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Full text of "Medical lexicon : a dictionary of medical science : containing a concise explanation of the various subjects and terms of physiology, pathology, hygiene, therapeutics, pharmacy, surgery, obstetrics, medical jurisprudence, dentistry, etc. : notices of climate, and of mineral waters : formulae for various officinal, empirical, and dietetic preparations, etc. : with French and other synonymes"

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III two large and handsome octavo volumes 

lu preparing the present edition, "no pains 
have been spared to make the work a complete 
expression of the science of the day." This 
statement our own examination of the work en- 
ables us to confirm ; every page of it testifying 
to the author's industry in culling from various 
quarters and sources all that was valuable in the 
physiological contributions to science of the last 
few years. The careful and scrutinizing spirit 
exhibited by the writer when investigating mooted 
questions, the extensive information he possesses 


, of about 1500 pages; leather, price, $7. 

of general science in almost every department, 
and the clear and happy style in which he pre- 
sents his views, render his Physiology one of the 
most reliable and attractive works in our language. 
To the practitioner and general reader, we can 
heartily recommend it as an excellent r6suui6 of 
the present state of physiological science. As a 
text-book for the student, we think it has no su- 
perior in our language, and for this object we 
presume it was chiefly, if not expressly written, — 
Med. Examiner, Oct., 1856. 

II. (Now Ready, July, 185 7,) 




In two very harulsome octavo volumes, of abmit WOO pages ; leather, price $6. 

The most complete and satisfactory exponent 
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perior value, in our judgment, is the happy blend- 
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are or ought to be taught in all our Medical 
schools; going no further into the nature and 
commercial history of drugs than is indispensable 

for the medical student. This gives to the treatise 
a clinical and practical character, calculated to 
benefit, in the highest degree, both students and 
practitioners. We shall adopt it as a text-book 
for our classes, while pursuing this branch of 
medicine, and shall be happy to learn that it has 
been adopted as such in all of our medical insti- 
tutions. — The N. Y. Journal of Jledicine. 

III. (Just Issued.) 



Seventli Edition, with extensive Additions. 

In one very large octavo volume, of 110 pages ; leather, $3.75, 

space the novelties and discoveries of the age. 
The present edition of this work is considorablj' 
enlarged and improved. The author, with his 
accustomed accuracy, has elaborated and amplified 
many of the articles but casually or imperfectly 
treated of in the former editions ; and he has also 
added considerably to the list of new remedies. 
About thirty new agents, or novel applications 
of old remedies, are introduced to the notice of the 
reader in this edition. — Va. Med. and Sura. Jour., 
Sept., 1856. 

It may be considered almost a work of super- 
erogation to enter into an elaborate criticism of a 
work which has reached its seventh edition. The 
public has pronounced, in the most authoritative 
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posed in the present instance to dispute its de- 
cision. In truth, such books as this will always 
be favorably received by the Profession of our 
country. They are labor-saving productions, 
which, at the expense of much research and 
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In ttco large octavo volumes, of about 1500 pages ; leather, $6.25. 

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Dt.^ 2—1901 




Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



On this new edition of his ''Medical Lexicon,^^ the author has bestowed 
more than usual labour. It is not more than four years since a friendly re- 
viewer, in one of the most learned of European medical periodicals, (the 
"British and Foreign Iledico-Chirurgical Beview" ior Ju\j, 1853, p. 205,) 
in noticing a former edition, remarked, that the labd^ir which had been bestowed 
upon the work had "been something prodigious;" adding — "the work, how- 
ever, has been now done, and we are happy in the thought, that no human 
being will have again to undertake the same gigantic task. Revised and 
corrected from time to time, Dr. Dunglison's 'Medical Lexicon' will last for 

Yet, in the present edition, not only has the work been "revised and cor- 
rected," but about six thousand subjects and terms have been added, which are 
not to be found in the one noticed by the "British and Foreign.'' Many of 
these have been introduced into medical terminology in consequence of the 
progress of the science ; whilst others had escaped the author in the previous 
editions. These additions have necessarily required a great amount of labour, 
which — as on every former occasion of the kind — has been cheerfully bestowed, 
in order that the work might be rendered still more worthy of the vast favour 
which it has experienced. It has ever been the anxious desire of the author to 
make it a satisfactory and desirable — if not indispensable — lexicon, in which the 
student may search without disappointment for every term that has been legiti- 
mated in the nomenclature of the science ; and the present very carefully 
revised, greatly enlarged, and accurately printed edition cannot fail to be more 
extensively useful, and to offer stronger claims to the attention of the practi- 
tioner and student, than any of its predecessors. 

The author is grateful for the opportunity again afforded him of expressing 
his acknowledgments for the reception which the Dictionary has met with 
everywhere from the profession. 


Philadelphia, 1116 Gibard St. 

July, 1857. 



If the simple synonymy of any term be needed, a mere reference to the term 
may be sufficient ; but if farther information be desired, it may be obtained under 
the term referred to. For example, the French word Tronc is said to be 
synonymous with Trunk. This may be sufficient for the inquirer : should it 
not, the requisite information may be found by turning to Trunk. 








Ph. D. 


of Dublin. 



Ph. E. 





Ph. L. 





Ph. P. 





Ph. U. S 


of the Uni- 

F. or 



ted States 


















Imperial measure. 






Specific Gravity. 











Natural Order. 

Sex. Syst 

. Sexual Systea 


Old Eng. 

Old English. 












A, before a consonant; An before a vowel, a, av, 
have, in the compound medical terms, a privative 
or debasing signification, like that of the particles 
in, im, uii, ir, in English. Thus: Sthcni'n means 
strength; yts^AeHt'a, want of strength; AncBtnia, 
want of blood, etc. Occasionally, in compound 
words, they have an intensive meaning. 

AACHEN, Aix-la-Chapelle. 

A, or AA. See Abbreviation. 

AANDE, Breath. 

in the canton of Berne, in Switzerland. The 
chief spring contains chlorides of calcium and 
sodium, sulphates of lime and soda, oxyd of 
iron, and sulphohydric acid gas. 

AASMUS, Anhelatio. 

sulphuretted saline spring not far from Ratisbon 
or Regentsberg, in Bavaria. 

ABAISSEMENT, Depression; a. de la Cata- 
racte, see Cataract — a. de la Matrice, Prolapsus 

pressor alae nasi — a. de I'anglc des levres, De- 
pressor anguli oris — a. de la levre inferieare, 
Depressor labii inferioris — a. de la langiie, Gios- 
socatochus — a. de la machoire inferieure, Digas- 
tricus — a. de l'a:il, Rectus inferior oeuli. 


ABALIENA'TUS. Con-uj/tus, Corrupted; from 
ah, and alienus, 'different.' llembra abaliena'ta. 
Limbs dead or benumbed. — Celsus, Scribonius 

ABANGA. Name given by the inhabitants of 
St. Thomas to the fruit of a palm tree, the seeds 
of which they consider very useful in diseases 
of the chest, in the dose of three or four, two or 
three times a day. 

ABAPTIST' A. Abaph's'tonoTAbaptis'tum, from, 
a, privative, and ffanTi^iiv, 'to plunge.' A term 
applied to the old trepan, the conical shape of 
which prevented it from plunging suddenly into 
the cavity of the cranium. 

ABAPTISTON, Abaptista. 

ABAPTISTUM, Abaptista. 

ABAREMO-TEMO. A Brazilian tree, which 
grows in the monntains, and appears to bo a 
mimosa. Piso relates that the decoction of its 
bark, which is bitter and astringent, was applied 
in that country to ulcers of a bad character. 

ABARNAIIAS. Magnesia. 

ABARTICULATIO, Diarthrosis, and Synar- 

A HA TA IWrSSE.UENT, Degeneration. 

ADA TTEMEXT, Pro.^tration. 

ABATTIS, Giblets. 

chalybeate spring, six leagues from Paris, and 
one from Poissy. It was once much frequented, 
but is now abandoned. 

acidulous chalybeate at Abbeville, in the depart- 
ment of Somme, France. 

ABBREVIA'TION, Abbrevia'tio, Brachyn'sh, 
Brachys'mos, Abbreviatu'ra. (F.) Abreviation, 
from brevis, 'short.' Abbreviations are chiefly 
used in medicinal formula;. They are by no 
means as frequently employed now as of old, 
when every article had its appropriate symbol. 
The following are some of the abbreviations 
which have been or are employed : 

R. Recipe, Take. 

A. AA, ANA, (ava) utriusqiie, of each. 
Abdom. Abdomen. 

Abs. Febr. Abse?ite febre, In the absence of 

Ad. or Add. Adde or addatur. 

Ad. Lib. Ad libitum, At pleasure. 

Admov. Admoveatur, Let it be applied. 

Altern. Hor. Alteniis horis. Every other hour. 

Alv. Adstrict. Alvo adstrictd, The bowels 
being confined. 

Aq. Aqua, Water. 

Aq. Bull. Aqua bulliena, Boiling water. 

Aq. Comm. Aqua comiuHiiin, Common water. 

Aq. Ferv. Aqua fervene, Hot water. 

Aq. Font. Aqua /otitis. Spring water. 

Aq. Marin. Aqua marina. Sea water. 

B. a. Balneum arena, A sand-bath. 
Bals. Balsamum, Balsam. 

BB. BEDS. Barbadensis, Barbadoes. 
Bib. Bibe, Drink. 
Bis IND. Big indies. Twice daily. 
B. M. Balneum maricB, (F.) Bain marie, A water 

BoL. Bolus. 

Bull. Bulliat, Let it boil. 

But. Butyrum, Butter. 

B. V. Balneum vaporis, A vapour bath. 

C. Congius, A gallon. 
CyERUL. Cwruleus, Blue. 
Cap. Capiat, Let him take. 
C. C. Comu cervi, Hartshorn. 

C. C. U. Comu cerri tistuni. Burnt hartshorn. 
C. M. Cras mane, To-morrow morning. 
C. N. Cras nocte. To-morrow night. 
C. V. Cms vesperc. To-morrow evening. 
CoCHL. Cochleare, A spoonful. 
CocHL. Ampl. Cochleare amplum, A large 




CoCHL. Inp. Cochleare infantum, A child's 

CocHL. Mod. or Med. Cochleare modicum or 
medium, A dessert-spoonful. 

CocHL. Parv. Cochleare purvum, A tea-spoonful. 
Col. Cola, and Colaturce, Strain, and to the 

Com P. Compositus, Compound. 
CoNF. Confectio, Confection. 
Cons. Conserva, Conserve. 
Cost. Contimtetur, Let it be continued. 
CoQ. Coque, Boil. 
CoRT. Cortex, Bark. 
Crast. Cra«tliius, For to-morrow. 
Ci'.T. CiiJHH, Of which. 
Ci'.irsL. Ciijuslibet, Of any. 
Cyaih. Ci/iithus, A glassful. 
Cyath. Thk/E, A cup of tea. 
D. Dosis, A dose. 

D. et S. Detur et signetur [placed at the end 
of a prescription). 

D. D. Detur ad. Let it be given in or to. 
Deaur. Pil. Deauretur pilula. Let the pill be 

Deb. Spiss. Dehita spissitudo, A due consist- 

Dec. Decanta, Pour off. 

Decub. Decubitui, Lying down, going to bed. 
De D. in D. De die in diem. From day to day, 
Dbj. Alv. Dejecllones ah'i, Alvine evacuations, 
Dep. Depnrntus, Purified. 
Dest. DestiUn, Distil. 
Det. Detur, Let it be given. 
DiEB. Altern. Diebus (ilternls. Every otherday 
Dieb. Tert. DiebuH tertiis, Every third day. 
Dig. Diijeratur. Let it be digested. 
DiL. Dilutuu, Dilute. 
Dim. Dimldiux, One-half. 
DiV. Divide, Divide. 

DoNEC Alv. Solut. Fuer. Donee alvua soluta 
fuerit, Until the bowels are opened. 
DrACII. Drachma, A drachm. 
E.iusD. Ejundem. Of the same. 
Enem. Enema, A clyster. 
ExHiB. Exhlbeatur, Let it be exhibited. 
Ext. super Alut. Extende super alutam, Spread 
upon leather. 

F. Eiat, Let it be made. 

F. PiL. Fiat plhila. Make into a pill. 

F. Vex;es. or F. VS. Fiat venascctio. Let bleed- 
ing be performed. 

Feb. DtiR. i'VirerfHrn?;^?, The fever continninsr. 

Fem. Intern. Femoribus internis, To the insidi 
of the thighs. 

Fist. Armat. Fistula nrmata, A bag and pipi 
— a clyster pipe and bladder fitted for use. 

Fl. Fluidus, and Flores, Fluid, and Flowers. 

Trust. Frustil/ntim, In small pieces. 

Gel. Quavis. Gelatina qudvis. In any kind of 

G. G. G. Gummi gutfcB GambicB, Gamboge. 
Gr. Granum, A grain. 

Gt. Gitttn, A drop. Gtt. Gutfce, Drops. 

Gtt. or Gutt. Quibusd. Guttis quibusdam, With 
some drops. 

Gum. Gummi, Gum. 

Guttat. Guttatim, By drops. 

HoR. Decub. Hard decubitus. At bed-time. 

HoR. Interm. Horia intermediis. At interme- 
diate hours. 

H. S. Hord somni. At bed-time. 

Inf. Infunde, Infuse. 

Ind. Indies, Daily. 

Inj. ENEJf. Injiciatur enema. Let a clyster be 

In Pulw. In pulmento, In gruel. 

Jul. Julepus, A julep. 

Lat. Dol. Lateri dolcnti. To the pained side. 

Lb. and Lib. Libra, A pound weight. 

Lib. Llb. Libran, Pounds. 

LiQ. Liquor. 

M. Mifve, Mix. 

Mac. Miuera, Macerate. 

Man. Maniptlus, A handful. 

Man. Prim. A'ane prima, Early in the morning. 

Mic. Pan. Jfica panis. Crumb of broad. 

MiN. Minimum, The 60th part of a drachm by 

Mitt. Mitte, Send. . i ;i i 

Mitt. Sang. iMittatur sanguis, Let blood be 
drawn. . , 

Mod. Prescript. Modo prcesenjito, In tlic 

manner directed. 

MoR. Sol. More solito. In the usual manner. 

Muc. MucHago, Mucilage. 

N. M. Nux monchata, Nutmeg. 

0. Octarius, A pint. 

01. Oleum, Oil. 

Ol. Lini, S. I. Oleum linisine igne, Cold-drawn 
linseed oil. 

Omn. Bid. Omni biduo, Every two days. 
Omn. Bin. Omni blhorio. Every two hours. 
Omn. Hor. Omni hord. Every hour. 
Omn. Man. Omni mane, Every morning. 
Omn. Noote, Every night. 
Omn. Quadr. Hor. Omni quadrante horcs, 
Every quarter of an hour. 

0. 0. 0. Oleum oliccB optimum, Best olive oil. 
Ov. Oiium, An egg. 
Ox. Oxymel. 
Oz. Uncia, An ounce. 

P. Pondere, By weight, and Pars, A part. 
P. and Pug. Pugillus, A pugil. 
P. M. Partes cp.qualcs, E(|ual parts. 
Part. Vic. Partitis vicibus, In divided doses. 
Peract. Op. Emet. Peractd operalione emetii'i, 
The operation of the emetic being over. 

Pil. Pilula, A pill. Pil. or Pill. Pilula, 

Post. Sing. Sed. Lu). Post singv.lus scdes 
liquidas, After every liquid evacuation. 
Pot. Potio, A potion. 
P. P. Pulris p<itrum, Jesuits' bark. 
P. Rat. .^tat. Pro ratione cetatis. According 
to the age. 

P. R. N. Pro re natd, As occasion may be. 
PuLV. Pulvis, A powder. 

Q. P. Quantum pluceat. As much as may please. 
Q. S. Quantum sufficit. As much as is sufEcient. 

QuoR. Quorum, Of which. 

Q. V. Quantum volueris, As much as you wish. 

Rad. Radix, Root. 

Ras. liasurcE. Shavings. 

Eect. Rcctificatua, Rectified. 

Red. or Redig. in Pulv. lledactus in pnlve- 
rem, or liedigatur in pulverem, Powdered, or Let 
it be powdered. 

Reg. Umbil. Reyio umbilici. The umbilical 

Repet. Eepetatur, Let it be repeated. 

S. A. Secundum artem, According to art. 

Sem. Semen, Seed. 

Semi-dr. Semi-drachma, half a drachm. 

Semi-h. SKmi-hora, Half an hour. 

Serv. Serva, Keep, preserve. 

Sesquih. Scsquihora, An hour and a half. 

Sesiinc. Sesunciri, An ounce and a half. 

Si NoN Val. .SV nun valeat. If it does not answer. 

Si Op. Sit. .SV opus sit, If there be need. 

Si ViR. Perm. .S7iiVe»/»enHi'«a)if,If thestrcngtb 
will permit. 

Sing. Singulomm, Of each. 

SoLV. S'dre, Dissolve. 

§p. and Spir. Spirit us. Spirit. 

Ss. Semi, One half. 

St. Stet, Let it stand. 

Sub Fin. Coot. Sub finem coctionis, Towards 
the end of the boiling. 




Sum. Sumat, Let him take; also, Summitates, 
Ihe tops. 

S. V. Splritm villi, Spirit of wine. 
S. V. R. Spiritua vini rectijicatus, Rectified 
spirit of wine. 

S.V.T.i'/xViVi/* Willi' <e/iM/or, Proof spiritof wine. 
SvR. Sijrupns, Syrup. 

Tkmp. Dext. Tempoti dextro, To the ri-^ht 

T. 0. Tinctura opii, Tincture of opium. 

Til., TiiA. and Tinct. Tiiu;tura, Tincture. 

TiiiT. Trillin,, Triturate. 

y. 0. S. or ViT. Ov. Sol. Vilello ovi soliUus, 
Dissolved in the yolk of an egg. 

VS. VeiKBHPctIo, Venesection. 

Z.Z. Anciently myrrh: now zinziber or ginger. 

tb, Libra, A pound, lib. Pounds. 

5-, An ounce. 

f ,|, F/niduiicia, A fluidounce. 

3- Drdchitm, A drachm. 

*.^' t^l^iidfachiiui, A fiuidrachm. 

f), Scriipiilum, A scruple. 

■^K- Minimum, A minim. 

ss, SemiiHin, or half; iss, one and a half. 

j, one; ij, two; iij, three; iv, four, &c. See 

The same system i.s not always followed in ab- 
breviating. The subjoined will exhibit the usual 
mode : 


gtt. xl. M. 


Ill/us. Colomb. 
Tinct. Gent, comp, 
Si/r. Curt. Aiirant, 
Tinct. Clips. 
Capt. coch. ij. p. r. n. 

This, written at length, is as follows : 

Infwti Colombo', sesqui-fluidunciam. 
Tinctiir(B GentinntB OompoiilfB fluidrachmnm. 
Si/rupi Corticia .4H)-tt)i(/ori«Hi semi-Quidraeh- 

TinctitrcB Capsici guttas quadraginta. 

Capiat cochlearia duo pro re patS.. 
In the United Stiites the directions are always 
written in English. 

AnCJiS, Abscess — a. Aigu, see Abscess. 
button or Shirt-itnd Abscesa. A deep-seated mam- 
mary abscess, following the septa of the breast, 
and appearing under the skin, so as eventually to 
give rise to one or more subcutaneous abscesses, 
without losing the original character of submam- 
mary suppuration. A cavity exists between the 
integuments and the gland — another, larger, be- 
tween the mamma and the chest — the two com- 
municating by a passage, which is generally nar- 
row — the whole having the e.xact appearance of a 
shirt-stnd. — Velpeau. 

ABCES CHAUD, see Abscess — a. Chroniqite, 
see Abscess — a. pur Coni/eiiion, see Abscess — 
a. Conaeculi/, Abscess, metastatic — a. Diathesi- 
que, see Abscess — a. Froid, see Abscess — a. Me- 
tnatntiqne. Abscess, metastatic — a. Retro-uterine, 
see Retro-uterine — a. Scro/uleux, see Abscess — a. 
Soudnin, see Abscess. 

ABDO'MEN, from abdere, 'to conceal;' be- 
cause it conceals the viscera; by some, fancifully 
pre.sumeil to be from abdere, ' to conceal,' and 
omentum, ' the caul.' From abdo is formed ahdo- 
meii, as from lei/o, lei/iimen. Etron, ffi/poi/aa'trion, 
J'hi/ace, Hypocie'linm, Epia'chion, Lup'aru, IIi/- 
pochoi'iion, Gnater, Hi/poti'trion, Nedya, Neia'rn, 
Nei'ra, Abdn' men. Venter, Venter imiia, Venter 
in'fimua, Aloua, IPterna, The belly, (Sc.) Eyte, 
Penche, Wciim. (Prov.) Daiji/ie, //'/_«/, Wiiii, Poo/,; 
(¥.) Ventre, V. in/erieur, Bna ventre. The larg- 
est of the throe splanchnic cavities, bounded, 

above, by the diaphragm ; below, by the pelvis ; 
behind, by the lumbar vertebrse ; and at the side* 
and fore part, by muscular expansions. It is dis- 
tinguished into three anterior regions, from above 
to below; viz. the epigastric, umbilical, and hypo- 
jgastric, each of which is itself divided into three 
others, one middle, and two lateral: thus, the 
e/iiffoatric rer/ion comprises the epiijnatrium and 
hypochondria ; the uinbilical, the uinbilicna and 
Jianka or lumbar ret/iona ; and the hyporpistric, 
the hypofjaatriuni and iliac reyiona. None of 
these regions has its limits well defined. The 
chief viscera contained in the cavity of the abdo- 
men, Cie'lia, Cavum Abdom'inis, are the stomach, 
intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, &c. 
It is lined by the peritoneum. 
Abdomen, Pendulous, Physconia. 
ABDOM'INAL, Ahdomina'lia, Ventra'lia, Ven- 
tral. That which belongs to the Abdomen, as 
abdominal muaclea, abdominal viacera, &c. 


ABDOMINOSCOP'IA, Gaatroscnp'ia, Lapa- 
roacop'la, Abdom'iiiia Explora'tio. Abdom'inoa. 
copy. A hybrid word, from abdomen, 'the lower 
belly,' and aKomoi, ' I view.' Examination of the 
lower belly as a means of diagnosis. See Aus- 

ABDOM'INOUS, Ventrio'ana, Ventro'sua, from 
abdomen, 'the belly.' Biij- bellied, Big-jyaunched, 
Ventrip'oteut. Having a large abdomen. 
ABDUCENS LABIORUM, Levatoranguli oris. 
ABDUCENTES, Motor oculi externus. 
ABDUCTEUH DE L'iElL, Rectus externus 
oculi — a. de I'oreiUe, Al)duetor auris — a. du 
gros orteil, Abductor pollicis pedis — a. du petit 
orteil, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — a. court da 
Tjoiice, Abductor pollicis brevis — a. longdupouce, 
Abductor longus pollicis. 

ABDUCTION, Abduc'tio, from abdncere, to 
separate, (ab and ducere, 'to lead.') The move- 
ment which separates a limb or other part from 
the axis of the body. 

The word has also been used synonymously 
with Abrup'tio, Apag'ma, Apoclaa'ma, a fracture 
near the articular extremity of a bone, with sepa- 
ration of the fragments. 

ABDUCTOR, same etymon. (F.) Abducteur. 
A muscle which moves certain parts by separat- 
ing them from the axis of the body. 

Abductor Auricularis, Abductor auris — a. 
Indicis pedis, Prior indicis pedis, Posterior indicia 
pedis — a. Medii digiti pedis. Prior medii digiti 
pedis — a. Minimi digiti. Flexor parvus minimi 
digiti — a. Minimi digiti. Prior minimi digiti — a. 
Oculi, Rectus externus oculi — a. Pollicis manfls, 
and a. Brevis alter, Abductor pollicis brevis. 

Abductor Auris, Abductor auricula' ria. (F.) 
Abducteilr de I'oreiUe. A portion of the posterior 
auria, whose existence is not constant, which 
pa.«ses from the mastoid process to the concha. 

Abductor In'dicis, Semi-interoa'aeus in'dicia. 
A muscle which arises from the os trapezium and 
metacarpal bone of the thumb, and is inserted 
into the first bone of the forefinger. Its use is to 
bring the forefinger towards the thumb. 

Abductor Min'imi DiG"iTr, Carpo-phalan'geua 
min'imi digiti, Carpo-jihalungien du petit doigt, 
Extcn'aor ter'tii interno'dii minimi digiti — (Dou- 
glas.) Hypoth'enar minor nietacarpeus. See 
Flexor parvus. It originates, fleshy, from the os 
pisiforme, and from the annular ligament near 
it: and is inserted, tendinous, into the inner side 
of the base of the first bone of the little finger. 
Uae, to draw the little finger from the rest. 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Pedis, Calco-sub- 
phalangena minimi digiti, Calcaneo-phalangien 
dii petit orteil, Parath'enar major — (By Wins- 
low, the muscle is divided into two portions, — • 




Parathenar major and metaUtrseus.) Calcaueo- 
toua-phalangien du petit orteil — (Ch.) (F.) -46- 
ducteur dn petit orteil. This muscle forms the 
outer margin of the sole of the foot, and is im- 
mediately beneath the plantar aponeurosis. It 
arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the outer side 
of the protuberance of the os calcis, and from 
the root of the metatarsal bone of the little toe, 
and is inserted into the outer part of the root of 
the first bone of the little toe. Use, to draw the 
little toe outwards. 

Abductor Pol'licis Brevis, Abductor Polli- 
cia Mau&8, Scapho-carpo-siiper-phalaticfeus Pol- 
licis, Sus-phalangien du ponce, A. pollicia manna 
and A. brevis alter — (Albinus.) (F.) Abductenr 
court dn ponce, Carpo-sus-phalangien da ponce — 
(Ch.) A short, flat, triangular muscle, which arises 
from the anterior surface of the os scaphoides and 
the annular ligament of the carpus, and termi- 
nates at the outside of the upper extremity of 
the first phalanx of the thumb. A particular por- 
tion, on the inner side of this muscle, is called, by 
Albinus, Abductor brevis alter. 

Abductor Longus Pollicis, A. I. P. llanos. 
Extensor osais metacorpi pollicia man&a, Ejctensor 
primi internodii — (Douglas,) Extenaor primua 
Pollicia, Cubito-radi-aua-metacarpien du ponce, 
Cubito-Rua-metacarpien du ponce, — (Ch.) (F.) 
Abducteur long du ponce. A long, thin muscle, 
arising from the posterior surface of the ulna, 
radius, and interosseous ligament, and inserted at 
the outer side of the upper extremity of the first 
metacarpal bone. 

Abductor Pollicis Pedis, Calco-aub-phnlnn- 
geua Pol'licis. (F.) Abducteur du gros orteil. 
This muscle arises, fleshy, from the anterior and 
inner part of the protuberance of the os calcis, 
and tendinous from the same bone where it joins 
•with the OS naviculare. It is inserted, tendinous, 
into the internal os sesamoideum and root of the 
first bone of the great toe. Use, to pull the great 
toe from the rest. 

The name Abductor has been given also to all 
those interosseous muscles of the hand and foot, 
which perform the motion of abduction on the 
fingers or toes, and to muscles which execute the 
same function on other parts of the body. 

ABDUMEN, Abdomen. 

ABEB^'OS, from a, neg., and PcPaio;, 'firm,' 
Infir'mva, Beb'ilia. Weak, infirm, unsteady. 


ABELMELUCH. One of the names of the Rici- 
nus, according to some authors. — Prosper Alpinus 
says that a tree, which grows about Mecca, is so 
called. Its seeds, which are black and oblong, 
are said to be a most violent cathartic. 

ABELMOSCHUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. 
Moschatus, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

ABELMUSK, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

is a city of Bavaria, where there is a cold, sul- 
phureous spring. 

ABERRATIO, Aberration — a. Lactis, Galac- 
toplania — a. Mensium, Menstruation, vicarious — 
a. Menstruorum, Menstruation, vicarious. 

ABERRA'TION, Aberra'tio, from aberrare, 
(ab and errare,) 'to stray,' 'to wander from.' 
This word has several meanings. 

1. The passage of a fluid of the living body 
into an order of vessels not destined for it. In 
this sense it is synonymous with the Error Loci 
of Boerhaave. 

2. The flow of a fluid towards an organ different 
from that to which it is ordinarily directed ; as in 
cases of vicarious hemorrhage. Aberrations of 
aenae m judgment are certain errors in the percep- 
tions, or certain derangements of the intellectual 

The word is used in optics to designate the 

dispersion of the rays of light in passing through 
a lens. 

AnERRATioy, Chromatic, Aberration of Re- 

Abehuation of Refrangibil'ity, Vhromat'ic 
aberra'tion, (F.) Aberration de liefrungibilite, 
Chromatisme, exists, when, as in a common lens, 
the rays that pass near the circumference of the 
lens are decomposed, so that a coloured image is 
observed. This aberration in the human eye is 
corrected by the iris, which does not permit the 
rays to fall near the circumference of the lens, 
and also by the crystalline lens itself, which, 
owing to its structure, serves the purposes of an 
achromatic glass. 

Aberration, Spherical, Aberration of sphe- 

Aberration of Spheric"ity or spher'ical ab- 
erra'tion takes place, when the rays, as in a com- 
mon lens, which pass through the centre of the 
lens, and those which pass near the circumfer- 
ence, are unequally refracted, so that they do not 
meet at a common focus. 

This aberration of sphericity in the human cyo 
is corrected by the iris and lens. 

ABESSI, Realgar. 

ABEVACUA'TIO, Apoceno'sis, from ab, and 
evacnare, ' to empty.' An evacuation. A partial 
or imperfect evacuation. By some it is applied 
to an immoderate evacution. — Kraus. 

ABIIAL. A fruit well known in India, and 
obtained from a species of cypress. It passes for 
an emmenagogue. 

ABIES, Pinus picea — a. Balsamea, Pinus bal- 
sam ea. 

Abies Balsamifera, Pinus Balsamea — a. Ca- 
nadensis, Pinus Canadensis — a. Excelsa, see Pinus 
abies — a. Gallica, Pinus picea — a. Larix, Pinus 
larix — a. Peotinata, Pinus picea — a. Picea, Pinus 
picea — a. Rubra, Pinus rubra. 

ABIGA, Teucrium Chamaepitys. 

ABIOSIS, Death. 

ABIOTOS, Conium maculatum. 

ABIRRITA'TION,^6i>rV<a'<io,frora a6, priva- 
tive, and irritatio, ' irritation.' This word strictly 
means absence or defect of irritation. The disci- 
ples of Broussais used it to indicate a pathological 
condition, opposite to that of irritation. It may 
be considered as synonymous with debility, as- 
thenia, <fec. 


ABLASTES, Sterile. 

ABLATIO, Extirpation. 

ABLEPH'ARUS, from a, privative, and jSXe- 
(papov, ' eyelid.' One who has no eyelids. 

ABLEPSIA, Cseeitas. 

ABLUENTIA, Detergents. 

ABLUENTS, Detergents. 

ABLUTION, Abln'tio, Aponip'aia, Cataclya'- 
mua, from abluere, {ab and luere,) ' to wash.' A 
name given to legal ceremonies in which the 
body is subjected to particular affusions. Ablu- 
tion (especially of the extremities) with cold or 
tepid water is employed, therapeutically, to re- 
duce febrile heat. Also, the washing by which 
medicines are separated from the extraneous 
matters mixed with them. 

ABNORMAL, Abnormous. 

ABNORMITY, Anomalia. 

ABNOR'MOUS, Abnor'mia, Enor'mia, Abnor'- 
mal, (F.) Anormal, from ab, 'from,' and norma, 
'rule.' Not conformable to rule; irregular. 

ABOLI"TION, AhoW'tio, destruction 'or sup- 
pression, from ab and Inere (?) 'to wash.' A 
word, often employed, especially by the French, 
to express the complete suspension of any symp- 
tom or function. Abolition of the aight, e. g. is the 
complete lose of sight. 

ABOMA'SUS, Aboma'sum, Enys'troti, Veniric' 



t('»« intesthia'Us, Rennet, (Sc.) Roddildn, (F.) 
CaiUette. The lowermost or fourth stomach of 
ruminating animals. 

ABONDANUE, Plethora, 
ABORSIO, Abortion. 
ABORSUS, Abortion. 
AIWUTIF, Abortive. 
ABORTION, Abor'tHs, Ahor'eua, Ahor'sio, Dys- 
to cia (iborti'vrt, Oinoto'cin, Paracye'sis nbortus, 
Amblo'via, AiiMo'mo, Amblos' miis, Ec'bole, Em- 
bryotoc'ia, Biiiph'thora, Ectro'gis, Examblo' ma, 
E.rnmb/o'nis, Ectroa'mo8, Apopal/e'm's, Apopal'sis, 
Apo/jh'lhora, Phthora, Convul'sio u'ten, Deper- 
di'tio.{F.) Avortement, ^/c«s)()-e, Miscarriage; from 
ab and oriri, 'to rise,' applied to that which has 
an'nen out of season. The expulsion of the foetus 
before the seventh month of utero-gestation, or 
■before it is viable. The causes of this accident 
are referable either to the mother, and particu- 
Ijtrly to the uterus ; or to the foetus and its de- 
pendencies. The causes, in the mother, may be : 
— extreme nervous susceptibility, great debility, 
plethora, faulty conformation, <fec. ; and it is fre- 
quently induced immediately by intense mental 
emotion, violent exercise, <fcc. The causes seated 
in the foetus are its death, rupture of the mem- 
branes, &e. It most frequently occurs between 
the 8th and 12th weeks of gestation. The symp- 
toms of abortion are : — uterine hemorrhage with 
or without flakes of decidua, with intermitting 
pain. When abortion has once taken place, it is 
extremely apt to recur in subsequent pregnancies 
about the same period. Some writers have called 
abortion, when it occurs prior to three months. 
Effluxion. The treatment must vary according 
to the constitution of the patient and the causes 
giving rise to it. In all cases, the horizontal 
posture and perfect quietude are indispensable. 

Abortion is likewise applied to the product of 
an untimely birth, — Aboi-'tiis, Abor'nus, Apoble'- 
ma, Apob'ole, Ecblo'ma, Ainbluthrid' ion, Ectro'- 
ma, Fi-uc'lus immatii'rus, Abortment, (F.) Avor- 
ton, Aoortin. 

TO ABORT, Abori'ri. To miscarry. (F.) 

ABOR'TIVE, Aborti'vus, Ecbol'iua, Amblo'ti- 
cua, Ainblothrid'ium, Ambol' icua, Phthor'ius, Apo- 
phthnr'iua, Ectrot'icus, Abort i/a'ciena, Acyte'- 
riiia, Ejcpel'lens, Phthiroc'toniia, Phthoroc'tonva, 
Ecbol' Ikiis, Contrnc' tor u'teri, Aecel.era' tor Partxia, 
Parturient, Parturi/a'cient, Ecbolic. (F.) Abor- 
tif. A medicine to which is attributed the pro- 
perty of causing abortion. There is probably no 
direct agent of the kind. 

ABORTMENT, Abortion. 

ABORTUS, Abortion. 

AnOUOHEMENT, Anastomosis. 

ABOULAZA, a tree of Madagascar, used, ac- 
cording to Flacourt, in the practice of the coun- 
try, in diseases of the heart. 

ADOUTISSEMENT, Suppuration. 

ABOYEUSES, see Convulaionnaire. 

ABRABAX, Abraanx, Abraxaa. A mystic 
term, expressing the number 365, to which the 
Cabalists attributed miraculous properties. 

ABRACADA'BRA, Abraaada'brn, the name 
of a Syrian idol, according to Selden. This 
word, wiien pronounced and repeated in a certain 
form and a certain number of times, was sup- 
posed to have the power of curing fevers and 
preventing many diseases. It was figured on 
amulets and worn suspended around the neck. 

D X 1 X 3 -I X 

X n X 3 1 X 

T X 3 1 X 
X 3 -I X 

3 -I X 

1 X 


ABRACALAN, A cabalistic term to which the 
Jews attributed the same virtue as to the word 

ABRASABRA, Abracadabra. 

ABRASAX, Abrabax. 

ABRA'SION, (Prov.) Fleck, Abra'aio, Apoayr'. 
ma, Apoxya'mva, from abradere, (ab and radeie,) 
' to rasp.' A superficial excoriation, with loss of 
substance, under the form of small ahreds, in the 
mucous membranes of the intestines, — (F.) Bn- 
elurea dea Boyaux. Also an ulceration of the 
skin, possessing similar characters. According 
to Vicq d'Azyr, the word has been used for the 
absorption of the molecules composing the various 

ABRATHAN, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABRAXAS, Abrabax. 

ABRE, Abrus precatorius. 

ABREVFATJON, Abbreviation. 

ABRICOT, see Prunus Armeniaca — a. Sau- 
vage, Mammea Americana. 

ABRICOTIER, Prunus Armeniaca. 

ABROSIA, Abstinence. 

ABROTANUM, Artemisia abrotanum — a. 
Cathsum, Artemisia abrotanum — a. Mas, Arte- 
misia abrotanum. 

ABROTONE, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABROTONI'TES, (oivog, 'wine,' understood.) 
Wine impregnated with Artemisia Abrotanum or 

ABROTONUM, Artemisia Abrotanum. 

ABRUPTIO, Abduction. 

ABRUS PRECATO'RIUS, (from a^poi, 'ele- 
gant.') Liq'orice Buah, Red Bean, Love pea. (F.) 
Abrc, Liane H rexjliaae. A small ornamental 
shrub, found from Florida to Brazil, as well as in 
Egypt and the West Indies,- N<it. Ord. Leguuii- 
nosae. Sex. Syat. Monadelphia Enneandria; hav- 
ing beautiful scarlet seeds with a black spot. The 
roots and leaves are sweet mucilaginous demul- 
cents. The seeds of the American kind are con- 
ridered to be purgative and poisonous. They are 
employed to form rosaries, and hence called, iu 
mockery, Jumble beads. 

ABSCESS, from abacedo, (aba, and cedere,) ' I 
depart,' or 'separate from.' Abaces'aua, Abacea'- 
aio, Aphiste'ais, Apoate'ma, Ecpye'ma, Ecpye'sia, 
Recee'aua, Impoa'thnme, Gathering. (Old Eng.) 
Apo3temacion,Apoat'hume. (Sc.) Hattrel. (Prov.) 
CohI, Numpost, Pastime. (F.) Abcea, Depot. A 
collection of pus in a cavity, the result of a mor- 
bid process. See Pyogenia, and Suppuration. 

The French have various distinctive terms for 

Abcea Chaud, Aigu, Soudain, is one which fol- 
lows violent inflammation. 

Abcea Froid, Chronique, Scrofulenx, cold, 
chronic, or acrofuloua abscess, one which is the 
result of chronic or scrofulous inflammation. 

Abcea par Congestion, A. diathesique, asympto- 
matic abscess ; one which occurs in a part at a 
distance from the inflammation by which it is 
occasioned : e. g. a lumbar abaceas ,- in which tho 
inflammation may be in the lumbar vertebrae, 
whilst the pus exhibits itself at the groin. 

Abscess, Alveolar, Parulis — a. Cold, see 


Abscess, Metastat'ic, Absces'sim metaitat'- 
iciiK, (F.) Abcen iiiftdsliiiique, A. consecutif, an 
abscess which forms sudilenly, and soinetimcs 
without any precursor)' signs of inflammation, in 
a part of the body remote from one in a state of 
suppuration, and without presenting a sufficient 
reason for its development in tlie place which it 
occupies. It is a consequence of phlebitis. 

Adsckss, Pkiifohating of the Lung, see 
Lung, perforating abscess of the — a. Perilaryn- 
geal, see Perilaryngitis — a. Psoas, Lumbar ab- 
scess — a. Retropharyngeal, see Retropharyngeal 
— a. Shirtstud, Abcen en bniitun de chemine. 

ABSCB.SSUS Capitis Sanguineus Neonatorum, 
Cephalieraatoma — a. Cerebri, Encephalopyosis — 
a. Gangraenescens, Anthrax — a. Gangriienosus, 
Anthrax — a. Lacteus, Mastodynia apostematosa 
— a. Lumborurn, Lumbar abscess — a. Mammffi, 
Mastodynia apostematosa — a. Metastaticus, Ab- 
scess, metastatic — a. Nucleatus, Furunculus — a. 
Oculi, Hypopyon — a. Pectoris, Empyema — a. 
Pulmonum, Pneumapostema — a. Rcnalis, Ne- 
phrapostasis — a. Spirituosus, Aneurism — a. Tho- 
racis. Empyema — a. Urinosus, Urapostema. 
ABSCISSIO PR.EPUTH, Circumcision. 
ABSCIS'SION, Ab8cia'io, Abscis'nio, from ab- 
ecidere or abiciiidere, ' to cut off,' Apoc'ope, 
Apothynu' 818, Dinc'ope. Excision or extirpation 
(if a part, especially of a soft part. — Fabricius 

Fracture or injury of soft parts, with loss of 
substance. — Hippocrates. 

Diminution, or loss of voice. — Celsus. 
Sudden and premature termination of a dis- 
ease. — Galen. 


see Murmur, respiratory. 

ABSINTHE, Artemisia absinthium. 
ABSINTHl'TES, ai|iv5(rr,s, Apainthi'ies, Wine 
impregnated with Absinthium or Wormwood. — 

ABSINTHIUM, (Ph. U. S.,) Artemisia ab- 
sinthium — a. Marinura, Artemisia maritima — a. 
Marilimum, Artemisia maritima — a. Ponticum, 
Artemisia pontica — a. Romanum, Artemisia pon- 
tica — a. Santonicum, Artemisia santonica — a. 
Vulgare, Artemisia absinthium. 
AHSORBANT, Absorbent. 
ABSOR'BENT, Abeor'bens, from ahsorbere (ab 
and sorbere,) 'to drink, to suck up.' (F.) Ab- 
sorbant. That which absorbs. 

Absorbent System is the collection of vessels, 
Vdia abnorben'tia sen resoibeii'tin, and glands, 
which concur in the exercise of absorption. 

A medicine used for absorbing acidity in the 
stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, &c. In- 
oerVens, Re8or'beii8, S<it' nrans, PrcBci'p'itans. 

Also, any substance, such as cobweb, sponge, 
Ac, which, when applied to a bleeding surface, 
retains the blood, and forms with it a solid and 
adhesive compound, which arrests the hemor- 

ABSORPTIO, Absorption — a. Sanguinis, 

ABSOKP'TION, Ab8or2}'t;o, Resnrp'tio, Liha- 
la'tio, Imbibit"io, Anar'rhophe, Aiiarrophe'^is, 
Oatnpino'sia, Rho'ebde'ais, Ctitarrhophe'sis, Ca- 
tnr' rhnphe ; same etymon.' The function of ab- 
sorbent vessels, by virtue of which they take up 
substances from without or within the body. Two 
great divisions have been made of this function. 
1. Externnl absorption, or the absorption of com- 
position, which obtains, from without the organs, 
the materials intended for their composition ; 
and, 2. Internal absorption, or the absorption of 
decomposition, which takes up from the organs 


By external absorption is meant not only that 
which takes place at the external surlacc ot the 
body, but also that of the mucous membnines ol 
the digestive and respiratory passages. Hence, 
again, the division of external absorption into cu- 
taneona—rtsorp'tio cut<i'nea seu cutis, inliola tio 
cutis, — intestinal or digestive, and pulmonary or 
respirator!/. , ,. • , i • i 

Internal absorption is also subdivuled into, 

1. Molecular or interstitial, nutritive, or<janic, or 
decomposim/, which takes up from each organ the 
materials tiiat constitute it, so that the decompo- 
sition is always in equilibrio with the deposition. 

2. The absorption of recrenientitial secreted Jlnidi, 
such as the lluid of serous membranes, synovia, 
<fec. As these are constantly exhaled ou surfaces 
which have no external outlet, they would aug- 
ment indehnitely, if absorption did not remove 
them in the same proportion as that in which 
they are deposited. 3. The absorption of a part 
of the ejL-cremeutitial Jlaids, as they pass over the 
excretory passages. 

Absorption does not effect the decomposition 
of the body immediately. It merely prepares the 
fluid which has to be eliminated by the secretory 


The great agents of external absorption are the 
veins and chyliferous vessels; of internal absorp- 
tion, probably the lymphatics. In the chylife- 
rous vessels and lymphatics the fluid is always 
found to possess the same general properties. 
In them, therefore, an action of elaboration or 
selection must have taken place. The veins, on 
the other hand, seem to exert no selection. Any 
fluid, possessing the necessary tenuity, passes 
through the coats of the vessel readily by imbibi- 
tion, and proceeds along with the torrent of the 
circulation. Watery fluids in this manner enter 
the blojd when they are taken into the stomach. 
Substances that require digestion, on the other 
hand, must pass through the chyliferous vessels 
and thoracic duct. 

Absorption of Composition, see Absorption— 
a. Cutaneous, see Absorption — a. of Leouiuposi- 
tion, see Absorption — a. Digestive, see Absorp- 
tion — a. External, see Absorption — a. of Excre- 
mentitial Secreted Fluids, see Absorption — a. 
Internal, see Absorption — a. Intestinal, see Ab- 
sorption — a. Interstitial, see Absorption — a. 
Molecular, see Absorption — a. Nutritive, see Ab- 
sorption — a. Organic, see Absorption — a. Pul- 
monary, see Absorption — a. of Recreineutitial 
Secreted Fluids, see Absorption — a. Respiratory, 
see Absorption. 

ABSTEME, Abstemious. 

ABSTE'MIOUS, Abste'mius, Aoi'nos, from (i6», 
'without,' and temetum, 'wine.' (F.) Abstiime. 
Used by the ancient writers, as well as by the 
French, in the sense only of its roots; one who 
abstains from wine or fermented liquors in 

ABSTERGENTIA, Detergents. 

ABSTERSIVA, Detergents. 

ABSTERSORIA, Detergents. 

AB'STINENCE, Abstinen'tia, from ahs, 'from,' 
and tenere, 'to hold,' Abros'ia, Asit'ia, Liman'- 
chia, Limocton'ia, Fasting. Privation, usually 
voluntary, as when we speak of abstinence from 
pleasure, abstinence from drink, Ac. It is more 
particularly used to signify voluntary privation 
of certain articles of food. Fasting is a useful re- 
medial agent in certain diseases, particularly in 
those of an inflammatory character. 

ABSUS, a kind of cassia, 0. Abaitn, which 
grows in Egypt and in India, the seeds of which, 
pulverized and mixed with powdered sugar, have 

the materials that have to be replaced by the iSbeen employed in form of a dry collyrium, in the 


endemic ophthalmia of Egypt. 




ABU'LIA ; from a, 'privative,' and /JouXi/, 'will.' 
Loss of the will, or of volition. 

AIJU'HCUS ; same etymon. One who has lost 
the power of will or of volition. 

Alius DE SOf.Jl//>ME, Masturbation. 

ABUTA (a Guiana name), Pareira brava. 

ABUTILON AVICENN/E, A. Corda'tum, Si- 
da Aba' t Hon, Indian or y'ellow 3IaUow, Velvet 
leaf; Order, Malvaceae, (from a, privative,' (iovi, 
'an ox,' and tiAoj, ' diarrhoea,' that is, ' a remedy 
for the diarrhtca of cattle ;') is naturalized, and 
common in most parts of the United States. It 
resembles common mallow in its properties, being 
mucilaginous and demulcent. 

ABVACUA'TIO, an excessive or colliquative 
evacuation of any kind. 

ACACIA, (Ph. U. S.) Acaciae gurami— a. Cate- 
chu, Catechu — a. False, Robinia pseudo-acacia — 
a. Germanica, see Prunus spinosa— a. Giraffa, see 
Acaciie gummi — a. Horrida, see Acaciae gummi 
— a. Indica, Tamarindus — a. Nilotica, see Acaciae 
gummi — a. Nostras, see Prunus spinosa— a. Sene- 
gal, see Senegal, gum — a. Vera, see Acaciae gum- 
mi— n. Zeylonica, Ilaematoxylon Campechianum. 
ACACI/E GUMMI, Acn'cia, from gkv, 'a 
point,' so called in consequence of its spines, G. 
Acn'cia; Arab'iccB, G. Mimo'scB, G. Arah'icnm, G. 
Acanth'Inum, G. Leucum, G. Theba'iciim, G. Se- 
rnpid'iiia, G. Lnmnc, G. Senega or Seneca, (see 
Senegal, gum,) Gum Ar'abic. (F.) Gomme Ara- 
bi(/iie. The gum of the Aca'cia seu Mimo'sa 
Nilot'icn, Aca'cia vera. Spina JSgyptiaea, of 
Upper Egypt, Nat. Ord. Mimoseae. Sex. Si/st. 
Polygamia Monoecia. It is in irregular pieces, 
colourless, or of a pale yellow colour, hard, brittle, 
of a shining fracture, transparent, soluble in 
water, and insoluble in alcohol, s. g. 1-4317. 

It is mucilaginous ; but is rarely used, except 
in pharmacy. Sometimes it is administered alone 
as a demulcent. 

Acacia Horrida and A. Giraffes, of South 
Africa, yield a good gum. 

ACA.TOU, (of Indian origin) Anacardium oc- 

AcAJUBAOFFicnfALis, Anacardium occidentale. 
Acal'ypha Bktuli'na, Cauda felis agrestin. 
(a, 'privative,' «aXoj, 'beautiful,' and a0v, 'touch'] 
is employed by tlie natives of India as a stoma- 
chic and in cholera. It is given in the form of 
infusion of the leaves. 

Acalypha Hispida, Caturus spiciflorus. 
Acal'ypha In'dica, 'disagreeable to the 
touch.' Ciipameni, Order Euphorbiacea3. A com- 
mon annual in the gardens of India. An infusion 
of the root, and a decoction of the leaves are 

Acal'ypha Virgin'ica. Three-seeded mer'eury, 
indigenous, flowering in August, is said to have 
expectorant and diuretic properties. 

ACA.M'ATUS, from a, priv., and KOfivo), 'I la- 
bour.' This word has been sometimes used for 
a good constitution of the body. According to 
Galen, it means that position in which a limb is 
intermediate between flexion and extension; a 
position which may be long maintained without 

ACAMPSIA, Contractura. 
ACANOS, Onopordium acanthium — a. Spina, 
Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTIIA, Vertebral column. Also, Spinous 
process of a vertebra. 

ACANTIIAB'OLUS, Acan'thulus, Volsel'la, 
from aKav5a, 'a spine,' and /JaAAu, 'I cast out.' 
A kind of forceps for removing extraneous sub- 
stances from wounds. — Paulus of iEgiua, Fabri- 
cius ab Aquapendcnte, Scultetus, <fec. 

AC AX THE FAUSSE, Heracleum spondy- 


ACANTHIUM, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHULUS, Acanthabolus. 

ACANTHUS MOLLIS, (aKav^a, 'a spine or 
thorn,') same etymon as Acacia. Melamjjhyl'- 
lum, Branca urai'na seu vera, Brankur'aine, 
Bear's Breech. (F.) Pied d'ottrs. This plant is 
mucilaginons like Althaea, and is used as a de- 

ACAPATLI, Piper longum. 

ACAR'DIA, from a, priv., and xapSia, 'the 
heart.' The state of a foetus without a heart. 

ACARDIOH^'MIA. (F.) Acardiohemie, from 
a, priv., KopSia, 'heart,' and ai/<a 'blood.' AVant 
of blood in the heart. — Piorry. 

ACARDIONER'VIA, (F.) Acardionervie : 
from a, priv., xupita, 'heart;' and vcvpov, ' nerve.' 
Want of nervous action in the heart as indicated 
by the sounds ceasing to be audible. 

ACARDIOTROPHIA, Heart, atrophy of the. 

AC A RE, Acarus. 

AC'ARICIDE, from acarus, and ccedere, 'to 
kill.' A destroyer of acari, — as of the acarus 

ACARICO'BA. The Brazilian name for Hy. 
drocol'yle umbella'tnm, used by the Indians as 
an aromatic, alexipharraic, and emetic. 

ACARON, Myricagale. 

ACARP'^, from a, 'privative,' and Ataproj, 
'fruit.' A division of the family of cutaneous 
diseases by Fuchs, in which there is no " fruit," 
((ierm. Frucht,) or production from the cutane- 
ous surface — tubercles, vesicles or pustules. 
Lentigo, Chloasma, Argyria, and Pityriasis be- 
long to it. 

ACARUS, from a, privative, and (ca/,)??, 'di- 
visible.' (F.) Acare. A minute insect, one spe- 
cies of which has been noticed, by several obser- 
vers, in the itch. The Acarus Scabiei, see Psora. 

Acarus Giro, se'e Psora — a. Comedonum, 
Acarus Folliculorum. 

Ac'arus Cros'sei, Crosse mite. An insect sup- 
posed by Mr. Crosse, of England, to have been 
developed in a solution of silicate of potassa when 
submitted to slow galvanic action, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining crystals of silex. It did not, 
however, prove to be a new formation. 

Acarus Folliculo'rum, A. Comedo'num, En- 
tozo'on seu De'modex seu Simo'nea seu Steatozo'- 
on folliculo'rum, JIfacro/jas'ter plat'ypus. An 
articulated animalcule, discovered in the sebace- 
ous substance of the cutaneous follicles. Accord- 
ing to Professor Owen, it belongs to the Ara- 

Acarus Scabiei, Acarus, see Psora. 

ACATALEP'SIA, from a, privative, and xara- 
Xa/ilSai'oj , 'I comprehend.' Uncertainty in dia- 
gnosis. Its opposite is Catalepsia. — Galen. 

ACATAP'OSIS, from a, privative, and xara- 
ruiTif, ' deglutition.' Incapacity of swallowing. 
Vogel has given this name to difficulty of deglu- 

ACATASTAT'IC, Acatastat'icus, from a, priv., 
and Ka^taTrj/ii, ' to determine.' An epithet given 
to fevers, Ac, when irregular in their periods or 
symptoms. — Hippocrates. 

ACATHAR'SIA, from a, priv., and Ka&atpt^to, 
' I purge ;' Sordes, Impurities. Omission of a pur- 
gative. — Foesius. 

ACATSJAVAL'LI, a Malabar plant, which is 
astringent and aromatic. A bath of it is used in 
that country in cases of hemicrania. It is sup- 
posed to be the Cassytha filiforniis of Linnaeus. 
ACAWERIA, Ophioxvlum serpentinum. 




rator urinas. 

Accelera'tor Uri'na!, Bulbo-caverno'aua, Bitl- 
hn-tiretral — (Ch.), EJacula'tor Sciii'iuts, Biilbo- 
si/tidesmo-caverneux. (F.) Accelerate itr de I'urine, 
J3ulbo-caverneux, Ano-eaverneux, from ad and 
celer, ' quick.' A muscle of the penis, which 
arises, fleshy, from the sphincter ani and mem- 
branous part of the urethra, and tendinous, from 
the crus and beginning of the corpus caverno- 
sum penis. In its course it forms a thin, fleshy 
layer, the inferior fibres of which run more trans- 
versely than the superior, which descend in an 
oblique direction ; the muscles of both sides com- 
pletely enclosing the bulb of the urethra. It is 
inserted into its fellow by a tendinous line run- 
ring longitudinally on the middle of the bulb. 
Its use is to propel the urine or semen forwards. 

ACCENT, Sonus vocis, from ad and canerc, 
cantuin, to sing. Inflection or modification of the 
voice, which consists in raising or dropping it on 
certain syllables. 

The accent exhibits various alterations in dis- 
ease. ^ 

ACCES, Paroxysm. 

ACCES'SION, Acces'sfo, from aeeedo, {ad and 
cedere,) 'I approach.' The invasion, approach, 
or commencement of a disease. 

ACOESSOIBE, Accessory— a.dulongFlechis- 
scur commnn des orteils : see Flexor longus digi- 
torum pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) — I'Obturateur interne, Ischio-trochanterianus 
■ — a. da Pied d' Hippocampe : see Cornu ammonis 
— a.du Sacro-lombaire : see Sacro-lumbalis. 

TORUM PEDIS; see Flexor longus digitorum 
pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) — a. Pedis 
hippocampi; — see Cornu ammonis. 

ACCESSORY, Acccsso'rins, (F.) Accessoire, 
Annexe, same etymon. A consequence or de- 
pendence on any thing; as accessory ligament, 
muscle, nerve, <fcc. 

Accessory op the Parot'ib is a name given 
by Haller to a small gland, which accompanies 
the parotid duct, and is commonly a mere pro- 
longation of the parotid itself. See Parotid. 

AccEssoRV Sciences to Medicine are those 
which do not relate directly to the science of 
man in a state of health or disease ; as physics, 
chemistry, <fec. 
Accessory op the Par Vagum, Spinal nerve. 
The term accessory is also given to several 

ACCESSUS, Coition. 

ACCIDENS, Symptoma — a. Consecutifs, Con- 
secutive phenomena. 

ACCIDENT, Ac'cidens, from accidere, {ad and 
cadere,) ' to happen.' A casualty ; an unforeseen 
event. The French — like older English writers 
— use the term in nearly the same sense as symp- 
tom. It means also an unexpected symptom. 

ACCIDEN'TAL, Advanti" tious. That which 
happens unexpectedly. 

The French give the name Tissue accidentels 
to those adventitious textures, that are the result 
of a morbid process. 

ACCIP'ITER, Hi'erax, \tpa^, ' the hawk,' from 
accipere {ad and capio,) 'to take.' Menec'ratis 
Accip'iter, (F.) Epervier. A bandage applied 
over the nose, so called from its likeness to the 
claw of a hawk. 

ACCLI'MATED, Clima'ti assue'tus, (from ad 
and clima.) A word of recent introduction from 
the French, which means 'accustomed to a cli- 
ACCLIMATATION, Acclimation. 
ACCLIMATEMENT, Acclimation. 
ACCLIMATION, Seas'oning. {¥.) Acdimate- 

ment, Acclimalation. The act of becoming accli- 
mated or accustomed to a climate. 

The constitution of a person, who goes to live 
in another and a very different climate usually 
experiences changes, which are frequently of an 
unfavourable character, and the study ot which 
is of considerable importance i" "medicine. 

RAOTE, Accompaniment of the cataract. 

ACCOM'PANIxVIENT, Adjun'ction. (F.) Ac- 
compaqnement, {eompagnon, ' an associate'). That 
whichis joined to any thing. 

Accompaniment to the cataract, {I.) Accom- 
pagnement de la cataracte, is a whitish, viscid 
substance, which sometimes surrounds the opake 
crystalline lens, and remains after the operation 
for cataract, causing a secondary cataract. 
ACCOUCHEE, Puerpera. 
ACCOUCHEMENT, Parturition — a. Labori- 
ous, Dystocia — a. cnntre Nature, see Presentation, 
preternatural— a. Laborieux, Laborious labour, 
— a. Provoqne, see Parturition. 

ACCOUCHEUR, (F.) Adju'tor Part&s, Ob. 
stet'ricans, Obstetri"cius, Maieu'ter, Maieu'tes. 
He who practices the art of midwifery. A physi- 
cian-Accoucheur, a Surgeon-Accoucheur, a JJan- 
midxvife, &c. 

ACCRE'TION, Accre'tio, from ad, *to,' and 
crescere, 'to increase.' Augmentation; (F.) Ac- 
croissement ; also, increase by juxtaposition. 
ACCROISSEMENT, Accretion, Increase. 
ACCUSATIO, Indication. 
ACE'DIA, Jncu'ria, from a, privative, and 
Ke&oi, ' care.' Want of care, neglect. Also, fa- 
tigue. — Hippocrates. 
ACELLA, Axilla. 
ACEOGNOSIA, Pharmacognosia. 
ACEOLOGIA, Materia Medica. 
ACEPHALE, Acephalous. 
ACEPHALH^'MIA, (F.) Acephalhemie,ivom. 
a, priv., Kt<pa\ri, ' head,' and aiyia, ' blood.' Want 
of blood in the encephalon. — Piorry. 
ACEPHALIA, see Acephalous. 
ACEPHALTE, see Acephalous. 
ACEPHALOBRA'CnUS, from a, privative, 
K£<pii\rj, ' head,' and ppa^Kiiv, ' arm.' A foetus 
without head or arms. 

ACEPHALOCAR'DIA, from a, priv., tKtpaXv, 
' head,' and Kupiia, ' heart.' Monstrosity in which 
there is absence of head and heart. 

ACEPHALOCHI'RUS, from a, privative, kc- 
(paXri, 'head,' and x"P> 'hand.' A foetus without 
head or hands. 

ACEPH'ALOCYST, Acephalocys'tis, (F.) Ace- 
phalocyste, from a, privative, Kci^aXr;, 'head,' and 
KujTif, 'bladder.' A hydatiform vesicle, without 
head or visible organs, ranked amongst the Ento- 
zoa, although possessed of few animated charac- 
teristics. In no organ of the body are acepha- 
locysts so frequently found as in the liver. Gene- 
rally it is the 'multiple acephalocyst,' A. socia'- 
lis seu prolif'era, which is met with. At times, 
however, it is the 'solitary acephalocyst,' A. 
eremi'ta seu ster'ilis. 

The acephalocyst! s endog"ena has a firm coat, 
and is composed of different layers, which have 
numbers of smaller hydatids within them, and 
are thrown og' from the interior of the parent 
cyst. This species has hence been termed en- 
dogena, to distinguish it from the A. exog"ena 
of ruminant animals, in which the young vesicles 
are developed from the exterior of the parent 
vesicles. — See Hydatid. 

ACEPIIALOGAS'TER. Athoracoceph'afus, 
from a privative, Kt<pa\ri, 'head,' and yaar/jp, 'the 




belly.' A nanio gh-en to monsters devoid of head, 
chcHt, and abdomen ; or to those which have an 
abdomen, but no chest or head. 

ACEFHALOP'ODUS, from a, priv., Ke<pa\r,, 
'head,' and novs, no6of, 'foot.' A monster devoid 
of head and feet. The condition is called Acephu- 

ACKPHALORA'CIIIA, from a, priv., w^aXi,, 
'head,' and pax^i, 'spine.' Monstrosity in which 
there is absence of head and spine. 

ACE PHALOS'TOMA, from a, privative, «f£0aX;7, 
' head,' and (rrofia, 'mouth.' An acephalous foetus, 
at the upper part of which there is an opening 
resembling a mouth. 

ACEPUALOTHORA'CIA, from a, privative, 
KitpaXix, ' head,' and ^upnf, &tapaKO(:, ' thorax.' 
Monstrosity in which there is absence of head 
and chest. 

ACEPHALOTIIO'RUS, from a, privative, 
Kt(pa\Ti, 'head,' and ■Jupa^, ' chest,' Ajjectocejih'alus. 
A monster devoid of head or chest. 

ACEPH'ALOUS, from a, privative, and KtipaXtj, 
'head.' (F.) Acephale. A monster born devoid 
of head. The condition is called Acepha'lia. (F.) 

ACER, Acrid. 

Acer Palmifolium, A. Saccharinum. 

Acer Pennsylvan'icum, Striped Ifaple, 
Striped Dofjwood. A decoction of the bark has 
been used internally and externally in cutaneous 
atfections ; and a decoction of the leaves and twigs 
is said to relieve nausea and vomiting. 

Acer Rubrum, lied Jfuple ; Indigenous. The 
inner bark is a mild astringent. The Indians 
use a decoction of it for sore eyes. 

Acer Sacchari'num, A. palmi/o'lium. Maple, 
Si(gar Ifaple. (F.) Erable, Ord., Aceraceae. This 
tree contains a large amount of sweet sap, whence 
a considerable quantity of sugar may be extracted. 
"When purified, this sugar can scarcely be distin- 
guished from that obtained from the cane. — See 

Acera'tes Longifo'lia, Long-leaved green 
Milkweed; Order, Asclepiadaceae ; indigenous, 
flowering in June and July; has the properties 
of the order. See Asclepias. 

ACERATO'SIS, from a, privative, and Kcpai, 
KcpaTOi, ' horn.' Defective development of the 
corneous tissue. 

ACERB', Acer'bus, Stryphnos, from acer, 
'sharp.' A savour, or taste, compounded of the 
acid, bitter, and astringent; such as is met with 
in unripe fruits, &c. 

ACER'CUS, from a, privative, and nepKOi 'a 
tail.' A monster devoid of tail. — Gurlt. 

ACE'RIDES, Acero'des, from a, privative, and 
Krjpos, ' wax.' Plasters devoid of wax. — Galen. 

ACERODES, Acerides. 

ACERO'SUS, Achyro'des, Pithyri'nus, from 
axypov, ' chaff.' Fiir/iira'ceous. An epithet used 
by Hippocrates for the coarsest bread, made of 
flour not separated from the chaff. — Foesius. 

— a. Glandulufl Pinealis, see Pineal Gland. 

ACES'CENCY, Acescen'tia, from acescere, ' to 
grow sour,' {axts, 'a point,' acer, 'sharp.') A dis- 
position to acidity. Tbe humourists believed that 
the animal humours are susceptible of this change. 

ACESIA, Cure. 

ACESINOSUS, Curative. 

ACESIS, Curation, Cure, Medicament. 

ACESMA, Medicament. 

ACES.MIUS, Curable. 

ACES.MUS, Cure. 



ACESTER, Physician. 

ACESTIS, Medicament. 

ACESTOR, Physician. 

ACESTORIA, Medicine. 
ACESTORIS, Midwife. 
ACESTOS, Curable. 
ACESTRA, Needle. 
ACESTRIA, Midwife. 
ACESTRIS, Midwife. 
ACESTRUM, Medicament. 

ACETAB'ULUM, (F.) Aa^tabn/e, from acefiim, 
' vinegar,' because it resembles the old vinegar 
vessel oxybaph'iDH. A measure capable of con- 
taining the eighth part of a modern pint. — Athe- 
nacus. Galen. See Cotyloid. According to 
Castelli, the lobes or cotyledons of the [.laeentue 
of ruminating animals have been so called. 

Acetabulum, Cotyle, Cotyloid— a. Humeri, see 
Glenoid — a. Marinum, Umbilicus marinus. 

ACETA'RIA, same etymon. A salad or 

ACETAS, Acetate. 

ACETATE, Ace'tas. (F.) Acetate. A salt 
formed by the union of the acetic acid with an 
alkaline, earthy, or metallic base. The acetates 
chiefly used in medicine are the acetates of am- 
monia, lead, potash, and zinc. 

ACE'TICA, Ace'ta Medica'ta. (F.) Vinnigrcn 
Medicinaux. Pharmaceutical preparations of 

ACE'TICUM AC'IDUM, Acid<im Aee'ticwn 
for'tins seu forte seu puriim seu glacia'le, Ace'- 
tum radica'le, O.ros, Ace'tic Acid, Strong Ace'toiis 
Acid, Acidum Aeeto' sum forte, liad'icul Viit'egar, 
Spir'itus Veu'erin (ivhen made from verdiyrin,) 
Spirit of Verdigris. Concentrated acetic acid, 
prepared by decomposing an acetate and receiv- 
ing the acetic acid by distillation, has a very 
pungent and grateful odour, and an acid and 
acrid taste. Its s. g. is about 1.046, and it is 
very volatile. 

It is stimulant, rubefacient, and eseharotic, and 
is applied to the nostrils in syncope, asphyxia, 
headache, <fec. It destroys wnrts. 

An Aromatic Spirit of Vinegar, Ac"idiim Ace'- 
ticum Camphora'txim, A. aceto'ntim camphora'tiim^ 
is formed of this strong acid, f^x; Uatnphor, ^j ; 
Alcohol, f^j. 

A strong Acetic Acid was ordered by the Lon- 
don pharmacopoeia, prepared from wood. It was 
called Vinegar of icood, hnproved distilled ]'ine- 
gar, Pyrolig'ncous Acid, Ace'tum Ligvo'rnm, and 
its strength was such, that 87 gr. of crystallized 
subcarbonate of soda should saturate 100 grains 
of the acid. 

Ac"idum Ace'ticum Dihi'tnm, A. A. ten'ne. sen 
debil'iiis, Ace'tum destilla'tvm, Acidiim nce'tlcnni, 
Acidum aceto'sum destilla'tum. Distil'led rin'egar, 
(F.) Acide Acetique falble, Vinaigre dlilllle. is 
prepared by distilling vinegar, until .'^evcn-eiclitlis 
have passed over. An Acidum nceticum dlhitum. 
Diluted acetic acid, is made by mixing a pint of 
the strong acetic acid with seven pints of rliftillcd 
water. — Ph. U. S. Its properties are like those 
of vinegar. 

AcETiciiM Martiale, Ferri Acetas. 

ACETOLAT, (F.) from acetum, vinegar. A 
liquid medicine resulting from the distillation of 
vinegar on one or more aromatic vegetable suii- 
stances, and which are formed of vinegar and 
essential oils, or other volatile principles. — Bcral. 

ACETOLATUIiE, same etymon. A tincture, 
formed by digesting a vegetable substance or sub- 
stances in vinegar. — Beral. * 

ACETOLE, same etymon, Oxcole. A medi- 
cine, formed of distilled vinegar and medicinal 
principles dissolved in it. — Beral. 

AUETOMEL, Oxymel. 

ACETONE, Ac"cton, from acetum, 'vinegar.' 




Splr'itii8 pi/ro-ace'ticiiii ligno'ins, Pi/ro-nce'tic 
tpiiit, Pi/n>-(tce'tic Ether, Mesit'ic Al'eohol, 
Jii/iijdrule (if Mcsil'i/lciie, (F.) Acetone; errone- 
ously called yaj)htha and Wood Naphtha. By 
others, however, the terms are applied to Py- 
rojrylic Spirit. A limpid, colourless liquid, hav- 
ing a peculiarly penetrating and slightly enipy- 
reuniiitic odour. Its density in the liquid state, 
is almost the same as that of alcohol, 0.7921. Its 
taste is disagreeable, and analogous to that of 
peppermint. It is miscible in all proportions 
with water, alcohol, and ether. It may be pre- 
pared by distilling a mixture of two parts of 
crystallized acetate of lead and one part of quick- 
lime in a salt-glaze jar (gray-beard,) the lower 
part of the jar being coated with fire-clay ; and 
ii bent glass tube, half an inch in diameter, 
jidaptcd to the mouth by a cork, so as to form a 
distillatory apparatus. The jar is supported on 
the mouth of a small furnace, by which the lower 
part only is heated to redness, and the vapours 
are conducted into a Liebig's condenser. The 
product is repeatedly redistilled from quicklime, 
until its boiling point is constant at 132°. 

It has been brought forward as a remedy in 
phthisis pulmonalis; but evidently with un- 
founded pretensions. It is an excitant, and may 
be serviceable in chronic bronchitis. The dose 
is ten to forty drops three times a day, diluted 
with water. 

ACETOSA ALPINA, Rumex alpinus — a. 
Nostras, Kumex acetosa — a. Pratensis, llumex 
acetnsa — a. Romana, llumex soutatus — a. Ro- 
tundifolia, Rumex scutatiis — a. Scutata, Rumex 
scutatus — a. Vulgaris, Rumex acetosa. 

ACETOSELLA, Oxnlis acetosclla. 

ACE'TUM, o^os, (has, Aee'tiim Vhii seu BH- 
tnn'iiiciiin seu (Idl'llcum, Cummon Viiiei/ar, Aci- 
rliini acetu'sum, A'legnr, Aee'tiim Ccreriv'icB, (F.) 
Viiinigre ; from qkh, 'a point,' (Tcec, 'sharp.' A 
liquor obtained by the acetous fermentation. 
Vinegar has a pungent odour, and a pleasant acid 
taste. One fluid ounce of the Acetum of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia is saturated by 
about 35 grains of crystallized bicarbonate oif 
soda. It is refrigerant in fevers ; antiseptic, and 
anti-narcotic; and externally is stimulant and 

Vinegar Whey is made by stirring a small 

wineglassful of vinegar, sweetened with a dessert 

spoonful of sugar, in a pint of wilk ; boiling for 

I, fifteen minutes, and straining. Like tamarind 

whey it is an agreeable drink in febrile affections. 

Ack'tom Aromat'icum, A. Theriaca'le seu 
qiiutxior fiiruni, Acidiim Aee'tictim Aromat'icum, 
ThiereH' Vinegar, Vinegar of the four Thieves, 
Marseilles Vinegar, (F.) Viuaigre Aromatiqite, 
V. des (jiiatre voletirs, {Rorismarin. cnciim. sice., 
Fol. Salvia sing. ,^j. Lavaiid. flor. sice. ^iv. Ca- 
ryoph. cont. ^ss. Acid. Aeet. Oij. Macerate 7 days, 
•and filter. — Ph. E.) Odour, pungent and aroma- 
tic. Used as a perfume. 

AcETDM Britannict!M, Acetum. 

Ace'titm Canthar'idis, Vinegar of Cantha- 
rides, (Cantharid.m pulv. ^^iij. Aeid. acet. fSv., 
Acid, piirolign. f.^xv: Eiiphorb. in pulv. crass, 
^ss. Mis the acids ; add the powders ; macerate 
for seven days ; strain ; express strongly, and 
filter the liquor.— Ph._^E. The London College 
macerates cantharid. ^'j in acid. acet. Oj. (Imp. 
meas.) for eight days ; expresses and strains.) It 
is used as a prompt vesicant. 

Ace'tum CoL'cHici,J7)ie(/'if)- of meadow saffron. 
(Colchic. rad.'contiis. ^\} ; Acid, acetic, diliit. vel 
Acet. destillat. Oij ; Ph. U. S. 18.51. It may also 
be made by displacement.) It is used as a diu- 
retic, and also in gout. Dose f,^''^- to f.^iss. 

AcETCM Dkstillatl'm; see Aceticum ncidum 
— ^a. Gallieum, A,cetum — a. Lignorum: see Ace- 

ticum acidum— a. Mulsum dulce, Oxyglycus— n. 
Opii, GuttiB Nigrie — a. Plumbicum seu Saturni- 
nuu). Liquor Plumbi subacetatis — a. Quatucir 
furum, Acetum Aromaticum — a. Radlcale, Aceti- 
cum Acidum — a. Rosatum, Oxyrrhodinon. 

AcKTI'M Scil.L^t:, Acidum Ace'ticum Scillit'- 
icum, Vinegar of SquRls, (F.) Vinaigre scilli- 
tiqiie, {Scil/w contus. ,^iv; Acet. destillat. Oij; 
Ph. U. S. It may also be made by displace- 
ment.) Diuretic, expectorant, and emetic. Doso 
f^ss to 3ij as a diuretic and expectorant. It 
may also be made by the process of displacement. 

Acetum Tukhiacalb, Acetum aron)alicum. 

ACEYTE DE SAL. A remedy for broncho- 
cele used in S. America. Roulin found it to con- 
tain a portion of iodine. 

ACUACANA. A species of cactus, in the pro- 
vince of Potosi in Peru. Its root is thick and 
fleshy, and of a conical shape. It is a good edi- 
ble, and is sold in the markets of the country. 

ACHALYPHEiMlE. See Chlorosis. 

ACHANACA. A plant of the kingdom of 
Mely in Africa. It is used by the natives as an 

ACllAOVAN, a species of Egyptian cliamo- 
mile. — Prosper Alpinus. 

ACHAOVAN-ABIAT. The Egyptian name 
of Cineraria huiritima, used in female diseases. 

ACIIAR, Atchar. 

ACHE, Pain. 

ACHE, Apium graveolens — a. des Ifontngnes, 
Ligusticum levisticum. 

ACIIEI'LIA, Aehi'lia, from a, priv., and ■)(^c{\oi, 
'lip.' A malformation, consisting in a deficiency 
of a lip or lips. 

ACllEl'LUS, Aehi'lua: same etymon. One 
who is without lips. 

ACHEIR, Aehir, De'manns, from a, privative. 
and x^'Pf 'hand.' One devoid of hands.— tialcn. 

ACllEI'RIA, Achi'ria: same etymon. The 
state of being devoid of hands. 

ACHEROIS, Populus. 

ACHIA, Arhiar. A name given in India to 
the pickled shoots of the bamboo. 

AcHiA, Atchar. 

ACIIIAR. Achia. 

ACIIIC'OLUM. Achit'obta, Ilidrote'rion, Sii- 
da'rinm, Fornix, Tholus, Siidato' riiini, Sn'datory, 
Siceating-honse, Sweating-bath. The eivcating- 
rooin in the ancient bagnios. 

ACIIILIA, Acheilin. 
■ ACHILLE, TENDON D', Achillis t.^ndo. 

ACIIILLE'A AGE'RATUM. A. visco'sa, Bal- 
sami'ta fa-min'ea, Enpato'rinm MES'UKS, Age'iii- 
tiim, Cos'tiis horto'rum minor, Maudlin, Maudlin 
Tansey ; (F.) Achillie Visqueiise ; Ord. Compo- 
sitae; Sex. Sijit. Syngenesia Polygamia Super- 
flua, — has the same properties as tansey, bitter 
and aromatic, and is used in like affe('tions. 

Achillk'a Atua'ta, Herba Gen'ipi vcri, (F.) 
Achillee Noire, has similar virtues. 

Achillk'a MlI,LEFO'l,inM, Achille'a Myrio. 
phyl'lon, Chri/soc'oma, Millefo'l ium, Chilioj,h,il'. 
Ion, Lunibus Vcn'cris, Common Yarrow or Mil- 
foil. (F.) Millefeuilh, Herbe <iHx charjjentiers. 
The leaves and flowers have an aromatic smell, 
and a rough, bitterish, somewhat pungent taste. 
They have been used in dyspepsia, liatulencej 
hemorrhage, &c. An extract of the plant, made 
with proof spirit, has been called AchitUVnum ■ 
and IS used by the Italians in intermittent fever 

Achille'a Moscha'ta, an Alpine plant, has 
been esteemed diaphoretic and vulnoniry (') A 
volatile oil calle.l E.prit d'lva. is obtained from 
It in Switzerland, which is much prized for its 
musky odour. It is said, by Merat and De Lens 
to be the Genlpi of the Savoyards, which i< usu- 
ally referred to Artemisia rupestris. 

Achille'a Ptau'.mica, Ptar'mica, P. Vulgu' 



rf», Psp.xido py'rethrnm, Pyrethrnm sylrei'tre, 
Draco Hj/toeK'tn'H, Torchon si/lrenfria, Sternntit- 
meiito'riti, Driifipi'diliia Pralrii'idH, Sneeze-wort, 
BitHtard Pel'litory. (F.) Herhe d ileruuer. Tlie 
roots find flowers have a hot, biting taste, ap- 
proaching that of pyrethrutn. Their principal 
use is as a masticatory and sialogogue. 
Achillea ViscosA, A. Ageratum. 
ACIIILLEE NOIRE, Achillea atrata — a. 
Vit<iiiruHe, Achillea ageratum. 
ACIIILLEINUM, see Achillea Millefolium. 
ACHILLE'IS. A beautiful species of barley, 
mentioned by Thcophrastus and Galen, called 
after Aehilles, a labourer. The decoction was 
used in fevers and jaundice. — Hippocrates. 

ACIIILLEUM. telepheum. 

ACllIl/LlS TENDO, Funis Hippoc'ratis, 
Ciirdu seu Chorda IIippoc'uatis, Corda magna, 
Nervng latuH, (F.) Te)tdon d'AchiUe. The Strong 
tendon of the gastroenemii muscles above the 
heel : so called, because it was the only vulner- 
able part of Achilles, or because of its strength. 
See Tendon. 

ACIIILUS, Acheilus. 

ACIIIMBASSI. An archiater or chief of phy- 
sicians. A name given, at Grand Cairo, to a 
magistrate who licenses physicians. 

AC II I R, Acheir. 

ACIIIRIA, Acheiria. 

ACIIITOLUS, Achicolum. 

ACHLYS, Caligo. 

ACIIMELLA, Spilanthus acraella. 

ACUNE. Lint. See Linteum. Also, small 
mucous flocculi seen in front of the cornea. — 

AC'HOL'IA, from a, privative, and ;^oA»;, 'bile.' 
Deficiency or want of bile. Also, Asiatic cholera. 

A'CHOLUS: same etymon. One deficient in 

ACIIOR, Porrigo larvalis. 

ACHO'llES. A term often employed by the 
ancients to designate botli crunta lac'tea, and 
small superficial ulcerations on the skin of the 
face and head. See Porrigo Larvalis. 

AcnoRES Capitis, Porrigo scutulata. 


ACnOllIS'TUS, from a, priv., and x<^piC«>, 'I 
.separate.' Any sign which necessarily accompa- 
nies a state of health or disease. 

ACHOUROU. The Caraib name for a species 
of myrtle used in dropsy. 

ACHllAS AUSTRALIS, Sapota — a. Sapota, 
Sapota — a. Zapota, Siipota. 

ACHROI, Achruniatii'li, Achro'mati, Achro'mi, 
from a, privative, and ^piofia, 'colour.' Pale indi- 
viduals—Hippocrates. It is nearly synonymous 
with Xeiifiatnut, leiphce'mi, persons without colour; 

ACHRO'MA, Chloasma album, Leucopathi'a 
partia'lis acquis'ita. Partial privation of colour 
of the .skin. 

ACHROMASIA, Decoloration. 


ACllliOM AT'lC,A<'hromat'icns: same etymon. 
A lens, so constructed as to correct the aberration 
of rcfrann-ibility of common lenses, is so termed. 
The Cri/xtiil/ini'. is an achromatic lens. 


ACHROMATOPSIA, Achromntop'sy, Chroma- 
topsi-udop'sia, Chromatometahlep'sia, Dyschroma- 
tou'sSa. Parachro'ma, Pseudochro'mia, Parora'- 
sis, visas de'color, Colour blindness, Idioj)t'cy,^ 
flal'tonism, from a, privative, x^"/"'- 'colour,' 
and oTTouni, ' I see.' Incapability of distinguish- 
ino- colours; a defect situate in the cerebral part 
of^the visual organ. Persons so circumstanced 
have been termed, by Mr. Whewell, Idiopts. See 
Acyanoblepsia and Anerytliropsia. 

ACHROMI, Achroi. 

ACHROMODKK.VIE. see Albino. 



ACHYLO'SIS, from a, privative, and x^^''''< 
'juice, chyle.' Defective chylosis or formation 
of chj'le. 

ACHYMO'SIS, from a, privative, and x^l^°^> 
'juice, chyme.' Defective chymification. 

ACHYRAN'THES REPENS, Illicc'brvm po- 
lyjonnidcH, Forty Knot; indigenous. Order, 
Ainaranthaceae. A decoction of the plant \i 
drunk as a diuretic in dropsy, ischuria, ic. 

ACHYRODES, Acerosus. 

ACHYRON, Furfur. 

A'CIA, from aKn, a point. A word used by 
Celsus, which has puzzled commentators, — some 
believing it to have meant a needle ; others the 
thread; and others, again, the kind of suture. 
"Ada mollis, non uiinis torta." — Celsus, Galen. 
(Chifflet thinks it meant the thread. — Antwerp, 

ACID, A(:"idus, O.rys. (F.) Acide, Ai<jre, ^TOTO. 
aici?, uKiioi, 'a point;' sharp; sour; especially as 
ajiplied to odorous or sapid substances. The 
French also use the term ai/jrc, when referring 
to the voice, in the sense of sharp and shrill : — 
as line voix ai</re, vox aspera. 

Acin, AcKTic, Aceticum acidum — a. Acetic, of 
commerce, Pyroligneous acid — a Acetic, dilute, 
see Aceticum acidum — a. Acetous, strong, Ace- 
ticum acidum — a. Aerial, Carbonic acid — a. 
Antimonious, Antimonium diaphoretieum — a. 
Arsenious, Arsenicum album — a. Auric, see Gold 
— a. Azotic, Nitric acid — a. Benzoic, Benjamin, 
flowers of — a. Benzuric, Hippuric acid — a. Bezo- 
ardic, Uric acid — a. Boric, Boracic acid — a. Cal- 
careous, Carbonic acid — a. Calculous, Uric acid. 

Acid, Caubazot'iC, Ac"idum Carb/izot'icum, 
Carboni'tric or Picric acid, Welter's Bitter, (F.) 
Acide Carbozotirjue. This acid is frequently 
formed by the action of v<incent rated nitric acid 
on animal and vei/ctable substances. It, as well 
as the carbazotates, is tonic and astringent. 

Acid, Cakbonackous, Carbonic acid — a. Car- 
bonitric. Acid Carbazotic — a. Carbonous, Oxalic 
acid — a. Caseic, Lactic acid — a. Chromic, see 
Chromic acid — a. Citric, Citric acid — a. Crotonic, 
see Croton tiglium — a. Cyanhydric, Hydrocyanic 
acid — a. Cyanohydrie, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Ga- 
lactic, Lactic acid — a. Gastric, Gastric juice. 

Acid, Gallic, Ac"idum GaU'icnm. (F.) Acidc 
Gallique. This acid is found in most of the astrin- 
gent plants that contain tannic acid of the kind 
obtained from galls. It is in delicate silky nee- 
dles, usually somewhat yellowish, inodorous, and 
of a harsh, somewhat astringent taste. It dis- 
solves in one hundred parts of cold and three 
parts of boiling water. It is very soluble in alco- 
hol, and but slightly so in ether. 

It has been highly extolled in internal hemor- 
rhage, especially from the urinary organs and 
uterus. Dose from ten to twenty grains. 

The last Pharmacopoeia of the United States 
(1861) directs it to be made by exposing a thin 
paste of powdered (falls and distilled water for a 
month, adding the water from time to time to pre- 
serve the consistence ; expressing the paste ; 
boiling the residue in distilled water; filtering 
through animal charcoal, and crystallizing. 

Acid, Hippu'kiC, Ac"idnm Hippu'ricum, Uro- 
ben'zoic, U'rino-benzo'ic or Denzu'ric acid. An 
acid found in the urine of graminivorous animals. 
It is contained in human urine, especially after 
benzoic acid has been taken. See Hippuria. 

Acid, HydhiOD'ic, Ac"idum Ilydrind'icnm. 
This acid is made by mixing solutions of iodide 
of potassium and tartaric acid; filtering the liquor 



to separate the bitartrate of potassa, and adding 
■water to make the resulting hydriodio acid of 
definite strength. 

It has been used in the same cases as the pre- 
parations of iodine in general, but is rarely em- 

Acin, HYDnocHLORONiTRic, Nitro-muriatic acid 
— a. Hydrocyanic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydro- 
cyanic, dilute, see Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydro- 
sulphuric, Hydrogen, sulphuretted — a. Hydrothi- 
onic. Hydrogen, sulphuretted — a. Igasuric : see 
Jatropha curcas. 

Acid, Iodic, Ac"idiim lod'icum, (F.) Acide 
lodique. This is obtained by boiling iodine with 
nitric acid ; or by decomposing iodate of baryta 
by dilute Kitlphnric acid. It is a white, transpa- 
rent solid, slightly deliquescent, and very soluble 
in water. It has been given with sulphate of 
quinia in hoarseness, scrofula, incipient phthisis, 
chronic inflammation, syphilis, etc. Dose three 
to six grains, or more. 

Acid, Lactic, see Lactic acid. 
Acid of Lemons, Citric acid — a. Litbenic, Uric 
acid — a. Lithiasic, Uric acid— a. Lithic, Uric acid 
— a. Marine Dephlogisticated, Chlorine — a. Lac- 
tic, Lactic acid — a. Marine dulcified, Spiritus 
aetheris niuriatici — a. Mephitic, Carbonic acid — 
a. of Milk, Lactic acid — a. Muriatic, see Muria- 
ticuin acidum — a. Muriatic, dilute, Muriaticum 
acidum — a. Nanceic, Lactic acid — a. Nitric, see 
Nitric acid — a. Nitric, dilute, see Nitric acid — 
a. Nitro-hydrochloric, Nitro-muriatic acid — a. 
Nitro-muriatic, see Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Ni- 
trous, dephlogisticated. Nitric acid — a. Oxysep- 
tonic. Nitric acid — a. Picric, Acid, carbazotic 
— a. Polygalic, see Polygala senega — a. Prus- 
sic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyroligneous, see Ace- 
ticum acidum — a. Pyrolignic, Pyroligneous acid 
— a. Rosacic, see Porphyruria — a. of Sorrel, Oxa- 
lic acid — a. of Sugar, Oxalic acid — a. Sulphhydric, 
Hydrogen sulphuretted — a. Sulpho-hydric, Hy- 
drogen sulphuretted — a. Sulphuric, see Sul- 
phuric acid — a. Tannic, Tannin — a. Uric, Uric 
acid — a. Urino-benzoic, Acid, hippuric — a. Uro- 
benzoic, A. Hippuric — a. Urous, Uric oxide — a. 
Urylic, Uric acid. 

acidum — a. Azotique, Nitric acid — a. Boracique, 
Boracic acid — a. Chromiqne, Chromic acid — a. 
GalUque, Acid, gallic — a. Hydrocynniqne, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Hi/drosulfurique, Hydrogen, sul- 
phuretted — a. lodiqne, Acid, iodic — a. Lactiqne, 
Lactic acid — 17. Nitrique, Nitric acid — a. Phos- 
))li<>riqtte, Phosphoric acid — a. Prttsxiqne, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Pyroacetique, Pyroligneous acid 
— a. Pyroligniqne, Pyroligneous acid — a. Sii/fa- 
renx, Sulphurous acid — a. Sidfurique, Sulphuric 
jicid — a. Sulfariqite delays, Sulphuricum acidum 
dilutuni — a. Tatniiqice, Tannin — a. Tartrique, 
Tartaric acid — a. Urique, Uric acid. 
ACIDITATIO, Acidities. 

ACID'ITIES, Aco'ren, Acidi'ta'tio, Ae"idiim 
morho'sum seu prima' rum via'rum, Ox'ytes, Sordes 
ae'idcB, (F.) Aigreurs. Sourness of the stomach, 
the result of indigestion, indicated by acid eruc- 
tations, etc. The affection is very common in 
children, and must be obviated by absorbents, 
as masrnesia, chalk, etc., and by regulated diet. 

ACIDOLOG"IA, from aKH, aKdoi, 'a point, a 
sharp instrument,' and \ayoi, 'a description.' A 
description of surgical instruments. 

ACIDOM'ETER, (F.) Acidometre, Piee-acide, 
from acid, and ftcrpov, 'measure.' A hydrometer 
for determinins the density of acids. 

ACIDS, Ae"idn, Aco'res, are liquid, solid, or 
gaseous bodies, possessed of a sour, more or less 
caustic taste, and the principal character of which 
is the capability of saturating, wholly or in part, 
the alkaline properties of bases. 

Acids, in general, are refrigerant and antiscp- 
tic. Their particular uses are pointed out unUer 
the individual articles. , . , , 

To ACID'ULATB, (F.) Aigmser, Aciduler. 
To render acidulous, or slightly acid. 

ACID' VLOVS, Ac id' idiis, Suba"cHlun, Oxo cles, 
Oxoi'des, (F.) Acidide, Aiyrclet. Substances are 
so called which possess a sourish taste, as tama- 
rinds, cream of tartar, etc. 

Acidulous Fruits. Oranges, gooseberries, etc. 

Acidulous Waters, ^(ywa; Acidula. Mineral 
waters containing carbonic acid gas sufficient to 
render them sourish. Sec AVaters, mineral. 

Acidulous Water, Simple, Aqua Ac"idi Car- 
bon' id (Ph. U. S.) Aqua a'eris fixi seu ucid'- 
ula simplex, Liquor seu Aqua Soda: efferves'cenn, 
Aqua Carbona'tiB SodcB acid'ula, Soda water, iVi- 
neral water, (F.) Eati acidule sivqde, is water 
impregnated with fixed air. 

Water, so impregnated, is cooling and slightly 
stimulating. It is used beneficially in dyspepsia, 
and in cases of vomiting, etc. 

ACIDUM ACETICUM, Acetieum acidum— a. 
Acetieum aromaticum, Acetum aromaticum — a. 
Acetieum camphoratum, see Acetieum acidum — 
a. Acetieum dilutum, see Acetieum acidum — a. 
Acetieum e Ligno venale, Pyroligneous acid — a. 
Acetieum empyreumaticum, Pyroligneous acid — 
a. Acetieum glaciale, Acetieum acidum — a. Ace- 
tieum Scilliticum, Acetum scilla? — a. Acetosella», 
Oxalic acid — a. Acetosum, Acetum — a. Allantni- 
cum, Allantoic acid — a. Amnicum, Amniotic acid 
— a. Arsenicosum, Arsenious acid — a. Arsenio- 
sum (Ph. U. S.), Arsenicum album — a. Azoticum, 
Nitric acid — a. Benzoicum, Benjamin, Flowers 
of — a. Benzoylicum, Benzoin, Flowers of — a. 
Boracicum, Boracic acid — a. Borussicuin, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Carbazoticuni, Acid, carbazotic — 
a. Carbonicum, Carbonic acid — a. Citricum, Citric 
acid — a. Gallicum, Acid, gallic — a. Hydriodicuiii, 
Acid, hydriodic — a. Ilydrocarbonicum, O.xnlic 
acid — a. Hydrochloricum, Muriaticum acidum — 
a. Hydrocyanicum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydro- 
cyanicum dilutum, see Hydrocyanic acid — a. 
Hydrothionicum liquidum, see Hydrosulphuretted 
water — a. lodicum. Acid, iodic — a. Jatrophicum, 
see Jatropha curcas — a. Lacticum, Lactic acid — 
a. Ligneum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Ligni pyro- 
oleosum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Lignorum empy- 
reumaticum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Limonis, Ci- 
tric acid — a. Lithicum, Uric acid — a. Marinum 
concentratum, Muriaticum acidum — a. Morbo- 
sum, Acidities — a. Muriaticum, Muriaticum aci- 
dum — a. Muriaticum dilutum, Muriaticum acidum 
— a. Muriaticum nitroso-oxygenatum, Nitro- 
muriatic acid — a. Nitri, Nitric acid — a. Nitri 
dulcificatum, Spiritus aetheris nitrici — a. Nitri- 
cum. Nitric acid — a. Nitricum dilutum, Nitric 
acid — a. Nitro-muriaticum, Nitro-muriatic acid — 
a. Oxalinum, Oxalic acid — a. Phosphoricuin, 
Phosphoric acid — a. Picricum, Acid, carbazotic 
— a. Primarum viarum, Acidities — a. Prussicum, 
Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyroaceticum, Pyrolig- 
neous acid — a. Pyroligneum, Pyroligneous acid 
— a. Pyroxylicum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Querci- 
tannicum, Tannin — a. Sacchari, Oxalic acid — a. 
Saccharinum, Oxalic acid — a. Sails, Muriaticum 
acidum — a. Sails culinaris, Muriaticum acidum — • 
a. Salis marini, Muriaticum acidum — a. Scytode- 
phicum, Tannin — a. Septicum, Nitric acid — a. 
Succinicum, Succinic acid — a. Sulphuricum, Sul- 
phuric acid — a. Sulphuricum alcoolisatuin, Elixir 
acidum Halleri — a. Sulphuricum aromaticum, 

Sulphuric acid, aromatic — a. Sulphuricum dilu- 
tum. Sulphuric acid, diluted — a. Suljihuris vola- 
tile, Sulphurous acid — a. Sulphurosicum, Sulphu- 
rous acid — a. Tannicum, Tannin — a. Tartari es- 

sentiale. Tartaric acid — a. Tartaricum, Tartaric 

acid — a. Tartarosum, Tartaric acid- -a. Uricum, 




Uric acid — a. Urolithicutn, Uric acid — a. Vitrio- 
licuin, Sulphuric acid — a. Vitriolicum aroiuati- 
cuiii, Sul))liuricum aciduin aromaticum — a. Vi- 
triolicum alcohole aromaticum, Sulpliuricum aci- 
dum aromaticum — a. Vitriolicum viiiosum, Elixir 
aciduin llalleri — a. Zooticum, Hydrocyanic acid 
— a. Zootinicum, Hydrocyanic acid. 

ACIDURUIA, Surgery (operative). 

AClEli, Clialybs. 

ACIES, Chiilyi)s — a. Di^'itorum manus, Pha- 
langes of the fingers — a. Uiurna, Hcmeralopia. 

ACIXE, Acinus. 

ACINE'SIA, Acine'si's, Ahine'fihi, Immohil'i- 
tuH, Qiiien, Jic(/iiiei!, Itequle'tio, Exi/ch'ia, Erem'ia, 
from a, privative, and Kiviian, 'motion,' xivctD, 'I 
move.' Rest. Immobility. Also, the interval 
between the systole and diastole of the heart — 

Under the term Acineaes, Romberg includes 
the paralytic neuroses, or those that are charac- 
terized by defect of motive power. 

ACINI OF MALPIGIII, Corpora Malpig- 


ACINUS, A. g/aiidiilo'sus, from ac"inuii, 'a 
grape-stone,' (F.) Acine. A yUttidiform corpus- 
cle, in which secretion was supposed to take 
place, find the excretory radicle to arise. Acini 
are the (jlnh'idi arterui'rum ter'mini of Nichols. 
The term ac"ini (/loiidulo'si has also been given 
to glands which, like the pancreas, are arranged, 
as it were, in clusters. Glands thus formed have 
been called (/laii'dulai nciiio'xcB. See Lobule. 

ACIPENSER, see Ichthyocolla. 

ACIUlKiIA, Surgery (operative). 


ACMAS'TICUS, from nx/j;/, 'the top,' and crraw, 
' I remain.' A fever which preserves an equal 
degree of intensity throughout its course. It is 
also called Honiot'onos. The Greeks gave it the 
name of E/innnms'ticos, and Si/>i'ocho8, when it 
went on increasing, and Paracmas'ticos, when it 
decreased. — Galen. 

ACME, Vigor, Cor'yphe, Cidmina'tto, Stntnn, 
FaHti<i"ium. The period of a disease at which 
the symptoms are most violent. Arche, Apx'^i i^ 
'the commencement;' anah'asis, avafiaais, 'the 
period of increase;' and acme, aK/irj, 'the height,' 
(F.) Flat. 

ACMELLA, Spilanthus acmella — a. Mauriti- 
ana, Spilanthus acmella. 

ACMON, Incus. 

ACNE, Acna, Ion' thus varus, Varus, Psydra'cia 
Acne, Stone Pock, Whelk, Bnhucle, (F.) Aenf., 
Dartre pnstuleuse disHeminee. A small pimple 
or tubercle on the face. — Gorrajus. Foesius 
thinks the word ought to be Acme; and, accord- 
ing to Cassius, it is, at all events, derived from 
aKfiri, 'vigour;' the <iisease affecting those in the 
vigour of life especially. 

Willan and Bateinan have adopted the term in 
their Nosology of cutaneous diseases, and placed 
it in the order Tubkucula. Acne, with them, is 
an eruption of distinct, hard, inflamed tubercles, 
sometimes continuing for a considerable length 
of time, and sometimes suppurating slowly and 
partially. They usually appear on the forehead, 
temples, and chin, and are common to both sexes; 
but the most severe forms are seen in young men. 
They require but little management, and consist 
of four varieties : Acne indiira'ta, A. simplex, 
(Hnplo'dcne), A. pnncta'ta (Ton'thus varus punc- 
ta'tuH Pniirtm niuco'sa;, Criiio' nes, Comedo'nes 
or Maiiifot Pimple, Worms, Grubs), and A. rosa'- 
ceo. — See Gnttn Rosea. 

AcvK Mkn'tacra. Sycosis — a. Rosacea, Gutta 
j^osea a. of the Throat, Pharyngitis-, follicu- 

ACNE'MIA, Akne'mia, from a, privatire, and 
Kvtnjiri, 'the leg.' Absence of legs. 

ACNE, Acne — a. Molluscoide, Molluscum. 

ACNES'TIS, from a, privative, and Kvativ, 'to 
scratch.' The part of the spine which extends, 
in quadrupeds, from between the shoulders to the 
loins. According to Pollux, the middle of the 
loins. The vertebral column. 

ACNESTOS, Cneorum tricoccum. 

ACOE, Audition, Ear. 

ACCE'LIOS, from a, privative, and xoiXia, 'belly.' 
Devoid of belly. One who is so emaciated as to 
appear to have no belly. — Galen. 

ACOKMETER, Acoumeter. 

ACOEMETRUM, Acoumeter. 

ACOENOSI, Aconusi. 

ACOESIS, Audition. 

ACOGNOSIA, Pharraacognosia. 

ACOLASIA, Intemperance. 

ACOLOGY, Materia Medica. 

ACONE, Mortar. 

cammarum — a. Snhitaire, Aconitum anthora. 

ACONITA, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITE, Aconitum. 

ACONITI FOLIA, see Aconitum— a. Radix, 
see Aconitum. 

ACONITIA, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITIN, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITINE, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITItIM, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONI'TUM, from Ac'one, a place in Bithy- 
nia, where it is common. Cynnc'tonou, Parda- 
lian'ches, Pardalian'cham, Oanici'da, Ac'oiiite, 
Wolfsbane, Uonkshood. Ord. Ranunculaceaj. 
Sex. Si/st. Polyandria Trigynia. 

Aconitum, Aconite, in the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States, 1842, is the leaves of Aconi- 
tum napellus, and A. paniculatum. In the last 
edition, 1851, Aconiti folia is the officinal name 
for the leaves, Aconiti radix for that of the 

Aconi'tcm An'thora, a. Salutif'erum sen 
Nemoro' sum seu Candol'lei seu Jacquini seu Eu'lo- 
phum seu Anthoroideum, An'thora vulyn'ris, An'- 
thora, Antith'ora, Sal'utary Jfonkshood, Whole- 
some Wolfsbane, Yellow helmet flower, (¥.) Aconit 
salutaire. The root of this variety, as of all the 
rest, is poisonous. It is used as a cathartic and 
anthelmintic. Dose ^ss to ^j- 

Aconitum Anthokoideum, A. anthora. 

Aconi'tum Cam'marum, A. pio'iicula'tum, A. 
macran'thum, A. Kusnezo'vii, (P.) Aconit d 
grands feurs, resembles Aconitum Napellus in 

Aconitum Candollei, A. anthora — a. Eulo- 
phum, A. anthora. 

Aconitum Ferox, a most violentranunculaceous 
poison, which grows in Nepaul, and is the Bish 
or liikh jwison of that country. Its effects are 
like those of the Aconitum Nai)ellus. 

Aconitum Jacquini, A. anthora — a. Kusnezovii, 
A. cammarum — a. Macranthum, A. cammarum. 

Aconi'tum Napel'lus, Aconi'tum Napel'lus 
verus. Common Jfonkshood or Wolfsbane, A. Nc- 
omonta'num, (F.) Chaperon de Maine. The leaves 
are narcotic, sudorific, and deobstruent (?) They 
have been used in chronic rheumatism, scrofula, 
scirrhus, paralysis, amaurosis, etc. The active 
principle is called Aconit'ia, Aeonitl'na, Aconi'tn, 
Aconit'ium or Aconitine. A form for its prepara- 
tion is contained in the Ph. U. S. (1851). It is 
made by treating an alcoholic extract of the root 
with dilute sidphuric acid; precipitating hy solu- 
tion of ammonia; dissolving the precipitate in 
dilute sulphuric acid ; treating with animal char- 
coal; again precipitating with solution of ammO'' 




'»i('a/ wasliing with water, and drying- It re- 
quires 150 parts of cold and 50 of boiUng water 
to dissolve it, but is readily dissolved by alcohol 
and ether. It neutralizes the acids, and forms 
with them uncrystallizable salts. It has been 
used internally, and especially applied exter- 
nally, in neuralgic eases, iatraleptically and en- 
dermieally. Dose of Aoonitum, gr. j. to gr. iij. 

AcoNiTUM Nkmouosum, a. anthora — a. Neo- 
montanum, A. napellus — a. Paniculatum, A. eam- 
niarum — a. Kacemosum, Actaja spicata — a. Salu- 
tiferum, A. anthora. 

AcoxiTtrii U.ncina'tum, Wild Monkshood, in- 
di;;euous, is said to have similar virtues with 
Aconitura napellus. 

ACONU'St, Acoeii'om', Acoon'om, from axon, 
'audition,' and vovaoi, 'disease.' Morbi au'riuui 
et audi'tdg. Diseases of the ear and audition. 

ACOONOSI, Aconusi. 

AC'OPIS. Same etymon as the next. Pliny 
gives this name to a precious stone, which was 
boiled in oil and used against weariness. 

AC'OPON, from a, privative, and/cojrof, 'weari- 
ness.' A remedy against weariness — Foesius, Gor- 
raeus, (fee. Ac'opum, — Celsus, Pliny. SeeAnagyris. 

ACOPIIIA, Constipation. 

ACOPROSIS, Constipation. 

ACOR BENZOINUS, Benjamin — a. Boraci- 
cus, Boracic acid — a. Succineus, Succinic acid — 
ti.. Sulphuris, Sulphuric acid — a. Tartaricus, Tar- 
taric acid. 

ACORE BATARD, Iris pseudacorus — a. 
Fitux, Iris pseudacorus — o, Odorant, Acorus 

ACORKS, Acids, and Acidities. 

ACOR'IA, from a, privative, and xopcta, 'I sa- 
tiiite.' An inordinate or canine appetite. — Hip- 

ACORI'TES. A wine madeof Acorns.— Dios- 

ACOR'MUS, from a, privative, and Kopfxoi, 
'trunk.' A monster devoid of a trunk. — Gurlt. 

ACORN, JUPITER'S, Fagus castanea — a. 
Oily, Ouilandina moringa — a. Sardinian, Fagus 

ACORNS. See Quereus alba. 

ACORUS ADULTERINUS, Iris pseudacorus. 

Ac'oRUS Cal'amus, yl. Vents sen Braziiien'sis, 
Cfd'nnnis Aroiiifit'icus seu Odova'tus sen Viih/a'- 
ris, Ti/i>!ni Arnmot'ica, Clava liiiijo'sa, Sweetflag 
or Ac'oriis, Fhigroot, Sweet cane, 3Iyrtle Flag, 
Sweet grass, Sweet root, Sweet rush. (F.) Joiic 
roseau ou Canne aromatiqne, Acore odorant. 
Ord. Aroideae ; Acoracea. (Lindley.) Se.v. Si/st. 
Hexandria Monogynia. The rhizoma — Cal'amus 
(Ph. U. S. — is stomachic and carminative, but is 
rarely used. It is regarded as a good adjuvant 
to bark and quinia in intermittents. 

AcoRus Palostris, Iris pseudacorus — a. Vul- 
garis, Iris pseudacorus. 

ACOS. Medicament. 

ACOS'MIA, from a, privative, and kobjio?, 'or- 
der, ornament.' Disorder, irregularity in the 
critical days, according to Galen, who uses the 
word Koaiioi for regularity in those days. Others, 
and particularly Pollux, call bald persons aKoafioi, 
because they are deprived of one of their most 
beautiful ornaments. 

ACOU'METER, Aeouom'eter, Acnem'eter, Aco- 
em'etrnm, Acu' meter, Aciisim'eier, (F.) Acoiimitre, 
from aicouta), ' I hear,' and iterfjov, ' measure.' An 
instrument designed by M. Itard for measuring 
the degree of hearing. 

ACOUMETRE, Acoumeter. 

ACOUOPHO'NIA, Copho'nia; from okovo,, 
*I hear,' and <p(i>vri, 'voice,' "Ans'cultntort/ Per- 
eua'sion." A mode of auscultation, in which the 

observer places his ear on the chest, and an.alyzes 
the sound produced by percussion. — Donne. 

ACOUS'MA, an imaginary noise. Depraved 
sense of hearing. 

ACOUS'TIC, Aciis'ticus, (F.) Acoustique. That 
which belongs to the ear; as Acoustic nerve, 
Acoustic trumpet. 

Acoustic Medicine is one used in diseased 
audition. ^ 

ACOUSTICO-BfALLEEN, Laxator tympani. 

AcOUS'ticS, Acus'tica. (F.) Acoustique. The 
part of physics which treats of the theory of 
sounds. It is also called Phonics. 

ACOUSTIQUE, Acoustic, Acoustics. 

ACQUA BINELLI, Aqua Binellii — a. Broc- 
chieri. Aqua Brocchierii — a. Monterossi, Aqujt 
Binellii — a. di Napoli, Liquor arsenicalis — a. 
della Toffana, Liquor arsenicalis. 

ACQUETTA, Liquor Arsenicalis. 

thermal sulphureous springs are in Pi6draont. 
Their temperature is 167° Fahr., and they con- 
tain sulphohydric acid and chloride of sodium. 

ACQUIRED DISEASES, 31orbi acqui^'iti, 
31. adventi'tii, 3f. epicte'ti. Adventitious diseases. 
(F.) 3Inladies acquises. Diseases which occur 
after birth, and which are not dependent upon 
hereditary predisposition. 

ACRAI'PALA, from a, privative, and Kpama^ri, 
'drunkenness.' Remedies against the effects of 
a debauch. — Gorraeus. 

ACRA'LEA, from an-pus, 'extremity.' The ex- 
treme parts of the body, as the head, hands, feet, 
nose, ears, <fec. — Hippocrates and Galen. 'See 

ACRA'NIA, from a, privative, and Kpaviov, 'the 
cranium.' AVant of cr:inium, whollj' or in part. 

ACllA'SIA, from a, privative, or 'bad,' and 
Kpaoii, ' mixture.' Intemperance. Excess of any 
kind. Surfeit. 

It has been employed to denote debility, syno- 
nymously with Acratia; but this may have been 
a typographical inaccuracy. 

ACRATI'A, from a, privative, and Koaros, 
'strength.' Impotence; weakness, fainting. 

ACRATIS'MA, from a, privative, and KSjiav- 
vvfit, ' to mix.' A breakfast, consisting of bread 
steeped in wine, not mixed with water. — Galen, 

ACRATOM'ELI, from aKparov, 'pure wine,' 
and pcXi, 'honey.' Wine mixed with honey. 

ACRATOPE'GiE, Alrat<ipe'ga>, from a, priv.a- 
tive, KpiiToi, 'strength,' and -nriYri, 'a spring.' 
Mineral waters having no marked chemical qua- 

ACRATOPOS'IA, from ncratum, and roan, 
' drink.' The drinking of pure or unmixed wine 

A'CRATUM, aKparov, from a, privative, and 
Kparoi, 'strength.' Unmixed wine, Acratum 
vinum, Vinum merum. 

ACRATURE'SIS, from acratia, 'weakness,' 
and ovpijatg, from ovpov, 'urine,' 'the act of dis- 
charging the urine.' Inability to void the urine, 
from paralysis of the bladder. 

ACRE. The extremity or tip of the nose. 

A'CREA, Acrote'ria, from oKpo;, ' the summit.' 
The extreme parts of' the body, as the feet, hands, 
ears, <fee. 

Also the extreme parts of animals that are used 
as food, Acroco'lia. 

ACRID, from oKpo;, 'pointed,' or from n/cif, 'a 
point,' Acer. An epithet for substances which 
occasion a disagreeable sense of irritation or of 
constriction at the top of the throat. 

Acrid heat, (F.) Choleur &cre,\s one that causes 
a hot tingling sensation at the extremities of the 

Acrid Poisov, See Poison. 

AcuiDS, in Pathology, are certain imaginary 




substances, supposed by the humourists to exist 
in the humours, and to cause various diseases. 
See Acrimony. 

ACIllDOPH'AGI.from aKpi(,aKpi&oi, 'alocust,' 
and (payuy, ' I eat.' LocuH-eaters. Acridophagous 
tribes are said to exist in Africa. — Strabo. 

ACRIMONY, Acu'ituB, Acrimo'nin, from acer, 
' acrid,' aicij, ' a point.' Acrimony of the humours. 
An imaginary acrid change of the blood, lymph, 
Ac, which, by the humourists, was conceived to 
cause many diseases. 

ACRIN'IA, from a, privative, and xpivta, 'I 
separate.' A diminution in the quantity, or a 
total susipension, of the secretions. 

ACRIiS, a sharp bony prominence. Also, the 

ACRI'SIA, Acri'aia, from a, privative, and 
Kptais, 'judgment.' A condition of disease, in 
■which no judgment can be formed ; or in which 
an unfavourable opinion must be given. — Hipp, 
and Galen. 

ACRISIS, Acrisia. 

ACRIT'ICAL. Ac'ritoK, (F.) Acritique,iTom a, 
privative, and Kptais, 'judgment.' That which 
takes place without any crisis, or which does not 
foretell a crisis ; as a critical symptom, abscess, <fec. 

ACRITOS, Acritical. 

ACRIVIOLA, Tropseolum majus. 

ACROBYS'TIA, u4cropo«'Mia, from aicpof, 'top,' 
and (ivd), ' I cover.' The extremity of the prepuce. 
— Hippocrates, Rufus. 


ACROCHEIR', Acrochir', Acrocheir'on, from 
oKpoi, 'extremity,' and x^^P> ' ^^^ hand.' The 
forearm and hand. — Gorrajus. Also, the hand. 

ACROCHOR'DON, from aKpos, 'extremity,' 
and X''f^'i' '^ string.' A tumour which hangs by 
a pedicle. A kind of hard wart, Verru'ca pens' - 
His. — Aetius, Celsus. 

ACROCIIORlvS'MUS, from axpof, 'extremity,' 
and xopcvui, ' I dance.' A kind of dance, with 
the ancients, in which the arms and legs were 
violently agitated. 


ACROCOLIUM, Acromion. 

ACROD'RYA, from a/cpoj, 'extremity,' and 
ipvi, ' a tree.' Autumnal fruits, as nuts, ap- 
ples, <fec. 

ACRODY'N'IA, Eri/the'ma acrod'ynum, E. 
ocrodi/u'ia, Ohiropodal' (jia, (F.) Acrodynle, 3fal 
dea pieds et dcs mains, from oKpos, 'extremity,' 
and o&vvn, ' pain.' A j)aiuful aflFection of the 
wrists and ankles especially, which appeared in 
Paris as an epidemic, in 1828 and 1829. It was 
supposed by some to be rheumatic, by others to 
be owing to spinal irritation. It appears to have 
been the siinie as Dengue. 

ACROLENION, Olecranon. 


ACROMIA, Acromion. 

ACRO'MIAL, Acromia'lis. Relating to the 

Acromial Ar'terv, External Scap'vlar, A. 
Arle'ria Th(irac"ica humern'lis, Artere troisieme 
des Thornciques, — (Ch.) A. Thoracique hnme- 
rale, arises from the anterior part of the axillary 
artery, opposite the upper edge of the pectoralis 
minor. It divides into two branches : one, supe- 
rior • the other, inferior, — the branches of which 
are distributed to the subclavius, serratus major 
anticus, first intercostal, deltoid, and pectoralis 
major muscles, as well as to the shoulder joint, 
&c. They anastomose with the superior scapular, 
thoracic, ami circumfiox arteries. 

Acromial N k r v e s, 2\^ervi acromin'les. 
Brandies of the fourth cervical nerve, which are 
distributed to the acromial region. 

Acromial Vein has the same arrangement as 
the artery. 

the acromion and coracoid process. 

The triangular ligament between the acromion 
and coracoid process of the scapula is so called. 

ACRO'MION, Acro'niiiiin, Acro'mia, Acro'mis, 
from oKpoi, ' the top,' and w/ios, ' the shoulder.' 
Os Acro'mii, JJu'merua suvimus, Armi/s si/z/i/inoi, 
3hicro hu'meri, liostrnm porci'iium. Caput Scop'- 
ul<B, Acroco'lium. The process which terminates 
the spine of the scapula, and is articulated with 
the clavicle. 

ACROMIS, Acromion. 

ACROMPHALIUM, Acromphalon. 

A C R M'P H A L N, Acrompha'litim, from 
oKpos, 'the top,' and op^a)\oi, 'the navel.' Ttie 
extremity of the umbilical cord, which remains 
attached to the foetus after birth. 

ACROMYLE. Patella. 


A'CRONYX, from uKpos, 'the summit,' and 
ovuf, 'the nail.' Growing in of the nail. 

ACROPARAL'YSIS, from a/cuoj, ' extremity,' 
and jrapaAuCTij, 'palsy;' ParaV y sis extremita' turn, 
Palsy of the extremities. — Fucbs. 

AGROPOSTHIA, Acrobystia. 


ACROPSI'LON, from aKpos, ' extremity,' and 
ifiXos, ' naked.' The extremity of the glans penis. 

ACRORIA, Vertex. 

ACRORRHEU'MA, Rhenmatis'mns extremitn'- 
tum, from uKpos, ' extremity,' a,nd pcv/ia, ' defluxion, 
rheumatism.' Rheumatism of the extremities. 

ACROS, axpoi, 'extremity, top.' The strength 
of the Athletai, and of diseases ; the prominences 
of bones; the extremities of the lingers, <tc. See 
Acrocheir, Acromion, Ac. 

podiuin incanum. 

ACROTERIA, Acrea. See Extremity. 

ACROTERIASIS, Acroteriasmus. 

AGROTERIAS'MUS, Acroteri'asis, from fl«po- 
rripia, ' the extremities ;' hence aKporrn)ia^iiv. ' to 
mutilate.' Amputation of the extremities. 

ACROTHYM'ION, from aKpos, 'top.' and 
■9-u^oi', 'thyme.' A kind of conical, rugous, bloody 
wart, a " moist wart," compared by Celsus to the 
flower of thyme. 

ACROT'ICA, from axpos, 'summit.' Diseases 
affecting the excernent functions of the external 
surface of the body. 

Pravity of the liuids or emunctories that open 
on the external surface ; without fever or other 
internal affection as a necessary accompaniment. 

The 3d order of the class Eccrit'ica of Good. 

ACROTISMUS, Asphyxia. 

ACT, Actus, from actum, past participle of 
agere, ' to do,' 'a thing done.' The effective ex- 
ercise of a power or faculty. The action of an 
agent. Acte is used by the French, to signify 
the public discussion, which occurs in supporting 
a thesis; — thus, souton'r tin Acte mix Eroles de 
Medecine, is, 'to defend a Thesis in the Schools 
of Medicine.' 

ACTA, Gesta. 

ACTiEA CIMICIFUGA, A. racemosn. 

Act^'a Racemo'sa, a. Cimici/'iiya, Cimicif- 
uqa racemo'sa. Macro' try s racemo'sa, Bot'rophia 
Serpentn' ria (.?), Serpenta'ria nigra, Black snake- 
root, liichweed, Cohosh, Squaw root, Jiattleweed, 
Black Cohosh. (F.) Actee it grappes, Scrpentaire 
noire. Ord. Ranunculaceas. Sex. Si/st. Polyan- 
dria Pentagynia. A common plant in the United 
Statep. The root, Cimicif 'tiga (Ph. U. S.), is as- 
tringent; and, according to Barton, has been 
successfully used, in the form of a decoction, as 
a gargle in putrid sore throat. A decoction of 
the root cures the itch. It is acro-narcotic, and 




tas been used in rheumatism, acute and chronic ; 
chorea, <fcc. 

Act.«'a Spica'ta, Christophoria'na sptca'ta, 
Aconi'tuni racemo'sum, Bnneberry, Herb Chria'- 
topher. (F.) Herbe St. Christojthe. A perennial 
herbaceous European plant, the root of which 
resembles that of the black hellebore. The root 
is cathartic, and sometimes emetic, and in over- 
doses may produce dangerous consequences. 

ActcB'a Americn'na, of which there are two 
varieties, A. alba and A. rubra, — white and red 
cohosh, — is indigenous in the United States. It 
has the same properties as A. spicata. 

ACTE, Sambucus. 

ACTE^, Act. 

ACTEE d GRAPPES, Actaea racemosa. 

ACriF, Active. 

ACTIO, Action, Function. 

ACTION, Ac'tio, Opcra'tio, Energi' a. Praxis : 
from agere, actum, ' to act.' Mode in which one 
object influences another. 

The animal actions are those that occur in the 
animal body : the vital, those that are essential 
to life : the physiological, those of a healthy cha- 
racter : the pathological or morbid, those that 
occur in disease, &e. The ancients divided the 
physiological actions into vital, animal, natural, 
sexual, particular, general, &c. See Function. 


ACTIVE, same etymon. Bras' ticus, Aeti'vus, 
Sthen'icus, Hypersthen'icus. (F.) Actif. This 
adjective is used, in Pathology, to convey the idea 
of superabundant energy or strength. Active 
symptoms, e.g. are those of excitement. In The- 
rapeutics, it signifies energetic : — as, an active 
treatment. The French use the expression Me- 
decine agissante, in contradistinction to Medecine 
expectanfe. In Physiology, active has a similar 
signification, many of the functions being divided 
into active and passive. 

ACTON. A village near London, at which 
there is a purgative mineral spring, like that at 

ACTUAL. Same etymon as active. That 
which acts immediately. A term usually re- 
stricted to the red-hot iron, or to heat in any 
form; in contradistinction to the 2iotential or vir- 
tual, which is applied to caustics or escharoties. 

ACTUA'RIUS. Originally a title of dignity 
given to the Byzantine physicians. 


ACUITAS, Acrimony. 


ACUMETER, Acoumeter. 

A'CUPUNCTURE, Acupunctu'ra, Acupuncta'- 
tion, Actipunctura'tion, from acus, ' a needle,' and 
punctura, a puncture,' A surgical operation, 
much in use amongst the Chinese and Japanese, 
which consists in puncturing p^rts with a very 
fine needle. It has been employed, of late years, 
in obstinate rheumatic affections, <fec., and appa- 
rently with success. Acupuncture is likewise a 
mode of infanticide in some countries ; the needle 
being forced into the brain through the fonta- 
nelles, or into the spinal marrow, ic. 

ACURGIA, Surgery (operative). 

ACUS, Needle — a. Capitati),, Pin — a. Invagi- 
nata, see Needle — a. Ophthalmica, see Needle — 
a. Paracentica, Trocar — a. Paracentetica, Trocar 
— a. Triquetra vulgaris, Trocar — a. Veneris, 
Eryngium campestre. 

ACUSIMETER, Acoumeter. 

ACUSIS, Audition. 

ACUSTICA, Acoustics. 

ACUSTICUS, Auditory. 

ACUTE, Acu'tus, Oxys, o^vg, (nKis, *a point.') 
(F.) Aigu. A disease which, with a certain de- 
gree of severity, has a rapid progress, and short 

duration, is said to be " acute."— Oxynose'ma, 
O.ryn'osos, 0.ri/nu'sos. 

Diseases we're formerly subdivided into Moibi 
aautis'simi, very acute, or those which liist only 
three or four days: M. subaculis'simi, which con- 
tinue seven days : and M. subacu'ti, or those 
which last from twenty to forty days. 

The antithesis to acute is chronic. Acute, when 
applied to pain, sound, cries, &c., means sharp. 

ACUTENACULUM, Porte-aiguille. 

ACYANOBLEP'SIA, from o, privative, Kvavoi. 
'blue,' and ffXcnio, 'I see.' Defective visiim, 
which consists in incapability of distinguishing 
blue. — Gijthe. See Achromatopsia. 

ACYESIS, Sterilitas. 

ACYRUS, Arnica montana. 

ACYSTINERVIA, Cystoparalysis. 

ACYSTURONERVIA, Cystoparalysis. 


ACYTERIUS, Abortive. 

ADACA. The Sphasran'thus In'dicus, a Mala- 
bar plant, which is acrid and aromatic. 

ADAC'RYA, from a, privative, and iaKpvia, 'I 
weep.' Defective secretion of tears. 

ADiEMONIA, Anxiety. 

ADAKO'DIEN. A Malabar plant of the fa- 
mily Apocynea3, used in that country in diseases 
of the eyes. 

AD'ALI, Lip'pin. A Malabar plant, which 
the Orientals regard as an antidote to the bite of 
the naja. 

the teeth. 

ADAMAS, Diamond. 

ADAMI'TA, Adami'tum. A very hard, white 
calculus. — Paracelsus. 

The first word has been used for stone in the 
bladder : the second for lithiasis or the calculous 

ADAM'S APPLE, Pomum Adami. 


ADAPTER, from ad and ajito, ' I fit.' A tube 
employed in pharmaceutical operations for length- 
ening the neck of a retort; or in cases where the 
opening of the receiver is not large enough to 
admit the beak of the retort. 

ADAR'CE, Adar'cion, Adar'cis. A concretion 
found about the reeds and grass in theinarshy 
regions of Galatia, and hiding them, as it were: 
hence the name, from a privative, and ^tpicw, ' I 
see.' It was formerly in repute for cleansing the 
skin from freckles, &c. 

ADARIGO, Orpiment. 

ADARNECH, Orpiment. 


superficial artery of the abdomen, — a branch of the 
crural or femoral, which arises at the lower part 
of Poupart's ligament, and ascends towards the 
umbilicus, being distributed to the integuments. 

ADDAD. A Numidian plant; bitter and poi- 

ADDEPIIAG"IA, Adephng"ia, from aiinv, 
'much,' and ipayctv, 'to eat.' Voraciousness. 
Galen and Hott'mann have given this name to 
voracious appetite in children affected with 
worms. Sauvages refers it to Bulimia. Also, 
the goddess of gluttony. 

ADDER'S TONGUE, Ophioglossum vulgatum. 

ADDISON. DISEASE OF, see Capsule, renal. 

ADDITAMEN'TUM. A term once used sy- 
nonymously with Epiphysis. It is now restricted 
to the prolongation of two cranial sutures, the 
lambdoidal and squamous. 

Additame.ntum CoLi, Appendix vermiformis 
c»ci— a. Neoatum, Olecranon — .a. ad Sacro-lum- 
balem, see Sacro-lumbalis — a. Uncatum ulnse, 
Olecranon — a. Uliiie, Radius. 

ADDUCENS OCULI, Rectus internus oculi. 




ADDUOTEUR DE VCEIL, Rectus inter- 
nus ocuU — n. du Gros orteil, Adductor poUicis 
pedis — a. Premier ou moi/en, Adductor longus 
femoris — a. du Pouce, Adductor poHicis manQs 
— n. Second ou petit, Adductor brevis — a. Troi- 
eieinc ou grand. Adductor tnagnus. 

ADDUCTION, Adduc'tio, from ad, 'to,' and 
ducere, ' to draw.' Paragu'ge. The action by 
which parts are drawn towards the axis of the 

The muscles which execute this function are 
called Addiic'tors. 

teriar niedii digiti pedis — a. Oculi, Rectus inter- 
ims oculi. 

Adduc'tor Metacar'pi min'imi Dig"itt, Me- 
tac'tr'peuK, Gnr' po-metacar'peua min'imi di<j"iti, 
is situate between the adductor and flexor, next 
to the metacarpal bone. It arises, fleshy, from 
the unciform process of the os unciforme, and 
from the contiguous part of the annular ligament 
of the wrist, and is inserted, tendinous and fleshy, 
into the fore-part of the metacarpal bone of the 
little finger, from its ba?e to its head. 

Adduc'tou Pol'licis Manus, A. Pol'lids, A. 
ad min'imum dig"itum, Metncar' j)o-phalan' ycus 
pol'licis — (Ch.) (F.) Adducteur da pouce. A 
muscle which arises, fleshy, from almost the 
whole length of the metacarpal bone of the mid- 
dle finger, and is inserted into the inner part of 
the root of the first bone of the thumb. 

Adduc'tor Pol'licis Pedis, Antith'enar, Me- 
tatar'so-subphalan'geus pollicis. — (Ch.) Ttxrso- 
metatarsi-phalnngien du ponce. (F.) Adducteur 
du gros orteil. Arises by a long, thin tendon, 
from the under part of the os calcis, from the os 
cuboides, os cuneiforme externum, and from the 
root of the metatarsal bone of the second toe. It 
is divided into two fleshy portions, and is inserted 
into the external sesamoid bone, and root of the 
metatarsal bone of the great toe. 

Bichat has given the general name, Adduc'- 
tors, to those of the interosseous muscles of the 
hand or foot, which perform the action of ad- 

Adductor Tertii Digiti Pedis, Prior tertii 
digiti pedis. 

Adductors of the thigh. These are three 
in number, which have, by some anatomists, been 
united into one muscle — the Triceps Adduc'tor 

1. Adduc'tor longus fern' oris, Adduc'tor fem'- 
oris primus, Triceps minor, Pu' bio-femora' lis — 
(Ch.) (F.) Premier ou moi/en adducteur. Arises 
by a strong tendon from the upper and fore part 
of the OS pubis and ligament of the symphysis, 
at the inner side of the pectinalis. It runs down- 
wards and outwards, and is inserted by a broad, 
flat tendon, into the middle of the linea aspera. 

2. Adduc'tor brevis, A. fem'oris secun'dus, 
Triceps secun'dna, Sub-pubio-femora'fis — (Ch.) 
(F.) Second ou petit Adducteur. Arises tendi- 
nous from the os pubis, at the side of its sym- 
physis, below and behind the last muscle. It 
runs obliquely outwards, and is inserted by a 
short, flat tendon into the inner and upper part 
of the linea aspera, from a little below the tro- 
chanter minor to the beginning of the insertion 
of the adductor longus. 

3. Adduc'tor magnns, Adduc'tor fem'oris ter'- 
tius et (juartus, Triceps magnus, h'chio-femora'- 
lig — (Ch.) (F.) Troisieme ou grand adducteur, is 
much larger than either of the others. It arises 
from the ramus of the pubis, from that of the 
ischium, and from the tuber ischii, and is inserted 
into the whole length of the linea aspera. Near 
the lower part of the linea aspera it is pierced 
by a kind of oblique, fibrous canal, through which 
the crural artery and vein pass. 


ADEC. The inner man. — Paracelsus. 

ADECTA, Sedatives. 
ADELIPARIA, Polysarcia. 

ADELODAGAM. A bitter Malabar plant, 
used in asthma, catarrh, and gout. 

ADELPHIA, see Adelphixia. 

ADELPIIIX'IA, Adeljthix'is ; from oM^oj, 
'brother.' Consanguinity of parts in health or 
disease; Frater'nitas, Fratra'tio. Hippocrates 
used the word Adel'pihia for diseases that re- ' 
semble each other. 

ADELPHIXIS, Sympathy. 

ADEMONIA, Depres.-ion, Nostalgia. 

ADEMOSYNE, Depression, Nostalgia. 

ADEN, aiqv, 'a gland;' hence Adenalgia, 
Adeniform, <fec. — see Gland. 

ADENAL'GIA, Adenodyn'ia, from airiv, 'a 
gland,' and aXyus, ' pain.' Glandular jiain. 

ADENECTOP'IA, from ainv, 'a gland,' and 
CKTUJTOi, ' removed from its place.' Dislocation 
of a gland. 

ADENEMPHRAX'IS, from ainv, 'a gland.' 
and tfKppa^ii, ' obstruction.' Glandular obstruc- 

ADENIES, Adenopathies angibromiques. Dis- 
eases of the glands connected wirh the digestive 
tube. — Piorry. 

ADEN'IFORM, Adeniform' is, A denoi'des, 
Ad'enoid, from Aden, 'a gland,' and Fortim, 
' form or resemblance.' Glan'diform, or resem- 
bling a gland. 

ADENITE, Adenitis — a. Lymphatique, Lym- 

ADENI'TIS, from aSrjv, 'a gland,' and itis, a 
termination denoting inflammation. l'lilcgmn'>siii 
ade7io'sa seu glnndul'j'sa. (F.) Adenite. Glandu- 
lar inflammation. 

Adenitis Lyjiphatica, Lymphadenitis. 

Adeni'tiS Mesentkr'ica, Ulesenter'ic Gnngli- 
oni'tis. Inflammation of the mesenteric glands. 

Adenitis Palpebrarum Contagiosa, see Oph- 

ADENOCE'LE, from ai?iy, 'a gland,' and «»;>;?, 
'a rupture,' 'a tumour.' Under this term Mr. 
Birlvett includes tumours of the mamm;v, 
which contain structures similar to, if not identi- 
cal with, the normal secreting tissue of the gland, 
and more especially the cysto-sarcoma, and 
chronic mammary tumours of surgical authors. 

ADEN0CHIRAPS0L0G"IA, from ait)v, 'a 
gland,' X'-^P' ' '^^ hand,' otttw, ' I lay hold of,' and 
Xoyos, 'a description.' The doctrine of curing 
scrofula or the king's evil by the royal touch. 

ADENOCHON'DRIUS, from air/v, 'a. gland,' 
and pfoi'^pos, 'a cartilage.' Relating to gland and 
cartilage, — for example, Arthrophi/'mn adcno- 
chon'drium, a tumefaction of the glands and Chr- 
tilages of joints. 

symphyosiques, from airiv, ' a gland.' and Sipfto, 
' skin.' Syphilitic affections of the glands of the 

ADENODYNIA, Adenalgia. 

ADENOG'RAPHY^, Adenogra'pTiin, from a^r]v, 
' a gland,' and ypaipu, ' I describe.' That part of 
anatomy which describes the glands. 

ADENOID. Adeniform. 

ADENOIDES, Adeniform. 

ADENOL'OGY', Adenolog^ia, from airjv, 'a 
gland,' and \oyos, 'a description.' A treatise on 
the glands. 

ADENOMALA'CIA. from a^v, 'a gland,' and 
paXaKia, 'softening.' Mo-llescence or softening 
of a gland. 

ADENO-MENINGEAL, see Fever, adeno- 

ADENONCOSIS, Adenophyma. 


3 4 


ADENONCUS, Adenopbyraa. 

A rlfii irn. 

ADE'NO-PHARYN'GEUS, from ainv, ' a 
gland,' and <piipvy^, (p/tpvyyos, 'the pharynx.' 
Some fleshy fibres, which pass from the con- 
strictor pharyngis inferior to the thyroid gland, 
have received this name. Their existence is not 

ADE'NO-PHARYNGI'TIS. Same etymon. 
Inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx. 

ADENOPIITHALMIA, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

ADEXOPHY'MA, Adennu'cKs, Adenonco'sis, 
from aS>iv, ' a gland,' and 0u^u, ' a swelling. 
Swelling of a gland, or glandiform ganglion. 
(F.) (Jla)idn(je. Adeiiophyma is used by some to 
signify a soft glandular swelling; — Adenoncus, 
one of a harder character. — Kraus. 

Ademopuvma Inguinalis. Bubo. 

ADENOSCIR'RIIUS, Adenosdero'sis, from 
a?riv, 'a gland,' and axippoi, 'induration.' Scir- 
rhous induration of a gland. 

ADENOSCLEROSIS, Adenoscirrhus. 


ADKNO'SUS, (A6«ef«'«i(8). A hard, glandular 
abscess, which suppurates slowly. — M. A. Seve- 


ADENOT'OMY', Adenotom'ia, from aSriv, 'a 
gland,' and Ttyivui, 'I cut.' Dissection of the 

ADEPHAGIA, Addephagia, Boulimia. 

ADEPS. genitive Adipia, Adeps Stii'l/u.i,0r7/n'- 
ginm, Phigiie'do, Lar'idum, Lardiim, Lnrd. 
(Prov.) Moit, Stdlia, Swiiiemime. Pig's flare. 
The fat of the hog. In the Ph. U. S.i the pre- 
pared fat of »SV» scrofa, free from saline matter. 

Adeps Anseri'nus, Adeps aii'seris or Goose 
(jietisc, (F.) GraiHse d'Oie, is emollient. It has 
been used as an emetic. 

Adkps Cantharidibus Medicatus, Unguen- 
tuin lyttiB medicatum — a. Cortice Daphnes gnidii 
medicatus, Unguentum epispasticum de Daphne 
gnidio — a. Humanus, Liquamuinia — a. Hydrar- 
gyro meilicatus, Unguentum Hydrargyri — a. ex 
Hydrargyro mitius dictum cinereum, Unguentum 
oxidi hydrargyri cinereum — a. Hydrargyri muri- 
ate oxygenate medicatus, Unguentum inuriatis 
liydrnrgyri oxygenati medicatum — a. Hydrargyri 
nitrate medicatus, Unguentum hydrargyri nitratis 
— a. Hydrargyri oxido rubro et pluinbi acetate 
medicatus, Unguentum ophthalmicum — a. Lauro 
medicatus, Unguentum laurinum — a. Myristicas, 
see Myristica — a. Ovilli, Sevum — a. Papavere, 
liyoscyaino, et belladonna medicatus, Unguentum 

Adeps Pr^para'tus, A. SuiUna ProBpnrn'his, 
Hog's lard, Bdrrtnc's grease, Lnrd, Ax'nnge, 
A.rnn'gio, Axun'gia pnrci'na, (F.) Graisse de 
Pore, Sniudoux, Axonge. is prepared by melting 
pig's flare, and straining it. This is called ren- 
dcriuf) the lard. Lard is emollient, but is chiefly 
used for forming ointments and plasters. 

Adeps Suillus Pr^bparatus, Adeps Praepa- 
ratus — a. Sulfure et ainmoniae mtiriate medicatus, 
Unguentum sulphuratum ad scabiem — a. Sulfure 
et carbonate potasss medicatus, Unguentum 
sulphuratum alcalinum ad scabiem — a. Tartaro 
stibii medicatus, Unguentum antimonii tartarizati 
— a. Oxido zinci medicatus, Unguentum oxidi 
zinci impurL 

ADEPT, Alchvraist. 

ADEP'TA MEDICI'NA. Medicine, which 
treated of diseases contracted b}' celestial opera- 
ti')ns, or eoraraunicated from heaven. 
Adepta PaiLosopuiA, Alchymy. 

ADERMONERVIA, Dermatancurin. 

ADERMOTROPH'IA, from n, pnv., Stpfia, 
'skin,' and Tpo<pr,, 'nourishment.' Extenuation 
or atrophy of the skin. 

ADFLATUS, Afflatus. 

ADILERENTIA, Adherence. 

ADH/ESIO, Adherence. ,^ , , _ „ 

ADll ATO'B A, Ji'stic"ia ndhnto'dn. Itic il/o. 
lalmr A,it Tree. (F.) Noyer de Ceylon Used 
in India for expelling the dead foetus in abortion. 
The word is said to convey this meaning in the 
Cevlonese. , ■ ,i 

ADHE'RENCE, Adhe'sion, AdhcBren tin, ton- 
cre'tio, Atre'aia, Pros'physis, Proseol/e'sis, Ad. 
hcB'sio, from ndhcBrere, (ad and hcBrere,) ' to stick 
to.' These words are usually employed synonym- 
ously. The French often use adherence for the 
state of union, and adhesion for the act of ad- 

ADHESION, Adherence. 

flammation which terminates by an adhesion 
between inflamed and separated surfaces, and 
which was, at one time, supposed to be necessary 
for such adiiesion. 

Adhe'sive is also an epithet for certain plasters 
which stick closely to the skin. 

ADIANTUUM, Adiantum. 

ADIANTUM, A. pedatum. 

Adiantum ^thiop'icum. A South African 
plant, Ord. Filices, an infusion of which is some- 
times used as an emollient in coughs, and iu 
diseases of the chest. 

Adiantum Album, Asplenium rata muraria — 
a. Aureum, Polytrichum. 

Adian'tum Capil'lus Ven'eris, A. Coriandri- 
fo'lium seu Nigrum, Capil'lus Ven'eris, from a, 
privative, and iiaivia, ' to grow wet,' from the 
leaves not being easily moistened. Ilaiden hair. 
(P.) CapiUnire de Ifontpellier. A European 
plant, of feeble, aromatic and demulcent pro- 
perties. It is used for forming the Sirop de Ca- 
pillaire or Capillaire. 

Adia.ntum Coriandrifolium, A. Capillus Ve- 
neris — a. Nigrum, A. Capillus Veneris. 

Adian'tum Peda'tum, A. Canadeu'se seu Pn- 
tens, Adiantum, Capil'lus Ven'eris Canadeii'iit, 
Herba Ven'eris, Filix Ven'eris. Canada M(tiden- 
hair, American Maidenhair, Roclcfern, SwectJ'eni, 
(F.) Capillaire du Canada, has the same proper- 
ties. Capillaire was once made from this. Seo 

Adiantum RnBRUM,Asplenium tricbomanoides. 

see Cataract. 

ADIAPHORO'SIS, Adinphore'sis, from a. pri- 
vative, (5(u, 'through,' and (popos, 'a pore.' Dol'i'ct 
or suppression of perspiration, Adiapneus'lia. 

ADIAPH'OROUS, Adiaph'orus, ludiff'erw, 
Neutral. A medicine which will neither do harm 
nor good. 

ADIAPNEUSTIA, Adiaphorosis. 

ADIARRHffi'A, from a, privative, and iiap- 
puv, ' to flow.' Retention of any excretion.— 

ADIATH'ESIC, Adiathes'icus, from a, priva- 
tive, and iia^taii, 'diathesis.' In the system of 
controstimulism, adialhesic diseases are such as 
occur without any antecedent diathesis. 
ADICE. Urtiea. 
AUIPEUX. Adipose. 

ADIPOCERA, Adipocire — o.. Cetosa, Ccta- 

ADIPOCritE, Adipoce'ra, from adeps, 'fat,' 
and cera, 'wax.' The of biliary calculi, 
called also Chol'esleriue. Also, a sort of soap, 
formed from animal matter under certain circum- 



Ftances. (P.) Grnt den Cndavres, Grn» des Oime- 
tiirea. The human body, when it has been for 
some weeks in water, assumes this appearance; 
ivnd It has been a subject of legal inquiry, what 
length of time is necessary to produce it. This 
must, of course, depend upon various circum- 
stances, as climate, season, &c. 

^OfPOC/RE BE BALEINE, Cetaceum. 

Ap'IPOSE. Ad'ipoiis, A'JIpo'siis, from adeps, 
fat.' {¥.) Adipeiijr. That which relates to fat- 
as Adipose membrane, A. vessels, &c. See Fatty. 

Au'iPosE Satico'ma of A-a'EHNF.THY, Emphy'ma 
sdi-co'ina adipo'sitm, is suetty throughout, and 
enclosed in a thin capsule of condensed areolar 
substance, connected by means of minute vessels. 
It is chiefly found on the fore and back parts of 
the trunk. See Sarcoma. 

ADIPOSIS. See Polysarcia. 

Anipo'sis Hepat'ica, Pimelo'sis seu steafo'sis 
scu iiKiliix'is hepat'ica, Hepnr adipo'sum, Fatty 
lirer. Fatty defeneration of the lirer, (P.) Deye- 
n6resceiice graisseuse du Foie. Patty disease of 
the liver. 


ADIPOUS, Fatty. 

ADIP'SIA, Dipso'sis expers. Absence of thirst. 

ADIP'SON, Adip'sum, from a, privative, and 
5i\la, 'thirst.' Any substance wiiich relieves 
thirst. Applied to a decoction of barley to which 
o.xymel was added. — Hippocrates. 

ADIPSOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

AD'ITUS, 'an entrance,' 'an approach ;' from 
adere, aditum, 'to go to.' Pros' odos. The en- 
trance to a canal or duct, as Aditus ad Aquaeduc- 
ttiin Fallopii. 

AniTus An Infundibulum, Vulva. 

ADIULIS'TOS, from a, privative, and Siv\i^<i), 
' I strain.' Unstrained wine for pharmaceutical 
purposes. — Gorrseus. 

ADJUNCTUM, Accompaniment. 

AUJUTOR PARTCS, Accoucheur. 

AD'JUVANT, Ad'Jtivnns, from adjuvare, 'to 
aid.' A medicine, introduced into a prescription 
to aid the operation of the principal ingredient 
or basis. Also, whatever assists in the removal 
or prevention of disease. 

Al)3flNICULE, Adniinic'ulum, (ad and ma- 
1IIIS, -a. hand'). A prop, a support. Anything 
that aids the action of a remedy. 

ADNASCENTIA, Prosphysis. 

ADNy^TA (TUNICA,) Conjunctiva. 

ADNEE {MEMDRAXE,) Conjunctiva. 

ADOLES'CENCE, Adoleecen'tia, Juven'ta, Ju- 
ven'tas, Jiiven'tus, ^Etas bona. Youth; from ado- 
leacere, (ad and olescere,) 'to grow.' (P.) Jeun- 
esse. The period between puberty and that at 
which the body acquires its full development; 
being, in man, between the 14th and 25th years; 
and, in woman, between the 12th and 21st. 

AUOLES'CENS, Ju'venis, Hehe'tes, Hebe'ter, 
Hcbe'tor, Hypene'tes. A youth. A young man 
in the period of adolescence. 

ADO'LIA. A Malabar plant, whose leaves, 
put in oil, form a liniment, used in facilitating 

A DOR, Zea mays. 

ADORION, Daucus carota. 

ADOUOISSAXT. Demulcent. 

AD PONDUS OM'NIUM. The weight of the 
whole. In a prescription it means, that any 
particular ingredient shall equal in weight the 
whole of the others. 

A DRAG A XT, Tragacantha. 

ADRAGANTHE, Tragacantha. 

ADRA RIZA, Aristoloehia clematitis. 

ADHOBO'I/ON', from aipos, 'great,' and iSuXoy, 
'muss.' The bdellium of India, which is in larger 
pieces thau that of .\rabia. 

ADROS, aSpos, 'plump and full.' Applied to 
the habit of body, and also to the pulse. — Hippo- 

ADSARIA PALA. Dolichos pruriens. 

ADSPIRATIO, Aspiration, Inspiration. 

ADSTANS, Prostate. 


ADSTRICTIO, Astriction, Constipation. 

ADSTRICTORIA, Astringents. 

ADSTRINGENTIA, Astringents. 

ADULAS'SO. The Jnstitia bivuhis. A small 
shrub, used in India as a local application in gout. 

ADULT, see Adult age. 

Adult Age, Andri'a, from adolescere, ' to 
grow to,' (ad and olere, olituw, 'to grow.') 17- 
ril'ity, manhood. The age succeeding adoles- 
cence, and preceding old age. In the civil law, 
an adult is one, who, if a boy, has attained the 
age of fourteen years; and, if a girl, of twelve. 
In the common law, one of full age. Adult, 
Adnl'tns, is also used for one in the adult age. 

ADULTERATIO, Falsification. 

ADULTUS, see Adult age. 

ADUNCATIO unguium, Onychogryphosis. 

ADURENS, Caustic. 

ADURION, Rhus coriaria. 

ADUST, Adus'tus, from adurere, (ad and 
urere,) 'to burn.' The blood and fluids were 
formerly said to be adust, when there was much 
heat in the constitution, and but little scrum in 
the blood. 

ADUSTIO, Adustion, Burn. 

ADUS'TION, Adus'tlo. State of the body 
described under Adust. In surgery, it signifies 



ADVENTITIUS, Accidental. 

ADYNA'MIA, Impoten'tia ; from a, privative, 
and ivvafiii, 'strength,' Adyna'sia, Adyna'tia. 
Considerable debility of the vital powers; as in 
typhus fever. Some Nosologists have a class of 
diseases under the name Adynamia, Ec'lysea, 
Ilorbi asthcn'ici. 

Adynamia Viuilis, Impotence. 

ADYNAM'IC, Adynam'icus, Hypodynam'ic, 
Hypodynam'icxis ; same etymon. Appertaining 
to debility of the vital powers. 

ADYNASIA, Adynamia. 

ADYNATIA, Adynamia. 



ADYNATOS, Sickly. 

iEDCEA, Genital Organs. 

^Dffi'AGRA, from ai&oia, 'genital organs,' 
and aypa, ' seizure.' Gout in the genitals. 

^DCEAG'RAPHY, uEdieayraph'ia, JSdae- 
og'raphy. from acioia, ' organs of generation,' and 
yoa<po>, ' I describe.' A description of the organs 
of generation. 

^Dffi AL'OGY, .iEdcealo(f"la,Ji:doeol'ogy, from 
aiioia, 'organs of generation,' and Auyoj, ' a de- 
scription.' A treatise on the organs of generation. 

MDQiAT'OMY, yEd,xatom'ia. yEdwotom'ia, 
uEdceot'ome, ^docot'omy, from atiota, ' organs of 
generation,' and rt/avu), ' I cut.' Dissection of the 
parts of generation. 

MD(EVTIS, yEdo-oti'tis, MedeVtis ; from at- 
Soia, 'organs of generation,' and ilis, denoting 
inflammation. Inflammation of the genital or- 


iEDCEODYN'IA, from aii^oui, 'organ* of gene- 
ration,' and oivvrj, ' pain.' Pain in the genitals. 

iEDCEOGARGALUS, Masturbation, Nyrapho- 

^D(EOGARGARISMUS, Masturbation, 




^DCEOGPvAPIIY. TEiloeagraphy. 
-S;i)CKOLO(iY, JRilcealogy. 
JEDtEOMANIA, Nvrapliomania. 
^ED(EOMYCODERMI'TIS, from aiSoia, 'or- 
gans of generation,' //ukoj, ' mucus,' and iepua, 
'skin.' Inflammation of the mucous membrane 
of the genital organs. 
^DtEON, Inguen. 
^DCEOPSOPJIESIS, ^doeopsophia. 
iEDCEOPSOPH'IA, ^Edueopsophe'ais, from ai- 
Soia, ' organs of generation,' and yl^oipuv, ' to make 
a noise.' Emission of wind by the urethra in 
man, by the vagina in woman. — Sauvages and 

^ncEOPSOPHiA Uterina, Physometra. 
^DCEOS'COPY, uEdwoscop' ia, from ai&oia, 
'organs of generation,' and oKonttv, 'to view. 
Exploration of the organs of generation. 

^DCEOTITIS, ^jda3itis— a;. Gangraenosa, Col- 
poeace — se. Gangra>nosa puellarum, Colpocace 
infantilis — se. Gangraenosa puerperarum, Colpo- 
cace puerperarum. 

^DCEOTOME, ^doeatomy. 
jEDfEOTOMIA, iEdoeatomy. 
iEDCEOTOMY, ^dccatoniy. 
iEDO PTOSIS, Ilysteroptosis — se. Uteri, Pro- 
lapsus uteri— ae. Uteri inversa. Uterus, inversion 
„f the — as. Uteri retroversa, Retroversio uteri — 
re. Yaginffi, Prolapsus V. — aj. Vesicae, Exocyste. 
iEEIG'LUCES, Aei(f luces, from mi, 'always,' 
and yXixcuf, ' sweet.' A kind of sweet wine or 
must. — Gorraeus. 

iEGAGROPI'LA, ^(/agrro^jiVKS, from aiynypog, 
'the rock goat,' and ttiAos, 'hair,' Beznar d'Alle- 
inagne, Pila Dama' rum seu Biipicnpra'ritm. A 
ball composed of hairs, found in the stomach of 
the goat: once used medicinally. 
iEGEIROS, Populus. 
jEGER, Sick. 

^'GIAS, yEc/!s, J^ijlia, J^'gidea, from uif, 
oiyoi, ' the goat;' why, is not known. (F.) Aige 
or Aigle. There is obscurity regarding the pre- 
cise meaning of this word. It was used to desig- 
nate an ulcer, or speck on the transparent cornea. 
— Hippocrates. 

Maitre Jean uses it for a calcareous deposit 
between the conjunctiva and sclerotica. 
tEGIDES, ^gias. 

iE'GILOPS, An'chilops, An'l-ylops, from aif, 
niyos, 'goat,' and wi/', 'the eye.' An ulcer at the 
greater angle of the eye, which sometimes does 
not penetrate to the lachrymal sac, but at others 
does, and constitutes fistula lacrymalis. — Galen, 
Celsus, Oribasius, Aetius, Paulus of ^gina, <fec. 

^Gl'RINON. An ointment of which the fruit 
or flower of the poplar was an ingredient; from 
atytipoi, ' the black poplar.' 
.^(iLIA, ^gias. 

JilGOCERAS, Trigonella foenum. 
JiGOLETHRON. Ranunculus flammula. 
^GONYCHON, Lithospermum officinale. 
^GOPIIOXIA. Egophony. 
^GOPHONICUS, Egophonic. 

^GRIPPA, Agrippa. 

^GRITUDO, Disease— £E. Ventriculi, Vomit- 

^GROTATIO, Disease. 
^GROTUS, Sick. 

jEGYP'TIA. An epithet for several medi- 
cines, mentioned by Galen, Paulus of iEgina, 
and Myrepsus. 

MdYPTiii. MoscHATA, Hlbiscus abelmoschus. 

iEoYP'TIA StYPTe'ria, Aiyui-na arvnTripta, 
jEgyptinn alum. Recommended by Hippocrates. 

JEgyp'tia Ul'ckra ; jEgyptinn ulrem. Ulcers 
of the fauces and tonsils, de.>icribed by Aretseus, 
as common in Egypt and Syria. 

^GYPTIACUM, JEgyp'tion, Mendc s,on, Mel 
^.,,jptiacum, Fhar'macum J^gjpUacum. ^ Pre- 
paration of vinegar, honey, and vord.gns. scarcely 
used now, except by veterinary surgeons as a de- 
tergent. See Linimentum iErugiuis. 

3('(iYPTT0N /^i'VPtiacum. 


AURES, Pharmacum ad aures. 

JiGYP'TIUS PESSUS: JEgypUnn pesmry. 
A pessary, comi)osed of honey, turpentine, butter, 
oil of lily or of rose, safl'ron, each one part; with 
sometimes a small quantity of verdigris. 
^IPATHEIA, see Continent (Disease.) 
AEIPATIIIA, see Continent (Disease.) 
^MOPTOICA PASSIO, Haemoptysis. 
iENEA, Catheter. 
iEOLECTlIYMA, Variola. 
^OLLION, Varicella. 
^OLLIUM, Varicella. 

^ON, anav. The entire age of a man from 
birth till death. — Hippocrates, Galen. Also, the 
spinal marrow. See Medulla Spinalis. 
^ONESIS, Fomentation. 
jEONION, Sedum. 

^O'RA, from aiuipm, 'I suspend.' Gestation, 
swinging.— Aetius, Celsus, &c. 
^QUALIS, Equal. 

iEQUA'TOR OC'ULI. The line formed by tlic 
union of the upper and under eyelid, when they 
are closed. It is below the middle of the globe. 
iEQUIVOCUS, Equivocal. 
AER, Air. 

AERATUS, Carbonated. 

AERENDOCAR'DIA, (F.) Aerendncardie, 
from ntjp, 'air,' and endocnrdinm. Presence of 
air in the endocardium or lining membrane of the 
heart. — Piorry. 

AERE, Carbonated. 
^REOLUM, jEreolus, Ohalcus. The sixth 
part of an obolus by weight, consequently about 
2 grains. 

iE'RESIS, aiptcii, 'the removal of any thing.' 
A suffix denoting a removal or separation, as 
Apheeresis, Diaiye'sle, &c. 

AERETHMIE, Emphysema. 
of the Lungs. 

AERGIA, Torpor. 

AERH^MATOX'IA, (F.) ASrhemntna-ic ; 
from arip, ' air,' aipn, ' blood,' and to^ikov, ' poison.' 
Poisoning by the reception of air into the blood- 

AERIF'EROUS, Aerifer, (F.) Aerifh-e, from 
aer, 'air,' and ferre, 'to carry.' An epithet for 
tubes which convey air, as the larj'nx, trachea, 
and bronchia. 

ARRIFLUX'US. The discharge of gas, and 
the fetid emanations from the sick. Flatulence. 
— Sauvages. 

AERODIAPH'THORA, from ar,p, 'air,' and 
Sia<p6opa, 'corruption.' A corrupt state of the air. 
AEROHYDROP'ATIIY. Acrohydropathi'a, 
from arip, 'air,' Wuip, 'water,' and Tra^og, 'affec- 
tion.' A mode of treating disease, in which air 
and water are the chief agents employed. 

AEROL'OGY; A'erolog"ia, A'erolog" ice, from 
arip, 'air,' and Xoyog, 'a description.' That part 
of physics which treats of the air, its qualities 
uses, and action on the animal economy. 

AEROMAN'CY, Acromauti'a, from anp, 'air,' 
and jiavTcia, ' divination.' An art in judicial us- 




trology, which consists in the foretelling, by 
means of the air, or substances found in the at- 

AKROMELI, Fraxinus ornus. 

AEIiOPERITONlE, see Tympanites. 

AKllOl'lIOB'IA, from aijp, 'air,' and (^o^oi, 
'fear.' Dread of the air. This symptom often 
accompanies hydrophobia, and sometimes hyste- 
ria and other aS'ections. 

AKROPIIOiriCUS, Aeroph' obits ; same ety- 
mon. One affected with aerophobia. 

AKROPIIORUS, Aerophobicus. 

AKROPHTIIORA, Aerodiaphthora. 

A/inOfLEdRfE, Pneumothorax. 

AEROPNEUMONASIE, see Emphysema of 
the Ijiin^^s. 

sema of the Lungs. 

AKRORA'CHIA, from aijp, 'air,' and pa;^ij, 
'spine.' Accumuhition of air in the spine. 

AKRO.SIS, Pneumatosis, Tympanites. 

AKROTIIORAX, Pneumothorax. 

iERUCA, Cupri subacetas. 

2& R U'G I N U S, Mrugim/suM, lo'des, from 
mriKjo, 'verdigris.' (F. ) Erucjineitx. Resem- 
bling verdigris in colour; as the bile when dis- 
charged at times from the stomach. 

iERU'GO, (Of, from cbh, ' copj)er.' The rust 
of any metal, properly of brass. See Cupri Suba- 

^Kiioo Fbrri, Ferri subcarbonas — ae. Plumbi, 
Pluml)i subcarbonas. 

iES, Cuprum. 

iBSCIIOS, a(cr;^oj. Deformity of the body gene- 
rally, or of some part. — Hippocrates. 

' food,' [ ?] Ciistd' tiea eqiii'na, Pavi'na, Horae- 
ihi'Htniit, Buck-eye. (F.) Marronier ou Marron- 
iiier d'Inde. Ord. Ilippocastaneae. Sex. Syst. 
lleptandria Monogynia. The bark has been 
advised as a substitute for cinchona. Both bark 
and fruit are astringent. Externally, it has been 
employed, like cinchona, in gangrene. 

iESECAVUM, Brass. 

TESTATES, Ephelides. 

iESTlIE'MA, aiadrifia, aiaOniiaToi, 'a sensa- 
tion, a perception.' See Sensation and Sensi- 
iiility. In the plural, oBsthe'tnata, the apparatuses 
of the senses. 

VE S T II E M A T L'O G Y, JEsthemutolog" ia ; 
from aiaOt/nu, atadnfiaroi and \oyui, ' a discourse.' 
The doctrine of, or a treatise on, the senses, or 
on the apparatus of the senses. 

VESTFIKMATONU'SI, yEsthemntorf/anonu'si, 
from aiadriiin, niaOrjiiaToi, aud vovaoi, ' diseases.' 
Diseases aifecting sensation. 


JESrHESlOG'RAVHY, yEsthesiofjra'pkia, 
fi-oni aiaS)i<'ti, 'perception, sensation,' and ypa<pri, 
' a description.' A description of the sensorial 

M S T II E S 1 L'O G Y, ^sthef{ofog"ia, from 
aiaSni'it 'perception, sensation,' and Xoyoi, 'a 
discourse.' The doctrine of, or a treatise on, 
sensation or the senses. 

iESTHE'SIS, Aisthe'aig, from aia^avofiai, 'I 
feel.' The faculty of being affected by a sensa- 
tion. Perception. Sensibility, as well as the 
senses themselves. See Sense. 

yF.STIIETERION, Sensorium. 

yESTlIET'lC.V, from ataeuvo/iai, 'I feel.' Dis- 
eases afl'ecting the sensations. Dulness, depra- 
vation or abolition of one or more of the external 
orfans of sense. The 2d order, class Neurotica, 
of^Good. Also, agents that afifect sensation. — 

iESTIVUS, Estival. 

^STUARIUM, Stove. 

iESTUATIO, Ardor, Ebullition, Fermentation. 

iESTUS, Ardor. 

.aJsTus Volat'icus. Sudden heat, scorching 
or flushing of the face. — Vogel. 

jETAS, Age — as. Bona, Adolescence — se. De- 
crepita. Decrepitude — ae. Mala, Senectus — ae. 
Provecta, Senectus — ae. Senilis, Senectus. 

iETIIER, Ether, from ai&rip, ' air,' or from ai^u, 
' I burn.' A^uphtha. Liquor cBthe'reua. A vola- 
tile liquor obtained by distillation from a mix- 
ture of alcohol and a concentrated acid. See 
^ther sulphuricus, and Ether. 

jEther Aceticus, see jEther Sulphuricus — ae. 
Chloricus, Chloroform, Ether, chloric. 

iETHER Hydriod'icu.s, Hydriod'ic or lodhy'- 
dric Ether, Iodide of Ethyle. (F.) Ether iodhy- 
drique : obtained by mixing alcohol, parts v.; 
iodine, parts x. ; and phosjihorua, one part, and 
distilling. It is used for iodine inhalation. 

jEther Hydrochloricus; .lEther muriaticus. 

jEther Hydrocyan'icus, ^'. Prus'sicus, Hy- 
drocyan'ic or Entxaic Ether, Jlydmry'annte of 
Eth'erine, Cyan'uret of Eth'yle, (F.) Ether Hydro- 
cyanique, has been advised in hooping-cough, 
and where the hydrocyanic acid is indicated. 
Dose, 6 drops. 

.^THER LiGNCSU.s, Acetone — ae. Martialis, 
Tinctura seu Alcohol sulfurico-aethereus ferri. 

.iEther Mijriat'icus,^£'. Ilydrochlo'ricua, Mii- 
riat'ic, Chlorohy'dric or Marine Ether, Mn'riate 
of Etherine, Chloride of Ethyle. This ether, on 
account of its volatility, can only be kept in cool 
places. It has the properties of the other ethers, 
and when used is generally mixed with an equal 
bulk of alcohol. It has been employed as an 

A Chlorinated Chlorohydric Ether, (F.) Ether 
Chlorhydrique chlore, formed by the action of 
Chlorine on Chlorohydric Ether, has been intro- 
duced into practice as a local anaesthetic. 

^THER MuRiATicus ALConoLicus, Spiritus 
aotheris muriaticus — a;. Nitricus, see iEther Sul- 
phuricus — £6. Nitricus Alcoolisatus, Spiritus 
ajtheris nitrici — !b. Pyro-aceticus, Acetone — ae. 
Nitrosus, see iEther sulphuricus. 

^THER Sulphu'ricus, yEther (Ph. U. S.), ./E. 
Vitriol'icns, Naphtha Vitrioli seu Siilphu'rica, 
O'leiim vitriole dnlce, Snl'phuric Ether. (F.) 
Ether, Ether sulfiirique, vitrioliqne OU hydrati- 
que. Ether prepared from sulphuric acid and 

Rectified Ether, jEther recti fica'tua, prepared 
by distilling 12 oz. from a mixture of anlphuric 
ether, f^xiv, funed potass, ,^SS. and distilled 
water, f^\j, is a limpid, colourless, very inflam- 
mable, volatile liquor; of a penetrating and fra- 
grant odour, and hot pungent taste. Its s. g. is 

jEther Sulphuricus, Sulphuric Ether of the 
Pharmacopceia of the United States (1842), 
uEther of that of 1851, is formed from alcohol, 
Oiv ; anlphuric acid, j ; potaaaa, ^\y, distilled 
water, f^iij; distilling and redistilling according 
to the process there laid down. The specific gra- 
vity of this ether is 0.750. 

It is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and anti- 
spasmodic, and is externallj' refrigerant. Dose, 
gtt. XXX to f^^iss. When ether is inhaled, it is 
found to be a valuable anaesthetic agent: and is 
employed with advantage in spasmodic aS'ections, 
and in surgical operations. See Anaesthetic. 

The Parisian Codex has an jEther ace'ticua, 
Naphtha Ace'ti, (F.) Ether acetique : an ^ther 
mnria'ticus »e\l hydrochlo'ricus, (F.) Ether chlor- 
hydrique; an .lEther ni'tricua seu iiitru'aus, (F.) 




jRther ni'trique ou nitreux ou azoteux ; and an 
uElhcr phiiiphora'tim. They all possess similar 
virtues. Soo Anaesthetic. 

jEther Sulphuricus Acinus, Elixir aeidum 
lliilleri — <e. Sulphuricus cum alcohole, Spiritus 
Ktheris sulphurici — aj. Sulphuricus cum alcohole 
aroinaticus, Spiritus jetheris aromatieus. 

JEthkr Terkbinthina'tus, Terebinth' innted 
ether, made by mixing gradually two pounds of 
alcohol, and half a pound of spirit of turpentine, 
with two pound.s of concentrated nitric acid, and 
distilling one-half the mixture with a gentle heat. 
Employed externally and internally in biliary 
calculi, rheumatism, <fcc. Dose 20 to 40 drops, 
iu honey or yolk of egg. 

yETHEREA HERBA, Eryngi'um maritimum. 

iETilE'REAL, uEthe'reus, Ethe'real, Ethe'- 
reoHS, (F.) Etheree. An etherenl tincture, (F.j 
Teintitre etheree, is one formed by the action of 
sulphuric ether, at the ordinary temperature, on 
medicinal substances. An ethereal oil is a vola- 
tile oil. See Olea Volatilia. 

^THERISxMUS, Etherism. 

iETlIERISATIO, Etherization. 


iETHE'REO-OLEO'SA (Remedia), homJEthe- 
roleiim, 'a volatile oil.' Remedies, whose pro- 
perties are dependent upon the volatile oil they 

^TIIEROLEA, Olea volatilia. 

iETIIIOP'ICUS LAPIS, Ethiopian stone. A 
stone formerly supposed to be possessed of con- 
siderable virtue. — Oribasius. 

iETHIOPIFICA'TIO, yEihiopopoe'sis, uEthi- 
opia'nnis, ^Elhiopio'sis, from yEthiups, and/acere, 
' to make.' The mummy-like colouring of the 
skin, induced at times by the use of mercurial 
ointment; and seen in bodies poisoned by arsenic. 

^THIOPIOSIS, ^thioi)ificatio. 

iETillOPIS, Salvia sclarea. 

uEfHIOPISMUS, iEthiopificatio. 

iETHIOPOPOESIS, ^thiopifioatio. 

^'THIOPS, from aiSia, 'I burn,' and loxp, 
'countenance.' A bhiek or burnt countenance. 
The ancients gave this name to certain oxides 
and sulphurets of metals, which were of a black 

iErHiOPS Aldus, Albino — as. Alcalisatus, Hy- 
drargyrum cum ereta — a3. Animal, see Choroid. 

^rniOFS Martia'lis, Mar'tial Elhiops, Ferri 
Deutojc'ydum nii/nun. The bhick deutoxide of 
iron : once in repute as a tonic. See Oxydum 
Ferri nigrum. 

^THiops MixERALis, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
nigrum — se. Narcoticus, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
nigrum — fe. per se, Hydragyri oxydum cinereum 
— ae. Saccharatus, Hydrargyrum saccharatum — 
se. A''egetabilis, see Fucus vesiculosus. 

^THOL'ICES, from ai^u, 'I burn.' Fiery 
pustules on the skin. Some have considered 
them to have been hoils. 

^THUSA AMMI, Sison ammi. 

^thit'sa Cvna'pium, Fool's Parsley, (F.)Fmix 
Persil, Petite Cigne. Family, Umbelliferaj. Sex. 
Syst. Pentandria Digynia. A poisonous plant, 
which has been mistaken for true parsley, pro- 
ducing nausea, vomiting, headache, giddiness, 
sopor, and at times, fatal results. It resembles 
conium in its action. 

yEthii'sa Meum, Meam, M. Athaman'ticum, 
seu Anethi/o'liuin, Athamnn/ta Meum, Ligns'ticum 
Capllla'ceum seu Meum, Ses'eli Meum, Men, Spig- 
nel, Baldmoney. (F.) Ethuse, Meum. The root has 
been advised as cartninativc, stomachic, &c. 

vETIOL'OGY, jEtiolog"ia, Etiol'ogy, Aitio- 
h>g"ia, from aina, 'cause,' and Aoyoj, 'a dis- 
course.' The doctrine of the causes of disease. 

^TI'TES, or AETITES, from atroi, 'an 
ea-'le.' Eagle-stoue, Pierre d'Aigle, Hydrate de 
trttoxide de fer. This stone was for.ncrly sup- 
posed to facilitate delivery, if bound on the thigh ; 
and to prevent abortion, if bound on the arm. 
It was also called Lapis Colhjmus. 

^TOr, or AETOI PHLEBES, Temporal veins. 

^TOLION, Cnidia grana. 

AFFADIL, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 

AFFADISSEMEXr, (V.)iTomfade, 'insipid.' 
That condition of the digestive function in which 
the appetite is diminished, the sense of taste 
blunted, and the action of the stomach enfeebled ; 
a state usually accompanied by general languor. 


AFFAIRES. Menses. 


AFFECTIO, Atfection — a. Arthritica Cordis, 
Cardiagra — a. Hypochondriaca, Hypochondriasis 
— a. Hysterica, Hysteria — a. Sarmatica, Plica — 
a. Tympanitica, Tympanites. 

AFFECTION, Ajf'ee'tio, from afficio or affec- 
tare (ad and facere,) 'to move or influence.' 
Any mode in which the mind or body is allected 
or modified. 

AFFECTION TYPHO'tDE, see Typhus — 
a. Vaporeu^te. Hypochondriasis. 

AFFECTION ES ANIMI, Affections of the 

Passiii'nes seu Affeetio'nes seu Votiijuastativ'nes 
seu Confusio'nes seu Turbatio'ncs seu Perturhn- 
tio'nes an'imi, (F.) Affections de I'dme include not 
only the different passions, as love, hatred, jea- 
lousy, &c., but every condition of the mind that 
is accompanied by an agreeable or disagreeable 
feeling, as pleasure, fear, sorrow, <fec. 

In Pathology, Affection, Pathos, Pathe'mn, is 
synonymous with disease: thus we speak of a 
pulmonary aff'ection, a calculous affection, <fec. 

AFFECTIONS BE L'AME. Affections of 
the mind. 

AFFECTIVE. That which affects, touches, &c. 
Gall gives the term affective faculties, (F.) Favnt- 
tes affectives, to functions dependent upon the 
organization of the brain, comprising the senti- 
ments, affections, &c. 

AFFECTUS, Passion — a. Faucium pestilens, 
Cynanche maligna — a. Hyderodes, Hydrops— a. 
Spasmodico-convulsivus labiorum, Neuralgia fa- 

AF'FERENT, A/'/erens, Centrip'etal, Esod'ic, 
from, (orf and /e;-o, 'to carry,') 'I bring.' 
Conveying inwards, as from the periphery to the 
centre. The vessels which convey the lymph or 
chyle to the lymphatic glands, are called afferent, 
vasa afferen'tia seu inferen'tia. Also, nerves 
that convey impressions towards the nervous 
centres — nervi entobanon'tes. 

AF'FION, Aff'ium, Offium. Opium. The 
Bantamese thus designate an electuary of which 
opium is the basis, and which they use as an ex- 

AFFLA'TUS, Adjla'tm, Ep{2moi'a, from nil, 
'to,' and fare, 'to blow.' Any air that strikes 
the body and produces disease 

AF'FLUENCE, Afflux, from affluere, (orfand 
fluere, ' to flow,') < to flow to.' A flow or deter- 
mination of humours, and particularly of blood, 
towards any part. 

AFFLUXUS, Fluxion. 

rf u- ?' >ff"«>"n— a. Frigida, see Affusion 
— a. Orbicularis, Placenta. 

AFFU'SION, Affu'sio, Pros'chy^s, Epieh'ysis, 
from ad, to,' and fundere, fusnm, ' to pour ' The 
action of pouring a liquid on any body ' Affit. 
eions, Bhyptolu'sicB, cold and warm, are 'used in 




different diseases. The cold nffusion, Affu'slo 
seu I'er/u'nio frig" Ida, is said to have been bene- 
ficial in cutting short typhus fever and scarlatina, 
if used during the first days. It consists in pla- 
cing the patient in a tub, and pouring cold water 
over hitn ; then wiping him dry, and putting him 
to bed. The only precaution necessary is, to use 
it in the state of greatest heat and exacerbation ; 
not when chilliness, or topical inflammation, is 

AFIUIVr, Opium. 

AFTKR-IilHTH, Secundines. 

AFTKR-PAINS, See Pains, labour. 

A GA (UiMENT, (F.) from aKa{uv, ' to sharpen.' 
The setting on edge. 

able sensation experienced when acids are placed 
in contact with the teeth. Tooth-edge. Setting 
the teeth on edge. 

AGACEMENT DBS NERFS. A slight irri- 
tation of the system, and particularly of the 
organs of sense and locomotion, corresponding 
nearly to the English Fidijets. 

AOAII. Intermittent Fever. 

AGALACTATIO, Agalactia. 

AGALACTIA, Agaku:' ia, Agnlac'tio, Agalac- 
tn'tio, Befec'titu lac'tis, OUgnga'lia, Oliyogalac'- 
ti(i, from a, privative, and yaXa, 'milk.' Absence 
of milk in the mammae. 

AGALAXIA, Agalactia. 

AGAL'LOCIIUM, from ayaWu,, ' I decorate,' 
Cnlamhnc, Calambouk, Lu/'niim Agal'lochi veri 
sen A/'(ien seu Aspnl'atJii, Xyloa/oen, Aloes wood. 
A resinous and very aromatic wood of the East 
Indies, from E.cccBca'ria Agal'locha, Cynome'tra 
Agril'lochum, Alo'ex'ylon Agnl'locJnim. Used in 
making pastils, &c. — Dioscorides, Oribasius, 

AUAMOUS, See Cryptogamous. 

A(}'AIIIC, Agar'icum, Agar'icus. A genus of 
plants in the Linnajan sj'stem, some of which are 
edible, others poisonous. It is supposed to have 
been so called from Agaria, a region of Sarmatia. 
— Dioscorides. Among the edible varieties of the 
Boletus, the following are the chief: — 1. The 
Agar'icus edii'lis seu Arven'sis seu Sylval'icua 
seu Campes'tris, (F.) Agaric comestible et cham- 
pignon de coHche. 2. The Agar'icus odora'tits, 
(F.) Jfonsseron. The most common poisonous 
varieties are the Agar'icus neca'tor, (F.) Agaric 
meurtrier ; and, 2. Iha Agaricus acris, (¥.) Aga- 
ric acre ; besides the Auranite, <a sub-genus, 
which includes several species. One of the most 
delicate is the Agaricus Auranticicus, but care 
must be taken not to confound it with the A. 
J'seudo-anrnntiacus, which is very poisonous. 
The A. aurantiacus is called, in French, Orange. 
See Poisons, Table of. 

Agakic, see Boletus igniarius — a. Amndouvier, 
Boletus laricis — a. Blanc, Boletus laricis — a. de 
Chene, Boletus igniarius — a. Female, Boletus ig- 
niarius — a. of the Oak, Boletus igniarius — a. 
Odorant, Dasdalea suavcolens — a. White, Boletus 

AGAKICUM, Boletus igniarius. 

AGARICUS, Boletus igniarius — a. Albus, Bo- 
letus laricis — a. Arvensis, see Agaric — a. Auran- 
tiacus, Amanita}, Bolites — a. Auriculasforma, 
Pe/.i/.a auricula — a. Campestris, see Agaric — a. 
Chirurgoruin, Boletus igniarius — a. Igniarius, 
Boletus igniarius — a. Laricis, Boletus laricis — 
n. Pseudo-aurantiacus, Amanitas — a. Querctts, 
Boletus igniarius — a. Sylvaticus, see Agaric. 

AGAiaFIED. See Feverish. 

AGASTllO.XER'VIA, (F.) Agastronervic, from 
a. privative, y<i<T'-'/Pi 'stomach,' and vevpov, 'nerve.' 
Want of nervous action in the stomach. 


AGATIIIS DAMARRA, Pinus damarra. 


rayita. _ 

AGA'VE AMERICA'NA, A. Ramo'sn, Ameri^ 
can Agave, American aloe. Maguey, from ayavoi, 
'admirable.' Nat. Ord. BromeViacex. iSex. Sy«t. 
Hexandria Monogynia. This plant has been 
considered diuretic and antisyphilitic' The fa- 
vourite drink of the Mexicans— Pii/jiie— is the 
fermented juice of this plant. 

Agave Ramosa, A. Americana. 

Agave Virgin'ica, Rattlesnake's master, False 
aloe, — grows in the Southern States. The root 
is very bitter. It has been used in tincture as a 
carminative in colic; and as a remedy for bites 
of serpents. 

AGE, 'riXiKia, Heli'hia, ^tas ; — Of uncertain 
etymon. Period of life. Time that has elapsed 
since birth, <fec. Five ages are often designated 
in the life of man : 1. First infancy (lufan'tia;) 
2. Second infancy (/'»er/"/)'tt ;) 3. Adolescence 
(Adolescen'tia ;) 4. The adult age (Viril'itas ;) 
5. Old age, (Old Eng.) Elth, (Senec'tus.) 

AGENEIOS, Imberbis. 

AGEN'ESIS, from a, privative, and ycvtcis, 
' generation,' (F.) Agenesie. Imperfect develop- 
ment of any part of the body ; as cerebral age- 
nesis, I. e. imperfect development of the brain in 
the foetus. See Monster. 

AGENNESIA, Impotence, Sterilitas. 

AGENNESIS, Impotence. 

AGENOSO'MUS, from a, privative, ycvvato, 
' I generate,' and orw/ja, ' body.' A malformation 
in which the fissure and eventration are chiefly 
in the lower part of the abdomen ; the urinary or 
sexual apparatus absent, or very rudimentary. 

AGENT, Agens, from agere, 'to act.' Any 
power which produces, or tends to produce, an 
efioct on the human body. Morbific agents, (F.) 
Agens morbifiques, are the causes of disease; — 
therapeutical agents, (F.) Agens therapeutiqnes, 
the means of treating it. 

AGER NATURiE, Uterus. 

AGERA'SIA, Insenescen'tia, from a, privative, 
and ynpaiy ' old age.' A vigorous and green old 

AGERATUM, Achillea ageratum — a. Altissi- 
mum, Eupatorium ageratoides. 

AGE'RATUS LAPIS, XyrjpaTOi. A stone 
used by cobblers to polish shoes. It was for- 
merly esteemed discutieut and astringent. — Ga- 
len, Oribasius, Paulus. 

AGES, Palm. 

AGEUSIA, Ageustia. 

AGEUS'TIA, Agheus'tia, Ageusia, Apogeuh'- 
tia, Apogeu'sis, DyscBstke'sia gustato' ria,AucBHthe' - 
sia gustato'ria, Parageu'sis, from a, priv., and 
yevaii, 'taste.' Diminution or loss of taste, 
AncBsthe'sia Ungues. — Sauvages, Cullen. 

AGGLOM'ERATE, Agglomera'tus, from ag- 
glomerare, {ad and glomerure, 'to wind up j'arn 
in a ball,') 'to collect together.' Applied to tu- 
mours or glands in aggregation. 

AGGLU'TINANT, AggWtinans, CoUet'icus, 
Glu'tinans, from gluten, 'glue,' (F.) Agglutinant. 
Agglutinatif, Glutinatif, Colletique. Remedies 
were formerly so called, which were considered 
capable of uniting divided parts. — Paulus. 

Plasters are called agglutinants, (F. ) aggluti- 
nati/s, which adhere strongly to the skin. Cer- 
tain bandages are likewise so termed ; (F.) Ban- 
delettes aggluti natives. 

TO AGGLUTINATE. The French use the 
word agglutiner in the sense of 'to reunite;' ns 
agglutiner les levres d'tine plaie, 'to reunite the 
lips of a wound.' 

AGGLUTINATIF, Agglutinant. 





AGGLUTINATION, Uolk'sU, Eplcolle'ais, 
PruHcoUe'sis, GLutiiia'tio, from aijglutinare, ' to 
glue toj^ether.' The first degree of adhesion. 
Also, tlie action of agglutinants. 

AGGLUTIXER, To agglutinate. 

AG'GHEGATE, Aggreija'tns, from afftjregare, 
I (id and yregare,) ' to flock together,' 'to assemble 
together.' Glands are called ai/r/rtgate which are 
in clusters. See Peyeri Glaiidula;. Aggregate 
pills, (F.J Pilules agregativca, sigtiified, formerly, 
those which were believed to contain the proper- 
ties of a considerable number of medicines, and 
to be able to supply their place. 

AtillEUSTIA, Ageustia. 

AGHOUL, Agul. 

HA'LID. An Egyptian and Ethiopian shrub, 
similar to Xiniciiin. The Ethiopians use it as a 
vermifuge. The fruit is purgative. 

AGIHALID, Agiahalid. 

AGISSAXr, Active. 

AGITATION, Agita'tio, Done'sis, from agere, 
'to act.' Constant and fatiguing motion of the 
body, Tyrbe, Ti/ibd'sia, In'qities, — or distressing 
mental inquietude, — An'imi Agita'tio. 

AGITATORIUS, Convulsive. 

AGLOS'SIA, from a, privative, and yXo/trcru, 
'the tongue.' A malformation, which consists 
in the want of a tongue. 

AGLOSSOS'TOMA, from Aglossia, and arojia, 
'mouth.' A mouth without a tongue. 

(jia'phia, from a, priv., yXwaaa, 'the tongue,' 
cTOjxa, 'the mouth,' and ypatpu), 'I describe.' 
Description of a mouth without a tongue. — Ro- 
land, (of Saumur.) 

AGLUTI'TION, Agluti"tio; from a, priv., and 
glnliie, ' to swallow.' A hybrid term, designa- 
ting impossibility of swallowing. — Linnaeus. 

AGMA, Fracture. 

AGMATOLOG"IA, from ayi^a, ayfiaro;, frac- 
ture, and )ioyos, 'a description.' The doctrine 
of fractures. A treatise on fractures. 

AG ME, Fractures. 

of the fingers. — a. Membrana, Amnios. 

AGMINATED GLANDS, Peyer's glands. 

AGNAIL, HangnaiL 

AGNA'TIIIA, from «, priv., and yvados, 'jaw.' 
A malformation, which consists in the want of 
the jaw, especially of the lower. 


AGNOI'A, Agiiije'a, from a, priv., and ytvu)aKiD, 
' I know.' State of a patient who docs not recog- 
nise individuals.— Hippocrates, Galen, Focsius. 


AGO'GE, ayuyv. The order or condition of a 
disease.— Hippoc, Galen. Likewise the sUte of 
the air.— Hippoc, Galen, Gorraeus, Foesius. 

AGOGUE, aywyoi, ' a leader,' from ayu, ' I lead 
or expel.' Hence Cholagogxie, an expeller of bile : 
Hydragiigiie, &c. 

AGOMPHI'ASIS, Agompho'sis, from a, priva- 
tive, and yon(poia, 'I nail.' Looseness of the 
teeth.— (Jorripus. See Gomphiasis. 

AGOMPHOSIS, Agomphiasis, 

AGON. Agony. 

AGONE, Hyoscyamus. 

AGONIA. Steriiitas. 



AGONIS'TICA, from ayuv, < a combat' The 
part of ancient gymnastics, which had reference 
to the combats of the Athletse. 

Also very cold water, given 'internally to calm 
febrile heat.— Paulus of ^gina 

AGONIZANS. Psychorages." 

AGONOS, Sterile. 

AG'ONY, Agon'ia, Agon, Agonin'ma, Agonis'. 
rtuis, Mochthns, J/ogits, Paijchurag" ia, I'si/chor- 
rhag"ia, An<,„r, Throe, Throw, (Sc.) J'atieiit of 
death, from 'aywp, 'a combat.' The last struggle 
of life.— Galen, Gorricus, Ac. The agony, which 
is of longer or shorter duration, is characterized 
by great change in the features, gradual abolition 
of sensation and motion, loss of voice, dryness or 
lividity of the tongue and lips, rattling in the 
throat, small and intermittent pulse, and coldness 
of the extremities. This state is not present in 
those who die suddenly. See Facics llippo- 

AGOS'TUS, from ayu>, 'I lead.' The fore arm 
from the elbow to the fingers. Also, the palm of 
the hand. — Gorraeus. See Palm. 

AGRA, aYf)a, from ayptw, ' I seize hold of.' A 
seizure, as Odontagra, a tooth seizure, toothache; 
Chiragra, Podagra, <fec. 

AGRAFE DE VALENTIN. A kind of for- 
ceps with parallel branches, employed by Valen- 
tin in the operation for hare lip, to etFect the 
approximation of the edges of the wound. 

AGRAHALID, Agiahalid. 

gate. _ 

AGREMIE, from cigrie, 'gout,' (Piorry,) and 
aqia, ' blood.' The altered condition of the blood 
in gout. — Piorry. 

AgRIA, Herpes exedens, Lichen agrius. 

AGRIAMPELOS, Bryonia alba. 

AGRICOCCIMELEA, Prunus Spinosa. 

AGR/E, Gout. 

AGRIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium. 

AGRIMONIA, Agrimony — a. Eupatoria, 
Agrimony — a. Odorata, Agrimony — a. OfBciua- 
lis. Agrimony. 

Aghimonia Partiflo'ra, Small-foxr'ered or 
Sweet-scented Agrimony ; indigenous; has simi- 
lar properties to A. Eupatoria. See Agrimony. 

AG'RIMONY, Agrimo'nia, A. Eupato'ria seu 
odora'ta seu offieina'lis, Caf'al, Lap'puln hepat'- 
ica. Cockle-bur, Stic/cwort. (F.) Aigrcinoine. Ord. 
Rosaceae. Sex. Syst. Icosandria Digynia. A 
mild astringent and stomachic. Dose, in powder, 
from 9j to 3J. 

Agiumony, Heaip, Eupatorium cannabinum— 
a. Small-flowered, Agrimonia parviflora — a. 
Sweet-scented, Agrimonia parviflora. 

AGRIOCASTANUM, Bunium bulbocastanum, 
Lycoperdon tuber. 

AGRIOCINARA, Sempervivum tectorum. 

AGRIORIGANUM, Origanum mnjorana. 

AGRIOSELINUM, Smyrnum olusatrum. 

AGRIOTIIYM'IA, from aypws, 'ferocious,' 
and Sv/ios, 'disposition.' Ferocious insanity.— 

AGRIPALMA GALLIS, Leonurus cardiaca. 

AGRIP'PA, jEgriji'pa, from a-ger jxtrtiie, 
'difiicult birth :' or perhaps from ayfia, 'taking 
or seizure,' and novs, 'the foot.' This terra has 
been given to tho.^e born by the feet. It is i)re- 
tended that the family of Agrippa obtained their 
name from this circumstance. Parturition, where 
the feet present, is called AgripjJCB j)((rtits, Agrip- 
pi'nus partus. 


AGRO DI CEDRO, see Citrus nfedica. 


in^nf ^f^'^^^L^^ GITHAGO, Lychnis githago. 
AGRObllb, Bryonia alba— a, Verticillata, 
Andropogon miiricatus. 

AGRUNA, Prunus spinosa 
AGRYPNIA, Insomniii 
AGRYPNOCOMA, Coma vi<rij. 


aypvTzvo^, 'sleepless.* 

y^, . • J L , , "Af "'••'">, Sleep e.'s. 

Characterized by sleeplessness, as l\bris Aarn„. 
nodes, a fever accompanied with slecplessaess. 




AGRYPNOTICUS, Anthypnotic. 

A(jiRYP'NUS, aypv-vos. Sleepless, vigilant. 

AOIA l)E VEIIUGA, see Verugas. 

AGVAllDIENTE, Brandy. See also Spirit. 
— «. dv Ititlld, see Spirit. 

A'CiUE, from Gothic, agin, 'trembling.' (?) In- 
termittent fever; often used in the same sense 
as chill or rigor. 

Agiii: and Fkvkr, Intermittent fever. 

A(MJE, Brow, Neuralgia frontalis. 

ActlK Cake, Placen'ta febri'lis seu sple'nt'cn, 
Physco'nia Hple'iiicn, Spleiiis Tumor; (F.) Gd- 
tcdii febrile. A visceriil obstruction — generally 
ill the .s|)leun — which follows agues, and is dis- 
tinctly felt by e.xternal examination. To a 
greater or less degree, it is not uncommon. 

Agub, Dbad, see Fever, masked. 

Aguk Drop, Tasteless, Liquor arsenicalis. 

Agiji;, Dumb, see Fever, masked — a. Face, 
Neuralgia, facial. 

Ague, Free, Laurus sassafras. 

Ague, Leaping, see Leaping ague — a. Quar- 
tan, Quartan — a. Tertian, Tertian fever. 

Aguk Tukr, Laurus sassafras. 

Aguk, Thiud-day, Tertian. 

Ague Wi;ed, Eupatorium perfoliatum. 

AGU'IOS, from a, priv., and yviov, 'limb.' 
Mutilated or wanting limbs. — Hippocr. Weak, 
feeble. — Galen. 

AGUL, A(jhnul, Alha'g!, the Hedisa'rum seu 
Iledi/iid'rum alhagi. A thorny shrub of Persia 
and Mesopotamia, which afifords manna. The 
leaves are purgative. 

AGYll'lAS, from ayvpts, 'a collection.' Opa- 
city of the crystalline. — Aetius, Pare. 

AGYR'TA, from ayvpts, 'a crowd.' Formerly, 
a stroller who pretended to supernatural powers. 
Subse(iuently, a quack or illiterate pretender. — 
See Charlatan. 

AGYRTIA, Charlatanry. 

AIIO'RA, from a, privative, and 'opa, 'youth.' 
Tardy development of the organs : the opposite 
to IJi//)eiIio')a. 

AJIOUAI, Thevetia ahouai. 

AIIUSAL, Orpiment. 

AllYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AIAU/jT, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 

AIDE (F.), Ad'jutor mill' inter. An assistant 
to a surgeon in his operations. 

AIDOIOiMANIA, Nymphomania. 

AIERSA, Iris Germanica. 

AfGE. vEgias. 

city of this name, in Noriuandy, is the chaly- 
beate spring of St. Xantin, much used in the 
16th and 17th centuries. 

AIGLE, ^-ias. 

AIGHE, Acidulous — a. Voix. See Acid. 

AIGUELET, Acidulous. 

AIGRETTE, Kumex acetosa, see T^'pha 

AIGREMOINE, Agrimony. 

AIGREURS, Acidities. 

AIGU, Acute. 

OF, Aigiic.i-chaudea, EaiiJC ehaiidex, AqucB cal'- 
idcB. Sulphurous springs, about six miles from 
Bonnes, Basses Pyrenees, in France: five in 
number, the temperature of which is, respec- 
tively, about 70°, 81°. 92°, 9:5°, and 95°. 

AIGUILLE, Needle — «. d Acnpiinctnre, see 
Needle — a. d Ap/xireil, see Needle — n. d Bee de 
Lievre, see Needle — «. « Calaiacte, see Needle 
— a. de Desehaiiipn, see Needle — a. Engoinee, see 
Needle — a. d Fintide, see Needle — a. d Gaine, 
see Needle — a. d Ligature, see Needle — a. d 
Maiiche, see Needle — a. d Seton, see Needle — a. 
d Suture, see Needle. 

AIGUILLON (E), Spina Ilelmon'tii. A 

term used since the time of Van Ilehnont to 
designate the proximate cause of inflammation. 
According to him, ah inflamed part is in the 
same condition as if an aiyuillvn or thorn were 
thrust into it. 

AIGUISER, To acidulate. 

AIL, Allium. 

AILE, Ala, Aileron. 

AILERON (F.), Extrc'ma Ala seu Piu'mdn, 
diminutive of (F.) Aile, a wing. The extremity 
of the wing of a bird, to which the great feathers 
are attached. 

folds at the base of the broad ligaments of the ute- 
rus, which are occupied by the ovary and its liga- 
ment, the Fallopian tube, and the round ligament. 

AILING, Sick, Sickly. 

AILMENT, Disease. 

AIMA, 'aifia, see H%ma. 

AIM ANT, Magnet. 

AIMATERA, Hepatirrhoea. 

AIMORRIKEA, IlKmorrhagia. 

AIMORRllOIS, Hicmorrhois. 

AINE, Inguen. 

AlPATHIA, Continent disease. 

AIPI, Jatropha manihot. 

AIPIMA COXERA. .Jatropha manihot. 

AlPIPOCA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIR, A'er, Pneiinia, from aw, 'I breathe.' 
Common Air, Atmonpheric air, (F.) Air atmoaphe- 
rique, is an invisible, transparent, inodorous, in- 
sipid, ponderable, compressible, and elastic fluid, 
which, under the form of the atmosphere, sur- 
roun<ls the earth to the height of 15 or 10 leagues. 

Air is essentially composed of two gases, oxy- 
gen and nitrogen, in the proportion of 20 of the 
former to 80 of the latter. Oxygen is the vital 
portion, but the nitrogen is necessary to dilute it. 
Air also contains a small portion of carbonic acid 
gas, and has always floating in it aqueous va- 
pour, different terrestrial emanations, etc. Its 
effects upon the human body vary according to 
its greater or less density, temperature, moisture, 
etc.; hence, change of air is found extremely 
serviceable in the prevention and cure of certain 
morbid conditions. See Climate, and Respiration. 

acid — a. Alcalin, Ammonia — a. Atinospheriqiie, 

AiK Bladder, Sicim-hlndder, Su'imming-hlod- 
der, The Swim, (F.) Vesnie nntatoire. An ab- 
dominal organ in many fishes, sometimes eom- 
munic-ating by means of a duet, Dnetua pmeit- 
mat'ieun, with the alimentary canal, at others, 
not, which is considered by some to belong to 
the respiratory system. Its contents are the ele- 
ments of atmosi)heric air, but in different propor- 
tions; and its chief and general futiction appears 
to be to regulate the specific gravity of the fish. 

Air Cells of the Lu.ngs. Bronchial cells; see 
Cellule — a. Chamber, P'olliculus a3ris. 

Air, Dephlogisticated, Oxygen — a. Empy- 
real, Oxvgen. 

AIR JJU FEU, Oxygen. 

Air, Factitious, Carbonic acid — a. Fixed, 
Carbonic acid — a. Gate, Azote — a. Hepntique, 
Hydrogen sulphuretted — a. Inflammable, Ily(lro- 
gen. Hydrogen carburetted — a. Mephitic, Car- 
bonic acid. 

Air Passages, (F.) Voies aerieiinen, V. aeri- 
fereH. The larynx, trachea, bronchia, etc. 

AIR PUANT, Hydrogen, sulphuretted. 

Aiu, Pure, Oxygen — a. Solid, of Hales, Car- 
bonic acid — a. Vieie, Azote — a. Vital, Oxygen. 

AIRAIN, Bell-metal, Brass. 

AIRE. Areola. 

AIRELLE ANGULEUSE, Vacoinium niyr- 
tillus — «. Poneluee, Vaccinium vitis idaea. 





Airthrey is situate about two miles north of 
Stirling, Scotland. The waters are saline ca- 
thartics; containing chloride of sodium, chloride 
of calcium, sulphate of zinc, and chloride of mag- 

A/SELLE, Axilla. 

AISTllESIS, ^sthesis. 

AITIIOMO'MA, from at%s, 'black.' A black 
condition of all the humours of the eye. A. Pare. 

AITIA. Cause. 

AITIOLOGY, ^liologia. 

AITION, Cause. 

OF. Called by the Germans, Aachen. A ther- 
mal, sulphureous mineral water, which contains, 
in ]000 grammes, 28.54 cubic inches of sulpho- 
hydric acid gas, 18.05 cubic inches of carbonic 
acid gas, 0.1304 grammes of carbonate of lime, 
0.0440 grammes of carbonate of magnesia, 0.5444 
grammes of carbonate of soda, 2.1)697 grammes 
of chloride of sodium, 0.2637 of sulphate of soda, 
and 0.0705 of silica. The temperature is 134° 

The factitious water of Aix-la-ChnpeUe, A' qua 
Aqniagranen'slt, (F.) Ean d'Aix-la-Chapel/e, is 
made by adding jxo-e water f^xvijss, to hydro- 
sulphuretted water f.^iv., carbonate of soda gr. 
XX, chloride of sodium gr. ix. — Ph. P. 

There are thermal sulphureous springs at Aix 
in Savoy (98°), and some thermal springs at Aix 
in Provence (91°). 

AIZOON, Sempervivura tectorum. 

A'JUGA, A. pi/ra?)iida'li8, Consol'ida me'dia, 
liii'gula, D. pi/r<tmida'lis, Teu'crium pyrnmida'le, 
Vpriyht Buijluss, Middle Coiisound, (F.) Bu(/le 
pi/ramidale. This plant is subastringent and 

Ajuga Chamjepitys, Teucrium chamaspitys. 

A.IUGA Reptans, Bn'gula, B. reptans, Common 
Bni/le, (F.) Ihiyle rampnnte, has similar properties. 

AKATALIS, Juniperus communis. 

AKATERA, Juniperus communis. 


AKINESIA, Acinesia. 

AKNEMIA, Acnemia. 

AKOLOGY, Materia Medica. 

AKRATOPEG^, Acratopegae. 

AKSIS, Intermittent Fever. 

ALA, Pinna, Pteryx, 'a. wing,' (F.) Aile. A 
term often used by anatomists for parts which 
project like a wing from the median line; as the 
Ala nasi, Aim of the uterus, etc. See Axilla, and 
Pavilion of the Ear. Also, Pterygium. 

Ala Extrema, see Aileron. 

Tallahatta springs contain sulphur, and salts of 
iron, lime, and magnesia. But the most noted 
are those of Bladen. See Bladen, Mineral Wa- 
ters of. Bailey's spring is an acidulo-sulphu- 
reous chalybeate. It is fourteen miles from Tus- 

ALABASTER, Alahas'trum, (F.) Albdtre, 
Alahastri'tes. A variety of compact gypsum ; 
of which an ointment was once made- — the «n- 
f/ueii'tum alabastri' num ; used as a discutient. 
Alabaster likewise entered into several denti- 


Nymphffi— a. Magnae, see Sphenoid bone — a. Ma- 
jores. Labia pudendi — a. Minores, Nymphfe, see 
Sphenoid bone — a. Muliebres minores, Nyraphse 
— a. Nasi, see Nasus — a. Pudendi Muliebris, La- 
bia pudendi — a. Pulmonum, see Puhno — a. of 
the Uterus, see Ala — a. Vespertilionis, see Uterus 

ALAISE, Alhe. 

ALAITER. from (F.) lait, 'milk.' To suckle. 

ALALIA, Mutitas. 

ALA.Vnia Alembic. 

ALANFU'TA. A name given by the Arnbiana 
to a vein, situate between the chin and lower lip, 
which they were in the habit of opening in cases 
of f(etor of the breath.— Avicennn. 

ALAQUE'CA. The Ilindoostanee name of a 
stone, found in small, polished fragments, which 
is considered efficacious in arresting liaMnorrhage 
when applied externally. It is a suljihurct of iron. 

ALARES MUSCULI, Pterygoid muscles. 

Ala'kks Ven^. The superficial veins at the 
fold of the arm. 

ALARIA OSSA. The wing-like processes of 
the sphenoid bone. 

ALA'RIS, Ala'tus, Aliform'is; from ala, 'a 
wing.' Wing-shaped, winged. 

ALATERNUS, COMMON, Rhamnus alater- 
nus — a. Latifolius, Rhamnus alaternus. 

ALA'TUS, J'terygo'des, Homo ala'tus. One 
whose scapuhc project backwards like wings. 

ALBA'DARAN, Atdabaran. The sesamoid 
bone of the metatarso-phalangal joint of the 
great toe. The Rabbis and Magicians attributed 
extraordinary virtues to it. — Arabians. 


ALBAMENTUM, Albumen ovi. 

A French acidulous chalybeate, in the department 
of the Loire. 

ALBARAS ALBA, Lepra alphoides — a. Nigra, 
Lepra nigricans. 

ALBARyES, Lepra alphoides. 

ALBAROS, Lepra alphoides. 

ALBATRE, Alabaster. 


ALBIN D'CEUF, Albumen ovi. 

ALBINISM, see Albino. 

ALBINISMUS, see Albino. 

ALBI'NO, 'White.' Lencce'thiops, uFjhinps 
alius, Bondo, from alhus, 'white,' (F.) Blafaid, 
Negre-blanc. A Spanish word applied to indivi- 
duals of the human race who have the skin and 
hair white (Avhromodermie and Achromotricho- 
mie. — Piorry); the iris very pale, bordering on 
red; and the eyes so sensible that they cannot 
bear the light of day. This condition, which has 
been called Leuccethio'pia, Alpha' sis ^Ethiop'icn, 
Albino'is'mus, Albinis'mus, Al.'binism, Kakerla- 
kism, Leucopathi'a, Leuco'sis, is seen more fre- 
quently in the Negro. Both sexes are exposed 
to it. It does not seem to be true that there are 
tribes of Albinos in the interior of Africa. 

ALBINOISMUS, see Albino. 

ALBOR OVI, Albumen ovi. 

AL'BORA. A kind of itch or complicated 
leprosy. — Paracelsus. 

ALBOT, Crucible. 

ALBOTIM, Terebinthina. 

ALBUGIN^, Albuginea, Albugineous. 

ALBUGIN'EA, A. Testis, Tu'nica alhngiu'ea, 
Perites'tis, Dura mater testis, JUmbra'na cajtsulii'- 
ris testis. (F.) Allwgine, Tunique albugiine. A 
Strong, fibrous, and resisting membrane, which 
immediately envelopes the testicle, and has, at 
its upper part, an enlargement, called corpus 
Highmorianum. From its inner surface it sends 
off a number of flat, filiform prolongations or 
septa, between which are contained the semi- 
niferous vessels. Externally, it is covered by the 
tunica vaginalis testis. 

ALBUGIN'EOUS, yi;6w,7,-„'e»», 'white,' from 
albus, (F.) Albugini. A term applied to textures, 
humours, .fee., which are perfectly white 

AlBUGIN'eous Fibue, (F.) Fibre albnginfie. A 
name given by Chaussier to what he con.siders 
one of the four elementary fibres. 

The albugineous fibre is linear, eylindricnl 
tenacious, elastic, but little extensible, and of -i 
Bbinuig, satiny appearance. It forms fasciae or 




fapciouli, which constitute the tendons, articular 
li.L'aiiients, and aponeuroses; hence the name 
Alhiiiinirtiita mtmidrrtnes, given by Chaussier to 
the fibrous mouibrancs. 

Giiuthier considered, that the rete mucosum 
consists of four layers, to two of which he gives 
the names memhra'na nlbiirjiu'ea pro/iin'da and 
memhrn'nn n/hnr/hi'ea miperfii'Hi'lin, respectively. 

ALBIKUNI'TIS, (F.) 'Alh,uj!nite. A terra 
employed by some authors for inflammation of 
the albugineous tissue. Thus, gout and rheu- 
matism are regarded as species of the genus 

AL15UG0 OCULORUM, Leucoma — a. Ovi, 
Albumen ovi. 

A LB U LA, Leucoma. 

ALBUM CANIS, Album grEccum — a. Ceti, 

Album Gr^cum, Album Cam's, Cynoc'oprus, 
Spo'diiun Graco'rum, Stet-cus Cani'inim Album. 
The white dung of the dog. It consists almost 
wholly of phosphate and carbonate of lime, from 
the bones used as food. It was formerly applied 
as a discutient gargle in quinsies, and as an anti- 
epileptic; but is now justly banished from 

Album Nigrum. The excrement of the mouse. 

Album Oculi, see Sclerotic. 

Album Riiazis. A white ointment made of 
cerusse and lard, prescribed by the Arabian phy- 
sician Rhazes. 

ALBU'MEN, Leuco'mrt, Ooni'ne, Ozemnn, from 
alhiis, 'white.' (F.) Albniiiine. An immediate 
principle of animals and vegetables, which con- 
stitutes the chief part of the white of egg. It is 
found in the scrum, chyle, synovia, serous fluids, 
Ac. There is not much difl"erence in chemical 
composition between animal and vegetable albu- 
men, fibrin and casein. Also, the white of the 
eye. See Sclerotic. 

Albu'hen Ovi, Ovalbn'men, Albn'men, Albn'- 
mor, Albii'ijo seu Albor seu Can'didum Ovi, 
Clare' ta, Ovi alb im liquor, Albumen' turn, Lac avis, 
white of egg, (F.) Blnnc d'a-uf, (Old F.) Albin 
d'opuf, is used in pharmacy for suspending oils, 
Ac, in water. See Ovum. 

Albumen, Salivary, see Saliva. -• 

ALBU}[[NE, Albumen — a. Cerebrale, Neu- 
rinc — a. dn Ccrreau, Neurine. 

ALBU'MINOID, AlbtnninoV d€s,iTom albumen, 
and cirto?, ' resemblance.' Resembling albumen, as 
fibrin, casein, <fec. It is often applied to aliments 
in the same sense as proteinous. 

ALBU'MINOSE. The soluble principle of 
fibrin, identical with the dominant principle of 
the white of egg. — Bouchardat. According to 
others, the ultimate product of the transformation, 
in the stomach, of albuminoid matters, which 
renders them fit for assimilation and nutrition. 
Albuminose is not coagulable by heat, and incom- 
pletely so by acids ; an excess of acid dissolving 
the precipitate. Robin and Verdeil regard it as 
synonymous with the casein of the small intestine 
ofTiedeinann and (imcWn, i\iC gelatiniform matter 
of the intestine of Provost and Morin, and the 
casein of the blood of Dumas. See Peptone. 

ALBUMINO'SIS. A condition of the blood, 
in which the ratio of albumen is increased, as in 
abdominal typhus, variola, rubeola, Ac. Moser 
and Strahl. 

ALBUMINU'RIA. A hybrid term from 'albu- 
men,' and ovpov, 'the urine.' A condition of the 
urine in which it contains albumen, the presence 
of which is indicated by its coagulation on the 
application of adequate heat. See Kidney, 
Briu'ht's disease of the. 

ALBUMIXU'RIC, Albuminu'ricua, (F.) Albu- 
miniiriqur. Relating or appertaining to albumi- 
nuria. One labouring under Albuminuria. 

ALBmriNURORRHEE, Kidney, Bright's 
disease of the. 

ALBU.MOR, Albumen ova. 

AL'CAEST, Al'cahest, Al'chaest, perhaps from 
(G.) all, 'all,' and geist, 'spirit.' A word in- 
vented by Paracelsus to designate a liquor, which, 
according to him, was capable of removing every 
kind of swelling. 

The same word was used by Van Helmont for 
a fancied universal solvent, capable of reducing 
every body to its elements. 

Alcaest op Glauber is a thick liquor ob- 
tained by detonating nitrate of potassa on hot 
coals, which transforms it into subcarbonate of 

Alcaest op Respouk is a mixture of potassa 
and oxyd of zinc. 

ALCAHEST, Alcaest. 

ALCAHOL, Alcohol. 

ALCALES'CENCE. Alhahs'cence, Alcahscen'. 
tia. The condition in which a fluid becomes 

Alcalescence of the Humours was an old 
notion of the humourists. It can only occur 
during the putrid fermentation of animal mat- 
ters, which contain azote, and produce ammonia. 
Alcalin'ity is the quality of being alcaline. 

AL'CALI or Ako'li, Al'kull, from al [Arab.,) 
'the,' and kali, the name of the Saho'la Soda, 
a plant which contains a large quantity of one 
of the principal alkalis — soda. The alkalis are 
substances soluble in water, possessing generally 
a urinous, acrid, and caustic taste, turning the 
syrup of violets green, and restoring to blue in- 
fusion of litmus, which has been reddened by 
acids; reddening the yellow of turmeric, and 
having the greatest tendency to unite with acids, 
whose character they modify, and form salts with 
them. In medicine we understand by this term 
Potassa, Soda, or Ammonia. 

Alcali, Caustic, Al'kali Caus'ticum. A pure 
alkali. One deprived of its carbonic acid. 

Alcalis, Fixed, Soda and potassa; Volatile 
Alcali, Ammonia. 

Alcali Ammoniacum Acetatum, Liquor ara- 
moniae acetatis — a. Ammoniacum fluidurn. Liquor 
ammoniae — a. Fixum tartarizatum. Potassae tar- 
tras — a. Minerale sulphuricum, Soda, sulphate 
of — a. Tartar! aceto saturatum, Potassae acetas — ■ 
a. Vegetabile salito dephlogisticatum, Potassae 
murias hyperoxygenatus — a. Vegetabile tartari- 
zatum, Potassae tartras — a. Vegetabile vitriola- 
tum, Potassae sulphas — a. Volatile acetatum, Li- 
quor ammonia} acetatis — a. Volatile aeratum, 
Ammoniae carbonas — a. Volatile ex sale ammo- 
niaco, Ammoniae carbonas. 


ALCALINITY. See Alkalescence. 

AL'CALOID ; from alcali and £1^05, 'form.' 
A name given to the organic alcalis to.distinguish 
them from the mineral, from which they differ as 
regards composition and general properties ; — 
having nothing in common but their basic pro- 
perties. Brucia, Smetia, Morphia, Strychnia, 
itc, are alcaloids. 

ALCANA. Anchusa ofiicinalis. 

TA, Prinos — a. Orientalis. Lawsonia inermis — a. 
Spuria, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Vera, Lawsonia 

ALCEA. Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. j^gyptiaca, 
Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. Indica, Hibiscus abel- 

Al'cea Ro'sea. Common holli/hock, Hoc, Hocks. 
Emollient, like Althaea. 


ALCIIACMTL, Rosmarinus. 

ALCHAEST. Alcahcst. 

ALCHEMIL'LA, said to have been celebrated 



•with the Alchemists [?], supposed by some to be 
of Arabic derivation. A. vuhju'ris. Common 
Ladiea' Mantle, Pea Lcn'nis, Leinitopo'dium, (F.) 
Pied de Liun. Formerly iu great repute as an 
astringent in hemorrhage. 
ALCHEMY, Alcbymv. 
ALCHITllAM, see Pinus Sylvestris. 
ALCHITURA, see Pinus Sylvestris. 
ALCOIIOOL, Alcohol. 

AL'CIIYMY, Al'chetny, Akhemi'a, Alchimi'a, 
Adep'la Phihjsoph'ia, from al, an Arabic par- 
ticle, signifying, 'superiority, excellence,' and 
Chimia, ' Chyniistrv.' This word was formerly 
synonymous with Ciiymi.stry ; but, from the 7th 
century, it has been applied to the mysterious art 
of endeavouring to discover a universal remedy, 
and a mode of transmuting the baser metals into 
gold : an operation to which they gave the name 
Opus miKjuum, and Philosopher's stone. 

Alchyiny has also been called Scien'tia vel 
PhiloHoph'ia Hermet'ica, from an idea that Her- 
mes or Mercury was its inventor. 

Harris has well defined this chimerical art: 
'Ars sine arte, cujua jirincipiunx est mentiri, me- 
dium laborare, et finis mendicare.' 

Al'chymist, (Old Eng.) Alh/mistre, Flatua'- 
riiis, Adept'. One pretending to alchymy. 
ALCOCALUM, Cynara scolymus. 
AL'COHOL, Al'cnhol, Alchool, Alhol, Alcol, 
Al'cool, Al'kool. An Arabic word, formerly used 
fur an impalpable powder, and signifying ' very 
subtile, much divided.' At the present day it is 
applied to highly rectified spirit of wine: — see 
^piritns rectificatus or rectified spirit, distilled 
from dried subcarbonate of potassa. In the Ph. 
U. S., Alcohol is rectified spirit of the specific 
gravity 0.835.^ The Dublin college has a spiritus 
yord'or, used in the preparation of certain essences, 
whose specific gravity is .818. Alcohol, absolute 
alcohol, of the Edinburgh and Dublin Pharma- 
copoeias, is of specific gravity .797. 

Alcohol is an inflammable liquor, lighter than 
water, of a warm, acrid taste, colourless, trans- 
parent, and of a pungent, aromatic smell. It is 
the product of the distillation of vinous liquors ; 
is miscible with water in all proportions, and is 
the direct solvent of resins, balsams, &c. Various 
other vegetable principles are soluble in it, and 
hence it is used, in different states of concentra- 
tion, in the preparation of elixirs, tinctures, es- 
sences, &c. 

Alcohol acts on the animal body as a powerful 
stimulus : as such, in a dilute form, it is used in 
the prevention and cure of disease. Its habitual 
and inordinate use is the cause of many serious 
affections, of a chronic character especially, as 
visceral obstructions, dropsy, &o. 

Alcohol, absolutk, see Alcohol — a. ^the- 
reus Ferratus, A. Sulfurico-aethereus ferri — a. 
cum Aloe perfoliata, Tinetura aloes — a. Am- 
inoniae et guaiaci, Tinetura guaiaci ammoniata 
— a. Ammoniatum, Spiritus ammonia; — a. Am- 
Tioniatum aromaticura, Spiritus ammonia; aro- 
inaticus — a. Ammoniatum foetidum, Spiritus 
nminoniai fnetidus — a. Aniylicum, Oil, fusel — 
a. cum Aromatibus sulphuricatus, Sulphurieum 
acidum aromaticum- — a. cum Aromatibus compo- 
situs, Tinetura cinnamomi composita — a. Casto- 
riatum, Tinetura castorei — a. cum Crotone casca- 
rilla, Tinetura cascarilloe — a. Dilutum, Spiritus 
tenuior — a. Ferratus, Tinetura ferri muriatis — 
a. cum Sulphate ferri tartarisatus, see Ferrum 
tiirtarisatum — a. cum Guaiaco officinale ammo- 
niatus, Tinetura guaiaci ammoniata — a. lodii, 
Tinetura lodinse — a. cum Opio, Tinetura opii 
— a. Methylic, Spiritus Pyroxylicus — a. Pyroxylic 
Spiritus Pyroxylicus — a. Sulphuricatum, Elixir 
acidum Halleri — a. Sulphurieum, Elixir acidum 


Halleri— a. Sulphuris, Carbonis sulphuretum— a, 
Vini, Spiritus rectificatus — a. Wood, bpintus 
pyroxylicus. c • / 

ALCOHOL'IC, Alcohol' icna, Spirituo sus,Aptr - 
ituous. (F.) Alcooliqne. Kelating to or contain- 
ing alcohol— as an alcoholic drink or remedy. 

ALCOHOLISM'US, Al'coholism, (F.), Alco. 
olisme. The series of morbid phenomena pro- 
duced by the use of alcoholic liquors. 
ALCOL, Alcohol. 
ALCOLyE, Aphthae. 
ALCOL AT, Alcoolat. 

ALCOOL, Alcohol— a. Camphri, Spiritus cam- 
phorae. — a. de Son/re, Carbonis sulphuretum. 

ALCOOLAT, Spirit. It now generally signi- 
fies alcohol, charged, by distillation, with the vola- 
tile principles of certain substances, or a distilled 
spirit, — Alcolat {Codex med. of Paris). 

ALCOOLATUM, Tincture — a. Antiseorbuti- 
cum, Tinetura de Cochleariis — a. Carminativum 
Sylvii, Tinetura de Cochleariis — a. de Croco com- 
positum, Tinetura de Croco composita. 

ALCOOLATURE, Teintnre avec les plantea 
fraiches. A name given by M. Bcral to certain 
preparations introduced by iiim, which consist of 
alcohol, charged, by maceration, with the soluble 
principles of fresh plants. See Tincture. 

ALCOOLE. A name given, in the new French 
pharmaceutical nomenclature, to medicines re- 
sulting from the solvent action of alcohol on 
different substances, or from its admixture with 
liquids which unite with it in all proportions. 
See Tincture. 
ALCOOLIQUE, Alcoholic. 
ALCOOLISER (P.) Formerly, ' to reduce into 
an impalpable powder.' No longer used. 
ALCbOLISME, Alcoholismus. 
ALCOOMBTER, Areometer. 
ALCORNOQUE {¥.), Cortex Alcornoco. The 
bark of Alchor'nea latifu'lia, of Jamaica, which 
has been considered capable of curing phthisis. 
It is bitter, tonic, and slightly astringent. Dose 
of the powder ^i to ^ss. 

AL'CYON, Hal'cyon. A swallow of Cochin 
China, whose nest is gelatinous and very nutri- 
tious. It has been proposed in medicine as ana- 
leptic and aphrodisiac. 

ALCYO'NIUM, Bastard sponge. The ashes 
were formerly employed as dentrifiees : tliey were 
believed proper for favoring the growth of the 
hair and beard, and were used in Alopecia. 
ALDABARAN, Albadaran. 
ALDEHYDE, see Anassthetic. 
ALDER, AMERICAN, Alnus serratula — a. 
Black, Prinos, Rhamnus frangula — a. European. 
Alnus glutinosa — a. White, Clethra alnifolia. 
ALE, Cerevisia. 

Ale, White. A drink, used in Devonshire, 
England, amongst the ingredients of which are 
milk, spice, and spirit. 
ALEACAS, Glycyrrhiza. 

ALEBERRY. A beverage, formerly made by 
boiling ale with spice and sngar, and sops of 
bread. It was given to invalids. — Palsgrave. 
ALECOST, Tanaeetum balsamita. 
ALECTO'RIUS LAPIS, Alecto'ria ; from 
a^cKTtap, ' a cock.' The name of a stone, supposed 
to exist in the stomach of the cock, or, according 
to others, in that of the capon, four years old. 
Many marvellous properties were formerly attri- 
buted to it, which are as groundless as its exist- 
ence. There are no stones in the stomach, except 
what have been swallowed. 
ALEGAR, Acetum. 
ALEHOOF, Glechoma hederacea. 
ALEIMMA, Liniment. 


4 5 


ALEIPnA, Liniment. 

ALEIPTK'llIUM, from aXn^w, 'I anoint.' 
The place in the ancient gymnasium where the 
coinbahints anointed themselves. 

ALEIP'TKOX. Same etymon. A box for 
containing ointments. 
ALE MA. Farina. 

ALEM'IjIC (Ar'tb.), Mnorshead, Cnpitel'lttm, 
Capil'ii/ 11)11, Am'blcuH, (F.) Alnmhic. A utensil 
made of glass, metal, or earthen ware, adapted 
for distillation. A atiU. It consists of a body 
or cucurbit, (F.) CHCnrbite, chandiere, to which is 
attached a head or capital, (F.) chapiteau, and 
out of this a benk descends laterally to be inserted 
into the receiver, worm, condenser, or refrigera- 
tor, (F.) serpeutin, refrigerant, as the case may 

ALEM'BROTH ,{Salt.) Sal Alembroth. The 
alchyniists designated by this name, and by 
those of Stxl aapien'tioB, Sal rirtia, Sal vitcB and 
.S'. Scienti(P., the product resulting from the sub- 
limation of a mixture of corrosive sublimate and 
sal ammoniac. It is stimulant, but not employed. 
ALESE (F.), Aleze, Alaise, Lin'teum, from 
a>.c(u), ' I preserve.' A guard. A cloth arranged 
in several folds, and placed upon a bed, so as to 
(juard it from the lochial or other discharges. 
ALETON. Farina. 
ALKTRIS, A. farinosa. 

Al'iotkis (Ph. U. S.), A. Farxno'aa seu alba, 
Stargrass, Starwort, Blazing star. Aloe-root, 
liitter-grnss, Black root. Unicorn root, Ague root. 
Ague f/rass, Colic root. Devil's bit, Me(dy slanoort, 
(F.) Aletris. Nat. Ord. Asphodeleae. Sex. Si/st. 
llexandria Monogynia. This plant is an intense 
and permanent bitter, and is used as a tonic and 
stomachic. It is common in the United States. 

Aletius alba, Aletris — a. Aurea; indigenous 
— has similar virtues. 
ALEUROX. Farina. 
ALKUROTESrS, see Cribration. 
ALEXANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrum. 

ALEXAN'DRINE, Emplas'trum Alexan'dri. 
A garlic plaster, invented by Alexander, contem- 
porary of Mesne. Other ancient preparations 
were called ' Alexandrine ;' as the Alexan'dri 
antid'otus au'rea, used in apoplexy ; the Collyr'- 
ium siccittn Alexandri'num, or 'Collyrium of King 
Alexander,' mentioned by Aetius. 

ALEXICACUM, Amuletum, Alexipharmic. 
ALEXIPHAR'MIC, Alexiphar'mocus, Anti- 
phar'maens, Alexica'cus, Caco-alexite' ria, Lexi- 
phar'macus, (F.) Alexiphartnaque, from a\c^civ, 
' to repel,' and (pap/iaKov, ' poison.' A term for- 
merly used for medicines which were considered 
proper for expelling from the body various mor- 
bific principles, or for preventing the bad effects 
of poisons taken inwardly. 

ALEXIR, Elixir. 

ALEXITE'RIA, Cacalexite'ria, from aXtlaa^at, 
' to assist.' Originally, alexilerium was used 
synonymously with remedy. In more modern 
times it has been applied to a class of medicines, 
that counteract poisons placed in contact with 
the exterior of the body, in contradistinction to 

fection — a. Nitricum, see Disinfection. 
ALEZE, Aleae. 
ALFUSA, Tutia. 
ALGA MARINA, Pila marina. 
ALGAL IC, Catheter. 
ALtJALIE, Catheter. 

AL'GAROTII, Al'garot, Algaro'thi Pulvis, 
Puhie Awjel'icus, Ox'idum seu Submu'rias Slib'ii 

prcecipitan'do para'tum, Antimo'nii Ox'ydum, 
Ox'idum antimo'nii Nitro-inuriat'icum, O.c'idum 
Slib'ii Ac"ido Muriat'ico oxygena'to para tun, 
Mercu'rius Vita, Mercu'rins Mortis, Flowers of 
Antimony, (F.) Oryde d'Anlimoine, so called from 
Victor Algarothi, a Veronese physician ; sepa- 
rated from the terchloride of antimony by pouring 
the terchloride into a large quantity of water. 
When this, an oxychloride, is washed with abun- 
dance of water to separate the muriatic acid, and 
afterwards by a solution of alkali to remove tbe 
terchloride, the teroxide of antimony, Antimo- 
nii Oxidum of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia is 
left. It was formerly much used as an emetic, 
purgative, and diaphoretic. 

ALGE'DO, from a\yo{, 'pain.' Violent pain 
about the neck of the bladder, occasionally oc- 
curring in gonorrhoea. — Cockburn. 
Algedon, Pain. 

AL'GIDUS, from a/gor, ' co\di.' (¥.) Algide. 
That which is accompanied by coldness. 

Al'gida Febkis, Febris horrif'ica seu hor'- 
rida seu (juer'quera seu crymo'des, Bry'cetus, 
Bry'chetus. (F.) Fievre algide, Algid Fecer. A 
pernicious intermittent, accompanied by icy cold- 
ness, which is often fatal in the second or third 

ALGOR, Rigor. 

ALGOS, aAyot, 'pain.' See Pain. Hence, 
Alget'icus, 'painful,' as Epilep'sia ahjet'ica. The 
suflix algia has the same signification — as in 
Cephalalgia, I'leurali/ia, Neuralgia, &c. 

ALGOSPAS'MUS', from aAyoj, 'pain,' and 
(j-Kaajioi, ' spasm.' Painful spasm or cramp of tho 

ALGUE COMMUNE, Pilamarina— a. 3Tarine, 
Pila marina — a. des Verriers, Pila marina. 
ALHAGI, Agul. 

ALHANDAL, see Cucumis colocynthis. 
ALHASEF, Sudamina. 
ALHAUNE, Lawsonia inermis. 
ALIBILIS, Nutritious. 

AL'ICA, Hal'ica, Farina'rium, Chondrug, from 
alcre, 'to nourish.' A grain from which the an- 
cients made their tisanes; supposed, by some, to 
have been the Triticum sjyelta. At times, it 
seems to have meant the tisane itself. 

AL'ICES, from aXifw, 'I sprinkle.' Spots 
which precede the eruption of small pox. 

ALIENATIO. Anomalia— a. Mentis, Insanity. 
ALIENE, Insane. 
ALIENISTE, see Psychiatria. 
ALIENDS, Delirious. 

ALIFORMES MUSCULL Pterygoid muscles. 
ALIFORMIS, Alaris, Pterygoid. 
ALIGULUS, Confection. 
ALIMA, Aliment. 
ALIMELL^, Parotid. 

AL'IMENT, Alimen'tum, Al'ima, Bnrma'lia, 
Nutri' men, A'u'triens, SuKtentac'ulum, Ciba'rium, 
Broma, Comis'te, Oibus, Esca, N^utri'tu^, Nutri- 
men'tum, Sitos, Trophe. (Prov.) Belly-timber. 
(F.) Aliment, Nnurriture, from alere, 'to nourish.' 
Food. Any substance which, if introduced into 
the system, is capable of nourishing it and repair- 
ing its losses. 

The study of aliments forms one of the most 
important branches of hygiene. They are con- 
iined to the organized kingdom, — the mineral 
aflFording none. 

As regards the immediate principles which 




predominate in their composition, they have 
been classed, but imperfectly, as follows : — 

1. Feculaceous, 


Wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, In- 
potato, sago, peas, 


i Wheat, barley 

< iiinn coru, 
( beans, <te. 
I Carrot, salsify, bt 

< pus, cabbage, 
( melon, Ac. 

Carrot, salsify, beet, turnip, a.«para- 
lettuce, artichoke, 

4. Acidulous. 

Suprar. fig, date, raisin, apricot. &c. 

Orange, currant, gooseberry, cher- 
ry, peach, strawberry, raspberry, 
mulberry, prune, pear, apple, 
sorrel, &c. 

r>u„„,\,^„. ,j( Cocoa, olive, sweet almond, nut, 

Vieaqinnus ana} „ , . ■ ■ *■ . -i u *» 
j^^ilfy < walnut, animal fat, oil, butter, 

( &c. 

Different kinds of milk, cheese. 

Tendon, aponeurosis, true skin, 

cellular texture; very young 


Brain, nerve, eggs, &c. 

9. Fibrinous. Flesh and blood. 



Dr. Prout has four great classes — the aqueous, 
saccharine, oleaginous, and albuminous: — Dr. 
Pereira, twelve — the aqueous, mucilaginous or 
gummy, saccharine, amylaceous, ligneous, pecti- 
tiaceous, acidulous, alcoholic, oily or fatty, pro- 
teinaceous, gelatinous, and saline. 

Liebig divides them into two classes: — the 


Tio.N, in which he comprises vegetable fibrin, 
vegetable albumen, vegetable casein, flesh and 
blood ; and the non-nitrogbnized elements of 
RESPIRATIO.V, in which he comprises/af, starch, 
yum, cane sugar, grape sugar, sugar of milk, pec- 
tin, bnssorin, wine, beer and spirits. The former 
alone, in his view, are inservient to the nutrition 
of organized tissue : the latter are burnt in respi- 
ration, and furnish heat. 

The following; simple arrangement is, perhaps, 
as little objectionable as any : — 

1. NUrngp.nized AH 

'ments, S 

, of Prout.) J I 

Fibrinous (Glutinous?) 



I Amylaceous. 
2. Nbn-nilrogenized Aliments, < Saccharine. 

( Oleaginous. 

The second division might be still farther sim- 
plified, inasmuch as amylaceous aliments are 
convertible into sugar during the digestive pro- 
cess; and, from both, oleaginous matter may be 

ALIMENTAL, Nutrimental. 

ALIiMENTARY, Nutrimental— a. Tube, Canal, 

ALIMENTATION, Alimenta' tio. The act of 

ALIMENTEUX, Nutrimental. 

ALIMENTUM, Aliment, Pabulum. 

ALIMOS, Giycyrrhiza. 

ALINDE'SIS, from a\ivioyiai, 'to be turned 
about.' A species of exercise, which consisted 
in rolling in the dust, after having been anointed 
with oil. — Hippocrates. 

ALIPJE'NOS, AUpcB'num, Alipan'tos, from a, 
priv., and \inavuv, ' to be fat.' An epithet for- 
merly given to every external remedy, devoid of 
fat or moisture : such as powders. — Galen. 

ALIPANTOS, Aliptenos. 

ALIP'TA, Alip'tes, from oAti^o). 'I anoint.' 
He who anointed the Atbletae after bathing. 
The place where this was done was called Alip- 

ALIPTERIUM, see Alipta. 

ALIP'TICA, same etymon. The part of an- 
cient medicine, which treated of inunction as a 
means of preserving health. 

ALfSfER BLANC, Cratsegus aria. 

ALISMA, A. plantago. Arnica montana — a. 

Graminifolia, A. plantago — a. Lanccolata, A. 

Alis'ma Planta'go, Aiisma, A. la nceola'ta seu. 
gruminifii'lia, Planta'go aquat'ica, Water Plan- 
tain, (F.) Plantain d'Eau. Ord. Alismacea;. 
Sex. Syst. Hexandria Polygynia. The fresh root 
is acrid, and the dried leaves will vesicate. The 
I leaves have been proposed as substitutes for Uva 
t Ursi. 

ALITURA, Nutrition. 

AL'KALE, O'leum G<dU'ncB. An ancient phar- 
maceutical name for pullets' fat. 

ALKALE.SCENCE, Alcalescenee. 

ALKALI, see Alcali — a. Ainmoniacum caus- 
ticum. Ammonia — a. Amnioniacum spirituosum, 
Spiritus ammoniaj — a. Minerale nitratuni. Soda, 
nitrate of — a. Minerale phosphoratum, Soda, 
phosphate of — a. Minerale salinuui, Soda, mu- 
riate of — a. Vegetable, Potash — a. Vegetabile cum 
aceto, PotassiB acetas — a. Vegetabile fixum caus- 
ticum, Potassa fusa — a. Volatile, Ammonia — a. 
Volatile causticum, Ammonia — a. Volatile, con- 
crete, Aminoniae carbonas — a.. Volatile, mild, Am- 
moniiB carbonas — a. Volatile nitratum, Ammoniis 
nitras — a. Volatile tartarizatum, Ammonias tartras 
— a. Volatile vitriolatum, AmmoniaB sulphas. 

ALKANET, BASTARD, Lithospermum offici- 
nale — a. Dyer's, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Garden, 
Anchusa officinalis — a. Officinal, Anchusa offici- 

ALK.AR, Medicament. 

ALKEKEN(JI, Physalis. 

ALKER'MES, Oonfec'tio Alher'mes, Alcher'- 
mes. A celebrated electuary, composed of a mul- 
titude of substances. It was so called from tlie 
grains of kermes contained in it. It was used 
as a stimulant. Also, kermes. 

ALKERVA, see Ricinus communis. 

ALKITRAN, Cedria. 

ALKOL, Alcohol. 

ALKOOL. Alcohol. 

ALKYMISTRE, Alchymist. 

ALLA, Cerevisia. 

ALLA ITEM E NT, Lactation. 

ALLAMAN'DA, A. Cathar'tica seu qrandi- 
flo'ra, Ore'lia grandiflo'ra, Gal'arips, Echi'nus 
scaudens, Apoc"ynnm scandens. A shrub, natis'e 
of Guiana, the infusion of whose leaves is said by 
Linnffius to be useful in Colica Pictonum 

ALLANTODES, Allantois. 

ALLAN'TOIC ACID, Ac"idum allonto'icum. 
A peculiar acid, found in the liquor of the allan- 
tois of the cow. 

ALLANTOIDES, Allantois. 

ALLAN'TOIS, AllantoVdes, Allanto'dca, Mem- 
bra'na urina'ria, M. seu Tunica Farcimina'lis, 
M. Intestina'lis, the Allantold Vesicle, from aXXa;, 
aXXavTos, 'a sausage,' and £(^of, 'shape.' A sort of 
elongated bladder,between the chorion and amnion 
of the foetus, which is thrown out from the caudal 
extremity of the embryo, and communicates with 
the bladder by the urachus. It is very apparent 
in quadrupeds, but not in the human .species. As 
the allantois is developed, its walls become very 
vascular, and contain the ramifications of what 
become the umbilical artery and vein, which, by 
the elongation of the allantois, are brought 
through the villi of the chorion, into in.iirect 
communication with the vessels of the mother. 

sausage, and ro^,<cov 'a poison.' Sausage poison 
(G.) Wurstg.ft. The Germans have given this 
name to a poison developed in sausages formed 
of blood and liver. 

ALLECTUARY, Electnarium. 
ALLELUIA. Oxalis acetosclla. 
ALLEN'TIIESIS, from aXXo,, 'another,' and 
cvdccci, 'introduction.' The entrance in(o or 




presence of extraneous bodies in, the orcanism. — 

ALLE'VIATOR, from nd,'to,' and levare, 'to 
raise;' 'a soother.' An instrument for raising in- 
valids, invented hy Mr. Jenks, of Rhode Island. 
It con.-isis of two upright i)osts, about six feet 
(ligh, each supported by a pedestal; of two hori- 
zontal bars at the top, rather longer than a cora- 
n)on bedstead ; of a windlass of the same length, 
placed six inches below the upper bar; of a cog- 
wheel and handle; of linen belts from six to 
twelve inches wide; of straps secured at one end 
of the windlass; and at the other having hooks 
attached to correspondingeyes in the linen belts, 
and of a head-piece made of netting. The pa- 
tient lying on his mattress, the surgeon passes 
the linen belts beneath his body, attaching them 
to the hooks on the ends of the straps, and ad- 
justing the whole at the proper distance and 
length, so as to balance the body exactly, and 
then raises it from the mattress by turning the 
handle of the windlass. To lower the patient 
again, and replace him on the mattress, the wind- 
lass must be reversed. 

ALLGOOD, Chenopodium bonus Ilenricus. 

ALLILEAL, Heracleum spondylium. 

ALLIA'CEOUS, AUia'ceiw, {P.") A/liace, from 
allium, 'garlic' Belonging to garlic, as alliace- 
oua odour. 

ALL [AIRE, Alliaria. 

ALLIA'RIA, frotn niZfVm, its smell resembling 
garlic. A. ojjichin'lis, Ery»'{iimm alliii'ria sou 
ciirdifi)' iinni, Sinyiii'l>rtuiii al/lu'ria, Jnck-in-the 
hedije, Stinking hcdije Ifnstard, Hedge Garlic, 
iSniice-rtlniie, Ilea'peris allia'ria, (F.) Alliaire. 
Ord. Cruciferifi. This plant has been sometimes 
given in humid asthma and dj'spnoea. It is 
reputed to be diaphoretic, diuretic, and antiscor- 

The Parisian Codex has a compound syrup of 
alliaria, Sirop d'eri/niiiniiii compose, which is used 
in hoarseness. 

ALLKJATURA, Fascia, Ligature. 

ALLIOTICUS, Alterative. 

AL'LIUM, (Ph. U. S.) from oleo, 'I smell.' 
A. sati'vum, Theridca rustico'rnm, Ampelvp' ra- 
snni, Scor'odoii, Scordon, Garlic, (P.) Ail. Ord. 
Liliacea;. Se.r. Sijst. Hexandria Monogynia. A 
native of Sicily, but cultivated for use. The 
hidbn or cloves, Ag'lithes, have a strong, ofl'ensive, 
and penetrating odour, and a sweetish, biting, 
and caustic taste. lutemnlhj, garlic is stimulant, 
diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue (?), diapho- 
retic, and anthelmintic. Ejcternally, it is rube- 
facient, maturative, and repellent; and a garlic 
ointinent is made by digesting, at a moderate 
heat, for half an hour, two or three cloves of 
fresh garlic in an ounce of lard, and straining. 
It is applied as a rubefacient to the chest in 

Dose, one to six cloves, swallowed whole, or 
from f J^ss to f ^^ij of the juice. 

Taijlor's Jicmcdi/ for Deafness, a nostrum, ap- 
pears to consist of garlic, infused in oil of al- 
monds, and coloured by alkanet root. 

AtLii'M Ascalon'iciim, Echnlotte. 

Allium CANArKN'sR, Meadow garlic; indige- 
nous ; has the same properties as allium. 

Allium Ckpa, Ccpn Vnlga'ris, Common Onion, 
('tpul'la, Crom'nii/on, (F.) Oignnn. Acrid and 
ttiini.lating, and possessing very little nutriment. 
Onions have been used as stimulants, diuretics, 
and anthelmintics. The boiled or roasted onion, 
as a cataplasm, is emollient and maturating. 
The fresh root is rubefacient. The expressed 
juice is sometimes used in otalgia and in rhcu- 

Allium Galliccm, Portulaca — a. Plantagi- 
neum, A. Victoriale. 

Allium Porrum, Porrum, P. sati'vum, Prn. 
stun, the Leek or J'orret ; (F.) Poirean, Porreau. 
It possesses the same property as the onion. 

The virtues of the genus Allium depend upon 
an acrid principle, soluble in water, alcohol, acids, 
and alkalies. 

Allii'm Redolens, Teucrium scordium 

Allium Victoria'le, A. plantagin'eum, C'pa 
victoria'lis, Victoria'lis longa. The root, Vfhicii, 
when dried, loses its alliaceous smell and laste, 
is said to be efiicacious in allaying the abdominal 
spasms of pregnant women (?) 

ALLOCIIET'IA, Allot riochet'ia, from alU^, 
'another,' and x'C'^'"' ' t" go to stool.' The dl^- 
charge of extraneous matters from the bowels. 
The discharge of fa?ces by an abnormous opening. 

ALLOCHOOS, Delirious. 

ALLOCHROMA'SIA, from aAXoj, 'another,' 
and ■xpi'^jxa, ' colour.' A change of colour. 


ALL(F,OPATHIC, Allopathic. 

ALLffiOSlS, Alteration. 

ALLtEOTICUS, Alterative. 

ALLOIOSIS, Alteration. 

ALLOIOTiCUS, Alterative. 


ALLOPATH, AUopathist. 

ALLOPATHES, Allopathic. 

ALLOPATH'IC, Allopath'icns, AUcpopath'ic, 
Allaeopath'iciis, Allop'athes, Heteropath' ic, from 
aWoi, 'another,' and ttuOos, 'afi'ection.' Relating 
to the ordinary method of medical practice, in 
contradistinction to the homoeopathic. See Allo- 

ALLOPATHIE, Allopathy. 

ALLOP'ATHIST, Al'lopath, same etymon. 
One who follows allopathy. 

ALLOP'ATH Y, Allopathi'a,Allceopat7ii'a, H;/- 
penantio'sis, Hypenantio'ma, Cnrn'tio contrario' - 
rmnp€rcontra'ria,[F.) Allopathie ; same etymon. 
The opposite to homoeopathy; or, according to 
Hahnemann, a method of treatment in which 
remedial agents are employed, the action of 
which, on healthy man, produces morbid phe- 
nomena diflt'erent from those that are observed 
in the sick person. The ordinary medical prac- 
tice is so designated by the homoeopathist. 

ALLOPHASIS, Delirium. 


ALLOTRIODON'TIA, from aWoTpioi, 'fo- 
reign,' and oSovs, 'a tooth.' Transplantation of 

ALLOTRIOEC'CRISIS, from aXAorpoj, 'fo- 
reign,' and cKKpiais,' 'separation.' The separa- 
tion of extraneous matters from the body in dis- 


ALL0TRI0PHA(3IA, Malacia. 

ALLOTRIOTEX'IS, from aXXorpioi, 'foreign,' 
and Tc^ii, 'parturition.' The bringing forth of 
an abnormous foetus. 

ALLOTRIU'RIA, from aXXorpioi, 'foreign,' 
and ox'pov, 'urine.' Admixture of foreign mat- 
ters with the urine. 

AL'LOTROPISM; (Y.) Allotropie, from aXAot, 
'another,' and Tporog, ' a turn or change. A term 
recently introduced into chemistry, the object of 
which is to express the property, possessed by 
certain simjile bodies, of assuming different quali- 
ties on being subjected to certain modes of treat- 
ment. Carbon, for example, furnishes three 
forms — plumbago, charcoal, and diamond. 

ALL-OVERISH, see Indisposition. 

ALLSPICE, see Myrtus pimenta — a. Bush, 
Laurus Benzoin — a. Carolina, Calycanthus — a. 
Wild. Laurus Benzoin. 

ALLUCINATIO, Hallucination. 

ALLURE, Influenza. 

ALLUS POLLE-X, Pollex, see Digitus. 




ALMA. Water. 

ALM AU[Ai},.';eePluinbioxy<luin scmivitreum. 

AliMb'ZERION, Cneoruui trieoccuiu. 

AL.MONl). AiiiygJ'ilii- 

Almon-u Bloom. A liquid cosmetic, formed 
of liruzil ditat ^^j, water Oiij ; boil and .'train ; 
and add inhitj/dus ^vj, grnun sylrestrui ,^ij, or 
cochineal ^ij, alum ^j, borox 3''j j boil again, 
and strain througli a line cloth. 

Almond Caki:, see Amygdala — a. of the Ear, 
Tonsil — a. Earth, Arachis hypoga;a — a. Paste, 
see Amygdala — a. Powder, see Amygdala — a. of 
the Throat, Tonsil. 

ALNUS, A. glutinosa — a. Communis, A. gluti- 

ALNUS GLUTINO'SA, Alnns, A commu'nin, 
Bet'ubi yiutino'sa seu emnrgina'ta, Europe'an Al- 
der, (Sc.) Aril, Eller, Ord. Betulacea3. A tree 
■which grows in Europe, in moist places. The 
bark and leaves are astringent and bitter; and 
hence are employed in intermitteats, and as a 
tonic and astringent. 

Alnus Skiiuat'ula, ^mertcad J^We?-, has simi- 
lar properties. 

Aln'us NiGit.v, Rhamnus frangula. 

ALOCIII'A, from a, privative, and Xo'^ftia, 'lo- 
chia.' Absence of the lochial discharge. 

ALOKDA'RIUM. A compound medicine, con- 
taining aloes. — GorriBus. 

ALOE, Aloes — a. False, Agave Virginica. 

ALOi; ROOT, Aletris farinosa. 

AL'OES, Al'oe, Fel Natu'ra. The inspissated 
juice of the Aloe. Ord. Asphodeleae. Sex. Syst. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

Aloks Rarbadhnsis, a. hepatica — a. Bombay, 
A. hepatica — a. des Barbades, A. hepatica. 

Aloes Caballi'na, A. Giiinieii'sls, Horne-aloes. 
Used chiefly for horses. It is collected in Spain 
and Portugal, and is very coarse. 


ALOb;s, Cape, Shining Aloes ; a cheap and ex- 
cellent form of aloes, collected at the Cape of 
Good Hope, from Aloe ferox, A. A/rtcana, A. 
spicata, and other species. 

Aloes, East India, A. Succotorina — a. Guini- 
ensis, A. Caballina. 

Aloes Hepat'ica, A. vnlga'ris, A. Barhaden'- 
ain, Hepnt'ic aloes, Bombay aloes, Barba'does 
aloes, A. vnlga'ris exfrac'tnm, (F.) Aloes en eale- 
basses, A. des Barbades. This species has a very 
disagreeable odour, and an intensely bitter and 
nauseous taste. Properties the same as the last. 

Aloes, Horse, A. Caballina — a. Lucida, A. 
Succotorina — a. Soeotrine, A. Succotorina — a. 
Spicata extractum, A. Succotorina. 

Aloes Succotori'na, Soc'otrine aloes, Turkey 
aloes. East India aloes. Aloes In'cida, A. ZoctorV- 
nia, A. spica'tcB extrac'tnm, An'iina Aloes, is the 
best species. Its odour is not unpleasant ; taste 
very bitter, and slightly aromatic ; colour red- 
dish-brown, with a shade of purple; mass hard, 
friable ; fracture conchoidal and glossy ; soluble 
in dilute alcohol. Powder of a bright cinnamon- 
yellow colour. It is cathartic, warm, and stimu- 
lating; emmenagogue, anthelmintic, and stoma- 
chic. As a cathartic, it aflects the rectum chiefly. 
Dose, as a cathartic, gr. v to ^j in pill. 

Aloes, Turkey, A. Succotorina — a. Vulgaris, 
A. hepatica — a. AVood, Agallochum — a. Zocto- 
rinia, A. Succotorina- 

ALOET'IC, Aloet'icus. A preparation which 
contains aloes. 

ALOEXYLOX, Agallochum. 

ALOGOTROPiriA, from aXoyof, 'dispropor- 
tionate,' and Tpo'pri, 'nutrition.' Irregular nutri- 
tion. Used particularly to designate the irreo-u- 
lar manner in which the nutrition of bones" is 
effected in rickety individuals. 


ALOPECIA, from oXa>Trr,^, 'a fox;' (Ibis ani- 
mal being said to be subject to the anc('tioii.) 
Capillo'ium de/lu'vinm, Alhrix depi'lis, J'halac- 
ro'tis, Depila'iio, Tricho'sis Athrix, aaiigra'na 
Alope'cia, Atrich'ia, Bejhi'vinm seu Lapxns scu 
Fliixus Pilo'riim, Lipsotrich'ia, Vnlpis morbus, 
Pela'da, Baldness, (F.) Pelade. Falling ofl' of 
the hair ; loss of the hair. When this is confined 
to the crown of the head, it is called calvilies, a\- 
though the terms are often used synonymously. 
When congenital, it is called Atrich'ia scu Alope'- 
cia adiia'ta. The falling off of the hair in old 
age is termed Alope'cia seni'lia. 

Alopecia Adnata, see Alopecia — a. Areata, 
Porrigo decalvaus — a. Circumscripta, Porrigo 
decalvans — a. Partialis, Porrigo decalvans — a. 
Senilis, see Alopecia. 

ALOUCHE, Crataegus aria. 

ALOUCH'I. The name of a gum procured 
from the canella alba tree. 

ALOUCHIER, Crataegus aria. 

ALPAM. A shrub which grows on the coast 
of Malabar. Certain parts of this, infused in oil, 
form an antipsoric ointment. The juice of the 
leaves, mixed with that of calamus, is employed 
against the bites of serpents. 

ALPIIENIC, Saccharum candidum. 

ALPHITEDON, see Fracture. 

ALPII'ITON. a\<piTov, Polen'ta, Fari'na. Any 
kind of meal. Toasted barley-meal. — Hippocra- 
tes. Polenta means, also, a food composed of In- 
dian meal, cheese, <fcc. See Farina. 

ALPIION'SIN, Alphon'sinum. A kind of bul- 
let forceps, similar to a Porte-crnyoii, so-called 
from the inventor, Alphonso Ferri, of Naples. — 

ALPHOS, Lepra alphoides. 


damomum — a. Exaltata, Renealmia exaltata — 
a. Tubulata, Renealmia exaltata — a. Galanga, 
Maranta galanga. 

ALPISTE. Phalaris Canadiensis. 

ALSANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrnm. 

ALSI'NE 'b,'i.WT>lA, A. avicula' rvm s^en viilga'- 
ris, from oAo-oy, ' a grove,' because growing abun- 
dantly in the woods. [ ? ] Jlorsus Galli'ncB, Holos'. 
teum Alsi'ne, Stella'ria me'dia, 3Iouse-ear, Chid:- 
weed, Chickenwort, (F.) 3Iouron des Oiseaux, Mor- 
geline. Ord. Caryophyllacea. This plant, if boiled 
tender, may be eaten like spinach, and forms an 
excellent emollient poultice. It was formerly 
regarded as a vulnerary and detergent. 

ALTAFOR, Camphor. 

ALTER SEXUS, Sex, female. 

ALTERANS, Alterative. 

ALTERANT, Alterative; see, also. Alteration. 

ALTER A'TlO'S,Altera'tio, from alter, 'other,' 
Alloio'sis, Allaeo'sis. This word is used in France 
to express any change which supervenes; for ex- 
ample, in the expression of the countenance {al- 
teration de la face,) or in the structure of an 
organ {alteration organique,) or in the nature of 
fluids excreted {alteration de Vurine, des larmes, 
du lait, (Vc.) 

Alteration is also used in an entirely different 
sense, to express intense thirst in disease. In 
this case Us etymology is different. It comes 
from haleter, and was formerly written haleter- 

AL'TERATIVE. Al'terans, Alloioficus, Alice- 
otieus Alliot'icus, Immu'tans. An agent con- 
sidered to be capable of producing a salutarv 
change ,n a disease, but without excitin- any 
sensible evacuation. As medicine improves, this 
uncertain class of remedies becomes, of necessity, 
diminished in number. See Eutrophie 

(F.) Alterant. The French term' likewise 




means, that which causes thir.H, — Slticulo'snii, j 
Dipset'icHH, as altirer means both to change, and 
to cause thirst. S'alterer is to experience a 
chan;,'e for tiio worse, — (corrum'pi.) 
ALTERCUM, Hyoscyamus. 
ALTERED, see Castratus. 

ALTIl^'A, from aXOuv, ' to heal ;' A. nfficinn'- 
li», Mti/iHtvin'cnm, ArisUiUhcB'a, Hibis'cuH, Hi- 
bis'cum, Ibis'chus, Ibis'cha minmal'va, liismnl'va, 
Marsh mallow. (Prov.) Malice. (F.) Gni- 
niative. Orel. Malvaceae. Sex. Sytt. Monadelphia 
Polyandria. Tho leaves, AUIkb'or fo'Uu, and 
root, Alth(B'(B radix, contain much mucilage. 
They are emollient and demulcent, and are cm- 
ployed wherever medicines, possessing such pro- 
perties, are re(iuired. In the Ph. U. S., Althaea 
is the root of Althaea ofRcinalis, 
ALT HE US, Physician. 
ALTIIAXIS, Curation. 
ALTIiOS, Medicament. 
ALTIIilBAT, Torebinthina. 
ALU'DEL, Alu'tel, Vitriim suhlimato'rium. A 
hollow sphere of stone, glass, or earthen ware, 
with a short neck projecting at each end, by 
means of which one glass might be set upon the 
other. The uppermost had no aperture at the 
top. Aludels were formerly used in the sublima- 
tion of various substances. 

A'LULA, diminutive oi ala, 'a, wing.' A little 

ALUM, Symphytum — a. Cataplasm, Coagulum 
aluminosuni — a. Egyptian, vEiryptia stypteria. 

Alum, Roche, Alu'men de Ituchi, (F.) Alnn de 
Roche. So called from Roccha in Syria, where 
there was a manufactory of it. It is in pieces of 
the size of an almond, covered with a reddish 

Conniion Roclie Alum, A. Roehi Gallis. Frag- 
ments of common alum moistened and shaken 
with prepared bole. It is white when broken. 

Alum Root, Geranium maculatuui, lleuchera 

Alum, Solution op, Compound, Liquor alumi- 
nis coinpositus. 

Alum Springs op Virginia, see Virginia, mine- 
ral waters of. 

ALU'MEN, (an Arabic terra, alum,) Alum, 
HypeystiU phas alu'miucB et Patau' hcb, Potas'sw 
alu'miiio-sulphaR, Sul'jjiiaa Alumiucp, Acid'ulns 
cum Patau' ad, Sulphas Alu'miiicE, Sul'phas KaV- 
ico-alumin'icum. Sulphas uluinina'ris, Supersid'- 
phas alu'mince et potas'so!, Arf/il'la sulphn'rica 
alcalisa'ta, A. vitriola'ta, Sti/pte'r>a, Sulpersul'- 
phas Argil'lcB alcalisa'tum, Argilla Kalisxdphu- 
rica. (F.) Aluii. 

Alumej^ Catinum, Potash of commerce — a. 
Fixum, see Potash — a. Kinosatum, Pulvis sul- 
phatis aluminte compositus. 

Alu'men Commu'ne, Common alum, English 
alum, Rock alum, Alumen facti"tittm, A. crystaV- 
linum, A. ru'pcum, (F.) Alun d' An<jleterre, is the 
rariety usually employed. It is in octahedral 
crystals, but generally in large, white, somitrans- 
parent masses ; has a sweetish, styptic taste : 
effloresces in tho air, and is soluble in 16 parts of 
water at 60°. It is tonic and astringent, and as 
such is used internally and externally. Dose, gr. 
V to XV. 

Alu'men Exsicca'tum, Alu'men ustum seu 
eicca'tum seu calcina'fiim. Sulphas alu'ynince/usus, 
Arqil'la sulphn'rica usia. Burnt alum, dried alum. 
(F.) Alun calcine, (Alum melted in an earthen 
vessel until ebullition ceases.) Eseharotic. 

Alu'men Roma'num, Roman alum, A. Ru'ti- 
lum seu Rubrum. (F.) Alun de Rome. In crys- 
tals which are of a pale red when broken, and 
covered with a reddish efflorescence. 

Alfmen Siccatum, Alumen exsiecatura. 

ALUMIXA, ACETATE OF, Aluminas Acetas 
— a. Depurata, Argilla pura — a. Pura, Ar"illa 
pura — a. Sulphate of, Aluminae Sulphas. 

fate of Aln'mina. A delinquescent salt, obtained 
by the addition of acetate of lead to sulphate of 
alumina and potassa. It possesses the same pro- 
perties as the sulphate of alumina. 

Alu'min-e et Potass^ Hvpersdlphas, Alu- 
men — a. et Potassse supersulphas, Alumen — a. 
Sulphas, Alumen. 

Alu'mince Sulphas, ArgillcB Sulphas, Sulphate 
of Aln'mina. Simple sulphate of alumina mav 
be made by the direct combination of alumina 
and sulphuric acid, and contains 30 per cent of 
the former, to 70 per cent, of the latter. It is 
a deliquescent salt; and is an excellent antisep- 
tic and detergent to ulcers. It is chiefly used to 
preserve dead bodies — a strong solution being 
injected into the arteries. 

GannaVs Solution for preserving animal sub- 
stances is made by dissolving an ounce of acetate 
of alumina in twenty ounces oi water. 

Alumina Sulphas Acidulus cum Potassa, 
Alumen — a. Sulphas fusus, Alumen exsiccatum. 

ALUMINE FACTICE, Argilla pura. 

ALUMINII OXIDUM, Argilla pura. 

ALUN, Alumen. 

ALUNSEL, Gutta. 

ALUS, Symphytum. 

ALUSIA, Hallucination — a. Hypochondriasis, 

ALUTE^i, Aludel. 

ALVAQUILLA, Psoralea glandulosa. 

ALVARAS NIGRA, Ichthyosis. 

ALVEARIUM, Auditory canal, external. 

ALVE'OLAR, Alveola'ris, from alveus, 'a ca- 
vity.' (F.) Alviolaire. That which relates to 
the alveoli. 

Alveolar Abscess, Parulis. 

Alve'olar Arches, (F.) Arcades alrSolaires, 
are formed by the margins or borders, Jn//a alveo- 
la'ria, of the two jaws, which are hollowed by the 

Alve'olar Artery, Supra-maxillary A., Ar- 
tere sus-maxillaire of Chaussier. arises from the 
internal maxillary, descends beliind the tuberos- 
ity of the upper jaw, and gives branches to the 
upper molar teeth, gums, periosteum, membrane 
of the maxillary sinus, and buccinator muscle. 

Alveolar Border, Limbus alveola'ris. The 
part of the jaws that is hollowed by the alveoli. 

Alve'olar Membranes are very fine mem- 
branes, situate between the teeth and alveoli, and 
formed by a portion of the sac or follicle which 
enclosed the tooth before it pierced the gum. By 
some this membrane has been called the alveolo- 
dental periosteum. 

Alve'olar Vein. This has a similar distri- 
bution with the artery. 

JiF^Oi^', Alveolus. 

ALVEOLI DENTIS, see Alveolus. 

Alveolar membranes. 

ALVEOLO-LABIAL, Buccinator. 

ALVE'OLUS, same etymon. Bo'trion, Bo'- 
thrion, Odontoboth'rinm, Odoutnphiit'ne. Frenn 
{Alve'oli), Mortariolum, Ilol'micos, PrcBxepiolum, 
Phatne, Phat'nion, Prmsc'pium, Patne, Pathne. 
(F.) Alveole. The alveoli are the sockets of the 
teeth, Alve'oli dentis, Ma'nia seu Caver'nae den'- 
tium, into which they are, as it were, driven. 
"Their size and shape are determined liy the teeth 
which they receive, and they are pierced at the 
apex by small holes, which give passage to the 
dental vessels and nerves. 

ALVEUS, Auge — a. Ampullosus, Eeceptacu- 
lum chyli — a. AmpuUescens, Thoracic dttct — a. 




Communis: see Semicircular canals — a. Utricu- 
losus : see Somieircuhir canals. 

ALVI EXCRETIO, Defecation — a. Fluxus 
aquosu.s, Diarrhoea — a. Laxitas, Diarrhcea — a. 
Profluvium, Diarrhoea. 

ALVIDUCUS. Laxative. 

ALVINE, Ah'i'nus, from alvus, 'the abdomen.' 
That which relates to the lower belly, as nlcine 
dcjectlonn, nlrlne ftnx, alcine obstructionn, <fcc. 


ALVUS, Abdomen, Uterus — a. Adstricta seu 
Astricta, Constipation — a. Cita, Diarrhoea — a. 
Dura, Constipatio — a. Renum, Pelvis of the 
kidney — ^a. Tarda, Constipation — a. Viridis, De- 

ALYCE, Anxiety. 

A LYMPH 'I A, from a, priv., and hjmpha, 
'lymph.' Want of lymph. 

AL'YPON, from a, priv., and \vrtti, 'pain.' An 
acrid, purging plant, described by Matthiolus. 
By some it has been supposed to be the Globula'- 
ria iili/piiiii of botanists. 

ALYSIS, Anxiety. 

ALYSMUS, Anxiety. 

ALYSSUM PLINII, Galium mollugo. 

ALYSSUS, Antihydrophobic. 

ALYX'IA STELLA'TA, A. aromat'ica, (F.) 
Ahjxie aronuitiqiie. A plant, of the family 
Apocynaceae, the bark of which resembles canella 
alba, and is used in Batavia in pernicious fevers. 

AL'ZILAT. In some of the Arabian writers, 
a weight of three grains. — Ruland and Johnson. 

AMABILE, Lacuna Labii Superioris. 

AMADOU, Boletus igniarius. 

AMADOUVIER, Boletus igniarius. 

AMA/G/i/R, Emaciate. 

A JIA I a R [SSEMEN T, E ra a elation . 

OF, Saint- Amand-les-Eaux. These springs, in 
the department Nord, France, are thermal (77° 
Fahr.), carbonated chalybeates ; and are much 
used internally, or in the form of bones, in 
chronic aifections of the digestive organs and 
liver, and in rheumatism. 

AJf ANDES', see Amygdala. 

AMANI'TiE, from a, privative, and fiavia, 
'maduess:' i.e. 'not poisonous.' (?) A name 
given, by the Greeks and Romans, to the edible 
cliaiiipiyiiuns. ^»(«H?7a forms, at the present day, 
a genus, some of which are edible, others poison- 
ous. Amongst others, it contains the Agaricus 
auratitiacua and A. psetido-dii rant iacus. 

AMARA DULCIS, Solanura dulcamara. 

AMARACI'NUM. An ancient and esteemed 
plaster, containing several aromatics, the marjo- 
ram, a^dpuKo;, in |)articular. 

AMARACUS, Origanum majorana — a. Tomen- 
tosus. Origanum dictamnus. 

AMARITIES, Bitterness. 

AMARITUDO, Bitterness. 

AMAROR, Bitterness. 

AMARUCACHU, Polyanthes tuberoaa. 

AMA'RUS, FicroK, 'bitter.' (F.) Anier. The 
bitter principle of vegetal)les is the great natural 
tonic, and hence hitters, as they are termed col- 
tectively, belong to the class of tonics. Several 
are used in medicine ; the chief are, gentian, 
quassia, cinchona, calumba, dog-wood, &c. 

AMASE'SIS, AiiinKKe'sin, from a, privative, and 
fiaanaii, 'mastication.' Mastication when im- 
pedeil or impracticable. 

AMATORIUM, Lacuna labii superioris. 

AMATORIL Oblique muscles of the eye. 


rior oculi. 

AMAURO'SIS, Ohfnscn'tio, Offnsca'tio, from 
atiiivpoi, 'obscure,' Drop Herene, Giitta gere'nn, 
Cutarac'ta ni'jra, Parojj'sis amauro'nis, Inunobil'- 

itas pupil'IcB, Suffu'sio nUjra, Black CMt aract, 
NervouH bUndnexH, (F.) Gontte-aereuie, Cataraete 
noire, Anopticonervie (Piorry). Diminution, or 
complete loss of sight, without any perceptible 
alteration in the organization of the eye ; gene- 
rally, perhaps, owing to loss of po>ycr of tho 
optic nerve or retina — Optic ananthe'ma. Coun- 
ter-irritants are the most successful remedial 
agents, although the disease is always very diffi- 
cult of removal, and generally totally incurable. 

Amaurosis Dimidiata, Hemiopia — a. Diurnal, 
Nyctalopia — a. Nocturnal, Hemeralopia — a. lui- 
perfecta, Hypo-amaurosis. 

AMAUROT'IC, Amaurot'iciia, (F.) Amaiiro- 
tique ; same etymon. Afifected with amaurosis. 

Amaurotic Cat's Eye, Galeamauro'ni),: A 
name given by Beer to an amaurotic affection, 
accompanied by a remarkable change of colour 
in the pupil, which presents, apparently in the 
fundus of the eye, a lighter tint, yellowish or 
brownish yellow, instead of its natural clear 

AMA'ZIA, from a, privative, and /la^oj, 'breast.' 
A monstrosity, in which there is absence of ouo 
or both breasts. 

AMBARUM, Ambergris — a. Cineritium, Am- 

AMBE, from aiifSatvu), 'I ascend;' Amhi. A 
superficial eminence on a bone. Also, an old 
surgical machine for reducing dislocations of the 
shoulder ; the invention of which is ascribed to 
Hippocrates. It is no longer used. — Hippo- 
crates, Scultetus. See Crista. 

AMBER, Succinum — a. Liquid : see Liquid- 
amber styracitlua. 

AM'BERGRIS, 'gray amber,' Ambor, Amlar, 
Amhra gri'aea seu cinera'cea seu anibrosiaco, 
Ambarum, Snc'cinum cine'reum seu yri'seum, 
Am'barum cineri"tium. A concrete substance, 
of the consistence of wax, cineritious colour, 
studded with yellow and blackish spots, and ex- 
haling a very pleasant odour. It seems highly 
probable that ambergris is formed in the intes- 
tines of the whale, and voided with its excre- 
ment. Like all aromatic substances, ambergris 
is slightly anti-spasmodic and excitant; but it is 
oftener employed as a perfume than as a medi- 

AMBIA. A liquid, yellow bitumen, the smell 
and virtues of which are similar to those of the 
resin tacamahaca. It is obtained from a spring 
in India. 

AMBICUS, Alembic. 

AMBIDEX'TER, Amphidex'ins, from amhn, 
'both,' and dexter, 'right.' One who uses both 
hands with equal facility. Celsus says the sur- 
geon ought to be ' non minims sinistra, qnam dex- 
trd promptus.' One of the aphorisms of Hippo- 
crates says, that a woman is never ambidexter. 
This is a mistake. 

AMBIL^EVUS, Ampharisteros. 

AMBIOPIA. Diplopia. 


AMBLOMA, Abortion. 

AMBLOSIS, Abortion. 

AMBLOSMUS. Abortion. 

AMBLOTHRIDION, see Abortion. 


AMBLOTICUS, Abortive. 

AMBLUS, a/i/SXyf, 'obscure.' Hence, 

AMBLYAPlI'lA.from a^/JAuj, 'obscure,' and 
'a(l>r,. 'feeling.' Dulness of the sense of touch. 

AMBLYOGMOS, Amblyopia. 

AMBLYO'PIA, from au(iXvi, 'obscure,' and 
o>ip, 'the eye.' Ambhjos'mos, Amblyoq'mos, Amph- 
o'pia (so called by some, according to Castplli, 
oh i'jnoruntium Graem limjua), Hehetu'do vis&H, 




Feebleness of sif/ht, (F.) Amlhjopte, Vue faihle. 
First degree of Amaurosis. — Hippocrates. 

Amblyopia Ckkpusculaiiis, Ilemeralopia — a. 
Dissitoruin, My()|)ia — a. Meridiana, Nyctalopia — 
a. Proxiinoruin, Presbytia. 
AMBLYOSMOS, Amblyopia. 
AMBOLICUS, Abortive. 

AMBON, a/tlSiav, 'the raised rim of a shield or 
dish,' from a/i/J'Hi/u, 'I ascend.' The fibro-carti- 
laginous rings or boitrrelets, which surround the 
articular cavities, as the glenoid cavity of the 
scapula, the acetabulum, Ac, have been so called 
— Galen. See Crista. 
AMBOR, Ambergris. 

AMBRA, Succinum — a. Ambrosiaca, Amber- 
gris — a. Cineracea, Ambergris. 
AMBRAGRISEA, Ambergris. 
AM HUE lilAXO, Succinum (album) — a. 
Jamie, Succinum. 

AMBRETTE, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 


ambrosioides — a. Anthelmiiitica, Chcnopodium 

anthelminticum — a. Botrvs, Chenopodium botrys. 



AMBRO'SIA, from a, privative, and 0poToi, 
'mortal.' Food which makes immortal, or the 
food of immortals. Food of the gods — Homer. 
See also, Chenopodium botrys. 

Ambkosia Elatior, see A. Trifida. 
Ambuosia Marit'ima, Ord. Compositse. A 
plant which grows on the shores of the Levant, 
and has a pleasant, bitter and aromatic taste. It 
is given in infusion, as a tonic and antispasmodic. 
Ambuosia Tkif'ida, Horseweed, Richweed, 
Ilorseiniiit, Homecane, Bitterweed, Great or Tall 
liacjiveed, Wild Hemp. This indigenous plant is 
found in low grounds and along streams, from 
Canada to Georgia, and west to Louisiana and 
Arkansas. It is an annual, and flowers in Au- 
gust and September. An infusion has been re- 
commended locally in mercurial salivation. 

Atiil/rosia Elatior, Ragweed, is said by Dr. 11. 
E. Griffith to have much more developed sensible 


A^fBULANCE [Y.), from amhulare, 'to walk.' 
A military hospital attached to an army, and 
moving along with it. Also called Uopital am- 

AMBULATIO, Walking. 

AM'BULATORY, Am'btdans, Ambidati'vun, 
Ain'biilative, (F.) Amhidaut. A morbid affection 
is said to be 'ambulatory,' (F.) ambulant, when 
it skii>s from one part to another; as Erisypelcs 
iimbiilanti, &c. When blisters are applied suc- 
cessively on different parts of the body, they are 
called Veiicataire'i ambulants. 

AMBULEIA, Cichorium intybus. 
AM'BULI. The Brachmanic name for an In- 
dian aquatic herb, which appears to belong to 
the family LijulmachicB. The whole plant has a 
sweet smell. Its decoction has a very bitter 
taste, and is an excellent febrifuge. It is also 
taken in milk in cases of vertigo. 

SUS, Flatus furio'nus, Vnre'ui.*' Painful, mo- 
bile, and periodical tumours affecting different 
j)arts. which were once considered as the effect 
of very subtile vapours — Michaelis. Their na- 
ture is bv no means clear. 
AMBUTUA. Pnreira brava. 
A M BUYA-EMBO. A very beautiful, creeping 
nrislolochia of Brazil, the decoction of which is 
exhiliited successfully in obstructions. It is also 
usi'l in fumigation and iu baths as a tonic. 
AME, .\niuia. 

AMELI. A Malabar shrub, belonging to a 
genus unknown. The decoction of its leaves is 
said to relieve colic. Its roots, boiled in oil, are 
used to repel tumours. 
AMELIA, Apathy. 

AMENIA, Atuenorrhoea, Emmenagogues. 
AMENOMA'NIA. A hybrid word, formed 
from the Latin amwniis, 'agreeable,' and ixavia, 
'mania.' A gay form of insanity. 

AMENORRHCE'A, Parame'nia obstructio'nis, 
Menocryph' ia, Menosta'ain, Apophrax'iSjArrhce' a, 
Defec'tus seu Reinan'sio seu Cessa'tio meu'siam, 
Menstrua'tio impedi'ta, Ischome'nia, Ame'nia, 
AmetrohcB'mia, from a, privative, ftnv, 'a mouth,' 
and p&u), 'I flow.' Suppression of the menses, (F.) 
Suppression dn jlux menstruel. This suppression 
is most commonly symptomatic, and hence the 
chief attention must be jjaid to the cause. Usu- 
ally, there is an atonic state of the sj'stem gene- 
rally, and hence chalybeates and other tonics are 

Two great varieties of Amenorrhoea are com- 
monly reckoned. 1. A. Emansio'nis, Einan'sio 
men' slum, Menis'chesis, Menus' diesis, Menstrua' tio 
reten'ta, Men'sium reten'tio, Retention of the men- 
ses, when the menses do not appear at the usual 
age : and, 2. Suppres'sio Men'sium seu Menstru- 
atio'nis, Amenorrhee.'a Siippressio'iiis, Jnterrup'lia 
menstruatio' Ills, Menstrna'tio suppres'sa, in which 
the catamenia are obstructed in their regular 
periods of recurrence. See Emansio Mensium, 
and Menses. 

Amenorrhcea Difficilis, Dysmenorrhoea — a. 
Eraansionis, see Amenorrhoea — a. Jlymenica, seo 
Hymenicus — a. Partialis, Dysmenorrha'a — a. 
Suppressionis, see Amenorrhoea. 

AMENTIA, Dementia : see, also, Fatuita.s, and 
Idiotism- — a. Senilis, Dementia of the aged. 

AMER, Amarus — a. de Bcenf, Bile of tho 
AMERICAN, see Homo. 

AMERTUME, Bitterness. 
AM'ETHYST, Amethijs'tns, from a, privative, 
and liidvot, 'I am drunk.' A precious stone, to 
which the ancients attributed the property of 
preventing drunkenness. It was also used as an 
anti-diarrhoeic and absorbent. — Pliny, Albertus 

AMETH'YSUM, Amethys'tum, (remediiim.) 
Same etymon as the last. A remedy for drunk- 

AMETRIA, Intemperance, from a, privative, 
and fxcTpov, 'measure.' Also, absence of the 
uterus ; from a, privative, and iirtrpa, 'the uterus.' 
AMETROH/EMIA, Amenorrhoea. 
Toi, 'pure,' and av&ot, 'a flower,') Melan'thium, 
musccBtox'icum, Helo'nias erythrosperm'a. Fly- 
poison, Fall-poison, indigenous. Ord. Melan- 
thacene. A narcotic poison, not used, however. 
AMICULUM, Amnios. 

AMIDOLIQUE, from amidum, 'starch.' Ap- 
pertaining or belonging to starch. M. Beral 
calls medicaments ainldoliqnes those, which owe 
their general properties to starch. 

AM [DON, Amylum — a. lodnre d', Starch, 
Iodide, of. 
AMfDOXXfERE. Ammi maculatum. 
A.MIUUM, Amylum. 
AMIN^EA, Anime. 

AMIN.E'UM VINUM, Amine'an 7rine, highly 
esteemed as a stomachic. Vir-iil distinguishes it 
from the Falernian. — Pliny, Macrobius, &c. 
AM MA, Truss. 

AMMI. Ainmi mnjns seu cientafo'linm seu 
vul'ja're seu Bulber', Am'mios muriea'ta, A'2}iuin 




nmmi, Tiishop's weed. The seeds of this plant 
are nroinatic and pungent. They are said to be 
carminiitive and diuretic, and are tonic and sto- 

Ammi Bot.beri, Ammi — a. des Boutiques, see 
iSison ammi — a. Cicuta?folium, Ammi — a. Majus, 
Ammi— a. Verum, see Sison ammi — a. Vulgare, 

AMMION', Hydrargyri sulphuretum rubrum. 


AMMISMUS, Psammismus. 

AMMOCIIO'SIA, Ammocho'sis, from afiixo?, 
'sand,' and x^'^t 'I pour.' Arena'tiu. Putting 
the human body in hot sand, for the cure of 

AAIMO'NIA, Ammo'nia or Ammoni'acal gas, 
Volatile nl'kidi, Al'cnli ammoni' ncurn caus'ticum, 
A. vokit'ile caus'ticum, Ammo'nia caua'tica seu 
pura, Ammoiii'acum, A. caus'ticum, Gas ammo- 
niaca'le, Mephi'tis urino'sa, (P.) Ammoniaque, 
Air alcalin, Gaz ammoniacal. An alcali, so called, 
because obtained principally by decomposing sal 
ammoniac (muriate of ammonia) by lime. This 
gas is colourless, transparent, elastic, of a pun- 
gent, characteristic odour, and an acrid, urinous 
taste. It turns the syrup of A'iolets green, and 
its specific gravity is 0'596. When inhaled, 
largely diluted with common air, it is a powerful 
irritant. When unmixed, it instantly induces 

Ammonia, Acetate of. Solution of. Liquor 
ammoniae acetatis — a. Arseniate of, Arseniate of 
ammonia— a. Benzoate of, AmmoniiB benzoas — 
u. Bicarbonate of, see AmmoniiB earbonas — a. 
Caustica liquida. Liquor ammoniae — a. Chloro- 
hydrate of, Ammoniae murias — a. Citrate of, Am- 
moniae citras — a. Hydriodate of, Ammonium, io- 
dide of— a. Hydrochlorate of, Atnmoniie murias 
— a. Ilydrosujphuretof, Ammoniae sulphuretum — 
a. Iodide of, see Iodine — a. Liniment of, strong, 
Linimentum ammonia} fortius— -a. Liquid, Liquor 
AmmoniiB — a. Muriatica, AmmoniiB murias — a. 
Nitrata, Ammoniae nitras — a. Phosphate of, Am- 
moniic phosphas — a. Praeparata, Ammoniae ear- 
bonas — a. Pura liquida. Liquor ammonias — a. 
Solution of. Liquor ammoniae — a. Solution of, 
stronger. Liquor ammoniae fortior — a. Tartrate 
of. Ammonias tartras. 

AMMO'NIAC, GUM, Ammoni' acum (Ph. U. 
S.), Gum'mi Ammoni' acum, Armoni' acum, Mato'- 
rium, (F.) Ammoniac, Gonime ammoniaque, so 
called from Ammonia in Lybia, whence it is 
brought. A gum-resin, the concrete juice of 
JJore'ma ammoni'acuin, of Persia : a species of a 
genus allied to Ferula; and also the gum-resin 
oi Fer'ula tingita'na. The latter is the ammo- 
niacum of commerce. It is in irregular, dry 
masses and tears, yellow externally, whitish 
■within. Its odour is peculiar, and not ungrate- 
ful : taste nauseous, sweet, and bitter. It forms a 
■white emulsion with water: is soluble in vinegar; 
partially so in alcohol, ether, and solutions of the 

Gum ammoniacum is expectorant, deobstru- 
ent(?), antispasmodic, discutient, and resolvent. 
It is chiefly used, however, in the first capacity, 
and in the formation of certain plasters. 

Two varieties are met with in the market, 
GuttcB ammoni'aci, the best; and Lapis atnmoni'- 
uci, the more impure. 

AMMONIAC^ NITRAS, AmmoniiB nitras— 
a. Sulphas, Ammoniae sulphas. 

AMMONIACUM, Ammonia, Ammoniac gum 
—a. Hj'drochloratum ferratum, Ferrum ammoni- 
atum — a. Succinatum, Spiritus ammoniae foetidus 
— a. Volatile mite. Ammonite earbonas. 

AMMONITE ACETAS, Liquor ammonia ace- 
tatis — a. Arsenias, Arseniate of Ammonia. 

Ammoni/E Ben'zoa.S, Ben'zonte of Ammonia. 
A salt formed by the union of benzoic acid and 
ammonia, which has been prescribed for the re- 
moval of gouty depositions of urate of soda lu 
the joints. It is regarded as a good diuretic. 

Ammonite Bicau'eonas, Bicarh'onate of Am- 
mo'nia, is officinal in the Dublin Pharmacopccia. 
It has the same properties as the next, and is 
more palatable. Dose, six to twenty-four grains. 

Ammonia; Cak'bonas, A. Suhcar'honas seu &s. 
quicar'honas, Salt of bones, Sal Oe'sium, Sal Fii. 
liy"inis, Salt of wood-soot, Salt of urine. Volatile 
Sal Ammoniac, Baker's salt, Al'cali volal'ile 
aera'tum, A. volal'ile ammouiaca'le, A. volal'ile 
ex sale ammoni'aco, Ammoni'acum volat'ile mite, 
Ammo'nium carbon' icum seu subcarbo'neum, Uar- 
bonas ammo' nice alkali' nus seu incomple'tiis seu 
siiperammoni'acuSjHypocar'bonasttmmu'nia, Flo- 
res salis ammoni'aci, Sal cornu cervi volat'ile, Sal 
volnt'ilis salis ammoni'aci. Concrete or mild volatile 
alkali, Carbonate or Siibcarbonate of ammoniii, 
Ammo'nia prmpara'ta, Sal volat'ile. Smelling sail, 
(F.) Carbonate d' ammoniaque, Sel volatil d' An- 
gleterre, {Ammon. muriaf. tbj ; Creta; tbiss. Sub- 
lime — Ph. U. S.) A white, striated, crystalline 
mass; odour and taste pungent and ammoniucal: 
soluble in two parts of water : insoluble in alco- 
hol : effloresces in the air. It is stimulant, ant- 
acid, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. Dose, gr. 

V to XV. 

Carbonate of ammonia is at times used to form 
effervescing draughts. One scruple saturates si.K 
fluidrachms of lemon juice, twenty-six grains of 
crystallized tartaric acid, and twenty-sis grains 
of crystallized citric acid. 

Carbonate of ammonia is the usual smelling 
salts. When a few drops of Liquor Amraoniie 
fortior are added to it coarsely powdered, and 
some volatile oil, it forms Preston Salts. 

Ammonite Citras, Citrate of Ammo'nia. Made 
by saturating lemon or lime juice, or a solution 
of citric acid, with carbonate of ammonia. Dose, 
f^ss. It may be made extemporaneously, and 
taken in an effervescing state. Seventeen grains 
of citric acid, or half a fluidounce of lemon juice, 
will be sufficient for thirteen grains of ciubonato 
of ammonia. 

Ammonite Cupro-sulphas, Cuprum ammonia- 

AmmonIvE et Ferri Mdrias, Ferrum amrao- 
niatum — a. Ferro-eitras, Ferri ammonio-citriis — 
a. Hydriodas, Ammonium, iodide of — a. Hydro- 
chloras. Ammonias murias — a. Hydrosulphurc- 
tum, Liquor fumans Boylii — a. llypocarbonas, 
AmmoniiB Carbonas. 

Ammonia Mu'rias (Ph. U. S.), Ilu'riate oi 
Clilorohydrate if Ammo'nia, Hydrochlo'rate <ij 
Ammo'nia, Clilorohydrate of Ammo'nia (Ph. U. 
S.), Sal Ammoni'acum, Sal Ammo'niac, S(d 
Ammoni'aeus, Ammo'nia Muriat'ica, Ammo'nium 
iluria'tum, Ainmo'nioB Hydrochlo'ras, Chlontrc'- 
tum Ammo'nicum, Sal Armeni'acum, Salmiac, 
Fuli'go Al'ba Philosojiho' rum, Ilisadir, (F.) 
Muriate d' Ammoniaque, Sel Ammoniac ou Arme- 
niac. A saline concrete, formed by the combi- 
nation of muriatic acid with ammonia. In Egypt 
it is manufactured in large quantities by sublim- 
ing the soot formed by burning camel's dung— 26 
pounds of the soot yielding 6 pounds. It is also 
prepared, in great quiintities, by adding sulphuric 
acid to the volatile alkali obtained from soot, 
bones, &c., mixing this with common salt, and 

Muriate of ammonia is inodorous, but has an 
acrid, pungent, bitterish, and urinous taste. 
Three parts of cold water dissolve one. Solu- 
ble also in 4-5 parts of alcohol. It is aperient 
and diuretic, but seldom used internally. Ei- 




ternally, it is employed, producing cold during 
its solution, in inflummations, Ac. 

Ammo'ni^ NiTitAS, Nitrate of Ammonia, AV- 
Irnli voldt' lie nitra' turn, Sal ammoni'aciis nitro'sua, 
Ammo' Ilia nitra' ta, Nitran ammoni'accB, Nitrum 
JlammniiH, (F.) Nitrate d' Ammoniaqne. A salt 
composed of nitric acid and ammonia. It is diu- 
retic and deobstruent. (?) Externally, it is dis- 
cutient and sialogogue. 

AsiAfo'Ni/K PllosPHAS, Ammo'nium phosphor'i- 
CHiii, Pfionpfiate of Ammo'nia, (F.) Phos})hate 
d'Ainmoniii'iiie. This salt has been recommended 
as an excitant, diaphoretic, and discutient. More 
recently, it has been proposed as a new remedy 
for gout and rheumatism, as a solvent of uric acid 
calculus, and for diseases, acute and chronic, con- 
nected directly with the lithicacid diathesis. 

Ammonite Sesquicakuonas, A. carbonas. 

Ammo'nia Sulphas, Sulphate of Ammo'nia, 
Suljikan ammoni'acoB, Ammo'nium sidphit'ricum, 
Al'kali vo/at'ile vitriola'tum, Sal Ammoni'acum 
secre'tum Glacberi, Sal secre'tus Glauberi, Vi- 
trialnm ummouinca'le, (F.) Sulphate d' Ammoni- 
aqne. Formed by adding sulphuric acid either to 
sal ammoniac or toamraoniacal liquor. Its proper- 
ties are like thoscof the muriate of ammonia. 

Ammo'ni.c Sijlphure'tum, Sul'phuret of Am- 
mo'nia, JI;/droKiU'phuret of Ammo'nia, Ammo'- 
nium Sulfhydra'tum, HydroHuVjihaa AmmonicB, 
Spir'itus Begoi'ni, Sp. fimans Begui'ni, Sul- 
phiire'tum ammoni'acm, Sp. salis ammoni'aci sul- 
jihnra'tus, Liquor ammo'nii hijdrothi'odis, Hydro- 
sulphure'tum Ammo'nicinn, Hydvoaidph. amjnonia- 
ca'le aquo'snm, Hydroff'eno-sulphure'tum ammo- 
iii'aca; liq'uidnm, Spir'itus sul'phuris volat'ilis, 
Ucpnr nulphurin volat'ile, Boyle's or Beguine's 
fuming npirit, (F.) Hydrorndphate aulfure d'Am- 
iiioniaque, Liqueur fumante de BoYLE, Sulfiire 
hydrogens d' Ammoniaqne, Hydrosulfiire d'Am- 
■luoniaque. Odour very fetid; taste nauseous and 
styptic; colour dark yellowish green. It is re- 
puted to be sedative, nauseating, emetic, disoxy- 
genizing (?) and has been given in diabetes and 
diseases of increased excitement. Dose, gtt. vij 

to gtt. XX. 

Ammo'm^h Tartras, Al'kali volat'ile tartari- 
za'tum, Sal Ammoni'acum tarta'renm, Tar'tarua 
ammo'nia, Tartrate of Ammo'nia, (F.) Tartrate 
d' Ammoniaqne. A salt composed of tartaric acid 
and ammonia. It is diaphoretic and diuretic; 
but not much used. 

AM MON fAQUE, Ammonia — a. Araeniate d', 
Arseniate of ammonia — a. llydroaulfure d', Am- 
nioniiB sulphuretuin — a. Hydroaulfate aulfure d', 
Ammoniaj sulphurotum — a. Liquide, Liquor am- 
moniai — a. Phosphate d', Ammonias phosphas — 
(J. Sulfnre hi/dro,/fiiie d', Amtnoniffi sulphuretum. 

AMMONII lODIDUM, Ammonium, iodide of 
— a. loiluretum. Ammonium, iodide of. 

prum ammoniatum. 

AM.VIO'NION, from a/iiios, 'sand.' An ancient 
collyriuin of great virtue in many diseases of the 
eye, and which was said to remove sand from 
that organ. 

ammonia — a. Carbonicum, Ammoniae carbonas — 
a. Ilydroiodicum, Ammonium, iodide of — a. lo- 
datum, Ammonium, iodide of.'.vii'm, Iodide op, lod'idum seu lodure'- 
tinn ammoiiii, Ammonium loda'tum seu Hydro- 
iod'icum, Hydri'odaa ammo'nicB, Hydri'odate of 
ammo'nia. This salt is formed by saturating 
liquid hydriodic acid with eauatic ammonia, and 
evaporating the solution. It is applied in the 
form of ointment (3J ad adipia ^j) in lepra, 
psoriasis, Ac. 

Ammonium Muriaticum Martiatum seu Mar- 
TiALE Ferrum ammoniatum — a. Muriatum, Am- 

moniae murias — a. Phosphoricum, Ammoniaa 
phosphas — a. Subcarboneum, Ammoniae carbonas 
— a. Sulf hydratum. Ammonias sulphuretum — a. 
Sulphuricuin, Ammonite sulphas. 

AMNA ALCALIZATA, Water, mineral, sa- 


AMNE'SIA, Amneat'ia, Amnemoa'yne, from a, 
privative, and iivnan, ' memory.' Mo'ria imbec"- 
ilia amne'aia, Obliv'io, llecollectio' nia jnctu'ra, 
DyacBathe'aia inter'na, Debil'itas memo'ria:, Me- 
mo'ria dele'ta, (F.) Perte de Memoire, ' loss of 
memory.' By some nosologists, amnesia con- 
stitutes a genus of diseases. By most, it is con- 
sidered only as a symptom, which may occur in 
many diseases. 

AMNESTIA, Amnesia. 

AMNIO, Amniotic. 

AMNIO AOID, Amniotic acid. 

AMNIITIS, Amnitis. 

AMNIOOLEP'SIS, from amnios, and (cAsirra, 
'I steal or take away clandestinely.' Premature 
escape of the liquor amnii. 

AMNIORRHCE'A, from amnioa, and ptu, 'I 
flow.' A premature discharge of the liquor amnii. 

AM'NION, Am'nioa, Amniiim, Jlym'nium, 
Charta virgin'ea, Armatu' ra, Agni'na inembra'na, 
Pellu'cida memhra'na, Galea, Scepar'uum, fndii'- 
eium, Amic'ulum, ifenibra'na fa;tum invol'vena. 
The innermost of the enveloping membranes of 
the foetus: — so called because first observed in 
the sheep (?), {afivoi, ' a sheep.') It is thin, trans- 
parent, perspirable, and possesses many delicate 
colourless vessels, which have not been injected. 
It is generally considered to be produced by a 
fold of the external layer of the germinal mem- 
brane, rising up, and gradually enveloping the 
embryo. Its external surface is feebly united to 
the chorion by areolar and vascular filaments. 
Its inner surface is polished, and is in contact 
with the body of the fwtus and the liquor amnii. 

AMNIOT'IO, Amniot'icua, Amiiic, Am'nicna, 
(F.) Amniotique ou Amnique. Relating, or ap- 
pertaining, to the amnios. 

AMNIOT'IO AOID, Ac"idum am'nicum seu 
amniot'icum. A peculiar acid, found by Vauque- 
lin and Buniva in the liquor amnii of the cow. 

AjVNIQUE, Amniotic. 

AMNI'TIS, Amnii'tie, from amnion and itia, 
'inflammation.' Inflammation of the amnion. 

AMQllNOMA'NIA, from amoenna, 'agreeable,' 
and mania. A form of mania in which the hal- 
lucinations are of an agreeable character. 

AMOME FAUX, Sison amomum. 

verum, Alpin'ia cardamo'mnm, Caro'pi, Mato'nia 
Cardamo' mum, Eletta'ria Cardamo'mum, Carda- 
mo'mnm Minna, Leaaer, True, or Officinal Car'da- 
mom, (F.) Cardamome de la Cote de Malabar, 
Cardamome. Ord. Zingiberaceaj. The fruit of 
this East India plant — Cardamomnm, (Ph. U. S.), 
C. Malabaren'ae — has an agreeable, aromatic 
odour, and a pungent, grateful taste. It is car- 
minative and stomachic: but is chiefly used to 
give warmth to other remedies. It is called Amo- 
mia. Dose, gr. v to ^j- 

The Amo'mum Cardamo'mnm of Linnaeus, Clus- 
ter or Round Cardamom of Sumatra, Java, and 
other islands eastward of the Bay of Bengal, 
yields the round Cardamom, Cardamo'mnm ro- 
tun'dum, of the shops. The fruits, in their native 
clusters or spikes, constituting the Amo'mum ra- 
cetno'aum, are rarely met with. 

Amomum Ourcuma, Ourcuma longa. 

Amomum Galanga, Maranta galanga. 

Amomum Guakum Paradisi, A. max'imum, 
Cardamo'mum majua seu pipera'tnm, Melegnet'ta, 
Jfanigiiet'ta. Greater cardamom seeds — Grana 
Paradi'ai, Grains of Paradise, (F.) Graines d6 




Parndis—rcsemh\e A. cardnmomum in properties. 
They are extremely hot, and not much used. 

Amomtm. Gukat-winged, Amomum maximum 
— a. Ilirsutuni, Costus. 

Amomum Max'imum, Great-winged Amomnm, 
Yields the fruit known in commerce by the names 
Jam or Xepnl C'(rd.n,wm9, lieiig'd Cardamoms 
of the Calcutta market, ic— Pereira. 

Amomum Montanum, see Cassumuniar — a- Pi- 
menta, see Myrtus piraenta — a. Raeemosum, see 
A. cardamomum— a. Sylvestre, see 
— a. Zedoaria, Kiempferia rotunda — a. Zerumbet, 
see Cassumuniar. 

Amomum Zin'giber, Zin'gHer nffieina'le seu 
album seu nir/rvm seu commu'ne, Ziii'ziber, Gin- 
ger, (F.) Ginijemhre. The block and white ginger, 
Zin'ziber fnscnm et nlbnm, Zin'giber (Ph. U. S.), 
are the rhizoma of the same plant, Zin'giber offi- 
cinu'le, the difference depending upon the mode 
of preparing them. 

The odour of K'ng*^"" i** aromatic ; taste w.arra, 
aromatic, and acrid. It yields its virtues to alco- 
hol, and in a great degree to water. It is car- 
minative, stimulant, and sialogogue. 

Preserved Ginger, Zingib'crin Radix Condi' ta, 
Badix Zingib'eris condi'ta ex India, alla'ta, is a 
condiment which possesses all the virtues of 

Ginger-Beer Powders may ba formed of wliite 
ingar'"^] and ^ij, J/'".'yc)- gT.\, mbcm-bnnate of 
soda g'r. xxxvj, in each blue paper; acid of tar- 
tar ^iss, in each white paper — for half a pint of 

Oxley's Concentrated Eisencc of Jamaica Gin- 
ger is a solution of ginger in rectified spir't. 
AMOR, Love. 
AMOHGE. Amurca. 
AMOKPHUS, Anhistous, Anideus. 
AMOSTEUS, Osteocolla. 

AMOUR, Love — a. Physique, Appetite, vene- 

AMOUREUX, (muscle.) Obliquus superior 

AMPAC, Amp'acxts. An East India tree, the 
leaves of which have a strong odour, and are 
used in baths as detergents. A very odoriferous 
resin is obtained from it. 
AMPAR, Succinum. 
AMPELOCARPUS, Galium aparine. 
'the vine,' and onIis, 'appearance,') Virgin' ian 
Creeper, American Toy, Five-leaved Ivy, Woody 
Climber. An indigenous climbing plant. Ord. 
Vitaceae ; which flowers in July. It has been 
advised as an expectorant. 

AMPELOS, Yitis vinifera — a. Agria, Bryonia 
alba — a. Idaja, Vaccinium Vitis Idaea — a. Melaena, 
Tamus communis — a. Oinophorus,' Vitis vinifera. 
AMPHARIS'TEROS, Anibila'vus, 'awkward;' 
from afitpt, and aptarepos, 'the left.' Opposed to 

AiMPHEMERTNOS, Quotidian. 
AMPHEMERUS, Quotidian. 
AMPHI, a/jc/)i, 'both, around, on all sides.' 
Hence, a prefix in many of the following terms. 
AMPHIAM, Opium. 

AMPHIARTHRO'SIS, from a/i^i, 'both,' and 
Bo$-(<ij>in;, ' articulation.' A mixed articulation, 
in which the corresponding surfaces of bones are 
united in an intimate manner by an intermediate 
body, which allows, however, of some slight mo- 
tion. Such is the junction of the bodies of the 
vertebrae by means of the intervertebral car- 
tilages. This articulation has also been called 
Diarthrose de Continuite. The motion it permits 
is but slight. 


troidomala'eia, from amphiblcxtroides (""^ombra- 
na), < the retina, and //aXa^.a, 'softening. Mol- 
lescence or softening of the retina. 

AMPJIIBRAN'CllIA, from a//^i, around, 
and /3payx'«. ' tl'e throat.' Amphibron'chia. The 
tonsils and neighbouring parts.— Hippocrates. 


AMIIID'EUM, from a^l(|>l, 'around,' and dem, 
'I bind.' The outermost margin of the cervix 
uteri ; the L(tbium uteri. 

AMPJIIDEXIUS, Ambidexter. 

AMPIIIDIARTHRO'SIS, from a//0i, 'about,' 
and ^i«p5f)u)(ns, ' moveable joint.' A name givea 
by Winslow to the temporo-maxillary articulii- 
tion, because, according to that anatomist, it 
partakes both of ginglymus and arthrodia. 

A5IPHIESMA CORDIS, Pericardium. 

AMPHIMERINA, Pertussis— a. llcctica, Hec- 

tie fever. 

AMPHION, Maslach. 
AMPIIIPLEX, Perinffium. 
AMPHISMELA, Knife, dguble-edgod. 
AMPlllSMILE, Knife, double-edged. 
AMPIIISPIIAL'SIS, Circnmac'tio, Circum. 
duetio, from a/i'/x, 'around,' and aipaXXw, 'I wan- 
der.' The movement of circumduction used in 
reducing luxations.— Hippocrates. 
AMPHODIPLOPIA, see Diplopia. 
AM'PHORA, per syncop. for n/j^iiioptvs, from 
ajiipi, 'on both sides,' and ^ipm, ' I bear :' because 
it had two handles. A liquid measure among 
the ancients, containing above seven gallons. 
Also called Quadrant'al, Cera'miurn, Ceram'nium, 


AMPLEXUS, Coition. 
AMPLIFICATIO, Platynosis. 
AMPLIOPIA, Amblyopia. 
AMPOSIS, Anaposis. 
AMPOULES, Essera. 
AMPUL'LA, (L.) 'A bottle.' A 
bag, shaped like a leathern bottle. 
EUiptica. In pharmacy, a receiver. 

Ampulla Chylifera seu Chyli, Recepta- 
culum chyli. 

AMPULLA, Phlyctaense. 
AMPUTATION, Amputa'tio, from amputnre, 
amputatum, (aw), ' around,' and jmtare, ' to cut 
off.') Apot'ome, Apotom'ia. The operation of 
separating, by means of a cutting instrument, a 
limb or a part of a limb, or a projecting pnrt, as 
the mamma, penis, &c., from the rest of the body. 
In the case of a tumour, the terra excision, re- 
moval, or extirpation, (F.) Resection, is more com- 
monly used. 

Amputation, Circular, is that in which the 

integuments and muscles are divided circularly. 

Amputation, Flap, (F.) A. a lambeaux, is 

when one or two flaps are left so as to cover the 

stump when the limb has been removed. 

Amputation, Joint, Exarticula'tio, (F.) A. 
dans I'artiele ou dans la contiyuite des membrei, 
is when the limb is removed at an articulation. 

Each amputation requires a different process, 

•which is described in works on operative surgery. 

Amputation, Spontaneous, see Spontaneous. 

AMULET, Amulctum. 

AMULETTE, Amuletum. 

AMULE'TUM, from amoliri, 'to remove.' An 

Amxdct, Perium'ma, Apotropm'um, Periap'ton, 

Phyiacte'rion, Apoteles'ma, Exuvte'ma, Akxica!- 


See Cavilas 



eum, PrfEtervatl'viim, Proha8ca'nium,Prolaiican'. 
tiuni, (F.) Amutette. Any image or substance 
worn about the person for the purpose of pre- 
venting disease or danger. 

AMIJR'CA, Arnur'ijii, aitopyn, from a/iepyu), 'I 
press out.' The marc or grounds remaining after 
olives have been crushed and deprived of their 
oil. It has been used as an application to ulcers. 

AMUlUiA, Amurca. 

AM USA, Musa Paradisiaca. 

A'^IYCE, Amycha, Amyx'ta. Excoriation, Sca- 

AMYCIIA, Amyee. 

AMYC'TICA, from a/iuutru, 'I lacerate.' Me- 
dicines which stimulate and vellicate the skin. — 
Cajlius Aurelinnus. 

AMY DOLE, Fecula. 

AMYDKIASIS, Mydriasis. 

AMYKL'IA, from a, privative, and /lutXof, 
'marrow.' A monstrous formation, in which 
there is an absence of spinal marrow. 

AMY'ELONER'VIA; from a, privative, /xueXoj, 
'marrow,' and vevpov, 'nerve.' Paralysis or de- 
ficient action of the .«pinal marrow. 

AMYELOTROPH'IA, from a, privative, jtnj£>of, 
'marrow,' and T()o<ptj, 'nourishment' Atrophy 
of the spinal marrow. 

AMYU'DALA, same etymon as Amyetica; 
because there seem to be fissures in the shell. 
The Almond, of which there are two kinds ; 
Amyff'daleB ama'rm and A. dulces, (F.) Amandes 
amerei, and A. donees, obtained from two varie- 
ties of Aiuyf/'daluD commitnis or A. snti'va, Al- 
mond tree, (Old Eng. ) AmylUer, a native of Bar- 
bary. Ord. Amygdaleai. Hex. Syst. Icosandria 

The taste of Amygdala dulcii is soft and sweet ; 
that of A. nmara, bitter. Both yield, by expres- 
sion, a sweet, bland oil. The bitter almond con- 
tains Prussic acid. They are chiefly used for 
forming emulsions. 

Amvg'daljE Pasta, Almond Paste, a cosmetic 
for softening the skin and preventing chaps, is 
made of hitter almonds, blanched, ^iv, trhite of 
one eytj ; rose mater, and rectified spirit, equal 
parts, or as much as is sufficient. 

Amvg'dal>e Placen'ta, Almond Cake, is the 
cake left after the expression of the oil. The 
ground Almond Cake, Almond, Powder, Fari'na 
Amyydala' rum, is used instead of soap for wash- 
ing the hands. 

AMYC.nALA, Tonsil. Also, a lobule or promi- 
nenc-e of the cerebellum, so called from its resem- 
blance to an enlarged tonsil. This and its fellow 
of the opposite side form the lateral boundaries 
of the anterior extremity of the mlley. and are 
in great part covered by the medulla oblongata. 
The Amygdala3 are seated on either side of the 
uvula, in the fourth ventricle. 

AMYU' DALATOME, Amygdalat'omiis, from 
aytvyliaXrj, ' tonsil,' and Topri, ' incision ;' impro- 
perly Tonsillitome, — Tonsil-guillotine, (F.) Se'ca- 
teur des Amygdales. An instrument fqr surgery 
and excising a portion of the tonsil. See Kio- 

AMY'GDALATUM, Emulsio amygdalae. 

AM YG DALE, Tonsil. 

AM\''(j'])ALIN, Amygdali'num, Amygdali'na, 
Amij(/'daline. A principle contained in bitter 
almonds, which is prepared by pressing the 
bruised almonds between heated plates to sepa- 
rate the fat oil : boiling the residue in alcohol ; 
evaporatinsr, and treating with ether, which pre- 
cipitates the aniygdalin in a crystalline powder. 
A weak solution' of it, under the influence of a 
email quantity of emulsin or synatapse, which 
constitutes the larger portion of the pulp of al- 
monds, yields at once oil of bitter almonds and 
hydrocyanic acid. 


AMYGDALITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

AMYGDALUS, see Amygdala. 

Amvgdalits Communis, see Amygdala. 

Amygdalus Pek'.sica, Per'sica vulga'ris. ' The 
common peach-tree, (F.) Picher. The leaves and 
flowers have been considered laxative. They are 
bitter and aromatic, and have been given in hae- 
maturia, nephritis, <fec. The fruit is one of the 
pleasant and wholesome summer fruits, when 
ripe. The kernels, Amyg'dala Per'sicce, as well 
as the flowers, contain prussic acid. 

Peach Brandy is distilled from the fruit, and 
is much used in the United States. 

AMYGMOS, Scarification. 

AMY'L, Amylum. 
, AMYLA'CEOUS, Amyla'ceus, (F.) Amylace, 
'i from amylum, 'starch.' Having the nature of) 
or containing starch. Starchy, starch-like. 

Amylackous Bodies, Corpora amvlaeea 


AMY'LENE, see Potato oil. 

AMYLEON, Amylum. 

AMYLI lODIDUM, Starch, iodide of— a. 
loduretum. Starch, iodide of. 

AMYLLIER, see Amygdala. 

AMYLOID BODIES, Corpora amylacea. 

A'iMY'LUM, A'midum, Fec'ula, Amyl'eon, 
Awyl'ion, Am'ylon, from a, priv., and pv'Xri, 'a 
mill,' because ujade without a mill. Starch, (Old 
Eng.) Amyl, (F.) Amidon, Amylon. Starch of 
Wheat, Fari'na, Trit' ici fari'na, Amylum tritic"- 
eum seu Trit'ici, Fec'ula Amyla'cea, is inodorous 
and insipid, white and friable. It is insoluble in 
cold water and alcohol, but forms with boiling 
water a strong, semi-transparent jelly. It is de- 
mulcent, and is used as an emollient glyster, and 
as the vehicle for opium, when given per anum. 
Starch is met with abundantly in all the cereal 
grains, in the stalks of many of the palms, in 
some lichens, and in many tuberous roots, par- 
ticularly in the bulbs of the orchis. 

Amylitm Americanum, see Arrow-root — a. 
Cannaceum, Tous-les-mois — a. lodatum. Starch, 
iodide of — a. Manihoticum, see Jatropha manihot 
— a. Marantaceum, Arrow-root — a. Palmaceum, 
Sago — a. Querneum, Racahout. 

A'MY'ON, from a priv., and itvov, ' a muscle,' 
Emnscula'tus. Without muscle. Applied to the 
limbs, when so extenuated that the muscles can- 
not be distinguished. 

AMYOSIS, Synezizis. 

AMYOSTHENI'A, (F.) Amyosthenie, from a, 
priv., ixvwv, 'a muscle,' and a^ivof, 'strength.' 
Defect of muscular contraction. 

of the bladder. — Piorry. 


Am'vuis Elemif'era, (a. intensive, and fivpov, 
'an odoriferous ointment,' because it enters into 
the composition of such.) (F.) Balsamier ou 
Baumier Flemifere. Ord. TerebinthacesB. Sex. 
Syst. Octandria Monogynia. The plant whence 
it has been supposed Gum El'emi is obtained. 
This gum or resin is brought from the Spanish 
East and West Indies. Brazilian Elemi, accord- 
ing to Dr. Royle, is produced by Icica Icicariba ; 
3Icxican Elemi, by Ela'phrium elemiferum / and 
Manilla Elemi, by Cana'rium commu'ne. It is 
softish, transparent, of a pale whitish colour, in- 
clining a little to green, and of a strong, though 
not unpleasant smell. It is only used in oint- 
ments and plasters, and is a digestive. 

Amyris Gileadensis, see A. opobalsamum. 

Am'yris OpobAL'saMUM, (F.) Balsamier OU 
Baumier de la Mecque, lial'sem, Bal'samum. The 
plant from which is obtained the Balsam op 
Mecca, Bal'samum genui'num antiquo'rum seu 
Asiat'icum seu Juda'icum seu Syriacum seu c 




Jlfeccd seu Alpi'm, linlsamcla'on, yFgi/ptiacum 
Jlal'iinniuiii, Coca ihnV Hit mum, Oleum Bal'sami, 
Opobiil'Humum, Xylohiil'mmum, Biiham or Balm 
of Gileitd, (F.) Boume liUinc, B. ile Uoustantino- 
],lc bluuc, B. cie Galaad, B. (ht Grand Cuire, B. 
Vrai, Terebinth ine de Gilead, T. d' Kgtjpte, T. du 
Grand K'airc, T. de Judee. A resinous juice ob- 
tained by making incisions into Ami/ris ojiohnV- 
sdinum and ^1. Gileaden'fiis of LinniBUS, Balsa- 
inadeu'dron Gile'iden'se of Kunth. The juice of 
the fruit is called Uarpobid'namum ; that of the 
wood and branches Xi/lobal'namiim. It has the 
general properties of the milder Terebinthinates. 
Amvhis ToM^:.NTOsu^f, Fagara octandra. 
AMYUON, Carlhiunus tinctorius. 
A'MYUS, from a, privative, and /ivs, 'a mouse, 
a muscle.' Weak or poor in muscle. 

AMYX'IA, from a, privative, and iiv^a, 'mu- 
cus.' Deficiency of mucus. 

AMYXIS, Amyce, Scarification. 
ANA, ava, a word which signifies 'of each.' 
It is used in prescriptions as well as ii and fia, its 
abbreviations. As a prefix to words, it means 
'in,' 'through,' 'upwards,' 'above,' in opposition 
to cata; — also, 'repetition,' like the English re. 
Hence, — 

ANAB'ASIS, from avajiaivi^, 'I ascend.' The 
first period of a disease, or that of increase. — 
Galeu. See Augmentation. 
ANABEXIS, E.\pectoration 
ANABLEP'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and jSXtira), 
'I see.' Restoration to sight. 

ANABOL^'ON, Aunbok'us, from avnjSaWu, 'I 
cast up.' An ointment for extracting darts or 
other extraneous bodies. 

ANAB'OLE, from ava, 'upwards,' and fiaWu, 
'I cast.' Ana(/o'(je, Anapjh'oru, Anacine'mu, 
Anacine'sis. An evacuation upwards. An act 
by which certain matters are ejected by the 
mouth. In common acceptation it includes, ex- 
xpuition, expectoration, reijuryitation, and vomit- 

ANABROCHIS'MDS, Anahron'cliismus, from 
uva, 'with,' and fiito'xoi, 'a running knot.' An 
operation for removing the eye-lashes, for exam- 
ple, when they irritate the eye, by means of a 
iuiir knotted around them. — Hippocrates, Galen, 
Celsus, Ac. 
ANABRONCHISMUS, Anabrochismus. 
ANABROSIS, Corrosion, Erosion. 
ANACAMPSEROS, Sedum telephijim. 
Kupiia, ' heart,' from the resemblance of the fruit 
to a dried heart,) Aeajn'bn occidenta'lix, Cussu'- 
vinm pnmif'erum. Cashew ( W. Indies.) (F.) Ac'- 
iijou. Ord. Terebinthaceae. Sex. Si/at. Ennean- 
dria Monogynia. The Oil of tf^ Casheie Xut, 
O'leum Anacar'dii, (P.) Huile d' Acajou, is an 
Hctive caustic, and used as such in the countries 
where it grows, especially for destroying warts, 

Anacaudthm Orientalr, Avicenniatomentosa. 
ANACATHAR'SIS, from ava, 'upwards,' and 
Ko^aipnv, 'to purge.' Purgation upwards. Ex- 
pectoration. See, also, Repurgatio. 

Anacatharsis Catarbhalis Simplex, Ca- 

ANACESTOS, Incurable. 
ANACHREMPSIS, E.xspuition. 
ANACINEMA, Anabole, Exspuition. 
ANACINESIS, Anabole, Exspuition. 
ANACLASIS. Repercussion. 
ANACLINTE'RIUM. Anadin'tmm, liecuhi- 
to'rium, from uva/cAivn), ' I recline.' A long chair 
or seat, so formed that the person can rest in a 
reclining posture. 
ANACLINTKUM, Anaclinterium. 

ANACOLLE'MA, from ava, 'together, and 
KoWuui, ' I glue' A healing medicine. 
Anacoi-i.kmata, FrontJil bandages. 
ANACOLUP'PA. A creeping plant ot Mala- 
bar, the juice of which, mixed with powdered 
pepper, passes in India as a cure for epilepsy, 
and as the only remedy for the bito of the naja. 
It is supposed to be Zapa'nia nodi/lo'ra. 
ANA COL UTIIIE, Incoherence. 
ANACOMIDE, Restauratio. 
ANACTESIS, Restauratio. 
ANACTIRION, Artemisia. 
ANACYCLEOiN, Charlatan. 
mis Pyrethrum — a. Pyrethrum, Anthemis pyre- 


ANADIPLO'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and JtirXou, 
'I double.' Epniiadiplo'sis, Epanale]/si^, Bedii- 
pllca'tio. The redoubling which occurs in a 
paroxysm of an intermittent, when its type is 
double. — Galen, Alexander of Tralles, 
ANADORA, Ecdora. 

ANAD'OSIS, from avaSiSuiiit, 'I give up.' 
Purgation upwards, as by vomiting. Congestion 
of blood towards the upper parts of the body. 
Anadonis seems also to have occasionally meant 
chylification, whilst diadosis meant capillary nu- 
trition, — Hippocrates, Galen. 

ANAD'ROME, from ava, 'upwards,' and hpifih), 
' I run.' The transport of a humour or pain from 
a lower to an upper part. — Hippocrates. Also, 
the globus hystericus. See Angone. 

ANjEDOiVUS, from av, privative, and atioia, 
'organs of generation.' A monster devoid of 
sexual organs. 

AN^MATOPOE'SIS, from a, av, privative, 
'atixa, 'blood,' and ttouui, 'I make.' Impeded ur 
obstructed htematosis. 

ANjEMATO'SIS, AnJicBJnato'sis, from a, av, 
privative, and 'aifta, 'blood.' Defective hasma- 
tosis or preparation of the blood. Anaemia. 

AN^'MIA, Exa'mia, Ana'masiH, Aiihce'mia, 
Anhcp.malo'sia, Poli/anhw'niin, AncBiiio'sin, OlitjOi'- 
mia, OligohoB'mia, Hiiprn'mia, HydnxB'min, Hy- 
drce'mia, Aiie'niia, (F.) Anemie, Aiihemic, Anlii- 
matoeie,Poli/anheinie, Hijdrolieinie, Exxanyiiin'itif, 
Blood' lessness : from u, priv., and 'aifia, 'blood.' 
Privation of blood ; — the opposite to plethora. It 
is characterized by every sign of debility. Also, 
diminished quantity of fluids in the capillary ves- 
sels : — the opposite to Hyperamia. — The essential 
character of the blood in anaemia is diminution 
in the ratio of red corpuscles. 

AN^'MIC, Anem'ie, Ana'micus ; same ety- 
mon. Appertaining or relating to ana?mia, — as 
an "«»<BHn'c person." See Exsanguious. 

ANtEMOCH'ROUS, from a, av, privative, 'aijia, 
' blood,' and xi'°'^> ' colour.' Devoid of colour, 

ANiEMOSIS, Ana?mia. 

AN^MOT'ROPHY, AncBmotroph'in : from av, 
privative, -aifxa, 'blood,' and Tpoipn, •'nourish- 
ment.' A deficiency of sanguineous nourishment. 
— -Prout. 

ANiEMYDRTA, Anhydramia. 
ANiESTHE'SIA, Anasthe'ais, Insensibil'itai, 
Analge'sia, Parap sis expers, (F.) Anesthesie ; 
from a, privative, and ataOavoiiat, ' 1 feel.' Pri- 
vation of sensation, and especially of that of 
touch, according to some. It may be general or 
partial, and is almost always symptomatic. 

An^sthksia GusTAToniA, Agcustia — a. Lin- 
guae, Ageustia— a. Olfactoria, Anosmia— a. Optic, 

ANiESTHESIS, Ana-sthesia. 
1 AN^STHET'IC, Ancsthet'ic, Anasthet'kut^ 




fF.) AnenlJieaique ; same etymon, as Anantheiia. 
Iloliiting t(j privation of feeling, as an " (iiiwxlhetic 
agent;" one that prevents feeling. The term is, 
now, almost rustrieted to agents, which produce 
such ell'ect by being received into the lungs in 
the form of vapours or gases, and passing with 
the blood to the nervous centres on which their 
action is exerted. Perhaps, as a general rule, 
the intcllectuiil faculties first feel their influence, 
— a sort of intoxication supervening, with imper- 
fect power of regulating the movements ; the 
sensory ganglia become afterwards or simulta- 
neously affected, sensation and motion arc 
suspended, and ultimately, if the quantity in- 
haled be sufficient, the medulla oblongata has its 
actions suspended or destroyed, respiration ceases, 
and death is the consequence. Different agents 
have been used as ansBsthetics by way of inhala- 
tion — sulphuric ether, chloroform, chloric ether, 
compound ether, chlorohydric and nitric ethers, 
bisulphuret of carbon, chloride of olefiant gas, 
benzin, aldehyde, light coal-tar naphtha, <fcc. ; 
but the first four are alone employed. They have 
been, and are, greatly used in serious surgical 
operations, and during parturition; and in such 
cases, as well as in many diseases, especially of a 
painful nature, produce the most beneficial results. 

AN.E.STIIETIZA'TION, (F.) AneHthetlmtion; 
same etymon. The condition of the nervous sys- 
tem induced by anaesthetics. 

ANAGAL'LIS, from ava, and ya\a, 'milk,' 
from its power of coagulating milk. A.arven'sis 
A. Ph<pnic"en, Med Piin'pernel, Scarlet Pimper- 
vel, S'/i'pherd'H Snii-didl. Nat. Ord. Primulaceae. 
»SV.r. Sjnt. Pentandria Monogynia. (F.) Mourou 
roiKje. A common European plant; a reputed 
antispasuiodio and stomachic. 

Another species — Anaijal'lis caru'lea is a mere 
variety of the above. 

Anarallis Aquatioa, Veronica Beccabunga. 




ANA(tLYPHE, Calamus scriptorius. 
' ANAGNOSTAKIS, see Ophthalmoscope. 

ANAGOGE, Anabole, Rejection. 

ANAGRAPHE, Prescription. 

ANAG'YRIS, Anag'yris fue'tida, Anag'yrus, 
Ac'opov, Stinkitig Bean Trefoil. (F.) Anngyre, 
from avfiyio. ' I lead upwards' [ ? ]. Native of Italy. 
The leaves are powerfully purgative. The juice 
is said to be diuretic, and the seeds emetic. — Di- 
oscoriiles, Paulus. 

ANAGYRUS, Anagyris. 

ANAL, Ana' I is. That which refers to the 
anus ; — as Anal region, <tc. 

ANAL'DIA, (F.) Analdie ; from a, av, priva- 
tive, and aMuv, 'to grow.' Defective nutrition. 

AXALEMSIA, Analepsia. 

ANALENTIA, Analepsia. 

ANALEP'SIA, Analep'sis, Analen'tia, Ana- 
lem'nia, from ava, 'fresh,' and Xa/i/iawiv. (future 
X»;'|o/<"i.) 'to take.' Restoration to strength after 
disease. — Galen. A kind of sympathetic epilepsy, 
originating from gastric disorder. See Epilepsy. 

Also, the supi)ort given to a fractured extre- 
mity ; — Appen'sio. — Hippocrates. 

ANALEPSIS, Convalescence, Restauratio. 

ANALEP'TICA, Anapoi/n'tica, Psi/e}!ol'ica, 
Refeeti'vn, Rejicien'tia, liestanrun'tia, Analep'- 
tiea, same et.ymon. Rentorative medicines or 
food ; such as are adapted to recruit the strength 
during convalescence; — as sago, salep, tapioca, 
jelly. Ac. 

AxALKPTic Pills, James's, consist o{ James's 
Powdir, Gnm Aminouiacnm, and Pills of Aloes 
and Miirrh, equal parts, with Tincture of Castor, 
sufBcient to form a mass. 

ANALGE'SIA, Anal'gia, from a, av, priv., and 
a\yoi, 'pain.' Absence of pain both in health 
and disease. See Anaesthesia. 

ANALGIA, Analgesia. 

AN'ALOGUE, Anal'ogus ; from ava, 'again,' 
and Xoyof, 'a description.' A part in one orga- 
nized being which has the same function as an- 
other part in another organized being. 


ANALOSIS, Atrophy. 

ANALTESIS, Restauratio. 

ANALTIIES, Incurable. 

ANAMIRTA COCCULUS, Menispermura coo- 
culus — a. Peniculata, Menispermum cocculus. 

ANAMNES'TIC, Anamnes'ticnm, from ava, 
'again,' and infivriaKii), ' I remember.' A medi- 
cine for improving the memory. See, also, Com- 

ANANAS, Bromelia ananas — a. Aculeata, Bro- 
melia ananas — a. Americana, Bromelia pinguin 
— a. Ovata, Bromelia ananas — Wild, broad- 
leaved, Bromelia pinguin. 

ANANAZIP'TA. A word formerly scrawled 
on amulets to charm away disease. 

ANANDRI'A, from «, av, privative, and avttp, 
'a man.' Want of manliness. Impotence in the 
male. The state and act of emasculation. 

ANANEO'SIS, Renova'tio ; from ava, 'again,' 
and v£Of, 'new.' Renovation or renevval, — as of 
the blood by the chyliferous vessels and lym- 

ANAPETI'A, Expan'sio mea'tttnm, from ava, 
and TTCTau), ' I dilate.' A state opposite to the 
closure of vessels. — Galen. 

ava<p(iXavTiiii, ' bald.' Loss of the hair of the eye- 
brows. Also, baldness in general. 

ANAPIIALANTOMA, Anaphalantiasis. 

ANAPHE, Anaphia. 

ANAPH'IA, AnJinph'ia, An'aphe, from a, av, 
priv., and 'atpr], 'touch.' Diminution or privation 
of the sense of touch. 

ANAPHLASMUS, Masturbation. 

ANAPIIONE'SIS, from ava, 'high,' and 0wv7, 
'voice.' Exercise of the voice: vociferalicm : — 
the act of crving out. Vocifera'tio, Clamor. 

ANAPHORA, Anabole. 

ANAPHRODtS'IA, from a, priv., and A(l>po. 
SiTT], 'Venus,' IJefec'tus Ven'eris. Absence of the 
venereal appetite. Sometimes used for Impotence 
and Stcrilit!/. 

ANAPHRODTSIAC. Antaphrodisiac. 

ANAPHROMELI. Mel despumatum. 

ANAP'LASIS, Annplasin'iis, from avanXaaau), 
' I restore.' Confirma'tio, Reposi"tio. Restora- 
tion. Union or consolidation of a fractured bone. 
— Hippocrates. 

ANAPLASMATIC, Anaplastic. 

ANAPLASMUS, Anaplasis. 

ANAPLAS'TIC, Anaplas'ticns ; same etymon. 
An epithet applied to the art of restoring lost 
parts or the normal shape, — as 'Anaplastic Sur- 
gery.' See Morioplastice. Also an agent, that 
increases the amount of plastic matter — fibrin — • 
in the blooil; Anaplasmat'ic. 

ANAPLERO'SIS, from avanXijpo'^i (ava, and 
jrXijpou',) 'I fill up.' Repleticm. That part of 
surgical therapeutics whose object is to supply 
parts that are wanting. Also, Apposition or 


ANAPLEU'SIS, FhiPtnn'tio, Innafa'tio, from 
avoTtXctv, {ava and nXeu)), 'to swim above.' The 
looseness or shaking of an exfoliated bone ; or of 
a carious or other tooth, &c. — Hippocrates, 


ANAPNEUSIS, Respiration. 

ANAPNOE, Respiration. 




ANAPNOENU'SI, from anapnoe, 'respira- 
tion,' and vovoos, disease.' Diseases of the re- 
spiratory organs. 

ANAPNO.METER, Spirometer. 
ANAPODIrfIS UTERI, Rotroversio Uteri. 
ANAl'ODIS.MUS UTERI. Ketroversio Uteri. 
phyllum peltatum. 

ANAP'OSIS, Am'posis, from ava, 'again,' and 
rocr(5, 'drink.' A recession of humours from the 
circumference to the centre of the body. — Hippo- 

ANAPSE, Auante. 
ANAPSIA, Cajcitas. 
ANAPSYCTICA. Analeptica. 
ANAPTYSIS, Expectoration. 
ANARCOTINA, Narcotine. 
ANARRHEGNU'MINA, from avappvyvt'h 'I 
break out again.' Fractures are so called when 
they become disunited; as well as ulcers when 
they break out afresh. 

ANARRHI'NON, from ava, 'upwards,' and 
piv, ' the nose.' That which returns by the nose. 
— Gorraeus. 

According to others, that which issues by the 
skin ; from ava, and pivog, ' the skin.' 
ANARRHINUM, Sternutatory. 
ANARRHCE'A, Auar' rhoe,An<n-rho' pia, Anas'- 
tanis, from ava, ' upwards,' and peot, ' I flow. Af- 
flux of fluid towards the upjior part of the body. 
ANARRHOPIIK, Absorption. 
A N A R R H P H E N U'S I, from anarrhophe, 
' absorption,' and vovaos, ' disease.' Diseases of 
the absorbents. 

ANARRUOPIA, Anarrhoea. 
ANAR'TIIRUS, from av, priv. and ap&pov, 'a 
joint.' Without a joint. One who is so fat that 
his joints are scarcely perceptible. — Hippocrates. 
ANASAR'CA, from ava, ' through,' and aap^, 
aapKos, ' the flesh.' Anasarch'o, Catasar'co, 
Aqua intercus sou inter cuteni, Hypuhur'cn, Uy- 
diopH cellnla'rin toti'iis cor'pnris, H. Anasar' - 
ca seu inter'cH8 seu suhcuta' nena seu ceUulo'mis seu 
cula'neus seu tela cellulo'scB, Kataaar'ca, Episar- 
cid'ium, Hy'deroa, Hydaton'cus, Hyderon'ctis, 
Jlydron'cuH, Hydrosar'ca, Hydroder' ma, Hydrojj' - 
isin vera, Sitr' cites, Poly/yin'phia, Ilypoearcid'iue, 
Leucophlegma' tia, General dropsy, Dropny of the 
cellular membrane, (F.) Ana»urque. Commonly, 
it begins to manifest itself by swelling around the 
ankles ; and is characterized by tumefaction of 
the limbs and of the soft parts covering the ab- 
domen, thorax, and even the face, with paleness 
and dryness of the skin, and pitting when any 
of these (especially the ankles) are pressed upon. 
Like dropsy in general. Anasarca may be active 
or passive ; and its treatment must be regulated 
by the rules that are applicable to general dropsy. 
At times, the symptoms are of an acute character, 
and the efl'usion sudden, constituting Derma- 
toch'ysis, Hydrops Anasar' ca acu'tus, CEde'ma 
cal'idum, (E. acu'tuvi, CE./ebri'le of some. See 

Anasarca Hystericum, Anathymiasis — a. 
Pulmonum Hydropneumonia, Q5dema of the 
Lungs — a. Serosa, Phlegmatia dolens. 
ANASARCHA. Anasarca. 
AXASAKQI'E, Anasarca. 
ANASISMUS, Concussion. 
ANASPADIA, see Anaspadiaeus. 
ANASPA'DIAS, Epispa'dias, from ava, 'up- 
wards,' and airaiii, ' I draw.' One whose urethra 
opens on the upper surface of the penis. 
ANASPADISIS, see Anaspadiaeus. 
ANASPADI8MUS, see Anaspadiaeus. 
ANAS'PASIS, Anaspasm'us, from avatr-raoi, 'I 
contract.' Retrac'tio, Contraction, especially of 

the bowels. The condition is called Annspa'dia, 
Annspad'isis, and ^)ia«;j«(/i«'»ti(8.— Hippocrates. 
ANASPASMUS, Anaspasis. 
ANASSA, Bronielia ananas. 
ANA8TASIS, Anarrhoea. Also, restoration 
from sickness. Convalescence. 

ANASTCECHEIO'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and 
iTToix^ov, 'element.' Jieelementa'tio. Resolu- 
tion of a body or its parts into their elements. — 

ANASTOMO'SIS, from ava, 'with,' and aropa, 
'a mouth.' Inoscnla'tio seu Iteu'nio vaso'nim, 
Exanastomo'sia, Concur'aus, (F.) Ahouchement. 
Communication between two vessels. By con- 
sidering the nerves to be channels, in which a 
nervous fluid circulates, their communication like- 
wise has been called Anastomosis. By means of 
anastomoses, if the course of a fluid be arrested 
in one vessel, it can proceed along others. 

Anastomosis Aneurissiatica, Telangiectasia 
— a. Jaeohson's, see Petrosal ganglion. 

ANASTOMOT'IC, Anastomot' icus, (F.) Anas- 
tomotique. Same etjiiion as anastomosis. Be- 
longing or relating to anastomosis. 

AJSTASTOMOT'ICS, ^)insto»!o«'jcfr. Same ety- 
mon. Certain medicines were formerly so called, 
which were believed to be capable of opening tho 
mouths of vessels, as asperients, diuretics, etc. 

(F.) Artere collaterale interne, A. collaterale d>t 
coude, is a branch of the brachial artery, which 
comes off a little above the elbow, and bestows 
branches to the brachialis internus, to the under 
edge of the triceps, and to the muscles, ligaments, 
etc, about the elbow joint. See, also. Articular 
arteries of the knee. 

ANASTROPHE UTERI, Inversio uteri. 
ANATASIS, Extension. 
ANATHEMA, TaVmla votiva. 

ANATIIYMIAMA, Anathymiasis. 
ANATHYMFASIS, Anat'hymiama, from ava, 
'upwards,' and Bvfia, 'fumigation.' (Ede'mn fu- 
gax, CEde'ma spas'ticum, (Ede'mn hyster'icnm, 
Anasar'ca hyster'icnm. An uncertain and tran- 
sient swelling or inflation, said to have been ob- 
served at times in nervous and hysterical per- 
sons. It also means Exhalation, Fumigation, and 

ANATOME, Anatomy — a. Animata, Physio- 

ANATOMIA, Anatomy — a. Aniraalis, Zootomy 
— a. Comparata, Zootomy — a. Comparativa, Zo- 
otomy — a. Viva, Physiology. 

ANAT03IIE, Anatomy — a. Chirurgicale, see 
Anatomy — a. des Regions, see Anatomy. 

ANAT'OMISM, Anatomism' us. Same etymon 
as Anatomy. The doctrine of those who look 
into the arrangement of parts, to explain all the 
phenomena of the organism. 

ANAT'OMIST, Anatom'icns. One who occu- 
pies himself with anatomy. One versed in ana- 

Pi-T^ A.T' OWY , Anat' ome, Anntoni' ia ,Anatliom' in, 
Prosec'tio, from ava, and Ttpvtiv, 'to cut,' (F.) 
Anatomic. The viotCl Anatomy properly signifies 
dissection; but it has been appropriated to the 
study and knowledge of the number, shape, 
situation, structure, and connection — in a word, 
of all the apparent properties of organized bodies. 
Anatomy is the science of organization. Some 
have given the term a still more extended accep- 
tation, applying it to every mechanical decom- 
position, even of inorganic bodies. Thus, Crys- 
tallography has been termed the Anatomy of 




crystallized minerals. Anatomy has also been 
called Murphiil'ofjy, Somatol'otji/, Somatot'omy, 
Orijannl'oijy, etc. It assumes dififerent names, 
fii'cordiiig as the study is confined to one organ- 
izc'il being, or to a species or class of beings. 
Thus, Aiidrot'omy, or Atithropot'omy, or Anthro- 
])"!/' ra phi/, or AnthropouomatoV o(jy, is the Ana- 
tiiiiiy t)J Mun; ZijiJtoini/, that of the other species 
of the animal kingdom; and Vet'erimvij AnaV- 
oiiiy is the anatomy of domestic animals; but 
wlien the word is used abs^tractly, it means Hu- 
mtin Anatomy, and particularly the study of 
the organs in a physiological or healthy state. 
PliyKU)li>fj"!cal Anatomy is occasionally used to 
signify the kind of anatomy which investigates 
structure with a special view to function. The 
Anatomy of the diseased human body is called 
l'ath(il(>(i"l(:al or Moihid Anatomy, and when ap- 
plied to Medical Jurisprudence, Foren'sie Anat- 
omy. Several of the organs possessing a simi- 
larity of structure, and being formed of the same 
tissues, they have been grouped into Systems or 
Genera of Organs; and the study of, or acquaint- 
ance with, such systems, has been called General 
Anat'omy, Histol'ogy, or Jforphot'omy, whilst the 
study of each organ in particular has been termed 
Descriptive Anatomy, Anthropomorphol'oyy. Hie- 
toloyy is, however, more fre((uently applied to 
the Anatomy of the Tissnen, which is called, also, 
7'ex'tural and jVicroscop'ic Anatomy, Micrano- 
tom.'ia, see Histology. Descriptive Anatomy has 
been divided into Skeletol'oyy, which comprises 
OnteoVoiyy and Syndesmol'ofiy ; and into Sarcol'- 
oijij, which is subdivided into MyoVoriy, NeuroV- 
oijy, Angiol'o(fy, Adenol'orjy, Splanchnol'or/y, and 
JJcrmol'ogy. ^ur'gical Anat'omy, J fedico-Chirurgi- 
cal Anat'omy, Topograph' ical Anat'omy, Re'gional 
Anat'omy, (F.) Anatomie Chirurgicale, A. dea Re- 
gions, is the particular and relative study of the 
bones, muscles, nerves, vessels, etc., with which 
it is indispensable to be acquainted before per- 
forming operations. Cumpar'ative Anat'omy is 
the comparative study of each organ, with a view 
to an acquaintance with the modifications of its 
structure in different animals or in the diff'erent 
classes of animals. Transcendent' al or Philosoph'- 
ieal Anatomy inquires into the mode, plan, or 
model upon which the animal frame or organs 
are formed; and Artiji'cial Anat'omy is the art 
of modelling and representing, in wax or other 
substance, the different organs or diff'erent parts 
of the human body, in the sound or diseased state. 
Phytot'omy is the anatomy of vegetables, and 
Picto'rial Anatomy, anatomy artistically illus- 

Anatomy, see Skeleton — a. Artificial, see Ana- 
tomy — a. Comparative, see Anatomy, Zootomy — 
a. Descriptive, see Anatomy — a. Forensic, see 
Anatomy — a. General, see Anatomy — a. Human, 
sec Anatomy — a. of Man, see Anatomy — a. Me- 
dico-Chirurgical, see Anatomy — a. Microscopic, 
see Anatomy — a. Morbid, see Anatomy — a. Path- 
ological, see Anatomy — a. Pathological, micros- 
copic, see Histology — a. Philosophical, see Ana- 
tomy — a. Physiological, see Anatomy — a. Picto- 
rial, sec Anatomy — a. Practical, see Dissection — 
a. Regional, see Anatomy — a. Surgical, see Ana- 
tomy—a. Te.xtural, see Anatomy — a. Topogra- 
phical, see Anatomy — a. Transcendental, see 
Anatomy — a. Veterinary, see Anatomy. 

ANATON, Soda. 

ANATREPSIS, Restauratio. 

AN.ATRESIS. Perforation, Trepanning. 

ANATRIBE. Friction. 

AN.VTRIP.-^I.^. Friction. 

ANATRIPSOL'OGY, AnatripaoIog"ia, Ana- 
triptolog" ia, from avurfxi/if, 'friction,' and Aoyos, 
<a discourse.' * "" " 


A treatise on friction as 

ANATRIPTOLOGIA, Anatripsology. 

ANATRON,_Natrum, Soda. 

ANAT'ROPE, from ava, 'upwards,' and rptnu, 
'I turn.' Subver.-'ion. A turning or subver- 
sion or inverted action of the stomach, charac- 
terized by nausea, vomiting, etc. — Galen. We 
still speak of the stomach turning against any 

ANAUDIA, Catalepsy, Mutitas. 

ANAXYRIS, Rumex acetosa. 

ANAZESIS. Ebullition. 

ANAZOTURIA, see Urine. 

ANCHA, Haunch. 

ANCHILOPS, .Egilops. 

ANCHONE, Angone. 


— a. Incarnata, A. Officinalis — a. Lycopsoides, A. 

Anchu'sa Officinalis, A. Angustifo'lia seu 
Tncarna'ta seu Lycopso'i'des, Alca'na, Lingua 
BoviD, Buglos'snm aylves'tre, Offic"tnal or Garden. 
Al'kanet or Bngloss, (Old Eng ) Langdehef ; Ord. 
Boragineae. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Monogynia. 
(F.) Bnglosc. A native of Great Britain. The 
herb was formerly esteemed as a cordial in me- 
lancholia and hypochondriasis; but it is now 
rarely used. It is also called Bnglos'sa, Bvglos'- 
sum angnsti/o'lium majus, B. vutga're majus, B. 
eati'vum. ' 

Anchu'sa Tincto'ria, Alean'na spn'ria, Dyer's 
liiigloss, Ane'bium, Buglos'sum Tincto'rnm, Li- 
thosjier'mnm viUo'sum, Dyer's Al'kanet, (F.) Or- 
eanette. A European plant. The medical pro- 
perties are equivocal. It is used to give a beau- 
tiful red colour to ointments. 

ANCHYLOSIS, Ankylosis, 

ANCISTRON, Hamulus. 

ANCLE, Astragalus, Malleolus. 

ANGLER, Malleolus. 

ANCLET, Malleolus. 

ANCLIFF, Malleolus. 

ANCLOWE, Malleolus. 

ANCOLIE, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

ANCON, Elbow, Olecranon. 

ANCONAD, see Anconal Aspect. 

ANCONAGRA, Pechyagra. 

ANCO'NAL, from ayKi^v, 'the elbow.' Rela- 
ting, or appertaining to the elbow orthe olecranon. 

Anconal Aspect. An aspect towards the side 
on which the ancon or elbow is situated. — Bar- 
clay. Anco'nad is used by the same writer ad- 
verbially, to signify 'towards the anconal aspect.' 

ANCONE, Anconeus. 

ANCONE'US, from ayxi^v, 'the elbow.' A term 
once applied to every muscle attached to the ole- 
cranon. Winslow distinguished four — the great, 
external, internal, and small ; the first three being 
portions of the same muscle, the triceps hrachia- 
lis. The last has, alone, retained the name. It 
is the Ancone'ns minor of Winslow, the Ancone'na 
seu Cnhita'lis Riola'ni of Douglas, the Epicon- 
dylo-Cuhita'lis of Chaussier, the Brevis Cii'biti, 
(F.) Ancone, and is situate at the upper and back 
part of the fore-arm. It arises from the external 
condyle of the os humeri, and is inserted into 
the posterior edge of the upper third of the ulna. 
Its use is to aid in the extension of the fore-arm. 

Anconeus Externus, see Triceps extensor 
cubiti— a. Internus, see Triceps extensor cubiti 
— a. Major, see Triceps extensor cubiti. 

ANCTE'RES. Fibula; or Clasjjs by which 
the lips of wounds were formerly kept together. 
— Celsus, Galen. 

ANCTERIASMUS, Infibulation. 

ANCU'BITUS, Petrifac'tio. An aff'ection of 
the eye, in which there is a sensation as if sand 
were irritating the organ. 




ANCUNNUEN'T.E. A name formerly given 
to raenstruatins; fem:iles. 

ANGUS, Anlnm. from ayKh>v, 'the elbow.' One 
■who cannot extend his arms completely. 

Also, the deformity resulting from a luxation 
of the humerus or fore-arm. — Hippocrates. 
ANCYLE. Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOBLEPIIARON, Ankyloblepharon. 
AXrYLOCHETLIA, Ankylocheilia. 
AXCYLOCOLPUS, Colpatresia. 
A XC YL no n E, AnUylocore. 
ANOYLODER E, Torticollis. 
AXCYLODERIS. Torticollis. 
ANCYLODONTTA, Ankylodontia. 
ANCYLOOLOSSIA, Ankyloglossia. 
ANCYLOMELE, Ankyloraele. 
ANCYLOMERISMUS, Ankylomerismus. 
ANCYLORRHINIA, Ankylorrhinia. 
ANCYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 
ANCYLOTIA. Ankylotia. 
ANCYLOTOMUS, Ankylotomus. 
ANCYRA. Hook. 

ANCYROID CAVITY. Digital cavity. 
AND, Breath. 

ANDA. Native name of a tree of Brazil — 
Aiidn Gome'sii seu Brasilieu'sis sen de Pinon, 
Aiidimmi, Anda-arii, Joniine'aia prtnceps. Ord. 
EuphorbiaceiB. Sex. Si/sf. Monoecia Monadel- 
phia. An oil — Oil of Aiida — is obtained from 
the seeds by pressure, 50 to 60 drops of which 
act as a cathartic. The fruit is an oval nut, 
containing two seeds. These have the taste of 
the chestnut; but are strongly cathartic, and 
even emetic. The shell is astringent, and is 
used Hs such in diarrhoea, etc. 
ANDE, Breath. 

dely is in France, near Gysore, and eight leagues 
from Rouen. The water is cold, and a weak cha- 
lybeate. It is used in chlorosis and abdominal 

ANDERSON'S PILLS, see Pilulae Aloes et 

ANDTRA IBAI, Geoffraea Vermifuga — a. In- 
crmis, Geoffrsea inermis — a. Racemosa, Geoffraea 
inermis — a. Surinamensis, Geoffraa Surinamen- 

ANDRACHAHARA, Sempervivura tectorum. 
ANDRACHNE, Arbutus unedo, Portulaca. 
ANDRALOGOMELE, from ai^vp, avlpo;, 'a 
man,' a, priv., ^^uyog, 'reason,' and /iriXov, 'a do- 
niestic animal.' A name given by Malacarne to 
a monster in which he supposed the presence of 
the body of a miin with the limbs of a brute. 

ANDRANATOM'IA, Andranat'ome, Andro- 
tnm'ia, Aiidrot'ome, Anthropot'omy, from avrip, 
penitive avhpoi, 'a man,' and Ttpvuv, 'to cut.' 
The anntomy of man. 

ANDRI'A. Adult age. Manhood. 
Andri'a Mu'lier, MuUer Hermaphrodit'ica. 
A female hermaphrodite. 

ANDROGEN'IA.from avnQ,av^pog, 'a man, 'and 
ycvcaii, 'generation.' The procreation of males. 
— Hippocrates. 

ANDROG"YNUS, from avvp, avhpot, 'a man,' 
and yvvn, 'a woman.' A hermaphrodite. An 
efl'eminMte person. — Hippocrates. 
ANDROLEPSIA, Conception. 
ANDROMANIA, Nymphomania. 
Sour Tree, Sour Wood, Elk Tree, Elk Wood, 
Sorrel Wood, Sour Leaf, (F.) Audromede, Andro- 
medier. A small indigenous tree ; Ord. Erica- 
ceae, Sex. Sijst. Deeandria Monogynia; found in 
the Alleghany mountains and the hills and val- 
leys diverging from them, as far as the .southern 
limits of Georgia and Alabama; but seldom north 
of Virginia. The sour leaves are refrigerent and 

astringent, and have been used to make a kmd 
of lemonade, which has been given in fevers. 

AuDROMKDA Makia'na, Broad-haved Moor- 
loort, Kill-lnmh, Lomh KUhr, Star/'/'rhiisIi. A 
decoction of this American plant is said to havo 
been successfully employed as a wash, in a dis- 
agreeable afTection — not uncommon amongst the 
slaves in the southern parts of the United States 
— called the Toe Itch, and Ground Itch. — Barton. 
Andromeda Nit'ida, Sonrwood, Sorrel tree, 
indigenous; has properties similar to those of 
A. arborea. 

ANDROPOGON BICORNIS, Junctus odoratus 
— a. Calamus aromaticus, see Oleum graminis In- 
dici — a. Citratus, Junctus odoratus — a. Citriodo- 
rus, Junctus odoratus, Nardus Indica. 

Andropo'gon Murica'tus, {avnp, avipoi, 'a, 
man,' and viayuv, 'a beard.') A. aqunrro'sua, 
Phnl'aris ziznno'i'des, Agron'tis vert i cilia' ta, Ana- 
the'rum murica'lum, Vetlve'ria odora'ta, \ ittie- 
vayr, Ciiatus, Khus-Khm ; Nat. Ord. Gramineae. 
The root of this plant, from Bombay, is aromatic 
and bitterish. It is used as a perfume. It has 
been used as an excitant and diaphoretic. 

Andropogon Nardus, Calamus Alexandrinus, 
Nardus Indica — a. Schoenanthus, Junctus odora- 
tus — a. Squarrosus, A. Muricatus. 

ANDROSACE, Umbilicus marinus— a. Mat- 
thioli. Umbilicus marinus. 

ANDROSiEMUM, Hypericum perforatum. 
ANDROTOMY, Andranatomia. 
ANDRUM. An East India word, latinized 
by Kaimpfer, signifying a kind of elephantiasis 
of the scrotum, endemic in southern Asia. 

ANEANTISSEMENT (F.), Vir'ium extinc'. 
tio. This word is often employed hyperbolically, 
by patients in France, to signify excessive fatigue, 
debility or syncope. 

ANEBIUM, Anchusa tinctoria. 
ANEBUS, Impuber. 

ANECPYE'TUS, from av, for nvev, 'without,' 
and TTvto), ' I promote suppuration.' That which 
does not suppurate, or is not likely to suppurate. 
ANEGER'TICA, from aveyeipw (ava and cytipu), 
'1 awaken.' The art of resuscitating the appa- 
rently dead. 

ANEILE'MA, Aneile'sis, from avu\e.a {ava and 
eiXew), ' I roll up.' Applied particularly to the 
motion of .air in the intestines and the tormina 
accompanying it. — Hippocrates. 
ANEILESIS, Aneilema. 
ANEMIA, Anaemia. 

ANEMO'NE, Wind Flotcer: from avepos, 'the 
wind,' because it does not open its flowers until 
blown upon by the wind. 

ANEMONE DES BOIS, Anemone nemorosa. 
Anemone Collina, A. Pulsatilla — a. Hepatica, 
Hepatica triloba — a. Intermedia, A. Pulsatilla. 
Anemone Ludoviciana, A. patens. 
Anemo'nb Nemoro'sa, Ramui'cuhis alhus seu 
nemero'sns, Wood Anemo'iiy. (F.) Anemone des 
bois. Ocrf. Ranunculaceae. The herb and flowers 
are poisonous, acrid, and corrosive. They have 
been used as rubefpcients. 

Anemo'ne Patens, A. Lndovieia'na, Puhatil'~ 
la patens; indigenous: from Illinois and Wis- 
consin to the Rocky Mountains, is supposed to 
possess similar properties. 

ANEMO'Nii Praten'sis, A. Sylvcs'trig, Puhatil'. 
la ni'gricans seu praten'sis. This plant has si- 
milar properties with the last. It is also called 
Meadow Anemony, (F.) Pulaatille noire, P. des 

Anemo'ne Pdlsatil'la, A. Colli' na seu Inter. 

me'dia seu Praten'sis seu liuhra, Pulsatil'la 

vulgaris, Herha ventis, Nola culina'ria, Pasqne 

flower, (F.)Cor]uelourde, possesses like properties. 

Anemone Rubra, A. Pratensis— a. Rue-leaved, 




Thalictrum anemonoides— a, Sylvestris, A. Pra- 

ANEMONY, Anemone hepatica — a. Meadow, 
Anemone iiraten.sis — a.Wood, Anemone nemorosa. 

AN HMOS, Wind. 

ANENCEIMIALIA, see Anencephalus. 

tyxeipfiXus, 'cncephalon,' and aijua, ' blood.' De- 
lect of blood in the bruin. Syncope. 

ANENCEl'HALONEU'RIA, Atiencephalo- 
nei'via, from ar, priv., tyKtipaUi, ' encephalon,' 
and vivjiov, ' nerve.' Want of nervous action in 
the encephalon. 

ANENCEIMIALOTROPH'IA, from av, priva- 
tive, {y>c£(/)aXof, ' the encephalon,' and rpoifjj, 'nou- 
rishment.' Atrophy of the encephalon. 

ANENCEPII'ALUS, from ap, privative, and 
cyKt<pa\os, 'brain.' A monster devoid of brain. 
— Bonctus, G. St. Hilaire. Also, one that has a 
part only of the brain ;—Paraceph'alu8. The con- 
dition has been called Auettcejihal'ia. A weak, 
silly person. — Hippocrates. 


ANENEIKJIA, Debility. 

Palsy, lead. 

ANEPISCIIESIS, Incontinentia. 

ANEPITIIYM'IA, from av, priv., and nri^vyna, 
'desire.' Many nosologists have used this word 
for a loss of the appetites, as of those of hunger, 
thirst, venery, &c. 

Anrpithymia Chlorosi.s, Chlorosis. 

ANEK, avrip, genitive avSpos. A man. 

ANERETllIS'IA, Ininitabil'!tns, from av, 
priv., and £/)£0((7(j, 'irritability.' Defect of irrita- 
bility. — Swediaur. 

ANER V ISM IE, Paralysis. 

ANERYTIIROP'SIA, from av, priv,, tpv^poi, 
'red,' and oi/ij, 'vision.' Defective vision, which 
consists in an incapability of distinguishing red. 

ANESIS, Remission. 

ANESTHEHIE, Anaesthesia. 

ANESrilESIE EXT A TIQ (IE. The aggre- 
gate of phenomena of impaired feeling produced 
especially by the manipulations of the animal 
magnetizer. — Andral. 

ANESTHETIC, Anaesthetic. 

ANESTHESIQUE, Anresthetic. 

ANESTHETIZATION, Anaesthetization. 

ANESON, Anethum. 

ANESUM, Pimpiuella anisum. 

ANET, Anethum. 

ANETH, Anethum graveolens. 

ANE'THUM, Ane'soH, Ane'ton, Ane'thiim Fce- 
nic'uliim seu Sege'tuin seu Piperi'ttim, Fceiiic'ii- 
lum, F. Dulce seu Officinale seu vulya're, Ligus'- 
ticum faiiic' tilnm, Fan'culitm, Fennel or Finclde, 
Miir'athrnm, Anet, Sweet Fennel, (Prov.) Spingel, 
(P.) Fenouil ou Anis dour. Old. Umbelliferaj. 
Sex. Si/st. Pentandria Digynia. The fruit, Fce- 
nic'ulitin (Ph.U. S.), has an aromatic odour, and 
warm, sweetish taste. It is carminative. The oil 
— Oleum Fanic'uli — is officinal in the Ph. U. S. 
The root is said to be pectoral and diuretic. 

Anethum Fcexiculum, Anethum. 

Anethum Ghavkot.ens, Anethum, A. horten'se, 
Pastina'cit Anethum seu Graveolens, Fer'ula Gra- 
veolens, Dill, (F.) Aneth, Fenouil pnant. A na- 
tive of the south of Europe. The seeds are sti- 
mulant and carminative. A distilled water — 
Aqua ane'thi, Dill-icater — is officinal in the Lon- 
don and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias. Dose, gr. 
XV to 3J. 

Oleum Ane'thi, Oil of Dill, (F.) Huile d' Aneth, 
possesses the carminative properties of the plant. 

Anethitm Pastinac-\, Pastinaca Sativa — a. 
Piperituni, Anethum — a. Scgetum, Anethum. 

ANETICUS, Anodyne. 

ANETON, Anethum. 

ANETUS, Intermittent fever — a. Quartanu?, 
Quartan — a. Quotidianus, Quotidian — a. Tertia- 
nus, Tertian fever. 

ANEURAL'GICON, from a, privative, vcvpov, 
'nerve,' and aXyos, 'pain.' A name given by Dr. 
C. T. Downing to an instrument used by him to 
allay pain in nerves. It is a kind of fumigating 
appiu-atus, in which dried narcotic and othe'r 
herbs are burnt, the heated vapour being directed 
to any part of the body. 

ANEURIA, Paralysis. 

AN'EVRlSyi, Aneurys' ma, Anetiri/n'mus, Aneu- 
rie'mn, Cedmu, from afcvpvvetv, (ava, and cvfjvviiv,) 
' to dilate or distend.' Dilnta'tio Arteria'rum, 
Ecta'sia, Emborys'rna, Exuniji'a aueuris'ma, Ar- 
terieurys'ma, Arterenrys'ma, Hamntoce'le arte- 
rio'sa, Ahsces'sua apirituo'sus, Arteritc'tasis, (F.) 
Anevrysme, Aneurisme. Properly, Aneurism sig. 
nifies a tumour, produced by the dilatation of an 
artery ; but it has been extended to various lesions 
of arteries, as well ajs to dilatations of the heart. 

There are various kinds of aneurism. The fol- 
lowing are the chief: 

I. When the blood, which forms the tumour, is 
enclosed within the dilated coats of the artery. 
This is the true Aneurism, Aneuryn' ma verum. 
Hernia Arteria'rum, (F.) Anevrysme vrai. 

II. When the blood has escaped from the 
opened artery, it is called spurious or false 
Aneurism, Aneuris'ma spu'rium, Ruptn'ra Arte'- 
ricR, Arteriorrhex'is, Arteriodial'ysis, Ecchymo'- 
ma arterio'sum, (F.) Anevrysme faux. The latter 
is divided into three varieties: 

1. Diffused False Aneurism, (P.) Anivrysme 
faux, primitif, diffus, noncirconscrit ou par infil- 
tration, which occurs immediately after the divi- 
sion or rupture of an artery, and consists of an 
extravasation of blood into the areolar texture 
of the part. 

2. Circumscribed False Aneurism, (F.) Anev- 
rysme faux cousevutif circonscrit ou par epanche- 
ment, enkystiow sacciforme, tumeur hemorrhagiale 
circonscrite, in which the blood issues from the 
vessel some time after the receipt of the wound, 
and forms itself a sac in the neighbouring areolar 

3. An'eurism by Anastomo'sis, Yar'icose or Cir- 
coid An'eurism, PhlebarteriodiaU ysis, Ancurys'- 
ma veno' so-arterio' sum, A. varico'sum, (F. ) Anev- 
rysme par anastomose ou variquenx, A. par ero- 
sion, A. de Pott, A. des plus jtetites arterea, which 
arises from the simultaneous wounding of an ar- 
tery and vein; — the arterial blood passing into 
the vein, and producing a varicose state of it. 

III. Mixed Aneurism, {F.) Anevrysmemixte, is 
that which arises from the dilatation of one or two 
of the coats, with division or rupture of the other. 
Some authors have made two varieties of this : 

1. Mixed external Aneurism, where the internal 
and middle coats are ruptured, and the areolar is 

2. Mixed internal Aneurism, in which the inter- 
nal coat is dilated, and protrudes, like a hernial 
sac, through the ruptured middle and outer coats. 
This variety has been ca,\led Aneui-ya'tna Jler'niam 
Arte'ricB sistens. 

Aneurisms have been termed traumat'ic or ex- 
og"enous, and sjjonta'netius, according as they may 
have been caused by a wound, or have originated 
spontaneously. The latter, when originating from 
lesions of the inner coats of arteries, have been 
termed endog"enous. They have also been di- 
vided into internal and external. 

The internal aneurisms are situate in the great 
splanchnic cavities, and occur in the heart and 
great vessels of the chest, abdomen, &c. Their 
diagnosis is difiScult, and they are often inacces- 
sible to surgical treatment. 




The external aneurisms are situate at the exte- 
rior of the head, neck, and limbs, and are dis- 
tinctly pulsatory. 

Aneurisms, especially the internal, may be 
combated by a debilitaiit treatment, on the plan 
of Valsalva, which consists in repeated blood- 
letting, with food enough merely to support life. 
In external aneurism, the artery can be oblite- 
rated. This is usually done by applying a liga- 
ture above the aneurismal tumour. 

Aneuuis.m, Dissecting, is one in which, owing 
to rupture of the inner and middle coats of an 
artery, the blood makes itself a channel between 
these coats and the outer coat. 

In many cases, the lesion appears to consist in 
a separation of the lamina of the middle coat, 
between which the blood forms itself a channel. 

Ankorisms of the Heart, Cardion'chi, Car- 
dieurys'ma, (F.) Anivrysmes du cixur, have been 
divided into active and passive. The former can 
scarcely be esteemed aneurisms, as they most 
commonly consist of increased thickness of the 
parietes of the heart, which diminishes its cavity 
instead of increasing it. The term Mi/pertrophy 
of the heart better indicates their character. 
Passive aneurism, Cardiec'tasis, on the contrary, 
is attended with extenuation of the parietes of 
the organ, and enlargement of the cavities. The 
physical signs of dilatation of the heart are the 
following : — The action of the heart is not visible, 
and no impulse is conveyed to the hand. On 
percussion, there is a loss of resonance over a 
larger surface than usual, but the dulness is much 
less intense than that which accompanies hyper- 
trophy. On auscultation, the action of the heart 
is only slightlj' felt, and communicates at once 
the impression of its diminished power. The im- 
pulse is feebler than usual. Both sounds are widely 
transmitted over the thorax, and are not much 
fainter at a distance from their point of origin. 

Partial or true aneurism of the Heart — Cardi- 
ec'tasis partia'lis, Aneurys'ma consecuti'vum cor- 
dis — is sometimes seen ; rarely, however. 

The name Aneurism of the Valves of the Heart 
has been given to pouch-like projections of the 
valves into the auricles. 

Aneurism by Anastomosis, see Aneurism — 
a. Brasdor's operation for, see Brasdor — a. 
Circoid, see Aneurism — a. Endogenous, see 
Aneurism, and Endogenous — a. Exogenous, 
see Aneurism, and Exogenous — a. External, 
see Aneurism — a. False, see Aneurism — a. 
False, circumscribed, see Aneurism — a. False, 
diffused, see Aneurism — a. Internal, see Aneurism 
— a. Mixed, see Aneurism — a. Mixed, external, 
see Aneurism — a. Mixed, internal, see Aneurism 
— a. Spontaneous, see Aneurism — a. Spurious, see 
Aneurism — a. Traumatic, see Aneurism — a. True, 
see Aneurism — a. Valsalva's method of treating, 
see Aneurism — a. Varicose, see Aneurism. 

ANEURISMA, Aneurism. 

ANEURIS'MAL, Aneurys'mal, Aneurismat'ic, 
Aneurysmal' icus, Aneuriama' lis. That which be- 
longs to Aneurism. 

Aneurismal Sac or Cyst, (F.) Sac ou Kyste 
anSvrysmal, is a sort of pouch, formed by the 
dilatation of the coats of an artery, in which the 
blood, forming the aneurismal tumour, is con- 

ANEURISMATIC, Aneurismal. 

ANEURYSM, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMA, Aneurism — a. Cordis activum. 
Heart, hypertrophy of the — a, Herniam arteriae 
sistens, see Aneurism — a. Si)urium, see Aneurism 
— a. Varicosum, see Aneurism — a. Venoso-arte- 
riosuin, see Aneurism — a. Verum, see Aneurism. 

ANEURYSME, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMUS, Aneurism, Dilatation. 

ANEVKIA, Paralysis. 

ANEVRYSME, Aneurism — n. de V Aorta, 
Aorteurysma — a. de Putt, see Aneurism— o. dea 
plus petites Artires, see Aneurism — a. Circonscrit, 
see Aneurism — a. Diffus, see Aneurism — a. En- 
kyst^, see Aneurism — «. Faux, see Aneurism — 
a. Faux consecutif, see Aneurism — a. Mixte, see 
Aneurism — o. par Anastomose, see Aneuri^sm — a, 
par Epanchement, see Aneurism — a.par Erosion, 
see Aneurism — a. 2)<tr Infiltration, see Aneurism 
— n. Primitif, see Aneurism — a. Sacciforme, see 
Aneurism — a. Variqueux, see Aneurism — a. Vrai, 
see Aneurism. 

ANEYS, see Pimpinclla anisum. 

ANFION, Maslach. ^ , 

fractuosities, cerebral — a. Ethmo'idales, see An- 

ANFRACTUOS'ITY'', Anfrac'tus, Sulcus, from 
am, 'around,' iinilfrangere,fractum, 'to break.' 
A groove or furrow. Used in anatomy to signify 
sinuous depressions or sulci, of greater or less 
depth, like those which separate the convolutions 
of the brain from each other. These 

Anfractuositiks, Cerebral, A»y>ocV«« Cer'- 
ehri, (F.) Anfractuosites Oerebrales, are always 
narrow, and deeper at the upper surface of the 
brain than at its base ; and are lined by a pro- 
longation of the pia mater. 

The Ethmoid Cells are, sometimes, called An- 
frortuosites ethmoidales. 

ANFRACTUS, Anfractuosity — a. Cerebri, An- 
fractuosities, (cerebral.) 

ANGECTASIA, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIAL, Vascular. 

ANGEIECTASIA, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIECTASIS, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIECTOMA, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIOG'RAPHY, Angiotfraphy, Angeio- 
graph'ia, from ayyuov, ' sl vessel,' and ypaipij, 'a 
description.' The anatomy of the vessels. 

raphy, Angeiondrog' rap)hy, Angeiohydrogra'phin, 
Hydrangiogrnph' ia, trom ayyctov, 'a vessel,' 'vSmji, 
'water,' and ypu^oj, 'I describe.' A treatise on 
the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOIIYDROT'OMY, Angiohydrot'omy, 
Angeiondrot'omy, Angeiohydrotom'ia, Hydran- 
giotom'ia, from ayy^iov, 'a vessel,' 'viiop, ' water,' 
and Tf/jvciv, ' to cut.' Dissection of the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOLEUCI'TIS, Angioleuci'tis, ' Anyio- 
lymphi'tis, Lymphange'i'tis, Lyniphangi'tis, Lym- 
phangioi'tis, Hydrangei'tis, Lymphi'tis, Lympha- 
ti'tis, Inflamma'tio vaso'rum lymphatico'rum, i'rom 
ayyuQv, ' a vessel,' \ivKoii, ' white,' and itis, inflam- 
mation. (F.j Injiammation des vaisseaux iympha- 
tiques ou des tissus hlancs. Inflammation of the 
lymphatics; lymphatic or scrofulous inflamma- 

ANGEIOL'OGY", Angiol'ogy, Anr,eiolog"ia, 
from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' and ^oyo^, 'a discourse.' 
A discourse on the vessels. The anatomy of the 
vessels. It includes Arteriol'ogy, PUebol'ogy, 
and Angeiohydrol'ogy. 

ANGEIOMALA'CIA, Angiomala'cia, from 
ayyuov, 'a vessel,' and ixaKaKta, 'softening.' Mol- 
lescence or softening of vessels. 

ANGEIOMYCES, Ha;matodes fungus 

ANGEION, Vessel. 

ANGEIONDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydrogra- 


ANGEIONDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomv. 

ANGEIONOSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGEIONUSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGEIOPATHI'A, Angiopathi'a, Angeion'- 
osus, Angeionu'sus, Angio'sis, from ayyuov, ' a 
vessel,' and ?r«9os, 'a disease.' Disease of the 





a vessel,' and nXavr,, 'error.' Anomaly in the 
structure and distribution of vessels, 
AN(;EI0PLER0SIS, Plethora. 
ANGKIOI'YKA, Synocha. 
ANaKIOURHAUIA, llajinorrhagia activa. 
AN(iE10KRII(E'A, An^iorrha-',,, (F.) An- 
geiorrhee ; from ayyciov, 'a vessel,' and ptu, 'I 
flow.' p!i.«sive hemorrhage. 

ANGEIOSIS, An-io?is. 

AN(iEIOSTE«NOSIS, Angieraphraxis. 

ANGEIOSTENOSIS, Angicmphraxis. 

ANGEIOSTEO'SIS, An<ji„>,tu'ais from ayyuov, 
'a vessel,' and uaTtiuots, 'ossification.' Ossiticu- 
tion of vessels. 

ANGEIOSTROPHE, see Torsion. 

ANGEIOTELECTASIA, Telangiectasia. 

ANUEIOT'OMY, AiKjwt'onnj, Awjeiotnm'ia, 
from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' and rtjjivtiv, 'to cut.' 
Dissection of vessels. 

ANUEI'TIS, Aiitjn'tin, Anrji'oi'tis, Inflommn'- 
tio vaHo'ritm, (P.) Aii;/ei/e, from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' 
and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflammation 
of vessels in general. 

ANGEL-BREAD. A kind of purgative cake, 
formerly made of spurge, ginger, flour and oat- 
meal. — lialliwell. 

ANGELIC ROOT, Angelica lucida. 

ANGEL'ICA, Angel'ica Archanfjvl' ica seu 
Ilispa'na seu Sati'va, Archamjel' tea officliirt'lin, 
Garden Angelica, (F.) Aiigeliqiic, Racine de Saint 
Usprit. So called from its supposed angelic vir- 
tues. Ord. Umbelliferffi. SejL-. Synt. Pontandria 
Digynia. Native of Lapland. The roots, stalk, 
leaves, and seed, are aromatic and carminative. 
A sweetmeat is made of the root, which is 

Angklica AncnANGELiCA, Angelica. 

Angelica ATUoi'URPD'nEA, Angelica (Ph. 
U. S.), J/anteriBort. An indigenous species, grow- 
ing over the whole United States, and admitted 
into the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States. Virtues, same as those of 
the Angelica of Europe. 

Angelica Lkvisticum, Ligustieura levisticum. 

Angelica Lu'cida, Angel'ic root, Bellyache 
root, Nendo, White root, an indigenous plant, the 
root of which is bitterish, subaerid, fragrant, 
aromatic, stomachic, and tonic. Also, Ligusticum 

Angelica Nendo, Ligusticum actaeifolium. 

Angelica Officinalis. Iinperatoria — a. Palu- 
dapifolia, Ligusticum levisticum — a. Sativa, An- 
gelica, A. sylvestris. 

Angelica Sylves'tris, A. snti'vn, Scli'nian 
Sylves'tre seu Angel'ica seu Puhes'cens, Irnjyera- 
to'ria Sylves'tris seu Angelica, Wild Angel'ica, 
(F.) Angeliqne sauvage. Possesses similar pro- 
perties to the last, but in an inferior degree. The 
seeds, powdered and put into the hair, are used 
to destroy lice. Also, Ligusticum podagraria. 

Angelica Tree, Araiia spinosa. 

ANGELI'NyE CORTEX. The bark of a 
Grcmida tree, which has been recommended as 
anthelmintic and cathartic. 

ANfiJiLf QUE, Angelica. — a. Sauvage, Angel- 
ica sylvestris. 

ANGELOCACOS. Myrobalnnus. 

AN(5EMPIIRAXIS, Angicmphraxis. 

AXGIAIRHYDltlE, Asphyxia by submer- 
sion. , 

ANGTARHEMTE. Haemoptysis. 

ANGIA URHA (HE. IFaMnoptvsis. 

ANGlBROMELMIXrillE, Worms (intes- 

ANGTCHOLOLITHE, Calculi, biliary. 

ANGIDIECTASIA. Trichangiectasia. 

ANGIDIOSPONGUS, Uiematodes fungus. 


ANGIEC'TASIS, Angeiecla'aia. Angecta'nia, 
Angieurye'ma, Angeiecto'ma, Aiigiodian'tagis, from 
ayyuov, 'a vessel,' and tfTatrK,' dilatation.' Dila- 
tation of vessels. — Griife and Alibert. See 

ANGIEMPIIRAX'IS, Avgemphrax'i,, Angei. 
osteno'nis, Angeioslegno'ais, from ayyctov, ' a ves- 
sel,' and efifpa'.,is, ' obstruction.' Obstruction of 

ANGIEIJRYSMA, Angiectasis. 

ANGIITE, Inflammation, Angeitis. 

ANGIITIS, Angeitis. 

ANGI'NA, Febris Aiigino'sa, htlimi'tis. Quin- 
sy or Sore Throat; from augere, 'to choke.' 
Inflammation of the supru-diapliragmatic portion 
of the alimentary canni, and of the air passages. 
The Latin writers applied the term to every dis- 
ease in which deglutition or respiration, sepa- 
rately or united, was affected, provided that such 
affection was above the stomach and lungs. — 
Boerhave speaks of the angina of the moribund, 
which is nothing more than the dysphagia or 
difiicult deglutition preceding death. See Cy- 

Angina ApniHOSA, Aphthae— a. Aquosa, Oilde- 
ma of the glottis — a. Broncliialis, Bronchitis— a. 
Canina, Cynanche trachealis — a. Cordis, Angina 
|iectoris — a. cum Tumore, Cynanche tonsillaris — 
a. Epidemiea, Cynanche maligna — a. Epiglot- 
tidea, Epiglottitis — a. Erysipelatosa, Erytliraneho 
a. Exsmlatorin, Cynanche trachealis — a. Externa, 
Cynanche parotidaea— a. Faucium, Isthmitis — a. 
Faucium Maligna, Cynanche maligna — a. Folli- 
culosa of the pharynx, IMiaryngitis, follicular — 
a. Gangricnosa, Cynanche maligna— a. llumida, 
Cynanche trachealis — a. Inflammatoria, Cynan- 
che, Cynanche trachealis — a. Laryngea, Laryn- 
gitis — a. Laryngea CE<lematosa, (Edema of tho 
glottis — a. Linguaria, Glossitis — a. Maligna, An- 
gina pellicularis, Cynanche maligna. Pharyngitis, 
diphtheritic — a. Maxillaris, Cynanche parotidaea 
— a. Membranacea, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Mitis, Isthmitis. 

Angi'na Nasa'lis, Nnsi'tis posti'ca. An in- 
flammation of the posterior portion of the ^'chnci- 
derian membrane lining the nose. Also, Coryza. 

Angi'na ffinEMATo'sA, (F.) Angine adema- 
tense, (Edeuie de la Glolte. An oedematous swell- 
ing of the glottis, the effect of chronic cynanche 
laryngea. See (Edema of the Glottis. 

Angina Palatina, Ilyperoitis — a. Paralytica, 
Pharyngoplegia — a. Parotidaea Externa, Cynan- 
che parotidffia. 

Angi'na Pec'toris, A. cordis, Sternal'gia, 
Asthma spastico-artlirit'icnm iucon'slans. Asthma 
diaphragmat'icum, Arthri'tis diaphragmatica , 
Orthopnw'a cardi'aca, Sternodyn'ia syueop'tiea 
et pal'pitans, S. syncopa'lis, Cardiog'nius cordis 
sinis'tri, Asthetii'a pectora'lis, Angor pec'toris, 
Stcnocar'dia, Diaphragmat'ic gout. Asthma con- 
vulsi'vnm. Asthma arthriticnm. Card ionenral'gia , 
Neural' gia hrach iothornc"ica, U yperasth e' sia, 
plejcus cardi'aci, A. dolori/'icum. Syncope arigi- 
no'sa seu angens, Cardiod'yne spasmod'icu inter- 
mit'tens, Pnigopho'hia, Prunel'la, Suspir'ium 
cardi'acum, Pnenmonal'gia, Suffocative Brrant- 
pang, (F.) Angine de Poitrine, Necrose du Vceur. 
A disease, the precise }>athology of which is not 
known. The principal symptoms are. violent 
pain about the sternum, extending towards the 
arms, anxiety, dyspna?a, and sense of suffoca- 
tion. It is an affection of great danger, juid is 
often connected with ossification, or other morbid 
condition of the heart. It appears to he neuropp.- 
thic, and has been termed Neuralgia of the Heart. 
Some, however, employ this last term for an 
acutely painful intermittent affection of the heart, 
which seems to differ from angina pectoris more 


6 4 


in regarfl to the small number of parts which are 
drawn into morbid consent with the affected car- 
diac nerves, than in regard either to its nature 
or appropriate treatment. The most powerful 
stimulating and narcotic antispasmodics are re- 
quired during the paroxysm. 

Angi'ka Pellicula'ius, A. malig'na, Biptlie- 
ri'tis of the throat. A name given to those in- 
flammations about the throat, in which exuda- 
tions or false membranes are thrown out during 
the phlogosis of the mucous membranes. AphthcB, 
Tracheitii, when accompanied with the membra- 
niforra exudation, are, with some, examples of 
diphtheritic inflammation. 

Anoina Peuvioiosa, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Pestilentialis, Pharyngitis, diphtheritic — a. Poly- 
posis, Cynanche trachealis — a. Polyposaseu Mem- 
branacea, Cynanche trachealis— a. Pseudo-raem- 
branosa. Pharyngitis, diphtheritic — a. Pulposa, 
Cynanche trachealis — a. Sanguinea, Cynanche 

Angixa Sicca, (F.) Amjine Seche, is a chronic 
inflammation of the pharynx, with a distressing 
sense of dryness and heat, in chronic diseases of 
the stomach and lungs. See Paedanchone. 
Angina Suiplex, Isthmitis. 
Angina Squirro'sa, (F.) Anr/iue squirrense, 
consists in difiiculty of deglutition, caused by 
scirrhous disorganization of the pharynx or oeso- 
phagus, or by enlarged tonsils. 

Angina Strangiilatoria, Cynanche trache- 
alis — a. Strepitosa, Cynanche trachealis-^-a. Suf- 
focatoria, Cynanche trachealis — a. Synochalis, 
Cynanche tonsillaris — a. Thyreoidea, Thyreoitis 
— a. Tonsillaris, Cynanche tonsillaris — a. Tra- 
chealis, Cynanche trachealis — a. Ulcerosa, Cy- 
nanche maligna — a. Uvularis, Staphyloedema, 
Uvulitis — a. Vera et Legitima, Cynanche ton- 

ANGINE GUTTURALE, Cynanche tonsil- 
laris — a. Laryugee, Laryngitis — a. Larync/ee et 
tracheule, Cynanche trachealis — a. Larynyee cede- 
mnteuse. ffidemaof the glottis — a. Q^Hophagieniie, 
CEsophagitis — a.Phnrynyee, Cynanche parotidaea 
— a. de Puitriiie, Angina pectoris — a. Seche, An- 
gina sicca^a. Simple, Isthmitis — a. Squirreuse, 
Angina Squirrosa — a. Tonsillaire, Cynanche ton- 

ANGINEUX, Angino.-e. 

ANGINO'SE, Angino o\(», (F.) Anginenx. Re 
lating or appertaining tc angina ; as Scarlati'na 

ANGIOCARDI'TIS, from ayyttov, 'a vessel,' 
and carditis, ' inflammation of the heart.' In- 
flammation of the heart and great vessels. 
ANG IO<JR APIIY, Angeiography. 
ANOrOHEMIE, Hyperemia. 
ANGIOHYDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydrogra- 

ANGIOHYDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomy. 
ANGIOITIS. Angeitis. 
ANGIOLEUCITIS, Angeioleucitis. 
ANGIOLOGY, Angeiology. 
ANGIOLYMPIIITIS, Angeioleucitis. 
ANGIOMALACIA, Angeiomalacia. 
ANGIOMYCES, Haematodes fungus. 
ANGIONOSUS, Angeiopathia. 
ANGIONUSUS, Angeiopathia. 
ANGIOPATHIA, Angeiopathia. 
ANGIOPLANIA, Angeioplania. 
ANGIOPYRA, Svnocha. 
ANGIORRIIAGIA, Haemorrhagia activa. 
ANGIORRHCEA, Angeiorrhoea. 
ANGIO;^IS, Angiopathia. 
ANGIOSTEGNOSrS, Angieraphraxis. 
ANGIOSTRXOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 
ANGIOSTOSIS, Angeiostosis. 

ANGIORTROPIIE. see Torsion. 

ANGIOTKLECTASIA, Telangiectasia. 

AXGIOTEN'IC, Aiigeiuten'ic, Aiigioten'iciit 
seu Aiigeioten'icus, from ayyuov, 'a. vessel,' and 
Tuvuv, ' to extend.' An epithet given to inflain- 
matry fever, owing to its action seeming to be 
chiefly exerted on the vascular system. 

A>JGIOTOMY, Angeiotomy. 

ANGLE, Ait'gulns, from ayKv'Xoi, 'a hook.' 
The space between two lines which meet in a 

Angle, Fa'cial, pointed out by Camper, is 
formed by the union of two lines, one of which 
is drawn from the most prominent part of the 
forehead to the alveolar edge of the upper jaw, 
opposite the incisor teeth — the facial line — and 
the other from the meatus auditorius externus to 
the same point of the jaw. According to the 
size of the angle it has been attempted to appre- 
ciate the respective proportions of the cranium 
and face, and, to a certain extent, the degree of 
intelligence of individuals and of animals. In 
the white varieties of the species, this angle is 
generally 80° ; in the negro not more than 70°, 
and sometimes only 6u°. As we descend the 
scale of animals, the angle becomes less and less ; 
until, in fishes, it nearly or entirely disappears. 
Animals which have the snout long, and faaial 
angle small, such as the snipe, crane, stork, <Scc., 
are proverbially foolish, at least they are so 
esteemed; whilst intelligence is ascribed to those 
in which the angle is more largely developed, as 
the elephant and the owl. In these last animals, 
however, the large facial angle is caused by the 
size of the frontal sinuses : — so that this mode of 
appreciating the size of the brain is very inexact, 
and cannot be depended upon. 

The following is a table of the angle in man 
and certain animals : 


Man from 68° to 8S° and more. 

Sapajou 65 

Orang-Utang 56 to 58 

Guenon 57 

Mandrill 30 to 42 

Coati 28 

Pole-Cat 31 

Pug-Dog 35 

Mastiff 41 

Hare 30 

Kam 30 

Horse 23 

Angle, Occipital, of Daubenton, is formed 
by a line drawn from the posterior margin of the 
foramen magnum to the inferior margin of the 
orbit, and another drawn from the top of the 
head to the space between the occipital condyles. 
In man, these condyles, as well as the foramen 
magnum, are so situate, that a line drawn per- 
pendicular to them would be a continuation of 
the spine; but in animals they are placed more 
or less obliquely ; and the perpendicular is ne- 
cessarily thrown farther forward, and the angle 
rendered more acute. 

Angle, Optic, (F.) Angle optiqne, is the angle 
formed by two lines, which shave the extremities 
of an object, and meet at the centre of the pupil. 

ANGNAIL, HangnaiL 


ANGOLAM. A very tall Malabar tree, which 
possesses vemiifuge properties. 

AN'GONE, properly An'chnne, from ayxii, 'I 
choke.' Axaii'roiiie, Hi/sterapopnijc'ix, Ifys'tero- 
pni.r, Prafnca'tio Fau'ciiim seu Uteri'iia seu 
Matri'cio, Strangidn'tio uteri'iia, Siiffoca'tio ute- 
ri' na seu hyHter'ica, Glubux seu NodtiH hyuter'icHi, 
Orthnpnce'a hyster'ica, Dyspha'gia globo'm seU 
hijxtcr'ica, Ncrvom Qidnxy. A feeling of strangu- 
lation, with dread of suffocation. It is commoa 


6 5 


in hysterical females, and is accompanied wilh a 
sensation as if a ball arose from the abdomen to 
the throat. 

AN(JOR, Anfjuinh, (¥.) Anr]ohse, Extreme 
anxiety, accompanied with painful constriction 
at the ei)igastrium, and often with palpitation 
and oppression. It is frequently an unfavour- 
able symptom. 

Angoii, Agony, Orthopnoea — a. Faucium, Isth- 
mitis — a. Pectoris, Angina pectoris. 

ANGOS, Bubo, Uterus, Vessel. 

ANdOSrURE VRAIE, Cusparia febrifuga. 

AN(iOUIlIOX, Cucumis sativus. 

AN(}i:iS, Serpent. 

ANdUKSH, Angor. 

Anguish, Fkbhilk, Angor Fehri'Us. The com- 
bination of weariness, pain, anxiety, and weak- 
ness affecting the head and neclc, which is so ge- 
nerally observed at the commencement of fever. 


AN'OULAR, Angula'ris, from angulitu, 'an 
angle,' (F.) Aiif/idnlre. That which relates to 
an angle. 

Angular Autkry and Vein. A name given, 
1. to the termination of the facial artery and 
vein, because they pass by the greater angle of 
the eye; and, 2. to the facial artery and vein 
themselves, because they pass under the angle 
of the jaw. Sec Facial. 

Angular Nervk is a filament furnished by 
the inferior maxillary, which passes near the 
greater angle of the eye. 

Angular Prochsses of the frontal bone are 
seated near the angles of the eyes. See Orbitar. 

ANGULARIS, Levator scapulas. 


ANGULUS COSTiE, see Costa — a. Ocularis, 

ANUUUIA. Cucurbita citrullus. 

AN(!lISTATrO, Arctatio— a. Cordis, Systole— 
a. lutt'.-itini recti vel Ani, Stricture of the rectum. 

ANGUS'TIA, Angusta'tio, Stenocho'ria. Anx- 
iety, narrowness, strait, constriction. 

Anoustia Abdominalis, Pelvis, (Brim) — a. 
PerinKalis, Pelvis, (Outlet.) 

ANGUSTUKA, Cusparia febrifuga— a. False, 
Brucea antidysenterica, and Strychnos nux vo- 
mica — a. Spuria, Brucea antidysenterica, and 

ANGUSTURE, FAUSSE, Brucea antidysen- 
terica — a. Ferriigiiieiise, Brucea antidysenterica 
— a. Vrnic, Cusparia febrifuga. 

A NG ( 'S TUR IXE, Brucine. 

ANILEMATOSIA, Asphyxia, Anaemia. 

ANIl.EMIA, Anwmia. 

ANHAPHIA. Anaphia. 

ANHELA'TIO, from anhelo, 'I pant.' An- 
heVituK, Aas'mus, Panting, Gaspi?ig, Aiihelntion, 
(Sc.) Ilecli, Hegh, (Prov.) Giin, Kawing, Peck- 
ing, (F.) EsHDiiJJicmtnt. Short and rapid breath- 
ing. See Dyspnoea. 

Anhclntio is sometimes employed synony- 
raouslv with asthma. 

ANilHLITUS, Breath. 

ANHKMA rOSIE, Anajmia, Asphyxia, 

ANHEMIE, Anajmia. 

ANIIIS'TOUS, from a, av, privative, and 'icrrot, 
'organic texture,' 'yLiorf/fDwV.' Amor'phns. The 
tuntca decidua uteri is termed by Velpeau the 
uiihislonn niemliyaiie. 

ANHUIBA. Lauras sassafras. 

ANIIYDR^E'MIA, Ancemijd' ria, from av, pri- 
vative, 'w(5u)p, 'water,' and 'ai/ia, 'blood.' A con- 
dition of the blood in which there is a diminution 
\\\ the quantity of the serum. 

AXllYr>ROMYEL'IA, from av, priv., 'uoui^, 

'water,' and //ueXof, 'marrow.' Deficiency or 
absence, in the spinal cavity, of the cephalo-spi- 
nal fluid. 

ANICE'TOX, Anice'tum, ifesia'mnm, from a, 
privative, and mkti, 'victory,' 'invincible.' A 
plaster much extolled by the ancients in cases 
of achores. It was formed of litharge, cerusse, 
thus, alum, turpentine, white pepper, and oil. 

A N I'D E US, from av, privative, and £(5of, 
'shape.' Aiiiorphus. A monster devoid of shape. 
— .1. G. St. Hilaire. 

ANIDRO'SLS, from a, privative, and 'tSpu>i, 
'sweat.' Siiclo'ris nul'litas vel jirivi'tio. Ab- 
sence of sweat. Deficiency of perspiration. — 

ANILEMA, Borborygmus, Tormina. 

ANILESIS, Borborygmus, Tormina. 

AXILITAS, sec Dementia. 

AN'IJMA, Aii'imus, Jlens, Payclie. The mind, 
breath, &c., from aveiio;, 'wind or breath.' (F.) 
Anie. The principle of the intellectual and moral 
manifestations. Also, the principle of life — the 
life of plants being termed An'ima vcgetnti'vn, 
(F.) Ame vegetative ; that of man, An'ima sensi- 
ti'vn, (F.) Atiie sensitive. 

The Aninia of Stahl, An'ima Stnlilin'na. was a 
fancied intelligent principle, which he supposed 
to preside over the phenomena of life, — like the 
Arrhmiia of Van Jlelmont. 

Under the term Anima viundi, the ancient phi- 
losophers meant a universal Spirit, which they 
supposed spread over every part of the uni- 

The precise seat of the mind in the brain h.ns 
given rise to many si)eculutions. The point is 

With the ancient chemists, Anima meant the 
active principle of a drug separated by some 
chemical management. 

Anima Ai,oks : see Aloes Succotorina — a. Ar- 
ticLilorum, Hermodactylus — a. Hepatis, Ferri sul- 
phas — a. Pulmonum, Crocus — a. Rhei, Iiifusum 
rhei — a. Stahliana, see Anima — a. Vegetativa, 
Plastic force. 

AN'OIAL, Zijon. A name given to every 
animated being. Most animals have the power 
of locomotion ; some can merely execute par- 
tial movements, such as contraction and dila- 
tation. In other respects it is often a matter 
of difBculty to determine what is an animal 
oharaetoristic. The study of animals is called 

An'imal, Anima'Us. That which concerns, or 
belongs to, an animal. 

Animal Hkat, Calor anima'Us seu nati'vus, 
CaVidnm anima' le seu inna'tiim, Bioh/ch'nion. 
Flam'mnla vita'lis, Therma em'phyttim, Thermvvi 
em'phi/tnm, Ignis anima'Us seu natiira'lis seu 
vita'lis, (F.) Chalcnr animate, is the caloric con- 
stantly formed by the body of a living animal, 
by virtue of which it preserves nearly the same 
temperature, whatever may be that of the me- 
dium in which it is placed. This formation 
seems to take place over the whole of the body, 
and to be connected with the action of nutrition. 

The following are the natural temperatures of 
certain animals; that of man being 98° or 100°. 

Animals. Temperaturt. 

Arctic Fox 107 

Arctic Wolf ) JQ5 

Squirrel / 

"»•* • I 104 

Whale J 

Arctomys citillas, zizU — iu summer.- 103 

Do. when torpid 80 to 84 

Goat 103 

Bat. in summer ~. 1 iao 

Musk i 

Marmota bobae— 5o6(ic 101 or 102 

House mouse 101 





AxiMALS. Temptratur . 

Arctomys marmota, marmot,— in summer... 1' 1 or 102 

Do. when torpid '^,„. 

Rabbit ^ ^ 101 

Polar Boar 1"0 

Dog 1 

Cat .... 

Swine"::;;:::::::::::::::::::::;::::::::;::::: \ loo to los 


Ox J 

Guinea-pig.: :..: 100 to 102 

Arctomys glis ^'^ 

Shrew ^^ 

Youns wolf. 96 

Frin^illa artica, Arctic finch \ \\\ 

)lubecoIa. redbreast J 

Frinj^illa linaria, Jcsser red poM ••• HO or 111 

Falco palumbarius, (7os/iai«/i; 

Caprimul^'us Europaeus, European goat- 

svtcker , 

Emberiza nivalis, snow-bunting 109 to 110 

Falco lanarius, lanner 

Fringilla carduelis, goldfinch 

Corvus corax. »'ai'cre 

Turdus, thrush, (of Ceylon,) 

Tetrao perdix, partridge 

Anas clypoata, shovehr 

Tringa pupcnax, ruffe 

Scolopax, lesser godwit 

'I'etrao tetrix, grouse 

Fringilla brumalis, winterfinch , 

Loxia pyrrhula 

Falco nisus, sparrowhawk 

Vultur biirbatus 

Anser pulchricollis 

Colymbus auritus, dusky grebe 

Trinf^a ranellus, lapming, wounded, 

Tetrao la?:opu.'<, ptarmigan 

Fringilla domestica, 7(Oz/.5e sparrou) 107 to 111 

Strix papserina, ?iWe owl 

Haematopus ostralegus, sea-pie.... 

Anas penelope, widgeon J- 106 

Anas strepera, gadwall , 

relceanus carbo 

Falco ossifra:.?us, seaeagle 

Fulica atra, coot }■ 105 

Anas acuta, pintail-duch 

t'alco milvus, kite, (wounded,) ) jq^ 

jMerops apiaster, bee-eater ) 





Ardea stellaris 

Falco albicoUis 

I'icus major 

Cossns liguiperda 


Torpedo marmorata 





103 to 107 


) to 91 

Animal Kingdom, (F.) Eigne Animal, com- 
prises all animated beings. 

Animal Layer, see TacJie emhryonnaire — a. 
Masrnetism, see Magnetism, animal. 

— a. Spermatica, Spermatozorl. 

ANIMAL'CULE, Animal'cidum ; diminutive 
of animal. A small animal. An animal well 
seen only by means of the microscope. 

a. Spermatic, Spermatozoa. 

ANIMALCULISM, Spermatism. 

ANIMAL'CULIST, An'imalint. One who at- 
tempts to explain different physiological or pa- 
thological phenomena by means of animalcules. 
One who believes that the embryo is formed from 
the so-called spermatic animalcules — sperm' atist, 

ANIMAL'CULOVISM, Animalculovism'- 
tis, from animalculum and ovum. The doctrine, 
now universal, which maiptains that the new 
being is formed by the concourse of the sperma- 
tic animalcule or spermatozoid with the ovum. 

ANIMALCULUM, Animalcule. 

ANIMALIST, Animalculist. 

ANIMAL'ITY, Animal'itno, (F.) AnimalitL 
The aggregate of qualities which distinguish that 
which is animated. That which constitutes the 

A N I M A L I Z A' T I N, Animalina'lio. Tlio 
transformation of the nutritive parts of food into 
the living substance of the body to be nourished. 

To AN'IMATE, Anima're. To unite the liv- 
ing principle with an organized body. Tlio 
French use it in the sense of, — to excite or render 
active; as, animer nn vesicatoire : to excite a 
blister to suppurate. 

ANIMATIO, Animation— a. Foetfls, see Quick, 

ANIMA'TION, Zuh'sinjAnima'tio, from animn, 
'the soul or mind.' The act of animating. The 
state of being enlivened. 

Animation, Suspended, Asphyxia. 

AN'IME, Gum an'ime, Amiiix'a, Gumnii an'- 
imc, Can'cnmum, Cau'cami/. A resin obtained 
from the trunk of Hi/men'ccn conr'haril. Ord. 
Fabaceoe. It lias been given as a ce|)halic and 
uterine. It is not used. The plant is also called 
Cutir' bnril. 

ANT.ME, (F.) An epithet applied to the 
countenance, when florid, in health or disease. 

ANIMELL^, Parotid. 

liquium. Syncope — a. Pathemata, Passions. 

ANIMISM, see Animist. 

AN'IMIST, from anima, 'the soul.' One who, 
following the example of Stahl, refers all the 
phenomena of the animal ecomony to the soul, 

The soul, according to Stahl, is the immediate 
and intelligent agent of every movement, and of 
every material change in the body. Stahl there- 
fore concluded, that disease is nothing more 
than a disturbance or disorder in the government 
of the economy, or an effort by which the soul, 
attentive to every morbific cause, endeavours to 
expel whatever may be deranging the habitual 
order of health. See Stahlianism. 

ANIMUS, Anima, Breath. 

ANIRID'IA, from av, priv., and ipig, ipiSo; 'the 
iris.' Absence of the jris. 

ANIS, Piiupinellaanisum — a. Aigre, Cuminum 
Cyminum — «. dc la Chine, Illicium anisatum — n. 
Doux, Anethum^ — a. Etoile, Illicium anisatum. 

ANISA'TUM, from Anisum, ' Amse.' A sort 
of medicated wine, formerly prepared with honey, 
wine of Ascalon, and aniseed. 

ANISCALPTOR, Latissimus dorsi. 

ANISCHUKIA, Enuresis. 

ANISE, Pimpinella anisum — a. Star, Illicium 
anisatum, I. Floridanum — a. Tree, Florida, Illi- 
cium Floridanum — a. Tree, yellow-flowered, Illi- 
cium anisatum. 

ANISEED, see Pimpinella anisum. 


ANISI SEMINA, see Pimpinella anisum. 

ANISO'DUS LU'RIDUS, Nican'dra anom'- 
ala, Phy'saJis stranio'nittm, Whitley'a ntramo'iii- 
folia. A plant of Nepal, possessed of narcotic 
properties, and resembling belladonna and to- 
bacco. It dilates the pupil, and is used in dis- 
eases of the eye like belladonna. It is given in 
alcoholic tincture (dried leaves '^j to ahiihul 
f^viij). Dose, 20 drops internally in the 24 hours. 

phorbia Ipecacuanha. 

ANISOS'THENRS, Ina-.qii&'H roh'ore pollcm. 
That which is unequal in strength : from av, 
priv., KTOf, 'equal,' and o-^tvoj, 'strength.' An 
epithet applied particularly to the muscular con- 
tractility which, in the sick, is sometimes aug- 
mented in certain muscles only, — in the flexors, 
for example. 

ANISOT'ACHYS, from av, priv., laoj, ' equiil,' 




iind ra^^vi, 'quick.' An epithet for the pulse, 
when quick and unequal. — Gorra-us. 

ANISUM, I'itnpinella anisum — a. Africanum 
frutescens, Bubon Galbanum — a. Fruticosum gal- 
liiiniForum, Bubon Galbanum — a. Officinale, Pim- 
pinella anisum — a. Sinense, lUicium anisatuin — 
a. Stellatura, Illicium anisatum — a. Vulgare, Pim- 
Ijlnella anisum. 

ANKLE, Astragalus, Malleolus. 

ANKLEY, Malleolus. 

ANKUS, Ancus. 

ANKYLOBLEPII'AIlOiSr, AncyhUepli'aron, 
Palpehra'rum coal'itus, from ayKvXrit 'a bridle,' 
and li\c<f)apov, 'eyelid.' A preternatural union 
between the free edges of the eyelids. Likewise 
called Sijmble2)h'aro», Synihlephuro' sis, aadPron'- 

Also, union between the eyelids and globe of 
the eye. — Aetius. 

ANKYLOCIIEI'LIA, Ancylochei'lia, (F.) An- 
l-ydochelie, from ayKvXog, ' crooked,' and ;^tiAoj, 
'lip.' Accidental union of the lips. 

vliV'A'Fi:OC//A'/:/£', Ankylocheilia. 

ANKYLOCOLPUS, Colpatresia. 

ANKYLOCORE, Coreclisis. 

ANKYLODON'TIA, from ayKvUi, 'crooked,' 
and o&ovi, oSovTos, 'a tooth.' An irregular posi- 
tion of the teeth in the jaws. 

ANKYLOGLOS'SIA, Ancijloglox'sin, Concre'- 
tio linrjHce, from ayKv\ri, ' a bridle,' and y\oi<jaa, 
' the tongue.' Impeded motion of the tongue in 
consequence of adhesion between its margins and 
the gums ; or in consequence of the shortness 
of the frasnum : the later affection constituting 
ToDf/ue-tie, Olopho'nia Un'guce frann'ta. It 
merely requires the frsenum to be divided with a 
pair of scissors. 

ANKYLOGLOSSOT'OMUM, from ankylogloa- 
Ki'a, ' tongue-tie,' and ro/xt}, ' incision.' An instru- 
ment used in the operation for tongue-tie. 

ANKYLOME'LE, Ancylome'le, from ayituXof, 
' crooked,' and /x^/Ai?, ' a probe.' A curved probe. 
— Giilen. 

ANKYLOMERIS'MUS, Ancylomeris'mua, from 
ayKv\ri, 'a bridle,' and i^cpos, 'a part.' Morbid 
adhesion between parts. 

ANKYLOPS, iEgilops. 

ANKYLORRHIN'IA, Ancylorrhin'ia, from 
ayKvXri, 'a bridle,' and piv, 'the nose.' Morbid 
union of the parietes of the nose. 

ANKYLOSED, see Ankylosis. 

ANKYLO'SIS, Ancylu'ils, Anchylo'sis, An'- 
cyle, Stiff Joint, from ay/fuXof, 'crooked.' An 
nffection, in which there is great difficulty or even 
iriipossibility of moving a diarthrodial articula- 
tion. It is so called, because the limb commonly 
remains in a constant state of flexion, and a joint 
thus affected is said to be ankylo'scd. Anchylo- 
sis is said to be complete or true, when there is an 
intimate adhesion between the synovial surfaces, 
with union of the articular extremities of the 
bones. In the incomplete or false anchylosis, 
tliere is obscure motion, but the fibrous pnrts 
around the joint are more or less stiff and thick- 
ened. In the treatment of this last state, the 
jiint must be gently and gradually exercised; 
iind oily, relaxing applications be assiduously em- 

Ankylosis Spuria, Rigiditas articulorura. 

ANKYLO'TIA, Ancylo'tia, from ayKvXr/, 'a 
bridle,' and ovi, wros, ' the ear.' Morbid union 
of the parietes of the ear. 

ANKYLOT'OMUS,.'l»ci/^o<'o»i!(«, from ayKv\oi, 
'crooked,' and rcnictv, 'to cut.' Any kind of 
curved knife. — Paulus. An instrument for di- 
viding the fra;num linguae. — Scultetus. 

ANyEAl\ Ring — 1. Crural, Crural canal — a. 
Diaphragmatiqne, Diaphragmatic ring— a. Femo- 

ml, Crural canal— «. Lu/uinal, Inguinal ring— a, 
Oiiihilical, Umbilical ring. 

ANNEXE. Accessory, Appendix. 

ANNI CRITICI, Climacterici (anni)— a. De- 
cretorii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Fatales, Climac- 
terici (anni) — a. Genethliaci, Climacterici (anni) 
— a. Gradarii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Hebdoma- 
dici, Climacterici (anni) — a. lleroici, Climacterici 
(anni) — a. Natalitii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Sca- 
lares, Climacterici (anni) — a. Scansiles, Climacte- 
rici (anni). 

ANNOTA'TIO, Episma'sia. Under this term 
some have included the preludes to an attack of 
intermittent fever — as yawning, stretching, som- 
nolency, chilliness, &c. 

ANNOTTO, see Terra Orleans. 

AN'NUAL DISEASES, Jforbi an'nni, M. an- 
niversa'rii, (F.) Maladies antntelles. A name 
given, by some, to diseases which recur every 
year about the same period. Fcbris amuta, (F.) 
Fievre anuuelle, is a term used for a fancied in- 
termittent of this type. 

ANNUENS. Rectus capitis internus minor. 

ANNUIT"IO, Nodding, from ad, 'to,' and 
iiHtua, 'a nod.' A gesture, denoting assent in 
most countries. Also, the state of somnolency, 
when the individual is in the erect or sitting 
posture, with the head unsupported, in which 
the power of volition over the extensor muscles 
of the head is lost, and the head drops forward. 

AN'NULAR, Annvla'ria, Annla'ris, Crico'i'des, 
(F.) Aitnidaire, {annua, 'a circle.') Any thing 
relating to a ring, or which has the shape or ful- 
fils the functions of a ring; from annnlus, 'a 

Annular Fincrr, Iling Finger, Jiing man, 
Dig"itns annula'ria, Param'eaos, The fourth 
finger, so called from the wedding ring being 
worn thereon. See Digitus. Of old, it was be- 
lieved, that there is a medium of direct commu- 
nication between the ring finger and the heart. 

Annular Ganglion, see Ciliary ligament. 

Annular Lig'amrnt, Transrerae ligament, 
Cru'cial ligament. A strong ligamentous band, 
which arches across the area of the ring of the 
atlas, from a rough tubercle upon the inner sur- 
face of one articular process, to a similar tubercle 
on the other. It serves to retain the odontoid 
process of the axis in connexion with the ante- 
rior arch of the atlas. 

An'nular Lig'ament of the Ra'dius, is a very 
strong fibro-'cartilaginous band, which forms, with 
the lesser sigmoid cavity of the cubitus, a kind 
of ring, in which the head of the radius turns 
with facility. 

An'nular Lig'aments op the Carpus, Ar- 
mil'lcB manua membrano'acE, are two in number. 

The one, anterior, is a broad, fibrous, quadri- 
lateral band, extending transversely before the 
carpus, and forming the gutter, made by the 
wrist, into a canal. It is attached, externally, 
to the trapezium and scapho'ides ; and internally 
to the OS pisiforme and process of the uncif'orme. 
It keeps the tendons of the flexor muscles, me- 
dian nerve, &(s., applied .against the carpus. 

The posterior ligament is situate transversely 
behind the joint of the hand, and covers the 
sheaths of the tendons, which pass to the back 
of the hand. Its fibres are white and shining, 
and are attached, externally, to the inferior and 
outer part of the radius; internally to the ulna 
and OS pisiforme. 

An'nular Lig'aments of the Tarsus are two 
in number. The anterior is quadrilateral, and 
extends transversely above the instep. It is at- 
tached to the superior depression of the os calcis, 
and to the malleolus internus. It embraces the 
tendons of the extensor muscles of the toes, the 
[ tibialis anticna, and j^eroneus antictis. The inter- 




md is broader than the last. It descends from 
the malleolus iuternus to the posterior and inner 
part of the os caleis, with which it forms a kind 
of canal, enclosing the sheaths of the tendons of 
the tibialis posticHHjJlexor lonytis dlgltorum pedis, 
and /'. lotKjns 2}ollici8 pedis, as well as the plantar 
vessels and nerves. 

Akxular Vein, Vena annida'ris, is situate 
between the annular finger and the little finger. 
Aetius recommends it to be opened in diseases 
of the spleen. 

ANNULARIS, Cricoid: see Digitus — a. Ani, 
Sphincter ani. 

annul: CARTILAGINEI, see Trachea— a. 
Cartilaginosi Trachea), see Trachea. 

li-u-c(iitil(i(jliiou8 or festooned rings." Tough 
tendinous tracts in the heart, two of which, an- 
terior, are situate on the right and left of the 
aortal opening; and one posterior, which runs 
backwards from the aorta to the border of the 
auriculo-ventricular septum, where it splits into 
two slender crura. 

Lumbricales manus. 

ANNULUS, Dactvlius, Vulva — a. Abdominis, 
Inguinal ring — a. Afbidus, see Ciliary (ligament) 
— a. Cellulosus, Ciliary ligament — a. Ciliaris, 
Ciliary ligament — a. Fossas ovalis : see Ovalis 
fossa — a. Gangliformis, see Ciliary (ligament) — 
a. Repens, Herpes circinatus — a. Umbilicalis, 
Umbilical ring — a. Ventriculi, Pylorus — a. Vieus- 
senii, see Ovalis fossa. 

ANO, ai'w. A prefix denoting 'above, up.' 
ANU-VAVERNJiUX, Accelerator urina;. 
ANUCHI'LUS, from avu, 'above,' and x^'^ofi 
'lip.' The upper lip. Also, one who has a large 
upper lip. 

ANOCCELIA, Stomach. 
AN0C(ELIADELP11US, Coeliadelphus. 
ANO'DIA, from av, priv., and ui&t), 'song.' 
An unconnected or dissonant mode of speech. 

ANOD'IC, Anod'ieits, from avu>, 'above, up,' 
and 'o^o?, 'away.' Tending upwards. An epi- 
thet applied by Dr. Marshall Hall to an ascend- 
ing course of nervous action. 
AXOl)!N, Anodyne. 

ANODIN'IA, from a, av, privative, and uSiv, 
'a labour pain.' Absence of labour pains. 
ANODMIA, Anosmia. 
ANO 1) US, Edentulus. 

AN'ODYNE, Aniid't/nus, Antod'ynns, Antld'- 
ynous (improperly), Pcinyor'lcus, Anct'lcus, Ant- 
(il'(jlciiy, Acesod'ynes, (F.) Anodln ou Anodyn, 
from av, privative, and vivvrj, 'pain.' Anodynes 
are those medicines which relieve pain, or cause 
it to cease ; as opium, belladonna, Ac. They act 
by blunting the sensibilitj' of the encephalon, so 
that it does not appreciate the morbid sensation. 
ANODYN'IA, Jndolcn'tia. Cessation or ab- 
sence of pain. Vogcl has given this name to a 
genvis of diseases, characterized by a cessation 
of pain, and the exasperation of other symptoms ; 
as we see in gangrene. 

ANODYNUM MINERALE, Potassae nitras 
sulphatis paucillo mixtus. 

ANQi'A, Anoi'a, from a, privative, and voof, 
'mind.' Delirium, imbecility. See Dementia 
and Idiotisiu. 

AXOESIA, Dementia — a. Abstricta, Melan- 

ANOIA. Anoea. 
AXO^fAL. Anomalous. 
ANOMALES', Anomalous. 
ANOMA'LLV, from av, privative, and o/jayio;, 
'regular.' Abnor' mitas, Aliena'tio. Anomaly, 
abnormity, irregularity. In Pathology, anomaly 
means something unusual in the symptoms pro- 

per to a disease, or in the morbid appearances 
presented by it. ■,-■ ■• • 

Anomalia Nervorum, Nervous diathesis. 

ANOMALOTROPHIES, from av, privative, 
ofxaXoi, 'regular,' and rpo^n, 'nourishment.' A 
class of diseases, which consist in modifications 
in the nutrition of organs. — Gendrin. 

ANOM'ALOUS, Anom'alus, Anom'alis ; the 
same etymon. Irregular; contrary to rule. (F.) 
Annmal. In Medicine, a disease is called ano- 
malous, in whose symptoms or progress there is 
something unusual. Affections are also called 
anomalous, which cannot be referred to any 
known species. 

ANOMALOUS, Irregular. 
ANOMMATUS, Anophthalmus. 
ANOMOCEPH'ALUS, from a, priv., vo//of, 
'rule,' and KC(paXri, 'head.' One whose head is 
deformed. — Geofi'roi Saint-Hilaire. 

ANOMOSPLENO TOP IE, Splenectopia. 
ANOM'PHALUS, from av, priv., and on<pa\oi, 
'the navel.' One devoid of navel. Many writers 
have endeavoured to show that Adam and Eve 
must have been avojicpaXoi, as they could not have 
had umbilical vessels. 

ANONA TRILOBA, see Carica papaya. 
ANO'NA TRIPET'ALA. A tree of the family 
Anoneaj or Anonacea> ; Sex. Syst. Polyandria 
Polygynia, from fifteen to twenty feet high, na- 
tive of South America, which bears a delicious 
fruit called Chin'moya. Both the fruit and flowers 
emit a fine fragrance, which, when the tree is 
covered with blossom, is almost overpowering. — 

ANONTS, Ononis. 

ANONY'CII'IA, from av, privative, and ovti|, 
owxoi, 'a nail.' Want of nails, — a rare con- 
genital defect. 

ANONYME, Innominatum. 
ANON'YMOUS, Anon'ymus, Tnnomina'lns, (F.) 
Anonyme, from av, privative, and ovo^ia, 'name.' 
That which has no name. 

The word has been applied to many parts of 
the body: — to the Anonymous bone or Os inna- 
minatum: — the Anonymous foramen or Foramen 
innominnfum, &c. 

ANOPHTllAL'MUS, Anom'matus, from av, 
privative, and ocpda'Xfios, 'an eye.' One who is 
devoid of eyes. 

ANOPS'IA, from av, priv., and cutf, 'the eye.' 
A case of monstrosity in which the eye and orbit 
are wiinting. 

ANOR'CniDES, from av, priv., and opx'«, 'a 
testicle.' They who are without testicles. — For- 
tunatus Fidelis. 

ANOREX'IA, from av, priv., and opc^n, 'ap- 
petite.' Inappeten'tia, Limo'sis exjters, (F.) Perle. 
d'appetit. Absence of appetite, without loathing. 
Anorexia or want of appetite is symptomatic ol' 
most diseases. Also, Indigestion, Dyspepsia. 

Anorexia Exhausto'uum, Frigidity of the 
stomach — a. Mirabilis, Fasting. 

ANORGANIC, see Anhistous, and Inorganic. 
ANORMAL, Abnormous. 

ANORTHOP'IA,from a, priv.,op^oj, 'straight,' 
and oi//if, 'vision.' Vision in which persons are 
unable to judge when objects are not parallel or 
not symmetrical. 

ANOS'IA, from a, priv., and votroy, 'disease.' 
Health. Freedom from disease. 

ANOS'MIA, from av, privative, and oafin, 
'odour.' Loss of smell. Diminution of the sense 
of smell. Called, also, Anoxjjhre'sia, Anosphra'- 
sia, Anophrc'sia, Paros'min, Anod'mia, Anosmo'' 




ii'n, OI/dcl&H aniiv'sio 8eu dcjic"ier8, DynaHthe'nia \ 
olptnto' lin, AiicBHthe'sin olfncto'ria, Odura'tus de- 
per'dttHH. (F.) Perte de VOdorut. 
ANOSMOHIA, Anosmia. 
ANO'TUS, from av, privative, and ovi, u)tos, 
'the ear.' A monster having no ears. 
ANOXEMTE, Asphyxia. 
ANSA INTESTINALIS, Ame (Jnteetinule). 
ANSE (F.), Ama (L.), signifies, properly, the 
handle of certain vessels, usually of an arched 
form. By analogy, it has been applied to that 
which is curved in the form of such handle. 
Thus, the French speak of Anne intentinnle — Ansa 
seu Gyrus intcfilina'lis — to signify a portion of 
intestine, supported by its mesentery, and de- 
scribing a curved line: — also, of Ause nerveuae, 
Aiise anaatumotiqne, &c. 

Aiise de fil is used, in Surgery, to designate a 
thread, curved in the form of an Aiwe. 
ANSERINA, Potentilla anserina. 
ANSERINE, Chenopodium ambrosioides — a. 
Atithelmi'iitique, Chenopodium anthelminticum — 
II. Bon Henri, Chenopodium Bonus Ilenricus — a. 
Jiotri/s, Chenopodium Botrys — a. Fetide, Cheno- 
])odium vulvaria — a. Vermifuge, Chenopodium 

ANTACIDS, Anti-acids, Antiac"ida, Inver- 
Irn'tia, from anti, 'against,' and aeidn, 'acids.' 
Remedies which obviate acidity in the stomach. 
They are chemical ngents, and act by neutralizing 
the acid. Those chiefly used are ammonia, calcis 
carbonas, calx, magnesia, magnesiae carbonas, 
potassa, potassaj bicarbonas, p. carbonas, soda? 
biearbonas, and s. carbonas. They are, of course, 
only palliatives, removing that which exists, not 
preventing the formation of more. 

ANTAG'ONISM, Antitgonix'wus, Antis'tams, 
from avTi, 'against,' and aywu^o/zai, 'to strive.' 
Action in an opposite direction. It applies to the 
action of muscles that act in a contrary direction 
to others. In estimating the force of muscles, 
this antagonism must be attended to. 

ANTAG'ONIST, Antnrjouis'ta. A muscle 
whose action produces an effect contrary to that 
of another muscle. Every muscle has its anta- 
gonist, because there is no motion in one direc- 
tion without a capability of it in another. 

ANTAPHIIODIS'IAC, AntapJirodit'ie, Anta- 
pJirodiniacus, A naphrodisiiicun, Annphrodin'iac, 
Anterol'icus, from avri, ' agaiii.*t,' and aippo&iaiaKoi, 
'aphrodisiac' A substance capable of blunting 
the venereal appetite. 

ANTAPHRODITIC, Antaphrodisiac. 
ANTAPOD'OSIS, from avrairo(5i^a)^((, 'I return 
in exchange.' The succession and return of the 
febrile periods. — Hippocrates. 

ANTAPOPLECTICUS, Antiapoplectic. 
ANTARTIIRITIC. Antiarthritic. 
ANTASTIIMATICUS, Antiasthmatic. 
ANTATROPH'IC, Antntroph'icus, AnMt'ro- 
phui. Aniiatropk'icus, from avri, 'against,' and 
arpotpia, 'atrophy.' A remedy opposed to atro- 
phy or consumption. 
ANTEBRACHIAL, see Antibrachial. 
ANTECEDEN'TIA. The precursory or 
warning symptoms of a disease. 
ANTEFIiEXIO UTERI, see Anteversion. 
ANTELA'BIA, I'rochei'la, from ante, 'before,' 
and labia, 'the lips.' The extremity of the lips. 
ANTELOPE. Antilopus. 
ANTEM'BASIS, from avri, and t/i/J-niu, 'I 
enter.' Jfu'tuus ini;res'sus. The mutual recep- 
tion of bones.— Galen. 

AXTEMETIC, Antiemetic. 
ANTENDEIXIS, Counter-indication. 
ANTKNDIXIS, Counter-indication. 
ANTENEAS'MUS, from avri, 'against,' and 
vcav, 'audacious;' or rather, perh.nps, from avn, 
and Ttivb), 'I extend or stretch.' One furious 
against himself. Mania, in which the patient 
attempts his own life. — Zacchias. 

ANTENNA'RIA DIOI'CA, Gnapha'lium Di- 
oi'cum, Hlnpid'nla, Pes cati, Eli'chrysuin monta'- 
num. Dice' lions Ererlast'ing, Catsfoot, (F.) Pied 
de chat. Order, Compositas. A common Euro- 
pean plant, which has been advised in hemor- 
rhage, diarrhoea, <tc. 

Antexnaria Margaritacea, Gnaphalium 

Antbnnauia Plantaginifo'lia, Gnnj)hn'lium 
plinitiif/iiii/o' Hum seu plantagin'eum seu dioi'cum 
variety planta/jinifolium. Plantain Life-everlast- 
ing. CiidircJd, indifjenous, has similar properties. 

AXTKPIIIALTIC, Antiophialtic. 

ANTEPILKPTIC, Antiepileptic. 

ANTEPONENS, Anticipating. 

ANTEREI'SIS, from avn, 'against,' and tptt- 
i(o, 'I support.' The resistance — the solidity — 
of bones. — Hippocrates. 

tympani — a. de I'Oreille, Anterior auris. 

ANTE'RIOR, Anti'eus, from ante, 'before.' 
Situate before. Great confusion has prevailed 
with anatomists in the use of the terms before, 
behind, etc. Generallj', the word anterior is ap- 
plied to parts situate before the median line, the 
body being in the erect posture, with the face 
and palms of the hands turned forwards, and 
the feet applied longitudinally together. 

Antk'iuor Au'his {Muscle), Anriculn'ris ante'- 
rior,At'trahens auric' ulam, (¥ .) Auriculiiire anti- 
rieur, Anterienr de I'oreillc, Zygomato-oriculaire. 
A small muscle, passing from the posterior part 
of the zygoma to the helix. Use, to draw the ear 
forwards and upwards. 

Anteuioh Mallei, Laxator tympani. 

ANTEROTICaS, Autaidirodisiac. 

ANTEUPHORBIUM, Cacaiia anteuphorbium. 

ANTEVER'SION, Antever'sio, Antrover'sio, 
from ante, 'before,' and vertere, versum, 'to turn.' 
Displacement of the uterus, in which the fundus 
is turned towards the pubes, whilst its orifice is 
towards the sacrum. It may be caused by extra- 
ordinary size of the pelvis, pressure of the viscera 
on the uterus, etc.; and is recognised by exami- 
nation per vaginam. A simple forward inclina- 
tion of the body of the uterus, without the os 
uteri being carried much backwards, is termed 
Anteflex'iou of the u' terns, Antefex'io u'teri. Not 
unfrequently, however, it is used synonymously 
with Retroversion of the Uterus. See Retro- 
versio uteri. 

A N T H iE M P T Y'i C U S, AntihoBmoptficns, 
from avri, 'against,' and hcemoptysis, 'spitting 
of blood.' Against spitting of blood. A remedy 
for spitting of blood — antihamoptyicum [reme- 


ANTIIECTICUS, Antihectic. 

A N T H E L I T ' 11 A G U S, ( F. ) Anthilitragien. 
One of the proper muscles of the pavilion of 
the ear. 

ANT'HELIX, Anti-heli.v, from avn, 'before,' 
and 'tXil, 'the helix.' An eminence on the car- 
tilage of the ear, in front of the helix, and ex- 
tending from the concha to the groove of the 
helix, where it bifurcates. 

A N T H E L M I N'T I C, Antihelmiu'ticus, Anti- 
acol'icns, Anthelinin'thicus, Antiscolet'icus, Hel- 
min'thicus, Ilelminthago'gus, Antivermiito'svs, 
Vermif'ugus, Ver'tnifuge, from avn, 'against,' 
and '{Ay/ivj, 'a worm.' A remedy which de- 




stroys or expels worms, or prevents their for- 
mation and development. The chief anthel- 
minties are, Chenopodium, Mucuna, Oleum ani- 
raale Dippclii, Oleum Terebinthinae, Sodii Chlo- 
riduin. Spij^elia, and Pulvis Stanni. See Worms. 


AN'TIIEMLS COT'ULA, from avBco,, 'l&ower.' 
A./ve'tida scu Xui^eboracen'sis, Cot'ula, O.fce'tida, 
Cota, Ci/nan'themis, ChamcBme'lum fve'tidum seu 
Chamomil'Ui spn'ria sen fce'tida, jtfciru'ta Cot'ula, 
Mayjloicer, Ifayweed, Stinking Chamomile, Wild 
Cham'omile, Dog's fennel, Billy, Dilweed, Field- 
weed, Pissweed. Ord. Compositas Corymbiferae. 
Sex. Syxt. Syngenesia Superflua. (F.) JlarotUe, 
Camoniille fctide, Camomille puante. 

This plant Cot'ula, (Ph. U. S.), has a very dis- 
agreeable smell, and the leaves have a strong, 
acrid, bitterish taste. It is reputed to have been 
useful in hysterical affections. 

Anthemis FfETiDA, A. cotula. 

A.n'toemis No'bilis, An'themis, A. odora'tn, 
Chammme'him, Ch. No'hile seu odora'tum, Cha- 
momil'la Jionia'nn, Eiian'themon, Leucan' tliemum, 
(F.) Camomille Rninaine. The leaves and flowers. 
— Anthemis, Ph. U. S. — have a strong smell, and 
bitter, nauseous taste. The flowers arc chiefly 
used. They possess tonic and stomachic proper- 
ties, and are much given as a pleasant and cheap 
bitter. A simple infusion is taken to produce, or 
to assist vomiting. Externally, they are often 
used in fomentations. 

The O'leum Anthem'idis possesses the aromatic 
properties of the plant, but not the bitter and 
tonic. Consequently, the 'Chamomile Drops,' as 
sold by the druggists, must be devoid of the lat- 
ter quallHes. They are made by adding 01. 
anthem. f5J. to Sp. vini rectif. Oj. 

Anthemis Noveboracencis, A. cotula — a. 
Odorata, A. cotula. 

A.n'themis Pv'rethrum, Py'rethrum, P. vertim, 
Anacyc'ltie pyi-ethrum, Bnphthal'mvm, Cre'ticum, 
Denta'n'a, Uerba saliva'ris. Pes Alexandri' nus, 
Spanish Chamomile, Pellitory of Spain, (F.) Py- 
rethre, Rueine saliraire, Salivaire, Pied d' Alex- 
andre. The root, Pyrelhrum (Ph. U. S.), is hot 
and acrid, its acrimony residing in a resinous 
principle. It is never used except as a mastica- 
tory in toothache, rheumatism of the face, pa- 
ralysis of the tongue, etc. It acts as a powerful 

The Pellitory of the shops in Germany is said 
to be derived from Anacyc'lus offivina'rum; a 
plant cultivated in Thuringia for medicinal pur- 

An'themis Tincto'ria, Buphthal'mi Herha, 
Dyer's Chamomile, a European plant, has a bitter 
and astringent taste, and has been regarded as 
stomachic and vulnerary. (F.) Camomille des 
Teinturicrs, Q-Hl de Bosnf. 

Anthemis Vulgaris, Matricaria Chamomilla. 

ANTHE'RA, from avQr,poi, so called from its 
'florid' colour. A remedy compounded of several 
substances — myrrh, sandarae, alum, saffron, etc. 
It was used under the form of liniment, eolly- 
rium, electuary, and powder.— Celsus, Galen. 


ANTIIORA, Aconitum anthora — a. Vulgaris, 
Aconitum anthora. 

ANTHORIS'MA, from avn, 'against,' and 
o/)t<7/(a, 'boundary.' Tumor diffu'sus. A tumour 
without any defined margin. 

ANTIIOS, see Rosmarinus — a. Sylvestris, Le- 
dum sylvestre. 

ANTHRA'CIA, from av^pa^, avOpaKog, 'coal.' 
Carbun'cular Exan'them. An eruption of tumors, 
imperfectly suppurating, with indurated edges, 
and, for the most part, a sordid and sanious core. 
A genus in the order Exanthematica, class Hmma- 
lifu of Good, and including Plague and Yaws. 

Anthuacia, Anthracosis— a. Pcstis, Plague— 
a. Rubula, Framboesia. 

ANTIIRACION, see Anthrax. 

AN'THRACOID, Anthraco'dcs, from nv5pa(. 
avOpoKos, 'coal,' and etSoi, 'resemblance.' (F.) 
Charhonneux. As black as coal. Accompanied 
by or resembling anthrax. 





ANTHRACO'SIS, Anthra'cia, Carlo Palpe- 
bra' rum, from avSpa^, avQpaKoi, 'a Coal.' A spe- 
cies of carbuncle, which attacks the eyelids and 
globe of the eye. — Paulus of iEgiua. Also, a 
carbuncle of any kind. It has been used for the 
"black lung of coal miners," which is induceil 
by carbonaceous accumulation in the lungs; 
Psendo-melunot'ic formation, (Cars well.) llJntiire 
noire des Poumo)is, Charbon pnlmonaire. When 
ulceration results from this cause, black phthisis, 
(F.) Phthisic avec 3Ielanose, exists. See Mela- 

Anthracosis Pcji.monum, see Melanosis. 


ANTHRAKOK'ALI, Lithanthrahok'ali, from 
avOpa^, avQpaKoi, 'coal,' and Icali, 'potassa.' An 
article introduced as a remedy in cutaneous dis- 
eases. It is formed by dissolving carbonate of 
potassa in 10 or 12 parts of boiling water, and 
adding as much slacked lime as will separate tlie 
potassa. The filtered liquor is placed on the fire 
in an iron vessel, and suffered to evaporate, until 
neither froth nor effervescence occurs, and the 
liquid presents a smooth surface like oil. To 
this, levigated coal is added in the proportion of 
160 grammes to 192 grammes of potassa. The 
mixture is stirred, and removed from the fire, 
and the stirring is continued, until a black homo- 
geneous powder results. A sulphuretted anthra- 
Icokali is made by mixing accurately 16 grammes 
of sulphur with the coal, and dissolving the mix- 
ture in the potassa, as directed above. The dose 
of the simple and sulphuretted preparations is 
about two grains three times a day. 

ANTHRAX, avBpai, 'a coal,' Antrax, Carlo, 
liuli'nus verus, Codesel'la, Erythe'ma gangrano'- 
sum, Grantris'tum, Pruna, Per'sicus Ignis, Pynt, 
Granatris'tum, Phyma Anthrax, Erythema an- 
thrax, Carbun'culus, Aiithraco'sia, Anthraco'ma, 
Absces'sus gangrcenes'cevs seu gangrceno'sus, Fu- 
run'cnlns malig'nus, F. gang rcBno' sua. Carbuncle, 
(F.) Charbon. An inflammation, essentially gan- 
grenous, of the cellular membrane and skin, 
which may arise from an internal or external cause. 
In the latter ease it is called Anthra'cion, Vesic'- 
nla gangrcBues'cens, Anthracophlyc'tis, (F.) Pus- 
tule maligne ; Bonton d'Alcp, Feu Persique {Per- 
sianfre), ilalvat, Bonton miilin. Puce maligne, and 
is characterized at the outset by a vesication or 
bleb filled with a sero-sanguinolent fluid, under 
which a small induration is formed, surrounded 
by an areolar inflammation, which becomes gan- 
grenous. It has been thought by some to be in- 
duced altogether by contact with the matter of 
the carbuncle of animals, or of the exuvise of 
the bodies of such as had died of the disease, 
but it is now known to arise primarily in the 
human subject. This form of carbuncle has re- 
ceived different names, many of them from the 
places where it has prevailed :— Crtrii(w'et//«'( 
contagio'sus seu Gal'licns seu Hunga'ricns seu 
Polon'icus seu Scptentriona'lis, Morbus pustulo'sus 
Fin'nieuH, Pus'tulu gangrenosa seu Liv'ida Eh- 
tho'uia, Pemphigus Hungar'icus, Puce de Bour- 

Anthrax is a malignant boil, and its treatment 
13 similar to that which is required in case of 
gangrene attacking a part. 



Anthrax Piji.monijm, Necrnjineuinonia. 
ref'oliuin — a. Iluinili^, Chserophyllum Sylvestre 
— a. Procerus, Chicrophylluin Sylvestre. 
ANTllROFE, Cutis. 

ni '1V-, , 'mail,' and (uT-poj, 'a physician.' Me- 
(lic'mn applied to man, in contradistinction to 

ANTIIROPOCIIEMIA, Chymistry (human). 

ANTllROPOC'llVMY, Chymistry (human). 

ANTUROPOGEN'IA, AiKhropoyeu'eaig, An- 

tlnop'iij"ifiii/, Geneaii'thro/)!/, from avSpwiroj, 'man,' 

;indy£i't<Tu, 'generation.' The knowledge, or study, 

or |)henotnona of human generation. 

A N T II R P G'RAPIIY, Anthropngniph'ia, 
from avOpu>noi, 'man,' and ypa(pn, 'a description.' 
Anthrnpiilogy. A descriiitiou of the human body. 
AN'TIIROPOID, AiiUiropa'i'dea, from avfipojiros, 
'man,' and tiiSoj, 'resemblance.' Resembling man : 
— as the ape. 

ANTIIROPOL'ITHUS, from avepu>T:oi, 'man,' 
and XiOoj, 'a stone.' The petrifaction of the 
human body or of any of its parts. Morbid con- 
cretions in the human body. 

ANTIIROPOL'OGY, Antliropolo(i"ia, from 
av^pmnoi, 'man,' and Aoyos, 'a discourse.' A 
treatise on man. By some, this word is used for 
the science of the structure and functions of the 
human body. Frequently, it is employed synony- 
mously with Natural History and Physioloijy of 
J J (III. 

A N T n 11 POMAGNETISMUS, Magnetism, 

ANTIIROPOMANCY, AnthropomantV a, from 
aySpwirof, 'a man,' and /xavrtta, 'divination.' Di- 
vination by inspecting the entrails of a dead man. 

ANTIIROPOM'ETRY', from avSpijowog, 'a man,' 
and fiirpov, 'measure.' Measurement of the di- 
mensions of the different parts of the human body. 


ANTIIROPOMORPHUS, Atropa mandragora. 

ANTHROPON'OMY, Anthroponom'ia, from 
av^p<j)TToi, 'man,' and vonog, 'law.' A knowledge 
of tlie special laws which preside over the func- 
tions of the human body in action. 

ANTIIROPOPH'AGUS, (F.) Anthropophage, 
from avSpuirof, 'a man,' and (jtayui, 'I eat.' A 
name irivon to one who eats his own species. 

ANTIIROPOPH'AGY, Anthropopha'gia, same 
etymon. The custom of eating human flesh. A 
disease in which there is great desire to eat it. 

ANTllROPOS, Homo. 


ANTIIROPOTOMY, Andranatomia. 

A^'TIIUS, Flos. 

ANTilYPNOT'IC, Anihypnot'icHS, Antihyp- 
vot'ic, Agrypnot'ic, from avri, 'against,' and 
'vTvuiTiKoi, 'stupefying.' A remedy for stupor. 

ANTUYPOCHON'DRIAC, Antliypodumdri'- 
acHS, from airi, 'against,' and 'vnoxcvii'taKo;, 'hy- 
pochondriac' A remedy for hypochondriasis. 

ANTIIYSTER'IC, Antihyater'ic, Antiliyster'- 
icun; from avri, 'against,' and 'varcoa, 'the ute- 
rus.' A remedy for hysteria. 

ANTI. avri, as a prefix, in composition, gene- 
rally means 'opposition.' 

ANTIADES, Tonsils. 

ANTIADITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

ANTIAUON'CUS, from avriaies, 'the tonsils.' 
and oyKoi, 'tumour.' A swelling of the tonsils. 
Swediaur. Auti'oger has a similar meaning. 

Antiadoscus InI'-lammatouius, Cynanche ton- 
sillaris. „__ , . ... A . 

ANTIAPOPLEC'TIC, Aiitiapoplcc'ticus, Anta- 

nnpUc'tirus, Apoplec'ticiis, from avn, 'against,' 
and aror:\r,ii'h 'apoplexy.' A remedy for apo- 

ANTIARTHRIT'IC, Antarthrit'ic, Antiar. 
thrit'icHu, Antipudag'ric, from avrt, 'against,' 
and apSpiTii, 'the gout,' (F.) Antigoutteux. A 
remedy for gout. 

ANTIASTHEN'IC, Antiasthcn'icus, from avTt, 
'against,' and aaOcvua, 'debility.' A remedy for 

ANTIASTHMAT'IC, AntioHthmat'icm, Ant- 
aathnmt'icHu, from avri, 'against,' and aadpa, 
'asthma.' A remedv for asthma. 
AXTIBDELLA, Antlia sanguisuga. 

ANTIBECHICUS, Expectorant. 

A N T I B R A'C H I A L, Antibraehia'lis. That 
which concerns the fore-arm. — Bichat. J. Clo- 
quet suggests that the word should be written an- 
tebrachial, from ante, 'before,' and brachiiiw, 
'the arm' — as antebrachial region, antebrachial 
aponeurosis, Ac. 

Antebra'chial Aponeuro'sis, (F.) Aponeo- 
rose antebrachiale, is a portion of the aponeurotic 
sheath which envelops the whole of the upper 
limb. It arises from the brachial aponeurosis, 
from a fibrous expansion of the tendon of the 
biceps muscle, from the epicondjde, epitrochlea, 
and, behind, from the tendon of the triceps bra- 
chialis. Within, it is inserted into the cubitus, 
etc.; and, below, is confounded with the two an- 
nular ligaments of the carpus. It is covered by 
the skin, by veins, lymphatics, and by filaments 
of superficial nerves ; it covers the muscles of the 
fore-arm, adheres to them, and sends between 
them several fibrous septa, which serve them for 
points of insertion. 


AXTIBRO'MIC, Antibro' miens, from avri, 
'against,' and Ppw/to;, ' foetor.' A Deo'dorizer. 
An agent that destroys offensive odours — as 
chloride of zinc, simple sulphate of alumina, &c. 

ANTICACIIEC'TIC, Auticachec'ticns, Anticu- 
cochym'ic, from ai/n, 'against,' and xa^c^ta, 'ca- 
chexy.' A remedy against cachexy. 

ANTICACOCHYMIC, Anticachectic. 

ANTICAN'CEROUS, Anticunccro'sns, Anti- 
cancro'nus, Anticarcinom' utous, Antisehir'rous, 
from avTi, 'against, and KapKiviajia, 'cancer,' car- 
cinoma. Opposed to cancer. 

ANTICANCROSUS, Anticancerous. 


ANTICARDIUM, Fossette du eaur, Scrobicu- 
lus cordis. 

ANTICATAR'RHAL, Antieatarrha'lis, Anti- 
catarrho'icus, from avTi, 'against,' and Karappoi, 
' catarrh.' A remedy for catarrh. 

ANTICAUSOD'IC, Anticausot'ic, Anticau- 
sod'icus, from avri, ' against,' and Kavaog, ' a burn- 
ing fever.' A remedy for causua or inflammatory 

ANTICAUSOTIC, Anticausodic. 

ANTICHEIR, Pollex, see Digitus. 

ANTICHCERADICUS, Antiscrofulous. 

ANTICHOL'ERIC, Anticholer'icua, from avri, 
'against,' and cholera. A remedy against cho- 

AXTICHOLERICA, Sophora heptapbylla. 

ANTICIPATING, Antic"ij)ans, Autepo'nens, 
Prolept'icus, (F.) Anticipant. An epithet for a 
periodical phenomenon, recurring at progress- 
ively shorter intervals. An anticipating inter- 
mittent is one in which the intervals between the 
paroxvsms become progressively less. 


AXTICCEUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 

AXTICOL'IC, jijiiicoZ'/ci/s, fromaiTt, 'against,' 
and KuXiKof, 'the colic.' That which is opposed 
to colic. 

ANTICOMMA, Contre-coup. 



AXTTCOPE, Contre-coup. 


ANTICIIUSIS, Gonlre-coup. 

ANTFCRUSMA, Contre-coup. 

ANTICtTS. Anterior. 

AXTIDA R TliEUX, Antiherpetic. 

AXTIUEIXIS, Counter-indication. , 

ANTIDIARRIKE'IC, Antidiarrhoe'icus. A 
remedy for diarrhroii. Opposed to diarrhoea. 

ANTIU'INIC, Antidin'icus, Biii'ic, Bin'icns, 
fromaiTi, 'against,' and iivoi, 'vertigo.' Opposed 
to vertisro. 

AN'TIDOTAL, Antidota'lis, same etymon as 
antidiite. Relating to an antidote ; possessed of 
the powers of an antidote. 

ANTIDOTA'RIUM, from avn&oTov, 'an anti- 
dote.' A dispensatory. A pharmacopoeia or for- 
mulary. An'tidotary was used formerly for any 
composition that had the properties of an anti- 

ANTTDOTARY, see Antidotarium. 

AN'TIDO TE, A)i«irf'o?M)n, from avn, 'against, 
and (5((5w/u, 'I give.' Originallj', this word signi- 
fied an internal remexhj. It is now used synony- 
mously with counter-poison, antiphar' macum, (F.) 
Cojitre-poinon, and signifies any remedy capable 
of combating the effect of poison. 

A List of reputed Antidotes. 




Sulphuretted Hydrogen, 

dissolved in water. 
Sulphuret of Potassium. 

6. Haloids. 

7. Metallic Oxides. 

Hydrated Sesqui-oxide of 

Mixed Oxides of Iron. 

8. Orgaxic Substances. 
Albuminous Substances, 

(Albumen, Casein, and 


Animal Charcoal. 

1. Metals. 
Iron Filings. 
Zinc Filings. 

2. Acids. 
Tannic Acid. 
Acetic or Citric Acid. 

3. Salts. 
Alkaline or Earthy Sul- 

Chloride of Sodium. 
Hypochlorite of Soda or 
of Lime. 

4. Alkalines. 

Carbonates of Ammonia. 
Carbonates of Soda. 

Carbonate of Magnesia. 
Lime Water. 

macos — a. Mithridatium, Mithridate. 

ANTIDYNAMICA, Debilitants. 


ANTTDYSENTER'IC, Antidi/senter'icus, from 
iiTi, 'against.' ivs, 'with difficulty,' and evTepov, 
'intestine.' Opposed to dysentery. 

A N T I E M E T'l C, Antemet'ic, Antiemet'icux, 
from nvri, 'against,' and tfxtTiKoi, 'emetic.' A 
remedv for vomiting. 

Antiephidl'ticns, from avTi, 'against,' and ciptaXrrn, 
'nightmare.' A remedy for nightmare. 

Antiepilcp'ticim, from avri, 'against,' and mi- 
Xirlt"' 'epilepsy.' A remedy for epilepsy 


ANTIGALAC'TIC, Antir,:,lac'ticns, AntiUc'- 
teu8. from avn, 'against,' and yn\a, yaUxros, 
'milk.' (F.) Antilaiteuor. Opposed to the secre- 
tion of milk or to diseases caused by the milk 

colh/riiim of AsriG'osvs. It was composed of 
cadmia, antimony, pepper, verdigris, gum Arabic, 
and water. 

ANTIGUA, see West Indies. 

ANTriL^MOPTYICUS, Authajmoptyicus. 

ANTIIIEC'TIC, Antihec'ticus, Anthec'ticns, 
from avn, ' against,' and 'tin, ' habit of body.' 

The Antihec'ticum PoTK'Rit is the white oxyd of 
antimony ; also called Diaphoret'icum Jocia'le. 

ANTIHELIX, Antheli.v. 


ANTI1IE.MURRIIAG"IC, AntihoBmorrhnfj". 
icus, A)ith(Bniorr!ui(/"icus, from avrt, 'against,' 
and 'aifioppayia, 'hemorrhage.' That which is 
against hemorrhage; an antihemorrhagic re- 

?('«, from avTi, 'against,' and 'atfioppoiici, 'hemor- 
rhoids.' A remedy for hemorrhoids. 

ANTIIiERPET'IC, Anti/ierpet'irus, from avn, 
'against,' and 'ipira, 'herpes.' {F.) Antidartreux. 
A remedy for herpes. 

ANTIHYDROPHOB'IC, Antihydrophoh'icuH, 
Antilys'sus, Ali/a'sua, from avn, 'against,' 'vSwp, 
'water,' and <po(ioi, 'dread.' A remedy for hydro- 

ANTIHYDROP'IC, AntiJnjdrop'icnn, Ilydrop'. 
icus, from avn, 'against,' and 'vSpwip, ' dropsj'.' A 
remedy for dropsy. 

ANTIIIYPNOTIC, Anthypnotic. 

ANTIIIYSTERIC, Anthystcric. 

ANTI-ICTERIC, Anti-ictcr'icns; Ictcr'icue, 
from avn, ' against,' and iKTcpog, 'jaundice.' A 
remedy for jaundice. 

Liquor Hydrargyri oxymuriatis. 

ANTILABIUM, Prolabium, see Antolabia. 

ANTILACTEUS, Antigalactic. 

ANriLAITEUX, Antigalactic. 

ANTILEP'SIS, Apprchen'sio, from avn\api- 
I3avu), 'I take hold of.' The mode of attaching a 
bandage over a diseased part, by fixing it upon 
the sound parts. — Hippocrates. The mode of 
securing bandages, <fec., from slipping. Treat- 
ment by revulsion or derivation. 

ANTILETIIAR'GIC, Antilethar'r/icus, from 
ajTi, 'against,' and \>iOiipytkof, 'affected with 
lethargy.' A remedy for lethargy. 

ANTILITIl'ICS, Antitith'ica, Lith'ica, from 
avn, 'against,' and AiOof, 'a stone.' A substance 
that prevents the formation of calculi in the uri- 
nary organs. 

The chief antilithics — according as the calculi 
are lithic acid or phosphatic — are alkalies or 
acids; with revellents, especially change of air; 
tonics, as diosma crenata [?], and uva ursi [?]. 

celebrated French medicinal spring, near Meaux, 
in France. The waters have not been analyzed; 
but astonishing and chimerical effects have been 
ascribed to them. 

ANTILOBIUM, Antitragus, Tragus. 

ANTILOI'MIC, Antiloi'micus, AntiWmic, An- 
tipestiletitia'lis, from avn, 'ag.ainst,' and Xoipo;, 
' the plague.' A remedy for the plague. 

ANTILO'PUS. The An' telope. {¥.) Gazelle, 
from avdoi, 'a flower,' and wi^, 'the eye' — so 
called from its beautiful eye. An African animal, 
whose hoofs and horns were formerly given ia 
hysteric and eijileptic cases. 

ANTILYSSUS, Antihydrophobic. 

ANTIMEL'ANCHOLIC, Antimclanchol'.icHs, 
from avn, 'against,' and iii:\ay)(^oXta, 'melan- 
choly.' A remedy for melancholy. 

ANTIMEPIIIT'IC, Antimephi't'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and mephitic. A remedy against me- 
phitic or deleterious gases. 

ANTIMIASMAT'IC, AntimiaKmat'icuo, from 
avn, 'against,' and fiiaa^ia, pnaaiiaroi, 'miasma.' 
A remedy against miasmatic aflfection« 

ANTIMOINE, Antimoniura — n. jjeurre d', 
Antimonium muriatum— «. Chlorwe d', Antimo- 
niura munatum— a. Oj-(We (/', Algaroth— n. Oxide 
Uunc d', Antimonium diaphoreticum— a »jufre 
dore d', Antimonii sulphuretum praicipitatum — 
a. Sulfure cZ, Antimonium— «. Sulfure, hydroeuU 

A N T I M N I A L 


phure rouge d', Anlimonii Eulphurctum rubrura 
— a. Ven-e iP, Antiuionii vitrum. 

ANTIM0'NIAL,^/<n»omia7i«, Stibia'Us, from 
autimoitiitm, 'antimony.' A composition into 
which antimony enters. A preparation of anti- 

An'timo'nial Powder, Pulvig antiwonia'lh, 
Ox' ilium iinlimo'nii cum phos'phate calcio, Phus- 
phiiH cfilcia atibia'tiis seu cnl'cicum stibin'tum, 
Pid'viH Jame'sii seu ntibia'tua seu de phot'phiite 
cold's et Ktib'ii compositiiK, Factitious James's 
Powder, SchwANBEKg's Fever Powder, Chene- 
Vix's Aiitimonial Powder, (F.) Poudre aiitimo- 
iiinle composee ou de James. A peroxide of an- 
timony combined with phosphate of lime. {Tal.e 
of coiniiton snlphurct of antimmnj, tbj ; hartKhorn 
ehficimjK, Ibij. Roast in an iron pot, until they 
form a gray powder. Put this into a long pot, 
with A small hole in the cover. Keep it in a red 
heat for two hours, and grind to a fine powder.) 
This preparation has long been esteemed as a 
febrifuge: but it is extremely uncertain in its 
action. The ordinary dose is 6 or 8 grains. 


Eulphuretum priccipitatum — a. Tartar, Antimo- 
nium tartarizatum. 

ANTIMONII BUTYRUM, Antimonium mu- 
riatum — a. Calx, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. 
Cerussa, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. et Po- 
tassje tartras, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. Mu- 
rias, Antimonium muriatum — a. Oleum, Antimo- 
nium muriatum — a. Oxydulum hydrosulphuratum 
aurantiacum, Antimonii sulpliuretum priccipita- 
tum — a. Oxydum, see Algnroth — a. Oxydum aura- 
turn, Antimonii sulphuratum praecipitatum — a. 
Oxydum nitro-niuriaticum, Algaroth — a. Oxydum 
cum sulphuro vitrifactura, Antimonii vitrum — a. 
Oxyilum sulpliuretum vitrifactum, Antimonii vi- 
trum — a. Oxysulphuretum, A. sulphuretum praeci- 
pitatum — a. Potassio-tartras, AntiuKmium tartari- 
zatum — a. llegulus tnedicinalis, Antimonium me- 
dicinale — a. Sal, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. 
Sulphur auratutn, Antimonii sulpliuretum pric- 
cipitatum — a. Sulphur pr;Bcipitatum, Antinioiiii 
sulphuretum praicipitatum — a. Sulphuretum, 


Sulphur antimouin'tum, Ili/drosulphure'tum uti- 
bio'sum cum suV phure, Oco'den stib'ii snlphtu-ii'- 
tum, O.ri/d'ulum autimo'itii hijdrosulphurn'liiiii 
auranti'ocum, O.r'ydunt a urn' turn niitiiiio'iiii, Sitl- 
phnre'tum stib'ii oxyduJa'ti, Ifi/dro-njd/ure'tum 
lu'teum ox'ydi stib'ii sul/ura'ti. Sulphur autimo'- 
iiii prcBcipita'tum, Sulphur aura'tum untimu'nii, 
Golden Sulphur of Antimony. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Prcpcipitatum, A. Oxy- 
sulphuretum, (F.) Sou/re dor6 d'Aiitimoiue, of the 
London Pharmacopoeia, is nearly the same as the 
old Kermcs or Chcrmes Mineral. It is a powder 
of an orange colour, of a metallic, styptic taste. 
It is emetic, diaphoretic, and cathartic, according 
to the dose; and has been chiefly used in chronic 
rheumatism, and in cutaneous afl'ections. Dose, 
gr. j to gr. iv. 

Antimonii Sulphuretum Pracipitntum, of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, is made by boiling 
together Sulphuret of Antimony, in fine powder, 
Solution of Potniisn, and distilled water ; strain- 
ing the liquor while hot, and dropping into it 
Diluted Sulj>huric Acid SO long as it produces a 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Eubrum, 7?crf Sul'- 
phuret of Antimony, HydrosulfHre'tum stib'ii 
rubruni, Snb-hydrosul'fas stib'ii, Hydro-snlphure'- 
tum rubrnm stib'ii sulphura'ti, Pulcis Carthusia- 
vo'rum, Kcrmes or Chermes mineral, (F.) Hydro- 
sulfure rouije d'Antimuiue sul/uri, Vermilion de 

I Provence. Properties the same as the List. Dose, 
gr. j to gr. iv. 

Antimonii Tartras, Antimonium tartarizatum 
— a. Tartras et PotassK, Antimonium tartarizatum 
— a. Vitrum hyacinthinum, Antimonii vitrum — a, 
Tersuliihuretum, Antimonium. 

Antimo'nii Vitrum, Glass of Antimony, Anti- 
vw'nii^ ox'ydum sulphure'tum vitrifae'tum. Ox' - 
ydum stib'ii semivil'reum, Antimo'uium vitrifac'- 
tum, Ox'ydum antimo'nii cum sul'phure vitrifac'- 
tum, Vitrum stib'ii, Antimo'nii vitrum hyacin'- 
thinum, Oxyd'ulum stib'ii vitrea'tum, (F.) }'erre 
d'Antimuiue. (Formed by roasiing powdered 
common antimony in a shallow vessel, over a 
gentle fire, till it is of a whitish gray colour, and 
emits no fumes in a red heat; then melting it, on 
a quick fire, into a clean, brownish red glass.) 
It has been used for preparing the tartarized 
antimony and antimonial wine. 

ANTIiMONIOUS ACID, Antimonium diapho- 

ANTIMO'NIUM, of unknown derivation : by 
some supposed to be from am, 'against,' and 
/ioi-oj, 'alone;' ?. e. not found alone: or, accord- 
ing to others, from avn, 'against,' and moine, 'a 
monk ;' because, it is asserted, certain monks 
sutl'ered much from it. Stihi, Stib'ium, Rcg'ulua 
Antimo'nii, JUnera'lium, Gynare'um, 3!n(jne'sia 
Sntur'ni, jlfarcasi'la jilnm'bca, Platynphthal'mon, 
Stim'mi, Aurnm lepro'sum, Antimo'nium vriulnm, 
Antimo'nii sulphure'tum (Ph. U. B.), A. Ttrsul- 
phure'tum, Sulphure'tum stib'ii niijrum, Common 
or Crude Autimoinj, Sulphuret nf Antimony, (F.) 
Antimoine, Sulfure d'Antimoine. Sulphuret of 
antimony is the ore from which all the prejiara- 
ti^ns of antimony are formed. In Pharmacy, it 
is the native sestiuisulphuret of antimony, puri- 
fied by fusion. When prepared for meilical use, 
by trituration and levigation, it forms a powder, 
Antimo'nii sulphure'tum prapara'tum, (Ph. D.) 
of a black, or bluish gray colour, which is inso- 
luble. It is slightly diaphoretic and alterative, 
and has been used in chronic rheumatism, cuta- 
neous diseases, <fec. 

Antimonium Album, Bismuth — a. Calcinatum, 
Antimonium diajihoreticum. 

Antimo'nium Diaphoret'icum, Diaphoret'ic 
Antimony, Antimo'iiions Acid, J/in'eral Jiez'oard, 
Antimo'nium Calcina'tnm, Mineral Diaphoret'ic, 
Matiere perlee de KkrkriNG, Peroxide of Anti- 
mony, ddx Antimo'nii, Antimo'nium diaphoret'- 
icum latum, Cerus'sa Antimo'nii, Calx Antimo'nii 
elo'ta, Oxo'dcs stib'ii album, Ox'ydum stibio'snm, 
Ox'ydum stib'ii album median'te nitro confectuiu, 
Potasses biantimo'nias, Deutoxide of Antimony, 
(F.) Oxide blanc d'Antimoine preparS par le 
may en dn nitre. [Common antimony, tbj; jmri/ied 
nitre, ftiij. — Throw it by spoonfuls into a red-hot 
crucible ; powder and wash. The flowers that 
stick to the side of the crucible must be carefully 
separated, otherwise they render it emetic) 
Dose, gr. x. to xxx. 

Antimonium Emetici'M, A. tartarizatum. 

Antimo'nium Medicina'lk, A'ey'ulus Antimo'- 
nii Medicina'lis, Medic" Innl Reifnlns of Anti- 
mony. [Antimon. suljthur. ^v Potass, subcarb. 
^i Sodii chlorid. ^\v. Powder, mix, and melt. 
When cold, separate the scoriic at top, powder 
the mass, and wash it well.) It is conceived to 
be more active than common antimony. 

.Antimo'nium Muria'tum, Antimo'nii Mu'ria«, 
Chlor'uret of Au'timony, Chlorurc'tum stib'ii, 
Spuma trium draco'num, Deuto-mnrlas stib'ii 
sublima'tus, Butter of Antimony, Muriate of An- 
timony, Chloride of Antimony, Ihity'rnm Antimo'- 
nii seu stib'ii, O'leum Antimo'nii, Caus'ticum anti- 
monin'le, Antimonium sali'tum, (F.) Chlorure 
d'Antimoine, Beurre d'Antimoine. (Common an- 



timnny ntiil corrosive sublimate, of each equal 
parts : griiTl tor;ether, ami distil in a wide-necked 
retort, and let the butyraceous matter, that comes 
over, run, in a moist, place, to a liquid oil.) A 
caustic, but not much used as such. Sometimes 
taken as poison. 

Antimonujm SALiTr>f. Antimonium muriatum. 

Antisio'nium Taiitahiza'tlim, 'J\u-trn8 anti- 
nil/ nil, TarlriiH Aittimo'nii et t'ot<i.s>i(B, Aiitiino'- 
mi et I'ofnsscB Ttirtnis (Ph. U. S.), Aiitimo'nii 
jMitan'sio-tartrnx, Tnrfris Antiino'itii, Tartar An- 
tiinoni'a'tnm, Snl Aiitimo'nii, Tcirtrus Potan'xw 
stibio'uKS sou etibia'lis, Tartris lixin' i(B stil/ia'tiis, 
Deiito-tartrnn potas'ncB et stib'ii, Tar'tarns emet'- 
icus seu utibia'tun, Tar'taritm emet'icnm, Antimo'- 
iiiiiin cmet'iciini, Tar'larized An'timony, Tartrate 
of Antimony and potan'sa, Potatsio-tartrate of 
Antimony, Eniet'ic Tartar, Tartar Emetic, (P.) 
Tartre stibie, Tartre Jiinetiqne, Enu'tique ; in 
some parts of the United States, vulgarly and 
improperly called Tartar: (Made by digesting 
snl/ihnret of antimony in a mixture of nitric and 
■muriatic acids with the aid of heat; filtering the 
liquor, and pouring it into water: freeing the 
precipitate from acid, by washing and drying it; 
adding this powder to bitartrute of potasKa in 
boiling diitillcd water ; boiling for an hour, and 
after filtering the liquor while hot. setting it 
aside to crystallize. — I'h. U. S.) Tartarized an- 
timony is emetic, sometimes cathartic and dia- 
])horetic. Externally, it is rubefacient, and in 
the form of ointment, more especially iini/uentnvi 
anti'monii is used to cause pustulation. l)ose, as 
an emetic, gr. j to gr. iv in solution: as a dia- 
phoretic, gr. one-sixteenth to gr. one-quarter. 

The empirical preparation, called Nomns's 
Duoi'S, consists of a solution of tartarized anti- 
mony in rectified spirit, disguised by the addi- 
tion of some vegetable colouring matter. 

ANTiMoNiinr ViTiuPACTUM, Antiinonii vitrum. 

ANTTMOXY, Antimonium — a. Ihitter of, 
Antimonium muriatum — a. Chloride of, Anti- 
monium muriatum — a. Chloruret of, Antimo- 
nium muriatum — a. Common, Antimonium — 
ii. Crude, Antimonium — a. Deutoxide of, Anti- 
monium diiiphoreticum — a. Flowers of. Alga- 
roth — a. Glass of, Antimonii vitrum — a. Golden 
sulphur of, Antimonii sulphuretum praecipitatum 
— a. Medicinal regulus of, Antimonium raedici- 
nale — a. Muriate of, Antimonium muriatum — a. 
Peroxiile of, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. 
Potassio-tartrate of, Antimonium tartarizatum — 
.1. Sulphuret of, red, Antimonii sulphuretum ru- 
brum — -a. Tartarized, Antimonium tartarizatum — 
a. Terchloride of, see Algaroth — a. Teroxide of, 
see Algaroth — a. Vegetable, Eupatorium perfoli- 

Antimony and Potassa, Tartrate op, Anti- 
monium tartarizatum. 

ANTINEPHRIT'IC, Aminephret'ic, Antine- 
phret'icm, from apri, 'against,' and ve(ppiTis, 'ne- 
phritis.' A remedy for inflaminabion of the kidney 



ANTINIAD, see Antinial. 

ANTIN'IAL, from avn, 'against,' and tviov, 
'the ridge of the occiput.' An epithet for an 
aspect towards the side opposite to the inion, or 
ridge of the occiput. — Barclay. Antiniad is used 
adverbially by the same writer, to signify ' to- 
wanls the antinial aspect.' 

ANTrOCill IU'ERA. A preparation ex- 
tolled by the ancients in melancholy, hydropho- 
bia, epilepsy, &c. It was formed of germander, 
agaric, pulp of colocynth, Arabian stoechas, opo- 
ponax, sagapenum, parsley, aristoloehia, white 
pepper, cinnamon, lavender, myrrh, honey, &c. 

Antiochi Tiikriaca. A theriac employed by 
Antiochiis Ajjaiiist every kind of poison. It was - 

composed of thyme, opoponax, millet, trefoil, 
fennel, aniseed, nigella sativa, <fec. 

ANTIODONTAL'GIC, AntodontiVgic, Anto- 
dontal'yicus, Odontal'ijic, Odont'ic, Antiodontal'. 
gicim, from avn ' against,' and oiovraXyta, 'tooth- 
ache.' A remedy for toothache. 

ANTIORGAS'TIC, AnliorgaH'ticm, from avn, 
' against,' and opyau). ' I desire vehemently.' A 
remedy for orgasm or erethism, and for irritation 
in general. 

ANTIPARALY'T'IC, Antipara/yt'iciw, from 
avn, ' against,' and jrapaAuffij, 'pals^'.' Opposed 
to palsy. 

ANTIPARASIT'IC, Antlparasit'icnK, Aiiti. 
jjhiheiriacns, PhtJii'riui, Parasit'icide ; from avn, 
' against,' and Trapatriro?, ' a parasite.' An agent 
that destroys parasites, as the different vermin 
that infest the body. The chief antiparasitics 
are Coccnlns, Staph inayria, Veratriini album, and 
certain of the mercurial preparations. 

ANTIPARASTATI'TIS, from ai-n, ' opposite,' 
and TzapaaTarni, ' the epididymis ;' also, ' the pros- 
tate,' and itix, denoting inflammation. lufiam- 
mation of Cowper's glands. 

ANTIPATHI'A, from ai/ri, 'against,' and iraOof, 
'passion, affection.' Aversion. A natural re- 
pugnance to any person or thing. 

ANTIPATir'rC, Ant i path' icus, (F.) Antipu- 
thiqne. Belonging to antipathy. Opposite, con- 
trary,^— as hnmeurn aiilipathiqiics ; humours op- 
posed to each other. Also, palliatives. 

tip'ater. A farrago of more than 40 articles: 
used as an antidote against the bites of serpents, 

ANTIPERIOD'IC, Antiperiod'ieu'!, Anfityp'. 
icnn, from niTf, 'against,' and Trcpioio;, 'period.' 
A remedy which possesses the power of arresting 
morbid periodical movements ; — e. g. the sulphato 
of quinia in intermittents. 

ANTIPERISTAL'TIC, AntiperiHal'tiens, An- 
tivermic'idar, from avn, 'against,' and zcoitsTtWiii, 
' I contract.' An inverted action of the intestinal 

ANTIPERIS'TASIS,from avn, 'against,' and 
neptaraaii, 'reunion, aggregation.' A union of 
opposite circumstances : the action of two con- 
trary qualities, one of which augments the force 
of the other. The i)eripateticians asserted, that 
it is by Antiperistasis, that fire is hotter in winter 
than in summer. Theophrastus attributes the 
cause, which renders man more vigorous, and 
makes him digest more readily in winter, to the 
augmentation of heat caused by Antiperistasis. 

ANTIPER'NIUS, from avn, 'against,' and 
Pernio, 'a chilblain.' A remedy against chil- 
blains ; — as Unrjnen'tum antiper'nium, an oint- 
ment for chilblains. 

ANTIPERTUSSIS, see Zinci sulphas. 


ANTrPIIARMACUS, Alexipharmic. 

ANTIPIILOGIS'TIC, AntiphUqix'ticni,, PWc 
ffo'fjus, from avn, ' against,' and ^Xtyu, ' I burn.' 
Opposed to inflammation; as Antiphloyistic re- 
mediei, A. reqimen, <fec. 

ANTIPIITHEIRrAGA, Antiphthiriaca, from 
avn, 'against,' and (pStipiaio, 'I am lousy.' A 
remedy used to destroy lice. 

ANTIPIITHIS'ICAL, Antiphthis'icm, from 
avn, 'against,' and <j,^iaii, 'consumption.' Op- 
posed to phthisis. 

ANTIPHYSETICS, Carminatives. 

ANTIPHYSICA, Carminatives. 
^ ANTIPIIYS'ICAL, AntiphyH'icns, from avn, 
agivinst,' and (jivaaw, 'I blow.' An expeller of 
wind : a carminative. 

It has also been used for any thing preterna- 
tural; here, the derivation is from avn, 'a"-ainst,' 
and 0„orK, 'nature.' The French sometim"es say, 
Uh fjofu untiphyHique; 'au unnatural taste.' 

A N T 1 1' [. A 3 T I C 


ANTIPLAS'TIC, Aniipl„>,'t;rH.t, J>l<isHI,,i';c, 
Pliiatili/t' icKv, from avTi, ' against,' and Tt)iaaTiKos, 
'formative.' Antiloriniitive. An agent that 
diniinixhes the quantity of plastic matter — fibrin 
— in the blood. 

ANTIPLEURIT'IC, Antipleuret'icua, Anti- 
pleiiret'ic, from avri, 'against,' and vXcvpirti, 
' pleurisy.' Opposed to pleurisy. 

ANTil'NEUMON'IC, Antipnenmon'icus, from 
avTi, 'against,' and TTvevfiijivta, 'disease or inflam- 
mation of the lungs.' A remedy for disease or 
inflammation of the lungs. 

ANTI PODAGRIC, Antiarthritic. 
ANTIPIIAX'IS, from avrt, 'against,' and 
Trpaaao), ' I act.' A contrary state of different 
parts in the same patient: e. g. an increase of 
heat in one organ, and diminution in another. 

ANTIPSOll'IC, Aiitipso'n'cHu, Antiaca'biouH, 
from avTt, 'against,' and xpuipa, 'the itch.' (F.) 
Aiifi'/'i/eii.r. Opposed to the itch. 
ANTIPUTHID, Antiseptic. 
ANTIPY'IC, Aniipy'ictts, from avri, 'against,' 
and TTvov, '])us.' Opposed to suppuration. 
ANTIPYRETIC, Febrifuge. 
ANTIPYROT'IC, Antipijrot'icun, from avTi, 
'against,' and nvp, 'fire.' Opposed to burns or 
to pyrosis. 

ANTIQUARTANA'RIUM, Antiqiiar'tlnm. A 
remedy formerly used against quartan fever. 
ANTIQUUS, Chronic. 

ANTIRIIACIIIT'IC, Antlrhachit'icus, from 
nvTi, 'against,' and rachitis. Opposed to rachitis, 
or riclict':. 

ANTIRIIEUMAT'IC, Antirrhcnmat'icua; from 
avTi, ' against,' and pcupa, 'rheumatism.' A re- 
medy for rheumatism. 

ria — a. Auriculatum, A. Elatinc. 

Antirhi'num Elati'ni?,, a. auricula' turn, Ela- 
tl'ite, E. hnsta'ta, Liua'ria elali'ne, Cymhula'riu 
clati'ne, Flitellfii or Female Speedwell, was for- 
merly used against scurvy and old ulcerations. 

ANTiitniNUM IIeperaceum, a. Linaria — a. 
Ilederrefoliura, A. Linaria. 

Antiuhi'num Lina'uia, A. hedera'ceum sen 
hedcra/o'liiim seu acittan'gtdum, Lina'ria, L. 
vntgn'ria seu cjjmhala' via, Elati'ne cymhala'- 
rii(, Cijnihala'ria mvra'lin, Ofi/'riK, Uriiia'ria, 
Common Toad Flax, (F.) Linaire. Onl. Scrophu- 
lariacesB. The leaves have a bitterish taste. They 
arc reputed to be diuretic and cathartic. An 
ointment made from them has been extolled in 

ANTISCABIOUS, Antipsorie. 
ANTLSCIRRHOUS. Anticancerous. 
ANTISCOLETICUS, Anthelmintic. 
ANTISCOLICUS. Anthelmintic. 
ANTISCORBU'TIC, Antiscorbu'ticns, from 
avTi, 'against,' and acorhiitus, 'the scurvy.' Op- 
posed to scurvy. 

ANTISCROF'ULOUS, AntiscropV xdowt, An- 
tixrrofiilu'sns, Aiitistrumo'sm, Antichoerad'icus. 
Opposed to scrofula. 

ANTISEP'TIC, Antiiep'ticus, Antipu'trid, 
from avTi, 'against,' and (r»;Troj, 'putrid.' Anti- 
pntredino'sus. Opposed to putrefaction. The 
chief antiseptics, internally or e.xternally em- 
ployed, arc Acidiim Mmiaticnm, Acidiim X'itri- 
cnm, Acidiim Siilphiiricum, A^iminte sidphas, 
Carlo Li</iii, Calx Chloriitata, Chlorin'inm, Cin- 
chona anil its active principles, Creosote, Dauci 
J'ddi.r, Ft rnientnm CerevisicB, Soda Chlorinata, 
and Zinci Chloridnm. , . . , , . . 

ANTISIAL'AGOGUE, Antistalago'gus, Anti- 
si'ahw, from avri, 'against,' and maXov, 'saliva.' 
A remoiJv against ptyalism. 

ANTI.^PASIS. Derivation, Revulsion. 
ANTISP.VSMOD'IC, Amispanmod'icns, ylii^i'- 
sp'i.,'ticn>:, from avri, 'against, and c-aw, ' I con- 

tract.' Opposed to spasm. The whole operation 
of antispasmodics is probably revulsive. The 
following are the chief reputed antispasmodics. 
yEtlicr SulphuriciiK, Asafatida, Caatorcum, Vra- 
contium, Jfoachiia, Oleum Animnle Uipipelii, and 
Valeriana — with the mental antispasmodics, ab- 
straction, powerful emotions, fear, &c. Of direct 
antispasmodics, we have no example. 

ANTISPASTICUS, Antispasmodic, Deriva- 

ANTISQUA'MIC, Antiaqua'micus ; from onti, 
'against,' and squama, 'a scale.' A name given 
by Mr. Headland to a medicine, which, by acting 
on the blood, removes cutaneous affections. The 
name is inappropriate, as the true scaly diseases 
— lepra and psoriasis — are not the only ones that 
require the use of eutrophics. 
ANTISTASIS, Antagonism. 
ANTISTERYG'MA, from avn, 'against,' and 
aTripvYpa, ' a support.' A fulcrum, support, crutch. 
— lIi])pocrates. 

ANTISTER'NUM, from avn, 'against,' and 
oTcpvov, ' the sternum.' The back. — Rufus. 
ANTISTRUMOUS, Antiscrofulous. 
ANTISYPHILIT'IC, Antisyphilil'icua, from 
avTi, 'against,' and syphilin, 'the venereal dis- 
ease.' Opposed to the venereal disease. 
ANTITASIS, Counter-extension. 
ANTITIIENAR, Opponens poUicis, Adductor 
pollicis pedis. 

ANTITIIERMA, Refrigerants. 
ANTITHORA, Aconitum anthora. 
ANTITRAG'ICUS, Anlitra'>jeua, (F.) Miiacle 
de I'Antitragiis, M. antitrai/icn.- — (Ch.) Belong- 
ing to the antitragus. A small muscle is so 
called, the existence of which is not constant. 
It occupies the space between the antitragus and 

ANTITRAGIEN, Antitragicus. 
ANTIT'RAGUS, from avrt, ' opposite to,' and 
rpayug, 'the tragus,' Antilo'hium, Ohlo'bium. A 
conical eminence on the pavilion of the ear, op- 
posite the tragus. 

ANTITY'P'IA, from avrt, 'against,' and ruTrru, 
' I striiie.' Resistance. Hardness. Repercus- 

ANTITYPICUS, Antipcriodic. 
ANTIVENE'REAL, Autirene'reua, from avri, 
'against,' and Venus, 'Venus.' The same as An- 
tisyphilitic. Formerly it was used synonymously 
with Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTIVERMICULAR, Antiperistaltic. 
ANTIVERMINOSUS, Anthelmintic. 
ANT'LIA or ANTLI'A, from avrAjiv, 'to 
pump out.' A syringe; a pump. Hence, Antlia 
lac'tea, Laciisu't/ium, a breast-pump: and Antlia 
sanf/uisu'yn, Antibdel'la, Hiru'do artijicia'lia, the 
exhausting syringe used in cupping. 
Antlia Gastrica, Stomach-pump. 
ANTODONTALGIC, Antiodontalgic. 
ANTODYNUS, Anodyne. 
ANTRAX, Anthrax. 

ANTUE, Antrum — a. d'Hyghmore, Antrum 
of Highmore. 

ANTROVERSIO, Anteversio. 
ANTRUM, 'a cavern,' Carem'a, Bar'ntJirum, 
(F.) Autre. A name given to certain cavities in 
bones, the entrance to which is smaller than the 

Antbiim AiiRis, Tj-mpanum — a. Buccinosum, 
Cochlea, Labyrinth — a. Dentale, see Tooth — a. 
Pylori, see Stomach. 

Antrum of HiGHMOnE, Antrum Uighmoria'- 

nnm seu GencB seu maxilla're seu maxil'la: supe- 

rio'ria, Genyan'trum, Gnathan'trum, Ma.r'iltnry 

Sinus, Sinus Gencr. pitnitu' rius, (F.) Autre d'llytjh- 

(i more, Siinis M<i.rillairc. A deep cavity in the 

j substance of the superior maxillnry hone com- 

il municating with the middle meatus of the nose. 



It is lined by a prolongation of the Schnciderian 
AXULARIS, Annular, 
ANULUS, Fossette. 
AXURESIS, Ischuria. 
AXURIA, Ischuria. 
ANUROCRINIE, see Ischuria. 
ANURORRHEE, see Ischuria. 
ANUS, 'a circle,' Podcx, Potcr, Mol'yne, Mo- 
h/)i'ie, Dactjl'ioH, Caih'edra, Ci/r'ceoii, Cyn'ntiros, 
Ci/sthos, Aph'edra, ApJt'edron, Hedra, Proctoa, 
Archos, Sedes, Cuius, Cu'leon. The circular open- 
ing situate at the inferior extremity of the rectum, 
by which the excrement is expelled. The /nndn- 
•uent. The body. The seat, (F.) Siege, Fonde- 

Anus also signifies the anterior orifice of the 
Aqueduct of Sylvius. By some, this Anus, called, 
also, Fora'men commu'ne poste'rius, has been 
supposed to form a communication between the 
back part of the third ventricle and the lateral 
ventricles. It is close'd up, however, by the tela 
choroidea, and also by the fornix, which is inti- 
mately connected with this. The foramen is 
situate between the commissura mollis of the 
optic thalami and the pineal gland. 

Anus, Artificial. An opening made artifi- 
cially, to supply the place of the natural anus. The 
term is often used to include preternatural anus. 
Anus Cerebiu, see Aquajductus Sylvii. 
Anus, Contract'ed, (F.) Anus retreti. A state 
of the anus when, from some cause, it is con- 

Anus, Imper'forate. A malformation, in 
which there is no natural anus. See Atresia ani 

Anus, Preternat'ural, (F.) Anns contre na- 
ture, A. anormal. An accidental opening which 
gives issue to the whole or to a part of the fceces. 
It may be owing to a wound, or, which is more 
common, to gangrene attaclsing the intestine in 
a hernial sac. 

This term is also employed, as well as Anus 
devie, de'vioHS anus, to the case where the anus, in- 
stead of being in its natural situation, is in some 
neighbouring cavity, as the bladder, vagina, etc. 
ANXIETAS, Anxiety — a. Praecordiorum, see 

ANXI'ETY, Anxi'etas, Anxi'etude, Adcenio'- 
n!a, Dyspho'ria anxi'etas, Alys'mus, Al'yce, AV- 
ysis, Ase, (F.) Anxiete, from an/jere, Gr. ayytiv, 
'to strangle, to sufToeate.' A state of restlessness 
and agitation, with general indisposition, and a 
distressing sense of oppression at the epigastrium, 
Anxi'etas prcecordio'rum. Inquietude, anxiety, 
and anguish, represent degrees of the same con- 

ANYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AOCHLE'SIA, from a, priv., and o)(\as, 'dis- 
turbance.' Tranquillity, calmness. 

AOR'TA, Arte'ria maijna seu crassn seu max'- 
ima, HcBinal Axis, of Owen, (F.) Aorte. This 
name was given by Aristotle to the chief artery 
of the body. It may have been derived from 
aoprcojiai, 'I am suspended,' as it seems to be 
suspended from the heart: or from arip, 'air,' and 
Trjpiu), 'I keep,' because it was supposed to con- 
tain air. It is probable that Hippocrates meant 
by aoprai the bronchia and their ramifications. 
The aorta is the common trunk of the arteries of 
the body. It arises from the left ventricle of the 
heart, about opposite to the fifth dorsal vertebra, 
passes upwards {ascending Aorta), forms the great 
arch of the Aorta, and descends along the left 
of the spine {descending Aorta), until it reaches 
the middle of the fourth or fifth lumbar vertebra, 
■where it bifurcates, to give origin to the common 
iliacs. The aorta is sometimes divided into the 

Thoracic or Fertoral, and the Ahdonilnal. For 
the arteries which arise from it, etc., see Artery. 
AORTASIE, Aorteurysma. 
AOH TEUTASIE, Aorteurysma. 
AORTEURYS'MA, from ao,,Tr,, 'the aorta,' 
and ivpvi, 'dilated.' Aneurism of the Aorta, (P.) 
Ancvrysnie de I'Aorte, Aortectasie, Aortasie. — 
Piorry. By carefully auscultating over the dor- 
sal vertebras, a bellows' sound, with a deep aud 
not always perceptible impulse, may be detected. 
AOR'TIC, Aor'ticus. Relating to the Aorta, 
The Aortic ventricle, (F.) Veutricule Aortique, ia 
the left ventricle. The Aortic valves are the sig- 
moid valves at the origin of the Aorta, etc. 

AORTI'TIS, Injlamma'tio Aor'tce, from Aorta, 
and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflammation 
of the aorta. 

AORTRA, Aortron. A lobe of the lungs.— 

AO'TUS, from a, privative, and ouf, ioroi, 'an 
ear.' A monster devoid of ears. — Gurlt. 

APAG'MA, Apoclas'ma, Apocecaulis'menon, 
from HTTo, 'from,' and ayo), 'I remove.' Separa- 
tion, abduction. Separation of a fractured bone. 
— Galenus, Foesius. 

APAGOGE, Defecation, Inductio. 
APALACHINE, Ilex vomitoria— a. u Fenillea 
de Prunier, Prinos — a. Gallis, Ilex vomitoria. 

APAL'LAGE, Apallax'is, from aTraXarno, 'I 
change.' Mutation, change. It is generally 
taken in a good sense, and means the change 
from disease to health. — Hippocrates. 
APALLAXIS, Apallage. 

APALOT'ICA, from airaXorri?, 'softness, ten- 
derness.' Fortuitous lesions or dcforuiitics affect- 
ing the soft parts. The first order in the class 
Tychica, of Good. 
APAXTHESIS, Apanthismus. 
APANTHIS'MUS, Apnnthe'sis, from oto, 
'from,' and avQcw, 'I floAver.' The obliteration 
of parts previously inservient to useful purpofe?, 
as of the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus, 
which are essential to foetal existence, but are 
subsequently unnecessary. See also Stuprum. 

APANTHRO'PIA, from avro, 'from,' and av- 
^puiTToq, 'man.' Detestation of man; desire fur 
solitude. — Hippocrates. One of the symptoms 
of hypochondriasis. 

APAPHRISMOS, Despumation. 
APARACH'YTUM VINUM. from a, priv., 
and ■Kapa'xyoi, 'I pour over.' The purest wine: 
that which has not been mixed with sea-water. — 

APARIXE, Galium aparine — a. Hispida, Ga- 
lium aparine. 

APARTHROSIS, Diarthrosis. 
AP'ATHY, Apathi'a, Ameli'a, from a, priva- 
tive, and iza^og, 'affection.' (F.) Apathie. Ac- 
cidental suspension of the moral feelings. It 
takes place in very severe diseases, particularly 
in malignant fevers. 

APECHE'MA, from otto, 'from,' and i/X"?. 
'sound.' Properly the action of reflecting sound. 
In medicine, it is synonymous with the Latin 
Contrafissura, a counter-fissure, a counter-blow. 
— Gorrfeus, Celsus. 

APECTOCEPHALUS, Acephalothorus. 
APEL'LA, Appel'la, Leipoder'nios, Rccuti'tm, 
from a, priv., &nCi. pellis, 'skin.' One whose pre- 
puce does not cover the glans. — Galenus, Lin- 
naeus, Vogel. Retraction or smallness of any 
other soft appendage.— Sagar. One who is cir- 

APEPSIA. Dyspepsia. 

APE'RIEXT, Apc'riens, Aperiti'rus, from ";<«- 
rire (ab and pario), 'to open.' Res'erans. A 
laxative. (F.) ApMtif. A medicine which 
gently opens the bowels. The term bad for- 
merly a much more extensive signification, and, 



like Cutahjt'lcxim, was given to a substance sup- 
Ijodfil to have tiie power of opening any of the 
pagsi\j:i's. Mild even the blood-vessels. 

APHHIS'TATON, Aperiv'tatum, from a, pri- 
vntivo, and Ttimarrini, 'I surround.' An epithet 
for an ulcer not dangerous nor considerable nor 
surrounded by inflaintnation. 

APKnrriF, Aperient. 

Al'KRITlVUS, Aperient. 

Al'EHTOll OCULI, Levator palpebrae supe- 

APERTO'RTUM, from nperio, 'I open.' An 
iustrutnont for ililating the os uteri during labour. 

Al'ERTUKA, Mouth — a. Anterior ventriculi 
tertii cerebri, Vulva (cerebri) — a. Pelvis superior, 
!,ee Pelvis. 


APEX, Miwro. The point or extremity of a 
part. — as the apex of the tongue, nose, etc. 

Ai'KX LiNGU.-E, Proglossis. 

APH.EIIESIS, Aphcrcsis, Extirpation. 

APHALANGl'ASIS, from a, 'intensive,' and 
(ioKay^, 'phalanx.' The fourth stage of Oriental 
leprosy, which is recognised chiefly by a gangre- 
nous condition of the lingers. 

APJIASSOM'ENOS, from ai^aaa^, 'I touch, I 
foel.' The touching of the parts of generation 
of the female as a means of diagnosis. — llippo- 
cratcs. See Esaphe. 


APllEDlUA, Menses. 

APllEDHON, Anus. 

A P II EL I' A, ai/isXjjf, 'simple.' Simplicity. 
The siiiii)le manners of the sect of Methodists in 
teaching and practising medicine. 

APIIELX'IA, from acpc^Kw, 'I abstract.' Vo- 
luntary inactivity of the whole or the greater 
part of the external senses to the impressions of 
surrounding objects, during wakefulness. Jie- 
rcry, (F.) Iler-erie. Dr. Gotod has introduced 
this into his Nosology, as well as Aphel.r'la so- 
cora or absence of mind — A. infen'fn or abstrac- 
tifftl of mind: and A. otio'sa, Slu'ditim ina'ue, 
Cenosjiu'dia, broron stitd)/ or liatleaa niuaingi 

APIIEPSEMA, Decoction. 

APHETSIS, Decoction. 

APIIE'IIESIS, AplKB'resia, from a<paiptiii, 'I 
take away.' An operation by which any part of 
the body is separated from the other, ilippo- 
crates, according to Focsius, uses the expression 
Aphas' resia Smi'tjiiinia for excessive hemorrhage; 
and Sennertus, to express the condition of an 
animal deprived both of the faculties of the mind 
and of the mind itself. 

APH'ESIS, from afirjjxi, 'I relax.' A remis- 
sion. This word expresses sometimes the dimi- 
nution or cessation of a disease; at others, lan- 
guor and debility of the lower extremities. See 
Lancuor, and Remission. 

APIIILAN'TIIROPY, Aphilnnthro'pia, from a, 
privative, ^i-Xtu, 'I love,' and av5pu;rof. 'a man.' 
Dislike to man. Love of solitude. Vogel has 
given tills name to the first degree of melancholy. 


APIIODEUMA, Excrement. 

APHODUS. Excrement. 

APHONETUS, Aphonus. 

APIIO'NIA, Liija'tio lingucB, Loqne'ln ahol'ita, 
Defet:'tiia loqitc'lo!, Dijapho'nia, (of some,) Aph'- 
oni/. (F.) Aphonic, Peite de In Voix, from a, pri- 
vative, and ^(i>i/i), 'voice.' Privation of voice, or 
of the sounds that ought to be pro<liiced in the 
glottis. When aphonia forms part of catarrh or 
of 'colli.' it is conunonly but of little consequence; 
but when jiroduced by causes acting on the ner- 
vous system, as by some powerful emotion, or 
without any appreciable lesion of the vocal appa- 
ratus, (Lari/H'jo-parcilj/ais,) it frequently resists 
all remedies. 

^ Aphoma, Catalepsy — a. Surdorum, Mutitas 

APHONICUS, Aphonus. 

APIIO'NUS, Apho'nicva, Apho'netua; same 
ety.non. Relating to aphonia. 

APHONY, Aphonia. 

APIIORIA, Sterilitas. 


APiIORUS, Sterile. 

APIIOIl'ME, aipopuri, 'occasion.' The exter- 
nal and manifest cause of any thing. The occa- 
sional cause of a disease. — Hippocrates. 

APIIRO'DES, 'frothy,' from aippog, 'foam,' 
and ci&og, 'resemblance.' Applied to the blood 
and the excrements. — Hippocrates. 

APHRODISIA, Coition, Puberty. 

APIIRODIS'IAC, AphrodixirtcuK, from A0po- 
iirri, 'Venus,' (P.) Aphrudiaiaque. Medicine 
or food believed to be capable of exciting to the 
pleasures of love; as ginger, cautharides, Ac. 
They are generally stimulants. 



APIIRODISIOG'RAPHY, from A0poA<r»,, 'Ve- 
nus,' and yjjaipia, 'I describe.' Etyiiiolugically, 
this term means a description of the pleasures of 
love, but it has been placed at the head of a work 
describing the venereal disease. 

APHRODITIC, Venereal. 

APIIROG'ALA, from a(/.pof, 'foam,' and ya\a, 
'milk.' Lac apntiio'snm. A name formerly given 
to milk rendered frothy by agitation. 

APHRONIA, Apoplexy. 

APHRONITRUM, Natrum, Soda. 

APHROSYNE, Delirium, Insanity. 

APlITIIiE, Apht(B, ApthcE, from arrru), 'I in- 
flame." Tltrnah or aore month, Aphtha lactn'ci- 
men seu Lifan'tnm, Lactn'cimQti, Laclnciin' ina, 
Lactu'minu, Al'colcB, Em'phhjaia aphtha, Ulcera 
aerpen'tia oris, I'ua'tuht oria, Febiia aphtho'aa, 
Anr/i'nu aphtho'aa, Veaic'nlcB (/inr/ira' nun, Slo- 
mati'tia exaudati'va seu vesicnio'aa infun'tntn, Sto- 
map'yra, S. aphtha, Pninel'Ut, Whiti' Thruah, 
Milk Thrnah. Aphtha; consist of roundish, pearl- 
coloured vesicles, confined to the lips, mouth, 
and intestinal canal, and generally terminating 
in curd-like sloughs. In France, the Aphthae of 
children, Aphlhea des En/ana, is called Mnrjuet, 
Jlillet, Blanchet, Catarrhe buccal and Stotnatite 
cremeitae 2>'dtacee, Pidtaceoita inflammation of 
the 3Iouth ; and generally receives two divisions 
— the mild or diecrcet, (F.) Mngnet benin ou dis- 
cret, and the malignant, (F.) Jfngnet malin ou 
confluent, the Black Thrush. Common Thrush is 
a disease of no consequence, requiring merely 
the use of absorbent laxatives. The malignant 
variety, which is rare, is of a more serious cha- 
racter, and is accompanied with typhoid symp- 
toms, — Typhus aphtho'i'deus. 

Armu.F. AntiLTOUDM, Stomatitis, aphthous — a. 
Praeputii, Herpes pracputii — a. Serpen tes, Cancer 

APH'THAPHYTE, Aphthaph'yton : OYd'ium 
alb'icans. Champignon du Muguet, from aipQai, 
'aphthae.' and <f,vrov, 'a vegetable.' A parasitic 
vegetable growth observed in aphthae. 



APHTHEVX, Aphthous. 

APIITHO'DES, Aphthoidea, Aphlhotdeua, from 
aphtha, and ados, 'resemblance.' Aphthous-like. 
Resembling aphtha^. 

APH'TIIOUS, Aphtho'sua, (F.) Aphthcur. Be- 
longing to aphtha?; complicated with aphtha); 
as Aphthous Fci-cr. 

APIASTRUM, Melissa. 



OAT^, Corpora striata — a. Digitoruui, Pu- 

APILEPSIA, Apoplexy. 

A'PIOL, Apio'lnm, Pdi-sley oil, from apiiim, 
'par.-!ley,' and oleum, 'oil.' A yellowish oily 
liquid, obtained from opium petroselinnm or 
pat-Hley, which, in the dose of 15 grains, has 
been used as an antiperiodic. 

APIOXTA, see Excretion. 

APIOS, Pyrus communis. 

APIS, Bee. 

API'TES, from anov, 'a pear.' Perry. — Gor- 

APIUM, A. graveolens — a. Ammi, Ammi — a. 
Anisum, Piinpinella anisum — a. Carvi, Carum. 

A'pnur Graveolens, Apium, Paluda'pium, 
Jieli'num, Se.n'eli (/rneeolenn, Sitim yrttveohns seu 
"pium, Siiinllnr/e, (F.) Ache. Ord. Umbclliferae. 
Sex. Sijst. Pentandria Digynia. The plants, 
roots, and seeds are aperient and carminative. 
Seleri/ is a variety of this. 

Apium Hortexse, A. graveolens — a. Monta- 
num, Athamanta aureosolinum — ^a. Paludapium, 
A. Graveolens — a. Petrasum.Bubon Maeedonicum. 

Apium Petroseli'nu.m, Apium Horten'se seu 
vnUja're, E/eoeeli'num [? ], ' Grielum, PetioneW- 
unm. Common Purslei/, (F.) Persil. The root — 
I'etroselinum, (Ph. U. S.) — and seeds are diuretic 
and aperient. See Apiol. 

Apium Sium, Slum nodiflorum — a. Vulgare, A. 

APLAS'TIC, Aplas'ficus, from a, privative, 
and sAaiTirw, ' I form.' That which is not capable 
(if forming ; or is not organizable. 

Aplastic Element; one which is unsuscep- 
tible of any farther amount of organization. — 

APLESTIA, Ingluvies, Intemperance. 

APLEU'ROS, from a, privative, and n'Scvpov, 
'a rib.' One without ribs, or pleuras. — Hippo- 
crates, Galen. 

APLOT'OMY, Aplotom'ia, from aTrAoof, 'sim- 
ple,' and TCfivto, 'I cut.' A simple incision. 

APNEE, Apnoea. 

APNEUMATOSIS, see Atelectasis. 

APNEU'MIA, from a,priv., and T;vtvjiu>v, 'lung.' 
A monstrosity in which there is absence of lungs. 

APNEUMONER'VIA, Apneumonen'rin, from 
a, priv., ■nvtvjxh>v, 'lung,' and vivpov, 'nerve.' 
Want of nervous action in the lungs. 

APNEUSTIA, Apnoea, Asphyxia. 

APNCE'A, from a, privative, and w^ia, 'I re- 
spire.' {¥.) Apnee, Absence of respiration, A'e- 
ti}ira'tio ahol'ita ; or insensible respiration. Also, 
Urthopnoea. See Asphyxia. 

APNfEA Infantum, Asthma Thymicum. 


APNUS, aTvooj, same etymon. One devoid of 
respiration. An epithet applied by authors to 
cases in which the respiration is so small and 
slow, that it seems suspended. — Castelli. It is 
probable, however, that the word was always ap- 
plied to the patient, not to the disease. 

APO, airo, a prefix denoting 'from, of, off, out.' 
Hence — 

APOBAMMA, Embamma. 

APOBAINON, Eventus. 



APOBLEMA, Abortion. 

APOBOLE. Abortion. 


APOCAPXISMUS, Fumigation. 

APOCATASTASIS, Considentia, Restauratio. 




APOCENO'SIS, Apnsceiio'sln, from azo, 'out,' 
and Ktviaais, 'evacuation.' A partial evacuation 
according to some, in opposition to Ccnosis, whicl 
signifies a general evacuation. — Cullcn and Swe 
diaur apply it to morbid fluxes. 

Apocenosis, Abevacuatio — a. Diabetes mclli 
tus. Diabetes — a. Ptyalismus mellitus, sec Saliva 
tion — a. Voinitus pyrosis, Pyrosis. 

APOCHOREON, Excrement. 


i APOCII'YMA, from anoxcia, 'I pour out.' A 
sort of tar, obtained from old ships, which is im- 
pregnated with chloride of sodium. It was used 
as a discutient of tumours. — Aetius, Paulus, 

APOCm GOBE-MOUCHE, Apocynum an 

APOCLASMA, Abduction, Apagma. 

APOCLEISIS, Asitia, Disgust. 

APOCOPE, from ano, and kovtuv, 'to cut.' 
Abscission. A wound with loss of substance. 
Fracture with loss of part of a bone. Amputation. 

APOCOPIIS, Castratus. 

APOCRISIS, Contagion, Excrement, Secre- 

APOCROUS'TIC, Apncrous'tica seu Apocrm'- 
ticn, (remed'ia,) from airo, 'out,' and A-pouM, 'I 
push.' An astringent and repellent. — (ialcnus. 

APOCRUSTICA, Apocroustic. 

APOCYESIS, Parturition. 

APOCYN, see Apocynum Cannabinuni. 

APOCYNIN, see Apocynum Cannabinum. 

U. S.) from OTTO, and kuwv, 'a dog,' because es- 
teemed, of old, to be fatal to dogs. Doff'n Bane, 
Bitter Boy's Bane, Milkweed, Bitterroot, Honey, 
bloom, Catdifly, Flytrnp, Iji'ecac, Amer'iean Ipe- 
cac, (F.) Apocin gohe-mouclie, A. amer. Ord. 
Apocynaceic. Sex. Si/st. Pentandria Digynia. 
The root of this plant is found from Canada to 
Carolina. Thirty grains evacuate the stomacli 
as effectually as two-thirds of the amount of 
Ipecacuanha, by which name it is known in vari- 
ous parts of the Eastern States. It is in the 
secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of the United 

Apocynum Cannab'inum, (Ph. U. S.) Indian 
Hem]}. This American plant possesses emetic, 
cathartic, diaphoretic and diuretic properties, has 
been strongly recommended in dropsy, and 
has been given in decoction, — ^ij of the rcft 
boiled in three pints of water to two. A wine- 
glassful for a dose. An active principle, Apoci/n 
or Apocynin, has been extracted from the root. 

Apocynu.m IIvpericefo'lium, a variety of A. 
cannabinum, which, as well as A. androsaMiiifo- 
lium, abounds in a milky juice. This, when ap- 
plied to the skin, produces a troublesome erup- 
tion resembling flea-bites : hence, the plants have 
been termed, by the voya(jeurs in the Hudson's 
Bay territory, Herbes d In puce. 

Apocynum Novyf; Anglic IIirsutum, Ascle- 
pias tuberosa— a. Orange, Asclepias tuberosa— a. 
Scandens, Allamanda. 

APODACRYT'ICUS, Belachnjmati'vus, from 
ano, 'from,' and <5«<(puio, 'I weep.' A substance, 
supposed to occasion a flow of the tears, and then 
to arrest them.— CoUunolla, Pliny, Galenus. 


APOD'IA, from a, privative, and rots, -om, 
'afoot.' Want of feet; hence Apoun or Apu>, 
one who has no feet. 

APODYTE'RIUM, Coniste'rium, Spoliato'- 
rium, Spolia'rium, from arroivht, 'I strip off.' The 
ante-room, where the bathers stripped themselves 
in the ancient gymnasia. 






APOGEUSIS, Ageustia. 
AP0(;EUSTIA, Ageustia. 
A1'0(;LAUCOSIS, Glaucosis. 

AP(HiON'. Iinberbis. 

Al'UtiMJNUM, from ano, and ytvofiai, '1 exist' 
A liv iriL,' f(wtu.s in utero. — Hippocrates. 

AP(JLEl>rsrS, Desquamation. 

AI'OLKPISMUS, Desquamation. 

APOLEP'SIS, A])oli;p'aUi, Apolip'ah, from 
oToXufitJui'oi, ' I retain.' Itetention, suppression. 
— lli|i|>c)crates. Asphyxia. 

APOLEX'IS, from arruXjjyu), 'I cease.' Old 
aj;c, ik'CTc'pifude. 

APOLINO'SIS, from aro, and Xivov, 'a flaxen 
tiiroiid.' Tiie mode of operating for fistula in 
aiK). l)y means of a thread of Homolinon or Linuiii 
cnidiim. — Hippocrates, Paulas. 

APOEIPSrS. Apolepsis. 


APOLUTICA, Cicatrisantia. 

APOLYS'IAj^^joTysi's, from otoXdo), 'Iloosen.' 
Solution. Relaxation. Debility of the limbs or 
looseness of bandages. — Erotian. Expulsion of 
the foetus and its dejiendeneies. Termination of 
a disease. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

APOMATHE'MA, Apomnthe'ais, from oto, and 
fiav^avbi, ' I learn.' Forgetfulnessof things taught. 
— Hippocrates. 

APOM'ELI, from oto, 'of,' and ni:\i, 'honey.' 
An oxymel or decoction made of honey.— Galen, 
Aetius, Paulus, &a. 

APOMi:XIS, Munctio. 

APOMYLE'NAS, from a-^ofivWaivw, 'I make 
a wry mouth.' One who pushes his lips forwards, 
pressing them against each other. Occasionally 
A symptom of nervous fever. — Galen, Erotian. 

APOMYTHO'SIS, Apnmi/lto'nis, from a-roiwaaw, 
' I snore.' A disease in which there is stertor. — 
Sauvages, Sagar. 

APO.MYXIA, Nasal mucus. 

APONEUROG'RAPHY, Aponein-orji-a'phin, 
from arrovtvpiiicrii, an ' aponeurosis,' and ypacpij, 
' a description.' A description of the Aponeu- 

A P N E U R L'O G Y, Apo)ieurnIog"ia, from 
axovivimati, -'an aponeurosis,' and \oyos, 'a dis- 
course.' Aponenrosiol'ogi/. The anatomy of the 


A PON EURO 'SIS, Apoiiei-ro'iits, from avo, 
'from,' and vevpov, 'a nerve.' Pronerva'ti'o, De- 
verva'tio, Enerva'tio, Ex'jynu'sio nervo'sn, (F. ) 
Aponeiirose, Apotievrose. The .ancients called 
every white part vevpov, and regarded the Apo- 
neurosis as a nervous expansion. The Aponeu- 
roses are white, shining membranes, very resist- 
ing, and composed of fibres interlaced. Some 
are continuous with the muscular fibres, and difl^er 
only from tendons by their flat form. They are 
called Aponeuroses of inxertion, (F.) Apoiierroses 
d'insertion, when they are at the extremities of 
muscles, and attach them to the bone; — Aponeu- 
roses of intersection, (F.) Aponerroses d'interscc- 
tion, if they interrupt the continuity of the mus- 
cle, and are continuous on both sides with mus- 
cular fil>res. Others surround the muscle, and 
prevent its displacement : tliey are called envelop- 
ing Aponeuroses, (F.) Aponerroses d'enreloppe. 

Ai'ONKitROSis, Fascia — a. Crural, Fascia lata — 
a. Femoral, Fascia lata — a. Iliac, Fascia iliaca. 

APOXEUROSI'TIS, from aponeurosis, and 
ids, 'denoting inflammation.' Inflammation of 
an apon.Mirosis. 

APOXEUROT'IC, Aponeurot'icus. What re- 
lates to Aponeuroses: — thus, we say Aponeurotic 
exponsiou. Aponeurotic muscle, &C. 

APONEUKOT'OMY'", Apnneurotom'ia, from 
avovivpwati, ' aponeurosis,' and rc//i(D, ' I cut.' 
Anatomy of aponeuroses. 

Aponeurotomy has, also, been proposed for tho 
division, {debridement) of filaments, Ac, in apo- 
neurotic openings, and for the section of fasciaj. 

AP0N£VR0SE P£dIEUSE, see Pedal 
Aponeurosis — n. Superficielle de V Abdomen et de 
la Ouisse, Fascia superficialis. 

APONEVROSIS, Aponeurosis. 

APOX'IA, from a, privative, and zovos, 'pain.' 
Freedom from pain. 

APONIPSIS, Ablution. 

APOPALLE'SIS, Apopnl'sis, from as-OTraXXoj, 
'I throw off.' Expulsion. Protrusion. — Hippo- 
crates. Also, Abortion. 

APOPATE'MA, Apop'athos, Apop'atus. Tho 
excrement, and the place where it is deposited. — 
Dioscorides, Erotian. 

APOPEDASIS, Luxation. 

rhine — a. jier Os, Sialogogue. 

son'ta, Apophle(jniatls'nii, from oto, 'out,' and 
(pXeyfia, ' phlegm.' Medicines which facilitate the 
upward expulsion of mucus from the mucous 
membrane of the digestive or air passages; as 
gargles, masticatories, &c. 

APOPHLEG'MATl SM, Apophler/matis'mus. 
The action of Apophlegmatisantia. — Galen. 

APOPHLEGMATISMI, Apophlegmatisantia. 

APOPH'RADES, from a7zo(,^pns, ' unlucky.' 
An epithet applied to unlucky days, {dies ne- 
fandi.) Days on which a favourable change 
is not expected to occur in a disease. — A. Lau- 

APOPIIRAXIS, Amcnorrhoea. 

AV(nn\T\\A1V'SlA,Apoph'thorn, from ano, and 
^•Sfifja), ' I corrupt.' Abortion, as "oil as a medi- 
cine to procure abortion. 

APOPHTHORA, Abortion. 


APOPHY'ADES, from ano, 'from,' and duu, 
'I spring.' The ramifications of veins and arte- 
ries. — Hippocrates. 

APOPHYSE BARJLAJBE. Basilary process 
— a. Enyinnante ou riKjinnle, Vaginal jirocess — 
a. Pt/rumidale, see Temporal Bone — u. Petree, 
see Temporal Rone. 

cesses of tho vertebra;. 

APOPH'YSIS, from ano, 'from,' and ^vu, 'I 
rise,' Ec'pliysis, Proces'sns, Appendix, Prominen'- 
tia ossis contin'nn, A j)>'ocess of a bone. When 
the apophysis is yet separated from the body of 
the bone by intervening cartilage, it is called 
Epiph'ysis. The apophyses or processes are, at 
times, distinguished by epithets, expressive of 
their form : as A. styloid, A. corncoid, &c. Others 
are not preceded by the word apophysis; as Tro- 
chanter, Tuberosity, &Q. 

Apoph'ysis of Ingras'sias is a term applied 
to the lesser ala of the sphenoid bone. 

APoniY.sis JlAJiMiLLAiiis, Mastoid process. 

Apoi'Hvsis of Rau, Grele opophyse du Mar- 
tea u : see Malleus. 

Apophysis Zygomatica, Zygomatic process. 

APOPIES'MA, from anonte^u), 'I compress.' 
Hippocrates uses the term to signify a fancied 
expression or forcing out of humours by the 
application of bandages in wounds and frac- 

APOPEANESIS, Error loci. 

APOPLECTIC, Apoplec'ticus. Referring to 
Apoplexy. This word has various significations. 
It is applied, 1. To individuals laboring under 
apoplexy : 2. To remedies proper for combating 
apoplexy : .3. To the constitution, temperament, 
or make, Architeetu'ra apoplec'tica, Hah'itvs 
apoplec'ticus seu quadra'tns scu toro'sus, which 
predisposes to it, and, 4. To the symptoms whii-h 
chanicterize apoplexy ; as Apoplectic sleep, A. 




stroJce, A. Ktertov, Ac. The juguliir veins have 
also, by some, been called Ajwplectic veins, VencB 

Apoplectic Cell. Focus apopUc'ticus. A 
cavity remaining in the enccphalon, after the 
effusion of blood and its subsequent absorption. 

APOl'LKCTICUS, Antiapoplectic, Apoplectic. 

APOPLEXIA, Apoplexy — a. Catalcpsia, Cata- 
lepsia — a. Corebralis, .«ee Apoplexy — a. Cerebri, 
see Apoplexy — a. Cordis, Ilscuiocardiorrhagia — 
a. Hepatiea, Hepatorrhagia — a. llydrocephalica, 
Hj'drocephalus internus^a. Interarachnoidealis, 
Apoplexj', meningeal — a. Intermeningealis, Apo- 
plexy, meningeal — a. Medullaris, Apoplexiamye- 
litica — a. Meningrea, Apoplexy, meningeal. 

Apoplexia Myelit'ica, a. J/e(liiUa'ri8 seu 
Spina' Us seu Rachin' lis,Haimor' thaehis, Mijelor- 
)-hay"ia, Myehtpople.x'ia, (F.) Apoplexie de la 
Moelle epiniere, Jlemorrliagie de la Jlitelle epi- 
ni&re, Heinato-mi/elie, Heinu-myelon-Iia/jie, Heina- 
torrhackie. Hemorrhage into the spinal mar- 

Apoplexia Nervosa, Apoplexy, nervous — a. 
Nervosa traumatica, Concussion of the brain — a. 
Oculi Htemophthalmia — a. Pituitosa, see Apo- 
plexy — a. Pulmonalis, see Haemoptysis— a. Pul- 
monum, see Hi«moptysis — a. Renalis, Apoplexy, 
renal — a. Raehialis, A. myelitica^a. Sanguinea, 
see Apoplexy — a. Serosa, see Apoplexy— a. Sim- 
plex, Apoplexy, nervous — a. Spasmodica, Apo- 
plexy, nervous — a. Spinalis, Apoplexia myelitica 
— a. Temulcnta, see Temulentia. 

bri — a. Cerebiale, Apoplexy, Hemorrhayie cere- 
brale — a. da Cmur, Hasmocardiorrhagia. 

dering Apoplexy.' A form of apoplexy, which 
is intense and rapidly fatal. 

ningeal — a. de la Iloelle Epinih-e, Apoplexy, 

AP'OPLEXY, Apoplex'ia, (Sc.) Poplesy, from 
aroi:\riTTtiv, 'to strike with violence.' At the pre- 
sent day, the term apoplexy is employed by many 
writers to signify interstitial hemorrhage, (F.) IIc- 
viorrharjie interstitielle, or every effusion of blood, 
which occurs suddenly into the substance of an 
organ or tissue. Hence, we speak of cerebral 
apoplexy, pulmonary apoplexy, &c. &c. For- 
merlj' it was always — and still is by many — 
used in a restricted sense, to signify, in other 
words, the train of phenomena, which charac- 
terize cerebral apoplexy. This disease, Hmmor- 
rha'gia Cer'ebri, Aphro'nia, Cams Ajioplex'ia, 
Coma Apoplex'ia, Apoplex'ia cer'ebri sanguin'ea 
seu cerebra'lis, Encephalorrhng"ia, San'guinis 
ictus, Hamatenceph' alum, Pulpez'ia, Sidera'tio, 
Apileps' ia, 3Iorbus atton' itns, Gutta, TUeophle'gia, 
Theoplex'ia, (F.) Apoplexie, A. cerebrale, Hema- 
toencephalie, Coujy de sang, is characterized by 
diminution, or loss of sensation and mental ma- 
nifestation ; by the cessation, more or less com- 
plete, of motion ; and by a comatose state, — cir- 
culation and respiration continuing. It generally 
consists in pressure upon the brain ; either from 
turgescence of vessels, or from extravasation of 
blood : hence the terras HcEmenccph'alus, Hemor- 
rhagic cerebrale, and Hemoencephalorrhagie, ap- 
plied to it by some. The general prognosis is 
unfavourable; especially when it occurs after the 
age of 35. When Apoplexy is accompanied with 
a hard, full pulse, and flushed countenance, it is 
caWed Apoplex'ia sanguin'ea, Cataph'ora Coma; 
when with a feeble pulse and pnle countenance, 
and evidences of serous effusion, Apoplex'ia se- 
ro'sa, A. pitnito'sa, Serous Apoplexy, Cataph'ora 
hydrocephaV ica, Encephaloch'ysis seni'lis, Ilydro- 
ceph'alus acu'tus senum, Hydroenccphnlorrhec, 

(Piorry,) Uydropisie cerebrale snraiguc, Ilydror- 

In Nervous Apoplexy, Apoplex'ia nervo'sa seu 
spasmod'ica, A. simplex, Simple ajioplexy, no le- 
sion whatever may be perceptible on dissection ; 
although the p.atient may have died under all the 
phenomena that are characteristic of apoplexy. 

Apoplexy, Heat, see Coup-de-Soleil — a. of 
the Heart, Hcemocardiorrhagia. 

Apoplexy, Meninge'al, Apoplex'ia menin- 
gm'a seu intermeningea' lis sen interarachno'idea'- 
lis, (F.) Apoplexie mSning^e, Ilemorrhugie m6- 
ningee. Hemorrhage from the meninges of the 
brain or spinal marrow, generally into the great 
cavity of the arachnoid. 

Apoplexy, Nervoi'S, see Apoplexy — a. Pul- 
mon.ary, see Hasmoptysis — a. Simple, A. Nervous. 

Apoplexy, Renal, Apoplex'ia rena'lis. A 
condition of the kidney, characterized by knotty, 
irregular, tuberculated eminences, some of a deep 
black colour. Effusion of blood into the substance 
of the kidney. 

Apoplexy, Serous, see Apoplexy — a. Spinal, 
Apoplexia myelitica. 

APOPNEUSIS, Exhalatio. 

APOPNIXIS, Suffocation. 

APOPNOE, Exspiratio. 

APOPNCEA, Exspiratio. 

APOPSYCniA, Syncope. 

APOPTO'SIS, from ajroiiTrrco, 'I fall down.' 
A relaxation of bandages. — Erotian. 

APORRHOE, Aporrhoea. 

APORRlIffi'A, Apor'rhoe, Apior'rhysis, Dejlu'- 
vium, from anopfietj), 'I flow from.' An emana- 
tion, effluvium, contagion. — Moschion. A falling 
off of the hair, according to some. 

APORRHYSIS, Aporrhoea. 

APOSCEM'MA, Aposcep'sis, from azoaKtzoi, 
'I lie down, I direct mj'self towards.' Afflux of 
fluids towards a part. Metastasis. The first 
word has been applied to the excrements. — Hip- 
pocrates, Galen. 

APOSCENOSIS, Apocenosis. 

APOSCEPARNIS'MUS, Bcnscia'tio, from airo 
and oKt-Kapvov, 'a hatchet.' Wound of the cra- 
nium, by a cutting instrument, in which a piece 
of the bone has been cut out, as with a hatchet. 
— Gorrreus. 

APOSCEPSTS, Aposcemm.a. 
" APOS'CHASIS, Aposchas'mus, from oToirx^a^u), 
'I scarify.' Scarijiea'tion. A slight superficial in- 
cision in the skin. Also, blood-letting. — Hippoc. 

APOS'IA, Sit is defec'tus, from a, privative, 
and voats, ' drink.' Want of thirst, absence of 
desire for liquids. 

APOSI'TIA, from ojTo, 'from,' and ctitoj, 'food.' 
Aversion for food. — Galen. See Disgust. 

APOSIT'IC, j4/)&«/j'iicH«/ the same etymology. 
Any substance which destroys the appetite, or 
suspends hunger. 

APOSPAS'MA, from an-otrn-uw, 'I tear or lace- 
rate. (F.) Arrachement. A solution of continu- 
ity, especially of a ligament; lihegma ligamcn- 
tu're, Laceru'tio llgamenta'ria. 

APOSPHACEL'ISIS, Ajwsphacelis'mus, from 
oTto, and a(j)aK€Xos, ' mortification.' Gangrene in 
wounds and fractures, owing to the bandages 
being too tight.— Hippocrates. 

APOSPHINX'IS,aTo<r0tyfij, constriction, com- 
pression. The action of a tight bandage.— Hip- 

APOSPONGIS'MUS, the act of sponging for 
any purpose.— Gorraeus. 

APOSTAIiAG'MA, Apostag'ma, from otto, 
'from,' and (rraAa^u, ' I drop.' The ancient name 
for the saccharine licjuor which flows from "-rapes 
when not yet pressed. ° 

APOS'TASIS, from otto, and larrjin, • J stop.' 



The ancients had different significations for this 
word. It was most commonly used for an ab- 
scess. Thc'separiUion of a fragment of bone by 
fracture. Removal of disease by some excre- 
tion, &c. 

APOSTAX'IS, from a-noaraiu, ' I distil from.' 
Staxls. The defluxion of any humour, as of 
blood from the none. — Hippocrates. 

APOSTK'MA, from a:io, 'from,' and larvin, '1 
settle,' or from a^iarr^jti, ' I recede from.' This 
word is used liy the ancients somewhat vaguely. 
It meant an ntfection in which parts, previously 
in contact, are separated from each other by a 
fluid collected between them. The moderns re- 
gard it as synonymous with AI/scchs. Some, even 
of the moderns, have applied it to any watery 
tumour, and even to tumours in general. 

Apostkma Ckrkbri, Encei)halopyosis — a. Em- 
pyema, Empyema— a. Parulis, Parulis— a. Pha- 
langum, Fonrche — a. Psoaticum, Lumbar abscess. 


APOSTERIG'MA, from aTOffTT/pi^ui, 'I sup- 
port.' Anything that supports a diseased part, 
as a cushion, a pillow, Ac. — Galen. A deep- 
seated and inveterate disease of the intestines. — 

APOS'TllIA, Leipoder'mia, from a, privative, 
and ToaOin, ' (ircpuce.' Want of prepuce. 

APOSTIIUMl'l, Abscess. 

APOSrOLE, Extractum. 

phar'nidcinn, Ointment of the Aponfles. So called, 
because as many solid ingredients entered into 
its composition as there were apostles. It con- 
tained several resins and gum-resins, yellow wax, 
oil, vinegar, verdigris, &c., and was formerly em- 
ployed as a vulncniryj 

APOS'TUOPIIE, from airo, and aTC[<pu, '1 
turn.' An aversion or disgust for food. — Paulus. 
Also, the direction of humours towards other 

APOSYRMA. Abrasion, Desquamation. 

APOTELES'MA, from a-rro, and TcXcafjm, 'com- 
pletion.' The result or termination of a disease. 
See, also, Amuletum. 


APOT HE' G A, I'hnnnnce'tim,Phrtrmacnpo' Hum, 
from oTo, and rtOn/jit, 'to place.' Any place where 
things are kept, and therefore 'a shop,' and par- 
ticularly a wine cellar. A place or vessel wherein 
medicines are kept. See Pharmacopolium. 

APOTHECARIES' HALL. The Hall of the 
Corporation or Society of Apothecaries of Lon- 
don, where medicines are prepared and sold 
under their direction, &o. This Company ob- 
tained a charter of incorporation in the 15th j'ear 
of James the First. No general practitioner can 
establish himself in England or Wales, witfinut 
having obtained a license from the Court of Ex- 
aminers of the Company. 

APOTH'ECARY, Apotheca'rius, Dispensa'tnr, 
Pharmneiipo'ta, J'hantiacopai'iin, Pluirma'cexis, 
Pharmrneii'td, Pif/mentn'rhm, Rhizot'nmitii, My- 
ropo'lex, Mi/ropo Inn, Pharmacter, Pharmncur'- 
giciia, Phnrmacur'ipia, Pharmacen'tist, same deri- 
vation, (Prov.) J'ot'ecari/, (Sc.) Pottlngar, (F.) 
Apothicaire, Phoniiacieii, Phnrmacopo/e. In 
every country except Great Britain, it means one 
who sells drugs, makes up proscriptions, <fec. In 
addition to these offices, which, indeed, they 
rarely exercise, except in the case of their own 
patients, the Apothecaries in England form a 
privileged class of practitioners — a kind of sub- 
physician. See Surgeon-apothecary. 

APOTHERAPKl'A, Apotheropl'n, ApotTiern- 
pen'sis, from imo^ipaircxmy (a-ao and OcpaKtvw.) 'I 
cure.' A perfect euro. — Hippoe. In the ancient 
Gymnastic?, it meant the last part of the exer- 

(jigeg : the friction, inunction, and bathing, for 


the purpose of obviating fatigue, or curing dis- 
ease. — (Jalcn. Gorraeus. 

APOTHERAPEUSIS, Apotherapeia. 

APOTHER'MUM, from airo, and ^tp^..;, 'heat.' 
A pickle made of mustard, oil, and vinegar. — 

APOTII'ESIS, from a-nori^vft, 'I replace.' 
The position proper to be given to a fractured 
limb, after reduction. 

APOTHTCAIRE, Apothecary. 

APOTHICAIRERIE (F.), from avoOr,K„, 'a 
warehouse, shop.' The same as Apotheca; also, 
a gallipot. See Pharmacopolium. 

APOTHLIM'.MA, from a-ro, and 5Ai/?<.), 'I 
press from.' Anciently, the dregs, and some- 
times the expressed juice, Succus expree'sus, of 
plants. — Gorra?us. 

APOTHRAU'SIS, from a7ro5pa«o), 'I break.' 
Fracture of a bone, with spicula remaining. Ex- 
traction of a spiculum of bone. — Gorrajus. Also, 

APOTILMOS, Evulsion. 

APOT'OKOS, from a-ro, and ti/ctui, 'I bring 
forth.' An abortive foetus. — Hippocrates. 

APOTOME, Amputation. 

APOTOMIA, Amputation. 

APOTROPiEUxM, Amuletum. 

APOTROPE, Aversion. Also, deviation — as 
of a limb — /'(irat'rape. 

APOXYSMUS, Abrasion. 

A POZEM, Decoction. 

APOZESIS, Decoction. 

APPARA'TUS, Paranceic'e, from ad and pa- 
rare, ' to prepare.' This word signifies a collec- 
tion of instruments, &c., for any operation what- 
ever. (F.) Apparell. 

In Surgery, it means the methodical arrange- 
ment of all the instruments and objects necessary 
for an operation or dressing. By extension, the 
French give the name Apjmrcil, Capua cliirur'- 
gica, to the case or drawers in which the appara- 
tus is arranged. 

Apparatus has likewise been applied to the 
different modes of operating for the stone. See 

In Plit/siolofji/, Apparatus, (F.) Appareil, is ap- 
plied to a collection of organs, all of which work 
towards the same end. A si/xtem of orc/avs com- 
prehends all those formed of a similar texture. 
An apparatus often comprehends organs of very 
different nature. In the foryiier, there is analogy 
of structure; in the latter, analogy of function. 

Apparatus Altus, see Lithotomy. 

Apparatus Immov'able (F.), Appareil immo- 
bile, Immovable Bandage, Permanent Bandage. 
An apparatus for fractures, which is generally 
formed by wetting the bandages in some sub- 
stance, as starch or dextrin, which becomes solid, 
and retains the parts in situ. 

Apparatus Latkralis, see Lithotomy — a. 
Major, see Lithotomy — a. Minor, see Lithotomj'. 

APPAREIL, Apparatus, Boitier — a. iJinp- 
nofjene, see Perspiration — a. Grand, see Litho- 
tomy — a. Ilaut, see Lithotomy — a. Immobile, 
Apparatus, immovable — a. Lacrimal, see Lachry- 
mal passages — a. Lateralise, see Lithotomy — ". 
Nevrotltcle, see Nevrotlille — a. Petit, see Litho- 
tomy — a. Pigmental, Pigmental apparatus. 

admits, in the brain, two kinds of fibres; the 
one, divergent, proceeding from the cerebral 
peduncles to the convolutions, and constituting 
what he calls apparcih de formation : the other, 
convergent, and proceeding from the convolutions 
to the centre of the organ, constituting what he 
calls appareils de reunion. The frst, as a whole, 
form the organs of the mental faculties; the latter 
arc commissures, which unite parts of the organ 
that are doable and in pairs. 



APPAUVRI, Impoverished. 

APPENDICE, Appendix — a. CcRcal, Appen- 
dix vcrmiformis cseci — a. Digital, Appendix ver- 
miformis ctcci — a. Sous-sternale, Xiphoid carti- 
lage — a. Siis-sphcno'idale dtt cerveait, Pituitary 
gland — a. Xiphoide, Xiphoid cartilage. 

AppF.xnicRS CoLi Adipos.b, Appendiculae epi- 
ploicae — a. Epipldiques, Appendicula; epiploicae. 

— a. Vcrmiformis caeci, see Appendix — a. Epi- 
ploica, Epiploic .oppendage. 

Epiplii'iceB, Epip'loic append'ages, Appen'dices 
coli adipo'HCB, Fim'bricB canio'xcB coli, Suppleiin^n'- 
ta epiplo'icn, Onicn'tuln, (F.) Appendicen Epi^ 
ploiques. Prolongations of the peritoneum be- 
yond the surface of the great intestine, which 
are analogous in texture and arrangement to 

APPEN'DIX, Epipli'ysis, from oppendere, (ad 
and pendere, ' to hang,') ' to hang from.' Any 
part that adheres to an organ or is continuous 
■with it : — seeming as if added to it. An append- 
age ; an apophysis, (F.) Appendice, A)iHexe. 

Appendix Auricula, see Auricles of the 
Heart — a. Cerebri, Pituitary gland — a. ad Cere- 
brum, Cerebellum — a. Cutanea Septi Narium, 
Statica Septi Narium — a. to the Epididymis, Vas- 
culum aberrans^a. Ventriculi, Duodenum. 

Appendix Vermifou'mis, Appendic'ula Ver- 
mifor' min Cce'ci, Tnhiis Verrnicida'ris CcBci, Ev'- 
phyaa, Additamen'tum Coli, Appen'dix Caci, (F.) 
Appendice vermiforme, A. cmcal ou digital. A 
vermicular process, the size of a goose-quill, 
which hangs from the intestine ccecum. Its 
functions are unknown. 

Appendix Vesicae, see Bladder, sacculated. 

APPENSIO. see Analeptia. 

AP'PETENCE, Appeten'tia, from ajypetere, {ad 
and petere,) 'to desire.' An ardent, passionate 
desire for any object. 

AFPETT'r, PERTEjy, Anorexia. 

AP'PETITE, Appeti'tus, Appeten'tia, Appcti"- 
tia, (ad and petere,) 'to seek,' Ciipi'do, Orex'is, 
Orme : same etymology as the last. An internal 
sensation, which warns us of the necessity of ex- 
erting certain functions, especially those of diges- 
tion and generation. In the latter case it is called 
venereal appetite, (F.) Appetit venerien: in the 
former, simply appetite, (F.) Appetit ou Appeti- 
tinn. If the desire for food, occasioned by a real 
want, be carried to a certain extent, it is called 
hunger, when solid food is concerned ; thirst, when 
liquid. Appetite and hunger ought not, how- 
ever, to be employed synonymously: they are 
different degrees of the same want. Hunger is 
an imperious desire : it cannot be provoke-d, like 
the appetite. It is always allayed by eating : but 
not so the appetite; for, at times, it may be ex- 
sited in this manner. They are very generally, 
however, used synonymously. 

Appetite, Morbid, Limosis. 

Ap'petite, Vene'real, Venereal desire, (F.) 
Le genesiqne. Amour physique, Sens genital. The 
instinctive feeling that attracts the sexes towards 
each other to effect the work of reproduction. 

APPETITUS CANINUS, Boulimia— a. Defi- 
ciens, Dvsorexia. 

APPLE, ADAM'S, Pomum Adami— a. Bitter, 
Cncumis colocynthis — a. Curassoa, Aurantium 
curassaventium — a. Dead Sea, see Quercus infec- 
toria — a. Eye, see Melon — a. of the Eye, Pupil 
— a. Mad, see Quercus infeotoria — a. May, Podo- 
phyllum peltatum — a. of Peru, Datura stramo- 
nium — a. Root, Euphorbia corollata — a. of Sodom, 
see Quercus infectoria. 

Apple Tea, Apple water. Slice two large, not 
over-ripe apjyles, and pour over a pint of boiling 

water. After an hour, pour off the fluid, and, if 
necessary, sweeten with sugar. 

Apple Trke, Pyrus malus. 

APPLICA'TA, from applicare, (ad and plicare, 
'to fold,') 'to ai)ply.' A word, unnecessarily in- 
troduced into medical language, to express the 
objects which are applied immediately to the sur- 
face of the body, as clothes, cosmetics, baths, A'c. 

APPLICA'TION, Applica'tio, (same etymon,) 
in a moral signification, is synonymous with at- 
tention. Also, the act of applying one thing to 
another; as the application of an apparatus, of 
a bandage, blister, Ac. 

APPREHEN'SIO, from ad and prchenderc, 
'to take.' This word is employed in various 
senses. It means catalepsy or catoche. — Paul 
Zacchias. A kind of bandage for securing auy 
part. Also, a therapeutical indication. 

APP ROCHE. Coition. 

APPROXIMA'TION, Approxima'tio, from ad 
and proximus, 'nearest.' Ettmuller gave this 
name to a pretended method of curing disease, 
by making it pass from man into some animal or 
vegetable, by the aid of immediate contact. 

APRAC'TA, from a, priv., and Tfiaaaui, 'I act.' 
Without action. An epithet for the parts of ge- 
neration, when unfit for copulation or generatiun. 

APRICATIO, Insolation. 

APRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca. 

APROCTUS, see Atretus. 

APRONIA, Tamus communis. 

APROSO'PIA, Triocephal'ia, from a, priv., 
and irpoo-wTTof, 'the face.' A malformation, whicli 
consists in the face being deficient. 

APROSOPUS. Mieroprosopus. 

APSINTHIA'TUM, from a^^iv^wv, 'worm- 
wood.' A sort of drink made of wormwowl, 
— Aetius. 

APSINTHITES, Absinthites. 

APSYCHIA, Syncope. 

APSYCHISME, Idiotism. 

APSYCHY, Syncope. 

APSYXIA, Syncope. 

APTHiE, Aphtha-. 

APTYS'TOS, from a, priv., and rruo), ' I spit,' 
Devoid of expectoration. An epithet given U 
certain pleurisies, in which there is no expectora- 
tion. — Hippocrates. 

APUS, see Apodia. 

APY'ETOS, from a, priv., and ttvov, 'pus.' An 
external affection, which does not end in suppu- 


A'PYOS, from a, priv., and -kvov, 'pus.' (F.) 
Apyiqne. That which does not afford pus. 

APYRECTIC, Apyretic. 

APYRENOMELE, Apyromele. 

APYRET'IC, Ajnjret'icus, Apyvec'tie, Apyrec'- 
ticus, Ajn/r'etus, from a, priv., and Trup, 'fire, 
fever.' Without fever. This epithet is given tu 
days in which there is no paroxysm of a disease, 
as in the case of an intermittent, as well as to 
some local affections which do not induce fever. 
Urticaria is sometimes called an apyretie exim- 
them. ■' "^ 

APYREX'IA, A'pyrexy. The same etymol()'_'v. 
Absence of fever; Binlem'ma, Dialelp'sis, l)i'>- 
lip'sis, Temjvia intercala're, Interval' Inm, Intcr- 
mis'sio. Apyrexia is the condition of an inter- 
mittent fever between the paroxysms : the dnrn- 
tion of the apyrexia consequently depend.s 
the type of the intermittent. Occasionally, the 
term has been applied to the cessation of the 
tebrilo condition in acute diseases. 

APYROME'LE, Apyrenome'le, from a, priv,, 
r.xjpr,v, 'a nut,' and iir,X^, 'a sound.' A sound or 
probe, without a button or nut. It is the JAA/d*, 




S!pecil'lui,i auricula' nam or Auricular sound of 

AQUA, Urine, Water — a. Acidi carbonici, 
Acidulous water — a. Acidula hydrosulphurata, 
Naples water (factitious) — a. Aeris fixi. Acidu- 
lous water (simple) — a. Alkalina oxymuriatica, 
tail de Javelle — a. Aluminis composita, Liquor 
aluininis coinpositus— a. Aluminosa Batoana, Li- 
quor ahuuinis compositus— a. Ammonia;, Liquor 
ainmoniaa— a. Acetatis ammoniao, Liciuor ammo- 
nioo acetatis — a. Ammoniaa carbonatis, Liquor 
ainnioniaj subcarbonatis — a. Ammonia) caustica. 
Liquor ammonia;- a. Amnii, Liquor Amnii. 

AyuA Amyguala'uum Concentra'ta, A. amy- 
dolu'rum umiiru'rum, (F.) Eaud' Amaudes ameres, 
Water of hitter almonds. Made by bruising well 
tvyo pounds of bitter almonds; adding, whilst 
triturating, ten pounds of spring water, and four 
pounds of alcohol; letting the mixture rest in a 
well-closed vessel, and then distilling two pounds. 
Used instead of the Aqua Laurocerasi, and the 
Hydrocyanic acid. It must be given with great 

An A<pia amijg'dalcs ama'rm, Bitter Almond 
xcater, has been introduced into the last edition 
of the Ph. U. S., 1861, {01. amygdal. amar. 
n^xvj; Mnfjnes. Carbon.^]; ylryiice Oij.) Dose, 
f 3ss. 

Aqua Anethi, see Anethum graveolens — a. 
Anisi, see Pimpinella anisum — a. Anisi Fortis, 
Spiritus anisi — a. Aquisgranensis, see Aix-la- 
Chapelle — a. Auditoria, Cotunnius, Liquor of — 
a. Aurantii, see Cit^is aurantium — a. Axotica 
oxygenata. Aqua nitrogcnii protoxydi — a. Balsa- 
mica arterialis, Aqua Bincllii — a. Bareginensis, 
Bareges water — a. Baryta; Muriatis, see Baryta, 
muriate of — a. Bellilucana, Balaruc waters — a. 
Benedicta, Liquor calcis — a. Benedicta compo- 
sita, Liijuor cjilcis coinpositus — a. Benedicta Ru- 
landi, Vinum antimonii tartarizati. 

Aqua Bixkl'lh, Acqua Binelli, Aqua Balaam'- 
ica arteria'lia, Binelli's styptic, (F.) Eau de Bi- 
nelli. A celebrated Italian hemostatic, invented 
by one Binelli. Its composition is unknown, but 
its virtues have been ascribed to creasote ; al- 
though there is reason for believing it to possess 
no more activity than cold water. Aqua Monte- 
rossi, (F.) Eau de Monterosai, appears to be of 
analogous composition. 

Aqua Borvonensis, Bourbonne-les-Baines, 
mineral waters of — a. Bristoliensis, Bristol water. 

Aqua BuocCHir/nn, Acqua Brocchieri, Broc- 
chieri or Brocchiari leater, Brocchieri's styptic, 
(F.) Eau de Brocchieri, Eau atyptique de Broc- 
chieri, A supposed styptic, which made much 
noise at Paris at one time. It is devoid of effi- 
cacy. Dr. Paris found nothing in it but water 
perfumed by some vegetable essence. 

Aqua Cai.cari.e ust^, Liquor calcis — a. Cal- 
cis, Liquor Calcis — a. Calcis composita, Liquc/r 
calcis compositus — a. Cauiphora;, Mistura cam- 
phoree — a. Camphorata, Bates's, see Cupri sulphas 
— a. Carbonatis sodiB acidula. Acidulous water, 
simple — a. Cnrui, see Carum Carui — a. Cassiae, 
^ee Laurus cassia — a. Catapultarum, jlrgxeiusac/e, 
eau d'—ii. Chlorini, see Chlorine. 

Aqita Ci.nnamo'mi, Cinnamon water, (Sc.) 
Canncl water. Distilled water of Cinnamon Bark. 
Prepared also in the following manner. 01. Cin- 
ii'im. f.^ss; Maipus. Carbon.^}; Aq. destillat. 
Oij. Rub the oil and carbonate of miignesia; 
add the water gradually, and filter. (Ph. U. S.) 

AQtTA CiN>fAMOMi FouTis, Spiritus Cinnamomi 
a. Colcestrensis, Colchester, mineral waters of. 

Aqua Coi.oua'ta, 'coloured water.' A name 
given to a prescription in which simple coloured 
water is contained. Used in hospital eases, more 
especially, where n placebo is demanded. 

Aqua "Cunn Ammoniata, Liquor c. a.— a. Cu- 

pri vitriolati composita, Liquor cupri sulphatis 
composita — a. inter Cutem, Anasarca — a. Destil- 
lata, Water, distilled. 

Aqua Fabro'rum, 'Water of Smiths.' Waterin 
which hot iron has been quenched. A feeblo 

Aqua Flokum Aurantii, see Citrus aurantium 
— a. Fluviatilis, Water, river. 

Aqua Fcenic'uli, Fennel xcater. The distilled 
water of fennel seed. It may be prepared also 
like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Fo.mtana, Water, spring — a. Fortis, Ni- 
tric acid — a. Goulardi, Liquor Plumbi subaeetatis 
dilutus — a. Hepatica, Hydrosulphuretted water 
— a. llordeata, Decoctum hordei — a. Iiubrium, 
Water, rain — a. Infernalis, see Toddy — a. Inter- 
cus, Anasarca — a. Inter Cutem, Anasarca — a. 
Juniperi composita, Spiritus juniperi compositus 
— a. Kali, Liquor potassac subcarbonatis — a. Kali 
caustici, Liquor potassae — a. Kiili prajparati, 
Liquor potassae subcarbonatis — a. Kali puri. 
Liquor potassae — a. Kali subcarbonatis, Liquor 
potassae subcarbonatis — a. Labyrinthi, Cotunnius, 
liquor of — a. Lactis, Serum lactis — a. ex. Lacu, 
Water, lake— a. Lauro-cera^i, see Prunus Lauro- 
cerasus — a. Lithargyri acetati composita. Liquor 
plumbi subaeetatis dilutus — a. Liicire, Spiritus 
ammoniae succinatus — a. Marina, Water, sea — a. 
Medicata, AVater, mineral. 

Aqua Mentha Piperi't^, Peppermint Water. 
The distilled water of peppermint. It may be 
prepared like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Mentha PirEiurini.s Si-iRiTrosA, Spi- 
ritus menthae piperita- — a. Menthic pulegii, see 
Mentha pulegium — a. Menth;u viridis. Spearmint 
water, see Aqua; menthas pipiritit' — a. Mentha) 
vulgaris spirituosa, Spiritus mentha; viridis — a. 
Mineralis, Water, mineral — a. Mirabilis, Spiritus 
piraentae — a. Jlonterossi, see Aqua Binellii — a. 
Mulsa, Ilydromeli — a. Natri Oxyniuriatiei, Li- 
quor soda; chlorinatse — a. Neapolitana, Naples 
water, (factitious) — a. Nephritica, Spiritus my- 

Aqua Nitrogen'ii Protox'vdi, Protox'ide 
of Ni'trogen Water, Aqua azot'ica oxyijena'ta, 
Searle'a patent oxyg"enous aerated tcatcr. A pa- 
tent solution of protoxide of nitrogen, said to 
contain five times its own bulk of gas. It has 
been recommended as a nervine, and excitant iu 
nervous conditions, dyspepsia, &c. It has also 
been used in cholera, and to counteract the evil 
consequences of drunkenness. The dose is f.^vj, 
or ,^viii, two or three times a day; or, in dys- 
pepsia, as a beverage between meals. 

Aqua Nivata, Water, snow — a. Nueis inoscha- 
tas, Spiritus mj'ristica; — a. Ophthalmica, Liquor 
zinci sulphatis cum camphor.a — a. Paludosa., 
Water, marsh — a. Pedum, Urine — a. Pericardii, 
see Pericardium — a. Phagedeniea, see Hj-drar- 
gyri Oxymurias — a. Picea, see Pinus sylvestris — 
a. Picis, see Pinus sylvestris — a. Pimcntfe. see 
Myrtus Piinenta — a. Plumbi, Liquor Plumbi, 
subaeetatis dilutus — a. Pluvialis, AVater, rain — a. 
Potassa;, Liquor potassa; — a. Pulegii. see Mentha 
pulegium — a. Pulegii spirituosa, Spiritus juilogii 
— a. Putealis, Water, well — a. ex Puteo, Water, 
well — a. Rabelli, Elixir acidum H.alleri — a. Rajjh- 
ani composita, Spiritus arinoracice compositus — ■ 
a. Regia, Nitromuriatic acid. 

Aqua Ros.«, Bone Water, Bhodostar/'ma, (I'oa. 
centi/ol. Ibviij : AqucB cong. ij. M. Distil a gallon 
—Ph. U. S.) 

Aqua Salubris, Water, mineral — a. Sambuci, 
see Sambucus — a. Sappharina, Liquor cu)>ri am- 
moniata — a. Saturni, Liquor plumbi subaeetatis 
dilutus — a. Selopetaria, Arquthunade eau d' — a. 
Seminum anisi composita, Spiritus anisi— o. Semi- 
num carui fortis, Spiritus carui — n. Sodae efl'erves- 
ceus. Acidulous water, simple — a. Sotcrin, Water, 




mineral — a. Stygia, Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Styp- 
tica, Liquor cupri siilpiiatis composita — a. Sul- 
phurata simplex, Ilyilro.^ulphuretted water — a. 
Sulphureti ammonias, Liquor furaans Boylii — a. 
Thcdiana, Arqucbiisacle can d' — a. Theriacalis 
Bozoardiea, Chylosta^ma diaphoreticum Minde- 
reri — a. Tofana, Liquor arseniealis — a. Tosti 
panis. Toast water — a. Traumatica Thedenii, 
Arquelnstide cnu (£'— a. Vegeto-mineralis, Liquor 
plumbi subacetatis dilutus — a. Viciensis, Vichy 
^vater — a. Vitriolica camphorata, Liquor zinci 
sulpbatis cum camphorS — a. Vitriolica cxrulea, 
Solutio sulpbatis cupri composita — a. Vulneraria, 
Arqwhiisaile eau d' — a. Zinci vitriolati cum 
campbora. Liquor zinci sulpbatis cum camphora. 
AQU.^ ACIDULiE, Acidulous waters— a. 
Badiguae, Bath, Mineral waters of— a. Badizae, 
Batb, Mineral waters of — a. Batbonife, Bath, 
Mineral waters of — a. Buxtoniensis, Buxton, Mi- 
neral waters of — a. Calidse, Aigi(es caudes — a. 
Cantuarienses, Canterbury, waters of — a. Cbaly- 
beatas, Waters, mineral, chalybeate. 

Aqu.e Destili,a't>e, Hi/drola'tn, Distilled 
Waters, (F.) Hydrnlats. These are made by 
putting vegetable substances, as roses, mint, 
pennyroyal, &c., into a still with water, and 
drawing off as much as is found to possess the 
aromatic properties of the plant. To every gallon 
of the distilled water, 5 oz. of spirit should be 
added to preserve it. The simple distilled waters 
are sometimes called Aqnce, stillatit"ia sim'plices : 
th-e spirituous, A(]U(B stillatit'ice spiritiw' sm, but 
more commonly Splr'itiis. 

Aqu.e FEiiiiOSyK, Waters, mineral, ehahybeate. 
Aqvx Martiales, Waters, mineral, chalybeate. 
AqUjG Medica't^;, 3/edicated waters include, in 
the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, prepara- 
tions consisting of waters impregnated with some 
medicinal substance, which are not arranged in any 
other class. Among these are the " Waters," and 
"Distilled waters" of the British pharmacopoeias. 
Aqu.e Mutus, Hydrophobia — a. Minerales aci- 
dulas — a. Waters, mineral, gaseous — a. Minerales 
ferruginosas, Waters, mineral, chalybeate — a. Mi- 
nerales sulpbureoB, Waters, mineral, sulphureous 
— a. Stillatitiaj, Aquoe destillatte — a. Solis, Bath, 
mineral waters of. 

AQU.EOUC'TUS, Aq'iieditet, from aqua, 'wa- 
ter,' and ducere, ductitm, 'to lead.' (F.) Aque- 
drtc. Properly, a canal for conducting water 
from one place to another. Anatomists have 
used it to designate certain canals. 

Aqu^eductus Cerebkt, Infundibulum of the 
brain — a. Cotunnii, Aqureductus vestibuli. 

Aqu.sduc'tus Coch'lEjE, (F.) Aquedue du Li- 
nagon ; — a very narrow canal which proceeds 
from the tympanic scala of the cochlea to the 
posterior edge of the pars petrosa. 

AqUvEDUC'tuS Fallo'pii, Cana'lis Fallo'pii, 
Canal spiniide de I'os temporal of Chaussier, (F.) 
Aquedue de Fallope. A canal in the pars petro- 
sa of the temporal bone, which extends from the 
meatus auditorius internus to the foramen stylo- 
mastoideum, and gives passage to the facial 
nerve. The opening into this aqueduct is called 
JBia'tiis Fallo'pii, H. Cana'lis Fallo'pii, Fissu'- 
ra Cana'lis Fallo'pii, Fora'men Tari'ni, F. 
anon'yiuum Ferreiu'ii. 

Aqu^educ'tus Syl'vii, Cana'lis eminen'tim 
quadrigcm'incB, Iter ad quartum ventric' ulum seu 
d ter'tio ad quar'tum i^entric'nlum, Cana'lis me'di- 
vs, (F.) Aquedue de Sylvius, Canal interinediare 
des ventricuhs of Chaussier. A canal forming a 
communication between the third and fourth 
ventricles of the brain. The ventricular opening 
is termed anus cer'ehri. 

AqujEDUc'tus Vestib'uli, Aqumductits Cotun'- 
nii, Canal of Cutun'niHS, (F.) Aquedue da vestibule 
ou Aquedue de Cotu(jno. This begins in the ves- 

tibule, near the common orifice of the two semi- 
circular canals, and opens at the posterior surface 
of the pars petrosa. 

AQUALIC'ULUS. from aqualis, 'a wat-er-pot.' 
That part of the abdomen which extends from 
the umbilicus to the pubes. See Ilypogastrium. 
It has also been applied to the stomach or intes- 
tinal canal. 

AQUAS'TER. A word used, by Paracelsus, 
to express the visions or hallucinations of pa- 

AQUEDUC, Aqueduct — a. de Cotugno, Aqua?- 
ductus vestibuli — a. de Fallope, Aquaiductus Fal- 
lopii — a. du Limagon, Aquac-ductus cochleae — q. 
de Sylvius, Aquajductus Sylvii — a. du Vestibule, 
Aquseductus vestibuli. 

AQUEDUCT, Aquffiductus. 

A'QUEOUS, A'queus, Aquo'sus, ffydato'dct. 
Hydro' des, from aqua, 'water,' (F.) Aqueiu; 
Watery. The absorbents or lymphatics are 
sometimes called, in France, Conduits ou Canaux 

Aqueous Humour of the Eye, Humor aqm'. 
sns, Odei'des, Oo'des, Hydato'i'des, Hydato'd'iS, 
Ova'tus seu Qvifor'mis humour, Albui/in'eous hi- 
mour, (F.) Humenr aqueuse. The limpid fluid 
which fills the two chambers of the eye, from the 
cornea to the crystalline, and which is, conse- 
quently, in contact with the two surfaces of the 
iris. Quantity, 5 or 6 grains: s. g. L0003. It 
contains albumen, chloride of sodium, and phos- 
phate of lime in small quantity ; and is enveloped 
in a fine membrane : — the membrane of the aqueom 
humour, Tunica propria seu Vagi'na seu 3Iem- 
bra'na seu Cap'sula humo'ris a'qxtei seu Mem- 
bra'na Demuria'na seu Descemet'ii, Membrane 
of Demours or of Descemet ; although these last 
terms are by some appropriated to a third layer 
of the cornea. 

AQUEUS, Aqueous. 

AQUIDUCA, Hydragogues. 

AQUIFOLIUM, Ilex aqujfolium— a. Foliis 
deciduis, Prinos. 

AQUILA, Hydrargyri submurias. Sulphur. 

The alchymists used this word for sublimed 
sal ammoniac, precipitated mercury, .arsenic, sul- 
phur, and the philosopher's stone. See Hydrar- 
gyri Submurias, and Sulphur. 

Aq'uila Ccelest'is ; a sort of panacea, of 
which mercury was a constituent. 

Aq'uila LACu'RYiHyE; a liquor prepared from 
several ingredients, especially from calomel. 

Aq'uila PHiLosopiio'nuM. The alchymists, 
whose terms were always mysterious, called mer- 
cury thus, when reduced to its original form- 

Aq'uila Ven'eris ; an ancient preparation, 
made by subliming verdigris and sal ammoniac. 

AQUILA VEN^E, Temporal veins. 

AQUILE'GIA, A. vtdya'ris seu sylves'tris seu 
Alpi'na, Common Colombine or Columbine, (F.) 
Ancolie. Order, Ranunculaceae. From aquiln, 
'the eagle,' owing to some fancied resemblance of 
the spurs to talons. The seeds, herb, and flowers 
were formerly used in jaundice and cutaneous 
diseases. They are still retained in many of the 
Pharmacopoeias of continental Europe. 

Aquilegia Alpina, Aquilegia. 

Aquilegia Canaden'sis, Wild Columbine, i» 
indigenous, and flowers in April and June. The 
seeds .are said to be tonic. 

Aquilegia Sylvestuis, Aquilegia — a. Vul- 
garis, Aquilegia. 

'water,' and clicire, 'to attract,' because it grows 
in moist places. [?] An East Indian plant, the 
decoction of whose root is used in indigestion to 
allay heartburn. 

AQUIP'AROUS, (F.) Aquipare, from aqua, 
'water,' and pario, 'I bring forth.' An epitb-t 



for glands which, like the parotid, secrete much 
water, in contradistinction to the submaxillary 
glands, which arc muciparouH. 

AQUO-CAPSUF^ITIS, Afiuo-membranitis. 
A(lVA)-UV.M\n\.\'^l"nii, Keraloiri'tiH, Aqiw- 
cajjiiili'liH, Jfi/</rniiieiiiuyi'tia. Inflammation of 
tiie anterior cliamber of the ej'e. A badly com- 
y)oundc'd term, denoting inflammation of the cap- 
Mile or membrane of the a(|ucous humour. 

AQUULA, Ceratocele, Hydatid, llydroa — a. 
Acustica, Cotunniu.«, liquor of. 

AguuLA seu Aqua Mokgagnii. The minute 
portion of water which escapes when an opening 
is made into the capsule of the crystalline. 


AKA PARVA, a small altar; — a kind of band- 
age invented by Sostratus, which represents the 
corners of an altar. — Galen. 

AR'AHR; a wound, a blow. — Erotian. 
rihlc Ihjmt'ic An'liclute. A powder composed of 
myrrh, costus, white pepper, &c. It was admi- 
nistered in new wine. 

ARAB'ICUS LAPIS. A sort of white marble, 
analoj^ous to alabaster, found in Arabia. It was 
regarded as absorbent and desiccative, and was 
employed in hemorrhoids. 

ARAB IS BARB AREA, Erysimum barbarca. 
AR'ABIS MALAG'MA. An antiscrofulous 
riiedicine, composed of myrrh, olibanum, wax, 
sal ammoniac, iron pyrites, etc. — Celsus. 
ARABISTS, see Arabs, medicine of the. 
bians kept the torch of medical science illumi- 
nated during a dark period of the middle ages. 
Before the year of the Hegira, they had schools 
of medicine ; but these were most flourishing 
during the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries. The 
chief adilitions made by them to medical science 
wore in the departments of pharmacy and in the 
description of diseases. Their principal writers 
were Avicenna, Serapion, Averrhoes, llali Abbas, 
Moses Maimonides, Avenzoar, llhazcs, Albucasis, 
Ac. The disciples of the Arab school were called 

ARACACIIA, Conium moschatum. 
AKACIIIS AFRICANA, A. hypogea— a. Ame- 
ricana, A. llypogea. 

Ar'aciiis IIyi'oge'a, A. Amerlcn'iia seu A/ii- 
crt'iia, Ariichni'dn hi/poi/cn, Ground unt. Pea iiid, 
Earth almond, (S.j Mane; erroneously called 
Pistachio nut, in the South; Pindars of the West 
Indies. Ord. Legurainosae. Cultivated in the 
Southern States. The seeds are oily, and are 
eaten. A kind of inferior chocolate may be 
made of them. 

AHACH'NE, apaxvri, 'a spider,' 'a cobweb.' 
Hence, Arachnitis, &c. 

ARACHNIDA IIYPOGEA, Arachis hypogea. 
ARACIIXI'TIS, more properly Arathnoidi'tix, 
Araclniodei'tin, Injlammation of the Arachnoid. 
A variefv of |)hreiiitis. 

ARACH'NOID, Arachnoideus, Arachno'des, 
from apax^n. 'n cobweb,' and uloi, 'form, resem- 
blance.' Resembling a spider's web. 

AitACUNOin Canal, see Canal, arachnoid. 
Arachnoid op the Eye. The lining mem- 
brane of a cavity, supposed by some to exist be- 
tween the sclerotic and choroid. 

Arach'noid Membrane, Meninx me'dia seu 
sero'sa, Tit'nica ara'nca seu cryntal'lina, Me- 
nin'f/ion. A name given to several membranes, 
which, by their extreme thinness, resemble spi- 
der-webs. Celsus and Galen called thus the 
membrane of the vitreous humour, — the tuuicn 
hi/aloidca. The moderns use it now for one of 
the membranes of the brain, situate between the 

dura mater and pia mater. It is a serous mem- 
brane, and composed of two layers ; the external 
being confounded, in tlie greater part of its extent, 
with the dura mater, and, like it, lining the inte- 
rior of the cranium and spinal canal ; the other 
being extended over the brain, from which it is 
separated by the pia mater, without passing into 
the sinuosities between the convolutions, and 
penetrating into the interior of the brain by an 
opening at its posterior part under the corpus 
callosum. It forms a part of the investing sheath 
of tlie nerves, as they pass from the encephalic 
cavities. Its chief uses seem to be : — to envelop, 
and, in some measure, protect the brain, and to 
secrete a fluid for the purpose of keeping it in a 
state best adapted for the proper performance of 
its funclicms. 

ARACK', ./I/ voc/r ; (East Indian.) A spiritu- 
ous liquor made in India in various ways, often 
from rice, sometimes from sugar fermented along 
with the juice of the cocoa nut; frequently from 
toddy, the juice which flows from the cocoa-nut 
tree by incision, and from other substances. It 
is a strong, heating spirit. 

Arack, Mock, is made by adding ^ij of Ben- 
zoic acid to a quart of rum. The celebrated 
Vauxhall punch is made with such arack. 
ARACOUCIIINI, Icica aracouchini. 
AR'ADOS, ApaSos. The agitation excited in 
the stomach by the coction of aliments of differ- 
ent nature. — Hippocrates. Likewise, the motion 
produced by cathartics. 
AR^EOMA, Interstice. 
ARAEOMETER, Areometer. 
ARyEOT'ICA, from apatow, 'I rarefy.' Medi- 
cines supposed to have the quality of rarefying 
the huuiours. See Rarefacieus. 
ARAKI, see Spirit. 

ARALIA CANADENSIS, Panax quinqucfo- 

Ara'lia His'pida, Dinarf Elder, Ord. Aralia- 
cea\ is said to be diuretic, and has been recom- 
mended, in decoction, in dropsy. 

Aha'i.ia Niidicau'lis, Nardm America'nua, 
Siiiidl Spikenard, Wild Liii'uorice, Sivcel root, 
False or ll'(7(^ Sarsaparil'la, (F.) Petit nard. 
This American plant is said to be a mild stimu- 
lant and diaphoretic, and has been recommended 
as a substitute for sarsaparilla. It is used, also, 
as a tonic. It is in the secondary list of the 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 

Ara'lia Racusio'sa, American Spllcenard, has 
the same properties as A. Nudicaulis. 

Ara'lia Spino'sa, Ani/cl'ica Tree, Prichlii 
Anh, Toothach Tree, Spikenard Tree, Prickli/ 
Eider, Shotbnih, Piyeon Tree. Its properties are 
not clear. The berries, and a tincture of them, 
have been employed, it is said, successfully in 
toothach. A spirituous infusion has also been 
used in colic. The bark is oflJcinal in the Phar- 
macopa?ia of the United States. 

ARANEA, Aranea) Tela — a. Tarentula, see 

ARA'NE^ TELA, Ara'ncn, Ara'neum, Cob- 
toeb, (F.) Toile d'Araifpiee. Formerly, this sub- 
stance was much employed, and supposed to pos- 
sess extraordinary virtues, especially when ap- 
plied to the wrists. It has been recently used 
again in intermittents. The spider itself, soft- 
ened into a plaster and applied to the forehead 
and temidcs, is said by Dioscorides to prevent 
ague. Cobweb is a mechanical styptic, and is so 
applied at times. 

ARANEO'SA URI'NA. A term applied to 
the urine when loaded with filaments, like cob 

ARAXEO'SUS (PULSUS); a term employed 




to express extreme weakness of pulse ; when the 
movements resemble those of a delicate net raised 
bj' the wind. 

ARANEUM, AraneiB Tela. 
Aua'nicum Ulcus, AstakU'los. A name given 
by Paracelsus to a malignant, gangrenous ulcer, 
extending from the feet to the legs. 
A RATI A, Myrobalanus citrina. 
ARASCON, Nvmphomania, Satyriasis. 
ARATRUM, Vomer. 

ARAUCARIA DOMBEYT, Dombeya excelsa. 

ARBOISE. Arbutus unedo. 

ARBOL BE LECHE, Galactodendron utile. 

ARBOR BENIVI, Benjamin— a. Indica, Lau- 

rus cassia — a. Maris, Coral — a. Thurifera, Juni- 

perus Lycia — a. Uteri Vivificans, Palm» uteri 


Arbor Vit/E, (F.) Arhre de vie. A name 
given to an arborescent appearance, observed on 
cutting the cerebellum longitudinally; and which 
results from the particular arrangement of the 
white substance with the eineritious. Also, the 
Thuya occidentalis. 

Arbor Yitjb, American, Thuya occidentalis — 
a. Vita3 Uterinus, Palmae uteri plicatie — a. Vitse 
of the Uterus, Palmas uteri plicataj. 

AR'BORES. A morbid alteration of the skin, 
which precedes its ulceration. Ruland. 

ARBORIZA'TION, Arborisa'tio, (F.) Arbori- 
sation, from arbor, arboris, 'a tree.' The figure 
or appearance of a tree or plant. The capillary 
vessels, when injected, as in inflammation, fre- 
quently appear under the form of Arborizations. 
ARnOUSIER, Arbutus unedo. 
ARDRE DE VIE, Arbor VitiB. 
jglS, Hypericum bacciferum. 

ARBUTUS, A. Unedo — a. Trailing, A. Uva 
ursi, Epigica repens. 

Ar'bi/TUS Uva. Ursi, Aretostaph'yloa Uva ursi, 
Maira'nia uva ursi. Ord. EricaceiC. Sex Syst. 
Decandria Monogynia. (F.) BiisseroUe ou Rai- 
sin d'Onrs. The^leaves- ((/«a Ursi, Ph. U. S.) 
— of this plant are tonic and astringent, and have 
been employed, chiefly, in diseases of the urinary 
organs, and also as a parturifacient. Dose of the 
powder from gr. xv to ^ss. The English names 
are Trailing Ar'bntits, Bear's Whortleberry or 
Bearberry, ilountain-box, Redberry, Upland 
Cranberry, Foxberry, Checherberry, (Sc.) Braw- 

Ar'butus UyE'DO, Ar'hutus, Andrach'ne, Une'- 
do, U. papyra'eea, KO/iapog, (F.) Arbousier, Ar- 
boise. A decoction of the leaves is astringent, 
and has been used in diarrhoea. 

ARC, Arch, Arcus, (F.) Are, Arcade (diminu- 
tive). Any part of the body resemblirrg an arch 
in form; as the Arch of the colon, (F.) Arc du 
colon, — the transverse portion of that intestine : 
— Arch of the Aorta, Arcus aor'tCB, (F.) Crosse 
de I'Aorte, &c., the turn which the aorta takes in 
the thorax. 

ARCA ARCANORUM, Hydrargyrum— a. Cor- 
dis, Pericardium. 

ARCADE, see Arc — a, Anasfomotique, Arch, 
anastomotic — a. Crurale, Crural arch — a. Ingui- 
nale, Crural arch — a. Orbitaire, Orbitar arch — 
a. Pubienne, Pubic arch — a. Zygomatique, Zygo- 
mHitic (iron. 

ARCADES DENTAIRES, Dental arches — 
a. Pabnaires, Palmar arches. 


Baume d'Arecem. A kind of soft ointment used 
in sores, contusions, &c. It is made by melting 
two parts of mutton suet, one part of hog's lard : 

turpentine and rosin, each one part and a half: 
straining and agitating till cold. 

ARCAXSOX, Colophonia. 

ARCA'NUM, from area, 'a chest.' A seeret, 
a nostrum, a quack or empir'icul med'icine, (F.) 
Arcane. A remedy whose composition is kept 
secret; but which is reputed to possess great 

Arcanum Corallinum, Hydrargyri nitrieo- 
oxyduin — a. Duplicatum, Potassaa sulphas — a. 
Tartari, Potassae acctas. 

ARCEAU, Arculus, Cradle. 

ARCEUTHOS, Juniperus communis. 

ARCH, ANASTOMOTIC, (F.)^rca(/e^»flt8(o. 
motique, is the union of two vessels, which anas- 
tomose by describing a curved Hue. The vessels 
of the mesentery anastomose in this manner. 

Arch of the Aorta, see Aorta — a. Crural, see 
Crural arch — a. Femoral, see Crural arch — a. 
Gluteal, see Gluteal aponeurosis— a. Hremal, see 
HiEmal arch — a. Inguinal, see Crural arch — a. Or- 
bital, see Orbitar arch — a. of the Palate, see Palate 
bone — a. of the Pubis, see Pubio arch — a. Subpu- 
bic, see Subjiubic arch — a. Superciliary, see Su- 
perciliary arches — a. of a Vertebra, see Vertebrae — 
a. Zygomatic, see Zygomatic arch. 

Arches of the Palate. These are two in 
number on each side of the throat, one of vvhicli 
is termed anterior, the other posterior. 

The anterior arch arises from the middle of 
the velum palati, at the side of the uvula, and is 
fixed to the edge of the base of the tongue. 

The posterior arch has its origin, likewise, from 
the side of the uvula, and passes downwards to 
be inserted into the side of the pharynx. The 
anterior arch contains the circumflexus palati, 
and forms the isthmus faucium. The posterior 
arch has within it the levator palati, and be- 
tween the arches are the tonsils. 

ARCH/E'US, TlrcAe'Ms, from afiy^ri, 'commence- 
ment,' (F.) Archce. A word invented by Basil 
Valentine, and afterwards adopted by Paracelsus 
and Van Ilelmout. The latter used it for the 
internal principle of our motions and actions. 
This archiieus, according to Van Helmont, is an 
immaterial principle, existing in the seed prior 
to fecundation, and presiding over the develop- 
ment of the body, and over all organic pheno- 
mena. Besides this chief archreus, whose seat 
Van Helmont placed in the upper orifice of the 
stomach, he admitted several of a subordinate 
character, which had to execute its orders; one, 
for instance, in each organ, to preside over its 
functions; each of them being subject to anger, 
caprice, terror, and every human feeling. 

About twenty miles to the north of New Arch- 
angel, Sitka Island, on the N. W. coast of North 
America, are some thermal sulphureous waters, 
the temperature of one of which is upwards of 
153° of Fahr. They are much celebrated.— Sir 
Geo. Simpson. 

ARCHANGELICA, Lamium album— a. Ofhci- 
nalis, Angelica. 

ARCHE, apxV) Inifium, Princip'ium, Primor'- 
dium, Ori'go, Inva'sio. The first attack of a dis- 

ARCHECPTOMA, Proctocele. 

ARCIJEE, Archteus. 

ARCH ELL, CANARY, Lichen roccella. 

ARCIIELOG"IA, from apxv, 'beginning,' and 
\oYOi, 'a discourse.' A treatise on fundamental 
principles — of medicine, for example. 

ARCHEN'DA. A powder of the leaves of the 
ligustrum, used by the Egyptians after bathing, 
to obviate the unpleasant odour of the feet- 
Prosper Alpinup. 

ARCHlA'TER, Archia'trus, Protomcd'icv'i 



J'roU'x'iros, from apxu), 'I am first,' and tarpoi' 
' phy.«ician.' The original sifjnitication of this 
wiiril is a matter of dispute. Some consider, with 
Morcurialis, that it meant physician to a prince, 
king, emperor, <fec. ; others, with C. Hoffmann, ap- 
7)ly it to every physician who, by his situation, 
is raised above his colleagues. The former opi- 
nion seems to have prevailed — Arrhiatre de» 
Jiois df! France being applied to the chief physi- 
cian to the kings of France. 

ARCUI(i"ENr MORUI. Acute diseases; be- 
cause they hold the first rank: from ap;^?/, 'be- 
ginning,' and ytvoixai, 'I am.' 

ARCIIIMA(iIA, Chvmistry. 

Archingeay is situate in France, three leagues 
from .St. Jean d'Angely. The waters are prized 
in all diseases. They seem to contain carbonate 
of lime, a little chloride of sodium, carbonate of 
iron, anil some bitumen. 

plectic make. 

ARC'IIITIS. Proctitis, Rectitis. 

ARCHOCELE, Proctocele. 

ARCIIOI'TOMA, Proctocele. 

ARCIIOPTOSIS, Proctocele. 

ARCIIORRIIA'GIA, from apx"!) ' 'lie anus,' 
and pc(j), ' I flow.' Arehorrhce'a. Hemorrhage 
from the anus. 

ARCIIORRIKEA, Archorrhagia, 

ARCIIOS, Arcus, Rectum. 

ARCIIOSTE(tXOMA, Stricture of the Rectum. 

AR('II()Sl'K(iXOSIS, Stricture of the Rectum. 

ARCIIOSTENOSIS, Stricture of the Rectum. 

ARCIIOSYRINX, Fistula in ano. 

AR'CIFORM, Arcifor'min, from arx, arcis, 
'a top or ridge,' and forma, 'shape.' An epi- 
thet given to certain fibres, Fihrm arcifurm' ch, 
of the anterior pyramids of the medulla oblon- 
gata, which take a curved course around the in- 
ferior extremity of each corpus olivare and ascend 
towards the cerebellum. 

ARCTA'TIO, Arctitii'do, from arcto, 'I make 
narrow;' A)if/u8ta'iio, Coarcta'tin, (E.) Retrevin- 
setnent. Contraction of a natural opening or of a, and especially of the vulva, of the orifice 
of the uterus, or of the intestinal canal. Consti- 
pation, (see Stegnosis.) Reunion by suture or 
infibulation. — Scriboniu.s Largus, Paul Zac- 
chias, Ac. 

ARCTITUDO, Arctatio. 

ARCTIU.M, A. lappa— a. Bardana, A. lappa. 

AucTiiM Lappa. The root and seed of the 
Clit'bur, Barda'na, ApKciov, Arctium, A. hnrda'na 
seu majiis seu jjijuks seu tomento'sum, I'lajihis, 
Lappa glabra. Lappa major seu persona'ta, Per- 
sola'ta, PemolUi'ta, Persoht'ta, Burdock, (Old 
Eng.) Clithe, Cuckold, (F.) Bardaiie, Glouteron, 
Herbc aux tcignenx. Ord. Compositae. Sex. Syst. 
Syngenesis ajqualis. Root, Lappa (Ph. U. S.), 
diuretic ; seed, cathartic. It has been used in 
decoction in diseases of the skin and in syphilis. 

Aucrnnr Ma-jits, A. lappa — a. Minus, A. lappa 
— a. Tomentosum, A. lappa. 

can plant, Ord. Umbelliferse, which is demulcent 
and diuretic, somewhat approaching sarsaparilla. 
Tlie decoction of the root is employed in syphilis, 
lepra, and chronic cutaneous affections of all 

uva ursi. 

ARCTU'RA, from arcto, '1 straighten.' The 
effects of a nail grown into the flesh, Aretu'ra 
uiir/iiis. See Onychogryphosis. 

ARCTtiRA Unguium. The growing in or inver- 
sion of the nails. See Onychogryphosis. 

ARCUA'TIO, Co7icava'tio. An antesior gib- 
bosity or iirojection of the sternum. 

cueil is about one league south of Paris. The 
water contains carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, 
sulphate of lime, chloride of sodium, and some 
deliquescent salts. 

A celebrated society held its meetings at this 
village, of which Berthollet, Humboldt, La Place, 
<fec., were members. 
ARCULA CORDIS, Pericardium. 

ARCUL.15. The Orbitar Fossae: TrotXtia.— 
Rufus of Ephesus. 

ARC'ULUS, diminutive of arcim, 'an arch.' A 
small arch; a cradle, (F.) Arcean, Archet. A 
semicircular box or basket used for preventing 
the bed-clothes from coming in contact with in- 
jured or diseased parts. An ordinance of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany forbade mothers to sleep 
with an infant near them, unless it was put under 
a solid cradle. 

ARCUS MEDULLARIS, Fornix— a. Senilis, 
Gerotoxon — a. Subpubicus, Subpubic arch — a. 
Superciliaris, Superciliary arches — a. Unguium, 
see Nail — a. Zygomaticus, Zygomatic arch. 

ARDALOS, Excrement. 

ARDAS, Excrement. 

ARDENT, Ardeiis, from ardere, 'to burn.' 

Ardknt Fever, (F.) Fievre ardente. Caiisus, 
Si/iiocha, or inflammatory fever. 

Ardent or Inflamed Eves. (F.) Yeux ardent. 
The eyes are so called when injected red. 

Ardent Urine, (F.) Urine ardente. Urine of 
a deep red. 

ARDESIA IIIBERNICA, Ilibernicus lapis. 

ARDEUR, Ardor — a. du Cceur, Cardialgia — 
a. d'Estomac, Ardor ventriculi. Pyrosis — a. dc 
la Fievre, Ardor Febrilis — a. d' Urine, Ardor 

AR'DOR, (F.) Ardenr. Heat. A feeling of 
burning, of violent heat; jEstua, jEstua'tio, Cau- 

Ardor Febri'lis, (F.) Ardeur de la Fievre. 
The hot period of fever. 

Ardor Stomachi, Pyrosis. 

Ardor Uri'n.«, (F.) Ardeur d'Urine. A scald- 
ing sensation occasioned by the urine in passing 
over the inflamed mucous membrane of the ure- 
thra, or over the neck of the bladder. 

Ardor Yenereus, Heat. 

Ardor Yentric'ui.i, Ehullit"io Stom'achi, 
Heartburn, (Sc.) Heartaxes, Hearticald, Hersket, 
(F.) Ardeur d'Estomac. See Cardialgia and 

A'REA, 'a void place,' 'an open surface.' A 
Latin word used by some authors to designate a 
variety of Alopecia, in which the hair changes 
colour, but does not fall off; also, Porrigo de- 

ArkA GerminATIVA, Taclie embryonnaire. 

Area Pellu'cida. An elliptical depression in 
the ovum, filled with a pellucid fluid, in the cen- 
tre of which is the germ. 

Area Yasculo'sa, see Circulus venosus. 

ARE'CA. The fruit — Are'ca nut, Betel nut — 
of Are'ca Cat'echu seu Faufel, Uaun'ga ; Ord. 
Palmje ; Sex. Syxt. Monoeeia Monadclphia; (F.) 
Arec, is astringent and tonic, and enters into the 
composition of the Betel, the great masticatory 
of the Orientals. 

AuECA Catechu, see Areca — a. Faufel, see 

AREFAC'TION, Are/ac'tio, Xcran'ein, ^npavoii, 
from arefacere, 'to make dry,' (arere, 'to dry,' 
and /accre, 'to make.') The process of drying 
substances, prior to pulverization. 

ARENA, see Gravel. 

ARENAMEN, Bole Armenian. 

ARENA'TIO, Inhuma'tio, Chosis, Sand or 



Earth Bfith; from arena, 'sand:' Suhnrra'tlo. \ 
The application of hot sand to the body. Pcdi- I 
lo'vin [?] of sand were formerly used in Ascites. 
AREXO'SA URI'NA, Sandi/ Urine. Urine 
when it deposits a sandy sediment. 

AREXO'SUS, Sabulous. Also, one who passes 
sandy urine. 

AREXULA, see Gravel. 

ARE'OLA. A diminutive of Area, (F.) Aire. 
Anatomists understand by AreolcB the intrer- 
stices between the fibres composing organs, or 
those existing between laminw, or between ves- 
sels which interlace with each other. 

Areu/'i is also applied to the coloured circle 
Hiilo, Ildlof, which surrounds the nipple, Are'- 
<ila papllln'ris, and which becomes much darker 
during pregnancy; as well as to the circle sur- 
younding certain vesicles, pustules, <fec., as the 
pustules cf the sraall-po.\, the vaccine vesicle, 
itc. Chaussier, in such cases, recommends the 
word Aure'dln, (F.) Aureule. 

Arkola PAPiLLAnis, see Areola — a. Tubercles 
of the. see Mamma. 

AllE'OLAR, Arcola'ris. Appertaining to an 

AuKOLAR Exhalations are those recremen- 
titial secretions which are efiFected within the 
organs of sense, or in parenchymatous struc- 
tures — as the aqueous, crystalliuc, and vitreous 
humours, &c. 

Arkolar Tissue, Cellular Tissue. 
AREOM'ETER, Araom'eler, Gravim'eter, AU 
CDiiluin'eler, A/co'iiin'eter, A'eroHtat' ic Balance, from 
a/iaioj, 'light,' and /itrpov, 'measure:' i. e. 'measure 
of lightness.' An instrument 
so called because first em- 
ploj'ed to take the specific gra- 
vity of fluids lighter than water. 
The Areometer (if Baume, which 
is the most used in Pharmacy, 
particularly in France, consists 
of a tube of glass, largely 
expanded towards its inferior 
extremity, and terminating be- 
low by a small ball, containing 
mercury or lead, which serves 
it as a balance, so that it maj' 
remain upright in the fluid. 
This tube is furnished with a 
graduated scale. If the fluid 
into which the Areometer is 
plunged be heavier than water, 
the instrument rises; if lighter, 
it sinks. There are various 
Areometers, as those of the 
Dutch, of Fahrenheit, Nichol- 
son, &e. The Areometer is also 
called Hydroni'eter, (F.) Areo- 
metre, Pese-liqueur. 

There are some hydrometers 
which have a general applica- 
tion for determining the spe- 
cific gravities of li(iuids — as 
Fahrenheit's, Nicholson's,Guy- 
ton de Morveau's, and the com- 
mon glass hydrometers, inclu- 
ding Baurafi's, Cartier's, Twad- 
dle's, Zanetti's, and the spe- 
cific gravity beads; others in- 
tended for special application 
— as for estimating the com- 
parative strength of spirits; the 
comparative densities of sy- 
rups, oils, <tc. — as Gay Lus- 
sac's, Sikes's, and Dicat's hy- 
drometers, and the saccharometer, urinometer, 
and elaeometer. 

1. Asceiidintj Scale for light li'juids. 

Scale of 







Pure hydrocyauic acid. — O'ui/ Lus- 



Very pure sulphuric ether. 



The same conceutratcU. 





Kqual parts of dlcolinl and ether. 

42 ' 


A'ery pure alcohol tor iihaniiucuu- 


tical purposes. 



Pure alcohol. Naphtha. 



Alcohol of romiiiercp. 



Kssential oil of turpentine. 



Hydrocyanic acid of Sclioele and 
pure hydrocyanic acid, mixed 


with an equal portion of water. 
— Rohiquet. 


906 ) 

915 i 

Acetic ether. 
Nitric ether. 


Td. , 

Murititic ctlicr. 



Liquid ammonia. 
Olive oil. 




935 y 



948 j 



Burguudy wine. 





Bordeaux wine. 



Distilled water. 

2. Descending Scale for heavy Hr[uids. 

Baume's Hydro- 

Scale r,f 






Common distilled water. 


1007 ■) 
1009 f 

Distilled vinegar. 



Common vinegar. 



Cow's milk. 


1075 1 
1091 j" 

Concentrated acetic acid. 






Liquid hydrochloric acid. 



Boilins syrup. 


1321 1 

Cold f!yrup. 
Common nitric acid. 




139S y 

Concentrated nitric acid. 


1454 J 



Phosphoric acid for medical use. 







Very concentrated sulphuric acid. 



Vpry concentriited phosphoric arid 

ARES. A term invented by Paracelsus to de- 
signate the principle on which depends the form 
of mercury, sulphur, and salt. These the alcby- 
mists regarded as the three bodies that give birth 
to every other. 

AR'ETE, apiTt), 'virtue.' Mental or corporeal 
vigour. — Hippocrates. 

ARETHU'SA, A. bulbo'sa ; indigenous. Order, 
Orchidaceae. The bruised bulbs are used in 
toothache ; and as cataplasms to tumours. 

A'REUS. A pessary mentioned by Paulus of 

ARGEL, Cynanchura olea?folium. 

AR'GEMA, Ar'gemon, Ar'gemus, from afyoi, 
'white.' Fos'snla, {¥.) Encavvre. A white spot 
or ulceration of the eye. — Hippocrates. See 

Prickly Poppy, Yellntc Thistle. A native of 
Mexico, but naturalized in most parts of the 
world. Ord. Papaveraeea). Sex. Syst. Polyan- 
dria Monogynia. The juice resembles gamboge, 




and hns been used tis a hydragogue. The seeds 
are cmidDyed in the West Indies as a substitute 
for ipecacuanha. They are also used as a ca- 

chalybeate situate at Argcnson in Dauphiny : 
used in cases of obstruction, jaundice, &c. 

ARGENT, Argentum — a. Chlorure d', see Ar- 
gentuni — a. Cjjaiinre d', see Argentum — a. et 
d'Ainiuoiiiaqiie, chlorure d', sec Argentum — a. 
lodure d', see Argentum — a. Ojcide d', see Ar- 
gentum — a. Petit, Platinum — a. Vive, Hydrar- 

AlKiENTKRTA, Potentilla anserina. 

ARUENTI CllLORIDUM, see Argentum— a. 
et Ammoniac chloridum, see Argentum — a. et 
Aramoniae ciiloruretum, see Argentum — a. Cya- 
nidum, see Argentum — a. Cyanuretum, see Ar- 
gentum — a. lodidum, see Argentum — a. lodure- 
tum, see Argentum. 

Akgkn'ti NrniAS, Argen'tnm Nitra'tum seu 
Ntt'ricnm, S<d arijen'ti, (F.) Nitrate OU Azotate 
d' Argent, Nitrate of Silver. This preparation is 
sometimes kept in crystals, the Nitras Argeii'ti 
in cryatol'los coiicre'ttm. Nitrate d' Argent crjital- 
liie of the Codex of Paris, Luna potab' His, Cnjs- 
talli LuncB, Argen'tum nit'ricHrii crystallisa'tiim. 
Nitron (trgputi crystal' linns, Nitrum luna're, Hy- 
droij'i'gnni Roy'lici. Generally, however, it is in 
the fui^ed state : and it is this which is admitted 
into most Pliarmacopoeias, and which, besides 
the name Nitras Argcnti, is called Ni'tras arrjen'ti 
fusHS Still fusnin, Oaus'ticum luna're. Lapis infcr- 
iia'tis, Argen'tum nit'ricum fusum, and lunar 
caustic, (F.) Nitrate d'argeut fondu, Pierre in- 

In the Pharmacopceia of the United States, it 
is directed to bo prepared as follows : — Take of 
silver, in small pi<'ces, ,^j ; nitric acid, f^vij, 
distilled water, i'^'i]. Mix the .acid with the 
water, and dissolve the silver in the mixture in 
a sand bath; then crystiiUizc, or gradually in- 
crease the heat, so that the resulting salt may be 
dried. Melt tliis in a crucible over a gentle fire, 
and continue the heat until ebullition ceases; 
then immediately pour it into suitable moulds. 

The virtues of nitrate of silver are tonic, and 
escharotic. It is given in chorea, epilepsy, Ac. : 
locally, it is used in various cases as an escha- 
rotic. Dose, gr. 1-8 to gr. l-A in pill, three times 
a day. 

When silver is combined vrith iodine, it is said 
to have the same effect as the nitrate, and not to 
produce the slate colour of the surface, which is 
apt to follow the protracted use of the latter. 

Argenti Oxidum, see Argentum. 

ARGENTILLA vulgaris, Potentilla an- 

AR'GENTINE, Argento'sus, same etymon as 
the next. Pertaining to silver; as an 'argentine 
solution,' or solution of a salt of silver. 

Akgknti.nk. Potentilla anserina. 

ARGEN'TUM, Ar'gyrus, from apyos, 'white,' 
Silver, Luna, Dia'na. (V.) Argent. A solid metal 
of a sliining white appearance ; insipid; inodor- 
ous; highly sonorous; malleable and ductile; 
somewhat hard; crystallizable in triangular py- 
ramids ; fusible a little above a red heat, and 
volatizable; s. g. 10.4. Not used in medicine, 
unless in some places for silvering pills. Silver 
Leaf, Argen'tum folia'tum, is the state in which 
it is used for tiiis purpose. 

Argknth.m Divi'si'M, metallic silver, in very 
fine powder, has been recommended internally in 

The CiiT.ORinE (Argen'ti chlo'ridum, Argen'- 
tum muriat'icum seu chlora'tum sen sali'tum. 
Chlorure'tnm Arrjen'ti, Chlor'uret or .Ifu'riate of 
iSiher, (F.) Chlorure d' Argent); the Cyanuuet; 

the Iodide (Argen'ti lo'didum, Argen'tum loda'- 
tum, lodure' turn Argen'ti, lod'uret of Silver, (F.) 
lodure d' Argent;) the OxiDE [Argen'ti ox'idum, 
Argen'tum oxyda'tum, (F.) Oxide d' Arg(nt),Sini. 
the Chloride of Ammonia and Silver (Argen'ti 
et Ammo'uicB chlo'ridum, Argen'tum muriat'icum 
ammonia'tum, Chlorure'tum Argen'ti et Ammo'- 
nicB, Vhlo'ruret of Silver and Ammonia, Ammo- 
nio-chloride of Silver, (F.) Chlorure d Argent et 
d' Ammoniaque),\\s>,\'& been used in syphilis. At 
first, these ditferent preparations were adminis- 
tered iatraleptically on the gums ; the chloride, 
the cyanide and the iodide in the dose of l-12th 
of a grain; the chloride of silver and ammonia 
in the dose of l-14th of a grain, and the oxide of 
silver and divided silver in the dose of 1-Sth and 
l-4th of a grain. M. Serrc, of Montpellicr, who 
made many trials with them, soon found that 
these doses were too small; he therefore raised 
that of the chloride to 1-1 0th, and of the iodide 
to l-8th of a grain, without any inconvenience 
resulting. The dose of the other preparations was 
likewise increased in a similar ratio. M. Serre 
extols the preparations of silver — used internally 
as VFell as iatraleptically — as antisyphilitics, but 
they are not to be depended upon. 

The Cyanuret or Cyanide of Silver, Argen'ti 
Cynnure'tum seu Cyan' idum, Argen'tum cyanoge- 
na'lum, (F.) Cyanure d'argcnt, is thus directed 
to be prepared in the Ph. U. S. (1842.) Argent. 
Nit. 3xv, Acid Hydrocyan., Aq. deatiUat. aa Oj. 
Having dissolved the nitrate of silver in the 
water, add the hj^drocyanio acid, and mix them. 
Wash the precipitate with distilled water and dry 
it. In the last edition of the Pharmacopoeia, 
(1851,) it is directed to be prepared as follows: — 
Nitrate of Silver, dissolved in distilled water, is 
put into a tubulated glass receiver; Feroeyanuret 
of Potassium, dissolved in distilled water, is put 
into a tubulated retort, previously adapted to the 
receiver. Dilute Sulphuric Acid is added to the 
solution in the retort; and, bj- means of a sand- 
bath and a moderate heat, distillation is carried 
on until the liquid that passes over no longer 
produces a precipitate in the receiver. The pre- 
cipitate is then washed with distilled water, and 

The Oxide of Silver, Argen'ti Ox'idum, has 
been introduced into the last edition of the Ph. 
U. S. (1851). It is made by precipitating a solu- 
tion of the Nitrate of Silver by solution of Po- 
tassa, drying the precipitate. 

Argentum Chloratum, see Argentum — a, 
Cyanogenatum, see Argentum — a. Fugitivum, 
Hydrargyrum — a. Fusum, Hydrargyrum — a, 
lodatum, see Argentum — a. Liquidum, Hj'drar- 
gyrum — a. Mobile, Hydrnrgyrum — a. Muriati- 
cum, see Argentum — a. Muriaticum Ammonia- 
tum, see Argentum — a.Oxydatum, see Argentum 
— a. Salitum, see Argentum — a. Vivum, Hydrar- 

ARGIL, PURE, Argilla pura. 


a. Bolus rubra. Bole Armenian — a. Ferruginea 
rubra. Bole Armenian — a. Kalisulphurica, Alu- 
men — a. Pallida, Bolus alba. 

Argilla Pura, Terra Alu'minis seu hola'ris, 
seu argilla'cea pura seu depura'ta seu hydra'ta, 
Alu'mina pura seu de]>ura'ta, Ox'idum alumin'ii, 
pure Argil or Alumina, (F.) Aluniine faetice. 
This substance, which is prepared by drying alum 
and exposing it, for twenty or twenty-five mi- 
nutes, to a red heat, until the sulphuric acid is 
driven off, has been recommended in indigestion 
as antacid, as well as in vomiting and diarrhoea 
accompanied with acidit.v. Tlie dose to a very 
young child is from ^ss to 5J J to older chUdren 
fram 5J to ^ij. 





a. Sulphurica usta, Alumen exsiccatum — a. Su- 
persulphas alcalisatum, Alumen — a. Vitriolata, 

ARGILLiE ACETAS, Aluminte acetas — a. 
Sulphas, Aliiininre sulphas. 

ARGOL, RED, Potas.«ae .supertartras impurus 
— a. White, Potiissse supertartras impurus. 


ARGY'RIA, from apyvpos, 'silver.' The dis- 
coloration of the skin occasioned by the internal 
use of nitrate of silver. 

ARGYROCn.ETA, Matricari.-i. 

AlKiYROPirORA, from apyvpo;, 'silver,' and 
(pepw, 'I bear.' A name given, by Myrepsus, to 
iin antidote which he regarded as extremely pre- 


ARGY'RUS, Argentum. 

ARHEUMAT'JC, Aihetimat'icus, from a, pri- 
vative, and pcv/ia, 'fluxion or rheumatism.' One 
■without fluxion or rheumatism. 

ARIA, Crata;gus aria — o. Cattivn, see Miasma. 

ARICI'NA, Aric">a, Ciis'conin, Ciisco-Cincho'- 
iiin, so called from Arica in South America, the 
place where it is shipped. An alkaloid found in 
Cusco Bark, which is very similar in many of its 
properties to Cinchonia. Cusco was the ancient 
residence of the Incas. 

ARIC'YMON, from apt, an intensive particle, 
and Kvctv, ' to conceive.' A name given to a 
female who conceives readily. — Iliiipoerates. 

ARIDE'NA. A Latin word employed to de- 
signate the leanness of any part. — Ettmuller, 

ARID'ITY", Artd'itnu. (F.) Arnlitf, from nrcre, 
'to grow dry.' The French use the word .4*-?- 
dite to express the dryness of any organ, and 
particularly of the skin and tongue, wlien such 
dryness is so great as to render the organ rough 
to the touch. Aridite also means the lanuginous 
appearance of the hair in some diseases in which 
it seems covered with dust. 

ARIDU'RA. Wasting or emiiciation of the 
■whole or of any part of the body ; Marasmus, 

Aridura Cordis, Heart, atrophy of the — a. 
Hepatis, Hepatrophia. 

ARIKA, see Spirit. 

ARISiEMA ATRO-RUBENS, Arum triphyl- 

ARISTALTH.^A, Altha?a. 

ARISTOLOCHI'A, from apiorof, ' very good,' 
and \o')(^cta, 'parturition;' so called, because the 
diflerent varieties were supposed to aid parturi- 
tion. Birtliwnrt, (P.) Ari&foloche. Ord. Aris- 
tolochiaceaj. Several vnrieties were once in use. 

Aristolochia Cava, Fumaria bulbosa. 

Aristolochi'a Clemati'tis, Aristolochi'a Vvl- 
ga'ris seu Cre'ttca seu ten'uis, Adra liiza (F.) 
Aristoloche ordinaire, Upright Birtlnoort. The 
root has been considered stimulant and emmena- 
gogue, and as such has been used in amenorrhoea, 
chlorosis, and cachexia. 

Aristolochia Cretica, A. Clematitis — a. Fa- 
bacea, Fumaria bulbosa — a. Hastata, see A. 
serpentaria — a. Hirsuta, see A. serpentaria. 

Aristolochi'a Losga, and A. Rotun'da, (F.) 
Aristoloche lougiie et ronde, Long and Hound 
Birthicort. Virtues the same as the preceding. 

Aristolochi'a Pistolochi'a, Pintolochi'u Aris- 
tolochi'a, Pohjrrhi'zn. This variety has an aro- 
matic odour, and an acrid and bitter taste. (F.) 
Arinloluche crenelee. 

Aristolochia P».eticulata, see A. serpentaria. 

Aristolochi'a Serpenta'ria, Serpenta'ria, S. 
Virginia'na, Vipera'ria, Vipcri'na Virginia'na, 
Colnbri'na Virginia'na, Contrayer'va Virginia'- 
na, (F.) Serpcntaire et Ariitoloche scrpentaire de 

Virginie, Cohirrine ou Coideuvrfe on Vipfrine de 
Virginia, Virginia Snakeroot, Snakcroiit Birth- 
icort, Snal-ciaeed, Snagrcl. Virtues of the root, 
Serpenta'ria, tonic, stimulant; and as such, em- 
ployed in debility, intermittents, A-c. Aristo- 
lochi'a Hirsu'ta, a. Hasta'ta and A. Retici'- 
la'ta; indigenous, are employed indiscriminately 
with A. Serpentaria under the name Serpentaria 
or Virginia Snakeroot. 

Aristolochi'a Sipho, Dutchman's pipe, and 
A. Tomento'sa; indigenous, have virtues like 
those of A. Serpentaria. 

Aristolochi'a Texcis, A. Clematitis — a. To- 
mcntosa, see A. sipho — a. Trifida, A. Triloba ta. 

Aristolochi'a Triloba'ta, A. trifida, (F.) 
Aristoloche trilobee. A plant of Surinam and 
Jamaica; possessing the general virtues of the 
Aristolochiacea;. The other varieties of Aristo- 
lochia have similar properties. 

Aristolochi'a Vulgaris Rotunda, Fumaria 

ARISTOLOCH'IC, Aristoloch'icus. Same ety- 
mology. An old term for remedies supposed to 
have the property of promoting the flow of the 
lochia. — Hippocrates, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, 

VUM. These names were formerly given to 
pharmaceutical preparations, used in phthisis, 
tormina, and fever. — Avicenna. 

ARISTOPHAKEI'ON. A sort of emollient 
plaster, prepared with four pounds of pitch, two 
of apochyma, one of wax, an ounce of opoponax, 
and half a pint of vinegar. — Gorrseus. Not 

About 6 miles from the Washita river, and about 
a quarter of a degree north of the Louisiana line, 
there are about 70 of those springs; — Onachitn 
or Wnnhitau Springs. They are thermal, vary- 
ing from 138° to loO° Fahrenheit, and are em- 
ployed in rheumatism, cutaneous aflections, Ac. 

ARK-BEIN, Pubis os. 

ARKEION, Arctium Lappa. 

ARLADA, Realgar. 

mal sulphureous springs in the department of 
Pyrenees Orientalcs, France. Their temperature 
is 10.3° to 145° of Fahr., and they contain sul- 
phohydric acid. 

ARM, Brachium. 

ARMA, Ponis— a. Ventris, Penis. 

ARMAMENTARIUM, Arsenal — a, Chirurgi- 
cum, see Arsenal— a. Portabile, see Case. 

ARMATORY UNGUENT, Hoplochrysma. 

ARMATURA, Amnios. 

ARME, from apw, ' I adapt.' Any physiolo- 
gical or mechanical junction or union of parts. — 
Ilesychius. A suture, as of the cranium-— Galen. 

aca— a. Mains, Apricot, see Prunus— a. Vulgaris, 
Prunus Armeniaca. 

ARMENIAN STONE, Mclocbites. 

ARMENITES. Melochites. 

nular ligaments of the carpus. 

ARMOfSE BLANCHE, Artemisia rupestris 
— a. Comimme, Artemisia vulgaris — a. Estragon, 
Artemisia draeunculus— a. Ordinaire, Artemisia 

ARMONTACUM, Ammoniac, gum. 

ARMORA'CIA, from Armorica, where it was 
largely cultivated. In the Pharmacopeia of the 
United States, the fresh root of Cochlearia armo- 

Armoracia RnsTicANA, Cochlearia armoracia 
— a. Sativa, Cochlearia armoracia, 

ARMOUR, Condom. 




ARMURE DES JAMUES, see Cornu am- 

AHMUS. Humerus — a. Summus, Acromion. 
ARX, Aliius 

AKXALD'IA, Arnaldic. A disease, which 
appejirs to have prevailed in England at one 
time, but whose origin and nature are unknovpn. 
It was accompanied with loss of hair; and, by 
some, is supposed to have been Syphilis. " Deinde 
uterque Hex incidit in aegritudinem, quam Ar- 
naldiam vocant, in qua ipsi usque ad mortem 
hiborantes, capillos suos deposuerunt." — Rogerus 
Ilovedenus, in Ricardo I., cited by Du Cange. 

AR'NICA MONTA'XA. Derivation uncer- 
tain. Arnicft, Leiipaid's Rune, Durun' icum Ger- 
iiian'icum seu Oppoeiti/o'lium seu Plantar/" iniv 
folio, Ar'nica PliiuQiiii'i, Alis'ma, Ac"yrus, 
Diuret' tea, Panace'a lapio'rtim, Ptar' mica mon- 
ta'tia, Calllia seu Culeii'dula A/pi'na, Narihw 
Cel'ticn al'lera, (F.) Avnique, Betoiiie ou Tahac 
des Moiitagnes, Tahue dea Vosrjes, Tahac ou Be- 
toiiie des Savoyards, Doroiiic d'Allemaf/ne, Plan- 
tain ou SoncL dea Alpes. Sex. Sijsl. Syngenesia 
PulygiDnia superflua. Oid. Composila). The 
plant and flowers (Arnica, Ph. U. S.) are consi- 
dered, or have been considered, narcotic, stimu- 
lant, emnienagogue, Ac; and, as such, have been 
given in amaurosis, paralysis, all nervous affec- 
tions, rheumatism, gout, chlorosis, <fec. Dose, 
gr. V to X, in powder. In large doses it is dele- 

Aknica and A. JIollis are sup- 
posed to have medical virtues like the last. 

Arnica Plaukxsis, Arnica montana — a. Spuria, 
Inula dysenterica — a. Suedensis, Inula dysen- 

ARXTQUE, Arnica montana. 
ARNO(}L0SSUM, Pluntngo. 
AUNOTT'S DILATOR, see Dilator, Arnott's. 
AllNUT, Bunium bulbocastanum. 
ARO'MA, Ar'li/ma, 'perfume:' [apt, intensive, 
and oaiirj or oSjjtri, 'odour,' or from apw, 'to make 
fitting or agreeable.') Spir'itus Rector, (F.) 
Arome. The odorous part of plants. An ema- 
nation — fre(iuently imponderable — from bodies, 
which acts on the organ of smell, and varies with 
the body exhaling it. 
AH 6 MATE, Aromatic. 

AR0:MAT'IC, .4roHK(<'(cu.s, (F.) Aromate. Any 
odoriferous substance obtained from the vegetable 
kingdom which contains much volatile oil, or a 
light and exjjansible resin. Aromatics are used 
in perfumes, in seasoning, and embalming. In 
medicine they are employed as stimulants. Gin- 
ger, cinnamon, cardamoms, mint, &o., belong to 
this class. 

AR'OMATIZE, (F.) Aromntiser. To add to a 
mixture or potion some aromatic, to mask its 
taste or render it more agreeable. Such mix- 
ture is then said to be aromatized. 

AROMATOPO'LA, from afnofia, 'an odour,' 
and TrwXtoj. ' I sell.' An apothecary or druggist. 
One who sells spices. 
A RON. Arum. 

AROPII. A barbarous word, which had vari- 
ous significations with the ancients. Paracelsus 
employed it to designate a lithonthriptic remedy. 
The mandragora, according to some. Also, a 
mixture of bread, saffron, and wine.— Van Hel- 

Aroph, Ferrum amraoniatum. 
AHQEERUSADE, EAU B', Aqua tranmat'- 
iea Thrdc'nii sen Tlicdia'nn seu aclopeta'ria seu 
vulnera'ria seu catapnlta'riim, Miatit'ra vnlnera'- 
ria ac"ida. A sort of vulnerary water, distilled 
from a farrago of aromatic plants. Rosemary, 
tbiss; millefoil, t In/me, each Ibss : Proof spirit, 2 
gallons— distil a gallon. This is one form. 
ARR, Cicatrix. 

ARRABON, Arraphon. 

ARUACIIEMENT {¥.), from arrachcr, 'to 
tear out,' Aptoapas'ma, Ahrup'tio, Avul'sio. Act 
of separating a part of the body by tearing it from 
the bonds connecting it with others. Evulsion. 

Arrachement is applied to certain operations, 
as to the extraction of a tooth, the extirpation of 
a 2)oli/piis, (fee. 

ARRACK, Arack. See Spirit. 
AR'RAPHON, Ar'rahon, from a, priv., and 
pa(prj, 'a suture,' — 'without suture.' A term 
applied to the cranium when it presents no 

ARRECTIO. Erection. 

ARRED, see Scar. 

ARREPTIO, Insanity. 

ARRESTA BOVIS, Ononis spinosa. 

ARRET D'HILDAN, Remora Hildani. 

ARRETE-DCEUF, Ononis spinosa. 

ARRIICE'A, from a, priv., and ptu, 'I flow.' 
The suppression of any flux. Ameuorrhoja. 



ARRHOSTIA, Disease, Infirmity. 

ARRIIYTIIMUS, Cacorrhythmus. 

ARRIBA, GeofFraa vermifuga. 

ARRIERE-BOUCIIE, Pharynx — o. -Dent, 
see Dentition — a. -Faix, Secundines. 

ARRIERE-GOUT {¥.), 'after taste.' The 
taste left by certain bodies in the mouth for some 
time after they have been swallowed, owing per- 
haps to the papillae of the mouth having imbibed 
the savoury substance. 

ARRIERES NARIXES, Nares, posterior. 

AR ROCHE, Atriplex hortensis — a. Puant, 
Chenopodium vulvaria. 

ARROSEMEXT, Aspersion. 

ARROWHEAD, Sagittaria variabilis. 

ARROW LEAF, Sagittaria variabilis. 

ARROW POISON. This differs with different 
tribes of Indians. By some, the poison capsicum, 
and infusions of a strong kind of tobacco, and of 
euphorbiaceaj are mixed together, with the poi- 
sonous emmet, and the teeth of the formidable 
serpent, called, by the Peruvian Indians, Miua- 
maru or Jenjnn — Lacheii^ picta of Tschudi. 

ARROW ROOT, Fee'idn Jfaran'tts, Am'ylum 
maranta'cetim seu America'num. The fecula of 
the rhizoma of Jfaran'ta Antndina'oea, Jfaraitta 
(Ph. U. S.), Ord. Marantaceae, which, like all 
fecuhis, is emollient and nutritive, when prepared 
with water, milk, &c. 

Dr. Carson has shown, ihut Florida arrow root 
is derived from Za'mia. intcrjrifo'lia or'mila, 
Siir/ar pine, Ord. C3'cadaceae ; Bermuda arroio 
root being obtained from Maranta arundinacea. 
Florida arrow root, as well as the farina, is known 
in the Southern States under the name Coonti or 

According to Dr. Ainslie, an excellent kind of 
arrow root is prepared in Travancore from the 
root of Curcuma angustifolia, Old. Zingiberacea^. 

Arrow root mucilai/e is made by ruVibing arrow 
root powder with a little cold water, in a basin, 
by means of the back of a spoon, until it is com- 
pletely mixed with the water; then pouring boil- 
ing water over it, stirring assiduously until a soft, 
gelatinous, tenacious mucilage is formed; and, 
lastl}', boiling for five minutes. A tablespoonful 
of arrow root powder is sufficient to make a pint 
of mucilage. It may be moderately sweetened; 
and wine or lemon juice may be added. 

With milk also it forms a bland and nutritious 
article of diet. 

Arrow Root, Brazilian. The fecula of Ja- 
troplia JIanihot. 




Arrow Root, Common, see Solanum tubero- 

Arrow Root, East Indian. The fecula of the 
tubers of Curcuma aiitjustifolia, or narrow-leaved 

Arrow Root, English, Arrow root, common. 

Arrow Root, Tahi'ti, Tacca starch, Otahei'te 
Salep. The fecula of Tacca Oceanica. 

ARROW WEED, Sagittaria variabilis. 

ARROW AVOOD, Euonymus, Viburuum den- 

ARS CABALISTICA, Cabal— a. Chymiatrica, 
Chymiatria — a. Clysmatica nova. Infusion of me- 
dicines — a. Cocjuinaria, Culinary art — a. Cosme- 
tica, Cosmetics — a. Culinaria, Culinary art — a. 
Empiriea, Empiricism — a. Formulas uiedieascon- 
cinandi, see Prescription — a. Hermetica, Chymis- 
try — a. llomoeopathica, Homoeopathy — a. Hydria- 
trica, Ilydrosudoiherapeia — a. Infusoria, Infu- 
sion of medicines — a. Machaonia, Medicina — a. 
Majorum, Cliymistry — a. Medica, Medicina — a. 
Obstetricia, Obstetrics — a. Sanandi, Art, healing 
— a. Separatoria, Chymistry — a. Signata, Cabal 
— a. Spagyrica, Chymistry — a. Sphygmica, Sphyg- 
mologia — a. Veterinaria, Veterinary Art — a. Zoia- 
trica, Veterinary Art. 

ARSALTOS, Asphaltum. 

ARSATUM, Nymphomania. 

ARSECOCKLE (Sc), synonymous with Teut. 
aers-bleyne, tuberculus in cino. Originally, a 
hot pimple on the hips. Now, in Scotland, a 
similar pimple on the face or any part of the 
body. — Jamieson. 

ARSENAL (F.), Cliirapotlie'ca, Armamentd'- 
ritinu A. Chirur'gicum. A collection of surgical 
instruments. A work containing a description 
of surgical instruments. Armainentit'riuDt ob- 
stet'riciiin has the same significations in regard to 

ARSEN'IATE, Arsen'iaa, (F.) Arahiiate, troxa 
cpat}v, ' robust.' A salt formed by a combination 
of arsenic acid with a salifiable base. 

Arseniate of Ammonia, Arsen'ias Ammo'niw, 
Ammo'nium Arsen'ieum seu Arsenic' icum, (F.) 
Arseniate d'Ammoniaque. This preparation is 
highly extolled in cutaneous diseases. A grain 
of the salt may be dissolved in an ounce of dis- 
tilled water, and 20 to 25 drops be commenced 
with as a dose. 

Arseniate op Iron, Arsen'ias Ferri, Ferrum 
Arsenia'tum seu Arsenic'icum ojcydidn'tum, (F.) 
Arseniate de Fer. This preparation has been 
applied externally to cancerous ulcers. An oint- 
ment may be made of ^ss of the arseniate, ^ij of 
the phosphate of iron, and g^'J of spermaceti 
ointment. The arseniate has also been given 
internally in cancerous aflFections, in the dose of 
one-sixteenth of a grain. 

Arseniate op Protox'ide op Potas'sium, 
Proto-arsen'iate of Potas'sium, Arsen'iate of Po- 
tassa, Arsen'ias Potasses seu Kali, (F.) Arseniate 
de Potasse, Sel arsenical de Ilacqtier. Proper- 
ties the same as those of arsenious acid. 

Arseniate op Quinia, Quiniae Arsenias. 

Arsen'iate op Soda, Soda arsen'ias, (F.) Ar- 
s6niate de Sonde. Made, according to the Codex 
of Paris, by mixing and heating to redness arse- 
nious acid and nitrate of soda; dissolving the 
salt in water ; adding carbonate of soda until 
there is an alcaline reaction ; filtering, evapora- 
ting, and crystallizing. It is the basis of Pear- 
son's Solution, which is formed of one grain of the 
crystallized a;-«e(r("o?e to one fluidonnce of distilled 
water. Dose, gtt. xx. Heinecke's Solution con- 
sists of the arseniate, gr. vj ; peppermint water, 
f5iiss; wine of cinnamon, f^ss; laudanum, { ^'j. 
Dose, forty to fifty drops. 

ARSENIA TE DE SO UDE, Arseniate of Soda. 

AR'SENIC, Arsen'ieum, (Ph. U. S.) A solid 

metal ; of a steel-gray colour ; granular texture ; 
very brittle; volatilizing before melting; very 
combustible and acidifiablc. It is not dangerous 
of itself, and only becomes so by virtue of the 
facility with which it absorbs oxygen. 

ARSENIC BLANC, Arsenicum album. 

Arsenic, Iodide op, Arsen'ici lo'didum seu 
Teriod'idum seu lodure'tum, Arsen'ictnn loJu'- 
tiim, Hydri'odas arsen'ici, formed by the combi- 
nation of arsenic and iodine. This preparation, 
applied externally, has been highly extolled in 
various cutaneous affections. An ointment may 
be made of three grains of iodide to ,^j of lard. 
It has also been given internally in the dose of a 
tenth of a grain in similar aliectious. It is offici- 
nal in the Ph. II. S. 1851. 

Arsenic, Oxide of, Arsenicum album — a. Ox- 
ide of, White, Arsenicum album — a. White, -Vrse- 
nicum album. 

Arsenic and Mercury, Iodide of, Jlijdrnr'- 
gi/ri et Arsen'ici lo'didum, Double J'odide of 
Mer'cury and Ar'senic, lodo-arscnile of Her'cury. 
A compound, which has been proposed as more 
efficacious than either the iodide of arsenic or 
the iodide of mercury. It is made by tritura- 
ting G'08 grains of arsenic ; 14-82 grains of mer- 
cury; 49 of iodine, with a fluidrachin of alcohol, 
until the mass has become dry, and from being 
deep brown has become pale red. Eight ounces 
of distilled icuter are poured on, and, after tritu- 
ration for a few moments, the whole is trans- 
ferred to a flask; half a drachm of Jii/driodic 
acid, prepared by the acidification of two grains 
of iodine, is added, and the mixture is boiled for 
a few moments. When the solution is cold, make 
the mixture up to f^viij with distilled water. 
This is called by Mr. Donovan, the proposer, 
Liquor Arsen'ici et JTydrur'f/yri Jo'didi, each 
drachm of which, by measure, consists of water, 
5j ; arsenious acid, gr. l-8th ; peroxide of mercury, 
gr. l-4th ; iodine, converted into liydriodlc acid, 
gr. 3-4ths. In the last edition of the Ph. U. S. 
it is directed to be made of Arsenici lodidum 
tind Hi/drarejyri lodidum rubruiii, each gr. xxxv; 
and Aqua destillata, Oss ; dissolving by rubbing, 
heating to the boiling point, and filtering. 

The dose of Donovan's Solution is from TT^X 
to f |5ss, two or three times a day. 

It has been used successfully in inveterate cu- 
taneous diseases. 

ARSEN'ICAL, Arsenica'lis, (F.) Arsenical. 
Relating, or appertaining to, or containing, ar- 

Arsen'ical Paste, (F.) Pate ArsSnicalf. 
This application to cancers is formed of 70 parts 
of cinnabar, 22 of draz/on's blood, and 8 of arse- 
nious acid ; made into a paste with saliva, when 
about to be applied. 

Arsenical Powders of Frere Come, and op 
Justamond, see Powder, Arsenical. 

Arsenical Solution, see Arseniate of Soda, 
and Liquor Arsenicalis. 

ARSENICI IIYDRIODAS, Arsenic, Iodide of 
— a. lodidum, Arsenic, Iodide of — a. loduretum, 
Arsenic, Iodide of — a. Teriodidum, Arsenic, Io- 
dide of. 

ARSENICISM'US, Intoxica'tio Arsenica'lis. 
Poisoning by arsenic. 

ARSENICUM, Arsenic. 

Arsen'icum Album, White Ar'senic, Oxide 
of Ar'senic, Ratsbane, Arsen'ici ojr'ydum al- 
bum. Calx Arsen'ici alba, Ac"idum Arsenico'snm 
seu Arsenio'sum (Ph. IT. S.), Arsenious acid. White 
oxide of arsenic, (F.) Arsenic blanc. An acid 
which is met with in commerce, in compact, white, 
heavy, fragile masses; of a vitreous aspect, opake, 
and covered with a white dust ; of an acrid and 
nauseous taste; without smell when cold; vola- 
tilizable by heat, and exhaling the odour of gar- 




He ; soluble in water, alcohol, and oil ; crystal- 
lizable in regular octahedrons. It is this that is 
meant by the name ar.senic, as commonly used. 

Arsen'icum Album Sublima'tum, Sublimed 
Oxide of Arsenic, is the one employed in medi- 
cine. It is tonic and cscharotic, and is the most 
virulent of mineral poisons. It is used in inter- 
inittcnts, periodical headachs, neuroses, &c. Dose, 
gr. one-tenth to one-eighth, in pill. See Poisons, 
Table 'if. 

AusKMCUM loDATUM, Arsenic, Iodide of — a. 
Rubrum factitium, Realgar. 

ARSENIS POTASS.E, Arscnite of protoxide 
of potMssium — a. Potassse aquosus, Liquor arseni- 
calis — a. Potassae liquidus. Liquor arsenicalis. 

AR'SENITE, Ar'seuis. A salt, formed by a 
combination of the arsenious acid with a salifi- 
able base. 

Ah'senite op Protox'ide op Potas'sium, Pro- 
to-ar'senite of Potas'sium, Ar'seiiite of Potassa, 
Ar'senis Potussce. An uncrystallizable and co- 
lourless salt, which forms the basis of the liquor 
nraeni':aliK, which see. 

Arsexite oe QuiNrA, Quiniae arsenis. 

ARSE-SMART, BITING, Polygonum hydro- 

ART, HEALING, Ars Snnan'di, Medici'na. 
The appropriate application of the precepts of 
the best physician.s, and of the results of experi- 
ence to the treatment of disease. 

AuT, Vkteiunary, Veterinary art. 

AR'TABE, apTaPr). Name of a Persian mea- 
sure for dry substances, in use with the ancients, 
equal at times, to 5 raodii : at others, to 3; and 
ut others, again, to 7. — Galen. 


These German waters have been much recom- 
mended in hysteria, gout, palsy, <fec. Their 
physical or chemical properties have not been 

ARTEMIS'IA, Anacti'rion. Ord. Compositse. 
Called after a queen of the name, who first em- 
plo.ved it; or from A/jte/jis, 'Diana;' because it 
was formerly used in diseases of women, over 
whom she presided. The Gauls called it Dricu- 

Artemis'ia Abrot'anujf, Abrot'anum, Abrot'- 
ortum, Abrot'anum Cathsum seu Mas, Ahrathan, 
South'ernicood, Oldinan, Sloventoood, (F.) Ahro- 
tone, Aurone, Aurone mule, Aiirone des jnrdins, 
Garderohe, Citronelle. Supposed to be possessed 
of stimulant properties. 

Oil of Southernwood, O'leum Abrot'ani, (F.) 
nuile d' Aurone, possesses the aromatic proper- 
ties of the plant. 

Artemis'ia Absin'thium, Absin'thixim, A. vid- 
ga're, Apsin'thium, Barypi'cron, Common Worm- 
wood, Worm it, (F.) Absinthe. Properties: — tonic 
and anthelmintic. The Oil<f Wormwood, O'leum 
Absin'lhii, (F.) JIullc d'Absinthe, Contains the 
aromatic virtues of the plant. 

Artemisia Afra, a South African species, is 
tonic, antispsisinodic and anthelmintic; and has 
been used in debility of the stomach, visceral ob- 
structions, jiiundice and hypochondriasis. It is 
taken in infusion, decoction and tincture. A 
strong infusion is used by the Cape Colonists as 
a collyrium in weakness of the eyes; and the 
pounded leaves and stalks are employed as dis- 
cutients in oedema and sugillations. 

Artemisia Alda, A. Santonica — a. Balsamita, 
A. Pontica. 

Artemisia Bien'nis, 2?iV»»i"a? Wormwood ,• in- 

Arte.misia Botrys, Chenopodium ambrosi- 


Artemis'ia Campes'tris, Field Southcruu-ood, 

(F.) Aurone dea Champs. This possesses the 
same properties as A. Abrot'anum. 

Artemisia Canadensis, Canada AVormwood — 
a. Caudata: indigenous. 

Artemisia Chenopodium, Chenopodium bo- 

Artemisia Chinen'sis, A. In'dica, A. Moxa. 
From this the Chinese form their moxas. 

Artemisia Contra grows in Persia, Asia 
Minor, and other parts of the East. 

Artemisia Dracun'culus, Tar'agon, (F.) Ar- 
moise estragon, Estragon. Virtues: — the same 
as the last. The leaves are much used to season 
food, especially in the form of Es'tragon vin'egar. 

Artemis'ia Glacia'lis, Sillcy Wormwood ; 

Artemisia Indica, Artemisia Chinensis, A, 

Artemisia Juda'ica, grows in Palestine, Ara- 
bia, China, Cochin China, and Northern Africa. 

Artemisia Leptophylla, A. Pontica; 

Artemisia Marit'ima, Absin'thium Jfari'mim 
seu Marit'imum, Sea Wormwood, llaritime South- 
ernwood ; 

Artemisia Moxa, A. Chinensis; 

Artemis'ia Pon'tioa, A. Poma'na seu Teniii- 
fo'lia seu Balsami'ta seu Leptophyl'la, Absinthi- 
am Pon'ticum seu Jioma'num, Jioman Wormwood, 
Lesser Wormioood, possess like virtues ; — as well 

Artemisia Romana, A. Pontica; 

Artemisia Rubra, A. Santonica; and 

Artemis'ia Rupes'tuis, Creeping Wormwood, 
Gen'ipi album, (F.) Armoise blanc, Genipi blanc. 
This variety has aromatic virtues, and is used in 
intermittents, and in ainenorrhoea. 

Artemis'ia Santon'ica, Santon'icum, Canni 
Herbn, ChumcRcedris, Chamaei/paris'sus, Absin'- 
thium Santon'icum, Sementi'na, Xantoli' na, Sche- 
ba Ar'abiim, Sina seu Cina Levan'tica, Tarta' rian 
South' ernwood, (F.) Biirhotine. From this and 
other species of absinthium is obtained the so- 
called Semen contra vermes seu Contra seu Zedo- 
a'ricB seu Santon'ici seu Cinee, Hofiiospenn'um, 
Sanctum Semen, Wormseed, which do not consist 
of seeds, but of broken peduncles. Virtues: — 
anthelmintic and stimulant. Dose, gr. x. to ^j 
in powder. Its active principle is San'tonin, the 
dose of which is from 2 to 5 grains in the day, 
for a child six or eight years of age. 

Artemisia Tenuifolia, A. Pontica. 

Artemis'ia Vulga'ris, Artemis'ia rubra et 
alba, Cin'giilum Suneti Joan'nis, Mater Herha'- 
rnm, Bcreniseeum, Bubastecor'dium, Canapa'cia, 
Mugwort, (F.) Armoise ordiimire, A. Commune, 
Herbe de Saint Jean, Ceinture on Couronne de 
Saint Jean. This, as well as some other varie- 
ties, possesses the general tonic virtues of the 
Artemisiic. Artemisia vulgaris has been highly 
extolled by the Germans in cases of epilepsy. 
Dose of the powder, in the 21 hours, from ^fss to 

ARTERE, Artery— CT. Brachiale, Brachial ar- 
tery — a. Brachio-cephalique, Innominata arteria 
— a. Branch ique. Bronchial artery — a. Ciliaire, 
Ciliary artery — a. Ciitorienne : see Clitoris — a. 
Ccecale : see Colic arteries — a. Collaterale d)i 
coude, Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a. (\>llate- 
rale externe, Arteria profunda humeri — a. Colla- 
terale interne, Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a. 
Corona ire des levres. Labial artery — a. Corona ire 
I Slomachique, Coronary artery — a. Crnrale, Crural 
artery — a. Deuxieme des thoraciques, Arteria tho- 
racica externa inferior — a. Epincuse, Meningeal 
arterj', middle — ff./V'»ioro-^:)o^)^(7ce,Ischia tic artery 
— a. Fessiere, Gluteal artery — a. Gastriqiie droile, 
petite. Pyloric arterj' — a. Gutt)iro-m(ixill,-fire, 
Maxillary artery, internal — a. Honteusc externe, 
Pudic, external, artery — a. Ilonteuse interne, Pu- 




die, internal, artery — a. Ilnnierale pro/onde, Ar- 
teria profunda humeri — a. Iliaque primitive, Iliac 
artery — a. Inuominee, Innouiinata arteria — a. 
Jrienne, Ciliary artery — a. hchio-penicnne : see 
Pudic, internal, artery — a. Mediane atiterieure, 
Spinal artery, anterior — a. Midiaiie ponterieure 
du rachis, Spinal artery, posterior — a. Meninyie 
moyenne, Meningeal artery, middle — a. 3lening- 
iennepuvterienre, Prevertebral artery — a.Menton- 
nih-e, Mental foramen — a. MesocephnUcpte, Basi- 
lary artery — a. J/eeocoliqiie : see Colic artery — 
a. MiiHculaire du bras, Arteria profunda humeri 
— a. Mimculitire du bras, grande : see Collateral 
arteries of the arm — a. Muscidaire grande de la 
cuiisse, Arteria profunda femoris — a. Opiithogas- 
trique, Coeliac artery — a. Orbitaire, Ophthalmic 
artery — a. de fOvaire, Spermatic artery — ft. 
Pelvi-crurale, Crural artery — a. Pelvi-crurale, 
Iliac artery — a. Pelvienne, Hypogastric artery — 
a. Premiere des thoraciques, Arteria thoracica 
externa superior — a. Prevertebrale, Preverte- 
bral artery — a. Jiadio-carpieniie transversale 
pulmciire, Radio-carpal artery — a. Scrotale, Pu- 
dic, external, artery — a. Soits-claviere, Subcla- 
vian artery^ — a. Sou>i-pi(bio-fcmorale, Obturator 
artery — a. Sow-jmbienne, Pudic, internal, artery 
— a. Soiis-sternal, Mammary, internal— ^a. Sph6- 
no-epineuse, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Stomo- 
gastriqite, Coronary artery — a. Sus-carpienne : 
Bee Sns-carp)ien — a. Siis-mn.rillaire, Alveolar 
ajtery — a. Sus-maxillaire, Buccal artery — n. 
Siis-metatarsienne, Metatarsal artery — a. Sus- 
pubieiine, Epigastric artery — a. Testicidaire, 
Spermatic artery — n Thoraeiqiie liumerale. Acro- 
mial artery — a. I'rachelocervical : see Cerebral 
arteries — a. Trochauterienne, Circumflex artery 
of the thigh — a. Troiaieme de/t thoraciques, Acro- 
mial artery — a. Tympaniqne, Auditory artery, 
external — a. Uveale : see Ciliary artery — o. Vul- 
va ire, Pudie, external, artery. 

ARTERIA, Artery — a. Ad Outem Abdominis, 
see Ad Cutem abdominis, (arteria) — a. Anonyma, 
Innominata artery — a. Aspera, Trachea — a. Ce- 
rebralis. Carotid, internal — a. Ccrvicalis, Basilary 
artery — a. Coronaria dextra. Pyloric artery — a. 
Crassa, Aorta — a. Cruralis, Crural artery — a. 
Externa Cubiti, Radial artery — a. Dorsalis meta- 
carpi. Metacarpal artery — a. Durae matris media 
maxima. Meningeal artery, miildle — a. Encepha- 
lica. Carotid, internal — a. Gastrica superior. 
Coronary artery — a. Ileo-colica : see Colic arteries 
— a. Iliaca interna. Hypogastric artery — a. Iliaea 
posterior, Hypogastric artery — a. Magna, Aorta 
— a. Magna pollieis, Princeps pollicis — a. Malleo- 
laris externa: see Tibial arteries — a. Malleolaris 
interna: see Tibial arteries — a. Mammaria ex- 
ternii, A. Thoracica externa inferior — a. Maxima, 
Aorta — a. Media anastotnotiea : see Colic arteries 
— a. Meningsoa media. Meningeal artery, middle 

— a. Muscularis femoris, A. Profunda femoris — 
a. Pharyngea suprema, Pterygoid artery — a. Pro- 
funda cerebri : see Cerebral arteries — a. Pudenda 
communis, Pudic, internal, arter}' — a. Pudica, 
Pudic, internal, artery — a. Ramulus ductds 
Pterygoidei, Pterygoid artery — a. Sphcno-spi- 
nosa. Meningeal artery, middle — a. Spinales, Spi- 
nal arteries — a. Spinalis, A. Profunda humeri — 
a. Sternalis, Mammary, internal — a. Supra-orbi- 
talis, Frontal artery — a. Sylviana: see Cerebral 
arteries — a. Thoracica axillaris vel alaris. Scapu- 
lar artery, inferior — a. Thoracica huraeralis. 
Acromial artery — a. Transversulis colli: see 
Cerebral arteries — a. Transversajis humeri, Sca- 
pular artery, superior — a. Ulnaris, Cubital artery 

— a. Uterina hypogastrica, Uterine artery — a. 
Vasta posterior, A. Profunda femoris. 

ARTE'RIAC, Arteri'uena. A medicine pre- 
scribed in diseases of the windpipe. Also arte- 

ARTE'RIiE ADIPO'S^. The arteries which 
secrete the fat about the kidneys ore sometimes 
so called. They are ramifications of the capsular, 
diaphragmatic, renal, and spermatic arteries. 

AuTKiUvE ApopluctiC'E, Carotids — a. Capitales, 
Carotids — a. Ciliares, Ciliary arteries — a. Corporis 
eallosi cerebri, Mesolobar arteries — a. Jugularos, 
Carotids — a. Lethargicco, Carotids — a. Mesolobi- 
cae, Mesolobar arteries — a. Prajparantes, Sper- 
matic arteries — a. Somniferas, Carotids — a. Sopo- 
rales, Carotids — a. Soporariffi, Carotids — a. Ve- 
nosK, Pulmonary veins. 

ARTE'RIAL, Arteri'acus, Arterio'aua. Be- 
longing to arteries. 

AuTKiiiAL Blood, (F.) Sang artericl. Red 
blood is so called because contained in the arte- 
ries. The pulmonary veins, however, also con- 
tain red blood: hence the name arterial veins, 
(F.) Veines arterielles, applied to them. 
Arterial Constitution, Plethora arteriosa. 
Akte'kial Duct, Cana'lis arteriu'sus, Ductus 
arterio'sus seu Botal'lii, (F.) Canal artiriel, G. 
Pnlmo-aortique, is the portion of the pulmonary 
artery which terminates in the aorta in the foetus. 
When this duct is obliterated after birth, it is 
called Artc'rial Lig'ament, Ligamen'tum arterio'- 
sum, (F.) Ligament arteriel. 

Autbrial System includes all the arteries, 
from their origin in the heart to their termina- 
tion in the organs. See Vascular System. 


ARTERIARCTIE, from aprnpia, 'artery,' and 
arcto, '1 straiten.' Contraction of an artery. 
ARTERIECTOP'IA, from af>rr,pia, 'artery,' 
and tKTonoi, ' out of place.' Dislocation of an 

ARTERIITIS, Arteritis. 
ARTERIOG'RAPHY, Arteriugra'jihin : from 
aprrjpia, 'artery,' and ypa6>], 'a description.' A 
description of the arteries. 

ARTERIOLA. A small artery. 
ARTERIOL'OGY, Arrer)"o/<;r/"(a/ from apm- 
pia, 'artery,' and \oyos, 'a discourse.' A treatise 
on the arteries. 

ARTERIO-PHLEEOTOMY, see Bloodletting. 
ARTE'RIO-PITU'ITOUS. An epithet ap- 
plied to vessels which creep along the interior of 
the nostrils. — Ruysch. 

ARTERIORRHEXIS, see Aneurism. 
ARTERIOS'ITAS, Artcrios'itt/, from arteria, 
'an artery.' A condition of the blood in which 
it preserves in the veins the arterial character. — 
The opposite to Venositas. 

Arteriositas Sanguinis, Prasdominium san- 
guinis arteriosi. 

ARTSJUOSTEIE, from apr^pta, 'artery,' and 
oareov, 'a bone.' Ossification of an artery. — 

ARTERIOSTENO'SIS, from aprppia, 'artery,' 
and (XTcvog, 'contracted.' Contraction or oblite- 
ration of an artery. 

ARTElllOT 0kY,Arteriotom'ia. from apTripia, 
'an artery,' and Tcpum, 'I cut.' This word has 
been used for the dissection of arteries. Mosi 
commonly, however, it means a surgical opera- 
tion, which consists in opening an artery, to 
draw blood from it. Arteriotomy is chielly used 
in inflammatory affections of the head, when the 
blood is generally obtained from the temporal 
arterj'. See Bloodletting. 

ARTERI'TIS, Arterii'lls, Tnflamma'tio Arte- 
ria' rum, (F.) Arterite, Inflammation dca arteres ; 
from apTrjpta, 'an artery,' and itis, a termination 
denoting inflammation. Inflammation of an ar- 


tery. Inflammation of the inner coat of an 
artery is termed Endo-arteri'tis, or Endonar- 
ten'tin; of tho outer, Exo-arteri'tis or Exar- 

AR'TERY, Arie'n'a, (F.) Artere, from avp, 
air,' and Trjpeiv, 'to preserve,' quasi, 'receptacle 
of iiir,' because the ancients believed that it con- 
tained air. Tliey, at first, gave the name Artery 
to tlie trachea, apT,,pt,i rpaxcia, because it is filled 
with air; and afterwards they used the same 
term for the arteries, properly so called, probably 
because tliey commonly found them empty in the 
dead body. We find, also, ^Ac/icf to designate 
tho arteries, called by the Latins Veiia mican'tes 
p\Uaitt' lies. Arteries, with the moderns, signify 
the order of vessels, which arise from the two 
ventricles of the heart, and have valves only at 
their origin. They are cylindrical, firm, and 
elastic canals; of a yellowish white colour; little 
dilatable; easily lacerable ; and formed, 1. Of an 
external, laminated, or areolar membrane, Tn'- 
niun externa seu advent it" ia seu cellnla'ris, Va- 
f/iiin cellulu'rin, of a dense and close character. 
2. Of a middle coat, Tu'nica me'dia seu elas'- 
tica, composed of fibres, which do not, however, 
contract on the ai)plication of the galvanic stimu- 
lus, formed chiefly of elastic tissue, and also of 
smooth muscular fibres, and eminently elastic; 
and, 3. Of an inner coat, Tu'niea in'tima seu 
fjlabra, which is thin, diaphanous, reddish, and 

The use of the arteries is to carry the blood 
from the heart to the various parts of the system. 
It will bo obvious, however, that they cannot all 
convey arterial blood. The pulmonary artery, 
for example,' is destined to convey the venous 
blood to the lungs, there to be converted into 
arterial ; whilst the pulmonary veins convey 
arterial blood back to the heart. 


All the arteries take their rise from the Pul- 
monary Artery, or the Aorta; and the names 
generally indicate the parts to which they are 

I. Arteria Pulmonalis. 

The Pulmonary Artery arises from the right 
ventricle, and soon divides into a right and left 
branch, one of which is distributed to each lung. 

II. Arteria Aorta. 
The Aorta arises from the left ventricle. It is 
the common trunk of the arteries of the body, 
and may be divided into five portions. 

a. Arteries furnished hy the Aorta at its origin. 

1. A. Cardiaca or coronaria anterior. 

2. A. Cardiaca or coronaria posterior. 

b. Arteries furnished hy the Aorta at its arch. 

The arch of the Aorta gives off, to the left, two 
considerable trunks — the Arteria carotidea pri- 
mitira, and A. snhchivia ; and, to the right, a 
sinirle trunk, which is larger — the A. innominata, 
or lirnchio-cephalica, which divides into the ^K- 
mitive carotid and subclavian. 
A. AnTr.Riv C.VRO-f Divides into A. Carotidea externa, 

TiuEv I'lUMiTiVA.l and A. Carotidea interna. 
f b'urnishes, 1. A. Thyroidca superior. 

2. A. Iiii[/'i<ilis, ■nhii'h gives off tho A. dor- 
satis linsuo! and A. sublingualis. 

3. A. facialis vel A. Jlaxillari.t externa, 
which furnishes the A. palutina infe- 
rior, the .\. submentalis, and A. coro- 
narin superior and inferior. 

4. A. occipitalis, which gives off the A. 
mnstdidea posterior. 

5. A. aurirularis posterior, which gives off 
A. stylo-mastoidea. 

i 6. -1. pliaryngca inferior. j 



a. A. Ca- 


The external carotid ultiniatelv divides into the tem- 
poral artery and internal maxillary. 

Furnishes A. trann-ersalis faciei, A. auricu- 
lar is anterior, and A. temjioralis media. 


2. A 

ris in- 

b. A. Ca- 

U. Ar- 


A. Axil- 

A. Bra- 




2. A. Cu- 

Furnishes 13 branches, viz. — A. meningea 
media, A. dentaris inferior, A. temporalis 
profunda posterior, A. masseterina, A. 
pterijij(/idea, A. buccalis, A. lempwalis pro- 
funda anterior, A. alveolaris, A. suborli- 
taris, A. vidiana, A. pteryrjopalatina or 
pMryngea superior, A. palalina superior, 
and A. splienojMlatina. 

Furnishes, 1. A. (pidladmica, which gives 
off A. lacrymalis, A. centralis retina;, A. 
supraorbitaria vel supcrciliaris, A. ciliarcs 
posteriorcs. A. ciliares longaj, A. nuisi-u- 
laris superior et inferior, A. ethmoidalis 
po.sterior et anterior, A. palpebralis supe- 
rior et inferior, A. nasalis, and A. fronta- 
lis. 2 A. communicans WHIksH. 3. A. 
choroidea. 4. A. cerebralis anterior. 5. A. 
cerebralis media. 

Furnishes, 1. A. vertebralis, which gives off 
A. spinalis anterior et posterior, A. cere- 
bellosa inferior, and forms — by uniting it- 
self with that of the opposite side — the A. 
basilaris, divided into A. cerebellosa su- 
perior and A. cerebralis posterior. 2. A 
t/it/roidca inferior, which gives off A. cer- 
vicalis ascendens. 3. A. mammaria in- 
terna, which gives off the A. mcdiastina 
anterior and A. diaphragmatica superior. 
4. A. intercostalis sujierior. 5. A. cervica. 
lis transversa. 6. A. scapularis superii/r. 
7. A. cervicalis posterior vel jirofunda. 
Farther on, the subclavian artery contl- 
tinues its progress under the name A. axil- 

Furnishes, 1. A. acromialis. 2. A. thoracica 
superior. 3. A. l/ioracica inferior vel lonya 
vel mammaria externa. 4. A. scapularis 
inferior vel communis. 5. A. circumfl(xa 
posterior. 6. A. circumflexa anterior. Far- 
ther on, the axillary artery continues un- 
der the name A. brachiaUs. 

Furnishes A. humeralis j^rnfunda vel collate- 
ralis (f^terna. 2. A. collaleralis interna. 
It afterwards divides into the radial and 
cubital arteries. 
[Gives off A. recurrens radialis, A. dorsalis 
carpi, A. dm-salis meiacarpi, A. dorsalis 
pollicis, and terminates in forming the 
Arcus palmaris jirofundus. 

Gives off A. 7-ecurrens cuhitalis anterior and 
posterior: A. inlerossea anterior and pos- 
terior, which latter furnishes A. recurrens 
radialis posterior. It terminates in form- 
ing the superficial palmar arcli, which 
gives off A. coUaterales digitorum. 

C. Arteries ejiven off hy the Aorta in the Thorax. 




1. A. Sronchica. dextra et sinistra. 

2. A. a-sopltagwa (to the number of four, 

five, or six). 

3. A. mediastincE posieriores. 

4. A. intereostales inferiores vel aorticK 

(to the numlxjr of eight, nine, or ten). 

d. Arteries furnished hy the Aorta in the Abdomen. 

if S ■ !• Tbe A. diaphragmatica vel phrenica, 
Orancnes<, ^j^^^^^ ^^ sinistra. 

2. A 


3. A 




4. A 


Which divides into three branches, 1. A. co- 
ronaria ventriculi. 2. A. Hepatica. which 
gives off A. pylorica, A. gastro-epiploica 
dextra, and A. cystica; and, lastly, the A. 
splenica, which gives off A. gastro-epiplo- 
ica sinistra and Vasa brevia. 

Which gives off at its concavity the A. cn- 
lica dextra supcrim; media el inferitrr, and 
at its convex part from 15 to 20 Kami iu- 

Which gives off A. colica snipei-ior media, 
and inferior, and divides into A. hiemor- 
rhoidales superiores. 

5. The A. Ciipsulares medics (to the number of two ou 

each side). 

6. A. L'ennles vel Emulgentcs. 
1. A. Spermatico'. 

8. A. Lumlxires (to the number of four and five on 
each side). 




ft. A. II- 

iaca in--; 

b. A. II- 
iaca ex- 

A. Ou- 


A. Pop- 

0. Arteries resulting from the Bifurcation of the 
The Aorta, a little above its Bifurcation, si^es off 
the A. sacra media, and divides into A. iliacce primi- 
A. llmra ( pj^j^j^j, j^j^ ^_ ^j-^^^ interna and A. lliaca 

r Furnishes, 1. A.ilio-lumharis. 2. A. sacra 
lateralis. 3. A glutea vel iliaca posterior. 
4. A. umbilicalis. 5. A. ve^calis. 6. A. 
oUwatoria. 7. A. hmmnrrhoidea media. 
8. A. uterina. 9. A. vaginalis. 10. A. 
ischiatica. 11. ^. pwlenda interna, which 
gives off the A. hemorrhoidales inferiores. 
A. of the, septum, A. transversa perinei, 
A. corporis cavernosi, and A. dnrsalis penis. 

' Furnishes, 1. A. epigastrica, 2. A. iliaca an- 
terior vel drcumjlexa ilii, and is continued 
afterwards under the name of Crural Ar- 

'Furnishes, 1.^. suhcidanea ahdominalis. 2. 
A. pwlenda superjiciulis undprofunda. 3. 
A. muscularis sufxrjicialis. 4. A. muscu- 
laris profunda, which gives off the A. cir- 
oumflexa externa and interna, and the 
three I'erforantes, distinE;uishod into su- 
perior, middle, and inferior. Farther on, 
the crural artery continues under the name 
A. Pnplitma. 

'Furnishes, 1. A. Articulares superiores, in- 
terna, media, et exrterna. 2. A. Gamellce. 
3. A. Articulares inferiores, interna et ex- 
terna. 4. A tibialis antica, which, at the 
foot, taljes the name A. dorsalis tarsi, and 
gives off the tarsal and metatarsal arte- 
ries. In the leg, the popliteal artery di- 
viiles into the peroneal and posterior 

1. A. Fe- C Divides into A. peronwa antica a.n(i A. pero?ia!a 
rona;a. } poxtica. 

f Divides into A. plantaris interna and A. 
I plantaris externa. The latter, by anasto- 

2. A. Ti- I mosing with the A. dnrsalis tarsi, forms 
bialis J. the plantar arch, whence arise Hami su- 

postica periores Tel perforante.s postici, R. Tnferi- 

I ores postici et a)itici, which give off liami 
L perforantes antici. 

Artery, Angular, Facial artery — a. Articu- 
lar, Circumflex artery — a. Brachiocephalic, Inno- 
ininata arteria — a. Central of the retina, Central 
artery of the retina — a. Central of Zinn, Central 
artery of the retina — a. Cephalic, Carotid — a. 
Cerebral posterior, Vertebral — a. Cervico-scapu- 
lar, see Cervical arteries — a. Coronary of the lips. 
Labial artery — a. Crotaphite, Temporal artery — 
a. Fibular, Peroneal artery — a. Gastric inferior, 
Gastro-epiploic artery — a. Gastro-hepa-tic, see 
Gastro-epiploic iirtery — a. Genital, Pudic (inter- 
nal) artery — a. Guttural inferior, Th3'roideal A. 
inferior — a. Guttural superior, Thyroideal A. su- 
perior — a. Humeral, Brachial artery — a. Iliac 
posterior. Gluteal artery — a. Iliaco-muscular, 
Ileo-lumbar artery — a. Labial, Facial artery — a. 
Laryngeal superior, Thyroideal artery, superior 
— a. Maxillary internal. Facial artery — a. Median 
of the sacrum, Sacral artery, anterior — a. Nasal, 
lateral, large, Spheno-palatine artery — a. Palato- 
labial, Facial artery — a. Pericophalic, Carotid 
(external) — a. Pharyngeal, superior, Pterygo- 
palatine artery — a. Phrenic, Diaphragmatic ar- 
tery — a. Posterior, of the brain, sge Cerebral ar- 
teries — a. External scapular, Acromial artery — 
a. Spinal, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Subcla- 
vian right, Innorainata arteria — a. Subscapular, 
Scapular artery, inferior — a. Superficial of the 
abdomen. Ad cutem abdominis (arteria) — a. Su- 
pramaxillary. Alveolar artery — a. Suprarenal, 
Capsular artery — a. Thoracic, internal, Mammary 
internal — a. Urethro-bulbar, Transverse perineal 
artery — a. Vesico-prostatie, Vesical artery — a. 
Vidian. Ptervgoid artery. 

ARTETIS'CUS, from arf!(8, 'a limb.' One who 
has lost a limb. 

ARTEURYSMA. Aneurism. 

ARTHANI'TA, from aproj, 'bread;' the Cyc'- 

Inmcn or Sowbread. It was formerly made into 
ointment, Unguen'tnm Arthani'ta., with many 
other substances, and was employed as a purga- 
tive, being rubbed on the abdomen. 
Arthanita Cyclamen, Cyclamen. 
ARTHETICA, Tcucrium chamaepitys. 
ARTHRAGRA, Gout— a. Anomala, Gout, an- 
omalous — a. Genuina, Gout, regular — a. Legiti- 
ma, Gout, regular— a. Normalis, Gout, regular — 
a. Vera, Gout, regular. 

ARTHRALGIA, Arthrodynia, Gout. See Lead 

ARTHRELCO'SIS, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' and 
'tXA-uKTtj, 'ulceration.' Ulceration of a joint. 

ARTHREMBOLE'SIS, same etymon as the 
next. The reduction of a fracture or luxation. 

ARTHREM'BOLUS, from ap^pov, 'a joint," 
£v, 'in,' and /3aXXu, 'I cast.' An ancient instru- 
ment used in the reduction of dislocations. 
ARTIIRETICA, Teucrium chamaspitys. 
AKT\i'RlTlC,Arthrit'icus, Gouty, irom ap^pov, 
'ajoint.' (F.) Arthritique, Gontteux. That which 
relates to gout or arthritis, as arthritic symptoms, 
&c. See Podagric. 
ARTHRITIF'UGUM, from arthritis, 'gout,' 
and fugare, 'to drive away.' A remedy that 
drives away gout. Heyden terms cold water, 
internally, the arthritif'ugnm magnum. 

ARTHRITIS, Gout, Arthrophlogosis, Arthro- 
sia — a. Aberrans, Gout (wandering) — a. Acuta, 
Gout (regular) — a. Arthrodynia, Rheumatism, 
chronic — a. Asthenica, Gout (atonic) — a. Atonic, 
Gout (atonic) — a. Diaphragmatica, Angina Pec- 
toris — a. Erratica, Gout (wandering) — a. Hydrar- 
thros, Ilydrarthrus — a. Inflammatoria, Gout (re- 
gular) — a. Juvenilis, see Rheumatism, acute — a. 
Maxillaris, Siagonagra — a. Nodosa, Gout (with 
nodosities) — a. Planetica, Gout (wandering) — a. 
Podagra, Gout — a. Rheumatica, see Rheumatism, 
acute — a. Rheuraatismus, Rheumatism, acute — 
a. Retrograda, Gout (retrograde). 

ARTHROC'ACE, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' and 
KaKOi, 'bad.' Disease of the joints; and espe- 
cially caries of the articular surfaces. Spina 
Arthrocace Coxarum, Coxarum morbus. 
ARTHROCACOLOG"IA, from arthrocaeia— 
according to Rust, a chronic disease of the joints; 
and Xoyos, 'a description.' A treatise on chronic 
diseases of the joints. 

ARTHROCARCINO'MA, from apSpov, 'a 
'joint,' and KapKtvtaita, 'cancer.' Cancer of the 

ARTHROCnONDRI'TISjfroraapSpol/, 'a 
joint,' ;;^oi'i5pof, 'a cartilage,' and itis, denoting 
inflammation. Inflammation of the cartilages 
and joints. 

ARTHRO'DIA, from ap&pov, 'a joint.' Adar- 
ticula'tio, (F.) Etifonrure, Enfoncenrc. A move- 
able joint, formed by the head of a lionc applied 
to the surface of a shallow socket, so that it can 
execute movements in every direction. Arthro'- 
dium is ' a small joint;' diminutive of Arthrodia. 
ARTHRODYN'IA, Arthronal'gia, Arthral'gia, 
from ap^pov, 'a joint,' and oivvrj, 'pain.' Articu- 
lar pain. Pain in the joints. See Rheumatism, 

ARTHRonYNiA Podagrica, Gout. 
ARTHROG'RAPHY, Arthrograph'ia, from 
ap^pov, 'a joint,' and ypatpw, 'I write.' A de- 
scription of the ioints. 

ARTHROGRYPO'SIS, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' 
and ypuOTo), 'I ineurvate.' Malposition of the 
joints, especially of the hands and feet. 
ARTHROL'OGY, Arihrolog"ia, from ap5pov, 
'a joint,' and 'Xoyog, 'a description.' A descrip- 
tion of the joints. The anatomy of the joints. 




ATITIIR0MT50LE, from ap^poi;, and 0an<D, 
'I cast.' Coaiitation, reduction. Reduction of 
a luxated or fractured V)i)ne. 

AliTllliOMKNlXGITIS. Meningarthrocaee. 
Al'iTIIllON, 'ajoint.' The ancients used the 
word Art/iroii for the articulation of bones with 
motion, in oj^ixhsition to Sijmphijiils, or articula- 
tion wirliout motion. 

ART!! ROXAL(iIA, Arthrodynia. 

ARTURON'CUS, Arthro])}n/'nia, from ap^pov, 
*a joint,' and oyKos, 'a swelling.' Tumefaction 
of a iniiit. 


A RTllR01"ATHY,A(?/iro;)f(</((''«, from ap^pov, 
*a joint,' and naS-os, 'afi'ection.' A disease of the 

ARTIIROPIILOGO'SIS, from ap^pov, 'ajoint,' 
and <i.\cyoi, ' I burn :' Arthri'tie, Ost-arthro'sia. 
Inflaiiiination of the joints. 


see Adcndchondrius. 

ARTlIKOPYO'SrS, ArtJtronempT/e'sis, from 
ap^pov, 'a joint,' and itvov, 'pus.' Suppuration 
or ahscoss of tlic joints. 


ARTIIRO'SIA, from ap^ijou,, 'I articulate.' 
ArtliritiH, (of some). Inflammation, mostly con- 
fined to the joints; sevcrel.y painful ; occasionally 
extending to the i^urrounding nniscles. A genus 
of diseases in the Nosology of Good, including 
Jiheuiiiatiam, Goitt, Articular injlammution, Joint- 
ache, &c. 

AitTHnosiA Acuta, Rheumatism, acute — a. 
Chronica, Rheumatism, chronic — a. Lumborum, 
Lumbago — a. Podagra, Gout — a. Podagra com- 
plicata, Gout (retrograde) — a. Podagra larvata, 
Gout (atonic) — a. Podagra regularis, Gout (re- 

AKTIIROSTR, Articulation. 

ARTIIROSPON'GUS, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' 
and oToyyof, 'a sponge.' A white, fungous tu- 
mour of the joints. 

ARTIIUOTRAU'JrA, from ap&pov, 'a joint,' 
and Tftiiv/jii, 'a wound.' A wound of a joint. 

AR'TIA. According to some, this word is sy- 
nonymous with aprnpia; Others use it synony- 
mously with Trrirlien. 

AllTK'llAUT, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTirilOKE, Cynara scolymus. 

AIITICI.E, Articulation — a. of Death, see 

ARTICOCALUS, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTICULAR, Articiila'ris, (F.) Articvlnire, 
from nrfii.1, 'a joint;' articultis, 'a small joint.' 
That which relates to the articulations — as the 
arliciiliir ciipaii/eH, &c. 

AuTiciiLAit Arteries of the Arm, Circumflex 
arteries of the arm. 

Ainic'ui.AR Au'teries op the Knee arise 
from the popliteal artery, and surround the tibio- 
femoral articulation. Although of a small size, 
they are important, as they furnish blood to the 
lower extremity after the operation for popliteal 
aneurism. They are distinguished into superior 
and inferior. The superior artioilnr arteries, 
])op?ii)(il nrticiilfir arterio, are commonly three 
in number; one of which is iiitertial, another ex- 
ternal, and another middle, the az'yrfoua artic'- 
idiir. Th-e first, Jiamits niiastomot'icns mngitus, 
anastomoses by one branch with the external cir- 
cumflex, and by another with the external su])e- 
rior articular. The second anastomoses with the 
external circumflex, the superior internal arti- 
cular, and the inferior external articular; and 
the third is distributed within the joint. The in- 
ferior articular arteries are two in number : an 

internal and external. The former anastomoses 
with the internal superior articular and the ex- 
ternal inferior articular. The latter anastomoses 
with the recurrent branch of the anterior tibial, 
and the external superior articular. To each 
articular artery there is an articular nerve. 

AnTic'ui-AR Facettes' are the contiguous 
surfaces, by means of which the bones are arti- 

Articular Processes, see Vertebrae. 

Artic' Veins of the knee follow the 
same course as the arteries. 

ARTICULATED, Articula'tus, (F.) ArticnU, 
same etymon as Articulation. Provided with, or 
united by, articulations ; as an ' articulated skele- 
ton.' See Skeleton, articulated; and Voice, ar- 

ARTICULATIO, Articulation— a. Artifieialis, 
Pseudarthrosis — a. Notha, Pseudarthrosis. 

ARTICULA'TIOX, Joint, Articula'tlo, Ar- 
thro'sis, AisartJno'ais, Artic'ulus, Junctu'ra, Cola, 
(Jonjunc'lio, Nodus, Commissu' ra, Compa'tjes, 
Sijntax'ia, JIar'mua, Vertic'ula, Vertic'uluH, Ver- 
tic'ulnm, (F.) Articulation, Article. By some of 
the French surgeons and anatomists, article is 
restricted more particularly to a movable articu- 
lation. Same etymon. The union of bones with 
each other, as well as the kind of union. 

table op articulations. 

Articulations are generally divided into Dlar- 
tJiroses or movable articulations, and Hi/nar- 
throsea or immovable. 

1. Amphiarthrosis. 

2. Diurtlirosis, or bicu- /En arthrosis, 
liir vague. ( Artlirodin. 

3. Altfirn.itive or Gingljmus, which 
admits of varieties. 

1. '-utiire. 

2. Harmony. 

3. Gnmphosis. 

[ 4. Scliindjicsis. 

The articulations are subject to a number of 
diseases, which are generally somewhat severe. 
These may be physical, as wounds, sprains, luxa- 
tions, (fee; or they may be organic, as ankylosis, 
extraneous bodies, caries, rheumatism, gout, hy- 
drarthroses, arthropyosis, Ac. 

Articulation means also the combination of 
letters which constitute words. See Voice. 

Articulation, False, Pseiidarthro'sia, Artic'- 
ulus fal-sHS, (F.) A. ffiusse, A. accidentelle, A. 
contre nature, A. anorniale. A false joint, formed 
between fragments of bone, that have remained 
ununited ; or between a luxated bone and the 
surrounding parts. 

Pseudarthrosis — a. en Charniere, Ginglymus — a. 
de la Haiiche. Coxo-femoral articulation. 

ges of the fingers — a. Digitorum pedis. Phalanges 
of the toes. 

ARTICULO MORTIS, see Psychorages — a. 
Spinalis, Semispinalis colli. 

ARTICULUS NOVUS, Pseudarthrosis— a. 
Pra'ternaturalis, Pseudarthrosis — a. Sfturius, 

ARTIFICIAL, Artifcia'lis, (F.) Arfifcicl, 
from ars, artis, 'art,' and facere, 'to make.' 
That which is formed by art. 

Artificial Eyes are usually made of enamel, 
and repres-ent a sort of hollow hemisphere, which 
is applied beneath the eyelids, when the eye is 

Artificial Teeth are made of ivory, porct- 
lain, Ac. 

Pieces d' Anatomic Artificielles, are prepara- 
.tions of anatomy, modelled in wax, plaster, pa- 
per, Ac. 






AKTTSCOCCUS L^VIS, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTIS'CUS, from a/iros, 'bread.' See Tro- 
chiscus. A troch of the shape of a siiiall loaf. 
Also, and especially, a troph made of vipers. 

ARTOCARPUS. The Bread-fruit Tree, (F.) 
Jiii/iiier, from apros, 'bread,' and Kapiros, 'fruit.' 
A Polynesian tree, so called because the fruit, 
which is milky, and juicy, supplies the place of 
bread to the inhabitants. It grows to the height 
of 40 feet. 

AriTocARPUS In'tegripoi.ia, Caoutchouc. 

ARTOC'REAS, from «pro{, ' bread,' and Kpeas, 
'flesh.' A kind of nourishing food made of va- 
rious aliments boiled together. — Galen. 

ARTOCi'ALA, from aproi, 'bread,' and ya>.a, 
'milk.' An alimentary preparation of bread and 
milk. A poultice. 

ARTOM'ELI. from aprog, 'bread,' and ficXi, 
'honey.' A cataplasm of bread and honey. — 

ARTUS, Merabrum. 

ARTVMA, Aroma, Condiment. 

ARUM, A. maculatuui. and A- triphyllum — a. 
Americanum betae foliis, Draeontium foetidum. 

AUUM Dkacon'tium, Arintr/ma dracoii'tium, 
Green Dragon; indigenous, has probably the 
same medical properties as A. triphyllum. 

Arum Dracun'culus, A. jiolyphyl'lnm, Drn- 
cnn'culiis pdhjphijl'lun, Cohibri' na Dracon'tia, 
Erva de Suncta Maria, Gig'arws serpenta'ria, 
Serpeiitd'ria Gallo'rnm. Family, Aracea?. Sex. 
Syxt. Monoecia Polyandria. The roots and leaves 
are very acrimonious. The plant resembles the 
A. maenla'tum in its properties. 

Arum Escui.en'tum, Cula'dium cscnlcn'tnm. 
Turo, Kalo. The foliage and roots possess acrid 
qualities, which are dissipated by baking or boil- 
ing; in which form it is used as food by the 
people of Madeira, the Polynesians, <fec. 

Arum JiACULA'TUkf, Avon, Arum (of the older 
writers), A. vnhja're, CitrJcow Pint, (Prov.) Cocky- 
hdhy, Barha Aitra'nis, Serpenta'ria minor, Zin'- 
yiber German' iciiin, Saeerdo'tis pr.nin, WaJie 
Itohin, Priest's pintle, (P.) Gouet, Pied de Venn, 
Piedde liecre, Picotin, Giron, Amidonniere. The 
fresh root is stimulant internally. Dose, Qj. of 
the dried root. Externally, it is very acrid. 
From the root of this Arum a starch is prepared, 
which is called Portland Island Sago, Gersa ser- 
penta'ria, Cerus'sa serpenta'rice, JPec'ula ari 

Arum, Three-Lraved, Arum triphyllum. 

Arum Triphyl'lum, Arism'ma atromhens, 
Three-leaved arum, (F.) Pied de Veau triphyUe, 
Indian Turnip, I)rai/on Hoot, Drar/on Turnip, 
Pepper Turnip. This plant grows all over the 
United States, and is received into the Pharma- 
copoeia under the title Arum. The recent root, 
or Cormus — Arum, (Ph. U. S) — is very acrimo- 
nious, and has been employed in asthma, croup, 
and hooping-cough. Boiled in lard, it has been 
used in tinea capitis, and in milk in consumption. 

Arum Virginicum, Peltandra Virginica — a. 
Vulgare, A. maculatum — a. Water, Calla palus- 

ARUMARI, Caramata. 

ARUXDO BAMBOS, Bamhoo — a. Brachii 
innjor, Ulna — a. Brachii minor, Radius — a. Iii- 
dica, Sagittarium alexipharmacum — n. JMajor, 
Tibia — a. Minor, Fibula — a. Saccharifera, see 

AHVA. Ava. 

ARVUM. Vulva — a. iSTaturae, Uterus. 
ARY-ARYTENOID.EUS. Arytenoidtcus — a. 
Epiglotticus, Arytaeno-epiglotticus. 

ARYTyE'XA, ai.vmtva. 'a ladle.' Ilence, 
ARYTiE'NO-EPIGLOT'TICUS, yl/-i//ffi'no- 
epi(]tottid(B'us, Ary-epi<jlot'ticus. That which be- 
longs to the arytenoid cartilages and epiglottis. 

Winslow gives this name to small, fleshy fasci- 
culi, which are attached, at one extremity, to the 
arytenoid cartilages, and, by the other, to the free 
edge of the epiglottis. These fibres do not aU 
waTs exist. They form part of the arytenoid 
muscle of moilcrn anatomists. 

ARYT'EXUID, ArytanoVdes, Arytenoida'us, 
from apvTaii/a, 'a, ladle,' and uios, ' shape.' Ladle- 

Arytenoid Car'tilages, Cartilar/"ines aryle- 
nni'des seu gnttura'lcs seu (jutturi'na sen ijutturi- 
for'mes seu triq' uetra, Guttnr'nia, are two carti- 
lages of the larynx, situate posteriorly above the 
cricoid, which, by approximation, diminish the 
aperture of the glottis. Their upper extremities 
or cornua are turned towards each other, and are 
now and then found loose, in the form of appen- 
dices, which are considered, by some, as distinct 
cartilages, and termed cuneiform or tubercnluted 
Cartilages, Comic' uln Laryn'gis. 

Arytenoid Glands, Gland'ulcB Aryfenoidrn'm, 
are small, glandular, whitish bodies, situate an- 
terior to the A. cartilages. They pour out a mu- 
cous fluid to lubricate the larynx. 

AllYTENOIDiE'US, (F.) Arytenoidien. A 
small muscle, which passes from one arytenoid 
cartilage to the other, by its contraction brings 
them together, and diminishes the aperture of 
the glottis. Winslow divided the muscle into 
three portions; — t\\Q Arytenoidoe'us transver'siis, 
or Ary-arytenoidce'us, and two Arytenoidm'i ob- 

ARYTIIM, Aryth'mia, from a, privative, and 
pvOiioi, 'rhythm,' 'measure.' Irregularity. This 
word is applied chiefly to the pulse. 

ASA, Asafoetida. See Assa — a. Dulcis, Ben- 

ASA'E(ETl'T>A,.Assafce'tida (Ph. U. S.), Assa- 
fet'ida, Stercus diab'oli, Cibus Deo'rum, Asa, 
Devil's dung. Food of the Gods. A gum-resin — 
the concrete juice of Ferula Assafa'tida, A'nr- 
thex Assdfaitida. Order, Umbelliferae. It is in 
small masses of a whitish, reddish, and violet 
hue, adhering together. Taste bitter and suba- 
crid : smell insupportably alliaceous. The Asi- 
atics use it regularly as a condiment. 

Its medical properties are antispasmodic, sti- 
mulant, and anthelmintic. Dose, gr. v to xx, in 

ASAGR^^.A OFFICINALIS, see Veratrina. 

AS' A PES, Asip'ton, properly, not putrid, from 
a, privative, and aanm, or (j^jto), 'I corrupt.' A 
term applied by Hippocrates to the sputa, or to 
other matters evacuated, which do not give signs 
of coction. 

ASAPH'ATUM, from a, privative, and tru^iif, 
'clear.' This term has been applied to collec- 
tions in the sebaceous follicles of the skin, which 
may be pressed out like little worms, with a black 
head. See Acne. 

ASAPHI'A, from a, privative, and catpr]i, 
'clear.' Dyspho'nin immodula'ta palati'na, J'a- 
rapho'nia guttura'lis seu palati'na. Defective 
articulation, dependent upon diseased palate.— 
Hippocrates, Vogel. 

ASARABACCA, Asarum— a. Broad-leaved, 
Asnniin Canadense. 

ASAR'CON, from a, priv., and aap^, 'flesh.' 
Devoid of flesh. Aristotle uses the term for the 
head when it is but little fleshy, compared with 
the chest and abdomen. 

ASARET, Asarum — a. du Canada, Asarum 

ASARI'TES, from aaapov, 'the asarum.' A 
diuretic wine, of which asarum was an ingredient. 
— Dioseorides. 

AS'ARU.M, from a, privative, and tratpeiv, 'to 
adorn :' because not admitted into the ancient 
coronal wreaths [?], As'arum Europa'um sou 



ASCLEPIAS ALBA'nn'!p, NardiiH Monta'nn sen RiiHt'icn, Az'- 
fu-um. (F.) An,iret on Cnbiiret, Aznrinn Cah'iret. 
Oreille d'homme, Oreilletle, Girnrd-RouHnin, Nurd 
S'litvnge. Order, Aristolochiaceac, Sea-. Synf. 
Dodecandria MonoRynia. The plant, used in 
medicine, is the An'urHtH Eiiropm'nm, Ainrabac'- 
va, and of this the leaves. They are emetic, 
cathartic, and errhine, but are h^irdly ever em- 
jiiiiyed, except for the last purpose. 

ASARUM Canadrn'sk, A. Cnrtdhtifi'nvm, Cn- 
<ir<d(i Sii<il:'-roi)t, Wild (Siiujer, Colt's Foot, Broad- 
leaf Aiarahacca, Indian Giiir/er, Heart Siiake- 
rixtt, (1<\) Axaret du Canada. The root AH'ai-um, 
(Ph. U. S.), is used as a substitute for ginger, and 
is said to act as a warm stimulant and dia- 

AsARUw Carolinianum, a. Canadense — a. 
Europieum, see Asarum — a. Ilypocistis, Cytinus 
liypooisfis — a. Officinale, see Asarum. 

■ ASBESTOS SCALL, see Eczema of the hairy 

is a village, situate about a league from St. Jean- 
<le-Luz, in France. The witter is a eold chaly- 

ASCARDAMYC'TES, from a, privative, and 
nKap&uiJvrTu), ' I twinkle the eyes.' One who stares 
with tixed eyes, without moving the eyelids. — 

tiia anthelmintica. 

ASrARfDE^ LUMnniCOiDE, Ascarislum- 
briciiides — a. Vermindaire, .\scaris vermieularis. 

AS'CARIS, pi. ASCAR'IDES, from «(r*a,„^a), 
' I lca|).' A genus of intestinal worms, cbarac- 
t'Tized by a long, cylindrical body, extenuated 
at the extremities; and having a mouth furnished 
with three tubereules, from which a very short 
tube is sometimes seen issuing. Formerly, there 
vcro reckoned two varieties of the Ascaris — the 
An'i-iiris liiiidjrieo'i'dcs seu f/ii/as hoiti'inin, Lidii- 
lii-i'ma, L. teres fioiii'inis, Scolex, (F.) Loiiibri- 
eiiide, Asearide lomhrico'ide, Lomhric, or long 
round worm ; and the As'caris Vennicida'ris 
— the Ascaris proper — the thread worm or maw 
irorni. The former is alone included under 
tlie genus, at present — a new genus having been 
formed of the A. vermieularis, under the name 
Oxyuris. It is the O.ri/u'ris seu Fiisa'ria rer- 
micida'ris, (F.) Asearide, A. verniieulaire, Ojcyiire 

A new s]iecies of entozoa has been found by 
Dr. Reliingham, the As'caris alu'ta. 

AscAius Alata. see Ascaris — a. Gigas horainis, 
see Ascaris — a. Luinbricoides, see Ascaris — a. 
Renalis, Stronjjylus gigas — a. Trichuria, Tricho- 
copbalns — a. Vermieularis, see Ascaris — a. Visce- 
ralis. Strongylus gigas. 

AS'CELES, As'keles, Carens cru'rihns, from a, 
privative, and cr/ctAof, 'a leg.' One who has no 

ASCELLA, Axilla. 

ASCEX'DENS, from ascendere, (ad and sean- 
(iere,) 'to ascend.' (F.) Ascendant. Parts are 
thus called, which are supposed to arise in a re- 
gion lower than that where they terminate. Thus, 
Aorta ascendens is the aorta from its origin to the 
arch : Vena earn aseendcns, the large vein which 
(ariips the blood from the inferior parts to the 
hc.irt: Oldiqniis ascendens (vuiscle), the lesser 
olilif|ue muscle of the abdomen, <tc. 

ASOKN'SUS MORBL The period of increase 
of a disease. 

ASrflRRSONIAN VESICLES, see Vesicles, 

ASCl'STS. Exercise. 

ASrillL, Scilla. 

ASnilSTODAC'TYLUS, Si/ndac'tyl,:s, from 
a, privative, a^^iaro:, 'cleft;' and i^uktiXoj, 'a 

finger.' A monster whose fingers are not sepa- 
rated from one another. — Gurlt. 

AS'CIA (an axe), Axine, Seepar'nos, Dol'ahra, 
Fas'eia spiralis. Name of a bandage mentioned 
by the ancients, and figured by Scultetus, in the 
shape of an axe or hatchet.— Galen. See Doloire. 

ASCILLA, Axilla. 

ASCITE, Ascites — a. Peritoneale, Ascites. 

ASCI'TES, from a(XKos, 'a leathern sack, a 
large heUy:' — Aski'tes, Hydroee'le Peritona'i, 
Hifdrops Ahdom'inis seu Ascites, Hijdrofjas'ter, 
Ihjdroperitone'nm, Hijdroece'lia, Ilijdre' trum, As- 
cli'tes, Cwh'och't/sts, Dropsy of the lower belli/, 
Dropsy of the Peritone'um, (F.) Ascite, A. pfrito- 
neale, Hydro-perilonie, Hydrojiisie du Bas-ventre 
ou dn peritoine. A collection of serous fluid in 
the abdomen. Ascites proper is dropsy of the 
peritoneum; and is characterized by increased 
size of the abdomen, by fluctuation and the gene- 
ral signs of drojisy. It is rarely a primary dis- 
ease: but is alwaj-s danj;erous, and but little sus- 
ceptible of cure. Most generally, it is owing to 
obstructed circulation in some of the viscera, or 
to excitement of the vessels of the abdominal 
organs. The treatment is essentially the same 
as that of other dropsies. Paracentesis, when 
had recourse to, can only be regarded as a pal- 

Dropsy of the peritoneum may also be saccated 
or in cysts, and occasionally the fluid accumulates 
exterior to the peritoneum, Ilydreplrjas'trinm. 
When in cysts it is termed Ilydroeys'tis, Hydrops 
ahdom'inis sacca'tiis seu cys'ticus and Asei'tes 

Ascites IIepato-Cysticus, Turgescentia vesi- 
cula; felletc — a. Ovarii, Hydrops ovarii — a. Puru- 
lentus, Pyocnelia — a. Saccatus, see Ascites, lly- 
droarion, and Hydrops ovarii. 

ASCIT'IC, Aseit'icus, (F.) Aseitiqne. Relating 
or appertaining to, or affected with, ascites. 

ASCLEPI'AD^E, Asdepi'ades, from AcKXriTtos, 
'iEsoulapius.' The priest physicians, who served 
in the ancient temples of ^^Isculapius, and who 
took their name from being his descendants. 

ASCLEPIADE, Asclepias vincetoxicum. 

ASCLEPIAS ALBA, A. vincetoxicum —a. 
Apocynum, A. Syriaca — a. Asthmatica, Tylo- 
phora asthmatica — a. Cornuti, A. Syriaca — a. 
Crispa, Gomphocarpus crispus. 

Asclkpias Curassav'ica, Bastard Ipecacu- 
anha, Bedhead, Bloodweed, The leaves are 
emetic in the dose of one or two scruples. It 
is the Ipeeaeuanlia blanc of St. Domingo. 

AscLEPiA.s Decum'bkxs: the root. Escharotic, 
cathartic, sudorific, diuretic. 

Asclepias, Flesh-coloured, A. Incarnata — 
a. Gigantea, Mudar. 

AsCLE'piAS IncAKNA'tA, a. pnlehra. Flesh-, 
coloured or su-amp asclejiias or silkn:eed. The 
root of this plant, which grows in all parts of the 
United States, and is officinal in the Ph. U. S., 
has the same virtues as A. Syriaca, and A. tube- 

Asclepias Obovata, A. Syriaca. 

Asclepias Proc"era [ ? ], Reidelossar, Bci- 
delsar. An Egyptian plant, the leaves of which 
are made into a plaster, and applied to indident 
tumours. The milky juice is caustic, and is used 
as such. 

Asclepias Pseudosarsa. Hemidesmus Indi- 
cus — a. Pubescens, A. Syriaca — a. Pulchra, A. 

Asclepias Sykiaca, A. pnbes'ccns seu apoc"y- 
num seu obova'ta seu tomento'sa seu Cornn'ti, 
Common SUkweed, Milk Weed, (F.) Ilerbe d la 
hoiiette. The cortical part of the root, officinal 
in the Ph. U. S., has been given, in powder, in 




asthmatic and pulmonic affections in general, 
and, it is said, witli success. 

Asci.k'imas Sulltvan'tii, Smooth Milhweed, 
SUkweed: indigenous, possesses the same virtues 
as the next. 

AscLKPiAS ToMENTTOSA, A. Syriaca. 

AscLi:'riAS Tcbeuo'sa, ButterjJy Weed, Pleu- 
rifij lioot, F/iix Root, Wli\d Root, Wind Weed, 
White Root, Oraii'je Swallow Root, Silk Weed, 
Cnnnda Root, Orange Apoc'ynnm, Tuhcroas 
Mooted Sical'/ow Wort. Said to have been first 
recomuiended by the Asc-lepiades. In Virginia 
and thf Carolinas, the root of this plant — officinal 
in the Ph. U. S. — has been long celebrated as a 
remedy in pneumonic affections. It is sudo- 
rific, and the powder acts as a mild purgative. 
Its chief powers are said to be expectorant, dia- 
phoretic, and febrifuge. It is occasionally given 
to relieve pains of the stomach from flatulency 
and indigestion. 

Asclkpias ViNCETOx'icujr, A. Alhn, Cynan'- 
tlinm Viiiceto.v' iciim, Vinceto.r'icum, V. Offieina'le, 
Hirundina'ria, Apoc"j/tinm Nova An'fflim hirun'- 
tum, &■;., Sii}iilln,r-Wort, White Swallow- Wort, 
(F. ) Anc/epi'ide, Uoinpte-venin. 

The root is said to be stimulant, diuretic, and 
emmenasjntfue, but is hardly ever used. 

ASCLEPIASMUS, Haemorrhois. 

ASCLITES, Ascites. 

ASCO'MA, from aoKo;, ' n bottle.' The emi- 
nence of the puhes at the period of puberty in 
females. — Rufus of Ephesus. 

ASE. Anxiety. 

ASEliLI, Onisci aselli. 

ASELLUS, Oniscus. 

ASE'MA CRISIS, xinats aarijia, from a, priva- 
tive, and arj^a, ' a sign.' A crisis occurring unex- 
pectedly and without the ordinary precursory 

ASEPTON", A'sapos. 

ASH, BITTER, Quassia — a. Blue, Fraxinus 
quadrangulata — a. Mountain, Sorbus acuparia 
— a. Mountain, American, Sorbus Americana 
• — a. Prickly, Aralia spinosa, Xanthoxylum clava 
llerculis — a. Prickly, shrubby, Xanthoxylum 
fraxinenm — a. Stinking, Ptelea trifoliata — a. 
Tree, Fraxinus excelsior — a. White, Fraxinus 

ASIALORRIKE'A, (F.) Asinlorrhee, from a, 
priv., ffi'Aov, 'saliva,' and p£ii), 'to flow.' Diminu- 
tion in the flow of saliva. 

ASIMINA TRILOBA, see Carica papaya. 

ASIT"IA, from a, privative, and o-iroj, 'food.' 
Abstinence from food. Want of appetite, — Faa- 
tid'iiiin cibo'rinn, Apoclei'sis. 

ASIUS LAPIS, Assius Lapis. 

ASJAGAN, As'Jor/am. An Indian tree, the 
juice of whose leaves, mixed with powdered 
cumin seeds, is employed in India in colic. 

AS.TOiJAM, Asjagan. 

ASKELES, Asceles. 

ASKER, Eschar. 

ASKITES, Ascites. 

ASO'DES, Asso'den, from aarj, 'disgust,' 'sati- 
ety.' A fever accompanied with anxiety and 
nausea : Fe'bris nno'des vel azo'des. 

ASPALASO'MUS, from aorraXaf, 'a mole,' and 
ffw/ifl, 'a body.' A genus of monsters in which 
there is imperfect development of the eyes. — 
I. G. St. Ililaire. Also, a malformation, in which 
the fissure and eventration extend chiefly upon 
the lower part of the abdomen ; the urinary ap- 
paratus, genitals and rectum opening externally 
by three distinct orifices. — Vogel. 

ASPALTUM. Asphaltum. 

ASPAKAGINE, see Asparagus. 

ASPAR'AGUS, Aanapayoi, Aspar'arjuD ojffici- 
na'lis, Common Aspara(/iis, Spar'afjns, Sper'n</n», 
Sjjarrow Grass, Grass, Sperage. . Ord, Aspho- 

deleae. Sex. Sijst. Hexandria Monogynia. As- 
par'agi offieina'lis I'urio'nes, (F.) A/iperge. Tlio 
fresh roots are diuretic, perhaps owing to the im- 
mediate erj'stallizable principle, Asparogine, 
which is said to bo sedative in the dose of a few 
grains. The young shoots are a well known and 
esteemed vegetable diet. They communicate a 
peculiar odour ,to the urine. A syrup made of 
the young shoots and an extract of the roots has 
been recommended as a sedative in heart affec- 

ASPA'SIA. A ball of wood soaked in an in- 
fusion of galls, and used by females for constring- 
ing the vagina. 

ASPEN, AiMERTCAN, Populus tremuloides— 
a. European, Popnlus tremula. 


ASPERGE, Asparagus. 

cedo. , , ^ 


ASPERITUDO, Trachoma. 

ASPER'ITY, Asper'it(i8, roughness. Asperi- 
ties are inequalities on the surfaces of bones, 
which often serve for the insertion of fibrous 

ASPERMATIA, Aspermatismus. 

ASPERiMATIS'MUS, A^j^er'mia, Asperma'tin, 
from a, privative, and (rircpixa, 'sperm.' Reflux 
of sperm from the urethra into the bladder, dur- 
ing the venereal orgasm. 

ASPERMIA, Aspermatismus. 

ASPERSIO, Catapasma, Fomentation. 

ASPER'SION, Asper'dio, from aspergere (ad 
and spargere), 'to sprinkle,' (F.) Arrosemeiit. 
Act of sprinkling or pouring a liquid guttatim 
over a wound, ulcer, &c. 

ASPERULA, Galium aparine. 

Asper'ulA Odoua'ta, (diminutive of asper, 
'rough,' the seeds being rough), Ga'linm odora'- 
tiim, jMatrimjl'va, Ifr'piit'ica stella'ta, (F.) Aspe- 
rnle odorante ou Mnguet des hois, Hepotiqne 
etoilee. Ord. Rubiaceae. Sex. Si/st. Tetrandria 
Monogynia. Sweet-scented Woodroof. Said to 
be diuretic, deobstrueut, tonic, and vulnerar}'. 


ASPHALTI'TES, Nephri'tes, Nephri'tis, Pri- 
ma Vertebra lumba'ria, same etymon as asphal- 
tum. A name given by some to the last lumbr.r 
vertebra. — Gorra^us. 

ASPHAL'TUM, Ncp'ta,Arsnl'tos, Asphnrium, 
from a(Tif,a\i{,ttv, ' to strengthen,' being used as 
a cement. [? ] With the Greeks, this word signi- 
fied any kind of bitumen. It is now restricted 
chiefly to the Bitu'men of Jud^e'a, B. Jnda'- 
icnm, A. sol'idnm, Jews' Pitch, Karrihe of Sodom, 
(F.) Asphalte, JJitnme de Judee, Poix winh-ah 
scorincee, Biinme de momie ou des fiinernllles. It 
is solid, friable, vitreous, black, shining, inflam- 
mable, a-nd of a fetid smell. An oil is obtained 
from it by distillation. It enters into the compo- 
sition of certain ointments and plasters. 

It is collected on the surface of the water of 
the Dead Sea or Lake Asphaltites, in Judeea. 

ASPIIARINE, Galium aparine. 

ASPHOD'ELUS, kacpoitkoq, A. Rnmo'sus seu 
AlbussQW 3hiris, Has' tula Regis, (F.) Lis aspho- 
dele. The bulbs of this southern European 
plant have an acrimony which they lose in boil- 
ing water. They contain a fccula with which 
bread has been made, and have been considered 
diuretic. They have been used as a succeduueuin 
for the squill. 

ASPHYCTOS, Pulseless. 

ASPHYX'IA, from a, priv., and er^ufif, 'pulse,' 
Defer'tus Puhfis, Acrotis'mns, Sidera'tio, Sydern'- 
tio, (F.) Anhhnafosie. For a long time, Asphy- 
xia was confined to the sense of ' suspension of 
circulation or syncope;' Pulselessness. It now 




generally monns mtspetidcd ammatlnn, produced 
b)' the nonconversion of the venous blood of the 
lung's into arterial, — Apnw'a, Apneus'tla, Apiiae- 
anjihi/.i'in, AnlicBiiinto'iiia, Ec'li/m'u piwumo-cardi'- 
(ir<i, Aii'ixt'iiiie, Ifj/poxemie, — Piorry. Owing to 
the supply of air being cut off, the unchan^ged 
venous blood of the pulmonary artery passes into 
the minute radicles of the pulmonary veins, but 
their peculiar excitability requiring arterial blood 
to excite them, stagnation takes places in the pul- 
monary radicles, and death occurs chiefly from 
this cause, —not owing to venous blood being 
distributed through the system, and 'poisoning' 
it. as was the idea of Bichat. Carus anphi/x'ia, 
Jfiirs (ipp'i'rens, Mom piitnti'rn, Pseudothan'alos, 
Apj,.i,<nit deiilh, (F.) Jfort appri rente, is charac- 
terized by suspension of respiration, of the cere- 
l)ral functions, &c. Several varieties of Asphyxia 
have been designated. 

1. Asi'iivx'iA OF THf; Nrw-Bou^j, yl. neonato'- 
riiiii. Tiiis is often upon the feeble 
condition of the infant, not permitting respiration 
to be established. 

2. AsiMiYx'iA BY Noxious Tniiala'tion, or in- 
halation of gases, some of which cause death by 
producing a spasmodic closure of the glottis ; 
others by the want of oxygen; and others are 
positively deleterious or poisonous. 

3. AspiiYx'iA BY Stkancula'tion, or .S'd/'oca'- 
tioii ; produced by mechanical impediment to 
respiration, as in hanging. 

4. AsiMivx'lA liY Submer'siov, a. hy drown- 
iiii), A. IiniHtrso' rum, Aiif/iulrhi/drie (Piorry), as 
occurs in the drowned, who perish in consequence 
of the medium in which they are plunged, being 
unfit for respiration. See Submersion. 

Mr. Chevalier has used the term AspJii/.r'ia 
Idiopnth'icft, for fatal syncope owing to relaxa- 
tion of the heart. See Suffocation. 

AsiMiYx'iA I.MSfEUsoRUM, A', by submersion — 
a. Local : — see Grangrene — a. Neonatorum, A. of 
the new-born — a. Pestilenta: — see Cholera — a. 
Pestilential : — see Cholera. 

ASPIIYX'IAL, Asphijx'ic Relating to as- 
phyxia — as ' nxphy.rial phenomena.' 

a. Leiite des uouveaii-nes, Induration of the cel- 
lular tissue. 

A S P H Y X'l E D, Axpht/j-'iiited, Asphyxia' tus, 
same etymon. In a state of as|)hyxia. 

ASP/0, Aspis, Lavandula spica. 

ASPIDISCOS, Sphincter ani externus. 

A S P I D ' I U .M A T II A M A N'T I C U M, from 
anrni^ioy, 'a small shield,' diminutive of atrTif, 'a 
shield.' A South African fern, Ord. Filices, 
which is possessed of anthelmintic properties. 
Its caudex, in the form of powder, infusion, or 
electuary, has been found excellent in helmin- 
thiasis, and es]>ecially in tajicworm. 

Asi'inii'sr Coiuacku.m, Calagualao radix — a. 
Depastum, Polypodium fllix luas — a. Discolor, see 
Calaguahc radix— a. Erosurn, Polypodium filix 
mas — a. Filix fccmina, Asplenium lilix foemina — 
a. Ferrugineum, see Calagualaj radix — a. Filix 
mas, Pdlvpodium fil's mas. 

ASPri'lATIO. Inspiration. 

A.">PIK A'TION, Adspira'ti'n, Aspirn'tio, from 
a«j)irnre (<id and Kpirare), ' to breathe.' The 
French sometimes use the term synonymously 
with inspiration. It also means the actof attract- 
ing or sucking like a pump. Imbibition. Also, 
the pronunciation of a vowel with a full breath. 

ASPIS, offTTif. A name given by the ancients 
to a venomous serpent — the ^Eijyjdian viper of 
Lacf'pcide, (F.) yixpic. Its bite is very dangerous, 
and it is supjiosed to have been the reptile which 
Cleopatra used for her destruction. 

ASPLE'NIU.M, Asple'num, from a. priv., and 
aTj\r)v, ' the spleen.' Sjilccnwort, Jlilticuate, 

Asplenium Aureum, A. ceterach. 

AsPLE'.Niini Cet'erach, A. ati'reum seu lati- 
fo'lium, Gymnof/ram'me ceterach, JJoradil'la, 
Blechntim gquamu'siim, Seolopen'dria, Athi/r'inn, 
Cet'erach officiua' rum seu Cuiiarien'sis, Grammi'- 
tis cet'erach seu au'rea, Gxjmiiop'teris ccteroch, Vit- 
ta'ria ceterach, (F.) Buraditle. Ord. Filices. 
Supposed to be subastringent and mucilaginous, 
and has been recommended as a pectoral. It has 
also been given in calculous cases. 

Asple'nium Filix FfE'jii.vA, Pofypo'dimn fih'x 
fucmina seu nioUe seu dcnta'tum seu inci'iuin seu 
trif'idnin, Aapidium filix fnemina, Athijr'ium filix 
foemina seu wolle seu ova' turn seu trif'id\un, Pte- 
ris palus'tris. Female fern, Spleenwort, (F.) i^oii- 
gere femelle. The root of this plant resembles 
that of the male fern, and is said to possess simi- 
lar anthelmintic virtues. The name female fern 
is also given to Pteria aqniliua. 

Asplenium Latipolium, A. ceterach — a. Mu- 
rale, A. ruta — a. Obtusum, A. ruta muraria. 

Asple'nium Ruta Mura'ria, A. muru'le seu 
ohtu'sum, Paronych'ia, Phylli'tia ruta niurn'ria, 
Scolopen'drium ruta mura'ria. Wall rue. White 
Dlaidenhair, Tentwort, Adian'tum album, liuta 
mura'ria, Sul'via VitcB, (F.) Hue des nniraillcs, 
Sauve-vie. Used in the same cases as the last. 

Asple'nium Scolopen'drium, Scolopeudrium 
officina'rum seu lingua seu phylli'tia seu vulya'- 
re, Scolopen'dra, Sco/opeu'dria, Hurt'a 'J'onr/ne, 
Spleenwort, Phylli'tia, Lingua cervi'nn, lihchnuin 
lignifo'lium, (F.) Scolopendre, Lamjue de cerf. 
Properties like the last. 

Asple'nium Tkichomanoi'des, A. Trichom'- 
ancH, Phylli'tia rotundifo'liu, Calypliyl'luin, Tri- 
chom'aues, T. crena'ta, Adian'tum riibrum, Com- 
mon 3[aideuhair, Polyt' richum commu'ne, (F.) 
Poll/trie. Properties like the last. 

ASPLENUM, Asplenium. 

ASPREDO, Trachoma — a. Miliacca, ililiary 

ASPRliLE, Hippuris vulgaris. 

ASPRITUDO, Trachoma. 

ASS.VBA. A Guinea shrub, whose leaves are 
considered capable of dispersing buboes. 

ASSACOU, Hura Brasiliensis. 

ASS A DOUX, Benjamin — a. Dulcis, Benjamin 
— a. Odornta, Benjamin. 

ASS A FETID A, Asafoctida. 

ASSAFtETIDA, Asafoetida. 

ASSAIERET. A compound of bitter, stoma- 
chic, and purgative medicines in the form of pill, 
— Avicenna. 

ASSAINISSEMENT (F.), from ad. 'to,' 
and sanare, 'to make healthy.' The act of ren- 
dering healthy, as by the draining of marshes, 
the disinfection of the air, Ac. 


ASSAKUR, Saccharum. 

ASS.VLA, see Myristica moschata. 

ASSAKTHROSiS. Articulation. 

ASSA'TIO, Opte'sia. The boiling of food or 
medicines in their own juice, without the addi- 
tion of any liquid. Various kinds of cooking by 
heat. — Galen. 

ASS ELLA, Axilla. 

AS'SERAC, Aaaia. A preparation of opium, 
or of some narcotic, used by the Turks as aa 


ASSEH VA r/OX, Conservation. , 

ASSES' MILK, see Milk, asses'. ■» 

Asses' Milk, Artificial, see Milk, asses'. 

AS'SIDEXS, from ad, 'to,' and sedere, 'to be 
seated.' That which accompanies or is concomi- 
tant. An epithet applied to the accessory symp- 
toms, Aaaiden'tia aiyna, and general phenomena 
of disease. 

ASSIDENTIA SIGNA, see Assidens. 




ASSIM'ILAULE, A>'s!mih,h'il!s. Same ety- 
mon as Assimilation. That wbiuh is susceptible 
of assimilation. 

ASSIM'ILATIXG, Ass!m'il>dory, Assiinilato'- 
riiiii,{V.) Ansiiiiildleur. Same etymon as the next. 
That effects assimilation, as an useimikitittg 
or Usui III ilnlory organ. 

ASSIMILA'TION, AssiniHa'tio, Si)uih't!o,Ap- 
prupiio'tio, EjTDinciiu'niii, Hoinoio'siis, Threpms, 
Thiep'tiie ; from UDniiinlnre, {ad and m'liiilare,) 
* to render similar.' The act by which living 
Ijodios ajipropriate and transform into their own 
substance matters ivitli which they may be placed 
in contact. The reverse action — that of separa- 
ting and eliminating matters already assimilated, 
in the act of nutrition — is termed, by the French, 

ASSLS, Asserae. 

AS'SIUS LAPIS, A'sins Lnpfs. A sort of 
stone or earth, found near the town of Assa in 
the Troad, which had the property of destroying 
proud fle.--h. 

ASSOCIATE!) MO VEMENTS,see Instinctive. 

.ASSODES, Asodes. 

ASSO CPIS.SA.yr, somniferous. 

A SSO UPISSEMENT, Somn olency. 

ASSOUKON, see iMyrtus Pimenta. 


ASSULA, Splint. 

ASSULTUS, Attack. 

ASSUMPTIO. Prehension. 

Cancrorum chelre. 


ASTAKILLOS, Araneum ulcus. 

ASTAllZOF. An ointment, composed of li- 
tharge, frog's spawn, Ac. Also, camphor, dis- 
solved in rose water. — Paracelsus. 

ASTASIA, Dysphoria. 


AsTKlt COHDIFOI.IUS, J/citri-leaved Alter, A. 
Punic'eus, lioiiyh-gtcmnied Aster, and other 
indigenous species, Order Compositaj, possess 
aromatic properties. 

AsTHK Dysexteiuctis, Inula dysenterica — a. 
Heart-leaved, A. cordifulius — a. Helenium, Inula 
Ilelenium — a. Inguinalis, Eryngium campestre — 
— a. Officinalis, Inula Ilelenium — a. Rough- 
stemmed, A. Puniccus — a. Tortifolius, Sericocar- 
pus tortifolius — a. Undulatus, Inula dysenterica. 

ASTE'RIA GEMMA, Asle'vhis, Axtroi'tes, As'- 
trios, Asirol/utiis. The ancients attributed ima- 
ginary virtues to this stone, — that of dispersing 
NcBvi Mntenii, for examjile. 

ASTEHIAS LUTEA, Gentiana lutea. 

ASTER'XIA, from a, privative, and arcpvov, 
'the sternum.' A monstrosity, in which there is 
absence of the sternum. 


ASTHENES. Infirm. 

ASTHENI'A, Vis immimi'ta, from a, priv., 
and a^ivos, 'fiirce,' 'strength.' Want of strength, 
debility. (F.) Affaibtissement. Infirmity. A 
word used in thi> sense by Galen, and employed, 
especially by Brown, to designate debility of the 
whole economy, or diminution of the vital forces. 
lie distinguished it into direct and indirect: the 
former proceeding from diminution of stimuli ; 
the latter from exhaustion of incitability by the 
abuse of stimuli. 

Asthenia Degi.tttitioxis, Pharyngoplegia — a. 
Pectoralis. Angina Pectoris. 

ASTHEX'IC, Astlien'iciis, (F.) Asthetitque. 
Same etymon as the last. Relating or belonging 
to asthenia. 

ASTIIEXICOPYRA, Fever, adynamic. 

ASTilENICOPYRETUS, Fever, adynamic. 

ASTHEXIQCE, Asihcmc. _ 

ASTllENO'l'lA, Dcbil'itns seu Ihletii do ru 

«(}«, (F.) AffaiUissciiieiit de lit Viw, from a, l)nv., 

cdnos, ' strength,' and w<p, ' the eye.' Weakness 

of sight : Wciih-sitjhtediiess. 

ASTliENOl'YRA, Fever, adynamic. Typhus. 
ASTUENOPYRETUS, Fever, adynamic. 
ASTHMA, from aadna, 'laborii)Us breathing;' 
from ao), 'I respire.' A. sp((s'ticiiin (ididlo'riiiii 
seu bronchia' le seu seuio'rum seu coiividsi'nnii .-cu 
spns'ticiim intermit'teus, Spas'iiim broiichia'lis, 
Dyspnw'a et orthopiiw'a cuinudsi'va, Malniii Cu- 
du'ciim puliiio'niim, Broken-windediuss, A'enom 
asthma, (F.) Asthiiie, A. nen-eiu: Difficulty i.f 
breathing, recurring at intervals, accompanied 
with a wheezing sound and sense of eonstrictiuu 
in the chest; cough and e.xpectoration. 

Asthma is a chronic disease, and not curable with 
facility. E.xcitant and narcotic antispasmodics 
are required. 

There are no pathognomonic physical signs of 
asthma. In some cases, the respiration is uni- 
versally puerile during the attack. In the spas- 
modic form, the respiratory murmur is very feel.le 
or absent during the lit; and,in all forms percus- 
sion elicits a clear pulmonary sound. The disease 
generally consists in some source of irritation, and 
occasionally, perhaps, in paralysis of the pntu- 
mogastric nerves, lironchopuruVysis, Purut'ijuis 
nervi vuyi in paite thorac"iva, more frequently 
of the former — all the phenomena indicating 
constriction of the smaller bronchial ramilica- 
tious. The treatment is one that relieves spasmo- 
dic action — narcotics, counter-irritants, change 
of air, <fec. 

Asthma Acu'tum, of Millar, A. spas'ticnm in- 
fan'tuni, Ci/nan'che Truchca'lis spiasinod'ica, (¥.) 
Asthine oiiju. Probably, spasmodic croup [?]. 
See Asthma Thymicum. 

Asthma Aeuium, Pneumothorax — a. Aerium 
ab Emphysemate Pulmonum, Emphysema of the 
Lungs — a. Arthriticum, Angina Pectoris — a. 
Bronchiale, Asthma. 

Asthma, Cau'diac, (F.) Dyspnee ou Asthme 
Cardiaque, Dyspnoea dependent upon disease uf 
the heart. 

Asthma Convulsivum, Angina pectoris — a. 
Diaphragmaticum, Angina Pectoris — a. Dolo- 
rificum, Angina pectoris — a. Emphysematicum, 

Asthma, Grinders', Grinders' Rot. The ag- 
gregate of functional phenomena, induced by the 
inhalation of particles thrown off during the ope- 
ration of grinding metallic instruments, &c. The 
structural changes induced are enlargement of 
the bronchial tubes, expansion of the pulmonary 
tissue, and phthisis. 

Asthma Gypseum, A. pulverulentum — a. liny, 
Fever, hay. 

Asthma Hu'midum, Humid, Common, or Spit- 
ting asthma, is when the disease is accompanied 
with expectoration. It is also called A. hiimu- 
ra'le, A. JIatit/en'tttm, A. pneumon' icum, Blennu- 
tho'rax chron'icns, &c. 

Asthma Infantum, Cynanebe trachealis — a. 
Infantum Spasraodicum, A. Thymicum — a. Kop- 
plan, A. Thymicum — a. Laryngeum Infantum, 
A. Thymicum — a. Montanum, A. pulverulentum 
— a. Nervous, Asthma — a. Nocturnum, Incubus. 
Asthma Pulvehulen'tum, A. yyp'seum, A. 
monta'iium. The variety of asthma to which 
millers, bakers, grinders, and others are suliject. 
Asthma Sicci;m, so called when the paroxysm 
is sudden, violent, and of short duration ; cougb 
slight, and expectoration scanty ; spasmodic con- 

Asthma Spastico-Arthriticum Inconstass, 
Angina pectoris — a. Spasticuin Infantum, A. 




Asthma Tiiy'micum, A. T. Knp'pU, Asthmn 
sp(i»'ticiun infiin'tum seu in/an' turn npasmo'diciim 
seu l((ri/iuje'um.i)i/ttii'tuin seu intermit'tensinfmi'- 
tiini sell '/entien'tium seu period' icum ai:u'tum, 
'J lii/iiKiatlt'nifi, Ci/nan'che tracliea'lis Kpanmod' icn, 
^/xiKiiitm (fhit'tidiH, Kuppian Asthmn, Thymic 
Axlhmri, Litryii(/!n'inun utrid' iilnn, Lnryni/o-Hjxis- 
viitH, Aj)ii<i''ti iiifdu'tum, Sj)fi8ni of the hirijii.r or 
ijidtllx, Croiip-like inipi ration of iiifciuta, Chl/d- 
crowitit/, iS/xiHiiiodic croup, Pseudo-croup, S'pn'ri- 
oim or Cer'ebral croup, I'hreuo-t/lot'timu, Snf'fo- 
ciiliur/ iiervouH cdtnrrh, (P.) Luryntjite atri<lulcuse, 
I'\iu.>: Croup, f'seudo-croup iierveux, Spaiuie de la 
(j/otle cl dn Thorax. A disense of infants, cha- 
riiftcri/.od by suspension of respiration at inter- 
vals ; great (lifliculfy of broatliinir, especially on 
waliing, swallowing, or crying: ending often in 
a fit of sutfocntion, with convulsions. The patho- 
logy of the disease has been supposed to consist 
in an enlargement of the thymus gland, or of 
the glands of the neck pressing on the pneumo- 
gastric nerves [?]. The ear, by auscultation, at 
a distance from the chest, detects an incomplete, 
acute, hissing inspiration, or rather cry: whilst 
the expiration and voice arc croupal, both at the 
accession and termination of the paroxysm. The 
heart's action has been observed to be distinct 
and feeble. 

These symptoms are often accompanied by 
rigidity of the fingers and toes ; the thumb being 
frequently drawn forcibly into the palm of the 
clenclu'd hand, whence the name VarjM-j^edul 
S2>'i«iu, ajiplied, at times, to the disease. 

Asthma Tyi'icum. Asthma characterized by 

Asthma Uteri, Hysteria — a. Weed, Lobelia 

AS'I'IIMAT'IC, Anthmat'ieuit, Puoncolyt'icuH, 
(F.) Anthiuntique. Affected with asthma. Rela- 
ting to a'itiima. 

ASTIIME AIGU, Asthma acutum— a. Cardi- 
aqut'. Asthma, cardiac — a. Nerreux, Asthma. 

ASTKJ'MATISM, Astigmatism' us, from a, pri- 
vative, and anyita, oriy/jaro;, 'ajioint.' A state 
of irregular refraction in the eye, in which the 
rays are not brought to one focus, but converge 
at dificront distances, so as to form two linear 
images at right angles to each other. 

AS'TO.MUS, from a, privative, and oro^wa, 'a 
mouth.' (F.) Astome. One without a mouth. 
Pliny speaks of a people in India without mouths, 
who live iinhflatu et odore ! 

ASTIIAGALE COL V, Collum astragali. 

galus exscapus. 

A8TRA(j'ALUS, Tidus, the Anlde, Qua'trio, 
Quar'tio, Quater'iiio, Diab'ebos, Pezn, Cavic'nla, 
Cavil' la, Tetro'ros, As'trion, Os Ballist'ai seu 
Tes'sercB, from aorpayuAoj, 'a die,' which it has 
been considered to resemble [?]. A short bone, 
situate at the superior and middle part of the 
tarsus, where it is articulated with the tibia. It 
is the ankle bone, sliuij bone, or first hone of the 
foot. The anterior surface is convex, and has a 
well-marked prominence, supported by a kind of 
neck, and hence has been called the head of the 
astraijnlus. The astragalus is developed by two 
points of ossification. 

Also, the ntla-s or first vertebra of the tieck. 

Astrao' Ex'scai'us, Asiragaloi'dea sy- 
philit'ica, Stemless Milk-vetch, (F.) Astrarjale a 
gausses vi'lus. Ord. Leguminosae. Sex. Si/st. Dia- 
delphia Docandria. The root is said to have 
cure<i confirmed syphilis. 

AsTitAo' TiiACACAXTnus. see Tragacanth. 

Astuag'ai.US VkuiiS, Spina hirci, Astraj/'alua 
acuh-a'lus. Goat's thorn, Milk-vetch. The plant 
which atTords Gum Tra<j'acanth. See Traga- 

ASTRANTIA, Imperatoria — a. Diapensia, Sa- 

AS'TRAPE, Coruscn'tio, Fuhjar, Fulmev, 
Lightning. Galen reckons it amongst the re- 
mote causes of epilepsy. 

ASTRIC'TION, Astric'tio, Stypsis, Adstric'tio, 
Conatric'tio, from astriui/ere, (ad and atrinycre,) 
' to constringe.' Action of an astringent sub- 
stance on the animal economy. 

ASTRICTORIA, Astringents. 

ASTRINGENT ROOT, Comptonia aspleni- 

ASTRIN'GENTS, Aatringen'tin, Adatricto'rin, 
Adstringen'tia, Stryphna, Cataetal'tica, Cunstrin- 
gen'tia, Contrahen'tia, Stegnu'tica, Syncrit'iai , 
Astricto'ria. Same etymon. Medicines which 
have the property of constringing the organic 
textures. External astringents are called Styp- 

The following are the chief astringents: Aci- 
dum Sulphuricum, A. Tannieum, Alumen, Ar- 
genti Nitras, Catechu, Creasoton, Cupri Sulpha.-, 
Tinct. Ferri Chloridi, Liquor Ferri Kitratis, 
Ferri Sulphas. Galla?, Ihcmatoxylon, Kino, Kra- 
nieria, Liquor Calcis, Plumbi Acetas, Quercus 
Alba, Quercus Tinctoria, Zinci Sulphas. 

ASTRION, Astragalus. 

ASTRIOS, Asteria gemma. 

AS'TROBLES, from acTfiov, 'astar,' and/^n^Ati), 
'I strike.' One struck by the stars, (sidcra'tus.) 
One who is in a state of sideration — in an apo- 
plectic state. — Gorra>us. 

ARTRGliLESIA, Astrobolismus. 

ASTROIiOLIA, Astrobolismus. 

ASTROr.OLLS'MUS, Astrobol'ia, Astroble'sio, 
Heli'aais, Helio'ais. Same etymology. Sidera'- 
tion, or action of the stars on a person. Apo- 
plexy. — Theophrastus, (iorrajus. 

ASTROBOLOS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROITIS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROLOGER, see Astronomy. 

ASTROL'OGY, Astrolog"ia, from aarpov, 'a 
star,' and ^oyoi, 'a discourse.' The art of divi- 
ning by inspecting the stars. This was formerly 
considered to be a part of medicine; and was 
called Judicial Aatroloyy, to distinguish it from 

ASTRON'OMY, ^s/raaow'irr, from aarpov, ' n. 
star, and vojios, 'a law,' 'rule.' A science which 
makes known the heavenly phenomena, and the 
laws that govern them. Hippocrates places this 
and astrology amongst the necessary studies of 
a physician. In the earlier English writers. 
Astronomer is often used in the sense of Astro- 

ASYSTOLIE, from a, privative, and cvaToXri, 
'systole. A name given by M. Beau to a period, 
in diseases of the heart, in which the systole is 
incomplete ; or, at least, is insufficient to free the 
ventricles from the blood in them. 

ASTRUTIIIUM, Imperatoria. 

ASTYPHIA, Impotence. 

ASTYSIA, Impotence. 

ASUAR, Myrobalanus Indica. 

ASULCL Lapis lazuli. 

ASYNODIA, Impotence. 

ATACTOS, Erratic. 

ATARACTAPOIE'SIA, Afaractopoe'sin-, from 
a, privative, rapaKTo;, 'troubled,' and votetv, 'to 
make.' Intrepidity, firmness; aquality of which, 
according to Hippocrates, the physician ought to 
be possessed in the highest degree. 

ATARAX'IA, from a, privative, and rapa^t,;, 
'trouble,' 'emotion.' Moral tranquillitj-, peace 
of mind. 

AT'AVISM, Atavism' us, from atnrus, 'an old 
grandsire or ancestor indefinitely.' The c,Tse in 
which an anomaly or disease, existing in a family, 




is lost in one generation and reappears in tlie 

ATAX'IA, from a, privative, and rafit. 'order.' 
Disorder, irregularity. Hippocrates employs the 
word in its most extensive acceptation. Galen 
applies it, especially, to irregularity of pulse: 
and Sydenham speaks of Ataxia Sjiiritiinm for 
disorder of the nervous system. Ataxia, now, 
usually means the state of disorder that charac- 
terizes nervous fevers, and the nervous condition. 
Ataxia Spirituum, Nervous diathesis. See 

AT AX'IC, Atax'icus ; same etymon. Having 
the characters of ataxia. 

ATCHAR, A'chia, Achar. A condiment used 
in India. Ic is formed of green fruits of various 
liinds — garlic, ginger, mustard, and pimento — 
pickled in vinegar. 
ATECNIA. Sterilitas. 

ATELECTASIS, AielcJc'tnsh, from artXvs^^ 
'imperfect,' 'defective,' and cKTuaig, 'dilatation.' 
Imperfect expansion or dilatation ; as in 

Atelkc'tasis PuLMo'NUJr, Piieumonatelec'in- 
sis, Piioimutclec'tasis. Imjierfect expansion of 
the lungs at hirth, giving rise to Cyano'ais piil- 
mona'lit. A similar condition is observed in 
lungs which have received air, and in a distinctly 
lobular form. This is regarded by Dr. W. T. 
(iairdner as, in all probability, a secondary le- 
sion, and dependent, in the majority of instances, 
on a catarrhal condition of the bronchial tubes. 
It is called, by him, piihnonavy colhqyxe, or col- 
lapse of the lidir/, and has received the name 
apneiimnto'sis from Fuchs. 

AT'ELES, areXrjs, 'imperfect,' 'defective.' 

ATEL'IA, (F.) Atelie. A monstrosity in which 
there is a want of some members. 

ATELOCIIEI'LIA, from arcU?, 'imperfect,' 
and x"^'>i' '"P-' ^ malformation which consists 
in an imperfect development of the lip. 

ATELOENCEPHAL'IA, from ariMi, 'imper- 
fect,' and cyKiipaXov, 'the encephalon.' State of 
imperfect development of the brain. — Andral. 

ATELOGLOS'SIA, from artAr,?, 'imperfect,' 
and yXuxjaa, 'tongue.' A malformation which 
consists in an imperfect development of the 

ATELOGIS'^A'TIIIA, from art\vi, 'imperfect,' 
and ym0of, 'the jaw.' A malformation which 
consists in an imperfect development of the jaw. 
ATELOMYEL'IA, from areXvs, 'imperfect,' 
and fxvtXos, 'marrow.' State of imperfect deve- 
lopment of the spinal marrow. — Beclard. 

ATELOPllOSO'PIA, from arcXvg, 'imperfect,' 
and -poau)'zov, 'the face.' A malformation which 
consists in imperfect development of the face. 
ATELOPtACniDIA, Hydrorachis. 
A T E L S T M ' I A, from areXns, ' imperfect,' 
and BTOfxa, 'mouth.' One whose mouth is im- 
perfci'tly developed. 

ATER SUCCUS, Atrabilis. 
ATIIAMAN'TA, from Athamas, a place in 
Thessaly. A genus of plants. 
Atiiamanta Annua, A. Cretensis. 
Athaman'ta Aureoseli'num, Oreoseli'num, 
0. legit' imum sen nir/ntm, Sdi'mim oreoneli'mim, 
Peiiced'diuim oreoscii'niim, Apiiim monta'num, 
Black 3foitntain Pnrslei/, (F.) Pertil de 3fon- 
tagne ; Old. Umbelliferie. The plant, seed, and 
roots, are aromatic. It has been considered 
attenuant, aperient, deobstruent, and lithontriptic. 
The distilled oil has been used in toothache. 

Atha^ian'ta Creten'sis seu Cue'tica, A. an'- 
nua, Libitiio'tis annua seu Creten'nia seu hirm'ta, 
Daucus Creticua seu Candia'niin, Mijrrhis an'nua, 
Candj Carrot. The seeds of this plant are acrid 

and aromatic. They have been used as carmina- 
tives and diuretics. 

Athamaxta Macepoxica, Bubon Maccdom- 
cum — a. Mcum, iEthusa meum. 
ATHANASIA, Tanacetum. 
Athana'sia, from a, privative, and S-avaroi, 
'death.' An antidote for diseases of the liver, 
jaundice, gravel, &c. It consisted of saffron, 
cinnamon, lavender, cassia, myrrh, juncus odo- 
ratus, honey, &c., and was esteemed to be sudo- 

ATHARA, Athera. 

ATUELAS'AIUS, from a, privative, and 6r,\r,, 
'a breast or nipple.' Impracticability of giving 
suck; from want of nipple or otherwise. 
ATHELXIS, Sucking. 

ATHE'NA. Name of a plaster, recommended 
by Asclepiades, and composed of oxide of copper, 
sublimed oxide of zinc, sal ammoniac, verdigris, 
gall nuts, and a variety of resinous and other in- 
gredients.— Oribasius, Aetius, and P. vEgineta. 

composed of myrrh, pepper, castor, and opium; 
used to allay coughing. — Celsus. 

ATHE'RA, Aiha'ra, from aOvp, 'an ear of 
corn.' A kind of pap for children ; also, a kind 
of liniment. — Dioscorides, Pliny. 
ATHERO'MA, from a^tjpa, 'pap or pulp,' Em- 
phy'ma cncys'tix atlu-ro'ina, lUollim'cnm, Pnlla'tio. 
A tumour formed by a cyst containing mattei 
like pap or Boiiillie, or plaster. 

ATIIEROM'ATOUS, Athcromalo'des. Having 
the nature of Atheroma. 

ATHLE'TA, from aSAoj, 'combat.' Athlete, 
(F.) Athlete. Athleta) were men who exercised 
themselves in combat at the public festivals.— 

ATHLET'IC, Athlet'icus, (F.) Athletique ; con- 
cerning AthletcB. Strong in muscular powers.— 

ATHOL PORRIDGE, see Mahogany. 
. ATIIORACOCEPHALUS, Acephalogaster. 
ATHRIX, At'richns, Calvns, (F.) Chauve ; 
from a, privative, and Opif, Tpi;n;os, 'hair.' Bald, 
(Sc.) Beld, Bellit. One who has lost his hair. 
Athrix Depilis, Alopecia. 

ATHYM'IA, An'imi defec'tiis et anxi'etas SOU 
demis'sio, Trintit"ia, McBror, Bi/pe, from a, priv., 
and 5D/ios, 'heart,' 'courage.' Despondency. The 
prostration of spirits often observable in the sick. 
— Hippocrates. Melancholy. — Swediaur. See 
Athvmia Pleonectica, see Pleonectica. 
ATIIYRION, Asplenium ceterach. 
filix fwmina — a. Filix mas, Polypodium iilix mas 
— a. Molle, Asplenium filix foeinina — a. Ovatuin, 
Asplenium fili.x foemina — a. Trifidum, Asplenium 
filix foemina. 

ATLANTAD, see Atlantal. 
ATLAN'TAL; same etymon as Atlas. Rela- 
ting or appertaining to the atlas. 

Atlantal Aspect. An asjiect towards the 
region where the atlas is situated. — Barclay. 
Atlantnd is used by the same writer to signify 
'towards the atlantal aspect.' 
Atlantal Extremities. The upper limbs. 

ATLAS, Atlau'tion, Astrag'ahis, from arXau, 
'I sustain.' The first cervical ver'lebra; so 
called from its supporting the whole weight of 
the head, as Atlas is said to have supported the 
globe on his shoulders. Chaussier calls it At- 
lo'ide. This vertebra in no respect resembles the 
others. It is a kind of irregular ring, into which, 
anteriorly, the processus dentatus of the second 
vertebra is received. Posteriorly, it gives pas- 
sage to the medulla spinalis. 




ATLODID'YMUS, Allod'ymui,, (F.) Atlodyme; 
from AlliiH, 'the first bone of the neck,' and 
bifivixoi, 'a twin.' A monster which is simple 
below nriil double above. M. Isid. Geoffrey 
Saint-Ilihiiro applies this term to a monster, 
which has a sinpfle body, with two distinct heads 
sui)portc'(l on one neck. 

ATLOTDE, Atlas. 

A T I. r D ' - AXOID, (F.) Alloulo-axouUen. 
Rol.itiiii,' to both the Atlas and the Axis or Ver- 
tebra Dcntata. 

ATLoino-AxoiD Articulation. The articula- 
tion belwcen the first two cervical vertebraa. 

Atloido-axoid Lig'amuxts. These are two 
in number; one anterior and another 2""^terior, 
passinr^ between the two vcrtebno. 

ATLOID'O-OCCIF'ITAL. Relating to the 
atlas and occiput. The Atloido-occip'itfil Arti- 
culn't'ion is funned by the condyles of the occi- 
pital bone and the superior articular surfaces of 
the Atlns. The At/oiflo-occipital muscle is the 
Rectus cnpitis posticus minor. 

.superior oculi — a. Soiis-occipitale, Rectus capitis 

ATMIATRI'A, Atmidiat'rlce, from avfio^, 'va- 
pour,' and larfiua, 'treatment.' Treatment of 
disense* by fumitjation. 

ATMI t)rATR[Cl<], Atmiatria. 

ATM LSTEIUO^^, Vaporarium. 

ATMOS, lireatli. 

AT'MOSIMIERE, Atmnisphm'ra, from «r;-o?, 
'vapour,' and aifiaiiia, 'a sphere;' — as it were, 
Spltvrc of vapours. The atmosphere is a sphe- 
rical mass of air, surrounding the earth in every 
part; the height of which is estimated at 15 or 
IG leagues. It presses on the surface of the 
earth, and this pressure has, necessarily, sensible 
effects on organized bodies. The surface of the 
human body being reckoned at 15 square feet, it 
is computed that a pressure of .33,000 pounds or 
more exists under ordinary circumstances ; and 
this pressure cannot be increased or diminished 
materially, without modifying the circulation and 
all the functions. 


ATOCIA, Sterilitas. 

ATOL'INIIA, from a, priv., and To\na, 'confi- 
dence.' Want of confidence; discouragement. 
A state of mind unfavorable to health, and in- 
jurious in disease. It is the antithesis of Eu- 

ATOMY, Skeleton. 

ATONIA, Atony — a. Ventriculi, Gasterasthe- 

AT'ONIC, Aton'icm, (F.) Atnniqne. "Wanting 
tone. Same etymon as the ne.xt. Also, a medi- 
cine capal)le of alliiying organic excitement or 
irritation. — Schwilgue. 

AT'OXY, Atoii'ia, Tttfir'mitas et Remin'nio vV- 
rutm, Lriiiijiior, Ln.r'itns, from a, priv., and tovu;, 
'tone,' 'force.' Want of tone. Weakness of 
every organ, and particularly of those that arc 
conh-actile. Violent gastritis has been descril)ed 
by Scril>onius Largus under a similar name, 
Atovov, At'oiioii. 

ATRAIJIL'IARY, AtmhiViovn, AtrnhUln'rh, 
Atrcifii/io'Hiit, (F.) Atrahi/aire, Alrnhileux, from 
titer, 'black.' and hilin. 'bile.' An epithet given 
by the ancients to the melancholic and hypo- 
chondriac, because they believed the Atrabilis 
to predominate in such. 

Atkabiliauv Capsiii-es, Artkriks and Vkins. 
The renal capsules, arteries and vf>ins : the for- 
mation of Atrabilis having been attributed to 

ATRAHI'LIS, same etymon. Ater succvr, 
Black Bile or mdanchuly, (F.) Alrabilc. Ac- 

cording to the ancients, a thick, black, acrid 
humour, secreted, in the opinion of some, by the 
pancreas; in that of others, by the supra-renal 
capsules. Hippocrates, Galen, Aetius, and others, 
ascrilie great influence to the Atrabilis in the 
production of hypochondriasis, melancholy, and 
mania. There is really no such humour. It 
was an imaginary creation. — Arctaius, Rufus of 
Ephesus, &c. 

ATRACIIE'LOCEPR'ALUS, from a, priv., 
rpaT^^rjXos, 'neck,' and Kt.^aXv, 'head.' A monster 
whose neck is partially or wholly deficient. 

ATRACHE'LUS. Same etymon. One who is 
very short-necked. — Galen. 

pi'nenn, Ixi'iie, Gii mm y -rooted Atructylis, Pine 
Tlii&tle. Ord. Composita;. The root, when 
wounded, yields a milky, viscid juice, which 
concretes into tenacious masses, and is said to 
be chewed with the same views as mastich. 
AT RAG EXE. Clematis vitalba. 
ATRA.MEN'TUM, A. Siito'rium, Ink, Chalcan'- 
thitm, (F.) Encre. It has been advised as an as- 
tringent, and as an external application in her- 
petic atTections. 

Atramkntum SuTORiujr, Ferri sulphas. 
ATRE'SIA, (F.) Af/T.'si'e, Adherence, Imperfo- 
ration. Same etymon as Atretus. See Monster. 
Atre'sia Ani Adna'ta, Anus Iinperfora'tiia, 
Imper font' tin ani, Atretncyn' ia, (F.) Iinperfora- 
tion de I'antis. Congenital imperforation of the 
intestinal canal. 

ATRETELYTRIA, Colpatresia. 
ATRETI8MUS, Imperforation. 
ATRETOCEPH'ALUS, from arpnTOi, 'imper- 
forate,' and KKpaXri, 'head.' A monster, in which 
some of the natural apertures of the head are 
wanting. — Gurlt. 

ATliETOCOR'MUS, from arp,roj, 'imperfo- 
rate, and Kopfioi, 'trunk.' A monster in which 
the natural apertures of the trunk are wanting.^ 
ATRETOCYSIA, Atresia ani. 
ATRETOMETRIA, Ilvsteratresia. 
ATRETOPSIA, Coreclisis. 
ATRETOSTOM'IA, from arpnroi, 'imperfo- 
rate,' and cTOfia, 'mouth.' Imperforation of the 

ATRETURE'THRIA, from arpnTos, 'imperfo- 
rate,' and ovp>)9i,a, 'urethra.' Imperforation of 
the urethra. 

ATRE'TUS, from a, priv., and rpao), 'I per- 
forate.' Imper/ora'iiis, Ln per' f orate. One whose 
anus, or parts of generation, are imperforate 

ATRIA, Auricles of the heart — a. Mortis, see 

AT'RICES. Small tumours, which appear oc- 
casionally around the anus. Some commentators 
consider the word to be synonymous with con- 
dylomata. — Forestus. 

ATRICHIA, Alopecia — a. Adnata, see Alope- 
cia — a. Senilis, see Alopecia. 
ATRICHUS, Atbri.x. 

AT'RICI. Small sinuses in the vicinity of the 
anus, not penetrntin^ the rectum. 

ATRIO-VENTRICULAR, Auriculo-ventricu- 

ATRIPLEX FCETIDA, Chenopodium vulvaria. 

Atriplex IIokte.n'sis, a. Snti'm, (F.) Ar- 

rnche, Jlonne Dome, Follette. Ord. Chenopodia- 

cciB. The herb ami seed of this plant have been 

exhibited as antiscorbutics. 

At'riplex al'Imus, A. Portulnro'i'den, and A. 
Pat'ida, are used as pickles, aud have similar 

Atripi.ex Laciniata, a. patula — a. Mexicans, 
Chenopodium ambrosoides — a. Odorata, Cheno- 
podium botrys — a. Olida, Chenopodium vulvaria. 



Atrut.kx P.vt'ula, a. lacinin'ta sen Piir- 
elini'nit, Sjin-ddiiiij Oiache; indiijenous ; Fcimili/, 
ClKMiopoiliacea). The expressed juice is said to 
be cathartic. It has been used, in place of gam- 
boge, in dropsy and asthma. 

Anupi.Kx PuRSHi.VNA, A. patnla. 

cor lis — a. Cordis sinistruui, Sinus pulmonalis — 
a. Va2:ina>, Vestibuluni. 

AT'ROl'A, from Arpon-os, 'immutable,' 'the 
goddess of destiny j' so called from its fatal 

AthOPA BeLLADON'nA, Bellnrfou'llfX, B. hrtc- 
dfera seu trichot'umn, Dead/i/ Xii/ht^hade, Ooin- 
riioH Dieale, (Sc.) Mekihrort, Sohi'iiiim letha'le 
sen horteu'se niijrnm, Suhi'iutm lunni'rtciim seu 
/un'o'xiiiii seu mi-litiiocer'anHS, (F.) BvUddone, 
Jilorelle fnriense, Ijelle Dtime. Ord. Solanaceae. 
Sex. Synt. Tetrnndria Monogynia. The leaves — 
Bdlitdontia (Ph. U. S.) — are powerfully narcotic, 
and also diaphoretic, and diuretic. They are 
occasionally used where narcotics are indicated. 
Sprinkling tiie powdered leaves over cancerous 
sores has been found to allay the pain ; and the 
leaves form a good poultice. Dose, gr. J to gr. j 
of the powdered leaves. 

Atuopa MANnilAG'oilA, Mandrng'orn, M. ver- 
na'lis seu nj/iviint' lis seu acnii'lis, Circoi'tt, Antliro- 
pomorph'iin, Malum terren'tre, Mmidrtike. The 
boiled root has been used in the form of poultice 
to indolent swellings. 

ATROPHIA, Atrophy, T.abes — a. Ahlactato- 
ruui, Brash, weaning — a. Cerebri, Plirenatrophia 
• — a. Cordis, Heart, atrophy of the — a. Glandula- 
ris, Tabes mesenterica — a. Hepatis, Hepatatro- 
phia — a. Infantum, P.edatrojjhia, Tabes mesen- 
terica — a. Iiitestinorum, Enteratrophia. , 

Atuophia Lactan'tiu.m, Tdbes iiutrt'citm seu 
lac'leit. The atrophy of nursing women. 

Atuophia Liknis, Splenatrophia — a. Mesen- 
terica, Tabes mesenterica — a. Testiculi, Orchida- 
trojihia — a. Utiguiuni, Onychatrophia. 

A TROPH/E, Atropliy — a. Mincnteriqne, Tabes 

SIVE, Farali/iie innncidaire (iti-opliit/iie, Atnmhie 
muscidni re primitive ou idiopathique ou uvec 
tranxformntiDii r/rdiHueime. A rare malady, in 
which the muscles become so greatly atrophied 
that thev cannot perform their functions. 

ATROPHIED, see Atrophy. 

AT'ROPIIY, Mnrnii'mus Atro'phia, Atro'pTiia 
Iffirns'mm, J/arrin'nis, Jfa'cies, Contabenceii'tia, 
Tubes, Marco' res, Aiiiilo'sis, from a, privative, 
and 7-po0)7, 'nourishment.' (F.) Atrophie, Bes- 
eech em ent. Defective nutrition, Hi/]>ot'riipInj. Pro- 
gressive and morbid diminution in the bull; of 
the whole body or of a part. Atrophy is gene- 
rally symptomatic. Any tissue or organ thu3 
affected is said to be nt'ropliied. 

Atrophy of the Heart, see Heart, atrophy 
of the. 

ATROPIA, Atropine — a. Sulphate of, Atropise 

ATROP'IiE SULPHAS, Sulphate of Atrop'ia 
(Ph. L.). Formed by dissolving atropia in dilute 
eidphuric acid; evaporating, and crystallizing. 
Virtues, the same as those of Atropia. 

AT'ROPIXR, Atriipi'iia, Atrop'ia, Atrop'tum, 
Atvopi'iiiim, Ilelliidon'in'n, (F.) Atropine. The 
active principle of Atropn Relladoiina, separated 
by Brandes, by a process similar to that for pro- 
curing morphia. A single drop of a solution, of 
one grain in f^'^ of distilled water with a 
few drops of acetic acid, applied to the inner 
surface of the lower eyelid, causes dilatation of 
the pupil, in fifteen or twentj' minutes. A grain 
to a drachm of lard is an application in neu- 
ralgia. 1 

ATTACHE. Insertion. 

ATTACK, fiisiil'tiis, Assid'tiis, Irrep'tio, /lira'- 
sin, Eis'bole, Lcpsia, (Prov.) Take, (F.) Attiu/iie. 
A sudden attack, invasion or onset of a disease. 
A seizure. One attacked or affected witli severe 
disease is often said, in the United States, to be 
"taken down," or to be "down" with it. 
ATTAGAS, Attagen. 

AT'TACJEN, At'tatjas, the Fran'colin. Cele- 
brated with tlic ancients both as food and medi- 
cine. — Martial, Aristophanes. 

A mineral water in France, at Attancourt, in 
Champagne; about three leagues nortli of Join- 
ville. The water is a chalybeate, and contains 
i sulphate of lime. In large doses it i,« purgative 
! ATTAQUE, Attack — «. des Kerfs, Nervous 

ATTAR OF ROSES, see Rosa centifolia. 
ATTELLE, Splint. 

in Bavaria. The water contains carlionic acid, 
carbonates of lime and soda, sulphates of lime 
and magnesia, chloride of sodium, iron and alum. 
It is much used in skin diseases, fistula, old ul- 
cers, calculi, and hcBmorrhoids. 

ATTEX'UANTS, Attenuan'lia, Leptini'lica, 
(F.) Attenuduts, Lcptontiqucs, from tenuis, 'thin.' 
Me<licines which augment the fluidity of the 

ATTEXUA'TION, Attenua'tio ,- same etymon. 
Thinness, emaciation. A term used by the ho- 
moeopathists, in tlie sense of dilution or division 
of remedies into infinitesimal doses. 
ATT! RANT, Attrahent. 

AT'TITCIDE, Situs Cor'pnris. Low Latin, 
cpfitudo ; from Latin aptare. 'to fit.' Situation, 
position of the body. The attitudes are the dif- 
ferent postures which man is capable of assum- 
ing. In General Pathohxpi, the attitude will 
often enable the physician to pronounce at once 
upon the character of ii disease, or it will aid liira 
materially in his judgment. In St. Vitus's dance, 
in fractures, luxations, Ac, it is the great index. 
It will also indicate the degree of nervous or 
cerebral power; hence sinking down in bed is 
an evidence of great cerebral debility in fever. 
The position of a patient during an operation is 
also an interesting subject of attention to the 

ATTOL'LENS AIIREM, A. Auric' uIcp. Lcra'. 
tor Aiiris, Siipe'rior Anris, Attol'lens Anric'idam, 
Auricula'ris snpe'rior, (F.) Auriculaire snperieiir, 
Temporo-auriculaire. A muscle of the ear, which 
arises, thin, broad, and tendinous, from the 
tendon of the occipito-frontalis, and is inserted 
into the upper jiart of the ear, opposite to the 
anti-helix. It raises the ear. 

Attollexs Oculi, Rectus superior oculi— a, 
Oculum, Rectus superior oculi. 

A TTOUCflEMENT, Masturbation. 
sion, force of. 
ATTRACTIVUM, see Magnet. 
ATTRACTIVUS, Attrahent. 
AT'TRAHENT, At'trahens, Attracii' cus, Al- 
traeto'rius, from ad, 'to,' and traho, 'I draw.' 
(P.) Attractif, Attirant. Remedies are so called, 
which attract fluids to the parts to which they 
are applied, as blisters, rubefacients, Ac. 

ATTRAHE-LOURDAUT (F.). A bistoury 
invented by a French surgeon, called Biennaise, 
and used in the operation for hernia. See Bis- 
touri cachd. 
ATTRITA, Chafing. 
ATTRITIO. Attrition, Chafing. 
ATTRIT"ION, Aitri"tio, Ecthlim'ma, from 




ad, and tercre, ' to bruise.' Friction or bruising. ] 
Clialiu}^. — (Jalen. Also, a kind of cardialgia. — 
Seniiortus. Likewise, a violent contusion. 
ATTKITU8, Cliafing. 

ATYP'IC, Alyit'icuH, At'ypo8, (F.) Afypiqne, 
from a, privative, and rviroi, 'lyi)C.' Tlial which 1 
has no type. Irre-^ular. Chiefly api)lied to an 
irrefjular intermittent, — Fchris atyp'tca. 

ATYl'O.s, Erratic. 

AUAX.Sl.S, Drying. 

AUAN'TE, Aitdji'se, from avavan, 'desicca- 
tion.' Hippocrates gave this name to a disease, 
the principal symptom of which was emaciation. 

AUHE-VIGNE, Clematis vitalba. 

AU UK I' INK, Mespilus oxvacantha. 

AUIiintaiNE, Solannm Melongena. 

AUIilFOIN, Centaurea cyanus, Cyanus sege- 

AUCHEN. Collnm. 


AUCIIE'TICUS, from avxriv, 'the neck.' One 
affected with stiff neck or torticollis. 


AUDE, Voice. 

dinac is situate in the department of Arriege, 
France. The water contains a small quantity 
of sulphohydric acid, carbonic acid, sulphates of 
lime and magnesia, carbonates of lime and iron, 
and a bituminous substance. Temp. 67° Fahr. 
It is much used in chronic rheumatism, herpes, 
scrofulous diseases, &c. 

AUDITIF, Auditory. 

AU1)1T"I0N, from andire, auditum. ' tohenr ;' 
Audit" io, Aiidi'tKK, A'coe, Acne'nis, Aca'sis, (F.) 
Ouie, Hearing. The act of hearing. The sen- 
sation arising from an impression made on the 
auditory nerves by the vibrations of the air, pro- 
duced by a sonorous body. The physiology of 
Audition is obscure. It proba.l)ly takes place : — 

1. By the vihrations being communicated from 
the membrana tympani along the chain of small 
bones to the membrane of the foramen ovale. 

2. By means of the air in the cavity of the tym- 
panum, the meml)rane of the foramen rotundum 
is agitated. .3. The transmission may be made 
by means of the bony.yiarietes. In these three 
■ways the vihrations produced by a sonorous body 
may reach the auditory nerve. Audition may be 
actii'e or passive : hence the difference between 
llsteitiiir/ and simply henriiig. 

AU'DITORY, Audito'rius, Aiidi'ti'rm, Aciin'- 
ticHs, (F.) Audit;/. That which relates to audi- 

Auditory Arteries and Veins, are vessels 
.which enter the auditory canals, and are, like 
them, distinguished into internal and external. 
The e.rteriial auditory artery, A. Tywpanique — 
(Ch.) is given off by the styloid, a branch of the 
external carotid: the internal is a branch of the 
basilary artery, which accompanies the auditory 
nerve, and is distributed to it. The Auditory 
Veins eu)pty into the internal and external ju- 

Auditory Canal, External, Mea'tns audito'. 
rius exter'nuH, Alvea'rium, Scapha, Seaphus, (F.) 
Conduit auditif externe, Conduit anriculaire, 
commences at the bottom of the concha, at the 
Fora'nieu anditi'rum extcr'num, passes inwards, 
forwards, and a little downwards, and terminates 
at the membrana tympnni. It is partly cartila- 
ginous, iiartly osseous, and partly fibrous. 

AuDiTOUY Canal, Internal. Mvn'tns audito'- 
rius intrr'nus. Poms seu Sinus acus'licus, Cynr, 
(F ) Conduit auditif' interne. C. labyrinthir/ue, IS 
situate on the posterior surface of the pars pe- 
trosa of the temporal bone. From the Fora'men 
auditi'vum iuter'itum, where it commences, it 

passes forwards and outwards, and terminates 
by a kind of cul-de-sac, mac'ula crihro'sa, perfo- 
rated by many holes, one of which is the orifice 
of the Acjuwductus Falloijii ; and the others com- 
municate with the labyrinth. 

Auditory Nerve, Xervna audito'rius seu acus'- 
ticus, Nerf lahyrinthique — (Ch.), is the Po/Z/o 
Mollis of the seventh pair. It arises fi-om the 
corpus restiforme, from the floor of tho fourth 
ventricle, and by means of white striaj from the 
sides of the calamus scriptorius. As it leaves the 
encephalon, it forms a flattened cord, and pro- 
ceeds with the facial nerve through the foramen 
auditivum internum, and as far as the l)ottom of 
the meatus, where it separates from the facial, 
and divides into two branches, one going to il.e 
cochlea, the cochlear ; the other to the vestibule 
and semi-circular canals, the vestibular. 

AUGE, Al'veus. Some of the older anatomists 
gave this name to a reservoir, into which liquiils 
flow in an interrupted manner, so that it is alter- 
nately full and empty. Such are the ventricles 
and auricles of the heart. 

AUGdERE, Intcruiittent Fever. 
AUGMENTA'TION, from au</ere, auctum, 'to 
increase;' Atigmen'tum, Increinen'tum, Anub'asis, 
Auc'tio, Auxis, Proyres'sio, Proijres'sus, Auxe'- 
sis, (F.) Augment. The stage of a disease in 
which the symptoms go on increasing. 
AULISCUS, Canula. See Fistula. 
AULOS, Canula, Fistula. See Vagina, and 

male is a town of Up])er Normandy, in the coun- 
try of Caux. Several springs of ferruginuus 
mineral waters are found there, whose odnur is 
penetrating, and taste rough and astringent. 
They are tonic, and employed in debility of the 
viscera, <fec. 

AUMURE, Parietaria. 
AUXE NOUIE, Kharanus frangnla. 
AUNEE, Inula helonium — a. iJyHcnIfriiine, 
Inula dysenterica — a. Officinale, Inula heleniuiu. 
AURA, Pnoe. A vapour or emanation from 
any body, surrounding it like an atmosphere. 
Van Helmont regarded the vital principle as a 
gas and volatile spirit, which he called Aura 
vi talis. 

In Pathology. Aura means the sensation of a 
light vapour, which, in some diseases, appears 
to set out from tiie trunk or limbs ; and to rise 
towards the head. This feeling has been foun'l 
to precede attacks of epilepsy and hysteria, and 
hence it has been called Aura Epilep'tica, and 
A. hyster'ica. 

Aura Epileptica, see Aura — a. Ilysteiicn, see 

Aura San'guinis. The odour exhaled by blood 
newly drawn. See Gaz Sanguinis. 

Aura Sem'inis, A. semina'Us, Spir'itns geni- 
ta'lis: — A volatile principle fancied to exist in 
the sperm, and regarded by some as the fecun- 
dating agent. Such is not the case. 
Aura Vitalis, Vital principle. 
AURANCUM, see Ovuib. 
A URANITE, see Agaric. 
sav'ica, Curasso'a apples or oranges. Immature 
oranges, checked, by accident, in their growth. 
They are a grateful, aromatic bitter, devoid (/f 
aciditj'. Infused in wine or brandy they make a 
good stomachic. They are also used for issue 
peas. See Citrus aurantium. 

AURANTII CORTEX, see Citrus aurantium 
— a. Floris Aqua, see Citrus aurantium. 
AURANTIUM, Citrus aurantium. 




AUREOLA. Areola. 

NATRII, see Gold— a. Chloridum, Gold, muriate 
of — a. Cliloretuin, Gold, muriate of — a. Cyanidum, 
see Gold — a. Cj'anuretuui, see Gold — a. lodidum, 
see Gold — a. loduretum, see Gold — a. et Natri 
chlorureiuin, sec Gold — a. Murias, Gold, muriate 
of — a. Nitro-muriiis, see Gold — a. Oxidum, see 
Gold — a. Terchloridum, sec Gold — a. Tercyani- 
dum, see Gold— a. Teroxidum, see Gold. 


AimiChE. Auric' iilci, {F.) Ai(ricule, Oricnle. 
Diminutive of nun's, an ear. The pavilion of 
the ear. See Pavilion. 

Auricles of the Heart, Aun'c'ula, A'tria, 
Cttvita'teH iniiomiita'tcB, (P.) Orcillettcs, are two 
cavities, one right, the other left, each communi- 
cating with the ventricle of its side. These two 
cavities receive the blood from every part of the 
body. Into the ric/Jit auricle, the two vena; cava; 
and corcjiiary vein open : into the left, the four 
pulmonary veins. Chaussier calls the former the 
iS'iiius of the Voice. Cava; : — the latter, the Siinis 
of the I'utiiwnari/ Veins. The foliated or dog's 
ear portion of each auricle is called Appen'dix 
auric'u/a. See Sinus. 

Auricula .Jud.e, Peziza auricula — a. Muris, 
Hieracium Pilosella — a. Muris major, Hieracium 

AURICULATRE, Auricular, see Digitus — n. 
PoHterieur, Retrahens auris — a. Superieur, Attol- 
Icns aurem. 

AURICULAR, Attricula'ria, Oric'nlar, (F.) 
Auriculnire, from auricula, 'the ear.' That 
■which belongs to the ear, especially to the ex- 
ternal ear. 


laires — (Ch.), are divided into anterior and jjos- 
terior. The anterior are of indeterminate num- 
ber. They arise from the temporal artery, and 
are distributed to the meatus auditorius externus, 
and to the pavilion of the ear. The posterior 
auricular is given off by the external carotid, 
from which it separates in the substance of the 
parotid gland. When it reaches the inferior part 
of the pavilion of the ear it bifurcates; one of its 
branches being distributed to the inner surface 
of the pavilion, the other passing over the mas- 
toid process, and being distributed to the tempo- 
ral and posterior aiiris muscles, &c. Before its 
bifurcation it gives off the stylo-mastoid artery. 
The Anterior and Posterior Auricular Veins open 
into the temporal and external jugular. 

Auricular Pln'Ger, (F.) Doigt auriculaire, is 
the little finger, so called because, owing to its 
size, it can be more readily introduced into the 
meatus auditorius. 

Auricular Nerves are several. 1. The au- 
ricuhtr branch, Zyf/omnto-auricular, is one of 
the ascemliiig branches of the cervical plexus. 
It ramifies and spreads over the two surfaces of 
the pavilion. 2. The aurioilnr or superficial 
temporal, Temporal-cutaneous — (Ch.), is given off 
from the inferior maxillary. It ascends between 
the condyle of the jaw and the meatus auditorius 
externus, sends numerous filaments to the meatus 
and pavilion, and divides into two twigs, which 
accompany the branches of the temporal artery, 
and are distributed to the integuments of the 
head. There is also a posterior auricular fur- 
nished bv the facial. 

AURI'CULARIA SAMBUCI. Peziza auricula. 

^a. Superior, Attollens aurem. 

AURICIUjE, Auricle, Pavilion of the ear. 

tric'ular, A'trio-ventricula' ris, Auric' ulo-ventri- 

cula'ris, ('F.)Auriculo-vcntriculaire. That which 
belongs to thc auricles and ventricles of the heart. 
The communications between the auricles and 
ventricles are so called. Thc Tricuspid and 3Ii- 
tral V'llrcs are auriculo-ventricular valves. 

AURI'(jA. a species of bandage for the ribs, 
described by Galen. See, also. Liver. 

AURIGO, Icterus — a. Ncophytorum, Icterus 

AURIPIGMENTUM, Orpiment— a. Rubrum, 

AURIS, Ear. 


AVRISCOI^'IVM, Au'riscope, from auris, 'the 
ear,' and ckottcui, 'I view.' An instrument for 
exploring the ear. 

AURIST, Otia'ter, Otia'trus, Ear-doctor, Ear- 
surcjeon ; from auris, 'the ear.' One who occu- 
pies himself chiefly with the diseases of the ear 
and their treatment. 

morata. Cerumen — a. Sibilus, Bombus — a. Soni- 
tus, Bombus — a. Sordes, Cerumen — a. Susurrus, 

A U R N E, Artemisia abrotanum — a. des 
Champs, Artemisia campcstris — a. des Jardina, 
Artemisia abrotanum — a. Ildle, Artemisia abro- 

AURUGO, Icterus. 

AURUM, Gold — a. Chloratura, Gold, mu- 
riate of — a. Chloratum natronatum, see Gold — a. 
Foliatum, Gold leaf — a. in Libellis, Gold leaf — a. 
Leprosum, Antimonium — a. Limatum, see Gold 
— a. Muriaticum, see Gold — a. Muriaticum natro- 
natum, see Gold. 

AuRUM MuSi'vUM, Anrum 3fosa'icum, Sulph'- 
uret of Tin, Deutosulphuret or Persulpliuret of 
tin. (Qnichsilver, tin, sulphur, sal ammoniac, 
aa, equal parts. The tin being first melted, the 
quicksilver is poured into it, and then the whole 
are ground together, and sublimed in a bolthead. 
The aurum musivum lies at the bottom.) It is 
used in some empirical preparations. 

Aurum Oxydatum, see Gold — a. Oxydulatum 
muriaticum, Gold, muriate of — a. Nitro-muriati- 
cum, see Gold — a. Salitum, Gold, muriate of. 

AUS'CULTATE, from auscultare, 'to listen.' 
To practise auscultation. 'To auscult' is at times 
used with the same signification. 

AUSCULTA'TION, Ausculta'tio, Echos'cnpe, 
act of listening. Buisson has used it synony- 
mously with listening. Laennec introduced aus- 
cultation to appreciate the different sounds which 
can be heard in the chest, and in the diagnosis 
of diseases of the heart, lungs, <fec. This may 
be done by the aid of an instrument called a ste- 
thoscoptc, one extremity of which is applied to the 
ear, the other to the chest of the patient. This 
mode of examination is called 3Iedlatc Ausculta- 
tion, (F.) Auscultation mediate, — the application 
of the ear to the chest being immediate ausculta- 

The act of exploring the chest is called Stctho- 
scop'ia, and Thoracoscopt'ia ; of the abdomen, 
A hdo m in oscop ' ia . 

AUSCULTATORY, Auscidtato'rius ,- Ans'cul- 
fonj, Auscul'tic, (with some.) Belonging or hav- 
ing relation to auscultation. 

Auscultatory Percussion, see Acouophonia. 

AUSTERE', Auste'rus. Substances which pro- 
duce a high degree of acerb impression on the 
organs of taste. 

AUSTRUCHE, Tmperatoria. 

AUTALGIA DOLOROSA, Neuralgia, facial, 
Pleurodynia— a. Pruriginosa, Itching— a. Vertigo, 

AUTARCI'A, from avroi, 'himself,' and apKw, 
'I am satisfied.' Moral tranquillity. — Galen. 

AUTEMES'IA, from auroj, 'self,' and tumi, 




* vomiting.' Spontaneous or idiopathic vomiting. 
— Alil)crt. 

AUTKMPRESMUS, Combustion, human. 

AUTJIE'AIEIION. A medicine which cures 
on tlie day of its exhibition; from auros, 'the 
same,' iiml 'ti/apa, ' day.' 

AUTil V(ilAXSIS, Vis medicatrix naturte. 

AUTOCIIIK, Anlofhi' run, Sidci'dit, from avTOi, 
'himself,' and ;!^£(p, 'hand. One wlio has com- 
mitted suicide. A .self-murderer or suicide. 


AUTOCINE'SIS, Motus volunta'rins, from 
avToi, ' self,' and Kivnan, ' motion.' Voluntary 

A U T C ' R A S Y, Antocrati'a, A utocmto'ria, 
from oiiTo;, ' himself,' and Kparo;, ' strength.' In- 
dependent force. Action of the vital principle, 
or of the instinctive powers, towards the preser- 
vation of the intlividual. See Vis Medicatrix 
Katura}. Also, the vital principle. 

AUTOCRATIA, Autocrasy, Vis Medicatrix 

AUTOCRATORIA, Autocrasy— a. Physiatrice, 
Vis medicatrix naturaj. 


AUTOG"ENOUS, from avro;, 'self,' and ycv- 
*ao>, ' I generate.' A term applied by Mr. Owen 
to parts or elements that are usually developed 
from distinct and independent centres; as in the 
case of the dilierent parts or elements that form 
a vertebra. 

AUTO(jONIA, Generation, equivocal. 

AUTOLITIIOT'OMUS, from avros, 'himself,' 
X(9os, 'a stone,' and rtitvuv, 'to cut.' One who 
operates upon himself for the stone. 

AUTOMAT'IC, Automat' icitu, Aiitom'atu8, (F.) 
Antomatiqiie, from avTOfiarog, ' spontaneous.' That 
■which acts of itself. Those movements are called 
oi/^.5);in/('c which are executed without volition : — 
involuntary motions, matus automat' ici seu au- 
tom'ati seu iuvo/uutn'rii. 

AUTOMXAL, Autumnal. 

AUTOXOM'IA. Via medica'trix notu'rcB. The 
■word Antoiioinid is occasionally employed by the 
French and Germans for the peculiar mechanism 
of an organized body. Thus, although indivi- 
duals of the same species may ditier in outward 
conforniaticm, their mechanism or instinctive 
laws (Aniotiomin) may be the same. 

AUTONYCTOBATIA, Somnambulism. 

AUTOPEP'SIA, from avros, 'self,' and Trtrro), 
'I concoct.' Self-digestion, — as of the stomach 
after death. 

AUTOPJIIA, Autopsia. 

AUTOPirONY, AutojjJio'nin, (F.) Autnjihonie, 
Retentiixement autopkonique, from a«rof, 'self,' 
and 0ci)v>;, ' voice.' An auscultatory sign pointed 
out by M. Ilourmann, which consists in noting 
the character of the observer's own voice, while 
he speaks with his head placed close to the pa- 
tient's chest. The voice, it is alleged, will be 
modified by the condition of the subjacent organs. 
The resonance, thus heard, he terms reteutisse- 
mcnt aictophoiiique. This diagnostic agency Dr. 
R. G. Latham proposes to term heautophon' iea. 



AUTOPLAS'TIC, Autoplna'ticua, from aurof, 
'self,' and irAaorixos, 'formative.' Relating to 
autoplastj' or i)lastic surgery. 

AUTOPy^ASTlCE. Morioplastice. 

AUTOPLASTY, Morioplastice. 

AUTOP'SIA, Au'topni/, from aurof, 'himself,' 
and oi^if, ' vision.' Autoph' i<t, Autuscnp'ia. In- 
spection ; examination by one's self; self-inspec- 
tion. Often improperly used for the following: 

Altop'sia Cadaveh'ica, (F.) Autopm'e ou Ou- 
verture cnd<tvcriqiie. Attentive examination after 
death; — Examination post mortem, Sectio Cadav'- 

eris, Disaection, Nec'roacopy, Nee'ropay, Necro- 
acoj)'iri, Xecroj/'aifi, Necrop'aia, — practised for 
the purpose of investigating the causes and seat 
of an aii'ection of v^hich a person may have 
died, <ifcc. 

AuTop'siA Cadaver'ica Lega', Sec'tio seu 
Ohduc'tio leija'lia, is the examination after death 
for medico-legal purposes. 

AUTOPYROS, Syneomistos. 

AUTOSCOPIA, Autopsia. 

AU'TOSITE, from auroj, 'self/ and airof, 
'nourishment.' A single monster, capable of 
deriving nourishment from its own proper or- 
gans, in contradistinction to Omplialoxiie. 

AUTOTIIERAPIA, Vis medicatrix nature. 

AVJlVM}^, Autum'nue, A\ictuiii'iiua. from nu- 
gere,auctum, 'to increase' [?], Plilhiropo'ron, {¥.) 
Autonine. One of the seasons of the year, between 
the 'I'.'id of September and the 21st of l)ecember. 
In all climates, the Autumn or Fall is liable to 
disease; a combination of local and atmo.^pheric 
causes being then present, favourable to its pro- 

AUTUM'NAL, Anlumno'lin, (F.) Automnnl. 
Relating to Autumn; as Autumtiul Fruits, Au- 
tumnal Fevera, <tc. 

Autumnal Fkver generally assumes a bilious 
aspect. Those of the intermittent kind are much 
more obstinate than when they appear in the 

AUXESIS, Augmentation, Increase. 

AUXIL'IARY, Auxilia'ria, from au.rilium, 
'aid.' (F.) Aujcilitrire. That which assists, or 
from wiiich assistance is obtained. 

AuxiLiATtY Mi;dicine is one which assists the 
principal medicine or basis. It is synonymous 
with Adjuvant. 

AuxiiJAKY Muscles are those which concur 
in the same movement. Some anatomists have 
applied the term to several ligaments, as well as 
to the fleshy fibres, which hang from the sucro- 
apinii/is muscle. 

AUXILIUM, .Juvans, Medicament. 

AUXIS, Augmentation, Increase. 

AVA, Arva, K(ii;ii. An intoxicating narcotic 
drink, made by chewing the Piper methisticum. 
It is much used by the Polvnesians. 

AVAILLES, WATERS OF. A small village 
in France, II:! leagues S. S. E. of Ptiitiers, at 
which there is a cold saline chalybeate. It 
contains chlorides of sodium and calcium, sul- 
phate and subearlionate of soda, iron, Ac. 

AYANT-BOUUIIE (¥.), Oh anti'cnm. This 
name has been applied by some to the mouth, 
p'roi)erly so called — -in contradistinction to the 
Arriere bouclie or I'haryii.c. 

A V ANT- BR AS, Fore-arm. 

AVANT-CCFUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 

AVANT-GOUT {¥.), Pragnatu'lio. A fore- 
taste ; prsvgustation. 

AVASf-iMAIN (Y.), Adrer'aa Manns. The 
inside of the hand, when extended. 

A VANT-PIFD (F.). The most advanced part 
of the foot. 

A VANT-POIGNET (F.). The anterior part 
of the wrist. 

A VELINE, Corylus avellana, (nut.) 

AVELLANA, Corylus avellana — a. Cathartica, 
Jatropha curcas. 

AVE'NA, liromoa. Oafs, (Prov., North of Eng- 
land) Aits. The seeds of Are'7in sati'vn. Ord. 
Gramineae. Sex. Syst. Triandria Digynia. (F.) 
Avoine. Oats are used as food for man in some 
parts, particularly in the Xorth of Entrland and 
Scotland. AVhcn deprived of the husks, they 
form Groata. Reduced to meal — Avenes Fari'na, 
Oatmeal, (Ph. U. 8.) — they are applied as cata- 
plasms to promote suppuration. The dry meal ' 
is sprinkled over erysipelatous parts. 


1 10 


Ontmca? rjruel, Wnter griief, is prepared as fol- 
lows : — Take of ontmcnl, ^^ij : soft wntei; Oiss. 
Rub the meal in a basin, wiUi the back of a spoon, 
in a ino'ierate quantity of the water, pouring off 
the fluid after the grosser particles have subsided, 
but whilst the milkiness continues; and repeat 
the operation until no more milkiness is commu- 
nicated to the water. Put the washings in a pan, 
after having stirred them well, in order to sus- 
pend any fecula which may have subsided; and 
boil until a soft, thick mucilage is formed. 

It is a good demulcent, and is used also as a 
vehicle for clysters. 

AvKNA ExroRTicATA, Groats. 

AVENyE FARINA, see Avena. 

Avenheim is three leagues from Strasburg: near 
it is an aperient mineral water. 

Avennes is a village in the department of He- 
rault, in France : near it is a saline spring, the 
temperature of which rises to 81° Fahrenheit. 

AVENS, COMMON, Oeum urbanum— a. Pur- 
ple, Geum rivale — a. Water, Geum rivale — a. 
White, Geum Virginianum — a. Yellow, Geum 
urban nm. 

A VKRICH, Sulphur. 

AVERRHO'A BILIM'BT, 7?(7nn'6/, BiUmhing 
teres. Orel. Oxalidea3 : called after Averrhoes. 
An Indian tree, which has a fruit that is too acid 
to be eaten alone. It is used as a condiment, 
and in the form of syrup as a refrigerant. 

AvERnno'A Caram'bolA, Ifdliim Coen'se, Pru- 
num stelhi'tum, Tam'ara, Conga, Uaram'boln. 
An Indian tree, whose fruits are agreeably acid. 
The bark, bruised, is employed as a cataplasm, 
and its fruit is used as a refrigerant in bilious 
fever and dysentery. 

AVER'SION, Aver'sio, Apot'rope, from aver- 
tere, [a and vertere,) 'to turn from.' Extreme 
repugnance for anything whatever. 

A VERSION (F.) also means, in therapeutics, 
the action of medicines which turn the afflux of 
fluids from one organ, and direct them toothers; 
being synonymous with counter-irritation, or 
rather, revuhsion or derit:ation. 

AYEliriN (F.). A disease of the mind, 
which, according to Lavoisien, renders the pa- 
tient obstinate and furious. 

A VEUGLE, Csecus. 

AVEUGLEMEXT, Caecitas — «. de Jour, 
Nyctalopia — a. de Nin't, Hemeralopia. 

sen resini/'era seu nit'idn, Bnn'tia ger'minans : 
called after Avicenna. Ord. Verbenaceae. The 
plant which affords the Jfahxc'ca Bean or Aiia- 
car'dium Orieiifd'/e of the Pharmacopoeias, i^cnfe- 
car'pKn Anncar'dium. The oil drawn from the 
bark of the fruit is a corrosive and active vesica- 
tory, but it is not used. 

AVICULA CIPRIA, Pastil— a. Margaritifera, 
see Pearl. 

AVOry, Avena. 

Springs are in the State of New York, on the 
eastern branch of the Genesee river, 18 miles 
from Rochester. There are three sulphureo-saline 
and one iodine spring. They are applicable to 
the same set of cases as the Sharon Springs. 

AVORTEMENT, Abortion— a. Provoqtie, see 

AYORTER, to Abort. 

AVORTIN, Abortion, 

AVORTON, Abortion. 

A VIJLSIO, Arrachement. 

AVULSION, Evulsion. 

small town in the department of Arriege, France; 
where there are several sulphurous springs, the 

temperature of which varies from 77° to 162° of 

^A'^, Axis— ri. de VCEil, Axis of the eye. 

pivot-joint. See Trochoid. 

A X e n K o r p e r, Corpuseula tactds. 

AXES, Intermittent, Paroxysm. 

AXILE BODIES, Corpuseula tactfls. 

AXIL'LA, Ala, Aseel'lft, Asuel'ltt, Ascifla, 
Accl'la, Cordis ennnicto'ritim, Male, Hyjio'mia, 
Fo'ccn axilla'rin, Mas'chale, Mas'elialis, (Sc. and 
Prov.) Oxtar, Oxter, (F.) Ainaclle. The cavity 
beneath the junction of the arm with the shoulder; 
the armpit ; (F.) Crcuxdel'Alnselfe. It is bounded, 
anteriorly, by a portion of the pectoralis major; 
posteriorly, by the latissimus dorsi. It is covered 
with hair, contains much areolar membrane, lym- 
phatic ganglions, important vessels and nerves, 
an<l numerous sebaceous follicles, furnishing an 
odorous secretion. In consequence of such secre- 
tion, the ancients called it evuincto'riitm cordis. 

AX'ILLARY, Maschnlim'us, (F.) Ax ilia ire, 
from axilla, 'the armpit.' Belonging to the 

AxiLLAliY Artery, Arte'ria nxilln'ris; a con- 
tinuation of the subclavian, extending from the 
passage of the latter between the scaleni muscles 
as far as the insertion of the pectoralis major, 
when it takes the name of lirndiial. 

Axillary Glands are lymphatic glands seated 
in the armpit; into which the lymphatic glands 
of the upper extremity open. 

Axillary Nervr, Cir'cumflex N., Scnp'nlo- 
hu'meral (Ch.), Nerf circonflcxe, Artiv.'ular nerve; 
arises from the posterior part of the brachial 
plexus, particularly from the last two cervical 
pairs and the first dorsal. It is chiefly distri- 
buted to the posterior margin of the deltoid. 

Axillary Vein, Venn Axilla' ris. Vena Sxba- 
la'ris. This vein corresponds vcith the artery; 
anterior to which it is situate. It is a continua- 
tion of the hracln(d veins ; and, at its termina- 
tion, assumes the name Suhclnviun. 

AXINE, Ascia. 

AXIRNACH. An Arabic word, used by Al- 
bucasis to designate a fatty tumour of the U|)per 
eyelid, observed particularly in children. 

AXIS, Axon, (F.) Axe. A right line which 
passes through the centre of a body. 

Axis, Cerebro-Spinal, see Encephalon — a. 
of the Cochlea, Modiolus — a. Cranio-Spinai, see 
Encephalon — a. Cylinder of Nerve, see Nerve 
fibre — a. Coeliac, Coeliac artery. 

Axis op the Eye, (F.) Axe de I'wil, called 
also, Vis'ual Axis and Optic Axis, is a right line, 
which falls perpendicularly on the eye, and passes 
through the centre of the pupil. 

Axis, H^mal, Aorta — a. Neural, see Ence- 

Axis, is also the second vertebra of the neck. 
Axon, EpistropJi'eiis, Epts'troplnis, Maschnrister t 
Ver'tebra Denta'ta, (F.) Essien. So called, be- 
cause it forms a kind of axis on which the head 
moves. Chaussier calls it Axoule, from ufuv, 
'axis,' and tccSoj, 'shape.' 

AXLETEETH, Molar teeth. 

AXOIDE, Axis— rt. Occipitale, Rectus capitis 
posticus major. 

AXOID'O-ATLOTD'EUS. -What refers to both 
the axis and atlas,,/o-«?/o,V/ff,)i articulation. 

The lesions of the Axoido-atloidean, are, 1. 
Fracture of the Proces'sus Dcnta'tus. 2. Rujiture 
of the odontoid ligament, and consequently pas- 
sage and pressure of the process behind the trans- 
verse ligament : and, ?,. The simultaneous rupturo 
of the odontoid and transverse ligaments. These 
different accidents are fatal. 

AXOIDO-ATLOIDIEX, Obliquus inferior 




AXO^r. Axis. 

AXONGE, Adeps prseparatus. 

AXUN(iE, Adeps prtcparatus. 

AXUNGIA, Pin«,'uod(i— a. Gadi, Oleum Jecoris 
Apclli — a. de Mumia, Marrow — a. Articuliiris, 
Synovia — a. Piscina Marina, Oleum Jecoris Aselli 
— a. Pnrcina, Adeps pracparatus. 

AYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AZALEA PROCUMBENS, Loiseleuria pro- 
cum liens. 

AZAKNET, Orpimcnt. 

AZAKL'M, A.siirum — a. Caharet, Asarum. 

AZEDARACH, Melia Azedaraeh. 

AZEDARACHA AMffiNA, Melia Azedarach. 

AZO'IC, Azn'lvun, same etymon as Azote. De- 
void of life. The "Azoic period" oi the geologist 
is tliiit before any living being appeared. 

AZOODYNA'MIA, from a, priv., ^w;?, 'life,' 
and huvaiiii, 'strength.' Privation or diminution 
of the vital powers. 

AZORES, CLIMATE OP. The Azores or 
Western Islands are said to afford one of the best 
examples of a mild, humid, eciuable climate, to 
be met with in the nortliern hemisphere. It is 
slightly colder and moister than that of Madeira, 
but even more ecjuable. Sir James Clark thinks, 
that a change from the Azores to Madeira, and 
thence to TeneriHe — ^one of the Canaries — would 
prove more beneficial to the phthisical valetudi- 
narian than a residence during the whole winter 
in any one of those islands. 

pec llydrargyri nitras — a. Ilydrargyroso — ammo- 
nicus, see llydrargyri oxydum cincreiim — a. 
Hydrargyrosus, Hydrargri nitras — a. Potassicus, 
Potassit; nitras. 

AZOTATE, Nitrate — a. d'Ai-fjent, Argcnti 
rifras — a. de Mcrcure, llydrargyri nitras — <u de 
J/ercure et d'nmmoniaqiie, see llydrargyri oxy- 
dum cinereum — a. de P/omb, Plumbi nitras — a. 
de Potdnne, Potassaj nitras. 

A'ZOTE, Azo'tiini, hom a, priv., and ^wr/, 'life.' 
N^i'ti'of/eii, Alcaliijene, Gus azo'tivuiii, Kitro- 
(jen'iuiii, Sejyton, (F.) Azote, A^itroi/cnc, Mofctte, 
Air f/at4, Air viciS, is a gas which is unfit for re- 
spiration. It is not positively deleterious, but 
proves fatal owing to the want of oxygen. It is 
one of the constituents of atmospheric air, and a 
distinguishing principle of animals. Vegetables 
have it not generally diffused, whilst, it is met 
with in most animal substances. It has been 
variously called, plilof/istic air, initiated air, &c. ; 
lias been looked upon as sedative, and recom- 
mendeil to be respired, when properly diluted, iu 
diseases of the chest. 

Azote, PnoToxmE of, Nitrogen, gaseous ox- 
ide of. 

AZOTE, Nitrogenized. 

AZOTED, Nitrogenized. 

AZOTE NESES, from azoic, and voaoq, 'dig- 
ease.' Diseases fancied to be occasion .i by the 
predominance of azote in the body.— Baumes. 

AZOTIC ACID, Nitric acid. 

AZOTIZED. Nitrogenized. 

AZOTURIA, see Urine. 


AZUR, Coral, Smalt. 

AZU'RIUM. A compound of two parts of 
mercury, one-third of sulphur, and one-fourth of 
sal ammoniac. — Albertus Magnus. 

AZ'\GES, Az'i/f/os, Az'yyoHS, sine ptiri, from 
a, priv., and ^uyof, 'equal.' Unequal. The 
iphenoid bone, because it has no fellow. Also, a 
process, Proceii'tiis Az'i/yes, Pontnim uplieiioida'le, 
projecting from under the middle and forepart 
of this bone. 

AZYGOS GANGLION, see Trisplanchnie 

ticular arteries of the skull. 

AzYGoiis Mi'scr,i:,^2_i/7()« IJ'vaJa, is the small 
muscle which occupies tiie sul)Stance of the uvula. 
— Morgagni. The name is, however, inappro- 
priate, as there are two distinct fasciculi, placed 
along-side each other, f(jrming the P<il'ato-8ta- 
plii//i'iii. Staphyli'iii or EpintuphijU'iii muscles, 
Sliiplii/li'ui me'dii of '\Vin^low. 



AzYGOnS Vein, Vena Azi/r/os, Veine Prilombo- 
thoracique — (Ch.), Vena nine j'ci, Vena pari 
carenn, (F.) Veinc sani Paire. This vein was so 
called by Galen. It forms a communication be- 
tween the V. cava inferior and V. cava nnperior, 
permitting the blood to pa.-is freely between the 
two. It rises from the vena cava inferior, or 
from one of the lumbar or renal veins, passes 
through the diajihragm, ascends along the spino 
to the right of the aorta and thoracic duet, and 
opens into the V. cava superior, where it pene- 
trates the pericardium. On the left side, the 
SEMI-Az'ygos, Left bron'chial or left snperior iu- 
tercon'tal rein, ]^cna demi-azipjon, V. henii-az'i/ga, 
Veine petite prelonibd-tlioraciqne — (Ch.), presents, 
in miniature, nearlv the siime arrangement. 

AZYMIA HUMORUxM, Crudity of Vhe hu- 

AZ'YMUS, from a, priv., and ^i'/i>/, 'leaven.' 
Azy nious bread is unfermented, unleavened bread. 
— Galen. 

AZZLE-TEETH, Molar teeth. 


BATiEURnE. Buttermilk. 

BA niL LEMEM T, Loquac ity. 


BABY. Infans. 

BAC'-VRIS, Bach'arin. A name given by the 
ancients to an ointment, described by Galen 
under the name Ointment of Lydia. It was 
sometimes employed in diseases of the womb. — 

BACC.E BERMUDENSES, Sapindus sapo- 
naria — b. seu (irana actes. see Sambucus ebulus 

b. Jujubiv. Jujube — b. Jlyrtillorum. see Vacoi- 

uium niyrtillus — b. Norlaudica;, Rubus arcticus 

— b. Piperis Glabri, see Piper Cubeba — b. Pisca- 
toriae, see Menispermum eocculus — b. Zizyphi, 
see Jujube. 

BACCAR, Bac'carin, Bnc'charix. An herb 
used by the ancients in their garlands, to destroy 
enchantment. Perhaps, the Diijilalis jjvrjturen. 
Some authors have erroneously thought it to be 
the Axarnm. 

BACCHARIS. Baccar.'ciIAms Hai-tmifo'lia, Gronndneltree ; Or- 
der, Composita3 ; indigenous; is used as a demul- 
cent to allay cough, in the form of decoction. 

BACCHI'A, from Bacchus, 'the god of wiue.' 




A name applied to the red or pimpled face of the 
drunkiird. See Gutta rosea. 

BACCHICA. Hcdera helix. 

BACCIV'OKOUS, nacciv'onis, (F.) Bacchorc, 
from bacca, ' a berry,' aud coro, ' I devour.' Liv- 
ing on berries. 

BACIIARIS, Biicaris. 

BACHELOR'S BUTTONS, see Strychnos nux 

BA CHER'S TOXIC PILLS, Pilul® ex Helle- 
boro et Myrrha. 

BACILE, Crithraum maritimum. 

Tunica .Jacobi. 

BACIL'LUM, BadUus, Bac'iilim, Bac'cnlus: 
'a stick.' This name has been applied to a kind 
of troch, composed of expectorants, and having 
the shape of a stick. Also, a suppository. Bncil- 
lum was used by the ancient chemists for several 
instruments of iron. 

BACK, Dorsum. ♦ 

BACK-ACH ROOT, Liatris. 

BACKBONE, Vertebral column. 


BACKSPHKNT, Vei-tebral column. 



BACOVE, Musa sapientum. 


BACULUS, Bacillum. 

BAD, Sick. 

is a town six miles from Vienna, Here are 12 
springs, containing carbonates of lime and mag- 
neisa; sulphates of lime, and magnesia, and 
soda; and chlorides of sodium and aluminum. 
The water is used in diseases of the skin, rheu- 
matism, &c. 

There are two other towns of the same name ; 
one in Suabia, and the other in Switzerland, 
about 12 miles from Ziirich, where are mineral 
springs. The waters of the last two are thermal 

Celebrated thermal springs, situate about a league 
from the high road to Basle and Frankfort. Their 
temperature varies from 1.30° to 154° Fahrenheit. 
Their situation is beautiful, and they are much 

B. is in Baden, about a league to the westward 
of Miillheim. The waters are thermal (87° of 
Fahr.), and contain carbonate of lime, sulphuret 
and chloride of calcium, and chloride of magne- 

BADER, Bather. 

BADIAGA. A kind of sponge, sold in Russia, 
the powder of which is said to take away the livid 
marks from blows and bruises in a fev? hours. 
Its nature is not understood. 

BADIANE, Illicium anisatum. 
BADJSIS, Walking. 
BADLY, Sick. 

r>ADUKKA. Capparis badukka. 
BAG, DUSTING, see Dusting-bag — b. of 
Waters, see Liquor Amnii. 
BAGEDIA, Pound. 
BAGGIE, Abdomen. 

OF. Bagneres-Adour is a small town in the de- 
partment of HantM Pyrenees, having a great 
number of mineral springs ; some, cold chaly- 
beates ; others, thermal salines j but the greatest 
part sulphureous and warm. 

BAGNERES DU LUCHOISr is a small town 
in the dep.'irtment of Hante Garonne, on the 
frontiers of Spain. It has been for a long time 

famou<! for its numerous sulphureous springs, 
the temperature of which is from 09° to 148° of 
Fahrenheit. . 

BAGNIGGE WELLS. A salino mineral sprmg 
of London, resembling the Epsom. 
BAGNIO, B<ii;/no!rc. 

Biignoles is a village in the department of Ornc. 
The water resembles that of Bur/neren dr Luchon, 
nols is a village, two leagues from Mendo, in the ' 
departniemt of Lozere. The waters are hydro- 
sulphurous and thermal: 109° Fahrenheit. 
BAGOAS, Castratus. 

BAOUENAUDIER, Colutea arboresccns. 
climate of the Bahamas is not considered to bo 
well adapted for consumptive patients, on ac- 
count of the rapid alternations of temperature, 
and the prevalence of winds, often of a dry, cold 
character. Still, the phthisical valetudinarians 
from most portions of the United States might 
derive advantage from a residence there during 
the winter months. The accommodations are 
not, however, good, or numerous. 

BAHEL, Cdlum'nea loiujifo'lio. A labiatcd 
plant of Malabar, whose leaves, bruised, are ap- 
plied as cataplasms to suppurating tumours. 
Bahel Schulli, Genista spinosa Indica. 
BAIGNEUB, Bather. 

BAIGNOIRE, (F.) Bap'iate'riwn, a Balliivrj 
tub, Bugnio, So'litim, Placi'na. The vessel or 
place in which bathing is performed. Bttii/nairc 
nctdnire, an eye-bath, — a small vessel for bathing 
the eyes. See Scaphium oculare. 

BAILEY'S SPRING, see Alabama, Mineral 
Waters of. 

BAILLON, Speculum oris. 
BAIN, Bath — &. Chaud, Bath, hot— &. Eke- 
fn'qne, Bath, electric, see Electricity — b. Entier, 
Bath, general — b. de Fanteuil, Bath, hip — h. 
Frais, Bath, tepid— 6. Froid, Bath, cold—?*. Hij- 
(jienique, see Bath — b. Mnrie, Bath, water — h. 
Jlledicinnl, Bath, medicated — b. de Jller, Bath, 
sea — i. de Pied, Bath, foot, Pediluvium — b. de 
Sable, Bath, san'd — b. de Sieye, Bath, hip — /). 
Simjile, see Bath — h. Tempere, Bath, tepid, B. 
Temperate — b. de 'fete, Bath, head — b. Tilde, 
Bath, tepid — b. T res froid, Bath, cold — h. de 
Vapeiir, Bath, vapour. 
BAINE, Bath. 

are situated at Plombieres, department of the 
Vosges. They are said to be saline and thermal 
by some; others deny them any medical pro- 

BAIRN. Infans. 
BALAMPULLI. Tamarindus. 
BAL'ANCEMENT, Gomponsa'tlon. from (F.) 
balance, 'a balance,' itself from bin, 'twice,' and 
lanx, 'a dish.' A law of teratogeny, as- main- 
tained by GeofFroy St. Hilaire, by which exube- 
rance of nutrition in one organ is supposed to 
involve, to a greater or less extent, the total or 
partial atrophy of some other, aud conversely. 
BALANDA, Facus Sylvatica. 
BALANISMUS, Suppository. 

BALANITIS, Gonorrhoea spuria. 


BALANOCASTANUM, Bunium Bulbocasta- 

BALANORRUAGIA, see Gonorrhea. 




BALANORRIKEA, Gonorrhoea spuria. 


BA'LAN'L'8, (iuXavo?, 'glans,' 'an acorn.' The 
glaus nonis. Hence, liulmioldennorrh'e' a, Blen- 
norrhiuii of the ghins ; and BalanvttH, Inflainma- 
tiiin of the {;hui8. Suppositories and pessaries 
were called liid'ani. 

B.u, \Ni;s, Glans, Suppository — b. Myrepsica, 
Guilaiidliia nioringa. 

laruc is a town in the depiirtuient of Ilerault, 
in France. The waters are saline and thermal. 
They contain carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, chlorides of sodium, cal- 
cium, and nia;;ne.sium, sulphate of lime, and a 
little iron. They are considered tonic, and are 
largely used. Their temperature is about 118° 

Balaiiuc Water, FACTiT"tous, (F.) Emi de 
JJalnnic ; Ar/mi Jlellilncu'iia is made of simple 
acidu/onn water (containing twice its hulk of car- 
bonic acid) i'^\xss; chloride of sodium, 3'''''; 
chloride of culciiim, gr. xviij ; chloride of mag- 
nesium, gr. Ivi; carbonate of majnesia, gr. j. 

BALATKO, Bambalio. 

BALAUSTINE FLOWERS, see Punica gra- 

BALBIS, (3uA/?if, 'a foundation.' Any oblong 
cavity. — Galen, lliiipocrates, in his treatise on 
the joints, gives the name Itulbito'dea to the ole- 
cranon cavity of the humerus. 

BALIUIS. (F.) /%i(e. One habitually affected 
with stiiinmci'ing. A stammerer. 

JiA L II I ■ TIKMENT, Balbuties. 

BALBU'TLES, Psellis'mns, Psel'lotes, Bla:'- 
titas, Jhtri/tj/os'sin, JDijsla'lia, 3fo(jila'lia, Ischo- 
pho'nia, liattaris'mus, Bamha'lia, IIcBsita'tio, 
Loque'ld hlat'iin, Tituba'tio Linijua, (F.) Jialbu- 
tiemcnl, Jlnjaicmeitt, Iihjo\)ime»t, Stuttering, 
Stammering, Hammering, (Prov.) Tntt'erimj, 
St, Viliis's Dituce of the Voice, (Sc. ) Hab'beriiuj, 
ffdbbliiii/. Also, vicious and incomplete pronun- 
ciation, in which almost all the consonants are 
replaced hy the letters B and Lj Traidis'miis. 

BALCllUS, Bdellium. 

BALU, Athri.x. 

BALDMONEY, TEthusa meum. 

BALDNESS, Alopecia, Calvities — b. Limited, 
Porrigo (localvans — b. Partial, Porrigo decalvans. 

B.\l>ENAS, Leviathan penis. 

BALIMBA(50. Hibiscus populous. 



BALL, I'ihi— b. of the Eye, Pupil. 


BALLI8TA, Astragalus. 

BALLOClv-GRASS, Orchis mascula. 

BALLON. Receiver. 

BA L L OXSKMKNT, Tympanites. 

BALLO'TA FOi'TIDA, B. vuhja'ris seu nigra, 
Marru'bitiin iiii/nim, Black Horehouwd, Stinking 
H., (F.) Jlarnibe noir. Ord. Labiatae. Sex. 
Syst. Didynaniia Gymnospermia. This plant is 
esteemed to be antispasmodic, resolvent, and 
detersive. (?) 

Ballota Lana'ta, Leonu'rus lana'tus, (F.) 
Ballote cotnnnense. A plant which grows in 
Siberia. The whole plant, with the exception of 
the root, has been recommended in dropsy, and 
in rheumatism and gout, as a diuretic. It is 
u.sually given iu decoction (5ss to ^j to f5viij 
of water). 

BALLOTE COTOXXEUSE, Ballota lanata. 

BALLOTTEMEXr, (F.) Mouvcncnt de Bal- 
lottenteut, Agita'tion, SuccnsSiion, Jieperciis'sion, 
means the motion impressed on the foetus in 
utero, by alternately pressing the uterus by 
means of the index finger of one hand intro- 
duced into the vagina; the other hand being 

applied on the abdomen. It is one of the least 
ecjuivocal signs of pregnancy. 

BALLS, DEER, Elaphomyces granulatus. 

BALLSTON SPA. This village is situate in 
Saratoga County, New York. The spring Sans 
Souci belongs to the class of Acidulous Chaly- 
beates. It contains iodide of sodium. There is 
also a sulphur spring. 

BAL.M, Melissa — b. Apple, Momordica bal- 
samina — b. Bastard, Melifis Melissophylluin — b. 
of Gilcad, Solomon's, see Tinctura cardauiomi — 
b. of Gilead, Poplar, Populus candicans — b. of 
Gilead tree, Dracocephalum Canariense — b. In- 
dian, Trillium latifolium — b. Mountain, Monarda 
coceinea — b. Red, Monarda eoccine.a — b. Scarlet 
rose, Monarda coceinea — b. Stinking, Hedeoma. 

BALMONY, Chelone glabra. 

BALNEA CCENOSA, Bone dcs eatix. 

BALNEARIUM, Hypocaustum. 



BALNEOG'RAPHY, Balneograph'ia, from 
Pa'Xavuov, 'a bath,' and ■yi><'(pvt 'a description.' 
A description of baths. 

BALNEOL'OGY, Bahicolng"ia, from 0a\a. 
vtiov, 'a bath,' and Aoyoj, 'a description.' A 
treatise on baths. 

BALNEOTHERAPI'A, from BaUrtiov, ' a 
bath,' and OtpnTrtia, 'treatment.' Treatment oi 
disease by baths. 

BALNEUM, Bath— b. Acidum, Bath, acid — 
b. Alkalinum, Bath, alkaline — b. Aniniale, Bath, 
animal — b. Antipsoricum, Bath, antipsoric — b. 
Anti-sypiiiliticum, Bath, antisy]>hilitic — b. Are- 
na), Bath, sand — b. Gclatinosum, Bath, gelatinous 
— b. Maria', Bath, water — b. Marinum, Bath, sea 
— b. Maris, Bath, water — b. Medicatum, Bath, 
medicated — b. Sulphuris, Bath, sulphur. 

BALSAM, JSal'samum, Barsamiin, Bol'esnn, 
Bel'eson, (F. ) B<nime. This name is given to 
natural vegetable substances, concrete or liquid, 
but very odorous, bitter, and piquant: composed 
of resin, benzoic acid, and sometimes of an es- 
sential oil — which allow benzoic acid to be dis- 
engaged l^y the action of heat; readily dissolved 
in volatile oil, alcohol, and ether; and, when 
treated with alkalies, afford a soluble benzoate, 
and throw down resin. We know of only five 
balsams — those of Peru, and Tolu, Benzoin, s<did 
Styrax or Storax, and liquid Styrax. (See those 
different words.) There are, however, many phar- 
maceutical preparations and resinous substances, 
possessed of a balsamic smell, to which the name 
baham has been given ; but they differ essentially 
in composition and jiroperties : hence the dis- 
tinction of balsams into natural and artificial. 
The natural balsams include the five before men- 
tioned ; the artificial the remainder. 

Balsam, Acots'tic, Bal'samum Amns'ticum, 
(F.) Baiime acoustique. A mixture of fixed and 
essential oils, sulphur, and tinctures of fetid 
gums. Used in eases of atonic deafness, dropped 
into the ear. The acoustic baham of Dr. Hugh 
Smith is made by mixing three drachms of ox- 
gall, with one drachm of balsam of Peru. 

Balsam, American, see Myroxylon Peruiferum 
— b. Anodyne, Bates's, Linimentum saponis et 

Balsam, Apoplec'tic, Bal'samum Apoplec'ti- 
cum, Bal'samus Apoplec'ticus, (F.) Baume Apo- 
plectique. A medicine composed of several bal- 
sams properly so called, resins, and volatile oils. 
It is of a stiff consistence, is Worn in ivory 
boxes about the person, and is smelled at in 
headaches, Ac. 

Balsam Apple, Momordica balsamina. 

Balsam op Ai(C(e'us, Bal'samum Arccei, Un- 
guen'tum El'etni, (F.) Baume d'Arcoeiis. A soft 
ointment; sometimes employed iu wounds, ul- 




cers, (fee. It is made by melting, with a gentle 
heat, two parts of mutton suet, one of lard, one 
and a half of turpentine, and as much resin. 

B A I.SAM, Calaba, see Fugara octandra. 

Balsam, Canada, see Pinus balsamea — b. Ca- 
nary, Dracocephalum Canariense — b. Capivi, 

Balsam of CARPA'TniA, B. Cdrpa'tJn'nn, BctV- 
snmuiii Uiirpnth'icum, (F.) Bdiniie de Curpatlile. 
The resin of the Piiiun Ceinbra, a tree, which 
grows in Switz.erland, Libya, and the Krapae 
mountains in Hungary. 

Balsam, Ciialy'bkatk, BaJ'scimiim Chah/hea'- 
tinii, (F.) Bimnie d'acier ou d'ai{/i()lles. A mix- 
ture of nitrate of iron, alcohol, and oil, prepared 
by dissolving needles in nitric acid. It was for- 
merly employed in friction in pains of the 

Balsam, Commander's, Tincturabenzoini cora- 
posita — b. for Cuts, Tinctura benz.oini coniposita. 

Balsam, Cor'dial, op Sennkr'tus, B<d'sa)i\iirn 
Cordia'le Seinier'ti, (F.) Bniune curdiale de Scn- 
ftert. A stimulant medicine, composed of the 
essential oils of citron, cloves, and cinnamon, of 
musk, and ambergris. Dose, 6 to 15 drops. 

Balsam of Fikuabras. A celebrated Spanish 
vulnerary balsam, mentioned by Cervantes ; the 
composition of which was oil, rosemary, salt, and 
■wine. (?) 

Balsam, Spiu'itiioiis, of Fioraventi, Bal'- 
samum Fioraceii'ti spiritiw'sum, (F.) Bauiiie <le 
Fiord venti spiritueiix. Different products of the 
distillation of resinous and balsamic substances, 
and of a number of aromatic substances, pre- 
viously macerated in alcohol, have been thus 
called. The Spirituous Balsam of Fioraventi, 
the only one now used in friction, in chronic 
rheumatism, is the first product of the distillation 
from a sand-bath. It is entirely alcoholic. The 
OiI)j B(dsfiiii of Fioraventi is obtained by re- 
moving the residue, and distilling it in an iron 
vessel, at a white heat. It has the appearance 
of a citrine-coloured oil. The Black Balsam of 
Fioraventi is the black oil, obtained when the 
temperature is sufficient to carbonize the sub- 
stances in the cucurbit. 

Balsam of Fir, see Pinus balsamea. 

Balsam of Fourcroy or of Labordk, (F.) 
Baume de Foitrcroy ou de Lahorde. A kind of 
liniment composed of aromatic plants, balsams, 
resins, aloes, turpentine, theriac, and olive oil. 
Used in chaps of the skin and nipples. 

Balsam, Friar's, Tinctura benzoini composita. 

Balsam of Genevieve, (F.) Baume de Gene- 
vieve. An ointment composed of wax, turpen- 
tine, oil, red saunders, and camphor. Used in 
contused wounds, gangrene. <fee. 

Balsam op Honey (Hill's). A tincture made 
of tola, hone// (aa Ibj) and spirit (a gallon). A 
pectoral, used in coughs. The committee of tlie 
New York College of Pharmacy recommend the 
following formula —(6'»m Benzoin, ^v, Bals. 
Tolut. f^\. Mellis gviij, Aloohol. Oiij— 'digest for 
10 days and filter). See Mel. 

Balsam of IIorehound (Ford's). A tincture 
of horehound, liquorice-root, camphor, opium, 
benzoin, dried squills, oil of aniseed, and honey. 
It h:is the same properties as the above. See 

Balsam. Hungarian, see Pinus mnghos. 

Bausam, Hypxot'ic, BaVsamum Hi/pnot' ieum, 
(F.) Banme Hiipnntique. A preparation of which 
opmtn, hyoscyamus, camphor, and some other 
sedative substances, form the basis. It is used 
externally in friction, to provoke sleep. 

Balsam, Hystrr'ic, BaCsamum Hyster'icum. 
(F_.) Baume Hi/sterique. A preparation made of 
opium, aloes, asafoetida, castor, distilled oils of 
rue, amber, &c. It is held to the nose, applied 

to the navel, or rubbed on the hypogastrium in 
hysterical cases. 

Balsam, Indian, see Myroxylon peruiferum. 

Balsam, Iod'i'RETted, Bal'snmum iodnrci'um, 
(F.) Banme hi/driodate, B. iodurf, Gclee coiitre 
le (/ottre. A balsam used in the way of friction, 
in goftre, at Lausanne, in Switzerland. It may 
be made as follows — animal soap, 00; iodide «/ 
potassium, 42 ; alcohol lit 85°, 500 ; essence of 
lemon, 4 parts. The iodide is dissolved in tlie 
alcohol, which is added to the soap melted in a 
water-bath. The whole is then filtered, and put 
into bottles. 

Balsam op Leictoure, of Condom or Vince- 
GTTEUE, Bal'samum Lectoren'se. A strongly sti- 
mulant and aromatic mixture of camphor, saffron 
nuisk, and ambergris, dissolved in essential oils. 
The ancients burnt it for the purpose of purifying 
the air of a chamber, when infected with a dis- 
agreeable odour. 

Balsam op Life of Hopf'mann, Bal'snmum 
Vitcp, Jlojfmau'ni, (F.) Baume de Vie d'llnffmnnw, 
A tincture, composed of essential oils and amber- 
gris, enjplo.yed internally and externally as a 
stimulant. A mixture of essential oils without 
alcohol constitutes the Saxon Balsam, Bal'samum 
apoplcc'ticum, B. aromat' icum. B. ccpJitd'ivnm, B, 
Saxoii'icnm, B. nervi'num, B. ScHEliZERl, B. Sto- 
mach'icum. Employed in friction as a stimulant. 

Balsam op Life, Decoetuin aloes compositum 
— b. of Life, Turlington's, see Tinctura benzoini 

Balsam op Locatel'li or Lttcatel'li, Bal'- 
samum Lueatel'li, (F.) Baume de Lucatel. A sort 
of ointment, composed of wax, oil, turpentine, 
sherry, and balsam of Peru, coloured with red 
saunders. It was once administered in pulmo- 
nary consumption. 

Balsam of Mecca, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— b. Mexican, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. 
Natural, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

Balsam, Green, op Mktz, Bal'samum Vir'ide 
Mcten'sium, B. Vir'ide, (F.) Banme vert de Metz, 
Baume de Fenillct, JInile verte, O'leum o.r'i/r/j 
cupri vir'ide. This is composed of several fi.\c(l 
oils, holding, in solution, subcarbonate of copper, 
sulphate of zinc, turpentine, aloes, and the es- 
sential oils of cloves and juniper. It is green 
and caustic, and is employed to hasten the cica- 
trization of atonic ulcers. 

Balsam, Nkphrit'ic, op Fuller, Bal'sumnm 
Nephril'icum Fulleri. A liquid medicine, com- 
posed of oils, resins, and balsams, which have 
experienced an incipient state of carbonization 
from concentrated sulphuric acid. It was f;iven 
in the dose of 15 to 30 drops in certain affections 
of the kidneys. 

Balsam, Nervoi:s, Bal'saynum Nervi'nnm, 
(F. ) Banme ncrvin ou nerval. A kind of oint- 
ment, composed of fatty bodies, volatile oils, 
balsam of Peru, camphor, Ac. It is employed 
in friction in cases of sprains and rheumatic 

Balsam, Paralyt'io, op Mynsiciit. A sort 
of liniment or soft mixture of the essential oils 
of different aromatic plants, oils of turpentine 
and amber. — Lomery. 

Balsam of Parei'ra rrava, Bal'samum Pn- 
rei'rcp. brarcp.. A soft mixture of balsam, resin, 
muriate of ammonia, and powder of the root of 
Pareira brnvn. It is given internally, to excite 
the urinary secretion. 

Balsam, Peruvian, see Myroxylon Peruife- 
rum— b. of Peru, red, see Tohlifera bnlsamum- 
b. of Peru, white, see Myroxvlon Peruiferum. 

Balsam OF Rackasi'ra or of Rak.vsi'ri. Thia 
.substance is of a yellowish-brown colour; semi- 
transparent; fragile, when dry, but softenin? by 
heat; adhering to the teeth, when chewed. U 




has a smell similar to that of the Balsam of Tolu, 
and is slightly bitter. It is brought from India 
in gourd shells, and has been employed in dis- 
eases of the urinary and genital organs, especially 
in gonorrhoea. 

Balsam, Riga. Prepared from the shoots of 
the Scotch Fir, macerated in spirit of wine. In- 
terualli/, stimulant and diuretic; exteriiaUy, a 
vulnerary. Sec Pinus Cembra. 

Balsam oi' Satiiiin, Ihil'samum Sntur'ni. A 
solution of acetate of lead in spirit of turpentine, 
concentrated by evaporation ; to which camphor 
has been added. This balsam was applied to 
hii.'ten the cicntrization of wounds. 

Balsam of tub Samar'itan, (F.) Bnvme du 
Sdiiiiin'tain. A sort of liniment, prepared by 
boiling together, at a gentle heat, equal parts of 
wine and oil. It is said to have been the oint- 
ment used by the Samaritan of the Gospel to 
cure a patient covered with ulcers. 

Balsam, Saxox, Balsam of Life of Hoffmann. 

Balsam op Sulphur, lial'sKmum Snl'phnrls, 
(F.) Ihtnme de Sou/re. A solution of suljjhur in 
oil. — fi. sulph. aniHn'tiim, (F.) 11. de Son/re anise. 
A solution of sulphur in essential oil of aniseed; 
given as a carminative. — B. Sidph. succiiia'tum, 
(F.) li. de S'lufre aiiccinf. A solution of sulphur 
in oil of amber. — D. Sidphnrin terehinthitid'tum, 
Common Dutch Dropn, (P.) B. de Son/re terebin- 
(hinS. A solution of sulphur in essential oil of 
turpentine, administered as a diuretic. — The Bal- 
sum of Sulphur of IluLANH is a solution of sul- 
phur in linseed oil or nut oil. 

Balsam op Sym'patiiv, Bahamvm Sympath'- 
iciini, (F.) Bnume de Si/iiipirithlc. A balsam, used 
in the days when sympathetic influence was 
strongly believed in. It was comjiosed of the 
raspings of a human skull, blood, and human fat, 
an(l vs'iis applied to the instrument which had 
inflicted the wound. 

Balsam, Tiiibaut's. A tincture of myrrh, 
allies, dragon's blood, flowers of St. John's wort, 
and Chio turpentine. Internal/^, diuretic ; exter- 
ncdly, vulnerary. 

Balsam of Toltt, see Toluifera Balsamum. 

Balsam, TuaNQUIL, Bal'samnm tranquil'him 
seu triniqiii'l'ldnf, (F.) B. tranqiiiUe. A liquid 
medicine employed, externally, in the shape of 
friction : it is prepnred by macerating and boil- 
ing, in olive oil, narcotic and poisonous plants, — 
belladonna, mandragora, hyoscyamus, A-,c. — and 
afterwards infusing, in the filtered decoction, 
different aromatic plants. It was employed as 
an anodyne. 

BAi.sAsr, TiinKKY, Dracocephalum Canariense 
— b. Turlington's, see Tinctura Benzoini com- 

Balsam of Trn'pENTrNE, iJntch Drops, BoV- 
snnnim Terebiii'lhitia. Obtained by distilling 
oil of turpentine in a glass retort, until a red 
balsam is left. It possesses the properties of the 

Balsam, Vervain's, Tinctura Benzoini com- 

]] VLSAM. Vri/.\nRAI!Y. OF Mixdere'ri's, Bnl'- 
S'linxm vuhirrn'riiiiii Miiidere' ri, (F.) B. vid>i4- 
niire de MixnERKR. A kind of liniment, com- 
posed of turpentine, resin elemi, oil of St. J(din's 
wort, and wax. Employed in friction, and as a 
dressing to wounds. 

Balsam Weed, Iinpatiens fulva. 

B\isAM Wo("\n. Tinctura Benzoini eomposita. 

Amyris (Jileadensis — b. Myrrba, see Myrrha. 


BALSAMELiEON, Myroxylon Perniferum. 

BALSA.M'IC, Btdiam'icus, (F.) Balsamiqtie, 
from Pa\iTaiiov, 'balsam.' Possessing the quali- 

ties of balsams. Bahamie odour: — a sweet, 
faint, and slightly nauseous smell. Buhctmio 
snlstance: — one resembling the balsams in pro- 

fera — h. de la Mecqite, Amyris ojjobalsamum. 

BALSAMINA, Momord'ic<i, balsamina. 

BALSAMINE, Motuordica balsamina. 

BALSAM/QUE. Balsamic. 

BALSAMITA FCEMIXEA. Achillea ageratum 
— b. Major, Tanacetum balsamita — b. Mas, Ta- 
nacetum balsamita. 

Balsami'ta Suav'eolens, B. odora'la sen 
maris, Jfentha Stiraceu'ieii seu Bonia'na. Ord. 
Compositse. Sex. St/at. Syngenesia Polyganiia 
superflua. A plant, common in the south of 
France, and cultivated in the gardens; where it 
bears the names of Menthe eoq ou rumaine, Grand 
hdume, Butane eoq ou Costus des Jardina. Its 
smell is strong and aromatic, and taste hot. It 
is used for the same purposes as cansey, i. e. as a 
stimulant, vermifuge, &c. 

Balsamita Suaveolens, Tanacetum balsa- 
mita — b. Vulgaris, Tanacetum balsamita. 


BALSAMUM, see Balsam, Amyris opobalsa- 
muin— b. ^gyptiacum, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— b. Album, see Myroxylon Peruiferuui — b. 
Alijini, Dracocephaluni Canariense — b. Alpini, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Anodynum, l^ini- 
mentuni saponis et opii — b. Apuplecticum, Balsam 
of life of liull'mann — b. Aromatieum, Balsam of 
life of Iloinnann — b. Asiaticum, see Amyris opo- 
balsamum — b. liraziliense. Copaiba — b. Calaba, 
see i'agara octandra — b. Canadense, see Pinus 
balsamea — b. Catholicum, Tinctura benzoini cum- 
posita — b. Cephalicum, Balsam of life of Hoff- 
mann — h. Copaibae, Copaiba — b. Genuinuin anti- 
quorum, see Amyris oi)obalsnmiim — b. Hyperici 
simplex, see Hypericum perforatum — b. lodure- 
tum, Balsam, iodurettcd — b. Judaicum, see Amy- 
ris opobalsamum — b. Libani, see Pinus cembra — 
b. Maria:, see Fagara octandra — b. e Mecca, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — b. Mercuriale, Ungucn- 
tum hydrargyri nitratis — b. Xerviiium, Balsam 
of life of Hotfmann — b. Nucista', see Myristica — 
b. Opodeldoc, Linimentum saponis camphoratum 
b. Ophthalmicum rubrum, Ungncntum hydrar- 
gyri nitrico-oxydi — b. Persicum, Tinctura benzo- 
ini eomposita — b. Peruvianum, see Myroxylon 
Peruiferum — b. Saturninum, Unguentum plumbi 
superacctatis — b. Scherzeri, Balsam of life of 
Hoffmann — b. Stomachicum, Balsam of life of 
Hoffmann — b. Styracis, Styrax — b. Stjracis ben- 
zoini, Benjamin — b. Succini, see Succinum — b. 
Sulphuris Barbadense, Petroleum sulphuratum — 
b. Sulphuris simplex, Oleum sulphuratum — b. 
Syriacum, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Toluta- 
tanum, see Toluifera balsamum — b. Tranquillans 
seu Tranquillura, Balsam, tranquil — b. Trauma- 
ticum, Tinctura benzoini eomposita — b. Univer- 
sale, Unguentum plumbi superacctatis — b. Viride, 
Balsam, green, of Metz ; see Fasrara octandra. 

BALSAMUS, Balsam.— b. Palustris, Mentha 

BALSEM, Amyris opobalsamum. 
BAMBA, Bamboo. 
BAMBALIA, Balbuties. 

BAMBA'LIO, n<n,i'Lalo, Bala'tm, from /?a/(- 
Patito, 'I speak inarticulately.' One who stam- 
mers or lisfis. or utters inarticulate sounds. Ac- 
cording to KiiAi'SE, one wbo sjicaks as if he bad 
pap in his mouth, or as if his tongue were para- 

' BAMBOO, (F.) Bamhou, Bamhxt. Earn. Gra- 
mineaj. Sc.r. Syst. Hexandiia Monogynia. The 
J'oung shoots of Bandios arundinn'cea, Ariin'((o 
hamboa, Bumhu'sa arundinu'een, and of Baniboa 
vcrticilla'ta, contain a saccharine pith, of wuich 



the people of both the Indies are very fond. 
They arc soiuctiincs made into a picitle. 

Verticillata, Bamboo. 


BAMIX MOSCIfATA, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

BAMMA, from Parrno, 'I plunge,' 'a paint; a 
dj'e.' Anciently, liquids were so called, in which 
certain liodies were plunged, to moisten or soften 
them. In the case of tea, for instance, into which 
bread is dipped, the tea would be tlie bamma. 

BANAN.A, Musa sapientum. 

BANAXIER, Musa sapientum. 

BANAUSIA, Charlatanry. 


BAN GAL, (F.) One who has deformed legs. 
It includes the vahjue, compernis, and varus, 
which ?ee. 

BAXCnOCHE, (E.) A vulgar epithet for a 
rickety individual. 

BAND, PRIMITIVE, see Nerve Fibre. 

BAN'DAGE, JDfsnia, Syndea'mua, Hi/podea'- 
mis, Hiip'xlenma, Hypodes' iiinH, (the last three 
signify yiroperly an under bandage.) A hinder, 
from Sax. bindan, 'to bind.' This word, with 
the French, is generally used to express the me- 
thodieril application of rollers, compresses, <fec., 
Ban'dar/iiir), Syit'desi's, to fix an apparatus upon 
any part, — corresponding to the words delic/a'tio, 
fancHi'tiojfdni-ia'rnm appUca'tio, epid'csis. With 
us the noan is usually applied to the result of tlie 
application, or to the bandage itself; — a sense in 
which the French employ the word Bmide. Ban- 
dages are simple or compound. The simple ban- 
dage is fqiKil, if the turns are applied circularly 
above each other; unequal, if the turns are not 
accuratelj' applied upon each other. If each turn 
of the bandage be only covered one-third, it 
forms the doloire of the French; if the edges 
touch only slightly, it is the mou&ne ; if the turns 
are very oblique and separated, it is the spiral 
or creeping, (F.) rampant ; if folded upon each 
other, it is termed the reversed, (F.) renverse. 
By uniting various kinds of batidaging, we have 
the com pound, ; and these compound bandages 
have received various names expressive of their 
figure, or of the parts to which they are applied, 
as capli-trum, sjiica, &c. Bandages are divided, 
also, as regards their uses, into \uiiting, dividing, 
retaining, e.rpeUing, co7npreBsing, d;c. 

Bandage or Roller, Fas'cia, TcB'nia, Epides'- 
mos, 17/i'ci(/»m, the i?«iif/e of the French. It may 
be made of linen, flannel, or other stuff capable 
of offering a certain resistance. The two extre- 
mities of a bandage are called tails, (F.) chefs, 
and the rolled part is termed its head, (F.) globe. 
If rolled at both extremities, it is called a, double- 
headed roller or bandage, (F.) Bande d deux 

EEES, Bandage of separate strips. 

Bandage, Body, 3Ianti'le, (F.) Bandage de 
Corpis, is used for fixing dressings, &c., to the 
trunk. It is formed of a towel, napkin, or some 
large compress, folded three or four times; the 
extremities of which are fastened by pins. This 
is again fixed by means of the scapulanj bandage, 
which is nothing more than an ordinary ban- 
dage, stitched to the anterior and middle part 
of the na[.kin, passing over the clavicles and 
behind the head, to be attached to the back part 
of the napkin. 

Bandage, Compound, see Bandage. 

Bandage, Compressing, or Roller, Fascia 
compressi'va seu cnnvolu'ta, (F.) Jlandiige com- 
pressive ou roule, is the simple roller with one 
head; and is employed in cases of ulcers, varices. 

Ac, of the limbs. "Whenever this roller is applied 
to the lower i)art of the limbs, it is carried up- 
wards by the doloire and reversed methods above 

Bandage, Compressive, see Bandage, com- 
pressing — b. de Corps, see Bandage — b. Dividin,:,', 
see Band.age — b. Dirisif, Dividing bandage — 4. 
udi.r-huit Chefs, Bandage, eighteen-tailcd— I. ni 
Doloire, Doloire — b. Double-headed, see Band- 

Bandage, Eighteen-tailed, Fas'cia octnd'- 
ecim capit'ibu3, (F.) Bandage d dix-hnit clicfi. 
This bandage is made of a longitudinal portion 
of a common roller; and with a sufficient num- 
ber of transverse pieces or tails, to cover as luucl, 
of the part as is requisite. It is a very useful 
bandage, inasmuch as it can be undone without 
disturbing the part. 

Bandage, Expelling, see Bandage. 

Bandage, Galen's, B. for the Poor, Fns'cin 
Gale'ni seu Pau'pernm, (F.) IJandage de Gulien 
ou des Pauvres, Ga'lea, is a kind of cucnlhis or 
hood, (F.) Couvrechef, divided into three parts 
on each side; of which Galen had given a de- 
scription. See Cancer Galeni. 

Bandage of Genoa, Bandage of Theden— b. 
Hernial, see Truss — b. Immovable, Apparatus, 

Bandage, In'gdinal, Fas'cia ingvina'lis. A 
bandage for keeping dressings applied to the 
groin. It consists of a cincture, to which is at- 
tached a triangular compress, adapted for cover- 
ing the groin. To the lower extremity of this, 
one or two bandages are attached, which pass 
under the thigh, and are fixed to the posterior 
part of the cincture. This bandage may be either 
simple or double. 

Other bandages will be found described under 
their various names. 

Galen's — b. Permanent, Apparatus, immovable— 
b. of the Poor, see Bandage, Galen's, and Cancer 
Galeni — b. Rampant, see Bandage — b. Rcnverno, 
see Bandage — b. Roule, see Bandage — b. of Scul- 
tetus, Bandage of separate strips. 

Bandage op separate Strips, or B. of Scfl- 
TE'tuS, Fas'cia fusci'olis separa'tim dispos'itit 
seu Sculte'ti, (F.) Bandage d bandeleites separies 
ou de Scultet. This is formed of linen strips, 
each capable of surrounding once and a half the 
part to which they have to be applied, and placed 
upon each other, so as to cover successively one- 
third of their width. It is used chiefly for frac- 
tures, requiring frequent dressing. 

Bandage, Simple, see Bandage. 

Bandage of Tiieden, B. of Gcnga. A band- 
age employed, at times, in brachial aneurism, 
which commences at the fingers, aud extends to 
the axilla. 

Bandage, Under, Hypodesmis — b. Unequal, 
see Bandage — b. Unissant, Uniting bandage— b. 
Uniting, see Bandage, and Uniting bandage. 

BANDAGING, see Bandage— b. Doctrine of, 

BAN'DAGIST, (F.) Bandngiste. One whose 
business it is to make bandages, and especially 
those for hernia. 

BANDE, Bandage. The word nande,\n 
anatomy, is used by the French for various nar- 
row, flat, and elongated expansions. 

BANDE A DEUX GLOBES, see Bandage. 

BANDE D'HISlIODORE, a kind of bandage 
for supporting the mammae. 

BANDEAU, (P.) A kind of simple bandage, 
which consists of a piece of cloth, folded four 
times, and applied round the head. There i« 
also the Bandeau ou Mouchoir en triangle or 


1 17 


trinucfulnr hnndage, a kind of couvrcchef, made 
of a ji((u:irc piece of cloth, or of a handkerchief, 
foMed diiiffoiialiy, and aii[)licd round the head. 

liASDELBTTE, (F.) Diminutive of Bauda 
FtiHciolii, Tceiiiolii, V^itta ; a narrow bandage, 
sliip, or fillet. Also Taenia semicircularis. 

Small strips, covered with a glutinous plaster. 
VillOB ai/i/liiliiiaii'len. See Agghitinant. 

liANDELETTES DECOUP^S, are strips 
of linen, notched on one ed<;e, and covered, on 
one side, with ointment. They are apjjlied to 
wounds to prevent the lint from sticking, and the 
laceration of the cicatrix. 

nia seniieirculiuris — h. den Comes d'ammon, Corjius 
finibriiitum — b. dea Eminences pyriformes. Taenia 
semicircularis — h. de V llippocanipe, Corpora fim- 

BANDURA, Nepentha destillatoria. 

BANDY-LEGUED, Cnemoscoliosis. 

BANE15ER11Y, Actaja spicata. 

BANGUE, BhaiHj, B,nuj, Bancji or Benf], Sed- 
hee, Siihjce. Adanson believes this to be the Ne- 
penthes of the ancients. The largest leaves and 
capsules without the stalks of Can'nahis In'diea, 
(F.) Chnnvre Indien, Indinn hemp, probably iden- 
tical with G. snticn. Family, Urticeae. Sex. Syst. 
Dioecia Pentandria. The leaves and flowers uf 
Cannabis are narcotic and astringent. They are 
chewed and smoked. The seeds, mixed with 
opium, areca, and sugar, produce a kind of intoxi- 
cation, and are used for this purpose by the peo- 
ple of India. An alcoholic extract of the plant, 
Churnis — Extrae'tuni Can'nahis (Ph. U. S.) — has 
been used in India, and since then in Europe and 
in this country, as a narcotic and anti-convulsive, 
in the dose of from half a grain to ten or more. 
It requires, however, great caution in its adminis- 
stration. The pure resin — CannaOine, Iluscliis- 
vhine — is active in the dose of two-thirds of a 

The dried plant, which has flowered, and from 
which the resin has not been removed, called 
Gniijah, Ganjah, Guaza, and Giiazah, Ilaschisch, 
Ilaschich, Haehiseh, Hashish, or Chaschisch, of 
the Arabs, consists of the tops and tender parts 
only of the plant, collected immediately after in- 
florescence, and simply dried. 

BANICA. Piistinaca sativa, 

BANILAS, Vanilla. 

BANILLA, Vanilla. 

BANILLOES, Vanilla. 

in Brazil and the Antilles, pusses for a powerful 
sudorific, and an antidote to the poison of ser- 

niea — b. Speciosa, Costus. 

Bannieres is a village in Quercy, diocess of Ca- 
liors, France. The waters are probably chaly- 
beate. They are celebrated in amenorrhoja, ca- 
chexia, jaundice, Ac. 

BA'OHAli, Adaneo'nia digita'ta, of Africa. 
Nat. Old. Bombaeeae. One of the largest pro- 
ductions of the vegetable kingdom. Its fruit is 
called, in the country', Pain de singe. The pulp 
is sourish, and agreeable to eat; and a refreshing 
drink is made from it, which is used in fevers. 
Prospero .\lpini and Dr. L. Frank think that the 
Terra Lemnia was prepared, in Egypt, from the 
pulp. All the parts of the Baobab abound in 
mucilage. The bark has been given as a substi- 
tute for cinchona. 

BAPTISIA LEUCANTIIA, eeo Sophora tinc- 
toria — b. Tincforin, Sophora tinctoria. 

BAPTORRH(EA, see Gonorrhoea. 

BA RA Q UETTE {¥.). A name given by Ra- 
sous, physician at Nismes, in France, to a catar- 
rhal epidemy, which occurred there in 17til. See 

BARATIIRON, Jnniperus sabina. 


BARB A, Beard — b. Aaronis, Arum maculatura 
— b. Caprae, Spiraea ulmaria — b. Hirci, Tragopo- 
gon — b. .Jovis, Sempervivum tectorum. 

BARBADOES, see West Indies — b. Leg, see 

BARBAREA, Erysimum barbarca— b. Stricta, 
Erysimum barbarea. 

BARBAROS'SiE PIL'ULJE, Barlnros' sa' s 
Pills. An ancient composition of quicksilver, 
rhubarb, diagridium, musk, <fec. It was the first 
internal mercurial medicine which obtained any 
real credit. 

BAR BE, Beard — b. de Bone, Tragopogon. 

BARBEAU, Centaurea cyanus, Cyanus sege- 

]5ARBER-CHIRUR'GE0iSrS. A Corporation 
of London, instituted by King Edward IV. The 
barbers were separated from the surgeons, by IS 
Geo. II., c. 15; and the latter were erected into a 
Royal College of Surgi ons at the commencement 
of the present century. 

BARBERS, ARMY, see Bathers. 

These mineral waters are half a league from 
Nantes. They contain carbonic acid, chlorides 
of magnesium and sodium, sulphate of magnesia, 
carbonates of magnesia, lime, and iron. They are 
used as chalybeates. 

BARBERRY, Oxycantha Galeni — b. Ameri- 
can, see Oxycantha Galeni. 

BARRIERS. A variety of paralysis chiefly 
prevalent in India ; and by many considered to 
be the same as Beriberi. Beriberi is commonly 
an acute disease. Barbiers is generally chrouie. 


BAR-BONE, Pubis, OS. 

BARBOTINE, Artemisia Santonica. 

BARBULA CAPRINA, Spiraea ulmaria. 



BARDANA, Arctium lappa — b. Minor, Xan- 


Bar6gcs is a village in the department of llautes 
Pyrfinees, near which are several springs. They 
are sulphureous and thermal, the heat varying 
from 85° to 112° Fahrenheit. They contain chlo- 
rides of magnesium and sodium, sulphates of mag- 
nesia and lime, carbonate of lime, sulphur, Ac. 
These springs have long enjoyed a high reputa- 
tion, and are daily advised in cutaneous and 
scrofulous afiections, Ac. A nitrogenized matter 
was first found in these waters, and afterwards in 
other sulphureous springs, to which Longchamp 
gave the name Baregine. 

Factitious BAitiifJES Watep. Aqua Baregi- 
nen'sis seu Baretginen'sis, (F.) Eaii de Bareges, 
is made by adding hydrosnlphnretted water, f^iv, 
to pnre water, f^^xvijss, carbonate of soda. gr. xvj, 
chloride of sodium, gr. ss. Bottle closely. 

BAREGINE, see Bareges. 

BAIKJADA, Convolvulus pes capra. 

BARGOU. An alimentary preparation formed 
of ground oats, boiled to a proper consistence with 

BART6LIA. Soda. 

BARII CHLORIDUM, Baryta, muriate of— 
b. lodidum, Baryta, hydriodate of. 




BARILLA, Soda— b. Alicant, Soda — b. Car- 
tha;;enn, Soda— b. Turkey, Soda, 


BA'RIUM, Ba'ri/tim, Baryt'tum, Pluto'ninm, 
from (}apvs, ' heavy.' The metallic base of ba- 
ryta, so called from the great deusity of its com- 

Bauium, CnLORiDE OF, Baryta, muriate of — 
b. Chlonire de. Baryta, muriate of— b. lodatuni, 
and Iodide of, Baryta, hydriodate of— b. Protox- 
ide of, Baryta. 

BARK, "Ciuchona— b. Arica, see Cincbonae cor- 
difoliic cortex — b. Ash, see Cinchona — b. Bitter, 
Pincl-:neya pubens — b. Bogota, see Cinchona — b. 
Calisaya', Cinchonae nordifoliie cortex — b. Cali- 
Sfiya, spurious, see Cinchonae cordifoliae cortex — 
b.Ciirabaya. see Cinchonas cordifoliae cortex — b. 
Caribajan, Cinchonae Caribajse cortex— b. Cartha- 
genn, see Cinchona — b. Coquettn, see Cinchona 

— b. Crown, Cinchonae lancifoliae cortex — b. 
Cusco, see Cinchonae cordifoliae cortex — b. 
Doom, Sassy-bark— b. Elk, Magnolia glauca— b. 
Essential salt of, see Cinchona — b. Florida, 
Pinckneya pubens — b. Fusagasuga, see Cinchona 

— b. Georgia, Pinckneya pubens — b. Gray, see 
Cinchona — b. lluinnilies, see Cinchona — b. Hua- 
nueo, see Cinchona — b. Indian, Magnolia glauca 

— b. Iron, see Kino — b. Jesuit's, Cinchona — b. 
Jaen, see Cinchona — b. Lima, see Cinchona — b. 
Loxa, Cinchonre lancifolia3 cortex — b. Pale, Cin- 
chonas lancifolio} cortex — b. Maraeaybo, see Cin- 
chona — b. Ordeal, Snssy-bark — b. Peruvian, Ciu- 
chona — b. Pitaya, Cinchontx; Caribaeae cortex, see 
Cinchona — b. Red, Cinchona; oblongifolias cortex 
■ — b. Royal, Cinchonas cordifoliic cortex — b. of St. 
Ann, see Cinchonae cordifoliae cortex — b. Saint 
Lucia, Cinchonae Cariba>a3 cortex — b. Santa Mar- 
tha, see Cinchona — b. Sassy, Sassy-bark — b. 
Seven, Hydrangea arborescens — b. Silver, see 
Cinchona — b. Yellow, Cinchona; cordifoliae corte-x. 


BARLEY-BREE, Cerevisia. 

BAitLf;Y-ConN, Cerevisia. 

Barley, Pearl, see Uordeum — b. Scotch, 

Baulkv-Water, Decoctum hordei. 

BARM, Yest. 

BARN, Infans. 

is not far from London. The water is of a purg- 
ing quality, like that of Epsom, and about half 
the strength. 

BAROMACROM'ETER, PcBdobaromacrom'- 
eter, Pcp.dont'eter, from /Jupoj, ' weight,' /jiaKpos, 
'long,' and fitTpov, 'measure.' An instrument 
invented by Stein to indicate the length and 
weight of a nl^w-born infant. 

BAROM'ETER, JUironcop'ium, Ba'roscope, 
from /3apoj, ' weight,' and fiirpov, 'measure.' (F.) 
Bainnietre. An instrument which measures the 
weight of the air. A certain degree of density 
in this medium is necessary for health. When 
we ascend high mountains, great inconvenience 
is experienced, owing to the diminished density. 
Changes of this character are indicated by the 
Barometer or weather-glass. 

BA'ROS, ISapoi, 'heaviness.' Employed by the 
Greek physicians to designate the feeling of las- 
situde and lieaviness observable in many diseases. 
■ — Hippocrates. Galen. 

BAROSCOPE, Barometer. 

BAROSMA CRENATA, Diosma crcnata. 

JiAROTE, Baryta. 

BAROTES SAI.ITUS, Baryta, muriate of. 
BAHRAS, see Pinus sylvcstris. 
a small town, six leagues from Strasburg. The 
waters are thermal, and contain much iron, cal- 
careous salt, Ac. They are diuretic and tonic. 

BARRE (F.), Barrnre, Vara, 'a bar.' A pro- 
jection or prolongiition of the symphysis pubis, 
—a deformity rendering delivery difficult. 

BARREE (F.). A term applied, in Franco, to 
a female whose pelvis has the deformity described 
under Barre. 

BARRES (DENTS,), Barred Tetth. Tho 
molar teeth, when the roots are spread or tortu- 
ous, so that they cinnot be extracted without 
being broken ; or without a portion of the alveo- 
lar arch being removed. 

BARREN, Sterile. 
BARRENNESS, Sterilitas. 
BARROS, Terra Portugallica. 
BARRURE, Barre. 

BARTON'S FRACTURE, see Fracture of the 
Radius, Barton's. 

BARYCOCCALON, Datura stramonium. 
BARYCOITA, Baryecoi.i. 

BARYECOI'A, Baryvoi'ta, Bradyecoi'n, Pn. 
racit'i-ia obtu'sa, BIsccoi'a, Dy^eca^'a, Andi'tm 
dilfic'ilis, A. f/ravis, A. iintnliiii'tt(s, Ohinidl'tlo, 
Ubaiidi'tKH, Hi/pocdplio'sis, llijjjuehyru'nh, (F.) 
jDnrcte d' Oreille, VyKerec, from jSapuj, 'heavy,' 
and aKori, ' hearing.' Hardness of hearing, in- 
complete deafness. See Cophosis, and Deafness. 
BARY^GLOSSIA, Balbuties, Baryphonia. 
BARYI HYDRAS lODATI, Baryta, hydrio- 
date of. 

BARY^LALIA, Baryphonia. 
BARY'OD'YNE, from (iapvi, 'heavy,' and oJui'ij, 
'pain.' A dull, heavy pain. 

BARYPHO'NIA, Bari/rjlun's!", BaryWUa.Lo- 
que'la impc.di'ta, from jSapvi, 'heavy,' and 0aini, 
'voice.' Difficulty of voice or speech. 
BARYPICRON, Artemisia abrotanum. 
BARYSOMATIA, Polysarcia adiposa. 
BARYSOMATICA, Polysarcia adiposa. 
BARY'TA, from fiapvi, 'heavy,' jiapvTm, 
'weight.' Terra pondero'sa, Bary'tcs, I'mtux'- 
ide of Ba'riwn, Heavy Earth, Ponderous Earth, 
(F.) Baryte, Barote, Terre pesante. This earth 
and its soluble salts are all highly corrosive poi- 
sons. It is never employed in medicine in the 
pure state. AVhen externally applied, it is caus- 
tic, like potassa and soda. 

Bary'ta, Carbonate of. Baryta Car'honas, 
(Ph. U.S.), (F.) Carbonate de Baryte, Craie haro- 
ti'que, is only used officinally to obtain the mu- 

Baryta, Hydri'odatb of, Barytm Hydri'odns, 
Baryta Hydn'od'ica, Eydraa Baryi Joda'ti : — 
(in the dry state. Iodide of Barium, Barii Jvd'- 
idum, Ba'rium lodu'tum,) has been given in scro- 
fulous and similar morbid conditions. It may 
be administered internally in the dose of one- 
eighth of a grain three or four times a day, and 
be applied externally to scrofulous swellings, in 
the form of ointment, (gr. iv to ^j of lard.) 
Baryta IIvdiuodica, Baryta, hydriodate of. 
Baryta, Mu'riate or IlYDROcaLORATE of, 
Bary'tcB mu'rias, Chlo'ride of Ba'rium, Ba'ril 
Cfilo'ridnm (Ph. U. S.), Chlo'ruret of Ba'rhm, 
Terra pondero'sa aali'ta seu mnria'ta, Sal mnri- 
at'icnm barot'icum, Baro'ten sali'tus, (F.) Chlo- 
rure de barium, is the combination chiefly used. 
The Muriate of Baryta may be formed as follows: 
Baryt. Carbon, in frustulis, ftj ; Aeiil. Miiriol. 
f^xij ; Aquee Oiij. Mix the acid with the water, 
and gradually add the Carbonate of Baryta. To- 
ward the close of the effervescence, apply a gentle 
heat, and, when the action has ceased, filter the 
liquor, and boil it down so that Crystals may form 
as it cools. — Ph. U. S. 

It is given in the form of the Soln'tio Muria'tit 

BarytcB, Liquor Barii Chlo'ridi, Ph. U.S., Aqva 

,1 barytm muria'tis, (F.) Solution de Muriate (It 


1 1 9 


BirytK, (Mitnnte of Unryla, one part; distilled 
witter, liirue parts,) iind is emplnyed in scrofulous 
casi's, worms, and cutaneous diseases. Exter- 
nally, to fungous ulcers and to specks on the 

]Jaiivta, Sulphate of, liarytm eulphns, (F.) 
Siilfitle (le llnryte, is used in pliannacy, like the 
carl)oiiiite, to olitain the chloride of barium. 

IJ.viiVT.E CvitnoNAS, IJaryta, carbonate of — b. 
Hydiiodas, ]5;iryta, hydriodate <jf — b. Murias, 
Baryta, muriate of — b. sulphas, Baryta, sulphate 

JLMt VTE, Baryta — 1>. O'lrlxmate de, Baryta, 
carU<.n;it(! of — li. xnl/'nle de, Baryta, sulphate of. 

liARYTII MIA. Melancholy. 

BAKVTIUM. Barium. 

BARYUM. Barium. 

B AS- FOND, see Urinary Bladder. 

JiAS-LASSll Stoekins, laced. 

JiAS- Vh'NTIiE, Abdomen. 

BASAAL. Tlie name of an Indian tree, the 
decoction of whose leaves, in water, with ginger, 
is useii iis a garble in diseases of the fauces. The 
kernels of the fruit are vermifuge. 

B ASANASTllA'tiALA, from 5.i,r«vof, 'torture,' 
and uffrpuyaXof, ' the astragalus.' Pain in the ankle 
joint: gout in the foot. 

BASAXIS'MQS, from 0iiaavt^civ, 'to explore.' 
'A touch-stone.' Investigation or examination. 
— IIipi)ocrates, Galen. 

BASE, fidHin, from fiaivta, 'I proceed,' ' I rest,' 
'I support myself.' Tliat which serves as a foun- 
dation or support. That which enters, as a prin- 
cipal matter, into a mixture or combination. In 
anatomy, it is employed in the former sense, as 
Base of til e Crnniam, Base of the Brain — Basis 
sen Pari men' turn cere'bri ; Base of a process, &c., 
Bane of the heart — Basis vel coro'na cordis. In 
dentistry, it means a metallic, ivory, or hii)[)o])o- 
tamus plate, which is used as a support for arti- 
ficial teeth. In the art of prescribing, Basis is 
the chief substance which enters into a compound 

BASE-BORN, Illegitimate. 

BASE M EXT MEMBRANE, see Membrane, 

B AS r AT 10, Coition. 

BASIATOR, Orbicularis oris. 

BASIlj, BUSH, Ocymum caryophyllatum — b. 
Citron, Ocymum basilicum — b. Common, Ocy- 
mum basilioum — b. Small, Ocymum caryophyl- 
latum — b. Wild, Chenopodium vulgare — b. Wild, 
Cunila mariana — b. Wild, Pycuauthemum iu- 

BASILAl), see Basilar Aspect. 
BAS'ILAR, Basiia'ris, Bas'ilary, (F.) Basi- 
laire. That which belongs to the base, from 
jiaaii, 'base.' This name has been given to seve- 
ral parts, which seem to serve as basis to others. 
The sacrum and sphenoid have been so called. 

Basilaii Autkky, a. basiia'ris seu cervica'lis, 
(F.) Artirc ou Tronc basilaire, A. mesncephalique 
(Ch.) The union of the two vertebral arteries. 
It ascends along the middle groove on the infe- 
rior surface of the tuber, and is suj)ported, be- 
neath, by the Fossa basilaris. It terminates in 
the posterior cerebral arteries. 

Basilar Asi'kct. Au aspect towards the base 
of the head. — Barclay. Basilad is used adverb- 
ially by the same writer to signify ' towards the 
basilar aspect.' 

Basilau Fossa, (F.) Gouttiire ou Fosse basi- 
laire, is the upper surface of the basilary process, 
— so called because it is channeled like a Fossa 
or Gitlter. The Tuber annulare rests upon it. 

Basilar Pkocess, Proccs'sns basiia'ris ossis 
oceip'itis seu cnueifor'mis ossis occip'itis, (F.) j 
Aonphi/se Baxilaire, J'rolongemeiit sous-occipital, 
Ca'neijorin Process, is the bony projection, formed I 

by the inferior angle of the os occipitis, which is 
articulated with the sphenoid. 

Basilar Sinus, Sinus transversus. 
Basilar Surface, (F.) Surface basilaire, is 
the inferior surface of the process. It is covered 
by the mucous membrane of the pharynx. 

Basilar Vertebra. The last vertebra of the 

BASIL'IC, Basil'icHS, (F.) Basilique, from 
ffaatXiKos, 'royal.' This name was given, by the 
ancients, to parts which they conceived to play 
an important part in the animal economy. 

Basilic Vein, Vena hasil'ica seu cn'biti inte'- 
rior, (F.) Veine Basilique, Veine cubitule cuta- 
nee of Chaussier. This vein is one of those on 
which the operation of bloodletting is performed. 
It is situate at the internal part of the fold of the 
elbow, in front of the humeral artery, and is 
formed by the anterior and posterior cubital 
veins, and by the median basilic. It terminates, 
in the arm-pit, in the axillary vein. The an- 
cients thought, that the basilic of the right arm 
had some connexion with the liver, and hence 
they called it hepatic. The vein of the left arm, 
for a similar reason, they called splenic. The 
Median Basilic Vein, (F.) Veine mediune basi- 
lique, is one of the branches of the preceding 
vein. It joins the median cephalic at an acute 
angle, or rather by a transverse branch, and re- 
ceives some branches of the deep railial and cu- 
bital veins, and a considerable subcutaneous vein 
— the common median. 

BASILfO COMMUN, Ocymum basilicum— 6. 
Saiivaife, qrand, Chenopodium vulgare. 

BASIL'ICON, Basil'icum. ',' or of 
great virtue. An ointment, composed of yellow 
wax, black pitch, and resin, of each one part, 
olive oil, four parts. Hence it was called Uu- 
ijuen'tum Tetraphar' maenm, (rtrpa'/mp/ia/cu, 'four 
drugs.') — Celsus. Scribonius Largus. 

I3ASILIC0N, Basilicum, of the Parisian Codex, 
is the Onijuent de Poix et de Oire. In most Phar- 
macopoeias, it is represented by the Un'jiten'tniii 
or Cera'tum Resi'ncB. It is used as a stimulating 
ointment. See Ceratum Resinae, and Unguen- 
tum Resinae Nigrce. 

BASILICUM, Basilicon, Ocymum Basilicum 
— b. Citratum, Ocymum basilicum — b. Majus, 
Ocymum basilicum. 
BASILIQUE, Basilic. 
BASILISCUS, Syphilis. 


BASIC -CEE'ATO-GLOSSUS, from jiauii, 
'base,' Kcpas, 'cornu,' and yXuiaaa, 'tongue.' A 
narje given to a part of the hyoglossus, which is 
inserted into the cornu of the os hyoides and base 
of the tongue. 

BASIOCES'TRUM, from ^aan, 'the base,' 
and Ktcrpa, 'a dart.' An instrument for opening 
the head of the foetus in utero, invented by Mes- 
ler, a German. 

BA'SIO-GLOS'SUS, ITi/pselof/los'sus, Ifyoba- 
sioijlossus, Ypseloglos'sus, from fiuaig, 'base,' and 
yXutiaaa, ' the tongue.' A name formerly given to 
the portion of the hyoglossus which is inserted 
into the base of the os hyoides. — Riolan, Thomas 
Bartholiue. See Lingual Muscle. 

BASIC PHARYNG.E'US, from fiair,;, 'base,' 
and tpapvy^, 'the pharynx.' A name given tc 
some fibres of the constrictor pharyngis medius. 
— Winslow. 

BASIS, see Prescription — b. Cerebri, Base of 
the Bfain — b. Cordis, Radix cordis — b. Corporis, 

BASSI-COL'ICA. Name of a medicine com- 
posed of aromatics and honey. — Scribonius 
BASSIA BUTYRACEA, see Spirit, (Arrack.) 




JiASSiy, Pelvis — h. Oculaire, Scnphium ocu- 

BASSIXER, Fove're, to foment. 

JiAi^^i/XBT, Pelvis of the kiduey, Rtanunculus 

BAS'SORA, GUSL A gum, obtained from a 
plant unknown, which came oriijinally from the 
neighbourhood of Bassora, on the Gulf of Per- 
sia, whence its name. It is in irregularly shaped 
l)ieces, wiiite or yellow, and intermediate in its 
transparency between gum Arabic and gum tra- 
gacanth. Only a small portion is soluble in 
water. The insoluble portion is a peculiar prin- 
ciple, called Bfisnorin. It is not used in medi- 
cine ; but bassorin enters into the composition of 
several substances. 

BASSORIN, see Bassora gum. 

BASSU'OOD, Tilia Americana. 

BASTARD, Illegitimate. 

BATA. Musa Parndisiaca. 

BATATA DE PURGA. The Brasilian and 
commercial name of the purgative, feculent, and 
gum-resinous roots of two plants of the family 
Convolvulaceae, the one called Jeliciicu, Mechoa- 
cmi, Cuiivul' villus mechoacnii'iia, the Piploste'qln 
Piso'iii'i of Von Martins; the other Cuiii-oV vi'ilua 
opsrcula'tHH, the Ipomoi'a seu Piptostc'ijia oper- 
cithi'tii of Von Martins. 

BATA'TAS. The inhabitants of Peru gave 
this ap))ellation to several tuberous roots, espe- 
cially to Convolvulus Bdtalds or Sircet Potato. 
Our word, Potato, comes from this. See Solanum 

tor^l Drops, Bateman's. 

BATERION, Bathron. 

BATES'S ALUM WATER, Liquor aluminis 
compositus — b. Anodyne Balsam. Linimentum 
saponis et opii — b. Camphorated Water, Lotion, 
camphorated, of Bates— b. CoUyrium, see Lotion, 
camphorated, of Bates. 

BATH. Anglo-Saxon baS, Jial'neum, Bala- 
ne'iiiii, lictliiie'nm, Loutroit, (Old Eng.) Baiiie, 
(F.) Bain. Immersion, or stay, for a longer or 
shorter duration, of the whole or a part of the 
body, in some medium, as water. Act of plung- 
ing into a liquid, sand, or other substance, in 
■which it is the custom to bathe, Plniuje Bath. 
Also, the vessel in which the water is put for 
bathing. Also, a public or private establishment 
for bathing. The common water-bath, used for 
hygienic as well as for therapeutical purposes, is 
the Biiiii simple ou liijgieniqne of the French. 

In J'linrnidci/, a vessel, placed over a fire, and 
filled with any substance, into which another 
vessel is placed, containing matters for digestion, 
evaporation, or distillation. 

Bath, Acid, Bal'neiim ac'ldum {Acid, murint. 
Ibij ; Aqua eong. Ixvi. One half, one third, or 
one fourth the quantity of acid is more frequently 

Bath, Acid, Scott's, see Scott's Acid Bath — 
b. Air, hot, see Bath, hot — b. Air, warm, see 
Bath, hot. 

Bath, Al'kaljsk, Bal'iieum alknli'nmn. This 
uiay be madeof half a pound or a pound of ;)Pff)-;- 
ash or of carbonate of soda, to sixty-six gallons 
of water. 

Bath, An'imal, Balneum anima'le, consists in 
wrapping an animal recently killed, or its skin, 
around the bodj', or some part of it. 

Bath, Axtipsob'ic, Bal'tieum aiitipso'ricnm. 
Recommended in cases of itch and other cuta- 
neous diseases. {Potass, sulphuret. ^^iv, Aoucb 
cong. Ix.) 

Bath, Antisyphilit'ic, Bal'tieum nntisi/philit'- 
icum, Mercu'rial bath. Made by dissolving from 
two drachms to an ounce of the corrosive chloride 
of mercury iu sixty gallons of water. 

Bath, Aum, Brachilu'vium. A bath for the arm. 
Bath, Cold, see Bath, hot — b. Cool, see Bath, 


Bath, Dnv, is one made of ashes, salt, sand, 
Ac. Tlie ancients used these frequently for the- 
rapeutical purposes. 

Bath, Eauth, Arenatio. 

Bath, Elec'tuic, (F.) Bain ilecfriqne, consists 
in placing the person upon nn insulated stool, 
communicating, by a metallic wire, with the 
principal conductor of the electrical machine in 
action. The Electric Bath i)roduces general ex- 
citement of all the functions, and especially of 
the circulation and secretions. 

Bath, Foot, Pedilu'vium, (F.) Bain de Pied, 
a bath for the feet. 

Bath, Gelat'inohs, Bal'neum gelatino'sum. 
Made by dissolving two pounds of gelatin or f/lue 
in a gallon of water. A gelatino-suljihurous bath 
may be made by adding a pound of glue, previ- 
ously dissolved in water, to the suli)hur bath. 

Bath, Genkual, (F.) Bain Entier, is one in 
which the whole body is plunged, except the 
head; in contradistinction to the ^:)a;(ui/ bath, 
Merobalaue' um, J/erobal'ueum. 

Bath, Half, Semien'pium, Excalhis'ma, In- 
ces'sin, Lices'sns, is one adapted for half the body. 
One, for receiving only the hips or extremities, is 
also so called. 

The Sitz-bath, (G.) Sitzbad, of the hydropa- 
thists is a tub of cold water, in which the patient 
sits for a variable period. 

Bath, Hand, Mauulu'vium, (F.) Rain de Jlain 
ou 3launhive, is a bath for the hands. 

Bath, Head, CopitiUi'vinm, (F.) Bain de Tele 
ou Capitiluve, a bath for the head. 

Bath, Hip, Coxwlu'vium, (F.) Bain de Fan- 
teuil. Bain de Sieye, is one in which the lower 
part of the trunk and upper part of the thighs 
are immersed. 

Bath, Hot, Balneum Cal'idum, Zcstolu'sia, 
(F.) Bain chaud, is a bath, the temperature of 
which is 98° and upwards; the Waum Bath 
from 92° to 98°; the Tepid Bath, (F.) Bain 
Tiede, Balneum tep'idiim. from 85° to 92° ; the 
Tempekate Bath, (F.) Bain tewpere. from 75° 
to 86°; the Cool Bath, (F.) Bain fraia, from 
fi()° to 75°; the Cold Bath, Balneum friy'idum, 
Fricjida'rium, (P.) Bain froid, Bain tres froid, 
(of some,) from 30° to 60°; and the Vapour 
B__ATn, Balneum vapo'rin, (F.) Bain de Vapeur, 
Etuvc Hnmide, from 100° to L'30°, and upwards. 
See Vaporarium. A Warm Am Bath, or Uoi 
Am Bath, consists of air the temperature of 
which is raised. 

Bath, Med'icated, Balneum Medica'tum, (F.) 
Bain medicinal, is a bath, formed of decoctions 
or infusions of vegetable substances, or of any 
ingredient, introduced into the water for thera- 
peutical purposes. 

Bath, Mehcurial, Bath, antisvphilitic — b. 
Nitro-nmriatie acid, Scott's acid bath— b. Plun^-e, 
see Bath. ° 

Bath, Sand, Balneum Are'ncB, (F.) Bain de 
Sable, consists of a vessel filled with sand, and 
placed over the fire. Into this vessel, the one is 
put which contains the substance to be evapo- 
rated. See Psanimismus. 

Bath, Sea, Balneum mari'num, (F.) Bain de 
mer. A sea-water bath. 

Bath, Shower, Implu'vinm, Hydroco'nium, is 
one in which the water is made to fall like a 
shower on the bodv. See Douche. 
Bath, Sitz, see Bath, half. 
Bath, Steam, may be formed by introducing 
steam into a properly closed vessel in place of 
water, as in the water bath. 
Bath, Succes'sio.x, TransW'ion bath. A term 




applied to the rapid succession or transition from 
a cold to a warm or hot bath, or conversely. — 

Bath. SijM'IIUii, Jlttl'iioin, SHlph'uHs, Snlphu- 
rett'vd hiilh. A liath much used in psora, and 
other i-hninic cutaneous ali'ections. It may be 
composed of two ounces of diluted sulphuric acid, 
and eif;ht ounces of sulphuret of potassium added 
to each l)ath; or simply of the sulphuret of po- 

]iATfr, SiTLi'HUR Vapour, see Sulphurous Acid. 

Bath, Ta.v. An astrinfrent bath, prepared, at 
times, by boiling two or three hiindfuls of ground 
oak-bark, — such as is used by tanners — in two 
or three quarts of water, for half an hour, and 
then adding the decoction to the water of the 

Bath, Tkmpeuate, see Bath, hot — b. Tepid, 
see Bath, hot — 1). Transition, Bath, succession — 
b. Va[»uur, see Bath, hot, and Vaporarium — b. 
AViirm, see Bath, hot. 

]5ati(, Watkr, Jiiiliieum Mar'icB seu 3fana, 
(F.) Biiia Marie, in chemistry, consists of a ves- 
sel filled with boiling water, or salt water, in 
which the vessel is placed, that contains the sub- 
stance to be evaporated. 

Bathing is much employed in the treatment of 
disease. The cold bath, esivecially the cold sea 
Itath, is a sedative and indirect tonic : the warm 
bath a relaxant; and the hot bath a stimulant. 

The regular use of the bath is extremely con- 
ducive to health ; but if too much indulged in, it 
is apt t'> produce injurious cfTects. 

BATH ALUM SB 11 IN OS, see Virginia, 
Mineral Waters of. 

Jiiithi/'nifp, vel /idd'izce, Aqitcp So/in, Aqnoi Bad' 
u/iia;. Celel)riited thermal springs at Bath, in 
Eughmd. They contain but little impregnation, 
and are chicliy indebted to their temperature, 
from 112° to 117° Fahrenheit, for their utility. 
The main ingredients are sulphate of lime, chlo- 
ride of sodium, sulphate of soda, carbonate of 
liine, protoxide of iron, free carbonic acid and 

These waters are employed in the most hete- 
rogeneous cases; and are serviceable where the 
siuiple thermal springs are indicated, as in rheu- 
matism, paralysis, Ac. 

BATH SFUINGS, in Berkley County, Vir- 
ginia, is a mild carbonated water: temperature 
7.'>° Fahr. It is a useful bath in cutaneous affec- 
tions, and is said to contain some of the salts of 
lime and magnesia. 

BA'TIIKH, same etymon; Bobiea'riits, Buli- 
vcft'lor, Iliilneii'tor, (F.) liitiijuniir. One who 
bathes. Anciently, the name was given to those 
that administered baths to the diseased, — the 
J^tuvivies of the French. At the present day, in 
reuiote districts in tJermany, the country people 
call tlioir medical practitioners Biider or 'bath- 
men,' and Feldscheeren or 'army barbers.' 

BATIllNtJ, sec Bath. 

BATHMIS, BnihiiiM, 'base, support.' The 
cavitv of a bone, which receives the eminence of 
another; and especially the two Foiicties at the 
inferior extremity of the humerus into which the 
processes of the" ulna are received, during the 
flexion and extension of the fore-arm. 

BATIIROX. Itiithrum Hi/tpuc'rcitit, Scnynnvm 
Hi/>/)nr'rati>i. Bute' lion, 'a stop, a ladder.' (F.) 
liaiip d'/Uppoi-role. An instrument, used for the 
extension of a limb, in cases of fracture or luxa- 
tion. The description of it is to\ind in Galen, 
Orib'asins, nml Scultetus, with a figure. 


BAT I A, Retort. 


tisse is three leagues from Clermont, in France. 
The water is tepid, and contains subcarbonate 
and sulphate of soda, sulphates of lime and iron, 
muriate of magnesia, and carbonate of lime. 

BATOS, Ruhus Idfcus. 


BATTALISM'US, Jiattaris'mtis, from iJarrapi- 
^tiv, 'to stammer.' Balbuties. Stammering with 
incapacity to jironounce the R. 

BATT'ALUS, liat'tarus, same etjmon. A 
stauMuerer, a stutterer. 

BATTARISMUS, Battalismus. 

BATTARUS, Battalus. 

BATTATA VIRGINIANA, Solanum tubero- 

Coenr fwt'd. 

BA TTEMEXT, Pulsation. 

Baudricourt is a town of France, two leagues 
and a half from Mirecourt. The waters are sul- 

BAiDRUCHES, Condom. 

BAUIUN, VALVE OF. Vnlve of Tui/pirs, 
V. of Fallo'pius, V. of Vauo'lius, ll'eo-coecal 
Vidve, Hco-colic Valve, VaI'vida Ilei, Val'viila 
Coli, V. CcF.ei, Oper'culiim Itei,, Sphiueter Ihi, 
This name is given to the valve situate trans- 
versely at the place where the ileum opens into 
the ca'cum, and which Bauhin says he discovered 
at Paris, in 1759. It had, however, been pre- 
viously described by several anatomists; as by 
Vidus Vidius, Postius, &c. 

BAUiME, Balsam — h. d'Achr, Balsam, chaly- 
beate — h. d'Aitjiii/len, Balsam, chalybeate — b. 
d' Ain^rique, see Toluifera balsamum — h. Apo- 
plectiqiic. Balsam, apoplectic — b. d'Arra;un, At- 
caeus, balsam of; see, also. Balsam of Arcteus — 
b. d'Arcpus, Unguentum elemi compositum — 
h. Aromatiqne, Balsam, aromatic — b. Uenjoin, 
Benjamin — /;. Blatic, see Amyris Oj)obalsanium — 
b. du Breeil, Copaiba — b. de Canada, see Pinus 
balsamea — 6. de CanneUe, Laurus cinnamomum 
— b. de Carpatliie, Balsam of Carpathia — b. de 
Ciirtha(jcne, see Toluifera balsamum — b. de Con- 
ntniitinople blanc, see Amyris opobalsamum — h. 
de Oopaliu, Copaiba — b. Cordiale de Sennerte, 
Balsam, cordial, of Scnnertus — b. d'Ean d, feniUea 
ridees, Mentha crispa — 6. de FeuiUet, Balsam, 
green, of Metz — b. de Fiirraventi spiriluense, Bal- 
sam, sjurituous, of Fioraventi — h. de Fonrrroy ou 
de Labnrde, Balsam of Fourcroy or Laborde — b. 
des Fiinerai/lex, Asphaltum — b. de Galaad, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — b. de (roicr/e re, Balsam 
of Genevieve — i. Grand, Tanacetura balsainita 
— 6, du Grand Caire, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— 6. Hi/driodatf, Balsam, iodurette<l — b. Hi/pnoti- 
que. Balsam, Hj'pnotic — b. Hi/slerique, Balsam, 
hysteric — b. des hides, see Myroxylon Peruiferum 
— 6. lodiire. Balsam, ioduretted — b. den Jardiim, 
Mentha viridis — b. c/e ii/ctf/e/. Balsam, Lucatelli's 
— b. }farie, see Fagara octandra — b. de Mirmie, As- 
phaltum — b. Nervin, Balsam, nervous — b. de 
Peroii, SCO Myroxylon Pernifcrnni — b. de Saint- 
Thonias, see 'J'ohiif'era balsamum — b. du Saniari- 
tain, Balsam of the Samaritan — b. Saxon, Balsam, 
Saxon — 6. de Siaifre, Balsam of sulphur — b. de 
Si/nipathie, Balsam of sympathy — b. Tranipiille, 
Balsam, tranquil — b. de To/ii. see Toluifera 
balsamum — b. de Van Hie, Vanilla — b. Vert, see 
Fagara octandra — b. Vert de Jfctz. Balsam, green, 
of Met7 — b. de Vie d'Hnffinnnn. Balsam of Life, 
of llofl'mann — b. de 17e de Leiierre, Tinct\ira 
aloes eomposita — b. Vrai, see Amyris opobal- 
samum — b. Vidnernirede J/i'ii(/ere»-, Ijalsam, vul- 
nerary, of Mindererus. 

B ATM I EH, Bahamier. 

BAURAC. (Arab.) Nitre, or salt in general. 
From this word comes Borax. 


12 2 


is a village four leagues from Roye, department of 
Soinine. The waters are strongly chalybeate. 

BAVE(F.), S'lli'rn ex nreflueiis, ,Sj)inna, Hit- 
mor Stdi'vus. Frothj', thick, viscid saliva, issu- 
ing; from the mouth. This drivelling or nlorer- 
ing, we see in children, old people, <fec. The term 
is, al^o, applied to the frothy liquid, which flows 
from the mouth of rabid animals. Sauvages uses 
it synonymously with salivation. 

JiAVI'JUX, lifiveime, an epithet, occasionally 
applied by the French to the spongy flesh of a 
wound, which suppurates, and exhibits but little 
tendency to heal. 

BAY, CASTOR, Magnolia glauca— b. Rose, 
Rhododendron ehrj-sanlhemum — b. Rose, Ame- 
rican, Rhododendron maximum — b. Sweet, Lau- 
rus — b. \Vhite, Magnolia glauca and M. macro- 

BDALSIS, Sucking. 
BDELLA, Ilirudo. 

BDEL'LIUM, }fi))-rlm imperfec'ta, Bolchnn, 
Madelcoit, BahhiiK. A gumfe.*in, brought from 
the Levant and India, and supposed to be ob- 
tained from a species of Ami/ris, little known. 
It is solid, brittle, of a deep brown colour, of an 
acrid and hitter taste, and sweet odour. It was 
much vaunted by the ancients, but is now little 
employed. Two ditferent gum-resins have been 
in the shops, distinguished by the names fiidinu 
and A/rirnn bdellinm. I)r. Royle was informed 
that tiie former was obtained from Arn'yris Coni- 
niiph'uf)!, growing in India and Madagascar. 
The latter is said to be from Heudelo'tia A/ri- 
ca'iin, which srovvs in Senegal. 

BDELLOM'ETER, from iSScUa, 'a leech,' 
(/Ji^fXXu), ' I suck,') and utrpov, ' measure.' An in- 
strument, proposed as a substitute for the leech ; 
inasmuch as we can tell the quantity of blood ob- 
tained by it, whilst we cannot by the leech. It 
consists of a cupping-glass, to which a scarifica- 
tor and exhausting syringe are attached. 
BDESMA, Flatulence. 
BDOLUS, Fart. 

BE.\D TREE, Melia Ar.ednraeh. 
BEAL. Phlegmon, to Suppurate. 
BKALING, Pregnant. 

BEAN, CARTHA(JENA, Ilahilla de Cartha- 
gena — b. Egyptian, Nymphrea nehitnbo — b. 
French, Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Garden, com- 
mon, Vicia faba — b. Indian, Catalpa — b. Kidney, 
Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Malacca, Avicennia to- 
mentosa^b. Pontic, Nympha;a nelumbo — b. 
Red, Abrus prccatorius — b. Sacred, Nelurabium 
luteura — b. St. Ignatius's, Ignatia amara — b. 
Tonka, Dipteri.x odorata — b. Tree, Cutalpa — b. 
Tree, white, Crataegus aria. 

Br.\n Trkfou. Tree, see Cytisine. 
BKARBERRY, Arbutus uva ursi. 
BEARD. (Sax.) bear>». (G.) Bart., Barhn, 
Piiijon, Geiiei'ou, Barbi'tiiim, (F.) Bnrbe. The 
hair which covers a part of the cheek, the lips, 
and chin of the male sex, at the age of jiuberty. 

BEAR'S BREECH. Acanthus mol!i.^_b. Foot, 
Ilellcborus foetidus — h. Fright, Hoptallon gra- 
veolens — b. Grass, Yucca filamentosa — b. VVhor- 
tleberrv. Arbutus uva ursi. 

BE.\R\VEEI), Veratrura viride. 
B EASTINGS, Cidostrum. 
BEASTLINGS. Colostrum. 
Beaugency is a quarter of a league from Orleans. 
The waters contain subcarbonate of soda, iron, 
magnesia, and lime. They arc tonic and aperient. 

BEAUMONT ROOT, Gillonia trifoliata. 

waters are chalybeate. Beauvais is in Picardio, 

BEAVER, Castor fiber— b. Wood, Celtis occi- 
dentalis. Magnolia glauca — b. Tree, Magnolia 
glauca, M. niacrophylhi. 

BEBEERIA. see Bebeeru. 

BEliEERINE, see Bebeeru. 

BEBEERU, Sipeeri. A tree of Briti.'^h Gui- 
ana, which yields two alkalies — Bithcciine, Dibve'. 
n'lia, lithce' rill ur Bibcriiie, iind Sipreriiitf ; and 
in its properties resemldcs the Cinchonas. It haa 
been referred to Ncctmi'dnt Jindiei. Ord. Lau- 
rinea;. The timber of the tree is known to ship- 
builders by tlie name bibiru or greev-heiu-t. The 
Sidph<tte <if Ihbcerifi has been employed in inter- 
mittents. Warburg'n Fever Diopn, Tinetii'rn tin- 
tifebri'iia Wnrbnv'tji, an empirical antipcriodic 
preparation, have l)y some been considered to he 
a tincture of the seeds of the Bebeeru, Imt thij is 

BEO, (F.) Bostriim, Beak. This name has been 
applied t" various parts. 

BEC UORACOIDIEX, (F.) Cor'acoid beak, is 
the end of the coracoid process. 

BEG BE CUILLER, Hmn'nhis. An instru- 
raent used for the extraction of balls. It consists 
of an iron rod, 7 or 8 inches long, having at one 
extremity a small cavity, into which the ball is 
received to be drawn outwards. See Cochleari- 

BEO DE GRUE MUSQUE, Geranium Mos- 
chatum — b. de Giue Robertiii, Geranium Roberti- 
anuin — -b. de Lieore, Harelip. 

Bealc of the Calamus Scri]>io' riim, is a small cavity 
at the superior part of the medulla oblongata, 
which forms part of the 4th ventricle. 

BEC, (Le.) mineral WATERS OF. Bee 
is six leagues from Rouen, in Normandy. The 
water is strongly chalybeate. 

BECCABUNGA, Veronica Beccabunga. 

BECH^STHE'SIS, from (ir,^, (ip^oi, 'cough,' 
and aiaOnaii, ' sensation.' The excitement or de- 
sire to cough. 

BECHIA. Tussis. 

BECHIAS, Tussis. 

BE'CIIICS, Be'ehicn, Beeha, Bec'chica. Be>- 
chitii, from (irj^. dnX"?' ' cough,' (F.) Bechiques, 
Medicines ada|)ted for allaying cough. 

BECHITA, Bechic. 

BECIIIUM, Tussilago. 


BECUIBA, Ibicuiba. 

BED, HYDROSTATIC, Water bed -b. Water, 
Arnott's, see Water bed. 

BED'EtJAR, Bedeguar, Bedeguard, Spoii'r/in 
Ci/iios'bati, Fiiiigna Roia'rum, F. Ci/iios'bati, (F.) 
Pninnie moii/meiise, Epnnge d'eghniticr. An ex- 
crescence, which makes its appearance on dif- 
ferent species of wild roses, and which is pro- 
duced by the puncture of a small insect,— C'j- 
nipa RoHoB. It was formerly employed as a 
lithontriptic and vormiuige, but is not now used. 
It was slightly astring(mt. 

ford is a village, situate on tlie great Western 
Turnpike road from Philadcljdiia to Pittsburg, a 
few miles east of the chief elevation of the Alle- 
ghany mountains. The "Springs" are about a 
mile and a half from the village. They are saline 
and sulphureous. The most celebrated — the 
" Mineral Spring" or " Anderson's Spring"— con- 
tains carbonic acid, sulphate of magnesia, chlo- 
rides of sodium and calcium, and carbonate of 
iron, but none of these articles in great quan- 
tity ; hence, the main action of the waters is diu- 




rctic. At Bome distance from the Springs, there 
is a chivlylteate water; ami about 10 miles S. W. 
oC IJeilforil, at Milliken's Cove, a strong sulphure- 
ous spring. The climate of Bedford Springs is 
ngreealile. During tlie heat of summer, the 
niglits arc generally cool. In the morning of 
July 14, lS5;i, the author marked the thermome- 
ter, at five o'clock, A. M., at 45°. Three days 
before, however, it was at 70° at the same hour. 
BEDLAM. M.)rotrophiuin. 

BEDSTRAW, (Jaliura verum — b. Ladies, 
greater, (ialiuni, molhigo, (Jaliuin verum — b. 
Rough, Galium asprellum — b. Ladies, rough, 
Galium asprellum. 

BEE, Sax. heo. A])!n,A. mi:llif'ica seu diimnst'ica, 
^li'lix'stt, Mr.Ut'ta, (F.) Abril/e. This insect was 
formerly exhibited, when dried and powdered, as 
a diuretic. 

Bku i>f TiiF, BoNNKT, see Insanity. 

BEEBREAD, Propolis. 

BEECH, Fagus sylvatica — b. Drop, Orobanche 
Virginiaua — b. Drops, false, Ilypopitys lanugi- 

Berch, Albany, Ptcrospora Andromedca. 

Bkki'ii, Mast, see Fagus sylvatica. 

BEEDY'S EYES, Viola tricolor. 

BEEF ESSENCE, see Beef tea. 

Bkbf Tkx, Jh8 bovi' num. An infusion of beef, 
much used in debilitating maladies, and in con- 
valescence. It may be made as follows: Take 
two pounds and a half of lean beef: cut it, in 
small pieces, into three partsofiod^crin an earthen 
pipkin : let this simmer, but never boil, until the 
liquor is consumed to a pint and a half: tlien 
strain carefully. It ought to be entirely free 
from fat or grease. — Dr. E. J. Seymour. 

EHience of beef — as it has been called — maybe 
made by putting a pound of good l)eef, freed from 
fat, and cut into small i)ieces, into a porter-b(rt- 
tle, corking lightly. The bottle must be put into 
boiling water, and kept there until the water has 
been boiling at least half an hour. As the boil- 
ing goes on, the cork may be inserted a little 
more tightly, to retain the contents of the bottle. 
The juices of the beef are thus separated, and 
constitute the 'essence,' which may be seasoned 
to the taste. It contains much nutriment. 

BE EX, Centaurea bohen. 

BEER, Cerevisia — b. Black, see Falltranck — 
b. Chowder, see Chowder — b. Pipsissewa, see 
Pyrola umbellata. 

Bki'-k, Jkws', See Pinus sylvestris — b. Springs, 
see Water, Mineral (gaseous.) 

Brkr, Spruce, CerccWia Abie'lis, may be 
prepared as follows. Take of Esienre of S/jntce, 
half a (lint: Pinunto, bruised; Giiujer, bruised; 
Hopn, of each, four ounces ; wider, three gallons. 
Boil for five or ten minutes; strain, and add of 
warm tenter eleven gallons; i/ermt, a pint; Molas- 
ses, si's pints. Mi.x and allow to ferment for twenty 
Lours. Used as an agreeable drink in summer. 

Bker, Tak, see Piuus sylvestris. 

BEET, Beta. 

BEEST. Colostrnm. 

BEESTINGS, Colostrum. 

BEETLEWEED', Galax apbylla. 

J:KGA IEMENT, Balbuties. 

BEGMA. — .according to some, Brefjma, — from 
^riaaav w fipnaac^iv., 'to expectorate after cough- 
ing.' Coughinir : also, the sputum or expecto- 
rated matter.— Hippocrates. 

BEGO'NIA. The I'cijonia grnndijlo'rn nnd 
B. tnmeiito'sa have astringent roots, which are 
used in Peru in cases of hemorrhage, scurvy, low 
fevers, Ac. 

J3EGUE, Balbus. 

BEUEN AlilAD, Centaurea beben — 6, Al- 
bum, Centaurea behen — b. Officinarum, Cucu- 
balus behen — 5. Itnuge, Siatice limonium — b. 
Vulgaris, Cueubalus behen. 

BEIIMEX ACKMAR, Statice limonium. 
BKIA HALAIjEX, Sempervivum tectorum. 
BEIDELSAR, Asclepias procera. 
BE 1ST, Colostrum. 
BEISTIXGS, Colostrum. 

BEISTYN, Colostrum. 

BE.JUIO, HabiUa de Carthagena. 

BELA-AYE or BE-LAHE, A tonic and 
astringent bark of a Madagascar tree. Du-petit- 
Thouars and Sonnerat think it may be substi- 
tuted for the Simarouba. 

BELADAMBOC. A species of convolvulus of 
the Malabar coast, which contains an acrid milky 
juice. From this a liniment is formed with oil 
and ginger, which is used against the bites of 
rabid animals. 

BE-LAHE. Bela-ave. 

BELA-MODAGAM. A kind of Sca'rola of the 
Malabar coast, the loaves of which are considered 
diuretic and emmcnagogue. 

BELAXDRE, (F.) A litter, surrounded with 
curtains, in which patients are sometimes carried 
to hospitals. 

15ELC1IING, Eructation. 

BELD, Athrix. 

BELEMNOID, Belenoid. 


or BEL'OID, Beletio'i'des or BelcinnoVdia Pro- 
(■(■<('«)(», from jSfXof, 'an arrow,' and tiSo;, 'shape.' 
This name has been given to styloid processes 
in general — ProccHnits beleuo'i'den. 

ijELESME, see Bollesmc. 

BELESON, Balsam, Mnssronda frondosa. 

BKLILLA, Muss.xnda frondosa. 

BELlNUiM, Apium Graveolens. 

m-AA OCULUS, Belloculus. 

BELL, CANTERBURY, Campanula trache- 

BELLADO.VE, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLADON'NA, in tlie Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, is the oDicinal name of the leaves 
of Atrop.i Belladonna. 

Bi;i,LAno.vxA Baccipera, Atropa belladonna — 
b. Trichotoma. Atropa belladonna. 


BELLE-BLOME. Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 

BELLE DAME, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLEGU. Myrobalanus. 

BELLEREGT, Myrobalanus. 

Bellesme is about three leagues from Montague, 
in France. The waters are chalybeate. 

waters at Belley, department of Ain, in France, 
are saline ajierients. 

BELLFLOWER, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 

BELLIDOIDES, Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 

BELLIS, Belbis, ('pretty,') Bellh peren'ms 
seu minor seu hiirten'als. Sj/m'pJii/tnm tiiiii'imiim, 
Briiineworf, Common Daixy, (Sc.) Eire-ijnica», 
(Prov.) Tiairnicnrts, (F.) Paquerette viriicr, pelile 
MarriKerite. Ord. CompositiB. The leaves and 
flowers are rather acrid. They were, atone time, 
eonsiilered to cure different species of wounds. 
See Osmitopsis asteriscoides. 

Bellis Houtexsis, Bellis — b. Major. Chrysan- 
themum leueanthemutn — b. Jlinor, Bellis — h. 
Porennis, Bellis — b. Pratensis, Chrysanthemum 

BELLIT, Athrix. 

BELL METAL, Cal'coeos, (F.) Ahnin, Mdal 
dea cloches. An alloy of copper, zinc, tin, and a 




small quantity of antimony, used for making 
bolls. The inortiirs of the apothecary are often 
formed of this material. They require to be kept 
clean, to avoid the formation of verdigris. 

BELLOCULUS, Thli Oc'ulng. A kind of gem, 
whieii the Assyrians considered efficacious in the 
cure of many diseases. The}' imagined that the 
figure of an eye could be seen in it, and hence its 
uariie. Ili-rK Ei/<', from the god BeL 

BKLLON, Colic, metallic. 

BELLOfAS. SCO Ile.x major. 

BELLOWS' SOUND, Bruit de soufflet — h. s. 
Encephalic, see Bruit de snujfht. 

Bkllows' Sound, Funic, a single raurmur of 
the bellows kind, synchronous with the first sound 
of the heart; heard by some observers, and re- 
ferred by them to diminished calibre of the um- 
bilical arteries, either by pressure or stretching 
of the funis, or both. 

Bellows' Sound, Plackntal, Brxiit placen- 
ta ire. 

BELLWORT, SMALLER, Uvularia perfoliata. 

BELLY, Ve?iter, from Ir. bol(}, 'the belly, a bag 
or pouch' [?]. At the present day, the abdomen. 
Formerly, all the splanchnic cavities Were called 
bellicH ; — the lower belli/, venter in'fiinun, being 
the abdomen ; the middle belly, venter me'dius, 
the thorax ; and the upper bell i/, venter sujjre'mus, 
the head. Also, the womb. See Veuter. 

BELLY-ACII, Colica. 

BKLi,y-ACH, DuY, Colica metallica. 

Bki.i.v-aoii Root, Angelica lucida. 

BELLY-BAND, Belt, Russian. 

BELLY-BOUND, Constipated. 

BELLY. GOD, Glutton. 


BELLY, POT, Physeonia. 




BELMUSCIIUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

BELNILEG, Myrobalanus. 

BELOID, Belenoid. 

BELOIDES PROCESSUS, Styloid processes. 

BELONE, Needle. 

BELONODES, Styloid. 

BELONOID, Belenoid. 

BEL'S EYE, Belloculus. 

BELT, RUSSL\N, ]'e?«</-a7e,— vulgarly, Belly- 
land, — Abdominal supporter. Abroad bandage 
applied to the abdomen, so as to support, and make 
methodical pressure upon it. Difterent forms have 
been termed obntetric binders, utero-abdominal 
supportem, &c. 

BELUL'CUM, from jScXof, 'a dart,' and 'tX/fM, 
'I draw out.' An instrument used for extracting 
darts or arrows. Many instruments of this kind 
have been noticed by surgeons. — Ambrose Pare, 
Fabricins ah Aqnapendeute. 

BELZOE, Benjamin. 

BELZOIM. Benjamin. 

BELZOIXUM, Benjamin. 

BEN, Gnilandina moringa — b. of Judsea, Ben- 
jamin — b. Nut. (iuilandina moringa. 

BEXATIL Pustule. 



naturrc — b. de Ventre, see Boncficium naturae. 

BENEFICIUM NATU'RiB, (F.) lienfjiee de 
la n'ltnre. This term is used by the French pa- 
thologists for cases in which diseases have got well 
without medical treatment. With them, B/'nefice 
de nntnri, or fS. de ventre, is synonymous also with 
Alvi Pniflu'viiim ; — a spontaneous diarrhoea, often 
acting favourably either in the prevention or cure 
of disease. 

BENEL, Croton racemosum. 

BENEOLENS, from bene, 'well,' and olere, 'to 
smell.' Eito'des, Snaveokns. A sweet-scented 
medicine, as gums, Ac. 

BENU, Bangue. 

BENGALE INDORUM. Cassumuniar. 

BENGAL ROOT, Cassumuniar. 

BENGI, Hyoscyamus. 

BENIGN', Benig'nns, EnetU'es, (F.) Bfnin, 
Benigne. Diseases of a mild character are so 
called : as well as medicines whose action is not 
violent, as a, Benign Fever, Febria beni'j'na iiiipu'- 
tris, <fec. 

BENIN, Benign. 

BEN'JAMIN, corruption of Ben'znin, Bcnzo'- 
innni (Ph. U. S.), B. verum, Anna odora'ta seu 
dnlcis, Benjui, Benjuin, Asa or Beu'Jaoy, Henjo'- 
innm, Belzue, Belzoim, Ben'zoe, Sty'raeis Benzo'- 
ini Bal'samum, Liquor Ci/reni'aens, Croton Ilen- 
zoe, Ben of Judce'a, Acor Benzo'in us, S<(1 A c"idum 
seu essentia'le seu volat'ile Benzoes, (F.) Benjoin, 
Baume Benjoin, Assa donx. A resinous, dry, 
brittle substance, the concrete juice of Sii/iyi.c 
Benzoin, Arbor Beniiri, Laurus Benzoin, of Su- 
matra. The odour is extremely fragwint, and 
taste slightly aromatic. It is prineii)ally used 
for the preparation of the acid which it contains. 
It is also employed in some vulnerary tinctures, 
and as an expectorant. Benzoic Acid, A<:"idnin 
Benzo'icum, is obtained from it by sublimation. 
The purest Benjamin is in amygdaloid masses: 
hence called (F.) Benjoin amygdalo'ide. 

Benjamin Bush, Laurus benzoin. 

Bp^n.tamin, Flowei!R of, Ben'zoic Acid, Ac"- 
iduni Benzo'icum seu Benzoyl icum, Flores Benzoes 
sell Benzo'ini, Ac'*{diim Benzo'ieum per snblinia- 
tio'nem, (F.) Acide Benzoique, Fleurs de Benjoin. 
This acid exists in all the balsams, but chiefly in 
Benzoin, from which it is obtained by sublima- 
tion. It is in vanilla, canella, the urine of in- 
fants, and of herbivorous animals. Its odour is 
aromatic and fragrant; taste hot, slightly acidu- 
lous, and agreeable. The crystals consist of 
white, satiny flakes, slightly ductile. It is pro- 
bably stimulant; and has been used, as such, ia 
chronic catarrh; but it has little efficacy. 

BENJAOY, Benjamin. 

BENJOIN, Benjamin. 

BEN.JOINUM, Benjamin. 

BEN.JUL Benjamin. 

BEN MOENJA. A Malabar tree. An alexi- 
pharmic decoction is made of its roots, in the 
country, which is much praised in cases of malig- 
nant fever. Its bark, boiled with Calamus aroma- 
ticus and salt, forms a decoction used in bites of 
poisonous serpents. 

BENNE, Sesamum orientale. 

BENNET, HERB, Geum urbanum, and G. 

BENOITE, Geum urbanum — h. Aq)(at!qtie, 
Geum rivale — b. des Jtuisseau.r, Geum rivale — 
b. de Virginie, Geum Virginianum. 

BENZENE, Benzole. 

BENZIN, Benzole, see Anaesthetic 


BENZOE, Benjamin. 

BENZOENIL* Vanilla. 

BENZOIN, Benjamin — b. Odoriferum, Laurus 

BEN'ZOLE, Benzin, Benzene, T'hene, Ify'dru- 
ret of Pheu'yle. A constituent of coal-gas tar, 
obtained by distilling coal naphtha. It is a co- 
lourless, oleaginous liquid, of agreeable odour. 
Sp. gr. 0-85. The vapour, when inhaled, acts as 
an anajsthetic. 

BERBERINE, sec Oxyacantha Galeni. 

BERBERIS, Oxyacantha Galeui — b. Cana- 
y densis, see Oxyacantha Galeni. 




BET! BINE, Verliena officinalis. 

lihltCI-!. Ilcriicleuin s])()ndylium. 

BEKEXDAROS, Ocyinum basilicum. 

BEKKNICK, Suecinuiu. 

BEIIKNICIUM. Potnssa) nitras. 

BKIiKN ISKCUiM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BEK(JAM()T', nn,;jnm.,te, Benjnmot'ta, (F.) 
BerijiiiiKiitit. A sin;ill orange, of a very agreeable 
taste. Jind peculiiir odour. From its rind an oil, 
Oleum /itri/u'niii (Ph. U. S.), is obtained, which 
js tnu<-li employed as a perfume, and sometimes 
in miMliciue. See Citrus mella rosa. 

BEK'IIJERI, BciU'ria, Syn'clonus Benbe'- 
rin, fiiduHt/n'cloniiH, J'driit'i/nig Bcr'iheri, from 
heri in the Singhalese language, which signifies 
' weakness ;' therefore, licriieri, ' grout weakness.' 
This word is also said to be Iiinduslhanee, and 
to mean a eheap. — Bontius. Beriberi is an In- 
dian disease, little known in Europe. It con- 
sists in debility and tremors of the limbs, — some- 
times, indeed, of the whole body; with painful 
numbness of the atfected parts, &c.: — the patient 
walking doubled, and imitating the movements 
of sheep ! Some authors have esteemed it rheu- 
matic ; others, paralytic; others, to be a kind of 
chorea. It is, almost always, incurable; is rarely 
fatal; and is treated by exercise, stimulant fric- 
tion, sudorifies, <fec. It is sometimes called 
Bar'biera, but this would seem to be a different 

BEBTCOCCE. Prunus armeniaca. 

BEltKLKY SPRINGS, see Bath Springs, 

BHIirj': XODIFLORE, Slum. 

BERL UE, Metamorphopsia. 

invalids are occasionally sent to Bermuda, but 
the principal objection to a winter residence 
there, is the prevalence of strong winds; espe- 
cially of the dry, sharp, and cold north-west 
winds, during the winter and spring. Still, it 
affords a goud winter retreat for the phthisical, 
from any part of the United States, provided due 
care be soli'ctcd in choosing a suitable locality. 
The neighbuurhood of Hamilton has been strongly 
recommended with this view. 


BERRIE."^. INDIAN, see Menisi)ermum coc- 
culus — b. Turkey, yellow, see Piper cubeba. 

BERS. A sort of electuary, composed of pep- 
per, seed of the white hyoscyamus, opium, euphor- 
bium, saffron, &c. The Egyptians used it as an 
excitant. — Prospero Alpini. 

in Champagne, Franco. The waters are slightly 

BERULA. Slum nodiflorum — b. Angustifolia, 
Sium nodiflorum. 

BESASA. Kuta. 

BESfOLES. Spectacles. 

BESOLV, Want— 6. de Rcujyirer, see Want — 
h. de In Vif, Necessar}' of life. 

BESS AN EM. A word used by Avicenna, for 
redness of the skin, limbs, and face, produced by 
the action of cold. 

BESSOX. ) c r. 11 

BESSONXE, 1 ^'' Gemellus. 

BETA. The Beet, Si'c'ida, (F.) Bette, Beffe- 
rave. Family/, Chonopodesc. i'cx. ■%«(. Pentan- 
dria Digynia. A genus of plants, of which the 
following are the chief varieties : 

Bkta lly'iuuiiA, Bor)t of Searciti/. Root red, 
outside; white, within. Very nutritive; yields 

Beta Vui.oA'nis, White Beet. The root 
jields sncar, and the leaves are eaten as a sub- 
stitute for spinach. 

Beta Vii.oa'kis Ri'bua. Bed Beet. Root red 
and nutritive; yields a small quantity of sugar. I 

BETAYNE, Betonica officinalis. I 

BETEL, Piper Betel, Chavica hetle. A species 
of pepper, cultivated in several parts of India. 
The East Indians are in the habit of chewing 
the leaves with lime and areca; and they give 
the name IJetel to this preparation. It is used in 
all the equatorial countries of Asia. Betel is said 
to be tonic and astringent. It is also called i?e«c, 
Beire, Betle. See Areca. 

BETHKOOT, Trillium latifolium — b. Broad- 
leaf, Trillium latifolium. 

BETISE, Dementia. 

BETOIXE, Betonica officinalis — ft. de» Mnv. 
tn>T)ies, Arnica moutaua — i. des Savoyurdu, Ar- 
nica montana. 

BETOX, Colostrum. 

BETONICA AQUATICA, Serophularia aqua- 

Beton'icA OFFICtXA'LIS, B. jnirpn'rea, Vet- 
ton'ien, Centron, Bet'uny, Wood Betnny, (Old 
Eng.) Bettiyite, Pnychot' rophiim, Veroni'ca piir- 
pii'rca, (F.) Betoiiie. Order, Labiata;. .SV-.r. Si/xt. 
Didynamia Gymnospermia. Betony was in much 
esteem amongst the ancients, who employed the 
flowers and leaves, in decoction, in gout, sciatica, 
cephalalgia, &c. It was so called, according to 
Pliny, from being in great repute among the Vet- 
tones or Bettones, an ancient people of Spain. 
Antonius Musa is said to have written a volume 
in praise of it; recommending it in no less than 
47 different diseases. It has, however, little or 
no virtue. The leaves are said to be aperient, 
and the root emetic. 

Betonica Paui.i, Veronica. 

BETONY, Betonica officinalis— b. Paul's, Ly- 
copus sinuatus, Lycopus Virginicus. Veronica — ■ 
b. Water, Serophularia aqualica — b. AVuod, Beto- 
nica officinalis. 

BETRE, Betel, 

BKTTK, Bctu. 


BET'ULA ALBA, Y.r,yivSa. The Birch, (So.) 
Birk, (F.) Bonlenii conmiini. Order, Bctulaceae. 
The 3'oung leaves are slightly odorous, astrin- 
gent, and bitter. They are applieil to wounds 
and ulcers. They have been regarded as anti- 
scorbutic and anthelmintic. The tree furnishes 
a saccharine juice, which is considered antiscor- 
butic and diuretic. 

Betiii^a Emahginata, Alnus glutinosa — b. Glu- 
tinosa, Alnus glutinosa. 

Bktula Lenta, Siceet Birch, Blnvk Birch, 
Cherry Birch, Mountain 2fitho(jciny, is an Ame- 
rican species, the bark and leaves of which have 
the smell and taste of Gaultheria procumbens. 
An infusion is sometimes niadeof them, and used 
as an excitant and diaphoretic. The volatile oil 
is nearly, if not wholly, identical with that of 

JIEURRE, Butter — 6. de Bnmbouc, Butter of 
bambouc — h. de Cacao, Butter of cacao — b. de 
Coco, Butter of cocoa — b. Vetjetale, Persea gratis- 

Beuvrigny is in the vicinity of Bayeux, in Nor- 
mandy. The water is chalybeate. 


BEVUE, Diplopia. 

BEX, Tussis— b. Convulsiva, Pertussis— b. Hu- 
mida. Expectoration — b. Theriodcs, Pertussis. 

BEXIS, Tussis. 

BEXU'GO. Under this name, a purgative 
root was formerly introduced into Europe from 
Peru. It is supposed to have been the root of a 

BEZ'O.AR, i?f2'<7«r, Bez'ehard, Pa'znhar, from 
Persian Pa, 'against,' and zahar, poison. Lapis 
Bezoar'dicux, Cal'culus Bez'oar, Eiitcrol'ithiiK Be- 
zour'dua, Bczoard. A calculous concretion, found 



in the stomach, intestines, and bladder of ani- 
mals. Wonderful virtues were formerly attri- 
buted to these Bezoars. There were two great 
varieties: the liez'unr orientn'le, Aii'imal Ih-zonr'- 
ticiim orieiita'le, formed in the fourth stomach of 
the gazelle of India {Gazel'lit lu'dica, or rather 
Aiitito'piis cerricn'pni :) and the Bez'onr occiden- 
t't'le. Aiiimiil Brz'ini'ticiim occidentn'le, found in 
the fourth stomach of the wild yont or chamois 
of Peru. These substances were esteemed to he 
powerful alexipharmics ; but the former was the 
more valued. It was believed that no poison, 
and no eruptive, pestilential, or putrid disease, 
could resist its influence. As so many virtues 
were ascribed to it, other animal concretions were 
substituted for it; and factitious Bezoards were 
made of crabs' eyes and claws, bruised and mixed 
with musk, ambergris, (fee. 

Bez'oar Bovi'num, (F.) Bezoard de Bceuf, Be- 
eoard of the beef. A concretion formed in the 
fourth stomach of beeves; also, a biliary calcu- 
lus found in the gall-bladder. 

Bez'oard of the Deer, B. of the Lnch'rymal 
Fossd of the Deer, Deer's Tenrs. A moist, highly 
odorous, fatty matter, found below the anterior 
canthus of the orbit of the red deer — Cervim el'e- 
phas. It has been used, like castor, as an anti- 
spasmodic, in the dose of from 5 to 15 grains, two 
or three times a day. 

Bezoar EQui\iisr, Bezoard of the horse — b. 
Hystrieis, Bezoard of the Indian porcupine. 

Bez'oard op Cavmax. This was once much 
prized. It is now unknown. 


Bez'oard of the Chamois, and B. of the 
Horse, Beznnr eqni'num, Hippol'ithm, &c., exhi- 
bit their origin in the name. 

Bez'oard of the Inoian Por'ciipine, Bez'oar 
ffi/n'tricii, Lfipi's Purci'iiHS seu llriliiceii'ah, Petro 
del Form, (F.) Bezoard de Pore-Epic, was for- 
merly the dearest of all the Bezoards, and was 
sold at an enormous price in Spain and Portu- 

Bez'oard, Mineral, Antimonium diaphoreti- 
cum — b. Vegetable, see Calappitc. 

BEZOAR'DIC, Bezonr'diciis, (F.) Bezortrdiqne ; 
concerning the bezoard. Bezoardic medicines are 
those supposed to possess the same properties 
with the bezoard; as antidotes, ale.xiteria, alexi- 
pharmics, cordials. 

BEZOARDICA RADIX, Dorstenia contra- 

ceutical preparation, regarded by the ancients as 
antihysteric. It was formed of jirotoxide of lead, 
butter of antimony, and nitric acid. 

BEzoAR'nicnsi Hcma'num. Urinary calculi 
were formerly employed under this name as 
powerful alexipharmics. 

Brzoau'dicum JoviA'Li5. A sort of greenish 
powder, used as a diaphoretic, and formed of an- 
timony, tin, mercury, and nitric acid. 

BkzuAr'dicdm Luna'pe. A medicine formerly 
regarded as a specific in epilepsy, convulsions, 
megrim, ko. It was prepared of nitrate of sil- 
ver, and butter of antimony. 

BrzoAR'Dicuir Martia'lij. A tonic medicine, 
nsed by the ancients in diarrhoea. It was pre- 
pared from the tritoxide of iron and butter of 

Bkzoar'dictim Mercuria'lk. A medicine, 
formerly vaunted as an antisyphilitic, and pre- 
pared from the mild chloride of mercury, butter 
cf antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bp.zoAR'Dicuir Minera'le; the deutoxido of 
antimony; so called because its properties were 
6U))posed to resemble those of animal bezoard. 

Bszoak'dicum Sola'ee. A diaphoretic medi- 

cine, prepared of gold filings, nitric acid, and 
butter of antimony. 

Bezoar'dioiim Ven'erts. A pharmaceutical 
preparation, formerly employed in Icprn, diseases 
of the brain, <fee.; which was made from filings 
of copper, butter of antimony, and nitric acid. 

BIIANG, Bangue. 

BI, as a prefix to words, has the same signi- 
eation as l)i. 


BIBERINE, see Bebeeru. 

BIBFRU, Bebeeru. 

BIBITORIUS, Rectus internus oenli. 

BlBLIOd'RAPlIY, MED'ICAL, from Pi^Xinv, 
'a book,' and ypa0w, 'I describe.' A descri[)tion 
or history, or skill in the knowledge, of medical 
books. The most distinguished medical biblio- 
graphers have been : J. A. Van df.r Lindem, 
Auistelod. Ifi62, octavo, (L.) M. Lii>enu's, 
Francf. ad Mcem. 1679, fol. (L.) G. A. Merck- 
I.EIN, Norimb. 1086, (L.) J. J. Manoet, Genev. 
1695 to 17.31, (L.) Tarin (anatomical), Paris, 
175.'], (P.) A. vox IIaller, Ziirich, 1774, Ac, 
(L.) ViGiLiis vox CRtiETZENFELD (surgical), 
Vindob. 1781, (L.) C. G. Kuhx, Lips. 1791, (L.) 
C. L. Schweikard (anat., phys., and legal medi- 
cine), Stuttgard, 1 796 to 1 800, (L.) G. G. Plouc- 
QUET, Tubing. 1808 to 1814, (L.) C. F. Burdach, 
Gotha, 1810 to 1821, (G.) ,1. S. Ersch, (since 
1750). Leipz. 1822, (G.) Tn. Cii. Fr. Ensux, 
(of Germany, since 1750.) Berlin, 1826, (G.) 
J. B. MoNTFALoox, Paris, 1827, (F.) J. Forbes, 
M.D., F.R.S., London, 18.35. A. C. P. Calli- 
SEX, Copenhagen, 1845, (G.) E. Morwitz, Leip- 
zig, 1849, (G.) 

BICAIIDALIS, Retrahens auris. 

BICAUDA'TUS, «n«/a'^(«, from i/, and candn, 
'a tail;' 'double- tailed.' A monster having two 

BTCEPIIA'LIUM, Dicepha'Unm. A hybrid 
word, from hi and Ktipa\ri, 'head.' Sauvages ap- 
plies this epithet to a very large sarcoma on the 
head, which seems to form a double head. 

BTCEPHALUS, Dicephalus. 

BICEPS, from bi, and caput, 'head.' That 
which has two heads. This name has been par- 
ticularly given to two muscles; one belonging to 
the arm, the other to the thigh. 

Biceps Exter'ncs Miis'culus. The long por- 
tion of the Triceps Brachin'lis. — Douglas. 

Biceps Flexor Cruris, B. Cruris, Biceps, 
(F.) Biceps Crural, Biceps JFerd'oris, Is'chio-fem'- 
oro-peroiiier — (Ch.) A muscle on the posterior 
part of the thigh ; one head arising from the tu- 
berosity of the ischium, and the other from a 
groat part of the linea aspera. It is inserted into 
the top of the fibula. It serves to bend the leg 
on the thigh. 

Biceps^ Flexor Cu'biti, Biceps, B. Bra'chii 
seu nianvs seu inter'nus seu iiiter'nna hii'meri, 
Cor'aco-radia'lis, (P.) Seapulo-radiaf, (Ch.)— 
Biccp-i Brachial. A muscle, situate at the ante- 
rior and internal part of the arm ; extending 
from the edge of the glenoid cavity and from the 
top of the coracoid process to the tuberosity of 
the radius. It bends the fore-arm upon the arm. 

BWFIE DE MEll Sea Slv;j. A molluscous 
anmial, belonging to the genus Ilolothuria, which 
is caught amongst the islands of the Feejee group. 
New Guinea, <fec., and when prej)ared finds a 
ready sale in China, where it is used as an ingre- 
dient in rich soups. 

BfCHET, Terra Orleana. 

BlCHICiri^E, probably corrupted from M, 
Pvxoi, 'cough.' Pectoral medicines, composed 
of liquorice juice, sugar, blanched almonds, Ac. 
— Rhazes. 

BICIIIOS, Dracunculus. 

BICHO, Dracunculus— b. di Culo, Proctocaco, 




IBICnOS. A Portuguese name for the worms ' 
that petu'irate the toes of people in the Inilies ; 
and which are destroyed by the oil of the cashew 

UrCTP'ITAL, from hicepii {hi and caput), 'two 
headed.' llelating to the biceps. 

Bicip'iTAT, Groove, (F.) Coulinse ou Goutticre 
hii'ijiilalc, CoidiuHe hiimerale, (Cn.,) is a loni^itu- 
dinal f;ri)ovo, situate between the tul)er()sities of 
the OS humeri, which lodges the long head of the 

BiCIP'lT.VL Tu'bercI,K, BlrJpitnl tiiheros'iti/, 
(F.) Tiihfrosite hici/iltitic ; a prominence near 
the upper extremity of the radius, to which the 
temlon of the biceps is attached. 

niCORXH liUDE, Ditrachyceros. 

BICUS'PII), Ih'ciixpida'tiis, from hi and cvupis, 
'a spear.' That which has two points or tuber- 

Licrs'piT) Truth, Dentei BicuRpidn'ti, (F.) 
DentH liiruKptdfen. The small molarcs. See Molar. 

BIDDY, Pedieulus. 

BIDEXS ACMKLLA, Spilanthus acmclla. 

BIDKT, (F.) Jiidet ; pronounced beedx;/. A 
small horse formerly allowed to each trooi)er for 
carrying his baggage. Hence, perhaps, applied 
to a chamber bathing apparatus, which has to be 
bestridden. It is a useful arrangement, in case 
of hemorrhoids, prolapsus ani, affections of the 
sexual organs, &c. 

BIKCIIO, Bische. 

JilERE, Cerevisia— t. Medicinale, see Cerevi- 

BIESTINGS, Colostrum. 

lUFKMORO-CALCANlEN, Gastrocnemii. 

BI'FURCATIOX, Bifnt-cn'tlo, from hi and 
fiircn. 'a fork.' Division of a trunk into two 
branches; as the hi/urcatioii of the trachea, 
aorta, Ac. 

BIGARADE, see Citrus aurantium. 

BIGAl^TKH. Digastricus. 

BKiBKLLIED. Abdominous. 

BKi BLOOM, Magnolia niacrophylla. 

BKJBOXE, see Kentucky, Mineral Waters of. 

BIGPAUNCHED, Abdominous. 

BIGEMINAL BODIES, Quadrigemina tuber- 

niGGAR. A disease of Bengal, remarkable 
for the intensity and danger of the cerebral 
symptoms. — Twining. 

BIG-LEAF, Magnolia macrophylla. 

BIGLESt, see Strabismus. 

BIGNO'NIA CAPREOLA'TA, 5. crncig"era; 
indigenous. The root and plant are employed, 
like sarsaparilla, in infusion and decoction, in 
syphilis, chronic rheumatism, and in cachexias 
in general. 

BiGNONi.4, Catalpa— b. Crucigera, B. 

Bigno'nia iN'riCA. The leaves are employed 
in India, as emollients, to ulcers. 

BiGNONiA Leucox'vt.on-, Tnnnpet tree. A South 
American tree, the sap of which is the surest an- 
tidote against the manchineol. — Schleiden. 

BinxoxiA Radicans, Tecomaradicans — b. Sem- 
pervirons, Gelseminum nitidum. 

r.T.TOX. see Pinus sylvestris. 

BIKII. Aconitum ferox. 


BIL\TER \L SYMMETRY, see Svmmetrv. 

7ay is a town in France, two leagues from Thouar, 
department of Deux Sevres, near which is a ther- 
mal sulphureous spring. Temperature about 77° 

Fahrenheit. .„ , -n i 

BILBERRY, Yaccinium myrtillus— b. Red, 

Vaccinium vitis idita. 

BILE, Bilia, Fel, Chol'os, Chole, Cholcr, (F.) 

Bile, FieJ. A yellow, greenish, viscid, bitter, 
nauseous fluid, secreted by the liver. It is dis- 
tinguished into hepatic and cystic ; according as 
it flows immediately into the duodenum from the 
liver or from the gall-bladder. It contains, ac- 
cording to Muratori, water; a peculiar fatty 
matter; colouring matter {Cholepi/r'rhin or Bili- 
phcp.'iii, Matiire Jaime de la Bile; cholcsterin, 
combined with soda; picromcl or biliii ; extract 
of flesh, mucus; soda, phosphate of soda; phos- 
phate of lime, and chloride of sodium. 

The use of the bile is to remove from the body 
superfluous hydro-carbon ; and it is j)robably in- 
servient to useful purposes in digestion. 

Bir>E, Furunculus — b. Black, Atrabilis — h. de 
Bci'iif, see Bile — h. Bepantlne, Icterus. 

Bile op the Bear, Gall of the Bear, Fel Umi, 
was thought to be anti-epileptic ; 'and that of the 
Eel, Fel a7i(juil'l(B, to facilitate labour. 

Bile of the Ox, Gall of the Ox, Ox Gall, Fel 
Taiiri seu Boris seu Bovi'unm, (F.) Bile ou Fiel 
ou Atner de Bieuf, was once reputed cosmetic and 
detergent, anti-otalgic and emmenagogue; as 
well as to possess the power of facilitating labour. 
It has also been given as a bitter stomachic and 
anthelmintic; and as a tonic and laxative, in 
cases of deficiency of the biliary secretion. 

Bile op the Swine, Bilis porei'ua, inspissated, 
has been used in the same cases as the bile of 
the ox. 

BIL'IARY, Bilia' ris, Bilia' riiis, Fel'leua, 
(F.) Biliaire. That which relates to bile. 

Bil'iahy Appaua'tus, JL onjans, B. passar/es. 
The collection of parts that concur in the secre- 
tion and excretion of bile — viz., the liver, pori 
biliari or tubuli biliferi ; hepatic, cystic, and 
choledoch ducts, and gall-bladder. 

Bii/iARY Conciie'tions are concretions found 
in some parts of the biliary apparatus. 

BiLiAuy Ducts, Pori biliarii. 

BlIAEUX, Bilious. 

BILIA'TION, Bilia'tio; from hilis, 'bile.' 
The excretion of bile; as urination means the 
excretion of urine. 

BILIFUL'VINE; from hilis, 'bile,' and /«;. 
viis, 'reddish yellow.' The colouring matter of 
the bile of the ox. — Berzelius. 

BILIMBI, Averrhoa bilimbi. 

BILIMBING TERES, Averrhoa bilimbi. 

BILTN, PicromeL 

BIL'IOUS, Bilio'sus, Cliol'iexis, Chnl'i„8, Fel- 
lin'eiis, Ej)ich'(dos, Picroeh'olus, Fel'leus, (F.) 
Bilieu.v; from hilis, 'bile.' That which relates 
to bile, contains bile, or is produced by bile. An 
epithet given to certain constitutions and diseases, 
which are believed to be the effect of superabun- 
dance of the biliary secretion; as Bilious tempe- 
ramriit, B. symptoms, B. fever, 

BILIPIItEIN, see Bile. 

BILIS FLUXIO, Cholera morbus. 

BILITICUS, Cholagogue. 

BILIVERD'IN, from hilis, 'bile,' and viridis, 
'green.' On adding an acid to a solution of the 
yellow colouring matter of bile, a precipitate of 
green flocculi takes place, which possesses all the 
properties of chlorophyll, or the green colouring 
matter of leaves. This is the hiliverdin of Ber- 


BILOCULAR. see Unilocular. 

BTLFMni BITING-BING, Mains Indica. 

BI'MAXUS, from hi and mainis. 'a hand.' 
One that has two hands. A term applied only 
to man. because he is the sole mammif'erous ani- 
mal that possesses two perfect hands. 

BIXDER. Bandage. 

BIXDERS. OBSTETRIC, see Belt, Russian. 

BINDWEED. Polygonum aviculare — b. Fid- 
dle-leaved, Convolvulus panduratus — b. Great, 




Convolvulus gepium — b. Iledoie, Convolvulus 
sepiuui — h. Liivender-leaveil, Convolvulus Can- 
tabric;i — h. Sea, Cdiivolvulus soldauclla — b. Vir- 
ginian. Cdnviilvulus pan<lurattfs. 

BIXDWOOD. Ileiiera helix. 

BIXICniirM15A. Phyllanthus urinaria. 

BIXOC'UIiAR, Biuitciila'n's : same etymon as 
tbe next, lli'lating to or affeetinp; both eyes' — as 
'binociildr ii-.iiin' — vision with both eyes; or from 
impressions made upon both retinae, which are 
amalijimiiited into iii)ii/le vision. 

Bl'XOC'ULUS, Biii'ocle, Diophthnl'mica Fan' - 
cio. Or' nils diiph.e, from hi and ociilioi, 'an ej'e.' 
(F.) CEi! double. A bandage applied over both 
eyes. It was also formerly called Divplithnl'- 

BIN'SICA. A Rabbinical terra for disorder 
of the mind. Accordinp; to Van IIelmont, an 
atrophy of the orjran of imagination. 

BIOCIIYMIA, Chymistry, vital. 

BlOI). Vis vitalis. 

BIODYNAM'ICS, Bindynam'ica, Biodynam'- 
ice, Bionoph'ia, frcnn /Sio;, 'life,' and ivvafus, 
'power,' 'force.' The doctrine of the vital ac- 
tivity or forces. 

BIOGAMIA, Mac^netism, animal. 

BIOL'OGY, from /?(0f, 'life,' and Xoyo;, 'a de- 
scription.' The doctrine of life or of living bo- 
dies. — Physiology. " Biolnr/icnl phenomena" are 
those presented by living bodies. 

B 1 L Y C H ' N 1 N, Biolych'mnm, from /?iof , 
'life,' and \vxvtov. 'a lamp.' Innate heat, vital 
heat, animal heat. Lych'niMn, Lychnid'itim, 
TherwHin em'phi/tum, Fhvnma seu Flam'mrda 
vita'tifi seu cordis. Also, a secret preparation of 
which Bkoitn' and BuncuAVE make mention. 

BIOLYSIS, see Biolytic. 

BIOLYT'IC, Bio/i/t'icits,- from /?(o?, 'life,' and 
>t)ff(f, ' solution.' Relating to the destruction of 
life. A 'bioh/fic agent' is one that tends to 
liol'i/sis. or destruction of life. A depressing 
agent. — Rchnltz. 

BI0.-\1AGNETISMUS, Magnetism, animal. 

BIONO.-MY, Phvsiologv. 


BIOS, (iias. Life. Also, what is necessary for 
the preservation of life. 

BIOSOPIIIA, Biodynamics. 

BIOSTATICS, Statistics, medical. 

BIOTAX'Y, Taxon'omij, from /3iof, 'life,' and 
rafif, -order, arrangement.' The arrangement or 
co-ordination of living organisms, according to 
their external characters. 

BIOTK. Life. 

BIOTHAN'ATI. nimofhmi'nti, from /Sioj, 
'life,' and ^avaroi, ' death.' Those who die of a 
violent denth very suddenly, or as if there was 
no space between life and death. 

BIOTIC. Vital. 

BIOTICS, Plivsiology. 

BIOTOMIA. Vivisection. 

BIOTOS. Life. 

BIPARl'ETAL, Bipnrieta'Iio, (F.) Biparie- 
tnl, from hi and pnrietale (os), 'the parietal bone.' 
An epithet for the diameter of the cranium from 
one parietal fossa to the other. 

BIPARIETAL SUTURE. Sagittal suture. 

BIPIX'NA, from hi, and pinna, 'a wing- 
feather.' A term used by the ancients for a 
diminutive penis, not exceeding in size two 

BIR, Thorax. 

BIRA. Cerevisia, 

BIRCH, Retiila alba— b. Black, Betula lenta— 
b. Cherrr, Betula lenta — b. Sweet, Betula lenta. 

BIRDS' BREAD. Sedum acre. 

BIRDS' NEST, Ilypopitys lanuginosa. 

BIRK, Betula alba. 

BIRTII, Parturition — b. Cross, Presentation, 

preternatural — b. Live, see Born alive — b. Plural, 
see MultiparouH. 

BIRTliWOUT, Aristolocbia— b. Snakeroot, 
Aristolocliia ser])entaria. 

BISCHE, Biecho. A malignant kind of dy- 
sentery, which often prevails in the island of 

BISCUIT, Biseoc'tus; bis, 'twice,' and coctiis, 
'baked,' (F.) his and ciiit, 'twice baked.' A 
kind of dry, hard bread, or cake, which is va- 
riously made; and, when without eggs or butter, 
is easy of digestion. It was formerly called JJi- 
pyri'tes, and Di'pyros. MKr)lc"iNAL on Mi;i)'i. 
CATUD Biscuits, (F.) Biscuits Medivindu.c, Musse- 
paiiis, Macarons, are occasionally made by add- 
ing to biscuit paste a medicinal solution or 
powder, and baking the mass. 

BISCUIT, MEAT. An alimentarj' prepara- 
tion, proposed by Jlr. G. Borden, Jr., of Texas, 
which consists in combining the matters, ex- 
tracted from meat by boiling, with flour, so as to 
form biscuits; which keep well, and are of course 


BISERMAS, Salvia sclarea. 

BISFERIENS, Dicrotus. 

BISII, Aeonituin ferox. 


BISLINGUA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 

BISMALVA, Althjea. 

BISMUTH, Aiitimo'ninm aJbi/m, CJioI'citm, 
Lnna imperfcc'tci, Stannnm (jlncia'le seu cine'rciim, 
B ism n't /ill III, Wisinu'thiim, Bei/nliis of Jiis'iinitli, 
Mcircuei'ln, Tin (jlnss, (F.) Einin gris, E. de 
Glace. A metal, in spieular plates, of a yel- 
lowish-white colour; s. gr. 9.822 ; fusible at 40(1° 
Fahrenheit, and volatilizable at a high tempera- 
ture. It is used only in the preparation of the 

Bismuth, Nitrate op, Bismuth, Subnitrate of 
— b. Oxide of. Bismuth, Subnitrate of— b. Oxide 
of, white. Bismuth, Subnitrate of— b. Regulus of, 

Bismuth, Subnitrate of, Bismv'tJii svhni'ims 
seu JVifras, Jllarcasi'ta alba, Plnmbim ciiie'reum, 
Ulagiste'rinm Marcasi'tm seu Bismnthi, liismii'- 
tlium Nit'ricum seu Siihnit'ricnm, Kitras Snhbis- 
nin'tJiicnm, Ca/x Vismu'thi. Bismn'thiim oxydidii'- 
tum album, Bismnthiim, ulhnm, Siibaz'otns hismn'- 
ticns. Oxide of Bismnth, Nitrate of Bismuth, 
White Bismnth, Trisnitrate of Bismuth, White 
Oxide of Bismuth. 3!arj"istery of Bismnth, Pearl 
White, Spanish White. (F.) 'Sonsnitrate ou soiis- 
azotnte de bismnth. Oxide hlanc de B., Bhnic de 
ford, Blanc de perle. (Bismnth. in frnstulis, ^j. 
Acid nitric, f ^ij. Aq. deslill. q. s. Mix a fluid- 
ounce of distilled water with the nitric acid, and 
dissolve the bismuth in the mixture. When the 
solution is complete, pour the clear li(|uor into 
three pints of distilled water, and set the mixture 
by, that the powder may subside. Lastly, having 
poured ofi" the supernatant fluid, wash' the sub- 
nitrate of bismuth with distilled water, wrap it 
in bibulous paper, and dry with a gentle heat. 
Ph. U. S.) It is considered to be tonic and 
antispasmodic, and has been chiefly used in 

Bismuth, Trisnitrate of, Bismuth, sub- 
nitrate of. 

Bismuth, Vat.e'rianate of, Bismn'thi vnleri- 
a'nas, Bismn'thum raUriiin'icnm. Prepared by 
mixing a neutral solution of oxide of bismuth in 
nitric acid, with valerianate of soda ; washing, 
and drying the precipitate. Used in g.nstrodynin, 
chronic gastralgia, neuralgia, and chronic palpi- 
tation, as a nervine. Dose, i a grain to 2 "rains, 
three or four times a day, in pill. 

BiS-MUTii, White, Bisinuth, suianitrate of. 




BTSMUTIir NITRAS. Bismuth, subnitrate 
of — I). Valoriiiniis, Bismuth, valerianate of. 

BISMUTllUM. Bismuth— b. Album. Bismuthi 
subnitnis — b. Nitricum, Bismuth, subnitrate of — 
b. Oxyilulatuin album, Bismuth, subnitrate of — 
b. Subnitric-um, Bismuth, subnitrate of — b. Vale- 
rianicum, Bismuth, valerianate of. 
BISPIRU.S, Dipnoos. 
BIS.SUM, Hydrangea arborescens. 
BISTORT, OFFICINAL, Polygonum bistorta 
— b. \'irL'inian, Polygonum virgininnum. 

BIST'iRTA, Polygonum bistorta. 

JilSTOllTE, Polygonum bistorta. 

n/STO/lTIER, (F.) A name given by the 
Phiinit'ici'eii to a long wooden pestle used for 
reducing soft substances to powder, and in the 
preparation of electuaries. 

lilSTOURI, (¥.) Pislorten'sia yln'dim, Scnl- 
pcl'lns, Scnl'pcnm, Din'tonnj. A small cutting- 
knife, u.sed in surgery, — so called, according to 
lluet, from the town of Pistori, which was for- 
merly celebrated for the manufacture of those 
instruments. A bistoury has the form of a small 
knife, aTid is composed of a blade and a handle. 
The blade, which is most commonly movable in 
the handle, maybe fixed by a button, spring, &c. 
When fixed in the handle, the bistouri is called 
by the French. li. il lame fixe ou dormnnte. 

The chief bistouries are: — 1. The straight B. 
(F.) n. droit, in which the blade and cutting 
eilge are straight, the point being fine, round, or 
square. 2. The convex B. (F.) /L convene ; the 
blade of which is convex at the cutting edge, 
concave at the back. 3. The concavb B. (F.) 
B. concave ; the blade of which is Concave at its 
edge, and convex at the back. 4. Bmint-pointeb 
B. (F.) 7i. bniitoini^ ; the blade of which has a 
button at its extremity. 5. The blunt or probe- 
pointed BisTOi'Ry OF Pott; concave at its cut- 
ting edge, and its point blunt; so that it can be 
carried on the palmar surface of the index finger, 
to divide the stricture, in strangulated hernia. 
Sir Astlcy Cooper has recommended a useful 
modification of this, to avoid wounding the intes- 
tine, shoulil it come in contact with the edge of 
the knife. His Bistoury has an edge of not more 
than eight lines in length, situate about five lines 
from the point. 6. Bistouri a la lime, (F.) is 
a straight bistoury ; the blade fixed in the handle, 
the extremity with a button, and the edge made 
with a file. It is chiefly used for dilating parts. 
7. Bistouri Royal, (F.) A Bistouri used in ope- 
rating upon Louis XIV., for fistula in ano. 8. 
BiSTOUiu GASTRiQtiE. (F.) A Complicated instru- 
ment, invented by Alorand, for dilating wountls 
of the abdomen. 9. Bistouri caciik, 7?. heniiaiie, 
ou Atlrdpc-loiirdaiid de liieiiiKiiie, Forceps de- 
cepto'rid. A curveil bistouri, the blade of which 
is placed in a canula, whence it issues on pressing 
a spring. 

The word Jiistonri is used by the French, at 
times, where we would employ knife. 


BITNOIiKN. Salt of nitii'meii, Padnoon, Son- 
chcrlooii, Kliala miinuc. A white, saline sub- 
Stance, which is a Hindoo preparation of great 
antiquity, and has been supposed to be the Sal 
anphalti'tes and S((l Sodome'niis of the ancients. 
It is used by the Hindoo in the prevention or 
cure of almost all diseases. 

BITIIXIMAl/CA, Gan'terannr. Two unmean- 
ing words, used by Dolaeus, to designate an active 
principle supposed to have its seat in the stomach, 
and to pre-iide over chymification, &c. 

BITIOS DE KIS, Proctocace. 

BITTER, Amarus — b. Bark, Pinckneya pu- 

hens — b. Bloom, Chironia angularis — b. Holy, 

Hiera picra — b. Iledberry. Cornus Florida — b. 

Root, Apocynum androsaemifoliuui, Gcntiana 


Catesbaci, Menyanthes verna — b. Sweet night- 
shade, Solanum Dulcamara — b. Sweet vine, So- 
lanum Dulcamara — b. Welter's, Acid, earba/.utic. 

BIT'TERNESS,vln(flrrj'<H't/o, Amarit'ips, Aiiut'- 
ror, Pi'cria, (F.) Amertume. A particular taste, 
which belongs to many substances. In some 
diseases there is a sense of bitterness felt in the 

BITTERS, COLUMBO, Tinctura Calumbce — 
b. Spirit, Tinctura gentian® composita — b. Wine, 
Vinum gentianao compositum. 

BITTERSWEET, Solanum dulcamara. 

BITTERWEED, Ambrosia trifida. 


BITTOS. A disease, in which the chief symp- 
tom is an acute pain in the anus. — Chomel. 

BITUME DE JUDEE, Asphaltum. 

BITUMEN, GLUTINOUS, Pissasphaltum — 
b. Judaicum, Asphaltum — b. of Judwa, Asphal- 
tum^b. Petroleum, Petrolasnm — b. Malta, Pi.ssas- 
phaltum — b. Salt of, Bitnoben— b. Solidum, As- 

BIVENTER, Digastricus — b. Cervicis, Corn- 
plexus musculus — b. Maxillfe, Digastricus. 

LUM, see Lobe, biventral. 

BIXA AMERICANA, see Terra Orleana — b. 
Orleana, see Terra Orleana — b. Orellana, see 
Terra Orleana. 

BLABK, Wound. 

BLACCIyE, Rubeola. 

BLACIA, Debility. 

fruticosus — b. High or Standing, see Rubus fru- 
ticosus. — b. Low, Rubus trivialis. 

BLACK BOTTLE, see Infusum Sennaj. 

BLACK DOSE, see Infusum Sennce. 

BLACK DRAUGHT, see Infusum Sennse. 

BLACK DROP, Gutt» nigrse. 

BLACK LION. A term given to a sloughing 
syphilitic ulcer, under which the British soldiers 
suffered greatly in Portugal. 

BLACK ROOT, Aletris farinosa, Pterocaulon 
pycnosta^'hvum. Leptandria purpurea. 


BLACTIiE, Rubeola. 

BLADDA. Buttermilk. 

BLADDER, Urinary Bladder. 

Bladder, F ascic' ul ated. A condition 
of the bladder in which the interior of the 
organ is marked by strong reticulated ridges or 

Bladder, Gall, see Gall Bladder — b. Irrita- 
ble. Cysterethismus. 

Bladder, Sac'culated. A condition of the 
bladder, in which the mucous coat protrudes 
through the muscular, so as to produce a hernia, 
which may go on increasing, so as to form a 
vm'ical sac'ctdiia or appen'di.r rpni'ccp.. 

Bladder, Swim, Air bladder — b. Urinary, see 
Urinary Bladder. 

BLADEBONE, Scapula. 

BLADOCH. Buttermilk. 

BLADON SPRINGS. Mineral springs in 
Alabama, about 85 miles from Mobile, which are 
said to be similar in composition to those of Selt- 
zer, Spa, and Aix-la-Chapelle, of Europe. 


BLAEBERRY, Vaccinium myrtillns. 

BL.^'SIT.\S, Blwsa lini/iin. Someauthors have 
used this word as synonymous with stammering. 
See Balbuties. Sauvages understands by it a 
defect in pronunciation, which consists in substi- 
tuting soft consonants for those that are hard; 
as the z for s, the d for t, the s for G and j, Ac. 
Also, Lisping, Tratdin'miis, Trau'lotes, (F.) Ble- 
siti, Blc (parlcr). 

BLiESOPODES, see Kyllosis. 




EL.ESnpUS, see Kyllosis. 
1;L.K8US. a distortion; especially the out- 
vriud (listoition of the le<;s. Also, a stoimnerer. 
BLAFARD, (Y.) PaVlidns, PnlUd'ulus. This 
epitl'.ctis soojctiuics given to the skin, when pale 
and dull ; but, most frequently, to the flesh of a 
wound, when it has lost its colour, and become 
white. The word is, also, sometimes used syno- 
l.ymously with Albino. 

DLAIN, (Sax.) blejene. Bleine. A pustule; a 
botch ; a blister. In Scotland, a mark left by a 
wound ; the discolouring of the skin after a sore. 
— Jauiieson. 

BLAXO D' ARGENT, Plurabi subcarbonas— 
I. fie Balchie, Cetaeeum — h. de Cerua^e, Plumbi 
subcarbonas — b. de Crems, Plumbi subcarbonas 
— b. de Fnrd, Bismuth, subnitrate of — b. de 
Kreniiiitz, Plumbi subcarbonas — /). de Krenm, 
Plumbi subcarbonas — b. de I'CEil, Sclerotic — 6. 
d'(Eitf, Albumen ovi — b. de Perle, Bismuth, sub- 
nitrate of — b. de Plomb, Plumbi subcarbonas — b. 
de Zinc, Zinci oxvdum. 

BLANC-.V ANGER (f .), Cibus alhis, Leuco- 
ph(i'(jiinn, Leiicoph'(it/iim, Argi/rotroplie'ma. An 
animal jelly, so called on account of its colour, 
combined with an emulsion of sweet ahnonds, to 
which sugar has been added, and some aromatic. 
It is sometimes prescribed as a nutriment in con- 
valescence and chronic diseases. 
BLANC-RAISIN, Blanc Rhazis. 
BLANC RIIAZIS, Blane-raisiu. An ointment 
composed of cerusa, white wax, and olive oil. 
BLANCA, Plumbi subcarbonas. 
BLANCH, from (F.) blanchir, 'to whiten, 
to bleach.' To whiten by depriving of the outer 
rind; as 'to blanch, almonds:' i.e. to peel them. 
BLANCHET, (F.) A blanket. A term given 
by the French Pharmacions to the woollen 
strainer through which they filter syrup and 
other thick fluids. See, also, Aphthas. 

BLANCHING, Etiolation — b. of the hair. 

BLANCNON ORIBASII, Polypodium filix 

BLAS An unmeaning term invented by Van 
Ileluiont to designate a kind of movement in the 
body : at times, local, — at others, under extrane- 
ous influence. Thus, he speaks of the Bias mete- 
oros of the heavenly bodies, and the Bias huma'- 
iiiim. that which operates in man. 
Blas Alterativl'm, Plastic force. 
BLASE, (F.) 'cloyed.' An epithet given to 
one whom the abuse of enjoyment has prevented 
from any longer deriving satisfaction or pleasure 
from it. 

BLAST, Conta'gio, (Sax.) blaj-r, (G.) hi a sen, 
'to blow.' The infection of any thing pestilen- 
tial. The stroke of some sudden plague. 

BLASTE'MA, Blnste'sis, (P.) Blanthne, from 
/3,\a(r7-«('w, 'I bud.' A germ. The sense of this 
word, which is often used by Hippocrates, is ob- 
scure. Castelli thinks it means the eruption of 
some morbific principle at the surface of the body. 
Also, the matrix or general formative element of 

Blastema Pili, see Hair. 

BLAS'TEMAL, Blastema' Us. Relating or ap- 
pertaining to a blastema, — as 'bluatemnl forma- 
tions,' those that are formed from a blastema. 
BLASTOCARDIA, see Molecule. 
BLASTODEKMA, see Molecule. 
BLATTA BYZAN'TIA, Umjnis odora'tm, (F.) 
Blatte de Bi/zance. This name seems, formerly, 
to have been given to a marine production from 
some of the Conchylia. It had an agreeable 
smell, a reddish tint, and the shape of a nail. It 
was prescribed in epilepsy, hysteria, and hepatic 
obstructions. Rondelct aiSrms, that it was the 

production of the shell-fish murex or purpura ; 
and that the name Blatta is derived from the 
Greek jiXarroi, 'purple.' 

BLA VELLE, Centaurea cyanus. 
liLA VEOLE, Centaurea cyanus. : 

BLA VEROLLE, Centaurea cyanus. 
BLAWING, Swelling. 
BLAWORT, Centaurea cyanus. 
BLAZING-STAR, Chamaelirium luteum, Li- 

BLE. Bladwn. This word answers, in France, 
to the word Cam in England; i. e. any kind of 
grain employed for making bread. Wheat being 
most commonly used for this purpose, Ble is 
sometimes restricted to this. Ble meteil is a 
mixture of wheat and rye. 

BLE CORNU,'ET'^ot—b. d'Espagne, Zea miiys 
— b. d'/talie, Zea mays — b. 3leleil, sec Ble — 
b. Noir, Polygonum fagopyrum — b. de Ttinpde, 
Zea mays. 

BLE (P ABLER,) Blaesitas. 
BLEABERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus. 
BLEACHING, Dealbation— b. Liquid, Eau de 

BLEAREBNESS, Lippitudo. 
BLEAR. EYE, Lippitudo. 
BLEAR-EYED, Lippus. 
BLEB, Bulla. 

BLECHNON, Polypodium filix mas. 
Scolopendrium — b. Squamosum, Asplenium ce- 

BLECIIROPYRA, see Blechros. 
BLECHROPYRUS, Typhus raitior. 
BLECHROS, fiXnxi'o^' 'weak, feeble, slow.' 
An epithet applied to different affections, and 
particularly to fevers. Hence Blechrop'yra, 'a 
slow fever:' Blfchro-iphi/g'niia, 'a slow pulse.' 
BLECHROSPHYGM'IA, see Blechros. 
BLEB, Corn — b. Avorte, Ergot — h. Farouche, 

ijLEDOCH, Buttermilk. 
BLEEDING, Bloodletting, Haemorrhagia. 
BLEEDING FROM Till': NOSE, Epistaxis. 
BLEEDING HEART, Cypripedium luteum— 
b. Boist. Cupping glass. 
BLEIB, Bulla. 
BLEJNE, Blain. 

BLEME, (F.) This word has nearly the same 
signification as Blafard. Generally, however, it 
includes, also, emaciation of the countenance. 
BLENNA, Mucus — b. Narium, Nasal mucus. 
BLENNADENI'TIB, from fiXcwa, 'mucus,' 
ahriv, 'a gland,' and itis, denoting inflammation. 
Inflammation of mucous follicles. 

BLENNELYT'RIA, from ^Xcvva, 'mucus,' and 
tAurpoj/. 'a sheath.' A discharge of mucus from 
the vagina. Leucorrhoea. — Alibert. 

BLENNEM'ESIS. Blcnnoem' esis, Vom'itna 
pitiu'to'siis, from (iXcvva, ' mucus,' and tfitcii, 
'vomiting.' Vomiting of mucus. 
BLENNLSTH'MIA.fn.m jiXcwa, 'mucus,' and 
la^lios, ' the gullet.' Increased flow of mucus 
from the pharynx and larynx. — Alibert. 
BLENNOcilEZIA, Diarrhoea, mucous. ' 
BLENNOCYSTIDES, Bursae mucosa. 
BLENNOCYSTl TE, Cystirrhoea. 
BLENNODES, Muciform. 
BLENNOKMESIS, Blennemesis. 
BLENNOG"ENOUS, Blcnm„j"enus, Muelfk, 
Mnci/'iftis, from ^iXtvvn, 'mucus,' and yivvaw, 'I 
form.' Forming or generating mucus. Breschet 
and lloussel de Vauzeme describe an apparatus 




of this kind for the secretion of the mucous mat- 
ter that constitutes the cuticle, composed of a 
ghinduhir parenchyma or organ of sctretion situ- 
iite in the substance of the true skin, and of 
rxcrotory ducts, which issue from the organ, 
!ind <leposite the mucous matter between the 

BLKNNOTDES. Muciform. 

BLENNQri)l>;U.S, Muciform. 

in.KNXOMETHITIS, see Leucorrhoea. 

BLENNOPllTIIALMIA, Ophthalmia, (puru- 

]5LENN0P'TYSIS, from fiXcvva, and tttvuj, 'I 
fpit.' Expectoration of mucus. Catarrh. 

I'.LENNOP'YRA, BU-iDiopu'ri,,, from ^Xivva, 
and vup, 'fire.' Alibcrt has classed, under this 
head, various fevers with mucous complications; 
as Mi'sciiterif fi-rer, AdeUD-iiieniii'/eal fever, &c. 

BLENNOliRHAGIA, Gonorrhoea— b. Genita- 
liuni, Eeucorrha>a — b. Notha, Gonorrhoea spuria 
— 1>. S[iuria, (ionorrhoea spuria. 

1;LENN0RIUIAG"IC, nicnnorrhmficm, (F.) 
Jl/ciiiion-lifti/ii/iie, from fi\evva, 'mucus,' and 
ptjyvvni, 'I break forth.' RehUing or appertain- 
ing to blcnnorrhagia or gonorrhoea. 

IJr.EXNOitmiAGic Epididymitis, Hernia humo- 

spuria — h. (Ill (ilinid. Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BL ENSORUUiiE, Blennorrhoea. 


BLENXORRHCE'A, Jikmwr'rlioe, Bleimor- 
rhii(j"in, I'h/eijiiiorrhie'a, J'hleymorihag"ia, (P.) 
lUeiiuorrhce, from fiXcvva, 'mucus,' and psoj, 'I 
flow.' Inordinate secretion and discharge of mu- 
cus. Also, Gonorrhoea. 

Bi.KNNoiuuiao.v. Chronica, (gleet,) see Gonor- 
rlioea — b. Gcnitalium, Leucorrhoea — b. Luodes, 
Gonorrhoea impura — b. Nasalis, Coryza — b. Oculi, 
foc Oi)lithaItnia — b. Oculi gonorrhoica, see Oph- 
tli;iliiiia — b. Oculi neonatorum, see Ophthalmia — 
li. Oculi i)urulenta, see Ophthalmia — b. Urethralis, 
Guiiorrbosa, Cystorrhoea — b. Ventriculi, Gastror- 
rli(j;n — b. Vesica?, Cystorrhoea. 

BLENNO'SES, from (i\ivva, 'mucus.' Affec- 
tions of the mucous membranes. — Alibert. 

BLENXOTIIORAX, Catarrh, Peripneumonia 
notha — b. Chronicus, Asthma humidum. 



BLENNURIA, Cystorrhcea. 

BLEPIIARADENITIS, Ophthalmia Tarsi. 

B L E P II A R A N T II R A C O'S I S, Blephnri'- 
tix (jini(jr(rii(i'nn, Carhiiavuhi'tio Oc'uli. Gangre- 
nous iiitlauimation of the eyelids. 

liLEPllARELOSIS. Entropion. 




BLEPHARITIS, (inflammation of the eyelids,) 
Oplitlijilmia tarsi — b. Gangraenosa, Blepharan- 

jiurulcnt — b. Neonatorum, see Ophthalmia (pu- 
rulcnta infantum.) 

i<ini/ii(/cxiiil'ti9, from (iXe<papov, 'an eyelid,' coii- 
Jiiiirtira, and itis, denoting inflammation. Oph- 
tiiiilMiia afl'octing the conjunctiva and eyelids. 

BLEPIIARODYSCIIRCE'A, from l3\c<paf,ov, the 
'cyi'lid.' iv;, 'with difliculty,' and XP""' 'colour.' 
l)i"s<-ob>nition of the eyelid. Na;vus of the eye- 
lid. — V(m Ammon. 



BLEPIIARON, Palpebra- 

■b. Atoniaton, Ble- 


BLEPIIARONCO'STS, B/epharon'cim, Ble- 
vban'f'h'i'iita, Enlpcbiu' rum Tumor, from /JAt^a- 

pov, 'e}'elid,' and oyKOi, 'tumour.' A tumour of 
the evelid. 

BLEPIIARONCIIS, Blepharoneosis. 

BLEPHAROPHIMO'SIS, from l3Xc<papov, 'the 
eyelid,' and i/x/iof, 'a cord.' Congenital diminu- 
tion of the space between the eyelids. — Ammon. 
See Blepharostenosis. 

— b. Neonatorum, see Ophthalmia — b. Purulenta, 

SA, Ophthalmia, purulent, of infants. 

BLEPHAROPIIYMA, Blepharoneosis. 

Tiiii't"io Cilio'rum, Blep]t'<u<ipl(iHty, from P\t(pa- 
pov, 'the eyelid,' and TzXaariKOi, 'forming,' 'form- 
ative.' The formation of a new eyelid. 

BLEPIIAROPLEGIA, Blcpharoptosis. 

BLEPIIAROPTO'SIS, Blcpharoplc'rpa, Cnsun 
pal'2jel/rcE siij/erio'ris, Delup' hhs seu Pro/dp'mii 
seu Propto'sis seu Pto'sin pal'pebra, Atoniaton 
Mepharoii, from {iXi:(^>apov, 'the eyelid,' and vTuxjii, 
'fall.' A falling down of the upper eyelid over 
the eye, caused by a paralysis of the Levator 
pd/pchrcB aiiperioris muscle. This paralysis is 
an unfavorable symptom, as it is generally con- 
nected with a state of the brain favouring apo- 
plexy or palsy. 

Blei'iiaroptosis EcTROi'it'jr, Ectropium — b. 
Entropion, Entropion. 

niia piirnleii'tii, Pyurrlui'a jml'pehra, from ji\eip- 
apov, 'eyelid,' vvov, 'pus,' and pcut, 'I flow.' Se- 
cretion of pus from the eyelids. 

thalmia (purulenta infantum.) 

BLEPIlARORRHOi'A, from ^\t<papov, 'eye- 
lid,' and p£(i), 'I flow.' A discharge of mucus 
from the eyeliils. 

BLEPII'aROSPAS'MUS, from ^Xf^apov, 'eye- 
lid,' and a-naaptoi, 'spasm.' A spasmodic action 
or tic of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. 

BLEPIIAROSTENO'SIS, from jiXt^apov, 'the 
eyelid,' and arcfijiaii, 'contraction.' Accidental 
diminution of the space between the eyelids. — 
Ammon. See Blepharophimosis. 


BLEPIIAROTIS, Ophthalmia tarsi — b. Glan- 
dularis contagiosa, see Ophthalmia. 

BLEPHAROTITIS, Oi)hthalmia tarsi. 


B L E P II A R X Y S'TUM, BUpharoryn'trum, 
from (i\£(/>apov, 'eyelid,' and fyu, 'I scrape.' An 
instrument used, by the ancients, for removing 
callosities, which made their appearance in the 
affection called, by the Greeks, Tpa^itina. — Paulus 
of iEginn, (Jorraus. 

BLEPIIIL'IA HIRSU'TA, Ohio Horsemint, 
Ilniry Homemiiit, from pXcipapii, 'an eyelash,' in 
reference to its hairy fringed bracts. An indi- 
genous plant of the Mint family, Labiatae, which 
has the aromatic properties of the Mints. 

BLKSITE, Blasitas. 

BLESSED HERB, Geum urbanum. 

BLESSURE. Abortion. Wound. 

BLESTRIS'MUS. Restlessness of the sick.— 

I5LETA. A word, used by Paracelsus for white 
or milky urine, arising from diseased kidneys. 
Biota oiha has the same meaning. 

BLEU BE BERLIN, Prussian blue — 6. de 
PruKse, Prussian blue. 

tum. , 

ville is a village about two miles from Havre. 
The waters are acidulous chalvbeate. 

BLIGHT IN THE EYE, Ophthalmia, catar- 




rhal. Palsy of the orbicularis palpebrarum and 
mnseles of the eyebrow is also vulgarly called 

BLIGHTS, see Lichen urticatus. 

BLINDNESS, Cajcitas — b. Colour, Achroma- 
topsia — b. Day, Nyctalopia — b. Nervous, Amau- 
rosis — b. Night, Ilemeralopia — b. Snow, see 
Snow blindness. 

BLISTER, Veaicato'rt'nm, Emplnx'trum Vesica- 
to'riniii seu Lijtta^ Epinjxis'ticnm, Ves'icnnt, lili'a- 
ter pliiHter, (i.) Venieatuire, Vesicant. Any sub- 
stance which, when applied to the skin, irritates 
it, and occasions a serous secretion, raising the 
epidermis, and inducing a vesicle. Various arti- 
cles produce this effect, as cnntharideK, nniDtnvd, 
garoii, eiiphorblnm, ynrlic, ammonia, <tc. Blisters 
are used as counter-irritants. By exciting a dis- 
ease artificially on the surface, we can often re- 
move another which may be at the time existing 
internally. A perpetual blister is one that is 
kept open for a longer or a shorter time by means 
of appropriate dressings. 

Blistkr or vesication, (Prov.) Ercle, also means 
the vesicle produced by vesicatories or other 

Blister, Fever, see Fever blister. 

Blister, Mag"istral, (F.) Vesicatoire mnr/is- 
tral. A prompt means of producing vesication 
recommended by i\I. Valleix. It is prej)ared as 
follows — Take powdered caiitharides and wheat- 
Jiour, of each equal parts; vinegar, a suflBcient 
quantity to form a soft paste. 

Blister Beetle, Cantharis — b. Fly, Cantha- 
ris — b. Piaster, Blister. 

BLISTERWEED, Ranunculus acris. 

BLISTERING FLY, Cantharis— b. Paper, see 
Sparadrapum vesicatorium — b. Tissue, Sparadra- 
pura vesicatorium. 

BLISTERS, WHITE, Rupia escharotiea. 

BLITUM AMERICAN UM, Phytolacca de- 

BLOOD, Anglo-Saxon, blo», from ble^an, 'to 
bleed.' Sanguis, Cruor, Lapis anima'lis, HcBma, 
'aifia, (Old Eng.) Blciie, (F.) Sang. An animal 
fluid formed chiefly from the chyle ; acquiring 
important properties during respiration ; entering 
every organ through the circulation ; distributing 
the nutritive principles to every texture, and the 
source of every secretion. The blood is white in 
the molluscous and inferior animals, which have 
been, hence, called white-bluoded, to distinguish 
them from the red-blooded, which class includes 
the mammalia, birds, reptiles, and fishes. Hu- 
man blood is composed of water, albumen, fibrin, 
an animal colouring substance, a little fatty mat- 
ter — heematelcB'uin — and different salts; as chlo- 
rides of potassium and sodium, phosphate of lime, 
subcarbonate of soda, lime, magnesia, oxide of 
iron, and lactate of soda, united with an ani- 
mal matter. Arterial blood is of a florid red 
colour, strong smell ; s. g. 1.049. Venous blood 
is of a brownish red ; s. g. 1.051. The differ- 
ence in colour has given occasion to the first 
being called red blood; the latter, black. The 
former, which is distributed from the heart, is 
nearly the same through its whole extent: the 
latter is the remains of the arterial blood after 
the different elements have been taken from it in 
nutrition, and probably differs in composition. 
It likewise contains different substances absorbed. 
Venous blood, taken from a vessel and left to 
itself, becomes solid, and separates into two dis- 
tinct parts, — the serum or watery supernatant 
fluid; and the cruor, coag'uluni, crassamen'tnm, 
Jiepar seu pluceu'ta san'guinis, plucoi'ta cruo'ris, 
in'suld, thrombus, or clot. The serum is chiefly 
water, holding albumen in solution and the salts 
of the blood. The clot contains the fibrin, co- 
louring matter — hcsmatosin, a little serum, and a 

small quantity of salts. M. Le Canu found the 
blood to be composed — in 1000 parts — of water, 
7S.5.5'J0; albumen, 09.415; fibrin, 3.565 ; colour- 
ing matter, 119.626; crystallizable faity matter, 
4.300; oily matter, 2.270; extractive matter so- 
luble in alcohol and water, 1.920; albumen com- 
bined with soda, 2.010; chlorides of sodium aii.l 
potassium ; alkaline phosphates, suljjhatcs, and 
subcarbonates, 7.-'!04; subcarbonate of lime and 
magnesia, phosphate of lime, magnesia and iron, 
peroxide of iron, 1.414; loss, 2.586. The fmir 
principal components of the blood are fibrin, 
albumen, corpuscles, and saline matter. In the 
circulating blood they are thus combined — 

.'ii.'^'"' In solution ioxvams Liquor San(nii. 

Albumen, >■ . a ^ j 

Salts, J 

Red Corpuscles — suspended in the Liquor San- 

In coagulated blood they are thus combined: 

Fibrin, ] Forming the crassamentum or 

Red Corpuscles, J clot. 

Albumen, ) Remaining in solution, forinini; 
Salts, J serum. 

The following table exhibits the computations 
of different physiologists regarding the weight 
of the circulating fluid — arterial and venous. 

Harvey, ■) Jbs. 





Lobb, V 10 

Lower, j 

Sprenscl 10 to 15 

Giinther 15 to 20 

lilake 16J tol8J 

Miiller and Burdach 20 

Wagner 20 to 25 

Quosnai 'j,' 

F. Hoffmann 28 

Haller 28 to 30 

Young 40 

Ilamberger SO 

Keill 100 

The proportion of arterial blood to venous is 
about 4 to 9. 

Much attention has been paid to the varying 
condition of the blood in disease. The avernge 
proportion of each of the organic elements in 
1000 parts of healthy blood is as follows, accord- 
ing to Le Canu, and MM. Andral and Gavarrct: 
— fibrin, .3; red corpuscles, 127; solid matter of 
the serum, 80 ; water, 790. 

Dried human blood was, at one time, consi- 
dered to be anti-epileptic; that of the goat, dried, 
Sanguis hirci sicca'tus, sudorific and antipleu- 
retic. The dried blood of the ox — Extrac'tum 
San'guinis Bori'ni — and the dried red corpuscles 
have been given as analeptics, especially wbere 
there was a deficiency of red corpuscles. 

Blood, Arterial, see Blood — b. Black, see 
Blood — b. Black, vascular system of, see Vas- 

Blood, Casein, Globulin— b. Corpuscles, Glo- 
bules of the blood — b. Disease, Ilaematonosus — 
b. Disks, Globules of the blood. 

Blood, Dried, see Blood— b. Loss of, Hffiraor- 
rhagia — b. Menstrual, see Menses — b. Red, see 
Blood — b. Red, system of, see Vascular- b. Spit- 
ting of, Hajmoptysis— b. Venous, see Blood— b. 
Vomiting of, Htematemesis— b. AVhite, Lymph. 

BLOOD CRYSTALS, Hannatoidin. 

BLOODING, Blood-lettin.'. 


B L D - L E T T I N G, Missio seu JDetrac'tin 
San guntis, Ilamax'is, Cataachaa'nius, Blooding, 




Plee'liiiff, (F.) Siti'jnee, Emlmtion saufjnine. A j 
discharge of a certain quantity of blood produced 
by art : an operation which consists in making 
an opening into a vessel to dnuB or let blood from 
it. When practised on an artery, it is called Ar- 
li-riot'onii/ ; on a vein, Phlebot'onuj, VencBsec'tio, 
VcJicHcc'lioH ; and on the capillary vessels, local 
or capillanj, in contra<listinction to the former, 
which is termed fjeneral. Blood-letting is used 
both (luring the existence of a disease, as in in- 
flammation, and in the way of prophylaxis. It 
is employed to fulfil various indications. L To 
diminish the actual mass of blood; — when it is 
termed, by the French pathologists, Suifjiiee eva- 
ciialii:e. In such case, fluids ought not to be al- 
lowed too freely afterwards. 2. To diminish the 
turgeseence in any particular organ — (F.) S'tig- 
yifi; revitlxivc, Renithlve hlood-lettiiKj or t/leeiltiig, 
\'eua'.iec'tio revnlxo'n'n, when performe(i far from 
the part nfiectod; and Sniyue.e derivutiue, when 
near. 'i. To diminish the consistence of the blood, 
(F.) S'tiijii^e upoliative. The immediate effects 
<.f blood-letting are: diminution of the mass of 
blood and of heat; retardation of the pulse, and 
sometimes syncope. Blood-letting from the veins 
— phlcbi/ltimij — is practised on the subcutaneous 
veins of the neck, the face, the fore-arm, and the 
leg ; sometimes on those of the hand or foot. 
The necessary apparatus consists of a bandage 
or riband, a compress of rag, and a lancet or 

The veins selected for the operation, are, 1. Tii 
the fold of the arm, five; — the cephalic, basilic, 
the two median, and the anterior cubital. 2. In 
the htud, the cephalic and salvatella. 3. In the 
y"'H(f, the great and little saphena. A^. In the neck, 
the external jugular. 5. In the forehead, the 
frontal. G. Tn the month, the ranine. The ope- 
ration of phlebotomy in the limbs is performed 
by tying a circular bandage round the limb, in 
order that the subcutaneous veins may become 
turgid by the course of the blood being ob- 
structed: the bandage not being so tight, how- 
ever, as to compress the arteries of the limb. A 
puncture is made into the vein, and the desired 
((uantity allowed to flow. The ligature is now 
removed, and a compress and retaining bandage 
applied. Utipillnry or local blood-lettiuf/, arte- 
rio-iihlebot'oiiii/, is practised on the skin or 
niucuous membranes, by means of leeches, the 
lancet, or cupping. 

Bi.ooD-LETTiNG, Capillaiiv, See Blood-letting 
— b. Derivative, see Blood-letting — b. Evacuative, 
see Blood-letting — b. General, see Blood-letting 
— b. Local, see Blood-letting — b. Revulsive, see 
Blood-letting — b. Spoliative, see Bloodletting. 

BLOOULIKE, Sanguine. 

BLOOD LIQUOR, Liquor Sanguinis. 

BLOODIIOOT, Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

BLOOU.^IIOT. IIypera}mic. 

BLOODSTONE, llajmatites. 

BLOODSTROKE, Conp-de-sang. 

BLOOD VESICLE, Globule of the blood. 

BLOOD VESSEL, (F.) Valsnean nanguin. A 
vessel destined to contain and convey blood. 

Bf.ooi) Vesskl, bukaking, buksting, ruptu- 
ring OP A. Hajmorrhagia. 

BLOODWEED, Asclepias eurassavica. 

BLOODWORT, Uieraciuiu venosum, Sangui- 
naria Canadensis. 

BLOODY, Sanguin'cuH, Crucn'tus, Sanguin'- 
eniis, (F.) Sangnin. Having the character of 
blood. Relating to blood. See Sanguine. 

BLOODY FLUX. Dysentery. 

BLOO.M, HONEY, Apocynum androsfcmifo- 

town of Blossburg is iu Tioga County, 133 miles 

north of Ilarrisburg. They contain pure sulphu- 
ric acid; and are astringent and touic. 

BLOSSOM, see Grog-blossom. 


BLOTCH, (Prov.) Splavin, Sprote. A pustule; 
more commonly, an eruption of a large kind. 

BLOW, Ict,i8, Plege, (F.) Coiip. Effect pro- 
duced by one body striking another. The im- 
pression made by any body which strikes us, or 
against which we strike; — a common cause of 
wounds, contusions, fractures, kc. 

BLOWING SOUND, Bruit de Soi,Jle — h. s. 
Diffused, see Murmur, respiratory. 

BLUE-BELLS, Gentiana catesbisi. 

BLUE-BERRY, Caulophyllum thalictroides, 
Lantana — b. Low, Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum. 

BLUE-BONNETS, Cetaurea cyanus. 

BLUE-BOTTLE, Centaurea cyanus, Cyanus 

BLUE LICKS, see Kentucky,MineralWaters of. 

BLUE STONE, Cupri sulphas. 

BLUET, Centaurea cvanus. 

BLUET DES MOIS'SONS, Cyanus segetum. 

BLUITER, Borborygmus. 

BLUSH, see Flush. 

BLU,sn, Cutaneous, see Efilorescence — b. In- 
flammatory, Erythema. 

BL UTTER, Borborygmus. 

BOA, Ihiia. An eruption of red, ichorous pim- 
ples. — Pliny. See, also, Hidroa and Sudamina. 

Boa Upas, Upas. 

BOyE, Syphilis. 

BOALA, see Scherlievo. 

BOBERRL Curcuma longa. 

BOCHE, Swelling. 

BOCCHOE, Diosina crenata. 

BOCHET, Bochetum. 

BOCHE'TUM, (F.) Bochet. A term formerly 
applied to the second decoction of the sudorific 
woods. The French word has been lately revived. 

BOCHIUM, Bronchocele. 

BOCHO, Diosma crenata. 

BOCIUM, Bronchocele. 

BOCK, Vomiturition. 

BOCKING, Eructation, Vomiting. 

springs of Booklet, in Bavaria, are acidulous 

BODY, Corpus, Soma, (F.) Corpn ; from Teu- 
tonic boden, the 'fundus or bottom.' [?] The 
human body, (F.) Corps humain, (Old E.) Liche, 
is the collection of organs which compose the 
frame. At times, however, body is used synony- 
mously with trunk. AVe say, also, hodif of the 
femur, of the sphenoid, &c., to designate the shaft 
or middle portion of those bones ; body of the 
uterus, Ac. Likewise, any distinct portion of 
matter perceived by the senses. Also, the rectum. 

Body, Coming down op the. Proctocele. ' 

Body-Searcher, Searcher. One who formerly 
ex.amined the bodies of the dead to report as to 
the cause of death. In the time of the plague 
this was done by "the chirurgeons," who were 
allowed " twelve pence," to be paid out of the 
goods of the party searched, if able; otherwi.s«, 
by the parish. Until of late, this office was exe- 
cuted in England by two old women — called 
'searchers'; and hence the imperfections of the 
Bills of Mortality. In plague times, the office 
was an important one; and, it is stated, that a 
noted searcher, named Snacks, finding his busi- 
ness increase so much, that he could not transact 
it alone, offered to any one who would join him 
in its hazards, half the profits; and they who 
joined him were said to " go with Snacks." 
Hence, the saying "to go Snacks," or to divide 
the spoils. — Wadd. 

BODY-SNATCHER, Resurrectionist. 

BOE, Cry. 




BOELLT, Intestines. 
BOETUEMA, Medicament. 
BOG-BEAN, Menvanthes trifoliata. 
BOIA, Boa. 

BOIL, Fuiuneulus — b. Blind, see Furunculus — 
1). (luin, Parulis — b. Malignant, see Furunculus — 
b. Wasp's nest, see Furunculus. 

//O/.S' AM Eli, Quassia — b. de Campeche, 
Hajmato.xylum t'anipechianum — b. de Cerf, Cornu 
cervi — b. de C/ti/pre, Rhodium lignum — b. de 
C'liilenvre, see Stiycbnos — i. X'oii.r, Glycyrrhiza 
— b. de MiniiiH, Ceplialanthus occidentalis — b. 
de Ploiiib, Birca palustris— 6. Pnaiit, Pruiius pa- 
Uus — b. de Ruse, Rhodium lignum — 6. de Snp- 
jxiii, C«salpinia sappan — b. Sudorlfique, Wood, 

waters are situate about half a league from Fon- 
tcnay-le-Compte, in Franco. They are purgative, 
aud seem to contain carbonate and sulphate of 
lime and chloride of sodium. 
BOIST, Swelling. 

BOITE, (F.) A box or cage, Capsa, Pyxis. 
An apparatus for the reception of any matters 
which it may be desirable to preserve. In Sur- 
(jci'j aud Anatomy, Unites a dissection, li. d am- 
pHtati<ju, B. d trepan, B. a cataracte, &c., mean 
the eases containing these various instruments. 
Boile da Crane is the bony case which receives 
the brain. Bo'ite is, also, the portion of the 
stem of the trephine which receives the ])yra- 
mid or centre-pin. Boite de Petit is a machine, 
invented by M. Petit, to retain the fractured por- 
tions of bone in apposition, when the leg has been 
fractured in a complicated manner. Boile is, also, 
a kind of case put before an artificial anus to re- 
ceive the fieces, which are continually being dis- 
charged. The vulgar, in France, give the name 
Botle, to various articulations,- — B. de yenou, B. 
de la hrniche; "knee-joint, hip-joint." 
BOITEMENT, Claudication. 
BOITEUIE, Claudication. 

BOITIER, (F.) Appai-eil, Cap'aida unguenta'- 
ria, Capsa'riuni. A dressintj-case. A box, con- 
taining salves and different apparatus, used more 
particularly by the dressers in hospitals. 
BOK, Vomiturition. 
BOKKING, Eructation, Vomiting. 
BOL, Bolus — b. d'Annenie, Bole, Armenian — 
h. Oriental, Bole, Armenian — 6. Blanc, Bolus 
alba — b. Bonge, Bole, Armenian. 
BOLA, Mvrrha. 
BOLCHON, Bdellium. 

BOLE, Jhlus, (F.) Bol, Terre bolaire, meant, 
with the older writers, argillaceous earth, used 
as an absorbent and alexipharmic. The various 
boles had different forms given to them, and were 
stamped, or sealed, hence called TerrcB siyillatcB ; 
as in the following : 

Bole Akme'nian, Bole Arme'niac, B. Ar'me- 
nic, Argil'ln ferrugiii'ea rubra, A. Bolus rubra, 
iiinapisis, Arena'men, Bolna Orienta'lis seu Ar- 
vteniaca seu Arnie'nice seu rubra, (F.) Bol d'Ar- 
inenie ou oriental ou rouge. A red, clayey earth, 
found not only in iVrmenia, but in several coun- 
tries of Europe, — in Tuscany, Silesia, France, 
<tc. It was once esteemed a tonic and astringent, 
and was applied as-a styptic. It is now, scarcely, 
if ever, used. It consists of argil, mixed with 
lime and iron. 
BOLES IS, Coral. 
B0LE80N, Balsam. 

BOLET ODORANT, Daedalea suaveolens. 
BOLETUS ACJARICUS, B. Laricis— b. Albus, 
Boletus laricis — b. Cervinus, Ehiphomyces gra- 
uulatub — b. Discoideus, Bajdalea suaveolens. 

Bole'tus Esculbn'tus, (F.) Morelle. Ord. 
Fungi. An eatable mushroom, found in tbe 
woods in Europe, and much admired by Gastro. 
nomea. It was formerly esteemed to be aphro- 

Boletus Fui.vus, B. igniarius — b. Ilippocrepis, 
B. igniarius. 

Bole'tus Ignia'rius. The systematic nnino 
for the Afj'aric, Agar'icus, Ayar'icum of tlie 
Pharmacopoeias, Agar'ivua Chirurgo'nim fiu 
Qucrcils seu ignia'rius, Polyj/orus ignia'riiiH, 
h'ca, Bole'tus ungula'tua seu fnlvus seu hipj,,,. 
crepis seu obtu'sus, SpunJ,; Am'adou, Punk, (Prov.) 
Funk, Fungus Ignia'rius, Fungus Querri'inm, 
Aqaric of the Oak, ToucJiwood, Touchwood Jlnlu. 
tiis. Female Agaric, Tinder, (F.) Agaric de chene, 
Amadouvier. It was formerly much used by 
surgeons as a styptic. 

Bole'tus Lar'iCIS, B. Larici'nus seu jmrgutis 
seu albus seu agar'icus seu rifficina'lis, Fun'fins 
Lar'icis, Polyp'orus oficina'lis, Agar'icus ulhm 
seu Lar'icis, A. Albus op'tiwus, White Agiiric, 
(F.) Agaric blanc, A. Amadourier. On the cuii- 
tinent of Europe it has been given as a cathartic 
and emetic, as well as to moderate the sweats iu 
phthisis. — De Haen. E-xternnlly, styptic. 

Boletus Obtusus, B. igniarius — b. Officinalis, 
B. laricis— b. Purgans, Boletus laricis — b. Salicis, 
Daedalea suaveolens — b. Suaveolens, DaMhilea 
suaveolens— b. Touchwood, Boletus igniarius. 

BO LI MART IS, Ferrum tartarisatum. 

BOLISMOS, Boulimia. 

BOLI'TES. The mushroom; perhaps the 
Agar'icus Auranfiacus. — Pliny, Martial, SeuKi- 
nius, Galen. It was so called, in consuquencs 
of its shape, — from Bohia. 

BOLLYNGE, Swelling. 

BOLNING, Swelling. 

BOLT. Used, at times, for to swallow without 
chewing, — as to " bolt one's food." 

BOLUS, (iuiXog, Buccell'a, a morsel, a mouth- 
ful, a bole, (F.) Bol. A pharmaceutical prepa- 
ration, having a pilular shape, but larger; capa- 
ble, however, of being swallowed as a pill. 

Bolus Alba, Terra Sigilla'fn, Argil'la pcd- 
lid'ior: — called sigilla'ta, from being commonly 
made into small cakes or flat masses, and staiii])e(l 
or sealed with certain impressions. (F.) B<d 
blanc, Terre Sigillee, Argile ochreuse pale. It 
was used like Bole Armenian, and was brought 
from Etruria. See Terra. 

Bolus, Ai.imen'tary, Bolus AUmenta'ri us. The 
bole formed by the food, after it has undergone 
mastication and insalivation in the mouth ; and 
been collected upon the tongue prior to degluti- 

Bolus Orienta'lis. A kind of bolar earth, 
only distinguished from Bole Armenian in beiiii,' 
broughtfrom Constantinople. See Bole, Armenian. 

Bolus Rubra, Bole Armenian. 

BOMA'REA SALSIL'LA. The inhabitants 
of Chili use this plant as a sudorific. It is given 
in infusion in cutaneous diseases. 

BOMBAX, Gossypium. 


BOMBITATIO, Tinnitus aurium. 

BOMBUS, Au'rium fluctua'tio, A. Sib'ihis, A. 
Son'itus, A. Susur'ruH, (F.) Bombemeiit. A kiml 
of ringing or buzzing in the ears; — characterizeil, 
according to Sauvages, by the perception of 
blows or beating repeated at certain interval?. 
Also, Borborygmus. See Fart, Flatulence, and 
Tinnitus Aurium. 

BOMBYX MORI, see Sericum. 

BON, Coffea Arabica. 

BONA. Phaseolus vulgaris. 


BONA FEVER, see Fever, Bona. 

BONDUE, Gymnocladus Canadensis. 


10 5 


BONK, 0», Oh'teon, Os'leum, (F.) Os, (Sax.) 
biiti. The bones lire the solid and hard parts, 
which f(jrin the basis of the bodies of animals i 
of the «ui)erior classes; and the union of which 
(■on>:titiitos the H/celrion. The human body has, 
at tlio adult a<^o, 208 hones, without including 
the ;)2 tci'ih, the ossa Wortni;uia, and the ses;i- 
inoid bones. Anatomists divide them, from their 
shape, into 1. Loiu/ /yoiiex, which form pnrt of the 
limbs, anil represent columns for supporting the 
weight of the body, or levers of diflcrcnt kinds 
for the muscles to act upon. 2. Flot boiien, which 
form the parietes of splanchnic cavities; and, 3. 
IShiirt hnneH, met with in parts of the body where 
solidity and some mobility are necessary. Bones 
are formed of two different textures ; spoiKjij and 
conijiivt. They afford, on analysis, much phos- 
phate and carbonate of lime, a little phosphate 
of magnesia, phosphate of ammonia, oxides of 
iron and miinganese, some traces of alumina and 
silica, gelatin, fat, iind wafer. The uses of the 
bones are mentioned under each bone. They 
give shape to the body, contain and defend the 
viscera, and act as levers to the muscles. 


Bones of 


Boxes op 


Boxes of 
THE Up- 
per Ex- 

Boxes op 


f Frontal. 
Bones of the I ''""'^"'' 

K).„n I l<'mporal 

.....'.'.".' 2 

I Ethmoid 1 

[Sphenoid 1 

I .Superior Maxillary.... 2 

.Tut;:il or Cheek 2 

Nasal 2 

Bones of the J Lachrymal 
Face. ' I'liliitine.... 

Inferior Spongy 2 

V'omijr 1 

Inferior Maxillary 1 

Tncisores 8 

< Cuspidati 4 

(^Molares 20 

I Ilyoid . 




Bono of the 


I Malleus 2 

Bones of the) Incus 2 

Imv. 1 Oibiculare 2 

f Stapes 2 

I Cervical 7 

VertehrcB. -; Dorsal 12 

(Lumbar 5 

Sacrum 1 

Os Cnccygis 1 

The Pelvis Innominatum 2 

Tbe^''"''^'--{Sul:z:;;:::::;:::::::: I 

The Arm Humerus.- 



f Ulna., 
t Itadius 




( Navu'ulare 2 

I Lunaro 2 

I Cuneiforme 2 

I Orbiculare 2 

Trapezium 2 

Trapezoides 2 

Maiinum 2 

Uueiforme 2 

Metacarpus 10 

I'/iiiliviges 28 j 

The Thigh Femur 2 

(Patella 2 | 

The ic^-. -j Tibia 2 

(.Fibula.. 2 

f CalcisOs 2 

Tarsus, I .Vstrasalus 2 

or -j Cuboides 2 

Instep, j XaviciilBre 2 

j [Cuueiforme 6 

I Jtet^ilarsus 10 

ll'halanges 28 

Total 240 

The bones of the o.^, Boa Taurus, are employed 
in pharmacy. 
Bo.vE-AcH, Osteocopus — b. Ague, Osteocopus. 

BoxE, Back, Vertebral column — b.Bar,Pubts,os. 

BoxE Bia\('k, see Carbo animalis. 

BoxE, Blade, Scapula — b. Boat-like, Os sca- 
phoides — b. Breast, Sternum — b. Crupper, Coccyx. 

Bone Earth, see Cornu ustum — b. Fever, see 

Bonk, Haunch, Ilion — b. Interparietal, Inter- 
parietal bone. 

Bone Phosphate op Lime, see Cornu ustum. 

Bone, Bimp, Coccyx — b. Share, Pubis — b. 
Splinter. Fibula. 

BONEBINDER, Osteocolla. 

BONE-DOCTOR, Hcnnneur. 

BONE-NIPPEllS, Oxtenl'cnm, Tcnac'ula. from 
^e?(eo, ' 1 hold.' (F.) Teuaille iiiciiivc. An in- 
strument used for cutting off splinters and car- 
tilages. It is a kind of forceps, the handles of 
which are strong, and the edges, which touch 
each other, cutting. 

BONKSET, Eupatorium perfoliatum — b. 
Rough, Eupatorium teucrifolium — b. Upland, 
Eupatorium sessifolium. 

BONE-SETTER, Reuoueur. 

BONE-SHAVE, Neuralgia femoro-poplita?a. 

ossium — 1). Friability of the, Fragilitns ossium — 
b. Salt of, Ammoniie carbonas — b. Softening of 
the, Mollities ossium. 

IWXHO.MME. Verbaseum thapsus. 

BONICEATTER, Bonnvchibber. 

BONIFACIA, Ruscus hypoglossura. 

BONITHLOr.BER, Bonnyclabber. 

liONNE DAME. Atriplox hortensis. 

is a village six Iciigiics from Pan, in the depart- 
ment KiinticK Pyreiiren, France. Here arc several 
thermal springs. They were celebrated as early 
as the time of Francis I., under the name Emix 
d'Arquehusade. They contain chlorides of sodium 
and magnesium, sulphates of magnesia and lime, 
sulphur, and silica. The temperature is from 7S° 
to 98° Fahrenheit. 

l!\\e factitionn Eau nv. Bonnes is made of J¥i/- 
dronulplnirctted water, { i^iv ; jyure water, Oj. and 
f,:5ss; chloride of sodium, gr. xxs ; sulphate of 
maguesia, gr. i. 

IJONNET, Reticulum. 

nONNET A DEUX GL ODES, Bonnet d'Hip- 

poc' rates, Mitra HIppocrat' icn. Fas' cia capita'lix, 
Pi'leus Hippncral'icus. A kind of bnndage, the 
invention of which is ascribed to Hippocrates. 
It consists of a double-headed roller, passed over 
the head, so as to envelop it like a cap. The 
French also name it Bonnet d. deux globes, Cape- 
line de la tete. 

BONNYCLABBER, Clahher. from lr\»h,hainc, 
'milk,' and clahar, 'mire.' In Ireland, sour but- 
termilk. In this country, the thick part of sour 
milk. Boniclatter and Boiiilhlohber. also, meant 
cream or "good milk gone thick.' — Halliwell. 

brifugn — b. Trifoliata, Cusparia febrifuga. 

BONTIA GERMINANS,Avicennia tomentosa. 

BONUS GENIUS, Peucedanum— b. Henrieus, 
Chenopodium bonus Henrieus. 

BONY, Osseous. 

BOOCHO, Diosma crenata. 

BOON UPAS,' Upas. 

BOON A, Phaseolus vulgaris. 


BOOTIKIN. A glove with a partition for the 
thumb, but no separate ones for the fingers — like 
an infant's glove — made of oiled silk. — Dr. E. J. 
Seymour. Horace Walpole speaks in raptures of 
the benefit he derived from bootikins in gout. 

BORACIC ACID, Ac"idum Borac"icuw, Sol 
sedati'vus Homber'gi, Boric Acid, (F.) Avide 




horaciqite. An acid obtained from boras, which 
w as once looked upon as sedative. It was also 
called ^Icor Borac" icus, Sul vitrioli vai-cot'icum, 
Sid vnUit'ile Bora'cia, and Flares Bora'cia. 

BORAGE, Borajro officinalis. 

BORA'GO UFFICINA'LIS, Biiglos'aum ve- 
riim seu lali/u'liiDii, Jiorra'ijo, Corrn'go, Bo- 
I'lgo hoi-toi'eie, Borarje, Ihtrrat/e, (F.) Bonrrache. 
Ord. Boraginese. -Sear. Si/nt. Pentandria Mono- 
gynia. The leaves and iiowers have been con- 
f-idered aperient. 


BORATIIRON, Juniperus Sabina. 

BORAX, Boras Soda seu siipersat'nriis soda 
s-cn alcd/cn'ceiis seu alcali'nnm seu superso'dicus, 
Sodm Biho'rtis, Snhhoras SodcB seu na'tricum. 
Soda Boraxa'ta, Chryxocol'la, Copis'trnm anri, 
Subhorate of protojc' ide of So' dinm,Subprotoho' rate 
if Sodinm, Borax Veu'etiis, Bornx'trion, Niirum 
factVlinm, <fec., Siihbo'rate or Biborate of Soda, 
Borate of Soda, (F.) Borate ou Soiis-borute de 
Sonde, Borate siirsaturc de sonde. It is found in 
an impure state in Thibet and Persia. It is in- 
(Hlorous ; taste eool, and somewhat alkaline; 
.■ioluble in 12 parts of water. Borax is seldom 
u.scd except as a lotion in aphtha;. 

BoKATE OF Meucuky has been recommended 
as an antipvphilitic. 


African shrub, used in asthma and hydrothorax. 
In decoction, it is given as a diuretic. — Pappe. 

BORRORUS, Fitnus. 

BORBORYG'MUS, from /Jop/Jopu^io, 'I make a 
dull noise.' Munnur seu liombiis seu Motus In- 
testino'rutn, Anile' ma, Anile'sia, O(fliopsoph'ia, In- 
toiia'tio intestina'iis, 3turmur ventris sou intesti- 
l.t.'le, lior'bori/gm, (Sc.) Blniter, BInttcr, (Prov.) 
CrolUiuj, Growling, (F.) Gargonillenient, Grouille- 
iiient d'Entraillcs. The noise made by flatus in 
the intestines. This happens often in health, 
especially in nervous individuals. 

BOUb (F.), Margo, Edge, Margin. Anato- 
mists have so named the boundaries of an organ. 
Thus, the bimes, muscles, <fee. have bords as well 
as bodies. The 'free edge,' bord libre, is one not 
connected with any part; the 'adhering edge,' 
lord adherent, one that is connected; and the 
lord articni.riire, or 'articular margin or edge,' 
that which is joined to another bone. 

BOBD CILIAIEE, Ciliary margin. 

Near this great city, in the south-west of France, 
is a saline, chalybeate spring. It contains oxide 
of iron, carbonate and sulphate of lime, chlorides 
of sodium and calcium, subcarbonate of soda, and 
galphatc of magnesia. 

BORE, Boron. 

BORE-TREE, Sambucus. 

BOiiGNE (F.), Codes, Unoc'nlns, Luscns, 
Zuscio'sns. One who has only one eye, or sees 
only with one. The word has been used, figu- 
ratively', for blind, in surgery and anatomy. See 


BORIUM, Boron. 

BORKIIAUSENIA CAVA, Fumaria bulbosa. 

BORN, past participle of tea;-, (F.) ne. Brought 
forth from the womb. 

BoHN Alive. It has been decided by English 
judges, that 'to be born alive,' means, that acts 
if life must have been manifested after the whole 
body has been extruded; and that respiration in 
transitu is not evidence that a child was born 
alive. It must be 'wholly born alive;' hence 
respiration may be a sign of life, but not of live 

BORON, Bo'ritim, Bornm, (F.) Bore. A simple 
substance, the basis of boracic acid ; obtained, by 
beating potassium with boracic acid, as a dark, 

olive-coloured powder, devoid of taste and smell. 
Heated in the air or in oxygen, it is converted 
into boracic acid. 

BOR'OSAIL, Zael. ^Ethiopian names for a 
disease, very common there, which attacks the 
organs of generation, and appears to have con- 
siderable analogy with syphilis. 

BORRAGO, Borago officinalis. 

BORRl, Curcuma longa. 

BORRIBERRI. Curcuma longa. 

a village in Beam. The waters are chalybeate. 

BORUM, Boron. 

BOSA. An yEgyptian name for a mass, made 
of the meal of darnel, hemp-seed, and water. It 
is inebriating. — Prospero Alpini. At the present 
day, it is applied to a kind of acidulated and, 
sometimes, fermented scherbet. In its common- 
est form, it is made by fermenting an infusion of 
millet-seed. A more agreeable Bosa is prepared 
by the I]gyptians from tamarinds and honey; 
and by the Greeks from the fruit of Solanum Ly- 
copersicum. This last is called, by them, A/joocir- 
TtKov, Drosis'ticon. 

lum glaucum. 

BOSOM, see Mamma. 

BOSSA, Plague token. 

BOSSE, Hump, Protuberance — b. Nasale, 
Nasal protuberance. 

BOSSU, see Hump. 

BOSWELLIA SERRATA, see Juniperus lycia 
— b. Thurifera, see Juniperus Ivcia. 

BOTAL FORA'MEN, For'a'men Bota'le seu 
Botal'lii, Fora'men Ova'le, (F.) Trott de Bo- 
tal, TroH ovale. A large opening which exists 
in the foetus in the partition between the two 
auricles of the heart; and by means of which 
the blood passes from one to the other. Its 
discovery is generally attributed to Leonard Bo- 
tallus, Botal, or Botalli, who wrote in 1562. It 
was spoken of, however, by Vesalius, and evea 
by Galen. 

BOTANE, Herb. 

BOTANICAL DOCTOR, Ilerb-doctor. 

BOTANIQ UE MEDIO ALE, Botany, medical. 

BOT'ANY, MEDICAL, Botan'iea Med'iea, 
Ifedici'ua Botan'iea, Phytolog"ia 3fed'ica, from 
PoTuvn, 'an herb,' (F.) Botanique 3Iedicale. The 
knowledge of the [)roperties, characters, &e. of 
those vegetables which are used in medicine. 

BOTAR'GO, (F.) Botnrgue. A preparation 
made in Italy and the south of France, with the 
eggs and blood of the MngiUeph'alns or Mullet, 
strongly salted, after it has become putrescent. 
It is used as a condiment. 

BOT ARGUE, Botargo. 

BOTCH, (I.) Bozzu. Of old, a swelling of the 
skin. A phlegmon. A large ulcerous allection. 

BOTHOR. An Arabic term for al)sccss in the 
nares. It means, also, a tumour in general; 
especially those which are without solution of 

BOTHRIOCEPH'ALUS, B. latns, Bothrio- 
ceph'alum, from (iuDpiov, 'a small pit,' and Ktipa^ri, 
' head.' Botrioceph'alus, Biboth'rinm latum, 
Tce'nia lata seu vnlgu'ris seu os'cnlis laleral'ibtii 
gctn'inis seu grisca sou membrana'eea seu tenel'la 
seu denta'ta seu linnia'nn iner'mis seu prima seu 
os'cnlis lateral'ibus aolita'riis seu aeeph'iila ecu 
osvnlis snperficidl'ibns, Lumbri'cus latns, Plnte'a, 
Haly'sis membrana'cea seu lata, (F.) Tenia d an- 
neaux courts ou Jiou arme, Ver solitaire, liroad 
Tape-worm. Common in Switzerland, Russia, 
and some parts of France. It inhabits the intes- 
tines of man, and extends to an enormous length. 
A broken specimen has been obtained 60 yards 
long. — Goeze. 

BOTII'RION, Both'rium, from ^o&piov, 'a small 




pit, cavity,' Ac. An alveolus, or small fossa. A 
Fraall, deep ulcer on the cornea. — Galen, Paulus 
of ^gina. See Fonaette. 

BO rilRTUM, Bothrion, Fotaette. 
BOIMX. Torcbinthina. 
BdTrrM. Bronchocele. 

BOTOTIIINUM. An obscure term, used by 
Piiraci'lsus to denote the most striking symptom 
of a (lisi'iise: — the Fton morhi. 
BOTOU, Pnreira brava. 
BOTIUOOKPHALUS, Bothriocephalus. 
]?0riUOX. Alveolus. 

BOTllOl'IlIS SERPENTARIA, Actsea race- 

BOTRYS, Chenopodium botrys, see Vitis vini- 
fera — b. Ambrosioides, Cheno|)odium ambrosio- 
iiles — 1). Americana, Chenopodium ambrosioides 
— b. Antlieliuintica, Chenopodium anthelminti- 
cum — Vi. McNicana, Chenopodium ambrosioides. 

IWTTIXE {¥.). A thin hoot or hmkin, O'cren 
le'vinr. An instrument which resembles a small 
boot, furnished with springs, straps, buckles, &c., 
and used to obviate distortions of the lower ex- 
tixMnities in children. 

]5()TTf,K-N0SR. Gutta rosea. 
BOTTLH-STOOP. In Pharmacy, an arrange- 
ment for giving the proper inclination to a bottle 
containing a powder, so as to admit of the con- 
tents being readily removed by the knife, in dis- 
pensing medicines. It consists of a block of 
wood with a groove in the upper surface, to re- 
ceive the bottle in an oblique position. 
BOTTOM. Niitos. 
BO'I'TRY-TRKK, Sambucus. 
B0iniAT,TOS, Momordica elaterium, Vulva. 
.BOUBON, Bubo. 

BOUOAGE ANL% Pimpinella anisura — 6. 
Mnjeur, Pimpinella magna — 6. MIneur, Pimpi- 
nella sax'ifraga — h. Petit, Pimpinella sa.xifraga. 

nOUGIIE, Mouth — 6. Pdteuae, Clammy 

JIO !fCLE^rENT, Infibulation. 
BOUE, see Corruption. 

BOUE SPLENIQVE. The altered blood ex- 
travasated into the splenic cells has been so 

BOUES! DES EAUX {¥.), Bones Minirales, 
Bul'iiea Cieiio'sa. The mud or swamp, formed 
near mineral springs, impregnated with the sub- 
stances contained in such springs, and conse- 
quently possessing similar properties. The Boues 
are applied generally and topically, in France, at 
the springs of St. Ainand, BagnereS de Luchon, 
Bagnols, and Bareges; in the United States, at 
the While Sulphur in Virginia, &c. 

BOUES MINE RALES, Poues des eanx. 
BOUFFE, (F.) The small eminence, formed 
by the junction of the two lips. — Delaureus. 
Bot'FFK. Eructation. 
BOUFFISSURE, Puffiness. 
BOFG/E, (F.) A wax candle: Candel'nlci, 
Cfinde'lti, C cp'ren seu tncdicn'tti, Cp'reiim medi- 
rii'tiim, Cere'oliis (Viirnrf/o'riim, Da'dion, Speci/'- 
lidti ce'reiiiii, VIrrjn ce'ren, Cere'olitn. A flexible 
cylinder, variable in size, to be introduced into 
the urethra, oesophagus, rectum, <tc., for the pur- 
pose of dilating thei>e canals, when contracted. 
A Simple Boiiijie is composed of solid and inso- 
luble substant-es ; ns plaster, elastic gum, gutta 
pcrcha, catgut — (Bougie de Corde d hoyau,) Ac. 
It acts of course only mechanically. 

BoroiE, Mkd'icatkd, (F.) B. Medicamenteufie, 
has the addition of some escharotic or other sub- 
stance to destroy the obstacle; as in the Caustic 
Boiifjie. fF.) B. catitfriscinte, B. armee.B. emplns- 
liqiic, which has a small portion of Lunar Caus- 

tic or Common Caustic inserted in its extremity. 
Bueamp has recommended a Bougie, which swells 
out near its extremity, for the better dilating of 
the urethra. This he calls B. d ventre. The 
metallic Bougie, invented by Smyth, is a compo- 
sition of metal, allowing of great flexibility; and 
a hollow IJoufjie is one with a channel running 
through it, to be used in the same manner as the 
catheter, or otherwise. 

BouoiK, Utehine, Sound, uterine. 
BOUILLIE, (F.) Pultic'nla, Pap, from (F.) 
houillir, 'to boil.' Flour, beaten and boiled with 
milk. It is a common food for infants. 

BOUILLON, (F.) from houillir, 'to boil,' Jus, 
Sorhit"io. A liquid food, made by boiling the 
flesh of animals in water. The osniazome, gela- 
tin, and soluble salts dissolve : the fat melts, and 
the albumen coagulates. Bouillon is nourishing, 
owing to the gelatin and osmazome. The Jjis de 
Vinnde is a very concentrated Bouillon, prepared 
of beef, mutton, veal, <fec. 

BOUILLON, in common language, in France, 
means a round fleshy excrescence, sometimes 
seen in the centre of a venereal ulcer. 

BOUILLON BLANC, Verbascum nigrum. 
3IAGEUTIQUES, Medicinal or Pharmaceutic 
Bonillonn, contain infusions or decoctions of me- 
dicinal herbs. The Bouillon anx herbes is gene- 
rally composed of sorrel or beef. 

BOUILLON d'OS, (F.) Bouillon from hones, 
is obtained by treating bones with muriatic acid, 
in order to dissolve the earth}' parts. The gela- 
tin, which remains, is then boiled with a little 
meat and vegetables. — D'Arcet. Bouillon, how- 
ever, can be easily obtained from the bones of 
roast meat by simple coeticm. 

BOUIS, Buxus. 

BOULE D'ACIER, Ferrum tartarizatum— 6, 
de Ifars, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. de Mohheim, 
Ferrutn tartarizatum — h. de Nancy, Ferrum tar- 
nOULEAU COMMUN, Betula alba. 
BOULESIS, Voluntas. 

BOULIM'IA, Bulim'ia, Bulim'ius, Bu'limus, 
Bou'limos, Bulimi'asis, JJolis'mos, Eclim'ia, Fames 
cani'na sen bovi'na seu lupi'na, Appeti'tus cani- 
nus, Appeten'tia cani'na, Adcpha'gia, Cynorex'ia, 
Orex'in ci/no'des, Bupi'na, Bupei'na, Phagfg'na, 
PhagcdfB'na, from (iovi, 'an ox,' and Xiftog, 
' hunger ;' or from iSou, augmentative particle, and 
Xifjos, 'hunger,' (F.) Boulimle, Faini canine, F. 
derorante, Poli/phagie. An almost insatiable 
hunger. A canine appetite. It is sometimes 
seen in hysteria and pregnancy ; rarely under 
other circumstances. 
BOULIMIE. Boulimia. 

Boulogne is in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 
France. The waters are chalybeate. 
BOUNCIN(} BET, Saponaria, 
BOUND, Costive. 
BOUNTREE, Sambucus. 
(F.) from bouquet, a collection of flowers or other 
substances tied together. A name given, by some 
anatomists, to the collection of ligaments and 
muscles, inserted into the styloid process of the 
temporal bone. 

Boi'QiTicT Fever. Densrue. 
BOURBILLON. see Furunculus (core). 
OF. Bourbon-Lancy is a small village in the 
department of Saone-et-Loire, France: where 
there are thermal saline springs, containing car- 
bonic acid, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
soda, chloride of calcium, carbonate of lime, iron. 



and silica. Their heat is from 106° to 135° 

WATERS OF. This town is in the department 
of Aliier, six leasues west from Moulins. and 
has been long celebrated for its thernial chaly- 
beate waters. They contain sul])h()hy(lric acid, 
sulphate of soda, magnesia, and lime, carbonate 
of iron, and silica. Their temperature varies 
between \"C>° and 1-15° Fahrenheit. 

WATERS OF. These springs are seven leagues 
from Langres, department of Haute -Marne, 
France. They are thermal and saline, and have 
been long celebrated. Temperature from 10(;° 
to 133° Fahrenheit. The FdcHtioim water, (F.) 
Enu de Bniirbonne-les-Bnins, Aqua Borfoiioi'sis, 
is composed of water, containing twice its bulk 
of carbonic acid, f^xxss; chloride of sodium, 
f ^j. chloride of calcium, gr. x, &c. 

A village near Mont d'Or, where there are two 
thermal saline springs. 

BOUItDAINB. Rhamnus frangula. 
BOl'I{DO,yyK.U/-JXT, Tinnitus anrium. 
BOURDON SET. I'ulril'Ins, P. e linawen'tii 
coitfec'tus seu rotuu'dus, Donnil. A term in French 
surgery for charpie rolled into a small mass of 
an olive shape, which is used for plugging wounds, 
absorbing the discharge, and preventing the 
union of their edges. In cases of deep and pene- 
trating wounds, as of the abdomen or chest, a 
thread is attached to them by which they may 
be readily withdrawn, and be prevented from 
passing altotrether into those cavities. 
BOUHGENE. Rhamnus frangula. 
BOURGEON, Granulation, Papula— ?/. Char- 
»ii(, Granulation. 

BOURGEONNEMENT, see Generation. 
BOURGEONS. Gutta rosea. 
BOURRAGHE, Borago officinalis. 
BOURRELET (F.) A Pad, a Border. A 
fibro-cartilaginous border, which surrounds cer- 
tain articulnr cavities, such as the glenoid cavity 
of the scapula and the acetabulum ; by which the 
depth of those cavities is augmented. See Cor- 
pus Callosum. 

BOURRELET ROULE. Cornu ammonis. 
BOURSE d BERGER, Thlaspibursa— 6. d 
Paxtcur. Thlaspibursa. 

BOURSES {LES), Scrotum— 5. Mucilagi- 
»ie»«e«. Bursa} mucosae — li. Muqueuaes, Bursas 

BOURTREE, Sambucus. 
BO USSOLE. Glossanthrax. 
BOUT DE SEIN (¥.), 'End of the breast,' 
'nipple.' An instrument of caoutchouc or ivory 
to place over the nipple when the infant sucks, 
soon after delivery, or where the nipple is in a 
morbid condition. 

BOUTON, Papula— 6. d' Alep. see Anthrax— 
6. Malin, see Anthrax — h. d'Or, Ranunculus 
acris. • ^ 

BOUTONNfERE (F.), Fixiu'ra, Licis'io. A 
long incision made into the urethra to extract a 
cak-ulus from the canal, when it is too large to 
be discharged. 

Also, a small incision or puncture, made in the 
peritoneum, or above the pubis, to penetrate the 
bladder in certain cases of retention of urine. 
BOVACHEVO, Datura sanguinea. 
BOVILL.E. Rubeola. 
BOVISTA. Lycoperdon. 
BOWEL. Intestine. 
BOWLEGGED, see Cnemoseoliosis. 

BOWMAN'S CAPSULE, sec Kidney. 

BOW.MAN'S ROOT, Euphorbia coroUata, Gil. 
lenia trifoliata. Leptandria purpurea. 

BOXBERRY. Ganltheria. 

BOX. MOUNTAIN, Arbutus nva ursi. 

BOX TREE, Buxus, Cornns Florida. 

BOXWOOD, Cornus Florida. 

BOYAU, Intestine— &. PoUiiiique. sec Pollen. 

BRABYLON, Prunum Diimascenum. 



BRACIIIA COPULATIVA, see Peduncles of 
the Cerebellum. 

BRACIIIA PONTIS, see Peduncles of the 

BRACIILlilUS, Brachial — b. Internus, Bru- 
chialis anterior. 

BRA'CHIAL, Brachia'lin, Brachi(p'uK, from 
Bracliiiim, ' the arm.' What belongs to the arm. 

Brachial Aponkuro'sis. An aponeurosis, 
formed particularly by expansions of the tendinis 
of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and del- 
toides muscles, and which completely envelops 
the muscles of the arm. 

Brachial Artery, Arte'ria hrachia'lis, Tin', 
meral Artery, (F.) Artere ou Troiic hrachial. 
The artery, which extends from the axilla to tho 
bend of the elbow; where it divides into A. cuhi- 
falis and A. radinlis. It passes along the infer- 
nal edge of the biceps, behind the median nerve 
and between the accompanying veins. Under 
the name Brachial Arten/, Chaussier incluilos 
the subclavian, axillary, and humeral, the last 
being the brachial proper. 

Brachial Muscle, Antrrior, Mus'euhut Bm- 
chin'lii Aiite'rior. Brachia'lis internus seu niiti'- 
ens, Brachias'na, B. internus. (F.) Jlfificle brnrhiul 
interne, Humern-cnbital — (Ch.^ This nniscle is 
situate at the anterior and inferior part of the 
arm, and before the elbow-joint. It arises, flesliy, 
from the middle of the os humeri, and is inserted 
into the coronoid process of the ulna. Use, To 
bend the fore-arm. 

Brachial Plexus, Plexus Brachia'h's. is a 
nervous plexus, formed by the interlacing of Ihe 
anterior branches of the last four cervical pnirs 
and the first dorsal. It is deeply seated in tlie 
hollow of the axilla, and extends as far as tho 
inferior and lateral part of the nc-k. It gives 
off the thoracic nerves, supra and infra scopnlur, 
and the brachial (which are six in number), the 
axillary, cutanci/us, musculo-cutaneous, radiul, 
cubital, and median. 

Brachial Veins are two in number, and ac- 
company the artery, frequently anastomosin;; 
with each other: they terminate in the axillary, 
Under the term Brachial Veins, Chaussier in- 
cludes the humeral, axillary, and subclavian. 


B R A C II I A L ' G I A, Neurnl'gin Braehiu'lii, 
from (ijia-)(_Ltiiv, 'the arm,' and aXyoi, 'pain.' Pain 
in the arm, neuralgia of the arm. 

BRACniALIS. Brachial— b. Anticus. Brachid 
muscle — b. Externus, see Triceps extensor cubili 
— b. Internus, Brachial muscle. 




nata artcria — b. Veins, InnoininaLne venue. 

B R A'C II 1 0-C U'B IT A L, Brachio-cuhUn'liK 
That which belongs both to the arm and cnbiln?. 
This name has been given to the internal lateriil 
ligament of the elbow-joint : because it is at- 
tached to the OS brachii or os humeri and to the 
cubitus or ulna. 

BRACmOCYLLO'SIS, from /^pax"-". '"^^ 
arm,' and kuAXuxtij, 'the act of making crooked.' 




Curvature of the arm inwards. Paralysis or loss 
of power fri)m curvature of the arm. 

BKACHION. Brachiutn. 

BllACIIION'CUS, from j3p.i;^(u)i/, 'the arm,' 
and oyKOi. 'a swelling.' A tumour of the arm. 

BRA'CIII0-KA'DrAL,//;r,rA/o-,v„/,V,7;«. That 
■which lielongs to the hracliium and radius. Thi.s 
name has been applied to the e.\ternal lateral 
ligament of the elbow-joint, because it is attached 
to the hniiicrus and to the radius. See Supinator 
radii loiiirus. 

BUACllIORRTIEU'MA, Rheumctis'mus hra'- 
chii, from /jpu;^iwi/, 'the arm,' and ptu/ja. 'deflux- 
ion. rlu'uniatisui.' llheumatism of the arm. 

BKAClIIOT'OMy, Brnr]n„t„m'!n, from Ppa- 
p^KDv, 'arm,' and rojiri, 'incision.' Amputation of 
the arm. 

BRACIiniOLUM, Truss. 

BRA'CIllUM, nni'cli!,,,,, Lncer'tiis, (F.) Bras, 
'the arm.' The arm from the shoulder to the wrist, 
or the |)art between the shoulder and elbow. See 
Humeri Os. 

BRA'cnniM Ante'uiur. A rounded process, 
which passes from the anterior pair of the cor- 
pora quadri,!j;emina (iintei) obliquely outwards 
into tlie thahirniis opticus. 

BuAciiiuM MovKNs QiiAHTtTS, Latissimus dorsi. 

Biia'chium PiJstk'riits. A rounded process, 
■wliieh passes from the posterior pair of the qua- 
drii^einina (teHten) obliquely outwards into the 
optic thalamus. 

BRACIIUNA, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 

BRACIIYAU'CHEN, from l3p„xvs, 'short,' and 


'neck.' One who has a short neck. 

BRACHYCEPH'AL.'E (Gentes), 'short heads,' 
from 0finxf's, 'short,' and K€ipa\ij< 'head.' In the 
classification of Retzius, those nations of men 
whose cerebral lobes do not completely cover the 
cerebellum — as the Sclavonians, Fins, Persians, 
Turks, Tartars, &c. 

BRACIIYCIIRON'TUS, from (ipf>x«i- '?hort,' 
and xP"''"!) 'time.' That which continues but a 
short time. A term a])plied to diseases which 
are of short duration.- — (Jalen. 

BRACIIYGNA'TIIUS, from [ipaxv;, 'short,' 
and yvaOai, 'the under jaw.' A monster with too 
short an under jaw. — Gurlt. 

BRACIIYNSIS, Abbreviation. 


BRACHYP'OTI, from fipaxvi, 'short,' and 
roTrji, 'drinker.' They who drink little, or who 
drink rarely. Ilippocrntes, Galen, Focsius. 

BRACIIYRHYN'CHUS. from lipaxoi, 'short,' 
and pvyxos, 'snout.' A monster with too short a 

BRACIIYSMO.S, Aldireviation, 

BRACING, Corroborant. 

BRACKEN, Pteris aquilina. 

BRADYiESTIIE'SIA, from ffouSvi, 'difficult,' 
and aiaihiffii. 'sensation.' Impaired sensation. 

BRADYBOLISMUS, Bradyspermatismus. 

BRADVECOIA, Deafness. 

BRAI)YLOG"IA. Dijsl„'l!n ; fromjSpaSvs, 'diffi- 
cult,' and Aoyof. 'a discourse.' Difficultj' of speech. 

BR.ADYMASE'SIS, Jirndi/masxe'nis, impro- 
perly /{rfi'li/m'inte'ni>i, MntnlHctt'tio d!(Jic"ilh, 
from /Spat'ii?, 'difficult,' and unar^aii, 'nmstiea- 
tion.' bilVicult mastication. See Dysmasesis. 

BRADY.MASTESIS. Bradymascsis. 

BRADYl'EP'SIA, Tnrdn cibo'nim concoc'tio, 
from lioii^ii(, 'slow.' and vcirria. '1 digest.' Slow 
difcestion.— Galen. See Dyspepsia. 

BRADYSPERMATFS'.M TS, /lrndi/bo?>s'mHs, 
Ehfiiht'li'i Kciii'iiiin iiii/>t(li'ltx, DiiupcrmatWmun, 
from tipai^fs. 'slow,' and anpiia, '.sperm.' A slow 
emission of sperm. 

BRADYSU'RIA, TeiiFi'mim rvni'ca, (F.) T^- 
nenrne vi<<ical, from (ipaivs, ' difficult,' and ovptiv, 

'to pass the urine.' Painful evacuation of the 
urine, with perpetual desire to void it. Dysuria. 

BRADYTOCIA, Dystocia. 

BRAG'GET, liraijyart, liragwort. A name 
formerly applied to a tisan of honey and water, 
See Ilydromeli. 

BUM LIQUIDE, see Pinus sylvestris — 6. 
Sec, Colo))honia. 

BRAIN, Cerebrum — b. Fag, see Nervous dia- 

BuAix,LiTTLE, Cerebellum. 

BitAix Pan, Cranium — b.Sand, see Pineal gland. 

is a small village, three leagues froiu Soissons, 
France, which has purgative waters similar to 
those of Passy. 

BRAIRETrE, Primula veris. 

BRAKE, COMMON, Pteris Aquilina— b. Rock, 
Polypodium vulgare, Polypodium incanum. 

15uAKK Root, Po!yi)odium vulgare. 

BRAKING, Vomiting, Vomiturition. 

frutieosus — b. Common, Rubus fruticosus. 

BRA.MBLE-BERRIES, see Rubus fruticosus. 

BRAN, Furfur. 


BRANCA GERMANICA, Ileracleum spondy- 
lium — b. Ursina, Acanthus mollis — b. Vera, 
Acanthus mollis. 

BRANCH, from (F.) Brnnclie, originally, pro- 
bably, from (ipaxt'ov, 'an arm,' [?] because branches 
of trees, <fcc., go oft" like arms. A term applied, 
generally, to the principal division of an artery 
or nerve. The word is commonly used synony- 
mously with RdiHun ; but often, with the French, 
Bidiiche signifies the great division ; — Rnmenu, 
Lat. RriiiiuK, the division of the branches ; and 
R((iniis('i(lcs, Lat. Raiiiiisculi, the divisions of 
these last. 

The French, also, speak of the hranches of the 
pubis for the Rami of that bone, branches of tlio 
ischium for the rami of the ischium, Ac. 

GEE [PETITES], Corpora restiformia. 

BRANCIII, Branvhm. Swellings of the ton- 
sils, or parotid, according to some; — of the thy- 
roid gland, according to others. 

BRAN'CniA, (Gr.) ^payxia. The gills or re- 
spiratory organs of fislies, corresponding to tho 
lungs of terrestrial animals. 

BRANCIIUS, lipayxos, Raiice'do. A catarrhal 
affection of the mucous membrane of the fauces, 
trachea, &o. — Galen. Hoarseness. 

BRANCI, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

BRANCIA, Vitrura. 


BRANDY", (G.) Branntwcin, Dutch, 
Brandwijn, 'burnt wine,' (Old Eng.) Brand- 
wine. Viniim adus'tiim seu creiiia'tiim, Agua 
VitcB, (F.) Spir'itits vhi Gall'i'ci, (Ph. U. S.) 
Spir'itiis Gtdl'icas, Eaii de vie, (S.) Afjiiardienli'. 
The first liquid product obtained by distilling 
wine. It is composed of water, alcohol, and an 
aromatic oily matter, which gives it its flavour. 
Brandy is a powerful and diffusible stimulant, 
and as such is used in medicine. It has been 
also called Liquor Aqiiile'i/ins. See Spirit. 

BnANDY, Apple, see Pyrus malus — b. Egg, see 

Bkandy-Bottles, see Nymphaea lutea. 

Brandy-Face. Gutta rosea. 

BRANKS, Cynanche parotidaea. 

BRANKUR.SINE, Acanthus mollis. 

BliAXyrWEIN, Brandy. 

BRAS. See Oryza. 

BliAS, Brachium — b. du Cervelet, Corpora res- 



RISM. An oper.ation by ligature, proposed by 
lirasdor, which consists in the application of the 
ligature on the distal side of the tumour. 

Bras6gur is a place in the diocese of Rhodez, 
where there are cathartic waters. 

BRASE.VIA, B. Hydropeltis. 

Biiasb'nta Hyduopel'tis, Brase'nin, B. Pel- 
tii'tii, H 11 drupel' tin purpu'rea, Gehttinn aquat'icn, 
Froyleaf. Little Water Lily, Water JtUy, Water 
nhield, Water tanjct, Beei'/ood. An indigenous 
plant, J.V<(^ Ord. RanunculaceiB, Sex. Syst. Poly- 
nndria Polygynia, flourishing from Kentucky to 
Carolina and Florida; and covering the surface 
of ponds, marshes, &c. The fresh leaves are 
mucilaginous, and have been used in pulmonary 
complaints, dysentery, &c., like Cetraria. 

BiiASKNiA Peltata, B. Hydropeltis. 

BRASH, (Sc), of uncertain etymology. A 
transient attack of sickness. A bodily indispo- 
sition. — Jamieson. A rash or eruption. (Prov. 
West of England.) 

Brash, Water, Pyrosis, 

Brash, Weaning, (Sc.) Speaning hraah, 
Atroph'ia Ablactato' rum. A severe form of 
diarrhoea, which supervenes at times on weaning. 
The Maladie de Oruveilhier appears to be a simi- 
lar affection. 

BRAStLETTO, see Caesalpinia. 

BRASrUM, Malt. 

BRASMOS, Fermentation. 

BRASS, Sax. bpar, Wclnh, pr6s. AurichaV- 
cxtm, properly, Orichal'ctim, ('mountain brass,' 
from opo;, 'a mountain,' and p^aXicof, 'brass.') 
Chri/sriclial'cos, C/ialcnn, Esccavum, (F.) Airaiii. 
A yellow metal, formed by mixing copper with 
calamine. The same general remarks apply to it 
as to copper. See Cuprum, 

BRAS'SICA, Crambe, B.olera'cea seu capita'- 
tn seu cnma'na of the old Romans. The C&h- 
hiige, {F.) Cfioii potaycr. Ocrfer, Cruciferae. Sex. 
Si/it. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Cato wrote a 
book on its virtues. It is a vegetable by no 
moans easy of digestion when boiled; when raw, 
it appears to be more digestible. When forming 
a solid globular mass, like a head, it is the B. 
C'apita'ta, (F.) Chou-Uubun, Choii Pomme. 

BuAssiCA Canina, Mercurialis perennis — b. 
Capitata, Brassica — b. Cumana, Brassica. 

IJras'sica EftU't'A, B. hig'pida, Eru'ea, E.foe'- 
tida seu sati'va, Siiia'pis eru'ea, Sinym'br{um 
ei- Ilea n't rum, Garden Rocket, Roman Rochet, 
Shinlock, Ac, (F.) Ghou Roquette, Roqnette. 
This was considered by the Romans an aphrodi- 
siac. — Columella. The seeds were ordinarily 

Bras'siCA FlOr'ida, — Braa'sica Pompeia'na 
of the ancients — the Caidijloicer, Catdia Flor'ida, 
(F. ) Chou-Jieiir, \s a more tender and digestible 

The Broc'eoli, B. Sabel'licu of the Romans, B, 
Jtal'ica, belongs to this variety. 

Brassica IIispida. B. eruoa — b. Italica, B. 
Florida — b. Marina, Convolvulus soldanella. 

Bras'sica NapuS, Napns Si/lveitris, Bu'niaa, 
Rape, (F.) Navette. The seed yields a quantity 
of oil. 

Brassica Nigra, Sinapis nigra — b. Oblonga, 
B. rapa — b. Oleracea, Brassica — b. Pompeiana, 
B. Florida. 

BuAS'siCA Rapa, Rnpa rotmi'dn seu ohlon'ga 
Feu napiiH, Rapum maJKS, Sinn'pia tubero'aa, 
Turnip, (F.) Chou iiavet, Novet, Rave. The tur- 
nip is liable to the same objection (but to a less 
extent) as the cabbage. 

Brassica Sadellica, B. Florida. 

BRATHU, Juniperus sabina. 

BRATHYS, Juniperus sabina. 

BRAWLINS, Arbutus uva ursi, Vaccinium 
vitis ida'^a. 

BRAWN. Muscle. 

BRA YER, Truss. 


BRAZIL WOOD, Cfcsalpinia echinata. 

BREAD, see Triticum. 

Bread, Gluten. Bread made of wheat dough 
deprived of the chief portion of its st:irch by 
washing. Bread, made of gluten onl_y, cannot 
be eaten, on account of its hardness and tough- 
ness; hence one-fifth of the normal quantity of 
starch is allowed to remain, and in this form the 
bread is said to be tolerably light, eatable, and 
moderately agreeable. 

BREAn, HousEnoLn, Syncomistos. 


BREAD-FRUIT TREE, Artocarpus. 


BREAST, Thorax, Mamma— b. Abscess of the, 
Mastodynia apostematosa — b. Pigeon, see Lor- 

BREAST-GLASS, Milk-glaaa. A glass applied 
to the nipple to receive the milk when secreted 
copiously by the mamma. 

Breast, Irritable, Neuralgia mammae. 


BREAST-PUMP, Antlia Lactea. 

BREASTWEED, Saururus cernuus. 

BREATH, Sax. bpase, (Old Eng.) Aande, 
and Ande, IJal'itHS, Anhel'itus, An'imuH, Spir'- 
itiis, At'mos, (F.) Halcine. The air expelled from 
the chest at each expiration. It requires to be 
studied in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases espe- 
cially. See Respiration. 

Breath, Opfens'ive, Foetor Oris, Catoatoma- 
toaphre'ain, Hal'itits oria fvc'tidus, Oze. An offen- 
sive condition, which is usually dejiendent upon 
carious teeth, or some faulty state of the secre- 
tions of the air passages. The internal use of the 
chlorides may be advantageous. 

Breath, Saturnine, see Saturnine— b. Short, 

BREATHING AIR, see Respiration. 

Breathing, DirpicuLTY of. Dyspnoea. 

BRECHET, (P.) The Briaket. This name is 
given in some parts of France to the eartihiyo 
enaiformis, and sometimes to the sternum itself. 

BRECHMA, Bregma. 

BRECHMUS, Bregma. 

BREDISSURE {¥.), Triamua Capiatra'tua. 
Incapacity of opening the mouth, in consequence 
of preternatural adhesion between the internal 
part of the cheek and gums; often occasioned by 
the abuse of mercury. 

BREDOUILLEMENT (F.), Tituhan'tia. A 
precipitate and indistinct mode of utterance, ia 
which a part only of the words is pronounced, 
and several of the syllables viciously changed. 
This defect is analogous to stuttering, but differs 
from It in being dependent on too great rapidity 
of speech; whilst stuttering is characterized by 
continual hesitation, and frequent repetition of 
the same syllables. 

BREE, Supercilium. 

BREED, Race. 

BREEDING, Generation, Preo-nant 
. Breeding, Cross. The act of reusing or breed- 
mg from different stocks or families 

Breeding-in-and-in. The act of raising or 
breeding from the same stock or familv 

BREELLS, Spectacles. 

BREGMA, Z?;-ccAma, Brechmua, from pptytiv, 
'to sprinkle;' Fctanel'la, Sin'ciput. The top 
of the head was thus called, because it wa« be- 
lieved to be humid in infants; and, according to 




some, hppause it wns conceived to correspond to 
the nioHt huiirul part of the brain. 

lUlHdMATODYMIA, see Cephalodymia. 
IJUKNNIXd, Burning. 
BHKIMIOC'TONO.V, Conyza squarrosa. 
BH EI'IIOTROIMIK'UM, Ecthe/oh-ephotrophc'- 
inii. fVnin (, 'a new-born child,' and r/jt^tiv, 
'to nourisii.' A foundling hospital. 
Jli;h'SILL/'jr, Cassalpina sappan. 
BRK'VIA VASA, Short Ve>,,t'ls. This name 
has licon given to several branches of the splenic 
nrteries anil veins, which are distributed to the 
great ml-dn-Han of the stomach. 
BRF.VI.S CUBIXr, see Anconeus. 
BRICK, (F.) Jiri</ii(;. Hot bricijs are some- 
times used to apply heat to a part, as to the ab- 
domen in colic, or after the operation for popli- 
teal aneurism : or, reduced to very fine powder, 
and mixed with fat, as an application to herpetic 
and p?oric affections. 

BiticKS, Foriia'ceo! Testes or Tiles were for- 
merly bruised in vinegar, and the liquid was used 
as a specific in cutaneous affections. They en- 
tered, also, into a cerate used for scrofulous hu- 
iMonrs, itc. To the Term Foriin'cum, or Brick 
c'lrth. flic same virtues were assigned. 

iniTCKLlKE SEDIMENT, see Lateritious. 
BR I CUM UM, Artemisia. 

imrDE (P.), 'a bridle.' Fra-'nnlnm, lieti- 
unc'iiliiiii. This terra is given, in the plural, to 
membranous filaments, which are found within 
abscesses or deep-seated wounds, and which pre- 
vent the exit of pus. The terra is, also, applied 
to preternatural adhesions, which occur in cica- 
trices of the skin, in the urethra, or in inflamed 
serous or synovial membranes. 

BRfKR. WILD, Rosa Canina. 
see Ki'lnev, Bright's disease of the. 

BRIOHTON, CLIMATE OF. The air of this 
fashionable watering-place, on the south coast of 
England, is dry, elastic, and bracing. Its cli- 
mate appears to the greatest advantage in the 
autumn and early part of the winter; when it is 
somewliat mihler and more steady than that of 
Hastings. Accordingly, it is adapted for all 
cases in which a dry and mild air at this season 
of the year proves beneficial. In the spring 
months, owing to the prevalence of, and its ex- 
posure to, north-east winds, the climate is cold, 
harsh, and exciting to the delicate. It is well 
adapted for convalescents, and for all who require 
a dry and bracing sea air. 
BRIMSTONE', Sulphur. 
BRINE, Maria. 

BRIXTON ROOT, Leptandria purpurea. 
BRION, Corallina. 
BIUQUE. Brick. 

This town is three leagues from Cherbourg, in 
J'ranee. The water contains chloride of iron. 
BRIQl'ETE, Lateritious. 
BRISE-COQUE (F.), from hriser, 'to break 
to pieces,' and or/iie, ' a shell.' An instrument 
designed by lleurteloup for breaking to pieces 
the shell of a vesica! calculus, after it has been 
hollowed by his lunudrin d rinpile. 

hriser, 'to break to pieces, and pierre, 'a stone.' 
An instrument invented by Jacobson for crush- 
ing the stone in the bladder. 

BRISTOL HOT WELL, Bristolien'sis Aqun. 
Bristol is about thirteen miles from Bath, in 
England. The water is an almost pure thermal; 
slightlv acidulated. It contains chlorides of 
magnesium and sodium, sulphate of soda, sul- 
phate of lime, carbonate of lime, carbonic acid, 

oxygen and azote. Temperature, 74° Fah. The 
II(jt Well has been long celebrated. Its action 
is like that of thermal waters in general. The 
climate of Bristol is mild, and hence the water 
has been celebrated for the cure of incipient pul- 
monary consumption. See Clifton. 


BROAD, SnjT. bpatj, Latus, (F.) Lnnje. Any 
body is so termed whose transverse extent is 
considerable compared with its length. The 
Broail Roues, such as the frontal, parietal, occi- 
pital, iliac, aid in forming the parietes of splanch- 
nic cavities. Brood Muselcs generally occupy 
the parietes of cavities, and especially those of 
the chest and abdomen. The epithet has also 
been applied to other parts— as to the brood li'jn- 
ments of the womb, Ac. 

BROCCOLI, Brassica .sabcllica. 

BROCHOS, fipoxos, La'qucits. A bandage. 

BROCHT, Vomiting. 

BROCH'THUS, (ii>ox%s, Gula. The throat. 
Also, a kind of small drinking vessel. — Hipp. 

BROCHUS, /3po;^;os. This name has been given 
to one who has a very prominent upper lip. 
According to others it means one whose teeth 
project in front of the mouth. 

BRO'DIUM. A synonym of Jus or Jus'cidnm. 
Broth, or the liquor in wliich anj' thing is boiled. 
Bro'diniii soils — a decoction of salt. 

BROIEMENT, see Cataract, Laceration -6. 
de In Pierre, Lithotrity. 

BROKELEAK, Rumex hydrolapathum. 

BROKEN DOSES, see Doses, broken. 


BROMA, Aliment, Bromine. 


BROMATOCi'RAPIIY. Bromf,to(,rnph'i,t, Bro. 
woij' ropht/, Rroniorp-ii/di' in, from /3pw;i(i, 'food,' 
and yfiaipri, 'a description.' A description of ali- 

BROMATOL'OGY, Brom(itoIog"i<i, SitioVogy, 
from jijjiouia, 'food,' and Xoyo;, 'a discourse.' A 
treatise on food. 

BROME, Bromine. 

BROMEGRASS, Bromus ciliatus — b. Soft, 
Bromus ciliatus. 

BROME'LIA ANA'NAS, called after Olans 
Broinel. a Swede. Cnr'diius Braxilitt'inis, Ano'- 
nns ovn'ta seu ocidea'tn, Anns' sn, Cnpn-Isiok'kn, 
Ann'nus or Pine Apple, Sonrsnp. Order, Bro- 
meliacenj. A West India tree, which produces 
the most delicious of fruits. 

Bromk'lia PlNGt;iN, Aiin'»ns America'na, Piii- 
(fiiin, Brotrd-leoved irild Ano'iuis, &c. The West 
India plant, which affords the Pinguin fruit. The 
fruit is refrigerant, and the juice, when ripe, very 
austere. It is used to acidulate punch. A wine 
is made from the Pinguin, which is very intoxi- 
cating, and has a good flavour. 

BliOMIC, Bro'mirtis; same etymon as Bro- 
mine. Containing bromine. 

BROMIDE OF IRON, see Bromine — h. of 
Mercury, see Bromine — b. of Potassium, see 

BROMIDRO'SIS, from (Spwixoi, 'stench,' and 
'i6pwi, 'sweat.' Offensive sweat. 

BROMINE, Bro'minnm (Ph. IT. S., 18-12), Bro- 
wiii'iiiin (1851), Bruinn, Rroinin'eiim, Bro'miimi, 
Bro' ininn, Bromitm, Mu'rinu, Jliiride, Bronie. 
A simple body, of a very volatile nature, and 
highly offensive and suffocating odour, whence 
its name, from Pfiui^os, 'a stench.' It is met with 
chiefly in sea-water, and in many animal anil 
vegetable bodies that live therein. It has like- 
wise been found in many mineral waters of this 
and other countries. In its chemical relations, 
it may be placed between chlorine and iodine. 
With oxygen it forms an aciil — the Rromic, and 
with hydrogen another — the Hi/drobromic. 




Pure Bromine; Bromide of Irov, Ferr! Bro'- 
midnm, Fernim broiiKi'tiiui, (P.) Bromure dc Fer, 
in solution, IlyJrobromate of Iron, Ferri liydio- 
bro'mus, Fcrruin hi/droiro'iiiiriiiii o.v;jdri'tiiin,{dose, 
gr. i or ij.); and Bromide of Po^ssium, Potas'nii 
bro'miditiii, (F.) Bromure de jjotassiiim, have been 
used mediuinally, and chiefly in scrof'ulosis — 
internally, as well as applied externally. Bro- 
mine nia3' be dissolved in forty parts of distilled 
water, and six drops be commenced with as a 
dose. Bromidks or Mercury (Hi/drar'</i/n' Bro'- 
mida, (P.) Broiitures de Meroirc), have been given 
in syphilis. The prolobromide and the bibroiin'de 
are analogous in composition and medicinal pro- 
perties to the corresponding iodides of mercury. 

Chloiude of Bromine, Bromin'ii chlo'ridam 
— made by passing chlorine through brouit'ne, and 
condensing the resulting vapours by cold, has been 
prescribed internally, as well as externally, in 
cancer; but chiefly in the latter mode, in the 
form of a caustic paste, either alone or with other 
chlorides — as those of zinc, antimony, and gold. 

BROMIUM, Bromine. 

BR0M0(5RAPIIY, Bromatography. 

BROMOS, (iputjioi. One of the cerealia, sup- 
posed, by some, to be oats. See Avena. 


BROMUM, Bromine. 

BROMURE DE FER, see Bromine — 6. de 
3fercure, see Bromine — b. de Potasm'itm, see 

BROMUS CILIA'TUS, B. pnrgam, Brome 
gram; indigenous: Order, Gramineae ; is said to 
be emetic, and anthelmintic [?], cathartic and 
diuretic. It purges cattle. 

Bromus Glaber, Triticum repena. 

Bromus Mollis, Suft Brome Grans. The seeds 
are said to cause giddiness in man, and to be 
fatal to poultry. 

Bromus Pukgans, B. ciliatus — b. Temulentus, 
Lolium temulentum. 

BRONCHARCTIA, Bronchiostenosis. 

BRONCHECTASIS, Bronchia, dilatation of 

BRONCHES, Bronchia — t. GamjUona lym- 
pluttiqiu's den. Bronchial glands. 

BRONCHI, Bronchia. 

BRON'CHIA, Broii'cli!(P, Bronchi, from ^poy. 
Xos, 'the throat' The Latins used the terra 
Jironehnn for the whole of the trachea; whilst 
they called its ramifications Bronchia. Bronchia, 
BronchicB, und Bronchi, (F.) Bronclies, now mean 
the two tubes, with their ramifications, which 
arise from the bifurcation of the trachea, and 
carry air into the lungs — Gan'nulce pidmo'num, 
Syrin'i/es seu Cana'len aerij'eri. 

Bronchia, Dilatation op the. Dilated Bron- 
chia, Bronchec'tanis, Brouchiec'tasis, Dilatntio 
bronchio'rum. The physical signs of this condi- 
tion are the following: PercHsiion usually clear, 
but not unfrequently less so than natural, although 
very seldom quite dull. A uscultation detects coarse 
mucous or gurgling rhonehi, increased by the 
cough, combined with, or replaced by, bronchial 
or cavernous respiration, which is often effected 
as if b}' a sudden puff or whiff. The resonance 
of the voice is increased, but it seldom amounts 
to perfect pectoriloquy. The most common situa- 
tions for dilated bronchia are the scapular, mam- 
mary, or lateral regions. They are almost always 
confined to one side. 

Broncuia, Obliteration or Compression of 
THE. The inspiratory murmur on auscultation 
is weaker or wholly suppressed over a limited 
portion of the chest ; the expiration is generally 
more distinct and prolonged: all the other con- 
ditions are natural. 

BRONCHIA, see Bronchia. 

BRON'CHIAL, Bronchic, Bronchia'Ux, Bron'- 
chicHS, (F.) Bronchial, Brouckiqtie. That which 
relates to the bronchia. 

Bronchial Ahteriks, (F.) Artcree Bronchlquet. 
These are generally two in number, one going to 
each lung. They arise from the thoracic aorta, 
and accompany the bronchia in all their ramifi- 

Bronchial Cells, (F.) Cellules bronc/iir/ncs. 
The Air-cells; the terminations of the bronchia. 

Bronchial Cough, (P.) J'oit.c bronchiqne, T. 
tnhaire. This generally accompanies bronchial 
respiration. They both indicate obstruction to 
the entrance of air into the air-cells. 

Bronchial Glands, Glan'dnlop, Vesalia'nce, 
Glands of Vesa'lius, (F.) Glandea bronchiqiies, 
Gunylions hjmphaliqnes des branches, are numr. 
rous glands of an ovcjid shape; of a reddish hue 
in the infant, find subsequently brown and black, 
seated in the course of the bronchia. Their func- 
tions are unknown. The bronchial glands may 
be presumed to be affected by scrofulosis, when, 
in addition to the existence of tumours in the 
neck, percussion gives a dull sound under the 
upper and central part of the sternum, whilst 
there is no appreciable lesion of the lungs. 

Bronchial Nerves, (F.) Nerfs bronchiques, 
are furnished by the two pulmonary plexuses. 

Bronchial Phthisis, see Phthisis bronchial — 
b. Respiration, see Murmur, respiratory. 

Bronchial Veins arise from the last divisions 
of the arteries of the same name, and pass, on 
the right side, into the vena azygos ; on the left, 
into the superior intercostal. 

BRONCHIC, Bronchial. 

BRONCHIECTASIS, Bronchia, dilatation of 

BRONCIIIITIS, Bronchitis. 

BRON'CIIIOLE, lironchiolum, Bronchiolna; 
diminutive of Bronchium or Bronchus. A minuta 
bronchial tube. 


BRONCIIIOSTENO'SIS, Bronchiarc'tia, from 
fipoyxoi, 'a bronchus,' and artvoiais, 'contraction.' 
Contraction or narrowness of the bronchi. 

Paeudonienihraneuse, Polypus bronchialis. 

BRONCHI'TIS, Bronchi i't is, Lijlamma'tio 
bronchio'rum, Cat<ir'rhns f'idtno'num seu bron- 
chio'rum, Pleuri'tis hn'midii seu bronchin'lis, 
Bronchos'tasis, Ant/i')ia bronchia'lis, Piil'inonary 
Catfirrh, (F.) Injlammation des Branches. In- 
flammation of the lining membrane of the bron- 
chial tubes. This is always more or less present 
in cases of pulmonary catarrh ; and is accompa- 
nied by cough, mucous expectoration, dyspnoea, 
and more or less uneasiness in breathing. The 
acute form is accompanied with all the signs of 
internal inflammation, and recjuires the employ- 
ment of antiphlogistics followed by revulsives. 
The chronic form, Tussis seni'lis, Catar'rhug seni'- 
lis, Rhcuma catarrha'le, Peripneumn'nia nothn, 
Bronchorrhw'a acn'ta, Winter Contjh, Chronic 
Catarrh, may be confounded with phthisis; from 
which it must be distinguished mainly by the 
absence of hectic fever and of the physicalsigns 
that are characteristic of the latter, as well as 
by the nature of the expectoration, which is ge- 
nerally mucous, although at times muco-purulent. 
When the expectoration is little or none, the bron- 
chitis is said to be dry, dry catarrh, (F.) Catarrhe 

When bronchitis affects the smaller tubes, it is 
termed capil'lary bronchi'tis. bronchi'tis capillu'- 
ris, brouchoc'ace infanti'lis [?], and is often fatal 
to children. Vcsic'ular bronchitis is the term 
proposed by M.M. Rilliet and Barthcz for the 
vesicular pneumonia of children. 



BnoNrniTis, Catarrh — b. Asthenica, Peripneu- 
TDoniii iiotha — b. Capillary, gee Bronchitis — b. 
Chronic, see Bronchitis — b. Crouposa, Polypus 
bronchialis — b. Convulsiva, Pertussis — b. Exsu- 
(lativa, Polypus bronchialis. 

BuoNCnrns, Mkchan'ical. Inflammation of 
the lining rnetnbrane of the air-tubos, induced by 
the inhalation of irritating particles. 

Buo.NciiiTis Mkmbranacka, Polypus bronchia- 
lis — b. Plastic, Polypus bronchialis — b. Pseudo- 
membranous, Polypus bronchialis — b. Summer, 
Fever, hnv — b. Vesicular, see Bronchitis. 
BROXCII I US. Sterno-thvroideus. 
BROXCHLHMMITIS, Polypus bronchialis. 
BHONCUOCACE, Peripneumonia notha — b. 
Infantilis, see Bronchitis. 

BIlONCIIOCE'IiE, from /?/7oy;^o5, 'a bronchus,' 
and Kti'Xri, 'tumour.' An inaccurate name for the 
iidection which is called, also, Jin'cln'nm, Botiiim, 
JSociiim, Hernia fjut'turis seu gvti}tr(('lia seu brun- 
rhia'Un, Giittiir tu'midum seu ylobo'imm, Trnche- 
luphii'mn, Thyroce'Ie, Thyreoce'le, Trnrheoce'le, 
Trticheloce'le, Thi/remphraj-'is, I'/ii/reapIirax' ia, 
Tfnjrophrax'ia, Tlii/reoii'citfi, Thi/rou'cim, Ueiioii'- 
ciis, Dcron' cus, Gonntim, Go'tium, Ejcechebron'rhus, 
(lotujro'na, Struma, Glaus, Tuber f/utturo'nur», 
Gdtte'rla, &c., the Derht/nhire neck, Swelled neck, 
Wen, Goitre, &c., (F.) Goitre, Goueire, Hyper- 
trophie (lu Corjjs Tlu/roide, Grosne Gon/e, Gros 
ViiH. This is no rupture, but consists of an en- 
largement of the thyroid gland. It is common 
at the base of lofty mountains in every part of 
the world; and has been supposed to be owing 
to the drinking of snow-water, but it occurs 
where there is no snow. The tumour is some- 
times very e.xtensive. Iodine has great power 
over it, and will generally occasion its absorp- 
tion, when the case has not been of such dura- 
tion as to have ended in a cartilaginous condition. 
BRONCHOPHONY, Resonance— b. Pectorilo- 
quoiis. Pectorilo()uv — b. Strong, Pectoriloquy. 

BRONCHOPLAS'TIC, Bronehoplnx'tienx, from 
^j)oy)(_oi, 'a bronchus,' and n^aaau). ' I form.' An 
epithet given to the operation for closing fistulas 
in the trachea : Jiron'chophistj/. 

vio'niii, from |IJ/joy;^oj, 'a bronchus,' and Pneumo- 
nia. Infiammation of the bronchia and lungs. 

BRONCHORRHCE'A, (F.) Ihouchorriae, Ca- 
tnrrhe pituiteu.i:/'hle;jinorrh'i;/ie pulmonaire,FhlJ• 
bronchi(jue, from fipoyxoi. •bronchus,' and pcia, 'I 
flow.' An increased secretion of mucus froni the 
air passages, accompanied or not by inflammation, 
— a gleet, as it were, of the pulmonary mucous 
membrane. When excessive, it may constitute 
PhlliixiH pituito'ga seu viuco'kii, Mi/<-o-jilillii'nis. 
BiiONCHoitiiiKEA Acuta, Bronchitis (chronic). 
BRONCHOTOMK. lironchot'omus. from Ppoy- 
■)(oq, and Ttiivuv, 'to cut.' A kind of lancet, with 
a blunt and rounded point, mounted on a handle, 
and fitted to a canula, which passes in along with 
it, and is allowed to remain in the opening made 
in the trachea. 

BROXCHOTOMY. nronch,>ton,'ia,(Y.) Bron- 
rholnmie. Same etymology. A surgical operation, 
which consists in niaking an opening either into the 
irnvhen.{Tr<ieheot'o,ni/:) int.. the laryn.x, (Lanjn- 
(/ot'orn,/:) or into both, ( Tracliea-hfrijinjot'omy.) to 
extract foreiirn bodies or to permit the passage of air 
to the lungs. These difl'ercnt parts are divided trans- 
versely or verticallv. according to circumstances. 

see Respiration. , . „ , 

BRONCHUS, see Bronchia, Irachea. 
BROOKLIME, Veronica bcccabunga. 

BROOM, Sophora tinctoria, Spartium scnpa- 
tium — b. Butcher's, Ruscus — b. Clover, Sophora 
tinctoria — b. Indigo, Sophora tinctoria — b. Rape, 
of Virginia, Orobanche Virginiana — b. Spanish, 
Spartium junceum — b. Yellow, Sophora tinctoria. 
OF. Brossardiere is a chateau in Bas-Poitou, 
France. The waters contain carbonates of iron 
and lime, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
lime. They are aperient. 
BROSSE, Brush. 

BROTH, CHICKEN, see Chicken Broth. 
BliOTH, Vegetablk. Take two potatoen, a car- 
rot, and an onion, all cut fine : boil in a quart of 
water for an hour, adding more water from time 
to time, so as to keep the original quantity : fla- 
vour with salt, and a small quantity o\' potlmrbs ; 
strain. A little mushroom catchup improves the 

BROTHER, UTERINE, see Uterine. 

BROUS'SALST. One who is a believer in, and 
professor of, the physiological and pathological 
opinions of Broussais. The system itself was 
called BliOussA'isM, or the PhysioUxjical Doc- 

BROW, Front — b. A^uo, Neuralgia frontalis. 
BROWN RED, Colcothar. 

BROWN'IAN, lirowno'ninn, Brnno'ninn. Re- 
lating to the system or oninions of John Brown. 
BROWNISM, Brn'nfniim, Bruno' ninnism. 
The doctrines of Brown. 

BROWNIST, Browno'ninn, Bruno'nian. A 
follower of the svstcni of Brown. 

after Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller. B. ferru- 
i/in'ea, Anf/ustn'ra spu'ria, (F.) Pousse Angus- 
tiire, A. Ferruf/iueuse. The systematic name of 
the plant whence was obtained — it was supi>osed 
— false An(justura or false Cnsparia Bark. It 
is really the hark of Strychnos nux vomica. 
BRliCIA, Brucine. 

BRUCINE, Brn'cia, Bruci'nn, Bruci'mtm, 
Bru'eiiim, Pseiirlanrpisturi'num, Canirami'niim, 
Ciniira'mium, Vom'icine, Amjus'turine. An orga- 
nic, salifiable base, discovered in the false angus- 
tnra — Brucen anti-dysenter'ira, and obtained from 
Strychnos nue vom'ica. It is of a pearly white; 
crystallizes in oblique prisms with a parallelo- 
grammatic base; is very bitter, slightly acrid 
and styptic, and soluble in water, but more so ia 
alcohol. Brucia is a less active poison than 
strychnia. It resembles it, however, and may 
be used as a substitute for it and for the extract 
of nux vomica. Dose, half a grain. 

These springs are in Bavaria, and contain car- 
bonic acid and iron. 

Brucourt is three leagues and a half from Caen, 
in Normandy. The waters contain carbonic acid, 
chloride of sodium, and sulphate of soda, much 
sulphate of lime, &e. 
BRUICK, Furunculus. 
BRUISE, Contusion. 

BRUISE-ROOT, Stylnphorum diphyllum. 
BRUTSEWORT, Bellis saponaria. 
BBUfSSE.UEXT (F.), Frem'itus. This word 
has much the same signification as Bourdonnement, 
as well as Bruit. 

BRUIT (F.). 'sound.' A French term, applied 
to various sounds heard on percussion and aus- 
cultation, viz. : 

ntent. Bruit de cuir neuf, Cri de cuir, ' sound of 
crackling, or bursting, or of new leather.' A 
sound produced by the friction of the pericar- 
dium, when dried and roughened by influmma- 



BR UIT DU CCEUllfCETAL, Bnttemem dou- 
bles, Double bruit (In Oieur ihi Ftetua. The pul- 
sations of the foetal heart heard in auscultation 
in the hitter half of utero-gestation. 

BRUIT DE OUIR ^EUF, Bruit de craque- 

BE UIT DE LIABLE, Ronflement du Diable, 
Bruit de suuffie d double courant, ' noise of the 
diable, or humming-top.' Veuoun hum. A high 
degree of^ Bruit de soujffiet, heard on auscultating 
the itrtcries or veins— probably the latter — of the 
neck, in chlorosis. It denotes an impoverished 
state of the blood. 

Bruit du Vtiur fatal — b. d'Ej-punsion pulino- 
iiaire, see Murmur, respiratory — FrSlement, 
see Frolciuent — b. de Froinsement 2}>dnionaire, 
see Froissemeut p\d,monnire — b. de Fruleinent 
pericardiqiie, see Frolement pericardique. 

ET DESCENDANT, 'sound of friction of ascent 
and descent.' Sounds produced by the rubbing of 
the lung against the parietes of the chest, as it 
rises and falls during inspiration and expiration. 
They are distinctly heard in pleuritis, when the 
pleura has become roughened by the disease. 
Friction sounds, Rubbing sounds, To-and-fro 
Sounds are also heard in pericarditis and perito- 

BRUTT HUMORIQUE, B. Hydropneuma- 
tique. The sound afforded on percussion when 
organs are filled with li(iuid and air. 

humorique — b. de Jappement, see SiJ/iement mo- 
dide — b. de Lime d bois, see Bruit de Scie. 

BRUIT BE MOUCHE {¥.), 'fly sound.' A 
sound analogous to the Bruit de diable — so called 
from its likeness to the buzzing of a fly — heard 
on auscultating the neck in chlorotic cases. 

BRUIT MUSCULAIRE. The sound accom- 
panying the first sound of the heart, referred by 
some to muscular contraction. Called, also. 
Bruit rotatoire, in consequence of its having 
been thought to resemble the rumbling of dia- 
tant wheels. 

BRUIT MUSICAL, SIfflement module. 

tone.' A sound as if produced by two sheets of 
parchment applied to each other. It is said to 
be produced by thickening and rigidity of the 
valves of the heart. 

BRUIT I) E PIAULEMENT, see Sifflcment 

BRUIT PLACENTAIRE, B. de souffle pla- 
centaire ou uterin. Souffle nterin ou placeutaire, 
Placental belloios' sound, Ufero-placen'tal mur- 
mur, U'terine ninrntur. The bellows' sound heard 
on auscultating over the site of the placenta in a 
pregnant female. It does not appear to be ow- 
ing to the placental vessels ; but to the uterine 
tumour pressing upon the large vessels of the 

BRUIT DE POT FELE, 'sound of a cracked 
vessel.' Cracked ]3ot sound. A sound heard on 
percussion, when a cavern in the lungs is filled 
with air, and has a narrow outlet. It is not diag- 
nostic, however. 

BRUIT DE RACLEMENT, 'sound of scrap- 
ing.' A sound produced by the scraping of hard, 
solid membranes, as the pericardium, against each 
other, very analogous to Bruit de crnquement. 

BRUIT DE RAPE, 'sound of a rasp.' A 
sound heard during the contraction of either the 
auricles or ventricles. It is constant; and the 
contraction of the cavity is more prolonged than 
natural, and emits a hard, rough, and — as it were 
- -stifled sound. 

It indicates contraction of the valvular orifices 
by cartilaginous deposits, or ossification, aiul is 
better heard near the ape.x of the heart, if tlio 
auriculo-ventricular valves be concerned,— neiir 
the base, if the semilunar valves be the scut of the 


BRUIT ROTATOIRE, Bruit viusculaire. 

BRUIT DE SCIE, or 'saw sound,' and BiuiiT 
DE LIME A BOIS, or ' file sound,' resemble the Bruit 
de Rape. v 

RANT, Bruit de Diable. 

BRUIT DE SOUFFLET, Bruit de Sonffl,; 
'bellows' sound,' ' blowing sound.' A sound like 
that of a bellows, heard occasionally by the ear 
applied to the chest during the contraction of tlie 
ventricles, auricles, or large arteries. It coexists 
with affections of the heart, but is heard, also, 
without any disease of that organ, — whencvei-, 
indeed, an artery is compressed. An Enccpludic 
belloics' sound, (F.) Bruit de souffle ccj'hdtiqnv, 
has been described by Drs. Fisher and Wliitney. 
It is heard on applying the ear to the occiput or 
to the top of the head ; and is considered to indi- 
cate turgescence of vessels, or inflammation. 
When such turgescence exists, the vessels are 
compressed, and the compression gives rise to 
the sound in question. [?] 

Bruit de soufflet — b. de Souffle placentniri^, 
Bruit placentaire — 6. de Souffle uterin, Bruit 
placentaire — b. de Tiraillement, Bruit de craque- 

BRUIT DE SOUP APE, 'valvular or flap- 
ping noise.' A sound heard in respiration, when 
a foreign body is in the air passages. It some- 
what resembles the flapping of a valve; hence its 
French name. 

BRUIT DE TAFFETAS, 'sound of taf- 
feta.' ' Sarcenet sound.' A respiratory sound, 
so named, by M. (JrisoUe, from its resembling the 
sound caused by the tearing of a piece of taffeta; 
and which he considers to indicate hepatization of 
the lung, limited to the surface, in pneumonia. 

BRUIT TYMPANIQUE, ' tympanic sound.' 
The clear sound afforded by percussing the sto- 
mach and intestines when containing air. 

BRUIT UTERIN, B. placentaire. 

BRUITS DU CIEUR, see Heart. 

BllUK, Furunculus. 


BRUNEI LE, Prunella. 

BRUNNER'S GLANDS, Brunneri Glan'diiJce, 
G. Brunncria'na seu sidila'ricB, Solitarii ijhinik 
or follicles. Second pan'creas. Compound muci- 
parous follicles, seated between the mucous and 
muscular coats of the stomach, along the two 
curvatures of that organ, and in the duodenum; 
so called from their discovery having been gene- 
rally attributed to Brunner. The solitary intes- 
tinal follicles are often known, at the ])rcsent 
day, as the glands of Brunner, although Brunner 
restricted the latter term to the glands of tbo 

BRUNONIAN, Brownian. 


BRUNUS, Erysipelas. 

BRUSCUS, Ruscus. 

BRUSH, Scop'ula, (F.) Brosse. A well-known 
instrument, used in medicine chiefly f(jr the fol- 
lowing purposes : — 1. To clean the teeth. 2. To 
remove the saw-dust which adheres to the teeth 
of the trephine, during the operation of trephin- 
ing. 3. To rub the surface of the body, lor the 
purpose of exciting the skin, and favouring trans- 
piration. ■\Vestring, a Swedish physician, has 




reoommpndod metallic brushes for the purpose 
of conveying jjalvniiisin to a pnrt. These brushes 
consist of a ()latc of ebony fitted to another of 
gold, in which threads of the same metal are 
fixed: — the brush being connected with one of 
the poles of the galvanic pile. 

Bnisii, Stomach, Excutia ventriculi. 
BllU'l'A, .luniperus sabina. 
BRU'TIA. A sort of thick pitch, obtained from 
Brutiii, in Italy. From Pix Brutia was obtained 
the O'I'-iiin f'ici'n^im. 

BiitTiA, Instinct. 

BRUTINO, Terebinthina. 

JiRI'TOfjK. see Cerevisia. 

BRUXANELLI. A Malabar tree, the bark 
and leaves of which have a strong smell, and are 
astringent. On the coast of Malabar, its juice, 
mi.ved with butter, is applied to boils. Its bark 
is esteemed to be diuretic, and its roots anti- 
arthritic ^ 

BRUYERE VULGATRE, Erica vulgaris. 

Bruycres is a small village, 7^ leagues from 
Luneville. The waters are acidulous and chaly- 

BRVCRTOS, see Algidns. 


BRYCIIKTOS, see Algidus. 

BRYdlMA, Brt/fiiniin, Trisis, Prist's, Prismus, 
Odontnpri'niH, Stridor Deu'tiutii, (F.) Grincement 
dea Dents. Grinding of the teeth. A common 
symptom, in children, of gastric or other derange- 
ment, but often present when there is no reason 
to suspect any. 

BRYONE, Bryonia — h. d'Amerique, Convol- 
vulus Mechoacan. 

BRYO'NIA AFRTCA'NA, African Brjf'oity, 
from (ifivto, ' I bud forth.' A South African 
plant, common amongst the Hottentots, which, 
in the form of decoction, acts simultaneously as 
an emetic, cathartic, and diuretic. It is used by 
the natives in cutaneous diseases, dropsy, and 
syphilis. The tincture is a powerful emetic and 
cathartic. — Thunberg. 

Brvo'nia Alba, White Bri/'ony, Vitia alhn 
sylvcs'lris, Ar/ros'tis, Ai/riam'peloa, Am'pelos 
a'gria, Erhetni'sis, Bryii'nia as'pera seu Di- 
oi'cn, Cedrna'tis, Chelido'nium, Lnhrns'cn, Me- 
lo'thrum, Ophrostnph'ylon, Psilo'thrnm. Ord. 
Cucurhitacea?. Se.r. Sifst. Monoecia Monadelphia. 
(P.) Coii/eitrree, Vifjiie vieri/e, V. blanche, Navet 
du diahle ou galant. The root is large and suc- 
culent, and has an acrid, bitter, and disagreeable 
taste. It is a drastic cathartic. E.xternally, it 
has been applied, in form of cataplasm, in gout. 
When repeatedly washed, a good starch is ob- 
tained from it. The active principle has been 
separated from it, and called 7/;-y'o(n'»c. 

Buyoxia Mr.c'iioACAXNA Nigricans, Convol- 
vulus jalapa — b. Nigra, Tamus communis — b. 
Peruviana, Convolvulus jnlapa. 

BRYOXINE. see Bryonia alba. 

BRYOXY, BLACK, Tamus communis — b. 
White. Brvonia alba — b. Wild, Sycios angulatus. 
' BRY'I'IA. i\[arc of grapes. 

BRYTOLATURE, see Cerevisia. 

BR YTOLE, see Cerevisia. 

BRYTOX. Cerevisia. 

BU, j3oii, abbreviation of /Jouf, 'an ox,' in com- 
position expresses 'excess, greatness.' Hence 
Bufinnis. BnphlhaJmia, <tc. 

BUBASTECORDIUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BUBE, Pustule. 

BUBO, finvfiuiv, Pano'chia, Panna inguinn'ha, 
Adenophi/'ina inffninn'Hs. Bnhonnpa'nns, Bubo- 
linn'cns, ' Iluhnn'cns, Cmnbii'rn, Anijiis, Bonbon, 
Codoce'le, Codnscel'hl, (F.) Bnbon, Poulnin. In 

the works of Hippocrates and Galen, this word 

sometimes signifies the groin — Tnfjuen ; at other?, 
the inguinal glands ; and at others, again, swell- 
ing or inflammation of these parts. The moderns 
apply the term to an inflammatory tumour seated 
in the groin or axilla, and they generally distin- 
guish — 1. Simple or Si/inpathctic Bubo, which is 
independent of any virus in the economy. 2. 
Venereal liubo, {¥.) Biibon renerien, which is oc- 
casioned by the venereal virus. 3. Pcstllentiul 
Bubo, or B. symptomatic of the Plarjiie. The last 
two have by some been called malignant Bubo, 
(F.) Bubon malin. 

Primary Bubo, (F.) Bubon primitif, shows it- 
self with the first symptoms of syphilis: the eou- 
eecntire not till afterwards. 

BUnON, Bubo, Inguen — b. Gummiferum, see 
Ammoniac gum. 

BUBON D-EMBLEE {¥.). An enlargement 
and suppuration of one or more of the inguinal 
glands, not preceded by any other of the more 
common forms of venereal disease, nor by any 
other syphilitic symptom. 

Bubon Gal'banum. The systematic name of a 
plant which has been supposed to afford galba- 
num; 3[<:lo'pion, 3I<tto'rium. The plant is ali-o 
called Fer'ula A/rica'na, Oreoseli' num Africn'- 
num, Ani'sutn frutico'sum galboni/'erntn seu Af- 
riea'num frutee' cena, Seli'num Galbanum, Aijaayl'- 
lis gal'banum, The long-leaved or lovage-leuved 
Gal'banum. Ord. UmbelliferiB. The ]ilant can 
scarcely, however, be considered to be determined. 
By the Dublin College, it is referred to Opo'i'dia 
Galbanif era, Ord. Umbelliferee. Galbanum is 
the gumrai-resinous juice. Its odour is fetid, and 
taste bitter and acrid : the agglutinated tears are 
of a white colour, on a gr(mnd of reddish-brown. 
It forms an emulsion when triturated with water, 
and is soluble in proof spirits of wine, and vine- 
gar: sp. gr. 1"212. It has been given as an anti- 
spasmodic and expectorant, in pill or emulsion. 
Dose, from gr. 10 to 60. Externally, it is applied 
as a cataplasm. 

Bubon galbanum is a South African plant; and 
is reputed to be an excellent diuretic, under the 
name of Wil<l Celery. A decoction of the leaves 
is given in dropsy and gravel. According to 
Pappe, the resinous matter, which exudes from 
the stem, ditfers in appearance, smell, and iu 
every respect, from Gumtni Galbanum. 

Bubon Macedon'icum, Athamau'ta Jfacedon'- 
ica, Petroacli' num Macedoii'irum, A'piuiii pefrcs'- 
nm, Pctra'pSum, (F.) Persil de Jllacedoine, Mace- 
do'nian Parsley. Its properties are similar to 
those of common parsley, but weaker and less 
grateful. The seeds are an ingredient in the 
celebrated comriounds, Mithridato aud Theriac. 

BUBONA. Nipple. 

BUBONALGIA, from ;3ou/?wv, 'the groin,' and 
aXyoi, 'pain.' Pain in the groin. 


BUBO'NIUM,^l.'(^er^(;'<iV»», Golden Starwort. 
A plant anciently supposed to be efficacious in 
diseases of the groin, from jSovliiov, 'the groin.' 

BUBONOCE'LE, hom jiovH'^'v, 'the groin,' and 
<c;)Xt7, ' tumour,' ' rujiture.' ller'nia inguiita'Ho, 
fn'guinal Hernia, Rupture of the Groin. (F.) 
Hemic inguinale. Some surgeons have confined 
this term to hernia when limited to the groin, 
and have called the same afl"ection, when it has 
descended to the scrotum, Osckeoce'le, Scrotal 
Hernia. The rupture passes through the abdo- 
minal ring: and, in consequence of the greater 
size of the opening in the male, it is more fre- 
quent in the male sex. 



BUBONOREX'IS, from 0nvfi,ov, 'the groin,' 
and pi^ti, 'a rupture.' A name given to bubono- 
cele when accompanied with a division of the pe- 




ritoTicum, or when, in other words, it is devoid 
of a .-^ae. 

BUBON'ULUS, n,ibuu'eiilt(8. A diminutive 
of Bilbo. A painful swelling of the lymphatics 
of the penis, extending along the dorsum of that 
organ to the groin. It is an occasional accom- 
paniment of gonorrhoea. 

BUDUKLE. A word used by Shakspeare for 
a red jiimple on the nose. 

BUBUNCULUS, Bubonulus. 
BUCAROS, Terra Portugallic.a. 
BUCCA, Giiatkos. The mouth. The cheek 
and hollow of the cheek. Also, the vulva. 

BUCCAC'RATOX, from Biicca, and /cpau, 'I 
nii.x.' A morsel of bread sopped in wine, which 
served of old for a breakfast. — Linden. 

BUCCAL, Biiccu'lis, from Bucca, 'the mouth,' 
or rather ' the cheek.' That which concerns the 
mouth, and especially the cheek. 

BuL'CAL Artery, Artere Sns-majctllnire, (Ch.) 
arises from the internal maxillary or from some 
of its branches, as the Temporalis profunda an- 
tica, or the Alveolar. It distributes its branches 
to the buccinator muscle, and to the buccal mem- 

Buccal Glaxds, Molar Glomh. Mucous fol- 
licles, seated in the buccal merabnvno, opposite the 
molar teeth. They secrete a viscid humour, which 
mixes with the saliva, and lubricates the m(mth. 
Buccal Membrane, (F.) Membrane Bnccale. 
The mucous membrane, which lines the interior 
of the mouth. 

Buccal Nerve, Buccina'tor Nerve, Bnccola- 
lidl — (Ch.), is given off by the inferior maxillary. 
It sends its branches to the cheek, and especially 
to the buccinator muscle. 

Buccal Vein follows the artery. 
BUC'CEA, Buccel'la. The fleshy excrescence 
of nasal polypus, so called because it was believed 
to proceed from the mouth. — Paracelsus. Also, 
a mouthful. 

BUCCELA'TON, Burcela'tnu. A loaf-shaped 
cathartic medicine ; made chiefly of scammony. 
— Aetius, Paulus of iEgina. 
BUCCELLA, Bolus, Buccea. 
BUCCELLA'TIO. A mode of arresting hemor- 
rhage, by applying a pledget of lint to the bleed- 
ing vessel. — Avicenna, Fallopius. 
BUCCINA, Turbinated bones. 
BUCCINA'TOR, from bnccinare, 'to sound 
the trumpet.' The Buccina'tor Jftiscle, Retrac'- 
tor An'cjnli Oris, Biieco-Alveolo-maxiUaire, Alve- 
olo-hibial — -(Ch.), Manao'riuit, is situate in the 
substance of the cheeks. It extends between the 
posterior portions of the alveolar arches of the 
two jaws and the commissure of the lips, which 
it draws backward. It assists in mastication, by 
pushing the food back towards the teeth ; and, 
if the cheeks be distended by air, its contrac- 
tion forces it out. 

BUCCO. One who is blub-cheeked, or wide- 
mouthed. In composition, the mouth. 

ua tor. 
BUCCO-LABIAL NERVE, Buccal nerve. 
BUCCO PHARYNOE'AL, Bnceo-Phari/nr/e'- 
tis, (F.) Biicco-Pharynyien. Belonging to the 
mouth and pharynx. The Biuro-phartpKje'al 
Aponeiiro'sis or Intermax'illari/ Lii/'ameiif, ex- 
tends from the internal ala of the pterygoid pro- 
cess to the posterior part of the lower alveolar 
arch, and affords attachment, anteriorly, to the 
buccinator, and, posteriorly, to the constrictor 
pharyngis superior. 

BUC'CULA, from Bnrca, 'the mouth.' A 
small mouth. The fleshy part beneath the chin. 
— Bnrtholinc. 

BUG ERAS, Trigonella fcenum — b. Foenum 
Graecum, Trigonella foenum Gra;cum. 

BUCnU, Diosraa crenata— b. Leave.', Diosma 

BUCKBEAN, Menyanthes trifoliata— b. Ame- 
riean, Menvantlies verna. 

BUCKBERRY. Vaccinium stamineum. 
BUCKEYE. .lEsculus hippocastanum. 
BUCKHO, Diosma crenata. 
BUCKU, Diosma crenata. 
BUCKWHEAT, Polygonum fagopyrum — b. 
Plant, eastern. Polygonum divaricatum. 

BUCNEMIA, see Elephantiasis — b. Tropica, 
see Elejihantiasis. 
BUCTON, Hymen. 

BUFF, INFLAMMATORY, Corium phlogig- 

BUFFY COAT, Corium phlogisticum. 
BUG, (BED,) Cimex. 
BUGANTIA, Chilblain. 

BUG'GERY, Sod'omy. Sodom'ia, Co'itua So. 
doniit'iciis, (I.) Bnt/arone. Said to havj been 
introduced by the Bulgarians: hence the name. 
A carnal copulation against nature, as of a man 
or woman with any animal ; or of a iniin witli a 
man, or a man unnaturally with a woman. The 
unnatural crime. 

BUGLE, Prunella — b. Common, Ajuga rop- 
tans — b. J'l/ramidale, Ajuga — b. Banipantc, Aju- 
ga reptans — b. Water, Lycopus Virginicus — b. 
Weed, Lycopus. 

BUOLOSE, Anchnsa ofiieinalis. 
BUGLOSS, DYER'S, Anchusa tinctoria — b. 
Garden, Anchusa officinalis — b. Upright, Ajuga. 
BUGLOSSA, Anchusa officinalis. 
Anchusa officinalis — b. Latifolium, Borage otiici- 
nalis — b. Sativum, Anchusa officinalis — b. Sjl- 
vestris, Anchusa officinalis — b. Tinctoruin, An- 
chusa tinctoria — b. Verum, Boracic acid — b. 
Vulgare majus, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGRANDE EPINEUSE, Ononis spino?a. 
BUGRANE, Ononis spinosa — b. dcs Champs, 
Ononis arvenis. 

BUGULA, Ajuga — b. Chamajpitys, Teucriura 
ehamajpitj's — b. Pyramidalis, Ajuga — b. llcp- 
tans, Ajuga reptans. 
RU/'S, Buxus. 

sard is two leagues from Chateau-Thierry, in 
France. The water contains chloride of calcium 
and carbonate of lime. 

BULB, Biilbiis, (F.) Bulbe. A name, given 
by anatomists to different parts which resemble, 
in shape, certain bulbous roots. The Bulb of ihe 
Aorta is the great sinus of the Aorta. Bulb of n 
Tooth ; the vascular and nervous papilla con- 
tained in the cavity of a tooth. The liidb or 
Root of the Hair is the part whence the hiiir 
originates. The Bulb of the Urethra is the 
dilated portion formed by the commencement 
of the Corpns sponijiosum towards the root nf 
the penis. We say, also, Bulb, for Globe, of the 

Bulb of the Eye, see Eye — b. of the Female, 
Bulbus vestibuli — b. Rachidian, see Modullif 

BULBE, Bulb — 6. Rachidien, see Mcdnll.i 
oblongata — 6. du Var/in, Bulbus vestibuli — b. ('« 
la Voiite (t trois Pilicru, Mamillary tuliercles. 

BULBI FORNICIS, Mamillary tubercles-b. 
Prioriim Crurum Fornicis, Mamillary tubercles. 
BULBOCASTANEUM, Buuium bulbocas- 

BULBO-CA VERNEUX, Accelerator urinsc. 

BULBO-CAVERNOSUS, Accelerator urinae- 

b. Syiidesmo-cavernenx, Accelerator urmx — ^- 

Urethral, Accelerator urinae. 

Il BULBOCODIUM, Narcissus pseudonarcissus. 




BULBONACH, Lunaria rcdiviva. 

BULBUS, Bulb. 

Bi'Lniis Esculen-'tus. The Eu'cnhnf. Bulb : 
a particular kind, so denominated by the an- 
cients. It is supposed to have been the Cejm 
Aicdlon'lca. — Dioscorides, Celsus, Pliny, Ac. 

BiiLBUs Gl.vnditlosus, Proventrieulus — b. 
Medulla; spinalis, Medulla oblongata — b. Oculi, 
tee Kye — b. Ollactorius, see Olfactory Nerves — 
b. Pili, see Hair — b. Kachidicus, see Medulla ob- 
longata — b. Vaginae, 15. vestibuli. 

BtlLBUS Vestid'ulI, li. Vntji'na;, Plextto reti- 
form' iH seu reticiila'ris seu caveruo'siiK, Onira 
clitor'idis iiitcr'na, Bulb or Semi-bulb of the Fe- 
male, (F.) Bnihe clu Varji'n. A close-packed 
plexus of intricately anastomosing veins, inclosed 
in a fibrous investment, — being an immediate 
continuation and extension of the jxirs intermedin, 
and occupying the space between the beginning 
or vestibule of the vagina and the rami of the 
pubie arch on each side. It is regarded by 
Lauth, Taylor, Morgagni and Kobelt as the ana- 
logue of the male bulb. 

BiiLBUS Vomito'rius. a plant, said by Dios- 
corides to be emetic and diuretic. It is the 
Munk-ijrape flower, according to Bay, — the Hya- 
ciuthun MiiHcafi. 

BULKSIS, Voluntas. 

BUL(;A, Vulva. 

BULIMIA. Boulimia. 

BU'LITIIOS, from /3ouf, 'an ox,' and Xi5of, 
'a stone.' A bczoar or stone, found in the kid- 
neys, gall-bladder, or urinary bladder of an ox 
or cow. 

BULLA, (F.) Bulle. A Bleb, (Sc.) Bleib. A 
jiortion of the cuticle, detached from the skin by 
the interposition of a transparent, watery fluid. 
It forms jhe 4th order in Willan's and Batcman's 
arriingement of cutaneous diseases, and includes 
eiysipelas, pemphigus, and pompholyx. By 
some, Bulla has boon used synonymously with 
J'ei<ijihi<iiiK. See, also. Hydatid. 

BULLACE PLUM, Prunus in Sitia. 

Nabothi glandulaa. 

BULLDOG, Tabanus. 

BULL-FISTS, Lycoperdon. 

BULLOUS, BuUo'su^, (F.) BuUeux. Having 
relation to a bulla or bleb, as a 'bullnui eruption.' 
Pemphigus has been designated Jlnlndie bul- 
huse, and Ficvre buUeuse, when accompanied by 

BULLSEGO, Typha latifolia. 

BUMBLKKITES, see Rubus fruticosus. 

BUMELLIA. Fraxinus excelsior. 

BUM-GUT, Rectum. 

BUNA. Coffca Arabica. 

OF. See North Carolina, Mineral Waters of. 

BUNDURH. Corylus avellana. 

BUNEWANl), Ileracleum spondylium. 

BUNIAS, Brassica napus. 

BUNIOID, Napiform. 

BUNION, Bunvon. 

BUNI'TES VINUM. A wine, made by in- 
fusing the Bunium in must. It is stomachic, but 
scarcely ever used. 


Bii'NirM Bui.BocAs'TANUsr, Qovviov, so called, 
it has been supposed, from growing on hills, from 
(invvoi. 'a hill,' or from the tuberosity of its root. 
Ji. mluuH, liiilnuiicoH'tanum, Slum hulbncnKtiinnm, 
Scande.r butlioi-Kil'iiium, Carum bulbncavtaiium. 
Order, UrabellilVriv. The systematic name of a 
plant, whose root is called Pi<j-uut, Aijriocas'tn- 
vuiii. Xu'euln terrcn'trin, Bulbocas'tanum majus et 
hiiiiiw. Earth-nut, Ihnrk-nut, Kipper-nut, (Sc.) 
Ariiut, (F.) Terre-noi.r. The root is tuberous, 
and is eaten raw or roasted. It has been sup- 

posed to be of use in strangury. It is not em- 
ployed in medicine. 

BUNNIAN, Bunyon. 

BUNWEED, Senecio Jacobaca. 

BUN'YON, Bun'ion, Bun'uian, from Pavvoc, 
'an eminence.' [?] An enlargement and in- 
flammation of the bursa mucosa at the inside of 
the ball of the great toe. 

BUOPHTHALMIA, Buphthalmia. 

BUPEINA, Boulimia. 

BUPHTIIALMI IIERBA, Anthemis tinetoria. 

BUPHTHAL'MIA, Buojihthal'min, BuphthnV- 
mos, Elcphantom'ma, from iiovi, 'an ox,' and ui^- 
5aX^as, 'an eye.' Ojc-ei/e. Under this name, 
the generality of authors have designated the 
first stage of hydrophthalmia. Others, with Sa- 
batier, mean by it, turgescence of the vitreous 
humour, which, by pushing the iris forwards, 
forms around the crystalline a sort of border. 

Pyrethrum — b. Majus, Chrysanthemum leucan- 

BUPIITHALMUS, Hydrophthalmia, Semper- 
vivum tectorum. 

BUPINA, Boulimia. 

BUPLEUROIDES, Bupleurum rotundifolium. 

pleu'ron, Bupleuro'i'deK, from (iov, augmentative, 
and nXcvpov, 'side,' (F.) Buplevre, Fercefeuille, 
Round-leaved flare's Ear, Thoroirwaar. Order, 
Umbellifera3. The herb and seeds are slightly 
aromatic. It was foroierly celebrated for curing 
ruptures, being made into a cataplasm with wine 
and oatmeal. 

BUPLEVRE, Bupleurum rotundifolium. 

BURAC. Borax. Also, any kind of salt. 

BURBOT, see Oleum Jeeoris Aselli. 

BURDOCK, Arctium lappa — b. Lesser, Xan- 
thium — b. Prairie. Silphium terebinthaceum. 

BURIAL ALIVE, Zoothapsis. 

BURIS, Hernia, accompanied by scirrhous 
tumefaction ; or, perhaps, a scirrhous tumour 
only. — Avicenna. 

BURN. Sax. bepnan or byrnan, 'to burn or 
bren.' Un'tio, Anibus'tia, Adus'tio, Treiis Cauais, 
Erythe'mn Ambuf'tio, C'luxis, Eneau'xiii, Pyri- 
cnus'tum, Uoinbustu'ra, C«tac((u'iii(i, Combits'ttn, 
(F.) Brulure. An injury produced by the action 
of too great heat on the body. Burns are of 
greater or less extent, from the simple irritation 
of the integument to the complete destruction of 
the part. The consequences are more or less 
severe, according to the extent of injury, and the 
part affected. Burns of the abdomen, when ap- 
parently doing well, are sometimes followed by 
fatal results. Their treatment varies, — at times, 
the antiphlogistic being required; at others, one 
more stimulating. 

BURNEA. see Pinus Svlvestris. 

BURNET, CANADA, Sanguisorba Cana- 

FLUID. A solution of chloride of zinc, first 
used by Sir AVilliam Burnett for preserving tim- 
ber, canvass, Ac, from dry rot, mildew, kc, and 
afterwards as an antibromic and antiseptic, espe- 
cially in the case of dead bodies. The Dublin 
Pliarmacoptcia has a Zinci Chlu'ridi Liquor, So- 
lu'tion of Chloride of Zinc, which is not near so 
strong as Sir William's preparation. 

BURNING, Brenniny. A disease mentioned 
by old historians, from which authors li;!ve 'in- 
succossfully endeavoured to demonstrate the an- 
tiquity of syphilis. — Parr. 

BURNING OF THE FEET, see Feet, burn- 
ing of the. 

BURNT HOLES. A variety of rupia. pojm- 
larlv known in Ireland under this name ; and not 




nnfreqnont there amongst the ill-fed children of 
the poor. See Rupia cscharotica. 

BUllH, Rotacisimis. 

BURRA(JE, Borago officinalis. 

BUR-REED, GREAT, Sparganium ramosum. 

EURRH, Rotacisimis. 

Spirit of /hirrhiis far diaeanes of the Womb. It 
is prepared by digestina;, in alcohol, equal parts 
of myrrh, olibaniun, and mastic. Boerhaave fre- 
quently prescribed it. 

BURSA CORDIS, Pericardium— b. Omentalis, 
see Epiploon, gastro-hepatic^b. Pnstoris, Thlaspi 
bursa — b. Testiuin, Scrotum — b. Virilis, Scrotum. 


BURS/E MUCO'S^, li. mneo'scB vesiciifa'rea, 
Biirum seu Cnp'snlai nynovia'lefi, Blennoeijs'tidcs, 
Sncci muco'si, Veni'cai iDiguino'scB ten'diniuii, 
Vagl'ncB S;/noi}ia''es seu mncilrifjiiio'ficB, Si/nn'vi<(l 
Crypts or Foil' ides, (F.) Bourses Si/novinles ou 
■muqueiises ou miicilagineuses. Small inembranous 
sacs, (from jSvftaa, 'a bag, a purse,') situate about 
the joints, particularly about the large ones of 
the upper and lower extremities, and, for the 
most part, lying under the tenihjns. They are 
naturally filled with an oily kind of fluid, the use 
of which is to lubricate surfaces over which the 
tendons play. In consequence of bruises or 
sprains, this fluid sometimes collects to a great 
extent. The bursse are, generally, either of a 
roundish or oval form, and they have been ar- 
ranged under two classes, the spherical and the 

BuRs.E Synoviales, Bursas mucosae. 

BURSAL, Bitrsa'lis. Relating or appertain- 
ing to bursae, — as a 'bursal tumour.' 

BURSALIS, Obturator internus. 


Burse'ra Gummip'era, B. acuminn'ta, Tere- 
binth' us (/iimmif'era, Jamaica Bark Tree. Or- 
der, Terebinthaceae. A resin exudes from this 
tree, which, as met with in the shops, is solid 
externally ; softish internally ; of a vitreous frac- 
ture ; transparent; of a pale yellow colour ; tur- 
pentine smell, and sweet, perfumed taste. It has 
been used like balsams and turpentines in gene- 
ral, and is called, by the French, Cachibou, Ohi- 
boH. and Jiesine de Gomart. 

BURSTTIS, see Synovitis. 

BURST, Hernia, llernial. 

BURSTER, see Hernial. 

BURSULA, Scrotum. 

BURTHISTLB, Xanthium. 

BURTREE, Sambucus. 

EURUNHEM, Monesia. 

BURWEED, Xanthium. 

BURWORT, Ranunculus acris. 

BUSH, JEW, Pedilanthus tithymaloides. 

sang is a village in the department of Vosges, 
France. The waters are acidulous chalybeates. 

BUSSEROLLE, Arbutus uva ursi, 

zoar'die Spirit of Bussius. A preparation, re- 
garded as sudorific, diuretic, and antispasmodic ; 
obtained by distilling suhcarbonate and muriate 
of ammonia, amber, oil of cedar or juniper, ifec. 

island is in the Frith of Clyde, about 18 miles 
below Greenock. The climate is mild and equa- 
ble, but rather moist; and, as a winter residence 
it holds out advantages for those only that ap- 
pear to demand such a condition of the atmo- 
sphere. The climate resembles, in character, 
that of the S. W. of England and France, and 
the Channel islands; although its temperature is 

BU'TEA FRO^TDO'SA, Erythri'na monosper'- 

ma, Bndolph'ia frondo'aa, see Kino. A tree, 
common in Bengal, and in the mountainous parts 
of India; Nat. Ord. Leguminosaa ; from which 
yum hutea flows. Dr. Pereira found this gum to 
be identical with a s[)0ciinen marked yiinnni ru- 
brum astriiic/ens — the </om»ie ostritujeiite de Gain- 
bie of M. Guibourt. By some, this gum has been 
confounded with kino. 

BUTIGO, Gutta rosea. 

BUTOMON, Iris pseudacorus. 

BUTTER, from fiovrvpov; itself from j3ou{, 'ox,' 
and rupos, 'any thing coagulated.' Bitty' rum, 
I'ice'rioii, (F.) Benrre. A sort of concrete oil, 
obtained from the cream that forms on the sur- 
face of the milk furnished by the females of the 
mammalia, especially by the cow and the goat. 
Fresh butter is very nutritious, whilst the ranciil 
is irritating. The ancient chemists gave the 
name Butter to many of the metallic chlorides. 
It has also been applied to vegetable substances, 
which resemble, in some respects, the butter ob- 
tained from milk. The essential fatty matter in 
it is bu'tyrin or bn'tyrnte of glyc"eriii. 

Butter of Antimony, Antimonium muriatum. 

Butter of Bamrouc or Bamboo, (F.) Benrre 
de Bambouc ou Bnmbuk. A vegetable oil ob- 
tained from a species of almond, and used in 
Senegal in neuralgic and rheumatismal pains. 

Butter op Ca'cao, Oil of Ca'cno, Oleum Ca- 
cao spissa'tnni, 0. Theobro'nicB Cacao expres'siim, 
(P.) Beiirre de Cacao, Huile de Cacao. A fat 
substance, of a sweet and agreeable taste, ob- 
tained from the Theobroma cacao or chocolate 
nut. Owing to its firmness and fusibility, it is 
well adapted to serve as the constituent of sup- 

Butter of Cocoa, (F.) Buerre de Coco. A 
fatty, concrete substance, which separates from 
the milk of the cocoa nut. It is sweet and 

Butter and Egos, Narcissus pseudonarcissus 
— b. Kokuin, see (Jarcinia purpurea — b. of Nut- 
megs, see Myristica. 

IJUTTERBUR, Tussilago petasites. 

BUTTERCUPS, Ranunculus acris, and R. 

BUTTERFLY-WEED, Aselepias tuherosa. 

BUTTERMILK, (Prov.) Churn-milk, Kern- 
milk. Whir/, (Sc.) Bladoch, Dledoch, Bladda, Kin- 
milk, Sourinilk, (F.) Babenrre, Lait de Benrre. 
The thin, sour milk, separated from the cream by 
churning. It contains caseuin and a little butter. 
It is a refreshing drink when newly made. 

BUTTERTEETII, Incisive teeth. 

BUTTER WEED, Erigeron Canadense. 

BUTTERWORT, Pinguicola vul-'aris. 

BUTTOCK-HUMP, Steatopy<ra. 

BUTTONBUSII, Cephalanthus oecidcntaiis. 

BUTTONWOOD SHRUB, Cephalanthus occi- 

BUTUA, Pareira brava. 


BUTYRIN, see Butter. 

BUTYRUM, Butter— b. Amygdalarum dul- 
ciuin, Confection (almond)— b. Batumi, Unguen- 
tum plumbi superacetatis — b. Zinci, Zinci chlo- 

BUVEUR, Rectus internus oculi. 

tonien'ses AqucB. Buxton is a village in Derby- 
shire. The springs are thermal, and about 82° 
Fahrenheit. They contain sulphate of soda, 
chloride of calcium, chloride of sodium, chlorid.? 
of magnesium, carbonate of lime, carbonic acid, 
and azote. They are used in cases in which 
thermal springs, in general, are reconimendeJ. 
■'■^..^■y.;;,';"';"" ''"le or no mineral impregnation, 
/r- . ^r ' ^"■*"* »f'"/>«'-«''i''-eH«. The no.r-tree. 
(i.J Buis ou Bonis. The leaves arc bitter and 




aromatic, and, as such, have heen used in medi- 
cine, in cases of worms, dyspepsia. &c., in the 
form of decoction. They are souictiines, also, 
added to beer. The seed was anciently called 


BY.\K, Malt. 

BY'UKTlllUTM. A sort of cap or Couvrechef, 
filled with cephalic substances. — Forestus. 

Springs are in the town of Byron, Genesee coun- 
ty, New York. The water is a nearly pure dilute 
sulphuric acid. They are powerfully astringent 
and tonic. 

BYRSA, (ivpaa. A leather skin to spread 
plasters upon. 

BYRSODEP'SrCON. A tan stuff, with which 
C.ELius -iEuRELiANus Sprinkled wool, which he 

applied in certain cases to the umbilical region ; 
from 0vp<Tii. ' leather,' and Scxj-eu, ' I tan.' 


BYSAU'CIIEN, from /3uu, 'I stop up,' and 
""X'^"' ' '^^ neck.' A morbid stiffness of the 
neck. One with a short neck, — Simotrache'lus. 

BYSSOS, Vulva. 

BY'SSUS, Bijsanm. The ancients gave this 
name to several vegetable substances, which were 
used for the fiibrication of stuffs prized for their 
fineness, colour, and rarity of material. It is 
now chiefly applied to the filaments, by the aid 
of which the acephalous mollusca attach their 
shells to the rocks. Byssus was formerly !.Uj 
applied to the female pudendum. 

BYTHOS, j3u5oj, ' depth.' An epithet used by 
Hippocrates for the fundus of the stomach. 


C. This letter in the chemical alphabet sig- 
nifies nitre. It is also sometimes used in pre- 
scriptions for cal.K. 

CAA-AP'IA, Dorate'nia Brazilien'sis seu cor- 
'lifo'lia seu place nto'i'des seu vitel'la. Order, 
Urticeaj. The root, according to Piso, is employed 
as emetic and anti-diarrho;ic. 

CAA-ATAY'A. A plant of Brazil, supposed 
(o be a species of gratiola. It is very bitter, 
and considered to be one of the best indigenous 

CAACICA, Euphorbia capitata. 

CAA-GHIYU'YO, Frutex hac'cifer BraziUcn'- 
nin. A shrub of Brazil, whose leaves, in powder, 
are considered detersive. 

CAAOPIA, Hypericum bacciferum. 

CAAPEBA, Pareira brava, Pothomorpha pel- 
tata and P. umbellata. 

CAAPONGA, Crithmum maritimum. 

CAAROBA. A Brazilian tree, whose leaves, 
in decoction, promote perspiration. See Cera- 

CABAL. Cah'ida, Cttbal'la, Cal'bala, Caba'lta, 
Kdb'nla, Gubnlln. This word is from the He- 
brew, and signifies knowledge transmitted by 
tradition. Paracelsus and several authors of the 
Ifith and 17th centuries have spoken much of 
this species of magic, which they distinguished in- 
to Jiidit'lc or tlic<>l(/i/iau, and Hermet' ic or medi'c"- 
iiud; the latter being, according to them, the 
art of knowing the most occult properties of 
bodies by an immediate communication with 
spirits, — the knowledge being thus acquired by 
inspiration, and incapable of inducing error. It 
was also called Ara cubalia'tica seu sif/?ia'ta, 'ca- 
balistic art.' 

CAB.VI/IIAU. A plant of Mexico, according 
to Dalcchamps, which passes for an antidote to 
white hellebore, and yet is used for poisoning 
arrows. It is unknown to botanists. 

CAB'ALIST, Cabalia'la. One instructed in 
the Cabal. 

CAliALLATION, Cynoglossum. 

CABARET, Asarum. 

CABBAGE, Brassica — e. Cow, Nymphaea odo- 
rata — c. Irish, Dracontium foetidum — c. Skunk, 
Bracontium ftctidum — c. Swamp, Dracontium 
fatidum — c. Water, Nymphiva odorata — c. Tree, 
Geoffra>ainermis — c. Bark tree, Geofl"raBainermis. 

CABBAGIUM, Geoffnea inermis. 

CABOTZ, Hagenia Abyssinica. 

CABUKEIBA, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CABUREICIBA, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CACjE'MIA, Cachrn'mia, from KaKOi, 'bad,' 
and 'aijia, 'blood.' A faulty or morbid condition 
of the blood. 

CACyESTHE'SIS, Co.cacBSihe'aia, OacoiBathe'- 
aia, from (coKOf, 'bad,' and aiaOnais, 'feeling.' 
Morbid sensation. Morbid general feeling. In- 

CACAFERRI, Ferri subcarbonas. 

CAC'AGOGUE, Cacago'rjua, Cac'cagogue, Cnc- 
cacjo'yiis, from kukkti, 'excrement,' and uyciv, 'to 
e.xpel.' An ointment, composed of alum and 
honey; which, when applied to the anus, pro- 
duced an evacuation. — Paulus of iEgina. 


phor'bium. Ord. Com))osita?. A plant, which 
Dodoens and others considered to be capable of 
tempering the caustic properties of euphorbium. 
It is also called Klein'ia. 

Many varieties of the Cacalia are used, in dif- 
ferent countries, chiefly as condiments. 

CA'CAO, Ca'coa, Cncii'vi, QunhoU, Cacova'ta. 
The cocoa or chocolate nut ; fruit of TheoLvo' ma 
Cacao, Co'coa Cacavif'era, Ca'cao tithior seu 
sati'va, Cacao iheobro'ma, (F.) Cacaoyer ou Ca- 
caotier ordinaire. Family, Malvaceae. Sex. 
Si/st. Polydelphia Pentandria. 



CACATIOX. Defecation. 

CACATORIA, Diarrhoea. 

CAC'ATORY', Cacato'rius, from cacare, 'to go 
to stool.' Febria cacato'ria ; a kind of intermit- 
tent fever, accompanied by copious alvine evacua- 
tions. — Svlvius. 


CACAVI. Cacao, Jatropha manihot. 

CACCAGOGUE, Cacagogue. 

CACCE, Excrement. 

CACCIOX'DE. A sort of pill, chiefly formed 
of catechu, recommended by Baglivi in dvsentery. 

CACEPIIEBOTE'SIA, from KaKog, 'bad,' and 
cif/ciioTrig, ' puberty.' Morbid puberty. Disease 
occurring at the period of puberty. 

CACHALOT, see Cetaceum. 

CACHAXG-PARAXG. A sort of bean of Su- 
matra, mentioned by Marsden, whose seeds are 
given in pleurisy. Jussieu considered it to be the 
Jlimo'aa acandena. 

CACHECTIC, Cachec'tes, CacJiec'ticua, (F.) 
Cachectique, same etymon as Cachexia. One utr- 




tacked with cachexia. Belonging to cachexia. 
Cuchec'tica remtd'ia are remedies agaiust ca- 

CACHELCOAIA, Helcocace. 
CACIIKN'-L.\GUEN, Chironia Chilensis. 

CACHET (¥.), 'a sedL' A utamp or medicine 
stamp, used by the ancient Romans for niarlting 
their drugs, e^^pecially those prescribed in dis- 
eases of the eyes ; and hence called, by some, 
oculint stnmpf!. Some of tliose more lately dis- 
covered amongst Roman antiquities, have been 
descrilied by MM. Sichel and Duchalais, and by 
Prof. Simp.-ion, of Edinburgh. 

CACUEX'IA, from Kuxoi, 'bad,' and 'cfif, 
' habit.' iStntus cachec'ticim, Cacli'exij, Dysthe'nin, 
(F.) Gnchexie. A condition in which the body 
is evidently dejjraved. A bad habit of body, 
chiefly the result of scorbutic, cancerous, or ve- 
nereal diseases when in their lait stage. Hence 
we hear of a Scorbutic Cnchexia, Cunceroiis Ca- 
chexia, &o. Sauvages and Cullen have included 
under this head a number of diseases — consump- 
tions, dropsies, Ac. Cnchexia has been some- 
times confounded with diathesis. Cachexia 7c- 
tev'ica is jaundice or icterus itself, or a disposition 
thereto. Fluor albus is sometimes called Ca- 
chexia Uteri' I) a. 

Cachkxi.v Africaxa, Chthonophagia — c. Cal- 
cnlosa, Lithia — c. Cancerous, see Cancer — c. 
Chlorotic, Chlorosis — c. Dysthetica, Dyscrasia. 

Cachexia, (Jaol. The deteriorated organic 
actions induced by confinement in prisons, which 
is so often the precursor of scrofula. 

Cachexia Ictkrica, Icterus. 

Caciibxia LoxniNEN'sis. The paleness and 
other evidences of impaired health presented by 
the inhabitants of London. A similar cachexia is 
seen in those of other crowded cities. 

Cachexia, Lymphatica Farciminosa, see 

Cachexia, Marsh, (F.) Cachexie jinludSenne, 
ou p(dii'itre. The state of cachexy observed in 
malarious districts. 

Cachexia, Saturnixa, Saturnismus — c. Scor- 
butic, see Purpura — c. Scrophulosa, Scrofula. 

Cachexia Sple'.^ica. The state of scorbutic 
cachexia, which often accompanies diseases, es- 
pecially enlargement of the spleen, Splenal' <jia 
JJe»f/ftleii'«in, in India. 

Cachexia Vexerea, Syphilis — c. Venous, Ve- 
nosity — c. Virginum, Chlorosis. 

CACHEXIE, Cachexia — e. lodee, se« Iodine 
— c. Paliide.enne, Cachexia, marsh — c. Palustre, 
Cachexia, marsh. 

CACHEXY. Cachexia. 

GACHIIIOU. see Biirsera gummifera. 

CACHINM^AGUA, Chironia chilensis. 

CACHINNA'TIO, from caehinno, 'I laugh 
aloud.' A ten'lency to immoderate laughter, as 
in some hysterical and maniacal affections. 

CACHIRI. a fermented liquor made, in Cay- 
enne, from a decoction of the rasped root of the 
manioc. It resembles perry. 

CACHLEX. A small stone or pebble, found 
on the sea shore. One of these, when heated in 
the fire, and cooled in whey, communicates an 
astringency to the liquid, so that it was anciently 
esteemed to be useful in dysentery. — ftalen. 

CACHOS. An oriental fruit, apparently of a 
Solnnum, which is esteemed lithontriptic. 

CACHOU, Ciitechu. 

CACHRYS LIBAXO'TTS. An umbelliferous 
plant which grows in Africa and the south of 
Europe. It is aromatic and astringent. Its seeds 
are extremely acrid. 

Caciirvs Marithia, Crithmum maritimum. 

CACIIUN'DE. An Indian troeh or pastils 
composed of amber, mastic, musk, cinnnm-on, 
aloes, rhubarb, galanga, pearls, rubies, emeralds, 

garnets, Ac. It is regarded by the people of In- 
dia as an antiiloto, stomachic and antispasmodic. 

CACO, KUKo, propQrly only an abbreviiition of 
KUKos. In composition it means something de- 
fective: as in the following words: 

CACO/ESTIIESTS, Ciicajsthesis. 

CACO-ALEXITERIA, Alcxipharmie. 

CACOCIIOL'IA, from KaKog, 'bad,' and X"'^'!) 
'bile.' Diseases induced by a depraved conditiim 
of the bile. 

CAC'OCHROI, Cac'ochri, from kuko^, 'had,' 
nnil xpoi, 'colour.' Diseases in which the com- 
plexion is morliidly changed in colour. 

CACOCIIYL'IA, from kokos, 'bad,' and yuAo;, 
'chyle.' Depraved chylification. 

CACOCHYM'IA, Kakochjjm'ia, Cornip'tio 
Hiimo'runi, from kukos, 'bad,' and %u/iof, 'juicii,' 
'humour.' Cacoch'ymy. Depravation of tbo 

Cacochymia Plumbea, Lead poisoning — c. 
Scorbutica, see Purpura — c. Scrophulosa, Scni- 
fula — c. Venerea, Syphilis. 

CACOCII'YMUS, 'Cacuchijm' icis. One attacked 
with cacochymia. Belonging to cacochymia. 

CACOCNE'MUS, Cac,>c»e'micn>,, J/,'di8 suni 
pradi'tus; from KiiKog, 'bad,' and Kvrji^t, 'tlie 
leg.' One who has bad legs. 

CACOCORE'MA, from KaKoi, 'bad,' and mofw, 
' I purge, or cleanse.' A medicine which purges 
off the vitiated humours. 

CACODyE'MON, from kuko;, 'bad,' and iJoi/iuv, 
'a spirit.' An evil spirit, to which were ascribed 
many disorders. The nightmare. 

CACO'DES, from Kaifog, 'bad,' and o^eiv, 'to 
smell'— )?ioZ^ olena. Having a bad smell; Uacu'- 
dia, Ctteos'mia. 

CACODIA, see Cacodes. 

GAC0KTll''ES,Cacoeth'icn8, (Y.) CacoMeJrnm 
KOKOi, 'bad,' and tSof, 'disposition, habit,' &c. 
Of a bad or vitiated character, as nlcua eacoeth'es, 
an ulcer of a malignant character. 

CACOETHICUS. Cacoethe-s. 

CACOGALAC'TIA, Cacoc,a'lia, from Kam, 
'bad,' and y'>-^'^> Ren. yaAonTo?, 'milk.' • A bad 
condition of the milk. 

CACOGALAC'TICA. Same etymon as thela?t. 
One who sufl^ers from a bad condition of the milk. 

CACOGALIA, Cacogalactia. 

CACOGEN'ESIS, (F.) Cacoghil^e, from ica/cnf, 
'bad,' and ycveaig, 'generation.' A morbid for- 
mation. A monstrosity. 

CACOMORPHIA. Deformation. 


CACOPATHI'A, Pa^'eio Mala, from icnm, 
'bad,' and 7ra&og, 'affection.' A distressed statu 
of mind. — Hippocrates. 

CACOPHO'NIA, from KOKog, 'bad,' and (^uvm 
'voice,' vitia'ta vox. A dissonant condition of 

CACOPLAS'TIC, Cacoplas'ticns, Di/ipl'dnint'- 
ie ; from KaKog, 'bad,' and n'Xaacu, 'I form.' Su.i- 
ceptible of only a low degree of organization, as 
the indurations resulting from low or chronic 
inflammation, fibro-cartilage, cirrhosis, &o. 

CACOPRA'GIA, Cacoprax'is, from (cawt, 
'bad,' and rparTu, 'I perform.' Depraved con- 
dition of the organic functions. 

CACOPRAXIS, Cacopragia. 

CACORRHACHI'TIS, from KaKog, 'bad,' ami 
pa-^^ts, 'the spine.' Cacor'rhachis, Cncor'hnithi-<, 
Cacorhnrhi'tis, Spoiuhjlal'gia. Deformity of the 
spine. Disease of the spine. Spontaneous luxa- 
tion of the vertebrae and ribs dependent upon 
internal causes. 

CACORRHYTH'MUS, Arrlnjth'mus, from "- 
Kog, 'bad,' and pt^/joj, 'rhythm,' 'order.' Irre- 

CACO'SIS. Mala di8po8it"io, (F.) Viet. A 




bn'l conilition of body. — Hippocrates. A diseased | 
coiiditiiin in c^-'ieriil. 

CACOSIT'IA, from kqkos, 'bad,' and airiov, 
'aliment.' Di.sgust or aversion for food — Fad- 
tid'lum cilio'nim. 

CACOSMTA, see Cacodes. 
CACOSOMI'UM, from Kaxoi, 'bad,' and .rojfia, 
'the lioiiy.' An liospital for luprosy, and incura- 
ble affections in general. 

CACOSPfiKMA'SIA, Cacospermn't!<i, Carol, 
per'niin, fvom KuKog, 'bad,' and a^rcpua, 'sperm.' 
A bad condition of the sperm. 

CACOSl'lIYX'IA, from k,ikos, 'bad,' and 
a^v^K, ' pulse.' — Vitio'sH8 2ii'i'>iiii- Bad state of 
puis-.'. — (Jaien. 

CACOSPLANCH'NIA, from K.iKoi, 'bad,' and 
o^^'iYX^'""' ' '•'' viscus.' Indijrestion. The eraa- 
ciaiioii dependent upon imperfect digestion. — 

CACOSTOM'ACHUS, from ^a/coc, 'bad,' and 
aTD^uyoi, 'the stomach.' What disagrees with 
the stomach. Indis;estil)Ie. — Gorraeus. 


CACOS'TOMUS, from Kaxof, 'bad,' and croixa, 
'a mouth.' Having a bad mouth, or a bad 

CACOTIIANASIA. see Euthanasia. 

CACOTMYMTA, Vit'ium An'imi, from KUKog, 
' bad ' and du|UO{, ' mind,' ' disposition.' A vicious 
state of inind. — Linden. 

C \OOTiUBULUS, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CACOTIllCiriA, from (cufo?, ' bad,' and Opi^, 
'■/"X"'- 'hair.' Disease of the hair. 

CACOTROPiriA, from kukos, 'bad,' and rpo^^, 
'nutrition.' — Viiio'ea mitrW'io; — disordered nu- 
trition. — (Jalen. 

CACOfr, C'ifjof, Catechu. 

CACOU'CIA COCCIN'EA. Concin'en, Goc- 
chi'f/i, S<- liowihai' n CDccin'en, Tikimtiia. A peren- 
nial twining shrub of South America, the plant 
of which, as well as the fruit, is possessed of 
euu'to-cathartic properties. 

CA<yriER, Cactus opuntia. 

CACTUS, Cvnara. 

CACTUS OPUN'TIA, Opun'tia, 0. vii7;jn'rh. 
The hidittn Fiij, (F.) Cacticr, Itaquette, Fujiiicr 
d'liide. Ord. Cactaceoe. This plant grows in 
South America, Spain, Italy, &e. Its fruit, which 
bus the stiape of the fi?, is of a sweetish taste, 
and colours the urine red when eaten. Its leaves 
are considered refrigerant. 

The fruits of different species of cactus are 
called TniKii, 

C.\D.V'B,V, STrofi'mia. A genus of the family 
C(ipi>iiride(B, natives of India and Arabia. The 
j'oung shoots of the Cada'ba fariiio'sa are consi- 
dered to he an antidote against venomous bites. 

C.\I).\'VEIl, Ptnmn, Neeron. A dead body, 
corse, corpne, (Sc. ) Corp; a niibject ; a carcass, 
(F.) Cada.vre. The word has been supposed to 
come from cado, ' I fall ;' and by some to be a 
contraction from earo data cermibus, 'flesh given 
to tlie worms.' [?] 

CADAVERIC, Cad.averous. 

CADAVEROUS, Cadav'eric, Cadavero'sns, 
Necra'des, (F.) Cudavereujr, Cadnrerique, Be- 
longing to the dead body ; as cadnverons smell. 
The Cadar'erous or Hippocrnt'ic face, (see Face), 
is an unfavourable sign in disease, and generally 
denotes a fatal termination. 

CAn.w'KnoiTs or Cahav'ruic IIvrERiE'jfiA. 
The hypostatic hyperasmia observed in depend- 
ing parts of the dead body. 

CADDY INSECT, see Ectozoa. 

CADF. Junii)crus oxyceiirus. 

CADE.rr-INDI, Malal)ii thrum. 

CADKli-AVANACU. Croton tiglium. 

CADIA. An Egyptian, leguminous plant. 

The Arabs attribute to its fresh leaves the power 
of relieving colic. 

CADMIA, Calamina, Tutia. 
CADMI'I SULPHAS, Cadmi'um Bulphn'ricum, 
Sidphas Cadiiii'cus, 3feli')i{ Sidphas, Klnpro'thii 
Sidphas, Klap)ro'thiam Sidphii' ricum, Melinnni 
Sidphu'riciim, Sulphate of Cad'miitm. Used in 
spots on the cornea, and in chronic torpid in- 
flammation of the conjunctiva, in the iiuantity 
of half a grain to a grain to the ounce of water. 
It does not differ materially ih its properties from 
suljjhate of zinc. The nitrate, in the dose of jtk 
of a grain, induces vomiting and purging. 


CADRE DU TYMPAN, Tympanal. The 
portion of the temporal bone which supports the 
meml)rana tympani. 

CADTCIIU, Catechu. 

CADUCA HUNTERI, Decidua — c. Passio, 

CADU'CITY, Imheeil'Utas, DebU'itas, Cadu'- 
eitas, from cadere, 'to fall.' The French use the 
word Cuducite for the portion of human life which 
is comprised generally between 70 and 80 years. 
The age which precedes decrepitude. It is so 
termed in conseiiuence of the limbs not usuallj' 
possessing sufficient strength to support the body. 
The precise age must of course vary in indivi- 

CADUQUE, Decidua membrana — c. Kfjlechie, 
see Decidua membrana — c Utei'ine, Decidua — c. 
Vraie, Decidua membrana. 


C.A.DUS, Kaioi;. A Greek measure equal to ten 
gallons English. — Pliny. Amphora. 

TERIUS) are situate at the fore and back parts 
of the tuber annulare of the brain, and at the 
extremities of the depression made by the verte- 
bral artery. The former is placed between the 
nerves of the third, and the latter between those 
of the sixth pair. 

C/ECiE HyEMORRHOi'DES, Blind Piles, 
(F.) H e III orrho ides areiajles, are those unaccom- 
panied by any discharge. 

CjECAL, CcBca'lis. Belonging to the Caecum, 
from c<Bciis, 'blind, hidden.' The Cacal arteries 
and veins are the branches of the Arteries et vencB 
c(>lic(B dcxtrcB inferiores, distributed to the ca;eum. 
The Cacal or blind extremity of a duct is its 
closed termination. See Csecus. 

CICATRIX, Cicatrix. 

CiE'CITAS, Cw'citas, Cwcifu'do, Ahlcp'sia, 
ObccBcn'tio, OccfBca'tio, Anap'sia, Ti/'pfilotes, 
Ti/pfilo'sis, Ce'citij, Blindness, (F.) Ai-eiii/lcmenf, 
Cecite, Perte de la viie. Cfecitas may be depend- 
ent upon many different diseases — as upon amau- 
rosis, specks, hypopyon, cataract, glaucoma, oph- 
thalmia, atrophy of the eye, &c. 

CiECiTAS Crkpuscularis, Hemeralopia — c. 
Diurna, Nyctalopia — c. Nocturna, Hemeralopia. 

CFCITE, Typhlo-enteritis. 

C/ECITUDO, Cajcitas. 

CiECUM, Cwcnin, Intesti'num ccBcvm, 3fonom'- 
achon, jtfonom'actim, 3fonoco'lon, l/onocn'liim, 
Tjiplilo'teron monoco'lon, Typhlot' erum, Typlilo- 
en'tenim, Init"ium iniesti'ni crassi, Saccus Intes- 
tini crassi seu Coli, Ccecnm Caput coli, Caput coti. 
Prima cella coli, Init"ium extu'berans coli, from 
ccBcus, 'blind.' The Blind Gut, so called froui 
its being open at one end only. That por- 
tion of the intestinal canal which is seated be- 
tween the termination of the ileum and com- 
mencement of the colon ; and which fills, almost 
wholly, the right iliac fossa; where the perito- 
neum retains it immovably. Its length is about 
three or four fingers' breadth. The lleo-cacul 



»o/i,'e or Valve of Bauhin shuts off all communi- 
( Mtion between it and the ileum ; and the Appen- 
dix vermi/ormis ccBci is attached to it. 

CyECUM Foua'mkn of the frontal bone is a small 
cavity at the inferior extremity of the internal 
coronal crest or crista. — Fronto-et/imoidal fora- 
v,cn, (F.) TroH aveiKjle ou hoi-ffiie. Morgagni has 
^iven the same name to the small cavity in the 
ididdle of the upper surface of the tongue, near 
iis base; the sides of which are furnished with 
mucous follicles — Lacunes de In lanyue — (Ch.) 

Cecum, Phlegjionous Tumour op the, Ty- 

CyECUS. 'Blind.' One deprived of sight, 
TjphlopH, (F.) Aveiigle, Borgne. In anatomy, it 
i.- used to designate certain holes or cavities, 
which end in a cul-de-sac; or have only one 
opening. See CcBcal. 

liliiul Duds of the Ure'thra, (F.) Conduits 
oreuij/es de I'urethre, are the JIucous Lacu' na 
of the Ure'thra. 

C^LA-DOLO, Torenia Asiatica. 


blue- — c. Borussicura, Prussian blue. 


CyE-SALPTNIA, C. sappan, Sappan or Samp- 
fen wood, (F.) IhesiUet, Bois de Siippan. Ord. 
Eeguminosae. Called after Caesalpinus. A small 
Siamese tree, the wood of which is used in de- 
coction, in cases of contusion. 

Brazil wood, Pernamhnco or Fernambuco tcood, 
fnrraerly used as an astringent, is the wood of 
C.ksali'in'ia Echina'ta. This is the proper 
Brazil wood ; but another variety in commerce is 
the Brasiletio from Casalpinia Brasiliensia and 
V. crista, which grow in the West Indies. 

The Nicaragua or Peach-tcood is analogous to 
ttiis, and is said to be derived from a species of 

The kernel of Cesalpin'ia Bonpucell'a, the 
seed of which is called in India Kuthideja and 
Kutoo Kitriinja, is given as a febrifuge tonic. 
Dose, ten grains. 

CiESA'REAN SECTION, Casa'rean opera'- 
tion, Tomotoc' ia,'rea sectio, Partus ccBsa'- 
reus, Opera' tio ccBSa'rea, Metrotom'ia, (F.) Ope- 
ration Cesaricnne, from ccedere, ccBsum, ' to 
cut.' An incision made through the parietes 
of the abdomen and uterus to extract the 
foetus. In this manner, Julius Caesar is said 
to have been extracted. — Pliny. It is also 
called llijsterotoni'ia, Hysterotomotoc'ia, Gastro- 
iiietrotoin' ia, Gasterhy sterol' amy, Gastrometrot'- 
oiiie, Gastrohysterot'omtj. An incision has been 
made into the uterus through the vagina, consti- 
tuting the Vayinal CcBsarean Section, Gastro- 
eli/trotoin'ia, Gastreli/trotom'ia, Gastrocolpotoin'ia, 
Laparacoljwtom' ia, Lnparoelytrotom' i a, (P.) Ope- 
ration cesarieune vagina/e. The Caesarean sec- 
tion may be required when the mother dies 
before delivery; when there is some invincible 
obstacle to delivery from the faulty conformation 
(■f the pelvis; or when the child has passed into 
the abdominal cavity in consequence of rupture 
of the uterus. 

CiESARIES, Capillus, Scalp. 

CiESIUS, Glaucoma. 

CiE'SONES, Cce'sares. Children brought into 
the world by the Csesarean operation. 

C^SU'LI^. They who have gray eyes. 

CiBSURA, Cut. 

CiETCHU, Catechu. 

CAF, Camphor. 

CAFAL, Agrimony, 

CAFAR, Camphor. 

CAFE, Coffea. 

CAFE A LA SULTANE. This name has i 

been given to an infusion or deccjction of the ground 
coquea or pericarps which surround the coli'ee. 

CAFE CrriilN. The aiiueous infusion of un- 
roasted coffee, so called on account of its yellow- 
ish tint. 

CAFETN, see Coffea Arabica. 

OAFEIElt and CAFEYER, Coffea Arabica, 

CAFFA. Camphor. 

CAFFEIN, see Coffea Arabica.' 

CAF I Eli, Coffea Arabica. 

CAFUR, Camphor. 

CAGAS'TRUM. The principal or germ of dis- 
eases which are communicable. — Paracelsus. 

CAGNEUX, Cagot. See Kyllosis. 

CAGOSANGA, Ipecacuanha. 

CAGOTS(F.). A name given to deformed and 
miserable beings, met with in the Pyrenees, Bern, 
and Upper Gascony, in France, where they are also 
called Capois. In other districts they are called 
Gezits, Gezitains, Cretins, Gahcts, Capons, Coli- 
berts, Cacous, Cagneux, &c. Sec (Cretin. The word 
Cagot is supposed to be an abbreviation of Cania 
Goth us, 'Dog of a Goth.' 

CAGUE-SANGUE. Caqneaangue. 

CAHINC7E RADIX, Cainca) radix. 

CAI'EPUT OIL, Cofeput oil, Kyapnt'ty, Ca- 
jupu'ti O'leum. The volatile oil of the leaves of 
Jlclaleu'ca Cajujiu'ti, Ord. Myrtaceae, a native 
of the Moluccas. The oil has a strong, fragriint 
smell, like camphor; taste jiungentand aromatic. 
It is stimulant, and useful where the essential oils 
in general are employed. It has also been called 
Oil of Witnebeii, from the person who first dis- 
tilled it. 

CAIK, Pleurodynia. 

CAIL-CEDRA, Swietenia Senegalensis. 

CAILLE, Tetrao coturnix. 

CAILLE, see Curd. 

CAILLE AU, Lantana. 


CAILLE-LAIT, Rennet — c. Blanc, Galium 
mollugo — c. Vruic, Galium verum. 

CAILLETTE, Abomasus. 

CAILLOT, Coagulura. 

CAINANiE RADIX, Caincse radix. 

C A I N'C ^ RADIX, Radix Chiococ'ca, E. 
Caina'ncB seu Caninana seu Cahincce seu Ka- 
hinccB seu Serpenta'ria Brazilien'sis, Caincn Root. 
The bark of the roots of Chiococc'a anguif'mja 
seu densifo'lin, and, perhaps, Ch. raccnio'sa, a 
plant of the Order Rubiaceas. Sex. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Monogynia, of Linna>us. It is bitter, 
tonic, and diuretic, but has not been long intro- 
duced. Dose of the powder, from Qj to ^^^ss. 

Dr. John H. Griscom, of New York, considers 
there is a remarkable analogy between the Cain- 
ca and the Apocynum cannabinum. 

CAINITO, Chrysophyllum Cainito. 

OAIPA SCIIORA. A cucurbitaeeous Malabar 
plant, the fruit of which has a pyriform shape. 
The juice is drunk in that country for the pur- 
pose of arresting hiccough. The fruit, when un- 
ripe, is emetic. 

CAISSE, Case — c. du Tnmhour, Tympanum — 
c. du Tympan, see Tympanum 

CAITCHU, Catechu. 

CAJAN, Phaseolus creticus 

CAJUPUTI, Caieput. 

CAKES, WORM, STORY'S. These were com- 
posed of calomel and jalap, made into cakes, and 
coloured with cinnabar. 

Crescentia Cujete. 


Cala'dium SRGUi'Nu\f, Nat. Ord. Araeese. A 
plant of India, whose acrid juice has been given 




there in gout and rheumatism, and as an anaphro- 
di^iac to women. The tincture has been prescribed 
ill pruritus vulvae. ' 

CALAF, S'llix yEf/i/ptincn. A large-leaved 
Ef^yptiun willow, called, also, Ban. The dis- 
tilled water of the flowers, called Mac<ihalef, 
passes, in that country, for an excellent ant- 
nphrodisiuc. It is also used as an antiloimic, 
antispptir, and cordial. 

CALA(iUALA, see Calagualas radix. 
CAL.UiKRI, Vernonia anthelinintica. 
CALA(ii IKAII, Vernonia anthelmintica. 
CALAGUA'LvE RADIX, CobKjne'la Radix. 
The root of l'oli/i)<t'iliiiin Culatjuu'la seu adiniiti- 
for'me seu corin'ceitm seu amniifo'linm seu ar- 
(jeii'lciiiii seu pol'itnm, Anpid'ium coria'cenm seu 
ferrtt'jin'viiiii seu din'colvr, Tecta'ria calahnala 
SJd ft mill ill' en, Cnldgiiiila, Cnluhwiht. Order, 
Felices. It has been exhibited in Italy in dropsy, 
pleurisy, contusions, abscesses, <tc. Its proper- 
lies are not, however, clear. 

CALAIIUALA, see Calagualse radix. 
CALAMANDRTNA, Teucrium chamaedrys. 
CALAMBAC, Agallochum. 
CALAMIiOUK. Agallochum. 
CALAMK'DOX, from xaAajuof, 'a reed.' This 
word has had various signitications. Some have 
used it for an obliiiue fracture of a bone; the 
fractured portions having the shape of the nib 
of a pen. Others have used it for a longitudinal 
fracture ; and others, again, for one that is com- 

C ALA ME NT, Melissa calamintha. 
CALAMI'NA, Ciil'itmine, from calamus, *a 
reed,' so called from its reed-like appearance. 
Cndmi'a, C. lapido'sn a'ero'sa seu fos'silis, Lapis 
Aero'siiH, Lapis Calainiiia'ris, Cahimina'ris, Oar' - 
bonus Ziiiri impu'riis, Cathiiiir, (F.) Pierre cala- 
viiiiaire. Native impure carbonate of zinc. Cala- 
mine is chiefly used for pharmaceutical purposes 
in the form of the Calamina pr^para'ta (Ph. 
IT. S.), Lapis Gahimiiia'ris prcepara'tus, Ciir'bo- 
uas zinci impn'riis prmpara'tits, Zinci car'bonas 
prcBpara'tii-i, Prepared Calamine : — Calamine re- 
duced to an impalpable powder by roasting and 
levigation. In this state it is sprinkled or 
dusted on excoriated parts, or to prevent exco- 
riation, itc. 

CALAMINT, Melissa Calamintha — c. Field, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Mountain, Melissa grandiflora 
— c. Spotted, Melissa nepeta. 


CALAMINTHA, Melissa C — c. Angliea, Me- 
lissa nepeta — c. Erecta Virginiana, Cunila Mari- 
ana — c. Hederacca, Gleehoina hederacea — c. 
Magno flore, Melissa grandiflora — c. Montana, 
Melissa grandiflora — c. Nepeta, Melissa nepeta — 
c. Parviflora, Melissa nepeta — c. Pulegii odore, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Trichototna, Melissa nepeta. 

CAL'AMUS, Knhiiios, 'the reed.' In the Phar- 
macopoeia of the U. S., the- rhizoma of acorus 

Calamus Alexandri'-vus. Celsus has thus 
called a medicine, which was long confounded 
with Calamna Aromaticus. It is not a root, 
however, but the stalk of a plant of India and 
Egypt, prol)ahly the Andrnpo'ijun Nardus. It 
entered into the theriaca, and has been regarded 
as antihysteric and emmenagogue ; — Calamus 
aromatiens veriia. 

Calamus AnoMATicrs, Acorus calamus — c. 
Aromaticus verus, Calamus Alexandrinus — c. 
Draco, C. rotang — e. Indicus, see Saecharuin — c. 
Odoratus, Acorus calamus, Juncus odoratus. 

Calamus Rotang, ('. Draco. Order, Palmac. 
The systematic name of a plant, whence Draijona 
Blood, SauijuisDrucu'nis, Cinnah'aris GrcBvo'rum, 

DraconthcB'ma, CF.) Sang-Dragon, is procured. It 
is the red, resinous juice, obtained, in India, from 
wounding the bark of the Calamus Rotang. It has 
been used as an astringent in hemorrhages, <fec. j 
but is now rarely employed. 

Calamus Schiptc'rius, ^iioy7j//)/ie, 'a writing 
pen,' (F.) Fossette aiigidaire du quatrieme ven- 
tricule. A small, angular cavity, situate at the 
superior extremity of the medulla, in the fourth 
ventricle of the brain, which has been, by some, 
supposed to resemble a pen. 

Calamus Vulgaris, Acorus calamus. 
CALAPPITE. Ruinphius has given this name 
to calculous concretions, found in the interior of 
certain cocoa-nuts. The cocoa-tree itself the Ma- 
lays call Calappn. These stones are, likewise, 
termed Vegetable Dezoards. The Malays attri- 
bute potent virtues to them, and wear them as 

CALASAYA, Cinchonas cordifolia3 cortex. 

CALBIA'NUM. The name of a plaster in 
Myrepsus, the composition of which we know 

CALCADINUM, Ferri sulphas. 
CALCATRE, Calcareous. 

CALCA'NEAL, Calca'neus, from calx, 'the 
heel.' Having relation to the calcaneum, as 
' calcaneal arteries.' 

ORTEIL, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. 
Phalanijinien coj/oinoi, Extensor brevis digitorum 
pedis- — c. Soiis-phalangettien eommiin, Flexor 
brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous-I'halanginien 
commun, F'lexor brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous- 
phalangien dn petit orteil, see Abductor minimi 
digiti pedis — c. Sus-phalangettieii commun, Ex- 
tensor brevis digitoruiu pedis. 

CALCA'NEUM, from cal.r, 'the heel.' Calca'- 
neus, Calcar, Cal'cia, Ichnus, Os Calcis, Pterna, 
Pter'ninm. The largest of the tarsal bones : that 
which forms the heel. It is situate at the poste- 
rior and inferior part of the foot; is articulated 
above and a little anteriorly with the astragalus; 
anteriorly, also, with the os cuboides. Its poste- 
rior surface — called Heel, Talus, Calx, {¥.) Ta- 
lon — gives attachment to the tendo-aehillis : the 
lower has, posteriorly, two tuberosities, to which 
the superficial muscles of the sole of the foot are 
attached. The small Apoph'i/sis or lateral Apoph- 
ysis of the Calca' neuin, (F.) Petit Apophi/se ou 
Apopliijse laterale du Calenneum, is a projection 
at the upper surface of this bone, on which is 
formed the posterior portion of the cavity that 
receives the astragalus. The great Apoph'ysis, 
anterior Apoph'i/sis nf the Calca'neum, is the 
projection which corresponds, on one side, with 
the cuboides; and on the other forms the ante- 
rior part of the facette which receives the astra- 

CALCAR, Calcaneum, Ergot— c. Avis, Hippo- 
campus minor. 

CALCA'REOUS, Calca'reus, Calca'rius, from 
co/.r, ' lime.' {¥.) Calcaire. Containing lime : — 
as calcareous concretions, C. depositions, &c. 
CALCARIA CHLORATA, Calcis chloridum— 
c. Chlorica, Calcis chloridum — c. Phosphorica, 
see Cornu cervi — c. Pura, Calx— c. Pura liquida. 
Liquor calcis. 

CALCARI.E CHLORUM, Calcis chloridum. 
CALCATAR, Ferri sulphas. 
CALCATREPPOLA, Centaurea calcitrapa. 
CALCIXO'NIA. Words employed by Paracel- 
sus to designate the concretions of tartrate of lime 
which form in the human body. 
CALCENOS, Calcetus. 




CALCEOLA'RIA, from cnlceulus, 'a small 
slipper ;' Slipi>erwort. 

Cai.ckola'kia Piumata is used in Peru as a 

Calceola'ria Trif'ida is esteemed to be febri- 

CALCE'TUS, Cnlcevo'nius, Calce'iios. That 
■which abounds in tartrate of lime. An adjective 
used by Paracelsus in speaking of the blood ; 
Snn/jids cnh-e'tiis. Hence came the expression, 
Cal'ciiicd hlood, Smiq calcine. 


CALCHOIDEA (OS), Cuneiform bone. 

CALCIA, Calcaneum. 

CALCIFEROUS CANALS, Canaliculi calci- 

CALCIFICATION, see Cretefaction. 


CALCIG'RADUS, Ptemoh'ntes, from cnlx, 
'the heel,' and gradus, 'a step.' One who walks 
on his heels. 

CALCII CIILORIDUM. Caleis murias — c. 
Chloruretum, Caleis murias — e. Oxyehloruretum, 
Caleis chloriilum — c. Oxj'dum, Calx viva — c. 
Protochloruretuin, Caleis chloridum — c. Sulphu- 
retuui, Caleis sulphuretum. 

CALCINA'TION, dddna'tio, Calci'non. Con- 
crema'tio, from caf.e, 'lime.' The act of submit- 
ting to a strong heat any infusible mineral sub- 
stance, which we are desirous of depriving either 
of its water, or of any other volatiliziible sub- 
stance that enters into its composition ; or which 
we wish to combine with oxygen. Alum is cal- 
cined to get rid of its water of crystallization ; — 
chalk, to reduce it to the state of pure lime, by 
driving oft' the carbonic acid ; and certain metals 
are sulyeeted to this opcrntion to oxiilize them. 

gyrum praic'ipitatum. 


dum — c. Carbonas, Creta — c. Carbonas durus, 
Greta, Marmor — e. Carbonas friabilis, Creta. 

ifated Car'bonate of Lime, Precipitated Chalk. 
This preparation, introduced into the last edition 
of the Pharmacopoeia of tlie United States, is pre- 
pared as follows: Liq. Calcii dhlorid. Ovss; Soda 
Coro'oiat. Ibvj ; Aqiice dentillat. q. s. Dissolve the 
carbr)nate of soda in six parts of distilled water; 
heat this and the solution of chloride of calcium, 
separately, to the boiling point, and mix. Wash 
the precipitate repeatedly with distilled water, 
and dry on bibulous paper. It has the same pro- 
perties ns creta praqiarata, and is preferred to it 
in ctriain cases, — for example, as an ingredient in 
tooth i)ovvders, owing to its freedom from gritty 

Cai.cis Chlo'ridum. Chlo'ride or Chlo'rnret or 
Hypochlo'rite or Chlorite or O.ri/triu'riateof Lime, 
Calx chloriua'ta (Ph. U. S.) seu Ojcrjmuriat'icn, 
Protoxichlor' uret of Calcium, Calcn'ria chlora'tu 
seu Chlorica, Chlornm seu Chlnrctnm Calca'ria, 
Oxi/chloritre'tum seu Protochlorure'tinn Calcii, 
Chlunirc'tiim Oxidi Calcii, Bichlorure'tiim seu 
Oxymu'rias Calcin, Caleis Hypochlo'ris, Bleach- 
ing or Tennnnt's Powder, (F.) I^rotoxichlonire 
de Calcium, Chlorure d' Oxide de Calcium, 
Chlnrure ou Oxichlorure ou liichlorure ou Oxi- 
mv.riate ou 3furiate siiroxi(/eiie ou oxir/ene de 
Chaux, Poiidre de Blaiichement, P. de Tennant. 
A compound resulting from the action of chlorine 
on hydrate of lime. Chloride of lime is a most 
valualile disinfecting agent, (see Disinfection,) 
■when dissolved in the prc.portion of one pound to 
six gallons of water. It has likewise been em- 
ployed both internally and externally in various 
diseases, as in scrofula, foetor oris, foul ulcers, 

Cai.cis IlKPAn, Caleis sulphuretum — c. Ily. 
dras, see Calx — c. Ilypochloris, Caleis chloridum. 

Cai.cis Mu'hiaS, Muriate of Lime, Calx sali'lri, 
Calcii Chlorurc'ttnn seu Chlo'ridum, Chloride of 
calcium, (F.) Chlorure de calcium. Muriate du 
Hydrochlorate de Cliaux. This salt has been 
given, in solution, as a tonic, stimulant, &c., in 
scrofulous tumours, glandular obstructions, gene- 
ral debility, &o. A Solu'tio Muria'tis Calcii, 
Liquor Caleis Muria'tis, Solution of Muriate of 
Lime, Ijiquid Shell, may be formed of Muriuie 
of Lime, ^y, dissolved in distilled u'aler, t^uy 
The Liquor Cal'oii Ciilo'hidi or Solution of Chin- 
ride of Cidcium, of the Pharmacop(cia of the 
United States, is prepared as follows : — Marlh, 
in fragments, .^ix, Muriatic acid. Oj ; JJislillnl 
water, a sufficient quantity. Mix the acid with 
a half pint of the water, and gradually add the 
marble. Towards the close of the ellervescence 
apply a gentle heat, and, when the action h:is 
ceased, pour off the clear liquor and evaporate to 
dryness. Dissolve the residuum in its weight and 
a half of distilled water, and filter. Dose, from 
gtt. XXX to f 3J. in a cupful of water. 

Cai.cis Oxymuuias, Caleis chloridum— e. 
Phosphas, see Cornu cervi — c. Phosphas prajci- 
pitatum, see Cornu ustum. 

Calcis Sulphure'tum, Cal'cii sulplnire'tiim, 
Hepar Calcis, Sul'phtiret of Lime, S. of Cal'eiinn, 
Hi/drosulphate of Ijime, (F.) Proto-hi/ilroxul/nle 
de C<ilcium, lliplrosulfate de chaux. Piincipally 
used in solution, as a bath, in itch and other 
cutaneous affections. 

CALCITEA, Ferri sulphas, 

CALCITEOSA, Plumbi oxydum scmivitreum. 

CALCITHOS, Cupri subacetas. 

CALCITRAPA, Centaurea Calcitrapa, Del- 
phinium consolida — c. Hippopha>stum, Centau- 
rea calcitra])a — c. Stellata, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CALCIUM. CHLORIDE OP, Calcis mmias- 
c. Chlorure de, Calcis murias — c. Chlorure d'oxide 
de, Calcis chloridum — c. Protohydrosulfate de, 
Calcis sulphuretum — c. Profo.richlorure de, Cal- 
cis chloridum — c. Protoxichloruret of, Calcis 
chloridum — c. Protoxide of, Calx — c. Sulphuret 
of, Calcis sulphuretum. 

GIT I, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. Subpha- 
langeus pollicis, Abductor poUicis pedis. 

CALCOCOS, Bell-metal. 

CALCOIDEA, (ossicula.) Cuneiform bones. 

CALCOTAR, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCUL, Calculus. 

CALCULEUX, Calculous. 

CALCULI, see Calculus — c. Articular, see 
Calculi, arthritic; and Concretions, articular. 

Calculi, Alternating, see Calculi, urinary. 

Calculi, Artiiuit'ic, Tophi, Tuber' cula ar- 
ihrit'ica. Calculi arthrit'lct scu podot/'riei, 
Chalk-stones, Gout-stones, Nodes, (F.) Pierres 
crayeuses, Calculs arthritiques, Nwuds. Concre- 
tions, which form in the ligaments, and within 
the capsules of the j(dnts, in persons affected with 
gout. They are composed of uric acid, soda, and 
a little animal matter; very rarely, urate of liinc 
and chloride of sodium are met with. Similar 
calculi are found in other parts beside the joints. 

Cal'culi, BlL'lAuy, Calculi hilio'si foufell'd 
seu hilia'rii, Bil'iary Coucre'tious, Oall-stonm, 
Cholol'ithus, Cholel'ifhus, (F.) Calculs biliairen, 
Pierres an fid, Auijichololithe, — Piorry. Some 
of these contain all the materials of the bile, and 
seem to be nothing more than that secretion 
thickened. Several contain Picromd ; and the 
g»eater part are composed of from 8S to 9-1 parts 
of Cholesterin, and of from 6 to 12 of the yellow 
matter of the bile. Biliary calculi are mo"st fre- 
quently found in the gall-bladder : at other times, 




in the cuVjstnnPC of the liver, in the branches of 
ttie DiiitiiH hi-pntic.uH, or in the Ductus Coiinniinh 
(Jh<ih(li<fhiin. The first are called Ci/ntic; the 
Bcoiiil Jfe/inli'c ; anil the last, sometimes, Jlcjin- 
tiKt/xiir. The causes which give rise to them are 
very obscure. Often they occasion no uneasi- 
ness, and at otlier times the symptoms mny be 
confoumled with those of hepatitis. At times, 
they are rejected hy the month, or by the bowels, 
along with a considcra'ile quantity of bile, which 
bad accumulated -behind thorn ; at other times 
they occasion violent abdominal inflammation, 
abscesses, and liiliary fistulse, rupture of the gall- 
bladilcr, and fatal elfusion into the peritoneum. 
The passa<;e of a gall-stone is extremely painful; 
yet the pulse is not at first affected. Antiphlo- 
gistics, when there is inflammatory action, and 
strong doses of opium, to allay the pain and 
spasm, with the warm bath, are the chief reme- 
dies. Solvents are not to be depended upon. 
They cannot reach the calculi. 

Calculi, Bone Earth, see Calculi, urinary — 
C. Compound, see Calculi, urinary — c. C3'stic, see 
Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'ciili of the Ears, (P.) (lidcnh de V Oreille. 
riard. light, and inflammable concretions, which 
occur in the mcatnH andilnrins e.rternns, anil are 
merely indurated cerumen. They are a frequent 
cause of deafness. They can be easily seen, and 
may be extracted by appropriate forceps, after 
having been detached by injections of soap and 

Calculi Fkllei, Calculi, biliary — e. Fusible, 
see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi, LACIl'RVJrAL, (F.) CalculH lacrif- 
rnaux.. Concretions sometimes, but rarely, form 
in the lachrymal passages, where they occasion 
abscesses and fistulie, which do not heal until 
they are extracted. No analysis has been made 
of them. 

Calculi, Lithic, see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi of thr Mamm.«, (P.) Calcnh fhs 
Jlf'tiiiellen. rialler gives a case of a concretion, 
of n yellowish-white colour, which had the shape 
of one of the excretory ducts of the mammary 
gland, having been extracted from an abscess 
seated in that organ. 

Calculi, Mulberry, sec Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi of the Pax'creas, (F.) Cdlculs du 
Pfinci(ns. These are but little known. Ana- 
logy has induced a belief tiiat the}- resemble 
the salivary. Some have supposed that certain 
transparent calculi, rejected by vomiting, or 
passed in the evacuations, have proceeded from 
the pancreas, but there seems to be no reason for 
this belief. 

Cal'culi op the Pive'al (iland, (F.) Calcitls 
de la Glande Piii^a/e. These have been fre- 
quently met with. No symptom announces their 
presence during life. They are composed of 
phosphate of lime. 

Calci:li Podagrict, Calculi, arthritic. 

Cal'culi op the Prostate. Prostnt'ic cnl'cnU. 
These are not very rare. They have generally 
the same composition as the preceding. They 
usually present the symptoms common to every 
tumefaction of the prostate, and sometimes those 
of calculi in the bladder. 

Cal'culi Pul'moxahv, (F.) CnJcuh pnlmo- 
nniren. These concretions are very frequently 
met with in the dead body, without seeming to 
have produced unpleasant symptoms during life. 
At other times, they are accompanied with all 
the symptoms of phthisis, Lithn-phthisln, Phthisie 
tnlciileitae. of Bayle. See Lithiasis pulmonnin. 
At times they are expectorated without the 
supervention of any unpleasant symptom. They 

arc usually formed of carbonate of lime and ani« 
mal matter, 

Cal'culi, Sal'ivary, Cal'culi saUva'les, Sin- 
lol'itlii, (F.) CdlcniH siilivaires. Concretions, 
usually formed of phosphate of lime and animal 
matter, which are developed in the substance of 
the salivary glands or in their excretory ducts. 
In the first case, they may be mistaken for a 
simple swelling of the gland ; in the second, they 
may generally be detected bj' the touch. They 
may be extracted by incision in the interior of 
the mouth. The calculus developed in the sub. 
lingual ducts has been called Cal'eulus mtbliii- 
(pin'lis and Ri'u'ula lapide'a. 

Cal'culi, Spermat'ic, (P.) Calcuh sperinn. 
tiqnes. These have been sometimes found in tlie 
vesieulae scminales after death. They cannot I e 
detected during life. No analysis has been made 
of them. 

Cal'culi of the Stomach and Intes'tines, 
Enterol'ithiin, E. Cal'eulus, Caprol'ilhus, Concre- 
tio'ues alvi'ncB, (F.) Calcnls de I'estomuc. C. iii- 
testi'naux ou atercornu.r, Pierres stercortdcs, Caii- 
cretions intextinnhs. Calculi of the stomach are 
rare, and have almost always been carried thither 
by the antiperistaltic action of the intestines. Tlie 
symptoms occasioned by them are those of chronic 
gastritis. It has been imagined that the cori- 
tinued use of absorhent powders, as magnesia, 
will give occasion to them. 

Intestinal concretions, (F.) Calculs iutesfinnii.r, 
are not uncommon in animals (see Bezoard :) 
but they are rare in man. The causes whiih 
give rise to them are litile known : sometimes a 
biliar.v calculus affords them a nuideus. Their 
composition varies. They are light, hard, very 
fetid, and not inflammable. They are formed, 
ordinarily, between the valvuUo of the small in- 
testines, or in the cells of the large, and some- 
times in old hernire. Whilst they do not ob- 
struct the passage of the alimentar.v mass, they 
produce no unpleasant symptoms. At times, the 
movable tumour which they form may bt fo't 
through the parietes of the abdomen. They are 
generally evacuated per titnnn. . 

Cal'culi op the Ton.sils. Calculous concre- 
tions, which sometimes form in the tonsils. (F.) 
Cnlcnln dcH Aiin/>idales. They are easily recog- 
nised by the sight and touch : sometimes the.y 
are discharged by spitting, either alone or W'ith 
the pus of an abscess occasioned by their pre- 
sence. They have not been analyzed. 

Calculi, Triple, see Calculi, urinary — c. 
Uric, see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi, U'hinary, Uird'ltJn', (F.) Ccdcids 
ttri'niitres, Pierres urinnires. Concretions which 
fortn from the crystallizable substances in the 
urine, and which are met with not only in the 
whole course of the urinary passages, but in fis- 
tulous openings wherever the urine stagnates 
naturally or accidentally. Their causes are but 
little known. They are more common at the two 
extremities of life than at the middle, and more 
so in some countries and districts than in others. 
At times, a clot of blood, a portion of mucus, 
&o., form the nucleus. The symptoms and treat- 
ment vary according to the seat of the calculus. 
There is no such thing probably as a medical 
solvent. See Urinary Calculi. 

Chymists have demonstrated the exist- 
ence of several components of urinary calculi, 
vis., Lithic Acid, Phosphate of Lime, Amvio- 
niiiro-MagnesiiiH Phosphate, O.ralate of Lime, 
Ci/stic Oxide, and Xauthic Oxide, with an 
animal cementing ingredient. The varieties of 
ealculi., produced by the combination or inter- 
mixture of these ingredients, are thus represented 
by Dr. Paris. 









1. LITHIC or 


Form, a flattened oval. S. G. 
seiicrally (•xcitpcls I, .500. Colour, 
browiii.^ih or faun-likp. Surface, 
smooth. Tezture, laminated. 

It consists prinripallv of Lil/iic 
Jicid. When treated wilh nitric 
acid, a beautiful pink substance 
results, 'i'liis calculus is slightly 
soluble in water, abundantly so 
in the pure alkalies. 

It is the prevailing 
species ; but the siiiliae 
sonieiimes occurs fine 
Iv tubcrculatcd It fre- 
ipienlly cnnstiliiies the 
nuclei of the othi.'r spe- 


(F.) Cidculs 

Co/our. (lurk brown. Texture, 
hauler than that of the other 
S|)('(;ifs. S G from ].4'-'>'to 1.976. 
Surface, studded with tubercles. 

It IS oxalate of lime, and is de- 
composed in the flame of a spirit 
lamp swelling out into a white 
efflorescence, whicli is quick- 

This sjiecies iiicliidee 
some varieties, wliicli 
are remarkably smooth 
and pale-coloured, re- 
senibliii!.' hnnp.scnt. 


Co/our, pale brown or gray ; 
surface, smooth and polished; 
structure, regularly laminated ; 
the lamina; easily separating 
into concrete crusts. 

Principally phosphate of time. 
It is soluble in muriatic acid. 


Colour, generally brilliant 
white. Surface, uneven, studded 
with shining crystals, less com- 
pact than the preceding species. 
Between its lamina; small cells 
occur, filled with sparkling par- 

It is an ammoiiiaco-mairnexian 
phosphate, generally mixed with 
phosphate of lime. Pure alka- 
lies decompose it, extracting its 

This species attains a 
larger size than any of 
the others. 


Co/our, grayish wiiite. 

A compound of the two fore- 
going species. 

It is very fusible, 
melting into a vitreoud 



Very like the triple calculus, 
but it is unsiratified and more 
compact and homogenous. 

It consists of CI/Stic oiiiie. LTn- 
der the blowpipe it yields a pe- 
culiarly fetid odour. It is solu- 
ble in acids, and in alkalies, 
even if they are fully saturated 
with carbonic acid. 

It is a rare species. 


Its section exhibits different 
concentric laminae. 

Coinpininded of several spe- 
cies, allernatiiig wilh each other. 


No characteristic form. 

The ingredients are separable 
only by chyinical analysis. 

1. Renal Calculi, (P.) Cnlctih rennux. These 
h.ave almost always a very irregular shape : 
St tiinos, there is no indication of their pre- 
sence : at others, they occasion attacks of pain 
in the kidneys, sometimes accompanied with 
bioody or turbid urine. Often, they cause in- 
danimation of the kidneys, with all its unplea- 
sant result,?. They are generally formed of uric 
acid, animal matter, and oxalate of lime, with, 
sometimes, phosphates. The treatment will have 
to vary, according to the absence or presence of 
inflammatory signs, — relieving the irritation by 
opiates. A surgical operation can rarely be ap- 

2. Colcui; of the UrelfTR, (F.) Calcnh del 
Ureteren. These come from the kidneys, and do 
not produce unpleasant effoets, unless they are 
go large as to obstruct the course of the urine, 
atid to occasion distension of the whole of the 
ureters above them : or unless their surface is so 
rough as to irritate the mucous membrane, and 
occasion pain, hemorrhage, abscesses, &c. The 
pain, during the passage, is very violent, extend- 
ing, at times, to the testicle of the same side 
in the male: and occasioning a numbness of the 
tliigh in both sexes. The treatment consists in 
peneral or local blood-letting, warm bath, and 

;?. C'llciifi, Venicnl ; Stone iti the Bladder, 
Lith'ia VeHiea'lin. Lithi'nfii'K ri/t'ticn seu vesica'Un, 
Ci/ito-Hthl'aKi's, Di/su'rifi calriilo'xn seu irrifn'ta, 
C'll'enluH vcKi'cm, (F.) Cnlruh reaicaux.. These 
are the most common. Sometimes, they proceed 
from the kidneys: most commonly, they are 
formed in the bladder itself. Sense of weight in 
the perinasum, and sometimes of a body rolling 
■when the patient chancres his position; pain or 
itching at the extremity of the glans in men ; 
frequent desire to pass the urine; sudden stop- 
page to its flow; and bloody urine — are the chief 

signs which induce a suspicion of their existence. 
We cannot, however, be certain of this without 
sounding the patient. Sometimes, when of a 
small size, they are expelled: most commonly, 
they remain in the bladder, the disorganization 
of which they occasion, unless removed by a sur- 
gical operation. 

4. Ctdc.nli, Ure'thral. These almost always pro- 
ceed from the bladder. The obstruction, which 
they cause to the passage of the urine, the hard 
tumour, and the noise occasioned when struck 
by a sound, indicate their presence. They are 
removed by incision. 

5. Ciileidi of Fin'tidoun pansar/cs. These arise 
when there is some fistulous opening into the 
urethra. They can be readily recognised, ami 
may gener.nlly be extracted with facility. (F.) 
CalculK places hora dea voiea icriuairea. See Uri- 
nary Calculi. 

Cal'culi of the U'terus, (F.) C'drnh (h 
V Uterus. These are ver}' rare. Tlic signs, which 
indicate them during life, are those of chronic 
etujorgcment of the uterus. Their existence, con- 
sequently, cannot be proved till after death. 

CALCULIFRAGUS. Lithontriptie. 

CAL'C ULCUS, (F.) Calcuhux, Graveleux. 
That which relates to calculi, especially to those 
of the bladder. 

Calculous Oxyd. Oxyd, cvstic. 

CALCULS (F.). pi. of Col'enl, a calculus. 

CALCULS BILfAfHES, Calculi, biliary — 
c. de VEstomac, Calculi of the stomach — e. de la 
Glrinde Pineale, Calculi of the pineal gland — c. 
Infealhiaux, Calculi of the stomach and intestines 
— c. Larn/niaux, Calculi, lachrymal — c. des Mii- 
meUes. Calculi of the mamma) — c. M^imnr, see 
Calculi, urinary — c. (/e V Oreille, Calculi in the 
ears— c. dn Pancreas, Calculi of the Pancreas— 
c. Places hors dcs voies nriiiaires. Calculi of fis- 
tulous passages— c. Pulmonaires, Calculi, pulmo- 




nary— -c. Rennux, Calculi, renal — c. Salivaires, 
Calculi, salivary — c. Spermntiqiten, Calculi, sper- 
matic — V. Slei-coranx, see Calculi of tbe stomach 
and intestines — c. Urinairea, Calculi, urinary — c. 
chs Uieteres, Calculi of the ureters — c. de I'Uti- 
ri(i. Calculi of the uterus — c. Veaicaux, Calculi, 

CAL'CULUS, Lapis, Lithoa. A diminutive 
of calx, a lime-stone. (F.) Calcul, Pierre. 
Calculi are concretions, which may form in every 
part of the animal body, but are most frequently 
found in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in 
the excretory canals. They are met with in the 
tonsils, joints, biliary ducts, digestive passages, 
lachrynial ducts, mammic, pancreas, pineal gland, 
prostate, lungs, salivary, spermatic and urinary 
jiassages, and in the uterus. The causes which 
give rise to them are obscure. 

Those that occur in reservoirs or ducts are 
supposed to be owing to the deposition of the 
substances, which compose them, from the fluid 
as it passes along the duct; and those which 
occur in the substance of an organ arc regarded 
as the product of some chronic irritation. Their 
genenil effect is to irritate, as extraneous bodies, 
the parts with which they are in contact; and to 
produce retention of the fluid, whence they have 
been formed. The symptoms differ, according to 
the sensibility of the organ and the importance 
of the particular secretion whose discharge they 
impede. Their solution is generally impracti- 
cable : spontaneous expulsion or extraction is the 
only way of getting rid of them. 

Calculus Bkzoar, Bezoard — c. Dentalis, 
Odontolithus — c. Encysted, Calcul chatonne — c. 
Sublingualis, see Calculi, salivary — c. Vesicae, 
Calculus, vesical. 

CALDAS, WATERS OF. Caldas is a small 
town, ten leagues from Lisbon, where are mineral 
springs, containing carbonic and hydrosulphuric 
acid gases, carbonates and muriates of lime and 
magnesia, sulphates of soda and lime, sulphuret 
of iron, silica,, and alumina. They are much 
used in atimic gout. They are thermal. Tem- 
perature 93° Fahrenheit. 

CALDK'RL13 ITAL'IC^, Warm baths in 
the neighbourhood of Ferrara, in Italy, much 
employed in dysuria. 

CALEB ASSES, Cucurbita lagenaria. 

CALKDO'NIA SPRINGS. These are in Penn- 
sylvania, fifteen miles from Chambersburg. The 
waters are pure ; temperature 52° Fahr. 

CALEnoMiA. Springs, see Canada, mineral 
Waters of. 

CALEFA'CIENTS, Calefacien'tia, Therman'- 
tica, from cnlidus, 'warm,' and facio, 'I make.' 
(F.) Ki-hmiffimts. Substances which excite a de- 
gree of warmth in the part to which they are 
applied, as mustard, pepper, <tc. They belong 
to the class of stimulants. 

CALEFACTIO, Echauffcment. 

CALENDULA ALPINA, Arnica montana. 

Calen'uula ArVF.n'sis, C<dthn Arven'sis seu 
officiiKi'tis, Wild 3far'igold, (F.) Souci des 
Champs. Order, Compositaj. This is, some- 
times, preferred to the next.__^ Its juice has been 
given, in the dose of from f^j to f^iv, in jaun- 
dice and cachexia. 

Calen'dula Officixa'lis, C. Sati'vn, Ohrji- 
san'thdiinin, S/xnisa solis, Cnllhn vuliju'ris ; Ver- 
ruca'riti, Siiir/lc or Garden Mar'itfolil, (Prov.) 
Goldiiii/, (F.) Souci, S. ordinaire, Fleur de tons 
lea moi's. Famih/, Synanthereiu, Syngenesia ne- 
eessaria Linn. So called from flowering every 
calend. Tbe flowers and leaves have been exhi- 
bited as aperients, diaphoretics, <tc., and have 
been highlv extolled iu cancer. 


CALENTU'RA, Cul'enture, from calere, 'to be 
warm.' The word, in Spanish, signifies fever. A 
species of furious delirium to which sailors are 
subject in the torrid zone : — a kind of phrenitis, 
the attack of which comes on suddenly after a 
broiling day, and seems to be characterized by a 
desire in the patient to throw himself into the 
sea. It is only a variety of phrenitis. 

Calentura Continua, Synocha. 

CALENTU'RAS; Palo de Calentu'ras. Pomet 
and Lemery say, that these words are sometimes 
applied to cinchona. Camelli says, they mean, 
also, a tree of the Philippine Isles, tbe wood of 
which is bitter and febrifuge. 

CALF KNEE, Entogonyaneon— c. of the Leg, 

GALTCE, Calix. 

C ALICES BEN ALES, see Calix. 

CALICO BUSH, Kalmia latifolia. 

CALIDARIUM, see Stove. 

CALIDUIVI ANIMALE, Animal heat — c. In- 
natum, Animal heat. 

Several mineral springs exist in California, near 
40° N. Lat. and 40^° longitude west of Wash- 
ington, directly upon the California trail, leading 
from the sink of Humboldt river to Pyramid 
lake. Their temperature varies from cold to 
almost boiling. They ebb and flow at irregular 
intervals ; have not been analyzed ; but some 
have the taste of a strong solution of sulphate of 
magnesia. They have had the singular effect of 
inducing blennorrhoeal symptoms, both in man 
and animals. 

CALIGATIO, Dazzling. 

CALI'GO. 'A mist.' Achhjs, (F.) Brouillard. 
An obscurity of vision, dependent upon a speck 
on the cornea: also, the speck itself; CuUyo cor'- 
necB seu a NephcV io seu a Lenco'inate, J/ac'ula 
cornccB seu semi pell u'cida, Phtharma cali(/n, He- 
hetu'do visds, Nch'ula, Opahe cornea, Wch-eye, 
Web, Pin-and-Wcb, (F.) Nona<je de la Comic, 
Taie ou Taye, Ohscurciasement de la vue, Aicera- 
todiaphanie, — Piorry. 

Caligo Lentis, Cataract — c. Pupillw, Syne- 
zisis — c. Synizesis, Synezisis — c. Tenebrarum, 


CALISAYA BARK, Cinchona- cordifolise cor- 

CALISTHEN'ICS, Callisthen'ics, Calistheni'a, 
CidlistJieiii'a, {¥.) Callistlienie, frcim kmAoj, 'beau- 
tiful, and (rSsvo;, 'strength.' The art of promoting, 
by appropriate exercises, strength of body, and 
grace of movements. 

CALIX, Calyx, Li/undib'uliim, from xaAuf, 'a 
cup,' 'a flower cup.' (F.) Calice, Entonnoir. 
Anatomists have given this name to small cup- 
like membranous canals, which surround the 
papilhv of the kidney, and open into its pelvis, 
whither they convey the urine : — Cal'ices rena'l&s, 
Cylind'ri membrana'cei licnum, Fin'tulcB nre'te- 
rum renum, Canales vienibra'nei lienum, Tn'bnli 
pelvis renum. Their number varies from 6 to 12 
in each kidney. 

Calix Vomitoria, Goblet, emetic. 

CALLA PALUS'TRIS, Water Arum ; indige- 
nous. Ord. Araceae : has similar virtues to those 
of the Arums. 

Calla Virginica, Peltandra Yirginica. 

CALLEUX, Callous. 

CALLIBLEPH'ARUM, from KaWo^, 'beauty,' 
and (3Xc(papov, 'eyelid.' A remedy for beautify- 
ing the eyelids. 




CALLTCANTHUS, Calycanthus. 

hernj ; indigenous. Order, Verbenaccae. Used 
as a eutropliic in cutaneous diseases. Said to be 
useful in drop?}'. 




CALI.IP-E'DIA, from icaXXo?, 'beauty,' and 
ran, Ttit^o;, 'a child.' The art of begetting beau- 
tiful fhildren. This was the title of a poem by 
Claude Quillet, in 1055; "OallijicBdia si've de pnl- 
chrcp. proh's hahenda; rcitione." The author ab- 
.surdly supposes, that the beauty of children is 
affected by the scnsati<ins which the mother ex- 
periences during her pregnancy. 



C ALLIPII YLLUM, Asjjlenium trichoma- 

CALLIP'YGOS, from koXXdj, 'beauty,' and 
Tuyi;, ' buttocks.' A coguomen of Venus, owing 
to her beautiful nates. 

CALLISTHENICS, Calisthenics. 

Ileterophylla, C. Verna— c. Intermedia, C. 
Verna.'richk Verna, (KaXo;, 'beautiful,' and 
&pi^, Tiiix'>i, 'hair,' from its capillary and tufted 
stems,) C. nqiiat'ien seu intc.rme'din seu hetero- 
phijl'ld, Wotcr chickmeed, ]Vuter starwort. : indi- 
genous ; Order, Callitrichacere ; is diuretic, and 
used in dropsy, in the form of tincture or of de- 

tree, Ord. Coniferae, from the branches and cones 
of which a gum exudes, that resembles Gum 
Sandarac. This is successfully used in the form 
of fumigations in gout, rheumatism, oedematous 
swellings. &c. 

Callitius CuPRESSOiDES, a common shrub in 
the neighbourhood of Cape Town, exudes a simi- 
lar substance. 

CALLOSITAS, Induration — c. Palpebrarum, 
Scleriasis — e. Vesica>, Cystauxe. 

CALLOS'ITY, Calloe'itas, Seyro^, Ti/le, Tylux, 
Ti/lo'ma, Tylu'niK, Dcrniatoscler'i't^is, JJermatot!/- 
lo'mn, Dermcitutylo'm'n, Dermatot'ylun, I^oms, Ec- 
phij' inn Calltis. Hardness, induration, and thick- 
ness of the skin, which assumes a horny consist- 
ence in places where it is exposed to constant 
pressure. (F.) Durtllon. Also the induration, 
which is observed in old wounds, old ulcers, fis- 
tulous passages, <fec. 

CALLOUS, Callo'mi8, OcJifJio'des, from callus, 
'hardness.' (F.) Cnlleu.v. That which is hard 
or indurated. A C(dlous Ulcer is one whose edges 
are thick and indurated. 

CALLUNA ERICA, Erica vulgaris — c. Vul- 
garis, Erica vulgaris. 

CALLUS, Cains, CalUim, Osteot'ylns, (F.) Cal. 
The bony matter, thrown out between the frac- 
tured extremities of a bone, which acts as a ce- 
ment, and as a new bony formation. The words 
are. likewise, used occasionally in the same sense 
as Callosity. 

Callus, PnovisiONAL. When the shaft of a 
long bone has been broken through, and the ex- 
tremities have been brought in exact juxtaposi- 
tion, the new matter, first ossified, is that which 
occupies the central portion of the deposit, and 
thus connects the medullary cavities of the broken 
ends, forming a kind of plug, which enters each. 
This was termed by M. I)upuytren the provi- 
sional Callus. 

CALMANTS, Sedatives. 

CA LME, (F.) The interval that separates the 
paroxysms of an acute or chronic disease. AVhen 
the type is intermittent, the word intermUslon is 

CALOMBA, Calumba. 

CAL'OMEL, from icaXof, 'good,' and fitXif, 
'black.' A term, formerly applied to ^Ethiops 
mineral. By some, the mild chloride of mercury 
is said to have been so called by Sir Theodnre 
Turquet de Mayerno, in consequence of its having 
been prepared by a favourite black servant, cir, 
according to others, because it was a good remedy 
for bUick bile. It is now applied to the mild 
chloride of mercury only. See Hydrargyri sub- 

CALOMEL STOOLS. A term applied to tlio 
green, spinach-like, evacuations occasioned hy 
the internal use of the mild chloride of mercury. 

submurias. A name, also, given by Riverius to 
purgative pills, prepared with calomel, sulphur, 
and resin of jalap. — Dictionaries. 

CALOMELAS, Hydrargyri submurias. 

CALO'NIA, KaXiavia. An epithet formerly 
given to myrrh. — Hippocrates. See Myrrha. 

gara octandra. 

CALOR, Heat — c. Animalis, Animal heat — 
e. Nativus, Animal heat. 

CALORWITE, (F.) Caloric"ifas. The faculty 
possessed by living bodies of generating a suffi- 
cient quantity of caloric to enable them to resist 
atmospheric cold, and to preserve, at all times 
and in every part, a temperature nearly equal. 
See Animal Heat. 

CALORIFA'CIENT, Calorif'innt, Cnlori/a'. 
ct'enn, Cnlorijj'anfi : from calor, 'heat,' and/nrcir, 
'to make.' Having the power of producing heat. 
Relating to the power of producing heat. 

CALORIFICA'TION, Calorfficu'tio, from m- 
lor, 'heat,' And jieri, 'to be made.* The funetiun 
of producing animal heat. 

CALOliixESES, from calor, 'heat.' The 
name under which M. Baumes proposes to ar- 
range all diseases characterized by a sensible 
change in the quantity of animal heat. The ('«- 
hirineses form the first class of his Nosology. 

darii, Mudar. 

CALOTTE, (F.) Pile' ohm. Anatomists some- 
times give the name. Calotte aponevrotiqnc, to 
the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis muscle, 
which covers it externally ; and that of Calotte 
dn crane to the scnU-cap, 

Calotte is also applied to an adhesive plaster, 
with which the head of a person labouring under 
tinea capitis is sometimes covered, after the hiiir 
has been shaved off. This plaster is pulled sud- 
denly and violently off, in order to remove the 
bulbs of the hair. It means, also, a sort of coiT 
made of boiled leather, worn by those who have 
undergone the operation of trepanning, Ac. 


CALTHA ALPINA, Arnica montiina— c Ar- 
vensis. Calendula arvensis — c. Marsh, C. Palus- 
tris — c. Officinalis, Calendula arvensis. 

CaLTHA Palus'triS, Mamh 3lar'i(j(dd, .lil'iTxh 
Caltlia, CoHnHpn. Order, Ranunculacea; : iuili- 
gcnous. A syrup prepared from it is a popular 
cough remedy. 

Caltha Vulgaris, Calendula ofBcinalis. 

CALTROPS, see Trapa nntans. 

CALUM'BA, Colom'ho, Calnm'ba, Colom'hi, 
(Ph. U. S.); Colnmho, Radix ColnmhcB, (F.) Cu- 
Itimbe ou Colttmbe. The root of Jleninper'i.iuin 




jxilmtt'tnm, Cnc.'culuH pnlma'tus. Order, Meni- 
fcperiniict'aj : indigenous in Mozauibique. Its 
oilour is slightly uroiuatic; taste unpleai^antly 
bitter. It is tonic and antiseptic. Dose, gr. 10 
to J5J '" powder. 

(Jam:mba, American, Frnse'ra Walteri seu 
Citrulliicn'm's seu Ojjlcinn'liii seu verticil' lata, 
Hwer'tin diffiiriii'iH seu Fraxe'ra, American or 
Maricl'ta Culiimbo, Indian Lettuce, Yellow Gen- 
tian, (liilden Seat, Meadiiw pride, Pi/r'ainid. The 
root Franc' ra (Ph. U. S.) is used in the same 
cases as tlie true Caluiuba. 
UALUS, Callus. 
CALVA, Cranium. 

Calva, Valva'ria. The cranium ; the upper 
part e.-jpecially ; the skull-cap; — the Vault of the 
Cranium, Cam'era. 

CALVARIA, Cranium. 

CALVA'TA FEllRAMEN'TA. Surgical in- 
struments, which have a head or button. 

CAliVIT"lES, Calvifium, Phal'acra, Phnla- 
cro'iii, Glahrit"ies, Ophi'aKis, Depila'tio Cap'- 
itio, I'lialacro'ma, Madaro'sis,Lip8utrich'ia, Batd- 
vchu, (Old Eng.) Ballednesse, Cal'vity, Ac, from 
calvuK. 'bald,'(F.) Oalvitie, Chanvete. Absence 
of hair, particularly at the top of, and behind, 
tlie head. 

Cai.vit"ies Palpebra'iium is loss of the eye- 

CALVUS, Athrix. 

CALX, Lime, Ca'rium Terra;, Protox'ide of 
Cnl'cium, Cnlca'ria pura, (F.) Chaux. The lime, 
employed in pharmacy, should be recently pre- 
pared by calcination. When water is sprinkled 
over caustic lime, we have slaked lime, hydrate 
(,f i;„,e, — the Valcia Hydras of the London phar- 

Cai.x, see Calcaneum — • c. Bismuthi, BL^imuth, 
subiiitrnte of — c. Chlorinata, CaU-is chloridum — 
c. Cum kali puro, Potassa cum calce — c. Salita, 
Calcis murias — c. O-xymuriatica, Calcis chlo- 

Calx e Testis ; lime prepared from shells. 
It has probably no medicinal advantages over 
tlijit prepared from marble. 

Calx Viva, C. reccns seu iista, Calx et Calx 
viva, O.r'idum Cal'cii, Fitmans nix, Lime or 
QuicJclime, (F.) Chaux vive. The external ope- 
ration of calx viva is eseharotie, but it is rarely 
used. Lime is a good disinfecting agent. It is 
employed internally in the form of Liquor Calcis. 
CALYCANTirUS, C.Flur'idus, Callican'thus, 
[?] Carol i'na Allspice, Sweet-scented shrub, Sweet 
shrub, from calyx, 'a flower-cup,' and avdoi, 'a 
flower.' An indigenous plant; 0)-(/cr, Calycan- 
thacesc ; with purplish flowers, of strong, agree- 
able odour, which ajjpear from March to June. 
The root is possessed of emetic properties. 

Myrtus caryophyllata. 

CALYSTEliIA SEPIUM, Convolvulus sepium 
— c. Soldanella, Convolvulus soldanella. 
CALYX, Calix. 
CAMARA, Calva. 

mnrez is a small canton near Sylvanes, in the 
department of Aveyron, France, where there are 
acidulous chalybeates. 

CAMARO'STS, Cnmam'ma, from xnnapn, 'a 
vault." Camera'tio. Tcstudina'tio Cra'nii. A. spe- 
cies of fracture of the skull — cam' crated frnc- 
tnre—\\\ which the fragments are placed so as to 
form a vault, with its base resting on the dura 
mater. — (Jalcn. Paulus of .Tlgina. 

CAMBIE-LEAF, Nympha-a alba et lutea. 
C VMBINO. A tree of the Molucca Islands, 
from the bark of which a kind of gum-resin ex- 

udes, which has been highly extolled in dysen- 
tery. It appears to have some resemblance to 
the simarouba — Rumphius. 

CAMBIUM, ' Exchanfje.' A name formerly 
given to a fancied nutritive juice, which was 
supposed to originate in the blood, to r-epair the 
losses of every organ, and produce their increase. 
— Sennertus. 

lage in the department of Basses Pyrenees, 
France, where there are two mineral springs; 
the one an acidulous chalybeate, the other sul- 
phureous. Temperature, 62° to 09° Fahrenheit. 
CAMBODIA, Cambogia. 

CAMBO'GIA, from Cambodia, in the Enst In- 
dies, where it is oljtaiiied. Jlenee, likewise, its 
names Cambo'dia, Cambo'i/ium, Gambo'i/ia, Gam- 
bo' (ji um,Gamhu' gi nm ,Ga inboi' dia . It is called, also, 
Gutta, Gutta yamba seu Gamandr(B,Giimmi Gutta, 
Catayau'na, Cattajau' ma, Chri/'nopus, Laxati'vus 
Lid'icus, Gumnii Bo'ijia seu (jaiiKin' drtr ?eu de Goa 
seu de Jemn seu ad Pod'ar/ram, Chilta jemoco, 
Cand)oge or Gamboc/e, (F.) Gomme Gutte. Ord. 
Guttiferae. A yellow juice obtained from Ilebra- 
dendroH Camh-or/ioi'dcn, and other plants of the 
natural family (Juttifera3, but it is not known 
from which of them the oBSeinal camboge is ob- 
tained. It is inodorous, of an orange yellow 
colour; opake and brittle; fracture, glassy; is a 
drastic cathartic, emetic and anthelmintic; and 
is used in visceral obstructions and dropsy, and 
wherever powerful hydragogue cathartics are re- 
quired. Dose from gr. ij to vi, in powder, united 
with calomel, squill, <fec. 

Cambogia Gutta, (Jarcinia cambogia. 
CAMBU'CA, Cambiic'ca membra'ta. Buboes 
and venereal ulcers, seated in the groin or near 
the genital organs. — Paracelsus. See Bubo. 
CAMELEF, Cneorum tricoccum. 
CAMERA, Chamber, Fornix, Vault — c. Cordis, 
Pericardium — c. Oculi, Chamber of the eye. 
CAMERATIO, Cam.arosis. 
CAMFOROSMA, Camphorosma. 
CAMINGA, Canella alba. 
CAMISOLE, Waistcoat, strait. 

CAMOMILLE FETIDE, Antherais cotula— 
c. Puante, Antherais cotula — c. Romaine, Anthe- 
mis nobilis — c. des Teinturiera, Anthemis tincto- 
ria — c. Vulrjaire, Matricaria chamomilla. 

CAMOSIERS, WATERS OF. Camos-iers is 
a canton, two leagues from Marseilles, where are 
two springs containing carbonate of lime, sul- 
phur, chloride of sodium, Ac. They are purga- 
tive, and used in skin complaints. 
CAMOTES, Convolvulus batatas. 
Campagne is in the dejiartinent of Aude, France. 
The waters contain suljihate and chlorohydrate 
of magnesia. Temperature, 80° Fahrenheit. 

CAMPAN'ULA. Diminutive of campana, a 

Campanula TnACHE'MUM, Canterbury Bell or 
Throaticort, was formerly used, in decoction, ia 
relaxation of the fauces. It is, also, called Cer- 

CAMPE, Flexion. 

CAMPHENE. The radical of camphor, which, 
according to Dumas, consists of camphene and 
one equivalent of oxygen. Camj)henc or cam- 
phine is represented by pure oil of turpentine, 
That which is used for burning in lamps, and ia 
occasionally employed therapeutically, is oil of 
turpentine purilied by distillation from a solution 
of caustic potassa. 




CAMPHIRE, Camphor. 

CA.Ml'lIOK, from Arab. Cn'plmr or Kam'- 
pltii); Cam'phora, Caphura, Caffa, Oaf, Cnfur, 
Vaphora, Alta/or, Camphire, (F.) Covqihre. 
A concrete substance, prepared, by distillation, 
from L'liiius O't III' Jill Ufa, Per'sea Coiii'fora, C<ait- 
jihira officiiKiiuiii, an indigenous tree of the East 
Indies. " Order, Laurineie. Its odour is strong 
and fragrant : it is volatile, not easily pulveriza- 
ble; texture crystalline. Soluble in alcohol, 
ether, oils, vinegar, and slightly so in water. Its 
properties are narcotic, diaphoretic, and sedative. 
Dose, gr. v to ^j. Dissolved in oil or alcohol, it 
is applied externally in rheumatic pains, bruises, 
sprain?, Ac. 

CAMi>iioit Water, Mistura Camphorse. 
CAMPHORA'CEOUS, Camphora'cens. Rela- 
ting to or containing camphor; — as a ' camphor- 
aeeoHs smell or remedy.' 

SPELIEXSIUM, Camphorosina Monspeliaca. 

CAMPH'ORATED, Camphora'tus, (F.) Cnm- 
phri. Relating to camphor ; containing cam- 
phor ; as a cumphorated smell, a camphorated 

reJi'iiiV, from Camphor, and otritrj, 'odour.' Sela'go, 
Camphora'tn hirsit'ta seu Moiixpelien'slum, Hairy 
Camphoron'ma, (F.) Cumphree de Ifoiitjie/licr. 
Order, ChenopodiaeesB. Sex. Sijsf. Tetrandria 
Monogynia. This plant, as its name imports, has 
an odour of camphor. It is regarded as diuretic, 
diaphoretic, cephalic, antispasmodic, Ac. It is 
also called Uhamapeu'ce and Stinking Ground 
Pine. ' 

CASfPHonosMA Perennis, C. Monspeliaca. 
CAMPIIRE, Camphor. 
CAMPHRE, Camphorated. 
phorosma Monspeliaca. 

CAMPION, ROSE, Lychnis githago. 
tree, twenty to thirty feet high, which grows in 
Peru, and whose fruit — jialillo — of a bright yel- 
low colour, and as large as a moderate-sized apple, 
has an exceedingly agreeable scent, and is one 
of the ingredients in making the perfumed water 
called niiHtura. — Tschudi. 

CA^tlPSIS, Flex'io, Curva'tio, Injiex'io. Bone 
or cartilage, forcibly bent from its proper shape, 
without breaking. — Good. 

Campsis Depressto, Depression. 
' crooked,' and pa;^i;, ' spine.' A monster whose 
spine is crooked. — Gurlt. 

CAMPYLORRHI'NUS; from Ka/jnrvXoi, 
'crooked,' and piv, 'nose.' A monster whose 
nose is crooked. — Gurlt. 

CAMPYLOTIS, Cataclasis. 
CAMPYLUM, Cataclasis. 

CAMUS, (F.) Simiis, Besi'mns, Simo, Silo, Si- 
las. One who has a short, stumpy nose. The 
French speak of A'ez camus, 'short nose.' 

CANADA BURNET, Sanguisorba cana- 

Catherine's, at the head of Lake Ontario, at the 
entrance of the Welland Canal, 12 miles from 
Niagara Falls, and on the Great Western Rail- 
road, has a mineral spring, much frequented, 
which Dr. Chilton, of New York, analyzed and 
found to contain chlorides of calcium, magnesium, 
sodium, and iron, sulphate of lime, carbonates of 
lime and magnesia, hromide and iodide of mag- 
nesium, silica and alumina. 

Tuscarora Acid Spring is in the township of 

Tuscarora, about 20 miles north of 1 ass Dover. 
It contains a large amount of free suli.luine acid ; 
beside sulphates of the alkalies, lime, magnesia, 
alumina and iron. 

Charlotteville Sniphiir Spring is a few milc! 
from Dover, on Lake Erie. It contains an uu- 
usual quantity of sulphuretted hy<lrogen. 

The Caledonia Springs — a well known water- 
ing place — are a few miles south of the Ottawa 
river, and 40 miles from Montreal. There lire 
various sources ; one — the Gas Spring — diselinrg- 
ing carburetted hydrogen ; a Saline and a ,V»/- 
2>hiir Spring; besides an Jntcriniltiiig Spring, 
which discharges large quantities of carlniretted 
hydrogen ; and in which iodine and bromine have 
been detected. 

CANAL, Cann'lis, Dnctiis, ilca'tns, Pnros, 
Och'etos, (F.) Conduit. A channel for affording 
passage to liquids, or solids, or to certain organ,--. 
Canal, Alimen'tary, C. Diges'tive, Cann'lis 
seu Ductus ciba'riiis seu digesti'vua seu aliiiteu- 
ta'rins, Tubus alimenta'rius seu intestino'nim, 
Diges'tive Tube, Aliment'ary Duct or Tnhe. The 
canal extending from the mouth to the anus. 

Canal, Akach'noii), Cana'lis Bichot'ii, Cnnnl 
of Biehat. A canal, formed by the extension of 
the arachnoid over the transverse and longitudi- 
nal fissures of the brain, which surrounds the vena 
magna Galeni. The orifice of the canal has 
been termed the Foramen of Biehat. 

CANAL ARTE HI EL, Arterial duct — c. de 
Bartholin, Ductus Bartholinus — c. of Biehat, 
Canal, arachnoid — c. Bullular, of Petit, Godrouue, 
canal — c. Carotidien, Carotid canal — c. ChoU- 
doque, Choledoch duct — c. Ciliary, Ciliary canal 
— c. of Cotunnius, A.t)U8cductus vestibuli — c. Di'- 
ferent, Deferens vas — c. of Fontana, Ciliary cnnnl 
— c. Goudronne, Godronne ccaial — c. H(p>atiqiie, 
Hepatic duct. 

Canal of IIdguier. A small canal at the 
inner side of the fissure of Glaser, through whii-h 
the chorda tympani nerve leaves the cavity of 
the tympanum. 

Canal, Hy'ALmn. A cylindrical passage, de- 
scribed by M. J. Cloquet as formed by the reflec- 
tion of the hyaloid membrane into the interior 
of the vitreous body around the nutritious artery 
of the lens. M. Cruveilhier has never been able 
to see it. 

Canal, Inci'site, see Palatine canals — e. Infra- 
orbitar, Suborbitar canal — c InJIcxe de I'os tew- 
pioral. Carotid canal — c. Interrneiliare des ventri- 
cules, Aquaeductus Sylvii. 

Canal, Intes'tinal, Cana'lis seu Ductus inten- 
tina'lis. The portion of the digestive canal formed 
by the intestines. 

Canal of Jacobson, Canal, tympanic. 
Canal, Med'ullary. Tlie cylindrical cavity 
in the body or shaft of a long bone, which cou- 
tains the marrow. 

Canal, Nasal, Lachrymal canal. 
Canal of Ncck. A cylindrical sheath formed 
around the round ligaments of the uterus by a 
prolongation of the peritoneum into the inguinal 

CANAL DE PETIT, Godronne canal — c. 
Pulino-aortique, Arterial duct — c. Rachidian, 
Vertebral canal. 

Canal op Sciilemm. A minute circular canal, 
discovered by Professor Schlemni, of Berlin. It 
is situate at the point of union of the cornea and 

Canal, Spinal, Vertebral canal — c. SpirouU 
de I'os temporal, Aquaeductus Fallopii — c. de S'e- 
non, Ductus salivalis superior — c. Thoracique, 
Thoracic duct — c. Veineux, Canal, venous — c. 
Vulvo-uterinc, Vagina — c. de Warthon, Ductua 
salivalis inferior. 




CAyAl,, Tym'panic, Cnnn'Us tympnn'icun, Cnnal 
o/J'i'cobmiii. A eaiiiil which opens on the lower 
surface of the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone, between tiie carotid canal and the groove 
for the internal jugular vein. It contains Jacob- 
son's nerve. 

Can.vl, V'ectou, Tube, Fnllopian. 
Canal, V'knous, Cutin'lis seu Ductus veno'sua 
8cu />. I'. Arnu'tii, (F.) Canal veiueux. A canal 
which exists only in the fcetus. It extends from 
the bifurcation of tiie umbilical vein to the vena 
cava inferior, into which it opens below the dia- 
phragm. At times, it ends in one of the infra- 
hepniic veins. It pours into the cava a part of 
the blinxl, which passes from the placenta by the 
umbilical vein. After birth, it becomes a fibro- 
cellular cord. 

Canal ov Wuisung, see Pancreas. 

CAX.\LK.S AKRIFERI, see Bronchia. 

CANA'LKS BRESCIIET'I. Canals in the 
diploe for the passage of veins ; so called after 
M. Breschct. 

Caxali:.s Circulares, Semicircular canals — c. 
Cochlcie, Scal;« of the cochlea — c. Lacrymales, 
Lachrymal ducts — c. iMeml)ranei rcnum, see Calix 
— c. Tiihicformes, Semicircular canals. 


CAXALICULATUS, CaunelS, Grooved. 



CANALICULI. plural of Canaliculus— c. Bili- 
feri, Pori biliarii — c. of Bone, see Lacunae of 

catinls, (F.) CmialiritleH Ca/ci/ereo. Minute ca- 
nnliculi, ol)scrvcd with the microscope, in the 
cartilages of bones, which are full of calcareous 

tritive — c. Lacrymales, Lachrymal ducts — c. 
Limacum, Lachrymal ducts — c. Semicirculares, 
Semicircular canals — e. Scminales, see Testicle 
— c. Seminiferi, see Testicle — c. Vasculosi, Canals, 

CANALICULUS, diminutive of canalis, 'a 
channel.' A small channel. See Canaliculi. 

CANALIS, Meatus — c. Alimentiirius, Canal, 
alimentary — c. Arteriosus, Arterial duct — c. 
Bichatii, Canal, arachnoid — c. Caualiculatus, Gor- 
get — c. Caroticus, Carotid canal — c. Cervicis, see 
Uterus — c. Deferens, Deferens vas — c. Eminen- 
tife quadrigeminic. Aquicductus Sylvii — c. Fallo- 
pii, Aquicductus Fallopii — c. Intcstinoruin, Intes- 
tinal tube — c. L:icrymalis, Lachrj'mal or nasal 
duct — c. Medius, Aijuicductus Sylvii — c. MedulUie 
Spinalis, see Vertebral column — c. Nervous fistu- 
losus renum, Ureter — c. OrbitiB nasalis. Lachry- 
mal or naiial duct — c. Scalarum communis, In- 
fundibulum of the cochlea — c. Semicircul.aris ho- 
rizontalis, see Semicircular Canals — c. Semicif- 
cularis verticalis posterior, sec Semicircular Ca- 
nals — c. Semicircularis verticalis superior, see 
Semicircular canals — c. Tympanicus, Canal, tym- 
panic — c. Urinarius, Urethra — c. Vidianus, Pte- 
rygoid canal. 

CANALS OF HAVERS. Canals, nutritive — 
e. Haversian, Canals, nutritive. 

CajJALS, NuTltlTlVK, Canah for the nutrition 
of bonei. Diictiix uiitrit"ii, Cnnnlic'uli vanculo'si 
seu Narprnin'iii, Ifacer'nian Canah, Canah of 
Ilnvern, (F.) C'inan.r nonrriciers ou rfu Nutrition 
dea 08, Coiifiuils nonrriciers ou nutriciers. The 
canals through which the vessels pass to the 
bones. They are lined by a very fine lamina of 

compact texture, or are formed in the texture 
itself. There is, generally, one large nutritious 
canal in a long bone, situate towards its middle. 

CANAPACIA, Artemisia vulgaris. 

of the Canaries greatly resembles that of Ma- 
deira. That of the latter, however, is more 
equable, and the accommodation for invalids 
much superior. 

CANARIUM COMMUNE, see Amyris elemi- 

CANARY-SEED, Phalaris Canariensis. 

CANAUX AQUEUX, see Aqueous — c. Demi- 
circuhiires, Semicircular canals — c. Ejaculafem^, 
Ejaculatory ducts — c. Xourriciers, Canals, nutri- 
tive — c. de Xntrition des o«, Canals, nutritive. 

ing to Bichat, the bony canals intended to give 
passage to vessels and nerves going to parts more 
or less distant — as the Cann'lis Cnrof'icus, &c. 

CANAUX VEINEUX, Venous Canah. The 
canals situate in the diploe, which convey venous 

CAN'CAMUM. A mixture of several gums 
and resins, exjiorted from Africa, where it is used 
to deterge wounds. Dioscorides calls, by the 
name KayKafxov, the tears from an Arabian tree, 
which are similar to myrrh, and of a disagree- 
able taste. He advises it in numerous diseases. 
This name is given, also, to the Anime. 

CANCAMY, Anime. 

CAN'CELLATED, CanceUa'tus,(¥.) Cancel! e ; 
from Canoelti, 'lattice-work.' Formed of can- 
celli, as the 'cancellated structure of bone' 

CANCEL'LI, 'Lattice-work.' The Cellular 
or Spnntjy Texture of Bones, (F.) Tissu celluleux ; 
consisting of numerous cells, communicating with 
each other. They contain a fatty matter, an.'ilo- 
gnus to marrow. This texture is met with, prin- 
oipally, at the extremities of long bones: nn<l 
some of the short bones consist almost wholly of 
it. It allows of the expansion of the extremities 
of bones, without adding to their weight, and 
deadens concussions. 

CANCEL'LUS, from cancer, 'a crab.' A spe- 
cies of crayfish, called the Wrong Heir, and Her- 
nard the Hermit: which is said to cure rheuma- 
tism, if rubbed on the part. 

CANCER, 'a crab.' Car'cinos, Lupus eancro'- 
siis. A disease, go called either on account of tha 
hideous appearance which the ulcerated cancer 
presents, or on account of the great veins which 
surround it, and which the ancients compared to 
the claws of the crab : called also Carcino'ma. 
It consists of a scirrhous, livid tumour, inter- 
sected by firm, whitish, divergent bands; and 
occurs chiefly in the secernent glands. The 
pains are acute and lancinating, and often extend 
to other parts. The tumour, ultimately, termi- 
nates in a fetid and ichorous ulcer, — Ulcui 
cancro'sum. It is distinguished, according to its 
stages, into occult, Cancer occul'tus, and open, ('. 
aper'tus ; the former being the scirrhous, the 
latter the ulcerated condition. At times, there is 
a simple destruction or erosion of the organ, at 
otliers, an enccphaloid or cerehriform, and, at 
others, again, a colloid degeneration. 

For its production, it requires a peculiar dia- 
thesis, or cachexia. The following table, from 
Dr. Walshe, exhibits the characters of the three 
species of carcinoma : 

The use of irritants in cancerous affections is 
strongly to be deprecated. When the disease is 
so situate that excision can be practised, and 
the constitution does not exhibit great contami- 
nation, the sooner it b removed the better. 



Resembles lolmlated cerebral 

Is cDiiimonly opake from its ear- 
liest fcirmatioM. 

Is of a (lead white colour. 

Contains a multitude of minute 

Is less hard and dense than scir- 

Is frequently found in the veins 
issuini; from the diseased mass. 

'I'he (iredominatit microscopical 
elements are Klobular, not always 
distinctly cellular, and caudate cor- 

Occasionally attains an enor- 
moiis bulk. 

Has bei^n observed in almost 
every tissue of the body. 

Very ronmionly co-e.\ists in se- 
veral parts or organs of the same 

Is remarkable for its occasional 
vast rapidity of growth. 

Is frequently the seat of insterti- 
tial hemorrha^'e and deposition of 
black or bistre-coloured matter. 

When softened into a pulp, ap- 
pears as a dead white or pink opake 
matter of creamy consistence. 

Subcutaneous tumours are slow 
to contract adhesion with the skin. 

Ulcerated encephaloid is fre- 
quently the seat of hemorrhaire, 
followed by rapid fungous develop- 

The proffress of the disease after 
ulceration is commonly very rapid. 

It is the most common form un- 
der which secondary cancer exhi- 
bits itself 

Is the species of cancer most fre- 
quently observed in young subjects. 


Resembles rind of bacon tra- 
versed by celliilo-fibrous septa. 

Has a semi-transparent glossi- 

Has a clear whitish or bluish 
yellow tint. 

Is comparatively ill-supplied v\ itli 

Is e.vceedingly firm and dense. 

Has not l)een distinctly detected 
in this situalioM. 

The main microscopical consti- 
tuents are juxtaposed nuclear cells; 
caudate corpuscular do not exist 
in it. 

Rarely acquires larger dimen- 
sions than an orange. 

Its seat as ascertained by ohser- 
valiiui. is somewhat more limited. 

Is not unusually solitary. 

Ordinarily grows slowly. 

Is comparatively rarely the seat 
of these changes. 

Resembles, when softened, a yel- 
lowish brown semitransparent ge- 
latinous mailer. 

Scirrhus thus situate usually be- 
comes aiheront. 

Scirrhous nbers much less fre- 
queiitlv five rise to hemnrrhaue ; 
and fuiiffous growths (provided 
they retain the scirrhous charac- 
ter) are now more slowly and less 
abuu'lantlv develojied. 

There is not such a remarkable 
change in the rate of progress of the 
disease after ulceration has set in. 

Is much less common before pu 


lias the appearance of particles nf 
jelly in hi id ni a reirnlar alveolar lied 

'Jlie ciuilamed matter is stiiK 
ini.'ly transparent. 

Greenish yellow is its preilomi. 
nam hue. 

Its vessels linve not been stitR. 
cieiitly examined as yet. 

The jelly like vinller is exceed, 
ingly soft ; a coll'ii<| mnss is, hew- 
ever, firm and resisting. 

The piiltaceous variety has been 
dete( ted in the veins. 

Is composed of shells in a state 
of cmboitcment 

Observes a mean in this respect 

Has so far been seen in a liiiijtecl 
number of parts only. 

Has rarely been met with in more 
than one organ. 

Grows with a medium degree of 

Undergoes no visible change of 
the kind. 

Has so far been observed in adiilla j 

CANCER ALVEOLAIRE, Colloid — c. Al- 
veolaris, Colloid — c. Apertus, see Cancer. 

Cancer AquAT'lCtTS, Gan'grenous stomati'tin, 
Cnncrum Oris, Gangranop'sia, Canker of the 
month, Gnn'grenous mre mouth, Gan'grcnous ern'- 
sion of the cheek. Sloughing Phngeda'na of the 
mouth, Writer Canker: called, also, Aphtha ser- 
pen'tes, GangrcB'na Oris, Noma, Nome, Nomus, 
Pseudocarcino'nia la'hii, Stomac'nre gniigrano'na, 
CheUoc'aee, Uhc'ace, Uli'tls sep'tica, Cheilomn- 
Wcia, Scorbu'tns Oris, Stomatomnla' cia pu'trida, 
Stomatosep'sia, Stomatoneero'sis, Carhnn'cnlua 
Inhio'rum et gena'ram, (F.) Cancer aqnatiqne, 
Stomatile gangreneuse, S. Charhonneuse, Gangrene 
ou Sphacke de la Bouche, Fegnrite, Aphthe gan- 
grineux. Certain sloughing or gangrenous ulcers 
of the mouth — so crtlled, perhaps, because they 
are often accompanied with an afflux of snliva. 
The disease is not uncommon in children's asy- 
lums, asd demands the same treatment as hospi- 
tal gangrene — the employment of caustics, and 
internal and external antiseptics. 

CANCER AQUATfQUE, Cancer aquaticus, 
Stomncace — c. Areolaire, Colloid — e. Astacus, see 
Canerornm cheliB — ^c. Black, Cancer melanotic— 
c. of the Breast, Mastocareinoma — c. Camina- 
riorum, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Cellular, 
Eneephaloid — c. Cerehriforme, see Encephaloid. 

Cancer, Chimney-sweepeus', Sootwnrt. Can- 
cer mundito'rum seu purgato'ris infitmic'nli seu 
eamm'irio'ntm. Cancer seu carcino'ma scroti, Os- 
cheocarcino'ma^ Oachocarcino'ma, (F.) Cancer 
des Ramoneiirs. This affection begins with a 
superficial, painful, irregular ulcer, with hard and 
elevated edges, occupying the lower part of the 

scrotum. Extirpa-tion of the diseased part is the 
only means of effecting a cure. 
Cancer, Davidson's Remedy for, see Conium 

CANCER DUE, Scirrhus. 
CANCER EBURNE. A kind of waxy dege- 
neration of the breast, so called by M. Alibert, hut 
which appear-i to be in no way allied to cancer. 

Epithelial, see Epithelial — c. Fibreux, Scirrhus— 
c. Fibrous, Scirrhous — c dn Fo-ie, Hepatosarcomie. 
Cancer Gat^e'ni, (F.) Cancer de Galien. .\. 
bandage for the head, to which Galen gave the 
name cancer, from its eight heads resembling, 
rudely, the claws of the crab. It is now sup- 
plied by the bandage with six chefs or head;-, 
which is called the Blindage of Galen or B. oj 
the Poor. 

CANCER DE GALIEN, Cancer Galeni — c. 
Gelatiniform, Colloid — c. Gelatinous, Colloid— c. 
Gommenx, Colloid — c. Hard, Scirrhus — c. Intes- 
tinoruni, Enteropathia cancerosa — c. des InteHtim, 
Enteropathia cancerosa — c. of the Lung, Phthisi.i, 
cancerous — c. Lupus, Lupus — c. Mastoid, see 
Mastoid cancer — c. Medullaris, Encephaloid— c. 
Melteneus, Cancer, melanotic — c. 3felane, Cancer, 
melanotic — c. Mel-anodes, Cancer, melanotic. 

Cancer, Melanot'ic, Cancer me/ano'des, Cnr- 
eino'nia melano'des seu mclanot'icnm seu mela- 
iiens. Fungus melano'des, Mel'ano-carcino'wt, 
Black or Mel' an aid Cancer, (F.) Cancer MelaM. 
A combination of cancer and melanosis. 
Cancer, Miltlike, see Miltlike. 




Can'cer Mollis, see Encephaloid — c. Mou, 
Enct'phaloid — c. Munditoruin, Cancer, chimney- 
sweepers' — c. Nephroid, see Nephroid — c. Occul- 
tus, see Cancer — c. Oculi, Scirrhophthalinus — c. 
Oris, Stoinacace — c. Ossis, Spiira ventosa — c. 
Piiaryngis et oesophagi, Laeinoscirrhus — c. Pul- 
IdcS, Colloid — c. Purgatoris infuiniculi, Cancer, 
chimney-sweepers' — c. des JidnKiueiun, Cancer, 
chimney-sweepers' — c. Scirrhosus, Scirrhus — c. 
Scroti, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Soft, UiB- 
matodes fungus — c. Solanoid, see Solanoid — c. 
S'i>iirrheiix, Scirrhus — c. of the Stomach, Gas- 
irostenosis cardiaca et pylorica — c. Uteri, Metro- 

CAXCEREUX, Cancerous. 
CANCER ROOT, Orobanehe Virginiana, Phy- 
tolacca decandra — c. Weed, Uoodyera pubescens, 
Salvia lyrata. 

CANCEROMA, Carcinoma. 

CAN'CEROUS, Cancro'sus, Carcino'sna, (F.) 
Cmicireiix. Relating to cancer ; as Cancerous 
ulcer, CouceroiiH (/iathevis, 

CANCIIALAGUA, Chironia Chilensis. 

CANCRENA, Gangrene. 

CANCRODES, Cancroid. 

CAN'CROID, K(i)ikroid, Cancro'des, Cancro'i'- 
des, Uarciiio'des, C<irctiioiden, Cuiirroideus, from 
cancer and £(i5of, ' form.' That which assumes a 
cancerous appearance. Cancroid is a name given 
to certain cutaneous cancers by Alibert: called 
also Gheloid or Keloid, Chel'oh'n, Cau'crois, Ke- 
loi'ilen, (j(^c\vi, 'a tortoise,' and ciSo;, 'likeness;' 
or from itr/Ais, 'a spot or stain,' and ciioi, 'lilie- 
ness;') Kelin, from their presenting a flattish 
raised patch of integument, resembling the shell 
of a tortoise. 

Canckoid of the Skin, see Epithelial. 

CANCROrS, see Cancroid. 

CANCROMA, Carcinoma. 

CANCRO'RUM CllEL^, Oc'uli sen Lap' ides 
seu Lapil'li Caiicru'ruin, Concremen'ta As'taci 
Jluvial' ilifi, Crab's stones or eyes, (F.) Yeux 
d'^crevisse, Pierre d'Ecrevisse. Concretions found, 
particularly, in the Cancer As'tacits or Cray-fish. 
They consist of carbonate -iind phosphate of lime, 
and possess antacid virtues, but not more than 

CANCROSUS, Cancerous, Chancrense. 

CANCRUM ORIS, Cancer Aquaticus, Sto- 

CANDELA, Bongie — c. Fumalis, Pastil — c. 
Medicata, Tinnrjic — c. Regia, Verbaseum nigrum. 

CANDELARIA, Verbasenm nigrum. 

CANDI, Candnm, Canthiim, Can'tion, Candi/, 
from candidus — 'white, bleached, purified.' Pu- 
rified and crystallized sugar. See Saceharum. 

CANDIDUM OVI, Albumen ovi. 

CANDLE, Pupil. 

Candi.k, Mkiu'u'rial. A candle made of wax 
and rermilion for mercurial fumigation. 

Candlk Thee, Parmentiera cerifera. 

CANDY, Candi. 

CANDYTUFT, BITTER, Iberis amara.. 

CANE, SUGAR, see Saceharum — c. Sweet, 
Acorus calamus. 

CAXEFfCfER, Cassia fistula. 

CAXELA, Nectandra cinnamomoides. 

CAXELE, Grooved. 

CANELLA, see Canella alba. 

Caxel'la Alba, diminutive of cawiin, 'a reed.' 
A West India tree. Fam. Magnoliacea; : Sex. 
Sysl. Dodecandria Mmiogynia, It is so called 
because its bark is rolled up like a reed. C'ntex 
Wintrra'nns spn'rins, Canella Cnha'na seu irt'ii- 
tera'nia, Cinnamo'nmm allmni. Cortex Autiscor- 
hu'ticHS seu Aromnl'ieiis, Castas conico'sns, Ca- 
mtii'yn, Canella (Ph. U. S.), Canella Bark, (F.) 
Candle ou Vanelle blanche, Fausse Ecorce de 

Winter, Ecorce Cariocostine ; Ord. Guttiferae, is 
a pungent aromatic. Its virtues are partly ex- 
tracted by water; entirely by alcohol. It is a 
stimulant, and is added to bitters and cathartics. 
CANfcLLA Cauyopiiyi.lata, Myrtus caryophyl- 
lata — c. Cubana, C. alba, Lauras cassia — c. Mala- 
barica et Javensis, Laurus cassia. 


CANEPIN, (F.) A fine lamb's skin or goat's 
skin, used for trying the quality of lancets. 

CANICACEOUS, Furfuraceous. 

CAN'ICiE. Meal, in which there is much 
bran. Also, coarse bread; or bread in which 
there is much bran — Panis Canica'ceus. 

CANICIDA, Aconitum. 

CANIC'ULA; the Dogstar, from canis, 'a dog;* 
Tlctfitoi, Sirius, (F.) Canicule. This star, which 
gives its name to the Doydai/s, Vies canicida'res, 
because they commence when the sun rises with 
it, was formerly believed to exert a powerful in- 
fluence on the animal economy. The Dogdays 
occur at a period of the year when there is gene- 
rally great and oppressive heat, and therefore — 
it has been conceived — a greater liability to dis- 

CANTF, Knife. 

CAN IX, Canine. 

CANINAN^E RADIX, Cainca? radix. 

CANINE, Cani'nns, Ci/n' ici(s, i'rvm canis, 'a 
dog,' (F.) Canin. That wliich has a resemblance 
to the structure, Ac, of a dog. 

Canine Fossa, Fossa Cani'nn, Tnfra-orbitar or 
Snhorhitar fossa, (F.) Fosse Canine. A small 
depression on the superior maxillary bone, above 
the dens caninns. which gives attachment to thft 
caninus or levator ani/nti oris muscle. 

Canine LaL'GH, Sardon'ic laugh, llisns Cani'- 
niis seu Sardon'icus seu Sardo'nins seu Sardaniot 
seu de Sardo'nia seu involunta'rius seu sjnis'ticus, 
Turtu'ra seu DIstor'sio Oris, Gelas'mns, Sardi'~ 
asis, Sardoni'asis, Trismus Sardon'icus seu ci/n'- 
icHS, Spasmus musculorwn facie i seu ci/n'icus, Pro- 
sopnspas'mus, (F.) His canin, li. S<irdonique^ R, 
Sardouien, R. ino<iuenr. A sort of laugh, the facial 
expression of which is produced particularly by 
the spasmodic contraction of the Caninus muscle. 
Probably, this expression, as well as Cynic Spasm, 
Spasmus cani'nus seu cyn'icus, Convul'sio cani'ua. 
Trismus eyn'icus, may have originated in the re- 
semblance of the affection to certain movements 
in the upper lip of the dog. The Risus Sardon'- 
icus is said to have been so called from similar 
symptoms having been induced by a kind of 
Ranunculus — R. scelera'tus — that grows in Sar- 

Canine Teeth, Denies Cani'ni seu Lania'rii 
seu angula'res seu cuspida'ti seix columella' res seu. 
oeula'res seu morden'tes, Cyuodon'tes, Eye Teeth, 
Pug Teeth, (F.) Dents cauinrs ou laniaires ou an- 
gidaires ouoculaires ou <rilleres ou cono'ides. The 
teeth between the lateral incisors and small mo- 
lares of each jaw ; — so named because they re- 
semble the teeth of the dog. 

CANINUS, Levator anguli oris — e. Sentis, 
Rosa canina — c. Spasmus, see Canine Laugh. 

CANIRAM, Strvchnos nux vomica. 

CANIRAMINl'M, Brueine. 

CANIRUBUS. Rosa oaiiina. 

CANIS INTKHFECTOR, Veratrum sabadilla 
— c. Poiiticus, Castor fiber. 

CAN1T"IES. from canus, 'white.' Rlnnching, 
Whiteness or grayness of the hair, and especially 
of that of the head — Trichon'osis polio'sis. (F.) 
Canitie. When occurring in conscq'.ience of old 
age, it is not a disease. Sometimes it happens 
suddenly, and apparently in consequence of severe 
mental emotion. The causes, however, are not 
clear. See Poliosis. 




CAXKER, Stomacace — c. of the Mouth, Can- 
cer aqu.itieiis. 

CAXKKR RASH, see Cynanche maligna, 

CANKER, WATER, Cancer aquaticus. 

C A N N A, see Tunn-les-Mois, Cassia fistula, 
Trachea — e. Brachii, Ulna — c. Domestica cruris. 
Tibia — e. Edulis, '''ous-les-Mois — c. Fistula, Cas- 
sia fistula — c. i.idica, Sagittarium alexipharuia- 
cum — ('. JIajor, Tibia — c. Minor, Fibula, Radius 
— c. Soluiiva, Cassia fistula — c. Starch, Tous-les- 

CANNABIN, Bangue. 

CANNAB'INA, from Kavvafiig, 'hemp.' Reme- 
dies composed of Cannabis Indiea. — Pereira. 

Caxn'abina AguATicA, Eupatorium canna- 

CANNABIS INDICA, Bangue. See, also, 

Can'xabis Sati'va, (F.) Cham^re, Ghamhrie. 
The seed of this — Hempxeed, Sf.m'iiia Cnn'nubin, 
(F.) Clietievis — is oily and mucilaginous. The 
decoctiiin is sometimes used in gonorrhoea. 


CANyA3fELLE, see Saccharum. 

CAKXE AROMATIQUE, Acorus calamus — 
c. C<>v(jo, Costus — c. de Uioiere, Costus — c. & 
Sucre, see Sacoharum. 

CANXEBERGE, Vaccinium oxycoccos — c. 
Ponctiif'e, Vaccinium vitis idiea. 

CANNEL, Laurus cinnamomum. 

CANNKL-BONE, Clavicle. 

CANNEL-WATER, Aqua cinnamomi. 

CANXELE ou CAXELE (F.), from cannlis, 
'a canal.' Sn/ca'tiis, Stria' tits, Canaliculii'tns. 
Having SI canal or groove — as J/»»c/e cannele 
(Lieutaud), the Gemini; Corps cinnicles ou stries, 
the Corpora striata; Sonde cannelee, a grooved 
sound, kc. See Crooved. 


C A X X E Ij L E, Laurus cinnamomum — c. 
Blnnche, Canella alba — c. de la Chine, Laurus 
cassia — c. de Corornaiidel, Laurus cassia — - c. 
Fausse, Laurus cassia — e. Giro/lee, Myrtus cary- 
ophyllata — c. des Indes, Laurus cassia — c. de 
Jr(i-ii, Laurns cassia — c. de 31<ilabar, Laurus cas- 
sia — c. Matte, Laurus cassia — c. Officinale, Lau- 
rus cinnamomum — c. J'oivree, see Wiutera aro- 

CANNULA. Canula. 


CANOPUM, see Sambucus. 



CANTABRICA, Convolvulus Cantabrica. 


CANTARELLUS, Meloe proscarabaeus, 


CANTEL, Vertex. 

tuarie7i'ees. The veaters of Canterbury, in Kent, 
England, are impregnated with iron, sulphur, 
and carbonic acid. 

CANTERIUM, Cantherius. 

CAXTIIARJDE T ACHE tee, Lytta vittata. 

CANTHARIDINE, gee Cantharis. 

CAN'TIIARIS, from Kav^apa^, 'a scarahcens' 
0. vesicfito'ri<(, 3Iusca Hispaiiicn, Mel'oe vesica- 
to'rins. Lijtla vesicato'ria, tHii'terinf/ Fli/, niister- 
Jiy, Blix'terbeetle, Spanish Fly, Fly, (F.) Cantlia- 
rides, Mouches, M. d'Espagne. This fly — Order, 
Coleopterte — originally, perhaps, a native of 
Italy and Spain, is now found in France, Ger- 
many, Hungary, Russia, Siberi.a, and England. 
It is, however, rare in the last-named country. 
It is found in species of OleaoeaB — as the ash, 
privet, and lilac j and of Caprifoliaceae — as the 

elder and loniccra. It is much employed in me- 
dicine, and is the most common vesicatory. 
Given internally, and even when absorbed from 
the skin, it atttK-ts the urinary organs, e.xciiing 
strangury. Tbis may bo prevented, in ca.scs t>( 
blisters, by interposing between tlio blistcriii» 
plaster and skin a piece of tissue-paper. Dilu- 
ents relieve the strangury. Dose, half a gniiii 
to one grain. If kept dry, the flies will retain 
their activity for many years. Their active prin- 
ciple — Can'tharidin, Cuntharidi'iia — has been 
separated from them. 

Cantharis vrslcittoria is the ordinary blisterin" 
insect used in Europe. 

Cantharis seu Lytta vittn'ta, (which see,) and 
C. ntra'ta, C. maryina'ta, and C. finc'rea, of 
America; 0. ntoma'ria, of Brazil; C. ru'fivenn, 
of Sumatra and Java; C. gigas, Lytta caru'ka, 
of Guinea and the East Indies; C. viuln'ew, 
Lytta gigas mas, of the East Indies; C.Syr'iuca, 
Lytta seg'etnii), of Arabia; Myla'bris, 31, pviic- 
td'ta, 31. pnstiila'ta, and 3L cicho'rii, of Cbinn 
and the East Indies ; 3feloe proscarabce'itu, aii'l 
3f. majii'lis or True 3Iayworni — possess siaiilur 

CANTIIE'RIUS, Cantc'rium. The cross-pieoe 
of wood in the apparatus used by Hippocrates for 
reducing luxations of the humerus. 

CANTHI'TIS. Inflammation of the canlbus 
of the eye. 


thoplastie, from Kav^og, • the angle of the eye,' iunl 
TtXaoTiKoi, 'formative.' The formation, by plastic 
operation, of the angle of the eye. An operation 
proposed by Ammon, when the eyelids are not 
sufficiently cleft. 

CANTHUM, Candi. 

CANTHUS, Epicaii'this, An'gulus ocxdn'rin, 
Fons lacryma'riim. The corner or angle of the 
eye. The greater canthus is the inner ainjle, 
Jlircvs, Hir'quns, Rhanter ; the lesser caiilhm, 
the outer angle, 'Parop'in, Pegn. 

CANTIA'NUS PULVIS, 'Kent Powder.' A 
cordial powder, known under the name 'C'tiKiiteea 
of Kent's Poicder,' composed of coral, amber, 
crabs' eyes, prepared pearls, <fec. It was given 
in cancer. 

CANTION, Candi. 

CAN'ULA, Can'nula, Au'liscns, Aitlos. Di- 
minutive of CanH(t, 'a reed;' Tu'bnlus, (F.) C'u- 
n\de ou Cannule. A small tube of gold, silver, 
platinum, iron, lead, wood, elastic gum, or gutta 
percha, used for various purposes in surgery. 

CA'OUTCHOUC. The Indian name fur /»- 
dian Rubber, Elas'tic Gum, Gum Elastic, Guiiimi 
elas'ticuvi, Cauchvc, Resi'na elas'tica seu Cuyeii- 
nen'sis, Cayenne Pesin, Cautchue, (F.) GumiiK 
elastique, Pestne ilastique ou de Cayenne. A 
substance formed from the milky juice of //(b'i'c'' 
seu Hevea Guianen'sis, Jat'rojiha elas'tica, Si- 
piho'nia Cahuchu, S. elas'tica, Seringue 7Vef, anil 
of Fious Indiea, and Artocar'pua inlegrifo'liu: — 
South American trees. It is insoluble in water 
and alcohol ; but boiling water softens and swells 
it. It is soluble in the essential oils and in ether, 
when it may be blown into bladders. It is used 
in the fabrication of catheters, bougies, pessaries, 

CAP, PITCH, see Depilatory. 

CAPACITY, LUNG, see Vital Capacity -c. 
Pulmonic, see Vital Capacity. 

C.'VPA-ISIAKKA, Bromelia ananas. 

CAPBERN, WATERS QV. Cai.hern is in 
the department Hautes-Pyr6n6es, France. The 
waters contain sulphates ami carbonates of lime 
and magnesia, and chloride of magnesium. Tem- 
perature, 7J° Fahrenheit. They are purgative. 




CAPELET, Myrtus carophyllata. 
CAPELI'NA, CopeUi'un, (F.) QipcUne. A 
Woiiian'H lliil, in French ; Ctijiin'trum, from caput, 
' heii'l.' A sort of handaj^e, which, in shajie, re- 
sembles a riding-hood. Tlicre are .several kinds 
of Udj/c/iiiKu : — 1. That of the hea<l, O. tie la tete, 
Fuf'cia ciipltu'lin. See Jioiiiiet d'lllppocrate. C. 
of the clavicle., employed in fractures of the acro- 
mion, clavicle, and spine of the scapula. C. of an 
aiiipiiiitled limb — the bandage applied round the 

CAPKLLINA, Capelina. 
CAl'Kll BUSH, Capparis spinosa. 
CAI'Hll PLANT, Euphorbia lathyria. 
CAPERS, see Capparis spinosa. 
CAPEI'US, Im perforation. 
CAPMORA, Camphor. 
CAPIIURA, Camphor. 

CAPILLAIRE, Capillary, see Adiantum 
cnpillus veneris — e. dii Caimda, Adiantum pe- 
datuin — c. de JHontpellier, Adiantum capillus 

CAPILLAMEN'TUM, from capillus, 'a hair,' 
C(ipiUit"iuni, Trichii'ma, Trichuma'tiun. Any 
villous or hairy covering. Also, a small fibre or 

CAP'ILLARY, Capilln'ria, Capilla'ceun, from 
capilliin, 'a hair.' {¥.) Capillaire. Hair-like; 

Cac'illauy Vessels, Vaaa capilln'ria, Mi- 
crtiiKjI'a, Tricliaiit/i'a, (F.) Vaisscaux eapi/laircs, 
CafiiHicuIcK, are the extreme radicles of the ar- 
teries and veins, which together constitute the 
cupidaiy, intermediate, or j)eripheral vascular 
stjHtem — the mclhai'mata or nielliceinatoiia blood- 
channels of Dr. Marshall Hall. They possess an 
action distinct from that of the heart, but not one 
of rhythmic contraction and dilatation. Formerly, 
it was conceived that white vessels — Vasa scro'sa 

— or vessels so minute as not to admit red cor- 
]iuscles, were distributed to the tissues which do 
not receive red blood. 

CAPILLATIO, Trichismus. 


CAl'lLLWULES, Capillary vesse.s. 

CAPILLITIUM, Capillamentum, EDtropion, 


CAPIL'LUS, quasi Capitix PiUis, Coma, Ch(pte, 
Criiiiti, PiluH, Thri.r, Vmsa' ries, (F.) Chevcu. 
This term is generally apfilied to the hair of the 
head, /'///' seu Ilnuor cap'itis, the characters of 
which vary according to races, individuals, &c. 
Hairs arise in the areolar membrane, where the 
bulb is placed, and are composed of two parts- — 
tiiie, external, transparent, and of an epidermoid 
cluiracter; the other, internal and stii fjeneris, 
which, in the opinion of some, communicates to 
tliein their colour. The hair is insensible, and 
grows from the root. Vexeius, Adiantum capillus veneris 
— c. V. Canadensis, Adiantum pedatum. 

CAPIPLE'NIUM, Capitiple'tiinm, from caput, 
' the head,' nni\ plenum, 'full.' A word employed 
with different significations. A variety of catarrh. 

— Schneider. A heaviness or disorder in the 
bead c(unmon at Rome, like the (caf>i;/3ii/<iu, Care- 
biiria, of the Greeks. — Baglivi. 


CAPISTRUM, Capeline, Chevestre, Trismus— 
e. Auri, IJora.x. 

Caims'tuum, Phimos, Cemos, kvho^, 'a halter.' 
This name has been given to several bandages 
for the head. See Capeline, Chevestre. 

CAPITALTA REMEUIA, Cephalic remedies. 

CAPITALIS, Cephalic. 

CAPITELEUM, Alembic, see Caput. 


CAPITILU'VIUM.from eaput,<th<i head,' and 
lavare, ' to wash.' A bath for the head. 

CAPITIPLENIUM, Capiplenium. 

CAPITIPUROIA, Caput purgia. 

CAPITIT'RAHA, from caput, 'the head,' and 
trahcre, 'to draw.' Instruments which, like the 
forceps, draw down the head of the foetus when 
impacted in the pelvis. 

CAPITO'NES, from caput,' the hcn.(].' Macro- 
ceph'ali, Proceph'ali. Foetuses whose heads are 
so large as to render labour difiicult. The con- 
dition is called Macrocejjha'lia. 

CAPITULUM, Alembic, Condyle, see Caput 
— c. Costae, see Costa — c. Laryngis, Corniculum 
laryngis — c. Martis, Eryngium campestre — c. 
Santorini, Corniculum laryngis. 

CAPITULUVIUM, Bath (head). 

CAPNISMOS, Fumigation. 


CAPNOIDES CAVA, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNORCHIS, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNOS, Fumaria. 

CAPON, Caqot. 

CAPON SPRINGS. A pleasant summer re- 
treat, situated in a gorge of the North Mountain, 
in Hampshire co., Va., 2.3 miles W. of Winchester. 
The waters in the vicinity are sulphurous and 
chalybeate; — those at the springs alkaline and 

CAPOT, Caqot. 

CAP'PARIS SPINO'SA, Cap'parU, Capper, 
Ca'pria, Prickl)/ Caper Hush, (F.) Cdprier. Ord. 
Capparideic. Sejc. Sijst. Polyandria Monogynia. 
The bark of the root and the buds have been es- 
teemed astringent and diuretic. The buds are a 
well-known pickle — Capers, (F.) Cdpres. • 

Cai'I'Aius Baduc'ca, liaduL-'ha. A species of 
caper, cultivated in India on account of the beauty 
of its flowers. The Orientals make a liniment with 
its juice, with which they rub pained parts. The 
flowers are purgative. 

CAPPONE, WATERS OF. At Cappone, in the 
isle of Ischia, are waters containing carbonate of 
soda, chloride of sodium, and carbonate of lime. 
"Temp. 100° Fahr. 

CAPREOLA'RIS, from capreolus, 'a tendril.' 
CisstiVdes, Elicin'des, (F.) Capreolaire. Twisted. 

CAprtEOLA'uiA Vasa. Some have called thus 
the s[)ermatic arteries and veins, on account of 
their numerous contortions. 


CAPRES, see Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRIA, Capparis spinosa. 


CAP PIER, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRIFOLIA, Lonicera periclymenum. 

riclymenum — c. Periclymenum, Lonicera pericl^'- 
menum — c.Sempervivens, Lonicera sempervivens, 
— c. Svlvaticum, Lonicera periclj'meuum. 


CAPRIZANS PULSUS, see Pulse, caprizant. 

CAPSA, Boite, Capsule, Case — c. Cordis, Peri- 

CAPSARIUM. 7?o;/;cr. 


CAPSICUM, see Capsicum nnnuum. 

Cap'sicum An'nuiim, C. Hinpau'lcnm, from 
/cajTTu, 'I bite.' The systematic name of the plant 
whence, in part, Cayenne Pepper is obtained, — 
Piper In'dicum seu llispau' Icum seu Brazilia'- 
num seu Guineen'se seu Calecu'ticum seu Tur'ci- 
cum seu Lusitan'icum, Sola'num urens, Siliquas'- 
trum Plin'ii, Cayenne or Guinea or Chilli Pepper, 
Garden Ginger, (F.) Piment, Poivre d' Inde, Poivra 
de Guinee, Corail des Jar-dins. Orde', Solaneae. 
The pungent, aromatic properties of BacccB Cap. 




«?'c»*, Cap'ffdim Berries, Capaicinn (Ph. U. S.), are 
yielded to ether, alcohol, and water. They are 
highly stimulant and rubefacient, and are used as 
a condiment. Their active principle is called 

Capsici'm Hispanicum, Capsicum annuum. 

CAPSIQUE, Capsicum annuum. 

CAPSITIS, see Phacitis. 

CAPSULA, liintier — c. Articularis, Capsular 
ligament — c. Cordis, Pericardium — c. Dentis, 
Dental follicle — c. Ilumoris aquei, see Aqueous 
humour of the eye — c. Lentis, see Crystalline — c. 
Nervorum, Neurilemma — c. Sequestralis, see 

CAPSULE SEMINALES, Vesiculae S. — c. 
Synoviale.', Bursas mucosjB. 

CAPSULA IRE, Capsular. 

CAP'SULAR, Cnpxida'ris, (F.) Capsulaire. 
Belating to a eapsula or capsule. 

Capsulak ARTEniES, Stiprare'nal Arteries and 
Veins. Vessels belonging to the suprarenal cap- 
sules. They are divided into superior, middle, 
and inferior. The first proceed from the inferior 
phrenic, the second from the aorta, and the third 
from the renal artery The corresponding veins 
enter the phrenic, vena cava, and renal. 

Capsular Catapact, see Cataract. 

Capsulau Lig'ament, Ligamen'tum capsula're, 
Cop'siila nrtifuhi' vis, Artic'ular or Fibrous cap- 
side, (F.) Li(/anient erijisiilaire, Capsule articu- 
laire, Cupstde Jibreux, kc. Membranous, fibrous, 
and elastic bags or capsules, of ,a vfhitish consist- 
ence, thick, .and resisting, which surround joints. 

CAPSULE, Cap'siila, Capsn, a box, or case, 
(F.) Capsule. This name has been given, by ana- 
tomists, to parts bearing no analogy to each other. 

Capsule, BowJtAN's, see Kidney — c. Cellular, 
of the Eye, see Eye — e. Fibrous, Cap.-sular liga- 

Capsule, Gelat'inous, Cap'snla gelat'inm, 

(F.) Capside gflafincitse. Capsule of gelatin. A 
modern invention by which copaiba and other 
disagreeable oils can be enveloped in gelatin so 
as to conceal their taste. 

Capsule of Glisson, Cap'sula Glisso'nii seu 
commu'nis Glisso'.nii, Vagi'nn Portce, V. Glis- 
so'nii. a sort of membrane, described by Glis- 
son, which is nothing more than dense areolar 
membrane surrounding the vena porta and its 
ramifications in the liver. 

Capsule of the Heart, Pericardium— c. Ocu- 
lar, see Eye. 

Capsule, Renal, Suprare'nnl or Atrahil'- 
iary C, Renal Gland, Glan'dula snprarena'lis, 
Cap'snla rena'lis seu snprarena'lis seu atrahilia'- 
ris, Iie?t snccentnria'ins, JVrphrii/'inm, (F.) Cap- 
sule surr^nale ou atrabiliairc. A flat triangular 
body, which covers the upper part of the kidney, 
as with a helmet. A hollow cavity in the interior 
contains a brown, reddish or yellowish fluid. The 
renal capsules were long supposed to be the secre- 
tory organs of the fancied atrabilis. They are 
much larger in the foetus than in the adult. 
They are probably concerned in lymphosis. 

A sinjfular condition of cachexia, the leading 
characteristics of which are anaemia, general lan- 
guor and debility; remarkable feebleness of the 
heart's action ; irritability of the stomach, and a 
peculiar bronzed skin, was first described by Dr. 
Thos. Addison, of London, as connected with a 
diseased condition of the supra-renal capsules. 
It has been proposed to call it the Disease of Ad- 
dison. (F.) Mahulie d' Addison. 

Capsule, Sem'inal, Cap'snla semina'lis. Bar- 
Tholine thus designates the extremity of the vas 
deferens, which is sensibly dilated in the vicinity 
of the vesiculpB seminales. Some anatomists ap- 
ply this name to the vesiculae themselves. 

Capsule, Svno'vial, Capsula Synovia'lis. A 

membranous bag, surrounding the movable art!- 
culations and canals, which gives j)assage to ten- 
dons. Synovial capsules exhale, from their arti- 
cular surface, a fluivl, whose function is to favour 
the motions of parts upon each other. See Bursa 
mucos.a, and Synovia, ^ 

LIARE, Capsule, renal. 

CAPSULITIS, see Phacitis. 

CAP UC HON, Trapezius. 

CAPUCINE, Tropasolum majus. 

CAPULIES, Prunus capulin. 

CAPULUS, Scrotum. 

CAPUT, ' the head.' Also, the top of a bone 
or other part, (F.) Tete.^ The head of smnll 
bones is sometimes termed capil'nlum,capilell'iim, 
cephalid'inm, ceph'alis, ce2)hal'ium. Also, iLe 
glans penis. 

Caput Asper^ ArterIjE, Larynx — c. Coli, 
Cajcum — c. Gallrnaceum, see Gallinaginis eiiput 
— c. Gallinaginis, see Gallinaginis ca])ut — c. Go- 
nitale, Glans — c. Lubricum, Penis — c. Major, see 
Epididymis — c. Minor, see Epididymis — c. Md- 
nachi, Leontodon Taraxacum — c. Obstipum, Tor- 
ticollis — c. Penis, Glans. 

Caput Pur'gia, Cajiitijnir'gia. Remedies, 
which the ancients regarded as proper for purg- 
ing the head : — errhines, sternutatories, apophliij. 
matisantia, &c. Prosper Alpinus makes tlie caput 
pnrgia to be the same as errhines ; and the tijjn. 
j)hlegniatisnii the same as the masticatorios of 
the moderns. 

Caput Scapulae, Acromion. 

Caput Succeda'neum. A term sometimes used 
for the tumefied scalp, which first presents in 
certain cases of labour. 

Caput Testis, Epididymis. 

CAQUE-SANGUE, Cague-sangne. OldFrench 
words which signify Bloody evacuations, (F.) De- 
jections sanguinolentes. They come from cocare, 
' to go to stool,' and sanguis, ' blood.' Under 
this term yras comprehended every affection in 
which blood is discbarged from the bowels. 

CARA SCHULLI, Frutex In'dicvs spino'sm, 
Barle'ria buxifo'lia. A Malabar plant, which, 
when applied externally, is maturative and resol- 
vent. The decoction of its root is used, in the 
country, in ischuria. 

CARABAC'CIUM. An aromatic wood of In- 
dia, of a yellowish colour, and a smell like that 
of the clove. Its decoction and infusion are 
given as stomachics and antiscorbutics. 

CAR'ABUS. A genus of coleopterous insects. 
Two species, the cJirysoceph'alus und ferniyin'eva 
have been recommended for the toothach. They 
must be pressed between the fingers, and then 
rubbed on the gum and tooth afi'ected. 

CARACTERE, Character, Symbol. 

CARAGNA, Caranna. 

CARAMATA, Arumari. A tree in the inland 
part.s of Pomeroon. It furnishes a febrifuge bark, 
which Dr. Hancock says may be used in typhoid 
and remittent fevers where cinchona is either 
useless or pernicious. 

CARAMBOLO, Averrhoa carambola. 

CARAMEL, Sac'clinrum percoc'tum seu ton- 
turn. Sugar subjected to the action of heat, until 
it is partly decomposed, deliquescent, of a brown 
colour, and a strong, agreeable and empyreumatic 

CARAN'NA, Carngna, Tacamaha'ca, Carngm, 
Caran'na Gummi, G. Brel'isis, Gum Carnn'un, 
(F.) Caragne, Gomme Caragne ou Carane. A 
gum-resinous substance, which flows from a large 
tree in New Spain, and is ol)tained from South 
America in impure masses. It preserves its soft- 
ness for a long time, has an aromatic smell, and 
a slightly acid and bitter taste. It was formerly 
used as a vulnerary and in plasters. 




CARAWAY, Carum. 
CARAWAY SEE OS, see Carum. 
CAKItASA, Lintouin. i 

CARBA8US, Lintcutn. \\ 

CARB<>, ('nrhoii, (F.) Carhone. An elemen- 
tary I'o'lyi extensively distributed in nature; but 
of whieli the two following forms are officinal in 
the Pliartnacopceia of the United States. Also, 
a coal, charcoal. 

Caubo Lioni, Charcoal (F.) Chnrhon. Fresh 
Charcoal is antiseptic. It is used to improve the 
digestive organs in cases of worms, dyspepsia, 
Ac ; as a cataplasm to gangrenous and fetid 
ulcers, tinea, Ac, and forms a good tooth-powder. 
Dose, gr. X to fjj. Also, Anthrax. 

Cakdo Anima'lis, V. cfimis, Am'mnl chnrconl, 
(F.) ClKirhon (inimiil, usually prepared by sub- 
jecting bones to a red heat in close vessels. The 
result is Bone bluck, commonly called Ivory blnch. 
(F.) Noir animul ou d'os. It is given in the 
same eases as Varbo Lifjui, an<l has been extolled 
in cancer. Dose, gr. ss to gr. iij. ] 

The Pharmacopoeia of the United States con- I 
tains a formula for the preparation of Cakbo 
Anima' Purifica'tus, I'lirified animal char- 
coal (Carbon, animal, tbj ; Acid muriat., Aqucp, j 
ail f,^xij). Pour the muriatic acid, previously 
mixed with the water, gradually upon the char- 
coal, and digest with a gentle heat for two days, 
occasionally stirring the mixture. Having al- 
lowed the undissolved portion to subside, pour 
ofl' the supernatant litjuor, wash the charcoal fre- 
quently with water until it is entirely free from 
acid, and lastly dry it. 

Caubo Fos'sins, Lithnnthrax, Stone conl. 
Caubo Huma'num. The human excrement. — 

Cahbo Ligsi, Carbo — c. Mineralis, Graphites 

— e. I'alpebrarum, Authracosis — c. Spongias, 
Spongia usta. 

C.\RRON, Carbo — c. Sesqui-iodide of, Carbonis 
8es((ui-iodidum — c. Bisulphuret of, Carbonis sul- 
plniretum — c. Sesquichloride of, Carbonis trichlo- 
ridum — c. Sulphide of, Carbonis sulphuretum — c. 
Sulphuret of, Carbonis sulphuretum— c. Terchlo- 
ride of, Carbonis trichloridum, see Chloroform. 

CAR'BONAS or CARBO'NAS. A carbonate. 
(F.) Carbonate. A salt, formed by the combina- 
tion of carbonic acid with a salifiable base. 

Cahbonas Natricum, Sodae carbonas — c. Plum- 
bicus, Plumbi subcarbonas. 

nia! carbonas. 

CAR'BONATED, Carbona'tus, Aera'tux, (P.) 
Carhone, Aeri. That which is impregnated with 
carbonic acid. 

CAUBONE, Ciirbon — c. Trichlorure de, Car- 
bonis trichloridum. 

CA H n XK, Carbonated. 


CARBON'IC ACID, Ac"idum Carbon' icum, 
Solid Air of Ifales, Factitioun or Fixed Air, 
Carbona' ceouK or Calca'reoim or Aerial or ilephit'- 
ic Acid, Mephit'ie Air, Spir'itn» letha'lin, (F.) 
Avide Carbonique. This gas, which neither sup- 
ports respiration nor combustion, is not often 
used in medicine. It is the main agent in effer- 
vescent draughts, fermenting poultices, Ac. It 
is often found occupying the lower parts of mines 

— when it is called the choke damp — caverns, 
tombs, wells, brewers' vats, Ac, and not unfre- 
quently has been the cause of death. Lime 
thrown into such places soon absorbs the acid. 


lodiire'tum. Sesqiii-J'odide or SeKqiii-Iod'itret of 
Carbon. This is made by mixing concentrated 
alcoholic solutions of iodine and potassa, until 

the former loses its colour ; a solution is obtained 
from which water throws down a yellow precipi- 
tate — the sesqui-iodide of carbon. It has been 
used in enlarged glands and in some cutaneous 
affections, apiilied externally, (,^S3 to ^vj of 
cerate). See Iodoform. 

Carbo'.N'IS Sulphure'tum, Sidph'tirin Carbn- 
re'tvm, Sulphure'tum, seu Sul'Jidum Carbo' nii, 
Carbo'niiim Snlphura'tum, Al'cohol Siil'phtiris, 
Bisntphnre'tum Carbo'nii, Sulphnret, Sulphide or 
JilHidphnret of Carbon, Carburet of Sulphur, (Y.) 
Su/fure de Carbon e,Carbure de Soufre,Soufre Car- 
bnre, Alcool de Sotifre. This transparent, colour- 
less fluid, which has a very penetrating, disa- 
greeable odour, and a taste which is cooling at 
first, but afterwards acrid and somewhat aroma- 
tic, is a diffusible excitant. It is diaphoretic, 
diuretic, and has been said to have proved em- 
menagogue. It is also used in nervous diseases 
as an antispasmodic. Dose, one drop to four, 
repeated frequently. 

It is used externally, where a cooling influence 
has to be rapidlj' exerted, and has been inhaled 
as an anaesthetic. 

Carbo'nis Tiuchlo'ridum, C. Sesqni-chlo'ri- 
dum, Terehloride or Sexquicldnride of Carbon, 
i (F.) Trirhlorure ou Sesquichlorurede Carhone, is 
formed by the action of Chlorine on Chlorohy- 
dric ether, under the influence of sun-light. It has 
been given in cholera, and applied to correct the 
fetor of foul ulcers. Dose, four grains or more. 

CARBUNCLE, Anthrax. 
I Carbuncle, Fungous, Terminthus. 

Carbuncle of the Tongue, Glossanthrax — c. 
Berry, Terminthus. 

CARBUNCLED FACE, Outta rosea. 

CARBUNCULUS, Anthrax — c. Anginosus, 
Cyn.anche maligna — c. Contagiosus, see Anthra.x 
— c. Gallicus, see Anthrax — c. llungaricus. see 
Anthrax — c. Labiorum et genarum, Cancer aqua- 
ticus — c. Polonieus, see Anthrax — c. Pulmonum, 
Nccropneumonia — c. Septentrionalis, see Anthrax. 
Carbun'culus Ri'Bi'nus. a red, shining, and 
transparent stone, from the Isle of Ceylon ; for- 
merly emploj'ed in medicine as a preservative 
against several poisons, the plague, Ac. 

Caubunculus Ulcusculosus, Cynanche ma- 

CARBURE DE SOUFRE, Carbonis sulphu- 

CAR'CAROS, from Kapxaipia, '1 resound,' '1 
tremble.' A fever, in which the patient has ii 
general tremor, accompanied with an unceasing 
noise in the ears. 

CARCINODES, Cancroid, Chancreuse. 

CARCINO'MA, Karkino'nin, Canccro'ma, Can- 
cro'ma, from KapKivoi, 'a crab.' Some author? 
have thus called indolent tumours different from 
cancer; others, incipient cancer; and others, 
again, the species of cancer in which the affected 
structure assumes the appearance of cerebral sub- 
stance; but the majority of authors use Carcino- 
ma in the same sense as Cancer. 

Carcinoma Alveolare, Colloid — c. Epitheli- 
odes, Epithelial Cancer — c. Fibrosum, Scirrhns 
— e. Ilaimatodes, Haeraatodes fungus — c. Intesti- 
norum, Enteropathia cancerosa — c. Lingua^, Glos- 
socarcinoma — c. of the Liver, Hepatoscirrhus — c. 
Medullare, Encephaloid — c. Melanodes, Cancer, 
melanotic — c. Melanoticum, Cancer, melanotic — 
c. Simplex, Scirrhus — c. Spongiosum, Encejiha- 
loid, Haematodes fungus — c. Scroti, Cancer, chim- 
ney-sweepers' — c. Uteri, Metrocarcinoma, Metro-