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GKEAT BKlTAiN, with lb Maps, 3u Plans, and a Panorama. 

Fourth Edition. 1897. 10 marks. 

LONDON AND ITS ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps and 19 Plans. 

Eleventh Edition. 1898. 6 marks. 

THE UNITED STATES, with an Excursion into Mexico. 

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BELGIUM AND HOLLAND, with 14 Maps and 22 Plans. 

Twelfth Edition. 1897. 6 marks. 

THE RHINE from Rotterdam to Constance, with 45 

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NORTHER]^ . 56 Plans. 

Twelfth I 


Eighth E( 




ramas. N 




a Panoran 


Second Ec 


VENNA, \^ 


a Panoran 




21 Plans, i 

Paris, w 

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15 Plans. 

5 marks. 

.h Edition. 

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nd 7 Pano- 

10 marks. 

ans. Third 

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Plans and 
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i 13 Plans. 

5 marks. 
394. 8 marks. 
ENCE, Ra- 
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marks 50 pf. 

d 19 Plans. 

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32 Maps, 

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.900. 6 marks. 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, with 6 Maps and 46 Plans. 1898. 

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Eighteenth Edition. 1899. 8 marks. 

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CONVERSATION DICTIONARY, in four languages. 3 marks. 
I^LANUAL OF CONVERSATION, in four languages. 3 marks. 







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'Go, little book, God send thee good passage. 
And specially let this be thy pray ere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all I ' 






'•J v 

The chief object of the Handbook for Paris, which is now 
issued for the fourteenth time, and corresponds with the 
fourteenth French edition, is to render the traveller as nearly 
as possible independent of the services of guides, commission- 
naires, and innkeepers, and to enable him to employ his time 
and his money to the best advantage. 

Objects of general interest, described by the Editor from 
his personal observation, are those with which the Handbook 
principally deals. A detailed account of all the specialties of 
Paris would of course far exceed the limits of a work of this 

The Maps and Plans, upon which the utmost care has 
been bestow^ed, will, it is hoped, be found serviceable. Those 
which relate to Paris itself (one clue-map, one large plan, 
five special plans of the most important quarters of the city, 
and one omnibus-plan) have been collected in a separate cover 
at the end of the volume, and may if desired be severed from 
the Handbook altogether. The subdivision of the Plan of the 
city into three sections distinguished by different colours 
will b'^e found materially to facilitate reference, as it ob- 
viates the necessity of unfolding a large sheet of paper at 
each consultation. 

There is probably no city in the world which ever 
underwent such gigantic transformations in its external ap- 
pearance as the French metropolis during the reign of Na- 
poleon III., and few cities have ever experienced so appal- 
ling a series of disasters as those which befel Paris in 1870-71. 
Many squalid purlieus, teeming with poverty and vice, 
were swept away under the imperial regime, to make room 
for spacious squares, noble avenues, and palatial edifices. 
The magnificent metamorphosis of Paris 'from brick to 
marble' was nearly complete when the gay, splendour- 
loving, pleasure-seeking city w\as overtaken by the signal 
calamities occasioned by the Franco-Prussian war and the 
Communard rebellion. During that period the city sustained 
many irreparable losses, but since the restoration of peace it 
has in most respects resumed its former appearance, the 


government having done its utmost to restore everything as 
far as possible to its former condition. 

A short account of the routes from London to Paris, and 
of the principal towns of Northern France, with their magni- 
ficent Gothic churches, will be acceptable to most travellers. 

In the Handbook are enumerated both the first-class 
hotels and those of humbler pretension. The latter may often 
be selected by the 'voyageur en gargon' with little sacrifice 
of real comfort, and considerable saving of expenditure. 
Those which the Editor has reason to believe most worthy 
of commendation are denoted by asterisks; but doubtless 
there are many of equal excellence among those not so distin- 
guished. It should, however, be borne in mind that hotels 
are liable to constant changes, and that the treatment expe- 
rienced by the traveller often depends on circumstances 
which can neither be foreseen nor controlled. 

The Editor begs to tender his grateful acknowledgments 
to travellers who have sent him information for the benefit of 
the Handbook, and hopes that they will continue to favour 
him with such communications, especially when the result 
of their own experience. Hotel-bills, with annotations showing 
the traveller's opinion as to his treatment and accommodation, 
are particularly useful. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commen- 
dations, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents for Bae- 
deker's Handbooks. 


M. = Engl, mile; hr. = hour; min. = minute; r. = right; 
1. = left; N. = north, northwards, northern; S. = south, etc.; 
E. = east, etc. ; W. = west, etc. ; R. = room, route; B. = break- 
fast; dej. = dejeuner, luncheon; D. = dinner; A. = attendance; 
L. = light; rfmts. = refreshments ; pens. = pension (i.e. board and 
lodging) ; ca. = circa, about ; carr. = carriage ; fr. = franc ; c. = 
centime. The letter d after a name, with a date, indicates the year 
of the person's death. 


are used as marks of commendation. 



I. Language. Money. Expenses. Season. Passports. 

Custom House xii 

II. Railways xiii 

Cycling xiv 

III. Outline of History xv 

a. History of France xv 

b. History of Paris . . xxi 

IV. General Remarks on Paris xxvi 

V. Weights and Measures xxxi 

VI. Bibliograpliy xxxii 

VII. Remarks on Northern France xxxiii 

Sketch of French Art, by Br. Walther Gemet . . . xxxv 

Preliminary Information. 

1 . Arrival in Paris 1 

2. Hotels, Pensions, and Apartments 2 

3. Restaurants 9 

4. Cafes. Brasseries. Confectioners 17 

5. Cabs 20 

6. Omnibuses and Tramways. River Steamboats 22 

7. Railway Stations. Chemin de Fer de Ceinture .... 24 

8. Post and Telegraph Offices 26 

9. Theatres, Circuses, Music Halls, Balls, etc 29 

10. Concerts, Art Exhibitions, Sport, and Clubs 30 

11. Shops and Bazaars 38 

12. Booksellers. Reading Rooms. Libraries. Newspapers . . 45 

13. Baths, Physicians, Maisons de Sante 47 

14. Divine Service 49 

15. Embassies and Consulates. Ministerial Offices. Banks . 50 

16. Preliminary Drive 52 

17. Distribution of Time. Diary 53 

i^Q^tg Right Bank of the Seine. 

1. The Palais-Royal, Rue de Rivoli , Bastille, and Boule- 
vards 59 

I. The Palais -Eoyal and thence to the Hotel de Ville. — 
St. Germain -TAuxerrois. Tour St. .Tacques. Place du 

Chatelet. St. Merri 59 

II. From the Hotel de Ville to the Bastille. — St. Gervais. 

St. Paul et St. Louis. Colonne de Juillet GO 


Route Page 

III. The Boulevards from the Bastille to the Madeleine. — Place 
de la Republique. Porte St. Martin. Porte St. Denis. The 
Opera 72 

IV. From the Madeleine to the Palais-Royal via the Place de 

la Concorde. — Colonne Vendome. St. Roch .... SI 

2. Palace and Galleries of the Louvre. The Tuileries ... 86 

I, The Palace of the Louvre 86 

II. The Galleries of the Louvre 89 

Ancient Sculptures SO 

Asiatic Museum 9".) 

Egyptian Museum 401 

Mediaeval and Renaissance Sculptures ID.] 

Modern Sculptures 1()G 

Picture Gallery 10') 

Galerie d'Apollon 1.57 

Salle des Bijoux 140 

Collection La Caze 141 

Ancient Bronzes 142 

Collection of Drawings 143 

Smaller Slediseval, Renaissance, and Modern Objects 144' 

Antique Pottery 148 

Musee de Marine 150 

Mus^e Ethnographique 150 

Muse'e Chinois l.TO 

Salle des Boites 151 

Musee de Chalcographie 151 

Collection Grandidier 151 

III. The Tuileries 151 

Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel. Jardin des Tuileries 151 

3. Champs-Elysees and Bois de Boulogne 155 

I. From the Place de la Concorde to the Place de TEtoile. 155 

II. From the Place de TEtoile to the Bois de Boulogne. — 
Hippodrome de Longchamp. Jardin d'Acclimatation . . 160 

4. The Trocadero, Passy, and Auteuil 163 

I. From the Place de la Concorde to the Trocadero. Musee 

de Gallie'ra. Muse'e Guimet. Musses du Trocade'ro . . 163 

II. Passy and Auteuil (Bois de Boulogne) 170 

5. Halles Centrales, Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers , and 
Pere-Lachaise 172 

I. From the Palais-Royal to the Halles Centrales. — St. Eu- 

stache 172 

II. From the Halles Centrales to the Conservatoire des Arts 

et Metiers and the Place de la R^publique 175 

III. From the Place de la R^puhlique to Pere-Lachaise . . 179 

6. Neighbourhood of the Exchange and Quartiers de la 
Chaussee-d'Antin and de I'Europe 187 

I. From the Palais-Royal to the Bourse. — Bibliotheque 

Rationale 187 

II. From the Bourse to Notre-Dame-de-Lorette , La Trinite', 

and the Gare St. Lazare 194 

III. From the Gare St. Lazare to St. Augustin and the Pare 

Moneeaux. — Les Batignolles 197 

7. La Vlllette and Montmartre 200 

I. From the Boulevards to La Villette. — St. Laurent. Gare 
de TEst. Gare dn Nord. Buttes-Chaumont. Market and 

Abattoirs at La Villette 2C0 


Route Page 

II. Montmartre. — St. Vincent-de-Paul. Butte Montmartre. 

Cemetery of Montmartre 203 

8. The Quartier du Temple and Quartier du Marais . . . 210 

Archives et Imprimerie Nationales. Mus^e Carnavalet. 
Place des Vosges 210 

The Cite and the Left Bank of the Seine. 

9. The Cite and the Quartier de la Sorbonne 219 

I. Palais de Justice and Sainte-Chapelle. Notre-Dame. — 

Tribunal de Commerce. Pont-Neuf, Hotel-Dieu ... 220 
II. From the Cit^ to the Musde de Cluny. — Fontaine St. Mi- 
chel. St. Severin. Ecole de Medecine 228 

III. From the Musee de Cluny to the Pantheon. — Sorbonne. 
College de France. Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve. St. Eti- 
enne-du-Mont - 23S 

10. Quarters of St. Germain and the Luxemhourg .... 245 

I. Institut. Hotel des Monnaies. Ecole des Beaux-Arts . . 245 
II. From the Ecole dea Beaux-Arts to the Luxembourg. — 

St. Germain-des-Pres. St. Snlpiee 252 

III. Palace, Gallery, and Garden of the Luxembourg . . . 255 

11. The Jardin des Plantes and the Gobelins 263 

I. From the Louvre to the .lardin des Plantes 263 

II. Jardin des Plantes 264 

III. From the Jardin des Plantes to the Gobelins .... 267 

12. The Invalides and the Champ-de-Mars 270 

I. From the Tuileries to the Invalides. — Chambre des De- 
putes. Ste. Clotilde 271 

II. Hotel des Invalides. — Musee d'Artillerie. Eglise des 

Invalides. Tomb of Napoleon 1 273 

III. The Champ-de-Mars. — Eiflfel Tower. Galerie des Ma- 
chines. Ecole Militaire 282 

13. The Southern Quarters 284 

I. From the Luxembourg to the Observatoire and the Cem- 
etery of Montparnasse 2S4 

II. From the Carrefour de TObservatoire to the Pare 

Montsouris 288 

Environs of Paris. 

14. St. Cloud, Sevres, and Meudon 291 

I. From Paris to St. Cloud 291 

II. From Paris to Sevres 296 

III. From Paris to Meudon 298 

15. Vincennes and its Environs 299 

I. From Paris to Vincennes direct 299 

II. From Paris to Vincennes via Charenton 301 

III. Vincennes 303 

16. Versailles 307 

I. From Paris to Versailles 307 

II. Versailles 308 

17. St. Germain-en-Laye 326 

I. From Paris to St. Germain by railway 326 

II. From Paris to St. Germain bysteam-tramway . . 328 

III. St. Germain-en-Laye . . . • 320 


Route Pap. 

18. St. Denis, EngMen, and Montmorency 333 

I. From Paris to St. Denis 333 

II. From St. Denis to Enghien and Montmorency .... 339 

III. From EngMen to Paris via Argenteuil 341 

19. The Valley of the Oise 342 

I. From Paris to Pontoise 342 

1. Via St. Denis or Argenteuil and Ermont .... 342 

2. Via Argenteuil and Conflans-Ste-Honorine . . . 343 

3. Via Maisons-Laffitte and Aclieres 343 

II. From Pontoise to Beaumont 345 

III. From Beaumont to Paris 347 

1. Via Montsoult. — From Montsoult to Luzarches . 347 

2. Via Valmondois and Ermont. — Abbaye du Val 348 

20. Sceaux, Chevreuse, Montlhery, etc 349 

I. From Paris to Sceaux 349 

II. From Paris to the Valley of Chevreuse. Valley of the 
Bievre. Limours. — From Massy-Palaiseau to Versailles; 

to Valenton ; and to Juvisy 352 

III. From Paris to Montlhery. Arpajon 355 

21. From Paris to Fontainebleau 359 

22. Chantilly and its Environs 368 

I. From Paris to Chantilly . ^ c68 

II. From Chantilly to Paris via Creil and Beaumont . . . 376 

III. From Chantilly to Paris via Senlis and Crepy-en-Valois 377 

Routes from London to Paris. 

23. By Folkestone, Boulogne, and Amiens 381 

24. By Dover, Calais, and Amiens 387 

25. By Newhaven, Dieppe, and Ronen 388 

26. By Southampton, Havre, and Rouen 396 

List of Artists 399 

Index 408 

List of Maps and Plans. 

A. Maps. 

1. Railway Map of France, at the end of the book. 

2. Bois de Boulogne, p. 160. 

3. Immediate Environs of Paris, p. 290. 

4. Asnieres, Rueil, and Bougival, p. 292. 

5. St. Cloud and Sevres, p. 294. 

6. Forest of Meudon, p. 298. 

7. Vincennes and its Environs, p. 303. 

8. Environs of St. Germain-en-Laye, p. 332. 

9. St. Denis and Pontoise, p. 334. 

10. Remoter Environs of Paris, p. 342. 

11. Forest of Fontainebleau, p. 366. 

12. Forest of Chantilly, p. 375. 


B. Flans. 

1. Key-Plan of Paris. 

2. Plan of Paris in three sections. 

3. Special Plan of Arc de I'Etoile and Champ-de-Mars District. 

4. ., ., ,, Champs -Elys^es, Western Boulevards, and 


5. „ ., .. Eastern Boulevards. 

G. ., ., Hotel des Invalides and Palais du Luxem- 

bourg District. 
7. ., ., ., Cite, Place de la Bastille, and Jardin des 

B. Omnibus and Tramway Plan of Paris. 
9. Historical Plan of the Louvre and Tuileries, p. 88. 
10, 11, 12. Galleries of the Louvre, pp. 90, 103, 150. 
l.S. Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, p. 176. 

14. Pere-Lachaise, p. 180. 

15. Bibliotheque Nationale, p. 188. 
IG. Cemetery of Montmartre, p. 207. 
17. 18. Musee Carnavalet, pp. 214, 215. 

19. Palais de .Justice, p. 220. 

20. Muse'e de Cluny, p. 230. 

21. Ecole des Beaux-Arts, p. 248. 

22. Musee du Luxembourg, p. 257. 

23. Jardin des Plantes, p. 264. 

24. Hotel des Invalides, p. 274. 

25. Town and Park of Versailles, p. 308. 

26. Chateau de VersaiUes, p. 310. 

27. St. Germain-en-Laye, p. 330. 

28. Fontainebleau, p. 366. 

29. Chateau of Chantilly, p. 370. 

30. Park of Chantilly, p. 375. 

31. Boulogne, p. 380. 

32. Amiens, p. 384. 

33. Calais, p. 38G. 

34. Dieppe, p. 389. 

35. Rouen, p. 390. 

36. Le Havre, p. 396. 


I. Language. Money. Expenses. Season. Passports. 
Custom House. 

Language. For those who wish to derive instruction as well 
as pleasure from a visit to Paris, the most attractive treasury of 
art and industry in the world, some acquaintance with French is 
indispensable. The metropolis of France, it is true, possesses Eng- 
lish hotels, English professional men, English 'valets de place', 
and English shops ; hut the visitor who is dependent upon these is 
necessarily deprived of many opportunities of becoming acquainted 
with the most interesting characteristics of the place. 

Money. The decimal Monetary System of France is extremely 
convenient in keeping accounts. The Banque de France issues 
Banknotes of 5000, 1000, 500, 200, 100, and 50 francs, and 
these are the only banknotes current in France. The French 
Gold coins are of the value of 100, 40, 20, 10, and 5 francs ; 
Silver coins of 5, 2, 1, 1/2^ ^^d 1/5 franc; Bronze of 10, 5, 2, and 
1 centime (100 centimes = 1 franc). ^Sou' is the old name, still 
in common use, for 5 centimes ; thus, a 5-franc piece is sometimes 
called 'une piece de cent sous', 2 fr. = 40 sous, 1 fr. = 20 sous, 
1/2 fr. = 10 sous. Italian, Belgian, Swiss, and Greek gold coins are 
also received at their full value, and the new Austrian gold pieces 
of 4 and 8 florins are worth exactly 10 and 20 fr. respectively. 
Belgian, Swiss, and Greek silver coins (except Swiss coins with the 
seated figure of Helvetia) are also current at full value ; but Italian 
silver coins, with the exception of 0-lira pieces, should be refused. 
The stranger should also be on his guard against counterfeit silver 
coins, and should refuse obsolete coins such as those with heads of 
Louis Philippe or of Napoleon without the laurel wreath. The only 
foreign copper coins current in France are those of Italy, but others 
are frequently accepted without demur. 

English banknotes, gold, and even silver are generally received 
at the full value,, except at the shops of the money-changers, 
where a trifling deduction is made. The table at the beginning of 
the book shows the comparative value of the French, English, Amer- 
ican, and German currencies, when at par. The currency of Belgium, 
Switzerland, Italy, and Greece is the same as that of France. 

The traveller should always be provided with small change 
(petite monnaie) , as otherwise he may be put to inconvenience in 
giving gratuities, purchasing catalogues, etc. 

Expenses. The cost of a visit to Paris depends of course 
on the tastes and habits of the traveller. If he selects a hotel of a 
high class, dines at the table d'hote, visits the theatres, drives in 

I. SEASON, etc. xiii 

the parks and environs, and finally Indulges in suppers a la carte, 
be must be prepared to spend 30-40 fr a day or upwards. Those, 
however, who visit Paris for the sake of its monuments, its galleries, 
its collections, and not for its pleasures, will have little difficulty, 
with the aid of the information in the Handbook, in limiting their 
expenditure to 15-20 fr. a day. 

Season. Spring and autumn are the best seasons for a visit to 
Paris, the former perhaps deserving the preference as having fewer 
rainy days. The long days of summer are in some respects admir- 
ably adapted for sight-seeing; but the heat is often excessive, and 
the absence after June of a large proportion of the ordinary resi- 
dents deprives the city of one of its most characteristic features. 

Passpokts are now dispensed with in France, but they are often 
useful in proving the traveller's identity, procuring admission to 
museums on days when they are not open to the public, obtaining 
delivery of registered letters, etc. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained through C. Smith and Sons, 
63 Charing Cross; Buss, 440 West Strand; E. Stanford, 26 Cockspur St., 
Charing Cross ; or W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet St. (charge 2s.,- agents fee Is. Gd.). 

Custom Housb. In order to prevent the risk of unpleasant de- 
tention at the 'donane' or custom-house, travellers are strongly re- 
commended to avoid carrying with them any articles that are not 
absolutely necessary. Cigars, tobacco, and matches are chiefly sought 
for by the custom-house officers. The duty on cigars amounts to 
about 13s., on tobacco to 6-lOs. per lb. Articles liable to duty 
should always be 'declared'. Books and newspapers occasionally 
give rise to suspicion and may in certain cases be confiscated. — 
The octroi is a duty on comestibles levied at the entrance of Paris 
and other large towns, but travellers' luggage is usually passed on 
a simple declaration that it contains none. 

n. Railways.^ 

The fares per English mile are approximately: 1st cl. 18 c., 
2nd cl. 12 c., 3rd cl. 8 c., to which a tax of ten per cent on each 
ticket costing more than 10 fr. is added. Return -tickets (Billets 
d' alter et retour) are issued by all the railway-companies at a reduc- 
tion of 20-25 per cent; those issued on Sat. and the eves of great 
festivals are available for three days. On some of the suburban lines, 

t Railway - station , la gave (also Vembarcadire)\ booking-office, le 
guichet or bureau; first, second, or third class ticket, unhillet de premiire, 
de seconde, de troisihne classe ; to take a ticket, prendre un billet; to 
register the luggage , /a»re enregistrer les bagages; Inggage-ticket, bulletin 
de bagage; waiting-room, salle d'^atfente: refreshment-room, le ^wife^ (third 
class, la buvette)\ cloak-room, lu consigne; platform, le quai ., le trottoir; 
carriage, le wagon; compartment, le compar/iment, le coupi; smoking com- 
partment, fumeurs; ladies' compartment, dames settles; guard, conducteur ; 
porter, facteur; to enter the carriage, monter en wagon; take your seats I 
era voiture! to alight, descendre; to change carriages, changer de voiture ; 
express train to Calais, le train express pour Calais, Vexpress de Calais. 


however, there is no reduction on return-tickets. Tickets are usu- 
ally collected at the 'sortie'. The mail trains ('■trains rapides'j 
generally convey first-class passengers only , and the express trains 
(drains express'), first-class and second-class only. The carriages 
are inferior to those in most other parts of Europe. The trains are 
not always provided with smoking carriages, but in the others 
smoking is allowed unless any one of the passengers objects. 

Before starting, travellers are generally cooped up in the close 
and dusty waiting-rooms, and are not admitted to the platform until 
the train is ready to receive them ; nor is any one admitted to the 
platform to take leave of friends without a platform-ticket (10 c.) 
which may be obtained from the ticket-checker or in some cases 
( at the Gare de Lyon) from an automatic machine. 

Travellers vidthin France are allowed 30 kilogrammes (66 Engl, 
lbs.) of luggage free of charge; those who are bound for foreign 
countries are allowed 25 kilogr. only (55 lbs.); 10 c. is charged 
tor booking. At most of the railway-stations there is a consigne, 
or left-luggage office, where a charge of 10 c. per day is made for 
one or two packages, and 5 c. per day for each additional article. 
AVhere there is no consigne, the employees will generally take care 
of luggage for a trifling fee. The railway-porters (facteurs) are not 
entitled to remuneration, but it is usual to give a few sous for their 
services. The occasionally extortionate demands of the Parisian 
porters should be firmly resisted. — Dog Tickets cost 30 c. for 20 kilo- 
metres (121/2 M.) or less, and 5 c. for each additional 3 kilometres 
(I3/4M.), with 10 c. for 'registration'. 

Railway Restaurants (usually dear and often poor) are found at the 
principal stations, but the stoppages of the trains are usually so short 
that travellers are advised to carry the necessary provisions with them. 

Sleeping Carriages ( Wagons - lits) and Restaurant Carriages ( Wagons- 
restaui'ants) are run in the chief night and day expresses respectively. 
De'j- 31.2-0, D. 4V2-T fr. (wine extra), according to the line-, 2nd cl. on cer- 
tain lines in Normandy, dej. 21/4, D. 31/2 fr. — Pillows and Coverlets may 
be hired at the chief stations (1 fr.). 

The most trustworthy information as to the departure of trains 
is contained in the Indicateur des Chemins de Fer, published weekly 
(85 c), or in the Indicateur Paul Dupont (75 c). There are also 
separate and less bulky time-tables for the different lines ('Livrets 
Chaix^): du Nord, de I'Est, de I'Ouest, etc. (40 c.) ; and the Livret 
Chaix des Environs de Paris (25 c), sold also in separate parts at 10 c. 

Railway time is always that of Paris, but the clocks in the in- 
terior of the stations, by which the trains start, are purposely kept 
five min. slow. Belgian (Greenwich or West Europe) railway time 
is 4 min. behind, and 'Mid Europe' time (for Germany, Switzerland, 
and Italy) 56 min. in advance of French railway time. 

Cycling is a popular amusement in France, and the cyclisfs wants are 
everywhere fairly well provided for. The highroads between Paris and 
the coast are good, though often destitute of shade. Cyclists entering 


France with their machines must deposit a sum equal to the doty on the 
latter (22 fr. per 10 kilogrammes or 22 lbs.), which is returned to them 
on quitting the country. Members (jf the Cyclists'" Touring Club (47 Vic- 
toria St., London, S.W.) or of the Touring Club de France (10 Place de la 
Bourse, Paris) are, however, spared this formality on presentation of their 
card of membership. 

An annual tax of 6 fr. is imposed on every cycle in France, but 
strangers remaining in the country not more than three months receive 
a dispensation from this tax ('permis de circulation') on application at the 
oflice ofr the cnstoni-house by which they arrive (60 c.). Every cycle in 
France must be furnished with a lamp (to be lighted at dusk) and a bell 
or horn (audible at a distance of 50 metres). 

Cyclists will find it advantageous to join the Touring Club de France 
(see above), the annual subscription to which is 6 fr. (5*.), including a copy 
of the monthly Gazette. The club publishes an Annuaire (1 fr.), with a 
list of cyclists' hotels, repairers, representatives, etc., and also a series of 
Itineraries (5 c. each). — Cycling in Paris, see p. 38. 

III. Outline of History. 

a. History of France. 

Merovingians. Clovis, son of Childeric, King of Tournal, 
finally expelled the Romans about the year 496, embraced Christi- 
anity, and became the founder of the Merovingian Dynasty, which 
was so named from Meroveus or Merwig^ grandfather of Clovis. 

Carlovingians. Pepin (Le BrefJ, who became King of France 
in 752 , was the founder of the second or Carlovingian Dynasty. 

Chaklemagne, 768. 

Louis I. (Le Debonnaire), 814. 

Charles II. (Le Chauve), 840. France separated from Germany 
and Italy by the Treaty of Verdun, 843. — The subsequent monarchs 
were unable to defend their country against hostile attacks. The 
dynasty was deposed in consequence, and the crown given in 887 
to Count Odd, or Eudes, who had been instrumental in repelling 
the Normans. 

Capetians. Hugh Capet, grand-nephew of Eudes, was the 
founder of the third or Cap etian Dynasty (987). 

Robert II. (Le Pieux), 996. 

Henri I., 1031. 

Philip I., 1060. William, Duke of Normandy , conquers Eng- 
land, 1066. First Crusade under Godfrey de Bouillon, 1096. 

Louis VI. (Le Gros), 1108. Suger (p. 334), the king's minister. 

Louis VII. (LeJeune), 1137, takes part in the Second Crusade 
(1147). His divorced wife, Eleanor of Guienne and Poitou, marries 
Henry Plantagenet, afterwards Henry II. of England. 

Philip II. (Auguste), 1180, undertakes the Third Crusade, in 
company with Richard Coeur-de-Lion , 1189. On his return he 
attacks the English possessions in France, and defeats the English, 
Flemish, and German troops at Bouvines in 1214. 

Louis VIII. (Le Lion), 1223, extends the royal power in the S. 
of France. 

Louis IX. (St. Louis), 1226. Crusades to Egypt and Tunis. 


Philip 111. (Le UardiJ, 1270, acquires ProNeiice by inheritance. 

Philip IV. (Le Bel), 1285, convokes the Etats-Generaux for 
the first time. He causes the papal residence to be transferred 
to Avignon, and in 1307 abolishes the order of Knights Templar. 

Louis X. (Le Rutin), 1314. 

Philip V. (Le Long), 1316. 

Chables IV. (LeBel), 1322, dies without issue. 

House of Valois. Philip VI., 1328. War with England, 1337 
('Guerre de Cent Ans', 1337-1453). Battle of Crecy, 1346. 

John (Le Bon), 1350; defeated and taken prisoner by the 
English at Poitiers, 1356. Peace of Bretigny, 1360. 

Charles V. (LeSage), 1364. The English expelled by Bertrand 
du Guesclin. 

Charles VI., 1380; becomes insane twelve years afterwards. 
The French under the Constable d'Albret defeated by Henry V. of 
England at Agincourt, 1415. Paris occupied by the English, 1421. 

Charles VII., 1422. The siege of Orleans raised by Joan of 
Arc, 1429. Coronation at Rheims. Joan burned at Rouen, 1431. 

Louis XL, 1461, after suppressing the Ligue du Bien Pubtic, 
which had been formed in consequence of his hasty and wide-reach- 
ing reforms, succeeds in establishing the administrative and terri- 
torial unity of the country. Burgundy, Franche-Comte, Artois, and 
Provence are added to the French crown. 

Charles VIH., 1483, acquires Brittany by his marriage with 
Anne de Bretagne. Conquest of Naples, 1495. 

Louis XII. , 'Le pere du peuple*, 1498, first king of the 
younger branch of the House of Valois , conqueror of Milan and [in 
alliance with the Spaniards) of Naples. Having quarrelled with his 
Spanish allies, he is defeated by them on the Garigliano in 1503. 
The League of Cambrai is formed for the purpose of expelling the 
Venetians from the mainland of Italy. The Venetians defeated at 
Agnadello, 1509; but they succeed in destroying the League, and 
defeat the French at Ravenna, 1512. 

Francis I., 1515, defeats the Swiss at Marignano, and recov- 
ers the Duchy of Milan. Four wars with Charles V. for the 
possession of Burgundy and Milan. Francis defeated and taken 
prisoner at Pavia, 1525. The royal power becomes more absolute. 

Henri II., 1547, husband of Catherine de Medicis, accidentally 
killed at a tournament (p. 68). Metz, Toul, and Verdun annexed 
to France, 1556. Final expulsion of the English. 

Francis II., 1559, husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland. 

Charles IX., brother of Francis II., 1560. Regency of Cathe- 
rine de Medicis, the king's mother. Beginning of the Religious 
Wars. Louis de Conde, Antoine de Navarre, and Admiral Co- 
ligny, leaders of the Huguenots ; Francois de Guise and Charles 
de Lorraine command the Roman Catholic army. Massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, 24th August, 1572. 

111. HISTORY. xvii 

Henbi III., 1574, brother of his two predecessors; flies from 
Paris, where a rebellion had broken out, by the advice of his 
mother, Catherine de M^dicis (d. 1588); assassinated at St. Cloud 
by Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar. 

House of Bourbon. HenkiIV., 1589, firstmonarch oHheHouseof 
Bourbon, defeats the Roman Catholic League at Arques in 1589, and 
at Ivry in 1590, becomes a Roman Catholic in 1593, captures Paris in 
1594. Sully, his minister. Religious toleration granted by the Edict 
of Nantes (1598). Henri, divorced from Margaret of Valois in 1599, 
marries Marie de Me'dicis the following year ; assassinated by Ra- 
vaillac in 1610. Paris greatly embellished during this reign. 

Louis XIII., 1610; his mother Marie de Medicis, regent; she 
is banished to Cologne, where she dies in 1642. Richelieu, his 
minister (d. 1642). English fleet defeated at Re, 1627; La Ro- 
chelle taken from the Huguenots. France takes part in the Thirty 
Years' War against Austria. 

Louis XIV. , 1643 , under the regency of his mother, Anne 
of Austria. Ministers: Mazarin (d. 1661), Louvois (d. 1691), and 
Colbert (d. 1683). Generals: Turenne (d. 1675), Conde' (d. 1686), 
Luxembourg (d. 1695). 

War of the Fronde against the court and Mazarin. Conde 
(Due d'Enghien) defeats the Spaniards at Rocroy in 1643, and at 
Lens in Holland in 1648. Turenne defeats the Bavarians at Freiburg 
and at Nordlingen, 1644. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) assigns 
Alsace to France, with the exception of Strassburg and Montbeliard. 
Submission of the Fronde. Peace of the Pyrenees, with Spain, 1659. 
Death of Mazarin, 1661. The king governs alone. 
Louis marries Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV. of Spain, 
1660. After the death of his father-in-law Louis lays claim to the 
Spanish Netherlands. Turenne conquers Hainault and part of Flan- 
ders, 1667. Cond^ occupies the Franche Comte. Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, in consequence of the Triple Alliance, 1668. 

War with Holland, Passage of the Rhine, 1672. Occupation 
of the provinces of Utrecht and Guelderland. Victories of Turenne 
over the Imperial army at Sinzheim, Ensisheim, MUlhausen (1674),% 
and Turkheim (1675). Death of Turenne at Sassbach, 1675. 

Admiral Duquesne defeats the Dutch fleet near Syracuse, 1676. 
Marshal Luxembourg defeats William of Orange at Montcassel, 1677. 
Vedice oi Nymwegen, 1678. Strassburg occupied, 1681. Occupation 
of Luxembourg. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685. Devas- 
tation of the Palatinate, 1688. Marshal Luxembourg defeats the 
Imperial troops at Fleurus (1690) and Steenkerke (1692), and Wil- 
liam of Orange at Neerwinden, 1693. The French fleet under Ad- 
miral Tourville defeated by the English at La Rogue, 1692. Peace 
of Ryswyck, 1697. 

Spanish war of succession, 1701. Victory of Vendome at Vittoria 
(1702), and of Tallard at Speyer (1702). Taking of Landau, 1702. 
Baedekek. Paris. 14th Edit. ^ 

xviii III. HISTORY. 

Victory at Hochstddt (1703); defeat at Hbchstadt , or Blenheim 
(1704), by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy. 
Marshal Villars defeated by Prince Eugene at Turin (1705), and 
by Marlborough and the Prince at Ramillies (1709), Oudenarde 
(1708), and Malplaquet (1709). Peace of Utrecht, 1713. Peace of 
Rastadt, 17 U. 

During this reign French literature attains its zenith : Cor- 
neille, Racine, Moliere, La Fontaine, Boileau, Bossuet, Fenelon, 
Descartes, Pascal, La Bruyere, Mme. de Se'vigne, etc. 

Louis XV., 1715 ; eight years' regency of the Duke of Orleans. 
Marries Marie Lesczinska of Poland (1725). Austrian war of suc- 
cession (1741-48). Defeat at Dettingen by George II. of England 
(1743). Defeat of the Dutch and English 3it Fontenoy (1746), of the 
Austrians under Charles of Lorraine at Rocoux (1746), and of the 
Allies near Laeffelt ( Law f eld) in 1747. Taking of Maastricht and 
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748. Naval war against England. 

Seven years' war with England (1756 63). Duke of Cumberland 
defeated by Marshal d'Estrees, 1757. The French under Prince de 
Soubise defeated the same year by Frederick the Great at Ross- 
hach, and in 1758 at Crefeld, by the Duke of Brunswick. The 
French defeated at Minden (1759). The French defeated by Marshal 
Broglie aX Bergen, 1760. — French possessions in N. America sur- 
rendered at the Peace of Paris, 1763. — Acquisition of Lorraine 
(1766) and Corsica (1768). — Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot the 
most influential writers. 

Louis XVI., 1774, married to Marie Antoinette, daughter of 
Francis I. and Maria Theresa. American War of Independence 
against England, 1777-83. Exhaustion of the finances of France ; 
Vergennes, Turgot, Necker, Calonne , Brienne , and Necker (a 
second time), ministers of finance. 

1789. Rbvolution. Assembly of the States General at Ver- 
sailles, 5th May. Their transformation into a National Assembly, 
17th June. Oath of the Jeu de Paume (p. 325), 20th June. 
Storming of the Bastille, 14th July. The 'Femmes de la Halle' at 
Versailles, 5th*0ct. Confiscation of ecclesiastical property, 2nd Nov. 

1790. Fete de la F^d^ration in the Champ-de-Mars (p. 282). 

1791. The Emigration. The royal family escapes from Paris, but 
is intercepted at Varennes, 22nd June. Oath to observe the Con- 
stitution, 14th Sept. Assemhlee Legislative. 

1792. "War with Austria, 20th April. Storming of the Tuileries, 
10th Aug. The king arrested, 11th Aug. Massacres in Sept. 
Cannonade of Valmy against the Prussians, 20th Sept. The Na- 
tional Convention opened, and royalty abolished, 21st Sept. 

First Republic proclaimed, 25th Sept. Custine enters Mayence, 
21st Oct. Battle of Jemappes against the Austrians, 6th Nov. Con- 
quest of Belgium. 

1793. Louis XVI. beheaded, 21st Jan. Republican reckoning 


of time introduced, 22nd Sept. +- Reign of Terror. The queen 
beheaded, 16th Oct. Worship of Reason introduced , 10th Nov. 
Loss of Belgium. 

1794. Robespierre's fall and execution, 27th July. Jourdan's 
victory at Fleurus, 16th June. Belgium reconquered. 

1795. Conquest of Holland by Pichegru. Bonaparte commander 
of the troops of the Convention against the Royalists, 4th Oct. 
(13th Vendemiaire). Dibectoey established, 27th Oct. 

1796. Bonaparte's successes in Italy ( Montenotte , Millesimo, 
Lodi, Milan, Mantua, Castiglione, Bassano, and Areola). 

1797. Victory at Rivoli, 14th Jan. Taking of Mantua, 2nd 
Feb. The Austrians commanded by Archduke Charles , at first 
victorious, are defeated by Bonaparte. Peace of Campo Formio, 
17th Oct. Change in the Directory on 18th Fructidor (4th Sept.). 

1798. Bonaparte in Egypt. Victory of the Pyramids, 21st July. 
Defeated by Nelson at the battle of the Nile, 1st Aug. 

1799. Bonaparte invades Syria. Acre attacked. Victory of 
Aboukir, 25th July. Fall of the Directory, 9th Nov. Establishment 
of the Consulate, 24th Dec. Bonaparte First Consul. 

1800. Bonaparte's passage of the St. Bernard, 13-16th May. 
Victories at Piacenza, Montebello, Marengo, and Hohenlinden. At- 
tempt to assassinate Napoleon at Paris, 23rd Dec. 

1801. Peace of Luneville with Germany, 9th Feb. 

1802. Peace of Amiens with England, 27th March. Bona- 
parte (with Cambaceres and Lebrun) elected Consul for life. 

First Empire. 1804. Napoleon I. proclaimed Emperor by the 
Senate, 18th May; crowned by Pope Pius VII., 2nd Dec. 

1805. Renewal of war with Austria. Capitulation of Vim, 17th 
Oct. Defeat of Trafalgar, 2ist Oct. Battle of Austerlitz, 2n(i Dec. 
Peace of Pressburg, 26th Dec. 

1806. Establishment of the Rhenish Confederation, 12th July. 
War with Prussia. Battles of Jena and Auerstddt, 14th Oct. Entry 
into Berlin, 27th Oct. Continental blockade. 

1807. War with Russia and Prussia. Battles of Eylau and Fried- 
land. Treaty of Tilsit, 8th July. Occupation of Lisbon, 30th Nov* 

+ The year had 12 months : Vendemiaire (month of the vendangc, 
or vintage) from 22nd Sept. to 21st Oct., Brumaire (6r«mc, fog) 22nd Oct. 
to 20th Nov., and Frimaire (/rimas, hoar-frost) 21st Nov. to 20th Dec, were 
the three autumn-months; — Nivose {neige , snow) 21st Dec. to 19th Jan., 
Pluviose (pluie , rain) 20th Jan. to 18th Feb., and Ventose (vent, wind) 
19th Feb. to 20th March , winter - months ; — Germinal {germe, germ), 
21st March to 19th April , Floreal (/fe«r , flower) 20th April to 19th May, 
and Prairial {prairie, meadow) 20th May to 18th June , spring-months ; — 
Messidor (moisson, harvest) 19t.h June to 18th July , Thermidor (therme, 
warmth) 19th July to 17th Aug., and Fructidor (fruit, fruit) 19th Aug. to 
16th Sept., summer months. — Each month had 30 days, and consisted of 
3 decades, weeks being abolished. At the close of the year there were 
5 jours compUmentaires , 17th to 21st Sept. — The republican calendar 
was discontinued by a decree of 9th Sept., 1805. 


1808. War in Spain, in order to maintain Joseph Bonaparte on 
the throne. Code Napoleon. 

1809. Conquest of Saragossa. Renewed war with Austria. 
Battle of Eckmiihl. Vienna entered, 13th May. Battles of Aspern, 
or Essling, and Wagram. Peace of Vienna, 14th Oct. Abolition of 
the temporal power of the pope. 

1810. Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise , daughter of 
Francis II. of Austria, 11th March. 

1812. Renewed war with Russia. Battles of Smolensk and Bo- 
rodino. Moscow entered, 15th Sept. Retreat begun, 19th Oct. 
Passage of the Beresina. — Wellington's victory at Salamanca. 

1813. Battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Grossbeeren, Dresden, Katz- 
bach, Kulm, Leipsic (16-18th Oct), Hanau, etc. 

1814. Battles of Brienne, La Roihiere, Montmirail, Laon, Arcis- 
8ur-Auhe, and Paris. The Allies enter Paris, 31st March. Abdica- 
tion of the Emperor, 11th April. His arrival at Elba, 4th May. 

i Bestoration. 1814. Louis XVIII. proclaimed King, 6th April. 
First Peace of Paris, 30th May. 

1815. Napoleon's return from Elba; ^t Cannes on 1st, and at 
Paris on 20th March. Battles of Ligny and Waterloo, 16th and 
18th June. Second entrance of the Allies into Paris, 7th July. 
Second Peace of Paris, 20th Nov. Napoleon banished to St. Helena, 
where he dies (5th May, 1821). 

1823. Spanish campaign, to aid Ferdinand VII. , under the 
Due d'Angouleme, son of Charles X. 

1824. Charles X. 

1830. Conquest of Algiers. — Revolution of July (27th-29th). 

House of Orleans. 1830. Louis Philippe elected King, 7th 
Aug. Continued war in Africa; consolidation of the French colony 
of Algeria. 

1832. Capture of Antwerp. 

1840. Body of Napoleon transferred from St. Helena to Paris. 

1848. Revolution of February (23rd and 24th). 

Second Bepublic. 1848. Sanguinary conflicts in Paris, 23rd to 
,26th June. Louis Napoleon, son of the former King of Holland 
and nephew of Napoleon I., elected President, 10th Dec. 

1851. Dissolution of the Assemblee, Coup d'Etat, 2nd Dec. 

Second Empire. 1852. Napoleon III., elected emperor by pie- 
biscite, 2nd Dec. 

1854. War with Russia. Crimean campaign. — 1859. War with 
Austria. Battles of Magenta (4th June) and Solferino (24th June}. 
Peace of Villafranca, 11th July. — 1862. Mexican expedition. — 
1867. Dispute with Prussia about Luxembourg. 

1870. War with Prussia. Declaration of war, 19th July. Battles 
in August : Weissenburg (4th), Worth (6th), Spichern (6th), Bomy, 
Rezonville, and Gravelotte (14th , 16th , 18th), Beaumont (30th). 
Battle of Sedan, 1st Sept. Surrender of Napoleon UI. 


Third Republic proclaimed, 4tli Sept. Capitulation of Strasshurg, 
27th Sept., and of Afefz, 27th Oct. Battles near Orleans, 2nd-4thDec. 

1871. Battle of St. Quentin, 19th Jan. Capitulation of Paris, 
28th Jan. The Germans enter Paris. 1st March. 

CoMMUNAKD INSURRECTION, 18th March. Seat of government 
removed to Versailles, 20th March. Second siege of Paris, 2nd 
April. Peace of Frankfort, 10th May. Paris occupied by the Gov- 
ernment troops, 25th May. The Communard insurrection finally 
quelled, 28th May. — M. Thiers, chief of the executive since 
17th Feb., appointed President of the Republic, 31st August. 

1873. Death of Napoleon III., 9th Jan. — Marshal Macmahon 
appointed President instead of M. Thiers, 14th May. Final eva- 
cuation of France by the German troops, I6th Sept. — Macmahon's 
tenure of the presidency fixed at seven years, 20th Nov. 

1875. Republican Constitution finally adjusted, 25th Feb. 

1879. M. Jules Grevy becomes President in place of Marshal 
Macmahon. The Chambers of the Legislature return to Paris. 

1881. Expedition to Tunis. — 1882-85. Expeditions to Ton- 
quin and Madagascar. — 1885. Peace with China, 9th June. Peace 
with Madagascar, 17th Dec. — 1887. M. Sadi Carnot becomes Pre- 
sident in place of M. Gr^vy, 3rd Dec. — 1894. Assassination of 
President Carnot, by the Italian Caserio, 24th June. M. J. Casimir 
P^rier elected president two days later. — 1895. Resignation of 
Casimir Perier and election of M. Felix Faure to the presidency 
Jan. 15th and 17th. Expedition to Madagascar and annexation of 
that island. — 1899. Death of M. Faure (Feb. 17th). M. Emile 
Loubet succeeds him (Feb. 18th). Dreyfus Trial. 

b. History of Paris. 

At the time of the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar, the Paridi 
were a tribe settled on the banks of the Sequana or Seine, and their 
chief village was Lutetia^ situated on the present Island of La Cite. 
In course of time Lutetia gradually increased in importance and 
became the occasional residence of several Roman emperors, among 
whom were Constantius Chlorus (2o0?-306), who built the palace 
of the Thermae, and Julian the Apostate (331-363), who referred to 
it as his 'dear Lutetia'. Gratian was defeated and slain by Maxi- 
mus in the vicinity (383). 

Christianity was introduced by St. Denis about 250 A.D.; and 
in 360 a council was convened in the town under the name of 
Parisea Civitas, whence the modern name is derived. About a cen- 
tury later, in 451, the city was spared by the Huns, at the inter- 
cession of St. Genevieve, who was afterwards adopted as its patron 
saint. Clovis (p. xv) established Paris as his capital in 508. 

Under the Merovingian and Carlovingian monarchs, who seldom 
resided at Paris, the city hardly extended. Little is known of it at 

xxii Til. fflSTORY. 

this epocli, of which, almost the only building now left is the church 
of St. Germain- ies-Pres. 

The latter half of the 9th and the 10th cent, were times of 
calamity (p. xv), hut under the Capetian Dynasty the trade of 
Paris began to revive. The city attained considerable prosperity 
under Louis VI., Le Gros (1108-37), while the names of Peter Lom- 
bard and Abelard conferred fame upon it as a school of learning. — 
The reign of Louis VII. (1137-80) witnessed the establishment of 
the order of Knights Templar at Paris and the foundation of Notre- 

With Philip II. (1180-1223) a new era dawned for Paris. This 
monarch erected aqueducts, fountains, markets, etc., paved the 
principal streets, organized police, continued Notre-Dame, built a 
chateau on the site of the Louvre, and constructed the third zone of 
fortifications round the expanding city. The schools of Paris were 
henceforth known as a University and the trading corporation of the 
Parisian Hansa was organized. 

Under Louis IX. or St. Louis (1226-70), who built the Sainte- 
Chapelle^ Paris obtained various municipal privileges; and the Sor- 
bonne was founded by Robert Sorbon, the king's chaplain. The 
great annual fair which took place in the extensive plain between 
Paris and St. Denis (Foire du Landit) and the famous Commercial 
Code drawn up by Etienne Boileau in 1258 afford proof of the early 
commercial importance of Paris. The population was then about 

Philip IV., Le Bel (1285-1314), founded the Parlement, or court 
of justice of Paris, and convoked the Etats-Generaux for the first time. 

During the captivity of John (1350-64) in England (p. xvi) 
the provost Etienne Marcel put himself at the head of the Parisians 
and constructed the fourth line of fortifications, which was strength- 
ened by the addition of the Bastille by Chaeles V. (1364-80). 
Charles also extended the Louvre, and collected a Library, which, 
however, was afterwards dispersed. 

The reign of Charles VI. (1380-1422) was disastrous for Paris. 
A tax upon provisions led to the revolt of the Maillotins, followed 
by the forfeiture of municipal privileges. Heavy contributions were 
levied upon the town to meet the senseless expenditure of the court, 
and the capital, like the rest of France, was torn by the factions of 
the Armagnacs and the Burgundians. The cause of the latter was 
violently espoused by the Cabochiens, or butchers of Paris, -who mur- 
dered 10,000 citizens. For the first eighteen years of the reign of 
Charles VII. (1422-61) Paris was held by the English. Their 
expulsion was followed by a plague, of which 50,000 persons died 
(1437-38), and by a famine. The three following reigns, however, 
afforded the city time to recover, that of Louis XI. (1461-83) being 
marked by the introduction of printing and the erection of the Hotel 
de Cluny. 

III. HISTORY. xxili 

Feancis I. (1515-47) adorned and improved Paris, at that time 
a city of 300,000 inhabitants. He began the present palace of the 
Louvre, the Hotel de Ville^ and the church of St. Eustnche; and col- 
lected a Libriry -which was the nucleus of the Bibliotheque National. 
The persecution of the Protestants begun by Francis I. was con- 
tinued under his successors, and culminated in the sanguinary Mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew (Aug. 24th, 1572) under Charles IX. 
(1560-74). A return to toleration under Henri III. (1574-89) in- 
stigated the formation of the Roman Catholic League. After the 
assassination of his rival the Buke of Guise, the king was forced to 
flee, and was himself assassinated while besieging Paris. 

Henri IV. (1589-1610), having abjured Protestantism, entered 
Paris in 1594. During this reign the metropolis was greatly embel- 
lished. The building of the Louvre, the Tuiteries, and the Pont 
Neufvfeie continued, the Hotel de Vilie was completed, and the 
Place Roy ale , the modern Place des Vosges, was built. Under 
Louis XIII. (1610-43) the process of embellishment was continued. 
The Luxembourg , the Palais-Royal, the churches of St. Roch, Val- 
de-Grace, etc., were built; six new Quays constructed 5 and the 
Jardin des Plantes laid out. Ste. Eustache was finished with the 
exception of the portal; and the Royal Printing Works and the 
Academie Fran^aise were founded. 

Though at the beginning of the reign of Louis XIV, (1643 
-1715) Paris suffered from the civil war of the Fronde, and though 
its municipal institutions were sacrificed and itself abandoned by the 
court, the metropolis continued to make great strides. The streets 
began to be regularly cleansed, lighted, and watched. Visitors began 
to crowd into the capital and the French nobles to erect town-man- 
sions or 'hotels'. Paris gradually attracted to herself the skill and 
talent of the whole country. The decorative arts in particular re- 
ceived a great impulse, and began to extend their influence over 
the whole of Europe, while, as we have said, French literature now 
reached its zenith. This reign saw the foundation of the Hotel 
des Invalides, various Libraries and Academies , the Observatory, 
the Gobelins Manufacture, the Comedie Fran^aise, the Opera, etc. 
The old fortifications were levelled and the Boulevards converted 
into promenades, adorned with four triumphal arches, of which the 
Porte St. Denis and the Porte St. Martin still remain. Similar 
promenades were begun on the left bank. The Colonnade of the 
Louvre, the Pont Royal, several Quays, the Place Vendowe, Place 
des Victoires, Place du Carrd\isel, the Garden of the Tuileries, the 
Champs -Ely sees, etc., all date from this reign. The population of the 
city was then nearly 560.000. 

Under Louis XV. (1715-74) the Ecole Militaire, Garde-Meuble 
(Place de la Concorde), Pantheon, St. Sulpice, Palais Bourbon 
(Chamber of Deputies), College Mazarin (Institut), Ecole de Me- 
dicine etc, were built, and the Place de la Concorde laid out. 


The tempest wMch had long "been gathering burst in the reign 
of Louis XVI. (1774-93). During the Revolution the history of 
Paris cannot well be separated from the history of France (see 
pp. xviii, xix). 

The frightful scenes of devastation enacted during the Revolu- 
tion, especially in 1793, were at least beneficial in sweeping away 
the overgrown conventual establishments, which occupied the best 
sites and one-third of the area of the city. From this period, also, 
date many of the great institutions of Paris, including the Ecole 
Normale and Ecole Polytechnique^ the Musees du Louvre^ d'Artillerie, 
and des Monuments FmuQais^ the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, 
the Archives Rationales ^ the Inslituf^ various Libraries^ etc. In 1797 
the octroi barrier, a sixth line of wall begun by Louis XVI., was 
completed on the site of the old exterior boulevards; and in 1798 
the first industrial exhibition was held. 

Under Napoleon I. (1804-14), who aimed at making Paris the 
capital of Europe, numerous sumptuous embellishments were added. 
This emperor erected the Arc du Carrousel and the Colonne Ven- 
dome, continued the Louvre, added the facade of the Hotel du Corps- 
LigisLtitif, began the Arc de I Etoile, the Bourse, the Fonts d'Amter- 
litz, des Arts, d Una, and de la Cite, cleared the other bridges of the 
houses that encumbered them, reared twenty-six public Fountains 
laid out sixty new Streets, etc. 

During the somewhat inglorious period of the Restoration 
(1814-30), the city enjoyed a golden era of prosperity. It was 
then that liberal politicians achieved their greatest triumphs, that 
French literature and art used their utmost endeavours to resume 
their world-wide sway, and that French society exhibited itself in 
its most refined and amiable aspect. At this epoch Benjamin Con- 
stant and Royer-Collard exercised very great influence on public 
opinion ; Thiers and Mignet, Victor Hugo and Lamartine began their 
respective careers; the 'Romantic School' attained high importance ; 
and Paris became the recognised headquarters of Oriental studies 
and a number of other important sciences. Civic improvements pro- 
gressed comparatively slowly, though the Chapelle Expiatoire, Notre- 
Dame-de-Lorette, St. Vincent-de-Paul, and the Fonts des Invahdes, 
de VArcheveche. and dArcole date from this period, while the intro- 
duction of gas-lamps, omnibuses, and foot-pavements also took place. 

Under Louis Philippe (1830-48) building was resumed with 
fresh vigour. The Madeleine and the Arc de I'Etoile were finished; 
the Obelisk and the Colonne de Juillet ^ere erected ; the Fonts Louis 
Philippe and du Carrousel were built; and the Musee de Cluny was 
opened. The first railways date from this reign. The present Forti- 
fications of Paris were also erected at this period, with Detached Forts, 
to which others have been added since 1870. 

Napoleon III. (1852-70). During the Second Empire Paris 
underweTit an almost entire transformation, on a scale of magni- 


flcence hitherto unparalleled. Dense masses of houses and num- 
bers of tortuous streets were replaced by broad boulevards, spacious 
squares, and palatial edifices. Ste. Ctotilde. St. Augustin^ La Triniti^ 
St. Ambrose, and other churches; part of the Nouveau Louvre; the 
Hotel Dieu; the Halles Centrales; the Tribunal de Commerce; the 
Fonts de Solferino, de I Alna, du Point-du-Jour, and au Change; 
the Opera and several Theatres; and numerous other public and 
private edifices date from this reign. The Chewin de Fer de Celn- 
ture, the Sewtrs, the Aqueducts of the Dhuis and of the Vanne^ and 
the transformation of the Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Vincennes 
were among the more important public works. Universal Exhibitions 
were held in 1855 and 1867. 

In 1860 the outlying communes between the old exterior boule- 
vards and the fortiflcatinns were incorporated with the city, iii'-reas- 
ing its area by about 1000 acres and its population by nearly 300,000. 
The division of the city into twenty arrondissements (p. xxviii) also 
dates from this period. In 1861 the total population was 1,667,841. 

The events which led to the fall of the empire and those that 
followed have already been sket-hed (pp. xx, xxi). 

The siege of Paris in 1870-71 ranks amoiiL ''■he most remarkable oc- 
currences in the annals of modern warfare. Atter the decisive battle of 
Sedan (p. xx) the victorious German troops pushed forward to Paris with- 
out delay, while the Government of the National Defence under Oen- 
eral Trochu made the most strenuous exertions to place the capital in a 
state of defence. Cattle and grain were sent into the city in immense 
quantities, the roads by which the Germans would probably march were 
rendered impassable, and the arming of the forts and the Enceinte (p. xxviii) 
was proceeded with as rapidly as possible. The troops in Paris at the 
beginning of the siege numbered about 200,000 men. but of these only 
60.000 or 70.000 were regular soldiers. The besieging force was com- 
posed of six army-corps under the Crown Prince of Prussia and the army 
of the Meuse under the Crown Prince of Saxony, the full strength of 
which consisted of 202.000 infantry. 34,000 cavalry, and 900 guns. 

By 15th Sept., 1870. the advanced guard of the Crown Prince's army 
was within 10 M. of Paris, and on the 17th a pontoon bridge was thrown 
across the Seine at Villeneuve-St- Georges (p. 359). After a short but 
severe contest at Sceaux with General Ducrot, Versailles was reached, 
and here a few days later the German Headquarters were established 
(comp. p. 309). Meanwhile the army of the Meuse had occupied the ground 
on the right banks of the Seine and Marne, thus completing the investi- 
ture. The aim of the besiegers was the reduction of the city by famine, 
while the only course of defence practicable to the besieged was to pierce 
the investing lines and establish communication with the relief army on 
the Loire. 

The first important sortie took place on 30th Sept., when General Vinoy, 
with 10.000 men, made an ineffectual effort to break the German lines at 
Villejuif (p. 3i7), to the S. of Paris. A second attempts in the direction of 
Clamart (p 296) on 13th Oct., and a third on La Malmaison and Biuenval 
(pp. 329 295) on 21st Oct. were equally ineffectual. It was during the 
latter that St. Cloud was set on fire by a shell from Mont Valerien. The 
sortie of 29th Oct. towards the N. was at first more successful, as the 
French gained possession of the village of Le Bouvget (p. 379). The Germans, 
however, succeeded in recapturing it on the 31st. after prolonged fighting 
and heavy loss. The besieged did not again assume the offensive till 
30th Nov. , when Generals Trochu and Ducrot led large bodies of troops 
against the German positions to the S.E. of Paris. For three days the 


conflict was severely contested, but on 3rd Dec. the French generals were 
compelled to withdraw their soldiers, enfeebled by cold and hunger, into 
the city, leaving their object unaccomplished. A sortie towards Le Bourget 
on 21st Dec. met with the same fate as the others. 

In the meantime the besiegers had decided on a general bombard- 
ment of the city. On 29th Dec. Mont Avron succumbed before the Ger- 
man artillery, and from 5th Jan., 1871, onwards an active cannonade was 
directed against the city from almost every point of its environment. The 
distress of the besieged now reached its climax. The hopelessness of the 
situation was recognised by all military authorities , but a final sortie 
was undertaken in deference to public opinion. The National Guards, 
who had hitherto been spared active service , took part in this sally, 
which was directed against Versailles , under cover of the guns of Mont 
Valirien. The French were once more driven back, with immense loss, 
on l9th January. 

Resistance was now at an end. On 23rd Jan. Jules Favre went to Ver- 
sailles to negotiate an armistice , which was arranged on 28th Jan. On 
the following day the Germans were put in possession of the forts. The 
preliminaries of peace were concluded on 24th Feb. and signed on 28th 
Feb. Part of the German army made a triumphal entry into Paris on 
1st March, but was withdrawn in two days on the prompt ratification of 
the treaty of peace by the National Assembly at Bordeaux. 

Tlie Communard Insuerection entailed a second siege of Paris 
(April 2nd-May 21st), more disastrous than the first, followed by a 
tierce and sanguinary week of street-fighting. The T.uileries and 
the Hotel de Ville were burned to the ground, the Vendome Column 
overthrown, and many other public and private edifices more or less 
completely ruined. 

Under the presidency of Thiers (1870-73) and MacMahon 
(1873-79) Paris rapidly recovered from these disasters. Most of the 
ruined buildings rose from their ashes, and new works were under- 
taken on the occasion of the Universal Exhibition of 1878. The 
Opera House was completed, the Avenue de VOp&ra was opened, the 
Palais da Trocadero and the new Hotel de Ville were built. When 
the Chambers of the Legislature returned to Paris in 1879, a new 
period of prosperity definitely dawned for Paris, signalized by the 
brilliant Exhibition of 1889, commemorating the Revolution of 1789, 
and the equally brilliant Exhibition of 1900. 

IV. General Remarks on Paris. 

Paris, the capital and by far the largest town of France, is situ- 
ated in 48° 50' N. lat. and 2°21' E. long, on the -Seme, which flows 
through it from S.E. to S.W., forming a bold curve to the N. The 
population in 1896 was 2,536,834, including about 187,000 for- 
eigners, 50,000 Protestants, and 50,000 Jews. As early as the end 
of the 13th cent, the population was nearly 200,000; in 1675, 
under Louis XIV., it reached 540,000; in 1789 it was 600,000; in 
1852, 1,053,762; in i860, after the inclusion of the faubourgs, 
1,525,235; in 1870, 1,825,274; and in 1891, 2,447,000. This 
huge city, which occupies an area of about 20,000 acres, of which 
12,000 are covered with buildings, lies in a basin of tertiary form- 


ation, the borders of which are about 200-300 ft. above the level 
of the river and 420 ft. above that of the sea. The most elevated 
points in or adjoining the city are the heights of Charonne^ Menil- 
montant, Belleville (330 ft.), La Villette, and Montmartre (420 ft.) 
on the right bank of the Seine, and those of La Maison Blanche, 
the Butte-aux-Cailles, and Ste. Genevieve (198 ft.) on the left. The 
part of the Seine within the city is about 7 M. long and is crossed 
by 31 bridges. It contains two islands of some size, the He St. Louis 
and the lie de la Cite, each formed by the union of several islets. 
Paris is thus naturally divided into three parts ; the quarters on 
the right bank, the Cite with the island of St. Louis, and the quar- 
ters on the left bank. The old distinctions between Old Paris, the 
Faubourgs, and the Communes Annexees have entirely disappeared 
amid the great transformations of the past thirty years, during which 
many of the ancient streets have been destroyed, the main arteries 
of traffic prolonged to the fortifications, and the whole area covered 
with large and handsome edifices. The only sensible diflference 
between the various districts now consists in the greater traffic 
observable in the central quarters. A glance at the Plan will show 
the limits of Old Paris, bounded by the first circle of boulevards, 
the so-called Grands Boulevards (p. 72). It should be noted, 
however, that on the left bank the old city of Paris extended as far 
as the boulevards to the S. of the garden of the Luxembourg. 
Outside the Great Boulevards lie the Old Fauboukgs or suburbs, 
the names of which are still preserved in those of the chief streets 
radiating from the centre of the city, and extending to the Outer 
Boulevards (^Boulevards Exterieurs, p. 73). The Faubourgs them- 
selves are generally named after the corresponding district of the 
old town. The most important on the right bank, named from E. 
to W., are the Faubourgs St. Antoine, du Temple, St. Martin, St. 
Denis, Poissonniere, Montmartre, and St. Honore. Those on the 
left bank are less known, with the exception of the Faubourg St. 
Germain, which from an early period formed part of the old city. 
The Faubourgs of St. Antoine and the Temple are the great indus- 
trial districts, the former being the headquarters of the manufac- 
ture of furniture, and the latter of the various fancy articles classed 
together as 'articles de Paris' (real and imitation jewellery, artificial 
flowers, toys, articles in leather and carved wood, etc.). The Fau- 
bourgs of St. Martin, St. Denis, and Poissonniere are rather commer- 
cial than industrial , and form the centre of the wholesale and 
export trade of the great capital. The streets near the centre of 
the town, however, particularly the Great Boulevards, contain many 
of the finest retail shops in Paris. The Faubourg Montmartre 
and the quarters of the Exchange, the Palais-Royal, and the Opera 
are the financial quarters of the town, and also contain nearly all 
that is necessary for the comfort and entertainment of visitors 
to Paris. The Faubourg St. Honor^ and the Champs-Elyse'es are 


occupied by the mansions of the aristocracy of wealth, while the 
Faubourg St. Germain is more or less sacred to the aristocracy 
of blood, and contains most of the embassies and ministerial of- 
fices. The Quartier Latin or Quartier des Ecoles, which adjoins the 
Faubourg St. Germain on the E., owes its name to the fact of its 
being the seat of the university and of many of the scientific insti- 
tutions of Paris. It also contains several of the chief libraries. 

The principal Communes Anxexebs, or outlying districts within 
the fortifications, but not incorporated with the city till 1860, are 
the following, enumerated from E. to W. : Bercy, carrying on an ex- 
tensive wine and export trade; Charonne, Menilmontant^ Belleville, 
La Villette, La ChapelUj and Montmartre, the principal quarters of 
the working classes and the seat of the largest workshops ; Les Ba- 
tignolles, with the studios of numerous artists and many handsome 
private houses (on the side next the Park of Monceau); Passy and 
Auteuil, with their villas ; Grenelle, with iron foundries and chemical 
works ; Vaugirard, Montrouge, etc. , inhabited by persons of moderate 
means, small shopkeepers, and artisans, and containing numerous 
large market-gardens. 

The Administration of Paris is shared between a Prefect of the 
Seine, appointed by government, and a Town Council (Conseil Mu- 
nicipale), elected by the citizens. The annual budget amounts to 
300,000.000 fr. (upwards of 10,000, OOOi.]. The city is subdivided 
into twenty Arrondissbments, separated from each other by thb 
principal arteries of traffic, and each governed by a Maire and two 
councillors: 1. Louvre; 2. Bourse; 3. Tempie ; 4. Hotel de Ville ; 
5. Pantheon; 6. Luxembourg; 7. Palais- Bourbon; 8. Elysee ; 9. 
Opera ; 10. Enclos St. Laurent (between the Rue dn Faubourg-Pois- 
sonniere and the Rue du Faubourg-du-Temple) ; 11. Popincourt 
(extending from the Faubourg du Temple to the Faubourg St. An- 
toine), 12. Reuilly (between the Faubourg St. Antoine and the 
Seine); 13. Les Gobelins ; 14. Observatoire ; 15. Vaugirard-Gre- 
nelle ; 16. Passy; 17. Les Batignolles-Monceaux ; 18. Montmartre ; 
19. Les Buttes-Chaumont ; 20. Menilmontant. 

The Fortifications of Paris were constructed in consequence 
of a decree of 1840, and were completed within five years at an 
expense of 140 million francs (5,600,000 i.). T]ie Enceinte, with its 
94 bastions, is 21 M. in length. The ramparts, 32 ft. in height, 
with a parapet 19 ft. in width, are environed by a moat 48 ft. in 
width, and a glacis. The approaches to the city are also commanded 
by seventeen Forts Detaches, at different distances from the city, 
up to a maximum of 2 M, On the N. side, near St. Denis, are the 
Forts de la Briche, Double Couronne du Nord, and de VEst; on the 
E., Fort d'Aubervilliers, near Le Bourget, Forts de Romainville, de 
Noisy, de Rosny , de Nogent , and de Vincennes, and the redoubts 
de la Faisanderie and de Gravelle; on the left bank of the Marne 
lies Fort de Charenton ; to the S. , on the left bank of the Seine, 


Forts d'lvry, de Bicetre, de Montrouge, de Vanves , and d'hsy; on 
the W., the Forteresse du Mont Val rien. Most of these were entire- 
ly destroyed in 1870-71 , hut have since heen rehuilt. A second 
line of forts, at a greater distance from the ramparts, has also heen 
constructed on the heights commanding the valley of the Seine. 
On the right hank of the Seine: the Forts de Cormeilles, de Mont- 
lignon, de Domont, Montmorency, d'Ecouen, de Stains^ deVaujours, 
de Chelles, de VilUers, and de Villeneuve -St- Georges ; on the left 
hank: the Forts de Chdtillon, de la Butte- Chaumont, de Palaiseau, 
de Villeras, deHaut-Buc, de Saint- Cyr, de Marly, deSainte-Jamme, 
and d'Aigremont. The area included within this elaborate system 
of fortifications is 400 sq. M. in extent, and besides the capital it- 
self embraces the seven towns of Versailles, Sceaux, Villeneuve- 
St-Georges, St. Denis, Argenteuil, Enghien, and St. Germain- 

The general appearance of Paris is more uniform than that of 
most other towns of its size, partly owing to the mixture of classes 
resulting from the Great Revolution, but principally on account of 
the vast schemes of improvement carried out in our own days. 

The stranger is almost invariably struck by the imposing effect 
produced by the city as a whole, and by the width, straightness, and 
admirable condition of the principal streets. Picturesqueness has 
doubtless been greatly sacrificed in the wholesale removal of the 
older buildings, but the superior convenience and utility of those 
spacious thoroughfares is easily appreciated ; and the amount of 
traffic in them proves that their construction was a matter of almost 
absolute necessity. Most of them, built at the same period and of- 
ten as a mere building speculation, exhibit an almost wearisome 
uniformity of style, but in those at a distance from the central 
quarters considerable variety of taste is often shown. 

The central quarters of the city are remarkably bustling and 
animated, but owing to the ample breadth of the new streets and 
boulevards and the fact that many of them are paved with asphalt 
or wood, Paris is a far less noisy place than many other large cities. 
Its comparative tranquillity, however, is often rudely interrupted 
by the discordant cries of the itinerant hawkers of wares of every 
kind , such as 'old clothes' men , the vendors of various kinds ot 
comestibles, the crockery-menders , the 'fontaniers' (who clean and 
repair filters, etc.), the dog-barbers, and newspaper-sellers. As a 
rule, however, they are clean and tidy in their dress, polite in man- 
ner, self-respecting, and devoid of the squalor and ruffianism which 
too often characterise their class. In many cases they claim to have 
plied their vociferous trades ever since the middle -ages. Their 
pronunciation will, of course, often puzzle the uninitiated. On the 
long vowels and the letter r they usually lay prodigious stress, while 
the short vowels are either pronounced in a very light and airy 


fashion or altogether omitted. Another characteristic, though moderi: , 
feature in the street-noises of Paris consists of the hoarse blasts of 
the horns of the tramway-cars. 

As a rule the Parisian may be said to Invite and deserve the 
confidence of travellers. Accustomed by long usage to their pre- 
sence, he is skilful in catering for their wants, and recommends 
himself to them by his politeness and complaisance. In return the 
traveller in France should accustom himself to the inevitable *s'j7 
vous plait\ when ordering refreshments at a caf^ or restaurant, or 
making any request. It is also customary to address persons even of 
humble station as ^Monsieur\ ^Madame\ or ^Mademoiselle*. 

The Sergents de Ville, or Gardiens de la Paix, who are to be 
met with in every street and public report, are always ready to 
give information when civilly questioned. Visitors should avoid the 
less frequented districts after night-fall, and, as a general rule, it is 
not advisable to linger even in other quarters later than 1 a.m. They 
should also be on their guard against the huge army of pickpockets 
and other rogues, who are quick to recognize the stranger and skilful 
in taking advantage of his ignorance. It is perhaps unnecessary 
specially to mention the card-sharpers sometimes met with in the 
suburban and other trains, or the various other dangers to purse and 
health which the French metropolis shares with other large towns. 

The Parisian directory, published annually, and familiarly known 
as the ''Bottin\ which may be consulted at the principal hotels and 
cafes and also (for a fee of 10-15 c.) at various book-shops, will often 
be found useful by those who make a prolonged stay at Paris. It con- 
sists of two huge volumes, one of which contains a list of the streets 
and their inhabitants , while the other gives the addresses of the 
most important persons in the provinces, and even of a number of 
persons in foreign countries. 

All strangers intending to settle in Paris must make a Declaration of 
their intention, with proof of their identity, within fifteen days, at the 
Prefecture de Police, m Quai des Orfevres (Palais de Jusiice), between 
10 and 4. Foreigners who intend to practise any trade, business, or pro- 
fession in Paris or other part of France must also make a declaration to 
that effect within a week. 

Paris is not only the political metropolis of France , but also 
the centre of the artistic, scientific, commercial, and industrial life 
of the nation. Almost every branch of French industry is repre- 
sented here, from the fine-art handicrafts to the construction of 
powerful machinery ; but Paris is specially known for its 'articles 
de luxe' of all kinds. 

Paris has long enjoyed the reputation of being the most cosmo- 
politan city in Europe, where the artist, the scholar, the merchant, 
and the votary of pleasure alike find the most abundant scope for 
their pursuits. Nor does this boast apply to modern times only ; for 
there have been periods when it was more generally admitted to be 


justifiable than at the present day. For its early cosmopolitan char- 
acter the city was chiefly indebted to its University, to which stu- 
dents of all nationalities flocked in order to be initiated into the 
mysteries of the scholasticism which was taught here by its most ac- 
complished professors. At the same time industrial and commercial 
pursuits made rapid strides, in consequence of which the population 
increased rapidly, and an extension of the municipal boundaries was 
repeatedly rendered necessary. The adverse fortunes of the French 
kings frequently compelled them to give up their residence in the 
capital; but the municipal element continued steadily to develop 
itself, and at the present day forms the chief characteristic of the city. 
During the Revolution and the period immediately succeeding it, 
the unquestioned predominance of Paris, which had steadily grown 
since the reign of Louis XIV., received a temporary check from the 
political disorganisation of the day ; but under the Directory, and 
particularly during the First Empire, the city speedily regained its 
pre-eminence. With a similar buoyancy Paris not only survived the 
revolutions of 1830 and 1848 but has recovered from the shock of 
the appalling disasters of 1870-71 , which seemed to threaten its 
very existence. 

V. Weights and Measures. 


n use 







! s 












































































6 44 










16 40 














































2 74 




































































































27 35 










59 06 


































The English equivalents of the French weights and measures 
are given approximately. 

Millier = 1000 kilogrammes = 19 cwt. 2 qrs. 22 lbs. 6 oz. 
Kilogramme , unit of weight , = 21/5 lbs. avoirdupois = 

2Violts. troy. 
Quintal =10 myriagrammes = 100 kilogrammes = 220 lbs. 
Hectogramme (Vio kilogramme) = 10 decagrammes = 100 gr. 
s= 1000 decigrammes. (100 grammes = 31/5 oz.; 15 gr. 
= V2 oz- ; 10 gr- = V3 oz- ; 71/2 gr. = V4 oz.) 

Hectolitre = 1/10 cubic metre = 100 litres = 22 gallons. 
_ cubic metre = 10 litres = 2^/5 gals, 
unit of capacity, = 1^/4 pint; 8 litres = 7 quarts. 

Decalitre = 1/100 


Thermometric Scales. 




















































































































































IS. 67 











33 33 


















































































































7 22 



3 33 













VI. Bibliography. 

The following is a very brief list of recent and easily accessible 
English books on Paris, which will be found useful supplements 
to this Handbook. 
The S'ones of Paris ia History and Letters, by B. E. and G. if. Martin 

(2 vols., illustrated; London, 19 0). 
Historical Guide to Paris, by Grant Allen (London, 1898). 
Paris, by Augustus J. C. Bare (^ vols, i 2nd ed., London, 1900). 


Days near Paris, by Aug. J. C. Hare (London, 1887). 
Memorable Paris Houses, by Wilmot Harrison (illus.; London, 1893). 
An Englishman in Paris (London, 1892). 
Some Memories of Paris, by F. Adolpfws (Edinburgh, 1895). 
Old and New Paris, by H. Sutherland Edwards (2 vols. ; illus. ; London, 1893). 
Paris in Old and Present Times, by Fhilip Gilbert Hamerton (folio, illus. ; 
London, 1885). 

The 'Annuaire Statistique de la Ville de Paris' and 'Hachette's Al- 
manac' will often be found of service. 

VII. Remarks on Northern France. 

The majority of visitors to Paris will find comparatively little to 
Interest them in the provinces of Northern France. The scenery is 
seldom so attractive as to induce a prolonged stay, while the 
towns are mere repetitions of the metropolis on a small scale. 
The modern taste for improvement, which has been so strongly 
developed and so magnificently gratified in Paris, has also mani- 
fested itself in the provincial towns. Broad and straight streets 
with attractive shop -windows are rapidly superseding old and 
crooked lanes; whole quarters of towns are being demolished, and 
large, regular squares taking their place ; while the ramparts of 
ancient fortifications have been converted into boulevards, faintly 
resembling those at Paris. Admirably adapted as these utilitarian 
changes doubtless are to the requirements of the age, it cannot 
but be deeply regretted that the few characteristic remnants of 
antiquity which survived the storms of the wars of the Huguenots 
and the great Revolution , and have hitherto resisted the mighty 
centralising influence of the metropolis, are now rapidly vanishing. 
Those who were acquainted with such towns as Rouen and Angers 
about the year 1850 or earlier will now become painfully aware 
of this fact. 

The towns of France, as a rule, present less variety than those 
of most other countries. They almost invariably rejoice in their 
boulevards, glass-arcades, 'jardins des plantes', theatres, and cafe's, 
all of which are feeble reproductions of their great Parisian models. 
Each also possesses its museum of natural history, its collection 
of casts and antiquities, and its picture-gallery, the latter usually 
consisting of a few modern pictures and a number of mediocre 
works of the 17th and 18th centuries. 

The magnificent churches, however, which many of these towns 
possess, ofi"er attractions not to be disregarded by even the most 
hasty traveller. The Gothic style, which originated in France, has 
attained a high degree of perfection in the northern provinces, espe- 
cially in Normandy, which was a district of great importance in the 
middle ages. Architects will find abundant material here for the 
most interesting studies, and even the amateur cannot fall to be 
impressed by the gems of Gothic architecture, such as St. Ouen at 

Baedeker. Paris, i4th Edit. c 


Rouen, or tlie cathedral of Chartres, notwithstanding the alterations 
which most of them have undergone. The Huguenots made de- 
plorable havoc in the interiors of the churches, and the Revolution 
followed their example and converted the sacred edifices into 'Tem- 
ples of Reason'. The task of restoring and preserving these noble 
monuments has been begun and is now everywhere progressing. 

Hotels of the highest class and fitted up with ^very modern 
comfort are found in such towns only as Havre, Rouen, Dieppe, and 
Tours, where the influx of visitors is very great, and where the 
charges are quite on a Parisian scale. In other places the inns 
generally retain their primitive provincial characteristics, which, 
were it not for their frequent want of cleanliness, might prove 
rather an attraction than otherwise. The usual charges at houses 
of the latter description are — R. 2 fr., L. 25-50 c, A. 50 c. 
The table d'hote dinner (3-4 fr.) at 5. 30 or 6 o'clock is generally 
better than a repast procured at other places or hours. The dejeuner 
(11/2-2 fr.) at 10 or 11 o'clock will be regarded as superfluous by 
most English travellers , especially as it occupies a considerable 
time during the best part of the day. A slight luncheon at a cafe, 
which may be partaken of at any hour , will be found far more 
convenient and expeditious. In southern districts, as on the 
Loire , wine is usually included in the charge for dinner. In 
Normandy a kind of cider is frequently drunk in addition to, or 
as a substitute for wine. The usual fee for attendance at hotels 
is 1 fr. per day , if no charge is made in the bill ; if service is 
charged, 50 c. a day in addition is generally expected. At the cafe's 
also the waiters expect a trifling gratuity, but the obnoxious system 
is not carried to such an extent as in the metropolis. 

The Churches, especially the more important, are open the 
whole day ; but , as divine service is usually performed in the 
morning and evening, the traveller will find the middle of the day 
or the afternoon the most favourable time for visiting them. The 
attendance of the sacristan, or 'Suisse', is seldom necessary; 
the usual gratuity is 50 c. 

Considerable English communities are resident in many of the 
towns mentioned in the Handbook, and opportunities of attending 
English churches are frequent {e.g. at Calais, Boulogne, Dieppe, 
Havre, and Rouen). 

The Museums are generally open to the public on Sundays 
and Thursdays from 12 to 4 o'clock, when they are often crowded. 
Visitors may always obtain access at other times for a gratuity 
(1 fr.). Catalogues may be borrowed from the concierge. 

A fuller account of N, France is given in Baedeker's Handbook 
to Northern France. 

Sketch of French Art 

De. Walther Gensel. 

Tlie earliest achievements of art in France, as'illnstrated in the 
historical museum at Saint- Germain -en- Laye , possess but little 
interest for the majority of visitors to Paris; even the monuments 
of the Gallo-Roman period and of the Merovingian and Carlovingian 
epochs are of real importance only to the professed archjeologist. 
The ordinary art-lover finds little to attract him in French art before 
the close of the 9th century. About the year 1000, however, its 
Romanesque churches and sculptures placed France in the front 
rank of artistic nations; a century and a half later Gothic ait arose 
in Northern France, where it speedily attained its earliest and 
finest perfection ; during the Renaissance period French aitists 
produced works, notably in the domains of profane architecture 
and sculpture, which need not shrink from comparison with Italian 
works of the same date; in the 17th and 18th centuries Paris 
was the home of an imposingly gorgeous decorative art, whifh com- 
pelled the admiration and emulation of the rest of Europe; and 
since the Revolution the dominant currents of modern art have 
flowed trom the same centre. The course of the vast development 
thus indicated abounds in vicissitudes, and it is the object of the 
following sket'-h to throw some light upon the various stages. For 
the study of French architecture Paris by itself is insufficient; but 
for painting and sculpture an exceptionally rich field of study is 
afforded by the Louvre, the Luxembourg, the Trocadero, and the 
Muse'es de Cluny, Carnavalet, and Gallie'ra, supplemented by Ver- 
sailles, St. Denis, and Chantilly in the immediate environs, and 
Fontainebleau and Compipgne a little farther off. 

Among the many causes that contributed to the development of 
Romanesque Architecture may be noted the enormous growth in 
the power of the church; the need of providing fitting shrines for 
the relics brought home iDy the numerous p'lgrims; the necessity 
of rebuilding the churches burned by the Northmen, and the effort 
to make the new churches larger and more lasting than their pre- 
decessors ; and, perhaps, also the relief experienced all over Christen- 
dom on the lapse of the year 1000, which had been uni\ersaliy 
expected to bring the end of the world. Romanesque architecture 
adhered in general to the fundamental forms of the Roman basilica, 
though at the same time it developed these and incorporated with 
them Byzantine, French, and Saracenic elements. In the North at 

xxxvi FRENCH ART. 

least the arrangement of a nave betwixt lower aisles, with the former 
supported by pillars instead of columns , is practically universal. 
The transepts project but slightly beyond the aisles , and, in the 
French examples, almost invariably terminate in a straight line. 
The simple apse is developed into a choir, frequently with radiating 
chapels. Many churches possess a vestibule, in some cases forming 
practically an anterior nave. The edifice is crowned by a square, 
an octagonal, or (more rarely) a circular tower, rising above the cross- 
ing, or on one side of the choir, or in the centre of the fagade. 
Occasionally two, three, or even six towers are found. But the main 
distinguishing feature of the fully developed Romanesque style is 
the vault. The tunnel- vaulting of antiquity is universal in South 
Eastern France and was there most persistently adhered to ; but in 
Burgundy and Northern France, where at first the choir and aisles 
only were vaulted, the nave receiving a flat roof, a transition was 
made at an early period to the groined vault, the full importance of 
which, however, was not at first recognized. Finally, in South 
Western France we find domed structures, recalling San Marco at 
Venice, the most prominent of which is the church of St. Front at 
Perigueux. The most celebrated Romanesque churches in France are 
St. Sernin at Toulouse and Ste. Foy at Conques in the S., Notre-Dame- 
du-Port at Clermont-Ferrand and St. Paul at Issoire in Auvergne, 
St. Philibert at Tournus and Ste. Madeleine at Vizelay in Burgundy, 
St. Etienne and the Trinite at Caen in the North West, Notre- 
Dame at Poitiers in the West, and Ste. Croix at Bordeaux in the 
South West. 

The substitution of heavy stone vaulting for the earlier wooden 
roofs involved a substantial increase in the thickness of the walls 
and a very great reduction in the size of the windows and other 
light-openings. The result was somewhat heavy and sombre, and 
an endeavour to relieve this effect was made by the free use of 
painting and sculpture. In the interior, sculptures were chiefly 
placed on the capitals of the pillars; on the exterior, at first in the 
pediment, or tympanum, over the portal, but later on the entire 
facade. Byzantine influence manifests itself in Southern France not 
only in the exaggerated length of the figures and in the peculiar 
arrangement of the folds of the drapery , but also in the preference 
shown for chimseras, dragons, quadrupeds with human heads, and 
similar monsters. The sculptors of Burgundy and Auvergne, however, 
early developed a certain measure of independence and began to 
utilize the native flora and fauna as patterns for carvings. The exe- 
cution is still generally clumsy, but the dignity of the general result, 
the feeling for decorative effect, the rich play of fancy, the profound 
sincerity and delightful abandon of the sculptors, all lead us to 
prize these 'Bibles in stone^ as the significant heralds of a great art. 
Every lover of art will be richly repaid by a close study of the por- 
tals and capitals of St. Gllks, St. Trophime at Aries, the monastery 

FRENCH ART. xxxvii 

of Moissac , and the clmrclies o{ Autun, Charlieu, and Vezelay ^ for 
which an opportunity is afforded by the casts in the Trocad^ro Museum. 

The original paintings in the Romanesque churches have utterly 
disappeared, with the exception of a few fragments at Tours ^ Poi- 
tiers, Liget. and some other spots; hut numerous miniatures of the 
period have been preserved. Industrial art was at a comparatively 
low ebb during the Romanesque period; but a promising beginning 
may be detected in the work of the goldsmiths and in the allied art 
of enamelling, as M-ell as in the embroidering of tapestry 

We have seen how the employment of the Romanesque vaulting 
led to the darkening of church-interiors. However welcome this 
may have been in the vivid sunlight of the south, it suited ill with 
the misty climate of the north. An escape from this disadvantage 
was found when the architects realized that they might build their 
naves as wide and as high as they chose and pierce their walls with 
as many windows as they desired, if only the piers that supported 
the vaulting were sufficiently strengthened from without, above the 
aisles. The invention of ordinary and flying buttresses led to the 
rise of a new architecture, that was to prevail in the north for over 
three centuries ; and that invention was made in the Isle de France, in 
the centre of Northern France. The French, therefore, have some show 
of reason on their side when they attempt to displace the originally 
contemptuous name of Gothic Abt in favour of the title 'French 
Art'. Light could now be admitted so freely that the churches 
seemed almost 'built of light', to borrow a phrase once applied to 
the Sainte Ghapelle at Paris. The huge windows were now univer- 
sally and naturally set in the pointed arches originally borrowed 
from the East; and their gradual adornment with richer and richer 
tracery ; the embellishment of the buttresses with bosses and crockets, 
and of the pediments with finials; the prolongation of the nave into 
the choir and of the aisles into the ambulatory; and the enhanced 
size and importance accorded to the crossing and the transepts are 
all characteristic features of the Gothic style that were practically 

The extraordinarily rapid and rich development of the new art 
was most powerfully fostered by the contemporaneous growth in 
the power of the towns , which is evidenced by the fairs of Trorjes, 
Beaucaire, and St. Denis, and by the rise and progress of the trade- 
guilds. Just as the French Romanesque churches arose chiefly in 
connection with the monasteries (especially Oistercian and Cluniac 
monasteries) and bore a priestly stamp, so the Gothic cathedrals 
typify the strength and prosperity of the towns and , in spite of all 
their heavenward aspiration, breathe the joy of mundane life. No 
town was willing to lag behind the rest, so the wondrous buildings 
arose in every quarter. 

Whether Gothic art attained its highest development in France 
is a somewhat unfruitful question, for every answer mnst be more 

xxxviii FRENCH ART. 

or less dictated by personal taste. There is, however, no doubt that 
in France it reached its earliest period of bloom. And the earliest 
examples, in which there are evident traces of a mighty struggle, 
naturally attract the student first and retain his interest longest. 
The transition from Romanesque to Gothic may be traced in the 
abbey church of St. Denis, consecrated by Abbot Suger in the 
year 1140. The earliest purely Gothic cathedral of large size is that 
ol Laon, with its incomparably spacious interior. Notre Dame at 
Paris and the cathedral of Chartres were both founded in the 12th 
century, while Kheims and Amiens belong wholly to the 13th. In all 
these, as contrasted with later buildings, the horizontal line is strongly 
emphasized. The facade of Notre Dame rises in five distinct stories. 
One cannot too much admire the taste and skill with which the 
architect has graduated these, from the elaborate portals lying closest 
to the eye, up to the severely simple towers. Unfortunately much of 
the original effect has been lost, owing to the ill-advised modern 
isolation of the church, which deprives it of its foil, and also owing 
to the erection of huge modern piles in the neighbourhood. All the 
same, Notre Dame and the cathedrals of Chartres, Rheims, and 
Amiens attain the high-water mark of early Gothic. The older 
bell-tower and the spacious interior of Chartres produce a sin- 
gularly impressive effect, while Rheiins is imposing from the bound- 
less wealth of its sculptures; but Amiens is, perhaps, the most 
harmonious of the large cathedrals and one of the most perfect 
buildings of the middle ages , in the consistency and the uni- 
formity of its construction and in its union of boldness with self- 
restraint, of dignity with grace. Amongst the other chief mon- 
uments of this fabulously active period we may mention the 
cathedrals of Beauvais, Rouen, Le Mans, Tours, Bourges, Troyes, 
Auxerre, and Dijon. The most famous examples of late-Gothic 
('style rayonnant' ; 14th cent.) are the church of St. Ouen at 
Rouen in the North, and the cathedral of Albi in the South. Free- 
dom has been fully achieved; the general effect suggests a consum- 
mate mastery over the difficulties of the forms. The horizontal 
line seems to have disappeared from view; the building towers 
towards heaven as if detached from earth. But this development 
concealed within itself the germ of decline. The cleverest arith- 
metician became at last the greatest builder , works of art degene- 
rated into artful devices, over-elaboration usurped the place of 
simple delight in richness, and the loving handling of detail sank 
into pettiness and pedantry. 

Secular architecture developed more slowly and therefore enjoyed 
a longer period of bloom than ecclesiastical. The most imposing 
Gothic castles belong to the 14th century : vis. the palace of the Popes 
at Avignon and the castle of Pierrefonds , so successfully restored 
by VioUet-le-Duc. No other civic palace can bear comparison with 
the noble Palais de Justice at Rouen , founded as late as the close 

FRENCH ART. xxxix 

of the 15th century. The most heantiful private mansions are the 
Hotel Jacques Coeur at Bourges (details at the Trocadero^ and 
the Parisian residence of the Abbots of Cluny (now the Mus^e de 
Cluny) at Paris. 

As the 13th century marks the zenith of Gothic architecture in 
France, so it also marks the first great period of French Sculpture. 
'I am convinced', says the Marquis de Laborde, 'that the Gothic 
sculptors would have advanced to the ideal beauty, and even to the 
boldest study of the nude, had that been the object sought by their 
contemporaries; but the desire then was for typical forms of search- 
ing truth, suffering and mystic in aspect, clad with the conventual 
shyness that was the fashion of the time.' These works are not at 
first easily understood by those who approach them direct from a 
study of the antique or of the Renaissance. We must lose ourselves 
in contemplating them, before they will begin to speak to us. These 
Christs, Madonnas, and Apostles are monumental figures in the 
truest sense of the phrase , with their supramundane expression of 
countenance, their simple yet significant gestures, and the scanty 
folds of their robes, which adapt themselves so wonderfully to the 
architecture. The Death of the Virgin in Notre Dame at Paris, the 
figures on the facade of Chartres, and the 'Beau Dieu' of Amiens 
are among the most pregnant sculptures of all time (casts at the 
Trocadero). But so strict a feeling of style cannot maintain itself 
long. Either it will degenerate into a system of empty foimulse, or 
it will be broken down by the victorious pressure of realism. The 
latter was the case here. The Naturalistic Reaction which set in 
in the 14th century exercised a destructive effect upon ecclesiastical 
sculpture, but on the other hand wrought for good on the sepulchral 
monuments, as may be traced in the crypt of St. Denis. It may, 
however, be questioned whether, left to themselves, the French 
sculptors could have attained the high level on which we find this 
new tendency at the close of the 14th century. Salvation came from 
the north, the same north in which a little later the painters Van 
Eyck produced their masterpieces. A number of Flemish artists were 
then working at the court of the French kings — Pepin of Huy near 
Liege, Beauneven of Ysilenciennes, Paul of Limbtirg, Jacquemnrt of 
Hesdin. The most renowned, however, was the Burgundian school, 
with Clnux Sillier at its head. The Moses fountain, the statues on 
the facade of the Chartreuse near Dijon, and the tomb of Philip the 
Bold, which Sluter executed in 1387 et seq. with the aid of bis 
pupils Jean de Marvil'e and Claux de Werwe, may be boldly placed 
beside the works of Donatello, who flourished more than a genera- 
tion later. The famous stati ettes of 'Pleureurs' from the tomb of 
Philip, well-known from numerous reproductions, may be compared 
with the larger mourners from the contemporary tomb of Philippe 
Pot in the Louvre. The latter tomb and the wonderful altar at Aix are 
now usually attributed to Jacques Morel, who is supposed to have 


been tlie sculptor of the unfortunately mutilated sepulchral statues 
of Charles I. of Bourbon and his consort at Souvigny. Casts of most 
of these works may be seen at the Trocadero. 

Decorative Sculpture naturally found its most favourable 
field for development in the cathedrals , especially In the choir- 
apses. In late-Gothic (Flamboyant Style; 15th cent.) the work of 
the stone-carver overshadowed and almost smothered that of the 
architect. The rood-screens at Troyes and Limoges and ^the library 
staircase in Rouen may be mentioned among famous works in the 
interior of cathedrals. Side by side with sculpture in stone advances 
wood-carving , which manifests its finest results in the fagades of 
private houses, on screens and chests, but above all on choir-stalls 
(Amiens). Finally some good carving in ivory was also achieved, 
e.g. the Coronation of the Virgin in the Louvre. 

The extraordinary poverty that prevailed in the department of 
Painting at this time stands in curious contrast to the well-being 
enjoyed by sculpture and architecture, though this remark must be 
limited to fresco-painting and easel-painting. While the Van Eycks, 
^'an der AVeyden, and Memling were busily engaged in Flanders, 
and while in Italy the quattrocento beheld these branches of painting 
advancing from stage to stage, we can discover in France only a 
few names and almost fewer works. On the other hand the long- 
established art of miniature-painting now reached its highest point. 
The MSS. illuminated about 1400 for the Duke of Berri, the cruel 
but no less splendour-loving third son of John II., are veritable 
gems. The finest of these, now one of the most precious treasures 
at Chantilly, is beyond question the Livre d'Heures, with its land- 
S(;apes, views of castles, and genre-scenes. But even in this case 
the artists were 'Franco-Flemings' — the above-mentioned Beau- 
neveu^ Jacquemart, a^ad Paul. Glass Painting also enjoyed a brilliant 
development in the Gothic period. The illumination pouring from all 
sides into the churches through the tall upright lights and the great 
rose-windows that had been developed from the ancient 'oculi', re- 
quired to be subdued, while the windows themselves had to be 
embellished. The finest stained glass of the 12th century in France is 
in the windows of the W. facade of Chartres, and the finest of the 
13th century is in the rose-windows of Notre Dame (north portal), 
Rheims^ Bourges, and Tours, and in the windows of the cathedrals 
of Le Mans and Chartres and of the exquisite Sainte Chapelle at Paris. 
The connection between glass-painting and painting proper is, how- 
ever, not very close ; the glass-painters are more concernedwith the 
colour-effect of the whole than with accuracy in the drawing and 
colouring of details ; they think nothing of giving a man yellow hair 
and a green beard. The more technically perfect the painting be- 
came at a later period, the more completely was the naive sense of 
colour lost. 

The art of Enamelling is another branch of painting that was 


carried to a high point of perfection in this period, especially 
at Limoges. The 12tb and 13th centuries saw the zenith of 'Email 
Champleve', in which the artist engraves the designs upon the metal 
plate and fills in the lines or grooves with enamel (Ital. smalto; Fr. 
email); while the 14th and 15th centuries saw the perfection of 
'Email Translucide', in which the entire plate is covered with a thin 
coating of enamel, allowing the engraved design to shine through. 
Finally, the weaving of Tapestry attained to great perfection during 
the 15th century in the workshops of Arras^ Aubusson, and Paris. 
The finest example of this period now to be found in Paris is the 
series illustrating the romance of the Lady and the Unicorn, in the 
Musee de Cluny. 

In spite, however, of the fact that some artists produced great 
works during the first half of the 15th century, signs of exhaustion 
had already begun to appear. Gothic architecture continued, indeed, 
to be practised after the beginning of the 16th century, as is 
proved by the choir-apses at Amiens and Chartres. the Grosse Horloge 
at Rouen, and the Tour St. Jacques and the church of St. Merri at 
Faris; but on the whole it had by that time outlived its mandate, 
and even Franco-Flemish art had said its last word in the works of 
Sluter. What L. Courajod calls a 'relaxation of realism' awakened 
a strong desire for beauty and nobility of form — a desire that 
could be satisfied only from the South. As early as 1450 the 
greatest artists were under the influence of the Italian Renais- 
sance. Elements from both the North and the South are found 
strangely mingled in Jean Foucquet of Tours (b. 1415), the most 
important French painter of this period, who had spent several years 
in Italy and painted the portrait of Pope Eugenius IV. The Livre 
d'Heures painted by Foucquet for Etienne Chevalier, and now at 
Chantilly, is one of the most exquisite creations in the whole range 
of miniature -painting; while the portraits of the Chancellor des 
Ursins and Charles VII. in the Louvre proclaim the same artist as 
a great portrait-painter. Two of his younger contemporaries — Jean 
Bourdichon, who painted the famous Heures of Anne cf Brittany, 
and Jean PerreaL — had also visited Italy. The centre of French 
art ;it this period was Tours, and here also worked Michel Colombe 
(d. 1512), the most celebrated sculptor of the time. Colcmbe's chief 
work is the tomb of Francis II., Duke of Brittany, in Nantes, and 
some authorities are inclined to ascribe to him also the expressive 
Entombment at Solesmes. Casts of both these works are at the Tro- 
cade'ro, while the Louvre contains an original work of Colombe (St. 
George and the Dragon). 

The relations of the court, but more particularly the Italian cam- 
paigns of the French kings, turned the scale. Charles VIII. brought 
back with him not only paintings but painters, and under Louis XI. 
began that great immigration of Italian artists into France which 
culminated under Francis I. In li07 Andrea So'ario painted the 


chapel of Chateau Gaillon ; in 1516 Leonardo da Vinci came to France, 
in 1518 Andrea del Sarto, in 1530 Rosso, in 1531 Primaiiccio. 

The result, the Fkexch Renaissance, did not wholly come up 
to expectation — least of all in the domain of painting. The plant, 
which in Italy itself had passed its best, opuld put forth only a few 
feeble blossoms when transplanted to a foreign soil. The freely 
restored paintings by Rosso, Primaiiccio, and Niccolo dell' Abbate at 
Fontainebleau (School of Fontainebleau) reveal, it may be, a strong 
sense of decorative effect, but in the details they are steeped in af- 
fectation. The Frenchman Jean Cousin, whose Last Judgment in 
the Louvre has been extolled beyond its merits, was really little 
more than a skilful master of foreshortening. The only really at- 
tractive painters of this century are Jean Clouet (d. ca; 1540) and 
his son Fran<;ois Clouet (d. 1572), surnamed Jancf , and both are 
remarkable for having remained almost entirely free from Italian 
influence, manifesting a certain early-French dryness in their por- 
traits (Bibliotheqne Nationale, Louvre, Chantilly). 

The fate of Aechitectube was more fortunate. The native art, 
instead of simply abdicating in favour of the foreign mode, was strong 
enough to combine with it to form a new and distinctive style. The 
architectural styles under Francis I. and Henri II. have a character 
of their own. If an error was formerly made in ascribing all the 
sumptuous buildings of Francis I. to Italian architects, such as Fra 
Giocondo and Boccadoro, modern criticism seems to have overshot 
the mark in denying these foreigners almost any share in them Some 
buildings indeed, such as Fontainebleau. seem now to have been 
definitively restored to native architects, but in the case of others, 
e.g. the Hotel de Yille at Paris, it is still uncertain whether the 
'maitre ma^on' mentioned in the original documents was not merely 
the builder or the successor of the Italian 'architecte'. Among the 
most illustrious names of the French Renaissance are those of Pierre 
Lescot (Louvre, Musee Carnavalet), Philibert de I'Orme (Chateau 
d'Anet, the portal of which is now in the court of the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts ; Tuileries), PierreChambiges (Fontainebleau and St.Ger- 
main-en-Laye), Jean Bu^^anf (Chateau d'Ecouen ; Chantilly), and 
the Ducerceau family, headed by the famous theorist and draughts- 
man of that name. Building was most actively carried on in Tou- 
raine, where there arose in rapid succession the chateaux of Cham- 
bord, Chenonceaux, and Blois, with its trans cendently beautiful 
staircase. The chateau of Gaillon near Rouen, now utterly demol- 
ished, must have been one of the finest castles of its time. 
Ecclesiastical architecture claims few important works at this 
period, with the exception of St. Eustache at Paris, the church of 
Gisors, and the noble choir of St. Pierre at Caen, the masterpiece 
of Hector Sohier. The Hotel Bourgthe'roulde at jRouen (partly Gothic) 
and the Maison Francois Premier in Paris are conspicuous examples 
of domestic architecture. Under Francis I. traces of the old native 

FRENCH ART. xliii 

architecture arc still abundant; turrets and corner-pavilions, lofty 
chimneys, round and elliptical arches, all occur in conjunction 
■with columns and pilasters. But the style of Henri H. has already 
passed wholly into the region of the classical orders, albeit with a few 
modifications in the earlier French taste. A calm and measured 
regularity has taken the place of the former gay fancy. 

The number of Italian Sculptors engaged in France at the be- 
ginning of the 16th century is almost larger than that of the architects. 
Girolamo delta Bohhia embellished the Chateau de Madrid (now 
destroyed) on t"he confines of the Bois de Boulogne ; Cellini, who 
sojourned in France in 1537 and again in 1540-45, there chiselled 
his great Nymph of Fontainebleau (now in the Louvre) ; and there 
were others only less famous. The three Juste (property Betti) 
were Florentines, who flourished at Dol about 1500 but afterwards 
succeeded to the inheritance of Michel Colombe at Tours. Their 
chief work is the tomb of Louis XU. at St. Denis, with two re- 
presentations of the deceased (nude recumbent figure below; kneel- 
ing figure clad in ermine above), bas-reliefs, and allegorical figures 
at the corners. This arrangement was the model for many later 
tombs. But the three greatest sculptors of the French Renaissance 
are Frenchmen — Pierre Bontemps, Jean Goujon, and Germain 
Pilon. To Bontemps, less well-known than his contemporaries 
but certainly not inferior to them, is due the exquisite urn contain- 
ing the heart of Francis I., and perhaps also the execution of 
most of the tomb of that king at St. Denis, designed by Phil, de 
rOrme. No lover of art will forget Gonjon's bas-reliefs or his 
charming nymphs on the Fontaine des Innocents at Paris, whose 
slender forms with their masterly drapery harmonize so vronderfully 
with the space allotted to them. His caryatides in the Louvre are 
perhaps the most beautiful works in all modern art. The famous 
'Diana' in the Lonvre is especially characteristic of his style as well 
as of the taste of the period. Finally we may mention the 'gisant' 
on the monument of Cardinal de Breze at Rouen, as a wonderfully 
realistic youthful work by Goujon. The magnificent counterpart of 
this monument (which was executed by Jean Cousin) is the adja- 
cent tomb of the two Cardinals d'Amboise , the bewilderingly rich 
architecture of which was designed by Bolland Leroux (1520-25). 
Pilon's name is inseparably connected with the tomb of Henri II. 
at St. Denis, though he was not the only artist employed upon it. 
The poignantly realistic 'gisants', and the powerful kneeling bronze 
statues of the royal pair are equally admirable. The kneeling figure 
of the chancellor Birague and the Dead Christ in the Louvre are 
also full of character, whereas the three Cardinal Virtues supporting 
the urn with the heart of Henri IT. are distinctly inferior to similar 
figures by Goujon. 

Amongst the productions of industrial art at this period our at- 
tention is specially aroused by the Enamels and the Fayexce. The 


art of enamelling entered iipon a new stase with the invention of 
enamel painting and became secularized; i.e. instead of enamelled 
altir-pieces, paxes, and reliquaries we find plates, vases, and cups. 
The nevf Limoges School was founded by Monvaerni and Nardnn Peni- 
caud and reached its zenith under Leonard Limousin, Pierre Rey- 
mond, and Jean Penicaud the Younger. The now growing inclination 
towards portraits in enamel and the reproduction of entire pictures 
cannot but seem a mistake, and even the above-mentioned masters 
were most successful when they restricted themselves to purely de- 
cOxative work. While Italian influence soon made itself evident 
amongst the enamels, ceramic art remained purely French, The 
products of Gubbio, Deruta, or Urbino have little in common with 
the elegant ivory- like fayeuce of Saint Porchaire., or with the 
dishes decorated with monsters, fish, and the like by Bernard Palissy 
(d. 1690), unique both as a man and as an artist, or with the pot- 
tery of Rouen, Nevers, or Moustiers. We now also meet with ad- 
mirable works in the domains of cabinet-making, goldsmith's work, 
and tin work (Fr. Briot; d. after 1600), as well as among bronzes 
and medal?, while the arts of glass-painting {Pinaigrier and Jean 
Cousin; in St. Oervnis, ST. E ienne-du-Mont , etc.) and tapestry- 
weaving show no falling off. The Renaissance nobly continued the 
traditions of the Gothic period in investing even the humblest ob- 
jects with an artistic charm, and that in a higher degree than ever 

The Reigns of Henei IY. and Louis XIII. were not very rich in 
great works of art. The ecclesiastical Architecture of the period 
is characterized by the facade of St. Gervai^, in which the colonnades 
of different orders placed one above the other suggest a grammatical 
exercise. Salomon de Brosse, its builder, was also the an^hitect 
of the Palais du Luxembourg, which is imposing in spite of its 
heaviness. De Brosse was older than the two more celebrated ar- 
chitects. Jacques Lemercier, builder of the Palais Cardinal (now the 
Palais Royal) the church of St. Roch, and the Sorbonne, and Man- 
sart, who designed the older portion of the Bibliotheqe Nationals 
and the dome of the Val-de-Grace. though his reputation is chiefly 
as a builder of palaces (Maisons near St. Germain, etc.). Mansart 
was the inventor of 'mansard' roofs. The oldest parts of Paris now 
existing owe their characteristic appearance to this period, from 
which also date a considerable number of the older private man- 
sions, with fagades uniformly rising from enclosed courts entered 
by lofty gateways. A characteristic survival of the period is the 
Place des Vosges, which presents an exceedingly monotonous effect 
In spite of the alternation of brick and stone. 

The most influential Sculptors were now Jean Bologne or Gio- 
vanni Bologna (b. at Douai; d, 160S) and his pupils (Franche- 
ville, De Vries. Duquesnoy, Van Opsfat), all of whom were com- 
pletely Italianized. A more individual and a more French style 


was shown by Barthelemy Pri€ur(d. 16H ; Montmorency monument 
in the Louvre) and by Pierre Biard (d. 1609), to whom we find a 
difrtculty in attributing two such different works as the elegant 
rood-loft in St. Etienne-du-Mont and the energetically realistic 
Goddess of Fame in the Louvre. In the succeeding generation these 
were followed by Simon Guillain (d. 1658; bronze statues from the 
Pont au Change, in the Louvre), JacquesSarrazin (d. 1660 ; caryatides 
in the Louvre), Gilles Guerin (d.l678), and finally, and aboveall, the 
brothers FranQoi^ and Michei Anguier (d. 1669 and 1686). The chief 
works of Francois, which vary in excellence, are his numerous tombs 
{e.g. those of De Thou and Longueville in the Louvre); Michel's 
best work is now to be seen in the external and internal embellish- 
ment of the Val-de-Gra(^.e (the Nativity is now in St. Roch) and in 
the sculptures on the Porte St. Denis. Almost all the sculptors of 
thj 'Sii'M-le Louis XIV.' studied the works of these sculptors, who 
themselves saw the beginning of that age. 

Practically only one of the Court Painters of this time has re- 
tained his fame through the succeeding centuries, viz. SimonVouet 
(d. 1649), who formed himself in Italy on Paolo Veronese and 
Guido Reni. The scanty remains of Vouet's decorative painting re- 
veal a love of bold colour and considerable skill in dealing with large 
surfaces, but his religious easel-pictures are for us devoid of all at- 
traction. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) and Claude Lorrain (1600- 
1682), the two greatest painters, worked in Rome, far from France 
and the French court. It is not easy to mete out justice to the works 
of Poussin, at one time extravagantly over-praised and now fre- 
quently under-estimated. The elegant expression of a high-bred 
sentiment was his chief aim, and in contrast to the superficiality 
of most of his contemporaries, this effort is doubly gratefal. P.ut 
his religious pictures seem cold to us, owing to his frequent borrow- 
ings from the antique and the Renaissance, and the over-elabor- 
ation of his composition , in which we might almost inscribe 
geometrical figures. His landscapes, such as the 'Orpheus", the 
'Diogenes', and the 'Seasons', are more inspiring, though their colour- 
ing has unfortunately faded. Claude Lorrain's scene-paintings are 
as indifferent to us to-day as his petty mythological figures. But 
he depicted atmospheric phenomena with a boldness, and blended 
local colours into a general tone with a skill, that had no rivals un- 
til the days of Turner and Corot. The modern cry for 'atmosphere 
and light' is here clearly uttered for the first time. The works of 
Eustachele Sueur (1617-55), the 'French Raphael', appeal to us as 
more essentially religious than Poussin's. A deep and true piety 
breathes from the 'Life of St. Bruno'. The age of the wars of religion 
was also the age of Francois de Sales, the apostle of love, and of Vin- 
cent de Paul, the friend of the sick and the poor. We may compare 
the too sentimental paintings of Le Sueur with the vigorous works 
of Philippe de Champaigne (of Brussels, 160*2-74), who was connected 


with the convent at Port Royal. The latter is, however, more 
attractive as a portrait-painter. 

It is difficult to select the right standpoint to view the Art op 
Lons XIV. After the king's assumption of the reins of government 
(1661), a thoroughly monarchic art begins. Opposition to all inde- 
pendent efforts, and an abrupt hostility to everything foreign and 
even to the mass of the people at home distinguish this 'golden age'. 
The 'Roi Soleil' is a Roman Imperator, the heroes of the tragedies 
are Romans, art also must be Roman. The 'Academie' founded in 
1648 developed in sharpest contrast with the 'maitrises', or old 
guilds. Everything was reduced to formulae. But this cold and 
pompous art had some thing grand in its uniformity, its self-con- 
fidence, and its deflniteness of aim ; and the effect was heightened 
not only by the personalities of the king and his minister Colbert, 
but still more by the art-dictatorship of Charles Le Brun (1619-90). 
However unmoved Le Brun's paintings may leave us, there is 
something singularly imposing, almost recalling the universal 
geniuses of the Renaissance, in the manner in which he designed 
the mazniflceut decorations of the Galerie des Glaces at Versailles 
and the Galerie d'ApolIon in the Louvre, sketched groups in bronze 
and marble for the sculptors, and painted and drew patterns for his 
Manufacture des Gobelins, whii'h then included nearly every branch 
of industrial art. The bronzes by Coyzevox^ the cabinets by Boulle, 
the mirrors by Cucci, the arabesques by Berain all harmonize 
with Le Brun's ceiling-paintings, just as these harmonize with the 
buildings of Mansart and the gardens of Le Notre, and as the entire 
creative art of the period harmonizes with the tragedies of Racine. 
Art as a whole must be regarded as a setting for the court of 
Louis XIV., but it is a decorative art of the very highest rank. 

The AB-CHiTBcrujaE of the period is much less satisfactory. 
Perraulfs famous colonnade at the Louvre now excites as little 
enthusiasm as the fatiguing facade of the palace at Versailles by 
Hardouin and Mansart (1645-1709) or as the Palais des Invalides by 
Bruant. The great dome of the Invalides by Mansart and that of 
the Val-de-Grace, now at last completed, are, however, honourable 
exceptions to the rule. With Painting it is much the same. Who 
now cares for La Fosse, Jouvenet, or Coypel? The portrait-painters 
Mignard, Largilliere /^a.nd Rigaud — all admirably represented at 
the Louvre — are, however, still interesting. Sculptuee occupies 
a much higher position. However absurd Voltaire's dictum may 
now appear, that Francois Girardon (1628-1715) had 'attained to 
all the perfection of the antique', we cannot refuse our admiration 
to that sculptor's tomb of Richelieu (in the church of the Sor- 
bonne), his ''Rape of Proserpine' and statues of rivers, and above 
all to his charming leaden relief of 'Diana at the bath', in the park 
of Versailles. With him may be named a crowd of others: Legros, 
Le Hongre, the two Marsy, Desjardins^ Lepautre, Van Cleve, Tuby^ 

FRENCH ART. xlvii 

Theodon, Mazeline, a.T\i Hurtrelle. A more important name than 
Girardon's is that of Charles Antoine Coyzevox (1640-1720). His 
most prominent works are his large tombs, especially those of Cardinal 
Mazarin (now in the Louvre) and Colbert (in St. Eustache) ; but 
his other works merit close inspection for their masterly treatment 
and their union of charm and elegance of conception. Among these 
may be mentioned the horses in the Place de^la Concorde, the bronze 
statue of Louis XIV. (MuseeCarnavalet), the 'Nymph with the shell', 
and numerous busts (in the Louvre). Nicolas and Guillaume Coustou 
(1658-1733 and 1677-1746), his pupils, who assisted him in the 
execution of the 'Vow of Louis XIII. ' in Notre Dame, belong partly 
to the following epoch. Among the chief works of Nicolas Coustou 
rank the figures of the Rhone and Saone at the Tuileries and the 
Caesar in the Louvre ; among those of Guillaume are the admirable 
Marly horses in the Place de la Concorde and the tomb of Cardinal 
Dubois in St. Roch. Of the sculptors of the 17th century, however, 
the French themselves think most highly of Pierre Puget (1622-94), 
who studied under Bernini and worked at Toulon, His compositions, 
notably the 'Milo of Croton' in the Louvre , produce a strong im- 
pression, in spite of their exaggerated pathos. 

The reaction against this stiff and grandiose art was not long of 
coming. Louis XIV. was succeeded by Louis XV., the pious Mme. 
de Maintenon was followed by the dissipated Regent and a little later 
by Mme. de Pompadour. We may date the prevalence of the art called 
by the French 'Dix-Huitieme', from the beginning of the Regency 
(1715) to the death of the Pompadour (1764). It was a super- 
ficial, gallant, and dissipated art , the charm of which , however, 
cannot be denied. It is the faithful reflection of the age. Everything 
harmonizes: the gorgeous but comfortable apartments, in the decorat- 
ion of which Oppenordt and Meissonier excelled; the charming villas 
for gallant rendezvous ; the pale blue, sea-green, and rose-pink paint- 
ing; the cabinets with their rich bronze ornaments; the chairs and 
sofas, with their gilt carvings and luxurious silken upholstery ; the 
terracottas and the porcelain statuettes from the factory at Sevres ; 
and indeed even the costumes of the pleasure-loving, immoral, 
yet charming society, with its powder and patches. Everything 
that was formerly straight is now bent in the most wanton manner 
and embellished with all manner of flourishes and scrolls (^Wococo^ 
from rocaille, shell); every door-knob seems to be designed for the 
pressure of a delicate feminine hand. After a brief reign (for as 
early as 1763 Grimm writes that everything was then made 'a la 
grecque') the rococo style gave place to the Style Louis XVI., 
which in France at least always retained delicate and graceful 
forms. The cabinets of this period (by Oeften, Riesener, Beneman, 
and others), decorated with the daintiest inlaid designs, are now 
almost more highly prized than the earlier works by Cressant and 

xlviii FRENCH ART. 

The earliest and also the greatest painter of the 'Dix-Huitieme' is 
Antoine Watteau (1684-1722), who came to Paris in his eighteenth 
year to assist in the decoration of the Opera House and speedily 
rose to fame by his representations of ^ Fetes Galantes\ In his scenes 
of rural festivals and in his figures from Italian comedy ('Embark- 
ation for Cythera'; 'Gilles'; both in the Louvre) this master is 
unapproached. In both , he is the faithful mirror of his age , but 
his magical colouring sheds such a poetic glamour, that we seem to 
be transported into a fairyland full of roguish grace and pleasant 
dalliance. His successors, Lancret and Pater, are skilful and charm- 
ing artists , but are seldom inspired by even a breath of the poetry 
of Watteau. The truest representative of the Pompadour epoch is 
Francois Bouclier (1703-70). A study of his numerous pictures in 
the Louvre is not enough for a proper estimation of this artist, for 
it is chiefly as a decorative painter, in his ceilings and panels, that 
he reveals his character. Next to Boucher rank ^Frago' (Honore 
Fragonard) and Baudouin, whose drawings especially are prized. 
The 18th century was rich in portrait-painters also, the first place 
being claimed by the pastel painter Quentin de La Tour (1704-88), 
'the magician', as Diderot calls him. The strikingly lifelike and 
characteristic portraits by this master are the chief boast of the 
musee of St. Quentin, his native town; while the charmingly grace- 
ful female portraits by Nattier are among the attractions of Versailles. 

Here also reaction set in early. Boucher himself lived to hear 
the thundering philippic of Diderot, who re-christened the 'painter 
of the graces' as the 'painter of demireps'. But this verdict was 
moral, not aesthetic. Emotionalism was simply the transition from 
frivolity to the Spartan virtue of the Revolution. Diderot had found 
a man after his own heart in Jean Baptiste Greuze (1726-1805), 
whose 'Rustic Bride' and 'Prodigal Son' practically synchronized 
with Diderot's 'Natural Son' and Rousseau's 'Helo'ise'. Greuze re- 
mains to this day a popular favourite, not, however, on account of 
these moral pictures with their hard colouring, but on account of 
his paintings of girls ('The Broken Pitcher'; the 'Milkmaid', etc.), 
in whose grace there are still traces of the sensuous charm of the 
preceding epoch. More important as a painter is Greuze's elder 
contemporary Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779), one of 
the best painters of still-life that ever lived, an excellent portrait- 
painter, and an acute, amiable, and original observer of simple 
domestic scenes ('Grace before Meat'; the 'Industrious Mother', etc.} 
in the Louvre). The true forerunners of the later classicism were, 
however, at this period Vien , the teacher of David, Cochin, and 
Hubert Robert, with his views of Roman ruins. 

The rococo style never thoroughly permeated the art of Sculp- 
ture. Allegrain, with his nymphs, and Clodion, with his sensuously 
animated terracotta groups of Bacchantes, Satyrs, and Cupids, touch 
upon its outskirts in the soft grace and 'morbidezza' of their methods 


of treatment; but side by side with them stand such artists as 
Bouchardon, the 'French Phidias', with his Grenelle Fountain, 
which may almost be termed severe. Figalle (1714-85) pays un- 
restrained homage to the pictorial taste of the period in the tombs of 
Marshal Saxe (Strassburgj and the Comte d'Harcourt(>'otre Dame), 
as well as in the monument of Louis XV. at Rheims, but he also 
expresses its philosophical ideas in his allegorical compositions, and 
makes his bow to the antique in the nude statue of Voltaire. The 
amiable Pajou (1730-1809) vacillates between antique severity and 
French grace, between frivolity and sentiment, in his Pluto, Bac- 
chante, and statue of Queen Maria Lesczynska as Caritas (in the 
Louvre). A similar vacillation is shown by Falconet, who may be 
better studied in St. Petersburg than in Paris. Lemoyne (Louvre, 
Versailles) and Caffierl (d. 1792; busts of Rotrou, La Chauss^e, 
J. B. Rousseau, etc.) are admirable portrait-sculptors, but both are 
far excelled by Jean Antoine Houdon (1741-1828), whose seated 
statue of Voltaire is one of the masterpieces of realistic portraiture, 
and whose 'Diana' (bronze replica in the Louvre of the original 
marble in St. Petersburg) is among the most perfect nude figures 
in modern art. 

The transition to classicism was most easily accomplished in 
Architbcturb. To be convinced that at least in the case of great 
religious and secular edifices the frivolous fashionable taste was left 
far behind, we need glance only at the fagade of St. Sulpice by 
Servandoni (17o3) , the portal of St. Eustache by Mansart de Jouij 
(1755), the Ecole Militaire (1756), the buildings on the Place de la 
Concorde by Gabriel (1772), and the Pantheon, begun by Souf/Iot 
in 1764. The writings of the Jesuit Langier (1753) , the architect 
Blondel (1756), and the archaeologists Mariette and Caylus, and 
finally and above all the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum 
and the reports of visitors to these spots , speedily assisted the 
classical tendency to gain a decided victory. 

Thus the appearance of Jacques Louis David (1748-1825) does 
not signalize a complete revolution, as was at one time assumed, but 
the close of a decade of development ('Belisarius', 1781; 'Oath of 
the Horatii'. 1785). His significance lies in the fact that he deduced 
the logical consequences and elevated them with adamantine strict- 
ness into a law of universal application. Individuality was once more 
repressed , and all art once more reduced to a formula. The fruits 
of this new Renaissance are before us everywhere to this day. Even 
the most famous pictures (David's 'Leonidas' and 'Rape of the Sabines') 
look like painted copies of bas-reliefs. The artist is in touch with us 
only when he is unfaithful to his own principles, as in the 'Coronation 
of Napoleon' (Louvre), the sketch of 'Marat after death' (Carnavalet), 
and his lifelike portraits. It is the same with the architecture of the 
Revolution and the Empire. 'The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel', 
says Saint-Paul, 'is a copy of the arch of Septimius Severus , the 

Baedekek. Paris. 14th Edit. d 


Yendome Column is a reproduction of Trajan's Column, and the 
Madeleine is a temple -which might he dedicated -without alteration 
to Jupiter Capitoliiius'. Gra'^e as such seemed to be hani^^hed from 
ait. Greuze and Clodion died in penury, and Fragonard spent his 
last days in painting large allegorical and decorative pieces. 

At first glance the Nineteenth Cextury presents the appearance 
of a veritable chaos. In previous times the architect either adapted 
the prevailing style to the altered circumstances or developed a 
new one from it. Now, however, he builds in the Greek style to- 
day, in the Renaissance to-morrow, or passes unconcernedly from 
Gothic to baroque. In the same way the painter imitates the Greeks 
or the Italians , Rubens or Rembrandt, the Pre-Raphaelites or the 
Japanese. In the realm of sculpture we find ourselves at onetime 
face to face with the most exalted idealism, at another with the 
most uncompromiL'ing realism. Our judgment, too, is rendered all 
the more difficult because many of the artists still stand so near us 
in point of time, that we cannot wholly free ourselves from the 
influence of personal inclinations or antipathies. 

In the first quarter of the century the controlling influence in 
the sphere of Painting was that of David. In the year 1800 Guerin 
(d. Ih33), the most thorough-going pupil of David, attained an extra- 
ordinary snccess with his 'Marcus S-^xtus'. Afterwards he devoted 
himself mainly to the painting of tragic scenes. Girodet^d. Ib2i"), it is 
true, selected romantic subjects (tbe 'Deluge', 'Burial of Atala'), but 
adhered to the relief-! ke execution and statuesque repose of his 
master. Girard (d. 1637), who appeals to us mainly by his attractive 
portraits of women , is somewhat freer in style. His 'Cupid and 
Psyche' naturally excited universal admiration in a generation for 
whom Cauova's group of the same subject was the hit:hest expression 
of art. Gros (d. 1835) passes for a forerunner of romanticism; but 
the warmer colouring and livelier movement of his battle-scenes do 
not blind us to his numerous weaknesses. An except onal position 
is occupied by Prudhon (d. 1823), who, in his charming 'Psyche' 
and his dramatic 'Revenge and Justice', produced a novel and pleas- 
ing effect by combining the artistic traditions of the 18th century 
with suggestions borrowed from Correggio. 

The first great innovator, the first romanticist properly so called, 
was Theodnre GericauU (1791-1824), whose paintings of soldiers 
and horses announce, still more clearly than his 'Raft of the Me- 
dusa', the dawning of a new conception. There is practically no 
sense in the expression 'Rcmintic. School^ unless we translate 
'romanticism' as meaning simply 'love ofliberty'. A better appel- 
lation is School of 1830. The one common bond among the masters 
of this period, many of whom carried on violent feuds with each 
other, was their passion for independence. With few exceptions, 
however, they sought for freedom in form and colour only; they 
did not dare to take their subjects from the life around them, but 


found them in the history and legend of the middle ages, iu the 
pages of the poets (Dante, Tasso, Shakespeare, Goethe, Byron), 
or in the scenes of the distant Orient. Raphael "was the model for 
one set, Rnbens and Veronese for another. 

Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) and Jean Augusta Dominique 
Ingres (1780-1867) are not only the two greatest masters of this 
period but also repiesent its opposite poles. For Delacroix every 
picture assumed the form of a brilliant symphony of colours, so that 
his enemies asserted that he painted with 'an intoxicated broom' ; 
Ingres, on the contrary, considered that the 'integrity of art' depended 
upon the drawing. While the former honoured Rubens above all 
other masters, the latter saw in the great Fleming 'something of a 
butcher' and held it bla-phemy to compare Rembrandt with Raphael. 
The eternal antithesis between colouring and drawing was, perhaps, 
never so forcibly emphasized as now. Our taste has deciled the 
controversy in favour of Delacroix. "We feel keen admiration for the 
vigorous colouring of 'Dante's Boat' (1822), the 'Massacre of Chios', 
the 'Barricade', and the 'Crusaders', and count the paintings of the 
Palais Bourbon and St. Sulpice as among the greatest monumental 
works of the century. The 'Apothesis of Homer', on the other hand, 
leaves us cold in spite of its admirable drawing; the beautiful figures 
of 'O^Mipus' and 'The Source' excite but a half-hearted admiration j 
and it is only in his portraits that Ingres makes any strong impression 
on us. Perhaps, however, the time will come when this master will 
be again accorded a more prominent place. 

The fame o^ Horace Vernet (d. 1863), Paul Delaroche (d. 1856), 
Deveria (d. 1865), Couture (d. 1879), and the other historical 
painters of the period has paled very considerably. The recon- 
struction of a historical scene, such as the 'Death of Elizabeth' or 
'Raphael in the Vatican', can satisfy ns only when the immediate 
effect causes the artificiality of the process to be forgotten; but none 
of these masters had the strength to accomplish this. The longest 
life will d oubtless belong to Vernet's pictures of contemporary history 
at Versailles. Among other masters of the period may be men- 
tioned the somewhat sentimental ^ry Sc/ie/fer (d. 1858); Leopold 
Robert (d. 1835), who died prematurely but not before he had 
received universal admiration for his cheerful but rather too spick- 
and-span scenes of Italian life ; Decamps (d. 1860), who painted 
glowing pictures of Oriental life and found excellent followers in 
Fromentin, Marilhat, and others; and Chenavard (d. 1880), the 
author of the philosophical cartoons in the Picture Gallery of Lyons. 
A special meed of honour must be paid to Hippolyte Flandrin (d. 
1864), a pupil of Ingres and perhaps the only religious painter of 
modern times whose works reveal a genuinely pious spirit. 

Contemporaneously with this development there arose in France 
a new conception of landscape painting, the so-called Paysagb In- 
time. The aim was to reproduce the play of light and the atmo- 



spheric effects of the fondly noted, though often simple motives of 
one's native land. Theodore Rousseau (d. 1867) is par excellence the 
great painter of trees ; Jules Dupre (d. 1889) depicted nature in her 
stormy moods ; Charles Dauhigny (d. 1878) loved to paint the peace- 
ful banks of the Oise; Narcisse Diaz (d. 1876) revelled in rustling 
forest glades threaded by glittering beams of sunlight. The greatest 
poet of this group, generally known as the School of Barbison, 
is Jean Baptiste Corot (d. 1875). No other painter either before 
or since has regarded nature with such an intimate and genial gaze. 
In his pictures the meadows rustle, the birds twitter, the bees 
hum, and the sunbeams glance and play. Lovely nymphs dance in 
morning dew to the music of soft-breathing flutes. Other members 
of the Barbison group are Constant Troyon [i. 1865), vying with 
Rosa Bonheur (d. 1899) as the greatest of the French animal-paint- 
ers , and Jean Francois Millet (d. 1875), the vigorous painter of 
peasant-life, who incarnates so powerfully the spirit of the text 'in 
the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread'. 

Under the Second Empire a number of new tendencies made 
themselves felt. The historical painters, such as Sylvestre and Lu- 
mlnais, tickled the jaded palates of their contemporaries with scenes 
of horror like 'Nero and Locusta'. Hamon, Gerome, and the other 
'Neo-Greeks' painted genre-scenes in antique costume, which al- 
lowed them to display their masterly treatment of the nude. 
Cabanel (d. 1889), the more talented Baudry (d. 1886; decoration 
of the Opera House) and Delaunay (d. 1891), and the still living 
Henner and Lefebvre sought for fame in the most finished portrayal 
of the female form divine. Contemporary military life was illustrated 
by De Neuville (d. 1885) and Regnault, the latter of whom fell in 
the Franco-German war (1871). The great popular favourites were, 
however, Ernest Meissonier (1813-91) and Alfred Stevens (born 1828) 
of Belgium , two painters of the fine and minute who can be con- 
fidently ranked with the Dutch masters of the 17th century. The 
former loved to depict the heroes of his tiny canvases in the more 
brilliant costume of by-gone days; the latter gave a faithful picture 
of the dress and manners of the fashionable women of his own time. 
An important event for the development of art in the following 
period was the appearance of Gustave Courbet (1819-77), who 
revealed an extraordinary power of realism in his 'Burial of Ornans' 
and other scenes of common life, as well as pre-eminent colouristic 
talents in his great 'Studio', but who nevertheless did not possess 
one spark of poetry. 

Between 1870 and 1890 four artists are specially prominent: 
Edouard Manet (1833-83), Jules Bastien- Lepage (1848-84), Pierre 
Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98), and Gustave Moreau (1826-98). 
Manet made a skilful combination of what he learned from Velaz- 
quez and from the Japanese, and in his vigorous portraits and 
sketches of Paris life became the most zealous protagonist of the 


impressionist school, wMch exerted a deep and beneficial influence 
in spite of its aberrations. Bastien- Lepage applied the prin- 
ciples of impressionism to his powerful pictures of peasant-life. 
Puvis de Chavannes adopted the colouring of the primitive Italians 
and represented an ideal humanity in a series of solemn and broadly 
conceived mural paintings (Sorbonne, Pantheon, Amiens, Rouen, 
Poitiers, Lyons, Marseilles). Moreau presented mystic legends in 
a style of which th.e delicate colouring glows like a jewel (Muse'e 
Moreau, Luxembourg). 

A survey of the multiform activity of the Painting of To-Day 
may be obtained in the course of visits to the Hotel de Ville, the 
Sorbonne, the Mairies, the Luxembourg, the annual Salons, and the 
smaller exhibitions. Here we give only a few hints. The academic 
school, which seeks its end mainly by a conscientious study of form, 
is represented by Laurens (historical paintings), Detaille (battle- 
pieces), C'ormon (frescoes in the Jardin desPlantes), Bonnat, Carolas- 
Duran, Humbert^ Benjamin- Constant, and others. In the sharpest 
contrast to these stand the impressionists Deyas, Monet^ Pissarro, 
Renoir, RaffaelU, and their friends, whose aim is to reproduce a 
momentary effect (Salle Caillebotte at the Luxembourg, Galerie 
Durand-Ruel). Other representatives of impressionism are lioll, 
Gervex, Rocliegrosse, and the brilliant colourist Besnard (Ecole de 
Pharmacie). Cazin^ BiUotte, Pointelin, Menard, and others devote 
themselves to producing melancholy twilight landscapes. Jules 
Breton and Lhermitte are attractive delineators of rural life. Dagnan- 
JSouveret and the younger masters, Cottet, Simon, and Wtry, depict 
the picturesque scenes of Brittany. Symbolism has also found 
numerous disciples among the younger generation. 

To go into the matter of the Graphic Arts would take us too 
far afield. Be it enough to chronicle that recent activity in this 
sphere has been both great and successful , not only in engraving 
{Gaillard, Waltner, Fatricot , etc.), which reproduces the ideas of 
others, but still more notably in the original arts of etching in black 
and white or in colours (Bracquemond, F. Rops , Legrand, Lephre, 
Legros, Tisaot, Raffaeili) and lithography (Fantin-Latour, Carritre ; 
the posters of Cheret). 

The Sculpture of the 19th cent, runs , on the whole, a course 
parallel with that of painting. Here also the antique style was at 
first all-powerful. Canova, who made many visits to Paris, was the 
master whom all admired and imitated. Few sculptors attained 
anything higher than a frosty correctness. We may name Chaudet 
(d. 1810 ; 'Paul and Virginia', in the Louvre), Lemot (d. 18'2T; 
Henri IV. on the Pont Neuf), Dupaty (d. 1825; 'Death of Biblis", 
in the Louvre), the exuberantly fertile Bosio (d. 1845) , and Cortot 
(d. 1843 ; 'The Messenger of Marathon'). To the academic school 
also belongs the once very popular James Pradier (1792-1852), 
known for his Graces at Versailles, his works on the Arc de I'Etoile 


and the Moliere Fountain, and his Victories at the Dome des In- 
valides; but this master possesses a certain grace and vivacity of 
conception "which still exercise their charm. Romanticism proper 
played a very subordinate role in sculpture, where the decisive 
part was undoubtedly that taken by realism. Three masters here stand 
in the forefrout: Fr. Rude. P. J. David d' Angers, and A, L. Barye. 
Fran9ois Rude (1784-1855) is the strongest nature of the three; 
he invariably interests, even it' he does not always satisfy us. Most 
of his creations are tainted with something a little too unquiet, too 
theatrical. Alongside his most expressive statue of Monge at Beaune 
stands the restless Ney of the Place del'Observatoire; his admirable 
Oavaignac in Montparnasse Cemetery contrasts with the very 
questionable figure of 'Napoleon awaking to immortality' at Fixin, 
near Dijon. His most famous work is the 'March Out' on the Arc de 
I'Etoile, which breathes the most fiery enthusiasm. The 'Fisher 
Boy' and 'Joan of Arc' in the Louvre also deserve special remark. 
His religious efforts are the least pleasing ('Baptism of Christ' at the 
Madeleine). — Pierre Jean David d'Angers (1783-1856 ; thus named 
from his native town, in contradistinction to the painter J.L. David), 
unlike Rude, always retains a certain air of sober reality. He has 
much in common with Ranch, and like him was fond of representing 
generals in their uniforms and scholars and artists in ideal costume. 
His busts and medallions occur by the hundred at Pere-Lachaise and 
elsewhere, but it is impossible for us to share the enthusiasm with 
which they were regarded by his contemporaries. The fame of the 
great animal sculptor Antoine Louis Barye (1796-1875) has, on the 
other hand, steadily increased. His larger works, such as the 'Lion 
and Serpent' in the Garden of the Tuileries, have become popular 
idols ; and the original casts of his small bronzes fetch nearly their 
weight in gold. His most successful followers are Frimiet (Jardin 
des Plantes), Cam (Tuileries), and Gardet (^Luxembourg, Chantilly, 
etc.). By far the most eminent pupil of Rude is Jean Baptiste 
Carpeaux (1827-75), who died at a comparatively early age. His 
'Triumph of Flora' at the Louvre, his 'Ugolino' at the Tuileries, 
his vivacious busts, and, most of all, his group of 'Dancing', at the 
Opera, which is inspired by a truly Bacchic gust of existence, and 
his 'Quarters of the Globe' on the Fontaine de I'Observatoire assure 
him one of the highest places in the history of modern sculpture. 
(The last can be best studied in the models at the Louvre, which 
clearly reveal the feverish energy of the hand that made them.) 
With the great public the gentle maidens of his contemporary Chapu 
(1833-91) are still more popular (tomb of Regnault in the Eoole 
des Beaux-Arts). Among the pupils of David may be mentioned 
Carrier- Bel' euse, Cavelier, Maindron, and Aimi Millet. 

As we walk to-day through the Luxembourg Gallery, the public 
parks, the cemeteries, and the exhibitions we find, it is true, much 
academic conventionality, but there is also abundant evidence of a 


strong effort to rise a"bove convention and to permeate works of art 
with personal feeling, besides a technique brought to a hi^h state 
of perfection. The most conspicuous sculptors are Paul Dubois (h. 
1823), whose marvellously finished forms show the influence of the 
early Italians; Falguitre (b. 1831), whose fiery Provencal nature 
produces such admirable works as the 'Pegasus' of theSqnare de 
I'Opera at the same time as such doubtful productions as the great 
figure in the Pantheon; and MercU [b. 1845), with his 'Gloria Victis' 
In the Hotel de Ville and his 'Quand Meme' in the Tuileries Garden. 
Among the many who might be signalized along with these we name 
Ernest Br;mas (^'First Funeral', in the Hotel de Ville), GuUlaume 
(monument to Ingres, in the Ecole des Beaux- Arts), Crauk (mon- 
ument to Adm. Coligny), Boucher ('At the Goal', in the Luxembourg 
Garden), St. Marceaux^ and Puech. Dalou has been more inclined to 
adopt the pictorial methods of \he 18th century. His latest and much 
criticized works are the Monument of the Republic (Place de la 
Nation) and the Monument to Alphand (Avenue du Bois-de-Bou- 
logne). The extreme of individual ty in art is represented by the 
highly gifted Auguste Rodin, whose works, however, are often open 
to criticism ('The Kiss', 'Victor Hugo', 'Balzac', 'Mouth of Ht-ll'). 
Desbois and others suggest themselves in the same connection. Per- 
haps the most striking plastic work of modern days is Bariholom'-'s 
'Monumentaux Morts',inPere-Lachaise. Roty^ Chaplain^ Daniel Du- 
puis, and others have brilliantly resuscitated the art of the medallist. 

On Architecture a few words must suffice. Under the First 
Empire tlie classical spirit was supreme (Madeleine, Exchange), 
under the Restoration it was relaxed only so far as to allow the 
addition of the basiii a (Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, St. Vincent-de- 
Paul). Under Louis Philippe, however, a great revival of Gotb'c took 
place, headed by VvAlet-le-Duc^ Lassns^ and others (restorations of 
Notre Dame, the Sainte Chapelle, and Pierrefonds; Ste. Clotilda), 
and this was followed by a general ecle'ticism. Among the lew 
really original works of the century honourable mention may be 
made of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, by Duban-^ the chuich of St. 
Augustin, by Ballard; the Trocade'ro, built by Davioud and Bourdais 
in 1878; the church of the Sacr^ Cceur, by Abadie; and tiie Opera 
Housc-jby ( har'es Gamier ^ the iuton or of which is especially effective. 
VioUet-le-Duc's 'Eiitret ens sur I'Architecture' first broached the 
important principle that the extsrior of a building must indicate its 
uses and adapt itself to the altered methods of construction. The 
reading-room of the Bibliotheque Naiionale, by Labrouste , is an 
admirable example of the adaptation of iron-construction to the needs 
of a large room. 

The Industrial Arts reached the lowest deep of degradation 
under Louis Philippe, but the Count de Laborde's classic report on 
the London Exhibition of 1851 induced a great improvement, which 
at first took the form of a reversion to earlier styles. It was not until 


later that a really modern industrial art sprang up, in conjunction 
■with the United States, England, and Belgium, and under the in- 
fluence which the products of Japan began to exert in Paris about 
1867. The visitor to Paris will enjoy tracing this development in 
the w orks of the pewterer (Deshois^ Baffter)^ the glass-maker [Gallt 
of Nancy), and the potter ( Delaherche, Dalpeyrat, Biyot)^ as well as 
in furniture, tapestry, textile fabrics, and ornaments (Lalique). This 
field also is the scene of a varied and promising activity. 



1. Axrival in Paris. 

Railway Stations, see p. 25. — On arrival the traveller should 
hand his small baggage to a porter (facteur, commissionnaire ; 
40-50 c). follow him to the exit, where an octroi official demands 
the nature of its contents (see p. xiii), and call a cab (voiture de 
place). The cab then takes its place in the first row, which is re- 
served for engaged vehicles. After receiving the driver's number 
(numero), the traveller, if he has any registered luggage, tells him 
to wait for it (Westez pour attendre les bagages"). Hand-bags and 
rugs should not be left unguarded in the cab, at any rate not without 
making the driver notice the number of articles , as there are 
numerous thieves always on the look-out for such opportunities. 

The traveller next betakes himself to the Salles des Bagages 
(Douane), which is opened 10-15 min. after the arrival of the train. 
The custom-house examination is generally lenient (comp. p. xiii). 
For carrying a trunk to the cab the porter again receives 40-50 c, 
or even more for heavy luggage. The octroi official has again to be 
assured that the contents include nothing eatable. As a rule, the 
through-passenger from England will not be able to leave the station 
until V2^'"' after his arrival. If preferred, however, he may tell the 
porter to carry his hand-baggage direct to one of the hotels near the 
railway stations (see p. 9) and return afterwards for his trunk. 

The fare from the railway station to the town is 1^2 ^r. for a 
two-seated cab (at night 21/4 fr.); large articles of luggage, one piece 
25 c, two pieces 50 c, three and more pieces 75 c; pourboire 26 c. 
(comp.Appx., p. 36). If the cab has to wait more than V4^'^' (which 
will probably be the case more often than not) the time-tariflf comes 
into force: 2 & 2^/2 fr. per hour by day, 2'/.2 & 23/4 fr. by night. It 
is also advisable to hire by time when the traveller is uncertain 
whether he can obtain rooms at the hotel of his choice. The tariff 
is printed on the 'numero'; see also the Appx., p. 36. 

At the Gare du Nord and the Gare de VEst travellers with extra heavy 
luggage may hire a Luggage Cab, with a rail ou the top (Voiture Spiciale 
avec galtrie pour bagages), which are stationed behind the omnibases (see 
the placards); fares, per drive, including luggage, for 4 pers. 2Va fr. by 
day (6 or 7 a.m. to 12.30 a.m.), by night 3 fr., or when ordered beforehand 
3 and 4 fr. — Families or large parties may hire a Railwat Omnibus 

Baedeker. Paris. 14th Edit. 1 

2 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

(Omnibus special or de famille)., which contains from 6 to 12 seats. The 
tariff varies at the different stations, but naay be reckoned at about 1 fr. 
per seat. About 60 kilogr. (135 lbs.) of luggage is carried free for l-3Jper8., 
100 kil. (225 lbs.) for 4-10 pers'-, excess 1 c. per kil. — These vehicles have 
to be ordered in advance, and to secure certainty about 6 hrs. law should be 
allowed. The order may run as follows: (M. le Chef du) Service des Voitures 
Sp4ciales or des Omnibus Spiciaux, Gare du ^""ord (de I' Est), Paris. Priere de 
/aire prendre — personnes au train de (hour of arrival); signature. Tele- 
grams of .this nature are forwarded free by any station-master on the route. 

2. Hotels and Pensions. 

Alphabetical List at the end of the Book, after the Index. 
For the duration of the Exhibition of ISOO the Syndicat des Grands 
Hdtels de Paris has established a Bdbeau of iKFosMAXioy at No. 14, Rue 
Jean-Jacques; Rousseau (PI. E,, 20, 21; //), where trustworthy details are 
given gratis as to disengaged rooms, charges, and so forth. 

The large hotels of the first class are, of course, provided with 
all modern comforts,, such as electric light, passenger elevators or 
lifts, steam or hot-water heating, and baths. Many of them are very 
luxuriously furnished. The charges correspond to the accommodation. 
The traveller who arrives in Paris in the evening, without having 
previously secured rooms by letter or telegram (with paid reply), 
will probably find the best chance of accommodation at one of the 
largest hotels, with their hundreds of rooms. He should ascertain 
the price of the room before allowing his luggage to be carried up- 
stairs. These hotels have also the advantage that one pays for what 
he consumes at the time, without being bound down to regular meals. 

The prices given below have been furnished by the landlords or 
managers, and refer to one person for one day. The double-bedded 
rooms are invariably the best, and the charge made for them is not 
always double that for a single room. If desired, breakfast is served 
in the visitors own room, at an extra charge of 50c. or more. 
Luncheon (dejeuner; 12 to 1.30 or 2) and dinner {diner; between 
6 or 6.30 and 8 or 8.30) are served in the newer hotels of the first 
class at separate tables, while in the older and smaller houses the 
long 'table d'hote' is still in vogue. Li the winter-months (Dec- 
March), prices are lowered at many houses. — The prices given 
below will undoubtedly be raised during the Exhibition, those for 
rooms probably as much as 30-50 per cent. Arrangements 'en pen- 
sion' will be entirely discontinued. — When not otherwise in- 
dicated, R. (room) in the following pages includes attendance (A.) 
and lights (L.). 

The most fashionable hotels are to be found mostly in the Place 
Tendome, the W. part of the Rue de Rivoli, the Avenue de I'Opera, 
and the Champs-Elysees. 

To facilitate a choice we have arranged the hotels mentioned 
below in various groups. Though the largest and most aristocratic 
houses have been named first, it has been found impossible to follow 
any strict order of merit in the arrangement of the list. Thus many 

Information. 2. HOTELS. 3 

hotels in the later sections might with equal propriety appear in the 
earlier ones; while there are doubtless many deserving houses left 
entirely unmentioned. 

No hotel can be recommended as first-class that is not satisfactory 
in its sanitary arrangements, which should include an abundant flush of 
water and a supply of proper toilette paper. 

Hotels of the Highest Class. '^Bristol Hotel and '^Hotel du Rhin, 
Place Vendome 3 and 4 (Plan, Red, 18; special plan //"i"), two long 
established and aristocratic houses, patronized by royalty; suites 
of rooms (dining-room, drawing-room, 2-4 bedrooms, and bath 
40-120 fr., dej. or D. 12 fr. or a la carte; pension for servants 9-10 fr.). 
— *Ritz Hotel, Place Yendome 15 (PI. R, 18; //), opened in 1898; 
admirable cuisine and cellar. — ^Elysee Palace Hotel, Avenue des 
Champs-Elyse'es (PL R, 12; 7), opened in 1899, with 400 rooms; 
R., L., & A. in the entresol 12-20, first floor 8 40, second, third, 
and fourth floors from 7, fifth floor from 6 fr. ; B. 2, dej. 6, D. 8 fr. — 
*H6t. de VAihenee, Rue Scribe 15, near the Opera House (PI. R, 18; //), 
a favourite resort of Americans. — *H6t. Continental, Rue de Castig- 
lione 3, corner of the Rue de Rivoli (PI. R, 18; It), opposite the 
Garden of the Tuileries, with 600 rooms; R., L., & A. from 6, B. 2, 
dej. 5, D. 7 fr. — ^Grand Hotel, Boulevard des Capucines 12 
(PI. R, 18; II), adjoining the Opera House, with about 900 rooms; 
R., L., & A. 5-30, B. 2, dej. (incl. wine) 5, D. (incl. wine) 8 fr. — 
"■'Hot. Meurice, Rue de Rivoli 228 (PI. R, 18; II), long frequented 
by British travellers, with 250 rooms; R., L., & A. from 8, B. 2, 
D. 8 fr., dej. a la carte. — *H6t. Chatham, Rue Daunou 17, to the 
S. of the Place de TOpera, another old favourite of British trav- 
ellers, with 160 rooms from 7, B. IV2. dej. 4, D. 6 fr. 

Hotels of almost Equal Rank. In the Inner Town : *H6t. Ter- 
minus, Rue St. Lazare 110, at the Gare St. Lazare (PI. B, 18), some- 
what out of the way for pleasure-visitors, with 500 rooms; R. on 
first floor 8-18, second floor 7-16, third floor 6-14, fourth floor 
5-12, fifth floor 4-7 fr. (cheapest room in each case looking on the 
court), A. 1, L. 11/2, B. 1 1/25 dej. with wine 5, D. with wine 6, pens. 
16-22 fr. — '^Hot. du Louvre, Rue de Rivoli 172 and Place du Palais- 
Royal (PL R, 20; 77), with 300 rooms ; R., L., & A. from 61/2, B. 1 1/2, 
dej. (with wine) 5, D. (do.) 6, pens, from 15 fr. 

In or near the Place Vendome (PL R, 18; 77): Hot. Vendome, 
Place Vendome 1, a high-class family hotel, with twelve suites. — 
Hot. Mirabeau and Hot. Westminster, Rue de la Paix 8 and 11, two 
good family hotels; Hot. de Hollande, Rue de la Paix. 18, with 100 
rooms, R., L., & A. from 7, B. l'/2, D. 7, at separate tables 8 fr. ; 
Hot. des lies- Brit anniques, Rue de la Paix 22, Place de I'Opera 1, and 

t For explanation of references to Plan, see end of the book, before 
the index of streets. The italicised Roman numerals (//) refer to the 
special or district plans. The streets parallel with the Seine are numbered 
from E. to W., while the numbers of the cross-streets begin at the end 
next the river*, the even numbers are on the right, the odd on the lelt. 


4 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

Avenue de I'Op^ra 49, a family hotel, E. from 7 fr., meals a la carte. 

— To the S. of the Place Vendome : *H6t. Castiglione , Rue de 
Castiglione 12, \Nith 100 rooms, R., L., & A. from 6, B. IV2, dej. 5, 
D. 6, pens. 15 fr.; *H6t. de Londres^ Rue de Castiglione 5, with 80 
rooms, R., L., & A. from 5, B. II/2, de'j. -4, D. 6, at separate tables 7, 
pens, from 16 fr. — Hot. Windsor, Rue de Rivoli226, -with 150 rooms, 
R. from 5, B. IV2, dej. 41/2, I>- 7, pens. 15 fr.; Hot. Briyhton, 
Rue de RivoH 218, R., L., & A. 6-8, B. IV2, dej. 5, D. 7 fr. — 
*H6t. de Lille et d' Albion, Rue St. Honore' 223, to the N. of the Rue 
de Rivoli, with 180 rooms; R., L., & A. 5-8, B. 13/^, dej. 4, D. 6, 
pens. 15-18 fr.; *H6t. de France et Choiseul, Rue St. Honore 239, 
R., L., & A. 8, B. 2, dej. 4, D. 6, hoard 10 fr. — *T/i€ Normandy, 
Rue de I'Echelle 7 and Rue St. Honore' 256; *H6t. Binda, Rue 
de I'Echelle 11 , near the Avenue de I'Ope'ra, these two frequented 
hy the English, R., L., & A. 5-12, B. IV2, D- (with wine) 6 fr. — 
To the S.E. of the Place de I'Opera : *Hdt. de Bellevue, Avenue de 
rOpe'ra39, R., L., & A. 6-12, B. 11/9, de'j. 4. D. 6, pens. 14-20 fr.; 
'^Hot. des Deux-Mondes, Avenue de I'Opera 22 (PI. R, 18, 19), with 
200 rooms from 6, A. 1, L. 1/2, B. 2, dej. 4, D. 6 fr. — ''Hot. Scribe, 
Rue Scribe 1 , adjoining the Opera House (PI. R, B, 18; II), with 
100 rooms ; R., L., & A. from 8, B. 2, dej. (with wine and coflfee) 5, 
D. (with wine) 8, pens, from 20 fr. 

In or near the Champs-Elysees : *H6tel Beau-Site, Rue de Pres- 
bourg 4, Place de lEtoile (PI. B, 12; 1), a fashionable family hotel 
with 50 rooms; R., L., & A. 10-15, B. 21/2. dej. 7, D. 10, board 
16 fr. ; all meals served in private rooms. — *H6t. Campbell, Avenue 
de Friedland 45 and 47, family hotel with 100 rooms, R., L., & A. 
5-8, B. 1Y2> dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 15 fr. ; '^Hot. dUena, Avenue 
d'Ie'na26, with 225 rooms at 4-10, B. IV2, d. j. 4, D. 6, pens. 12 fr. 

— Hot. Imperial, Rue Christophe Colomb 4. — *Hdt. d''Albe, Avenue 
des Champs-Elysees 101 and Avenue de I'Alma 55, R., L., & A. 
8-10, B. 2, de'j. 4, D. 6, pens. 18 fr. — *H6t. Meyerbeer, Rue Mon- 
taigne 3, near the Rond-Point (PI. R, 15; II), R., L., & A. 6-15, 
B. 172* de'j. 4, D. 6, pens, from 15 fr. — More to the S., in the 
direction of the Seine: *E6t. de la Tremoille, Rue de la Tre'moille 14 
and Rue Boccador 12, to the E. of the Ave. de I'Alma (PL R, 12; I), 
R., L., & A. 5-15, B. 2, dej. 5, D. 6, pens. 12-25 fr.; Langham 
Hotel, Rue Boccador 24. 

The Orands-Hotel du Trocadero, consisting of four buildings in 
the Rue Alboni, to the W. of the Trocade'ro, between the Quai de 
Passy and the Boulevard Delessert (PI. R, 8 ; I), have been opened 
for the duration of the Exhibition by the Compagnie Internationale 
des Wagons-Lits. They contain 1600 rooms, with accommodation 
for 2800 guests. 

The International Sleeping Car Co., witli central offices in Paris (Place 
de 1 Opera 3) and London (14 Cockspur St., S.W.), has numerous agents 
in the principal cities of Great Britain, the United States, and Con- 
tinental Europe. A detailed prospectus of the hotels may be obtained on 

Information. 2. HOTELS. 5 

application from any of these. The terms per week are ICO fr. for a 
single person, 300 fr. for two persons in one room. This sum include 
full pension, transport to and from the railway station, 14-20 Exhibition 
ticket=', and other privileges. A small reduction ii made for a stay of 
two or more weeks. 

The large Terminus Hotel of the new Gate d'Orl^ans (PI. R, 17 ; //}, 
Rue de Lille, may also be named here. 

Other Hotels (First and Second Class). The hotels in this section 
are arranged topographically, and their situation and charges will 
give a rough idea of their relative excellence. Comp., however, the 
remarks at pp. 2 and 3. 

1. Hotels in the W. Part of the Inner Town. 

To the S. of the Place Vendome , in the Rue de Castiglione 
(PL R, IS; 11): No. 4, Balmoral; No. 6, ""Metropole, R. from 3, 
B. 11/2' d^j. 3^25 ^' 5, pens, from 12 fr. ; No. 7, Dominici, pens. 
15 fr. ; No. 11, Liverpool, a family hotel with suites of rooms. 

In the Rue db Rivoli (PI. R, 18; //), adjoining the Louvre and 
the Garden of the Tuileries, a favourite English quarter : No. 208, 
^Wagram, R. 5-6, B. IV2, dej. 31/2, D- 5. pens. 12 fr. ; No. 202, 
*St. James et d' Albany, with 250 rooms, R. 4-6, L. 1/21 A. 1, B. IV2, 
dej. 4, D. 5, at separate tables 6, board 9, pens. 15 fr. — Hot. Re~ 
gina, Place de Rivoli 2, with 200 rooms; R. 5-8, B. 2, dej. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 12-15 fr. — In the side-streets between the Rue de 
Rivoli and the Rue S'.. Honore (PI. R, 18; //): Hot. de CaHille, Rue 
Cambon 37, R. 6-12, B. li/o, dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 20 fr.; *Hdt. de la 
TamUe, Rue d'Alger 4, R. 3-12, B. IV2, dej. 3'/2, D. 41/2, board 
from 8 fr. ; *H6t. d' Oxford et de Cambridge, Rue d'Alger 13 and Rue 
St. Honors 221, R. 4-12, B. IV2, dej. 31/2, D. 4, at separate tables 
41/2 (wine included), pens. 10-14 fr. ; Hot. de Paris et d' Osborne, Rue 
St. Roch 4, R. 2-10, B. ll/g, dej. 3, D. 3, at separate tables 31/2. 
pens. 9-17 fr. — For other hotels near the Louvre, see p. 8. 

Near the Rue de la Paix, to the N. of the Place Vendome (PI. R, 
18; //), between the Avenue de I'Opera and the Boulevard des 
Capucines: Hot. de Calais, Rue des Capucines 5, R. 5-6, B. i^Jo, 
de'J. 3, D. 4, board 9-12 fr. In the Rue Daunou : No. 4, Hot. Rastadl, 
R. 4-7, L. 1/.,, A. 1, B. 1 «/.,, de'j. 4, D. 5, pens. 15 fr.; No. 7, Hot. de 
VEmpire, R. 472-12, B. 11/2-2, dej. 4, D. 5 fr.; No. 6, Hot. d' Orient, 
R. 0-8, B. l'/2, dej. 4-5, D. 5, at separate tables 6 fr. ; *H6t. Louis- 
le-Grand, Rue Louls-le-Grand 3, R. from 3. B. 1 1/9, de'j. 3, D. 4 fr. ; 
Hot. des Etats-Unis, Rue d'Antin 16, R. 3-12, B. IV4, d^j. 3, D. 4, 
pens. 8-18 fr.; Hot d'Antin, Rue d'Antin 18, R. 37.2-10, B. ll/.j, 
dej. cwith wine) 372, D. (do.) 4, pens. 10 fr. 

Near the Boulevard des Italians , to the E. of the Avenue de 
rOpe'ra (PI. R, 21; //): Hot. de Port-Mihon, Rue de Port-Mahon 9, 
unpretending, R. from 272, B. IV4, dej. (with wine) 272, D. (do.) 
3 fr. — Grand-Hotel de la" Neva, Rue Monsigny 9, R. 3-6, B. I72, 

6 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

d^j. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 4, pens, from 11 fr. ; Hot. de Manchester, 
RuedeGrammont 1, R. 4-15, B. IV2, dej- (with wine) 31/2, !>• {.^o.)A, 
pens. 12-15 fr. ; Hot. Favart, Rue Marivaux 5, adjoining the Opera 
Comique, R. 7, B. 11/4, dej. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 4, "board 13 fr. 

In the Boulevards des Capucines and dbs Italiens and their 
side-streets (PL R, G, 18, 21 ; II): * Grand-Hotel des Capucines, Boul. 
des Capucines 37, R. 5-16, dej. 4, D. 4, pens. 15-25 fr. ; Maisons 
meuhlees (R. andB. only), Boul. des Capucines 25 and 29; *Gr. Hot. 
de Bade, Boul. des Italiens 32 and Rue du Helder 6, R. from 5, B. 
11/2) cle'j. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 5, pens, from 14 fr. ; *H6t. de Russie, 
at the E. end of the Boul. des Italiens (Nos. 2-4), at the corner of the 
Rue Drouot, R. from 7, B. 1^/9, dej. 3, D. at separate tables A^/o, 
pens. from 16 fx.—Adelphi Hotel, Rue Taithout 4, adjoining the Boul. 
des Italiens, R. from 5. B. IV2, de'j. 31/), D- 41/2- pens, from 10 fr.; 
*H6f. du Tibre, Rue du Helder 8, R. 6-18, B. 1 1/2, dej. 4, D. 5, at sepa- 
rate tables 6, pens. 15-25 fr. ; Hot. du Helder, Rue du Helder 9, R. 
5-8 fr. ; *H6t. Richmond, Rue du Helder 11, a family hotel, R, 3-12, 
L. 1/9, A. V'>, B. 11/0, de'j. 4, D. 5 fr. (wine in each case); *H6t. de 
VOpSra, RueduHeld'erl(3, R.4-12, B.IV2, dej. 31/2, D-4, pens. 12fr. 
— *H6t. Byron, Rue Laffltte 20, combined with the Grand-Hotel de 
VEurope, Rue Le Peietier 3, R. 3-5, B. I'/o, dej. (with wine) 31/2, 
D. (do.) 4, at separate tables 41/2, pens. 8V2-IOV2 fr. ; Hot. des Pays- 
Bas, Rue Laffltte 32, a Dutch house, R. 4-8, B. IV4, dej. 3, D. 4 
(both with wine), pens. 9-15 fr. ; Hot. Laffitte, Rue Laffltte 38, 
R. 4-12, B. 11/4, dej. 3Vo, D. 4 fr.; Grand-Hotel Le Peietier, Rue 
Le Peietier 27, R. 3V2-IO, B. 1, D. 3 fr.; *HoL Rossini, Rue Ros- 
sini 16, R. from 4, B. I74, de'j. (with wine) 3, D. 4, pens. 15 fr. 

To the N.E. of the Place de I'Ope'ra (PI. B, 21; II): Grand- 
Hotel Suisse, Rue Lafayette 5, R. from 4, B. i^/o, dej. (with wine) 
31/2, D- (do.) 41/2, pens. 9Vo-15 fr.; Victoria Hotel, Cite' d'Antin 10, 
R. 4-10, L. 1/2, B. 11/2, dej. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 4, pens. 10-15 fr. ; 
Hot. de France, Cite' d'Antin 22, R. from 3, B. 1, dej. (with wine) 
21/9. D. (do.) 31/2 fr-; Hot. St. Georges, Rue St. Georges 18, R. from 
5, B. 11/4, dej. (with wine) 31/0, D. (do.) 4, pens. 12 fr. — Farther 
to the N. : Hot. de Berne, Rue de Chateaudun 30, R. 3-12, B. IV4 fr., 
no hot meals. 

Near the Madeleine, to the W. of the Boulevard des Capucines 
(PI. R, G, 18 ; II). Roe Caumartin, between the Boul. des Capucines 
and the Boul. de la Madeleine : No. 14, Grande Bretagne, R. from 4, 
B. 11/2, dej. 4, D. 5 , pens, from 12 fr.; No. 33, St. Petershourg, 
mainly English customers, R. 5, B. IV2, de'j. 3, D. 4, at separate 
tables 5, pens, from I2V2 fr. — Hot. de Seze, Rue de Seze 16, un- 
pretending, R. 3-8, B. lV2fr., restaurant a la carte. 

To the S.E. of the Madeleine: Hot. Burgundy, Rue Duphot 8, 
English house, R. 3-8, B. I72, de'j. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 4, pens. 
8^2-14: h.; * Hotel- Pension Rapp et Duphot, Rue Richepanse 15, 
R. 5, B. 11/2, d^j. (with wine) 4, D. (do.) 5, pens. 121/2^.; Hot. de 

Information. 2. HOTELS. 7 

la Concorde, Rue Richepanse 6, R. 6, B. II/2, dej. (with wine) 31/2? 
D. (do.) 4, pens. 15 fr. 

To the S.W. of the Madeleine: *H6t. Perey, Cit^ du Retire 5 
(entr. Rue Boissy-d'Anglas 35 and Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore 30), 
quietly situated, R. from 4, B. II/2J dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 9 f r. ; 
*H6t.-Pen8. The, Cite du Retiro 9, R. from 4, B. 11/4, dej. 21/2, 
D. 372> pens. 8-11 fr. — Farther to the S., near the Place de la 
Concorde and the Champs-Elysees : Hot. Vouillemont, Rue Boissy 
d'Anglas 15, R. 6-12, B. 2, dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 15 fr. 

To the N.W. of the Madeleine: Hot. de Paris, Rue de la Ville 
rEveque 28, R. 3-10, B. 1 , D. (with wine) 31/2, pens. 10-12 fr. ; 
Hot. de I'Elysee, Rue des Saussaies 12, R. from 4, B. II/4, dej. (with 
wine) 3, D. (do.) S'^fr.; Hot. Malesherbes, Boul. Malesherbes 26, 
R. 4-7, B. 172, dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 14 fr. — In the side-streets of 
the Boul. Malesherbes: Hot. Bedford, Rue de I'Arcade 17, R. 5-10, 
B. IV2, dej. 4, D. 5, at separate tables 6, pens. I21/2-I8 fr.; ^d(. de 
I'Arcade, Rue de I'Arcade 7, R. from 4, B. 1, de'j. 3, D. 31/21 pens, 
from 8 fr.; Hot. Buckingham, Rue Pasqnier 32, R. from 3, B. i^o^ 
dej. 3, D. 4fr. ; Grand-Hotel Alexandra, Rue de la Bienfaisance 16, 
English, R. 4-10, B.IV2, dej. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 4, pens. 11-17 fr. 

2. Hotels in the Champs-Elysees and their Environs. 

To the N. of the Rond-Point des Champs-Elyse'es (Pl.R, 15;/i): 
Hot. Montaigne, Rue Montaigne 30, R. from 4, L. 3/4, B. 11/2- dej. 
31/2' !)• 4 fr. — Near the N. end of the Avenue d'Antin : Bradford, 
Rue St. Philippe-du-Roule, Rue d'Artois 14, R. from 4, B. IV2, 
d^j. 4, D. 5, pens, from 12 fr. — To the S. of the Rond-Point: 
*H6t. de Rivoli, Avenue d'Antin 23, family hotel, R. from 4, B. II/9, 
dej. 272-31/2, D. 5-6 fr. ; *H6t. du Palais, Cours-la-Reine 28, R.4-f, 
B. 172, dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 14 fr. 

To the W. of the Rond-Point, in the side-streets of the Avenue 
de I'Alma: Grosvenor, Rue Pierre-Charron 59, R, from 5, B. 172. 
dej. 37'7, D. 472, pens, from 10 fr. ; Clement- Marot. Rae Cle'ment- 
Marot 7. R. 5-6, B. I72, dej. (with wine) 4, D. (do.) 6, pens. 14 fr. 

To the N.W. of the Place de I'Etoile : Splendide Hotel, Avenue 
Carnot Ibis; — to the E. of the Place: *Royal Hotel, Avenue Fried- 
land 33, R. 6-12, B. 2, dej. 4, D. 0, pens, from 15 fr.; Lord Byron, 
Rue Lord Byron 16, R. 4-7, B. I'/o. dej. 370, D. 41/2, pens. from 
12 fr.; Hot. des Champs-Elysees, Rue Balzac 3, only 'en pension', 
6-10 fr.; Beaujon, Rue Balzac 8, R. from 4, B. I72, dej. 272, D. 31, o, 
pens, from 8 fr. — Farther to the E. : Haussmann, Boul. Haussmann 
192, R. 3-7, B. 11/4, dej. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 372, pens.8-12 fr. 

To the S. of the Place de I'Etoile : Hot. International, Avenue 
d'lena 60, R. 5-10, B. I74. dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 10-15 fr. ; Hot. Co- 
lumbia, Avenue Kle'ber 16, R. 5-7, B. II/2, dej. 4, D. 6, pens. 15 fr. ; 
Hot. Ferras, Rue Hamelin 32, R. 4-15, B. I1/2, de'j. 4, D. 5, pens, 
from 10 fr. •, Hot. Florida, Rue L^o-Delibes 5, R. 5-8, pens. 9-13 fr. 

8 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

3. Hotels in the E. Part of the Inner Town. 

The hotels in the Central Boulevaeds and their S. side-streets, 
from the Rue de Richelieu to the Place de la Republiqne (PI. R, 21, 
24; ///), are also convenient, though somewhat farther from the 
tourist centre. In the Boul. Montmartre : No. 3, Orand-Hot. Bore, 
R. 3-16, B. 11/2 fr-. restaurant a la carte ; No. 10, Hot. Ronceray (Ter- 
rasse Jouffroy), R. 4-8, dej. (with wine) 3, D. (do.") 5 fr. In the 
Boul. Poissonniere : No. 30, Benu-Sejour; No. 16, Rougemont. — 
*Edt. Modeme, Place de la Republique, a first-class house with 420 
rooms from 3, B. IV2. dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 12 fr. 

To the N. of the Boul. Poissonniere : JSot. de France^ Citi Ber- 
gere 2bi3, R. 3 -8, L. V'2, A. % B. IV4, de'j. 21/9, D. 3 fr.; Hot. de 
la Cite Bergere et Hot Bernaud, Cite Bergere 4, R. 4, B. IV4, de'j. 
(with wine) 23/4, D. (do.) 31/0, pens. 10 fr.; '^ Grand- Hotel Bergere, 
Rue Bergere 32, R 3-10. L. 1/2, A. 1, B. 1% dej. (with wine) 4, 
D. (do.) 5, at separate table 6. pens, from 11 V2 ^^- In t^e l^^^ de 
Trevise : No. 7, Hot. de Belgique et de Hollande, R. from 4, B. 1 fr.; 
No. 10, Hot. de Cologne. R. 3-5, B. 1 fr., no other meals served; 
No. 18, Hot. de Trevise, R. 3-5, B. 11/4, dej. (with wine) 3V2, D. 
(do.) 4, pens, from 7 fr. ; Grand- Hotel Richer, Rue Richer 60, R. 
3-5 fr. ; *Grand-H6tel de Paris et de Nice. Rue du Faubourg-Mont- 
martreSG, R. 3V4-63/4< B. li/o, dej. (with wine) 3. D. (do.) 4, 
pens. 10-13 fr. ; Grand-Hotel de Baviere. Rue du Conservatoire 17, 
R. 5-7, B. 11/2^ de'j. (with wine) 31/2- I>- (do.) 41/2, at separate 
tables 5, pens. 12-15 fr. ; Hot. de Lyon et de New York, Rue du 
Conservatoire 7, R. 41/0-11, B. li/o, de'j. (with wine) 31/2, D- (do.) 
41/2, pens. 10-15 fr. 

To the N. of the Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle: Grand-Hotel du 
Pavilion, Rue de I'Echiquier 36, R. from 4, B. IV2, de'j. 3, D. 4, 
pens, from 10 fr. ; Grand-Hotel Violet. Passage Violet 4-10, between 
the Rues du Faubourg-Poissonniere and d'Hauteville, R. 3-8, B. 11/2, 
de'j. (with wine) 3V2; ^- (do.) 5, pens. 12-15 fr.; Hot. d'Autriche, 
Rue d'Hauteville 377R. 5-8, B. IV2, de'j. 4. D. 5, pens. 15 fr. 

To the S. of the Boulevard Montmartre and near the Exchange: 
Hot. Vivienne, Rue Yivienne 40, R. 3-10. A. V2- L- * 2, B. 1 fr., re- 
staurant a la carte; Grand-Hotel d' Angleterre. Rue Montmartre 56, 
R. 3-5, B. 1, de'j. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 31/2, pens. 9 fr. ; Hot. des 
Colonies, Rue Paul-Lelong37, off the Rue Montmartre, R. from 3'/2i 
pens, from 9fr. ; Hot. des Palmiers, Rue Greneta 39, a little to the 
S. W. of the Conservatoire des Art=; et Me'tiers, R. 3-6 fr. 

Near the Louvre (Pl.R, 21 ; II, III). *Grand-Hdtel du Palais 
Royal et de VEurope, Rue de Valois 4, to the E. of the Palais-Royal, 
R. from 5, B. lis- E>- (with wine) 4, pens. 12 fr. ; Grand-Hotel du 
Rhone, Rue Jean- Jacques-Rousseau 5, R. from 2^ 9, L- V4' B. 1, 
de'j. (with wine) 21/2, ^- (do.) 3, pens, from 8fr. In the Rue Croix- 
des-Petits-Champs: No. 10, Hot. de iTnivers et du Portugal, well 
spoken of, R. 3-6, B.l, dej. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 31/2) at separate 

Information. 2. HOTELS. 9 

tables 4, pens. 8-10 fr.; No. 4, Hot. du Globe, li. 2-6, B. IV4, de'j. 
(with wine) 3, D. (do.) 3V2 fr-; *-ff'5^- Siinte- Marie, Rue de Rivoli83, 
R. 3-91/2, B. 1V4< de'j. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 4 fr. Farther to the 
E. : Hot. Britannique, Avenue Victoria 20, R. IV2-6, L. I/2. A. ^/-r 
dej. IV2-2, D. 3, pens. 6-8 fr. 

Near the Bibliotheque Nationale (P].R,21; //, ///). *Grand- 
Hotel Louvois, Place Louvois and Rue Lnlli 3, R. 4-77-;, B. IV2' 
d^j. (with wine) 4, D. (do.) 41/9, pens. 12-16 fr.; '^Hot. de Malte, 
Rue de Richelieu 63, R. 4-6, B. V/2, dej. 3, D. 4. pens. 12-13 fr.; 
Hot. de Valois, Rue de Richelieu 69, R. 3-6, 
dej. (with wine) 3, D. (do.) 5, pens. 11-12 fr. 

4. Hotels near the N. Railway Stations. 
By the Gare du Nord (PI. B, 23, 24) : Grand Hotel du Chemin 
de Fer du Nord, Boul. de Denain 12, first-class, R. 5-15, B. 1^/2, 
dej. (with wine) 5, D. (do.) 6, pens. 15 fr. ; Hot. Cailleux , Rue 
St. Quentin 37, corner of the Rue de Dunkerque, R. 4-10, B. 
11/4, de'j. (with wine) 41/2, D. (do.) 572- pens. 12 fr., these two 
opposite the exit from the station ; Hot. de la Gare du Nord, Rue St. 
Quentin 31, R. 3-10, L. Vo, B. 174fr.; New Hotel, Rue St. Quentin 
40, R. 3-8, B. 1, dej. (with wine) 572 fr. — By the Gare de l'Est 
(PI. B,34): Hot. Fran^ais, Rue de Strasbourg 13, to the right on 
leaving the station, R. from 372 fr- ; *H6t. de VEurope, Boul. de 
Strasbourg 74, opposite the station, R. 372-5V2j S- IV4, de'j. 272, 
D. 3, pens. 10 fr,; Grand-Hotel de Strasbourg, Boul. de Stras- 
bourg 78 and Rue de Strasbourg 7, R. 272-6 fr. ; Grand-Hotel de 
France et de Suisse, Rue de Strasbourg 1, R. from 3, B. 1, dej. (with 
wine) 3, D. (do.) 372, pens. 8-12 fr.; Ville de New York, Boul. de 
Strasbourg 5. R. 4, B. 1, dej. or D. (with winel3, pens. 10 fr.; Hot. 
des Voyageurs, Boul. de Strasbourg 93, R. 2-6, B. 1 fr.; Hot. du 
Chemin de Fer, Boul. de Strasbourg 11, R. 3-6, B. I74 fr. — By the 
Gare St. Lazare (PI. B, 18): Terminus, see p. 3; Hot. de Londres 
et de New York, Pla^^e du Havre 15, opposite the station, R. 4-6, 
B. 172, de'j. 3, D. 4, pens. IO-I272 fr.; Hot. Cosmopolite, Rue de 
I'Arcade 62, R. 4-8 fr. 

5. Hotels on the Left Bank of the Seine. 

These hotels are less frequented by the pleasure-visitor to Paris, 
though those in the N. part of the Quartier St. Germain are con- 
venient for the Louvre. Those in the Quartier Latin are frequented 
almost exclusively by students of some kind or another. 

Iq the Quartier St. Germain (PI. R, 17, 16): Hot. du Quai 
Voltaire, Quai Voltaire 19, near the Pont du Carrousel, R. 4-7, de'j. 3, 
D. 372- pens. 9-12 fr.; Hot. des Amhassadeurs, Rue de Lille 45, 
R. 3-10, B. 17^4. d^j. 372, D. 4 (wine included), pens, from 9 fr.; 
HJt. de France et de Lorraine, Rue de Beaune 5, R. 3-8, B. 1, d^j. 
(with wine) 272, D. (do.) 372, pens. 10-15 fr.; *H6t. de Londre-^, 

10 2. PENSIONS. Preliminary 

Rue Bonaparte 3, R. 2-5, B. 1, dej. 21/2, D. 21/2-3 fr. (with wine), 
well spoken of; Hot. Bonaparte^ Rue Bonaparte 61, near St. Sulpice 
and tlie Luxembourg, R. 2 - 6 fr. ; Hot. des Saints-Peres , Rue des 
Saints-Peres 65, R. 3-5, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. IV2, dej. (with wine) 
31/9, D. (do.) 4, pens, from 11 fr. ; *H6t. du Bon-Lafontaine, Rue 
de Grenelle 16, R. from 3, B. II/4, de'j. (with wine) 31/2- D- (do.) 
4 fr., these two frequented by the clergy. To the E., towards the 
Quartier Latin: Hot. Jacob, Rue Jacob 44, R. 3-6, B. 1, dej. (with 
wine) 2, D. (do.) 21/2- pens. 6V2-IO fr.; Hot. d'Isly, Rue Jacob 29, 
unpretending, R. 1 1/2-6 fr.; Hot. de Seine, Rue de Seine 52, R. 3*/2? 
B. 1, de'j. (with wine) 2, D. (do.) 2V2, pens. 8 fr. 

In the Qdaetier Latin (Pl.R, 19; F). Grand-Hotel d'Harcourt, 
Boul. St. Michel 3, R. from 4, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4 fr.; Cluny Square, 
Boul. St. Michel 21, R. 3-7 fr.; Hot. du Midi, Rue du Sommerard 22, 
R. 41/9. B. 3/4, d^j. or D. (with wine) 21/2, at separate tables 3, pens, 
from 10 fr.; Hot. des Carmes, Rue des Carmes 5. R. 2-4 fr., B. 80 c, 
dej. or D. (with wine) 3, at separate tables 31/2, pens. 8-10 fr.; 
St. Pierre, Rue de l'P2cole-de-M^decine 4, unpretending, R. 1^/2-4, 
B. 3/4, de'j. or D. (with wine) 3 fr. ; Hotel de Suez, Boul. St. Michel 31, 
R. 8, pens. 14 fr. ; Hot. des Etrangers (pension de famille), Rue 
Racine 2, R. 21/2-5 (monthly 30-80), B. 1, D. (with wine) 21/2 fr- ; 
Hot. Dacia, Boul. St. Michel 41, R. 3V2-5, B. 1, de'j. or D. (with 
wine) 2^/2, pens. 9 f r. ; *H6t. de Constantine, Rue Cujas 18, R. 5, 
B. 1 fr.; Hot. du Mont St. Michel, Rue Cujas 19. 

Near the Luxbmbourg. Hotel Corneille, Rue Corneille 5, ad- 
joining the Odeon, R. 3-5 fr., dej. (with wine) 2, D. (do.) 21/2, pens. 
8-10 fr.; Hot. Malherbe, Rue de Yaugirard 11, R. 2-5, B. 3/^, de'j. 
(with wine) 2, D. (do.) 21/2 fr. ; Hot. du Luxembourg (meubM), Rue 
de Vaugirard 54, opposite the Luxembourg garden. 

Near the Gabb Montparnassb (PI. B, 16) : *H6t. de France ^ de 
Bretagne, Boul. Montparnasse 68-70; Hot. de la Marine et des Co- 
lonies, Boul. Montparnasse 59, R. from 4, B. II/4, d^j. (with wine) 
3, D. (do) 31/2, pens. 11 fr. 

Pensions. A bedroom, with full board, may be obtained in 
Paris from 6-12 fr. per day. The Editor has reason to believe that the 
following boarding-houses are at present (1900) fairly comfortable. 

Near the Arc de TEtoile and Champs-Elysees : Mine. Bellot- Carol, 
Rue Boccador 24; Govars, Rue Lalo 6, near the Boulevard Lannes 
(6-7 fr.); Miss Wood, Avenue de la Grande- Armee 21 ; Mme. Ducreux, 
Rue Cardinet 52; Pension Bevies, Rue Chateaubriand 18; Pens. Inter- 
nationale, Rue Lubeck 22bis (8-15 fr.); Villa Marceau , Avenue 
Marceau 37; Pension de Famille, Rue de Mirom^nil 79 (8-12 fr.); 
Pens, de la Houpliere, Rue de Berri 16 (10 fr.); Morand, Rue Wash- 
ington 13 (5-6 fr.); Villa Balzac, Rue Balzac 4 (9-12 fr.); Hawkes, 
Avenue du Trocadero 7 (8-12 fr.); Lamartine, Avenue Victor 
Hugo 175, near the Bois de Boulogne (10-20 fr.); Chailley, Avenue 

Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 11 

de Neuilly 168bis (7-12 fr.). — At Passy (p. 170) : Mme. Nicolo, Rue 
des Belles-Feuilles 33 ; Villa Nicolo, Rue Nicolo 42 (Ti/o-lO fr.); 
Piscot, Rue Lafontaine 53, for ladies only. — At Batignolles (PI, G, 
12, 11, 14): Brenzinger, Boulevard Pereire 69 (from 150 fr. per 

In the Inner Town : Pension de Famille , Rue Montesquieu 2, 
near the Louvre (7-9 fr.); Pension de Famille, Cite Bergere 12, near 
the Boul. Poissonniere (from 6 fr.); Grosbodt^ Rue Baudin 7, near 
the Square Montholon. 

On the left bank of the Seine: Van Pelt, Boul. Latour-Mau- 
bourg 4 ; La'ille, Rue des Ecoles 41 (7-10 fr.); Blondeau, Rue Gay- 
Lussac 33 (from 200 fr. per month). 

Lady students are received by Mrs. Edward Ferris (Amer.). 
97 Boulevard Arago, and at the Franco-English Guild, 6 Rue de la 
Sorbonne, from 150 fr. per month (see p. 47). 

Furnished Apartments are easily obtained in all the principal quar- 
ters of Paris. A yellow ticket on the door indicates furnished, a white 
unfurnished rooms. In winter a furnished room in the vicinity of the 
Boulevards costs 80-120 fr. per month, a small suite of rooms 250-500 fr. ; in 
summer prices are much lower. Rooms near the Arc de lEtoile, though 
perhaps somewhat out of the way for a short stay, are cheaper. Mrs. Kirk, 
17 Rue des Acacias, owns several small furnished suites, adapted for 
English or American visitors, and has also single rooms for visitors to 
the Exhibition. In the Latin Quarter a single room may be obtained for 
30-50 fr. a month. 

3. Bestaurants. 

Alphabetical list at the end of the Book, after the Index. 

Paris is indisputably the cradle of high culinary art. As the 
ordinary tables d'hote convey but a slender idea of the perfection to 
which the art is carried, the 'chefs d'ceuvre' must be sought for in 
the first-class restaurants, where, however, the prices are correspond- 
ingly high. 

The following list endeavours to mention most of the better 
restaurants in the quarters chiefly frequented by strangers. Even 
in the more modest establishments, however, which our space for- 
bids us to enumerate, the visitor will often be struck by the dainty 
and appetizing way in which meals are served. 

^Gar^on, Vaddition, s'il vous plaitT 'Waiter, the bill!' The 
waiter then brings the account from the '■dame de comptoir', and 
on receiving payment expects a 'pourboire' of at least 5 c. for each 
franc of the bill. When three persons dine together, it is sufficient 
to double the above pourboire. In the chief restaurants and cafe's 
the waiters receive no wages, and in some cases have to share their 
gratuities with the proprietors. 

At all but the most fashionable restaurants a whole bottle of the 
ordinary red table-wine, or vin ordinaire, is generally placed on the 
table for each person. If, however, the traveller expressly states 
that he only wishes half a bottle, he has to pay only for what he 
consumes, while a half-bottle of a better quality may be obtained 




instead in cases where the price of the meal includes wine. At the 
smaller restanrants it is often advisable to mix the vin ordinaire 
■with water or mineral water; the hest-known varieties of the latter 
are Eau de Seltz (siphon or demi-siphon), Eau St. Galmier, Eau de 
Vals, Eau de Vichy, and ApolUnaris. 

The following list comprises the names of the commonest dishes. 
The triumphs of Parisian culinary skill consist in the different modes 
of dressing fish and 'lilet de boeuf, and in the preparation of 'fri- 
candeans', 'mayonnaises', and sauces. 

1. PoTAGEs (Soups). 
Potage au vermicelle. vermicelli soup. 
Pdte (fltalie, soup with maccaroni. 
Potage h la Julienne, soup containing 

finely-cut vegetables. 
Consommi aux ceufs pochis , broth 

with poached eggs. 
Potage d la print ani^re ^ soup made 

with early vegetables. 
CroHie au pot, broth with pieces of 

Bisque, crab or lobster soup. 
Potage St. Oermam., pea soup. 
Potage Parmentier, potatoe soup. 
Oseille liie^ soup flavoured with sorrel. 
Cressoni^re, soup with water-cress. 
Soupe aii'chovx, sonp wit'i bread and 

Soupe d, Voignon, soup with onion, 

br'^ad, and grated cheese. 

2. Hoes d'ceuvee. 
Andouille, beef-sausage. 
Goncombref, cucumber salad. 
CojTiichons, pickled cucumbers. 
Hareng Sauer, smoked herring in oil. 
Than, tunny-fish. 
Radis, radishes. 
fftdtres, oysters. 
Saucisson, sliced sausage. 
Escargots, snails. 
Grenouilles, legs of frogs. 

3. B(EDF (beef). 

Boeuf au naturel, or houilK, boiled 

Boeuf h la mode, stewed beef. 

Beefsteak, or biftek aux pommes. beef- 
steak with potatoes (bien cult, 
well-done ; saignant, underdone). 

Chdteaubriand, Porterhouse steak. 

Filet aux truffes, fillet of beef with 

Bosbif, roast beef. 

Aloyeau, sirloin of beef, well doue. 

4. MouTON (mutton). 
Cdtelette panie , cutlets with bread- 

Selle d''agneau, saddle of mutton. 
Oigot de mouton or de pri-sali, leg 

of mutton. 
Ragout de mouton or Navarin aux 

pommes, mutton with potatoes and 

Blanquette d'a<7n«aM, fricassee of lamb. 

5. Veau (veal). 
Ris de veau, sweetbreads. 
Fi'icandeau de veau, slices of larded 


Blanquette de veau, fricassee of veal. 

Foie de veau, calfVliver. 

Rognons de veau, veal kidneys (d, la 
brochelte, roasted on a skewer). 

Veau r6ii, roast veal. 

Tt-te de veau, calfs-head : & la vinai- 
grette, with oil and vinegvr. 

Ris de veau, sweetbrea-is. 

Cervelle de veau au beurre noir, 
calfs-brains with brown sauce. 

6. PoEC (pork). 

Pieds de pore d la Ste. Menehould, 

pig's pettitoes seasoned. 
Pore rdti, roast pork. 

7. VoLAiLLE (poultry). 

Chapon, capon. 

Poulet, chicken, prepared in various 
ways. Un quart de poulet, enough 
for one person, and even for two 
persons at the large restaurants. 
{Vaile ou la cuissef the wing or 
the leg? the former being rather 

Croquette devolaille,CToq}iette of fowl. 

Canard aux navets, duck with young 

Caneton, duckling. 

Caneton h la presse, duckling cooked 
on a chafing-dish in presence of 
the guest, with the juice of the 
carcase squeezed out by a silver 

Oie, goose. 

Dindon. dinde, turkey 5 dindonneau, 
young turkey ; farci^ stuffed. 

Pigeon, pigeon. 




8. GiBiEB (game). 
Perdrix, partridge {aux choux, with 

cabbage and sausages). 
Perdreaux^ young partridges. 
Caille, quail. 

Filet de chevreuil, roast venison. 
Civet de litvre. jujiged hare. 
Sanglier, wild boar. 
Lapin de gavenne^ wild rabbit. 

9. Patissebie. 
Pdti^ meat-pie. 
Pdti de foie graa aux truffex. a kind 

of paste of goose-liver and truffles. 
Vol-au-Vent. light pastry with meat, 

fowl, oysters, etc. 

10. PoissoN (fish). 

fiaumon, salmon ; fum4, smoked. 

Sole, sole (,/j'ile, fried ; au via blanc, 
with wine sauce 5 au gratin, baked). 

Limande, a kind of flat fish. 

Brocket, pike. 

Carpe, carp. 

Anguille, eel. 

Turbot, turbot. 

Rate, skate (au beurre noir , with 
brown sauce). 

Goujon, gudgeon. 

Eperlans, smelts. 

Merlan, whiting. 

Rouget, red mullet. 

Maquereau, mackerel. 

Truite, trout; truite saumonie , sal- 

Matelote d'anguilles, stewed eels. 

Morue, cod. 

Monies, mussels. 

JEcrevisses, crabs. 

Homard, lobster. 

Crevettes, shrimps. 

11. Salades (salads). 
Salade de saison , salad according to 

the season. 
Laitue (pommie), lettuce-salad. 
Chicorie. endive-salad. 
Cresson, water-cress. 
Pissenlit, dandelion salad. 
Pom.7nes de terra d, tJiuile, potatoe salad. 
Salade romaine, Etcarole, mi.xed sala-ls 

i/aireja salade, make the salad). 

12. L6GDMES (vegetables). 
Lentilles, lentils. 
Asperges, asparagus. 
Artichauts, artichokes. 
Petits pois.gTQQxi peas (aw iewrrc, with 

butter-sauce purie de pois, 

ed peas). 

Haricots verts, small green beans, 
French beans -, haricots blancs, flag- 
eolets, or soistons, white beans. 

Ghoux. cabbages; choux fleurs, c&nM 
flowers ; choux fleurs au gratin, bak- 
ed cauliflower with grated cheese, 
etc.; choux blancs. white cabbages; 
choux raves, kohl-rabi; choux de 
Bruxelles, Brussels sprouts ; chou- 
cvoute , pickled cabbage {garnie, 
with lard and sausages). 

Aubergine, mad-apple, egg-plant. 

C'epes, Champignons, mushrooiud. 

Pomme.<, potatoes (it is not customary 
to add de terre). 

Pommes /rites, fried potatoes. 

Pommes sauties , potatoes stewed in 

Pommes d la maitre d''h6tel, potatoes 
with butter and parsley. 

Purde de pommes, mashed potatoes. 

Epinards, spinach. 

Oseille, sorrel. 

Garottes, carrots. 

Navets, turnips. 

Betteraves, beetroot. 

Oignons, onions. 

Tomaies, tomatoes. 

13. Entremets SucrAs (sweet dishes). 

Omelettes of various kinds (au naturd, 
au Sucre, soufflie , aux confitures, 
aux fines herbes, au rhum, &ic.). 

Beignets, fritters. 

Charlotte de pommes, stewed apples. 

Gr'eme a la vnnille, vanilla-cream. 

Nougat, candied almond-cake. 

Tarte, tart. 

14. Dessert. 

Various kinds of fruit. 

Meringue d, la crime, cream-tarts. 

Parfait au cafi, coffee-ice. 

The usual varieties of cheese are : 

Fromage (it la crtme) Suisse or Ger- 

vais, Coeur crime, cream-cheese. 
Fromage de Gruytre, Gruyere cheese. 
Fromage de Neufchdtel (Xormandy), 

Keufchatel cheese. 
Fromage de Roquefort (Aveyron), 

green cheese made of a mixture 

of sheep's milk and goafs milk. 
Camembert, Paul VEvfque, kinds of 

cheese made in Normandy. 

15. Wines. 

The finer wines principally in vogue 

are: — Red Bordeaux or Claret: 

SI. Emilion and St. Julien (3-4 fr. ), 

I Chateau Larose , Ch. Latour , ami 

14 3. RESTAUEANTS. Preliminary 

Ch. LaffitU (6-8 fr.). White Bor- 
deaux: Graves (3-5 fr.), Sauternes 
(3-4 fr.), Chateau dYquem (6-10 fr.). 
— Red Burgundy : Beuune (2V2-4 frj, 
Pommard, Voliiay^ Nuits (4-5 fr.), 
Romanie and Chambertin (5-8 fr.). 
White Burgundy : Chablis (IV2- 

21/2 fr.), MeursauU (3-4 fr.), Mont- 
7'achei (ifr.). and Hermitage (6 fr.). 

Tisane de Champagne^ a light kind of 
champagne , iced and served in 
carafes during warm weather. 

Vin frappi^ wine in ice. 

Carafe frappie^ carafe of iced water. 

The bread of Paris is excellent and has been famed since the 14th century. 

a. Eestaurants of the Highest Class. 

In the most fashionable restaurants meals are served only h la 
carte, and evening dress is expected. The portions are generally 
so ample, that one portion suffices for two persons, or two portions 
for three. The visitor should, therefore, avoid dining alone. It is 
even allowable to order oTie portion for three persons. The waiter 
is always ready to give information on this point, as well as to 
facilitate a selection from the voluminous bill of fare by naming 
the '"plats du jour\ The ^hors d'auvre' placed on the table at the 
beginning of a meal , while the soup is being prepared , generally 
add 1-2 fr. per head to the bill, if not expressly declined. The 
exquisite fruit offered for dessert is also a costly luxury, as much 
as 3-5 fr. being sometimes charged for a single peach or pear. 
Various 'specialties' and rarities are also very expensive. — The 
restaurants mentioned immediately below enjoy the highest re- 
putation for their cuisine and cellar. The bill for a small dinner 
for three persons, consisting of soup, fish, entre'e, roast, salad, and 
dessert, with a couple of bottles of fair wine, will probably amount 
to at least 40-50 fr. 

In the Western Boulevards and the streets between them and 
the Rue de Rivoli: *Paillard ^ Rue de la Chausse'e-d'Antin 2 and 
Boul. des Italiens 38 (PI. R, 21; II)\ *Ritz Hotel (p. 3j , Place 
Vendome 15; *Cafe Anglais, Boul. des Italiens 13, S. side; *Re- 
staurant de Marivaux (Joseph) , Rue de Marivaux 9, opposite the 
Op^ra Comique (PI. R, 21 ; //); *Voisin, Rue St. Honore' 261 and 
Rue Cambon 16 (PI. R, 18; II\ a long-established house, excellent 
wine; Maison Doree, Rue Laffitte 1, at the corner of the Boul. des 
Italiens (PI. R, B, 21) ; *Durand, Place de la Madeleine 2, E. side 
(PI. R, 18; //); *Cafe de Paris, Avenue de I'Opera 41, W. side; 
*Cafe de la Paix, Boul. des Capucines 12, N. side (PI. R, 18; //); 
*Laru€, Place de la Madeleine 3, W. side; *Cafe Riche, Boul. des 
Italiens 16, N. side (PI. R, 21 ; //) ; *Maire, farther to the E., 
Boul. St. Denis 14-18 and Boul. de Strasbourg 1 . — The *Restaurant 
Prunier, Rue Duphot 9, to the S. of the Madeleine (PI. R, 18; //), 
is famous for its oysters (closed in summer). 

The restaurants in the Champs-Elysees and the Bois de Bou- 
logne are chiefly frequented in summer. — Champs-Elysees : *Pa- 
villon Paillard, a branch of the house above mentioned (PI. R, 16 ; 
//) ; *Laurent^ adjacent; ''' Restaurant du Rond-Point (ChevillardJ, 

Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 15 

Rond-Point des Champs-Elys^es 4 (PI. R, 15; II) \ *Ledoyen, to the 
E. of the Petit Palais des Beaux -Arts; Restaurant des Ambassa- 
deurs, opposite the last. — Bois de Boulogne: *Cafe de Madrid, 
hy the Porte de Madrid (p. 162); *PaviUon d' ArmenonviUe, to the 
E. of the main entrance of the Jardin d'Acclimatation, pleasantly 
situated; Cafe de la Cascade, near the Cascade (p. 161); Pavilion 
Chinois, near the Poite Dauphine , at the end of the Avenue du 

b. Other Restaurants. 

The following list contains many restaurants nearly or quite as 
good as those above mentioned, along with others of a lei^s preten- 
tious character. The best Restaurants d, la Carte are described below 
as 'first-class'. Those who prefer it may procure a whole meal, 
including wine (claret, sauterne, or Burgundy), at a fixed charge in 
one of the Restaurants a Prix Fixe, the prices of which are generally 
posted up outside. In some instances tickets for the meal are bought 
at the door on entering. As quantity rather than quality has to be 
attended to in those resorts , the cuisine , though often very fair, 
does not vie with that of the cL la carte houses. At these table d'hote 
meals, the dishes are apt to be fresher and more appetizing the 
earlier one goes within the prescribed hours (see below). 

The Bouillons Duval and Bouillons Boulant are restaurants a 
la carte of a cheaper kind, managed in a peculiar way. As in the 
case of the 'diners k prix fixe', the number of dishes to choose from 
is limited. The food is generally good, but the portions are rather 
small, and each dish, bottle of wine , and even bread is reckoned 
separately. The guests are waited on by women, soberly garbed, 
and not unlike sisters of charity. These houses are very popular 
with the middle and even upper classes, and may without hesitation 
be visited by ladies. Each guest on entering is furnished with a 
card (fiche), on which the account is afterwards marked. 

Usual charges: serviette 5, bread 10, carafon of wine 20, 
V2 bottle 50, 'demi-siphon' of aerated water 15, soup 25, meat, fish, 
etc., 30-60, vegetables 25 c; the charge for an ordinary dinner 
will, therefore, amount to 2-2V2 fr. or upwards. A fee of 15-20 c. 
is left on the table for attendance ; the bill is then paid at the desk 
and receipted, and is finally given up to the 'controleur' at the door. 

Beer is not usually served at restaurants , except those known 
as Brasseries or Tavernes (comp., however, pp. 20, 21). 

Dejeuner is generally served from 12.30 or 12 to 1 or at latest 1.30 p.m. ; 
Dinner (Diner) from 6.30 or 7 to 8 or 8.30 p.m. At other hours little cuu 
be had except cold viands. 

1. Restaurants in or near the Boulevards. 
We begin at the Place de la Concorde and follow the Boule- 
vards from W. to E. — In the Rue Royale (PI. R, 18; /i) : No. 3, 
Maxim^s Bar, an elegantly fitted up restaurant, frequented mainly 

16 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

at night (for gentlemen only); No. 21, * Weber's Cafe- Restaurant 
Anglais (also English beer) ; No. 25, Taverne Royale (Munich beer)} 
No. 31, Bouillon Duval; No. 41, *Cafe de Paris, these all on the 
W. side. No. 14, E. side, at the corner of the Rue St. Honore, 
Darras ('prix fixe'; de'j. 3, D. 5 fr.). — Lucas le Grand, Place de 
la Madeleine 9, first-class ; *Lucas le Petit (or Taverne Anglaise), 
Rue Boissy-d'Anglas 28. — Bouillon Duval, Boul. de la Made- 
leine 21, E. side of the Place de la Madeleine. 

Boulevard des Capucines (PI. R, 18; //): No. 39, S. side. 
Bouillon Duval; No. 3, S. side. Restaurant Julien; No. 14, N. side. 
Grand Cafe; No. 4, N. side, Cafe Amiricain. — To the S. of the 
Boul. des Capucines: Taverne de V Opera (Munich beer). Avenue de 
I'Ope'ra 26; Brasserie Universelle (Munich beer), at the comer of the 
Rue des Petits-Champs, good and moderate; Restaurant Gaillon, 
Rue St. Augustin, to the E. of the Avenue de I'Opera. — To the N. 
of the Boul. des Capucines: Sylvain (Tavernier), Rue Hale vy 12 
and Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin 9. 

Boulevard des Italiens (PI. R, 21 ; //) : No. 14, N. side, Ta- 
verne Pousset (Munich beer); No. 29, S. side, Bouillon Duval; 
No. 27, D7ner FranQais {Talle d'Hote Excoffier; de'j. 3, D.4fr.); 
No. 9, Grand Restaurant Universel (de'j. 2, D. 3fr.). — To the S. of 
the Boul. des Italiens: Edouard (Taverne de Londres), Place Boiel- 
dieu 1, adjoining the Ope'ra Comique; *Noel-Peters, Passage des 
Princes 24-30, near the Rue de Richelieu; Restaurant Richelieu, 
Rue de Richelieu 104, with summer and -winter gardens (dej. 2^0, 
D. 3 fr.). 

Boulevard Montmartrb (PI. R, 21; ///): No. 21, S. side, 
Bouillon Duval; No. 12, N. side, *Diner de Paris, an old-established 
house (dej. 21/2, ^- 3V2 ^r.; also a la carte); No. 10. N. side, by the 
Passage Jouffroy, Restaurant de la Terrasse Jouffroy (dej. 3, D. 5 fr.); 
No, 8, '^Restaurant de Vichy (dej. 3, D. 31/2 fr.) ; No. 6, Brasserie 
Muller et Blaisot (Munich beer) ; No. 1, Bouillon Boulant. — To the 
N. of the Boul. Montmartre : Taverne Montmartre (see p. 21). — 
To the S. of the Boul. Montmartre: Restaurant de la Bourse (dej. 
IV2, D. '2 fr.). Restaurant des Finances (dej. I3/4, D. 3 fr.), Rue Vi- 
vienne 47 and 45; Chawpeaux (Catelain), Place de la Bourse 13, 
opposite the Exchange, first-class, with garden; Restaurant du Com- 
merce, Passage des Panoramas 25 (1 fr. 25, 1 fr. 60 c. and 2 fr.); 
Table d'Hote Bouillod, Passage des Panoramas, Galerie Montmartre 6 
(dej. 2, D. 3 fr.); Aldegani (Italian cuisine and wine), Passage des 
Panoramas, Galerie Montmartre 10; Ville de Paris, Rue Montmartre 
170 (de'j. 13/4, D. 3 fr.); Taverne d'Artois, same street 166 (de'j. 21 '0, 
D. 3 fr.). 

Boulevard Poissonxieee (PI. R, 21 ; III) : No. 24 , N. side, 
Bruneaux (dej. 3, D. 4 fr.); No. 16, *Rougemont, at the corner of 
theRueRougemont; No. 2, Restaurant Pols sonniere (Duflos), along- 

Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 17 

established house ; No. 11, S. side, Bouillon Duval; No. 9, Restau- 
rant de France, good and moderate. 

Boulevard BofNE-NouvELLE (PI. R, 24; ///), No. 36, N. side, 
*Marguery, adjoining the Theatre du Gymnase, a first-class restau- 
rant a la carte, frequented by merchants ; No. 26, Restaurant Bcnne- 
Nouvelle (Reneaux ; dej. 134, D. 3 fr.) ; No. 35, S. side, Brasserie 
Muller et Blalsot (Munich beer). — To the N. of the Boul. Bonne- 
Nouvelle : Widermann, Rue d'Hauteville (Vienna beer and cuisine) ; 
Restaurant Jung, Rue des Petites-Ecuries 37 (the third street 
parallel with the Boulevard). 

2. Restaurants near the Jardin des Tuileries and the Louvre. 

In the Rue de Rivoli (PL R, 18, 20 ; //), beginning at the W. end : 
No. 3, *R€Staurant de VHotel Continental (p. 3j, corner of the Rue de 
Castiglione, handsomely fitted up, with cafe (de'j. 5, D. 7 fr.) ; No. 172, 
corner uf the Place du Palais-Royal, ^Restaurant du Gr. Hotel du 
Louvre (p. 3; de'j. 5, D. 6 fr., incl. wine) ; No. 194, at the corner of 
the small Place des Pyramides, Bouillon Duval. Brasserie des Pyra- 
mides (Munich beer), Rue des Pyramides 3, near the last. 

In the Place du Palais-Royal (entr. Rue St. Honore' 202, 1st 
floor), *Leon, a large but unpretending 'prix fixe' house, with 
reading and writing room (de'j. li/2> ^- 2, with a glass of cham- 
pagne 3 fr.). 

Palais-Royal (p. 60; PI. R, 21, //). In the first half of the 
19th century the restaurants here were the most fashionable in Paris. 
Their importance has, however, long since disappeared, though 
their proximity to the Louvre still attracts a number of strangers. 
— Galerie Montpensier (W. side, pleasantest on summer afternoons, 
because in the shade) : No. 12, Cafe Corazza-Douix (Delabre), first- 
class ; No. 23, Restaurant de Paris (L. Catelain ; de'j. 2, D. 2V2 t'r. J ; 
No. 40, Vidrequin, unpretending but very fair (de'j. 1 fr. 15 or 1.25 c, 
D. 11/0 or 2fr.). — Galerie Beaujolais (N. side, near the The'atre 
du Pafais-Royal) ; No. 79, Grand Vefour (de'j. 3, D. 5fr.). — Galerie 
de Valois (E. sidel: No. 105, Table d'Hote Philippe, very fair (de'j. 
1 fr. 60 , D. 2 fr. 10 c); No. 108 , Vefour Jeune (de'j. 3, D. 4 fr. ; 
also a la carte) ; No. 142, Tavernier Ami {^Arviset; de'j. 2, D. 21/2 tr-^ ; 
No. 173, ^Restaurant Valois (de'j. 3, I). 4fr.). — Galerie d'Orleans 
(S. side) : Cafe d'Orleans. 

To THE E. OF the Palais-Royal (PI. R, 21 ; //, 111) : *rlu Boeuf 
h la Mode, Rue de Valois 8, at the K. exit of the Galerie d'Orleans ; 
Bouillon Duval, Rue Montesquieu 6 (the chief house of this com- 
pany, and the only one with male attendants). 

3. Restaurants to the £. and N.E. of the Louvre. 

The following restaurants are convenient for visitors to the H6tel 
de Ville, the Muse'e Carnavalet, the Conservatoire des Arts et Me- 
tiers, etc. 

Baedekeb, Paris. 14th Edit. 2 

18 3. RESTAURANTS. Prel 


To THE E. OF THE LouvRE , towards tlie Place de la Bastille: 
Bouillons Duval, Rue du Pont-Neuf 10, Rue deRivoli47, and Rue 
St. Antoine 234; Brasserie Dreher, Rue St. Denis 1 (Place du Chate- 
let); Restaurant de Paris, Boul. de S^bastopol 30 (dej. 1 fr. 80- 
2fr. 25 c, D. 2-2V2fr.); Taverne Gruier , Boul. Beaumarcliais 1, 
near the Place de la Bastille {J). 3 fr., with coffee). 

To THE N.E. OF THE LotJVRB , towaids the Place de la Repub- 
lique: Bouillons Duval, Rue de Turhigo 3 (near the Halles Cen- 
trales), Rue de Turbigo 45 (near the Rue St. Martin), and Place de la 
RepubliquelT; Bonvalet, Boul. du Temple 29-31 (de'j. 2^/4, D. 3V2fr. ; 
also a la carte). Near the Conservatoire des Arts et Me'tiers : Restau- 
rant du Plat-d'Etain, Rue St. Martin 326, a long-established house, 
frequented by provincial merchants. — Boulevard St. Martin : No. 15, 
Restaurant du Cercle (dej. 1^/4, D. 21/2^1.); No. 55, Grand Restau- 
rant de la Porte- St~ Martin (de'j. 1 fr. 15 - 1 fr. 50 c. , D. 1 1/4 - 2 fr.). 
— Lecomte. entrance Rue de Bondy 48, on the N. side of the Boul. 
St. Martin (de'j. 2^/2? ^' 3 fr., with coffee; also a la carte). 

4. Kestaurants near the Eailway Stations. 

Gare St. Lazare (PL B, 18): Railu-ay Refreshment Rooms, ad- 
joining the Cour du Havre; ^Restaurant du Terminus, at the hotel 
(p. 3 ; de'j. 5, D. 6 fr.) ; Cafe Scossa, Place deRome (de'j . 21 '0, D. 3 fr.) ; 
Restaurant de fEurope, Rue Pasquier (de'j. 1 fr. 90, D. 2 fr. 25 c); 
Restaurant Moderne, Rue du Havre 11 (de'j. 2, D. 21 2fr.); Blottier, at 
the corner of the Rue St. Lazare and Rue d' Amsterdam (dej. 2, D. 
21/2 fx.); Restaurant du Havre, Rue St. Lazare 109 and Place du 
Havre (dej. I3/4, D. 2 fr.) ; Bouillons Duval, Place du Havre 12, and 
at the corner of the Rues de Rome and de la Pe'piniere ; Au Regent. 
Rue St. Lazare 100 (dej. 1 fr. 60 c, D. 2 fr.). — Brasserie Mollard 
(^Munich beer). Rue St. Lazare 115, opposite the Terminus Hotel. 

Gare dij Noed (PL B, 24): Railway Refreshment Rooms, to the 
right of the main entrance ; Lequen, Boulevard de Denain 9 ; Barbotte^ 
Rue de Dunkerque25, opposite the station, well spoken of; Bouillon 
Duval^ at the comer of the Boulevard Magenta and the Rue Lafayette. 

Gare de l'Est (PL B, 24): ^Restaurant Schaeffer, at the Hotel 
Frangais (p. 9), Rue de Strasbourg 13; Bouillon Duval, Rue de 
Strasbourg 6. 

Gare Montparnassb, see p. 19. 

5. Restaurants in the Champs-Elysees and the Bois de Boulogne. 

Besides the first-class establishments (p. 14) the following less 
pretentious restaurants may be mentioned. 

In or near the Champs-Elysees: Taverne du Cirque^ Avenue 
Matignon 1, near the Rond-Point; *Restaurant d'Albe, Avenue des 
Champs-Elysees 101 , corner of the Avenue de I'Alma (dej. 4 and 5, 
D. 6 and 7 fr.); Cafe-Restaurant du Rocher ^ Avenue de I'Alma 2, 
Place de I'Alma (de'j. 21/2, D- 3 fr.). 

Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 19 

In or near the Bois de Boulogne : *Grande Brasserie de I'Es- 
perance, Avenue de la Grande-Arm^e 85 (d^j. 2^/2, D. 81/2 fr.); 
Restaurant Gillet, Avenue de Neuilly 25, near the Porte Maillot, 
with caf^; Cafe Dehouve, Avenue de Neuilly 93 (d^j. 21/2, D. 3 fr. ; 
also a la carte); Chalet du Touring Club, near the Porte Maillot 
(d^j. 31/2? D. 4 fr.); Cafe -Restaurant of the Jardin d' Acclimatation 
(p. 162) ; Chalets du Cycle, to the E. of the Hippodrome, near the 
Pont de Suresnes, a great resort of cyclists. 

6. Bestauiants on the Left Bank. 

In the QuAETiER St. Germain (p. 219 ; PI. R, 17, II, IV) : *Re- 
staurant Blot, Rue de Lille 33, near the Rue du Bac. — In the 
Boulevard St. Germain: No. 229, Cafe-Restaurant des Ministeres, 
adjoining the Ministry of War (dej. 3 fr., D. 3 and 4 fr.); No. 262, 
opposite the last, Cafe- Restaurant de la Legion d'Honneur (dej. 2i/2> 
D. 3fr.); No. 90, Bouillon St. Germain (dej. IV4, D. 2fr.). — Re- 
staurant Ste. Clotilde, Square Ste. Clotilde, unpretending (de'j. 
1 fr. 60 or 2fr. 10 c, D. I3/4-2V4 fr.). — Restaurants of the Ex- 
hibition of 1900, see our special guide. 

Near the Garb Montparnasse (p. 288; PI. G, R, 16) : ^Lavenue, 
Rue du Depart 1, to the left of the station, first-class ; Cafe-Restau- 
rant de Versailles, Rue de Rennes 171, opposite the station (dej. 21/2, 
D. 3 fr.); Restaurant Leon, Rue de Rennes 161 (de'j. 1 fr. 30 c., 
D. 3 fr.); Restaurant de Bretagne, same street 146 (dej. 21/2, D- 3 fr.). 

In or near the Quartier Latin (p. 219; PI. R, 19, F): Taverne 
du Palais, Place St. Michel 5 (dej. 21/2, D. 3 fr.) ; ^Laperouse, Quai 
des Grands- Augustins 51 , near the Pont-Neuf. — Boulevard St. 
Michel: No. 25, E. side, Cafe-Restaurant Soufflet; No. 61, Restau- 
rant Moret (dej. 1 fr. 15 c. , D. 2 fr.) ; No. 26 , W. side , Bouillon 
Duval; No. 34, Bouillon Boulant. — Near the Luxembourg: *Foyot, 
Rue de Vaugirard 22 bis and Rue de Tournon 33, flrst-class, much 
frequented after the performances in the Theatre de I'Ode'on ; Cafe- 
Restaurant Voltaire, Place de I'Od^on 1 (dej. 3, D. 4fr.), 

In the vicinity of the Jardin des Plantes and the oldGared'Or- 
leans: *Restaurant de la Tour-d' Argent , Quai de la Tournelle 15 
and Boulevard St. Germain, first-class ; Cafe de V Arc-en- del, Boule- 
vard de I'Hopital 2 (a la carte and a prix fixe ; D. 3 fr.). 

4. Cafes. Brasseries. Confectioners. 

Gaf^s form one of the specialties of Paris, and some of them 
should be visited by the stranger who desires to see Parisian life in 
all its phases. An hour or two may be pleasantly spent in sitting 
at one of the small tables with which the pavements in front of the 
caf^s on the Boulevards are covered on summer - evenings , and 
watching the passing throng. Most of the Parisian men spend their 
evenings at the caf^s, where they partake of coffee, liqueurs, and 
ices, meet their friends, read the newspapers, or play at billiards 


20 4. CAFJilS. Preliminary 

(50 c.-l fr. 20 c. per lir.) or cards. The cafes on the Grands Bonle- 
Tards, however, with the exception of the Grand Cafe in the Boul. 
des Capucines, generally have no billiard-tables. Letters may also 
be conveniently written at a cafe, the waiter furnishing writing- 
materials on application (^pour ecrire, s^il vous plait' ; fee). Most 
of the cafes are well furnished with French newspapers, but foreign 
ones are scarce. As a rule the cafes are open until 1 a.m., some 
even longer. 

The best cafes may with propriety be visited by ladies, but some 
of those on the N. side of the Boulevards Montmartre and des Ita- 
liens should be avoided, as the society there is far from select. — 
Cafes- Concerts, see p. 36. 

When coffee is ordered at a cafe dnring the forenoon the waiter 
brings a large cup {une tasse, or vne grande tasse, with bread, 3/4-11/7 fr. ; 
waiter's fee 10 c). In the afternoon the same order produces a small cup 
or glass (un mazagran) of cafi nou\ which costs 30-75 c. (waiter 10 c). The 
waiter, however, often asks whether cream is wanted ('Monsieur prend de 
la creme' ?)• A bottle of cognac is usually brought with the coffee un- 
ordered, and a charge made according to the quantity drunk. At the more 
fashionable cafes a petit verre of cognac^ kirsch, rhum, Curasao, or char- 
treuse costs 30-40 c, Jine champagne 60-75 c. — The prices of the 'consom- 
mations' are generally marked on the saucers on which they are served. 

Tea is generally sold in portions only (thii complet) , costing I-IV2 fr. 
Dejeuner may be obtained at nearly all the cafes for 21/4 fr., and cold meat 
for supper. 

Beer may also be procured at most of the cafe's, 'wn bock^ costing 
30-40 c, 'wra double' or '■une canette'' 50-80 c. 

Liqueurs (40-75c.), diluted with water, are largely consumed as '■apiritifs" 
or 'appetizers" before meals. Among these are Absinthe. Vermouth, Menthe 
(white or green), Bitters or Amers, Anisette, and Quinquina. — Siropt or 
fruit-syrups, diluted with water, are to be had in various flavours; e.g. 
Sirop de Groseille, de Framboise, de Grenadine, Orgeat (prepared from 
almouds), etc. Sorbet (water-ice) and ices (half 75 c, whole I'^-l'/s fr-) 
are also frequently ordered. 

We here mention a very small selection of the thousand cafes 
that Paris contains. 

Place de la Madeleine 2, corner of the Rue Royale, Cafe Durand, 
also a restaurant, like many others of those mentioned below. 

Boulevard des Capucines. N. side: No. 14, *6Tand CafS , ele- 
gantly fitted up ; No. 12, *Cafe de la Paix, on the groundfloor of the 
Grand Hotel (foreign newspapers); No. 4, *Cafe Americain (fre- 
quented to a very late hour). — S. side : No. 3, Julieni No. 1, Glacier 
Napolitain, noted for ices. 

Boulevard des Italiens. N. side: No. 16, Cafe Biche. S. side: 
Nos. 1 & 3, Cafe Cardinal. 

Boulevard Montmartre, S. side: No. 9, Cafe des Varietes, patro- 
nized by actors and journalists; No. 5, de Suede. — Boulevard 
Poissonniere , No. 14, Cafe du Pont-de-Fer. — Boulevard Bonne- 
Nouvelle. N. side: No. 30, *Cafe de la Terrasse (Chauvet), well 
supplied with newspapers, recommended for dejeuner. S. side: 
No. 39, Dejeuner de Richelieu, noted for chocolate (75 c). — Boule- 
vard St. Denis 9, corner of the Boul. de Sebastopol, Cafe de France; 

Information. 4. BRASSERIES. 21 

Boul. St. Denis 12, corner of Boul. de Strasbourg, Cafe Frangaia. — 
Place de laR^publique : No. 23, Grand Cafe de Paris ; No. 10, Grand 
Cafe Americain. — Boulevard du Temple, No. 31, Cafe du Jardin- 
Turc (Bonvalet). 

In the garden of the Palais-Royal (p. 60; N. side) : Pavilion de 
la Rotonde, much frequented when the band plays, — Rue St. Ho- 
nor^, opposite the Avenue de I'Op^ra: No. 161, *Cafe de la Regence, 
a famous rendezvous of chess-players (Scandinavian newspapers). 

LbftBank. Cafe Voltaire, Place de I'Od^on 1. — The numerous 
cafe's in the Boul. St. Michel are chiefly frequented by students and 
'etudiantes' : No. 25, Soufflet, at the corner of the Rue des Ecoles; 
No. 63, Taverne du Pantheon, a handsome establishment at the corner 
of the Rue Soufflot; No. 65, Cafe Mahieu, at the opposite corner. 


English, Bavarian, Strassburg, Vienna, and other beer may be 
obtained at most of the cafes (see above) and also at the numerous 
Brasseries or Tavernes. Some of the brasseries are handsomely fitted 
up in the old French or Flemish style, with stained-glass windows 
and quaint wainscoting and furniture. Those which furnish warm 
meals are also named among the restaurants (p. 15). A small glass 
of beer (un quart) costs 30-50 c, a large glass (un demi) 50-60 c; 
hrune, blonde, dark and light beer. 

In or near the Boulbvaeds: Boul. des Italiens 14, *Pousset^ 
handsome establishment (Munich beer). — Boul. Montmartre : No. 18, 
*Zimmer; No, 16, *Mazarin (Munich beer, foreign newspapers), 
handsomely fitted up ; No. 13, Ducastaing; '^o.S, Muller et Blaisot. — 
Avenue de I'Opera: No. 26, *rfe V Opera (Bavarian beer), No. 31, Uni- 
verselle (Munich beer), two haadsome establishments. — Boul. des 
Capucines 43, Taverne Tourtel. — Rue Royale25, Taverne Royale. — 
Rue St. Lazare : Nos. 115 & 117, opposite the station, Mollard (Munich 
beer); No. 119, Jacqueminot- Graffs a tasteful establishment in the 
Alsatian style. — Rue du Faubourg-Montmartre 61 (corner of Rue de 
Chateaudun), Taverne Montmartre. — Rue Montmartre 149, Taverne 
du Coq-d'Or, another handsome establishment. — Boul. Poissonni^re : 
No. 32, Taverne Brebant; No. 25, Brasserie Gutenberg (Munich beer); 
No. 13, Gruber (Strassburg beer). — Boul. Bonne-Nouvelle : No. 31, 
Ducastaing; No. 35, Muller (}lumch. beer at these two). — Boul. 
St. Denis: No. 15bis^ Taverne Gruber; No. 17, Taverne du Negre. — 
Boul. de Se'bastopol: No. 137, near the Boul. St. Denis, Taverne 
Flamande (Pilsener beer); No. 135, Toumier (Bavarian beer). — 
Boul. de Strasbourg 2, La Capitale (Munich beer). — Rue du Pont- 
Neuf: No. 17, Brasserie du Pont-Neuf (Culmbach beer); No. 21, 
Taverne Henri Quatre. — Rue St. Denis 1, Place du Chatelet, Grande 
Brasserie Dreher. — Boulevard Beaumarchais 1, Gruber (restaurant, 
see p. 18). — Rue des Pyramides 3, near the Tuileries garden, 
Brasserie des Pyramides (Munich beer). 

22 4. CONFECTIONERS. Preliminary 

The Wine Shops (Dibits de Vint), which are very numeroas , are 
frequented almost exclusively by the lower classes. The wine is usually 
drunk at the counter ('zinc'). — The latter remark applies to the Bars^ 
somewhat in the English style. — The Automatic Bars at Boul. des Ita- 
liens 15 and Boul. St. Denis may be mentioned. 


There are two classes of confectioners at Paris , the Pdtissiers 
(pastry-cooks) and the Confiseurs (sellers of sweetmeats; see p. 42). 
The best patissiers are : Julien, Rue de la Bourse 3 ; Favart, Boule- 
vard des Italiens 9 ; Frascati, Boul. Montmartre 21 ; Patisserie da 
Grand-Hotel, Place de I'Gpera; Chiboust, Rue St. Honor^ 163, 
Place du Theatre-Fran^ais; Bourbonneux, Place du Havre 14; Gage, 
Avenue Victor Hugo 4, near the Etoile ; A la Lame Blanche, Boul. 
St. Germain 196. The Boulangeries-Pdtisseries are less pretending: 
Laduree, Rue Royale 16; Cateloup, Avenue de I'Opera 27; Wanner 
(Viennese), Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin 3, etc. 

Mention may also be made of the Petites Patisseries^ or stalls fur the 
sale of cakes, buns, etc.; e. g. Boulevard St. Denis 13. and at the beginning 
of the Rue de la Lune, Boul. Bonne-Nouvelle. 

Afternoon Tea in the English style: Miss Davis, Boulevard 
Haussmann 40; Colombin, Rue Cambon4; Neafs Tea Rooms, Rue 
de Rivoli 248; Kardomah Tea Rooms, Rue de Rivoli 184; The Tea 
Cosy (Miss Nowers), Rue St. Placide 18, near the Bon Marche (the 
only tea-rooms on the left bank of the Seine) ; Champs-Elysees 26 ; 
Rue St. Honore 248; Rue des Mathurins 40. 

5. Cabs. 

The number of cabs in Paris (Voitures de Place or de Remise; 
Fiacres) is about 15,000. The most numerous are the open cabs 
(voitures decouvertes ; closed in winter), or victorias, with seats for 
two (a deux places). Closed cabs (voitures fermees), including all 
those with four seats (p. qunire places; somewhat cramped), usually 
ply near the railway stations. The vacant seat on the box, and the 
small folding front seat (strapontin) with which most of the victorias 
are furnished, can be occupied only with the consent of the driver 
(which is practically a matter of course). Only vehicles with four 
inside seats are provided with a railing on the top for luggage {voi- 
tures h galerie; comp. p. 1), but the drivers of the others never re- 
fuse to carry a reasonable amount of luggage on the box. Landaus, 
which may be opened at pleasure, have 4 seats ; their fares are higher 
than that of ordinary cabs. The carriage-lamps are coloured dif- 
ferently according to the Depot to which the cab belongs, and, as 
cabmen sometimes raise objections when required to drive to a great 
distance from their depot late at night, it may be convenient to note 
the following arrangements : cabs belonging to the Arc de Triomphe 
d^pot have white lamps; Popincourt-Belleville (N.E.), blue; Pois- 
sonni&re-Montmartre (central), yellow ; Passy-Batignolles (W.), red; 
Invalides-Observatoire (S.), green. 

Information. 5. CABS. 23 

Vhe Course is a single driven i I'heure, by time, in which case the hirer 
shows his watch to the driver. The hirer should, before starting, obtain 
the driver's number (voire num^ro.'), which is a ticket containing the tariff 
of fares and the number, and keep it in ca<fe any dispute should take 
place, or any article be left in the cab. Complaints may be made to the 
nearest policeman, or at one of the offices which are to be found at every 
cab-stand. — Tariff, see Appendix, p. 36. The Voitures h Compteur (with 
a dial inside showing time, distance, and fare of the drive), a few of 
which have been tried, seem to have disappeared. There are also a few 
Automolile Cabs. 

If a cab is sent for and kept waiting more than V-« ^r., the driver is 
entitled to charge by time; if it is sent back at once, half a course., or if 
after 1/4 hr., a whole course must be paid for. 

If the cab be hired for a cottrse. the driver may select his own route; 
if a Ihenre, he must obey the directions of his employer. If one of the 
passengers alights before the termination of the course, no additional charge 
can be made, unless luggage placed outside the vehicle be also removed, 
in which case one hour must be paid for. 

If the cab is engaged before 12.30 at night the day-charges only can 
be demanded, if before 6 (or 7) a.m. the night-charges must be paid, although 
the drive be prolonged beyond these limits. 

If the horses are used beyond the fortifications for 2 consecutive hours, 
the driver may demand a rest of 20 min. at the expense of the hirer. If 
a carriage is engaged beyond the fortifications to return to the town, the 
to\vn-charges by time can alone be exacted; in the reverse case, the in- 
creased rate is paid from the time when the fortifications are passed. 

Cabs whose drivers wear white hats are usually the most comfortable 
and the quickest. India-rubber tires are indicated by small bells on the 
horse's neck. 

Those who are desirous of exploring Paris expeditiously and com- 
fortably are recommended to hire a Voiture de Grande Remise (without a 
number) by the day (30 fr.), or by the week. Application should be made 
at the offices of the Compagnie Qdnerale des Voitures, Place du Theatre 
Francais 1, Boul. Montmartre 17, Boul. des Capucines 22, or Rue du 
Havre 9 ; or at the office of the Compagnie Urbaine, Rue Taitbout 59. 
Cabs of this description are also to be found on the stands near the Op^ra, 
the Madeleine, etc.; bargaining necessary (drive, about 3 fr.). 

Saddle Horses may be hired of Duphot , Rue de Duphot 12; Orouls, 
Rue d'Enghien 42; Peltier, Rue Chalgrin 3; Lalanne^ Rue Troyon 12; or 
Hensman, Avenue Bugeaud 55 (the last three near the Bnis). The charge 
for a ride of 3 hrs. is 10-20 fr. — Horses and Carriages are sold at 
Tattersal, Rue Beanjon 24. 

6. Omnibuses and Tramways. Biver Steamboats. 

The Parisian omnibus, tramway, steamboat, and railway services 
for city and suburban communication are well arranged, and, if 
properly used, enable the visitor to save much time and money. 
They run, however, too seldom and hence are often crowded. The 
plan of omnibus-lines in the appendix to the Handbook will be 
found useful, but its perfect accuracy cannot be guaranteed, as 
changes are constantly taking place. The traveller is, therefore, 
advised to purchase the latest Itineraire des Omnibus et Tramways 
dans Paris (1 fr.) at one of the omnibus-offices. 

Omnibuses and Tramways. Omnibuses and tramways cross the 
city in every direction from 7 or 7.30 a.m. till after midnight , and at 
many points a vehicle passes every five minutes. There are also 


tramway-lines to Versailles, St. Cloud, and other places in the 
Buburhs (see Plan in the Appendix). 

There are about 40 different lines oi Omnibuses, distinguished by 
the letters of the alphabet (see Appx.). With the exception of a few 
running in connection with the railways, all the omnibuses belong 
to the Compagnie Oenerale des Omnibus. 

The Tramways are, with a few exceptions, divided at present 
into the Tramways de la Compagnie des Omnibus, the Tramways 
Nord, now called Tramways de Paris et du Departement de la Seine, 
and the Tramways Sud or Tramways de la Compagnie Generale 
Parisienne de Tramways. The lines are distinguished by letters 
(preceded by T), or by the names of their termini. The tramway- 
cars of the Compagnie des Omnibus are large and cumbrous vehicles, 
with room for about 50 passengers. Those on the other lines re- 
semble the cars of most other towns, and most of them also have im- 
p^riales or outside places. Hitherto most of the cars have been 
drawn by horses , but the use of electricity has lately been much 
extended, and many new electric lines are in construction or con- 
templation (see Appendix, pp. 31, 32). 

The termini of the lines are placarded on the sides of both omni- 
buses and tramway-cars, and another board is hung behind, showing 
the destination towards which the vehicle is proceeding. The prin- 
cipal places passed en route are also indicated, and the letter of the 
line is marked on different parts of the vehicle. The carriages are 
also distinguished by their own colour and that of their lamps. Comp. 
the tables in the Appendix, pp. 24-32. 

Passengers may either hail and stop the omnibus in the street 
as in England, or wait for it at one of the numerous omnibus-offices. 
In the latter case, if there are other intending passengers, it is usual 
to ask for a numbered ticket (numero; no charge) for the line re- 
quired. As soon as the omnibus appears, places are assigned to the 
ticket-holders in order, the conductor calling out the numbers; 
when the omnibus is 'complef it drives off, and the disappointed 
ticket-holders have to wait for the next. Tramways stop only at the 
recognized stations. 

The fares on all the lines within Paris are the same, 30 c. inside 
or on the platform, and 15 c. outside (imperiale). The fares for 
places beyond the fortifications are from 10 to 50 c. higher (inside ; 
outside 5 to 25 c), according to'the distance. Some of the special 
omnibuses have a pria; unique of 20-30 c. for outside and inside. 

One of the most admirable features in the arrangements of the 
Parisian omnibus-lines is the system of Correspondances, or per- 
mission to change from one line to another. Thus, if no omnibus 
go in the direct route to the passenger's destination from the part of 
Paris iu which he is, he may demand from the conductor a corre- 
spondance for the line which will convey him thither. He will then 
receive a ticket (no charge), and will be set down at the point where the 

Information. 6. RIVER STEAMBOATS. 25 

two lines cross. Here he proceeds to the omnibus-bureau, receives a 
number, which, without additional payment, entitles him to a seat 
in the first omnibus going in the desired direction, and finally gives 
up his ticket to the conductor of the latter immediately on entering. 
Outside-passengers are not entitled to correspondance, unless they 
pay full fare (30 c.). The tables and map in the Appendix will show 
what lines have correspondance with each other. The 'correspon- 
dance' is valid only where there is a bureau, and the bureau de cor- 
respondance is not invariably the same as the office at which the 
passenger alights, but is sometimes a little way off. 

Correspondances are also issued at a small additional charge 
for places beyond the fortifications. 

Mail Coaches in the English style ply in summer as follows: to Ver- 
sailles^ 'Daily Messenger' coach at 10 a.m. from Rue St. Honore 166 (return 
fare 15 fr., box-seat 6 fr. extra) ; Cook's coach from Place de TOpera 1 (same 
time and fares) ; 'Magnet' Coach from Avenue de TOpe'ra 49, daily at 10.45 
a.m. (same fares). 

Waggonettes and Brakes or Chart-ii-banc ply through the boulevards and 
other streets during the days of the races to convey passengers to the 

River Steamboats. The Bateaux - Omnibus , or small screw 
steamers, which ply on the Seine (subject to interruption by the state 
of the river, fog, ice, etc.), are recommended to the notice of the 
traveller in fine weather, as they move quickly and afford a good 
view of the quays and banks of the river; but being small, they are 
apt to be crowded. 

There are three different services, belonging, however, to the same 
company (Bateaux Parisiens) : (1) From Charenton to Auteuil, by 
the left bank of the river within Paris ; (2) From the Pont d'Auster- 
litz to Auteuil, by the right bank; (3) From the Pont-Royal to 
Suresnes, also by the right bank. Comp. the Appendix, p. 35. 

The Charenton steamboats may be recognized by the benches 
placed across the deck; those for Suresnes by their larger size. In 
the latter boats the fares for the whole or any part of the distance are 
the same. Metal tickets (jetons) are taken on board and given up 
on disembarking. Fares (which are liable to vary): From Charen- 
ton to Pont d'Austerlitz 10 c, on Sun. and holidays 15c.; from 
Charenton to Auteuil 20 and 25 c. ; Pont d'Austerlitz to Auteuil 
10 and 20 c. ; Pont Royal to Suresnes 20 and 40 c. 

A half-hourly service (from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m.) plies on Thurs., Sun., 
and holidays from the Quai du Louvre to Ablon via CTioisy-le-Roi ; see p. 357. 

7. Railway Stations. Chemin de Fer de Ceinture. Railway Offices 
and Agents. 

The seven railways radiating from Paris start from ten different 
stations. For remarks on the French railway system, see p. xiii. 

The '•Indicateur des Chemins de Fer\ the Indicateur Paul Dupont^ 
and the Livrets Chaix(j^. xiv) give complete information regarding all 
trains. — Hotels and Restaurants near the termini, see pp. 9, 18. 

26 7. RAILWAY STATIONS. Preliminary 

I. Chemins de Fer du Nord. Gabe du Nord, Place Roubaix 18 
(PL B, 24; comp. p. 200), for the Lignes de Banlieue to St. Denis, 
Enghien, etc. ; and for the Lignes du Nord to England via Calais 
or Boulogne^ Belgium, Germany vid Liege, etc. The booking-offices 
for the trains of the Banlieue, except for the stations beyond St. 
Denis on the Chantilly line, are in front; for the other trains, in the 
arcade to the left. — Buffet to the right in the first arcade. — Oare, 
de la Ceinture et des Trains -Tramways, to the right of the main station. 

n. Chemins de Fer de I'Est. Two Stations. 

(1). Gabe de l'Est, or de Stbasbourg, Place de Strasbourg (Pl.B, 
24 ; p. 200), for the lines to Nancy, etc., to Germany vid Melz, to 
Switzerland vid Belfort, and to Italy vid the St. Gotthard Tunnel, 
etc. The booking-office for the trains of the Banlieue is in front, for 
the other trains to the left. 

(2). Gabe de Vincennes, Place de la Bastille (PI. R, 25; 7), 
for the line to Vincennes. 

III. Chemins de Fer de I'Ouest. Three Stations. 

(1). Gabe St. Lazare (buffet; comp. p. 196), between the 
Rue St. Lazare, the Rue d' Amsterdam, and the Rue de Rome (PI. B, 
18), for the Ligne de Petite Ceinture (see below); the Ligne du 
Cham p -de- Mar Sf the Lignes de Banlieue , serving 5f. Ciowd, Ver- 
sailles (right bank), St. Germain, Argenteuil, and Ermont; and the 
Lignes de Normandie (England vid Dieppe or Le Havre). — The 
railway-omnibuses (for railway-passengers only) start from the Place 
de la Republique , the Pointe St. Eustache, the Bourse de Com- 
merce (Halles), the Hotel de Ville, and the Square du Bon-Marche' 
(fares 20, 25 c). 

(2). GareMontparnasse, Boulevard Montparnasse 44 (PL G, 16 ; 
p. 288), for the Ligne de Banlieue to Sevres and Versailles (left bank), 
the Lignes de Bretagne, and the Chemins de Fer de VEtat. The book- 
ing-offices for the line to Versailles and for the suburban stations are 
situated downstairs, to the left; those for the main lines are above, 
reached by a staircase and by an outside inclined plane. Buffet on 
the groundfloor. Omnibus between this station and the Bourse, 30 c. 

(3). Garb des Invalides (PL R, 14; //), a new station in the 
Esplanade des Invalides, at present used only for the Ligne des 
Moulineaux and St. Cloud (see p. 291), but intended ultimately, after 
the completion of the section from Paris via the Bois de Meudon 
and Chaville to Versailles (p. 291), to serve as the starting-point 
of the Lignes de Bretagne. 

IV. Chemins de Fer d'Orleans. Three Stations. 

(1). NouvELLE Gabe d'Obleans, Quai d'Orsay (PL R, 17, II ; 
p. 271) ; for the lines to Orleans, Tours, Bordeaux, the Pyrenees, 
Spain, etc. 

(2). Gabe d' Austeblitz or Ancienne Gare d'Orlians (PL G, 25 ; F), 
connected with the preceding by a loop-line , and still the Paris 

Information. 7. RAILWAY OFFICES. 27 

terminus for certain trains. A railway-omnibus plies between this 
station and the office of the railway, Rue de'.'Londres (Trinite)} fare 
30 c, without luggage. 

(3). Garb du Luxembourg, at the corner of the Boulevard St. 
Michel and the Rue Gay-Lussac (PL R. 19; V), near the Jardin du 
Luxembourg (p. 262), for the lines to Sceaux and Limours. Luggage 
cannot be registered at this station but must be taken to the old 
Gare de Sceaux (PI. G, 20). The line is to be prolonged to unite at 
the Place St. Michel with that from the new Gare d'Orle'ans. 

V. Chemins de Fer de Paris k Lyon et k la ]ff6diterran6e. 
Gare de Lyon (buffet), Boulevard Diderot 20 (PI. G, 25, 28). 

Trains to Fontainebleau, Dijon, Chdlon-sur-Saone , Macon, Lyons, 
Marseilles, Switzerland vid Pontarlier, Macon, and Lyons, Italy via 
the Mont Cenis Tunnel or vid Nice, the Mediterranean, etc. 

VI. Chemin de Fer de Petite Ceinture. — The 'Chemin de Fer 
de Petite Ceinture' forms a complete circle round Paris (with a 
branch to the Champ -de- Mars), within the line of the fortifications, 
and connects with the different railways in the suburbs. 

The length of the line is 23 M., but owing to the frequency of the 
stoppages the circuit is not performed in less than l'/2 hr. For details, 
see the table in the Appendix, p. 34. Trains run in both directions every 
10 minutes. The chief station of arrival and departure is the Gare St. La- 
zare (p. 26), but trains also run from the Gare du Kord (p. 26). There is 
no third class. The fares are 40 or 20 c. to the first or second station 
from the point of departure (return 60 or 30 c), and 55 or 30 c. beyond 
that distance (return iO or 50 c). 

Travellers may avail themselves of this railway to visit points of 
interest in the suburbs, such as the Bois de Boulogne, Pere Lachaise, 
and the Buttes-Chaumont, or to make the complete circuit of the city. 
On every side of the town, however, except the S.W., the line runs be- 
tween walls or through deep cuttings and tunnels. The seats on the out- 
side ('impe'riale') are not to be recommended; they are very draughty, 
and exposed to dust and smoke. 

VII. Metropolitain. This is a new electric railway begun in 
1898, which runs mostly underground and is to comprise a circular 
line along the Outer Boulevards (p. 73) and three transverse lines, 
with an aggregate length of about 40 M. Over the section open for 
traffic in 1900, extending from the Cours de Vincennes (PL R, 34) 
to the Porte Maillot (PI. B, 9; about 6^/4 M.), with branches to the 
Trocodero (PI. R, 8 ; /) and the Porte Dawphine (PI. R, 6), trains 
run every 4-5 minutes (uniform fares 25 c, 15 c). The stations 
are below the level of the streets, like those of the Metropolitan and 
District Railways in London. — Routes and list of stations, see 
Appendix, p. 33. 

The Chemin de Fer de Grande Ceinture, which forms a wide circle 
round Paris, connecting the Chemins de Fer de I'Est, de Vincennes, de 
Lyon, and d'Orl^ans, is of little interest for the tourist except for the trip 
from Versailles to St. Germain (p. 326) and for the excursion to the val- 
ley of the Bifevre (p. 352). 

Kailway Offices. All the lines have sub-offices (Bureaux Succurtales) 
in various parts of the city, from which railway omnibuses may be ordered 
(comp. p. 1). Passengers may book their luggage, and in some cases even 

28 8. POST OFFICE. Preliminary 

take their tickets, at these sub-offices, which, however, they must generally 
reach 1 hr. before the departure of the train. Parcels, see p. 29. The 
offices are open from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. on week-days, from 7 a.m. to noon on 
Sun. and holidays. 

Cfiemin de Fer du Nord: Rue du Bouloi 21; Rue Paul-Lelong 7; Rue 
Gaillon 5; Place de la Madeleine 7; Boul. de Sebastopol 34 ; Rue St. Martin 
326; Rue des Archives 63; Quai de Valmy 33; Rue du Faubourg-St-An- 
toine 21; Place St. Sulpice 6. — Est: Rue Notre-Dame-des-Victoires 28; 
Rue du Bouloi 9; Boul de Sebastopol 34; Place de la Bastille, at the Gare 
de Vincennes; Place St. Sulpice 6; Rue de la Chausse'e-d'Antin 7; Rue 
Ste. Anne 6; Rue de TorbisoSS. — Quest and Etat: Rue de TEchiquier 27; 
Boul. and Impasse Bonne-Nouvelle ; Rue du Perche 9; Rue du Bouloi IT; 
Rue du Quatre-Septembre 10 ; Rue de Palestro 7; Rue St. Andre-des-Arts 9; 
Place de la Ba'^tille, at the Gare de Vincennes; Rue Ste. Anne 6. — Orlians 
and Etat: Rue de Londres 8; Rue Paul-Lelong 7; Rue Gaillon 5; Rue St. 
Martin 326; Place St. Sulpice 6; Place de la Madeleine 7; Rue du Bouloi 21 ; 
Rue de Paradis 21bis ; Boul. de Sebastopol 34; Rue des Archives 63; Quai 
de Valmy 33; Rue du Faubourg- St-Antoine 21. — Lyon: Rue St. Lazare 88; 
Rue des Petites-Ecuries 11; Rue St. Martia 252; Rue de Rambuteau 6; Rue 
de Rennes 45; Place de la Republique 16; Rue Ste. Anne 6; Rue Tique- 
tonne 64. 

The office of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (sleeping 
carriage,s) is No. 3, Place de TOpera. The South Eastern Railway and the 
London^ Chatham^ and Dover Railway have also offices in Paris (Boulevard 
des Italiens 30). 

Steamboat Offices. The Paris offices of some of the principal steamship 
companies are as follows: Allan Line, Rue Scribe 7. — American, Rue Scribe 
5. — Anchor, Rue du Helder 4. — Chargeurs Rdunit, Boul. des Italiens 11; 
Compagnie Oin4rale Transatlantique , Rue Auber 6 and Boul. des Capucines 
12. — Cunard, Avenue de TOpera 38. — Dominion, Rue des Marais 95. — 
Fraissinei, Rue de Rougemont 9. — Hamburg-American Linie, Rue Scribe 3. 

— Messageries Maritimes, Rue Vignon 1. — Peninsular d: Oriental Co., Boul. 
des Italiens 30. — Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Avenue de TOpe'ra 38. — 
North- Oer man Lloyd, Rue Scribe 2bis. — White Star, Rue Scribe 1. 

Railway Agents. Cook, Place de TOpera 1 ; Gaze, Rue Scribe 2; Voyages 
Economiques ., Rue du Faubourg-Montmartre 17 and Rue Auber 10; Lubin, 
Boulevard Haussmann 36; Clark, Rue Auber 1; Dtichemin, Rue de Gram- 
mont 20; Voyages Pratiques., Rue de Rome 9; Desroches. Montmartre 21. 

Goods Agents. Wheatley db Co., Rue Auber 12 ; Pitt dt Scott, Rue Scribe 7 
and Rue Clement Marot 12 (also storage of luggage, etc.); American Ex- 
2>ress Co. (for America), Rue Halevy 6 and Rue des Petites-Ecaries 47; 
Thos. Meadows d- Co., Rue Scribe 4. 

8. Post and Telegraph Offices. 

Post Office. The Poste Centrale, or General Post Office, is in 
the Rue du Louvre (PI. R, 21 ; ///) ; comp. p. 173. There are also 
in the different quarters of the town about a hundred branch-offices, 
distinguished at night by blue lamps, besides auxiliary offices in 
shops, with blue placards. 

The following are the Bukeacx d'Aeeondissement, or District Of- 
fices. (Meaning of the asterisks, see below.) 

1. Arrond. (Louvre): **H6tel des Postes (p. 173); **Avenue de I'Op^ra 
2; *Rue des Capucines 13; *R. Cambon 9; *R. St. Denis 90; 'R. des Halles 
9. — 2. Arrond. (Bourse): **Place de la Bourse 4 and R. Feydeau 5; **R. 
de Clery 25; ""R. Marsollier2; *R. de Grammont 16. — 3. Arrond. (Tem- 
ple) : *R. Re'aumur 47 ; *Boul. St. Martin 41 ; 'R. des Haudriettes 4 ; etc — 
4. Arrond. (Hotel de Ville) : "Hotel de Ville ; *Tribunal de Commerce; 
*Rue de la Bastille 2; etc. — 5. Arrond. (Pantheon): *R. dePoi83y9; etc. 

— 6. Arrond. (Luxembourg) : 'R, des Saints-Peres 22, and R. de I'Univer- 

Information. 8. POST OFFICE. 29 

site 1; R. de Rennes 53 ^ R. de Vaugirard 36 (Luxembourg); etc. — 
7. Arrond. (Palais Bourbon) : *Boul. St. Germain 195 ; *R. de Bourgogne 2 
(Chambre); *R. de Grenelle 103; etc. — *. Arrond. (Elysee): "R. d'Amster- 
dam 19 ; *Boul. Malesherbes 6; R. Boissy d'Anglas 3 (PJace de la Concorde) ; 
Avenue des Champs-Elysees 33; etc. — 9. Arrond. (Opera): *Boul. des Capu- 
cines (Grand-Hotel); *R. de Provence 54; *R. Milton 1; *R. Lafayette 35; 
•R. Bleue 14; etc. — 10. Arrond. (St. Laurent): *R. d'Enghien 21; R. de 
Strasbourg 8 (Gare deFEst); 'Gare du Nord; etc. — 11. Arrond. (Popin- 
court): Place de la R^publique 10; -Boul. Beaumarchais 68; etc. — 16. 
Arrond. (Passy) : Avenue Marceau 29; Place Victor Hugo 8; Rue de la 
Pompe43; etc". — 17. Arrond. (Batignolles-Monceau): Boul. de Courcelles 73; 
Avenue de la Grande -Arm^e 50bis; Avenue de Wagram 165; Rue des 
Batignolles 42; etc. 

The ordinary offices are open daily from 7 a.m. (8 a.m. in 
winter) till 9 p.m. (4 p.m. on Sun. and holidays). Letters for the 
evening -trains starting before 8.10 p.m. must be posted at the 
ordinary offices before 5.15 or 5.30 p.m. ; at the offices marked with 
one asterisk before 5.45 p.m.; at the general post-office and the 
offices marked with two asterisks before 6.30 p.m.; at the railway 
stations they may be posted till within 5-10 minutes of the starting 
of the trains. Letters to be registered must be handed in 1-2 hrs. 
earlier. Late letters are received at the offices marked with one or 
two asterisks. 

The Poste Restante Office is in the General Post Office and is 
open daily till 9 p.m. Travellers may also direct foste restante 
letters to be addressed to any of the district-offices. In applying for 
letters, the written or printed name, and in the case of registered 
letters, the passport of the addressee should always be presented. It 
is, however, preferable to desire letters to be addressed to the hotel 
or boarding-house where the visitor intends residing. 

Letter-boxes (Boites aux Lettres) are also to be found at most 
public buildings, at the railway-stations, in the tramway-cars serv- 
ing the suburbs, and in most tobacconists' shops, where stamps (tim- 
bres-paste) may also be purchased. 

Postage of Letters, etc. Ordinary Letters within France, including 
Corsica. Algeria, and Tun's, 15c. per 15 grammes prepaid; for countries 
of tbePi'Stal Union 25 c. (The silver franc and the bronze sou each weigh 
5 grammes.) — Registered Letters (lettres recommandies) 25 c. extra. — Post 
Cards 10 c. each, with card for reply attached, 20 c. — Letter-Cards^ 15 c.; 
for abroad 25 c. 

Fast Office Orders (mandats de posie) are issued for most countries in 
the Postal Union at a charge of 25 c. for every 25 fr. or fraction of 15fr., 
the maximnmj being 500 or 1000 fr. ; for Great Britain, 20c. per 10 fr., 
maximum 252 fr. 

Printed Papers (impritnis sous bande): 1 c. per 5 grammes up to the 
weight of 20 !jr. ; 5 c. between 20 and 50 gr. ; above oO gr. 5 c. for each 
50 gr. or fraction of 50 gr. ; to foreign countries 5 c. per 50 gr. 

Parcels, though known as ^Colis Postaux\ are not transmitted 
by the French post-office, but by the railway and steamship com- 
panies, which are subsidized for the purpose, or (in Paris) by a pri- 
vate firm. These parcels must not contain gold, silver, jewelry, explo- 
sives or dangerous substances, or anything in the nature of a letter. 
Within Paris (three deliveries daily, two on Sun. and holidays). Parcels 
must not exceed 10 kilogrammes (22 lbs.) in weight. The charges are 25 c 

30 8. TELEGRAPH. Preliminary 

per parcel up to 5 kil., 40c. above that weight, or 65 and 70c. 'centre 
remboursement'. Parcels should be handed in at one of the numerous 
depots (tobacconists' shops and branch post-offices) a list of which may be 
obtained in the post offices. The central depot is at Rue du Louvre 23. 

Provincial and Colonial Parcels. Small parcels not exceeding 10 kil. 
(22 lbs.) in weight may be forwarded within France and to the French 
colonies at a charge of 60 c. for parcels up to 3 kil. (6V5 lbs.), 80 c. up to 
5 kil., and IV4 fr. for heavier parcels, delivered at a railway-station or 
post-office; 25 c. extra delivered at a private address. Parcels may be sent 
'contre remboursement' up to 500 fr. for an extra fee of 60 or ^5 c. They 
may be insured for 500 fr. on payment of 10 c. — Parcels are not received 
at the post-offices, but should be handed in at a railway-station or at a 
railway- office (see p. 27). 

Foreign Parcels. There is also a parcel-post between France and some 
of the other countries of the Postal Union, parcels up to 11 lbs. being con- 
veyed at a uniform rate : viz. to Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, 1 fr. 10 c. ; 
Spain, Italy, 1 fr. 35c.; Great Britain, Austria, Netherlands, 1 fr. 60c. 
These parcels must be sealed. 

Telegraph. The telegraph-offices at the district post-offices are 
open to 9 p.m. The following amongst others are open till 11 p.m. : 
Avenue des Champs-Elysees 33 ; at the Grand Hotel ; Gare du Nord ; 
the Luxembourg; Place de la R^publique 10; Rue des Halles 9. 
The offices at Avenue de I'Op^ra 2, Rue Boissy d'Anglas 3, and the 
Place du Havre are open till midnight. Telegrams may be sent at 
any hour of the day or night from the offices at the Bourse (night 
entrance on the left) and Rue de Grenelle 103. 

Telegrams within France and to Monaco, Algeria, and Tunis are 
charged at the rate of 5 c. per word (minimum charge 50 c.) ; to Great 
Britain, 20 c. per word (minimum 5 words) ; to New York, 1 fr. 25, Chicago 
1 fr. 55 c. per word. — Western Union, Telegraph Co., Rue Scribe 3. 

The rates per word for other countries are as follows : for Luxem- 
bourg, Switzerland, and Belgium 12V2 c. : Germany 15 c. ; Netherlands 16 c. ; 
Austria-Hungary , Portugal , Italy , and Spain 20 c. ; Denmark , 24' /a c. ; 
Sweden, 28 c.; Roumania, Servia, etc., 281/2 c; Norway 36 c.; Russia in 
Europe 40 c. % Turkey 53 c; Greece 53V2-57 c. 

Telegrams marked urgent, taking precedence of ordinary telegrams, 
are charged thrice the ordinary rates. 

Telegraphic Orders (mandats telegraphiques) for not more than 
5000 fr. are issued between French offices, and for not more than 
500 fr. between France and a few foreign countries (e.g. Germany, 
Austria, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland). 

There is also a system of Pneumatic Tubes ( Telegraphic pneu- 
matique) for the transmission of messages within Paris, at the rate 
of 20 c. for open cards (cartes telegrammes ouvertes) , 30 c. for 
closed cards (cartes telegrammes fermies), and 50 c. for letters not 
weighing more than 7 grammes. The cards may be obtained at the 
telegraph-offices, to which special letter-boxes for the pneumatic 
post are also attached. 

Telephone. Most of the post and telegraph offices have tele- 
phonic communication with all parts of Paris and district (fee 25 c. 
per 5 min.) and with the provinces (fee 25 c. per 3 min. up to 25 
kilometres; beyond that distance, 50 c. per 100 kilometres). Paris 
also communicates with Brussels (3 fr.) and London (10 fr. per 
5 min.) from central offices, of which the chief are at Rue Guten- 

Information. 9. THEATRES. 31 

berg, near the Central Post Office, and Boul. St. Germain 183. 
Plans of the telephonic system are hung up in the offices. 

The telephone may also be used for the transmission of Messages 
telephones (50 c. per 3 min.J, which the receiving office delivers to 
the addressee by messenger. 

9. Theatres. Circuses. Music Halls. Balls. 

Paris now possesses about 20 large theatres, in the proper 
sense of the word, and the traveller doing the 'sights' of Paris 
should not omit to visit some at least of the principal houses. Per- 
formances generally begin between 8 and 8.30 p.m., and last till 
nearly midnight; details are given in the newspapers and the wall 
posters. Matinees are frequently given in winter on Sundays and 
holidays, and generally on Thursdays also. Many of the principal 
theatres are closed in summer. 

An intimate acquaintance with colloquial French, such as can be ac- 
quired only by prolonged residence in the country, is absolutely necessary 
for the thorough appreciation of the acting ; visitors are therefore strongly 
recommended to purchase the play {la pihce; 1-2 fr.) to be performed, and 
peruse it beforehand. Dramatic compositions of every kind are sold at 
the Librairie Tresse d: Stock. Theatre Francais 8-11, by Ollendorff^ Rue de la 
Chaussee-d'Antin 50, at the Magasin Th^dtral, Boulevard St. Martin 12, etc. 
The plays may also be procured in most instances at the theatres themselves. 
Play-bills (le programme, le programme ditailU), or theatrical newspapers 
with the programme of the evening {VEntre-Acte, VOrchestre, and others), 
are sold in the theatres. 

The best seats are the fauteuils d'orchestre, or seats next to the 
orchestra, behind which are the stalles d'orchestre. The fauteuils 
d' amphitheatre in the Opera House may also be recommended, but in 
most other theatres the amphitheatre is indifferent both for seeing 
and hearing. The fauteuils de balcon, or de la 'premiere galerie, 
corresponding to the English dress-circle, are good seats, especially 
for ladies. The centre seats in the two following galleries (loges des 
premieres, des secondes de face) come next in point of comfort. The 
avant-scenes or loges d^avant-scenes are the stage-boxes, which may 
be du rez-de-chaussee (on a level with the stage), de balcon, etc. 
Baignoires, or loges du rez-de-chaussee, are the other boxes on the 
groundfloor of the theatre. At many of the theatres ladies are 
not admitted to the orchestra stalls, the space between each row 
of seats being so narrow, that even gentlemen have some difficulty 
in passing in and out. When ladies are admitted to the orchestra 
stalls, they are usually expected to remove their hats. The parterre 
or pit is always crowded, and the places are not numbered, except 
at the Opera. Those who wish to secure a tolerable seat in this part 
of the theatre should be at the door at least an hour before the 
beginning of the performance , and fall into the rank (faire queue) 
of other expectants. The doors are opened half-an-hour before the 
curtain rises. Women are seldom seen in the parterre, except in the 
smaller theatres. The arrangement and naming of the seats differ 

32 9. THEATRES. Preliminary 

in the different theatres, but in all of them the side-seats and the 
two upper galleries should he avoided, especially at the Opera. As 
a rule the price of a seat is the best criterion of its desirability. 

It is a wise precaution, especially in the case of very popular 
performances and when ladies are of the party, to secure a good 
seat by purchasing a ticket beforehand (billet en location) at the 
office of the theatre {bureau de location, generally open from 10 or 11 
to 6), where a plan of the interior is shown. Seats booked in this 
manner often cost 72-2 fr. more than au bureau, i.e. at the door, 
but the purchaser has the satisfaction of knowing that his seat is 
numbered and reserved. Box-places, however, cannot thus be ob- 
tained in advance except by taking a whole box (4-6 seats). Places 
may also be secured beforehand at one of the theatrical offices in the 
Boulevards, but the booking-fee demanded there is often 5 fr. and 
upwards. Visitors are cautioned against purchasing their tickets 
from vendors in the street. 

The different charges for admission given below vary according 
to the season and the popularity of the piece and of the actors. At 
the so-called premieres (scil. representations^, or first performances 
of pieces by favourite authors , the charges for boxes are often 
extravagantly high. 

Tickets taken at the door are not nnmbered, and do not give the 
purchaser a right to any particular seat in the part of the house to which 
they apply. The door-keeper will direct the visitor to one of the un- 
engaged places ; but if any unfair play be suspected, visitors may demand 
la feuille de location, or list of seats booked for the night , and choose 
any seats which do not appear on this list. 

The Claque C- Chevaliers du Lustre''), or paid applauders, form an an- 
noying, although characteristic feature in most of the theatres. They 
generally occupy the centre seats in the pit, under the chandelier or 
'lustre', and are easily recognised by the obtrusive and simultaneous 
vigour of their exertions. There are even '^entrepreneurs de succis dra- 
matiques\ a class of mercantile adventurers who furnish theatres with 
claques at stated terms. Strange as it may seem to the visitor, all attempts 
to abolish this nuisance have hitherto failed. 

Overcoats, cloaks, shawls, etc., may be left at the 'Vestiaire'' or cloak 
room (fee 25-50 c. each person). Gentlemen take their hats into the theatre, 
and may wear them during the intervals of the performances. The attend- 
ants of the vestiaire usually bring a footstool (petit banc) for ladies, for 
which they expect a gratuity of 10-25 c. In some theatres opera-glasses 
are placed in automatic boxes attached to the backs of the seats and opened 
by dropping half-a-franc in the slot. 

A list of the most important Parisian theatres is here annexed, 
with the prices of the seats 'au bureau' (p. 32). 

The Opera, or Academie Nationale de Musique [PI- B, R, 18 ; //), 
seep. 78. The admirable performances of the Parisian opera take 
place on Mon., Wed., and Frid., in winter on Sat. also. Mon. and 
Frid. are the fashionable evenings. The ballet and the mise en 
scene are unsurpassed. Evening-dress de rigueur in the best seats. 

Avant-scenes and premieres loges de face IT; fauteuila d'amphi theatre, 
baignoires, and premieres loges de cote 15; fauteuils d'orchestre, loges de 
face deuxiemes, and baignoires de cote 14; deuxiemes loges de cote 10; 
troisiemes loges de face 8 ; stalles de parterre 7; avant-scenes des troisiemes 5; 

Information. 9. THEATRES. 33 

fauteuils de quatrieme ampliith^atre 4 ; loges des quatriemes de face 3 and 
272; quatriemes de cote and cinquiemes 2 fr. 

The The&tre Francais (PI. li, 21 ; //), or Comedie Franfaise, 
Place du Theatre -Francais , near the Palais-Royal, occupies the 
highest rank among the theatres of Paris. The acting is admirable, 
and the plays are generally of a high class. The Theatre Franc.ais 
was burned on March 8th, 1900; during its reconstruction, the per- 
formances of the Comedie rrau(;aise will take place at the Odeon 
(see below). Evening-dress as at the Opera. — For a description 
of the edifice itself, see p. 61. 

Avant-scenes des premieres loges 10; loges du rez-de-chaus^e, premieres 
(first gallery), avant-scenes des deuxiemes, and baignoires de face 8: fau- 
teuils de balcon 8-10; fauteuils d'orchestre 8; loges de face de deuxieme 
rang 6; loges decouvertes de deuxieme rang 5; loges de face de troisieme 
rang 81/2; loges de'couvertes de troisieme rang 3; parterre 2V2; troisieme 
galerie et fauteuils de la quatrieme 2 fr. 

The Opera Comique, Place Boieldieu (PI. R, 21, II; see p. 77), 
rebuilt after the fire of 1887, was intended for the performance of 
the lighter operas, but has latterly been devoted to the more ambi- 
tious operas and to lyrical dramas. Evening-dress as at the Ope'ra. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chausse'e and de balcon 10-, loges de balcon, 
baignoires, fauteuils d'orcbestre, and faut. de balcon 8; avant-scenes and 
loges de la premiere galerie 6; fauteuils de la deuxieme galerie 4 ; stalles 
de parterre and avant-scenes de la deuxieme galerie 3 fr. 

The OdeonJ, Place de I'Odeon (PI. R, 19; IV), near the Palais 
du Luxembourg (p. 263), ranks next to the Theatre Francais, and 
is chiefly devoted to the performance of classical dramas. During 
1900 the performances of the Comedie Frangaise will take place 
here (see above), while the actors of the Odeon will play at the 
Gymnase (see below). Ladies are admitted to all seats except the 
parterre. Evening-dress usual in the best seats. 

Avant-scenes des premieres and du rez-de-chaussee 12; baignoires 
d'avant-scene 10; premieres loges de face 8; fauteuils d'orcbestre 6; fau- 
teuils de la premiere galerie 6 and 5; stalles de la deuxieme galerie 31/2; 
deux, loges de face 3; parterre 2V2 fr. 

The Gymnase (PL R, 24 ; ///), Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle 38, 
chiefly for comedies, is one of the best theatres in Paris. Scribe 
wrote most of his plays for this theatre. Vict. Sardou, Alex. Dumas 
the Younger, Emile Angler, and Octave Feuillet have also achieved 
great successes here. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and de balcon 15; baignoires, fauteuils 
d'orcbestre, loges, and fauteuils de balcon 10; fauteuils de foyer 7; loges 
de foyer 6 and 5; avant-scenes de foyer 5; loges de deuxieme galerie 3 
and 2V2; stalles de deuxieme galerie 2 and IV2 fr., etc. — The prices 'en 
locatiim' (p. 32) are the same. 

The VaudeviUe (PI. R, 18, 21; II), at the corner of the Rue 
de la Chaussee-d'Antin and the Boulevard des Capucines, is chiefly 
destined for dramas and comedies. Ceiling painted by Mazerolle. 
Mme. R^jane plays here. 

Avant-scenes du re'/-dc-chausse'e and des premieres (4 seat«) 15 fr. each 
seat; premieres loges (6, 5, and 4 seats) 12; baignoires (6, 5, and 4 seats) 
10; fauteuils de balcon, premier rang 12; deuxieme rang and fauteuils 

Baedekks. Paris. 14th Edit. 3 

34 9. THEATRES. Preliminary 

d'orchestre 10; fauteuils de foyer 7 and 6*, loges de foyer 6; avant-scenes 
and deuxiemes loges de foyer 5; troisiemes 4, 3, and 2 fr. 

The Varietes (PI. R, 21 ; III), Boulevard Montmartre, excel- 
lent for vaudevilles, farces, operettas, and similar lively pieces of 
essentially Parisian character. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and des premieres (5 seats) 12; baig- 
noires C6, 5, and 4 seats) and loges de premiere galerie (6 and 4 seats) 10; 
fauteuils de balcon 12 and 10; fauteuils d'orchestre 20 and 7; fauteuils de 
foyer 5 and 4 ; deuxieme galerie 4 and 3 fr. 

Theatre du Falais-Eoyal, at the N.W. corner of the Palais Royal, 
Rue Montpensier 74 (PI. R, 21 ; //), a small but very popular the- 
atre, -where vaudevilles and farces of broad character are performed. 
Ladies are not admitted to the orchestra. 

Avant-scenes and fauteuils de balcon premier rang 8; premieres 
loges, baignoires, fauteuils de balcon and d'orchestre 7; deuxiemes loges, 
fauteuils de galerie, deuxiemes de face, and stalles d'orchestre 5; dexixiemes 
loges and fauteuils de galerie 4; stalles de la deuxieme galerie 2^/2 fr. 

Thea.tre de la Porte St. Martin (PI. R, 24; ///}, Boulevard St. 
Martin 16. Dramas, such as 'Cyrano de Bergerac' Coquelin aine 
acts here. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and du premier etage, baignoires and 
premieres loges de balcon 10; fauteuils de premier balcon 10 and 8; fauteuils 
d'orcbestre 8; avant-scenes and fauteuils d'orchestre 6; fauteuils and loges 
de premiere galerie 4 and 8; deuxieme galerie 2 fr. 

The§.tre Lyrique de la Eenaissance (PI. R, 24; 777), next door 
to the preceding. Comic operas. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-cbaussee and balcon 10; baignoires 8; loges de 
balcon and fauteuils de balcon (1st and 2nd rows) 7; other rows and 
fauteuils d'orchestre 6; fauteuils and loges de premiere galerie 4 and 3; 
deuxieme galerie 2 fr. 

Theatre Antoine (PI. R, 24; 777), Boul. de Strasbourg 14, for 
modern comedies. Excellent performances. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chausse'e and de balcon 8 fr. ; loges 7 fr. ; 
baignoires 6 fr. ; fauteuils d'orchestre and fauteuils de balcon (first row) 
5fr.; fauteuils de balcon (other rows) 4fr. ; loges des foyer and fauteuils 
de foyer (first row) 3 fr. ; avant-scenes de foyer 2V2 fr. — The prices en 
location (p. 32) are the same. 

The&tre de la Gaite (PI. R, 24; 777), Square des Arts-et-Me'- 
tiers. It has several times changed its name and its specialty; 
at present comic operas, spectacular pieces, etc., are given. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chaussee and de premiere galerie and baig- 
noires 10; fauteuils and loges de premiere galerie 8; fauteuils d'orchestre 
7; avant-scenes, loges. and fauteuils de deuxieme galerie 5; stalles d'or- 
chestre 4; stalles de deuxieme galerie 3 ; de troisieme galerie 2V2 and 2 fr. 

The&tre du ChS-telet, Place du Chatelet (PL R, 24 ; F), a very 
roomy edifice, specially fitted up for spectacular pieces and ballet. 

Loges (6 and 8 seats) and baignoires (4 seats) 71/2 fr. ; fauteuils de 
balcon 8; fauteuils d'orchestre 8 and 6; stalles de galerie 5; premier am- 
phitheatre 3; deuxieme amphitheatre 21/2 fr. 

Theatre Sarah Bernhardt (PI. R, 23 ; F), Place du Chatelet, 
opposite the preceding, for dramas and comedies, under the manage- 
ment of the celebrated actress. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chausse'e and de balcon, 15 fr.; baignoires, 
loges, and fauteuils de balcon premier rang 12; fauteuils de deuxieme rang 

Information. 9. THEATRES. 35 

and d'orchestre 10; loges de premiere galerie 7; fauteuils de premiere 
galenic 6; avant-scenes de premiere and de deuxieme gal. 4-, stallea de 
parterre 372 ; fauteuils de deuxieme galerie 21/2 fr. — The prices en loca- 
tion (p. 32j are the same. 

Theatre des Nouveautes (PI. R, 21), Boulevard des Italiens28; 
for operettas, vaudevilles, etc. 

Avant-scenes da rez-de-chanssee and des premieres (4 seats) IQ'/s fr. ; 
baignoires and loges de balcon (5 and 4 seats) 85 avant-scenes de deuxieme 
galerie 8; fauteuils d'orchestre and de balcon 7; loges and fauteuils de 
deuxieme galerie 4; stalles de troisieme galerie 3 fr. 

Bouffes Parisiens (PI. R, 21 ; 7/), a small theatre in the Passage 
Choiseul, the specialty of which is operettas. 

Avant-scenes du rez-de-chausse'e (5 seats) 10; baignoires and loges de 
balcon (0 and 4 seats) 8; avant-scenes de deuxieme galerie 8; fauteuils 
d'orchestre and de balcon 7; loges and fauteuils de deuxieme galerie 4; 
stalles de troisieme galerie 2 fr. 

Ambigu-Comique (PI. R, 24; III), Boulevard St. Martin 4; 
dramas, melodramas, and 'patriotic' pieces. 

Premieres avant-scenes 9; premieres loges 8; fauteuils d'orchestre 7, 
6, and 6; fauteuils de foyer 4 and 3 fr. 

Opera Populaire (PI. R, 27 ; ///), Rue de Bondy 40, near the 
Boulevard St. Martin. 

Fauteuils de balcon 5 fr.; fauteuils d'orchestre 4 and 3; stalles 2; 
premiere galerie 1 fr. 50; deuxieme galerie 1 fr. and 75 c. 

Among the best of the other theatres are the following : — 

Theatre de Cluny, Boul. St. Germain 71, near the Musee de 
Cluny, the 'Gymnase' of the left bank (seats 1-6 fr.). — Athenee, Rue 
Boudreau, Square de I'Ope'ra (PI. R 18, //,• U/o-S fr.). — Dejazet, 
Boul. du Temple 41 (i/o-^ f^^O- — Theatre de la Republique^ Rue 
de Malte 50, near the Place de la Republique (1/2-6 fr.). 

The Theatre Robert Houdin, Boulevard des Italiens 8, for con- 
juring of all kinds, may also be mentioned here. Admission 2 to 5 fr. 

Equestrian Pbeformances , accompanied by acrobatic feats, 
pantomime, etc. , are exhibited at the following circuses : — 

Nouveau Cirque, Rue St. Honore 47 (PI. R, 18; //), with an 
arena which may be flooded at a moment's notice for aquatic spec- 
tacles. The floor is formed of perforated planks covered with mat- 
ting; at a given signal the matting is rolled up, the planking 
descends, and water gushes in on all sides. Performances from 1st 
Oct. to 30th June. Adm. 5, 3, and (promenade only) 2 fr. 

Cirque Palace (formerly Cirque d'Ete; PI. R, 15, //), Avenue 
Matignon, near the Rond-Point des Champs-Elys^es. Performances 
every evening from April to October. Seats for 3500. Admission 
10, 6, and 3 fr. 

Cirque d'Hiver (PI. R, 27; ///), Rue de Crussol 6. Performances 
from 1st Nov. to 30th April. Adra. 1/2-2 fr. 

Cirque Medrano (PI. B, 20), Rue des Martyrs 72»er. Admis- 
sion 75 ('-. to 3 fr. 

Hippodrome (PI. B, 171. Rue Caulainconrt 3, near the Cemetery 
of Montmartre. 


36 9. BALLS. Preliminary 

Music Halls. The Folies - Bergere, Rue Richer 32 (PL B, 21; 
///) , is a very popular resort , half theatre , half cafe-concert. 
Visitors either take seats or promenade in the gallery, while the 
performances are going on on the stage. Smoking allowed. Adm. 
2-6 fr. — The Folies-Marigny, Avenue Marigny (PI. R, 15 ; //), in 
summer only (adm, 3-8 fr.); the Olympia (adm. 7 fr.), Boulevard 
des Capuciues 28 ; and the Casino de Paris (2-5 fr.), Rue de Clichy 16 
(PI. B, 18), are establishments of the same kind. Some of the Cafes- 
Concerts provide similar entertainments. 

Cafes-Concerts. The music and singing at these establish- 
ments is never of a high class, while the audience is of a very 
mixed character. The entertainments, however, are often amusing, 
and sometimes consist of vaudevilles, operettas, and farces. Smok- 
ing allowed. The alluring display of the words 'entree libre' outside 
the cafes- chantants is a ruse to attract the public, as each visitor is 
obliged to order refreshments (a 'consommation'''), which are gen- 
erally of inferior quality, at a price of ^/^-b fr. , according to the 
seat and the reputation of the place. — The following may be 
mentioned. In summer : Cafe des Ambassadeurs (V2-5 fr.), in the 
Champs-Elysees, the first on the right; the Alcazar d'Ete i}!^-^ fr.), 
the second on the right ; and the Jardin de Paris, on the left. In 
winter (a few open also in summer) : the Scala, Bowl, de Strasbourg 
13, with a handsome saloon, unroofed in summer (adm. 1-6 fr.) ; the 
Eldorado, No. 4, nearly opposite; Parisiana, Boul. Poissonniere 27 
(adm. 2-6 fr.) ; Concert Parisien, Rue du Rue Faubourg-St-Denis 37 
(V2-3 fr.) ; Petit Casino, Boul. Montmartre 12 (I1/2 and 1 fr., with a 
'consommation'); Bataclan, Boul. Voltaire 50 (3/4-4 fr.); Le Grand- 
Guignol, Rue Chaptal 20bis. La Cigale, Boul. Rochechouart 122 
(3'4-5fr.); the Ga7te Rochechouart, Boul. Rochechouart 15; Divan 
Japonais. Rue des Martyrs 75 (^/4-0 fr.); La Pepiniere, Rue de la 
Pepiniere 9, near the Gare St. Lazare (80 C.-272 fr.). 

Cabarets Artistiques. The establishments that have attained a certain 
celebrity under this name are a kind of cross between the cafe-concert 
and thecafe-brasserie. The entertainments, which consist of songs, mystic 
illusions, shadow-plays, etc., are often clever, but presuppose a considerable 
knowledge of colloquial French. These cabarets are scarcely suitable for 
ladies. Most of them are situated at Montmartre ('La Butte): L' Am Rouge, 
Avenue Trudaine 28 ; Le Mirliton, Conservatoire de Montmartre, Boul. Roche- 
chouart 84 and 108: Le Carillon, Rue de la Tour d'Auvergne 43; Cabaret 
de VEnfer and Cabaret du del. Cabaret du Mant . Cabaret des QuaPz-Arts, 
Boul. d'e Clichy 53, 34, and 62; La Roulotte, Rue de Douai 42; Le Triteau 
de Tabarin, Rue Pigalle 5S. 

Balls. The public masked balls given during the Carnival (see 
announcements in newspapers and placards) are among the most 
striking and extravagant of the peculiar institutions of Paris. These 
'bals masques' begin at midnight and last till dawn. The most im- 
portant are those in the Opera House, of which three take place 
between January and Shrove Tuesday and one at 'Mi-Careme' or 
Mid-Lent [admission for gentlemen 20 , ladies 10 fr. ; ladies in 
masks , gentlemen in masks or evening costume). Visitors with 

Information. 10. CONCERTS. 37 

ladies had better take a box. During the Carnival masked balls are 
held in the Olympia (p. 36), the Casino de Paris (p. 36), etc. 

Salles de Daxse. The 'balls', which take place all the year 
round at these public dancing-rooms, may be regarded as one of the 
specialties of Paris. Many of these entertainments, however, have 
for some years past been to a great extent 'got up' for the benefit of 
strangers, numbers of the supposed visitors being hired as decoys by 
the lessee of the saloon. It need hardly be said that ladies cannot 
attend these balls. The chief of these places of amusement on the 
right bank is perhaps the Moulin Rouge, Boul. de Clichy 88 (PI. B, 17), 
opposite the Rue Fontaine , which is also a kind of music-hall 
(adm. 2 or 3 tr. according to the entertainment). — The Bal Bul- 
lier, Avenue de I'Observatoire 33 (PI. G, 19 ; p. 286), in the Quar- 
tier Latin, is noted as a resort of students (adm. 1 or2fr. , chief 
days Sun. and Thurs.). — The dances of the Moulin de la Galette, 
Rue Lepic 79, Montmartre, and of the SalleWagrarn (1 fr.), Avenue 
de Wagram 39bi8, near the Arc de Triomphe, are also popular. 

Panoramas. The Battle of Jena, with 10 dioramas, by Poilpot, 
Boulevards Delessert 1, near the Trocadero [V\. R, 8; /). The 
Bastille, also by Poilpot, Place Diderot or Mazas (PI. R, 25; T"). 
Several at Montmartre (religious subjects) near the church of the 
Sacre'-Cceur (p. 205). Adm. I/2-I fr. 

The Musee Grevin, Boul. Montmartre 10, is a collection of wax 
figures; adm. (1-11 p.m.) 2, Sun. 1 fr., children at half-price. 
Orchestra from 3 to 6 and 8 to 10.45. — Establishments of a similar 
kind are the Musee de la Porte St. Denis. Boul. St. Denis 8 (50 c), 
and the Nouveau Miisee^ Boul. Montmartre 14 (50 c). 

Phonographs: Salon des Phonographes (VsLthe^ Boulevard des 
Italiens 26; Columbia, Boulevard des Italiens 34. 

10. Concerts, Art Exhibitions, Sport, and Clubs. 

Concerts. The concerts of the Conservatoire de Musique (p. 76), 
Rue du Faubourg-Poissonniere, which enjoy a European celebrity, 
take place every Sunday from January to April. The highest order 
of classical music is performed with exquisite taste and precision. 

As all the seats are taken by subscription, admission for strangers is 
possible only when tickets are returned by subscribers (apply 9-ii a.m. to 
the office, Rue du Conservatoire 2). — Premieres loges and stalles de 
galerie 15 fr. ; stalles d'orchestre 12 fr. •, loges du rez-de-chaussee 10 fr. ; 
denxiemes loges 9fr. ; troisiemes loges and stalles d'amphith^atre 5 fr. : 
amphitheatre 4 fr. 

The Concerts Lamoureux, for classical and Wagner music, also 
take place on Sunday afternoons in winter in the Theatre de la 
Re'publique (p. 35). Adm. II/2-8 fr. 

Similar to the last are the Concerts Colonne, which are held on 
Sun. afternoon in winter in the Theatre du Chatelet, and on Thurs. 
afternoon in the Nouveau Theatre, Rue Blanche 15 (adm. 2-8 fr.). 

38 10. SPORTS. Preliminary 

Besides the above regular concerts, others are given occasionally at 
the concert-rooms of ^rrt/'d, Rue dii Mail 13; Pleyel, Kue Rochechouart 22; 
and other places. See bills and newspaper advertisements (adm. 5-20 fr.). 

Open-air concerts in summer at the Jardin d' Acclimatation 
(p. 162). Military Bands also play (4-5 or 5-6 p.m.) in the gardens 
of the Tuileries (Snn., Tues., and Thurs.), the Palais-Royal (Sun., 
Wed., and Frid.), the Luxembourg (Sun., Tues., and Frid.), and 
in several other parks and squares ; the favourite isthat of the Garde 
Republicaine (programmes in the daily papers). 

The best Church Music is heard at the Madeleine (p. 81), St. Roch 
(p. 85), La Triniti (p. 196), Notre-Dame (p. 224), and St. Sulpice (p. 253). 

Art Exhibitions. A number of exhibitions of art take place 
annually in Paris towards the end of winter and in spring, of which 
particulars are advertised in the 'Chronique des Arts' (every Sat.) 
and other newspapers. The annual exhibitions of the Societe des 
Beaux Arts and the Societe des Artistes FranQais are to be held from 
1901 onwards in the Grand Palais des Beaux-Arts (p. 157). In 
1900 the show of the last-named society is established in temporary 
quarters in the Place Breteuil (PI. R, 13 ; IV). Exhibitions are also 
organized by the Cercle Artistique et Litteraire (p. 39) and by the 
Union Artistique (p. 39). Smaller exhibitions are held in the Galerie 
Georges Petit, Rue de Seze 8; the Galerie Durand-Ruel^ Rue Laf- 
fltte 16; the Art Nouveau (Bing), Rue de Provence 22. 

Horse Baces (Courses) take place from February to Novem- 
ber , at Auteuil (p. 161); Longchamp (p. 162), where the Grand 
Prix, the chief French race, is decided, usually on the second Sun- 
day after the English Derby ; Chantilly (p. 369) ; Vincennes (p. 305) ; 
Neuilly-Levallois (PI. B, 4; trotting-matches); La Marche (p. 327) ; 
Enghien (p. 339); Maisons-Laffltte (p. 344); St. Ouen (p. 209); 
Colombes (p. 342), etc. Full details in the newspapers. — Members 
of the English Jockey Club are admitted to all the privileges of 
the French Jockey Club (p. 39). 

Boating is a favourite summer-recreation, the chief starting- 
points being Asnieres (p. 291), Argenteuil (p. 341), Chatou (p. 327), 
and Bougival (p. 329) on the Seine, and Joinville-le-Pont (p. 305) 
and Nogent (p. 306) on the Marne. Regattas are frequently held. 

Cycling is one of the favourite amusements of the day, and is 
largely patronized by ladies, many of whom wear 'rational' dress. 
For police-regulations, etc., see p. xv. 

The largest cycling clubs in France are the Touring Club de France., Place 
de la Bourse 10 (75,0t0 members), and the Union Vilocipidique de France., 
Rue des Bons Enfants 21 (20,000 members). Comp. the 'Annuaire General 
de la Ve'locipedie'', published annually in Paris. 

Cycles may be hired (1 fr. per hr., 3 fr. per half-day, 5 fr. per day) at 
almost all the cycle shops, especially those in the Avenue de la Grande- 
Armee. — Cycle-tracks : VHodrome Municipal dii Bois de Vincennes (p. 305), 
where the 'Grand Prix de Paris' is competed for in June; Vilodrome du Pare 
des Princes^ at Auteuil; etc. — Dealers, see p. 42. — Maps, see p. 43. 

Information. 10. CLUBS. 39 

Automobiles are also now much 'en vogue' in France. The 
Automobile Club de France (see below) ranks among the first French 
clubs. The Parisian calls the machine 'Teuf teuf , and the drivers 
'Chauffeurs' and 'Chaufleuses'. 

Skating (Patinaye) is much practised in Paris , the favourite 
resort being the artificial ponds in the Bois de Boulogne. There is a 
Skating Club^ for which one of the ponds is reserved (see p. 162), 
Many skaters go to Versailles, where the Grand Canal in the park of 
the Chateau presents a larger surface of ice and is less crowded than 
the lakes of the Bois de Boulogne. A portion of the canal is reserved 
(adm. 1 fr.). Military band on Sun. afternoon. — Skating on arti- 
ficial ice is practised from October to the end of April at the Palais 
de Glace in the Champs-Ely sees (PI. R, 15, II] adm. in the morning 
and evening 3, afternoon 5 fr. ). 

Other amusements are Football, played especially in the Bois de Bou- 
logney near the lakes; Cross-Country Runs or Paper-Chases ('rallye-papers'J, 
in the woods in the direction of St. Cloud, Ville d'Avray, and Meudon; 
Betels, with clubs in the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes ; Polo, 
in the Bois de Boulogne, near the Pont de Suresnes; Cricket; Latcn Tennis. 
There is a Golf Course at Maisons-Laffitte (p. 344). 

Clubs (Cercles). The following are the principal clubs of Paris, to 
most of which strangers are admitted during their stay on the introduc- 
tion of a member: Jockey Club, Rue Scribe, Ibis^ Cercle Militaire 
(or 'Cercle National des Armees de Terre et de Mer'), Avenue and 
Place de I'Opera ; Cercle National., Avenue de I'Ope'ra 5 ; Union 
Artistique (TEpatant'), Rue Boissy-d'Anglas 5 ; Cercle de la Rue 
Royale, Place de la Concorde 4; Cercle de C Union, Boulevard de la 
Madeleine 11 ; Cercle Artistique et Litteraire, Rue Volney 7; Yacht 
Club, Place de I'Op^ra 6; Automobile Club, Place de la Concorde 6; 
Grand Cercle Republicain, Rue de Grammont 30 ; Cercle des Capu- 
cines, Boul. des Capucines 6; Sporting Club, Rue Caumartin 2; Cercle 
des Chemins de Fer, Rue de la Michodiere 22; Cercle de VEscrime, 
Rue Taitbout9; Grand Cercle, Boul. Montmartre 16; Cercle Central, 
Rue Vivienne 36 ; Cercle Agricole, Boul. St. Germain 284 ; Cercle de 
la Librairie, Boul. St. Germain 117; Club Alpin Fran<;ais, Rue du 
Bac 30; Touring Club, Place de la Bourse 10. — Gaming is practised 
extensively in most of the clubs. 

11. Shops and Sazaars. 

Shops. With the exception of the houses in the aristocratic 
Faubourg St. Germain, there are few buildings in central Paris which 
have not shops on the groundfloor. The most attractive are those 
in the Grands Boulevards, the Rue de la Paix, Avenue de TOpe'ra, 
Rue Royale, Rue Yivienne, and Rue de Rivoli. 

A few of the best and most respectable of the innumerable 
and tempting 'magasins' of Paris are here enumerated. The prices 
are generally somewhat high, and not always fixed, especially when 

40 11. SHOPS. Preliminary 

the purchaser is not thoroughly versed in French. Strangers should 
avoid shops in which 'English spoken' is announced, as the Eng- 
lish-speaking shopman is almost always 'temporarily absent', and 
the use of English only invites an attempt to fleece the foreigner. 
Those shops which announce a Vente Forcee or Liquidation should 
also be avoided. Those are most satisfactory in which the price of 
each article is marked on it in plain figures. 

The Grands Magasixs db Nouvbautbs, large establishments 
for the sale of all kinds of materials for ladies* dress, trimmings, 
laces , etc. , form a very important feature of modern Paris , and 
owing to the abundant choice of goods they offer are gradually 
superseding the smaller shops. Perhaps the most important of these 
establishments is the Bon Marche, Rue du Bac 135 and 137, and 
Rue de Sevres 18-24 (PI. R, 16; IV), rather distant from the centre 
of the town, with which may be mentioned the Grands Magasins 
du Louvre, in the Place du Palais-Royal [PL R, 20, II; p. 59), 
with reading and writing rooms , and a buffet where refreshments 
are dispensed gratis. Of a similar character are: Le Printemps, 
at the comer of the Eoul. Haussmann and the Rue du Havre; the 
Petit St. Thomas, Rue du Bac 27-35 ; A la Place Clichy, in the place 
of that name; the Ville de St. Denis, Rue du Faubourg-St-Denis 
91-95; Pygmalion, corner of the Rues St. Denis and de Rivoli, and 
Boul. de Se'bastopol 9-13 ; the Samaritaine, Rue du Pont-Neuf and 
Rue de Rivoli, moderate. The prices affixed to articles in the 
windows and at the doors of these establishments are often no crite- 
rion of those charged within. 

Similar to these Grands Magasins de Nouveautes are the Ba- 
zaars , at some of which all kinds of household requisites and 
luxuries may be obtained, while others devote themselves to cheap 
goods of every kind. Perhaps the most attractive of the former is 
the large Basar de VHotel-de- Ville, Rue de Rivoli 50-54, beside 
the Hotel de Ville. The Menagere Bazaar, Boul. Bonne-Nouvelle 
20, has lately been rebuilt. Of a similar character are the Xouvelles 
Galeries, Avenue de Clichy 43. Among the others may be mentioned 
the Bazar de VOuest, Rue d'Amsterdam, near the Gare St. Lazare, 
the Galeries Meiropole, Rue du Faubourg -Montmartre 16 & 18, 
and the Bazar du Chateau d'Eau , Rue du Faubourg-du-Temple 2. 

Antiquities and Curiosities: Laurent, Rue Meyerbeer 2. first 
floor ; Stettiner, Rue St. Georges 7 ; Lowengard^ Boul. des Capu- 
cines i; A la Croix de ma Mere, Quai Malaquais 19; Jamarin, Rue 
de Clichy 35; Seligmann, Place Vendome 23 (Rue de la Paix). — 
Chinese and Japanese Goods : Dai-Nippon, Boul. des Capucines 3 & 5. 

'Articles de Voyage': Bazar du Voyage and Moynat, Avenue 
de rOpera 3; Au Depart, same street 29; Goyard, Rue St. Honore 
223 ; and at the Bazaars (p. 40). English goods at Old England, 
Boul. des Capucines 12. 

Bootmakers f&of^jer, cordonnier; boots and shoes, c/iawsswrea^- 

Information. 11. SHOPS. 41 

Poivret, Rue des Petits-Champs 32 ; Pinet^ Boul. de la Madeleine 

1 and Rue de Paradis 44 ; Delail^ Passage JoulTroy 46 ; Bacquart, 
Passage Jouffroy 35. — For Ladies: A la Merveillense, Avenue de 
rOpera 24 ; A la Gavotte, same street 26; Ferry, Rue des Pyramides 
9. — Ready-made boots and shoes may be procured in almost every 
street : Au Prince Engine, Rue de Turbigo 29 ; Raoul, Boul. des 
Italiens 22; and many others. — English boots and shoes at Boule- 
vard Montmartre 3, 15, and 21 ; Boul. des Capucines 8. 

Bkonzes (bronzes dCart): *Barbedienne, Boul. Poissonniere 30; 
*T/i<e6auf, Avenue del'Opera 32; Siot-Decauville^ Boul. des Italians 
24; Ardavani, Boul. des Italiens 27; Boudet, Boul. des Capucines 
43; Caisso c5' Cie., Boul. de la Madeleine 1; Colin, Boul. Mont- 
martre 5; Susse Freres, Place de la Bourse 31. — Church bronzes 
and ornaments in the vicinity of St. Sulpice (p. 253). 

Chemists and Druggists: Pharmacie Normale, Rue Drouot 19 ; 
Ferrij Rue de Richelieu 102 ; Pharmacie Centrale des Boulevards, 
Rue Montmartre 178 ; Homeopathique, Boul. Haussmann 21 ; Tanret^ 
Rue Basse-du-Rempart 64; T.P. Hogg, Swann, Rue de Castiglione 

2 and 12 ; Roberts c^- Co. (Shorthose), Rue de la Paix 5; W. D. Hogg, 
Avenue des Champs- Elysees 62 [the last four are English). 

Chocolate, Tea, etc. : Compagnie Coloniale, Ave, de I'Op^ra 19 ; 
F. Marquis, Passage des Panoramas 57-59, Rue Yivienne 44, and 
Boul. des Capucines 39; Lombart, Boul. des Italiens 11; Masson, 
Boul. de la Madeleine 9, Rue de Rivoli 91, and Rue du Louvre 8 ; 
Pihan. Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore 4; Guerin-Boutron, Bon\. Pois- 
sonniere 29; Potin, see Delicacies. See also Conflseurs. 

Cigars. The manufacture and sale of tobacco ('caporal ordi- 
naire' and 'superieur') and cigars is a monopoly of government. 
The shops, called debits de la regie, are distinguished by their red 
lamps. The prices and quality are the same everyvrhere. English 
and American tobacco may be obtained at various shops in the Rue 
de Rivoli, the Boulevards, and other streets frequented by strangers. 

Good imported cigars (25 e. each, and upwards) may be pnrcbased at 
the principal depot, Quai d'Orsay 63, at the Place de la Bi.urse 15, at Kue 
St. Honore 157 ('A la Civette'), or at the Grand-Hotel. The home-made cigara 
usually smoked are the Bordelais at 5 c. each, Etrangers at 10 c, Demi-Londres 
15 c, MMianitos at 20 c. Regalias and Cam(-Has at 25 c, Londres at 30 c, 
and Lovdris extra at 85c. There are also special brands manufactured for 
the restaurants, cafes, etc. (25-50 c, each). Cigarettes are sold in packets of 
twenty at 50-80 c. Oriental cigarettes are to be had at Boul. des Capu- 
cines 12 and Place de la Bourse 15. The ordinary smoking-tobacco is 
of two qualities (caporal ordinaire., capm'al supirieur), sold in packets of 
40 grammes at 50 and 8Uc. There are also much more expensive varietie.s. 

Passers-by may avail themselves of the light burning in every tobacco 
shop without making any purchase. 

CoNFiSEURS (comp. p. 22): Boissier, Boul. des Capucines 7; 
Gouache, Boul. des Italiens 18; Siraudin (L. Marquis), Place de 
rOpera 3 and Boul. des Capucines 17 ; Rebattet, Rue du Faubourg- 
St-Honore' 12 ; Bonnet, Rue Vivienne 31, Place de la Bourse; Seug- 
not, Rue duBac28 ; Fuller (American confectionery), Rue Daunou 4. 

42 11. SHOPS. Preliminary 

— Preserved Fruits (fruits confits) are sold in these shops and in 
most large groceries. Price about 5 fr. per kilogramme [21/5 lbs.). 

Cycles. Clement- Humher, Rue du Quatre-Septembre 19 ; Rochet, 
same street 29; American Cycles, Rue Halevy 16; Gladiator^ Boul. 
Montmartre 18; Peugeot^ Avenue de la Grande- Armee 22; Singer, 
same avenue 45. Many other dealers, including some of the best 
English makers, also have shops in the Avenue de la Grande- Armee. 

Delicacies (preserved meats, etc.; comestibles'): Corcellet, 
Avenue de I'Opera 18 ; Potel S^ Chabot, Boul. des Italiens 25 and Rue 
Vivienne 28; F. Potin, Boul. de Se'bastopol 99-103, Boul. Males- 
herbes 45-47, and Faubourg-St-Antoine 99 (also 'English- American 
grocer'); Testot, Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin 15; Faguais, Avenue 
des Champs-Elysees 42, Winterborn, same avenue 73 (these tw^o 
'English- American' grocers). — Salted Provisions : Maison du Jam- 
bon d'York (Olida), Rue Drouot 11. 

Dressmakers, Milliners, etc. The most fashionable shops are 
to be found in the neighbourhood of the Opera : Rue de la Paix, Rue 
Taitbout, Rue Louis-le-Grand, Rue du Quatre Septembre, and the 
adjoining Boulevards. At these a simple walking-dress is said to 
cost not less than 400 fr., while an evening-costume may amount 
to 1500 fr. Hats and bonnets range from 60 to 120 fr. according to 
style. It is generally possible to reduce the prices by a little bar- 
gaining. The Grands Magasins (p. 40) have lower charges and 
employ skilful modistes; while ready-made clothing lean also be 
obtained there, as well as in the shops mentioned under Tailors. 

Engravings (estampes, prrarwresj and Photographs : *6oupil 
4^ Cie., Boul. des Capucines 24; *Braun, Avenue de I'Ope'ra 43 and 
Rue Louis-le-Grand 18 (photographs of paintings; comp. p. 109); 
E. Hautecoeur , Avenue de I'Ope'ra 35 (views of Paris); Martinet, 
Boul. des Capucines 12, at the Grand Hotel, and Rue de Rivoli 172. 

Fancy Articles, see 'Articles de Voyage', Toy Shops, Bronzes, 
Leather; also Bazaars (p. 40). 

Fans (eventails): Faucon, Avenue de I'Opera 38; Kees, Boul. des 
Capucines 9; Duvelleroy, Boul. des Capucines 35. 

Furniture (artistic) : Jansen, Rue Royale 6 ; Viardot, Avenue de 
I'Ope'ra 28; Jdrac, Boul. Haussmann 19; Levieil, Rue Taitbout 38; 
Dager, Rue Vivienne 47. — English furniture : Maple, Square de 
I'Opera and Rue Boudreau. 

Furriers : Revillon Freres , Rue de Rivoli 77-81 ; Compagnie 
Russe, Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin 26 ; Grunxcaldt, Rue de la Paix 6 ; 
Rufin, Avenue de FOpera 30; A la Ville de Bombay, Boul. des 
Capucines 35 ; Bougenaux-Lolley, Rue St. Honore 249. 

Glass (porcelain, etc.): Boutigny , Passage des Princes (Boul. 
des Italiens) and Peristyle Montpensier, to the W. of the Galerie 
d'Orle'ans (Palais-Royal) ; A la Paix, Avenue de I'Opera 34 ; Lnion 
des Grands Fabricants, same avenue 12 ; Grand Depot, Rue Drouot 21. 

— Venetian Glass (Salviati), Avenue de I'Opera 16. — Art Pottery 

Information. 11. SHOPS. 43 

(fayence) : Deck, Rue Halevy 10. — Golfe Juan Pottery, Avenue de 
rOpera 86. — Earthenware : Delaherche, Rue Halevy 1 ; Produits 
Ceramiques MuUer, Rue Halevy 3. 

Glovers (glove, le gant; kid glove, gant de chevreau or de peau 
de chevreau, or de peau): A la Petite Jeannette, Boul. des Italiens 3 
(English ties, hosiery, etc.); Au Carnaval de Venise, Boul. de 
la Madeleine 3 (English goods) ; Jourdain et Brown, Rue Halevy 16 ; 
Perrin, Avenue de TOpera 45 ; Persin, Passage Jouffroy 24-26 ; Au 
Roi d'Yvetot, Pass. Jouffroy 29-31 ; Grands Magasins (p. 40). 

Goldsmiths and Jewellers : very numerous and tempting, 
especially in the Rue de la Paix, the Rue Royale, and the Avenue 
de rOpe'ra. All genuine gold and silver articles bear the stamp of 
the Mint. 

Hairdressers in almost every street, frequently in the entresol. 
— 'Taille de cheveux' 30-50 c, 'coup de fer' (curling) 25-50 c. , 
'pour faire la barbe' 20-30 c. , 'friction' (shampoo) 50 c. — 'Coiffeurs' 
for ladies: Auguste, Rue de la Paix 7; Dubois^ Rne Daunou 20; 
Autard, Rue de Castiglione 6 (2-5 fr.); Gabriel, Rue St. Honore 229; 
and Cotreau, Rue Royale 18 (courtyard). 

Hatters (chapeliers): Delion, Boulevard des Capncines 24 and 
Passage Jouffroy 21-25; A. Berteil, Rue dn Quatre-Septembre 10, 
Rue de Richelieu 79, and Boulevard St. Germain 134; Gibus (in- 
ventor of the folding hat), Rue du Quatre-Septembre 11; Pinaud 
^^ Amour, Rue de Richelieu 89 ; Rene Pineau, Rue de Richelieu 94. 

Hosiers and Shirtmakbrs. Doucet, Rue de la Paix 21 ; Roddy 
(also tailor), Boul. des Italiens 2; Chemiserie du Palais Royal, Rue 
St. Honore 167 (shirt 8-1372 f^O 5 Chemiserie Speciale, Boul. de 
Se'bastopol 102 (31/9-14:72 fr.)"; Maison des 100,000 Chemises, Rue 
Lafayette 69 and Rue Madame 1; the Grands Magasins (p. 40), etc. 

Leather Wares (maroquinerie) : Maquet, Avenue de rOpe'ral9 j 
Brentano, same avenue 37. See also 'Articles de Voyage'. 

Maps. Barrere (Andriveau-Goujon), RueduBac4; Baudoin, 
military bookseller, Rue Dauphine 30 (1st floor); Delorme, Rue 
St. Lazare 80; ChaUamel, Rue Jacob 17 (charts). 

Maps of the Environs of Paris. The Army Ordnance Department has 
published a coloured map on a scale of l:20,0(jO (36 sheets at 85c. each) 
and another uncoloured, 1:40000 (9 sheets at 40c.). Barrire has issued 
maps of the W. and N.W. districts (1:5000) for 2 fr. (uncoloured), of the 
department of the Seine (1 : i2,000) in 12 sheets at 2 fr., and of the en- 
virons of Paris (1 : 50,(XJ0) in 4 or 9 sheets in colours at 1^2 or ^l\ fr. — 
Cyclist maps : Neal, Rue de Rivoli 248 (Plan-Velo series). 

Music: Heugel (Au Menestrel), Rue Vivienne 2'^^^; Noel, Passage 
des Panoramas 22; Choudens , Boul. des Capucines 30; Quinzard, 
Rue des Capucines 24 ; Durand, Place de la Madeleine 4 ; Hamelle, 
Boul. Malesherbes 22 ; Grus, Place St. Augustin. 

Musical Instruments. Pianos : *Erard, Rue du Mail 1 3 ; *Pley€l, 
Rue Rochechouart 22; Herz, Rue St. Lazare 20; Gaveau, Rue 
Blanche 32-34, Boul. St. Germain 230, etc. ; Bord, Boul. Poisson- 

44 11. SHOPS. Preliminary 

niere 14tis; Kaps, Boul. de la Madeleine 17. — Organs: Cavaille- 
Coll, Avenue du Maine 15; Merklin^ Rue Delambre 22. — Har- 
moniums: Alexandre, Rue Lafayette 81. 

Opticians (spectacles, des lunettes ; opera-glass, des jumelles ; 
eye-glasses, pince-nez): Chevalier^ Galerie de Valois 158 (Palais- 
Royal); Fischer, Avenue de I'Opera 19; Hazebroucq, Cam, Rue de 
laPaix, Nos. 23, 24; Armand, Franck- Valery , Boul. des Capu- 
cines 12, 25; Comptoir Central d'Optique, Rue Vivienne 26, mode- 
rate; Derogy, Quai de I'Horloge 33; Iseli, Boul. St. Germain 149 ; 
Meyroioitz, Rue Scribe 3 (American eye-glasses). 

Pekfumery : Violet, Boul. des Italiens 29 ; Plnaud, Place Ven- 
dome 18 and Avenue de I'Opera 7; Fiver, Boul. de Strasbourg 10; 
Gelle Freres, Avenue de I'Opera 6 ; Lubin, Rue Royale 11 ; Ouer- 
lain, Rue de la Paix 15; Agnel, Avenue de I'Opera 16; Eimmel, 
Boul. des Capucines 9 ; Botot , Rue de la Paix 17 , and Rue St. 
Honore229; Oriza(Legrand), Place de la Madeleine 11; Houbigant, 
Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore 19; Dr. Pierre (dentifrices). Place de 
I'Opera 8; Bully (vinaigre de toilette), Rue Montorgueil 67. 

Photographers: Braun, Rue Louis-le-Grand 18; iVadar, Rue 
d'Anjou 51; Liebert^ Rue de Londres 6 (25-500 fr. per doz.); 
Walery, same street, 9 ; Pirou, Rue Royale 23 and Boul. St. Ger- 
main 5; Benque, Rue Royale 5; Boyer, Boul. des Capucines 35; 
Roze , Boul. des Italiens 39 ; Tourtin, Ladrey - Disderi , Boul. des 
Italiens, Nos. 8, 6; Reutlinger, Ogereau, Boul. Montmartre, Nos. 21, 
18; Chalot, Rue Vivienne 18; Pierre - Petit , Place Cadet 3. — 
Photographic Apparatus: Photo-Hall, Rue Scribe 5; Photo-Opera.^ 
Boul. des Capucines 8; L. Reusse, Rue des Pyramides 21; H. Ca- 
rette, Rue Laffitte 27; Agence Centrale de Photogrophie , Rue de 
Chateaudun 2; Office Central de Photographie , Rue de Rennes 47. 
For sellers of photographs, see Engravings. 

Pictures and Sculptures. At the galleries of Durand-Ruel and 
Georges Petit (p. 38) ; at GoupiVs (see above, under Engravings) ; 
Goldscheider (sculptures) , Avenue de I'Ope'ra 28; Btrnheim (pic- 
tures) , Av. de rOpe'ra 36 and Rue Laffitte 8. — Ancient Pictures 
at Ch. Sedelmeyer's, Rue de la Rochefoucauld 6. 

Tailors. The general remarks under Dressmakers (p. 42) may 
be repeated here. There are several good tailors in the Boulevard 
des Italiens , Avenue de TOpe'ra , Rue Auber , etc. The following 
are said to be average prices in the Grands Boulevards: suit 200- 
400 fr., overcoat 150.-200, dress- coat 150-250, trousers 50-60, 
waistcoat 45, jacket 110-150 fr. — Ready-made Clothing : A la 
Belle Jardiniere, Rue du Pont-Neuf 2, a large establishment where 
garments of all kinds may be obtained; Coutard, Boul. Mont- 
martre 4; Old England, Boul, des Capucines 12; Maison de t Opera, 
Avenue de I'Opera 18 and 20; A Reaumur, corner of the Rues 
Reaumur and St. Denis ; A la Grande Fabrique, Rue de Turbigo 50 ; 
A St. Joseph, Rue Montmartre 115-119. 

Information. 12. BOOKSELLERS. 45 

Toy Shops : Au Nain Bleu., Boul. des Capucines 27 ; Mayasin 
des Enfants , Passage de I'Opera ; Au Paradis des Enfants, Rue de 
Rivoli 156 and Rue du Louvre 1 ; and, about the New Year, in the 
Grands Magasins and Bazaars. 

Watchmakers: Leroy et Cie.y Boul. de la Madeleine 7 (chrono- 
meters); Rodanet, Rue Vivienne 36; Breguet, Rue de la Palx 12; 
Detouche, Boul. Poissoniere 18; Au Negre , Boul. St. Denis 19 (also 
jewellery) ; Gamier^ Boul. Haussmann 17. — Lepaute (clocks), 
Rue Halevy 5; Planchon, Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin 5. 

Those who desire to transmit purchases direct to their destin- 
ation should procure the services of a goods-agent (p. 28). 

Flower Markets. Quai aux Fleurs (PI. R, 23; F), on Wed. and Sat. 
(a bird-market on Sun.); Place de la Ripublique (PI. R, 27; ///), on Men. 
and Thurs. ; Place de la Madeleine (PI. R, 18: //), on Tues. and Frid. ; 
Place St. Sulpice (PI. R, 16-19; IV), on Mon. and Thurs.; etc. There are 
heautiful flower-shops in the boulevards and elsewhere; e.g. Labrousse, Boul. 
des Capucines 12; Lachaume., Rue Royale 10; Bories, Avgustin, Boul. St. Ger- 
main 108, 77. 

Commissionnaires, or messengers, are to be found at the corners of 
some of the chief streets (no tariff; 1-2 fr. according to distance J. Many 
of them are also Shoeblacks (20 c). 

12. Booksellers. Eeading Rooms. Libraries. Newspapers. 

Booksellers. Galignanis Library, Rue de Rivoli 224, with library 
(see p. 46) ; Neal, Rue de Rivoli 248, with library and reading-room 
(see p. 46); Brentano, Avenue de I'Opera 37 ; these three are English 
and American booksellers. 

Ollendorff, Rue de la Chausse'e-d'Antin 50 (general agent for 
Baedeker's Handbooks). Flammariont, Boul. des Italiens 40, Boul. 
St. Martin 3, Galeries de I'Odeon, etc. ; Arnaud, Avenue de TOpera 
26 ; iSeum, Boul. des Italiens 8 ; Dentu, Avenue de I'Ope'ra 3Gbi8 
and Boul. de Sebastopol 73. — Haar S,' Steinert, Rue Jacob 21, Le 
Soudier, Boul. St. Germain 174, Vieweg, Rue de Richelieu 67, and 
Ch. Eitel, Rue de Richelieu 18, for German books; Boyveau, Rue 
de la Banque 22, English and German books. — Rare books : Mor- 
gand, Passage des Panoramas 55; Rouquette, Passage Choiseul 69; 
Conquet, Rue Drouot 5. The famous house of Eachette cj' Cie. is at 
79 Boul. St. Germain. — The Second-Hand Book Stalls on the quays 
on both banks, E. of the Pont Royal, are interesting. The shops in 
the Galeries de I'Odeon and the numerous bookshops near the Sor- 
bonne may also be mentioned. 

Reading Rooms. Neal, Rue de Rivoli 248 (adm. 25 c, per week 
1 fr.), well supplied with English newspapers and English and 
American magazines. — Reading Room of the New York Herald, 
Avenue de I'Ope'ra 49 (adm. gratis), well supplied with American, 
English, and French newspapers. Both of these are frequented by 
ladies. — Salon Litteraire. in the Passage de I'Opera (N. side of the 
Boul. des Italiens), Galerie du Barometre 11 and 13, French, Ger- 
man, and English newspapers; adm. 30 c. — Salons de Lecture of 

46 12. NEWSPAPERS. PreLiminary 

tlie same kind at the Librairie. de Paris, Bonl. Moiitmartre 20. — 
These reading-rooms are convenient places for letter-writing. 

Circulatuig Libraries. Bihliotheque Cardinal, Place St. Sulpice, 
to the right of the church ; Neal, Rue de Rivoli 248 (from 1 fr. per 
month) ; Galignani, Rue de Rivoli 224 (from 2 fr. per month) ; 
Bihliotheque Universelle. Rue Tronchet 4 ; La Lecture Universelle, 
Rue des Moulius 5 (2 fr. per month, 10 fr. per annum); Librairie 
Internationale, Rue Chauveau-Lagarde 14; Delorme , Rue St. La- 
zare 80 ; Bihliotheque Oilier, Rue Bonaparte 76. 

Newspapers. The oldest Parisian newspaper is the 'Gazette de 
France', which was founded in 1631 hy Renaudot (p. 224). No fewer 
than 150 new journals appeared in 1789, 140 in 1790, and 85 
in 1791 , but most of these were suppressed at various times by 
government, Napoleon finally leaving only thirteen in existence. 
On the restoration of the monarchy about 150 newspapers and period- 
icals were published, but only eight of these concerned themselves 
with political matters. Since then the number has been constantly 
on the increase, and now amounts to about 2600. The political 
papers number over 150, and are sold in the streets or at the 
'kiosques' in the Boulevards (p. 74). The larger papers cost 10 
or 15 c, the smaller 5 c. 

Morning Papers. Republican : Le Petit Journal (largest circulation) ; 
Le Matin, La Libre Parole (antisemitic) ^ U Intransigeant (Henri Rochefort) ; 
Le Journal, UEcho de Paris (these two more literary than political); 
L' Eclair; Le Petit Parisien; La Lanterne; Le Radical; Le Puipjyel; L\Evene- 
ment; Le Steele; La Pt^iite Repuhlique; L'Aurore; La Fronde. — Conser- 
vative : Le Gaulois , Le Soleil (these two Orleanist) ; L^Autoritd (Bona- 
partist); UUnivers, La Croix (both clerical); Le Moniteur Universel. The 
Figaro, the most widely circulated of the larger papers (15 c), may also 
be called Conservative, but is rather a witty literary sheet than a serious 
political journal. — Unclassified : Le Journal Officiel. 

Evening Papers. Republican: Le Journal des Debats (10 c; one of the 
best Parisian papers); Le Temps (15 c. ; well edited and influential); La Ri- 
pubUque Franqaise; Le Soir (15 c.) ; La Liberti ; La Patrie ; Le Petit Bleu; 
La Presse. — Conservative: La Gazette de France (royalist). 

Reviews and Periodicals: La Revue des Deux Mondes (the oldest); 
Nouvelle Revue (Republican); Le Correspondant (Conpervative); Revue Bri- 
tannique; Revue Illvsirie (artistic^; Revue des Revues; Revue Gdnirale des 
Sciences; Revue Scientifique; La Nature; Revv£ Bleue, Revue Blanche (both 
literary); Revtie Larousse (general); Revue de Paris. 

Illustrated Jocknals: L'' Illustration; L'Univers Illustr6; Le Journal 
Amusant; Le Charivari; La Vie Parisienne; Le Tour dii Monde. Most of 
these are issued weekly. 

English, German, and other foreign journals are sold in the 
kiosques near the Grand-Hotel and in some others on the principal 
boulevards. — The Daily Messenger (20 c), formerly 'Galignani's 
Messenger', an English paper published in Paris (office. Rue 
St. Honore 167), has been in existence for over 80 years. It con- 
tains an excellent summary of political and commercial news, the 
latest information from England, the United States, and the whole 
of the Continent, and a list of the principal sights and amusements 

Information. 13. BATHS. 47 

of Paris. The English and American places of worship (p. 49) are 
enumerated every Saturday. — The European edition of the New 
York Herald (office, Avenue de TOpe'ra 49) is a daily paper of a 
similar kind (price 15 c, Sun. 25 c). — The American Register 
(office, Boul. Haussmann 39), with lists of American travellers in 
Europe and general news (30 c), and the English <.y American Ga- 
zette (20 c.) are puhlished every Saturday. 

Strangers desiring to learn Frencli or other languages will find ample 
facilities at the Berlitz School of Languages ^ Avenue de TOpera 7, and at 
the Institut Rudy, Rue Caumartin 4, where a course of three lessons per 
week costs 10-15 fr. a month. Private lessons are also given. The Institut 
Polyglotte, Rue de la Grange-Bateliere 16, is a similar establishment. The 
addresses of private teachers may be obtained from Galignani and the other 
booksellers. — The Franco- English Guild, Rue de la Sorbonne 6, for women, 
supplies information regarding the conditions of study at the Sorbonne, 
the art-schools, and studios; the examinations held by the University of 
Paris; special branches of study; etc. The annual inscription fee, including 
use of dining-room and reading-room, is 10 fr. ; course of ten lessons in 
French 30 fr.; full course of ten months 225 fr. — Girls who wish to com- 
bine the comforts of an American home with excellent opportunities for 
the study of French, historv, and art will find these at the 'Study Home"" 
of Mrs. Edward Ferris, 97 Boulevard Arago. 

13. Baths. Physicians. Maisons de Sante. 

Baths. Warm Baths in the floating establishments on the Seine, 
and in many others in different parts of the town. Charges: 'Bain 
complet', 11/2-2 fr. 5 'bain ordinaire' ^'o-^ ^^-t towels extra. De la 
Samaritaine, below the Pont-Neuf, right bank (PI. R, 20; ///); 
de Diane, Rue Volney 5 ; Vivienne, Rue Vivienne 15 ; Ste. Anne, 
Rue Ste. Anne 63 and Passage Choiseul 58 ; de la Madeleine, Rue 
duFaubourg-St-Honore30, Cite du Retire (80 c. -3 fr.); deJouvence, 
Boul. Poissonniere 30 and Rue du Faubourg-Montmartre 4 ; de la 
Chaussee-d' Antin, Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin 46 ; Ventadour, Rue 
des Petits-Champs 48, near the Avenue de TOp^ra; Chantereine, 
Rue de la Victoire 46 and Rue de Chateaudun 39 ; du Passage de 
I' Opera, Passage de TOpe'ra (Boul. des Italiens 10); de la Bourse, 
Rue St. Marc 16; Piscine Montmartre, Rue Montmartre 163 ; St. De- 
nis, Rue du Faubourg-St-Denis 50 (with swimming-bath); St. Ger- 
main-des-Pres, Boul. St. Germain 180; Racine, Rue Racine 5; du 
Colisee, Rue du Colisce 14 (Champs-Elysees). 

Turkish, Vapour, and other baths: Le Hammam, Rue des 
Mathurins 18, corner of the Rue Auber (entrance for ladies, Boul. 
Haussmann 47), very handsomely fitted up (Turkish bath 5 fr.); 
Balneum, Rue Cadet 16bis, of the same category (2 fr.); Hammam 
Monge , Rue Cardinal-Lemoine 63 , on the left bank (bath 1 1/0- 
21/2 fr.)- — Piscine Rochechouart, Rue de Rochechouart 65 (l'/4 fr. ; 
reserved for ladies on Frid.). — Bains Guerhois, Rue du Bourg- 
I'Abbe 7. — Bains de Fumigations, Rue de Dunkerque 56. — Bains 
d'Air Comprime (compressed-air baths), Rue des Pyramides 17. 

48 13. PHYSICIANS. Preliminary 

Cold Baths in the Seine, open from May 1st to Sept. 30th: 
*Grande Ecole de Natation^ Quai d'Orsay, near the Pont de la 
Concorde (PI. R, 14, 15; /i); Bains du Pont-Royal (entered from 
the Quai Voltaire) ; Henri IV. (entrance near the statue on the Pont- 
Neuf); Ouarnier, Quai Voltaire, Bams de Fleurs, Quai du Lonvre, 
to the right of the Pont-Neuf, both for ladies also. 

The nsual charges at these cold baths are: admission 20-60, swim- 
ming-drawers and towel 25, fee to the 'garcon' 10 c. — It should be ob- 
served that one-half of each bath is generally very shallow, being intended 
for non-swimmers, while the other half is often not more than 6-9 ft. in 
depth. Divers should therefore use great caution. 

Physicians. Should the traveller require medical advice during 
his stay in Paris, he should obtain from his landlord the name of 
one of the most eminent practitioners in the neighbourhood of his 
hotel or lodgings. Information may also be obtained at the English 
and other chemists' shops (p. 41}, or at Galignanis (p. 45). As 
changes of address are not infrequent, the ^Bottin\ or Directory, 
may also be consulted. Usual fee from 10 to 20 fr. per visit or con- 
sultation. The following British and American physicians may be 
mentioned: — 

British: Dr. Herbert, Rue Duphot 18; Dr. J. Faure-Miller, Rue 
Miromenil 8; Dr. Anderson, Avenue des Champs -Elyse'es 121; 
Dr. Barrett, Avenue de la Grande-Armee 12; Dr. Cree. Rue Vol- 
ney 9; Dr. Dupuy, Avenue Montaigne 53 ; Dr. B. Faure-Miller. Rue 
Matignon 28 ; Dr. Oscar Jennings, Avenue Marceau 74 ; Dr. Mercier, 
Avenue MacMahon 15; Dr. Pellereau, Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore 
170; Dr. Riviere, Rue des Mathurins 25 ; Dr. Leonard Robinson^ 
Rue d'Aguesseau 1 ; Dr. Warden, Rue Volney 9. 

American: Dr. Austin, RueCambon24; Dr. Beach, Rue Wash- 
ington 21 ; Dr. Boyland. Rue Vernet 15; Dr. Clarke, Rue Camba- 
ceres2; Dr. Deering , Rue Godot - de - Mauroi 3; Dr. H. Fischer, 
Avenue Matignon 5 ; Dr. Good , Avenue du Bois-de-Boulogne 23 ; 
Dr. Gros, Rue Clement Marot 18 ; Dr. Hein, Avenue Victor Hugo 
37; Dr.Magnin, Boulevard Malesherbes 41 ; Dr. Pike, Rue Francais 
Premier 31 ; Dr. Turner, Avenue Victor Hugo 152. 

Oculists: Dr. Loubrieu, Rue de Savoie 12; Dr. Bull (Amer.), 
Rue de la Paix 4; Dr. Meyer, Boul. Haussmann73; Dr. de Wecker, 
Avenue d'Antin 31. 

Dentists : I. B. ^ W. S. Davenport , Avenue de I'Ope'ra 30 ; 
J. Evans, Avenue de I'Ope'ra 19; T. W. Evans, Rue de la Paix 15; 
Didsbury, Rue Meyerbeer 3 ; Barrett, Avenue de I'Opera 17 ; Dabollj 
Avenue de I'Opera 14 ; Duchesne , Rue Lafayette 45 ; Dugit, Rue 
du 29 Juillet 6; Rossi-Hartwick, Rue St, Honore' 185; Ryan, Rue 
Scribe 19 ; Rykert, Boul. Haussmann 35 ; Weber, Rue Duphot 25, 

Hospitals. Maisons de Saute. In case of a serious or tedious 
illness, the patient cannot do better than take up his quarters at one 
of the regular sanatory establishments. There are many well-con- 
ducted houses of the kind in Paris and the environs, where patients 

Information. 14. DIVINE SERVICE. 49 

are received at from 150 to 1000 fr. per month, including board 
and lodging, medical attendance, baths, etc., and where drawing- 
rooms, billiard-tables, gardens, etc., as well as good tables d'hote, 
are provided for convalescents. The following may be recommend- 
ed : — Maison Municipale de Sante (Dubois), Rue du Faubourg- 
St-Denis 200 (terms 5-16 fr. per day, everything included); 
Maison des Hospitaliers de St. Jean-de-Dieu, Rue Oudinot 19 (10- 
'20 fr,); Maison des Reliyieuses Augustines de Meaux, Rue Oudi- 
not 16 (for women; 300-500 fr. per month); Etablissement Hydro- 
therapique d'Auteuil, Rue Boileau 12; Beni-Barde , Rue de Miro- 
mi'nil 63 ; Maison Rivet., at St. Mand^, Grande Rue 106, for ladies. 
The *Hkrtfoed British Hospital, or Hospice Wallace (PI. B, 
8), is a large Gothic edifice in the Rue de Villiers, at Levallois- 
Perret , near Neuilly , built and endowed by the late Sir Richard 
Wallace. It has accommodation for between thirty and forty patients, 
and is surrounded by a large garden. — Mention may also be made 
of the Protestant Hospice Suisse (for men ; apply at the Swiss Em- 
bassy, Rue Marignan 15) and the Maison des Diaconesses Pro- 
testantes (for ladies), Rue de Reuilly95. — Sick Nurses may be ob- 
tained at the *Hollond Institution for English Hospital-trained Nurses, 
Rue d' Amsterdam 25. 

14. Divine Service. 

English Churches. For the latest information , visitors are 
recommended to consult the Saturday number of The Daily Mes- 
senger or New York Herald (p. 471, or the Universal Tourist (every 
Thurs., 15 c). At present the hours of service are as follows: — 

Episcopal Church : — English Church , Rue d'Aguesseau 5, 
Faubourg St. Honore, opposite the Britisli Embassy; services at 
10.30, 3.30, and 8. — Christ Church. Boul. Bineau 49, Neuilly ; 
services at 10.30 and 3. — St. George^s Church (Anglican), Rue 
Auguste-Vacquerie? (Avenue d'lena); services at 8.30,10.30, and 
8. — Church of the Holy Trinity (Amer.), Avenue de I'Alma 19^"'s; 
services at 10.30 and 4. — St. Lukes American Chapel, Rue de la 
Grande Chaumiere 5, near the Boulevard Montparnasse ; services 
at 8.30, 10.30, and 8. 

English Congregational Services, Rue Royale 23, at 10.45 
a.m.; also at the Taitbout Chapel^ Rue de Provence 42 (behind the 
Grand Opera) at 2.30 p.m. 

St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church, 50 Avenue Hoche, 
mass on Sundays at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11.30; sermons at 10 and 
3.15. Confessions heard daily, 6-9. 

American Church, Rue de Berri 21 ; service at 11 a.m. 

Church of Scotland , Rue Bayard 17, Champs-Elysees ; ser- 
vices at 10.30 and 4.30. 

Weslkyan Methodist Church, Rue Roqu^pine 4, Boulevard 

Baedeker. Paris. 14tli Edit. .[ 

50 14. DIVINE SERVICE. Preliminary 

Malesherbes; services at 11 and 8. — Service also at 3.30 p.m. on 
Sun. at Rue Demours 16, Asnieres. 

Baptist Church : Rue de Lille 48; French service at 2 p.m.; 
English service at 4 p.m. 

Nbw Jerusalem Church, Rue Thouin 12 (near the Pantheon); 
service at 3 p.m. 

French Protestant Chnrches (Temples Protestants). Calyinist : 
L'Oratoire, Rue St. Honore 145; service at 10.15. — Ste. Marie, 
Rue St. Antoine 216, near the Bastille; service at 10.15, in winter 
at noon. — Eglise de VEtoile, Avenue de la Grande- Armee 54; 
services at 10 and 4. — Temple des BatignoUes , Boul. des Batig- 
nolles 46 (10.15 and 4). — Eglise de Pentemont^ Rue de Crenelle 10b 
(10.15 and 4). — St. Esprit, Rue Roque'pine 5 (10.15 and 1). — 
Temple Milton, Rue Milton (10.15). — Temple de Passy, Rue Cor- 
tambert 19 (Trocadero; 10.15). — Temple de Neuilly , Boulevard 
d'Inkermann 8 (10.15). 

Lutheran (Confession d'Augshourg) : Temple des Billettes, Rue 
des Archives 24, to the N. of the Hotel de Ville; service at 10.15 
or 12.30 in French, at 2 in German. — Temple de la Redemption, 
Rue Chauchat 16 ; service in German at 10.15, in French at 12. — 
Swedish Churchy Boulevard Ornano 19 (2.30). 

Free (Lihres): Eglise Taitbout, Rue de Provence 42; service at 
10.15 a.m. — Eglise du Nord, Rue des Petits-Hotels 17 (10.15). 

— Temple du Luxembourg, Rue Madame 58 (10.30 a.m. and 8 p.m.). 

— Chapelle du Centre, Rue du Temple 115 (10.30). 
Synagogues: Rue Notre -Dame -de -Nazareth 15; Rue de la 

Victoire 44 (a handsome edifice); Rue des Tournelles 21t>is, near 
the Place des Vosges ; Rue Buffault 28 (Portuguese). 

Missions. For those interested in home mission work the following 
notes may he of service. The M<^All 2Iission has now between 30 and 
40 stations, of which the most important are at Rue Royale 23, Bonl. 
Bonne-Nouvelle 8, and Eue St. Antoine 104; meetings every week-day at 
S p.m. Sunday meetings at 4.30 p.m. at Eue Royale 23 and at 8.15 p.m. 
at Rue du Faubourg-St- Antoine 142 and Rue Rationale 157. The offices 
of the mission are at Rue Godot-de-Mauroi 36 ; chairman and director, Rev. 
Chus. E. Gi-eig, D. D. — Anglo-American Young Men's Christian Association, 
E,iie Montmartre 160 (10 a.m. -10. 30 p.m.). — Miss de Broen''s Mission., Rue 
Clavel 3, Belleville ; meetings every evening and on Sun. at 3.30 and 8.30 
p.m. Dispensary on Mon., Tues., Thurs., and Frid., at 10 a.m. — The Gifls^ 
Friendly Society, Rue de Provence 48, afiords cheap lodgings. — SociM Cen- 
trals de la Mission Intt^rieure : agent. Pastor J. Pfender., Rue Labruyere 46. 

The Universal/ Hall (sec, Mme. Chalamet), Boulevard St. 3Iichel 95, is 
a home and club for students, somewhat on the lines of the University 
Settlements of Great Britain and America. 

15. Embassies and Consulates. Ministerial Offices. Banks. 

Embassies and Consulates. — Great Britain : Ambassador, 
Rt. Hon. Sir Edmund Monson, Rue du Faubourg- St-Honore 39. — 
Consul, Albemarle Percy Inglis, Esq., Rue d'Aguesseau 5 (11-3); 
vice-consul, G. Q. F. Atlee, Esq. 

Information. 15. EMBASSIES AND CONSULATES. 51 

United States : Ambassador, Qeneral Horace Porter.^ Kue de 
A'illejust 33. — Consul General, Col. J. K. Oowdy, Avenue de 
I'Opera 36 (10-3); vice-consul general, Edward P. MacLean^ Esq. 
The following are the present addresses of the Blinisters and Consuls 
of other countries, but changes of residence sometimes take place. — The 
offices are generally open from 1 to 3. 

Austria, Rue de Varenne 57. — Consulate : Rue Rossini 3 (11-1). 

Belgium, Rue du Colisee 38 (1-3). — Consulate, Rue de la Pompe 88. 

J)enmar/Cy Rue Pierre-Charron 27 (1-3). 

Oermani/, Rue de Lille 78 (10-12 and 2-3-, also consulate). 

Greece, Rue Clt'ment-Marot 18 (2-4). 

Ita-i/, Rue de Grenelle 73 (12-4). 

Japan, Avenue Marceau 75. 

Mexico, Kue Daru 14. 

Netherlands, Villa Michon 6, Riie Boissiere (2-4). 

Russia, Rue de Grenelle 79 (2-4). 

/Spain, Courcelles 34. — Offices and consulate, Rue Bizet 6. 

Sweden and Norway, Avenue d'lena 50 (1-3). 

Switzerland, Rue de Marignan 15bis (10-3). 

Turkey. Rue de Presbourg 10 (2-4). 

Vatican, Rue Legendre llijis (iU-12 and 5-7). 

Ministerial Offices. The days and hours of admission are fre- 
quently changed. Consult the 'Bottin'. 

Affaires Etrangeres, Quai d'Orsay 87 and Rue de TUniversite 130 
(PI. R, 14; //). — Agriculture, Rue de Varenne 78 (PI. R, 14; IV). 

— Colonies, Pavilion de Flore, Tuileries (PL R. 17; //). — Com- 
merce, Industrie, Posies et Telegraphes, Rue de Varenne 80 (PI. R, 
14; IV) and Rue de Grenelle 99-105. — Finances, at the Louvre, 
Rue de Rivoli (PI. R. 20; II). — Guerre, Boul. St. Germain 231 
and Rue St. Dominique 10-14 (PI. R. 17; II, IV). — Instruction 
Publique, Beaux- Arts, et Cultes, Rue de Grenelle 110 (PL R, 17 ; IV). 

— Interieur, Place Beauvau, Rue Camhaceres 7-13, and Rue des 
Saussaies 11 (PL R, 15; //) ; Rue de Grenelle 103, and Rue de 
rUniversite'176. — Justice, Place Vendome 11 and 13 (PL R, 18; 77). 

— Marine, Rue Royale 2 (PL R, 18; IJ). — Travaux Publics, Rue de 
Grenelle 244-248 (PL R, 17; 71). 

Banks. Banque de France, Rue de la Vrilliere 1 and Rue Croix 
desPetits-Champs 39 (PI. R,21 ; 7/) and Place Ventadour (PL R, 21 ; 
annexe for bonds); Caisse des Depots et Consignations, Rue de 
Lille 56 ; Caisse d'Epargne, Rue Coq-He'ron 9 ; Credit Fonder, Rue 
des Capucines 19; Credit Lyonnais, Boulevard des Italians 19, with 
30 branch-offices; Societe Generale, Rue de Provence 54 and 56, 
with 52 branches ; Comptoir National d'Escompte, Rue Bergere 14, 
with 18 branches; Rothschild Frlrcs, Rue Laflitte 21-25. — Eng- 
lish AND American Banks. Munroe ^' Co., Rue Scribe 7; Morgan, 
Harjes, t^ Co., Boul. Haussmann 31. 

Money Changers (chamjeitrs) are found in almost every part of Paris, 
particularly in the Palais-Koyal, near the Exchange, the Boulevards, the 
Rue Vivieune, and the other streets frequented by strangers. That at the 
Cridit Lyonnais (see above) may be recommended. 

Stami-s. Receipts for sums above 10 fr., as well as various commer- 
cial documents, must be stamped. Receipt-stamps are sold at the post- 
office and by many tobacconists (p. 4!). 


52 16. PRELIMINARY DRIVE. Preliminary 

16. Preliminary Drive. 

After a preliminary study of the general remarks on Paris at 
p. XXVI, the best way of obtaining a general idea of the appearance 
of Paris is to take a drive on the top of an omnibns or tramway-car, 
or in an open cab, through the principal streets. If a cab is hired it 
should be engaged a Vheure, and the driver desired to take the fol- 
lowing route. 

Cab Drive. The Palais-Royal (p. 60) is chosen as a convenient 
starting-point. Thence we drive to the E. through the Rue de Ri- 
voli (p. 61), passing the Tour St. Jacques (p. 63) and the Hotel 
de Ville (p. 65) ; then through the Rue St. Antoine, as far as the 
Place de la Bastille (p. 70) and the Colonne de Juillet (p. 71), 
and along the Grands Boulevards (pp. 72 et seq.) to the Madeleine 
(p. 81), and so to the Place de la Concorde (p. 82). We next ascend 
the Champs-Elysees (p. 155) to the Arc de TEtoile (p. 158). Then 
we drive to the Pont de I'Alma (p. 165) , and across it to the 
Champ-de-Mars (p. 282) and Hotel des Invalides (p. 274); Rue de 
Grenelle, Ste. Clotilde (p. 273), Boulevard St. Germain as far as 
St. Germain-des-Pre's(p. 252), RueBonaparte to St. Sulpice(p. 253), 
and on to the Palais du Luxembourg (p. 255); the Rue de Me- 
dicis, at the end of which is the Rue Soufflot leading to the Pan- 
theon(p.240). Thence down the Boulevard St. Michel (p. 228), passing 
the Sorbonne [p. 238) and Hotel de Cluny (p. 229) on the right, 
and the Fontaine St. Michel (p. 228) on the left; next traverse the 
Boulevard du Palais and the 'Cite', where Notre-Dame (p. 224) is 
observed on the right, at some distance, and the Palais de Justice 
(p. 220) on the left, beyond which we regain the right bank of the 
Seine at the Place du Chatelet (p. 63). Soon after we again reach 
the Rue de Rivoli, where we may dismiss the cab and descend 
through the Boulevard de Sebastopol to the Grands Boulevards. 

The drive will occupy about 3 hrs. and (according to the 
vehicle) cost 7-10 fr., including 1 fr. gratuity. 

Omnibus Drive. Gentlemen may explore the city by taking a 
similar excursion on the outside of an omnibus or tramway-car, 
which will occupy nearly double the time, but costs about 90 c. 
only. The route appears a little complicated , but will be easily 
traced with the aid of the map and list of omnibus lines (see Appx.). 
Take an omnibus from the Madeleine (p. 81) to the Bastille, line 
E, without 'correspondance' (15 c), as far as the Place de la Bastille 
(p. 70) ; thence take a tramway-car (coming from Vincennes ; 15 c.) 
to the Hotel de Ville (p. 65), and hence proceed by an omnibus of 
line C (Hotel de Ville-Porte Maillot) as far as the Arc de Triomphe 
de I'Etoile (p. 158). Here alight, and return by the same line to the 
Place de la Concorde (p. 82), without correspondance. Walk down 
to the quay and take line AF to the Panthe'on (p. 240), without 
correspondance. Walk thence by the Boulevard St. Michel to the 

Inforinallon 16. PRELIMINARY DRIVE. 53 

Jardin du Luxembourg (p. 262} and the Odeon (p. 263). Here take 
the Ode'ou and Batiguolles-Clichy line H as far as the Palais-Royal 
(p. 60); or, better still, walk (in about 10 min.) from the Ode'on 
by the Rue Racine to the Boulevard St. Michel, and take there a 
tramway of the Montrouge and Gare de I'Est line to the Rue de 
Rivoli (p. 61) or on to the Grands Boulevards (p. 72). 

Good walkers may, of course, perform parts of this route on foot 
and so obtain a closer view of the objects of interest. They may, 
e.g. , walk along the Grands Boulevards to the Place de la Re'pub- 
lique (about 2 M. from the Opera) ; from the Hotel de Ville to the 
Place de la Concorde (about IY2M.); from the Luxembourg to the 
Rue de Rivoli (nearly 1 M.), or to the Boulevards (2/4 M. farther). 

A good general view of the city may be obtained from the Towers 
of Notre Dame (p. 227), but for this purpose clear weather is 
necessary, and that occurs seldomer than might be supposed. Even 
when the sun is shining, the middle distance is frequently in- 
distinct, a fact which may also be noticed from the ground in the 
longer streets. The best views are obtained when the weather is 
clearing just after a shower, and on dry windy days; but in the 
latter case the wind is often disagreeable on the top of the towers. 
A general survey from another point of view is afforded by a visit 
to the Butte Montmartre (p. 204). View from the Arc de Triomphe, 
see p. 159. The Eiffel Tower (p. 282) is too far from the centre to 
afford an entirely satisfactory survey. 

Having acquired a general idea of the external appearance and 
topography of the city, the traveller may then proceed at his leisure 
to explore it in detail. 

17. Distribation of Time. 

A stay of a fortnight or three weeks in Paris may suffice to con- 
vey to the visitor a superficial idea of the innumerable attractions 
which the city offers, but a residence of several months would be 
requisite to enable him satisfactorily to explore its vast treasures of 
art and industry. The following plan and diary will aid him in 
regulating his movements and economising his time. The routes 
in the Handbook are arranged as far as possible so as to avoid 
loss of time and unnecessary de'tours, but they may easUy be re- 
solved into new combinations or made in a reverse direction , as 
the convenience or pleasure of the sight-seer may dictate. Fine 
days should be spent in the parks, gardens, and environs. Excur- 
sions to the country around Paris, in particular, should not be post- 
poned to the end of one's sojourn, as otherwise the setting in of 
bad weather may preclude a visit to many beautiful spots in the 
neighbourhood. Rainy days should be devoted to the galleries and 

The table at p. 56 shows when the different collections and 
objects of interest are open to visitors, but does not include buildings 


17. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. Preliminary 

that are open gratis every day, wMch mnst be looked for in the 
index. Parks, public gardens, cemeteries, and the like are also 
omitted, as they are practically always open. The days and hours 
enumerated, though correct at present, are liable to alteration ; and 
the traveller is therefore referred to The Daily Messenger (p. 47), 
to the principal French newspapers, and to the bills posted on the 
advertising pillars in the boulevards. The museums and collections 
are apt to be uncomfortably crowded on Sundays and holidays. 

The numbers in the following tables refer to the Routes of the 


Every day 

Every day 

Sunday ( 

i. Palais Royal, Rne de ' 
Rivoli, Bastille, and j 
Boulevards (p. 59j. | 

3. Champs-Elysees and 
Boia de Boulogne 
(p. 155). 

14. St. Cloud, Sevres,' 
ileudon (p. 291). \ 

15. Vincennes (p. 303). [ 

18. St. Denis , Enghien, | 
Montmorencv, Argen- 
teuil (p. 333). 

19. Valley of the Oise 
fp. 342). 

20. Sceaux, Chevreuse, 
Montlhe'ry , etc. i 
(p. 349). 

21. Fontainebleau(p.362). I 

2. Louvre and Tuileries 

(p. 86). 
9. The Cite and Sor- 
bonne quarter(p.219). 
10. Quarters of St. Ger- 
main and the Luxem- 
bourg (p. 245). 
16. Versailles (p. 307). 

1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 14-16, 18-21, 1 
as above. i 

4. Troeade'ro,Passy, and { 
Auteuil(p. 164). 

5. Halles Centrales, Arts 
et Metiers , Pere-La- 1 
chaise (p. 172). j 

8. Quartiers du Tem- 
ple and du Mara is 
(p. 210). 
11. Jardin des Plantes, ii 


but not the Gobelins 
(p. 26S). 

12. Invalides and Champ 
de Mars (p. 270). 

17. St. Germain-en-Laye 
(p. 326). 

22. Chantilly and its En- 
virons (p. 363). 

f 1,3.14,1.5,18-21, as above. 
)nday I 7. La Villette and Mont- 
l martre (p. 2C0). 

Tuesday < 





2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 
14-21, as above. 
Quartiers de la Bour- 
se, de la Chauss^e- 
d'Antin, and de TEu- 
rope (p. 187). 
Outlying quarters to 
the S. 

1,2,3,9,10, 14-16,18-21, 
as above. 
11. As above, except the 
natural history gal- 
leries (p. 266). 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8-22, as 

1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 14-16, 
18-21, as above. 


16, 18-21, as above. 
11. Jardin des Plantes 
and the Gobelins (p. 

Information. 17. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. 


Visit of Three "Weeks. 

on — 










on — 









( 1,3 3 
Sunday . . | 8 15 


Monday • • { lo ' 14 


9 4 



Wednesday/ 8 1 14 


16 17 18 



14 12 



(continued) \ 22 1 20 




21 22 





Thursday I g 










10 13 ie 


1 22 





18 ! 21 20 


^ -A J 4 



I 22 










4 111 


Friday . . ^ g 
















Tuesday . ^g 







Saturday <! g 




7 1 2 










15' 12 



















Visit of a Fortnight. 

on — 










on — 












s,.. {f 






10 1 f 
11,15 Thurs. 
9 , i 
















Men. I 8 























Tues. I 5 






13 IS 

9 1 Frid. \ 





















r — 







Sat. J 








Wed. I 4 
























Note. St. Denis (18) might be visited on the morning of the day 
at St. Cloud (14). St. Germain- en- Lay e (17), Fontainehleau (21), and 
tilly (22) each require an additional day. 


Visit of 

a Week 










on — 











Sunday 1,12 







Thura- f - 
day 15,8 

Friday {g-g 


2,3 i 9,11 

Tues- / — 
day \ 10,12 












1,3 2,4 

Wed- f - 





Satur- f — 

- 1,3 

nesday \ 




day t 








17. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. Freliminary 



holidays Monday | Tuesday 

Archives Nationales (p. 210) 

Arts tk Metiers, Conservatoire des 

(p. 1T5) 

Beaux- Arts, Ecole des (p. 248) . . . 
Bihliotheque Nationale, Exhib. (p. 1--7) 

Bourse (p. 193) 

Chambre des Ddputes (p. 272) .... 
Chantilly., Chateau de (p. 370) . . . 

Foniainebleau, Palais (p. 362) .... 
Gobelins, Manuf. des (p. 26S) .... 
Hdtel de Ville ^saloons; p. 65). . . . 
Jmprimerie Nationale (p. 213) . . . 

J?ivalides, Hotel des (p. 274) 

Jar din des Plantes, Minagerie (p. 264) 

, Conservatories (p. 266) .... 

, Nat. Hist. Collections (p. 266) 

Luxembourg, Palais du (p . 255) . . . 

— , Mus&e du (p. 25G) 

Monnaie, Musee d- Studio (p. 247). . 
J/ttse'e Carnavakt (p. 213) 

— Cernu^cU (p. 199) 

— d'Artillerie et de VArmee (Inva- 
lides; p. 275) 

— de Cluny (p. 230) 

— de Galliira (p. 166) 

— de Minir. et Giolog. (p. 284) . . 

— du Conserv. de Mu,siqu^ (p. 76). . 

— d? Ethnograp?iie(Tvoc3.A^TO ; p. 170) 

— du Garde-Meuble (p. 281) .... 

— du Louvre, Paintings <t Antiqi/it'es 
(p. 89) 

, Salle des Boites (p. 151) . . . 

, Other Collections (p. 148). . . 

— Forestier (Vincennes; p. 305) . . 

— Guimet (p. 167) 

— de Sculpture Compar^e {TTOcaLdero; 
p. 170) 

— Social (p. 273) 

Notre-Dame, Treasury (p. 237) . . . 

Palais de Justice (p. 22 J) 

Pantheon (p. 240) 

St. Denis, Tombs (p. 333). 

St. Germam, Museum (p. 330) . . . 

Ste. Chapellt (p. 221) 

Salon, Exposition du (p. 33) . . . . 

Sevres, Workshops (p. 297) 

— , Mus^e (p. 297) 

Sorbonne, Amphitheatre (p. 239) . . 
Tobacco Matiufactoi-y (p. 281). . . . 
Tomb of Napoleon I. (p. 280). . . . 
Versailles, Palais A 7'ria?io?!5 (p . 310) 
— , Jeu-de-Paujne (p. 325) 



)-5, 6 



9-5, 6 


9-5, 6 





11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 

11-4, 5 






9-5, 6 

9,5, 6 





11-4, 5 


11-4, 5 








11-4, 5 




















10-4, 5 

12-4, 5 

12-4, 5 


12-4, 5 

11-4, 5 


11-4. 5 






1 11-4 


10-4, 5 

10-4, 5 




11-4, 5 


11-4, 5 





12-4, 5 

I 12-4, 5 

12-4, 5 

12-4, 5 

12-4, 5 

12-4, 5 



— ■ 

12-8, 4 

12-'3^ 4 

12-3, 4 

11-4, 5 


11-4, 5 



, 12-4 

Information. 17. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. 


Friday | Saturday i 

Admission free except where 
otherwise stated. 

10-4 10-4 

— 10-4 
12-3 12-3 

9-5, 6 I 9-5, 6 

1-5 ' — 

10-5 \ 10-5 

2-3 2-3 


12-4 I 12-4 

11-4, 5 ! 11-4, 5 

— 1-4 
11-3 , 11-3 

9-5, 6 9-5, 6 

9-5 9-5 

— I 12-3 

11-4, 5 


— Director's permission required on Thursday. 


9-5, 6 




11-4, 5 



9-5, 6 

11-4, 5 

On other days by special permission. 
Special permission required on week-days. 

During the vacation. Fee. 

From 15th April to 15th Oct. Closed during 

the races. 
11-4 in winter (Oct. 1st- April 1st). 

By ticket issued gratis. 

By permission of the director. 

Botanic Garden open all day. 

By ticket obtained at the otlice. 

On Tues., Frid., & Sat. by ticket obtained at 
the office. 
j Closed on certain holidays. 
j 10-4 in winter (Oct.lst-April 1st). 
! By special permission. 

12-3 in winter (Xov.lst-Jan. 31st). 
Closed on the chief holidays (p. 5£ 

— 'On other days (e.xcept Mon.) on application ; fee. 




12-4, 5 

12-4, 5 

11-4, 5 

11-4. 5 



10-4, 5 

11-4. 5 

12-4, 5 
12-4, 5 

10-4, 5 


11-4, 5 

12-4, 5 
12-4, 5 

12-3, 4 


11-4. 5 

11-4, 5 

j 10-4 in winter (Oct. Ist-April 1st). 
I 2-4 in winter (Oct. Ist-April 1st). 
j 11-4 in winter (Oct. Ist-April 1st). 

! One-half closed on alternate days. 

Adm. i/j fr. 

Dome and vaults by special permissou. 

10 till dusk in winter. 

101/2-4 in winter. 

Closed on chief holidays. 

From May Ist-June 30th only. 

Special permission required. 

11-4, 5 ! Trianons till 6 p.m. in summer. 


Most ofthe public collections and mnseums are closed on Monday, 
and also on the principal holidays, viz. Ascension Day, Jnly 14th. 
Assumption (Aug. 15th) and All Saints (Nov. Ist), unless these 
happen to fall on a Sunday. The Louvre, Luxembourg, and some 
others are closed also on Shrove Tuesday. 

LiBRABiEs are open on week-days from 9 a.m. to 4,5, or 6 p.m.; 
some of them also in the evening and on Sunday. 

Churches are usually open from morning till dusk, but the 
afternoon is the best time for a visit, as no service is then held. 
It should be noted that many churches are so dark that the 
works of art cannot be properly seen except by gas-light. The 
Madeleine (p. 81) is not open to visitors till 1 p.m., and sev- 
eral other churches are closed at 5 p.m. Sundays and festivals 
are not, of course, suitable days for inspecting the works of art 
in the churches, but they frequently offer opportunities of hearing 
excellent music and good preachers. See p. 38, and the notices 
of the principal churches. The hours of service are announced on 
boards in the interior of the buildings. High mass is usually at 
10 a.m. The masses at midday and 1 p.m. are especially attended 
by the fashionable world ; and the scene on the conclusion of ser- 
vice at the Madeleine (p. 81) and other leading churches is both 
interesting and characteristic. Chairs within the churches are let for 
5 c. each; on festivals 10 c. 

The traveller should always be provided with his passport, or at 
least visiting-cards , which will often procure him admission to col- 
lections on days when the public are excluded. 


The modern business and fashion of Paris are chiefly confined 
to the quarters on the right bank of the Seine, which contain the 
principal Boulevards, the handsomest streets, and the most attract- 
ive shops, cafes, and restaurants in the city. Here, too, are situ- 
ated the most important Tftgaires, the Bourse, the Bank, the Palais- 
Royal, the Hotel des Pastes, and the Halles Centrales. The Hotel 
de Ville, the headquarters of the municipal authorities, and the 
Tuileries, once the seat of the court but now entirely demolished, are 
the great centres around which the whole of modern French history 
has been enacted ; and in the same region of the city is the Louvre, 
containing the greatest art-collection in France. 

The following routes or itineraries are arranged to suit travellers whose 
stay in Paris is of some duration, and it is taken for granted that they 
devote the entire day to sight-seeing. Some of these daily itineraries are 
necessarily rather long, but others (e.g. those on the left bank) are com- 
paratively short. Those who are pressed for time may omit the portions 
described in small type. 

1. The Palais-Royal, Rue de Rivoli, Bastille, and 

If the preliminary drive recommended at p. 52 has been taken, the 
visitor need not return to the Bastille, but may proceed to the Place de 
la Republique by a more direct route. Another way of returning from 
the Bastille is indicated ai p. 218 — Luncheon may be taken at one of 
the Bouillon.^ Duval, Rue du Pont-Xeuf 10 (near the Rue de Rivoli). Rue 
de Rivoli 47, and Rue St. Antoine 234; at the Or. Brasserie Breher. Rue 
St. Denis 1, Place du Chatelet; at the Restaurant de Paris. Boul. de Se- 
bastopol; or at the Gr. Taverne Gruber, Boul. Beaumarcliais 1, near the 
Place de la Bastille. 

St. Germain-l'Auxerrois. Tour St. Jacques. Place du Chatelet. St, Merri. 

The small Place du Palais-Royal (PI. R, 20 ; IT) +, enclosed 
by the Palais-Royal on the N. and the Louvre (p. 86) on the S,, 

+ With regard to the arrangement of our Plan of Paris , see note 
preceding the list of streets. The three sections of the tripartite plan, 
coloured respectively brown, red, and gray, are referred to in the text by 
the corresponding letters B, R, and G. If the place sought for is also 
to be found in one of the five special plans of the more important 
quarters of the city, that plan is indicated by a Roman Italic numeral. 
The above reference therefore indicates that the Place du Palaia-Boyal 
is to be found in the Red Section, Square 20, and also in the Special 
Plan No. II. 


occupies almost the centre of Paris, and is one of the best starting- 
points for exploring the city (station of the Metropolitan Railway, 
see Appendix, p. 33). The means of communication between this 
point and other quarters are very numerous, and visitors who live 
near the Opera may reach it by a pleasant walk along the handsome 
*Avenue de I'Opera, which dates mainly from 1878. This avenue 
has been left without trees , so as not to interfere with the view of 
the opera-house (p. 78 ). 

The Palais-Royal ( PL R. 21 ; II) is formed of two quite distinct 
parts, — the Palace properly so called, with its facade in the square, 
and the Garden surrounded with Galleries, the most interesting 
part, behind. 

The Palace is at present occupied by the Conseil d'Etat, and 
is not open to the public. 

This palace was erected by Cardinal Richelieu in 1619-36, and named 
the Palais-Cardinal. After his death it was occupied by Anne of Austria, 
the widow of Louis XIII., with her two sons Louis XIV. and Philip of 
Orleans, then in their minority, and since then the building has been 
called the Palais-Royal. Louis XIV. presented the palace to his brother 
Duke Philip of Orlean*. whose son, Philip of Orleans (d. 1723), regent 
during the minority of Louis XV., afterwards indulged here in those dis- 
graceful orgies which are described by his contemporary the Due de St. 
Simon. Philippe Egalitit who was beheaded in 1793, grandson of the regent, 
led a scarcely less riotous and extravagant life than his grandfather. In 
order to replenish his exhausted cofTers, he caused the garden to be sur- 
rounded with houses, which he let for commercial purposes, and thus 
materially improved his revenues. The cafe's on the groundfloor soon 
became a favourite rendezvous of democrats and malcontents. It was 
here that Camille Desmoulins called the populace to arms on l2th July, 
1789, two days before he led them to the capture of the Bastille (p. 70). 
The building was now called the Palais-Egalite, and subsequently, when 
!Napoleon assembled the Tribunate here in 1801-7, the Palais du Tribunai. 

On the Ptestoration of the Bourbons in 1815 the Orleans family regain- 
ed possession of the Palais-Royal, and it was occupied by Louis Philippe 
down to the end of 1830. On '24th February, 1848, the mob made a com- 
plete wreck of the royal apartments. After this the building was styled 
the Palais- Xation al ; but its original name was restored by IKapoleon III., 
who assigned the S. wing, opposite the Louvre, as a residence for his 
uncle, Prince Jerome Napoleon, the former King of Westphalia (d. 1860). 
After the death of the latter it was occupied by his son (d. 18911. who 
bore the same name. On 22nd May, 1871, the Communards set the Palais- 
Royal on fire, and the S. wing, together with the greater part of the 
buildings of the Cour d'Honnenr, became a prey to the flames. 

The Palais-Royal, long a favourite rendezvous of visitors to Paris, is 
now becoming gradually more and more deserted. Like the Place des 
Vosges (p. 217), which formerly acted the same part, it is being super- 
seded by newer and more elegant quarters farther to the W. ; while 
its unobtrusive entrances, accessible only to foot-passengers, are not cal- 
culated to attract strangers. The site is admirably adapted for a central 
railway-station, still a desideratum in Paris. 

The principal entrance to the *GALLEHrEs and the Garden is to 
the left of the facade, between the Palais and the Theatre Fran^ais 
(p. 61). The first gallery to the left is the Galerie de Chartres. 
To the right is the handsome Galerie d" Orleans, dating only from 


The gTOundfloor of the arcaded block of buildings inclosing the 
garden was formerly occnpied almost exclusively by jewellers' and 
similar shops; now there are several shops 'to let\ Restaurants ?i la 
carte and a prix fixe, see p. 17. — The E. side of the square is 
called the Galerie de Valois, the W. side the Galerie Montpensier 
(with the Theatre du Palais- Royal, p. 34), and the N. side the 
Galerie Beaujolais. 

The Garden, 250 yds. in length and 110 yds. in breadth, and 
hardly deserving of the name , is scantily shaded by a quadruple 
row of small trees. In the centre is a circular basin of water, 
near which a military band generally plays in summer (p, 38). 
The garden is embellished with several sculptures, viz., from S. to 
N. : Eurydice bitten by a serpent, by Nanteuil ; Mercury, by Cugnot; 
the Snake Charmer, by Thabard; Boy struggling with a goat, by 
Lemoine; the Versailles Diana, after the antique; and a Youth 
bathing, by Esparcieux (d. 1840). The chairs are let at 10 c. each; 
the benches are free. 

To the W. of the palace is the small Place du Thidtre-Fran^ais, 
at the end of the Avenue de I'Ope'ra (p. GO). It is embellished 
with two handsome modern fountains by Davioud, with nymphs in 
bronze by Carrier-Belleuse and Moreau. 

The Theatre Francais (PI. R, 21; //) was founded in 1786-90, 
and has been used for the performances of the Comedie FrariQaise 
since 1799. In March, 1900, it fell a prey to the flames, but, for- 
tunately, the exterior escaped practically unscathed, and the damage 
to the interior is being rapidly made good. 

Most of the sculptures wliicli it contained have been saved?* and are 
now exhibited at the Louvre, in a room adjoining the new Salle Carpeanx 
(p. 108), whence they will be transferred to their former position after the 
reconstruction of the theatre. Among them are statues of Talma, the 
tragedian (d. 1826), by David d'Angtrs, and of the celebrated actresses Mile. 
Rachel (d. 1S5SJ, as -Pha-dra^ by Dure/, and Mile. Mars (d. 1S4;), as 'Celi- 
mene" (in Moliere"s 'Misanthrope'), by Thomas; a famous *Statue of Voltaire 
(d. 17T8), by Hovdon; a statue of George Sand (d. 1876), by Clhinger ; a 
chimney-piece with a relief representing comedians crowning the figure of 
Moliere, by Lagiterre; and bu>ts of celebrated French dramatists (3Ioliere, 
by Boudon). — The performances of the Come'die Francais are being pro- 
visionally given in the Odeon (p. 33), but the The'atre Francais will prob- 
ably be re-opened in the antxmm of 1900. 

Between the Place du Palais-Royal and the Louvre passes the 
*Rue de Rivoli (PL R, 18, 20, 23; i/, ///, F), one of the most 
important streets in Paris after the Boulevards, constructed between 
1802 and 1865 and named in honour of Napoleon's victory over the 
Austrians at Rivoli in 1797. Leaving the Place de la Concorde, it 
runs parallel with the Seine for i^/i M., and ends at the Rue St. 
Antoine, which forms a prolongation connecting it with the Place 
de la Bastille. It passes the Garden of the Tuileries, the Louvre, 
and the Place du Palais-Royal, this part of the street as far as the 
Rue du Louvre being flanked by arcades on the N. side, upwards of 


1/2 M. in length, where there are many attractive shops and hotels 
of the highest class. We follow it to the left from the Palais-Royal, 
with our backs to the Place de la CSucorde. On the right rises the 
Palais du Louvre (p. 86); on the left the Magasins du Louvre 
fp. 40). To the left, farther on and partly concealed hy the arcades, 
is the Temple de VOratoire, a church erected by the priests of the 
Oratoire in 1621-30, but now used as a Protestant place of worship 
(p. 50). A statue of Admiral Coligny^ one of the victims of the Night 
of St. Bartholomew (p. 87), by Crauk, was erected here iu 1889 ; it 
represents the admiral between his Fatherland and Religion. 

At this point the arcades terminate, and the Rue de Rivoli is 
intersected by the Rue du Louvre (station of the Metropolitan Rail- 
way, see Appendix, p. 33). The tirst building to the right in the 
Rue du Louvre is the Vieux Louvre, with the famous Colonnade by 
Perrault (p. 88). Opposite rises the Mairie of the 1st Arrondissement 
(Louvre), which tries, somewhat unhappily, to secure harmony of 
effect by giving, though in moditied Renaissance, an 'echo of the 
Gothic ideas' in the adjoining church of St. Germain-l'Auxerrois. 
The 'Salle des Mariages' in the Mairie is adorned with paintings by 

The church of *St. Germain-l'ATixerrois(Pl. R, 20 ; III), founded 
in the 6th century, dates in its present form from the 13-16th 
centuries. The facade, which is pierced with a rose-window of rich 
Flamboyant tracery and flanked by two hexagonal turrets, is preceded 
by a porch surmounted by a balustrade and adorned in the interior 
with frescoes, now sadly defaced. When the gate is closed, visitors 
are admitted by the right side-entrance. — The signal for th^ 
massacre of St. Bartholomew (Aug. 24th and 25th, 1572) was given 
from the little bell-tower of this church, to the right of the transept.\ 

The "^Iktekiob, to which the lowness of the roof gives a depressed char- 
acter, consists of nave and double aisles, and is surrounded with chapels. 
The pillars of the nave were converted into fluted columns in the 17th cent., 
and the handsome woodwork of the 'Banc dGEuvre' (in the nave, to the 
left) dates from the same period. 

The walls are covered with modern frescoes, the finest of which is 
a Descent from the Cross, in the S. transept, by Ouichard (1845). The 
large chapel to the right of the entrance (seldom accessible) is closed by 
handsome woodwork, and contains a Tree of Jesse, in stone, of the 14th 
cent., a Gothic altar designed by M. Viollet-le-Duc, several paintings, and 
stained glass by Amaury- Duval. The marble Basin, for holy water in the 
S. transept, designed by Mme. de Lamartine and executed by Jouffroy. is 
surmounted by a finely-sculptured group of three angels around a cross. 

— The fourth "chapel of the choir beyond the Sacristy contains ' ilonuments 
in marble to the chancellor Etienne 'd''Aligre (d. 163oj and his son (d. 1674). 

— The chapel beyond that of the apse contains two statues from a mauso- 
leum of the Rostaing family (16th cent.). The next chapel but one con- 
tains a monument to St. Denis, who is said to have been interred at this 
spot after his martyrdom (p. 205). The chapel adjoining the N. transept 
contains an altar-piece in wood in the Flamboyant style, representing 
the history of Christ and the Virgin. 

Between the Mairie and the church is a square tower with a 
chime of bells, constructed by Ballu to fill up the gap. — From the 


end of the Rue du Louvre we obtain a good view of the Poiit- 
Neuf witli the statue of Henri IV. (p. 223), and of the dome of 
the Pantheon (p. 240} rising in the background. 

Beyond the Ptue du Louvre the Rue de Rivoli intersects the 
Rue duPont-Neuf, leading from the bridge of that name to the 
Halles Centrales (p. 173). Farther on. to the left, diverges the 
Rue des Halles. To the right, beyond the Rue des Lavandieres, is 
the Station du ChCttelet of the Metropolitan Railway (see Appx., 
p. 33). We then cross the Boulevard de Sebastopol [p. 75), which is 
terminated on the S. by the Place du Chatelet (see below). 

In a small square to the right rises the *Tour St. Jacques (PI. 
R, 23 ; ///, F), a handsome square Gothic tower, 175 ft. in height, 
erected in 1508-22, a relic of the church of St. Jacques de la 
Boucherie, which was sold and taken down in 1789. The tower was 
purchased by the city in 1836 and subjected to a process of restor- 
ation. In the hall on the groundfloor is a statue (by Cavelier) of the 
philosopher Pascal (1623-62), who is said to have repeated on the 
summit of this tower (or, according to other authorities, on the 
tower of St. Jacques du Haut-Pas. p. 285) his experiments with 
regard to atmospheric pressure originally made on the Puy de Dome. 
The *ViBW from the summit of the Tour de St. Jacques is one of the 
finest in Paris, as the tower occupies a very central position, but 
the public are not allowed to ascend except with a permit obtained 
gratis at the Hotel de Ville (Direction des Travaux) daily 11-5, 
except Sun. and holidays, though sometimes an application to the 
keeper of the square (fee) is sufficient. — The Square de la Tour 
St. Jacques is embellished with bronze sculptures of the Bread- 
bearer, 'Ducks and Drakes' ('Le Ricochet'), andCyparissus, by Cou- 
tan, Vital Cornu, and H. Pie. 

The Squares of Paris, like the great majority of the other promenades 
of the city, are both useful and ornamental. Though they have been con- 
structed on the model of the London squares, the enjoyment of the gardens 
with which they are laid out is by no means confined to a few privileged 
individuals, but is free to all-comers. The formation of squares of this sort 
has been a prominent feature of the modern street improvements of Paris. 

The modern AvenueVictoria^ which skirts the S. side of the Square 
de la Tour de St. Jacques, leads hence to the Hotel de Ville (p. 65). 

The Place du Ch&telet (PI. R, 20, 23 ; 7), the site of which 
was occupied till 1802 by the notorious prison of that name, lies at 
the S. end of the Boulevard de Selaastopol, on the bank of the 
Seine. The Fontaine de la Victoire, designed by Bosio, and erected 
here in 1807, commemorates the first victories gained by Napoleon I. 
It is adorned with four figures representing Fidelity, Vigilance, 
Justice, and Power, and surmounted by the 'Colonne du Palmier', 
on which are inscribed the names of 15 battles. On the summit is 
a gilded statue of Victory. The monument originally stood farther 
from the Seine, but was removed entire on the construction of the 
Boulevard de S^astopol in 1855, and re-erected here on a pedestal 

64 1. SEWERS. 

adorned with four sphinxes (restored in 1899-1900). On this side 
of the fountain is the mansion of the Chambre des Notaires, with a 
plan of the Chatelet on the facade. On the right and left of the 
Place du Chatelet are situated the Thedtre du Chatelet (p. 34) and 
the Thedtre Sarah Bernhardt respectively (see p. 34). 

In the Place du Chatelet is one of the usual entrances to the vast 
network of Sewers (EgouU) by which Paris is undermined. They are 
generally shown to the public on the second and fourth Wednesday of each 
month in summer. Written application should be made in advance to the 
Prifet de la Seine, on a stamped paper costing 60 c, mentioning the number 
of visitors and enclosing a stamp for the reply, which wDl determine the 
time and place of starting. The visit, in which ladies need have no hesi- 
tation in taking part, lasts about 1 hr., and ends at the Place de la Made- 
leine. Visitors are conveyed partly on comfortable electric cars, partly in 
boats, so that no fatigue is invulved. 

The system of drainage in Paris is very complete and has had a most 
beneficial effect on the health of the population. The total length of the 
network of sewers of Paris is now about 620 M., not reckoning the drains 
radiating to private houses. IS'ot less than 150 M. remain still to be made. 
In 1^37 there were only 40 M. of sewers and in 1856 only 100 M. The 
average cost of these huge works is 100 fr. per metre (nearly il. per 
yd.). The basin in which the city lies is divided into four parts by 
two large sewers at right angles with the Seine, and running under the Sebastopol and Boul. St. Michel respectively. These, which flow, 
not into the river, but into 8 channels parallel with it (known as Egouts 
CoUecieurs). are augmented by 12 or 15 tributaries, which in their turn 
receive the contents of numerous smaller drains. 

The 'collecteurs' of the right bank empty themselves into the Collecteur 
Giniral cfAsni^res . below the Place de la Concorde , which conducts 
the water far below Paris, to be there used for irrigation (p. 291). This 
main drain carries off about 340,000 cubic feet of water per hour, but is 
capable of passing twice that quantity. In consequence, however, of. the 
popular abuse of the convenience of the drains, it was foiind necessary 
to construct a second and larger main drain, the Collecteur Q4n4ral de 
Clichy, which al=o begins at the Place de la Concorde. The 'collecteurs' 
of the left bank and of the islands in the Seine are connected with the 
rest of the system by means of siphons passing under the bed of the 
river. The smallest sewers are about 7 ft. high and 4 ft. wide, the largest 
16 ft. high by 18 ft. wide. All the drains are constructed of solid masonry, 
and lined w"ith hydraulic cement. The 'collecteurs' are flanked with pave- 
ments or ledges, between which the water runs, and above one or both 
of which is a pipe for pure water. All these channels communicate with 
the streets by numerous iron ladders, and each is furnished with its dis- 
tinctive mark and the name of the street above. 

The cleaning of those sewers in which there is a channel flanked 
with ledges is effected by a very ingenious system. There are boats or 
waggons of the same width as the channel, each provided with a vertical 
gate or slide, which when let down exactly fits the channel. When the 
slide is adjusted the boat is propelled downwards by the force of the 
stream, scraping clean the bottom and sides of the sewer as it advances. 

The Pont an Change leads from the Place du Chatelet to the 
Cite (p. 219). The bridge, which is one of the most ancient and 
renowned in Paris, was entirely rebuilt in 1858-59. Its name is 
derived from the shops of the money-changers and goldsmiths with 
which the old bridge was flanked. 

The bridge commands a fine view. Opposite lies the Cite, with the 
Palais de Justice and the Tribunal de Commerce: higher up the river are 
the Hotel Dieu and Xotre Dame; to the left the Hotel de Yille and the 
Tour de St. Gervais-, down the river appear the Pont I^euf, the Louvre, etc. 


In the Rue St. Martin, a little to the N. E. of the Tour St. 
Jacques, rises the church of St. Merri (PI. R, 23 ; IIP), formerly 
St. Mederic, in the hest Gothic style, although dating from 1520- 
1612. It possesses a beautiful though unfinished portal in the Flam- 
boyant style. 

The Interior was disfigured in a pseudo-classical style by Boffrand 
(18th ceut.). who was also the architect of the large chapel on the right. 
Among the most noteworthy contents are a large marble crucifix, by 
Dubois, at the high-altar; two good pictures by C. Van Loo (d. 1765), at the 
entrance to the choir (to the left, St. Carlo Borromeo); and a painting 
(Reparation for sacrilege) hy Belle (d. 1SU6), in the left transept. The chapels 
of the ambulatory are adorned with fine frescoes by Cornu, Lehmami, 
Amat(ry - Duval ^ C'hassdriau, Ldpanlle, ifatout, Glaize^ Lafon, and others, 
which, however, are very badly lighted. — The stained-glass 'Windows of 
the choir date from the 16th century. 

We now return to the Rue de Rivoli, and soon reach the Hotel 
de Ville , in a small Place (p. 68J to the right, between that street 
and the Seine. 

The *H6tel de Ville (PL R, 23; 7), or town-hall of Paris, in 
many respects one of the finest buildings in the city, was erected in 
1876-84 by Ballu and Deperthes as an enlarged and enriched replica 
of the old Hotel de Tille. burned by the Communards in 1871. 

The construction of the old Hotel de Ville was begun in 1533, but 
was not completed till the beginning of the following cent., in the reign 
of Henri IV. The original plans seem to have been hj Domenico Boccadofo 
da Cortona J though the building was legun under Ihe superintendence of 
Pierre Chamhiges (comp. p. 87), a Frenchman. It was afterwards enlarged 
several times, the latest additions being completed in 1841. 

The Hotel de Ville has played a conspicuous part in the dififerent re- 
volutions, having been the usual rallying-place of the democratic party. 
On 14th July, 1789, the captors of the Bastille were conducted in triumph 
into the great hall. Three days later Louis XVI. came in procession 
from Versailles to the Hotel de Ville under the protection of Bailly and 
other popular deputies, thus publicly testifying his submission to the will 
of the l^ational Assembly. The king was accompanied by a dense mob, 
to whom he showed himself at the window of the Hotel de Ville wearing 
the tri-coloured cockade, which Lafayette had just chosen as the cognis- 
ance of the new national guard. On 27th July, 1794 (9th Thermidor), 
when the Commune, the tool employed by Robespierre against the Con- 
vention, was holding one of its meetings here, Barras with five battalions 
forced his entrance in the name of the Convention, and Robespierre, to 
escape arrest, attempted to shoot himself, but only succeeded in shatter- 
ing his jaw. Here was also celebrated the union of the July Monarchy 
with the bourgeoisie, when Louis Philippe presented himself at one of the 
windows, in August, 1830, and in view of the populace embraced Lafay- 
ette. From the steps of the Hotel de Ville, on 24th Feb., 1848, Louis 
Blanc proclaimed the institution of the republic. From 4th Sept., 1870. 
to 28th Feb., 1871, the Hotel de Ville was the seat of the 'gouvernement 
de la defense nationale', and from 19th March to 22nd May, 1871, that of the 
Communards and their 'comity du salut public". 

The Hotel de Ville having been doomed to destruction by the leaders 
of the Commune, heaps of combustibles, steeped in petroleum, and barrels 
of gunpowder were placed in various parts of the building. At the same 
time every approach to the building was strongly barricaded. On the morn- 
ing of 24th May a fearful struggle began in the Place de THotel-de-Ville, 
and it was protracted without intermission until the following morning. As 
the insurgents were gradually driven back, they gave vent to their rage 
and despair by setting on fire many of the surrounding buililiug.s and liually 

Bakdkkkk. Paris. 14th Edit. n 


iguUed llic combustibles in the Hotel de Villu, altbougU about OUO of their 
party were still within its precincts. The troops , now masters of the 
whole neighbourhood and granting uo quarter, directed an incessant fire 
against the unhappy occupants, all of whom perished. It was, however, 
impossible to save the devoted l)uilding. 

The new Hotel de Yille is a magnificent structure in the French 
Renaissance style , with dome-covered pavilions at the angles (re- 
calling the mediaeval towers), mansard windows, and lofty decor- 
ated chimneys. The building is entirely detached and is surrounded 
by an area with a railing, affording light to the sunk floor. The ground- 
floor is adorned with pilasters, and the first floor with engaged pillars 
of the composite order. Above the first floor is a kind of entresol, 
while the pavilions have an extra story. 

The *Main Facade is divided into three approximately equal 
parts. That in the centre, projecting beyond the others, has three 
entrances, two of which are carriage-archways with pavilions. In 
front of the third are bronze statues of Science, by Blanchard^ and 
Art, by Marqueste. In the niches of the principal stories (and also 
on all the pavilions) are statues of celebrated men of all ages, while 
on the cornices are allegorical groups and figures representing the 
chief towns of France. The facade is farther adorned with a hand- 
some clock surrounded with seven statues , a graceful Campanile^ 
and (on the roof) ten gilded figures of heralds (the taste of which, 
however, has been criticised). Including a few statues in the courts, 
there are about 200 Statues and Groups on the exterior of the Hotel. 
Most of these are explained by inscriptions. 

The other facades, which differ from each other, are also worthy 
of inspection. The small garden on the side next the Seine con- 
tains a bronze Equestrian Statue ofEtienne Marcel (p. xxii), by Idrac 
and Marqueste. The entrances on the rear side are guarded by bronze 
lions, by Ca'in and Jacquemart. 

Visitors may at all times walk through the Hotel de Yille and 
inspect the handsome courts. 

In the *Intekioe, are various Offices , open for business only ; 
the Salle du Conseil Municipal, in the middle of the first floor next 
the Place, to which the public are admitted during the council 
meetings, onMon., Wed., and Frid. at 3 p.m. (tickets from the 
concierges); the Apartments of the Prefect of the Seine; and the Re- 
ception Saloons, which are open to the public daily, except on holi- 
days and days immediately preceding or following a public reception 

Tickets to view the interior are obtained gratis between 2 and 4 p.m. 
in the secretary's office, in the N. court (to the left as we approach from 
the Place), staircase D (to the left), first floor above the entresol. Visitors 
then proceed to the Salle des Prevots, to the right of the archway, where 
they are met by an official who escorts them over the building (1/2 hr. : fee) 

We first enter a gallery containing two groups in marble: the 
'First Burial', by E. Barrias, and 'Paradise Lost', by Gautherin. In 
the central court is another group, 'Gloria Victis', by Mercie. We 
skirt this court to the right to reach the staircases to the first floor. 

1. h6tel dk ville. 67 

On the groundfloor, at the back, is the large Salle St. Jean (not 
nsnally shown), for large meetings, above -which are the Sallen des 
Fetes, approached by two magnificent marble staircases. 

I'he galleries and rooms on the first floor are richly decorated, 
and the ceilings and walls are adorned with paintings by modern 
artists. — The Vestibules and Corridors at the top of the staircases 
are painted with landscapes and -views of Paris and its environs. 
Between the corridors is the Salon des Cariatides, with paintings by 
Carolvs-Duran and a large vase of red and green jasper from the 
Ural Mts., presented by the Czar of Russia in memory of the recep- 
tion of Russian naval officers and seamen at Paris in 1893, — 
The Salon d' Arrive e Nord contains a large painting by Roll, repre- 
senting the Pleasures of Life. This room has a fine cassetted ceiling, 
like all the other rooms that have not ceiling-paintings. The Salon 
d' Introduction Nord and the Portique Nord have ceiling-paintings by 
Bouis and F. Barrias. — Then follows the main hall, or ^Grande 
Salle des Fetes, 164 ft. long, 42 ft. wide, and 42 ft. high. On the 
side of this hall next the Place Lobau is a gallery, above which is 
another smaller gallery, continued also on the remaining three sides. 

Ceiling Paintings: Progress of Music, by Gervex; Perfume, by 0. Fe.r- 
rier; Paris inviting the world to her fetes, by Benj. Constant; Flowers, 
l)y G. Ferrier; the Progress of Dancing, by A. Moi'ot. Above the doors are 
representations of the old provinces of France (names inscribed above), by 
Weerts, F. Humbert, Ehrmann, and P. Milliet. — The sculptures, especially 
the caryatides and the groups in high relief, by various artists, should be 
noted. In the panels of the side-g;illery are paintings (scenes from the. 
history of Paris) by Clairin, Cazin, Berte.aiix, Bn/tclouin, and Blanchon. ;nid 
the small cupolas contain frescoes by Ptcavd and Rislev. 

At the other end of the Salle are the Portique Sud, decorated by 
H. Levy [Hours of the Night and Day), and the Salon d' Introduction 
Sud, decorated by H. Martin (Apollo and the Muses; on the frieze. 
Music, Sculpture, Painting, and Poetry). — We now enter the 
'''Salle h Manger de Reception , which has three ceiling-paintings by 
Georges Bertrand {^Agx\c\)M\\re , Harvest, Vintage), and six marble 
statues: Hunting, by E. Barrias; the Toast, by Idrac ; Fishing, by 
Falguiere; Wine, by A. Crauk ; Song, by Dalou; and Harvest, by 
Chapu. — At the angle of the side next the Seine is the *Saloii 
Lobau, with paintings by J. P. Laurens: Louis YI. granting the first 
charter of Paris; Etienne Marcel protecting the Dauphin; Repres- 
sion of the revolt of the Maillotins (1352); Anne Dubourg protesting 
in Parliament before Henri II. against the oppression of the Hugue- 
nots (1559); Arrest of Broussel (1648); Pache, Mayor of Paris ii\ 
1793; Turgot; Louis XVL at the Hotel de Ville (1789), a com- 
position known as the 'arch of steel'. 

In the S. wing, next the Seine, are a number of rooms, some of 
which are usually inaccessible. 

Premier Salon de Passage : Louis XL entering Paris, by Tattegrain. -^ 
*Salon i>es Sciences. Paintings. On the ceiling: Apotheosis of the Sciences, 
Meteorology, and Electricity, by Bernard; two friezes by Lerolle., Science en- 
lightens, Science leads to fame: twelve corner-pieces by Carriire, symholi?- 


ing the sciences*, above the doors, Physics, Botany, by Duez; eight panels 
on which are the Elements, by Jeanniot, Rixens, Buland, and A. Berlon, 
and "Views of Paris, by F. Vauthier^ L. Loir, Lvpine^ and E. Barau. Sculp- 
tures, notably the chimney-piece, by J. P. Cavelier. — ''Salon des Arts. 
Paintings. On the ceiling: Glorification of Art, Truth, and the Ideal, by 
Bonnat; friezes. Music and Dancing, by L. Glaize; corner-pieces by Chartran; 
four medallions by Rivey ; on the panels, Painting by Dagnan- Bouveret^ 
Music by Ranvier, Sculpture by Layraud, Architecture by T. Robert- Fleury, 
and Views of Paris, by Frangais, Bellel, G. Collin, and Lapostolet. — Salon 
DES Lettees . Paintings. On the ceiling: the Muses of Paris, Meditation, 
Inspiration, by /. Lefebvre; History of Writing, two friezes by Cormon; 
twelve corner-pieces by Maignan, representing the Great Works of Litera- 
ture ; four medallions by Mile. Forget; above the doors. Philosophy freeing 
Thought, History gathering the lessons of the Past, by U. Bourgeois; on 
the panels, Eloquence, by H. Leroux, Poetry, by R. Collin, History, by 
E. Thirion, Philosophy, by Callot^ and Views of Paris and the environs, 
by Berihelo7i, Guillemet, H. Saintin, and Lansyer. Sculptures by G. J. Thomas, 
notably the chimney-piece. — Galerie de la Colr do Sdd. Sixteen small 
cupolas with paintings of Trades (inscriptions), by Galland. 

The Salon d'Arrivee Sud, through T^-hich we pass to the great 
S. staircase and the exit, contains paintings of Summer, AVinter, etc., 
hy Puvis de Chavannes. 

The *Escaliee d'Honneur, or Grand Staircase, is not shown to ordinary 
visitors, but may be seen by those present at fetes or having business in 
the Cabinet du Prefet, in the angle of the facade next the Seine. Sculptures: 
on the groundfloor, Mounted herald, bronze by Fr^miet; Monument of Ballu, 
the architect (bronze), by E. Barrias and Coulan; Justice and Security, by 
Merci4 and Delaplanche; on the first floor. Art and Comma-ce, by the same. 
Literature and Education, by Schoenewerk, Sciences and Public Benevolence, 
by M. Moreau, etc. Paintings by Fuvis de Chavannes: Victor Hugo dedicat- 
ing his lyre to Paris: in the spandrels, Virtues. 

In the Salle de la Commission du Budget, to the left of the council 
hall (p. 66) is an older painting, the Conquerors of the Bastille, by F. 
Delaroche. In the same room, the Puddlers, by Rixens. 

The Place de I'Hotel-de-Ville (PI. H, 23.; F), once named 
Flace de Greve ('bank of the river'), has also witnessed many a tra- 
gedy. Thus in 1572, after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, Catherine 
de Medicis doomed the Huguenot chiefs Briquemont and Cavagnes to 
perish ignominiously by the gallows in this Place ; and in 1574 she 
ordered the Comte Montgomery, captain of the Scottish guard, to be 
executed here for having accidentally caused the deatt. of her hus- 
band Henri H. at a tournament (p. 217). From that period down to 
1789, the Place de Greve witnessed the execution of the numerous 
victims of a despotic government, as well as criminals ; and in the 
July of that year Foulon, general comptroller of finance, and his 
son-in-law Bertier, were hanged by the mob on the lamp-posts of 
this Place. Among the famous criminals who have here paid the 
penalty of their misdeeds are Ravaillac, the assassin of Henri IV. 
(1610), the Marquise de Brinvilliers and 'La Voisin', the poisoners 
(1676 and 1680), Cartouche, the highwayman (1721), and Damiens, 
who attempted to assassinate Louis XV. (1757). 

The Place de IHotel-de-Ville is connected with the Cite by the Pont 
d'Arcole, affording a view of the Hotel-Dieu and Notre-Dame. 

To the N. of the Hotel de Ville begins the Rue du Temple, an old and 
busy street, which passes the Temple and joins the Rue de Turbigo near 
the Place de la R^publique (p. 74). 

1. ST. GERVAIS. 69 

St. Gervais. St. Paul et St. Louis. Golonne de Juillet. 

In the Place Lohau (PI. R, 23; F), at the back of the Hotel de 
Ville, are the Caserne Napoleon^ which can accommodate 2500 men, 
to the left, and the Caserne Lohau, to the right, now used as an an- 
nexe of the Hotel de Ville. On the N. side is a station of the Metro- 
politan Railway (Station de I'Hotel de Ville), see Appendix, p. 33. 

The church of St. Gervais (PI. R, 23; v), or St. Gervais et St. 
Protais, which stands at the end of the Place between the two 
barracks, was begun in 1202, but was completely remodelled in the 
14th cent. ; it now presents a combination of the Flamboyant and 
Renaissance styles. The portal was added by Dehrosse in 1616, 
and, though inharmonious with the rest, is not without interest; it 
illustrates the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, one above the 
other, together with triangular and semicircular pediments. 

The Interior is remarkable for its height. Pt. Gervais is rich in 
paintings and other works of art, most of which are, however, as is usual 
in the churches of Paris, very badly lighted. The names of the various 
chapels are sufficiently explanatory of the subjects of their mural paintings. 
Chapels on the right side: 3rd, Frescoes by Jobhi-Duval; 4th, by Oendron; 
5th (opposite the altar). Painting by Couder (St. Ambrose and Theodosius); 
6th & 7th (ambulatory), stained glass of the ICth cent. ; 8th, Frescoes by 
Glaize; 9th, Mausoleum of Michel le Tellier (d. 1685), minister of state under 
Louis XIV., by Mazeline and Burirelle, frescoes by Al. Hesse (SS. Gervais 
and Protais), and (on the altar) a Statue of the Virgin (14th century). The 
Lady Chapel has stained-glass windows by Pinaigrier or /. Covsin (16th cent.), 
paintings by Belorme, and a Madonna by Oudini. The vault and pendentives 
should be noticed. Chapels to the left as we return : 1st and 2nd, Pieta 
by Ncmteuil and Cortot, paintings by Xorhlin and Guichard; 3rd, beyond 
the clock-tower, Martyrdom of Ste. Juliette, a painting by Eeim, above 
it a Passion painted on wood, attributed to Aldegviivey ; 7th, Reredos re- 
producing the facade of the church. — The candelabra and a bronze cru- 
cifix on the high-altar are good works of the ISth cent, brought from the 
abbey of Ste. Genevieve. The choir-stalls (16th cent.) have fine misericordi?p. 
Above the stalls of the clergy is a medallion of God the Father, by Ptivn- 
gino, belonging to an altar-piece of the Ascension (the chief panel of which 
is at Lyons). Organ of the ITth cent., with organ-loft in stone. 

To the N. of St. Gervais, behind the Caserne Napole'on, is the 
small Place Baudoyer, with the Mairie of the 4th Arrondissement 
(Hotel-de-Ville), an edifice in the style prevalent at the end of the 
16th century. The Salle des Mariages and Salle des Fetes are 
embellished with paintings by Cormon and Comerre. 

We here regain the Rue de Rivoli, which is succeeded a little 
farther on by the Rue St. Antoine. 

In this neighbourhood are various ancient buildings of more or leas 
interest, dating from the period when this was the centre of Paris. Among 
these are No. 82 in the Rue Francois Miron, which leads out of the Rue 
St. Antoine on the right, and several others in the same street, including 
the Ildiel de Beauvais (No. 68), dating from 166"), with a particularly fine 
*Court. The Rue do Jouy and! the Rue Geoffroy TAsnier , both to the 
left, also contain several good specimens, the finest being the 17th cent. 
Hdtel de C/ialon-LvxetJibourg, No. 26 in the latter street. 

In the Rue St. Antoine, on the right, is the former Jesuit church 
of St. Paul et St. Louis (PI. R, 25, 26 ; V), erected in 1627-41 , by 


Pere Derrand. The handsome late-Reuaissance portal was added by 
Ftre Marcel Ange. The dome of this church was one of the earliest 
in Paris. The architecture of the church is obviously inspired by 
Italian works of the 16th cent. , and retains the distinguishing 
characteristics of most Jesuit churches. The general effect is impos- 
ing, but the style is somewhat florid and the decoration overdone. 
The portal is inferior to that of St. Gervais. The nave is lofty and 
the aisles have galleries. The best of the numerous paintings in the 
interior is a Christ in the Garden, an early work of Eug. Delacroix 
{ 1819), in the left transept. — The building behind, to the right, 
formerly a Jesuit college, is now the Lycee Charlemagne. 

A short distance from this chnrch, to the N., is the Rue du Roi-de- 
Sicile (P\. E, 23; F), once containing the famous Priton de la Force, in 
which the 'vSeptembriseurs' committed their assassinations in 1792. 

In the Rue Sevigne, which begins opposite the church of St. Paul, is 
the Muse'e Carnavalet (p. 213). 

On the left in the Rue St. Autoine, No. 143, is the old Hotel 
de Bethune or de Sully, built in the 16th cent, for Maximilien de 
Bethune. better known as the Due de Sully and minister of Henri lY. 
The architect was either Jacques Androuet du Cerceau or his son, 
Jean Baptiste. The facades in the court are adorned with elaborate 
sculptures, including large bas-reliefs of the sea^ns, etc. — Beyond 
the Rue de Birague, which leads to the Place des Vosges (a little 
farther on, to the left), is the Hotel de Mayenne oi d'Ormesson, 
Rue St. Antoine 212, built by J. du Cerceau. 

Farther on in the Rue St. Antoine, to the right, is the Calvinist 
Eglise de la Visitation or Temple Ste. Marie, constructed in the 17th 
rent, by Fr. Mansart for a convent of Visitandine nuns. Then, to 
tbe left, is a Statue of Beaumarchais (1732-99), the author, by 
Chausade (1897). — The Rue St. Antoine terminates in the Place 
de la Bastille (station of the Metropolitan Raiiu- ay , see Appx., p. 33 ). 

The Place de la Bastille (PI. R, 25; F), or simply La Bastille, 
as it is usually called, was formerly the site of the Bastille St. Antoine, 
a castle which was left standing when the boulevards were levelled 
in 1670 (p. 72). This stronghold, which was erected in 1371-83 
by Kings Charles V. and VI., was afterwards used as a state-prison, 
chiefly for the confinement of persons of rank who had fallen victims 
to the intrigues of the court or the caprice of the government, and 
attained a world-wide celebrity in consequence of its destruction 
on 14th July, 1789, at the beginning of the French Revolution. 
— A line drawn on the ground in 1880 between the Boulevard 
Henri IV. and the Rue St. Autoine, indicates the exact site of the 
fortress so far as it is not now built over. 

'With its massive walls, 10 ft. in thickness, and its eight heavy, 
sombre towers, it rose just at the entrance of the city; and the cannon 
on its battlements commanded the adjoining suburb of St. Antoine , the 
quarter occupied by the artizan classes. It formed the standing cogni- 
sance of despotic power under the old monarchy, and presented a formi 
dable barrier to the advancing tide of the Revolution. Ere long, there- 


tni'p, the popular ilr.siro tor inilepeudpncc, ••oinciding with the desigu^ ul 
the demagogues, raised the cry, which speedily resounded throughout the 
whole of Paris, — Down with the Bastille! Notwithstanding the moats, 
the walls, and the guns with which the <astle was defended, the exe- 
cution of the scheme presented no great difficulty. The garrison con- 
sisted of 138 men, one-third of whom were Invalides ; their provisions 
consisted of a couple of sacks of flour; they were unable to prevent the 
stoppage of their supply of water •■, and all hope of aid from without was 
cut off. From the suburbs an interminable multitude of armed men 
converged towards the entrance ; and from the city came several com- 
panies of the regiments which had gone over to the Revolution, headed 
by the French guards. De Launay, the commandant, however, refused 
to capitulate, and the struggle began. A number of the citizens, with 
reckless bravery, succeeded in cutting the chains of the drawbridge, and 
the first court' of the castle was speedily taken ; but to the excessive 
exasperation of the assailants their attack on the second court was 
repulsed with great loss. The courage of the garrison was now exhausted. 
The Invalides desired to capitulate, and De Launay, who had been pre- 
vented by his officers from blowing up the castle and its inmates , let 
down the second bridge on being promised a free retreat. The victorious 
crowd immediately poured into the ancient building , some of them 
enthusiastic in the cause of Liberty, others bent on murder and destruc- 
tion. The lives of the garrison were now in great jeopardy. The French 
guards succeeded with difficulty in saving the common soldiers ; but De 
Launay and his officers, in spite of the long and heroic attempts of the 
leaders of the populace to protect them, were slain, and their heads cut 
off as trophies'. — //. von Sybel, Period of the Revolution. 

Some of the stones of the Bastille were afterwards employed in the 
construction of the Pont de la Concorde. The Place is also a noted spot 
in the annals of two subsequent revolutions. In June, 1848, the insur- 
gents erected their strongest barricade at the entrance to the Rue du Fau- 
bourg-St-Antoine, to the E. of the Place, and it was only with the aid 
of heavy artillery that this barrier was demolished. On 25th June, the 
third day of the contest, Archbishop Affre (p. 206), while exhorting the 
people to peace, was killed by an insurgenfs ball. In May, 1871 , the 
site of the Bastille was one of the last strongholds of the Communists, by 
whom every egress of the Place had been formidably barricaded , but it 
was captured after a desperate struggle by the Versailles troops on the 
'J5th of the month. 

The Colonne de Juillet, which now aflorns the Place, by Alavoine 
and Z>uc, was erected in 1831-40 in honour of the heroes who fell 
in the Revolution of July, 1830. The total height of the monument 
is 154 ft. , and it rests on a massive round substructure of whitr, 
marble , originally intended for a colossal fountain in the form of 
an elephant contemplated by Napoleon I. for this site. On this rise.s 
a square basement, on each side of which are six bronze medallions 
symbolical of Justice, the Constitution, Strength, and Freedom, and 
on the basement is placed the pedestal of the column. On the W. 
side of the pedestal is represented a bronze lion in relief (the astro- 
nomical symbol of July), by Barye (d. 1875), under which is the 
inscription ; on the E. side are the armorial bearings of the city 
and the dates of the decrees sanctioning the erection of t^e column ; 
on the N. and S. sides are the dates of the conflicts in which the 
'July heroes' fell. At each of the four corners is seen the Gall ic cock 
holding garlands. The column itself is of bronze , 13 ft. in thick- 
ness, and fluted. It is divided by four bands into ftvc sections . on 
which the names of the fallen (615) arc emblazoned in gilded let^ 


ters. The capital is surmounted by a kind of lantern, crowned with 
the Genius of Liberty standing on a globe, by J. Dumont (d. 1884). 

The Interior (adm. gratis) contains an excellent staircase of 238 steps 
leading to tbe top, where a fine view is enjoyed. 

The Vaults (fee), to which a visit may also be paid, consist of two 
chambers, each containing a sarcophagns, 45 ft. in length and 7 ft. in 
width, with the remains of the fallen. In the same receptacles were 
afterwards placed the victims of the Revolution of February , 1848. In 
May, 1871, during the Communist reign of terror, these vaults were filled 
with gunpowder and combustibles by the insurgents for the purpose of 
blowing up the column and converting the whole neighbourhood into a 
heap of ruins. The powder, however, was afterwards withdrawn for use 
in the defence of the Place (see p. 71), so that no serious damage was done. 

To theN. of the Place de la Bastille is the wide Boulevard Richard 
Lenoir (PI. R26,27), running above the Canal St. Martin, which is 
vaulted over for a distance of nearly I1/4 M., and is lighted by means 
of shafts among the shrubberies in the boulevard. To the left of 
this boulevard are the Boulevard Beaumarchais, which we follow, 
and the Rue St. Antoine, leading to the Rue de Rivoli (p. 61). To 
the S.W., at the end of the Boulevard Henri- IV. (p. 218), in the 
distance, rise the fine dome of the Pantheon (p. 240) and the tow- 
ers of the churches of St. Etienne du Mont and Ste. Genevieve. 
Farther to the left, in the old moat of the Bastille, is the Gare de 
V Arsenal, a basin of the Canal St. Martin, which here joins the Seine 
opposite the Jardin des Plantes (p. 264); then, to the S.E., the Gare 
de Vincennes (p. 26), and the Rue du Faubourg -St- Ante ine (p. 300). 
— Omnibuses and tramways, comp. Plans in the Appendix. Re- 
staurants, see p. 18. 


Place de la Republique. Portes St. Martin and St. Denis. The Opera. 

The omnibus (Line E) may, in case of fatigue, be taken from the 
Bastille as far as the Place de la Eepublique, or the whole way. Best 
view from the top, on the right side. 

The Boulevards of Paris are divided into four classes : the Old 
or Inner Boulevards, the Outer Boulevards, the New Boulevards, 
and the Boulevards d'Enceinte or Lines. 

(1) The Old or Inner Boulevards ('B. Interieurs') derived their 
name from having been constructed in the reign of Louis XIV. on the 
site of the ancient boulevards ('bulwarks') or fortifications, which 
formerly surrounded the city. They are divided by the Seine into a 
northern and a southern half. The northern half, the 'Boulevards 
Interieurs du Nord', or 'Great Boulevards', commonly known par 
excellence as ^The Boulevards', extend in a semicircle from the Bastille 
(PI. R, 25 ;• V) to the Madeleine (PI. R, 18 ; /i), a distance of 21/2 M., 
and are never less than 33 yds. in width. These Boulevards consist of 
the following 11 subdivisions: Boulevard Beaumarchais, B. desFilles- 
du-Calvaire, B. du Temple, B. St. Martin, B. St. Denis, B. Bonne- 
Nouvelle, B. Poissonniere, B. Montmartre, B. des Italiens, B. des 
Capucines, B. de la Madeleine. The more westerly of these imposing 


streets are nowhere surpassed in the briskness of their traflic and the 
attractiveness of their shops. The Great Boulevards are continued on 
the left hank by the Boulevard St. Germain. — The 'Boulevards 
Interieurs du Sud'. forming the southern half, extend in another 
semicircle (41/2 M. long) on the left bank of the Seine , from the 
Pont d'Austerlitz to the Pont des Invalides , but are now scarcely 
distinguished from the following. 

(2) The Outer Boulevards ('B. Ext^rieurs'), originally skirting 
the octroi wall of Louis XVL, still retain their name, though it has 
been less appropriate since 1860, when the suburban districts (ban- 
lieue) were annexed to Paris. The northern line of these, from the 
Pont de Bercy to the Trocadero, is 9^/4 M. long, while the southern 
half, also beginning at the Pont de Bercy, but uniting at places with 
the old Boulevards Interieurs, is 5'/2 M. in length. 

(3) The New Boulevards ('Nouveaux B.') have been laid out 
since 1852. Of these the most Important are tlie following : — B. 
de Strasbourg, B. de Sebastopol, B. St. Michel, B. de Magenta, B. 
Voltaire, B. St. Germain, and B. Haussmann. With this class of 
Boulevards , which have no connection with 'bulwarks' or forti- 
fications either ancient or modern , may be ranked numerous Avenues, 
such as the Avenues del'Opera, des Champs-Elysees, de Friedland, 
Hoche, Wagram, de la Grande-Armee, du Bois de Boulogne, Mala- 
koff, Victor Hugo, Kleber, d'lena, Marceau , du Trocadero, Henri 
Martin, de I'Alma, Montaigne, d'Antin, de Suffren, de la Bourdon- 
nais, Rapp, Bosquet, delaMotte-Picquet, Victoria, delaRepublique, 
des Gobelins, and Daumesnil. 

(4) The Boulevards d" Enceinte, skirting the inside of the present wall of 
Paris, take the place of the former military road which was divided into 
19 sections. 

Many of the boulevards, as well as some of the avenues and other 
principal streets, are paved with wood. The side- walks for foot 
passengers are of asphalt. The trees with which the boulevards and 
many important thoroughfares are flanked are a source of constant 
trouble to the municipal authorities, being frequently killed by the 
gas. When dead they are skilfully replaced by full-grown substitutes, 
and gaps are very seldom visible. 

A Walk along the Great Boulevards , from the Place de la 
Republique to the Madeleine will be found both interesting and in- 
structive by the visitor to Paris. The streets arc least crowded be- 
tween 9 a.m. and midday, but the brilliantly lighted shops and cafes 
add to the interest in the evening. In the afternoon the top of an 
omnibus (taking ^2 ^i^* to traverse the boulevards) is a good point 
of observation. The traffic is immense, especially at the ends of the 
Boulevard Montmartre, the Place de TOp^ra, and other points where 
the streets intersect (comp. p. 77). At several of the crossings 're- 
fuges' have been erected for pedestrians, and the police are intro- 
ducing the London system of arresting the traffic from time to time. 

The principal Cafe's and Brasseries (pp. 20, 21) place chairs 


outside their doors in sunuuer, whence customers may survey the 
busy passing throng at their leisure. — Restaurants, pp. 16, 21 ; 
Theatres, pp. 33-35; Shops, p. 39, 

The small glass stalls where newspapers and flowers are sold, and 
which are also covered with advertisements, are called ''Kiosques'. Besides 
these there are offices for the regulation of the cabs, pillars covered with 
theatrical announcements, etc. Chairs are placed for hire (chaise 10c.) in 
the broadest parts of the boulevards; there are also numerous benches for 
the free use of the public. 

The Boulevard Beaumarchais (PI. R, 26 ; III, V], named after 
Caron do Beaumarchais (p. 70), who owned a considerable part of 
the E. side of the street, is the longest of the Great Boulevards, being 
820 yds, in length. To the left diverges the Rue des Vosges, lead- 
ing to the Place of that name (p, 217). 

The Rue St, Claude, also diverging from the Boulevard to the left, 
leads to the church of St. Senis du Saint-Sacrement, in the Rue de Turenno. 
The church, an unimportant edifice in the neo-classic style dating from 
1893-35, contains a Descent from the Cross, by Eug. Delacroix (in the chapel 
to the right of the entrance), a fine statue of Ste. GeneviPve by Ferra^'d 
(1868), and paintings in the choir by A. de Pujol. 

The Boulevard des Filles-du-Calvaire (PI. R, 26; III), which 
adjoins the Boulevard Beaumarchais, is 230 yds. long and derives 
its name from an ancient nunnery. At its N. end, to the right, is 
the Cirque cVHiver (p. 35). 

The Boulevard du Temple (PI. R, 27 ; 77/), 440yds, in length, 
is named from its proximity to the old Temple quarter (p. 210). It 
was at one time the fashionable promenade of the citizens, when the 
centre of Paris lay more to the E. than at present, and contained nu- 
merous theatres (conip, the paintings in the Musee Carnavalet,p.'i1 6). 

No. 42, situated at a bend of the street, occupies the site of the house, 
from which Fieschi on 28th Jiily, 1835, discharged his infernal machine 
at Louis Philippe. The king escaped unhurt, but Marshal Mortier and 
fourteen other persons were killed. 

The Boulevard du Temple terminates in the *Place de la Re- 
publique, formerly called the Place du Chdteau-d^ Eau (PI. R, 27; 777), 
one of the finest squares in Paris (310 yds. long). The centre is 
embellished with a bronze Statue of the Republic, by the brothers 
Morice, erected in 1883, which is 32 ft. high to the top of the olive- 
branch. The stone pedestal, 50 ft. in height, is surrounded with 
seated bronze figures of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, and adorn- 
ed with 12 bas-reliefs in bronze, by Dalou : Taking the oath in the 
Jeu de Paume ; Capture of the Bastille; Renunciation of privileges ; 
Festival of the Federation; Volunteers enrolling; Battle of Valmy; 
Meeting of the Constituent Assembly; Combat of the 'Vengeur'; 
Resumption of the tricolor in 1830 ; Provisional Government of 
1848; September 4th, 1870; National Fete, July 14th, 1880, In 
front is a bronze lion with the urn of 'suffrage universel'. 

Streets diverge from the Place de la R^publique in every direction. 
To the S.E. is the Boulevard Voltaire (p. 179); to the E. runs the Avenue 
de la Ripuhlique , leading to the Pere-Lachaise (p. 179); to the N.E. the 
Rue du Faubourg du-Temple lead,<! to Belleville (p. 202), and is traversed 
by a cable- tramway (10 c). At the point ^'^he^e it cro.s.'eg the Canal 

1. I'.OULEVAKD.S. 75 

St. Martin i» a bust of Fred. Leinaitre (1800-76), the author, by Granet, To 
the N.W. diverges the Boulevard de Magenla^ which leads past the Gare 
de TEst and the Gare du Nord (p. 24) to Montmartre. To the S.W. arc 
the old Rue du Temple., leading to the Hotel de Ville, and the wide Rue 
de Turbigo, niore to the right, descending to the Hallee Centrales (p. 173). 
Between the Bonl. Magenta (to the left) and the Bonl. St. Martin i.-' 
the Bourse du Travail, erected in 1889-90 by the city of Paris, and placed 
at the disposal of the trade councils (-syndicats professionnels'), with a 
view to superseding the private 'registry' offices. 

Beyond the Place de la Republique we next reach the Boulevard 
St. Martin (PI. R. 27, 24; III), 490 yds. long. The carriage-way 
was lowered in 1845, to facilitate traffic, while the foot-pavements 
retain their original height. Several theatres (see p. 34) are situated 
on the right side of this boulevard, viz. the Opera Populaire, Ambign- 
Comique, Theatre de la Porte St. Martin, and Theatre de la Renaissance . 

The Porte St. Martin (PI. K, 24; 111), a triumphal arch, with 
three openings , 57 ft. in height, designed by Pierre Bullet, was 
erected by the city in honour of Louis XIV. in 1674. The reliefs, 
on the S. side by Le Hongre and Legros the Elder and on the N. side 
by M. Dujardins and G. Marsy, represent the Capture of Besan^on, 
the Capture of Limburg, and the defeat of the Germans, Spaniards, 
and Dutch. On 31st March, 1814, the German and Russian armies 
entered Paris by the Barriere de Pantin and the Rue du Faubourg- 
St-Martin, and passed through the Porte St. Martin and the Boule- 
vards to the Place de la Concorde ( p. 82~). 

The 'Mairie of the 10th Arrondissement (PI. P, 24: UJ) with its con- 
spicuous tower, in the Rue du Faubouvp-St-Martin , about 300 yds. from 
the Porte, is a tasteful structure of 1892-96, designed by E. Rouyer in a 
Renaissance style not unlike that of the Hotel de Ville. In the interior, 
the staircase and the gallery in three stories may be mentioned. The Salle 
des Fetes, on the first floor, to the back, contains a large alto-reli<"f by 
Dalou, representing the brotherhood of nations. 

Beyond the Porte St. Martin begins the short Boulevard St. De- 
nis (PI. R, 24; III), 230 yds. in length. 

The handsome streets which diverge here to the right and left 
are the Boulevards de Strasbourg and de Sebastopol, which, con- 
tinued on the S. by theBoul. du Palais (p. 220) and Boul. St. Michel 
(p. 228), intersect Paris from the Gare de I'Est (p. 200) on the N. to 
the Observatoire (p. 286) on the S., a distance of 21/2 M. At the 
end of the Boulevard de Strasbourg, to the right, is the Gare de 
I'Est. To the left, at the end of the Boulevard de Sebastopol, rises 
the dome of the Tribunal de Commerce (p. 223). About 200 yds. to 
the left of this boulevard is the Square des Arts et Metiers, in front 
of the Conservatoire of that name (p. 175). 

We now reach the Porte St. Denis, another triumphal arch, de- 
signed by Blondel , with sculptures by the brothers Anguier from 
the designs of Girardon, and erected two years before the Porte St. 
Martin, to commemorate the victories of Louis XIV, in Holland and 
the district of the Lower Rhine. It is 81 ft. high and has a single 
archway. The piers are adorned with two obelisks in relief covered 


with military trophies. At the bases of the obelisks are represented, 
on the left, vanquished Batavia (Holland) with a dead lion, and on 
the right the river-god of the Rhine. The relief above the arch on 
the same side represents the Passage of the Rhine in 1672; the 
relief on the other side, the Capture of Maestricht. Nearly all the 
sculptures were restored in 1886-87. 

Both these triumphal arches were the scene of sanguinary con- 
flicts in July, 1830, June, 1848, and May, 1871. 

The Porte St. Denis stands between the Rue St. Denis and the 
Rue du Fauhourg-St-Denis, together forming one of the most an- 
cient, and still one of the most important lines of streets in Paris. 
As we proceed westwards the traffic becomes brisker, and the shops 
more handsomely built and richly stocked. 

The continuation of the Boulevard St. Denis is the Boulevard 
Bonne-Nouvelle (PI. R, 24; ///). which is 380 yds. in length. On 
the right are the new premises of La Menagere (p. 40), the Restau- 
rant Maryuery (p. 17), and the Theatre du Gymnase (p. 33). The 
Rue d' Hauteville, at the end of which the church of St. Vincent- 
de-Paul (p. 203) is seen, diverges on the same side. 

The ancient streets to the left of the boulevard lead in a few minutes 
to Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle, a church of the 17th and 19th cent., of 
little interest in itself, but containing a handsome large marble group in 
high relief by Ch. Uesvergnes. representing the Memory of the Dead (1895; 
in the lirst chapel on the right). The large chapel of the Virgin, to the 
left of the nave, is painted in fresco by Awj. Hesse. 

At the point where the Rue du Faubourg-Poissonniere diverges 
to the right and the Rue Poissonniere to the left, begins the Boule- 
vard Poissonniere (PI. R, 21 ; ///), which is also 380 yds. long. 

In the Rue du Faubourg-Poissonniere, No. 15, is the Conserva- 
toire de Musique et de Declamation (PI. B, 21, 24; ///), which, 
however, is about to be removed elsewhere. The Conservatoire, 
founded in 1784 for the purpose of training singers and actors for 
the national stage, has a teaching-staff of over 70 and about 750 
pupils. Pupils are admitted by competition and receive their train- 
ing gratuitously. Winners of the Grand Prix are awarded an annual 
allowance of about 4000 fr. for four years, during which they visit 
Italy and Germany for the purpose of perfecting themselves in their 
art. The most distinguished students are entitled to an engagement 
in one of the subsidized theatres. The Conservatoire possesses a 
valuable Collection of Musical Instruments and an extensive Musical 
Library. Concerts, see p. 37, 

The Collection of Musical Instruments, in the second court, next 
the Rue da Conservatoire, from which it may be entered, is open to vis- 
itors on Mon. and Thurs., 12-4. It contains numerous instruments remark- 
able for their antiquity, rarity, excellence, artistic beauty, or historical 
a.'^sociations. The glass-cases in the centre contain the finest instruments. 

A little farther on, at the corner of the short Rue Ste. Cecile and the 
Rue du Conservatoire, is the church of St. Eugene, a Gothic edifice, built 
in 1854-55 from the designs of L. A. Boileau. The interior is supported 
by cast-iron columns and is embellished with paintings and stained glass 
in the style of the 13th century. 


Farther on, to the right of the Boulevard, diverges the small Rue 
de Rougemont, at the end of which is seen the Comptoir National 
cfEscompte, rebuilt in 1882-83. Its fa(;ade, surmounted by a dome 
■with a small spire, has a fine doorway in the form of a triumphal 
arch, decorated v^ith symbolic statues by A. Millet. 

On the right of the Boulevard Poissonniere, No. 30, is the at- 
tractive shop of Barbedienne d^ Co., dealers in bronzes (p. 41); on 
the left is the Cafe-Concert Parhianu (p. 30). 

At the point where the Rue Montmartre diverges to the left 
and the Rue du Faubourg- Montmartre to the right, we reach the 
Boulevard Montmartre (PI. R, 21 ; 7/7), which is 235 yds. in 
length. The point where these three streets intersect, called the 
Carre four Montmartre, is perhaps the busiest in Paris. 

At No. 3, Uue Feydcau, to tbe right of the Rne Montmartre, is the 
0/,fice National de t'ohiiin'rce . established tn I'acilitatc and eucuuraire the 
intercourse of French manufacturers and merchants with foreign coun- 
tries. — Beyond the Rue Feydeau begins the Rue Notre-Damedes-Victoires, 
which passes behind the Exchange (p. 193). The Eue Montmartre ends at 
the Halles Centrales (p. 172). 

On the left stands the Theatre des Varietes (p. 34). On the same 
side is the Passage des Panoramas, and opposite to it the Passage 

On the left, farther on, the Rue Vivienne diverges to the [3 min.) 
Bourse (p. 193) and the Palais-Royal (p. 60). — The Boul. Mont- 
martre ends at the Rue de Richelieu (p. 186) and the Rue Drouot 
(p. 194). 

The *Boulevard des Italiens [PI- R, 21 ; 777, 77), 465 yds. in 
length, which we next enter, is the most frequented and fashion- 
able of the boulevards. It derives its name from the old Theatre 
des Italiens. — Near the beginning, on the right (N.), is the double 
Passage de I' Opera (now almost deserted), so named from the old 
opera-house, burned down in October, 1873, which stood at the N. 
end. To the left of the Boulevard is the Passage des Princes, lead- 
ing to the Rue de Richelieu. 

Farther on are the Rue Favart and the Rue Marivaux, between 
which is the Opera Comique (PI. R, 21, 77; p. 33). The theatre, 
which was burned in 1887, was rebuilt in 1893-98, by Bernier. 
with its farade in the Place Bo'ieldieu, as before. The caryatides and 
ornamental heads on the exterior are by Allar, G. Michel, and Pey- 
not. In niches are statues of Poesy and Music by Cuilheri and Puech. 

Inside, at the foot of the staircase, are marble statues of Lyric Opera 
and Comic Opera, by Falyiiii r<- and McvrU'. The ceiling-painting in the 
auditorium, by Benj. Constant, represents the chief figures in the operas 
performed Lere (Carmen, Manou Leseaut, Mignon, Lothario, etc.), above 
which are Harmony, Poetry, Song, and Glory. On the two grand stair 
cases are panels by L. 0. Mevson (Poetry, Music, Song, Elegy, Hymn) 
and Fi'. Flameng (liallet. Tragedy, Satirical Comedy). The decorations in 
the vestibule of the foyer are by Jos. Blanc. The ceiling-painting in the 
foyer is hj Albert Maicjnan ('La Eoude des Notes). In the adjoining rooms 
are paintings by Raph. Collin (Inspiration, Truth animating Fiction) and 
Toudouze (Musical Pastoral of tbe 13th cent., Glorification of Mu<ic). 


On the right of (he Bouhivard, I'artlier on, are the Rue Le Peletier, 
where Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon HI. in 1858, and 
the Rues Laffitte^ Taitbout^ and de la Chaussee-d' Antin. At the 
corner of the Rue Le Peletier is the *Cafe. Riche (p. 14), rebuilt in 
1897-99 in the style of Louis XV. On the same side, at the corner 
of the Rue Laffltte, is the Maison Doree Restaurant, with, interesting 
sculptures; at the end of this street is the church of Notre-Dame- 
de-Lorette (p. 195), beyond which a glimpse is obtained of the 
Butte Montmartre (^p. 204), with the Church of the Sacr^-Coeur, 
and the reservoir (p. 205). Nearly opposite, on the left, is the 
imposing building of the Credit Lyonnais. No. 28, on the right, is 
the Theatre des Nouveautes (p. 35 ), behind which, in the Rue Tait- 
bout, begins the Boul. Haussmann (p. 197). On the S. side of the 
boulevard we next observe the Pavilion de Hanovre, No. 33, built 
by Marshal de Richelieu in 1760 (partially rebuilt in 1888), now 
containing the principal depot of the 'Orfevrerie Christofle' (p. 44). 

Beyond the Rue de la Chansse'e-d'Antin (on the right), at the 
end of which rises the church of La Trinity (p. 196), begins the 
handsome *Boulevard des Capucines (PL R, 18; II), 450 yds. in 
length. On the right are the Theatre du Vaudeville (p. 33), and 
several handsome shops. 

We next reach the *Place db l'Op^^ra (PL R, 18 ; //), which is 
intersected by the Boulevard des Capucines, and where five other 
broad streets converge. To the S. run the Rue de la Paix, with 
its tempting shops and the Vendome Column in the background 
(p. 84), the handsome *Avenue de VOpera, leading to the Place du 
Th^atre-Fran^ais (p. 61), and the Rue du Quatre-Septembre, lead- 
ing to the Bourse (p. 193). To the N. , on the left and right of the 
Opera, are the Rue Halevy and the Rue Auber, the latter leading to 
the Gare St. Lazare (p. 196). Continuation of the Boulevard, p. 80. 

The *Opera House, a sumptuous edifice bearing the inscription 
^Academie Nationale de Musique\ designed by Chas. Gamier, was 
begun in 1861, and completed in 1874. It is now the largest theatre 
in the world, covering an area of 13,596 sq. yds. (nearly three 
acres); but it contains seats for 2156 persons only, being less than 
the number accommodated by the opera-house at Vienna or the vast 
theatres of La Scala at Milan and San Carlo at Naples, No adequate 
idea of its vast dimensions can be obtained without walking round 
the exterior, or viewing it from some elevated position. 

The site alone cost 420,000^ and the cost of building amounted to 
l,460,OOOr The site had to be excavated to a depth of cOft. below the 
level of the lirst surface-water, and a copious stream was struck which 
necessitated the employment of eight steam pumps night and day for seven 
months. Very little wood has been employed in the construction of the 
building, but there is hardly a variety of marble or costly stone that has 
not been used. 

The *Pbincipal Facade , which, notwithstanding the richness 
of its ornamentation, has a somewhat heavy and depressed appear- 


ance, is approached by a broad flight of steps, and consists of three 
stories. On the groundfloor is the Portico with its seven arches, 
the piers of which are embellished with four large groups of statu- 
ary and four statues, viz., from left to right : Lyric Poetry by Jouff- 
ray, Music by Ouillaume, Idyllic Poetry by Aizelin, Declamation 
by Chapu ^ Song by Dubois and Vatrinelle , Drama by Falyuiere, 
Dance by Carpeaux, and Lyric Drama by Perraud. The group by 
Carpeaux, though admirably executed, has been severely and justly 
criticised for the sensuality of its style. Above the statues are medal- 
lions of Bach, Pergolese, Haydn, and Cimarosa. Above the portico 
is the Loggia, with thirty Corinthian monolithic columns, sixteen 
of which, 33 ft. in height, are of stone, while the fourteen smaller 
columns are of red marble, with gilded bronze capitals, and form 
a kind of frame to the windows with balconies of green Swedish 
marble. In the intervening spaces are medallion busts, in gilded 
bronze, of the great musical composers. Above the loggia the facade 
terminates in a richly sculptured attic, embellished with gilded 
theatrical masks, and with colossal gilded groups by Gumery, one on 
each side, representing Music and Poetry attended by the Muses and 
Goddesses of Fame. In the centre of the building rises a low dome 
(visible from a distance only), and behind it a huge triangular ped- 
iment, above the stage , crowned with an Apollo with a golden lyre 
in the middle, by Millet, and flanked with two Pegasi by Lequesne. 
— There is also a pavilion in the centre of each of the Lateral Fa- 
cades, that on the left side ('Pavilion d'Honneui') having a double 
carriage -approach. The pavilion on the other side, in the Rue 
Halevy, is the entrance for regular subscribers. The lateral facades 
are adorned like the principal one with busts of composers and alle- 
gorical figures. — Performances, see p. 82. 

*Intbriob. Passing through the gilded gates, we first enter 
the Vestibule, containing the ticket -offices, and adorned with 
statues of LuUy, Rameau, Gluck, and Handel. Opposite to us is 
the '^-^ Grand Staircase ('Escalier d'Honneur), the chef-d'ceuvre of 
Gamier. Visitors who take their tickets at the door have to ascend 
to their places by side-staircases, but may inspect the Grand Stair- 
case in the 'entr'actes'. The steps are of white marble, aiul the 
balustrades ot rosso antico, with a hand-rail formed of Algerian onyx. 
Thirty coloured monolithic marble columns rise to the height of the 
third floor. The ceiling-frescoes by Pits, beginning on the right, re- 
present the Gods of Olympus, Apollo in his Chariot, the Instrur- 
tiveness of the Opera, and the Triumph of Harmony. The hand- 
some door on the first landing, flanked by bronze caryatide figures 
of Tragedy and Comedy with drapery of coloured marble, and the 
bronze groups supporting the lamps should also be noticed. 

Below the grand staircase, in a room reached from the subscribers' 
entrance (see above), are the Bassin de la Pythie, a fountain with a priestess 
of Apollo in bronze, seated on a tripod, by Marcello (a pseudonym of the 


Duchess of Colonna di Castiglione) , and a marble statue of Music , by 
Delaplanche. — Public 'Foyer'', see below. 

The *AuDiTOEiuM , or 'Salle', fitted up in the most elaborate 
style, is rather overladen with decoration, which, however, has al- 
ready begun to fade. There are five tiers of boxes. The spring of the 
arches, the 'avant-scenes', etc., on the fourth tier are adorned with 
fine figures and heads. Above are a handsome frieze, and numerous 
small windows in the shape of lyres. The ceiling-paintings, by Lenep- 
veu, represent the different hours of the day and night, allegorised. 

The Stage is 196 ft. in height, 178 ft. in width, and 74 ft. 
in depth. Communicating with it is the Foyer de la Danse, or ball- 
room, the end of which is formed by a mirror 23 ft. broad and 33 ft. 
high. This foyer has portraits of celebrated 'danseuses' and other 
paintings by Boulanger (not open to the public). 

The *FoYER T)u Public, one of the most striking feature of the 
Opera House , is entered by the 'Avant-Foyer', the vaulting of 
which is adorned with mosaics designed by Curzon, and executed 
by Salviati, representing Diana and Endymion, Orpheus and Eury- 
dice, Aurora andCephalus, and Psyche and Mercury. The Foyer itself 
is 175 ft. long, 42 ft. wide, and 59 ft. in height. Five windows and 
two doors lead from the Foyer to the Loggia (view). Opposite the 
windows are huge mirrors, 23 ft. high, separated by twenty columns 
bearing statues emblematical of the qualities required by an artist. 
At the ends are also two monumental chimney-pieces with Carya- 
tides of coloured marble. The fine but somewhat faded paintings 
are by Baudry. On the ceiling are Melody and Harmony in the cen- 
tre, with Tragedy and Comedy at the sides. Over the chimney-pieces 
are Mount Parnassus and the Poets of Antiquity. The other paintings 
represent the Muses, with the exception of Polyhymnia, the Music 
of different nations, and Dancing. 

To the left, as we quit the hall, is a buffet, decorated with tapestry 
designed by MazeroUe, representing Wine, Ices, Pastry, and Fishing. 

The Pavilion d'Honneur (p. 79), Rue Auber, conlains a ^fonuiaent to 
Gurnier. the architect (1S25-98), with a bust by Carpeaux : a Library^ be- 
longing' to the Opera: and the small Mvsie de VOpira. The, open 
on week-days 11-4, contains sketches of the priacipal paintings in the 
Opera House, models of scenery, busts and portraits of stage celebrities, 
MSS. of well-known composers, Spontini's pianoforte, old play-bills (1658, 
1660, etc.), and the like. 

The small Square de VOpvra^ near the Opera to the W. (reached by 
the Piue B(nidreau, which diverges from the Rue Auber to the left), is 
embellished with a Pegasus in bronze, by Falguiere. 

In the Boulevard des Capucines we next observe on the right 
(N.) the Grand Hotel (p. 3), with the Cafe de la Paix (p. 20) ; beyond 
which is the Rue Scribe, containing the offices of several Atlantic 
steamship companies (p. 28) and (farther on) the Olympia (p. 30). 

We now reach the Boulevard de la Madeleine (PI. R, 18 ; /i), 
which is 285 yds. in length, and leads hence to the church of that 
name, where the Great Boulevards on the right bank come to an end. 


The *Madeleine, or Church of St. Mary Magdalen (VIB., 18; //), 
is built in the style of a late-Roman adaptation of a Greek temple. 
The construction lasted from 1764 till 1842, the chief architects of 
the building being Coutant d'Jvry, P. Vignon, and Euve. Napoleon I. 
wished to convert it into a 'Temple of Glory', while Louis XVIII. 
desired to make it an expiatory church with monuments to Louis XVI., 
Marie Antoinette, etc. The church is 354 ft. in length, 141 ft. in 
breadth, and 100 ft. in height. It stands on a basement about 23 ft. 
in height, and is surrounded by an imposing colonnade of massive 
Corinthian columns. The building, which is destitute of windows, is 
constructed exclusively of stone. The niches in the colonnade contain 
thirty-four modern statues of saints. The relief in the tympanum of 
the principal facade (S.), by Lemaire (d. 1880). represents the Last 
Judgment. The bronze Doors, 34 V'2 ft. in height and 16 ft. in breadth, 
are adorned with illustrations of the Ten Commandments by Triqueti. 

The ^Interior (open to visitors from 1 to 6 p.m. ; when the front gate 
is closed, entrance by the choir) forms a single spacious hall, with side- 
chapels, behind which are colonnades bearing galleries. The ceiling con- 
sists of three cupolas and a hemicycle. In the spandrels are figures of 
the Apostles, by Fradim\ Rude, and Foyatier. 

Sculptures and paintings in the chapels : to the right, Marriage of the 
Virgin, by Pradier ; to the left, Baptism of Christ, by Rude: right, Ste. 
Amelie, by Bra; left, St. Viuceut-de-Paul, by Raggi; right, The Saviour, 
by Buret; left. The Virgin, by Seurre; right, rfte. (Jlotilde, by Barye; left, 
St. Augustine, by Etex. In the lunettes are scenes from the story of Mary Mag- 
dalen, painteil by Schnetz, Couder, Bouchot, Cogniet, Abel de Pujol, and Signol. 

On the High Altar is a fine group in marble by Alarocheiti, represent- 
ing Mary Magdalen being borne into Paradise by two angels. — At the 
back of the altar, in the apse, is a mosaic by Gilbert- Mar tin representing 
Jesus Clirist and personages from the New Testament. Above is a large 
fresco by Ziegler. representing Christ in the act of receiving and blessing 
the chief champions of Christianity in the East and West ; below is 
Napoleon receiving the imperial crown from the hands of Pope Pius VII. 

The Madeleine is famed for its sacred music and orchestral perform- 
ances on great festivals and during Passion Week. The Organ, with five 
manuals, is one of the best in Paris. The church is much used by the 
Bonapartists for their funeral masses. 

Behind the church is a Statue of Lavoisier {ilAS-Q A), the chem- 
ist, by E. Barrias. A monument (by Fre'miet) is to be erected to 
Jules Simon (1814-96), the author, on the small Place to the left 
of the church. — For a description of the Boulevard Malesherbes, 
St. Angustin, etc., to the N.W. of the Madeleine, see p. 197. 


Colonne Vendome. St. Roch. 

The broad Rue Royale leads from the Madeleine to the Place 
de la Concorde, beyond which, on the opposite bank of the Seine, 
rises the Chambre des De'put^s (p. 272). 

The Rue Royale was the scene of some of the most violent outrages 
of the Communards in May, 1871. Six houses here were deliberately set on 
fire, together with several neighbouring houses in the Rue du Faubour?- 
St-Honore, and 27 persons perished in the tlames. Some firemen, bribed 

Baedekkr. Paris. 14th Edit. 


by the Commune, even went so far as to replace tlie water in their pnmps 
by petroleum. — Palais de TElysee, in the Rue du Faubourg-St-Honor^, 
see p. 156; Eue St. Honore, see p. 85. 

The **Place de la Concorde (PI. R, 15, 18; 71), the most beautiful 
and extensive place in Paris , and one of the finest in the world, 
covers an area 390 yds. in length, by 235 yds. in width, bounded on 
the S. by the Seine, on the W. by the Champs-Elysees, on the N. by 
the Ministere de la Marine and the Hotel Crillon-Coislin (p. 83), 
and on the E. by the garden of the Tuileries. It received its pre- 
sent form in 1854 , from designs by Hittorff (d. 1876). From the 
centre of the square a view is obtained of the Madeleine (p. 81), 
the Palais de la Chambre des Deputes, the Louvre, and the Arc de 
Triomphe de I'Etoile. 

In the middle of the 18th cent, the site was still a desert. Louis XV. 
'gratified' the municipal authorities of Paris by permission to erect a 
statue to him, and Gabriel, the architect, constructed the present pavilions 
and balustrades, behind which ditches were dug, which remained unfilled 
until 1852. The statue, which was not erected until 1763. was an equest- 
rian figure of the king by Bouchardon (model, see p. lOS), surrounded 
by figures emblematical of Strength, "Wisdom, Justice, and Peace, by 
Pigalle. Soon after the erection of the statue the following pasquinade 
appeared on the pedestal: — 

' la belle statue .' 6 le beau piidestal ! 
Les vertus sont d pied, le vice est h cheval.^ 
A few days later was added the sarcasm: — 

'■II est id comme d. Versailles, 
II est sans coeur et sans entrailles.'' 
A third scribbler called the monument a '■statua stainae\ 

On lith August, 1792, the day after the capture of the Tuileries, the 
statue of the king was removed by order of the Legislative Assembly, 
melted down, and converted into pieces of two sous. A terracotta figure 
of the 'Goddess of Liberty' was then placed on the pedestal, and deri.s- 
ively styled ^La Liberty de Boue\ while the Place was named Place de la 
Revolution. In 1795 the name was changed to Place de la Concorde, and 
after the restoration of the Bourbons, when it was proposed to erect an 
expiatory monument here, it was known successively as Place Louis XV., 
and Place Louis X7I. After 1830 the name Place de la Concorde was 

In 1792 the guillotine began its bloody work here and Louis XVI. was 
executed in the Place on Jan. 21st, 1793." On 17th July Charlotte Corday 
was beheaded; on 2nd October Brissot, chief of the Gironde, with twenty- 
one of his adherents; on 16th Oct. the ill-fated queen Marie Antoinette; 
on 14th jS'ov. Philippe Egalite, Duke of Orleans, father of King Louis Phi- 
lippe ; on 12th May , 1794 , Madame Elisabeth, sister of Louis XVI. On 
14th March, through the influence of Danton and Robespierre, Hebert, 
the most determined opponent of all social rule, together with his parti- 
zans, also terminated his career on the scafiold here. The next victims 
were the adherents of Marat and the Orleanists; then on 8th April Dan- 
ton himself and his party, among whom was Camille Desmoulins; and 
on 16th April the atheists Chaumette and Anacharsis Cloots , and the 
wives of Camille Desmoulins , Hubert , and others. On 28th July, 1794, 
Robespierre and his associates, his brother, Dumas, St. Just, and other 
members of the '■comiti du salut public" met a retributive end here; a few 
days later the same fate overtook 82 members of the Commune, whom 
Robespierre had employed as his tools. Lasource, one of the Girondists, 
said to his judges: Ve meure dans un moment oii le peuple a perdu sa rai- 
ion; V0U8, vous rnourrez le Jour oii il la retrouvera\ Between 21st Jan., 
1793, and 3rd May, 1795, upwards of 2800 persons perished here by the 


In March, 1871, the Place de la Concorde and the Champs-Elys were 
occupied by the German army. In May of the same year the Place was the 
scene of fierce conflicts between the Versailles troops and the Communards, 
who had erected a barricade at the end of the Rue Royale commanding 
the Place. 

The * Obelisk, which rises in the centre of the Place, was 
presented to Louis Philippe by Mohammed Ali, Viceroy of Egypt. 
This is a monolith, or single block, of reddish granite or syenite, 
from the quarries of Syene (the modern Assuan) in Upper Egypt. 
It is 76 ft. in height, and weighs 240 tons. The pedestal of Breton 
granite is 13 ft. high, and also consists of a single block, while the 
steps by which it is approached raise the whole S^o ^^' above the 
ground. The representations on the pedestal refer to the embarka- 
tion of the obelisk in Egypt in 1831 and to its erection in 1836 at 
Paris, under the superintendence of the engineer J. B. Lebas. — 
Cleopatra's Needle in London is 70 ft. in height, and the Obelisk 
in the Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano at Rome is 104 ft. high. 

Ramses 11., King of Egypt, better known by his Greek title of Sesostris 
the Great, who reigned in the 14th cent, before Christ, erected a huge 
'pylon' gate and a colonnade before a temple which his great ancestor 
Amenhotep III. (Amenophis or Memnon of the Greeks) had built in the E. 
suburb of Thebes, the site now occupied by the poor village of Luxor. In 
front of this gate stood two beautiful obelisks, and it is one of these that 
now embellishes the Place de la Concorde. Each of the four sides of the 
obelisk is inscribed with three vertical rows of hieroglyphics, the middle 
row in each case referring to Ramses II, while the others were added by 
Ramses III., a monarch of the succeeding dynasty. 

Each of the *Fountain8 beside the obelisk consists of a round 
basin, 53 ft. in diameter, above which rise two smaller basins, 
surmounted by a spout from which a jet of water rises to a height 
of 28 ft. In the lowest basin are six Tritons and Nereids, holding 
dolphins which spout water into the second basin. The fountain on 
the S. side is dedicated to the Seas.^ the other to iht Rivers. 

The two imposing edifices of nearly uniform exterior on the N. 
side of the square, separated from each other by the Rue Royale 
(p. 81), were erected in 1762-1770, from Gabriel's plans, for the re- 
ception of ambassadors and other distinguished personages. That to 
the right is now occupied by the Ministere de la Marine:, that to the 
left, the Hotel Crillon-Coislin^ is now divided into four parts, of 
which one is occupied by the Cercle de la Rue Royale (p. 39). 

Upon lofty pedestals placed around the Place rise eight stone 
figures representing the chief towns of France : Lille and Strassburg 
by Pradier, Bordeaux and Nantes by Callouet, Rouen and Brest by 
Cortotj and Marseilles and Lyons by Petitot. The Strassburg is 
usually hung with crape and mourning garlands, in reference to the 
lost Alsace. The square is lighted at night from twenty bronzed 
rostral columns on the surrounding balustrades. 

The Pont de la Concorde [PI. R, 15, 14; //), which crosses the 
Seine from the Place to the Chambre des De'putes, was built by 
Perronet in 1787-90, the material for the upper part being furnished 

84 1. PLACE vend6me. 

by the stones of the Bastille. The piers are in the form of half- 
columns, and under the first empire were adorned with statues of 
generals, which were subsequently replaced by the statues of great 
men now in the Cour d'Honneur at Yersailles (see p. 312). 

The view from the bridge is very fine. It includes the Place de la 
Concorde, the Madeleine, and the Chamber of Deputies; then, upstream, 
to the left, the Tuileries Garden, a pavilion of the Tuileries and one of 
the Louvre, the Pont Solferino and the Pont Royal; to the right, the 
new Gare d'Orldans, in front of which is the little dome of the Palais de 
la Legion d'Honneur; farther off are ihe dome of the Institut, the towers 
of Xotre Dame, the spire of the Sainte Chapelle, and the dome of the 
Tribunal de Commerce. Downstream, to the right, appear the two Palais 
des Beaux Arts and several buildings of the Exhibition of 1900 ; then the 
new Pont Alexandre III., and, farther off, the towers of the Trocadero ; 
to the left the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the inevitable Eiffel Tower, 
The dome of the Invalides can be seen only from a little below the bridge, 
to the right of the Chamber of Deputies, and the spires of Ste. Clotilde to 
the left, above the houses. 

Below the bridge is the monumental main entrance to the Exhibition 
of 1900. — Chambre des Deputes, see p. 272 ; Boulevard St. Germain, p. 229 ; 
Garden of the Tuileries, p. 153; Champs-Elysees, p. 155. — Omnibusea, 
tramways, and steamboats, see the Appendix. 

We finish our circular walk by re-entering the Rue de Rivoli 
(p. 61), at the N.E. corner of the Place de la Concorde, and follow- 
ing it to the E., skirting the Tuileries Garden and the wing of the 
palace still existing on this side. On the left are several sumptuous 
hotels, beginning with the Hotel Continental {jp. 3), which occupies 
the site of the former Ministere des Finances, destroyed by the 
Communards in 1871. A tablet on one of the pillars of the railing 
of the Garden of the Tuileries, nearly opposite this spot, records 
that here was situated the famous riding-school (Manege) used as 
a place of meeting by the Constituent Assembly, the Legislative 
Assembly, and the National Convention. 

The Rue Castiglione , at the corner of which the Hotel Conti- 
nental stands, leads to the Place Vendome (PI. R, 18; II), partly 
constructed by the celebrated architect J. H. Mansart (the Younger, 
d. 1708). The Place was once embellished with an equestrian statue 
of Louis XIV. by Girardon. This was removed at the Revolution, 
and the name of the square changed from Place des Conquetes to 
Place des Piques. It owes its present name (assigned to it by Na- 
poleon I.) to a palace erected here by Henri IV. for his son, the Due 
de Vendome. In the centre of the Place rises the — 

*Colonne Vendome, an imitation of Trajan's column at Rome, 
142 ft. in height and 13 ft. in diameter. It was erected by the 
architects Denon, Gondouin, and Lepere, by order of Napoleon I. 
in 1806-10 , to commemorate his victories over the Russians and 
Austrians in 1805. The column is constructed of masonry, encrusted 
with plates of bronze (designed by Bergeret') forming a spiral band 
nearly 300 yds. in length , on which are represented memorable 
scenes of the campaign of 1805 , from the breaking up of the camp 
at Boulogne down to the Battle of Austerlitz. The figures are 3 ft. 

1. ST. ROCfl. 85 

in height, and many of them are portraits. The metal was obtained 
by melting down 1200 Russian and Austrian cannons. At the top is 
a statue of Napoleon in his imperial robes, after Ckaudet. Visitors 
are no longer permitted to ascend. 

The vicissitudes of the Vendome Columu reflect the political history 
of France. In 1814 the statue of Napoleon was taken down by the Royal- 
ists, and was replaced by a monster fleur-de-lis surmounted by a white 
flag. The metal was used in casting the equestrian statue of Henri IV. 
(p. 223). In 1831 Louis Philippe caused a new statue of the emperor, in a 
greatcoat and three-cornered hat, to be placed on the summit, but Napo- 
leon III. caused this to be replaced in 1863 by one resembling the original 
figure. The Column was overthrown by the Communards in May, 1871, at 
the instigation of the painter Courbet (d. 1878); but as the fragments were 
preserved, it was re-erected in 1875. 

The street prolonging the Rue Castiglione on the W. side of 
the Place is the Rue de la Paix, mentioned at p. 78. — We, 
however, retrace our steps along the Rue Castiglione to the Rue 
St. Honore, the first cross-street, where we turn to the left. 

In this street, to the right, are the Nouveau Cirque fp. 35) and the Church 
of the Assumption (sometimes closed), a building of the 17th cent., with a 
somewhat heavy dome. On the cupola is an Assumption by Ch. de la Fosse. 

St. Roch (PI. R, 18; II\ in the Rue St. Honor^, between the 
Place Vendome and the Palais Royal, was erected in 1653-1740 from 
designs by Jacques Lemercier. but the facade, with its two rows of 
Doric and Corinthian columns , one above the other, was designed 
by Robert de Cotte, and executed by his son Jules de Cotte. 

Interior. The chapels of the aisles were decorated in the early part 
of the 19th cent, with paintings, now faded and visible only in bright 
weather. The subjects of the paintings are indicated by the names of 
the chapels; viz., on the left, Chapelle des Fonts, St. Nicolas, de la Com- 
passion, Ste. Suzanne, St. Denis, St. Vincent de Paul, St. Joseph, St. 
Francois Xavier, and St. Carlo Borromeo; on the right, as we return, 
Chapelle Ste. Madeleine, Ste. Catherine, Ste. Theresa, Ste. Clotilde, Ste. 
Genevieve, of the Apostles, St. Stephen, and Chapelle des Monuments. The 
most important paintings in the church are those in the transepts: to the 
left, St. Denis preaching, by Vim (d. 1809), master of David, in the 
academic style; to the right. He ding of the Leper, by Doyen (d. ISOo), a 
somewhat theatricil composition. In the 1st chapel to the left: "Baptism 
of Christ, a group in marble, hj Lemoine. — 2nd Chapel: Mater Dolorosa, 
by Bogino. — 4th Chapel: Monument of the AbM de VEpie (1712-1789), 
founder of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum (p. '285), by Priault. — In the 
transepts, from left to right: St. Augustine, by (THuez; St. Andrew, bv 
Pradier; Agony in the Garden, hy Falconet:, St. Roch, by Coustou, etc. The 
other side-chapels contain large reliefs, by Deseine^ representing scenes 
from the history of the Passion. 

To the left and right, behind the high-altar, are paintings, hj Lethiire 
and Restout, of Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen and the Presentation 
in the Temple. — Upon the altar of the 1st chapel of the retro-choir : 
Nativity, a group in marble by Michel Anguier. — In the ambulatory are 
paintings by Schnetz, Thomas, Delorme, and RestoiU. — The Chapelle du 
Calvaire (the 2nd), which is separate from the other two, is decorated 
after designs by Falconet and contains three well -executed groups: the 
Crucifixion, by Duseigneur, Christ on the Cross, by Mich. Anguier, and the 
Entombment, by Deseine. The kneeling Magdalen in the centre, by Le- 
moyne, belonged to the monument of the painter Mignard and bears the 
features of his daughter, Mme. de P'euquieres. 

In the last chapel but one, as we return towards the entrance: *Mon- 
ument of Marshal Due de Criquy (d. 1687), by Coyzevox and Coustou. — Last 

86 2. LOUVRE. 

chapel: Monuments of 'Cardinal Dubois (d. 1729), by 0. Cottstou, and of 
Comte cfHarcourt (d. 1666), by Renard; busts of the painter Mignard (d. 
1695), by Besjardins, and of the landscape-gardener Le Ndtre (d. 1700), by 
Goyzevox the Elder; monument of the astronomer Maupertuis (d. 1759), 
by d^Huez; bust of the Due de Lesdiguiires (d. 1626), by Coustou^ and sev- 
eral medallions. — St. Roch is noted for its music (10 a.m. on Sun.). 

It was in the Place in front of St. Roch, extending at that time as 
far as the Tuileriea Garden, that the Royalists who attacked the Conven- 
tion on 5th Oct, 1795, placed their best battalions ^ whilst others ad- 
vanced on the side of the river. Napoleon Bonaparte, however, brought 
the latter under a cross-fire from his batteries, which he had hastily sum- 
moned, while by a vigorous attack he overwhelmed the soldiers of St. 
Roch, this stifling the counter-revolution in its birth. 

The Rue des Pyramides , to the right of St. Roch , leads to the 
Rue de Rivoli , passing the small Place de Rivoli, with a mediocre 
equestrian statue of Joan of Arc, in bronze, hy Fr^miet. 

Following the Rue de Rivoli to the left we now soon reach the 
Nouveau Louvre and the Place du Palais-Royal (p. 59). 

2. Palace and Galleries of the Louvre. The Tuileries. 


The **Louvre (PI. R, 17, 20; 11), the most important public 
building at Paris, both architecturally and on account of its treasures 
of art, is a palace of vast extent, rising between the Rue de Rivoli 
and the Seine. 

The Louvre perhaps derives its name from an ancient rendezvous of 
wolf-hunters, known as the Lupara, Lupera, or Louverie. It is usually 
supposed that Philip Augustus (1180-1223) erected the first castle here; it 
is at any rate certain that, when that monarch was constructing the new 
city-walls, he also built the massive corner-tower of whicb the founda- 
tions were discovered in 1885 in the cellar below the Museum of Anti- 
quities (p. 90). The plan and extent of the mediaeval chateau were made 
plain by the excavations of 1865 and are now indicated by a white line 
on the ground in the S.W. corner of the Cour du Louvre. It was not, 
however, until the time of Charles V. (1364-80), who removed his treasury 
and library to it, that the chateau was fitted up in the handsome style 
appropriate to a royal residence. No trace of these buildings now re- 
mains. In 1527 Francis I. (d. 1547), an indefatigable builder, tore down 
the old tower and modernized the chateau, and a little later he undertook 
tn rebuild it entirely. The growth of the building may be traced in the 
Historical Plan^ facing p. 87. The works were directed by the architect 
Pierre Lescot\ during the reign of the spleudour-loving Henri II. (1547-59), 
and under subsequent monarchs. After the death of Henri II. his widow, 
Catherine de Midicis (d. 1589), during the reigns of her sons Francis II. 
(d. 1560), Charles IX. (d. 1574), and Henri III. (d. 1589), continued the 
erection of the S. wing, and in 1566 also proceeded to build the so called 
'Petite Galerie", a wing of one story over which the Galerie d'Apollon 
(p. 137) was afterwards constructed. — Like his predecessors, Henri IV. 
(1589-1610) devoted much attention to the continuation of the Louvre. He 
constructed the 'Galerie d'Apollon' and completed the 'Galerie du Bord 
de TEau', or S. gallery, the entire W. portion of which, however, was 
rebuilt on a different plan under Napoleon III. Henri IV. 's architects are 
said to have been Thibauld Mitezeau and Louis Mitezeau., besides whom 
Jacques and Jean Baptiste Androuet, surnamed du Cerceau, were also employed. 

■h For details regarding the artists, see List at the end of the Handbook. 

2. LOUVRE. 87 

Pierre Chambiges^ or Chambicfie (comp. p. 65), is also named as one of tne 
architects. Under Louis XIII, (1610-43) the works were suspended for 
a considerable time, but in 1624 he entrusted Jacques Lemercier with the 
completion of the buildings begun by Lescot. The extent of Lescot's design 
was quadrupled, and what had formerly been the N. pavilion (Pavilion 
Sully, or de THorloge) was now made the centre of the W. wing. The 
construction of the N., S., and E. sides, barely begun by Louis XIII., was 
continued by his successor Louis XIV. (d. 1715), Levau being the architect 
who succeeded Lemercier in 1660. The building was suspended under 
Louis XV. and Louis XVI. and during the Revolution; but was resumed 
in 1805 by Napoleon I.., whose architects, Fercier and Fontaine, began the 
construction of a N. gallery parallel to that on the S. Finally, after another 
interruption, the old plan of the French kings and the first emperor for 
the junction of the Louvre and the Tuileries was completed in 1852-1857 
under Napoleon III., whose architects were Visconti and Le/uel. The 
parts built under Napoleon III. include the E. half (220 yds. long) of the 
N. gallery, and also the inner galleries on both N. and S., nearly as long, 
which with their transverse galleries at right angles, and the gardens in 
the square, were intended to conceal the want of exact parallelism between 
the N. and S. wings and between the Vieux Louvre and the Tuileries. 

The older part of the Louvre has been the scene of many memorable 
historical events. On 19th Aug., 1572, the marriage of Princess Margaret 
of Valois with the King of Navarre, afterwards Henri lY. of France, was 
solemnised here, most of the Huguenot chiefs being present on the occa- 
sion. Five days later, on the night of 24th Aug., the signal was given 
here for the massacre of the Huguenots. The guards immediately issued 
from the palace-court where they had been assembled, and proceeded 
first to the residence of Admiral de Coligny^ who became the first victim 
of the fearful Night of St. Bartholomew. According to a tradition, repeated 
by Mirabeau and other orators of the Revolution, Charles IX. himself on 
this occasion fired on his subjects from one of the S. windows of the 
palace, where the inscription, 'Cest de cette fenetre que Tinfame 
Charles IX., d'execrable m^moire, a tire sur le peuple avec une carabine', 
was accordingly engraved in 1795. Six years later, however, the words 
were erased , as it was discovered that that part of the palace was not 
built till the reign of Henri IV. 

On 24th May, 1871, the whole building with its immense treasures of 
art was seriously imperilled by the incendiarism of the Communards. The 
part of the connecting wing next to the Tuileries was much damaged by 
the fire, and the imperial library of 90,000 vols, and many precious MSS. 
was destroyed. The Versailles troops fortunately arrived in time to arrest 
the progress of the flames and prevent incalculably greater losses. 

The palace of the Louvre consists of two main divisions, the 
Vieux Louvre, or Old Louvre, and the Nouveau Louvre, or New Louvre. 

The Vieux Louvbe is the large quadrangle of buildings at the 
E. end of the opposite historical plan, enclosing a court of harmon- 
ious design. The finest parts, however, are the S. half of the 
W. side facing the court and the W. half of the S. side, next the 
Seine, both by P. Lescot ^ the most distinguished master of the 
earlier French Renaissance style; the other portions, as indicated 
above, being merely reproductions. The rich facade of the "W. wing, 
rising in three stories and decorated by Jean Goujon and Paolo 
Ponzio, is justly admired as the most perfect example of the style 
of the period of Francis I. The central pavilion was originally of 
two stories only ; the story subsequently added is adorned with ca- 
ryatides by J. Sarazin. These domed pavilions, like the lofty deco- 
rated chimneys , form a genuine peculiarity of the French Renais- 

88 2. LOUVRE. 

sance, as we have already noted at the Hotel de Ville (p. 66). The 
attic story of the remaining three sides was added under Louis XIY. 
The exterior facades are similar, except on the E. side, opposite 
St. Germain I'Auxerrois. That facade, 190 yds. long and 90 ft. high, 
was erected by CI. Perrault, physician and architect, whose hand- 
some Colonnade, consisting of 28 Corinthian columns in pairs, has 
oeen somewhat overrated. The dimensions of the colonnade were 
so Tinskilfully calculated, that it is not only longer than the main 
building, but was also too high until the attic story was added. 

The gardens on the outside of the Vieux Louvre are adorned with 
monuments of artists. To the left, in front of the colonnade, is an eques- 
trian statue of Velazquez (159&-1660), by Fre'miet; farther to the left is the 
monument of Fr. Boucher (1703 70), by Auber, then that of Raffet (1804-60), 
with the drummer from his 'Review of the Dead'; and beyond that is a 
monument to Meissonier (1815-91), by Mercie. 

The NouvEAu Louvrb, which is much larger, extends to theW. 
from the Vieux Louvre to beyond the Arc de Triomphe du Car- 
rousel, where it unites with two wings of the former palace of the 
Tuileries. It includes a few ancient portions, as indicated above, 
but the most interesting parts are the additions of the 19th cent., 
especially those in the inner square. The heavy and showy facades 
of these new buildings, with their pavilions roofed with domes, their 
Corinthian half-columns, their caryatides, their portico, colossal sta- 
tues (representing 86 eminent Frenchmen), and groups of sculp- 
ture [63, of an allegorical character), harmonise in their general 
characteristics only with the architecture of the earlier parts of the 
palace. It is scarcely more practicable to enumerate the sculptures 
that adorn the exterior of the Nouveau Louvre, than to enumerate 
those on the Vieux Louvre. The pediments and caryatides of the 
six chief pavilions, from left to right, beginning at the Place du 
Carrousel, are by the following artists : Guillaume (next the Place) 
and Cavelier; Buret (pediment), Bosio, Polet^ and Cavelier; Vilain 
(two pavilions); Simart (pediment), Briant the Younger. Jacquot, 
Oitin^ and Robert; Jouffroy (next the square) and Lequesne. 

The Louvre and Tuileries together cover an area of about 48 
acres, forming one of the most magnificent palaces in the world. The 
effect of the whole is harmonious, in spite of the lack of unity; and 
the pile is considered perhaps the best work of French architecture. 

Since 1793 the whole of the Old Louvre has been used as a Mu- 
seum. The E. half of the S. wing of the New Louvre also contains 
collections, while the N. wing is occupied by the minister of finance. 

Those who wish to make use of their time before the Galleries are 
open, or after they are shut, may walk through the Jardin des Tuileries 
(p. 153) to the Place de la Concorde (p. 82), or along the quays on the Seine 
to the Pont-Keuf (p. 223), or even as far as the Palais de Justice (p. 220). 
The Galleries cannot be properly seen in one day. — Dejeuner may he 
taken at the Palais-Royal (see p. 17) or at one of the Dnval Restaurants, 
Rue Montesquieu 6 and Eue de Rivoli 194 (Place de Rivoli. p. 17). 


dill diiii Tuilerics 


et itncienne '' '- -^ 





3E3V ! 


X .V 11 O -J^-^ Tl-p ^ •) K I J 

liO 'J \ l[^ ^ 11^ j 

2. LOUVRE. 89 


The Louvre Collections are open gratis to the public daily, except 
Mondays and certain holidays (see p. 5S); hours, see p. 56. 

The best time for visiting the galleries is as early as possible in the 
morning, as they are often crowded in the afternoon, particularly on Sun- 
days. — Overcoats, sticks, and umbrellas may, and parcels must, be left in 
charge of the officials at the principal entrances. — Conveniences for the 
use of visitor."! are to be found ofl" the Galerie Mollien and ER. VII and 
IX of the picture-gallery; keys kept by the custodians. 

Persons desiring to copy in the Louvre or Luxembourg apply to the 
Administration des Mushs^ the office of M^hich is in the S.W. angle of the 
court of the Vieux Louvre (PI. M). The conditions and regulations are 
posted up in the various galleries. 

The history of the •*Louvre Collections dates from the time of the 
French monarchs of the Renaissance of the l6th cent., who were not only 
intimately connected with Italy in their political relations, but paid en- 
thusiastic homage to Italian culture. Foremost among patrons of art and 
collectors was /'rawcis /. His efforts, however, were but partly successful ; 
for the School of Fontainebleau, as the group of Italian masters employed 
by him and by Henri II. is usually called, exercised no permanent in- 
fluence on the character of French art. In the reign of Louis XIV., 
who purchased the collections of the banker Jabach and of Charles I. of 
England, it again became the fashion to make collections of treasures of 
art, both with persons of the highest rank (such as Cardinal Mazarin) and 
members of the middle class (like Crozat). The royal collections, how- 
ever, known collectively as the 'Cabinet du Roi\ were inaccessible to the 
public. To the Revolution the collections of the Louvre are chietly in- 
debted for their great extent and magnificence. The principle of centrali- 
sation was then for the first time applied to art collections, and various 
treasures distributed throughout the royal palace."!, in churches, and in the 
suppressed monasteries were united here in 1793. At length, when the 
French armies returned to Paris from Italy, the Netherlands, and Ger- 
many, laden with treasures of art, the Louvre Collection became par 
excellence the museum of Europe and wa=i so celebrated under the name 
of the 'Musee XapoMon', that the Allies in 1814 did not venture to restore 
its treasures to their former owners. The act of restitution was, however, 
performed in 1815, but many fine paintings and statues still remained in 
Paris, and the collections of the Louvre can still boast of being the most 
extensive and valuable on the continent. They are constantly being in- 
creased by purchases, and still more by gifts, for nearly every art-collector 
in France bequeaths some of his treasures to the Louvre. 

The rooms of the Louvre, most of which are connected with 
each other, are so numerous that it takes 2 hrs. to walk through 
them all without stopping, and it is indispensable for the visitor to 
be provided with a plan for his guidance. 

Before entering , the visitor should particularly note that the — 

Ground Floor contains the Sculptures, ancient and modern, 
and the Engravings. 

The First Floor contains the Pictures, the Smaller AntiquitieSy 
the Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern Art Objects, the Drawings, 
and various small collections. 

The Second Floor contains the MusSe de Marine, another room 
with Paintings, the Musee Ethnographique , the Musee Chinois, and 
the Supplementary Saloons of Drawings. 

Visitors who have only a short time to devote to the Galleries 
should begin with the Antique Sculptures (p. 90) and the Pictures 

90 2. LOUYRE. Ancient 

(p. 110), which are the first to be opened in the morning (see p. 66). 
They are also recommended to adhere closely to the following 
order of proceeding through the rooms, so as to avoid missing their 
way or losing time hy going twice over the same ground. Changes 
in the arrangement are not infrequent; and at the time of going to 
press it was impracticable to give definite details as to the position 
of the pictures (comp. p. 114), The less important rooms are here 
described in small type or indicated as such. To find the description 
of any particular saloon, see the Index. 

The General Director of tbe Louvre Collections is Mr. A. Kaempfen. 
The Dep irtmental Keepers are Messieurs Ant Hiron de Villefosse (Grf^k 
and Roman Antiijuities), Paul Pierret (Egyptian Antiquities), L. A. Heu^e-j 
(Oriental Antiquities and Ancient Ce amies), A. Michel (Mediaeval, Renais- 
sance, and Modern Sculptures), G. Lafenestre (Paintings), E. Molinier (Indu- 
strial Art), and Vice-Admiral P. E. Miot (Marine Department). 

The authorities caution visitors, by means of numerous notices, not to 
employ the guides who assail the public at the entrances to the Galleries. 

Entrances. Most of the Galleries have special entrances (see 
Plan). The Principal Entrance, leading to the Gallery of Antique 
Sculpture and to the First Floor, is in the Pavilion Denon (PI. G, 
groundfloor), in the court of the New Louvre, on the side next the 
Seine. The descriptions below and at p. 109 begin here. 


The ** Collection of Ancient Sculpture (Musee des Marbres An- 
tiques), though inferior to the great Italian collections, boasts of a 
number of works of the highest rank. We begin our enumeration 
at the end next the Pavilion Denon (comp. above). 

The brief official catalogue of the antique sculptures, by A. H. de Ville- 
fosse, with illustrations and indexes (1896) , costs 1 fr. 8o c. The new 
numbers appear on the left side of the sculptures, but are sometimes 
lacking. It may also be noted that the labels give the origin of the speci- 
mens in large letters in the first line, not the subject of the sculpture. 

In the Vestibule is a cloak-room (optional; comp, p. 89). — To 
the right is the Galerie Mollien, which contains ancient statues, 
more or less mutilated and of inferior value, a large Byzantine 
mosaic, found near Tyre, in Phoenicia, two antique sarcophagi, etc. 
At the end is a staircase ascending to the French department of 
the Picture Gallery (PL K; see p. 131). 

Opposite the entrance to the left is the Salle des Moulages, formerly a 
riding-fchool, containing a collection of casts for the use of students (visi- 
tors may proceed through this room to the Chalcographie and the Collection 
Grandidier, p. 151). 

We turn to the left in the vestibule and enter the — 
Galekie Denon , where copies of bronzes from the antique, 
executed in the 16-18th cent, at Fontainebleau and Rome, sar- 
cophagi, and mutilated antiquities are exhibited. 

Bronzes. To the right and left, Amazon (Vatican), Commodus ;»,s 
Hercules (Vatican), Centaurs, from the Capitol ; right, Boy extracting a 
thorn from his foot (Capitol); left, Mercury (Florence), Cnidian Venus 
(Vatican), Ariadne (Vatican), Antinous (Capitol); right, Laocoon (Vatican), 



V dPXiiiitiqiiitiK I (J. Entrie des muifrt, tlu tfrbu/r 
et den marbres anttywi". 




Sculptures. 2. LOUVRE. 91 

the Arrotino or knife-grinder (Florence); left, Faun (Madrid), Young 
Athlete; to the right, Medicean Venus; at the end, Diana 'a la biche' 
(Louvre) and Apollo Belvedere (Vatican). 

Four large Sarcophagi are also placed here: 2120, with scenes from 
the life of Achilles (one side modern); 2119, with a battle of the Amazons, 
and two recumbent sepulchral figures on the lid; 1335, with Endymion 
and Selene; 1336, with Bacchus and Ariadne. Between the last two is a 
large lion, in limestone. 

We next reach the Grand Escalibb, or Escaliek Daku, which 
ascends to the Picture Gallery (p. 109). The ceiling of this stair- 
case is decorated with mosaics after Lenepveu, referring to Antiquity 
and the Renaissance, which are represented by allegorical figures 
of the principal countries , and by medallions and the names of 
their most illustrious artists. — At the top stands the Nike of 
Samothrace (p. 109). 

The room to the right of the staircase contains Antiquities from 
Northern Africa, including sculptures (mostly much mutilated), 
inscriptions, mosaics, Roman lamps, terracottas, etc. Among the 
most notable are: 1888 (left, under glass), Bust of Ptolemy, King of 
Mauretania; 1783. Head of Medusa in profile; 1838 (entrance-wall, 
to the right), Relief with three Elements. 

To reach the sculpture-gallery we now descend either side of 
the staircase. On the left side of the staircase: 1339. Tutor and 
Niobid (from Soissons). Below the Escalier Daru is the — 

Salle des Prisonniers Barbabes, in which are collected the 
sculptures in coloured marble. 1056. Seated figure of Minerva, 
restored as Roma, in red porphyry, the fleshy parts in bronze gilt 
(modern); 1381, 1383, 1385. Statues of captive barbarians; 1354. 
So-called African Fisherman, in black marble, wrongly restored as 
Seneca; 438. Porphyry bath; 1389. Chair in red marble. In the 
middle is a large Roman mosaic with rustic scenes and occupations. 

RoTONDE , with decorations in stucco by Michel Anguier (1653) 
and ceiling-paintings by Mawjaisse, representing the Creation of Man. 
In the centre, *866. Borghese Mars (formerly called Achilles). In the 
first window-niche, fine Greek reliefs. Between the 1st and 2nd win- 
dows, 890. Statue of Diomede. By the 2nd window, 666. So-called 
Astrological Altar from Gabii, with the heads of the twelve Olympian 
deities and the signs of the zodiac. Farther on, 889. Archaic statue 
of a pugilist; 884. Archaic Apollo. By the entrance to the Salle 
Grecque, 867. Female head, a Greek original of the Phidian age; 
931. Head of Ares; 926. Sepulchral statue of a woman, Greek. 

To the right of the entrance to the next room . *922. Silenus 
with the Infant Bacchus, known as the 'Faune ^ I'Enfant', of the 
end of the 4th cent. B.C., perhaps after Lysippus. 

This is one of the most attractive of those representations from the satyr 
world which were so much in vogue during the later period of Greek art. 
The guardian seems to be pacifying the child by his looks and kindly 
gestures, while the child smiles to him and raises his left hand caressingly. 
An air ot perfect repose and content pervades the whole group, and 
the effect is enhanced by the admirable ease and finish of the execution. 

92 2. LOUVRE. Ancient 

To the right of the Silenns, *919. Roman portrait-head of an 
old man. 

Turning to the right, we now enter a suite of apartments in the 
wing erected by Catherine de Medicis (p. 86). The archway leading 
to the first room is embellished with a relief by Chaudet, represent- 
ing Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. 

Salle dbMecbne, with ceiling-paintings by i¥ei/nier (the World 
receiving from Hadrian and Justinian laws dictated by Nature, Jus- 
tice, and Wisdom); the arches by Biennoury ['Sculpture'). To the 
right and left. Reliefs, including several from Roman sarcophagi; 
in the middle, antique fountain. To the right, 975. Roman altar- 
frieze, with relief of the sacrifice of the Suovetaurilia, from a Temple 
of Neptune built at Rome ca. 35 B.C. By the first window, to the 
left: 996. Colossal head of the Emp. Caracalla, found in Mace- 
donia. By the second window, 1003. Colossal bust of Maecenas. 

The next four rooms chiefly contain sculptures of the Roman 
imperial epoch and are comparatively unimportant. The ceiling- 
paintings, however, are noteworthy. 

Salle des Saisons, with ceiling by Romanelli (1617-62; Diana 
with Apollo, Actaeon, or Endymion; Apollo and Marsyas ; the Sea- 
sons). In the centre, 1121. Statue of Julian the Apostate (found at 
Paris). To the right, 1021. Bust of Constantine the Great (?). 1023. 
Slaying of a bull in honour of Mithras^ found at the Capitol ; Mithras, 
god of day among the Persians, was identified among the Romans 
with the god of the sun. Sarcophagus-reliefs. 

Salle de la Paix, with ceiling by Romanelli (Peace as the 
fruit of War; Peace and Agriculture). Door of 1658. In the centre, 
1075. Statue of Mammaea^ mother of Alexander Severus. — The 
eight granite columns at the entrance and exit of this room belonged 
to the part of Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral built by Charlemagne, and 
were brought to Paris in 1794. 

Salle de Septimb Severe, with ceiling by Romanelli (Poetry and 
History celebrating the warlike fame of Rome ; Rape of the Sabines ; 
Continence of Scipio; Cincinnatus; Mucins Scsevola). Extensive 
collection of busts of Roman emperors and empresses from Marcus 
Aurelius to Caracalla, named with the help of coins and medals. 
In the middle, 1009. Roman married pair in the characters of Mars 
and Venus. Several Roman reliefs with sacrificial scenes; among 
them, 1088. Procession of seven adults and two children (fragment 
of the Ara Pacis erected by Augustus at Rome in B.C. 13-9; other 
fragments at Rome and Florence). 

The Salle des Antonins is mainly occupied with busts and 
statues of Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, 
Commodus, yElius Caesar, and Lucius Verus, some of them in several 
dififexent styles. In the middle: 1133. Colossal statue restored as 
Marcus Aurelius. To the left, 1171. Colossal head of Lucilla, wife 
of Lucius Verus, found at Carthage in 1847.^ — The ceiUng' 

Sculptures. 2. LOUVRE. 93 

paintings of the first division, by Romanelli, represent Religion and 
the Theological Virtues, Genii, Judith, Moderation, Prudence, etc. 
Those of the second division are the French Hercules, hy Hennequin ; 
Victory and the Arts, by LethVere ,• Esther and Ahasuerus, by Roma- 
nelli ; Study and Fame, by Peyron, etc. — To the right is the — 

Salle d'Auguste, -with ceiling-painting by Matout (Assembly 
of the gods), executed in the reign of Napoleon III. Busts and sta- 
tues of the early Roman emperors are exhibited here. In the middle 
row: *1204. Head of a Hellenhtic Ruler (probably Antiochus III.; 
not Julius Ctesar). — *1205. Colossal Bust of Antinous. The expres- 
sion of the youth is grave and pensive, and the elaborately-arranged 
hair is adorned with Bacchanalian attributes; the eyes were ori- 
ginally of gems or enamel. — *1207. Roman Orator^ formerly called 
Germanicus, of ideal conception, though realistic in execution. It 
is inscribed with the name of the sculptor Cleomenes of Athens (on 
the tortoise at the foot) and belongs to the period of the revival of 
Greek art under the early Roman emperors. — 1208. Bust of 
Agrippa; 1209. Colossal bust of Roma, with Romulus and Remus, 
on the sides of the helmet, each suckled by a she -wolf. In the 
middle of the end-wall : *1212. Statue of Augustus (head not be- 
longing to this statue), with finely executed draperies; in front, 
1210, 1211. Two Young Romans with the Bulla. Along the sides of 
the hall : Busts of the Julian emperors and their families ; some of 
the female heads are executed with great delicacy. 

We now return to the Rotonde (p. 91) , whence we enter the 
other rooms to the right. 

The *Salle Ge-ecque contains works of the culminating period 
of Greek plastic art, and that immediately before and after it (5th 
cent. B.C.). Everything here is worthy of careful inspection, though 
for the most part sadly mutilated. 

In the centre, three mutilated statues, in the archaic style: 
*686. Juno, from Samos, probably of the 6th cent.; 687, 688. Two 
figures of Apollo, from Actium. Also, under glass, 691. Head of Apollo 
(after an original of the 5th cent. B.C.) and, opposite, 695. Archaic 
head from Athens, with wreath and curled hair (6th cent. B.C.). 

To the right, below , by the wall next to the Rotonde : *696. 
Three Reliefs from the Island of Thasos, found in 1864. 

These three reliefs originally formed one whole, which, as we learn 
from the ancient inscriptions, belonged to a sanctuary sacred to Apollo, the 
Charities (Graces) , and the Nymphs. The inscription in larger letters at 
the top is of later origin, and refers to the use of the reliefs in adorning 
a tomb in the Roman period. From each side of the central niche step 
four goddesses, holding garlands and blossoms in their hands; those on 
the left are accompanied by Apollo, those on the right by Hermes. In 
form and movement the sfiflness and angularity of the archaic school are 
still visible, but the vitality and variety of the motives, as well as the 
fine arrangement and execution of the drapery, betoken the period of 
transition to a more perfect style. The work thus probably dates from 
the end of the 6th or the beginning of the 5th cent. B.C. 

94 2. LOUVRE. Ancient 

Above : *738. Fragment of the Frieze of the Parthenon, the cel- 
ebrated temple of Athena on the Acropolis at Athens, exeented by 
Phidias and his pupils. 

The frieze, which ran round the walls of the temple within the colon- 
nade , represents the festive procession which ascended to the Acropolis 
after the Panathensean games for the purpose of presenting the goddess 
with the peplos, or robe woven and embroidered by Athenian virgins. 
The rest of the reliefs are in London and Athens. The fragment preserved 
here represents young Athenian girls with vessels, and two priests, advan- 
cing in solemn procession. 

Still higher: *736. Metope from the Parthenon (much mutilated), 
representing a Centaur carrying off a woman. 

Adjacent, to the right, 716. Hercules subduing the Cretan Bull, 
and to the left, 717. Athena sitting on a rock, two metopes from 
the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, excavated by the French in 1829, 
and in tolerable preservation. Compared with Attic sculptures, 
these works, dating from about 460 B.C., are somewhat deficient 
in grace, but they are full of freshness and vigour. 

Below, to the left : *854. Attic relief of Hermes^ Orpheus, and 
Eurydice, an admirable example of the simple and yet majestic 
style of the best period of Greek art. 

'Orpheus was permitted to bring back his wife Eurydice from the 
infernal regions to the light of day on condition that he should not look 
at her on the way; but he failed to fulfil the condition. Hermes, the 
leader of the dead, gently, but firmly grasps the hand of Eurydice to con- 
duct her back to the empire of shades. In this simple and beautiful com- 
position are traceable a whole series of different phases of hope and pain. 
The advance of the procession, the turning round of Orpheus , the confi- 
dential communing of the pair, the halt, and the impending return of 
Eurydice are all distinctly pourtrayed'. Kikuli. — There are replicas of 
the work at Naples and Rome. The inscription 'Zetus, Antiope, Amphion' 
over the figures is of the Renai?8ance period. 

To the right of the first window on the side next the Seine : 
*766. Tomb Relief of Philis, daughter of Cleomedes, from Thasos. 

The deceased is here represented, as was the custom on Attic steles, 
in a scene of daily life, with a jewel-case in her hand. A peculiar charm 
is lent to this relief by the faint lingering characteristics of archaic Greek 
art and by the simple and natural feeling of the representation. 

Above, 701. Tomb -relief of two girls with flowers (from Phar- 

This work Stands on the border between the archaic and the developed 
style. It is marked by a tender and naive naturalism, but is inferior in 
delicacy of execution to contemporary Attic works. 

697. Archaic relief from the arm of a throne, with Agamemnon 
and his heralds, Talthybius and Epeius (from Samothrace). Glass- 
case containing fragments from the temple at Olympia (ca. 
460 B.C.). — Between the windows : 835. Torso of a youthful hero, 
formerly called Alexander the Great or Inopus (a river-god on the 
island of Delos, where the statue was found). 692. Head of Apollo. 
In the middle, in front of the second window, Tablets with Athenian 
decrees; on the walls, votive bas-reliefs ; to the right, 857. Lion 
pulling down a bull. By the third vnndow: Funeral bas-reliefs. 

Sculptures. 2. LOUVRE. 95 

In front of the end-wall, 765. Sepulchral Couch, found in 

On the side next the court, to the left of the entrance: 850. 
Head of a youth (from Cos) ; 849. Colossal head of Demetrius 
Poliorcetes (more probably Seleucus Nicator); 848. Bust of a veiled 
woman (so-called Aspasia); 847. Minerva from Crete (perhaps copy 
of a statue by Alkamenes, a pupil of Phidias"). By the window : In- 
scriptions, including a Marble Stele (No. 831), brought from Athens 
by Choiseul-Gouffler, with inscriptions, recording the sums spent by 
the treasurers of the Parthenon in the 3rd and 4th years of the 9'2nd 
Olympiad (B.C. 410-409). Above, relief of Athena, the sacred olive- 
tree, and the Archon Glaucippus. — Then: 830. Bust of a Greek 
athlete, called Theseus (?) ; 829. Female figure (not a daughter of 
Niobe); architectural fragments from Macedonia and Epirus. 

Paintings on the ceiling and walla: Diana and Jupiter, by Prucfhon; 
Hercules receiving from Diana the stag with the golden horns, by Gar- 
nier; Diana restoring to Aricia Hippolytus resuscitated by ^sculapius, by 
Mirimie. Sculptures: Bas-reliefs by Cartellier, Esparcieu, and Foucou; 
casts of Jean Goujon'i sculptures on the Escalier Henri II. (p. 99). 

"We proceed in a straight direction, leaving the Salle des Cari- 
atides (p. 98) on the left, and the Salle du Tibre (p. 97) on the right. 

Corridor de Pan. To the right, near the end : 266. Sitting 
figure fif Pan^ of poor workmanship, and freely restored. 

Salle du Sabcophage de Medbe. To the right: *283. Sarco- 
phagus adorned with a representation of the myth of Medea. *285. 
Resting satyr (bas-relief). 

Salle de l'Hermaphrodite de Velletri. In the window 
recess : 323. Hermaphrodite of Velletri (comp. p. 98). To the right, 
324. Wounded Gaul, replica of a Pergamenian work. 

Salle du Sarcophage d' Adonis. To the right: 342. Roman 
sarcophagus with Tritons and Nereids. Upon it, 343. Statuette of 
Euripides, with a list of his works. On the wall above : 347. Front 
of a sarcophagus, with reliefs in three scenes, representing Adonis 
starting for the hunt, being wounded by the boar, and dying in 
presence of the mourning Aphrodite. — In the entrance to the next 
room, to the left, 366. Statue of Aphrodite in Coic raiment, pro- 
bably after Praxiteles (inscription on the base). 

Salle de Psyche. To the right : 379. Psyche (freely restored), 
between busts of the youthful Hercules (378; wrongly called Om- 
phale) and Perseus, King of Macedonia (? 381). To the left, two 
fine marble chairs. 387. Athlete anointing himself with oil. 375. 
Victorious Athlete. 

Salle de la Venus db Milo, dedicated to the ** Venus of Milo^ 
the most celebrated of the treasures of the Louvre (No. 399). 'This 
is the only statue of Aphrodite handed down to us which re- 
presents her not merely as a beautiful woman, but as a goddess. 
The form is powerful and majestic, and yet instinct with an in- 
describable charm of youth and beauty, while the pure and noble 

96 2. LOTJYRE. Ancient 

expression of the head denotes the goddess's independence of all 
human requirements and the calm self-sufficiency of her divine 
character. The fact that this beautiful work , notwithstanding its 
great excellence , is not one of those which have been specially 
extolled by ancient authors , affords us an approximate idea of the 
beauty of those lost masterpieces which formed the great marvel of 
antiquity' (Luhke). 

The statue was found in 1820 by a peasant in the island of Melos, 
now Milo, at the entrance to the Greek Archipelago, and sold for 6000 fr. 
to the French government. It is the work of a school which was con- 
temporary with the schools of Praxiteles and Scopas (4th cent. B.C.), but 
had a very different style from either. On the ancient monuments Aphro- 
dite and Nike, in attitudes similar to that of this work, are each repre- 
sented singly, holding a shield; and the same attitude is observed in 
groups of Aphrodite with Ares. The weight of evidence in the present 
case is in favour of the view that the goddess stood alone, holding a shield 
as a symbol of victory in her hand Among various fragments found 
along with the statue were part of a left arm and a left hand, the closed 
fingers of which hold an apple (now preserved in a glass-case by the 
first window to the left) ; and this has naturally led some of the French 
savants to suppose that this Aphrodite held an apple in her uplifted left 
hand and her drapery with the right. The hand is. however, of inferior 
workmanship to the torso, so that it is probably either altogether un- 
connected with it, or belonged to an ancient attempt to restore the work. 

Salle db Melpomene. By the wall at the back: 411. 
Melpomene, one of the largest ancient statues in existence (13 ft. 
in height), from Rome, and probably from Pompey's Theatre. — 
The large mosaic in front, by FranQois Belloni (after Gerard), re- 
presents the genius of Napoleon I. (in the character of Minerva) 
gaining victories that she may inaugurate peace and plenty (1810). 
— To the right and left of Melpomene : 420, 414. Statues of Venus 
restored as Euterpe (a type of the Phidian era). To the right, by 
the back-window, 421. Replica of the head of the Cnidian Venus 
of Praxiteles. To the right of the exit, *419. Ideal Female Head. 

Salle de la Pallas de Velletri. In the centre : *436. Bust of 
Alexander the Great, probably after a portrait; *439. Venus of Aries, 
found in 1651 at Aries in Provence, and perhaps a replica of an early 
work by Praxiteles. — *440. Head of Homer (upper part of a herma), 
of the well-known type ; the sunken features, sightless eye-balls, 
and slightly-opened month are all characteristic of the ancient con- 
ception of the inspired singer in his old age. 

*441. Apollo Sauroctonus, 'the lizard-slayer', a copy of a work 
by Praxiteles ; the right hand originally held a dart, with which he 
was about to transfix the reptile. 

The easy attitude, the charming abandon of the figure almost femi- 
nine in its forms, the ideal beauty of the countenance, ihe perfect pro- 
portion of the limbs are so many distinctive maiks of the genius of the 
great Athenian sculptor'. (Froehner.) 

442. Vase of Sosibius, with a curious representation of a festive 
dance of Satyrs and Maenads round a sacrificial altar, approached by 
Diana, Apollo, Hermes, and Bacchus. 

To the right, in retracing our steps : 475. Sarcophagus of the 

Sculpture.^. 2. LOUYRE. 97 

Muses, on whicli are represented the Nine Muses in the following 
order, from left to right: Clio, Thalia, Terpsichore, Euterpe, Poly- 
hymnia, Calliope, Erato, Urania, and Melpomene. On the right 
end are a philosopher or poet and a Muse ; on the left, Socrates and 
a Muse; on the top, a festival. — *464. Pallas of Vdletri, whence 
the saloon derives its name, a Roman copy of a Greek bronze orig- 
inal of the 5th cent. B.C., found in 1797 at Velletri near Rome. In 
the right hand was a spear, in the left perhaps a cup or a small Nike 
[Victoria). — 459. Sarcophagus with reliefs of the legend of Actseon. 
444. Statue restored as Urania. — By the window-wall, 508. Circular 
base with representations of Luna and Oceanus. In the window- 
niche to the left, 510. Ideal female head (Greek). — At the entrance 
to the next room, 522. So-called Atalanta, more probably a wrongly 
restored Diana. 

Salle du Hiebos Combattant. In the centre: *525. Venus 
Oenetrix (so named from a medal), a good Roman copy of a Greek 
work of the 5th cent, attributed to Alkamenes. 526. Hercules or 
Theseus. — *527. Borghese Gladiator ('Heros Combattant'), found 
at Antium near Rome, in one of the imperial palaces. The inscription 
records that it was executed by ^Agasias^ son of Dositheos of Ephe- 
sus', a sculptor of the 1st cent. B.C., who seems to have here repro- 
duced a work of the end of the 4th century. 

'The statue is rather to be regarded as that of a hero fighting. The 
right arm is modern, while the left arm and the strap of the shield are 
preserved. Opposite the hero we must suppose an Amazon on horseback 
or standing on a rock above, against whom the hero is defending him- 
self with his shield by a movement of his left arm, while with his right 
he is directing the stroke of his sword with eager look. The mouth is 
open, as if the hero, like Homer's warriors, were shouting to his adver- 
sary. The expression of the face is indicative of a supreme and yet con- 
trolled effort of strength. The distinctness with which the simultaneous 
acts of defence and attack are expressed in this master-work has led to 
the belief that the figure did not originally stand alone, but was placed 
opposite some antagonist, without whom the hero's attitude would be 
comparatively meaningless.' Welcker. 

528. Head of a young satyr, known as the ^Faune di la tache\ 
— *529. Diana of Gabii, a charming work, probably a copy after 
Praxiteles. — To the left , in retracing our steps : 573. Mercury 
(the 'Richelieu Mercury') ; 562. Borghese Centaur, or Centaur sub- 
dued by Cupid, resembling one of the Capitoline Centaurs; 552. 
Wounded Amazon (freely restored). On the other side : 530. Mi- 
nerva Paciflca; 535. Fine head of Ganymede or Paris; 536. Cupid 
and Psyche ; *542. Marsyas, bound to the trunk of a tree, in order to 
be flayed alive at Apollo's command ; in front. 539. Sarcophagus of 
Meleager (modern!, on which lie the fragments of a Grseco-Egyptian 
map of the stars ( 540) ; *544. Admirabfe Greek Bust, of the time of 
Lysippus; 545. Cupid. 

Sallb du Tibre. In the centre : 588. Unknown Greek poet. — 
*589. Diana d. la biche or Diana of Versailles, probably a replica of a 
work of the time of Praxiteles and Scopas. 

Baedekee. Paris. 14th Edit. 7 

98 2. LOUVRE. Ancient Sculptures. 

The goddess, walking fast, seizes an arrow. She is looking round as if 
in search of fresh game. The expression of face is grave, the forehead high 
and severe, the eyes eager. The roe running heside her heightens the 
impression of the rapid strides of the goddess. 

*593. Colossal God of the Tiber, 16011111136111, with Romulus and 
R6mus and the she-wolf by his side, probably a work of the early 
Roman empire, an admirable companion to the celebrated group of 
the Nile in the Vatican (reproduction in the Tuileries Garden, p. 154). 
On the left and right: 595, 594. Flute-playing Satyrs. — Behind, 
597-600. Four colossal Satyrs bearing a frieze. 

To the left, on the window-side: 677. Bust of a satyr ('Faun of 
Aries'). — By the second window, *672. So-called Altar of the Twelve 
Gods, a large triangular base. 

Each of the three sides is divided into two equal parts, the upper part 
containing four figures, the lower, three. First side: Jupiter, Juno, Nep- 
tune, Ceres 5 the Three Graces. Second sideQeft): Mars, Venus, Mercury, 
Vesta; the Three Fates. Third side: Apollo, Diana, Vulcan, Minerva; 
three Hours or Seasons. 

By the last window : *664. Fragment of a replica of the Resting 
Satyr of Praxiteles ; 665. Smaller copy of the same torso. In the 
recess to the left of the entrance: 660. So-called Zingarella, a statue 
of Diana, with head, arms, and feet in bronze (modern). — In front of 
the window : 2240. Crouching Venus, from Vienne (another opposite). 
— Rear wall: 622. Resting Bacchus; 639. ^sculapius; 636. Head 
of a youth, archaic; 640. So-called 'Talleyrand Zeus', archaistic. 

We now turn to the right, cross the Corridor de Pan (p. 95), 
and enter the — 

Salle ues Cariatides, so called from the caryatides at the other 
end, originally an ante-chamber ('Salle des Gardes') of the apart- 
ments of Catherine de Medicis. 

Here, on Aug. 19th, 1572, the Princess Jlargaret of Valois, sister of 
Charles IX., was married to the young Protestant King of Navarre (after- 
wards Henri IV. of France). Admiral Coligny and many other Huguenot 
leaders were present at. the ceremony. Five days later, on the Eve of 
St. Bartholomew (Aug. 23rd), Charles IX., at the instiga'ion of his mother, 
Catherine de Medicis, gave the order for the massacre of the Huguenots 
(p. 87) and the arrest of King Henry. It was in this saloon that the Ligue 
held its meetings in 1593, and that the Due de Guise (reconciled with 
Henry owing to the latter's renunciation of Protestantism) caused four of 
its most zealous members to be hanged the following year. The hodv of 
Henry lay in state here after his assassination in 1610. In 1659 the room v, - 
used as a theatre by Moliere, who acted here in his own inimitable plays. 

"We first enter a kind of vestibule, which contains, by the 
farther wall, a chimney-piece executed by Percier and Fontaine 
in 1806. In front of the chimney-piece : 75 Hercules, with Ms son 
Telephus and the hind by which the latter was suckled. — To the 
left, by the window, 2Si. Borghese Hermaphrodite, of the latest 
Greek period, and too sensuous in style. The mattress is an un- 
happy idea of Bernini (17th cent.). 

In the Salle proper, between two pillars : *78. Jupiter of Versailles, 
a colossal torso on a modern stand; 'no extant ancient statue of the 
ruler of Olympus produces a more impressive effect than this' (Freeh- 

Asiatic Museum. 2. LOUVRE. 99 

ner). To the right, 80. Statue of a Greek philosopher (Posidonius ?). 
To the left, 79. Seated philosopher, with a head of Demosthenes 
from another statue. 

In the centre : 81. Orestes and Pylades (Mercury and Apollo?), 
of the school of Pasiteles (1st cent. B.C.); 82. Ancient basin of 
Sicilian alabaster, so placed that the faintest whisper uttered at its 
edge is distinctly audible to an ear at the edge of the similar basin 
(90) at the other end ; 83. Hermes in the act of fastening his sandals; 
85. Reposing Bacchus; 86. Borghese Vase, with Bacchanalian re- 
presentations ; *87. Young Dionysics (the 'Richelieu Bacchus'); 89. 
Discobolus. — The four *Caryatides bearing the gallery at the end 
were executed by Jean Goujon (p. 104). Above it is a cast of Cellini's 
Nymph of Fontainebleau (p. 106). 

Round the walls, from right to left : 149. Large Candelabrum re- 
constructed by Piranesi in the 18th cent, from ancient fragments; 
53. Venus in the Bath, crouching so as to allow a nymph to pour 
water over her back (freely restored); 40. Boy with a goose; 91. 
^Minerve au collier\ a mediocre reproduction of the type of Phi- 
dias's Athena Parthenos ; 18. Crouching Venus f' Venus h la coquilW). 

Antique Bronzes^ see p. 142; Terracottas^ Vases^ etc., p. 148. 

The Escalier Henri II., in the Pavilion de I'Horloge, adjoining 
the Salle des Cariatides, ascends to the principal collections on the 
first floor (see plans, pp. 86, 87; Collection La Caze, p. 141). It 
is, however, better to ascend by the grand staircase, reached by 
returning through the Salle des Cariatides, and turning to the right. 
The Escalier Henri II. is decorated with sculptures by Jean Goujon. 

Visitors who have time to spare should pass out, by the side 
of the Escalier Henri II., into the Court of the Old Louvre, in order 
to inspect the following collections, ^.Mch are open daily from 11. 

The *Asiatic Museum (Musie des Antiquites Asiatiques) contains 
one-half of the yield of the excavations made on the site of the an- 
cient As5wr and Nineveh by M. Botta and Sir A. H. Layard (the other 
half being in the British Museum), and also antiquities collected 
by scientific missions and private individuals in other parts of Asia. 
— The entrance is in the passage under the colonnade (p. 88), to 
the left in coming from the Cour du Louvre (B on the Plan, p. 87). 

Room I (Grande Galerie) : Assyrian Antiquities. The kingdom of 
Assyria or Assur, the land of the Nimrod of the Bible, lay on the left 
bank of the Tigris, its capital being Assur, and afterwards Nineveh. 
The Assyrians conquered the Babylonian empire about B.C. 1250, 
and afterwards extended their supremacy as far as Asia Minor. The 
excavations have brought to light remains of extensive palaces, the 
chambers of which were lined with alabaster slabs, bearing scenes 
from the lives of the Assyrian monarchs, similar to those on the 
Egyptian monuments, and still more lifelike. Hunting-scenes, 


1 00 2. LOUVRE. Asiatic Museum. 

battlefields , and sieges alternate with others representing the king 
in his court or among his guards , and accompanied by figures of 
fantastic monsters. The inscriptions are in cuneiform character, or 
wedge-shaped and angular signs placed horizontally and obliquely. 
Most of the sculptures exhibited here belonged to the palace of King 
Sennacherib (B.C. 722-705) at Khorsabad, to that of Nimrod (10th 
cent.), or to that of Sardanapalus V. at Nineveh (7th cent.). 

Most of the gigantic * Winged Bulls come from the palace reared at 
the modern Khorsabad by Sennacherib or Sargon. These were placed, 
like the Egyptian sphinxes, at the entrances to great buildings, and their 
human heads wearing a tiara seem to leave no doubt that they were 
personifications of kings. Like the sphinxes, too, these animals symbolized 
the union of strength and intelligence •, and wings are frequently found 
as the emblem of power on Assyrian monuments. — The Colossal Figures 
at the back-wall also adorned the entrance to the palace. The figures 
who, without apparent effort and without passion, are crushing lions 
against their breasts represent the Assyrian Hercules. lu the spaces 
between these figures are bas-reliefs of royal corteges, a king and a priest, 
a king sacrificing an antelope to a god, etc. The details on these and 
other reliefs have an important historical value; while certain portions, 
especially the horses, are of admirable workmanship. In the centre of 
the room': Nine headless statues, two heads, and other Chaldean anti- 
quities; finely-designed Door Frame. 

Visitors who are pressed for time may pass hence immediately 
to the Egyptian Museum (p. 101). 

Rooms II & III: Phoenician Sarcophagi, in black and white 
marble. — In the middle : Basalt Sarcophagus of King Esmunzar 
of Sidon, with the longest known Phoenician inscription. 

The Phoenicians, whose chief settlements were on the Syrian coast, 
possessed important colonies on every part of the Mediterranean, and were 
the earliest traders between the East and West. To them we are indebted 
for our modern system of writing, as they were the first to reject the 
cumbrous Egj ptian style and to adopt a simple sign for each simple sound. 
They also exercised no small influence on the earlier stages of Greek art. — 
Comp. 'Kotice sommaire des monuments pheniciens', par E. Ledrain (75 c). 

Room IV, to the left, contains Phoenician antiquities and others 
from Syria and Cyprus. Among these are a Vase, 12 ft. in diameter, 
from Amathus in Cyprus, hewn out of a single block of stone, and 
seven statues from the same island. — The — 

Sallb i)e Milet contains sculptures from Miletus and Heraclea 
in Asia Minor, and also fragments from the Temple of Apollo at 
Didyma. In the centre : Two colossal bases of columns from the 
same temple. At the back: Statues (headless) which adorned 
the theatre, in the Greek style. Mutilated statues from the Necro- 
polis , in the Assyrian style. On the upper part of the walls , Bas- 
reliefs from the temple of Assos, in Mysia, specimens of primitive 
Ionian art. — The — 

Salle de Magkesie du Meandre contains fragments of the 
Temple of Artemis Leucophryene ('Diana of the white eyebrows') 
at Magnesia, near Ephesus, of a late period. The *Frieze, one of the 
most extensive relief-compositions of ancient times, about 88 yds. 
in length, represents wild contests between Greeks and Amazons. 

Egyptian Museum. 2. LOUVRE. 101 

We also observe a Vase from Pergamus, with reliefs of young Greeks 
on horseback ; and a statue of Diana from Phrygia. 

The Sallb Judaique, to the right, under the staircase, contains 
Jewish antiquities from Palestine and the neighbouring countries, 
such as sarcophagi from the Tombs of the Kings, architectural frag- 
ments, reliefs, pottery, Moabite sculptures, and inscriptions. In the 
centre of this room is the famous basalt Stele of King Mesa of Moab, 
whose battles with the Jews in B.C. 896 are recorded by the inscrip- 
tion. This is the oldest known example of alphabetic writing. Comp. 
'Notice des monuments provenant de la Palestine' , by A. Heron de 
Ville fosse (50 c). — Adjacent is a small Salle Punique, with an- 
tiquities from Carthage. 

Opposite, under the colonnade, is a Gallery of Casts of sculptures 
discovered by the Ecole Francaise of Athens in the course of excavations 
at Delphi and Delos. These include an Antinous, a replica of the Dia- 
dumenos of Polycletns, two heads of Caryatides, friezes, metopes, two 
archaic figures of Apollo, a seated Sphinx, etc. 

Continuation of the Asiatic Collections^ on the first floor, to which 
the adjoining staircase ('Escalier Asiatique') ascends, see p. 145. 

The *Egyptiaii Museum (Musee des Antiquites EgyptiennesJ, one 
of the most important collections of the kind in Europe, affords, so 
far as is possible without the appropriate architectural surroundings, 
an almost complete survey of the religion, customs, and art-life of 
the most ancient of civilised nations. The exhibits are provided with 
explanatory labels. 'Description Sommaire' by E. de Rouge ^ with 
illustrations, 1 fr. 55 c. Entrance, opposite that of the Asiatic Mu- 
seum , to the right when approached from the court (A on the 

We first enter the Sallb Henri IV., which contains the largest 
objects in the collection. Among these are the Sphinxes, fantastic 
figures with lions' bodies and human heads , which represented the 
kings and were usually erected in pairs on the avenues leading to 
the temples ; Monuments commemorating special events ; Steles, or 
votive stones erected to the memory of deceased persons , bearing 
inscriptions and representations of the infernal deities (Osiris) , to 
whom, as well as to the deceased themselves, ofi"erings were pre- 
sented by the bereaved relatives ; Statues, from tombs or temples ; 
Bas Reliefs ,• and Sarcophagi. 

Egyptian chronology being scarcely an exact science, the monuments 
of this collection are dated merely by dynasties , some of which were 
only 70 years in duration while others lasted for 450 years. This mode 
of reckoning rests on the authority of the Greek writer Manefhos, wh > reckons 
thirty-one such dynasties between the beginning of Egyptian history and 
the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great The first, dynasty may be 
placed at about 30.0 B.C., though autiiorities differ on this point. Mariette 
referring it to 5000 B.C.. Lepsins to 38ii2 B.C. The fourth dynastv flourished 
about 2500 B.C.. the 12th about 19915-1783, the Ibth about l.o45-1350, the 
19th about 1350-1';00B.C. Exact dates begin to be possible with the accession 
of Psammetichus I. in 663 B.C. l26th dynasty). 

102 2. LOUVRE. Egyptian Museum. 

The large Sphinx in pink granite at the entrance is in better preserv- 
ation but is not so interesting as its pendant at the other end of the room. 
To the right, Kos. A 18, A 19. Foot and head of a colossal statue of 
Amenhotep (or Amenophis) III., the Memnon of the Greeks. *D9. Sar- 
cophagus of Taho, a 'masterpiece of the later Egyptian sculpture' (26th Dyn.) 5 
the scenes and inscriptions on this, as on other sarcophagi, refer mainly 
to the nightly voyage of the ship of the sun through the lower regions, 
in -which the dead take part. — To the left, D 8. Sarcophagus of another Taho 
of the reign of Psammetichus I. (26th Dyn.). Farther on, A 20. so-called 
Statue of Ramses 11.^ belonging to a king of the middle empire (12th or 
13th Dyn.), usurped by Ramses. In the middle, the capital of a column 
in the form of a double head of Hathor, from the temple at Bubastis, 
and (to the right) a fragment of a clustered column with a lotus -bud 
capital. In front of the large capital, ' B 7. Painted bas-relief of Seti I. 
(Sesostris; 19th Dyn.) and the goddess Hathor, found in Seti's tomb at 
Thebes; 'the lean and elongated form of Seti may be taken as a genuine 
type of the proportions aimed at by the artists of that time'. Left, A 24. 
Colossal Statue of Seti II. (ead of the 19th Dyn.), in red sandstone, with 
the double crown on his head and holding a flag-staflf on which the royal 
name and titles are engraved. Farther back, D 31. Portion of the base of 
the obelisk of Luxor (p. 83), with four cynocephali (dog-faced baboons) 
adoring the rising sun. Above, D 38, Cast of the Zodiacal Frieze of Den- 
dera (p. 190). A 24. Statue of Harua., Steward of Amenertais, Princess of 
Thebes (25th Dyn.); several statues of the lion-headed goddess Sekhmet; 
D 1. Colossal Sarcophagus of Ramses III. (20th Dyn.l, in pink granite (the 
lid is at Cambridge). — To the right and by the windows are portions 
of sarcophagi and steles remarkable for the beauty of their reliefs. D 10. 
Sarcophagus of an official named Horus •, in the interior are the 42 infernal 
judges who assisted Osiris in judging the dead. — To the left, by the wall, 
C 48. Stele of pink granite, in the form of an Egyptian temple-gate under 
the 18th Dyn. ; farther on, D29. Naos of AmasiSy monolithic votive chapel 
in pink granite (6th cent. B.C.). 

At the end of this hall is a staircase, on the left of which is the stone 
lining from a wall in the temple at Karnak. with a fragment of a list of 
the campaigns of Thutmosis III., the most powerful of Egyptian kings 
(18th Dyn.). Higher up is an alabaster statue (freely restored) of Ram- 
ses II (A 22). Also a glass-case with shoes. 

To the left, at the foot of the staircase, is the Salle d'Apis, cou- 
taining the objects found hyMariette intheSerapeum or large mauso- 
leum of the Apis hulls at Memphis, chiefly statues and monuments. 

The Apis was the animal sacred to Ptah , the god of Memphis. The 
bull to be thus honoured required to be black in colour, to have a white 
triangle on his forehead, a white mark on his back resembling an eagle, 
and an excrescence under his tongue in the shape of the sacred scarabseus 
beetle. After his death the sacred bull was interred with great pomp in 
the vaults known to the Greeks as the 'Serapeum', a word derived from 
'Osiris Apis', which the Egyptians applied to the dead Apis. 

In the middle of the ro'm, S98, large Figure of Apis.^ on which the 
marks of the sacred bull are distinctly vi-ible. At the side are several 
Canopi., or stone vessels in the shape of the heads of the patron-gods of 
the deceased and containing the entrails of the embalmed bulls. Around 
the walls are Steles, erected by devout persons in the tombs of the bulls, 
which give the dates of the deaths of these revered animals, with the king's 
reigns when they occurred, atfording a valuable clue to Egyptian chrono- 
logy. Opposite is a statuette of Bes, a grotesque Egyptian divinity. The 
Lion., near the window, of a late period, should be noticed. — At the 
entrance to an adjacent apartment is the gateway of the Serapeum (under 
glass) , with inscriptions of the period of the Ptolemies. A door leads 
hence to the rooms containing the Renaissance Sculptures (p. 103). 

Another gallery, for monuments of tha Old and iliddle Empires 
(■ith-18thDyn.),has been opened under the colonnade beside the Salle d'Apis. 

Media€>;al Sculptures. 2. LOUVRE. 103 

The staircase mentioned at p. 102 ascends to thefirst floor, on which 
are the Remaining Egyptian Collections, to the left (p. 14(3), etc. 

*Collection of Mediaeval and Renaissance Sculptures (Musee 
des Sculptures du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance). The chief en- 
trance is in the S. wing of the inner Court of the Louvre , by the 
door on the left of the passage, as we face the Seine (PI. D ; p. 87) ; 
but it may also be reached via the small room under the staircase 
at the end of the large room of the Egyptian antiquities (p. 102). 
The first room is next the latter entrance. — Illustrated Catalogue, 
1 fr. 25 c. 

Salle Beauneveu or Room I contains statues from tombs and 
statuettes of the French school of the 14-15th centuries. The 
chief work is jSo. *216, Monument of Philippe Pot, grand-seneschal 
of Burgundy and favourite of Philip the Good , who was buried at 
the Abbey of Citeaux. The recumbent statue reposes on a slab 
supported by eight mourning figures (1477-83). By the window 
towards the Seine, *219. Flemish Calvary, in wood (16th cent.). 
At the window towards the Place is the brass of a Catalan merchant 
(1400). In the centre, 94. Tomb-figure of Blanche de Champagne, 
in embossed copper (14th cent.). 

Salle du Moyen Age (II). Other French tomb-statues of the 
14th century ; three figures of the Virgin, Christ, and bas-reliefs of 
the same period. 48. Statue of Childebert, King of France 
(13th cent.). *372. Gothic Door from a house in Valentia in Spain 
(loth cent.). Sculptured fragments, including four from the rood- 
loft of the cathedral of Bourges and another from Notre-Dame at 
Paris (in the centre)-, capitals, etc., of the ll-13th centuries. 

Salle de Michel Colombb (III), the works in which show the 
French school of sculpture uninfluenced by Italian art. By M. Co- 
lombe or Michault Cclumb (1431-1514), the chief representative of 
the Loire school of his period, from whom the room takes its name : 
opposite the entrance, *226. Relief of St. George and the Dragon. 
Below, *262. Entombment, ascribed to G. Pilon. To the right, *143. 
Virgin, of the 16th cent., and 199. Relief of the Death of the Virgin 
from the church of St. Jacques-la-Boucherie. In the middle : 276. 
Mercury and Psyche, bronze, by A. de Vries (1593); 225. Mercury, 
a replica of the bronze statue in Florence by Giou. da Bologna, an 
imitator of Michael Angelo , and a native of Douai in Flanders ; 
224bis. Fame, by P. Biard, a bronze figure from the tomb of the 
Due dEpernon, at Cadillac. Behind and at the sides, sepulchral 
statues and bas-reliefs of the 15-16th cent., including the mon- 
uments of Philippe de Comines (1445-1509) and his wife (*12G; 
Paris , beginning of the IGth cent.). 274. Statue of Henri IV., 
ascribed to B. Tremblay and 0. Gissey. Busts of Martin Fremiuet 
(180; d. 1619), Jean d'Alesso (173; d. 1572), and Giov. da Bologna 
(462; by P. Tacca). To the right, *144. Virgin from Ecouen (16th 

104 2. LOUVRE. Renaissance 

cent.); 160. Bronze bust of Francis I. ; 149. Tomb-statue of Roberte 
Legendre (d. 15*20), by 0. Regnault; *220. Tomb of Jean de Cro- 
mois, abbot of St. Jacques, at Liege (d. 1525). By tbe second 
window, 153. 'La Mort St. Innocent', a skeleton from the former 
Cimetiere des Innocents ; fine bas-reliefs, including a Holy Family 
(277), after Diirer, attributed to Hans Daucher. 

Salle de Jean Goujon (IV), named after the most distinguished 
French sculptor of the 16th century, who executed, under Henri II., 
a great part of the decorations of the Louvre. His best-known work 
is No. *228, the large group of Diana with the stag in the middle 
of this saloon , which affords an excellent example of the grace- 
fulness of form and other attributes characteristic of French taste. 
(The visitor will find it interesting to compare this Diana with 
Benvenuto Cellini's Nymph of Fontainebleau , p. 105.) In the 
middle of the room are also placed a marble group (255) of the Three 
Theological Virtues or Three Graces (the urn on whose heads was 
once destined to contain the heart of Henri II.), and wooden statues 
(250) representing the Four Cardinal Virtues (destined as the sup- 
porters of a reliquary), works by Germain Pilon (d. 1590), showing 
the same style as the Diana. — Round the room from right to left : 
168. Statue of Charles de Maigny (Paris, 1556); 260. G. Pilon, Bust 
of a child ; 258. Etflgy, genii, and reliefs from the tomb of the wife 
of Chancellor Rene de Birague ; *229. J. Goujon, Five reliefs from 
the old rood-loft of St. Germain-l'Auxerrois ; 256. G. Pilon^ Mater 
Dolorosa, in painted terracotta; 268. B. Prieur, Column and three 
figures from the tomb of Anne de Montmorency; 261. G. Pilon, 
Chimney-piece, with bust of Henri II. (227) ; 235. Et. Le Hongre, 
Fragments of the mausoleum of the Cosse-Brissac family; G. Pilon, 
253. Bust of Henri III., *257. Bronze statue of the Chancellor de 
Birague (d. 1583); 137. Statue of Admiral Phil, de Chabot (d. 
1543) ; 230. J. Goujon , Fountain-nymphs from the Fontaine des 
Innocents. — At the third window: 270. Jean Richier (?), Daniel 
come to judgment (relief); 271. Ligier Richier, Infant Jesus; 162. 
Ft. Roussel (?), Nymphs awakened; G. Pilon, 241, 240. Faith and 
Strength (reliefs), 252. Bust of Charles IX. At the second window : 
266, 267. B. Prieur, Statues from the tomb of Constable Anne de 
Montmorency (see above) and his wife; 245. G. Pilon, Entombment 
(bronze relief). At the first window : 246. G. Pilon , Fragments of 
a pulpit. — The — 

*Sallede Michel- Ange (V), containing Italian sculptures of the 
15-1 7th cent., is named from the marble statues of the two **Fettered 
Slaves (279, 280), by Michael Angelo Buonarroti (1475-1564). 

These figures vrere intended to form part of a magnificent monument 
to Pope Julius II., and to represent, along with several others of a simi- 
lar character, the virtues fettered and doomed to death in consequence of 
the decease of that pontiff. Michael Angelo executed them in 1513-16, 
and in 1544, when the original ambitious design of the monument was 

Sculptures. 2. LOUVRE. 105 

abandoned, presented them to Roberto Strozzi, by whom they were sent 
to France. The younger dying slave, with the pained expression of coun- 
tenance, is of great beauty •, the other figure is in a somewhat constrained 
and unpleasing attitude. 

These statues stand on the right and left of the entrance to the 
next room, consisting of a *Portal (329) of the end of the loth cent. , 
removed from the Palazzo Stanga in Cremona, and attributed to the 
brothers Rodari. The reliefs represent scenes from the life of Her- 
cules, the mythical founder of Cremona, and from that of Perseus ; 
also the daughter of Herodias with the head of John the Baptist. 
In the middle of the room are a marble fountain from the chateau of 
Gaillon [333 ; p. 250), and a bronze bust of Michael Angelo (308), 
two Italian works of the 16th century. Adjacent are a *Bust of 
Filippo Strozzi (396) and another, both by Benedetto da Majarto. 

Beside the entrance: to the right, 403. Bust of John the Baptist as 
a child, by Mino da Fiesole; 386. Julius Caesar, bas-relief by Dona- 
teWo(?); Six Virgins, by unknown artists of the 15-16th cent., and 
one (460) by Sansovino; several busts; 323. Wood-carving of the 
Venetian school of the 15th century. High up: * BSi. Benvenuto 
Cellini, the 'Nymph of Fontainebleau', a large relief in bronze exe- 
cuted in 1543 for an archway in the Palace at Fontainebleau, and 
mentioned in the master's autobiography. 

By the back-wall: Jason, and Hercules slaying the Hydra, two 
bronze statues of the 1 6th cent. ; 334. Equestrian figure in high-relief 
of Rob. Malatesta, captain-general of the papal forces (end of loth 
cent.) ; 336, 337. Virgin and the angel Gabriel, in wood (Florentine 
school of the end of the 14th cent.) ; Busts of a man and woman 
(15th cent.); Virgin in painted terracotta attributed to Andrea della 
Robbia; Three other Virgins and a Pieta in high relief (15th cent.). 

By the first window: 303. Romulus and Remus suckled by the 
wolf, another Italian work of the 16th cent., in white marble and 
rosso antico. — The highly interesting collection of early-Renais- 
sance*Bronzes by the windows includes eight bronze reliefs(414-421) 
'by Andrea Br iosco, surnamedi2<cc«o (1480-1532). Originally belong- 
ing to the tomb of Marcantonio della Torre, these reliefs illustrate 
the life and death ofthatcelebrated physician in a thoroughly antique 
style. Also, six bas-reliefs of the Virgin, three of which (399-401) 
are by Mino da Fiesole. At the second window : 310. Statue of a 
negro, after the antique (17th cent.); 395. Bronze medallion of 
Charles V., by Leone Leoni of Arezzo(VJ, and other medallions. 

Salle Italienne (VI). Virgin and Child, group in painted and 
gilded wood (Florentine or Sienese school of the 15th cent.); 383. 
Bust of John the Baptist by DonafeZfo; alto-relief of a funeral, in 
imitation of the antique. At the window : Relief of a child, in the 
style oi Donalello; ornamental sculptures, etc. 

Sallb des Robbia (VII). This room contains numerous terra- 
cottas by the Della Robbia and their school (Florence ; 15th cent.) 

106 % LOUVRE. Modern 

and also reliefs of the 12-15th centuries. To the right of the en- 
trance, 407. Statue of Louis XIL, by Lot. da Mugiano. To the left, 
408. Friendship, hy P. P. Olivieri; 463. Nature, by Triholo (at the 
end). In the middle of the room, 464. St. Christopher, in painted 
and gilded wood, by Vecchietta. By the window to the left, Bust of 
Card. Medici, by Bernini; by the right wall, Bust of Ferdinand I. of 
Aragon, King of Naples (1424-94), etc. 

Vestibule, next the entrance from the Court. Reproduction of 
a fountain-group from Fontainebleau, with a bronze Huntress Diana, 
after the antique (p. 97), and four bronze dogs of the French school 
of the 17th century. — The — 

Salle des Antiquites Che,etiennes , to the right, contains 
sarcophagi, reliefs, a mosaic, and inscriptions, chiefly of the 4th 
and 5th centuries, from S. France, Italy, Algeria, etc. — To the 
left is the — 

Salle des Nouvelles Acquisitions, where recent acquisitions 
are kept until their ultimate places in the collection are assigned to 
them. Among the objects shown here in 1900 were a crucifix of the 
12th cent., several interesting French statues of the 13-16th cent., 
two Italian brasses (15-16th cent.), and several Madonnas, one of 
the school of Jacopo delta Querela. By the windows, busts by Le- 
moyne (*Trudaine), Chinard^ Houdon (*Lavoisier), and Pajou (*Le- 
moyne). In the middle, Crown of Thorns (French, ca. 1500); Youth- 
ful Christ (Florence, 15th cent.); *Bust of the young Louise Brong- 
niart by Houdon. In the glass-case are models and other statuettes. 

The *Collection of Modern Sculptures (Musee des Sculptures 
Modernes), which forms a continuation of the Renaissance collection, 
occupies the W. portion of the Vieux Louvre. Entrance by the 
second door to the right of the Pavilion d'Horloge (PI. E), opening 
into the — 

Sallb de Puget (II), named after Pierre Paget of Marseilles 
(1622-94), the most famous of the French followers of the theatrical 
school of Bernini, which aimed exclusively at effect. Among his 
works are, in the middle : 795. Perseus and Andromeda(1684) ; 793. 
Hercules reposing (1660); *794. Milo of Croton attacked by a lion, 
the best-known and most admired of his works (1682). On the wall 
to the left, 796. Paget, Diogenes requesting Alexander the Great to 
stand out of his light, a bas-relief with masterly treatment of the 
vulgar types of the attendants ; *552. Coyzevox (see p. 107), Monu- 
ment of Cardinal Mazarin, the allegorical figures of which are 
also noteworthy. By the window: 880. Theodon, Atlas. Between 
the windows, 754-757. P. Legros^ Hermse of the Seasons. By the 
second window, the large 'Vase de Marly', of the French school, to 
which also belong the two vases in the centre. 691, 692. Girardon, 
Bronze model and a foot of the equestrian statue erected to 

Sculptures, 2. LOUVKE. 107 

Louis XIV. in the Place Vendome in 1699. — By the next window : 
831. Theodon, Phaethusa converted into a reed. To the right : 487. 
Fr. Anguier, Monument of Jacques de Thou (d. 1617^, with statues 
of his two wives, that to the right by B. Prieur; 702-704. Sim. Gil- 
Lain^ Louis XIIL, Louis XIV. as a child, Anne of Austria, bronzes 
from the old monument on the Pont-au-Change. By the window, 
764. Lemoyne, Bust of Mansart; Qbd.Desjardins, Bust of Colbert. — 
The door on the left of the entrance leads to the — 

Sallb de Coyzevox (I), named after Charles Antoine Coyzevox, 
one of the ablest masters of the same school, especially happy in his 
portrait-busts. In the centre: 485. Ft. Anguier^ Monument of Due 
Henri de Longueville ; 699,700. G. Guerin, Efflgies of the Duke 
and Duchess of Vieuville. On the wall to the right, named from 
right to left: Coyzevox, 558. The Rhone, 555. Nymph with a shell, 
561. Duchess of Burgundy as Diana, 560. Shepherd playing on the 
flute, 556. Venus, 554. Le Brun, 559. Marie Serre, 562. Le Tellier, 
563. Bossuet. Between the windows, 686. Remains of the old monu- 
ment to Henri IV. on the Pont Neuf, by P. Francheville or Franqve- 
ville. On the side next the entrance: 491. Mich. Anguier, Amphi- 
trite; 687. R. Fremin, Flora; 684. Francheville , Divid and Goliath; 
488. Ft. Anguier, Jacques de Souvre; 701. S. Guillain, Charlotte 
de la Tremoille ; %^'^. Francheville, Orpheus; 688. Frernin, Diana; 
512. Bourdin, Amador de la Porte; Bust of Colbert; 841. Wariii, 
Louis XIIL; 660. Desjardins, Bust of Mignard; Bust of Richelieu. 
— To the right of the entrance is the — 

Sallb des Coustou (^III), in which are assembled the plastic 
masterpieces of the pleasure-loving age of Louis XV. In the centre : 
548. Nicolas Coustou, Adonis resting from the fatigues of the chase 
(1710). Behind, Cupid with his dart, by F. G. (^Fr. Gillet ?; below is 
the inscription by Voltaire : 'Qui que tu sois, voici ton maitre, il 
Test, le fut, ou le doit etre'). 481. L. S. Adam, Lyric Poetry; 483. 
Allegrain, Venus and Diana bathing. To the left, 672. Falconet, Mu- 
sic; 549. Nic. Coustou, Caesar; 543. Guillaume Coustou the Elder, 
Maria Lesczinska of Poland, queen of Louis XV. (1731) ; 7b'2.Pajou, 
Statue of the same queen as Charity. Between, 520. Bust by 
Caffieri ('?). By the first window. Bust of N. Coustou by G. Coustou. 
Opposite, 550. Nic. Coustou, Louis XV. On the other side of the 
door, 828. Slodtz, Hannibal ; 780. J. P. Pigalle, Mercury fastening 
his sandals, a leaden statue formerly in the Luxembourg gardens. 
Above, on the wall : 653-658. Martin Desjardins, Six bas-reliefs in 
bronze from the statue of Louis XIV. in the Place des Victoires 
(p. 192), now replaced by another. — Then the — 

Salle de Houdon (IV), dedicated chiefly to Antoine Houdon 
(Versailles, 1741-1828). By Houdon, in the centre of the room : 
716. Bronze statue of the nude Diana, executed first in marble 
for the Empress Catherine II. of Russia (1781). — To the right of 
the entrance, and farther on to the right, Pajou , 111. Psyche 

108 2. LOUVRE. Modern 

(1790), 775. Baccliaiite. In a niche, 509. Bouchardon, Cupid car- 
ving a bow out of the club of Hercules ; 681 . Francin (after Hou- 
don), Bust of Gluck. — 750. P. Julien, Amalthea. — The following 
busts are also by Houdon: Mlrabeau (two), Washington, Rous- 
seau (bronze), Abb^ Aubert, Buffon, Diderot, Franklin, and Voltaire 
(bronze). Pajou, Busts of Mme. Dubarry (774), Buffon (773), etc. 
— Opposite the window: 782. Pigalle, Love and Friendship; 511. 
Bouchardon, Model of the statue of Louis XV. that stood in the 
Place de la Concorde, in bronze. 

The Sallb de Chaudbt (V) is mainly occupied with works of 
the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th cent., when the ancient 
classical style was revived. To the left : 537. Clodion^ Bacchante ; 
534. Chaudet, Cupid with a butterfly; 80d. Roland, Homer; 538. 
Cortot, Daphnis and Chloe ; 650. Delaistre, Cupid and Psyche; 804. 
Roman, Nisus and Euryalus. In the centre: 503. Bosio, Aristseus, 
god of gardens; 651. Deseine, Mucins Scsevola; *524. Canova, Cupid 
and Psyche; 748. Julien, Ganymede; 533. Chaudet, The young 
ffidipus rescued by the shepherd Phorbas. — Round the hall, as we 
return: 539. Cortot, Soldier of Marathon ; IQO. Lemire, Cupid; 514. 
Bridan, Epaminondas ; 753. Legendre- Herat, Giotto ; *523. Canova, 
Cupid and Psyche with the butterfly ; 667. Dupaty, Biblis changed 
into a fountain; 506. Bosio, the Nymph Salmacis; 817. Ruxthiel, 
Psyche borne by Zephyr (1814); 826. Sergell, Drunken faun. — 
Beyond the door: 540. Cortot, Victory (bronze); 504. Bosio, Hyacin- 
thus; 521. Caldelari, Narcissus; 648. Bebay, Mercury; *806. Statue 
of Cato of Utica, begun by Roman, and finished by Rude. 

The Salle de Rude (VI), named after the sculptor Francois 
Rude (1784-1855), contains the most modern works admitted to 
the Louvre (comp. p. 256). In the entrance and by the windows 
are numerous medallions by David d' Angers. From right to left : 
678. Foyatier, Spartacus; *747. Jaley, Louis XL; *493-495. Barye, 
Bronze animals. Centaur and Lapith; 810. Rude, Mercury, in 
bronze; 779. Perraud, Despair; Rude, *811. Maurice of Saxony, 
*813. Joanof Arc, 815. Napoleon I. awakening to immortality (model), 
809. Young Neapolitan fisher with a tortoise ;|789. Pradier, Sappho ; 
David d' Angers, *566. Philopcemen wounded with a spear, 667. 
Bust of F. Arago; 814. Rude, Christ; *670. Buret, Young fisher- 
man dancing the tarantella, bronze; opposite, 746. Jaley, Prayer; 
787. Pradier, Psyche; 800. Ramey, Theseus and the Minotaur, a 
colossal group; 770. Nanteuil, Eurydice; *671. Duret, Neapolitan 
Improvisatore, in bronze; *778. Perraud, Childhood of Bacchus; 
661. Dumont, Genius of Liberty, a model of that on the July 
Column (p. 71) ; opposite, 786. Pradier, Child of Niobe (after the 
antique), 788. Atalanta's toilet. 

The new Salle Carpeaux (adjoining the Salle de Rude) con- 
tains works of Carpeaux : 531. Four quarters of the globe supporting 
the sphere, model of the group on the Fontaine de TObservatoire 




. i;.r<,A«- &//>7 X ! P W" '■scalias d„ t' elagr 

iE'T; D V [i O U VRK 1- 

Sculptures. 2. LOUYRE. 109 

(p. 285); *579. Dance, model of the group at the Op^ra (p. 79); 
models of busts, etc. 

The sculptures of the 'Mns^e Moliere', rescued from the burn- 
ing Theatre Fran^ais (see p. 61), are temporarily exhibited in an 
adjoining room. 

To reach the Picture Gallery hence we turn to the right on leaving and 
pass through the first pavilion, to the principal entrance of the New 
Louvre, or we ascend the Escalier Henri II. (.<ee below), to the left in 
the pavilion. 


The most important collection on the first floor of the Louvre is 
the Picture Gallery, which occupies nearly the whole of the S. con- 
necting gallery between the Old Louvre and the Tuileries (Galerie 
du Bord de VEauJ, together with the whole of the inner gallery of 
the New Louvre parallel to it, and also several saloons in the Old 
Louvre. — The first floor of the Old Louvre also contains the Ancient 
Bronzes (p. 142), the Drawings (p. 143), the Mediaeval, Renais- 
sance, and Modem Works of Art (p. 144), the Ancient Vases and 
the Smaller Antiquities (pp. 147-149), the Jewels (p. 140), and 
the Gems, Enamels, and Gold Ornaments (p. 138). 

The Principal Entrance to the first floor is by the Pavilion 
Denon (where sticks, etc., may be left), whence the Escalier Daru 
(p. 91) ascends to the picture-gallery. 

Ihose who wish may ascend the Escalier Henri II. (comp. p. 99), whence 
they proceed to the right to the Collection La Caze (p. 14l), or to the left 
to the Ancient Bronzes (p. 142) and the Drawings (p. 143). 

On the landing of the Escalier Daru are a portion of the collection 
of Etruscan terracottas (p. 148) and also (2369) the *Nike of Samo- 
thrace, on a pedestal representing the prow of a trireme. This figure, 
found in 1863, was originally erected in memory of a naval victory 
won by Demetrius Poliorcetes about 305 B.C. The much mutilated 
statue represents the goddess on the prow of a vessel, in the act of 
sounding the signal for battle upon her trumpet. In dignity of con- 
ception and in the masterly handling of the voluminous drapery, this 
sculpture is perhaps the finest extant work of early-Hellenistic art. — 
To the left, seven steps higher, is a replica of the Victory of Brescia, 
a variation of the Venus of Milo (p. 95). In a case to the left is a 
Samothracian coin, showing a Victory in the attitude of the statue. 

Thence we may either enter by the door to the right of the last- 
named Victory and pass through the Galerie d'Apollon, as indicated 
below; or we may ascend the seven steps to the right of the Nike 
and reach a colonnaded vestibule and the Salle Duehatel (p. 114), 
at the end of which is the Salon Carre (p. 115). 

The Vestibtile just mentioned formed part of a staircase removed when 
the Louvre was extended. Its ceiling is painted by Meynier: France as 
Minerva receiving homage from the Fine Arts. 

Photographs of the pictures, drawings, and sculptures, by Braun, are 
sold in this vestibule. The large photographs, 20 in. long and 16 in. broad, 
cost 12 fr. ; the smaller, 12 in. by 9'/2 in., cost 5 fr. Cheaper photographs 
(10-20 fr. per doz.) are sold by the ordinary dealers (p. 42). 

110 2. LOUVRE. ricture 

**Picture Gallery. 

At least Three Visits are necessary for even a superficial idea of the 
importance of the gallery. We should be-in with the Salon Carre (p. 115), 
next inspect the Italian pictures in the Salle Duchatel (p. 114), the Salle 
des Primitifs (p. 117) , and the Grande Galerie (first part) , and finish the 
visit with the Spanish works in the middle of the Grande Galerie. The 
second day may be spent among the Flemish, Dutch, German, and British 
pictures. The third day should be devoted to the French schools. 

The impending opening of fourteen new rooms has occasioned such 
extensive alterations in the arrangement of the pictures that we must con- 
fine ourselves for the most part to a general critical review and an alpha- 
betical enumeration of the chief works. — The large scientific catalogue 
is at present out of print, but there is a Catalogue Sommaire for the entire 
muse'e (1899 5 1 fr. 20 c.). 

The Picture Gallery of the Louvre, the saloons of which have 
an aggregate length of over 1/2 M. , comprises ahont 2500 se- 
lect works , almost every school being represented by nnmerous 
masterpieces. There are indeed some masters whose acquaintance 
can be satisfactorily made in the Louvre alone. We recommend the 
tourist to read the following general review of the most important 
works, as well as the various incidental notices of particular pictures 
by Mr. Crowe and other distinguished authorities, before proceeding 
to view the gaUery itself. 

Most visitors to the Louvre will of course be chiefly interested in 
the Italian Painters. The works of the 14-15th cent, are all recent 
acquisitions. Those of the Florentine School first attract our notice. 
The gallery possesses one authentic work of Cimabue (No. 1260) 
and one of Giotto [No. 1316). An excellent example of the tender 
and saintly style of Fra Angelico da Fiesole is his Coronation of Mary 
(No. 1290; p. 118), while Benozzo Gozzolis Glory of St. Thomas 
Aquinas (No. 1319; p. 118) affords an instance of the inveteracy 
with which the artists of that age clung to mediaeval ideas. Fra 
Filippo Lippi is admirably represented by a Madonna and Child 
(No. 1344; p. 118); and Domenico Ghirlandajo by his powerfully 
conceived Visitation, of the year 1491 (No. 1321 ; p. 118). Sandra 
Botticelli is worthily illustrated by a charming Madonna of his early 
period (No. 1296) and by the noble frescoes from the Villa Lemmi 
(Nos. 1297, 1298). A Madonna and Child (no number) is attributed 
to Piero delta Francesco, but many authorities dispute the correctness 
of this ascription. Lorenzo di Credi's Madonna (No. 1263) may appear 
to some rather sentimental. The strong and tonic art of Luca Signo- 
relli may, perhaps, be almost better studied in the fragment of a large 
composition (No. 1527) than in the Adoration of the Magi (No. 1526). 
— Among the Ferrarese works we note the Court of the Muses by Lo- 
renzo Costa (No. 1261) and the realistic but deeply felt Pieta of Cosimo 
Tura (No. 1556). — Perugino, the chief master of the Umbrian school, 
is well represented by an important early work, a round picture of 
the Madonna with SS.'Rose and Catharine (No. 1569), by the Conflict 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. HI 

between Cupid and Chastity (1505; No. 1567J, by tlie St. Sebastian 
from the Sciarra Gallery (No. 1566 a^, and by several other works. 
— The Lonvre also possesses several important creations of Andrea 
Mantegna, a master of Upper Italy : Mt. Parnassus (No. 1375) is 
perhaps the most harmonious of these, but the Victory of Minerva, 
the Madonna della Vittoria, and the small Crucifixion (Nos. 1376, 
1374, 1373) deserve careful study. — The evolution of Venetian 
painting may be traced in the San Giovanni Capistrano and St. Bernard 
of Vivarini and Crivelli (Nos. 1607, 1268), the ably individualized 
Condottiere of Antcnello da Messina (No. 1134), the fine double- 
portrait of Gentile Bellini (No. 1156), the Madonna of Giovanni Bellini 
(No. 1158), the St. Stephen of Carpaccio (No. 1211), and the Ma- 
donna of Cima da Conegliano (No. 1259). 

In pictures of the great Italian masters of the 16th cent. ('Cinque- 
cento') the Louvre is richer than any other gallery on this side of the 
Alps. Many of these were acquired by Francis I. In the first place 
stands Leonardo da Vinci, whom the French are inclined to claim 
as one of their own artists. It is true that the authenticity of some 
of the works attributed to him here is contested. The small An- 
nunciation of his early period (No. 1602a) is one of these. Another 
is the 'Vierge aux Rochers' (No. 1599), which many critics hold to 
be a copy, executed under the artist's supervision, of the picture 
in London. The vigorous St. Anna (No. 159S) has also long passed 
for a cartoon executed by a pupil, but there is a growing tendency 
to hold all these works genuine. The great work of Leonardo in the 
Louvre is, however, his Mona Lisa (No. 1601 ; p. 115), the most 
celebrated female portrait in the world, the Sphinx-like smile of 
which has exercised the wits of generations of poets and artists and 
still fascinates in spite of the darkened condition of the canvas. 
The portrait known as 'La Belle Ferronniere' (No. 1600) is better 
preserved. A characteristic illustration of the state of religion in 
Leonardo's time is afforded by the fact that he has used the same 
model, and almost in the same attitude, for John the Baptist and for 
Bacchus (Nos. 1597, 1602). — Among the numerous excellent pic- 
tures of Leonardos school, those of Bernardino Luini (frescoes in the 
Salle Duchatel) and Andrea Solario merit especial attention. 

No gallery in Europe is so amply supplied with works of Raphael 
as the Louvre. To his earlier period, before he had shaken off the 
influence of Perugino's school, belong the charming little pictures 
of St. George and St. Michael, which he is said to have painted for 
the Duke of Urbino (Nos. 1503, 1502, p. 120). A gem of his Floren- 
tine period is the 'Belle Jardiniere', painted in 1507 (No. 1496; 
p. 116). To his early Roman period belongs the 'Vierge au Voile' 
(No. 1497; p. 120). His last and ripest period is illustrated by the 
portrait of Castiglione (No. 1505), the large Holy Family (No. 1498), 
and the St. Michael conquering Satan (No. 1504). The last two works 
however, painted in 1518 by order of Leo X. , as a gift for the king and 

112 % LOUVRE. Picture 

qneen of France, were executed ■witli considerable haste and witli 
the help of pupils; the St. Michael, moreover, has heen transferred 
to canvas and freely retouched. The famous portrait of the beautiful 
Johanna of Aragon (No. 1507) appears to have been chiefly executed 
by Giulio Romano. Thus, on the whole, it can hardly be said that 
the works in the Louvre give an adequate impression of Raphael's 
development and greatness. — Andrea del Sarto and Fra Bar- 
tolomeo are well represented, the former especially by his celebrated 
Caritas (No. 1514), the latter by a large Holy Family (No. 1154). 

Correggio is seen at the Louvre in two works only,. but both of 
these are fine : the Marriage of St. Catharine (No. 1117) and Jupiter 
and Antiope (No. 1118). 

Of all the great masters Titian is, perhaps, the most brilliantly 
represented in the Louvre. The religious scenes are the most im- 
portant. The Madonna with the rabbit and the Rest on the Flight 
into Egypt (Nos. 1578, 1580) reveal the artist as a sympathetic delin- 
eator of domestic idylls. The Christ at Emmaus (No. 1581) rather 
approaches the genre style, but is lifelike and pleasing. The En- 
tombment (No. 1584), perfect alike in lighting and colouring, in 
grouping and action, and the imposing Christ crowned with thorns 
(No. 1583) are full of the most effective and dramatic pathos. A 
work over which the master has shed a radiant poetic halo is the 
Sleeping Antiope approached by Jupiter in the form of a Satyr, 
formerly known as the Venus del Pardo (No. 1587). Titian's unri- 
valled skill in the delineation of vigorous manhood and womanly 
beauty is illustrated by the picture known as Titian and his Mistress 
(No. 1590), the Portrait of Francis I. (No. 1588), the Young man 
with the glove (No. 1592, 'L'homme au gant'), and the allegorical 
work referring to the departure of Alphonso Davalos, Marchese del 
Vasto, the famous general of Charles V. (No. 1589). — Palma Vecchio 
is represented by a fine Adoration of the Magi (No. 1399). An 
injustice would be done to Giorgione, if we judged him by the 
Rustic Festival (No. 1136), highly as this work has been praised. 
— For the study of Paolo Veronese the Louvre is second only to 
Venice. His large banqueting scenes and his Christ at Emmaus 
(No. 1196) have stamped an indelible impression on Delacroix and 
through him on the whole of modern French art. 

The renown of the Spanish pictures in the Louvre had its origin 
in a time when Spain was seldom visited by travellers, and when 
the treasures which Madrid and Seville possessed were known only 
in limited circles. However, the Louvre still contains more Spanish 
works than any other gallery out of Spain. Among these are the 
magnificent portrait of Philip IV. (No. 1732) and two celebrated 
Infantas (Nos. 1731, 1735) by Velazquez. Murillo is still better re- 
presented. The most famous of his works in this collection is the 
Conception' (No. 1709), while the brilliant 'Nativity of the Virgin' 
(No. 1710), the 'Cuisine des Anges' (No. 1716), the Beggar Boy 

Gallery, 2. LOUVRE. 113 

CNo. 1717), and tlie Holy Family (No. 1713) are also admirable 
specimens of his power, Ribera is well represented, and a fine fe- 
male portrait ty Goya has recently been acquired. 

The Louvre is unusually rich in paintings of the Flemish School, 
mainly of its later period. Among the earlier works the most note- 
worthy is Jan van Eyck's Madonna revered by the Chancellor Rollin 
(No. 1986). With this may be ranked Memling's large Madonna in 
the Duohatel Collection (No. 2026), a Descent from the Cross by 
Rogkr van der Weyden (No. 2196), and the Banker and his wife by 
Quinten Matsys (No. 2029). The late-Flemish school is magnificently 
represented by Rubens , by whose brush the gallery possesses 21 
large scenes from the life of Marie de Medicis (Nos. 2085-2105 ; 
pp. 126, 127). These large decorative works, remarkable for their 
richness of colouring, their lifelike vigour, and their strangely effec- 
tive combination of allegory and realism, were originally painted 
for the Luxembourg Palace and have recently had their proper effect 
restored by being assigned to a room by themselves. The other 
pictures by Rubens, though somewhat inferior to those at Antwerp, 
Munich, and Vienna, afford ample opportunity for a study of the 
great painter. The broad humour of his FlemishFair (No. 2115) 
exhibits him to us in an entirely new light. — The large and 
splendid portrait of Charles I. of England (No. 1967) is the best of 
the many fine works of Van Dyck which the Louvre possesses. — 
The collection of 34 pictures by the ever-green David Tenters, on 
whom Louis XIV. looked with contempt, now forms one of the chief 
boasts of the gallery. More than half of them were presented by La 
Gaze (p. 141) in 1869. — Snyders and Jordaens are also well re- 
presented. — For Philippe de Champaigne, who died in Paris, see 
the Introduction (p. xlv). 

The Dutch Masteks of the 17th cent, can be thoroughly appre- 
ciated only on their native soil, but the Louvre gallery possesses 
good specimens of the handiwork of all the most celebrated. Rem- 
brandt contributes no fewer than twenty works. The best of the 
religious paintings are the Christ at Emmaus (No. 2539) and the 
Angel of Tobias (No. 2536), a work of marvellous poetry and un- 
excelled in lighting and harmony of motion. The two Philosophers 
and the 'Carpenter's Family' (Nos. 2540-42) are charming interiors; 
the Woman bathing (No. 2549) is another excellent though realistic 
piece. The portraits are mostly of his later period. The most effective 
is, perhaps, that of himself, painted in 1660 (No. 2552). The por- 
traits of a young man and young woman (Nos. 2545, 2547) and 
the portrait of a man from the La Caze collection (No. 2551) are also 
admirable examples of his later period. The best manner of Frans 
Hals is illustrated in his portraits of theBeresteyn family (Nos. 2386- 
88), the portrait of Descartes (No. 2383), and the Laughing Girl 
(No. 2384 ; 'La Boh^mienne'). Van der Heist is also well represented 
by his Guild Masters (No. 2394; p. 129). — The most famous of the 

Babdeker. Paris. 14th Edit. 8 

114 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

small genre pictures is Dow's Woman with tlie dropsy (No. 2348), but 
this is excelled in technical delicacy hy Terburgs Officer and Girl 
(No. 2587), Metsus Officer and Lady (No. 2459), and the marvellous 
Interiors hy P. de Hooch (Nos. 2414-15). Jan Steens Tavern Festival 
(No. 2578) is an admirable specimen. — Among the numerous ex- 
cellent landscapes of the Dutch School the palm may be given to 
J. van Ruysdael's Stormy Sea and Sunlight (Nos. 2568, 2560) and 
Hoibema's Mill (No. 2404). 

The only Early German painter adequately represented in the 
Louvre is Holbein^ the best of whose eight portraits are those of 
Kratzer the Astronomer, Erasmus, Abp. Warham of Canterbury, and 
Anne of Cleves. Notice may also be taken of the table-top painted by 
Sebald Beham and the Descent from the Cross of the Cologne School. 

There are but twenty British Pictures in the Louvre. The 
attentive student of the landscapes of Wilson^ Gainsborough^ Con- 
stable, and Bonington, and of the portraits of Raeburn, Hoppner, and 
Lawrence, may nevertheless form an idea of the singular role played 
by this school as in some measure the connecting link between 
French art of the 18th cent, and the school of 1830. 

Our notes on the French School will be found in the Intro- 
duction (p. xxxv). 

Arrangement of the Pictures. As indicated \i pp. 90 & 110, 
it is not at present practicable to describe the pictures in the exact 
order in which they are distributed throughout the various saloons. 
Only a few rooms were ready at the time of going to press. For the 
rest we simply give alphabetical lists of the most important 
pictures, arranged by schools, and indicate the rooms in which they 
will in all probability be placed. As labels, with the names of the 
artists and the subjects of the paintings, have also been placed on 
the frames, there should be no great difficulty in finding the works 
selected below. The painters' family names, and not the names 
by which they are more commonly known, are given j thus, 
Sanzio (more correctly Santi) instead of Raphael, Vecellio instead 
of Titian, etc. 

From the Vestibule (p. 109) we enter the — 

Salle Duch&tel, which contains five paintings' bequeathed in 
1878 by the Comtesse Duchatel, viz. : 421. Ingres, (Edipus solving 
the riddle of the Sphinx (1808); *422. Ingres, The Spring, the 
artist's masterpiece, finished in 1856; *2026. Memling, Madonna 
and Child, with SS. James and Dominic, and the donors, a work of 
solemn dignity and appropriate colouring ; *2480, *2481. Ant. Moro 
(Sir Anthony More), Portraits, probably Louis del Rio, an official of 
Brabant, and his wife. 

This room also contains several frescoes of Bernardino Luini, 
transferred to canvas; 1357, 1358, 1359, *1360, *1361. Two boys 
with vine-foliage, Nativity, Adoration of the Shepherds, and Christ 
pronouncing a blessing. 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 115 

Oil our first visit to the gallery it is, however, advisable to traverse 
the Salle Duchatel without stopping and begin our inspection with 
the — 

**Salon Carr6, which, like the Tribuna in the Ufflzi at Florence, 
contains the gems of the collection. The ceiling is richly sculptured 
by Simart. 

To the right of the entrance: *2113. Rubens, Helena Fourment, 
second wife of the artist, and two of her children (unfinished); 
*1505. Raphael, Portrait of Count Baldassare Castiglione, a poem 
regarding which still exists, painted about 1516, with masterly 
management of the different shades of colour (comp. p. Ill); 
**1117. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine, 'with a celestial ex- 
pression in the faces', says Vasari. 

**1601. Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of Mona (Madonna) Lisa, 
wife of the painter's friend Fr. del Giocondo of Florence, and hence 
known as 'La Gioconda'. 

Leonardo worked four years on tMs painting, and then left it un- 
finished. Any one desirous of seeing how far art can succeed in imitating 
nature should examine this beautiful head, says Vasari. 

*1136. Giorgione, Rustic festival : very charming from the depth 
and warmth of the colouring, the golden glow of the flesh tones, 
and the rich treatment of the landscape, in spite of its having been 
freely retouched. *2547. Rembrandt, Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels 

*1590. Titian, 'La Maitresse du Titien', a girl at a toilet-table, 
with a man behind her with two mirrors, perhaps Laura Dianti and 
Duke Alphonso of Ferrara, painted shortly after 1520. 

'The light is concentrated with unusual force upon the face and bust 
of the girl, whilst the form and features of the man are lost in darkness. 
We pass with surprising rapidity from the most delicate silvery grada- 
tions of sunlit flesh and drapery, to the mysterious depth of an almost 
unfathomable gloom , and we stand before a modelled balance of light 
and shade that recalls Da Vinci, entranced by a chord of tonic harmony 
as sweet and as thrilling as was ever struck by any artist of the Vene- 
tian school." C. & C. 

Above: *1193. Paolo Veronese, Christ in the house of Simon 
the Pharisee, painted in 1570-75. — 1464. Tintoretto (Jac. Robusti), 
Susannah and the Elders; 1221. Annibale Carracci, Pieti. 

**1498. Raphael, 'Holy Family of Francis I.' (painted at Rome 
in 1518). 

'This picture is one of the richest and most dramatic compositions of 
Raphael. In care and uniformity of execution, in fulness and grandeur 
of the nude, in breadth and delicacy of the drapery, in lightness and 
freedom of the motions, and in powerful effects of colour, this work 
approaches most nearly to the Transfiguration in the Vatican". — Waagen. 

Above (no number), Guido Reni, Hercules and Achelous. 

*741, N. Poussin, Diogenes tlirowing away his bowl. Above, 
1427. Jac. da Ponte (Bassano), Descent from the Cross. *1731. 
Velazquez, Infanta Margaret, afterwards wife of Leopold L of Austria 
(*a child, but a royal child, destined to be a queen'). 

319, 320. Claude Lorrain, Sea-piece, Landscape. 

116 2. L OUTRE. Picture 

**1496. Raphael, Madonna and Child -^ith St. John, usually 
called *La Belle Jardiniere'; Florence, 1507. 

'With the Madonna and Infant Christ, who are represented alone in 
the simpler and earlier representations of the Madonna, is associated the 
young St. John. This addition has not only given rise to more varied 
gestnres of infant life, but has enabled the master to form a more regular 
group. Standing or kneeling at the Madonna's feet are the two children, 
forming a broad pedestal for the composition, which is easily and natur- 
ally completed by the Madonna. This idea was first expressed by sculp- 
tors, and afterwards eagerly adopted by Florentine painters' (Springer: 
'■Raphael d- Michael Angela'). 

1644. Italian School of the 16th cent., Portrait of a youth, 
formerly ascribed to Raphael, perhaps by Franciahigio. Above, 
437. Jouvenet f^le Grand'), Descent from the Cross (1697). Above 
the door: 1150. Barocci, Virgin enthroned; *1134. Antonello da 
Messina, Portrait of a man, generally known as the Condottiere 

*1598. Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Infant Christ with 
St. Anne. 

This cartoon was bronght to France by Leonardo and was probably 
executed by himself. It, however, afterwards found its way back to Italy, 
where Eichelieu bought it in 1629. The drapery of the Madonna has lost 
its colour. — There are several sketches for this picture at Windsor. 

No number, Guido Reni, Hercules on the funeral pyre. 

*288. Foucquet, Portrait of Guillaume Juvenal des Ursins, Chan- 
cellor of Charles VII. and Louis XI. ; *1190. Paolo Veronese, Holy 
Family : *743. Poussin, Portrait of the artist in his 56th year. Above, 
1143. Guercino, Patron-saints of Modena. 

**1192. Paolo Veronese, Marriage atCana, finished in 1563, 
a perfect 'symphony in colours'. This is the largest picture in the 
collection, being 32 ft. long and 21 ft. high, and occupying nearly 
the whole S. wall. 

lu all probability it celebrates the marriage of Eleanor of Austria to 
William Gonzaga in 1561. Hence the numerous portraits, the identity of 
which has been much canvassed. The musicians are portraits of Venetian 
painters of the day. Paolu Veronese himself, in white, plays on the viol, 
behind him Tintoretto with a similar instrnment. on the other side Titian 
with a bass-viol, and the elder Bassano with a flute. 

*1592. Titian, Young man in black, holding a glove, or 'L'Homme 
au Ganf, an admirable portrait of his middle period (comp. p. 112) ; 
1354. B. Luini. Infant Christ asleep. *1588. Portrait of Francis I. 
of France, painted about the year 1530 from a medal, and yet re- 
producing the characteristically quaint features and royal bearing 
of that monarch. Above, 1219. Annilale Carracci, The Madonna 
appearing to St. Luke and St. Catharine. 

*1504. Raphael, St. Michael the conqueror of Satan, painted in 
1518 for Francis I. of France, but often retouched; a work of sub- 
lime poetical character and strikingly sudden in the action (comp. 
p. 111). Above (no number), Guido Rent Hercules and the hydra. 

Above the door to the Galerie d'Apollon (p. 137) : 1242. After 
Pontormo (Jacopo CarrucciJ, Visitation. 

Oallery. 2. LOUVRE. 117 

*1584. Titian, Entombment of Christ, painted for the Duke of 
Mantua about 1523. 

A picture of marvellous effectiveness in form and expression. The 
charm of its colouring culminates in the contrast between the high lights 
of the heads and the sombre gradations of the background. 

Above, *1198. Paolo Veronese, Jupiter hurling thunderbolts 
against the Crimes, once a ceiling-painting in the assembly-hall of 
the Council of Ten in the Doges' Palace at Venice. 

**1583. Christ crowned with thorns, painted about 1560. 

'The pictures of this period show various allusions to antiquity. Ti- 
tian seems to have been specially interested in the Laocoon. The im- 
pression produced on him by that work is most worthily utilised in the 
chief figure in his 'Crowning with thorns', although the master's efforts 
to attain fidelity to nature have led him into exaggerations foreign to 
antiquity. — Strangely enough, though warm and golden in general tone; 
the picture has less variety and more uniformity of colour than usual.' 

C. dt C. 

Above, 1538. L. Spada, Concert. 

*1118. Correggio , Antiope and Jupiter disguised as a satyr, 
executed about 1518, for the Duchess of Mantua; the atmosphere 
is full of magical charm, and the conception is naive and unaffected. 
Above, *1154. Guido Rem, Dejanira carried off by the Centaur 
Nessus. — Over the entrance to the Salle Duchatel : 723. Nic. 
Poussin, St. Francis Xavier resuscitating a dead woman in Japan, 
painted in 1641. 

We may now pass through the door nearly opposite and enter 
the Grande Galerie (p. 119); but in order to obtain a better chrono- 
logical survey of the Italian School, it is advisable first to visit the 
so-called Salle des Primitifs, the first saloon on the right. 

The Salle des Primitifs (formerly known as the Salle des Sept 
Metres'), or Room VII, contains an admirable collection of pictures 
of the earlier Italian School, particularly by Florentine masters of 
the 15th century. 

On the right: 1268. C. Orivelli, St. Bernardino of Siena; 1400. 
Palmezzano, Body of Christ supported by angels; *1211. Carpaccio, 
St. Stephen preaching at Jerusalem; *1259. Cima da Conegliano, 
Madonna and Child; 1394. Montagna, Concert of children; Gentile 
Bellini and his School, *1156. Portraits, 1157. Reception of a Vene- 
tian ambassador at Cairo; *1158. Giov. Bellini {f), Madonna with 
SS. Peter and Sebastian; 1384. Massone, Nativity, with saints and 
donors. — The following four pictures were painted for 'II Paradise', 
a room of Isabella d'Este, Duchess of Mantua (see photograph of II 
Paradise at the entrance of this room): 1261. Lor. Costa, Court of 
the Muses, held by Isabella d'Este, an attractive allegory; Andrea 
Afan«65rna,*l 375. Mount Parnassus, 1376. TheVices banished by Wis- 
dom, companion to No. 1375 ; 1567. Perugino, Conflict between Cupid 
and Chastity. — Between Nos. 1375 and 1376 is No. *1374. Madonna 
della Vittoria, one of iWanfey/ia's last works, painted about 1495 for 
Giov. Franc. Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. — Above, 1556. Cosimo 

118 2. LOUYRE. Picture 

Tura^ Pieta, a crude work, but charged with feeling; 2721. North 
Italian School (c. 1500), Annunciation and saints. — Perugino^ 
1566a. St. Sebastian (a late work), 1566. St. Paul, 1565. Holy 
Family with angels; 1279, 1278. Gentile da Fahriano, Scenes from 
the life of the Virgin. 

*1564. Perugino, Madonna and Child with angels, St. [Rose, and 
St. Catharine. 

'An early work , remarkable for clearness of outline, pure and rich 
brilliancy of colour, and soft, pale yellow flesb tone.' 

Crowe d- Cavalcaselle. 

1665. Sienese School, Mt. Calvary; 1383. Simone Martini, Christ 
on the way to Calvary. 

On the wall at the end: *1312. Giotto, St. Francis of Assisi re- 
ceiving the stigmata; below, Vision of Innocent III., the same pope 
confirming the statutes of the order of St. Francis, and St. Francis 
preaching to the birds : a genuine, signed picture, painted for the 
Pisans. — *1260. Cima&ue, Virgin and angels, a strange composition 
resembling a Russian icon. — 1151. Bartolo, Presentation in the 

The door in this wall (generally closed) lead:? to the upper'landing of the 
Escalier Daru, where a few fine early-Italian pictures are kept (comp. p. 137). 

On the next wall, as we return: 1313-1317. School of Giotto^ 
Funeral of St. Bernard, Madonnas, Birth of St. John the Baptist; 
1301. Gaddi, Annunciation; 1658. Florentine School, St. Jerome; 
Fra Angelica daFiesole, 1293. Martyrdom of SS. Cosmas andDamian, 
1291. Daughter of Herodias dancing. — Above, 1273. Paolo Vccello, 

*1319. Benozzo Gozzoli, Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas. 

Above is Christ, with Paul. Moses, and the Evangelists. In the centre 
of the glory is the celebrated theologian between Aristotle and Plato ; at 
his feet, overwhelmed by his eloquence, is Guillaume de St. Amour, a 
professor of the Sorbonne; below, an ecclesiastical assembly with Pope 
Alexander IV. 

*1290. Fra Angelica da Fiesole, Coronation of Mary, with acces- 
sories, extolled byVasari, the faces of the saints full of holy aspira- 
tion [freely restored). — 1345. School of Fra Filippo Lippi, Madonna 
and Child; 1320. B. Gozzoli, Altar-piece; 1295. Botticelli, The 
Magnificat; *1344. Fra Fil. Lippi, Madonna and Child with two 
sainted abbots (an early work); *1296. Botticelli, Madonna with the 
Child and John the Baptist (a fine youthful work); *1343. Fra 
Filippo Lippi, Nativity. D. Ghirlandajo, 1322. Portraits of a man 
and a boy; *1321. Visitation, fine alike in colouring, line, and ex- 
pression. *1263. Lor, di Credi , Madonna and Child with saints ; 
1167. Fr. Bianchi, Madonna enthroned, between SS. Benedict and 
Quentin; 1607. B. Vivarini, San Giovanni da Capistrano. — Above 
the door: 1512. Lo Spagna (v not Raphael), God the Father and two 
angels, frescoes removed from the Villa Magliana near Rome. — 
*1373. Mantegna, Crucifixion, one of the predelle of the large altar- 
piece of San Zeno at Verona. 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 119 

The*Grande Galerie, or Room VI, 1230 ft. in length, is divided 
into six bays, marked A, B,C, D, E, F, on the dividins; arches. The 
first sections contain the works of the Italian Schools of the 
Rbnaissanue ('Cinquecento'), so far as these have not found a place 
in the Salon Carre'. 

Albani, 1111. Diana and Actceon. 

AlberUnelU, *1114. Madonna and Child, with SS. Jerome and 

Amerighi (Michelamjelo), see Caravaggio. 

Bagnacavallo, 1438. Circumcision. 

Barbarelli (Giorgio), see Giorgione. 

Barbieri, see Guercino. 

Barocci (Fed.), 1149. Circumcision. 

Bartolomeo (Fra), 1153. Annunciation. — *1154. Holy Family 

'Christ gives the ring to the kneeling Catherine of Siena. This charming 
idea, rendered with Leonardesque elegance, conveys a sense of great affec- 
tion and veneration towards Christ on the part of his mother, expressed 
chiefly by movements emulating those of the Bella Giardinlera in softness." 

C. d: C. 

Bassano (Jacopo da PonteJ, 1425. Wedding at Cana. 

Berrettini (Pietro), 1163. Madonna; 1165. Romulus and Remns. 

Boltraffio, *1169. Madonna of the Casio Family. 

Bonifazio, 1170. Resurrection of Lazarus; 1171, 1172. Holy 

Bordone, 1179. Portrait; 1180. Man and child. 

Borgognone (Ambr.), 1181. Presentation in the Temple; 1182. 
St. Peter of Verona and a kneeling woman. 

Bronzino (Agnolo), 1183. Christ and the Magdalen; 1184. Por- 
trait of a sculptor. 

Calcar (Johann von), 1185. Portrait of a young man. 

Caliari (Paolo), see Veronese. 

Canaletto (Antonio Canale), *1203. Grand Canal at Venice. 

Caravaggio, *1121. Death of the Virgin; 1122. Fortune-teller; 
1123. Concert; *1124. Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt, Grand Master 
of the Knights of Malta (1601). 

Carracci (Annibale), 122 L Martyrdom of St. Stephen; 1232. 
Fishing; 1233. Hunting. 

Carrucci (Jacopo), see Pontormo. 

Cesari, surnamed Cavaliere d'Arpino, 1256. Diana and Aeticon. 

Domenichino, *1613. St. Cecilia; 1610. Triumph of Love. 

Dosso Dossi, 1276. St. Jerome. 

Fasoli (Lorenzo di Pavia), 1284. Holy Kinship. 

Feti, 1237. Melancholy ; 1238. Country life. 

Francia (Francesco), 1435. Nativity ; *1436. Crucifixion. 

Garbo (Raffaelino del), 1303, Coronation of the Virgin. 

Garofalo, 1553. Holy Child asleep. 

Ghirlandajo (Benedetto), 1323. Christ on the way to Golgotha. 

120 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

Ghirlandajo (Ridolfo), 1324. Coronation of the Yirgin. 

Giorgione, 1135. Holy Family. 

Grimaldi. 1327. Washerwoman. 

Guardi. 1330-1333. Venetian fetes. 

Guercino, 1139. Raising of Lazarus; 1146. Hersilia separating 
Romulus and Tatius. 

Guido Rem, 1439. David with the head of Goliath; 1447. Ecce 
Homo; 1450. St. Sebastian. 

Luini (Bernardino), 1353. Holy Family ; *13o5. Salome with the 
head of John the Baptist; 1356. Forge of Vulcan. 

Manfredi, 1368. Fortune-teller. 

Maratta (C), 1379. Portrait of Maria Maddalena Rospigliosi. 

Marco da Oggiono, 1382. Holy Family; *1382a. Madonna. 

Mazzola, see Parmiyiano. 

Mola (Pier Francesco), 1390. Preaching of John the Baptist; 
1392. Vision of St. Bruno. 

Palma Vecchlo, *1399. Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Panetti (Dom.), 1401. Nativity. 

Panini (Giov. P.J, 1402. Banquet; 1408. Interior of St. Peter's 
at Rome; 1409. Concert at Rome. 

Parmiyiano, 1385, 1386. Holy Families. 

Pellegrini (Arit.), 1413. Allegory. 

Perugino (not Raphael), *1509. Apollo and Marsyas. 

Piero di Cosimo, 1416. Coronation of the Virgin. 

Pinturicchio, 1417. Madonna and Child. 

Piombo (Sebastiano del), 1352. The Salutation (Rome, 1521 ; un- 
finished), a most impressive picture. 

Ponte, see Bassano. 

Pontormo, 1240. Holy Family; 1241. Portrait of an engraver. 

Primaiiccio (copy of), 1433. Concert. 

Raiholini, see Francia. 

Ramenyhi, see Baynacavallo. 

Raphael, *1497. Madonna with the veil, also called the Virgin 
with the diadem (p. HI); 1500. John the Baptist in the wilderness, 
probably genuine, but completely ruined; *1501. St. Margaret, 
painted, according to Vasari, almost entirely by Giulio Romano; 
*1502. St. Michael (an early work); 1503. St. George and the dragon; 
*1506. Portrait of a young man, painted after 1515 (long erroneously 
regarded as a portrait of himself); *1507. Portrait of Johanna of 
Aragon, painted in 1518 (the head only, according to Vasari, by 
Raphael, the rest by Giulio Romano) ; 1508. Portraits ; 1509a (?), 
Head of St. Elizabeth. — ibii. School of Raphael, St. Catharine 
of Alexandria ; 1513. After Raphael, Madonna of Loretto (original 

Rerti, see Guido Reni. 

RicciareUi, surnamed Daniele da Volterra, 1462. David as con- 
queror of Goliath. 

OalUry. % LOUVRE. 121 

Riccio (Ft.), 1463. Holy Family. 

Rohusti fJac), see Tintoretto. 

Romano (Giulio), *1418. Nativity ; 1420. Triumph of Titus and 
Vespasian; 1421. Venus and Vulcan; 1422. Portrait. 

Rosa (Salvator), 1478. Saul and the Witch of Endor; *1479. 
Cavalry engagement; 1480. Scene in the Abruzzi, with soldiers. 

Sacchi, *1488. The four great Church Fathers. 

Santi (Sanzio)^ see Raphael. 

Sarto (Andrea del), *1514. Charity (painted in 1518); 1515, 
.1516. Holy Family. 

Savoldo, 1518, 1519. Portraits. 

Signorelli (Luca), *1526. Adoration of the Magi; *1527. Frag- 
ment of a large composition. 

Solario (Andrea), *1530. 'Madonna with the green cushion' (rich 
and radiant in colouring, with a beautiful landscape); *lo31. Por- 
trait of Charles d'Amboise; *1532. Crucifixion (1503; full of ex- 
pression and fascinating in colour) ; 1533. Head of John the Baptist. 

Solimena, 1534. Heliodorus expelled from the Temple. 

Spagna, 1539. Nativity. 

Strozzi, 1542. Madonna; 1543. St. Anthony of Padua. 

Tiarini, 1546. Repentance of St. Joseph. 

Tiepolo, 1547. Last Supper. 

Tintoretto, *1465. Paradise; 1467. Portrait; 1468. Susannah and 
the Elders; 1469. Madonna and Child, with saints and donors; 
1470. Pietro Mocenigo ; 1471, 1472. Portraits. 

Titian, *1577. Madonna and Child, with saints. — *1578. 'La Ma- 
donna delConiglio', or the Virgin with the rabbit, painted in 1530. 

'A master-piece in which Titian substitutes for the wilds of Bethlehem 
the lovely scenery of the Isonzo and Tagliamento. He represents the 
Virgin seated on the grass with her hand on a white rabbit, and St. Ca- 
therine by her side stooping with the infant Christ : a charming group in 
the corner of a landscape, — a group on which all the light of the picture 
is concentrated , whilst the broad expanse behind with the wooded 
farmstead in its right, the distant village, the chain of hills, and the 
far-off mountains lost in blue haze, lies dormant under the shade of a 
summer cloud. St. Catherine and the Virgin are both portraits.' — C. d- C. 

1579. Holy Family (perhaps not entirely by the master's own 
hand); *1580. Flight into Egypt. 

*1581. Christ and the two disciples at the Supper of Emmaus, 
painted about 1547. 

'A genre picture in monumental setting, a mixture of the common- 
place and the sublime, forming a kind of precursor to that naive and 
piquant mode of rendering the sacred narrative which was afterwards 
rendered almost classical by Paolo Veronese." C. tt C. 

1582. Christ on the way to Golgotha; 1585. St. Jerome (in a 
fine moonlit landscape) ; 1586. Council of Trent. 

**1687. Jupiter and Antiope, known as the 'Venus del Pardo', 
painted in 1574. Comp. p. 112, 

'Though injured by fire, travels, cleaning, and restoring, the master- 
piece still exhibits Titian in possession of all the energy of his youth. 

122 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

and leads ns back involuntarily to the days when he composed the 
Bacchanals. The same beauties of arrangement, form, light, and shade, 
and some of the earlier charms of colour are here united to a new scale 
of eflfectiveness due to experience and a magic readiness of hand. . . . The 
shape of Antiope is modelled with a purity of colour and softness of 
rounding hardly surpassed in the Parian marble of the ancients." 

C. d' G. 

*lo89. Allegory, painted for Alphonso Davalos, Marchese del 
Vasto, representing that general taking leave of Ms wife when 
summoned by the emperor to Vienna in 1532 to fight against the 
Turks (see also p. 112). 

'As an allegorical creation and as a work of a potent master of colour, 
Titian's canvas is one of the most entrancing that was ever created. 
There is such perfect sweetness of tone, such a rich strain of harmony 
in tints, such a solemn technical mastery — that we can do no more than 
look on and wonder." C. <& C. 

*1591. Portrait of a man in black, resembling No. 1588 (see 
p. 116), and painted at the same period; 1593, 1594. Portraits. 

Tisi (Benvenuto), see Garofalo. 

Turchi^ 1560. Death of Cleopatra. 

Vecelli, see Titian. 

Veronese^ 1187. Destruction of Sodom; 1188. Susannah and the 
Elders; 1189. Swoon of Esther (very lifelike and dramatic); 1191. 
Holy Family; 1194. Bearing of the Cross (unfinished); 1195. 
Golgotha; *1196. Christ at Emmaus (to the right, portraits of the 
painter, his wife, and his brother); 1199. Young mother. 

Vinci (Leonardo da), 1597. John the Baptist (comp. with No. 
1602). — *1599. Holy Family, known as *La Vierge aux Rochers', 
a work of the highest merit (the light on the flesh-tints is still bril- 
liant, but the shadows have become very dark; comp. p. 111). — 
*1600. Female portrait. 

'It was formerly, without any authority, called La Belle FerronnUre 
(a mistress of Francis I.), but is probably the portrait of Lucrezia Crivelli, 
the mistress of Ludovico Sforza , and must, therefore, have been painted 
at Milan. The figure is remarkable for its graceful and noble bearing, 
and attractive owing to the gentle tinge of melancholy which pervades 
the features.' Kugler. 

1602. (school-piece), Bacchus, originally composed as John the 
Baptist in the Wilderness ; 1602a. Annunciation. — 1603. Marco da 
Oggiono (?), Copy of Leon, da Vinci's fresco of the Last Supper 
(at Milan), one-third smaller than the original; 1604. School of 
Leon, da Vinci (perhaps Cesare da Sesto\ Madonna with the scales; 
1605. School of Leonardo da Vinci^ Portrait. 

Zampieri^ see Domenichino. 

Florentine School (15th cent.), 1661. Madonna and saints. 

Venetian School (16th cent.), 1672, 1673. Portraits. 

The central part of the Grande Galerie is devoted to the Spanish 

Collantes, 1703. Moses and the Burning Bush. 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 123 

Goya, 1704. Guillemardet, French ambassador at Madrid ; no 
number, *Portrait of a woman. 

Herrera^ 1706. St. Basil expounding his doctrines. 

Murillo, *170S. Immaculate Conception. — **1709. The Imma- 
culate Conception, one of his greatest works (1678), pervaded with 
an intense sentiment of religious enthusiasm. As usual in the 
Spanish School, the master has drawn his inspiration from the 
'woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon 
her head a crown of twelve stars (Rev. xii. 1]. The picture was 
bought from Marshal Soult for 615,300 fr. — **1710. Birth of the 
Virgin (1655) ; 1712. Madonna with the rosary (early work); *1713. 
Holy Family (the light and the harmonious colouring are of great 
beauty); 1714. Christ in Gethsemane; 1715. Scourging of Christ, 
on marble (a singular mixture of mysticism and realism); .*1716. 
Miracle of St. Diego, known as the 'Cuisine des Anges' (a poor 
convent provided with food by angels); *1717. Beggar-boy 'cher- 
chant k d^truire ce qui I'incommode' (the intent expression is full 
of life and the light admirable). 

Spagnoktto (Ilihera)^ *1721. Adoration of the Shepherds, with 
charming Madonna of the Spanish type ; 1722. Entombment ; *172.8. 
St. Paul the Hermit. 

Velazquez, *1732. Philip IV. of Spain, in a simple but majestic 
style ; *1734. Thirteen portraits , including Velazquez himself and 
Murillo (left). 

Zurharan, *1738. Conference of St. Peter of Nola and St. Ray- 
mond of Penuaforte; 1739. Funeral of a bishop. 

Next to the Spanish pictures come those of the British School. 

Beechey, 1801. Brother and sister. 

Bonington, 1802. Francis I. and theDuchesse d'Etampes; 1803. 
Card. Mazarin and Anne of Austria; *1804. View at Versailles; 
1805. View of Venice; 1805a. The old governess. 

Constable, 1806. Village; 1807. The rainbow; *1808. Weymouth 
Bay; 1809. Hampstead Heath ; 1810. The Glebe Farm (spoiled). 

Gainsborough, 1811, 1812. Landscapes. 

Hoppner, *1812a. Countess of Oxford. 

Laicrence, *1813. LordWhitworth; 1813a. Julius Angerstein and 
his wife"; no number, *Portrait of a lady (sketch). 

Morland, 1814. The halt. 

Opie, 1816. The woman in white. 

Philips, no number, Portrait of Lamartine. 

Baeburn, 1817. Naval pensioner. 

Bamsay (Allan), 1818. Charlotte Sophia, Princess of Wales. 

Bomney, no number, Sir John Stanley. 

Wilson, *1819. Landscape. 

German School. Beham (Hans Sebald), •2701. Table -top 
painted with four scenes from the life of David (in the second field. 

124 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

portrait of Abp. Albrecht of Mayence, for whom the table was painted 
in 15345 in the fourth, portrait of the artist). 

Cranach the Elder, 2703. Venus in a landscape; *2703a. Portrait. 
— School of Cranach, no number, Portrait. 

Denner, 2706. Old woman, of unrivalled finish. 

Dietrich, 2708. Woman taken in adultery. 

Dilrer, *2709. Head of an old man; 2709a. Head of a child (both 
a tempera; under glass). 

Elsheimer, 2710. Rest on the flight into Egypt; 2711. The Good 

Glltlinger, *2711a. Adoration of the Magi. 

Heinslus, 2712. Princess Victoire, daughter of Louis XV. 

Holbein the Younger, *2713. Portrait of Nic. Kratzer of Munich, 
astronomer to Henry VIIL of England, dated 1528, the finest Hol- 
bein in the Louvre; *2714. William Warham, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, at the age of seventy, dated 1528; *2715. Erasmus of Rotter- 
dam, exceedingly lifelike and admirably executed, with marvel- 
lously expressive hands (replicas at Longford Castle and Bale) ; 
2716. Portrait of an elderly man; 2717. Sir Thomas More, the English 
Chancellor, a small and spirited picture, probably painted soon after 
the painter's arrival in England (1526); *2718. Anne of Cleves, 
fourth wife of Henry VIII., a late work ; 2719. Portrait of Sir Richard 
Southwell, a replica, or perhaps a skilful copy of the picture at 
Florence; 2720. Portrait. 

Kauffmann (Angelica), *2722. Portraits of Baroness Kriidener 
and her daughter. 

Mengs (Raphael), 2723. Queen Maria Amelia Christina of Spain. 

Mignon, *2724. Chaffinch's nest; 2725-2729. Fruit-pieces. 

Pencz (?), 2730. St. Mark. 

Rottenhammer, 2732. Death of Adonis. 

Wyrsch [Melchior; Swiss), 2751, 2752. Portraits. 

Master of the Death of the Virgin, (Cologne), 2738. Last Supper, 
Preparation for the Entombment, and St. Francis receiving the stig- 

German School of the 15th cent., 2736bis. Madonna. 

German School of the 16th cent., *2741. 2743. Portraits. 

Cologne School of the 1 5th cent., *2737. Descent from the Cross. 

The Flemish School occupies the last part of the Grande Galerie, 
and also the VanDyck Eoom and the Rubens Gallery. The arrange- 
ment of these rooms was not completed at the time of going to press, 
so that we still adhere to an alphabetical list. 

Bril (Matthew), 1906, 1907. Stag-hunting. 

Bril (Paul), 1908. Landscape with duck-hunters ; 1909. Diana 
and her nymphs. 

Brouwer, 1912. Dutch tavern; 1913. Tavern scene; 1914. The 
writer; 1915. The operation; *1916. The smoker. 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 125 

Brueghel (Pieter, the Elder; ^Peasant Brueghel')^ 1917a. Parable of 
the Seven Blind Men. 

Brueghel (Jan; 'Velvet BruegheV), 1919. The Earth, or the Ter- 
restrial Paradise 5 1920. Air; 1921. Battle of Arbela; 1922-24. Small 
landscapes; 1925. The bridge of Talavera. 

Champaigne (Phil, de), 1927. Christ at the house of Simon the 
Pharisee; 1928, 1929. Last Supper; 1930. Crucifixion; 1932. Pieta; 
*1934. The nuns Catherine Agnes Arnaud and Catherine de Ste. 
Suzanne, the painter's daughter (to the right), praying for the re- 
covery of the latter from paralysis; 1937. Louis Xni. crowned by 
Victory ; 1938-47. Portraits, most of them excellent. 

Cocx or Coques (Gonzales), 1952. Family festival. 

Grayer (, 1953. Ecstasy of St. Augustine; *1954. Equestrian 
portrait of Ferdinand of Austria, Stadtholder of the Netherlands. 

David {Gerard'^), 1857. Wedding at Cana. 

Duchdtel, 1960. Equestrian portrait. 

Dyck, see Van Dyck. 

Jan van Eyck^ *1986. The Chancellor Rollin revering the Vir- 
gin, with a beautifully-executed landscape. 

The spare and big-boned head of the chancellor is one of the most 
fascinating of Van Eyck's male portraits. The Virgin possesses neither youth 
nor beauty, and yet there is about her a solemn and even imposing ir, 

Francken the Younger, 1990. The Prodigal Son; 1991. Passion. 

Fyt, 1992. Game and fruit; 1993. Game in a larder; 1994. Dog 
and game; 1995. Game and hunting gear. 

Gossaert (Jan), see Mabuse. 

Hemessen, 2001. Tobias restoring his father's sight. 

Euysmans (C), 2002-2009. Landscapes. 

Jordaens, 2011. Christ driving the money-changers out of the 
Temple, somewhat trivial in composition but masterly in its realistic 
vigour; 2012. The Evangelists; 2013. Infancy of Jupiter; 2014. 
Bean-feast; *2015. Concert after supper; *2016. Admiral de Ruyter; 
2017. Mythological banquet. 

Mabuse, 1997-1998. Diptych, with Madonna and Chancellor 
Carondelet; 1999. Benedictine. 

Matsys ox Metsys (Quinten), *2029. Money-changer and his wife; 
2030. Christ blessing. 

Meel, 2022. Halt; 2023. Travellers' meal. 

Memling, *2024. John the Baptist; *2025. Magdalen; *2027, 
2027a. Betrothal of St. Catharine, with John the Baptist and the 
donor; *2028. Triptych, with the Martyrdom of St. Stephen, Re- 
surrection, and Ascension. 

Metsys (Jan), *2030a. David and Bathsheba. 

Meulen (A. van der), 2031-2050. Scenes from the reign of 
Louis XIV. 

Oost the Elder (J. van), 2067. San Carlo Borromeo administering 
extreme unction to the plague-stricken. 

Pourlus the Younger (F.), 2068. Last Supper; 2069. St. Francis 

126 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

of Assisi receiving the stigmata; 2070, 2071. Henri IV. of France ; 
2072, 2073. Marie de Medicis; 2074. Guillaume du Vair, keeper of 
the Great Seal. 

Rubens, *2075. Flight of Lot, signed and dated (1625) ; *2076. 
Elijah in the wilderness (painted as a pattern for tapestry); 2077. 
Adoration of the Magi ; 2078. Madonna; 2079. Madonna in a garland 
of flowers; 2080. Flight into Egypt (sketch) ; 2081. Raising of La- 
zarus; 2082. Crucifixion ; 2083. Triumph of Religion (for tapestry) ; 
*2084. Tomyris, Queen of the Scythians, causing the head of Cyrus 
to he dipped in a vessel full of hlood. 

*2085-2105. Series of 21 large paintings, all hut three in the new 
Ruhens Gallery. Marie de Medicis, widow of Henri IV., for a time 
regent for her son Louis XIII. , and afterwards exiled, returned to 
France in 1620, and resolved to emhellish her Luxembourg Palace 
with paintings on a very extensive scale. Rubens, to whom the task 
was entrusted, came to Paris in 1621, where he painted the sketches 
(eighteen of which are now at Munich), after which he returned to 
Antwerp and executed the pictures there with the aid of his pupils. 
In 1625 the completed works were brought to Paris, where they 
received a few final touches from Rubens himself. The scenes are 
as follows : — 2085. The three Fates spin the fortunes of Marie de 
Medicis. — 2086. Birth of Marie (1575, at Florence); Lucina, the 
goddess of births, is present with her torch; Florentia, the goddess 
of the city, holds the new-born infant; on the right is the river- 
god of the Arno. — 2087. Her education, conducted by Minerva, 
Apollo, and Mercury; on the right are the Graces. — *2088. Amor 
shows the portrait of the princess to Henri IV. ; above are Jupiter 
and Juno; beside the king appears Gallia. — 2089. The nuptials; 
the Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany acts as proxy for his niece's 
husband. — 2090. The queen lands at Marseilles, — 2091. Wedding 
festival at Lyons; Henri IV. in the character of Jupiter, and Marie 
de Medicis in that of Juno ; in the chariot in front the patron- 
goddess of Lyons. — 2092. Birth of Louis XIII.; behind the queen 
is Fortuna ; the infant is in the arms of the genius of Health. — 
2093. Henri IV., starting on his campaign against Germany (1610), 
entrusts the queen with the regency. — *2094. Coronation of the 
queen by Cardinal de Joyeuse at St. Denis ; the king is observed 
in a gallery above. — *2095. Apotheosis of Henri IV. ; below are 
Victoria, in a yellow robe, and Bellona with a trophy; on the right 
is enthroned the mourning queen between Minerva and Wisdom ; 
at her feet are Gallia and noblemen. — *2096. Regency of the 
queen under the protection of Olympus ; Mars , Apollo (a copy 
of the antique Belvedere), and Minerva drive away the hostile 
powers ; Juno and Jupiter cause the chariot of France to be drawn 
by gentle doves. — 2097. The queen in the field during the civil 
war ; she is crowned by Victoria. — 2098. Treaty between France 
(on the right) and Spain (left) ; princesses of the allied courts are 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 127 

mutually destined to marry the heirs to the two thrones. — *2099. 
Prosperity prevails during the regency ; the queen enthroned hears 
the scales of justice; on the right are Minerva, Fortuna, and 
Ahundantla; on the left Gallia and Time; helow are Envy, Hatred, 
and Stupidity. — *2100. The queen commits the rudder of the ship 
of the state, rowed by the virtues, to Louis XIII. on his majority. 
— 2101. Flight of the queen (1619). — 2102. Reconciliation of 
the queen with Louis XIII. — 2103. The queen is conducted into 
the temple of peace. — *2104. Marie de Medicis and Louis XIII. 
in Olympus ; below is the dragon of rebellion. — *2105. The god 
of time brings the truth to light; above is the king giving his 
mother a chaplet of peace. 

2106. Portrait of Francesco de Medicis, father of Marie; 2107. 
Johanna of Austria, his wife ; 2108, 2109. Queen Marie de Me'dicis 
as BeUona and as Gallia; 2110. Sketches for Nos. 2035 and 2105; 
*2111. Baron Henri de Vicq, Netherlandish ambassador at the French 
court; 2112. Elisabeth of France, daughter of Henri IV. ; *2114. 
Portrait of a lady of the Boonen family; *2115. Flemish Fair (see 
p. 113); *2116. Tournament, a spirited sketch; 2117. Landscape. 
Also a number of sketches. 

Ryckaert, 2137. Studio. 

Seghers, 2140. St. Francis of Assisi. 

Snyders, 2141. Earthly Paradise; 2142. Noah's Ark; 2143. Stag- 
hunt; 2144. Boar-hunt ; 2145. Fishmonger; 2146. Dogs in the pantry ; 
2147. Fruit and animals. 

Teniers the Younger ( David) ^ *2155. Peter's Denial (among the 
soldiers at the table is the artist himself); *2156. The Prodigal 
Son; *2157. The Works of Mercy ; *2158. Temptation of St. Anthony; 
*2159. Village fete; 2160. Tavern by a brook ; 2161. Rustic dance; 
*2162. Tavern with card-players; 2163. Tavern scene; 2164. Hawk- 
ing; 2165. Smoker; 2166. Knife-grinder; 2167. Bagpipe player; 
2168. Portrait of an old man; 2169. Blowing soap-bubbles; 2170. 
Village fair; 2171. The duet; 2172. Tavern; 2173. Interior; 2174. 
Village fete ; 2175. Tavern ; 2176. Temptation of St. Anthony ; 
2177. Tavern; *2178. Guitar player; 2179. The alms-collector; 
2180. Bowls; 2181. Drinker and smoker; 2182, 2183. Summer and 
winter; 2184. Chimney-sweep; 2185-88. Landscapes. 

VanDyck (AnUionij), 1961. Madonna and Child; *1962. Virgin 
and donors; 1963. Pieta; 1964. St. Sebastian ministered to by 
angels; 1965. Venus demanding arms for ^Eneas from Vulcan; *1966. 
Rinaldo and Armida. **1967. Portrait of Charles I. of England, with 
his horse held by an equerry ; a truly kingly portrait, executed with 
'respectful familiarity' and marked by aristocratic bearing, unself- 
coiisciousness, beauty, and the most refined 'joie de vivre'. *1968. 
Children of Charles I. ; *1969. Duke Charles Louis I. of Bavaria 
(full-face) and his brother Robert, Duke of Cumberland; 1970. 
Infanta Isabella , Regent of the Netherlands, as a Clarissine nun ; 

128 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

*1971. Equestrian portrait of Francisco de Moncade; 1973. Portraits 
of a man and a child; *1974. Lady and her daughter; *1975. Duke 
of Richmond; 1976, 1977. Portraits; *1979. Head of an old man; 
1983. Por.rait of the artist. — *1985. Van Dyck or Euhens{i), 
President Richardot of Brussels and his son. 

Veen or Venius (Otho van), 2191. The artist and his family. 

V^eyden (Rogier van der), *2195. Virgin and Child; *2196. Pieta. 

Flemish School of the 15-16th cent., 2197. Holy Family; *2198. 
Spiritual instr action; *2201. Mater Dolorosa ; *2202. Angels appear- 
ing to the Shepherds; 2202a. St. Jerome; *2202b. Madonna, with 
donors (triptych); 2203. Pieta; 2204, *2205. Portraits. 

Flemish School of the 1 7th cent., 2208. Old woman. 

Flemish ox Dutch School of the 16th cent., 2212. Adam; 2213. Eve. 

Some Smaller Booms, adjoining the Rubens Gallery, are de- 
voted to the Dutch Schools. 

Aelst (W. van), 2298. Grapes and peaches. 

Aertsen, no number, Fishermen. 

Bakhuisen, 2304-2309. Sea-pieces. 

Bega (Corn.), 2312. Rustic interior. 

Berchem, 2313. Environs of Nice; 2314, 2318-23. Landscapes 
with cattle; 2315. Ford; 2316. Watering-place; 2317. Ferry. 

Bergen (D. van), 2325. Landscape with cattle. 

Bloemaert, 2327. Nativity. 

Bloot, no number, Ford. 

Bol (Ferd.), *2330. Mathematician; 2331. Portrait. 

Bosch (Hier on.), surnamed Van Afcm(?}, no number, Last Judg- 
ment (perhaps the right wing of Dierick Bouts's Resurrection at 

Both, 2332, 2333. Landscapes. 

Brekelenkam, 2337. The consultation. 

Craesbeeck, 2340. The artist painting a portrait. 

CuypfAlh.), *2341. Landscape; *2342. Two riders; *2343. The 
promenade; 2345. Sea-piece. 

Decker, 2346. Landscape. 

Dou (Gerard), *2348. The dropsical woman, one of his greatest 
works : a successful composition, in which the grief of the daughter 
is touehingly pourtrayed ; most elaborately finished, although un- 
usually large for this master (1663). 2350. Village-grocer; 2351. 
Trumpeter; *2352. Dutch cook; "^2353. Girl hanging up a cock at a 
window; 2354. Weighing gold; *2355. Dentist; 2356. Reading the 
Bible, a very attractive, fpeaceful, domestic scene; 2359. Portrait 
of the artist. 

Duck, *2360. Guard-room (his masterpiece); 2361. Marauders. 

Dyck (Philip van), 2362. Sarah, Abraham, and Hagar; 2363. 
Abraham dismissing Hagar and Ishmael. 

Everdingen, 2365, 2366. Landscapes. 

Fictoor, 2371. Girl's portrait. 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 129 

Flinck (GovaertJ^ 2372, Auiiunciation to the Shepherds; *2373. 
Child's portrait. 

Goyen (Jan van), 2375, 2377. Dutch river-scenes ; 2376, 2379. 
Dutch canals; 2378. Sea-piece. 

Hagen (J. van der)., 2380-82. Dutch landscapes. 

Mali (Dirk), '^2389. Rustic festival (pearly work: ca. 1616). 

Hals(Frans), *2383. Portrait of Descartes; *2334. Laughing gipsy 
('La Bohe'mienne' ; ca. 1630); 2385. Portrait of a woman; *2386, 
*23S7, *2388, Portraits of the Van Beresteyn family of Haarlem. 

Heem (J. D. de), 2391, *2392. Fruit and tahlc equipage. 

Heemskerck, 2393. Interior. 

Heist (Bart, van der), *2394. Masters of the Guild of St. Se- 
bastian, a small and well-preserved replica of the Amsterdam paint- 
ing; 2395, 2396. Portraits. 

Heyden (J. van der), 2399-2402. Dutch views and buildings. 

Hobbema, *2403. Forest-scene; *2404. Mill. 

Hondecoeter. 2405-07. Poultry scenes. 

Honthorst^ 2409. Concert. 

Hooch (Pieter de), *2414. Court; *2415. Interior with company. 

Huymm (J. van), 2420-2425 a. Flowers (*2420 the best). 

Jardin(Kareldu), 2426. Golgotha; 2427. Italian juggler; 2428. 
Ford; 2431-2435. Landscapes with cattle. 

Kolf, 2436. Interior of a cottage. 

Keyser (Th. de), 2438a. Portrait. 

Lieven?, 2444. Visitation. 

Lingelbach^ 2447. Vegetable-market at Rome; 2450, Landscape. 

Maes ('.Yic.;, *2454. Saying grace. 

Meer (J. van der; Vermeer) of Delft, 2456. Lace-maker, 

Mefsu, 2547. Christ and the adulteress ; 2458. Market at Amster- 
dam; *2459. Officer saluting a young lady, a gracefully conceived, 
and delicately-coloured work; 2460. Music-lesson; 2461. Chem^ist; 
2462. Dutch woman; 2463. Dutch cook; 2464. Admiral Tromp. 

Mierevelt, 2465. Portrait of Oldenbarneveldt. 

Mieris the Elder (Frans van), 2469. Portrait; 2471. Tea-party; 
2472. Flemish family. 

Mierh(W. van), 2473. Soap-bubbles ; 2474. Game-dealer ; *2475. 

More (Sir Anthony). 2478. Portrait; *2479. Court- dwarf of 
Charles V.; 2481a. Edward VI. of England. 

Moucheron, 2482. Starting for the chase. 

Neer (Aert van der). *2484. Village-?treet by moonlight. 

Netscher. 2486. Singing-lesson; 2487. Lesson on the bass-viol. 

Mckelen (Van). 2490. Vestibule of a palace. 

Os (Van), 2492, 2493. Flowers. 

Ostade (Adr. van), *2495. Domestic scene, supposed to repre- 
sent the two 0>tades and their families; *2946. The Schoolmaster, 
dated 1662 (the dramatic force and warm golden tone are character- 

Baedekek. Paris. 14th Edit. 9 

130 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

Istic of the master's most finished style); *!2497. Fish-market; 
*2498. Interior of a hut; 2500. Smoker; 2502. The drinker; 2503. 
The reader; 2504, 2505. Reading, The newspaper. 

Ostade( Isaac van), *2508,2o69. Travellers halting; 2510,2511. 
Ice-hound canals; 2513. Pig-sty; 2515. Winter-landscape. 

Poelenburgh (Corn, van), 2519. Pasture; 2520, 2521. Women 
bathing; 2522. Ruins at Rome; 2524. Nymphs and satyr. 

Potter (Paul), *2527. Cows; 2528. Grey horse. 

Pynacker, *2532. Sunset scene. 

Ravesteyn, 2534. 2535. Portraits. 

Rembrandt , *2536. Family of Tohias revering the departing 
angel, painted in 1637; very characteristic of the master's easy and 
genial mode of rendering Bible scenes, and admirable for its warm 
and harmonious colouring and its poetry of chiaroscuro. — *2537. 
The Good Samaritan (dated 1648); 2538. St. Matthevr (1611). 

*2539. The Supper at Emmaus, dated 1648, from the collection 
of his friend the Burgomaster Six. As in the picture of Tobias, a 
subdued red is here the predominating colour, and the whole work 
is pervaded with a warm and hazy glow (Vosmaer). 

*2540, 2541. Philosophers in profound meditation. 

'The A-enerable countenance of tbe old man, tbe faded colour of his gar- 
ments, the reverential atmosphere, the gentle light, and the Iransparency 
of the shadows all combine to shed an inexpressible poetic radiance ovei- 
this picture.' (E. Michel.) 

*2542. Holy Family at Nazareth, known as the 'Carpenter's 
Family', signed 1640. 

This family scene is one of those idyllic pieces by means of which 
Rembrandt and other Dutch masters endeavoured to familiarise the spec- 
tator with incidents from the Old and New Testament by transplanting 
them to tTie present. The simplicity and depth of sentiment which per- 
vade the picture may be regarded as the badge of the Protestant spirit 
of the 16th and 17th" centuries. 

2543. Venus and Cupid (portraits), an early work; 2544. Old 
man (dated 1638) ; *2545, 2546. Portraits of a young man and young 
woman ; 2548. Carcase in a butchers shop ; *2549. Woman after the 
bath (so-called Bathsheba; 1654); *2550. Woman bathing; *2551. 
Portrait; 2552, *2553, 2554, *2555. Portraits of himself (1633, 
1634, 1637, 1660). 

Ruysdael (J. van), *2557. River in a wood, with figures by Ber- 
chem, an important work of the master's best period; *2558. Stormy 
sea on the Dutch coast, a work of marvellous poetry, striking effect, 
and masterly treatment ; *2559. Autumnal landscape ; *2560. Moun- 
tain-landscape , with a sunbeam shining through the parting clouds 
(figures by Ph. Wouverman; poetically rendered and masterly in its 
silvery greenish-grey tone) ; *2561 a. Margin of a wood. 

Ruysdael (Salomon ?), no number, Ford. 

Santvoort, 2564. Christ at Emmaus. 

Sorgh, 2571. Kitchen. 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 131 

Steen (Jan)^ *2578. Merry company (1674; rich iu happy mo- 
tives and full of humour); *2579. The repast; 2580, Bad company. 

Steenwyck, 2581. Jesus at the house of Lazarus. 

Terburg, *2587. A handsome officer sitting in a room with an el- 
egantly-dressed girl, to whom he offers money : the heads full of 
life, admirably drawn, and of a delicately-hlended silvery tone; one 
of his finest works. *2588. Music-lesson (a work of very delicate 
characterisation); *2589. Concert; 2590. Assembly of ecclesiastics 
during the congress at Miinster; *2o91. Reading-lesson. 

Velde (Adr. van de), *2593. Scheveningen ; 2594-96. Landscapes 
with cattle (*2596 the best) ; 2597. Shepherd's family; 2598. Winter 
scene (1668). 

Velde ( Willem van de), 2600. Sea-piece. 

Venne (Adr. van de), 2601. Fi'te champetre, with allegorical al- 
lusions to the peace of 1609 between Archduke Albert and the Dutch. 

Verkolje, 2602. Interior. 

Vliet (H. van), 2605. Portrait of a young man. 

Vols (Ary de), 2606. Portrait. 

Weenix (J. B.), 2609. Defeat of the corsairs. 

Weenix (Jan), 2610. Game and hunting-gear; *2(311. Spoils of 
the chase ; 2612. Seaport. 

Wouverman (Philip), *2621. Dutch carnival scene; 2623. Starting 
for the chase ; 2625. Stag-hunt ; 2626. Riding school ; 2628, 2629. 
Cavalry skirmish; 2632. Bivouac; 2634. Pilgrims. 

Wouverman (Pieter), 2635. Tour de Nesle at Paris about 1664. 

Wynants, 2636. Edge of a forest, with accessories by A. van de 

Dutch School of the 17th cent., 2642. Literary society. 

The French Booms , which contain more than 1000 pictures, 
have lately been entirely re-arranged. The chronological order begins 
in the Grande Galerie, in the section most directly reached by the 
staircase in the Pavilion Mollien and the Galerie MoUien (comp. Plan). 

Rooms IX, X, and XI are devoted to the older French School. 

Rooms XII and XIII are mainly occupied by the two cycles by 
Le Sueur. 

Room XIV contains masters of the 17th century. — The E. door 
of this room opens on the head of the Escalier Daru (see p. 137). 

Room XV (in the Pavilion Denon) contains a collection of por- 
traits of artists (p. 137). 

In Room XVI (to the E. of the last) are paintings of the 18th 

Room VIII, a large room to the S. of the Portrait Room, contains 
most of the paintings of the second and third quarters of the 19th 

Room III {Salle des Sept Cheininee.^, p. 140) contains many works 
of the end of the 18th, and the beginning of the 19th century, and 


132 2. LOLVRE. PictuTe 

will probably be unaffected at present by the new arrangement. - - 
Jhe pictures in tbe Salle Duchatel (p. 114) also remain unchanged. 
The following alphabetical list of imp jrtant paintings gives a fair survey 
of the French section of the Louvre Gallery, so far as not described in the 
Salle Duchatel, the Salle Henri Deux, the Salle des Sept Chemine'es, and 
the La Gaze Collection. The Roman figures in the brackets indicate the 
rooms in which the pictures will probably be placed. 

Aved (J. A. JJ, 9. Mirabeau (XVI) ; 10. Cazes, the painter (XVI) ; 
11. J. F. deTroy (XYI). 

Boilly, 28. Arrival of the diligence (XYI). 

Boucher (Fr.) ^ 30. Diana quitting her bath (XVI); 31. Venus 
begging Vulcan for arms for yEneas (XVI); 32-35, 45. Pastoral 
scenes (XVI); 36. Vulcan giving Venus arms for ^'Eneas; 42. Cupid's 
target (XVI) ; 43. Toilette of Venus (XVI) ; 44. Venus disarming 
Cupid (XVI) ; 50a. Family scene. 

Bouchot. 50bi8. Fall of the Directory in 1799. 

Boulogne (Bon), 52. St, Benedict resuscitating a child (XVI). 

Boulogne (Jean de, surnamed Le Valentin), 56. The chaste Su- 
sannah (XIV); 57. Judgement of Solomon (XIV); 58. The Tribute 
Money; 59. Concert (XIV). 

Bourdon, 75. Gipsies (XIV); 76. Beggars (XIV). 

Chardin (J. B. S.), *91. The busy mother (XVI); *92. Saving 
grace (his masterpiece; XVI); 97. The antiquarian ape (XVI); *99. 
Housekeeper (XVI); several excellent still-life pieces. — Ascribed 
to Chardin (?), 117. Return from school (XVI). 

Chintreuil, 123. Space (VIII); 124. Roes grazing (VIII). 

Claude Lorrain (Gellte). *310. Harbour at sunrise, figures by 
J. Miel (XIV); 311. Campo Vaccine at Rome (XIV); *312. Land- 
scape with peasants, 313. Harbour at sunset, these two painted in 
1639 (XIV) ; *314. Mark Antony receiving Cleopatra at Tarsus (XIV) ; 
315. Anointing of King David (XIV); *316. Ulysses restoring 
Chryseis to her father, figures by Fil. Lauri (XIV); *317. Harbour, 
of great vigour and depth of colouring (XIV) ; 318. Seaport (XIV); 
*321. Landscape (XIV ); 322. Ford (XIVJ ; *323. Mouth of a harbour 
(XIV) ; 324. Siege of La Rochelle (XIV; ; 325. Louis XIII. forcing 
the pass of Susa, near Turin, in 1629 (XIV). 

Clouet (Francois), 128. Charles IX.; *129. Elizabeth of Austria, 
wife of Charles IX. 

Clouet (Jean;-!), 126, 127. Francis I. 

Cochereau. 135. David's studio (III). 

Corot(J. B. C), *138. Morning; 139. Roman Forum (VIII); 
140. Colosseum (Vm); *141. Landscape (VIII); *141a. Castel 
Gandolfo (Vill). 

Courhet, 145. Stags fighting (VIII); 146. Roe-deer in a thicket 
(VIII); 147a. The wave (VIII). 

Cousin (Jean^, 155. Last Judgment. 

Couture, *156. Romans of the Decadence, a once highly admired 
eoniposition (VIII), 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 133 

Coypel (Ant.)., 168. Athaliah expelled from tlie Temple (^XVJJ; 
170. Esther before Ahasuerus (XVIj. 

Coypel (Ch. Ant.), 180. Perseus and (XVI). 

Danbi^y^ *184.Viiitage in Burgundy (VIII); *185. Sprin*(VIlI). 

David (J. L.) , 189. Oath of the Iloratii: 191, Lictors briniring 
Brutus the body of his son (VIII); 194. Paris and Helen (XVI); 
*199. Mme. Recamier, a work (not quite finished) of classic dignity, 
painted in tender grey tones (VIII); lf)9a. Mme. Chalgrin; *'200a, 
Mme. Morel de Tangry and her daughters, full of life (VllI). 

Delacroix (Ferd. V. E.;, *207. Dante and Virgil ferried by 
Phlegias over the Lake of the Inferno, a youthful work, full of emotion 
(1822); =^208. Massacre of Chios; *209. The Barricade, July 28th, 
1830; 210. Algerian women; 211. Jewish wedding in Morocco; 212. 
Don Juan"s shipwreck (Byron's 'Don Juan', II, 75); *213. Capture 
of Constantinople by the Crusaders. 

Delaroche (P.), 21G. Death of Queen Elizabeth of England (VIII) ; 
217. The sons of Edward IV. in the Tower (VIII). 

De Marne, 222. Fair (XVI). 

Desportes, 224. Huntsman; 225-248. Hunting scenes. Animals, 
Still-life (XVI) ; 249. His own portrait (XIII). 

Deveria, 250. Birth of Henri IV. 

Diaz de la Pena, *251-253. Forest-scenes (VIII). 

Droiiais^ 266. Charles X. and his sister in their childhood (XVI). 

Flandrin (Hippolyte), 282. Study (VIU); 284. Girl (VHI); 285. 
Mme. Vinet (VIII). 

Foucquet^ *289. Charles VII. of France, a highly suggestive portrait 
of this ugly au'l wicked king (painted about 1450). 

Fragonard, 291. Music-lesson (XVl). 

Freminet^ 304. Mercury charging .Eneas to abandon Dido. 

Froment, 304bis. King Rene' and his second wife. 

Fromenlin. 305. Hawking in Algeria; *306. Arab camp (VIII). 

GelUe, see Claude Lorrain. 

Gleyre, *363. Lost illusions (VIII). 

Greuze (J. J5.;, *369. The Marriage Contract. 

The success of this work was immediate and enoinious. The public 
.shut its eyes to the want of harmony in the colouring, to the discord of 
the tones, and to the inequality of the execution; it was dazzled, fascinated, 
and thoroughly satisfied by the drama, the thought, and the feeling which 
spoke in the picture.' (De Goncoiirt.) 

370. The Father's Curse, 371. The Repentant Son. These are 
characteristic examples of the 'bourgeois' dramas with a 'moral", 
which Greuze was so fond of painting. — *372. The Broken Pitcher, 
the most pleasing and most popular of his works ; no number, Milk- 
girl, a charming picture of a similar character, bequeathed in 1899 
by the Baroness Nathaniel de Rothschild; 374, 375. Heads of girl^: 
881. Portrait of himself (XVI). 

Gros, *389. Napoleon on the tield.of Eylau, Feb. 9th, 1807O'lli). 

Gutrin, 393. .Eneas telling Dido the woes of Troy (XVI). 

134 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

Huet (J. BJ, 411. Dog attacking geese (XVI). 

Huet (P.), 412. Inundation at St. Cloud; 413. Quiet morning. 

Ingres (J. A. DJ, 415. Peter receiving the keys of Heaven ; *417, 
Apotheosis of Homer, the artist's masterpiece, painted in 1827 for 
a ceiling; 418. Cheruhini; 419. Ruggiero liberating Angelica; 423. 
Bather; 426, 427. M. and Mme. Riviere; 425, 4*28. Portraits; no 
number, Odalisque, a masterpiece of his early period; *428 his. 
Bertin the Elder, founder of the 'Journal des Dehats', the most 
lifelike of the master's portraits (VIII). 

Jouvenet, 433. Miraculous Draught of Fishes; 434. Raising of 
Lazarus (XIV). 

La Berge, 443. Arrival of a diligence in Normandy (VIII). 

La Hyre , 456 Pope Nicholas V. at the tomb of St. Francis of 
Assisi in 1449 (XIV). 

Lancret, *462-465. The Seasons (XVI); 468. Music -lesson 
(XVI); 469. Innocence (XVI). 

Largillitre, *483. Count de la Chatre (XIV). 

Le Brwn fC/mries J, 494-504. Religious scenes and personages: 
505. Mary Magdalen, said to be a portrait of Mile, de la Valliere, 
mistress of Louis XIV. (XIV). *509-513. History of Alexander the 
Great, painted as designs for Gobelins tapestry (1660 et seq.). 514. 
Meleager and Atalanta (XIV); 515. Death of Meleager (XIV). 

Lefebvre, *529. Master and pupil (XIV); 530. Portrait (XIV). 

Le NainfAntoine. Louis, and Mathieu). 539. Manger; 540. Smith; 
541. Rustic meal; 542. Return from the hay-fleld; 543. Portraits; 
*543a. Family gathering; *544. Procession in a church; 547. Denial 
of St. Peter (all in R. XIV). 

Le Sueur (Eustache), 553-563 (XII). Scenes from the Bible 
and the Acta Sanctorum, among which may be selected the follow- 
ing : 556. Bearing of the Cross ; *560. St. Paul at Ephesus, one of 
the artist's masterpieces , the main figure after Raphael (1649). — 
564-585 (XII). Life of St. Bruno, painted in 1645-48 for the Car- 
thusians of Paris, whose order was founded by this saint; the best is 
*584. Death of St. Bruno. 

'The liglit of a single candle falls on the white cowls, which resemble 
grave-clothes, and on the walls, which are white as those of a tomb. An 
inexpressible sadness streams fi-om this almost monochrome painting.'' 


591-603 (XIII). Mythological scenes from the Hotel Lambert 
tp. 228). 

Lorrain^ see Claude Lorrain. 

Marilhat, 615. Mosque of Caliph el-Hakim at Cairo (VIII). 

Mignard, *628. 'La Vierge k la grappe^ (XIV); 630. Christ on 
the way to Calvary (XIV); 634. St. Cecilia (XIV); 638. The 'Grand 
Dauphin', son of Louis XIV., and his family (XV). 

Millet (J. F.J, *641. Church of Gre'ville in Brittany (VIII); 643. 
Spring (VIII); *644. Gleaners,. in the poetic yet realistic style of 
the still more famous 'Angelus' (VIII). 

Gallery. 2. LOLVRE. 135 

Moreau, 650. View near Paris (XVI); 651. View of Meudoii 
and St. Cloud (XVI). 

Nattier, 657. Magdalen; *658. Mnie. Adelaide, fourth daughter 
of Louis XV. 

Owr/ry, 666, 668, 671. Dogs; 670. Farmyard, 

Parrocel, .678. Louis XIV. crossing the Rhine in 1672 (XVI). 

Pater, 669. Fete Ohampetre (XVI). 

Perrier, 694. Acis and Galatea. 

Pe7,s, 702. Rouget de lisle singing his 'Marseillaise' for the lirst 
time at the house of the Mayor of Strassburg (VIII). 

Poussin (Nicholas), *704. Eleazer and Rebecca; 705, 706. Moses 
in the ark of bulrushes; 707. The infant Moses spurning the crown 
of Pharaoh with his feet; 708. Moses turning Aaron's rod into a ser- 
pent; 709. The Israelites gathering manna in the wilderness (Rome, 
I639j; 710. The Philistines struck with pestilence (painted at 
Rome about 1630); *711. Judgment of Solomon; 712. Adoration 
of the Magi; 713,714. Holy Family; *715. The blind beggars of 
Jericho (1651, one of the best of his religious pieces); 716. The 
Woman taken in adultery; 717. Last Supper; 718. Assump- 
tion; 719. Virgin appearing to St. James the Greater; 720. Death 
of Sapphira; 721. John the Baptist; 722. Vision of St. Paul; 
724. Rape of the Sabine women; 726. The young Pyrrhus, son of 
the King of Molossus, rescued from the pursuit of his rebellious 
subjects by two faithful followers of his father; 730. Bacchanal ; 
781. Narcissus and Echo; 732. Triumph of Flora; 733. Concert; 
*734. Three Arcadian shepherds and a maiden surrounding an old 
tombstone which they have found and which bears the inscription 
'£t in Arcadia ego' (a simple, harmonious, and much admired 
composition); 735. Time delivering Truth from the attacks of Envy 
and Discord, executed as a ceiling-painting for Card. Richelieu 
in 1641; *736. Spring, or the earthly paradise; 737. Summer, or 
Ruth and Boaz; 738. Autumn, or the Spies returning with grapes 
from the Promised Land; *739. Vi^inter, or the Deluge; *740. Land- 
scape, with Orpheus and Eurydice; 742. Apollo and Daphne, un- 
finished, the master's last work (XIV). 

Prud'hon (Pierre), 74i. Crucifixion, the artist's last work (1822), 
in a sombre viok't tone (VIII); 748. Meeting of Napoleon and Fran- 
cis II. after the battle of Austerlitz (VIII); several small and fine 

Raffet, 761bis, Soldier of the First Republic. 

Eegnault , 770. Equestrian portrait of General Prim (VIII). 

Riesener, 799. Ravrio, the maker of bronzes (III). 

Rigaud y Ros , 780. Presentation in the Temple (the painter's 
last work, 1743); *781. Louis XIV. (1701); 7b2. Philip V. of Spain 
(1700); 783. Bossuet, the celebrated preacher; *784. Marie Serre, 
mother of the painter: 788, 789. Portraits; *790. Robert de Cotte, 
the architect (XIV). 

136 2. LOUVRE. Picture 

Robert (Hubert), painter of idealized landscapes, generally with 
ancient ruins from South France or Rome : 797. View at Orange ; 
798, 799. Nimes; 802. Arch of Marcus Aurelius at Rome ; 803. Por- 
ticus of Octavia at Rome. 

Robert (Leopold), 816, Arrival of the reapers in the Pontine 
Marshes; 817. Return of the pilgrims to the Madonna dell' Arco at 
Naples (VIII). 

These two lively representations of the life of the people in Italy excited 
great admiration on their first exhibition (1830) and were praised by Heinrich 

Roslin, 820. Girl decorating the statue of Capid (XVI). 

Rousseau (Theod.), *(~'27. Forest of Fontainebleauat sunset (VIII); 
*830. Marsh in the Landes (Garonne), a work of marvellous delicacy 
of aerial perspective (VIII). 

Scheffer (Ary), 840. Temptation of Christ (VIII) ; 841. St. Au- 
gustine and his mother Monica (VIII). 

SuUeyras, 853. Mary Magdalen at the feet of Jesus (XVI). 

Tocque^ 867. Marie Lesczinska, vrife of Louis XV. (XVI). 

Troy (J. F. de), 884, 885. Toilette and Swoon of Esther (XVI). 

Troyon, *889, *890. Oxen going to , and returning from their 
day's work (VIII). 

These two pictures are equally superb in their lighting, in their laud- 
scape, and in the drawing and characterisation of the patient steers. No. 8S9 
is, perhaps, the finest animal-painting of the 19th century. 

Van Loo (Carle), 899. Hunters resting (XVI); 900. Queen Marie 
Lesczinska (see above; XVI). 

Van Loo (J. B.), 896. Diana and Endymiou (XVI). 

Van Loo (L. M.), 902. Soufilot, the architect (XVI). 

Vernet (Claude Joseph), 912-954. Sea-pieces and landscapes, 14 
of them in the Marine Museum (p. 150), the rest mainly in R. XVI. 

Vernet (Horace) , 957. Judith and Holofernes (VIII) ; 958. 
Raphael and Michael Angelo in the Vatican (VIII); 958a. Isabey, 
the painter. 

Vien, 965. Sleeping hermit (XVI). 

Vouet (Simon), 971. Presentation in the Temple (XIV). 

Watteau (Jean Antoine) , *982. Embarkation for the island of 
Cythera (XVI ; replica in the Palace at Berlin). 

'What words can reproduce this delicale, fragrant, ideal colouring, so 
aptly selected for a dream of j^outh and happiness V" (Gautier.) 

French School of the 15th cent., 995. Martyrdom of St. Denis 
(perhaps by J. Malouel and H. Bellechose); 99b. Descent from the 
Cross; 1004, 1005, SS. Peter and John, with Peter IL and Anne of 
Burgundy (1488). 

French School of the 16th cent., 1007. Francis L; 1035. Ball at 
the couit of Henri III. on the wedding of the Due de Joyeuse with 
Margaret of Lorraine in 1581. 

School of FontaineUeau , 1013. Diana; 1014. Continence of 
Scipio; 1014a. Toilette of Venus. 

Gallery. 2. LOUVRE. 137 

III the Pavilion Deiion, between UK. XIV and XYl of the French 
School, Is a lofty saloon with vaulted ceiling, called the — 

Salle des Portraits, which contains a collection of portraits of 
artists, founded in 1887 on the model of the collection at Florence. 
The most interesting are as follows, from right to left : 

373. Et. Jmurat^ by Grenze; 525. Jos. Vernet., by Mnie. LeBnin-, 640. 
P. Mignard, by himself; *214. Delacroix., by himself; 524. Hubert Robert., 
by Mme. Le Brun; *2552. Rembrandt (the portrait with the gold chain), 1148. 
Guerchio, by themselves; 1944. F, Mansart and CI. Perrault, by Phil, de 
Champaigne; 1380. Maratta, by himself; 476. J. L. David, bv Langlois: 482. 
LeBrun, by Largilliere; 760. P. Puget, by Fr. Pu-et; 147. Courbet. '521. Mme. 
Le Brun, 183. Ch. Coypel., by themselves; 492. Nic. Coustou, by Largilliere: 
*1272. Giotto, Paolo Uccello , Donatello ., Brunelleschi, and Giov. Manetti, by 
P. I'ccello. — Busts of 'David., by Rude, and of Rude, by Becquet. 

The ceiling is embellished with paintings by Charles Midler 
illustrative of the history of art in France : St. Louis and the Sainte 
Chapelle, Francis I. in the studio of one of his artists, Louis XIV. 
beginning the Louvre, Napoleon I. ordering its completion. 

The E. door of Room XVI opens on the upper landing of the 
Escalier Daru (p. 91), where some important early-Italian pictures 
are exhibited. 

*i297, 1298. Sandra Botticelli, Frescoes from the Villa Lemmi at Florence, 
said t ) have been painted for the marriage of Lorenzo Albizzi and prio- 
vanna Tornabuoni, and representing the Bride with the Graces and the 
Bridegroom with the Arts snd Sciences; '129-i. fra Angelico, Crucifixion, 
from the old Dominican convent at Fiesole ; portraits of philosophers. 

From the Escalier Daru we pass through the door to the left 
of the Nike of Samothrace (p. 109), into the — 

Rotonde d'ApoUon, adorned with ceiling-paintings by Blondel 
(Fall of Icarus), Couder (the four Elements), and Mauzaisse. In the 
centre is a handsome marble vase, imitated from an antique vase 
in the Vatican, and surrounded with a modern mosaic by F. Belloni. 
A line wrought-lron door of the 17th cent, on the right leads to the — 

*Galerie d'ApoUon. This saloon, which is over 200ft. in 
length, was constructed in the reign of Henri IV., burned down 
under Louis XIV. in 1661, and rebuilt from designs by Charles Le 
Brun, who left the decoration unlinished. It was then entirely 
neglected for a century and a half, but was at length completed in 
1848-51 by Felix Duban. It is the most beautiful hall in the Louvre, 
and is considered one of the finest in the world. The name dates 
from the time of Le Brun, who had intended a figure of Apollo to be 
the central point of his decorations, in honour of the 'Roi Soleil', but the 
present central ceiling-painting by Delacroix, representing 'Apollo's 
Victory over the Python', a fine work both in composition and colour- 
ing,. was not executed until 1849. The four other large ceiling-paint- 
ings depict the periods of the day (beginning at the S. end): Aurora 
or Dawn, by Ch. Muller (1850), after Lebrun; Castor or the Morning 
Star by A. Eenou (1781) ; then, beyond the Apollo (which represents 
Noon), Morpheus or Evening, \i2:ht or Diana, both by Lc Brun. In 

138 2. LOUVRE. Galerie 

lour other fields, next those in the centre, are the seasons (end of 
the 18th cent.}, while twelve medallions in grisaille represent the 
months. On the vaulting above the entrance is the Triumph of Cy- 
hele or Earth, with Bacchantes, by J". Guichard, after LeBrun (1849). 
In the vaulting over the window, Triumph of the Waters (Neptune 
and Amphitrite), by Le Brun (about 1665). The panels of the walls 
are adorned with portraits of twenty-eight French kings and artists, 
in modern Gobelins tapestry. 

The beautiful tables and other furniture in this room date 
chiefly from the reign of Louis XIV. The glass-cases contain 
*Objects of art, gems, etc. The collection of enamels is the most 
extensive and valuable in the world (p. 233). No catalogue. 

Table I. '^Reliquary of St. Fotentian, a German work of the 12th century. 

Case I. (in the centre). On the top shelf: at each end. enamelled Ven- 
etian basins; reliquary (12th cent.), for an arm of Charlemagne; casket 
(13th cent.), known as the 'colfret de St. Louis''; enamelled casket of the 
14th cent.; *Amazon on horseback, Centaur carrying off a woman, two 
works in silver-gilt of the i6th century. — On the middle shelf: next 
the windows. Enamelled croziers of the middle ages; paxes of the loth 
and 16th cent. : reliquary of St. Francis of Assisi, from a church in 3Iajorca 
(Limoges enamel; Idth cent.); silver reliquaries in the form of lit;ures of 
the Madonna (15th cent.) ; cylindrical silver monstrance of the 15th cent. ; 
ciborium of the 13th cent. ; cylindrical monstrance of the 15th century. — 
Bel6w: Tw^o reliquaries in the form of angels, and other objects in silver- 
gilt, from the Chapel of the Order of the Holy Ghost in the Louvre, but 
dating from the 15th cent, and therefore anterior to the founding of the 
order by Henri 111. (1579). Small Romanesque enamelled reliquaries; 
chalices, including one of the 13th cent. ; holy-water basin in agate and 
silver-gilt (16th cent.) : rock-crystal cross mounted in silver-gilt (loth cent.). 
— On the other side of the case are enamelled vases, reliquaries, etc. 

Case 11. Chiefly objects ot the 16th century. *Pax, wdth enamels 
and rubies, from the Chapel of the Holy Ghost; *Ciborium of crystal, 
with silver-gilt base and cover, adorned with chasing, cameos, and gems ; 
*Rings; 'Ornaments; cups of sardonyx; vessel of rock-crystal, shaped 
like a chimsera; urns formerly in the possession of Cardinal Mazarin. 

Case III. Similar objects. On the top shelf : "Epergne of the time of 
Louis XIV., consisting of a boat in lapislazuli mounted in gold and enamel; 
Goblets in rock-crystal and • Vesstls^ beautifully chased (translucent, best 
seen from the other side ; the handle of one is set with enamels and rubies) ; 
caskets of Hungarian jade. — On the middle shelf, returning: "Vessel of 
sardonyx, with enamelled mounting; busts of the Cfesars, the heads of 
crystal or precious stones; '"Agate cup, with cameos; cups of various kinds, 
richly mounted. — Below : *Vessel of agate ; goblet of sardonyx, with ena- 
mel mounting; incense vessel of green jasper adorned with enamels; vase 
of red jasper, with dragons as handles, attributed to Benvenuto Cellini:^ 
at the end, antique *Vase, with very fine mountings; to the right, '^Cup of 
sardonyx, the handle in the shape of a dragon studded with diamonds, 
rubies, and opals; to the left, a similar cup. 

Case IV. contains the Crown Jewels retained when the rest were 
sold in 1887. Among these are : the ^Regent., perhaps the finest diamond 
in the world, weighing 136 carats and worth 12-15 million francs; to the 
right, the *3fazarin, a rose-diamond of immense value, and the '^Cdte de 
Bretagne\ a large ruby in the shape of a dragon. In front, *Sword ("epee 
militaire''), made at the order of Napoleon I., and set with gems, valued 
at 2 million francs. — Behind: to the right. Crown of Louis XV. (false 
jewels), to the left Crown of Napoleon /., in imitation of Charlemagne's; 
between these, "Ornament commemorating the Peace of Teschen (1779), an 
interesting German work. In front, Watch presented to Louis XIV. by 

d'Apollon. "2. LOLYKE. 139 

the Dey of Al-ieis^ pearl dragon-brooch and elephant of the Danish ordtr 
of the Elephant. — To the left, Chatelaine of Catherine de M^dicis, set with 

Case V. Objects of the 16-17th centuries. — On the top shelf: Vases of 
rock-crystal. — On the middle shelf and below : Vessels of sardonyx, 
agate, and jasper, with enamels, etc. — In the centre: 'Scourging of 
Christ, a statuette in blood jasper, on a richly ornamented pedestal. 

Case VI, behind, to the left. — To the left: 'Enamelled Reliquary, 
with the Virgin and Child (early 14th cent.). — In the middle: Antique 
vases in porphyry and sardonyx, remounted in the 12th cent. ; Vase of 
Eleanor o/Aquilaine, wife of Louis VII. of France and afterwards of Henry II. 
of England (I2th cent.), in antique rock-crystal, remounted in the 12th cent. ; 
in front, Chalice in enamelled silver (I4th cent.), and Paten of the Abbot Suger 
of St. Denis (12th cent.); to the right, *Eeli(iuary for an arm oi St. Louis 
of Toulouse, enamelled, on the hand a sapphire ring (14th cent. I; reliquary 
of St. Henry (i2th cent.); French reliquary cross (12th cent.) and silver 
plaque (11th cent.). 

Case VII, behind, to the right. Casket once belonging to Anne of 
Austria; objects from the above-mentioned Chapel of the Holy Ghost. 

In front of the adjoining window is a handsome "Escritoire formerly in 
the possession of Louis XV., by Riesener, with bronze ornaments by 

The cabinets along the wall opposite the windows, and the glass-cases 
in front of the windows, chiefly contain 'Enamels. 

Like majolica-p;dnting in Italy, the enameller's art was practised in 
France at a very early date. Its culminating period was coeval with that 
of the School of Fontainebleau (second half of the 16th cent.), and Limoges 
was its headquarters. The most famous artists in enamel were Nardon 
Pinicaud, Lionard Limousin. Jean and Pierre Courteys, and Pierre Reymond. 
The practice of the art died out in the 18th cent., but has recently been 
revived with some success. — Enamels are termed Cloisonnes when the 
coloured vitreous glaze is deposited in compartments formed by thin metal 
partitions (cloisona) following the outlines of the design on the surface of 
the plate; Champlevis when the compartments are sunk into the thickness 
of the plate; Translucides or Transj^arents when the design is incised on 
the plate and covered with transparent enamel; and. Painted (peints) when 
the entire surface of the plate is covered with coloured enamel. Cloisonmi 
and champleve enamels were made by Byzantine and medieval artists, but 
the translucent process was not invented until the 15th century. 

By the First Wixdow, near the entrance: Transparent enamels of 
the 14-15th cent.; -Binding of a Prayer Book, with filigree ornamentation, 
enamels (symbols of the Gospels), and embossed gold reliefs (Crucifixion), 
a Byzantine work. — Second Window: Champlevi Enamels of the 12th 
cent., from the Rhine; Limoges Enamels of the 13th century. — Thikd 
AND FouETH WINDOWS : *Enamels ('Emaux Peints") by the Pt^nicauds. — 
Fifth Window: •Goldsmiths' work : snuff-boxes, bonbonnieres, caskets, 
etuis, medallions with miniatures, rings, chains, crosses, pendants, and 
other ornaments enamelled or set with pearls and gems; cameos; intaglios. 
— Sixth Window: Limoges Enamels (16th cent.). — Seventh Window: 
Articles used at the coronation of the French kings: sword of the end of 
the 12th cent. ; buckle (l4th cent.): spurs (12th cent.); 'Sceptre of Charles V. 
(14th cent.); 'Hand of Justice' of the kings of the 3rd dynasty; ring of 
St. Louis. — Book of hours of Catherine de Medicis; mirror and sconces 
of Marie de Mt'dicis, set with sardonyx and cut and engraved agates, 
presented to the queen by the Venetian Republic; poniard of the grand- 
master of the Order of Malta (16th cent.). — The cases at the remaining 
windows contain Limoges enamels. 

Cases XIII-XVII, opposite the windows, contain enamels by P. Rey- 
mond, P. Courteys, and L. Limousin (in the 2nd and 3rd), and other Limoges 
enamels. In the last case also is goldsmith's work : "SJiield and 'Helmet of 
Charles IX. (d. 1574) in gold and enamel; silver ewer and platter in repousse 
and chased work, re;iresenting the expedition of Emp. Charles V. against 
Tunis in 1536. 

140 0. LOUVKE. S<iUe des Bijoux. 

We return to the Kotonde, and turn to the rooms of tlie Old 
Louvre on the right, first entering the — 

Salle des Bijoux Antiques , which is adorned with a ceiling- 
painting by Mauzaisse^ representing Time showing the ruins that he 
causes and the works of art he brings to light; below, Seasons, 
Elements, etc. The room contains an extremely valuable collection 
of ancient ornaments, jewels, and enamels. 

1st Cen'teal Case. At the top : Three gold crowns, including a Grseco- 
Etruscan *Diadem (uniquej. Gilded iron helmet (Gallo - Roman) , with 
enamel ornamentation (found in the Seine near Rouen) 5 conical Etruscan 
helmet, with golden circlet and wings; golden quiver. Below are golden 
crowns, necklaces of gold, silver, enamel, and pietra dura, some with 
artistic pendants of the finest filigree work. Side next the Seine (5th divi- 
sion, upper row): "^198. Golden Etruscan necklace adorned with a head of 
Bacchus (?) with the horns and ears of a bull. In one of the following 
cases : *Collar and two ear-covers in the Greek stj-le, from Olbia (see below). 
— 2xD Cestkal Case. "Treasiire of Bosco Eeale, consisting of 94 silver 
articles discovered in 1895 on the site of a house destroyed by the eruption 
of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A. D. These objects are Alexandrian, Greek, and 
Roman works of the 1st cent., though some are in such admirable preser- 
vation as to seem modern. — "Wall Cases. Silver objects: *Ceres, with 
movable arms : Etruscan earrings ; rings of Greek and Roman workmanship. 

Side next the Cocet. Small Window Case: Gold Tiara of Saitapharnes, 
presented to the king of that name by the Greek colony of Olbia in Sar- 
matia, with flm reliefs, 3rd cent. B.C. (? authenticity disputed). — Cases to (he 
Right and Left: Buckles, gold and bronze bracelets, rings, collars, earrings, etc. 

Side next the Seine. 1st Case. Intaglios. Gold and bronze rings, 
bracelets. — 2nd Case. Cameos; intaglios; 'phalerEe' or ornaments for 
horses, etc. — 3rd Case. Gold rings, with and without precious stones; 
gold necklaces and earrings ; bronze buckles. — 4th Case. Gold necklaces ; 
plaques of beaten gold; earrings. — 5th Case. Silver vessels found at Notre- 
Dame-d'Alencon, near Brissac (1836). 

Proceeding in a straight direction, we next enter the — 

Salle des Sept Cheminees, or Room III, containing pictures of 
French Masters of the End of the 18th and Beginning of the 19th 
Century, or of the Empire and the Restoration. 

Beginning on the left : *188. David, The Sabine women inter- 
posing between the Romans and the Sabines ; in front Romulus 
about to hurl his spear at Titus Tatius (the artist's masterpiece; 
1799). Above, 187. David, Leonidas at Thermopylae, finished in 
1814. To the left and right : Gericault, 339. Officer of chasseurs ; 
341. Wounded cuirassier. — 360. Girodet- Trio son, The Deluge 
(1814). Prudhon, 751. Empress Josephine; *747. Crime pursued by 
Justice and Divine Vengeance, a work of tragic earnestness, painted 
in 1808 for the Criminal Court. Above, *338. Gericault, Wreck of 
the Medusa, a French frigate which went down with 400 men on 
board, of whom only five were saved on a raft (1819; this painting 
created a great sensation); 392a. Gros, General Fournier-Sarloveze; 
746. Prudhon, Assumption; *202a. David, Coronation of Napo- 
leon I. (1807); ^b2% Mrne. Le Brun, Portrait of the artist and her 
daughter; 391. Gros, Bonaparte at Arcole; *19S. David, Portrait of 
Pope Pius VII. (1805); 348. Gericault, Epsom Races in 1821; 526. 
Mme. Le Brun. Mrne. Mole'-Raymond , of the Comedie Fran^aise 

SnUe Henri II. 2. LOUVRE. 141 

(1786); 343. Gericault, Carabinier; *33T. Gerard, Portrait of the 
Marchesa Visconti. 

*328. Gerard, Cupid and Psyche (1796); 391a. Gros, Portrait of 
Mme. Lucien Bonaparte; 393. Guerin^ Return of Marcus Sextus 
(an imaginary incident); *756. Prudhon, Rape of Psyche, a work to 
which the artist largely owes his title of 'the French Correggio'; 
*362. Girodet-Trioson, Burial of Atala (from a story by Chateau- 
briand; 1808). Above, *388. Gros, Bonaparte in the plague-hos- 
pital at Jaffa (1804); 332. Gerard, Portraits of Isabey, the painter, 
and his daughter (1795) ; 396. Guerin, Pyrrhus taking Andromache 
and her children under his protection (1810). This room also con- 
tains numerous small portraits by David, Gerard, Prudhon, Ingres, etc. 

Passing through the door to the left of the entrance (or to the 
right if we face the entrance), we reach the — 

Salle Henri II., or Room II, a badly-lighted room, with a ceil- 
ing-painting by Blondel, representing the strife of Pallas and Po- 
seidon, or War and Peace. 

To the right: 834. St. Jean, Fruit-gathering; *17. Benouville, 
The dying St. Francis of Assisi carried to Santa Maria degli Angeli; 
*83. Brascassat, Landscape with cattle; 125. Chintreuil, Sun and 
rain; 143. Courbet, The burial at Ornans; 257. Diaz, 'No admis- 
sion'; 833. St. Jean, Flowers among ruins; 420. Ingres, Joan of 
Arc at the coronation of Charles VII. ; 82. Brascassat, Bull ; several 
sketches by Ingres; 361. Girodet-Trioson, Endymion; *120. Chas- 
seriau, Tepidarium ; 359. Giraud . Slave-dealer; above the door, 
622. Constance Mayer, A dream of happiness; 217a. P. Delaroche, 
The youthful martyr; 12a. Bellange and Dauzat, Review at the 
Tuileries (1810); 416. Ingres, ^Madonna; 771. Regnault, Execution 
without trial. — xV fine view is obtained from the window at the V>\ 
end of this room. — 206. Decamps, Dogs ; 119. Charlet, Grenadier. 

Collection La Caze. This collection, which was presented to 
the museum in 1869, forms in several respects a valuable comple- 
ment to the Louvre galleries. It chiefly comprises French paintings 
of the time of Louis XIV. and of the rococo period of the 18th cen- 
tury. The Dutch and most of the Flemish pictures were removed 
in 1900 to the cabinets mentioned at pp. 128-131. 

Beginning on the right : 2707. Denner, Portrait of an old woman, 
executed with great delicacy; Boucher, 46. Venus and Vulcan, 50. 
Young woman ; 335. Gerard, Empress Marie Louise; Largillihre, 
488. Portrait of President de Laage , 490. A magistrate, *491. 
Portraits of the painter and his wife and daughter, 485. Young 
lady as Diana, 484-86. Portraits. Above, 1468. Tintoretto, Su- 
sannah and the elders. 461. lestier, 887. De Troy, Portraits; 537. 
Lemoine, Hercules and Omphale; 174. .4. Coypel, Democritus ; 
794. Rigaud, Portrait of an old man; 1946. Ph. de Champaigne, 
Portrait (16531; 548. Le Nain, Rustic meal; above, 1311. Lura 
Giordano, Death of Seneca; 77. Bourdon, Interior; Bigaud, *792. 

142 2. LOUVKE. CoLL La Caze. 

Portrait of the Due de Lesdiguieres as a child, *793. Portrait of 
President de Berulle, 791. Portrait of Cardinal de Polignac; 1945. 
Ph. de Champaigne, Mayor and syndics of Paris; ahove, Tintoretto, 
1469. Virgin and Saints, 1472, 1471. Portraits. 

Tc the left, in retracing our steps: Greuze , 378, 382, 392. 
Portraits. 376. Girl's head ; Fragonard, 292. Pastoral scene, 297. 
Study, 298. Inspiration; 2135. School of Rubens, Horse attacked 
by a lion; *659. Nattier, Portrait of Mile. deLamhesq, with the 
young Count de Brionne (1732); ahove, 769. J. B. Regnault, The 
Three Graces; Lancret, 471. Boldness rehuked, from Lafontaine, 
470. Actors of the Italian comedy ; 765. Raoux, Girl reading a letter ; 
ahove. 1702. Juan Carreno, St. Ambrose distributing alms ; Nattier, 
660. Knight of St. John, 661. Daughter of Louis XV. as Vestal; 
Watteau, 985. 'Slyboots' ('La Finette'), 984. Indifference, 986. 
Gay company in a park , *983. Gilles and other characters of the 
Italian comedy, 987. Conjurer, 991. Jupiter and Antiope; Pater, 
691. The toilette, 690. Actors in a park; 117. Chardin (?), The 
return from school; *1041, French School (18th cent.). Portrait; 
Chardin. 104. Monkey as painter, 103. The house of cards , *93. 
Grace, 105-116. Still-life; above, 888. De Troy, Portraits ; 5nj/dcrs, 
2148. Fishmonger. 2149. Game- dealer. 1735. J. B. del Mazo 
(pupil of Velazquez), The Infanta Margaretha; Velazquez, 1733. 
Philip IV., 1736. Portrait; Ribera (Spagnoletto), 1724. Madonna, 
*1725. Boy with a club-foot (16521 ; Murillo, 1719. Duke of Ossuna, 
1718. Quevedo, the poet; 1471. Tintoretto, Venetian senator ; 1596. 
School of Titian, Holy Family; 1674. Venetian School (16th cent.), 
Portrait. — In the centre two Sevres vases (1878). 

The exit leads to the staircase (Escalier Henri IL, p. 99) of 
the Pavilion de VHorloge or Pavilion Sully, through which we may 
quit the Louvre. Beyond this staircase, to the left, is the — 

Saloon of the Ancient Bronzes. The saloon, formerly the palace 
chapel, contains a valuable collection of implements, weapons, sta- 
tuettes, etc. 

In the vestibule, in front of the window, is a lifesize gilded bronze Statue 
of Apollo, in good preservation, found near Lillebonne, in Normandy. 

Central Glass Case : Etrnscan cists, the largest of which were found 
at Palestrina, near Rome; buckles, collars, and bracelets; surgical and 
mathematical instruments; metal ornaments in relief; Greek mirrors ; Byr 
zantine bronzes; antique stamps and keys. — By the Windows: in the 
centre, Archaic Apollo, an excellent work of great historical interest; 
glass-case containing busts and statuettes of Greek origin, including one 
of Dionysos. The large statues are placed on pedestals beside the windows. 
By the middle window , Admirable head of a youth, found at Benevento 
(a Greek work; the eyes were inlaid). Glass-cases with Greek and Etruscan 
mirrors. — Glass Cases to the eight, as we return: Statuettes and busts, 
ch'.efly of deities. — Wall Cabinets, beginning on the same side: Mounts, 
handles, vases in the shape of heads , feet and ornaments of furniture, 
Roman balances and weights , domestic implements, platters and stew- 
pans, antique candelabra of every type, lamps, etc.; then weapons, frag- 
ments of statues, gladiator's armour from Pompeii, animals, helmets. On 
the cabinets are placed busts. — Glass Case to the left, as we return: 
Greek mirrors with supports, statuettes of female divinities, etc. 

Drawings. 2. LOUVRE. 143 

The staircase to the left beyond this hall leads to the second 
floor fMnsee de Marine, see p. 150). We next enter the — 

*Collection of Drawings (Musee des Dessins), rivalling the great 
Florentine collection in the L'ffizi, and numbering 37,000 in all, 
among -w^hich are 18,200 by Italian masters (358 by Ann. Carraccil, 
87 by Spanish, 800 by German, 3150 by Flemish and Brabant, 1070 
by Dutch, and 11,800 by French (2389 by Le Brun). Only about 
2300 of these drawings are exhibited, under glass. — The ceiling 
paintings of the first rooms , by Blondel , Drolling. Mauzaisse, and 
others, are explained by the fact that the Conseil d'Etat formerly 
met here. 

I. Room. Old Italian masters. Mnntegna, ''Lorenzo di Credi, * Signonlli, 
PintnriccMo, Perugino^ etc. The walls of this and the following rooms 
are covered with large coloured cartoons by Giulio Romano. — **1I. Eoom. 
Italian. Drawings by the most celebrated masters : Leonardo da Vinci, 
Michael Angelo, Raphael, Titian, and Andrea del Sarlo. By the central 
window is a sumptuous casket containing an address from the town of 
St. Petersburg to 'la nation amie'. — III. Room. Italian. Drawings by 
Primaticcio and Correggio , including two in gouache, by ''Correggio: Vice 
and Virtue. — IV. RooJi. Bolognese School. — V. Room. Flemish, Dutcli, 
etc. : ~Ruhens, "Rembrandt, Pottar, Berchem, Tenters, etc. On the wall to the 
left, *565. Battle of knights, by Rubens {'!) , after the celebrated cartoon 
painted by Leonardo da Vinci in 1504 in competition with Jlichael Angelo 
(not extant). In the revolving stand by the window are drawings by 
Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Ostade, and Brouwer, and by Giricatilt and other 
modern French artists. In the centre is a line silver vase with reliefs by 
A. Vechte. — Fine vases on the chimney-piece. — From the passage between 
this and the next rooms a small staircase (closed) ascends to the left to 
the Mus^e de Marine fp. IcO), on the second floor. On the other side is 
a corridor with architectural drawings. 

VI. Room. Chalk drawings, chiefly portraits, by Vivien, Mme. Gujard, etc. 

VII-XIV. Rooms. Drawings of the French School, fine furniture, and 
fragments of ancient stained glass fin the windows). R. VII. Drawings 
and admirable ^Miniatures of the 14-lTth centuries. — R. VIII. Varying 
collections. — R. IX. Drawings by Poti^sin and Claude Lorrain. — ' R. X. 
French School of the 18th cent., notably some fine works by Watteau and 
others by Fragonard, Moreau, the br^ithers St. Aubin, etc. — R. XI contains 
the coloured cartoons for the stained glass in the chapel of the Orleans 
family at Dreux and in the Chai)el of St. Ferdinand (p. 159), by Ingres. 
Also, fine drawings by PrudThon and Ingres. — A large unfinished oil-paint- 
ing by David (d. 1825) preserved in R. XII represents the E evolutionary 
meeting at the Jeu de Paume (p. 325). One of the four finished heads is 
that of Mirabeau. The painting was ordered by the National Convention 
in 1790. Other specimens oi David, Gerard (fine portraits). Gros, etc. — 
R. Xin. Drawings by Giricault , Ddacroix , Millet. Euet, etc. — R. XIV. 
Crayons by "Chardin (No. 679. his portrait, with spectacles), Vivien, "Qnentin 
de la Tour (819. Mme. de Pompadour), Rosalba Carriera, Roh. Nanteitil, 
etc. The glass-cases contain the greater part of the *Lenoir Collection 
(Don Lenoir), which includes 204 snuff-boxes and bonbonnieres, 3 enamels, 
74 miniatures, etc. The paintings compri/.e works by Aygv^tin. Blaren- 
berghe. Hall, Isabey, Petitot. Van Pol, Van Spaendonck, etc. In the centre 
of the room are a collection of miniatures from various sources and some 
fine paintings in gouache by Isabey and Baur. 

The Collection Thiers,' a collection of works of art bequeathed to the 
Museum by the ex-president of the Republic , occupies the two following 
rooms. Of the 1470 very miscellaneous objects (catalogues) the majority 
are small, and few are of much importance. In the first room is a por- 
trait of Thiers, by Bonnat. 

Next follow the Drawings of the German School, amongst which may 

144 2. LOUViiE. Modem Collection. 

be noted the first two, by E. S. (1466), 3 by Schongauer, 24 by '■'Dilrer., 7 by 
Holbein, and 5 by H. Baidung Orien. 

Adjoining is the Donation His de la Salle., a valuable collection of up- 
wards of 300 drawings by old masters. This gallery leads to the end of 
the following collection. 

Adjoining the Collection of Drawings is the * Collection of 
Smaller Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern Objects of Art 

(Musee des objets d'art du Moyen Age, de la Renaissance, et des 
Temps Modernes), which may also he reached by a staircase ascend- 
ing from the 4th room of the Asiatic Museum (p. 101). 

I. Room (8th from the other end). Glass of the 15-18th cent., 
chiefly Venetian and German. On the -walls, mosaics, including, to 
the left, the Lion of San Marco, by Ant. Fasolo of Murano (16th cent.). 
Ebony Renaissance cabinet. Oaken Gothic door. 

II. Room. ^Ivory Carvings of the 6-19th cent., some very 
valuable (catalogue by Molinier, 1896; 6 fr.). 

In four cabinets: Bacchanals by G. van Opstal; several figures of the 
Madonna and Christ: caskets (one of the 9th cent.); diptychs; triptychs, 
including a By;'antine example of the 10th or 11th cent., and {-'So. 141) a 
Florentine specimen of the 15th cent., believed to have once belonged to 
Slatthew Corvinus : book-bindings; tablets: chessmen and draughtsmen; 
mirror-cases; comb?; fans. Loving-cups ('Vidrecomes''). Powder-flasks. 
In the central glass-case : 116. Ivory harp (15th cent.), perhaps once in 
the possession of Duchess Yolande of Savov ; 2-44. Descent from the Cross 
(13th cent.); 39, 52. Saddle-bow and cantle (Itnl. ; 13th cent.), the former 
with ligures of women upon horses and camels; 50. "Coronation of the 
Virgin (painted : 13th cent.) : 12. Byzantiue triptych (10th cent.). Between 
the window^s: ll2. Altar-piece of Poissy, about 7 ft. in height, executed 
at the end of the 14th cent, in horn jmd mosaic: in the centre is the 
history of Christ, on the left that of John the Baptist, on the right that 
of St. John the Evangelist, in 71 different reliefs; below are the Apostles. 
By the first window, to the right: Eound ivory casket from Cordova, 
made in 967 for Almogueira, son of Abd-er-Eahman III. — Opposite are 
a Gothic oaken chest and a 'Flemish tapestry (Loth cent.), representing 
St. Luke painting the portrait of the Virgin (after Rogier van der Weyden). 
At the side?, four other fine Flemish tapestries (15-16th cent.). 

III. Room. Flemish and German Earthenware of the 16-17th 
centuries. Pottery by Palissy and in his style. 

IV. Room. French Fayence, including specimens of the famous 
work of Bernard Palissy (d. 1089), vehich chiefly consists of dishes 
adorned with snakes, frogs, lizards, fish, and plants moulded from 
nature. The finest antique French pottery is known as 'Faiences 
Henri Deux' or 'd'Oirou' (specimens in the centre case) ; it was 
manufactured in the 16th cent, at Oiron in Poitou. 

V. Room. French Industrial Art of the 18th Century. On the 
■walls hang Tapestries: *Marriage of Roderigo and Angelica, after 
( 'oypel (in admirable preservation) ; Toilet and Work of Sultanesses, 
after Van Loo. Padels and Gouaches. Magnificent * Cabinets in the 
style of Louis XVI. , by Riesener. Beneinann, Levasseur, and others ; 
large terracotta Sphinx, with a woman's head; Child and bird-cage, 
an alabaster group by Pipa^^e; large casket with nymphs, by Clo- 
dion(^!). The central glass-case contains large specimens of Chinese, 
J)resden, and Sevres Porcelain, some with beautiful bronze decora- 

Asiatic Antiquities. 2. LOUVRE. 145 

tions "by Thomire^ Gonthitre, etc. ; t;harmiiig terracottas by C/o- 
dion, etc. 

YI- VIII. Rooms. Oriental Bronzes^ vases, and utensils, including 
a Moorish bo^vl, known as the Baptistere of St. Louis (13th cent.), 
used at the christening of French princes. Oriental and Hispano- 
Moorish Fayence. The former is recognized by its Oriental designs, 
yellow metallic background, and blue patterns ; it dates from the 
14th and 15th centuries. Oriental crystal and glass. 

From Room VIII a staircase ascends to the 2nd floor (p. 149). — For 
the Remainder of the Renaissance and Modern Objects of Art^ see below. 

Leaving Room VIII by the door at the end we reach the top 
of the staircase leading to the Asiatic Museum (p. 101). We turn 
to the right and enter the rooms of the East Wing. 

Salles de la Colonnade , three rooms containing Asiatic Anti- 
quities, from Smiana and Chaldaea. 

I. EooM (6th of this collection; four rooms on the groundfloor, 0th the 
staircase; comp. p. 101). Small antiquities. Grseco-Babylonian statuettes 
and other sculptures; inscriptions; cylinders, engraved gems, and seals 
of great delicacy. Also, in the second case to the right, the silver vase of 
Eniemema, with engravings, dating from before the 30th cent. B.C., from the 
excavations of Sarzec at Tello (Chaldeea). In the second case to the left: 
Grseco-Parthian gold ornaments and silver vases from Cyprus. By the 
second window on the left: fine Assyrian bronze lion, with a ring in its 
back. In the adjoining cabinets : Glazed tiles from Babylon; fragments of 
bronzes ; Chaldsean antiquities, inscriptions, and votive bronzes ; Chaldsean 
cylinders and bas-reliefs. 

II. EooM. 1st Section: in the middle, plana of the tumuli in Susiana 
and Chaldasa where the antiquities were found ; on the entrance-wall, 
magnificent frieze of glazed and painted terracotta, 40 ft. long and 13 ft. 
high, representing the archers of the 'immortal guard' of Darius ; to the left, 
stair-railing from the palace of Artaxerxea Mnemon, also in terracotta; 
on the partition-wall, the crowning-orn.iments of the pylons of this palace, 
with lions in the same material; on the right side, fragments of a bath 
and terracotta vases. — 2nd Section : At the back, 'Capital of one of the 
36 columns (each 6S ft. high), which supported the roof of Artaxerxes' 
throne-room; in the cabinet on the left, fragments of the frieze of archers, 
etc.; in the glass-cases, glass, small terracottas, cut stones; cylinders from 
Susiana, Chalda;;i, and Assyria; rings; medals, including a fine silver 
tetradrachma of Eucratides (second case on the left). 

III. Room. Continuation of the above crdlection. Reproduction of the 
throne-room of Artaxerxes Mnemon (404 B. C), which covered an area of 
11,000 square yards. By the second window is a Grseco-Phoenician bust 
of a woman, found in Sp .in in 1897. 

IV. Room or Salle du Domb. Continuation of the Renaissance 
and Modern Objects of Art (comp. above). To the left, *Armour 
of Henri 11. of France. 1st Case: caskets, bronzes from churches, 
and statuettes. On the walls and in the other cases are Renaissance 
tapestries and furniture and small bronzes, notably, Giovanni da 
Bologna^ Nessus and Dejanira, Geometry, Venus; Sperandio, 
Equestrian statuette of G. J. Gonzaga; Barye, Equestrian statuettes 
(4th case). Then, interesting armour and weapons. — Cases at the 
windows : clocks of the 16-17th cent. ; French and German medals; 
cutting weapons of the 15-16th cent, and a hunting-horn of Fran- 
cis I. By the first window, Italian medals. A small cabinet con- 

Baedekee. Paris. 14th Edit. 10 

146 2. LOUVRE. Egyptian 

tains bronzes: P. Vischer, Portrait of himself ; Riccio, Arion, St. Se- 
bastian; School of Donatello, John the Baptist. — In the glass- 
cases in the centre : reliefs in metal ; paxes ; locks, keys, etc. ; 
cutlery, spoons, etc.; medallions in coloured wax. 

V. Room. Italian Majolica or Fayence. The finest specimens, 
dating from the 16th cent., were made at Deruta, Faenza, Forli, 
Venice, Gubbio, Pesaro, Urbino, and Castel Durante. In the centre 
is a fine Renaissance chest. 

VI. Room. Portrait of Henri II. ; silk tapestry of the 16th cent. ; 
fine wood-carving from the Salle des Sept Cheminees. This spe- 
cimen and that in the next room are the only carvings of the royal 
apartments now extaut. — Glass-cases at the windows : medallions 
and other carvings in box-wood, very delicately executed; carvings 
in other substances, including a relief in lithographic stone by 
Aldegrever^ representing the Duke of Bavaria and Agnes Bernauer 
of Augsburg. On the walls are inlaid panels. In the centre of the 
room is an alabaster bust of Otto Heinrich I., Count-Palatine of the 
Rhine, and a handsome marriage-chest. The case at the end, to 
the left, contains a fine collection of statuettes in wood, etc. In 
that to the right are caskets. In the centre of the wall, Charles V., 
in high-relief (German ; 16th cent.). The benches should also be 

VII. Room, with alcove, in whicli Henri IV. breathed his last. 
The Venetian state-bed (16th cent.) did not originally belong to 
this room. The wood-carving is from the rooms of Henri II. in the 
Louvre, and was restored in the reign of Louis XIV. Fine chests 
and two Renaissance choir-stalls. 

VIII. Room. Portraits of Louis XIII. and his queen Anne of 
Austria, by Phil, de Champaigne (y) ] three large vases of Sevres 
porcelain ; silver statue of Peace, by Chaudet. 

On leaving Room VII we find ourselves at the top of the stair- 
case of the Mus^e Egyptien, which is continued on the landing and 
in the rooms to the right (comp. PL of first floor, p. 89). 

Egyptian Museum (continued). — The rooms to the right con- 
tain the smaller Egyptian antiquities. 

I. Salle Historique , with a ceiling-painting by Gros, repre- 
senting the Genius of France encouraging the arts and protecting 
mankind (1827-31). 

The objects here are mainly of historical value. On a pedestal sur- 
rounded by an octagonal glass-case, Statuette of Psammetichus II., in 
green basalt. In front, bronze statuette of a man; behind, bronze "Statuette 
of Queen Karomama (22nd Dyn.), richly damascened (restored). — Glass- 
case: sepulchral statuettes, scarabsei; golden *Ornaments coated with col- 
oured vitreous paste, golden mask of a mummy, gold chains, etc. — Case 
to the left of the chimney-piece: *Group in gold of Osiris, Isis, and 
Horus (22nd Dyn.). 

II. Salle Civile, with a ceiling-painting by fl". Vernet: Bra- 
mante, Raphael, and Michael Augelo before Pope Julius 11. (1827). 

Museum. 2. LOUVRE. 147 

In the centre, ^'^' Statuette of an Egyptian Scribe, painted red, with eyes 
inserted (5th or 6th Dyn.), probably the best example of ancient Egyptian 
sculpture. To the right and left of the entrance, two fine heads of the 
best (Saitic) period. — Cabinets and glass-cases to the left, beginning at the 
entrance: statuettes; models of buildings and boats; stools; vases; glass; 
basket-work, toilet-articles; fruit, grains, implements and scenes of hus- 
bandry; emblems and miscellaneous utensils; weapons, musical instru- 
ments; finely-woven 'Garments; statuettes; box of games. 

III. Salle Funeraire, with an allegorical ceiling-painting by 
Abel de Pujol, Joseph as the saviour of Egypt (1827). 

The contents of this room afford an admirable insight into the worship 
of the dead, which, like the whole religious system of the ancient Kgyp- 
tians, was closely connected with their doctrine of the immortality of the 
soul. It was owing to their peculiar form of belief that they used every 
endeavour to preserve the bodies of the dead by embalming and other- 
wise, and constructed the spacious and magnificent tombs with which 
Egyptian travellers are familiar. Our information regarding the Egyptian 
notions of the souFs condition after death is chiefly derived from the 
'Book of the Dead' and the 'Book of the Future Life', which contain 
hymns, prayers, and instructions for the use of the deceased. The papyri 
hung on the walls contain a number of these passages, sometimes illustrated 
by paintings in wonderfully good preservation. The finest is in Room V. 
— Above the fire-place hangs a large picture, of the Graeco-Roman period, 
representing a departed soul, supported on the left by Osiris and received 
by Anubis. In the centre. Mummy-cases, covered with paintings. 1st Glass- 
case: objects in bone and ivory, toilet-articles in carved wood, fayence, 
enamels, glass, seals, ornaments. Statuette in bronze of the hawk-headed 
Horus, ofl'ering a libation to his father Osiris. 2nd Glass-case: symbols, 
amulets, and scarabaei. — Other Cabinets and Glass-cases (from left to 
right) : sepulchral figures and cases; paintings (near the 3rd window), masks, 
scarabsei, mummies and mummy cases (cabinet between the windows), 
implements used by gilders and scribes, 'hypocephali', or talismans placed 
under the heads of mummies, etc. 

IV. Salle des Dieux , with a ceiling-painting by Picot, repre- 
senting Study and Genius revealing Egypt to Greece. This room 
is devoted to objects illustrating Egyptian mythology: statuettes 
and attributes of the gods (mostly in bronze), etc. 

In the centre: ^Wooden statuette of Toui, a priestess of Min, the god 
of Coptos (20th Dyn., i.e. ca. 12th cent. B.C.), acquired in 1S94 for 10,0(X) fr. 
The adjoining *Glass-case contains a magnificent collection of jewels, tiold 
ornaments, statuettes in gold and enamel, other cloisonne enamels, seals, 
engraved cornelians, enainelled vases, etc. The contents of this giass-case 
is calculated to be worth about 1,000,100 fr. ; the 'golden group of Osiris, 
Isis, and Horus (22nd dyn.), on the window-side, alone cost 25,000 fr. 
Then, a bronze statuette of Mesu. Above the fire-place, Hobs (?), Sekhmet, 
Ammon , Osiris, and Isis nursing Horns. In the other cases, numerous 
statuettes of deities in bronze (a good selection in Case K). 

V. Salle des Colonnes , adorned with an allegorical ceiling- 
painting by Gros (in the centre, True Glory leaning upon Virtue; 
to the left, Mars crowned by Victory and restrained by Moderation ; 
to the right, Time placing Truth under the protection of Wisdom). 
This room contains various objects for which a place could not be 
found in the preceding rooms. 

Wooden mummy-cases, covered with paintings. In the glass-cases near 
the entrance are mirrors, bronze weapons, and bronze knives. Wooden 
.statuette of the ancient empire (about 3000 B.C.) and a chair inlaid with 
ivory. In the cabinets are deities, bronze implements, papyri, etc. — By 


148 2. LOUVRE. Antique Pottery. 

the window i8 the so-called •Royal Papyrus, a splendid and well-preserved 
specimen of the hieroglyphic 'Book of the Dead", about 25 ft. long, and 
not less than 3000 years old. — In the middle and by the windows, three 
cases containing recent acquisitions. 

Collection of Antique Pottery (Musie de la Ceramique Antique). 
— This collection, the nucleus of which was the Campana Collection^ 
purchased from tlie papal government in 1861, is one of the most 
complete of its kind and affords an admirable survey of the develop- 
ment of vase-painting among the ancients. — Arranged chronologic- 
ally, the earliest specimens are in the room entered from the Salle 
des Sept Cheminees through the door to the right (comp. Plan, p. 89). 
The ceiling-paintings date from the middle of the 19th cent., when 
the paintings of the French School were still exhibited here. 

I. Room or Salle A. Ceiling -painting by Alaux: Poussin being pre- 
sented to Louis XIII. by Cardinal Richelieu ; to the left Truth, to the right 
Philosophy. — Earliest representations of figures in terracotta and limestone. 
In the glass-cases in the centre : Golden ornaments, terracottas, A'ases, and 
cuneiform inscriptions. In the other cases; on the left wall, Chaldfean 
statuettes, below; Phoenician statuettes, above; numerous Grseco-Baby- 
lonian statuettes of Venus. By this wall and the rear- wall, series of 
warriors' heads, from Cyprus, in the Phoenician-Greek style, interesting 
from their resemblance to archaic Greek types. Right wall. Egyptian 
terracottas, from the period of Greek influence in Alexandria. Terracottas 
from Rhodes, with primitive ornamentation. By the central window, Gold 
ornaments from Rhodes. 

II. Room (B). Ceiling-painting by Steuben: Battle of Ivry, with Henri IV. 
as a magnanimous victor. G7'eek Terracottas from Athens, Magna Grsecia, 
and the necropolis of Myrina, near Smyrna, some cf great artistic worth. 
Left wall : Figurines of Greek women, some with hats, some seated, mostly 
elegant and graceful in bearing. Among the bas-reliefs are several vintage 
scenes and a *Bacchic dance. — Rear wall: Cinerary urns with painted 
reliefs. In the centre of the exit -wall. Two warriors arming, with a 
mother and child between them. 

III. Room (C). Ceiling-painting by Eug. Dev4ria : Louis XIV. Inspecting 
Pugefs marble group of the Milo of Croton (p. 106). — Etruscan Pottery 
of the earliest type, black, with engraved designs ; earliest attempts at reliefs 
(found in tombs). 

IV. Room (D). Ceiling-painting by iVasroward; Francis I. receiving pic- 
tures and statues brought by Primaticcio from Italy. — Etruscan Terracottas. 
In the centre: 'Sarcophagus from Cerveteri, on which are two painted life- 
size figures of a man and woman on a couch, clumsy in execution, but 
not without a certain naive humour. — Left wall: in front, Athena and Her- 
cules (painted relief); 'funeral couches' and funeral banquets. — Rear-wall: 
Vases with painted figures and geometrical ornamentation. — Exit-wall: 
Fragment of a mural painting, representing the gods, etc., in the most 
artless fashion. 

In the adjoining passages are antefixse, heads, and vases. 

V. Room (E). Ceiling-painting by ^etm; The Renaissance in France. — 
Vases in the Corinthian Style, found in Greek islands and in Italy. By the 
central door, Vase with the mourning for Achilles. The sixth vase farther 
on represents Hercules and Cerberus. — To the right of the exit, Perseus 
slaying the Gurgon. 

To the left opens the Salle des Colonnes (p. 147) through which we may 
reach the rooms overlooking the court, which contain another portion of 
the collection (see below). 

Another short passage , with archaic Greek vases , leads in a straight 
direction from Room E to the — 

VI. Room (F). Ceiling-painting by Fragonard: Francis I. knighted by 
Bayard. — Qreek Vases with Black Figures. The finest are in the centre of the 

NavaL Museum. 2. LOUVRE. 149 

room, some of them bearing the name of Nicosthenes. Vases with white 
background; below, black vase with white figures. Most of the scenes are 
from the myths relating to Hercules and Theseus. 

VII. Hoom (G). Ceiling-painting by Schnetz: Charlemagne and Alcuin, 
the founder of the university of Paris. — Greek Vases icith Tied Figures^ many 
of which bear the name of the maker and most of which are noteworthy. 
To the left, '-The-!eus, Amphitrite, and Athena, by FAtphro(nios). Third 
vase in the lower row: ".Sphinx, with meditating Greeks. Bacchic scenes. 
In the middle of the rear-wall, small vase, with three Greek ladies. 

VIII. Room (H). *Ceiling-painting by Drolling: Louis XII. hailed as 
father of the people by the Estates at Tours. — Graeco-Italic Vases. By the 
walls, Arezzo ware, of purely archrrological interest, and a few Greek 
vases of the deciidence. In the centre are Rhyta or goblets in the form 
of horns, with heads and other ornaments. 

IX. Room. Ceiling painting by Ze'on Co^me^. • Bonaparte in Egypt. Mural 
Paintings from Herculaneum and Pompeii. To the lett, on a gold ground, 
Apollo and the 3Iuse3. Below, decorative painting with a large cameo. — 
To the left of the exit, Woman with dark-coloured vase. To the right, on 
the same wall, *Faraily of twelve, with names in Greek characters. — 
Rear-wall : Ladies playing with a goat. River god between two nymphs. — 
In the glass-cases in the centre and by the windows: rich collection of 
Ancient Glass, some of inimitable technique. 

The exit-door leads to the rooms containing the small Egyptian an- 
tiquities (p. 146), whence we reach the nearest staircase to the second floor 
by re-traversing the rooms to the left (p. 146). 

To conclude our inspection of the collection of pottery, we retrace our 
steps to Salle E, whence we pass through the Salle des Colonnes (p. 147), 
to the left, to the adjoining rooms on the side next the court. 

Rooii M. Ceiling-painting by Picot: Cybele saving Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum from total destruction. — Pottery with black and violet painting, 
including Panathenseic amphorse. In the central case: Terracottas from 
Tarsus in Cilicia. Entrance-wall: to the right. Vase with Croesus on the 
funeral-pj re. Exit-wall : to the right, Birth of Athena. 

Room L. Ceiling-painting by Meynier: The Nymphs of Parthenope (Naples) 
arriving at the Seine. Wall Cabinets: Greek terracottas from Tanagra in 
Bijeotia: to the right of the entrance, "Dancing Cupids, "Figures of women, 
with blond hair. On each side of the chimney-piece, Athenian lecythi or 
oil-vases. The central octagonal glass-ca^e contains terracottas from the 
Necropolis at Athens and from Libya (the Roman province of Cyrenaica)-, 
"Amphora with the contest of the gods and the giants. 

Room K. Ceiling-painting by Heim: Jupiter delivering to Vulcan the 
fire for the destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Vases, some of 
large size. 

Salle de Clarac. Ceiling-painting after Ingres : Apotheosis ot Homer 
(original, see p. 133). Small Greek sculptures and fragments of others. 
By the left window, draped figure of a girl. In the central cases: Antique 
ivory carvings; Greek terracottas and wood-carvings, etc. 

The door of exit leads into the Salle des Sept-Cheminees (p. 140). 


The second floor of the Louvre, which contains the Marine and the 
Ethnographical Museums and a collection of drawings , is open to the 
public after 11 a.m. (comp. p. 56). There are three staircases ascending 
to the second floor: — (1) From the 8th room of the collection of smaller 
Medifeval, Renaissance, and Modern objects (p. 146), which is reached 
from the groundfloor by a staircase near the Asiatic Museum; (2) From 
the opposite end (p. 143), leading to the Galerie des Pirogues (p. 150); and 
(3). In the Pavilion de FHorloge or Pavilion Sully (see p. 142), beside the 
Salle des Bronzes. 

150 2. LOUVRE. Ethnograph. Museum. 

The *Mu8ee de Marine is a very valuable collection of objects 
and models connected -with ship-building and navigation. Most of 
the exhibits have full descriptive labels. 

EooM I. Models illustrating the French navy from 1789 to 1824. — 
Rooii II. Models of sailing-vessels of the 18-I9th cent, j screw-yacht of 
1885. Behind is the model of a frigate being repaired at Tahiti 5 to the 
right, model of the Ocean', a man-of-vpar of the I8th cent.: the 'Rivoli'' 
leaving the harbour of Venice with the aid of 'chameaux'' or rafts to aid 
it over shallows. — We now enter, to the left of the staircase, — 

Rooii XIII. Model representing the taking down and embarkation of 
the obelisk of Luxor (p. 83) ; Erection of the obelisk in the Place de la 
Concorde. Marine steam-engines. — Room XII. Models of sailing-ships. 
Busts of the famous seamen Ducouedic, Tcurville, Jean Bart, and Forbiu. 
Two marine paintings by Gudin. — Eoom XI. Models of steam-packets. 
Model of the 'Fram' and of various objects from Nansens polar expedition 
(1893-96). In the narrow Corridor behind Eooms XIII-XI (Galerie des 
Navires Marchandes) are models of merchant vessels. — Rooii X. Fire- 
arms of various calibres. — Room IX. Weapons. Three marine paintings 
by Jos. Vernet. — Room YIII. Pyramid composed of relics of the frigates 
'Boussole'' and 'Astrolabe', which had been sent on a voyage of discovery 
under Captain de Lapirouse in 1783. and foundered at sea. Bust of Laperouse. 
Model of a monument erected to the memory of Laperouse at Port Jackson, 
with English and French inscriptions. Beacons \ buoys; Whitehead torpedo. 
Relief-plans of the islands of Vanicoro or Laperouse' and Tahiti. Fourteen 
marine paintings by Joh. Vernet. — Salle des Cuirasses (at the end of 
R. VIII). Models ot iron-clads, turret-ships, and torpedo-boats-, submarine 
boat 5 planetarium moved by clock-work. Marine paintings — Room VII. 
Models of antique vessels and of transports. Planetarium. — Room VI. 
Machine for adjusting the masts of a ship. Representation of the interior 
of the turret-ship 'Marengo' (1867). Relief-plan of the island of Tahiti. 
Parts of a ship; cables; rigging. — Room V. Models of pumps and 
machinery; telegraphs, lighthouses. — Room IV. Large geographical 
globe in MS. Navigating instruments. Models of xebecs or galleys refitted 
for sailing. — Room III. To the right, small vessel in ivory. Models of 
galleys and ships of war of the 17th ce'ntury. The original carving in 
gilded wood by Puget, on the wall, decorated the second of these galleys. 

The Ethnographical Museum (Musee Ethnographique) begins 
with the two rooms immediately following the Musee de Marine, and 
also occupies the large saloon at the end. In the former are models 
of dwellings of savages, scenes of savage life, portraits of American 
Indians, war-suits, and implements of various kinds. The large sa- 
loon is devoted almost exclusively to curiosities brought home by 
French navigators and the spoil captured in the course of military 
expeditions in India, China, and Japan. Much better collections of 
the same kind may be seen at the Musee Guimet (p. 167) and the 
Trocadero (p. 170). 

The Corridor behind Rooms I-VI , the Galerie des Firognes , contains 
small models of Arab. Indian, Chinese, Australasian, and Polynesian ships 
and boats, dwellings, etc. 

The Chinese Museum (to the left on leaving the Marine Mu- 
seum), which may be regarded as a continuation of the Ethnographical 
collection, is also of secondary importance, being surpassed in interest 
by the collections at the Muse'e Guimet (p. 167), while its porcelain 
is far inferior to that of the Collection Grandidier (p. 151). 

Leaving the last room, we enter a corridor, which is adjoined 



Rue de Rivoli 

U R 

^ i 

or L r V R E r - 

A. d. Pet its escaUers. 


B. Gfa/z^Z escaHer. 

Chalcographie. 2. LOUVRE. 151 

by the Salle des Boltes on tlie right. This saloon and the corridor 
contain the most valuable drawings by Raphael (18 ; and an au- 
tograph), Michael Angela (6j, Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, Poussin 
(18), a.nd Holbein, preserved in wooden cases (whence the room 
derives its name). The direct approach to this collection is by the 
staircase called the Escalier Henri II. in the Pavilion de I'Horloge 
(p. 142). 

Two other collections have been arranged in a kind of second entresol 
on the side next the Seine, viz. the Chalcographie and the Collection Grandi- 
dier. The principal entrance to these is by the Forte Jean-Goujon, opposite 
the Pavilion Denon, but there is another in that Pavilion via the Salle des 
Moulages (see the ground-plan). 

The Chalcographie was founded by Louis XIV. in 1660, on the model 
of the Calcografia at Rome. Engravings of most of the great Parisian and 
foreign works of art, in the provinces of painting, sculpture, and archi- 
tecture are exhibited and sold here (cheaper than at the retail-shops). It 
occupies the gallery on the quay, to the right as we enter. It is open 
daily, except Sun. and holidays, from 11 to 4 or 5, and contains three 
Exhibition Rooms and a Sale Room in which are albums and detailed cata- 
logues of over 6000 plates. Farther on are the workshops and stores. 

The Collection Grandidier is a rich collection of Chinese and Japanese 
porcelain presented to the Louvre by M. Grandidier. It is open daily, 
except Mon., from 1 to 4 or 5. The collection occupies ten rooms opposite 
the Chalcographie, of which the first seven are devoted to Chinese porcelain, 
embracing 3000 specimens, all remarkable for their decoration though many 
are small. The three following rooms are occupied by Japanese porcelain 
(800 specimens), and other Japanese objects, including a collection of 
engravings of the I8th and iOth cent., in frames and on two radiating 
stands, statuettes, bronze vases and sword-hilts, combs, caskets, lacquered 
screens, etc. 

Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel. Jardin des Tuileries. 

The Palais des Tuileries, properly speaking, was burned by the 
Communards in 1871 and exists no longer. Its only remains are the 
wings which connected it with the Louvre. That on the side next 
the river, containing the Pavilion de Flore, was restored in 1863-68 
and again after the fire of 1871, in which it sustained little damage. 
It is at present partly occupied by the Colonial Office. The right 
wing, in the Rue de Rivoli, with the Pavilion de Marsan, was en- 
tirely burned down in 1871 and was rebuilt in 1875-78; but the 
interior is still unfinished and unoccupied. 

The Palais des Tuileries (comp. the Plan, p. 88), founded by Catherine 
de Medicis, widow of Henri II., was begun in 1564, beyond the city-walls 
of that period. It derived its name from the tile-kilns (tuileries) that orig- 
inally occupied its site. The first architect was Philihert Dclorme, who 
was succeeded by Jean Bullant. The original plan was afterwards much 
modified and the above-mentioned pavilions were incorporated with it. 

The palace presented no great architectural interest, but was rich in 
historical associations, especially those connected with the overthrow of 
the French monarchy in 1791-92. Before the Revolution the palace was 
only occasionally occupied by the French sovereigns; but it was the habi- 
tual residence of Napoleon I,, Louis XVIIL, Charles I., Louis Philippe, and 
Napoleon III. On 5th. Oct., 1739, Louis XVI. was brought bv the Dames 
de la Halle' from Versailles to the Tuileries, and in June, i791, he was 
again forcibly installed here after the arrest of his flight at Varennes. 


On 20th July, 1792, tlie anniversary of the meeting in the Jeu de Paume 
(p. 325), the palace of the Tuileries was attacked by a mob of about 
thirty thousand rioters armed with pikes, but on that occasion they con- 
tented themselves with threatening and insulting the king. On 10th 
August the storm at length burst forth in all its fury. At midnight alarm- 
bells began to ring in the suburbs. Thousands of armed men marched 
to the palace. The fidelity of the national guard posted in the palace- 
yard and garden began to waver, and they were deprived of their com- 
manding officer by stratagem. They might, however, in conjunction with 
the Swiss guard of 1950 men commanded by Colonel Pfyffer, have suc- 
cessfully defended the palace, had not the king, yielding to solicitations 
which were in some cases treacherous, quitted the palace with his family. 
Passing through the garden of the Tuileries, he repaired to the Manhge^ 
or riding-school (see p. 84), where the legislative assembly held its meetings. 
The national guard then dispersed, but the Swiss guard and aboux 
120 noblemen who were faithful to the king occupied the palace and 
refused to surrender it. As the mob pressed forward more vehemently, 
the colonel commanded his men to fire, and the palace-yard and Place 
du Carrousel were speedily cleared. The Swiss guard now believed that 
victory was assured, but the king sent orders to them to discontinue 
firing and to surrender the palace. Finding that the guard ceased to 
fire, the assailants renewed their attack and reopened their fire with 
redoubled vigour. Within a few seconds they inundated the palace, 
killed every man they encountered, wrecked the furnitiire and fittings, 
and stole or carried to the Hotel de Ville numerous objects of value. 
The retreating Swiss guard were almost all shot down in the garden, 
and the rest by order of Louis gave up their arms to the national guard 
in the hall of the national assembly. The Revolution was victorious. 
Of the hitherto existing state-structure not one stone was left on another. 
Royalty lay prostrate in the dust, and the legislative assembly continued 
to exist merely in name. — The king and his family spent the night in 
a small room in the Manege, and on 13th Aug. he was conveyed as a 
prisoner to the Temple Tower (p. 210). whence he was only released to 
be led to the scaflbld on Jan. 21st, 1793. 

From lUth May, 1793, to 4th Nov., 1796, the Conventions^ and afterwards 
the Council of Elders down to 1799, held their meetings in the N. wing. 
On Feb. 1st, 1800, N'^apoleon, as 'First Consul", took up his quarters here, 
and the palace also became the official residence of the Restoration and 
July monarchies. On 24th Feb., 1B48, Louis Philippe abandoned the pal- 
ace to the mob without resistance. !J\apoleon III. resided here from 
1852 to 23rd July. 1870, when he quitted Paris to take the command of 
the army of the Rhine. The history of the Tuileries as a royal residence 
closes with the departure of the Empress Eugenie after the battle of Sedan. 

On 20th May, 1871, the Communards, aware of their desperate position 
and the impending capture of the city by the government troops, deter- 
mined at one of their secret meetings to wreak their revenge by setting 
all the principal public buildings on fire. The orders which they issued 
for this purpose, signed by Delescluze, Dombrowski, Eudes, and other 
ringleaders, professed to emanate from the ' Comiti du Salut Public T 
Several of these documents still extant show the fearfully comprehensive 
and systematic character of this diabolical scheme, which also embraced 
numerous private dwellings, as being 'maisons suspectes'. A beginning 
was made with the Tuileries, which was prepared for destruction by 
placing combustibles steeped in petroleum and barrels of gunpowder in 
the various rooms. It was set on fire at a number of different places on 
22nd and 23rd May, after the Versailles troops had forced an entrance 
into the city, but before they had gained possession of the palace. The 
conflagration soon assumed the most terrible dimensions, and all attempts 
to extinguish it were fruitless. The whole of the W. side of the palace 
was speedily reduced to a gigantic heap of smouldering ruins. 

The open space between the Louvre and the Tuileries, with the 
exception of the part beyond the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, was 


occupied doYin. to nearly 1840 by a labyrinth of narrow streets, 
which Louis Philippe, the first monarch who projected extensive 
city Improvements, began to remove. The work of demolition was 
completed by Napoleon IIL, and the spare thus cleared was divided 
into three parts (comp. ground-plan, p. 88): the Square du Car- 
rousel; the Place du Carrousel^ which adjoins it on the W.; and 
the Cour des Tuileries. 

The Place du Carkousbl (PI. R, 17, 20; //), formerly much 
smaller than now, derives its name from a kind of equestrian ball 
given here by Louis XIV. in 1662. On this site Napoleon I. directed 
his architects Fontaine and Percier to erect the *Arc de Triomphe 
du Carrousel, in imitation of the Arch of Severus at Rome, to 
commemorate his victories of 1805 and 1806. The structure, which 
was formerly the principal entrance to the Tuileries, is 48 ft. in 
height, 631/2 ft. in width, and 21 ft. in thickness, but in conse- 
quence of the immense clearance that has taken place since its 
erection it is now too small to harmonise with its surroundings. 
(The Arch of Severus is 75 ft. in height and 82 ft. in width.) 

The arch is perforated by three arcades and embellished with Corin- 
thian columns of red marble with bases and capitals in bronze supporting 
marble statues representing soldiers of the empire. 

The Marble Reliefs on the sides commemorate the achievements of the 
Emperor and the French army. In front: on the right, the Battle of 
Austerlitz; on the left, the capitulation of the Austrian general Mack at 
Ulm. At the back: on the right, the conclusion of peace at Tilsit; on 
the left, entry into Munich. On the N. end, the entry into Vienna; on the 
S. end, conclusion of peace at Pressburg. 

The arch was originally crowned with the celebrated ancient Quadriga 
from the portal of St. Mark's in Venice, brought thence as a trophy, but 
sent back to Venice by Emperor Francis in 1814. It was afterwards re- 
placed by order of Louis XVIII. by a Quadriga designed by Bosio, and 
intended to represent the 'Restoration'. 

The Monument of Gambetta, opposite the arch, consists of a 
lofty stone pyramid with a group in high relief representing Gam- 
betta (1838-82) as organiser of the national defence, in bronze by 
Aube. At the sides are decorative statues of less importance repre- 
senting Truth and Strength, and on the top is Democracy (a maiden 
seated on a winged lion), also in bronze, by Aube. The numerous 
inscriptions are chiefly passages from Gambetta's political speeches. 

On the pillars outside the large archways leading from the Place 
du Carrousel towards the Seine, are statues of Naval and Merchant 
Shipping, hy Jouffroy. At the top is a bronze relief, hy Mercie. 
representing the Genius of the Arts. — Pont du Carrousel, see 
p. 263. The next bridge is the Pont Royal (p. 271), whence the 
sculptures on the S. facade of the Pavilion de Flore, especially those 
by Carpeaux, are best seen. 

The *Jardin des Tuileries (PL R, 18, 17; //), the most popular 
promenade in Paris and the especial paradise of nursemaids and 
children, was enlarged in 1889 by the addition of the gardens occu- 


pying the actual site of the former palace. The older portion retains 
the same general features as when first laid out by the celebrated 
landscape-gardener Le Notre in the reign of Louis XIV. ; but the 
parts between the Place du Carrousel and the central basin, formerly 
the 'Jardin Reserve'', and the Rue des Tuileries are of later origin. 

The greater part of the Jardin des Tuileries is always open ; 
but the reserved portion closes between 6 and 9 p.m., according to 
the season, the signal being given by a drum. The gardens may be 
entered from the Rue des Tuileries, the Rue de Rivoli, the quays, 
or from the Place de la Concorde at the W. end. At the W. end, 
beyond the flower-beds, is a shady grove of large trees. On the N. 
and S. sides the garden is enclosed by terraces, called the Terrasse 
des Feuillants and the Terrasse du Bord de VEau. The first derives 
its name from a Monastery of the Feuillant Order (reformed Cister- 
cians), founded here in 1587. The club of the moderate party, 
founded in July, 1791, by Lameth, Lafayette, and their partizans, 
in opposition to the more violent Jacobins, used to meet in the 
monastery , whence they became known as ^Les Feuillants\ The 
Alice des Grangers, which skirts the terrace, is adorned in fine 
weather with two rows of orange-trees in tubs, forty-one of which 
date from the time of Francis I. (1494-1547). 

Entering the garden from the Rue des Tuileries by the broad 
central walk, we obtain a fine view of the whole garden, with the 
Obelisk in the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de I'Etoile in the 
background. On the right and left are grass-plots with two cir- 
cular basins of water, embellished with marble statues and vases. 

In the new part, on the site of the palace proper, central walk: in 
the centre, •Quand-meme'. by Mercii; to the right, Ganymede, by Bar- 
thilemy ^ and The Awakening, by Mayer; to the left, Elegy, by CailU; 
The secret, by Moulin. Farther on, to the left: Eve after the Fall, by 
Belaplanche ; Exiles, by M. Moreau; Velleda, by Maindron; Snzanne, by 
Gain. On the right, Agrippina with the ashes of Germanicus, hj Mailkt; 
Judith, by Lanson; Penelope, by Maniglier; Magdalen, by /*(^erae; and Faun, 
by Becquet. 

To the W. of the Rue des Tuileries, central walk, on the right: 
Omphale, by Eude; ^neas carrying his father Anchises from the flames 
of Troy, by P. Lepauire; a Bacchante, by Carrier-Belleuse; behind, Venus 
with the dove, and Nymph with the quiver, by Guill. Coustou ; Lion 
and crocodile, bronze by Cain. In the allee before the rondel: Diana 
and the Xymph of Fontainebleau, "by E. Liveque. On the left: a Corybante, 
by Cugniot; Lucretia and Collatinus, by Lepauire; Xew Year's Day, by 
Beaugeault; behind. Flora and Zephyr, by Coyzevox; on the lawn, Lioness and 
peacock (bronze), by Cain. Xear the central basin: to the right and left, 
Orithyia carried off by Boreas, by Duqiiesnoy and O. Mavsy. Cybele carried 
off by Saturn, by Regnaudin ; then from right to left, Cassandra and 3Iinerva, 
by A. Millet; Alexander the Great, by Dieudonni; Prometheus, by Pradier; 
Soldier tilling the ground (from Virgil), by Lemaire; the Oath of Spartacus, 
by Barrias; Cincinnatus, by Foyatier; Alexander lighting, by Lemaire; Rape 
of Dejaneira, hj Marqueste; Pericles, by Dehay. In the transverse walk to 
the left: Comedy, \ij Roux; the Grinder, after the Florentine antique; Phi- 
dias, by Pradier. In the walk to the right: Comedy, by Christophe; Aurora, 
bronze figure by Magnier; Ugolino, in bronze, by Carpeaux; Silence, by 
Legros. — At the beginning of the Allee des Orangers: Return from the 
hunt, bronze, by Ant. Carles (18SS); at the flight of steps opposite the street 


leading to the Vendume Column (p. 84), two groups of animals, by Catn\ at 
the end, Hercules subduing the Hydra, in bronze, by Bosio. Other sculptures 
are placed in the grove, etc. On the Terrasse du Eord de TEau, near the 
Orangerie, *Lion and serpent (bronzej, one of the principal works of Barye. 

Under the trees of the small grove, on the right and left of the 
broad central walk, are two marble semicircular platforms called 
the Carres d'Atalante, constructed in 1793, in accordance with the 
instructions of Robespierre, for the accommodation of the council 
of old men who were to preside over the floral games in the month 
of Germinal (21st March to 19th April). On that to the right is a 
group of Atalanta and Hippomenes by 0. Coustou , and on that to 
the left, Apollo and Daphne by Theodon. — In summer a military 
band plays near this spot on Tues. and Thurs. from 4 to 5 or 5 to 
6 p.m. Chair 15 c, arm-chair 20 c. 

At the W. end of the grove is an octagonal basin, 200 yds. in 
circumference, with a fountain in the centre, where children sail 
small boats (50 c. ; on hire 1 or 2 fr. per hour). Near this point are 
a puppet-show, a cake-stall, and a refreshment stall. On the E. 
side are marble statues of the four seasons : on the right, Summer 
and Winter; on the left, Spring and Autumn. On the W. side are 
four groups of river-gods : on the left, the Nile, by Bourdic, and the 
Rhine and Moselle , by Van Cleve ; on the right, the Rhone and 
Saone, by O. Coustou, and the Tiber by Van Cleve. The Nile is 
after an antique in the Vatican, the Tiber after one in the Louvre 
(p. 98). At the ends of the terraces are, to the right a Tennis Court 
(ball-room), to the left, an Orangery. 

A Dog Show is held in May on the Terrasse du Bord de TEau (to the 
left) and a Flower Show a little later (to the right). 

The pillars at the entrance to the garden from the Place de la 
Concorde are crowned with two handsome groups of Mercury and 
Fame on winged steeds, by Coyzevox. — Description of the Place 
de la Concorde, see p. 82. 

3. Champs-Elysees and Bois de Boulogne. 

The first part of this excursion should if possible be performed on 
foot or in a cab hired by the hour. Those who Avish to go direct to the 
Bois de Boulogne may proceed by the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture or the 
Metropolitan Railway, or they may take the omnibus (see p. 160 and Appx.). 
Ou days, however, when races or reviews are held, and even on fine Sun- 
days, it is impossible to secure a place in the omnibuses and tramway- 
cars bound for the Bois without much waiting. — Luncheon may be taken 
in the Champs-Elyse'es or in the Bois (see pp. 18, 19). 


Place de la Concorde, see p. 82. On the W. side of this Place 
begin the *Cliamps-ElyBees (PI. R, 15; 11), under which name is 
now included not only the small park adjoining the Place, about 

156 3. CHAMPS-EL YS^ES. 

750 yds. long "by 400 yds. wide (the Champs-Elysees proper) , but 
also the whole of the avenue , extending from the Place de la Con- 
corde to the Arc de I'Etoile, l^/a M. in length, hy which these 
grounds are traversed. The grounds were originally laid out and 
planted with elms and lime-trees at the end of the 17th century. 

This magnificent avenue , flanked with handsome buildings , is 
one of the most fashionable promenades in Paris , especially in the 
afternoon, when numerous carriages, riders, and pedestrians are on 
their way to and from the Bois de Boulogne. Cafes-concerts, see 
p. 36. Less frequented parts are better avoided after dusk. 

At the entrance to the Champs-Elysees are placed two figures 
of Horse Tamers, by Coustou. They were removed in 1794 from the 
palace at Marly (p. 335) to their present position, where they form 
a suitable counterpart to the winged steeds at the exit of the Jardin 
des Tuileries (p. 155). The small and tasteful drinking - foun- 
tains, which we notice in the Champs-Elysees and elsewhere in 
Paris, were erected by Sir Richard Wallace [d. 1890). 

To the right, separated from the Champs-ElTse'es bv a large garden, 
is the Palais de lElysee (PI. R, 15; //), erected' by Mo'let in 171S for the 
Comte d'Evreux. but rebuilt on a larger scale by Lacroix in 1850. It is 
now the official residence of the President of the Republic (no admission). 
The entrance is at No. 55 Rue du Faubourg-St-Honore. During the reign 
of Louis XV. this mansion was the residence of Madame de Pompadour, 
from whose heirs it was purchased by the king to form a residence 
for the foreign ambassadors. Under Louis XVI. the palace acquired the 
name of Elysie Bourbon from its prolonged occupation by the Duchesse 
de Bourbon. During the Revolution the palace was offered for sale, but, 
no purchaser offering, it was converted into a government printing-office. 
At the time of the Directory the rooms were let to keepers of public ball- 
rooms and gaming-tables. The palace was afterwards occupied in turn 
by Murat, Napoleon I., Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and his queen 
Hortense, Emperor Alexander I. of Russia, and the Due de Berry. The 
building was left uninhabited after the Revolution of 1830, until Napo- 
leon III. took possession of it as President of the French Republic, enlarging 
and improving it considerably. 

Considerable alterations have been made on the S. side of the 
Champs-Elysees for the universal exhibition of 1900, and the view 
of the Seine (Cours la Reine, p. 164) is now built up. The Palais 
de rindustrie, which was erected in 1855 for the first Great Ex- 
hibition at Paris and afterwards used for the 'Salon', or annual 
exhibition of modern paintings and sculptures , was demolished in 
1897 to make way for the new Palais des Beaux- Arts , between 
"which the Ai-enue Xicolas Deux runs towards the new Pont Alexan- 
dre m. (p. 165). 

The *Petit-Palais (PI.R,15; 7i), on the left side of the Avenue 
Nicolas II. as we approach the Pont Alexandre III, (p. 165), was 
built in 1897-1900 and is, in spite of its name, a large building, 
covering an area of about 9500 sq. yds. It was designed by Charles 
Girault^ in a style suggestive of the 17- I8th cent, and harmoniz- 
ing with the adjacent structures in the Place de la Concorde and 
the Place des Invalides. It is in the form of a one-storied trape- 

;). GRAND-PALAIS. 157 

zium, on an elevated basement, and is, perhaps, more successful 
than its larger neighbour. The main fagade, turned towards the 
avenue, is adorned with two graceful colonnades, one on each side 
of the central dome, which contains the principal entrance, with a 
flight of steps and a portico with a semicircular pediment. At the 
angles are two lower pavilions, with domes and triangular pedi- 
ments; and there are two other domes in the rear. On the lateral 
facades, between the windows, are niches for statues. The roof is 
concealed by a parapet. There are statues between the columns of 
the main facade, and relief-friezes within the colonnades. On each 
side of the central dome there is a large hall, and beyond is a semi- 
circular court, with colonnade and galleries. — During 1900 the 
Petit-Palais will contain an 'Exposition Retrospective' or historical 
collection; thereafter it is to be used as a municipal museum. 

The *Grand-Palais (PI. R, 15; //), opposite the Petit-Palais, 
was built at the same time by Louvet, Deglane, and Thomas. Its 
dimensions, covering an area of about 38,000 sq. yds., are impos- 
ing. It consists of a large front building, united with a smaller one 
in the rear by a transverse gallery. The style is composite, but 
mainly reminiscent of the 17th century. The facade is adorned with 
a double colonnade, rising to a height of two stories; and there are 
three monumental entrances in the central pavilion. The sculptures 
of the central portico, representing the Beauty of Nature, and Mi- 
nerva and Peace, are by Gasq, Boucher, Verlet^ and Lombard. Those 
to the right represent Sculpture, Painting, Architecture, and Music, 
and are by Cordonnier, Lefehvre, Carles, and Labcitut. To the left 
are the Arts of Cambodia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, by Bureau, 
Suchet^i Beguine, and Clausade. On and under the colonnades are 
friezes of Amoretti, holding the attributes of the arts. At the top 
are a balustrade, allegorical groups on the abutments, by Seysses and 
Greher, and bronze quadrigcTe, by Recipon. In the middle of the 
principal building rises a depressed dome. The rear-facade, in the 
Ave. d'Antin, is embellished with colonnades, sculpture, and friezes 
in polychrome stoneware, made at Sevres (Ancient and Modern Art). 
— In 1900 this building is to be used for contemporary and centen- 
nial exhibitions. Afterwards it is to be the scene of the annual 
exhibitions of paintings and sculptures, horse shows, agricultural 
fairs, and the like. Its destination explains the peculiarities of its 
internal construction. The roof is a 
of glass 10 ft. long and 3 ft. wide. 

The Pasteur Monument, by Falguiere, showing Fame crowning the il- 
lustrious chemist (p. 2-^8), in bronze-gilt, is to be erected at the beginning 
of the Avenue Nicolas II. — Pont Alexandre III., see p. 165. 

Beyond the Grand Palais des Beaux -Arts, to the left, is a 
former panorama, converted into a Palais de Glace, with a floor of 
real ice for skating (p. 39). On the other side of the avenue are the 
Cirque Palace (p. 35), the Restaurant Paillard (p. 14), and the 
Theatre Marigny (p. 36). 

158 3. ARC DE L'ETOILE. 

The park or Carre des Champs-Elysees extends as far as the 
Rond-Point des Champs-Elysees (PL R, 15; //) , a circular space 
adorned with beds of flowers and six fountains, situated about half- 
way between the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de I'Etoile. 
Two avenues descend hence to the Seine : the Avenue d'Antin, 
leading to the Pont des Invalides (p. 165), and the Avenue Mon- 
taigne^ leading towards the Pont de I'Alma (p. 165). 

To the N. of the Rond-Point the Avenue d'Antin is prolonged to the 
church of St. Philippe du Roule (PI. B, 15 ; //), in the Rue du Faubourg- 
St-Honore, an edifice in a Greek style, by Chalgrin (1769-84). The cupola 
is adorned with a Descent from the Cross, by Chassiriau. 

Farther on, to the left of the Champs-Elysees, extends the mod- 
ern Quartier Marbeuf, consisting of handsome private residences. 
The Trocadero, about ^/^ M. from this point, may be reached by an 
omnibus traversing the Rue Pierre-Charron. ' — The Avenue des 
Champs-Elysees, in which the vast Elysee Palace Hotel (p. 3) is 
conspicuous, ends at the — 

*Place de l'Etoile (PL B, 12; /), so named from the star 
formed by the twelve different boulevards or avenues which radiate 
from it (see p. 159). This Place occupies a slight eminence, on the 
summit of which rises the — 

*Arc de Triomphe de I'Etoile, the largest triumphal arch in exist- 
ence , and visible from almost every part of the environs of Paris. 
Begun by Napoleon I. in 1806, it was completed by Louis Philippe 
in 1836, from designs by Chalgrin(^dL. 1811). It consists of a vast arch, 
96 ft. high and 48 ft. wide, intersected by a lower transversal arch, 
61 ft. high and 27 ft, wide. The whole structure is 162 ft. in height, 
147 ft. in width, and 73 ft. in depth. The arch conveys a somewhat 
heavy impression when approached. The huge pillars of masonry on 
which it rests are adorned only with colossal trophies, 36 ft. high, 
with figures 16 ft. high. The final top member is still wanting. 

The following groups adorn the E. facade: on the right, 'Rising of 
the people in 1792 at the summons of the Genius of War, by Rude, the 
finest of the four groups : above it, the Obsequies of General Marceau, by 
Lemaire. On the left, Triumph of Napoleon after the Austrian campaign, 
and the Peace of Vienna (1810), by Cortot (d. 1843); above it, the Pasha 
Mustapha surrendering to Murat at the battle of Aboukir (1799), by Seurre 
the Elder. — The bas-reliefs on the frieze surrounding the monument 
represent the departure and the return of the troops, by Brun, Jacquot, 
Seurre, and Rude. 

On the W. facade: on the right. Resistance of the French to the in- 
vading armies in 1814, by Etex; above it. Passage of the bridge of Ar- 
eola (1796; death of Muiron, Bonaparte's adjutant), by Feuchlres. On the 
left, the Blessings of Peace (1815), by Etex; above it, the Taking of Alexan- 
dria (1798; Kleber, who has received a wound on the head, points out the 
enemy to his troops), by Chaponnih'e. 

The reliefs on the N. side, by Gechter, represent the battle of Auster- 
litz (1805). On the S. side is the Battle of Jemappes (1792), by Marochetti. 

The figures of Victory in the spandrels are by Pradier. A series of 
30 shields on the cornice above the entablature are inscribed vrith the 
names of different victories, while the names of 142 other battles appear 
on the vaulting of the principal arch. On the vaulting of the transversal 
arch are recorded the names of officers of the Republic and of the Em- 

3. NEUILLY. 159 

pire, the names of generals who fell in battle being underlined (656 
in all). The figures of Victory in relief under these names relate to suc- 
cesses gained in the East, 'North, and South. 

The coffin of Victor Hugo (d. May 22nd , 1885) lay in state beneath 
the arch on June 1st, 18S5, before its transference to the Pantheon. 

The Platform, to which a spiral staircase of 263 steps ascends, 
commands a noble *Prospect [adm. 10 till dusk, free, but a small 
fee, for a charitable object, is expected by the attendant). Best 
view in a W. wind after rain. 

To the E. the Champs-Elysees and the Louvre, beyond which rise 
the Hotel de Ville and (to the right) the towers of Notre Dame; farther 
to the right, the lofty dome of the Pantheon. To the S.E. is the gilded 
dome of the Invalides ; to the S. the Eitfel Tower, the Trocadero, and the 
Exhibition Buildings. To the left of the Louvre (N.E.) appear the low 
dome of the, the Vendome Column, the green roof of the Made- 
leine, the tall central portion of the Opera House, and the church of St. 
Augustin. Farther to the N. is the white church of the Sacre Coeur on 
Montmartre, and in the distance, the cathedral of St. Denis. To theW., 
to the left of the Avenue of the Gninde Aruie'e, we see Mont Valerien, 
with the hills of St. Cloud and Meudon farther to the left. At our feet 
stretches the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, 

The following are the chief of the twelve avenues which radiate 
from the Place de I'Etoile : the Avenue des Champs-Elysees^ described 
at p. 156; then, to the left, the Avenue Hoche, leading to the Park 
Monceaux [770 yds.; see p. 198); the Avenue de la Grande- Armee 
(p. 160), continuing the Avenue des Champs - Elyse'es towards 
Neuilly (see below); the Avenue du BoiS'de-Boulogne{^. 160); the 
Avenue Kleber, leading straight to the Trocadero (tramway) and 
passing the pretty Palais de Castille (No. 19), the property of Queen 
Isabella of Spain; and the Avenue Victor Hugo, leading to the Bois 
de Boulogne via the Porte de la Muette (PI. R, 5). 

To the right of the arch (in coming from the Champs-Elyse'es) is a 
station of the Metropolitan PmUwciij (see Appendix, p. 33). Steam-tramway 
(o St. Germain-en-Laye, see p. 328. 

Neuilly, which lies to the N. of the Bois de Boulogne (Jardin d'Accli- 
matation; p. 162), and is traversed by the wide avenue of the same name, 
forming a prolongation of the Avenue de la Grande-Armee, is now a suburb 
with 32,730 inhabitants. The chateau of Neuilly, once the favourite resi- 
dence of Louis Philippe, was totally destroyed by the mob on 25th Feb., 
1848, and the park was afterwards parcelled out into building-sites, on 
which numerous tasteful villas have been erected. — The Fair of Neuilly, 
beginning about June 24th and lasting two or three weeks, is very 
characteristic and attracts large crowds from Paris. 

In Neuilly, near the line of fortifications, on the right side of the Route 
de la Revolte, is the Chapel of St. Ferdinand (PL B, 9), a cruciform 
mausoleum in the Romanesque style, erected on the spot where Ferdinand, 
Duke of Orleans, the eldest son of Louis Philippe and father of the Comte de 
Paris, breathed his last on 13th July, 1842, in consequence of a fall from 
his carriage. Admission daily; visitors ring at No. 13, nearly opposite the 
chapel (fee). Over the high-altar is a Descent from the Cross, in marble, 
by Triqueti. To the left is the Monument of the Duke, also by Triqueti. 
from a design by Ary Scheffer, with a fine praying angel by the prince's 
sister, Marie cC Orlians {i.. 1839). The windows are filled with good stained 
glass designed by Ingres. The sacristy contains a picture by Jacquand 
representing the death of the prince. 

Farther to the W., at the Eond-Point d'lnkermann, are the new Ro- 
manesque Church of St. Pierre (PL B, 5), and a bronze Statue of Pcrronet 


(170S-94), builder of the Pont de IJeuilly, Pont de la Concorde, etc. Close by 
are a handsome Mairie (PL B, 5), built in 1882-85, and a bronze Statue 
of Pannentier (1737-1813), who made his first experiments in the cultivation 
of the potato at iS'euilly. Both statues are by Gaudez. From K^euilly a 
handsome Bridge (1766-1772) crosses the Seine to the N.E., 2 M. from the 
Arc de Triomphe (p. 158). On the opposite side of the river, to the right, is 
Gourhevoie (p. 291), and to the left is Puteaux (p. 292), which are connected 
by another avenue. 1/2 M. in length, continuing those above mentioned as 
far as the Monument de la Defense (p. 292). 


Hippodrome de Longchamp. Jardin d'Acclimatation. 

The Chemin de Per de Cdnture (see p. 27) has stations at the Porte 
Maillot, in the Avenue du Bois- de-Boulogne (see below), at Pa«sy (p. 171), 
in the Avenue Henri-Martin (Trocadero, p. 171), and at the Porte d'Auteuil 
(see beluw). — There are stations of the Metropolitan Railway (see Appx.. 
p. 33) at the Porte M;dllot and the Porte Dauphine (see below). — Omnibus 
from the Hotel de Ville to the Porte Maillot, see Appx., p. 24. — The Chemin 
de Per du Bois de Boulogne skirts the Bois from the Porte Maillot to the 
Porte de Suresnes (p. 292; 35 and 25 c.) and crosses the bridge to the W, 
to Suresnes (p. 292). — There is also a small Horse Tramway from the Porte 
Maillot to the Jardin d'Acclimatation. 

Visitors who wish to see the Bois de Boulogne with the least pos- 
sible expenditure of time should engage a cab by the hour (special tariflF, 
see Appx., p. 36). The principal points may thus be visited in 2-3 hrs. 
Those who do not wish to keep the cab waiting for the return-journey should 
finish their drive in the Bois before visiting the Jardin d'Acclimatation. — 
Restaurants^ see p. 19. 

The Avenue de la Grande-Armee, prolonging the Avenue des 
Champs-Elysees beyond the Arc de I'Etoile (p. 158), leads to the 
Porte Maillot (which is named from the 'Jeu de Mail' formerly 
played here), at the beginning of Neuilly (p. 159) and near the 
Jardin d'Acclimatation, the nearest entrance to the Bois de Boulogne. 

The Avenue du Bois-de-Boulogne (PI. B, R, 9, 6), leading from 
the Arc de I'Etoile to the W. , is the usual route followed by the 
fashionable crowds in carriages, on horseback, or on foot proceeding 
from the Champs-Elys^es to the Bois de Boulogne. The avenue is 
about 140 yds. in breadth (including the side-alleys and the divid- 
ing strips of turf) and is 3/^ M. long to the Porte Dauphine (PL R, 
6). In the distance the Mont Valerien (p. 292) is seen rising above 
the Bois. To the right, near the beginning of the avenue, is the 
Monument of Alphand (p. 186); to the left (No. 59) is the new 
Musee d'Ennery^ containing a collection of objects from E. Asia, left 
by A. Ph. d'Ennery, the dramatist. 

The *Bois de Boulogne is a beautiful park covering an area of 
2250 acres, bounded by the fortifications of Paris on the E. (see 
p. xxviii), the Seine on the W., Boulogne (p. 293) and the Boulevard 
d'Auteuil on the S., and Neuilly (p. 159) on the N. It is a fragment 
of the extensive old Foret de Rouvray (from Lat. Woveretum\ the 
chene rouvre, i.e. holm-oak), which also comprised the Park of 
St. Ouen (p. 209). This forest was long in evil odour, being the re- 
sort of duellists, suicides, and robbers. On its skirts, however, were 



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TT-TJ ■^|?WJ^'--^^^-Z<C!| 


several princely residences, as well as the famous Abhaye de Long- 
champ (p. 162). The forest received little attention until IBo'i, 
when it was presented to the municipality, on condition that a sum 
of two million francs should be expended on it within four years, and 
that it should be maintained in future at the municipal expense. The 
authorities accordingly converted it into a park, and it has become 
a favourite promenade of the Parisians. — The annexed plan will 
enable the visitor to find his way without difficulty. 

The Bois de Boulogne is most frequented in the afternoon 
between 3 and 5 o'clock, the favourite routes being those leading 
from the Avenue du Bois-de-Boulogne to the lakes, where the hand- 
somest carriages and most elegant toilettes are to be seen. Motor- 
cars and cyclists are prominent amidst the throng of vehicles. 

We enter the Bois by the Porie Dauphine (p. 160), in the En- 
ceinte, or lines of fortifications (p. xxviiij, which are, however, more 
or less disguised. The broad Route de Suresnes or du Lac^ which 
diverges to the left, leads in about 10 min. to the Carrefour du 
Bout des Lacs (see below). The Route de la Porte des Sablons, to 
the right, leads to (Y3 M.) the Jardin d'Acclimatation (p. 162), 
crossing the large Ailee de Longchamp or des Acacias, which leads 
to the left to the racecourse (see below). This alle'e is the chief 
scene of the Fete des Fleurs, held for a benevolent object about the 
same time as the 'Grand Prix' at Longchamp (p. 162). 

The Carrefour du Bout des Lacs is one of the finest points in 
the Bois de Boulogne. It lies at the lower end of two artificial lakes, 
the Lac Inferieur (2/3 M. in length and 100 yds. in width), and the 
Lac Superieur (1/4 M. in length and 60 yds. in width), which are 
fed by the Canal de I'Durcq (p. 201) and the Artesian Well of Passy 
(p. 171). Two brooks issue from the Lac Inferieur, one of which 
flows to the Jardin d'Acclimatation, the other, or 'Riviere de Long- 
champ', to the cascade (see below"). We walk round the lakes, begin- 
ning at the left side. In the Lac Inferieur are two islands (ferry 
there and back 10 c. ; boat on the lake 2-3 fr.), on one of whif^h is 
a oafe-restaurant in the form of a Swiss Chalet. Between the two 
lakes is the Carrefour des Cascades, and at the S. end of the Lac 
Superieur is the Butte Mortemart. The vacant space hero has 
been converted into the Champ de Courses d^Auteuil, with three 
racecourses (comp. the Plan), for steeplechases and hurdle-races. 
The race-stands, whence there is a fine view of Boulogne and St. Cloud , 
are situated on the 'butte'; adm. as at Longchamp (p. 1621. The 
(frand Steeplechase (value 4800^1 is run at the end of May or 
beginning of June and the Prix du Conseil Municipal (4000Z.) in 
October. — Auteuil, see p. 171. 

On arriving at the upper extremity of the Lac Supe'rieur we turn 
to the right and walk along the margin of the lake to the Carrefour den 
Cascades (see above). Hence we follow the Avenue de f Hippodrome 
to the left, or the walk at the side (see Plan), both of which cross the 

Raedeker. Parifi. 14th Edit. 11 


wide Allee de In Reine Marguerite and lead in 15-20 min. to the 
Grande Cascade, an artificial waterfall issuing from a grotto. After 
viewing the waterfall, we may ascend the eminence in front of it, 
which affords a fine view of the valley of the Seine ; to the left, on the 
opposite bank, lies St. Cloud with its modern church; nearer is the 
Hippodrome de Longchamp (see below) ; opposite us are a mill and 
two towers of the ancient Abbey of Longchamp (p. 161), with the 
village of Suresnes beyond them ; to the right, a little farther off, 
is''Mont' Valerien (p. 292). A path descends the hill to the interior 
of the grotto and the foot of the fall. 

The Hippodrome de Longchamp is the principal racecourse for 
flat races in the neighbourhood of Paris (see p. 38). The races (cour- 
ses or reunions) here take place in spring, summer, and autumn, 
the days being advertised in the newspapers and handbills. They 
attract vast crowds and are worth seeing. The 'Premiere de 
Longchamp', at the beginning of April, opens the spring season, 
and the new spring fashions then appear in all their glory. The 
principal race at this meeting is the 'Cadran', worth 1200i. The 
Grand Prix, of 250,000 fr. (10,000Z.), is competed for about the 
middle of June, and may be styled the 'French Derby'. It may also 
be said to inaugurate the summer season, as after it the fashionable 
world of Paris prepares for its annual migration to the country or the 
seaside. Charges for admission to the hippodrome : for a carriage 
with one horse 15, with two horses 20 fr. ; each rider 5 fr. ; pedestrian 
1 fr. ; pavilion 5 fr. ; weighing-place (pesage) 20 fr. There are three 
circular racecourses (1, 172, and 1^/^ M.) and one straight course 
(5 furlongs). — Reviews take place here occasionally. 

Behind the race-stands are the Chalets du Ci/cle, a cafe freqnented by cy- 
clists, and the chief statinn of the Chemin de Fer du Bois de Boulogne (p. 160). 

The Seine may be crossed here either via the Pont de Swesnes 
(p. 292), or by a Footbridge (Passerelle de VAqueduc de VAvre), constructed 
in 1893 near the race-stands, on the side next Boulogne and St. Cloud. 

The Route de Neuilly (p. 159), at the opposite end from the racecourse, 
passes between the Champ d'Entrainement and the park of the little chateau 
of Bagatelle, constructed in one month by the Comte d'Artois (Charles X.) in 
consequence of a wager with Marie Antoinette. The Bagatelle is now the 
property of the heirs of Sir Richard Wallace (d. 1890) and not accessible. 
— The part of Neuilly adjoining this side of the Bois de Boulogne is known 
as Madrid, a name derived from a chateau which once stood in this 
neighbourhood, built by Francis I. after the Battle of Pavia, and said to be 
thus named as a reminiscence of his captivity in Spain. Bridge to Puteaux, 
see p. 292. At the Porte de Madrid is a Restaurant. To the right of the 
Route de Madrid is the Cercle des Patineurs (skating club); to the left lie 
the Mare de St. James and the Jardin d'Acclimatation (see below). 

The wide Allee de Longchamp (side -alleys preferable) leads 
straight from the Hippodrome, passing the Cascade on the right, 
to the (2 M.) Porte Maillot (p. 160). Near the end of the Alle'e a 
path to the Jardin d'Acclimatation diverges to the left. 

The Jardin d'Acclimatation is an enclosed part of the Bois 

de Boulogne adjoining the Boulevard de Maillot, situated to the S. 


of the Avenue de Neuilly, and between the Porte des Sablons and 
the Porte de Madrid, and affords one of the most attractive promen- 
ades in the environs of Paris. It was founded by a company in 
1854 'in order to introduce into France and acclimatise foreign 
plants and animals suitable for domestic or ornamental purposes'. 
It covers an area of 50 acres. 

Visitors who hire a cab in Paris may dismiss it at the Porte Maillot, 
before the line of the fortifications is crossed ; otherwise, the fare to the 
.Tardin is higher . and 1 fr. more must be paid as 'indemnity de retour' 
fsee Appx.)- Miniature tramway from the Porte Maillot to the (V2 M.l 
entrance of the Jardin 20 c.. to the lake in the Jardin 35 c. The C'hemin 
dc Fer du Bois de Boulogne (p. 160) has a station at each end of the fcarden. 

The Jardin d'Acclimatation is open the whole day. Admission 
1 fr. (greenhouses included); on Sundays and holidays 1/2 fr.; carriago 
3 fr., in addition to the charge for each person in it; no charge for 
coachman. Children under seven enter free. 

The principal entrance is on the E. side, near the Porte des Sa- 
blons, but there are others to the left (at thePalmarium; see below), 
and at the end near the Porte de Neuilly. — The following itiner- 
ary includes most of the objects of interest. Comp. the Plan, p. 160. 

On entering, we find ourselves in a handsome walk, 11 yds. wide, 
which runs round the whole garden. On the left are the Grande 
Serve (PI. 15), or winter-garden, and the *Palmarium (PI. 14), in 
which the orchestra (p. 164) plays in bad weather (seats 2, 1, ^2 f'"-)- 
The building includes a Cafe-Restaurant. 

Opposite, or to the right as we enter, are two Small Hothouses, 
the Offices (PL 1) of the company, and a Museum (PI. 2) illustrating 
hunting and fishing, adjoined by the sale rooms and the Vivarium, 
a small room reserved for rare animals. Farther on, to the right, is 
the Singer ie, or winter monkey-house (PI. 3). 

To the left are the Storks, Flamingoes, Cranes, Herons, Ostriches, 
Marabouts, and other long-legged birds. Behind are Aquatic Birds 
(^Swans, Geese, Ducks of all kinds) and the Pigeon House, in which 
carrier-pigeons are reared. Then, a pavilion with caymans, turtles, 
a python, and other serpents. To the right of the walk is the 
Faisanderie (PI. 4), in front of which is a statue in white marble 
of the naturalist Dauhenton (d. 1799), by Godin. This building 
contains parroquets, herons, ibises, mandarin ducks, and several 
other kinds of birds, besides the pheasants. Next follow the Alpaca.^ • 
Antelopes; Llamas; Taks; various kinds of foreign Goats; and, be- 
hind, the Poulerie (PI. 5), a semicircular concrete building. 

At the W. end of the garden are the Ecuries (PI. 6), or stables, 
and enclosures connected with them, containing quadrupeds trained 
for the purposes of the garden or the amusement of visitors. A great 
source of delight to children here is a ride on the back of an el- 
ephant or dromedary, or a drive in a carriage drawn by ostriches, 
llamas , etc. (charges 25-50 c). The adjoining lawn is used in 
summer for camps of foreign tribes and the like. 



Farther on are the Quayga, Zebra, and Giraffe Houses. To the 
side, the Porcupines, Agoutis, Blue Foxes, and various other animals. 
Then, to the right, is the Panorama of the Transatlantic Fleet in 
the Roads of Havre (PI. 7; adm. 50 c), by Poilpot, and beyond that 
again the Antelopes, Kangaroos, and Llamas, to the left, and the 
Reindeer and the Cattle-Shed, to the right. Farther on, to the left, arc 
the basin of the Ottaries or sea-lions (PI. 8), which are fed at 3 p.m., 
and a rocky enclosure for Chamois (PI. 9), Mountain Goats, and other 
climbing animals. Behind are Antelopes, Llamas, and Alpacas. To 
the right of the circular walk is the Laiterie, or dairy. The Aqua- 
rium (PI. 10) is not very interesting. Behind are a Seal, the Pen- 
guins, the fish-ponds, and the Myopotami. 

Farther on is a Cafe-Buffet (PI. 11 ; closed in winter), opposite 
which is the summer Kiosque des Concerts, where the band plays at 
3 p.m. on Sun. & Thursday. Then come the Deer Paddocks, and (in. 
summer) the Parrots. Finally, to the right, is the Kennel (PI. 13), 
containing thoroughbred dogs, whose pedigrees are carefully recorded. 

We may return to the town by the same route to view the crowd 
in the Bois and the Champs-Elys4es^ but if the day be unfavourable for 
this we may take the Chemin de Fer de Ceintuve (p. Tt) or the Metropolitnn 
Raihcay (p. 27), or return via the Trocad&ro (p. 169). 

4. The Trocadero, Passy, and Auteuil. 

(Bois de Boulogne.) 

The following public vehicles ply in this direction from the Place 
de la Concorde : the Tbamwats from the Louvre to Passy (TJ),to St. Cloud, 
Sevres, and Versailles (TAB), and from the Madeleine to Auteuil (TAB). 
The omnibus from the Gare de TEst to the Trocadero (B) is also con- 
venient. The Stearnboats on the Seine and the Metropolitan Railway may 
also be used. 

Musee de Galliera. Musee Guimet. Musees du Trocadero. 
The Musee Gallie'ra, the Musee Guimet, and the two Musees at tbc 
Trocadero are open at the same hours only on Sun. and Thurs. ; thougli 
admission may be obtained to the Ethnographical Museum daily except 
Monday. Luncheon may be taken at one of the cafes near the Trocadero 
or in the Place de I'Alma. , 

Place de la Concorde, see p. 82. The direct route to the Tro- 
cadero is by the Colb.s-la-Rbine (PI. K, 15, 12- //, /), a fine avenue 
formed by Marie de Medicis in 1616, and traversing the Quai de la 
Conference from e.nd to end. The quay derives its name from an 
old gate through which the Spanish ambassadors entered Paris in 
1660, to confer with Mazarin on the betrothal of the Infanta Maria 
Theresa with Louis XIV. — At present both the Avenue and the quay 
are occupied by buildings in connection with the Exhibition of 
1900 (comp. p. 274), which has one of its chief entrances here (Place 
de la Concorde, p. 84). The public thoroughfare runs provisionally 
along the bank of the Seine and under the Pont Alexandre III. To 
the right are the two new Palais des Beaux- Arts (pp. 156, 157). 


To the left is the new *Pont Alexandre III. (PI. R, 15; II), 
the largest and handsomest bridge in Paris, constructed in 1896- 
1900 by Resal and Alby ^ the engineers, and Casden- Bernard and 
C'oussm, the architects. The foundation-stone was laid by the Czar 
Nicholas II. The bridge consists of a flat steel arch 352 ft. in lengtli, 
130 ft. in width, and 25 ft. above the level of the water. At each 
end is a massive pylon , 75 ft. high , derorated with bronze-gilt 
groups, representing France at different epochs of its history, by 
Lenoir, G. Michel, Coutan, and Marqueste; the winged horses are by 
Fremiet, Granet, and Stelner, tlie lions by Gardet and Dalou. The 
parapets are in bronze and copper, and bear tasteful lamp-posts. — 
On the left bank is the Esplanade des Invalides, see p. 273. 

Farther on, to the left, is the Pont des Invalides (PI. R, 14, 
if); //), adorned with Victories by Dieboldt and Vilain. 

To the right, at the corner of theCours-la-Reine and the Rue Bayard, 
is the house known as the *Maison de Francois Premier (PI. R, 15; //). 
a very pleasing example of the domestic architecture of the Renais- 
sance. Francis I. caused this building to be erected at Moret, near 
Fontainebleau, in 1527, for the reception of Diane de Poitiers, or 
according to others for his sister Margaret of Navarre, and in 182G 
it was transferred to its present site. The facade, the style of which 
is quite unique and very unlike that of contemporary buildings, 
finds its closest parallel in the palaces of Venice. On the ground- 
floor are three large arched windows, to which the three square- 
headed windows of the upper floor correspond. The ornamentation 
on the pilasters between the windows and at the corners is singu- 
larly rich and elegant. Many of the medallion-portraits (including 
that of Margaret of Navarre, between the arms of France and Na- 
varre) have been restored. The back is also worthy of inspection, 
but the sides have been modernised. 

The Pont de I'Alma (PI. R, 11, 12; i), at the end of the quay, 
was constructed in 1856 and named in memory of the Crimean cam- 
paign. The buttresses are embellished with handsome figures of a 
zouave and a private of the line by Dieboldt, and an artilleryman 
and a chasseur by Amaud. From the bridge the Avenue Montaigne 
leads to the N.W. to the Rond-Point des Champs-Elysees (p. 158). 

To the right from the Avenue Montaigne diverges the Rue Jean-Ooujon 
(PI. K, 12; J), which attained a luelaucholy celebrity in May, 1897, owing 
to a terrible fire at a charity bazaar, in which 132 persons perished. A 
memorial chapel, called Xotre Damf d. Consolation (PI. R, 12; //), has been 
built, from Guilbert's dt'signs, on the site of the disaster (19L0). 

The next quay, the Quai Dehilly, leads to the foot of the Tro- 
cad^ro Park. During the Exhibition this quay will be flanked by 
'Old Paris', a picturesque reproduction, by Robida, of the Cite' and 
adjoining quarters as they were in the 16th century. 

The Avenue du Trocade'ro ascends to the N.W. to the upper part 
of the Trocadero Park. In this avenue, on the right, is the — 


*Mu8ee de Galliera (PI. R, 12 ; i), iu tlie Italian Renaissance 
style, by Oinain, built by the mnniflcence of the Ducbesse de Gal- 
liera (d. 1888 • comp. pp. 296, 299). The facade towards the avenue 
is embellished with statues of Sculpture, Architecture, and Paint- 
ing, by Cavelier, Thomas, and Chapu. There are other sculptures 
at the sides : to the right, Pan and a bear, by Becquet, The Earth, 
by A. Boucher; to the left, Education of Bacchus, by Perraud, 
Patronage and the Future, by Icard. — The entrance, which is in 
the Rue Pierre-Charron (No. 10), is preceded by a small square with 
a bronze group representing 'Wine', by Holweck. The museum was 
originally intended for the collections of the Duchesse de Galliera, 
but these having been bequeathed to the city of Genoa, it now con- 
tains the nucleus of a municipal museum of art and industry. Open 
free daily, except Mou., 12-4. Catalogue in preparation. 

CouET. In the arcades ou each side are sculptures: ou the right, 
E. Chatrousse^ History recordiufj the centenary of the Kevolutiou; Huc/ues, 
f otter; A. d'Houduia^ A\'ar; Cordonnier, Maternal happiness; on the left, 
Vital Cor/iu, Archimedes j B. I'tyvol-, The combat; E. Chutrousse, The Nurse; 
Girard, Iphigeneia. 

Vestibule. Five marble statues: Guilhert, Daphnia and Chloe; Vital 
Cornu (to the right), A woman; Roufosse, The first shiver; Biguine, Sor- 
ceress; Fontaine, Fascination. — Lakge Saloon. This and the following 
rooms chiefly contain Tapestries. The best are the five tapestries of SS. Ger- 
vais and Protais, hung above the others. These were executed in the 
studios of the Louvre about 1650-1655, i.e. shortly before the establishment 
ot the Gobelins (p. 268), and represent the flagellation of the saints, after 
Le Sueur; their execution, after S. Bourdon; the translation of their relics, 
their appearance to St. Ambrose, and the discovery of their relics, after 
Ph. de Champaic:ne. In the upper row also are: Rape of Helen; Ulysses 
recognizing Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes (Brussels). Below, 
Irom right to left: Achilles armed and consoled by Thetis (Brussels; ca. 
1775); Gipsy camp, The falconer (Beauvais ; 1770 and 1774); Bivouac, Break- 
ing up camp (Gobelins; 1763); Snares of Marriage, Repast (Faubourg St. Mar- 
cel; c.i. 1600); Swoon of Armida (Gobelins, 1739). — The glass-cases contain 
modern articles: porcelain and earthenware by Chaplet and Delaherche; 
glass by L. Tiffany ; enamels; chased silver casket with enamels by A. Point; 
pewter articles by Baffler., Desbois ., Charpentier . and Ledru; damascened 
casket by G-'awiJi/i; chased silver casket by .Sarr^. Sculptures: in the centre, 
A. Buucher, Diana; in the corners, B. de la Vingtrie, Pandora: JJ. FU, 
Wood-echo: J. A. Pezif.n.v. Youth; Vital Cornu., Sweet lassitude. Busts: 
Turcait . Huudun: J. Baffler., Jeannette : Dulou, Armaud Renaud : 'lludin, 
\'ictor Hugo. — Next Galleev. Ancient Tapestry : in the middle, ^March 
(Faubourg St. Marcel); To the right. The Eudaugered Slumber and Pan 
and Amvmone (Gobelins). Sculptures: Labutut, Cato of Utica; Demaille, 
Love; i^er/'rtw, Wreck; Barreau. Matho and Salambo ; Leiasscur, The pearl; 
Boisseau, Fruits of war; M. Moreau. The future; Gaspari , Desolation; 
Fouques, Hound. Numeruus drawings by Pm^w de Chacunnes. — The Small 
Rooms at the ends contain two Tapestries: Autumn and Summer (Gobelins) 
after paintings by Mignard (1678), destroyed with the palace of St. Cloud. 
Sculptures: Hercule., Turenne as a boy; Gaudez. Sully a^ a hoy; Valton, 
Wolf; Gardet., Danish wolf-hound. — Last Room, next the "vestibule. 
Tapestries: Summer and a Pastoral Scene (Gobelins). Sculpture: Hercule^ 
Primroses; JJebois., Bust; A. Moncel, Ivy. Pewter fountain, by Charpentier. 
Also water-colours, wood-carvings, enamels, engraved glass, cameos, etc. 

All Equestrian iSlaiue of Washmyton (p. 169), by Pan. French, 
is to be erected in 1900, at the cost of some American ladies, in 
the Place d'le'na, to the W. of the museum. A few yard.s farther on, 

4. MUS^E GUIMET. 167 

to the riglit, rises tlie haudsome *Mu8ee Guimet (Fi. K, 12; i), less 
richly decorated but not devoid of originality, with a rotunda at the. 
angle, surmounted by a colonnade and cupola. It contains the ex- 
tensive and valuable collections presented to the state in 1886 by 
M. Em. Guimet of Lyons, consisting mainly of a Museum of the Re- 
ligions of India and Eastern Asia, but including also a Library and 
collections of Oriental Pottery and of Antiquities. — The museum 
is open daily, except Mon., from 12 to 4 or 5 (see p. 66), but only 
one of the three divisions (grounrlfloor, 1st floor, '2nd floor) is shown 
on any one day. The days of the week on which each division is 
open are regularly alternated; thus if the grouudfloor be open on 
Tues. in any particular week, the 1st floor will be open on the next 
Tues., and the 2ud floor on the Tues. following. The chiet objects 
only are noticed here. Explanatory labels are attached to the ex- 
hibits. Short illustrated catalogue (^1897), 1 fr. Sticks and umbrellas 
must be given up (no fee). Keeper, M. L. de Milloue. — Public 
Lecture;} are given here at 2.80 p.m. on Sun. in winter. 

Ground Floor. The Rotdnda containa a few Roman sculptures and 
iiia.sks found in Antinoe (Egypt). 

Galekie DlfeNA, to the right: * Chinese lottery. — lat Section: Develop- 
ment of the manufacture. Case 1. Seladon (the earliest specimens); pale- 
green porcelain from Naukiu (15th cent.). Case 2. Pottery manufactured 
at a high temperature (marbling, etc.). Case 3. 'Crackle' porcelain. Cases 4(1'0. 
Modern ware from Nankin and Canton. Case 6. Imitations of ancient 
porcelain. — 2nd Section: DeveUpment of colour. Case 7. Earthenware 
('boccaros'). Cases S-13. White, blue, red (oxide of copper) and gold, green, 
violet (masnesium). yellow (cadmium), and pink varieties. — 3rd Section: 
Chronological collection from the 10th to the end of the ISth cent., the 
tinest dating from the time of Khien-Long (1736-96; Case 17). 

Galerie EoissiSee, to the left: ^Japanese Pottery and Bronzes^ arranged 
as far as possible according to artists and provinces. — 1st and 2nd Sections : 
Case 1. Corean pottery. Case 2. Articles used in the ceremony of making 
and serving tea. The ritual of this ceremony dates from the 16th cent., 
and the various gestures and expressions may be used only over the tea 
In the centre is the master of ceremonies (Tschadjiu). Case 3. Seto. Case 4. 
Corea and Soma. Cises 5-9. Tukiu, Owari, etc. In the centre are a bronzf 
temple lamp and large lacquered vases from the province of Hizen. — 
3rd & 4th Sections: "'Dagoba' or bronze reliijuary, of the 16th cent.; va^es 
and kakemonos (paintings un silk). Cases A-X. in the centre, contain a 
collection of 2100 'ki>rus\ or incenses -boxis. — 5th Section: Case 1^1 
Fayence by the artist Gouzaemon. Cases 14 it 15. Province of Kagu. Case 16. 
'Raku' fayence; large lacquered vase in fayence. — 6th Section: modern 
ware from Kioto ; Bizen stoneware in imitation of bronze. — 7th Section: 
fayence made by ladies and other amateurs; Kioto ware; works by the 
potter Ninsei (18th cent.) ; bronze lamp. 

The CouKT, reached by a door under the staircase, contains casts of 
the large door of a Buddhist temple at Sanchi. 

The Galekie suk Couk contains Collections from Siam and Cambodia. 
Room I. Reproduction of an elephant (Siam); Anamite temple and palace; 
Indian processional carriage. — Room II. Sandstone statues of Brahmanic 
deities. — Room III. Model of tbe gate of the citadel of Augkor-tom; 
cinerary urns. — Room IV. Collection of Buddha -padas (fooipriu's ol' 
Buddha). On the walls of the last three rooms is the cast of a frie/e of 
a royal procession, from Angkor-vat. 

First Floor. In the Rotunda is the Library. At the entrance are sta- 
tues of Mondshu and Fughen. the twu chief disciples of Buddha, upon ;i 
lion and au elephant; and two reliquaries. The Paint\n(js in the Rotunda 

168 4. MUSl&E GUIMET. 

and following galleries, by Begamey, represent Oriental scenes, religious 
ceremonies, priests, etc. 

The Sallk des Paesis to the left of the entrance to the Galerie d'lena, 
contains a model of the tower of the dead, at Bombay, in which the 
Parsees (followers of Zoroaster) expose their dead to be devoured by vul- 
liiresj groups of Parsees at the ceremony of the 'Yasna'5 and so forth. 

Galkbie d'Ikna, to the right, as we face the staircase: "Religions of 
India and China. — Room I. Vedic religion, Brahminism, and the modern 
Hind a religion (cult of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, the triad representing 
the creating, preserving, and destroying principles). Wood-carvings from 
chariots of Brahma; articles used in religious services; representations of 
temples. In the centre is a bronze figure of Lakshmi, the Indian Venus 
(16th cent.); to the left, Vishnu in black basalt; representations of temples. 
— Room II. Buddhism, the worship of Sakya-Mooni or Buddha, the 'per- 
fect sage\ 1st Section: In the centre, bronze '-'Statue in a halo of flames. 
In Case 8, Ganessa, god of science, with four arms and an elephant's head. 
Cases 9-11. Statuettes, vases, goblets, bronze bells, sacred books, and other 
articles used in worship. Case 12. Sect of the Jains , a Buddhist sect 
allied to Brahmauism. Case 13. Marionettes and ornaments from Java. — 
2nd Section: to the left, Lamaism, or Thibetan Buddhism, in which spirits, 
demons . and magicians play a prominent part. Case 14. Mandala , or 
lepresentation of the world in bronze-gilt. Cases 15 and 16. Statuettes : 
.Jigsbyed, a god with ten heads, thirty-four arms, and sixteen legs, holding 
a woman wuth three eyes ; Dakinis, goddess of evil . with a lion's head 
and fiery hair. To the right. Religions of China. Case 17. Buddha in 
his three states (birth, penitence, traiisfiguration) ; Kouanyin, goddess of 
charity, fwith twelve arms. Case 18. *Dra wings dating from 1081, illus- 
trating the legend of Hariti, the devourer of children. Case 2J. Trans- 
formations of Kouanyin. Case 21 and 8rd Section : Taoism , or Chinese 
pantheistic idolatry; statuettes. MSB., coloured drawings, geomantic com- 
passes (for soothsaying). Case 21. Fine bnmze statue of the philosopher 
Lao-Tse, founder of this religion, on a buff'alo (16th cent.). Cases 22, 23. 
Inferior deities and spirits. Case 24. "Eleven boxwood statuettes (18th cent.), 
representing celestial deities; paintings on silk; Chinese coins, the most an- 
cient, in the shape of bells, dating from 2300 B. C. Case 25. Indian deities. 
(Jase 26. Beautiful urns used in ancestor-worship. Case 27. Confucianism, 
the imperial religion in China, involving ancestor-worship. — Room III. 
'Salle de Jade or Gem Room, with numerous articles of jade, a stone 
highly prized in China, many of which come from the imperial Summer 
Palace in Pekin. The glass-cases at the back contain sceptres of man- 
darins and other valuables. 

Galerie sue Couk. Inio-China Collections. 1st Section: Cambodia (mixed 
Brahminism and Buddhism). — 2ud and 3rd Sections: Laos, Burma, Siam 
(pure Buddhism), Auam and Tonkin (mixture of Taoism and Buddhism). 
Statues, statuettes, MSS., books, musical instruments, fans, coins, etc. — 
4th Section: Shamanism; Siberian Buddhism; and religion of the island 
of Amoy (marionettes for mystery-performances). — Rotunda. *Model of a 
temple in Amoy ; religious scenes ; marionette-theatre. — We traverse a 
room with specimens of Japanese industrial art: combs, comic statuettes, 
medicine-boxes, sabres and hilts, lacquered boxes, etc. — We now pass 
through the Galerie Boissiere, in order to begin at the end next the staircase. 

Galerie Boissiere: '^Religions of Japan. — Room I. 1st and 2nd Sec- 
tions : fine statue of Ida-Ten, god of prayer and peace. Shintoism (to the 
left), the national religion, which has no idols but only symbols of the 
Supreme Being, and the temples of which are always closed; Buddhism, 
six dift'erent sects; statues, statuettes, priests' vestments; fine bronze 
statuettes and kakemonos (Cases 5 and 7). At the end of the 2nd section 
are two statues of the god of travellers, and two bronze vases, with 
representations of the death and ascension of Buddha. — Room II. Model 
uf a ''Mandara or pantheon, with nineteen personages. The central group 
represents Dainiti, the highest perfection, and beings who have become 
'buddhas', with the eye of wisdom in the centre of their foreheads ; those 
to the right and left represent their transformation into beings whose end 

4. TROCADfiRO. 169 

is the salvation of souls by gentleness or by violence. Around are brasiers, 
fountains, gongs, statue of Sakya-Mooni dying, other figures of deities, etc. 
By the walls are seven large statues on pedestals and twelve figures iu 
carved w(jod, representing the hours ol' the day and the signs of the Zodiac. 
— Boom III. Ist Section: Japanese and Chinese legends. Curious statuettes, 
often of admirable execution: Case 14, aged devil iu the ^uise of a monk; 
bell-bearer with long legs ; fox as priest-, in Case 15, the philosopher Tekiui 
breathing forth his soul; in Case 17, god of good fortune. — 2nd Section : 
statue of Yiso, guardian deity of children; historical articles, very interest- 
ing statuettes; lion and lioness as guardians of a temple (13th cent.); wood- 
en statue of a pilgrim (to the left). — Room IV. Chapel in gilded wood; 
statues of Amida, one of the immortal 'buddhas'. In the centre, curious 
ligure of the philosopher Dharma rising from bis tomb. Behind, bronze 
statues (18th cent.) including the philosopher as beggar (the little flag in his 
mouth represeuts his soul); men with long legs and long arms. 

Second Floor. The Eotunda, supported by caryatides, contains Paint- 
ingt of religious scenes in China, Ceylon, and elsewhere, by Regamey. 

Galeeie D'IfiNA : Japanese Paintings^ drawings, albums, and engravings 
(chiefly 18th and 19th cent.). Graeco - Roman Antiquitiet: Statuettes of 
Bacchus, Apollo, Juno, and iEsculapius ; busts (flne Greek head by the 
window to the right); terracottas; vases. — Galeeie sdk Couh. Gallo- 
Itomiiu bronze vessels from Vienne; gold ornaments, cameos, and iu 
taglios; Etruscan vessels iu black clay; votive statuettes in brouze. Ob- 
jects from tombs in Cappadociu and elsewhere. Objects from Corea. 

Galebie Boissiere: Egyptian Antiquities. Coffins with mummies; ob- 
jects found in graves; reproductions of sepulchral paintings (ca. 600U B. C); 
luarble statue of Diana of Ephesus (modern); small bronzes; historical 
articles; sacrificial table; statue of Isis ; Assyrian cylinders and seals: 
-Mexandrian deities. 

A little to the right of the Muse'e Guimet the Avenue d'le'na 
passes the Place des Etats- Vnis (PI. R, 12 ; I), at the other end of 
which is a brouze *Qroup of Washington and Lafayette, by Bartholdi, 
presented by several Americans iu 1895 in commemoration of tlie aid 
of France in securing the independence of the United States. 

The Avenue du Trocadero (p. 165) and the Avenue Kleber, 
leading from the Arc de I'Etoile, end at the — 

Place du Trocadero (PL R. 8 , 9 ; /; Metropolitan Railway, 
tramways D, J, and AE, omnibus-line B), which bears the name of 
one of the forts of Cadiz captured by the French in 1823. The Place, 
which lies behind the Palais of the same name, contains the Mada- 
gascar section of the Exhibition of 1900. 

The Palais du Trocadero (PI. R, 8; i), which occupies a height 
above the Seine, is a huge buildiug in the Oriental style, designed 
by Davioud and Bourdais for the lilxhibitiou of 1878. The central 
portion consists of a circular edifice 63 yds. iu diameter and 180 ft. 
in height, surmounted by a dome , and flanked with two minarets 
270 ft. high. On each side is a wing in the form of a curve, 220 yds. 
iu length, so that the whole edifice presents the appearance of an 
imposing crescent. On a level with the spring of the dome is a gallery 
adorned with thirty statues representing the arts , sciences , and 
various industries. The dome itself is surmounted by a colossal 
statue of Fame, by A. Mercie. 

170 4. TROOADilRO. 

Concerts are often given in the elaborately- decorated Salle des Fetet, 
which contains an immense organ by Cavaille-Coll and has seats for 6000 
persons (adm. at other times by urder from the secretary of the Beaux- 
Arts, Rue de Valois 3). The Galleries (cafii-buffet) and Balconies command 
an admirable 'View of Paris (best at sunset). Visitors may ascend by a 
lift (50 c, on Sun. 25 c.), in the N.E. tower. 

The Palais du Trocadero contains important museums of Comparative 
Sculpture (casts) and of Ethnography. — The *Musee de Sculpture Comparee 
occupies the left wing and part of the right wing of the building. The 
<:asts are mainly illustrative of the chief tvpes of monumental sculpture 
since the middle ages, but, for the, sake of comparison, there are a ii'.w 
casts of ancient and other works of a diflerent class. The sculptures are 
arranged chronologically. Explanatory labels are attached to each cast. 
Director, M. E. Harancourt. Catalogue (18,.0) 1 fr. ; Illustrated Catalogue of 
the Mouumeuts of the 14-15th cent. (1892) 4 fr. Admission, see p. 56. 

The Ethnographical Museum is on the first floor of the central building. 
To reach it we ascend the staircase nearly opposite the entrance to. the 
Museum of Casts. Explanatory labels. Directors, MM. Humy and Lundrin. 
Admission, see p. 56. — The staircase is embellished with line stained- 
glass windows. The museum consists mainly of objects from America, the 
islands in the Pacific Ocean, and Africa, besides specimens from the N. and 
E. of Europe. The collection of French provincial cf>stames, in the room 
to the right, is highly interesting. 

The Pahc du Trocadero is not large , but it is tastefully laid 
out and well kept up, though at present it has been greatly altered 
for the Colonial Section of the Exhibition of 1900. The terrace in 
front of the central building of the Palais is embellished with six 
figures in gilded bronze: Europe, by Schoenewerk, Asia by FalguVere, 
Africa by Delaplanche, N. America by Eiolle, S. America by Millet, 
and Australia by Moreau. Below the terrace gushes forth a large 
*Cascade, which descends to a huge basin, 196 ft. in diameter, sur- 
rounded by a bull, a horse, an elephant, and a rhinoceros in bronze, 
by Cain, Bouillard, Fremiet, and Jacquemart. Under the arches 
flanking the cascade are allegorical figures of Water, by Cavalier, 
and Air, hy Thomas. — At the corner of tlie Rue Lenotre is a Pano- 
rama of the Battle of Jena, by Poilpot, with 11 dioramic views of 
scenes of the Revolution, the Consulate, and the Empire. 

Below the middle of the park the Seine is crossed by the Pont 
d'lena (PI. R, 8 ; /), constructed in 1809-13 to commemorate the 
victory of that name (1806) and enlarged in 1900. It is adorned 
with eagles and with four colossal horse-tamers (Greek , Roman, 
Gaul, and Arab). Beyond the bridge is the Champ-de-Mars (p. 282), 
with the Eiffel Tower, the Grande Roue, and various buildings con- 
structed for the Exhibition of 1900. 


Passy, in which the Trocadero is situated, is one of the com- 
munes annexed to Paris in 1860. Its lofty and healthy situation 
has long made it a favourite place of residence, and it contains 
numerous handsome private mansions near the Bois and the Troca- 
de'ro, many of them built since the last two exhibitions here. 

4. PASSY. 171 

The Avenue Hi;ne,i AlAaxiN (fl. K, 8, 9, 6 ; tramway N), coii- 
tiuuing the Avenue du Trocad^ro, leads straight from the Trocade'ro 
to the Bois. 

On the height to the left, near the palace, is the Cemetery of Passy 
(PI. R, 8; /), with some fine monuments. Entrance in the Rue des Re- 
servoirs, reached by ascending a flight of steps from the Place du Trocadero. 
Immediately to the right, inside, is the mausoleum of Marie BashkirUtff 
(d. 1884j, by Emile Bastien-Lepage, the exterior of which is covered with 
allegorical and other details in doubtful taste. Within is a good bust of Mile. 
Bashkirtseti; with a MS. vol. of her diary, her palette, and other relics. 

The Avenue Henri Martin passes near the Lycie Janson de Sadly 
(on the right; 2000 pupils) and, a little farther on, the Mairieof'the 
I6th Arrondissement (on the left), the latter of which contains paint- 
ings by Ch. Chauvin. Farther on, to the right, between this Avenue 
and the Avenue Victor Hugo, is a square with a Statue of Lamartint 
(1790-1869), in bronze, by Yasselot, adjoining which is the copious 
Artesian Well of Passy (covered). At the point where these avenues 
meet, a few yards farther on, is the Avenue du Trocadero Station 
(PI. R, 6) of the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture. 

At this point the Ligne du Champ-dc-Mars diverges to the left. It is 
mostly underground, and passes under the heights of Passy by means of 
a covered gallery and two tunnels (275, 37.o, and 300 yds. in length). 
There are stations in the Rue Boulainvillers (PI. R, 5). between the tunnels, 
and on the quay of the right bank. The line then crosses the Seine to 
the lie des Ci/(jne6, by the bridges mentioned on p. 172. and goes on along 
the Ligne des Moulineaux to the Champ-de-Mars (p. 282j. 

In the Rue Singer, at the curuer nf the Rue Raymond fPl. R, 5), is a 
tablet with an inscription to the effect that Benjamin Franklin lived bere 
in 1777-85, whtni envoy tu France, and placed on the hnu.sf the. first 
lightniug conductor ever made in France. 

The Porte de la Muette, not far from the great lake (p. 1(31), is 
one of the chief entrances to the Bois de Boulogne on this side. La 
Muette (PI. R, 5) is a relic of a former royal hunting-lodge, where 
there was perhaps a kennel of hounds ('muette' for 'meute'). Its 
pretty park is now private property and closed to the public. 

To the S.W. is the Ranelagh^ a triangular grass-plot occupying 
the site of the public establishment of that name, which, like its 
London namesake , was famous at the end of last century for its 
banquets, masquerades, and fetes. Adjacent are the station of the 
Chemin de Fer de Ceinture and the office of the tramways, near 
which is the handsome Monument of La Fontaine (1621-95), with 
his bust, a statue of Fame, and figures of the fabulist's favourite 
animals, in bronze, by Dumilatre. Adjacent, to the left, a statue 
of Cain by Cailli; to the right, a Fisherman, with the head and the 
lyre of Orpheus, by Longepied; 'Fugit Amor', by Dame, etc. A 
military band plays here on Thurs. in summer (see p. 38). 

Auteuil, annexed, like Passy, to Paris in 1860, a quiet suburban 
district with numerous villas, lies to the S.AV., between the Seine 
and the Bois de Boulogne. A pleasant route leads thither from the 
Ranelagh, passing between the lakes in the Bois de Boulogne (p. 161 ) 
and the racecoiuse of Auteuil (p. 161 ). it may also be reached from 


the station of Passy via the handsome Bxte Mozart (1 M. j PI. R, 5, 4), 
which is traversed by a tram\vay. From the station of Anteuil, near 
the Bois (PL R, 1), tramways run to the Madeleine, St. Sulpice, 
and Boulogne (p. 293). Here also begins the immense * Viaduct 
of the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture, 1 74^- long, constructed through- 
out of masonry, with several galleries for foot-passengers beneath 
the line, and 234 arches. It ends with the *Pont d' Auteuil (PI. G. 4), 
where the viaduct proper rises between two carriage-roads. 

In the Rue d' Anteuil rises the Romanesque church of Notre 
Dame d' Auteuil, restored in 1877-81 by Yaudremer. To the right 
is the Maison Char don-Lag ache ^ and behind are the handsome In- 
stitution Ste. Ferine and the Maison Rossini, three charitable houses. 
The Pont Mirabeau (PI. R, 4), an iron bridge with statues by In- 
jalbert (1895-97), crosses the Seine at the end of the Rue Mirabeau. 
The central arch has a span of over 300 feet. 

To the S.W. of the Porte d'Auteuil. on the S. margin of the Buis de 
Boulogne, lies the Etuhlissement Horticole or Fleuriste , a large municipal 
nursery -garden for the supply of plants fur the public promenades ol" 
Paris (open daily, 1-6, in the second half of April, when the azaleas are 
in blossom; at other times bv permission of the director, M. Bouvard, 
Hotel de Ville). 

We may return from Auteuil either by the Chemin de Fer de Cein- 
ture (see the Appx., p. 34), by tramway (p. 160), or by steamer (Appx. 
p. 35). — At the lower end of the Be des Cygnes, on the Pont de Orenellt 
(PI. R, 4, 7), is a reduced copy in bronze of the statue of Libert;' fit- 
Ughtming the World, by Bartholdi, in Is'ew York Harbour. 

5. Halles Centrales, Conservatoire des Arts et 
Metiers, and Pere-Lachaise. 

The best time to visit the Halles Centrales is early in the morning. 
For this walk a day should be chosen on which the Conservatoire des 
Arts et Metiers is open (i.e. Sun.. Tues.. or Thurs.). — Luncheon may 
be taken at one of the following restaurants : Bouillons Duval, Rue de 
Turbigo 3 (near the Halles Centrales), Rue de Turbigo 45 (near the Rue 
St. Martin), and Place de la Re'publique; Bouvalet, Boul. da Temple 29 'dl -, 
Jhi Cerch and Des A^'ations , Boul. St. Martin 15 and 47, S. side-, Lecomte, 
Rue de Bondy 48 (N. side of the Boul. St. ilartin) ; Flat-d'Etain , Rue St. 
Martin 326, near thf Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. 


Palais-Royal, p. 60. Following the Rue de Rivoli or the Rue 
St. Honore to the E. , we soon reach the newer part of the Rue du 
Louvre (PI. R, 20, 21; ///), which was prolonged to the N. in 1888 
as far as the Rue Etienne Marcel and the Hotel des Postes (p. 173). 

In a circular space to the right rises the Bourse de Commerce 
(PI. R, 20 ; III), formerly the Halle au Ble or corn-exchange, con- 
verted to its present use in 1888-89 by Blondel. The nucleus is 
a rotunda, 46 yds. in diameter, 106 ft. high, with an iron roof, 
originally built in 1662, burnt down in 1802, and rebuilt in 1811. 
Fronting the Rue du Louvre is a new facade, with four Greek col- 


mnns, 65 ft. high, above which is a pediment with sculptures, by 
Croisy, representing Paris, Trade, Industry, Art, and Architecture. 
The interior of the dome is embellished with frescoes of East, 
"West, North, and South, by Clairin, Liiminais, Laugee, and Lucas. 
The exchange is open daily, except Sun., from 9 to 6 (to 7 on Wed.; 
business-hours 1-3). — In front, on the other side of the street, is 
a fluted Doric column, 100 ft. high and 10 ft. in diameter, erected 
in 1572 by order of Catherine de Me'dicis, for the purpose, it is said, 
of astrological observations. — Behind the Bourse de Commerce 
are the Halles Centrales (see below). 

The Hdtel des Postes [PI. R, 21 ; III), rebuilt in 1880-84, to 
tlie right of the Rue du Louvre, a little farther on, cannot lay claim 
to great architectural importance. It is, however, of immense size, 
occupying the whole of the area enclosed by the Rue Etienne-Marcel 
on the N., the Rue du Louvre on the W., the Rue Gutenberg on 
the S., and the Rue Jean-Jacques-Rousseau on the E. The main 
public entrance is in the Rue du Louvre. Most of the offices in 
direct communication with the public are united in a large colon- 
nade or hall ; the Poste Restante and telegraph offices are in a 
separate room, to the right. Behind is the loading-yard, used by 
the post-vehicles; the sunk floor accommodates the stamping offices, 
the apparatus for the pneumatic post, and the stables. On the first 
floor are the sorting and distributing offices; on the second, the 
diligence offices and official dwellings; and on the third, the 
archives and stores. — Postal regulations, etc., see p. 28. 

In the adjacent Rue Gutenberg is the Hotel des Telephones, 
built of glazed bricks like those of the monuments from Susiana and 
Chaldsea in the Louvre (p. 145). — Place des Victoires, etc., sec 
p. 192. 

The *Halles Centrales (PI. R, 20, 23; HI), a vast structure, 
chiefly of iron , and covered with zinc , erected by the architect 
Baltard (d. 1874), are reached hence via the Rue Coquilliere, which 
diverges to the left from the Rue du Louvre a little farther 
down. These 'halls' consist of twelve pavilions, between which run 
covered streets, 48 ft. wide and 48 ft. in height, and they are inter- 
sected by a boulevard 105 ft. in width, descending towards the Rue 
de Rivoli. The whole market covers an area of 22 acres. Under the 
Halles are cellars of similar area and 12 ft. high, chiefly used for 
the storage of goods, etc.; those under the pavilion next the Rue 
Perger contain municipal electric motors. The front pavilions are 
occupied by retail-dealers, those behind by wholesale merchants, 
whose business also extends into the neighbouring streets in the 
early morning-hours. 

The provisions for the daily market begin to arrive on the previona 
evening, and bv daybreak the market is fully stocked. It is estimated 
that about 15.000 vehicles are employed in this traffic. The sales by 
auction to wholesale dealers last from 3 till 8 a.m. in summer (4-0 in wirfer) 
after which the retail traffic bofiins. About 500,000 fr. per day arc realised 

174 5. ST. EUSTACHE. 

in the wholesale market alone. The supplies, many of which come from 
Algeria , include meat , fish , poultry , game , oysters , vegetables , fruit, 
butter, and cheese. The show of cut flowers, especially in summer, is a 
charming sight. 

The produce annually brought to the Halles Centrales represents but 
a fraction of the food consumed in Paris, as not only are there several other 
'Halles', but many dealers import their own goods without the intervention 
of a market. According to the most recent calculations the average annual 
consumption per head of the population amounts to 325 lbs. of bread, 188 
quarts of wine, etc., 187 lbs. of meat, and 23 lbs. of fish. Reckoning the 
population at 2,536.800. we find that this amounts in round numbers to 
«24,400,000 lbs. of bread, 456,000,000 quarts of wine, 53^,700.000 lbs. of 
meat, and 67,500,000 lbs. of fish, of the value of fully a milliard of francs. 
Thus the daily bill of Paris for meat, wine, and bread alone amounts to 
about 3 million francs or 120,000Z. 

The *Chnrch of St. Eustache (PL R, 21 , 20 ; III), situated at the 
Pointe St. Eustache, to the N.W. of the Halles Centrales and at the 
end of the Rue Montmartre and Rue de Turbigo, is one of the most 
important churches in Paris. It was erected In 1532-1642, and 
presents a strange mixture of degenerate Gothic and Renaissance 
architecture. The disposition of the building is that of a Gothic 
church of the 15th cent., but the arches are round instead of pointed, 
the buttresses are in the form of composite pilasters, and the pillars 
consist of columns of different orders placed one above another. The 
ornamentation is in the Renaissance style. The ponderous W, portal, 
■with its Ionic and Doric columns, was added in 1755. The funeral 
rites of Mirabeau were solemnised in 1791 in this church, from 
which the body was conveyed to the Pantheon; and here was cel- 
ebrated the Feast of Reason in 1793. In 1795 the church was turned 
into a temple of agriculture. 

The Interior (entrance by the chief portal or by a side-door near the 
Rue Montmartre) consists of a graceful and loftv nave and double aisles, 
and is 348 ft. in length, 144 ft. in width, and 108 ft. in height. The cha- 
pels, entirely covered with painting, contain some fine ^Frescoes, illustrat- 
ing the history of the saints to whom they are dedicated. The paintings 
in the 4th and' 5th chapels to the right are" by Gourlier and. Magimel. The 
former also contains a marble relief of the Marriage of the Virgin, by Tri- 
queti, and the latter an Ecce Homo by Etex and a figure of Resignation by 
Chatrouste. — In the S. transept are bas-reliefs by Devers, six statues of 
Apostles by Bebay, and frescoes by Signal. — Farther on are five chapels 
adorned by Lariviire, Vaugelet, Lazerges, Cornn^ Pils, Damery^ Biennoury, 
and Signol. — The Chapelle de la Vierge, which we next reach, was added 
at the beginning of the present century. Over the altar is a fine statue 
of the Virgin by Pigalle (d. 1785). The frescoes are by Couture (d. 1879). 
— The next chapel, with frescoes by Bizard, contains the monument of 
Colbert (d. 1683), the able minister of finance of Louis XIV., consisting 
of a sarcophagus of black marble, with a kneeling figure of Colbert in 
white marble, by Coyzevox (d. 1720). At one end is a statue of Abundance 
by Coyzevox, at the other end one of Religion by Tuby (d. 1700). — The 
five other chapels flanking the choir contain frescoes by Delorme, Basset 
(early frescoes restored), Perruz^ Pichon (St. Genevieve), and FHix Barrias 
(St. Louis). — The short N. transept is also adorned with bas-reliefs 
and frescoes by the same masters as those in the S. transept, and statues 
of Apostles by Crauk and Hutson. Above a b^nitier is a fine group of 
Pope Alexander I., by whom the use of holy water was introduced. — 
Handsome N. portal, which faces a lane leading to the Rue Montmartre. 
Beyond the transept is the chapel of St. Eustache, who was a Roman general 


under the Emp. Titus, with frescoes by Le Hinaff. Lastly, four chapels 
with paintings by Basset (restorations), Riesener^ Marquis, and Olaize. 

The high-altar in white marble, the modern pulpit in carved wood 

by Moisy and Pyanet, the woodwork of the 'banc d'oeuvre' (stalls), and the 

Organ (one of the best instruments in Paris) are also worthy of note. 

St. Eustache is perhaps the leading church in Paris for Religious Music^ 

which is performed with the aid of an orchestra on important festivals. 

The Halles occupy the old March^ des Innocents, which -was 
once adorned -with the Fontaine des Innocents, a tasteful Renais- 
sance work by Pierre Lescot, but frequently altered. The fountain 
now occupies the centre of a square to the S.E. (PI. R, 23; //i), on 
the other side of the Halles. It originally stood with its back to the 
church of the Innocents (demolished in 1783), and had three arches 
only. It now presents the form of a square pavilion, the S. side, 
as well as the six steps of the base, having been added. The older 
figures of Naiads on the piers of the arches are by Jean Goujon, 
the three new Naiads by Pajou. Above are a rich entablature and 
an attic story with reliefs by different artists. 


The Rue de Turbigo (PI. R, 21 ; IIP), a handsome new street 
about 3/4 M. long, beginning at the Pointe St. Eustache, at the end 
of the Rue Montmartre, leads to the Place de la Republique (p. 74). 
It soon crosses the Rue Etienne-Marcel (p. 172), in which rises the 
Tour de Jean sans Peur, a fine specimen of the defensive archi- 
tecture of the 15th century. This tower, with its pinnacles and 
pointed arches, once belonged to the Hotel de Bourgogne, where 
the Confreres de la Passion established their theatre in 1548. Cor- 
neille's 'Cid' and Racine's 'Andromaque' and 'Phedre' were here 
performed for the first time. A handsome spiral staircase in the in- 
terior leads to the top. (Apply at 23 Rue Tiquetonne, at the back.) 

Farther on , the Rue de Turbigo crosses the Boulevard de Si- 
bastopol, which we follow to the left. At the end of a side-street, 
on the right, rises St. Nicolas-des-Champs (p. 17S). Farther on, 
also on the right side of the boulevard, is the pleasant Square dbs 
Arts et Mi^tiers (PI. R, 24; III). In its centre rises a column 
surmounted by a Victory in bronze, by Crauk, with a pedestal bearing 
the names of the Crimean victories. On each side are small basins, 
adorned with bronze figures of Agriculture and Industry, by Gumery, 
and Commerce and the Arts, by Ottin. On the S. side of the square 
is the Theatre de la GaUt (p. 34). 

The *Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers (PL R, 24; ///), the 
great industrial museum of Paris and also important as a teaching 
institution, was founded by decree of the Convention in 1794. The 
first idea of such an institution is attributed to Descartes (1596- 
1650), and it was put in practice by the celebrated engineer Vau- 
canson, who bequeathed to the state in 1783 his collection of ma-* 


chines, instruments, and tools, for the instruction of the working 

Since 1799 the collection has occupied the former Cluniac Priory 
of St. Martin des Champs^ bnilt in 1060 on the site of an earlier abbey 
and secnlarized in 1789. The building, though restored, altered, and 
completed in 1845, is not yet qnite disengaged from other edifices. 
The former church and refectory are the most interesting of the extant 
ancient parts. A small portion of the fortified enceinte (12th cent. ) 
still stands on the N., but can hardly be seen ; one of its towers has 
been re-erected to the left of the facade towards the Rue St. Martin. 
Beside this tower is the Fontaine du Vertbois, dating from 1712. 
The facade of the former Church, an interesting structure of the 
ll-13th cent., to the S., may be seen from the Rue St. Martin, 
through the railing. In front of it is the Monument of Boussingault 
(1802-1887), the chemist and agricultural writer, consisting of a 
bust on a pedestal preceded by bronze statues of Science and an 
Agriculturalist, by Dalou. The old Refectory (13th cent.), to the 
right of the main court, a beautiful Gothic hall with aisles, is 
attributed to Pierre de Montereau, the architect of the Sainte-Cha- 
pelle (p. 221). The Library (over 40,000 vols.) which it contains 
is open on Sun., 10-3, and on weekdays, except Men. and holidays, 
10-3 and 7.30-10. 

The projecting edifice with a platform, in the Cour d'Honneur, 
ill which is the entrance to the *Mtjseum, is a handsome modern 
addition, but so planned that the visitor has to ascend twenty-two 
steps and descend twenty -four before reaching the groundfloor. 
Beside the first staircase, to the right, is a bronze Statue of Papin 
(1647-1714), discoverer of the elasticity of steam, by Millet ; to the 
left, one of Nic. Leblanc (1742-1806), the inventor of the process 
of extracting soda from sea-salt, by HioUe. 

Admission, see p. 56. Sticks and umbrellas need not be left. — 
The exhibits ^upwards of 14,000) are divided into 24 categories, 
distinguished by capital letters, each category embracing several 
sub-divisions denoted by small letters. All the articles bear expla- 
natory labels. The accompanying plan will enable the visitor 1o 
choose his own course; and only the main divisions of each part 
are here mentioned. — Director, M. G. Tresca. 

Ground Floor. — The Vestibule; or ^ Salle de VEcho\ contains 
a model of the screw-steamer 'Danube' (1855), and a fine collection 
of Siberian jade and graphite, illustrating the numerous industrial 
applications of the latter mineral. The acoustic properties of the 
SaUe de I'Echo resemble those of the AVhispering Gallery at St. 
Paul's in London: words spoken quite softly in one corner of the 
saloon are distinctly audible in the angle diagonally opposite. 

West Wing (Mining und Metallurgy). Salle 1. Models of mines; 
tools, machinery, and apparatus for sinking mines. Round the room, 
specimens of minerals. — Salle 2 (to the right of Salle 1). Model of 

' *4 rpliysilii"! '■'■'S-' 


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the iron-works of Creusot; models of artillery, turret- forts, etc, — 
Sallb 3 (next S. 1). Models of iron-works and foundries; cabinets 
containing ore, raw iron, etc. — Sallk 4. Apparatus for forging 
and welding iron. — Salle 5 (parallel to S. 3j. Iron and steel 
rolling and forging. — Salle 6. Models of workshops of various 
kinds. — Salle 7 (next S. 4). Wood Industries. 

A passage, with agricultural implements, leads to the — 

FoKMER Church (Grarxde Salle des Machines). In the nave are 
various large machines, printing-machines, cycles; also a diagram 
showing the coal-production of France in 1789-1888. Opposite the 
entrance are a pendulum invented by Foucault. showing the move- 
ment of the earth on its own axis, and a glass globe about 5 ft. in 
diameter. In the choir, Cugnot's steam-carriage (^1770); ploughs. 

South Galleb.t (to the right as we return). Agriculture. Valu- 
able collection of ploughs and other agricultural implements ; heads 
of cattle ; anatomical specimens ; samples of grain and fruit. 

East Wixg. This whole wing, known as the 'Galeries Vau- 
canson', contains models of buildings and technical constructions of 
all kinds (Constructions Civiles). — Room 1. Agricultural buildings 
and apparatus; heating and ventilating apparatus; baths. — Central 
Room II. Social economy, provident institutions. — Room III. 
Models of locks and harbours ; railway and bridge construction; large 
model of the Viaduct of Garabit (Cantal). — Room IV. Excavating 
machines and dredgers; cranes; models of the bridge of El Cinca in 
Spain and of two lighthouses. 

Noeth G.^llery. Several rooms and a parallel corridor are occu- 
pied by building materials, tools, and models of factories. — Two 
rooms are devoted to geometry and drawing (Gtometrie descriptive'. 
— The corner room and the N. portion of the adjoining — 

West AVing (Geodesy, Astronomy, and Horology) are devoted to 
instruments of precision, chronometers, clocks, and watches. — The 
last room, on a lower level, contains Weights and Measures, ancient 
and modern, French and foreign. — We now regain the Salle de 
I'Echo (p. 1T6), and ascend the staircase to the — 

First Floor. Central Room, or Salle d'Honneur, at the top of 
the staircase. Apparatus made by Lavoisier, the chemist, or used 
in his laboratory ; original machines and apparatus. 

West Wing (to the right). Mechanical Recipients of force, such 
as wind-mills, water-wheels, turbines, etc. Steam Engines and parts 
of steam-machines. Railway Collection, including a model of the 
first locomotive with a tubular boiler, constructed by Marc Seguin 
in 1827. — Last Room : Mechanics. 

The staircase at the S. end of this wing ascends to two new rooms on 
the Second Floor^ containing lamps, electric machines, and the like. 

South Wing. General Physics. Apparatus for the investigation 
of fluid and gaseous bodies; Electricity, Magnetism, Heat. — Room 
at the end : Meteorology. 

Baedeker. Paris. 14th Edit. 12 


East Wing ['Galeries Vancanson'). Room I. (Physics). Acoustics 
and Optics; farther on, Telegraphy, Telephones. — Central Boom II. 
Turning-lathes and specimens of turned work. Several machines by 
Vaucanson. — Room III. Tools and Machine Tools; motors, pumps, 
hydraulic machines. The last room on this side and the — 

North Wing (Verrerie, Ceramique) are devoted to Glass and 
Pottery. In Room III are the 'Coupe de Travail', a large vase in Sevres 
porcelain designed by Die'terle, and a porcelain statue of Bernard 
Palissy. — Salle IV ( Chemical Arts). Manufacture of chemicals; 
dyeing and printing of textile fabrics and of wall-papers. — To 
the right is the N. portion of the — 

West Wing (Industrial Chemistry)^ where the arts of brewing, 
soap-boiling, candle-making, distilling, etc., are illustrated. 

Straight on from the N. wing we enter the — 

North Transverse Building. Rooms I-llI (Papeterie). Paper 
Making: raw materials, machinery, and finished products. The 
windows to the right afford a view of the old fortified enceinte of the 
abbey. — Rooms IY and V. Typography, Engraving, and Litho- 
graphy: tools, apparatus, machinery, and products. — Rooms YI and 
YII: Photography : apparatus and specimens; various applications. 

The W. wing (see above) is adjoined by the — 

SoLTH Transverse Building (Tiisage, Filature). Spinning and 
Weaving. — Section 1. Raw materials ; tools and machines for the 
preparation of textile fabrics. — Section 2. Spinning and weaving 
looms; in the middle, to the right, Fawcanson'« Loom (1745), in- 
tended to supersede the earlier looms in weaving cloth with patterns. 
This loom suggested to Jacquard the idea of the Jacquard loom with 
its cards. To the left, model of JacguarcCa Loom (1804). Specimens 
of woven fabrics. — Section 3. Silk fabrics; tapestry from the Gobe- 
lins and Beauvais. 

Courses of free Pcblic Lectures, embracing the variuns provinces of 
industrial activity, are delivered at the Conservatoire in the evening (see 
notices at the entrance). Some of the courses have audiences of 600; 
the average attendance is 250-300. 

The building to the N. (left) of the principal entrance contains the 
Porte/euiUe Indusiriel (open daily, 10-3, except Mon.), where drav^ings of 
the newest machinery are exhibited for copying or study. The plans 
and specifications of expired patents are deposited and trade marks are 
registered here. 

The Rue St. Martin, which passes in front of the Conservatoire 
des Arts et Metiers, leads to the N. to the neighbouring boulevard 
and the Porte St. Martin (p. 75). 

To the S. of the Conservatoire runs the Hue Reaumur (PI. R, 
24-21 ; 111), which begins at the Square du Temple (p. 210), and 
is continued in the direction of the Bourse, where it joins the Rue 
du Quatre-Septembre, thus forming an important thoroughfare parallel 
with the boulevards. To the right in this street, near the Conser- 


which was enlarged in the 15th cent., Avith a choir reconstructed 
in the Renaissance style. The handsome portal is flanked with a 
square tower on the right. The high-altar-piece is an Assumption 
by Vouet. The woodwork of the organ is also worthy of mention. 

The Rue Reaumur, to the left of the church, leads us back to 
the Rue de Turbigo, about 500 yds. from the Place de la R^publique. 
At the end of a short side-street to the left is the large Ecole Cen- 
trale des Arts et Manufactures (PI. R, 24; ///), built in 1878-84 by 
Deminuid and Denfer. This school, which was founded in 1829, is 
designed for the training of managers of industrial establishments, 
engineers, superintendents of public works, and teachers of in- 
dustrial subjects. The pupils are admitted by competitive examina- 
tion, and the course lasts three years. 

Farther on the Rue de Turbigo passes the Ecole Municipale 
Turgot, and the back of the church of Ste. Elisabeth, and soon 
reaches the Place de la Republique [p. 74). 


The Cemetery of Pere-Lachaise is nearly IV2M. distant from the Place 
de la Republique, and may be reached thence either by Cab ^ or by 
Electric Traniwatj (Romainville, see Appx. , p. 32) to the Boulevard de 
Menilmontant (p. 186), a few hundred yards to the N. of the main entrance. 
— Luncheon, eee p. ITi; the restaurants near the cemetery are inferior. 

The shortest route from the Boulevards to Pere-Lachaise is 
afforded by the Avexue de la Republique (PI. R, 27, 30; electric 
tramway, see above"), which was begun under Napoleon III. and 
finished in 1892. It crosses the N. end of the Boulevard Richard 
Lenoir (p. 72), but is on the whole uninteresting. At its E. end, 
to the left, is the large Lycee Voltaire. — In the Bonl. Richard 
Lenoir, at its intersection with the Boulevard Voltaire (which also 
begins at the Place de la Republique), stands the Monument Bc- 
billot, erected to the memory of French soldiers killed in Tonkin 
in 1883-85, with a bronze statue, by Aug. Paris, of Sergeant Bo- 
billot, who fell at Tuyen-Quan. — A little farther to the S.E. 
in the Boul. Voltaire, rises the handsome Romanesque church of 
St. Ambroise (PI. R, 29), erected by Ballu in 1863-69. The fa(;ade 
is flanked by two fine towers, 2"23 ft. high. Mural paintings in the 
interior by Lenepveu and stained glass by Marechal. 

To the E. of St. Ambroise, between the Rue Lacharriore and the Rue 
Rochebrune (PI. R,29), is the Square Paumi:stier, embe]li?hed with several 
statues, viz. The Conqueror of the Bastille, by Choppin ; The Straw-binder, 
by Perrin ; and '■>;on omnes morimur', by Pezieux, 

From the Place de la Bastille the Rue de la Roquettb (PI. R, 
25,26, 29) leads to Pere-Lachaise. About halfway, to the left, lies 
the Place Voltaire, with the Mnirie of the 11th ArrondisHmtnt and 
a statue of Ledru-RoUin (1807-74), 'the organiser of universal 
suffrage', by Steiner. Farther on, to the right, is the Prison de la 
Roquette, in which condemned convicts awaited their execution or 


180 5. PfeRE-LACHAISE. 

deportation. On the left is a Reformatory (^Petite Roquette')^ now 
disused. Between these two prisons, soon to he pulled down, is the 
former puhlic place of execution, marked hy five oblong'pavlng-stones. 
On 24tli May, 1871, during the Communard 'reign of terror', the Prison 
de la Roquette was the scene of the murder of the venerable Msgr. Darboy, 
Archbishop of Paris, the President Bonjean, the Abbe Deguerry, and three 
other priests, who had been seized by the Commune as 'hostages'. On 
26th and 2Tth May thirty-seven persons imprisoned here by the Commune 
under various pretexts were also shot, and on the night of the 26th twenty- 
eight gendarmes were conveyed from the Roquette to Pere-Lachaise, where 
they shared the same fate. On the afternoon of the 27th all the convicts 
confined in the Pioqnette were liberated. Arms were placed in their 
hands, and they at once proceeded to massacre the persons imprisoned 
by the Commune, including seventy gendarmes. The approach of the 
troops, however, fortunately saved many who would otherwise have fallen 
victims to the same spirit of revenge. 

Depots of tombstones and shops for the sale of wreaths and 
flowers now indicate that we are approaching the cemetery , which 
lies at the end of the Rue de la Roquette. 

*Pere-Lachaise (PI. R, 32), or the Cimetiere de VEst, the largest 
and most interesting of the Parisian burial-grounds, lies on a hill at 
the N. E. end of the town, and is named after Lachaise, the Jesuit 
confessor of Louis XIV., whose country-seat occupied the site of 
the present chapel. In 1804 the ground was laid out as a cemetery, 
the precincts of which have since been greatly extended, and it now 
covers an area of about 110 acres. It is the burial-place of the 
inhabitants of theN.E. part of Paris, but persons of distinction from 
other parts of the city also are generally interred here. 

On 30th March, 1814, the cemetery was the scene of an engagemen 
between Russian and French troops, in which the former were victorious. 
On the 25-27th May, 1871, a series of violent struggles took place between 
the Communards, who had taken up and barricaded a position here, and 
the Versailles troops advancing from the Place de la Republique and the 
Bastille. With the help of a heavy bombardment from the batteries of 
Montmartre the latter succeeded in dislodging the insurgents. 

Paris possesses 22 burial-grounds, of which the most important are 
those of Pere-Lachaise, Montmartre (p. 206j, and Montpamasse (p. 287). 
— A Concession Tt'entenaire, providing that the grave shall remain undis- 
turbed for 30 years , costs 3i(X) fr. •, a Concession Temporaire^ for 5 years, 
costs 50 fr. A Concession a perpituiU^ or private burial-place, may be 
secured for 1000 fr. These spaces are very limited, being about 227? sq. ft. 
only. The charge for a larger space is augmented in an increasing ratio, 
the price of each square metre (about ll'/a sq. ft.) beyond six being 3000 fr. 

All burials within the Department of the Seine are undertaken by the 
Compagnie des Pompes Funibres, Rue d'Aubervilliers 104, whose charges 
are regulated by tariff, varying from 3 fr. to 7184 fr., exclusive of the 
price of the coffin f44-60 fr.) and the fee of the officiating clergyman. A 
'civir interment costs from 9 to 2215 fr. The poor are buried gratuitously, 
mostly in the. cemeteries outside the precincts of the city. 

Cemeteries open at 7 a.m. and close at 4.30-7 p.m. according 
to the season, Half-an-hour before the closing of the gates a bell is 
rung, and the custodians call out, ^ On ferme les portes\ allowing 
ample time for visitors to reach the gates. Visitors are not permitted 
to carry anything out of the cemetery without a ^laisser-passer. 

5. p£re-lachaise. 181 

It may be observed here that it is the invariable custom for men 
to take off their hats on meeting a funeral procession, whether in 
the cemetery or in the public streets. 

Conducteurs will be found at the small building to the right on 
entering, but their services (5-6 fr., or less, according to agreement) 
are rendered unnecessary by the accompanying plan, unless the 
visitor is much pressed for time. 

Even a superficial survey of the most interesting monuments 
in the cemetery will occupy 2-3 hours. On All Saints' Day (Jour 
de la Toussaint) and All Souls' Day (Jour des Morts; November 
1st and 2nd) it is visited by about 130,000 people. The number 
of monuments in this vast necropolis amounts to about 20, 000, many 
of which are deeply interesting as memorials of illustrious persons, 
while others are noteworthy on account of their artistic excellence. 
Well-shaded walks and avenues intersect each other in every direc- 
tion, and many of them afford an admirable view of the city. 

Avenue Peincipale, To the left, Rich. Pineyro (d. 1875), the 
marble monument of a child, with a figure of Hope. We continue to 
follow this avenue, ascending on the left, and descending on the 
right side. At the corner of a side-avenue, Eugene Berge (d. 1882; 
aged 15 years), monument with beautifully sculptured floral and 
other ornamentation ; Visconti^ father (d. 1818), philologist, and son 
(d. 1853), architect; Dantan[i. 1842), sculptor; Rossini (^i. 1868), 
composer (whose remains, however, were removed to Florence in 
1887) ; Alfred de Mussel (d. 1857), poet (beautiful lines inscribed 
on the monument, written by the deceased); Ph. Beclard (d. 1864), 
ambassador, with statue of Grief, by Crauk; Clement- Thomas and 
Lecomte (d. 1871), the first victims of the Commune (p. 205), with 
sculptures by Cugnot; Lebas (d. 1873), the engineer who erected 
the obelisk in the Place de la Concorde; *Paul Baudry (d. 1886), 
painter, with bronze bust and statue by A. Mercie. In the middle 
of the avenue is the *Monum€nt aux Morts, by Bartholome (1899); 
a troop of mortals, with varying expressions of hope and grief, press 
towards the open portal of a tomb, already crossed by two of their 
number. A monument to Felix Faure (d. 1899), with a recumbent 
statue by St. Marceaux, is to be erected to the right. — Chapel and 
upper part of the cemetery, see pp. 183 et seq. 

Descending on the other side : Th. Couture (d. 1879), painter, 
with a bust and genii in bronze by E. Barrias ; Ledru-Rollin (p. 179), 
with a bronze bust by Garraud ; Victor Cousin {&. 1867), the philo- 
sopher; Auber (d. 1871), the composer, with a bust by Dantan; 
Em. Baroche (d. 18701, killed at Le Bourget, with a bust by Courtel ; 
P. J. Baroche (d. 1870), the politician; Lefebure-Wely (d. 1869). 
musical composer; Perdonnet (^i.. 1867), engineer, with a statue 
and medallion by Dubray ; Fr. Arago (d. 1853\ the astronomer, with 
a bust by David d'Angers; Mouton.^ with a fine bas-relief by Menu. 

We now enter the Avbnub du Puits, to the left, — In the side- 

182 5. PfiRE-LACHAISE. 

walk to the left : Paul de St. Victor (d. 1881), the author, bust by 
Guillaume ; behind, Berthelier (d. 1882), bust by Rougelet. Farther 
on, to the left: P. L. Dulong {^. 1838), chemist and physician, 
obelisk with medallion by David d'Angers. 

We here turn to the right to visit the Jewish Cemetery. To 
the right, Elke Rachel (d, 1858), the tragedian. Farther on, to the 
left of the walk, the chapel of the Rothschild family. At the end, 
Mme. Fould (d. 1839), well known for her benevolence. — Then, 
to the left, — 

*Abelard (d. 1141) and Helolse (d. 1163), sarcophagus with re- 
cumbent statues, beneath a Gothic canopy, reconstructed from the 
fragments of old monuments by Lenoir (p. 248), and lately restored. 
— We now follow the Chemin Serre, to the right, to the monument 
of L. Cogniet (d. 1830), the painter, with medallion, then retrace 
our steps and ascend to the left by the Chemix Lebrun. On the 
right : Baron Desbassayns (d. 1850). with a weeping figure by Ricci. 
On the left : Fr. Lebrun (d, 1824), Duke of Piaeenza, Third Consul 
after the 18th Brumaire, and translator of Homer and Tasso, as in- 
dicated by the genii. On the right: Victims of June, 1832. In front, 
Lapomeraye, the physician, with bust and relief by Fontaine. On 
the left : Marshal Lauriston (d. 1823). 

Grand Rond, from which five avenues radiate. — In the centre: 
*Casimir Perier [d. 1832), minister of Louis Philippe, statue by 
Cortot. To the N., *Raspail (d. 1878), the famous democrat and 
physiologist, with a fine relief by Etex, in memory of the death of 
Raspail's wife during his imprisonment in 1848. — Behind, to the 
right: *Crusol d'Uzes[di. 1815), general; handsome allegorical bas- 
reliefs. Farther on, to the left, Monge (d. 1820), mathematician and 
member of the Convention in 1793. 

We skirt the Rond to the S., passing the grave of the *Moreau- 
Vauthier family, with a fine statue of a mourner by the sculptor 
Moreau-Vauthier , then enter Division 13, between the Avenue 
Perier and the Avenue de la Chapelle, and descend the Chemin 
Me'hul to the Chemin Dbnon. In the last, to the right: *Chopin 
(d. 1849), the composer, with medallion and the figure of a mourn- 
ing Muse, by Cle'singer. Behind: Wilhem (d. 1842), composer, 
medallion by David. To the left, at the foot of a small flight of steps, 
Gareau, with a beautiful figure of a weeping woman. To the left, 
Oohier (d. 1830), president of the Directory, medallion by David; 
*Denon (d. 1825), director of museums under Napoleon I., statue 
by Cartellier. On the right: C/i€ru6mi (d. 1842), the composer, bas- 
relief by Dumont. We now ascend to the right and, opposite the 
grave of Talma (d. 1826), the famous tragedian, we enter the so- 
called 'artists' division', one of the oldest in the cemetery. To the 
left: the two Brongniarts , the mineralogist (d. 1847), and the 
architect (d. 1813); on the right, '^Tamberlick (d. 1889), the tenor, 
with an angel strewing flowers, by Godebski. At the end of the 

5. PfiRE-LACHAISE. 183 

allee, Delille (d. 1813), the poet, a neglected but very picturesque 
tomb. Behind: Bellini (d. 1835), the composer, whose remains 
have been removed to Catania, his native place; Oretry (d. 1813) 
and Boleldieu (d. 1834), composers. 

Ascending now to the Avenue de la. Ciiapelle, we follow it to 
the left (N.W.). On the left, a little before the open space: Geri- 
cault (d. 1824), the painter, statue and bronze relief by Etex. In 
front of the chapel, whence we have a fine view of Paris, is the 
Monument de Souvenir^ a truncated column surrounded with wreaths. 
Just to the W., David (d. 1825), the painter, with medallion. 

The Cemetery Chapel itself contains nothing noteworthy. — To 
the right is the monument of Ad. Thiers (d. 1877), the celebrated 
statesman, consisting of a large and elaborate chapel by Aldrophe. 
Above the fine bronze doors is a relief of the Genius of Patriotism, 
by Chapu. The interior contains a group, by Mercie, representing 
Thiers rising to answer the summons of Immortality, and reliefs by 
Chapu, of the Liberation of French Soil, and the Genius of Im- 
mortality. The sarcophagus rests in an open crypt. — To the left: 
Befter (d. 1880), professor at the Conservatory of Music; relief of 
Music. Adjoining: Baron Taylor {d. 1879), traveller and author, 
marble statue by Thomas. Then,to the right : Count Deaeze^i. iS2S'), 
one of the defenders of Louis XVI. ^Cartellier (d. 1831), sculptor; 
bust by Rude, bas-reliefs by Seurre. 

Avenue Feuillant , to the left of the chapel. On the left, Re- 
naissance chapel of the Urth family; to the right, farther on, Tirard 
(d. 1893), statesman, with a relief of Duty, by St. Marceaux, — In 
the walk behind the cemetery chapel : *Guerinot (d. 1891), architect, 
statue of a weeping woman, by Barrias. 

\ye now follow the Chemin Bertholle, then take the Chemin du 
Bassin on the left, and farther on, the Chemin MoLii:RE et Lafon- 
TAiNE. At the beginning, to the left, Pradier (d. 1852), the sculptor. 
Farther on, to the right, Gay-Lussac (d. 1850), the chemist. To the 
right of the Chemin Laplace, which begins nearly opposite : Laplace 
(d. 1827), mathematician. A little way back: Count d'Aboville 
(d. 1843), general, with two cannon. Farther on, Gros (d. 1835), 
painter; and, farther off, the large obelisk of Countess Gemont. To 
the left of the path : Count de Valence (d. 1822^, general. Behind : 
Daubigny (d. 1878), painter, with a bust. Corot (d. 18751, painter, 
with bronze bust. — A little farther up the Chemin Moliere, on the 
left, the sarcophagi of Lafontaine [i. 1695), fabulist, and Moliere 
(d. 1673), dramatist, transferred hither in 1817. 

We return to Pradier's monument and turn to the E. into the 
CHEnrx DU Dragon. To the right. Buret (d. 1865"), sculptor, with 
bas-relief and medallion ; to the left, at a corner, Gaudin (d. 18411, 
Duo de Gaete, minister; to the right the superb mausoleum of the 
*Demidoff Umily ;* Geoffrey Saint- Hilaire (d. 1844), naturalist, med- 
allion by David; to the left. Admiral Bruat (d. 1855); to the right, 

184 5. PfiRE-LACHAISE. 

Borne (d. 1837), German poet, "bust and "bas-relief by David; to 
the left, *Foy (d. 1825), a general and celebrated orator; statue and 
reliefs by David; behind, Daunou (d. 1840), historian, medallion 
by David. Behind the three columns is the common grave of Manuel 
(d. 1827), popular deputy, and Beranger (d. 1857), the poet, with 
bronze medallions. Farther on : to the right, *Baron Oobert^ a general 
killed in Spain in 1808, and his son (d. 1833), a group and bas- 
relief by David. Opposite : Beaumarchais (d. 1799), dramatist. To 
the right. Winsor (A. 1830), promoter of gas-lighting; to the left, 
Marshal Massena (d. 1817), monument by Bosio and Jacques; Marshal 
Lefebvre (d. 1820) ; to the right, General Ruty (d. 1823) ; to the left, 
Marshal Sachet (d. 1826). Opposite tlie end of the path, to the right, 
Eugene Scribe (d. 1861), dramatist. 

We here ascend the steps to the left, near the top of which, on 
the right, begins the Avenue Pacthod, which soon crosses the Avenue 
Transversale No. IT. At the corner : *Clara Bancroft (d. 1882), bronze 
relief by Chapu. Farther on in the Avenue Pacthod : left , Aigon 
(d. 1884), sculptor; Boussingault (d. 1887; p. 176); *Lenoir', right, 
Br. Reliquet (d. 1894); Eugene Delaplanche (d. 1891), sculptor. 

There are few more tombs in this direction beyond the Avenue Trans- 
versale No. Ill, except below to the right and at the corner of the cem- 
etery, beside the Muv des FM^res^ against which the Communards taken in 
the cemetery with arms in their hands were shot in 1871 at the end of the 
insurrection. Demonstrations annually take place here on the anniversary 
of the event, and numerous red wreaths are hung on the wall. 

We return to the Avenue Transversale No. II, and proceed 
to the W. Right, A. QUI [A. 1887), caricaturist, bronze bust by 
L. Coutan. Fred. Cournet, journalist, bronze bust by Syamour. Left, 
Moris, sculptor, bronze statue by himself. Right: *A. Terry (d. 1886), 
a handsome Renaissance chapel, with four statues by A. Lenoir. A 
few paces behind, Vuidet (d. 1891), composer of sacred music, with 
bronze statue by Aube. Beyond Terry, * Victor Noir^ journalist killed 
in 1870 by Prince Pierre Bonaparte; recumbent statue by Dalou. 
*De Ycaza (d. 1890), another fine Renaissance chapel, with a group 
of statues inside and a bas-relief outside, by Puech. In the next 
side-avenue (Avenue Carette) to the left : right, *A. Blanqui (d. 1881), 
revolutionary; recumbent statue by Dalou. [To the E., beyond the 
Avenue Transversale No. Ill, left, *Le Royer (d. 1897), president of 
the senate, statue by d'Hondain ; close by, in the Avenue Trans- 
versale No. Ill, Alize Ozi. with an allegorical statue by Dore'.] Farther 
on in the Avenue Transversale No. II, to the left, E. Eudes (d. 1888), 
revolutionary, bronze bust by T. Noel ; ^Josephine Verazzi (d. 1879), 
marble group by Malfatti. 

To the right is situated the Crematorium, opened in 1889, but 
as yet little used (admission by special permission only). 

To the right, near the W. end of the Avenue Transversale No. II, 
stands the magnificent *Chapelle Yakovleff, in the Byzantine style, 
with paintings on a gold ground, by Fe'doroff, and opposite is the 

5. PfiRE-LACHAISE. 185 

grave of the *Ruel family, with a group and medallion by Deschamps. 
The adjoining door leads to a public Garden, laid out in 1890 on the 
hillside, between the cemetery and the Avenue Oambetta, which ends a 
little farther on to the right, near the Place Garabetta (p. 186). 

The Avenue de la. Nouvelle Entree, near the Crematorium, 
leads back towards the centre of the cemetery. At a little distance to 
the left, Marquis de Casariera, a large chapel containing a statue. 
Kardec (d. 1869), 'fondateur de la philosophie spiritiste', a monument 
in the form of a dolmen, with a bronze bust by Capellaro. To the left : 
Mme. Rouvier (d. 1888), better known as Claude Vignon , bronze 
bust by herself. — We now follow the Chemin du Quinconce, on the 
right of Kardec , to the Chemin des Anglais , at the beginning of 
which, on the left, is *Triqueti (d. 1874), sculptor, bas-relief by him- 
self. Raising of Lazarus. Farther on, right : Admiral Sir Sidney Smith 
(d. 1840), who defeated Napoleon at St. Jean d'Acre in 1799. — We 
retrace our steps to Triqueti, turn to the left, and re-enter the — 

Avenue Teansvbrsale No. I. At the end : Felix de Beaujour 
(d. 1836), a conspicuous pyramid 105 ft. in height, visible from the 
Arc de I'Etoile, and commonly called the 'pain de suore', erected 
by himself at a cost of 100,000 fr. — Nearer the path : Bias Santos ; 
a lofty pyramid with sculptures by Fessard (1832). — To the right, 
General de Wimpffen (d. 1884), bronze bust by Richard; farther 
down, A. Florens (d. 1885), fine bas-relief by Boussard. 

We return and follow the path on the other side of the 'pain de 
Sucre'. On the left: Beauce (d. 1875), painter. Right: Em. 
Souvestre (d. 1854); Balzac (d. 1850), with bronze bust by David; 
left: Nodi€r(^d. 1844); C. Delavigne (d. 1843): four well-known 
authors. At the corner to the right : Mme. de Faverolles, with sculp- 
tures by V. Dubiay; Delphine Camhaceres, with bust by Jouandot; 
Lachambeaudie (d. 1872), fabulist; Soulie(d. 1847), novelist. 

At the Rond-Point is an obelisk to the municipal workmen 
killed by accidents (Victime-i du Devoir). The paths which radiate 
from this point in all directions contain many interesting tombs, 
besides forming a kind of museum of modern sculpture. — We begin 
with the Chemin Delavigne, to the right of the monument Delavigne 
(see alove). To the left: H. Chenavard (d. 18^0), painter; A. L. 
Barye (d. 1875), sculptor; E. Delacroix (d. 1864), painter. On the 
other side as we return, Andrianoff (d. 1857), Russian 'danseuse' 
(in a side -walk, Crozatier, sculptor; d. 1855); Buloz [d. 1877), 
editor of the 'Revue des Deux Mondes' ; Delpech (d. 1863), engineer ; 
*Michelet(d. 1875), the historian, high-relief by Mercie. — Chemin 
DU Bastion: '^ Chaplin (d. iS2i)^ painter, monument by Puech; Belloc 
(d. 1806), painter, bust by Itasse. — In front, adjoining the Rond- 
Point, *Duc de Morny (d. 1865), politician and minister, a natural 
brother of Napoleon III., chapel designed by VioUet-le-Duc. — 
Chemin db Montlouis: to the right, Maquet (d. 1888), collabora- 
teur of Dumas, bronze medallion by Allar; farther on, to the left, 

186 5. Pi:RE-LACHAISE. 

*Barbedienne (d. 1892), manufactiiier of bronzes, with a bust by 
Cbapu and three figures by A. Boucher. 

Avenue des Ailantes: to the left, E. Adam (d. 1877), bust in 
bronze by A. Millet. Th. Barriere (d. 1887), author, with marble 
bust; Ricord (d. 1889), physician, a fine Renaissance chapel; 
^Countess d'Agoult (d. 1873), who wrote as ^Daniel Stern\ with 
sculptures by Chapu. — By the Eond-Point: ^'Dorian (d. 1873), 
minister during the siege of Paris, bronze statue by A. Millet. 

We now quit the Rond-Point by the Avenue Cail. To the left, 
Desclee (d. 1874), actress. At the fork, on the right, *Croce-SpineUi 
and Sivel (d. 1875), victims of a balloon accident ; recumbent figures 
in bronze, by Dumilatre. — We here turn to the left and enter the 
Avenue Circulaire : to the left, Cleray [i. 1882), bronze bust by 
Taluet; Bazillet (d. 1873), gardener to the city of Paris ; to the right, 
*Jean Raynaud (d. 1863), philosopher and publicist, with figure of 
Immortality by Chapu and bronze medallion by David. Ch. Rosslgnol 
(d. 1889), rich Renaissance chapel, with marble bust, statuettes, 
cross, and ornaments by Boisseau. Opposite, Cail (d. 1858), en- 
gineer, a large domed chapel. To the right, National Guards killed 
at Buzenval [iQth. J a.n., 1871), and *Soldiers who fell at the siege in 
1870-71 ; a pyramid of granite with four bronze statues of soldiers 
by Schrceder and Lefevre, To the left, Bernard, marble angel by 
Durand; ^-Carvalho (d. 1897), director of the Opera Comique, and 
Mme. Molan-Carva'.ho fd. 1895), the singer, his wife, monument by 
Mercier. Farther on : ^Anjuhault (d. 1868), mechanician ; a 'pleu- 
reuse' by Maillet. "^Walewski (d. 1868), statesman; a large and 
handsome mausoleum. Opposite : Carlier family, bronze group by 
E. Carlier. To the left, Ch. Floquet (d. 1896), statesman, bust by 
Dalou; Anatole de in Forge (d. 1892), defender of St. Quentin in 
1870; bronze statue byE. Barrias. Alphand (i. 1891), city engineer, 
bronze bust by Coutan ; H. Cernuschi (d. 1896; p. 199), stele with 
bas-relief by A. Carles. 

From this point we may follow the Avenue Circulaire to the 
Avenue Principale and the main entrance. 

The Avenue Qamhetta is prolonged to the W. of Pere-Lachaise, skirt- 
ing the cemetery (garden; p. 185). to the Place Gambetta, fonnorlythe 
Place des Pyr^nies, in which is the ifairie of the 20th Arronditsemeni f3Ienil- 
montant; PI. Pi,, 32), with paintings by Glaize and Bin. From the Edpital 
Tenon (918 beds) the Mairie is separated by a square, embellished with a 
bronze group, by L. Michel, representing the Lame and the Blind. The 
Avenue Gambetta is continued, to the left, to the Reservoirs de la Dhuis 
fp. 187). — The Place Gambetta is parsed by the tramway from the Cours 
de Vincennes to St. Augustin (TAD), bv which we may procceed to the 
Buttes Chaumont (p. 201). 

About V2 M. to the X. of Pere-Lachaise, on a height to the right of the 
Boulevard de Me'nilmontant, rises the conspicuous church of Xotre-Dame- 
de-la-Croix (PI. R, 30i, a fine Romanes lue edifice, built in 1865-70 by Heret, 
with a spire rising above the portal. 

Near this church is a station of the Chemin de Fer de Ceinlure (see Appx., 


p. 34), and the omnibus-line (from Mt'nilmontant to the Gare Montpar- 
nasse) passes it. Other lines of omnibuses and tramways, see the Appendix. 
The Rue M^nilniontant and Rue St. Fargeau lead to the E. from the 
church to (1/4 hr.) the Reservoirs de la Dhuis (PL R, 36l, which supply 
the E, quarters of Paris with water. The Dhtiii is a tributary of the Sur- 
melin, which itself joins the Marne, near Chateau-Thierry. The water 
is coaducted a distance of 80 M., with a fall of only 60 ft., and reaches 
Paris at the height of 350 ft. above sea-level or 260 ft. above the quays. 
The reservoirs (visitors admitted 5 entrance, Rue St. Fargeau 86) resemble 
those of the Vanne (p, QCOj. 

6. Neighbourhood of the Exchange and Quartiers de 
la Chaussee-d'Antin and de I'Europe. 

The following walk should be taken on a Tuetday or a Friday^ as the 
Bibliotheque Nationale is open on these days. Spare time, before the li- 
brary is open, may be spent in visiting the Church and Place des Victuires. 
The Exchange may be visited daily from 12.30 to 3 p.m. — Restaurants 
at the Palais-Royal or on the boulevards, see pp. 16; 17. 


Bibliotheque Nationale. 

The Rue de Richelieu (Y\. R, 21; //) , a street 1000 yds. in 
length, which passes on the W. side of the Palais-Royal, leads direct 
from the lower end of the Avenue de I'Ope'ra (p. COJ to the 'Grands 

We first observe on the left, at the corner of the Rue Moliere, 
the Fontaine Moliere, erected in 1844 to the memory of the famous 
dramatist, who died in 1673 at No. 40 Rue de Richelieu (not No. 34 
as frequently stated). The monument is in the Renaissance style, 
51 ft. high and 21 ft. wide, and was designed by Visconti. The 
statue of Moliere is by Seurre, while the muses of serious and light 
comedy are by Pradier. 

Farther on , the Rue de Richelieu crosses the Rae des Petits- 
Champs, leading to the right to the Place des Victoires (p. 192). 
Then to the right is the Bibliotheque Nationale, opposite the prin- 
cipal entrance to which (farther on) is the *Fontaine Richelieu, or 
Louvois, in bronze, by Visconti, with statues by Klagmann repre- 
senting the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, and the Saone. It stands 
in the small Square Louvois, on the site of the old Grand-Opera, on 
leaving which the Due de Berri was assassinated in 1820, and which 
was taken down in consequence. 

The *BibIiotheque Nationale (PI. R, 21; IT), formerly called 
the Bibliotheque du Koi, and afterwards the Bibliotheque Imperiale, 
will, on the completion of the portion in the Rue Vivienne (comp. 
PI., p. 188), occupy the entire block of buildings bounded by the 
Rues de Richelieu, des Petits-Champs, Vivienne, and Colbert. The 
library stands on the site of the palace of Cardinal Mazarin (d. 1661), 
the powerful minister of Louis XIII. and Louis XIV., but almost 
every trace of the old building has been removed in the process of 


extension and alteration. The handsome facades in the Rue Vivienne 
and the Rue des Petits-Champs are modern. 

The library may, perhaps, be dated back even to the MSS. collected 
by the Carlovingiaas. St. Louis (d. 1270) had a library in a side-chamber 
of the Sainte Chapelle (p. 221). More important was the collection of 
Charles V. ('Le Sage'), which, however, was sold to the Duke of Bedford 
in 1425. The real founder of the present library may be recognized in 
Louis XL fd. 1515), who collected the books of his predecessor, Charles VIII., 
in the Chateau of Blois, and acquired the libraries of the Sforza of Milan 
and of the Gruthuuse family of Bruges. Francis I. (d. 1517) removed the 
collection (consisting of about 1900 vols.) to Fontainebleau and busied 
himself in its enlargement. It was he who decreed that a copy of every 
work printed in France should be furnished to the royal library, though 
it was long before this requirement was properly observed. A little later 
the library was removed to Paris. Henri IV. (d. 1610) deposited it in the 
suppressed Jesuit College de Clermont, and used the proceeds of the con- 
fiscated property of the Order to provide the books with handsome bind- 
ings. Under Louis XIV. (1643-1715) the library was greatly enlarged by 
the purchase of several valuable collections. In 1774, in the reign of 
Louis XV.., the library was hnally, on the suggestion of the librarian Ahhi 
Bignon^ accommodated in the Hotel Mazarin. At the Revolution the books 
of the religious orders were united with the Ivational Library. The library 
now contains upwards of 3,000,000 volumes. Its book-shelves arranged in 
line would extend to a distance of 35 M. A General Catalogue is in pre- 
paration, but so far only two volumes have appeared. — The present General 
Director is M. Leopold Delisle. 

The Bibliotheque Nationale, probably the most extensive in the 
world, is divided into four departments: (1) Printed Books and 
Maps (Imprimis et Cartes); (2) MSS. ( Manuscrits) ; (3) Engravings 
(Estampes); (4) Medals and Antiques (Medailles et Antiques). 

The Salle Puhlique de Lecture (public reading room ; entrance 
by No. 3 Rue Colbert) is open daily from 9 a.m. till 4, 6, or 6 p.m. 
(according to the season), with the exception of the nine days from 
Palm Sunday to Easter Monday. The Salle de Travail (hall for 
study; entrance in the Rue de Richelieu) is open at the same hours, 
except on Sundays, holidays, and the two weeks before Easter; it 
is, however, reserved for persons provided with a reader's ticket by 
the 'administration' (p. 189). 

The Salle de Travail contains seats for 334 persons. On entering the 
visitor receives a slip of paper ('bulletin''), on which he writes his name 
and address and the number of the seat he has selected. At the bureau, 
to the right and left of which are catalogues of the acquisitions since 1884, 
he receives smaller slips, which he fills in with the titles of the books 
desired and then returns, along with the larger slip, to the librarians. 
He then waits till the book is brought to him. No applications are re- 
ceived within one hour of the hour of closing. On returning the books, 
the reader receives the larger bulletin back , stamped and bearing the 
titles of the books. He gives it up to the official at the exit. Visitors are not 
permitted to quit either of the Salles with books, papers, or portfolios in 
their hands, without a 'laisser-passer' from one of the librarians. For 
farther details, see the notices affixed to the doors of the diflferent saloons. 
— Foreign scholars and students visiting the library receive the most 
cordial reception and assistance. 

The most interesting books, MSS., engravings, and medals are 
exhibited in special rooms, to which the public is admitted free on 
Tuesday and Friday, 10-4. 



C o I 1) e -r t 

Salle de I.ectaire (L^^et 



Entre e TOiocip ale 

h ' 'i Salle Q* I ^ 

^apres JLPa 

Qr^r^f p; '.Topri^tie T)a2- "^VaeTier tDe'bPS. Leipzig 


Under the archway leading to the principal court (Cour d'Hon- 
neur) from the Rue de Richelieu are statues of Printing, by Labatut, 
Writing, by Coutan, Copper-Plate Engraving, by J. Hugues, and Die 
Cutting, by J. Becquet. In the middle, directly in front, are the 
offices of the Administration. To the right is a short flight of steps, 
acsending to the lower vestibule, where a Sevres vase has been placed 
to commemorate the share of the French savants in the observations 
of the Transit of Venus in 1884. Opposite the entrance is the Salle 
de Travail. To the right is a small refreshment room. The stair- 
case to the left, at the end of the vestibule, leads to the first floor. 
To the right is the entrance to the — 

Dbpartementdes Estampbs, which contains more than 2,500,000 
plates bound up into volumes (14,500) or arranged in portfolios 
(4000). A number of the most interesting are exposed to view at 
the same hours as the printed books and manuscripts (comp. p. 188). 

The staircase ascends to the upper vestibule , containing the 
drawings made during Napoleon's expedition to Egypt (1798) and 
some Phoenician inscriptions. Facing the staircase is the small 
Galerie des Charles. To the right is the department of MSS. 
(100,000 volumes). To the left are the department of Maps (Cartes) 
and the — 

Salles d Exposition des Imprimis et des Manuscrits (admission, 
see p. 188). They contain the chief treasures of the library, some 
of them beautifully illuminated and magnificently bound. These 
two rooms are on the first floor, facing the Rue Vivienne. The 
second, the Galerie Mazarine, is a remarkably fine saloon, belonging 
to the original palace of Card. Mazarin All the objects are la- 
belled ('Notice des Objets exposes', 5 fr.). 

Room I. In the centre, the French Parnassus, a group in bronze 
representing the chief French authors and artists of the 17th cent. , by 
Louis Gamier. In the glass-cases I-lII, V, superb bindings, with the arms 
of the kings of France from Francis I. downwards. In Case IV., by the 
window: 369. Christianismi Eestitutio, by Michael Servetus. a work which 
led to the author's death at the stake in Geneva (1553); 371, 372. Hippo- 
crates and Theophrastus, with the autograph of Rabelais ; 373. Philo Juda'us, 
with Montaigne's signature; 374. Sophocles, annotated by Racine; 376. 
Manuscript music by Rousseau. 

Room II. This large saloon, called the ^'QaleiHe MazaiHne, has a fine 
ceiling-painting by Eomanelli (1617-62) representing heroic and legendary 
scenes. On ihe walls are busts of benefactors of the library. 

The cabinets and glass-cases contain (1st half of the saloon) early 
works printed in France, Holland, Germany, Italy, and Spain. — In 
Case IX. are a copy of the first printed Bible (dated 1456 and perhaps 
from the press of Gutenberg) and a psalter by Fust and SchOffer (1457j. — 
XXVII-XXIX. : books printed at Paris, many of them with miniatures. Case 
VI, in the middle of the room, contains a collection of costly bindings, 
made for the Kings of France and celebrated bibliophiles. Many are from 
the library of Jean Groner (d. 1565), who introduced the Italian love of 
artistic binding into France. 

Second half of the gallery : MSS. from the 5th to the 15th century. Cabinet 
X. (to the right): Portrait of John II., le Bon (d. 1364); below, 4, Roll 
with the oldest catalogue of the library (time of Charles V.). — XI. French 
MSS.: 176. Nithard's History., containing the text of the kings' oath taken 


at Strassburg in 842, the oldest monument of the French language (lOlh 
cent.); 187. Alhum of Villars d'Eonnecouri ^ the architect (I8th cent,); 
191. Acta of the Templar Trial of 13uy-, 196. Acta of the trial of Joan of 
Arc. — XII. MSS. of Italy, Spain. England, and Germany: 139. Genoese 
Annals of Caffaro {12-13tii cent.); iU. Fetr arch's 'De viris illus'ribus' (Uth 
cent.); 147. Dante's 'Divina Commedia' (14th cent.). — XIII. Latin MSS.: 
102. Livy (5th cent.) ; no number, wax tablets with accounts of the 13-14th 
centuries. — XIV. Mexican MSS. — XV. Oriental and American MSS. — 
XVII. Greek MSS. — XIX. Illuminated MSS. — XX. MSS. formerly 
belonging to kings and queens of France, including the Gospels of Chai^le- 
magne, Louis the Pious, and Lothawe. — Cases XVI XVIII, nnd XXXII. 
Autographs: 308- Mary Stuart; 303. Bu Gueschn; 839. HenrilV.; 342. Pascals 
'Pense'es sur la Keligiou'; 314. Bosstiet (Sermons'); 315 Finelon ('Tele- 
maque'); Rousseau; Voltaire; Mme. de Sivigni ; Racine ; Moliire ; CorneHle. — 
XXX, XXXI. Sumptuous bindings of the middle ages, adorned with 
ivory, jewels, bronze, and chains. 

At the end, to the right, is the work-room of the Section des 
Cartes et Collections OeograpMques. 

The *Cabinet dbs Mbdailles bt Antiques (admission, see 
p. 188} has an entrance of its own in the Rue de Richelieu, the door 
beyond the police-station when approached from the Boulevards, 
and the first when approached from the Palais-Royal (visitors ring). 
It contains an extensive collection of Medals (200,000) and Antiques, 
comprising gems, intaglios and cameos, small works of art, glass, 
vases, arms, and other curiosities. 

Vestibule. On the wall at the back: Zodiacal Monument from the 
Temple of Bend era ^ Egypt, a work of the Roman empire. On the left the 
Chamber of the Kings from Karnak, constructed by Thotmes III. (18th Dy- 
nasty), with important inscriptions. 

On the Staircase and in the Anteroom (if closed, visitors ring) at the 
top: Stelse, and Greek and Latin, Coptic and Phoenician inscriptions. — 
On the left is the — 

Grande Galerie. The glass-cases in the centre are subdivided into 
sections, from left to right. Case I. Cylinders with cuneiform inscriptions, 
and cut gems from Assyria, Chaldsea, and Persia; also antique intaglios. 
In the centre of the last division, second row : '1815. Achilles playing the 
lyre, in amethyst, signed Pamphilos. — Case II. : Intaglios and cameos 
of ancient, mediaeval. Renaissance, and modern times, most of them in 
sardonyx and of considerable artistic value. Some of them are in settings 
of gold or enamel, dating from the time when they were regarded with 
veneration as religious amulets. Among others, from left to right: 3rd 
Division, 2391. Jupiter enthroned, between Mars and Mercury, in cornelian ; 
2396. Abundance and Peace, crowned by genii, in sardonyx; 2404. Jugurtha 
delivered to Sulla; 2337 (fifth row, to the left), Cornelian with Baccha- 
nalian device, said to have been used as a seal by Michael Angelo (?). 
4th Division, third row: Engraved portraits by Guay, engraver to Mme. 
Pompadour: cornelian seals. 5th Division, ''402. Analogies of the Old and 
New Testaments, a cameo of the 16th cent. ; 405. Adoration of the Magi, a 
Flemish work of the i5th cent.; 4'-5. Venus reHsHng Cupid (modern). 6th Di- 
vision, 687. Augustus 7th Division, 59d. Negro king; 765. Heliogabalus ; 
643-645 Battles; 612. Fountain of Wisdom; 624, 625. Alleged Bracelets of 
Diana of Poitiers, each composed of eight cameos, Renaissance work. 8th 
Division. 780. Francis I ; &26 Louis XV., by Guay; 944. Seal of Louis XV., 
with portrait of Mme. de Pompadour inside; above Francis I . 92', 788. 
Louis XV. and Htnri IV. in an emerald setting from a biacelet of Mme. de 
Pompadour; 7i6. Henri IV.; to the lefr, *789. Henri IV. and Marie deMidicis, 
shell on sardonyx; above, 977. Charles V. and Ferdinand I.; \)&\ow, Louis 
XIII ; ^'Ib. Louis XIV. — Case III (continuation of the cameos): 1st Divi- 
sion, *8(j8. Triumph of Licinius ; 274. Claudius. 2Qd Division, IdS, Augustus. 
4th Division, 79. Bacchus and Ariadne, in a setting enriched with pearls. 


Case VI, at the window, which should be inspected next, contains the 
best antique cameos, placed here for the sake of the light. 1st Division: 
"22(3. Alexander the Great, with Athena ; 242, 244. Julia, daughter of Augustus •, 
between, 2i"0. A<,rippina the Yovnger; 276. Cluudivs and Alessalina, as Tripto- 
lemus and Ceres, in a chariot drawn by two dragons ^ 243. Julia, daugliter 
of Augustus, with the attributes of Ceres; *25l. TU-erins; 270. Claudius; 
*220. Alexander the Great,, with helmet, translucent agate in a roainilicent 
l8th cent, mounting of enamelled gold; 2i7. Mtsaalna with her children; 
260. Drusus the Elder; '289. Trajan; -300. Septimius Severus and his Fa mil p ; 
'■265. Apotheosis of Germanicus. — 2nd Division (mythological ."^uhjects) : 
*1. Jupiter^ one of the most valuable cameos in tLe collection, with a 
magnificent mounting of the 14th cent. ; above, *11. June, notable for 
delicacy of workmanship and beauty of material; below, *27. Dispute 
between Minerva and Neptune. To the left, 8. Euvopa on the bull ; '14S. 
Horses of Ptlops; ''IT. Minerva; "115. Amphitrite on a marine monster; 31. 
Diana. To the right, 97. Centaur, '184. Bull; 111. Mercury; 41. Apollo and 
Marsyas; 43. Venus in the bath. 

Case IV, in the centre of the hall, contains the greatest treasures of 
the collection. Goblet of sardonyx, known as the Cup of the Ptolemies, with 
Bacchic reliefs, from the treasury of St. Denis; twelve antique gold 
medals; Cup of Chosroes /., King of Persia (d. 579), composed of medallions 
of rock-crystal and glass colours, with Chosroes enthroned in the centre, 
also from the treasury of St. Denis, where it was known as the 'Cup of 
Solomon"; Roman necklace and medallions, in gold; Tr4sor de Oourdon, 
a tray and flagon of massive gold (6th cent), found at the village of Gour- 
don (Cote dUr), an interesting memorial of early Christian times. Augustus, 
antique cameo in medieeval setting. "Apotheosis of Germanicus ('Came'e de 
la Ste. Chapelle), the largest cameo in the world, consisting uf a sardonyx 
nearly 1 ft. in height, with twenty-six figures. "Medal of Eucratides. Greek 
king of Bactriana, found in 1867, the heaviest coin known; weighing 6 oz. 
or twenty times the weight of a Greek stater. Antique Ship in sardonyx, 
with mediseval mounting ; Julia, daughter of Titus, aquamarine in mediseval 
setting. ^Patere de Rennes. a cup of massive gold, found near Eennes in 
1774, with reliefs representing the drinking-contest of Bacchus and Her- 
cules (triumph of wine over strength), and bordered with sixteen medallions 
of Roman emperors of the family of the Antonines from Hadrian to Geta, 
son of Septimius Severus. Two small Roman busts in agate and gold; 
Golden ornaments from Etruria ; Btist of Constantine I. (?) in agate ; Trisor de 
Tavse, four gold medals. The remaining divisions of the case contain 
antique gold trinkets, cameos ('44. Judgment of Paris), gold aeala, and 
Italic and early Roman coins. 

A Case (unnumbered) at the adjoining window contains a map with 
early French coins arranged on it geographically. 

Cases VII, VIII (in the middle). Koman andByzantine medals, Roman 
and Italic copper coins. Greek ciins and medals from Lower Italy, Greece, 
and Egypt. — Case IX. Interesting coins of the middle ages, the Re- 
naissance, and modern times. — Case X. Small Bronzes: 815. Warrior; 
1009. Negro boy; 316. Hermes; 426. Dancing Satyr; 1157. Cow. 

The cabinets ranged along the wall opposite the windows contain 
a fine series of Bronze Statuettes and other Small Bronzes (including antique 
utensils and arms), specimens of ancient Glass, and a choice collection of 
Greek Painted Vases (the largest in the middle, with an archaistic Athena). 
— The cabinet on the following wall contains small Greek Terracotta 
Figures. Iso. 702. '■Caillou Michaux\ an ovoid stone with cuneiform inscrip- 
tions, the most valuable Babylonian monument of the kind (1120 B.C.). 
Silver disc, nearly 2V2 ft. in diameter, known as the 'Bouclier de Scipion\ 
with reliefs representing the abduction of Briseis. It was found in the 
Rhone, near Avignon, in 1656. and probably dates from the fourth cent, of 
our era. Another smaller disc, representing Hercules slaying the Nemean 
lion. — Case V (in frcnt) cont: ins the recent acquisitions. 

The Salle du Due de Luynes (see p. 354) . to the right of the ante- 
chamber, contains a choice collection of antique coins, intaglios, cameos, 
weapons, and terracottas, bequeathed by the duke, who was a celebrated 


antiquarian (d. 1867). In the centre, a beautiful torso of Venus in 
Parian marble. Cabinet to the right: antique weapons and a handsome 
Moorish sword of the end of the 15th cent., said to have belonged to 
Boabdil, the last king of Granada. — Adjacent is the — 

Salle de la Renaissance. Cabinet I, to the right: interesting Objects 
in Ivory , consular diptyehs (presented by consuls to senators) , of the 
5-6th cent. 5 large French medals ; sword of honour of the grand-master 
of the Maltese order, with enamelled gold hilt (16th cent.); medallion of a 
woman, by Mino da Fiesole (15th cent.); bronze Moorish vases — Central 
Case, above: ivory bridal coffer (Italian; 14th cent.); two enamelled 
croziers of the 13th and 15th cent. ; enamelled cup, by J. Courtois of 
Limoges ; silver-gilt ewer of the 16th cent. ; wood-carving of St. Anthony, 
by Lucas van Leyden ; silver casket of Franz von Sickingen, with reliefs 
(early 16th cent.); rook, said to have belonged to a set of chessmen sent 
by Haroun-al-Easchid to Charlemagne ; seals of the University of Paris 
(i;3th ceut.), of Louis XII., etc.; ornaments and enamels, including fine 
hat-ornaments of the 16th century. Behind, large and fine medals of the 
16-I7th cent., and articles found in 1653 in a tomb conjectured to be that of 
Childeric I. (d. 481). — Cabinet II. Medallions by David d' Angers; an- 
tique and Byzantine ivory carvings ; the large 'Sobieski Vase', with ivory 
carving of the battle of Vienna in 1683. On the other side of the room 
the so-called Throne of Dagoiert, claiming to date from the 7th century. — 
The last room is the — 

Salle des Donateurs, containing the Collections Janzi^ Oppermann, and 
Fauvert de la Chapelle^ consisting of ancient statuettes in bronze, terracotta, 
a few vases, and cameos. Among the chief objects in the Collection Janze, 
to the right of the entrance, are: 623. Aristseus; below, 124. Statuette 
of a dancing girl, in terracotta: 927. Small replica of the Diadumenos of 
Polycletus; 128. Artemis; 536. Hercules. — The large octagonal glass-ca=e 
in the centre contains a chronologically arranged collection of French med- 
als; also, the ^Treasure of Bernay , consisting of 67 silver vessels and 
two statuettes of Mercury, of different periods and varying value, from a 
sacellum dedicated to Mercury, found at Berthouville (Eure) in 1830. The 
two -Goblets with Bacchic processions and other two with single figures 
are among the best-preserved specimens extant of ancient 'silver-work. 
Above, Bronze head of the Town-goddess of Paris, found at Paris in 1675. 

The Rue des Petits- Champs, which skirts the Bibliotheque on 
the S., or the side next the Palais-Royal, passes the end of the Rue 
Vivienne and of the Passage Vivienne, also on the left, and termin- 
ates at the Rue de la Banque (p. 193). 

In the Rue de la Vrilliere, leading to the right beyond the Rue 
des Petits-Champs, is the Banque de France, enclosed by four dif- 
ferent streets. It was formerly a private mansion (Hotel Vrilliere) 
and contains a handsome apartment of the 18th cent, called the 
Galerie Doree^ which may be visited on application. 

The Bank of France is not a state-institution, but, like the Bank of 
England, is a private joint-stock bank, though subject, of course, to the 
control of the government. It has the sole right of issuing notes in France, 
and transacts all ordinary banking business on a very extensive scale. The 
cellars contain bullion, diamonds, and other valuables, worth in all sev- 
eral milliards of francs. These repositories are constructed in a very mas- 
sive style and are guarded with most elaborate precaution. The Bank of 
France ranks among the first establishments of its kind in the world. 
The business transacted here in 1899 amounted to the sum of 17 milliards 
of francs (nearly 700,000,0(X);.). 

A narrow side-street leads from the Bank to the small circular 
Place des Victoires (PI. R, 21 ; ///), about 85 yds. in diameter, 
designed by J. H. Mansart^ and constructed in 1685. It was ori- 


giually called the 'Place Louis XIV.', and was embellished in 
1686 with a gilded statue of that monarch , with the inscription, 
^viro immortali\ The monument, with the exception of the groups 
now at the Invalides (p. 274), was destroyed in 1792, and replaced 
by a pyramid inscribed with a list of victories gained by the re- 
publican army, from which the Place derives its present name. 
The pyramid was in its turn displaced in 1806 by a statue of 
General Desaix (d. 1800), which in 1814 was melted down along 
with others to furnish materials for the statue of Henri IV. on the 
Pont-Neuf (p.223). The present clumsy monument, an Equestrian 
Statue of Louis XIV, ^ in bronze, which is too large for the Place, 
was erected in 1822 by Bosio. The rider is garbed as a Roman 
general, with a wig, and the horse, in a rearing attitude, rests on 
the hind-legs and tail, in imitation of Peter the Great's monument 
at St. Petersburg. The reliefs on the pedestal represent the king's 
passage of the Rhine, and the distribution of military honours. 

To the E. of the Place des Victoires the Rue des Petits-Champs is 
prolonged by the FMe ElUnne- Marcel ^ which crosses the Eue du Louvre, 
skirts the central post office (p. 173), and is continued to the Boul. de 

A few paces to the N.W. of this Place is the church of Notrfi- 
Dame-des-Victoires , erected in 1656-1740 to commemorate the 
taking of La Rochelle, the chief stronghold of the Huguenots, It is 
now the seat of a monastic fraternity. The altar of the Virgin to 
the right of the choir, which is the object of special veneration, was 
despoiled of its chief treasures by the Communards, hut has been 
richly re-decorated. The walls of the chapels are covered with vo- 
tive inscriptions on marble. The choir contains well -executed 
carved woodwork and two pictures by C. Van Loo (d. 1745) : an Alle- 
gory of the capture of La Rochelle, and scenes from the life of St. 
Augustine. In the second chapel to the left is the tomh of LuUi 
(1633-87), the composer, by Cotton. 

The Rue de la Banque, a little beyond the church, to the right 
as we quit the latter, leads to the Bourse. This street contains three 
handsome modern edifices : the Mairie of the 2nd Arrondissement 
(Bourse) and the Caserne de la Banque on the right, and the Hotel 
du Timbre on the left. The Salle des Mariages of the Mairie con- 
tains paintings by Moreau de Tours. 

The *Bourse, or Exchange (PL R, 21; ///), a handsome building 
in the Graeco-Roman style, surrounded by a series of 64 Corinthian 
columns, is an imitation of the Temple of Vespasian in the Fo- 
rum at Rome. It was begun in 1808 by Brongniart (d. 1813), and 
completed in 1826 'by Laharre (d. 1833). Length 75 yds., width 
45 yds., height 100 ft.; columns 33 ft. high, and 31/3 ft. thick. 
The edifice is enclosed by a railing, and approached by a flight of 
sixteen steps at each end. At the corners in front are allegorical 
statues of Commerce by J. Dumont (d. 1844), and Consular Jus- 

Baedekeb. Paris. 14th Edit. 13 

194 6. THE BOURSE. 

tice by Buret (d, 1865); at the back, Industry by Pradier (d. iSoT), 
and Agriculture by Seurre (d. 1858). 

The hall of the Bourse , which is 35 yds. in length, and 19 yds. in 
width, is opened for business daily, except on Sundays and holidays, at 
12 o'clock. A few minutes before "that hour the Place begins to present 
a busy scene. Xumerous vehicles, chiefly private carriages, drive up, and 
the money-seeking throng hurries into the building. Business, however, 
does not fairly begin till about half-past twelve. Even under ibe Peristyle 
outside (known as the Coulisse des Valeurs en Banqiie)^ business is animated, 
though nothing in comparison with the scene within the hall. The parquet^ 
at the end of the hall, is a railed-off space which the sworn brokers, or 
agents de change^ are alone privileged to enter. In the centre of this part 
of the hall is the corbeille^ a circular railed-off space, round which they 
congregate, making their oflers in loud tones. Various groups in different 
parts of the hall, but especially near the parquet, are occupied in taking 
notes, or concluding sales or purchases, the prices being regulated by the 
transactions going on in the parquet, while other persons are seen handing 
instructions to the brokers within the parquet. To the right, not far from 
the 'corbeille', is the MarcM au Compiant for cash transactions 5 and to 
the left, at the end of the gallery, is the Coulisse de la Pienie. 

The tumultuous scene is best surveyed from the gallery, reached from 
the vestibule by two staircases ascending to the right and left of the large 
hall. The deafening noise, the vociferations, and the excited gestures of 
speculators, produce a most unpleasant impression. Amidst the Babel of 
tongues are heard the constantly recurring words, ''Tat . . . ; qui est-ce qui 
a . .1 ; je pi' ends ; je vends f 

The visitor should not omit to observe the 'grisailles' on the vaulting, 
by Abel de Pujol (d. 1861) and Meynier. They represent the Inauguration 
of the Bourse by Charles X., France receiving tribute from every part of 
the globe, the Union of commerce with the arts and the sciences, and 
the Principal Cities of France. The paintings in imitation of reliefs are 
very skilfully executed. 

At 3 o'clock the business of the stock-exchange terminates, the brokers 
assemble and note the prices realised in their transactions, and in ac- 
cordance with these they adjust the share-list for the day, which is then 
immediately printed and issued. The hall remains open till 5 o'clock for 
the transaction of other mercantile business. The annual amount of business 
transacted in the Bourse has been calculated at 100 milliards of francs or 
4,003,030,OCO;. Telegraph and telephone office, see p. 80. 

Adjacent is the Boulevard Montmartre (see p. 77). — The wide 
Eue Reaumur (PI. R, 21, 24 ; III) leads to the S.E. to the Conserva- 
toire des Arts et Metiers (p. 175). 


From the Place de la Bourse the handsome Rue du Quatre- 
Septemhre leads to the W. to the Place de TOpera (p. 78), and the 
Rue Reaumur to the E. towards tbe Conservatoire des Arts et Me- 
tiers (p. 175). The Rue Vivienne, running from the Palais-Royal 
(p. 60) past the front of the Bourse, continues in the same direction 
to the Boulevard Montmartre (p. 77). Turning to the left, we reach 
the Boulevard des Italiens in a few minutes, whence we enter the 
Rue Brouot, to the right. 

No. 9 in this street is the Hotel des Venies Mohilitres, a large 
public auction-room, the 'Christie and Manson's' of Paris, where 
extensive sales of works of art take place in winter at 2 p.m. Con- 


siderable experience is necessary to make purchases here with 
advantage, and the stranger is warned against entering into com- 
petition with the brokers, who are always ready to unite against 
the common enemy. — The chief Book Sales take place in the Salie 
Sitvestre^ Rue des Bons-Enfants 28, near the Palais-Royal. 

No. 26 in the Rue Drouot, to the right, is the HoteL du Figaro^ 
or 'Figaro' office, in the style of the Spanish Renaissance. The 
statue of Figaro is by Amy. 

We then cross the handsome modern Bue Lafayette or la Fayette^ 
1^/4 M. in length, which, with its continuation, the Rue d'Alle- 
magne (1 M. ; p. 201), leads straight from the Opera to the N.E. 
quarters of Paris. 

On the right of the Rue Lafayette, near this point, is the office of the 
'•Petit Journal (No. 61), which claims to have a daily circulation of 1,100,000, 
i.e. the largest in the world. 

A little farther on the street passes the pretty Square Montholon 
(PI. B, 21), embellished with two bri)nze groups: Eagle and vulture con- 
tending for the carcase of a bear, by Cain; and a Mountebank with a 
monkey CMonnaie de singe'), by Rolard. 

A little beyond the Square 3Iontholoa, to the right, diverges the Rm 
de Chabrol, which became so notorious in 1899. 

A few yards straight on is the junction of the Rue de Chateau- 
dun and Rue de Maubeuge, two other modern streets. The Rue de 
Maubeuge leads hence to the Gare du Nord (p. 200). We follow 
the Rue de Chateaudun to the left. 

The church of *Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (PI. B, 21), close to the 
'Carrefour de Chateaudun', is situated at the N. end of the Rue 
Laffltte, which leads to the Boulevard des Italiens. It was erected in 
1823-36 by Hipp. Lehas in the simple style of an early-Christian 
basilica. The tympanum of the Corinthian portico is adorned with 
figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity, by Foyatier^ Lemaire, and Laitie. 

The Interior is more elaborately decorated than the character of 
a basilica would warrant. The "^Frescoes in the four corner-chapels are, 
however, admirable in their chissical restraint. To the right are the Bap- 
tistry, by A. Roger (ca. 1S34), and the Chapel of the Eucharist, by Perin 
(1852); to the left are the Mortuary Chapel, by Blondel, ami the Chapel of 
the Virgin, by Orsel. — The smaller chapels contain paintings by Hesse^ 
Johannot, Deviria^ Schnetz, and others. — The frescoes in the nave and on 
the triumphal arch represent the Four Major Prophets and scenes from 
the life of the Virgin, by Dvbois, Monvoisin, and others. — In the choir: 
on the left, Presentation in the Temple, by Heim:, on the right, Jesus 
teaching in the Temple, by i>roiiiHgf. In the apse: Madonna enthroned and 
(dome) Coronation of the Virgin, by Picol. In. the spandrels, the Evan- 
gelists, by Delorme. — Fine music at the evening-services in May (the Ma- 
donna's month). 

Between the churches of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette and La Trinite, in 
the Rue de La Rochefoucauld, No. 14, is the Mtisie Gustave Moreau. con- 
taining about 700 paintings (some of them uulinished) and AVOO drawings by 
the painter of that name" (not yet open to the public, but shown on appli- 
cation on Tues., Thurs., and Sat.). 

The Rue de Chateaudun leads from Notre-Dame-de-Lorette 
to the W. to the Square de la Trinity (p. 196), traversing the N, 
of the Quartier de la Chaussee-d'Antin, one of the handsomest cen- 


196 6. LA TRIN1TJ&. 

tral districts of the city, with the Opera House, several of the prin- 
cipal banks, and some of the large hotels. It owes its name to the 
Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin, between the church of La Trinite and 
the Boul. des Capucines. 

*La Trinite (PI. B , 18) , a church in the latest Renaissance 
style, was built by Ballu in 1861-67. In front of it is the small 
Square db la Trinite, adorned with three fountains and statues 
of Faith, Hope, and Charity, executed by Lequesne from designs by 
Buret. The facade has a porch with three large arches, above which 
rises an elegant story with a gallery and a rose of open-work , sur- 
mounted by a clock-tower 206 ft. in height , flanked with two lan- 
terns. Over the doors of the porch are enamel-paintings by Bake. 

The Interior consists of a large nave with two low aisles flanked with 
chapels. Nave and aisles are separated by handsome columns alternating 
with pillars, which are embellished with statues of the Apostles. The 
gallery over the aisles projects into the choir, below which is a crypt. 
Over "the high-altar rises a tasteful canopy. The apse is occupied by a 
large chapel richly decorated; Bladonna (in marble) by F. Dubois, paint- 
ings by Em. L^vy and Elie Delaunay, and stained glass by Oudinot. The 
nave and the other chapels are also adorned with paintings; those in the 
nave are by Johh4- Duval; those in the chapels on the right by Brisset 
(Intercession for the souls in Purgatory, Depositon in the Tomb). Lecomte 
du Nouy (St. Vincent de Paul), F. Barrias (St. Genevieve), and Laug4e 
(St. Denis) ; those on the left by Bug. Thirion (Childhood of Jesus), Rom. 
C'azes (Christ and saints), Mich. Dumas (Plata and Prayer to the Madonna), 
and L. Frangais (Baptism of Christ, Expulsion from Eden). Near the side 
entrances are elegant 'benitiers'', surmounted with marble statues of In- 
nocence and Purity by Gumery. — La Trinite has a good choir and organ. 
M. Guilmant is the organist. 

The Rue de Clichy, to the left of the church, runs to the Place de 
Clichy (p. 209), passing the Casino de Paris (p. 36). 

The Eue St. Lazare, continuing the Rue de Chateaudun beyond 
La Trinite, leads in a few minutes to the Gare St, Lazare. 

The Eue de Londres, to the N.W. of the Place, leads almost straight 
to the Pare Monceaux (p. 19^), via the curiously shaped Place de V Europe 
(PI. B, 18), formed by the junction of six streets above the line of the 
Chemin de Fer de I'Ouest, behiad the Gare St. Lazare. 

The Gare St. Lazare (PI. B, 18), which is reached from the 
Boulevards more directly via the Rue Auber and Rue du Havre, 
is a large and handsome building, remodelled in 1886-89 on 
plans by Lisch. It consists of two main parts, connected by a long 
waiting-room, and of the Hotel Terminus [p. 3) in front, facing the 
street, and concealing the rest. The pavilion in the Rue d' Amster- 
dam is for the main line traffic, the other part, in the Rue de Rome, 
for the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture and for the Lignes de Banlieue. 




Les Batignolles. 

We now follow the Rue du Havre, opposite the station on the 
Rue d' Amsterdam side, to the Boulevard Haussmann. To the left 
in the Rue du Havre are the Lycee Condorcet, and, farther on, the 
handsome Magasins du Printemps (p. 40). 

The Boulevard Haussmann (PL B, 18, 15; 11), one of the im- 
posing modern thoroughfares of Paris, owes its name to Baron Haus- 
■inann, prefect of the ^-^elne in 1853-69 and chief promoter of the 
grand transformation of modern Paris. It is continued to the 
(13/4 M.) Arc de Triomphe de lEtoile (p. 158) by the Avenue de 
Friedland. If continued for 300 yds. in the other direction to the 
Boulevard Montmartre, between the Rue Taitbout and the Rue 
Drouot, it would form the most direct route from that neighbourhood 
to the Bois de Boulogne. We follow the Boul. Haussmann to the 
right as far as a square, in the middle of which stands the — 

Chapelle Expiatoire (PI. B, 18 ; //), erected in 1820-26, from 
designs by Percier and Fontaine, to the memory of Louis XVI. and 
Marie Antoinette, on the site of the old cemetery of the Madeleine, 
where their remains lay from 1793 to 1815, when they were removed 
to the royal vault at St. Denis. In front of the chapel is a court 
flanked with galleries in imitation of ancient tombs, and intended as 
a monument to other victims of the Revolution. The chapel is in the 
form of a Greek cross, with a portico, and is covered with a dome. 
The entrance is in the Rue Pasquier; best time for a visit 12-4 (fee). 

The Intekior contains two groups in marble. That on the right, by 
Bosio^ represents Louis XVI. and an angel who addresses him with the 
words, 'Fils de St. Louis ^ montez au del T Below is inscribed the king's 
will. The group on the left, by Cortot^ represents the Queen supported 
by Religion, a figure which bears the features of 3Iadame Elizabeth, the 
king's sister, who was guillotined on 12th May, 1794. Inscribed on the 
monument is the last letter addressed by the queen to her sister-in-law 
(comp. p. 212). — Over the portal is an allegorical relief by Lemaire, re- 
ferring to the removal of the ashes to St. Denis. — Staircases on each 
^ide of the altar descend to a crypt, which occupies the ground where 
Louis XVI. was originally interred. 

Farther on, the Boul. Haussmann intersects the Boulevard Males- 
herbes, another imposing street , extending from the Madeleine to 
the fortifications (1^/4 M.). — To the right in this boulevard rises 
the church of St. Augustin (PL B, 15), built by Baltard in 1860- 
68, in a modernised Romanesque style. The building is in the form 
of an irregular triangle, towards the base of which rises a dome 
80ft. in diameter and 165 ft. in height, crowned with an elegant 
lantern, and flanked with four dome-covered turrets. The portal con- 
sists of three arches surmounted by a kind of gallery containing 
statues of Christ and the Apostles, by Jouffroy, above which are a 
rose-window and a triangular pediment. The pillars are also em- 
bellished with statues of prophets and doctors of the church. 


Interior. The church has no aisles , properly so called. The nave 
preserves its width the whole way back, while the increasing width of 
the triangle is filled with chapels increasing in depth as they approach 
the choir. Above are galleries , which are continued under the dome. 
The nave is covered with a flat ceiling, borne by' arcades of open 
iron-work, and the columns terminate in figures of angels. The high- 
altar, standing beneath a sumptuous canopy, is placed above a crypt, 
which also runs under the nave. The very short transepts terminate in 
chapels. la the nave are two paintings by D. Maillart: Baptism of St. 
Augustine (on the left). Death of St. Monica (on the right). The mural paint- 
ings are by Signol (in the cupola), Bouguereau, and Brisset; the stained 
glass by Marichal and Lavergne. — The organist is M. E. Gigout. 

In front of the church is a Monument to Joan of Arc by Paul Diihois. 
Adjacent is a bronze group by Mambur, representing 'A Rescue'. 

About 500 yds. farther on, the Boul. Malesherbes passes to the 
right of the Pare Monceaux, before reaching the outer Boulevards. 
The park may also be reached by returning to the Boul. Haussmann 
and folio-wing it to the right, to the Avenue de Messine, which leads 
the N.W. towards the Pare Monceaux. A bronze statue of Shake- 
speare, by Paul Fournier (1883), stands at the point of divergence. 

The *Parc Monceaux, or Pare de Monceau (Pi. B, 15). enclosed 
by a very handsome railing, has four entrances (see Plan), the chief 
of which is in the Boul. de Courcelles, where a small rotunda, from 
the former Barriere de Chartres, has been placed. This park has 
no pretension to vie with the Bois de Boulogne, or even the Buttes- 
Chaumont, but it affords a pleasant and refreshing oasis in the 
midst of a populous quarter of the city. 

The park owes its name to a property bought in 1778 by Philippe 
d'Orleans, surnamed Egalite, father of Louis Philippe, who laid it out 
in so novel and attractive a style that it soon became one of the most 
fashionable resorts of the 'beau monde'. Balls, plays , and fetes of the 
most brilliant description were celebrated here. The Revolution converted 
the park into national property. Napoleon I. presented it to his chan- 
cellor Cambaceres, who, however, soon restored it to his imperial master, 
on account of the great expense in which it involved him. At the Re- 
storation it again became the property of the house of Orleans, and was 
employed in 1848 for the 'national ateliers'. At length it was purchased 
by the city of Paris, and upwards of 25 acres of it were sold by the 
municipality for building purposes, while the remaining 22V/2 acres were 
converted into a public park, tastefully laid out in the English style. 

The park retains a few relics of its old attractions , such as the 
Naumachie, an oval piece of water, flanked with a semicircular 
Corinthian colonnade , and adorned with a statue of Hylas , in 
bronze, by Morice. Not far off is a Monument to Guy de Maupassant 
(1850-93), the author, by Verlet. Among the other sculptures with 
which the park is embellished are the Young Faun, by F. Charpen- 
tier; the Abandoned, by Corna-^ to the right of the main walk. Boy 
playing with marbles, by Lenoir -^ to the left, the Snake-Charmer, 
hy B. de la Fm^ir^e; Wounded lioness, by Valtcn] farther on, to 
the right, Wounded Cupid, by Mabille; to the left, the Sower, by 
Chapu; to the right, the Mower, by Gumery; behind, the Reaper, 
by Gaudez: Montiments are also to be erected here to Amhr. Tho- 
mas (1811-96), the composer, by Falguiere; to Gounod (1818-93), 


the composer, by Mercie; to Chopin (1809-49), the composer; and 
to Corot [1796-1825), the painter. 

From the gate of the Pare Monceaux facing the Avenue Hoche, at the 
end of which the Arc de TEtoile is visible, we observe the gilded domes 
of the "Russian Church (PI. R, 12), in the Rue Daru. This church was 
built in 1859-61 in the Byzantine-Muscovite style, from a design by Kouz- 
mine., and is in the form of a Greek cross. The handsome porch is covered 
with a gilded dome and surmounted with five pyramids, that in the centre 
being 156 ft. in height, and all of them terminating in gilded cupolas with 
Russian crosses. The church is open on Sun. and Thurs., 3-5 o'clock. 
The figures which adorn the 'ikonostas', representing Christ, the Virgin, 
and several Russian saints, were painted by the brothers Sorokine and by 
Bronnikoff. The rest of the church is adorned with paintings of Scriptural 
subjects by the same artists and of prophets by Vassilieff. 

At No. 7 Avenue Velasquez, which leads from the park to the 
Boulevard Malesherbes, is the Musee CernuscM, bequeathed along 
with the house containing it to the city of Paris by Mons. II. Cer- 
nuschi (1821-96), a Milanese financier. The museum consists of a 
valuable collection of Chinese and .Japanese works of art, including 
upwards of 2400 bronzes. Keeper, M. Causse. — Admission, see p. 56. 

From the entrance we ascend the staircase to the left, leaving sticl^a 
and umbrellas. In the hall are a few bronzes. 

First Flooe. Koo>n I contains a portrait of the founder, furniture, 
kakemonos, a large vase, and other bronzes. — Room II. Figure in 'bizen' 
(imitating bronze) and other pottery, porcelain. In the glass-case in the 
middle are picture-books. — Room III. ?mall objects in ivory, bric-a-brac, 
masks. — Room IV. In the middle is a seated figure of Buddha, 14 ft. 
high, from near Tokio. In front, an enamelled censer and a desk-case 
with artistic sword-guards. On the window-side are three statues of 
Buddha and a large censer in the form of a dragon. Round three sides of 
the room, on stands, are fine Chinese and Japanese bronzes, some of great 
antiquity. The oldest pieces are at the beginning of the 4th wall. The 
smaller bronzes are in the glass-cases of the gallery. On the rear-wall is 
a beautifully carved wooden balustrade. — Room V. In the middle is a 
porcelain pagoda. Vases and plates in coloured porcelain. — Room IV. 
Bronzes. — A side-staircase now descends to the Gkocnd Floor, where 
two rooms contain Chinese and Japanese porcelain and stoneware. 

The BatignoUes quarter, to the N. of the Pare Monceaux, is a fa- 
vourite residence for artists, and contains many handsome and tasteful 
private residences, presenting a pleasing contrast to the monotonous 
architecture of the ordinary streets of Paris. The traveller will find it 
worth while to inspect the Rue Prony^ opposite the principal entrance 
to the park, and several of the side-streets such as the Rues Fortuny 
and Montchanin^ and lastly the Avenue de ViUiers and part of the 
Boul. Malesherbes. In the Place Malesherbes (PI. B, 14) is a hand- 
some mansion in the style of the 16th century. In the gardens flank- 
ing the avenue are bronze figures of the Genius of Music, by Bailly, 
and the Grief of Orpheus, by Verlet, Farther on is a bronze Statue of 
Dumas the Elder (1824-1870), designed by Gustave Dore'; the fine 
group in front represents Reading, and behind is a Musketeer. 

In the neighbouring Rue de Tocqueville is the Ecole det Hautes Etudes 
Commei'ciales, in front of which is a small square with a bronze statue, 
by Moncel, of Alain Chartiej- (13S3 1449), the poet. 

No. 145 in the Boulevard Malesherbes is the Lyc^e Carnot, formerly 
the Ecole Monge (PI. B, 11-11). an cstabli^hm'^nt founded in 1S69- to prepare 

200 7. ST. LAURENT. 

pupils for the goverament schools. Farther to the N. is the Place Wagram 
(PI. 11), embellished with a bronze statue, by F. de St. Vidal, of A. de 
Neuville (1835-1^85), the military painter. The Place is situated above the 
Chemin de Fer de Ceinture, not far from the station of Courcelles Cein- 
tare (PI. B. 11). A statue, by A. Boucher, is to be erected in the vicinity 
to Eugene Flachat (1SU2-73), the engineer. 

T.J the E.. near the station of Batignolles, is the Square des Batignolles 
(PI. B, 14), one of the largest in Paris. It has two fountains and bronze 
figures of Circe, by Michel, *Le Belluaire\ by Ferrary^ etc. 

In the outer boulevards, to the E. of the Pare 31onceaux, we pass on 
the right the College Chaptal or Goubaux (PI B, 14, 15). a building con- 
structed by Train in 1866-72, of stone and bricks of diflerent colours, and 
tastefully decorated. Fitrther on is the Place de Clichy (p. 209). 

7. La Villette and Montmartre. 

Visitors who are interested in the market at La Villette will see it to 
most advantage on Monday or Thursday morning (omnibus line M; 
tramway to Pantin and Aubervilliera; Chemin de Fer de Ceinture), and 
may afterwards visit the Buttes-Chaumont and other adjacent points. — 
Luncheon may be obtained near the Gare du Nord or Gare de FEst (see 
p. 18). at the Buttes-Chaumout, in the Rue d'Allemagne, near the market 
{e.g. No. 188), or in the restaurant at the market. 


St. Laurent. Gare de I'Est. Gare du Nord. Buttes-Chaumont. Market 

and Abattoirs at La Villette. 

We leave the Grands Boulevards beyond the Porte St. Denis 
(p. 75), and follow the Boulevard de Strasbourg (p. 75), to the 
left, to the Gare de I'Est. On the right is the Eldorado, and on the 
left the Scala, two 'cafes-concerts' (p. 36). Before reaching the 
station we cross the Boulevard de Mayenta, about 1/2 ^- from the 
Place de la Republiqiie (p. 74). 

The church of St. Laurent [PI. B, 24), immediately to the right, 
was founded in 593, but has been repeatedly rebuilt and restored. 
It was finally remodelled in 1865-66, when two bays were added to 
the nave, and a handsome Gothic facade with a spire was con- 
structed towards the boulevard. The choir was decorated by Blondel 
(d. 1853), and the high-altar by Lepautre. In the S. transept is a 
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, by Qreuze\ opposite, St. Lawrence 
among the poor, by Trezel. 

The Gare de I'Est, or de Strasbourg (PL B, 24), practically re- 
built in 1895-99, is situated opposite the end of the Boulevard de 
Strasbourg. The pavilions projecting on each side are connected 
by a colonnade, on the balustrade of which is a clock-dial with statues 
of the Seine and the Rhine. Trains, hotels, etc., see pp. 26, 9. 

The Rue de Strasbourg, leading to the W. past the front of the 
station, joins the Boulevard de Magenta, which brings us in 5 mln. 
to the wide and handsome Rue Lafayette (p. 195). 

The Gare du Nord (PI. B, 24), a railway-station constructed in 
1863-64 by Hittorff, is situated a short distance to the right. The 


principal part of the extensive facade, which is 170 yds. in length, 
is surmounted by a pediment crowned with statues of Paris (in the 
centre) and of eight important foreign cities connected vith Paris 
by the Ligne du Nord. — To the right is the recently rebuilt Station 
of the Ceinture (p. 27). Lines starting hence, see p. 26; hotels 
in the vicinity, see p. 9. 

The church of S(. Vincent-de-Paul (p. 203) is near the station; its facade 
is turned towards the Rue Lafayette. 

We regain the Rue Lafayette by following the street that leads 
to the E. in front of the station, and continue in a straight direction, 
crossing the railway from the Gare de I'Est. 

The Rue Lafayette ends at the Boulevard de la Villette, near 
the Canal St. Martin. On the left we observe a Rotunda, in which 
is the Custom House, a relic of an old gateway erected at the end 
of last century by Ledoux. To the right, behind the houses, is 
the Bassin de la Villette [PL B, 26, 27), a harbour and reservoir 
(16 acres), 75 ft. above the lowest water-level in the Seine. It is 
formed by the Canal de VOurcq , which connects the Ourcq, an 
affluent of the Marne, with the Seine. This canal, 54 M. long, cuts 
off a long curve formed by the river, while the Canal St. Denis, 
272 M. long, a ramification towards the N.E., shortens the water- 
route between the Upper and Lower Seine by 10 M. The Canal St. 
Martin (p. 72), 4 M. long, continues the Canal de TOurcq to the S. 

The basin is surrounded by extensive warehouses, which serve to con- 
vey an idea of the commerce carried on by these waterways of Paris. About 
12(J0 loaded barges enter tlie basin monthly, and two-thirds of these obtain 

The basin is crossed by a lofty Foot Bridge, the single arch of which 
has a span of 310 ft. At the other end, in the Rue de Crimee, is a hy- 
draulic Draw Bridge, worked by the water of the canal. 

We now follow the Rue d'AUemagne as far as the broad Avenue 
de Laumiere, which leads to the right to the Buttes-Chaumont. On 
the left, at the end of this avenue, is the large Mairie of the 19th 
Arrondissement, a modern building in the style of Louis XIII., by 
Davioud and Bourdais. The Salle des Mariages is embellished with 
paintings by Gervex and Blanohon. 

The park of the *Buttes-Chaumont (PL B, 30, 29) lies on the 
N.E. side of Paris, at the W. end of the hill of Belleville. It extends 
in the form of an irregular crescent over an area of about 55 acres, 
but does not cover the whole of the 'buttes' (hills), part of which is 
still a barren waste ('calvi montes'). On the summit of these 
hills once rose the gibbet of Montfaucon, where numerous crim- 
inals and others were hanged. The gallows was removed in 1761, 
and the place afterwards became notorious as a haunt of malefactors. 
About the year 1865 the authorities, induced by sanitary consider- 
ations, began to remove the heaps of rubbish accumulated here, and 
it was resolved to convert this ill-favoured locality into a park 
for the benefit of the artizans of this quarter of the city. The 
peculiar nature of the ground afforded an opportunity of laying it 


out in a novel and picturesque manner, and the task was skilfully 
executed by M. Alphand (d. 1891), the engineer, and M. Barillet 
(d. 1874), gardener-in-chief of Paris, at an outlay of 3,412,620 fr. 

The quarries formerly worked here have been transformed 
into a rocky wilderness surrounded by a small lake, while the ad- 
jacent rugged surface is now covered with gardens and walks shaded 
by trees. A cascade falling from the height of 100ft. into an arti- 
ficial stalactite grotto (formerly the entrance to the quarries) is 
intended to enhance the attractions of the scene. The highest rock 
(290 ft.) is surmounted by a miniature Corinthian temple, which 
commands an admirable view in the direction of St, Denis ; the best 
*View of the city itself, with its ocean of houses, is obtained from 
the second summit (330 ft.) to the S. An iron cable bridge, 70 yds. 
in length, crosses from one of the rocks to another, while others are 
connected by means of a stone arch, so as to facilitate access to the 
different points of interest. The temple may also be gained by a 
path among the rocks, reached by a boat across the lake (5 c). Here 
and there are bronze sculptures : on the side next the main entrance, 
The Rescue, by F. Rolard; Eagle-hunter, by Desca^ on this side of 
the large bridge; Corsair, by Oge, near the great waterfall ; Wolf 
Hunt, by Hiolin^ in the upper part of the park ; nearer the side 
towards the city, 'Egalitaire' ('Time, the Leveller), by Captier; 
beside the small cascade beyond the restaurant, The Ford, by C. Le- 
fevre. — The Chemin de Fer de Ceinture (p. 27) is carried through 
the E. end of the park by a cutting and two tunnels; in the vicinity, 
the Belleville- Villette station (see Appx., p. 34). 

There are three Cafis-Restaurants in the park; one near the suspension- 
bridge, one on the S. side of the hill (with view of Paris), and one above 
the railway cutting. A military band plays here on Sun. and Thurs. in 

In 1871 the Buttes-Chaumont was one of the last positions occupied 
by the insurgents, who held their ground here till May 27th, when they 
were driven out by an incessant cannonade from Montmartre. 

In the Belleville quarter, to the S.E. of the Buttes-Chaumont, is the 
handsome church of *St. Jean-Baptiste (PI, B , 33), built in the Gothic 
style of the 13th cent, by Lassus (d. 1857), and consecrated in 1859. The 
chief portal is flanked by two towers, 190 ft. in height, which are con- 
spicuous from every part of the city. Mural paintings in the transept by 
Leloir and Maillet. — A cable-railway descends hence to the Place de la 
Re'publique (p. 74; 10 c). 

The Rue d'Allemagne (p. 201) leads to the fortifications of the 
city, where it terminates at the Porte de Pantin (p. 203). To the 
left, within the 'enceinte', about ^^M. from the Buttes-Chaumont, 
is situated the Marche de la Villette (PI. B, 31), the only cattle- 
market in Paris. Visitors are freely admitted to the market, which 
presents a busy scene , especially on Monday and Thursday morn- 
ings. It consists of three large pavilions, like those of the Halles 
Centrales, constructed by Baltard and Janvier, and covers an area 
of ten acres. The central hall is capable of containing 5080 oxen, 
that on the right about 2000 calves and 5800 pigs, and that on the 


left 31,300 sheep. Most of the cattle arrive by a branch of the 
Ceinture railway, on theE. side. Behind the market are stables 
and offices, at the back of which runs the Canal de I'Ourcq. 

Over 2'/2 million head of cattle annually enter the market. The bull- 
ocks come chiefly from Normandy, Anjou, and Poitou ; the cows from the 
Ile-de-France; the calves from Orleanais and Champagne ; the sheep from 
various provinces and from aliroad; and the pigs from Maine, Poitou, 
and Brittany. 

Visitors are also usually permitted to visit the adjoining Abat- 
toirs de la Villette, or slaughter-houses, beyond the canal. The 
chief entrance to them is in the Rue de Flandre, on the N.W. side, 
beside which are two sculptured groups of animals, by A. Ltfeuvre 
and Lefevre-Deslongchamps. The busiest time here is also in the 
morning, but the scene is not one which will attract many visitors, 
though the premises are kept scrupulously clean. The buildings in- 
clude about '20 courts, with 250 scalding-pans. About 1200 bullocks, 
500 calves, and 800 sheep are slaughtered here daily; sometimes 
even more. The butchers of the abattoirs are not retail dealers, but 
sell the meat wholesale here or at the Hallos Centrales to the but- 
chers of the town. The slaughter-house for pigs (about 1000 daily) 
is by itself, next the fortifications. At the end next the market 
are a Refrigerator and an Electric Factory. — The market and 
abattoirs together have cost the city about 60 million francs. 

On the left bank of the Seine is another large slaughter-house (24 acres), 
established in 1897, between the Rue de Dantzig and the Rue Brancion 
(PI. G, 11). 

The neighbouring quarters of Aubervilliers (27,300 inhab.), Pantin 
(25,600 inhab.), and Le Pr^- St- Gervaii (doOO inhab.) are uninteresting. The 
new Mairie at Pantin (PI. B, 31. 34) is built in the Renaissance style. — 
About 1^/4 M. to the right, on the hill behind Le Pre-St-Gervais, to which 
a small tramway plies (5 c.), is the village of Les Lilas (7500 inhab.), with 
another tasteful mairie. This village lies on the electric tramway to 
Romainville (see the Appx.). 

St. Vincent-de-Paul. Butte Montmartre. Cemetery of Montmartre. 

Those who have already inspected the Bassin de la Villette and 
the Buttes-Chaumont may take a cab to the Gare du Nord, which 
is about 2 M. from the Abattoirs, or they may use the tramway com- 
ing from Aubervilliers, leaving it at the Rue du Faubourg-St-Denis, 
near the station. From the Gare du Nerd (p. 200) we descend the 
Rue Lafayette for a short distance to the churcii of St. Vincent-de- 
Paul, which may be reached from the boulevards by ascending the 
same street or the Rue d'Hauteville. 

*St. Viiicent-de-Paul(Pl. B, 24), erected in 1824-44, by Lepere 
and Hittorff^ is in the form of a Latin basilica, with a projecting 
portico of twelve fluted Ionic columns and two somewhat feeble 
towers 138 ft. in height. In the pediment is a relief by Lemaire, 
representing St. Vincent-de-Paul, between Faith and Charity. Over 


the bronze doors are reliefs by Farochon (d. 1871), representing the 
symbols of the Evangelists. 

Interior. The church consists of a nave flanked with double aisles, 
the latter being partly occupied by chapels, and partly by galleries. The 
roof is borne by h6 Ionic stuccoed columns. The open roof is tastefully 
decorated. The windows of the aisles are filled with stained glass by 
Mar6chal and Grignon. 

The nave is adorned with a celebrated *Frieze by Hippolyte Flandrin, 
executed in lh50-5i and conceived in the manner of the early -Christian 
mosaics at Ravenna. It repieseuts the nations of the earth advancing in 
solemn procession towards the gates of Heaven. Over the entrance are 
SS. Peter and Paul, preaching tbe gospel. To the ri^ht are two groups 
of believers, one with St. Louis in its midst. Farther on a^e bish-p'', St. 
Jerome and the other Fathers of the < hurch, martyrs, Chri^tian herues, 
popes, and so forih. To the left are Mary and Joseph, groups of holy 
women, and female martyrs. 

In the dome of the choir is another fresco, by Picot (d. 1868), re- 
presenting St. Vincent- de- Paul kneeling before ( hrist on his throne, and 
presenting children to him. The frieze, also by Picot, represents the seven 
sacraments. The high-altar is adorned with a h^ndsume Crucilixion in 
bronze, by Rude (d. 1865). The chapeJ of the Virgin at the back of the 
choir contains a fine group of the Virgin and Child by Carrier-Belleuse^ 
and eight scenes from the Kew Testament by Bouguereau. 

The Rue St. Vincent-de-Paul, behind the church, intersects 
the Boulevard de Magenta, and ends at the Hopital Lariboisiere 
(PL B, 23), erected in 1846-53, and called after the countess of that 
name, who bequeathed 2,900,000 i"r. to the poor of Paris. Visitors 
are admitted on Sun. and Thurs., from 1 to 3 p.m. The chapel 
contains the tomb of Mme. de Lariboisiere (d. 1851), by MarocheUL 

A little to the N. of the hospital, beyond the Boul. de la Chapelle, is 
the handsome church of St. Bernard (PI. B, 23), with its fine spire, 
erected in 1858-61 , by Magne , in the Gothic style of the 14th century. 
The paintings, pulpit, stations of the Cross, stained glass by Osell- Laurent, 
and two good altar-pieces in the transept may be inspected. In the square 
in front of the church is a pretty bronze figure of a woman feeding poultry. 

The Boul. de Magenta ends at the Boulevards Exterieurs, be- 
tween the Boul. de la Chapelle and the Boul. de Rochechouart. To 
the N. it is continued to St. Ouen (p. 209) by the Boulevard Barbea 
and the Boulevard Ornano. 

The conspicuous dome rising a little to the left of the Boulevard 
Barbes belongs to the Magasins Dufayel, a large establishment for the sale 
of furniture, etc., on the system of payment by instalments. A visit to the 
interior is not uninteresting. The facade on the other side, in the Rue de 
Clignancourt, near the Butte Montmartre, is noteworthy; the sculptures 
are by Falguiere and Dalou. 

A little to the W. , in the Boul. de Rochechouart, is the College 
Rollin (PL B, 20), a large edifice, finished in 1876. It is adjoined 
by the Square d'Anvers, which is embellished with a column bear- 
ing a bronze Statue of Armed Peace, by Coutan, and with bronze 
statues of Sedaine (1719-1797) and Diderot (1713-1784), by Le- 

The Butte Montmartre, near the top of which we have now 
arrived, is a hill famous in the annals of Paris, rising to a height 
of 330 ft. above the Seine, and containing ancient quarries of gyp- 


sum (from which, when calcined, is obtained 'plaster of Paris'). 
According to tradition, St. Denis, the first bishop of Paris, and his 
companions suffered martyrdom here in 270, and the name of the 
hill is supposed to have once been Mons Martyrum. Others derive 
the name from Mons Martia, from a temple of Mars which is said 
to have stood here. This point can be reached only by a long detour 
or by flights of steps. The most direct of the latter, leading to the 
left from the Place St. Pierre^ has 266 steps. A lift is to be con- 
structed, and the whole slope is to be laid out as a public park 
(Square de la Butte-Montmartre), with a waterfall. 

The heights of Montmartre veitnessed the final struggle between the 
French troops and the Prussian and Russian allies on 30th March, 1814, 
and also played an important part in the sieges of 1870-71. On 18th 
March, 1871, the insurgent soldiers, having assassinated the generals 
Clement-Thomas and Lecomte, took possession of the cannon on the 
3Iontmartre, which had been entrusted to a body of the National Guard. 
Thus began the Communard rebellion of 18th BJarch to 28fh 3Iay, 1871. 
The insurgents were dislodged by the victorious troops on QAth May, and 
the batteries of Montmartre were then directed against the Communards 
who occupied the Buttes-Chaumont (p. 201) and Pere-Lachaise (p. 180). 

The Eglise du Sacr6-Coeur (PI. B, 20), crowning the summit 
of the hill, though still unfinished, has been used for service since 
1891 . It is an imposing edifice in the Romanesque-Byzantine style, 
from designs by Abadie, and is to be surmounted by a large dome, 
about 260 ft. in height, with a clock-tower 360ft. high behind. The 
progress of the building has been slow, for very extensive substruc- 
tions were required, costing 3,500,000 fr., and though 30,000,000 fr. 
have already been expended, much has yet to be raised by subscrip- 
tion. The approach is at present by the little Rue delaBarre, behind 
the church. 

To the right, in front of the chief facade, is the ticket-office for 
the crypt, the bell, and the ascent of the dome (see below). The 
crypt (adm. 25 c. ; entrance to the E. of the vestibule) extends 
below the whole church. lu a temporary shed is the huge bell known 
as the ^Savoyarde\ presented by the province of Savoy (adm 50 c, 
25 c. on Sun. and holidays). It is 10 ft. high and 19 tons in weight 
without the tongue, dimensions exceeded only by those of the great 
bell of Moscow (19 ft. high and 200 tons in weight). — The entrance 
to the Doine (50 c.) adjoins the W. door of the church. It affords a 
magnificent "'View of Paris, and of the country to the S., W., and E. of it. 

The principal features from left to right, seen from the corner of the 
street, are as follows -. in the foreground, St. Vincent-de-Paul and the Gare 
du Nord ; farther off, the Buttes-Chaumont , the two towers of Belleville, 
the tower of Me'nilmontant, and Pere-Lachaise with its 'sugar-loaf and cre- 
matorium; to the right, nearer us, the Mairie of the 10th arrondissement; 
beyond St. Vincent-de-Paul, the campanili of St. Anibroise, the Colonne de 
Juillet, and the dome of St. Paul's; in front, the Chapelle des Arts et 
Metiers; more remote, still to the right, the dome of La Salpetriere; 
St. Gervais, the Hotel de Ville, Notre Dame, Tour St. Jacques, St. Etienne- 
dii-Mont, and the Pantheon; next, St. Eustache and the Halles Centrales, 
vnth the domes of the Sorbonno , the Val-de-Grace, and the Observatory; 
nearer, the twin towers of St. Suljiice, the tower of St. Germain-des-Pres, 
and the Louvre; in the distance, the tower of Montrouge; then comparatively 


near, to the right, the imposing Opera House, above which rise the spires 
of Ste. Clotilde; to the left, the Vendome Column-, agnin to'the right, the 
dome of the church of the Assumption, the gilded cupola of the Invalides, 
the buildings of the Exhibition of 1900 in the Esplanade , the Champs- 
Elysees, and the Champ-de-Mars, the Great Wheel, and the Eiffel Tower 
to the left; nearer, to the right, the two Palais des Beaux- Arts in the 
Champs-Elysees, the campanile of La Trinite, and the Madeleine ; then the 
dome of St. Augustin, the towers of the Trocadero, the Arc de Triomphe de 
TEtoile, and the fort of Mont Valerien. On the horizon rise the hills of 
Chatillon, Clamart, and Meudon. 

To the W. of the church is a very large Reservoir (2,420,000 gal.) 
with three stories. The water in the first story is pumped up from 
another reservoir at the foot of the hill, whither it is brought from 
Bercy. The upper stories are destined for spring-water. Visitors 
apply to the keeper, to the left. — Behind the reservoir lies the old 
church of St. Pierre-de-Montmartre, a relic of a Benedictine mon- 
astery founded in 1147, by Louis VI. Beside it is a Mount Cal-i 
vary, from the old convent of Mont Vale'rien (adm. 25 c.}. 

In front of the reservoir and on the other side of the new church 
are several Panoramas (adm. 1 fr.. on Sun. and holidays 60 c). 

At the foot of the Butte, to the N., at some little distance from the 
Sacre-Cceur, are the church of Notre- Dame-de-Clignancourt (1859-63) and 
the handsome E,enais.«ance Mairie of the ISth Arrondissement (1888-92). 

Descending once more to the Boulevards Exterieurs, we follow 
them to the W. for about 3/^ M., to the Cemetery of Montmartre. At 
the end of the Boul. de Rochechouart, where it is joined by the 
Rue des Martyrs, is the little Cirque Medrano (p. 35), The Boul. 
de Rochechouart is continued westwards by the Boul. de Clichy, 
leading past the Place Pigalle and the Place Blanche. The short 
Avenue Rachel leads to the right (N.) to the cemetery. This approach 
was lowered in 1888, when the Viaduc Caulaincourt, about 200 yds. 
long, was carried over the cemetery, uniting the Rue Caulaincourt, 
to the N. of the Butte Montmartre, with the Boul. de Clichy. 

The Cemetery of Montmartre, or Cimetiere du Nord(V\. B, 16, 
17), the second burial-ground of Paris, though inferior to Pere- 
Lachaise, is also worthy of a visit. Hours of adm., see p. 180. 

We follow the main avenue in a straight direction, pass under 
the viaduct, and reach the — 

Carkefour de la Croix. Beneath the cross are interred the 
victims of the 'coup d'etat' of 1852. To the left, on the side next the 
principal avenue, is the vault of the *Cavaignac Family, to which 
belonged the author Godefroy (d. 1845) , and the general Eugene (d. 
1857), president of the republic in 1848. The recumbent figure of 
the former, in bronze, is by Rude. To the right, under the viaduct: 
J. Duprato (d. 1892), composer, bronze medallion and lyre by 
J. Thomas; Castagnary ( A. ibSS'), the author, bronze bust by Rodin; 
Beyle (Stendhal; d. 1842), author, medallion after David d'Angers. 
Farther on, in the Avenue Dubuisson : *Feyen-Perrin (d. 1888), 
painter, with a bronze bust and a statue of a fisher -girl strewing 
flowers, by Guilbert. Jean Gerome (d. 1891), with a statue of Grief 



by J. L. Gerome. On the wall at the end, *Ad. Porlier (d. 1890), 
with a bronze statue of a woman strewing flowers, by L, Morice. 
At the beginning of the Avenue de la Cloche (p. 203): Meilhac 
(d. 1897), the dramatist, monument by Bartholomo. 

The Jewish Cemetery is a little farther on, to the right of the 
Avenue Cordier. To the left, near the entraiice, *Osiris Family, with a 
colossalstatue of Moses, after Michael Angelo, At the end of the walk, 
on the left, *Halevy, the composer (^d. 1862), with a statue by Duret. 

We proceed straight on, and, regaining the principal cemetery, 
follow the Avenue Montbbbllo, one of the most interesting in the 
cemetery. To the left, Miecislas Kamienski, a Polish volunteer who 
fell at Magenta in 1859, with recumbent bronze figure by Franceschi. 
P.Chouvaloff, a child's tomb with angel by R.Carnielo. — Left, *Rohart 
Family, with angel in bronze. Farther on is a large block of marble 
marking the grave of Paul Delaroche (d. 1856), the painter. Behind, 
Chas. Maury (d. 1866), the composer. — Right, Marshal Lannes 


Avenues et Qieminspriiicipaux 

avcc iL'S 

(d. 1809), Duo de Montebello. *Princess Soltikoff(^A. 1845), a chapel 
covered with gilding and painting. — Left, Horace Vernet (d. 1863), 
the painter; a marble sarcophagus. About 50 paces along the 
Avenue des Carrieres, on the right, reposes Hectcr Berlioz (_d. 1869), 
the composer, with a medallion by Godebski. 

We now enter the Avenue du Tunnel. To the right, Leon Fou- 
cault (d. 1868), the natural philosopher. A little farther on, *A. de 
Neuville (d. 1885), battle-painter; monument representing the gate 
of the cemetery at St. Privat, near Metz, with a bust of the deceased 
and a figure of France, by Fr. de St. Vidal. 

We retrace our steps for a few yards and turn to the right into 


the AvBNUB CoRMBB. Left, Murger (d. 1861), author of the 'Vie 
de Boheme', with a statue of Youth by Millet. Left, *Louise Thouret 
(d. 1858), with recumbent figure in marble, by Cavelier. Right, 
Gozlan (d. 1866), the author. Adjacent, on the left, is the tomb of 
*Theophile Gautier (d. 1872), the poet, a sarcophagus with a figure 
of Calliope, by Godebski, bearing, among others, the following in- 
scription: — 

'"L'oiseau s'en ««, la feuille tornbe^ 

L"" amour s^iteint, car c'est Vhiver; 

Petit oiseau^ viens sttr ma tombe 

Chanter quand I arbre sera verf. 
Farther on, to the right, *Oust. Guillaumet [d. 1887), the painter, 
with allegorical figure and bronze medallion by E. Barrias. 

We now ascend by the grave of Gozlan and proceed towards the 
right to the Avenue db Montmobbncy. Right : Duchesse d'Abrantes 
[d. 1838), wife of Marshal Junot, and their son ; medallion by David 
d' Angers. Adjacent, Ary Scheffer (A. 1858), the painter; a chapel 
in which also rests Ernest Renan (d. 1892), author and critic, 
Scheffer's nephew. In the centre, * Alexandre Dumas the Younger 
(d. 1895), with recumbent statue by St. Marceaux, under a canopy. 

— Left : Cl, Rousset (d. 1895), with a bronze bust. 

"We here turn to the left and follow the Avenue de la Cloche. 
On the right: * Victor Masse (d. 1884), composer, with bronze 
ornamentation. To the left: De Braux dAnglure (d. 1849); a bust 
and bas-relief in bronze. In the avenue, on the right, in the second 
row of graves, repose Heinrich Heine (d. 1856), the poet, and his 
wife Mathilde (d. 1883), monument and bust, by Hasselriis, erected 
in 1900. In the first row, close by: Greuze [d. 1805), the painter. 

— Farther on, to the left, Viollet-le'Duc (d. 1879), architect. 
Opposite is the Chemin Due, crossing the Chemin Teoyon, 

which traverses the most interesting part of the cemetery. Left: 
*Frederic Lemaitre [d. 1876), the actor, with bronze bust by Gra- 
net ; right : Troyon (d. 1865), the painter. Among the trees, to the 
left : R. Deslandes (d. 1890), dramatist, bust by Guilbert. Ne/ftzer 
(d. 1876), chief editor of 'La Presse' and founder of 'Le Temps', 
with a bronze statue of Grief, by Bartholdi. Farther on, Carlotta 
Patti (d. 1889), singer; medallion by Lormier. — In the main walk, 
beyond Troyon, to the right: Agla'e Didier (d. 1863), author. Left: 
Clapisson (d. 1866), composer; H. Storks (d. 1866), recorder of 
Cambridge, marble monument, with medallion. *Mery (d. 1866), 
author; statue of Poetry, in bronze, by Lud. Durand. — In the 
Chemin Baudin, to the right, *Baudin, 'mort en defendant le droit 
et la loi, le 3 d^c. 1851 : ses concitoyens, 1872' ; a handsome recum- 
bent figure in bronze, by Millet (the remains were removed to the 
Pantheon in 1889). At the end, Thiboust (d. 1867), the dramatist, 
marble relief. A little to the right, Martin Bernard (d. 1883), 
'representative of the people' ; medallion by Meusnier. — To the 
right of the Chemin Troyon : Rouviere (d. 1865), tragedian ; medallion 


and bas-relief by Preault, representing the deceased as Hamlet. 
Left: *Chaudey (d. 1871), editor of the 'Siecle', shot by the Com- 
munards; an expressive medallion by Renaudot, with a quotation 
from the journal. Right: *Ward Family, with a large Christ in 
bronze. Left: Mine (d. 1879), sculptor. Right: *Rostan (d. 1866), 
professor of medicine ; marble figure in high-relief, by Schrceder. 
Left : Marc-Lejeune ; a chapel, surmounted by a sarcophagus with 
four symbolical statues. 

We have now again reached the Avenue de Montmorency (see 
p. 208). Left: Duchesse de Montmorency -Luxembourg [d. 1829), a 
large obelisk. Right : Polignac (d. 1863), officer ; a large and rich 

Those whom time permits may descend to the Avenue Samson by the 
flight of steps a little farther on. Right: ^Samson (d. 187 IJ, actor; bronze 
bust by Crauk. Farther on, beyond the Avenue du Tunnel, to the rigut: 
Dupotet de Bennevoy^ 'Chef de llicole magnetique moderne', with a fine 
marble bust by Bracony. Adjacent, to the left: Gustave Eicard (d. 1873), 
painter, wiih a marble bust by Ferru; to the right, Ch. Fourier (see below), 
the socialist. 

At the end of the Avenue des Anglais, the first diverging to the right 
from the Avenue Samson, reposes Jacques Offenbach (d. 1881), under a rich 
monnment of porphyry with a bronze bust, lyre, and palm. Not far off 
lies Lio Delibes (d. 1891), with a medallion by Chaplain. 

Farther on in the Avenue Samson: to the right, Ducange{A. 1833), the 
author. In the Avenue Travot; to the right, General Travot (d. 1830), marble 
bust by Dantan. — To the right of the pari of the Avenue Montmorency 
on the right : the brothers Goncourt (d. 1870 and 1896), sarcophagus with 

From the cemetery we return to the Boul. de Clichy, and, follow- 
ing it to the right, pass a bronze statue of Charles Fourier (1772- 
1837), by E. Derre (^1899), and soon reach the Place de Clichy or 
Place Moncey (PI. B, 17), in which rises the Monument of Moncey, 
erected in 1869. This colossal group in bronze, by Doublemard, 
19 ft. in height, on a pedestal 26 ft. high, adorned with bas-reliefs, 
represents Marshal Moncey (d. 1842) defending Paris, with a dying 
soldier beside him, in reference to the fact that the marshal distin- 
guished himself in the defence of the capital in 1814. 

Opposite the monument of Moncey the Avenue de Clichy ascends to 
the N., and farther on bends to the left, while the Avenue de St. Ouen 
turns a little to the right. To the left of the latter is the little Square 
des Epinettes (PI. B, 16), with monuments to Marie Deraismes (d. 1894), by 
E. Barrias, and to Jean Leclaire (18t>l-7'2), by Dalou. Leclaire was the fir!^t 
employer of labour lo introduce the piofit-sharing' system with his work- 
men; Mde. Deraismes was a champion of the cause of woman's rights. — 
Clichy (33,9UU inhab.) and St. Ouen (30,700 inhab.) are uninteresting. The 
chateau of St. Ouen, where Louis XVllI. signed his famous declaration 
of 2nd Mav, 1814, no longer exists, and the park is now a Racecourse. 

A little beyond the Place de Clichy, to the left of the Rue de Clichy, 
which leads to La Trinite (p. 196), is the Square Vintimille, where a bronze 
Statue of Berlioz (1803-1869), by Alf. Lenoir, was erected in 1886. 

The outer boulevards lead on to the W. from the Place Clichy to 
(V2 M.) the Pare Jlonceaux (p. 198) and (1 M.) the Arc de Triomphe de 
TEtoile (p. 158). 

Baedeker. Paris. 14th Edit. 14 


8. ftuartier du Temple and ftuartier du Marais. 

Archives and Imprimerie Nationales. Musee Carnavalet. 
Place des Vosges. 

The traveller who purposes visiting the Archives, the Imprimerie Ka- 
tionale, and the Musee Carnavalet on one day must, of course, choose a 
day (Thurs.) on which they are open, and should be provided with the 
necessary orders (see p. 211). On Sun. orders are not required for the 
Musde Carnavalet or the Archives. The former should be visited first, as it 
is opened earlier. — Luncheon, at the Place de la Bastille (see pp. 13, 16). 

The Quartier du Temple, to the S.W. of the Place de la Re'- 
publique (PI. R, 23, 24, 26, 27; III), owes its name to the chief 
stronghold of the Knights Templar in France, a relic of which, the 
Tour du Temple, the prison of the royal family in 1792 and 1793, 
stood here until 1811. — The site of the Temple is now occupied by 
a square and a market. 

The Square du Temple is embellished with five bronze statues : 
Beran^cr (1780-1857), by Doublemard; the 'Retiarius', by Noel; 
'This age is pitiless', by Schoenewerk; the Harpooner, by J. Richard ; 
and Diogenes, by Marioton. The handsome modern building at the 
E. end is the Mairie of the 3rd Arrondissement (du Temple). 

The MarcM du Temple was at one time important, and before its 
reconstruction in 1863-65 was a picturesque old -cloth-fair'. Now only a 
part of it is occupied by clothes-dealers. The Carrecm, or exchange for 
second-hand dealers and old-clothesmen ('chineurs"), is on the first floor, 
reached by staircases from the square (open 9-12; adm. 5 c). 

To the right, between the Rue du Temple and the Rue de Tur- 
bigo, is the church of Ste. Elisabeth, dating from the 17th cent, 
but enlarged in 1826. The font in white marble , to the right of 
the door, was erected in 1654. The small cupola of the choir 
is adorned with an Apotheosis of St. Elizabeth, by Alaux, and there 
are paintings by Biennoury, Hesse, Roger, and Lafon , in a chapel 
to the left of the entrance. The fine wood -carvings of Biblical 
scenes (16th cent.) were brought from a church at Arras. 

The Ruedu Temple leads towards the Hotel de Ville. We follow 
it as far as the (10 min.) broad Rue de Rambuteau , leading to the 
Halles Centrales (p. 173), and to the left to the — 

Archives Nationales (PI. R, 23; ///), established in the old 
Hotel de Soubise. This building occupies the site of the mansion 
of the Conne'table de Clisson, erected in 1371, of which there still 
exists in the Rue des Archives, to the left of the facade, a handsome 
gateway flanked with two turrets (restored in 1846). Down to 1696 
the mansion belonged to the powerful Guise family , after which it 
came into the possession of the family of Soubise. The present 
Palais des Archives chiefly consists of buildings erected by G. Boff- 
rand for Francois de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, at the beginning of 
the 18th cent., and others added or reconstructed in the 19th century. 
The entrance is in the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois. The court is sur- 
rounded by a handsome Corinthian colonnade by Lamer ; the pedi- 


meiit, with its Corinthian and composite columns, is adorned with 
sculptures by R. Lelorrain. The decorations of some of the rooms 
are among the best examples of the style of Louis XV. in Paris. 

The national archives were deposited here in 1808. They are 
divided into four departments — the 'Secre'tariat', the 'Section 
Historique', the 'Section Administrative', and the 'Section Legis- 
lative et Judiciaire'. There are in all about 400,000 documents, the 
oldest dating from the Merovingian period. Visitors are admitted 
for purposes of research daily, 10-3 o'clock, except on holidays, on 
previous application at the Bureau des Renseignements. The 'Mus^e' 
consists of a collection of the chief treasures of the Archives, but 
several documents are represented only by facsimiles. 

TheMusee des Archives, iir Musie Pal^ographique, is generally open to the 
public on Sun., 12-3, and on Thurs., during the same hours, by permission 
obtained from the director. The principal objects are labelled, and the 
catalogue (1 fr.) also contains interesting information about the building. 
The mu?e'e is not heated in winter. There is no 'vestiaire". 

Grocnd Flook. — isalle I. Seals, arranged in 18f'9 in sixty-four glass 
cases numbered from left to right round the room and then returning by 
those in the centre: Cases 1-5. Royal seals; 6. Seals of French princes; 
7-9. of exalted dignitaries; 10-17. of great feudatories; 18-35. of seigneurs; 
36. of bourgeois; 37. of peasants; 3S-41. of courts and tribunals; 42. of 
offices; 43, 44, of towns; 45. of guilds and professions; 46-64. of ecclesi- 
astics. — Salle II. Earliest Do cummts (627-1641), in sixty glass-cases num- 
bered as in the preceding room. There are also some early di cuments on 
the first floor (see below). Cases 1 and 2. Merovingians; 3-9. Carolingians 
(monogram of Charlemagne at !No. 34) ; 9-60. Capetians. Some of the doc- 
uments are remarkable for their caligraphy or drawings and miniatures 
as well as for historic interest. In Case 16 is a funeral scroll of Vital, Abb6 
de Savigny, with verses attributed to H^loise (1122-23); in Case 17 is the 
will of Abbe Suger (1137). beautifuUv written. Case 30: No. 383. Char- 
les V. Case 33: No. 401. Charles V. Case 35: Nos. 411, 412. Duke and 
Duchess of Berry (13S9; 1402). Case 39: No. 447. Figure of Joan of Arc, 
Case 65. Edict "of Nantes signed by Henri IV. (1598). 

Salle III. Continuation of the Seals. Reproductions of the finest seals 
in the Archives; seals of provinces, communes, foreign sovereigns, princes, 
and noblemen, etc.; stamps from stamped papers; dies for coins. Also 
an allegorical painting of little artistic value, but historically celebrated. 
It dates from the reign of Henri IV., and represents the vessel of the 
Church on its voyage towards the harbour of Salvation, surrounded with 
boats bringing believers to it, and with others containing assailants. It 
was discovered in a church of the Jesuits, and afforded an argument 
against them when the order was suppressed in 1762. 

Salle IV. Treaties a.T\di Foreign Documents., in 69 glass-cases. Cases 1-14. 
Treaties of alliance and peace, from the treaty between Richard Coeur-de- 
Lion and Philip Augustus (1195) to the Conventions of Erfurt (I'-O^); 
15-17. Great Britain. This room, formerly a salon, is decorated like the 
other apartments from designs by 0. Boffrand ; on the wall are fine panels, 
above which are reliefs by Lamb. Sigisb. Adam and /. B. Lemoine. 

Salle V. Foreign Documents, continued. Ca«es 18-22. Belgium; 23, 24. 
Netherlands; 25-28. Germanv; 29. Sweden; 30. Denmark: HI, 32. Nor%vav; 
33-36. Austria-Hungary; 37-43. Spain; 44, 45. Portugal; 46-48. Italy ; 49-57. 
Papal See; 58, 59. Russia; 60-63. Eastern Europe; 64-68. African and Asiatic 
states; 69, United States of America. 

First Floor. — The modern staircase has a ceiling-painting by Johbi- 
Duval. A copy of the large plan of Paris, known as 'Turgofs plan' (1734- 
1739), is shewn here; also busts of keepers of the archives. Salle 1. or former 
"Bed Chamber of the Princess de Soubise, is richly decorated with carved 
panels (mythological subjects) and paintings. A gilded balustrade (restored) 


212 8. MONT-DE-PI^TE. 

marks the spot where the bed stood-, but the two original cbimney-pieces 
are no longer extant. The two pastorals, at the back of the chimney-piece 
to the right and above the door to the lett, are by Fr. Boucher; the other 
paintings by Trimoli'ereg. — Glass-cases 61-65, behind the balustrade, con- 
tain ancient documents of unusual size or otherwise remarkable (minia- 
tures). Cases 66-75, in the centre: documents of the 17-18th cent., includ- 
ing 832. Treaty of the Pyrenees fl659j; 879. Declaration of the Clergy of 
France in 1682'; 887. Eevocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) by Louis XIV. 
(these two in case 69) ^ letters from celebrities of the period. 

Salle II, or ''Salon, also handsomely decorated, with eight cartouches 
and ornamented ceiling. The former, the chief work of Ch. Natoire (painted 
1737), represent the story of Psyche. — Glass-cases 78-83, from right to 
left: Documents of the end of the 18th Century, including the Oath taken at 
the Jeu de Paume (in case 79), papers relating to the Bastille (81), Con- 
stitutions of 1791. 1793. 'an \11\ and 'an Vlll'. — Cases 84-86, at the end: 
Papers relating to Marie Antoinette; the will of Louis XVI., executed at 
the Temple on 29th Dec, 1792, and the last letter of Marie Antoinette, 
written in the Conciergerie on 16th Oct., 1793. (The authenticity of these 
two documents is, however, doubtful-, the letter does not bear i)i& queen's 
signature.) Journal of Louis XVI., speech delivered by him before the 
Convention, letter of Louis XVI. Before the fireplace is a table from 
the cabinet of Louis XVI.. on which Robespierre, when wounded, was 
brought before the 'Comite du Salut Public' at the Tuileries. 

Salle III. Continuation of Documents of the reigns ofLouisXV. and Louis 
XVI. Cases 87-116. From 1715 to 1792. — Paintings by 5o«cAer (at the entrance 
and at the end, to the right), Tr^moUeres. Restout^ and C. Van Loo. 

Salle IV. Documents of the end of the ISth Cent, and 1800-1815. Cases 
117-152. Paintings by Boucher (to the right), Restoui, and C. Van Loo. 

The Ecole des Chartes, which formerly adjoined the Archives, was 
removed to the Sorbonne (p. 238) in 1897. 

The Palais des Archives is situated wltliin the old Quartier du 
Marais, which extends from the Rue du Temple to the grand boule- 
vards and to the Rue de Rivoli and Rue St. Antoine. Once a fashion- 
able quarter with several still handsome mansions, it is now quite 
given over to trade and manufactures. 

Opposite the Archives is the Mont-de-Piete, or great pawnbrok- 
ing establishment of Paris, which enjoys a monopoly of lending 
money on pledges for the benefit of the 'Assistance Publique'. 

The loans are not made for less than a fortnight, but articles may be 
redeemed within that time oa payment of the fees. Four-fifths of the 
value of articles of gold or silver, two-thirds of the value of other articles, 
are advanced, the maximum lent being 10.000 fr. at this establishment, 
and 500 fr. at the branch-offices. The interest and fees, which before 15^85 
were as high as 9V'2 per cent, are now reduced to 7 per cent, with a minimum 
of 1 fr. The pledges are sold after fourteen months from the time when the 
borrower has failed to redeem them or to renew his ticket-, but within 
three years more the excess of the price realised over the sum lent may 
still be claimed. The Mont-de-Pie't6 lends about 50,000,000 fr. annually 
on about 2 million articles. The sale of unredeemed pledges produces 
about 4,000,000 fr. annually. Loans upon deeds up to 500 fr. were author- 
ized in 1892. 

Adjacent to the Mont-de-Pie'te' is the church of Notre-Dame- 
des-Blancs-Manteaux , the insignificant relic of a convent which 
stood on the site of the pawn-office. In the Rue des Francs-Bour- 
geois, farther on, at the corner of the Rue Yieille-du-Temple, rises 
a Gothic tower with arcades and a grating, perhaps a relic of the 
Hotel Barbette, where Louis of Orleans was assassinated in 1407 

8. mus£e carnavalet. 213 

by order of Jean sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy. — To the left, a 
little farther up the Rue Vieille-du-Temple, is the — 

Imprimerie Nationale (PI. R, 23; III), or government print- 
ing-office, established in the old Hotel de Strasbourg (18th cent.), 
which once belonged to the Dukes of Rohan, four of whom were Arch- 
bishops of Strassburg. The first court is adorned with a copy in 
bronze of the statue of Gutenberg by David d' Angers at Strassburg ; 
and in the second court is a fine relief (Watering horses) by Lelor- 
rain. The printing-office employs about 1200 workpeople of both 
sexes. The types are cast, the paper made, and the binding executed 
within the same building. Oriental characters are particularly well 
represented. The chief business consists in printing official docu- 
ments of all kinds, books published at the expense of government, 
geological maps, and certain playing-cards (viz. the 'court cards' 
and the ace of clubs, the manufacture of which is a monopoly of 
the state). Visitors are admitted on Thurs. at 2 p.m. precisely, with 
tickets obtained from the director. The 'Cabinet des Poin^ons' and 
the 'Cabinet des Singes' are decorated with paintings by Boucher 
and Huet. The inspection takes I-IV2 '^r. 

A little to the ^\ of the Imprimerie, in the Rue Chariot, la the 17th 
cent, chnrch of St. Jean-St-Francois (PI. R, 2ci; ///), formerly a Ca- 
puchin chapel. It contains a number of paintings (badly lighted), among 
which is St. Louis visiting the plague stricken, by Ary Scheffer (first to the 
left, in the nave). There are also eight tapestries referring to a 'Bliracle of 
the Hosf that took place in Paris in 12[)0. At the entrance to the choir are 
statues of St. Francis of Assisi (by G. Pilon) and St. Denis (by /. Sarrazin). 

Lower down the Rue Vieille-du-Temple. to the S. of the Rue 
des Francs-Bourgeois, is the Hotel de Hollande (No. 47), a hand- 
some edifice of the 17th cent., once occupied by the Dutch ambas- 
sador to the court of Louis XIV. The gateway is adorned with fine 
sculptures (heads of Medusa^, and the court contains a large bas- 
relief of Romulus and Remus, by Regnaudin. 

Beyond the Rue Vieille-du-Temple the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois 
passes on the right the old Hotel Lamoignon, dating from the 16th 
century. Farther on, to the left, in the Rue Se'vigne, is the — 

*]tfu8ee Carnavalet (PI. R, 26; V), or Musee Historique de la 
Ville, containing a collection illustrating the history of Paris and 
of the Revolution. The name is a corruption of Kernevalec^ a Breton 
family of that name having once owned the mansion, which was af- 
terwards the residence of Mme. de Sevigne for eighteen years 
(1677-96). The building was begun in 1544 from designs \>y Lescot 
and Bullant, and enlarged in 1660 by F. Mansart, who built the 
principal facade in the Rue Sevigne. The portal, however, with 
sculptures attributed to Jear^ Goujon, is earlier. The house was 
purchased by the city in 1869, and thoroughly restored. 

The Museum (Director, M. Cain) is open to the public on Sun.. Tues., 
and Thurs., 11-5 (4 in winter). Sticks and umbrellas must be given up. 
Descriptive labels everywhere. Those whose time is limited should pa.-s 
quickly through the gronndfloor of the right wing and ascend at once to 
the first floor by the main staircase in the central building (p. 214). 


The archway, under which, to the right, is the entrance to the 
museum, leads to a Court, in the centre of which is a fine bronze 
Statue of Louis XIV., by Ant. Coyzevox, brought from the old Hotel 
de Ville. The sculptures of the Seasons, on the facade facing the 
archway, are attributed to Jean Goujon. To the left is a staircase 
to the first floor. 

j ' ' ' __! ;^ ' L I ij i^ — : 

Rjfe. des France- Bntirrjaois 

'i £_ -r . . ^i" :i ieti-e s 

Ground Floor. Right Wing (entrance beneath the areliway): Niiu Small 
Rooms (PI. I, II) containing prehistoric, Roman , and Merovingian anti- 
quities. Among the Roman relics are stones from the Amphitheatre in 
the Rue Monge (p. 270), architectural fragments, sarcophagi, reliefs, mill- 
stone?, and mile-stones. 

The Main Building, to the left as we come from the preceding rooms, 
contains Four Booms with additional Antiquities; fragments of Gallo-Roman 
buildings; 16th cent, chimney-piece; earthenware, glass, bronzes, and 
coins, found in Gallo-Roman, Merovingian, and mediSBval tombs; tomb- 
inscriptions. — Beyond the last room, to the left, is the principal staircase, 
ascending to the first floor; to the right is a door to the garden, behind 
the Hotel Camavalet proper. 

The Garden is surrounded on the three other sides with constructions 
not belonging to the Hotel Carnavalet. In the middle, to the left, the Arc 
de Nazareth (16th cent), a gateway from the old street of that name in 
the Cite, with sculptures by Jean Goujon, and a tasteful modern gate. 
Opposite, to the right, the Pavilion de Choiseul (end of the 17th cent.). In 
the galleries, to the right and left, are Fragments of Parisian Buildings of 
the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the 17th and 18th centuries. Under 
the Pavilion de Choiseul are an equestrian relief of Henri IV., by Lemaire 
(1838), from the old Hotel de Ville, statues by Fr. Anguier, and statues of 
Apostles, of the school of G. Pilon. 

The building on the remaining side of the garden has a facade brought 
from the old Gvildhouse of the Drapers (by L. Bruant ; 17th cent.), and con- 
tains Three Rooms with memorials of Paris during the 19th century, the 
inspection of which, however, is better postponed. The entrance is on the 
right (the Pavilion de Choiseul side), through a vestibule, whence another 
staircase ascends to the anteroom of the Galerie de la Revolution, on 
the first floor (p. 215). The first of these Paris rooms is the Salle du Palais 
Royal (No. ix). In the centre is a model of the Palais Royal, executed 
in 1843-4S. At the sides. Medallions of his contemporaries, by David d Angers. 
Views and paintings. Model of a diligence. — Room VIII (Salle de I'Hdtel 
de Ville) contains relics of the old Hotel de Ville; fragments of an altar 
of 1542; fine old d'^ors. — Room VII (Salle de 1830). In the centre. 
Caricature Statuettes and Busts of celebrities of the time of Louis Philippe, 



by Dantan the Younger. To the right, Glaas-case containing numerous 
relics and memorials of 1830 and of the period 1814-30. By the back wall, 
bust of Beranger. and the chair in which he died (1857). By the wall next 
the garden, two portraits of George Sand (one in masculine dress) ; death- 
masks of Beranger and Ste. Beuve. By the exit, bronze bust ?nd various 
memorials of President Carnot (d. 1894); door of Balzac's hedr0"m. 

From the garden we return to the main buiJding and ascend the prin- 
cipal Staircase (p. 214) to the first floor. On the staircase are facsimiles 
of ancient plans of Paris. 

%Y^\ ) - I— -~-»^'J? 

First Floor. Rooms I-V: Views of Paris, arranged more or less chron- 
ologically, and illustrations of by-gone manners, including interesting works 
by H. Robert and Jeaurat ('Dispute at the Fountain'; left wall in Room II), 
drawings by the brothers St. Aitbin. and others. — Room VI contains the con- 
tinuation of this collection. Also: Tea-service of the Revolutionary period, 
with views of Paris; collection of 208 snuff-boxes of historic interest (1789- 
1848). — Room VII (Salle Dangeau). Ceiling-painting (attributed to Lebrun) 
and gilded panelling brought from the former Hotel Dangeau (time of 
Louis XIV.). Two ancient tapestries. Wax portrait of Henri IV. modelled 
by Michael Bourdin on the day after the king's assassination (1610). — The 
following rooms are devoted to the Historical Collection. Room VIII 
(Salle de la Ligue). To the left, the Procession of the Ligue (1590), a curious 
representation; by the next window, collection of miniatures, plates, etc., 
referring to the history of balloons; portraits of Card. Dubois and the Duke 
of Orleans, attributed to Jouvenet; tapestry of Louis XIII. By the window 
on the right. Revolutionary porcelain and stoneware, including the inkstand 
of Camille Desmoulins. — From the following small Vestibule, with old 
shop-signs, wood-carvings, etc., a staircase descends to E. XXIII (p. 214). 

Room IX. (Galerie de la Revolution). On the wall are portraits of the 
period (De Launay, Louis Philippe Egalite, Chenier, Marat, Danton, 
Robespierre); above, revolutionary Porcelain, made in almost every case 
at Xevers (whence the yellow instead of red). In the glass-cases to the 
left are official badges, medallions, miniatures, etc.; in the third case, 
Tasse a la Guillotine', in Berlin porcelain. The glass-cases by the windows 
cimtain coins and medals; above, busts, statuettes, etc.; to the right of 
the exit, painted mask of Voltaire. — Room X has fine panelling and 
ceiling of the 18th century. On the chimney-piece, decimal clock and Sevres 
vases of the Revolutionary period. Opposite, glass-case containing various 
relics (Marat's snuff-box, etc). To the left, bust of Delille (d. 1813), by 
Pajou; harp in carved wood. To the right, Voltaire's arm-chair. — 
Room XI {Galerie de la Rivolution continued). Among the portraits are 
those of Desmoulins, Mir.ibeau, St. Just, Marat after his assassination (by 
David), Philippe Egalite (by Sir Joshua Reynolds) ; also, the Oath in the Jen 
de Paume, completed reduction of the painting sketched by David (p. 143), 


and Prisoners at St. Lazare during the Terror, by Hubert Robei'i. In the 
glass-cases to the left are a clock satirizing the Revolution, def orations, 
miniatures, fans, watches, baton of an 'officier de paix' under the Directory, 
revolutionary buttons, and so forth. In the cases to the right are interest- 
ing autographs, illustrated with miniatures or medals of the writers \ in 
the first case, documents relating to the execution of Louis XVI. 

Room XII (Salle de la Bastille). In the centre, Model of the Bastille, 
made from a stone of that building. In the glass-case surrounding it, 
relics of various kinds connected with the Bastille; lettres de cachet; 
Louis XVI. 's autograph order for the defenders of the Tuileries to cease 
firing (Aug. 2nd, 17b2). Hanging from the ceiling is a banner of the 
Emigre's , with the arms of France and the Allies and the Hydra of the 
Revolution. By the entrance- wall : Glass-case containing playing-cards 
and bindings of the Revolution including a copy of the Constitution of 
1793 bound in human skin: above, Declaration of the Rights of Man; cabinet 
with carved representation of the fall of the Bastille ; weapons. By the 
next wall: Cabinet adorned with revolutionary emblems; glass-case with 
portraits, including one of 'La Veuve Capef fMarie Antoinette), by Prieur, 
and a miniature of Cbarlotte Corday. Fireplace-wall: Weapons; instru- 
ments of punishment; portrait of Latude, who incurred the displeasure 
of Mme. Pompadour and was confined for thirty-six years in the Bastille; 
below are the rope-ladder and tools that aided his ultimate escape. 
Fourth wall: Cabinet decorated with patriotic scenes; swords of honour 
of La Tour d^Auvergne (1743-1800) and Garibaldi (1807-82); sabre of 
General Gardanne (1766-1818). 

Room XIII (Salle de VEmpire) is devoted to the Napoleonic period. 
At the end, to the left, is Napoleon's t: eld-desk and dressing-case, the con- 
tents of which are shown in the adjoining glass-cases. On the walls are 
numerous portraits. Bust of the Prince Imperial (son of Napoleon III.), 
by Carpeaux. Glass-case with a death-mask of Napoleon 1. and other 
relics. — A staircase, to the left, ascends hence to the second floor (p. 217). 

The next eight rooms, formerly occupied by Mme. de Sevigne, have, with 
the exception of R. XVI, been adorned with panelling and wood-carvings 
from ancient mansions in Paris, illustrating various styles of decoration. 
— Room XIV (Salle Dehucourt), with panelling in the style of the Regency, 
contains several of the best paintings in the collection. From left to 
right: Boilly, Standard-Bearer (17^8), Departure of the Paris conscripts 
in 1807, The Pont Royal in 1800 (on glass). Portrait of himself; Hubert 
Robert, Destruction of the church of the Feuillants (p. 154); above the 
fireplace, Pesne, Mariette, the author; at the sides, drawings by Watteau^ 
St. Aubm, and others; '* Debucouvt., Federation in the Champ-de-Mars on 14th 
July, 1790 (water-colour) ; C. Vernet, Longchamp in 1800. On the table is a 
terracotta bust by Caffieri. — Room XV (Salle des Cos'umes). Glass-case 
at the end, Rich costumes from the reign of Louis XIV. to the Empire; 
above, statuettes of the principal personages in Italian comedy. Theglass- 
ca=!es at the sides contain coloured engravings of costumes of the Con- 
sulate, Directory, and Empire. Central glass-case: cap of liberty, cockades, 
shoes, buttons, etc. ; christening-robe of the Prince Imperial (1856); above, 
elaborately dressed wax dolls of the time of Louis XV. ; small coloured 
figure representing Voltaire in his study; behind, fine collection of tor- 
toiseshell combs (18-19th cent.). — Room XVI (Salle des ThMtres). Theatrical 
portraits, caricatures, autographs, and personal relics of actors. On the 
wall, painting of the old Boulevard du Temple, destroyed in 1^62, with 
its seven theatres. — Corridor XVII ((Valerie Luden Faucou). Paintings: 
Lagrenie^ Transference of Voltaire s body to the Pantheon (1<91); Van der 
Meulen, Inauguration of the Dome des Invalides. Cabinet with medallions 
by Aug. Dupri. Two cabinets of coins; in the first, memorials of Marietta 
Albani (d. 1894), the singer. — Room XVIII (Salle A. de LiesvUle) is decorated 
in the style of Louis XV. Among the paintings are a portrait of Jeaurat., 
by himself, and a drawing competition by Cochin. The central glass-case 
contains statuettes in biscuit porcelain, medals, medallions, portraits, etc., 
chiefly of the ISth century. — Room XIX is known as the Salon Chinois 
from its rococo panelling painted with Chinese subjects. — Room XX (Salle 


de SMgni), formerly the salon ofMme. de Sevign^ (p. 216), decorated in 
tbe style of Louis XIV. On the entrance-wall is a copy of Mignard's 
portrait of Mine, de Sdvign^-, below, gla<!S-case containing a letter written 
by her. Several large works by H. Robert. Fans of the 17tb century. — 
Room XXI, a small recess opening off the preceding room on the riiiht, 
contains a valuable collection of porcelain bequeathed by M. de Liesville. 
Iron railing of fine workmanship at the entrance. Several of the other 
rooms contain other portions of the Liesville collection. — Room XXII 
(Galerie des Echevins). Portraits of magistrates and engravings, medals, 
etc., connected with the municipal history of Paris. Portrait of Voltaire 
at the age of 24 (by Largillitre) and engravings referring to Voltaire. 

We now return to Room XIII and ascend the staircase to the — 

Second Floor. Six small rooms here are devoted to the Siege of Paris 
in 1870-71 and the Commune (Slarch-May, 1871). Room I. Paintings, draw- 
ings, and sketches, by Gnillier. MSS. ; uniforms; weapons. — Room II 
(to the right). In the middle is a model of the environs of St. Germain- 
en-Laye (battlefield of Jan. 19th, 1371). Memorials of Gambetta, including 
a death-mask. Uniforms and weapons worn by Meissonier, Claretie. Dubois, 
Carolus-Duran, and other well-known men as Narional Guards. — Room III. 
Remains of a balloon in which a plenipoteutiary of the government in 
Paris escaped to Austria. Representations of the ambulance-service. Letters 
sent by pigeon-post; diminutive newspapers; lists of provisions; passes. — 
Room IV. Specimens of foods and substitutes for food. Death mask of 
the painter Regnault (p. 251), who fell in a sortie at Buzenval. This 
room and Rooms F and VI also contain satirical paintings and newspapers; 
weapons ; busts. Cabinet with fused glass and metal and other relics of con- 

At Xo. 29 Rue de Sevigne, a little beyond the Musee Camavalet, is the 
Bibliotheque de la Ville, founded in 1871, to replace the library destroyed 
in the Hotel de Ville. It already consists of about 90,000 vols, and 50,000 
engravings and charts, all illustrative of the history of Paris and the 
Revolution. It is open to readers on week-days, 10-4 in vvinter, and 11-5 
after Easter (closed in Easter week and Aug. 15th-0ct. 20th). 

The building in front of the library is the Lyc^e Victor Hugo, a high- 
school for girls. 

A little farther on the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois ends at the 
Place des Vosges (PI. R, 26 ; V), formerly called the Place Roy ale. 
The garden in the centre, planted with limes and plane-trees, and 
enclosed by a railing, is adorned with an Equestrian Statue of 
Louis XIII., in marble, by Dupaty and Cortot, which was erected 
in 1829 to replace a statue erected by Richelieu in 1639 and 
destroyed in 1792. The angles of the square are adorned with 
fountains. — A house on the S. side, at the corner of the Rue Bi- 
rague, is marked by a tablet as the birthplace of Mme. de Se'vlgne 

The Place des Vosges occupies the site of the court of the old Palais 
des Tournelles, where the tournament at which Henri II. was accidental- 
ly killed took place in 1559. Catherine de Medicis caused the palace 
to be demolished, and Henri IV. erected the square which still occupies 
its site. The houses, uniformly built of brick and stone, with lofty roofs, 
are flanked with arcades on the groundfioor. It is difficult to believe 
that this sequestered nook was the fashionable quarter of Paris in the 
reign of Louis XIII., when the 'place' may be said to have been the Palais- 
Royal of the period. The Place des Vosges was first so named after the 
Revolution, in honour of the department of that name, which had been 
the first to send patriotic contributions to Paris, and this name was revived 
in 1848 and again in 1870. 


The Rue du Pas-de-la-Mule, to tlie N.E. of the square, leads 
direct to the Boul. Beaumarchais (p. 74), near the Bastille (p. 70). 

An interesting return-route from the Bastille to the centre of 
the town leads via the Boulevard Henri IV. (p. 72) and the quays 
on the right hank. 

To the left of the Boulevard Henri IV. rises the Caserne des 
Celestim, on the site of a celehrated convent. Beyond it diverges 
the Rue de Sully, in which is situated the valuable Bibliotheque 
de V Arsenal (PI. R, 25; V), occupying part of the old arsenal of 
Paris, which extended from the Seine to the Bastille. The library 
is open daily, 10-4, except on Sundays and holidays and during the 
vacation (15th Aug. to 1st Sept.). After the Bibliotheque Nationale 
it is the richest library in Paris, especially in ancient works and in 
theatrical literature (454,000 vols. ; 9654 MSS.). 

The Boulevard Henri IV. crosses the two arms of the Seine and the 
E. end of the He St. Louis (p. 232) by means of the Font Sully, built in 
1874-1876. On the right bank, upstream, between the river and the Bou- 
levard Morland, is the former lie Louviers, united with the quay in 1840. 
Here are situated the Magasins and Archives de la Ville. 

On the right bank, near the bridge, at the beginning of the Quai 
des Celestins, is the old Hotel la Valette^ now the Ecole Massillon, a 
handsome building of the 16th cent., with a monumental facade 
recently restored. On the Quai des Celestins are shown the sub- 
structions of a tower of the Bastille (''Tour de la LihtrW)^ which 
were discovered in the Rue St. Antoine (p. 69) in excavating the 
Underground Railway (p. 27). 

Farther on, at the corner of the Rue de I'Hotel-de- Ville and Rue 
Figuier, rises the old Hotel de Sens^ or palace of the archbishops of 
Sens when they were metropolitans of Paris. It is a Gothic building 
of the 15th cent., with turrets and a donjon in the court (now private 

The Quai de I'Hotel-de- Ville leads hence to the Hotel de Ville 
in 5-6 min. (pp. 63-65). 


The Cite (PI. R, 20, 23, 22; F), as already observed (p. xxi), 
IS the most ancient part of Paris. Here lay, in the time of Caesar, 
the Gallic town of Lutetia Parisiorum ; and the Paris of the Romans 
and the Franks was confined to the same site, with the addition of a 
small settlement on the left bank of the Seine, surrounded by forests 
and marshes. Under the Frankish monarchs the Church established 
her headquarters here. At a later period the town gradually extended 
on the right bank, but the Cite still retained its prestige as the seat 
of the old Royal Palace and of the cathedral of Notre-Dame. On 
one side of Notre-Dame rose the Episcopal Palace and the Hotel- 
Dieu, originally an asylum for pilgrims and the poor ; on the other 
side was the CloUre Notre-Dame, or house of the Canons, who play 
so prominent a part in the history of the university. In the Cite the 
predominant element in the population was the ecclesiastical, while 
the burgesses and the men of letters chiefly occupied the districts to 
the N. (right bank, la Ville) and S. (left bank, VUniversite^ respect- 
ively. — The Cite has long ceased to be the centre of Parisian life, 
but it possesses the two finest sacred edifices in Paris, the Cathedral 
of Notre-Dame and the Sainte-Chapelle. The Hotel-Dieu still exists, 
hut the site of the royal palace is occupied by the Palais de Justice. 

The semicircular part of Paris which lies on the left bank of the 
Seine forms fully one-third of the whole city, its distinctive feature 
consisting of numerous learned institutions , the chief of which is 
the Sorbonne, or university, in the Quartier Latin. The adjoining 
Faubourg St. Germain is the aristocratic quarter, where ministers, 
ambassadors, and many of the nobility reside ; and at the W. end of 
this part of the town are the Chambre des Deputes, the Senate, and 
several large military establishments. The chief objects of interest 
on the left bank are the Palais du Luxembourg with its gallery of 
modern works of art, the Pantheon, the Musee de Cluny, the Jardin 
des Plantes, the Hotel des Invalides, and the Champ-de-Mars. 

9. The Cite and the Quartier de la Sorbonne. 

Any day but Monday should be chosen for a visit to this district, for 
on that day the Sainte-Chapelle, the Muse'e de Cluny, and the Panthe'on are 
closed. — Luncheon may be taken in the Place du Chatelet. the Boul. 
St. Germain, the Boul. St. Michel, or near the Ode'on (comp. pp. 18. 19) 


Tribunal de Commerce. Pont-Neuf. Hotel-Dieu. 

The Cite is approached from the right bank of the Seine by the 
Pont au Change fp. 64) and the Boulevard du Palais, or by the 
Pont-Neuf (j^. 223). 

The *Palais de Justice (PI. R, 20 ; F) occupies the site of the an- 
cient palace of the kings of France, which was presented by Charles 
VII. in 1431 to the Parlement, or supreme court of justice. In 1618 
and again in 1776 the palace was so much injured by fire, that nothing 
of it now remains except the Tour de VHorloge, at the N.E. corner, 
near the Pont au Change, the Tour de Cesar and the Tour de Mont- 
gomery on the N, side, the pinnacled Tour d^ Argent, the Samfe- 
Chapelle or palace-chapel, the Salle des Gardes, and the Kitchens 
of St. Louis. The clock in the Tour de VHorloge, adorned with two 
figures representing Justice and Piety, originally by Pilon, is the 
oldest public clock in France. It was constructed in 1370 by Henri 
de Vic, a German clockmaker, and has been several times repaired, 
the last after its destruction by the Communards in 1871. The 
wanton destruction of a great part of the building on 22nd May, 1871, 
forms another of the numerous crimes of which the Commune was 
guilty. The damage has since been repaired. 

The Palais is open daily, except Sundays and holidays, and visitors may, 
of course, enter the courts (in session 11-4) where they may have an oppor- 
tunity of hearing some of the famous pleaders. The great size of this build- 
ing and its complicated arrangement (comp. annexed Plan) render a visit 
somewhat perplexing to strangers. Besides the main entrances in the Boule- 
vard du Palais and the Place Dauphine there are various side-entrances. 
Most of the courts are on the first floor. The Court of First Inttance, with 
most of its offices, lies to the right of the Salle des Pas-Perdus (see below ; 
civil courts) and to the left of the court of the Ste-Chapelle (see below ; 
Police Correctionnelle). The Cour de Cassation is beyond the Salle des 
Pas-Perdus and the Appeal Court beyond the court of the Ste-Chapelle 
(p. 221). 

The principal entrance is by the Cour du Mai or Cour d'Honneur, 
adjoining the Boulevard du Palais, and separated from it by a hand- 
some railing. The Doric pediment of the facade is adorned with 
statues of France, Plenty, Justice, and Prudence, and is covered 
with a quadrangular dome. 

The first vestibule of the Palais, called the Galerie Marchande, 
is also used by the members of the bar as a 'vestiaire'. The 
advocates in their black gowns are frequently seen pacing up and 
down the different galleries whilst the courts are sitting (from 11 
to 4 o'clock). The staircase in the middle, adorned with a statue of 
Justice, leads to the rooms of the Cour d'Appel, which present no 

Turning to the right, at the extreme end of the gallery, we enter 
the *Salle des Pas-Perdus, serving as a vestibule to most of the seven 
Civil Chambers constituting the Court of First Instance. This hall 
(restored since 1871), one of the largest of the kind in existence, 

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is 240 ft. long, 90 ft. in width, and 33 ft. in height. It consists of 
two vaulted galleries, separated by arcades with Doric pillars. Many 
historical reminiscences attach to this part of the building. Before 
the fire of 618, this was the great hall of the palace, where the 
clergy of the ^basoche (a buriesque translation of basilica, or royal 
palace) were privileged to perform moral plays and farces. On the 
right side is a monument erected by Louis XVIII. in 1821 to the 
minister Malesherbes, who was beheaded in 1794, the defender of 
Louis XVI. before the revolutionary tribunal ; the statue is by J. Du- 
mont, the figures emblematic of France and Fidelity are by Bosio, 
and the bas-relief by Cortot. Nearly opposite, a similar monument 
was erected in 1879 to Berryer [d. 1868), a celebrated advocate, 
with a statue by Chapu, between figures of Eloquence and Fidelity. 

To the right of the Galerie des Prisons, which begins between 
the vestibule and the Salle des Pas-Perdus, are the halls of the 
Cour de Cassation. The first of these is the Chambre Criminelle, 
with a richly-carved ceiling. Adjoining it is the Galerie St. Louis, 
adoTi\ed with a statue of St. Louis and frescoes by Merson. The 
second hall is the Chambre des Requetes, also with a fine ceiling ; the 
third, the Chambre Civile, recently completed and still more mag- 
nificent, has a painted and gilded cassetted roof and is adorned with 
a painting of Christ, by Henner, and others by Baudry. 

At the end of the gallery is the Vestibule de Earlay, on the 
side next to the Place Dauphine, the facade of which is seen on 
the way to the Pont-Neuf. This hall is embellished with statues of 
four monarchs who were eminent as legislators: St. Louis and Phi- 
lip Augustus on the N., and Charlemagne and Napoleon I. on the 
S. side. The staircase in the middle, with a figure of Justice by 
Perraud, leads to the left to the Cour d^ Assises, and to the right to 
the Chambre des Appels de la Police Correctionnelle. 

The Galerie de la Sainte-Chapelle , parallel to the Galerie des 
Prisons, leads from the Vestibule de Harlay to the new parts of the 
Palais. To the right, about halfway along the gallery, is the 1st 
Chambre de la Cour d^Appel, handsomely decorated like those of the 
Cour de Cassation, with a ceiling-painting by Bonnat. At the 
end are a mediaeval Crucifix, and two gilded Renaissance scutcheons, 
with allegorical figures. Farther on, the gallery brings us to the 
Galerie Marchande and to the neighbourhood of the Sainte-Chapelle, 
which however, is not entered from this side (see below). 

Turning to the right, we proceed to the four Chambres de Police 
Correctionnelle, Nos. 8 and 9 on the first floor, Nos. 10 and 11 on the 
second. We may also reach this point from the Galerie Marchande by 
other corridors. The special entrance to these courts is in the Cour 
de la Sainte-Chapelle. 

The ** Salute - Chapelle , the most interesting portion of the 
Palais de Justice , lies to the left of the main entrance , in the 
same court as the Police Correctionnelle. It is open to the public, 


11 to 4 or 5 daily, except Men. and holidays. It is seen to advantage 
only in briglit weather. This was the ancient palace-chapel, erected 
in 1245-48 during the reign of St. Louis by Pierre de Montereau 
for the reception of the sacred relics, now at Notre-Dame (p. 227), 
which St. Louis is said to have purchased from Jean de Brienne, 
King of Jerusalem, and his son-in-law Baldwin, Emperor of Con- 
stantinople, for 3 million francs. The chapel (115 ft. long, 36 ft. 
wide), which was restored in 1866-70, is a perfect gem of Gothic 
architecture, but unfortunately is partly concealed by other por- 
tions of the Palais. In 1871 it narrowly escaped destruction, as it 
was almost entirely surrounded by a blazing pile of buildings. The 
only service now performed here is the 'Mass of the Holy Ghost', 
celebrated annually on the re-opening of the courts after the au- 
tumn vacation. The interior consists of two chapels, one above the 

The LowEE Chapel (Chapelle Basse), consisting of nave and 
aisles, was used by the domestics of the palace. In the floor are 
tombstones of numerous canons of the Ste-Chapelle. A spiral stair- 
case ascends to the — 

Upper Chapel, in \shich the court attended divine service. 
The proportions of this chapel, which is 66 ft. in height, are 
remarkably light and elegant. Nearly the whole of the wall-surface 
is occupied by 15 large windows (49 ft. by 13 ft.), with magnificent 
stained glass framed in beautiful tracery. The stained glass, part 
of which dates from the time of St. Louis , has been restored. 
The subjects are from the Bible and the lives of saints. The glass 
in the rose-window, dating from the 15th cent., represents sub- 
jects from the Apocalypse. The polychrome decoration of the walls 
harmonises well with the coloured windows. Against the pillars 
are placed statues of the Apostles. Behind the handsome altar is 
the Gothic canopy, in wood, where the sacred relics were formerly 
preserved. One of the two small spiral staircases here, in gilded 
wood, was executed in the 13th cent. ; the other is modern. — We 
quit the chapel by the portal of the upper church, turn to the right, 
and pass through a glass-door (opened by the custodian) into the 
first vestibule of the Palais (p. 220). 

Quitting the Palais by the principal entrance, we observe to the left 
of the flight of steps one of the entrances to the Conciergerie (PI. R, 20; 
7), a prison famous in the annals of France, which occupies the lower 
part of the Palais de Justice adjoining the Seine. (Open on Thursdays. 
Visitors enter from the quay. Permission must be obtained from the 
Prefet de Police, at the Prefecture, Rue de Lutece, opposite the Palais, 
between 10.30 a.m. and 3 p.m.) Most of the political prisoners of the first 
Revolution were confined here before their execution. Profound interest 
attaches to the small chamber or cell in which Marie Antoinette was 
imprisoned, now converted into a chapel. Adjoining this chamber, and 
now connected with it by an archway, is the cell in which Robespierre 
was afterwards confined. Beyond these is the Hall of the Girondists, now 
a prison-chapel. — The so-called Cuisines de St. Louis are also situated in 
this part of the building. (Permission, see above.) 


Opposite the Palais de Justice , on the E. side of the Boul. du 
Palais, rises the Tribunal de Commerce (PI. R, 20; V), built by 
Bailly in the Renaissance style in 1860-66. It is surmounted by 
an octagonal dome, 135ft. high, -which, being in the line of the 
Boulevard de Sebastopol , is visible from the Gare de I'Est. The 
interior, open to the public on week-days, deserves a visit. A grand 
staircase ascends to the Audience Chamber and the Bankruptcy 
Courts. On the first landing are statues of Industrial Art by Pascal, 
Mechanical Art by Maiudron , Commerce by Land by Cabet , and 
Maritime Commerce by Chapu ; and at the top are Caryatides by 
Dubut. Enclosed within the building is a quadrangle surrounded 
by two colonnades, one above the other, above which are Caryatides 
by Carrier-Belleuse supporting the iron framework of the glass- 
covered roof. The Salle cf Audience on the first floor, to the left of 
the staircase , wainscoted with oak, is adorned with panels in imi- 
tation of porcelain painting, and with pictures by Fleury. The chief 
hearings are on Monday. 

The chief Flower Market in Paris is held on Wed. and Sat. behind the 
Tribunal. On Sun. there i3 a Bird Market. 

Leaving the Tribunal de Commerce, we cross the boulevard to 
the Tour de I'Horloge, and skirt the Quai de I'llorloge, on the left 
side of which are entrances to the Conciergerie (p. 222), and the 
Cour de Cassation (p. 221). 

The W. Facade of the Palais de Justice^ towards the Place Dau- 
phine, was constructed by Due in 1857-68. The gravity of the style 
accords well with the purpose of the building. Eight engaged Doric 
columns and two corner-pillars support the rich entablature. The 
six allegorical figures below the windows represent Prudence and 
Truth, by Dumont ; Punishment and Protection, by Jouffroy ; Strength 
and Justice, by Jaley. Three inclined slopes ascend to the entrance 
of the Vestibule de Harlay (p. 221). 

The *Pont-Neuf (PL R, 20; V), farther on, at the W. end of 
the island, a bridge 360 yds. in length and 25 yds. in width, cross- 
ing both arms of the Seine, is, in spite of its name, the oldest 
bridge in Paris. It was constructed in 1578-1604, but was remod- 
elled in 1852, while the end next the left bank was restored in 
1886. The masks supporting the cornice on the outside are copies 
of those originally executed by J. B. du Cerceau. On the island, 
halfway across the bridge, rises an * Equestrian Statue of Henri IV., 
by Lemot, erected in 1818 to replace one which had stood here from 
1635 to 1792, when it was melted down and converted into cannon. 
By way of retaliation Louis XVIII. caused the statue of Napoleon 
on the Vendome Column, another of the emperor intended for the 
column at Boulogne-sur-Mer, and that of Desaix in the Place des 
Victoires to be melted down in order to provide material for the 
new statue. The Latin inscription at the back is a copy of that on 
the original monument. At the sides are two reliefs in bronze, which 

224 9. HOTEL-DIEU. 

represent Henri IV. distributing bread among the besieged Parisians, 
and causing peace to be proclaimed by the Archbishop of Paris at 

In the 16tli cent, the Pont-Neuf was the scene of the recitals of 
Tabarin, a famous satirist of the day, and it was long afterwards the 
favourite rendezvous of news-vendors, jugglers, showmen, loungers, and 
thieves. Any popular witticism in verse was long known as 'un Pont-Neuf '. 

The bridge commands an admirable *View of the Louvre. The 
large edifice on the left hank is the Monnaie (p. 247), and beyond 
it is the Institut (p. 245). 

In returning to the Boul. du Palais by the Quai des Orfevres, on 
the left bank, we pass the S.W. portion of the Palais de Justice, 
occupied by offices of the 'prefecture de police'. 

The Prefecture de PoUce (PI. R, 19, 20-, V; office-hours 10-4) 
occupies the old municipal barracks and two 'hotels d'etat-major' 
in the Boul. du Palais, adjoining the Pont St. Michel (p. 2*28). 
From this point radiate all the threads which constitute the network 
of police authority that extends over the whole city. There are three 
main departments, those of the central administration, the market 
police, and city police. The offices are open from 10 to 4. The 
Lost Property Office is at Quai des Orfevres 36, beside the Palais 
de Justice. 

When an article is lost the best plan is to write to the Prefet de Police 
(no postage-stamp necessary), furnishing as full details as possible. 

In the Rue de Lutece , opposite the Palais de Justice, is the 
modern hronze statue, by A. Boucher, of TA. i?ena«<io< [1536- 1653), 
philanthropist and publisher of the first newspaper in France (1631 ). 

The Hotel -Dieu (PI. R, 22; F), a little farther on, with its 
facade towards the Place du Parvis-Notre-Dame (see helow), was 
erected on this site in 1868-78, by Diet , at a cost of 45 million 
francs, of which nearly one-half was paid for the site. This hospital 
is admirably fitted up, with 828 beds, and three medical chairs in 
connection with it. This, the oldest hospital in Paris, was originally 
a nunnery and afterwards an asylum for paupers and pilgrims. 

This establishment is one of ihe twenty hospitals of the 'Assistance 
Publique', which have an aggregate of upwards of J2,000 beds. The number 
of patients annually discharged includes 45-50,000 men, 36-40,000 women, 
and 16-18.000 children; the average annual deaths in the hospitals include 
about 7000 men, 5000 women, and 3000 children. The Assistance Publique 
expends annually about 36,000,000 fr. on its various benevolent institutions, 
which assist about 467,000 persons each year. 

The Place du Parvis-Notrb-Dame (PL R, 22 ; F), in front of 
the Cathedral, on the S. side of which the Hotel-Dieu was formerly 
situated, is embellished with an Equestrian Statue of Charlemagne, 
in bronze, by Rochet. 

The ^Cathedral of Notre-Dame (PL R 22, V; admission, see 
p. 226), founded in 1163 on the site of a church of the 4th cent., 
was consecrated in 1182, but the nave was not completed till the 

9. NOTEE-DAME. 225 

iSth century. The building has since been frequently altered, and 
has been judiciously restored since 1845 ; but the general effect is 
hardly commensurate with the renown of the edilice. This is owing 
partly to structural defects, partly to the lowness of its situation^ 
and partly to the absence of spires. It is, moreover, now surrounded 
by lofty buildings which farther dwarf its dimensions; and, lastly, 
the adjacent soil has gradually been raised to the level of the pave- 
ment of the interior, whereas in 1748 the church was approached by 
a flight of thirteen steps. 

During the Revolution the cathedral was sadly desecrated. A decree 
was passed in August, 1793, devoting the venerable pile to destruction, but 
this was afterwards rescinded, and the sculptures only were mutilated. 
On 10th Nov. in the same year, the church was converted into a 'Temple 
(if Reason', and the statue of the Virgin replaced by one of Liberty, while 
the patriotic hymns of the National Guard were heard instead of the usual 
sacred music. On a mound thrown up in the choir burned the 'torch of 
truth', over which rose a Greek 'temple of philosophy', adorned with 
busts of Voltaire, Rousseau, and others. The temple contained the en- 
throned figure of Reason (represented by Maillard, the ballet-dancer), who 
received in state the worship of her votaries. White-robed damsels, holding 
torches, surrounded the temple, while the side-chapels were devoted to 
orgies of various kinds. After 12th May, 1794, the church was closed, but 
in 1802 it was at length re-opened by Napoleon as a place of divine worship. 

In 1871 Notre-Dame was again desecrated by the Communards. The 
treasury was rifled, and the building used as a military depot. When the 
insurgents were at last compelled to retreat before the victorious troops, 
they set fire to the church, but fortunately little damage was done. 

The *Facadb, the finest part of the cathedral, dating from the 
beginning of the 13th century, and the earliest of its kind, has 
served as a model for the facades of many other churches in the 
N.E. of France. It is divided into three vertical sections by plain 
buttresses , and consists of three stories, exclusive of the towers. 
The three large recessed portals are adorned with sculptures, which, 
so far as they have survived the ravages of the Revolution, are fine 
specimens of early-Gothic workmanship. Those on the central portal 
represent the Last Judgment; the noble modern figure of Christ on 
the pillar in the middle is by G. Dechaume. The portal on the 
right (S.) is dedicated to St. Anne , and that on the left (N.), by 
which the church is generally entered, to the Virgin, both being 
adorned with appropriate sculptures. The relief representing the 
burial of the Virgin is noteworthy. This story is connected with 
the one above it by the Galerie des Rois, a series of niches con- 
taining modern statues of twenty- eight Jewish kings replacing 
those destroyed during the Revolution. Above the gallery, in the 
centre, rises a statue of the Virgin, with two angels bearing lights, 
to the right and left of which are figures of Adam and Eve. — 
The centre of the second story is occupied by a large rose-win- 
dow, 42 ft. in diameter, with the simple tracery of the early-Gothic 
style. At the sides are double pointed windows. — The third story 
is a gallery composed of pointed arches in pairs, about 26 ft. in 
height, borne by very slender columns, each double arch being 

Baedeker. Paris. 14th Edit. j^5 

226 9. NOTRE-DAME. 

crowned with an open trefoil. Above this gallery runs a balustrade, 
surmounted with figures of monsters and animals ; and the facade 
then terminates in two uncompleted square towers , each pierced 
with a pair of pointed windows, about 54 ft. in height. The lateral 
portals also deserve inspection. The S. door of the transept is em- 
bellished with fine iron-work. The spire above the cross, 147 ft. in 
height, and constructed of wood covered with lead, was erected in 
1859. The exterior of the choir has a charmingly light and elegant 
effect, with its bold flying buttresses and windows surmounted by 

The Interiok is open to visitors the whole day, and the choir 
from 10 to 4 ; tickets admitting to the sacristy, treasury, and chap- 
ter-house are procurable on week-days from the verger, at the en- 
trance to the choir in the right aisle (see p. 227). On Sundays and 
festivals the choir is closed after divine service. 

The church, which consists of a nave and double aisles, crossed 
by a single transept, is 139 yds. long and 52 yds. broad. The double 
aisles are continued round the choir, affording the earliest example 
of this construction. The choir is semicircular in form, as in most 
early - Gothic churches. The chapels introduced into the spaces 
between the buttresses of the aisles and choir are in a late-Gothic 
style. The vaulting, 110 ft. high in the nave, is borne by 75 pillars, 
most of which, unlike those in other Gothic buildings, are round. 
Above the inner aisles runs a triforium borne by 108 small columns, 
and the clerestory is pierced with 37 large windows. The ancient 
stained glass of the roses over the principal and lateral portals is 
worthy of inspection. To the right of the S. portal are two marble 
slabs in memory of 75 victims of the Commune (p. 179). The 
pulpit, designed by Viollet-le~Duc, and executed by Mirgen, is a 
masterpiece of modern wood-carving. In the transept, by the pier 
on the S. side of the choir, is a mediaeval statue of the Virgin, the 
real 'Notre Dame de Paris', held in high veneration by the faithful. 

The Choir and Ambulatory are separated from the nave by very 
handsome railings. The choir- stalls and the reliefs in wood, chiefly 
representing scenes from the history of Christ and the Virgin, should 
be noticed. In the sanctuary are a modern high-altar (1874), a 
Pietk in marble by N. Coustou (known as the Vow of Louis XIII.), 
and statues of Louis XIII. and Louis XIV., also by Coustou. 

The ambulatory is entered from the S. transept. The choir-screen 
is adorned with twenty -three interesting ^Reliefs in stone, re- 
presenting scenes from the life of Christ, by Jean Ravy and his 
ne^heyv Jean Le Bouteiller , completed in 1351, and once richly 
gilded. These are notable achievements of Gothic sculpture, vary- 
ing somewhat in the execution (which was spread over a series of 
years), but all marked by monumental dignity, calm, and beauty. 

The choir-chapels contain a number of monuments, chiefly of former 
archbishops of Paris. Beginning at the sacristy: Archb. Afre {^A. 1849: sec 
p. 71), by Debay; Archb. Sibour (d. 1757), by 'Dubois; "Comte cfHarcourt 

9. ILE ST. LOUIS. 227 

(d. 1718), representing a dead man rising from the tomb, by Pigalle-, Archb. 
Darhoy (d.l671), byBonnassienx ; Cardinal ifoWo<(d. 1863), by Lescornel ; fiiVfto/) 
Matiffas de Bucy (d. 1304). behind the high altar; Cardinal, de Belloy (d.l806). 
a group in marble by Deseine. representing the prelate at the age of ninety- 
nine giving alms; 'Archh. de Quelen (d. 1839), by G. Dechaume; Cardinal 
de Nouilles (d. 1729), by the same, in a chapel adorned with frescoes by 
Maillot; Avchh. de Juiffui (d. iSlll, by Cartellier; Archb. de Beaumont {A. 1781): 
monument of Marshal Guebriant (d. 1643), and his wife Renie du Bec-Cripin. 

The Organ., built in 1750 and restored and enlarged by A. Cavaille-Cull 
in 1868, is one of the finest instruments in Europe, with 6000 pipes (the 
largest about 32 ft. in height), 10 uctaves, 86 stops, 110 registers, 5 manuals., 
and ped lis with 22 pedal-combinations. The choir of Notre-Dame has a 
reputation for its 'plain song'. 

At the beginning of the retro-choir, on the right (S.) side, is the en- 
trance to the Sacristy (adm . 10.30 to 4, 5, or 6 ; 1 f r.), erected in 1846-48 
by Viollet-le-Duc in the same style as the cathedral. In this and in the 
adjoining Chapter House is the — 

Teeasckx, most of the objects in which are modem and of little art- 
istic value. A sacristan shows and explains the various objects , with 
the usual unsatisfactory haste of such guides. The communion vessels, 
in the medieeval style, presented by Napoleon III., are noteworthy. The 
ancient objects include a large Greek cross, enamelled (12th or 13th cent.), 
silver busts of SS. Denis and Louis (14th cent.), and various chalices, re- 
liquaries, and vestments of the 13-16th centuries. Among the objects of 
historical interest are the coronation robes of Napoleon I. and the blood- 
stained clothes and other mementoes of the archbishops Affre (p. 71), 
Sibour, and Darboy (p. 180). 

Towers. The *View from the towers of Notre-Dame (223 ft. in 
height), one of the finest in the city, embraces the course of the Seine 
with its numerous bridges and the principal public edifices in the 
environs. The entrance to the towers is outside the church, by the 
N. tower, to the left of the portals. The ascent may be made in 
summer from 9 to 4 or 5, on payment of 50 c. (including the bells). 
The platform on the summit is reached by 397 steps. In the S. tower 
hangs the great Bourdon de Notre-Dame, one of the largest bells in 
existence, weighing 15 tons; the clapper alone weighs nearly half- 
a-ton. Another bell here (not used) was brought from Sebastopol. 

At the back of the Cathedral is another 'place', occupying the site of 
the old archiepiscopal palace, in the centre of which rises the tasteful 
Gothic Fontaine Notre-Dame.^ designed by Vigoureux, and erected in 1845. 

At the 8.E. end of the He de la Cite, not far from the fountain just 
described, stands the Morgue (open daily), a small building re-erected in 
1864, where the bodies of unknown persons who have perished in the 
river or otherwise are exposed to view. They are placed on marble 
slabs, kept cool by a constant flow of water, and are exhibited in the 
clothes in which they were found. The process of refrigeration to which 
the bodies are subjected makes it possible to keep them here, if necessary, 
for three months. The bodies brought here number 700-800 annually. 
The painful scene attracts many spectators, chiefly of the lower order.s. 

■the He St. Louis (PL R, 22; T'), an island above that of the 
Cit^, with which it is connected by means of the Pont St. Louis, a 
few paces to the N. of the Morgue, contains some interesting build- 
ing of the ITth century. — The Church of St. Louis-en-VIle, on the 
right of the principal street, dates from the 17-i8thceut.; it contains 
some interesting paintings (mostly modern) and some small bas- 
reliefs of the 15th century. — At the end of the street, to the loft 


22S 9. ST. .SiVERIN. 

(No. 2), stands the handsome Hotel LAMBBEr, built in the 17th cent. 
by Levau for Lambert de Thorigny, and decorated with paintings by 
Le Brun and Le Sueur. The ceiling-painting ol' the "Galerie Le 
Bron' represents the marriage of Hercules and Hebe. Voltaire -was 
once the guest of Mme. Duchatel here. The mansion now belongs 
to Prince Czartoryski, who a 'mits Tisitors. Near by, on the Quai 
d'Anjou (No. 17), is the Hotel Lauzun (1657), purchased by the city 
in 1900 and soon to be opened as a municipal museum of art. — 
The adjacent Boul. Henri IV. (p. 72) crosses to the right bank by 
the Pont Sully. Beside the bridge is the Monument of Barye (1795- 
1875), the famous animal sculptor, with reproduction of his most 
celebrated works: the Centaur (p. 108), Lion and Serpent (p. 155), 
and War and Peace. The medallion is by Marqueste. 

Fontaine St. Michel. St. Severin. Ecole de Medecine. 

Approaching the left bank from the Cite by the Boul. du Palais 
de Justice (p. 220), we cross the narrower arm of the Seine by the 
Pont St. Michel (PL R, 19 ; F), a handsome bridge, rebuilt in 1857, 
which commands a fine view of Notre-Dame. At the S. end of the 
bridge we reach the Boulevard St. Michel, the chief street of the 
QuARTiBR Latin, where the ways of the French ^student may be 
studied in or in front of the numerous cafes. It forms a link in the 
line of boulevards traversing Paris from the Gare de I'Est to the 
Carrefour de I'Observatoire (p. 285). To the left, below the Quai 
St. Michel, is a station of the Oile'ans line (p. 27). 

On the right, in the Place St. Michel, we observe the Fontaine 
St. Michel, a fountain 84 ft. high and 48 ft. in width, erected in 
1860. The monument, which stands against a house, consists of 
a triumphal arch in the Renaissance style, containing a group of 
St. Michael and the dragon in bronze, by Buret, placed on an artifi- 
cial rock, from which the water falls into three basins flanked with 
griffins. At the sides of the niche are columns of red marble bear- 
ing allegorical bronze figures (1860). 

The Hue de la Hvchette, beginning to the E. of the fountain, and ihe Rue 
)^t. Siverin, to the left beyond the fountain, penetrate one of the dirtiest 
and most intricate, but at the same lime most interesting and best preserved 
quarters of old Paris. Here lies the church of *St. Severin (PI. R, 19; F), 
one of the oldest in Paris, dating from the ll-16th centuries. It consists 
of a nave and double aisles flanked vpith chapels. The facade is now 
composed of a portal of the 13th cent., brought from a church in the Cite 
which was taken down in 1837, with a handsome tower of the 15th^ent. 
rising above it. The Intekiok is also worthy of inspection. The spacious 
nave has two rows of windows. The 'Stained Glass in the large upper 
windows dates from the 15th and 16th cent., that in the other windows 
and in the chapels is modern. Handsome modern high-altar (1893). The 
modern mural paintings in the chapels are by Ileim, Signal, Schneiz^ Hippoltjte 
Flandrin, Hesse, and olhers: but all are faded and rendered obscure by 
the stained-glass Avindows. The chapels at the end, dedicated to Notre 
Dame de I'Espe'rance and Notre Dame des Sept Douieurs, contain sculp- 
tures and votive offerings. 


A little farther on , near the Rue La^raus^e, is the small and ancient 
church of St. Julien-le-Pauvre (PI. R, 19-22; V), the chapel of the former 
Hotel-Dieu. It is an unassuming edifice in the Gothic style of the 12th cent., 
without portal or tower, but the choir and side-apses are interesting. It is 
now occupied as a Greek church (opt-n 8-10 a.m.); services on Sun. and fe.s- 
tivals at 10 a.m. In the left aisle is a statue of Montyon (1733-1820), the well- 
known philanthropist (p. 24G). The entrance is "No. 11 in the Kue St. Juliefa- 
le-Pauvre, through a narrow and dirty court, which is to be improved. 

Returning to the Boul. St. Michel, we next cross the Boulevard 
St. Qermain, near the Tlieruies and the Hotel de Cluny (see below). 
This modern boulevard forms, with the Boulevard Henri IV., a thor- 
oughfare on the left bank from the Place de la Bastille to the Place 
de la Concorde, a distance of 23/^ M. Though these streets are by 
no means so important as the Grands Boulevards, their point of 
junction is one of the busiest spots in Paris. 

A few paces to the right, in the Boul. St. Germain, is the Ecole 
de Medecine (^Pl. R, 19; V), a huge block of buildings of the 18th 
cent., between the boulevard and the Rue de I'Ecole-de-Medecine. 
The modern facade towards the boulevard, by Ginain, is in the same 
severely plain style as the W. facade of the Palais de Justice and 
the facade of the new Hotel des Postes. The two caryatides, by 
Crauk, represent Medicine and Surgery. The handsome court is 
flanked with an Ionic colonnade , at the end of which rises a bronze 
statue of Bichat, the anatomist (d. 1802), by David d' Angers. 

On the opposite side of the street is a large new addition, con- 
taining the Ecole Pratique or laboratories. Adjacent, to the left, is 
the refectory of an old Franciscan monastery, where the revolution- 
ary 'Club des Cordeliers' held its meetings, now occupied by the 
Musee Dupuytren, a valuable pathological - anatomical collection, 
open to students and to visitors furnished with a permit, daily, except 
Sun. and holidays, from 11 to 4. On the fourth floor of the same 
building is the Mu.'Ste d'Anthropologle Broca (skeletons, skulls, etc.). 

The Library (90,000 vols.) is open to students and medical men daily, 
except on Sundays, holidays, and in vacation (Sept. and Oct.), 11-6 and 
7.30-10.30 o'clock. The Ecole also possesses a Museum of Comparative 
Anatomy, named Musie Orfila after its celebrated founder (d. 1853)-, it is 
open on the same conditions as the library. 

In the open space to the W. of the Ecole de Me'decine are bronze 
stataes of P. Brocu (1824- 18S0), surgeon and anthropologist, by P. Choppin, 
and of Danion (1759-1794), as 'organiser of the national defence', by A. Paris. 

The *H6tel de Cluny (PI. R, 19; F) occupies part of the site 
of a Roman palace supposed to have been founded by the Emperor 
Constantius Chlorus, who resided in Gaul from 292 to 306. Julian 
was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers here in 360 ; and this was 
the residence of the early Prankish monarchs until they transferred 
their seat to the Cit^ (p. 219). The only relics of the palace still 
existing are the ruins of the Thermes, or baths once connected with 
it (p. 237). 

About 1331 the abbots of the wealthy Benedictine Abbey of 
Cluny (near Macon, in Burgundy), who owned much real estate 

230 9. MUSfiE DE CLUNY, 

in Paris, acquired the ruins of the Roman palace and seem to have 
erected a building here. The present Hotel de Cluny, a remarkably 
fine specimen of the late-Gothic style, was built by Abbot Jacques 
d'Amboise at the end of the 15th cent, and retains its original ap- 
pearance almost unaltered. 

The Revolution converted this estate into national property, 
and in 1833 the Hotel de Cluny came into the possession of M. Alex. 
du Sommerard^ a learned and indefatigable antiquarian. On his 
death in 1842 the edifice with its valuable collections was purchased 
by government, and united with the Thermos, which had hitherto 
belonged to the municipality of Paris. The collection has since 
been largely extended. 

The *Musee de Cluny comprises a most valuable collection of 
mediaeval objects of art and products of industry. As there are 
upwards of 11,000 objects, a single visit will hardly afford an idea 
of even the most important. Director, M. Edm. Saglio. 

Admission. The Muse'e de Cluny et des Thermes is open to the public 
every day except Mon. and certain holidays (p. 56), from 11 to 4 on Sun. 
and to 5 on week-days in summer (April Ist-Oct. 1st) , and from 11 to 4 
in winter. Catalogue in paper covers 4 fr., in boards 5 fr. Explanatory 
labels are attached to many of the exhibits. Large selection of photo- 
graphs for sale. Sticks and umbrellas must be given up (no fee). 

The entrance is at No. 14, Rue du Sommerard, adjoining the 
new square of the Sorbonne. We enter the enclosed court by a large 
gate or by a vaulted postern, both adorned with sculpture. The main 
building and projecting wings have Gothic windows with stone mul- 
lions, an open-work parapet, and graceful dormer-windows. In the 
middle of the facade rises a short and massive tower. The left wing 
has four large Gothic arcades. In the right wing is the entrance to 
the garden (p. 238). The door of the museum is at the right corner 
of the main building. 

Ground Floor. /. Room. Railing, panels, chests, and statues 
in wood, of different dates. Weights and measures; mortars. 

7/. Room. To the right and left of the entrance, Gothic benches 
with canopies, now fitted with shelves on which are busts of saints, 
statuettes, and small groups of saints in wood of the 15th and 16th 
centuries. In the glass-cases, an extensive collection of shoes from 
various parts of the world. On the walls are farther wood-carvings. 
Between the windows on the right, a marriage-chest of the 16th 
cent. (No. 1337). Similar chests on both sides and by the fire- 
place. — The stone chimney-piece is adorned with high-reliefs 
dating from 1562. 

///. Room. Entrance-wall : *709. Large carved altar-piece in 
gilded and painted wood, of the end of the 15th cent. ; to the right, 
*712. Flemish altar-piece (16th cent.); to the left, 816, 788. Holy 
Women and Mater Dolorosa (i6th cent.). In the centre : 1422. Ger- 
man Gothic candelabrum, of the end of the 15th cent.; radiating 
frame with miniatures and reproductions of prints of the 'Couronne 

S' M 1 (• h o 1 

V XL i\ X n '1 P ^ 1^ H 

9. MUSfiE DE CLUNY. 231 

de LumiSre' of Aix la Chapelle (12th cent.). By the windows on 
both sides: medals. On the other wall: no number, *Altar-piece, 
larger than and as fine as that opposite; to the right, 715. Calvary, 
triptych in carved wood (i6th cent.); to the left, *710. German 
triptych in carved wood, painted and gilt, of the end of the 
15th cent., upon a French credence of the 15-16th centuries. Sev- 
eral fine Gothic cabinets. 

IV. Room. Furniture of the 16th and 17th centuries. Medals and 
counters relating to the history of France and Paris ; small plaques 
and medals of the 15-16th centuries. The chimney-piece, with a 
bas-relief representing Actaeon changed into a stag, dates from the 
16th century. 

V. Room. Collection Audeoud, presented to the museum in 
1885. This consists of Italian and Spanish works of art of the 17th and 
18th cent., amongst which we first notice a Presepe or Crib, com- 
posed of ai)Out 50 statuettes in rich costumes, with expressive faces 
and well arranged (Neapolitan, 17th cent.). In the corner to the 
right is a similar but smaller work. Then a large glass-case con- 
taining painted statuettes and groups of the Massacre of the Inno- 
cents and the Last Supper, etc. At the back, richly sculptured and 
gilt Tabernacle, from the top of an altar, a Spanish work of the 
17th century. Carved, inlaid, and painted furniture. Richly framed 
mirrors. Portions of a Spanish bed; leathern hangings. 

Corridor. Italian paintings (14- 16th cent.); panels from a 
Spanish altar-piece of the 15th cent.; another altar-piece of the 
same date and provenience. 

VI. Room (on the right), lighted from the roof, with a door to 
the Thermes (p. 237 ; to the left), and, like the following room, sur- 
rounded with a gallery , which is accessible from the first floor 
only. Sculptures, es-pechWy religious statues, bas-reliefs, and orna- 
ments. By the entrance. Virgin and St. John at Calvary, Flemish 
works (15th cent.). In the centre, several figures of the Madonna and 
of saints (14-15th cent.); Virgin at Calvary (16th cent.; painted); 
Angel of the Annunciation, a Pisan work (14th cent."). To the 
right, monuments of the Grand Masters of the order of St. John of 
Rhodes. By the walls, several altars of the 13-1 5th cent. ; statues 
and alabaster-reliefs of the 14th century. On cabinets to the left, 
interesting groups and statuettes, including a Coronation of the 
Virgin (15th cent.), five *Statuettes of mourners from the tomb of 
Philippe le Hardi, by Claux Sluter, at Dijon (end of 14th cent.), 
and a marble Presentation in the Temple (14th cent. ; No. 485). 
Above, tapestries of the 15th century. 

VII. Room^ to the left of the corridor, opposite R. VI. GaUery, see 
above. On the walls are three admirable pieces of *Flemish tapestry, 
of the beginning of the 16th cent., belonging to a series often pieces, 
representing the history of David and Bathsheba. In the glass-cases, 
ecclesiastical vestments and ornaments, lace, antique stuffs, girdles. 

232 .9. MVStE DE CLUNY. 

Around are interesting sculptures : to the right of the entrance, 
282. Astronomy, 284. Grammar, on a frieze in high relief; farther on, 
*460. Flora, a caryatid (all these of the 16th cent.); *448. Marhle 
group of the Fates, attributed to 0. Pilon, with a relief of the school 
of Jean Goujon on the pedestal; *251. Madonna and Child (I6th 
cent.). To the right of the door to the next room, 449. Ariadne 
deserted (16th cent.); 466. Sleep; 450. Venus and Cupid, hy 
J. Cousin. Then, 453. Bearing of the Cross, 454. Entombment, 455. 
Ascension, three bas-reliefs of the 16th century. — On the other 
side of the doorway : 479. Entombment, an Italian work of the 17th 
cent. ; 457. Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen, Flemish high-relief 
of the 16th century. In front of the door are two radiating frames 
with specimens of textile fabrics. Hanging from the ceiling, Vene- 
tian lantern (16th cent.). 

VIII. Room. Continuation of the tapestry, ecclesiastical vest- 
ments, lace, etc.; *Draperies, mantles, and collars of the Order of the 
Holy Ghost, founded by Henri III. in 1579 (comp. p. 138). In the 
centre, *Lantern of a Venetian galley (16th cent.); two handsome 
monolithic columns (16th cent.) supporting two statues (15th cent.). 
To the right of the entrance : 463. Queen of Sheba ; 494. Genius 
from a tomb, by O. Pilon or Giac. Ponzio ; bas-relief from the 
Chateau d'Anet; 493. Shepherd. To the left of the entrance: 487. 
Venus and Cupids (17th cent.); 735. Gilded wooden statuette, a 
German work; 462, 464. Judgment of Solomon ; Virgin in high relief 
(No. 273) and other sculptures of tlie 16th cent.; 291. Portion of a 
chimney-piece by C. de Vriendt. At the end, sculptured fragments 
from the old Hotel de Ville. 

IX. Room. Sumptuous State Carriages of the 17th and 18th 
cent., sledges, rich trappings, Sedan chairs. 

First Floor. We return to the corridor between Rooms VI. 
and VII. and ascend a wooden staircase with the arms of Henri IV., 
formerly in the Palais de Justice. 

In the Corridor are weapons and suits of armour. 

1st Room, to the left. French, Flemish, German, and Dutch Fayence^ 
Porcelain, and Earthenware of the 16 -18th centuries. 1st Glass 
Case, to the left : French fayence and glazed earthenware. 2nd Case 
(opposite): Porcelain from Dresden, Vienna, Ludwigsburg, and 
Frankenthal. 3rd Case: Earthenware from Germany and Limburg. 
Beside it, two charming terracottas by Clodion (1783). 4th Case: 
*Palissy and Oiron fayence (16th cent.). 5th Case (opposite): 
Fayence from Lorraine ; other works by Clodion ; 1303-6. Medallions 
of Franklin and others by Nini, of Nevers ; statuettes, etc. 6th Case : 
Specimens from Sceaux, Paris, Niedervillers, Strassburg, Marseilles, 
Alcora (Spain), and Moustiers. 7th Case : *Rouen. 8th Case : Nevers. 
9th Case: Rouen and Sinceny. 10th Case: Dutch fayence (Delft). 
11th Case: Aprey and Lille. 12th Case: German fayence. Tiles. 

2nd Room, opposite. Magnificent collection of ^Italian Fayence 


of the 15-18th cent., classed according to schools, iu eight glass 
cases. From right to left: Case I. Faenza; II. Caflaggiolo and 
♦Deruta; III. *Deruta ; IV. *Gubbio (majolica) and Castel Durante; 
V-VII. Urbino ; VIII. Venice, CasteUo, and Castelli. — Above and 
beside Cases VI and VII are bas-reliefs in painted terracotta by 
Luca della Robbia and his school (15th cent.). 

3rd Room (to the right of II. 1). *Tapestries of the 15th cent, ; 
those in the lower row are known as the 'tapestry of the lady and 
the unicorn'; those above represent the history of St. Stephen and 
the discovery of his relics. Fine carved chimney-piece (legend of 
tlie Santa Casa of Loretto) and ceiling from a house in Rouen (IGth 
cent.). Handsome oaken doors. Works in Gold, Silver, Glass, and 
and ^Enamel (chiefly from Limoges ; comp. p. 138). 

Case 1, near the windows: *Ecclesiastical work in gold, reliquaries, 
book-covers, crosses, croziers, etc., with champleve enamels (12-13tli cent.j. 
— Case 2: *Limoges enamels (15th cent.) by the Penicauds; *4578. Calvary, 
by Nardon Pinicaud (1503); 4576. Pieta, by Monra,rnti, the earliest master 
kuuwn by name. — Case '6: "Limoges enamels (16-17th cent.); 4617-4630. 
Large oval medallions representing scenes from the Passion (1557) •, 4579. 
Eleanor of Austria, wife of Francis I., and portraits (on each sidej of the 
Duke and Duchess of Guise, all hy Ldonard Limousin; 4591, 4593-96, 4603, 
4611, 4612. Cups, plates, and writing apparatus, hy Pierre Reymond, Jean 
Courieys, F. O. Mouret, etc. — Case 4: '4589. Piciiquary of Catherine de 
Medicis (by Martin Didier'!), and upwards of thirty smaller enamels, by 
Pinicaud, Courteys, Limousin, Couly Noylier, Suzanne Court, etc. — Case 5: 
4639-54. Sixteen scenes from the life of the Virgin and the Passion, hy P. 
Reymond. Enamels by P. Courteys, the Laudijts, and the jVoyliers. Above, 
4610. Enamelled plate (.Judgment of Paris), by /'. Revmond; 4090. Pope 
Clement Vil., by Couly XoyUtr {■;)■, 4606. 'Plat de ]Moi3e\ by P. Pinicaud ; 
large plaques by M. Didier. 

In the two cases in the second row: German loving cups and a lamp 
from a mosque (13th cent.); Italian, gilded and engraved (14th cent.) : 
Then a collection of wood carvings from cabinets. At the back two other 
cases with glass; in the case to the right, Venetian glass: 4779-4782. Plates 
(16th cent.), with paintings of Psyche and Proserpine, Delilah and Sampson, 
.Tunc and Isis, Birth of Bacchus. In the case to the left: French glass! 
Between these cases: 'Venetian marriage-chest (16ih cent.); 'German altar- 
piece in beaten copper (12th cent.), and two candelabra from Limoges 
(13th cent.). On the wall, nine large plaques of enamel on copper, re- 
presenting divinities and allegorical subjects, by Pierre Courteys, brought 
from the old Chateau de Madrid in the Bois de Boulogne (p. 161). These 
are the largest enamels known (5 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 4 in.). Beside the doors 
are interesting cabinets and statues of the 15-17th centuries. 

4th Room. *Hispano- Moorish Fayence with metallic glazing 
(14-17th cent.) and *Rhodian Fayence of the same period, made 
by Persian workmen. A few bronze vases are also placed here. In 
the windows, old stained glass. 

5th Room. Objects illustrating the Jewisli religion (the gift of 
Baroness Nathaniel Rothschild): furniture, goldsmith's work, jewels. 
MSS., embroideries. The chimney-piece dates from the 15th century. 

6th Room. Case 1 : Musical instruments, psaltery, mandolins, 
'kits or pocket-violins used by dancing-masters, violin by Amati. 
Case 2: Collection of caskets. By the wall : in the centre, Florentine 
cabinet, with costly mosaics (17th cent.) -. Flemish cabinet (16th cent.) ; 

234 9. MUS^E DE CLUISY. 

three Italian writing-taWes inlaid with tin (all of the 18th cent.); 
and a * Venetian Cabinet of the 16th cent., representing the facade 
of a palace, adorned with plaques of ivory and mother-of-pearl, 
paintings, and bronze-gilt statuettes. Near the windows, Cabinets 
of the 16th century. 

7th Boom. Flemish cabinets of the 17th cent. ; two ancient Chin- 
ese vases in cloisonne enamel. The ceiling-painting was executed 
in the 17th century. 

8th Room. State-bed of the time of Francis I. (16th cent.); to the 
right and left, 1431, 1432. French cabinets (16th cent.). — To the 
right of the chimney-piece : 1424. Cabinet from Clairvaux Abbey, 
time of Henri II. (16th cent.). — Opposite the windows : 1426, 1425. 
Cabinets (16th cent;). Central glass-case: MSS. with miniatures 
of the 13-16th cent., including portraits of Columbus (No. 1817) 
and Palissy (1818). Above, statuettes; 743. Wooden figure of the 
Virgin (15th cent); *855. Wood-carving representing two women 
fighting. At the 1st window, moulds for pastry (16-18th cent.). At 
the 2nd window: tobacco-graters (17th cent.) in carved wood; sets 
of draughtsmen, ivory snuff-boxes, pepper-boxes, nut-crackers 
(16-17th cent.). 

9th Room. Works in Ivory. — 1st Glass Case to the right: 
1081. Italian triptych of the 14th cent., with bas-reliefs of scenes 
from the Gospels; no number, German hunting-horn (llth cent.); 
to the left, 1058. Pastoral staff in boxwood and ivory (13th cent.); 
to the right, 1088. Fragment of a triptych of the 14th cent. ; no 
number, book-cover (9th cent.). — 2nd Case on the right: 1042, 
1041. Plaque carved on both sides with mythological and Christian 
scenes (iO-llth cent.); 1033. Book-cover (10th cent.); no number, 
*Plaque of a consular diptych (5th or 6th cent.) ; 1039, 1048. Reliefs 
of the 10th and of the ll-12th cent.; to the right, 1035. Marriage 
of Emperor Otho II. and Theophano, daughter of the Greek emperor 
Romanus II., in 973; 1033, 1034. Fragments of boxes of the 
6th cent.; no number. Byzantine casket (9th cent.), Latin plaque 
of the 6th cent. ; 1036 and no number. Plaques of the 17th cent- 
ury. — Large Glass Case: 1052. Reliquary of St, Yved in ivory, 
12th cent.; 1037. Madonna, 10th cent.; six Madonnas, 12th, 13th, 
14th. and 17th cent. ; 1106. St. Catharine, 15th cent.; 5296-97. Two 
lions' heads of rock-crystal, 3rd or 4th cent., found in a tomb on the 
Rhine, together with an ivory statuette (1032) with the attributes 
of several deities (between the lions' heads). At the back : 1087. 
Madonna (14th cent.); 1060. Reliquary with 51 bas-reliefs of Scrip- 
tural subjects (14th cent.); 1090. Coffer of the same style and 
period ; several other coffers ; portable altar (German ; 15th cent.), 
with ivory carvings of the 12th century. — 1st Glass Case to the 
left : Powder-horns , graters , snuff-boxes , knives and forks with 
ivory handles (17th cent.). 2nd Case to the left: Wax medallions 
and medals. — On the side next the entrance, 1461, 1462. Carved 

9. MUSfiE DE CLUNY. 235 

ebony cabinets of the 17th cent, and portions of others of the same 
period (others opposite). Case between the cabinets: Ivory carv- 
ings and wooden statuettes ; no number, Adam and Eve, by Franche- 
ville (? 17th cent.); to the right, 1153. Figure resembling the Man- 
neken Pis at Brussels and by the same artist, Duquesnoy (1619). 
1113. Virtue chastising Vice, attributed to Oiovanni da Bologna, 
on a round pedestal of the 19th cent.; below, 1056, 1057. Venetian 
coffers (13th cent.). — First window towards the garden: Carved 
distaffs and spindles (16th cent.) ; girdle of chastity. Between the 
•windows and by the back -wall: 1458, 1457. Ebony cabinets 
(17th cent.). In the adjoining glass-cases, statuettes, busts, medal- 
lions , ivory carvings of the 16-18th centuries. — First window 
towards the court: Parcel -gilt plaques from a coffer of the late 
15th cent. ; several other plaques in ivory (14-15th cent.), some per- 
forated and of great delicacy, e.g. 1177. Diptych of the 17th cent., 
with tablets no larger than a nutshell, containing 102 figures. Be- 
tween the windows, on the right: 1079. Oratory of the Duchesses 
of Burgundy, 14th century. — Second window : in the centre, no 
number. Fine triptych in high-relief (14th cent.); 1062, 1063-66 
(to the right). Scenes from the Passion and legends of martyrs 
(14th cent.) ; to the right and left, leaves of diptychs of the 14th and 
15th cent., with Biblical scenes ; 1055, 1069-73. Boxes with mirrors 
of the 14th century. 

10th Room. Works in iron, locksmith's work, bronzes. 

Case 1, on the side next the court: Locks, knockers, etc. (15-17th cent.); 
iron coflfer inlaid with gold and silver (17th cent.). — Case 2 : Locks, flat 
bolts, etc. (14-l?'th cent.) — Case 3, by the end-wall: Keys. — Case 4 
(above Case 3): 5708. Stirrups of Francis I.; 5003, above, Statuette of 
St. Catharine of Bologna (17th cent.); censers. — 1409. Credence-table of 
the 16th cent.; above, no number, Bronze Statuette of Joan of Arc 
(1412-31). 5114. Florentine mirror mounted in damascened iron (16th cent.). 

— Case 5: Huntsman's kit of knives and instruments (16th cent.). — Case 
6 (above): 5189. 5190. Pewter ewer and basin, by Fr. Briot; 5131. Silver 
ijoblet (16th cent.) in the shape of a lady in the costume of the period. — 
Case 7, on the side next the garden: Locks, bolts, and knockers (16th cent.). 

— Case 8: Small plaques; bosses from horses' bits (16th cent.); cork- 
screws, pincers (17-l-5th cent.). — Case 9. 6599. Double girdle of cha.stity 
(Italian). — On a credence-table of the I6th cent.: 1271. Italian relief in 
iron of the Wise Virgins (16th cent.). — Case 10: 'Locks and 'Keys of the 
16th cent. (2nd key to the right in the first row made by Louis XVI.). — 
Cases 11 (t 12: Statuettes and other bronzes. — Case 13, in front of tho 
chimney-piece: Iron coflers. To the right, bronze measures. To the left: 
Italian andirons (16th cent.); serpents of the 17th century. — Case 14: 
Bronze knockers; bolt and lock of the 15th cent.; 6126. Penitential belt. 
At the sides of this case : Bell-metal font from a church near Hamburu 
(14th cent.); leaden baptismal basin (14th cent.); hmge-t)rnaments froui 
Notre Dame; roasting-jack; smoothing irons. Italian celestial globe (1502). 
'Goldsmith's bench and tool.*', German work of 1565, inlaid and carved, 
the iron portions delicately engraved. 6054. Large and handsome chest in 
forged iron (17th cent ). Hanging from the roof. Lantern of the 16th cent., 
with the arms of Lorraine. — The chimney-piece dates from the 16th 

11th Room. *Objects in the precious metals. Case to the right 
of the entrance next the garden : Large collection of spoons, forks. 


knives, scissors, cases of instruments of various kinds, of the 
16-17th cent.; 5129. Mirror (closed) of the 16th century. Next 
case: Church ornaments of the 13-17th cent., including 5014. Re- 
liquary in the shape of a Madonna, in beaten and gilded silver (15th 
cent.), and four other reliquaries of the same period. Following 
case: Various objects in gold and other precious metals, partly 
enamelled; snuff-boxes, etc. 5278. Portrait of Francis I. On the 
wall: 5068. Abbot's crozier, 16th cent.; 5069. Crozier of the 17th 
cent. ; 5070. Processional banner (i5th cent. ), representing a 'mir- 
acle of the Host' that occurred at Paris in 1290 ; 5066. Crozier of the 
14th century. On the same wall and opposite, Six pieces of Flemish 
tapestry, of the beginning of the 16th century. 

Central cabinet: **4979-87. Nine gold crowns, found at Guar- 
razar near Toledo in 1858 and 1860, the largest of which , inlaid 
with pearls. Oriental sapphires, and other jewels, is said by the in- 
scription (probably added when the crown was converted into a 
votive offering) to have belonged to the Visigothic king Recceswind 
(649-72). — 1st Glass Case on the left, next the garden : *5005. 
Golden rose of Bale, presented by Pope Clement V. to the Prince- 
Bishop of Bale (14th cent.); 5016, 5017. Reliquaries of the same 
treasure, 15th cent. ; 5029, 5021, r)022. Reliquaries and monstrances, 
also of the 15th century. — 2nd Glass Case on the same side : 5042. 
Large double cross in gilded copper, forming a reliquary, richly 
decorated with filigree- work and jewels, a valuable Limoges work of 
the 13th cent. ; *5044. Processional cross, in silver, gilded, engrav- 
ed, and enamelled, with statuettes at the ends representing the 
Virgin, St. John, St. Peter, Mary Magdalen, etc., a very interesting 
Italian work of the 14th cent.; 5043. Archiepiscopal cross in silver- 
gilt filigree, lavishly enriched with jewels, pearls, and antique cut 
gems, and containing eight small reliquaries (Limoges, 13th cent.); 
5025, 5026. Italian shrines (15chcent.); 5007. Italian reliquary 
(14th cent.); no number, Italian monstrance (15th cent.). 

By the first window : to the left, *5104. Ship in gilded and enam- 
elled bronze, with movable figures of Charles V. (in gold) and his 
dignitaries, a piece of mechanism executed in the 16th century. — 
Glass Case : *5299. Chess-board with men of rock-crystal, a German 
work of the 15th cent. ; other objects in precious metal or gems, 
chiefly of the 15-17th centuries. — Between the windows: Silver 
ornaments of the 15th and 17th cent. ; German drinking-horn (15th 
cent). — By the second window : Gallic torques and other objects, 
in massive gold, found near Rennes in 1856; 4989. Merovingian 
military ornament, in gold (end of a sword-belt): 4990. Merovingian 
scabbard, mounted in gold; 1040. Cover of a book of the Gospels, 
ivory with gold filigree, 10th cent. ; 5076. Silver clasp, gilded and 
enamelled, a German work of the 14th cent. ; no number. Coffer in 
silver-gilt filigree work, embellished with pearls and gems; 5041. 
Double cross, in silver-gilt, adorned with precious stones, filigree 

9; THERMES. 237 

work, and reliefs (13tli cent.), *6103. Prize for erossbow-shootiDg. 
in silver-gilt, embossed and chased (German, 16th cent). 

Glass Case by the end- wall : French seals, with coats-of-arms 
(17-18th cent.). *4988. Golden antependium presented by Emp. 
Henry II. (d. 1024) to the cathedral of F.ale, 3 ft. high and 51/2 ft. 
wide, with embossed reliefs, a most interesting specimen of the 
goldsmith's art, probably executed by Lombard artists under By- 
zantine influence. The tapestry and carpet also come from Bale 

In the adjoining case, next the garden : Astrolabes, compasses, 
clocks of the 16-17th cent. ; set of instruments of a German archi- 
tect of the 16th century. — Next case: Covers of a Gospel; Last 
Supper in chased and gilded copper with enamels, Limoges work of 
the 12th and 13th cent. ; vessels used as hand-warmers (13th and 
16th cent.l; opposite the window. Reliquary of St. Anne, by Hans 
Greiff, a famous Nuremberg goldsmith (1472); abbots' croziers 
(12 -14th cent.). — Case by the window: Watches of the 17th 
and 18th cent., girdles, chains, ornaments, collar of the order of 
the Holy Annunziata. 

We return to Room 8. On the right is the — 

12th Room. State-bed (17th cent.). To the left, English astro- 
nomical clock (17th cent.). On the chimney-piece: 937. The 
Child Jesus in an attitude of benediction, a statue by Duquesnoy. 
At the window: Collection of book-bindings (16-18th cent.). 

We next enter the rich Gothic *Chapel, which is borne by a 
pillar in the centre. To the left, Large Flemish altar-piece, 15th 
century. Opposite, Gothic chairs and stalls. On the site of the altar, 
in a projecting apse, Large wooden reliquary (15th cent.). In front, 
large copper reading-desk. At the end: Christ, a wooden statue of 
life-size, 12th cent.; statues of the Virgin and St. John, from an 
Italian 'Calvary', 13th cent.; wooden doorway (15th cent.). 

From this chapel a staircase descends to a small garden-cnurt, afifording 
a view of the exterior of the chapel-apse. Immediately to the left, at the 
foot of the staircase, is a door leading into K. VI (p. 2^3), from which the 
Thermes are entered. 

The Thermes, or ruins of the baths once belonging to the an- 
cient palace of the emperors (p. 229), are on the side adjoining the 
Boul. St. Michel. The fact that the largest hall, which was the 
Frigidarium, or chamber for cold baths, is 65 ft. in length, 37^/2 ft- 
in breadth , and 59 ft. in height , will serve to convey some idea 
of the imposing dimensions of the ancient Roman palace. The archi- 
tecture is simple, but the masonry is so substantial that the weight 
and moisture of a garden whicli lay above it for many years down 
to 1810 have left it uninjured. The vaulting is adorned with ships' 
prows, in allusion to the fact that Lutetia lay on a navigable river, 
whence the modern armorial bearings of Paris are said to be derived. 
A number of the Roman antiquities found at Paris are preserved 
here, but they will not interest ordinary visitors. To the left is a 

238 9. SORBONNE. 

statue of the Emp. Julian (comp. p. 92). Opposite, in the lower 
part of the hall, originally occupied by the piscina or swimming- 
hath, is a mosaic of the Gallo-Roman period. The Tepidarium, or 
warm bath, was in the part adjoining the boulevard, now destitute 
of vaulting. 

The * Garden^ or Square Clunp, the only entrance to which is through 
the court of the 'hotel' (p. 229) contains interesting mediseval sculptures 
and architectural remains, including a large Romanesque portal from the 
Benedictine church at Argenteuil. Facing the Hotel de Cluny is a cast of 
the fine 31 douna of Xotre-Dame at Paris. 

About 3U0 yds. beyond the Hotel Cluny, the Boul. St. Germain reaches 
the Place Maubert, with a monument to Etienne Dolet (p. 245). 


Sorbonne. College de France. Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve. St. Etienne- 


Opposite to the entrance of the Hotel de Cluny is the small 
Square de la Sorbonne, laid out in 1899 and containing a group of 
sculpture (Tro Patria Morituri') by T. Noel. Beyond, in the Rue 
des Ecoles, rises the facade of the new Sorbonne (see below). 

The Sorbonne (PI. R, 19; F) , a building erected in 1629 by 
Cardinal Richelieu for the Theological Faculty of the University of 
Paris, is now mainly devoted to the Faculties of Literature and 
Science (des Lettres et des Sciences). The two other faculties belong- 
ing to the university (jurisprudence and medicine) occupy separate 
buildings (pp. 240, 229). 

The Sorbonne was originally a kind of hostel founded by Robert de 
Sorbon, the confessor of St. Louis, in 1253, for the reception of poor stu- 
dents of theology and their teachers; but it soon acquired such a high 
reputation that it became the centre of the scholastic theology , and_ its 
name came to be applied to the theological faculty itself This establish- 
ment has exercised considerable influence on Catholicism in France. While 
violently hostile to the Reformation, the Sorbonne was hardly less strongly 
opposed to the Jesuits: and for a long period it rejected the authority of 
the 'Unigenitus' bull directed against the Jansenists (1713). The faculty 
next came into collision with the philosophers of the 18th cent., of whose 
witticisms it was frequently the butt, until it was abolished by the Re- 

In 1808 the Sorbonne was made the seat of the 'Universite' de 
France' (under which term the French included the authorities who 
superintend the education of the whole country), but in 1896 it 
once more became the University of Paris, the various provincial 
Academies being raised, at the same time, to the rank of independ- 
ent universities. The total number of students in the five faculties 
is about 12,000, including 3-400 women. The lectures are open to 
the public gratis. 

Since 1885 the Sorbonne has been practically rebuilt (the 
church excepted), from plans by Nenot. The edifice is a vast pile, 
270 yds. long and 110 yds. broad, having been considerably ex- 
tended to the N. and S. The main part is now on the N., present- 
ing a huge facade to the Rue des Ecoles, with two pediments 

0. SORBONNE. 239 

(Science, by Mercie; Literature, by Chapu) and eight statues: 
Chemistry (to the left), by Injalbert; Natural History, by Curlier; 
Physics, by Lefeuvre; Mathematics, by Suchetet; History, by Cor- 
donnier; Geography, by Marqueste,- Philosophy, hy Longepied ; and 
Archaeology, by Paris. 

The vestibule on this side contains statues of Homer, hy Delaplanche. 
and Archimedes, by Falguihre. In the centre are the principal entrance 
and the staircase to the galleries of the great amphitheatre (see below: 
shown by the concierge on Thurs. or Sun. afternoons; fee). The upper 
vestibule is adorned with mural paintings illustrating Literature, by 
Flameng (to the right of the principal door), and Science, by Chartran 
(to the left). Flameng's paintino^s represent: Founding of the Sorbonne; 
Abelard and his school; Jean Heysselin establishing the first printing- 
press at the Sorbonne; Etienne Dolet, Amyot Ronsard, Marot, Eabelais, 
Ramus, La BoiJtie, Brantome, Budajus, L'Estoile, and Montaigne; Riche- 
lieu laying the foundation of the Sorbonne chapel; the Rector of the 
Sorbonne and Henri IV.; Moliere, Racine, Lafontaine ; La Rochefoucauld, 
Rollin, principal of the College de Beauvais (at Paris); Quinet. Villemain, 
Guizot, Michelet, Cousin, and Renan. At the side, a statue of the Republic, 
\>Y Delhomme. Chartran's paintings, also beginning at the door, represent: 
Louis IX. studying mathematics; Ambroise Pare tying arteries; B. Palissy 
teaching mineralogy; Buflfon writing his 'Histoire Naturelle'; Pascal ex- 
plainin;; to Descartes his theories of atmospheric pressure; Lavoisier 
expounding his pneumatic theory to Berthollet; Cuvier studying anatomy; 
Laennec, inventor of the stethoscope; Arago teaching astronomy. — The 
Large Amphitheatre^ which holds 3500 persons, is frequently the scene of 
meetings and public functions. It contains six statues: Sorbon by Crauk\, 
RictiClieu by Lamon^ Descartes by Couian, Pascal by E. Barrias, Rollin by 
Chaplain, and Lavoisier by Dalou. The end of this hall is decorated with 
a large allegorical 'Tainting ('The Sacred Grove") by Puvis de ChavanneSy 
the painters masterpiece and perhaps the finest decorative painting of 
modern times (in the middle the Sorbonne to the left the Historic Sciences, 
to the right the Exact Sciences). The cupola is by Oalland. The other 
rooms (not shown to the public) have paintings by Wencker^ Benj. Constant^ 
Lerolle, Cazin, Jobbi-Duval. Lhermitte, Roll, and liaph. Collin. 

The Church of the Sorbonne, the usual entrance of which is 
in the Place de la Sorbonne, is the only part of the original building 
that has been preserved. It was built by Card. Richelieu in 1635-59 
and is surmounted by a conspicuous dome. In the interior, to the 
left of the entrance, is a large picture by Hesse: Robert de Sorbon 
presenting young students of theology to St. Louis ; to the right, 
the tomb of the Due de Richelieu (d. 1822), minister of Louis XVIII. 
The right transept contains the History of Theology, a large picture 
by Timbal, and the marble *Tomb of Cardinal Richelieu (d. 16-4'2), 
designed by Le Brun, and executed by Girardon in 1694. The car- 
dinal is represented in a semi-recumbent posture, supported by 
Religion, while Science sits by in an attitude of grief. The last 
statue has been particularly admired. In the left transept is a 
Scourging of Christ, in marble, "by Ramey the Younger. The spandrels 
of the dome are painted by Phil, de Champaigne. 

Opposite the church of the Sorbonne is the small Place de la 
Sorbonne, beyond which, in the Boul. St. Michel, is the Lycee St. 
Louis, formerly the College d'Harcourt, founded in 1280. 

A little farther on, to the right of the Boul. St. Michel and beside the 
Luxembourg Garden (p. 262), is the little Place il^dicis, in which a Siaitie 

240 9. PANTTmOT^. 

of Fasteur (p. 288j, by Falguiere, Is to be erected. Tiie Eue Sou^lct leads 
hence to tbe Pantbeon (see below). 

Behind the Sorboniie, in the Rue des Ecoles, is the College de 
France (PI. K, 19; 7), founded hy Francis I. in 1530, entirely re- 
huilt at different times between 1611 and 1774, and restored and 
extended in 1831. The original name, 'College des trois langues', 
denoted its dedication to students from different provinces. The in- 
scription 'Docet omnia' over the entrance indicates that its sphere 
embraces every branch of science. The lectures are intended for the 
benefit of adults, and are of a popular character. The public are 
admitted gratis, ladies included. The college, which contains about 
50 chairs, is not connected with the university, but is under the direct 
control of the minister of public instruction. Many illustrious men 
have taught here; Ampere, Barthelemy-St-Hilaire, Michelet, Quinet, 
Ste. Beuve, Renan, Berthelot, etc. — A bronze statue of Claude 
Bernard (1813-78), the physiologist, by Guillaume, has been erected 
in front of the side of the College facing the Rue des Ecoles. Adja- 
cent, to the right, is a statue of Dante (1265-1321), by Aube. In 
the court on the side next the Rue St. Jacques are a statue otBudaeus 
{Bude; 1467-1540), one of the learned founders of the institution, 
by M. Bourgeois , and some bronze busts. The marble statue of 
ChamjyoUion (1790-1832), the Egyptologist, in the vestibule, is by 

Farther on, the Rue des Ecoles passes the Square Monge (p. 244j and 
ends behind the Halle aux Vins (p. 267), near the Jardin des Plantes (p. 264). 

We now ascend the old Rue St. Jacques , to the right of the 
College de France. On the right is the massive new pile of the Sor- 
bonne, with the tower of its observatory ; on the left is the Lycee 
Louis-le- Grand (rebuilt by Le Cceur in 1887-96), formerly the Col- 
lege de Clermont belonging to the Jesuits. Farther on, to the left, 
is the Ecole de Droit, or school of jurisprudence connected with the 
university, rebuilt in 1892-97, and extending to the Place du Pan- 
theon. We then reach the w'ide and handsome Rue Soufflot, which 
leads to the Jardin du Luxembourg (p. 262) and to the Pantheon. 

The *Pantheon (PI. R, 19, V; admission, see p. 241) stands 
on the highest ground in the quarters of the city on the left bank, 
occupying the site of the tomb of Ste. Genevieve (422-512), the patron 
saint of Paris. The chapel erected over her tomb was succeeded by 
a church, which having fallen to decay was removed about the middle 
of last century. The present edifice, designed in the classical style 
by Soufflot, was built in 1764-90. The new church was also 
dedicated to Ste. Genevieve, but in 1791 the Convention resolved 
to convert it into a kind of memorial temple, which they named 
the 'Pantheon', inscribing on it the words, 'Amx grands hommes la 
patrie reconnaissante\ It was restored to religious uses in 1806, but 
was again made a temple after the July Revolution in 1830. Once 

9. PANTHEON. 241 

more consecrated in 1851, it was finally secularised in 1885 for the 
obsequies of Victor Hugo. 

Admission. The Panthdon is open daily, except Men., from 10 to 5 
(4 in winter). For the dome and vaults an order is necessary from the 
Administration des Beaux Arts, Rue de Valois 3 (Palais-Royal), for which 
applicition should be made in writing. The vaults are open to the public 
on All Souls" Day (Nov. 2nd), but are then uvercroA ded. 

ExTBRioR. The edifice is of most imposing dimensions, and its 
form is that of a Greek cross, 370 ft. long and 276 ft. wide, sur- 
mounted by a dome 272 ft. in height and over 75 ft. in diameter. 
The dome rests on a lofty cylinder or drum enclosed by an open 
Corinthian colonnade, and is crowned with a lantern. A huge 
colonnade consisting of twenty -two fluted Corinthian columns, 
81 ft. in height, resembling that of the Pantheon at Rome, forms 
the portico, to which eleven steps ascend. The tympanum, 117 ft. 
long and 23 ft. high, contains a fine *Group of sculptures by David 
(V Angers (d.l856), illustrative of the inscription mentioned above. 
The principal figure, 16 ft. in height, represents France, between 
Liberty and History, distributing wreaths to her sons. 

Under the portico are two groups in marble by Maindron 
(d. 1884) : Ste. Genevieve imploring Attila, the leader of the Huns, 
to spare the city of Paris; and the Baptism of Clovis by St. Remigius. 

Interior. Three handsome bronze doors form the entrance to 
the simple but majestic interior. On eacb side of the aisles is a 
Corinthian colonnade, bearing a gallery running round the church. 
Over the centre of the edifice rises the dome, which, according to 
Soufflot's design, was to have rested on columns, but these proved 
too weak for the weight of the superstructure. J. Rondelet, who 
succeeded Soufflot in 1781, substituted pillars, connected by massive 
arches, for the original columns, to the detriment, however, of the 
general effect produced by the nave. The dome consists of three 
sections, one above the other, the second of which is adorned with 
paintings (see p. 242). The paintings in the spandrels, by Carvalho, 
after Oerard, represent Death, France, Justice, and Glory. 

The decoration of the Panthe'on was originally entrusted to Paul 
Chenavard of Lyons, but his cartoons (1848-51), now in the Lyons 
picture-gallery, were never executed. The mistake was then made 
of giving the commission to various artists of very diverse tenden- 
cies 5 and the natural result is a sad want of harmony in the general 

Beside the principal door are statues of St. Denis, hy'Perraud, 
and St. Remigius, by Cavelier. On the wall of the nave, to the right, 
Preaching of St. Denis, by Galland; *Childhood of Ste. Genevieve, by 
Puvis de Chavannes (1877). On the left, Martyrdom of St. Denis, by 
Bonnat; Attila on the march to Paris, and Ste. Genevieve encourag- 
ing the Parisians during the approach of Attila, by Delaunay (d. 
1891) and Coiircelles- Dumont. Above these and the following paint- 
ings are smaller compositions, more or less related to the lower 

Baedekee. Paris. 14th Edit. 16 

242 9. PANTHEON. 

scenes (here, French saints). At the first pillars, to the right and 
left, statues of St. Germain, by Chapu , and St. Martin, hy Cabet 
and Becquet. Right transept : Coronation of Charlemagne, and Char- 
lemagne as restorer of literature and science, by H. Levy ; at the end, 
Pilgrimage to Ste. Genevieve and Procession with her relics, by 
Maillot, and a piece of tapestry, 'Gratia Plena' ; to the left, Baptism 
of Clovis and his Vow at the battle of Tolbiac, by Jos. Blanc. To 
the light of the choir, Death of Ste. Genevieve, by J. P. Laurens, 
and a statue of the saint, by GuUlaume. By the pillar, statues of 
St. Gregory of Tours, by Fr'miet, and of St. Bernard, by Jouffroy. 
Paintings on the left side, by Puvis de Chavannes: Ste. Genevieve 
bringing provisions to the beleaguered Parisians; *Ste. Genevieve 
watching over the sleeping city (1898). In the apse is a model 
of a curious colossal statue of Liberty by Falguitre. On the vault 
is Christ showing to the Angel of France the destiny of her people, 
a mosaic by Hebert. Left transep*;: St. Louis as a boy, as ruler, 
and as captive of the Saracens, by Cabanel. To the right: Joan of 
Arc at Domremy, before Orleans, at Rheims, and at the stake in 
Rouen, "by Lenepveu; at the end. Prayer, Labour, Patriotism, De- 
votion, by Humbert, and a piece of tapestry, 'Pro Patria'. — By the 
pillar, statues of St. Jean de Matha, by Hiolle, and of St. Vincent 
de Paul, by Falguitre. 

The Dome (adm. by order only, see p. 241) is reached by a staircase 
(425 steps) in the left (N.) transept. We ascend 139 steps to the roof, and 
then 192 more to the first section of the dome, where we obtain a view 
of the painting in the second section , executed by Gros, in 1824. This 
large composition, which finds many admirers, covers a surface of 352 sq. 
yds., and represents Ste. Genevieve receiving homage from Clovis (the first 
Christian monarch), Charlemagne, St. Louis, and Louis XVIII. \ above are 
Louis XVI., Marie Antoinette, Louis XVII., and Madame Elisabeth, the 
victims of the Revolution. — We may now ascend by 94 steps more to 
the lantern, which commands a magnificent view of the city and environs, 
but less interesting than tbat from the Tour St. Jacques or Notre-Dame, as 
its position is not so central. 

The entrance to the Vaults (Caveavx), which are uninteresting, is at 
the end of the building, to the left. They are supported by 20 pillars, and 
divided by partitions of masonry. Mirabeau was the first person whose 
remains were deposited here (1791), and near him was placed Marat, the 
most furious of the Jacobins, v^^ho fell in 1793 by the hand of Charlotte 
Corday; but their bodies were afterwards removed by order of the Con- 

To the right of the entrance is a monument, in poor taste, erected to 
/. J. Rousseau (1712-1788). On the other side, to the left, is a monument 
to Voltaire (1694-1778), with his statue after Houdon. — Opposite Voltaire's 
tomb is that of Souffloi (1713-1781), the architect of the Panthe'on, a plaster- 
model of which is shown beneath the left transept. Farther on, to the 
left, is a vault in which are placed the remains of General Lazare Camoi 
(1753-1823), 'organizer of victory', member of the Convention, and those of 
President Carnot (1837-1894). General Murceau (1769-1796), La Tour d'Auvergne 
(1743-1800: the biave soldier who refused promotion and was named by 
Napoleon 'the first grenadier of France"), and Baudin (1811-1851), represen- 
tative of the people (p. 208). On the other side are the tombs of Victor 
Hugo (1802-55), Marshal Lannes (1769-1809), Lagrange (1736-1813), the mathe- 
matician, Bougainville (1729-1811), the circumnavigator, and a number of 
senators of the First Empire. In these vaults a remarkably loud echo may 


be awakened. The egress from the vaults is on the W. side, near the 
principal portal (fee optional). 

The Pantheon was the headquarters of the insurgents in June, 1848, 
and was also one of the chief strongholds of the Communards in 1871 ; and 
on both occasions the neighbouring barricades were only stormed by the 
troops after a severe struggle. On the latter occasion the insurgents had 
placed gunpowder in the vaults for the purpose of blowing up the build- 
ing, but were dislodged before much damage had been done. 

Opposite the portal of the Pantheon, to the left, are the Mairie 
of the 5th Arrondissement, erected in 1849, and the bronze Statue of 
J. J. Rousseau (1712-1778) , by P. Berthet, erected in 1889. On 
the right are the old buildings of the Ecole de Droit (p. 240), begun 
by Soufflotin 1771. 

A little to the left, in the Rue d'Ulm CNo. 45), is the Ecole Normale 
Sup4rieure (PI. G, 19; F), founded in 1794 for the training of teachers for 
the 'lyce'es'. It has produced many famous writers and savants. The build- 
ing dates from 1845. There are now about 130 students. The course lasts 
3 years. — Xot far off is the Val-de-Grace (p. 28o). — A visit to the Rue 
Mouffetard and other parts of the poor quarter to the S.E. of the Panthe'on 
may be recommended to levers of Old Paris. 

The Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve, a long building on the N. side 
of the Place du Pantheon, was built by Labrouste in 1843-50. On the 
walls are inscribed names of celebrated authors of all nations. The 
collection of books was founded by Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld in 
1624 in the Abbey of Ste. Genevieve, and greatly augmented by the 
library of Cardinal Le Tellier, archbishop of Rheims, in 1710. The 
library now contains 2392 MSS. (on the lower floor), of the Uth 
to the 17th cent., some of them illuminated "with beautiful mini- 
atures; numerous 'incunabula', or specimens of the earliest printing 
(1457-1520); and about 25,000 engravings and curiosities, including 
a portrait of Queen Mary Stuart, presented by herself to the abbey. 
The printed books number 200,000 vols., including a nearly complete 
collection of Aldines, or books by the celebrated firm of Manutius at 
Venice (so called from Aldus, the elder member of the firm; 15th 
and 16th cent.), and Elzevirs, or books printed by the family of that 
name at Leyden and Amsterdam (16th and 17th cent.); and also 
most of the periodicals published in the 17th and 18th centuries. 

The vestibule contains busts of famous French authors; and on the 
staircase is one of Gering , who in 1469 established at the Sorbonne the 
first printing press used in Paris. Above the landing is a copy, by Baize, 
of EaphaeFs School of Athens in the Vatican. At the sides are allegorical 
medallions (also by Baize), and busts of La R<ichefoucauld and Labrouste. 
At the entrance to the hall is a line piece of Gobelins tapestry, Study sur- 
prised by night, after Baize. 

The 'Reading Room (Salle de Lecture) on the first floor, is very skil- 
fully constructed. The vaulting is borne by seventeen iron girders, sup- 
ported in the centre by sixteen slender columns; and 420 readers can be 
accommodated. It is open to the public daily, except in the vacation (Ist 
to 15th Sept.), from 11 to 4, and from 6 to 10 p.m. ; in the evening it is 
frequented almost exclusively by students. On the tables to the right are 
about 3()0 periodicals (nearly all French) for the use of readers. 

At the N. E. corner of the Place du Pantheon rises — 

*St. Etienne-du-Mont (PI. R, 22 ; F), a late-Gothic church, 
the choir of which was begun in 1517. The incongruous Renaissance 



facade was added in 1620. To the left of the portal is a tower, 
flanked with a round turret, probably part of an earlier building. 

The *IxTERioE, perhaps the finest of all the churches of Paris, 
consists of a nave and aisles of almost equal height. Slender round 
pillars, twelve on each side, united by a gallery halfway up, bear 
the lofty vaulting, from which spring the ribs terminating in pendent 
keystones. The choir is separated from the nave by a *Ju6e, or 
rood-loft, of exquisite workmanship, by Biard [1600-05), round the 
pillars of which two graceful spiral staircases ascend. — The Pulpit, 
hy Lestocart, from designs hy Lahire (d.l655), is borne by a Samson, 
and adorned with numerous statuettes. — The admirable stained 
glass (restored) dates from the 16th and 17th cent.; the finest is 
ascribed to Pinaigrier (1568). 

The 5tli Chapel on the right contains a 'Holy Sepulchre' with lifesize 
figures in terracotta, dating from the end of the 16th century. Farther on, 
to the right, on the wall of the choir-ambulatory, are three large pictures, 
two of them being votive ofl'erings to Ste. Genevieve presented bv the citv, 
by Largillih-e (1696) and De Troy (1726). and the third, the Stoning of S't! 
Stephen, by Abel de Pujol. — The 2nd Chapel on the same side contains 
the Tomb of Ste. Genevieve (p. 240), with a sarcophagus, which is said to 
date from the period of her death, but is probably not earlier than 1221. 
On the fete of Ste. Genevieve (3rd Jan.) numerous worshippers flock to 
St. Etienne-du-Mont. 

A relic of the old Abbey of Ste. Genevieve still exists in the 
square tower, in the transitional style, to the right of St. Etienne, 
which now forms part of the Lycee Henri IV. (formerly the Lyce'e 
Napole'on), and is separated from the church by the Rue Clovis. 

In the Rue du Cardinal Lemoine and facing the lower end of the 
Rue Clovis is the College da Ecossais (Scots College), the great seat 
of Scottish continental learning from the 14th cent, and latterly a 
centre of Jacobite influence. The building, dating from the 17th 
cent., is now occupied by the Institution Chevalier, a private school. 
The Chapel of St. Andrew, on the first floor, contains the tomb of 
the beautiful Duchess of Tyrconnel and a memorial erected by the 
Duke of Perth to James II. In an adjoining room are portraits of 
Prince Charles Stuart and his brother. Visitors are admitted on 
application to the concierge (fee). 

Nearly at the back of St. Etienne , to the N.E. , is the Ecole 
Polytechnique (PL R. 22 ; F), for the education of military and naval 
engineers, artillery officers, civil engineers in government employ, 
telegraphists, and officials of the government tobacco-manufactory. 
It was founded by Monge in 1794. 

On the other side of the building is the Rue Monge, which con- 
nects the Boul. St. Germain with the Avenue des Gobelins. At the 
angle formed by the Rue Monge and the Rue des Ecoles is the Square 
Monge, with bronze statues of Voltaire, after Houdon, and F. Villon, 
by Etcheto, two stone statues from the old Hotel de Yille, etc. 

10. INSTITUT. 245 

A little lower down, to the right of the Rue Monge, is the Ey- 
lise St. Nicolas-du- Chardonnet , huilt in 1656-1709. It contains 
paintings hy Desgofife and Caret, and the monuments of J. Bignon 
(d. 1656), by Girardon, and of the painter Le Brun (d. 1690) and 
his mother, by Coyzevox and Tuby. Beyond this are the Boul. St. 
Germain and the Place Maubert, where a bronze statue, by Guilbert, 
was erected in 1889 to Etienne Dolet^ a printer burned in 1546, iu 
the reign of Francis I., for 'impiety and atheism'. The reliefs re- 
present Paris restoring Freedom of Thought, and the Arrest and Exe- 
cution of Dolet. The inscription on one side reads : 'non Dolet ipse 
dolet, sed pia turba dolet'. 

The Rue Lagrange leads straight on to Notre-Dame (p. 224), passing 
behind St. Julieu-le-Pauvre (p. 229). The Boul. St. Germain leads, on the 
left, to the Boul. St. Michel, and, on the right, to the quays near the Halle 
aux Vins (p. 267). 

10. Quarters of St. Germain and the Luxembourg. 


In this route, which includes several museums, the visitor should begin 
with the collections that are opened at the earliest hour. Tuesday and 
Friday are the only days on which all the museums are open; hut the 
collection at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts is public only on Sunday. The 
museum at the Mint is of little interest except to specialists. — Luncheon 
may be taken near the Luxembourg (pp. 14, 16). 

The Pont des Arts (PI. R, 20; IV), between the Old Louvre and 
the Institut, an iron bridge for foot-passengers only, constructed in 
1802-4, derives its name from the 'Palais des Arts', as the Louvre 
was once called. It commands a fine view both up and down the 

The Palais de I'lnstitut (PI. R, 20; IV), a somewhat clumsy 
edifice, covered with a dome, is situated on the left bank of the 
Seine, at the S. end of the Pont des Arts, and opposite the Louvre. 
The crescent-shaped facjade is flanked with wings adorned with 
arcades. In front of the Corinthian portico rises a Statue of the 
Republic, by Soitoux (1848 or 1850). The institution was originally 
founded by Cardinal Mazarin for tne education of youths from the 
newly-acquired provinces of Roussillon, Pignerol, Flanders, and 
Alsace , and was named the College Mazarin, but was popularly 
known as the Colllge des Quatre Nations. The building was erected 
in the latter half of the 17th cent., on the site of the Hotel de 
Nesle, to which, according to tradition, Margaret of Burgundy, wife of 
Louis X., used to cause young strangers to be brought to minister to 
her pleasures, and afterwards to be assassinated and thrown into 
the Seine. During the Revolution it was used as a prison, but in 
1795 it was ceded by the Convention to the Academies, or societies 
of savants, who had hitherto met in the Louvre. Its name was then 
changed to the Palais de I'lnstitut, and it was not again employed 
as a school. 

246 10. INSTITUT. 

The Institut de France embraces five different academies : the 
Academic Fran^aise^ the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres^ 
the Academie des Sciences^ the Academie des Beaux-Arts^ and the 
Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. Each of these has 40 
ordinary members, except the Academie des Sciences, which has 
66 ; and all except the Academie Frangaise have honorary , cor- 
responding, and foreign members. Each ordinary member receives 
a salary of 1200 fr. Vacancies are filled by the votes of the members 
in whose departments they occur , subject to the approval of 

The history of these ancient coi-porations is not very perspienous. 
The oldest is the Academie Fraiigaise, which originated about 1629 in the 
meetings of a group of learned men who came together to discuss questions 
of literary and scientific interest. It received state recognition from 
Cardinal Richelieu in 1634-35. Its main function is to perfect the French 
language by the revision of the Dictioiinaire de V Academie^ the publica- 
tion of a Dictioiinaire Historiqne de la Langue Francaise ^ and so forth. 
Ever since the Regency it has been the highest ambition of every French 
author to become one of the 40 members of the Academy and so join the 

The Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres^ an offshoot (1663) of the 
Acade'mie Francaise, was incorporated in 1701 and reorganized' in 1?03. 
It is chiefly deVoted to the study of ancient and Oriental languages and 
to •• rcheeological research (inscriptions, coins, monuments, etc.). It publishes 
periodical M^ moires. 

The Academie des Sciences, founded in 1666, cultivates the study of 
mathematics and natural science. Its publications consist of Mimoires and 
Comptes-Rendus des Stances. 

The Academie des Beaux-Arts, for the promotion of painting, sculpture, 
architecture, and musical composition, originated in the Academie Royale 
de Peinture et de Sculpture, founded by Le Brun in 1648, and the Academie 
Royale d' Architecture, founded in 1671. 

At the Revolution the existing Academies were all suppressed (179R) 
and replaced by an Institut National, divided into three classes. The first of 
these was the Academie des Sciences Physiques et MatMmatiqites ; the second 
consisted of the newly founded Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, 
for the study of philosophy, history, and political economy; the third 
comprised the Academie de la Litterature et des Beaux-Arts. In 1805 the second 
class was divided into two sections, and the class of Histoire et Litterature 
Ancienne (corresponding to the old Academie des Inscriptions) was added. 

All the meetings of the Academies take place at the Palais de Vlnstitut, 
and are, of course, extremely interesting, as the most eminent French 
savants take part in the discussions. The annual meetings of the different 
sections take place respectively in 3Iay, July, December, October, and 
April. The grand meeting of the five departments combined is held on 
25th October. Tickets of admission to this and to the other annual meet- 
ings are issued at the secretary's office; and in order to secure a place it 
is necessary to take up an early position (in person or by deputy) in the 
long 'queue' of expectants. 

The Institut has the control of a large number of money -prizes, 
amounting in the aggregate to an annual value of some millions of francs. 
Thus the Acade'mie Fx-ancaise awards the Prix Montyon (19,0C0 fr.) snd other 
good conduct prizes of the aggregate value of 50,000 fr. Another Montyon 
prize of the same amount is awarded to the author of the literary work con- 
sidered most useful to the cause of public morality. The Prix Oohert 
(10,000 fr.) rewards the most eloquent work on the history of France. Tbe 
Academie des Inscriptions awards the Prix Gamier (for travelling; 15,(XX) fr.), 
the Prix Plot (17,000 fr.), and another Prix Gohert. The Academie des 
Sciences awards the Prix Briant (lC0,0l-0 fr.). Ihe Academie des Sciences 


Morales is entrusted with tlie distribution of the five Prix Nobel (each 
worth 420,0C0 fr.), for discoveries in physics, chemistry, and physiology, 
for 'a literary work of an ideal tendency', and for a work on fraternity, 
the abolition of militarism, and the promotion of peace. Other prizes are 
given by the different Academics in turn. 

The important ^cac?«'/;iie de MMecine, founded in l8i(J, does not belong 
to the Institut. It distributes a number of prizes at its annual meeting 
about the middle of December; and since 1896 it has held in trust the Frix 
Audiffret (24,OlO fr. per anntirn), to be bestowed on the discoverer of an 
efficacious cure for tuberculosis. This Academy has its present seat at 
No. 16 Rue Bonaparte (see p. 252). 

In the small squares to the W. and E. of the Institut are statues 
of Voltaire (1694-1778), by Caille, and Condorcet (1743-1794), by 
J. Perrin. 

The courts of the Institut are used as a public thoroughfare. 
The first on the right contains the entrance to the Salle des Seances 
Solennelles, formerly the chapel, situated under the dome. This 
saloon and the vestibule are embellished with statues of authors, 
scholars, and artists. On the other side of the court is the Biblio- 
theque Mazarine, which is open to the public daily, 11 to 4 or 
5 o'clock, except on Sundays and holidays (vacation from 15th Sept. 
to 1st Oct.). It contains 300,000 vols, and 5800 MSS., 80 models 
of Cyclopean monuments from Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor, and 
several ancient works of art. — The second court contains the rooms 
in which the ordinary meetings are held and the library of the In- 
stitut (no admission). 

In the pavilion next the statue of Voltaire is the small Mtis^e de Mme. 
de Cain (not open to the public; adm. on request at No. 1 Rue de Seine). 
The Countess de Caen (d. 1870) bequeathed the greater part of her proper- 
ly to the Institut, for the support of art-students in Rome, on the condi- 
tion that each beneficiary should contribute an original work to the muaee, 
which now contains a considerable number of paintings , sculptures, and 
architectural designs. 

The Hotel des Monnaies (PI. R, 20; IV), or La Monnaie, the 
Parisian Mint, is a large building to the left of the Institut and 
near the Pont-Neuf (p. 223), erected in 1771-75 by J. D. Antoine. 
The fa(jade , which is 132 yds. in length , and adorned with Ionic 
columns, is surmounted by allegorical figures by Le Comic, Pigalle, 
and Mo achy. 

The Monnaie contains a Musee Monetaire, or collection of coins, 
which is shown on Tuesdays and Fridays, 12-3 o'clock, to visitors 
provided with an order from the Director. This order, which must 
be applied for in writing, also admits to the workshops ; it is avail- 
able for 4-5 persons. 

The Museum is reached by the staircase to the right of the entrance. 

The vestibule contains specimens of the metals used in coining. — A 
cabinet to the right of the vestibule contains a glass-case with ancient 
coins, and presses with medals. The cabinet to the left contains speci- 
mens of postage-stamps. 

The numerous glass-cases in the principal saloon contain an interest- 
ing collection of French Coins, arranged chronologically, from the earliest 
times down to the present day, those of Louis XIV. and Louis Philippe 
being most numerous; a collection of Foreign Coins of every country (in- 


eluding a Chinese coin of B.C. 1700), and another of Medals of various 

Farther on is a passage containing Essais d'Argent, and a room with 
models of Instruments and Furnaces used in coining. 

The following room contains Dies, and, in the cabinets, the Medals 
of the Consulate and the Empire. The wax models of the reliefs on the 
Vendome Column preserved here, and the small model of the column 
itself, afford a better idea of the details than the originals. A bust of 
Napoleon I. by Canova, executed in 1806, and a cast of the emperor's face 
taken 20 hours after death are also shown. The models of former weighing 
machines and a good collection of models and examples of contemporary 
engraving may be mentioned. 

The Ateliers, with their steam-engines, furnaces, and machinery, are 
well worth visiting. Those only are shown in which silver pieces and 
medals are struck. Each of the six furnaces in which the silver is melted 
is capable of containing from 16 to 22V2 cwt. of metal, worth 160,000 to 
240,000 francs. The machines invented by M. Thonnelier are highly in- 
genious, sixty pieces of money being struck by each of them per minute, 
while the whole of them in operation at once are capable of coining no 
fewer than two million francs per day. In the Monnaie are also performed 
all the operations of assaying and stamping the gold and silver wares of 
the jewellers. The 'Atelier du Monnayage' contains a marble figure of For- 
tune, by Mouchy. 

Returning to the Institut, we soon reach the Rue Bonaparte, the 
second street to the left beyond that building. No. 14 in this street 
is the — 

Ecole des Beaux -Arts (PI. R, 17, 20; IV), or Palais des 
Beaux- Arts, founded in 1648, for the teaching of painting, sculpture, 
engraving, gem-cutting, and architecture (open to the public on 
Sun., 12-4, but not on holidays ; strangers admitted also on week- 
days, 10-4, on application to the concierge, who provides a guide ; 
fee). The pupils who obtain the first prizes ('grands prix de Rome') 
in the different departments are sent to Rome at the expense of 
government for four years. The works they send home are ex- 
hibited here annually in summer. The school has a staff of 40 pro- 
fessors, and is attended by upwards of 1250 pupils of different 
nationalities. It contains a valuable and extensive Collection of 
Copies of sculptures and paintings, forming an admirable supplement 
to the collections of the Louvre. 

The building, erected in 1820-38 by Debret and his successor 
Duban, occupies the site of the old Convent des Petits-Augustins. 
In 1860-62 a new wing facing the Quai Malaquais was added by 
Duban, and the old Hotel Chimay, adjoining this wing, was acquired 
in 1885 for the workshops. At the entrance are colossal busts of 
Puget and Poussin. 

The First Court contains many handsome fragments of French 
edifices, from the Gallo-Roraan period down to the 16th century. 
These are the remains of the Musee des Monuments founded her( 
at the time of the first Revolution by the painter Alex. Lenoir 
(d. 1839), and consisting chiefly of tombstones and reliefs rescued 
from the ruins of churches and chateaux. In 1816 Louis XVIII. 
dispersed the collection , and ordered most of the objects to be 

It a i M a I a g ^u_aj_s^ 


Z BiblioiheqLce il^etagei 

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4 Salle cUi Conseil (I'Fetofle ) 
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6 Grraids Pri.'c de Sculpiure 

7 Gixuids Pr-Lf de Feinture 

v^ et ImjjriTne pai- 


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restored to the churches or their original proprietors. In the centre 
of the court is a Corinthian column in red marble , surmounted by a 
bronze statue of Plenty (16th cent.). On the wall to the left is a 
fresco painted on lava by the brothers Baize, after the work at- 
tributed to Lo Spagna formerly in the Villa Magliana (p. 119). To 
the right is the celebrated and beautiful portal of the Chateau d'Anet, 
which was erected for Diana of Poitiers by Philibert Delorme and 
Jean Goujon in 1548, by order of Henri II.; it now forms the en- 
trance to the old abbey-chapel (see below). At the end is the facade 
from Gaillon (p. 250). 

The former Chapel contains part of the Musee des Copies^ con- 
sisting of reproductions of the finest sculptures and paintings of 
the Renaissance, chiefly of the Italian school. 

In a kind of vestibule are exhibited copies of the frescoes by Oiotlo 
in the church of the Madonna dell' Arena at Padua, of a Calvary bj- Fra 
Angelica , of the battle of Heraclius against the Persians by Piero della 
Francesco , and of the battle of Constantine by Giulio Romano. Also a 
number of casts and other copies of paintings. — Among the casts we ob- 
serve, on the right, that of the pulpit of the cathedral of Pisa, by Giov. 
Pisano (1302-11); numerous busts, bas-reliefs, and medals; candelabrum of 
the cathedral of Milan (16th cent.); St. George, by Donatello (1386-1466), 
from the Bargello at Florence; monument of Fil. Decio, by Stagio Stagi 
(about 1530) ; John the Baptist, by Ben. da Majano (1442-97) ; Children, by 
Desiderio da Settignano. A small side-chapel contains copies of the Moses, the 
Slaves, the monuments of Giuliano and Lorenzo de' Medici, the Pieta, Bac- 
chus. Cupid, and other works of Michael Angelo, and of Ohiberti^s doors of the 
baptistery at Florence. In the centre : Dying Adonis and Virgin and Child. — 
Principal chapel: David as the conqueror of Goliath, by Donatello; same 
subject, by Verrocchio ; allegorical figure of Love, by Donatello; alto-reliefs, 
by Luca della Robbia ; Relief of Jonah, by Zore«2e«o, and others; Last Judg- 
ment of Michael Angela, by Sigalon ; in front of it, cast of the statue of 
Gaston de Foix from his tomb, by Bamhaja (1515), and casts of statues at 
St. Denis and in the Louvre, that of Daria del Caretto by Jac. della Quercia 
(1377-1438). — On the other side, Bas-reliefs, by Jean Gotijon; the Graces, 
by Germain Pj7o« (16th cent.. Louvre); heads from the Well of Moses and 
statuettes from the tomb of the dukes of Burgundy (Dijon; 16th cent.), 
by Sluter; statuettes from the shrine of St. Sebaldus, at Nuremberg, by P. 
Vischer; Apostle from the Sainte-Chapelle (13th cent.); statuesfrom the cathe- 
dral of Chartres (13th cent.); female bust of the school ofStrassburg (15th 
cent.; original lost); two Madonnas from Notre-Dame at Paris; nnmerous 
casts of ivory carvings; fonts from Ilildesheim. In the middle are nu- 
merous bas-reliefs: Descent from the Cross, by Niccolb Pisano; behind, 
Madonna and Child, by Desiderio da Seitigtiano, and St. Cecilia by Donatello; 
at the side, Perseus, ty Ben. Cellini ; behind, Madonna and Child with St. John 
and other saints, by Mhio da Fiesole; reliquary from Aix-la-Chapelle ; font 
from Siena, by Ghiberli . Donatello, Michelozzo , Giac. della Queixia, and 
Turini di Sano; reliquary of St. Zenobius, by Ghiberti; Jliraclos of St. An- 
thony, by Donatello; tomb of the children of Charles VIII., finished by 
Jean Juste. — Besides the copies of paintings already mentioned: (right) 
P. della Fvancesca, Discovery of the True Cross ; Melozzo da Forli. Platina 
at the feet of Sixtus IV.; Fr. Penni, Clemency and Justice; Raphael, 
Venus, Juno, and Ceres; Poetry, Jupiter, and Cupid. Left, in returning: 
Raphael, Sibyls; Mantegna, St. James conducted to martyrdom; Qhirlan- 
dajo, Adoration of the Magi; Sodoma, Goths destroying the monastery of 
Monte Cassino; Raphael, Sistine Madonna. 

The Second Court is separated from the first by part of the fa- 
cade of the chateau of Gaillon (p. 403) which was erected in 1500 


by Guilt. Senault and Pierre Fain of Rouen for Cardinal d'Amboise, 
minister of Louis XII. and one of tbe cMef promoters of tbe Renais- 
sance in France. It is in a mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, 
affording a good idea of tbe character of the chateau, which was 
destroyed during the Revolution. Beyond it are other fragments of 
French architecture and sculpture, statues copied from antiques, 
and a fine stone basin, 13 ft. in diameter, adorned with heads of 
gods or heroes, animals, and the four elements, a work of the close 
of the 12th cent., brought from the abbey of St. Denis. 

The principal *Facade, which flanks this court on the W., de- 
signed by Duban, and completed in 1838, is a good example of 
modern French architecture. It is adorned with two series of ar- 
cades, one above the other, with Corinthian semi-columns and pilas- 
ters, and is crowned with an attic. 

The Vestibulb contains copies of ancient Pompeian and other 
paintings and casts of sculptures of the Parthenon and the temple 
of Minerva in ^gina, the originals of which are in London and 
Munich, and of the Children of Niobe, at Florence. At the back, 
to the left, an antique statue, the Athena Medici, from the Villa 
Medici, a good Roman copy of a Greek work from the time of Phidias. 
— We next enter an Inner Court, roofed with glass, containing 
numerous casts from famous antiques at Rome and elsewhere : to the 
right, the Greek gallery ; to the left, the Roman gallery (inscriptions). 
At the ends are restored columns from the Parthenon, with the 
entablature, and from the temple of Castor and Pollux at Rome (er- 
roneously known as the temple of Jupiter Stator). — In the corridor 
opposite the entrance to the inner court is the Monument of Duban, 
the architect (p. 248), by Guillaume. 

Behind is the Amphitheatre, adorned with the celebrated *He- 
micyle of Paul Delaroche (d. 1856), an encaustic painting which 
represents distinguished artists of all ages and nations, and contains 
in all 75 figures (13 ft. in height). 

On a lofty throne in the centre are the great Greek masters, Phidias 
(the sculptor), Ictinus (the architect of the Parthenon), and Apelles (the 
painter). Four female figures in front represent (left) Greek, Gothic, and 
(right) Romanesque, and Renaissance art. To the right, beginning from the 
end, are the most famous painters and (under the columns) architects, and 
the chief masters of the French school. On the left are sculptors and 
landscape-painters and (towards the centre) colourists of every school. — 
The Walters Gallery at Baltimore contains a reduced replica of this work 
(see Baedeker's United States). 

Opposite the Hemicycle is a large painting by Ingres^ represent- 
ing Romulus victorious over Acron, King of the Sabines. — In an 
adjoining room, to the left as we quit the Amphitheatre, are casts of 
the sculptures of the temples of Zeus at Olympia and Nike Apteros at 
Athens, of the statue of Mausolus (now in London), etc. 

Next follow a corridor and a gallery, with casts of Greek sculp- 
tures. The corresponding corridor and gallery on the other side, 


also containing casts, are not open to the public. — A staircase, to 
tiie right of the entrance to the inner court, ascends to the — 

First Floor. On the S. and N. sides of the glass-roofed court 
are galleries adorned with fifty-two copies from Raphael's logge in 
the Vatican, by the "brothers Baize. 

1st Room, or Salle flu Conseil : Portraits; busts; copies of three scenes 
from the life of St. Ursula, by Carpaccio (others in the under-mentioned 
passage); eight torch-holders in wood (time of Louis XIV.); clock in the 
style of Boule. — The following passage contains small copies, and beyond 
it is a gallery affording a good survey of the He'micycle of P. Deluroche. — 
2ad Room. Copies of paintinK-^, beginning to the left: Van Dyck^ Children 
of Charles I. ; Remb>-andt, Soldier of fortune ; Velazquez, Surrender of Breda ; 
Correggio , ^fadonna and Child with Mary Magdalen and St. Jerome; P. 
Veronese, Venice receiving Justice and Peace 5 Van der Heist, Banquet of 
Civic Guards; P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. George; Poussin , Death of 
Germanicus; Velazquez, Olivarez; Turner, Building of Carthage; P. Veronese, 
Triumph of Venus (on the ceiling). Also drawings, engravings, photo- 
graphs, and busts. Among the last (named frum left to right) are Dubois 
by Falguiere, Gi'rome by Carpeaux, Lenepveu by Injalbert, Gamier by 
Carpeaux, and Henner by Dubois. — We return to the entrance by the 
N. gallery. 

On the left side is the Library , open for students only. Per- 
mission to use 'it may he obtained by written application to the 
Director of the Ecole. 

The Vestibule des Ecoles, beside the chapel, contains a Monu- 
ment to Ingres, with his bust in bronze, and medallions of Flandrin 
and Simart by Guillaume. We next enter the — 

CouR Du MuRiBR, with galleries containing sculptures executed 
at Rome by former pupils and casts of ancient bas-reliefs. At the 
end is the Monument of Henri Reg nault, the painter, and other 
pupils killed during the defence of Paris in 1870-71 ; between the 
columns bearing the names are a bust of Regnault and a statue of 
Youth offering him an olive-branch, by Chapu. On the wall next 
to the Vestibule des Ecoles : Galatea of Raphael, copied on porcelain 
by Baize. Below, and in the corridors on the same side, are casts 
from the terracotta frieze of the Seven Works of Mercy, from the 
Ospedale del Ceppo atPistoja, by Andrea and Luca della Robhia 
(15th cent.). 

Opposite this wall is another vestibule containing several copies, 
next to which is the Salle ue Melpomene , occupied with the 
remainder of the Mus^e des Copies and used for the exhibition of 
competitive works. On Sun. and on the occasion of such exhibitions 
this room may also be entered from the Quai Malaquais (PI. 10). The 
rooms on the first floor on this side are also used for exhibitions. 

The vestibule next the Cour du Miirier contains copies of six frescoes 
by Oiotlo in Santa Maria delT Arena at Padua; also, Assembly of the Gods 
and other paintings, after Raphael; and Descents from the Cross, after 
Andrea del Sarto and Garofalo. 

Principal copies (from right to the left): Velazquez, Don Fernando and 
Philip IV.; Filippo Lippi, Madonna; Giov. Bellini, Virgin and saints; Michael 
Angelo (above), Sibyls and Prophets; P. Veronese (below). Adoration of 
the Virgin; Corregyio, Madonna and Child with Mary Magdalen an.l 

252 10. ST. GERMAIN-DES-PRfiS. 

St. Jerome; Titian, Patron saints of Venice, Death of St. Peter the Do- 
minican; Palma Vecchio, St. Barbara; Titian, Heavenly and Earthly love, 
Assumption; Raphael, Jurisprudence; A. del Sarto, Last Supper (fresco), 
Perugino, Marriage of the Virgin; Verocchio, Baptism of Christ; Masaccio 
or Filippino Lippi, Miracle of St. Peter ; Raphael, Attila expelled from 
Rome; Ben. Gozzoli, Teaching of St. Augustine; Raphael, 'La Belle Jar- 
diniere'; Fil.Lippi, Vision of St. Bernard; Raphael, Venus, Ceres, and Juno; 
Perugino, Group from the Baptism of Christ; Raphael, Entombment, 
Psyche fetching water from the Styx; Holbein, His wife and children ; Rem- 
brandt, Lesson in anatomy; Raphael, 'Dispufa'', Marriage of the Virgin; 
Botticelli, Adoration of the Magi, Strength; Mantegna, Virgin, angels, and 
saints; Raphael, School of Athens ; Sodoma, Swoon of St. Catharine; Masaccio, 
St, Paul in the prison of St. Peter; Raphael, Leo X.; Masaccio, Liberation 
of St. Peter. — The small room at the end, to the left (PI. 6), contains prize- 
works in painting and sculpture. — In the next room (PI. 7) are prize- 
works in sculpture and engraving. — Third Room (PI. 8) : prize-works in 
painting since the end of the 17th century. — Vestibule next the Quai Mala- 
quais: Copies of Michael AngeWs frescoes in the Sistine Chapel at Rome; 
casts from the antique and reproductions in marble. 

The new Academic de Medecinc (p. 247), by Rochet, is being 
erected to the S. of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. 


St. Germain-des-Pres. St. Sulpice. 
The Rue Bonaparte leads in 3 min. from the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts to St. Germain-des-Pres (PL R, 19; IV), one of the most 
ancient churches in Paris. It belonged to the powerful abbey of 
St. Germain, founded in 542 or 543 by King Ohildebert, the abbots 
of which were sometimes cardinals and even kings , as in the case 
of Hugh Capet and Casimir V. of Poland. The abbey was originally 
dedicated to St. Vincent, but afterwards to St. Germain, a bishop 
of Paris, and was once surrounded by meadows, including the famous 
'Pre-aux-Clercs'. The nave is a relic of an edifice of the end of the 
11th century. The choir, consecrated in 1163, was afterwards 
altered, particularly in the windows, which show a tendency to Gothic. 
During the Revolution the church was used as a saltpetre-manu- 
factory, and fell into a very dilapidated condition, but it was restored 
in 1824-36. 

The Interior was redecorated in 1852-61 with gilding and polychrom- 
atic paintings, and with admirable *Mural Paintings, by Eippolyte Flandrin 
(d. 1864) and other masters under his superintendence. There are ten 
on each side of the Nave, placed in pairs over the arches, representing 
parallel scenes from the Old and New Testament. On the left side of 
the entrance: the Burning Bush and the Annunciation; the Promise of 
a Redeemer and the Nativity; the Prophecy of Balaam and the Adoration 
of the Magi; the Passage of the Red Sea and the Baptism of Christ; 
Melchizedek's offering of bread and wine to Abraham and the Institution 
of the Eucharist. — On the other side , returning towards the entrance : 
the Sale of Joseph and the Betrayal of Christ; the Oflfering of Isaac and 
the Death of Christ ; Jonah issuing from the whale's belly and the Resur- 
rection; the Scattering of the nations and the Dispersal of the Apostles; 
the Ascension and Preparations for the Last Judgment (the last executed 
by Hippolyte's brother Paul). 

The Choir is embellished with two large paintings on a golden ground, 
begun by H, Flandrin : on the left the Entry of Christ into Jerusalem ; on 

10. ST. GEKMAIN-DES-PR^S. 253 

the right the Bearing of the Cross. Then, above the arcades, the Prophets 
and Apostles, and the angel, lion, bull, and eagle, the symbols of the 

Choie Chapels. The first chapel on the right contains the monu- 
ment of James^ Duke of Douglas (d. 1645). — The following chapel contains 
slabs of black marble to the memory of the philosopher Descartes 
(d. 1650), the learned Mahillon (d. 1707), and Montfaucon (d. 1641). all 
of whom are interred here. — Behind the high-altar is the modern Lady 
Chapel, with grisaille paintings in imitation of reliefs of the Adoration 
of the Magi and the Presentation in the Temple, by Heim. — In the 
chapel of SS. Peter and Paul is the tombstone of the poet Boileau (d. 1711), 
whose remains were brought here from the Sainte-Chapelle. — The follow- 
ing chapel contains a monument of William, Earl of Douglas (d. IGll). 

The S. Tkansept contains, on the right, the tomb of Olivier and 
Louis de Castellan (d. 1644, 1699), by Girardon. To the left, above the 
altar, is a marble statue of St. Margaret, by J. Bourlet (1705). 

In the N. Transept are paintings by Coniu (d. 1871). This transept 
also contains a statue of St. Francis Xavier, by G. Coustou, and the monu- 
ment of Casiinir V. (d. 1672), King of Poland, who was at first a Jesuit, 
then a cardinal, and in 1648 succeeded his brother on the Polish throne, 
but abdicated in 1668 and resumed his cowl as abbot of St. Germain-des- 
Pre's. On the wall of the N. aisle, opposite the pulpit, is the monument 
of Hippolyte Flandrin (d. 1864). painter of the frescoes mentioned above. 

Near the door, in the K. aisle, is a marble statue of the Virgiin (Xotre 
Dame de Consolation) presented to the Abbess of St. Denis by Queen 
.Teanne d'Evreux in 1340. 

To the left of the church of St. Germain is a small square with the 
'Bakers', a lifesize high-reliefin enamelled terracotta, by A. Char- 
pentier and E. Midler. Farther on (No. 3) is the Palais Abbatial, 
dating from the latter half of the 16th cent., a relic of the ancient 
abbey. It is in private possession. The Abbey Prison, notorious for 
the massacres of Sept., 1792, was situated farther back, on a site 
now traversed by the Boulevard St. Germain. — The small square 
to the right of the church is embellished with a bronze Statue of 
Bernard Palissy (p. 144), after E. Barrias. 

The S. side of the church adjoins the Boul. St. Germain (p. 229), 
in which is a Statue o/"Djdero< (1713-84), in bronze, by Gautherin. 
To the S.W. runs the handsome Rue de Rennes, leading to the 
Gare Montparnasse (p. 288). We continue to follow the Rue Bona- 
parte , to the left, and in a few minutes more reach the Place St. 

*St. Sulpice (PI. R, 19; IV), situated in the Place of that 
name, is the richest and one of the most important of the churches 
on the left bank of the^eine. The rebuilding of the church was 
begun in the reign of Louis XIV. and finished in 1749, chiefly after 
the plans of Levau and Servandoni. The church is remarkable for its 
imposing dimensions (length 462 ft., width 183 ft., height 108 ft.). 
The facade, by Servandoni, which is considered one of the best of 
the early part of the 18th cent., consists of a Doric and an Ionic 
colonnade, placed one above the other. It is flanked with two towers, 
the highest of which, rebuilt by Chalgrin, and 224 ft. high, is alone 
finished. When the gate in front is closed, visitors enter by the S. 
portal or by a small door to the left behind the choir. 

254 10. ST. .SULPICE. 

The Interior consists of nave, aisles, transept, and eighteen lateral 
chapels. The spherical vaulting is borne by Corinthian pillars. Adjoin- 
ing the second pillar are benitiers consisting of two enormous shells {tri- 
dachna gigas), presented to Francis I. by the Republic of Venice, resting 
on rock-work of marble designed by Pigalle. The chapels contain in- 
teresting frescoes. 

Right Aisle. "Ist Chapel: Jacob wrestling with the Angel; Heliodo- 
rus expelled from the Temple; on the ceiling, St. Michael-, all by Engine 
Delacroix (1861). — *2nd Chapel: Religion solacing a dying man; Efficacy 
of prayer for the dead; by Heim. — 3rd Chapel: St. Roch praying for the 
plague-stricken; Death of the saint in the prison of Montpellier; by Abel 
de Pujol (1821). — 4th Chapel: Scenes from the life of St. Maurice, by 
Vinchon (1822). — 5th Chapel: Marble monument of the cure Languet 
(d. 1870), by Slodiz. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. Francois Xavier resuscitating a dead 
man, and Miraculous cure of sick persons at the burial of the saint, by 
Lafon (1859). — 2nd Chapel: St. Francois de Sales preaching in Savoy, 
and Ste. Chantal receiving from the saint the constitution of a new order 
of nuns ('Soeurs de la ^'isitation'), by Hesse (1860). — 3rd Chapel: St. Paul's 
Conversion, and St. Paul on the Areopagus, by DvolUngiiWd). — 4th Chapel: 
St. Vincent de Paul recommending foundlings to the care of sisters of 
charity, and the saint at the death-bed of Louis XIII., by Guillemot (1825). 

Transept. Left arm : Betrayal by Judas, and the Crucifixion. Right 
arm : Resurrection and Ascension, and Prophets. These are all by Signal 
(1874-76). On the pavement here a Meridian Line was drawn in 1743. It is 
prolonged to an obelisk of white marble which indicates the direction of 
due N., while towards the S. it corresponds with a closed window, from 
a small aperture in which a ray of the sun falls at noon on the vertical 
line of the obelisk. 

Choir Chapels, N. or left side. 1st: Martyrdom and Triumph of St. 
John the Evangelist, by Olaize (1859). — 2nd: San Carlo Borromeo at a 
procession during the plague at Milan , and The saint administering the 
last sacraments to Pius IV., his uncle, by Pichon (1867). — 3rd: St. Joseph, 
by Ch. Landelle. — 4th: St. Louis, King' of France, carrying a dying man 
during the plague, and The King administering justice under the oak of 
Vincennes , by Matout (1870). — Above the side-entrance : Death of the 
Virgin, by Bin (1874). 

Choir Chapels, S. or right side. 1st: St. Denis preaching to the 
heathen Romans , and Condemnation of the saint, by Jobhi-Duval (1859). 
— 2nd: St. Martin dividing his cloak with a beggar, and The saint 
resuscitating a dead man, by Mottez (1863). — 3rd: Ste. Genevieve suc- 
couring Troyes (Champagne) , and Miracles wrought by her relics during 
a procession, by Timbal (1864). — 4th : Nativity of the Virgin , and Her 
presentation in the Temple, by Lenepveu (1864). — Above the side-entrance: 
Assumption, by Bin (1874). 

The statue of the Virgin on clouds in a recess in the chapel behind the 
high-altar, by Pajou (d. 1809), is lighted from above. The fresco of the As- 
sumption on the dome of this chapel is by Lemoine (d. 1737). The statues 
in the choir are by Bouchardon. — The pulpit is supported solely by the 
steps which ascend to it. — The organ-case a^as designed by Chalgrin^ 
with statues by Olodion. The fine organ, origirillly built by Cliquot, was 
reconstructed by Cavaille-Coll. The organist is M. Widor, and the choir 
has a reputation for its 'plain song". 

The Place St. Sulpicb in front of the church is adorned with the 
handsome Fontaine St. Sulpice , designed by Visconti , and erected 
in 1847. The fountain consists of three concentric basins , one 
above the other , and is embellished with statues of the four most 
celebrated French preachers of the 17th and 18th cent.: Bossuet, 
Fenelon, Massillon, and Fle'chier. The long building on the S. side 
of the Place is the Seminaire de St. Sulpice, for the education of 


priests. On the W. is the Mairie of the Gth Arrondissemenl; the 
ceiling-painting in the Salle des Fetes is by H. L^vy, 

The Rue Ferou, to the left of this building, leads straight to 
the Musee du Luxembourg (p. 266). Or we may follow the Rue 
St. Sulpice, to the left of the church, and take the Rue de Tournon, 
the second cross-street to the right, which ascends to the Palais du 

1. Palais du Luxembourg. 

The Palais du Luxembourg (PI. R, 19; 77), now the seat of 
the French Senate, was erected in 1615-20 for Marie de Medicis^ 
widow of Henri IV., by Salomon Debrosse, one of the ablest French 
architects of the beginning of the 17th centuxy. It occupies the 
site of the old Hotel de Luxembourg, a mansion from which it 
derives its name. In the employment of rustica pilasters and in 
the treatment of the court, it bears some resemblance to the Pitti 
Palace at Florence, Marie's ancestral home , but at the same time 
it preserves an unmistakably French character, especially in the 
corner-pavilions with their lofty roofs. The principal facade, nearly 
100 yds. long, which notwithstanding many restorations still reveals 
the original design, looks towards the Rue Vaugirard on the N. side, 
opposite the Rue de Tournon. Important alterations, the chief of 
which was the addition of the columns in the court, were made by 
Chalgrin in 1804, by order of Napoleon I. The fagade towards the 
garden, formerly similar to the principal front, was restored under 
Louis Philippe in 1831-34 by A. de Gisora, who adhered as far 
as possible to the style of the original building. — During the First 
Empire the palace was occupied by the senate, and styled Palais 
du Senat-Conservateur . After the Restoration, and under Louis 
Philippe, the Chamber of Peers met here. From 1852 to 1870 it 
was named Palais du Senat, that body having again sat here during 
the Second Empire. It was next occupied by the offices of the Pr^fet 
de la Seine, after the destruction of the Hotel de Yille in 1871 ; but 
in 1879, on the return of the Chambers to Paris, the senate re- 
sumed its old quarters here. 

The Interior Centrance in the Rue de Vaugirard) is shown only when 
the senate i3 not sitting. We cross the court to the foot of the staircase 
in the corner to the left, where one of the custodians is to be fimnd 
(gratuity). — Visitors are admitted during the sittings of the senate by- 
special tickets (comp. p. 56). 

First Floor. The dome of the Libkakt is adorned with fine paintings 
by Eughie Delacroix^ representing the infernal regions according to Dante 
(strong light necessary). — Salle des Seances. The colonnade behind the 
president's seat is adorned with statues of Turgct (d. 1781) d'A'^uessoau 
(d. 1751), I'Hopital (d. 1573), Colbert (d. 1683), Mole (d. 1855), Malesherbes 
(d. 1794), and Portalis (d. 1855). On each side of the president's seat is 
a pjiinting by Blonde?: the Peers ofTcring the crown to Philip le Long, and 
the Estates of Tours conferring on Louis XH. the title of "father of the 


people'. At the beginning of the larger semicircle is a statue of Charle- 
magne, by Eiex^ and one of St. Louis, by Dumont. — Bdvette (refreshment- 
room). Paintings: Caminade, The Chancellor de I'Hopital returning the 
seals to Charles IX.; VincTion., Achille de Harlay rejecting the proposals of 
the Due de Guise; Champmartin, Charlemagne; H. FUmdrin, St. Louis; 
Decaisne, Allegorical ceiling-paintings. — The Salle des Pas-Perdds was 
fitted up as a throne-room by Napoleon III. in 1856 and handsomely deco- 
rated in the Louis XIV. style. On the vaulting, in the centre, the Apo- 
theosis of Napoleon I. by Alaux ; at the sides, Peace and War, by Brune; 
at the ends, the Apotheosis of the kings oi¥v&\xcQ.hj Lehmann. Handsome 
chimney-piece of 1880. 

In the E. wing is the Geande Galeeie, for which Rubens painted his 
series of scenes from the life of Marie de Medicis (p. 126). The ceiling is 
adorned with an Aurora by Calht (18th cent.) and the Months by Jordaens. 

Descending to the groundfluor, we visit, in the W. part of the palace, 
the small Chambre de Marie de Medicis, adorned with paintings by Ru- 
bens's pupils, Van Thidden, Van Euden, and Van Eoeck. The Apotheosis 
of the queen on the ceiling is attributed to Van Hoeck. — The Chapel, 
restored in 1842, is i-ichly decorated with paintings by Gigoux^ Abel de Pujol, 
JaUy. and others. 

To the W. of tlie palace is a wing kuown as the Petit-Luxem- 
bourg, now the residence of the president of the senate. It also 
was prohahly built for Marie de Medicis. Her chapel, which is seen 
from the Rue Vaugirard, was built in 1622-31 and belonged originally 
to to the nunnery of the Filles du Calvaire. Since 1893 it has been 
used by the Maronite community. 

2. Musee du Luxembourg. 
The Luxembourg Gallery is open daily, except Mondays and the chief 
holidays (p. 56), 10-4, and in summer 9-5 o'clock ; on Sundays and ordinary 
holidays 10-4 only. It is usually closed for ten days or a fortnight about 
November for cleaning and re-arrangement. The entrance is nearly oppo- 
site the Rue Fe'rou. 

The *Musee du Luxembourg (PL R, 19; IV), a collection of 
Works of Contemporary Artists, consisting chiefly of paintings and 
sculptures, occupies the former Orangery, to the W. of the Petit- 
Luxembourg, on the left side of the Rue Vaugirard. The works ex- 
hibited at the Luxembourg are generally transferred to the Louvre, 
or sent to provincial galleries, about ten years after the death of the 
artists, so that a comprehensive survey of modern French art cannot 
be obtained in one place. This rule, however, is not very strictly 

At the foot of the staircase, to the right, Orpheus charming Cer- 
berus to sleep, to the left, Judith, bronzes by Peinte and Aizelin. 
At the sides, to the right, Hagar and Ishmael, hy Sicard, and a statue 
of Bailly, by Aube; to the left, Hero and Leander, by Oasq, Vulture 
on the the head of a sphinx, by Cain, and Dogs, by Fremiet and 
Lami. In the pediment, Fame distributing crowns and palm- 
branches to the plastic arts, by Crauk. 

The arrangement of the works is so often changed that to prevent 
confusion we shall enumerate the most important of