olr,, 
'bile,' and Xoy.g, ' a discourse.' A treatise on 
the bile. 

CHOLEGON, Cholagorrue. 

CHOLEH^EMIA, Icterus. 

CHOLEIA, Claudication. 


CHOLELITHUS, Calculi, biliary. 

CHOLEN'CHYSIS. from % »h } , 'bile,' and 
ix<X_unis, 'effusion.' Effusion of bile. 

CHOLEPYRA, Fever, bilious. 


CHOL'ERA, Chol'era-morbus, Cholerrha'gia. 
Pas' s:o dialer' ica, Fellif'/ua passio, Morbus fill if - 
luus, Hol'cra, (F.) Chol'eiamorbus eporadlque. 
Ch. Europe' en, from %_oXi], 'bile,' andotu), ' I flow.' 
According to others, from ^oA«i5f?, ' intestines,' 
or from ^oXeqa, ' the gutter of a house to carrv 
off the rain.' A disease characterized by anx- 
iety, gripings, spasms in the legs and arms, 
and by vomiting and purging (generally bi- 
lious:) vomiting and purging are, indeed, the 
essential symptoms. The disease is most com- 

mon in hotclimales,— and in temperate climates, 
during summer. In India, the spasmod'ic cAoJ'j 

era, Asiatic cholera, Malignant ch., In'dian chol- 
era, Epidem'icch., Pestikn'tialch., Choi' eric Pest'- 
Hence, Eastern ch., Orien'tal eh., Cholera orien- 
talis, Ch. In'dica, Ch. Epidem'ica, Ganglionitis 
pcriphcr'ica et medulla' r is, Cholcrrhm'a lymph. 
atica, Psorente'ria; Typhoid Fever of India, 
Cholera asphyxia, Trisplanch'nia, Morbus oryzc- 
us, Rice disease, (because supposed by Tytler to 
be caused by damaged rice,) (F.) Mort de Chien, 
is frightful in the rapidity of its progress, the 
patient sometimes dying in a few hours from 
the first onset. In temperate climates, com- 
mon cholera is not usually a disease of much 
consequence. It requires, that the stomach and 
bowels should be cleared, and afterwards the 
irritation be allayed by full doses of opium. In 
the malignant cholera of India, bleeding at the 
outset, without regard to the signs of apparent 
depression, and large doses of calomel, with 
opiates, form the great reliance of the prac- 

CHOLliRM-EUROPtiEJY, see Cholera. 

Cholera Infan'tum, Choi' eric Fever of In- 
fants; Cholera of Infants. A disease so termed 
by American physicians. It occurs, generally, 
in the middle states of the Union, in June or 
July, and continues during the hot weather, 
hence called the 'summer complaint.' The" 
chief symptoms are vomiting, purging of green 
or yellow matter, slime or blood, attended with 
pain or uneasiness; and swelling of the abdo- 
men, with some pyrexia, generally. The heat 
of the weatherseems to be the predisposing,if not 
the exciting, cause. It is a fatal disease in towns; 
differing little, if at all, from what is vulgarly 
called the Watery Gripes in England. Clearing, 
gently, the alimentary canal, so as to remove 
the offending matter, and then exhibiting chalk 
mixture and laudanum, with counter-irritants, 
as sinapisms to the abdomen, is the most satis- 
factory plan of treatment. 

Cholera Morbus, Cholera — c. Morbus Spo- 
radique, see Cholera — c. Sicca, Tympanites. 

CHOLERAPHOBIA, Choleromania. 

CHOL'ERIC, Cholcr'icus. Belonging to cho- 
lera morbus or to the bile. The French use the 
term Fievrc cholerique for the fever accompa- 
nying cholera. 

Choleric Fever, of Infants, Cholera in- 

Choleric Temperament is the same as Bi- 
lious Temperament. 

CHOL'ERIiNE. A diminutive of cholera. 
The fiist stage of epidemic cholera; also, the 
precursory symptoms of cholera. 

CHOLE ROM A' JN1 A, Cholerapho'bia, from 
cholera and mania. A dread of cholera to such 
an extent that the individual fancies himself 
affected or threatened by it. 



CHOLESTEATINE, Cholesterin. 

CHOLESTERI'NA, CkolesteaiinS, Cho/rstea- 
tine, from ^oli}, 'bile,' and orfocog, 'solid,' or 
nrsao, ' suet.' An inodorous, insipid substance, 
in white, shining scales; fusible and crystal- 
lizing, on cooling, in radiated fibres. Soluble 
in alcohol. It forms the crystalline part of cer- 
tain biliary calculi. See Adipocire. 

CHOLlCE'LE, from %oX> h 'bile,' and iojAjj, 




'tumour.' A swelling, formed by the bile mor- 
bidly accumulated in the gall-bladder. 

CHOLICYSTIECTASIE, Turgescentia ve- 
sicsb fcl 1p<c. 

CHOLICYSTITE, Cholecystitis. 
CHOLOLITHUS. See Calculi, biliary. 
CHOLO'MA, from /o>Zo;, 'lame, maimed.' 
Distortion of a limb: incapacity of moving it. 
Also, the act of limping, claudication, (q. v.) 
CHOLOS, Bile, Chole. 

CHOLO'SES, from X oX, h 'bile.' M. Alibert 
includes, under this head, every morbid affection 
of the liver and spleen. 

CHOLO'SIS, from /u>;.oc, ' lame.' Clw'lolcs, 
Cholas'ma, Clavdku'tion. (q. v.) Hippocrates 
employs this word particularly for a lameness 
of the hand, which renders a person one-handed, 
inanchot, (F.) 

CHOLOTES, Cholosis. 

CHONDRI'TIS, Inflamma'tio Cartilag"inis ; 
from yox^Qog, ' cartilage,' and itis, a termination, 
denoting inflammation. Inflammation of car- 

CHONDRODES, Cartilaginous. 

CHONDROGENES'IA, Chondrogcn' esis ; 
from xovtioog, 'a cartilage,' and yircaig, 'forma- 
tion.' Formation of cartilage. A morbid con- 
version of parts into cartilage. 

CHONDROGLOS'SUS, from X ovSqo;, 'a 
cartilage,' and yXo>aaa, 'the tongue.' A fasci- 
culus of fleshy fibres, passing from the lesser 
cornu of the os hyoides to the tongue. It forms 
part of the Hyoglossus. 

CHONDROG'RAPHY, Chondrogra'phia, 
from yovSooq, 'cartilage,' and yoayii, 'descrip- 
tion.' A description of cartilages. 

CHONDROID, Chondroidts, from yorSqog, 
'cartilage,' and uSog, 'resemblance.' Cartila- 
giniform. Resembling cartilage. 

CHONDROL'OGY, Chondrolog" ia, from X ov 
Sqoc, ' a cartilage,' and Xoyog, ' a discourse.' A 
treatise on cartilages. 

CHONDRO'MA,' ma, from yov- 
doog, 'cartilage.' A cartilaginous growth pro- 
ceeding from bones, including spina ventosa, 
osteo- sarcoma, &c, of many. 

* a cartilage,' and yuovy^, 'the pharynx.' Fi- 
bres of the muscular coat of the pharynx, which 
arise from the lesser cornua of the os hyoides, 
and form part of the Constrictor medius. See 
Constrictor pharyngis. 

CHOJNDROS, yordQo?, 'a cartilage.' (q. v.) 
The Xiphoid curtilage, (q. v.) in particular. 

CHONDROSYNDES'MUS, from zovdott?, «a 
cartilage,' and owStouog, 'a ligament.' Union 
of bones, by means of fibro-carlilage. — Galen. 

CHONDROT'OMY, Chondrotom'iu, from 
yorSooc, 'a caitilage,' and rifivtiv, 'to cut.' 
Dissection of cartilages. 

CHONDRUS, Alica, Fucus crispus — c. Cris- 
pus, Fucus crispus — c. Polymorphus, Fucus 

CHOlNOS. Infundibulum. 

measure, which contains 16 ounces. A pint 

CHORA, -/wna, 'region.' Any void space. 
Also, the orbit of the eye. 

CHORD, TESTICULAR, Spermatic chord. 

CHORDA, Corda. A string of an instrument. 
It has several meanings. A tendon. — the intes- 
tines (Cliordx.) Paracelsus calls the genital 

organs chordss. Chorda or Funic'ulus Tympani; 
a branch of the 7th pair of nerves, according to 
some, but rather of the 5th pair, which passea 
through the tym pan um,NerfTympanique — (Ch.) 
Corda du Tambour 011 du Tympan. Chorda! 
Willis'ii, Trabecules Willis'ii, the small fibres 
which cross the sinuses of the dura mater: so 
called from their first describer, Willis. Chordas 
Tcndui'ex; the tendinous and cord-like sub- 
stances which connect the columnar cornea: of 
the ventricles of the heart to the valves, &.c. 

Chohda, Intestine — c. Veneris, Chordee. 

CHOUDiE, Chordee— c. Ferrenii, Chords, 

Chords Longituijina'lks Lancish. Two 
or three longitudinal elevations and lines on 
the upper surface of the corpus callosurn. 

Choki>;e, Chords, vocal. 

CHORDAP'SUS, from X oq3ti, 'intestine,' and 
unriir, 'to tie.' Jntussusceplio. Constriction 
or twisting of the intestines. — Celsus. The 
Colica Ileus. See Enteritis and Ileus. 

CHORDEE' or CORDEE', Chorda Ven'eris, 
Chorda;, Chorda' 'la Gonori hec'a. A painful af- 
fection of the penis, attending gonorrhoea, and 
happening chiefly at night. It occurs when 
the violence of the inflammation is such, that 
the urethra cannot expand as much as the cor- 
pora cavernosa during erection, and conse- 
quently the glans seems painfully drawn down- 
wards. The application of cold water topically 
and the administration of opium internally pal- 
liate it. 

CHORE'A, Chorea Sancti Viti, Ch. Sancti 
Modes'ti, from X oQna, 'a dance.' Sometimes 
called Scelotyr'be, Viti Saltus, Salta'tio Sancti 
Viti, Ballis' uius, Convul'sio habitua'lis, Siph'ita 
pruva, Syn'clonus Chorea, Myotyr'be, Choreoma'- 
nia, Orchestroma'nia,, Epilepsia Sa/tato'ria, Mor- 
bus sahato'rius, Hierano' sis, M. gesticulato'rius, 
Scelotyrbe tarantismus, St. Vitus , s Dance, be- 
cause the movements resemble dancing. (F ) 
Choree, Danse de Saint- Witt, Danse de St. 
Guy. The characteristics are: — irregular and 
involuntary motions of one or more limbs, and 
of the face and trunk. It is a disease, which 
usually occurs before puberty, and is generally 
connected with torpor of the system, and of the 
digestive system in particular. Its duration is 
long, but it is usually devoid of danger; al- 
though frequently but little under the control 
of medicine. The spasms do not continue 
during sleep. The indications of treatment 
are: — to strengthen the general system, and 
stimulate the intestinal canal. Purgatives, once 
or twice a week, and chalybeates, with appro- 
priate regimen, will fulfil these. 

Ghoul a, Chkonic, see Tic, — c. partial, see 

CHORE'GIA, from X ooog, 'a troop of dan- 
cers and singers,' and uyu>, ' 1 lead.' Hippo- 
crates uses this term for the whole, of the appa- 
ratus necessary for a physician or surgeon. 


CHORIODEPTIS, Chorioidei'tis, Chorioidi- 
tis, Choroiditis, from X oQosidtjg, ' the choroid," 
and itis. Inflammation of the choroid coat of 
the eye. 

CHO'RION, yoQior, 'skin,' from X ibqhv, 'to 
contain," 'include.' Camis'ia Fcetus : the che- 
mise or shirt of the foetus in utero. A thin, 
transparent membrane, which surrounds the 




fetus in ulero on ever}' side. It is exterior to 
the amnion. 

Chorion also means tlie true skin. See 

Chorion FunBosdm, Deeidua — c. reticula- 
tum, Deeidua — c. Shaggy, Deeidua — c. Spon- 
giosum, Deeidua — c. Spongy, Deeidua — c. To- 
mentosum, Deeidua. 

CHOROID, Choroidals, Clioroi'des, from 
Xoqiov, 'the chorion,' and stdog, 'shape,' 're- 
semblance.' Several parts are so called, which 
resemble the chorion, in the multitude of their 

Choroidea Tunica, vel Membra'na, or sim- 
ply the Choroid, Ta'nica vasculo'sa Oc'uli, 1\ 
aciniform'is, (F.) Membrane choroid e, Choroide. 
A thin membrane, of a very dark colour, which 
lines the sclerotica, internally. The part behind 
the iris is called Uoeu. It is situate between the 
sclerotica and retina, has an opening-, posteri- 
orly, for the passage of the optic nerve; and 
terminates, anteriotly, at the great circumfe- 
rence of the iris, where it is continuous with 
the ciliary processes. According- to Ruysch, the 
choroid consists of two layers, to the innermost 
of which his son gave the name Tunica Ruysch- 
ia'na, Membra'na Ruyschia'na, (F.) Membrane 
Ruyschitnne. The internal surface of the mem- 
brane is covered with a dark pigment, called 
Pigmen'tum nigrum, JE'thiops animal, (F.) En- 
duit choro'idien. Its use seems to be, to absorb 
the rays of light after they have traversed the 

Choroi'des Plexus, Plexus choroid eus, Cho- 
roid Plexus. Two membranous and vascular 
duplicatures of the pia mater, situate in the la- 
teral ventricles. They are fixed to the Tela 
choroidea by one edge, and are loose and float- 
ing at the other. 

Choroidea Tela, (F.) Toile choro'idienne. 
A kind of vasculo-mernbranous prolongation of 
the pia mater, which lines the lower surface of 
the fornix, united with the corpus callosum. It 
is stretched above the third ventricle, and co- 
vers the posterior commissure and corpora qua- 
drigemina. Anteriorly, the tela choroidea is 
continuous with the plexus choroides. 

CuoRoiDEiE Ven.s, Vense Gule'ni, (F.) Veines 
choroidienncs. Two veins, which creep along 
the tela choroidea; and into which almost all 
those of the lateral ventricles, of the upper part 
of the cerebellum, of the pineal gland, and the 
corpora quadrigemina open. The Vena? Galeni 
open into the sinus quarlus or fourth sinus. 

LA, Ciliary ligament — c. Commissure de la, Ci- 
liary ligament. 

CHOROIDITIS, Choriodeitis. 

naturam — c. Katurelles, Res naturales — c. non 
Naturelles, Res non naturales. 

CllOU CABUS, Brassica capitata— c. Croule, 
Sauer Kraut — c. Fleur, Brassica Florida, Cauli- 
flower excrescence — c. Marin, Convolvulus sol- 
danella — c. Navet, Brassica rapa — c. Fomme, 
Brassica capitata — c. Polugcr, Brassica — c. Ro- 
quetta, Brassica eruca. 

CHRISIS, zQiaig, from /niw, 'I anoint.' The 
action of anointing. Inunction (q. v.) 

CHRISTI MAN US. Troches, prepared from 
refined sugar boiled in rose-water, with or with- 
out prepared pearls. 

CHRISTOPHER, HERB, Aetata spicata. 

CIIR1STOS, yinnrog, from X Q l0} > ' ' anoint.' 
Any medicine applied under the form of lini- 
ment or ointment. 

CMIICEAS, Scrofula. 

CHROMATOG'ENOUS; from jfocoua, 'co- 
lour,' and ytTvuvt, ' I make.' 

Ciiuomatoc/'enous Appara'tus. A particu- 
lar apparatus for producing the colouring mat- 
ter of the skin, composed of a glandular or se- 
creting parenchyma,, situate a little below the 
papilla?, and presenting special excretory ducts, 
which pour out the colouring matter on the 
surface of the true skin. — Breschet. 



CHROMOP'SIA, Chromop'ia, Chrup'sia, Vi- 
sits coloraftus, from you^ia, ' colour,' and otpig, 
' vision.' A state of vision in which a coloured 
impression is made on the retina. Said to be 
occasionally observed in jaundice. 

CHRON'AGUiNEA, Menstruation. 

CHRONIC, Chron'icus, Chro'nius, Pohjchro'- 
nius, from xoorog, ' time.' Of long duration. 

Chronic Diseases, Morbi chron'iei, (F.) Ma.' 
ladies Chronii/ucs, Macronos'ia, Macro' sia,, are 
those whose duration is long, or whose symp- 
toms proceed slowly. The antithesis to chronic 
is acute, (q. v.) 

CHRONO, from yqovog, 'time.' A prefix to 
terms denoting inflammation of a part, to show 
tliat such inflammation is chronic. — Piorry. 

CHRONO HEPATITE, Hepatitis, chronic. 

CHRONO-NEPHRITE, Nephritis (chronic.) 

CHRUPSIA, Chromopsia. 

CHRYSALEA, Nitro-muriatic acid. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM, Calendula officinalis. 

Chrysan'themum Leucan'thkmum, from 
XQvooc, 'gold,' and «»'3os, 'a flower.' The Ox- 
eye daisy, Daisy, Whitcwecd, Guldens, Maudlin- 
Wort, Bcllis major, Buphthal' mum mujus, Lea- 
can'themum vu/ga're, Bellidioides, Consol'ida. 
media, Oc'ulus Bovis, (F.) Chrysantlieme, Chry- 
sene, Grande Marguerite des pres. The flowers 
and herb are slightly acrid; and were once 
used in pulmonary diseases. 

Chrysanthemum Parthenium, Matricaria 

CHRYSE, from /ovaog, 'gold.' The name 
of a yellow plaster, described by Paulus of 
iEgina, and composed of thus, alum, lead, co- 
lophany, resin, oil, and orpiment, boiled in 

CIIRYSkJVE, Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 

CHRYSIT18, see Plumbi oxydum semivi- 

tica moschata. 

CHRYSOCALIS. Matricaria. 



CHRYSOCOMA. Millefolium. 

CHRYSOLACHANUxM, Chenopodium bo- 
nus Henricus. 

CHRYSOL'ITHUS, Chrys'olite, from / V cro:, 
'gold,' and Xi9uc, 'stone.' A precious stone, of 
a golden colour, regarded by the ancients as 
cardiac, cephalic, &c. 

CHRYSOMELIA, see Citrus anrantium. 

oug, ' gold,' and tpvMov, ' a leaf.' Cuinito, Side- 
rox'ylon, Broad-leaved Star-apple, A tree of the 




Antilles, which produces one of the best fruits 
of the country. There are several varieties of it. 
CHRYSOPUS, Cambogia. 

CHRYSOSPERMUM, Sempervivum tecto- 

CHTHOJNOPHA'GIA, Cachcx'ia Africa'na, 
Mala'cia Jifricano'rum, Pica Africaru/rum, Dirt- 
eating, (F.) Mai d' Estomac, from x&wr, ' earth,' 
and (payot, ' I eat.' A disorder of the nutritive 
functions observed amongst the negroes of the 
West Indies, in which there is an irresistible 
desire to eat earth. It is accompanied by most 
of the signs of chlorosis. 

CHU, Choa or Chus, yag, Chocits. A liquid 
measure amongst the Greeks, answering to 
the Cungius of the Romans, and containing six 
sextarii, or twelve Attic cotyls, or nine pints. — 

CHURRUS. The resinous juice of Can'- 
nabis ln'dica, which, in certain seasons, and in 
warm countries, exudes and concretes on the 
leaves, slender stems and flowers. In it reside 
the narcotic powers of Indian Hemp. See 

CHUTE, Prolapsus— c. du Fondement, Proc- 
tocele — c. de la Matrice, Procidentia uteri — c.du 
Rectum, Proctocele. 

CHYLAIRE, Chylous. 
CHYLAR, Chylous. 

CHYLE, Cliylus, Succus nutrit"ius, from 
^t/co, 'I flow.' The word, in Hippocrates, 
means Tisane or Decoction of Barley, Chyla'- 
rion, xvXa.oicv. Galen first used it in its pre- 
sent sense; — i. e.for a nutritive fluid, extracted 
from the food by intestinal absorption ; after the 
food has been subjected to the action of the 
digestive organs. It is of a whitish appear- 
ance; is separated from the chyme in the duo- 
denum, and the rest of the small intestines : 
and is absorbed by the chyliferous vessels, 
which arise at the mucous surface of the intes- 
tine. Along these it passes through the mesen- 
teric elands to the thoracic duct, and is finally 
poured into the left subclavian. Jt is com- 
posed, like the blood, of a coagulable part and 
of serum. See Chyme. 
CHYLEUX, Chylous. 

era, Venae, Index, Vasa lactea. The Lactea/s. 
(F.) Vaisseaux cliylifercs, V. Lact6s. Vessels 
which convey the chyle from the intestines to 
the thoracic duct. 

CHYLIFICA'TION, Chylifica'tio, Chylo'sis, 
Chylopoie'sis, from cliylus, 'chyle,' and facere, 
'to make.' Formation of chyle by the diges- 
tive processes. 

CHYL1NE, Cyclamen. 
CHYLISMA, Extract. < 
CHYLOCYSTIS. Receptaculum chyli. 
CHYLODOCHIUM, Receptaculum chyli. 
CHYLOG'RAPHY,from X v7lo<s, 'chyle,' and 
yncupi], 'a description.' A description of the 
anatomy, &c. of the chyliferous vessels, &c. 
CHYLOPOIESIS, Chylification. 
CHYLOPOIET'IC, Chylopoiet'icus, from X v- 
7.o:, ' chyle,' and noieci), 'I make.' Any thing 
connected with the formation of chyle. Chiefly 
applied to the organs immediately concerned 
in it; as the stomach, intestines, omenta, and 
mesentery. Assistant Chylopoittic: — those vis- 

cera which aid in the formation of chyle, as the 
liver and pancreas. 

^ CHYLURRHCEA, Cceliac flux— c. Pectoris, 
Chylothorax — c. Renalis, Chyluria — c. Urina- 
lis, Chyluria. 

CHVLOSIS, Chylification. 

MINDERE'RI. A compound prepared by dis- 
tilling the theriac of Andromachus, the mith- 
ridute o/Damocrates, and other alexipharmics, 
&c. It is nearly the same preparation as the 
Aqua Theriaca! lis Bezoar'dica. 

CHYLOTHO'RAX, Pleurorrhaz'a chyh'sa, 
Chylorrha'a Pec'toris, Hydrotho'rax chylo'sus; 
from yvXos, 'chyle,' and $w(>a£, 'the chest.' 
Effusion of chyle into the chest, owing to the 
rupture of a chyliferous vessel. 

CHYLOUS or CHYLAR, Chylo'sus\e\ Chy- 
la'ris, (F.) Chyleux, Chyiaire. Relating to the 
chyle; or having some analogy with that fluid. 

CHYLU'RIA, Diabe'tes lac'tea, D. chylo'sus, 
Gnlactu'ria, Fluxus cailiacus per Renes, Pyu'ria 
lactea, P. Chy/o'sa, Caliaca vrinu'lis, C. rena'- 
lis, Chylorrhop'a urina'lis, Ck. rena.'lis, from 
yyloq, 'chyle,' and ovqev, ' urine.' (F.) Diabete 
chyleux. A discharge of milky urine, without 
any apparent lesion of the kidneys or bladder. 

CHYLLS, Chyle, Decoction, Succus. 

UHYME, thymus, yritoc, 'juice,' from yvoj, 
'I flow.' A kind of grayish or homogeneous 
pulp, formed by the food, after it has been for 
some time in the stomach. It continues in the 
state of chyme as far as the biliary and pan- 
creatic ducts, which open into the duodenum; 
where the conversion into chyle occurs, which 
is absorbed by the chyliferous vessels : — the ex- 
crementitious portion of the food traversing the 
large intestine to be evacuated per anum. Cas- 
telli asserts, that Chyme and Chyle were used 
in an inverse sense, by the ancients, from that 
accepted at present. 

CHY MI, Humours. 

CHYMIA, Chymistry. 

ftia, 'chymistry,' and luriwg, 'a physician.' 
lutro-ckymicus. A chemical physician. 

chymia, Ars Chymiatrica, from yvy.i*, 'chy- 
mistry,' and utTQiia, 'cure.' The art of curing 
by chemical means. 

formed by the aid of chymistry, in contradis- 
tinction to Galenical. 


CHYMICUS, Chymist. 

CHYMIE, Chvmistry. 

CHYMIFICA'TJON, Chymifico'tio from x v ' 
uoc, 'juice,' and facere, 'to make.' Formation 
o f c h y in e . Chy mo' sis. 

CHYM'IST or CUEM'IST, Chymicophan'ta, 
Chym'icus, (F.) Cliimiste ou Chymiste. One 
acquainted with chymistry. In Great Britain 
it has, also, the signification of "one who sells 

CHYMISTE. Chymist. 

Chimi'a, Chemeu'ticS, Philosoph'ia per ignem, 
Spagyr'ia, Pyfotech'nia, Pyrosoph'ia, Ars hcr- 
met ica, Jircldmal gia, Jlrs mugo'rum, Jlrs separa- 
ta' ria, Ars svagir'ica; from yjuoc, 'juice,' or 
from Arab, enema, 'a secret,' (F.) Chimie ou 
Chymie. A branch of the natural sciences, 
whose object is to investigate the principles of 




bodies; — to examine the properties enjoyed by | 
the different compounds, produced by the union ' 
of those principles; and to study the force or 
power, by virtue of which every combination 
is effected. It investigates the action between 
the integrant molecules or atoms of bodies. 

Animal Chym'islry, Zooch'emy or Zooch'ymy, 
is the chymistry of substances, afforded by the 
dead or living animal body. This branch of 
chymistry has been farther subdivided into 
physiological, when it considers the changes 
produced in animal substances by the action of 
life; pathological, when it regards those pro- 
duced by organic or other diseases. Anthropo- 
thymy is the chymistry of the human body. 
Chymistry is called Therapni'tical or Pharma- 
ceutical, when it is engaged in the analysis of 
simple medicines; in improving the prescribing 
and preparing of chemical and Galenical me- 
dicines; in the means of preparing them, and 
detecting adulterations, &.c. Hygieii'ic Chyml- 
istry is that which is applied to the means of 
rendering habitations healthy, of analyzing the 
air we breathe, preventing the occurrence of 
disease, pointing out. healthy aliments, and ap- 
preciating the influence of professions, &c. on 
the health of man. All these different subdi- 
visions, with vegetable chymistry, are, at limes, 
included under the head of Medical Chym'islry : 
at others, the term comprehends only the Ani- 
mal, Vegetable and Pharmaceutical subdivisions. 

Vital Chemistry, Biochymi'a, is that which 
is executed under the influence of vitality. 

A knowledge of chymistry is of great impor- 
tance to the physician. Many of the functions 
are of a chemical nature: many diseases re- 
quire a chemical mode of treatment; and, with- 
out an acquaintance with it, two or more sub- 
stances might be given in combination, which, 
by forming a chemical union, might give rise 
to other compounds, possessing very different 
virtues from the components taken singly, and 
thus the prescriber be disappointed in the re- 

CHYMOCHEZIA, Cceliac flux. 

CHYMORRI1CEA, Cceliac flux, Lientery. 

CHYMOSIS, Chymification. 

CHYTLEN, RADIX. A cylindrical root, bit- 
ter and inodorous, brought from China. It is 
held by the Chinese to be stomachic. — Murray. 

CHYT'LON, xvtXcv, from ;m>, 'I pour out.' 
A liquid formerly used for rubbing the body 
after bathing. 

CIBARIUM, Aliment. 

CIBA'RIUS PANIS, 'Coarse bread.' Bread 
made of second flour. — Celsus. 

CIBA'TK). TrophS, TQup n . The taking of 
food. In Pharmacy, it is the same as Incorpo- 

CIBUS, Aliment — c. Albus, Blancmancrer. 

CICATRICE, Cicatrix. 

CICATRIC'ULA. Diminutive of Cicatrix. 
A small cicatrix. The term is, also, applied to 
a small white spot, called the tread, observable 
at the surface of a fecundated egg. See Mole- 

CICATRISAN'TIA, Epnlot'ica, Synulot'ica, 
Apulot'ica, Ulot'ica. Remedies formerly consi- 
dered to be capable of producincr cicatrization. 

CICA'TRIX, Cxca'trix, Ule,~0,tle, from ex- 
care, ' to conceal,' because it conceals the 
wound, (F.) Cicatrice. The union of parts, 
which have been divided. A scar or forma- 

tion, of a reddish colour, afterwards whitish, 
and more or less thick, which takes place at 
the surface of wounds or ulcers after their cure. 
A cicatrix may vary much in shape, consis- 
tence, and thickness. The cicatrix of a bone 
is c;il!ed Callus. Xvic"ious cica'trix (F.) Ci- 
catrice vicieusc, is one which interferes with the 
action of the parts on which it occurs. The 
scars, after srnall-pox, are called Pits or Pock- 
marks, (F.) Coutures par la petite v'erole. 

CICATRIZA'TION, Cicutrisa'lio, Epvlo'sis. 
The process by which a cicatrix is formed. 
Every tissue, except the nails, epidermis, hair, 
and enamel is, probably, capable of cicatriza- 

CICELY, SWEET, Chaerophyllum odora- 
tum, Scandix odorata. 

C1CER ARILTPNUM. The Cicer plant. 
Erchin'lhus, (F.) Cicerole, Pais Chicke. The 
seeds are ground into flour, and used as bread 
in some countries. 

CI'CERA TAR'TARI. Small pills of tur- 
pentine and cream of tartar — of the size of a 
vetch or cicer. 

CICERBITA, Sonchus oleraceus. 

CIC£ROLE, Cicer arietinum. 

CICHO'RIUMENDIV'IA. The systematic 
name of the Endive, Endiv'ia, Eudc'va, In'lu- 
bum, In'tybum (Antiq.), Scariola, In'tylius hor- 
ten' sis, (F.) Chieoree des Jardins, Scariole. 
Family, Cichoraceas. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Po- 
lygamia asqualis. It is a common pot herb, and 
is eaten as salad. 

Cicho'iuum In'tybus, Scris, In'tubum errat'i- 
cum. The systematic name of the Wild Sue'- 
cory, Wild Cich'ary, Cich'orij, Wild Endive, 
Ambulei'a, Hdiotro' pion, Catanan'ce, Cichorcum, 
(F.) Chicorde sauvage. It is bitter, and was 
once used as a tonic. The root, roasted and 
ground, is often used instead of, or mixed with, 

CICHORY, WILD, Cichorium intybus. 

C1CI, Ricinis communis. 

CICIJXDE'LA, Lavi'pyris, JVoctHucn, Nitrd'- 
itla. The Glow-worm, (F.) Ver luisant. This 
insect was once thought anodjme and lithon- 

CICIS. see Quercus infectoria. 

CICON'GIUS; an ancient measure, contain- 
ing 12 pints. 

CICUTA, Conium maculatum. 

Cicu'ta Aquat'ica, Cicu'la viro'sa, Cicuta'- 
ria aquat'ica, Water Hemlock, Cowbane, (F.) 
Cigue aquatique ou vireuse. Family, Umbelli- 
ferse. ISex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. A vio- 
lent poison, often eaten by mistake for the 
Wild Smallage, Apiuin Graveolcns. It produces 
tremors, vertigo, burning at the stomach, and 
all the symptoms occasioned by the Narcotico- 
Acrid class of poisons. 

Cicu'ta Macula'ta, (F.) Cigue d Amerique, 
American water hemlock, American Hemlock, 
Snakeweed, Death of man, Water parsley, Poison 
root, Wild hemlock, Childre/i's bane, is analogous 
in botanical character, and medical properties 
to the European species. 

Cicuta Major, Conium maculatum — c. Ma- 
jor fcetida, Conium maculatum — c. Terrestris, 
Conium maculatum — c. Virosa, Cicuta aquatica 
— c. Vulgaris, Conium maculatum. 

CICUTARIA, Chaerophyllum sylvestre — c. 
Aquatica, Cicuta aquatica, Phellandrium aqua- 




CIDER, Poma'ceum, (F.) Cidrc. This word 
is said to have been, formerly, written sidre, 
and to have come from Sictra. owsq*, which 
signifies any kind of fermented liquor other 
than wine. It is made from the juice of apples, 
and, when good, is a wholesome drink. 

CIDRE, Cider. 

CIGNUS; an ancient measure, which con- 
tained about two drachms. 

CIGUE JJqUATlQUE, Cicuta aquatica— c. 
d' Amerique, Cicuta maculata — r. iCEau, Phel- 
landriurn aquaticum — c. Grande, Conium ma- 
culatum — c. Ordinaire, Conium maculatum — c. 
Felite, iEthusa cynapium — c. Vireuse, Cicuta 

CILIA, Blephar'ides. The eye/ashes. The 
hairs on the eyelids, (F.) Cils. Their use 
seems to be, to prevent the entrance into the 
eye of light bodies flying in the atmosphere; and 
to diminish, in certain cases, the intensity of 
light. Also, the tarsi. Also, a peculiar sort of 
moving organs, resembling small hairs, Cil'ia 
vibrato' ria, (F.)CV/s vibratils, which are visible 
with the microscope in many animals. These 
organs are found on parts of the body, which 
are habitually in contact with water, or other 
more or less fluid matters, and produce motion 
in these fluids, impelling them along the sur- 
face of the paits. Cilia have been found to ex- 
ist in all vertebrated animals except fishes, 
having been discovered on the respiratory and 
uterine mucous membranes of mammalia, birds, 
and reptiles. 

The terms "vibratory motion" and " ciliary 
motion" have been used to express the appear- 
ance produced by the moving cilia; and it is 
probable, that this motion is concerned in the 
progression of fluids along the membranes. As 
yet, the motion has been observed only in the 
direction of the outlets of canals. 

CfLMIRE, Ciliary. 

CIL'IA RY, Cilia'ris. Relating to the eye- 
lashes, or to cilia, (F.) Ciliaire. This epithet 
has, also, been applied to different parts, which 
enter into the structure of the eye; from the 
resemblance between some of them {the ciliary 
processes) and the eyelashes. 

Ciliary Ar'teries, Arte' ria cilia'rcs, (F.) 
Arleres ciliaircs. These are furnished by the 
ophthalmic artery. They are distinguished into 
1. Short or posterior (Art. uveal es, — Chauss.) 
30 or 40 in number, which are distributed to the 
ciliary processes. 2. Long, {Art. Iriennes of 
Chauss.,) two in number, which, by the anas- 
tomoses of their branches, form two arterial cir- 
cles at the anterior surface of the iris: and, 3. 
The anterior, Arte'ria cilia'rcs anterio' res of 
Haller, the number of which is variable. These 
pierrte the sclerotic a few lines from its union 
with the cornea; and are principally distributed 
to the iris. 

Cil'iary Bodv, Corpus CUia're, (F.) Corps 
ciliaire. A ring of the choroid surrounding the 
crystalline in the manner of a crown; placed 
behind the iris and the ciliary circle. It resem- 
bles the disk of a radiated flower, and is formed 
by the union of the ciliary processes. 

Ciliary Ligament, or C. Circle, Ligamen'- 
turn cilia' re, An'riulus cilia'ris, A. cellulo'sus, 
Com'missure of the Uvea, Commissure dc la 
Chorolde, — (Ch.,) (F.) Ligament ou Cercle 
ciliaire, Cercle de la Chorolde, Ceinlure blanche 
dt la Chordide. A species of grayish ring, of a 

pulpy consistence, situate between the choroid, 
iris, and sclerotica. It seems to be nothing 
more than cellular tissue. The internal surface 
of the choroid is uniform, until it. approaches 
within ten lines and a-half of the edge of the 
cornea; here a dentated line is observed, termed 
ora s errata. The outer surface presents the 
an' n ultcs al'bidus seu gangkform'is, the anterior 
edge of which unites to the inner surface of the 
sclerotica and constitutes the ciliary ligament. 

Cil'iary or Tarsal Margin of the eyelids; 
(F.) Bord allure, the edge in which the cilia or 
eyelashes are situate. 

Cil'iary Motion, see Cilia. 

Cil'iary Muscle, Mus'culvs cilia'ris. The 
part of the orbiculaiis palpebrarum in the vi- 
cTnity of the ciliary margin. 

Ciliary Nerves {Ncrfs Iricns, — Chauss) 
(F.) Nerfs ciliaires. These are 12 to 10 in num- 
ber. They arise from the nasal nerve, and par- 
ticularly from the anterior part of the ophthal- 
mic ganglion. They unite in two fasciculi, 
which pass around the optic nerve, and pierce 
the sclerotica near the entrance of lhat nerve 
into the eye. They are lost in the ciliary liga- 

Cil'iary Proc"esses, Proccs'sus cilia'rcs, 
Rad'ii cilia'res, Rayons sous-iriejis — (Ch.,) (F.) 
Proces ciliaires. Triangular folds, sixty or eighty 
in number, placed at the side of each other, and 
radiating, so as to resemble the disk of a radiated 
flower. They are lodged in depressions at the 
anterior part of the vitreous humour. The uses 
of these processes are not known. 

Ciliary Stride are numerous, pale, radiated 
stria?, in the poslerior portion of the Corpus 
ciliare, but so covered by the Pigmtntum nigrum 
as not to be distinctly seen till the paint is re- 
moved. The ciliary processes are formed by 
these strise. 

Ciliary Veins, (F.) Veines ciliaires, follow 
nearly the same course as the arteries. In the 
choroid they are so tortuous, that they have re- 
ceived the name Vasa vortico'sa. They open 
into the ophthalmic vein. 

Ciliary Zone, Zo'nula Cilia'ris vel Mem- 
bran'ula Coro'nx Cilia'ris. Under the corpus 
ciliare, the capsule of the vitreous humour sends 
off an external lamina, which accompanies the 
retina, and is inserted, with it, into the forepart 
of the capsule of the lens, a little before its an- 
terior edge. This is the Zonula ciliaris or 
Zonula Zinnii. It is of a striated appearance 
and circular form, and assists in fixing the lens 
to the vitreous humour. 

CfLLEMEJYT, Nictation. 

CILLO. A name given by some authors to 
those whose upper eyelid is perpetually tremu- 
lous; — a trembling, wiiich in some cases is called 
Life's blood. "To have life's blood in the eye," 
in other words, is to have this affection. Vogel 
calls it Cillo'sis. 


CILS. Cilia— c. Vibratils, see Cilia. 

CIMEX, Koris, koqic, Cimez leclula'rhis. The 
Wall or House or Bed Bug or Qhinche. (F ) 
Punnise. Six or seven of these, given inter- 
nally, are said to have prevented acue ! There 
is scarcely any thing which is sufficiently dis- 
gusting, that has not been exhibited for this 
purpose, and with more or less success. The 
bug has also been esteemed emmenagogue. 

CIM1CIFUGA, Ac tea racemosa. 




porta' ria, Terra Fullon'ica, Fuller's Earth. A 
compact, bolar earth, employed in the arts. 
Used at times as a cooling application to in- 
flamed nipples. &c. 

Cimo'lia Terra, Cimo'lia alba, Smectis, 
Smectris, Cimo'hls; from Knivdoe, an island in 
the Cretan Sea, where it is procured. It was 
formerly used as an astringent, &c. — Scribo- 
nius Largus, Pliny. Probably, the same as the 

C1NA CINA, Cinchona. 

CINABARIS, Hydrargyri sulphuretum ru- 

CINABARIUM, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 

CINARA HORTENSIS, Cynara scolymus. 

CINCHO'NA. So called from the Spanish 
Viceroy's Lady, the Countess de Cinchon, who 
was cured of fever by it at Lima, about 1038. 
(Jailed also Cortex or Fulvis Jesuit' icus, Jesuit' s 
Bark or Powder, Cortex Patruni, because it was 
introduced into Europe by the Jesuits; and also 
Fulvis Comitis'sa or the Countess's Poicder, and 
Cardinal del Lugo's Powder, Cortex Cardina'lis 
de Lugo, because he introduced it at Rome. It 
is the pharmacopreial name of several kinds of 
barks from various species of the Cinchona, 
from the western coast of South America. Nat. 
Order, CinchonaceEe. Sex, Syst. Pentandria 
Monogynia. Called, also, Cortex, Bark, Peru'- 
vian Bark, English Remedy, Cortex China., Cor- 
tex Chime Regius, China, Chinchi'na, Palos de 
Caltntura, Kina Kina, (Dark of Barks,) Kinki'- 
na, Cina Cina, Quina Quina, Quinqui'na, Mag- 
num, Dei donum. (F.) Quinquina. 

Cincho'nje Carib*'^ Cortex, from Exostef- 
ma Caribsdum, Caribxan Bark; the Saint Lucia 
Bark, (F.) Acorce de Saint Lucie, Quinquina 
Piton, from Exostoma floribundum, and the 
Pitaya Bark, Quinquina bicolor, from an exos- 
tema (?) or from strychnos pseudoquina (?), 
are useful substitutes for the cinchona of Peru. 
These are the most important spurious barks. 
They contain neither quinia nor cinchonia. 

Cinchon/e CoRniFo'i.ia; Cortex, Cortex fla- 
ms, Cinchonas officina'lis cortex flavus, Yelloro 
Bark, Calisaya Bark. (F.) Quinquina jaunc ou 
haunt royal, Calasaya. Odour aromatic; taste 
strong, bitter, astringent. Not rolled; often 
without the epidermis, which is very thick and 
inert: light, friable; fracture fibrous. Active 
principle Quinia. 

Cinchona Lancifo'lije Cortex, Cortex 
Peruvia'nus, Cortex pal' lidns, Cinchona, ojjicma'- 
lis cortex cummu'nis, Cinchona pallida — Pule 
Bark, Loxa Bark, Crown Bark. (F.) Quinqui- 
na gris de. Loxa, Quinquina Orange. Jts odour 
is aromatic; taste pleasant, bitter, and astrin- 
gent. The pieces are rolled in double or single 
quills. Epidermis brown, cracked; fracture 
resinous. Internally of a cinnamon colour. Its 
active principle is Cinchonia. 

Cinchon/e Obf.onc.ifo'li/e Cortf.x, Cortex 
ruber, Cinchona officina'lis cortex ruber. Red 
Bark, (F.) Quinquina rouge. Odour and taste 
the same as the pale, but more intense: in large 
flat pieces, solid, heavy, dry: fracture short 
and smooth; of a deep brownish-red colour. 
Although this variety of bark is assigned to the 
Cinchona oblongifolia by some, it would seem, 
that nothing is certainly known as to its source. 
Active principles, Cinchonia and Quinia. 

The last three are the only officinal varieties 
in the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 
There are many other varieties, however, which 
are genuine cinchona barks, and yet have not 
been considered worthy of an officinal position. 
The Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia admits, indeed, 
Cinchona cinerea, Gray bark, Silver bark, or 
Huanucu bark, which is obtained around Hua- 
nuco in Peru, and belongs to the class of pale 
barks. Amongst the genuine but inferior barks 
are those brought from the northern Atlantic 
ports of South America, which, in commerce, 
are variously called Carthagena, Maracaybo and 
Santa Martha barks. 

Cinchona Officinalis, (Cortf.x Flavcs,) 
Cinchona? cordifolia? cortex — c. Pallida, Cin- 
chonae lancifolise cortex — c. of Virginia, Mag- 
nolia glauca. 

All these barks are bitter, astringent, tonic, 
and eminently febrifuge. The yellow bark is 
at least equal to any of the others, although the 
red contains more active principle. The dis- 
covery of their active principles is one of the 
most important gifts of modern chymistry. 
Still, in pernicious intermittents, the bark, in 
substance, is often demanded. It is employed 
in every disease in which there is deficient 
tone, but in cases where the stomach is much 
debilitated, the powder had better be avoided, 
in consequence of the woody fibre, which might 
disagree. Externally, it is used in enemata, 
gargles, &c, and in gangrenous ulcerations. 
When it excites nausea, an aromatic may be 
added to it; if purging, opium; if costiveness, 
rhubarb, &c. Dose, sjss to gj or more. 

Essential Salt of Bark, as it is called, is 
an extract prepared, by macerating the bruised 
substance of bark in cold water, and submitting 
the infusion to a very slow evaporation. 

CINCHONIA, Cinchonine. 

CINCH'ONINE, Cinchoni'na, Cinchonin, 
Cinchonia. The active principle of the Cin- 
cho'na lancifo'lia. An organic, crystalline al- 
kali; of a white colour, and bitter, slightly as- 
tringent taste ; very soluble in alcohol and 
ether, but almost insoluble in water. 

Sulphate of Cinchonia, which is formed di- 
rectly from cinchonia, is soluble in water and 
alcohol. The action of the sulphate of cincho- 
nia is similar to that of the sulphate of qui- 
nia; but it is less energetic, and consequently 
requires to be given in a stronger dose. 

Cinchonine, Tartrate of, see Quinine, tar- 
trate of. 

C1NCLVNULUS. A little lock or curl of 

CINCIN'NUS. A curled or frizzled lock. 
The hair on the temples. 

C1NCL1SIS, xiyyJ.iaig, Cinclis'mus, xiyxAtf- 
ficc, 'agitation; rapid and frequent motion.' 
The movement of the thorax in dyspnoea. — Hip- 
pocr. It has been used, also, synonymously 
with nictation, (q. v.) 

CINE'MA, Cinc'sis, from www, '1 move.' 


CINERES CLAVELLAT1, see Potash-c. 
Gravellati, see Potash — c. Russici, Potash of 

CINEREUS, Cineritious. 

CINERP'TIOUS, Cincr', from cinerts, 
'ashes;' (F.) Ctndri. Of the colour of ashes, 




The cortical substance of the brain has, by some, 
been so colled. See Cortex Cerebri. 

CINESIS, Cinema, Motion. 

CINETH'MICS, from kh«d, : I move.' The 
science of movements in general. 

CINET'ICA. Same etymon. Diseases af- 
fecting the muscles, and characterized by irre- 
gular action of the muscles or muscular fibres, 
commonly demominated Spasm. The 3d order 
in the class Neurotica of Good. 
CINETUS, Diaphragm. 
CINGULARIA, Lvcopodium. 
CIN'GULUM. Zone, from cingo, 'I bind.' 
(F.) Ccinlure. The part of the body, situate 
below the ribs, to which the girdle is applied. 
The waist. 

Cin'gulum Hilda'ni, Zo'nula Hilda.' ni. (F.) 
Ceinture de, Hildane. A leathern girdle former- 
ly used for the reduction of luxations and frac- 
tures of the extremities. 

Cin'gulum Mercuria'le, C. Sapien'tim, C. 
Stulli'lix. A woollen girdle, containing mer- 
curial ointment It was used as an antisyphi- 
litic, and in diseases of the skin. (F.) Ceinture 
de vif argent. 

Cin'gulum Sancti J" annis, Artemisia vulgaris. 

CINIS FiECU.M, see Potash— c. Infectonus, 
gee Potash. 

CINNABARIS.Hydrargyrisulphurelum ru- 
brum — c. Grxcornm, see Calamus rotang. 

CINNAMOMUM, Lnurus cinnamomum — c. 
Album, Canellaalba — n. Aromaticum, see Lau- 
rus cinnamomum — c Cnlilawan, Laurus Culi- 
lawan — c. Indicum, Laurus cassia— c. Mala 
baricum, Laurus cassia — c. Zeylanicum, Laurus 

CINNAMON, see Laurus cinnamomum — c. 
Malabar, Laurus ea-sia — c. Wild, Laurus cassia. 

CINON'OSI, from xiito), 'I move,' and vg?u;. 
' a disease.' Diseases of motion. 

CINOPLANE'SIS, from K.. iB , 'I move,' and 
irltLrrpiq, 'a wandering about.' Irregularity of 

CINQUF.FOIL, Potentilla reptans. 

CINZILLA, Herpes zoster. 

CION. Uvula. 

CI'ONIS. The Uvula (q. v.) Also, tume- 
faction, or elongation of the uvula; Staplujlo- 

CIONI'TIS, from wont, 'the uvula,' and itis, 
'inflammation.' Inflammation of the uvula, 
uvuli'tis. (q. v.) 

CIPIPA, see Jatropha manihot. 

CI RC.E'A LUTETIA'NA, 'Parisian Circsta,' 
from Circe, the enchantress; Enchant.' ers' Night- 
shade, (F.) Hr.rbe de Saint Etienne, Herhe aux 
Borders. This plant, common in the vicinity 
of Paris, was formerly considered to be re- 
solvent and vulnerary It was also supposed 
to possess wonderful magical and enchanting 

CIRCLE. CILIARY, Ciliary ligament. 

CIRCOCELE. Cirsocele. 

CIRCONCISION, Circumcision. 

CIRCONFLEXE. Circumflex us. 

CIRCONSCRIT. Circumscribed. 


CIRCUIT, Ciicuitus; in pathological lan- 
guage, gpneially means 'period,' 'course.' 

CIRCUITUS, Period, Circuit. 

CIR'CULAR, Circula'ris, from circulus, 'a 
circle.' (F.) Circutaire. Having the form or 
figure of a circle; as Ciiculur jJmputation, &c. 

The French use the expression '• Une circu- 
hire," for a turn of a bandage around any part. 

CIRCULATION, Circula'tio, Cyclop h or 1 ia, 
from circulus, 'a circle:' or rather, from circurn, 
'around,' and f err c, latum, 'to carry.' (F.) 
Circulation. Physiologists give this name to 
the motion of the blood through the different 
vessels of the body : — to that function, by 
which the blood, setting out from the left ven- 
tricle of the heart, is distributed to every part 
of the body by the arteries; — proceeds into the 
veins, returns to the heart, enters the right 
auricle, and passes into the corresponding ven- 
tricle, which sends it into the pulmonary artery 
to be distributed to the lungs, whence it issues 
by the pulmonary veins, and passes into the 
left auricle. From this it is sent into the left 
ventricle, and is again distributed by means of 
the arteries. 

Circulation, Cap'illahy, C. des Faren- 
chtjmes, is that which takes place in the capil- 
lary vessels; and which is, in some measure, 
independent of the action of the heart. It is 
in this capillary circulation, that the various 
secretions are effected; and that animal heat is 
evolved. It is the seat of nutrition. 

Circulation, Pulmon'ic or lesser, is the 
circle from the right to the left side of the heart 
by the lungs. — The greater or systematic 
or systemic, is that through the rest of the 

CIRCULATOR, Charlatan. 

CIR'CULUS. A circle or ring; Cyclus, Ci- 
rios, (F.) Cercle. Any part of the body which 
is round or annular, as Cir'culus Oc'uli — the 
"lobe, bulb, or orb of the eye. — Hippocr., Galen. 
It is, also, applied to objects, which by no 
means form a circle, — as to the Circle, of Willis, 
which is an anastomotic circle at the base of the 
brain, formed by tiie carotid and basilary arteries. 

Circulus Antekio'sus 1'iudis. The artery 
which runs round the iris, and forms a circle. 

Circulus Mkmrranosus, Hymen. 

Circulus Quad'ruplex; a kind of bandage 
used by the ancienls. 

CIRCUMAGENTES, Oblique muscles of the 


CIRCUMCISION. Circvmri/io, Postkct'amy, 
Prxcis'io, Jlbscis'io Prxpu'tii, Circvmcisu'ra, 
Circum sex' do, Peril' ami, fiom circum. 'around,' 
and cxdire, 'to cut.' (F.) Circoncision. A» 
ancient operation, performed by some nations 
as a religious ceremony. It consists in remov- 
ing, circularly, a portion of the prepuce of in- 
fants: — a custom, which was probably suggest- 
ed with a view to cleanliness. In cases of ex- 
traordinary length of prepuce, or when affected 
with disease, the operation is, sometimes, under- 
taken by surgeons. A similar operation is per- 
formed amoncrst the ./Egyptians, Arabians, and 
Persians, on the female, by removing a portion 
of the nymphs. 

CIRCUMC1SURA, Circumcision. 

CIRCUMDUCTS, Perisphalsis. 

superior oculi. 

CIRCUMFLEX, Circumflex vs, from circum, 
'around,' and ftexus, 'bent.' (F ) Circonflexe. 
Curved circularly. A name given to several 

Circumflex or Articu'laii Ar'teiues of 




the arm are distinguished into; — anterior and 
posterior. They arise from the axillary, and 
are distributed around the shoulder. 

Circumflex Arteries of the Thigh are 
distinguished into external and internal (A. 
Sous-trocfitmt6riennes—Gh ) They are given 
off from the Profunda, and surround the head 
of the thigh bone. 

Circumflex Muscle, Circumflexus Mus' cu- 
ius, Tensor Palu'ti, Peristuphyli'nus exter'nus 
vel infc'rior, Circumflex' us Pala'li. Mollis, Sphe- 
tw-satpin'go staphyli'nus seu Staphyli'nus exter'- 
nus, Mus', cuius tubas novae, Pala'to-salpingeus, 
Pter' 'ygo-staphyli' nus , Petro-salpin' ' go-staphyli' - 
nus, Spheno-pter'ygo-palati' nus, (F.) Paluto-sal- 
pingien. A muscle, which arises from the 
spinous process of the sphenoid bone, and is 
inserted into the velum pendulum palati. Its 
use is to stretch the velum. 

Circumflex Veins follow the arteries. 
CIRGUMFU'SA. Halle has thus desig- 
nated the first class of subjects that belong to 
Hygiene — as atmosphere, climate, residence, 
&c; in short, every thing which acts constantly 
on man externally and generally. 

CIRCUMLIT"iO, from circumlino, 'I anoint 
all over,' Peri'chrisis, Peric/iris'ton. A term 
formerly used for liniments, but especially for 
those applied to the eyelids. 

CIRCUMOSSALE, Periosteum. 
CIR'CUMSCRIBED, Circumscrip'tus, (F ) 
Circonscrit. A term applied, in Pathology, to 
tumours, which are distinct at their base from 
the surroundino - parts. 

CIRCUMSEGTIO, Circumcision. 
et alba — r. des Oreilles, Cerumen. 
CIRIOS, Circulus. 
CIROJV, Acarus, Psora. 
C1RRAGRA, Plica. 
C/RRHOSE DU FOIE, Cirronosis. 
CIRRHO'SIS, Cirrono'sis, Kirrhono'sis, from 
xiqqoc, 'yellow.' A yellow colouring matter, 
sometimes secreted in the tissues, owing to a 
morbid process. Also called Cirrko'sis or Kir- 
rho' sis. It is not uncommon in the liver, when 
it is called, also, gran'ulated, gran'ular, mam'- 
millaled, tuber' culated, and hob-nailed liver, (F.) 
Cirrhose du Foie. 

Cirrhosis of the Lung. Dr. Corrigan has 
described a condition of the lung under this 
name, the general characters of which have a 
tendency to consolidation or contraction of the 
pulmonary tissue, with dilatation of the bron- 
chial tubes. 

CIR'SIUM ARVEN'RE, Car'duus hemor- 
rho'ida'lis, Ceano'lhos, (F.) Ckardon hemor- 
rhoidal. A common plant used in France in 
the form of cataplasm in hemorrhoids; and 
worn as an amulet. 

CIRSOCE'LE, Cir'coce'ls, from *io<ro$ t 'va- 
rix,' and x>^>/, 'hernia.' Var'icose Her'nia. The 
greater part of authors have employed the term 
synonymously with Varicocele, (q. v ) Pott 
gives it a different signification. Varicocele, 
he calls the tumour formed by the veins of the 
scrotum; Circoctlc, Funic' ulus varico'sus, the 
varicose dilatation of th<» spermatic veins. The 
scrotum feels as if it contained earthworms. It 
is commonly an affection of no consequence, 
demanding merely the use of a suspensory 

CIRSOl'DES, from xiqooc, 'varix,' and tiSo ? , 
'resemblance.' Varicose, or resembling a va- 
rix. Rufus of Epbesus, according to James, 
applies this term to the upper part of the brain, 
as well as to the spermatic vessels. (?) 

CIRSOM'PHALUS, from y.iqo-o ? , 'varix,' and 
ou<p*/i.og, ' navel.' Varicose dilatation of the 
veins surrounding the navel. The term, has, 
likewise, been applied to the aneurismal dilata- 
tion of the arteries of that region; called also, 
Varicomph' alus , (F.) Hargne, Aneu- 
rismal. Hernia 

CIRSOPHTHAL'MIA, from x^a-o?, 'varix,' 
and oydcdfxos, 'the eye;' Varicose ophthalmia, 
Ophthalmia varico'sa, Varicos'itas conjuneti'vx. 
A hio-h degree of ophthalmia, in which the 
vessels of the conjunctiva are considerably in- 

CIRSOT'OMY, Cirsotom'ia, from ijoo-os, 'a 
varix,' and rout], 'an incision.' Any operation 
for the removal of varices by incision. 
CI RSUS. Varix. 
CISEAUX, Scissors. 
CISSA, Malacia. 
CISSAMPELOS, Pareira brava. 
CISSARUS, Cistus creticus. 
CISSI'NUM, xio-a-irov, from xirroc, 'ivy.' 
Name of a plaster of ivy, used in wounds of the 
nerves or tendons. — Paulus of iEgina. 
CISSOIDES, Capreolaris. 
CISSOS, Hedera helix. 
CISTERN, LUMBAR, see Cisterna. 
CISTER'NA,from *i g T»;, (L.) C/sta,' a chest.' 
(F.) Citernt. This term has been applied to 
various parts of the body, which serve as reser- 
voirs for different fluids. The fourth ventricle 
of the brain has, also, been so called. — Aran- 

Cistern, Lumbar, Cister'na lumba'ris or 
Res'ervoir of Pecquet, consists of a dilatation, 
which the thoracic duct presents in the lumbar 
legion. See Receplaculum chyli. 
CISTHORUS, Cistus creticus. 

CISTUS CRETICUS, Cis'thorus, Cissarus, 
Doryrin'ium, Gum Cistus. Sex. Syst. Polyan- 
dria Monogynia. The systematic name of the 
plant whence the Lab'danum or Lad'anum is 
obtained — Gum' mi Lad'anum. Lad'anum is a 
gum-resinous substance, of a very agreeable 
smell, found in the shops in great masses. Its 
colour is blackish-green ; taste, warm and bitter. 
It is hut little used now. Formerly, it was a 
component of warm plasters, and was prescribed 
internally as a stomachic. Ladanum is also 
obtained from Cistus ladaniferus, and C. lauri- 

CISTUS, GUM. Cistus creticus. 
CITERNE LOME, AIRE, Receptaculum 

C1THARUS, Thorax. 
CITRA GO, Melissa. 
CITRARIA, Melissa. 
CITREA MALUS, see Citrus medica. 
CITREOLUS, Gucumis sativus. 
CIT'RIC ACID, Acidum cit'ricum, Acid of 
Lemons, Ad'idum Limo'num, (F.) Acide cit- 
rique. This acid is found in the lemon, orange, 
Ac. It is in rhomboidal prisms, which slightly 
effloresce on exposure to the air. It dissolves 
in a twelfth part of its weight of boiling water, 
and has an extremely acid but agreeable taste. 




It is employed in medicine as antiseptic, refri- 
gerant and diuretic. Rubbed up with sugar 
and with a little of the essence of lemon, it 
forms the dry Lemonade, (F.) Limonade seche. 

CITRON, see Citrus medica — c. Tree, see 
Citrus medica. 

CITRONELLE, Artemisia abrotanum, Me- 

CITRUL, SICILIAN, Cucurbita citrullus. 

C1TRULLUS, Cucurbita citrullus. 

CITRUS, see Citrus medica. 

Citrus Auran'tjum. The systematic name 
of the Orange Tree, Auran'tium, A. Hispalen'sS, 
Ma/us Auran'tia Major, Mains Auran'tia, Au- 
ran'tium vulga're, Mains Auran'tia vu/o-a'ris. 
Ci'trus vulga'ris. Nat. Ord. Aurantiacese. Sex. 
Syst. Polyrielphia Icosandria. The fruit are 
called Mala Aurea, Ctirysome'lia, Neran'lia, 
Martia'na Poma, Poma Auran'tia, Auran'tia 
Curassavica, Oranges, Poma Chinen'sia. The 
Flowers of the Orange, Flores Naphse, are highly 
odoriferous, and used as a perfume. On distil- 
lation, they yield a small quantity of essential 
oil — Oleum vel Essen' da Nero'li. They were 
once used in convulsive and epileptic cases. 
The leaves, Fo'lia Auran'tii, have a bitterish 
taste, and furnish an essential oil. They have 
been used for the same purposes as the flowers. 
The yellow rind of the fruit, Cortex Auran'tii, 
Orange Feel, is an aromatic bitter, and is used 
in dyspepsia, and where that class of remedies 
is required. The Juice, Succus Auran'tii, Orange 
juice, is a grateful acid, and used as a beverage 
in febrile and scorbutic affections. 

Citrus Mf.d'ica, C. Lima' num. The syste- 
matic name of the Lemon Tree. The Lemon, 
Limo'num malum, Limonum Bacca, Mains Med'- 
ica, Malus Limo'nia Ac"ida, Limon, Cit'rea Ma- 
lus, Citrus, (F.) Citron, has a fragrant odour, 
depending upon the essential oil, O'teum Limo'- 
jiis, of the rind. The juice, Succus Limo'nis, is 
sharp but gratefully acid, the acidity depending 
upon the citric acid it contains. The outer rind, 
Cortex Limo'num, Lemon Peel, Zest, Flave'do 
Cor'ticum Citri, is used in the same cases as the 
Cortex Auran'tii. The juice is given as a refri- 
gerant beverage in febrile affections. Alone, 
or combined with is prescribed in scurvy, 
putrid sore throat, &c. Its general properties 
are refrigerant and antiseptic. Sweetened and 
diluted, it forms a Lemonade. ' 

Citron Tree is likewise considered to belong 
to the same species — Citrus Med'ica. Its fruit 
is called cedrome'la. It is larger and less suc- 
culent than the lemon. Citron juice, when 
sweetened with sugar, is called by the Italians 
Agro di Cedro. 

Citrus Mf.lla Rosa of De Lamarck, another 
variety of Citrus Medica, affords the Bergamote, 
(which see.) 

Citrus Vulgaris, Citrus Aurantium. 


These springs are in the Isle of Ischia, near the 
sea. They contain carbonate and sulphate of 
lime, and chloride of sodium. Their tempera- 
ture is 100° Fahrenheit. 

CITTOS. Hedera helix. 

CITTOS1S, Chlorosis, Malacia. 

CIVET'TA, Zib'ethum, Civ'ct, (F.) Civctte. 
An unctuous perfume, of a very penetrating 
odour, obtained from different mammalia of the 
Yiccr'ra kind, particularly from the Viver'ra 

civet'ta. It is contained in a fold of the skin, 
situate between the anus and the organs of (fe- 
neration. b 

CLABBERGRASS, Galium verum. 

CLADISCOS, Ramusculus. 

CLADONIA ISLANDICA, Lichen islandicus. 

Clado'kia Rangiferri'na. The ancients 
regarded this European plant as pectoral and 
stomachic. It enters into the composition of 
the Poudre de Chypre. 

CLADOS, Ramus. 

Yellow Ash, Fustic Tree, Yellow Locust. An 
indigenous tree, which flourishes from Ken- 
tucky to Alabama. The bark of the tree and 
the roots is cathartic. 

CLAIRET. Claret. 

CLAIRVOYANCE, (F.) ' Clear-seeing.' A 
clearness of sight, said to be communicated by 
animal magnetism, which not only enables the 
magnetized person to see in the dark, through 
stone walls, &c , but even to observe prospects, 
whilst he fancies he is flying in the air, which 
he has never seen previously. It need hardly 
be said, that the possession of such powers is 

CLAMMY WEED, Polanisea graveolens. 

CLANGOR, Paraphonia. 

CLAP, Gonorrhoea impura. 

CLAPIER, (F.) A clapper, Latih'ulum, from 
hXitithv, ' to conceal.' A purulent foyer of 
disease; concealed in the flesh or under the 
skin. See Sinus. 

CLAPWORT, Orobanche Americana. 

CLAR'ET, (Vin clair [?]) Clare' turn, Vin de 
Bordeaux. (F.) Clairet. A pleasant French 
wine, which may be used, whenever wine is 
required. Also, a wine impregnated with spice 
and sugar, called likewise Vinum Hippocrat' ■ 
icum,OT Potus Hippocrat' icus , Hip'pocras, Hyp' - 
pocras. Schroder speaks of a Clare' turn al'- 
tcrans, and a C. purgans. 

CLARETA, Albumen ovi. 

CLARETUM, Claret. 

CLARIFICATION, Clarifica'tw, Depura'- 
tion, from clarus, ' clear,' and facio, ' I make.' 
A pharmaceutical operation, which consists in 
separating from a liquid every insoluble sub- 
stance held in suspension by it, that affects its 
transparency. Decanting and filtering are the 
operations necessary for this purpose. 

CLARY, COMMON, Salvia scl'area. 

CLASIS, Fracture. 

CLASMA, Fracture. 

CLASS, Clas'sis, (F.) Classe. An assem- 
blage of a certain number of objects. In Natural 
History and in Medicine, a class is a group of 
objects or individuals having one or more 
common characters. The classes are divided 
into orders, the orders into genera, the genera 
into species, and these last into varieties. 

C L A S S 1 F 1 C A'T ION, Classified Ho, from 
classis, 'a class,' and facio, '1 make.' The 
formation of classes. A methodical distribution 
of beings, or any objects whatever into classes, 
orders, genera, species, and varieties. See No- 
sography and Nosoloo-y. 

Classy is near Laon in Picardy, France. The 
waters are chalybeate. 

CLAUDICATION, Claudica'tio, from clan- 
dicare, 'to be lame.' The act of halting or 
limping. Lameness, Clau'ditas, Cholo'sis (q. v.) 




Chn'ei.'n, Chahi'ma. (F.) Claudication, B'Atemenl. 
This condition is not any particular disease, 
but is produced by different causes or affec- 
tions. It may be the effect of the shortening or 
elongation of one of the lower limbs, of anchy- 
losis of'the joints, palsy of the muscles, pain, &c. 

CLAUDITAS, Claudication. 

fauces — c Palati, Velum pendulum palati — c. 
Virginitatis, Hymen. 

CLAUStj'RA, from claudere, 'to shut.' An 
imperforation of any canal or cavity. 

Clausu'ka Uteri. Preternatural imperfora- 
tion of the uterus. 

CLAVA MY03A, Acorns calamus. 

Xanthoxylum clava Herculis. 

Fungus, Coralwoit. Said to be corroborant and 
astringent. A kind of clavaria, called Digital 
lilanc, Digital humain, Champignon dcl'appui eil 
tics fractures, formed of dictations, grouped to- 
gether, and two or three inches in length, is 
said to have been often found, formerly at the 
Hotel Dieu of Paris, on the splints of white 
wood used in the treatment of fractures, in au- 
tumn. — H. Cloquet. 

CLAVATIO. Gomphosis. 

CLAVES CALVARLE, Wormiana ossa. 

CLAVICLE, Clavic'ula, Claris, Clavic'ulus, 
Liu'ula, Fur'cula, Os Jug'uli, Cleis, Clei'dion, 
from clari.s, ' a key,' (F ) Clavirule. Tin- collar- 
bone. The clavicle is shaped like the letter S, 
and is placed transversely at the upper part of 
the thorax. It is articulated, at one extremity, 
with the sternum; at the other with the acro- 
mion process of the scapula. It gives attach 
ment, above, to the Stcrno-r.'eido-inastoideus ; 
below, to the SubcUivius ," before., to the PerUun- 
lis major and Dclloides; and behind, to the Tra- 
pezius. It serves as a point of support for ihe 
muscles of the arm, and protects the vessels 
and nerves passing to that extremity. 

The fibres, connecting the lamellae or plates 
efbones, have also been called Clavic'ulior Nails. 

CM VICULE, Clavicle. 

'CLAVTS, Clavicle, Key — c. Anglica, Key — 
<-,. Secalinus, Ergot — c. Secalis. Ergot. 

CLAVUS. A nail, Helqs, Oomphos,(F.) Clou. 
This word is employed in medicine in various 
arises. It means, 1. A Corn, (q. v.) from its re- 
semblance to the head of a nail. 2. Certain 
condylomatous excrescences of the uterus. 3. 
A callous tumour, which forms on the white 
of the eye. and resembles a nail, the C/avus 
■Oc'ali, (F.) Clou dc This last, by some, 
is considered to be synonymous with staphy- 
loma; by others, with staphyloma of the cornea. 
Also, the Penis. 

"Clavus Hystericus, Monopn'gia, (F.) Clou 
'hystfrique. An acute pain, confined to a small 
point of the head, desciibed by the sick as re- 
sembling that which would be produced by a 
nail driven into the head. It has been particu- 
larly noticed in hysterical females, hence its 
name. It is called Ovum, liysler'icum, when the 
pain occupies a greater extent. 

Ci.avus Sii.igi.m9, Ergot. 


CLEAR-SEEING, Clairvoyance. 

CLEAVAGE; from Anglo-Saxon cleoPan, ' to 
«plil.' The natural line of separation exhibited 
by certain substances, as minerals, when sub- 

jected to mechanical force. Recently, the term 
has been applied to the separation of muscles 
into longitudinal and ciicular striaj, when me- 
chanical violence is used. — Bowman. 
CLEAVERS, Galium aparjne'. 
Cleavers' Bees, Galium aparine. 
CLEAVEWORT. Galium verum. 
CLEF DU CRAKE, Wotmianum os— c. de 
Gurengtot, Key — c. aNoiz. see Key — c. a rieot, 
see Key— c a Poaipe, see Key. 
CLElDAGRA, Cleisagra. 
CLEIDION, Clavicle. 
CLEIOOCOSTAL, Costoclavicular. 
CLEl'DO MASl'OIDEUri. Albums thus 
designates the posterior portion of the sterno- 
cleido-mastoideus, (q. v.) which he considers a 
separate muscle. It has been corrupted into 

CLEIS. Clavicle, Key. 

CLEIS'AGRA, Cieid'agra, from xitt?, 'the 
clavicle,' and ay?*, 'a seizuie.' Gout in the 
clavicle. — A. Pare. 

ca minor. 

Clem'atis Fhuict' a. Flam' mula Jovis, Upright 
Virgin's Bower, (F.) Clonal, te dro.le. Family 
Ranunculaceae. Sex. Syst. Polyandria I'olygy- 
nia. The leaves contain an acrid principle. 
They have been esteemed anti-veneieal; and, 
in the form of powder, have been used as 

Cl km at is Vit-m/ba, Vital' ba, Vior'na, Atru'- 
gene, Traveller's -lay, Common Virgin's Bower, 
(F.J Clematite, llerbe anx gueux, .lubnigne. 
It lias been used in the same cases as the 
former. In infusion it has been applied in 
cases of itch. 

The leaves of Clematis Cui9P.\— c. Flam- 
mula, or sweet-scented Virgin's bower — c. Vn;- 
gin'ica, or common Virgin s bower — and c. Vior- 
na, leather-flower, have similar properties. 

CLEMATITE, Clematis vilalba— c. Droite, 
Clematis recta. 

described by Celsus, composed of equal parts of 
Samian earth, myrrh, and thus, mixed with 
white of egg. 

Cleo'nis Gluten. An astringent formula 
of myrrh, frankincense, and white of egg. 

CLEP'SYDRA, from *AsTru>, ' 1 conceal,' and 
'i,<?o'g, 'water.' An instrument contrived by 
Paracelsus to convey fumigations to the litems. 
spring is a quarter of a league from Cleves in 
Westphalia. It contains carbonate and sul- 
phate of iron. 

CL1FFVVEED, Heuchera cortusa. 
CLIFTON, CLIMATE OF. The vicinity ot 
Clifton and of Bristol, England, appears to be 
the mildest and driest climate in the west of 
England; and, consequently, the best winter 
residence, in that part of the country, for inva- 
lids. It is, also, a favourable summer climate, 
and is surrounded by numerous places of agree- 
able resort, suited for those who may pass the 
season there. 

OLI MA, Climate. 

CLIMACTERIC, Cl'macter'icvscr Climatrr'- 
icus, from xXi/uuxrtiQ, 'a step,' (F.) Clirnaclctique 
ou Ctimulcnque. A word, which properly sig- 




nifies, by degrees. It has been applied to cer- 
tain times of life, regarded to be critical. 

At present the word Climacteric is chiefly ap- 
plied to certain periods of life, at which great 
changes occur, independently of any numerical 
estimate of years. Such are the period of pu- 
berty, in both sexes; that of the cessation of the 
menses in women, &c. 

Climacteric Yeaue. Jlnni Climacteric!, are, 
according to some, all those in the life of man, 
which are multiples of the number 7, Seijtcnni- 
ads. Others have applied the term to years, 
resulting from the multiplication of 7 by an odd 
number. Some have admitted only three cli- 
macterics; others, again, have exlended them to 
multiplesof 9. Most, however, have considered 
the 03d year as the Grand Climacteric; — (33 
being the product of the multiplication of 7 by 
9", and all have thought that the period of three, 
seven, or nine, which they respectively adopted 
was necessary to the entire renewal of the 
body; so that there was, at these limes, in the 
economy, none of the parts of which it had 
previously consisted. The climacteric years, 
iiave also been called, (Anni) hebdomad! ici, sea- 
la'res, grada'iii, sea n' sit cs , genctliliaci, nataW'di, 
futa'les, cril'ici. decretu'rii, hero' ici, SfC. The 
whole of the notions on the subject are essen- 
tially allied to the doctrine of numbers of Py- 

CLIMATE, Clima, (F.) Climnt. Gr. Khtpa, 
'a region.' In geography, the word climate is 
applied to a space on the terrestrial globe, 
comprised between two circles parallel to the 
equator, and arbitrarily measured according to 
the length of the days In a hygienic point of 
view, we understand by climate, since Hippo- 
crates, a country or region, which may differ 
from another in respect to season, qualities of 
the soil, heat of atmosphere, &c. Climate, in- 
deed, embraces, in a general manner, all the 
physical circumstances belonging to each re 
gion, — circumstances which exert considerable 
influence on living beings The dark com- 
plexion e. g. of the inhabitants of the torrid 
zone is easily distinguishable from the pale- 
ness of those of the frigid, — so are the diseases. 
They are all modified, more or less, by climate 
or locality. Hot climates predispose to abdo 
minal complications in febrile affections, cold 
climates to thoracic, &c. 

One of the most important considerations 
witli regard to climates, is their comparative 
fitness for the residence of invalids, and espe 
cially of those who are liable to, or suffering 

under catarrhal or consumptive affections. The 
great object, in such cases, is to select a climate 
which will admit of regular and daily exercise 
in the open air, so that the invalid may derive 
every advantage which this form of revufcion 
is capable of effecting. To an inhabitant of the 
northern and middle portions of the United 
States — and the same applies to Great Britain. 
France, and the northern parts of the old world 
— a more southern climate alone affords these 
advantages in an eminent degree. During the 
summer months, there are few, if any, diseases, 
which require a milder climate than that of the 
United Slates, or of the milder districts of Eu- 
rope. The temperature of the winter months 
is, consequently, the most important object of 
attention. Equability of temperature is essen- 
tial, inasmuch as all sudden changes interfere 
with the great desideratum— exercisp in the 
open air. In the whole continent of North 
America the changes are very sudden and ex- 
tensive. It is not uncommon for the range to 
be 40°, between two successive days. So far, 
therefore, as this applies, the American climate 
is not well adapted to the invalid. In the 
southern portions, however, of the Union, this 
objection is counterbalanced by many advan- 

The following Tables exhibit the mean tem- 
perature of the year, and of the different sea- 
sous — with the mean temperature of the warm- 
est and coldest months at different places in 
America. Europe, Africa, &c, as deduced from 
the excellent paper of Von Humboldt on Iso- 
thermal LinFs, the Meteorological Registers 
kept by the surgeons of the United States 
army, the work of Sir James Clark on Cli- 
mate, &c. 

The subsequent tables show the mean month- 
ly temperature, maximum, mini mum, a nd range, 
as well as the greatest daily, and mean daily 
range during the corresponding months — butof 
different years— at some of the prominent re- 
treats for the valetudinarian, in Gieat Britain, 
on the continent of Europe, and in the African 
islands. It is proper, however, to remark, that 
in no situations, except in those to which an 
asterisk is affixed, was the register thermometer 
used. In the others, the observations were 
made during the day only, and consequently 
the numbers given are far below the real range 
throughout the tweniy-four hours. The places 
are ranged in the order of their mean tempera- 






Mean temperature of different 

Mean te 



t Places. 


ture of 












37 .89 





4G .3!) 

41 .37 

14 .09 

61 .83 

43 .94 

62 .87 

1 l°.20 
12 .05 

40 .47 
44 .54 
44 .40 

41 .74 

42 .44 
44 .50 

14 .18 
23 .44 

20 .82 

38 .04 
38 .58 
41 .40 

68 .00 
60 .54 
08 .70 

46 .04 
45 .43 
45 .18 

73 .40 
63 .52 
73 .07 

13 .81 
20 .91 
17 .95 

1 Fort Crawibrd, Miss 

43 .03 

45 .52 

23 .76 

43 .09 

09 .78 

46 .74 I 71 .34 

20 .14 

42 .21 

50 .36 

33 .98 

47 .66 

70 .70 

49 .82 

72 .80 

29 .84 

! Council Bluffs, Miss 

4i .25 

50 .82 

27 .38 

46 .38 

72 .84 

48 .60 

75 .92 

27 .19 

41 .30 
39 .50 

51 .02 
53 .42 

33 .82 
32 .18 

46 .87 
51 .44 

68 .70 
73 .94 

53 .83 
56 .48 

71 .46 
77 .00 

32 .14 
32 .72 


40 .40 

53 .78 

29 .84 

51 .26 

79 .16 

54 .50 

80 .78 

25 .34 

; Cincinnati, 

39 .06 

53 .78 

32 .90 

54 .14 

72 .86 

54 .86 

74 .30 

30 .20 

' Monticello, Va 

37 .58 

55 .40 

37 .67 

54 .67 

73 .33 

56 .50 

75 .00 

36 .00 

38 .53 

55 .56* 

36 .80 

53 .83 

75 .90 

56 .59 

79 .13 

34 .06 

34 .00 

58 .88 

53 .44 

64 .76 

80 .46 

68 .15 

82 .93 

50 .69 

32 .47 

60 .18 

51 .09 

66 .73 

80 .89 

67 .55 

82 .81 

49 .43 

; Natchez. Miss 

31 .34 

64 .76 

48 .56 

65 .48 

79 .10 

00 .02 

79 .70 

46 .94 

30 .28 

68 .771 

55 .13 

69 .07 

82 .57 

0!) .05 

83 .55 

53 .80 

St. Augustine, do 

29 .48 

72 .23 

59 .29 

71 .47 

82 .73 

75 .15 

83 .94 

56 .(JO 

27 .57 
19 .11 

72 -37. 
77 .72 

61 .24 
71 .96 

72 .93 

77 .90 

80 .14 

81 .50 

75 .28 
78 .62 

80 .72 

81 M 

58 .70 
71 .06 

Vera Cruz, 

i Havanna, 


23 .10 
26 .40 

78 .08 

71 .24 

78 .98 

83 .30 

78 .98 

83 .84 

09 .98 

27 .5 
13 .10 

78 .3 

79 .3} 


76 .7 







, Barbadoes, 

10 .27 

81 .86 

80 .24 

83 .66 

82 .04 

80. 24 

84 -38 

79 .16 

* St. Louis, Missouri, Lat. 38 

°. 46'. Mean temperature 55 J . 86. New Harmony, Lat. 38°. 11'. Mear 


Hire 56°. 74. 

t New Orleans, Lat. 30°. Mean temperature 69°. 01. Baton Rouge, Lat 30". 26'. Mean temperature 08°. 07. 

t Jamaica, coast, Mean temp 

erature 80 J 6 



Geneva, . . . 


Newport, Isle of Wight,. 






Cove of Cork, 


Paris,., i 











Leghorn, ■ 



Mean temperature of different 



ture of 













50 .24* 

40 .44 





50 .83 

51 .00 

40 .31 





51 .03 

52 .10 

40 .43 





53 .50 

51 .80 

44 .03 





53 .36 

51 .11 

42 .14 





52 .76 

57 .00 

40 .11 





51 .00 

48 .25 

39 .62 





48 .59 

51 .58 

43 .90 





51 .73 

53 .06 

43 .82 





54 .63 

51 .08 

38 .06 





51 .44 

54 .95 

41 .79 





55 .64 

55 .60 

40 .50 





57 .10 

55 .621 

42 .23 





56 .41 

56 .48 

42 .08 





56 .30 

57 .00 

44 .20 





61 .30 

58 .20 

42 .60 





59 .00 

59 .00 

44 .30 





60 .70 

59 .48 

47 .82 





61 .63 

59 .51 ){ 

45 .50 





60 .08 

59 .90 

43 .30 





59 .00 

60 .00$ 

46 .30 





62 .00 

Mean tempera- 
ture of 



66Q.56 34°.16 

65 .30 36 .14 

70 .52 ' 39 .02 
73 .04 41 .00 

* London, Lat. 5P .:iJ'. M J in tempsrature 50° .38. Environs of London, Mean temperature 48° 81. 

t Lyons, Mean temperature 55 g 76. J Perpiguan, Mean temperature 59 .54. § Nismes, Mean temp 60°.20 




2. EUROPE, AFRICA, &c. Continued. 






St. Michael's, Azores, . 

43 .43 
41 .53 
40 .54 
37 .47 
3G .32 

Madeira, Funchal, 32 .37 

Algiers, 30.48 

Canaries, Santa Cruz, ., . 2d .28 

Cairo, 30 .02 


ture of 

GO .40 

61 .40 
G2 .40 

62 .88 

64 .5G 

69 .98 

70 .94 
72 .32 

Mean temperature of difl'erent 

Winter. Spring. Summer, rfutumn 

46 .03 
45 .86 
48 .50 

57 .83 
52 .90 

59 .50 
61 .52 
64 .65 

58 .46 

57 .20 

57 .74 

58 .50 

61 .17 

59 .53 

62 .20 
65 .66 

68 .87 
73 .58 

69 .33 
80 .24 

76 .68 
85 .10 

62 .80 
62 .78 

64 .50 
62 .33 

65 .35 

67 .23 
72 .50 
74 .17 
71 .42 

Mean tempera- 
ture of 

warmest coldest 
month, month. 

77 .00 

82 .76 

85 .82 

42 .26 

60 .08 
56 .12 

Table of Mean Temperature. 





March . 



43 . 00 

36 . 30 

42 .00 

45 . 00 

51 .00 


40 . 50 

43 . 00 

44 .50 

40 .50 

48 . 50 


41 .53 

38 .89 

44 .96 

46 .80 

55 . 79 


46 .00 

42 . 00 

45 . 00 

47 .00 

53 . 00 


48 .60 

45 . 85 

49 .00 

51 .45 

57 .00 


49 .62 

47 . 65 

49 .45 

52 . 05 

5G . 40 


50 .50 

46 .50 

48 .50 

52 . 00 

57 .00 


60 .50 

59 . 50 

58 . 50 

61 .OG 

62 . 50 

Table of Daily Range of Temperature. 


December. 1 January. 




•C to 




'5 6 


^ to 

2 £ 

a '~ 



2 S 



^ to 

c c 



■a to 


- S 
« *- 




| Madeira,* 























Table of Maximum, Minimum, and Range of Temperature. 




































" 1 
















Montpellier,. . . . 






In the United States, the most ftvonrable re- 
gion for the phthisical invalid is that of Florida, 
— especially of Pensacola. St. Augustine is 
frequently chosen, but is liable to north-east 
storms, which interfere with the movements of 
the valetudinarian, and are the source of much 
discomfort. Still, great benefit has often been 
derived from it as a winter retreat. Of the 
Atlantic Isles, Madeira appears to be best 
adapted for the consumptive, and those affected 
with chronic bronchitis. In Italy, Rome and 
Pisa, — and in England, Torquay and Undercliff, 
are to be preferred. Chronic rheumatism and 
gout are benefited by a warm climate, which, 
again, is unfavourable to those who are predis- 
posed to cerebral diseases, especially to diseases 
that are characterized by debility and mobility 
of the nervous system — as paralysis, epilepsy, 
mania, &c. Hypochondriasis and dyspepsia 
require rather change of climate and travelling 
exercise than a sojourn in any one. (See the 
Author's Human Health, Philad. 1844 ) 

For the mortality of different countries and 
cities, see Mortality.