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1808 - 1908 



With a Preliminary Recital of the Winning of 

Western New York, from the Fort Builders 

Age to the last Conquest by Our 

Revolutionary Forefathers 






" 'Tis pleasant sure, to see one's name in print, 
A book's a book, although there's nothin"- in it." 

'They have Ijeen at a great feast and stolen the scraps." 


'In this pudding is not one thing alone, but one thing' with other things 

Lord Lytlcfoii. 

'It is a regular omnibus, there is something in it to everybody's taste: those 
who like fat can have it, so can they that like lean, as well as those who 
prefer sugar, and those who choose pepper." 


" 'Aly book' is a cupboard of mixed frugal fare. 

Its substantials are "well ifone.' its dainties 'are rare,' 

"Over done' is the beef, though 'seasoned' with care, 

Of the last century's venison. I bid you beware. 

\Miile the Indian meal is the moderns' choice fare. 

Though the smoke of the wigwam lingers still in the air. 

There's pepper and sugar, and ginger and suet. 

Help 3-ourself — chew the 'dates' — it's all yours — just go thru it." 

The Kcshcqiia Bard — after Shirlev. 




I. Be intensely interested in }our subject matter; let persons and places 
reflect the interest of the writer. 

II. Investigate, get to the bottom facts; remember your investigations 
will save thousands of others personal research. 

III. Persevere ; the persistent plodder alone succeeds ; miracles are wrought 

by perseverance. 

IV. Be human, — have a sense of humor. Man is the onlv animal that 

smiles ; the Pioneers had a rich fund of humor, and transmitted it 
through inheritance to their otTspring. Young readers also crave it, 
wit wins with tliem when wisdom wearies. 

\". Give, when possible, personal knowledge of localities and events; it 
adds something new from personal testimony, and is, at least, orig- 
inal. Even fish stories lose half their fishiness if the fisherman him- 
self tells them. This application is not specific : there are others. 

VI. Familiarize yourself with what has already been written, and, like a 
soldier, "appropriate" e\-ery "scraji" and turn it into edible "scrap 

\'II. Sec the beatity in every scene, the good in every life : then lend the 
pul)lic your spectacles that they may see what you see. 

\'III. .\vi>id pessimism and slander; leave each skeletiin in its closet, years 
of retirement have not improved its aroma ; leave out the bad when 
possible; just assume that our forebears were as "bearish" as their 
posterity, (don't say descendants, it implies too much). Hunger 
and toothache bring back the original savage. .\t <iur worst "we 
are all poor critters." At our best — well, we live in paradise — /. c. 

IX. Be intensely in earnest when dealing with life's realities. Death is as 
real as birth; pathos as essential as humnr. "Oakwood" is more 
densel}' populated than the \nllage or town we li\e in. 

X. Don't fear the critics; criticism, not commendation, is their stunt, 
lianish fear, for the common man who writes 
Is brother hero tn the man who fights, 
Xeither are seeking wealth, fame or renown 
For good of others shall their acts redound, 
Then banish fear of blame, or critics frown. 
Who does his best merits the victor's crown. 

On these ten ])recepts (prescribed for myself) hang all the hopes of suc- 
cess of the amateur writer and 

Local Historian. 




I dedicate to my mother, Anna Minerva Hand, on whose 
centennial birthday, October 5, 1905, I com- 
menced to write this hinnble record of the 
lives and the environment of the 
Pioneers of Nunda, of its 
Heroes of Five Wars, of 
its Scholars and 
of Churches 
and their Clergymen, 
of its Merchants, Mechan- 
ics and Manufacturers, of its Editors, 
Authors, Poets and Artists, of its Pro- 
fessional Men, "Civil List" and self-made men. 
This hour glass of a century's fleeting sands. 
Will tell the wondrous tale this modern age demands. 




Work of my hand, my heart, my brain, 

Child of my inner life, 
I live in thee ; if not, how vain 

The years of study, struggle, pain. 
And e'en the few that yet remain 

Seem menaced by suspended knife. 
Or Death, with whom I wage unequal strife. 


Friends of my youth, old friends I knew 

In Keshequa's delightful vale ! 
I dedicate these years to you 

And bid posterity renew 
The plaudits that belong to you. 

As men of thought, deed, purpose true ; 
I trace the record from primeval trail. 

And lend mv heart and eves, lest vours forgetting fail. 


Pioneers, scholars, heroes, self-made men. 

Relive }Our lives in this historic tale, 
In "Grand Review" I marshal you again 

In living picture, sketched with loving pen. 
Show to your progeny, a NOBLE RACE OF MEN; 

And unless hand, brain, loving heart shall fail, 
Fll blaze a path to fame, as your enduring trail. 

H. \V. H. 


IN seeking- for inforniation concerning- the pioneers of an early day, those 
who were of the "second generation of pioneers," all elderlv people, have 
been n-iy chief source of inforn-iation. I cannot begin to name all, but 
must n-iention a few out of the many I have interviewed. Mrs. Mercy J. 
Bowhall, bom in Nunda in 1825, has remembered most ; Mr. Porter Warren 
has been here longest, since 1819; Mrs. Mary Barrett Barron, our oldest citi- 
zen, now 94, who settled in 1834; Mr. Munson Barker, aged 85, born in Nunda ; 
Mrs. Adeline Barker; Mrs. ^Minerva Rathbun and Mrs. Matilda Sherwood 
Russell, both born in 1826; Mr. Peter Townsend, born in Nunda in 1827; 
Mr. Leonard Jackson, who came from Portage to Nunda in 1831 ; Mrs. Nancy 
White Passage, born in 1820; the late John Fitch of Oakland; the late Mrs. 
Mary Wheeler Clark, (aged 90) ; the late Rev. James R. Bowen and his sister, 
Mrs. Justus Barker; Mrs. Rufus Robinson, (aged 88) ; Mr. Monroe Myers; Mrs. 
Elizal)eth Cree, who has lived 70 years in Nunda village; Mr. Robert R. 
Wright, :\liss Electa Day and Mr. John Kelley of Dalton ; Mr. J. Monroe Cole, 
(aged 84) : Mr. Milton HilVs, Miss .Sarah I'eltit, Mrs. E. (). Dickinson, the lat'; 
Rachel Bennett, Charles Parmalee, the late Yates Bennett, Mrs. Martha Lake 
Johnson, Mr. George Ditto of Iowa. Others have furnished sketches and will 
be credited -with them. To all these I am exceedingly grateful for helping me 
to do what I regarded as a duty, to try to keep the pioneers who made us the 
recipients of their achievements, in grateful remen-ibrance for their iinnum- 
l)ered benefactions to this age. 



Department I 


Oi R Red Predecessors and Their Allies 
The Story of the Winning of Western New York 

Lament of Revolutionary Soldier — 

"The graves that our children gave us 
Grudged us our renown." 

A Pioneer's Appeal — 

"Go and when ye find a heart reflective 

Where the thrill of kinship shall not fail 
Of the lives we lived within your borders 

Tell thou the homeh' tale." 

An Indian's Appeal — 

"( dad were your fathers to sit down on the threshold of our Long 
House. Llave we no ]dace in your history?" 

Fh-. Peter Wilson— A Cayii,L^a Chief. 



ERE a text, or se\-eral nf them, as essential in a history as in a ser- 
mon, the excerpts selected would justify any departure or digres- 
sion frcim the strict limits of this stury ni the past centur_\-. 


We ha\e an inheritance of priceless \alue. tlu- title deed, wriiu-n wilh the 
Ijjiiod of j)atrii:)ts. while the graves of those who also li\ed wilhin mir hdnlers 
fail tij tell iif their heroism. They gave us a country, and freedom, and the 
priceless boon of Libert}'. We have a part in the ingratitude and neglect show n 
by their children. \\'e. who claim to love heroism, leave these graves of the 
benefactors of our nation and ourselves unsought, unhonored, unnamed, and 
hence unknown. 


The tale of struggle of the individual pioneer, the products of whose toil 
we yearly enjoy in the harvests gathered from the fields they created out of 
forests, but we owe them their personality, an abiding name, attached to the 
farm the)- hewed out, the highway they opened, the store or shop they built, 
or the position they filled, the type of life, of nobility, of worthy citizenship 
they exemplified and transmitted as best they could to the next and future 
generations, this needs to be retold to this irreverent age — as food for appre- 


The appeal of the only Americans not of foreign ancestry comes to us 
across the centuries, like a message from a far away realm, "Have we no place 
in your history? You who were weak when we were powerful. We who re- 
ceived you as neighbors and friends, when we could have crushed you. You 
whose ways we knew not ; we who let you sit on our doorstep, and you 
crowded us from our Long House ; you who call so proudly our Ga-nun-no 
your Great Empire State : have we no claim to remembrance, no part in your 
story of the past, no place in your history? You tell of your heroes ; had we 
no heroism? You praise 3-our statesmen; had we no men great in council? 
Have your orators left no space on their platform for the Logans and Red 
Jackets whose eloquence was unquestioned? \\'ho followed the trails that for 
centuries had been trodden only by the red men. Do none of these trails, now 
your great highways of commerce, lead back to the villages of the Iroquois, to the 
Lords of the forests and the plains, tn the jiredecessors of the pioneers?" 


Successive centuries of the past 
Could tell of wars in old Xunda, 
Since the Fort-Builders held full sway. 
Conquerors at first, then swept away 
Bv tribe more fierce, no tribe could last 
But half a century in Xumla. 

Till sprang a race from hills away. 
Ere great Columbus sought our shore. 
Three centuries, held full sway, or more. 
And left their honored name for aye, 
C)ur blood l)Ought realm, renowned Xunda. 

These rhvnies suggest the dilemma that besets the local historian. He 
deals with a locality with a pre-liistoric ]iast. His way is hedged by paradoxes, — 
his subject has its limitations, for every town is limited, while the ramifica- 
tions of his subject are unlimited, for Xunda is old — centuries old — and it 
would l)e impossible even to write a Centennial History of Xunda, Livingston 


Ctiunty, for our Xuiula has been in two counties since its township formation, 
and in two other counties before the nineteenth century l^egan, and in others 
still before that. 

One century is the child and grandchild of preceeding centuries, and His- 
tory, like Biology, has something to say of its ancestry. The very name Nunda 
is pre-Columbian, for it is Indian. It is the condensed name of the greatest 
nation of Indian warriors and conquerors that the so-called "New World" 
ever had. The "Hill born race," called by others "The Senecas," a name 
accepted by them, for they were fond of a plurality, and even a multiplicity of 
names, given to them because they lived between the two Seneca Rivers, for 
the Genesee was once called the little Seneca, besides, as Seneca was the name 
of a Roman, and the Romans were "world conquerors," this race also came to 
be called "The Romans of the New World," and were proud to receive this 
well bestowed title. They called themselves the Nunda wa-ono i)r "hill born 
race," shorn of its suffixes ono (people) and wa, or wah, (plain or valley). 
These "lords of hill and vale" were simply the Nunda Indians, but as they 
knew no necessity for economy in nomenclature, and loved a variety of forms 
of expression, this will in part explain the sixty or more forms of expression 
used for this one royal tribe, our immediate predecessors, the Nunda-waos or 
Senecas. The Indian word "nun" meant hill, and "non" great hill, chain of 
hills, mountain or chain of mountains. The residence of a great Sachem, 
whether a great war chief or great "council chief." often changed the form of 
a word and prefixed a great O to it. A few Indian words will elucidate this. 
O-nondagas, the great mountain people ; O-nondaga, the Indian village, great 
council chief lived here : O-nonda-O. the chief village for a time of the Senecas, 
and the great war chief of the Iroquois li\ed here; Onondao, near Nunda vil- 
lage, 200 years ago, means, where the chains of hills come together or "the 
meeting of the hills;" Nunda-( ). the hill in front; Nunda. encircled by hills: 
Niindow. an earthwork {Ft. Hill) in front. 

The first village in which the Senecas li\e(l in New York .State was near 
Naples, and was called Ge-nunde-wa, the hill there was only a knoll ; Nunde 
means hilly or small hills. A great word that means the whole Empire State 
when it meant about the same as the Long House of the Iroquois, i. e., from 
Albany to Niagara, was Ga-nun-no. 

So the Nuncla of the Senecas was not the 6x6 town of our day. nor the 
12x24 town of a century ago. not even the hard fought battle fields won by 
the Senecas from their predecessors from the Nunda of the Upper Genesee 
and its former continuation down the Cashaqua Valley, but also the lower 
valley of the Genesee and all the hills and plains to the Seneca Lake and ri\er. 
There have been many Nundas, all interesting, all beautiful, all worthy of 
historical research and record. The pioneers found the "Nunda's" or Seneca 
Indians here, and the Indianologist of to-day finds abundant evidence of their 
former camps and villages, their corn and potato fields. Former historians 
iiave spoken of Nunda as simply hunting grounds for the Indians from their 
immediate vicinity. The scarcity of large trees in our wide valley tells a dif- 
ferent story, so far untold. Was it savage floods or savage men who swept 
them away? 

When (lid our history, as a part of the State, or a part of the Colony, of 
New ^'ork eonimenee? Was this section of land we call Niinda once a part 
of Xew Netherlands, or was it New I'rance? \\ here begins, and to what time 
may we, like the great writer of the Pentateuch, say. "In the beginning." 
Geographically we are one of tlie nian\- subdi\'isions of New York. Then, this 
being a Centennial History, and the author is not yet three score and ten 
much less five score, this presents another difficulty. How is he to supplement 
his personal recollections? Where do the sons of pioneers get their knowledge 
of the first three or four decades, that preceded their advent in the Nunda val- 
ley of six or seven decades ago? \\'hat father and mother said, when we were 
"light infantry," and wdiat other fathers and mothers told their children, and 
the few things that these pioneers of the twenties and thirties have told to 
writers of pioneer sketches, these must prove of incalculable value. However. 
ni)- parents were not early pioneers of "Pioneer Nunda." My father was born, 
it is true, in the }ear of the P.ig Tree Treaty, held at liig Tree (Genesee), in 
1797, but born in Montgomery Countx . N. Y., and my mother, in 1805, in 
Albany Count}-, the year and the \ery day that our first supervisors from the 
town of Angelica. Genesee County, met at Datavia, and though the original 
trail from Albany to lUitfalo was closelx' followed by the Erie Canal, m\' 
parents did not find their way to the far famed Genesee Valley until they could 
come with comfort by that form of improved canoe, the Erie Canal packet, as 
far as Rochester. As for myself, I did not come even at that time, 1837. I 
could not come then, and if 1 had had my say in that matter, I wouldn't. How- 
e\er. a year or two later I also became by birthright a pioneer of the Keshaqua 
\'alley. I am sorry that my birth place was not in Nunda, for it is said, and 
I won't dispute it, that anyone born in Nunda needs no second birth — no place 
on earth could be better for the purpose or nearer Heaven at the close of life. 

It is legitimate in writing pioneer history to prove yourself either a pio- 
neer or a son of a pioneer, or both, "or forever after hold your peace." I will 
not call this, then, a digression, but I expect to show that our 6x6 town plot 
is not only a part of Livingston County, but was also a part of Allegany, Gen- 
esee, Ontario, Alontgomery and Albany Counties as well as a part of Holland, 
France and Englantl. 

History, geography and biography are all alike interesting and all inter- 
lilend in the location of our heroes of five successive wars, and makes it diffi- 
cult to tell when the eintomized story of the centuries begins that led to the 
settlement of this section, whose (/entennial is nearly at hand. While the 
pioneers of various vocations, that are a part of our biological records, or their 
ancestors, came from some of these first geographical subdivisions of our great 
Empire State. .And there is history in every event that makes a boundary, 
a general, a county or its judge, or e\en a town and its supervisors. 


Ha\ing dixided u]) rmr State and snbdi\-i<led our counties and even our 
towns, and I speak advisedly, the counties and towns of which our present 
Nunda has been a part, we will then tell the stor}- of the man with the axe. 
and the woman, smaller and weaker than the man. who did. and still does, 
more hours of work in e\ery twenty-four than this hard handed son of toil. 



Tlicn the stor}- of the schools, the teachers who taught all they knew, and 
the scholars who learned all they could, all must be told from the very first 
teacher in 1809 and the very first school, tn the later schools and academies 
tauglit bv normal bred and collefre bred men and women ; also students from 
these schiHils. some of whom found their \va}- to college and the professions. 


Xunda has e\-er lieen a patriotic town and has had citizens who were 
soldiers, in every war the I'nited ."States has engaged in, and these demand 
and shall recei\e a separate dejiartment. and as far as possible every citizen, 
or former citizen, of Xunda. who went into the tented field from here, or from 
anv tnwn. count}' or state, shall have his military record given, where it may 
be known and read by all the loyal hearted citizens of Xunda. 


Our civil list is not consjiicuous for high attainments ; there are too many 
towns in the state for e\erv town to furnish a President or \'ice President. 
Pnited States Senator or Judge (if the Supreme Court, but sunie of the men 
who lia\-e climlied high in ,^tate and Xation we call "ours" just the same, 
though not on our ci\-il list, and in our hearts we call them our \\'ashington, 
Mur llamiltiin, our Lincoln, our Tecldy and our young Jimmie. We ha\e made 
ibo town list longer bv adding the names of those former citizens (if Xunda 
who went west and grew tremendously in their enlarged surroundings. 


'litis list will include all of these classes, as far as known. wIki lia\e ever 
li\ed in Xinida and used printers' ink. The ])r(ifessional men have their cha]i- 
ter also and even the specialists of the town, whether artists or jioets, have 
all the space their dainty goods require. 

The merchants, mechanics and manufacturers made the village as truh' 
as the farmers with God's aid made the town. The town, of course, includes 
the village, and the old adage holds g(.)od. "( iod made the country, and man 
made the town." The town makers are a distinct class as much so as t3ie 
farm makers, and deser\e the plaudit in this case of "well done." The writer 
is inclined to say, however, that some of the retired farmers ha\'c helped the 
town makers in making the village every year more beatitiful. 


Biographv is the \ian of the book that determines who is to be remem- 
bered a century hence. Modern Xunda and its jjresent citizens are to ha\e 
such space as they desire, at a reipiiied rate, that their pedigree, selves and 
family may live in history. I'.nt in local history mediocrity does not s|iell 
"nothing." but "something" and ■"somelK^idy" for men who have clindied up 
more steps than many whom the wurld calls great have climbed from low 
probabilities and meagre opjiortunities. and from the fetters of poverty to af- 


tliu'iico and iiitliKMKx-. and usefulness lo intellectual \iL;iir and moral integTity, 
uprightness and worth. 

"'I'hmkest thou perchance that these remain unknown, 

Whom thou knowest not; 
By angel trumps in Hea\-en their praise is blown. 

Dixine their lot." 

If mediocrity were left out the liook wouUl be thin and meagre and many 
a man whose deeds were noble, and many a woman who "has done what she 
could," although the\- \\oidd ultimatel_\- reeei\e the Savior's plaudit. "Well 
done, good and faithful." would pass down to the tomb and to oblivion "un- 
wept, unhonored ami unsung," 


A list of self made men. in \arious fields of endeavor, will not be without 

The men who had no "silver spoon" at birth 
lUit pro\ed their "metal" b}' intrinsic worth. 

The \\-iuning of Western Xew York from the Senecas. thn:>ugh Sulli\"an's 
campaign, and by purchase at the "Big Tree Treat}'" in 1797, was not the 
first time 1>\- manv that it had been won. The history of our Xunda. in any 
of its three forms, all during the past century, is Init the winning of a wild 
wilderness bv inir hard}' pioneers, to its present conilition of fine fertility. 
Such a history would be shorn of nine-tenths of its interest if we did not go 
l)ack a centurv farther, to the ])redecessors of the pioneers and give their 
storv of how thev won Xuuilaho. even the boy Indianologists of our town 
wdio find at certain jilaces an unusual collection of arrow heads and other evi- 
dences of Indian habitation, know that these lands have been won and occu- 
pied bv certain races of Indians, and that there were villages here that no 
previous historian has told about. Then the men Indianologists have made 
greater discoveries, that satisfy them, that the Xunda or Kesheiiua \'alley 
has some day been the scene of battles, and not mere neutral hunting grovmds 
for different trilies. and they ask for a synopsis at least of former centuries of 

The colonists won this W estern wilderness from the liritish. and they — 
the British — won it from the I'rench. though neither owned it for it belonged 
to the native Americans, the red races that possessed it and who won it suc- 
cessively, nation after nation, by conquest. 

To at least name the nations wdio have li\-ed where we live, and have 
left Indian names on land and streams is as far as this can be done, an impera- 
tive duty, even' if this leads us across six centuries to pre-Columbian days. 
The first of these Indian nations that have left evidences of their presence in 
our part of Western Xew York are the Fort-builders, no Indians known since 
the first white man followed trails thousands of years old into the interior of 
Xew York Colony, or that of the Xew Xetherlands. or of France, has ever 
found a I'lirt-building Indian. The Iroquois Indian had no use for Fort Hil! 


or the three forts at Belvidere, or the one at Cone.sus, or those that extend to 
Oswego. Excavations of these forts had led to the certainty that their pos- 
sessors came from Ohio and brought with them some of the useful or orna- 
mental utensils found in the huge mounds of the Mound-builders. This does 
not prove that they were the same ; it rather suggests that they were the 
Mound-builders' conquerors, and thus became the possessors of their articles 
of skill. The mound suggests an Egyptian origin. 

Next in order, unless they were the same, were the Allegewi, Talegewi 
Allegany or Ohio River Indians, who called the Ohio River after them, and 
when they in turn were dri\-c'n out of Ohio they came up one branch of their 
great river and gave it the same name. These people clung to the forts, used 
fort defences, made high banks of streams their fortresses, and cither with 
bows and arrows drove out those who like David were expert with a sling, or 
they were the stone throwers themselves and could not defend themselves 
against a Huron or Algonquin antagonist armed with bow and arrow. Within 
a mile of Nunda near what appears like a fort, quantities of these stones with 
a small indentation on one side can be found ; and yet some of us who live on 
the Keshaqua trail that passes this scene of former battle for supremacy forget 
that the trail and the battlefield have been here at least 800 years. The story 
of the winning of Xundao, and of all west of the Genesee, by the Nundawaono. 
or Seneca Indians, will tell all there is to tell. 

Again, we live in a township that has been subdivided till it forms many 
towns, and it is interesting to retrace the subdivisions of Greater New York 
Colony, Greater Albany County from which a whole state has been taken and 
counties and towns enough to make several small states. Nunda is an integral 
part of these great and important sulKlivisions and its centennial history can 
gain interest by following the frontier settlements from Schenectady, the pine 
woods of the East, to the larger pines of Allegany. 

This two-fold story of successive possession and of successive divisions 
of these possessions will tell us at least what this century has inherited from 
its predecessors. 


Tine Winning of G.\-nun-no .-\tt.\ixi:i) i'.v Tiiii: Winning of \\'i:stekn New 


WH.-VT we so ]ir(_iu(lly call the PJnpire State, what our European predeces- 
sors, or would Ije possessi.irs, called variously New Netherlands, "tho 
Colony of New \'urk" and New i-Vance, the Six Nations finally called 
Ga-iuin-n(j. It seems to be 'i v\(-rd imi.icd I.)\- them after the Ho-dc-no-sau-nee, or 
Long Mouse nf the Irnquois extended hcxond the Genesee River to the Niagara, 
and included llie new possessions of the \unda-wao, won i)rincipally liy this war- 
like l''il"tli .Xatjiin, from the Kali Kwas ami JM-ies. that is, it inclmled (ireater 
Xunila, and b\- this increase of western domain finall}' their long hnuse reached 
across the state. 

The winning of Western New York l)y the Senecas. aided at times by 
the entire Confederacv. Ijelongs within tln' ]>eriod of relial;)le history, for the 
Dutch were at Manhattan and lleaverswick (Albanv). and the French at 

Mnnlreal and the Ilritisli lia<l scitk-nu-nts from r'ortsmmuli to laniestowii. 
when most of these victories were won. The coming of these three European 
nations, in three successive years, to the Atlantic coast. England in 1607. 
France in 1608 and Holland in 160"^. inaugurates the conquest with the native 
Americans for possession of the entire Indian Ga-nun-no. 

From 1609 we may follow this trail of progress pursued b\- Ihidsnn up 
the river that bears his name, or of Champlain down Lake Champlain an<l 
Lake George, and find both are intercepted by the keepers of the Eastern <h»)v. 
of the "Long House." and both unconsciously make acquaintance with the 
rightful owners of the soil, that neither of them could dispossess or conquer. 
Little did either know, or care, of this "five-fold-cord" compared with which 
any other Indian Xati(^n, or Holland, or e\en France, was sinqil}- a single 

The Indians (the ^lohawks) here waged their first warfare with the white 
men and here learned how white men flash death with gleam of lightning and 
sound of thunder at their foes, and the}- little suspected that the "fire water" 
that Hudson's tars had given the Indians to drink, and not the firearms of 
Champlain, would cost them ultimately the loss of their greatest Long House, 
afterwards called Ga-nun-no. It was Champlain and his allies who retreated 
from the greater numbers and greater valor of the ^lohawks. The east door 
was secure, and no force from New France could find an open door to the 
south through which the}' could disjiossess the less warlike Hollanders who 
stood only on the threshold of an imperial domain, ^^'ell for the Dutch that 
the Iroquois' wall of protection stayed the invaders : well also for Great P.ritain 
that the French did not reach the Hudson and Manhattan : well also that the 
Hollanders soon formed an alliance with the Iroquois, whose "siher chain" 
was never broken ; well for the aggressive Briton that he in his turn reneweil 
the covenant when he in 1664 changed the New Netherlands to the colony of 
Xew' York, and soon gained as allies the strongest power on the continent : 
well e\en for the future colonists that the alliance of the British with the Five 
Nations, and the alliance of France with the mortal enemies of the Iroquois, 
the Huron tribes, led to battles nian\' and losses great, which decimated all 
these belligerants. while it educated the men destined to conquer the conquer- 
ors, better than a dozen military schools could have done, how to be stronger 
than the strong, braver than the brave, greater in war than other great war- 
riors, but greatest in peace when plowshares should succeed swords and prun- 
ing hooks should supersede spears. 

In warring against France and her Indian allies, Washington learned Iktw 
to be "first in war." ^^'ayne, i\itnani, Ethan .\llen, Nathaniel Green. Benedict 
.Arnold and liis more li\val brothers, and lesser chieftains who commanded 
companies like Captain Jacob S. Glen and Captain Elias Hand, and his kins- 
men, not officers, and thousands of others who became skilled veterans, expert 
Indian figiiters. by learning of the Senecas. the value of strategv of the Onon- 
dagos to "hasten slowly." to weigh important matters before acting, learned 
to attack rather than be attacked, learned that through obedience to orders 
the victory planned can generally be won. that if all obey the same commands, 
every man's strength and ability is multiplied by the entire numerical force, 
be it counted bv tens, hundreds or thousands. It was thus that the contest 

with the French and Hurons, \vitli tlie liritish and the Iroquois, was the "West 
Point" that furnished generals their field, staff and line officers, and what 
was no less important, a patriot army of veterans, who knew every weak point 
of their adversaries, whether regular. tor\- nr Imlian, and every strong point 
essential to those fighting for freedom, country and home, with the full assur- 
ance that their cause was just, and that the God of Battles was their strongest 

Much as we have all heard of the wrongs of the Indians, we should re- 
member that every acre of land. c\'cn those bought with blood, was again 
bought by purchase of its rightful owners, the Indians ; bought, too, in many 
of the greatest purchases with a x'iew of the money being so paid as to be a 
permanent benefit to those who sold, and to this day these wards of our gov- 
ernment are yearl}' receiving a helpful income. Unlike the pensions that were 
finally given to the army that concpiered the British and their Indian allies, 
whicli pension extended to only two generations, the annuity the Indians re- 
ceived, even for lands that were first won from them by conquest, is to be 
paid as long as heirs are found, generation after generation, absolutely forever 
while the red man exists. This pledge to our foes, those who were true to the 
British in one war, and equally true to their successors in another, "goes on" 
like the waters of the Genesee "forever and forever." 

The sale, first of Staten Island followed by Manhatten Island, where New 
York City was built, the first city in point of time in the new country and now 
the first city in importance, the metropolis of the New World, which has its 
center on that island, was sold for twenty-five dollars. This was the opening 
wedge that resulted in successive divisions by sale until most of the "reserva- 
tions" passed from their possession and only a few of these now remain, and 
the great "Ga-nim-no" of the Indian has become what our greatest American, 
George Washington, first called it, the Empire State. 

Western New York, or rather that part west of the Genesee River, and 
also much of the debatable lands that others besides the Senecas once consid- 
ered their hunting grounds, had first to be won from several very strong and 
powerful Indian Nations before the Seneca Long-House, the Nunda-wa-o domin- 
ion, could extend beyond the mountains to the Erics, or to the Niagara country 
of the Neutrals. 


OrR Pri-:i )Ecessors. 

"Since the first sunlight spread itself o'er earth; 
Since Chaos gave a thousand systems birth ; 
Since first the morning stars together sung ; 
Since first this globe was on its axis hung; 
Untiring change, with ever moving hand, 
Has waved o'er earth its mc;)re than magic wand." 

WESTERN New York has its own story of perpetual change. Much 
of its territory was for several decades on debatable hunting lands. 
The Keshaqua Valley and the upper Genesee have passed within a 
thousand years under the jurisdiction of at least four different Indian nations. 


whik' duriiii; tlio same tunc as many other civilized naticms lune helil nuniinal 
claims oxer the same territory. Back of the Senecas, the Erics were in a ])art 
of \Vesterii Xew N'ork. neigiibors to the Senecas, were the Neutrals, Kah 
Kwas. or C )ttawandaronks and still farther hack, the Satanas or Andastes. 
who we are told were driven from lands south of Lake Ontario, the first vic- 
tims of the Nunda-wa-os prowess. 

The Allegewi preceded all of these. If the changes seem kalei(losco]iic 
are the European changes less so? Spain, after 1492, claimed the entire conti- 
nent. France, after the advent of Champlain. claimed Northern antl Western 
Xew York for nearly one hundred and fifty years. Holland passively claimed 
the entire state from 1609 to 1664. Great Britain disputed the claim of France 
and with force of arms conqtiered the New Netherlands and made good her 
claim to New York, as far as France or Holland was concerned, and also won 
a province from France besides, not her own. which has proved so far to her 
a perpetuity. In less than a quarter of a century after adding Canada as a 
permanent province, she lost an empire. The Colonists, her successors, found 
themselves free in 1783 though impoverished, but also found the Iroquois still 
the real possessors of the soil, still "Lords of the forest and lakes.'" 

Even tradition cannot extend its filmy touch far beyond the pre-colonial 
days. The remnant of the vanquished Satanas, who in their day supplanted 
one of the successors of the P'ort and Momid builders, probably the Allegany 
Indians, were driven south, and were merged with the Shawnees of Kentucky 
or were Shaw'nees, according to Bertram, who says in his "Travels and Obser- 
vations in America" (1757). "It is against this people, the Shawnees. the Six 
Nations first turned their arms with success after they, the Iroquois, had tied 
before the warlike Adirondack's." 

This is of special interest to us. who now occupy their ancient possessions 
and hunting grounds. He makes the Satanas and Shawnees the same nation, 
our first historic predecessors. 

Till-: Irooiciis — Hi.\w.\TiiA axli the Coxfeder.vcv. 

IN the story of the winning of Western New York so many <it the great 
conquests that led to it were wrought b\- the confederated tribes, or the 
Five Nations, in united etYort that a statement of their organization and 
achievements seems essential, although all the lands acquired by conquests 
that afifected our immediate territory became the possession of our last pred 
ecessors, the Seneca or \unda-wa-o Indians.' As near as can be ascertained 
this confederacy dates back to 1450 and is therefore pre-Columbian. AMio 
their Hi-a-wa-tha was that caused their organization is but a matter of con- 
jecttire or tradition. Possibly he was of W elch and Wyandot origin for he 
displays wisdom and ability far transcending the ordinary Indian foresight 
and acumen. The name Hiawatha signifies "very wise man." That wc may 
have a characteristic sketch of Indian wisdom and eloquence we cojiy the re- 
puted speech of Hiawatha to the Five Nations: 

"Friends and Brothers — You are members of many trilies and nations 
You have come here, many of you. a great distance from your homes. We 
have convened for one common purpose, to promote one commn interest, and 
that is to provide for our mutual safety, and how it may best be accomplished. 


'I'o oppose these hordes of northern foes by tribes, singly and alone, would 
prove our certain destruction, we can make no progress in that way; we 
must unite ourselves into one common band of brothers. Our warriors united 
would surely repel these rude invaders and drive them from our borders. This 
must be done and we shall be safe. 

"You, the Mohawks, sittini^ under the shadow of the 'great tree,' whose 
roots sink deep into the earth, and whose branches spread o\er a vast country, 
shall be the first nation, because ynu are warlike and mighty. 

"And you (.)neidas, a people who recline your bodies against the 'everlast- 
ing stone' that cannot be moved, shall be the second nation, because you give 
wise counsel. 

"And you (J-nonda-gas, who have your halntation at the 'great niDuntain' 
are not overshadowed by its crags, shall be the third nation, because you are 
greatly gifted in speech and mighty in war. 

"And you Cayugas, a peojjle whose habitation is the 'dark forest' and 
whose home is everywhere, shall be the fourth nation, because of your su 
perior cunning in hunting. 

"And you Senecas, a people who live in the open country and possess 
much wisdom, shall be the fifth nation, because you understand Ijetter the art 
of raising corn and beans and making cabins. 

"You five great and powerful nations must unite and have one common 
interest and no foe shall be able to disturb or subdue you. 

"And you Alanhattans, Xyacks, Metoaoks and others, who are as the 
feeble bushes : and }'ou Xaragansetts, Mohegans, \^'ampanoags and your 
neighbors who are a fishing people, may place yourselves under our protection. 
Be with us and we will defend you. You of the South, and you of the ^Vest 
may do the same, and we will jirotect yiu. We earnestly desire your alliance 
and friendship. 

"Brothers, if we unite in this bond the Great Spirit will smile ujjon us, 
and we shall be free, prosperous and happy. But if we remain as we are we 
shall be subject to his frown ; we shall be enslaved, ruined, perhaps annihi- 
lated forever, ^^'e shall perish and our names be blotted out from among the 
nations of men. 

"Brothers, these are the words <if Hiawatha. Let them sink deep into yc_:iur 
lu-arls. I ha\e said it." 

.\ da\' was taken for mature deliberation, which vras characteristic of the 
lro(|uois. To this wise custom lies much of their power in council and in war 
Assembled the next day, the wisdom of the projiosition was unanimously con- 
ceded, and there was formed that cele1)rated league of the Five Nations which 
no external power has efTectually broken. The Si.xth Xati(_in. the Southern 
Tuscaroras or potato tribe, were not added until 1713. 

The divine conception of Hiawatha, formed years after his death, must 
have been shaped after the Indians had heard from the Jesuits of the white 
man's divine man, Jesus, or still earlier from the Welch settlers who. tradition 
says, were merged with the Southern Indians many centuries before. It is 
evident that this league was not formed until after the Iroquois were driven 
out of Canada, for their location is easily recognized. 


The parting words of Hiawatha are instructive and indicate tliat the Sen- 
ecas had been the chief beneficiaries of the instructions of tliis marvelous 
teacher. Hiawatha also said : 

"Friends and Brothers — I have now fulfilled my mission upon earth. I 
have done everything which can be done at present for the good of this great 
people. Age, infirmity and distress (his r)nly daughter had just died) set 
heavy upon me. During my sojourn with you I have removed all obstruc- 
tions from the streams ; Canoes can now pass safely everywhere. I have given 
you good fishing waters and good hunting grounds. I have taught you the 
manner of cultivating corn and beans, and instructed you in the art of making 
cabins. Many other blessings I have liberally bestowed upon you. 

"Lastly, I have now assisted you to form an everlasting league, and cov- 
enant of strength and friendship for your future safety and protection. If 
you preserve it, without the admission of other people, you will always be 
free, numerous and mighty. If other nations are admitted to your councils 
they will sow jealousies among you, and you will become enslaved, few and 
feeble. Remember these words, they are the last you will hear from the lips 
of Hiawatha. Listen, my friends, the Great Master of Breath calls me to go. 
I have patiently waited his summons. I am ready; farewell." 

I have only to record the rest of this Irocjuois tradition to show how the 
superstitions of this race gain ready credence with them all. They had some- 
time heard of the marvelous coming and going of the white man's "Prophet, 
Priest and King" and the red man's Benefactor, so full of the spirit of his 
great predecessor — must come like an Indian, live like an Indian, and depart 
(in a canoe) like an Indian — but otherwise like the white man's Divine 
Teacher and Guide — ascend (in his white canoe) canopied in clouds. 


There are many corroborations of the theory that certain tribes of the 
Indians, notably the Tuscaroras, were of lighter color than the majority of 
Indians. More inclined to peace, sometimes they were spoken of with ridicule 
because of this as squawmen. Back of all this is the Welch tradition of Prince 
Madoc, Madog or ]Madawes ; the last probably correct ; departure from Wales 
in 1170. This is confirmed by Welsh historians and his acts perpetuated by 
\\'elsh bards. 

The ruling prince of North \\'ales, Owen Guynedd, died A. D. 1168, and 
a contest for the succession produced civil war. Prince Madoc, who had com- 
mand of the the fleet, took no part in the strife. Init with a few ships sailed 
westward to select a place of settlement. According to the Historian Baldwin, 
he established a settlement in a pleasant and fertile region, supposed to have 
been in the Carolinas. Catlin believes it to have been on the coast of Florida 
or about the mouth of the Mississippi. Baldwin calls attention, in advancing 
his theory of settlement, to the fact that the Tuscaroras lived in the Carolinas, 
and he further says: "It will be recollected that in the early colony times the 
Tuscaroras were sometimes called White Indians. The writer has elsewhere 
read that the Rev. Morgan Jones, a Welsh clergyman, published his adven- 
tures among the Tuscaroras in the Gentlemen's Magazine in 1740 from a rem- 
iniscence made March 10, 1685. It appears from this he was captured by the 

Tuscaroras in 1660 and while doomed to the stake, he pra3'ed aloud in Welsh 
to Tesiis, his ^Master, to save, and his tormentors knew the language and un- 
l)ound him and called him brother, and that for four months he preached to 
them and conversed with them, and that they (Doegs) entertained him 
civilh- and courteouslx'. Though this story is regarded by many "as apocry- 
phal" it is not by any means an impossibility. It is more than a hint of the 
origin of our Fort buiklers from the ]\Iississippi to Oswego. ,\nd to one of 
tlie race of tlie peaceful \\'elsh Prince, surcharged with tlie Spirit of the 
"Prince of Peace" that we may read between the lines, if we choose, the real 
origin and source of strength of the red man's "Great Wise Man," Hiawatha, 
who taught them to build cabins instead of bark wigwams, plant orchards and 
cuhivate the soil, and band together for protection rather than for aggression. 

The Conquered Iroouois Become Conquerors. 

IN Longfellow's poem of Hiawatha he evidently endorsed the opinion and 
theory of Lewis H. Morgan, an authority on Indian races and their 
lands, that the Iroquois separated very early from the original family that 
produced the great Dakotah Nation and settled in the East previous to the 
settlement of the Algonquins who were in possession of the Canadas when first 
this countrv was visited by Europeans as he sends Hiawatha back to their 
kindretl. the Dakotas, for wife. 

The Iroquois were once a ]u>aceful people and followed agricultural pur- 
suits, while the Adirondacks were great hunters. The latter despised the 
former because of their cultivation of corn, which they exchanged with the 
hunters for venison. It chanced that game failed the hunters from scarcity 
and they employed some of the young Iroquois to help them in hunting. 
These young men became more expert than themselves, could endure fatigue 
better than themselves, which excited anger and jealousy of the Adirondacks, 
and chagrin by being excelled so soon by their despised neighbors. 

L'nwilling to be excelled in strength, endurance or skill, they murdered, 
one night, all the young men they had with them. This brought complaint 
, from the supposed weaklings and, deeming them incapable of taking any 
great revenge, they tried to lay the blame on the murdered men, but suggested 
some trifling presents to be given to the relatives of the murdered men. 

The Five Nations, resolved on revenge, and their enemies hearing of their 
purpose, determined to prevent this, by reducing them with force to obedience. 

The Five Nations then lived where Mont-Real (Montreal) now stands 
They defended themselves but feebly at first against the vigorous attacks of 
their adversary and were forced to leave their own country and find a new 
home on the opposite side of the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. They 
saw the necessity of becoming as expert in war as they had been skilled in the 
art of peace. They tried their new spirit of warfare on the less warlike Satanas 
and drove them from their country which they occupied, and from that time 
defended and even carried the war into the villages of the Adirondacks and 
finally forced them to leave them ami to fly into that part of the country where 
Quebec is now built. 


The French having placed firearms in the liands of tlie neighboring 
Hurons they all joined in the war against the Iroquois, but the rashness of 
the young warriors, and their impatience and neglect of orders, neutralized 
their superior strength, and when opposed by the superior strategy of the 
Iroquois, who drew them into successive ambushes that caused disastrous 
losses. The persistence of the Iroquois relaxed only with the complete dispersion 
and almost utter annihilation of all their former persecutors. 


WITH the same deadly vehemence they pursued all their enemies, begm- 
ning a career of successive concjuests with the Andastes to the South, 
the Neutrals and Eries to the West, the Adirnodacks and other Hurons 
to the Xorth, their vengence never satiated until their foes sued for unity, or were 
wiped out of existence as nations. The dictators of the continent, their sway ex- 
tended over a territory- thought to be 1,200 miles long by 800 miles, includ- 
ing a large part of New England and reaching thence to the "father of waters," 
while the French occupants of Canada, and the Cherokees and Catawbas in the far 
South, were humbled by their ]xi\ver. but their actual leagued possessions were 
from Albany to Niagara. 

From those they subdued they exacted tribute and levied conscripts. From 
the extent of their conquests, the tribute and aid they exacted, suggested to the 
French \'olney the name he gave them, and which clung to them from its ver}- 
appropriateness, "The Romans of the Western World." Their conquests com- 
menced when they could bring into the field but two thousand braves, antl virtually 
ended when with 5,000 warriors they annihilated the once mighty Eries in !')53. 

No wonder that iiroud of their ])ro\vess tlie\' called themselves the "Ongne- 
honwe" — men surpassing all others. It is said that the average internal capacity 
of the Iroquois crania was eighty-eight cubic inches, which is within two inches 
of the size of the average Caucasian and four of the Teutonic, while they exceeded 
the Alound-builders and others of their race and e\-en the civilized races of Mexico 
and Peru. Unfortunately, the difYerence in volume is chiefly confined to the occip- 
ital and basal portions, the region of the animal propensities ; and on this is pred- 
icated their ferocity. It is, however, with these "confederates" that those higher 
traits popularly ascribed to the race are found. They spared the young males — 
white and red — who showed courage, to strengthen and improve their race. They 
unified and systematized the elements which among other Indian nations were 
digressive and chaotic. But for the advent of the Europeans, ere their power had 
subdued and unified their entire race, the extinction and subduing ( for they were 
never subjugated) would have been the work of many centuries. The timely ad- 
vent of Europeans, with firearms, and the far more fatal fire-water, was the pre- 
cursor alike of the downfall of the Confederacy and the ultimate extinction of the 
American Indian. 

That they were keen and sagacious none can dispute ; that the}" were equally 
cruel and ferocious is alike self-evident. It was easier for them to follow the 
polishecl barbarism cf the bad white man's trail than to covet the civilization 

whose crowning glory was to be peaceful, merciful, forgiving, upright, reverent, 
loving, just, and good; qualities wholly antagonistic to their sense of manliness 
and valor. It has been well said of this Confederac}' that the Iroquois were a.''fivc 
fold cord:" their antagonists were single strands. Their league and its united 
strength suggests the jjower of our Federal Union, our "multuni in parvo," which 
bears many suggestions analogous to their confederate union. Each nation had 
its own political functions, as each of our states has, ( )ur legislative bodies, state 
and national, are not unlike their councils at home, and, at the "great central fire." 
Each Indian nation could go upon the warpath to redress a wrong and, unless 
greater aid was sought for at the Onondaga Central Fire or General Council, no 
aid was given. It is seldom the army of the United States is required to put down 
mobs or suppress riots within states but any Governor of any state mav call for 
such aid and receive it. These forest statesmen, wrought with wisdom born of 
necessity, planned peace and unity at home and unlimited expansion abroad. The 
Thomas Jefferson, whose dwelling was but a hunter's lodge, tradition savs, was 
a "wise man" of the ( )nondagas named Dagano-weda. 

The supreme jxnver was vested in a congress of sachems, fifty in number. 
The Mohawks were entitknl to nine members, the Oneidas to nine, the Onondagas 
to fourteen, the Cayugas to ten. the Senecas to eight. The office of Sachem was 
hereditary in tribes. They were "raised up," not by their respective nations, but 
by a council of all the Sachems. They formed the "Council of the League" and 
in them resided the executive, legislative and judicial authority. 

.\t their respective homes these Sachems governed, forming five independent 
local sovereignties, modeled after the General Congress of the Sachems. They 
were five distinct local Republics within one general Republic. It is as if our Con- 
gressmen, when they returned from the general seat of government, formeil at 
home a council for local government. It was far more, however, than in our 
government, "the rule of the few" filling up the ranks as vacancies occurred — a 
power of self creation, liable to abuse, but so far as known did not prevent the 
general well working of their system. Though all were equal in power, a Sachem 
from the ( )nondagas (the central tire I had at least a nominal superiority. He was 
the head of the Confederacy and was the one Great Wise Coimsellor or, as oiu" 
I 'residents are. Ruler in Chief. His position was hereditary, not from birth, but 
from locality. The first Onondaga, or Chief Sachem of the League, was variously 
called Ta-do-da-hoh or, according to Cusisk, the .Vt-ta-tar-ho, who was con- 
tcni])orar\- with the formation of the "Leage." To this first great warrior Sachem, 
whose dishes and spoons were made nf the skulls of his enemies, and whose name 
terrorized all aliens, we may read between the lines a demand for superiority and 
of a compromise giving perpetual rights and privileges and additional representa- 
tion to the O-nonda-gas or "Great Mountain Race." The word king was often 
.applied to these Chief Sachems, who ruled with much arl)itrar\ power, in their 
own nations, by Europeans, but "L'oiniselor of the I'eofle" was the extent of power 
the\- claimed as rulers. Tlie colonists called all the lesser chiefs John. 

There were in the l'"ive Nations the same numix-r of War Chiefs as Sachems 
The maxim "Old men for counsel and young men for war," may have had its 
origin in this wise arrangement. In Council the War Chief stood behind the 
(/ounselor ready to execute the commands of his suiierior. However, if the two 
went out with a war party, the Sachem became the subordinate. sn])reme in Coun- 

cil but not in war. The supreme command of the war forces and the general con- 
duct of the wars of the Confederacy, all this was entrusted to tivo military chiefs 
with hereditary rights. These were ;';; all cases to he of the Seneca Nation. Such 
were Hohskesio of Nuntla and Little Heard of Leicester his successor. The 
home advisers and counsellors, after the advent of the Europeans, were called 
chiefs. Some of them became almost equal in rank and authority to the Sachems. 
In each nation there were eight tribes which were arranged in two divisions and 
named as follows : 

Wolf IJear 1 leaver Turtle 

Deer Snipe Heron Hawk 

This division of men into tribes became the means of effecting the most per- 
fect union (says Turner) of separate nations ever devised by the wit of man. In 
effect, the Wolf Tribe was divided into five parts, and one-fifth of it placed in each 
of the five nations. The other tribes were similarly divided and distributed, thus 
giving to each nation eight tribes and making in their separated state forty tribes 
in the Confederacy. Between those of the same name, i. e., between the separated 
parts of each tribe there existed a tie of brotherhood which linked the nations to- 
gether with indissoluble bonds. The Mohawk of the Beaver Tribe recognized 
the Seneca of the Beaver Tribe as his brother, and they were bound to each other. 
Likewise, all the five tribes of the Turtle were brothers. They gave to each other 
always a fraternal welcome. This cross relationship between the tribes of the 
same name was stronger, if possible, than the chain of brotherhood between the 
eight tribes of the same nation. It is still preserved in all its original strength. 
This explains the tenacity with which the fragments of the old Confederacy still 
cling together. For one nation to cast off its alliance would have been the sever- 
ing of the bonds of brotherhood. Had the nations come into warfare it would 
have turned Hawk against Hawk, Heron against Heron ; that is, brother against 

(Jriginally, with reference to marriage, the Wolf, Bear, Beaver and Turtle 
Tribes were brothers to each other and cousins to the other tribes. They were not 
allowed to intermarry. The other four tribes were brothers to each other and 
cousins to the first four tribes, and these could not intermarry. Either of the first 
four tribes could intermarry with either of the last four. The Hawk could choose 
his wife from the tribes Bear, Beaver, Heron or Turtle. They can now marry 
mto any tribe but their own. The children always belong to the tribe of the mother. 
The canons of descent of the Iroquois are the very reverse of that of the civilized 
world. If the Deer Tribe of the Cayugas received a Sachemship at the original 
distribution of these offices it must always remain with that tribe. The Sachem's 
son belongs to his mother's tribe and is therefore disinherited. He cannot even 
inherit from his father his medal or even his tomahawk much less succeed him 
as Sachem. The brothers, or his sister's children, or some individual of his tribe 
not a relative follows the succession. 

In the case of the death of a Sachem or War Chief his successor would first 
be selectetl by the home council of the tribe, from the brothers of the deceased 
or the sons of his sisters unless there were physical or other objections, or it was 
obvious some member of the tribe by reason of his prowess or wisdom was evi- 
dently better fitted for the position when the tribal decision was made, then the 

nation summoned a council, in the name i>t the deceased, of all the Sachems of the 
league, and the new Sachem was raiseil u\) by such council and invested with his 

Wc close this perhaps ti:>o len!;th_\ description of the greatest of Indian .'At- 
tempts at a Republic — a form of government of which they had never heard, b\- a 
quotation from Dr. Peter Wilson, an educated Cayuga Chief, who addressed by 
invitation on one occasion the Xew York Historical Society. 

■'The land ' ia-nun-no. or the Empire State, as you love to call it. was once 
laced 1j\- our trails from .\lban}- to Buffalo; trails that we had trod for centuries; 
trails worn so deep by the feet of the Iroquois that they became your roads of 
travels as your possessions gradually eat into those of my people, ^'our roads 
still traverse those same lines of communication which bound one part of the Long 
House to the other. Have we, the first holders, of this prosperous region no longer 
a share in your h.istory ? Glad were your fathers to sit down upon the threshold of 
the Long House. Rich did they hold themselves in getting the mere sweepings 
from its door. Had our forefathers spurned you when the French were thunder- 
ing on the other side to get a passage through and drive you into the sea, what- 
ever has been the fate of other Indians we might still have had a nation and I — 
I instead of pleading here for the privilege of lingering within \ our borders I — I 
might have had a country." 

To this eloquent half blood we are not only indebted for this choice specimen 
of Indian eloquence but also for the Indian name of our own great state, Ga- 
nun-no. Its meaning has '.lot been greatly changed when we call it the Empire 
State. To the Nunda-wa-o-no nation, whose prowess extended its dominion from 
the Genesee to the Niagara, it meant the vast domain of the Hill-Born-Race. 

CH.\PTER \'. 

The Ixvincible Iroquois — Their Subjugation of the Hurons and Other 
Indian X.\tions — The Neutrals and their House of Pe.vce. 

"By the far Mississippi the Illinois shrank 
When the trail of the Tortoise was seen at the bank. 
On the hills of New England the Pequot turned pale, 
\\'hen the howd of the Wolf swelled at night on the gale 
And the Cherokee shook in his green smiling bowers 
When the foot of the Hear stamped his carpet of flowers." 

NE\'ER for a moment since the Hurons caused the flight of the Senecas 
from Canada had there been peace betvi'een these Indian nations ; and 
the barbarity of France in making galley slaves of some of the Irocjuois 
and of arming with guns their Indian allies in order to annihilate the Senecas, 
who held them from possession of that part of New York they claiiued as a por- 
tion of New France, these acts had made France no less a mortal enemy. The 
common hatred of England and of themselves against France made them allies 
and led to extinction of the claims of France to Western New York. From 1648 
it became evident that certain allies of the hrench, the Hurons, must be destroved. 

Ill 1648 the Iroquois were again in force on the warpath waging aggressive war 
on tiie liurons. Father Antoine Daniel, a zealous Jesuit, had a mission station 
at St. Joseph, and while the Hurons were absent on the chase their inveterate 
enemies, the Senecas, came upon their old men, women and children, including 
the missionary and they massacred them all. Father Antoine being the first of his 
calling to find a martyr's fate. In his attempt to bless the heathen he became the 
first of many others to fall a victim to pagan and savage hatred. The saving of 
the souls of their enemies was an offense that admitted of no palliation to these 
savages who scalped their enemies to keep them from Paradise. 

In the early part of 1649 ^ thousand Irociuois fell on two villages of the 
Hurons and nearly exterminated the whole population. The missionaries of both 
villages shared the common fate. In the latter part of the same year the Huron 
village of St. Johns with nearly 3,000 population, with its missionary, perished. 
A dire disease, beyond the skill of the Indian, aided the war club in decimating 
their ranks. The remnant saw annihilation before them unless in humble submis- 
sion they threw themselves on the clemency of their conquerors. They knew they 
would accept additional warriors for greatness of numbers increases safetv and 
ensures subsequent victories : so they presented themselves to their conquerors, 
pledged allegiance, and were accepted as kinsmen, and the few who did not come 
willingly but wandered awav were hunted down like wolves and exterminated. 


ISefore discussing the origin, [jcculiarities and fate that awaited alike the 
"( ireat Wild Cat race." the sable Kah Kwas or their kinsmen and neighbors, the 
Fries, known by the French as the Cat nation, because they used certain furs in 
their clothing, we must go back a little farther to the time of John Smith of the 
Jamestown Colony days for the information he gives concerning a race of con- 
querors that triumphed previous to his coming, whose conquests were as complete 
as those of the Iroquois of later days, that many have hastily supposed that they 
must have been the same. Writers, enthused by the belligerent spirit of the "Five 
Xations," of whom they were writing, have eagerly jumped at this conclusion, 
ignoring the fact that stupendous conquests and victories over former possessors 
had swept away the ]\Iound-builders, the Fort-builders, the Allegewi or Ohio River 
( once called the Allegany River I Indians before the Iro<|uois had won any great 
victories save in the East. John Smith, while making one of his exploring expedi- 
tions along Chesapeake 15ay. rejiorted that the tribes he met livecl in j^erpetual fear 
of a nation far awa} that they called ^lassawomekes, by the direction they 
came from and hy the fact that intervening tribes represented them as hostile, some 
of whom were closely connected with the Iroquois, it seems evident that tlie\ 
were the Fries, so-called by the Hurons, by the Five Nations, Rique and by the 
French Chat or Cat, so-called by .Segur in his History of Canada, published in 
1836. There is also a belief that at this early date the Eries and Kah Kwas were 
allies and went to war together, and when united were invincible. 


\'ery little is known or tokl of this giant race of grand physique and sable 
co|)pery complexion. As they lived along the Niagara and in the Huron countrv 


we naturallv conclude they were llurons. Hut the visit of the missionary fathers, 
lean De Hrebeuf and Joseph Marie Lhaumonot, in 1840, describe the difference 
between these savages and the Hurons and also distinguish them from their near 
neighbors, the Cats or Eries. Most authorities class them together or fail to men- 
tion the Kah Kwas at all. No doubt at one time they were allies. Their neutrality 
for a long period had given them great numerical strength and as hunters and 
fishermen their location was an ideal Indian I'aradise. 

As the writer believes, the Kah Kwas had villages in this vicinity, as well 
as a Nunda chief at a later day, he turns to the Jesuits of two and a half centuries 
ago for information to refute or confirm his opinions. 

P'ather Jean de Lirebcuf, a skilled linguist familiar with the llurdu dialect, 
leaves his mission at St. Marie Novemlier 2, 1(140, to establish a mission among 
the Neuters. He visits 18 of their 40 villages and finds he has been preceded there 
bv leather De la Roch Daillon, a Recollect, who passed the winter there in 1(126. 
To quote the oft cjuotcd letter to this Jesuit missionary : "The nation is very popu- 
lous, there being estimated about forty villages. He gives the distance traveled 
from St. Marie on Lake Huron to the first Kah Kwas village 40 leagues, due 
South. From this it is four days" travel to the place where the celebrated river of 
tiie nation (Niagara) empties into Lake Ontario or 'St. Louis.' On the west 
side of the river are the most numerous of the villages of the Neuter nation. There 
are three or four on the east, extending from east to west toward the Eries or 
Cat nation." He gives the name of the Niagara and of their eastermost villages 
as Onguiaahra (an imitation or allusion to the roar of the cataract) and he sug- 
gests that if they — the French — could get control of the side of the lake nearest 
the residence of the Irocjuois "we could ascend by the river St. Lawrence without 
danger, even to the Neuter nation, and much beyond with great saving of time 
and labor. The Neuter Nation comprises 12,000 souls which enables them to fur- 
nish 4,000 warriors notwithstanding that war pestilence and famine have pre- 
vailed among them for three years in an extraordinary manner. * * 

"( )iir French w ho first discovered this people, named them the .Venter Nation, 
and not without reason for their country being the passage by land b\ some of 
the Iroquois (the Senecas ) and the 1 lunms who are sworn enemies thev remained 
at peace with both so that in times past the llurons and Iroquois meeting in the 
same wigwam or village were at peace and in safety while they were there. 

"Recently, their enmity agamst each other is so great that there is im safetv 
for either party in any place, particularly for the Hurons, for whom the Neuter 
-Nation entertained the least good will." He surmises that all these nations. 
Hurons, Neuters and Iroquois, were one nation but have separated, become alien- 
ated. Some became enemies, some became Neutral and others (the Five Nations) 

"The fccid and the c'othing of the .Xcuter Nation seem very difl'erent from 
that of the Hurons. They (the Neuters) have Indian corn, beans and gourds (a 
Frenchman's name for pumpkins and squashes) in equal abundance. .\lso pleiitv 
of fish, some kinds of which abovind in jsarticular ])laces only. The\ are much 
employed in hunting deer, buft'alo, wild cats (they were sometimes called wild 
cats, while the Eries, once a part of them, were called Cats because they dressed 
in skins of an animal of the cat kind that abounded in Ohio) wolves, wild boars, 
beaver and other animals. Meat is very abundant this year because of deep snow 

which has aided the hunters. It is rare to see snow here more than a foot deep ; 
this year it is three feet deep. Wild turkeys abound which go in flocks in the 
fields and woods. Their fruits are the same as with the Huron except chestnuts 
which are more abundant and crabapples whicli are larger." 

I le states that the Senecas, whom he calls Sonontonheronons, is a day's jour- 
ney distant from the village of Niagara and is the most dreaded by the Hurons. 

1 le also reports one village that he calls Khe-o-e-to-a, or "St. Michael." which 
gave them a kmd reception, and says: "In this village a certain forcii^n nation, 
which lived beyond the lake of Erie, named A-ouen-re-no-son, has taken refuge 
here for many years." 

Chaleroux says that in the year if)42 a people larger, stronger and better 
formed than any other savages, who li\'ed sontli of the Huron cijuntry, were visited 
1)\' the Jesuits, who preached to them the "Kingdom of (iod." They were the 
Xeuters and tried in vain to be neutral. To avoid the fury of the Iroquois they 
finally joined them against the Hurons but gained nothing by the union. "The I^o- 
cpiois, like lions that have tasted blood, cannot be satiated, destroyed indiscrimi- 
nately all that came in their way and at this day there remains no trace of the 
Neuter Nation." In another place he says the Neuter Nation was destroyed in 
1643. A writer in the Buffalo Commercial in 1846 says this singular tribe whose 
institution of neutrality has been likened by an eloquent writer to a calm and 
peaceful island looking out upon a world of waves and tempests, in whose wig- 
wams the fierce Hurons and relentless Iroquois met on neutral ground, fell victims 
near the city of Buffalo to the insatialile ferocity of tlie latter. They zeerc the first 
proprietors as far as zee can learn of the soil zee noze oeenpx. 

lint were they? Who built the earthworks at Ti-u-en-ta ( Lewiston ) ? The 
Fort-builders. Who subdued them? Not the "Romans of the New \\'orld," the 
Iroquois. Who were these foreigners in this village of the Kah Kwas? Possibly 
the Allegewi or Ohio Indians. Who occupied some of these forts? Who con- 
quered them? Possibly the Mcssozeomekes. once the terror of the eastern and 
southern tribes. Where did these come fr( mi ? From Lake Erie County. Where 
did these Kah Kwas. cousins of the Senecas and Eries and Tuscaroras, get their 
superior physique and darker color ? From amalgamation with some conquered 

The names given by the French to all the villages where they made converts 
are exceedingly confusing and so this foreign nation and its village loses a con- 
necting link in the chain of pre-occupants of the predecessors of the pioneers. 

.\gain, it is of especial interest to record that when the French missionaries 
and traders first reached the southern shores of Lake Ontario and the Niagara 
River the Neuter Nation was in possession of the region west of the Genesee. The 
Senecas' domain extended only to the Genesee River. After the conquest of the 
Eries, said to be in 1653, there is no possible reason to suppose that the Senecas 
would not have at least small villages on both sides of the Genesee River, unless 
their wars of extermination of some of the greatest Indian nations of the continent 
had decimated their own numbers till it was policy to concentrate in their four 
villages, where they were at the time of De Nonville's invasion a few years after- 
ward. We do not hear of any Eries saved for adoption, but the Kah Kwas were 
to be found at Onondao and at Squakie Hill and at other villages. This system of 
making good the numbers of the slain by adopting captives into families that had 


sustained losses, and of whites as future interpreters, shows tlie superiority of the 
Senecas over the Kha Kwas or other antagonists. At least three generations with 
Kha Kwas blood lived at Onondao. Of these we are fortunate in being able to 
furnish the likeness when a century old of Kenjockity, whose father was a chief, 
and whose grand sire was a captive youth, a captive of 1643. 


The Neutrals Become Warriors — Oi'eex Ya-go-wa-ne-o: A ^Modern Semi- 
RAMis — A Battle at the Mouth of the Kesheoua — A Nation of 12,000 
Cease to be — Traditional Destruction of the Kah Kwas Aiiout l(^^, 

THIS Indian tradition, as told by Cusick, a Tuscarora Chief, though cer- 
tainly incorrect as far as dates are concerned, is still of interest. Cusick. 
being a Tuscarora. coul<l nut have known this save by tradition for the 
Tuscaroras were not in New York until after 1713. He said: "A thousand years 
before the arrival of Columbus (])robably a hundred years after his arrival) the 
Senecas were at war with the Kah Kwas. Uattle succeeded battle and the Senecas 
were repulsed with great slaughter. Tidings of their disaster having reached the 
great Atotarho ( King or Chief Counselor of the Iroquois) at Onondaga (the place 
of the central fire or congress) he sent an army to their relief. Thus strengthened 
they assumed the offensive and drove the enemy into their forts, which after a long 
siege were surrendered and the principal chief put to death. The remnant of the 
tribe became incorporated with their conquerors. 

Chief David Cusick seems to have condensed the history of years into a single 
battle, and left out the very interesting story of a Kha Kwa Queen who ruled her 
nation of Neutrals to please herself and the young warriors, who had become 
proud of their unused strength. ( ireat in physical force and numerical strength 
they doubtless were anxious to comiuer the boastful conquerors of that age, the 
Senecas. They would show their pr()wess. They would be a nation of warriors 
and not sim])ly hunters and fishermen. The ambitious Queen, Ya-go-wa-ne-o. at 
her fortified castle at Kienuca ( Lewiston ) would show the "Great Mountain I'eo- 
ple" that the Queen at the Great Cataract had no fear of the great A-ta-tar-ho if 
his Long House was hundreds of miles in length. She would crush the long cabin 
race before the A-ta-tar-ho could come to their assistance. She would crush one 
village at a time. With this in view she had not long to wait for an opportunity 
to prove her courage, pride, passion and vaulting ambition. What Shorihowane, 
Queen Ya-go-wa-ne-o, would be a conqueror of nations, to the giant Kah Kwas. 
Queen Ya-go-wa-ne-o. a conqueror of nations, would be to the giant Kah Kwas. 
In her keeping was the symbolic "house of peace." She received chiefs of other 
tribes, made alliances with them, and formed treaties. There could be no conten- 
tion in her presence, tiie fiercest strife of words was hushed at her approach, na- 
tional chiefs at feud were bound to stay their quarrel w iiile under her roof. Tradi- 
tion attributes to her much wisdom as a pacifier, and for a long time she enjoyed 
peculiar power and influence. .All this, however, in a moment of unliridled pas- 
sion, jealousy and aniliition she imi)eriled and ultimately forfeited. 

Two Seneca ambassadors had been received at her castle, and while smoking 
the ]3ipe of peace were, contrary to Indian usage, murdered for an alleged outrage 


in a distant village. With 12,000 people and f(irt_\ villages, scjnie of them no doubt 
in the Keshaqua valley, she had reason to rely on her strength. 

It was only too evident that this royal Se-mi-ra-mis desired an excuse to meas- 
ure iier ]io\ver with her arrogant neighbor at Chennissio (then the west door of 
the Long House). Had he slighted her in some way that made the ivoman nature 
within her forget her duty as peace keeper? She acted with promptness, that 
Xapokon, in after years, would have applauded. Her warriors must cross the 
Genesee and follow some lonely trail and fall upon the village of the chief and 
conquer their strong hold and kill their chief ere news of her rash act could reach 
a single Seneca ear elsehere. 

.Mas! the best made schemes "gang aft agley." What one woman planned in 
liatc another thivartcd because of love. X Kali Kwa maid, with a lover at Canan- 
<laigua, fled by the direct Canawagas trail to Kaneandahgua and told her lover of 
the assassination and the intended assault at Chennissio. The chieftain acted with 
promptitude and 1,500 men from nearby towns soon set out in two divisions, de- 
termined to ambush and surprise the stirprisers and foil and frustrate the invading 
host. The war party of the Senecas, it is said, reached Kanaugsaws (Conesus) 
and there the squaws, old men and boys brought up their supplies. From here they 
arranged near the Canaseraga where all the trails cross an ambush and sent out a 
scout dressed as a bear to allure the invaders into securing needed provisions. This 
adroit strategy succeeded as planned for the Kah Kwa hunters, more famous as 
skilled hunters than as warriors, suspecting nothing, saw and ])ursued the false 
bear into the midst of the ambuscade. The Senecas now fell upon the invaders 
like a whirlwind. Their terrific war whoop, mingled with the din of crashing war 
clubs, clashing spears and whiz of tomahawk. The Kah Kwas, however, after a 
while recovered from the disorder caused by the unexpected onslaught, pushed 
one division of the Senecas back against the other, when, it is said, the Senecas 
inspired by the impending danger, were seized l)y a war frenzy, and hurling them- 
selves with irresistible force, resolved to conquer or die, drove the enem\- from the 
field. The latter fled across the Genesee leaving 600 of their dead behind. The 
Seneca Chief declined to pursue, for few Indian battles up to this time could equal 
tills in numbers of the slain. To follow an enem\- sui)erior in numbers and fall 
in turn into a Kah Kwa ambush would mean annihilation. Seneca runners already 
had been sent to the great Onondaga Chief. The Central Fire was not burning 
in vain. .Sho-ri-iio-wane, the great chief of the league, with a force added to theirs 
wciuld give the advantage of numbers to those who had already conquered without 
it. In due time came this chieftain, and not content with the great victor\- achieved, 
determined to punish the ambitious Queen and extinguish forever her council fire. 
With a force of 5,000 warriors they crossed the Genesee and were soon attacking 
the f(irt of the enemy with energy and courage born of their recent victory. A 
cliiud of arrows from the well manned fort were received by the beseigers, one of 
them striking their mighty chieftain, causing his death. Enfolded in panther skins 
his body was borne back across the ijenesee for future burial with befitting honors. 
A Jesuit missionary has recorded his burial. The siege of Kan-quet-kay fort went 
on, however, until the proud Queen sued for peace, which was granted. But Sen- 
eca rage grew greater as the months sped away. Nothing would satisfy them for 
the loss of their great chief but the death of the greatest Kah Kwa war chief, and 
in a few months or \ears the "Romans of the West" were again at the fortress 

gates and never slumbered or slept till the great pre-historic nations that included 
some that the Jesuits called "foreigners" and who still fought from a fort unlike 
other savages, who were giants in size, glorious in physique, valorous in battle, but 
greatest in peace, when for centuries they were arbiters in peace but who figiu-a- 
tively "took up the sword" and "perished by the sword." They fought unto death 
the Senecas and met the fate of all the red race who fought with the Xunda-wah-o- 
nos. Some hundred or more captive youth were spared that the future nation 
might be in size what they were in valor. Some of these were brought to Nunda-o, 
among them the ancestor of Kenjocket>-. 

r.y comparing Indian tradition with the authentic records of the Jesuits we 
find that Shoupowana's death occurred in 1(140 and the treaty by the Oueen must 
have lasted unbroken for a number of Ncars, that the territory bordering on the 
lake was given over to eighteen mile creek and this greatest concession resulted in 
a temporar\- peace. Its end is eleven years after in 185 1 as has already been de- 
scribed. The great size of these Kah Kwa warriors was an inducement to spare a 
large number of their youth and merge them with the Senecas that the next gen- 
eration might be alike strong and valient. 

ClIAl'TER \"II. 

The Eries: the M.\ss.\womekes (rRoiiADLv) of the Sixteenth Centurv 
Annihie.vteii by the Iroquois. 

THE Jesuits give very little infnrmatidU concerning the Eries except to 
locate them south of Lake Erie, and because they wore the skins of an 
animal of the feline order called them the Cat Nation. They could not 
however, induce them to accept their religinn and hence they have little to say of 

Ihjwever friendly the Senecas and the Eries were when they were on op])o- 
ite sides of the Gen-nis-he-yo, immediately after the subjugation and destruction 
of the Neutrals, these new neighbors, now the "House of Peace," was removed. 
became rancorous enemies. So nearly etuial were they in numbers and prowess 
that war between them would result in great losses even to the winners. The 
cause of their quarrel does not a])pear but )irobably boundary hues were unsatis- 
factorv or the Eries had shown a preference for some of their western enemies. 
.\ bloody war broke out between them that was fought to a finish, neither nation 
asking for or granting favor or mercy. The duration of their contentions or the 
time of their beginning has not been stated for Indian statement always lacks deti- 
niteness. It is, however, conceded that it commenced about the year 1653 and 
terminated in 1655. As this is only ten years after the subduing by the Senecas 
of the Neutrals some have supposed the two nations were identical but the Jesuits 
are good authority for their unlikeness in several particulars, size, dress, and the 
friendliness to religion of the Kah Kwas, except in one village (called b\ them 
foreigners), and the utter hostility to their religious teachings on the part of the 
Eries. The final battle between these valorous foes was said to have taken place 
near a great bend in the Genesee River. These bends are so numerous and In- 
dian traditions are so unreliable that only some skilled Indianologist may yet dis- 
cover the spot. 


Accordiii"; to soutlieni writers we liave this statement : "The Senecas have a 
tradition that the scene of the final conflict was at a bend in the Genesee River on 
ground afterward contained in the Caneadca Reservation, in tlie present County 
of Allegany. In the history of Cattaraugus County is found a more definite state- 
ment. "Here the doomed Eries mustered all their force to the last warrior for 
they well understood that the result would be victory or annihilation. Against 
them were arrayed 5,000 Iroquois braves of whom 1,000 were held in reserve and 
in concealment. The Eries were the first to assault and they did so with a fury 
which drove the confederates from their position ; but they soon rallied and hurled 
the Eries back in the greatest disorder. And so with the alternate charge and 
recoil of each the tide of battle ebbed and flowed seven times across the red field, 
which was thickly strewn with the wounded warriors of Seneca and Erie, grapling 
at each other's scalp locks even in the agonies of death. At last by a well feigned 
retreat of their opponents, the impetuous Eries were drawn into the ambush of the 
Iroquois reserve, and there a thousand fresh warriors uttering their wild war 
whoop leaped upon them. The Eries wavered and gave way and the fight became 
a route and a massacre, for quarter was neither asked nor given. The victors pur- 
sued them to their villages and there slaughtered all who came in their way, 
sparing neither age nor sex. The remnant of the Erie warriors who escaped the 
terrors of the field fled to the southwest along the valley of their own Oheeyo, 
but even here they found no rest for the conquerors still followed, bent on nothing 
short of extermination of their foes. The flight and ptirsuit was continued, says 
the tradition, until the last Erie had crossed "the Father of Waters" and five 
moons had passed before the Seneca braves returned to celebrate their victory in 
the villages of the Geiinishceyo." The settlement of the conquered territory did 
not result at first in the founding of Seneca villages along the upper Genesee and 
the adjoining territory ; it was only used as additional htuiting grounds for their 
numbers were much decreased. After the attack of the Senecas by the French in 
1687 when the villages in the beautiful valley were destroyed the Senecas built 
new ones, Onondao nearer to the river and Chennissio and later Ueardstown be- 
came successively the central fire of the nation. 

We are led to believe that however peaceful the Kesheqtia \'alley and the upper 
Genesee and all the section northeast of the Niagara frontier after its settlement 
by the Senecas it was not so in the few previous centuries. The Andastes or 
Satanes lived here once and did not lose their possessions without a struggle. The 
Kha Kwas were too powerful and numerous for easy conquest and the Eries in 
the memorable battles recorded must have passed over what became in 1808 the 
extensive town of Nunda. Any skilled Indianologist can find evidences of Indian 
occupancy and Indian contests far more convincing than many scattered dark flint 
arrows. Strange as it may seem, within a mile of Nunda may be found a battle 
field where one or both of the contestants used David's weapon, the sling. 


The Battle of the Marquis de Nonville and the Senegas in the Genesee 

Valley, 1687. 

THIS battle was aggressive on the part of the French. It was to humble the 
Senecas and. if possible, win possession of their lands. The Marquis de 
Konville had succeeded De la Barre as Governor of New France in 1685. 
He was a colonel of French dragoons. As the Iroquois had carried their wars 
into the West after the destruction of the Fries, and these tribes were allies of the 
French, Governor de Nonville determined to humiliate the Senecas. He employed 
the winter of 1687 in preparation. 

The French army consisted of about 1,600 men, besides 400 Indian allies. 
This strong force set out from Montreal June 13th in 350 batteaux, and after a 
tardv voyage arrived at Fort Frontenac (Kingston) on the 30th. On the 4th of 
lulv it again started for the country of the Senecas and arrived at Ganniagatason- 
tagonat ( Irondequoit) on the loth. F"ive hundred and eighty French and Indians 
from Fort Niagara and the west were to meet him there. No Napoleon could 
have better planned for a great battle. Both armies arrived within the same hour. 
On the I2th. after completing pallisades for protection of provisions, batteaux and 
canoes, he detached 400 men to garrison this, their landing place. The rest of the 
armv took up their line of march toward the village of the Senecas. They en- 
camped that night near the present village of Pittsford. The Indian village of 
Gannagora ( Boughton Hill, near \"ictor) was to be the first point of attack, con- 
tinuing their march on the 13th they arrived about 3 o'clock at a defile near the 
Indian village, where they, instead of attacking, were attacked by a large body of 
Senecas who lay in ambush. 

From De Nonville's Journal \vc find that "They were better received than they 
anticipated and were thrown into such consternation that most of them threw 
away their guns and clothing to escape under favor of the woods. He gives 
credit to the Ottaways and their Christian savages, who were the only ones who 
acquitted themselves with honor. Though the brave colonel had brought with 
him a formidable force of the very flower of France and its army, the terrors of 
the war whoop of 800 Senecas and their guns and tomahawks made the engage- 
ment a short one. As the Senecas left zj killed on the field they thought it best 
to retire and the victory was claimed 1)\ the h'rench, though the valor belonged to 
the Senecas. Then the brave colonel ( ?) who knew that in France they w(ntld 
know nothing of the short distance from Irondequoit Bay to Boughton Hill, jilcad- 
ed extreme fatigue as an excuse for remaining all that day and the next day until 
noon in camp, besides it rained the second day and they had "to protect themselves 
from the rain." If these Frenchmen's valor had equalled their vanity the Senecas 
would not have taken themselves so easily away to a place of safety. The field was 
won b\- the French through their allies, but the glory by their foe. The victory 
proved a barren one. The Senecas burned their own villages and the I'rench in 
the next ten days claim to have destroyed for the "Sonnontonans," as the\- called 
the Senecas, 1,200,000 bushels of corn. A great exag.geration. Had the I'rcnch 
warred as valiantly agamst the Soo Seneca braves as they did on the growing corn 
more would have been accomplished. 


ine I' re -Glacial Course, &-r.. 

Indian \-iIlai;e.s in Xunda ami the L'pper (_iencsre marked A. 
Dotted lines indicate l)Oundar\- of the P)asin. 

The l)ark villages destroyed could l)e replaced in three days and the other 
confederated tribes would willingly divide with them their surplus of corn. 

( )ver 2,000 men had put to flight 8oo savages, while 800 Senecas had terror- 
ized mure than twice their number of gallant Frenchmen who, in their confusion, 
fired on each other till their death list was far greater than that of their foe. 
Baron La Hontau. who was present and whose record was not written for the 
reading of a crowned head, said : 

"W'e lost on this one occasion ten savages and a hundred I'renchmen. We 
had twenty-two wounded, including the good leather .\ngelran, the Jesuit. If 
you could have seen the disorder into which our militia and regulars were thrown 
among the dense woods you would agree with me that it would require manv 
thousand Europeans to make head against these barbarians. ( )ur battalions were 
immediately separated into platoons, which ran without order, pell mell, to the 
right and left, without knowing whither they went. Instead of firing u];on the 
Iroquois we fired upon each other. It was in vain to call 'help soldiers of such a 
battalion' for we could scarcely see thirty ]iaces. In slmrt, we were so disordered 
that the enemy were about to fall upon us, club in hand, when oiir savages having 
rallied, repulsed and pursued them so closely, even to their villages, that they killed 
more than eighty, the heads of which they brought away, not counting the wounrl 
ed who esca])ed. 

"The I'Tench Indians were pre\'ented by De .N'onville from .going in pur-~uit 
of the Senecas for they knew^ they could overtake and massacre the aged, the chil- 
dren and the women, but De Xonville pleaded with them not to leaz'c him. This 
offended his allies so nnich that the greater part went back to their country, saying 
that the French had, come fnr an cxcursinn rather than to carr\' on war * * * 
that they would ne\cr trust them in future.' " 

The four Indian villages which De Xonville visited were Gannagora (Fr) or 
Gaosachga-ah, Boughton Hill, Victor, Ganogarie near East Bloomfield, Titiakto or 
Deyudihaakdoh (in Seneca) near West Mendon, Gannonnata ( Fr. ) or Dyndonsot 
( in Seneca) southeast of East Avon. 

The .Senecas never rebuilt these villages but went farther up the Genesee, 
where we find them at the Iireaking i.iut of the RevnUitiiinary War, with their 
great village at Onondao, two miles west of Xunda village. 

Within a few years, while grading for an electric road from Rochester 
through .Macedon, a i)it hole was found with 80 skeletons, and as this was not 
far from the scene of the slaughter of the Senecas by the hostile savages there is 
little doubt that the Senecas gathered together, as was their custom, their braves 
and buried them in this place. The number exactly corresponds with the record 
of the truthful ISaron La I Ionian. 

Colonel George Hosmer of .\von, the father of Lixdngston's most famous 
poet, tells of witnessing the finding in the spring of 171)3 on the (jcnesee bottom 
near the river on a farm owned by his father a short I'rench sword or conteau. 
The blade was about twenty inches in length and three inches wide. It was cov- 
ered with rust which, being removed, exhibited the "fleur de lis" of France and a 
date of the time of Louis XI\". It excited only a transient interest and, being 
ground to an edge, was used as a kitchen utensil. Yet this was one of the swords 
used in the "battle of the corn stalks" 225 years ago. 


The British Winning of Western New York from France, Aided by the 
Iroquois and Colonists — 1759. 

IN 1758 Mr. I'itt, being the British minister, determined on a vigorous and de- 
cisive campaign which should end in the annihilation of French power and 
dominion on this continent. Both public opinion and the public press caught 
the spirit of conquest, and increased hatred for France was everywhere manifest. 
The King and Parliament joined in the policy of Pitt and voted liberal supplies. 
An empire was to be lost or i^'on. Cordial and vigorous co-operation of the colo- 
nists was eagerly and dexterously sought, for they were weary of war and its rav- 
ages of harvests and the destruction of their homes. To overcome this the King 
graciously commiserated their perils and losses and pledged indemnification, and 
still better than promises. Parliament voted the colonists £200,000 as compensa- 
tion for losses and expenses consecpient upon the war. The Iroquois were mostly 
won over to the British interests though British encroachments had begun to 
excite in them caution. The French and her western allies were still their foes, 
and Sir William Johnson was to lead them, and was he not, with his Indian pro- 
clivities, a white chief among them ? 

General Amherst, as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North 
America, had at his disposal a larger force than had ever before been mustered 
on this continent. The most atlvanced settlements in New York were less than 
fift\r miles from Albany, so we must look to the older colonies for the main sup 
port of the large force of British regulars : Massachusetts furnished 7,000 men, 
Connecticut 5,000, New Hampshire 1,000. The French posts at Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point were on the route to 2^Iontreal which, with Quebec and Niagara, were 
to be conquered. 

.\s it is only Western Xeze York that is of greatest interest to us and the 
change of our local region from "New France" to "New York Colony" by the 
capture of Fort Niagara, the only stronghold of France in Western New York 
we will briefly review the oft told tale of the siege and surrender of Fort Niagara. 

The force destined for Niagara consisted of two British regiments, a detach- 
ment of Royal Artillery, a battalion of Royal Americans, two battalions of New 
York Provincials and Sir William Johnson's Indian allies, most of whom were 
Alohawks, Oneidas and Onondagas, with a less number of Senecas and Cayugas, 
and some western allies won over by the British. Brigadier General Prideau was 
first in command and Sir William Johnson second. On the first of July, 1709, 
this force reached Lake Ontario and embarked and coasted along the shore towards 
the solitary fortress. Never before or since have the waters of this inland sea 
borne on their bosom such a formidable armament. .\11 the appliances of British 
warfare for the reduction of a strong fortress, by regular approaches, as planned 
before starting, camp equipage and supplies for this large force, and all these sol- 
diers and sailors. 

Imagine the complexity of these forces of various nations and races. The 
proud commissioned and titled Briton, who was far more familiar with the refine- 
ments of court.s. with all their luxury, than of the hardships of camps in this vast 
and gloomy wilderness. A'eteran officers from European wars, inured to cam- 

jiais'i life. The sons of rich colonists who had obtained commissions and were 
novices in war. All classes from the cities and sturdy plow boys from the rural 
districts : and seemingly best fitted for the work in hand were the Iroquois braves 
decked out with war paint, feathers, claws, new broadcloth garments, blankets 
and silver ornaments, the personal gift of the King to his red sons and brothers. 

( )pcnl\, without stealth, they approached their destination with booming can- 
non to inspire the Senecas with courage and the Neutrals with terror. Arriving 
at Eighteen Mile Creek (Olcott), within eighteen miles of Fort Niagara, a halt 
was made to reconnoiter and ascertain the movements of the French. 

I'Yance had been e(|uall\' \-igilant and reinforce<l every fort and had l)rought 
all her colonists and Indian allies to swell their numbers. General Montcahu was 
commander-in-chief. Captain Pouchot, a skilled engineer, was sent to strengthen 
and command Fort Niagara. 

l*Yom July 8th to nth little was gained but advanced position. At 5 P. M. 
the English opened their fire with eight mortars. Day after day the siege con- 
tinued and night to night with but short intermissions the pounding of the fort 
continued. The walls of the devoted fortress began to tumble, while the French, 
too few in numbers to attempt a sortie, kept up an active fire on the besiegers, 
seriously hindering and annoying them in their work of destruction. On the 14th 
the besiegers had so far extended their works that their work became more eiifec- 
tive. Nearly perishing for want of sleep and worn out with toil, the brave de- 
fenders of the fortress proved stronger than their walls, and kept on with valor 
in hopes of aid from the West. On the 19th General Prideaux, who had so well 
planned, and, so far, so well executed what he planned, was accidentally killed 
by the premature bursting of a shell. It is said 30 such bombs were fired in one 
night. The work went on under Sir William Johnson. On the 23d the besieged 
had a gleam of hope that was destined to end in disappointment. Runners had 
been sent to Presque Isle (Erie Pa.), Le P>oeuf, X'enango and Detroit, ordering 
them to come with all available aid to Niagara. At a time when the end seemed 
nearing two Western Indians made their way into the fort bringing word of 2,500 
French and Indians at Navy Island opposite Fort .Schlosser. Four Indians were 
sent to ?kIonsieur D'Aubrey to tell of their critical condition and to urge him to 
hasten to their relief. Johnson had anticipated reinforcements from D'Aubrey and 
had kept Indian runners ( at this the Mohawk were most expert ) looking for them, 
and was advised of their proximity. ( )n the 23d he sent out strong detachments 
of troops and posted them along either side of the trail leading from the fort to the 
falls. About two miles from the fort they awaited in ambush, their adversaries. 
Early on the 24th he sent other detachments of his best troops to reinforce the 
others. The opposing forces soon met in battle array and D'Aubrey gave the 
order to attack. The Western Indians, who were concealed in the forests, swarmed 
from the woods and gave their terrfic war whoop and rushed upon the P.ritish. 
The British regulars and such provincials as had never known Indian warfare, 
quailed for a moment but the Iroquois and practical veterans, real Indian fighters, 
stood firm, meeting the shock as firmly as it had been impetuous. \'olle_\- after 
volley from British and their allies was too much for the \\'estern Indians and 
they gave w'ay and left the field. 

D'Aubrey, though deserted bv his allies, pressed on against his assailants, 
and was pressing them back valorously when Johnson's Indian reinforcement ar- 


rived, assaulting his flanks, anil the battle turned against him. Forced to retreat, 
after fighting for a time right, left and front, his retreat took form as a rout. Eng- 
lish and Indian pursued, shooting down most of the French and capturing many 
officers, including D"Aubre_v. Short as the contest was, the ground for miles was 
strewn with the dead contestants. 

Pardon this repetition of a well told tale of battle, one of the many episodes 
of empires lost and won. France lost an empire in that well fought fight. Eng- 
land added the titmost limits of the Indian. Ga-nun-no. to her New World acquisi- 
tion, added also a Province of Canada to her wide domain, in her other battles of 
this campaign. And no part of Western Xew York, and no part of Ga-nun-no, 
ivas left under French control for Xew France was no more. 

For Captain Pouchot, by the advice of his officers, surrendered, dictating 
terms honorable to himself and country. Himself, D'Aubray and eight other 
officers, including two half-blood sons of Joncaire, who was the first white settler 
of Western New York, and 600 men, were all there were left of the gallant de- 
fenders of the fort and of those who came to their aid and became sharers of their 
captivity. France had lost an empire and England was the winner. Little then 
could be forseen that before a quarter of a century would pass the map of .\nierica 
wotild be again changed and that this historic fort would again be taken. 

The taking of Fort Niagara was a battle in one of the wildest of nature's 
solitudes. Two trans-.\tlantic hostile nations here contended, with all the para- 
phernalia of their then modern warfare, thousands of miles from France and Eng- 
land. A "Pioneer Historian" whose imagination revels in the grandeur of the 
surroundings gives tis, though at a remote day, a vivid picture of this national 
struggle for supremacy and possession till we can almost hear, 

"The shout of battle, the liarbarian yell, the bray 
( )f disonant instruments, the clang of arms. 
The shrieks of agony, the groan of death 
In one wild uproar, and continued din 
.Shook the still air." 

But not cijntent with this which might describe a battle elsewhere he har- 
nesses the chariots of ordinary European warfare to the cataract, the wilderness 
and its solitudes and sublimities, and makes nature a participant. "There were no 
s])ectators of that sudden clash of arms, of that protracted siege; all were partici • 
])ants. Hundreds oi miles, beyond the heaviest sounds, that like earthquake 
shocks, went out from the conflict, were the nearest of our race, save those who 
were at Frontenac and Oswego and a few missionaries and traders on our interior 
rivers, there were none to hear. The outlet of \ast inland lakes, the shores of which 
had been scarcely tread by Europeans, hushed to comparative stillness, after hav- 
ing tumbled over the mighty precipice, and madly rushed through the long narrow 
.gorge that succeeds, was rolling past, its eddies dashing heavily against the shore, 
moaning a requiem over the dead that were thickly strewn upon it. Death and 
carnage, the smoke of battle, the gleaming of steel, had chosen for their theater 
a marked spot, romantic and beautiful as any that arrests the eye of the tourist 
in the region of sublime and gorgeous landscapes. There was the roar of mus- 
ketry, the terrible war whoop, the groans of the dying, the fierce assault and firm 
repulsion, precipitate retreat, and hot and deadly pursuit, the red warrior loading 


himself with trojihies of the tonialiawk and scalping; knife that would signalize 
his valor in the war dance or tell out his deeds of blooil at a place of reward. 

It was a new scene in the wilderness ; nature in her solitude and fastnesses 
was affrighted ; the wild beasts hurried farther and farther into the recesses of 
the forest, or huddled in their lairs, trembling as each successive crash came ujion 
their unaccustomed ears. 

ft was a calm July morning. The surface of that wide expanse of water 
smooth and unruffled, mirrored the scene of fire and smoke, of waving banners 
and advancing columns. .Stunning and deafening came the sounds of battle : then 
a hushed silence as it war and carnage stood appalled at the work of death they 
had wrought ; in which brief pause would come the roar of the mighty cataract, 
rushing in as if impatient to riot in its accustomed monopoly of sountl. The "great 
tlutnderer" was eoiiteiidiiig leith its first rival. 

High above all arose the smoke of two battle grounds to the clear, blue heav- 
ens, and mingling there with the spray of the cataract was carried off bv a gentle 
breeze ; and at the sun's decline, when the strife was ended, it canopied and 
spanned the deep blue waters — a Ijow nf promise and a harbinger of peace. 

One Turner was noted for the brilliancy of his coloring on canvass; an- 
other from Western .\'ew York dipped his pen in colors rivaling the hues of the 
rainbow. In imaginatiim he saw it as it must have been, and what is more, he has 
bridged nearh two and a half centuries and made us see what he saw. 


ij/C' — Kou-SKE-sio; KiXG OF Xi'XD.vo — The F"irst CoMr.vxv of Ni'Xii.\ W.\r- 
KioRS Recorded i.x History Foi-cht for Ki.xo (jf;or(;l^ — O-.xond.x-o, tiif: 
West Door of the Sexec.\.s — The kixc, is Killed — The St.\te-Mext of 
.M.\Rv Je.misox ; .\xd of Kex.iockety 

0\'< ).\n.\( ). two miles west ot the village of Nunda, was at the time 
of the Ijreaking out of the Revolution the largest village of the Sen- 
ecas on Xundawaos, as the\' called themselves at this time. Its 
.Sachem may have won distinction in the battles that won the safety of the 
Tuscaroras in 1713 and made the "fixe fold cord" "sixfold" by the addition of 
the Si.xth Xation, the Tuscarora or I'otato Clan. The white penple called all 
Sachems Kings and all lessor chiefs John. 

King Hoh-ske-sao"s name signified "he wields a tomahawk." .\ g\>od 
name for the War Chief of the Senecas, for such he was. ^\'e have seen in the 
organization of the Confederacy or Five Xations that the Senecas' two princi- 
pal war chiefs were also war chiefs of the wdiole Confederacy. Though the 
greatest chief of all the very wisest man was at the central fire, O-non-da-ga, 
now callefl (Jn-on-da-ga. 


OH (Hi; Wn-:LDS a To.mahawk i, Ixixc, of (Ire.vt Xuxda. 

Strange as it may scmnd in cmr day, the title of Sachem, wise man, or ruler 
meant to the Indian their highest c(>nce|)tion of Ruler — cinly meant the possessor of 

a better cabin or wigwam, and better clothing, more beads on moccasins, more 
plumage on headgear, more territory, more warriors to control and lead, and 
more valor in leading them to battle. That this chief could "wield a toma- 
hawk" as others could not, that he wielded it successfully and won some great 
victory was the secret of his position. With such a leader what must his 
band of Nunda warriors have been when fighting hand to hand. It is probable 
he won his kingdom of Xunda by valor and that its winning moved the west door 
up the river, beyond the Chen-is-sio of former days, that was near the mouth of 
the Keshequa, and that the added territory was a new domain. When the 
Senecas extended their possessions westward and southward from Chenissio 
near the mouth of the Keshequa. up the valley, either after the influx of war- 
riors gained by the distribution of the Tuscaroras among the Five Nations in 
1713 or after other additions from the maturing of the Kah Kwa youth and 
other adopted captives. It is evident that this chief of this new domain was 
one of the two great Confederate War Chiefs to which the Senecas were by 
their original compact entitled. Little Beard may have been the other but 
younger war chief or he might have succeeded the King. The name the Senior 
W'ar Chief gave his stronghold denotes both a great village and a great Sachem 
Onondaho signifying both. The degree of emphasis placed on these ( )'s sig- 
nify the measure of pride and supremacy felt. It was Great Nunda in a double 
sense, as before indicated. The "non" instead of "'nun" has also a doulde sig- 

nificance, the hills were chains of hills or mountains and the chieftain was the 
war chief not only of the Nundawaos but of the whole Confederacy, with its 
council fire at the Onondaga village. Over the Nunda Valley, or Nundawah-o 
Hohsquesaho (pronounced Ho-ske-sa-o) ruled, honored for his prowess and 
wisdom, and was beloved of all. Onondao was not the only village in his 
kingdom. Among the Indians any warrior of prowess was free to go singly 
or with his brothers, and any he could induce to go with him, and start a new 
village and so become a minor chief. A village was formed near Nunda Junc- 
tion and as there was a succession of small hills and depressions it was called 
"Nundey," which means hilly. Near Portage Station there was also a small 
village called De-o-wes-ta (where the river Ijreaks through in the west) as 
this is near the spot where the Genesee breaks through the hills and forms a 

gorge and leaves its former well established \alley : and as the place where it 
leaved the gorge near Alt. Alorris had originally a long name, De-o-nnnda-gao, 
which signifies where the river breaks through the hills. We have here the 
only hint of Indian geological knowledge or tradition of what the white race 
have but recently discovered that the Genesee River Valley passed from 
Portageville through the Keshequa \'alley. 

Proud as Nunda has ever ]:)een of her soldiers, the first historic heroes of 
our soil, the first company of soldiers that went from here were enemies of the 
colonists, and our pride must be content with a knowledge of their valor, that 
they fought as heroes fi,ght, and died as heroes die. This is all that histor\- has 
left us of the story of Onondao and its Sachem King. 

Onondao was said to be located near the modern village of Nunda, 
though Thomas Jemison thinks a couple of miles nearer the river than the 
latter town. In this other Indians agree but the precise spot is not mentioned. 
The Centenarian Indian, Philip Kenjockety, whose boyhood was spent here, 
told Colonel Doty that a large spring of very cold water supplied the village 
and as he recollected Onondao in early youth (i. e., in 1768 to 1770) it was 
larger than Beardstown then was. Previous to the battle of Fort Stanwi.x 
(now Rome, X. Y. ) the warriors of (Jnondao and other Seneca villages had 
been invited by the P>ritish to come and see them "whip the Yankees." 

Mary Jemison, the white woman who then lived at Beardstown, has said . 
"Our Indians went to a man, but instead of taking the part of spectators were 
forced to fight for their lives and in the end were completely beaten and that 
with great loss in killed and wounded." It is said that Beardstown lost 35 
and that Onondao shared in the disaster, losing its great Chieftain, Hohsque- 
sah-o — she adds "his death was greatly deplored." After this Little Beard's 
town soon became the west door of the Long House, concentration being found 
essential to existence. 

After the death of the great Sachem another chief would be chosen from 
the brothers or the sisters' sons. The Sachem's son would belong to his 
mother's clan and so would the sons of his brothers but his sisters may have 
married into the clan that the Sachem belonged to and so be eligible. How- 
ever, Onondao lost the "o" from its name, though his successor was called in 
1780 by his captives King, l)ut his name is not gi\en. 

Again in 1890 Turner says there were two small villages in Nunda, one 
probably Seneca, the other Tuscarora, and again in 1815 or 1816 the James 
Bennett family say there were two villages in Nunda and even locate them. 
Turner mentions Elk Hunter as one of the chiefs and Green Jacket the other. 
( )ther authorities says that Kenjockety's father was a Chief, and this would 
have been probably as early as 1780. Mary Jemison gives the loss in the battle 
near Fort Stanwix (Rome, N. Y.) at 35 from her town — then Beardstown — 
and it is probable that the loss from Nundao was even greater. I can imagine 
tile great possessor of the huge tomahawk fighting unavailingly, the men with 
guns, and finding his favorite weapon useless. Gallant Nunda Chieftain 
though you were in this battle a foe of the colonists, I am glad you were great 
enough to have a place in history for your valor : and doubly glad I can help 
perpetuate your fame as the greatest of Nunda's Indian warriors by restating \c)ur 
fast fading claim to greatness. 




Kenjockety and (Jther Indians of Nunda. 

OHSQUE-SAH-O is not the onl\ Indian whose name has come down 
to us as having lived in Xumla. There is one other, born before the 

I\.e\-ohitionarv War, whose Ijovhood was at ( )-non-dao. 

Kenjockety (Above the Aluititnde). 

The K's in tliis name suggest his origin. His grand sire was a captive 
\nuth of the Neuter or Kah Kwas race. This gigantic race of men probably 
held undisputed sway in a wide section of Western New York two hundred 
\'ears agn. A few of their names clung for a time to the places they once occu- 
pie<l Init have lieen changed, first by the Senecas and still more 1)_\' their suc- 
cessors. The very stream that flows through our village and a former thriving 
hamlet near its source bore the name Kashawa for the stream, and also 1 lunts 
Hollow once bore the name Kishawa. The Senecas called it Cashaqua. This 
form was adopted by Judge Carroll in his deed. Coshaqua was the form in 
early Gazeteers which was Anglicized into Cashaqua and finally it drifted back 
to Kasha(|ua or Keshetpia or KisluKpia imtil it is hard to know how it ought 


to be spelled. Doubtless Kenjockety would have pronounced it as if spelleil 
with a K and Shongo would with a C. The word Connesus has passed its 
many changes. Kan-augsaws was the first of these, and is evidently pre- 
Columbian. \\'hether in this form it was of Kha Kwa origin I cannot say. 
Kienuka, their central town, near the present site of Lewiston, is one of their 
words. In many respects their language was similar to that of their neighbors, 
the Senecas. Ya-go-wa-neo was Queen of the Neutrals. Philip Kenjockety, 
whose father was a half-blood Kah Kwa, and his mother a Seneca, became a 
Seneca chief. i'hi!i|) was 1)(irn in Xunda probably about 140 years ago as he 
remembered the destruction under Sullivan in 1779 of the Seneca village, 
though only a large boy "big enough to shoot birds." He was a very large l)<.>y 
of his age as his first name indicates. \'i-ya-go-waah signified big dog, and 
tells us he was like a big. young Xew foundland dog, crowding and pushing- 
aside all that came in his way. .\fter the war of 1812, in which he probably 
participated, he lost his bo}- name and was called Gat-go-wah-dah which signi- 
fies "dressed deer skin," indicating that he excelled as a hunter and tanner 
and kept himself in new deer skin attire when others could not procure such. 
It is more than possible that he often returned to his native town to hunt for 
game on the Sunrise hill (East Hillt where game was abundant, even after 
the first settlers helped to diniinish their numbers. Be that as it ma}-, he after- 
ward attained a greater name, one any man might be proud of. when duly 
interpreted — Ska-dyoh-gwa-dih. which means "Ileyond the multitude." 
Whether this enviable distinction meant greater than the a\-erage, the ongue- 
hongwe (without an equal), or was only a recognition of his immense size or his 
great age or some traditional skill as a hunter, or whether in the War of 1812 
he served the new Republic with valor begotten of his giant strength, we know 
this, he was physically, abo\-e the multitude, and in longevity he excelled his 
associates of both races. 

He was the last survi\'or of the Indians of the Genesee River, whose birth 
antedated the Revolutionar}- War and whose personal recollections extended 
to the invasion of General Sullivan. His grandfather was a men-iber of the 
almost mythological race known as Kah Kwas <jr Neutrals. It is to be regret- 
ted that the name of this grand sire and of his son. a chieftain of the kingdon-| 
of .\imdah. has not been left rm record. Philips' parents li\-ed at ( )nondao 
when the war with the mother countr}- 1)roke out, and when the residents of 
that village went on the warpath after the calamity at Fort Stanwix Philips' 
family went also. Colonel I )ot_\- in his desire to know more of the one battle 
of the Revolution that reached the present Geneseo and several other towns of 
the present county of Livingston went to X'ersailes, Cattaraugus L'oimty, to 
interview this last survivor of those historic days. He found (this was in Sep- 
tember, 1865) Kenjockety vigorous for his }'ears, with mind vi\-id and memory 
unimpaired. He claimed to be then uo years of age. which was impossible. 
for if so he must have been born in 1745 and would ha\e been 30 years of age 
instead of a _\-outh at that time, and instead of a big boy "big enough to shoot 
birds" at the time of Sullivan's campaign would have been a warrior of 34 
years lie died a year after this \-isit of Colonel Doty and it is doul)tful if he 
was much over 100 years old. ■■^\■s. 1 recollect the ^^'ah-ston-yans (i. e., the 
Bostonians, as the Senecas called the colonial troops). The ^'ankees got as 


far as Conesus Lake : all was consternation at Beardstown ; it rained : the war- 
riors went out ; the air grew hea\-}- with rumors : even the birds brought tidings 
of the enemy's doings." 

After the interview, reports Mr. Doty, as he was Ijidding good bye he 
took the hand of Colonel Uoty's son and pointing- to the clasped fingers said 
through the interpreter: "This bridges between three generations, between 
that long past and the generatiiin under the new order." He died on the first of 
April, 1866, at least a centenarian, more fortunate than any other of his 
father's race. His name survives in a small stream called Conjockety Creek, 
where once Kenjockety had a cabin. The water from this creek formed Park 
Lake on the Pan-American grounds, where the Historical Society have a build- 
ing, and the Academy of Art in Buffalo has preserved a fine portrait in oil of 
this venerable Nunda KahKwa. who in this also is still "Beyond the Multi- 
tude" of his fellow citizens. 

Last but not least of a pre-historic race. 

Their mighty past lives in this firm, strong face: 

'Twere sacrilege one furrow to erase. 

Judged by his time, his race, his habitude 

What shall we call thee, manly, true or good? 

The past knew best: — "lieyond the Midtitude." 

We would be glad to know more of the predecessors of the pioneers of 
Nunda, of the gallant band of warriors led by the King of Nunda. Hoh-sque- 
sah-o, who ruled from Caneadea to Sonyea. a Sachem of prowess, but whose 
early death before the first pioneer reached the Genesee County, has rendered 
his illustrious deeds almost illusory, the name of his successor is not told, unless 
Elk Hunter, then Kenjockety and finally Killdeer. who was a chief at the 
southern part of the Caneadea reservation, which was called Nunda and occu- 
pied by Indians from Nunda. were his successors. It is more than possible 
that Elk Hunter may have been his successor and Kill Deer followed at a 
much later time, not as Sachem but simply as a Chief. Green Jacket was also 
a Nunda Indian. 

Since writing the above, by the fact that two small villages have left evi- 
dence of their former existence on the south side of the Keshequa on the farm 
once owned (in this village by R. J. Bally, that there was also one or more 
Tuscarora villages with a different chief, two chiefs seldom lived in the same 
village. Each had his own village and his own followers. 

I am surprised that so keen a historian as Colonel Doty failed to ask of 
Kenjockety the names of his father and grandfather and who succeeded Hoh- 
sque-sah-o as Sachem of Nunda. 

However. I am glad that the information received, every word of which 
is of importance, helps locate the Onondao of 1775 and that this testimony is 
corroborated by Thomas Jemison, whose grandmother, the white woman of 
the Genesee, who lived afterward within a mile or two of the great \illage in 
the years after th.c war. and lived at the time at Breadstown near by. and doubt- 
less visited it often, tells the proximity of its location. Kenjockety said at 
Versailes to Colonel Doty that a large spring of very cold water supplied the 
village of Onondao and that the village previous to the battle at I'ort Stanwix 

was larger than Beardstown then was; also that it was west of ami two miles 
nearer the river than the present village of Nunda. Just over the ridge and 
not far from the trail leading up the east side of the Genesee River gorge this 
large spring is said to be. Several smaller springs exist on the farm of J. Mon- 
roe Cole, but while sufficient arrows of more than one color can be found along 
the trail there are not sufficient flint chi]is to indicate an Indian village at these 

Indian burying grounds were usually about two miles east of their princi- 
pal villages, and in harmony with this custom the burial ground of Nunda's 
first Indian village is now believed to have been found in front of the farm 
house of Jonathan Miller (the old Clark Brewer place) as large collections of 
human bones have been taken from there and unusual and excellent specimens 
of Indian skulls have also been plowed up. 

The writer farther believes that the King of Xunda was buried there, first, 
because it is the custom to bring away the body of a great chief ami to have 
imposing ceremonies at his liurial. as in the case of Sho-ri-ho-wane in it)40. as 
told by the Jesuit: secondly l)ecause the finest banner stone that has been 
found in Western New York was recent!) found there b\' L. C. Kolierts and L. K. 
W'illey. It has a place for a miniature war inst, whose notches would tell of his 
many battles. The stone is owned 1)\- I,. ( '. Roberts, who jirizes it more highly 
than any sjjecimen in his large collection. 

.\fter the death of the \\"ar Chief M(>hs(|uesaho it is more than probable 
that Little Beard succeeded him in the honors of being one of the two great 
Iroquois War Chiefs. The war being mostly in the eastern jiart of the state 
it is probable that Brant, the Mohawk Chief, became the other Sachem of the 
Confederacy. Some other man succeeded the dead Sachem or King Init onl\- 
as a Seneca Chief — just vvdio that chief was is not known, but it is known that 
the father of Kenjockety was a chief. The great size and strengtii of these 
half-blood Kah Kwas makes it more than a jiossibility that he became the chief 
of the Senecas at Xunda. In i jSo ihcre was a chief there, and he is e\-en called 

King", but he was not a \\"ar Chief of the whole Confederacy, as his predecessor 
had been, for Little Beard changed the west door to his own village, changed 
the name of his \illage to express that fact and even gave the Seneca Nation a 
new name, a variation from that it had when Onondao was at its greatest. 
He now called his village O-nunda-gao and the Senecas, the Nunda-wa-gas — 
and even a great historian like Tvirner fails to notice the cause of the change. 
It is possible and even probable that there was a similar change in the national 
name when Onondao was west door of the nation, and '"^'undawah-os" 
was the name after Chennusseo was no longer the west door. Xundawaho em- 
phasizes, its valley ; Nundawagas, the river. 

But we are told by Mar\' Jemison that when ne.xt the warriors from 
Nunda went on the warpath they took their families to Little Beard's town for 
greater safety. General Sullivan, it appears, did not expect to find the chief 
village of the Genesee Indians at Little Beardstown but at Chennusseo near 
the old Williamsburg of a few years later where the west door was in the days 
of the Senecas' war with the Eries, Kah Kwas and Uurons. And here they 
all were cencentrated at Little Beardstown in the best built Indian village e.x- 
tant in 1771), ar the time of Sullivan's campaign, but back again to Xunda or Xun- 
dow (hill in froiU ) in 1780 went the Nundaos. Was their old village burned 
by Sulli\'an's men? As large as it was said to be in 1775 can it be possible that 
it escaped: if so what liecame of it? One historian reports that the soldiers 
of Sullivan went up and down the river. How far could they follow the Gen- 
esee River south : i. e.. u\> the ri\"er. without coming to the former "west door" 
of the Senecas. the old village Onondao. The writer has been informed that 
in the town of Portage a few miles south of where Onondao was supposed to 
be there was found by the pioneers of Portage (1816 to 1820) a log bridge 
across the upper part of Spring Brook that was called while it lasted "Sulli- 
\an's Bridge." As there was no ]iioneer by that name, it would appear 
that .Sulli^•an's destructi(_)nists not only went up the river but went with a piece 
of artillery prepared to meet the Senecas if their retreat took the direction of 
the villages of the upper Genesee. This has never been in print but the late Mar- 
cus ^\'ilner, a man of great information, whose father was a first settler in Port- 
age, called this Sullivan's Bridge. The road, the author has often seen, passed 
through a forest then, and now, and a small grist mill was located near it by 
Colonel Orcutt in the early pioneer days, wdio expected to there found a city. 
A few years later he moved his mill to the mouth of Spring Brook and again, 
afterward, a few rods farther northeast, on the Keshequa. A saw mill in after 
vears was the only other Iniilding liuilt on this well packed road that suggested 
to the visionary mill owner a city. Roads were scarce in 1817. The Indians 
however, retreated by the western trail leading past Silver Lake to Buffalo. 
As Captain George Wilner and Colonel Orcutt both became permanent settlers 
of the town of Portage, if Orcutt had made the road and the bridge this tradi- 
tion of such a bridge so-called would not be still told by a member of the Wil- 
ner family. The author gives it as a i)ossil:)le suggestion of the Revolutionary 
War extending into Xunda and Portage. 


TIVES — ^Iarv Iemisox axi) Hi'.r Straxi;e, Remakkaisle Experiences — 
Other Captives. 

IT is worth}' of notice that the liKhan Xuiidao and the original tM\\nshiii of 
Xunda embrace nearly the same territory The Indian domain inclnded 
Caneadea and proliahly the ancient forts at hlelvidere. and rcacheil sonth- 
ward as far as Tuscarora an<l its small burial grounds near the Rock Spring 

These forts of the Fort-builders of at least ti\e centuries ago, — iinjbaJily 
eight or ten centuries — form an interesting stud}' for the IndianohDgist of to- 
day. Back of these Eort-builders' days there can, as far as New York State 
is concerned, be no former race, llehidere has three of these earthworks. Eon 
Hill and Conesus, and so on to ( )sweg'o this line of forts extenu. There are 
evidences that the original Genesee River \'alley, judged by its |.'resent rieei 
basin, and the trail that passed through it. was the narrow highway connecting 
these scattered forts and this aflds interest to the Keshequa trail by which our 
first settlers found their wa}' into our ])resent town. There were at ( )ak- 
land (at or near the Xunda boundar}'. and e\'en farther up Keshe(|ua) indi- 
cations of such earthworks and abundant si)eciniens of relics peculiar '^o the 
locations of these fortified places. Indications are that the occupants of these 
fort"^ at least partiall}' defended themseh'cs with something more primitive 
than the l)ow and arrow. So man\' o\'al stones (suitable for the use of King 
David.'s favorite weapon, the sling I, all with a little hand-made indentation on 
one side, indicate they were made for something more than amusement. So 
plentiful are these in places near the Rude-Rowell farm that it is no great 
stretch of the imagination to locate here a battle field, fought man}' centuries 
ago. Probably the Fort-builders -were connected by conquest with the Mound- 
builders of Ohio, as they also came from there, and Ijrought with them some 
of the utensils and ornaments of that pre-historic race. Such, however, were 
found by excavating Fort Hill. 

The Senecas, who were in possession of the lands when Europeans first 
found their wa}' into Xew ^'ork, had no use for these forts: it was not their 
mode of warfare. Their \'illag"es were in the valleys or by sonie large sjiring 
or running brook seldom very far fnnn a rixer or well known trail. The prin- 
cipal trails leading to the villages of the Xtmdaos were the Genesee River, the 
I\eshe(|ua, and orie from Chaut.'iu(|ua lldllnw, a continuation of the (^'auisteo 
and connecting with trails running up the riser and to ( )nondao. 

The great village of ( )nondao was once, jjrevious to the Rex'i.ilutionar}' 
War, o)ie of the largest and best built of the Seneca villages, and but for the 
lack of chimneys in their log structures, they would compare favorabl} with 
those of the pioneers of a half a century later. The description given of Eittle 
Peardstown at the time of its destruction will furnish a fairly correct idea of 
both villages. The Senecas had for centuries excelled other Indian nations 
in building their habitations. They built cabins, not huts, nor ordinary wig- 
wams. The name Onondao signifies "Great Xunda." It was great in its 


Sachem Chief, it was great in its extended vallc}-, it was great in its domain, 
great in number of warriors, it was great in the high chain of hills that encir- 
cled it. "The meeting of the hills" is its description name. Kenjockety, Mary 
Jemison and Tom Jemison, her grandson, have located it two miles nearer 
the Genesee than the present village of Xunda. They obtained their water 
from a spring of very cold water. Shorn of its two O's (both prefix and suffix) 
we have "Nonda." The change from Nunda represents the difference between 
mountains or chains of high hills, and ordinary hills. It is the difference seen 
between the Onondagas or Great Mountain people and the Xundawahos or 
Great Hill people ; besides this Sachem was also one of the Great War Chiefs 
of the whole Confederacy. 

The second village in Xunda that history mentions gets the name of 
Nundow, an equivalent for Nundao. Most Indian places had more than one 
name, as Gardeau was also Gardao, "A bank in front (of the river)" — so Xun- 
dow or Nundao had a hill or high hill in front. In 1780 this was here in the 
village and stone quarry hill was probably the hill that would be seen from 
any part of our present village. 

.\ third village was located near the north line of the town, near Xunda 
Junction. Ancient manuscripts speak of a village and call it "Xundey." By 
a comparison with other Indian words that have either "Nunde" or "XUmdey" 
in them we find they always apply to places where the hills are small or numer- 
ous. This exactly fits the conditions near Nunda Junction. There is abim- 
dant evidence o"f there having been a village there, such as quantities of arrow 
chips. The author spent his childhood here and knows that this was so (full 
si.xty years ago). 

Indian villages change locations for sanitary reasons, and also to get new 
corn lands for the squaws to use. This village moved southward several times 
till it was on the Sturgeon Farm. Exhausted corn lands were found on most 
of these Creek road farms by the tirst settlers. 

In the village of to-day at least four sites of Indian camps or small villages 
are readily found. Two of them are on the Chautauqua Hollow trail that was 
^ormerly called by the first settlers Rawson Road. It extended through the 
farms of Thomas Rathbun, Ralph Page, Palmer Rawson, Elias Rawson (Baity 
farm ) and Coleman Rawson on State Street, and there branched up the Keshe- 
qua. and to Onondao and the Genesee River trail. These two, on the Baity 
farm, were near each other but on o]iposite sides of the trail. These were here 
in i/yo and were mentioned by Turner. Elk Hunter was Chief. Another was 
farther up the stream just back of the X. H. S. building. The land has not been 
plowed for years and a rich find of arrows are expected when it is. Still an- 
other is west of Gibbs and Bufifalo Streets. These two were the last of tlie 
villages (in this present village) in 1813 to 1818. There was a potato field on 
the present farm of Mrs. Dowling, on lands near the creek, and this was the 
last field cultivated by the Indians. This potato patch indicates that one of 
these villages was that of Tuscarora Indians — a Schone or Potato Race village. 
This circumstance led to the mistaken idea that the word X^unda meant Pota- 
to-Patch but "nun" does not mean potato nor "da," patch. 



The next Indian village to the south was near the middle falls, Hornby 
Lodge and the old camp ground of the Civil \\'ar days. The very cold spring 
that supplied good water then may have relieved the thirst of the Senecas at 
the village of Di-o-vvesta. There is just a hint of I'Vench aid in naming this 
place. It means "where the river breaks through." and just a hint of some geo- 
logical instinct in these keen observers of nature. It has taken a full century 
to find out that the untaught savage knew instinctivel}- that the Genesee 
River did not always flow through its present gorge. Again where the river 
emerges from its gorge we once had an Indian village called De-a-nun-ga-o, 
which the Indians interpreted "where the stream eats the hill." This is also 
good geology. 


\\'riters from up the river assume that Caracadera was only another name 
for Caneadea just as those down the river have made the many forms, of the 
word Nunda mean one place in.stead of many places. The writer thinks he 
has the authority of Horatio, Joi\es himself that the place where he run the 
gauntlet was at Fort Hill and that it was called Caracadera. At a later date 
the Indians from Nundao or Nundow went up the ri\er for better hunting 
ground and called the land in front of the h'ort 11 ill. Xundow. There was no 
need to change their name. The hill (though an earth work) was still in front. 

The writer believes that both Gilbert and Peart here ran the gauntlet and 
afterwards came to Nundao or Nundow, as a Kah Kwa or even a Tuscarora 
might have called it. None of these varying dialects called places alike. If 
Kenjockety's father was the Chief at that time, he being a half-blood Kah Kwa 
would have called the word differently, broader than a full blood Seneca 
would. The harshness in their words was largely the result of their way of 

Still farther up the Genesee was the old Indian village mentioned in the 
deeds to its settlers of Owaiski or Wis-Coy. The latter means five-fall creek. 
■■^^'is" being the numeral for five, and Coy or Koya meaning creek. Probably 
a hint found here for our Keshec|ua with a Kah Kwa form of name. The 
last syllable may have meant simply creek, but what the other meant is still 
unknown. '.The early settlers, mosth' squatters, fnund \\"is-C';iy \illage occu- 
pied by Indians when they came and it has its own story of some great chief 
who prefixed a great O to his village to increase his fame abroad. 

Caneadea was not within the limits of our Greater Nunda. It was here 
the council house stood ; here ^lajor Van Campen ran the gauntlet and here 
some Jesuit priest carved a cross on one of its timbers. Caneadea and ()-wa- 
is-ki were probably under the control of a different chief from those villages 
m the lower valley ; probably Chief Hudson. 

The Caneadea Resen-ation made it the last sur\ivor of all the \-illages of 
the Genesee. Its final sale was consumated at last and the last Seneca moved 
on towards the setting sun. 


\\ hile the white woman of the Genesee has been and will ever be of great- 
est interest to the citizens on both sides of the Genesee, as an Indian captive 


with an unusually interesting history, there were many more white captives 
in this section than is generally supposed. While the many Indians made cap- 
tives bv the warlike Senecas so augmented their numbers that their rapid in- 
crease from 1, 600 warriors in the middle of the seventeenth century to at least 
twice that number at a later period in spite of the fact that their constant wars 
must have decimated their national strength, but for the custom among them 
of adopting sons and brothers to take the place of those killed in battle. In 
1765 there were 24 white prisoners among the Chennisseo Indians, i. e., the 
Senecas, so says Sir William Johnson, and a year later Sarah Carter, a white 
captive from Pennsylvania, reported that there were 40 yankees and one large, 
lusty negro blacksmith then working at his trade for the Indians. It is said 
two Delaware Chiefs, Squash Cutter and Long Coat, conducted quite a lucra- 
tive business by bringing captives to the towns of the Genesee and selling their 
time to the Indians until such time as they were exchanged or redeemed by 
their friends. All of these 40, however, were released after the captivity of 
Mary Jemison, Horatio Jones and Joseph Smith. Other captives were : The 
wife of Horatio Jones: Major IMoses Van Campen, who run the gauntlet at 
Caneadea near the old council house ; the (^lilbert family, one member. 
Joseph, spent a winter at Xunda in 1780-1, and Thomas Peart, a com- 
panion, captured at the same time, who was also at Nunda a part of the time 
while in captivity. These have left slight records of harsh treatment at Caraca- 
dera (Fort Hill) and of kind treatment at the Nunda village after adoption. 
Youth of courage were spared for adoption if they showed sufificient courage 
unless the Indian losses had been too great during the engagement in which 
they were captured. 

A condensed history of these ca]5ti\'es may be of interest to the present 
generation. That of Mary Jemison, though an oft told tale, is always interest- 
ing. We repeat it with some new local matter told by Dr. Munson of Brooks 
(jrove and give also an artist's picture taken at Gardeau of the ^^'hite Woman. 

One of the most interesting characters known in jMoneer times, or even 
ante-pioneer days in Western New York, was Mary Jemi.son, known as "The 
White Woman of the Genesee," or "The ( )ld White \\'oman," and called by 
the Senecas, De-he-wa-mis, a name they gave her when she was adopted into a 
family of Seneca Indians, and which has been said to signify "A pretty girl," 
".\ handsome girl," or "A pleasant good thing." 

.\ revival of interest (if possible?) in her strangely eventful life, the story 
of which has been read, and re-read, and tohl from one generation to another, 
until it has become inseparably connected with the history and legends of the 
Genesee, is evidenced by the fact that fif late it has 1)een reprinted in f|uile a 
number of papers of Western New ^'ork. some making an entire reprint, and 
so continuing from one issue to anoilu-r, w hile others ha\-e been content to give 
to their readers only a more or less abbre\iated sketch. 

In view of this, and of the undesiral)le form of newspaper clippings for 
preservation, and that it is still frequently called for, and anxiously sought by 
many, the writer is led to believe that a brief account embodying .substantially 
all the important particulars, and leading features of the com])lete work b\' John S. 
Minard, will su])i)ly this want. 


By John S. Minard, of Cuba, N. Y. 

Mary was the third in a family of five children of Thomas Jemison and 
Jane Irwin, of Scotland or Ireland, she could never tell which, and was born on 
the ocean, during the voyage to Philadelphia in 1742 or 1743. The family set- 
tled on Marsh creek on the then Pennsylvania frontier, and clearing up a large 
farm, became in a few years reasonably prosperous. Soon, however, came on 
the troublous times of the French and Indian wars, rendering the home on 
the exposed frontier subject at almost any time to the incursions of bands of 
predatory Indians. 

In one of these descents in 1755 the whole Jemison family, with some of 
their neighbors, were taken prisoners by the Indians, and after two days' travel 
into the wilderness, Mary and one of the neighbor's boys were parted from the 
rest of the company, whom she afterward learned were murdered soon after. 
Her captors made for Fort Du Quesne (Pittsburg) at which place she was 
given to a couple of Seneca women, who at once adopted her in place of a 
brother whom they had recently lost. It was then that she was given the name 

Her sisters would not allow her to speak English, but she practiced it to 
what e.xtent she could when alone, repeating her prayer and the catechism her 
mother had taught her. She soon learned to understand and speak fluently 
their language. The party soon proceeded some distance down the Ohio and 
located at a town at the mouth of the Shenanjee where they planted, hoed and 
harvested a large crop of corn, the first year, making a stay there of four years, 
during which time she married a Delaware Indian named Sheninjee, by whom 
she had two children, a girl and a boy — the girl dying while quite young and 
the son being named after his grandfather, Thomas Jemison. 

The Indians treated her kindly, which made her situation as happy as the 
recollection of the sad events which had befallen her would permit and being 
young, and possessed of a naturally elastic and exuberant spirit, her husband 
and infant son soon engrossed her entire attention and became ties whicii 
strongly bound her to the new and wild life into which she had been intro- 
duced, and before a very long time had elapsed the desire to leave her new rela- 
tions and return to a life on the frontier was nearly obliterated. She in time 
came to regard the life of an Indian not as a drudge, althotigh one of more or 
less hardship, still, not harder than that of the white woman, while their cares 
were not near so numerous, nor so great : and was always accustomed to speak 
in high terms of the character of the Indian, when cut off from contact with 
the whites. 

In the autumn of 1759 she left the Ohio town, and with two Indian broth- 
ers journeyed to Genisheyo, where it was planned to have Sheninjee, her In- 
dian husband, join her the following spring. The journey was made on foot 
she carrying her nine months' old papoose on her back. The party stopped 
for a day at Caneadea for rest, and then proceeded to Little Beardstown. then a 
large Seneca village where Cuylerville now is. Here she made her home with 
her Indian mother, brothers and sisters. Some time during the ne.xt summer 
she learne<l that her husband died shortlv after she left hi)n. 

In 1763 she was married to ihe noted Seneca warrior, IIiol<atoi>, l)y whom 
she had four daughters and two sons. There were no white people in all this 
region at that time, only occasional adventurers reaching places so secluded 
and so far away from civilization. Dehewamis continued to reside at Little 
Beardstown until 1779. 

During the revolution, the Senecas were allied with the British, and after 
the massacres at Cherry \'alle_\- and Wyoming, which were generally conceded 
to have been perpetrated by the Senecas of the Genesee country, it was deter- 
mined to punish them by destroyinj^ their towns and devastating their country. 

( )n this errand of destruction (general John Sulli\'an was sent. \\'hen his 
arni\- ai>i)r(iache(l the Genesee many of the Indians fled to the neighboring 
woods, while others with women and children hastily made their way across 
what is now Wyoming County, into the present town of Sheldon, at a place 
near the little village of \'arysburg. 

It has been affirmed that the "white woman" lay concealed in the bushes 
near the outlet of Silver Lake, for several days. After Sullivan's army retired. 
thev returned, and found their towns, cornfields and orchards one complete 
scene of ruin and desi.ilation. 

Dehewamis with her fi\-e children then made her way up the river to Gar- 
dean where she continued to reside for the next 52 }-ears. removing tu the 
Buffalo reservation in 1831. 

She had on several occasions expressed a wish that she might have a piece 
of land set off for her that she could call her own, but it had not been done- 
However, in 1779, when the Big Tree treaty was held, she was sent for to attend 
the council, and was then informed that she had been remembered in making 
their several reservations, and was requested to make her own selection. She 
did so, and embraced in her description, the Gardeau flats where she had been 
living so many years. In 1798 Augustus Porter made a stirvey of it. and found 
it to contain 17,927 acres. This grant to Mary Jemison was made in total disre 
gard of the protests of the noted orator Red Jacket, who violently opposed it. 
and was proof positive of the high esteem in which she was held by the .Sen- 

During her residence at Gardeau her home was an asylum almost, fijr the 
iieedv and destitute, not only of Indians, but of whites as well. Elienezer .Mian 
(otherwise known as "Indian Allan") on one occasion at least found her home 
a retreat where, bv concealing himself, he successfully evaded his pursuers, 

Picfiire making her selection of land, she was oft'ered her choice of return- 
ing to the whites or remaining with the Indians. Carefully considering the 
matter, she concluded to end her da}s with her dusky com]:)ani(ins. and con- 
tinued to live with her children as she had done all through her married life. 

In 181 1 Jellis Clute. Micah I'.rooks. and John I!. Gibson commenced nego- 
tiations looking for a purchase of her lands. She was naturalized in 1817 by a 
special act of the legislature to enable her to convey land and transact any 
other business connected with real estate. In the winter of 1822-3 negotiations 
were concluded and she conveyed all her land, excepting a tract two miles long 
and rme wide, to Messrs. Gibson. Clute and Brooks, the consideration being 
"'three hundred dollars a vear forever." 

Finally, however, she concluded to leave the Gardeau reservation, receiv- 
ing a commutation of her annuity, sold her remaining land, and with her rela- 
tives removed to Buffalo Creek Reservation, as before stated, in 1831, taking 
up her residence on Buffalo Flats, where she remained until her death, which 
occurred September 9, 1833, at about 91 years. She was buried at the Mission 
Church cemetery, and a marble slab with an appropriate inscription placed at 
her grave. 

After the lapse of 40 years the stone had l)ccn mostly chipped away by 
relic hunters, eager for mementos of the "White Woman" who had so strangely 
figured in the history of Western New York, and a street had been surveyed 
through the cemetery which, when opened, would pass over the grave. So it 
was determined on the part of some of her descendants, seconded and encour- 
aged by a number of benevolent gentlemen of Buffalo, to remove her remains 
from the grave that had been thus desecrated, and was soon likely to become 
obliterated, and deposit them in some place where such desecrations would not 
be likely to again occur. 

Accordingly, in March, 1874. her remains were carefull}' exhumed by an 
undertaker under the personal supervision of a grandson, Dr. James Shongo 
and placed in a tasteful coffin of black walnut. In making the necessary exca- 
vations, there was found near the center of the grave a porcelain dish, which 
probably contained, when placed there, some articles of food. A wooden spoon 
very much decayed was found in the dish. 

It is supposed they were j)laced there by the pagen Indians at the time of 
her burial, to provide her with food while on her journey to the Indians' happy 
hunting grounds. The coffin in which was placed everything found in her 
grave, was then taken to the country seat of Hon. ^^'illiam P. Letchworth, at 
Portage, where, after appropriate services in the old council house of the Sen- 
ecas, it was placed in a stone sarcophagus, sealed with cement and interred in 
a grave near by, which is curbed w'ith stones that were formerly placed as 
headstones in the rude burial-ground at Cardeau, afterward phnved up and 
used in constructing a road culvert. 

Mr. Letchworth and Dr. Shongo obtained permission to remoxe them 
from the culvert and place them around the grave of Mary Jemison, who quite 
likely helped to ])lant them at the heads of the graves of her kindred, so wan- 
tonly desecrated. Within this curbing the grave is planted with flowers. Dr. 
Shongo very appropriately furnishing the seed. Thomas Jemison, a grandson 
and son of the babe she brought on her back from the Ohio town in 1759- 
planted a black walnut tree at the foot of her gra\e. which grew from seed 
borne l.)y the tree which sheltered her grave at Buffalo. 

\\'hat was left of the old headstone was placed at the head of her grave, 
near to which stands a marble monument some six feet in height, on one face 
of which is copied the inscription which a]ipeared on her old tombstone, which 
reads as follows : 

"In memory of 'The \\ hite Woman,' Mary Jemison, daughter of Thomas 
Jemison and Jane Irwin, born on the ocean between Ireland and Philadelphia, 
in 1742 or 3. Taken captive at j\Iarsh Creek, Pennsylvania, in 1755 : carried 
down the Ohio and adopted into an Indian family. In 1759 removed to Gen- 
esee River, was naturalized in 1817, removed to this place (now Buffalo) in 


iS_^i. and having' snrvix'ed two husbands and five cliildren, leaving" three still 
alive, she died September 19. 1833, aged about 91 years; having a few weeks 
before expressed a hope of pardon through Jesns Christ. 'The counsel of the 
Lord shall stand.' " 

On another side appears this inscription: 

''To the memory of 


Whose home during more than 70 years of a life of strange vicissitudes was 
among the Senecas upon the banks of this river, and whose history, insepara- 
bly connected with that of this valley, has caused her to be known as 'The 
White Woman of the Genesee." '" 

While on still another side appears: 

"The remains of the 'White Woman' were removed fn:ini the lUiffalo 
Creek Reservation, and re-interred at this place with appropriate ceremonies, 
on the 7th of March, 1874. " 

It is said to be the intention of Mr. I.etchworth to place upon this monu- 
ment a statue of Mary Jemison in her Indian costume, bearing her babe upon 
her back as she came to the Genesee Valley. Here, within sound of the falls 
of the river, to the murmur of whose waters she listened for over seventy years 
of an eventful life, very properly repose her honored remains. 

Mr. ^^'illiam C. Bryant, of Bufi^alo, is said to be the authority for the state- 
ment that the generally accepted orthography and signification of the name 
conferred upon the captive bv the two gentle Indian women who adopted her 
as their sister, is incorrect. 

7/ Tl 

Mary Jenhson, the White Woman of 
THE Genesee. 

Red Jacket 

He says "the name shiiuUl be written Deh-ge-\va-nus, and the signification 
was "two waiUng" ^•oices," gi\en as a sort of memento of their nwn grief over 
tile loss of their hrotlier. 

Witli manifest propriety, therefore. Mr. l^etchworth has given the name to 
a beautiful little rivulet and waterfall in the neighborhood, and so Deh-ge-wa- 
nus. the crystal stream and murmuring fall, with its two \nices. or the stream 
and of the forest. preser\"es and commemorates a name which has become 
renowned in the early histor}- of \\'estern New York. 

Her three sons. ThDnias. Jesse and James, all met with tragical deaths, 
thus contributing a heavy weight of sorrow, which, with other troubles, 
pressed upon their aged mother and made her last }ears quite despondent and 

John became the murderer first of Thomas, and afterwards of Jesse, and 
was not long afterward killed l)y two other Indians at Squakie Hill. These 
two Indians were named Jack and Doctor, and after the lapse of a few weeks. 
Jack poisoned himself b}' eating musk-rat root and Doctor died of consumption 
in 1819. 

Her daughter Mary married an Indian named Billy Green. John Green 
married Betsy, and the youngest. Polly, married George Shongo. a son of the 
old Caneadea war chief. 

They all settled on their mother's land at Gardeati, and all had large fam- 
ilies of children : so the descendants of Mary Jemison are quite numerous, and 
many of the name are still found on the different Indian reservations in this 
and even other states. Indeed it has been strongly suspected that some ha\-e 
assumed the name who had no right to it, and all wdio bear the name or appro- 
priate it seem proud of being called a Jemison. 

About fifteen years since, Mr. Carlos Stebbins, of Pike, Wyoming Coun- 
ty, an artist of celebrity, contributed to posterity and Indian history, a beauti- 
ful portrait in oil. which is considered by many wdio remember her, to be a re- 
markably correct representation of the form and features of this once noted 
and now historic character. In the prosecution of the work he called into 
requisition great natural aptitude for faithful delineation, which was supple- 
mented by many suggestions from persons whom he interviewed, who had the 
pleastire of her acqtiaintance, and the eminently successful portrait which re- 
sulted, reflects great credit upon the artist, and is considered a prize of great 
value by the Pioneers' Association to whom it was kindh- presented by Mr. 

Another conception, that of the late Mr. Martin Andrews, of Perry, is also 
in existence. The original was a pen and ink drawing, from that the photo- 
graph of which our cut was made. Mr. Andrews had the advantage of per- 
sonal recollection of the "\\hitc Woman" and many regard it as a very suc- 
cessful elTort. 

It is to be regretted that some great artist had not been employed to trans- 
fer to canvass her features and form during her lifetime. Artists in those days. 
however, were scarce. Photography had yet to be born, and so we give to our 
readers the best likeness, so far as known, that has ever been made. It bears 
no verv close resemblance to the other, nor yet is it ■very dissimilar, and we 


flatter ourselves that it will pass into history as a thoroughly conscientious con- 
cejjtion of the personal appearance of 

1 X'-he-\va-niis, 
■'The White Woman of the Genesee." 

Dr. William B. Munson, a ])inneer physician, who lix'ecl hctween Xunda 
and Llrooksgrove. in a letter tu linn. \\ illiam I". Letchworth, narrates his per- 
sonal knowledge of the "White Wcjman of the (ienesee." As a i)en picture it 
is interesting. 

"According to the jMcture of her 1 have in my mind she had tlie shape 
form and figure of an acti\-e, Inxcl}- little woman 75 or 80 years of age. She 
was about four and a half feet in height, e-\hiliiting the remains of a fair com- 
plexion and regular features that had been in }outh extremely beautiful. The 
cheek bones nor the chin were not prominent, neither was the nose large. Con- 
sidering her age all these features were quite symmetrical. The head was of 
medium size, covered with gray hair, smoothed backward: the neck was nnt 
long but in due proportion to the head ; her shoulders were rounded and stoop- 
ing forward, a position she may have acc[uired by bearing heavy burdens custo- 
mary with Indian women and from age, or resulted from the hardships she had 
encountered in her eventful life. Her eye sight had become ilini, but her fea- 
tures were not wrinkled as much as might ha\e been expected fr(jm the man\- 
trials and sorrows she had endured. 

"The 'White \\'oman' was (|uite intelligent, social and CMnnnunicati\e. 
but grave and serious, after the manner of Indians. With familiar ac(piaint- 
ances she would join in li\el_\- cc in\ersation and l>risk repartee. Mentioning 
on one occasion that I had read her life and that it had intereste<l me ver\ 
much, she replied: "Ah, yes I but 1 did nut tell them who wrote it down half 
of what it was.' it is thought that >^he then withheld information which the 
Indians feared might stir up the prejudices of the white people. 

"In making visits to the 'White Woman' we were in the habit of taking 
along some trifling present for her. At c)ne time we carried along a bottle of 
the best Madeira wine. She manifeste<l her grateful acknowledgment (_>f the 
gift and taking the bottle of wine went and hiil it carefull\- away from the In- 
dians. She was at the time li\ing in her own block house, su])erintending the 
preparations of provisions for a journey to I'.uli'alo. This was about the last 
time I saw her. She was assisted in her work 1)_\- her daughter I'olh- and a 
number of young pa])ooses. They had a large brass kettle swung m er an open 
fire of wood u]ion the hearth. The kettle was filled with boiling fluid. Sitting, 

standing and si|uatting anmnd a large w len trough filled with liomin\' made 

into dough the mother, daughter and grandchildren were busily engaged in 
making up balls of dough from the kneading trough and enclosing therein 
plenty of dried apples and pumpkin, w hich lay beside the trough. As the balls 
were made up they were tossed into the boiling kettle and when thoroughly 
cooked were taken out and laid upon boards or pieces of bark. The food had 
a savory odor, and appeared to be \ery good but we could not vouch for the 
palatableness of the delectable dumplings as they offered none of them to us 
In viewing the preparation of this food we saw most beautifully and satisf:ic- 


torily solved the problem that muddled and belabored the brains of King- 
George the Third, namely, how the apple got into the dunipliny. 

'T saw her again late in the fall season. She was habited in woolen petti- 
coat and short gown that came mid-leg below the knees, buckskin leggings 
and moccasins and over all a white common woolen Indian blanket. It was 
just at night and she was going after a stray pony, and was led by a young 
Indian, one of her grandchildren. She went spatting through the rivulet of 
ice cold water just north of the house, and although her sight was so dim she 
could scarcely see in the twilight twice the length of a horse, on she went in 
spite of every obstacle, with that energy and purpose that had characterized 
her whole life. 

"After going to Buffalo she purchased of an Indian a house and lot. Her 
family consisted of herself, her daughter Polly and her son-in-law, George 
Shongo, and five grandchildren, three boys and two girls. She lost the money 
she had received for her lands at Gardeau by intrusting it to a white man, who 
lost it in an unlucky speculation. This was in harmony with the rest of her 
mournful misfortunes. She became dependent on her daughter and her son- 
in-law, but with filial love they cared for her tenderly until she passed away, 
Septeml)er ig, 1833." 


The life of Major \'an Campen. written liy his grandson. Rev. J. X. Hub- 
Ijard. and half a century later by John S. ]\Iinard, tells the story of his having 
been taken prisoner, brought to Caneadea, Ga-ah-ya-de-o (where the heavens 
rest upon the earth), where Van Campen was made to prove his prowess by 
running a distance of thirty or forty rods between two rows of men, women 
and children armed with hatchets, knives and sticks and free to use them as 
opportunity offered. It was for amusement of the Indians, especially for the 
women and children. If the jirisoner disjilayed manly courage and dexterity 
the warriors treated him leniently. The enwanlly or timid met with no favor 
from any. His life was of no value. The [jrisoners were all allowed to start 
together ; behind them were the swiftest runners armed with whips to harass 
them all they could. The women had long whips and all expected to use them 
to advantage. The story as told in the history is better than any synopsis of 
it so I "appropriate it" and give it "verbatim." 

"Presently the word 'joggo' was given an<l the prisoners s]irang forward 
to the race. The Indian whippers started at the same time with a bound and 
made the utmost exertion to reach them with the lash. \"an Campen had not 
yet received a single blow and was drawing near in his rapid flight to two 
young squaws who had their whips raised ready to strike and he did not ex- 
pect to pass them without suffering the weight of their descending arms. Just 
before he reached them the thought struck him and as quick as lightning he 
gave a spring and raised his feet, which hit them on the breast and sent them, 
as if by a whirlwind, in the same direction in which he was running. They all 
came down together, tumbling heels over head, and Van Campen found him- 
self between two squaws who were kicking and squabbling about, endeavoring 
to improve their position. He did not wait to help the ladies up but sprang 


upon his feet and made gciod his race. The warriors beheld the scene with the 
utmost dehght. * * * They made tlie air ring with shouts of dehght. 
Some threw themselves on the ground and rolled and roared with laughter 
Some of the young warriors came up to Van Campen and patted him on the 
back, saying 'Shenawanna,' 'Cajena' — brave man, good fellow." 

Horatio Jones, at Fort Hill, met with this same treatment, but probably 
did not try any pranks on his tormentors. He was younger, was adopted into 
an Indian household and liecame one of the best of interpreters. His associa- 
tion with Astor in the fur trade and his early settlement at Leicester has 
often been told. His wife was also an Indian captive. 

The story of the capti\-ity of the Gilbert family and the running of the 
gauntlet by Joseph Gilbert and of Thomas Peart is chiefly interesting that 
after their adoption into Indian families they both spent part of their time 
(this was in 1780) at Nunda, calletl by them Nundow. Gilbert speaks of the 
kindness of the King in bringing them food and evidently meant to make a 
good Indian or good interpreter of him. Both finally escaped. 

Gilbert was sent to one of the villages in Xunda — probably Xundao. 
almost seven miles from the scene of his torture — where soon after his arrival 
the Chief himself — also called a King or Sachem — brought him hominy and 
treated him with much civility and kindness, intending to adopt him into his 
family. For several weeks he resided with the Chief wdiose wigwam was 
superior to the huts of the other Indians. He was then taken back to Caraca- 
dera, his weakness of body from scanty nourishment being so great that he 
was two days in accomplishing" a journey of seven miles. 

I'eart. the other prisoner, was then sent to the same place wdiere he spent 
the fall and winter. Gilbert occasionally visited him there. Gilbert finallv 
escaped to Niagara, and Peart, who had been adopted by an Indian mother in 
place of a son lost in battle, was taken to Buffalo by his foster mother and there 
made his escape back to the settlements. 


Sl'FLI\'AX"S campaign of destruction of the Indian villages of the Gen- 
esee, ordered by \\'ashington because of the frequent massacres under 
the direction and immediate leadership of Brant Butler and Little Beard, 
made this severe measure a necessity. It has so often been told, it needs no 
retelling. It was the part of the Revolutionary struggle that came into the 
northern towns of what is now Livingston County. Conesus, where there was 
a skirmish and an Indian ambush and victory. Groveland, Sparta and ( leneseo, 
Mt. Morris and Leicester the arni}- \isited. The torturing of ISoyd anil j'ark'er 
at Little Beardstown (then ( )-nun-da-ga-o, now Cuylerville) was largel}' due 
to Boyd's belief that his jMasonry would save him for Brant was a Mason and 
he had given the sign of distress. Brant simpl}- took himself away from the 
scene, and Little Beard's desire for re\enge for the destruction of their 
orchards, grain and buildings and the refusal of Boyd to answer questions 
concerning Sullivan's army led to the iKirrible trirture of himself and his com- 
]janion. It was only a specimen of Indian warfare under aggravating circum- 


After the fli^ulu up tlie river towanls Siher Lake the one charaeterizing 
act of Seneca spirit was lienchng- a young tree's top to its body to syniljolize 
their condition and spirit — "Ijent hut nut liroken," conquered but not subdued. 
Who but a Seneca wouhl have thought of this? It takes greatness to even 
symboHze greatness, and our predecessors were in spirit, giants. 

There has been a behef that the destruction of villages and property 
stopped at Leicester, and yet it was thought at the time that the Senecas went 
up the river on the east side, though they were mistaken. It is also said that the 
army of destruction went up and down the ri\er. How far could thev go up 
the river on the east side without coming to the once great Onondao? If the 
destruction of crops and villages was their ol)ject could they, with Indian 
guides, fail to know that for a hundred years there had been villages in Xunda? 
There is said to have been a bridge in the town of Portage not far from the Gen- 
esee trail, called Sulli\an's bridge? \\'ho built it — no man of that name lived 
in Portage? 

It is possible there is still a single page of unwritten history of that cam- 
paign. The bridge of logs was there in iSK) and no one knew who built it. 
The town was settled that year and the first settlers called it Sullivan's l)ridge. 
There was a Revolutionary soldier who built a mill on that Ijridged stream in 
1817. It is possible that Sullivan's army went up the river tiail that far — a 
dozen miles. White men's traditions are usually founded on facts. 

Sullivan's campaign in 1779, had it not been followed l)y the I'.ig Tree 
treaty in 1797 would not have completed the Colonists' "Winning of Western 
New York," but won it was, there and then, and the name of Thomas Morris, 
whom the jjeople sent to Congress, should e\er be associated with that of his 
father, whose agent he was. as the most skillful of all the diplomats who ever 
measured skill and eloquence with Red Jacket, till he won his aid in securing 
this grand desideratum, the ]nirchase of nearly all the unpurchased lands of 
Western New York. If the village of Alt. .Morris is named for the son, and 
not for the father, I rejoice in it. It is just : it is right : the fame of the great 
financier of the Revolution is world wide, but that of his son is local, anil what 
he did at Big Tree was of luore honor than any received as Representative of 
Ontario County in Congress. If Sullivan "closed the West Door, of the Senecas," 
Thomas Morris locked it. 


Gleamed from the stury of Thomas Ma.xwell, Es<|., h'lmira. many }-cars 
ago, in conversation with Red Jacket at Hath, after a little fire water had 
thawed his reserve, the Chief remarked that when a bo\- he was present at a 
great council fire held on the Shenandoah. Many nations were represented 
bv their wise men and orators, hut the greatest was Logan, who then lived in 
Shemokin. He was the son of Skekelleamus, a celebrated Chief of the Cayugas, 
wlio was a warm friend of the whites before the Revolution. On the occasion 
alluded to. Red Jacket was so charmed with his manner and style of delivery 
that he resolved to attain, if possible, the same high standard of eloquence 
though he almost despaired of equaling his distinguished mcidel. He said that 
after his return to Kanadesaga, near Geneva, he sometimes incurred the dis- 
l^leasure of his mother by long absence from the cal)in without ostensible 


cause. When hard pressed for an answer he replied that he had lieen playing 

In his mighty soul the fire of a generous emulation had been kindled not 
to go out until his oratorical fame threw a refulgent glory on the declining 
fortunes of the once powerful Iroquois. In the deep and silent forests he 
jiracticed elocution, or as he expressed it, "played Logan," until he caught the 
manner and tone of his great master. W'hat a revelation ! Lhiconsciously the 
forest orator was an imitator of the eloquent Greek, who tuned his voice to the 
wild sea beach, to the thunder of the surge, and caught from nature's altar his 
lofty inspiration. With severest discipline did Red Jacket acquire the power 
of moving and melting his hearers. His graceful attitudes, significant ges 
tures, perfect intonation and impressive pauses when the lifted finger and up- 
lifted flashing eye told more than utterance that these were results of sleepless 
toil, while his high acquirement was the product of stern, habitual thought, 
study of man, and keen observation of eternal nature. Not to the occasion 
alone did he trust for his finest periods and noblest metaphors. In the armory 
of his capacious intellect the weapons of forensic warfare were stored away, 
ready and polished. 

So-go-ye-wat-ha won his name, "he-keeps-them-awake," that has placed 
him high on the heights of oratory by no strategic tricks of skill but found the 
royal trail to fame by scaling rugged clifts and never resting till he reached the 
loftiest heights. 

Address by A. Sim Logan at Geneseo, \. Y., September 15, 1897, on the 
cine hundredth anniversary of the Big Tree treaty which practically terminated 
the Indian occupancy in the Genesee Valley. A. Sim Logan was a student for 
several years in the Nunda Literary Institute, as was his sister Phebe. 

Logan was brought here by their uncle, then a citizen of Nunda, Eli S 
Parker afterward Chief of the Senecas, and Brigadier General on StatT of LI. S. 

Mr. Logan said : 

"Mr. Toastmaster and Gentlemen — As a representative of the Seneca Na- 
tion of the Iroquois Indians I come before you on this occasion as a represent- 
ative of the people who once held sway over this entire continent, and as I 
have consented to make a short speech on this joyous occasion I do so with 
the proper sense of the obligation I am under to my own race. We ha\-e laid 
aside all those feelings of animosity which actuated our forefathers when thev 
saw that the vast country over which they roamed must give way to the ci\il- 
ization of the white man, and we have learned also that our children must 
take their places in the great procession of progress, and in order to do this we 
must have elementary and high schools where our young men and women may 
be equipped for a successful career. It is well known to those who have 
studied my people that when we get the better of your civilization we thrive 
under it, and our children take equal rank with yours in the acquisition of 
knowledge. It has been said, Mr. Toastmaster, that the only good Indian is 
a dead one. (jive us your schools and your Christianity and a fair chance in 
life, and du not treat us as dogs, and we will show by our love fi^r our white 
brothers and by our improvement that there are good Indians who are not 

"The Indians are not decreasing in this country; they are increasing, and 
so, Mr. Toastmaster. you are hkely to have the Indian problem on your hands 
for some time to come, and the only proper settlement of this problem is to 
educate and Christianize my people. And it is a great deal cheaper to do this 
than to exterminate us. President Grant stated that it has cost this govern- 
ment two millions of dollars to kill an Indian, but it costs only about $200 on 
an average to educate and Christianize an Indian, and' an educated Indian is 
more glory to yotir race and to your civilization than a murdered one. 

"Your centennial celebration is a great event, and I am here to-day, not to 
glory over the departure of my people from this region but to assure you that 
though we have parted with our fertile lands and gone from your immediate 
midst, with a good heart, we rejoice in }our improvement, which God has 
spread over this land, and we unite with }ou on this great occasion out of 
respect for our white brother and his government and for otir great white 
father in Washington, who recognizes the Indians, as wards of his government, 
to look with a father's interest after the welfare of us, who. like you. are the 
children of the Great Spirit. 

"Although. Mr. Toastmaster, my people are increasing in the United 
States, our ancient customs are gradually fading away and we shall under the 
influence of the progress of the age, in taking our places in the procession with 
you, lay aside the customs of our fathers, but we hope to pro^•e ourselves 
worthy of the a(h-antages which our white brothers have brought us, and act 
well the part which the Great Spirit created us to perform." 


Thomas Morris — "The persuasive advocate." 
Red Jacket — "The Indian diplomat." 


.\fter the otter of $100,000 and needed reser\-ations had been declined. 

T. ]\I. — "Consider the liberal ofter I ha\-e made. Do not act hastily." 

R. J. — "\^'e are not yet convinced that it is best for us to dispose of our 
lands at any price." 

T. M. — "I kit what value can they be to you as they now are. any farther 
than the consciousness that vou own them ?" 

R. J. — "Yes. But this knowledge is everytliing to us. It raises us in our 
own estimation. It creates in our liosoms a proutl feeling which elevates us 
as a nation. Observe the dift'erence between the estimation in which a Seneca 
and an Oneida are held. \\'e are courted while the Oneidas are considered a 
degraded people, fit only to make brooms and liaskets. W'h}- this difiference? 
It is because the Senecas are known to be proprietors of a broail dLMuain while 
the Oneidas are coo]ied up in a narrow sjiace." 

T. M. — "Ah. \ou ])resume too much in regard to the consequence of your 
nation. It is far from being as great as }Ou suppose, and in proof of this let 
me refer \-ou to the manner in which your deputation to the Miamis was re- 
cei\ed in 1703. Though large and composed of many of the first men of your 
nation it had Init little influence." 


R. J. — "\ fry true, and why? It was because we were in l:ia(l conipanw 
Had we been alone we should lia\'e l)een treated with that dignity which be- 
longs to the Senecas throughout the world." 

A Bystander — "He dare not sell; he is a coward." 

R. J. — "Yes, I am a coward. Assure nie that \ou can create lands like 
these (pointing to the magnificent scenery around him) wdiich the Great Spirit 
has created for tis, his red children, so that you can give us lands like these in 
return and I will be brave. Until then I am a coward. I dare not sell these 


Other Indians Who Were Known to Our First Pioneers .\nd Who Rec.xrd- 
ED E.VST Hill and the Forests Abol't'tauou.v HoI-Low .\s Their 
HfNTiNG Grol-nds. 

TALL CHIEF, whose Indian name was A-wa-nis-ha-dek-hah. or some- 
times spelled Ou-nea-shat-ai-kau. signifying burning dav. As he 
belonged to an earlier generation and li\-ed nearer to Nunda we men- 
tion him first. His special home was at Murray- Hill, Mt. Morris, where he 
had five huts. He also S])ent part of his time at Squakie Hill. Tall Chief was 
noted for his fine ])hysique. while his natural grace and dignity of demeanor 
made him a suggestion of Henry Clay. Straight as an arrow, and (piite sena- 
torical in deportment, as he was always cool and self-possessed. Several anec- 
dotes are related of him that illustrate his ecjuaniniity. An Indian of his v\l- 
lage had killed a companion. I>elie\'ing that Tall Chief could aid in seciu-ing 
the guilty man the authorities at once informed him of the deed, but he did 
nothing. They at length urged him to act. "Yes." said he. "nia\ be. Iiime-b}". 
somebody ketch um. — kill um, — ma\- be. — can't say." He performed lietter 
than he promised, and the cul|jrit was sixin after secured and handed i>\er to 

Another anecdote displays this child of natiu'e in all his forest freedom. 
Colonel Lyman, of Geneseo, having an errand, called at his cabin. The squaws 
of his household were sitting under a tree on the ground enjoying its grateful 
shade, for the day was hot and sultry. ( )n ini|uiring for the Chief the\' juiinted 
to another tree near 1)}-, where he was seen King u]:)on his back nearh- naked. 
The Chief received his guest gracious!}- but without change of position, .\fter 
the object of his call was effected he ])olitel}- invited the Colonel to remain for 
a visit. The guest seemed much surprised at the great Chief's attitude Init 
the females exhibited no sur])rise. He was simply a "modern .\dani of a race 

As a guest of Washington he ap])ears to better advantage than as a host. 
^\'ith a deputation of Chiefs he xisited "the Great I-'ather of the Thirteen Coun- 
cil Fires'' to smoke with him the "peace pipe." After a ceremonious, l)ut no 
doubt an .-ibundanl dinner, a big ]iipe was lighted and ^\'ashington tried un- 
successfully to draw the smoke through the long stem. He handed it to 
Horatio Jones, who succeeded Ijctter. The President then took a win If and 
passed the pipe to Tall Chief, to Avhoni he paid marked attention, and then 

to each in turn. The dignified Seneca was always proud of this distinction 
and courtesy sliown him by the "Great Father'" and often referred to this occa- 

Tall Chief was particularly noted for his medical skill, as he possessed 
the Indian secret for the cure of the bite of the rattlesnake. The pioneers of 
an early date regarded him with peculiar interest and some of their children 
still tell of his visits to their forest homes, but in this they are mistaken ; it was 
his son, William Tall Chief, that visited their parents' homes after they were 
old enough to remember him, for Tall Chief left this section and removed to 
Tonawanda in 1828 where soon after his removal he died, in 1831. His sons, 
Straight-Back and William or Bill Tall Chief, were annual guests, though un- 
bidden ones, throughout Nunda, Ossian, Grove and Portage. 

Straight-Back and William Tall Chief were born at Squakie Hill. Straight- 
Back, who derived his name from his erect walk and stately manner, attained, 
to a large degree, the respect held by the white pioneers for his father. His 
dignity and grace, even as a member of a hunting party, won a courteous re- 
ception from his white admirers. 

William Tall Chief, whose last Indian name was Ho-is-da-ga-thet — "he 
carries the medal" — of which he was very proud. He was like his father, of 
striking personal appearance, and splendid physique. One who knew him well 
says he was a man of integrity but more noted as a hunter than as a councilor. 
Most East Hill residents knew him well from 1816 when our first settlers 
sought the hills in preference to the valleys, to 1846 when he went to Kansas 
with a party of Senecas to settle upon the lands that were then set apart for 
the New York Indians. Local history tells us that on their way thither several 
of the band contracted ship-fever on board a Missouri River steamljoat and 
nearly 50 fell victims to the disease. 

Dissatisfied with the country, William sat out to return, but died on the 
way of consumption and was buried at Beaver, Ohio. The same historian re- 
cords that he saw his widow, who was a granddaughter of the "white woman," 
and her grown up children in the fall of 1865. They were possessed of striking 
personal appearance, and were greatly interested in hearing about the former 
home of their relatives on the Genesee, as it recalled what they had before 
heard. The beauty of Conesus Lake and the great fertility of the Alt. Morris 
Hats were among the things that was freshest in their remembrance. 

Later historical matter has been obtained concerning these celebrated 
Indians, Tall Chief belonged to the Beaver clan and Dr. Mills is authority 
f(ir this statement that at the age of 30 he was Chief of Kan-ags-saws (Cone- 
sus) village, when it was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779. He went to Mt. Mor- 
ris in 1780 and from this we conclude that he was born in 1749 or 1750. After 
going to the Buffalo Reservation he returned occasionally, never losing inter- 
est in his former home, the Genesee \'alley. ( )n Alay 2"], 1884. his remains 
were disinterred and brought to Mt. Morris for Ijurial through the instru 
mentality of Dr. Myron H. Mills and the co-operation of the Cemetery Asso- 
ciation. It is an interesting circumstance to Mt. ]Morris peo]ile that two of the 
relatives of Tall Chief, present at the reinterment ceremonies, were Mrs. Mary 
Logan and Alexander Tall Chief. It is interesting to the people of Nunda 
that three of the relati\-es of Tall Chief, one of them also a relati\-e of Red 


Jacket, li\ed in Xumla \illage. A. Sim Logan and his sister, l'hel)e, who at- 
tended for several years the Xunda Literary Institute, also that they were 
brought here by their uncle, a civil engineer, afterward Brigadier General Ely 
S. Parker, Chief of the Senecas and an aid on General Grant's stafif. Mr. 
Parker lived on Mill Street for two years. 

Big Tree (Ga-on-dah-go-waah ), "Large Tree lying down." This notable 
Council Chief of the Senecas dwelt at Big Tree, the Indian village nearest 
Geneseo. An inn at this village still ]3erpetuates his name. He was of great 
service to the American cause and as a counselor his voice was for peace. He 
was highly esteemed by Washington, who sent him, in the year 1778, to the 
villages along the Genesee, hoping that his influence, backed by his eloquence, 
might win the Senecas to the cause of the patriots. He found a concentration 
of many warriors at Kanadaseaga (Geneva) and at Little Beardstown, not 
only from their neighboring villages but many from remote tribes. The Sen- 
ecas were inclined to listen to their Council Chief, but a spy having reported 
that an army of invaders were to visit their section, "all flew to arms" and Big 
Tree placed himself at their head determined to chastise an enemy who 
would presvmie to encroach upon his people's territory. He, however, informed 
the Colonists of the failure of his mission. When his own property shared the 
fate of those more hostile to the Colonists, and was pointed out the ingratitude 
of friends he took no offence at the act but ascribed it to the necessities of 
aggressive warfare. 

A delegation of Chiefs in 1790 visited General Washington at Philadel- 
phia and presented him an address, which ranks high as a specimen of Indian 
eloquence. Cornplanter, Big Tree and Half-town were part of the delegation. 
The first verse of the address is as follows : 

"Father, the voice of the Seneca Nation speaks to you, the great councilor, 
in whose heart the wise men of all the thirteen fires have placed their wisdom. 
It may be very small in your eyes, and we therefore entreat you to hearken 
with attention for we are able to speak of things which to us are very great." 

What modern diplomat could excel these "children of nature" in felicitous 
and courteous expression ? 

Big Tree was often a delegate, for any delegation of which he was a |)art 
was sure to receive a courteous welcome from the Great Father and Chief of 
the Thirteen Council Fires. 

In 1792 he is again at W'ashington with a large delegation of Chiefs an<l 
warriors from the Six Nations where he fell a \ictim to the excessi\e hi>s]iital- 
ity extended to the delegation, and after a few Imurs' illness, caused by surfeit, 
he died, and in a day or two, mi Sunday, April 22, 1792, he was buried with 
something like public honors. That he may have traversed our \allcy witli 
hunting parties no citizens of Nunda can remember, but the Pioneer Wads- 
worths, William and James, and the \ery few wlm lived in the (ienesee Valley 
at that early date owed much nf the trani|uility and peace they enjoyed ti) tlie 
friendship and influence of this noteable Chieftain. 

A son of Big Tree was better known by the early settlers, lie was an 
expert in running and in wrestling. It is told that Colonel William Jones 
often wrestled with him and being younger and less muscular generally found 
himself undermost at the end of the scuffle. On one occasion, however, |ones 

liciiiL; cliallenged, succeeilcd in tlu'dwiiiL; his red ci uUestaiil. wlio, greatly cha- 
grined and offended, jumped up and drew from his belt a small tomahawk 
which he usually carried. This he raised and aimed at his antagonist. The 
bystanders grew excited but Jones remained cool, taunting him with cow- 
ardice for threatening to strike an unarmed man who, until now, had always 
got the worst of it in these contests. The Indian's rage died for he knew he 
was wrong and, dropping his weapon, he stepped forward, extending his hand. 
The two remained friends ever afterward but neither renewed the challenge 

.Some of the Squakie Hill Indians who li\-ed so near to modern .\unda 
must have been familiar visitors to our East Hill pioneers. These Indians were 
of various tribes and were in youth captives saved to increase their number of 

Black Chief (Tha-on-dah-dis), "Long tree or log." He was darker 
than the average Seneca. He may have been of the Kah Kwas as his com- 
plexion and great size indicated. As a race they preferred peace to war and 
were known as "neutrals" btit when they were on the warpath there was 
no discount on their valor. This Chief was famous both in war and in peace. 
He had the confidence and respect of his people. When enraged his face was 
a synonym for savage barbarity. He was usually calm, sedate and taciturn. 
His four sons also showed their foreign blood and were giants in stature. One 
of them was called Jim Washington. An only daughter who may have been 
more like her mother was a great favorite with all. She was said to be grace- 
ful, gentle and generous. After her father's death the tribe paid her peculiar 
honor. The Squakie Hill people held to a superstiticin that during their life- 
time the Iroquois would regain their ancient power and prestige. Hence, 
every kindness was extended to her; her pathway was literally strewn with 
flowers, the finest fruits and choicest venison found their way to her cabin. 

A pestilence passed over the villages of the Genesee and many died ; but 
so long as she remained unharmed the natives bore their personal afflictions 
with resignation. The plague died away and general health was restored. 
But now the hope of their nation sickened and though the wisest medical men 
even the Prophet himself, exerted their best powers, she died. The light so 
beautiful to their eyes was extinguished, the hope they had cherished was 
changed to hopelessness and despair. Inconsolate grief filled the villages and 
every suggestion that an all absorbing affection could dictate found expression 
in acts of tender affection. In this strange story of a race of savages who were 
at this time as tender and sentimental as the most cultured of the white race 
of the present day could be. To-day we imitate them for we arc told that the 
rose and the myrtle were scattered about the funeral couch. We are also 
told that they followed the usual Indian customs and brought corn in the ear. 
mint and costly furs, and these were hung around the lifeless form or decorated 
the place of burial. When necessity compelled burial, this was done with every 
mark of respect and heartfelt regret. The poetical instincts of this strange 
race had in\'ested this Indian maiden with more than mortal purity and sweet- 

Some of the half-bloods were of unusual intelligence and seemed jiroud 
of their relationship to the wdiite race. Jack Ik-rry, or Major Berry, as he was 
called, was of this class. He lived at Squakie Hill until he removed to the Buf- 


falo Reser\'ation. His father was one of that class of earl_\- settlers who pre- 
ceded the farmer pioneers. The}- were traders with the Jiidians, Innini; their 
peltries and paying for them with heads, trinkets and other harmless 
things, but also selling them the harmful fire water. I think we read of the inn 
kept by his widow and of her firmness in letting the red men ha\'e ouh- a lim- 
ited amount of the harmful drink. Their home was near A\'on. 

The Major always referred to his father, inicle or ci.nisins, as the case 
might he, with jiride rather than shame. lie spoke the Englisli language 
fluently and was ser\iceal)le as interpreter, and on one occasion went with Red 
Jacket to \\'ashington. ile had a iieculiar wa}' (if prefacing and clinching 
ever}' sentence of the great orator's s])eeches. thus "Jacket says" and would end 
the speech by saying "that's wdiat jacket sa}'s." The word Iroquois is French 
and derives its meaning from this \ery form of expression common to all the 
race of their orators. They conclude each speech by saying "I have spoken." 
The Major wanted it understood it was "Jacket" and not himself who uttered 
the words of eloquence. He was proud of his importance as interpreter, and 
his pride in being half white led him to befriend the whites on many occasions. 
It is said that he dropped a hint to Horatio Jones, just before he run the gaunt- 
let at Fort Hill, which sa\ed him many a blow from the savages' clubs. In 
person he was short and thick set. His house at Squakie Hill had a chimney 
and floor. There was but one other that had these conveniences. The house 
was bought by the wife ()f Thomas Jemison, the senior, when llerry went to 
Buffalo. He was somewdiat intemperate but inider all circumstances preser\-ed 
his self respect. He died in the winter of 1838-1). 

Captain I'oUard, ( ia-on-do-wah-neh, ( iiig Tree) was another of this class. 
He lived at Big Tree village. His mother was a Seneca squaw and his father 
an English trader whose name he took. He had great weight in councils. His 
judgment was sound and his oratorical skill second only to Red Jacket._ He 
was pitted against Red Jacket in a memoralile trial in Buffalo in wdiich Tommy 
Jimmey was charged with killing a s(|uaw, and judging by the effect on the 
Indians present was not second on this occasion. Hon. Orlando Allen, in a 
letter to Lockwood L. Dot}' (I^ivingslon Count}' historian), says: "He was 
one of the most honest, pure minded men I ever knew, white or red." While 
Horatio Jones is quoted as saying, "Morall}' speaking. Pollard was as good a 
man as any white minister that ever lived." 

( )n one occasion I'ollard and Ca])lain Jones were in Washington together 
and Jones said : "1 outran you, 1 think, some }ears ago." "C)h, yes," responded 
the Chief, good naturedly, l)ut 1 ha\-e often wanted to try it o\er again, and 
you were never quite ready." Captain Jones laughed and said no more. In 
person, he was square built and above the medium size, with an agreeable 
countenance and a dignified manner. He had espoused Christianit}- and made 
arrangements for Christian burial. In the summer of 1834, when Black I lawk 
and the War Prophet and other Sac and Fox Indians were returning from their 
tour through the states and about to be released by the government, the}- 
stopi^ed a day or two at Bufifalo. Arrangements were made for a meeting with 
the Indians of the Reservation at the Seneca council house. Orlando Allen 
was present and is re])orted as saying: "Cajitain Pollard, who was familiar with 
the Black Hawk war, made the speech one of the most appropriate and tell 

mg ones I ever heard : not a Senator in Congress would have done it better." 
Black Hawk and the Prophet replied, and both owned they had had enough 
of fighting the United States. 

Hot Bread (O-ah-gwa-dai-ya) was one of the wise men of Canawagus. 
He was short and very dark but stood high with his brother Chiefs as an 
orator. He was indolent and his appetite was voracious. Red Jacket once 
said of him: "Hot Bread, waugh ! big man here (pointing to his stomach) but 
very small here (bringing the palm of his hand across the forehead)." He 
died at Canawagus of smallpox. Hot Bread was heartily opposed to the 
white man's religion and the "black coats," as he called the clergy. The 
Scotch Presbyterians were at Caledonia at the time and they were e.xtreme 
Calvanists. It is no wonder that this Chief preferred hot bread to still hotter 

He, with others, signed a petition, or memorial, addressed to Governor 
Clinton in respect to the "black coats." This paper closed with these words: 
"We ask our brothers not to force a strange religion upon us. We ask to be 
let alone and, like the white people, to worship the Great Spirit as we think it 
best. We shall then be happy in filling the little space in life which is left us, 
and shall go down to our fathers in peace." 

Half-Town (Ga-ji-ot or Achi-out) "a stopper or a rock in the mouth of a 
bear's den !" was one of the chiefs at Big Tree, — Geneseo. He is one of those 
who first fought against the colonies in the Revolutionary war but fought for 
the states in the War of 1812-14. Captain Half-Town, Farmers Brother and 
Red Jacket were extremely serviceable in this latter contest and were in sev- 
eral engagements. He was manager (if the funds of his nation. Half-Town 
was at Fort Harmer in 1789 where, with 2t, other chiefs, he executed a treaty 
with the commissioners. General St. Clair, ( )liver Wolcott and Arthur Lee. 
Big Tree was also one of the signers. Pennsylvania, in 17QI, granted $800 to 
Cornplanter, Half-town and Big Tree in trust for the Senecas. An Indian 
war was then feared, settlers were intruding on their lands. Half-Town proved 
the white man's friend and kept the garrisons at Venango and vicinity in- 
formed of every movement of the hostile bands. ]\Iuch evil to the whites was 
prevented. Cornplanter and Half-Town kept a hundred warriors under arms 
and their runners were out constantly watching the movements of war parties 
till the danger was over. It is thought he died at Big Tree village. 

Tommy Infant, lived at Canawagus. Most of the Indians were exceeding- 
ly dignified. Tommy was the clown of his race — his very name suggests a 
spirit of humor. He was very large, having the appearance of an overgrown 
youth ; hence his name. He was rather fine looking and good natured. Sev- 
eral anecdotes are told of his awkward size. A modern Kenjockety (who was 
called in his youth Big Dog) being at Avon (near his home in Canawagus) he 
took the liberty of entering a vacant house through a door accidentally left 
open, and lay down for the night. The owner came along and saw the pros- 
trate Indian and in much surprise asked: "Who's here?" "Oh, it's no dutch- 
man," said the sixfooter in his ludicrous way. "It's me, — little baby, — Tommy 
Infant." A merchant in York owed Tommy for some peltry. Tommy called 
two or three times but the trader was in no hurry to pay him. After sitting- 
two or three hours one day, without making any demand or saying a word, 


'r<iniin}', as he s^ot up to i;n, turned arnuml and said to the niercliant ; "I sue 
somebody, maybe — don't know," and soon sued the merchant. 

Sharp Skins (Haah-ha-o ), "he climbs," was a small Indian with diminutive 
legs, thin features and a squeaking voice, but possessed a gentlemanly de 
meanor. He was sometimes violent in temper but was reckoned among the 
leading men of his people. He was a noted runner in his youth. Sharp Skins 
was a guest with other Chiefs at the Pioneer Wadsworths on one occasion when 
they were entertaining, in 1815, their relative. Colonel Jeremiah Wadsworth, 
of Durham, Conn. Captain Horatio Jones served as interpreter. Colonel 
Lyman, who was also a guest, said that Sharp Skins took a leading part in the 
conversation, that his views were sensible and that he made a favorable im- 
pression on all present. He afterward lived up the river and was among 
the most noted of those Chiefs of the upper Genesee. Turner, the historian 
tells of one occasion when Sharp Skins and Horatio Jones began throwing 
tomahawks at each other in sport. Jones' life among the Indians had made 
him an expert in this dangerous game. The temper of Sharp Skins led him to 
change play to earnest effort to hit. Jones threw them back so dexterously 
that he rendered his opponent's reco\-ery from injuries received doubtful. He 
recovered but was careful for the future not to provoke his white brother. 

Cornplanter ( Ga-gant-kwah-geh ), "in or at the planted field." This noted 
lialf-blood was a leading Chief of the Senccas. He was b<irn at Canawagus, 
near Avon, but in later life lived on the Allegany River. His father was John 
O'Bale, of whom Mary Jemison says: "( lid John 0'r>ale in his younger days 
fre(|uently passed through the Indian settlements and in one of his excursions 
had become enamored with a squaw 1)\- win mi he had a son who was called 
Cornplanter." The writer has dug up the name (.f John ( I'l'.ale as one of our 
colonial delegates in Albany County in the da_\s nf the Sclniylers and (dens, 
previous to the Revolutionary war. 

It is said the Indian boys soon took notice that the skin nf young O'Bale 
was fairer than their own, and the boy asked the mother why this was so. .She 
told him his father was a white man named ( I'Uale an<l that he lixed near 
Alban}'. After he grew up he sought out his father and made himself known. 
The father fed him but the son complained that he gave him no food for his 
return journey. "He gave me neither kettle nor gun. nor did he ttll me that 
the United States were about to rebel against Great Britain," said the offended 
half-blood. Cornplanter was one of the first to adopt the white man's costume. 
He worked in his fields like a white man and in later years might easih- have 
been taken for a well-to-do farmer. 

lie ranked higher than Red Jacket as a warrior and was little inferior to 
him as an orator. .\s a cnuncilor, none of his nation was more highly esteemed 
and his wisdom rendered him, in the estimation of the white race, as one of 
the wisest and best of the Seneca notables. He was at Braddock's defeat and 
witnessed the skill of Washington, then a colonial Major. He was an enemy 
of the colonists and one they would have been glad to have had as a friend. 
He was not easih' won over to the cause of the Young Republic. Horatio 
Jones, hit the nail hard when he said of Cornplanter, "He is one of the best of 
men to have on your side, and there you would 1)c sure to find him if he thought 
_\ours the right side, but it was deucedly unlucky if he thought you wrong. 


After AN'aync's victory in 1794 it was then lie knew what was best fur his 
brothers of the red race. Had his fatlicr, wlioni he once took prisoner and re- 
leased, been more like a father to him his position might have been different. 
His temperance principles proves him above his race, in the government of 
himself, for he was a man singularly upright in all the relations of life. 

Major Henry O'Bale ( Gasco-wah-doh or Gah-so-yo-wa) meaning "me- 
morial belt," a son of Cornplanter, was also born at Canawagus. In person 
he was portly and fine looking and his manners were ncit without polish. He 
was placed at school in New Jersey by Benjamin I'.ontun and was graduated 
at Dartmouth College. Like Brant, he had the unusual distinction among his 
race, of scholarship. He was somewhat boastful in early life of his courage. 
Whether it was the Irish or Indian blood that made him so self-reliant it may 
be difficult to say. It led on one occasion to a trial of courage that was at least 
perplexing for the young would-be hero. At the Alansion House in Ax'on 
some question arose between him and Doctor Ensworth. O'Bale was told 
that nothing but a duel would adjust the matter. The ground was paced off 
and principals and seconds took their places. Word was given and O'Bale 
fired. The doctor reserved his charge and, walking close up to his opponent, 
fired iinint blank at his heart. O'Bale, supposing himself shot, fell into the 
arms of his second, but recovered mi learning that the pistols had been loaded 
with blank charges, a fact of which the doctor was aware. The son, with his 
better advantages, was not the eipial in integrity of his father, and his business 
transactions were not marked by that scrupulous promptitude so agreeable 
to merchants. Colonel Lyman had trusted O'Bale and went down to Cana- 
wagus to remind him that the delit was more than due. "( )h, yes." said the 
affable Major, "I will pay you at once. Mr. Hosmer owes me, you know him. 
of course, and I'll go to him and get the money." He went but forgot tn ccmie 
back. The debt was finally charged to "profit and loss." 

Handsome Lake ( Ga-nyu-dai-yah ) "Beautiful Lake," the Peace Prophet 
was a half-brother of Cornplanter. He stood high with his people, liotli as a 
Medicine Man and as a spiritual guide. Mr. Hossford, of Leicester (who 
taught the first Indian school, kept a hotel, and even went to the State Leg- 
islature) was told of a young girl at Squakie Hill who was cured by him of a 
dangerous disease. All remedies failing, the friends dispatched a runner tn the 
Prophet with the clothes of the afflicted squaw. He took them, laid a handful 
of tobacco upon the fire and as it burned offered an address to the Great Spirit. 
After a moment's silence he observed, looking at the clothes; 

"This affliction to her is a punishment for wickedly drowning a nest of 
voung robins and a few hours later repeating the offence. Two young deer 
must be killed — a yearling buck and a yearling doe — the whole of both must 
be boiled at once and the entire village called to the feast and then to dance." 
Some days were spent in finding the deer. When the directions of the Prophet 
were carried out. the girl recovered at once. The Prophet is described as 
of medium size, of good presence and of modest and ipiiet demeanor. 

Little Beard ( Si-gwa-ah-doh-gwih I, meaning "spear hanging down." was 
a chief (if such importance as to change the name of his village to that of his 
MWii. lie was probably one of the two great war chiefs of the Senecas that 
this fifth nation of the Inxiuois was entitled t(i fnmi the time nf the death of 

the great Xuiida Chief. licilisi|uc-sah-(>h, he crimes into prominence, lie ex- 
celled a.s a warrior and was a tluent talker. I'hysically, he was straight and 
firm but not tall. Border annals show how herce he Avas, a typical Indian, 
who in war knew no mercy, hut at other times he was esteemed for his good 
faith. Probably responsible tor the unparalleled barbarity with which the tor- 
'.lU'es of Lieutenant I'xiyd and ."sergeant Parker were conducted, we must re- 
member that he knew the army of Sullivan was there for purposes of de- 
struction and, judging by rules of Indian warfare of the utter extinction of his 
people. As a Chief he must be equal to the occasion. He treated his victims 
as spies and punished them accordingly. After the war was over he was 
friendl}' and pro\'ed social and interesting in conversation. I>ut the same 
agent of destruction that made the Indians weak in eltecting treaties — the cov- 
eted fire water of the whites — also caused the death of this valient but inhuman 
warrior. In a drunken i|uarrel at the old Stimson tavern in Leicester, in 1806, 
Little I'.eard was thrown from the outer door and, falling upon the steps, re- 
ceived an injury from which he died. He was well advanced in years. 

An instance of the superstition of these unlearned sons of the forest is 
given in this connection, A great eclipse occurred soon after his death. This 
filled his people with superstitious fear. The natives thought that their Chief 
was displeased with the manner of his death and had darkened the sun so the 
corn could not grow. The hunters shot arrows and bullets at the darkened 
luminary, while others screamed, shouted and drummed until the sun"s bright- 
ness was fully restored. 

John Montour ( Do-roh-do-ga ), "I'letween the burs or condis," lixed at 
Dig Tree during the Revolutionary war and afterward, and is buried with 
three others there. He was a descendant of Queen Catharine Montour, a half- 
blood chieftainess of great beauty. Her mother was a squaw, and her father 
was said to be a French Governor of Canada. She founded a village at the 
head of Cayuga Lake. No Indian was more fierce and less humane than this 
female chief. Sullivan destroyed her \illage on his campaign of destruction 
and her kinsman made his future residence at lUg Tree. His name is of spe- 
cial interest, as it is connected with the ca])ture of the Gilbert family, a 
memlier of this family having been one of the captives wdio spent part of the 
time of his captivity at Nundaho, which he calls Nundow, in 1780-81. John 
Montour was killed by Ouaw-wa, whose English name was James P>rewer, a 
quarrelsome Indian of the same place. The death of Montour and the im- 
prisonment of Ouaw-wa were <lue to the use of too much fire water. The de- 
scendant of the h'rench (io\-ernor was a man of great intelligence. Horatio 
Jones and Jellis Clute caused the arrest of (Juaw-wa but became his bail and 
secured his release from prison that he might die at home. 

The first settlers of the (ienesee N'alley knew well all these notables and 
ha\e not failed to tell of their go(.id (|ualities, while the settlers of the Keshe(|ua 
X'alley and East Hill knew only the hunters of the next generation. 


Among the Indians who \isite<l the ( )ssian huntings grounds and e\-en 
Had a cam]) there in the early part of tin- nineteenth century was Yankee John. 
Jacob Clendenning had that year l)uilt a log house. The family, having spent 


llic evening with a neiglibor, returned late and fmnid they could ncit open their 
door. Mrs. Clendenning giving the door a violent push it flew open and a 
heavy object fell on her, giving her a severe fright. The object proved to be 
a quarter of venison which some one had placed above the door during their 
absence. She related the incident to "Yankee John," a frequent visitor from 
the camp, telling him how frightened she was, which so amused him that he 
danced around in Indian fashion, throwing up his arms and shouting between 
his peals of laughter, "Me ! Me !" meaning it was he who had given her both 
Ihe venison and the fright. It is said the skillful hunter often shared with the 
settlers the proceeds of the chase. "Laughing Molly" and William Tall Chief 
son of Tall Chief, were of the members of the camp. Humor is so unusual 
in an Indian that this may account for this In<lian's name. 


Yankee John was a large Indian, very good natured when sober, but had 
not fully recovered from a propensity common with the Indians of settling all 
disputes by using knives or other war weapons for that purpose. It is said on 
one occasion he came to the house of \\'illiam Fullerton, in Sparta, one winter 
evening, with a deer upon his shoulder. He was always ready to share his 
venison with the whites with a view of exchange for bread or other things 
he ilid nut possess. This time, however, he had been drinking fire water. He 
was cold and demanded liquor. This being denied he became angry and drew 
his hunting knife upon Fullerton. The Scotchman's blood was stirred. He 
took down from its hook a heavy black horsewhip and gave the Indian a fear- 
ful welting. Mrs. Fullerton begged for mercy for the Indian, who was (|uite 
satisfied to give up the whiskey, but accepted instead a warm supper, and he 
lay down quietly before the well kept fire of smoldering logs and sle])t as 
peacefully on the pioneer's hearthstone as of his own wigwam. 

Yankee John had a halt in his gait, obtained in an unusual way. \\ hile 
pursuing the chase he was himself pursued and chased up a tree, Init bruin was 
too quick for him. He pulled the Indian back, crushed his leg and would have 
made short work of him had not the red man's long knife speedily ended the 

Our Immedlvte Predecessors. 

"Realm of the Senecas no more 
In shadow lies the 'Pleasant Vale ;' 
Gone are the Chiefs who ruled of y(ire. 
Like chaff before the rushing gale. 
Their rivers run with narrowed bounds 
Cleared are their broad old hunting grounds. 
And on their ancient battle fields 
The greensward to the plowmen yields ; 
Like mocking echoes of the hill 
Their fame resounded and grew still 
And on green ridge and level plain 
Their hearths will never smoke again."' 

Bard of the Gciicscc — Hosiiwr. 


The Predecessors of the Pioneers. 

W1I1'".X the I'Vciich, linglish and Dutch were ahke striving to possess 
tile Empire State nearly two hundred years ago, they seemed obHvi- 
ous to the fact that the Confederated tribes had had possession 
previous to the discoveries of Columbus, for their confederacy dates back to 
1440 or 1450 — and there must have been a time back of that when the Senecas 
or Xundawahonos stood alone in Canada, with slight relation to the otlior 
four nations allied in action. Although they call themselves the Hill-ljorn- 
race and name the place or hill fr(ini which they sprung Ge-nun-de-wa, and 
locate it at the head of a lake within the Genesee county. The Iroquois were, 
howe\er. the immediate predecessors of the Europeans and the Ho-de-no-sau- 
nee, or long house of the confederacy of five tribes called by the French the 
Iroquois, extended from the Hudson to the Genesee. W'ell may they ha\"e been 
called "The Romans of America," for their conquests extended in every direc- 
tion, and they levied tribute from the extreme east to the foot of Lake Su- 
perior. Their war cry froze the tropical blood as far south as Elorida, and the 
frosts of Algi>n(|uin and llunm placidity and stoicism melted before the fire 
of their wrath. 'I'o the \'al(ir of the .Senecas is due the destruction of most of 
the Indian allies of I'rance. Their wrongs exceeded that of their fnur allies 
and they redressed them Indian fashion l)y extermination or entire subjuga- 
tion. All must be Senecas or die. The remnant of the Ilurons became Sen- 
ecas — their council fire was jnit out. Most of the western forages were con- 
ducted by the Senecas alone. With 600 warriors they invaded Illinois, and the 
jllini were put under tribute even to the Father of Waters. Thev extended their 
series of contpiests. And if, when the struggle of the Colonists with the Sen- 
ecas' allies, the British, commenced, they kept their silver chain compact 
and bright, who can attribute blame to them for that. The iMiglish and colo- 
nists were all alike to them except that the English were rich and the colonists 
were poor. They must have smiled, Indian fashion, to see these intruders on 
their domain trying to exterminate each other. Every dead white man was 
one less invader. Most of the Oneidas and Tuscaroras took sides with the 
colonists; those who did not, came to the Genesee and were merged with the 
Senecas. Two strands in the five fold cord, unstrained for more than three 
centuries, had nearly parted: only this Genesee fragment of ( )neida and Tus 
carora held firm. The Senecas were so inured to warfare that the\- went to 
look on and Ijccame as usual active participants — the "Romans of tiie West" 
began to meet their impending fate. Sullivan's campaign proved their final 
<lestruction as in\-incible warriors ancl closed forever their "west door." 


\\'e owe our predecessors many a debt of gratitude for their hostilitv to 
the French, which kept Western New York from continuing to be a part of 
New h'rance. W'e have reason to thank them also for their wars of extermina- 
tion that decimated their own numbers, in subjugating others till they saw 
the utter futility of trying to fight with a power that had subdued the united 
forces of their strong army of allies, the P)ritish, and themselves. How, then 
could they contend alone? .And when their generous conquerors pensioned 

their suIhIuciI Uk'S and trcatci! them far hotter than their allies, the I'.ritish. 
had done, and pnrchased from them tlie very lauil.s the\ iiad wnn fmni tiieni 
in battle, it i.s nut a matter of siiri) that in onr second stnit;L;ie with mir 
hard-hearted Mother, the most of our former Seneea foes were ran!.;ed on our 
siile and now won our <;ratitnde. as they iiad before. h_\' tiieir \aleir. won our 

We in this lo\ely \alley shared thy name 
Xuiidawalu)no of tlu' eentmnes past. 

We shared thy \alor. ami we won a fame. 
We trust like yours fore\ ermore will last. 

in ISl'' a census of the Indians was taken and in all of their reser\atioiis 
.iloni; the ( ienesee there were only 430. These only did our i>ermanent ].)io- 
neers kncw\. Thost from the "White Woman's" (iardeau Reservation were 
nearest, but Siiueakie Hill. Bi.i; Tree and I'aneadea were near enon!.;h. and the 
tine hunting grounds of East Hill and Chautauqua Hollow made them fre- 
quent guests, always ready to eat without urging. They were, after thev be- 
came our allies, in 1812-14, well disposed, c|uiet and orderly, and began to prac- 
tice husbandry, some keeping a few cattle, horses, sheep and hogs. Some of 
the chief sons were sent away to school and John Hudson, a second son of that 
name of Chief Hudson went to Dartmouth C'ollege. 


Names of the Indians who'signeil the treaty at LSutTalo creek on the last 
days of .\ugust. iSjd. feir the sale of the (."aueadea Reservation to a syndicate 
of ca])italists and land s]ieculators for ^48.21(1. l-'orty-seven Sachems. Chiefs 
and warriors affixed their mark. Some of them are as follows: 

Sa-gu-ar-gar-luch-ta or Young King: l-\irli-cu-ga or Little r)illy : Coru- 
planter or John A. Beel (O'Beal), mixed bbuxl : Ty-won-e-ash or lUack Snake 
On-on-da-ka-i or Destroy Town: (~)n-a-ju-ah-ka-i or Tall Peter: Kan-e-ac-go 
or Blue Eyes: Xat-w-en-d}-ha or Creen Blanket, a Xunda Chief: .Muk-ha-da- 
gen or White Boy: Ha-pan-guish or Henry Two Ciuns: Shi-can-a-du-ah-que 
or Little Beard: Sa-tu-gan-a-cre or Twenty Canoes: As-lan-a-sa-ish or Silver 
Heels : Kan-a-ja-u-a-ri or Big Kettle ; Sa-wag-doc or George Red Eye : Kan- 
ish-shon-go or Captain Shongo. son Colonel S. ; Tal-a-gau-a-ta or Red Jacket 
also called Sa-go-ya-hat-ha) : Sa-ga-in-a-shat-se-a or Stiff Knee. 

John Grieg, attorney for Robert Troup: Thos. L. Ogden and Benj. W 
Rogers, Comiiiissoners. 

The Last Cotxcii. on ritE Gexesee. 

WHEX General Sullixan. on his memorable expedition in 177Q. de- 
stroyed the Seneca village. Little Beardstown, he had closetl tiie 
"Western door of the Long House." But there was an Indian vil- 
lage l)eyond unknow'n to him ; this was Caneadea. described as "an open 
sylvan glade through which the ri\er ran, shut in on either side by the dense 
forests and in front the open sky, where nestled Ga-o-ya-de-o — where the 
Heavens rest upon the earth — the last Seneca 'castle' on the Genesee." 

"Its l\vcnt_\' or thirty houses stood somewhat back from a high bank that 
overlooked the stream, and its central- feature was the old Caneadea council 
liouse. so fortunately still preserved to tell its story of a far-ofif past." It stood 
ill the present town of Caneadea, Allegany County, and in the language of 
llcnry R. Rowland, from whom the above is quoted, it "was built of well 
hewn logs, a foot or more in thickness, neatly dove-tailed at the corners, their 
crevices packed with moss plastered in with clay. In length it measured about 
fifty feet, by twenty feet in width, and was roofed with 'shakes' or large sjjlit 
shingles held in place l)y long poles fastened at the ends with withes, an open- 
ing being left in the center of the roof through which the smoke of the council 
fire might escape. Its eaves were low and at one end was built a rude stone 
fire place with three large hearth stones taken from the river bed. co\-ering a 
space ten feet square. There was a door at either side. 

"Its age w^e do not know, but Indian traditions ascribe to it an antic|uit\- 
that is venerable, and it is believed to long antedate the American Revolution 
I'pon the inner surface of one of the logs the sign of the cross is deeply carved 
and another bears the rudely cut totem of the Snipe clan. 

"About it cluster thickly the memories of long ago; upon its earth floor 
has been lighted many a famous council fire, and its walls, smoke-begrimed 
and dark with age, have listened to the glowing words of many a red-skinned 
orator, whose elocjuence fired his people to action, or, perchance, calmed tlie 
passion of debate. 

"From this last of the Seneca villages Avent out the great war parties of 
the Iroquois that followed the Ohio trail to the great river of the Southwest. 
Here, too, they gathered for the border forays that carried terror to the Penn- 
sylvania frontiers ; and here the returning warriors brought their captives to 
run the gauntlet, to death may be. or in rare cases to escape their tortures ann 
to find refuge and safety within the walls of their desperate goal, this ancient 

"Here with their scarcely less savage allies, it is believed the}' gathered, 
as the rallx'ing ])(iint liefnre the massacre of Wyoming: and in these ruthless 
days the old council-house had doubtless heard the crafty but not inhumane 
counsels of Thay-en-da-na-ge-a, the great Alnhawk Chief whom we kncjw as 
Jose])]i Ilrant, the silver-tongue of that uKisl famous of Indian orators. Red 
Jacket, the wise and compelling utterance ai Cornplanter and the speech of 
lludscin and ^'oung, King and rollard. Little I'.eanl and Tall Chief and Ilalf- 
tiiwn ami many beside whose \ery names are nnw but dim traditions, but 
whii wrought their part and were lo\ed i )r feared, as the case might be, by their 
peiijile and by those who knew their ])ower a century or more ago. 

".\ gentler association is that which the cjld council house h(.)lds with the 
memiiry of the white captive. AIar_\- Jeniison, 'I.)e-he-wa-mis,' fur here in the 
autumn of 1759 that weary-footed traveler (whose life of scarce eighteen 
years had already seen such strange vicissitudes, adopted by her captors five 
years before and married by their wish to an Indian husband) rested with her 
adopted brothers, who accompanied her 1 m her long and tiresome inurney uf 
nearly 600 miles through an alnidsl ])athless wilderness from the ( )hi<) tn the 
(ienesee countrv. 

"By whose hand was carved the deeply cut symbol of the Christian faith 
within those ancient walls we may not know. Its presence would seem to show 
that in their time they have heard gentle teachings from lips that have told 
those husky hearers of long ago of the God of Revelation, of Christ the 
Saviour, of a gospel of love and peace, and in their own tongue, perhaps, made 
known to them the story of the Cross. Could the old council house but speak 
of all that it has seen, how filled with riches would be the record of its years. 

"But times change and we change with them. The years swept by and 
the changes of another century than its own crept slowly around the council 
house. Little by little its old-time friends passed away and when in 1826 the 
Senecas sold the last of their Genesee valley lands, they parted with Caneadea 
and soon [\iv '<]<] council li'uise was left almie and deserted. 

The Last Council of the Genesee 

"Shortly thereafter Joel Seaton. wlm had jnirchased the land where it 
stood, mo\-ed it to a new position near the roadside, some thirty or f(jrty rods 
tastward from its old site and used it as a dwelling, making no changes in it. 
however, except to put on a new roof and to add three or four logs to its 
height, as was readily to be seen. Slowly it began to decay: it ceased to he 
used as a dwelling; neglected and forlorn it stood by the roadside, marked only 
b\- the curious gaze of the passer-by until, when it was about to be destroyed, 
shortly after 1870, it came to the notice of Honorable William Pryor Letch- 
worth of Glen Iris, whose deep interest in the historic associations of the Gen- 
esee Valley led him to take prompt measures for its rescue and preservation. 

"With painstaking care he caused each timber to be marked when taken 
down, so that it might be replaced where it belonged, and efifected its removal, 
without injury, to the beautiful plateau overlooking the river and valley at 
Glen Iris, where it now stands. There it was carefully re-erected in precisely 
the position and the form in which it originally stood, even to the roof of 

shakes with withe-bound poles and its own old fire-place with the oris^inal 
hearth-stones as in days of yore; the rotting timbers repaired where this was 
necessary for its preservation, and when all was completed and the venerable 
structure stood as of old time, the scattered children of those who had been 
most famous in the history of the Seneca occupation of the Genesee Valley 
ivere bidden to the memorable council of October i. 1872. It was a strange and 
inipressive occasion to thos-j who gath(.re<l to hold a council of their people 
after the lapse of half a century, in the very house where generation after gen- 
eration of those that slept had gathered before. To them it brought untold 
memories of pathos and regret. Doubly strange and impressive was it to the 
fortunate guests of another race who came at the wish of the Guardian of the 
X'alley to witness stich an unwonted sight; it dwells within their hearts in 
unfading recollection. 

■■'riie dust of Alary Jemison, borne back from the neglected grave near 
Buffalo by loving hands of descendants and friends, now rests in the soil of 
the valley she loved so well, and the white stone of her tomb, reared but a few 
paces from the council house, with it will form an enduring monument of the 
early history of the Genesee country. Some trees, also, brought from her 
former grave and set around the old building, will cast upon the place a me- 
morial shade. One planted by the granddaughter of Brant, the Mohawk, 
stands guard at the eastern door ; another, planted by the descendant of Red 
Jacket, keeps watch at the door of the west. In the branches of a third, set 
in the soil by the hands of her grandson, the wind, perhaps, will sometimes 
seem to whisper the name of the 'White Captive of the Senecas." 

"To Glen Iris came the lamented David Gray in attendance upon the "last 
council' and he reveled in the charm and grandeur with which nature in her 
most prodigal mood had made a setting for this gem of the valle_\-. The ri\er, 
lie writes, has scarcely cleared the base of tlie bridge over which he had jour- 
neyed when it breaks and tumbles some sixty or seventy feet in the first of a 
series of charming falls to a still deeper deep. Thenceforward it winds through 
the heart of an oval shaped valley, shut in by an arc of high and wooded hills 
But following its downward course a little more than half a mile from the 
bridge, the eye is met by a rising cloud of spray, and easily descries the crest 
of the precipice from which the Genesee takes its second leap to find its chan- 
nel at the bottom of the dark gulf below. Beyond and on either side of the 
fallen ri\'er loom the perpendicular walls of the deep and narrow canon down 
vvliich it rushes and finally disappears. 

"It is a sight for the drowsy ])assengcr. when, as he crosses, the summer 
morning has come over the hills and filled this valley. Innumerable lights and 
shades of the varied verdure, the warm tints of the rocks and the flashing of 
the falling waters enliven a picture to which its sunken remoteness superadds 
an almost visionary charm. The two or three cottage roofs that peer fnmi 
thick nests of foliage far down beside the river, suggest a life blissfully held 
apart from the world and its ways. Over all an atmosphere of thinnest mist, 
smitten to whiteness by the sunlight, wavers and shines like a translucent sea 
The valley, indeed, is a region of lapsing streams and delicate rising mists, and 
never a gleam of sunshine visits it, but it deserves its name of Glen Iris. 

"I<"rom the west end of tlK> bridge the descent into the glen is mnde by the 


aid of flights of rustic steps and a steep path through thick woods of beech, 
maple and hemlock, leading to the margin of the stream. Half way down and 
crossed by a foot-bridge, a little brook, christened by the valley folk De-ge-wa- 
nus — an Indian name of note along the Genesee — dashes headlong from the 
mysterious green darkness of the upper forest, and commits suicide at the 
clifl:' of the river's bank. On the way, too, fine views are afforded of the upper 
fall of the Genesee, which has hewn its way backward through the rock almost 
to the foundations of the great bridge. As we emerge from the wood the river 
grows quiet again among its stones, and the valley widens into tranquil pas- 
ture lands. Looking across to the easterly side of the river the line of the 
Genesee Valley Canal is seen, drawn tiglitly around the contour of the hills 
and half way to their summit. * * * 

".\scending the slope toward the farther end of the valley we come in 
sight of the second or middle fall, a full rounded shoulder and flounced skirt of 
rock, o\er which the water is iiung in a single broad shawl of snow-white lace, 
more exquisite of pattern than any artist of Brussels or Valanciennes dared to 
dream. On a green tableland almost directly above this fall is the dwelling 
of the valley's good genius, a rustic paradise embowered in foliage of tree and 
vine and islanded in wavy spaces of softest lawn. Here art has aided nature 
to plant a true garden of tranquil delights. Each group of trees becomes the 
cunning frame of an enchanting picture or beautiful vignette. The hills, sen- 
tineled at their summits by lofty pines, are walls that shut the world out, 
while across the upper and visible approach to the glen the bridge stretches 
like a vast portal reared by Titans. It is the Happy Valley of fable realized, 
and the lulling sound of the near cataract gives fitting voice to its perfect 
seclusion and repose. 

"I have spoken of the deep and winding canon into which the Genesee 
rushes, below Glen Iris and the middle fall. Following its onward course, the 
tourist makes his way cautiously along the dizzy brink of the westerly wall 
of the gulf. Higher and higher, as he progresses, towers the perpendicular 
rampart on which he treads, until, soon, it is from a sheer height of about four 
hundred feet that he leans, shuddering, to descry the river in its rocky inferno, 
and hearken to its voice softened by distance to a rustling whisper. 

"About a mile from the middle fall the gulf partially relaxes its hold upon 
the brawling prisoner, and the visitor may make his way down a steep and 
wooded bank to what are called the lower falls of the Genesee. Here, in the 
midst of a wilderness still virgin and primeval, the waters shoot furiously down 
a narrow rock-hewn flume, their descent being nearly one hundred feet and the 
width of the torrent at some points scarcely more than the compass of a good 
running jump. From the somber chasm in which the cataract terminates, the 
canon once more draws the river and repeats on a still more magnificent scale 
the scenery at which I .have hinted above. A walk of four or five miles down 
the river from the lower fall and along the westerly bank of the canon brings 
us to a sudden opening and retrocession of the rocky walls and here a fertile 
expanse of bottom land, extending from the river to the hills, are the Gardeau 
Flats, the ancient home of the White Woman. Nearly eighteen thousand 
acres of this and the scarcely less rich soil of the plateau above it were hers, 
the free gift of the Seneca Xation to their once helpless girl captive." 

To this adniiralile peti-picturc of (ilcn Iris by David (iray. the juiiriialist 
poet, quoted from his "Last Coiuicil of the Genesee," we supplement Mr^ 
l.etchworth's account of its purchase and improvement: 

"Previous to my making a purchase of a few hundred acres of land in the 
inmiediate vicinity of the middle falls, I had been impressed with the beauty 
of the scenery on the Genesee River in the neighborhood of Portage. When I 
first saw that portion of it between Portage bridge and the lower falls 1 de- 
cided at once to secure, if po^^il)ll■, .1 ^itc,• for a residence here, and as 111 v eve 

Hon. William P. Letchworth 

took in a beautiful rainbow arched abo\e the falls, the name of Glen Iris sug- 
gested itself to my mind. The lumiierman's axe had made sad havoc in the 
surrounding forests, and the scene with its saw-mill perched on a clilif beside 
the middle falls, and the logs, lumber and rubbish that everywhere met the eye. 
made the locality seem quite forlorn. After securing title to the property in 
1859 I began making improvements, directing my efforts to assisting nature 
in assuming her ancient reign. To shield places denuded of forest verdure I 
planted many trees and \ines, and endeaxored to develop on natural lines 

whatever was attractive in the landscajie. Findint; it necessary to ])rotect the 
scenery about me, I purchased from time to time tracts adjoining my own at 
high prices, until finally my purchase swelled the aggregate number of acres 
in the Glen Iris estate to about one thousand and included the upper, middle 
aiid lower falls of the upper Genesee. 

"From the outset I set about improving the public highways and making 
])rivate roads and woodland paths along the clilTs. with stairways leading to 
heretofore inaccessible places for the benefit of lovers of nature. Notwith- 
standing the many rocks and cliffs which came into my possession, my pur- 
chase included some good farming land. It soon became evident that my prop- 
erty here could be made of great benefit to mankind, and I have aimed to so 
improve it as to render it available for future benevolent purposes. It has 
seemed to me that the place being at the point of an angle about equi-distant 
from the large and growing cities of Buffalo and Rochester, it could be made a 
great health resort, especially for invalid children, who might be benefited by 
the pure air and natural delights of this elevated region. The possibility of 
this has afforded me great satisfaction in developing this project, and has more 
than compensated me for the large sums I have expended." 

Air. Henry 1j. Howland, in his admirable sketch of the "Old Caneadea 
Council House and Its Last Council Fire," published in volume 6 of the publi- 
cations of the Buffalo Historical Society, gives an extended account of the 
last council fire, on an October day in 1872, with characteristic speeches from 
the noteworthy guests whom Mr. Letchworth, with great and discriminating 
care, had assembled. We believe that the interest which the present generation 
of dwellers in the Genesee valley feel, in things pertaining to the aboriginal 
occupants, justifies us in quoting at considerable length Mr. Howland's account 
of the proceedings at the last council. 

Glfn Iris, .Mhidle Falls 

"Tlu' nidrniniL^ nf thai in-rfoct ila\-, in tlie beautiful uKiiith of falling; leaves, 
dawned brightly: early frosts had tinged the forest and loosened the leaves 
that drojiped softly in the mellow simlitjht. Some of the invited guests had 
come on the previous day, and when the morning train arrived from Buffalo 
the old King George cann(_in on tlie ui)])er plateau thundered its welcome, as 
once it was wont to wake the echoes from the fortress of Quebec, and all 
climbed the hill to the spot where the ancient council house stood with open 
doors to receive them. They were the lookers-on who found their places at 
one end of the Council-Iiall where rustic seats awaited them, save that in a 
more suitable and dignified chair was seated a former President of tlie Repub- 
lic, Hon. Millard Fillmore, of Buffalo, whose gracious and kindly presence — 
that of a snowy haired gentleman of the old school — honored the occasion. 

"The holders of the council were 'robed and ready." L'pon the clay floor 
in the center of the building burned the bright council fire, and as the blue 
smoke curled upward it found its way through the opening in the roof to min- 
gle with the haze of the October day. 

"L'pon low benches around the fire sat the red-skinned children of the 1 lo- 
de-no-sau-nee, who had gathered from the Cattaraugus and the Allegheny and 
from the Grand River in Canada as well : for on that da}' for the first time in 
more than seventy years the Mohawks sat in council with the Senecas. They 
were for the most part clad in such costumes as their fathers wore in the olden 
(Ia\-s, and many of the buckskin garments, bright sashes and great necklaces 
of silver or bone and beads were heirlooms of the past, as were the ancient 
tomahawk pipes which were gravely smoked while their owners sat in rapt 
and decorous attention as one after another their orators addressed them. No 
sight could l)e more pictures(|ue than was that coml)ination of l)right colors 
and nodding plumes, the drifting smoke of the council fire, and, most of all, the 
strong faces of the score or more of councilors, the appointed representatives 
of their people, to speak for them that day. 

"Thev had been wisely chosen, for they were the grandchildren of re- 
nowned men and almost all liore the names of th(ise who had i)een the recog- 
nized leaders of their nation in council and in war. As might well be e.\|>ected, 
the personality of each was striking and noteworthy. 

"A commanding [jresence. that gave an especial interest to the occasion 
was that of Colonel W. J. Simcoe Kerr, "Teka-re-ho-ge-a,' the grandson of the 
famous Chief, Captain lirant. whose _\oungest daughter, Elizabeth had mar- 
ried Colonel Walter Butler Kerr, a grandson of Sir William Johnson, the In- 
dian agent for the iirilish government, whose influence had been so potent 
with the Iroquois in colonial days. Colonel Kerr was a man of fine physique, 
an educated gentleman and himself the principal Chief of the Mohawks in their 
Canadian home, as well as the acknowledged heail of all the Indians in Can- 
ada. He wore the Chieftain's dress in which lie liad been presented to Queen 
Victoria; a suit of soft, dark smoke-tanned buckskin with deep fringes, a rich 
sash, and a cap of doeskin with long, straight plumes from an eagle's wing. 
He carried Brant's tomahawk in his belt. \'<\ his side sat his accomplished 
sister. .Mrs. Kate ()sl)orne, whose Moh.iwk ii;ime was Ke-je-jen-ha-nik. 
Through her gentle-heartedness in such .ni unusual event, she ha<l urged her 
brother to accept the invitation which had bei'u tendered him. but he came 


with some reluctance, for the long-cemented friendship of the great League 
had been broken. 

"When the War of the Revolution had ended, the Mohawks left their 
former seats and followed their British allies to Canada, where they still con- 
tinue to live on the Grand River. The Senecas remained in Western New 
York and by the celebrated treaty at Fort Stanwix in 1784 became the friends 
of the Americans, a friendship to which they continued steadfast, so that when 
war with Great Britain was again declared in 1812 they were our allies, and 
on its battle fields, side by side with the soldiers of the United States, they 
fought the Mohawks, their ancient friends, who had now become their enemies. 
It could not be forgotten, and even when the Mohawk had been persuaded to 
attend the council, he wore an air of coldness and reserve because, as he said 
to one of the guests before he tardily took his place, 'The Senecas are not my 

"For a short time these children of tinie-li()ntired Sachems and Chiefs sat 
and smoked in dignified silence as became so grave an occasion, and when the 
proper moment had arrived, as prescribed by the decorum of Indian observ- 
ance, one of their number arose and, following the ceremonial method of the 
ancient custom, announced in formal words and in the Seneca tongue, that the 
Council Fire had been lighted and that the ears of those wdio were convened in 
council were now opened to listen to what might be said to them. Resuming 
his seat there was a moment of cjuiet waiting, as if in expectation, and then the 
opening speech was made by Nicholas H. Parker, 'Ga-yeh-twa-geh,' a grand- 
nephew of Red Jacket, and a brother of General Ely S. Parker, who served 
with distinction upon General Grant's stafT during the Civil War. 

"Mr. Parker was a tall, well-built man, with a fine, clear face, not unlike 
that of his distinguished brother, and with great dignity of speech and bearing. 
Around his sleeves above the elbows and at the wrists were wide bands of 
beaded embroidery, and, besides a long fringed woven belt of bright colors, he 
wore an ample shoulder scarf which was also richly embroidered. His toma- 
hawk pipe was one that had belonged to Red Jacket. Mr. Parker was a well 
educated man, had served as United States interpreter with his peo]5le. and 
was a recognized leader among them. 

"All of the speeches made in the council that day. until it approached its 
close, were in the Seneca language, which is without labials, very gutteral 
and yet with a music of its own, capable of much inflection and by no means 
monotonous. Its sentences seemed short and their utterance slow and meas- 
ured, with many evidences of the earnest feeling aroused by the unwonted 
occasion and its associations with the past, and as each speaker in turn touched 
some responsive chord in the breasts of his hearers, they responded with that 
deep guttural ejaculation of approval which cannot be written in anv svllable 
of English phrasing. 

"Many of the orators spoke at great length, and it is unfortunate that the 
full te.xt cannot be preserved. Such portions as we have of three or four of 
the ]jrincipals were taken down after the council from the lips of the speakers 
themselves ; they are, however, but brief epitomes of their full orations. Such 
was the case, for example, in the opening speech of Nicholas Parker, who thus 
addressed the council: 


" 'lirothers — 1 will say a few words. We ha\e come as representatives of 
the Seneca Nation to participate in the ceremonies of the day. In this ancient 
council house, before its removal to this spot, our fathers. Sachems and Chiefs 
often met to deliberate on matters of moment to our people in the village of 
Ga-o-yah-de-o (Caneadea). \Ve are to rake over the ashes in its hearth, that 
we may find, perchance, a single spark with which to rekintlle the fire, and 
cause the smoke again to rise above this roof as in days that are past. The 
smoke is curling upward, and the memories of the past are enwreathed with it. 

'■ 'Brothers, when the confederacy of the Iroquois was formed a smoke was 
raised which ascended so high that all the nations saw it and trembled. This 
league was formed, it may be, long before the kingdoin of Great Britain had 
any existence. (Jur fathers of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee were once a powerful 
nation. They lorded it over a vast territory, comprising the whole of the State 
of New York. Their power was felt from the Hudson to the banks of the 
Mississippi, and from the great basins of sweet water in the north to the bitter 
waters of the Mexican Gulf. We have wasted away to a remnant of what we 
once were. But though feeble in numbers, the Iroquois are represented here. 
We have delegates from the Mohawks, who were the keepers of the eastern 
door of the long house; and of the Senecas, who were the guardians of the 
western door. When the big guns of General Sullivan were heard in the valley 
we were one people. But the tribes of the Iroquois are scattered and w'ill soon 
be seen on more. 

" "Brothers, we are holding council perhaps for the last time in Gen-nis- 
he-o. This beautiful territory was once our own. The bones of i jur fathers are 
strewn thickly under the sod. But all this land has gone from our grasp for- 
ever. The fate and the sorrows of my people should force a sigh from the 
stoutest heart. 

" 'Brothers, we came here to perform a ceremony, but I cannot make it 
such. My heart says that this is not a play or a pageant. It is a solemn reality 
to me and not a mockery of days that are past and can never return. Neh-hoh 
--this is all.' 

"When each orator had spoken there was a short pause of silence, a little 
smoking of pipes as if in seemly expectation, and then another orator rose 
quietly in his place and with gentle manner and slow speech and with occa- 
sional gesticulations that pointed his statements, sometimes holding his toma- 
hawk pipe in his hand and using it to excellent efifect in his gestures (for Na- 
ture made the red man an orator), he addressed his listening brothers. Nearly 
all of the men in council spoke during its session, some at length, some more 
briefly, as the message chanced to be. The thon.ght of their fathers was upper- 
most in their minds, and the deeds of their fathers in the old ilays was the bur- 
den of their utterances. 

"That great orator of the Senecas. Red Jacket. 'Sa-go-ye-wat-ha,' (He 
keeps them awake) was represented at this council not only by Nicholas 
Parker, who made the opening speech, but also by his grandson. John Jacket. 
'Sho-gyo-a-ja-ach,' an elderly man and a full-blooded Seneca as his strong. 
dark face betokened, witli feathered head dress and broad beaded shoulder 
sash, who was one of the later speakers. He dit-il in n;()i on tiie Cattaraugus 

"Beside him at the council fire sat George Jones. "Ga-o-do-wa-neh.' in all 
the glory of full Indian costume with waving plumes and beaded leggings, 
bright shoulder sash and belt girding his light hunting shirt ; the grandson of 
'Tommy Jemmy,' who was tried for murder in 1821, for putting to death an 
aged beldam, whom his people had found guilty of witchcraft and according 
to their custom had sentenced to death. His acquittal undoubtedly resulted 
from the efforts of Red Jacket, who appeared as his advocate at the trial. 
where he thundered his famous philippic against those who had accused his 
people of superstition. 'What," said he, 'do you denounce us as fools and 
bigots because we still believe that which you yourselves lielieved two cen- 
turies ago? Your blackcoats thundered this doctrine from the pulpit, your 
judges pronounced it from the bench and sanctioned it with the formalities of 
law; and you would now punish our unfortunate brother for adhering to the 
faith of his fathers and of yours. ( io to Salem ! Look at the records of your 
own government, and you will find that hundreds have been executed for the 
crime which has called forth the sentence of condemnation against this woman 
and drawn down upon her the arm of vengeance, \\niat have our brothers 
done more than the rulers of your people? And what crime has this man 
committed by executing in a summary way the laws of his country and the 
command of the Great Spirit?' It was a fitting and noteworthy circumstance 
that the grandsons of Red Jacket and Tonimy Jemmy should sit side by side 
at the Glen Iris council fire. 

"Two grandsons of De-he-wa-mis. the famous "White Woman.' sat in the 
council that day. One. known as 'Dr.' James Shongo. 'Ila-go-go-ant,' from 
the Allegheny reservation, a stalwart man of 53 years, was the youngest son 
among her daughter Polly's five children. His father, George Shongo, was the 
son of that 'Colonel' Shongo who was in Revolutionary times a prominent 
Chief of the Senecas at Caneadea, a man of commanding stature and mighty 
voice, a fierce warrior, who is believed by some to have led the Senecas at the 
Wyoming massacre. James Shongo was a lad eleven years old when his 
grandmother, the 'White Woman." remox'cd from her old home at Gardeau to 
Buffalo in the spring of 1831 : and when he sjjoke he told the story of that 
journey in which he walked all the way. a sore-foot boy who heljied to drive 
the cattle and to minister in his small w^ay to the wants of his mother and of 
his aged, feeble grand-dame. 

"The other grandson was Thomas Jemison. 'Shoh-son-du-want.' old 'Buf- 
falo Tom' ;is he was familiarly called; an old man esteemeil by all who knew 
him and respected as one of the worthiest of men. Me was the first-born grand- 
child of the 'White Woman" born at Squeakie ilill. and was the son of that 
little babe whom she carried on her l.iack in that wear}' journey from the 
Ohio to the Genesee. .\11 the \irtues of his gentle grandmother had found 
place in his character, and had made him throughout his long life an example 
to his people of industry, truthfulness and thrift. Of stalwart frame, more 
than six feet in height, with broad, manly shoulders, only his earnest, wrinkled 
face and snowy hair told of his nearly eighty years wdien he arose to address 
the council. In part his words were these : 

"'Brothers — I am an old man and well remember when our people liveil 
in this valley. I was born in a wigwam on the banks of this river. I well re- 

member nn i^Tandiinither. the 'White Woman.' iif whom yciu all have hear.l. 
I rememl)er when oin- people were rich in lands and respected by the whites. 
Our fathers knew n(_)t the value of their lands, and parted with them for a 
trifle The craft of the white men ])revaile<l o^•er their itjnorance and sim- 
plicitv. We have lost a rich inheritance ; but it is in vain to regret the past. lis make the most of what little is left to us. 

■' 'The last speaker spoke of the former power of our people. They used to 
li\e in long bark houses, divided into different compartments, and giving shel- 
ter, often, to five or six families. These families were frequently connected by 
ties of blood. When the confederacy was formed, which the French called the 
Iroquois, and the English the Mve Nations, our New York Jndians called 
themselves Ho-de-no-sau-kee, or people of the long house. It was the duty of 
Mohawks to guard the eastern door against the approach of enemies, and the 
Senecas were to guard the west. The principal Sachem of the Senecas is 
entitled Don-e-ho-ga-wa. the doorkeeper. Uetween these two nations sat the 
Oneidas, Onondagas, and Cayugas, making the Five Nations. After their ex- 
pulsion from North Carolina, our brothers, the Tuscaroras, knocked at the door 
of the Long House and we gave them shelter. \\'e adopted them as one of our 
family^ and thenceforward were known as the Six Nations. 

" T regret that our fathers should have given away their country, acre by 
acre, and left us in our present state, but they did it in their ignorance. They 
knew not the value of the soil and little imagined that the white people would 
cover the land as thickly as the trees from ocean to ocean. Brothers, these are 
painful thoughts. It is painful to think that in the course of two generations 
there will not be an Iroquois of unmixed lilixid within the liounds of our state : 
that our race is dimmed, and that our language and history will soon perish 
from the thoughts of men. lUit it is the will of the (ireat Spirit and doulitless 
it is well.' 

".\mong those of noteworthy parentage wdio took part in the council were 
William and Jesse Tall Chief. 'Sha-wa-o-nee-ga." whose grandfather. Tall 
Chief, lived at Murray Hill, near Mt. Alorris, and was well known to the early 
pioneers. He is remembered as a wise councillor of his nation and hail in his 
da\' dined with Washington and smoked the pi])e of peace with the great 

"Another, William lllacksnake. ■Sho-no-ga-waah." was a grandson of old 
'Governor Blacksnake," whose title was conferred upon him by the father of 
•our country. More than any other of the Senecas did Governor Blacksnake's 
length of days link us to the past, for he lived until 1859 and reached the great 
age of 117 years. He was a boy- of thirteen at the capture of Fort DuquesnC; 
which he remembered well, ^\'ith others wlm were also present were Maris 
B. Pierce. 'Ha-dya-no-doh,' a man of fine address and education, in his early 
}-ears a graduate of Dartmouth Cullege; and Jnhn Shanks, '.\oh-sahl.' an 
aged man. who spoke the first words of formal announcement : whose memory 
ran back to the time when he as a boy had lived with his people on the Caii- 
eadea reservation before the title to its 10.000 acres harl ])assed from their 

"Most picturesque i>f all who lingered around that dying council fire was 
1he figure nf old .^olnnian ( )"Hail. 'Hi)-way-ni)-ah.' the grandson of that wisest 


'.f Seneca Chiefs, John U'l'.ail. 'Ga-yant-h\vah-i;eh.' better known as ■Corn- 
planter.' His strong, rugged face, deeply seamed with the furrows of ad- 
vancing age, was typical of his race and of his ancestry, and was expressive 
of a remarkable character. His dress was of smoke-tanned buckskin with side 
fringes, and all a-down his leggings were fastened Httle hawk-bells which 
tinkled as he walked. Shoulder sash and belt were embroidered with old-time 
bead work, and around his arm, above the elbows, were broad bands, or arm- 
lets, of silver. From his ears hung large silver pendants, and, strangest of all. 
his decorations, deftly wrought long ago by some aboriginal silver-smith, was 
a large silver nose-piece that almost hid his upper lip. His head dress was an 
heir-loom, made of wild turkey feathers, fastened to the cap with such cun- 
ning skill that they turned and twinkled with every movement of his body. 

"lie had been an attentive listener to all who had spoken, and as the memo- 
ries of the past were awakened the significance of the occasion filled his heart 
and the expression of his honest face showed that he was deeply moved. Espe- 
cially significant to him was the presence at this council fire of the Mohawk 
Chief, Colonel Kerr, and the burden of his soul was that the broken friendship 
of the League should once more be restored. His speech was the most dra- 
matic incident of the day. Rising gravely in his place he said: 

" 'Brothers — 1 will also sav a few words. In olden times, on occasions of 
this kind, after lighting the council fire our fathers would first congratulate 
each other on their safe arri\al, and their escajie from all the ]ierils of the 
j(.)urnev fr(_)m their widely se])arated homes to the scene of the council. In 
the Ga-no-nyok (speech of welcome) the orator woulil wipe the sweat from 
the brows of his guests, and pluck the thorns from his moccasins. Xe.xt, and 
most important, thanks would be offered the Great Spirit for their preserva- 
tion and safetv. Imitating the example of our fathers, while we felicitate our 
selves on our safe arrival here and our presence on this occasion, we, too, give 
thanks to the Great Spirit who has ke])t us until this moment. 

■■ Tirothers, it is true, as has been said 1)\- the speakers who preceded me, 
that our fathers formed and established a mighty nation. The confederacy of 
the Iroquois was a power felt in the remotest regions of this continent before 
the advent of the pale-face, and long after the white men came and began to 
grow numerous and powerful the friendshi]) of the Iroquois was courted as 
Dutch and English and French struggled for the contest. They poured out 
their blood like water for the English and the I'Vench were driven from this 
i^reat island. ( )ur fathers loved their nation and were proud of its renown, 
r.ut both have passed away forever. Follow the sun in its course from the 
Hudson to the Niagara and you will see the pale-faces as thick as leaves in the 
wood, but only here and there a solitary Iro(|uois. 

" Tirothers, when the War of the Revolution was ended, our great l-ather. 
General Washington, said that he would forget that we had been enemies and 
would allow us to repossess the country we had so long called Liur own. ( )ur 
brothers, the Mohawks, chose, however, to cast their lot with the Uritish, and 
followed the flag of that people to the Grand River, in Canada, where they 
have ever since sat under its folds. In the last war with England the Mo 
hawks met us as foes, on the warpath, l-'or 75 years their place has been 
vacant at our council fires. Tliev left us in anuer. 

■' ■r)rothers. we are now poor and weak. 'I'here are none who fear lis or 
count our influence. We are reduced to a handful, and have scarce a place to 
spread our blankets in the vast territory owned by our fathers. But in our 
poverty and desolation our long estranged brothers, the Mohawks, have come 
back to us. The \acant seats are filled again although the council fire of our 
nation is little more than a heap of ashes. Let us stir its dying embers, that 
by their light we may see the faces of our brothers once more. 

" 'Brothers, my heart is gladdened by seeing a grandson of that great 
Chief. Thay-en-da-na-ge-a (Captain Brant), at our council fire. His grand- 
father often met our fathers in council, when the Six Nations were one people 
and were happy and strong. In grateful remembrance of that nation and that 
great warrior, and in token of buried enmity, I will extend my hand to my 
Mohawk brother. May he feel that he is our brother, an<l that we are 

"The Indian character is reticent and hides the outward evidence of deep 
feeling as unmanly, Init as the aged man spoke, the tears rolled down his 
furrowed cheeks, and as he turnetl and held out his beseeching, friendly hand 
to the haughty Mohawk, strong ejaculations of approval broke from the lips 
of all his dusky ])rethren. With visible emotion Colonel Kerr arose and warm- 
'y grasped the outstretched palm. 'My brother," said he, 'I am glad to take 
your hand once more, held out in the clasp of friendship : the Senecas and the 
Mohawks now are both my people.' 

" 'My brother,' said ( )'I!ail, 'may the renienil)rance of this (L'u- never fade 
from our minds ur from the hearts of our descendants.' 

"As speaker after s]ieaker had addressed the council the hours slipped 
swiftly by and only the embers of the fire still glowed when, at a pause toward 
the close, there came a surprise for all who were present, as one of the pale- 
faced guests C|uietly arose and, stepping to the charmed circle of red-skinned 
orators, spoke to them in their own tongue. It was the tall figure of Orlando 
Allen of Buffalo, then in his se\entieth year, who addressed the council. .'\s 
a boy of si.xteen years he had come to Buffalo to live with Dr. Cyrenius Chapin, 
while it was still a hamlet, encircled with forests, which were the hunting 
grounds of the Senecas, who were then living on the Buffal<.i Creek and its 
tributary streams. He had learned their speech and had known their fathers, 
face to face, and now he spoke first in their own language to these, their chil- 
dren He addressed the council in .Seneca as follows : 

" 'Brother.s — I, also, will say a few words and would be .glad if I might 
speak to you as once I could in your own tongue, so as to make niv wM)rds 
clear to your understanding. 

" 'Brothers, this valley of the Genesee, where your fathers once ruled, is 
filled with remembrances of old days, and we arc gathered here to revive those 
memories. This is i)f great importance, as is the preservation of this old coun- 
cil house, which your fathers parted with when they gave up their lands, but 
which has once more been restored. 

" Brothers, the words of my thoughts come nifire slowh- in vonr sjiecch 
than in former days, when I knew it well, so 1 will speak now in my own 
guage. Xeh-hoh — that is all.' 

"An outburst of ejaculation testified to the jileased surprise and gratifica- 

tidii of his liulian auditors; then, tuniiiis; to the .^t""!' of pale-faces heyoml 
the circle he. sjioke in English at consideralile length in intercstint; reminis- 
cence of the past. 

"When Mr. Allen had ended his address. President Fillmore, with a few 
kindly words, presented on behalf of IMr. Letchworth. a specially prepared 
silver medal to each of those who had taken part in the council. .\s old Piuf- 
falo Tom came forward when his name was calleil. he thrust his hand into his 
bosom and brought forth a very large silver medal which was suspended from 
his neck. 'Perhaps.' said he. 'I ought not to have one: I have got one already 
nhich old Cieneral Jackson gave me." He was assured that he was entitled to 

■'The ceremony ended, Nicholas Parker, wdio made the opening speech 
arose and. in a few words, gravely and softly spoken in his native tongue, for- 
mally closed the council. Then, turning to the white guests, whom he ad- 
(dressed as his 'younger brothers,' he sjioke the farewell w-ords. 

■' "We have gathered in council here to-day,' said he, "the representatives 
of the Mohawks, who guarded the easterly door of the Long House, and of the 
Senecas. who kept the western gate. It has been to us an occasion of solemn 
interest, and as one after another of my brothers has spoken around the council 
fire that we have lighted, we have rehearsed the deeds of our fathers, who 
once tlwelt in this beautiful valley, and in the smoke of that council fire our 
words have been carried upward. ( )m- fathers, the Iroquois, were a proud 
people, who thought that none might subdue them : your fathers, when the\- 
crossed the ocean, were but a feeble folk, but you have grown in strength 
and greatness, while we have faded to Init a weak remnant of what we once 
were. The Ho-de-no-sau-nee. the people of the Long House, are scattered 
hither and von ; their Leagtie no longer exists, and you who are sitting here 
to-(la\ have seen the last of the confederate Iroquois. We have raked the 
ashes over our fire and have closed the last council of our people in the valley 
of our fathers.' 

■'.-Vs he ended, his voice faltered with an emotion which was shared by all 
present. He had spoken the last words for his people, fraught with a tender 
]iathos which touched the hearts of those who heard him with a feeling of that 
hmnan brotherhood in which ■whate\er may be our color or our gifts' we are 
all alike kin. 

"For a few moments there was a becoming silence and then David Gray — 
name beloved of all who knew him — the poet-editor of the Buffalo 'Courier.' 
arose and read : 


" 'The fire sinks low. the drifting smoke 

Dies softly in the autumn haze. 
And silent are the tongues that spoke 

In speech of other days. 
Gone, too, the dusky ghosts whose feet 

But now yon listening thicket stirred : 
Unscared within its covert meet 

The squirrel and the bird. 

" 'The story <if the ]iast is tohl, 

i'.ut thou, ( ) N'alley sweet ami lone! 
Glen of the Rainliow 1 thou shall hold 

Its romanee as thine own. 
Thoughts of thine aneient forest ])rimc 

Shall sometimes tint;e thy summer dreams 
And shape to low poetie rhyme 

The musie of thy streams. 

" 'When Indian summer tlinL;s her cloak 

Of lirooding azure on the woods. 
The jjathos of a vanished folk 

Shall haunt thy solitude. 
The hlue smoke of their fires once more 

Far o'er the hills shall seem to rise 
And sunset's golden clouds restore 

The red man's paradise. 

" 'Strange sounds of a forgotten tongue 

Shall cling to many a crag and cave 
In wash of falling waters sung 

( )r murmur of the wave. 
And oft in mi<lmost hush of night 

Shrill o'er the deep-mouthed cataract's roar 
Shall ring the war-cry from the height 

That woke the wilds of ^'ore. 

"'Sweet Vale, more ])eaceful bend the skies. 

Thy airs be fraught with rarer balm, 
A people's busy tumult lies 

Hushed in thy sylvan calm. 
Deep be thy peace! while fancy frames 

Soft idyls of thy dwellers fled, — 
They loved thee, called thee gentle names. 

In the long summers dead. 

" 'Quenched is the fire : the drifting smoke 

Has vanished in the autumn haze : 
Gone, too. O \'ale, the simple folk 

Who lo\-ed thee in old days. 
rUit for their sakes — their li\-es serene — 

Their loves, perchance as sweet as ours — 
O be thy woods for aye more green 

And fairer bloom thy flowers!' 

"It was the fitting close to a memorable day. The '<lai)pled shadows of 
the afternoon" rested on hill and valley as. one by one, the picturesque figures 
■of those who had that day so strangely linked the present with the past, left 

the uM LH)uncil house, hrii^ht culurs and feather}- ])hinies niin^lcd with the 
autumn foHage and the softly dropping lea\'es until all had vanished. The 
story of the past' had once for all been told, but around those ancient 
weather-beaten walls which had once more welcomed the children of those 
whom it had known long ago in the days of its prime, there lingers still the 
remendirance of their last council fire — a niemor\' tliat cannot lie forgotten." 

Genesee Valley Canal and The Gorge at Portage 

j'lhn Smith, a half blood Seneca 
Indian, has for the last ten years lived 
at or near Xunda. He is treated by 
tile citizens nf the town with courtesy 
as an e(|ual. I le is a mendier of < iracc 
Episcopal Church and is married to a 
wdiite wife of good family. He has 
been in the employ of \\'illian-; I '. 
Letchw'irth l)Ut is now settled up'ni 
a far:n. The iinl_\- other person wiio 
ci;)rnes to Xunda annuall}- is a middle- 
aged Tuscarora woman who is skilleil 
in. liead work and eniliroidery. Her 
name is Emeline Garlow. Thougli nut 
a full blooded Indian comjile.xii m 
indicates her Tuscarora origin. She 
is lighter than most half bloods but 
has les.s than half white bloofl. .She 
makes her home with the famil}- nf 
L. C. Roberts, at his cottage, called 
"Indian Lodge." whose large coljec 
tion of Indian relics she enjoys viewing. We present her picture as a lyyie of 
Tuscarora S(|uaw. 9q 

Emeline Garlou — A Tuscarora Belle 

Lower Falls of Portage 


'llirous^h (k'i.'i). t;ini;lc(l forests their shar]) axes run^" 
l'"rnin Antumn's cum liar\-est till spriiiL; wurk hei^uii. 
To far (_'aiianilai,L;ua each year to a ilay 
The}" hastened, iho' footsore, their interest to pay. 

;■■' ,c^:^^-^k 

Time's scvthe. nnrelentint;. has cut them all down. 
Their graves, oft unmarked, can no longer he found : 
h'ertile fields are the monuments of the work they hegim. 
While the Angel records, true and faithful, well done. 

Department I 



The Subdivision of New York Colony 

THE Xew Xetherlaiuls of the Dutch were never divided and the Britisli who 
obtained possession in 1664 left the Colony undivided until November i, 
1683, when twelve counties were formed which included all of X'eniK.nt. 
the islands along Long Island Sound and even a part of Alaine — all of this was 
transferred to New England a few years afterward, excepting what now forms the 
State of Vermont. Albany County included all west of it to the Niagara frontier, 
so the lands of our original township were in Albany County until 1772, when what 
became JMontgomerx- County was taken off and named Tryon County. In parting 
with Albany County we pause to note, that the State Capitol was not occupied un- 
til 1807, and that the great men of the Colony were Major General Phillip Schuy- 
ler, Robert Livingston, and J acolj S. Glen, a Captain of the French and Indian 
War. Schuyler became Assemblyman, State Senator, Member of Congress and 
United States Senator, one of the greatest of the Dutch patriots. 


Immediately after the Revolution the name of Tryon County was changed by 
the patriots to ^Montgomery County A])ril 2, 1784. Sir \\'illiam Johnson whose 
influence was great alike with the Crown and with the Mohawks — of whom he 
became Chief, caused the settlements to extend Ijeyond Schenectady. .\t the 
l:)eginning of the war, he suicided, rather than prove false to the colonists, his 
former soldiers, or disloyal to the Monarch who had ennobled him. 

Montgomery County had the same western boundary that .\lbany County 
once had. and so our future township, was from 1772 until the forming of Ontario 
County a part of Montgomery County — Whitestown the western most part of the 
County comprised nearly all of what is now called Western New York. The .\n- 
cestors (if William Al. White of Ossian, were the earliest frontiersmen and most 
])rominent citizens. They were not only honorable men. but could write Hon. 
legally before their names. James Wadswortb the pioneer of that name was the 
first path-master and road Imildcr west of Gcne\-a. 


Ontario County, because of the great inland sea on the boundary of the In- 
dian lands was given this name, although it had several others. It comprised the 
western half of the state, then best known as the Genesee Country, or Indian Lands. 
It was also nearly co-extensive with the Alassachu.sctts land claim under Colonial 
grants of about 6,400,000 acres. 

Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler 
M. C, U. S. Sen. 

Alexander Hamilton 
Secretary of the Treasury 


The Authors maternul gr.iiid-tather 

Tlie histury uf the purchase of these lands liy Theli^s and ( .nrliam for $1,000,- 
ooo needs no restating. Only a part of this vast section could be obtained by 
treaty from the Indians, and so the frontier stopped east of the Genesee River. 

Xcrthampton a subdivision of the town of Whitestown contained all the lauds 
not already obtained by treaty. The purchase of all the lands by Robert Morris 
that had reverted to the State of Massachusetts, i. e.. all but 2,600,000 acres caused 
other subdivisions of which the Morris Reserve of 500,000 acres was one part and 
the flollaiKl Purchase c(ini])riscil all west of the Morris Reserve. 


'['his count\- was formed entirely from the town of Xorthampton, ( )ntario 
Countv, March 30, 1802, and divided intci five towns, Northampton, Southampton, 
ISatavia (the largest section) and Leicester, first called Lester; Southampton be- 
came when settled by the Scotch, Caledonia. 

The town of Leicester was a veritable "long-cabin" as the Senecas would call 
it for it was (17 miles long and extended to the Pennsylvania State line, it was only 
twehe mik'S wiiie. In this town we find our first citizens of Nunda, but only two 

The first settlers, other th---n the White \\ oman and Ebenezer Allan, a squaw 
man, tory and bigamist — were Horatio Jones and his kindred and Joseph Smith — 
both Jones and his wife, and Joseph Smith — were members of the Seneca race 
by adoption, having been taken captives during the war. 

Leicester, the present town, is interesting because of its Indian villages, and 
the trat;ic fate of l!oyd and Parker at Little P.eardstovvn during Sullivan's 

The lands of Nunda remained in the town of Leicester from March 30, 1802. 
until February 25, 1805, when they became the northern part of the town of Ang- 
elica, Genesee Countv. 

^^^Hfej^ .'31 


Mrs. Mary A. Hunt 
Born in the Town of Leicester, 1802. Died in Beloit, Wis., 1908, Aged 106 


SXeXe <>\ Vets^s>^Vve.^V^ 


Allegany County was fonnetl April 7, 180(1. and the lands of Xinida were lor 
nearly two years a part of the town of Angelica — a much wider town comprising 
all of Allegany County. 9^ 


On March ii, iSo8, additions were made to the County, and it was divided 
into five towns. The eight town plots on the north were called Nnnda — Ossian 
and Alfred were in the east, Angelica was central and Caneadea was on the west- 
ern boundary. The princijjal settlements at this time were in the present town of 
Pike, of Mills Mills m Hume, and ncrir l''nrt Hill in the town of Genesee Falls. 
Nunda remained in Allegany CcnnitN until 184') — forty years — with Angelica its 
County seat. Hence we are intcnselv interested in its remarkable history and that 
of its founder, Philip Church. 


"Tis the top of the world from its heights you can see. 
Its waters flow all ways, on their way to the Sea." 

Captain I'hilip Church, the son of Angelica Schulyer Church, the Grandson of 
Major General Phillip Schuyler, was born in Boston, educated in France, but 
whose father. |olm 1'.. Lhnrcli. was an English gentleman, and who lived when he 
chose to. near Windsor Castle, England. Captain Church came to survey the 
Church Tract of 100,000 acres purchased of Robert Morris through Alexander 
Hamilton, his uncle by marriage. John B. Church espoused the cause of the colo- 
nists but having lands in England that would revert to the Crown if he became an 
American citizen, transacted this transfer 01 property through his brother-in-law, 
Alexander Hamilton. This was about 1800, wdien Captain Philip had reached his 
majority. He locatetl a future village and named it for his mother. The young 
man, assisted by Major \'an Campen, John Ciibson, and one other, surveyed these 
lands, but sprained his ankle, however, he limped to Niagara Falls, guided by 
Major Van Campen and from there alone to Geneseo, where James and William 
Wadsworth furnished him with clothing and loaned him money to carry him to 
the end of his journex , which did not fully cease till he reached Philadelphia, where 
there was a magnet, who like himself was a friend of Washingtons. He mar- 
ried the magnet, Miss Matilda Stewart, daughter of General Stewart, and brought 
her from Bath to Angelica on horseback, and here at Belvidere overlooking the 
Genesee they lived. For neighbors he had some refugees from France, who had 
fled from death to this mountain fortress of safety. 

Here was a young man w ho as Secretary and Adjutant to General Alexander 
Hamilton had had the unique experience of bearing dispatches from Hamilton to 
General Washington and bringing back and recording that liistoric docunic nt, 
"Washington's Farewell .Address to the Army." 

No wonder the people of .Angelica are proud of having had such a founder 
with such a record. But a man who had hobnobbed with Pitt, I'ox and Burke, did 
not quite fit well m this then i)ackwoods settlement, and they did not let their pride 
and their votes lift this scion of gentilit\- into the positions he nuist have been ad- 
mirably fitted to fill. But now tliey. and we. who were once a part of his tow n. feel 
proud of his having been a fellow citizen of inir first settlers in Xunda. 

In 1S04 came that danmable tragedy that robbed this country of its leading 
Statesman, and Philip Church of his renowned uncle. 

The half-traitor, .Varon Bmr, chagrined at his failure in politics, challengetl 
Hamilton to a deadlv trial by duel, knowing himself to be a sure shot. I'nfortnn- 
ately for the country Hamilton was not and so the traitor lived, and the patriot 
died. 97 

Tlie news oi the result of the ilcadlx- contiiet was brought to AngeHca by let- 
ter carried on horseback from Bath, the nearest postoffice. forty miles away. For 
years tiiese deadly weapons, used in the duel, were kept at the Church Mansion 
they are said to be the ones by which not only Alexander Hamilton was killed, but 
also his son. Philip (in duel), one year before, when Philip Church served as sec- 
ond to his cousin. 

It cost the life of the Nations greatest I'inance Statesman to make "Dueling 
in .\nierica"" an atYair not of honor, but of fool-hardy dishonor. But even vet we 
mourn, though it was a century ago "The deep damnation of his taking off." 

All the world seems to ha\e heard 

Of Nunda : 
And a vision quite superb 

Fair as May, 
Floats around the enchanted mind 
Till the fancy is inclined 
To seek out this realm refined. 

And there slay : 
A century's glow illumines the past 
And holds our admiration fast. 
And bids us all revere the past 

Of old Xunda. 
But see new glories with each glance 
That have come to stay. 

'Westward tlie course of empire takes its way. 

Our Name and Its Significance. 

Tliere's magic in the word Xunda! 
There s weird myths, hazy trachtion, 
Crude legends and old superstitions 
Of the race that peopled Broad Nunda, 
That reached to far off Sodus Bay, 
Nor stopped till it gained Niagara. 

There's History, in blood-bought Nunda! 

Successive centuries of strife 

That cost three valiant tribes their life — 

Andastes, Kah Kwas, Erics l)rave ; 

Once conquerors, now passed away, 

Your names, your fame, once great, we'll save. 

The HilI-l!orn-I\ace. from far away. 

Ere great Columbus sailed this way, 

Won victories that still appall 

No greater peril coukl befall 

Than meet this race in deadly fray 

The realm they won — they called "Nunda." 

1 797- 1 907. 

A hundred years with a decade more. 

Since Robert Morris good as great — 

Bought from the Sachems at \V\g Tree 

At the treaty of the Cenesee, 

All lands belonging to this nation 

Save here and there a Reservation ; 

Reserved the best of his estate 

A "Twelve Mile Tract," across the State. 


One hundred years — God bless the day ! 
(_)n March eleven, eighteen-eight. 
The BEST of this .Superb Estate 
Was given a name four centuries old, 
( In honor of the race most bold ) 
It's future glories to unfold, 
X'alor is latent, here, they say, 
1 n Ancient — Modern — Great-Nunda. 


Department II 

The Pioneers of Nunda, 1808-1818; 1818-1827: 1827-1841 


Peculiarities of Pioneer 1Iist(.)Kv. 

HISTORY differs from Fiction in se\-eral particulars. It aims at accu- 
racy in names, dates and transpired events, and tells onlv of the i;rcut. 
I^'iction is indifferent to the actualities of these, but aims at Iseing 
true to life. Fiction captivates l)y the personalities and events it portrays. 
The ideal good man or woman it tells about represents humanity at its best, 
and the almost impossible bad man it distorts serves to make the ideal charac- 
ters resplendent by contrast in some special phase of excellence. 

Local History differs from l)Oth. Its "draiiiatis prrsoiuic" include every 
class and condition. It resembles fiction in this, that the pioneer life it de- 
scribes is a type of life with an unusual environment. It is "unicjue and ex- 
traordinary" as any the writer of fiction could depict. 

To write it true to life demands some personal knowledge of conditions 
that obtained in that phenomenal era. Town histories are becoming a neces- 
sity. The mature mind longs for the story of the past in which, not the Wash- 
ingtons, Hamiltons, Websters, the men of world wide celebrity, are the central 
figures, for these are to be found in every good library. The history found most 
interesting, and which charm most those conscious of the changes time has cre- 
ated ill the locality in a narration of events pertaining to familiar spots once 
calling of names indelibly engraved on our minds in our youth ! Why do men 
calling of names indelibly engraved on our minds m our _\outh ! Why do men 
cross the continent after the absence of decades of years, to see the village, the 
old farm house, the brook, the hill, the people that knew the people, that were a 
part of their former life? Each house, however changed, has its surroundings, 
and has its story of the long ago and what is more, tells it to them again. We 
all know this is so. We like these stories the old scenes and the old houses tell. 
Why? Because they do not tell them to us, as-we-now-are, but the younger be- 
ings we-used-to-be. They accomi^lish the impossible,— impossible onlv when 
distance and a changed environment create the imiM.)ssil)ility. AA'e sing, 

"Backward, turn backward, O Time, in }-our flight, 
Make me a child again, just for to-night." 

Not that we want to be children again, but we do want to forget we are 
growing old. We do want to get back to former scenes and days and feelings, 
by a sight of once familiar scenes and faces, back to former emotions, when 
fancy and imagination ruled the citadel of our being, and doubled and quail- 
rupled reality. 

A centennial e. g. multiplies by a hundred at least, what on other occa- 
sions would be meaningless and commonplace. The chance stranger sees only 
enthusiasm in all faces he cannot account for, but it is contagious, however, 
and he soon forgets he is a stranger — throws off his dignity and smiles into the 
faces beaming with smiles — and evervbodv thinks he is an old timer. 

The new houses. thoiit;h jierplexini;-, speak onl\- of the progress of the 
people, but the old buildings get their full share of attention. Whw this is 
the old Swain store and this is Jo \\' bite's old battery where he made stove 
pipe hats, flow silly I felt when I donned ime of his tall silk bats for the first 
time! And here is the house 1 li\ed in onee. — an}- da^- but tci-(lav, — I'll tell 
you how long ago it was — but not to-day. — I have renewed m\' age. This 
was palatial to me once, but e\en in its dila])idated age or changed appearance, 
it can stir and warm the slower and calmer pulses of mature life, to acti\-itv 
ancl warmth. I would give — three cents — to ski]) up the stairs, two steps at a 
time, and tundile into bed and sleep for an hour as I used to sleep. 

Local history, like the old local habitations. h()we\er common])Iacc and 
deficient in literary skill and adornment, comes to the heart like a letter from 
home when in a fi.ireign land, or like a father's smile of approval, or a mother's 
kiss of constancy, after an absence from home, feeds a hunger in the heart. 
\\hile we read it we renew our age. we are young again : and so are our mates 
of former days. A miracle has lieen wrought. — we are looking and seeing 
the past as it was when life was a thing of joy. 

It is the Xunda. "encircled b\- hills." that these pioneers re\ere ; not the 
'Totato Patch" that misinformed sketch-writers have given to our charming- 
village and landscape. 

Cast your eyes, if you doul)l it. over the loxeliest of the smaller ^■alle\■s of 
Western Xew York and then tell me how the Indian with his inborn lo\-e of 
nature w o-dl<l lune described it ! We know he called the great \-illage two miles 
west of our \-illage. ( )nondao. — "The meeting of the hills." Had he stoi)d in 
the \-alley he would have described it. "luicircled with hills." Had he stooil 
in front of Stone-quarry Hill. ( and several of the villages or camps were so 
situated) he would have called it Xundao (a high hill in front). If viewing 
the whole valley of the Keshequa. he would call it Xundawah. If the succes- 
sion of small hills about Xunda Junction he wi.mld say Xundey (hill\-). Of 
this section forming our village, Xunda ( Xnndah ). 

Btit we can look on this same scene, encircled b\- hills, with its sloping, 
graceful hillsides, now geometrically laid out in squares of \-erdant meadows, 
•or russet grainfields, or parallelograms of ]iasture lands diversified here and 
there with an isosceles triangle of -woodlands, cut out by mountain streams ; — 
we can see the enchantment of this varied landscape that makes the \-allev 
and its winding strean-is so enchanting, and cannot contradict what our cncs 
see, — and be willing to accept of words that ha\e no connection with this 
scenery becatise there was once, one hundred years ago. some Tuscarora 
Indians who had a potato field in this valley. Does "Xun" mean potato, or hill? 
Does "da" mean patch or valley? A rose by the name of potato would smell as 
sweet, — but its attractiveness is gone. Let us cease to claim superioritv o\er 
these lords of forests and streams if we have less poetry and eloquence than 

Kenjockety or Tom Jemison. if asked aliout the Indian Xunda. — if it was 
where the present village is, would say. no ! that was where the Tuscarora 
village was. The word Tuscarora and potato, strange to say, have the same 
meaning. The Tuscaroras' "totem" was the jjotato. They were the potato 
nation. They brought the potatoes with them when they came into Xew ^'ork 


in 1713. The Tuscaroras were scattered and we had a Potato or Tuscarora 
village at Nunda. In order to distinguish this village from the great village 
of Onondao, once their pride, they had to explain this difiference by a word 
familiar to wdiite men. 

The national name for the Sixth Xation was Schones-chi-or-onon, the 
potato race or clan. Potatoes were called Schones by the Indians, and one 
nice \ariety, common fifty years ago, was the Ma-schon-ic. Nearly half our 
town and i)art of Alt. Morris, for some good reason, was called the Tuscarora 
Tract, and many a potato field couhl have been found there. The keen old 
"white woman" had one on the Creek road on the Kendall farm, and she insist- 
ed that her reservation should include her potato patches. Little dreaming that 
they extended so far, her recpiest was granted, and it was found that she thus 
became the possessor of nearly 18,000 acres of land. 

The last Indian potato field that Avas in this village was on the AlcSweeney 
lands. Some of these lands are now called Elmwood. 

Most history sketchers. who have never tried to locate our Indian villages, 
have given the impression that ( Jnondao, Xundao, Nunda, and Nundey or 
Nunde, were identical, and all located at Nunda village. There have been 
three Nunda camps in the village, one west of the village, one north. Onondao 
was west and Xundey near Nunda Junction. The Ijurial ground, long sought, 
has been found to be south of the home of Jonathan Miller. Here the "banner 
stone" that we have had "])hotoed" for this work was found. 


There is very little left to-day but the axe and gun that were essentials in 
pioneer days. The gun was the onl}- necessity to the Squatter, the axe and 
gun to the Transient. An unusually large class of men, called Squatters, occu- 
pied all the richest and best lands in our valle)". Only a few of this class have 
even left their names behind them. 

This class of men liked to get back to nature and live like savages. Many 
of them actually took squaws for housekeepers and to do all the hard work. 
They hunted for wild game and so moved on when game became scarce. 

The next class of settlers were called Transients. They intended to stay 
until the lands they pre-empted were sold. 

Our first two families of settlers have been called Squatters; they proved 
to be Transients, but lived from 1802 to 1817 in our town. One of them — 
Phineas Bates — our very first wdiite settler (1802) left his name behind him 
by hewing out a road still known as the Bates Road — and a School House built 
upon that road was called the Bates School House. Many of the permanent 
settlers bought out some of these squatters or transients, paying for the im- 
provements they found. John II. Townsend paid $100 when he bought the 
State Road farm for the im])ro\enients. George W. Merrick paid forty dol- 
lars in gold for a small log house and a turnip patch owned by Eleazar Barn- 
ard. Seth Barker bought out a man named Pepper, and a man named Stork 
was settled near or on the lands of Ansel Kendrick. John McSweeney, the 
first land agent, drove a man named Beeda out of a log house in what is now 
the village of Nunda. A man called Bonfire lived on the Keshequa trail near 
the Stillwell place, but whether this was a nickname for a man named Bonfy, 


who liccame a real settler nearer the Keshet|ua, is only conjectural. A man 
named Solomon Crowfoot lix-ed fur a time on the Jones Homestead until 1823 
or 1824, who probably was simi)ly a sc|uatter. He moved to Grove in 
1824. Ephraim Kingsley, wlm lived near the Cooperville mill in 1807 and was 
the third settler in the present township, was, while living in Nunda, from 1807 
to 1810, a squatter, possiiily liecause the lands were not in market. He after- 
wards became a purchaser of land in the town of Portage, and li\'ed in that 
town until 1825, when he moved farther south. He was a first-class hunter. 

Having disposed, for the present, of our first three Nnnda families, an anec- 
dote or two concerning some of our known s<|uatters will be in order. As 
local history is mostly names and dates such aiiec<lotes must serve as sugar 
and spice to make these dates p;datable. 


The late John I'iteh of ( )akland was guod authority, for his father, Hon. 
Azel Fitch, one of our first Assemblxnien and a pioneer of i8if) or 1817, knew 
the parties referred to, ]\lr. Stork and his man ( )kie, well, though the date of 
the storv was probably 1818 to 1820, yet we are anxious to dispose of some of 
our known squatters and also to tell a good story, so we insert it here. 

Mr. Stork, from Connecticut, a tyjiical squatter-huntsman, had an old 
gray horse, so well trained that he wmild allow his owner to rest his rille on 
old gray's head, and with this rest he c<udd bring down his game, iimstly deer, 
at any time. He also l)rought with him fur good company and farm work, an 
Irishman, not long from the Emerald Isle. The Irishman, huwever interesting 
and amusing as a companion, was not as well drilled in the control of his 
nerves as old gray, neither was he as passive and obedient. Spring came ami 
Mr. Stork found it necessary to return to the "Nutmeg State"' for needed su])- 
plies, or a housekeeper, and made ( )kie McCormack promise to remain and 
hold possession of his shanty till his return. ( )kie promised l)y all that was 
good to do so. All went well for a week or two, though it was rather lonesome, 
until one fatal night an owl lighted on a tree that shaded the shanty, and 
began making inquiries, after the manner of owls, — wdio-whoo whooo-be you? 
Okie covered up his head with the blankets and said quietly to himself, "Bedad 
that's none of your business." Who? whoo? Who-0-0? repeated the owl. Okie 
quietly slipped out of bed and fastened the door for he began to believe old 
Clovenfoot himself was his visitor. \Vho-\\'hoo-Whoo-o-o? This was too 
much, he could keep silence no longer. I'm ( )kie McCormack, bad cess to 
you, just wait till morning and we'll see who-whoo is the best mon ! The owl 
departed with a great flutter and the ne.xt morning Okie, forgetting all his 
promises, departed also, for Connecticut, where the powers of the air are less 

Bake Kettlf. 

Tin Bake Oven 


NuxDA. March ii, 1808. 

TllE town of Nuiula ha\-int;- been horn with this illustrious ancestry, 
reaching back to 1683. according to its European ancestry, but back 
to 1450, according to tlie Infhan possession of the Senecas. it was,., 
deemed fitting that this new town, lying at that time on both sides of thtf 
Genesee, be christened Nunda. It was eminently fitting and appropriate. The 
hills of this fine township, with their massive growth of trees, the product of 
centuries, was then its chief attraction. Caneadea had taken the name of one 
In<lian village, and five or six Indian villages within this river valley had had 
various names, \-ariations of this central word — Xunda, besides the Xunda- 
wa-ono, won this hill encircled valley, centuries before and held it as theirs, 
the longest of any race. The settlers found them here. This name the Senecas 
gave themselves because they claimed a hill-born origin. This must or should 
be preserved ; valor and pride begot it ; valor and pride should perpetuate it. 
The pioneers were mostly veterans of former wars, or sons of veterans, — and 
conditions have not changed. The town was well named. In the subdivisions 
that followed that left us but one-eighth of our territory, they left us, as a 
rich legacy to posterity, our birthday name — Numla. 


The citizens of the town of Angelica, which included at that time about 
49 town plots, and had been already designated Allegany County, again peti- 
tioned for a subdivision of the town and county into five towns and the eight 
town ]ilots on the northern part were set ofl^ from four ranges of towns, with 
two town ])lots in each range ; four from the lands of the ^lorris Reserve, and 
four from the Holland Purchase, became by act of Legislature, the town of 

The Legislature enacted that "all that ])art of Allegany County bounded 
East bv the east bounds of the said count\- ; North by the north bounds of the 
said county, and South by the division lines between the fifth and the sixth 
townships in said county, be erected into a town by the name of Nunda, and 
that the first town meeting of the town of Nunda be held at the dwelling house 
of Peter Granger." 

This house was in the center of what is now the town of Pike, Range i. 
Town 7, Holland Purchase, and there in this commodious log house was held 
the first town meeting, on April 4, 1801). 

We do not know that either of the three heads of families, whose names 
have come down to us, that lived in the ])resent town of Nunda, were present. 

The Indian trail was generally within the sound of the large creek or 
river, thus avoiding the curves of the stream and so shortening the distance 
Iietween places. 

The Keshecjua trail between Tuscarora and Oakland was on the south- 
east of the stream till within a mile or so of our present village, then crossed 
to this northwest side through the JMcMaster and Dowding farms and through 
our village on East Street, passing diagonally through our plaza or ]mblic 

square, north of the first Xumla house into the upper part of J'ortaye Street, 
through (chagonally ) the ])resent Craig warehouse, a httle to the east of the 
Gibbs-Fuller mansion and the buildings of the Hugh McNair place to Oakland, 
and l)e\ond where it crossed over to the Genesee River. 


In this year there were no changes in Xunda and Portage, and no election. 
I'ike was having large accessions, doubling her population. Eli (jrififith. the 
leading spirit of the township, was proving himself progressi\'e : he had 
opened the first inn in Xunda. Joseph Alaxom. pioneer and bare foot bov 
hero, became this _\'ear the first settler of Centerville, trading off at I'ike a 
new pair of hoots for an a.xe. with which he hewed out a heroic history. (See 
sketch.) James ^^'ard was his first neighbor eight months later. 

At Mills Mills, Roger Mills, Sr.. liuilt a saw mill in 1807. and a grist mill, 
the first in Xunda, in 1808. Both Mills and Griffith had reasons to do their 
work cpiickl}-. — their years were limited. 

Eagle was settle<l this year l)y Silas and A\'illiani Hodges and their hired 

man, Smith. Xeither of the Hodges ha<l attained their majoritv. liotli. 

liowe\-er. were married si ion after settlement. Xut much time was wasted in 
courting in those days. 


In Pioneer Histor}'. first settlers, first liirtlis. first marriages, first deaths, 
first inns, first saw mills, first grist mills, first stores, first schools and teachers 
are always prominent. These we ha\e obtained. The writer of these records, 
after working for a }'ear along historical trails, stumbled over the "First Book" 
the town of Xunda ever owned, which recorded the names and business trans- 
actions of the town, which consisted mostly in paying out liounties for killing 
wolves and other destructive animals, and in building roads. The first law 
books were soon after sold, probably to some Justice of the Peace. School 
Records followed, and the Land Agent found it impossible to get along witli- 
out a diagram of his territory, as it was sul)di\'ided into farms, and this firsi 
map of Judge Carroll has also come within my xiew. as did also the map of 
Xunda village, when it was laid out previous to the purchase of lands in the 
village Ijy the Judge. These first books and papers render the reliabilit\- of 
the recital of the past as accurate as the occurrences that ha\e transpired 
within the recollection of the writer. liy means of this first In 10k it will be 
easy to introduce to the readers our first town officials. ])rol)ably all expert 
axemen in a day when the axe was mightier than the pen : for b}- its use the 
narrow trails thousands of years old were widened into sled ])aths, bridle jiatlis 
and finally into the highways that have followed essentially those narrow- 
Indian trails of the long ago. 


The book of highway records, with names of town officials from 1.^0 j to 
1817 inclusive, and with names of all tax]iayers from 1812 to 1816, and all but 
four highway" districts in 1817. 

As history, this book is of \-alue : how (jtherwise could these early pio- 
neers of nine future towns be ascertained? The siielling is exceedingly ])rim- 

itive. The town clerks were evidently selected for their popularity, not foi 
their penmanship or ])roficiency in learnini;'. I doubt if there was one among 
them could spell the word "annual" correct!}'. Thirteen years afterwards a 
hook of School Records appears in the village called Nunda Valley, with nearly 
every word spelled correctly excepting "annual," and the very poorest speller 
in the whole hatch was the only one who knew how to spell this trying word. 
The writer is so thankful that these records were preserved that he considers 
the spelling a secondary matter, and gives a specimen of it for the benefit of 
the youthful readers of these records of a century ago, and so I kindly call 
}inir attention to the fact that Avords like certify, were, clerk, ensuing, were 
then calletl "sartify," "ware," "dark." "insuin." in those good old days. I also 
call attention to the fact that there is not a single punctuation mark in the 
entire book ; the dash, however, does duty to fill up spaces, and capital letters 

I transcribe this first record of our first town meeting as I find it, not to 
sneer at the primitive spelling and excessi\e use of capitals, for there are some 
words whose greatness is belittled unless invested with the dignity of a 
capital letter, such as teacher, pioneer, patriot, hero, statesman, philanthropist 
— a class of men the writer desires ever to extol. 


this is to sartify that the anneal Town Aleeting was held at the Hous of 
Peter Grangers on Ajiril the 4-1801) for the Purinis of Choosin Town officers 
and other I'urpuses ware chosen for the inSuing Veare \'iz 

Eli Griffith 


Asahel Trowbridge 

Town Clark) 

John Griffith 


Asahel Xucomb 


David Hoyt 

Jonathan W'illard 

Constable and Collector) 

Roger Mills 
Thomas Dole 


V )verseers of the poor 

Amos Conkey 


Zebadeah \A'ard 
Christopher ( )len 


Commissioners of Schools 

Josiah liammer 


Pascal ^^•illard 

Bail for the above Named 

Josiah Harmer ( Hammer) 

Isaac Granger • „ ,. 

T 1 n 1 ,r. -1 i I r^ence \ ewers 

Joseph Bavless (bailev) V ,^ _ . 

•', ^ , . ' XT-,, ' I Damage Prizers 

Aron (Aaron) Inuler 

Peter Granger 
Caleb More (Moore) 

I^ound Keepers 

1 D 



. . . Do 

.V'\ ■ 

... Do 



5th . 

. . . ]3o 

6th . 

... Do 

7th . 


8th . 




oth . 

... Do 

District for Path Masters 
Pasekal W'illard (I'aschal) 
Robert llogt^s 
Roger Mills 
Salmon Sinionds 
Jonathan Conch 
Eli Griffith 
James Wood 
Peter Granger 
Ezra W'illard 
David lldvl 

Xo Hogs to run at Large 

Town Pionnty on Wolves $3 " 

This may serve as a fair reci.ird and s])ecinien of the al)ilitv of the pioneers 
to transact liusiness. It also sluiws that the "llighwa}" Districts were ten in 
number. 1810. 

Thomas PJole was elected Su|;iervis(jr. and John Griffith "Towen 

Cleork." Evidently the town clerk though a parson thought it was a poor 
speller who could not spell 'I'own Clerk in more than one wa}'. 

The road districts had increased to 13. 

This year ^30 was to be raised for the support of the poor and $3.00 to 
lie paid for each scalp of a wolf killed in the town. 

At the election in 1810 Daniel D. Tompkins received 56 votes for Gov- 
ernor, and Jonas Piatt 43 votes. Evidently the town of Xunda hatl increased 
in population to have yy voters for state officials. Xew citizens that year. 

In Centerville : Calvin P. Perry, Abraham and David Gelatt, Zacheous 
Thomas and Strong ^Varner, I^erkins 15. Woodward (who taught school and 
made lirick some years later) and Sargent Morrell, Elijah Thatcher, wdio 
opened an inn in 1810. In the future town nf Plume, Joshua Skiff, Elisha and 
George .Mills had become voters. 

Elisha had started a store in 1801) in his father's mill. There was progress 
in Southern Xunda. 1811 

Thomas Dole was elected Supervisor and Joshua Skiff, Town Clerk. 
Ephraim Kingsley (now on the Dea. Hunt farm. Oak Hill) was elected As- 
sessor. There were 17 Highway Districts in the town. Phincas Bates was 
made Highway Commissioner and Rol)ert Collar, Path Master. Duth lived 
within our present township. 

Bates had cut one road through from .Sparta and now he probably, with 
the Collars and Elderkims assisting in lading out the road to connect with the 
Keshecpia trail that liears his name. 

CllAI' ri'.R 111. 

From tSi2 tu 1S17 — 1S12 fkum lll(;ll\\A^■ Ri-aouds — Joiix Grifi-'itii, Slter- 
\-isoR — n.w 111 llll^ r, 'l"i)\\\ Ci.KRK. 

Tins historic year, thai stands |iromiiuMUly before all i)atrioiic Aiiiori- 
cans, is distin^uishcil hy hi'liii; the hrsi of our sccoml struLis^le with the 
.Mother Country for our rights as citizens i>f a new Init ijlorious Re- 
]iuhlic. t Hir little tow n. if meastirecl by il^ ])ojuilation, hut ^real only in location 
ami extent of territory, was too near the Lake h'.rie frontier to escape heint; a 
participant to some extent in this threat slrui^i^le. ami three, at least, of our 
citizens were xictims iti the i^eneral calamity that hrouj;ht untimely death to 
the comiuerors. t )ur first supervisor, our chief citizen, was the tirst to enlist, 
namely, lili (Iritteth, Sr. Jonathan Couch and Chandler rjenton followed his 
exam|de and shared his fate. Their death made them immortal. I'roliably 
there were others who went and returned. 

This \ear our ■"lliL;hway Records" ,L;i\e for the first time the name of the 
entire xotin.i; population. .\s there is no printed record of this extant, the 
author deems it host to insert the whole list. 


IN 1812 

'I'his is the tirst authentic statement of the heads of families and of \-oters. 
Xo Ioniser minors, man\ of them ha\e already heen mentioned; but as this 
was just before the war of iSij-14 it may include lioth the heroes who went 
to the war and the faint hearted ones, who when the Indians, because less 
affable, concluded to i^et back to Xew Kni^laml. ov PeiuiS}d\-ania. or Xew 
Jersey, anywhere, — an}where, — out of daiiijer! We are told that the County 
of Allegany sent Major Hoops — the founder of ( )lean — to a council of Indians 
at Cold Springs, Caledonia, to try to persuade the Indians t the Senecas ) to 
espouse our cause, lie had been an aid on Washington's staff and as such 
was not without honor among them. His mission was successful. The county 
paid his expenses — S8 — and also the expenses of Eli Griffeth. Xunda's first 
Su])ervisor. and a Mr. Mullender from Angelica, to the lines showing they were 
the first to enlist. Two others enlisted from this part of the town. (See Mili- 
tary Department of this book.) 

t )n the 7th of Aiiril. iSij. John tiriffith i Re\ . .M . F. C. ) was elected Super- 
visor ; Dax'iil Hoyt. Town Clerk. 

F.phraini Kingsley. Assessor (one of three) ; I'ath Masters: Xo. 1, Joseph 
r.ailey ( Oakhilll ; Xo. 2. Robert Boggs (Portage): Xo. 3. Reuben Collar 
( Xunda. near county line) : Xo. 4, Roger Mills (Roger Mills. Sr., had died in 
18111. There were thirteen Roatl Districts, about seven of them in Pike. 
\'otcd "that Hogs Shall Not Be free Commons." "A'oted that Every Person 
Killing a Woolf Shal Be Allowed five dollars for the Same of the Town." 
This prodigality of capital letters and generosity of bounty for the killing of 
"Woolfs" with so much "W ool" in their teeth proves that our fellow citizens 
were not mercenary, for they spelled Dollars with a small letter and most of 
the other words with a capital. However, this Tow n Clerk gave us the names 
of all his townsmen, an example his successors followed. Two hundred and 
fifty dollars were voted for roads. 


Districts ami names (location not L;ivcn) : 

1. Zededieh Ward, P. AL, Jason (loodale, Josepli Bailey, John Bellcn.<;'er. 

David Wood, Thomas Hunt, John I'ields. David Fancher (den. 

2. Josiah Hammer, P. AI., i'^a}', Samuel Fields, Josiah Weltster, 

Nathan Dickson, Robert Boggs, Cole David Dickson, Josiah Dickson, 
Abraham Bailey, Stephen Rivenburgh (G. F. ). 

3. Reuben Collar, P. M., John tlunt. Jacob Shaver ( .\nger I'arm), Ia-vi 

Ephraim Kingsley, Jonathan Barnes, Seth Sherwood { .Short Tract Road 
Portage), Reuben Collar, Jr., Phineas Bates, Bela Elderkim (Nunda). 

4. Samuel Russell, P. AI. (Hume), Rodger Mills. Rufus Mills, Pelatiah Mills, 

Thomas Pire, — Streeter, Wm. C. Lane (a relative of S. Swain, Sr. ), 
Joshua Skif¥, all of Mills Mills. 

5. Alichael C. Griffith, P. AI., Oliver Sweet, Arunah Cooley, Philip Lang- 

don, David Robinson, John Griffith, Joshua Powers, .\11iert and 
Alanson Langdon, Benj. Burroughs, Asaph Griffeth, Eli antl Thnmas 
Griffith, Aaron Fuller (Pike). 

6. Salmon Simonds, Frederick Mills, .\bel Townsend, R. Simons, David 


7. Dax'id Iloyt, P. M., Isaac (iranger, Bartholomew Heath, Joseph Farring- 

ton, Jonathan Couch (enlisted-died), Stone, Eben'r Smith, 

Joseph and Miles Rood, Asaph Parker. 

8. David Granger, P. M. ; Peter Granger, Richard Tozer, Asahel Newcomb, 

Judah Worden, Daniel Stewart, Josiah ]\Ietcalf, Thomas Dole. 

9. Ebenezer Griffith. P. M., Jacob Niles, ]\Iichael Griffith, Eli Griffith, Abner 

Reynolds, Eli Stewart, Andrew Dalton, Thadeus C. Gilbert, Christo- 
]iher Olin, Joseph Wallace, Tilly Parker (Pike). 

10. Roger Campbell, P. J\L, Sim Eaton, Chandler Benton (enlisted-died), 

Russell H. Benton, Kelse}- I'.routon, .Aaron Fields, Robert Camp- 
bell, William Campljcll. 

11. Joel Doty, P. J\L, Elijah Simason, Silas Hodges, \\"m. Hodges, Reuben 

Doty. Roswell Doty, (Eagle). 
IJ. Da\id T'lint, P. M., Daniel, Ira, Ezra and Xoah Murray. Leonard Doty, 
\\'illiani F'lint, Samuel Mint, -\saliel and 1 )aniel Trowliridge. 

13. Anthony Putnam, P. AL, Ezra Willanil, Jcjhn Whiting, Leonard Randall. 

.Samuel Woolcott, Danforth Webber. 

14. Right Xambleton, P. AL, Elijah Thatcher, Zach's Spencer, Allen Spencer. 

Samuel Hill, ( )sgood, Reuben Ellis. Samuel Thatcher, Mark 

Blanchard, Ileten. Sargent Morrell, William Foy, 

Leach, Thom]ison, George Patterson. 

15. Abraham Peterson, P. M., Perkins B. Woodard, Joseph Maxsc^n, 

Maxson, Daniel Wcmd, Strong ^\■arner, Samuel \A'ebster, .Abraham 
Gelatt. Ammon Andrus, William .Andrews ( Centerville ). 

i5. Moses Robinson, 1'. AI.. Skiff iS; Rnhinson. Amos Robinson. Justus Rob- 
inson, Edmond Skiff', Seth Shipi>ey 1 Hume). 

17. Joel Dutton, P. M.. Asa Gilbert, John Willard, Zenarms r.kurnm, .Asa 
Whitcomb, Samuel .Marsh. I'eleg M. Terry. Job Terry, Daniel John- 
son, Nathaniel Hill, DeW ill Blackmere. 


iS. Dan Ileach. Amos lluiitlcv. Lnrcn I'.ucklcy. Adino Hill, Soth Wciiiiore, 
Erastiis Ives. Jeremiah 1'.. ^'(n^nl;s. Asa K. Tyler (Eagle). 

Total 169 families before the war. 


'I'homas Dole. Supervisor: Joshua SUiff. Town Clerk. 

This year there are 23 Highway Districts. 

Again our town clerk gives us some lessons in spelling and orthography. 
"A'oted what any \\'oolf or Panther Keched and Killed by any Peirsn white 

or l^dack Reasiding in Said town shall Receive five Dollars provided any 

.Such Person give Satisfactory proof to any Justice in sd town. Voted that 
all 1 logs runing at large from the first of Apriel till the first of December the 
owner there of shall pay all dammage that shall acur." P>ut what of these 
trilling mistakes, when we record that this very }ear the Great Town of 
.Xunda appointed Commissioners, among them a teacher, Perkins P.. Wood- 
ward and Thomas Dole, who afterward liecame a Judge of Alleghany County, 
to diviile the town into School Districts, resulting in twelve School Districts 
for the entire town. Portageville. Pike. Mills Mills and Centerville receiving 
the first four of them. Perkins B. Woodward locating the latter of these in 
Centerville and became the first teacher. 

This year there are only 153 names of heads of families and one is Molly 
Couch, whose husband perished in the war. We must conclude that there 
were more than three w ho enlisted and possibly more than that perished. 


Thomas Dole. Super\isor. and Joshua ."^kitf'. T. C. Samuel L'tterley is the 
new P. M. for district Xo. 1. Xunda. probably his name was L'tter. With all 
absentees returned, the .\ustins and L. Harrington also on the list. D. McXutt 
and D. ]\rcXutt. Jr.. J. McXutt. David Corey and D. Corey. Jr.. J. Kennedy 
and n. T\oy, This year J. P>ailev is in Xo. 2 with Shaver: his farm was next 
to the Portage line. Seth Sherwood and Kingsley. leading to the belief that he 
is located on lot Xo. i, Xunda. 

The Highway districts had increased to 24. with JOt) names on the list. 
expendittires 252.46. 

The expenses of the town in 1814 were $250.46. 

Deer were so numerous this }ear that they furnished the main supjily 
of food. 


Again Thomas Dole is elected Supr. and Joshua Skiff, To\vn Clerk. Dole 
had become the leading man in town, had been appointed Justice of the Peace 
(the office was appointive until 1817) and he became County Judge later. 
As for the genial Skiff, he was quite a penman and could spell as strong as any 
of his predecessors. There were 214 names on the list and the southern part 
of the town was making the most progress. This year the P. O. of Xunda was 
established with Russell G. Hurd as its first Post Master. It was located, of 
course, at Pike-Xunda. The nearest P. O. before this was at Geneseo, twenty 
miles away. 


Thomas Dole elected Supr. and Asahel Trowbridge. Town Clerk. This 
year there are 23 Road Districts. And as this is the last time our "first book" 


(rives the names from District Xo. i, it will serve as a summar}- of families. 
This is the entire list. Bela Elderkim. Path Master, Phineas Bates, Samuel 
W'ilsey, David McNutt, John ATcXutt, James Campbell, James Bennet, Chester 
Bennet, Alex'd McXutt. Michael Rhine, Levi Harrington. Asahel Herrington, 
Thomas Kennedy, Jeremiah Broach, David Corey, David Corey, Jr., Joseph 
Austin, Daniel Austin. In No. 2, Eleazur Barnard. The year 1816 is noted as 
the cold season when it froze every month in the year, destroying the scanty 
crops that the settlers depended upon for their winter's supply. It was much 
more severe than in 1806 when the frozen tips of the hazel drove Mr. Scott and 
others from settling in such a frigid district. To add to the distress of the com- 
numit\' the less provident Indians from the reservations, who were nearly fam- 
ished, sought for a part of everything but what they could procure in the 
forests. The settlers had to live that winter almost entirely on wild game ; the 
gun was again king of Ximda. 


As it was ten years since the organization of Allegany County, the 
election (County and State) was called by our gallant Captain of Militia, 
Asahel Newcomb, an Anniversary Election. 

'I'his time it was held at the house of Russell Thrall {a man growing into 
prominence I. on the 30th of April, 1816, and closed at the house (an inn) of 
Susan Chamberlain — pursuant to law — (legal phrases add dignity to the pro- 
ceedings) resulting in Daniel D. Tompkins for Governor, 117 votes, Rufus 
King, 95 votes. 

"At a special town meeting hehl at the house of Ebenezar Griffith in the 
town of Nunda on the 28th of Dec, i8i(), for the purpose of appointing a col- 
lector in the place of Ira Doty, voted I'.enj'n I'.. Karl be collector for the town, 
and here we have a little touch of pathos and sympathy, and public spirit, for 
the widow of Chandler Benton — (one of the Nunda heroes who perished in 
the war of 181 2- 14). 

'A'oted that one dollar per week be ap])ropriated for the relief of Mis 
Benton Widow of Chandler Benton Deceased till some other way shall be 
provided." Another case of indigence was provided for at a cost of ten dollars. 

The county now took charge of the bounty on wolves and other de- 
structive wild Ijeasts, with bounties from five to ten dollars for ol<l wolves and 
five dollars for young ones. Portage, Nunda, had as settlers this year, Zopher 
Strong, Samuel Fuller (Revolutionary soldier), George Williams (land agent), 
Solomon Williams. Dr. Carpenter and Prosper .\dams ( ISorroughs farm), 


We have now 36 districts and 351 tax])ayers. XHt a rich man among 
them. .Xunda has never been noted for rich men, all commenced pimr, almost 
too poor for comfort: some started with only a gim, snme with only 
an axe, some with one horse, more with a yoke of o.xen, sonic hired 
their goods brought : one wagon carried them all, family included. Colonel 
W illiams, having" land galore, employed help, .^uch men as John Barber and 
lliram Smith of (iranger (1)orn in 18081 ])aid for their farms 1)_\- working for 
him at fnim $10 to $12 a month — but died comparatively rich. Captain 

John 11. Townseiul cut wood at Hunt's liollnw to help pay for his first farm. 
But these stories of struggle and victory must be reserved. Lewis Gould — 
another who reached competence — commenced down at the bottom of the 
ladder. Great industry and perseverance, with a good sized modicum of com- 
mon sense, were essentials long ago, and no less so to-day. But it is 1817 we 
are thinking of. when Alleghany County was but eleven years old and with 
wild beasts far more common than men or domestic animals. In proof of 
this, is the fact that as late as 1S26 the lunuUy jiaid on wohes in .Mlegany 
County was S510, without thinning them out nuich. for the same rates ob- 
taineti for many years. 

L'nfortunately for historical research, the book that has given us more 
than a birds-eye view of early settlements leaves out Xunda and Portage in 1817 
four districts, giving us only the names of their path masters. Fortunately, 
the settlers who came to Xunda in 1817 were mostly permanent and of a type 
of men who make homes, highways, and history. George A\'. ^lerrick and his 
brother-in-law. James Paine, and a friend, Reuben Bates, who proved but a 
transient. \\'ith over 500 families of mostly young men the big town became 
a bee-hive of activity and, like bees, made preparations for sw-arming. 

There were not offices enough in one town to go around and Xunda, and 
its neighbor. Portage, which had quadrupled its population in the past two 
years, demanded that the place for voting be nearer the geographical center, 
on the natural dividing line of the Holland Purchase and the ^lorris Reserve. 

This demand resulted in the division of Xunda into two towns of equal 
size, on the 6th of March, 1818. The southern town was named Pike in honor 
of Gen. Zebulon Pike of historic memorv. 

Going to a P.artv 

XrxDA (Present Boundaries) from 1808 to 1817. 

FK( ).M 1808 to 181 1 there resided within the present limits of Xnnda only 
the three families already mentioned : Hates. Elderkim aiul Kiiii^slev — 
The lands were not in the market, and there were only Indian trails 
and n(.i roads. 

In 181 1, Thomas Austen, wife and children found their way either from 
Sparta or (Jssian into the town. The highway records give us, in 1812, Daniel 
Austen ; 1813, I. Austen and Josiah Austen; were they twins, or of a different 
family? In 1816, Joseph Austen. These dates suggest that they had just 
reached their majority. 

I'ifth family, B. Bada built a log house where the Livingston Building 
now stands. — the only house in the village prior to 1816. Though a squatter, 
he was the Adam of the future Garden of Eden, — Xunda village. His Eve was 
not mentioned, but, doubtless, they ate of all the fruit they found — berries, 
wild plums and crabapples — for all these grew here. He probably was crabbed 
enough when McSweeney, the Irish land agent, drove him out, that he might 
sell the land to James M. Heath, or some one else. Probably McSweeney was 
the next settler. 

i8ri. Reuben Collar, from Sparta, moved across the line, and probably 
took u]) the Isaac Whitenack farm, for Isaac bought his farm years after of 
his brother John, whose wife was a Collar. Collar was appointed pathmaster, 
and it is to be hoped he collared the big trees and made the highway, after 
having warned out all the other heads of families to assist. In 1812 he is again 
pathmaster, and this time he is not alone. The town clerk has given us for 
the first time all the names of the men in District No. 3, evidently all there 
were in Nunda and Portage at the time. Those in Nunda and Portage were 
Phineas Bates, Bela (this time called Poles), Elderkim 3. Ephraim Kingsley, 
Josiah Austen, Reuben Collar and Reuben Collar, Jr., Lori Huntington, all 
from Nunda, except No. 3, Ephraim Kingsley, who had moved to Portage. 

This first year of the war has thinned our settlement of three Austens, 
who either went back east for safety or west to Buffalo with the Sparta volun- 
teers. We are told some pioneers were as timid as others were bold, and our 
meager jiopulation greatly changed during these two years. 

1813. This year we have again these families, and the road district is 
divifled : the Nunda part, being the farthest south, gets to be No. i. Phineas 
Bates is pathmaster, with six days' work; Abela Elderkim, six days; Daniel 
Austen, two; Thomas Austen (returned), two; Alexander AIcNutt, four; 
David IVIcNutt, three ; Thomas Kennedy, two. 


James Bennet, wife and seven children settled in Nunda in 1813. The 
children were: James, Jr., Chester, who married and soon after moved to Oak- 
land. Three daughters were born to them — one moved west, Susan married Cor- 
nelius \'an Riper — the Miller at Oakland ; Mary married Simeon Hall, and lived 
at Oakland. She was an editor of the Sunday Department of the Buffalo Even- 
ing News and a poetess of some merit. She published a book of poems entitled 

= s 

"Live Coals." She died at Oakland in 1908. 3, Gaylord Bennet, lived in Nun- 
da twenty years; 4. X'incent; 5. Truman; 6. Levi. The daus;hter, T^ovina, 
was thrice married, i, Barak Tozer ; 2. Richard Bowen ; 3, Hiram Bishop. 
Her children were Barak Tozer, Jr.. an artist; James R. Bowen, a veteran, 
clergyman and author. He married Elizabeth I'ratt, and an estimable lady in 
the west, who survi\es him. Chester Bowen. veteran, married Josephine 
Colby; moved to Texas and died there in 1007. John J. Bowen. a \eteran, is 
still li\inL;', 

Airs. Bowen is authority for there being two camps of Indians in Nunda 
village ; one south of the High School, and one west of Bufifalo Street, in 1813. 

i<Si2. Thomas Kennedy, wife and minor sons (J. Kennedy became of 
age in i<Sl4, S. Kennedy in 1816). Daniel Roy, Levi and .A.sahel Herrington 
(a daughter of one of these married Robert GifTord ; L. D. Gilford, of Flunt, 
is a grandson ). 

icSi3. Air. Treat. (Sons, Seymore and Francis.) 

1814. Samuel L'tterley (probably L'tter). D. Corey and Daniel Corey; 
L Austen and J. .\usten returned this year. They had probably been soldiers 
from 1812 to 1814 l)ut as they lived to return, mention is made of it. The John 
Austen family, living in Nunda at the time of the Civil War. sent four sons 
into the service — good, patriotic blood can be transmitted. 

1813. .\bncr Tuttle. an uncle to .Mrs. Silas Roberts, came this year and 
located on the Keshequa trail, ( Alill house, Cooperville ). Two brothers, Stephen 
and Henry, two years later, north of hiin, also on the trail, but moved to Grove 
later. A daughter. Amy, of Abner Tuttle, ly years of age, died and was the 
first person buried in the cemetery at Nunda. Mrs. R. was living in the family 
at the time. Previous to this all burials had been at Oak Hill or at Wilcox 
Corners. James Campljell was a settler in 1815. 

John AlcSweeney, first land agent in Nunda for Luke Tierney, of Baltimore, 
(an honorary creditor of Robert Morris) took up his residence in Nunda on 
what was for many years the large farm of Russell Barnes. This farm ex- 
tended from Alill Street to Massachusetts Street, along Church Street, and 
included a good share of the Elmwood and the Jellerson lands to the Keshequa, 
lot 29. The land agent was intending to ha\e a fine estate of his own when 
he grew rich selling farms to others. ()ne small log house had an occupant 
on the site of the Livingston Block, and, anxious to make sales a little away 
from his coveted domain, he notified this tenant if he desired to stay he must 
])ay. Mr. B. Bada could not pay, so he ejected him after the fashion of the 
English landlords with their Irish tenants in Ireland. So Bada was driven 
out, but the squatters were in the majority, anil led by a sharp Portage petti- 
fogger, named Dickson, the}' won ,ill their cases against AlcSweeney and 
about 1819 or so they forced him to llee to Canada, as a "House of Refuge" 
from the settlers and from his superior, Luke Tierney. His wife, who was a 
high-bred Irish dame, was left in possession to pass her first winter in the 
wilderness of Nunda, not far from the Keshe(|ua. somewhere on the ])resent 
Barnes-Jellerson farm. 

And this story of Airs. AlcSweeney was long after told to the guests 
around the hospitable table of Deacon Russell Alessenger, at Oakland : 


It appears that ]Mrs. AlcSweeney, reared in Ireland near the western 
shore, had never seen any large amount of snow. Spending her winter alone, 
with no trading place nearer than Oakland, and few friendly to her husband, 
who had carried away with him their first payments for their farms, her life 
was extremely solitary and distressing. To add to her tribulation, a heavy 
snow storm piled up the snow around her log habitation and placed its two- 
foot depth of "the beautiful" between her domicile and the spring, much nearer 
to the Keshequa. She had food, plenty, but was out of water and expected 
to perish with thirst. A humane neighbor, though perhaps he lived a mile 
away, fearing she might be out of fuel, light or food, went to her house and 
offered his services. She had everything needed but water, and was sufi^ering 
from thirst. To his surprising inquiry, why she did not melt the snow, she 
replied that she did not know she could do it. 

She spent the winter there in comfort after this, but next spring sold to 
the Messengers and Fitches her silverware. The younger Messengers and 
Fitches were cousins, but the Messengers and Mrs. Bowhall were still nearer 
related, for Mrs. Bowhall was a sister Baptist. ^Irs. B. has seen the spoons 
and heard the story of the woman, who, like the perishing sailor, might have 
said, "^^'ater, water everywhere, Init nut a drop to drink." 


In 1816 Xoah Warren came through Xunda village with his brother-in- 
law, Schuyler Thompson, in search of a western home. Most of those who 
came now had friends somewhere near and always found the latch-string out 
even to a stranger. He has said he stopped the first night at the home of 
George Patterson, Sr., one of the funniest of all the pioneers in this section. 
The little hut, not over twelve feet square, and not much over six feet between 
joints, served as an abode for the night. Mr. Warren selected a home on the 
Norton tract, and went back to his eastern home, attracted by a magnet by the 
name of Ursula, and did not return until 1819. Schuyler Thompson found a 
home a little south of that in the town of Portage. 

181 5. Reuben Sweet, wife and children. 

Peleg Sweet, a brother. These men settled on the road south of ^^'alnut 
Street, and Reuben remained there for a decade or two. Peleg moved on to the 
south and settled in Grove-Nunda about 1823. 

In 1816 we find these additional names on the highway lists: probably 
they came the summer or autumn before : 

Samuel Wilsey, Jeremiah Broach, Michael Rhine, 

]\Iichael Rhine had a family, 

Xotr — A daughter of Michael Rhine died onh- a few years ago, an elderly 
married lady, the ancestress of one of the many families near the ( )ssian town 
line. I think she was the mother of Michael Reichard. 

1816. Eleazer Barnhard, located on the hill southeast of the village, and, 
it is said, with the assistance of four men, put up a log house in one day — 
Sunday at that — one log higher than the second floor, A Sunday's toil : "A 
Sunday well spent brings a week of content," This got into print at Utica, 
and led to the settlement in 1817 of George \\'. Merrick. Barnhard seems to 
have been a facetious chap, for he is reported as having said, when he finally 

settled on tlio hill, a little bird used to cry, "\\'i)rk or die !" IJeforc he left, the 
bird had changed his motto to "Cheat and Lie." That bird must have come 
from some earher settlement than Nunda. AlcSweeney, so far, was the only 
"cheat" in the town — there ha\-e been a jew others since. 

Recapitulation: We ha\-e mentioned ])re\'ious to 181(1, forty-two men, 
and, assuming that the heads nf families were married men and some had 
children, there must have been a jxjpulation at that time of at least eighty — 
probably one hundred — in this part of the big town. 


The Passages. 

I. Jacobus or Jacob Passage, m. Catharine Shoemaker. (Children, II; 
grandchildren. III, signifying second and third generation; b., born ; m., mar- 
ried ; d., died.) 

II. I. (Jeorge, m. Fletcher. 

II. 2. Margaret, m. Wm. Chilson. 

III. Daniel Chilson, a Nunda soldier, died in the service. 
Hannah Chilson, m. Travis. 

II. 3. John Passage 2nd, m. Elizabeth House. 

II. 4. Lanv, m. Andrew Bratt. 

II. 5. Christopher, m. h'anny Long. 

II. (). David, h. 1807, m. CJrplia Havens. 

H. 7. Llizabeth, b. 1812, m. ^Jolin S. Culver; also his brother, Ilamden 
Culver ; d. 1875. 

HI. Mary A. Culver, b. 1834; single; resided in Dalton. 
Martha A., b. 183(1; d. 

Lydia, m. ist, Leander Saliin of Xunda; Jnd, John Kell\- of .\unda. 
Stella, died ( young lad}- 1 . 

II. 8. Rachael Passage, m. John \'an Sickle. 

II. 9. Sophia, b. 1817, in Xunila; ni. Marcellus Andress. 

II. 10. Daniel Passage, m. Xancy W bite ; 1). in Grove Xunda, Aug., 1820. 
Mrs. Daniel Passage is still living. She was the second child burn nf white 
people in (irove. Daniel Passage mo\'ed back to Xumla half a centur\- ago 
and built the Sanitarium that only awaits the right manager to make the min- 
eral sjirings of Xunda famous, and a modern liethseda. 

HI. Martha, m. Daniel Price. There are two more generations of this 
family li\-ing in modern Nunda in R. S. Dana's familv. 

I. John Passage (brother to Jacob), a pioneer local Methodist preacher, 
who sometimes preached with his hat on, m. a widow, Mrs. Bratt. 

II. (Children.) 

Andrew, m. Harriet Hungerford (sister to A'irgil Hungerford). 
Wesley, m. ; had a large family. 

A grandson of Wesley Passage, lived in Portage, ]\Ioses became a 

merchant of the Departinent Store tyiie. 

Children of David and Orpha Havens Passage 
HI. Mary Jane Passage, m. ^Gardner Milliman. Gardner .Milliman was 
a Nunda soldier, 22nd New York ; died in the service. 


IV. Mark Alilliman. 

III. 2. Hannah Passage, m. Martin Donahue. Martin Donahue ni. 2 
Mrs. \\'escott of Xunda. 

IV. LiUie Donaliue, m. 
III. 3. Henry Passage. 

II. Peter Passage (son of James; nephew of Jacob, Johni, m. Harriet 
Ward ; 2. Pena Groce. Second marriage after 85 years of age. 

III. I. George Passage, m. Charlotte Lyon, daughter of J. S. Lyon. 

2. Ward Passage. 

3. Roxana, m. Harrison Colton. 
* Deceased. 

The Passage family, had they all remained in Xunda, would have added 
greatly to the population of the town. They moved to Grove and helped out 
there. Peter Passage, al\va}-s }'oung, though horn about 1810. married, a few 
years before his death, one of his former sweethearts. She was nearlv an 
octogenarian, and he was several years older. All this goes to prove that in 
Nunda the hearts of the people never grow old. He died in 1904, aged 94. 


Deacon Schu}'Ier Thompson came to Xunda in 1816 with Xoah Warren 
and remained, locating in Portage — Xunda. 


.\ Story of Longevity, and a Three Life Lease 
About 1815 or 1816, James Wadsworth, the pioneer, the first of the illus- 
trious four that ha\e honored that name, leased to James Pirewer, who was 
born perhaps 140 years ago, a farm at Minden, whh a rental of one peck of 
wheat an acre, as long as James Brewer, or his eldest daughter, Asenath, b. 
December 14, 1807, or his eldest son, Daniel, 1). August 10, 1809, should live. 
Brewer selected lands similar to those here in the village, slightly wooded, and 
for the reason that these lands did not produce well at first, too sour or too 
exhausted from squaw culture, the first crop was a failure, so Brewer sold out 
his claim to a second party, subject to the three-life lease, and came to live in 
Nunda. This time he chose the hillside and located on the farm afterwards 
owned by Hiram Merrick, grandfather of Prof. Merrick Whitcomb. When 
the family came in 1818, his family consisted of himself, and his wife, (Grimes) 
Brewer; Asenath, b. 1807; Daniel, 1809; Amy, 1811; James, 1813, and Eliza- 
beth, 1815. Melissa, the baby, was born January 26, 1818. He lived on his 
farm, cleared a spot, and sowed it to turnips, and this was his entire crop for 
the first year. He lived here until 1820. Amy and Melissa died, and there 
being no cemetery in Nunda they were buried on the farm. About this time 
Mrs. Brewer's brothers, Alvin and Richard Grimes, settled on East Hill, and 
the heartsick mother, wanting to be near her brothers, the family mo\-ed to 
their neighborhood. Here otir venerable townsman, the late Jesse Brewer, 
was born, January 4, 1820, and was next to the Paine twins, being the third 
child born, so far as known, in the town. The family lived here about three 
years and another son, Joel, was born, December 28, 1822. The family, un- 
able to cope with the big pine stumps, whose roots spread out o\'er at least a 


rod of land, moved to Grove-Nunda, and Brewer's Corners marks their place 
of settlement. Here the beech and maple stumps were less troublesome and 
here on June i. 1825, our }ount;- townsman. Nelson Brewer, was born, and two 
years later, Clark Brewer, the younyest of the large household. Here they 
paid for the farm, and wishing to raise winter wheat, returned to Portage 
and Xunda. To return to the lease, when it had run half a century, investiga- 
tion was made to see if any of the "three" were living. All were li\'ing, and 
the farm was worth now .$100 an acre. ( 'nly thirty years ago the Minden 
farmer came to Xunda, to see if any of the precious lives (to him they were 
precious) existed, and found that the son and daughter were b(ith living; the 
daughter, .Mrs. Asenath Chase, of Lakeville, lived near him; ten years more 
pass, and Ixith were still alive; but nearly ninety }-ears after the lease was 
given, Mrs. Asenath Chase died, in the }-ear i<)05, in the 99th year of her long, 
active life. This story is not as godd as when told me by Nelson l^rewer, of 
Mill Street (Stilson House), fnr then she was still alive. Her sister. Mrs. 
Elizabeth Kingman, now onl\' ijj, when last heard fnim was doing the house- 
work for her son-in-law, and still writes family letters to her }Oung brother, 
Nelson, who is only 82. Jesse lirewer lived to a great old age also, and 
claimed that he Avas the first white child born in the town of Nunda. Mrs. 
Effie Brewer Chidsey is the granddaughter of Daniel Brewer, the youngest 
party of the three, of the Three Life T.ease. Homer Brewer, a son of Daniel, 
no longer voung, is still an active man, and lives in the town. Joel Brewer at 
one time kept the I'.agle Hotel, and afterward lioarded students. Joseph 
Mosher, son of William, an early piimeer, die<l at the Brewer boarding house. 
Mrs. Joel Brewer, now the widow <if W'ni. C. I~uller, lives with her son in 
Rochester, lames Brewer died while cimijiaratively young. The widow of 
his son, Henrv, is still a citizen of Xunda. Mrs. Kingman and Nelson Brewer 
are the onlv ones living of the James Brewer family who came to Nunda when 
the village was principally noted for its berry bushes, where the older children 
of the family came to pick Ijerrics. 


Clark and Havillah Brewer were cousins to Daniel, James, Joel, Nelson 
and Clark. 

Havilla married a Gifl:'ord, and afterward the widow of Barnard Wagor, 
the father of Walter Wagor. 

Clark Brewer, 2nd, was then the only son. He died in Colorado a few 
years ago. 

Clark (brother to Havilla). married Chase, sister to Sheriff Chase 

of Livingston County. Their daughter Mary, a beautiful young lady, mar- 
ried and soon after died. 

This branch of the Brewer family is extinct. 

Our Permaxext Settlers — Lmportaxt Local History. 

ONE thought I would burn into the soul of every young American ; our 
Republic is great, not because of the amount of dirt we possess, or the 
size of our census roll, but because of the genius of the race of pioneer 
white freemen, who settled this continent, dared the might of Kings, and blazed 
the way through the wilderness for the trembling feet of liberty." 

Thomas Dickson. Jr.. Author of the Leopard Spots. 

Nothing in the past is dead to a man who would learn how the present 
comes to be what it is, and with retrospective glance seeks the source of present 


James Paine, the first permanent settler of Nunda, was born in Litchfield 
County, Conn., January 27, 1783, at the close of the Revolutionary War. He 
moved to Herkimer County in 1800 and a few years later married Polly (Alary) 
Dana. He moved with his wife and two sons to Nunda, March 15, 1817. 
( Though not the first ])ioneer of our present township, he may be called th;; 
first permanent settler.) Two of his sisters with their families soon followed, 
Mrs. Zervia Merrick, wife of George \V. Merrick, the same year, and his sis- 
ter Betsey, Mrs. William P. Wilcox, in 1820 or 22. Mr. Paine arrived in the 
huge town of Nunda, in time for the town election and walked to the place of 
voting (in Pike), it took one day to go, he voted (second day) and returned 
( third day ) . He was a large, vigorous man, and it is said that he carried a bag 
of wheat, the first he raised, or bought, to Dansville, on his back, had it ground 
into flour and returned with it ihe ne.xt flay. Recently a descendant of George 
W. Merrick, tells the same stor\- of George W. Merrick. This does not hurt 
the story at all — possibly they went together on their fifteen mile jaunt, and to 
use an Irish witticism, for they may have reasoned the same way: "Sure mon 
there's two of us, it is only siven miles and a half a piece." Certainly in good 
company the distance did not seem so great. W'e may be tempted to ask, why 
did they not use a horse? Because the blazed path was too narrow and they 
were both _\oung and strong. 

The Paines were pioneers by nature and lineage, the Paine family were 
said to be pioneers also in the State of Connecticut. The sons who came to 
Nunda were Earl Judson, who was born at Paine's Hollow, Herkimer County, 
(the name indicates the\' were pioneers there also), March 24, 1807, and his 
brother Lucius F., born 1809. These boys 10 and 8 years of age lived in Nunda 
until they were the last oi those pioneers that were here in 1817. Mr. Earl J. 
Paine was an authority concerning events of these early times, and among many 
other things records that Mary Jemison fi-om Gardeau was frequently a visitor 
at the early home of the family. As the Indians took their families with them on 
their annual Autumnal hunt for winter supplies of meat, no doubt this white In- 
dian came and was a welcome caller at many a settlers cabin. Earl was a farmer 
and lumberman and owned a fine farm that he carved out of a primitive wil- 
derness. All such were benefactors. 


The whole faniilv m Xunda has consisted of four generations: 

I. James, I'aine. (liei! A|)ril 8, i(S()i). Aged 83. Married I'ollv Dana, 
Septemljcr 2~, 1850. iJorn November 10, 1803, Died, aged 6q. 

II. I. Earl Judson, born March 24, 1807. iMarried in 1827 to Catherine. 
Grimes, daughter of Richard (Irimos. Dieil I'ebruar\ 23, i87<). 

III. I. .\nn M., bnrn 1828, marrieii i'rof. Lluck, X'incenncs. Ind. 2. 
Wells, born 1830, married 1832, { 1 ) lunily Ij. i'hilhps, Wyoming Countv. Died 
1870. (2) Celia M. Doolittle, born (Jtsego County, 1844, married 1871, who 
survives hiiu. 

I\', I, *Carrie .\., married Frank B. Chittenden. 

\". I. Two lixing children, Harry and Ada. I\'. 2. Ma}' C, married I'latl 
C. Halstead. 3. Earl D. 4. Fred E. 

II. 2. *Lucius V. I'aine, born i8oO- Mechanic, (machinist) and manu- 
tacturer. Died h'ebruary 12, 1883. Married Emmaline Hopkins, daughter o*- 
Charles and Emma fl. Died 1880. 

HI. I. *Mary, died in infancy. 2. Mary Hovey (adopted) married 
*Stephen llarrett, teacher. (Have a family 01 children.) 3. John (adopted) a 
tailor — went away and ne\er returned. 

( I'lrst births among permanent settlers.) 

H. 3 and 4. *James Almiron and Mary Almira, born Xovember 12, i8ig, 
who (M. A.) married Rev. Lyman Stilson. Died March 30, 1857. 3. James 
Almiron, married (I) *Lucretia Putnam: (2) *Esther Greenwood. Xo chil- 
dren by first marriage. 

Adopted Sarah Flovey. Married Jnhn 1). Grimes. See Grimes-Hovev 

Adopted .\lfred J'ame (a relative I, m;''Tied a Miss Coxe. 

Children of J. A. and Esther ( G. ) I'aine. Born in Xunda. 

HI. I. Grace, a ])rofession^l Xormal Teacher. 2. Allison James. Iiorn iii 
JSIunda. Married Minnie Rockfellow, daughter of Charles and Sojihia 
(Walker) R. 

Their children 

I\'. I. Adeline and John. 

*J. A. Paine for many years carried the L'. S. Mail l)etween Dalton and 
Nunda, and had a stage line between these ]:)laces. He died at the age of 80. 


X'ephews of James Paine, Pioneer. 

Other giants of a Gigantic Pace 

I. 1832 — William D. Paine and Carlos Grant I'aine. These brothers built 
the X'unda House in 1836. William D. Paine, millwright, built many saw-mills. 
Married Samantha Rice, daughter of E. Rice. 

II. William H. Paine married Ella Hitchcock, daughter of M. and S. 
Hitchcock. See picture Civil List. 

II. Laura Paine unmarried. 

III. William, a schoolboy, son of William and Ella (H) Paine. 

I. 1832 — Carlos Grant, farmer (lOoA) and lumberman, IJorn in Herki- 
mer County, February 20, 1811. Died. Married T, Jernsha Swift. I'xirn 18' ■■ 
married 1835: died 1853. 


11. 1. IV'los S.. horn in Xuiuhi, 1S40, _:;. I'aniiic 11., Imni in Xnnila, 
lS_v'^. Slio \\a,s a teacher ni .\nn<la. .\larrieil i\e\ . Aiha liiwii. who ilieil at 
SpeneeriHirl. luoS. _'. illavriet Ti.. Imrn in .Xninla, iS_^(i. I 

SecoHil iiiarriai^e i>^54. Mrs. Xaiiey Sweet I'.unlick. Horn 1 )ela\vare 
Comity, 1S17, 

Son of C. G. and X". S. 1'.. I'aine. 

4. Xatlian .\.. born in Xunihi, iSot. 

I. .\hrahani Knnliek, horn iSoi. .Married Xaney Sweet. Hieil 1X50. 

II. h"./ra I'.nrilick ( \eteran ). horn i.'^45. .Married Stonobrook. 

.Mar\ jane Hnrdiek. horn 1S41. t. .Mrs. (.ioodeinont. _'. .Mrs. J. W. Smith. 
*Abram I'.nrdiek. \ et. (.'av. Pied in the ser\-iee. Henjaniin Rans^o (lived in this 
tamilx). veteran I i\'il War. 


l.neins I". Paine, (a boy Pioneer of Xnnda). tells his stiiry of I'ioneer days. 
I lo was eight years of age when he came to Xunda in iStj. 

"Tlie early settlers lived a life of rousjhness and severity compared to the 
lives of their descendants. Living in houses bnilt from lo,t;s hewed from the 
forests which surrounded them : subsisting from the meager patches of land 
iiurrieilly cleareil. oi' on the scant surplus of products produced by some earlier 
settler, often many miles away, toiling early and toiling late, and dressing in 
hoinesi>un from their e^wn family looms : theirs was a rugged life and demanded 
more than ordinary perseverance and self-denial to procure a living for them- 
selves and families. Shingle making ami lumbering was at tirst a somee of 
gain, the former being made at the rate of lifty cents a thousand, and the best 
lumber .selling for two dollars per thousand feet. ( .\nd lice comes in the com- 
petisation in a boy's life from incessant daily toiP. In those days deer were 
abundant. There were also some bears and elk. but not so many. Wolves 
were so plentiful that the settlers could keep but few shee]\ and a reward of sev- 
eral dollars was iiaid by the town for the killing of each wolf. Wheat drawn to 
Rochester, a three tiays' journey, brought three shillings and sixpence a bushel 
It cost twelve dollars a \ear to get delivered a small paper published in 
Genesee' '" 

This record of pioneer life, with its evidences of light pocketbooks ami 
heavy toil, coming front the home experiences of this once boy pioneer, furnishes 
a glance of James Paine and his sons, making their best pine lumber into shin- 
gles to be sold for a little cash or for groceries, while the patient Polly and her 
daughter .\lmira spin and weave the wools, so much needed for winter clothing. 

"Say sons and grandsons of the pioneers 
Is not your life a happier one than theirs?" 


Reuben I'.ates whc> came with James Paine to Xunda. if he settled at all in 
X'unda, nnist have been a transient. 

John Eisamon did the same but a year or so later, he followed or preceded 
some of his neighbors to the 1 Hitch Settlement in Grove. Good titles to lands 
could there be obtained. 

.\le.\ander Bailey, it is said by his grandcb.ildren, tarried a year or two in 
Ximda before coming to Grove to reside, if so, he may have been one of the 
Bailevs on Pot 1 who were here in verv earlv davs. 


The derricks, George W'., Hiram 1'.., Susan AJerrick. 

George \V. .Merrick married /er\ia I'ame. sister ut James Paine, Sr. 

Settled in Xuncia 1S17. i le bought the lialt acre clearing ni lileazar 
liarnard with log iiouse and 30 acres of land, lor $40 in gold. .Mr. .Merrick 
had read sumewhere in a ne\vs|)ai)er that a man liy the name if I'.arnard iiad 
with the assistance of five others, on a certain .Sunda\-, gone intci the woods, 
chopped the logs and laid up a log cabin as high as the chamber lldur and one 
log higher before sundown, in the tdwn of Xnnda. < )n reaching Xunda. Mr.. 
Alerrick found this ijlace and i)nrchased the claim with its improvements, con- 
sisting of a log house twel\-e feet S(|uare. and (ine half acre cleared lanrl. sowed 
to turnips. 

He raised the logs live feet higher and put im a roof of shake shingles 
(shingles about three feet long), ma<le by himself, and fastened down with 
jioles, without using a nail, l-'ive hundred feet of boards for finishing purposes, 
was all he c<iuld prdcure. 'fhese were ijrobably procured at the Bennett & 
.Xichols settlement, afterward cal'ed Hunt's Hollow. Air. Merrick with his 
brother-indaw I'aine and Wilcox (William 1'.). have been credited with laving 
out the state road in 1S24. others like Captain John H. Townsend and the War- 
rens claim to ha\e assisted and doubtless they widened the road after it was 

Air. Alerrick's ahllit\ ti> do things was well known and he was soon after 
coming elected Justice of the I'eace. (an office that became elective about 1817), 
and held this position for U> years. He was su]K*rvisor of the town of Xunda_ 
for si.\ years. Higher offices would have been withm the scope of his abilit\' 
and within the circle of his well deserved pupularitv. but for an infirmit\. (he 
became very deaf), that rendered ol'fice liolding at .\lban\- impracticable. 

Airs. Zer\ ia Merrick's popularity was as great as that of her husljand. re- 
sultin.g in her s. :nv.\>hat unusual name becoming a favorite one in the com- 
mnnit\-. She died m .Xunda and is buried ni ( )akwood Cemetery. It is said 
li\^ a granddaughter nf ( u-rge W. Alerrick, that he arrived in .Xnmla with one 
hnrse and a ycike nf nxen. There was great scarcity of feed for horses or cattle 
in the year following the cold season of 1816, when there was frost every month 
and hearing of a settler that had hay to sell, he went the next day (Sunday) to- 
secure some. TJie farmer lived somewhere south of the present village down the 
creek. There were onl\ a few people then in Xunda and it being .Sundav the set- 
tler refused to sell the h;i\ until Alonday. "lint." said Alerrick. ■■m\- live stock 
have been on the road a great many days, are used u]) anil are starving, the,- 
nnist have something to eat." "I will not sell iiay or anything else on" 
insisted the settler. "Then I will take it and jiay you later." And take it he did. 
This gives us a fair type of two classes of men. the one a sensible practical man: 
the other, a formatistic, pietistic pharisee, who had neglected to read intelligentU- 
tlie Great Alaster's conclusion on Sabbath keeping: namely, "Wherefore it is 
right to do good on the .Saljbath day." I was pleased when Airs. Ross told me 
this story, for I felt I was better acquainted with her grandfather whom I had 
never s]ioken to. but had often seen, when T was a vouth. 


'flic cliiKlrtii ol (.icorj;!.' W". ;uul /.er\-ia ( I'aino ) Merrick were: 

11. I, Delos iMerrick, born in Xunda. Alarried Alvira Cliase, East Street, 
Xuiula. J. Alonzo Merrick, born in Xnmla. Married Julia, daughter of Amos 
B. Darker of Xinula. 

Delos Merrick was in many respects as nuich of a I'aine as a Merrick. 
Strona:, vigorous, resoUue, energetic, a mar. wlio tlid his own thinking-, and mad.e 
"Reason" rather than "Ritual" or "Tradition" his pilot and guide. 

Mrs. Almira (Chase) Merrick, the autiioi- remembers as a matronly woman 
with a pleasant face and a fine physique. She died recently. 

Their children \n ere daughters : 

*Julia. a teacher, married ( \) "'Wilbur Wood, of Davenport, la. 

Children — i. Endora. 2. Julia, v Daisey, and 4. Delos. 

2. Mr. Powell, President Street l\ailwa\, was killed by being run over h,- 
the cars at Wichita, Kan. 

Kittie Clarissa, a teacher in Xew \ ork and the West. Married William 
Ross, residence Sparta, X. J. 

Mary married Joseph I\Ieigs. 

1. Hiram Merrick married Esther Richardson. 

The \ear of settlement is not given. This family, unlike their relatives ot 
the Richardson and Wilcox families, were L'niversalists. It required 'some cour- 
age and strength of will to espouse a cause, which like early Christianit}" "was 
everywhere spoken against," 

It must have been in the Merrick makeup of blood, brawn and brain, to be 
brave, strong and self reliant, to be themselves, instead of being pocket editions 
of pedagogues and parsons, who were supposed by most peojile in those days as 
the possessors of imlimited knowledge and truth. 

A charge of heresy and the fate of ostracism, awaited those who dared to 
reason for themselves in those days, when Puritan Calvinism tlominated 'ii 
church circles. Even Methodism was tabooed and Universal Love less ac- 
ceptable than even universal maligniity. 

"Bless me and my wife, my son John and his wife, us four and no more. 
Amen." was a somewhat exaggerated statement of the family prayers and 
eschatolog:y in Calvinistic households even fifty years ago. 

And what is the writer doing but repeating the thoughts of his anti-Calvin- 
istic mother. 

The children of Hiram B. ^lerrick were mostly girls with masculine 
,niinds, and possessors of the Merrick makeup, supplemented by the devout 
spirit of the Richardsons. Their intellectuality, their freedom from fetters, 
their zeal for progress, progressive piety and patriotism, made them poor con- 
servatives, poor imitators, but natural leaders among their own sex. Con- 
spicuouslv so was Fidelia J. Merrick Whitcomb, a true logician, a subtle rea- 
soner, a bom theok^gian. a social leader. In theology a pronounced Univer- 
salist. in politics a Republican, she could make votes if she could not vote. A 
student of medicine for the sake of medical knowledge, she became not only 
the possessor of an il. D. degree from Boston University, but became a skilled 
practitioner. "She saved others, herself she could not save," from death, 
from an incurable malady. 


In the time of our Civil War, lier leadership led to the (loins;- of great 
thin,L;s for the soldiers. Since the united, efforts of the patriotic women of 
.Xunda. led hy their strongest church leaders, Mrs. Whitconib, Mrs. Britton, 
Mrs. King and .Mrs. Merrick, working together in perfect harmonv, there has 
been more of the spu'it of the Master in the churches and less of that bigotry, 
tdci common in this coninnmity. .\t this time, all were ])atriots. llaxing 
worked together in the cause of humanity, it was easier to beheve in the 
r.rotherhood of man — and to fnid a larger sphere of inclusivness in the greatest 
dnctrine of the Gospels — 'flu hatlarlKK id of ( iod. 

11. I. Mrs. F. J. M. Whitcondi died at Tarpon S])rings, and was buried 
there. Had she been luu"ied here the wreath aiid llag we bestnw, in gratitude 
til those who lii\ed and served their country in the hnur of her peril, woidd 
not l)e out of place mi the gra\e of this ardent patriot. 

Her sisters w ere : 

2. Elvira, who married Henry Del'uy, who was jirivatc secretary to 
Governor Horatio .Seymore. 

3. I'amelia, who married Miles Cowen, has a son. Hall Coweii, Windsor, 

4. M<ises Merrick, the \'ouiigest member of the household, is liest renieni- 
bered as the accomplished clerk in the store of his brother-indaw, Walter B. 
Wdiitcomb. He married ^lary Craig, oi Xunda. 

For further information concerning the \\'alter 1'.. Whitomib faniilv, see 
AX hitcomb Familw 1S34. 

I. 3. Susan Alerrick was a pioneer teacher of Xunda at least So \-ears 
ago, when the llarkertown school first existed, and when our octogenarian, 
Munson O. Barker, first attended school. She was a \ounger sister of G. W. 
and H. B. Merrick. .She was married to Luther, son of William Warren. 

CH.\PTER \l. 

Subdivision of Towx — Nund.\ r.\KTs with Four Sections — Centeuville, 
K.vci.ic, I'iKE .\xi) Hume — Cexterville's Imrst Settler .\ Wnw 

Tllli town of L'enterville formed half of the western boundar\ of the town 
of Xunda for ten years. Its first settler, the "Monarch of all he sur- 
veyetl" was a very king of a new realm, with energy enough to supply 
a whole dynasty of monarchs. 1 le was only a barefoot boy of eighteen, the 
proud possessor of an axe, that niightv talisman whose transforming power was 
of more value to him than a dozen crowns and scepters. He came from ( )tsego 
County to Pike in the early sjiring of 1808, which made him a Xunda citizen. 
He must have been a dreamer of pr(jsperity, a sentimental youngster, with a 
vivid imagination of achiexemeiits to be realized. His storv as told b\- Turner 
is as follows 

"The advent of Jose])h Maxsoni, into this iirimitive wilderness is worthv 
of notice. He was only 18. two cents and a few articles of provisions and cloth- 
ing constituted his wealth. .At I'ike he took from his feet a pair of new slmes. 
bartereil them for an axe. and ])ushed on into the wilderness, and in the center of 

the township near a small stream, ercctcil the rudest kind of a hut. i'"or a bed 
he peeled basswood bark, used some pieces as a floor and others for covering. 
Not long after he came snow fell six inches deep. He persevered in his labors 
and passed eight months alone. In the books of the land office an entr\- made 
July 22, 1808, shows that he had fi\'c acres cleared, which probablv meant no- 
thing more than felling the trees and burning them. He raised a few bushels 
of corn and some potatoes the first year, and had two acres prepared and |)ut in 
to wheat that fall. 

"Success attende<l the youn^' pioneer. He became an earlv tavern keeper 
and the owner of a large and well ini|)rove(l farm. After the countr\- was con- 
siderably cleared up he became resti\-e, snld out in the forties, went to Wiscon- 
sin and engaged in building mills. ( 1 lere is where the sentiment comes in.) 
He preserved for years, one of the cent.; lie fore Uientioncd, one kernel of the 
seed corn of 1808, and an old wooden fan with which he cleaned the first wheat 
raised in town." 

Of all the pioneer stories to be told of the settlers of Xunda, it is doubtful 
if there are any more indicative of self-reliance and energy. The record does 
not even say he had a gun to supply food for his table — was the one cent spent 
for a fish hook? If so. it helps to explain how this youth made his few articles 
of provision last so well. Did he tra]) his game?' Did he carrv ashes to Pike to 
sell for needed stores? How was his seed wheat secured? Ah, the pioneer, 
kinder than men of to-day, would sell to men of energy, without monev as will- 
ingly as to men with a well filled purse. 


.\ man by the name of Thatcher kept the first inn. Most of these wayside 
inns return to their original use as private homes, but retain the appearance of 
hotels. Strong Warner kept another. 


To one of these, probabl\ the one on the Allegany Road, a belated traveler 
from our modern village, now a well known merchant, and a favorabh' known 
■citizen, drew reins over a tired horse, and seeing the host and hostess of an inn 
sitting at ease on their [liazza, aske<l to be entertained for the night. He stated 
he had expected to reach the place of his destination, but the roads being heavv 
his horse had tired and he had concluded to complete the journey on the morrow-. 
The man on the porch asked him how far he had come. He answered "from 
.\unda." About twenty miles, though it seemed to be much farther. "I should 
like to accommodate a man from Xunda, for 1 once lived in Xunda myself. I 
kept a hotel there many years ago." "Indeed," said the traveler from Xunda, 
now on the familiar ground of long acquaintance with the town, "which hotel, 
the Xunda House, or the Eagle?" "Xeither," said mine ancient host, "it was 
this place, this wayside inn." "Hut this is Centerville not Xunda," said our 
traveler. "True," said mine host, "but Centerville was in Xunda ten years, and 
my good w'ife and 'me' kept this hotel then. We were young and strong then, 
but we are neitlier of us strong enough to do that kind of work now, and you 
will have to go on to the next hotel though I hate to send a X'unda man away." 
And Joseph Lovell. genial Joe, otherwise well informed, who had grown to man- 

hood in \uii<la, had learned a lesson in local geography, that none of his teachers 
could teach, because they did not know of "Greater Xunda" and its "Long- 
House" from 1808-1818. 


Centerville history of a later time is interesting, but is not strictly within 
the scope of this sketch. A few more statements relating to the children of 
these pioneers may be germane. Ellen Higgins, one of the daughters of Russf 11 
Higgins, attained considerable celebrity as a physician in New York City. A 
.son of Packard Bruce, Edward S. Bruce, was a sherifif of Allegany County, 
and a daughter married Hon. Henry M. Teller, once Secretary of the Interior, 
from whom. Major George J\I. Lockwood, recommended by William H. Kelsey, 
received the appointment of chief clerk ; both filled their positions with honor. 


The Town of E.vgle — Nund.-v — Tough Ti.mes — Tim Bl-ckl.-\nd"s Tricks — 
Tipsy Customs — First Town Meeting. 

THE town of Eagle, once the northwest corner of the town of Xunda, was 
cut ofT with Pike from Nunda March 18, 1818, and it separated from 
Pike January 21, 1823. It lies on the summit of Western New York. 
Its water courses are tributary to streams whose waters reach Lakes Erie and 
Ontario and also the Gulf of Mexico. These streams at one time abounded with 
trout. It is said that Timothv Buckland often put a grain bag into one of th.' 
streams at the head of Spring Glen, and caught half a bushel at once. As thii 
is a "fish story," it would be folly to dispute it. 

William and Silas Hodges, and hired man Smith, were first settlers. W'l- 
liam ran away from his home in Massachusetts when 19 years of age. Silas 
bought his time. Both were minors, but William had a magnet that drew him 
back to Herkimer County, so had Silas, William married the magnet. Miss 
Abigail Howard of that county, in February, 1808. Soon afterward the three 
men came to Nunda (Eagle), settled on Lot 8 and Smith felled the first timber 
in the town. A log house was built. Both Hodges returned to Herkimer and both 
returned married men (the magnets did not come with them to Eagle at first). 
In April, 1809, Silas came with an ox team and William hired his brother-in-law, 
with a horse team to move him and his, including wife and furniture, to their 
new habitation. They covered their chimney when going east to keep out the 
snow, when they returned, they found the house had been used by the Indians, 
who unaccustomed to chimneys, did not remove the cover, and the house had the 
appearance of a smoke house. In a few days the two brides, with a liberal use 
of water, ashes, and sand, had restored this primitive bark roofed cabin to all its 
former "elegance." Besides having a bark roof it had a floor, made of split 
basswood logs, and doors made of the same material. Necessity, in pioneer 
days, was the fruitful mother of Invention. In 1809, William planted an orchard 
of apple trees, i. e., he planted the seeds of the apples they brought with them and 
fifty trees rewarded his effort. Three of these trees were standing in 1880. Early 
history fails to tell of marriages unless they were of those with the ceremony in 


the town, hut first marriages in tnwn. first births and first deaths, are sure to be 
a matter of local history. Alanson. son of Silas Hodges, born October 13, 1809, 
was the first child horn in Eagle-Xunda. 


With the citizens who came to (Eagle-Pike, i. e., after 1818 or to Eagle 
after January 23, 1823), the jiioneer history of Nunda has nothing to do. Some 
of them, however, like Timotli\ Auckland in 1833, a pioneer of Centervillc, serve 
so well to illustrate a class of |)ir)neers whose skill with rod, seine and gun, make 
them especially interesting to the young. We therefore give this phase of his 
career. Timothy Buckland came from N'ermont to Centervillc. He was a suc- 
cessful sportsman. His choice of locatii)n was governed by the abundance of 
fish and game. He had been a sailor and having lost the sight of his right eye by 
smallpox while at Liverpool, shot left handed, and a truer shot never lived in 
town. When seventy years of age, he was seen to center a snowball at ten rods 
distance, oii'hand. He came to Eagle in 1822, but did not purchase a farm until 
1833. While at Centervillc he killed 24 bears. 75 wolves, on which the bounty 
amounted to $750, and deer unnumbereil. He was also a successful trapper of 
mink, sable, foxes, racoon, etc. He caught a number of foxes in his wolf trai>s 
setting the traps in a spring. 

.-\ habit acquired at sea, was to save his rations of rum ( some other tars did 
the same) and on .Saturday nights, if weather and duty i3ermitted, they wmiM 
bring out their can of rum an<l have a jolly time spinning sea yarns, singing 
songs, and drinking. Buckland could sing songs all night without repeating 
one. This habit acquired at sea he kept up, to some extent, during his life. 
Sometimes these cans would last several days. The last day he would be asleep 
for an hour or two then get up, and take a drink or two, sing a song or two, go 
out ancl shin up the side post to show how the sailors climbed; on these occa- 
sions he wore only his night attire. He tanned the skins of the deer he killed. 

his wife, made the skins up intn gloves, mittens, moccasins, and when the 
skin was a light one into a vest. While the family lived in Centervillc, two 
miles from any neighbor, with the wolves howling on every side. Airs. Buckland 
would go on horseback through the forest visiting her neighbors very often 
alone, and enjoy the ride as well as the visit. The route was where the Roch- 
ester and State Line or Pittsburg Railroad now runs through the curner of Cen- 
tervillc and into the town of Ereedom. 


Mr. Buckland was known as I'ncle Tim, ;nid he was often heard to say, 
that when he set foot on the Holland Purchase, he had only eighteen pence and 
a chew of tobacco. He delighted in playing tricks on tavern-keepers, and he 
knew them all for miles around. He sent Dan Burrows, then keeping tavern in 
Castile, a quarter of wolf, for venison. Dan returned his thanks, acconi])anied 
with a paper of choice lettuce seed, with particular directions how to prepare 
the soil and to sow the seed. Tim bit the hook as greedily as any "gudgeon of 
the pond" and in due time Uncle Tim had a fine bed of luxuriant bull thistles. 

Cherry lumber was plentiful, of large size, and for those times brought espe- 
cially the wider boards, a large price, i. 0.. from ,$20 to S30 per thousand, every 
inch in width above twcntv brintring an additional dollar. 

Colonel G. G. Pre} ( of the 104th 1 ami a brother-in-law. when this cherry 
timber grew scarce found a stnb fitly feet high whose top had blown ott. Thev 
bought it and got five splendid logs, about 2 1-2 feet in iliameter. Two miles 
south lived Jesse Dutton, who weighed 410 pounds. It was proposed, in jest, to 
sa\-e a few of the widest boards for Uncle Jesse's coffin. In a slmrt time those 
very boards were used for this purpose. 


The first town meeting was held at the home of Selh Wetmore, agreeable 
to an act of the Legislature, fixing place and date, i'"ebruary 11, 1823. Dan 
Beach (the saddler innkeeper) presided at the board after innkeeper fashion. 

The author gives an account of this first town meeting of this I'pland town, 
to bring out one of its peculiarities. It was a jolly aflrair. In the room where 
the votes were polled, (good Wyoming Co. authority says), there was a barrel 
of whiskey, and on the table where the ballot box sal, and which was sur- 
rounded by the official board, were a decanter and glasses. (Remember the\- 
were no longer West Xunda;. Surely this differs from the past and present 
custom in Puritan Xew England, of opening every town meeting with prayer, 
— this custom the author had witnessed in New Hampshire, but never in Xe\\ 
York, and the extremes in these customs from the Eastern States and what was 
West Xunda, is at least worthy of notice. I would hate to swear even on a 
"Pilgrims Progress" that in. Xew England, two centuries ago, that the clergy- 
men present for duty and the ■"Select Men " as the\ call their highest town offi- 
cials, were not given a glass of Xew England rum on these great occasions. At 
least, the author has the statement of Hon. John Randolph that "Xew England 
rum was the only thing that could take the taste of New England Calvinism out 
of the mouth." Possibi\, the treat depended upon the strength of the theology 
But in Eagle in 1823 it is doubtful if there was any church, parson, or theology; 
of any kind requiring an antidote. These pioneer huntsmen and inn keepers 
seemed to care more for tofidy than for temperance or theology of any kind, and 
not until 1 84*) was there any elTort to control the sale of intoxicants which re- 
sulted in a vote of 58 votes for no license and 107 for license. 

Xathaniel Hilis and his brother. Adino Hills came from [Mont. Co. 
in 1810. Both families lived in one room, but when Dan Lieach came in the 
fall, he stopped with the Hills' a few days, three families in one room, (room 
must have been a misnomer). The next week they built a house for Beach. 
A portion of this was covered with bark, the remamder left open for smoke to 
escape, as the fire was built upon the ground. Elm logs were split and laid side 
by side for the floor. Hemlock boughs on the floor served for bed and bedstead. 
A bed quilt at first furnislied the outside door. The opening in the roof and the 
spaces between the logs, served for windows. Who would not have been 1 
pioneer? Camping out does not compare in "outness!" These first families of 
Eagle-Xunda were without roads or teams, they were 12 miles from a saw mill, 
31 miles from Geneseo, the nearest point where other building material could be 
obtained. Mr. Beach, however, was rich, compared with others, after paying the 
men for his transportation to this scene of primeval forests, he had $104. a hoe 
an axe, and a shovel, all unfamiliar implements to him. for he was a saddler by 
trade. In eight years he had paid for his farm, had a comfortable home and 
kept a tavern. 


Joseph Barnhart in 1819 bought Eber Benton's farm (Lot 24) for a yoke 
of oxen and a rifle. Eber Benton sold in 1816. 

The winter of 1820-21 was very severe. The snow was two feet deep iti 
April, fodder all used up, and the settlers were obliged to cut browse for their 
stock. jNIaple and basswocd boughs seem to have served this purpose best 
In Alay of this year, 1821, there was a three days' snow storm. Early herbs and 
leeks were up, and ^\ere serving a.^^ food, but the snow covered everything green 
and the cattle nearly starved. Timothy lUickland told that he fed out the straw 
from his straw beds, and when the last bed was emptied, he lay all day between 
two feather beds, in order ncjt to bear the bawling of his starving cows. 


The town of Pike was organized by act of the Legislature on the i8th da\' 
of March, 1818, ilividing the town of Xunda into two equal parts, and organiz- 
ing the town of Pike from the fuur western town plots (now Pike, Eagle. 
Hume, and Centerviile ). The new town was named after General Zebulon 
Montgomery Pike, v,ho was killed at the explosion of a mine at the capture of 
Toronto, May ijtii, 1813. This action was taken by the request of the people 
of Nunda, who in a town meeting held at (the present village of) F'ike, Decem- 
ber i8th, 1817, appointed Dan Beach, Thomas Dole, Asahel Trowbridge, Asahel 
Newcomb and Setli Wetmore, a committee to petition the Legislature in their 
behalf, to this end. -\ ilrag was the first pioneer vehicle, a sapling with two 
roots or branches used as runners, not over three feet apart. See picture break 
ing into the woods. They were used in summer ijr winter. 

This divided the eight original fix^i town plots into two equal parts, 
the four forming Pike were in the Holland Purchase, and the four that 
remaincvl in the Morris Reserve. The tov.-n was first settled fmrn Whitehall, 
X. Y., by Asahel Xewcomb, Eli Griffith, Peter Granger, Caleb Powers, Phineas 
Harvey, Russell H. Benton and Christopher r)len. The first marriage was 
that of Russell H. lienton, and Phineas Harvey was the first adult to die. El; 
Griffith kept the first inn, built the first saw mill and grist mill, laid out a road 
to Leicester. Enlisted (he was a Capt. of Militia) in 1812, and died December 
II, 1812. Chandler Benton and Jonathan Conch shared his fate. 

.Vbel Townsend was a pioneer of 1809, and married Beula Abell, who 
taught the first school in the town in i8no. .She was an able teacher, a prudent 
and able housewife, but when Able asked her to teach a school of one, she was 
not "able" to answer in the negative. The sequel of this followed when their 
daughter and granddaughter came to Xunda to reside, as will be told hereafter 
The first store in Nunda (Pike) was kept by Till}- P'arker in 1810. William 
Hyslop was the first lawyer in 1812 and Luther C. Peck, 14 years after. Super- 
visor and J. P. for 10 years, was our first and last JMember of Congress. He 
came to Xunda village to reside in 1841. 

Aaron Fuller, grandfather of our townsman Willis Fuller was drowned in 
the Genesee River. Dr. C. C. Chafee, a medical celebrity, came from Pike to 
Xunda, and had for two years medical classes, and did wonderful things, raised 
the dead, for example, generall} within 24 hours after burial. 

The population of the town reached its greatest numerical strength in 1840, 
over 2,000 and has since gradually declined. Its .Academy and wooden mills, 
while they lasted, were the chief agencies of prosperity. 



HUME-NUNDA, FROM AIaRCH I", l8oS, T( i AIarCH 6, 1818 — HfME-PlKE, FROM 

AIarch 6, 1818, TO March 20, 1822 — Township C\ Range i. 


THIS part of Xur.da has its <j\\ 11 story of pioneer pluek and enterprise. 
Its first settler was a man with brains in his hat. He came to Town- 
ship 7 and stayed a while, then went further down the stream in the 
search of the best water pcjwer available He was planning for other wheels 
besides those in his head. He came from Montgomery Countv and he meant to 
build mills. His name was no misnomer, he built mills and they were called 
Mills' Mills. He had a large family of boys, or rather young men. It is said he 
hired Christopher Olen and paid him $1.00 to pilot him through the Wiscoy Val- 
ley, that he might select a mill site. The upper one of the live falls that gave this 
plunging stream its Indian name. '"Wis" — five — and "Coy or Kova", Creek, or 
Five fall Creek, satisfied his tlesire for settlement and his became the first famil/ 
to settle in this Genesee River town. The water power is great in this town, 
its streams are large and strong and this has led to many small settlements in- 
stead of one large one. At one time Hume, Fillmore. Rossburgh, Wiscoy, and 
Mills Mills had post offices. 

(Augustus Porter in 1798 after the Treaty at Big Tree ran the boundary 
lines of the Caneadea Indian Reservation, which forms a large portion of the 
town of Hume, and in 1805 William Peacock subdivided most of the town not 
included in the Reservation into lots, and made no mention of any white man in 
this township.) 

Roger Mills made a dam and erected a saw mill, the first recorded m 
Nunda, in 1807, to which those from above the mill, even as far as Arcade, came 
for lumber. Elisha Johnsoii, who subdivided the Cottinger Tract in 1807, re- 
ports this saw mill in operation. Mr. Mills built a gristmill in 1808, the verv 
first in the town. The castings and stones were brought from Alban\- on 
sleighs, the winter of 1807 and 8 by George Mills and Zech. Keyes. White 
men and Indians ( from the Reser\-at'on > came from Geneseo, and from Can- 
eadea to help raise this mill. >\o event of the year, excepting the organization 
of the town, was so nn]:)ortant. Pounding corn in a mortar became a neglected 
or "a lost art."' The wild wood paths, only wide enough to allow the passage of 
"a drag," some brought grists from 40 miles away. The Indians brought their 
grists to this Tes-e-o-na, but the Kan-is-te-o-ni, or Saw Mill, they failed to 

The first store was also at Mills Mills, and Elisha Mills was the first mer- 
chant in 1809, the very first one in the entire town of Nunda. The first inn was 
kept by George Mills m 1815. The Mills family were energetic and just the 
ones to inaugurate needed improvements. Roger I\Iills, Sr., died in 181 1 and 
Roger Mills, Jr., became a settler at Mills Mills. Soon after, Caroline Russell, 
daughter of Samuel and Parmelia Russell of Montgomery County, taught the 
first school, in a barn belonging to the Mills family which is still doing duty, not 
as a school house but as a stable on the Philo Mills place. The mill also, for 80 
years, was in possession of this family. It had served as mill, dwelling house, 


inn, aiul store, all at the same time, fur jieople came so far to mill, that thev had 
to remain over night and were fed at the family table, and slept on beds of grain 
bags. Roger Mills, Jr., built an addition to the mill, and lived there until he 
built a good farm house in which the late l^hilo Mills, one of "God's good men," 
was born, lived 80 years, and died in the \ery same ri.iom where he was born, in 
1892. Goodwin Mills was said to ha\'e lieen born in the old mill. George Mills 
was frozen to death and was buried in the orchard. 

After the war of 1812-14. Leimard Smith sold army clothing in the mill, 
Joshua .Skiff from Otsego County, s. in 1809, bought Lot 38, that had been 
booked to Roger ]\Iills, giving him $5.00 to give over his claim, and commenced 
clearing a field for wheat. At a "raising" he had in the fall there were present 
eleven men and tv.-o woiuen. The Skiff family, judging by the higlnvav records 
1 if Xunda, were public spirited and ])0]iular. Joshua held manv of the principal 
town offices. He was often town clerk, and for his day a good penman. 
Thomas Pyre was the pioneer blacksmith. 

A carding mill was added in 1816 to the other industries of the town bv 
Roger Mills and Bailey Clough, below the grist mill, that was of great benefit 
to the knitters and weavers found in all the best homes, and this jM-eceded tine 
one at Oakland or e\en at Hunt's Hollow. Machinery for dressing cloth was 
added and the cloth dressed at Mills Mills made the liomcspun "sheeiis' gray" so 
common for several decades throughout all this vicinity. ( The writer remem- 
bers distinctly his first suit of black homespun (for Sunday use onl\ ) that he 
possessed during the Mexican War, and tlniugh but ten years of age, he felt al- 
most big enough to enlist ) . 

( )ther settlers of Hun:e-Xunda were Peltiali and Rufus Mills, iM'others of 
Elisha and Genrge, and half brother to Roger, Jr., whose mother was a C(_)usin 
to Xoah Webster, the lexicographer. Roger, Sr., was the father of nine chil- 
dren and Roger, Jr.. of thirteen. Samuel Goodwin, born November 22. i8ii, 
Philo, born March 21, 1S13, and Marvin, Ma}- 13, 1817, were citizens of Xumla 
by birthright. At least 100 "Millses" have been born in what is now the tnwn nf 
Hume. ]\Iarvin survived all who were born before him. M. \\'. Skiff. l.)iirn iij 
1 8 ID, is believed to be the first white child born in the township. 

( )ther pioneer settlers were INloses Robinson ( Lot 2\- ' 'i'"' ''••'^ Ijrothei 
Aaron, Hubbard Fuller, (s 1812), Luther Couch (s 1814), a ])ioneer teacher, 
taught near Fullers, and married his daughter S_\'lvia. He was an excellent 
farmer, but in 1844 or 5, he joined the Fotirierite Association, sold his farm, 
and invested all in the "Mixville Association," became its president, but lost 
nearly all he possessed when it closed its affairs in disastrous failiu'e. He died 
a few years afterward. 

.\aron Robinson addedi a tannery to the business enterprises of the town 
and engaged in the boot and shoe business, employing several workmen. In 
1815 there were less than 20 families in town. 

Edward James and John Dowd settled in 1815. paying $4.50 an acre for 
their lands, the largest price so far jiaid by any. The property is still in the 
possession of this family. 

Charles Trail settled 181 5 on Lot 7, His sons were Rhyla and Laman. 
Everv pioneer town had its famous hunter or trapper. Trail seems to have lost 
no time in establishing his championship as a trapper. The next day after his 

arri\-ai, lie caught a wolf and souii afterward helped to kill two bears caught in 
his traps. He had to divide honors, however, with one Damon who caught 
bears, wolves and other wild beasts. 

Raising cattle for the Philadelphia market and selling them to the agents of 
the Holland Co. in payment for lands when money was scarce, helped to pay 
for the low priced lands. Even before this was possible the enterprising citi- 
zens killed, and received through barter with the Indians, venison, peltries and 
other things marketable, and hiring the best team in the settlement sent them in 
winter to Philadelphia or to Albany. Not a very handy market, but one that 
would pay fair prices. 

-Sylvester Hammond from Aliddleliury. became the pioneer of Hume \'il- 
lage in 1820. after it had ceased to be a part of Xunda. William D. Ham- 
mond his son, of Flume, came to Xunda in 1831 or 2, and became a prominent 
citi/;en. store builder and Justice of the Peace. 

Pio.NEER — Our Seco.vd Tuw.x oe Xuxda, 1818 to 1827. 

"O memory ! thou midwa\- world 

Twixt earth and paradise 
Where things decayed, and loved, and lost 

In dreamy shadows rise 
And, freed from all that's earthly vile 

Seem hallowed, pure am! bright. 
Like scenes in some enchanted isle. 

All bathed in liquid light." 

Abraham Liucolu — 0]n- Pioneer President. 

Hex. CHARLES H. CARROLL, our second land agent, made a map of 
settlement of lands of the Tnscarora tract forming one half of the 
town of Xunda. bortunately our principal surveyor, Munson O. 
Barker, who had the good fortune to be born in .Xunda 85 years ago, has this 
identical map. It furnishes a list of the settlers as he found them in 1820, and 
of those to whom he sold lands. Unfortunately the lots are not numbered so 
their location is somewhat indefinite. Mr. Barker has also furnished the writer 
with a more modern map of the Wells tract, on which he w'as born. In this the 
lots are numbered. C)f these people on the Wells tract more of their posterity 
remain with ns. liighlanders cling to their mountain heights with greater 
tenacity than the possessors of the richer valley lands. The advancing prices of 
lands in the valley were temptations that prompted frequent changes. This 
year, 18 18, the Genesee river was declared by legislation a public highway from 
its confluence with the Canaseraga to the Pennsylvania line, except between the 
upper and lower falls at Portage. Tree tops or other impediments were not to 
be throw-n into it, canoe navigation being essential to settlement. 

The first town meeting was held at the tavern of Prosper Adams on Oak 
Hill and the post office also was changed to this place. It is unnecessary to say 
that from 1818 to 1827, Portage-Xunda was "it,"" but with (wisdom) acquired bv 
experience she shared her political plums with her neighbors in the valley. 


Noah Warren, veteran, was born August, 1793, and died February 15, 1881 ; 
his wife Ursula died March 22, 1871, aged 79 years, their children were: Por- 
ter, born December 11. 1818. who has lived in Xunda since 1819, no other per- 
son so long; ''Jefferson, born 1819: *Esther married *Samuel Doane ; *Goram, 
veteran Civil War; Lyman, a lifelong resident, married Sarah Greenwood. 
Children of *William Warren brother of Xoah were: Jonas, Samuel, Maria 
married Abner Reed; Lydia, married '''Russeil .Smith; *Sarah, married *Louis 
Angles who died February, 1905, aged 85 years. Other brothers of Noah were: 
Luther, who had four daughters. *Wright wiu) had five daughters. *Silas. 
veteran. War of 1812, first |)ionecr carpenter of Xunila hail six children. Reu- 
ben, Fayette, Washington and Wellington, twins. Leland and William. Other 
grandchildren of Noah Warren are children of I'orter and Maria Fuller War- 
ren : Edwin, married Charlotte Swartz ; Emma died, aged 16 vears ; Julia, 
married Frank Parker ; Cora, married Christopher, married Eg- 
bert Bartholomew. Children of T-ynian and Sarah Warren: *Eva and Emma, 

twins, married Fred Reed and James H. I laker, respectively; married 

Meyers; Harry, married Martha Skillen ; Frank De Witt, superin- 
tendent of schools at Ilion, X. Y. : Sally Warren married Deacon Schuyler 
Thompson, a pioneer of i8i(S, and one of the founders of the Baptist Church in 
1819; children, Marlow, \'aloris. Luther. Lorina, .Susan. Eliza Jane. 

-\11 the historical sketches of the town sa\ they were unaljle to locate 
■Schuyler Thompson, and yet he lived most of the time on one of the Cooper 
farms, now owned by H. Milton Coats, son of Milton H. Coats, who lived there 
till he died of old age. one mile from our village. Deacon Thompson, a iiromi- 
nent church worker, could not be located, when all the Warrens were his kin- 
dred, and could have furnished all the information required. The family moved 
away about the tin^e -Samuel Cooper came to Xunda, 1840. Such instances 
prove the necessity for town histories, in order that county histories may be 


"I hear the tread of pioneers. 

Of nations yet to be 

The first low wash of waves, wheie soon 

Shall roll a human sea." 

Xoah Warren was born in the town of Fitzwilliam, X. H., July 27th, 1793, 
and at the time of our Nation's Centennial was 83 years of age. When a child 
his father moved to Cheshire, Mass., where he kept a store and tavern, and died 
there, when Xoah was seven years of age. in .Vugust. 1817. he was married to 
Miss LVsula Cole of Washington, Mass.. who died at Xunda. May 22nd. 1871, 
aged 79 years. 

Previous to his marriage in tlie year 1S16, he came to .Xunda. from Cherry 
\'alley, Otsego Count\. X. Y. About thi"; time he heard of the famous Genesee 
country, a term then applied to all \\'estcrn .Xew York, and concluded there must 
be some better place for farming than hi> hilly, sterile locality in Massachusetts, 


so he left Cherry \'alle_v on horseluick in search oi a more desirable country 
than any he had yet seen. He was fourteen days reaching Nunda, where he 
selected the farm, afterwards owned and i-ccupied by Abraham Burgess, but 
owing to some Haw in the Articles of Agieement. he did not retain possession 
of it. but for a few years. 

He returned to Massachusetts, and was marr-.ed the following year. On 
April lo, 1819, he again arrived at Aunda. being three weeks on the "overland 
route" to Xunda. This time he brought his family with Porter Warren, 
his son. still living, was at this time six months old. 

He stayed the first night after his arrival, with George Patterson, Sr., a 
bachelor, who lived in a little log shanty in Oakland, or Messenger's Hollow, as 
It was then called. The hut was so low that it was impossible for a tall man to 
stand upright in it. Plere Patterson lived, cooked his own meals, did his own 
washing, mending and sewing. It is related of this somewhat eccentric man, 
that when he needed a new pair of pantaloons, he would spread out the buck- 
skin on the Hoor, sit down upon it. and with his hunting knife, mark out the 
outlines and cut them out. 

The pioneers Mr. Warren sjieaks of in those first years were Air. James 
Paine. Peleg and Reuben Sweet. Aimer Tnthill, George \\". Merrick. W'm. P. 
Wilcox (at the corners now known as Guy's Corners), and John P. Townsend. 
Mr. Wilcox had a store, kept a few dry goods and notions, but no groceries or 
provisions. The store was on the corner (/jiposite to the Hotel, long known as 
Guy's Corners, where Jacob Gay was for many years proprietor. It was ex- 
pectetl that the corners would lie the future village of this present town. 

r^Ir. Warren first settled a little south of what was known as the "Corners." 
his brothers Luther and Wright, and his mother. He located one hundred 
acres on what was known as the "Norton tract." cleared up about fifty of it, 
and lived there until 1823. when he moved to wheie he resided until his death, 
having purchased sixty acres on the Tuscarora Tract, the Lewis-Ensworth's 
and Tuttle's of to-day have since owned it. It is located on the "State Road" 
near the hill south of Nunda Village. At that time he could have purchased 
land, where the village of Nunda now stands, for one dollar less an acre than 
where he bought. The timber on his farm was so much larger than that a mile 
farther south that he supposed lik'e many others, that where the timber was 
large the ground was strong. 

There was a loghouse where the Livingston Block now stands, and plenty 
of huckleberries could be picked on Main Street, and that was all the signs of 
life in what is now Nunda village. (This was in 1816.) 

]\Ir. Warren is the only one that mentions a house where the Livingston 
House was afterwards built on the former site of the once famous Eagle Tav- 
ern, built in 1832. 

The first winter spent in Xunda, the \^'arrcn's saw pretty hard times. He 
had cleared some of his land and sowed wheat and raked it in among the 
stumps, as all pioneers had to do. Though richer than his neighbors in stock, 
for he had two cows and a team of horses, these had to be fed, so he had to 
go to Mt. Morris and purchase straw of Gen. Mills to feed them. There were 
two or three stores at Mt. Morris then, but like that of William P. Wilcox they 
did not deal in provisions, for these he had to go to Moscow where Allen 


Ayrault then had tlie principal store in this section. Game was quite abundant, 
especially deer. Wolves were too common, thoug'h not abundant, h(iwe\-er, they 
destroyed fourteen of his first flock of shee]). Sometimes the\- would make 
nis'ht hideous, and then everything; hatl to be looked after until morning. 

A\'hen Air. \\'arren. Iirst .nij\ed onto his farn.i on the Tuscarora Tract, he 
built a log house which ser\ed him for many years. He afterwards Iniilt a frame 
house where he lived with his youngest son, Lyman. He often drew his wheat 
to Genesee and sold it for hfty cer.ts. or to Rdcliester for seventy-fi\^' cents 3 
bushel. James Harvey Rawsrui was his nearest neighbor, lu 1^24, Mr. War- 
ren and others (George W. Merrick, William 1'. Wilcox, John II. Townsend, 
James H, Rawson. X. Guuigh). cleared the ."-^tate Rtiad imm Wilcox Corners 
to the town line, choppmg down the trees, carrying off the bnrsh and making it 
a passably good road for those days. Tlie_\- iM camped out one night in the 
woods, and the next dav finished the road to Mt. Morris line. See page 114. 

The Indians were not very troublesome, though there were at this time a 
great many here. The\ often called and generall}- asked for bread or salt. 
They were peaceable and ipiiet, and tliey ga\'e the settlers no trouble. Mr. 
Warren often visited ]Mary Jeniison, the "old white woman" and knew her sons, 
Thomas and James. He crossed the ri\er at Gardeau the day after the great 
landslide. It was a sight then well worth seeing. The Indians were ver\- much 
frightened. They thought the (ireat Spirit was about to summon them to the 
"Happy Hunting grounds," and it was a limg time before the\- were quieted. 

Mr. Warren atter.ded the first funeral, in what is n(3w the Town of Xunda, 
Cornelius Bulson, v. ho v\as at work for Mr (William) Richardson, was killed 
by the falling of a tree in March, 1820 .\bi)ut 10 o'clock the accident occurred. 
He lived several hours. He was taken to the home of ('reorge W. Merrick. 
and the fleetest horse m the settlement was sent to Hunt's Hollow for Dr. .Vmos 
P. Parmalee, but life was extinct before he arrived. The funeral was held next 
day, and the services consisted of reading a chapter from the llihle and a pra\'er 
by one of the neighbors. Xearly everyone who li\'ed in the section was present 
The burial was on the farm, afterwards owned bv Mr. Partridge (the grand- 
sire of Mervin Aylor, who now resides there). It was a sad companv wdio 
gathered and departed from that first funeral in our present town of Xunda. A 
rude fence that once surrounded the grave for many years, no longer exists, and 
the location is now forgotten. His military career of Mr. W., is given in the 
Department of this History entitled "Patriots of Xunda," in the cha))ter "Pio- 
neer Patriots of 1812." 

Mr. Noah Warren saw the village of Xunda with its one loghouse change 
to a settlement of from six to ten loghouses ; saw the first frame building go up, 
it is said in 1824: saw the Genesee \'alle\- canal surveyeed and dug, given up for 
years, saw its first boat the "Statescow" pass through the village one Sunday 
morning, lived to see it complete its work a quarter of a century afterward, lived 
to see the first worktrain on the Railroad that took its place : ])atronized the 
first school that was built in the i)resent village in 1822, saw three successive 
academies come and go; worshi|)ed in a barn, still in existence, in the twenties, 
saw all the churches ever built in the village reach completion, nine in number, 
all still standing, except the l-'irst llaptist which was burned in i85(): lived to 
see the days of the Civil War, when in a single battle more lives were lost and 


more men lost to the service than fell in the eight years of the Revolution and 
the War in which he took part in 1812-14. He has left sons, one of whom 
served in the Civil War (Coram), and one who has the honor of being the old- 
est living son of a pioneer, who also saw Nunda while it was still a huckleberry 
patch, and who is probably the oldest person who attended the school. The 
late Moses Barron, who taught in the McSweeney log schoolhouse in the win- 
ter of 1824-5 ^^'^s the teacher. 

.\ man by the name of Pepper, settled on the farm he sold to Seth Barker, 
and had this experience, .\fter cutting down a big tree he was tired and lay 
down in the shade of the felled tree to rest, but fell asleep, and when he awoke 
he found lying by his side a huge rattlesnake. He got up carefully and with his 
axe despatched the snake, but supposing himself the possessor of a colony of 
these reptiles resolved to sell out to the first person willing to buy. Mr. Barker 
who bought at a bargain this property did not lind the place pre-empted by 


are descendants of i'ercival Lowell, who came to Alassachusetls in Colonial 
davs. Percival was alike patriot and poet, and the Hon. James Russell Lowell, 
one of his posterity of 2,250 Lowells is the great figure head of the family. 


( \\ ritlen many years since) 

On the Death 01 the Memorable and rruly Honorable 

John Winthrope, Esq. 

You English Mattachusians all 

Forbear sometime from sleeping 

Let everyone both great and small 

Prepare themselves for weeping. 

For he is gone that was our friend 

This tyrant Death has wrougnt his end 

Who was the very chief among 

The chiefest of our peers. 

Who hath in peace maintained us long 

The space of nineteen years. 

And now he's breathless, lifeless, dead, 

Cold earth has now become his bed. 

The Jews for their Moses weep, 

W'ho was their Gubernator. 

Let us for Winthrope do the like, 

Who was our Conservator. 

With lines of gold in marble stone 

With pens of steel engrave his name. 

Oh let the Muses everyone 

In prose and verse extol his fame. 

Exceeding far those Ancient Sages 

That ruled Greeks in furnier ages. 

O frightful Death, and also cruel 

Thou hast quite slain \ew England's Jewel. 

Show us vile tyrant if thou can 

Tell where to find out such a man? 

Methinks, I hear a spirit breathe 

Noil est inventus here beneath. 

He was (we surely may say this) 

Rara avis in tcrris. 

Let Winthrope's name still famous be 
With us and uur jKisterity. 

Well we are glad he wrote, and glad that so many of his posterity found 
their way to the Keshaqua \'alley, that wonderful vestibule to Nature's Para- 
dise, the Genesee Valley. 

Percival I., was a better man of business than poet, and as such his descend- 
ants here, have been conspicuous. The military achievements of the family re- 
quire many pages of history to register even the names of this patriotic as w^il 
as poetic family. 

Two hundred and fifty-nine of the name of Lowell that are found on the 
Revolutionary rolls of Massachusetts and Elaine, 157 in Xew Hampshire, with 
123 found elsewhere. It seems that pLngland might better have given Percival 
a peerage and kept him from furnishing :i half regiment of rebels to fight for 
the cause of h'reedom. The Lowell genealogy claims a full regiment of Lowells 
in the Civil War. 

The Lowells of Nunda, Portage and Grove displayed the same patriotism 
and therefore win from the admiring author unusual space. liven the clergx- 
men among them believed they were serving the Prince of Peace, when thev 
enlisted to preserve the unity and integrity of this nation. 


The elder Lowells, three in ninnber, came from the east. They and their 
wives were on horseback. The_\- stopjied at Syracuse and again at Rochester. 
where there was but one loghouse. Thinking the jjlace was not healthful they 
came on and settled near Dalton. giving the name Lowell's Corners to their set- 

The third generation oi the Ciideon Lowell family were doubl\' connected 
with the Elias Rawson family, so we will call them the I^owell-Rawson branch of 
the family. The family came from Madison, N. Y. 

A son of Moses, brother of Gideon, married a daughter of David Baldwin. 
a Revolutionary soldier, and an early pioneer of our present township, so we 
will call the Moses Junior branch of the family, the Lowell-Baldwin Branch. 

Both branches of the family repeat certain family names, Moses, Gideon. 
David, Daniel. Mariam, Ebenezer, that we are forced to trace them back to 
Moses, the pioneer thai we call Moses I, genealogically the patriarch oi the 
Lowells in Xunda. 

L Moses Lo\veli was Ijorn in Aniesbury, Mass.. in 173'^, and married 
Mariam Knowlton. He served, with three of his sons, in the Revohitionarv 

\\'ar (his two eldest sons. Thomas and Jonathan, remained in the East). His 
sons who came with him were Gideon and Aloses, jr. He was a shipwrii^ht 
bv trade, but became a farmer. He died in Grove. 

H. Gideon, settled in 1818, said to have been, when a boy, in the battle of 
Bunker Hill, and when older an enlisted soldier, l)i)rn .'^tandish, Maine, Sep- 
tember 12. 1761, married Airs. Elizabeth F.eal Cookson, a widuw with two 
sons, named Samuel and John Cookson. He located in Xunda. i_)n the 
Partridg'e-A}'lor farm in 1818. His sons were: AMllouyhhy, Asa, Ebenezer 
and David; his daughters, Melissa and .Mariam. 

W'illoughby Lowell built the first saw-mill in the ]3resent village of Nuntla. 
The Keshec|ua had already been harnessed to ser\e industries farther up the 
stream. This useful industr}' bears date of 1820. As a result, Xunda hamlet, 
\ille and village, had but comparati\-ely few log houses. Lumber was cheap 
and more easily handled than logs. The figures 1820, cut on one of the tim- 
bers of this mill, tells its age. He may have had a saw-mill on his small farm, 
near the Gro\-e boundary. There have been several of them built in that sec- 
tion since. 

Ever\- sketch writer of ]Moneer Xunda has t(.ild of this saw-mill built li\- 
W'illoughby Lowell, but nothing else of the man or of his family, his future or 
his fate. The author now will take this naked fact and clothe it with the habili- 
ments that will bear their own distinctive characteristics. Soon after coming 
to Xunda, he met at his sister's, Clarissa Rawson. His sister Mariam was mar- 
ried to Clarissa's brother, lames Harvey Rawson. She went west to visit or to 
teach. He went \vest also, and Ijrought her l)ack as ]\Irs. Lowell. The two 
men thus closely connected \>y this even e-\cliange of sisters lived on a small 
fanu with a stream upon it, intending to erect a sawmill ; perhaps they did. 
They had a log house well furnished for that time, and here both couples were 
spending their honey moon happily. They had neighbors, — the Lowells, Mer- 
ricks, Paines and Brewers. An evening- spent at the neighbors was the one 
delightful source of variety from their daily toils. This desire for society is 
as potent in the wilderness as in the city. But log houses with mud chimneys 
over wooden frames were always sources of anxiety, and when tl^e young peo- 
ple after a happy evening spent with friends came in sight of their treasured 
home, only glowing coals and ashes marked the spot. All was gone — beds, 
bedding, crockery, cooking utensils, food, surplus clothing ; nothing left but 
what they had on. We can imagine what this meant of discomfort, sorrow, 
loss. Airs. Adeline Barker, daughter of .Mrs. Mariam Lowell Rawson, tells 
how often she has heard her mother s])eak of the complete desolation of heart 
and s]iirit, she felt, when she found their comfortable home in ashes, for the 
house was theirs, and her household treasures gone. Now, reader, }ou have 
entered into the life of these households, you know- them better, and though all 
this happened almost ninety years ago, and our newly awakened sympathy 
cannot take practical form, yet somehow "that touch of nature which makes 
all men kin" stirs within us a belated commiseration, that is, in spite of time, 
genuine and iieartfelt. A\'hen ^^'illoughby Lowell built, it was a house near 
the mill race, and a saw mill west of where Swain's grist mill was built, ten 
years later. The Swains bought out this mill, and Lowell, who could build 
saw mills as well as run them, went west, where he helped that conuiumitv 


as he helped this by his enterprise, and they named (in gratitude) this place 

And now when yonr e\e^ have hardly had time to dry, although over 
twenty years of time since the events narrated, another sad scene must be nar- 
rated. While success attended this venture in the west, and a household of 
children shared their prosperity and their joy. Death came without the slightest 
annotincement of his commg, a single mis?te]), a fall, a phmge into the miller s 
own mill race, and there is a corpse, and a Inirial. a widow and orphans. This 
is the completed story of Willoughby Lowell never told before. Mrs Clarissa 
Rawson-Lowell completed her life in the iiome of her noble son Hudson, born 
in Xunda, so many years ago. 

III. I. Willoughby Lowell, born June u, 171)2; died May ii, 1S43. Mar- 
ried at Muncie, Alich., February 20, iSjo, Clarissa Rawson. 

I\'. 1. Frank, lioni in Xunda, 1821, niairied Angie L. Turner. 2. Hud- 
son, born in Xunda, 1824, ilied in .Marinette, \\ is.. 18S5. 

HI. 2. .\sa, born Otober ''1. 171)4. Married '^Mrs. Smith, died 1803. 

IW I. Amanda Melinda. Ijurn in 1823. Married Moses Kingsley, resi- 
dence, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

2. Mary \'estalina, born in Xunda, June 10, 1828. Married in Michigan. 
3. Frances. 4. Eliza. 5. (^leorge, (iraiid Rapids, Mich. 

Stepchildren of Gideon and Mrs. (.'iicikson Lowell: Samuel, liorn June 30. 
1786, died 1876. John Cook.son, born 1788, died .March 2S, 1842. Lydia and 
Elizabeth Byron, residence Battle Creek, [Mich. 

HI. 3. Moses (son of Gideon), (son of Moses), born Octolier 21, 171)7. 

HI. 4. Children of Mariam and James H. Rawson. Five sons and three 
daughters. See Rawson F'amily. 

HI. 5. Ebenezer Lowell, married Hancy Bowen. 

Ja.vies Harvey Rawson 

Mrs. Mariam Lowell Rawson 

1\'. I. Aincnzo, married Martlia (learliart, daughter of John. 

\'. I. Clella, married Will i'ettis. 2. Hattio. married Kev. Clark. 3 
Minnie. 4. Genevieve. 

I\'. 2. Marcello, married Mrs. .\bigail Babbitt. 

I\'. 3. *Meli.ssa, married Rev. L. L. \\'ellnian. 

I\'. 4. *Harriet, born in 1840, died in Xinida. March 17, 1905. ^larried 
*Delos Paine, died Febiuary 23, if^uj- She died kjo'i. 

\'. Children oi Harriet Lowell I'aine: i. Welcome L., married Addie 
Fenton. 2. Grace 1., married Joseph Durkey. 3. Jay Paine (adopted). 

II. The other branch. 

II. David, brother of Gideon, son of ]\roses, born near Portland, Me., May 
14, 1780, S. 1822. Married (in Maine) Abigail Piirnell. 

D. L., who came with his father to Niinda in 1822 died at Dalton, March 
21, iHfu. Mrs. L., died in Grove, IMarch 20, 1859. 

III. John B., came with his father to Nunda in 1822, marrietl. He died 
at Charlton, X. Y., 1850. Alost of this family died about this time. 

1\'. Ann D., married, Reed, residence Kent, Orleans County, N. Y. 

HI. 2. Rev. Daniel, born at Sangertielil, December 12, 1807. Died at 
Grove, A])ril 13, 1863. Married *Lonise Baldwin of Nunda, April 29, 181 1. 

Children died at Wellsboro, Pa., 1883. 

Other grandchildren of Moses Lowell. 

Children of Rev. Daniel. 

111. 1. David P>., born Seiitemhcr 28, 1830, at Xunda. Residence F'itts- 
ville. Wis. 

2. *Rev. Daniel Dean Lowell, horn in Xunda, June 24, 1832, veteran of 
the Civil War, Baptist clergMiiin, n.iarritd Lydia A. Carpenter of Angelica, 
she has l)een hopelessly insane for a cpiarter of a century at W'illard Asylum. 

Rev. Daniel D., died at Macedon, X. Y.. where he had been pastor for 11 
years. lie was chaplain of the 179th. They had four daughters, but they were 
not born in Xunda. Mrs. Cassie Clillis !i\es at Macedon. 

3. Eliza Celinda, born in Xunda, July 14, 1834. Married Richard Essex 

4. Rev. Julian Verinoldo, M, D.. graduate Michigan State L'niversity, 
Medical Department, was also assistant surgeon 58th N. Y. X. G. He became a 
clergyman Methodist Episcopal church, studied medicine with Dr. C. F. Warner 
of Nunda. 

5. Rev. Carlos Gould Lowell, born in Xunda, 1844 (not a pioneer), named 
for Rev. Carlos Gould, a circuit iireachcr in Xunda and Grove, about 1840. 
Servetl in the Civil War, veteran of G. A. R., Dalton, X. Y. Pastor at Dalton. 
died at Angelica, 1904. 

6. Mary Jane, born in Grove, 1842. Alarried John Wesley Bush, resi- 
■dence X'orth Cohoctou, X. Y. 

7. Harvey Marion, born 1846. 

8. Achsah Louisa, born 1848. Married Amasa T. Warren, Xaples, X. Y. 

9. Milo Scott, born 1855. Married at Dalton, *Carrie L. Eldridge. Died 
1897, Lancaster. X. Y. 

III. 3. Chauncey Lowell, son of David II; son of Moses I; born Septem- 
ber 28, i8oi); died at Fillmore, 1S83. 


I\'. Moses, son of Cliauncev 111 : son of David II; son of Moses I; born, 
183O. Alarricd the widow of Llark llrewer, Elmira Brewer. 

IV. 2. *AIary, born 1S38, married Henry Greenfield, born 1837. 

H. G.. IS a veteran of Co. 1, 1st. X. Y. Dragoons. 

\'. Their children. i. George, married Katie Bell Atkins, daughter of 
Dwight -\. 2. Stella, married Kelsey Coffin, son of Walter B. C. 3. Esther, 
married Charles A. Wright, son of Robert W. Lowell E. (single). 

\'I. Grandchildren of Henry Greenfield and Mary Lowell, i. Walter Cof- 
fin. I. Robert G. Wright, r. Dwight A. Greenfield. 

i\'. 3. Lorenzo, born 1840, a veteran Co. F, ist N. Y. Dragoons. Mar- 
ried Jennie Post, sister of Rev. Bela I'ost, a veteran. 

\'. Lillian, born in C)aklanil. 

I\'. 4. Died in the service Co. F, Dragoons. 

I\'. 5. Esther (not a pioneer), married Henry Brewer, grandson of James 

\". I. Xellie, preceptress Dalton Union school. 

2. Eliza, died in 1823, age 10. 

in. 5. Mariam Knowdton Lowell, l)i>rn in Madison County, January 14, 
1814. Alarried *Cortez, etc. 

'■'Corlex Baldwin, son of David Baldwin of Xunda, born on May 30, 
1807, died at Xunda, August 21, 1887. 

Mrs. M. K. B., died July 2<;, 1803. 

They lived all their married li\es m .Vunda. See Baldwin I'"amil\, Lowell 

III. 6. Gideon, brother of Chauncey, son of David II, son of Moses, born 
at Sangerfield, May 13, 1816, died at Fillmore, April 21, 1887. Farmer and mer- 
chant, married at Xunda, Zuelma Weed, daughter of Reuben Weed. 7. Wil- 
liam L., son of David II, son of Moses I, born August 8, 1818. Married \'an 
Xostrand. W. L., died at Grove, 1852. 8. David Knowlton ( D. K. ) born .\u- 
gust 15, 1820, married Cornelia. D. K. Lowell well known produce bu\er at 
Dalton, X. Y., died at Dalton, August 23, 1887. 

I\'. I. *Agnes, married Daniel Grunder, 2nd wife of D. G., Miss C. 
Annie Williams, daughter of Charles Williams. 2. Lillie married George 
Woodward. Jennie married W^illiam Ma\o. Mina married Charles Wirt. 

III. 9. Malachi, born in Xunda, 1824, Horneli, X. Y., died 1870. 

III. (). Children of (jideon Lowell and Zuelma Weed. i. Edwin A., born 
in Portage. 1843. "Cultured, genial, energetic," Rochester Lowell Gen'\-. 2. 
•Corydon L., born in Portage, a soldier of the Civil War. 3. Seth Weed, born in 
1845, married Jennie Snyder. A stirring business man. Inventor and manufac- 
turer of WhitVjy, Canada. 4. Alarctta F., liorn in Portage, 1848, married fohn 
Caldwell, Lincoln, Xeb. 3. .\da M., born in i860, married Lorenzo S. Gelser 
■of Fillmore. 

As furnished by George B. Herrick of Whitesville 

I. Zadock Herrick, born Berwick, Mass., ()ctober 2;^,. \~'J2\ removed to 
Granby, \'t., married Elizabeth Pike, 1794. 

Their children were : 

I. .Al])heus, born October 23, I7»)7; 2. Zadock Jr., born March 2~ . 171)1): 
3. Mar\-, born Xovember 30, 1800: 4. Lydia, born December 14, 1802: 5. Jnhn 


p.. born January lo. 1803: Ci. Phoebe, born June 9. 1807: 7. George P>., born 
Ajiril 2f\ i8o(j: 8. Edwarfl H., born November 24, 181 1; 9. William, born July 
24. 1814. died July. 1831. in Alt. Alorris : 10. Emilv, born February 19, 1816. 

I. Alpheus Herrick, niarried Ann IMaria Cookson, Nunda. April 18, 1830. 

Children born in Nunda : 

1. William. . Alary. 3. Elizabeth. 

William was a P)aptist minister, he was killed at Gettysburg, while serving 
in a Wisconsin regiment. 

2. Zadock Herrick marrietl .^arah A lather, daughter of T. J. Mather of 
Nunda, a pioneer, March 15, 1826. 

Their children were : 

15. Keziah. 16. Clark AI. Clark married Sarah Hann, daughter of John 
Hann., Groveland. had two daughters. 

Note. — Zailock Jr.. died in Xunda. 1850. 

4. Alary Herrick niarrieil David J. llamiltun, pioneer. Nunda. September 
20, 1823. 

Their children were: 

17. Jane, married Morris Phillips, who died in Nunda; afterwards mar- 
ried Charles M. Hendee, W'est Bloomtield. Three daughters were born to them. 
18. (jeorge T. Hamilton, [''irst Lieutenant Co. E, 33d N. Y. Infantrv. Killed 
in Cuba in war with Spain. 

i<). Alary .\nn. married John Ayres Wirt, Bloomfield. one daughter, fam- 
ily now reside in Chicago. 

8. George 11 Herrick. married Alary Wildman, West Bloomfield. Au- 
gust 14. 1833 ; removed to Nunda. April, 1836, one son. Died 1848. 

2C>. George B. Jr., born in West Bloomfield. Alay 28, 1834. Alarried 
Alary E. Wildman, Whitesville. N. Y.. September 28. 1869. Enlisted in Co. D. 
33(1 .X. Y. Infantry. 

9. Edward H. Herrick. married Jane Adams. Five children born iii 
Nunda. Died 1852. 

27. Alortimer, Co. P. 33d X. Y. Died of wounds. 28. .\lice Amelia, died 
in Xice. France, 1870 iir '71. 29. Eugene a veteran. 30. Warren. 31. 
Lewllyn ( daughter ) married Air. Joslyn. 

7. Phoebe Herrick. married James AI. Dartt. formerly a hatter in Nunda 

There were four children : 

22. Elizabeth, died in Nunda. 22,. F"rank!in. 24. Issora. 25. La- 
fayette. Air. and Mrs. Dartt died in Conesus. 

6. John P. Herrick came to Xunda with George B., in 1836. They bought 
a place on East Street in partnership: John scjld his interest to George B., and 
removed to Michigan. He lost some sons in the service during the Civil War. 
There were two boys in the family when they left Nunda. 

II. *Emilv Herrick lived in Nunda several years, married after removal 
from Xunda. died several years ago. 


The Bennetts mcntinn the I^-entice faniil\ li\ing near them, as most if not 
all of these earh- pioneers took up lands without consulting land agents, it is 

possible in that early time 1814 to 1816 that the Prentice family lived in Xunda. 

I. Xathan Prentice and Elisha Prentice settled 1818. The mother of these 
sons, lletsey (Elizabeth) died in Xunda, 1823. age 90. 

II. I. jrihii, married Eliza Borroiighs. daughter of Stilhvell 1>. 

II. 2. lliram married Mary Gifford. 
Their children : 

III. i.'HJrville (a veteran of the Civil War), married Amelia Pierce. 2. 
William Wallace, married in l'enns\lvania. 3. George H. soldier, Co. F. 33, 
died in the ser\icc. 4. Emaline. 5. Elizabeth. o. Melissa Jane. 7. ]\Iehi- 
table, married James Wilco.x, residence Center Street, Xunda. 8. Xathan, 
single, ij. Ellen Isabel, married George P^lydie, Tuscarora, X. Y. 

Ellen Isabel, marrietl George Flydie, Tuscarora, X. Y. 

Children ijf John and Eliza Prentice. 

Addie, marrietl .\delbert Watrouse of Xunda. Elizal'cth, married Alcln- 
tire. *Sarah, marnttl *John Crumack. Amanda, married Henr\- AlcCartnev, 
who died in Xunda. 

Henry McCartney's second wife, Jennie Ilowd of Xunda. 

Catharine, married Lucius C. Fenton (veteran). James married Besimee 
Runyon. Sarah, married Joseph Denton. Isabel, married Edward Rathbon. 
State Street. Xunda. Then have seven sons. 

III. Addie, married Fran.k Eencedemaker. Edward, married in Dakota. 

Grandma Prentice died at the home of her son Elisha in 1822 or 2^. aged 
90 years. If so she nnist have beei'i born about 1733. She was the second per- 
son buried in Oakwooil cemetery. 



One of the few families that settled in Xunda in 1818. was the family of 
Ephraim Baker. Baker's Corners have been in existence nearly ninety Acars. 
five generations of Bakers have lived in Xunda. on the southwest corner of 
Norton now Wells tract, a large farm was located at this early da\-. 

The sons of Ephraim were : 

Leonard, born in 1S18, and if born in Xunda, one of the ver\- first children 
born in the town, and Ephraim, Ir. 

Leonard, married Patterson. He died in 1002. age 84 years. 

His sons are Alonzo D., Amenzo and Alvaro. Ephraim Jr., is still living in 
Topeka, Kansas, and is about 87 or 88 years of age. 

The children of Ephraim Jr., are Charles, .Stillman, Freeman. Rebecca 
(Mrs. Ira Town), Sally and Frank, a half brother who was killed by a boiler ex- 
plosion at Dalton. His sons are Adelbert and Frank Jr. 

III. .\lonzo D. l]aker, son of Leonard, was born in 1839. Married Marv 
E. Ward, born in .Allegany Comity in 1840. He is a farmer (225 acres), was a 
drover and stock dealer now a produce buyer. He has also established a bank 
at Dalton. He is at this time sixty-seven years young, and one of the most 
active and energetic men of the thriving village of Dalton. He was born in 
time to be classed with the third generation of pioneers. 

His children were three in number. *Dorr ,\.. born in 1850. Married 
Esther Benson. Fie became editor of the E)alton Era. 

L. Earnest, born in i8fii. Married Esther Doiid l^'our chililren. 

Plinn W., born i8/^. married Blanch Westbrook of Xunda. A fifth gen- 
eration will perpetuate the name. 

Miss Zada Baker, adopted daughter was married ( )ctober, 1907, to Alyron 
W. Smith, grandson of Myron Smith, son of Darting Smith an early pioneei 
of Granger, Nunda. (1818). 


I. Cornelius Acker, Sr.. S. in Xunda, 1818, died soon after settling in 
JSIunda. Mrs. Acker married Arba Town. Children of C. A. and Mrs. .\. 

II. I. Cornelius Acker, Jr., married Elvira Parker, daughter of Lyman 
Parker. 2. Phebe Acker, manic(l i, (jitiord ; 2, Wetherby. 

III. Daniel Gifford, married Mary Santee. 

IV. Belle, married Myrton lientley. 
II. 2. William Acker. 

*Lyman Parker was killed by an imbecile, John Emmons, Jr., who kicked 
him on both sides of th.e head. The imbecile ilieil in the County Hiiuse, Geneseo. 

II. 3. Xancy Acker, married. 4. I'Zliza. married late in life A. Town. 5. 
\Villiam Acker, soldier from Xunda, died in the service. Marker at 

I. Eliza, married William Christee. 2. Lucy, married Peter \'an Hou- 
ten. 3. Jane, married James Fo.x. 

II. William Acker (went west) ; Susanna. 
F'hilena married Wadsworth Pierce. 
Children of Phebe Acker and Wetherby. 

II. Edwin Wetherby, railroad engineer. 

III. Delina Wetherby, married Charles Maker, son of Rev. Archalaus 
Maker. C. M., produce buyer and merchant, student X^unda Literary Institute. 


The writer had occasion several years ago to visit Jesse Brewer and his witc 
Mary J. (Johnson) Brewer, about a year before this couple passed away. 

Mr. Brewer was claiming he was the first white child Itorn in the town ot 

Almiron F'aine made the same claim for himself and twin sister Ijnrn in 
1819. ( )ne party claimed the other w as born in the town of Grove, when it was 
a part of Xunda, and that that did not count. 

.Mrs. lirewcT listeneil a while to the arguments, and then said. "The John- 
sons are just as much pioneers as the Brewers, if they don't live forever. I 
was born," she said, "in the town of Xunda more than eighty years ago." 

This lead me to look u]') the record and 1 find that the Johnsons were in- 
deed among the very earl_\- permanent settlers, ( though they also lived part of 
the time in the town of Grove). They settletl first in Xunda in 1818. and Mrs. 
Mary Jane r.rewer was their eldest child born in 1820. 

The following record copie<l from the family Bible now in possession of 
the ^le]5 daughter and niece of Jesse Brewer, is interesting and confirms the 
claims of early settlement and furnishes a family of ten children, the usual num- 
ber in pioneer families. I find also that ]\lr. Johnson was born in the same year 
my father was and died the same \ear that he died. 1797 and 1884. 


Daniel johnsdn. born June i)tli- i/'Jj- dk-d January 22. 1884. Elizabctli, 
his wife, born Januar\- 8, 1798, dicil March 21st, 1870. 

Mary Jane, born August 27th. 1820. Married Jesse Brewer, born 1820. 
John H., born June 13, 1822. Elijah F., born February 19, 1825. Alonzo M., 
May 20, 1827. Norman M., May 4, i82(). Lucina C, August 17, 1831. Hiram 
D., March 24, 1834. Married Abbie Jane Rentley. Moses J., March 9, 1836. 
Harriet S., June 2^. 1838. Married John L'ttcr. George S., August 13, 1842. 

Of these al! lived till middle life or beyond except i\'(.)rman who died at 
the age of 10 and Lucina who lived but three years. At the present time those 
that survive are Hiram, ]\loses, Harriet. 

The following newspaper notice of the death of this pioneer from the Nunda 
News, is rejjroduced at this time as it tells its story of toil as well as of life. He 
evidently died at the home of one of his 'laughters, while his funeral was in our 
village at the home of his first born. 

"In \^'arren, Pa., January 24, 1884, Mr. Daniel Johnson, of ]iaralysis, aged 
87 years. His funeral was attended on .Sunday, January 25, from the resi- 
dence of Jesse Brewer, Portage .Street, Nunda. 

Deceased was born in Duchess County, June (itli, 171)7, ^^'^^s married in 
Cayuga County to Miss Spangler. He settled in Nunda in 1818, when this 
country was a wilderness, and has lived to see the great changes that have taken 
place. He has resided many years in the town of Grove, he had reared a large 
family, one of whom is our townsman Mr. Hiram Johnson. Several members 
of the family reside in Pennsylvania, Eliza, Moses, and George S. Johnson of 
Duke Center, Pa., and Mrs. J. L'tter of Warren, Pa., all of whom were present 
at the interment of their father's remains in the Snider cemetery. It is thought 
he and his six sons have manufactured more lumber than any other family that 
have ever lived in Livingston County. Thus the old pioneers arc fast passing 

The familv of Hiram who marrieil Abbie Jane Bentley, a sister to Melissa 
( Hagadorn ) Town. 

The children are : 

Airs. I'rank DeMocker ; Charles Johnson, Esq., an attorney, and Mrs. Wal- 
ter Chandler. 


Settled un Lots lou ( \\ . ^: I. Town 1 Wells Tract. 

I. *William Town and Esther, died aged 90. 

II. *Ira Town, married *Rebecca Baker. *Arba Town (lot ()')). married 
Mrs. Nancy Acker or Ecker ; 2 (late in life) Eliza Acker. 

III. ^Alfred Town (died young.) 
Children of Ira and Rebecca Baker Town. 

Esther Sophia, married Dr. Charles F'. Warner. Nancy, married Morgan 
Veley. William Ephraim, married Emma \'eley. Rev. Arba, married Fannv 
Paine, daughter of Carlos Paine, residence at Spencerport. I^'. Marion (a vete- 
ran), married Maria \'eley. Walter E. (a veteran), married Mrs. Melissa 

II. *So])hia, married a veteran of N. Y., 1812, Lyman II. Newton. Mrs. 
Newton was a milliner and lived on First Street. She also kept boarders ( stu- 


dents of tlif Xiiiula Literary Instilntt.' ) . She died January. iXcji, as^e i)i. *john 
ino\'cd away. ' .'-^anmel. married. 

III. I. llenry. Min of .'^amvie!. married • Parker. ("harit\, married 

Seneca Alerithew. 

I\. J. -Martha, married llert Si<elHng'er. _^- Harriet, married 

Thompson. 4. George, married Wirt. 

Mary Jane. Ehiiira, married ( looilamont, '• Esther, [''rank, married 

iiollx, -Sopliia. 

The Tdwn familx ha\e an Indian siory in connection with their ancestor, 
the father of William Town, the Xnnda Tioneer of iSiS, is well kndun be- 
cause it was ])rintcd \ears a^d h\ Sak'm Tnwn. the ciim])iler of a series of Read- 
ing;' I'looks and a s|)ellins' hmik. I'sed in ''ur schools a half century a.t;ii. .\ Mr. 
Town, a relati\e of ."-^alem fdwii, and the taiher of William Town, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, and was t;d<en pris(iner hy the Indians in winter. Some of 
the Indians h;id ]ir(icureil some skates and were practicing c in the ice. They 
thinight it WDuid l)e amusing In let their cajitive ha\e a few fails on the ice. 
and as he claiine I not tn he a skater, they hound thou on his feet, and he 
proved at lirst \'ery amusing. <as he fell again and again, and seenie(! to he taking 
his first lessons. I he\' ran races with him .as he began U> improve, hut as they 
left him fai^ behind, the> tried their skill with one another, and when the\' 
were beyond tlu' reach of arr<iws, he jiroved ;ui expert and soon ]ilaced him- 
self be\iind then' reach by skating away from them to safet\ . 

II. (1. Kuel Town lived on hirst .Street, Xunda. Married Emaline 

children. *Iuta, married Obeil Irlowell. Canada. Eva llelle, lives in 

II. 7. Lucinda Town. 

Daniel, married Davenjiort. Tom lives in Ogdensburgh, X. Y. 

*Sophia buried in Oakwood. Charles. 

Pioneers of 1819 .\nu 1820 — The Me.\tiis .\xd S.vtterlees 

THESE families settled in what is now the village of Nunda in 1819. 
Asa and James Heath, and .\lanson Hubbell came the same year. 
Joel Satterlee came also, Asa Heath's wife, Amy, was his sister, 
Joel had 35 acres, Asa and James about 65 each, Alanson Hubbell 30. Joel 
Jr., and I laise\-, then or afterward bought 2 acres each on East .Street, alqng 
the Keshe(iua rr;ul. Witli the exception of William Goulds who had a log 
house on what is now State Street, opposite the Union Block of to-day, and 
McSweeny the Land Agent, there were no settlers in the future village. 

Asa was a hunter and taxadermist, James an innkeeper. Hubbell was a 
tinsmith. .\ll nicely adapted to become village builders but there is no evi- 
dence that they suspected to help bring this about. 

The sons of Joel and Esther Satterlee, who died at the great age of 92. 
were Joel Jr,, Halsey, Leroy and Nelson. Joel was a shoemaker, Halsey a 
wagon maker, Leroy a scholar and teacher. Sylvester, brother of Joel Sr., 

settled on .Scager farm a few years later, but his son. Barton, (the father of 
John, who died in the Civil War, ilarton jr., liugene and Marion Salterlee), 
lived in the village and helped to develoii its industries. Ilalsex' built, after 
clearing away the scrub oaks and bushes on the north side of the old trail 
(East Street), the .\. C L'olby-l'leveland hcjuse and Joel built the Cyrus Rose 
house, east of it and planted the (jrchard. that grown worthless with age. 1 
caused to be cut down, a few \ears ago. I'wo trees remain on the Joel Sat- 
terlee lot, one an oak, then a mere sapling and the other, an acacia, thorn or 
fern locust, was planted by L'xrus Rose, 75 _\ear:; ago. The shops of these 
workmen no longer exist. .Ml the four houses built by Joel Satterlee and his 
sons are in existence now. but the one built by Joel, which served as the home 
of the late Cyrus Rose, has been moved to hair Street. 

The children of Joel and Esther Satterlee were Joel Jr.. llalse_\. Lero\ 
and Xelson. 

The brothers and sister of Joel Satterlee were Sylvester. .\my. ( Mrs. Asa 
Heath), and Asa. 

Eri Satterlee was a relative, a cousin of Ilarton Sr. 

The only son of Halsey Satterke. .\rtemns, died while young. The chd- 
dren of Joel Jr.. were: Electa, Ceorge (died in the Ci\il War). Lerov. Har- 
riet. Charles, Sarah and Lewis. 

The children of Sylvester were: Hepsabath. married I'ettis. also Rev. 
Jacob Scager. Maria (Mrs. Moore). Hannah (Mrs. Rerrin). J. Rarton who 
married I, Elizabeth Miller. 2, .Sarah Xewcome. 

The children of .\sa: I'lorinda, Mary Louisa and 'Tlarrison. 

The chililren of Lero\ .^atterke were Eugene, and a j^air of twin girls Rla 
and Emma. 

The children of J. Rarton .Satterlee were John (died in the Civil War). R 
Rarton Jr., *Eugenc, V. Mari(jn.. 

The children of J. Rarton Jr.. were. R^ez. ITarry. 

The stjn of Marion, I'loyd, kow a jiharmacist. 


A story founded on facts. .\sa and Jan.ies M. Heath settled in Xunda m 
1819. on lands on which the business part of the village now stands, extendin.g 
from the Whitcomb or C. R. Lawrence place to \'ermont Street on the State 
Road. Asa built the first frame house in 1824 on the west side of the plaza, 
and James AL, the Eagle Hotel. Both sold their farms too soon. Asa to Law- 
yer Cliipman and James M. to Henry C. Jones, who changed his purchase to a 
small laid out village. Asa was a hunter and taxadermist and the sound of the 
"Cracking Gun" was the only music he could hear, as he was deaf. He de- 
sired to sell out and go west, his wife .\my Satterlee, sister to Joel and Svl- 
vester, would not go. so he gave np half, the avails of the sold farm, and 
started off to live a life congenial to himself, he died and one of his sons went 
after his horse and gun. The honest man at whose home he lived gave them 
np. and $1,600 to the son, so the story says. The call of the wilds could not be 
unheard even by one with impaired hearing. 

Soon after James M., his brother built the most famous hotel in this re- 
gion, the Eagle in 1832. here all elections were held. h has jjassed Ihroutrh 
many hands and is now for sale. R is looking better than when first built. 



, Celestia J. Hills 
Died, Aged 98 

Mrs. Parmella Hubbell 

Oldest living pioneer — born in 1805 

HubbelPs Corners in 1824 

LONGEVITY— We present the 
])ictures of four ladies whose united 
ag^es are 387. ^Irs. Hill was g8 when 
she (lied, Mrs. Roberts Qi- The other 
l\v(i are livini^-. ]\Irs. Hubbell is 
103' J, an<l Airs. P)arron, the oldest 
])crs(jn in Xunda, is i)45<2. Mrs. Bar- 
ron came to Xunda when she was 20, 
Mrs. Ilu1)bell at 19, Mrs. Roberts at 
17 and Mrs. Hills at 22. 

Mrs. Baron 
Age 94 — The oldest citizen living in Nunda 

Mrs. Lydia Roberts 
Died, Aged 91 

Asa Heaths children were .\sa K., by a former wife, who lived a few years 
in Xunda, and the rest of the family went west witli him, so the Baptist church 
records say. 

Sylvester Heath, his son moved to Grove and Lemira married a man by 
the name of Plummer, both are forgotten now, but strange to say, a son of this 
forgotten couple, has held the highest ofifice of any man born in Xunda, as will 
be told later. 

\"an Rennsalaer, x-Vrden and Diana, were the other children. Mark W. 
Heath, a son of Sylvester, a Xunda soldier living in Grove, is the only near rela- 
tive surviving. James M. Heath's family also, moved away. Sylvester 
stayed. Arden his uncle married a sister <if Sheriff Thomas Chase, and moved 
from town. The author has re|)ented and will now tell that the son of Lemira 
Plummer. William S. I'lummer born in .Xunda was U. S. Senator from Cali- 
fornia, (ireat Scott! Xo. (^ireat I'lummer! I'olitical plums hang within reach 
in California. 


In 1811) Palmer l\awson located on the south part of the creek road now 
known as Walnut Street and bu.ilt a log house on crooked brook south of the 
Baity House. His brother. Tames I larvey, settled in the southern part of the 
town with his brother-in-law Willnughby Lowell. James Harvey, married 
Willoughby Lowell's sister Clarissa. Their home with its contents was burned 
the same year. 


The next year their father's famil\ came. It was a grown u\> family of 
sons and daughters, just what the community needed. Besides I'almer and 
James Harvey, Elias Kawson, the father, had two sons, Lyman and Coleman 
and three daughters. Lyman settled on the Willoughby Drew farm, for a year 
or two, and I presume started the second industry "an ashery " for there was 
one on that farm. Coleman married Miss Bowen and settled near the corner 
of State and Rawson (sometimes called Water Street). Clarissa was soon 
married to Willoughby Lowell and they settled on the Lewis Close place, near 
his saw-mill, where he built the upright i)art, the wing of logs having been pre- 
viously built probably by some squatter. 

Ralph Page, son of Eli, another young bachelor, built a log house east of 
the Palmer Rawson h.ouse on a ])art of the E. O. Dickinson farm but back from 
the present road, for ]\fill Street had not then been laid out, exce])! from the 
saw-mill to the creek road. In line with these two log houses was a third one 
west of the road that passes the Chidsey farm, but east of the Page house, and 
here li\ed Thomas Rathbun, a young married man, with a wife and young son, 
James. This trail or bridle path extended from Chautauqua Hollow past these 
three log houses to the Coleman Rawson frame house on State Street. It failed 
to become a street for after the grist mill was located in 1828, houses were built 
on that highway, and so only the short street, between State and Church Streets, 
has recently got back its own name Rawson Street, which should never again 
be lost. Why? Do you expect me to tell all the love stories of two genera- 
tions of Rawsons in one cha|iter instead of having, as authors do, a twenty years 
or later sequel. \\"ell if I must — here goes. 



Ivalpli I 'age and rainier Jvawson became great friends and ntit wanting to 
live aliine in their new lug houses, or even with each other, they traded sisters, 
i. e., of course, with the said sisters consent. Ralph married Rhoda and Palme-" 
married Lena I'age. Sequel in after years. Minerva Rawson, their daughter. 
a generation afterward married the young boy James Rathbun, a few years her 
csenior, who grew tip in the third log house on the J^awsun road, owned b\' 
Thomas Rathbun; and a generation after that nuv Airs. Rathbun furnished 
both her husband and her only son Adrian in answer to Father Abraham's call 
for 600,000 more. This patriotic lady, born in our village and whti has lived 
most of her life in our village, bore a double load of anxiety, during those 
dreary dreadful \ears, thinking by day anil dreaming bv night, 

"Of the fire balls of death 
That crash souls out of men." 

J. H. Rawson traded his farm fnr village property after some _\ears, and a 
generation afterward, his daughter, Adeline, was married to Alunson O. 
Barker, who was born in our young town 85 years ago. A son of Coleman 
Rawson, tlonier, lived on the north side of Rawson Street, Caroline, youngest 
sister of Palmer, j. PI. and C. Rawson, married .Asher Clough, son of Na- 
thaniel, a pioneer oi 1821. The three log houses and the Rawson road are 
things of the past, the frame house on State Street is now back of the fine 
gothic house built by Homer Ehvood, a grandson and the short street renamed 
I<awson Street in our last county atlas is all that is left to perpetuate the Ro- 
mance of Rawson Road. 

[. H. Rawson was supervisor of the town of Portage, and for many years 
Justice of the Peace in Xunda. r)Oth P'lias Rawsnn and his son, J. H. Rawson, 
were deacons of the Baptist church of Xunda. 


As this was one of the largest and strongest families that helped to settle 
Xunda, town and village, we give extra space to this family that have a printed 

I. Elias Rawson, Deacon Baptist church s. in Xunda 1820, lived in log 
house on Walnut Street, near the house of Barnes of Kentucky, now owned by 
Mrs. Belle (Shaut) Baity. E. R., was born April 4, 1768, he w'as the eighth 
child of a family of 22 children. He was the son of Silas and Abigail Chapin 
Rawson. He married Rachel Coleman. The_\- hatl 10 children two of them 
died in infanc}'. 

II. I. James Harvey, Deacon Baj^tist church, supervisor of Portage i8ig), 
J. P., of Xunda. He v.-as born December ii, 17<)6. Married Clarissa Lowell 
who was htirn October 12, ijyy. Died .\])ril ig, 1871). 

II. 2. Clarissa Rav.son, married Willoughby Lowell, died iS4f>. Had 
four children, see Lowell Cen'y. 

II. 3. Lyman, born 180T, married Mrs. Lydia Street. Two children born 
in .Xunda. 

HI. Willard, born 1824. Maria, born 1826. Two others born in Minne- 
sota (Amanda and Sybil). 


('hililrcn (jf janu-s II. Maw son. 

III. I. I.ucetta Raw son. JHiri; 1S21. ilied i<)02. Alarried William Aiken, 
died 1906. James ilar\e\ Aiken, horn 1H45. Married Ella Merwin. Port- 
age. Eug;ene Adel .\iken, horn 1847. (i_or.iL;e W'., born 1849, (two soldiers 
in the family), Erastus. .\Ionzo and Esther M. 

III. 2. Nelson Coleman Rawson, horn in Xnnila, died Januar\- 28, 1880. 
jVIarriecl I'dorence ra\lor. Mrs. Rawson married second, '"Dr. J. W. Mullen, 
died ii)Ofi. Mrs. Dr. M., resides La Eayette, Ind. 

III. 3. Julius Addison, horn in Xunda, died in California, Xoveniber i, 
18-7. 4. .\deline B., horn 1828. ]\Iarried Munson O. Barker, hnth livinsj in 
Xunda. I'or children, see Seth Barker Family. 5. *Moses Lowell Rawson, 
born in Xunda, veteran ( 'i\il War. Married Susan Ashley. .Son and daugh- 
ter horn in Portage. '>. Iliram L., luiniarried. A miner. Residence Black- 
ford, Idaho. 7. Laura Malvina, l)orn in Xunda. died i860. 8. *Eernando 

II. 4. Palmer, horn in 1803, s. 1820 married 1st. Lena Page; 2nd. Mary 
Ann Clough. 

III. I. Miner\a, horn in Xunda, 1826, still living in Xunda. Married 
*James L. Rathbun of Xtuida, a soldier. 2. Harriet A., born 1828. Married 
William Twist of Ximda. (See Twist I-'amily. ) 3. '■T'rancis M., horn 1830 in 
Xunda. Married A\'illiam Lindsley. (See Lindsley I'amily. ) 4. Silas P., 
born 1834. 5. Elias ]M., born 1841. 

II. 5. Rhoda, born 1S05, married Palph Page of Xunda. Seven children 
(see R. Page Family.) 6. Coleman, born 1807. Alarried Lucy Bowen 
of Nunda, 

III. I. Ellen. 2. Homer .A.. 3. Josephine C. 4. Hancy S., horn 1835. 

II. 7. Mary Eliza, born 1810, married S. I'elton in 1828, died 1833. 

III. Elias Felton, Mary Felton, died young. 

II. 8. Caroline, born 1815, married .Asher Clough, January, 1841, and died 
.\pril 22. 1842. 

III. I, Clarence M. Clough, born March, 1842. 
Thomas Rathbun P^amily ( Chidsey h^arm). 

I. James. 2. Hiram. 3. Thomas. 4. Louisa. 


Revolutionary soldier from Alban_\- County which at the time of that war 
included most of X'ermont, came to Xunda in 1819. and probably into our 
present village in 1820. He built or occu|iied the second log house built on 
State Street opposite the Union Block. 

Mr Gould had been wounded and walked with a cane. I le wore a queue 
or cue, and dressed as a Continental soldier, was a subject of both interest anrl 
fear to the children of sixty years ago. He was buried on the Levi Gould lot 
near the Richmond and Whitcomb vault with no stone to mark his grave or tell 
of his valor. An illustration of a regretted fact. 

"The graves our sons have given us 
Grudged us our renown." 

TliL- family "f W'illirini (iijuld, sccuiicl settk-rs ;n Xunda village consisted of 
the following persons : 

William D. Gould and Abigail L'attrcll Gould. Daniel wlici married in 
S]iarta. lUiel who went \\'est and died there. Le\i married Amelia Weed- 
right. George lives at Craig Colony. Alilie marne<l Harvey Freelove. Eliza 
married Jehial Johnson (who was drowned at Wellsville). The obituary of 
Mr. Gould by his pastor has recently been found. 


In Xunda, X. \ .. Xovember 24. 1S42, Air. William Gould, aged 88 years. 
In the (leaMi of Mr. Gould, his comi)anion has lixst a partner with whom she 
ha<l lived fifty _\ears. But she mourns her loss, with the liope "f meeting the 
(iei)arted in a brighter and better world. Seven children have been called to 
wee]) over the departure of an aged and respected father. ^Mr. Gould lived in 
the davs that "tried mens souls," and took an active part in the struggle for our 
national existence. His -was also the second family that settled in this now 
thriving village. He had long been a believer in the restitution and main- 
tained his confidence m the unfailing mercy of God, while he could express his 
feelings on the subject. I-'or the last \ear or two, he has been mostly confined 
to the house. But v^henever he had an opportunity, he expressed to the writer 
his earnest desire for the prosperity of our common cause. On the occasion of 
his funeral, a discourse was delivered to the mourning relatives and sym- 
pathizing friends by Rev. A\'. E. Manley. — Copied liy Rev. Ansom Titus from 
Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Ailvocate, Ctica, December 30, 1842. 


A Genealogical pamphlet compiled by William Alonzo Wilcox of Scran- 
ton, a grandson of Nathan Pendleton Wilcox, (who died in Xunda), furnishes 
facts that are surprising to those who li\e in a town where Civil honors are 
seldom conferred. 

We are especially grateful to this tillial scm an.l worthy grandson, for the 
use of his well written genealogical record of an unusually successful and in- 
teresting family, of our early pioneers. 

1, \\'illiam Pendleton Wilcox (Isaiah, Edward i), born in Herkimer 
Countv, X. v.. May 30, 1794. He was a soMier in the war of 1812, and was 
deputy sheritf:' of Ailegany County, X. V. He removed in 1820 to Xunda, 
and in 1831 to McKean County, Pa., where he became the sales agent for Ben- 
jamin and Andrew 'M. Jones, afterwards the McKean and Elk Land Improve- 
ment Com])any. County superintendent of tl;e ])oor and P. M., of Xunda, 
1828-29. In 1835 he was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representa- 
tives and was re-elected for three successive terms, serving through Governor 
Ritner's administration and the "Buckshot \\'ar." He was then elected to the 
Senate and in 1845 to the Speakership of that body. In 1838 and 1859 he was 
again a member of the House of Representatives. He also served a term as 
Associate Judge. The latter part of his life was spent on a farm at Williams- 
ville, McKean County. The newspaper notices of his death speak of his pub- 
lic and private life, his abilities, his generosity, his commanding appearance- 


and the evenness of his cheerfnl, genial disposition. He died at I'urt Alle- 
jjheny. April 13. 18(18. He was first married to Betsey Paine, by ^\ honi he 
had tiiree cliihlren. 

H. 1. EI\-ira Zeviali. born Danulie. December 2<). 1S15; 2. .Monzo 
Isaiah, born Dannl)e. March 22. 1811): 3. Clarissa Prudelia, born 1821. died 
unmarried January i), 1843. His wife ISetsey died, and he married in 182.4, 
Esther Swift, born in Tolland. Connecticut, who had renKJved with her par- 
ents to (Jnondaga Count\-, Xew V<:.rk. She died at Port -Mleghenw I 'a., Jan- 
uary 3. 1881. aged 79 years. There were no children o{ the second marriage. 

I. 2. .Xathan Pendleton \\'ilcci.\, (a lirother of W'm. P. ^^'. ), born Her- 
kimer County, X. ^'.. Ma} 3, T804. remnved to Xunda, X. \., where he was the 
architect and liuilder of the JMrst Paptist church. ( The P.rick chruch was not 
built till 1N4J, which was after his death). He married, October i), 1828, Lu- 
rancie, daughter (if Lt. William and Sarah ( .Xorton ) Richar<lson, of Aladison 
County, .X. ^'. He died April 24, 1833. aged 2y years. His widow married 
William Williams (if Smethiiort, .McKean County, who had a considerable fam- 
ily by a former wife. She survived him and died at .Sewicklex', December 10. 
i8(j3. Thev lia(.l two children. 

H. Thomas Jefferson, Ijorn .\]iril 2(j, T830: died lul\- 30, 1830. 2. Xa- 
than Pendleton. Jr.. born May 10. 1832. 

H. I. Elvira Zeviah Wilcox, married September 20, 1(83(9, Chester Irons 
Medbery of McKean Comity, Pa. Their children were: 

HI. I. \Mlliam Chester; 2. Alonzo Harris Irons. 

The\- lived in McKean County until ()ct(iber. 18S3, when the\- removed 
with their son .Alonzo H., to Peadle C'ount\-, South Dakota, and remained there 
with him luuil their death. Her husljand died Alarch 17, ii8()3. She died Octo- 
ber 5, Kpo. 

II. 2. .\lonzo Isaiah Wilcox, son of Wni., born Danulie township, Her- 
kimer County, X. "^ ., March 22, i8i(), married, June 2. 1(846, Lovisa, daughter 
of Judge Isaac and Lucy ( ^^'arren ) Horton. She died at Kendall Borough, 
Pa., January 3, 1881, aged (15 years: he died July 28, 1899, at Hackensack, N, 
J. Their children were 

I. Clarissa, born, 1(847. 2. Susan, 1S53. 3. Ida, 1857. 4. \\'illiam, 
i860, of whom all but Ida died without issue. 

He was a lumberman and oil producer; he located an extensive saw mill in 
the wilderness of Elk County when he was but a young luan. and the town of 
Wilcox was named after him at the suggestion of President Buchanan, whose 
friend he was. He was much interested in the general development of the sec- 
tion and an act've promoter of the Equitable Pipe Line Company, the Tidewater 
Company, of the Jersey Shore anfl Pine Creek; Rochester, Xunda aiul Penn- 
sylvania; Bradford, Bordell and Kinsua, and Philadelphia and Erie Railroads. 
He served as Colonel on the stafif of Governor Packer of Pennsylvania and 
again on the staff of Governor Geary; was a member of the Lower House in 
the Legislatures of 1847, 1(848 and 1870. He was elected the first two terms as 
a Democrat; the last as a Repuiilican. Ml the other Wilcoxes and all the Med- 
berys have been life-long Democrats. Colonel .\lonzo I. Wilcox identified him- 
self with the Republican party about the time of the beginning of the Civil War. 
He was sheriff of .McKean County 1881-84. The notable floods of t86t de- 


stroyed his lumber business anil caused him heavy losses; he repeatedly lost 
hea\ily through endorsements and had his full share of reverses, but thev never 
concjuered him ; he never lost heart, anil retanied throughout his characteristic 
buoyancy of spirit and generous charitableness. He was a man of the broadest 
sympathies, notably hospitable, congenial, liberal, deservedlv popular and re- 

II. 1. Xathan iVndleton Wilcox, (son of Xathan I'endletoni, born at 
Xunda, X. v., May i(>. 1832; married at Coventry, X. ^'.. by Rev. J. Ij. Hoyt, 
■October (1, 185(1, t'-' Celestinc, daughter of John and Xancy (Little) liirge, of 
Coventry. Their children are: 

III. I. William Alonzo, born Ulean, July 2^. 1857. 2. Clara Uirge, born 
Olean, Alarch 28, 1859, unmarried. 3. Henry Pendleton, born Olean, Dec- 
ember 28, i860. 4. Anna Janet, born Xicholson, I'a., July 25, 1862, unmarried. 

Received his education at Xunda Academ_\-. Was merchant at (Jlean, X. 
Y., and removed in !8(i2 Ui .Xicholson, Wyoming County, I'a., where he was a 
hardware merchant for many years an.d a leading man in the community. For 
thirty-five years he has been an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and was com- 
missioner to the notable General Assemblx of 1869 in Xew York City when the 
-union of the old and new schools was consummated, and again to the General 
Assembly of 1879 at Saratoga Springs. He has held many local public and 
corporation offices. Is a past master of Xicholson Lodge, Xo. 438, F. and A. 
M., and a member of Temple Commandery at Tunkhannock. Of late years he 
has been largely occupied as a surveyor and conveyancer. He died April 25, 

HI. Ida Wilcox. (Alonzo Isaiah, William 1 'endletcm 1 , Ijorn at Wilcox, 
Flk County, I'a., in 1857: married in 1882 to Ernest H. Koester, son of G. F. 
and Mary 1!. Koester. Their children are 

I. Maurice Alonzo, liorn June 29, 1883, died February 17, 1889. II. 
Frederick Ernest, born May 10, 18^7. III. Xina Gildea, born Xovember 18, 

Mr. Koester served n term as District Attorney of McKean County, Pa., 
and is at present an active lawyer at llackensaek, X. J., and prosecuting attor- 
ney at r.ergen County, X. J. 

^\■illiam Alonzo Wilcox (Xathan Pendleton, Jr., Xathan Pendleton), born 
Juh 25, 1857: married .\pril 22. 1885, Katharine, daughter of Hon. Steuben 
and Katharine (Preese) Jenkins of Wyoming, Pa. Their children are: 

]V. 1. William Jenkins, born March 17, i88(S. 2. Emily, born January 
7, 1889. 3. Helen, born March 4, 1892. 4 and 5. Stephen and Henry 
(twins), born January 31, 180S. 1"he former died January 7, 1890, and the lat- 
ter April 2;!,. 1898. 

He is a member of the Lackawanna Courity Bar, and has been in active 
practice at Scranton since 1880. One of the incorporators of the Pennsylvania 
Bar Association and a member of the .\merican Bar Association. Was a rttl- 
ing elder of the Presbyterian Church while at Wyoming. 

William Pendleton Wilcox, was the first merchant in Xunda (1822). He 
also kept an inn. and for two years was the first post master in the present town 
of Xunda. He was one of several, to lay out the State Road that passed his 
house in 182 1. It was not till one year later he opened his house as a store and 
inn, for before the road was laid out, there would have been no travel. Wilcox 


Corners was also called "The Center." As lie sold (uit in 18:^1 to Jacob Guy it 
has since been called "Gtiy's Corners." Mr, Wilcox was a member of the Bap- 
tist Church and this society sometimes lieid services there. 

I-\'w of our citizens have attained as high honors in civil life. 

One of our best knov\-n citizens Ctley Spencer clerked for him and under 
the Deputy S'leriff, became Constable. The family seem to have Ix-en fitte<l for 
official life, as one of his brothers, and one of this brother's sons, were able to 
write Hon. liefore their names. 

His son Alonzo Wilcox seems to have had the same pushing qualities. 
.\s he was a cousin to Delos jMerrick and the second generation of the Paines, 
we naturally inipiire if the cliange of location, and occupation was n<it a large 
element in his rapid advancement. 


The early death of Xunda"s first architect, Xathan Pendleton Wilcox (who 
probably was the l.iuilder of the old .\unda Literarx Institute Iniilding and is 
said to have been of the P>a])tist Prick church of Rochester), cut short a career 
of interest in another direction. 

Fortunately he left a son and namesake, who has led an unusually useful 

Xathan Pendleton \Mlcov, born in 1S04, in Herkimer Count}-, if he came 
with his elder brother \\'iliiam P., to Xunda in 1820 would have been but a 
youth of ifh 

This excellent young man contracted consumption and died April 24. 
1833, age 2() years. His dream of life and love already past. 

IL I. Thomas Jefiferson Wilcox, born April 2(), tiS30. July 30, 1830. 

2. Xathan Pendleton ^\■ilcox. Jr., born Mav id, 1832. 

Nathan Pendleton Wilcox, Jr. 

William A. Wilco.x, Esq. 
Scranton, Pa. 

School-days come and we find the name of I'endleton Wilcox, as attending 
the Nunda Academy and Xnnda Literary Institute in 1844 and 45. Tlie widow- 
was married to WilHam Wilhanis, with a large family of children and one of 
his sons married his stepmother's \oungest sister and Smethport, Pa., becomes 
the lK)me of the families. 

I. I^ieut. William Richardson, veteran 1812. wife. Sarah Xorton. Lived 
near the Fuller farm south of W'alnut Street. 

He was Jusdce of the Peace, and LVmnty ( )verseer of the Poor. 
Exchanged farms with Palmer Kawson, and was one of the proiuinent 

II. I. Children of William and .Sarah (Xorton) Richardson. 1. C\n- 
thia, born 1800, married *EllioI Tyler, dietl while young. Came with her father 
to X'unda, but lived only until 1838. Her children were: 

(I. Alonzo Tylei, married Turza Guy. daughter of Jacob (jiiy. 2. Me- 
lissa. 3. Willis died age S years. 4. Wary. ) 

II. 2. Lurancie Richardson, born 1808. Married Xathan Pen<lleton 
Wilcox, married second WilHam Williams. 3. Esther, married Hiram Mer- 
rick. See Merrick Families. 

II. 4. Diantha, married Cornelius I". Fielding. (Jennie Fielding, page 
estimator in Xew York Cit\- ) ; 5. Cordelia, married Welcome Jilser. pioneer 
teacher, Xunda : 6. Jeremiah W.. (merchant), married Emeline Dake, daugh- 
ter of Charles Dake: 7. Mary Ann, married Ludowick Williams, son of W'll- 
liam Williams, Smethport, Pa. 


I. Lieut. David Baldwin a veteran of the \\'ar of 1812, a ])rominent 
member of the Baptist church of Crove, Porta.iix- and Xunda. a ]iensioner of 
the War of 1812-1.4, came to Xunda and liveil and d.ietl there. 

His wife was Achsah a sister of Rev. Samuel Messenger. The family at- 
tended the first schools of Xunda. when it was known as Xunda \'alley. Dea- 
con Baldwin was trustee for several }ears. and lived in the village about fi 
years, then bovi.ght a farm. 

Children of David. 

II. I. ( )rren Xelson. married Emaline Gearhart Palmer, Chiklren. 
III. I. Ilanor Philena Baldwin, married John Kelle\'. George W.. was killed 
by a falling limb, married Libby Randall; \'i>lney II.. married Elizabeth Colton. 

II. 2. Louise, married Rev. Daniel Lowell. .See Lowell Family. 

II. Emma, married Hiram Bardw ill ; 3. Philena, married Roswell Law- 

II. Cortez Baldwin, married Mariam L(jwell. 

III. I. Chauncey, married Buno. 

I\'. 4. Isora, married Hebert Bentley. 

\'. 5. Leila, married Charles Cleveland. 2. .Scott, in school. 

II. C). Sarah, married George Gearhart. Jr. (See Gearhart I'amily. ) 

III. Cornelia, married George R. W. Pay, soldier. 2. Chanes Va.\. 

l\' . I. Elsie, married William S])hoon. 2. Mariam. married \\'. H. 

\'. Charles Sphoon, graduate G. X. S. Principal of Union School. Wells 
Sphoon, farmer, married \\'aters. 


Soplionia, married i''erry Buno. 

III. *j\talvina, married Perry Rimo. 

III. Ellen married Charles Carter. 

III. Fernando, married Helen Ilovey. 

III. Salina, married Hiram Weed. 

1821 TO 1828 


The BouglUons of Lioughton Hill (\ictiiri were .settlers there at an early 
date, as early as 1789. The !'.(.inghti)n family are the same as the Bouton Fam- 
ily. The family is French in origin. The Bonton-Boughton genealogy 
dates back to the time when France was a monarchy. iV daring soldier rescued 
his monarch in battle, by killing the King's antagonist, whereupon the King cut 
a gold button from his coat and. gave it to the soldier. After the battle, the 
King called for his preser\er, and made him a knight, "The Knight of the 
Golden Button." The soldier took the name, given him by the King, Bouton. 
which has been Anglicised into Boughton. ( )ne of the Boughtons, a Colonel 
of Boughton Hill, died in the \\'ar of 1812, and many more of them in the Civil 
War. There seems to have been several of that name among the first settlers 
or Xunda and Fortage. An .\.. Boughton. had si.xty acres in the very heart 01 
Xunda \'illage nearl\ half of Lot 2i<. now the center of ilie village. He sold 
too soon. Xo one remembers .\. Boughton. John Boughton settled in Portage 
when that town was in Xunda, or in S. Grove, and was Supervisor of Grove. 
E. Boughton settled on Lot U), but we have r.o turther information concerning 
him. .A. son of William liotighton of Xunda. Xewell Boughtcm, became a 
teacher, studied fiir the I'.aptist ministry, went to college, but could not for want 
of fimds complete his cnurse. He was granteii, a license by the Baptist church 
of X'unda to preach. He did mission work in the West where he died. The 
only Boughton I know of, in Xunda is the writer's wife, Julia S. Boughton 
Hand, daughter of the late Rev. Harvey Boughton a L'niversalist clergyman, a 
distant relative of the Boughtons at \ ictor ar.d those formerlv of Xunda. 

Mk. H. \V. Hand 

,Mi<>. H. W. Hand 

TJeut. Eugene Boughton. lu-r lirotluT. was killed, while leatling his coin- 
pan v across a bridge from which the rebels had removed the plank, in 1864. 

Her sisters. Airs. Ellen W. Post and Mrs. 
.\unda for ten years, when l.ioth of them di 
\ icinr ( Liouffhton Hill.) 

.\.lice Hewett. shared her home 
lh]. Her brother George resides 

CHAF TER 7:1. 
Picturesque Port.\gk .\nd Its First Settlers. 

WHEN the "half shire," Nunda, ])arted with Grove, which included 
Granger, or West Grove, it gave up a line grazing section, and the 
upper valley of the Keshequa, with the Granger hills and plateaus, 
and. as time has revealed, one of the prospective and fast developing "oil 
fields" of Western New York. \\'hen she parted with Portage, which included 
Genesee Falls, she also parted with what is now called Glen Iris and Letch- 
worth State Park, one of the most picturesque spots in all the United States, 
destined soon to distinct recognition as a State Park, second only to Niagara 
Falls in sublimity, but ever first in variety of scener\- and rivaling the Adiron- 
dacks in primeval beauty. With an Indian wigwam or two in the foreground, 
and on the high plateau, the old Council House of the Senecas, or, more accu- 
rately speaking, of the Nunda-wah-o-nos, it would not be difficult, in imag- 
ination, to roll back a century or two and see the primitive copper-colored 
citizens of Nunda in one of their favorite haunts. There is one shaded dell, 
south of the Council House, so wild, so gloomy, so secluded, through wdiich 
the stream flows that tumbles over* a depression in the "High-banks." forming 
the "Bridal \'cil," that if anv one walked through it alone, the \ery crackling 

HoRNBY Lodge 

.•^bove the Tunnel, nearly opposite the Middle Fall 


Taken down in 1850 

of a twig would suggest the proximity of rabid beasts or savage men. Could 
this dell be added to Central Park, at a cost of millions, it would become us 
chief attraction, Init here amid other wonders is almost unknown, and, though 
quite unique in its primitive beauty, the tired tourist, if he ventures intci this 
weird solitude, so feels its engrossing power, that he hastily turns up the foot 
path leading to the Council House and contents himself with feasting his eyes 
with views of the river, gorge "nd brid; ?. and forgets to think that this mar- 
vel.). is b'idge. "a masterpiece of meclianisni, ' the two railroads, and the former 
channel of a once famous canal, arc all inn()\atit)ns, intruding u|)on, though 
enhancing the charm of this prinie\al l)cauty s])ot. 

The geologist comes here with his hammer for a chip or two of genuine 
"Portage rock," and, not content to look l)ack to the time of Indian occupancy, 
a mere century ago, he sees a gorge worn by centuries of attriticm. and he 
also sees, wdiat others do not, that above Portageville there is a wide river 
\alle\', anil that here there is only a gorge without a valley, hence knows 
there must ha\-e been in primeval or pre-glacial times, a different outlet for 
the waters of the Genesee, and seeking for it on both sides of the ri\er be- 
comes satisfied that the Keshequa valley below Hunt is the legitimate and 
only possible original channel for the Genesee. To account for the change. 
he deposits a glacier in the stream, nr stretches it one-half way across the State 
and presto-change! attrition, the constant friction of centuries goes on and 
so a new water course is formed. 

So Nature also robbed Xuiida, ages licfore her birth, of the ginrious inher- 
itance of our Genesee River, and left us only one of its branches, the Cashequa 
as geologists call it, Init it could not take its tributaries also, and many a fine 
stream flows into it. in Xunda, and when it reaches the Canaseraga. their 
united waters form no inconsideral^le ]iart of the greatest river of \\'estern 
New York. 

It is hardly necessary to recall the fact that when the surveyors of the 
Genesee \'alley Canal attempted to find a way up to the Upper Genesee \'alle}' 
that commences at Portageville, they followed very nearly one of the original 
channels of the Genesee, from Craig Colony to ( )akland, by following up the 
Cashequa Valley, and the surveyors for the Pennsylvania Railroad were 
obliged to follow their example. 

Pre-natal losses are beyond the limits of consistent complaint, Init the 
writer cannot help lamenting the loss from our township of the present town 
of Portage, that forms near the Genesee, a part of this weird, picturesque, 
bewitching wonderland. Ours she was, however, from i8oS to 1827. and her 
pioneers were our pioneers, her teachers taught our schools, many of her sol- 
diers were in "our" companies, many of her citizens still worship at our altars. 
her advanced scholars attend our "High School." and in many ways we are one 
people, "one in heart and purpose." "No village upstart." says "Hayseed," 
when speaking of any citizen of Portage, \oung or old. 

.\nd so I hope my fellow citizens of Nunda will forgive the writer if he 
shows a lo\-e for Portage people, born of l)irthright, and fostered by a citizen- 
ship with them for a quarter of a century. 

After the division of the would-be "Cnunix- ni Nunda" into two sections, 
or half-shires, the "hub" of the southern half was not at Nunda Hamlet, or 

1 hilihcll's CiM-iK'i's, as it was calletl, imr even at Xiinda Conti-r iWilcnx Cor- 
ners), Imt at tirsl, at or ahont tlic I'rosper Adams Inn at ( )ak Hill, an<l then 
at l\i'slu'(|na, sunn nanicil llnnt's llolldw, fnrtlic i'cist ( »ffice was always at 
tlio "luili." 

A list of the heads ol lainilies who \\\vt\ in this part of Xnnda will pcr- 
ha])s snffice with special mention of those who "achiexed fame." may well lie 
yi\en, for from uSit) to 1S27 I'ortas^e-.X inula led in jiopnlation, enterprise, 
schools, and Inisiness activities her northern nei^hhor, who, thons^h last in all 
of these has for more than half a century been "chiefest and t^reatest" of this 
ninefold family. 

The town of I'orlai^e was settled before the lands of Xnnda were taken 
up, for iwii reasons: the (lenesee River trail from Alt. Morris to I'ortageville 
fnrni^hecl the road known i'\en to-da\ as the "River Road" and. when followed 
hexond the "while wnman'^" tract, leil to Portage. There was no ".State Road" 
nntil iSj4 and no well detined Creek Road till still later. The Short Tract 
road led through I'ortage to ( iranger. The few scpiatters, transients and first 
settlers in the northeastern part of the town came from Sparta, \ov .Sparta cottld 
be reached hy means of the W'illiam.'.on Road from \\'illiamsi)ort, I'a., to 
\\'illianislnirg. Xew I'.uglanders came from Cauandaigna and Ceneseo. The 
second reason w;is the dilference in land agents. Colonel W illiams, the land 
agent in I'oriage. was on the s|iol, and could sell and gi\e a good title to the 
lands sold, while John Alc.Sweeney. the Irish land agent, located at Xnnda, 
was unrelialili.' and incompetent, and with his chief. Luke Tournan, at far- 
away llaltiniore. transacted Imsiuess in a slack, haphaxard, unsatisfactory waw 
The coming of Judge Carroll as his successor ahont iSjo, when nearly e\'ery 
farm had heen taken up in I'orta^e, made Xnnda practicalh' a new section 
for settlement, and this sectiim retained the name "Xnnda." \\ hile the writer 
grieves over the loss of I'ortage and its magnificent scenery, he rejoices that 
the name, Xunda, clung to the part where the valle_\' is the wi<lest, and where 
Xatnre's smile is entrancing: still he grieve.s that the mar\elons, the 
pictnres(|ne, the almost awe-inspiring "(den of the Rainln.iw," with its high 
hanks and cataracts and primeval forests so thoughtftdly ]ireser\ed li\' one 
of Xatnre's de\ont worshipers, could not have remained in .Xunda, forming 
one scene of \ariegated beauty and charm, the joy of all beholders, the per- 
fection of all landscapes — "\\ hat ( iod joined together" and encircled with his 
everlasting hills, man has unwisely separated — but the da}- may come when 
the electric carriage will unite the di\-orced atTections and interests of both 
sections of old Xinnla, and make ns one people. 

Ry traditimi. by historic mention, and by the recollections of those wdio 
purchased their lands, a few men oi a decade less than a century ago have names 
left, but whose individuality is entirely lost, b'irst of all. the transients, who 
aboile for a few years on the \ery first farm, in the Portage that was to be, 
was Jacob Sha\er : evidently he settled there with the purpose of a permanent 
residence, lie made a clearing, paid his highway tax, from iSto to 1816, 
when the lands of the Cottiuger tract came into market, then when 
Captain Richard L'hurch came, and was onl\ too glad to ])av for his 
log buildings and impro\'ements, more than entnigh to establish him in 
a new section, he sold out and went farther west. Rut is this all: Xot exactly. 


1 uislicd to i^ive tliis first naiiu'il settlef of I'orlat;!.' a little more attention liian 
he had received 1)\- former hislorian.s, so 1 will say 1 ha\'e in\ tsti^ated and 
found he was a ]ialliniaster of District \o. 2. town of Xnnda, in iSio. 1 can 
prove it by the town clerk of Xnnda. Asahel Trowbridge, for 1 ha\e his repnrt 
of a town nieetini; "held at the house (_)f Peter tirains^ers (Grander) in sd Town 
the 3(1 of Apriel. iS:o, for the ]nir])ose of transactinL;' the lUiisness of sd Town 
in conforniat} to the statute in such case made and ]jrovided." lie further 
states : "Prosceeded to Puisness and made Choice of the foloini; canadatins to 
fill the several ohces in sd towen. Thomas 1 )ole, Sniierxisor ; John (irilTeth 
(Griffith) Towen Cleork." W hen he comes to '"the ( )\ersears of highways," 
we find Jcseph P)alie (Pailey), District Xo. i (Xnnda). and Jacob Slian\eir 
(Shaver), District Xo. j. but as modern siielling was not one of this clerk's 
strong ]ioints, we iind our first settler either got into office immediately after' 
his arri\al. or that he came into the town in iSqi), or e\en liefin\- that time. 
Seth .'^lierwoocl was the seccjud settler, and h'.phraim Kingsley. of Xumla. the 
third. ISlg 

Col. George Williams, who settled on ( ),ak llill, had been .a l.iw student 
in the office of his uncle. John (ireig. l".si|.. wIm was agent f'lr. and afterwards 
a partner of. .Mr. llorubx. of .^collaml, in the sur\ey and sale of the C'ottiuger 
tract of 50,000 acres, of which the town of Portage was the central part. AFr. 
Greig naturall}' selected Col. W illiams from his office as resident agent of 
that portion of the tract known as the h'lisha Johnson's ,Sid)di\ision of the 
Cottinger tract (so called because Johns<iu was the sur\-evor). The choice of 
Col. \\ illiams |iro\ed an excellent oni' ; he made easy terms with the settlers, 
was just w,ith the "transients :"'w;is fair and honorable in his dealings with all. 
and became poptdar with the settlers and indispensable to his em|iloyers. Like 
most land agents, he l)ecame the center of local influence, and ci\il and military 
honors were forced u])ou him. lie was no less a leailer in festi\e scenes, and 
the athletic sports, which were then a source of joy, to enliven the hard labors 
and tiresome monotony of those years of struggle and incessant toil, were led 
by him, whose ]:)Owcrfnl frame and vigorous constitution made him an expert 
anil adroit contestant for the cham|iionshi]). lie located his own lands. ha\'- 
ing the choice of them all, with much discretion and the itroperty, still in pos- 
session of the family, attracts attention .and admiration e\eu to this day. Ten 
years from the time of settlement, having already been Town Clerk and 
Super\-isor, he was. in 1826, elected to the Legislature as a Clintonian, but 
changed his politics and party wdiile at Albany. .\t that time this change 
of views was regarded among politicians as the impardonable sin, and it 
probably ])reventefl any further civil honors, lie was liorn in llatlield. .Mass.. 
Ma}- 2i>. 171).^. married at the age of 50 Miss .Mnia Devtie, ;i sister of Isaac. 
Henry and Col. Jacob 1 )e\oe, who \\ere also among the tlrst settlers of the 
town. Their children were four in number: (ieorge \\ .. who w;is ])roprietor 
of the Cascade House, at Portage I'.ridge. and who died suddenly at Xnnda 
village: Julia, the wife of Willis II. k'uller (whose ancestors settled at Nunda 
— Pike — in iSoA) : Mr. antl Mrs. I'uller now li\-e in Xnnda village; Henr\-, who 
died in Montana, many years ago; and Charlotte, widow of Edwin Patterson, 
who is the present ])roprietor of the Cascade I louse ;it Portage. Col. ^^Mlliams 
died at the age of So from injuries recei\'ed from being" twice thrown fri>m a 


busjgv. Mrs. \\ illianis sur\i\oil him till slu- aiiaiiu-il tlu- same ai^c. Charles 
Williams was a hrotlu'r of the I'liloucl ami lixcd near him. lie was one of the 
notcil iiioneei' teachers of his day. lie married Miss Mary lliuii. ilaiiL;hter of 
Saiifon! llunt. Sr., the pioneer, and afterward. Miss Maria Taylor, lie died 
Seiitciiiher _>4, 1871, as^ed nS years, llis daughters are all still lixinu;. except 
the youngest, Ella: Mary 11.. widow of (."hapiii C. W illiams; Helia. widow of 
Morris .\\-rault. of Xuitda ; <.'. .\nnie, a successftd teacher and elocutionist, 
now Mrs. Haniel Grunder. of .Kngelica. Their only hrother. Tharles 1... a 
soldier of the 5Sth New N'ork. an estimahle young man, died Pccemher 15. 
1 S; 1 , 


The writer has been somewhat negligent in noting where the settlers of 
Niinda came from. Most of his ancestors were of (ierman origin, hence he 
neglected to trace the New England hlood of Puritans to its Xew England 
ancestry. The late C. H. IW-nnett. of Xnnda. formerly lA rorlage. has groujied 
the early citizens of that town with skill and precision, horn of zeal. To hoom 
the citizenship of Portage and their Xew l-'ngland ancestry was his hest trump 
card. There were few better local writers than C. IV liennett, and it is to be re- 
gretted that he did not write a complete history of I'ortage. He said, "Oak- 
land was settled by tlie hitches, 2klessengers, Hills. McXairs. Swains, mostly 

"On Oak Hill came the Adamses, Frenches, Marks, Robin.sons. Smiths, 
Spencers, Strongs, etc.. relatives from Paulet. \'t.. while east of them settled 
the Thompsons. Pattersons. l>uttons, Xewtons. also related from Coleraine. 

".\ronnd Hunt's Hollow were the Aliens. Pennetts. Chirks. Cobbs. Devoes, 
Hunts, Xashes, Parmalees, Slaters, Roots, W'illiamses, mainly from Connecti- 
cut. Pennycook, named by Mr. Rosebrocik. at the raising of the first log house. 
was settled later by people from various places." 

.\ finer lot of citizens could hardly ha\ e l>een brought together, and it is 
still well worthy of recc^rd. There was an unusually large number cif Xew 
England people, because there was no connection between New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania and Portage. The River Road led direct from Xew England 
to the Connecticut lands in Ohio, and some stopped b\ the way. charmed l>y 
the attractions the country presented. The military lands of Central .Xew 
York w-ere for Xew York soldiers only, so all other soldiers who came were 
either obliged to buy out the soldiers" claims, or come into the Genesee coun- 
try, or go on to Ohio. They came, they saw, they were charmed, they re- 
mained. Zopher Strong. 1S15, with a fine family of educated children, supple- 
mented by a fine pair of twin girls, America and Angelica, after coming to 
Xnnda, Prosper and Abijah Adams and the Robinsons from Paulet. \T.. who 
furnished wives for F*rosper Adams' innkeeper and his successor. William 
Marks. Gee^rge Patterson. Sr., and for Alanson Hnbbell. 



While Ii\-int,'' here she joined the ilaptist Churcli. ami there her name is 
yet, hut prohahly not a meinher of the church suspects that Sister Huhbell 
is still alive and as good a saint as ever. How does the writer judj^e of her 
present goodness — did she not join the church when it was almost an axiom 
of the church, "once in grace, always in grace." The final perseverance of the 
Saints was good Calvinism then, though its believers turned out at least loo 
members for not manifesting the fruits of the spirit, or for going to a party, 
or to another church. I'ut this sister "persevered" and one of her daughters 
became a foreign missionary, and grew old and returned and found her mother 
alive and holding birthday parties for the good boys and girls who had proved 
they were good Iiy "living out more than half their days." She evidently be- 
lieves still in "election ond reprobation," for she elects only those over 75 years 
of age, to attend her parties, and reprobates the youngsters of less age as too 
young and giddy. 

Pros]}er Adams came to Port age-. Xunda in i8if) and became the first inn- 
keeper and su]5ervisor of the town. His mother came with him and brought 
with her all her children. Abijah Adams was killed in 1824 at the raising of a 
barn for Nathaniel ( Jlney. Zerviah married Captain Elisha .Smith, a veteran of 
the War of 1S12. She died, leaving two sons. Prosper and William. William 
became a prominent teacher and afterward a soldier of the Civil War. Pros- 
per married a sister of Roderick Spencer and died at Genesee I-'alls recently. 
Captain Smith was drowned about i860 in the Canaseraga Creek, near Sonyea. 
The children of Prosper Adams: Mary C, born 1812, married Josiah St. John ; 
Charles C.. and Fanny R., who was the first white child born in Xunda-Port- 
age, I'ebruary 25, 1818, whose picture we ])resent. Jesse Adams married 
Mabel Spencer. Prosper Adams died in 1839. His successor at the hotel was 
William Marks, his brother-in-law, who was succeeded by Philip Burroughs 
about 73 years ago, at which time his youngest son, A. Jackson Burroughs, was 
born, and still lives on the homestead. George Patterson, Sr., a lirother-in- 
law of Prosper Adams, came to Oakland in 1816 and erected a 12 .x 12 log house 
on the site of the hotel of after days. His sons were Curtis and Cieorge. George 
Patterson, Sr., was a great joker. The writer has heard his mother tell of her 
first meeting with this strange character. My aunt, Mrs. Wells, introduced 
them. Mr. Patterson approached and said. ".Mother Compassionate, shake 
hands with a sinner." The rest of the conversation was of this unusual nature. 
It turned on the subject of schools. "I am a great advocate of good schools, 
and I see by the size of your flock that you are also. Send them all to school. 
The school house is in superb order — clean as a whistle. It's a letter "A" .\'o. i. 
My v'oungsters and I took Sunday for it, and made it shine like a new brass 
kettle. Sunday ! Mother Compassionate, is decidedly the best day to do good 
deeds, and, don't you know, my good mother (my mother was only 32, he still 
older) that "Cleanliness" is next to Saintliness, and there wasn't a cussed saint 
in the whole town who would have touched their saintly fingers to the job. 
Now who, thinkest thou, was the good Samaritan? The better the day, the 
better the job." This was a specimen of a new neighbor wholly unlike any 

seen in Eastern New York. "l"he wife of George Patterson. Jr. (I regret to 
record) as she grew old and infirm, after the death of her husband, developed 
insanity. She had three daughters, all intelligent, interesting young ladies. 
One died at Oakland. She had been the one most nervous, the one they might 
have feared might have shared their mother's infirmity. lUit no one thought 
it possible that these who seemed so energetic and so cheerful could possibly 
lose mental balance. Laura, married to Charles Foster, a good wife and 
mother, lost her only daughter, her only child, and after a time became more 
melancholy than formerly, and took her own life. The only sister left, Flora, 
had become a semi-invalid and the shock of this, added to her own infirmities, 
were so great that in less than ten days she followed exactly in every partic- 
ular the example of her sister. And the entire family of George Patterson, 
Jr., once the sturdy l)lacksmith of Nunda, and the successful farmer of Oak- 
land, was Ijlotted out. 


I. Captain Richard Church settled on the Angier farm (second occupant) 
in 1816. The family cuusisted of the parents, who were the leading Uni\'er- 
salists of the pioneer days. The family lived here about forty years. 

II. I. Lawrence, married in the West. 2. Leonard, married Betsey 
Grover, a charter member of Universalist Church. 3. Al. jane, teacher, poetess, 
preceptress (taught with Prof. Winslow at J\It. }ilcirrisi, married Rev. William 
E. Manlev. D. D., a celebrated commentator of the ( Md and Xew Testaments, 
(and the first settled pastor of the Cniversalist Church). 4. Richard, Jr. (un- 
married when thev removed ). Also belonging to this family was the mother of 
jerrv Chandler. The\- li\etl in Wyoming County, where their son was born 
in 1839. He marri.ed Abbie Prescott. daughter of .\lbert. born in Xunda in 
1842. and their children and grandchildren are all the posterity of Capt. Rich- 
ard Church, remaining here. At ]\Iessengers Hollow, the Messengers and 
iMtches and Hills, all relatives. At Hunt's Hollow, not then named, Nathaniel 
B. Nichols and Joseph, Walter and Thomas Bennett. At Oak Hill, Dr. Elisha 
D. Moses (1816), Elisha Moses (his father), and family (1S17). Henry and 
Lewis Tuthill. George Wilner, Capt. Perkins (on the River). Solomon Will- 
iams. Dr. Carpenter, and Saiuuel Fuller, veteran of the Revolutionary War, 
and George Gearhart. Sr. (()ct.. 1S17). 

In 1819: Santford Hunt and famil}-. William Dake and young sons, 
lonathan and Charles. Rev. Orrin ]\Iiller and three sons (brothers-in-law to 
Dake). Joseph Cole and the Giffords. Robert and George. Elias Bowen, Benja- 
min i'tter. Nathaniel Lewis (grandfather ti_) Lewis Gould), John McFarland. 
Thomas Alcott, were early settlers. 

Dr. Amos Parmalee settled in Hunt's Hollow about 1820. 

In 1821 the Xashes bought out Ejihraim Kingsle_\-. Mr. Clafiin took up 
the farm west of them. 

r)a\'id, Roswell and Philo Bennett came in 1823. 

In 1824 Greenleaf Clark settled in Hunt's Hollow and bought the Eli 
Slater tannerv : ^^'illiam Alvord also had a tannery at the time. Eli Slater. 
George W'. Barnes ami C. .-\llen, all relatives, settled at an earl}^ date. Na- 

thaniel Olney came from Cayuga County in 1S21. Samuel Swain and five sons 
came to Oakland from Oak Hill about this tinic, and W. Z. Blanchard in 1823. 
The Minor Cobb family were early settlers. 

jnl) Stockwell located on the Short Tract Road. Richard W. Roljinsons 
were at ( >ak Hill in 181S, and Arad French first located there, afterwards at 
Hunt's Hollow. 

A Family of Lawyers from Portage Who Settled in Nunda 

Nathaniel Olney came from Scipio, County, in 1821 and settled 
on the road leading from ( )ak Hill to Hunt's Hollow. There was a large 
family of sons and only two daughters. Mr. X. ( )]ney was something of a 
pettifogger, as self instructed lawyers were called, and all of his sons had a 
trend in that direction ; liis children were also teachers. The sons were: John 
I'., who married the daughter of Prosper Adams, Fanny Adams, said to be the 
first child liorn in Portage-Xunda, in 1818. This family came to Nunda and 
John F. served his town as Justice of the Peace. He sometimes was employed 
as a lawver. He died in Xunda. The fatlier also died at the home of this son. 

Silas, who was a teacher, who married a cousin, Elizabeth I'ordice. He 
died, leaving three sons and one tlaughter. The widow Olney lived on Mill 
Street after 185(1 until her death. Her sons were Corydon. born i83<;, a vet- 
eran of Company I, who became a Lieutenant, came home, married, settled in 
New Jersej- and died at Long Peach, .\lnnzo. also a Xunda soldier, now- 
living in Oakland, Cal. Mar}-, married, and li\-es in California. 

*Hiram, the youngest, is not living. Mrs. Elizabeth ()lney married (2) 
Capt. James Lemon, and her sons served in his conipany. Mrs. ( )lney had 
been a teacher, she was scholarly, patriotic and lil)eral in thought. 1 ier family 
were Lniversalists, and sang in the choir. 

Mrs. Lemon was thrown from a carriage, her head struck a lioulder at the 
roadside and she was killed. 

Omar Olney became an Allegany lawyer and ranked high in civil cases. 
He wrote two books, one an expose of Mornmnisni, and edited the confessions 
of Henry A\'ilson, the murderer of Henry I)e\-oe, of Portage. He recei^-ed as 
compensation the l)ody of the murderer, which was sold to a physician in 

( )mar C)lney married the daughter of his neighbor, Philip Burroughs. 
Samantha. and their only child is Ernest C. < )lney, who studied law with his 
father and at Albany Law School, and ranks well among the successful lawyers 
of Nunda. He has serxed jiis town as Supervisor and as Justice of the Peace. 
He resides with his family nn Portage Street, with his office on the same 
street. His parents are both dead. 

Charlotte (Lottie), onl_\- daughter of John and Fanny .\dams ( )lney. was 
efiucated at Friendship Academy, came to Nunda during war times and has 
lived here since. She married Robert R. Wright in 1881. 

Charles Olney gre-w to manhood, contracted consumption and died in 
Ntmda. He was an exemplary young nian. He died in 1874. 'i'he John ( )lne}- 
fanuly were loyal Universalists. 

Ransom Olney. also taught school successfull}- and became a lawyer, 
lived in Nunfla. He died niany years ago. He is survived by one daughter. 


Rebecca ( )lney. marrieil Jimaihan llurruuyhs, a successful faruier and 
prominent Free Mason. Tlu-y were highly esteemed l)y all wItj knew them. 
They left an only son, Edwin llurniughs. who married Anna ."^harp nl Xunda. 
Mr. E. Burroughs, who also lived in Xnnda. is a ])rnininent hardware mer- 
chant at Bay City, Mich., but visits Nunda annually. 

Jane Olney, also taught school a few terms, was married to William R. 
'J'obey, a merchant and lawyer, who was Supervisor of his town. Granger. 

Although the family was large and all were married, there is living but 
one of the children, Mrs. Jane Tol)ey, and six of the grandchildren. Mrs. 
Lottie ( )lney Wright, daughter of Jdlm !•'. and Ivanny ( )lney : Alonzo and 
Mary, children (if Silas and I-llizabetli ( )hK-\ : Ernest L'.. sun of ( Mnar and 
Samantha: .May, daughter of Ranson ; l-^ilwin liurruughs, son of J. J. and 

llirani ( )lney, a pioneer teacher of I'ortage. was a brother to Nathaniel 
Olney. and Ihirlon Eordyce, another teacher, was a brother of Mrs. Olney. 
Orange Brown of Nunda and Mrs. Amidnn of Xnnda, and her sisters, the 
Brown twins, were children of a sister of X. ( )lney. 


Seven brothers, \\'aller, Thomas T. and Joseph, settled in 1817, 

Walter Bennett had ele\en children, seven of whom were living until 
recently. The mother of these chililren was llnldah C<>e, sister to Ibm. Xa- 
thaniel Coe of Xunda. She and her sister Mary. Mrs. I);i\id Bennett, were 
past 90 years of age when they died. Those w ho lived to be elderly were : 
Thomas P., of Missouri; Walter, an inxentur; l''li>ra. who was once jirincipal 
of the l^eabod}- Institute, Summit, Miss., who died in Xunda \-illage in i8y8. 
aged 80. J. 11. iloljert, who is slill living, M. Louise, Mrs. Johnson, who 
died recentl}- at lialtimore. and Mary Ellen, who resides in Baltimore. J. 
Yates Bennett, best known of this hcjusehnld, was liorn in Portage, then 
Nunda, in 1822. In 1844 he went to the South as a teacher and remained six- 
teen years — taught school se\en years, was postmaster five years and book 
dealer at Trebodica, La., two }ears, and two at New Orleans. He returned 
to Portage in 1862 and was married to Marietta Galusha of Arcadia, N. Y.. 
who died December 23, 1868. He married, in 1872, Mrs. Elizabeth B. Smith, 
daughter of Dr. G. \V. Branch. One son, Arthur Abates Bennett, is li\ing. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Bennett died in 1877. This family of Bennetts were pnmciunced 
Democrats and zealous Episcoi)alians. Mr. \ates Bennett was Justice nf the 
Peace for a number of terms. He built mills on the Spring brook near his 
home, and his saw mill was the last of the twenty or more mills nm b\- water 
in the town. His father and X. 1!. Nichols, in 1817, built the first. Ivussell 
Messenger, at Oakland, built the next the same vear. 

Thomas Bennett had a woolen factory at Hunt's Hollow and sent cloth 
for a pair of pantaloons to Governor Clinton, who respondefl with a letter of 
thanks. The wife of \^'illiam Tousey, a daughter of Thomas Tousey Bennett, 
was the only member of this family who remained in Portage. She was born 
about 1820 and lived to be about 80 years old. 

The children of William ;uid Sarah Tousey were Cornelia, Airs. God- 
win, recently deceased, Emma; Carrie (Mrs. |. |. \\'illiams) and Lucian C, 

one of the finest tenor singers this section has e\er produced, ile died in the 
West, where he was bookkeeper for his l)rother-in-la\v, John J. WilUams. then 
a hunberman in Michigan. Mr. WilHanis (bed a few years later. 

The famil}- of Joseph Bennett went West also, excelling one daughter, 
the mother of the late Amos Clark of I'ortage, whose daughter, Airs. M. E. 
VanDusen. resides in Nunda. 


The family of David and Mary Coe Bennett, with a few exceptions, re- 
mained in I'ortage, and some of these were citizens of Xunda when they died. 

bviel Bennett, teacher, farmer and town official, was beirn May I'), if^i5. 
He came with his parents to Nunda ( I'ortage) in 1S21. and was etlucated in the 
schools of Portage and the first Xunda Academy. Church Street. He was 
the first teacher to introduce blackboards in schools in this section. He served 
as Town Commissioner of Schools and was Supervisor of the town in 1861. 
and kept excellent records of the soldiers who enlisted from that town. He 
married, in 1850. Cornelia Botsford. daughter of Ezra Botsford. Esip. of 
Granger. They had four children. Ada E., Carl D.. Nora M., and E. ^^'arner. 
Carl and Xora alone survive. 

Charles 1). I'ennett, local writer of historical sketches, and one of the 
most public spirited men of Portage, was horn in Scipio. I'ebruary 13, 1819. 
came with his parents to Nunda (Portage) two years later, was educated in 
the pul)lic schools of Portage, attendefl Henry Chalker's Select School in 
Nunda, the Leroy High School and Canandaigua Academy. He went South 
to Louisiana for two years, returned home and remained four years, teaching 
and farming, and was town su])erintendent of schools for two years. He 
went to Texas (then recently annexeil) next, and settled at Gonzales and 
engaged in teaching for several years. He was president of Gonzales College. 
The Sons of Temperance movement about the year 1850 spread over Texas, 
and Mr. Bennett became prominent in the movement and was for several 
}-ears Deputy Grand Worthy Patriarch of the order. In 1853 ^'^^ returned to 
the North, married Miss Huldah Olney of Scipio, and they returned to the 
.South. Mrs. ISennett, after a few years' residence in Te.xas, preferred to return 
to society not dominated by the advocates of slaver_\-. The hard times of 1857 
made it impracticable to dispose of his property for money, so he exchanged 
it for a herd of cattle, which he drove to Chicago, a distance of 2,000 miles. 
This was about the beginning of the Texas cattle trade, now amounting to 
millions. In 1858 he drove a herd of Texas oxen to Leavenworth and then 
purchased of the heirs his father's farm — still in the possession of the family. 
Mr. Bennett served his town as Highway Commissioner many years and to 
his energy is due the roads leading along the Keshaqua from Oakland to 
Hunts. He died in Xunda about 1890. His sisters, Emily and Rachel, com- 
pleted their lives here. Rachel was a teacher for forty years or more and 
commanded the same wages as were paid to male teachers. 

The children of Charles D. Bennett were: Carrie, Mrs. O. F. Sharp of 
Hunts. Ellura, a professional teacher with Normal ec|uipment, and Charles B., 
who resides on the homestead and wdiose wife, ]Mary L. Parmalee. was also, 
as were the three Bemietts, students at the Genesee Xormal School. 



Hon. Xallianicl Cm', an uncle of (.'liarlcs I), and Jciol Hennctt, was Ixirn in 
Mnrris Cdnniw X. J., in 17SX. jjis ]ic(ij)k' canu' lo Sci]iio in 171)4 w iu'n it was 
still a wilclcrni'ss. liis father hail a sulilier's ris;ht to (140 acres. fcir wiiich he 
paiil a shiilinL; an acre. Mr. C'nc came tn l\irtas.;e in iSiS, worked in saw mills 
and jiractici'd snrxeyini;. In iSjd. with his brnther and Myrnn Strung;, he 
went to ( )lean. ami there procured a hoal and went to Xew ( )rleans liy water. 
In the South he tau,L;ht school or classes in jienmanship. lie became acipiaint- 
ed with the Lancasterian method of teachinj.;. lie taught school until 1828. 
when he and W . /.. I'danchard o]ieneil a store at ( lakland. "Xo li(|uor sold to 
lie (Iranlc here" was a notice cons|)icuonsly posted and \\as reuarded as a rank 
ti'mperance mo\ement in those da\s when innkeepers and litpior dealers were 
leadinu; church members. This year he married Mary W hile of .\uburn, a lady 
with literary tendencies of the sentimental order, so connuon in that da\ . .Mr. 
I'oe was Justice of the I'eaee and ser\ed se\eral terms as Supervisor, lie 
was elected to the .\ssembly from Allei^any in 1N43. 1S44 and 1S45 and aj.;ain 
from 1 .i\iniL;ston County in 1847. Tn 185 1 he was apjjointed mail a,L;ent for 
()reL;on. lie selected a homestead at the mouth of Hood Ri\er on the Colum- 
liia. llis sons, La\vrence and Euyeiie I'., were the first navii;ators of that 
river ahiwe the I )allis. lie died October 17. 1808. 

I'he family of Roswell Bennett of Portage were the first of the Bennetts 
to reside in .Xnnda ^ illa!.^e. He had owned a farm on the Oakland and Dalton 
mail pre\itnis to his business ventures in Xnnda. The family consisted of 
three daughters, Elniina. who became Mrs ( )rsimus liisbee : I'lavilla. wdio 
iie\er married, ;ni<l .\ui;usta. best known as Mrs. Charles W. i lerrick. the 
only sur\i\or of the family. .Mr. I'.enuett binij;ht o{ .Morris I'liilliiis the house 
now owned by L. 1'. Ili^^ins. and a former store once known as the Tobe_\' 
store, the first one built in the village, and nio\ ed it \o his lot. where it has for 
years been known as the I'.ast .^treet market, lie had the lirst bakery in town, 
;ind was an enteriirisins; man. 

There was also a I'liilo I'.enuett. one dauL;liter who married I'hilo Mills, 
and a scm. Zar llennett, who manufncttu'ed, as did John and ()li\er Tiniiley. 
wiioden butter bowls. These two estahlislmients made these useful articles. 
.\ daughter of Zar I'.enuett, Rliza. ranked high as a teacher of District schools, 
anil was one o\ the tirst to command one dollar a day. 

.\t one time a I'.euuett reunion woitld call together at least 100 relatives. 
.\s a family they were es|)ecially noted for their scholarslii]i. 

.\ Mary C. llennett was one of two ladies to attend the .\lbauy .Xormal 
School as early as 1854. She became ])resii.lent of a l-'emale College in the 


.Mrs. .Mary l-Tdler left her home in Connecticut with a team and load of 
goods. She left her husband behind, ha\ing no further desire to li\e with and 
sujiport an indolent man, her son, Stephen being in college, and with her 
dau.ghter. Sarah, started for Xumla. .Most of the way through .Xew \'ork- 
State she had to walk and find the way by blazed trees. She bought a farm and 
worked it herself or sui>erintei;ile<l the wurk. M\- father. William Hand, 

wcjrkcd licT largest farm in 1838 for one year. It hai.>])cncd to I)e llie \car the 
writer was horn. Mrs. Fuller remained a hustler all her days, and celebrated 
her ninetieth birthday by mowiniL; thistles alony- the highway. She died that 

Stephen l-"nller, her son. while teaching school in Rochester died of 
cholera. He left two interesting children. Stephen. Jr., and Mary .\.. who 
nTari'*ied Abram I'nller of Xnnda. Sarah h'nller died at the as;e of (/), in 
Xnnda, where she was for many }ears a milliner. A grandson of i\lrs. 1'" idler, 
lohn .S. Lyon, succeeded her 1 >n the farm and was Supervisor of the town in 
war times. His children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren are still citi- 
zens of Portage and Xnnda. 


Stephen .spencer, Sr., came to I'ortage-Xunda in 1S17. lie had six chil- 
ilreii. He li\-ed to a goc)d old age ami was buried in Xinida. Silas Angier, 
;ni(ither a.ged man. was buried the same day. ( )ne funeral ser\'ice ser\ed for 

The children of Stephen Spencer, Sr., were : Ralph Spencer, Coinitv .Su- 
perintendent of Schools: Stephen Spencer, Jr.; Utley Spencer, whose sketch 
and picture will be elsewhere presented, and Mabel Spencer. Mrs. Jesse Adams. 

Stephen, Jr., was an exception tn the most of Xew England ])eoi)le. Ik- 
was facetious and delighted in amusing his associates. He met, one dav, a 
newly ajipointed deacon, whose dignity of position seemecl to rest hea\'il\- on 
him. ■' Stop, deacon," said Spencer, "1 want a little theological information. 
.\dam was made of red clay and when made was stood up against a fence to 
dry ; it is all right, but who in h — 1 made the fence." The disgusted deacon 
simply said, "^'ou are going to hell." 'W ell." said Spencer, "do \-ou want to 
send any word to some of the church folks there?" ( )n another occasion he 
met Capt. W'ilner. who also was jocose. I'.otli men had long noses, so both 
simultaneously turned their noses aside so they could jiass. This was not sat- 
isfactory so Spencer threw his jackknife toward his friend. "What is that 
for?" said W'ilner. "( )h, 1 vowed years ago if 1 ever met a homelier man than 
myself 1 would make him a present — and I have found mv man." 

The children of S. Spencer, Jr.. were Adelia, Xanc}', Cvnthia, Mar\' and 
Rhoderick. mostly teachers. Three of these young ladies were married with 
one ceremony. Rhoderick married, first. Miss Robinson and .second. .Mrs. 
Ann Mosher Clark. He was one of the finest looking men the town produced 
and as good as he looked. He ilied recently. 

Jesse Spencer died young. His widow came to Xnnda to reside. Iler 
sons. Clark and George, became lawyers. Clark, a handsome young man. 
courted all the nice looking girls in the town, but married elsewhere, lie clied 
very suddenly, when he was becoming a great lawyer. 

Jane Adams became a famous teacher, and Frank, the youngest, whose 
facetionsness nearly equalled that of his uncle, became a lieutenant in the 
Civil War. and was the life of the officers' camp. The daughter. Jane, of the 
famdy sur\ives. 

For I'tley Sjiencer. see sketch by her son in Modern Xnnda. 


Goors;c Gonrhart. Sr.. ami his wife, Anna, wilii t\\ol\c I'hildrcn, canu' to 
Porlas,;o. tlion Xumla. in Ani^usi. 1S17. 

(.'liililron's names, in urilor of liirlli, and \\lit> i1k\ niarriccl. arc as fnllows: 

.\nna, Imrn 1704. marrioil Rowley: l-'li/alicih, niarricd ( ieori;e Tlionip- 

son ; I'redevie. married Inlia I'ieree; 1 'iana. married jnlm I'owers; .Mary, mar- 
ried I'Mwin I'elV-amer; John, horn 1S04. married I'.li/aheth (inlhrie. hnrn 
iSoS: .Mari;arei. horn iSoo. married h'.dward I'eai; ."^aiah, horn iSoS, married 
<_lro\e .\ndrns; llarriei, horn iSio. married Asher >Uislier: llenriette, horn 
iSiJ, married (inslavus I'ahner: h'.mmeline. horn 1S14, married ( irrin Bald- 
win; George, liorn iSio. married Sarah luildwin. 

L'hildren of John and Elizahcth (iearhari: Charles II.. horn iSjc), married 
l.onisa Taher : L'ordelia, married .\lfre,l Taher : Sarah, married l.neins 1 'aimer; 
.Mary, marrieil .\ui;nsUis I'.eardsleN- : John, married .\nna N'anSlyke: .Martha, 
married .\menzo Lowell; William, married .Xaney L>rton; Nathaniel, nuirried 
l\lla Gilhert ; (.i. Adelberl, horn 1S45, married Lizzie W'ini;. 

II. G^'ori^e Gearhart. Jr., horn Xovemlier 11. 1810. married, in 11^37, 
Sarah I'.aUlwin, horn July _v 1>'^17, daugiitor of Ueaeon PaNid I'.aldwin. They 
had nine children and nineteen ^.^randehildren. some of whom died in infancy. 
Ghildreii ; 

III. J. George Monroe, horn June 4. iS^^S. enlisted in I'ompany .\. 1st 
Xew \'ork Drai^oons, killed at Cedar Creek. t.>ctoher. 10 iSi>4. 

1 1 I. _'. h'ayetle tlearhart. horn t)ctoher J^, iS^^o. married Martha J. Douj;- of .Xunda. 

i\ . .\lelvin V. Gearhart (See X. II. S.. (',. X. S. and Coll. lists and elnhsi. 

III. ,^ Sarah A. Gearhart. horn July 11. 1S41, married Albert M. Dunn, 
of Xumla. 

1\'. 1. l-"red E. Dunn and 2. r.ort IHinn, 

Ikon Bridge .and Upper Falls at Portaui, N. V 

III. 4. I'',>tlicr A. ( iearhart, liorii July _^. 1S47, niarri(.-(l W illiani 1\. Ward. 

snii nf ■ Kiplaml Ward. Xflt-ran. 

I\'. I. Irank I... and 2, ( I\. lllavc livrd at Daltnii.) 

III. 5. .Mrrrilt II., Imni 1S4X. married .\lta j. l.inzy uf I'orta.s^e. 

W. I. P'-clna .M. _'. .\sia 1'.. ,v Mlla. 4. Ivlwiii j., horn in Xew York State. 

I fnrnilnrt- dealer in l)altnn.) 

III. (>. .Mary I., (icarliarl, hurn July 25, 1S51. married Geors^e L. White, 
1\'. i. .\laliel [■'... married I'l. Waller Moses I See Civil List). 2. Af. I,ena. 

3. Eva A. 4. Mildred J. 

III. 7. Frank A. (iearhart, Ixirn ICS53, married Ida AI. Milliman. 

IV. Ernest G., Bertha L., Ijorn 1857. died 1864. 


George W'ilner, a veteran of the \\ ar 0* i<Si2-i4, came to Xunda ( Portage) 
in i8t8 with his captain, James Perkins. They settled first near the river and 
afterward Wilner came to ( )ak Hill and purchased the farm on which he 
resided until his death, now hest known at the .Merriman Wilner farm, lie 
was a man of genial temperament, always cheerful and full of humor, and 
ready to discommode himself even to accommodate others. The writer remem- 
bers .going with the L'niversalist Sunday School to Silver Lake, about 1859. A 
four-horse team was hitched to a great hay wagon and all the youngsters were 
piled in that the wagon could hold. C)ne of the horses gave out and it was at 
first a wonder how this serious trouble was to be overcome. I remember 
Samuel Whitcomb was in the load and he said if we can get to Ca])tain Wil- 
mer's he'll let us ha\e a horse if he has to stop work on the farm to do it. .\nd 
so it proved — his team took the place of the ones that le(l, and he acted as if 
it were a privilege to do this act of kindness. 

The children of Captain George, and of Betsy Moses, his wife, for he mar- 
ried one of the many children of his neighbor, Elisha Moses, were: Marcus, 
Merriman J., Malcom and Flavia. Marcus became a merchant in Portageville 
and was Supervisor of his town. He was a well read man and an interesting 
conversationalist. The Wilner families were Re]niblicans. 

The children of Marcus Wilner were: Frank A., who. after atti-nding the 
Nunda Academy, was graduated from the Xaval Academy at .\nna])olis, and 
passed through successive grades of premiotion until he is now Captain in the 
United States Navy, in command of one of the best warships of the Navy, the 
Pennsylvania. See picture in his ofifice at League Island. 

Fred Wilner has served his town as Supervisor, and his early death is 
greatly deplored by all who knew him. 

Nellie Wilner, since the death of her mother, has lived princi])al!y at 
Nunda, but spends part of her time with her brother, the Captain, when he has 
duties on shore. 

Gaylord, the youngest son, lives in the West, and his brother, l-'red, died 
at his home. 

Merriman J. W ilner, who succeeded his father on the homestead, held 
various town offices and was Supervisor of his town. His excellent wife be- 
came partially, and then entirely, blind, and was also losing her hearing at 
the time of her last sickness. Both ha\-e passed away. 


This family were rnixersalists, as was ilu' pioneer \\ ilner. 
Two chiUlren survix e them: Mertnn. a ioiirnnlisi in the offiee of the Rnf- 
falo Express, and Stella. Mrs. \\ illiain W ilder, of Torta^e. 

Maloonie W'ihier and one oi his sons served in the Ci\il \\ ar. 


Xatluuiiel r.ooth Nichols was said to he the first settler in I hint's Hol- 
low, Three of the seven I'.enneit r.rothers were next. The jdace was called 
Niciiols-liennett Settlenient, then Gres;s;s\ ille. afterwards Kashawa, from a 
tradition that that was its oriijinal name, .\fter the llnnt store and saw mill 
hecanie conspicnons the name of limit's Hollow was L;i\en to it. which is still 
applieil to the old, Init the new one has chan.^ed from Hunt's .Station 
to Hunts and tnnally to Hunt. The pnhlic square and the land ahout it was sold 
hv X. P.. Nichols to l\li Slater t who had an inn at the upper ])art of the square). 
to W'illiant Alward (who had a tannery next to the creek), the R. C. Hill store 
heini;- the building" used, and to Sanford limit, whose dwellint;- house and store 
were from this purchase, 

-Mr, and Mrs. Nichols had hut one son. who also bore his father's name and 
was called Booth Nichols. He attended the first acatlem\ in Xtinda. N. B. 
Nichols was the first elected Justice of the Peace of Nunda in 1S27 or 1828, 
Previous to 1S27 this office was appointive, as was County indite He died 
socMi after and his widow married John Slater, 

\'andalia Slater was the son of this marriage. He had iii\enti\e brains, 
but his ]iatents were secured generallx- by some one else before he had them 
completed. A driven well was one of these. He t^wned a stone quarry but 
se")ld it. a few days before his death, for $10,000, He died in HK)S. 

Col. Olcutt was one of the early settlers of Nunda-Portage. He built a 
grist mill at the head of Spring Brook, not far north of the junction of the Cuba 
branch of the Erie with the main line, but when the tide of settlement and 
business tended towards the Kesheciua. he rebuilt near the mouth of Spring 
P>rook. not far from the site of the Hunt and Thompson ]\Iill. The millwright 
was Mathias Jackson, father of Leonard Jackson. Olcott had several children. 


Col. Olcott and also Col. Cary were said to be Revolutionary soldiers, and 
it is traditional that they were in Sullivan's army, and admiring the lands they 
saw. came and settled, when the lands were salable. Col. Cary built the frame 
house in which Greenleaf Clark lived after his first marriage. The house is 
very old, built before there was a frame house in Nunda. It formeil the prin- 
cipal part of the estate of Mrs. Gertrude Clark, who recently died, 

Elias Alward. the potash maker, was an early settler here and at t.'irove. 
Simeon Alward was probably a son. 

The family of Zopher Strong were well educated. Several of them were 
teachers, and at least three of the family were coUegiates at Oberlin. one of the 
family having married a citizen of that place. One of the elder daughters 

rc'turiK'il frciiii there and aslc iiii>luil Iut neighbors by advocalint; a lUct of 
yrahani and enndemnin^ the white liread as unwholesome, wliich was still 
rei;ariled as a luxiirw She was regarded 1)}- her neighbors as an educated 
crank, hut Miss Lucina did not care. The pair of twins, America and .Angelica 
Strong, were born here, grew to womanhood and went to Oberlin from I'lirl- 
agc. Their older sister went from the same house from Xunda. I'lOth twins 
were living a few years ago. buth had mairied well, and one was the wife of 
Judge Horatio Jones, who was li\ing at the time of her sister's death. fi\e or 
six years ago. 

Mrs. Angelica Strong Keattie. daughter of Zopher Strong, early iiioneer 
of Xunda (Portage, section 1816). was Ixini at ( )akhill. Portage, in i8jS. She 
was one i:)f a pair of tw'iiis who were named America and .\iigelica. 
She was married to a missinnar\- named ISeattie, at Oberlin, ( )hio. ami went 
with him to Jamaica. After his death she returned to Ohio, atid thence re- 
moved to California in 1874. Her son. George W. Beattie. now superintendent 
of the Normal School, Manila. P. I., taught the first school in Redlatids. She 
lived successively in Pugonia and East Highlands. Cal. She spent the last 
few vears of her life in caring for an older sister. Mrs. Totten. She was a 
woman of great nati\e abilit\ and intelligence. Her many excellencies en- 
dearetl her to a choice circle of frien<ls. .She was ministered to in her last 
sickness b\- her twin sister. America. Mrs. judge Jones, of St. Pouis. the only 
sur\-iving member of the famih-. .She died November s. uiO^k 


Russell Messenger and Azel iMteh had married sisters, the daughters of 
Elias Hill. They came to ( Jakland and settled there liecause of the water 
privilege, and first built a saw mill, and ne.xl year a grist mill. Poth families 
were enterprising and a store was afterward con<lucted 1)\- .\zel I'itch. A 
second store was erected over the mill race, nearly opposite the Edgerley 
place, some years later. A distiller) was built by I-'itch nearby where the mill 
is. but it went out of business and the building has been serving as a barn for 
man\- years on the farm of Jacob DeMocker. The Messengers were iirduiinent 
Baptists and were relati\-es of T'lev. Samuel ^lessenger. the first Bajitist clergy- 
man of the .Xunda (which included Portage and Grove) Church. The family 
consisted of two sons. llar\e\' and ( ) and several daughters, including 
Tercnche and Harriet. 

1 lar\e\- married .^arali ( Sally I Harnm, became a merchant, but died }'oung. 
CJlilan ;ind Harriet ne\-er married. Terenchc married llenr_\' .Vshley of Nunda. 

The children of Azel l-'itch were (ieorge. Elias and John, b^lias married 
-Sarah .Miller and built the cobblestone house now known and owned by .Mrs. 
.\melia ( ioiild. lie had one daughter. Carrie, a distinguished lecturer. John 
was born in (Jakland in 1823 and married Ann Sweetman. He became a 
wagonmaker, was Su])erintendent of the Genesee \'alley Canal and -Super- 
visor of Portage and Justice of the Peace. Plis father, Azel I'itch, was .\ssem- 
blyman from Allegany County. IClias I'itch was also Justice of the Peace. 
I'.lias l-"itch has been dead manv vears. John Pitch died in 1906. 


Jaciili, Isaac and llciirv lived on ( )akland and 1 JalliMi Road on the Fred 
r. Smith I'arni. Jacob was called Colonel: Isaac was a lumchhack and made 
essences. There was also an Rlijah l)e\oe, and a Widow 1 )e\-oe. who. with 
Jacob, was a niendier of oie C'lnirch. 

llenr\ Dcxdc is best known of these OeNoes because of the manner of 
his death. 1 le was murdered in his be<l by a burglar who called himself Henry 
Wilson. Mr. 1 )evoe ha<l carelessly, the day of his death, exhibited a roll 
of money, several hundred dollars, in the in-esence of a strans^^er. His death 
was the result. I'e was plucky and refused to tell where the money was or 
to keep still. His son. Nelson, did not come to his aid. .\ granddaughter, 
Lama Thompson, and another girl were frightened into silence. However, 
ilie murderer was captured, tried, and executed by Sheriff Thomas Chase, for- 
nierl\- a citizen of Xunda. The daui.;hter of lleury 1 )evoe was Jane. Mrs. 
W illiam 1'. d'hompson. and the son. Nelson Dexoe. who remained a bachelor. 
Alm\- Hexoe. Mrs. lu-or|.;e Williams, was a younger sister of Jacob. Isaac and 
Henry Devoe. 

I'he famih of Solomon Williams, .'^r.. were mostly teachers. The twelve 
acre orchard this pioneer set out soon after his settlement on the Short Tratt 
roatl in i8i!) has made the W illiams' farm one of the most jirofitable of small 
farms in the section, l-'or many \ears after, apples were barreled and shipped 
to cit\' markets. These twelve acres were ijood for.Si.JOO a year. 

ddie sons of this family were Solomon. Joseph. Daniel. Fosdick ami Frink, 
and the dau,s.;hters. I'hebe and Mary, l'"osdick. I'rink and Alary were leading 
scholars in the first Academy days from 1840 to 1845. .-Ml three died about 
1845. Solomon and Joseph were good business men and secured a competence 
b\- a right use of opportunity. Solomon married Catherine .\verill. daughter 
of Daniel .\\erill, a pioneer teacher and farmer. He lived in 1 lume. near Mills 
Mills, and was Supervisor of that t(n\n. After the death of his father he re- 
turned to Portage, bought out the heirs of the estate and made the orchard, 
though old, keep up its financial record. The writer, whose farm and orchard 
adjoined the \\"illiams farm, took lessons by observation, and made his smaller 
orchard keep up its proportion, 

loscph ino\ed to Wellsvitle and lived there until his tleath. I'hcbe died 
smldcnl\- while comparatively \oung. Daniel was the most versatile of the 
famih . was a teacher of district school, singing school and had a class in pen- 
manship. Mnancially. he was not as successful as his brothers. He married 
a daughter of Daniel (Up. and had three very bright children. An excessive 
use of stimulants, especially tobacco, produced a mild form of insanity. His 
familv left him. and his schools ceased to he successful. As a gardener, pruner 
and grafter, he was still skillful. It is said of him that somnambulism also 
became detrimental to health and comfort. On one occasion he resumed work 
while lodging at the hotel at Brooksgrove by sawing off the posts of his bed- 
stead and inserting several choice grafts. This made lodging places for him 
scarce, and finally he was taken to the Binghamton Asylum, where, deprived 
of stimulants of any kind, he regained his mind, but his physical condition 
weakened as his miml strengthened ami he completed his life in this palace 
like structure. His lo\e of tobacco remained the dominant want and his few- 

guests were allowed to give him a cigar. Knowing this to be so, the writer 
gave him a cigar. "That's a God-send," said Daniel, "come early and often 
and don't forget to bring a cigar." 

The children of Solomon, Jr.. were Augusta J. and John J. Williams. 
Augusta was married to E. Adelbert X'ash, and jhn J. to Carrie Tousey. 
Williams and his cousin, Henry E. Avcrill. Iniilt a store at Hunts and were 
successful merchants there. Williams sold out his interest and went to Mich- 
igan, where he conducted a large lumbering business, but lived (inly a few 

The family of Daniel A\erill came to Portage while it was still Nunda. 
He taught school winters successfully. He had two daughters and two sons. 
Catherine, the eldest, married Solomon Williams, Jr. William lived in \'ir- 
ginia. Latham married Catherine Van Allen. They had two sons. Henry E. 
and Orren. Henry E. married Carol Edmund, who survives him, and is his 
successor in the dry goods and general store line. Mr. Averill was a primi- 
inent Republican and the postmaster of the place. Both Williams and Avcrill 
deserve the gratitude of the community for inaugurating a business that has 
tended as much as any to benefit the community and led to making a quiet 
railroad station a shipping point of prominence and an enterprising \-illage 
with three stores, two churches and several warehouses. Miss Sarah Averill 
married William Prentice, and they still occupy the family homestead. They 
have one son. Their only daughter died soon after her marriage. 


The Parmalees were also early pioneers. Dr. Amos and Frederick, his 
lirother. a pioneer teacher of ability, were from \^ermont. 

Dr. E. D. Moses, Dr. Carpenter and Dr. Parmalee were the three first 
physicians in Portage-Nunda. 

The home of Dr. Parmalee, a large frame house on the hill-side leading 
to Hunt from the Hollow, is still in existence and is owned by C. L. Parmalee, 
for many years agent at Plunts Station. 

The children of Dr. Parmalee were not numerous. Betsey married 
Horace Hunt; Elarriet married Elijah Bennett; Charles L. marrieil Harriet 
Lake, daughter of D. P. Lake, Escp 

Jonathan Parmalee. an uncle of Dr. Parmalee, settled a few years years 
later near his nephew, and was Justice of the Peace for several years of the 
Second Nunda. 

The children of Charles I^. and Harriet Parmalee were *Fre(l, Mary and 
William. Mary is Mrs. C. B. Bennett. Fred died in New York City whiie 
still young and unmarried. 


J()sei)h Hosford came to Portage-Nunda in 1822. He was a drummer in 
Sullivan's army, 2nd Regiment. 

H. Charles; Eunice, who married (iad Sheldon of liristol ; Mary, who 
married Alvin H. Parker, Bloomfield, N. Y. ; Abigail L. (teacherl, married 
Joseph Clark Ervin (their son is .Alfred 11. Er\in of ( )niaha, Ne1x ) ; Franklin 
Hosford, A. \'>.. Oberlin College, pioneer teacher in Portage, married Ann 

Kinsman : Lyilia Ervin, sister to J. C Ervin. married l\iissell I'larnes, oi Xinida, 
anil lived to he ()0 years of a.L;e (see Barnes family I : Alfred Ervin, who was 
ilejuilN' postmaster at Xiinda, married Harriet Cain. 


I. Record 'Paher, horn A]iril \~. 1798. died I'ehruary t(). i8()4, aged 05 
years 10 months, niarrieil ."-^ally Meeker March 2. 1820. who <lied November. 
1877. The}- came to this tnwn in March, 1825. Children as follows: 

II. I. Louisa A. married Charles 11. Gearhart. 2. George (date un- 
knciwn), died. 3. John, marrietl Aurilla Morse; he died in 1854. 4. Alfred, 
married (i) Adelia Gearhart, w'ho died in 1856; (2) Mrs. Caroline Barber, 
who died in 1865; (3) L. Emeline Lapham. 5. Martha, died 1831). (>. Albert 
O., served in Civil ^^'ar, died T862 or 1863. 7. Clark ^^'.. niai-ried ( i ) Sarah 
Lake, (2) Kate Lake: he died in 1883. Minnie, daughter of Alfred. 

Arad l'"rench and wife came to Oak Hill in 1817, kept house for Col. 
George Williams, then settled on farm (lliram .Miller place). Aimer, l.)orn 
in 1814, married ^fargaret Thompson, born Decemlier. i8i(). Samuel French, 
a teacher, died young. Lucy, born December, 1818, in Xunda, married Merrick 
Brigham. l;ine married James l!righam. ]\lerrick and James lirigham were 
half brothers to Benjamin llrighani. Emily died young. 

.\rad l-'rench was deacon of the first l'resb}terian church, formed at Oak 
Hill in i8u). 

Chiklrcn of Abner, born in I'ortage ; Orpha, Sophia, Curtis, *Lucy, Samuel, 
Clara, Ellinor, Alpha Omega. Curtis served in the 38th X. Y. \. G. Joseph 
Russell, husband of Clrpha, ser\-ed in the same regiment. William Holmes, 
husband of l.uc\'. served in the Xew \'ork Dragnons. 


The Hunt family, who came to Portage-X'unda in January, i8u;. and set- 
tled in the then busy burgh that had already borne se\-eral names, Kishaqua. 
Greiysville. and Xichols and Bennett's Settlement, because this iirm had the 
first saw mill there, was destined to have still another name, and an increase 
of business as well as of population. The family consisted at this time of San- 
ford Hunt and wife and seven children. Mrs. Hunt's maiden name was I-'anny 
Rose, ."^he was the daughter of Surgeon Rose of the Continental Army, and 
a niece of the unfortunate Xathan Hale, whose mission to General IkMiedict 
ArnoUl to make terms for the surrender of West Point, cost him his life. 
Samuel R. Hunt, the bachelor member of the Hunt family, says of their com- 
ing that in coming from the town of Mt. Morris we passed much of the way 
o\er corduroy roads and through the six mile woods between the ]iresent 
ri\er and State roads across the White ^^'oman's Tract. \\ e came out upon 
an (lid clearing east, called the Shaver place (afterward owned by Capt. Rich- 
anl Church and John Angier). Fording the creek twice we came to anchor as 
far south as the road was opened. There was not a bridge on the creek (Kesh- 
e(|ua ) from source to mouth, though one was built the following spring. 
There were but three families south of this for ele\en miles. These A\ere 
George Gearhart, Sr. : his son-in-law, John Greening, and Andrew Smith. He 
also mentions of the settlers at this Kashaqna town. Henry and \\alter Ben- 
nett and Nathaniel B. Xichols. The latter two had built a saw mill the year 
before. There were also some single men. Enoch Miller. Henry l)e\oe. Elijah 


Bennett, who afterward became a Baptist clergyman. Deacon \\'illiam Town 
and Henry Root lived near, and last but not least, Elias Alvord, potash Ijoiler. 
He also mentions Ephraim Kingsley and Solomon \\'illiams, Sr., and tlieir 
orchards: also Warren Carpenter (Dr.) and Samuel Fuller (a Revolutionary 
soldier and pensioner from Rhode Island). 

Sanford Hunt became the pioneer storekeeper of the town, had an ashery 
and a farm, and soon after a postoffice. But the chief product of this worthy 
pair was a family of boys who equalled their parents in education and in 
ability and made the name of Hunt well known throughout the State. Here 
one of this family of boys, in a log school house, but with excellent instructors, 
laid the foundation of a thorough, practical education which led to an advanced 
course at Geneseo Academ}- and finally made him Governor of Xew York 

But Sanford Hunt himself was one who seized every opportunity that 
came his way. His manner created confidence, and those "children of Nature" 
who could not read books but could read men. the Indians, from all the neigh- 
boring reservations, came to his store to trade. He was the first man from 
Nunda who made the Genesee Ri\er below the Lower Falls serve his bidding 
as a canal to carr}- the products of his mill, farm and ashery to Rochester, and 
then through the Erie Canal to Albanw "in his ark," "The Hazard," in 1S24. 
He, however, lived to a good old age and died in Portage, in the place named 
for him. He was a liberal, pul>lic spirited, (|uiet, unostentatious man. lie died 
in 1849. 

The children of Sanfor<l and I'anny Hunt were Samuel R., a teacher. He 
never niarrieil Init li\-e(l and dieil at Hunts Hollow. Horace married Betsey 
Parmalee, daughter of Dr. Tarmalee. lie was Supervisor of his town, mem- 
ber of Assembly, was mill owner with ( ). H. Thompson, had store and post- 
office, failed in business, went west to Jackson, Mich., where he was Justice 
of the Peace until his death. 

Sanford Hunt, Jr.. became a merchant at Mt. Morris. John H. Hunt 
held for some years a position in the Custom House at Xew York City. Eliza, 
the eldest daughter, was, in 1826, married to Colonel Greenlief Clark, who suc- 
ceeded Eli Slater in the tannery business at Hunts Hollow. John Clark, nnw 
of Nunda, is their son. He is a tanner by trade. The late Gertrude Clark, 
who excelled in scholarship l)ut failed to make her learning practical, was a 
daughter of Col. Clark by a second marriage. We mention these for they both 
became citizens of Nunda. Mary Hunt was the wife of Charles Williams, a 
prominent teacher in pioneer days. She left no posterity. Fanny Hunt was 
married to her cousin, Sanford Hunt. Frederick Hunt died when comparatively 
young. Edward Hunt, the youngest son, born in Xunda, had military aspirations 
fostered, no doubt, by seeing Col. Clark maneuver his battalion at the general 
training. He went to \\'est Point, and in due time was graduated as a Lieu- 
tenant of Engineers. The militar\ career of Major Hunt we give elsewhere. 
\\'hat he sought to do, if it had been carried out, would have given him an 
immortalit}' of fame, but he perished at his task and his engine of deslruciinn 
for the enemies of his country found its first victim in himself. To-da\- the 
name of Major Edward Hunt, Engineering DeparinKMU. L'nitcd States .\rni\-, 
is elsewhere forgotten, hut that nf his wife and widow, the talented "Helen 

lliiiU lackstMi." lhroiii;li licr "Ranioiia" ami other books, are kept in renieni- 
brance by her picturesque burial place, located where all the globe tourists will 
see it. may serve to keep both names alive for successive centuries. 


Dr. Sanfonl Hunt, of Torta^c. who succeeiler Dr. Parmalee in 1845. was 
a cousin of the other two Sanford Hunts, and a nephew of Sanford Hunt. Sr.. 
pioneer, while Sanford Hunt, third son of Horace (known at the Xunda Acad- 
emy as Yankee Robinson), was the fifth of this name in Portat;e. 

Under the heading of "Navigation of the Genesee." publisheil in 1824 by 
a pioneer newspaper, we have this item of extraordinary interest: 


A Geneseo local announces, under date of May 27. 1824. "the passage by 
Geneseo, on the ri\-er of the canal boat "Hazanl" from Xunda on her way to 
Albany, loaded with pine lumber, ashes (pot and pearl ashes), etc. The boat 
was owned bv .^anford Hunt of the former place." (Mr. Hunt lived at Hunt's 
Hollow which was at that time in Xunda 1. The boat was built at the Lower 
Falls, after the manner of the Arks from Arkport that carried goods a quarter 
of a centurv before this time. Such an enterprise would have been impossible 
before the completion of the Erie Canal, which was opened for navigation in 
1824. This was the first of famous shipments of hmiber that was made after 
the Erie Canal was in o])eration, and preceded by sixteen years any shipments 
by canal from Mt. Morris or by 28 years by canal from Xunda. Azel Fitch, 
of Oakland. Fitch and ^lessenger, and later, John F. Barber, utilized in spring 
floods this im])rovised canal — the Genesee River — for transporting their sur- 
jdus products to city markets. 


The Livingston Journal of Jul\- 28. 1824. has the following interesting- 
local : "We can congratulate the pidjlic on the arrival of the steamboat "Erie 
Caiuil." Captain Bottle, at our village last evening from L'tica : a more welcome 
arrival could not have happened." 

For two years this ri\-er was navigated by steam. The semi-annual floods, 
creating almost insurmountable obstacles to impede safe and profitable navi- 
gation, drove the steam boats from the unmanageable stream, and the scow 
with poles imtil 1841 continued to bring the most of the pioneers" goods up 
the river. In 1837 my father's goods were brought from Rochester to Geneseo 
in this manner. Many of the later pioneers from 1824 to the autunui of 1840 
used this method of transportation. 


Captain Giftord had a large family of sons and daughters. *Rhoda mar- 
ried *Joseph Cole. She died at the age of 90. Their son, J. Monroe Cole, born 
1824. married *JuHa ^L DeWitt. He is still living. His children are Frank 
and Mary. *Robert Gifford married (first) *Mary Ann \\'etherly. (second) 
*Mercy Herrington, (third) Mrs. Delia Clark, who is still living. Children: 


Lorenzo D. Gifford. veteran, farmer. I'ortage: Rhoda, his sister. Children of 
Mrs. Clark. Mrs. Youmans Xunda, children of Robert and Delia: Merrett 
Gifford, Silver Sprins^s ; Stella, married Homer Ehvood. BiilTalo. \. V. Jasjjer 
Gifford married Mrs. \\etherly. Their son is 1 )aniel B. Gitiford, merchant. 


The D. P. Lake family lived at 1 hints liollnw. The family claim rela- 
tionship with Roger Williams, and, like him, are, first and last, ISaptists. The 
daughters were teachers, the sons were soldiers. Harriet, married Charles L. 
Parmalee ; Elizabeth, married I. Bradley Clark ; Sarah and Kate, married Clark 
Taller. Mrs. Lake acconnted fc:)r her l)o_\-s being soldiers because her father. 
Mr. Lindsley. and other relati\'es were soldiers of the Revolution. ( )| the 
sons, John lived in Michigan. ser\ed as bridge IniiMer in Sherman's army: 
Mathew. in the Cdiio Heav_\- Artillery, returned iK.ime and ilied in 1866. War- 
ner W . served in a Wisconsin regiment. Charles R.. quartermaster sergeant 
in a Wisconsin regiment, both iDuried at Hunts Hollow ; William D. Lake, 
146th New York, died in Andersonville. 

Evidently Mrs. Lake taught her sons to 

Sjieak plain the word countr}-, 

But oh ! the surprise, when one sits quite alone, 
Then one weeps, then one kneels, 

God , how the house feels." 

Mrs. Broi'.'inng. 

Greenlief Clark settled in 1824. married (first) Mary Hunt, daughter of 
Sanford Hunt. John Clark (married in ^Montgomery County). Mary Clark 
married Oscar F. Sharp, two children, Lizzie and Edwin: married (second) 
Mary AX'heeler of Kunda. 1907. 

HI. Ethel Clark resides in Xunda. married George Barlier. Mr. Clark 
was called Colonel (probably a militia officer). He was a tanner Ijy trade and 
bought the tannery built liy Eli Slater. 

His son, John, also a tanner, was his successor. 

Mr. Clark had a bachelor brother, Henry Clark, who lived on a farm near 

Amos Clark and L Bradley Clark were not relatives to him. or to each 


The large family of Phineas Lake nf Mt. Morris and Portage, 1829. fur- 
nished numerous citizens for Nunda, although the parents never lived here. 
Among the children of this household who came to Nunda were: i. Janet, wife 
of Rev. Gershom Waldo: 2. .\delia. wife of Isaac McNair; 3. Laura and 4. 
Sarah, first and second wife of L'tley Spencer: Edwin P. Lake: Franklin U. 
Lake, and Martha, wife of Sandford Johnson. 

Thomas Lake, the oldest of the family, married at Portage a niece of Dr. 
Chittenden. Catherine Hill. The Hill family lived at Portage. 


For iho family of I'tloy Siiencor. see Spencer family. 

The family of Rev. Gershom Waldo were Gersliom and Janet Lake Waldo. 

Mr. Waldo was an Episcopal cleri;yman. and after his voice failed was a 
teacher at Portageville and elsewhere, lie was the rector at Hunt's Hollow. 

Henry Waldo and Martha were the oldest of the family. 

George Waldo was a veteran of the Civil War. Me married in the West, 
and had a son and a danghter. Mrs. Taylor, and Heber Waldo, now at ^Military 
School at Milwaukee. 

Sarah resides with her anm. Mrs. Johnson, on Church Street. 

Heber(, married in the West). 

Sarah is the only one living of the children. 

Minerva Waldo was a niece of Rev. Waldo and taught the classics tuider 
the I'.arrett regime for one year in the Ximda Literary Institute. She is now 
Mrs. Joseph Cooper of Warsaw. 

I'.dwin P. Lake, married Mary Shave, a milliner. 

Mrs. L^ke had the first store in Xunda kept by a woman. Her husband 
assisted as the business increasetl. They built a store on the south side 
of the riaza. which is now in use as a hardware store. 

The children of this family were: Adelia, a musician, who married Har- 
rison I'eck. They have one son. 

Julia, married Byron Xugent. of St. Louis. ^Ir. Xugent. a merchant of 
the W anamaker type, died in April, 1908, leaving a wife and two sons. 

Fred D. Lake, merchant, St. Louis. 

The family of Isaac and Adelia McXair lived for several years in Xunda. 
He was a wagonniaker, and started a manufacturing enterprise in Xunda, 
with F. H. Gibbs and Minor Stout as assistants, about 1835. His children. 
who were here at this time, were: Helen, Wells. Cornelia and Edward. 

\\ ells McXair. who afterward married Caroline Xash, who died recently. 
Mr. Wells McXair is still living at Castile. His father died at the age of 90 
and his mother at 93. *Helen McXair married Mr. Rodgers of Warsaw. X. Y. 

*Cornelia married Chambers. *Edward married Adelia Quick, of 

Silver Springs. 

l-"ranklin D. Lake was a business man of Xunda. had some farm lands, 
anil conducted a large hardware establishment for many years. He married 
Emily Mtch, who survived him, but has since died. Thej- left no children. 

Martha taught at one time a select school at the Session House after it 
had ceased to be an academy. She also taught in Mission schools in Chicago 
for ten vears, where she was married to Sandford Johnson, who lived but a 
few years after his marriage. She has since lived in Xunda. now residing on 
Church Street. 


Biographical notes compiled by Jackson W . Alward of Xew York City 
concerning Xathaniel. William and Squire Alward. Mrs. Mary Alward Bar- 
ber. Mrs. Betsey Ann Alward Van Dusen. and Mrs. Sara Alward Guthrie, chil- 
dren of William and Betsey Cross Alward of Basking Ridge. Somerset County. 
X. J., who removed in i8o<i to Scipio. Cayuga Comity. X. Y.. and later to 
Xunda. X. Y. 

Nathaniel Ahvanl was liorn I'\-l)riiary 17, 1794, in ISa.skini; Ridt^c, N. J., 
removed to Scipio. \. Y.. in 1803. six years in advance of his parents, wliere 
he died July 29, 1848. On I'ehrnary 18, 1818, he married Betsey Freeman, 
daughter of \\'illiam and Jfnisha Wilcox Freeman, of Lee, Mass., who sub- 
sequently settled in Scipio. Slu' was horn July 18, 1799, in Lee, and died 
March 30, 1844, in Scipio. The graves of both herself and her husband are 
in the Alward family lot in the cemetery at Scipioville, N. Y. fJn December 

17, 1845, Nathaniel .\l\vard married his second wife, S. Van Arsdale, daughter 
of Isaac and Mary Van Doren Van Arsdale, of Shepardstown, Jefiferson Coun- 
ty, Va. She was Ixjrn ( )ctolicr 10, 1819, in .Shepardstown, and died January 

18, 1903, in I'lound ISrook, .Sduierset County, !\'. J.; grave in cemetery at 
Somerville, N. J. 

Nathaniel Alwanl l)egan in June, 1834, to invest in farm lands in the towns 
of Nunda and Portage, Livingston County, X. Y., driving to and from Xunda 
as his business required. The late John V. liarber, his brother-in-law, acted 
as his agent for many years and suljseqnently became the owner of one of the 
farms upon which Mr. Alward had partly completed a dwelling house, intend- 
ing to make it his permanent home. 

Nathaniel Alward had five children by his first wife: William Nathaniel, 
Nathaniel, Andrew Jackson, Dennis Robinson, and Sarah, all l)orn in Scipio. 
He had one child by his second wife, Mary, also born in Sciino. 

William Alward was born June 15, 1798, in Basking Ridge, N. J., and 
caiue with his i)arents, in iSocj, to Scipio. N. Y., and removed from there in 1820 
to the town of Fortage, then in Nunda, and died at his residence on Oak I-iill, 
March 18, 1844. (")n July 17, 1821, he married Lucy Hubbell, of Nunda, born 
in iji)i<. and who died Xovemlier 12, 1826, in Nunda. The graves of himself 
and of his wife are in ( )akwood Cemetery, lie married his second wife, 
Louisa Walter Hubbard, widow of Eli Hubbard and daughter of Stephen and 
Mercy Mills Walter. She was born January 16, 1800, in Norfolk, Conn., and 
died .\pril 24. 1885, in Randolph, Dodge County, Wis. 

Williaiu Alward learned the art of tanning leather and after this removed 
to Hunts Hollow, then in the town of Nunda, where, in about the year 1820, 
he established a tannery. Shortly afterward he was associated with Mr. 
Ashley and established a tannery on Mill Street in what was then called 
Nunda \'alley. William Alward. Eli Slater and Sanford Hunt purchased 
jointly a tract of land conveyed to them by deed from Nathaniel D. Nichols, 
dated May 14, 1822, wdiich included what is now the public square of the viF 
lage of Hunts Hollow. William Alward had three children by his first wife, 
.Mary, Harriet and Jarvis, all born in Nunda. By his second wife he had four 
children, William Walter, Nathaniel Fomeroy, I^ouisa K. and Ann Elizabeth, 
all born in the towns of Nunda and Grove. 

Squire Alward was born May 18, 1800, in Basking Ridge, N. J., and came 
with his ])arents in 1809 to Scipio, N. Y. He removed from there in 1846 to a 
f.irni purchased from his brother, Nathaniel, situated on Oak Hill on the 
Kiver Road in the town of Portage. From there he removed to a farm near 
Hunts, and from there to a residence, situated on the southwest corner of West 
and Seward Streets in the village of Xunda, where he died October 29, 1873; 
grave in Oakwood Cemetery, Xunda. 


Oil December 31. 1824. he married Alui^ail r.ou';iuon. dnu.uhter of John 
ami Currence Downs Boughton. She was horn ^' rch S. iSoi. in l.edyard. 
Cavuga County. X. Y., and died July J5. 1S40. in ^eipio. X. Y. On October 
20, 1S42. Squire Alward married his second wife. Eliza Helm daughter of 
Peter and Elizabeth Perrine Helm, of Groton. Tompkins County. X. Y. She 
was born in 1801 in Groton and died there in 1879. Squire Alward had five 
children by his first wife — Cyrus. M. Charlotte. Harriet M.. George Henry and 
Albert Xathaniel. all born in the town of Scipio. X. Y. He had no children 
bv his second wife. 

Marv Alward Piarber was born March d, 1807. in Basking Ridge. X. J., and 
came with her parents to Scipio, in i8ck). and removed from there in 183(1 to 
Oak Hill. Town of Portage, where she died August 15, 1850. On November 
29. 1836. she married John Failing Barber (h's second wife) son of Samuel 
B. and Madelane Failing Barber of Canajoharie. Montgomery County. X. Y. 
He was born September 2. 1809. in Canajoharie and removed to Oak Hill. 
Town of Portage, X. Y., about the year 1832. where he acquired a large farm 
and erected a fine residence called Chestnut Place, where he died February 
7, 1883. The graves of himself and his wife, Mary, are in the Barber family 
lot in the cemetery at Oakland. Town of Portage. Mr. Barber had no children 
by his second wife, Mary. 

Betsey Ann Alward \'an Dusen was born August 9. 1810. in Scipio. X. Y.. 
and died September 17. i8g9, at the home of her daughter. Mrs. Mary \'an 
Dusen Burroughs, in Beloit, \\'is, : grave in the cemetery in that city. On 
June 18, 1S29, she married John Dykeman \"an Dusen, son of Abraham and 
Eleanor \'an Brummel \'an Dusen of Scipioville, X. Y. He was born Septem- 
ber 30. 1798. in Scipioville and died August 22. 1885. at the home of his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Mary \'an Dusen Burroughs, at Crowlake. South Dakota: grave at 
that place. 

After their marriage ilr. \'an Dusen kept a hotel in Scipioville for seven 
years, until 1836, when they removed to the territory of Michigan and were 
pioneer settlers of Jacksonburg, now Jackson, but after enduring four years 
of sickness and privation they returned to Xew York State in 1840 and located 
on a farm formerly owned by Nathaniel Alward, situated on the Oakland and 
Portage Road near the Short Tract Road, where they resided for about 35 
years, when they removed to a residence situated on the north side of Center 
Street in the Milage of Nunda. where they resided until 1883, when they re- 
moved with their youngest daughter to Crowlake, Jerauld County, South 
Dakota. After the death of Mr. \'an Dusen the widow and daughter removed 
to Beloit, \Vis. John D. \'an Dusen had three children : George and Ellen, 
born in Scipioville. and Mary, born in the Town of Portage. 

Sarah Alward Guthrie was born August 2^. 1790, in Basking Ridge, X. J. : 
married George Guthrie and moved to Seneca County, X. Y.. where they 
located on a farm and resided there until middle life, and where all their chil- 
dren were born. About the year 1826 they removed to Xunda. X. Y.. and in 
1837 to the Territory of Michigan and located on a tract of land near Dixboro. 
W'ashtenau County, not far from Ypsilanti. She died December 29. 1841. and 
her husband died on January 2, 1842. 

They had six chihlre ' : Ehzaljeth, ^\ illiain, Abbie, Joseph, George and 
Phoelje. The eldest, Elizai 'th. born August 23, 1808, married, June 19, 1828, 
John (jearhart. They resided in the town of Portage, near Dalton (after 
1827J, where she died July 13, 1879. 

March 10. 1908, 20 Nassau Street. IJorough of Manhattan, Xew York 
City, K. V. 


Robert Wilson Thompson, son of Wilson Thompson of lolcjrain. Mass., 
who died there at the age of 9^1. lie was said to be a Revolutionary soldier. 
His wife's name was Wilson. Robert W. Thompson, better knov\n as Wilson 
Thompson, married Fannie liurffee 

The children of Wilson Th(>ni{)son were: 

Joseph C'al\-in, Jonathan, Margaret Alary, Xancy. Electa. Euther and Rob- 
ert W.. the lattei is described as a skilled workman in wood and iron, a hand', 
man in the settlement. He married before coming to Xunda. Of these 
Electa (Mrs. XevvtonJ, Luther and Robert W., are known t(.) have come to 

L The children of Robert Wilson Thompson (twii died), were .Xancw 
(Mrs. Peleg ikwitt), Roxana (Mrs. J. Clark Button), Robert W., William Ed- 
win, Eliza A., and Melissa (Mrs. Sanford Hewitt), who recently died, 1908 
Mrs. Xancy Hewitt, wife of Peleg Hewitt was six years of age when she came 
to Nunda in 1S22. .She died in 18S1. Their children were Wilson, Cornelia, 
Alice, Edwin and Mary. The family have alwa\'s resided in Portage. 

II. 3. Robert Wilson Thompson, born 1821, became a farmer, he was 
twice married. He married Sarah E. \"an .Slyck. TheN hail two children. 

III. I. Elletta \'.. married John .\. Carter. .Vnita Carter is \vith her 
ainit Mrs. Mills in China. 

ni. 2. .\nnetta. a Alissionary to China, to teach the deaf and dumb to con- 
verse by speech. She married C'harles R. Mills, since deceased. See "Alis- 
sionaries from Nunda and \'icinit\-." 

R. W. T., married second, Cynthia Andrus, daughter of Chester. 

Their children. 111. 3. Charles W., farmer, married Effie M. Wilson. 
4. Sarah E. 5. Linctiln (a deaf mute) who married Emma C. Larson (also a 
deaf mute). (>. Luther R.. married Elizabeth Xorthwax'. daughter of E. .\. 
Xorthway. 7. May, died in 1872. 

Children of Sanford and Melissa Thompson Hewitt. 

Jason, married Xellie Marshall ; Frank, a photographer, married Carrie 
Marshall ; Charies, married Minnie Marsh. 

1. 2. Electa Thompson, married Jacob .Xewton. Their daughter. Electa 
K'^ewton, married Miles W^akeman of Dalton. 

I. 3. Luther Thompson family s. 1837, wife, Martha Holland. Children: 

J. Luther and Cordino S., both soldiers, died in the service. (See 104th 
Regt. .X. Y. ) 3. Joseph A; 4. Henry .Allen; 5. Jonathan T. : 6. Direxa \'. 

Henry .\.. married Town, has a son, the only grandson of Luther 


Hugh RobiTt and Elinor Thompson, cousins to Robert Wilson Thom])son. 

Hugh .Sr., married Elinor Patterson and Elinor his sister married lohn 


2. *Hugh Jr., son of Robert, married Emma Allen, daugliter of Major 
Allen. Xo chiloren, adopted Ella and Arthur Prink. 

I. *Margaret married .Abner French. See .Arad I-Vench I'amilv 1817. 
She was born in Xunda in 1819. 

3. William P. Tlionipson. marrie(l I. Jane Devoe ; 2. Marv Ames; 3. Mrs. 
Elizabeth McCray. 

III. Laura, Allen, George. 

II. 6. Mary married Foster W'hittaker. 

Children: Alice, married Lewis Wescott ; *John ; Lizzie, married Clark R. 
Brewer of Nunda. 

7. Adolphus. 5. Josiah. 8. Jane, married Edgerly. 9. Lucy Jane, mar- 
ried Myron Patterson. 


Robert Thomjjson and wife. 


Eben son of John and Elinor (soldier) died during the war. 
Children of Robert. 

Children of Oliver, i. Fred. 2. Fletcher. 3. Jessie. 
Children of Ann Thompson Dickens. Edgar J., Frank and Mavlon. 
Hugh Thompson and Robert Thompson were cousins of Wilson Thompson. 
( )liver married Helen Dailex-. V\ru\ of Hunt & Thompson, millers. Ann 
married Charles H. Dickens. 


By Dr. Wm. Dake, 1819-1830. Revised by B. Frank Dake, Esq. 

THE Dake or Deake family have long been an important factor in the 
history of Livingston County and are among the real pioneers of 
Western Xe, York. The paternal stock was English, but the family 
originally came from Hungary, the first of the name locating at Hopkinton, R. 
I., in 1631;, but to make the spelling and the Americanized pronunciation cor- 
respond the name wa^ changed to Dake. William Dake being the first to locate 
in Nunda was born in Daketown, Saratoga County. X. Y., July 25, 1792, son 
of William Gould and Margaret Moshier Deake. He married Orjiha Miller 
December 20, 1815, of Galway, X. Y. In 1820 he with his wife and two small 
children started out with Indians as guides to locate in what was to be a per- 
manent home in the town of Portage, known as C)akhill on the river road, and 
what was then thought to be the wilds of the far West. Xunda had then but 
a few log houses, and the Indians roamed at will through the forest paths. 
The writer of these lines has often heard William Dake and his wife tell of the 
long tiresome journey from Daketown, Saratoga County. X. Y'.. to the new 
home in the forest, the Indians acting as guides. The brother of his wife, who 
was a Methodist minister was the only white friend on the way. An ox team 
being their only means of transportation. Guided by marked trees and Indian 
trails to designate the highway. They entered upon a quarter section of land 


upon which they coiiiiiienced their battle of furest Hte. A log house was soon 
constructed and in this they lived iDr s. mie years. Later they moved into a 
large and commodious frame In use, \vhere tliey lived and worked together for 
nearly fifty years. The forest about thmi soon gave way to waving fields of 
golden grain. The door of their home was ever open to their Indian friends 
who paid them freciuent visits. Mr. Hake was widely known as a man of judg- 
ment and of strict mtegrit_\-. He held al \arions times offices of trust and 
honor in town and county, fie died May i. 1873, in Xunda, X. Y., at the home 
of his son. Dr. Jabez W. Dake. where he and his wife had come but a year pre- 
vious, having left the home upon the hill. llis remains were laid in Picket 
Line Cemetery besides those of his father and mother. William (inuld Deake 
and Margaret his W'ife, wdio had also come to this section of the ccmntry a lit- 
tle later than their son, in 1S2S, and bought up a large tract of land in < )akhdl 
a short distance from his son. He settled in 1S28. 

^^'illiam Gould Deake <:)r ( Dake as the name is now more generally sjielled ) 
was born in Hopkinton. R. L, March (1. i-oi. He was a soldier of the Revdlu- 
ionar\' War. he served as private in Captain Lewis \'cn Woerts Regiment I'lth 
of Cambridge, Captain William I'.niwn's Company of .\lbany County. X. Y., 
and served during most of the war. Shouldering his gun when he was but 
fourteen vears old at the battle of liennington. he follcjwed his father into the 
battle field, the battle taking ]ilace upim ])art of their land and the adji lining 
farm of Elder ^^'ait's. An interesting fact is that the first Red Crdss work 
done in this countr-. was d'ine 1)\ his muthcr who went ujion the field after the 
battle and ministered to th.e wdimded an<l sutfering soldiers until their strength 
failed, her name now being enrolled as a patriot of the Revdlutinnary War 
for the services ren;iereil. flcr name was .\nna Ciould Deake. 

In 1830 William Gould Deake sold his farm in Daketown, Saratoga Count\ , 
and moved onto the tarm which he had purchased in the town of Portage, and 
which joins that known as Latham Coffin farm where he lived till after the 
death of his wife in ;84T, when he removed to the \:llage of Xun.da where he 
lived with his daughter .\bhie Dake Xortho]!. He was a man of genial mind 
and greatlv loved. His last illness was shcjrt and he cmiptly passed out to join 
the larger family waiting on the other side. He was .» man of sterling charac- 
ter whose word was his bond by all who knew him. He died in Xunda, X. Y., 
.August I, 1843. His remains were laid in the Picket I_^ine cemetery near his 
old home. 

He reared a large family of children their names l)eing b^lizabeth. .\niia. 
Charles, Jabez, William, Benjamin, Lucy, Eunice . John E.. and Margaret. 
Charles the oldest son lived many years in Xunda. Later moved to Penn Yan 
where he died. Jabez wdio was born at Saratoga and later serveil in the \Var 
of 1812, became a physician, being the first AL D.. to locate there, where he lived 
and raised a large family of children, many of wdiom followed his chosen pro- 
fession. He was a man ever reads to aii'^wer to the call of the sick or those in 
trouble. His home still stands, although remodeled, on the corner opposite the 
Baptist church. He died May n, i84r), and was buried at ( )akwoi]d Cemeterv 
where a monument was erected to his memory. Llis wife was Sophia P.oweii 
and their children were Louisa, L\dia who married Lyman Hojipins. and had 
two .sons who were iihysicians. David was a idiysician and surgeon of promi- 


nence ami liad a son who. also, wcm distinclion as a physician, and one danghler 
who QTadnated in medicine and married a Dr. 1". \V. Skiles. Channcey M.. 
was the first liomocpath in \\'rstern Xew ^"ork, and located at Geneseo 
Livingston County, X. Y. lie had a son whn practiced medicine, Abram B. 
Dake who married Elvira Herrick of Xunda, and after his death she married 
a Mr. Wiley. William Henry who graduated in medicine and located in Pitts- 
burg, later moved to Rochester where he lived many years. His wife was 
Laura IJarrett of Xunda. lioth he and his wife are buried at Oakwood Ceme- 
tery. Anna Eliza, who married J. 1). Crank has two sons wdio are i)hysi- 
cians, J. P. Dake, jabez Jr., who became noted as a professor in medicine and a 
writer of many stanclartl works on medicine. He had four sons who were 

William Dake who located there, in 1S20, had chililren who located in 
Nunda and near by places. His oldest son Jonathan 'SI. Dake located in Xunda 
and opened a hardware store, in 1863. where with his son Moses, and later, 

Abram Dake, he was in business until his . dymg at the age of 84. He 

was for a time a prominent figure in the I'.aptist church. He had several chil- 
dren; Moses, Maria, Frank, Charles and John. John still resides on the home- 
stead, caring for the widowed mother. The others of William's family were : 
C. Alonzo, a physician of Warsaw. Dr. Jal)ez W., of Xunda. later of Rochester: 
Clara who married John Dixon and lived between Xunda and Picket Line ; an.l 
B. Frank Dake who was a very successful physician in Pittsburg, later moving 
to Pasadena. California. He died in 1908, age 7^. A cousin of William Gould 
Dake located on the River Road where he lived many years, acting as postmas- 
ter a greater part of the time at what is known as the River Road Forks. 

I am unable to give vou the first name of father's first wife. She was ;' 
Hagadorn. She bore father two children, Mathilda and Moses William. Ma- 
thilda died at the age of fifteen years, heather's second wife was ^Llry Ann 
Town. She bore him one child, Maria Ann. Maria married Dr. Frank A. War- 
ren. She died February 7, 1895, leaving surviving her four children, Grace A. 
Harsh, Harriet A. Warren. Jennie B. Warren and Howard D. Warren, all of 
whom are now living. Howard D. Warren became twenty-two years of age 
the 15th of March. 1908. For nearly one .\ear he has been the cashier of a 
large trust company in Aberdeen, Washington. Father's third wife was Sarah 
Imogene Burgess. She bore him three children. Abram ]\Iiller. Benjamin 
Franklin, and Charles Morton, all of whom are now living. Father's fourth 
wife was Fanny Melissa Andrus, who bore him one child. John Andrus. 
Moses' son, Millard H. Dake. was bi^-n in Xunda. All of the rest of the grand- 
children were born out of Xunda with the exception of the children of Abram 
and fohn. Charles M. Dake has one child, Charles Crawford, who was born in 

Father's father, William Dake Jr., was marrie<l to Orpha APdler, Decem- 
ber 20. 181 S- In 1820 in an ox cart with their two sons. Jonathan Miller and 
Charles Alonzo. aged four and two years, they started out from Greenfield. 
Saratoga Connt\ , X". Y.. and drove to and settled on. a farm on Oak Hill in 
Portage, which he had purhcased in 1819. and on which they resided together 
fifty-two years. 

William Gould Dake was the father of William Dake Jr. In 1871 William 
Gould Dake was married to Margaret IMosher. He was a soldier of the Rev- 


oliitioii. The battle of Benninsttm was fouyht in [lart on the farm of his 
father in White Creek, Washington C'ountw X. Y., and on the adjoining farm 
of Elder Waite. William Gould Dake lived with his wife until the death of 
nis wife in 1841. William Dake jr., lived with his wife until his death May 
I, 1873. Dr. Charles Alonzo Dake, a son of William Dake, Jr., was married 
to Maria Roberts, June 2, 1840. They lived together until his death in July. 
1905. The father, son and grandson lived with their w-ives during an aggre- 
gate period of marital union of one hundred and eighty-two years. 

Mv knowledge does not extend ]>eyond these, hut yon will see most of them 
have done miieh to i:eri)etuatc the cherished memory of dear old Xnnda which 
is ever dear to the hearts of those \vh<i have had the good fortunes to look 
through the fertile valley upon those sloping hillsides. We wish, all who live 
there, a happy, prosperous and blessed life. B. FR.WK D.\KE. 

Abram Dake son of Jonathan and Imogene ( Burgess ) Dake, has resided 
in Nunda for many years. Me married Jennie Hungerford, daughter of \'irgi' 

Hungerford, son of Amos. Their children are X'irgil, who married . 

Fred, who married Lena \ andusen. daughter of Alilton E. and Rose (Clark) 
Vandusen. Tliey now reside in Denver. John A., son of Jonathan and branny 
(Andrus) r)ake, married Sophia, daughter of J. B. and .Vletha Kendall Willett. 
They have two children born in Nunda. Hazel who married Glenn McAIaster. 
and resides at Dansville, X. Y.. and Walter a schocil bo_\-. 


The Xashes bought out Kpliraim Kingsley ( Xunda's third settler), and 
secured one of the finest farms in I'ortage, which is still in possession of the 
family. The family consisted mostly of adults and were soon married and 

.Alfred Xash married Ho\"t. 


The sons were: i. Anson. 2. Camillas. 

Enos H., married Ellen Stockwell. William, married Delana Hill, a niece 
of Dr. Chittenden of Xunda. 

The daughters were: *Almira, married Martin Stockwell; Catharine and 
Caroline (twins), Catharine married Wells McNair, Castile; *Car(]line married 
Norman Dopkms ; Anna married Martin Stockw-ell, Rochester, N. Y. 


Children of Enos and Ellen Xash. 

Adelia married Augustus W. Chase, son of William Chase, farmer ; Enos 
Adelbert, a veteran, married Augusta Williams, daughter of Solomon Wil- 
liams, Jr. 

John Augustine was drowned wdiile skating on the Andrus pond. He was 
seventeen years of age. His companion Edward E. Knibloe, sixteen years old. 
succeeded in getting him out of the ic\- water, but he died from the chill and 
exposure. He was one of the author's favorite scholars, and was esteemed 
highly by all who knew him. 

The other member of the family was Fanny Xash, the daughter of Wil- 
liam and Delany Hill Xash, an ado]jted daughter of Enos H. Xash. 


The sons of K. Adclbcrt Xasli. are Arthur and lllliert. 

The sons of A. W. and Adclia Chase 

John, wlio (Hed in early boyhood: William, married, and who resides in 
Rochester: Roy. married, who lives on the Chase homestead, and who siic- 
eeeded his father as Rural Mail Carrier. 

.Augustus W. t hase died from heincj chilled to death while performing his 
duties as Mail Carrier, his route was over the Ciranger and Grove hills, the day 
was a very coM one. causing his death. 

Enos .\delbert Xasli. who enlisted at \H was a ])risoner of war and paroled 
just in time to save his life. He has been .'■inpervisor and justice of the Peace 
five or six terms. 


l-'our brothers. Lyman. Amnion, lliram and .Xorman .Smith settled in I'ort- 
age: the first two in 18J5. the others later. 

*.\mmon .Sniith. married "Julia .\'ash ; one son .\delbert .\. .*-'.mith, marrieil 
Eliza Jennings. 

Lyman Smith had two daughters: Emma married *Luke Robinson' 
*.\nie married Lorenzo D. (iitTord. son of *Robert Gifford. pioneer. 

.\lbertus C. Robinson, son of Emma, married Mary Stanton, resides on the 
homestead, and has filled several town offices. The children of L. D. and 
.\nie Smith Giflbrd : Mamie, married Reuben Wheeler: Nellie at home. 

The children of *Hiram .Smith and *Jane Sanforil are: (iertrude. p 
teacher for many years: *Cynthia (Mrs. Saiuuel Davis): Ella (Mrs. Gilbert 
Bliss) : Cora (Mrs. George W. Botsford). 

Sanford married May Wheeler, owns the homestead, but lives in Perry. 

The ciiildren of *Xormaii Smith and Louisa Quick: Wilham II. Smith, 
stage drivtr, and baggageman, married Mary Townsend : Maria, a skilled tail- 
cress: *Edward. jonriicyman ])rinter: Julia, home decorator for sjiecial festivi- 
ties: Lydia. .Xormal School teacher, married Charles 1'.. Ilamlin: Mamie died 
when a young lady. 

Grandchildren: Harvey X. .Smith. Louise 1 lanilin. Louis. ''Stanley. Carl 
and Mildred .Smith. 

The grandchildren of .\mnion .Smith: Carrie .\., married ICdward Reeil : 
Everett, ])ro(luce dealer, luarried I'lorence Mare: Eva, a teacher. 

ClIAI'TI-.R xin. 
Grovk .\.\i>- ( ;i<.\.\('.i;r— .\i\ii.\ kro.m i,Si,S-i827. 

TIIL present town of Grove had no settlers during its first decade as .-o' 
eighth of the town of .Xinda. If we include that part of Grove 
afterwanl became Granger, then we might find from iSi()-i8i8 i>er- 
liai)s ten families. 

There being no high line fences of either Church or .State, separating the 
tlifferent town ])lots that formed Xnnda. It is natural that, the writer of these 
"Annals of the pioneer settlement of the .Xniida" that existed between i'^i>< ami 
1827. rear none, but treat every settler of ihis time as .Xunda citizens 

In 1827, Grove, including Granger, liecame a separate town and ceased to 
be within the scope of these Annals. 

There is a sense, however, in wliich Grove never has been entirely dis- 
tinct from Nunda. Her first citizens came from Nunda, and many of them re- 
turned again. 

Grove never had any large villages, so her citizens patronize Xunda stores. 
lier Baptist church was also the Baptist church of Nunda and of Portage until 
1828, her soldiers mostly enlisted in Nunda companies, and even to-day, the 
people of (jrove make Dalton, which is an important part of Nunda, their cen- 
ter of trade. 

Their produce is shipped from that business center, in fact, with the excep- 
tion of picking their own political ])lunis from their own political jjlum trees, 
and shipping them to Belmont, instead of Geneseo, the towns ar^ virtually one. 
To our Union and High Schools their advanced scholars come, and no doubt 
many still worship in the Dalton churches, 

I'Vom 1818 to 1820, Grove-Nunda, where good titles to land could be ob- 
tained (when they could not in Nunda) led to an exodus of the early settlers 
to the lands of the "Church Tract." 

John White, set the example, and the "White Settlement" is sufficieiii 
proof that he became one of the permanent settlers. He was a man who cut 
out a way for himself and his oxteam whenever such a highway was needed. 
In Ma_\-. 1818, after having lived two years in Nunda, he cut a road into the 
forest leading to lot 35, which he had purchased. This was no small task, but 
he was at his best, being at the time 32 vears of age. 

He brought his wife with hmi imm Herkimer to Xunda. with his nxteam 
and now when his new log house should be habitable he would try founding 
a settlement in a new section w'lere for a time tlie\- would be "The Eve and 
Adam of a race renewed." He did not purpc.ise however, to raise "Cain" in 
the wilderness but to raze the trets from the forest near his house, and then 
raise turnips and wheat and vegetables. He did still better, he raised a large 

These, like himself, had good stayuig riualities — for two of these children 
are still living. Mrs. Nancy White I'as.sage, now 87 years of age, ami her 
youngest sister, Mrs. A\'illiam Townsend wlm recently celebrated her golden 
wedding day. 

This story of the first family that -settled in Grove-Nunda is interesting 
and unique. 

John White had to take a grist of wheat from Grove to Dansville, as he 
wanted to bring back a door to kee]) out the wolves — he had t(i go with his 
oxen, as he had to cut the road, or widen it nearly all that distance, it wou'd 
take him many days, possibly two weeks. His wife had to stay alone, and 
only one neighbor nearly a mile away. They had no door to their log cabin, and 
the wolves w-ere numerous. The wife consented to stay alone if he would onlv 
bring home a door. He went and was gone many weary days. The wretched- 
ness of this solitude was mingled with fears for the safety of her husband and 
the necessity of keeping a bright fire burning to keep of? the wolves. It was 
twelve days before he returned and the solitude and solicitude of those twelve 
davs she could never forget. 

^\'e present the picture of her 
daughter born in 1820; who told 
me th's story. 

Mrs. Nancy White Passage 
At 86 years 
Only 94 years old 

The Late Betsey Steyers Myers 

Ma 111. DA Shirwood Russell 
(-)iil\" ^2 \ears \oiinij 

Mrs. Fannie .Adams Olney 

Doth of these sisters however. ha\e come to Xunda to complete their 
eartlily pili^rimage, and as an intermethate state between Allegany and Heaven, 
it has no equal. 

~Slr. White induced a new settler at Xunda, Alexander Bailey, to buy pai-t 
of lot 35, and here on tiiis first settled lot. in this new settlement was born, on 
Chirstmas i8ig, the first white child born in what is now the town of Grove, 
Laura Bailey, who became Airs. Hiram Alerithew and who died in Portage, in 
1907, in her 88th year, spent in this vicinity. In the August following, the first 
"White" child born, was, Xancy \\'hite now Airs. Daniel Passage, the second 
child born in the present town of Grove. Both were born in Xunda. In the 
log house of John White in 182 1, the first religious services were held. Thee 
w-ere other W'hites, for Joseph White a brother, settled and remained in Xunda. 
and Elijah White was married in 1822 to Lucy Dana, and William \Miite was 
the first person to die in this settlement. 

John Eisamon. also tried Xunda for a year or two, and then in 1822. 
moved to what is known as the Dutch settlement. Others who came from 
Xunda to this locality were James Brewer, in 1820, and later Sylvester Heath, 
Samuel Swain, Jr.. Tolm Boughton, and Elias Alvard and Curtis Coe came 
from Portage-Xunda. ISrewer's Corners, was for a time quite a hamlet, but 
failed to become a village. The Brewers many of them returned to Xunda as 
did Swain, after foimding Swainsville. 

The Parkers, Aldriches, and the Aloses families became the permanent 
families of the town, and their sons were prominent at Xunda schools and in 
Xunda companies of soldiers. 

Besides White the Passages, the liaileys, Eisamons, the Brewers, who left 
Xunda for Grove-Xunda, there were a few years later, Deacon Bassett, the 
Tuttles, Samuel Crowfoot, the Sweets, and probably others, while one man 
Samuel C. Jones, after securing a competence came from there, (Grove Cen- 
ter) to X'unda having sold a large tract of land to Samuel Swain, Jr., and so 
what might have been Jonesville became Swainsville, after a railroad came 
through these lands. He was emphatically a self made man. Left an orphan, 
with a large family of brothers and sisters to care for. he proved his man- 
hood by being manly. 

His mother was left a widow while Samuel her eldest son, was young. 
Mrs. Alontgomery Thorp, Mrs. Reynolds, Airs. Townsend. and one of the 
Airs. \'an Xostrands, Thomas and U'illiam Jones, and the father of John Jones 
of Grove, were his sisters and brothers. Airs. Thorp has often said there 
never was a kinder or more patient brother than Samuel was to his younger 
brothers and sisters. He certainly succeeded, as a son and brother. He be- 
came prominent in town afifairs. was Supervisor and Justice of the Peace, this 
was another form of success. That he became the owner of a large tract of 
land, tells that he succeeded financially. 

He became a lumber man on a large scale. He also became Supervisor 
of Grove. Samuel C. Jones was the first Townclerk of Granger. He came to 
X^unda to reside in 1850 and completed his life there. 

The family of Alontgomery Thorp were possessed of unusual abilit}'. 
Simeon was graduated from I'nion College, went west and became State Su- 
perintendent of Schools in Kansas. He also became State Senator. He was 


a prominent Free State and Union man, and was a martyr to the cause lie 
espoused. In one of Quantrells raids, he was called to the door and shot 
dead, by one of the raiders. 

Captain Alexander Thorp, whose wife was a daughter of Alfred Swain, 
of Nunda, was educated at Alfred and died in the service. He was killed in 
the battle of Winchester. 

Colonel Thomas Jones Thorp graduated at Union College. He helped or- 
ganize Co. E, 85th N. Y., was wounded at Fair Oaks. He became Lieut. Col. 
of the first New York Dragoons and afterward Col. and Brevent Brig. General. 
He erected a monument in Granger for the soldiers that died from that town. 
Half the monument was for his family. 

Washington and .-Vziza Moses were sons of Daniel Moses, both have held 
town and county offices. 

Washington AL, served his town as Supervisor several terms and his 
county as Member of Assembly. 

Children of 1. i, Daniel. Moses and i'hoebe. 

H. I. FVances. 2. .\shbel. 3. Luther. 4. Washington (see L'ivil List), 
married Flla Parker, their children : 

HL I. Grant E., merchant at Dalton. 2. li. Walter, merchant. See 
Civil List of Xunda. J. X.. married Mabel \\ hite. daughter of George and 
Mary White. 

5. Aziza. 

L 2. Samuel Moses, brother to Daniel. 

Marmaduke Aldrich a veteran of the War of 1812-14 who came from Lima 
to Grove 1822, and to Granger in 1827. His children were, Amasa, Gideon, 
Nelson, Benjamin, Sally and Mary. Amasa was killed by falling from the 
back of a wagon. Probably all of these were born before 1827, and so were 
citizens of Xunda. 

Alonzo Aldrich was a grandson and soldier. Alphonzo Aldrich was an- 
(ither, also a veteran. 

Linus married Mary Kelley, sister of John Kelley ; Lieut. Alphonzo .\ld- 
rich, married Miss P.eech of Oakland. 


There were three Parker families in Xunda not closely connected if at all 
on the F'arker side. Local Histories say Heerman Parker came to Xunda 
(Grove) in 1821, and Riley P^arker in 1822, leaving the impression that thc\- 
were brothers. Mr. Frank Parker says they were brothers-in-law oiilw lioth 
having married sisters of Samuel Carman of X'unda, that Herman and Ira 
Parker were brothers. Most important is tin; fact that Riley Parker was a 
veteran of 1812 and probably served with the Cayuga County militia. He came 
to Nunda in 1822 from Scipio. He was married to Sally Carman some four 
years before this, and j\Ir. and Mrs. Parker did not come alone to Nunda. 
They had good coni]~an\-. tlie genial Sanford came with them, though only two 
years old, he was not even then, one that could be left out of the conversation. 
He led it ihen, and he kept on doing so. Piesiiles if a new town was to be 
founded he was not the one to be late at the founding, so he was there, one nf 
the first settlers of Grove-Nunda. Who ever knew Sanford Parker to be late. 

The writer never reached Xunc'.n Station but once in his Hfe, and that time at 
niidnii^ht, when Sanford lived there, that he was not the first man to be seen. 
In war times, when he arrived, Sanford met him, saying, "well you want to go 
down to the valley to see the folks, want a rig?" Of course that was the thing 
needed, anci though the stable boy had not cleaned the harness oi the buggv for 
weeks, it always carried its passengers safely to the journevs end. I am glad 
sanford Parker came to \unda when he did, that for five \ears he was a pio- 
neer of Nunda, before he lived in Grove, though he lived in the same house in 
both towns. I don't think I sin mid liaxe enjoyed trading jack Knives with hini 
in his school days, though he no doubt had a fine varietv to select from. He 
always saw the worth in e-\'erything however Ijruised or battered it was. hi-, 
whole livery con.plete would have seemed dear to anyone else at a few hun<lred 
dollars, but to him it was just the thing for all sorts of weather, and it was. I 
doubt if any man that ever li\-ed at Dalton was so well known as the host of the 
Parker House, or better liked. The jokes he could tell so well, wdiich seemed 
no jokes at all, but just plain every day talk, made him an attraction. As a 
hotel keeper he was a t\pe of tlie early pioneer inn keepers wdio seemed to keep 
an inn just to accommodate the ]iiiblic .nnd make evervbodv who came feel at 
home. I have secured his ]iicture that I may see him often, and that others 
may. also that of Almiron Paine, stage driver to Dalton. 

He marrie.' when a young man Klizabeth Wood. Airs. .SalK Parker his 
mother, became a nonogenarian, and died at the age of 1)2. outliving her 

Mrs. .Sanford Parker also survived her husljand. Their children are 
Charles and Alaysette h'rancelia. though generally called Alay. 'Mav married 
Henry Harck, eldest son of Frederick, a retired shoemaker. 

Plis brothers and sisters. 

II. 2. Lyman Parker, married C'athr.riui.- Mallon. 3. Ezekiel. married 
Alartha' Lockwood sister to Frank. 4. Ruth, married Porter Warren. 5. 
Jane, married William A\'oo(l. I'ranklin P.. married Julia .\. Warren, daugli- 
ter of I'nrter and Alaria I'uller Warren. 

This youngest member of the famiiy lost one nf his legs but gets aroimd 
about as rai)idl\- as men with two. As a stock bu}er he has been engaged for 
many years. His children live in Xunda and are therefore of the elect to i)e 
mentioned as of pioneer lineage. 

III. Grace Mas. married I'ratik Peterson. Pradford, Pa. H. Rov, mar- 
ried .\Ietta Ilussey. 

Tlfere were several soldiers ir. the other Parker families. Milan Parke*-, 
a Nunda soldier died in the service, his sister \'icina inarrie<I George Barnev 
one of four brothers who were soldiers. He alone survives. Jefferson Parker 
a gentleman, a scholar and a soldier died in the service, Emerson Parker his 
brother, also died in the service. Another brother Earl, also a soldier is not 
living. Jasper Parker a fourth brother lives on the homestead. Ellen Parker 
married Hon. ^^'ashington Moses (see Moses I'amily. ) 


The citizens of Granger were citizens, until 1827, of Xun<la. and after that 
until 1838, were citizens of Grove. The town of Granger was first called West 


In 1816 Reuben Smith and his sons Wilcux ami Isaac Smith and his sons- 
in-law, Rufus Trumbull and James JMcCoun. .Mr. Ellis 1 !■>. Xut.) 

Elias Smith from Otsego Countv , Darling- Smith from the same county, and his 
family, including Hiram Smith, horn 180S, settled in the northeast part of town. 
liis nearest neighbor on the north was three miles away, and on the south, sever.. 
Ira Hopper from Steuben County, settled in the south part of the town and 
William White from New England, near the center in 1S18. 

The first birth, in March, 1817, was of Olive Smith, which precedes any 
in Portage, Nunda or Grove. It appears there was a negro in the town named 
Jacques who died in 1817, also Olive Line, a name not previously mentioned. 
In 1 82 1 Isaac Hatch and Clarissa Pralt were married. 

In 1819 Isaac VanNostrand purchased 290 acres (lot 20) and for a time 
lived alone in his log cabin. He built the first saw-mill. It was west of the 
short tract road. Help was so scarce that he went to Caneadea and secured some 
Indians to assist. John S. Alinard, historian of Allegany County, wishing to 
bring out the strong qualities of this vigorous and energetic pioneer, narrates 
this interesting incident of the "raising." "The timbers were heavy and in 
raising one of the "bents" some faint-hearted ones came near releasing their 
hold to the peril of all their lives. X'anXostrand seized a hand spike and 
threatened direct vengeance on anyone that did not do his utmost. (iiving 
thundering command, 'He-o-heave' all lifted with a will and up went the bent 
into place." 

Williaiii jMoore and Isaac Hatch are mentioned as associated with \'an 
Nostrand In the building of this saw-mill. The next vear I. \"an Xostrand 
Duilt the first frame house in Gran9;er. His son Luzon \'an Xostrand, came 
on in May, the rest of the family in August. 

Another circumstance showing the scarcity of useful things in this iiio- 
neer settlement, as well as in others, was that Mr. Van Nostrand had the onh; 
timepiece in the settlement, and so it was arranged that he should blow upon a 
conch shell at four o'clock in the morning, at noon and at nine o'clock at night. 
And so this man of parts and possessions regulated the rising, dinner hour 
and retiring time of his neighbors. Xo wonder he became the first Supervisor 
of the town of Granger — and he held the same office in the town of Grove. 

A man that could get the citizens of Nunda Village up at 4 A. M., and 
make them retire regularly at 9 P. M., would deserve to go to Congress, but I 
fear would be sent instead to a lunatic asylum. 

"That artificial cut otT. "early rising," 
so common in pioneer settlements — certainly does not exist even in rural life 
to-day, much less in villages or cities. 

Miss Urzivilla Williams taught the first school. 

Elias Smith kept the first inn in 1819, and the first store in 1820. Both 
inn and store were built of logs, and ^Ir. Patterson nuist have lived there for 
his little girl got lost in the woods. The whole community searched for her. 
The firing of a gun or the blowing of a horn, was to let the rest know, that the 
child had been found. Xo one, must fire, even at a deer, until then. The child 
was found next day, when an informal julilice of rejoicing was held, guns were 
fired, horns blown and bells rung. .Ml this in one year makes t8ii) an eventful 
vear in Granger, Grove and Xunda. 

The town of Granger was nut formed until 1838, it was a part of Grove 
after it ceased to lie a part of Xunda. 


In 1820 Ephraim Bullock, a cooper from \'ermont, added a new industry. 

Two men of luore than ordinary importance to the community settled in 
1822 and 1823, viz. : Samuel Closes and Abner Cornstalk. The latter is cred- 
ited with having cut seven miles of road leading to Xunda. He lived to a 
great age, and is buried in Oakwod Cemetery. 

Blessed are the road-makers; for they arc a blessing to themselves an.i 

Enos Baldwin came from Alt. Morris in 1823 and lived all the rest of his 
life at his farm on the Short Tract. He had a double handle lo his name. 
He was Captam of Militia and for ^2 years Justice of the I'eace. He died in 
1876. His son G. \\'. Baldwin succeeded him on his farm. 


Darling Smith of Granger, 1817, got out of meal, and as meal and wild 
game were "'the chief of the diet of his family, he started on horseback for Lei- 
cester twenty miles awa_\'," with a bag of corn. The roads were abominable 
and traveling slow and he reached home the second day at midnight, tired and 
hungr\-. The good wife made some hasty pudding and the whole family were 
called up early, i .\. M., and such a feast as they enjoyed, it is difficult t(.) find 
words to express. CHAPTER XIV. 


The Grimes brothers, Richard and Alvin, came to Barkertown neighbor- 
hood in 1820. They own so much land now that it is difficult for the younger 
members of the family to select from their large landed estate the original 
farms, their other lands have been in the family so long. Richard Grimes took 
up lot 112 and Ah'in lot 114. James Brewer, a brother-in-law, probably owned 
113 for a while, and \\'illiam Shute, another brother-in-law, lot 115. The 
Donaldson farm, which soon came, through marriage, into the possession of 
J. P. Grimes, son of Richard Grimes, was a large one of 148 acres. All these 
farms were just south of the Barker farms, that gave name to the settlement. 

The Grimes brothers were practical, industrious and frugal. They came 
and stayed and, unlike the "transients, the moving stones" of those days, they 
were '"moss gatherers." 

Richard Grimes, and Anna, his wife, were born in 1774 and lived to be 
respectively 88 and 83 years of age. Mrs. Grimes died in 1857 and her hus- 
band in 1862. I\Iargaret Grimes, sister of Richard, born in 1798, died in 1861, 
aged 63. The son of Richard and Anna was Philip, who married Elizabeth, a 
daughter of John Donaldson. They also had hut one son, John 1). Grimes, 
who inherited the estates of his father and mother. He added greatly to both, 
until he had four hundred acres. 

11. Richard Philip Grimes was born in Greene County in 1804, settled 
1823, married 1826, died 1872, aged 68. Elizabeth Donaldson Grimes, born 
Wayne County, 1808, died 1877, aged 6y. 

III. John Donaldson Grimes, born in Nunda 1829, was educated in 
Nunda District Schools and Nunda Literary Institute, was a farmer, four hun- 
dred acres, and teacher of ability, married Sarah A. Hovey, adopted daughter 
of J. A. Paine, born in Broome County, 1835, left an orphan in early life, mar- 
ried 1852, died in Nunda village, 1906, an earnest and zealous member of the 
Presbyterian Church. Children of John D. and Sarah A. Grimes: Frank H. 
married Miss Margaret Walker;* Scott F., died 1906; Mills S., clergyman 
(Presbyterian) of Nunda, married Miss Bell, a daughter of Rev. N. H. Bell; 
Blanche L., married Fred LeClair, grandson of Thomas LeClair, Cooper. John 
D. Grimes was a successful raiser of hops, and Frank H., is experimenting in 
ginseng raising. He is the only ginseng farmer in this section. His daughter, 
Blanche, married John Colton, son of Simpson and Martha Colton. Sisters of 
Richard and Alvin Grimes: Margaret, single; Airs. James Brewer and Mrs. 
William Shute. 


The Tyler family were perhaps the first settlers of "Elmwood" at the foot 
of East Street in 1823 or 1824, or of a part of this farm. The family were Mr. 
Silas Tyler and Mrs. Tyler. Mrs. Tyler married (2) Jesse Barker, Sr.. father 
of Seth Barker, .Silas Barker died in 1826; the farm was then sold to Dea- 
con Bassett. Mr. T^-ler was rich in daughters. Lucy married Solomon Donald- 
son (see Donaldson faniil}!. Celestia J. married Leander Hill (see L. Hill 
family). She outlived all the early pioneers of Nunda: had five sons and one 
daughter. Jerusha C. first wife of Albert Page (see Page family). She left 
three sons. She died in 1837. The youngest daughter was married to John 
F. Barber. They had no children. She lived but a few years ; is buried at 
Oakland. There seems also to have been a Silas Gridley Tyler, who pur- 
chased the old McSweeny school house, foot of East Street, for $fi, in 1827. 
anil who owned a small house on the site of the M. E. Church. It is said 
that the widow of Silas Tyler (who died in 1826), the mother of all these fine 
daughters (who married so well), and probably of this son, Silas Gridley 
Tyler, was afterward married to the grandfather of M. ( ). Barker: so this 
family of T}-lers were related to most of the iironiinent settlers of that time. 
Another family of Tylers not related to Silas or Eli])has : Ellioll Tyler and 
Abram Hemingway Tyler, were brothers, and though hundreds of miles 
apart both died on the same d'A} : Ellioll was married to Cynthia Richardson, 
]:)orn 1800, daughter of Lieut. \\'illiani Richardson, who settled in Nunda in 
1820, Mrs. T_\ler came with him with her four children, .\lonzo, who mar- 
ried Miss Tin"za Guy, daughter of Jacob Guy, Melissa Willis and Mary. 
Abram H. Tyler's wife was a sister of Jesse and Amos Barker, and their son. 
Hemingway, was reared by his maiden aunts. He married (first) his cousin, 
Miss Barker and (second) Mrs. Martha Colton, daughter of John Merithew. 


I. \\'illiani Shute. married ."-Susannah Grimes: his son, Richard, married 
Susan Mull, daughter of Christopher Mull : Alniira ^I., married *Martin Smith ; 
she resides in Barkertown. Her two sons : George, married Belle Abbott, 
Charles married Miss Tyler. All live at Barkertown. Her brothers, *Henry 
Shute, married Kate Bentley ; he died in KJ07. Alfred married Pollv Close : he 


died in 1837; William married Betsey Brink; Alden, born 1804, married Theo- 
docia Hav ; he died 1854, she died 1856; Major, married Nancy King. 

I. John Donaldson family. 

II. I. Solomon, married, first, Luc}' Tyler, second. Airs. Elvira (Page) 
Peck. The daughter of Airs. Peck was Sarah Manette Peck, who married 
Sylvanus Ellis, Superintendent of Schools, Rochester, N. Y. Both are buried 
at Xunda. 

II. 2. Bo_\-d Donalilson, married Mary A. Consaulas. Their son *John 
Donaldson. *AIrs. Boyd Donaldson married *James Lemen. Their son 
*Frank Lemen. 

II. 3. Abigail. 

II. Elizabeth married Richard Philip Grimes (see Grimes family). 

*David Evans (veteran) married Melitta Grimes ; one daughter married 

Wirt. Cora Evans, married Charles \'anBuskerk. Austin Evans died in the 


I. Leander Hills pioneer, settled 1824. Leander Hill, wife and son, 
Bissell. came to Rochester by canal and by team the rest of the way, and set- 
tled on the Abbott farm, east of the Keshequa, in 1824. He was born 1801, 
went west after the war. died at Highland, Kansas, 1887. Mrs. Celestia J. 
Hill, born 1802. died at Highland, Kansas, 1900, aged 97>4 years. Their 
children : Lieut. Bissell died at Aladison. Wis., 1893, aged 70. He was a Quar- 
termaster in a Wisconsin regiment but was mustered out because of sickness. 
Lathroj) Hills commenced his engineering in Chautauqua Hollow with Myron 
Shepard, and went West with him and became an expert while locating 
a railroad from Denver. He was shot by Indians near where Clieyeime was 
afterwards Iniilt. (len. Dodge, chief engineer, credited Division Engineer 
Seth Hills with saving the company $100,000 by a change of survey, over 20 
miles of the route. Milton F. Hills served in Capt. Lemen's Company and 
was twice promoted. He was captured by the enemy and finally exchanged. 
His letters from Cripple Creek are glowing with boyhood recollections of the 
Xunda of former vears. His two sons are mining engineers and metallurgists. 
Henrv A. Hills was also a soldier. He went out with Capt. McNair's company 
as First Sergeant of Company F. He was promoted twice, succeeding our 
present townsman, Lieut. H. G. King, when the latter was promoted to First 
Lieutenant, and also became First Lieutenant when Lieut. King resigned. 
He is Hving- at Highland, Kansas, and has two sons and two daughters. Seth 
Hills, an older brother, did not enter the service. He settled at Odin, III., 
and died there in lyoi, aged 76 years. Mary Hills married David .Mien of the 
good old Ethan Allen family, in 1862. She died at Highland, leaving one son 
and six daughters. 


Clark Shepard. married I'olly Johnson, jehiel and Jesse, (brothers) 
Children of Clark and i'olly: 1. llancy, 2. Horace and 3. Marv. Mary .\. 
Shepard, married Previse i'err>-. Jr. Charles Wirt Perry, married Mary Eliza- 
beth Chambers: John M. IVrrv, .Xunda Laundry; Previse Perry, Sr., married 
Dollv Renix, lived in village when old. 11. .\dna. married in Penna ; Wil- 


liam. married Weeks of Sparta : Kpliraiiu. marrieil Squires : 

Pollx. married IJutterrteld : Susan, married Henry Walker of Xunda: Eliza, 
married Erastus D. Hal-itead: Dolly, married Samuel Seelye. oi Xunda. (son of 
Lyman -Seelye. jiioncer of Xunda): Sall_\ . married Abraham DeCirolT: IVevisc 
married Mary A. Slicpard : (Mrs. IVrry lives in Xunda with her son, John 
M.): Charles, an M. D.. and \et. Civil War. Surp.. Michigan Kegt. ; Jane 
Renix : .Seneca, married Jane Ratlibun : James, a "forty-niner," died on his over- 
land journey to California; llenry, inarried in i-Vidoiiia : .'^andcrs a veteran 
Mich. Kegt. 


(l). I'ialt llalste.ul. ."-ir., married • Lucy Sherwood, daughter of Zadock 
Sherwood. (11). Erastus 1). Ilalstead. married Eliza I'erry. (III). I'latt 
C. Halstcad. Deputy SherifT. .Sujiervisor. of Xunda. and Sherift' of Livingstr.n 
County i<)07. married (i) ; (2) Ma_\ Paine, daughter of Wells I'aine. 


(I). I. Jacob Silsby. married Mary Ann Slicpard; J. i r.rotlicr .*-iamucl 

I'Veil \ anLiew and wife. .Martin \ auLiew (veteran). 

The Irwins succeeded one family of the Chapins at an early date before 
1827. (I). Abel Irwin, married Mrs. Lane; Kate Lane, married Elisha 
Sherman: Thomas: .Sanuiel : Edward, married in the south, wife died; Jeru- 
sha ; Elizabeth: Electa, marrieil William W. Osgoodby. son of J. H. C ). 

John Hatterson family lived on Mt. .Morris side of line. Those who have 
lived in Xuntla are: II. * William liatterson (veteran Civil War) ) married ( 1 ) 
* Harriet .\lvard [2\ Mrs. .Morris). 3. John died in Indian warfare. 111. 
\\'infield Scott liatterson. married C)phelia Magee. (Mrs. Liatterson had four 

brothers in the Civil War) : Harriet, married Skellengcr ; Cert Skellen- 

.ger, married Town, blacksmith, daughter of Henry Town. Children of 

A\'. S. and O. B. : Clara, married Hon. D. W. Mickey; Carrie, married Robert 
Sipiires : *James Chambers, son of James Chambers, lived near the .Skinner 
Mill, married Amanda Battcrson. They had sons and daughters, one. Grant, is 
a Baptist clergyman, and another was President of Lestershire village, but has 
since then died. Mrs. John Butterson's secontl husband. Charles Henr}- 
Waver, was a veteran of the I'loriila war with Indians, anil of the Civil War. 

William Renix and Mrs. Renix ( Dolly Renix. married Previse Perry. 
Sr., probably a sister). Cousins: Eliza Renix, married James Durvee, son 
of Renix Durvee: Mrs. James Durvee died in Xunda \'illage. A niece, Jen- 
nie lirodt. an ado])ted daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth Durvee. married Ralston 

Conklin. Her daughters. I'lora. married Suydam. .son of .Vndrcw 

S. ; Ella, single. 

Children of William Renix. (Jl Mary Eliza Renix; Jane .\nn Renix. 
married ."^^eneca Perrv ; llenry: John: .\gnes. 


The liassett familv lived at the foot of l-^asi .Street. The family are men- 
tioned by sketch writers. They |)robably settled in i8jf). sent four children to 


school, one of them named David, one Sabrina. They removed to Grove- 
Nunda before 1828. Georce llassett owned a farm there hiter. 

1826— THE GUYS 

This family were earl\ settlers and owned at various times several farms. 
Isaac Guy. was the ])ioneer, Jacob and Alexantler his sons. There was also at 
one time a \\'illiam X. ( iuy. wife and daughter, who belonged to the Baptist 
Church, the}- removed from there a few years after settlement. Isaac Guv, 
was connected with the distillery business, and Jacob Gu\' bought the William 
A. Wilcox [iropertx at Wilcox Corners since then known as Guv's Corners, 
Alexander Guy and sons were skillful shoemakers. Children of Alexander 
Guy. n. 1. Louise C. married William C. Iniller. .son of Joshua, (see Fuller 
family): 2. I.^elia .\,, a dressmaker; t,. ( )scar, married ]\lary .Vnn Shippey ; 4, 
William H.. married Maria Huggins (daughter of William), whose daughter. 
III. Ella Guy, married Charles Downs, son of JMartin and Sarah Downs ; 5. 
Adeline Guy : (Jrville and Clinton. 


1823. Captain (iNIilitia) Henry Bagley, a carpenter and builder settled in 
Niinda when frame houses became a possibility, or a \ear before, if statistics of 
our settlement are correct. Indeed his services were in greater requisition at 
first at Hunt's Hollow, then the metropolis of ( Half-town ) Xunda. While 
there employed he was interested in a rresb_vterian church movement that re- 
sulted in the building of a Presbyterian church there, which after a number 
of years became the Baptist church of Grove and Portage, now located at 
Hunt. But frame houses were a possibility in 1824 for, Willoughby Lowells' 
saw mill w'as active near where the .'-^waiu and Joslyn grist mill still stands and, 
it is said, then, or soon after, there were fourteen saw mills in the 
town of Portage on the Keshequa. Silas Warren was the first car- 
penter and he built many of the early frame houses. Xo man who 
ever lived in Nunda knew so much about who caused the building of all 
the houses in the place as Captain Bagley, and probably no one built more of 
them. He li\'t-d to be 92 years of age, though his last days were spent with his 
children, awa_\' from the village he did so much as a workman to l)uild. X'n 
man in the community was better known or more respected. He honored 
the calling of "the blaster" whose trade he shared. Married ( i ) Lucy Hoadle>', 
(2) Eliza A. I'.rown. Children of Henr\ li. and Lucy Hoadley : George, who 

married Margaret Howell; Luc_\- Howell, married Loomis, and died 

at Rushville. Children of Henry and Eliza ; Mary married Lewis Bliss, their 
son Fred Bliss has been Mayor of Corry, Pa., where the family resides ; Clif- 
ford H. Bagley, is married and lives in Corry, Pa. Benedict Bagley, a brother 
of Capt. Bagley, Nunda's second lawyer, came to Xunda about the time he 
was admitted to the bar 1834. A. C. Chipman came first. Addison M. Grant 
came the same tune, and Hon. Luther C. Peck, who preceded them all as a law- 
3'er in the courts of Allegany, came in the spring of 1841. Until 1832 Xunda 
settled all its differences without a lawyer, but never since. Portage has never 


Capt. Henry Baglev 

Church Street, Nunda 

had one, but has hired Nuiula talent. Miles Moli'at, however, practiced law at 
Genesee Falls, about 1838-50. At the time of the canal celebration in 1836, 
Benedict Bagley was president of the day and -\ddison M. Crane, the poet of the 

The residence of this great lawyer did not match his celebrit\-. It was 
only large enough for a law office, but his family lived there too. Everyone 
who has lived in Nunda knows the building, it stood where the Grace church 
now stands, until 1852. Dr. Chittenden then moved it down East Street to 
the parsonage well, and Mrs. Bowhall has lived in it for many years on Center 
Street. It was burned to the ground a few months since. Mr. B., after 1850 
built on Mill Street, the house now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Wright. 
He had become A'ice President of what is now the Erie railroad (Hornell 
Branch) and was classed with great lawyers. His student .\. M. Crane be- 
came a member of Assembly in the west. As stockholder and director of a 
railniad, I'.agley probably sunk all iiis funds, excepting his charges againsi the 
compau}- for legal advice. He removed with his wife and daughter to Dans- 
\'ille in 1855 and died in 1875. aged 75. 


This year frame houses were built in town and village, the first that there 
are any record of. Asa Heath is said to have built the first in the village, and 
George W. Merrick the first <in a farm. The tenant house now standing on 
the old Chandler farm was alsd built that \ear, if not before, lor it was on the 
farm wdien Jonathan Barron bought a large tract of land, including this farm, 
in 1824 or 1825. It is probable that Asa Heath had parted with his farm to Law- 
yer .\. C. Chipman, and bought of his brother James S. Heath some land near 
State Street, where the first house was i)uilt. The Jones family became own- 
ers of both houses and barn, and mm-ed them in 1S32 near their cabinet shops, 
and there they are showing age, but still in use. Hubbells frame inn 
must also have been built about this time, for Alanson Hubbell, was married 
that year to ]Miss Parmilia Robinson, who has survived alike her husljand and 
his habitation to which she came a briile in 1824. .\fter 1824 it is doubtful if 
any more log houses were built in the \-illnge. ( )n the Creek road near Xunda 
Junction there were several small liouses and one of them built in the town of 
Mt. Morris in 1823, is said to have been the first one built on that road. The 
writer lived for nearly eight years in a double house made of two of these first 
frame houses built by the Sherwoods, but joined together. He also remembers 
seeing one of the houses on the Mt. Mnrris side of the, then count\- line, moved 
by Abijah Hayward of Cdopcrville, in which Howards faniih- lived man\- 
years. Probably Ebenezer A\'ainer. the carpenter, built most of these Iniild- 
ings, as he lived on the E. W. Keii<lall farm. One of them was bought 1)'- 
Henry Rockefellow of him. and moved near this once well known line. .\t fifty similar houses, for they were nearly all alike, can be found to-dav 11 
this village and town. They were 20x24 i^^^, the roof slanting to the front, 
with a door and two windows in the center of front, two windows on the sides, 
and one on each side of the gable. Twelve feet posts, one foot s(|uare. intrud- 
ing into the room, built of good material, they have survived their l)nilders. 
and unlike them will have their centennial in due time. One hundred more in 

the \illase alime have changed their form, added a story with gable facing 
the street, a.dded ]>(>rches. Ija\" windows, one pane sashes to windows, and hke 
many anotlier well painted beanty appear decidedly youthful. This \ear also 
navigation opened on the Genesee River below the Lower Falls. The Erie 
canal was completed to Rochester, and now shingles, grain and potash could 
be sent from Rochester to New York, There was one man with energy enough 
to undertake to make the Genesee serve his bidding. If arks could be sent to 
Baltimore from Ark]:)orl on the Canisteo Creek, and they had been for a quar- 
ter of a century, then the\- could be sent down the Genesee also. Sanford 
Hunt was the Noah, to inaugurate the movement and probably one of the Pet- 
ersons, who was said to be an Arkwright, built the ark, and Hunt himself was 
the Golumbus, to seek not a new world, but a new market. A Geneseo news- 
pa])er under date of AIa_\ 27, 1824, announces the passing of the "Hazard" from 
Xunda down tne river, loaded with lumber, potash and pearl ashes for Al- 
ban\'. The same year steam navigation was tried on the Genesee up the river 
as far as Geneseo. 


John W'aite, Esq., said to be a veteran of the war of 1812-14, settled on 
the Gibbs llomestead. Gii)bs, llufi'alo. Holmes and Seward Streets and Oak- 
wood cemetery are on this farm. ^^'aite settled in 1823, and his brother-in- 
law, Lindsay Joslxn in 1824. 


Jiihn W'aite, Esq., tijok u]i in the early days a large farm which extended 
over tile rntire wesrern ami uc rth.western part of our village. A large log 
house a Utile to the south and east of the (_7ibbs mansion faced the road to Oak- 
land, furnished a home for his large family. Airs. Waites' maiden name was 
Phoebe Thompson. Fheir children: Almina, who was married td Eclw. .^wain 
and afterward to Samuel Skinner; Emily was married to Cami)l)ell Allen of 
Castile: Loverna to a Air. Alaunard of Canada: and Garifelia also married a 
Canadian. The sons, Erastus Darwin married Heps\- Erench : Thompson died 
while a young man: David Vandalia became an M. D., Hiram died in 1904. 
Aged 78. Two handsome boy twins, Edward and Edwin, if living are now- ~~ 
\-ears of age. The Waites were a scholarly family and an honor to the trnvn. 
The^• sold out to Eli Sharp, whose boys were noteil base ball players 15 years 
later. A\'aite moved to Wilcox Corners and afterward returned and built a 
house on Churcli Street, but died elsewhere before it was completed. 


The Jnslyns were en.ergetic and sclniiarly. Airs, joslyn was a sister of 
Squire \\'aite. Their son Waite Joslyn lost a limb m a threshing machine 
and so a store was built for him on the site of the W. B. Whitcomb store, 
where his father in 1832 became the first postmaster in Xunda village succeed.- 
ing Wm. P. Wilcox, and Null as postmaster at Wilcox Corners in 183 1. 

Zara W., taught a select school, Adoniram, Chauncey and Zara W., were 
all teachers in the school on East Street and on Alill Street, One of the sons 
probably Chauncey was assistant secretary of the Interior Department under U, 
S. Senator, Henry M, Teller, at the same time that Alajor George Lockw^ood 

was chief clerk in this departnient. Secretary Teller lived when a boy m Alle- 
gany County, and it is sai<l siinieliiiies came to Ximda bare-footed, a custom 
with boys in tliat day, but now obsolete, as Chauncey and Zara were colles^c.- 
bred, it is ]Xissible it was the former. The daughters were Evelyn and .Mary. 
-\ sketch of the life (if Linds;iy Joslyn written by one of his sons, tells us of his 
future career. He became a juilge of jjrobate court and was a leading man 
in his western home. He was while living in Xunda village its first post- 
master. The otlier sons of Lindsay Jn.-.lyn were Adoniram. Chauncey, Zara 
W., who studied medicine and became a skillful physician and located perman- 
ently at Alt. Morris, and Merritt, l'"rederic and I);miel. Lindsav bicelyn and 
Samuel Swain, .Sr,. built the .Swain grisi mill in 1828. The Jocelvns built a 
log house on the Jared Willis-.Stamp place and numerous shops, Tor ihey were 
all workers. 


The cleacon was a (piaint man full i>f dry humur, he was said to preacli 
sometimes, mostly in school houses. Like his neighbor, Leter M\-ers he would 
have preferred a Free Will Baptist church, but that form of church belief, did 
not exist in Xunda until after his day, so he attended the ministratinns nf the 
Baptist church. The family were very intelligent, the l)o\s were inclineil in 

youth to be full of pranks, of a harndess order, but soljcred down at manh 1 lu 

the sterling realities of the sedate type of life reiinired at that time of all ]irofes- 
sors of religion. Looketl at from a jiresent standpoint where cheerfulness and 
joy are not antagonistic to a de\'out life, we can't help but rejoice that the boys 
got some pleasure as they were going along toward a more sedate maidiood. 

We will introduce Deacon Daniel and Sarah Wisner, who o\vned several 
hundred acres of land on the Cranston road and their four sons. (2) Horace, 
married Rachel Hudnut : William, married Betsex- Hudnut : Eliza, married in 
Pennsylvania, her husband was killed b\' a falling tree: Calvin, married Polb' 
Hudnut; and LaFayette. married Harriet Warner, sister of ( )ctavia Warner 
Page of this place. 

.\ story was in print twenty-five or thirty years ago, that if good then is 
now. Two of the bo_\s, (who can tell if the embryo jjreacher was one of tliemi, 
found some excuse for staying away from church, and saw the rest of the fam- 
ily depart for meeting. The boys then hied away to the Keshecpia. where there 
was a good swimming hole, with a s])ring board attachment, and Cduimenced 
indulging in their well planned amusement. .\n old ram that they owned had 
become somewhat pugnacious, and sometimes helped the boys make good time 
out of the pasture lot, and over the fence; sometimes they had found it a matter 
of prudence to jump into the creek as the\- could make better time in the water 
than Mr. Buck. This day they had planned some new amusement. Thev ex- 
hibited themselves in nature's co'^tume and invited, the attention of the adver- 
sary. He accepted the challenge and caine at full sjieed after them. The wide 
plank spring board over which the Imys ran seemed no obstacle, he fullnwed 
them with such headway that he cnuld not sto]i and into the water he went, 
while the boys were soon on the bank, .\gain and again they causeil their 
fleecy adversary to plunge in. Ijut lonking up they discovered coming toward 


thein the keen old Deacon, intent on findmg out the secret for staying at home 
on Sunday. Carefully hiding themselves in the bushes they saw the Deacon 
approaching, and soon he was out on the spring board peering around for the 
bo\s. The buck also saw the old man, he had got down on his knees to look into 
the bushes, when ker-whack ! splash ! into the pool goes Deacon and ram, both 
dressed in their very best garments. Did those youngsters laugh? It was na- 
tural they did. Did they not hel]i their poor father out? No, the buck tried 
hard to, for he did not see that his new adversary was less pranky than the 
others. The boys all dry and clean met the bedrenched Deacon when he 
reached home, and expressed surprise that he had not gone to church, but the 
Deacon knew the joke was on him and was wise enough to consider the incident 
closed. The story got into print, but it was not the Deacon that furnished the 

About the year 1839 or 1840, the Latter Day Saints or jMormons sent out 
their Missionaries among the Gentiles of that day, and by their songs, their new 
Bible, their speech in unknown tongues, their power to interpret tongues, their 
insistence on immersion as the true baptism, in this community mostly holding 
to that form, they found ready listeners and many converts. In Portage, Ossian 
and Chautauqua Hollow they were very successful so the_\' tried Nunda. The 
A\'isner school house {or was it the Coopersville school house), furnished the 
l)lace, and an eager audience listened to the new revelations all in scriptural lan- 
guage, with the holy tone and apt quotations from prophetic prophesies of lat- 
ter day glories were being disseminated niucli to the satisfaction of the credu- 
lous and su|)ersitions that listened to the elocnient speaker. Mnally he said 
that to some were given the power to speak in an unknown tongue, and to 
others were given the interpretation. He added that he could speak in a 
tongue he could n<jt understand, but it would be useless unless there was 
someone present who could interpret what he said. "\\'ho will interpret the 
words of wonderful wisdom that are given me. that I have not learned, but 
have come to me with power to proclaim, but no power to interpret?" Dea- 
con Wisner rose to his feet, looked sadly around and replied. "I can interpret 
what you sa_v, speak on !" Then followed a motley mess of meaningless words 
and svllables strung together and uttered with a volubility worthy of a penta- 
costal saint. When he pauseil for breath, the quiet old man with<iut a smile or 
even a frown said placidlw 'T will interpret: He says he's the child of the 
devil and the works of his father he will do." "T did not say any such thing,' 
shouted the angry Mormon. "Ah brother remember you said you could not 
interpret, I can." The excited company burst out in vociferous laughter and 
the first and last Mormon meetirig in that i)art of Xunda was closed informally. 

In one section of the town, the southeastern, a ]\lormon family by the name 
of Kellogg sold their home and it was mo\-e(l to this village, and many people 
have lived there. Near the foot of Massachusetts Street it may be found. "It 
is long and low and old." 

In Ossian there being no Deacon Wisner there to interpret, some of the 
citizens went to Xauvoo. and one of the fair ones had the honor of being one 
of the many wives of Brigham the Prophet. 

The family of Hon. Daniel .\shle\-. consisted of Daniel .\shley Jr.. and 
his wife Hettv. His children were: Carlos C. .\shley and Helen his wife; 


Daniel D., Sylvia, married Qiiartus H. I'.arron; Frances, -Henry H.. married 
Mehetable Messenger, he was a merchani in ( )akland ; Oliver and Yates were 
merchants in Nunda, but were not successful. The family came into the vil- 
lage in 1835, built the two story house Xo. 30 East Screet, ( since owned by 
Airs. Gilbert, Dr. Brown and Milton \ an Dusen), ?\Iill Street tannery. 
the Captain Cam]ibcll house Walnut Street, and helped for ten or twelve 
years in giving the town a desirable degree of enterprise along business and 
educational lines. They left, most of their money in the town when they went 
west. Mrs. S\'lvia Barron, past So years of age. alone survives. Connecte'I 
with the family were some nieces and a nephew, ]\Irs. Caroline Ashley Palen, 
who died 1841, and her daughter Miss Ashlev, wife of Addison M. Crane, 
Clarissa Ashley, Sophia Webster Llo\(l, a teacher and ])oetess, mother of the 
celebrated novelist. John Uri Lloyd, Edward Webster, student at academy and 
law student, who became eminent in after life as a lawyer, he n-arried a cousm 
of Hon. Addison M. Crane of Xunda. Mrs. Sophia Webster Lloyd, lived with 
her uncle .\shley, find taught .school in tlie Page district in 1S47. She grad- 
uated at the Seminary in Lima, in 1841. Her sons have collected her poenis, 
printed them and iiave given them out to special friends, a filial act worthy of 
imitation. She wrote principally for the Saturday Evening Post, the "Olive 
Branch," and the Philadelphia Saturday Courier. 

ABOUT 1826 

I. I. Colonel Huffman ami wife (family Cniversalists ) . 2. Submit [luff- 
man, married Silas Grover. 3. I'cilly, married Mr. Webb, v.ho built Mi"^. 
Johnson's house on Church .Street. 4. Abb\', married. Silas Hatcli, nejihew oi 
Silas Grover. 

Children of Colonel Huffman. 11. t. HuMah, married Patrick MtzSini- 
mons : (2) Julia, married lienjamin liutler : (3) Catharine, single: (4) Phili;). 
married in the west: (3) David, married in the west; {f^) *William H. (cap- 
tain Civil War), married Mary Starkv.eather of Xunda.. 

HI. .Ann, marr'ed Bryant; Jennie, married Kellar ■ 

Tyler, lives in Xunda, 111. 

II. 7. Laura, married llryant; John, married in the west. 

Colonel William Huffman had a fine i)h\si(|ue and at "Militia Training" 

attracted great attention b\- his sohlicrh bearing, it is probable that he was m 
the War of 1812, but that is not definitely known. He bought the Eagle Hotel 
soon after it was built, took charge of it. for a short time. He was succeeded 
in 1835, bv Daniel Grover. It is probable also he was in the short, two week^^ 
afifair, called the Patriots War, in which the greatest success scored by the 
small company from Nunda was the bounty lands they secured in the \\'est, as 
Colonel Huffman and his son-in-law, David Butler, and Butler's brother-in- 
law, Sherwood, settled in Illinois soon after 1838, (when this bloodless conten- 
tion took place), and they called the place Xunda. 111. We may conclude the\- 
located their bounty lands there. (See Captain Osgoodby's Co., Patriots 



At the risk of shocking tiie sensibilities of some of the fastidious denizens 
of Xunda village, we must state that the first name applied to our present vil- 
lage was Hubbells Corners. From 1824. when Hubbells Inn was the chief fea- 
ture of the settlement. A frame l)uilding. and a bride of nineteen, prettv and 
capable, deserved special notice. The first settlers seemed to be mdift'erent as 
to names, Messenger's Hollow, Hunt's Hollow, Wilcox Corners are sufficient 
evidence, even Rochester was Milltown, till it became Rochesterville. These 
corners do not now exist, they were north of the Xunda House where there is 
no street now, and when a block of stores filled up the Sjiace where the street 
was, and the landlord sold out and a larger hotel was built there in 1835, the 
name of the hamlet gradually passed away, and onlv those past seventv years 
of age remember the original name of the hamlet. The recent iliscovery thai 
the bride landlady of 82 }ears ago, is still living, has helped to make the name 
a matter of interest. 

The Hubbells (rorners of that day, was a settlement of three houses ar.d 
two barns, around our present plaza, and two large pools of water well stocked 
with frogs, James ]M. Heath on site of old Eagle Hotel, now the four story 
Livingston block, had a hul ; William ("'lonld in log house, opposite Union block 
and Huijbell on site cf the Xundi House were all in 1822. A large barn where 
tlie |iiist ofKce building now stands, and prol)ably the very old building back of 
the Xunda House became the first foundry, and is now a livery stable, w.i; 
all that there was wliere the business portion of our village now is found. In 
1832 when a hotel ard several stores were hiiill, the unsightl\- pools of water 
were drained and tlu new village named Xunda \ alley, which is located in 
one i)f the most charming valleys in Western Xew York, became an acttiality. 

Airs. Hubbell has been a widow many years. She resides at St. Lawrence. 
Hand Countv. .South Dakota. An annual celebration cf her birth is he.d 
since she became a nonagenarian, and by reason of her age, a celebrity. She has 
been the mother of ten children, only three of them are now living : one son 
82 \ears old. one daughter now 78, who spent ten years of her life as a mis- 
sionary in India (these were both born in Xunda) and ]\Irs. Hyde, with wdiom 
she lives, born in Oakland in 1837 or '8. A lady of 95, who was invited to the 
annual birthday party, was too feeble and another 89, sent the same excuse, but 
others came and these young people had a pleasant time and two of them then 
had their pictures taken, and I have the picture of this former beauty and bride 
which I present, that readers may form an estimate of how well they will look 
when they become centenarians. 

Hubbells Corners grew however, to have a store or two of its own, a land 
office, and a village with eighteen streets, a cabinet shop, but when the post of- 
fice was taken away from Wilcox Corners that place ceased to thrive. It? 
founder moved to Pennsylvania, the clerks came to Xunda, and went into busi- 
ness, and Utlcy Spencer ami ^^'aite Joslyn sold the goods from the corner 
store, best known as the \\'alter B. Whitcomb store. The Tobey grocery was 
the first in the place, but Lyman Tobey is now forgotten except by those past 
seventv xears of age. The new post office was called "Nunda Valley" and so 
the place had a change of name, that is at least descriptive of the locality. 

Rilev Merrill settled on the State road, north of the village. He sold out 


his farm at an early date about 1830 and came intn the village and built the 
house now owned by Mrs. H. Peck. He had a large family of interesting girls 
and only two boys. 

Mr. and Mrs. Merrill: married Cravath ; (2) Mrs. Town. 

The children were: I. .\ddison. 2. Mary Elizabeth, married Rev. 
Hodge. 3. Emeline. 4. Adelaide married Ira Wisner, editor of the first 
paper in Xunda. 5. Amelia (Mrs. Hovey). 6. Celestia Martha. 7. Laura 
Siloam, (attended college at Oberlin). 8. Cecelia Harmonia. 9. Riley Jr.. 
married Helen Livermore, a preceptress in Xunda Literary Institute. 


In 1822, the family of Alexander Craige came to Chautaut|ua Hollow. Mr. 
and Mrs. Craige had at the time six children, they came from \'erniont, in win- 
ter in a covered sleigh, but finding the snow deep they passed the winter of 
1821-2 at Lima. The three younger children Lucy, Mercy and Mary were born 
in Nunda. 

Among the first settlers of this strangely named little valley I find the 
family of Alexander and Eunice Craige, so early did they settle here, near a 
well worn trail leading to Allegany and Chautauqua Counties from Bath and 
Canisteo. and crossed here by one leading to Gardeau through Nunda that it is 
not surprising that this pioneer family knew the chiefs Straight-Back and Wil- 
liam Tall Chief sons of the great chief. Tall Chief, as well as they knew their 
neighbors. Aaron and Harvey Shepard. Indeed they saw them often during 
the hunting season when they and other Indians would come in at meal time and 
needed no urging to partake of the food provided for the household, throwing 
potato skins over their shoulders as they would in their own wigwams, and in the 
fall when the nights were cold Indians and squaws would lift the latch quietlv 
at night and warm by the fire on the hearth, then steal away quietly to give 
others a like opportunity. Sometimes they brought game and left it, but gen- 
erally they twisted the scripture rule and made it better "to receive" than "to 
give." Mr. Craige's ambition to be a good farmer kept him from being what 
nature designed him. a skillful mechanic. He learned while at Lima, to make 
baskets and soon became an expert basket maker, excelling even the Indians 
who are skilled in this work. If this is not a contradiction, his bushel baskets 
were too good. In those days the wheat raised on the burned clearings had to 
be washed and when put in big baskets for that purpose the water poured upon 
the grain would carry ofif the soot and dirt but his held the water and so held 
the dirt. We would like his kind best now. The men who could make the 
tools they worked with in that day were fortunate men. 

Mr. Craige was born in 1776 and Mrs. Craige in 1783. The one at the be- 
ginning of the Revolution, the other at its close. A like coincidence of historic 
dates, was shared by John Bennett and wife as the record in our cemetery 
shows. Xo doubt both husbands were patriots and both wives peaceful. 

The children of this pioneer family were Laura (Mrs. Stephen Wilson), 
John, Eliza (Mrs. Russell N. Fuller), Maria (Mrs. Sylvanus Dixon), Caroline 
(Mrs. Ed. Millhollcn), Alexander, Lucy Ann (Mrs. Sidney Frisbee of Wells- 
ville), Mercy Jane, born May 5, 1825 (Mrs. Henry B. Bowhall), whose hus- 
band was killed August 1st, 1854, at the Bell .Skinner and Company's foundry, 
and Mary (Mrs. James E. Cadby). 


Mrs. Bowhall has lived in tliis town all her life, and to her wonderful mem- 
ory the writer is greatly indebted for mure than half of the infi irmatiun. col- 
lected of the past. With other farmer and village girls she worked, in the 
Swain Woolen Factory, attended the Academy with those older and younger, 
and so knew all the brightest and best in this vicinity, she also taught several 
of our district schools, boarded 'round, and so knew the parents as well as their 
children. For over fifty years she has lived in this village and so she has had 
unusual opportunities to know old and >oung for at least four generations, for 
most of our pioneers lived to be very old and their stories of the past live in her 
memory still. Her little home, just large enough for one is almost historic, it 
\vas built by William Haldane,' the architect and builder o! the first Presbyter- 
ian church (now the Methodist) and her iiouse stood on ihe site of the Epis- 
copal church, after Halpine built his brick house, the rect iry. tho small house 
was rentet! to Benedict Bagley, E^(|., and like others of the young village it re- 
mains a type of the small houses that were built before Nunda was incorpo- 
rated. It served as Dr. Chittenden's dental office from 1S51 to '50 near the M. 
E. parsonage well, when it was mo\'e(l to Mill Street where the old institute 
was burned and afterwards was bought liy Mrs. Ijowhall and moved to Center 
Street, where she has since resided. 

Her historic house was burned to the ground April 4th, iijoS with its con- 
tents. Mrs. Bowhall now 83, is with a niece at Alfred, N. Y. 


Hiram, tJarvev snd Xaron S!iei)ard were l^rothers. Hiram was a bache- 
lor, Harvey married and moved to Baltimore, while Aaron raised a large family 
of boys and girls of that choice quality that pioneer families in Xunda often 
produced. Copied by the Nunda Xews. Aaron Shepard died in Xunda in 
1867, Mrs. Shepard in 1852, Parker in 1905, Melissa in 1988, Thomas in 1857 

The family located at Chautauqua Hollow first but exchanged farms with 
a farmer from the Myers district several years later. Peter DePuy changed to 
Chautauqua Hollow about the same time. The sons of Aaron were Parker, 
Myron, a civil engineer, Thomas who died in early manhood, Harvey, Louis, 
Cvrus and James. The daughters were Melissa (^Irs. Emmons) and Martha 
Jane (Mrs. Foster). Mr. Foster was at one time a produce dealer in this vil- 
lage. Myron, Harvey, Louis and Cyrus, were all soldiers of the Civil \\'ar, 
Louis was wounded at Antietam and while on his way Xorth , his train was 
wrecked and his injuries Vv'ere increased to such an extent that he died before 
reaching home. He was one of the very best young men who went from our 
town to the front. The family went west where their skill and integrity were 
appreciated and they rose to high and important positions; Cyrus as Land Com- 
missioner, received a salary of $3,000 a year. They visit Nunda frequently and 
"Home Week" will probably bring these Xunda veterans to the front ranks as 
"boy pioneers" of Nunda. 

Mr. Aaron Shepard \\as connected with the M. E. church of this place. 
Parker Buell Shepard the oldest son died at Moscow, Mich., aged jfi \ears. 
We clip the following from the Xorth Adams (Alich.) Advocate. 


Parker B. Shepard, a former Xunda resident, died at Moscow, Mich., Sun- 
day. The Xorth .\dams (^Mich). Ad\ocalc says: "Parker Buell Shepard was 


born in Livingston County, New York, September 13, 1828, and died at hi^ 
late liome in Moscow township, April if), 1905, aged 76 \ears, 7 months and 
3 days. He was united in marriage with Ehnyra Rynex in 1853. To them 
were born five daughters and two sons, who survive them. 

i\Ir. Shepard came to [Michigan and settled in .Moscow township in 185(1, 
where together with liis wife they made a home and family name to lie honored 
Oy all who knew them. Mr. Shepard leaves beside his own family four broth- 
ers and one sister to mourn his loss. He was a good man, a good citizen, a 
good neighbor and a dc\'Oted father, and will be sadly missed by his family and 

AI\ron was a civil engineer, begun practice between Dalton and Portage 
Station, worked on railroad near Cincinnati, became citv engineer at Stillwater. 
Minn., enlisted in ist Minn. Inf.. served three years, was mustered out as first 

A i\Ir. Morrison and one of the Hill boys shared his experience in practi- 
cal surveying on the Erie railroad, all from the Institute, thev also were en- 
gaged together at Cincinnati about 1857 to 58. Harvey Shepard also attended 
the Nunda Literary Institute about 1859. went to Stillwater, Minn., and en- 
listed in 1861, in 1st !Minn. I:'>attery, served about two years, returned to Xunda 
and attended school here another term. Returned in 1867 to Stillwater, Minn., 
engaged in lumbering, was County Surveyor and Countv Treasurer. Resides 
Nunda, Adams, Mich. 

Lewis attended the Institute, studied law with W. S. Coffin, enlisted in 
1861 in Company -\, 104th X. Y. Infantry., was wouilned in the 
battle of Antietam, and while on his way home was in a railroad collision 
and received additional injuries. He died January 20. 1863, one of the best 
young men Xunda ever produced. James lives in Xorth Adams. Mich.. Mar- 
tha attended the Nunda Literary Institute, in 1867, she married H. L. Foster, 
also a soldier in the iO-|th, and who lost a leg at Antietam died at Stillwater. 
Minn., where Mrs. Foster still resides. Cyrus Shepard went west in 1861, 
after looking about in several states, enlisted at Lacrosse, Wis., in Co. D, 14th 
Wis. Infy., as a private soldier, among strangers served more than four years 
continuous service, was in all the marches, engagements and battles of that regi- 
ment, and was mustered out as captain, was in 100 engagements great and 
small, including the siege, assault and capture of Vicksburg. Returned to 
Xunda after the war, taught school in the log school house on East Hill one 
\ear. In 1868 went west again, settled at Stillwater, Minn., and followed mer- 
cantile business several years, was appointed by Grover Cleveland, Registrar 
LT. S. Land office at Xorthington, Mimi. Re-ap|)ointed Registrar L^. S. Land, 
office at Marshall, I\Iich., serving 13 years, till the office was closed. Capt. 
Cyrus P. Shepard gives me by request these facts concerning his family, with 
impaired health he looks forward in hope to see his friends again in 190S. Be- 
sides these he hopes also to see his boyhood home 

"An old lane, an old gate, an old house liy a tree, a wild wood, a wild 
brook, they will not let me he. In my boyhood I knew them, and slill they call 
to me." 



Loren and Rice CoUister, were pioneers and neighbors of the Shepards and 
Craige's and Johnson's. They both married sisters of Marsh Johnson and 
moved to Granger — the Colhsters of that town are merchants and their sons 
have been graduates of our High school and of college. 

Marsh Johnson lived and died in Nunda, one of his sons John T. Johnson 
served in the Civil War and returned but died before the great strife was 


The one distinction between this family and that of many of the pio- 
neers is their posterity are with us still. 

(I) Warren, married Miranda .Shute ; Jonathan, married Julia Collins; 
Almond, married Charlotte Shute ; Horace ; Theodocia, married Alden Shute. 

H. I. Children of Warren; Lemira, married Henry King; 2. Milo Eld- 
ridge, Sr. ; Caroline, married Preston ; Flora, married William Holmes ; 

William ; and Hiram, a veteran Mich. Regt. 

H. 2. Children of Jonathan: i. Mary Jane; 2. Ann Eliza; 3-4. Ellen 
Maria and Helen Sophia (twins); Joseph; Martha Josephine; and John 
Murray ; the last name suggests that this family of Hays were Universalists, 
and named their youngest after the first preacher of Universal salvation, in 

Children of ,\lmon : 11. 3. Aurilla, married James Woodworth ; Grant. 

Children of Horace: H. 4. Orren and Warren, (twins.) 

n. 5. Children of Theodocia Shute, Clarissa and Martha. 

ni. Children of Lemira King: Deleino, married Robert Holmes; Mary, 
married Hay. 

Children of Aurilla Woodwortli ; Mary married Dr. Wisner ; Helen is an 
M. D., resides in Boston. 

IV. Children of Dell and Robert Holmes ;Belle. married Harry Kellogg; 
Grace ; Clarence Holmes, married Kate Marsh. 

V. The Kellogg children, i. Robert. 2. King. 3. Ethel Laura. 


*Stephen P., soldier killed; *Cassius, married, veteran, died 1907; John; 
Delia, married *Adello Slocum, western editor. 


L Daniel Pittinger, married Pratt, aunt to Mrs. .\rch McArthur; 

n. Gertrude Pittinger, married .-Mfred Swain; Roselle Pittinger, married 
Joseplius .Schuyler ; Joshua Pittinger, married Chandler. 

I. Isaac Pittinger brother to Daniel lived on East Hill. Mr. and Mrs. 
P., left their young children alone one evening while they made a call on a 
neighbor. The house burned to the ground and the two children perished. 


The Page families came from Paris. Oneida County. .\ibert Page and 
his brothers and sisters were the children of Eli Page, who with two of his 
sons remained there. Those who came to Xunda were .Mbert, Eli Jr. ; Her- 

iiion L. : Elvira (Mrs. Peck) and Louisa (Mrs. Sergeant), .\lhert Page was 
born in 1800 and when 21 years of age came to Xunda, selected fifty acres of 
land, built a log bouse, cleare<l some land near it, and returned. He married 
Miss Jerusba Tyler and brought her t(.i Xunda. Her father soon followed and 
settled on the farm n.ow known as Elmwood. his other three daughters were 
soon married. (See Tyler Family). Mr. I'age prospered as a pioneer and 
added adjoining lands till be had 185 acres. He with H. D. Gardner built the 
Emporiam block, with its three stores. East Street in 18.^5 or ])ossibly a year 
or two earlier. He \vas a IJaptist and one of the trustees and treasurer of the 
Nunda Literary Institute for many years. He was thrice married. He mar- 
ried 1st Jerusba Tyler, their children were Orson Albert. Hermon D., Ava E. 
Abigail Hanford was the second wife. Edward E.. John A., and Marv L.. 
completed the list of his children that were living in 1880. Three others had 
died. He married late in life Eliza ^^'eeks. He died August 22. 1876. His 
widow has since died. (See photo). 

1. ( )rson Albert, born in Nunda about 1825, is still living at Saranac, 
Mich. Jle married J'anierson Remington, who died in March, lOoS. 

2. Hermon D., who succeeded his father on the homestead was born at 
Nunda December 10. 1828. He married IMargaret Consalus, who died ^lav 20, 
1855. They had one child. Carrie M.. now Mrs. Hector Sinclair of Jamestown ; 
October 27, 1867, he was married to ALiry (^V'tavia Warner by whom be bail 
three children, George W.. Roy A., and Albert H. Mrs. Page and her sons 
George ancl Albert reside in the village. H. D. Page was supervisor of his 
town for si,\ terms. He died in Nunda. (See Photo). Rov A. Page is a phv- 
sician and is located at Geneseo, N. Y. The other sons are mechanics, which 
occupation they prefer to farm work, the farm is rented. 3. Ava E., married 
Miss Mary Robards, they reside at Roswell. New Mexico, he was a soldier and 
officer during the Civil \\"ar, was commissioner from New Mexico at the Colum- 
bian Exposition and is a man of influence in the communitv. Edward E., and 
John E., located at Appleton, Mo.; Mary L., the youngest of the family has al- 
ways lived in Nunda, she was married to Charles Giddings and they have three 
daughters. Blanche (Mrs. George Gillett ) of Perry, Maude and Anna; all 
have been teachers. 

Elvira Page, married ( i ) Thomas Peck who had two children, John and 
Esther Peck. The only child of Thomas and Elvira Peck was .Sarah Man- 
ette Peck an Institute girl, who became a teacher of District Schools, many be- 
sides the writer of these 'Annals" have attended her schools. She wrote 
poems for publication in the village an<l city papers. The writer remembers 
that under this influence he wrote a scrap of verse, the first be ever attempted. 
He was ten years old only, so it was not a love ditty. Sylvanus Ellis sectired 
the pretty school ma'am and carried her away to Rochester, and no doubt their 
life was a poem of adoration and appreciation. He completed his college 
course at the L'niversity, and was for years the superintendent of the schools 
of that city. Both are resting from their tasks in our Oakwood, and a grand- 
son of theirs is now as old as when Mrs. Ellis, by example taught me to poetise. 
Mrs. Peck, married (2) Solomon Donaldson. 

Eli Page had three children, Sarah (]\Irs. Andrew Sabin), Wallace and 
Charles, who lived here during their minority. Eli Page became a '49 Califor- 


William D. Paine 

Wells Paine 


^'^ Herman D. Page 

'^?»^' 0^ 

Albert Page 
Pioneer 1821 


niaii and died there, the family then returned to Oneida County. Harmon I,. 
Page and his brother-in-law, John Sergeant came to Nunda after the stores 
were built around "The Plaza" and they engaged in the merchantile business. 
Their advertisements in the local papers, when there were any, makes it easy to 
locate their place of business, it was No. 5 Merchants Row. Now perhaps you 
don"t know but that's what local historians are for, to tell you of forgotten things. 
Merchants Row was east side and the numbers counted from north to south, 
so No. 5 was at our |)resent cit\' drug store. The west side of the street was 
called "Farmers Excliange" and there the groceries were located mostlv. 

Hermon L., married Miss Maria Camp, whose father lived on the David- 
son place, and made pipe organs. It is said the family had higher expecta- 
tions, (most people estimate their children about 100 per cent, above other peo- 
ples children) but, "all is well tliat ends well," and when some years later, the 
young merchant had amassed a fortune and became Mayor of Milwaukee, 
there was no one more proud of sounding the praises of my son-in-law Page, 
the ^layor, than Father Camp. \\'hile traveling in Germany, on one of their 
European tours, he, (Mr. Page) sickened and died. 

John .Sergeant <"he husband of Louisa Page and the partner of H. L. Page 
had become a widower, and his children were cared for by relatives. He 
boarded at Horton's Hotel. He died there. He was a Universalist, but preju- 
dice ran so high at this early date, about i<S4i . that the relatives or some of them 
refused to attend, if Rev. W. E. Mank-y, his pastor conducted the services, and 
so a jireacher n(jt in s\nipathy with his views officiated. The four orphan 
children were adopted into the homes of the four Page families and were kindly 
cared for. .As three of these families moved away it left only (.ne nf their 
children, after a time in Xunda. The children were George, Adella, Mary L., 
and William P. Adella lived with her uncle Albert and married .Alfred W. 
Skinner, both husbai.d and wife ha\-e died during the last decade. 

There were other Pages, Ralph and his sister Emily. They were early set- 
tlers. Ralph Page owned a part nf the E. C). Dickenson farm, and married 
Rhoda Rawson. He also lived on the Elias Rawson farm ( the Baity h'arni ) 
with his father-in-law. Lena Page his sister married to Palmer Rawson. 
Mrs. Minerva Rathbun of Church Street, is their daughter. Emily Page, an- 
other sister, was one of the pioneer teachers ot Nunda. She has a place in local 
history as the first teacher in Grove (m 1826) then in Nunda. She married 
Tosiah Piradley (see Bradley I'amily). Ephraim, married Louisa Keith, a 
daughter of Mark Keith and a sister of Mrs. F. H. Gibbs ; Hiram married 
I'"ann\- Spafford ; Joseph Elliritt, married Catherine Parker; Rachel Elizabeth 
died at 24 : Clarissa, married Alexander (^reig. 

The children of Ralph Page were I'.phraim an<l Caroline. 

HL Dr. Nelson Page is a gramNi^n, 


They were earl\ settlers in Portage while it was still in Xunda. Besides 
Mrs. .Abigail Page there were Charles, a tailor here and at Tuscarora ; Jesse, 
who went to California for gold, but died there: Alaria (Mrs. Nathaniel 
Clark); and two half sisters, Mrs. James Bailey, who lived in Portage, (Mr. 


Bailey died in upS) : and Mrs. Lucian Doolittle of Granger. Mrs. Bailey has 
a son and two daughters born in I'ortage. The grandsire of her children was 
Tonathan Bailey, a veteran of the War of 1812-14. 


This vear Livingston was formed from towns in Ontario and Genesee 
Counties. Xunda was solicited to join but declined. 

1 am certain that Seth Barker the senior pioneer of that name was a good 
man, for having selected the farm from which Pepper fled from a snake, aS 
narrated in a former chapter, he fixed the house some, and then returned 
and not only brought a wife with him, but a mother-in-law, ]\Irs. Elizabeth 
Durfee, this break all records for courage and chivalry. It seems this pio- 
neer could not be frightened either by rattlesnakes or that object of modern 
dread, an energetic Yankee mother-in-law. Good, skillful and industrious as 
this man w-as, I am inclined to believe his wife was fully his equal in all the 
qualities that distinguish pioneer character. This pioneer housewife who toileil 
from sixteen to twenty hours a clay, was a weaver b\- trade, having in her youth 
wdien onlv eleven years old, during the year wove 1,100 yards of check dress cloth 
for a factorv in Fall River. She was also a tailoress and did work for her neigh- 
bors at her two trades, and even exchanged cloth of her making at the stores 
for groceries. I\Ir. and Mrs. Barker were married February S, 1821, and for 
or over 63 years "they kept the even tenor ni tlicir way."' Seth Barker, was 
skilled in mechanical arts, and made many of the implements he needed on his 
farm. Even in that day when it was so difficult to get reading matter, he kept 
well informed on State and National affairs. Mis three sons grew to man- 
hood, married and settled near him. and so there were of this household, four 

Seth Barker 

Mrs. Mariam Lowell Barker 

families of Barkers at Barkertown. AIuiismii ().. a surveyor, married Adeline 
Rawson, Orlando W., married Mary E. Swain, and Justus L., married Olive 
L., daughter of Richard Bowen. Seth Barker and Sarah Durlee were mar- 
ried February 8, 182 1 : the husband soon, after shuuUlered his knapsack and 
started from (,)riscany Falls. X. Y.. to seek a h(ime on the frontier. In .Au- 
gust, 1821. he arrived in Nunda and chose the farm on Fast Hill because the 
trees were so large. In November, 1821, he brought his bride and Mrs. Dur- 
fee her muther, to a log cabin destitute of doors and windows: but Mrs. Seth 
soon wo\e blankets and curtains to kec[) out the culd. Gnod buildings in proc- 
ess of time took the place of the log cabin where this wi.irthy trio lived long 
useful lives. Z\Irs. Elizabeth Durfee was born in 1768, died in 1853, aged 95' 
her daughter Mrs. Sarah Barker, died in 1884, aged 82; and the patriarch of 
untold generations, born in t8oi, who lived to see the nineteenth centurx- nearh 
completed, died in 181)3, aged 92 years. .V dozen farms were owned bv Barkers 
in Nunda. when he died. 

The children of his son Munson O. Barker, are: Herbert S. Barker, born m 
1863, who married Blanche Chandler: I-'iora G. (I\lis. Jaccib \eley ) and Lil- 
lian (Mrs. Aictor Craig), all of Nunda. 

The children of ( )rlando W. Barker are: S. Inelle (Mrs. Ra\- Durfee); 
and Ethel, who married Prof. C T. Hood, M. D., Hom. Hospital, Chicago. 

The children of Justus L. Barker are: Mertye (Mrs. Henrv Gormal ) ; 
Fred L. ; and Ernest D.. who married recently Miss Alida Thompson. Not to 
be outdone by any of his posterity. Munson liarker, .Sr.. father of Seth, and 
grandfather of Munson, Jesse, .\inos and all the other Barkers of Barkertown, 
made a trip to Nunda, and married the widow of Silas Tyler, the 
mother of Mrs. .S. Donaldson. Mrs. liarker. Mrs. Hills and Mrs. Albert I'age. 
The old man must have been at least j^ at the time of his second marriage. 
But these four families of Barkers were net the only ones of that name at this 
East Hill hamlet. Six cousins of Seth, the pioneer, came a few- years later 
than he, and settled in this neighborhood. Their names were Jesse, Amos, 
Cyrus, Lydia, Elizabeth and Esther (Mrs. Tyler), the mother of Hemingwa\- 
Tyler. Both of his parents dying young, his uncle C\rus and his aunts, Lydia 
and Elizabeth, adopted and cared for their orphan nephew. The children of 
old bachelors and old maids are said to be perfect, and this exjilains the general 
excellence that characterizes this worthy ward of these excellent people. 

The children of Amos liarker are, Edward Gustavus, James, John hitch, 
Joseph, Mary and Julia. Mary became the wife of H. Tyler, her cousin, and 
Julia married Alonzo, a son of George W . Merrick. 

The children of Jesse were. Esther, Amelia, and our townsman Xewton S. 
Barker. Esther married a soldier of the Civil War. Henry F. I'uller, son of 
William C, and they and their two noble sons, Ellsworth and ( )ra have all died 
while young. Ellsworth edited a Sons of \'eterans paper in the far west. 
Amelia became Mrs. William Magee, and spent a winter here recently. 

Newton S. Barker has been for the last twent\ years a potent force in this 
town and village. His lumber yard and lumber mills supply a need that few 
but mechanics realize. Besides supplying lumber for the constant repairs and 
improvements that for the last fifty years have changed this village, 


from a place of loo small cottages plain and unattractive, with a dozen or possi- 
bly twenty-five large and commodious dwellings, to a village of 300 dwell- 
mgs, 200 of which are large and attractive, and at least half the others cozy and 
well kept homes of comfort. A few houses are praying piteously to their own- 
ers for a much needed coat of paint, but there are less of these now than there 
were of good houses a half century ago. Mr. Barker as a builder of houses on 
the street where he lives in an attractive mansion, has had no rival in the num- 
ber of houses he has built or owns. Mr. Monroe JMyers is close second. 
A J ay they have in this respect many zealous imitators, for there is still a need of 
houses in our growing village. This Barker from Barkertovv'n, I mention last, 
because he lives here, and because a few years ago, he added another worthy 
member to this large and excellent family. He recently married the widow of 
his former pastor and friend. Rev. W. C. Phillips ; and the entire community 
will, I am sure endorse my estimate of this worthy man as a citizen of useful- 
ness, and certaml}- of excellent judgment. In 1906 he was appointed Super- 
visor, to fill the vacancy caused by the election of Supervisor Piatt C. Halstead 
to the office of Sherifif of Livingston County. 


I. Nathaniel Clough and Mrs. I'olly Cli:>ugh. Their children: II. 
^Nathaniel Clough, Jr.. was a book clerk, ( )regon ; Sarah, married Chauncey 
Toslyn ; Mary .\nn was second wife of Palmer Rawson ; Angeline, mar- 
ried Piett of Michigan; Dorcas, single; Asher, married i, Caroline 

Rawson ; 2, Crandall ; Luther, married Martha Morley ; Martha Jane, 

married Calvin Rodgers ; Clarissa, married Thomas At wood, Jr.: X'ictoria, mar- 
ried ( 1 ) Hiram Rathbon, (2) Silas Rawson; John Clough, was a soldier, in the 

Xathaniel Clough, a pioneer of 1821, with considerable means for those 
times, \\ ent into the Mercantile business at Messenger's Hollow ( now Oak- 
land ) with Azel Fitch, and afterward with Dr. W. Z. Blanchard. It is the usual 
fate of farmers, who change their vocation and engage in business of which 
they have no experience, to obtain after a time a surplus of experience, at a 
cost of the farm. Xathaniel Clough a most excellent man. was no exception 
to the rule above stated. Some men are too good, to become good business 



.As Seth Barker, pioneer, went to his work felling trees, one morning 
after he had settled some years, he heard in the distance east of him, the crow- 
ing of a rooster. Unaware he had any neighbors in that direction he deter- 
iiiiriecl when time permitted to ascertain who they were. Fortune favored him. 
for the Paine boys, Judson and Lucius, came along and he gave them the direc- 
tirm and they went and found a family by the name of Reynolds settled there, 
with two l)oys. William and Belden. Th.ere was also a young lady in the fam- 
ilv named Julia Ann. but whether daughter or sister, Mr. Alunson Barker, my 
informant could not say. The family lived there until the boys became men. 



THE farms along the Creek Road, leading through the best farming 
lands ot the town, were for a century or more before the settlement 
of the very earliest of the pioneers, tilled by the Indians, from, Xnnda 
Junction to the Kesliequa, on both sides of that stream, and through the pres- 
ent village of Nunda. There are abundant evidences of Indian occupancy. 
Some of the pioneers avoided these lands as already w'orn out, but others took 
advantage of their small clearings, to jilant crops. 

Among those who are mentioned as tirst settlers on Judge Carrolls orig- 
inal map, are: nearest to the village. Deacon Bassett, (at Elmwood); William 
Huffman, ( StUIwell-Marsliall farm); Jonathan Rarron ( Sturgeon-McMaster 
farm); Daniel Ashley (John & R. G. Rennett farm); .\bram Porter (The 
Jones Homestead), .Sanniel Rockefellow soon succeeded him on a part, and 
then on the whole of it ; (_^ranville Sherwood, and Alphens Irlerrick next to the 
town line, Sherwood soon after owned both these farms. The succession o( 
owners to "Elmwood" the Dowling farm ha,^ been numerous, ISassett in 1826 
Silas T}ler, 182^ (died in ibp.(>). Enos Dickenson, Lyman Herrick ( Her- 
rick and Cobby had nursery there). This brings it up to a time when citizens 
of the present Innc remember, .\lward, .\shleys, the AL'irtms and Dowdings. 
The Hviffmans preceded the Stillwells who left it to their ne])hew. Rev. Dr. 
James Marshall. Barron, also sold to Xathanie' Chandler about if^V\ who 
had lived on the State Road for aboni: four years, previous to 1830. The Stur- 
geon family came next. Daniel Ashley sold a large estate to John Bennett and 
sons. The .\. Porter farm passed through the hands of Samuel Rockefellow. 
to Silas .Angier and his grandson John, and through them within the writer's 
recollection to his cousin. Joseph Russell, an.l from him tii Samue' C. Jones, 
from Granger, and though it has had three owners since, it has been since i85;> 
and is still the Jones Homestead. The ,*^herwood farm became the Parkard fariii, 
and has remained so until recently. The lands from or east of the road, that 
w^ere changing frequently, (1840-1852), came into the hanils of Silas C. Rob 
erts. and remained there until recently. Mr. C. X. Yencer is the last pur- 
chaser of the Roberts, and the Sherwood farms. 

Of the Bassetts, but little is known. .\fter selling they moved into the 
town of Grove. The large Huffman family we will give elsewhere, also the 
Jonathan Barro;i family. The .\shle\s. Rarrons and Huflfmans, were the own- 
ers of two miles of lands that ha\-e since been frequently suhflividcd. 

The famih' of Daniel -\shley. that came from Plooniheid, became promi- 
nent in Xunda Cliurch life in 1827. 

First Generation 

Samuel Rockafellow, Sr.. .settled in 1823, and died at the age of 94; Mrs. 
Elizabeth Rockafell'jw , died, age 88. 

Second Generation 

*Johanna, married *Joseph Fraley. 

♦Margaret, married *Abel Barron. 

*Rachel, married *Hiram Cornwell. 

♦Elizabeth, married *Abram Howell. 

*Mary, married *John Angier. 

*John (purchased land with J. P'raley. ) 

*Mahlon, died, aged 31. 

*Sameul Jr., married Clarissa Lenien. daughter of William Lemen, (on the 
A. Barron farm ) . 

George, married Eliza Warner, sister of Orlando and Ebcn. W. 

'Sh. Fraley's second wife Hann is living in this village, with her daughter, 
Mrs. F'. M. Ostrander. She is an own cousin to John W'anamaker. Mar- 
garet died without children, and the second wife was *AIargaret Norton, the 
mother of Mrs. Harriet Dowling, .\. C. B. &c. (See Barron familv). Mr. 
Cornwell was a tailor and his wife learned the trade at his shop on Mill Street. 
They btiilt the large house Xo. 41 East Street also Xo. 43, but both died soon 
afterward. Mr. and Mrs. Howell are also buried at Oakwood Cemetery. 
John Angier married the \oungest daughter Mary. They also completed their 
life in Xiuida but left children. (See Angier family 1835). John and Mah- 
lon are also buried in Oakwood. Fourteen out of eighteen are buried in Oak- 
wood Cemetery, besides the parents. Samuel and George went elsewhere to 
reside about 1846. The entire eighteen were, nr had been, at one time members 
of the liaptist Church, this also was unusual. 

I. 2. Henry Kockafellow was a brother of Samuel but lived on the oppo- 
site, or Mt. Morris side of the County Line (now town line). He settled there 
in 1823. bo.ught of the Warners. Eben and Orlando. (The Emory Kendall farm) 
• a small frame house that he had moved to the east side of the road, and there he 
lived with his household for a time. The house the writer remembers seeing 
moved to Coopersville. It was said to have been the first frame house erected 
m that neighborhood. It was built in 1823 and moved in 1848. In this house 
the Blair family also lived. 

Henry Rockafellow was especially rich in sons, some of them had moved 
away when they attained their majority. All that remained bent all their ener- 
gies in the direction of a liberal education. David born in 1805. Daniel, Asa and 
Hiram, the writer never knew ; but was told, by their brother Samuel, of their 
existence. John J., was one of the students in the Presbyterian Academy, one 
of the best : was a teacher and School Commissioner, and County Clerk of Alle- 
gany County. He married in Xunda a daughter of John S. Wright, and lived 
for a time in the village. Lambert Rockafellow was a carpenter by trade, built 
a house on the Creek Road, that the writer called home for twelve years or 
more. Samuel L. Rockafellow married in Mt. Morris. He was a prominent 
merchant and manufacturer there. He was born in 1826. and is still living. 

The daughters of IIenr\- and Mary Jones Rockafellow were only two in 
number. Margaret born in 1810. who married a neighbor. David J. Blair, and 
moved during the forties to Iowa, died in 1908. aged 98 years. Samuel L.. 
born 1826, her \oungest own brother. 82 years old. and Charles H. Rockafel- 
low, a half brother, born 1837, are all that are left of this large household. A 


younger daug)iter was Eliza, who married John Olp, son nf Daniel Olp. They 
lived after their marriage in the town of Xuntla; four children were born to 
them : Deborah, Lambert, Charles Pearl and Eva. 

II. Mrs. Eliza Olp, died about i860. Those of her posterity who are liv- 
ing at this time in Nunda are the family of W. Fred C. Olp, son of Charles P. 
Olp, who is cashier of the Nunda Bank. He married Florence Dowling, daugh- 
ter of Michael and Harriet L. Dowling. They have as a representative of the 
fifth generation of Rockafellows, a daughter Harriet. 

II. Charles H. Rockafellow, a half-brother of these Rockafellows, and of 
the Kendalls, married Sophia Walker, daughter <:>f Eph. Walker (veteran 
1812). Their children were: 

III. I. *Addie, who married *Richard ESristol ; (2) John Emory, who 
lives in Chicago; (3) Minnie, who married Allison Jas. Paine, son of Almiron 
Paine, grandson of Jas. Paine, pioneer 1817-1872. 

R'. The grandchildren are : \'ada Rockafellow, daughter of J. E. 
Rockafellow ; and Adelaide and John Paine. 


AFTER the marriage, late in life, of Henry Rockafellow and the widow 
Kendall, some of the younger men were joking him, when to their sur- 
prise he challenged them to a contest in athletics. There was a wagon 
standing near by, without box, but with a few planks on, and the old gentleman 
jumped over this and invited those \ounger, to follow his lead. As none of these 
jokers dared to follow the example, tliey concluded he was young enough to 
get married again if he chose to. 

Most of these two families thus brought into family relations by the mar- 
riage of their parents, were grown up and married, but there were some of both 
families who were young. An incident that Mr. Rockafellow often narrated, 
will serve to show^ the ditiference between the boys of that day and the present 
time. Two of the boys about eight and ten years old. had begun to notice that 
some of the men in the community smoked tobacco and used profanity. 
These youngsters did not want to be back numbers, so one of them said to the 
other, "Let's be men." "All right," said the other, "what shall we do to be 
men?" "Well," said the elder of the twain, "we must smoke, for one thing." 
"Yes that's so, almost all the men smoke." So they looketl around for some- 
thing to smoke. A dead grape vine served for a cigar for one, and some dry 
corn silks in a pipe served the other. They smoked awhile as solemn as Indian 
Chieftains. "Well," said the spokesman, "'tis time we begin to swear." "All 
right, you begin, and I'll follow." They hesitated awhile, before taking the 
fatal step. "You begin," said the youngest, ".\11 right, well here goes. I 
swear," said No i, "So do I," said No. 2, and in imagination 'the}- were big, 
bold, bad men." 


Porn in New Jersey, came to Mount Morris 1823 and to Xunda 1823, lioth 
lived to a good old age. Mrs. Rockafellow was 88 years of age and "Uncle 
Sammy," as he was generally called, was 94. 


This family was ricli in (laughters, who all completed their useful lives in 
this town. \'ery few have ever heard that the first long-log-hoiise of this fam- 
ily was not where 'the red house now stands in which they lived so long, though 
they lived in both, but it was on the south west corner of the field near Coopers- 
ville road and school house. Here these industrious pioneers commenced their 
pioneer life in Xunda. There could not have been a more industrious woman 
than this housewife, she did not even take time to stand erect when at work, 
but bent diiwn with household tasks, kept that position to save precious time. 
No wonder her daughters were sought for by the most eligible young men of 
that day for they were fitted for the arduous tasks of pioneer housekeepers 
Tlie family was large, five daughters and four sons. 


I. Zadoc. born in Connecticut 1759, enlisted 1771'), married 1777. settled 
Xorthville 17S5, settled Nunda 1822 or 3. lived in Nunda until 1855, died at 
Algonquin, 111., 1859, aged 99 years 9 months. 

I. Abigail Omstead Sherwood, born 1760, died ]\[a\- 31, 1840, age 80. 

I. Margaret Glen, widow of Eldert Anient, sister of Jacob S. Glen of 
Glen, lived, died at Xunda, July 30. 1840. aged 88 years. 

Second Generation 

II. Granville Sherwood, born in 1785, settled 1824, died, age 95: married 
Maria (Polly) Anient, Iiorn 1790. ilicd in Xunda, 1863, age '/2i- 

Third Generation 

III. ^Margaret, born 1819, married her cousin Galusha Burnett, she died 
at Omaha 1907, age 88. A. Jackson, born 1822, merchant, law student, mar- 
ried *Sarah (Sally) Alvard, eldest daughter of Phineas A., both died in the 
west. Matilda, born 1825, married 1850 to *\Vm. G. Russell, son of Joseph 
Russell. Resides in Binghamton, N. Y. 

These three generations covering respectively 100 years, 95 years and 88 
}-ears, 283 in all, is an unusual record for a family for three generations. 

Fourth Generation 

Daughter .\. J. and S. S., l-'l(irence ; daughter of M. and G. A. Burnett, 
Lemira Mari.i (Mrs. Sutherland). < liiialia, Xeb. 


II. 2. John Sherwood lived in Xunda village. State Street, is buried in 
Nunda; married Rachel Jones (Milliner) is buried in Nunda; Lemira Sher- 
wood, married .Stephen Burnett; Reuben, married (t) Miss French, (2) Mar- 
tha G. r^jutler ; Marry, married Mrs. Maria Bush; Xatlian, married .Anice Buc- 

ler ; .Vbigail. married Lillv ; Lucy, married Piatt Halstead, of Byers- 

ville ; Poll}', married Jeremiah Keniiey : Glorinda, married Lewis lieecher. Fort 

At one time several of these brothers manufactured inkstands. The bot- 
tles were enclosed in a circular wooden frame for uses in school. They re- 
sisted frost and were in<lispensable in school houses in winter. Harry, X'^athan 
and Reuben, were the firm. The shop was at the homestead, east side of road, 
changed to a dwelling liouse aliout 1840. 

The Old Revolutioiian- Soldier impressed me in my youth, as a good joker, 
and a very ordinary soldier. He did not tel! <.f any valorous deeds, had not been 
wounded, and was living longer than men who liad not been soldiers, so the 
funny stories charmed more than most of his A-ncc'-dotes of the war, as he 
used to call them, for if he did not gi\-e the inflexion right, he never missed the 
point of his joke. 

His first skirmish was not a big success for his old flint luck gun was so 
poor that he found it would have been loaded to the muzzle if the fracas had 
gone on long enough, for the gun had not gone otT once, but then like man\' 
other soldiers he had killed as man\- uf the enemy, as the enemv had of him. 
He was most proud of being in the battle, where, as the old rhyme goes. "Thus 
did Putman down the steep. Where no pursuers dared to leap." 

He once played a joke on Capt. John Townsend and his wife, plaxing on 
their strong point, hospitality. \\'li;le almost a stranger here, his cattle roamed 
away and strayed across to the .State Road. Early one .Sunday morning h.e 
started in pursuit and brought up at (."apt John's just as they were breakfast- 
ing. Tliey asked him to h.a\'e snme breakfast and he answered. "1 dnn't care 'f 
I do, for 1 haven't had a mouthful to eat this week." Capt. John literally piled 
his plate and Aunt Mary urged him to eat ninre. neither of ihem discovered 
that he hatl eaien as recently as they, or anybody else, on Sunday morning. 
Next day when Capt. John brought ilowii to Sherwood a whcile lot of provi- 
sions, the joke was then explained. (Jrandaddy. as most every (jne called him. 
planted some peach trees, and when the fruit was ripe he sent an invitation to 
Deacon Archibald Coleburn to ctmie over and see him eat his first ]>each pie. 
The Deacon put on his best <lickey and .Sunday suit and went o\er to enjo\ 
with the old veteran his pie. When the pie was put before him. he ileliber- 
ately ate piece after piece of it until it was all gone. The Deacon felt insulted. ; 
he had wasted a half day from his labor of niaking .\x-helves. and all t(] see a 
peach pie eaten by another. But Dame .\bigail. who knew his tricks had made 
a turn-over jjie for herself of th.e same 
material and handed it to the Deacon 
as he hastib took his hat to t;"o hcii-e. 

Granville Sherwood 
Died, aged 95 

Cyrus Rose 
at 90 

The way Grandaddy ])r()ved, be was a good man, by tbe Bible, was scrip- 
tural certainly. When be was past ninety, he said he was a good man, for the 
Bible says : "The wicked shall not live out half their days," and he had lived 
out at least nine tenths of his. And so it proved, for he was 99 years and nine 
months old when he died. "I think I shall live while a hundred," he often said. 
He was a hornely man with a big Roman nose and a still larger mouth. He 
would get oflf one of his jokes and then throw back his head and laugh till 
every body else would laugh too. On one occasion he perpetrated one of his 
practical jokes at a neighbors table, and while laughing with his mouth open 
like a cave, the neighbor, Capt. John Townsend, caught up a piece of butter as 
big as an egg and landed it in his mouth, which he swallowed quietly, observing, 
"Your wife, Capt. John, is a right good butter maker." When about 95, he 
was troubled with nervousness, which he called the "narves."' He said, "There 
never was any 'narves' when I was a boy." Indeed he was very near the trutli; 
few people in \'Outh and health, have any personal acquaintance with their 

Granville Sherwood, his eldest son was a typical country gentleman. His 
fine farm was worked mostly by others. He had a large Apiary and cared for 
his bees systematically, for those days. His farm ( located at Nunda Junction ) 
was very productive, his orchards had the greatest variety of apples, and they 
were shared freely with his neighbors who had no orchards. In 1853 his hand- 
some farm house, located in an oak grove, burned down. The fire was probably 
due to grandaduy's "narves." The family moved to this village, and lived 
with their son-in-law William G. Russell, at the twin-house opposite the Dick- 
ensons, while the new house was being built. Nathan Sherwood came from 
Illinois and took grandpappy home with him, where he died, some five years 

Airs. Granville Sherwood was a lovely lady in every respect. If she had 
any share in human defects, no one knew what they were. Mrs. Matilda Sher- 
wood Russell is the only survivor of the family. John Sherwood and wife 
lived on State Street. Mrs. Sherwood was one of the Milliners of that time. 

Nathan Sherwood was the genius of the family antl combined the quali- 
ties of Artist, inventor and Yankee pedlar. There was nothing he could not 
make, or when made, could not sell. He lived on State Street, sometimes in "the 
castle," then new, and some of the time near it. With Deacon Thayer, he made 
matches, without him he made of wax (obtained at Granvilles), representations 
of Noah's Ark, and the animals and the dove. His representation of the Nativ- 
ity was his masterpiece : with an ox and ass feeding at the manger, the Holy 
Family near ; two Angels looking on, with some interest, but not with half as 
much as the children, young and old, of Nunda did, for he could sell, and did 
sell, all that he and his household could make of his waxen w-onders. With a 
load of these, and salves and liniments, and washing fluids, and dried muttci 
hams, .and wooden bowls and matches, he went out into the settlement and came 
back with eggs, butter, pork, wheat, oats, maple sugar, honey and anything 
merchantable. No famih- liveil better than his, and no merchant's goods ex- 
cited such admiration. He married .\nice Butler whose father lived in the 
house west of Craig's Warehouse. She was an aunt of Mrs. E. O. Dickenson. 
Their children were: Loeaza. (Mrs. Beals), who is living at Great Bend, Ind. ; 

Emma; (Jreaiia (Mrs. ISaxter, livt-cl at I*'ricn<lsliii), X. V.); Momer, Day and 
Dwight. all tliree born in this village, alter 1836; l-'rank, born at Friendship. 

Mr. Sherwood also made wooden bowls in Jones Cabinet shop. Reuben 
Sherwiiod. another brother, lived in this village. His second wife was the 
mother of his children : her name was I'"rcncli ; his tliird wife was Martha G. 
Butler, a sister to Mrs. Elvira Starkweather (Mrs. E. Tyler), and Mrs. Nathan 
Sherwood. The children were Granville, Anson, James, David, and Harriet. 
Young Gran. Sherwood, as he was called, studied law with Xunda's second lav,-- 
yer, Benedict Bagley, as did Addison M. Crane, Nunda's third lawyer, and later 
E. W. Packard, Jack Sherwood, Samuel S. Crooks and others. He became the 
greatest criminal law\er in Fe.xas and became immensely rich. There were 
others in the family who became eminent as lawyers, especially David, who is a 
Judge and resides in Elgin, 111. Anson S., is still living at Detroit, Mich. The 
children of Nathan were : Emma, ( )reana. Homer, Day and Dwight, all born 
in Nunda. Erastus D. Halstead, father of Piatt C. Halstead, Sherifif of Living- 
ston County, was also a gran.lson of the eld veteran, the writer knew so well in 


I. I. Ira Huggnis, farmer and carpenter, married \aleria Pitts (his 
cousin), born in I'aulct. \'t., lived in Xunda until about iSfio. when he moved to 
Springfield, Pa. 


II. *John, '■•Sally, Savillion, "Henrietta, -Frank. Savillion is the only 
survivor, he lives in Springfield, Pa. 

(2). \'aleria Fluggins married Jonathan Flamilton. Sons: *Edwin ]\I. 
Hamilton, married "Harriet Dunn; Charles Hamilton, married *Harriet Haga- 
dorn. Both sons were in the Civil War. 

(3). William Fluggins came to Livingston County 1834, married Almira 
B. Pitts, daughter of Luke Pitts, who lived with them. 

II. Children of William and Almira : 

^laria (Mrs. William II. Guy); I'rancis (Mrs. J. C. Jones); Alartha 
(Mrs. J. Bradley Chase of X'lmda) ; Dr. \\'ill O.. veteran and physician; Henry 
who died, aged 2(S. 

Grandchildren of William and Almira Huggins, wdio lived in Nunda; 
Ella Gu_\-, married Charles Doviiis ; Lorettc Jones, married (i) *Elmer Bat- 
terson, (2) John Doolittle, Edison, N. V.; Harley, single; James, married Mar\ 
Marsh ; George, married Mattie Orcutt ; Mattie, married George Stevens • 
Henry, married *Carrie Whitenack, daughter of Asher ; * Alice, married Grant 
Badgley ; Harold and Charles, sons of Dr. \\'ill O. Huggins. . 

Great Grandchildren 

Children of Lorette Batterson ; Flos.sie, married Freil Paine, son of 
Wells ; Jessie, married Prof. Frank. 

Children of James and Mary : Harley and Alice. 

Child of George. Georgia, married Ral])h Stewart. 

Child of Alice Badgley, Jessie. 

Child of Henry Jones, Anna. 

Children r)f Mattie Stevens. C)rlow and Francis. 


Great Great Grandchildren 

Child of Flossie Paine, Marian. 

Children of Jessie Jones, Jennie, and Baby Stewart. 

The Jackson family came to Portage in i8n> Mathias Jackson Sr., was 
a builder of Grist Mills. His wife was a sister of Mrs. William Gould, and a 
daughter of Mrs. Cathell who came with them. Mr. J., having built mills for 
Col. Orcutt at Spring Brook and Portage, and for James Wadsworth, the pio- 
neer, died in 1830; and the widow and her sons moved to Xunda in 1831. 
Leonard is the onl_\- survivor of the family. He is now 8() \ears of age, and 
knew more people who have lived in the village of Xunda, or who are buried at 
Oakwood Cemetery, than any other person. 

The sons were: *Mathias Jackson, Jr., a suTge driver and teamster; he 
niarrietl "Sally .Snyder; William married a Teeple ; Daniel and Leonard, mar- 
ried sisters by the name of Weedright ; Miranda, married P. P. Cad\- of Xunda. 

The children of Leonar<l are: i. Paschal, married ISertlia Smith. Pas- 
chal is a veteraii of the Civil W'ar. (2). *Leonar(l, married Anna .St. lohn, 
wlio survives him, and lives in Xunda; (3) Charles, died when a young man; 
(4) Laura: (5) Mary, m.-'rried \\'illiam H. Kelly; (6) Catharine, married 
Elias Douglas; (7) George; (8) Harriet Udelia. married Wilson .\. Bennett. 

The IV Generation; ( iraivlchildren of Leonard, (children of Leonard 
Jr.) James, single, a blacksmith; Clyde, married May Thrall. 

George Jr., and Maude ; children of George. 

Lottie Bennett, a musician, daughter of Harriet. 

The V Generation. Children of Clyde and May ; Charles and Kenneth. 


John Bennett was twice married. His second wife was Aljigail Perrii'. 
The children of the first marriage were Almon, Roswell ("i., and the second 
wife of Jacob II. Osgoodliy ; of the second marriage. Liberty Lucia, married 
John Paige; Millicent, mairied Jacob H. Osgoodby. The Bennett farms were 
first taken up by Alpheus Herrick and David S. Conklin ; then sold to Daniel 
Ashley a relative of Mrs. Conklin ; and it is said, that the Ashleys brought $16,- 
000 into the village when they If so the Bennetts must have had about 
the same amount. Almon Bennett sold out his share to Roswell G., and moved 
to Canaseraga, his son Stephen was his principal heir. Roswell G. Bennett left 
about $80,000 when he died. John Bennett and his wife li\'ed to be elder!;.- 
people, about 75, whicli is not considered very old in Xunda, where 80 is quit-^ 
old, and i)0 i'; verw ver\- old. At least fifty citizens that have lived in Nunda 
have attained that age, and fonr or five have exceeded one hundred. John 
Bennett was born in the \ear 1775 and liis wife 18S3, both historic drUes, the 
beginning and end of the Revolutionary War. 

R. G. Bennett, married Betsey Day, they had one son Griggs, a most ex- 
cellent youth, but he died of diphtheria when but if) years of age. The family 
adopted a niece and nephew, Carrie and Harry Gilbert, the orphaned children 
of Charles and Eliza Day Gilliert. The entire family lived l)ut a few years. 
For lack of s])ace, the writer is obliged to leave out the excellent graduating 
essay of Carrie Gilbert, on "The Mission of Difficulty" that was full of excel- 
lence and a])preciation for those who had made themselves ^•ictors of cir- 


Miss Eliza Crane, whose muther was a sister to Mrs. 13et.?e\ Ijennett, and 
Mrs. Eliza Gilbert, is the onh' representative of the Days, and the Paige sisters 
of the Bennett-Perrin family. Their brother Perrin, died in the service, and th'" 
three sisters are living together and keeping as much as possible of the home 
feeling, though both parents have passed away. .\ grandson of Libertv Ben- 
nett also lives in this place; judson Bennett and an uncle, John, are also li\-- 
ing, but not in N^unda. The Baity and Bennett Mil! at Coopersville was well 
conducted by this firm, and both men made a competency b\' this means in the 
days when the flour from the Kesheqna \-alle}' was as good as any in the world. 


This excellent family though, farmers on a small farm, living most of thei'' 
lives in a log house were rich in excellence; they were pure g.)ld. 

I. Xathaniel Mudnut, Mrs. h^sther lludnut. 

If. Margaret, married Solomon Lee liamilton ; Betsey, married Rev. 
William W'isner ; Polly, married Calvin Wisner: Rachel, married Horace Win- 
ner; *Harriet. married "Leroy Satterlee who conducted I'iochester Collegiate 
Institute ( son Eugene, college graduate and law_\xr. Rochester, ,\'. ^'. ) ; Sarah, 
single, buried ai Xunda ; Caroline, single, buried at Xunda; William Hudnut, 
married Florette Ormsby, sister of Fa}ette ( )rmsby of Wilcox Corners. 
*Orren Hudnut, married Catharine X'auDoren, Middleport. 

Children of Orren : I. Rev. IVof. Isaiah 11., College president; 2. I'rank, 
M. D. 3. James IMonroe, soMier and C'lllegian. 

The mother is still li\ing in iirockport. The most of the Hudnuts, Wis- 
ners and Ilamiltons were Ba|)tists. The ( )rrin Hudnut family were ni:>t. 

I. Deaciin Daniel Wisner, married Sarah Wisner; 

3. Horace, married Rachel lludnut; Rev. William, married Betsey Hud- 
nut ; Calvin, married Polly Hudnut. 

4. La Fayette, married Harriet Warner. 


Mrs. Montgomery is the daughter of Prof. Judson A. Barnett and Emih 
Barnett. Her estimate of Mrs. Harriet Hudnut Satterlee 

The story of a useful and beautiful life was closed yesterday when throngs 
of friends gathered in her quiet home in IMeigs Street to pay their loving tribute 
to the memi:>ry of Mrs. LcRoy Satterlee. When so long and honored a life is 
ended, it is fitting that those who remain should gather u]) fragrant memories 
and preserve them ; for such lives built into the city"s growth are its true and 
lasting wealth. 

Flarriet Satterlee was educated in Temple Hill .\cademy, Geneseo, and was 
a young woman in 1849, \\'lien her husband came to Rochester to be principal 
of School No. 5, at that time the leading public of the city. From that day to 
this her life has been here, and there are hundreds who know how sweet and 
strong have been the influences emanating from this quiet, unassuming woman. 
There are no stirring deeds to record, no striking achievements, yet the life ' • 
full and rich, because it is beautiful within. 

22 ■■ 

Harriet Satterlee was rich in her personality. People did not easih' for- 
get her face, her voice, her winning maimer. Little children took to her ; young 
girls confided in her. It was natural for Inirdened people to lean on her strong 
arm, and for a whole circle to brighten when she joined it. There was an in- 
formality and directness in speech and action that were exceedingly attractive, 
and a heartiness in voice and hand-clasp that invited trust. Her good cheer 
was infectious and her ability to clear away difficult situations was proverbial 
among her friends. Strong in courage ami confitlent in hope, she could either 
find a way or make one. 

It followed inevitably that this vital, warm and generous nature was rich 
also in friends and in influence. It was amazing to see the strength of the hold 
she had on those who were pupils in the famous old Collegiate Institute, her 
husband's school for so many years. Her girls that she mothered through their 
happy school days never forgot her. They returned to her again and again 
with loving acknowledgment of all that she had meant to them. Her years of 
successful work in tlie primary department of the Sunday-school, in the Mission- 
ary Society and in the social life of the church were just so many opportunities 
for touching and molding other lives. So, when she came to the dim valley of 
age and weakness, there was a host of people, rich and poor, young and okl 
simple folk and wise men, who remembered her with love and spoke often of 
what she had been to them. Her children also called her blessed. 

Richest of all was she in spirituality. She was a woman who had never 
lost the vision of the eternal. Prayer was no luxury, but her daily bread, and 
her Bible was really her guide. All her life long the springs of comfort and 
strength rose for her in these uplands of the soul — the Bible and prayer. From 
these fountains of living water she drank. And so she, being dead, yet speaks ; 
speaks not onlv of human love and goodness, but of a human life whose strength 
was in God. ' HELEN B. MONTGOMERY. 


This family from New Jersey settled in 1824 or 1825 on the Myers home- 
stead, where Peter Myers, Jr., and his sister, Sarahi still reside. Mr. ]\Iyers 
and his good wife Elizabeth and son James S. were among the first that settled 
in the north eastern part of the town. The other children of this worthy couple 
were Wesley, who is still living in the west and was, like James and Monroe, a 
carpenter and who worked on the second Baptist church. He is now about 8q 
years of age. Anna, the next younger, married Peter Youells and lived in 
Michigan until her death. Her husband is still living. He is about the same 
age as his boy friends, Peter VanDorn and John Creveling of Tuscarora, i. e.. 
about 84, and like them enjoys a fair degree of health. William the next son is 
not living. Monroe, who celebrated his 75 birthday April 6th, has long been 
identified with the interests of this village, having built six of the buildings, on 
South Church Street. James Myers is remembered as a musician who played all 
kinds of keyed instruments in the old Baptist church along with Ouartus Bar- 
ron, who played the bass viol before the days of the "Camps" and their pipe 
organs. He also made and played violins and viols. He went to California 
in '49 with his brother-in-law, Reuben Hungerford, who is still living, but re- 
turned a cripple. I remember well their home coming for they were my neigh 

bors, g^enial and gentlemanly. Air. James Alyers ami family moved to this vil- 
lage and with his l)rother-in-la\v. \'irgil I Inngxrford, bnilt the present L'niver- 
salist church and the ccn.ient walk, one of the first in front of it, in 1871. He 
was building the large house on 1^'air Street, Patridge I'ark, for in'mself in 1873 
when he fell from the roof and was instantly killeii. 

Mr. Peter Myers married for a second wife Betsey Stivers and this couple 
had five sons and a daughter; Martin, who died in the L'ivil War. Albert, Peter, 
Sarah, Duane and Adelbert, all of these live are still living. It is mv privilege 
to be able to tell them of a pioneer incident that reflects great credit to their 
father's kindness of heart. Zadock Sherwood, the revoluntionar_\- soldier pio- 
neer, told in my hearing, that when he had cleared some land, he needed some 
seed wheat and hearing that Mr. Myers had scniie he went there and inquired if 
he had some seed wheat to sell. Have you the money to [jay for it ? asked 
farmer Myers. The veteran took out a well filled purse. Then you can't have 
it, I must sa\-e it for those who ha\e no mone\" to buy with; you can get it ot 
any ()ne. \\'as there another man in the whole town like this big hearted Jer- 
sey man? The luster of this tleed shines with diamond splendor after full four 
score years. A score of >ears afterward when Peter Youells married Anna 
Myers, Uncle Dick, his father said (everyljody called him I'ncle Dick) in his 
funny way; 'Tt is all right she belnngs tu the best breed in the town" and no 
one dis])uted him. 


Settled in 1824. became the !iA\ner of several large farms. 

I. Thomas Twist, married Alary ISurkhart. 

n. I. Sarah Twist, married Calvin Reed. Their children; 
HI. (i). Josei)hine; (2) Marv ; (3) Ennis Reed. 

n. 2. Julia A. Twist, single (mildly insane): 3. Elias Twist; 4. Delia, 
married \\'arren llahcock. tliildren; 
HI. ]. Maiy 2. Kittie llahcck. 

II. 5. William Twist, married Miss Kathburn, children: 

III. 1. Willie. 2. Louis. 
II. 6. Martha. 

II. 7. Abbie. 

II. 8. Hillary Twist, veteran, Alexican War, married Lucy Babcock. 

II. 9. Mary Jane Twist, Teaclier, married .\ndrew Salts. 

II. 10. Thomas Twist. Jr.. died at the age of 1(1 (from trying a perilou.5 
experiment. ) 

II. 2. Helen Twist, married Jackson Batterson. Children; i. Clar- 
ence; 2. Xcllie ; 3. Jose])h. 

II. 12. Alice Twist, married John l-'iory. 

II. 13. Milton Twist, married . Their children. 

III. I. Claience: 2. Nellie: 3. Joseph. 


.Mr. and Airs. David Babcock. Their children: -Warren Babcock, a 
teacher, married Cordelia Twist: 2. Lucy Babcock. married Hillary Twist: 3. 
Worden Babcock ; 4. Washington Babcock. The family were l'niversalist.3 
and went to Ipsilanti in 1845. 



The Curtis faniuy settled in Xunla in 1S26. Mr. Curtis did nut live very 
long after coming to Xunda. His widow afterwards married Air. D. Mack 
The family consisted of the parents and four girls of more than ordinarv ex- 

1. Betsey, married Ethan Gilbert, S(_in of Andrew, who built the grist mill 
at Coopersville in 1836. Ethan had a twm sister who married P. Dudley Ken- 
drick. Judge Ethan Gilbert was a relative. 

2. Emily, married Hiram C. Grover, four children. ( Sec Grover fam- 
ily 1830. ) 

3. Aristeen, was a life long teacher, always in demand, she married late in 

4. Alice Al. (one of God's best women), married Robert J. Baity, who 
with R. G. Bennett, purchased the grist mill at Coopersville, of Gardener, the 
successor of Gilbert. The mill was run night and day, it took four coopers to 
supply barrels, in which to ship the flour ihey made. The canal furnished 
cheap transportati(_Mi. They sold to Kellogg and Hammond and both came into 
the village. R. J. l!alt\- became a banker. 

The family of R. J. and .Mice Baity consisted of a son and daughter, the 
daughter Emily died m childhood, while the son lived to be a part of the social 
life of the village, to which he came after the sale of the mills. Robert had a 
(juick wit. became a good scholar and excelled as an Amateur actor. He mar- 
ried Belle Shant, a daughter of J. E. Shant of the firm of Lampart & Shant, 
Xunda Tannery. They have one son Robert E. Baity, bank clerk, who closely 
resembles his father in appearance. Robert Baity contracted consumption, al- 
though it was not hereditary in either family, and died at the early age of forty. 

R. J. 15.AI.rV AND l-A.MILV 


His parents survived him, but both have since passed away. Robert J. Baity 
was a banker and as successful in that as in milling. 

Mrs. Alice Baity, became the best known of the elderly ladies of the vil- 
lage. How she found time to call on nearly every family in the village, yearly, 
monthly or weekly, is a social problem hard to solve. Xo other person had so 
long a calling list. Beloved by all. of every grade of society, her short sick- 
ness and sudden death lefl a whole eiiniiminit\- licreft. If her faith (she was 
a devoted Universalist ). had given her this unusual fellowshii) of spirit, then, 
the doctrine of Divine l''atherhood and Universal brotherhood, had ripened the- 
ory to practice. Were all like her. Heaven and Earth would have a common 
atmosphere of love. 

We present a picture of the family, as the writer knew them. There was 
a half sister. Ccrnciia Alack, who died recently. 

Allen Curtis was n brother of Daniel. He married Sophia Hamilton, 
daughter of Daniel. 

Mrs. Allen Curtis as she became elderly, was troubled with sleeping leth- 
argy. C)n one oceasi.m \\liile visiting a neighbor she became sleepv. and tried 
to excuse her condition i m the plea of early rising, she said. "I got up this 
rfiorning just — as the sun —was — rising — in the — west," and was fast asleep, 
imaware of \\hat she had said. 

.\sa and Mrs. LaRiie. whose pictures we present, represent a class of peo- 
ple, who retired from the active duties of rural life, and chose Xunda as a place 
conducive to long life with ]>leasant surroundings. Mr. LaRue was nearly QO 
years of age. when he died and Mrs. LaRue is still living. 

*Abraham Dedroff (teacher), farmer 280 acres, born Cax'uga Countv 
1810. settled 1830. married ( I ) Sarah Duryee. born Cavuga Count\' 1813. mar- 
ried 1832, died 1838. He married (2) Sarah Perry, born Schoharie Countv, 
1813. married 1839, died 1879. 

Children: Eliza A., born ii'^^.v married Chauncey Hagadorn, had a son 
and two daughters; Margaret .\.. born 1843. married Paul Willey ; Myron P.. 
born 1845, single, died 1907 ; Ennis J., born 1848. a son Archie served a term in 
the Navy; Herbert L.. born T851): Marinn W., born 1853. 


I. William Renix. Mrs. Renix. 

I. Dolly Renix ( a sister ) married Previse Perry. Sr. Children. 

II. Mary Eliza Renix; Jane Ann, married Seneca Perrv ; Plenrv : Tohii ; 

Cousins. Eliza Renix (Mrs. James Duryee ) ; Renix Duryee, son of James 
and Eliza Duryee; Jennie llrodt a niece of Mrs. Eliza Duryee, married Ralston 
Conklin ; ( i ) Flora Conklin, married Dan'l Suydam : (2) Ella Conklin. 


I. Allen Peach, born in Massachusetts i8oo, settled in 1&2S. died 1851. 

II. I. Allen J. Peach, born 1829. 

II. 2. Lauren Rowland Peach, farmer no acres, and teacher for many 
years, born Livingston Count\. June 12. 1832. adopted by \\'illiam Coon, mar- 
ried Bridget , born Cijnnaught County, Ireland, 1832, married in 1852. 

III. Children, i. Eva Alaria: 2. Ida ]\Iay, teacher (Mrs. P'ulton ) ; 3. 
Jessie C, teacher, Nunda, X. "S'. 


Reuben and Patty I'ierce settled nn the State Road in 1828. They were 
childless but had adopted a daughter named Relief Ladd. She was married to 
Ralph Carver about 1830. "The Latch String of the Pierce Homestead was al- 
ways out" a saying that implies great generosity and hospitality. 

The children of this household with a double set of parents, were : Henry 
Ladd Carver, who served under Gen. Sibley, of Sibley tent fame, in the Indian 
war of i860, and was breveted Capt. and Quarter ^Master. L\ S. A. He also be- 
ing a regular, served to the end of the Civil War. Pie died in 1894, is buried 
at St. I'aul. Edward one of the younger sons, served in the loth Wis., was 
taken prisoner at Chickamauga, and was in Andersonville several months. 
He lives at Tomson Palls, Mont., Charles P. Carver married M. J. Baylor, and 
lived many years at St. Augustine in one of the most ancient houses of that first 
southern settlement, where he died. Albert S., died in Wisconsin in 1890 
Frederick Carver, whose musical voice, and handsome face most of us in 
Nunda remember so well, has a home at Fruithurst, Ala. ^lary Carver Barker, 
lives in Rochester, X. Y. Jennie Carver Plubbell, writes from Elkhorn, Wi.-., 
and tells the waiter all of this, but the praises of I'Ved which the writer adds 
as a part of the Auld Lang ."^yne nf which the younger Carvers formed a ])art. 


Doctor D. Morse (Doctor was simpl\ his Christian name) was a farmer 
on the State Road. He was born 1784 and died 1855. Pearl, wife of D. D. 
Morse, died 1834. 

II. D. D. Morse, Jr., a wagon maker. State Street, wife, Susan ; a sister 
married Lewis Tuthill, when (juite elderly. ^Irs. Tuthill died, aged <)0. 

Truman Morse, married Jane E. Fames. Mrs. Truman Morse, an excel- 
lent nurse, came from the west to care for her aged sister-in-law, but died in 
1888, age 69, while Mrs. Tuthill survived her feeble brother and his younger 
wife. The family of B. A. Rinevault, then care<l for the old lady till she died. 
Hiram Morse, born 1806, who remained on the farm, died in 1800, age 84. 

lY. AUie Morse, single, lives on the homestead. 


At one time D. LX Morse, jr., was in partnership witli [). W liard of musi- 
cal fame, he t,''ot vexed at I'rof. I.Sard, and told him he wcjuld kick him for two 
cents. The musical man handed his partner the specified sum, the kick was 
administered, when Hard went for a warrant for Morse for assault and bat- 
tery. Tlie Justice heard the story but told the "battered" man he had no cause 
for action as he had hired the man to kick him. The moral to thi-; stor\- is. whei; 
}0u need kickm.s;. kick yourself, don't hire any one else to kick }0u. 


Came to Xunda in 1828 and bought the farn-, <if .Vmos Rice, brother of 
Elijah Rice. Mr. Burgess, was a pioneer teacher of District Schools. He 
became County .Su])erintendent of .Schools ( .\lg. Co.) He was a prominent 
Presb} terian. 

I. -Vfirahai/i IJurgess. married Airs. Sarah Moreton. Airs. Burgess was 
97 when she died. 

n. *Seneca Burgess, veteran: Solon Burgess, teacher; '■Tmogene Bur- 
gess, teacher, married Junathan Dake (see Dake family); Teressa, married 

Hoppin ; Isaac, married Adelaide Lamb: "Louise, teacher, died voung : 

Frank a teacher of merit \vent west, became .School Superintendent. Family 
went west about ^var times. 


I. Alerritt and Sophronia Hitchcock. 

II. Joseph, Lieut, ist \'et. Cavalrx : Julius; Ella, married W. H. Paine 
(see illustrations Civil List). 

Nathaniel Bacon and his brother settled in Chautauqua LIoIIow, about 
1832. They afterward moved into a log house near Tuscarora about 1852: here 
the entire family had the small po.\-. Dr. Aleechem attended them, thev a'! 
lived, but were much disfigured by the disease. The family were zealous Meth- 
odists of the primitive order and several i:>f their sons, without special prepara- 
tion became preachers or exhorters. The family came to the village of Nunda 
for its school advantages and remained there several years. The voungest son. 
Gardner, whose eyes were never very good, after having the small pox, en- 
listed in the 33rd Regt., and died of sun stroke. He was the first soldier from 
Nunda to die in the service. 

I. I. Nathaniel and Airs, .\clisah Terry Bacon. 

n. \'oIney, married Mercy Jane Hay: *.\urilla. died aged 19; ( )tis, mar- 
ried SaflFard; Elisha, married Knights, sister of Needham and 

of Mrs. Long: Daniel, married in .\unda, Cochrane: Louise: Helen, 

died single : Clarissa, married John A. Wright, son of Bela ^^'. ; .Amelia ; Gar- 
dner, a veteran, died 1862; Sarah, married J. George of Ridge, .\. A'. 

L 2. .Asa Ijacon, married Chloe White ; George Bacon, married 

Press : James liacon. 


Samuel and llethucl, (brothers). 

I. I. Samuel, born 1764, died 1843, buried in ( )akwood Cemetery. 


I. I. Bethuel, wife Rosanna. 

II. I. Josiah, born 1801, farmer, died 1855. aged 54, buried in Oakwood. 
married Emily Page, a teacher, born 1809. died i860, buried in Oakwood; 2. 
Hugh married Lliza Morey, born 1803, died May. 1861. 

III. Children of Josiah: i. Maria; 2. Louise, born 1838. died 1861; 
3. Alvaro. died age 21: j. James; 5. Mary 

Children of Hugh: i. Miles; 2. Hugh, if living at least 73 \ears of 
age; 3. Eliza; 4. Jane. 

Daniel Hamiltor:. buried in Xunda, Mrs. David Hamilton, buried in 
Hunt's Hollow; Jonathan Hamilton, brother of Lee Hamilton, married Helena 
Huggins, sister of William and Ira Huggins, lived in Nunda after 1825 ; *Ed- 
win Mortimer, Co. I. 136111 X. Y., died at Dalton, married Sarah Dunn, lial 
several sons; Charles H. Hamilton, married ^Harriet Hagadorn, buried in Oak- 
wood Cemetery, they had sons and daughters ; Mrs. C. H. Hamilton was sister 
to Chauncey, John and James Hagadorn, the last named were soldiers, all buried 
at Nunda, they were the children of Jonathan and Effy Hagadorn, Mt. Mor- 
ris ; Daniel Hamilton at the age of 16. served as cow boy in the Revolutionary 
War. was employed, but not enlisted, he w.ts not therefore a pensioner. 


Alfred Goldthwait, farmer East Hill, married Caroline I'^iller (daughter of 
Joshua ) . 

II. I. (iilljert X., married ^lary Hunt, he died .Vpril, i<)o8. 

II. 2. Helen, married i '^George W. Fuller of East Hill, Nunda (not a 
relative) ; 2 '''George Breen : 3 *Wil!iam Close (veteran 136th N. Y.) of Nunda. 

III. Children of G. W. h\iller and Helen: William and Caroline haul- 
ier; of Mr. and Mrs. Hreen, I 2 3. Walter. 

II. 3. ^Norton S. (veteran Civil War) farmer, married Jane Seagers. 
Children : 

III. I. Jerome, farmer; 2. *.\delbert, farmer, died lyo". 

II. 4. Mil';. S., e.x-nicrchant, commercial traveler, veteran Civil War, re- 
sides Nunda. married Elizabetli Mills, daughter of *George Mills, stock buyer. 
Children : 

HI. 1. Howard, resides Brooklyn; 2. Bessie, trained nurse, Nunda. 

II. 5. Harriet married Robert Craig of Nunda, resides in Canasaraga. 

Children: i. James. 2. Bessie. 3. Grace. 


Barney \'eley, pioneer. Creek Road near .Xunda village, Mrs. \'eley. 
I. Rosanna, and 2 Morgan. 

D.\LTO,\ .\xu Gkove Bound.\ry. 

I. .\dam Snyder, (Snyder settlement ) and Mrs. Snyder. Their children : 

:I. David Sr., married Hyde; Hanna, married i Daniel Smith, 2 

Edward Bush, 3 Simon Sphoon ; Sally Ann, married *Matt Jackson, .Vlbert 
Remington ■ Sarah Jane, married 1, * Henderson Morrison, 2 * William Bat- 


III. Rose Alorris, married I. Arthur l'"uller, 2 (Lawyer) Evans, Athens, 

II. William, married Alary Miller. 

11. Julia, married Edward Newman; iNlary Snyder, married *Abram 
Poland, wild diet! m the service; *Hinman; Lucetta Christine, married Alonzo 
Davidson, she was drowned in a cistern, at Canisteo. 


1. Jacob Goodamont, a veteran of the War of 18 12, lived in Snyder set- 
tlement, Mrs. Goodamont died many years before her husband, both buried at 

Cliildren : I. *lsaac Cioodamont, married Alar\' J. Burdick, she marrieil, 
second, G. W. Smith, veteran; 2. ^'Jacol), a bachelor: 3. Gatharine, married 
James Storks, of Nunda ; 4. Christina, married APjrdacai Alerithew, son of 
Hiram of .\unda; 5. Cornehiis, married Elvira Town, (bed i8q8. 


C)nce a thrifty farmer, moved into the \'illa,i;"e, kept a temperance saloon, 
became the Angelica and Xnnda mail carrier, developed insanity. To make his 
vehicle vibrate less, he carried a huge stone around over the entire route. He 
was an enthusiast in the prayer circle and had to be checked sometimes for 
excessive emotionalism. He married, liis wife survives him. It is possible, 
his imbalanced mind was due to peculiarities of his parents. ITis father being 
emotional, and his motlier went to the opposite extreme, gave heroic treatment 
to her prayerful husband, upsetting him, as well as his peace, and making his 
journey heavenward, "a hard road to travel." Probably the wife of Socrates, 
or of John Wesley, could have given iild Airs. Lindsley a few points, but it is 
not probable she needed any instruction. 

The other chil(h"en of the household fortunately did not share in poor Sher- 
man's peculiarities, tliey were all level headed. 

2. Olmstead, married (in the west); 3, "AVilliam Lindsley, married 
*Amelia Rawson ; one son, named for his father, survives. 

II. 4. *Mary Lindsley, died single. 


1. George Ewart. born in Ireland, settled in 1828, married Susanna 
Lemen ; 2. Mary Ewart, married L. L. Rathbone, resided in Angelica. L. L. 
Rathbone, Assemblyman, represented our County, Allegany , in 1824-5; 3. 
Nancy Ewart, married Leonard Marshall, an uncle of Rev. James Marshall, 
D. D., President Coe College; 4. *Rachel Ewart, born 1806, married Aaron 
P. Day, born 1808, a farmer, one -of I^;' .Ayrault's principal produce buyers, died 
January I, 1885. 

III. ■ W'ilh'am E. Day, born 1834 in Pirdsall. married I, *Selura Al. Wliit- 
nev ; 2, Alattic Aliller. W. E. Day, moved to Alissouri, dropped dead from 
heart trouble, in igoo. 

2. Susan Electa Day, born 1835, a retired milliner, (single), Dalton, N. Y. 
Note. — A ladv with a marvellous memory of individuals and of dates, to 

whom the autlior is greatly indelited. 


III. 3. IMary X. Day. born March 21. 1838, married Edgar S. Pettys. 

I\". 1. Cora .\. J'ettys. l)orii 1851). married Alfred L. Augustus, foreman 
Construction Work, when the Erie R. R. was double tracked ; 2. Will E. Pettys, 
married Clella A. Lowell. 

II. Margaret, married (43), Thomas h'uller, moved to Genesee Co., Mich. 

II. Martha Ewart, born iSio. married Andrew Hill (see Thomas Hill 
famil}-. ) 

II. Hugh Ewart married i\Iary L. Hill. 

HI. James Ewart, married Elizabeth Preston: Helen, married James 
Babcock : \'ictorine, married Frank Christopher ; George, single. 


'''Thomas Hill (a surveyor, Hcilland Purchase) married Susan McEarl. 

Xote : — \\'hen Mrs. Hill was living on Holland Purchase, far in advance 
of the frontier settlement, being lonesome while her husband was away with 
the Ellicotts surveying, she saw what she supposed to be a black pig and feci it 
daily. It pro\-ed to be a young, black bear, but it served to break the mono- 
tony of her days of solitude. It seems that this botancial doctress was a better 
judge of medicinal plants, than of animals. 'T'letter than half the male tloctors 
of that early day, was Aunt Susan Hill.'" 

II. I. Mar\- Lemira Hill, born jul\, 1805, married '"Hugh Ewart, great 
grandson of Hugh Lemen of Ontario County. This Centenarian of this sec- 
tion died while on a visit to Canaseraga, February 8, IQO/, in her 102nd year. 

III. 2. George, grandson: }ilrs. Ewart li\-ed on ]\Iill Street with her 
grandson, George, a few \ears ago. 

II. 2. Andrew Hill, Pioneer of Grove-Xunda, 1827. afterward of Port- 
age, afterward again of Xunda, married ]\lartha Ewart. 

HI. I. Dr. Hugh Hill, born .-Vpril 10, 183(1. niarried Airs. Mary Poland- 

2. .Sly\-ia Haight of Swains. Sons of Dr. Hill: i. Guy W., born 1880; 2. 
\\'ar(I L., born 1884. 

III. 2. Harlan ITill, born 1840, was Sheriff of Livingston Ci)unty. 

I. William Hill: 2. IVIerc}- Hill, married ' — Doyle: 3. Maria Hill: 4. 

Fanny Hill, married Henry P.ishec. 


I. Rufus R. Ames, Mrs. .\mes. Children: 

H. Levi, Eliza -\nn Starks. 

III. John .\me^ : George: Delivan : *Cliarles : Jane, married \\'irt : 

Celia, married Thomas Parker : Plem-y. married Boardman : Olive, mar- 
ried Frank Steward, who has two children. 


I. Daniel .Ames, married Jane Ruwley: Mrs. .\mes, married second, Syl- 
vester Ames. 

II. Albert .\mes, married Hill. 

II. Ruth Ann Ames, married Richard ^^'arren : Louisa .Ames, single: 
Joanna, married *Hiram Rowle\- : '-Alary, niarried William P. Thompson, (see 
Thompson family), *Elisha, died in the service. 



This ]iionccr family settlt-d near tJK- Snyiler Settlement. Mirth, eccentric- 
ity and pathos (jlten l.ilend in local history, that records "The sin irt and simple 
annals of the poor." 

Richard Bolster, and Mrs. Holster had bnt two children, John and Phebe. 

John was not scholarly, Phebe tried to be, and succeeded in getting a Sum- 
mer School with no large scholars. Some one asked John if Phebe was at 
home, he re])lied, "Xo she is tautin school, an<l if she likes tautin, she will taught 
right along." After this there were nian\ others who asked the same question. 
Another story told of poor John was. that he wanteil a tooth pulled, but did 
not want to pay for the pulling of it, so he hailed the doctor daily as he passed 
along, asking, "How much would you tax me for pulling out a tooth?" After 
the doctor had stated his price on several occasions he became anno\'ed, at 
being stopped daily, so he told him he would pull it for nothing. John con- 
sented to this liberal proposition, and the doctor |)rocured an old discarded set 
of turnkeys, partially i)ulled the tooth, let the turnkey slij) and tried and retried, 
till poor John was nearly franti'j with jiain, then he finished the job and toM 
John, it was the worst job he ever had, and he didn't want another like it. 

When the work commenced on the Deep Cut excavation, John was em- 
ployed there and was the first to lose his life in that gigantic enterprise. 

Phebe not only taugnt school, but liked "taughting" so well she took a 
school of one scholar and became Mrs. .\ustin liolliday. The children of Mr. 
and Airs. Holliday were, Clark and Clarissa Holliday. who no doubt becam'. 
teachers and enjoyed "teaching." 


I. Simon S]Dhoon. piont-er. married Xancy Passage. 

II. I. *George A. .S])hoon (was killed in the war). 

I. Mercy Jane Blowers, who married Henry Fox. for her second husband. 

II. 4. Amanda .Sphoon. married i John Woodard ; 2 Smock. 

Their children : 

III. Rastus Woodard. died in the .Xavy. was sent home with an escort, 
and high commendations; Jessie; George Woodard. 

Children of George, i and 2. Rennie and Glenny. (twins), reside Perrv. 
M. Y. ; 3. Alfred ; 4. Carrie. 

I. Children of George (II. i) Sphoon. 

I. William A. Sphoon. married Kisie hay. photogra])her at Ximda, (see 
Baldwin and Lowell Families ) ; 2. Hattie. married Charles l-'uller ; 3. Eva Ann, 
married Alordacai Blowers. 

II. 4. Martha .Sphoon. married 'Adrian Rathbuii, veteran, resides Oak- 
land, X. Y. 

II. 5. Emma, married J. Campbell Walker (see Walker familv). 

Children of William .A. and Elise Fa) ."Sphoon. 

I\'. I. Charles .Sphoon (teacher) Princi]jal, Tonawanda ; 2. Wells A. 
Sphoon, married Charlotte Waters. 

The widow Woodard, married second, .Smock; Cordelia Woodard, 

married John Alerithew (see Merithew family); Louise Woodard, single; Rus- 
sell, single: William M.; *John married Amanda Sphoon; half brother Oliver 



Settled Niinda 1826 (Lot 105), died of cholera 1852. 

I. Michael Lockwood, married Salina Nash, sister of Alfred Nash. 

II. I. George, married Julia Cleveland; Catharine, married William 
Haines : Clarinda, single ; Johanna ; Harriet, married Combs ; Alva Lock- 
wood, single. 


I. James Haines and wife, children: 

II. I. \Mlliam Haines, married Catharine Lockwood. 

HI. Son Henry W.. Nnnda; 2. Mary ( '-IMrs. Gage); 3. *Henr\- Thomas 
Haines, (produce buyer), married Catharine McLane, son. Arthur Haines, 
N. Y. City ; 4. George ; 5. I'hebe. 


Farmer and Mechanic, Lot iii. married Melissa E. Johnson. 

II. I. Franklin, married Mary ISarnes ; 2. ''Johnson (veteran), married 
in Iowa, died in 1005 : 3. ^Uernard, a carpenter, married "Ellen ( ieer, buried at 

Airs. W'agor married second, Havillah lirewer. Children : 

I\'. \A'alter Wagor, married Cora Gordon. 

Their children : \'. Robert and I-'rank. 

Son of Havillah Brewer, *Clark R. (merchant). Hunt's, married Lizzie 
Whittaker, C. R. B., died in Colorado of consumption. 

II. Mary Wagor, married Luman Brace. 

I. Louise Brace, married George P. Bond, daughter Onolee Bond; 2. Eva 
Dot, married Edward Laughlin ; 3. Leo DeForest Brace married (elsewhere). 


-\m<is Rice tnok u]> a farm Xo. 100, and lived there several \ears, he in- 
duced his brother Elijah to come west and purchase a farm next to his own. He 
did so, but a year after, Amos and family inoved away. 

I. T. Amos Rice. Mrs. Anna Rice: sold farm to .Vbraham liurgess, 182S. 
Children : 

II. I. *Erastus; 2. Alanson, qi years of age is living; 3. *Aamanda ; | 
'■\^'illiam; 5. Esther, in her 85th year; 6. ]\Iary Ann, in her 83rd year; 7. *Ed- 
win ; 8. *George; 9. *Marana. 

1827. I. 2. Elijah Rice, Mrs. Rice. Children: 

II. I. *Samantha, married William D. Paine, millwright, (see Paine 
family); 2. "Diantha. married Jonas Warren, (see Warren family); 3. Zeryia 
(single), has lived on the same farm eighty years; 4. *.\.lvin, bachelor; 5. 

Anna, married Holland ; Zervia alone survives. The Rice family were 



Katvann Clarissa Dunn, was born in England m 1753, died in Xunda 1857. 
age 104 years. 



I. Nathaniel Dunn (half bruthcr to Thomas), horn 1708, died 1849; 2. 
Leonard Dunn, brother to Thomas, born 1783, died 186(1; 3. Thomas Dunn, 
born in New Jersey, 1794, ilied 1876. 

Thomas Dunn I'amily settled in 1823, married Anna liark. Children of 
Thomas : 

III T. *Sarah Ann, born 1822, married I *Henry Miles, 2 *Levi Boone: 
Sarah Ann, died 1900: 2. Selina, born 1826. married 1854. *Eliphalit Doane : 3. 
Elijah, l)()rn 1831, married iSoi, *Louisa Marshall, Elijah Doane, died 11J07; 4. 
Jane M., born 1834, married 1854, i ^Wellington (iuy, 2 William Wood; Jane 
M., died 1905: 5. Albert M.. born 1836, married 1864, Sarah Armilla Gearhart, 
daughter of George Gearhart, Jr. : 6. '''Mary E., born 1830, married 1856, 
*Amos B. Eldridge; Mary E., died 1898; 7. Christopher A., born 1842, single. 

IV. Children of Salina Doane: ]\l}ron E. Doane. unmarried: S. LaFay- 
ette Doane, married, li\es in the West; Mary E. Doane, married Charles 
Kline; Jennie M. Doane. 

Son of Elisha and Louisa Dunn: Marshall I)unn. 

Children of Jane and Wellington ( liiy : Edwanl E. ("iu\ , married Mary 
Hark: Nellie AI. Guy, married Harry j. Stuart. 

Children of Albert and S. Armilla Dunn: I~red E. Dinin, nnmarried ; Bert 
E. Dunn, married Lulu Sokup, resides in Chicago, 111. 

Children of Mary and Amos Eklridge : *Samuel C. Eldridge, married ; 
^Carrie M. Eldridge, married Milo S. Lowell. 

I. "T-iiram Merithew settled on Lot 65, married (first) Lydia McKenney, 
(second), Laura Baile}', first white child born in Grove-Nunda, January 26. 
1820. who died 1907. 

II. I. Mordecai. niarrie<l Christina ('loodamont, of Nunda. 

III. I. Sarah, married Silas Wicks, of Canaseraga : 2. Ella, married 

William Couter ; 3. Lydia, married Miller; 4. Emma, married 


II. 2. Sarah, married Lewis Wctherley. 

II. 3. Lodiska, married Josiah Yencer. 

III. Charlotte Veneer, married Charles Cridille. Children: 

I\'. I. May Cridclle. married Manley .Stevens (daughter, \'. Charlotte 
Ruth Stevens ) ; 2. Belle Griddle. 

III. 2. Am1)rose Veneer (Company F, l,i6th New Vork), killed. 

III. 3. Mora Veneer, married Charles lieardsle}' : sons: 

IV. I. Joseph, 2. Elmer, 3. Clarence, and 4. Charles Beardslev. 
HI. 4. Emory fencer, married Emma ."^teih of ( !rove : sons: 
I\'. I. Lloyd, 2. Floyd. 

III. 5. George Veneer, married Ella Maybee (1. "Lottie, age 16, Jen- 
nie): (k Morgan, married in New Jersex': 7. William 'S'encer. 

I. 3. Lucy Merithew, married John Miller: 4. Achsab, married Samuel 
Jones; 5. Jane, married Frieml Scott. 

11. 6. Hiram, married Jane Barnes, died 11J07. 

Children of Hiram and Laura Bailey ]\Ierithew: 

II. 7. Seneca Merithew. married (first) Town; (second) 

Post : Dalton. 

11. 8. Willis (bachelor). R. V. D. Portage. 


]. 2. John Alerithew, brother of Hiram. Sr.. married (first) * 

\^'oodard, (second) ;\Irs. Ehvell. He was killed in a saw mill in S. E. 


Cliildren : 

11. I. Alaria, ( Airs. Randall ). 

H. 2. Alartha. married (first) "Simpson Colton. died at Dalton : (second) 
1 lemingway Tyler. 

HI. (Irace, Airs. lirownell ; Alary, married *Ernest Wilson, lives at 
r.arkertown ; John, married Grimes; Harry (at home). 

II. ,^. Clara Alerithew. married Thompson. 

Children of Airs. Elu ell : Willis Elwell : Ada Elwell, Canaseraga. 

I. 3. Philander, married L}-dia Yencer. 

II. I. Eiiphenna, married Knowles. 

H. 2. Hiram (veteian), married Adelia . Hiram Alerithew 

was killed by falling" down the stairs of the Annex, Livingston Block, 1903 ; 
Philander, Jr. (veteran), lived in Alichigan; '■■Laura; '''Lucy; Belle, married 
(first) Clark; (second) Piper. 

Jnsiah Smith family, settled next to the (_irove line, sold farm to John 

II. I. Daniel Smith, married Hannah Snyder. 

H. 2. Henry Smith, married (first) Fanny Swift, (second) Airs. 

Hinman N'olan, sister to Alexander Hinman. Children : 

\\\. Alelissa, married Joseph Guptill (veteran); Emily, married George 

II. 3. Josiah, married Burge ; 4. Benjamin, single; 5. Lucy, mar- 
ried Thomas G. Lockwood ; 6. Sarah, married Benjamin .-\lilrich ; 7. Jane, 
married Jacob Warner; 8. Eunice, married Tinrnthy Alahie : g. Eliza, mar- 
ried Armenian Bibbins, son, George Bibbins. 

Children of Sarah (Smith) Aldrich ; Alphonso. a Lieutenant. Civil A\'ar. 
married Alary Beech of Oakland; Alary Jane, married (first) (Jvicl \Mieeler, 
(second) Havens; Alilan (veteran), married Alary Cook. 

Children of Lucy (Smith) Lockwood: George M. Lockwood, veteran, 
chief clerk. Interior Department. Pension and Real Estate Agency, Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; *Sarah, teacher and artist, single, died ; *Lias, teacher. Department 
Clerk in New York City: I'rances Winifred, married Harry J. Decker, Depart- 
ment Clerk, W'ashingtnn and elsewhere, son of Rev. W'm. P. Decker. 


.■\bout the year 1831 a post office was established at East Hill, simultane- 
ijusly with the change of the post office from Wilcox Corners, to Nunda. The 
latter was called Nunda Valley. 

William Robinson and his son, Rufus, were the only postmasters. The 
iiffice was discontinued in 1860. The sons of William Robinson, Leonard and 
Rufus. the latter but fifteen years of age, carried the mails on foot from Nunda 
to Dansville, via East Hill, and from Dansville to Nunda. This office served 
also for a part of the town of Ossian. It was afterwaril moved across the 
town line into the Bisbee Settlement, and called Bisbee. It is now known as 
West View. 

\\ illiain R(.)liiiisoii and his wife. Marii:)n Caswc-ll. and their three children 
settled on East Hill not far from the ( )ssian lionndary. There were only 
blazed liridle paths at the time. Their nei,i;hl)Ors were the Coys, the Austins 
and the W'alsworths. The children were Leonard. Rufus and Sophia. Rufus, 
who afterward lived in this villaL;e, was Init fourteen years of age. Leonard 
was older. 

IL I. Leonard, married Eunice W'alswortli. Children of Leonard and 
Eunice W'alswortli Robinson : Walter, a \eteran of the Civil War : Pauline. 
a lecturer and elocutionist; Jane, Mrs. Gammon; Daniel, killed in the Ci\il 
W^ar ; Louise, married John Colar of Dansville. who died in 1908. agetl 83. 

IL 2. Sophia Robinson, married Signor. 

n. 3. Rufus Robinson, born in 1817, married Sarah Walker, Ixirn in 
1821, who at this time is living but in feeble health, with her voungest son, 
Frank E. Their children were se^•en in numljcr: William, married Hannah 
McMillan; George, married Esther Moore; Franklin, died at the age of 17; 
Edward, married Sarah Beecher ; Emma, married W^illiam L, Brown; Her- 
bert, married .Mice Armstrong; and Frank E. Robinson, married Hattie Her- 
rington, and lives in this village. For the last few years he has been in the 
furniture and undertaking business. His widowed mother lives with him. 
He has a son and a daughter. Ralph ( grad. X. H. S. in KjoS. ) 


*John and *Jane Coy were doulitless early settlers on the Hill, as thcv 
were buried at Wilcox Corners, which indicates that there was the principal 
burying place at the time of their death. 

Their children: I. ''Tlarvey ; 2. *Elma; 3. *Calista: 4. *Joyce, married 
M. Reichard ; 5. *Hoel, bachelor, died loof); 6. Sally, single. 

The farm is still in possession of the family. .Sally is the onlv survivor. 


L A\"ery Walsworth (\eteran, 1812). 

H. Daniel (was eighteen when he came to Xunda), married Sarah 
Reichard; Xancy, married Gammon; Eunice, married Leonard Robin- 
son; Abigail, married Charles King; Sherlock, married. 

Children of Daniel and Sarah; Anna, married Thomas Keating; John, 
married Elizabeth Juggard ; Daniel Avery, married Llenriette \\'oolworth, 
Rawson .Street, Xunda, have daughter and son. 

Children of Eunice and L. Robinson: *Walter Roljinson, veteran of Civil 

War; Pauline Robinson, a lecturer and elucutionist ; Jane, married 

Gammon; *Daniel Robinson, killed in the Civil \\'ar; Louise (single). 

Children of .\bigail and Charles King (see Amos King family). 

OFFICE— 1830 

I. John and Mrs. Rulison. Children: 

I I. Mercy Ann, married Alonzo \'eeley, son of Barney V. Veeley; Maria, 
married William Consalus ; Betsey, married Harve}- Chittenden ; John, mar- 
ried Booth; Charles, married .Mosher ; Emily, married (first) 

Torrey Smith, (second) .Vmos King. 


Children of Harvey Chittenden: 

I. Oscar, clerk for Paine Bros., clerk for produce buyers, T. J- Batterson 

& Co., married • Angier ; 2. Edgar, married (first) Laura Farnsworth, 

(second) Anice Farnsworth. 

Children of Edgar and Laura: Frank B., married (first) Carrie Paine, 
davighter of Wells Paine, (second) Mary Searles. Children of Frank and 
Carrie : Harry and Florence. 

Wells Chittenden, married ; Charles, married Loup, also three 

sisters of Oscar and Edward ; IMary Chittenden, married A. B. nunn. School 
Commissioner; Aline, married Emory Booth, Springwater; Laura, married 
Wellington Walker. 


Henry Chandler, Airs. Sally Chandler. Melancv, married Philip DePuy, 
uncle to Peter; Eunice died when a young lady: Riifus, horn in Nunda. 1822, 
enlisted and died in the service, 1864, aged 41, married Electa Frost, left one 
daughter; Sarah, married Joshua Pittenger : Jane, married Byron Seelye. 

L Amos King, farmer near Ossian line, married Rulison. Chil- 
dren : 

H. Charles King, married Abigail W'alsworth, and while he was de- 
spondent, suicided. Mrs. King wandered away, and was never found. 

in. I. Eli H. King enlisted in Company I Dragoons, received an injury 
that led to his discharge. He married Eleanor Alvard, daughter of Simeon ; 
his daughter, (IV.) Anna, married Howard Dana, formerly of Nimda. They 
have two sons. Eli H. King, died January 2, 1908, and is buried at Xmida. 2. 

Sylvenus King a cousin of Sylvenus Ellis, married Spencer, resides in 


II. 2. Henry King, married Lemira Hay, daughter of Warren Hay of 

Nunda. Daughters (III.) i. Delia King (Mrs. Robert Holmes): 2. 

King, Mrs. Hay. 

IV. Belle Holmes, married Harry Kellogg: Clarence Holmes, married 
Kate Marsh ; Grace Holmes, single. 

II. 3. Eliza King, married Wesley Ellis (see Ellis family). Wesley Ellis, 
married Eliza King: '''Sylvanus Ellis, .\. M., Superintendent of Schools, 
Rochester, (see College List for Nunda) : married *Sarah Manette Peck, 
teacher of District Schools in Xunda: Mar}- Ellis, married Michael Mundy; 
Clarissa, married James Norris, veteran : Rachel. 



I. John Close, born in Pennsylvania 1804, married in 1827 (first) Re- 
becca VanDyke, born Eagle-Nunda 1808 and died September 28, 1863, chil- 
dren nine ; married (second) in 1869 A. Hynes, born Livingston County 

1812. Their children : 

II. I. Sarah A.; 2. Mary E. : 3. William A., born 1833, a good soldier, 
married Catherine Boyd, born in Cayuga County 1836 (married 1857), enlisted 
in Company I, I36tli New York, 1862. wounded, served term of enlistment, 
married (second) Mrs. Helen Goldtliwait-FuUer-Breen (see i3''>th Regiment), 
buried at Oakwood. His children : 

III. Harriet A.: David L.. born 1867; Katie R. 

II. 4. Eleanor, married Henry K. Havens, veteran, 136th Regiment, died 
1907, aged 79; Richmond Havens, married Mertis Fay. (second) Mary Clos- 
ser; WilHam, married Mariam Fay; Clayton Havens, married; Georgia Hav- 
ens, daughter of William, married Charles Rathbon ; Fdith Havens, daughter 
of Richmond (a member of familv). 


It is not known if this faniil}' are descendants of the Austins of the first 
decade of settlement or not ; their location would indicate that thev are. The 
family were patriots during the Civil War. for four of their sons were in the 
service. The children's names were: Albert. George. Benjamin. Church (be- 
came a clergyman), Silas, Miranda and Alniira. 


The heads of these families were veterans of former wars. The \\'als- 
.vorths settled in Xunda : the A\ oolworths. across the line in Ossian. The 
pioneer \\'oolworth father was a veteran of the Revolutionarv war. and the 
pioneer Walsworth of the war of 1812-14. 

I. Avery \A'alsworth. veteran, married Anna Brown. 

II. Daniel (eighteen when he came to Nunda), married Sarah Reichard ; 

;\'ancy, married Gammon ; Eunice, married Leonard Robinson, son of 

\\'illiam, pioneer, brother of Rufus ; Abigail, married Charles King (see Amos 
King and family) ; Sherlock, married elsewhere. 

Children of Daniel. Sr. and Sarah (R) \\'alsworth : 

III. Anna, married Thomas Keating; John, married Elizabeth Jaggard ; 
Daniel. Jr.. married Henrietta Woohvorth. This family live in Nunda village; 
the\- have a son and a daus'hter. 


Our Third Decade, 1828-1838 — Stores. Streets and Caxal Making. With 
AIoRE Settlers. 

AS our first decade of our first town of Xunda inaugurated log school 
houses, saw mills and asheries ; and the second town and decade, grist 
mills and tanneries, and ri\'er navigation from the vicinity now known 
as Portage, so the third town with its circumscribed boundaries inaugurated 
during the first part of the third decade, a village of stores with two church 
edifices. The latter half may be called Canal days, when the longest branch 
of the Erie Canal was to be constructed. This brought into prominence a class 
of energetic men, known as contractors, and the building of locks, bridges and 
excavations of a canal channel of ordinary depth, and the Deep Cut (extraor- 
dinary — through a Iiilli. and the tunneling through Portage rock and shale 
for a channel for a tunnel, inaugurated an enterprise greater than any the 
State had ever engaged in. The forests of Allegany were calling to the City 


Samuel Swain, Jr. 
Pioneer Merchant 


Pioneer Merchant 

Utley Spencer, Esq. 
Merchant and Postmaster 

Walter Whitcomb 
Born 180S 

by the Sea to come and possess their treasure if the}- could trans|)ort it. The 
Legislature heard this "Call of the W'ilderucss." \oiced by tlie representatives 
of Cattaraugus, Allegany, Livingston and ( ienesee Counties, and the ready 
response from the Hudson to Manhattan, anil the decision to do this strenuous 
task, let it cost what it would, was pronounced and decisive, and a survey 
was made from Rochester to Olean. 

The proclamation having been made that this was to l:)e, and that farmers 
and lumbermen along the entire length of the (_ienesee were to have a means 
of supplying a long felt want in the East, from out the abun<lance of the 
West, led to a speedy settlement of the available lands, especially on iiea\-y 
timber lands, and the eastern forests of the town fcjund rapid settlement. 


Some of the settlers of this year it is more difficult tu name. In and near 
the \illage were, first of all, an accession from Oakland of the Swains, Blanch- 
ard, J. 11. Osgoodby, from Oak Hill of the widow of Jesse Adams and Utley 
Spencer, of Rev. Elijah Bennett's family, and the same year Lyman Herrick 
and some of the Dakes. Others who settled on farms were Wilson Roberts, 
Stephen Haynes, William Stephenson. William lloyt, Jonas Ructer, Ur. 
Barnabas Wright, llenr}- Townsend, and the widow Smith, the last in the 
village : also ^^'arren Daniels, the cloth dresser from ( lakland, and Allen Beech, 
on the county line. 


The narrative of the coming of this family by team from their far eastern 
home I ha\e seen and read. It was written down from the statement of Alfred 
Swain. They came with a team, and brought with them a cow. The cow 
would, after a few days of their journey, feed along the wa}', then come on 
and rejoin the family without any driver ur driving. Thi-^ \\;is very pleasing, 
and saved the l)oys many long walks. The oldest sun, if born in 1804, was 
fourteen and the youngest fuur or five. At night the jjarents would get per- 
mission to spread their bed on the tloor of some pioneer, or at some inn, while 
the five boys slept in the wagon or on some hay luft. After many da}'s' jour- 
ney they arrived Ijy the ri\er road to Xunda, Oak Hill, near or at the Latham 
Coffin farm. Here a scjuatter, one of the AlcXutt's. was, by the owner of the 
premises, made to give up his cabin to the new comers; and here life com- 
menced anew under man\- trials. I""irst of all their trials they found that they 
had only $5 of money left, and, to add to their tribulations, the main source 
of their food supply gave out, the faithful cow having died. She had won all 
their hearts by her fidelity to the traveling household, and there were more 
besides young Jamie who shed tears over her sad fate. 

\\"hat in this day would a homeless family of seven, with only a team and 
the few articles that could be carried in a wagon along with seven persons, do? 
Well I expect conditions have changed. There were axes and a gun, and 
every one of that household was ready to do his part. The writer does not 
know what they did first: but one day in 1818 the two Samuels took a gun- 
may be two of them — and tramped through the woods from old Onondao, to 
what is now^ Nunda village, an uninhabited place, and there, where the Truth 
office now stands, and where the Eagle Hotel Iiarn once stood, .Samuel, Sr., 


shot a bear: and tlown by the Mill Street bridge — the first one — a deer had 
come for drink, and that also was killed, so there was no scarcity of meat in 
that household for many days to come. A Mr. Lane of Hume-Nunda, a cousin, 
supplied the money to start business, and a saw mill was erected where a 
small stream furnished water power, and business commenced in earnest. 
The stream, however, proved inadequate in summer, and the family came, a 
few years afterward, to Oakland, and built a small frame house on the very 
spot where the Edgerley place is to-day. David Edgerley, who knew these 
people, came to see them, and fancying the place with its new frame house, 
bought it, and the Swains moved to the Orton farm, and bought it, too. How 
could $5 have added two ciphers to it in so short a time? In ten years from 
the time they landed at Oak Hill they had grown from poverty to a comfort- 
able competence, and the older boys to men, and when they arrived at Nunda 
they were ready for business. Where had they gained the money to build 
and equip a grist mill? By carrying his goods by water to a good market. 
The market would not come to him so he went with his goods to the market. 
Samuel, Sr., was one of those who took the Genesee by the throat and made 
it carry his lumber to the Erie Canal without paying it or any one a cent of toll. 

Do you find the story of all pioneers alike? There are those wdiose energy 
fund is so large that it bridges all chasms of difficulty and seizes opportunity 
by the forelock and makes it junior partner in successful enterprises. 

Is pioneer history dull? It would be if all of the pioneers were patient 
plodders, gathering moss along the same ruts or routine of life. But some 
rolling stones roll u]) success in large wads and take the chances on its adhesive 
qualities. And when it was rumored that the Swains were going to use the 
Keshequa and make it turn the big wheels of a grist mill, there was big joy 
in the little village, for a grist mill was a recognized necessity. 

We will let imagination have her innings as to the welcome these win- 
ners of former success received. 

The writer is of the opinion that the big six-fold family of Samuel Swain, 
Sr., was, from 1828 to 1830, the most useful family that made Nunda for those 
years expand like a green bay tree. 

There is nothing like a grist mill in a new community to encourage agri- 
culture. So well was this known that the Land Agents, like Williamson and 
the \\'adsworths, built them in various places. But Lindsaj^ Joslyn and 
Samuel Swain, Sr., unaided by Judge Carroll, started this needed improve- 
ment. \\'hy live in this anne.x to the richest valley then known of, and fail 
to utilize its advantages? 


The frame school house that served the growing village for the next 
seventeen years, though not fine in architecture or anything to boast of as to 
size, was a great improvement on the McSweeny log school house. 

The Tobey grocery, with Yankee notions and possibly some of the loom 
productions of Mrs. Seth Barker and others, was a real improvement. Then 
Waite Joslyn got his leg crushed in a threshing machine and so a store had to 
be built for him, and L. Joslyn built the ^^'. B. Whitcome store, and Riley Mer- 
rill built another. Samuel Swain, Jr., built the Durx building, and had a store 

and an ashery, and the writer has seen the books where he trusted out the 
goods. It would be mean to tell how many of the very best meeting house 
people got trusted for something to use for medicine, or what rich people like 
Lewis Gould worked for $10 a month for this enterprising merchant. 

At the imminent risk of filling his buok full, the writer tries to name the 
members of the Swain famil}-. 


I. Samuel Swain, Sr., born 1778, died 1851, married Betsey Prescott, 
both buried in Oakwood. 

Second Generation 

II. Alfred, born 1804. married Gertrude Pittenger; Samuel, Jr., married 
(first) Cynthia Jefferies, (second) Clara Jeiiferies, died 1885, aged 75; Edward, 
born 1808, married Almira Waite, daughter of John, manufacturer and super- 
visor ; IX-ivid. l)(>rn 1812, grist miller, died 1881, aged 69, married Malina Smith, 
the only li\-ing member of the six heads of families; James, a druggist and 
school-book and newsdealer, married Adeline E. T. Morrison, a teacher in the 
Nunda Literary Institute, and moved West. James Swain died at Fort Dodge, 
and ]\Irs. J. Swain at Odin, 111. 

Third Generation 
Children ni .\lfrcd and Gertruile : 

III. I. *Mar}' E., born 1835, married *C)rlando W. Barker, son of Seth ; 
2. Harriet, married ,\lexander Thorp. ( Capt,'un ist Dragoons, killed ) ; 3. 

Sophia, married Pittenger: 4. *Susan, married Van Alstine ; 5. 

Cornelia, married Scott Barriger, resides at Portage, N. Y. ; 6. fane, single, 

art teacher, Xorfolk Seminary. North Cardlina ; 7. Samuel A., married 

Van Ostrand ; 8. W. Edward, married (second) \'eley. Grove, N. Y. 

9. *Fred F., inventor of a lubricator that bears his name. He was shot by an 
employee, but not fatally. 

The widow of Edward Swain married (second) Hon. Samuel Skinner. 
Children of Edward Swain : 

HI. I. Helen E., a talented musician, died young; 2. Agnes Almira; 3. 
Flora Estelle, married W. S. P. Alathews, a singing teacher; 4. Septrina At- 
lanta; 5. Martha; 6, John T. ; James (married in the West). 

IF. *Samuel, Jr., married (first) Cynthia Jefferies, (second) Clara Jef- 
feries (sisters). Children of Samuel and Cynthia; 

III. I. *Henry ; 2. *Samuel ; 3. *Betsy ; 4. *Laura ; 5. *Cora. Children of 
Samuel and Clara; i. Charles; 2. Julia (^Mrs. Healy) ; 3. Anna; 4. Catherine. 

Children of David and Malina ; 

HI. I. Emma, married Addison J. (jordon, veteran of the Civil War, 
died 1887; 2. *Frank, journalist, died in 1886; 3. Charles, married Eva Purdy ; 
James, married Mary Prescott. 

Fourth Generation 

Grandchildren of Samuel, Jr.: Chihl (if Julia, who married Joshua Healy; 
Anna Healy : daughters of Charles, who married Emma Wood ; Clara and 

Grandchildren of David and Malina: Children of Addison J. (Giordan and 
Emma; Frank; Cora, married \\'alter Wagor; Fred and Harry. 

Fifth Generation 

Cliililren of ^^"alter and Cora \\'ai;or. Robert and Frank. (II.) Mrs. 
Malina Swain, (III) ]\Irs. Emma Gordon and her children and grandchildren 
are all of the Swain family now living in Nunda. 

The Jeffries family were: Hannah, Mrs. Dr. \V. Z. Blanchard, son, John 
Celsus, born 1823 at Oakland : 2. Freedom ; 3. John, a dentist ; 4. Amesa, whose 
widow, Catharine Canfield Jeffries, married Rev. Luke Colby, her son, Knelon 
and John Norman Jeft'eries : and Cynthia and Clara, first and second wives of 
Samuel Swain, Jr. 

Dr. W. Z. Idanchard had been in partnership with farmer Nathaniel 
ClouL^h in a store in Oakland, where farmer Clough lost several thousand 
dollars, and the Doctor made aljout the same sum. The Doctor came to Nunda 
in 1821), built the double house on State Street, and bought Riley Merrill's 
store now on Portage Street, and failing to secure a second partner soon sold 
it out and moved to Geneseo. His son, Celsus, was a rusher, pushed every- 
body out of his way, and looked out only for Xo. 1. His father sent him to 
Temple Hill Academy. Geneseo, but the restraint there proved too great and 
he ran away, hired out on a farm, and then joined a band of Indians, then went 
\\'est, bought 50 acres of land, and when his father found him he induced 
him to study law. He became a great lawyer, a great political stump speaker, 
and finally ran for Governor of Michigan: Init he was a Democrat and the 
Democrats were not the winners. He made a fortune in a lumber deal, but 
died at the age of 83 of a hemorrhage of the lungs. 

The Indians called him ( )])tusue, which means, to push, to crowd, and 
evidently the name was not a misfit, lie ilied March 8, 1805. 

The double house on State Street near IJarrell's shop, that needs to be torn 
down, is all that is left to recall the Dr. Blanchard family. 

The yoimg men of the Jeft'eries family. John Xorman and Knelon. were 
as popular and attractive 50 years ago as any in town. 


Nunda \'.\llev — Its rKo(;RK.--s axd Chaxges. 

IN 1831 a post office was established in the new village, and called Xunila 
Vallev. It was located in the Joslyn store, corner of State and Alill Street, 
and Lindsley Joslyn was the postmaster, and I'tley Spencer clerk of the 
store and deputy postmaster. Waite Joslyn. who had lost a liml) in a threshing 
machine, was nominally the merchant. 

Other stores were built and other storekeepers came. The Lyman Tobey 
grocery, now the East Street market, the oldest store in the village, stood north 
of the Joslyn store. Riley Merrill built the small corner store where Whitcomb 
& Richmond started their store in 1835. It has been twice moved. Who built 
the stores that made the town once such a fine business center is often asked, 
and not easily answered. From 1831 to 1834 there were built the very stores 
that are on the east side of the street. They were numbered from i to 6 and 
were called Merchants' Row : those on the west side. Farmers' Exchange. 
Blessed be the newspapers and all who advertise, for such only give the facts, 

and those only, the wise, advertise and so are remembered. Dr. Gihnore 
built one (the Craig store) : ^^'. D. Hammond caused three to be built; Rich- 
mond & \\'hitcomb built one. now torn down to make room for the village 
building. Ouartus Barron built one. the one facing east and also State Street. 
Albert Page and H. D. Gardner built a block of three and called it Emporium. 
Some one built a block corner of First and State Street and called it the Em- 
]Mre Block ; it was liurned in 1852. Roswell Bennett bought the store built by 
Lvman Tobey and mo^■e<l it to East Street, so his daughter, Mrs. Charles Her- 
rick, savs. W. II. Hammond Ixnight the Chipman store that was Iniilt on the 
Hugh McXair i)lace. and mo\ed it ti> a driveway between the Earl Street 
market and the lunporium lilock. .Morris I'hilliiis may ha\e 1)uilt the narrow 
store next to Xunda House : at any rate he owned it. Some of the newer ones, 
such as Mrs. Lake's store, the L. 1'.. Warner sti:)re, the stores in the Living- 
ston block, Ijuilt by ^\'illard Wood, most all know about : and the five stores 
in the I'nion block are too recent to need a chriniicler. 

If any person insists that Xumla has been a stand-still town, e\'en the 
ver\- buildings will brand the story as false, for at least too of them ha\e been 
moved from their first location, and all the dthers have changed in appearance. 


This year the hamlet known as liuljbeH's Corners changed its name to 
Nunda \'alle}-. The post office at Wilcox Corners was still nn the side hill 
and was called Xunda post office. The \\'ilcox family had gone. East Hill 
had a post office of its own and the other new post office must have a name. 
It was locate<l in the valley, hence its name. But this }ear a greater change 
was to take place. Watson, from Geneseo, a brother of the ^\'atson who kept 
the Big Tree Ta\'ern there, had rented or bought at least a year before, the 
frame house tavern of Alanson Hub1)ell. Liiidsley Joslyn had Ijuilt or bought 
the corner store (the Walter B. W'hitcomb store) and his sun, Waite Joslyn, 
was the merchant and the father became the postmaster, the first the village 
ever had. The public sqitare or plaza had been laid out. East Street now 
terminated at the public square. Blocks of stores were provided for, and the 
building of them commenced. The Eagle Hotel and barn was in process of 
completion with proportions that seemed at that day magnificent. Evidently 
the builder and proprietor had been selling most of his half of lot 28, located 
in the very heart of the village, and most of the proceeds were used in the 
construction of this building. Opposite to it was a new store, facing East 
Street and the "Eagle," and on the west the Plaza. Ouartus Barron was the 
Iniilder, and J. H. Osgoodby had the contract for the construction. 

West of the Eagle, on the present site of the post office, stood the "Jones 
barn," where the Baptists had worshiped since 1827, and now two churches 
w^ere being added ; one. the Baptist, on the corner of Mill and Church Streets ; 
and the Presbyterian I now the Methodist), not far from, Init east of the 
present site of the latter edifice. William D. Hammond had come from Hume 
and had built the house on Portage Street now known as the Gunsmith Ben- 
nett place, and east of this John S. Wright had erected a house, for he was a 
builder, the house lately occupied by ]\riss Rachel Bennett. Possibly the great 
barn-like building attached to this place, in which the first foundry was located 


a few years afterward, liad served as the Hotel barn for Hubbell and Watson. 
Its location back from Portage Street may serve to show the people of the 
present day where East Street formerly was (before Portage Street and Mill 
Street had any existence), just in front of this building. 

At this time we are informed by the late Mrs. W. D. Hammond that there 
were on the Plaza no less than two frog ponds, densely populated, and that 
in their season the evening concerts given by their inhabitants have never since 
been rivaled in some particulars. But W. D. Hammond had come to stay and 
to have a hand in the building and unbuilding of the village. He bought some 
of the land in the rear of one of these ponds, and caused them to be drained, 
built an office for himself and became for the rest of his life a Justice of the 

Just when this space between the stores of Ouartus liarron on the north, 
and Joslyn on the south, was filled out with stores is to the writer unknown. 
Several remember Lyman Tobey's grocery and notion store, located near the 
site of Peck's City Drug Store, before the construction of that building; others 
insist it was the same building, while Mrs. Augusta Herrick, daughter of Ros- 
well Bennett, of Portage, 1821, and of Nunda much later, says it was the 
present East Street market. The Swain store, or block, for the building south 
of it is not new or modern, was built about this time. Some say there are 
indications that this Ijuilding has once been moved ; but if so it was only moved 
a few feet, when Portage Street was given an existence in its present form and 
when East Street was cut off at the square. 


Some of the Town M.xkers — It Takes Merchants and AIechanics To M.\ke 
A Town — About 1830 These Came. 

I. Elihu Dickenson ( Gil)bs Place). 

II. His daugher married David Holmes ( wagonmaker), Buffalo Street 
(F. H. Gibbs, foreman). 

HI. I. Elihu Holmes and 2 Erastus Holmes, were his sons. Holmes 
Street is named for him. 

II. 2. Enos Dickenson, owned Elmwood and afterward the Dickenson 
farm he bought of Ralph Page. His wife's name was Berry. 

HI. Enos, Jr., Elihu, 2d, married (first) Almira Perrin, (second) Miss 
Doty ; Eliza, married A. Keith ; William ; ( )rren, who sold out and went West. 

II. Emolus C). Dickenson, nephew to Elihu, came to Nunda in 1850, 
married Lydia Starkweather, and had four daughters ; was farmer, drover, 
merchant and Supervisor. (See photo of Supervisors of Nunda). 


Hon. Nathaniel Coe, ex-member of Assembly, came from Cayuga County 
to Portage-Nunda. He was a cousin of Yates Bennett, Charles D. Bennett 
and Joel Bennett. He built a house on Mill Street (repaired by Horace Dake), 
married Mary, a bright woman with poetic tendencies. His sons were Law- 

rence \\'., Cliarles C. ami Eugene F. The family went to W'ashingtnn Terri- 
tory, and the sons were conspicuous in navigating with steamboats the Colum- 
bia River. 


\\'illiam Haldane, architect ami huihler of I'~irst Presbyterian Church — 
now Methodist Episcopal Church^built Episcopal rectory and lived there. 
He built the Cobblestone house for Ouartus Barron ; also Moses Barron's farm 
house and Airs. Bowhall's house, which was burned in igoS. 

Mr. Webb built Benson- Lake Mrs. Johnson house. 

Thomas Horner, born in 1800, died 1881, aged 81 ; wife, Jane Horner. 

Mr. Horner, at one time a prominent business man, born in 1803, died 
1893, aged 90. 

I. John Morey, born 1794, died 1805, aged 71 : Jane Morey, born 1793, 
died 1866, aged yT,. 

II. Eliza ]\Iorey, born 1803, died 1861, aged 58, married H, M. llrailley. 
(See Bradley family.) 

The Chapins families came into the village about this time, and the son, 
John, built the house where Esquire Hammond lived so long. He also had a 
cabinet shop east of it, which serves Elmer Van Gilder of Church Street as a 
dwelling house. His father. John. Sr., li\ed east of the Baptist Church, and a 
grandson, William Dunn, lived with them. William, when thirsty, would 
walk to Dansville, fifteen miles — almost daily — for drink he could not obtain 
at home. Xo Indian was fleeter than Bill Dunn. lie was indispensable at 
e.xhiliitions and because of his speed liecanie constaljle. 


This small family of excellent people recjuire but little space. The Deacon 
had been married thrice. He was not connected with the Zadock Herrick 

family, nor the John Herrick family from East Hill. His first wife was . 

his second wife was a sister to Amos Carpenter, and his third \^•ife was Mrs. 
]\raria W inched Nurse. 

Lyman Herrick settknl first where James M. Carroll "\\'ax\" now lives. 
He afterward for a time owned Elmwood, which was at that time simply a 
farm with ordinary buildings upon it. In connection with Rev. Luke Colby 
the)' had a nursery — then much needed — for every new farm needed an 

II. Elsie Elvira, his only daughter, married (first) *Abraham Dake, 

(second) Wiley, A niece married Harvey Farley, School Commissioner 

of Springwater. 

From 1826 to 1828 these families settled here: 

Jackson Robinson and wife, Caroline M.. and son, Peter, who studied for 
and became a Baptist clergyman. Josiah and Elizabeth Chandler, and daugh- 
ter, Bertha, who became Mrs. Hagadorn. Archibald Colburn and wife. Char- 
ity. Jonathan and Lucy Colburn and son, Charles. Asa and Nellie Pierce 
(Jonathan Miller farm) ; children, Diana, Julia and Marian. Merritt Colbv 
family. Mrs. Colby, son Col. Newton B. Colb}- (See Book I\')) married 
(first) Marv Chase: children. I'red and Frank, born in Nuiida (Frank a clergy- 

man), Kittio. l)orn in Curnin,^-, Walter B., born in Nunda, and William; mar- 
ried (second I Mrs. \'ictoria Whitcomb Wood, son. Robert Colby, also a clergy- 
man. Rev. Luke Colby (a brother), married Airs. Catharine Jeffries, son. 
Prof. John P. Colliy (see College list); Knelon Jeffries, son of Mrs. [eft'ries. 


The Grovers, who came to Nunda about 1831. were the sons of Solomon 
Grover, a veteran of 1812. His first wife was lletsey Stone, and his second, 
Betsey Barber. None of these three e^"er lived in Nunda. The veteran died 
at Oconomowoc, Wis. Their children were: 

L Cela, married Lummis ; (2. William, 3. Salmon, and 4. Ethan, 

did not live in Nunda). 

1. 5. N'anc}', married I)a\id Hatch, Sr., who died in Nunda. 

n. I. Silas Hatch (clerk for his uncles), married Abby Huft'man. 2. 
*\'olne_\' Idatch, died at Milwaukee. 3. *Mary Jane, married Htigh McNair. 4. 
*Miranda, married Joel C. Chase (^see Chase family). 5. *Charles, died at Fon- 
dulac. 6. David, living in the W'est. 

L 6. Daniel Grover, kept Eagle Hotel, married Mary Huntington, left 
Nunda in 1845. 

n. Alilo, born 1828, of Oconomowoc, ^^'is. ; *Eunice, born 1831, married 

Pursell, of Springwater : Daniel, Jr., born 1840, married (wife died): 

he died i()02 ; Laura, born 1836, married H. C. Carpenter. 

Mrs. H. C. Carpenter, born in Nunda. furnished these famil_v statistics. 
Her brother, Milo, lives with her at Oconomowoc, ^^'is. 

L 6. Silas Grover, was the first of family to settle in Nunda and one of the 
pioneer merchants of the place. He was a very popular man. His store was 
more like the stores in older settlements. He had a partner sometimes, and at 
others depended on clerks. Hiram C. Grover and a cousin named W'ood- 
bury were his first clerks. Silas Hatch, his nephew, clerked for him. Grover 
& Noyes was the firm at one time, Grover Brothers at another. 

*Silas Grover married *Submit Huffman, sister of Col. Huft'man. He 
continued in business tmtil the railroad was completed from HornelIs^•ille 
to Attica, and then became the first agent at Nunda Station, in 1852, 

The Grovers and Platches were L'niversalists. 

L 8. Hiram C. Grover, l)orn 1812, clerk, merchant, speculator, house 
builder and marketman, was a man of versatile accomplishments, a fine book- 
keeper and could do most anything. C)f genial temperament, he was a leader 
in the social life of his day. He took life less seriously than was customary 
in those days, when setlateness was the rule, and mirthfulness the exception. 
( See photo. ) 

The wife of Hiram Grover, Emil}' Curtis, was a dignified, quiet lady, as 
unlike her vi\-acious husband as could be. She was a favorite with all who 
knew her; something of a "Martha" in liousehold matters, faithful to every 
detail of duty. 

The children of H. C. and Emily Gro\er were: *Jane (better known as 
Jennie), who became Mrs. \\'illiam Craig; Mary, now Mrs. ^^'. H. ^^'illett, of 


Iloniell, both skilled in music; *I"rcil C., a painter with artistic skill, died in 
igof;. ( )f these, only Mrs. Willett is li\inL;. She resides in Hornell, N. Y. 
For children of William and Jennie Craig see James Craig- family, 1852. 

9. Betsey Ann Grover married Leonard L. Church, a licensed clergyman 
of the Universalist Church. 

10. Morgan Grover, married Harriet Barber. 
III. I. *Surendus Ladorma. 2. Hiram. 

This completes the family record furnished by Airs. Laura Gro\'er Car- 


Widow Smith famil}' ; <laughtcrs, Cleopatra, Sophia and Agnes : also a son. 
Smith, the carpenter, built Peck-Dake house; children, Jane, Charlotte. Demas, 
.Martha, Nelson, James. Also families of David Smith, Williain Smith, Jesse 
Smith (wife Polly) and Peter Smith. 


The Smith sisters, who came to Nunda after their married life began, 
were daughters of Phineas and Sylvia Smith of Heath. Mass. Mr. Smith died 
January 14, 1848. and his widow afterward married Joseph \\'aldo and lived 
in Xunda. All these people were Presbyterians and when some of them 
settled, in 1831, it was in time to take part in the new Presbyterian Church 
movement that was inaugurated that }ear in a different part of the town. 

Nathaniel Chandler settled first on the State Road and succeeded so well 
that he sold his farm and bought the larger one extending from the I'Cesheilua 
to the State Road that had been owned by Jonathan Barron. The Chandler 
farm, with its good buildings and fine, level farm lands, are too well known 
to need description. Mr. Chandler's farm hail much of it been Indian lands 
l)ut became, under skillful culti^•ation, one of the best in the section. 

The wife of Nathaniel Chandler was Sylvia Smith. Their children were : 
Edward H., born about 1829; George W., his brother, some ten years or more 

later. The former married T'radford, a niece of Suranus Britton. and 

I he latter. Helen, or Nellie, Whitcomb. daughter of \\ alter Whitcomli, Sr. 

Edward H. was connected with all the early schools and societies, and 
was a prominent factor in school circles. 

George H. was prominent in school and social circles during the Barrett 
regime, and fitted for college at an early age. He entered L'nion College Init 
was obliged to take a sea voyage for his health the year he would have com- 
pleted his course. He secured his health by the loss of his diploma. 

Ansel Kendrick married Dorcas Smith and settled on the road east of 
the Creek Road. Their children were: P. Dudley Kendrick, who married 
Esther Gilbert, daughter of Andrew (jilbert ; and a sister, Sylvia, .\nsel Ken- 
drick died in 1846, aged 51. 

Gulielmus Wing married Diantha Smith and was a neighbor to Kendrick. 
They also had two children: Frederick Wing and a daughter, Harriet Wing. 
He afterward bought a farm near Hunts and lived there several years. Mr. 
Wing was an active factor in the I'resbx terian Church movement at ( )akland. 

Not a member of these families is left in Xunda, as George \\'. Chandler 
and children are the only living members of these families and they have lived 
for years in Milwaukee ; but Mr. Chandler cherishes an ardent affection for his 
boyhood home. His children (born in Xunda) are ^^'alter and Elsie. 


David Butler li\ed with a four-fold family in the first house west of Craig's 
warehouse, Buffalo Street, was by trade a blacksmith, married Alice Welling- 
ton, who claimed kinship with the Duke of \\'ellington. Mr. Butler's people 
were Quakers and lived on Beacon Street, Boston. This family were Univer- 

II. I. *Elvira Butler, married (first) * Starkweather, (second) 

*Eliphas Tyler, J. P. 

III. I. Mary Starkweather, married William Huffman, Jr., a veteran in 
an Illinois regiment, died 1906. 2. Lydia Starkweather, married. 1830, Emolus 
O. Dickenson. 

IV. I. Nellie, died 190—; Dr. Baker. 

\'. I. Leala D. Baker (see College Graduates and Club). 

I\'. 2. Allie J., married A\'illiam McArthur ; have one son, Harold. 

IV. 3. Mattie M., married James Herrick. son of Calvin. 

I\'. 4. Neva, died, aged 18. 

II. 2. A widow (Mrs. Yates). 3. Anice, married Nathan Sherwood. 4. 
ilartha G., married Reuben Sherwood. 5. Benjamin D., married Hoff- 
man (see Patriots War). 

Mrs. Tyler lived to a good old age and is Ijuried in Oakwood. The But- 
lers went ^^'est aliout 1830 and settled at Xunda, 111. 


Samuel Skinner was a lumberman on a large scale and a prominent citizen 
of Xunda. His second wife was ]\Irs. Edward Swain. 

I. Henry, married Mary Conklin, daughter of D. I. Conklin ; Aljliot, 
married Louise Hyde, daughter of Mrs. Hyde Bachus. 

HI. *Bert, married Libbie Ryder; Sylvia Skinner, married Charles 
Wheeler (attended school here) ; Louis Skinner, married (first) Delyea Tuthill, 
(second) Eliza Tuthill; Col. Louis Skinner, veteran of 104th New York Regi- 
ment, died in Colorado, buried in Oakwood (see Patriotic Xunda Department) ; 
Nelson Skinner, enlisted, nothing further known of him ; Adelbert Skinner 
and Ophelia Skinner, attended school here. 

I. Hon. Samuel Skinner, one of the most energetic of Xunda citizens, was 
a lumberman, manufacturer and public man. He served his town as Super- 
visor and his county as member of Assembly. He was a Republican, and in 
church relations a Baptist. 


Miss Eveline Donaldson married (first) Hyde, (second) Mr. 

Backus, a shoemaker; lived next to Session House. 

II. Louise Hyde, married Abbott Skinner. Mr. Skimier died about 1842 
of a plague that prevailed that year, called black erysipelas. 

III. Bert, married Libbie Rider, daughter of J. F. Rider; lived and died 
at Titusville. Pa. ; buried in Oakwood. 



John Gilmore came to Nuiula in 1831 (see sketch of self-made men), mar- 
ried Ann Ehza Watson. Their daughter, i. Lizzie, married George Carter, 

who became bhnd. Their daughter, Georgia Carter, married ; 2. Louis ; 

Jane Gilmore married Charles W. King; Dr. James Gilmore married Emaline 
Townsend, of Pike. Their daughter, Emily Gilmore, married Captain James 
M. McNair (see McNair family, 1836) ; Nelson Gilmore and wife. 


*Julius and *Polly Carver settled in the village, first had charge of an 
ashery and afterwards worked at coopering at Coopersville. 

I. Alah'ina. 2. L'rsula Martha. 3. *Mahala, married Wilco.x, died 

March. igoS, at W'hitesville ; ( )live, married " : LNiiian, a veteran of tlit- 

85th Xew York Regiment ; Emma, married Kelley, a photographer. 


Bela Wright, our first knife maker, made jack knives with steel handles. 
His first wife was Sarah McClellan, a cousin to Gen. George B. IMcClellan. 
His sons were : John A. Wright, who married Amelia Bacon : John A. was a 
veteran of tlie war. in the 104th Regiment, and i? now in a soldiers' home. As 
he is 75 years of age there can be no better place for him, Robert R. Wright, 
was one of the early stage drivers from Nunda to Pike when Nunda had sev- 
eral stage routes. He also served the corporation for 29 years as night watch. ■ 
man and was once shot by burglars. He is one of the few who have lived in 
youth and in age (about ('10 years) in Xiuida. He married (first) ?ilary .\nn 
Brown, who was the of iiis four children. .\nna. .'>arah. I-"rank and 
Charles. He married (second) Lottie Ohiey. daughter of John F. and Fann\ 
Adams Olney. Frank is a pharmacist, serving in the regular army, in thar 
capacity. Charles is a machinist. He married Esther Greenfield, daughter ol 
Henrv Greenfield, a veteran. They have one son. Robert. 

Mr. Bela \\''right's second wife was Catharine Barnes, sister to Russell. 
Nathaniel and Allen Barnes, and to Polly, second wife of Deacon David 
Thayer. Wright, Barnes & Tha}'er had a knife factory on Massachusetts 
Street. The building still exists but has changed front and serves as a shop for 
F"rank Aspinwall. From this start has grown the Woodworth knife works 
of to-day. 

The family of Deacon David Thayer came to Xunda before canal days. 
.A young lady. Miss Eliza Brown, who became the second wife of Capt. Henry 
Bagley, came with them. The sons of David Thayer were noted for their 
scholarship. David Havens Thayer and Henr}- B. Thayer both graduated at 
Union College and became Presbyterian clergymen. 

Rev. Henry B. Thayer and wife taught a select school in Xunda, in the 
Session House, previous to the building of the Brick Academy. Deacon 
Thayer made candles, matches and soap, and built the building known for 
years as the castle. It was designed for a canal warehouse but the surveyors 
afterward changed the survey and left the warehouse several rods from the 
canal. The building was rented to several families iluring canal days. It was 
not exactly ",-i !lat" ; in f;u-t. it was "very tall an<I sleep." It has since been 

lowered at the base and tlie upper story taken down, and after much expendi- 
ture of money has become one of the attractive houses on State Street, the 
present residence of Dr. John P. Brown. 

An amusing" incident once occurred at a revival ser\ice. An employe of 
the deacon — we will call him \\'illiam Blank — had been forward for prayers 
once, but did not come again for .several nights. When urged to go forwanl 
again he declined, saying it was no use for him to try to get religion while 
he was helping Deacon Tha^■er dip candles. The boy meant that the Deacon 
kept him too busy. As the Deacon was noted for his piety, the joke seemed 
all the greater, the implication in the statement furnishing the source of 


\\'illiam D. Hammond and wife came from Hume in 1832 to Nunda vil- 
lage, built the "Gunsmith Bennett house" and several stores. Mr. Hammond 
was a Justice of the Peace, and from his business and rents secured a com- 
petence. His children were : 

H. I. Isabel, a music teacher and church organist. 

n. 2. Adelaide, married Thomas B. Lovell of Nunda. 

]\Irs. Hammond was a widow many years and died in 1902. The family 
bought the Hammond place on East Street, west of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, probably built by J. Chapin, a cabinet maker. There are now none 
of the family living but Mrs. Thomas Lovell and her children, who reside at 
Niagara Falls. 

The Howell family from Mt. Morris were prominent here as merchants. 
William Howell, Sr.. built the block that stood at the corner of Second and 
State Streets for his sons to sell merchandise. It was afterward owned by 
the father of John Holmes, and known as Holmes Hall. Several terms of 
Select High School were taught there. The building ultimately was burned, 
but. phoenix like, the Union Block has taken its place. 

William Howell. Sr.. William Howell. Jr.. Abram \'. Howell, merchants; 
Joanna( milliner), married Dean Kendall ( marketman ) ; Prine Howell: James 
Howell married and lived in Nunda until his death. 

Children of James : Joshua, married Hattie Herrick. daughter of Charles 
Herrick ; Charles a machinist and a Spanish War veteran ; Mrs. James Howell, 
died 1008. 


The Thomas Chase family li\-ed on ^lassachusetts Street in a building 
since burned, on the site of the A. D. Scott house, about 1840. The Mosher 
branch of the family lived at Wilcox Corners in the early thirties. 

Thomas Chase married Dorcas Shipman. Children: Ezra, Harriet, 
Thomas C, afterward Sheriff of Livingston Co.. Joseph. Henry, Almira. Electa, 
William and Delany. 

Ezra never lived in Nunda. *Jose]ih died in Avon, ^^"illiam studied medi- 
cine in Michigan and Ijecame a physician. Delany married in Pennsylvania 
and went West. Harriet married Isaac Mosher, settled at Wilcox Corners m 
1831. He was a carpenter and an expert maker of axe-helves and worked for 
William D. Paint, uiilhvright. who built many .saw mills. Children: 

II. I. Ann. born 1830. married John W. Clark. 


Til. Sun, Julian Clark; t^randfon, Clifford L'lark. Cornell. 11)00, E. E. 
Mrs. Clark married (secijnd) Rhoderick Spencer. 

HI, 2. Delia, married I'rmson (a Canadian): 3. Louisa, died in 

Nunda, 1906; 4. jtiditli, died in .\unda 1S70: 5. Angerille. married Edwin 
Ensworth, Dalton. X. \ .: u. Xetta, single, >anida, X. Y. 

II. *Henry. married *Amanda Ah'ard, both died recently; Almira mar- 
ried *Clark ISrewc-. brother to Havillah. nephew of James. 111. ''Mary 
Brewer. Electa married Arden Heath, son of Asa K. Heath, a pioneer. 

II. Thomas Chase. Jr.. was the Sheriff of Livingston County and will 
long be remembered as the Sheriff who hung Menry Wilson, the murderer 
of Henry Devoe of Portage. He h\ed with the family at Wilcox Corners and 
afterward on Mass .Street, Nunda. The house has since l)een burned, but A. 
D. Scntt built on the site. 


(Hon.) Addison AI. Crane. Xunda's third law\'er, came t(_i Xunda when 
a young man, was in the office of Denedict Bagley, taught scliool. married a 
niece of Judge Daniel .Ashley (member of Assembly) and was one of the 
leading young men in the society of that day. He afterward went to Illinois 
and became a member of Assembly. 

His wife was .Ashley; sister, .Amelia Crane; brother. Danfortli 

Crane; cousin. Gertrude Crane. Airs. Crar\- and Airs. I'.rackett were Cranes; 
wife's mother. Catharine .Ashley- Palen, died m Xunda 1841. 

Charles E. Crary, merchant, town clerk, married Charlotte Abby Crane. 

Edward H. Brackett. merchant, married Alary .Ann Crane. .Another 
cousin married Lawyer Edw. Webster, a ne])hew of Hon. Daniel Ashlev of 



Walter. Walter 1'... Samuel P. 

Walter W'hitcomb (merchant and banker) was born just a centur\- ago. 
I''ebruar_\- 13, iSoS, and was nearly a month old when the town, in which he com- 
pleted a long and useful life, was organized; before coming from \'ork- to 
.Xunda in 1834. he married Hannah 1!. Richmond, a sister of W. P. Richmond. 

Of this estimable lady, ".Anna Warner" b'rench writes in her book of. fam- 
ily genealogy. — "Airs. Whitcomb was one of the bright and most entertaining c f 
women, and ^lie preserxed her charm of manner and conversation to the last of 
her lile." The author en<lor;-es this statiment without comment. The familv 
is now nearly extinct ; the eldest daughter but recently passed awav. njo'i. The 
children were : 

I. A'ictiiria, married I Capt. John Pulaski Wood, .Act. .\djt. Cen., killed 
in action; 2 Col. Xewton T. Colby, a former Ximda man, \\h<i died a few vears 
since. Their cliildren were: 

I. Prances Wood, married William Crai.g ; 2. Caroline (nature teacher); 
3. Robert Colby, clergyman. 


2. *Mary Whitcomb (single) was a tyi^e of filial devotion; Sophia, mar- 
ried *Arnold Medbury ; Robert Medbury, married Minnie Davie. Their chil- 
dren : 

I. Hazel; 2. *Will. Will a bright lad recently passed away. 

II. 4. Louisa, married Col. James Strang, Lawyer. Genesee, N. Y. (See 
Military record 104th N. Y.) 

Children ; Walter, Arthur, Louise and Sophia. 

II. 5. *Helen, married George W. Chandler, son of Nathaniel, (see Col- 
lege List and Club). 

III. Walter and Elsie. Milwaukee. Wis. 

II. 6. *Emily, married Hand of St. Louis. 

II. 7. William, married Lillian Bulkley. 


II. Walter B. Whitcomb (nephew of Waiter), born in York, came 
to Xunda in 1848 as a clerk for his uncle; married Fidelia ]. Merrick, daughter 
of Hiram ; clerked for Jermiah Richardson, uncle to Mrs. Whitcomb ; purchased 
the store and residence of J. Richardson ; was a merchant ; and was associated 
with the Nunda Bank for nearly forty years. 

III. Eva, a teacher of elocution, (Mrs. Olney, graduate of Xunda .\ca- 
demy ) and School of Elocution, Boston. 

III. S. Merrick, born in Nunda, graduate of Harvard, .\. U. 'jj. ( see Col- 
lege men of Nunda). wife Zetta. daughter Eva, student Livingston Park Semi- 
nary, Rochester, N. Y. 

]\'. Mrs. v. J. M. Whitcomb, graduate l.ostnn University, Medical De- 
partment, 1878; practiced medicine in Nunda and Tar]ion Springs, Fla.. died 
in Tarpon Springs. The family were Lniversalists. 


He came to Nunda in 1856 to attend the Nunda Literary Institute; clerked 
for his brother W. 1>. Wliitcomb several years ; had store at Portageville, during 
Civil War; married Juliette, daughter of .Simeon Hamiuond of Corning, N. \'. ; 
was in business with S. Hammond in Corning; returned to Nunda, and Ham- 
mond &• Co., purchased the furniture and undertaking business of Barclay & 
Co. : had a book and variel\' store at Tonawanda, I'a. ; returned to Nunda, was 
partner with Willard Bros., wholesale Casket Works ; died at Tarpon Springs, 
and was buried at Nunda, honored by all for his scarcity of faults, his wealth of 
good qualities. 

Mrs. Juliette Whitcoml) survived her husband but a few years, she was 
an invalid at the time of his death. They were without children. Mrs. Whit- 
comb left her portion of the estate, having no near relatives, to the (Univer- 
salist Church of the Redeeiuer) of Nunda. with certain bequests, as to the use 
of a part of it. 

Mrs. Louise Whitcomb Davis, a sister of W. B., and S. P., and of Fred 
Whitcomb, lived for some years with the family of W. B. Whitcomb and is 
still a frequent summer guest of her nephew. Prof. S. M. Whitcomb. 

Frederick Whitcomb of Rochester, the other brother of Walter B., Sam- 
uel P. and Louise, though never a citizen of Nunda. has with his wife been a 

guest ot their kin for so many years, that friendly mention ot them, seems due. 

As a family of merchants these three heads of famihes, the uncle and his 
nephews, will long be remembered. In social life Mrs. Walter Whitcomb and 
her daughters, Mrs. Walter B. Whitcomb and Mrs. Samuel P. Whitcomb, were 
acknowledged leaders; gifted with rare conversational powers, they did much to 
lift the social standards of the time to a higher plane of intellectuality and refine- 
ment. The individuality of the three Mrs. Whitcombs, relatives only by mar- 
riage was distinctive. In Mrs. Mary Whitcomb, ease, grace, and courtesy, pre- 
dominated, in Mrs. Fidelia the power of reasoning was pronounced and domi- 
nant, she was a female logician always equipped for action, she won her vic- 
tories only from the strong men of ability ; she was delightful with women and 
3'oung people, she placed them at their ease, and made them surprise them- 
selves, by the bright things they themselves had said. Mrs. Juliette Whit- 
comb, with a vivacity seldom excelled created an atmosphere of cheerfulness 
and mirth, out of the abundant resources of her own geniality. Her last long 
sickness of excessive pain and torture, lasted for years, and her sudden great 
afiHiction in the loss of her devoted husband was robbed of half its pathos, by 
her spirit of submission and her power of cheerful endurance. Those who 
sought her presence with hearts overflowing with pity were themselves com- 
forted, her very tones were full of her life-long cheerfulness. 

Her death in her far away Southern home, itself pitiful to her Northern 
friends, was not forlorn or desolate, a choice coterie of congenial lady friends 
ministered to her every want. 

Her burial in Oakwood following the severest storm of the winter, at an 
early morning hour, with a depth of snow that made it an impossibility for her 
lady friends to attend her obsequies, seemed pitiful beyond expression. 

Site had sent a poem to be read, (by the writer, at her grave for the 
church had no pastor at the time), so full of the spirit of submission, trust and 
content, that her death, like her sickness, was robbed of its sting, and the piti- 
less grave among the snow drifts, won no victor)'. 

The selection was from "God's good man" ; she had found healing balm in 
it, when God's good man, her husband, was taken awa\', and she sent it as her 
word of "strong confidence" to those she expecteil to need its tone ( so like her 
own ) of comfort. 

The services at the grave were as follows : 

"Two years ago, we buried here one of God's good men, to-day, we place 
beside him. one of God's good women. She has asked of me. the reading ot 
these words of trust. I give them as 


"The Lord is my Shepherd ; I shall not want 

He maketli me down to lie 
In pleasant fields where the lilies grow 

And the river runneth by. 

The Lord is my Shepherd ; he feedeth me 

In the depth of a desert land. 
And lest I should in the darkness slip 

He holdeth me b\' the hand. 

The Lord is my Sheiilicrd ; I shall not want, 

J\l\' mind on him is stayed, 
As through the valley of Death 1 walk, 

I shall not be afraid. 

The Lord is my Shepherd; (')h Shepherd sweet 

I^eave me not here to stray 
lint guide me safe to thy heavenK- fold 

And keep me there I pra\'. Amenl" 

The reader then said, I offer this, as "Our word concerning her, concerning 
Death, and our trust in Life through Death. 

L Death. 

Our friend has iiasscil 
Into the silence that \\ill know no Ijreaking 
The grief, the sorrow and the sad lieart-aching 
Are ours; in perfect silence folded closely 
In arms invisible to us, held fast 

She slumbers without waking. 

IL Life. 

Her s|)irit lives I 
In high ideals, born of lo\-e and dutv ; 
Her faith, — her hope for all — her trust in God : 
Kissing submissively his chasenmg roil 
Ali these shall iorm, better than sculiitured scroll 
The record of a bright j'n-breathing soul 

Her monument of beauty! 

III. Life, through Death. 

O Death! Stern h'oe ! Kind I'rieiid ! 
Thou dissever — a wrong that can Lie righted, — 
I'c.r se\ered hearts, after a few dark davs 
Are brought together to abide always ; 
'Tis grief to part — but joy to be united 
For all that makes life bright — still lives and thrives 
Faith leads to God — Hope makes all true life blest, 

Love — God's best gift — survives. 

In giving these short obsequies (that followed those given in the Sunny 
Southland), publicity, the writer aims to perpetuate the memorv of this wurtln- 
couple; wdiose only posterity, are their deeds of devotion to dutv; the ]o\- their 
bright lives engendered ; the grief of kindred spirits at their departure. The\' 
were childless ; and those who do not live m their jiosterity are sooner forgotten 
however well loved, and best known. The childless writer, leaves a poem or p 
book, and though a record of the lives of others, the reader between the lines, 
finds the antipodes of life, humor and pathos, mirthfulness and gloom: and, be- 
tween these severed ])oles. the real trend of life is seen in its estimate of the lives 


All men and women cannot leave books or bequests that will foster in others, 
what was most vital to themselves. That to these lovers of humanity and the 
Gospel of the "Good Shepherd" breathing its spirit of Universal love, that had 
kept their hearts so reverent and trustful, it was fitting, it was right, it was best, 
that they should keep the cause they loved best, alive, to cheer and brighten 
human lives. To the maintenance of the church and the faith that had in- 
creased their love for God and goodness, they gave all in gratitude. May 
the gratitude of the receiver, equal that of the giver. 

A gift that becomes, even in part, a perpetuity may create a perpetuity ol 
usefulness, and engender in successive generations what all desire and few se- 
cure, "loving remembrance." Love alone is abiding. That the giver as well 
as the gift may be known to those who will help perpetuate this faith, the writer 
in his verse, and in his pen picture of his co-workers, has tried to lend his eyes 
and heartfelt appreciation. 

Long may the names of Samuel and Juliette Whitcomb be rememberef' 
for what they were, to those who knew them, and for what thev did, or tried tc 
do, for those who are yet to be. 


Bradford Perez Riciimond, better known as B. P. Richmond, soon after 
his marriage to Anna Whitwell, a woman of wealth and refinement, probably 
by the advice of Walter Whitcomb who had previously married his sister, came 
to Nunda in 1835. The two families lived together in the George Baglev 
house, on tlie corner of State and \ermont Streets. The accommodations 
were limited and both men built new houses. The writer knows that one of 
these houses was well built, as good lumber was chea]i in those days ; the house 
was lined with wide inch boards, from 12 to 16 inches in width, that would 
now sell at $40 a thousand. Perhaps the writer, who bought the hmise S- 
years afterward paid at that rate for them, but it is doubtful if B. P. Rich- 
mond paid more than $8 a thousand. It was a good house but not quite satis- 
factory to Mrs. Richmond, so it was sold a year later to .Squire Jonathan Bar- 
ron, and the fine house known as the Richmond homestead in which not only 
the children of this worthy couple were born ; but, it is also said, that a very 
popular "fictitious character," known as "Susan Glegg," who spoke a dialect 
peculiar to the primitive people of Nunda, had a literary conception and birth, 
at this same homestead. 

Whether the "Richmond Genealogy" also grew to maturity, so cozilv 
housed, and illustrated by some good specimens of the Richmond family, I can- 
not say. I only hope that the book that awaits birth, from the former Richmond 
home may be as accurate in its genealogy and biology and have some of the 
humor of the "Susan Glegg book," without serving to verify, with uninten- 
tional defects, the peculiarities of ^^'estern New York dialect. 

Plouses have histories as trul_\- as their owners, their chances of growing 
beautiful with age are more numerous than that of their owners, their term of 
existence is greater, and these houses demonstrate that fact, while the dry goods 
store built twelve years later, barely survived its first occupants. Whitcomb 
and Richmond : the one that stood near it, built by Riley Merrill about 1830, of 
half its size and value, after changing its location twice, is still in existence. 

Mr. Richmond, as a retired merchant, spent much of his time in reading 


scientific works, and became (juite well versed in geology. He lived to a good 
old age, having been a citizen of the town about 75 years. His entire married 
life was spent here. Mrs. Richmond's gentleness, courtesy and warm hearted 
generosity made her a favorite with all classes. She survived her husband a 
few years, and her most devoted admirers were those to whom she had given 
employment. Every holiday a bountiful banquet was provided and the greater 
part of it was shared with the sick and the needy. The best was none too 
good to give to those unused to such luxuries. Such almoners of abundance 
have been few, even in this town where generosity is the rule, and selfishness 
the exception. 

The entire family of children and grandchiUlren, as recorded in Anna War- 
ner's Genealogy, were: 

Georgia Virginia W., August 30, 1840, married Addison Rathbone, A. B., 
Union College, 1859: Anna Elizabeth W., December 11, 1842, married William 
P. Warner. A. B., Union College, lawyer, son of Dr. Eben Warner, resides at 
St. Paul, Minn. : Charles Bradford, born November 18, 1854, married Mary 
Packard, daughter of E. W. Packard, Esq. The son of C. B. and M. R. ; Her- 
bert, a dentist, at Kane, Pa., married Miss Scott. 

HI. "Anna \\'arner" I'rencli, the novelist, has achieved success as a 
writer of fiction. She has two children, who were formerly summer guests at 
the Richmond homestead. 

Bradford P. Richmond died October 18. 1808. aged 85 years. Mrs. Anna 
Whitwell Richmond died June 6, 1904. 

Daniel P. Bard, mechanic and musician, teacher of vocal music, had first 
music store, married Catharine Shelmire. 

H. Maria liard, married Horace Whipple, nephew of Elisha Whipple. 
HI. I. I'raiik Whipple, Ijorn in Nunda, court stenographer, married in 
1906, resides in Geneseo. 

Asa I). Wood, James W. Laughlin, Ross \V. Estabrook and Ambrose 
Clark were in business (New York store) but the firm soon dissolved. 


I. Daniel Rockwood, married Kingman of Grove. 

H. Alvin Rockwood, married Mrs. Eunice Cheney; Enock Cheney. 
Harvey lluggins, Emelinc Huggins, Ezekiel Gilbert, Mrs. Gilbert's, brntli- 
ers-in-la\\, had a steam saw mill on Joseph Gormcl farm. 


Eben \\'heeler. Ixirn ijt)/- cabinetmaker and farmer, married Charlotte 
Wright, cousin to ()li\er Wright, settled in 1833, IxiuLiht nut the original 
settler (farm knig owned by Isaac Brewster) and Iniilt a cabinet sho]). His 
chairs, made over 75 years ago, are still in some nf the hcniseholds in this place, 
and are as good as when first made, even the paint and gilding being still good. 
Children : 

Mar}', born June 10, 1815, was a teacher for 2^ years. .She married, when 
about 45 years of age, Col. (of militia) Greenlief Clark, a tanner and Justice 


of the I'eace of Portage. They ha<l one dau.nhler. .Mr. Clark dieil many years 
at;o. Mr.s. Mary Clark died in icjof), a^ed ()i year,-^. in Xunila village, at the 
former home of her friend, Rachel A. llennett, whose death iireceded hers but 
a few months, lioth ladies, with Miss (iertrude K. Clark, then an invalid, at- 
tended the pioneer day picnic at uur last "( )ld Home Week" gathering, riding 
to the grove in the auto of Colonel j. j. Carter. It was their first antl last ride 
in an auto, and, though very feeble, they enjuyed being there and were grate- 
fid lo Col. Carter and his son for giving them this unexpected pleasure. At 
the funeral of Mrs. Clark was assembled at least a half dozen of her former 
pupils, whose ages were from 65 to 80 _\-ears. and all spoke of her excellence as 
a teacher and as a Christian woman. 

III. Miss Gertrude E. Clark was a scholar. Her knowledge of books, 
es])ecially text books, was great. She was a graduate of the Nunda Free Acad- 
emy, the (ienesee Xormal School, and spent tw^o years at W'ellesley College. 
She died soon after the death of her mother. Both are buried at Oakwoocl. 

John M. Clark, son of Greenlief Clark, also a tanner, has lived in Xuuda 
for about 20 years. l"wo sons and a daughter, Ethel, were educated. Ethel 
became the second wife of George Barber, a produce dealer. 

II. 2. .Vlbert Lund Wheeler, born 1817, studied dentistry in Xunda, died 
in 1845 : 3. Rodney Hubbard Wheeler, liorn i8n). liecame a tinsmith, died 1839; 
4. Abraham T.. born 1821. farmer, married (first) Alary Swan, (second) Mary 
A. I'"uller, daughter of Stephen Fuller, Sr. 

III. I. Laura, married Bishop Reed, Kansas City; 2. Frank Abraiu, Ijoru 
1853. died l88<). buried at (Jakwocjd. 

II. 5. '''John R. (Rylaud) \\'lieeler, born 1823, married *Julia L'pson of 
Xunda. daughter of *Dr. L'pson. Mrs. Wheeler resides on Center Street. 

ill. 1. Charles Albert Wheeler, married Alary Aliller, daughter of Jona- 
than Miller: 2. William Mullen Wheeler, born i86t, Cuba. X. Y. 

II. (). *Elizabeth \\'heeler. born 1825. married Le\-i Chase, of Xunda. 
Levi Chase (Alaj, Ci\il W ar ) died at San Diego, kjo'l 

III. Gertrude, born in Xunda, died _\oung; Charles . Vlbert Chase, mar- 
ried in California and now resides in San Diego, Cal. 

II. 7. Charlotte Louise Wheeler, born in 1827, died 1870. 

Mrs. Clark said that Mr. Wheeler bought his farm of L. Joslyn and that 
there was no house upon it. ( )f the Wheeler family there are none nearer than 
Cuba except Mrs. Ji>hn R., who resides on Center Street. 


John Seaver family of Rockingham settled in .Xunda and bought out 
Xathaniel Chandler. State Street, who succeeded Riley .Merrill. .Sr. Mr. 
.Scaxer was a gunsmith, blacksmith and farmer, John .Seaver married Miss 
Whitcomb. Harriet: .Martha, married Eddy, a merchant tailor. 

III. William .S. Eddy, editor, died }'oung: Hiram Seaver: h'anny Seaver. 
married I'hilip (i. .Slocuni. 

HI. I. ''.Vdello Slocum. editor, married .\della Ha\-eus : 2. Clement 

1. 2. .\aron Whitcomb. a brother of Mrs. John .Sea\-er. 

.\dello .Slocum and William .S. luldy were editing a paper, and were fast 
'"caching civil honors ami prosperity when they both were taken sick and died. 


AdeUo was brought l^ack to Xunda for liiirial. A marker over his grave bears 
this inscription, "Our noljlc liow" which found general indorsement b)- all 
who knew him. His widow sur\'i\es and has written and possibly published a 
book of poems. 


The fannlies of the iiarnms, I'.arretts, Wrights (three families) and 
Dakes are closely connected by marriage, and all were zealous supporters of 
the Baptist Church. There were two Dr. \\'rights. Dr. Eben married a Bar- 
ron, Dr. Barnabus married a Barrett. Closes Barron married Alary Barrett, 
the onl}' li\-ing jjioncer of these large households, wdiile two of the Piarrett 
sisters married Dakes. These families were educated in Xew England, and 
in consequence of these advantages most of them of the second generation be- 
came prominent as teachers and in the [jrofessions. The Dake family was 
conspicuous from its great nundjer of physicians. The B>arrons. l-)y the pur- 
chase of lands in Xunda (Chandler or Sturgeon farm), in 1824, were first as 
purchasers, the \\'rights, i. e., the Doctors \\'right, next, the other two families 
of Wright, John S. and ( )li\-er (not relatives to the former nor to each other), 
came ne.xt. The latter came with Deacon James Barrett in 1833. Some of the 
Dakes came to Portage-Nunda in 1819 and afterward to Xunda. 

Some of the meml^ers of these people from Xew Hampshire and \'er- 
mont are connected by marriage with \"er}' many of the other pioneer families 
of Xunda. 

The influence of these strong, sturd}-, reliable ]3eoplc in this communit}- 
cannot be over-estimated. The writer groups them together for they formed 
for their da}' and generation a strong and united force in fostering a high type 
of life in this community. They all attended the same church, for they were 
all deep water Christians. 

Dr. Eben \\' right lived in the large house on the ( )akland road that was 
taken dowai by the Carricks, but moved into the \'illage and Snrranus Britton 
succeeded him there in the "'thirties.'" 


I. Eben Wright, M. D., married Harriet Barron, daughter of Jonathan. 

n. I. Mary, married Rev. A\"illiam Clark, son of Rev. Clark; 2. Harriet, 
married Samuel Goss : 3. *Eben, Jr. (in Michigan) : .Sarah, married Dr. Gran- 
\'ille Thomas, Chicago; children born in Chicago: P^-ank Wright (an Institute 
l:)oy ), married in Illinois, resides in Chicago. 

I. 2. Barnabus Wright, M. D., owned two farms in Xunda, the Hugh 
McXair ( Farrell farm ) and 50 acres on Xorth State Street. He practiced 
medicine during his life, married Anice Barrett, daughter of Deacon James 
Barrett. He died in Xunda. 

II. I. Martha Jane, married Chester W. Chipman. Air. Chipman had a 
store near the home of Dr. W^ right. It was doubtful at the time of its building 
where the center of the future village would be. The store was moved into 
the village at a later date and inserted between the Emporium Block and the 
East Street market. Chipman moved to Philadelphia. 

III. *Edgar M. Chipman, a quasi veteran who enlisted in the 104th, 
expecting his skill in company drill woidd give him a c(.immission. It did not, 


and he did not remain long in the service. He was a good scholar, and would, 
no doubt, have become an efficient officer. Both father and son are buried in 

II. 2. *Barnabns, Jr.. married Harret Atwood of Nunda. Her home has 
been in Dansville. N. Y. 


He was called Captain and also Squire. He bought, in 1823. a large farm 
in Barron District. Mt. Morris, and next year another on Creek Road, Nunda. 
There was a clearing and some rail fence and a frame house on the farm. The 
old house built in 1823 or 1824 is now standing but has been used as a tenant 
house ever since N. Chandler built a new one. The old house is probably the 
oldest one in the town. 

Jonathan Barron moved into the village in 1837. buying the new house 
on Church Street afterwards owned by Peter Depuy. It is now 70 years old — ■ 
a little older than its present owner — but it is now known as Dormer Cottage, 
East Street, the dormers and porches having been added by Yours Truly. 
Squire Barron married in A'ermont. Susannah Aiken. 

Second Generation 

II. I. Polly A., spinster, died aged do; 2. Anice. married Dr. B. Wright 
(neither of them living); 3. Aloses. born 1795. taught school twenty years, 
farmer with 300 acres. Justice of the Peace, died 1862, buried at Xunda, mar- 
ried, 1836, Mary Barrett, eldest daughter of Deacon James Barrett, born in 
New Hampshire, November 23, 181 3, who still survives him and is, at this 
date (January i, 1908.) past 94 years of age. When she came to Xunda in 
1835 there was quite a settlement, most of the stores around the Plaza, the 
Eagle Hotel, the Swains grist mill, and the old first Baptist and the first Pres- 
byterian churches. Tlie Xunda House was in process of erection. Her father 
bought out the farm and home of his son-in-law. Dr. Barnabus Wright. Her 
neighbors in the village were the families of William D. Hammond, then on 
Portage Street ; John S. \\'right. first house west of Nunda house ; Oliver 
Wright, who came with them from Xew Hampshire, who Ijuilt the house 
owned by Ernest Olney. Es(|., the Swains and others. After the death of her 
husband. Mrs. Barron came into the village and lived in a part of the house 
of her husband's sister. As wife, mother and mother-in-law. grandmother, 
church member, citizen and neighbor, she has been all that is desirable. As 
nonogenarian she is without an equal in cheerfulness, gentleness, patience and 
contentment. She still enjoys sharing to some extent in the family labors 
and still attends on pleasant days the church and Sundav School of which she 
has l)cen a member for 72 years. There are not ten persons living in this 
village now that were living here then even in their childhood. We give our 
neighbors and friends of former days her photo, taken when she was eighty 
years young. Fourteen years have been added and yet she might be mistaken 
for a young person of 75. 

The children of Moses and Mary Barron who reached maturity were : 
I. Mary Narcissa, educated at the Nunda Literary Institute and at Sat- 
terlee's Collegiate Institute, Rochester. X. Y. She taught district schools, 
following the example of her father, until her marriage. She was married 


December 28, 1865, to Captain John W esley Hand, and has Hved in Rochester, 
DuBois, 111., and since 1892 in Nunda village, where filial love called her to 
care for the mother who needed her presence and companionship. 

2. Lucias H. Barron, born 1843. '" early manhood became a soldier of 
the Civil War; since then a farmer, merchant, mill owner. He married Miss 
Alida Yeomans of Alt. Morris. He died in Nebraska. 

HI. 3. .-\lida J. Barron, A. B., teacher in academies and jniblic schools 
of Rochester and Denver. Miss Barron was the first lady college graduate 
from this vicinity and from any of our Nunda High Schools. This distinction 
gave her the honor of being the first Vice President of the College Club of 
Nunda. 4. Alilton M. Barron, the youngest member of this family, has, like 
his father and grandfather, been Justice of the Peace and farmer on the Home- 
stead that has been in the family for three generations. 

The family seem to regard education as one of the essentials in good farm- 
ing and in life. He was educated at Nunda Academy, Mill Street, Nunda, and 
at Cornell University. He has tried his hand at merchant and railroad con- 
tractor but found no place like the homestead. He married Alida Hall of 
Tuscarora, daughter of Isaac Hall. 

Fourth Generation 

The only grandchildren of Closes I'.arron arc the children of Milton and 
Alida Hall Eiarron : John, Arthur and ( )nolee. John and Arthur attended the 
Nunda High School, and thereujion lia\e a place in our school history of the 
town. They have all l)een at Ithaca and shared the advantages of that literary 
center. Miss Onolee is still there. John now writes his name. Prof. John 
Barron, B. of Science of Agriculture, i'ennsylvania State College, at State 
College, Pa. 

The Abel Barron family were residents of Mt. Alorris. Abel Barron 
bought the Lemen farm, adjoining the Barron homestead. He married (first) 
Margaret Rockafellow of Nunda. They had no children. He married (second) 
Alargaret Norton of Mt. Alorris; four children: Harriet L., .\. Clifton. Thorn- 
ton and Catharine. All but Thornton have lived in Nunda. 1 le married Emma 
Sherman of Nunda. 

Third Generation 

Harriet L. married Alichael Dowling. a railroad contractor, who made a 
success of his occupation (see list of self-made men ). He purchased Elmwood 
and improved it. He died about 20 years ago and is buried at Nunda. 

lA^ Alabel, born in Barron District, educated in Binghamton High 
School; Cora, born in liarron District, educated in Binghamton and Smith 
College, owns the Abel Barron homestead; Florence, born on Downling farm, 
educated at Binghamton and graduated from Smith's College, 1904, married 
Fred C. Olp. cashier Nunda Bank. Harriet Olp, born 1907; Alinnie J. Dennis, 
adopted daughter of Aland H. L. Dennis, educated at Binghamton High School 
and Albany Normal College: has taught at Nunda and Plainfield, N. J. (see 
College Club). 

III. 2. .A. Clifton I'.arnm. burn cm .\. Ilarron homestead, educated at 
Nunda .Academy and at Cornell I'niversity, taught in Jervis Alilitary Academy, 
Conn., bank clerk. Nunda. railroad contractor, retired farmer, sold homestead 

to his niece. Miss Cora Dowliiig. married (first) Harriet Roland of Connecti- 
cut. li\ed in Xunda. Giblis Place, and died at the homestead, married (second) 

-Miss . a teacher. 3. Thornton Harron. never lived in Xiinda. lives on the 

homestead, married Emma Sherman of Xunda. Children born in Mt. Morris: 
Catharine. Mrs. Reed, never lived in Xunda. 

II. Sarah J., married 1 first ) llar\ey Messenger, son of Deacon Russell 
Messenger (seconil) Ethan Gilbert (third) George Gilbert, all l.niried in Oak- 

III. F.rai (lilbert. married *James \\'inship, Esq. Children born in Buf- 
falo. X. v.: Alice Gilbert (niece and adopted daughter), teacher, married 
Irving McDuffie, veteran (see 33rd Regiment), teacher; *Joseph Harris (adopt- 
ed), teacher, lawyer, principal Avon Union School, city attorney St. Louis. 
yio.. settled 1832: *Ouartus Barron, married Sylvia Ashley, daughter of Judge 
Daniel Ashley of Xunda. built cobble stone house on East Street and corner 
store on East and State Streets : died at Fox Lake. 


I. Deacon James Barrett, farmer, married Lucinda Knapp. 

II. I. Mary Barrett, born Xovember 23. 1S13, married Moses Barron (see 
Barron familv) : 2. Lucinda, born in Xew Hampshire, married \ ictor Wright, 
son of pioneer John S. \\'right ( 1832). 

HI. Monroe \\ .. born in Xunda. 1838: 2. Marcella. born in Xunda. 1839. 

married SntTver. Mt. Clemons : 3. Judsrm, born in 1840. resides in Xe- 

braska : 4. Ida. niarrieil Bishop. 

II. 3. Emaliue (a teacher), marrietl John E. Dake : Albert: Emma, mar- 
ried John Sherry, Rochester. 

II. 4. *Elizabeth, teacher antl homeopathic physician, married Dr. Josiah 
Blanchard, pioneer teacher in Xunda : i. Ada Blanchard : 5. *]\Iartha, a teacher, 
married *Dr. Samuel P. Town, a pioneer teacher in Xunda: 6. *James ]\I. Bar- 
rett (only son), a teacher and merchant, married (first) *Charlotte Tuthill. 
(second) Joanna Harris, sister of Mrs. James of Xuntla: 7. Laura, also a 
teacher, married Dr. William H. Dake of Xunda. 

II. I. Embury Dake, born in Xunda, married of Rochester, died 

in Rochester, igo6 ; Ida M., married Thayer. Lockport. X. Y. 


Zacheous (a farmer), married (first) Harriet Xorton, (second) Catharine 
Hann, (third) Grace Hann. Catharine and Grace Barrett were daughters of 
John Hann of Groveland and cousins to John Wanamaker, merchant of Phila- 
delphia, only son of Zacheous and Grace Barrett, born 1854, died 1907. George 
\\'. Barrett of Quincy. Mass., farmer. Mt. Morris and Xunda, settled 1850, 
married (first) *Mrs. A, J. Ricker, who had three daughters, (second) *Huldah 
Perine ; daughters : Abby, a young lady, died 1853 : *Augusta Ricker, married 
Oscar D, Willett, veteran. 136th Regiment, died in California: Sabra Jane 
Ricker, married *Origen J. Willett, Supervisor of Portage, died in Portage. 
Mrs. Willett moved to Xunda village after his death: (Mr. and Mrs. Willett 
w'ere Universalists ;) *Georgianna Barrett, married ^^'illard Kendall. li\ed on 
farm (Lee farm) in Xunda. i. Frank: 2. Bert. 


Bv his first marriage he was a brother-in-law of Ehen Wheeler (settled 
1S33). ( )li\cr Wright, married (first) *Hannah Wheeler. 

1. Ahiiira, married Mordan ^^'right. son of John S. 

Jl. I. Walter Wright: 2. Hannah E. T. Wright, missionary to Hurniah 
(see Xiinda Missionaries. Chnrch and Clergy Department), married Rev. 
Lvman Stilson, A. M., missionary; 3. W'. Parker Wright, skilled mechanic, 
in gdvernment employ at Xa\y Yard, Washington, D. C, during part of the 
Ci\il War: 4. Charles Wright, Ijorn 1828, skilled mechanic. 

( )li\er \\'right and sons had the first furnace in Xunda. The nld Iniilding 
is still standing. It was huilt liy John .^. Wright and located on his lot, and is 
now used by its present owner, John Hughes, as a livery building. The build- 
ing, at least 75 years old, unlike the houses of the village, has not impro\-ed 
with age. The Wright liros. went to Rochester and while there made the fire 
engine, the "Protector," all were so proud of. It was sold after the present 
excellent system of water works was estalilished. The Hope hose engine is still 
to be seen, though never used. 

As "skilled mechanics" the sons of ( )li\'er Wright stand prominent, first 
in the list from Nunda, and it is an honor to the town that W'. Parker W^right 
was selected by the government in the mounting of Dahlgren guns for the 
l)rotection of the National Capitol. He was living at Nunda at the time of the 
Civil War. 

John S. Wright, pioneer, settled 1832, builder of several houses for him- 
self, son-in-law, and sons, builder of the first foundry, was first author, having 
had ])rinted a pamphlet of his search for the most desirable location for a home. 
That he settled in Nunda after an unsatisfactory journey to Ohio, and a tem- 
]Mrary residence in Chautauqua County, is at least complimentary to Nunda ; 
that he died at the Ridge is due to his great zeal for the Baptist denomination 
that led him to the building of the church in that settlement, which has, how- 
ever, become a Methodist Church edifice. 

The family record of this excellent and useful family is furnished by the 
daughter of the only living child of this early pioneer. The family also fur- 
nished the assessment role of the town in 1834, when John S. Wright was 
assessor, but it has not been found. As it would gi\c all the names i;>f the tax- 
payers of that date it would be of great \alue, if found. 

Mrs. Jessie Smith Warner of Brooklyn, X. V.. daughter of Sarah A. 
Wright, of Brooklyn. X. \'.. formerly of Xunda and Wells\-ille. has given me 
the following complete famih- statistics: 

I. John S. Wright, born 1732, died at Ridge, X. V., 1849, Ijuried at Xunda, 
married February 27, 1803 (settled in Xunda, Portage Street, 1833) : Asenath 
Arnold, born 1785, died April 10, i8.')6, buried at Xunda. 

II. I. *Emily, born 1805. died at Scribna. X. Y.. 1888. married Harvey 
Simmons, died 1876. aged 80; 2. *Florona, bf>rn 180S. died 1844. buried at 
Xunda: 3. *Mordan. l)orn 181 1. died 1872. in .Michigan, married *Almira 
Wright, daughter of Oliver, son Walter Wright: 4. X'ictor. born 1813, died 
1897, at Detroit, Mich., married Lucinda Barrett, died 1887 (see Barrett record 
for children): 5. Wellington, born 1816, died 183S: 6. Mary E. Wright, liorn 
1818, married Darius Could. Darius (lould was a ])ioneer merchant of Nunda, 


corner store. Mill Street and State Street. E. G. married (second) George W. 

Shannon in 1852. Darius Gould died .buried in Nunda. 7. Elizabeth 

H., born 1821. died at Penn Yan 1893. married John J. Rockafellow of Xunda. 
Allegany County, clerk County Superintendent of Schools, lived on Center 
Street. Nunda, son of Henr)' Rockafellow ; 8. Sarah Asenath. born 1828, mar- 
ried Thomas L. Smith of Rochester. T. L. Smith died at \\'ellsville. 1899. 
III. Jessie Smith married H. D. Warner, resides at Brooklyn, N. Y. 


GEORGE W. MERRICK. Supervisor of Nunda; William P. Wilcox 
first County Superintendent of the Poor. The population of Allegany 
County this year, 27,276. There was paid by the county this year for 
killing harmful wild beasts $467.50. for 1 panther. 2t, wolves and 18 whelps 
(young wolves). 


Alfred 1.4 16. Allen 8yS. Almond 1.804, Amity 872. Andover 598. Angelica 
998, Belfast 743, Birdsall 543. Bolivar 449. Burns 702, Caneadea '/S2. Center- 
ville 1,195, Cuba 1,059, Eagle 892. Friendship 1.502. Genesee 219. Grove (in- 
cluding most of Granger) 1.388. Haight 655, Hume 951, Independence 877, 
Xunda 1,291. Ossian 812. Pike 2.016. Portage (including Genesee Falls and 
part of Granger) 1,839, Rushford, 1.115. Scio 602. The county was at this time 
divided into 26 towns. 

The families that are known to have come to this town in 1830: Deacon 
\\ illiam R. Ruryee. Abraham DeGroff. \\'illiam D. Paine, Silas Grover. A 
survey of the canal route from Rochester to Allegheny River, directed by 
Legislature. Ajiril 17. 1830. 

Besides giving the population of the towns of Allegany County, we are 
given this year the amount of public money distributed to the schools. The 
school money for Xunda was S67.16, the town of Almond received $94 and 
Alford $73.70, while Angelica received only $51.99. 

The secret of the population at that time being so great may be solved by 
stating that nearly every family had from seven to twelve children. If the 
same conditions prevailed at the present time our population would be at 
least quadrupled. The Duryee family that settled in 1830 is unlike in num- 
bers our Xunda families of to-day. 

This family was one of the largest and proved to be good stayers. Most 
of the later pioneers consider Deacon William R. Duryee one of the old pio- 
neers. He settled in 1830. but even he belonged to the second generation of 
Duryees in Xunda. 

I. His father. George Duryee. born 1770. located near the county line; 
his wife was a Renix. 

II. John married and went West: George. Jr.. married Sally Depuy ; 
William R. Duryee. deacon of Presbyterian Church, farmer with 160 acres, 
born in Schenectady 1796, lived 90 years, married (first) Lany Conklin, born 


Cayuga County 1800. tiled 1843, (second) IMelinda Rathbone. horn 1802; 12 

III. I. *Helen AI., married *reter Aniniernian, veteran; 2. '''Elizabeth, 
married Egbert Bogart, son of Dr. Bogart ; 3. Jane A., married Aaron Hall of 
Tuscarora ; 4. Gertrude S., married *Chester Moore; 5. *Delia O., married 
*Andrew J. Russell, artist. Captain in Civil War; (IV^) two daughters, Cora, 
married, and Hattie, married. III. 6. C. Caroline, married *Allen Whitney. 

I\'. .Amanda, married Dr, Brown; *Mattie, married John Crosier of 

III. 7. Monroe Dnryee, married Esther Crauston. 

I\". I. William C, married Nellie B. Chittenden, daughter of Darwin; 
2. Frank Monroe, married Ella Chambers ; 3. George Clayton ; 4. Edith ; 5. 
Laura, married Rev, Grant Chambers ; 6. Robert, married Blanche Sawyer ; 
7. Florence, married John Gross, lives on the homestead. 

III. *J. Conklin, married Helen Lamphire ; i. Winifred; 2. John, killed 
by the falling of a pitchfork from a hay mow ; 3. Chester. 

III. Amanda, married *Aml)rose Clapp, all born before 1840. Frances 
E., married David Roberts (see Silas Roberts family ) ; Harriet X., married 

(first) *Charles Bigsby, (second) Figer. The first Mrs. Duryee was a 

Conklin and aunt to Gerritt and Ralston Conklin. The second wife, Metinda 
Rathbone, was an aunt to Addison Rathbone, A. B., (Union), son-in-law of 
B. P. Richmond. 

II. 3. James Duryee, son of George, Sr., married Renix ; Reni.x 

Duryee (only son), farmer, lives in Nunda village; Jennie Brodt, a niece of 
Mrs. Duryee, married Ralston Conklin; i. Ella Conklin; 2. Flora Conklin, 
married Daniel Suydam. 

II. 4. Sarah Duryee, married Abraham DeGroff (see DeGroft' family); 
5. Andrew Duryee, married (first) Lydia Willis, (second) Eliza Reed, 

III. 1, Josiah Duryee, married (first) Marian Philips (second) Mrs. 
Williams ; 2. Sarah Duryee, married John Crego, Captain of Carter Camp, 
Sons of Veterans, janitor of Nunda High School. 

I\'. Herbert Crego, served term in the regular army; 3. Sidney, single; 
4. James, married Mary J. Hughes; 5. Edward, married (first) Margaret Mur- 
dorph, (second) Gelser ; 6. Mary, married John Love, Michigan. 

Mrs. Lucinda Duryee, born 1813, a niece of George Duryee, Sr. (see 
Whitcnack families). 

I. 2. * Abraham Duryee, brother to George, Sr., born i78<), died 1868, 
wife Catharine Van Rensalier, died 1866. 

II. I. *Sarah, single, a weaver, lived on Creek Road ; 2. *\'an Rensalier (a 
one-armed man, peddled merchandise). 

HI. *Schuyler (a soldier 33rd Regiment), married Sarah Ha} ward, l)ur- 
ied at Oakwood ; *Charles (an upholsterer), married Rosetta Maynard, dress- 
maker, Nunda. N. Y. 

I\'. I. Harley, furniture dealer; 2. Maynard, printer, foreman Truth 
office ; The Duryee Bros., undertaking, dealers in furniture, Cree Block ; 3. 
Ethlyn, clerk; 4. Lorma, printer. 

HI. 3. Emma, married Edward Passage; 4. Ella, teacher, married Leon- 
ard Coon Roberts, carpenter, patternmaker, inventor ; 5. F"red. 

II. 4- niiza rJurvee. mother of Eugene Diiryee. veteran; Eugene, a 
much married man — a cosmopolitan with a wife in each new locality. 


Air. lames Elwood was a shoemaker and sometimes went around "whip- 
]iing the cat," as it was called : that is, he went to a farm house, and made up 
their tanned leather into shoes and boots for the family. Their were several 
other pioneer shoemakers who did the same — probably Joel Saterlee and Alex. 
Guv. The custom did not last long after village shoe shops were established. 

A\'eslev Bailey owns the farm where J. Elwood formerly lived. He also 
lived where Mark Turner now lives. The house was moved from Chautauejua 
Hollow, its owner, a Air. Kellogg, having espoused Alormonism and wishing 
to emigrate to Utah, to be near the prophet Joseph, sold his h<iuse, which 
was torn down and rebuilt on this spot, then on the Cashaqua trail. 

As there were a baker's dozen of the children their descendants must be 
in nearly every state in the union. 

James Elwood family were Baptists, and consisted of himself and wife. 
James Elwood was born 1797, died 1870, aged 73, settled about 1824, with i. 
Thomas, of whom it is said "his neck was broken while wrestling with a 
friend;" 2. Samuel; 3. James Henry; 4. Harriet, married Edwin Batterson, 
parents of Mrs. Mark Turner, who, with the family, have lived for many years 

in the house her maternal grandsire reljuilt ; 5. Abijah Elwood. married 

Rawson. daughter of Colman ; he was the father of Homer Elwood, who finally 
owned the premises of his maternal grandsire, Colman Rawson, sons Harry. 
LaDette. Buffalo. N. Y. ; 6. Philetus ; 7. Mary; 8. Abba Jane; 9. *Martha ; 10. 
Clara, married Horton Doty; 11. George; 12. *Charles. 

Wilson Roberts and his wife, Mary Davis Roberts, settled near the State 
Road, about the time the road was laid out, 1824. The children were: I'oster, 
who became a merchant in Penn Yan (no longer living) ; 2. Sarah, born in 
Nunda, 1824, married Stacy \\'arford (veteran), both have died \\ithin two 
years ; 3. Mordicai ; 4. *Phebe, married Jonathan Miller ; 5. Mrs. Henry ( )gden ; 
A. *Mary Ann ; 7. Henry Roberts, the only survivor of the family, lives in 
Xunda. The children of Jonathan and Phebe are : Mary. Mrs. Charles Wheeler 
of Cuba. X. Y. ; 2. Mrs. LaRue. Estella, of Xunda, who has a successful jioultry 
ranch. In canal davs, Mr. Roberts mo\-ed into the village and lived there ilur- 
ing his life. 


Joshua Puller, who was the third in a family of fourteen children and 
could trace his lineage through seven generations to Edward Fuller, who came 
over in the Mayflower and who landed at Plymouth. Mass., December 21, 
1820, came to Xunda in 1833 and settled on the \ery spot where the Protestant 
Methodist Church now stands. 

The I-'uller family seems noted throughout its many branches for long- 
evity and large families. Joshua's famil_\- and also that of his son, William C. 
I'uller, seem no exception to the rule. He was a deacon of the Uni\ersalist 
Church of Xunda, a thoroughl}- good man, antl a typical Xew Englander. He 
was born .\i)ril 4, 1778, during the Revolutionar_\- War. His father, Elisha 
P^iller, was a Revolutionary soldier. The father died at Ludlow, Mass.. where _ 
all his children were born. Joshua was married about 1800. first, to Polly 


Brewer, who died the same year, and next to Mercy Pease, who. became the 
mother of his large family. The Fuller genealogy gives the names of three 
of his daughters: Polly, born 1802; Clarissa, born 1803; Louisa, Ijorn 1808. 
One of these — Polly — must have come to Nunda and was married to a son or 
brother of Erastus Carrier, who lived on the County Line Road. 4. Sophia, 
born 1810, was married to Dr. Nelson Chittenden, one of the early dentists of 
Nunda; 5. Caroline, born 1812. married Alfred Goldthwait and they came to 
Nunda before the father's family came ; 6. James Fuller went west, and had 
two sons; 7. George Fuller to Philadelphia, had one son, Edward; 9. Maria 
Fuller was married in Nunda by Rev. Dr. Manley, Universalist, to Porter 
Warren, son of Noah, the veteran ; 10. A\'illiani C. Fuller, postmaster and 
Deputy Sheriff nine years each, married J first ) Louisa C. Guy, daughter of 
Alexander Guy of Nunda ; the latter was born in 1822 and died May 28, 1895. 
Mr. Fuller married (secondl the widow of Joel Brewer, with whom several of 
the Institute boys boarded. Mr. Fuller died and his widow now lives with 
her son at Rochester. 


III. I. Henry F., born 1843, <^lisfl March 10, 1875. He was a veteran of 
the Civil W ar, married *Esther Barker, daughter of Jesse Barker. 

IV. He left two sons, i. Elmer Ellsworth, editor of the Sons of Veteran 
newspaper, and Ora ; both died young. 

V. E. E. Fuller left a wife and two children; 2. Arthur \\'., born 1830; 
3. May L., born 1852, married (first) John Paine, a veteran, who was killed 

by an explosion at Dalton, Iniried at Oakwood, married (second) 

Slater, I\'. two sons. She married (third) Charles Rulison, a son, Harrv 
Rulison, journeyman printer, Mt. Morris. 

III. 4. George C, born 1855 ; 5. Martha E., born 1857 ; 6. Charles O., born 
1859; 7. Fred A. ; 8. Abbie, a son, born 1865. 


Dr. Chittenden, dentist. East Street, married Sophia I'ullcr, daughter of 
Joshua. Nelson Chittenflen, a first class dentist and a first class teacher of 
vocal music. Children: I. Flora Eglantine; 2. Ella Antoinette; 3. Roselle ; 4. 
Charlotte ; 5. Charles, also a dentist, was at the head of his profession in Wis- 
consin at the time of his early death, in 1907; 6. Mary; 7. Kate. The family 
went West previous to the Civil \\'ar. A sister of Nelson Chittenden was a 
Mrs. Hill of Portage. 


Lived near the corner of Vermont and Church Street. 

I. Daniel Pittenger. 

II. Joshua Pittenger, married Sarah Chandler: Gertrude Pittenger mar- 
ried Alfred Swain ; Roselle. 

I. 2. A brother of Daniel Pittenger, with his wife, left their two children 
in their home for an hour while they went to call on a neighbor. They probably 
stayed longer than they intended tfi, and when they returned found the house 
nearly burned down and their children were l>urned to death. The family 
lived on East Hill. 


Almiron Paine 

Stage Driver 

First Child Born in Nunda 

E. \V. PaiIsAKI.. f\o. 

The Late Peter De Puy 
Banker of Nunda 

Sanford Parker 
Of the Parlcer House, Dalto 


Children of Colonel DePuy (who li\-c(l in Mt. Morris. Init never in Xunda, 
nor did the father of Peter DePuy, who died when Peter was young) : i. Amos ; 

Ezra DePuy, married ( 1842) Miss Rachel Post : I'hilip. Sr., married 

Chandler: Eleoner, married Maxom Smith, who owned one of the three lots 
on which the village of Dalton is built. 

II. Charity Smith, married ^^'illiam Y. Robinson, ex-Supervisor and ex- 
member of Assembly. 

III. I. Caroline, married Rev. Thomas B. Paine, pastor of Uni\-ersalist 
Church, Scranton, Pa. : 2. Harriet, married DeLester \\ ilkins, medical student 
and principal of schools. 

II. Peter DePuy. died, aged y~,. grocer and banker, married Melissa J. 
Smith of Perry. 

III. I. Isaac Justin, grocer and banker, married Sarah Brewster, daugh- 
ter of Isaac Brewster. 2. Alton, burn in Xunda (brakeman), married 

Morris, niece of Joseph Morris, died and left a son and daughter. 

Grandchildren of Peter and Melissa, children of J. DePuy: 

IV. *P>rett (liank clerk), married Harriet Barrett, one son; 2. Perry 
I bank clerk ) : 3. Ivan : 4. Bruce : 5. Glenn. 

II. 2. *Philip DePuy, a carpenter and a brother of Peter, married 

his widow. ]\Irs. De Pviy married (second) Hiram Mills. 

III. Frank DePtiy, bank clerk, married Laura Rose, daughter of Cvrus 
Rose. He died 1907, leaving wife and one daughter. 

II. 3. Sister of Peter married Isaac W'hitenack (see \Miitenack brothers, 
John. Isaac, Cornelius) : 4. Sarah (Sally), married George Duryee (see Durvee 

III. I. Margaret Duryee. married Cull)ertson : 2. Catharine Eliza, 

married Glisby : 3. Ezra: 4. Samuel: 5. May. 


The Mackens were a patriotic family. The sons enlisted and two of the 
daughters married soldiers. No family that furnished soldiers was unimport- 
ant in war times, and deserve special mention in local history. 

.Mr. Alacken and Susan Macken lived in the Chautau<|ua Hollow 


I. James (soldier) : 2. Thomas (soldier) : 3. Cecilia, married Orrin Grimes: 
4. Margaret, married PTank G. Lockwood, veteran, died 11)07: 5. Anna, mar- 
ried *F. Frank Demmon, veteran, 136th Regiment. 

III. 1. Elvira, daughter of I'rank by former marriage. 2. Cora, married 
Fred W'oodworth. son of Charles A\'.. \-eteran (see Woodworth families). 


Lewis, a ^•eteran of Spanish ^^'ar, Craig Colon}- : Bert, married 

Kernahan : 6. *Mary, married *Lorenzo Jacobs, a barber. They lived on Mill 
Street, Xunda. 

John Kelly, son of Joseph Kelh' (by first marriage), came with his uncle, 
John Fox. to Xunda, married (first) Hanor Philena Baldwin, daughter of 


Nelson: tlic\- li;ul two childron : Miiinia, married l':ii Howns of Ml. Morns; 
Orrcn J., married Minnie Stewart; John Kelly married (second) Mrs. I.}'dia 

Children of Emma and Eli : 

III. E. J. Downs, Nellie I).. Harry Downs, (."hildren of Orren and Min- 
nie Kelly; i. Floris. and 2. Everett. Mary Kelly, sister to John, married Linns 
.Aldricli ; *Fred (bachelor), died at Dalton. 

The family of Joseph Kelley never lived at Xnnda. He came to Granger 
in 1838 with a span of horses and a top bugy,y and traded it for 80 acres of 
land: returned to Herkimer County by packet from Rochester and returned 
the next spring;. l)ans.;hter, Sarah. Mrs. Dr. Hamilton, and Martha have lived 
in Nunda : Churchill dieil i88(x William H. Kelly is a prominent citizen of 
Grove, has been Supervisor of the town, and a veteran of the Ci\il W ar. The 
farm of John Kelley was in Xnnda. lie now resides in Dalton. 


1. I. John Fox, Espaw Passage, sister of I'eter. 2. Margaret Fox. mar- 
ried Marshal Passage : 3. Christopher Fox married Elizabeth Sphoon. 

\\\. 1. James, married Jane .\cker ; j. Henry, married Mrs. Jane 
(Blowers) Sphoon: 3. Mary Margaret, marrietl (ieorge J. Boardman. 

1\'. Minnie, married Plenry Ames, 

111. 4. Simon, married Eunice Purdick; 5. t'harles. (snigle). 

I. 3. Nicholas Fox. married Elizabeth Knights; 2. John: 3. Edward Fox 
(sailor) died at sea; *Charles Fox, soldier: Loraine ; Luhi : Lizzie. 


Children of James who never came to Xunda. 
n. I. Joseph Fox, married Isora Ellsworth, 

II. 2. *Cliarles C, Fox, married Angeletta White: Eliiah. single; .\nna 
married Herrington ; Stoddard, single. 

H. 3. Sally Ann, single. 

II. 4. Dorothy, married John White. Jr. 

HI. Flnora. married Walter Herrington. 

Settlers Ai.onc. the C)lu Colnty Line. 

PETER ROBERTS came to Leicester about 100 years ago. when there 
were but few white settlers, and those, mostly those who had lived with 
the Indians, like Horatio Jones and Joseph Smith. Indians were plenti- 
ful for there were three Indian Reservations within the present township of 
Leicester. He had teams, and finding the wild grass bountiful he gathered 
some stacks of it for winter use, whether the sight of this heap of combustibles 
reminded an old squaw of the burning of Little Beardstown, by Sullivan's men. 
and the destruction of her home in "79, or the very easy task it would be to re- 
duce this crop of winter ha\- to ashes, is not known, but one winter night she 
applied the blazing brand, and the winters supply of hay was gone. 

It had l)c-un a time of peace and even the Indians feared this act of agi^res- 
sion would lead to "bad blood" between the races, so the\ themselves took the 
matter in hand, accused the squaw of being a witch, tried and condemned her, 
and burned her at the stake. 

Mr. Roberts, robbed of his winter's sujjply of fodder, "look to the woods" 
of Sparta, and fed his stock on bushes as best he could ; the o.xen alone lived 

Soon after, the war of 1812-14 being in progress, a draft was made and one 
of his neighbors was drafted who did not care to go, so he gave Mr. Roberts 
$50 to go in his place. The Sparta volunteers and others who could not find 
substitutes, for few had $50, went to the front, among them our future 
townsman John C. McNair. Roberts not only went, but returned and having 
tried his hand and his courage, liked it so well that on three other occasions he 
volunteered his services for the protection of tiie frontier. 



I. Husted Green, Sr., married Hannah Ruberls, daughter of the pioneer 
veteran, Peter Roberts. 


I. Musted Green, Jr., married Alathea Run\an ; 2. Jane Green, married 
Abram Tunison, West Sparta ; 3. Robert W., married Mary McBride. 

Husted and Robert W., were both soldiers of the war, the latter lost an 
arm in the service. Husted has served as assessor of the town a number of 
terms. Robert \\'., liad been School Commissioner, while all tlie three children 
have taught school. Husted lives on the homestead, and Robert is a physician 
and lives at Geneseo, N. Y. 


Sheldon Green, married I .\nna Derrickson, 2 Madge Carpenter. He is a 
first class carpenter and Iniildcr; Caroline, a teacher (Genesee Normal School), 
married F. Carpenter. 

The military record of this three fold family is worthy of special mention. 
Peter Roberts, veteran (Sparta Co.) 1812-14. 

His grandsons : Peter Roberts : William Batterson ; John Batterson, died 
fighting Indians, after the Civil War ; Husted Green ; Robert Green ; Andre\.- 
McMillian : Lewis Sutton (died in the service), married Jane Roberts; Isaiah 
B. Hamilton: Henry Waver (a son-in-law), was veteran of Mexican War and 
of Civil War: all blood relatives, excepting the last three, who married into 
the family, furnishing another illustration that military tendencies can be trans- 

Mrs. Silas Roberts at the age of yo, tells of first settlers along the Keshe- 
qua Trail. 

.Additional to the Tuttle family, one of its members, Mrs. Lydia Montangee 
Roberts, a nonogenarian who died about ten years ago, left a record of her early 
recollections when she was a young woman and lived with an uncle and aunt. 
Abner Tuttle and wife, on the site of the Coopersville mill house. There were 
three brothers of these Tuttles, Abner, Henry and Stephen. The Baptist Church 
records, record onlv the name of Stephen Tuttle ^vho moved to Grove, though 


:\Irs. Roberts says, that Ehlcr Samuel IMessenger preached at the McSweeney 
log school house foot of East Street, and all these people attendetl the services. 
(The early settlers who were Baptists joined the church at L'nioii Corners.) 
She also states that her cousin Amy Tuttle was the first person buried in tin 
Xunda \'alley CVmetery, that Amy was uj years of age and died in 1822. The 
family had lived there for at least five years, and she had lived with them part 
of that time. She stated that all the three Tuttles lived on the east side of the 
Keshequa Creek on the Kesheciua trail (the trail crossed the Kesheqtia on the 
Cranston farm near the Bates Road). She also mentions that "Granny Pren- 
tice" was the secnnd person buried in our Xunda Cemetery, that .\bner Tuttle 
with his oxen and .-.led. drew the remains to the cemetery, that the furneral pr(j- 
cession had to slop, antl the men cut away fallen timber several times before 
reaching her grave. This was in 1823, and ( Irannx was 90 years old, if so, she 
must have been born in 1733 and was probably the first born of all the pioneers. 
Elisha Prentice is mentioned as living on the west side of the creek opposite to 
the Irwin place on the east side. He was proDably the son of "(iranny Prentice" 
and the brother of Nathan Prentice, the father of John and Hiram Prentice ; 
and here in Xunda, on tlie County I^ine, this first of om^ many nonogenarians 
passed awav. She also locates Zadoc Sherwood, near the Jones family burial 
lot. the Crawfords as before stated lived on the Jones farm, near a watering 
trough, and stranger still, Alpheus Herrick and D. J. Conklin, lived in a double 
log house, on the Liberty Bennett farm. Slayton had an ashery on the Wil- 
longhby Drew i)lace, Daniel ^^'isner had a private burial ground, east of the 
Drew place, while his log house was on the opposite side of the road, west of 
what was afterwards called the Devinny place. This log house was by a fine 
s])ring of water. 

The Tuttles were from the W'yoming \ alley. Pa., and were no relation to 
the Tuthills of Portage and Xunda. Their princijial source of income at first 
was from selling ashes, at the Slayton .Ashery. The lands west of the Kesh.e- 
qua were co\-ereil with a forest of yellow pines. All this was on or before 
1822. She mentions both McSweeney, and Judge Carroll, but calls Mc- 
Sweeney a clerk of Carroll's. This is the only statement that is (piestionable. 
Judge Carroll's map of 1824, and later, does not speak of the Tuttles, Slayton or 
Prentices, and locates Alpheus Herrick opposite to (iranville Sherwood and 
Conklin, near the Coles where he lived many years, and Jonathan Barron on the 
Sturgeon farm. But this statement from a nonogenarian who lived in Xunda 
as early as 1818, and died here so recently is of great value. ]Many pages of it 
have been lost, Init what remains is of great interest. This information con- 
cerning our cemetery could not ha\-e been obtained from any other source. It 
harmonizes well with the time of the laying out of the streets leading to it, 
\\'est Street and I-'ourth Street about this time 1821 or 1822, by Henry C. Jones, 
our first village maker. Slayton re-appears a fevv^ years later with two others, 
Curtis and Gujs and this time they changed grain into liquid form, and we 
have to confess to having had a distillery in pioneer Nunda near the Slayton 
ashery. One of the proprietors, Jacob Guy, about 1830, bought out the Wilcox 
store and inn, and since then this place has been known as "Guy's Corners," 
and the inn as Guy's Tavern. The building, a frame house, is still stand- 
ing, is in fair condition and is a typical specimen of the \\avside Inn common 


(luriii!:; tlic ]jorio(I ilciKniiinatLMl in ]iiiiiK'er ila\s, improved conilitions when frame 
lidiises superceded lo^' ones. 

We give the likeness of this nonoyenarian wiio died in \8')/. aged 91. 

Silas Rolierls and iiis sisters. Airs, joim llatterson, Mrs. Gray and Mrs. 
( iamljol were cousins to Afrs. Jemima Roberts S<|uires and iier sister, ]\Irs. 
Hannah Green, wife of f-Iusted Green, Sr. They all came from Sparta, where 
their ancestor. Peter Roberts, Sr., a soldier of the war of 1812, located at a very 
early date. The Tutile faniil-,', that settleil near Coopersville at least twenty 
years before the mill was built, was also related on the Roberts side. The fam- 
ily of Silas Roberts was connected l)y marriage to that of Leonard Kulin, 
Mrs. Lydia Montanye Roberts and Mrs. I'rania Montanye Kuhn being sisters. 
Lewis Sutton, a nephew of these sisters, married, liefore enlisting in the 104th 
Regiment, Celestia Jane Roberts, his cousin; and Andrew McMillian, another 
cousin, married as his .second wife after the war, L'rana, an older daughter. 
These \'arious branches of the family of the old ^•eteran followed his example 
in one respect: the}- were patriotic and the soldiers from this fighting family 
were numerous, and, as far as known, valiant. 

The Tuttle.' came into town about 1815. Mrs. Silas Roberts then a 
young lady came v.ith them. The Squires fanu!ly came about 1825. The John 
liatterson family were on the Mt. ^lorris side of the county line, wdiile the 
Greens had onl}" to mo\-e a few rods from Sparta into Xunda, their old home 
being in full sight of their new home in Nunda. 

Jesse .Squire. Sr.'s, name is on the Judge Carroll map, so we may con- 
clude the family settled in 1824 or 1825. The family were as follows: 

L Jesse .^(piire. .Sr., and Mrs. Jemima Roberts .S(|uire. Children: 

I, *John, married .Vmand.i .\l\-ar(l. her secorid inisliand Henrv Chase; .'. 
*Seeley. Sr.. (marble cutter 1. married ^Marian Iloyt. daughter of Shepherd 
Hoyt, Sr. ; 3. Susan, married William IJenson; 4. Clarinda. married James 
Swift: 5. I'anny. married Michael Clark, a soldier; 6. Jane, married *Howard 
Doty, a soldier who died in the service; 7. William, married (in the west) ; 8. 
'"Albert, single; y. Jesse, soldier, married hi New Hampshire. 

HL Seeley. Jr.. a barber, married '■Alary Birge. daughter of George and 
Jane Birge, a restaurant keeper for Salvation Army in Buffalo. N. Y. 

IV. Robert, married Clara Batterson. daughter of W. S. Batterson. is a 
motorman in Buffalo ; I~red, assists his father in .Salvation Army restaurant ; 
Bessie at home with her grandmother. 

Children of William and Susan' Benson : Trof. William M. Benson. I'h. 
D., resides in Rochester (see College Lists); llenry Benson, resides in West 
Henrietta; *Kiuma. married. 

The Whipples. settled 1825 on Lot 25. 125 acres. 

I. Elisha Whipple was one of the men Nunda delighted to Jionor. he was 
Justice of the Peace and Supervisor of the l:own. 

Elisha Whip])le. born 1804. died 1863. married Maria Post, horn Cayuga 
County, 1803, died 1840. Children, nine. 

n. I. George, born 1821) in Xunda, farmer. 1)5 acres, married Helen M. 
TIerriek. born Castile. 1834. married 1853. Children: W'illiam, Ijorn 1866; 
Charles .Seldom, 1872. 

II. 2. Jacob, farmer, lOO acres, born Nunda 1830, married Joanna b'anlk- 
ner, l)orn I'.atli 1843, niarried 1862. Children, three: Carrie, Kate F., Fred R., 
born 1 87 1. 

Henry Whipple, born in Xnnda, 1833, farmer, 12 acres, married Elizabeth 
Smith, born Livingston Count_\ 1858, married 1876. 

Nephew of Elisha. Frank Whipple, son of and Maria Bard, 01 

Nunda, Court Stenographer, Livingston County, resided at Geneseeo, married 

Elisha Whipple came to the village and lived on East Street. He became 
Supervisor of the town. On one occasion the candidates for Supervisor had the 
same number of votes so both agreed to leave their predecessor in office, so he 
served an additional term. 

Ephraim Walker, son of John Walker a Revolutionary soldier, was a vete- 
ran of the war of 1812, (also a local minister of the M. E. Church). He served 
a year as a soldier. He niarried at the age of twenty, settled at Dansville 
where he was a brick maker, later he made bricks at Tuscarora. He was twice 
married and his two families of children numbered in all thirteen. Mr. and 
Mrs. Walker, and probably one son, settled in Nunda (Lot 8), 100 acres, prob- 
ably in 1824. Ephraim Walker, married first Mary Lake, they had one son and 
live daughters : married second, Mary Woodward, four sons and three daugh- 
ters. Twelve of the children were born in Nunda. 

II. Henry Walker, married Susan Perry: had ten children, seven of 
whom grew to maturity. 

III. James Walker, M. I), specialist Hornell Sanitarium, was one of the 

II. 2. Sarah, married William Spinnings: Jane, married \\'illiam \'an- 
Dorn ; Lucina, married John Thompson ; Mary, married Darwin Chittenden, 
children Oscar, Lilly and Emma : Margaret, married John Stoner, their son 
became Sheritt in Indiana; Melissa, married John Kinney; Minerva, married 
Elijah Levie, tlicir children, Catharine, married Frank Kernehan, Bert, ma'"- 

ried Ella Cross ; Edwin Walker, married Strickland ; Sophia, married 

Charles H. Rockafellow, their children, "Atlelaide, married *Richard Bristol ; 
John Emory, married *Lucy Dennis of Nebraska, her daughter, Vada ; Min- 
nie, married Allison Paine, their children Adelaide, John Nelson Paine ; John 
Campbell Walker, married Emma Sphoon, their children La Verne, lawyer, 
married Grace Hunt, daughter of W. Hunt; Leon, a student; Eugene Walker, 
married Jennie Kendall, daughter P'anny, ( Mrs. Conklin ) ; Wellington Walker, 
married Laura Chittenden. 


The children were: Nelson; Almira (Mrs, Gleason ) ; Matilda, still liv- 
ing, (Mrs. Thomas Priestman); Clara; Eleanor, (Mrs. George McKee ) ; 
Thomas Jefferson, who died igo6 ; Edwin R., married Harriet Elwood, their 
daughter. (Mrs. Mark Turner), and their son, Clyde Turner; Orlando, married 
Emma Powers. 


John, Cornelius, and Isaac. John Whitenack, married i, Wade; 

2. Collar; Isaac, married Calista DePuy, sister to Peter DePuy, their 


children: Alicia, married Leander Aber; Jacob, a teacher in New York Cit) , 
married Mary Eagen ; Seward, married Anna White ; *Cornelius, married Inez 
Whitehead ; Melissa, a Normal teacher, has taught twenty-one years in one 
school at Mt. Morris. 

Cornelius Whitenack, born in 1811, settled 1836, farmer 115 acres, mar- 
ried Lucinda I)ur\ee, children six: lielle, married Frank A. Northway, Alida, 
died single, Arminda, married Edward Coe ; Elizabeth and Benson, twins; 
Benson, died aged 20, Charles, married Lizzie Conklin ; grandchildren of Corne- 
lius : Edward Northway, merchant, married Grace Metcalf, one son, called Paul 
Samuel ; Will H. Northway, merchant, married Franc Herrick, daughter of 
Calvin H., has two sons ; Elizabeth, married Luther C. Thompson, farmer Oak- 
land, N. V. Children of Charles and Lizzie \\ hitenack. Jay C. Whitenack. 
Lula H. Whitenack. 


L Gerritt Cox, farmer; Catherine Cox, died age<l 104. This centenarian 
broke her hip bone when 102 years old ; after this she lived two years. 

n. William G. Cox, married Sarah C. Morris. 

in. Jacob Cox, married i. *Emman Kernehan ; 2. Anna E. Lowell. 

Children of Jacob: IMaiid, Charles; Amariah G. Cox, brother to Jacob; 
Emma, married .Vlfred Paine, their children : Mabel, married Chan K. Sanders, 
Jr.; Louise; Florine. Sadie C.. sister of Jacob, married George Weston of Chi- 

1836 AND 1837 

The year 183') is conspicuous by reason of two events — The oiJcning of the 
Nunda House, and the Canal Ccleliration. 

The Paine brothers William I), and Carlos G.. built the large brick hotel 
that has been from that time to this the largest and generally the best hotel in 
the town. The bricks for this building were made here. There was a general 
observance of the day, and the principal citizens partook of their New Year's 
dinner. In the evening there was a public dance, the first recorded in the his- 
tory of the town. Dancing was tabooed in those days and while there were 
plenty willing to attend, there were but few willing to see their names in i>rint 
as managers. The Paine Brothers issued the invitations, which read as follows : 

"The company of Mr. is solicited at the Assembly Room of C. Paine in 

Nunda Valley, on the first day of January, 1836, at i P. M. to reciprocate con- 
gratulation on the approach of the New Year. Managers, L. .S. Gilbert, J. Ken- 
ney, T. J. Burnham, H. .Shepard, W. T. .\klerman, L. Gould, H. J. Burnham 
Nunda \'alley, December, 1835." 

If this had been in T008 it would have read at <> P. M., and the guests 
would have arrived at 10 P. M. 


The Canal Celebration at Nunda \'alley. May ii, 1836, was a much greater 
affair. The following ode written by the leading young lawyer in town, Addi- 
son M. Crane, has been preserved. The air — Auld Lang Syne. We may read 
between the lines the great expectations of the poet and the people, and had the 
work gone on. and had the canal gone on to Pittsburg instead of stopping near 
Olean, there would have been a paying canal where now there is — a railroad. 

Ode sung- at the Canal Celebration at Xtnida X'alley. May ii. 1S36. 
(Air: Aulil Lang .S}ne. Written by Addison ^[. Crane.) 

1. Let every fear l)e now forgot 
Xor ever brought to mind 

Let every source of joy be sought 
And leave all fear behind. 

2. We come around the festal board 
To celebrate this day 

.-\nd here we'll join with one accord 
To drive dull care away. 

3. We come to mingle now our joys 
And tell our triumphs o'er 

WHiile gladness every tongue employs 
That was dumb before. 

4. The gladsome vale where Genesee 
In solemn grandure flows 

Is destined sure, ere long to be 
As blooming as a rose. 

5. And Allegany's prime clad plains 
Are destined to become 

The poor man's surest source of gain 
And build the rich man's home. 

6. Then welcome be the gladsome hour 
.\nd welcome be tlie day 

That ga\e us cause to claim the power 
To drive dull care away. 

7. So then let every lear be gone 
Xor ever thought of more 
And so we'll nov,- in union join 
To tell our triumi)h5 o'er. 

8. Let all the friends of the canal 
.\ssembled here to-day 

.A. token show of their good will 
.\nd shout a loud hurra I 

Xo doubt the\ did. and though .\. 'SI. Crane was not a great rhymster. he 
became a great man. 


Calvin 15. Lawrence, built the 11. F. King-Hammoud-W'hitcomb house. 

The children: Xancy, Martha and George. Mr. L.. reared a fine monu- 
ment at Oakwood when he was wealthy — but died in poverty in the west, even 
the date of his death is not (but should be) inscribed on the monument. 

Capt. James and wife. Children: i. Pulaski; 2. William; 3. Louise: j. 
Frankie. The family moved to Detroit where Capt. James laid the first pave- 
ments in that city. Two children were born in Detroit. 


n. Kate James, marrieil into the Cliristian familv, a familv of great 

ill. Kate James Cliristian. married Ta}-lor, and though not a 

Xunda girl sends yearl\, kiml remembrances to her grandmother's friends. 

Another interestmg memheer of this family was foil I'arrot, that the 
James Bros., educated to say a great many ]iert things. Nathaniel Coe an 
ex-Member of Assembly, liad also been elected a Justice of the I'eace, and was 
surprised a few days after when passing the James residence, ( now the Baptist 
parsonage) to hear his name and office announced in a croaking voice, Coe ! 
Coe ! Squire Coe ! Squire Coe took olif his hat and gave I'ollv a low bow, when 
Polly renewed her salutation with a variation. Coe! Coe! black Coe! This 
time there was no uow , and suspecting Biii James was serving I'olly as 
|irompter the honorable magistrate passed quickly up the street. The parties, 
however were well introduced, and Pollv always hailed the magistrate as Iv.- 
passed, with the same words. The bird had also a speaking acquaintance with 
two young namesakes of "Go(.)d Queen Bess," and when either of them passed 
he would shout to the amusement of all within hearing, "Lib, Lib! there's a 
hole in your stocking!" followed by' a fiendish laugh. 

Parrots well instructed prove apt scholars and can make themselves inter- 
esting — to those simply spectators. The James parrot, certainlv reflected the 
breadth of its instructions, but somehow the victims of its wit, would divide 
their wrath between the bird and the boys, bv saying, "that sauc\- bird! those 
dreadful Ijoys." But such birds and such boys are the ones longest remem- 
bere<l and the Lcick builders family including Polly, are not forgotten. 


Joseph Ditto, came to Xumla in canal days, ami kept canal suppHes. PL_ 
owned the L. B. Warner place, Massachusetts Street, his sons are well remem- 
bered. John Ditto, a surveyor, was prominent in school exhibitions at the 
Xunda Academy, Church Street, and at the Xunda Literary Institute. George 
Ditto, who left Xunda when only a yeaith, became a veteran of the Civil War. 
He visited Nunda with his niece. Airs. Young, the poetess, daughter of John 
Ditto, two years ago and remained until after Old-Home- Week. 

Andrew Gilbert, built in 1836 the Coopersville mill, his children were; 
Ethan and Esther, twins, Ethan married Betsy Curtis and Esther married P. 
Dudley Kendrick ; Chloe, married Egbert Bogart, son of Dr. Bogart ; Phineas ; 
Sarah ; Charles, married Eliza Day. Children of Charles and Eliza Gilbert : 
*Carrie and Harry were adopted by Mr. and Mrs. R. G. Bennett: Mary (mar- 
ried west ). 


Judge Ethan Gilbert, married Mrs. Sarah Barron Messenger; George Gil- 
bert, married Mrs. Sarah Barron Gilbert. 

ludge Gardner, boot and shoe manufacturer made hand made boots and 
shoes ; he employed eight hands. His sons were Warren and Charles. 

Thomas Atwood, had a cabinet shop in the woods east of the village, but 
mo\'ed into the village, and rented the Jones cabinet shops. His children were . 

Charles A. Atwood, married Eliza Bradlev ; Emma E. : and Eliza, married 

Thorp ; Susan, married L. Fisher Rider, who also had a cabinet shop ; Harriet 
married Barnabas Wright; Marthd. married Charles Baker: Thomas married 
Terressa Clough ; Kate, ( Mrs. Smith ) ; I'rances, married .\rch Lemen. 


Jose])h While made silk hats for many years, lie was also a veteran of the 
Civil War. He married Mrs. I-"a.\on ; children were; Alarcia, Ella, Sarah. 

The Prescotts (1835) cousins of the Swains. 1. i. Josiah Prescott, borii 
1780, died 1855. age 75. Mrs. Betsy Prescott Swain, wife of Samuel Swain, 
Sr., was a sister. 11. .Albert H. Prescott, born 1801, a siioemaker, died 1873, 
married Eliza Brown, born 1808, died 1893, aged 87. III. Abbie A. Prescott. 
Ijorn in .\unda 1842, married Jerry W. Chandler, born 1839, died 1905. Chil- 
dren : Walter H., Blanch E., Grace M., Ruth A., Susan J. and .Arthur W. 

-Mr. Cuttmg was the sexton of the Presbyterian Church when the bell was 
placed there in 1836. His daughters were Jane and Cyrena. 

Zadock Lee (1837) and family came from Brookfield, X. V. The Lees 
were Presbyterians, and the young men sang in the choir of that church. Thev 
went away from Xunda in 1854 selling their farm to Henry Brinkerhoof. 
Zadock Lee wa? born in Xew Lebanon, in 179ft, ^I'l*^ '^'■^d at Baraboo, Wis., 
February 6, 1873. Esther, his wife, died December 14, 1872. Their children: 
Lathrop Livingston, born Hamilton. X. Y., 1823, married Harriet X. Gardiner 
of Xunda, who lives at Baraboo, Wis.; 'Tiyron Butler Lee, born at Brookfield. 
X. Y., 1825, married Lucinda Warner, 1847. He was a veteran from Wiscon- 
sin and died recently, at South Wayne, Wis. Henry Hurdington, born 1828, 
died at Xew York City. 1870: David Dyer Lee, born Brookfield, X. Y., 1833, 
married Julia Ellen Longley, Wisconsin : Mercy Elizabeth Lee, born Xunda 
January 8, 1838. married Henry Cowles, Baraboo, Wis. ; Herbert A. Lee, clergy- 
man and veteran soldier, of the 6th Wis., born in Xunda June 23, 1842, married 
in 1870 at Xew York City, Emma Tilden Bradley. This excellent boy, though 
born at Coopersville. has proved to be an excellent man, and is doing good work 
in home missions, he resides in Weiner, Idaho. 

The Genesee Valley Canal was to be a reality, and people poured into the 
village and built houses. Massachusetts .Street was laid out and settled b\' peo- 
ple from the Old Bay .State. It was first called Cnion Street. Even the for- 
ests of the town were bought up, for lumber was to be king in that coiumunity. 
Our first foreign population came that year, but most of them settled nearer the 
■"Deep Cut" where a mile or more of hill was to be changed into a valley to form 
part of the well known "Xine Mile Le\el." this was a vast task, for the steam 
shovel did not then exist. 

Xew families came to Xunda and remained some years. The Marshes, 
\\'illiam and Sanger Marsh, merchants. Wood Estabrook and Laflin, were also 
merchants. Roswell Bennett from Portage started a baker\\ and the McXair 
r.rothers. Tohn C Hugh and Charles McXair came aViout this time. 


I. Louisa: 2. .Sophia: 3. .S\lvia : 4. Almira. T. I. Lousia, married 
Mark Keith, their children : Sarah Keith, married hYances H. Gibbs : Sylvia, 
married Eri Satterlee ; Lavina, married IIe;ir\- Baker; Lavisa, married Ephraim 
Page; Lincoln, married Eliza Dickenson. 

I. 2. Sophia, married Israel Greenleaf. her daughter Almira Greenleaf, 
married John Lamb, their children : Adelia Lamb, married Isaac Burgess : 
Charles ; Harry : John : Louise ; *Florence ; Nellie ; Georgia. Mr. John Lamb 
worked at blacksmithing, and afterward kept a grocery and saloon ; he died in 


1. 3- ^vlvia Trumbell, married Storrs Barrows. Fneir daughter, Emily 
Barrows, preceptress Nunda Literary Institute for three years, married A. Jud- 
son Barrett, A. M., Principal Nunda Literary Institute from 1854 to May, 1859. 
when the building was burned — (see sketch). Their children: Storrs Barrett. 
.■\. B., Rochester University ; Helen Barrett, married W. B. Montgomerx', of 
Rochester; Annie Barrett, died 1906. 

I. 4. Almira Trumbell, married .\. B. Lovejoy ; *Corydon a soldier die-i 
in the service ; Elijah ; Laura, became fourth wife of Capt. James Lemen ; Me- 
linda ; Sarah : Alonzo ; Lucina. 

Children of Ephraim and Lavisa Page, Dr. Xelson Page ; children of Lin- 
coln and Eliza Keith, Mark Jr., and a sister. 


The second wife of Frances H. Cibbs, was Helen Jennings, daughter of 
Lewis Jennings of Xunda, her sister married F. Marion Satterlee. 


Children of Francis H. and Sarah Keith Gibbs : *George H. Gibbs, mar- 
ried Frances Kendall: Emma Gibbs, married Capt. John J. Carter; Harriet 
Gibbs, married Dr. George Henry Fox of New York City ; their children : How- 
ard Fox, born in London, but with genuine .\merican patriotism, celebrated his 
first birthday on July 4, he is still a good specimen of a young .\nicrican : .\de- 
line, married January 22, 1908: Henry Rulande Russel : Helen. 

Charles, married Kitty \'ick of Rochester. Children of Eri and Sylvia 
Satterlee: Julia, married Chambers: Louis is an ,M. D. : Bert. Chil- 
dren of Henry and Lavina Baker: Nellie, married Fred Hunt; George; Lotta, 
married Spencer Rhinevault. 


Child, George Gibbs: grantlchikl, G. Harry Giljbs ; conjugis, Helen Buch- 
heit : great grandchild, Emma Gibbs. 

Child, Emma Gibbs ; grandchildren, Charles Gibbs Carter, Luke Berne Car- 
ter, Emma Carter, Alice Carter: conjugis, Mary Elizabeth McBride, Anne 
Curry, Alexander B. Sharp, Hugii Herndon : great grandchildren, Mary Car- 
ter, Hugh Herndon, Jr., John }. Carter Herndon. 

Child, Harriet Gibbs ; grandchildren, ( leorge Howard Fox, Adaline Fox, 
Alanson Gibbs Fox, Helen Fox : conjugis, Henry Russell. 

Child. Charles L. Gibbs : grandchild. Katherinc Gibbs adopted ; conjugis, 
John Dillon: great grandchild, Katherine Dilkm. 


John C. McNair a veteran of 1812-14, who had enlisted from Sparta, proved 
"A Spartan" indeed and always remained a patriot. He was born in Penn. 
1794 and settled in Sparta in 1796, came to Nunda in 1836. He was a strict 
Scotch Presbyterian, a good farmer and had a good sized family of scholarly 
children who became teachers. The parents lived until after the Civil War. 

If the bestowal of great names serv^es as an inspiration it were an easy 
highway to greatness. It worked fairly well in the McXair family. The fam- 
ily names were, John Hancock, George Washington, Jefferson, James Monroe. 
Isabella. Mctoria and Martha, all good teachers. Isabel and Martha have 
taught for many years. Victoria graduated from the Nunda Literary Institute ; 
taught a few years, and was married to a McNair and resides in Mt Morris. • 
Belle taught twenty years, became Mrs. Townsend, then became a widow and 
resumed teaching. Martha is still following her profession. 

James Alonroe was graduated from Nunda and from Rochester Univer- 
sity, became a soldier at the beginning of the Civil War, served as Capt of Co. 
F. 33rd Regiment, married Emily Gilmore of Nunda, held the position of 
clerk in Quarter Master Department at Washington six years ; then returned to 
the farm, where both himself and his lovely wife shortened their days by too 
much toil of an uncongenial nature, not adapted to their culture or constitu- 
tion. Capt. McXair served his town as Supervisor. He died at the age of 55, 
Mrs. McNair a few years afterward. They ieft a family of girls and one son. 
The son who disliked farm work and liked to travel found his way into almost 
every state in the Union, and it is said his name is cut on the walls of one of 
the dungeons of More Castle. Cuba. Poor Frank, the family patriotism made 
a martyr of this youthful cosmopolitan. Two of the daughters afterward proved 
their superiority as scholars and teachers. Emily, Lulu and Mary perished from 
lack of constitutional vigor, and the others sought health in California's health- 
ful climate, where Emily and Anna are still living. 

The ])arents of Mrs. McNair, Dr. and Mrs. James Gilmore. spent tlieir last 
days in the home of their daughter, and after her death, with the children. 
They also have ])assed away, highly esteemed by all who knew them. 

Jefferson McNair, enlisted in the west, where he was living and became a 
captain of the company in which he served. 

Hugh McNair (a brother of John C. ) lived near the village and shared m 
building up its industries. His son Clement succeeded him on the farm and 
tried various forms of experimental farming. 

Charles McNair (another brother) lived at ( 'akwood became very aged, 
and was at the time of his death the oldest person in the town. Mrs. Miles 
Moflatt, Mrs. Mathews and Miss Henrietta McNair were the daughters. A 
son went to California and after meeting with financial success, suddenly di?- 
appeared. Mrs. Mathews sought for him there in vain : and wrote and pub- 
lished a book concerning her years of unavailing but persistent search. Mrs. 
E. L. Cook at Edgerly Place, a daughter of Mrs. Mofifatt, is the only mcml:>er 
of the family in this vicinity. 

\'an Court (saddle and harness maker). Cuildren : i. Thomas; 2. Benj- 
amin; 3. William; 4. Marshall; 5. Sarah: (>. Caroline; 7. Hannah Maria; 8. 
Catharine; 9. Marion. 


I. Mrs. Bradford, a sister of Suranus Britton. II. Emily, married 
Thomas Chynoworth, saddle and harness maker; Belle; Ann Bratlford, mar- 
ried Edward Chandler. 



Has a conimittfC that gives us an opinion as to who were leaders at that 
time, Silas Grover, Benedict Bagley, Walter Whitcomlj, O. H. Barron, A. Clin- 
ton Chipman (our first lawyer) Samuel Swain, Jr., Hiram Grover, Calvin B. 
Lawrence, George W. Merrick, Supervisor Utley Spencer, Eliphaz Tyler, 
R. G. Bennett, B. P. Richmond, Granville Sherwood, John H. Townsend, Dr. 
David M. Dake, Eliazer Rowley, Suranus Britton, of Nunda ; Orletan Messen- 
ger, Agel Fitch, Daniel Edgerly, of Oakland ; Gen. Micha Brooks, Dr. Will- 
iam B. Munson of Brooksgrove ; Samuel C. Jones, Reuben Weed of Grove 
(Granger was still in Grove) ; Horace Hunt and Philip Burroughs of Portage. 


Hepsebeth Satterlee, daughter of Sylvester Satttrlee of East Hill and 
widow of Jacob Pettys, came to her father's to live on East Hill in 1837; she 
married for her second husband Elder Jacob Seager. Children ; First mar- 
riage : Edwin J. Pettys, born Septembei 2"], 1827, enlisted in Co. F., 4th N. Y. 
Heavy Artillery, married i, *S. Hill, 2, *Mary Crewel ; he died February 2, 
1907 ; Mary J. Pettys, married Ellis Thompson, died April 8, igoS ; Recta 
Pettys, married James Allen of Nunda ; Edgar S. Pettys, married Mary Ann 
Day, children Cora A. and \\\\\ E. 


Mr. Reckard was an early ])ioneer of Birdsall and came to Portage-Xunda 
about 1835 and to Xunda village about 1837. He was a carpenter and grocer, 
and for many years se.xton of the Oakwood Cemetery. Samuel Reckard and 
wife Sabrina, were two of the eight first members of a Methodist class that be- 
came the first Methodist Church of Xunda. His family were musical and after 
the first decade were choir singers for many years. Elizabeth sang for over 
fifty years. 

Samuel Reckard was born in 1807 and died in 1889. age 82. Sabrina, 
born 1807, died 1885, age 78. Elizabeth, married Robert Cree, a mechanic who 
came to Nunda about 1852. For many years he was the principal undertaker 
m the village and kept a large stock of furniture, he died in Xunda. Children : 
J^Vank Cree, married Effie Fra}-er, both died while only middelaged ; Charles 
Cree, Nunda. 

The Cree Brothers were the successors of their father until the death of the 
oldest son. The Duryee Brothers are the successors of Chirles Cree. 

John Reckard died at the age of 15 or 17; •''Orman Reckard was a veteran 

of the Civil War, 33rd Regiment, married * Carroll: *Jane Reckard; 

*Rose Reckard, a fine contralto and organist, married *Byron Seelye ; Lydia. 
married (elsewhere). 

Mrs. Cree has the distinction of having lived longest continuously in the 
village of Nunda, she came here, at the age of three, and has lived here since 
1837. She can still sing a good alto, and was for a quarter of a century a good 
choir soprano. 


Joseph Russell of New Hampshire, a relative of the Angier family came 
to (Oakland about 1825, and to Nunda about 1838. He was married three 

times. Ills first wife was an Aiigicr. the second Harriet Robinson, daughter of 
Elisha Robinson, and the third Alary Lobbell. His children by first wife were: 
Priscilla. married Syranus Britton ; Almira, married Jacob Osgoodby ; Charles 
P., married Mary Robinson, sister to her stepmother; William G.. married Ma- 
tilda Sherwood, daughter of Granville Sherwood ; Louisa, married William H. 
Martin ; Jane, married Cyrus Rose. Children by second marriage : Andrew, 
(writing teacher, artist and veteran), married Delia Duryee ; *George, mar- 
ried Martha DeCamp; *Ezra, died single; "'Harriet. Third marriage. '^War- 
ren, grew to manhood and died. 

Suranus Britton and his noble wife are well known by those who lived in 
Xuiula. from 1838 to 1865. As a canal contractor, liver\- and stage route 
manager, he vvfas famous. He went west and died there. Mrs. Britton was 
one of the best workers in the Baptist society in the time of its greatest pros- 
perity. As one of the patriotic workers, during the Civil War she held first 
place, ably seconded by Mrs. F. J. M. Whitcomb and a large circle of faithful 
assistants. Her son Russell became a soldier, and her brother Andrew ren- 
dered eflficient aid to the government in his capacity of artist and sketch maker. 
Their children were : Joseph Britton ; Lucy, who married James Camp the 
druggist ; Charles P. ; Russell who is still living, a major of the First New York 
Dragoons, and Fred, all born before 1840. 

The Osgoodby family came to Xunda in the thirties .Mid built a small 
house on East Street, now owned by Mrs. Keyes. i\lr. (_). was a builder. He 
was thrice married; hi= first wife was the mother of his sons, George M , a law- 
yer, and \\'illiani W.. a court stenographer, who married Electa Irwin ; George 
M., married Mary Turrill, he practiced law at Xunda, Buffalo and Xew York 
City. He was a very tall man. six feet and 6 inches in height, and most of his 
sons, and his one daughter, inherit this family characteristic. Melvin H. 
Osgoodby, is the only one of his sons living in Nunda. He has been a hard- 
ware merchant and is now manager of the Nunda Telephone Company. He 
resides on Seward Street ; he married Miss Abbott. They have one daughter, 
Leta, who is receiving a musical education av Syracuse L'niversity. Charles P. 
Russell's children: Juliett. Elizabeth, Alary E., I'Vank Charles, George O., 
Fred Horatio. Ella Linda. Children of William ( i. and Matilda Russell : 
'^'Frederick G., born in Nunda, never married, died recently : Lucy Maria, born 
in Nunda, married Peter J\L Travers ; Will c"., Jr., married Mary Smith; 
Emily Matilda and Eliza Jane, died in childhood ; Emma Sherwood, married 
'A'illard S. Martindale ; Jennie Eliza, never married ; Alleine May, married 
Frank E. Warner. 

*Jane, married Cvrus Rose, canal contractor and farmer, who died recently. 
aged gi, their children: .Arabella (Airs. Jacobs); Frances drowned in the 
Genesee River, while Air. R. was fording the stream in winter, age 16; James, 
still in Alissouri; *Henry J., married Carrie Willard ; he died on a ranch :n Colo- 
rado. His widow returned to Xunda. Their daughter, Fanny Rose, a musician, 
married Dr. John Nelson, they reside in Ohio. Laura sister to Henrw married 
*Frank DePuy, son of Philip DePuy, he died 1807. 

Andrew G. Russell, married Duryee, daughter of \\'illiain R. Dur- 

vee. They had two daughters. Andrew Russell was erne of the few 
pioneer artists of Nunda. Some of his panoramas, especially that of Niagara 
Falls, were excellent. He was given a Captain's commission during the Civil 


War. anil employed in sketching" the enemy's works, camjjs. etc. He was also 
an expert penman and taught classes in penmanship. John W. Hand and 
Cornelius Kiley W'ere among his most proficient scholars. 

George Russell, married Martha DeCanip. They had two sons, \\'alter 
and Wallace : Ezra and Harriet died young. 

The family oi \\'illiam and S. E. Martin were Emily, George D. la \et- 
eran of the 33rd New York I, Susie ( Mrs. Xye, of Castile), Lucy, Hattie, Clara, 
who lives with Mrs. Xye : Ezra. Nellie and Frank. W. H. Martin died June 
30, 1869, and ]\Irs. Martin. September 26, 1896: George D. died October 24, 
1900; Susie and Clara alone are living. The widow of George D. Martin. 
Anna Ellen Martin, resides at Davenport, Iowa. 

The late R. S. Coffin, in an article on the rural post oflRces of Mt. Morris, 
says: "An early stage route was owned and run by William Martin of Xunda. 
the large four-horse stage making daily trips between Mt. Morris and .\n- 
gelica was this or like this." 



Three Sprague brothers lived for a time in Xunda village, during the 
■ thirties." Joseph was a married man and his brothers lived with him. (jne 
of them was a doctor and practiced medicine while here. Horatio, the other 
brother, was a skilled musician, the cornet being his specialty. He held a 
position in a Buffalo city band that played on a passenger boat on Lake Erie. 
A disastrous storm occurred and the vessel went to the bottom. Only Sprague 
and one other member of the band reached shore and safety. 

The two Cody brothers lived in the \illage in its early days. Paschal 
married Miranda Jackson, an older sister of Leonard Jackson, who will com- 
plete his four score years this year. Rufus Cody was a blacksmith and located 
at Hunts Hollow, and, having some guests who wished to visit "the tunnel" 
that was in process of construction, he went with them to the middle falls, 
which was near by, and by some accident fell over the bank. He lodged, how- 
ever, against some small trees and his body was secured and brought to the 
surface, but he had been fatally injured, and died then and there, adding one 
more to the catastrophies of that locality. He left a wife, two sons and two 


In 184Q occurred the only tragedy in Xunda that ended in a fatality. A 
negro barber, named Pi., had a white wife and a mulatto child. An- 
other negro, named Brad, li\-inL; on the hill, enticed this fair hut false one 
away from her lieged lord and lawful husband. The knight of the razor 
secured Rill Dunn, a constable, to go to the woodland bower and secure the 
pledge of their former mutual lii\e. He, hdwexer, accomjianied this official 
with the lingering hope that he might induce the fickle one to return with her 
pickaninny. Not finding the ebony Lothario in the bower, he went to the rear 
of the house where the disturber of his kne's first dream was perched upon a 
pile of wood, whittling a shingle. The enraged husband struck a blow that 
sent the guilty paramour spinning around, and the open knife entered the 
abdomen of the now "doubly-injured man." Tiie constable, renowned as the 
swiftest nunier in the t<Twn, sought medical aid, which arrived after the 
tragedy was completed, and the innocent man. though not pallid, was a corpse. 
The man with the knife gave himself up, and declared himself innocent of any 
intention of murder. He was, however, sent to Geneseo to await trial, and the 
murdered man was duly buried. Here was an opportunity for the surgeons. 
A certain young physician — one of the very best who ever made Nunda a 
scene of his skill — soon assisted in a speedy "resurrection of the body." (Doc- 
tors have always had decided views on that subject.) This doctor "wanted 
more than a limb for anatomization so he finished the job" — by lamp light in 
the cellar of a certain well known corner store. 

r.ut what a commotion existed in the here-to-fore quiet village of Xunda: 
"murder and body-snatching" within twenty-four hours! All the horrible 
stories of negro barbarity so flippant Ijut yesterday were relegated into obliv- 
ion, and those worse than barbarians, the doctors, who could not let a poor, 
wronged man sleep in his flesh, — and who knows but this will lie but the be- 
ginning and renewal of the Dr. Chaffee days, wdien the dead — except consump- 
tives and smallpox cases — walked in their sleep from their graves, straight to 
the dissecting tables, in the interest of scientific anatomy. The story of the 
negro's desecrated grave reached even to the wiles of the Cooperville school. 
and the seat mate of the writer. twelve-}ears-olil Terry Carroll, told me in 
hoarse whisjiers that the negro barber had been dug up. and that Deacon 
Thayer, or some of those soap makers, wanted his fat for soap, that negro fat 
made the best kind of castile soap. Poor Terr}! Some of the irrepressible 
\illage wags had loaded his credulity with information not strictly scientific. 

In the interests of scientific knowledge, and the desire to add a fine skele- 
ton to the cabinet of the brightest young physician in the village without 
injuring the tender sensibilities of white people, this secpiel to the ebony trag- 
edy, like the tragedy itself, was soon forgotten. It is \-ery certain no arrests 
were made, no investigations inaugurated and certainly Deacon Thayer's soap 
factory, under the old castle, produced no S])ecial brand of castile soap. 

Xunda's negro population was never very great — not more than a dozen 
families at most. The writer remembers one lusty negro by the name of 
Norris who was a sort of roust-a-bout. doing odd jobs for any who employed 
him. On one Fourth of July when Xunda celebrated, as she generally did, 
years ago, in the interest of the ])atriotism of the boys — and of trade — Norris 


was passing along the street with a basket of shavings. Some one lighted the 
shavings with a blazing match, and soon the blazing basket was more orna- 
mental than useful. The negro did not enjo)' being a subject for hilarity, and 
threw the basket into the street, doubled his fist and faced the crowd, ex- 
claiming: "\\'ho set dem shavins af-fire, who set dem shavins af-fire ; I'll give 
any man five dollars just to tell me who set dem shavins af-fire." All laugh- 
ing stopped, no one could tell, there was abundant chance for a knock-down, 
the fun and the shavings died out together, and the darky moved on and no 
one dared to repeat till he was well down the street. "Who set dem shavins 

I did not tell then, and there's no fi\-e dollars to lie won bv telling now. 
but the most innocent looking young scamp in the crowd was the very fellow 
who did it. 


This year marks progress for the town and village in having for the first 
time a newspaper published here. Ira G. W'isner published the first copy of 
the Genesee Valley Recorder. September 17, 1840. He married Miss H. Ade- 
laide Merrill, daughter of Riley IMerrill of Nunda. 

A hymenial poem was written for the occasion. A daughter of this pioneer 
editor was married to Thomas Gamble, Esq., and their daughter to Frank 
W'akeman of Xunda. Ira W'isner was a brother of Col. Reuben P. ^^'isner. 
a Colonel of the \-aliant but bloodless 58th X. Y. X. G. 

Col. J. L. Johnson, married Abigail Xash, sister to Alfred Xash of Portage. 
Mrs. Johnson was one of the early milliners, and the Colonel, in 1840, kept the 
"Eagle Tavern." 


The Camp family — Albert Camp and sons — lived on the corner of Seward 
and Holms Street (the Davidson place), and manufactured pipe organs. The 
shop was south of the house. It was sold by ^Ir. Davidson to Michael Creed, 
and is now a dwelling house on Church Street. The pipe organs in the Bap- 
tist, and the first one in the Presbyterian Church, were made by this firm. 
The sons were Albert Camp, Jr., and James Camp, druggist, who married 
Lucy Britton ; ^Nlaria Camp, married Herman L. Page, merchant. The organ 
shop was moved in the winter across the canal, near the foot bridge (Portage 
Street), on the ice. This canal level was left full of water and furnished a 
water supply in case of fire, and, incidenth", the best skating rink the village 
has ever had. The Camps came from Oakland to X'unda about 1840. There 
was an exodus from Oakland to Xunda from 1828 to 1841. Oakland has sur- 
vived it all and kept her houses tenanted but has had no occasion to build new 


Xunda village was incorporated Ajjril 26, 1839, seventeen years before 
Henry C. Jones laid out the small hamlet. In 1824 Charles H. Carroll planned 
a village in anticipation of what has now become a reality. 

June II, 1839. was a proud day for the embryo metropolis of the Keshequa 
valley, for a new set of officials were to be selected and elected. A list of their 


names is proof of the wisdom of their selection. The trustees were the leading- 
men of the town: Benedict Bagley. "the most prominent lawyer;'" Russell 
Barnes (the largest land owner in the corporation), Walter \\ liitcomb (the 
leading merchant); Calvin B. Lawrence (the leading lumberman), and David 
Holmes (the principal manufacturer). Holmes Street, then a quarter of a mile 
long, bisected longitudinally his large farm. The village assessors were Calvin 
B. Lawrence and Samuel Swain, Jr. The trustees held a meeting at the office 
of Benedict FJagley (Mrs. Bowhall's cottage, then on East Street), June 13th, 
and made the following appointments : Benedict Bagley, president ; Nathaniel 
Coe, clerk; William D. Hammond, collector; Albert H. Preston, poundkeeper. 
The fire wardens: Dr. Cliftord Chafee, D. P. Richmond, W. \l. Chipman (den- 
tist), Henry C. Jones. Members of Hook and Ladder Company: Addison M. 
Crane, Hiram C. Grover, Thomas Raines, Frances H. Gibbs. Joseph White, 
James Swain, Jehiel Reed, Henry Ashley, Doctor D. Morse (not an M. D.), 
Henrv Chalker (lawyer). In this fire company we have the leading young 
men of that time. All but Reed and Raines were permanent settlers. If any 
of these young men were living now he would be from ninety to one hundred 
years of age. Walter Whitcomb was born 1808, Hiram Grover 1812. Only 
one of the young ladies of that time has survived. She was born in 1813, and 
most of those mentioned attended her wedding. It is needless to say who she 
is; you will find her picture in the book as the oldest person living in Nunda 
at this time. 'l"he village, as then incorporated, was \-ery unlike the one of to- 
day in respect to dwelling houses. Prominent men of that time lived in very 
small cottages, and while there were as many citizens as to-day there were not 
as many families. There were few fine houses then ; all were plain ; just a few 
looked as well as they do to-day, and only a few, that have been neglected, 
then looked better. Every yard was fenced in, and the poundmaster was kept 
busy looking after the commoners, i. c., the cattle that pastured along the 

When Dickens said something like this about New York City he exag- 
gerated — and so it is not best to enlarge on this subject. However, Nunda 
was "Queen of the Valley" then, as well as now, only she indulges in a better 
wardrobe now. Fine kept lawns have taken the place of vegetable gardens, 
and the hoe and the culti\-ator have been relegated to the back yard. 

Charles W. King, hardware merchant, married Jane Gilmore, sister to Dr. 
Gilmore, and became a citizen of Nunda in 1838. His children were ; John R. 
King, Henry G. King, Charles King. Emily Gilmore was an adopted niece. 
Grandchildren : Cora King, daughter of John, married Charles E. Pratt. Their 
children are : Ralph Pratt and Ward Pratt, at school at Andover, Mass. Henry 
G. King, 33rd New York, is an invalid and lives at Xunda. Charles King is 
buried at Oakwood. B. F. King, a nephew of C. \\'. King, is a manufacturer. 
His children were: George, Frank and Mora. 

Horatio Packard and wife. Lydia Jones, of Bristol, came to Nunda about 
1838. Horatio Packar<l was born i8(i)8, Lydia Jones Packard in 181 1. Elna- 
than Packard, their only son, was born 1833, came to Nunda in childhood, and 
almost at once became conspicuous in the early schools of the village. He 
delighted in debates and was a leader in debating societies of the Xunda Lit- 
erary Institute. He studied law at Nunda and graduated at a law school at 


Poughkeepsie. He marrieil Martha Leech of New York City. Their only 
child, Mary Packard, graduated at Xunda Academy, married Charles Rich- 
mond; Herbert, their only son, married Margaret Scott of Canaseraga ; Her- 
bert is a jeweler and lives at Kane, Pa. He has a son, born Jtme. 190S, named 
C)rren. of the fifth generation of this small Init select family. 

Samuel J. Crooks also studied law at Nunda, was admitted to the bar 
and practiced law at Nunda and Rochester. During the Civil War he recruited 
two regiments and for a time took the command of both the 8th New York 
Cavalry and the 22nd New York Cavalry. He died some years ago. The 
father of S. J. Crooks kept the Nunda House a year or two. 

George Chidsey came to Nunda in 1839. He had been a merchant and 
postmaster at Mt. Morris. He was born in 1810, married Mary M. Woodford 
and died 1880. Their children were: George S. Chidse}-. who li\es at the home- 
stead, married Hilary J. Brewer, daughter of Jesse Brewer, children: Allie M. 
and Charles. Charles married Effie Brewer, granddaughter of Daniel Brewer. 
The daughters of George Chidsey, Sr., are Lucia and Alice, who live on West 

Samuel McCollough, merchant tailor, born in Middletown, Conn,. 1818. 
married ]Mandana Dayton, born in Canada 1833, married 1854. Children : 
Delia A., A'iola J., Eva L. and Minnie. 

Population of Xunda in 1840. 2.636. Portage, including Genesee P'alls, 
had at this time a population of 5,206. The excavating of the Deep Cut and 
of the Tunnel changed this section into a densely populated locality. Granger 
had at this time 1,198. Grove 643. 

The improvements in Nunda, in 1S40. cimsisted of a newspaper, an acad- 
emy and a new church, the L'ni\-ersalist. The trustees of the acadenn- were: 
Rev. \\'ales Tileston. A. B.. .Samuel Swain. Sr.. and (iulielmus Wing. 


On September 17. 1840. a lot on State Street, east side of Keshequa. near 
the bridge, was offered fur sale, and the astijnishing jiart is. it was formerh' 
occupied "as a tannery." The name of the firm, and the existence of this tan- 



Central Fart of Nunda Valley Village. 

iiery seem to have Jjeen forgotten, but one circumstance recalls it to a few old 
people ; that the building extended over the creek, and "once upon a time" a 
flood carried away the south side of the building, and many bundles of hides, 
piled up against this side of the building, were carried down the creek. Ezekiel 
Gilbert has been named by one person as a member of the firm. Little is 
known of this man excepting that he joined the Baptist Church in 1833, but 
as most everybody else did the same thing about that time his record is not 
exceptional. Indeed there was a well defined doubt in many minds if a man 
or woman could be a good citizen of Nunda if he had not passed through the 
waters of the Keshequa. 

Other improvements were, better stores, better houses, better home life, 
better thought, better opportunities for the young, and the spirit of optimism, 
that the past struggles with poverty and privations were past, and that Nunda 
was destined to do great things and be great, and the Genesee Valley Canal 
was to bring to its doors a degree of prosperity never known before. But 1841 
was to come, and its coming was not what had been in anticipation, work 
stopped on the canal, and hundreds of men were out of business. 


I. Alexander E. Stivers a tailor, settled in Nunda, after the stores around 
the public square were built. He employed several men and women, among 
them his two sisters, f3etsy and Janette. Janette, married Robert Haynes ; 
Betsy, married Peter M\ers ; Abraham Stivers, married Elizabeth Jane Thomp- 
son. Children of Robert Haynes : Lacey ; Corydon ; Randall, a soldier ; Perry, 
a soldier, who nearly starved to death in Andersonville, and died a few days 
after reaching home. Rachel and Alary Jane married Samuel Wright, a vete- 
ran of the Civil War, who died at the Soldiers Home at Bath. Children of 
Samuel Wright ; Lucinda, married Frank Folk ; Mary I^ouise, married Jo- 
seph Herdendorf, veteran I3fith N. Y. : Janette- Hattie : Carrie: Charles, mar- 
ried .\Idav ; IMary : Flora, married Robert Lippincott, a mason : Clar- 
ence, married since leaving Nunda. 

James Haynes, married Lucinda Preston, daughter of Isaac Preston, 
James has become deaf: he lives in Hornell. ,\ daughter of James is a mission- 
ary in Korea. 


Luther C. Peck, lawyer, lived in Pike, where he was Justice of the Peace 
for many vears, and Supervisor of town for six years. He was elected to 
Congress and served four years. He married in Washington, Cynthia Fletcher. 
His son Harrison was born in Washington . was educated in Nunda ; served 
during the Civil War, as hospital steward, married Delia Lake, daughter of 
Edwin Lake, and became a pharmacist, was post master of Nunda, and has a 
drug and book store, with which he has been connected thirty years ; has served 
several terms as president of the village. 

P'letcher C. Peck, born in Nunda, eckKated at the academies of Nunda, 
and at Union College, (A. B. ), studied law with his father, was U. S. Marshal, 
^hiring Cleveland's last administration, and is president of the College Club of 
Nunda, he married Mary Metcalf, daughter of Rev. Whitman Metcalf, A. M. 
Their children : Marian Gale Peck, a musician : Louise Peck, educated at 
Nunda and Livingston Park Seminary, Rochester, (graduate"), married Ernest 


Wliitbeck of Rochester: Mary I'eck, educated at the same school (grad. ) 
is Mrs. Moulthrop of Rochester; Fletcher \V. Peck, A. B., Rochester 
University, law student at home, Nunda ; Alvin, son of L. C. Peck, died in 
Nunda, 1858, when a young man; Charles F., editor of newspapers, at Nunda 
and Avon, was the first Commissioner of Bureau of Statistics of Labor ; re- 
ceived his appointment from Governor D. B. Hill, he is now a European tourist 
agent; Fanny, married *J. C. McMaster. The brothers of L. C. Peck, who 
studied law in his office, were : Linus Jones Peck, lawyer and contractor on 
public works ; George W. Peck. Sons : Luther M., Kirk, Frank and Dorr. 

L Samuel Cooper, farmer (140 A.}, liorn 1808 in Massachusetts, mar- 
ried in 1840 Hannah Coates, born 1815, in ALissacusetts. 

IL John AL Cooper, their son, born in Nunda, 1842, farmer ( 112 A. ), inar- 
ried ( )ctavia Cooper, born in Massacusetts, 1842. 

in. S. Clayton Cooper, born in Nunda, farmer, jeweler, grocer. East 
Street, Emporium Block, married Ella Dusenbury, teacher N. H. S. 

L Helen Cooper, his sister married Chester F'oote, manufacturer. 

n. 2. ".Vancy E. Cooper, married *Ciiirles T. Metcalf, (marble cutter). 
The first Mr^. Metcalf was *MadeIine Cocrame. 

HI. I. Louis Metcalf, Journalist. .-Vttica, N. Y., married Maude Tallman, 
teacher, from .\lbany N. College. 111. 2. Grace Metcalf, born in N'unda, 
graduate N. H. .S.. married Edward .\orlliway, son of F. A. Northway, (vete- 
ran of Xunda ; senior member of firm, of Xurtlnvay Bros. 

I. Milton Henry Coates, farmer (Cooper farm njo A.), died in Xund?. • 
neither Mr. Mr Mrs. Coates are living. 

II. Henry Milton Coates, farmer ( Coates-Cooper farm), married Carr-'e 
Sch warts. II. 2. Eliza Coates, married Chapman of .Alabama. 

III. 3. Edna, married I'rank Batterson. R'. Julia liatterson. 
I. 2. Lucinda Cooper, married Thomas Lockwood. 


The event of the year which was so important that it did away with the 
former methods of reaching the settlements of Allegany County, and put the 
Genesee River out of commission as a highway of transportation, was the Gene- 
see \'alley Canal, which was comi)leted as far as Mt. Morris. There was no 
longer a necessity for ])olling up the Genesee to Geneseo, or sending lumbc" 
and grain by arks to the Erie Canal. 

It ended pioneer settlement, in Nunda fnr with good roads from Mt. Mor- 
ris, and canal packets running frr>ni Rochester to Dansville and stages passing 
tlirough. and often owned by Nunda jieojile, a new era had dawned upon the 
town, rience our Pioneer .Settlement of Nunda ends, with the opening of 
navigation on the Genesee \'alle_\- Canal, in the spring of 1841. F^rom this time 
the families that come will be mentioned by reason of their occupation, rather 
than as early settlers. 

There remained hillside forests whose lancN had not been considered de- 
sirable as farm lands, and many a lumberman from the village, made fortunes 
from these forests, because there was now Iransporation near, and destined 
soon to come the town. In anticipation of the Olean branch of the G. \\ 
Canal, nearlv every acre of these primitive forests was pinxhased. 

The author has given about 1,000 pioneers who lived in the three towns of 
Nunda, with their different dimensions, and while he has unavoidably left out 


as many niurc (the s])ace for i^iviiiL;' tliis infdniiation being limited) he feels 
satisfied in rescuing from oblivion, the names, and sometimes the special char- 
asteristics of this hardy race, whose strenuous toil, and adventurous spirit, led 
them into the wilderness to transform its hills and valleys into landscapes ot 
unrivaled l)e;iuty, as well as farm lands of unusual excellence. 

The task of securing these facts has been more difficult, than that achieved 
by those of whom he wrote. Thousands of letters have been written to the 
sons and grandsons of these pioneers, scattered over the United States, every 
one of the second generation of pioneers living in the township has been sought 
and interviewed, but not in vain, and not too soou, for these have nearly all 
passed away since this task of inxestigating and recording the past, commenced. 
Even five years trom now this work could not have been done During the past 
few years many of those nonogenarians, octogenarians, and residents from 
childhood, from whom the writer has obtained j;formation, have passed away. 
Among them: Mrs. Mary Wheeler Clark, go years old; JMiss Rachel Bennett, 
80: Airs. Aseneth lirewer I'hase, gy years .>ld : Jesse lirewn, 82; Mrs. Mary 
fohnson lirewer, 82: Almiron Paine. 80: Harry Cleveland. 1)4; Dr. B. FrankUn 
Dake, 76; Mrs. Samuel Swain. 80: Myron Smith, 1)4; .\sa LaRue, 90; Fred- 
erick Davidson, 82; Mr. anil Mrs. 1). P. Richmond, 85: John Mtch, 83; Peter 
Townsend, 81; and \'andalia Slater. 78. S. P. Whitcomb, Jennie Grover 
Craig, Fred Grover, Mortimer Pettit, Henry .'^hnte. Edwin Pettis, and his sis- 
ter Airs. I^llis Thompson, Mrs. Ewarts (102 years old), Jacob Cox, Levi Gould 
anil his wife, James Chambers and William Batterson. Just a few remain who 
have known and lived in Xunda for over 70 years. Mrs. Mary Barrett Barron, 
i>4 : Porter Warren. 81); Mrs. Rufus Robinson, 86; Munson Barker, 85; Mrs. 
Adeline Barker, So; J. Monroe Cole, 84; Leonard Jackson, 80; ,'ustus Barker, 
Mrs. Olive Bowen Barker: Mrs. Martha Johnson, Lyman Warren /-,: Almira 
(Shutc) Smith. 76; Mrs. M. J. (Craige) Bowhall, 83; Mrs. Minerva Rawson 
Rathbun. 82; William P. Thompson, Elizabeth Reckard Cree, (who has liveci 
in the the longest of any 71 years) ; .\ugusta Bennett Herrick, JJ; De- 
borah A. lland. 75: Frederick Hark, 71); John Kelley. 76 and Monroe Myers, 77. 

East Street — The Keshequa Trail 

In llic villaije, besides those mentioned, there are not more than one or 
two who have hved here most of the time for even sixty years. Harrison I'eck 
has lived here since 1841, he was the last of the pioneers born before coming 
to Xunda in 1S4T, he has always lived here. His brother F. C. Peck, not a 
pioneer, by the 1841 limit to pioneer days, is probably ne.xt on the list of long 
residence. The writer thinks of no others that have lived in the village 65 
years or more, that are here now. 

How limited would have been the sources of personal information con- 
cerning the first half of onr century, after a few years more had passed. The 
adx'ent of newspapers into the town from 1841 to 1859, though irregular in 
publication, have given some facts that would otherwise have been forgotten. 
To the late James Swain we must give the credit of preserving files of these, 
and to C. K. Sanders, for buying these at the cost of $25, (just the price once 
paid for Manhattan Island) and for loaning them for historical purposes to the 
local historian. His own files of the Xunda news from 1850 to present time is 
the best history that could be furnished of the modern town though exceeding!}- 
inconvenient for general reading purposes. The existence of this source of in- 
formation, from 1859 to [jresent time, renders the historx- of this ])eriod less dif- 



Mrs. Dr. Dibble, mother of Mrs. .Klfreo liell. *Alfrcd Bell .settled about 
1840. with his wife. '''Juliette (Dibble) Bell. He became Supervisor and As- 
semblyman. His wholesale lumber business caused him to move to Rochester. 

Fred H. IJell, born 1S44, died at Madison, X J.: xatie, married * Lewis, 

resides in Buffalo, X. Y. The family of .\. Bell were Republicans. Alvan H. 
Dibble, veteran, 33rd. lost arm in Civil War, died as a result of wounds, .'-^arah 
Dibble, his sister, attended school here. 

The Davidson family were Democrats. 1. James E. Davidson, bnrn 1792, 
died 1882, aged 92; Jane Emerson, born 1792, died 1871, age 79. 

II. I'rederick Davidson, married Charlotte M. Hurd. both reached old 
age. Mr. Davidson came to Xunda in 1847, was a merchant and clothier. 
Davidson, and son ( F. V.) were his successors. Frank U. Davidson continues 
the business. 

III. '-'Charles, born 1838, died i860: Frank L'. (merchant), married Paul- 
ine Scott, resides on Seward Street, Xunda, X. Y. 

The Bells and Davidsons were cousins. Tbc-y were Presbyterians. Mr. 
Bell was a liberal contributor to the building of the second Presbyterian Church 
building, he became very wealthy. 


Phili]) (). Slocum advertises in a news])aper .if 1841 as a Coverlet Weaver, 
and Dyer at Mechanics Hall, ojjposite Eagle Hotel; this must have been in the 
second story of Empire Block. He also wove striped woolen carpets, double or 
single coverlets, "with figures, equaling those imported." The very handsome 
patterns of coverlets, made by this skillful weaver, are indeed things of beauty 
The white counter pane of to-day. has superseded them in use. but many of 
them can still be found used as draperies, and are handsome still. 

The striped yarn carpets, so much nicer than those made of rags, that once 
graced the parlor floors, are now mostly worn out, and it is next to im]50ssiblc 


to find any vi them to-day. They lasted for about a half century in the rooms 
only used when distinguished guests called, or visited, and were pleasing to the 
eyes that liked bright colors. The ingrain cat pet, soon took their places. 
Philip G. Slocum, married Fanny Seaver. 

II. Adello Slocum. his son. editor, marrieil Adella Havens, a poetess: 
Almantha Safford, a ward, married Leonard Seaver. son of John ; Clemment 
Slocum was a younger brother of Adello. 


This family came to Xunda. jiist in time to be classed with the pioneers of 
Nunda \'alley. 

An excellent letter of A. J. Reid. not only tells so very modestly, the story 
of the success of his brother and himself, but also tells of others. They have 
visited Nunda since it was written, and everyone who remembers them, was de- 
lighted to renew their acquaintance. What he says of Dr. Charles Chittenden, 
son of our ]:)innter dentist, that he stood at the head of his profession, is very 
nnportant, especially as we now have to say, the late Dr. Charles Chittenden. 
He also visited Nunda about four years ago, and enjoyed his short visit very 

As to Justice John B. Winslcw. of whom he speaks, who was born oi 
Massachusetts Street while his father, one of the best of teachers was in charge 
of the then New Institute, is also of great interest. "Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Wisconsin," is certainly a high distinction for a mav. still on the sunny 
side of sixty. 

The writer has secured him as a member of our College Club, and an elec- 
trotype of himself and of his son, Horatio Gates Winslow, one taken when the 
Justice was receiving this thinl degree LL. D., and his son his first at the Uni- 
versity of Madison. The writer has not failed to secure plates of the Reid 
Bros., who liave hewn out for themselves, such paths of usefulness and honor. 

Massachusetts Street 

P^ School Hovse 

First Log School House at Pike-Nunda 

Built 1809. 

Miss Beulah Abell, Teacher 


Department I 


From cabin to mansion, 

Log school house to college, 

A century expasion 

In wealth, fame and knowlecL 

Time's horologe turns back 
And gives the whole story, 

From the Cashequa trail, 
To this Century's glory. 



WHO ought to live in History. The Pioneers out of whose strenuous 
struggles we have cnir famous farm lands? Yes. these should live. 
The soldiers who gave and those that preserved our liberties, their 
names should be emblazoned on the records of Fame. 

Are there no others who should have a perpetuity of grateful remembrance? 
An army of men and women, with books as weapons, and brains burnished by 
study an<l knowledge obtained from books, nature, wise instructors, at institutions 
for furnishing mental equipment, rise before me and ask, have we no place in your 
history and in your hearts? Was our life work of secondary importance? Who 
lifted the mass of young humanity out of ignorance, and mit of indifference an 1 
bred in it hunger for knowledge? Who equipped four generations for life, with 
the power to think intelligently and stimulated mental growth and vigor? Who, 
next to parents, have done most for the youth of the last eight decades in Xunda? 
Have the lumdred or more teachers who have lifted growing humanity above the 
achievement of tlie muscular and physical into the realm of thought and mental 
vigor, no place in your memory or your gratitude? 

These inquiries are pretinent and convincing. Now that we have a mental 
inheritance, should we forget the Gamalials at whose feet we sat? Xo class of 
men and women have done inore for humanity than our teachers, and no class have 
been so easih- forsfotten. Even tlie school records that should tell who tauijht. 

whose iiistnictioii repaid the expenditures, so well utilized, tells who received them, 
every trustee, clerk, committee, is on record, but the teacher's name does not ap- 
pear. x\sk a dozen men who were their teachers in their youth and not one of the 
dozen can name more than two or three. We have had Academies or High 
Schools here since 1840, who can name more than a dozen of the instructors? 
Buck, Winslow, Barrett and E,vans cover the field with nine-tenths of the people 
and some of later date who did not know these, say, i'airman, Dana and Welles, 
were teachers worth remembering. These were, so were the others, so were all 
of those who made us think, or who imparted knowledge, or created a desire for it. 
In gratitude to all whose love of knowledge, or whose possession of knowl- 
edge quickened life, from imder the very ribs of indifference and mental inertia, 
we write these records of those we esteem and rank as the greatest of public bene- 
factors — Our Teachers. 


C)ur primitive township, now a hundred years okl, though once as large as a 
county, and now forming an important part of three counties, was destitute of even 
a single school, or school house during the first year of its existence. 

Naturally its largest settlement furnished pupils sufficient for its first school 
and so the Whitehall settlement had the first school in the spring of 1809, with 
Miss Beulah Abel for teacher. It is honor enough to be the first teacher, but what 
chance had a pretty, accomplislied young lady in a pioneer settlement of remainnig 
a teacher when wives were in such demand, and so it proved. Miss Abel was no 
doubt able to teach well, but she was not "able" to resist the persuasions of Mr. 
"Abel" Townsend, and so she became a wife and a few years later a mother, and 
in course of time a grandmother. Now what can ])e expected of a historian 99 
years after the advent of Teacher No. i. 

To tell all he knows that will connect this distant past with the present — in due 
course of time a daughter, Emeline, of Mr. and ^Irs. Abel Townsend, grew to 
womanhood, married Dr. James Gilmore, brother to Pioneer Dr. John Gilmore of 
Xunda ( 1831 ), and of Mrs. C. \V. King, and another family of children came into 
the world, and one, the loveliest of them all. came into the household of her aunt, 
Mrs. C. W. King to live, and at least one thousand who will read these records 
knew and esteemed Emily Gilmore, as a rare spirit, beautiful and interesting, a lady 
in refinement so pronounced that it must have been born with her. Years after- 
ward the aged parents came to live in her home and th.en all knew why Emily Gil- 
more McNair, was so nearl}' perfect. 

In the same year. iSoq, Alaria Bellenger taught a school near Portageville. 
Slie was a daughter of John Bellenger, who took up lands that year, that he after- 
wards bought ; years afterward a family of that name came to reside in Nuiula, and 
a son of the family has proven his inherited love of knowledge. 

Tliough in the backwoods with the most rustic of rustics to teach, these schools 
were not like those in Kentucky — "Clab-Schools" — where everyone studied aloud, 
and all as loud as they chose. Nor were they taught by master or mistress Wav- 
back who were only proficient in Reedin". 'Riten and "Rethmetic, the three R's, 
that the most of us have heard about. A Mr. Jason Goodell tauglit in winter on 
the Gore and Miss Bellenger taught this school the next summer, for liatl l;)oys 
were a little more incorrigible on frontier settlements than elsewhere, and winter 
schools required muscular skill. 


The next school we hear of was at ^fills Mills, where the various Mills fami- 
lies from Alontgomery County had a settlement. A new barn served as a school 
house, and ]\Iiss Caroline Russell from Montgomery County was the teacher in the 
summer of 1812. Her brother Samuel, a lad of 12, attended the school and became 
one of Allegany's great lawyers. 

Perkins 15. Woodard of Ceiiter\-il!e, became one of a committee to subilivide 
the 12x24 township in 1813 into 12 school districts, he did his work so well that 
the one new district that gains recognition was near his own home and he was tiie 
teacher. The system of employing male teachers in winter when the big boys at- 
tended was thus early introducted. 

Evidently there was one school. District Xo. I in Xunda, near the .Sparta line 
where a few brave Spartans had crowded over to choose for themselves "a lodge 
in some vast wilderness" where game abounded. Oak Hill had a school in 1817, 
and Horace Miller was the teacher, followed next summer b}- Alaria Bellenger, 
who seems to have been much sought after. Oakland was not far behind and 
probably one of the Strongs, a race of teachers, taught the school. Hunts Hollow 
had its log school house on the hillside not far from the residence of Dr. Amos 
Parmalee. and the list of teachers that taught in that school would surprise any 
one who knew the conditions of pioneer settlements. Two celebrated teachers, 
both with the degree of .\. 15., taught all who came, anything they were capable of 
learning. Jlackwoods though it was, these were not backwoods teachers. It may 
seem incongruous that an .A. B., should teach the a, b. c's, but certainh- .Stephen 
Fuller, fresh from Dartmouth, and Franklin Hosford from ( )berlin, did teach that 
school, and here Washington Hunt and ^Major Edward Hunt and all the other 
Hunts, and Bennetts, and Coes, and Cobbs, and I'armalees, and I'.cxith Nichols at- 
tended the school. .A slab with legs to it serving as a seat. 

I have a letter from C. L. Tarmalee. who, since the death of \'andalia Slater, 
-April, 1908, is the oldest of the pioneer youths of that time who mentions various 
teachers, his father's brother. Fred Parmalee, Horton Fordyce, Daniel Averill. 
Probably long before this time they were housed in the old long red school house 

• .^ ■•^, 

The First Log Schoolhouses in Nunda Were Simhar to This 

that served them for half a century. Some other names of male teachers that have 
become notable are A. N. Cole, the reputed "Father of the Republican Party," 
J. \^'. Earl, A. R. Nye and others famous as politicians. 

The writer has an impression there was a school somewhere near Guy's Cor- 
ners as it was settled several years before the village of Nunda. 

However, we have day and date, school offxials, school houses i, 2 and 3 i.f 
school district that was finall)' merged with others to form the L'nion School with 
Academical Department. 


It was built at the foot of East Street in the fall of 1822. The records of the 
school are incomplete, they fail to mention the teachers. Moses Barron taught 
the school but probably not until the second winter. 


This fund becme operative in 1S13, and the five or six towns of Allegany 
had their part of the munificent fund of $58.56. 

Small as the sum was in each district it paid or nearly paid the wages for the 
summer school, somerimes not over $1.00 a week, including board, with the pat- 

in 1815 it was $100.33; ''^ 1816, S190.98. It will give some idea of where 
schools and scholars were most numerous, if we give the distribution to towns of 
this generous sum. .Vlired received .-^26.52; .\ngelica, $32.14; Caneadea, none; 
Rushford. $53.52; Frienilshi]). none; Nunda, $63.16; Ossian. $15.64. 

Already Nunda heads the list and her schools have been and still are in the 
ascendant ; but most of these were in what is now Pike, Genesee Falls, Hume and 
Centerville. It is possible there was one in the southeast part of Nunda. 

Gideon Hawley the first superintendent of public schools lived at Saratoga, 
soon after, tlie office was abolished and the Secretary of State discharged its 

Log School House DA^s — Tin-: McSweekey School House. 

WE are indebted to the late E. W. Packard, Esq., for obtaining and preserv- 
ing the original records of the firsi school in what is now the village 
of Xunda, and to his daughter. Airs. Mary Richmond, for present- 
ing them to the local historian. 

At a school meeting held December 3rd, 1822, we have this record of proceed- 
ings ; 

1st. Voted to build a school house in sd (said) district. 
2nd. Voted to levy a tax of $50 to build sd house. 
3rd. Voted to allow 75c a day for labour on sd house. 

4th. That the trustees allow- what they think proper for the labour not done 
on sd house. 

5th. N'oted that said house he completed the tst of Tan'y, 1823. 
6th. \'oted to allow 50c per day for team work. 


7th. \'oted to have a school three months. 

8th. \'oted that school wood be got the 15th of Jan. 1823. 

9th. X'oted to give Samuel Robinson 68c per cord for delivering delinquent's 
wood here. ( Every patron having to furnish a required part of the wood — those 
who failed to do so were called delinquents). 

School district meeting held at the school house November ist, 1823. J. S. 
Heath, Moderator. 

1st. \'oted that Aaron 'J'hompson be District Clerk. 

2nd. \'oted that John W'aite. David lialdwin and James H. Rawson, be trus- 

3rd. Voted William Greenleaf, be collector. 

Lot No. 22 is taken from District No. i and annexed to District No. 17 
(Nnnda \'alley.) 

Note. — This proves there was a district No. i older than the one in Nunda 
\'illage. Lot 22 is north east of .\unda N'illage and no pupils are mentioned 
from that part of the town. 

The names in these records show that a large part of the town of Nunda was 
included in this district. J. H. Rawson and .-Varon Thompson living nearer Hunts 
Hollow than to our "Hubell's Corners". ( Nunda Village of to-day) being on the 
south east border of our present town, other names show it included all on the 
Creek road and as far north as Joseph Coles. No. 17 (probably the seventeenth 
school in Greater Nunda became ultimately No. 2 of the present Nunda. Ed. 

Special school meeting held May 24, 1826. ist. Noah Warren was chosen 
moderator. 2nd. Tliat James H. Rawson be appointed trustee in place of Ben- 
jamin Howe removed. 3rd. That James H. Rawson. Noah Warren and James 
RL Heath be a committee to make a draft and prepare a bill for building a school 
house and to present the same at the next annual meeting. 


December 12, 1826, met at the house of J. M. Heath in special meeting by noti- 
fication. 1st. That J. H. Rawson be moderator for the time being. That we 
build a new school house in this district. To have the site for the house on the 
rise of ground near the bank of the hill. L>n the north side of the McSweeney 
plot next to the west line of said plot and on the south side of the new road ( Mill 

That we build in connection with the llaptist Society. That the whole be 40 
feet liy 24 on the ground. 

That Noah Warren. Riley Merrill and James H. Rawson be appointetl as a 
committee to make a draft of the house, and prepare a bill for the materials. That 
Uiis meeting stand adjourned to meet at this house in four weeks at this place 
at early candle liting. DAVID BALDWIN, District Clerk. 

Note. — David, a soldier of 1812, generally spelled his words correctly. Pardon 
the old veteran kind readers this one mistake. Ed. 

At an adjourned meeting held January 9th, 1827, it was voted to recall the vote 
to build in connection with the Baptists and to meet again in two weeks. 

Jamiary 2^. 1^2"/. Albert Page, Moderator, voted to amend the vote in ref- 
erence to the size of building from 40.X24 to 24x24, with a portico 6x8, to raise a 
tax of $225 for the purpose of purchasing a site and building a house, and furnish- 
ing a stove. To make James H. Rawson clerk in iilace of David Baldwin, res- 
igned. (Probabl\- at this time he moved farther south). 



To tlie ConiniissioiHTS oi Coumum Sclumls of the Town of Xuiula. \\\'. ihe 
Trustees of Sclioo! Distriet Xo. i," in said town certif\ ami reiuni ilial the whole 
time anv school has been kept in our district durinj;- the date hereof and since the 
date of the last report for said district is eii;ht months, and a half, and that such 
school has been taught by teachers dul\ ipialitied according to law, and that the 
amount of public money receiveil was nineteen iloUars and ninety-four cents, anil 
that the same has been expended in paying the wages of teachers, that the nuiuber 
of children taught in saiil district during 2nd year is fifty-two, and that the number 
of children residing in said district on the first day of January last, between the 
ages of five and fifteen years, inclusive, is forty-four, and that they resided on the 
1st day of Jan'y as follows: With lohn Waite. ;, : William i lould, i ; Asa lleath, 
j; Havid Hassett. 4; l\iley Merrill. 3; Aaron Couch. _' ; Richard I'.nwen, 1 ; lames 
.M lleath, 2: Joseph \\ hite, _' ; J. II. Rawson, 1 ; Joseph Hills. 4: Reuben .^weet, 
4: Haxid l!aldwin, ^: ti, tauhrie. _^ ; F.lias Kingsley. 1 ; \. Warren. 1 ; l\. Rawson, 
1 ; l'>. l'>e;!tt. o. All oi which we i.U^ certify to be in all respects just and true. 

J. WAiri-:. 
\. W \RRi-:x. 


Dated at Xunda. .M;',rch J4, iSjj. 

J, H, RAWSt A", liistrict Llerk. .MOXl-:V I-hK iSj;— $14.00. 

X'ote, — rri>bablv I'orter Warren, horn iStS. is the only one living who at- 
tended this school. Moses ISarrou was pruhabix the teacher. W e ]>reseut his pic- 
ture as our first male teacher in Xuuda. 


Pioneer I'eaclier l.os; Solioolhcnise, East Street, 

"Nviiuis ?tM 

September, 1827. Schoo! District Xo. 17 was changed to Xo. 2. (This was 
about the date of the organization of the town of Portage, which still included 
Genesee Falls and of Grove which included Granger, j Ed. 

October 8, 1827. Met pursuant to adjournment. L. Joslyn, Moderator. 
That the site for our schoo! house be on the road leading from ITubbell's Inn (a. 
small frame tavern situated where the Nunda House now stands), to Joslyn's 
saw mill (the Willoughby Lowell saw mill west of Swain and Joslyn grist mill, 
which w-as not built until 1828), and on or near the west line of lot Xo. 29, (west 
of the Xathaniel Coe house, now owned by X. S. Barker and occupied by Mrs. 
Anna Armstrong, Mill Street.) Ed. 

That w-e build a school house 26 feet by 30 this fall. 

At an adjourned meeting it was voted to sell the old school house to the high- 
est bidder at a publick (correct spelling at that time) vendue to the highest bidder. 
That we raise $35 for the purpose of purchasing a stove and ])ipe for the new 
school house. Adjourned for four weeks. 


Met at new school house December 11, 1827, elected John W aite Moderator. 
Sold the old school house to Silas G. Tyler for six dollars to be paid to the trustees. 

J. H. R. 

This completes our record of the log school house at the foot of East Street. 
We regret that the names of the teachers were not given. 


In the meantime the Harkertown school had been established and Susan Mer- 
rick, sister of George W. Merrick, was the teacher. M. O. Barker, born in 1822. 
was one of the pupils. The building did not last long. Some carpenters utilized 
it as a shop during vacation and their shavings served to make its destruction sure 
when by some accident they became ignited and the building was burned to the 
ground. Another, not of logs, succeeded it. 

The W'isner school house, located at a four corners, served a large territory as 
a school house for many years. About half of the Cooperville school patrons sent 
their children here previous to 1836. Its list of teachers are not know-n but Abra- 
ham De Groff and Rowland Beach and some of the T\vist sisters and others were 
a;rtong its teachers. 

The Townsend district had a log school house at the corners where the Coop- 
erville road intersects the State road. Xewell Bougi-.ton, teacher, is mentioned bv 
the late Peter Townsend. Aristeen Curtis, finally lived in the district and taught 
the school often. The Merril sisters were teachers and probably taught there. 
Miss Isabel McXair taught school there, but not so early as this. 

\'ery little is told of the Wilcox Corners school. A. Mr. Jilson, who lived in 
the neighborhood, w-as one of the excellent teachers here and at Chautauc|ua 

The Page school district was established about 1828 and had its four corners 
'school house, and after the Presbyterian Church formed, in 183 1, at Wisners school 
house, had more members nearer the village, it met there until its first church edi- 
fice was erected in the following year. The second school house building, a snug 
structure, with capacity for sixty scholars, was moved to Fair Street when the 
schools were consolidated. Then afterward to the Union school site, and finallv to 

Center Street where it serves for an Advent Chapel. Having taken three jour- 
neys, it will probably complete its existence at its last location. 

The Satterlee school house has the appearance of age, and as most of the War- 
rens and Satterlees attended there, the school house must have been built at least 
f'xj 3'ears ago. 

Some of the early teachers mentioned made teaching a stepping stone to higher 
educational positions. Abraham Burgess, John J. Kockefellow of Xinida, and 
Palph Spencer were three of the four county superintendents of schools in Alle- 
gany Countv. 

Some first teachers mentioned : 

In Angelica, the Widow Smith, 1805. 

In Nunda-Pike, Miss Beulah Abeli, 1S09. 

In Genesee Falls, Miss Maria Bellenger, 1809. 

In Genesee Falls (The Gore) Jason Goodell, 1809. 

In Mills IMiils (Nunda) Caroline Russell, 1812. 

In Centerville (Nunda) Perkins B. Woodward. 

In Portage (Nunda) Horace Miller, 1817. 

In Granger (Nunda) Miss Arzivilla Williams, 1819. 

In Nunda, Moses Barron, 1823. 

In Nunda, Mr. Fish, 1825. 

In Nunda, Miss Cobb, 1825. 

In Nunda, Z. W. Joslyn. 

In Nunda, Abigail Hosford, first teacher on Mill Street. 

In Nunda, Adonijah Jocelyn. 

In Nunda, Abraham Burgess, Wilcox Corners. 

In Nunda, Welcome Jilson, Wilcox Corners. 

In Barkertown, Susan Merrick, 1825. 

In Grove, Emily Page, 1826. 

In Townsend District, Newell Boughton. not the first. 

In Grove, William Crooks, father of Lawyer .S. J. Crooks. 

Some of the pupils before 1826. Sxlvester Heath, Rennselaer Heath. 
Chauncey Jocelyn, David Bassett, Jr., Addison Merrill, Adelaide ]\Ierrill, Lewis 
Fitch (at R. Bowens), Nelson Baldwin, Louise Baldwin (^Irs. Daniel Lowell). 
Almira Waite, Emily Waite, Erastus Darwin, Porter Warren (now 87). Daniel 
Gould, Buel Gould. Betsey Guthrie, Leroy Satterlee, Fidelia Satterlee. 

In 1826. Lemira Heath, Arden Fleath, Philena lialdwin, Cortez Baldwin. 
Loverna Waite, David Vandelia Waite, Garifelia Waite, Zara W. Jocelyn. Levi 
Gould, John Heath, George Heath, Caroline Rawson, Lucetta Rawson (then 5 
years old). 

Our First Fr.xme School House from 1825 to 1845. 

From report of Trustees, October 6, 1828, we glean these facts. 

Received of public money $30.77. 

Paid for winter school S21 00 

Paid for summer school 9 77 

$30 -7 

Raised for building school house and for stove, $260. 

Paid H. C. Jones for school house $210 48 

Paid for stove 32 36 

Due H. C. Jones for school house 14 152 

Due for stove 2 64 

Could not collect 16 52 

Voted to exonerate them. H. C. JONES, Clerk. 

The report to commissioners for the year 1828 furnishes the following inter- 
esting facts. That school was kept 5 1-2 months (from other sources I am in- 
formed that Adonijah Jocelyn taught the winter school and that Miss Abigail Hos- 
ford, the mother of Alfred Ervin, taught the summer term). That the amount of 
public money received by the district was $30,77, that the number of children 
taught during the school year was 65. That the number of children in the distiict 
between the ages of 5 and 16 years was 73, and that those taught were in the homes 
of the following citizens : 

Barnabas Wright, 2; John Wait, 4; Richard Bowen, i ; Henry C. Jones, 5; 
Asa Heath, 2 ; Noah Warren, i ; James H. Rawson, 2 ; Elias Rawson, i ; Lindsey 
Joslyn, 6; Thomas Rathbun, i ; Leander Hills, i ; Ryley Merrill, 4; Stephen Hayes, 
4 ; Widow Smith, i ; John H. Townsend, 3 ; David I. Conklyn, 2 ; Warren Daniels, 
I ; Zadeck Herrick, i ; Ethan Waters, 2 ; Reuben Pierce, i ; Joseph Cole, i ; Wil- 
liam Gould, I ; Daniel Ashley, 4 ; George Guthrie, 4 ; William Stephenson, i ; Wil- 
son Roberts, i ; Jonas Richter, 4 ; William Hoyt. i ; Henry Townsend, i ; Granville 
Sherwood, 2 ; P. R. Sherwood, i ; Abram Porter, 2. Total j},. 

That the sum paid for teachers' wages over and above the public money appor- 
tioned to said district for the year was S23. (Entire amount for the vear $53.77.) 


H. C. JONES, Clerk. 

On September 22, 1829, an order was received from the commissioners of 
common schools to raise the sum of ninety-six dollars to be paid to District No. i, 
for their part of school house. Evidently there had been a subdivision of the dis- 
trict, and that the subdivided portion receiving the $96 had been the District No. 
I from which lot 22 had been taken in a former report. No. i having been the 
primitive school of the present township. 

October 3, 183 1, elected at annual meeting Albert Page. Moderator. Ryley 
Merrill, clerk. Ryley Merrill. Albert Page and Lindsey Joslyn. trustees. Daniel W. 
Joslyn, collector. 

Trustees re]5ort that there has i)een school taught nine months, number of 
scholars taught was 93. Public money paid this district. $43.82. Mr. Fish taught 
winter term; Miss Cobb summer term. Amount paid Mr. Fish for 2 1-2 months 
service. $64: to Miss Cobb. $15.75. ^^ss Cobb commencing .\pril 3. 1832. and 
"left school" September 15th. 

Special meeting held April 12. 1836. to consider the advisbility of a new school 
house on a new site. 

At this meeting it was moved to divide the district, amended that we do not 
divide the district, the amendment prevailed. A committee of five were appointed 
to inquire for a suitable site with terms for the same and what would be conveni- 


ent and jiroper size for the contcniplated school house, and the probable cost of 
the site and building and to report at a subsequent meeting the following commit- 
tee was appointed: J ienry (/. Jones, Nathaniel Coe, Calvin B. Lawrence, David 
Holmes. Ephraim Smith. Adjourned for two weeks at 4 P. M. 

May 7, 1836, Henry C. Jones reported as chairman of the coiumittce of five 
that lot No. 99 was regarded as a suitable site, and fixed the size of the building at 
72 by 26 feet, one story high. 

The rept)rt of committee was accepted and the committee retained and in- 
structed to ascertain on what terms lot No. yy could be obtained, and to obtain of 
the commissioners of common schools permission to raise a larger sum than $400 
for the new school buikling. Adjourned for three weeks. 

At the Alonday evening meeting .\lbert H. Prescott, Daniel Ashley and Henr\ 
C. Jones were elected trustees. A motion was made by Russell P>arnes that the 
school district be divided. The motion was lost. Motion made and seconded that 
it is inexpedient to build a new house. The meeting then adjourned. 

A. M. CRANE, Clerk. 

(Jctober 2, 1840, Benetlict Bagley, chairman, Clark .\dams, clerk, resolved to 
raise a tax of $450 for the purpose of purchasing a new site and of building 
thereon a new school house. 

Resolved to adjourn. Carried. 

CLARK ADA:\LS, District Clerk. 


Who taught in P'ortage while it was still a part of Nunda ; At Hunts Hollow. 
Franklin Hosford, A. B., Stephen P'uller, Sr., .\. B., Fred W. Parmalee, Daniel 
Averill, Horton Fordyce, Marie Bellinger. At ( )ak Hill: Horace Mullen, Oren 
Miller, Ralph Spencer, Hiram Olney, Lucina Strong, Miss Moses. Charles Wil- 
liams, Nelson Strong, Miss Cobb, IJtley Spencei. 

.After 1827: William Brown, Zara W. Jocelyn (of Nunda), Eliza Root, 
Delia Root, Joel C. Bennett, Nathaniel Coe, A. N. Cole, J. W. Earl, A. R. Nye, 
Samuel S. Gillis, Mary Himt, Samuel W. French, Angerille Lake, Samuel Hunt, 
E. S. Bennett. Julia Parmalee, Harriet Parmalee, Flora Bennett, Mary Ellen Ben- 
nett, John F. Olney, Latham Coffin, Mary Wheeler ( of Nunda), Severance, 

Silas Olney, Corydon Olney, Cclestia Andrus, Curtis Coe, Isaac Hampton, 

Burlingame, Jane French, .Sarah Strong, Omar Olney, Ransom Olney, Cynthia 

Andrus, Mary Sjiencer, Robinson, Rachel Bennett, Charles D. Bennett. 

Nancy Spencer, Angelica and .America Strong. .Another teacher from Nunda of 
great merit was Stephen l-'uller, Jr. His sister. Mary A. Fuller, also taught until 
her marriage. 

The teachers who taught in Nunda and vicinity were: Moses Barron, 1824; 
Mr. Fish, 1825: Miss Cobb, 1825; .Adiniran Joslyn, 1828; Chauncey Joslvn : Zara 
W. Joslyn; .Abraham Burgess, 1828; Welcome Jilson, 1828; Susan Merrick, 1828; 
Addison M. Crane, 1830: IJtley Spencer, 1830; Leonard L. Church, 1830; .Addison 
M. Crane (Hon.); Henry Chalker, (Lawyer); Ryley Merrill, Jr., 1840; Newell 
Boughton, (Reverend) ; John J. Rockefellow, (school commissioner) ; Isaiah B. 
Hudnut, (M. D.), i83o;iosiah Blanchard, (M. D.), 1835; Samuel P. Towne, (M. 
D.), 1835; Isaac Hampton, (Hon., supervisor), 1835; Abraham De GrofT, 1830: 

Warren Babcock, 1840; R\le\' Merrill: Loren J. Ceech. 1S45 ; Xelson Daniels, 
1850; Galusia Burnett, 1S52 ; x-\. Al. Rose, (Castile) ; Lathan Coffin, 1842; Walter 
Coffin, (town superintendent of schools), 1850; Jonathan Miller ; Henry Lee, 1846 ; 
Sylvanus Ellis, 1846; George McNair, 1848; John D. Grimes, 1850; James R. 
Bowen : Emily Page, (Brailley), 1836; Augusta Curtiss, 1835; Abigail Hosford, 
(Erwin), 1828; Miss Maxwell, 1830; Susan Merrick, 1828; Adelaide Merrill; 
Alary Alerrill ; Amelia Alerrill, 1840; Emeline Merrill; Alary Wheeler, 1831-1836; 
Elizabeth Barrett, 1836; Martha Barrett, 1838; Laura Barrett, 1842; Margaret 
Jane AIcKill, 1835; Eliza Warner, 1828; Angeline Clough ; Almira Chase, (Aler- 
rick) ; Sarah Chase, (Bell.) Page District: Sophia Webster, (Lloyd), 1847, 
(mother of John Uri Lloyd, novelist) ; AL Jane Church; Mercy Jane Craig, (Bow- 
hall), 1842; Harriet Hudnut; Alary J. Twist, 1845 ; Aristeen Curtis, 1840; Lavina 
O. Bowen, 1850; Eliza Day, 1850; Adelia Roberts-Rockefellow, 1850; Jane 
Adams; Alary Chase, (Colby) ; Alary Spencer; Alanette Peck, 1850: Elmina Ben- 
nett, 1848. 

B. S. Coffin stated in a pioneer sketch written a few years before his death, 
that the early teachers of North Oak Hill school were : H. G. Winslow, Addison 
AI. Crane, E. P. Aliller, Weller, Latham Coffin, Draper. 

Alost of these men became celebrities. Prof. H. G. Winslow was principal 
at Alt. Alorris and at Nunda, was a college graduate and superintendent of schools 
at Aladison, Wisconsin. Weller, after an Albany Normal course and other suc- 
cesses became Governor of California. Draper was one of the board of regents 
at Albany. Our Nunda lawyer, A. AL Crane, was Alember of Assembly. Dr. E. 
P. Aliller and his sanitarium are well known. While the financial successes of 
farmer L. Coffin marked success in a commendable field of endeavor. 

Two others, w ho became teachers soon afterward, became ultimately school 
commissioners. Robert W. Green of Nunda, and Alyron Haver of Oakland, Hall 
Turrell and his wife, Airs. Alary Stilson Turrell, were school commissioners in the 
west. il. W. Hand was superintendent of schools. Alarlboro, X. H.. Frank Bur- 
gess, also was school commissioner in tlic \\ est. 

Samuel William and Robert Hall, L J. and Marshall McDiift'ee were teachers, 
taught school at Nunda, and elsewhere, previous to the Civil W ar. 

George AL Lockwood and Lias Lockwood were treachers. !■". A. Xorthway 
taught school at Nunda, and elsewhere previous to the Civil W ar. 

The Normal School at Geneseo, became the fruitful source of teachers for the 
district and village schools, and as all who attended there from this vicinity are to 
be mentioned, and all also from our Nunda High School Training class, this will 
furnish another hundred or more of the local educators of our modern davs since 

Teachers attending a teachers institute at Nunda in April, i860, conducted 
by Harvey Farley, school commissioners, assisted by Principal Asher B. Evans : 

Those who had taught longest are supposed to be at the head of the list. 

Charles D. Bennett, (visitor) ; *Rachel A. Bennett; *A'Irs. A. A. Rockefellow ; 
*AIrs. E. .T. \'an Husen ; Aliss Jane Adams; Aliss Alary Spencer; *Belle AIcNair; 
Lydia Hagaman ; L. Burgess; Fanny Andrus; Airs. Mary (Spear) Yale; Alzada 
Amidon : Libbie Arnold ; *AIary Willis ; Alartha Huggins : Lucy Conrad ; Lura Mc- 
Cartney ; Laura E. Brown: Ellen Shaw: Isa AlcCartney: AL A. Alaxon ; Harriet 
Lowell; Afaggie Lenien ; \'ictoria AlcXair; Hattie Buckout : Alary X. Barron; 

Mary Turrell ; JNIarv Houghton; '''Sarah Stilson ; Pheobe Hainea ; Julia Barker; 
Maria E. Russell ; Orpha French ; Charlotte Lyon ; Ann Bennett ; Sue Knebloe ; 
Ruth Barkhart ; Alma furrcll ; Celia I'lxley ; Delyra Wilcox ; Sarah Brown ; F. A. 
Northway; M. Barcalo ; Melinda Rved. (In. Cor. ) ; Kate Lake, (H. H.j ; 
Mary Buck; *Martha McXair; Alice CJhidsey ; Martha Chidsey ; Julia Alerrick ; 
Jane JMills ; j\Iaria Stilson; Esther Swift; Lydia De Camp; Martha Howell; Ame- 
lia Bacon ; Sarah Kelley, (Grove) ; Adeline Smith ; Amelia Bennett ; Mary Baylor ; 
Sarah Cosnett ; Sarah Lockwood. 

Some others who taught soon after: *Mary Stilsori, Kittie Merrick, Alice 
Gilbert, Augusta Ricker, A. SatTord. Carrie Cain, Harriet, Helen and Clara .\i- 
nold, Elmira Smith, Emma and Carrie Tousey, all of Portage. 

Of these lady teachers those marked ''' taught nearly all their lives. 

These received State certificates : Rachel Bennet, Mary Willis. 

These men teachers also had State certificates : FL W. Hand, Frank Burgess. 

Gentlemen in attendance : W. F. Smith, Portage ; J. i). Grimes ; M. T. Hills ; 
Husted Green. 

Thonias B. Lovel, A. Jackson Knight, -\lvin W. Tousey, \\'illiam Cosnet., 
William G. Tousey, J. Wesley Fland, H. Wells Hand, C'scar E. Chittenden, David 
Roberts, Corydon C. Olney, Hall A. Turrell, Beebe Turrell, Myron Barcalo, 
Arthur J. Barnes. 

Flad never taught. Bxron Andru?, James II. Haver, Aiken Aspinwall, John 
J. Carter, Philo Mosher, Albert Houghton, Alonzo Olney, Clifford Bagley, Jay 
Gallenline, Frank Burgess. The last named was but 14 years of age, passed, 
Imt did nut ask or receive a certificate. 


Select schools became an important auxiliary tn the educational life of the 
town during its third decade, and some existed during the fourth decade. The la- 
mentable condition of the district school building on Mill Street and the rapid 
growth in population made some thing of this kind imperative. The third stories 
of the stores on the west side of the plaza were used, — temporary seats were pro- 
vided, and the primitive character of these school fixtures did not correspond well 
with the high sounding titles bestowed on these embryo academies. 

I. The first of these was taught by a Miss Maxwell, jirobably none of her 
"students" are living to-day. 

2. The next was taught by a Miss Wing, a sister of Galielmus \\ ing, a promi- 
nent farmer. 

3. Zara W. Jocelyn and his cousin. Miss Garifilia Waite, taught a school of 
great excellence. Joseph Clark Button of Portage, was one of the scholars. Mrs. 
Bohall, also attended. 

4. Miss Augusta Curtis had a select school she called a "Young Ladies" 
Seminary," in the Swain store building, third story. The Starkweather girls at- 
tended. ]\Irs. E. O. Dickenson, one of those who has passed the Psalmists limit 
of three score and ten, was one of about twenty young ladies who reached this 
very high school ( room ) for a term or two. 

Miss Jane AIcKill, also had a select school mostly }oung misses, in the upper 
room of the twin hciuse. State Street. Mary and A'ictoria Whitcomb, Laura 
Grover, daughter of Daniel, Miss Elizabeth Rechard, were among those who at- 
tended the school, and some good little boys, George and William Osgo( T>y, were 


also in attciulance. She married Robert Carrick. Henry Chaulker, probably 
utilized his law office for a school of young yentlenien, and LViah, William and 
John Townsend were among the scholars. 

Miss Martha Lake (Johnson), had a primary school in the Session House 
building, after it was no longer used as an academy. 

The Medical class of Dr. C. C. Chafee about 1841. was a sort of Medical Col- 
lege, while it lasted, but became very unpopular in the community, so much so that 
even the dead "rose up," probabi}' in protest of having their sleep disturbed by 
the undergraduates. At any rate, the living denizens of the village protested. 
So the young "Metlics" went to cullege, and the dotcor removed from Nunda. 

In later days the select schools were taugiit f()r juveniles, excepting a few of 
High School rank, that took the place of academic instruction, between the years 
i860 and 1867. That will be mentioned later. 

The Juvenile select schools were taught by Miss Jane Adams, Aliss Jennie 
Grover, Miss Mary Willis, Miss Mary Stilson. 

The writing schools of Andrew J. Russell, were well attended. John W 
Hand and Cornelius Kiley became expert penmen and writing teachers. The 
former taught ^Mathematics. Penmansh.ip and Bookkeeping, at the Genesee \'allev 
Seminary, Belfast. 

At least a dozen singing scliool teachers had schools that were well attended. 
Bard, Chittenden. Spaf^'ord, Brooks, Burger, George W. Snyder, and the last was 
most successful. 

Miss Rose Shave, at one time principal of the art department of Ingham Uni- 
versity has had and still has classes in painting. 

Leslie Dailev. teaches China decorations, and is an expert at his calling. 

A Ch.m'ter of 0\'erlooked .\xu L'.xrecorded History — Ol'r First Academy. 

NDT one person out of one hundred, including the posterity of Presbyterian 
ancestors, knows the origin and purpose, for which the old Session House 
of that church was built. Not one of the historical sketches that have 
eminated from that source, or anv other, has ever alluded to its origin. 

Rev. Wales Tileston, A. B., L'nion College, 1822, pastor of the church from 
the fall of 1837, induced the people to build an Academy on their church grounds, 
and in 1838 it was built. As there was no newspaper in the newly incorporated 
village at that time there are no records of instructors, or pupils, until 1841, when 
the Genesee X'alley Recorder in .September of that year makes the announcement 
for that year. It is known however, that a Mr. Edwards was principal of the 
school, and a Miss Wing, sister to Galielmus \^'ing, was preceptress, with local 
assistants, if any were nee<led. ]\Ir. Edwards had a desire to enter the ministry 
and even to be a missionary, and did not make teaching his first purpose. The 
school was a necessity and was patronized by those who had outgrown a necessitv 
for district school instruction, rr who found the cramped conditions on Mill Street, 
alike undesirable and unendurable, 'i'he school was not large at first, and the 
austere wavs of the embr\ o missionar\- did not create enthusiasm. His name and 

the locality from which Rev. Tileston came, suggests he had selected this friend 
from Puritan New England, Heath, j\Iass., and if he was not a descendant of 
Jonathan Edwards, his theology at least was closely related. He failed to induce 
any of the young ladies to change from the developmg of their own minds to the 
possibility of making negroes or Hindus think as the missionary thinks, and so he 
departed alone. 

Mr. Edwards' Successor 

Principal S. .\. Clemmons, A. M., succeeded him, with Mrs. Clemmons as 

These teachers were more successful in building up a school and realized their 
work was important as teachers. They have left behind a list of students, 
every one of them pioneer youths of the town and vicinity, some of them were 
young boys, others fitiing for teachers, or for college, those bearing this mark 
before their names * are known to be living, all of these are at least octogenarians. 
Faculty of Nunda Academy, Term Ending April 1, 1842 

S. A. Clemmons (Yale), principal, teacher of Language and Natural Science. 

Clarke P>. Adams, teacher of English Department. 

Miss Jane D. Barnes, teacher of Mathematics, Drawing, etc. 

John S. Jemison, teacher of Penmanship. 

Mrs. Clemmons, preceptress. 

Miss Flora Bennett, Harriet Hndnut. Miss H. E. T. Wright. .\. Frink 

Miss H. E. T. Wright (a Ba]nist), became a missionary to Burniah. 
Students in Our First Academy, Church Street, 1840-1841 

Benjamin P. \'anconrt, A. Jackson Sherwood, George H. Bagley. John 
Ditto, W. Parker Wright, Elihu D. Holmes. William Dunn. L. Bissell Hills 
Warren Gardner, P. Dudley Kenclrick, Theodore Horton, Richard Tyleston. 
Riley IMerrill. Jr.. Phineor.s L. Gilbert, Frederick B. Wing. Edward H. Chandler, 
John L. Gray, William ]\I. Graw Ralston H. Bellus, Charles Bellus, JNIatthew 
Washburn, ^lartin Hubbell, Knelon A. Jeffries. Elnathan \^'. Packard, John Or- 
mandson, Xewton Colby. Oliver P. Ashley, \'andalia \\'aite. M. D.. John Brewer, 
John Wheeler, S. Deak, C. J. Deak, died 1908, Cyrus T. Dake. Mt. Morris, Edwin 
Swan, Mt. Morris : from Portage, 1841 : Henry Tuthill, Yates Bennett, died 1906. 
\MlIiam Tousey, deceased, Andrew Gray, Or\'ille Root, Harlow Orcutt, Joseph 
Clark Button, Nathaniel B. Nichols, Jr., W. Sparta, Egbert Bogart, John Thomp- 
son. Jacob Bogart, David R. \'orees, William T. Spinning, Granger, John McLane. 
Birdsall, Cyrus Thompson, Cpper Canada, Lyman Crosby, Catharine \ancourt, 
*Matilda Sherwood, (Mrs. W. G. Russell, Binghamton), Rhoda M. Smith, Delir 
and Mary Bagley, Amelia Crane, *Sarah A. Barnes, (Mrs. A. G. Rose), Amanda 
Horner, Sarah A. Wright. Mary Pennell, (daughter of Rev. A. P. Pennell), Eller; 
and Elizabeth Whitney, Garifilia Waite, Harriet Hudnut, ( Mrs. Leroy Satterlee I . 
Mary Ennis, Sarah Dickinson, Mandana Tyleston, Elizabeth Tyleston, Esther M. 
Gilbert, (Mrs. P. D. Kendrick), Elizabeth S. Lane, Granger, Ebey ^'. Bogart, 
West Sparta, Janette and Adeline Bellus, Nunda, ilartha L. Washburn. Nunda : 
Portage : Alary and Esther Williams, Flora Bennett, died 1900. Cynthia and 
Mary Spencer, Louisa Button, Harriet N. Carpenter, Margaret C. Howell, Brooks 
Grove, Sarah M. Dake, Mt. ]Morris, Elsie \'oorees. West Sparta, Elizabeth Camp- 
bell, \\'. Sparta. Ebey Bogart. W. Sparta. 

Nunda Academy Advertisement, November 1, 1841 

S. A. Clemnions, principal. 

This institution is now in successful operation with a larger number of pupils, 
than at any former period. To meet the increasing patronage, additional accom- 
modations have been provided in the academy building, which will permit us to re- 
ceive thirty or forty more students. 

Unremitting exertions are pledged on the part of the principal and assistants 
in their efforts to make this institution merit the high estimation of the public. 
Additional assistance has been recently procured and requisite facilities for in- 
struction can be afforded in almost any branch of Academic Education. 

Nunda Academy, November i. 1841. 

S. A. CLEAIMONS, Principal. 

Pioneer Students of the First Nunda Academy 

Mary Alward, f'ortage ; Harriet Alward, Portage; Sarah j\lvard, (Mrs. A. J. 
S. Sherwood), Alt. Morris; Amanda >\lvord, Mt. Morris; Elizabeth Barnes, 
Nunda; *Sarah A. Barnes, (Rose); Clarissa Blanchard, Lyons, Mich.; Alexina 
Blanchard, Lyons, Mich.; Flora Bennett, (life teacher), Portage; Elmira Bennett, 
(Orsimus Bisbee), Nunda; Mary J. Eogart, Nunda; Elizabeth \'. Bogart, Nunda; 
Olive Buck, Nunda ; Elizabeth Barrett, Nunda ; Martha Barrett, Nunda ; Jeannette 
Bellus, Nunda; Adelaide Bellus, Nunda; Lydia A. Blake, Scottsburg; Ann Buin- 
ham, Scottsburg ; Mary Bagley, Nunda ; Isabella Brown, Mt. Morris ; Lydia B. 
Campbell, Nunda; Melissa Carrier, Nunda; Almira Chase, (Merrick), Nunda; 
*M. Jane Craig, (Bowhall), Nunda; H. S. Doty, Lockport; Lucy A. Daniels, 
Nunda ; Elizabeth Dalrymple, J\lt. Morris ; Eliza Engle, Portage ; Mary Engle, 
Portage ; Clarissa Gray, Caledonia ; Elizabeth Gray, Caledonia ; Angelina Gawyer, 
Scottsville ; Jane Gibbs, Nunda ; Mary A. Greenleaf, Nunda ; Esther L. Gilbert, 
Nunda; Harriet Hudnut, Nunda; Sarah Hudnut, Nunda; Amanda Horner, 
Nunda ; Letetia Horner, Nunda ; Sarah J. Howd, Nunda ; Angelica C. Henry, 
Allen; Juliana Henry, Allen; Elizabeth Horton, Nunda; Sylvia A. Lawrence, 
Nunda ; Nancy Lawrence, Nunda ; Olive Miller, Alt. Morris ; Louisa More, 
Nunda; Amelia Merrill, Nunda; Emeline Merrill. Nunda; Salome Merrill, Nunda; 
Angelina Nourse, Castile ; Susan A. Osgoodby, Nunda ; Mary Pennell, Nunda ; 
Isabella Pennell, Nunda; Mary J. Prescott, Nunda; Rachel E. Page, Huldah M. 
Robinson, (Spencer), Portage; Charlotte Robinson, (Southwick), Portage; Eliza 
Rockefellow, (Olp), Mt. Morris; Rhoda M. Smith, Nunda; Delia Spencer, L. A. 
Shepard, Mt. Morris; Louisa Shuart, Portageville ; Margaret Sherwood, (Bur- 
nett), Nunda; *Matilda Sherwood, (Russell), Nunda; Charlotte Smith, Nunda; 
Fannie Seaver, Nunda ; Martha Smith, Nunda ; Eliza Spinning, Sparta ; Mary 
Spencer, Portage ; Cynthia Spencer, Portage ; Anna Smith, Portage ; Louisa 
Tabor, Portage ; Agnes Tuthill, Portage ; Charlotte Tuthill, Portage ; Elizabeth 
Tileston, Nunda; Hannah Vancourt, Nunda; Elsy Voorhies, Sparta; H. E. T. 
Wright, (Stetson), Nunda; Elizabeth Wright, Nunda; *Sarah A. Wright, 
(Smith) ; Mary Wright, Geneseo; Sarah D. Whetmore, Nunda; Elizabeth Whit- 
ney, Nunda ; Rebecca Wilcox, Nunda ; Garifilia Waite, Martha L. Washburn, 
Cornelia Whitney, Ellen Whitney, Sarah Weller, Mt. Morris ; *Mary Williams, 
Portage ; Esther Williams, Portage ; H. M. Wilner, Portage : Mary Whitcomb, 
Nunda ; \'ictoria Whitcomb. Colby. 


Female Department, Nunda Academy, 1843-1844 

F. li. Adams, Xuiula ; 11. !■'. Arnistrong-, Dorset, \ t. ; A. E. Atwootl. .\unda: 
AI. A. Ainswortli, Xuiula; S. .\. Ainswortli. Xuuda; Emily Bailey, Xuiula; Laura 
Barnes. Xunda ; Mary E. Barnes, Xunda; Julia Bell, Xunda; ^Augusta liennett, 
(Herrick); Amelia Bollsford, Grove; Emil}- Bradford, Nunda; Ann Bradford, 
X inula; Arabella Bradford, Nunda; Elizabeth Bradford, Nunda; Delia A. Brooks, 
Xuntla; Elizabeth Brooks, Nunda; Lucy Brooks, Nunda; L. P. Briggs, Nunda; 
Imogenc Burgess, Nunda; Emma 1,. L'hatfee, Nunda; Sarah Chase, Nunda; Flora, 
Ella and Roselle Chittenden, Nunda; M. lane Church, Portage; Caroline Conkey, 
Mt. Morris; Sarah Jane Cosnett. Xiuula; Emily and Isora Dartt, Nunda; Emma 
Ditto. Nunda; .Mary Diamnnd, Xunda; Lydia I )ye, Xunda; Eunice Crover. Xun- 
da; *Laura (_!ro\-er, Xunda; Rachel (lrej.;(iry, Sv)arla ; Isabella ilanunond. Xunda; 
'•'Adelaide Hammond, Xunda: Marv S. Holmes. M. C. Ilnwell. Mt. .Morris; 
Sarah and Henrietta Ibirton, Cordelia Keyser, Rebecca Kennedy. ISurns ; Helen 
M. Lawrence, Ntmda ; .\nn Aiarsh, Cayuga: 11. .X. Marsh, Xunda; luniice Marsh, 
E. .A. McKane, Nunda; Julia McKane, Nunda; Celuria Merrill. R. .\. Alosher, Alt. 
Alorris; Alarian Pierce, Mt. Morris: Afartha Purchase, Sparta; Catharine Ruger, 
Nunda; Alartha. and Julia Scntt. .Allen ; E. .V. and Eveline Scott, Nunda; Mary E. 
Spencer. Nunda : Jane Smitii. .Xinula : Lnuisa Strong. Nunda; Alandana Tileston, 
Nunda; .Sarali [i. '['owu. Xunda; Carolijie \'ancourt. .Xunda; Alary \ an Scoter, 
Burns; *Lucinda Warren. ( B. Leel, Nunda ; '''Sophia W'hitcomb. Livena Whiting. 
Pennsylvania ; Charlotte \\ (R)d. .Xunda. 

Alale Depart. Nimda .\cadeni_\', 1843-1S4-1. "Alilton Hills, .Xunda; Lathrop 
Hills, Nunda; '''Henrx ,\. Hills, Nunda; Elijah Horton, Nunda; Franklin Kysor, 
Sparta; J. J. K\sor, ."^jiarta : R. R. Kinney. .S]>arta; John King. Xunda; 'Charles 
King, Nunda; Henry King. .Xinula; branklin L. Lake. Portage; G. B. Lawrence. 
Nunda; D. C. Leach. Nunda; J. E. Alarsh, Nunda; B. F. Pannenter. Springville ; 
James Reid, Nunda; \ andalia Slater, Portage; Simon Scott, .Allen; Hiram Scott, 
.Allen; William Scott, .Allen; '^Charles L. Spencer, .Xunda; Ethvin Strong, Nnnda; 
William Strong, Nunda; Charles Terry, Nunda; (3. Willard, Grove; Orren Wil- 
liams, Ccnterville ; .A. Frink Wiliams, Portage. 

.After the exodus of this missionary, the school was left in charge of Aliss 
Cochran, and a yotmg man of excellent spirit by the name of Alaynard, and it con- 
tinued in e.xistence a _\ ear longer. 

Air. Alaynard, however, wlui was an earnest Christian and a good Presby- 
terian, while on his summer vacation attended a gathering of the Synod, and an 
earnest appeal being made for well educated young men to enter the Foreign Alis- 
sionary field, his plans for life were changed, excepting, that he had long planned 
a visit to the .Alps. He proceeded to carry out this plan, but was taken sick and 
died in Italy. The school was then merged with the L^nion school on East Street, 
that for a year or more after this kept up a hearty rivalry with the Xunda Literarx- 
Institution, both in curriculum and in ntnnerical strength. 

This marvellous story of successive teachers entering the ministry and the 
missionary field can hardly be equalled in any school of the land. It is evident 
that the vocation of the teacher was underrated in those days, while that of the 
clergyman exceeded greatly the estimates of the present time. 

,\s these teachers will again be mentioned in our list of Alissionaries, who 
have lived in Nunda, we will leave them for the present. 


The school came into Ijeiiig when it was greatly needed. The building i)ruved 
of great value to the church, for a session house, and it has fostered other schools 
and served as a temporary home for the Methodist Church and numerous select 
schools have held their sessions there, until an Academy was built on ]Mill Street. 

The building has been moved to Fair .Street, and a fine parsonage has taken 
its place, and it now serves as a dwelling house and barn. It cost when first built 
$800, and it has been of far greater value to the village than to the church that 
built it. ^lay the good intentions of the builders be recognized, appreciated and 
placed to their credit. 

The Cochran Regime 

The school reached the acme of its success under l'rinci])al j. ( i. Cochran, and 
his sister, Miss M. R. Cochran. 

The Faculty indicate a large and energetic institution, even a primarN- de]iart- 
ment swells the numbers and indicate ac least a numerical success. Some of these 
assistant teachers taught in 1843, others in 1844. 

Principal, J. G. Cochran; associate, ]\Iiss Dorcas Hell: prece])tress, AI. R. 
Cochran; assistant preceptress. Miss Sarah .V. Lake: primary. Miss I'lum; John 
J. Rockefellow, teacher, English Department : Lecturer, .\natomy and I'hysiology, 
Dr. C. Clifford Chafee, A. B., and assistant pupils B. F. Parmalee, Amelia Alerrill. 

This school would have been eminently successful under this corps of instruc- 
tors, but either the atmosphere of Xunda, bred a desire in the hearts of all educa- 
tors that were called here as instructors, to seek a foreign shore, where souls were 
farther away from truth and God, or the retiring principal, or the clergyman 
of the church chose, the new principal for his piety, rather than for his ability to 
teach, and the Nunda Academy was wrecked on the rocks of IMissionary zeal. In 
this instance a good teacher did not become a poor missionary, but one who met 
with marvellous success and "worked for humanity," as well as for "creed and 
theology," and left a son and successor whose achievements as a civilizer reached 
the climax of success. His school, however, is our present subject, but in ihe 
missionary part of this book will be given the story of a great missionary's greater 

Before giving the names of the students that attended the Xunda Academv in 
1842 to 1844, we will tell the story that George Ditto, a pupil of the primary 
department of this school (and to whom I am indebted for the information) told 

Miss Dorcas Bell caine with the Ditto family to Xunda as the governess of 
the Ditto children, John, George and Emma. The great losses attending the stop- 
ping of work on the Genesee \'alley canal in 1841, left the family with more ac- 
counts against the contractors, than the contractors had money to pay for, and so 
the governess became a teacher in this school. She afterwards became Mrs. 
Lorenzo Brooks. Principal Cochran married Miss Plum, the teacher in the 
primary department, and they became Missionaries in the CJrient. 

The Faculty of this school seems to have changed after the marriage of Miss 
Bell. And we find the following list of instructors: J. G. Cochran. A. B. ; John 
J. Rockefellow, English Department ; Sarah .V. Lake, assistant teacher of English : 
Miss M. R. Cochran, teacher I'rcnch and drawing: assistant piijiils, [5. 1". Parmen- 
ter of Sprinsrville : Miss Amelia .A. Merrill of Xunda. 

Xote. — It is gemiain to call attention, at this time to the fact that there were 
now two academies in Nunda, and Prof. Buck, had also since 1843, been taking 
to their own place, the Baptists, and others, who were attracted by his reputation 
to the newer and larger school. 

Pupils in Attendance in 1842-3, Additional to Those Before Mentioned 

G. W. Adams. Uhio : Edwin C. Allen, I'ortage ; Andrew Barber, (lawyer), 
Portage; Charles B. Bagley, *Lester P. Barnes, Benjamin Bailey, William P. Ben- 
nett, Burns ; Charles H. Bixby, Nunda ; Charles Brooks, Chelles Brooks, A. G. 
Brooks, L. M. Brooks, J. B. Bradley, Spring\-ille ; Henry B. Britton, Portage ; 
Halbert Buck, Xunda ; Erastus Buck, Nunda ; Austin Burpee, Nunda ; R. S. Camp- 
bell, Scottsburg: Edward G. Chipnian, Xunda: William George Cosnett, Xunda; 
D. H. Cochran, Spring\-ille ; William De Camp. M. D., *George Ditto, Xunda ; 
. Lewis L. Ditto, Xunda; Arnold Eastwood, Xunda; Charles A. Gilbert, Xunda; 
Nathan Gould. Nunda ; Leroy Gould, Nunda ; Horace Gregory. Sparta : Cameron 
Hartman. Sparta ; Le Rue Hale, Sparta. 

At two exhibitions given April 13 and 14. 1843. the following ladies and 
gentlemen took part : 

S. F. Hills, j. Bogart, J. I'hompson, T. Atwood, W. P. WVight, E. D. Holmes, 
H. B. Carver. R. S. Campbell, D. H. Cochran, F. D. Lake, N. F. Williams. G. J. 
Adams, W. A. Dunn. Riley M. Merrill, F. P. Kennedy. J. G. Briggs, A. F. Wil- 
liams, L. 1!. Hills, J. j. Rockefellow, G. J. Adams. J. L. Williams E. H. Chandler. 
J. Ditto. 

AL Jane Church, ^^fary \\'illiams. Miss Estlier Williams. Miss .\. Merrill. M. 
J. Bogart. X. Lawrence, .S. A. Lawrence. 

Xote. — The original colloquy, "I'he Indian Captive," written by AI. Jane 
Church formed a part of the programme. Also one of her poems, "The Ma\ 
Flower," was recited by L. B. Flills. The talent of these advanced students would 
surprise some of the graduates of our day most of them, however, were older than 
the average graduates now. 

It must be gratifying to the children and grandchildren of those who were 
the leading pupils, for their day of this the first of Xunda's academies, to see 
their ancestors as they were in youth, not in their full maturity, but grasping for 
treasures of mind attainable. 

The motto of 1845 tells the story. 

"Xot as though we had already attained." 

The last exhibition of the X'unda Academy, six students wrote ( or served as 
a committee of publication), a pamphlet periodical, and it was published by J. T. 
X'^orton, Alt. Morris. 

The committee were: R. M. Merrill, Seth E. Hills, C. H. Gilbert, Miss A. A. 
Merrill, Miss X. C. Lawrence and Miss Janette T. Amsden. 

After a modest editorial, the articles that follow-ed would indicate the peculiar 
style of those days when sentiment and song were present in all prose essays. 
"The Widow's Son," by C, evidently Charles H. Gilbert, the father of Harry and 
Carrie Gilbert, a fine paraphrase of the Gospel narrative, has a double pathos to 
one who knew them all. Charles and his gentle wife, Eliza Day, both of whom 
died so early in life, and Carrie and Harry, who did not live as long. i\s the au- 


tlior purposes to give Aliss Carrie's graduating essay, he thinks it will be inter- 
esting to trace similarity uf st\!e, changed by the different standards of a later 


"Silence reigns in a lone apartment in the city of N . A noble youth lies 

sleeping. O'er his body a burning fever rages, and yet he sleeps a happy sleep. 
On Fancy's airy wing his roving mind soars away from earth to heaven. With 
angels crowned with light, he kneels before the throne, and with "etherial fingers 
sweeps the golden strings, which makes the melody of heavens abode." 

"He wakes to find himself still on earth, while by his couch his loving parent 
weeps. Mother, the damps of death are on my brow, but do not weep when I am 
gone. I hasten to a happier home. I would not longer stay. Hark, dost not 
thou hear, the rich strains of music, that strike my listening ear? 

"Mother I go, but I will come again, and when thou too shall leave this vale 
of tears, I'll watch beside thy bed and bear thy spirit hence to Heaven. 

"There's music on the midnight air, a requiem sad and slow is chanted o'er the 
bier of a loved one gone. 

"O sad the thought that one so young should die. and lay him down in the 
empty tomb to rest, while fairy visions still were his and hope was dancing joy 
dreams in his breast. Could prayer have saved him he would have still remained. 
He has joined the choirs of pure ones m the happy land. 

"The mother weeps beside his sable bier. 'Tis hard to part from what is life- 
less now. But lo ! Jesus approaches and bids her cease to weep. He lays the 
sable, pall-cloth back, he lifts the head in silence resting and he who slept awoke."' 

This is hardly a type of the others. It is unusual for men, unless they are of 
poetic nature, or very near the bounds of the unknown, to write like school girls, 
but men are net alike, and some are admonished in many ways of lie's uncertaintv. 

One other selection signed V., bears the more natural type of woman's senti- 
ment. She has dared to write of one, whose name is above every name. In her 
peroration she exclaims. 

"He comes to earth its Redeemer, a King without the ensigns of royalty, a 
Conqueror without an avenging sword, or the brilliant trophies, which swell the 
victor's triumph. He becomes a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. 
For thee, O. earth, he weeps, for thee He prays, when dewy mountains and the 
pale stars alone behold him, he bids the sleeping arise, and those in chains of dark- 
ness bound, gaze upon a new world of light and beauty. He heals thy soul, a pil- 
grim for many long years, ever laboring to hasten the dawn of salvation's sun, 
and when his day has come, for thee, O man, he dies ! " 


"Character of Schiller," Erastus E!uck, Jr. 

"Literature a means of perpetuating a Nation's Glory," John S. King. 
"When is the time to die," Miss 'M. A. Stowe. 
"The Voices of Angels," Miss E. Bra'dford. 

Colloquy, "The Chances of Law," (w-ritten by Briggs, Chandler and Gilbert). 
Judge, Latham Coffin ; Squire Bragge, G. H. Briggs : Fitzgerald, Esq.. E. H. 
Chandler; Plaintiff'. S E. Hills: Defendant, C. H. Gilbert: witnesses. 

Colloquy, bv Men-ill ami Ditto. 

Transcendentalist, R. M. Merril : Fourienst, J. A. Ditto: Hypochondriac, S. 

!•: . 1 lills ; Mnenionician, C. H. Gilbert ; Limb of the Law, J. A'- Townsend. 

lo. Oration— "Melancholy of Genius" G. H. Bnggs 

1 1 ( )ration— "IVrnianence of Our Institutions" J- A. Ditto 

,, . ..-n, > p^frint'c; Cnre" JMiss S. L. ^Merrill 

1 '> l\os])(>iises — 1 lie i atrioi s v^iore 

"The Tear of Svmi)athv" l^Hss L. A. Horner 

1 :, Colloquy-" foDular Education" IS.v Hills and Ditto 

Prof. \on Dunderhonsen, S. E. Hills ; Squire Quibble. L. CofiQn ; Dea Par- 
ticular, A. Barber; Doct. Killman. R. M. :\Icrrill. inspectors. 
Students, etc. Music. 

14 Oration— "The Sui)eriorit\ of a Symmetric Education" E. H. Chandler 

Miss A. A. Merrill, Miss J. D. Amsden 

1 5. Dispute-"Is this a Superficial Age ?" S. E. Hills, Latham Cofifin 

i6 Discussion— "Is Astronomy as Rich in the Poetic Element as Geology? 

' .Miss .^. A. Merrill, :Miss J. D. Amsden 

17. Coiloquy— ".Mulsunimer's Xighfs Dream." ( altere.l from Shakespeare) 
Peter Quince, R. U. Merrill, Nick Bottom, Andrew Barber. Francis Flute. 

L H. Ditto. Simon Stiung. William Nash, moonshine. 

Music. r> Ai M -n 

18. "The Genius of Literature" i^- -^1- ^^"^^ '" 

19. Oration—" Fame— Its Price" -^- barber 



By S. 

■■( )h ! onward youth ! grasp deathless flowers 

Of genius for thy brow 
And call a \yreath in learning's bower 

To deck thy }-oung mind now ; 
Away ! stop not 'mid things of earth, 

Indulge in visions high. 
Enlarge thy thoughts of lofty birth. 

Seek things that cannct die." 


( )rK ( )i.n l-.xiox School House. East Strhet. Axn How It Came To Be Built 


Special meeting of District No. 2. held December 23. 1844. at 6 P. M. 

Merritt Colby presided' and William D. Hammond served as clerk. 

At this meeting it was. Resolved by a majority of voters present, that it is ex- 
pedient to purchase a new site and build a new school house. 

2. Resolved. That the trustees of this district, examine the most eligible site 
for a new school house, ascertain the cost of lot. plan of a building and the cost of 
building according to that plan. 

3- That a committee be appointed to examine into the title of the site now 
occupied by the district ; whereupon the moderator appointed, Benedict Bagley, 
Luther C. Peck and Walter Whitcomb, such committee. The meeting adjourned 
to meet again in two weeks. 

At the adjourned meeting, Benetlict Bagley, reported that the title of the lot 
on Alill Street was not sound and good, that the deed is void for want of a con- 
sideration. The report was carried. Tliey seconded the report of former com- 
mittee, and appointed two discreet persons to act with the trustees, to inquire into 
the expediency of purchasing a new location, and building a more commodious 
scliool building, to estimate cost and dimensions and lay their report before the 
people at their next meeting. Joseph Ditto and D. D. Morse were appointed as 
additional committee. Adjourned for one week. 

At the adjourned meeting, J. Ditto reported for the committee, and the re- 
port was accepted, and the trustees authorized to sell the old lot and building, re- 
taining its use till the new building was ready for use. The vote was carried, yeas, 
43, nays, 29. The trustees were instructed to purchase a lot containing an acre 
of ground on the north east corner of East and Fair Streets, opposite the Cobble 
Stone house, then occupied by C. E. Crary at the price of $200. 

Resolved, That the trustees be requested to procure a certificate of the town 
superintendent for the sum of '■^13. 50. Carried. 

.\djourned to Tuesday at 6 P. M. 

On January 24, 1845, the adjourned meeting was held, and a certificate from 
the town superintendent was read, of which the following is a copy. 

"T hereby certify that I believe the sum of twelve hundred dollars is neces- 
sary to build a suitable school house for School District Xo. 2. in Nunda 

January 14. 1S45. A. BURGESS, 

Town Superintendent C. S. for Nunda." 

A vote was then taken to raise by tax $1,200 to build a school house on the 
place submitted by the committee. The vote was taken by calling each voter pres- 
ent by name and the vote given resulted as follows: Yeas, 47; Nays. 45. 

Then the additional sum of $150 was voted for fence, furnishing out build- 
ings, etc. Yeas, 48 ; Nays, 28. 

Annual meeting September 29, 1845. ^^^- ^- Clifford Chafee, moderator, 
and William D. Hammond. Ceorge B, Herrick. elected trnste<\; : John H. Dve. col- 
lector; Walter Whitcomb. librarian. .\ tax was voted to level the grounds a. id 
lay floor in the porch. 

We conclude that this brings the scholars of Xo. 2. into a commodious and 
fine looking building for those days, and if any one wishes to see the old building, 
from which they must have been glad to depart, the}- may procure the key of Les- 
ter \Mlcox, merchant, on State Street. The rear part of the building has had no 
lepairs upon it since it was moved there from Mill Street, and the wonder will 
be how did they accommodate 90 pupils there, before canal da}s, and how. the 
greatly increased number from 1S36 to 1846. 

From 1839, the Nunda Academy, Church Street, thinned them out somewhat, 
and from 1843 the Nunda Literary Institute took all the surplus, until 1846, when 
the L'nion and Nunda Academy students divided nearly equally, the pupils of 
the village with the institute, and both buildings had for the next 13 \ears. all they 
could accommodate. 


Tuic L'nki.n SciUHU.. K.\sr Stki'.kt. 184(1. 

TllLi Xuiula Ac;Kloin_\, on Church Street, build by the I'resbyteriaus iu 1838, 
afterwards known as the Presbyterian Session House, that had furnished 
advantages for the pioneer youth of Xunda for about seven years, was 
sui'plauted by the Baptist School, the Xnntla I.iterary Institute, that came into be- 
ing in 1843, and both academies were well patronized for about two years, when 
the institute, being the larger building, with the large hired cabinet of Prof. 
Amasa A. Buck, .\. M., drew the majority of the pupils from abroad to the Mill 
Street institution, and the short lived Xunda Academy was mergeil in a Uni^n 
with tlie large district sciiool Xo. 2. and became the Union School with, for a short 
time, an Academy or High School ilepartment. The principal was college breO 
and about 250 pupils gathereil there during the school year. 

The Students Olio, published in March, 1840, gives us this information, in a 
'■ Prospectus adtlressed to the Trustees of this unique District School." We ipiote 
from the youthful editors, a statement, that it would have been hard to believe, but 
for the preservation of this 14 page periodical, 

"Messrs. Prescott, Herrick and Gardner, Trustees of Xunda I nion school: 
I'ermit us to inscribe to you our little jieriodical as a tribute ot re>pect, due your 
zealous and disinterested etTorts to establisli a L'XBJ.X SCHt )t)l-, of high order 
in our ])leasant village. 

"During the last term, aboiu J30 scholars have enjoyed its privileges. The 
majority of these, have spent most of their time upon the common English 

"About 80 have practiced composition : 40 declamation ; about 50 attended to 
drawing; 40 have pursued the Latin; 22 Algebra; 17 Intellectual Philosophy: 15 
Geology; 12 Geometry; 11 l-Yench ; 8 Astronomy; 4 Surveying. General exer- 
cises have been had on Mitchell's Outline maps, Parker's Historical charts, and in 
\\ right's .Vnalytical C)rthography. 

"Vou will find perchance in our "l^Hio " many crude thoughts. Should it be so 
we feel assured, that from you and our friends generally, we shall meet with the 
leniency which our youth anil inexperience may claim ; and there will not be dealt 
out, to those w hose unlledged thoughts are yet untaught to soar, the full measure 
of criticism wliich might fall with propriety upon the productions of more mature 
minds, li others who are predetermined to judge "no good thing can come out of 
.Xazareth," will read our pages only to discover faults or hold up to ridicule our 
LJierished sentiments, we must leave them to the promptings of their own taste. 
with a regret iiowever, that their minds are not of a nobler make. 

"In behalf of the committee of publication. " 

It would not be very difficult to read between the lines of an intense conflict 
existing between the "Institute" and "the Union School." Though the Union 
School had 230 scholars all it could comfortably accommodate, the Institute had 

The Union School however, had the largest primary department. 

After Principal Winslow, from the ^It. Morris school succeeded Principal 
Buck, the existing friction was diniinshed. for Prof. Winslow was from "Unioni 

College," from which three successive I'reshyterian pastors liad been graduated, 
and the Union School under Abraham Burgess returned to the ordinary status of a 
well taught district school for 'English branches" only. 

That the Union School of 1845- 1846, had a fair share of the "heirs of future 
greatness," we will copy the order of exercises at the exhibition March 10, 1846. 


1. Colloquy — "Who Wants an Exhibition," by IJriggs aiul Chandler. 

2. Oration — "Newspaper Publication," S. Ellis. 

3. "Unwritten History," M. T. Hills. 

4. "The J"'atc of Tyranny," J. W. liritton. 

5. Colloquy — "A Mesmeric lVe]j into the I'uture," (arranged Ijy J. Dittoj. 
De Squiggs (mesmeriscr 1. W. 15, (iardner. 

Joseph (a subject), II. Kuck. 
Squire Quirk, S. Ellis. 
Deacon (Juiz, G. Kalder. 
Professor Fiat, J. W. Uritton. 

6. Declamation — "The Sword," C. L. Spencer. 

7. Oration — "The True .Source of I-ieform." E. W. Packard. 

8. Oration^".Saxon Character." J. .\. Ditto. 

9. Collo(|uy — "Scra]3S of J'olitics fcjr 1848," (by Briggs and Chandler'). 
Loco Foco, j. .\. Ditto. 

Loco F'oco, J. W, Brilton. 
Whig, E. Ik'ick, Jr. 
Whig, C. H. Brooks. 
Native, E. H. Chandler. 
Atheist, W. B. Gardner. 
Libertv, G. H. Briggs. 
Whig of 'y6, H. A. Patterson. 

10. Declamation — "Bernardo Del Carpio." 11. Ihick. 

11. Reading of Kaleidoscope, Miss \ . W'hitcomb, Miss L. A. Britton. 

12. Latin Collo(|uy — Serenade. S. Ellis, H. Peterson, M. T. Hills, G. H. 
Gardner, C. L. Spencer. 

13. Oration — "Inmagination," E. Buck, Jr. 

14. Oration — "The True End of Study," W. B. Gardner. 

15. Reading of the Ephemera, Miss E. P)radford, Miss L. A. Horner. 

16. Declamation — "The Seventh Plague of Egyj)t," G. H. Briggs. 

17. Colloquy — "(jalileo"s Re-cantation," (by Ditto). 
Inquisitors, H. A. Patterson, E. H. Chandler, E. Buck, Jr. 
Galileo, J. A. Ditto. 

Philosopher, G. H. liriggs. 

Students, C. H. Brooks. J. W. Britton. 

Officer, G. Kalder. 

18. Translation — "Ulysses" .Address to .\chilles," Edward H. Chandler. 

19. ".Achilles Reply," H. A. Patterson. 


.io. rratix-ily. (Sclccti-d ["alt'ourvl's Ion" , 

Ailrastus. II. .V. rattorsou. 

Ion, (.;. H. Briggs. 

Mcdon. E. Buck, Jr. 

Clcsiphon, J. .\. Ditto. 

Crvtlii.';. \\'. B. Gardner. 

.\gcnor. M. T. Hills. 

Phochion. E. H. Chandler. 

Guards, etc. 

Prayer. Benediction. 

This school exi.sted for many years, and ha^l many excellent teachers, among 
them, .\brahani Burgess. M. Jane Church. Luke Colby, John J. Rockefellow . Milo 
Chamberlain, Walter Coffin, Alary Spencer, Jane Adams, Pienry Dye Marsh, A. 
B., William C. PLiU. Samuel Hall. Thomas J. Thorp. .\. P>., and sister, John 
Grimes, Thomas Lovell. 

riie .\unda Literary Institute became an accuality because ihc old lUiptist 
Church was no longer needed for church purposes. 

The Xunda .Academy was too small to accommodate all who would attend it 
there were better facilities for instruction. The frequent change of teachers in 
the academy luul taught a lesson, and the Baptists determined to hire a principal 
who had taught successfully, and who expected to make teaching his life work. 
The Middlebury Academy at Wyoming was the leading school of this class at the 
time. One of the leading citizens of the town was the Hon. L. C. Peck, educated 
at this classical institution. I'esides, it was known that Prof. lUick, had an exten- 
sive cabinet which would come with him and place the new school on or above the 
level of its competitor. The numerical strength of the Baptist Church at the time 
was such that there would be a good attendance, even if the Presbyterian School 
continued its existence. It is from present standards of toleration, to be regretted 
that both schools were run too much as Sectarian Institutions. There is no list 
of the first academy's officials, but certainly those of the Baptist School were de- 
cidedly too much along denominational lines. To Principal Winslow, who intro- 
'Uiced into the board men. as trustees, for their ability, and not for their creed, is 
due much of the greater prosperity which attended the institution during its last 
years. Men like Gersham Waldo ( Ep'.scopalian^ : L. B. Warner, anil L'tley 
Spencer, Presbyterians; I. J. Meechatn. (Methodist), and finally E. \\'. Packard, 
(I'niversalist) was a movement in the right direction. These men were inter- 
ested in education per se, and were not thinking of how a large schoc>l would in- 
crease the attendance and membership of any particular church. From the first. 
the stockholders in the "building" made a choice outside their numbers. 

.V list of the trustees of the institution may prove interesting to their poster- 
ity, and so the writer will gfive them. 

Those advertised on the circular at rifst sent out. evidently tlid not all serve. 
They were, however, excellent figure heails and the leading men of the village, as 
well as excellent scholars. 

Addison M. Crane, Jr'.sq., Hon.. judge, etc.: Hon. Xalhaniel Coc, Rev 
Luke Colby, Zara VV. Joselyn, M. U., Hon. Daniel Ashley. 

September 28, 1844. Stockholders and trustees, J<ev. Jira Clark, pastor Bap- 
tist Church; President of the Board, Serenas Britton (served 5 years;, Nathaniel 
Coe (until he moved west;, Samuel Swain, Jr., (until he resigned;, James Swain, 
(until he resigned; Carlos .\shley, Jeremiah Richardson, John E. Dake, Zadock 
1 lerrick, Jr.. Rev. Luke Colby. Solomon H. Donaldson. Dr. D. M. Dake, Moses 

October 24, 1844. .\dded to this original board. John .Seaver, James Barrett, 
Benjamin W. Dake, Lyman Herrick. J'robabls these were .stockholders. 

October 30, 1844. .\lbert i'age. 

November 14, 1844. A committee appointed for that purjjose gave a report 
on value of property. 

Library $100; lot $400: building S2.300. Total, S2.80Q. 

January 27. Edward Swain succeeds .Serenus Britton as trustee. 

January 8. Rev. Jira Clark, presiflent of the board, resigns as president and 
as trustee ; John E. Dake, also Dr. D. ^L Dake resigns. 

1859. Board of trustees at the time of the burning of the Institute. 

Rev. Luke Colby (served the entire 15 years), Samuel .Skinner, Lyman Her- 
rick, F. H. Gibbs, L. !•". Paine, Isaac Bronson, Dr. A. L. L. Potter, Dr. S. C. Up- 
son, L. B. Warner. Dr. L J. ^^et•cham. Albert Page. F.. W. Packard. L. C. Skinner, 
Utley Spencer. 

1843 TO 1860 

School commenced May i, 1848; building burned May, 1859; school year 
completed in June. 

Buck Regime from May i, 1843, to March, 1848. 

1. Rev. .Xniasa Buck, A. M., March, 1848. 
Rev. .\. W. Benedict, A. B., to January i. 1847. 
Mary L. Buck, perceptress to July 15, 1844. 
Eliza Brown, music teacher several years. 

.Adelaide E. T. Morrison, jjreceptress from .SejHember 1844 to 1847. 
Elizabeth Barrett, primary. 

Josejjh E. Putnam (college student) A. B., January, 1847. 
Lemuel Waters (college student) A. B., .September, 1847. 
Miss Martha Wheelock (retires with letter of commendation). 1847. 
Mrs. .Sarah .\twater, music teacher, 1847. 
Daniel B. I'.ard. vocal music, 1847. 
D. W. Dake. M. D., Lecturer, 1847. 

Miss B. S. Morse, Miss \'an Slyke, Miss Sarah CTiase. Miss Elizabeth .\ndrus. 
Miss Celestia .\ndrus, 1847. 

2. Rev. Nehemiah Wisner Benedict, A. P... principal. March. 1848. (A. M., 
from -March to November. 1848). 

Miss Helen Morrison, principal female department; Celestia .\ndrus, primary. 

3. r^roy .Satterlee. principal ; Isaiah Hudnut, assistant first term ; .Steplien 
W. Qark, A. M., second term. .Author of Clark's grammar. 

Mr. Clark succeeds Instructor Hudnut ; Sarah Chase, primary. 

4- Horatio Gates W'iiislow. A. l'«.. Mary 11. Culbortsoii, Lliarlcs L. Bing- 
ham, classics, Emily l>ariium, Emily P.. W'iiislow . 

Second Year. Principal \\"inslo\v : Helen r>. Morrisson. perooptress: George 
Briggs, classics : Jane Adams, primarx . 

5. Solon Otis Thaeher (collegian 1: Miss Myra McAlniont. preceptress: 
Miss Emeline Merrill, primary. 

6. William J. Bunnell. A. B. ; Dr. A. L. L. Totter, A. M.. M. \\. (part of 
time); Mrs. Bunnell, preceptress; Miss Abbey Liverniore : Miss Martha Knowl- 
ton : Miss Mary Wells. 

7. Barrett Regime. A. Judson Barrett, A. 1'... 1854 to Ma\. 1S50: A. L. L. 
Potter, .V. M., resigned; Joseph Ensign, collegian, .\. LI. : Miss Camilla Leach, 
preceptress; Miss Mary Spencer; Miss Minerva Waldo: Miss Louise W . Met- 
calf, music teacher. 

Professor B.vRRinr's Facilty 

Principal Ste]ihen P. Barrett, ctill-- 
gian, A. B, 

Preceptresses. Emily J. l>arro\vs. 
two years: Miss Mary Bohanls, Miss 
Mary Spencer. 

Louise Cassidy, one year. 

Andrew J. Ru.ssell, Professor of Chi- 

Emily J. Barrows, until May, 1850. 

John P. Colby. :May, i85«), A. B. 

Clinton Barrett, until May, 1850. 

Miss ilary L. Pettit, until May, 1850. Principal a. |rns 

8. Last Term. Miss Mary L. Pettit. principal: Mr. Tb.omas Lovell (col- 
legian), afterward A. B. and LL. D., assistant. 

Assistant Pupil Teachers. Mary Wheeler, drawing and English. 
18^5-56. Miss Marv L. Pettit, Miss Alice S Filch, Miss Harriet Swain. Mis- 
Sarah L. Stilson. 

Number of scholars in 1854-55: 

First term . . . 
Intermediate . 


Music special 













Students of the Xunda Literary Institute. 
Catalogue of 1S43 ''"^' i^-H- The living marked *. 

William W. Ahvard, Portage. X. Y. : Nathaniel P. Ahvard, Portage. X. Y. : 
Yates .\shley. Daniel P. .\shley. Charles A. Atwood. Ximda : Freeman 1 '•. 
Atwood. Granger; Warren Babcock. Xunda: *Munson O. Barker. Xunda; Joseph 
W. Britton. *Russell Eritton, Charles H. Britton. Tames M. Barrett. Ximda : David 


S. Eutterriel<l, Xunua; Miles C. Ilra(lle\-, Xunda; (.'urtis S. E. Bowen, George 
Burpee-, I lii.^li I'.radlcy, Xunda; *J. H. llobart lieiiiiett, Curtis M. Bennett, Port- 
age: J. \\ . liniwnson, Friendship; (ieorge \\ . Buck, (Granger; (jeorge Brinker- 
hoof, .Mt. Morris; Randolj)!! iUirt, Mt. Morris; Simon Baldwin, Burns; James W. 
Buck, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Territory ; '*]. Monroe Cole, Xunda ; John P. Colby, 
Newton C. Colby, Henry W. Colby, Xunda; Charles E. Crairy, Lawrence W. Coe, 
Nunda; Charles S. Coe, Xunda; Eugene F. Coe, Xunda; X. L. Clark, Xunrla; 
William D. Clark. Xunrla; I-"urman JJ. Clark, Xunda; I'.eriali Clark, Xunda; Albert 
S. Carver, Xunda ; George H. Carver, Xunda ; Ruf us Chandler, Xunda ; Levi 
Chase, Xunda; Samuel J. Crooks, Granger; Salmon P. Colby, Greece; Orsemus C. 
Dake, Penn Yan ; Jabez P. Dake, Jr., Xunda; Alfred H. Day, Andrew J. Dake, 
Portage; William G. Dake, Portage; William S. Eddy, Nunda; Willard Eddy, 
X'unda; Joseph Gra\ , Springwater ; W. B. Gardner, Charles H. Gardner, * Frank- 
lin Gardner, Charles J. Gardner, Xunda; E. S. Green, Asalf Gould, Castile; 
*George B. Herrick, Melvin W. Hall. Xunda ; John Jeffries, Montezuma ; Knelon 
F. Jeffries, Xunda ; Cornelius Kiley, IMichael Kiley. John M. Lake. Sparta ; Tru- 
man Morse. C. D. Morse, Xunda; William Mills, Mt. Morris; Elijah F. Mason, 
Flarrison H. Morey, James H. ^lorley, John A. Morley, Xunda ; Abner B. Mordoff, 
John C. Mordoff, Dennis W. Mirror, Castile; *Wiliam W. Osgoodby, Xunda; 
*George M. Osgoodby, Xunda; Ephraim E. Page, Hermon D. Page, *Orson A. 
Page, Charles Peabod\', Jeremiah Richardson, Xunda ; A. S. Sherwood, Dansville ; 
Harriscjn W. Smith, Mt. Morris; James Stockwell, Portage; George H. Swan, 
Frank W. A. Swan, Xunda; John E. Swain, Xunda; Henry K. Swain. Xunda; 
Walter Joel Saterlee, James Smith, Daniel Seaver, Xunda; John A. Tabor, 
Portage; Uriah Townsend, Nunda; \'elorus Thompson, Xunda; Barak Tozer, 
Xunda; R. Taicott, Xunda; Samuel P. Towns, M. D., Castile; Charles M 
Wheeler, C. G. Wheeler, Erastus Waite, Xunda; David X'andelia Waite, ^L D.. 
Hiram 11. Waite, Gainesville; X. Pendleton Wilcox, .Smethport, Pa.; John F. 
Wagor, .X'unda ; Charles B. Wright. David B. Whitney, William Whitney. 

Female Students 1S.13 and 1S44. 

Frances C. Ashley, Xunda; Frances ^L Angel, Xunda; Emma E. Atwood, 
Granger; Ann E. Atwood, Sarah S. Atwater, Hannah M. Atwater, Augusta S. 
Bennett, (Mrs. C. W. Herrick) ; Rachel A. Bennett, (taught 50 years) : Elmira 
I>ennett, (Mrs. Orsemus Bisbee), Portage; Laura C. Barrett, (Mrs. W. A. H. 
Dake), died 1905; Elizabeth T. Barrett, CMrs. J. Blanchard); Martha Barrett; 
Mercelia Bradley ; Maria C. Bard, (Mrs. Whipple) ; Lucy A. Britton, (Mrs. James 
Camp) ; Agnes M. Brown, Caroline Brown, Mary Bentley, Hannah Burpee, Cath- 
erine Burpee, Isabel Burpee, Xunda ; Sarah C. Botsford. Cornelia Botsfort ( Mrs. 
Joel Bennett), Granger; Rachel M. Butterfield, Mary Burt, Mt. Morris; Louisa 
C. Carpenter, Portage; Sarah A. Chandler, Xunda; Helen Conklin, Xunda; Mar- 
tha J. Conklin ; Seraph A. Conklin : Angelina Clough, Xunda : Clarissa Clough ; 
Celoria Clark; Orithia Clark; Martha J. (Carver, Nunda; Lucinda Carver, Xunda; 
Sarah Carver ; X'unda ; Mahala Carver, Xunda ; Delana C. Chase, Xunda ; Mary 

E. Chase; Caroline M. Chamberlain; *Mercy Jane Craig (Mrs. Bowhall) ; Ella 

F. Chittenden ; Flora E. Chittenden ; Roselle Chittenden ; Charlotte Chittenden ; 
Aristeen Curtis; Theresa .\. Dake, .Xunfla; Elvira E. Dake, Xunda; Eunice M. 
Dake, JVIt. Morris; ■Cornelia C. Fuller, Granger; *Laura S. Grover, (Mrs. Car- 
penter) ; Susannah Haines; .\mi E. Howd ; Francis C. Howd ; Kesiah E. Herrick: 


Ann I'!. Jcrvis. ^colored), ^lary jervis; Uriilgct lervis; Kliza O. .Mason; Emily 
Martin: ^laria iJorse; iMdclia Merrick, ^Mrs. \\ . !'> \\ hitcomb) ; Elvira Aler- 
rick: Cordelia F. Merrick; Julia A. Morley; Mary J. Osgoodby ; Clarissa Page; 
Roselle E. Pillcnger; Emily M. Uobinson, i daughter of Siiuire Robinson, Chidscy 
Farm) ; Adelia Roberts, (Mrs. 1.. Rockefe'.low ) ; .\melia Rawson; Ellen E. Rus- 
sell; Mary L. Ryder; Mary 1,. Seaver: *Lydia .Starkweather. (Mrs. i:. i,^. Dick- 
enson) ; Lucy A. Swan ; Polly Short, Xunda ; Olivia Sweetnian ; Louia Sweetman ; 
Eliza Stilson. Mt. Morris; lane .\. Smith; Charlotte Smith; Elizabeth B. Shave: 
Elonora Stone ; Helen E. Swart : Martha C. Talcott ; Celestia Thompson ; Phileua 
(.\ Warner ; Louisa E. Warner ; Levisa P. \\'arner ; .\bba \\'eed : Sarah E. Weed ; 
Mary Wheeler, (died 11)0(1) ; Charlotte Wheeler; I-llizabeth Wheeler; *Sarah .\. 
White; Elizabeth P. Wright, Mt. Morris. 

.Additional names in 1S45, 

Clarence H. .\shley, .\unila : Oliver P.. .-\twell : Hiram .\twell ; William P.ailey ; 
Simon Bailey: William R. Benson; Havillah Brewer; Edgar M. Shipnnm, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; W'illiam Darby ; William H. Guy ; James E. P. Irwin ; .\reo Ken- 
dell, Mt. ^lorris: lames Kiley ; IClijah Lovejoy : Durand Linkletter; Justus Link- 
letter: Wilber F. Lawton; Richard Martin: William B. Ormsby : William W. 
l^aine. Burns: .\rtemas .-\. Saterlee. (son of Halsey) ; Homer Sherwood: William 
K, Short ; Clark H. Short : Silas Short ; Charles M. Stout : *.\lfred Tabor; Rodol- 
phus Talcott; Johnson .\. Wagor; William li. Wagor; William G. D. ^\"eed : 1?. 
Rush Whitney ; Joseph R. WiLson. 

Out of town students. 

Isaiah B. Hamilton (died ux>t>). Mt. Morris; P. D. Burger. Xunda: Peter 
Carter. Xunda: William McCartney (died in Xunila^ : Charles Xorum : lliiler\ 

.Additional lady students 1S45. 

Susan R. Bailey; Mary .\. Bailey: *Mary X. Barron, (Hand): .Angelina 
Benedict: ^Lavina Bow-en, (Mrs. J. Barker); Clestina Buttertield; Rachel >L 
Buttertield: Eliza Canfield; Sarah H. Dunn; Helen .A. Guy: Mclinda \'. Lovejoy; 
Mary E. Lovejoy; .Abig:ail ^lason : Fidelia J. Merrick. (Mrs. Dr. Whitcomb) ; 
Pamelia .A. Merrick; *.Ann ^L Mosher, (Mrs. R. Spencer); Elizabeth Ritten- 
house, (Mrs. J. Creveling) ; C. ^L Skellinger; Emily C. Sherwood; Louisa E. 
Sherwood: Sylvia Skinner; Mercy S. Spicer; Olive .A. Stone: Betsey L". Swain; 
-Agnes E. Swain; Flora E. Swain; Rosella M. Tabor; Sarah .A. I'pson: Orthynett 
Warren; *Mary Willis: .Amelia Wing: Sarah Hamilton. Mt. Morris: Julianna 
Burt. Mt. ^Morris. 

.Ailditional names 1IJI46. 

Cornelia .Angel ; Phoebe .Atwell ; Eliza T. Barrett ; Frances T. Buson ; Julianna 
Burt. Portage: P"austa .A. Conklin; Charlotte .A. Crawford. Pavilion; Mary Jane 
Crawford. Pavilion: Ellen Dartt ; .Adelia Dake; Mary Diamond: Frances L. 
Gager: Fanny M. Hampton, Ossian: Sally .A. Hampton, Ossian; Eveline Hunger- 
ford ; -Ann E. Jack, Xunda ; Janette Jack, Xunda ; Matilda Jack, Xunda : Marietta 
Johnson; Susanna Johnson; Sarah .A. Kel.^ey, (daughter of Rev. .A. Kelsey) : 
Ella .A. Kelsey : Linda Kelsey ; Euuua Kelsey ; Martha J. Kenney ; Susan S. 
Kennev; Mary Linkletter; .Amelia .A. Xarrimore; Electa .A. Xarrimore: .Alzina 
Xarrimore : Salome Xarrimore : .Almira J. Root ; Oreana Sherwood : .Almira H. 
Stone: Sarah ^L Stilson. Ridge: .Angelina Smith. Dutch Street: Elnora Talcott: 
Hannah A'an .Allen ; *Emma Willev ; Minerva ^^'hituey ; Meima \\'hitnev ; Lutesia 

Whitney; ^'Jane A. (jjson; *Sophia Wliitcomlj ; Ellen Wliitcomh ; Louise Whit- 
comlj ; Josejjhinc V'oncils ; Laura Youells. 

Afl'litional stiulents in J846. 

Xclson Adams; (Jren R. Atwell ; Charles Ashley; IJ. C. Ashley; bennis R. 
Alward, Scipio, N'. Y. ; Simeon Bailey; licnjamin Bailey; Albert Bailey; Orville 
C. Babcock; Simeon Babcock; Charles G. Bennett; Curtiss X. Bennett; Henry C, 
Bixby; Alonzo D. Brailley; '"Hulbert E. Brown, Genesee l'"alls; Samuel C. Bonar, 
Ossian; James Ji. Clark. Genesee J-'alls, (the celebrated vocalist and composer; ; 
A. B. Chamberlain, Sparta; O. H. CTiamberlain, Sparta; O. L. Chamberlain, 
Sparta; Horace M. Dake; Daniel N". Dake; William. VV. Dake; Benjamin W. 
iJake; *Orville A. Guy; Isaac Jfampton, Ossian; Clark A. Hcrrick, Xun'la; 
JJavid Holly, Xunda; Benjamin J. Johnson; Charles H. Johnson; Thomas Karley; 
Jerome I^ke, Mt. Morris; John Lemen, Mt. Morris; S. U. Mosher, Mt. Morris; 
Georjje D. Martin, Xunda; Septim E. Miller; James H. Morely; Herman Morely ; 
William McArthur, Tuscarora; Samuel J. Xarmore; Erederick T. Olney; Elliot 
J. i'ajfe; *Uaniel I'osl, Gainesville (Buffalo, X. Y.); A. M. Pierce (Member of 
Assembly, Wyoming County, died i(/oH) ; *nieodore Peterson ; Miles Peterson ; 
*Berk!ey Peterson: Hiram Seaver; Dorr Sherwood; Lewis Stout; Samuel J. 
Swain ; Henr\- K. Swain ; Henry B. Thayer ; Albert O. Taber, Portage ; Augustus 
\'an Winkle; David B. Van Slyke, Portage; Edward S. Waite, Xunda; *Paul E. 
Willey ; Merriman Wilncr; W. E. Walker, Bethany; Henry E. Youells, Xunda, 

Additional 1849-1850. 

*Lyman Warren. 

Goram Warran, veteran Civil War; "Gideon 'i'ownsend: Peter Townsend, 
died 1908; I^juis .Skinner; .Stephen Fuller, Jr. 

*Milton and j.Seth Hills; -Henry A. Hills, captain: *fJrson and fGcorge 

Hermon D. J 'age, supervisor; I'Vederick Wing; Xewton and John P. 
Colby; Delyea Tuthill, (Colonel .Skinner); Mary A. Fuller, (W. A. Walker); 
Mary L. Bennet, ( S. Hall). 

*Mary X. Barron (Mrs. J. W. }land). 

Mary Chase (Colonel .\'. Colby): Sarah M. Peck (Mrs. .S. Ellis); Richard 
Bo wen (died soon after) ; James R. Bowen. 

John D. Grimes; *Milton Pettit, Mordecai Pettit, (died 1907); -Mbert C. 
(Zarver ; Henry P. Carver, Areo Kendall ; .Xbram Kenflall ; Daniel Bacon, Elislia 
l5acon; A. T. \an Winkle; A. A. .Satterlee; S. M. Smith; C. C. Coe; L. W. Coe; 
.\athan Pendleton Wilcox (died 1905) ; A. P. .Slocum ; George T. Townsend; H. 
E. Crary; A. T. Colby; *Miss Lavina Bowen: .Sarah E. Chase (pupil teachers) ; 
*Mary Jane Car\'er; Martha Lawrence; I^xjuisa Bacon; E. Chapman; M. H. Hud- 
nut ; Maria C. Bard ; T. Cole ; Mary .Seaver ; M. A. .'\bell ; Helen E. Swain. 

.Scholars of the Institute during the Barrett regime. 

Members of Delphic .Society. 

Charles .Ashley, (son of Carlos C. ) ; James R. Bowen. (veteran, Rev., author, 
died 1906) ; *.-\rthur Barnes, (.short hand institute) ; Edward C. Blackford; *Qif- 
ford Bagley : *Eugene F. Baldwin, (veteran, publisher) ; * Frank Baldwin; Win- 
=low Buck: Lewis Barnes, (son J. K. B.) ; Daniel Baylor; tCTharles Chittenden, 
(D. D. .S., at head of his profession in Wisconsin, died 1900) : *George CTiandler, 
(graduate of college, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) ; John P. Colby, (graduate of col- 
lege and LL. D.) ; CTiarles Clough ; Lewis Dinger; *Edwin Ensworth, Dalton, X. 


v.; fAlbcrt S. Houghton; David S. Hatch; *Thomas LovcU, ( college, LL. D, 
Niagara Falls) ; *Joseph Lovell, (merchant and musician, Xunda) ; Albert Sim 
Logan, (Indian chief, musician, orator, died 1904); Durand Linkletter ; Justus 
Linkletter; George D. Alartm (veteran); James AI. McXair (captain, college, 
supervisor) ; *Peter IMiller, Mt Morris; Uarclay Miller, Alt. Morris (died 
1907) ; James Maynard; Luther AL Peck (son of Jonas) ; *Fletcher C. Peck, 
(college, lawyer, U. S. Marshal, president of College Club of Nunda) ; Har- 
rison Peck (postmaster, president of village); Alton Peck; *Charles F. Peck, 
(editor. Commissioner of Labor, European tourist) ; * Asa E. P age, (commission- 
er to Chicago Exposition) ; Miles Peterson; Urial Peterson; Alordecai Roberts; 
Leonard H. Seaver, (died 1907): N'elson S. Skinner (veteran); Sheldon Stur- 
geon, (West Point colonel) ; fEdwin Tuthill, (captain, died 1867) ; George War- 
ner, (brother to Airs. O. Page). 

Hermogenian Society. 

Frank Adams, (lieutenant, X. Y. Dragoons); Albert liarncs, (printer, per- 
ished in the Astabula calamity) ; Chester B. Bowen, (veteran, Texas Rancher, 
died 1905) ; Fred Britton ; *William AI. Benson, (A. AI. and Ph. D., Rochester, N. 
Y.) ; Charles Britton; *George D. Chidsey ; (farmer, Xunda); Francis Chase; 
Charles Chase ; f Charles P. Davidson ; William l-'owler : Jay Gallentme, ( veteran ) ; 
• George H. Gibbs ; Henry A. Hills (veteran, lieutenant, llilaud, Kansas): John 

F. King, (father of Airs. C. E. Pratt) ; Lattimer; Thomas Lockwood ; 

Theodore AIcNair; Darwin Alaltby; James Aliner; Alpheus Alanard; *George AI. 
Osgoodby, (lawyer) ; Edward Page; Frank AI. Peck; Samuel Swain; James A. 
Swain; Henry Skinner; Oliver Spoor: Arthur Spoor; James Sixior : Joscj^h 
Spoor; Julian Skinner; Eugene Skinner; Sylvester Saterlee; Alinor T. Stilson : 
Hosea Shaw (veteran, lieutenant); Byron Seelye ; Jacob Scott; John Scott; 
Alyron Tuthill ( commercial traveler, took an ice water bath in Chicago and died 
as the result) : Henry Waldo: George Waldo; Heber Waldo; *\\'illiam C. War- 
ner, (college). 

Additional 1855 and 1856, not atteniling in 1854 ami 1855. 

Alaynard Barker: Walter W. Burton; E. W Bellamy, Hunts Hollow; James 
Brown; F. Orson Burr; Daniel Bacon, Xunda: Albert Cleveland (theologue); 
William J. Cosnett (died in the service) ; John Canfield, Dansville : *John Carter, 
(veteran, see sketch): John Donaldson: William Fowler, Fowler ville : Alerritt 
Galley, (college, inventor), Brooklyn; Sam Geer, New York City; L. D. Guet- 
son ; *Husted Green, Xunda; *Orville Guy; Clark AI. Herrick : Edward Jones: 
*Jackson A. Knight (colege, district attorney). Arcade, N. Y. : James A. Aliner, 
Allen ; Arza Alaynard, Rockford, 111. ; Frances B. Alyers, Nunda : Caleb 
Nye, Penfield ; H. P. Pierce; A. Parshal ; ,S. P. Perry; Lewis Shepard, (veteran, 
died in the service) ; Harvey C. Shepard, (editor) ; *Henry Wells Spear, (Swain's 
Mill); Nunda; William Camas, (veteran); A. H. Silsby ; Benjamin Sedam ; 
Charles Thomas : l>eebe Tnrrill : Hall Turrill ; John Welch ; James Work 
(college. Rev.), Orkney Islands, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Lysander L. Wellman. (college 
and Rev.). 

Primary Department 1855. 

So many of the remaider are living we omit marking their names. 

Alessenger Ashley ; Jackson .\lward. New York City ; .\llen Adams, Ceres, 
Pa.; Alvron Baker; *Francis A. Davidson (merchant), Nunda; *Isaac Justin 

Depuy, (banker), Xiinda; George B. I'ltch, Oakland, California; George King, 
Francis S. King (sons of B. F. ) ; Clement McXair; *Abe Upenheimer (clothing 
store) ; William Ricketts ; Russell Frederick, (son of William G.) ; ^Samuel Stur- 
geon, (veteran). Xunda, X. Y. : Adelbert Skinner: Eugene Skinner; Frank R. 
Swain; William Jeffries; Franklin Jeffries: Charles G. Warner; *Franklin White- 

Ladies in 1854 and 1855. 

Olivia Lovma iiowen ^ Airs. Justus Barker) ; N'iola Brown; Alary A. Buck; 
Jidiette Baldwin; Julia Barker; Catharine Brown; Charlotte Chittenden; Delia 
Chase; Isora Dartt ; M. Kizzie Dunn; Clarissa Dunning, (married Cornelius 
Gibbs ) . Ridge. X. Y. ; Philena Ecker ; Sarah Field ; Augusta Fuller, Castile ; Ellen 
Griffith, Pike; Lucena Greenleaf; Mary Houghton; Ada Hammond, (Mrs. Prof. 
Lowell), Xiagara Falls; Maria Howell, Brooksgrove; Alethe Kendall, (Mrs. J. 
B. Willett, graduated Xunda Literary Institute), Corrv, Pa.; Sophia Lattimer ; 
Laura M. Lattimer; Adelia C. L.amb; Kate Marble, New Berlin; Cornelia Mack, 
Nunda; Sarah Miller, (Mrs. \'an Etten), Mt. Morris; Harriet Newton; Mary J. 
Paine: Martha J. Patterson; Alinette S. Peck (Mrs. Sylvanus Ellis); Alary 
Rider; Arabella Rose, (Mrs. Jacobs); Annie E. Richmond, (Airs. William P. 
Warner); Georgiana W. Richmond, (Airs. Rathbone) ; Sarah Rogers; Alary 
Roberts; Virginia A. Ripley, Tuscarora; Gertrude Ripley, Tuscarora; fNancy J. 
Rude: Laura A. Swain. Xunda; Alaggie .Sturgeon, Xunda; Libbey .Sturgeon, 
Xunda ; Ophelia Skinner, Xunda ; Mary J. Sodderland, Grove ; Julia F. Tuthill ; 
Xellie Whitcomb ; Louise Whitcomb ; Delira P. Wilcox ; Ellen White ; Alinerva S. 

Some of the Institute scholars in 1857-1858. 

William AI. Benson: .\lvin Waters Tousey; Albert Haver; Alerritt Galley; A. 
Sim Logan ( Indian ) , Portage ; Judson \'an Slyke, Portage ; George AI. Lockwood, 
Portage ; George H. Graham, Portage ; James Haver, Portage ; Wilbur Haver, 
Portage; Hosea Shaw; John Donaldson; Washington Aloses ; .-\lphonzo .\ldrich ; 
Edwin Bennett; George Bennett; Frank Wright, (son of D. Ebenezer) ; *Charles 
Davidson; *Joseph Alosher ; I. J. AIcDuffee; Cyrus Burnap ; William C. Hall; 
.Samuel Hall ; Robert Hall ; Harrison Peck : Cornelius Kiley : George Waldo ; De- 
lancey Smith ; Vitellus Smith ; Jefferson Parker ; Arthur J. Barnes ; Bernard 
Wagor ; Charles Alaker ; Carlos G. Lowell: Daniel D. Lowell; Alvin Peck (died) ; 
Beebe Turrill ; Hall Turrill ; James H. Bump ; William G. Cosnett ; Philo Alosier ; 
Charles Lowe; Alichael Kelley : Irving .\spinwall ; William L. Warner: Franklin 
Davidson ; George Briggs ; George Alartin ; Simeon Logan : L. L. Wellman ; Xat- 
han Stilson ; \'arins Smith; H. W. Hand. 

Female students. 

Sarah .Stilson: Susie Barrett: l'"annie Alaine: Mctoria AlcXair; Sarah Cos- 
nett ; Alaggie Lemon ; *Emily Gilmore ; Delia W'ilcox ; Alary Paine ; Alarv Ben- 
nett : .Ann Bennett: *Elmira Smith: Annie .Smith; Libbie Arnold; Fanny Andrus; 

Alartha Howell : Celia Pixley ; Carrick ; Carrick ; Mary Willis ; 

Martha Huggins ; Augusta Ricker ; Sabra J. Ricker ; Libbie Ryder ; Alary Alet- 
calf ; Lucia White: Susan Swain. Cornelia Swain, (daughters of .\lfred) ; Alary 
Carver ; Jennie Harrington ; Dell Delano ; .Ada Hammond : Adelia Kendall : Fran- 
cis Kendall : Alaggie Sturgeon : Julia Barker : .Sarah Lockwood ; Alarv Barnes : 
Ella Parker. Reynolds, Granger : Fanny Paine : Lowell : Helen 

Emily Gilmore 

Mary Willis 

Mary Stilson 

Phoebe Haines with letter, Sarah L. Stilson, Mary Paine, 
Delyra Tuthil 

A. Jackson Knight 

W'hitcomb; Helen Warner; Sarah Waldo: Amanda Ikitterson ; Caroline Cain; 
Kate Weston; Alalinda Reed; Emma (iibbs; Jennie Cirover ; Harriet Lowell; 
Melissa Lowell; Alary Stilscm : Irene Weaver; Mar}' 01ne\' : Martha Chidsey; 
Lucie Chidsey. 

The Wisner, Page and State Road School houses, were in exceedingly active 
operation from 1S25 to 1835, all built of logs, and located at four corners. Teach- 
ers from Portage, Nunda, and Mt. Morris, rule in these, not with rods of iron, but 
with well seasoned birch rods, leather straps, and wooden rulers, whose primary 
use was something like that of a King's scepter to enforce respect, and willing ( ?,■ 
obedience, and secondarily to aid in making straight lines on unlined writing 
paper. Sometimes the big boys came at night and put boards on top of the chim- 
ney, to make it unpleasant for the teacher, when he started his fire in tlie morn- 
ing. (Jn one occasion, as reported by Peter Townsend, who was at the time .1 
small bo_\', Mr. Newell Boughton, the teacher, concluded to teach on New Year's 
Day, to make up for a lost day. The big boys conferred together after school, 
and concluded that the skating was too good on the new Gilbert mill pond, at 
Cooperville, (the largest pond of water many of them had ever seen) to be given 
up, for the paltry pleasures derived from annoying the teacher, a matter of daily 
occurence, and not to be compared w ith a first skate, on tlie new artificial lake ( ? i 

At night they assembled, climbed through a window, and with a heavy timber 
braced against the door, reaching to the platform from the new cast iron stove, 
all the windows but one were fastened down, and that George Townsend and 
Clark Brewer, (brother to Nelson), and some others said they could take care of. 
The son of the trustee. Air. Bradley, who built the fires was in the secret, and he 
was told to build the fires as usual, and let the little children in when they came 
through the unbarred window, au-d they would be on hand when the schoolmaster 
came to take good care of him. At a quarter to nine, the teacher and big bo\s 
arrived, the teacher was tugging at the door, and calling lustily to young Bradley 
to open the door, a sentry was posted in front of the window. The boys informed 
the teacher that school had been postponed until after "New Year's," he sent one 
of the smaller boys for the trustee, who quickly arrived. Air. Hugh Bradley came 
and ordered his boy to remove the timber, he said he could not, it was too heavy, 
"get the big girls to help you." "The big boys have told them no to," — "PlI whip 
every girl and boy of mine, if they don't help." "The big boys said, there would 
be trouble if he tried it." Tlie trustee, now thoroughly enraged attempted to get 
into the window, and when midway was seized by big George Townsend and 
laid on his back and held there. The teacher was advised to remain "neutral" he 
wisely acquiesced — he did not like to forfeit the good will of George and L^riah 
Townsend, without whose co-operation, he could not easily govern the school. At 
length the trustee agreed not to punish his son, and to go home and let the "powers 
that be," govern without an arbitrator. Air. Bradley grumbling, a feeble pro- 
test left the field, in full possession of the rebels. Then George, the spokesman, 
said to the teacher, "Air. Boughton. we all like you, and we don't want to do any- 
thing to break up a good school ; but this is a holiday, and we wanted some fun 
of some kind. — have you any proposition to maker" "Why boys," said the teacher, 
"if I had known you did not want school to-day — you need not have taken such 
measures to secure your holiday. I will leave it to a vote of the boys, whether 
vou have school to-day or not. -\re you read\ for the (|uestion?" 

"I tliink Ixiys," said Cicorge, "tlial we've had fun cnou.i;h U>v i)ik' da\, and ilio 
girls would rather sta\', now they are here, than go home, i move we have sehool 
to-day. and skate Saturday. Tiiose in favor say '1,' and all said 'I.' " I'eaoe and 
harmon\ ])re\ailed the rest of the term, and a rousing party was given at the end 
of the term at Captain Townsend's "Wayside Inn," in honor of Mr. Newell 
lioughton, who knew when to be "neutral." The old log school house was used 
for many }ears as a dwelling house, and several of our present citizens were born 
or have lived there. When years afterward the Cooperville school house was built 
in i(S_v*^. and the Carver school house about the same time, the State road school 
and W'isncr and I'.arrcm si'lidol districts lost about (ine-third of their scholars, 
and Cuoperxille district became a large school. The schools in the eastern part 
of the town were organized during the twenties, excepting the Schautaucpia Hol- 
low school, which diil not exist until about 1S30. 

The schimls in the village, when tlic village was incorpatcil in 1S31). were 
on Mill Street, which was superseded b}- the Union school of 1845, on East Street. 
The Satterlee school which dates back to 1827 or 1828, and the Ciibbs Street school 
of a later date, were tlourishing until their consolidation in a I'nion school, which 
also included the I'agc .iiid Townsend districts. ( )f this wc will speak in connc-- 
lion with our sccniul I'tiinn schiuil. with academic (lee])artmenl. 


Alter the \nnda ,\cadem\ had been in existence about live }ears, and the 
Nunda Literary Institute aliout two. it became evident that two academies in 
Nunda \'illage could not be sustained. The largest must ultimately prevail. 

The Presbyterian school did not feel kindly towards the Uaptist Institution 
that had crowded it to the wall, and the Baptist did not develop any signs of re- 
l)entance fnr tlieif lack of courtesy. 

.Xnnda with its many siiiieriorities over other villages, has always had a 
reputation for scrapping not like pugilists, — but like bigots, — who know they are 
in the right. Now the religious or rather the Sectarian scrapper is the worst kind 
of a wrangler for he justifies all his acts l)y the views he holds to be scriptural and 

And these two giant churches, clenched and struggled, until facetious out- 
siders smiled and said, see how these Christians "hate." ( )n one occasion a two 
or three days' discussion was held over the method of baptism. I remember my 
Methodist parents attended both every night and came avva\ with their pre- 
vious opinions, uin-uffled and unchanged, and the rest of the vast audience was 
probably in the same condition, every Baptist remained a Baptist, and every Pres- 
byterian was satisfied that their minister's talk, I mean arguments, suited them. 
Both speakers forgot to speak of the spirit of the act, but of its historic mode of 

But in school matters something practical must be done, not to advance edu- 
cation, but to sustain the newer institution of the part of the Baptists, and to 
cripple their enterprise by establishing a school so good that it would be unneces- 
sary to patronize the rival school. And so L'nion was eflfected with the District 
school, the cabinet generously turned over to the school and the classics and 
every other branch of study taught, at a District school, that academies teach. 

This diplomatic manner of changing an Academy to a Union school, woidd 


have wrought havoc had the free school s\stem then been operative, but when 
all must pay for the education they were to obtain they naturally would go where 
the advantages were greatest. So the Institute proved to be the survival of the 
fittest, and the Union school soon taught only the English branches. 

It is gratifying to record, that under the administration of the Institute b"! 
H. G. Winslow more toleration prevailed and trustees were chosen from several of 
the other churches. There was still a little under tone of disquietude even in the 
later fifties, but all the harsher discords were lost in the general harmony that pre- 

Progress in toleration, is the historic inference to be drawn from this reminis- 
cence of cloudy days, now resplendent with the sunshine of mutual good will. 


fhe sons of the Pioneers most of them pioneers, furnished the students for 
this institution. Young men from i8 to 25 saw an upjxjrtunity, in the opening 
of this institution, to do something more congenial to their tastes, than lumbering 
in winter and tilling stumpy land in summer. The very comforts of better dwell- 
ings with stoves, instead of fire places, better furniture than slab benches; even 
improved farm implements, did not reconcile them to the thought of spending 
their entire lives on the farm. Nearly every other avocation demanded a better 
education than they possessed. The well equipped district school teacher, and 
even the sedate but cultured preacher, revealed their deficiencies and inspired 
ambition. The family physician fresh from the Medical College, with his phy- 
siological terms, made them feel as if the}' needed an introduction to themselves 
and their own anatomy. The "Institute" came to their very doors, and oflfered 
them refinement, knowledge, culture, the opportunity of being themselves teachers, 
lawyers, physicians, clergymen, if they were so inclined. The few years the 
Xunda Academy had been in existence had given them an intuition of what a 
few terms of schooling will do where only the advanced scholars are receiving 
the instruction of the college bred principal. .\mbitious parents fostered the 
aspirations of their ambitious children, and when the Baptist clergyman came 
rf)und to urge the attendance and patronage of "our" institution, that is going 
to add a hundred to the congregation what deacon or "pillar" of the church, that 
did not lean towards this zealous presentment of the subject. Even the verdant 
hills of Allen, Grove, Granger and Ossiar., furnished scholars as well as 
Portage. Mt. Morris, Castile and Sparta; and if .some were more rustic and 
-. erdant, than boys from the villages, these verdant youths knew why they were 
t!iere, and generally led their classes before they left, to become the future super- 
\isors of their towns, or possibly like "Teller" to find a place in the United States 
.Senate and the Cabinet. Pity that some of the supposed possessors of leek hooks, 
could not have loaned them lo some of the village swells of that day — Sam 
Crooks, of Grove, left his leek hooks when he entered the law office as a student, 
or did he exchange them for a sword vvlien he became Colonel of the 8th, and 
also the 22nd Cavalry? "The King of Ossian" — Isaac Hampton, supervisor, (was 
it for eleven years), knew well the flavor of wild onions, even in the first academy 
days. Joseph Weller and his sister were in the early academy lists, as well as ;'t 
the Albany Xormal, in 1846, taught district school a few years and then people 
wrote "Honorable" and "Governor" before his name, — but then this young man 

took Horace Greele}''s advice and "went \\'est." It takes the \\'est to "size up" 
Nunda men — that were only marked "average" and "ordinary" m this nur "colder" 
latitude, or are we less appreciative where the average is greater ? 

Even some of our best teachers, those that the majority have always spoken 
of with approval and commendation, have been ranked still higher — in other 

Prof, lluck left us a broken-hearted man after the tragic death of his talented 
daughter, Mary. Two colleges divide honors and share degrees on his associate 
and successor. Rev. Xehemiah Wisner Benedict, A. li., A. AI., D. D.. Madison, 
now Colgate, and Rochester University, both alike bestowing honorary degrees. 

Leroy Satterlee, a pioneer of Nunda, assisted by a Mr. Clark was the next 

The days of Principal Winslow, are about as well known and appreciated as 
those of Buck and Benedict. Rival select schools sprang up to minimize the in- 
fluence of the Institute, and he is said, to have said some very harsh words con- 
cerning the hostile feeling too prevalent during his administration of the Insti- 
tute though he did much to lessen it. 

Prof. William B. Bunnell, though not a favorite with most of his scholars, 
^\•as a master in mathematics and the classics, as well as in '"Sarcasm" for he it 
was who "Revised Adams Arithmetic." That was a favorite text book in the 
"fifties." He tried agriculture in the West, and falling from a load of hay re- 
ceived fatal injuries. Assistant Principal Clark was author of text books on 
Grammar, .Arithmetic and Algebra. 

Solon Otis Thacher, "may his tribe increase" who succeeded Bunnell as Prin- 
cipal, earned the money in Nvmda to complete his College course, and seldom 
was money better expended. To say this teacher was popular with old and young, 
patrons and student, is about the general estimate of him here. Had a prophet 
arisen and told Xundaians that that ex-.\lleganian ( Almond ) , he came from 
.Almond, would become in 1855 an A. ?>., of Union, this they would not have 
doubted ; but that he should become a member of the New York Assembly, a 
member of the Kansas Constitutional convention. District Judge, and State Sena- 
tor of Kansas, this would have been incredible. His going from Nunda, to com- 
plete his studies, gave us a vacancy, which was filled to an overflow, by the com 
ing in 1834 of .\. Judson Barrett. The majority of the now elderly permanent 
citizens of Nunda attended the "( )I(1 Institute" as it began to be called under the 
Barrett regime. 

Fie came here fresh from college, Rochester University, and inaugurated 
c'asses for graduation. \\'h\ there had never been any record before is in- 
comprehensible — I do not know of one in the whole decade preceding his coming, 
yet there were those who went from the school to college, in that time — as Syl- 
vanus Ellis, A. B., Rochester University, and others whose names are on our list 
of Nunda collegians. Principal Barrett came to stay, and he stayed long enough 
to do something definite. All, previous to his coming, is to all but a few, hearsay, 
but from 1854 to 1859 all the young people in the town and vicinity attended this 
school. Good teachers were employed at the Union school to keep as many as 
possible there, of the intermediate grade. In age and appearance the scholars of 
this school appeared more like college men than academy youths. 

Future DD.'s, and LL. D.'s, and Ph. D's, were among the instructors and 
scholars. It was like an embryo college, instead of what it was for the first time, 


a college preparatory school. The impulse "on to Richmond" was not stronger 
in the earl}- days of the Civil War, than the "on to college," was during these 
eventful years. Some men 25 years of age commenced studying Latin, and every 
year a fine class of graduates found their way, direct from the Institute to some 
iniiversity. Many, like the writer, who had tarried in the district school several 
years too long, found their mistake, and rushed into the contests trying to atono 
for this mistake, by doing double the amount of work. ]t is needless to say this en 
thusiasm was with those whose opportunities had been most limited. He who had 
had all the advantages he cared for did not precipitate brain fever by undue haste, 
the brilliant ones did not have to, and the others did not care to. Want of funds 
drove about 50 of the young men each winter into teaching school, and each sum- 
mer a still larger- number of the young ladies sought this employment. Some un- 
dermined their health by too hard study, and one went through school and college 
on a diet of crackers, but died a few years afterward ; while another died at his 
boarding house from too close application to study. 

A few years after, the majorit\- of the young men went into the army and 
many rose to positions of honor won by vali >r, or perished, a sacrifice to their sense 
of dut\- and patriotism. 


The five years and more that A. Judson Barrett passed in Xunda, marked an 
eventful era in the lives of at least five hundred men and women, who were taught 
by him out of the abundance of a well fitted mind and heart, as well as a time 
of unusual school progress. Reared in a log cabin in Ohio, where pioneer condi- 
tions prevailed till a later day than in Western New York, inspired by a college 
bred teacher to be himself a collegian and inspire others, and so became a potent 
factor of helpfulness to those younger than himself, he was thus fitted by nature, 
by inclination, by education, to inspire and enthuse those with whom he came in 
contact. Especially was his early life and surroundings particularly adjusted to 
ministrations of kindliness towards those from country homes, with rusticity 
prominent, pronounced and dominant. While the village youth with better oppor- 
tunities and bred by more refined tastes, but destitute of the essence of genuine 
refinement, estimated the rustic youth from the hills and the more distant wood- 
land towns, as inferior to themselves, the teacher, however, judged them by their 
ability to learn, and their aspirations for mental achievements. He saw no occa- 
sion to sneer, he saw- in them the genuine manhood and womanhood that needed 
but contact with right conditions to make them as refined in manners as they were 
vigorous in mind and body. 

How East Hill, and Ossian, and Sparta, and Portage, and Grove, Allen and 
Granger, towns and localities with no large villages and no "High Schools" 
poured forth their household hopes and treasures — in young men and young 
women — the best product of their farms, to sit at the feet of this strong young 
man, and learn of hi]n, what we are in this world-school-house for. Nearly every 
house sent one or more, to return, more conscious, not of their rusticity, but of 
their ignorance, and the vast amount of attainable knowledge they could and 
.should possess. Whatever of friction existed between the villagers and the coun- 
try-bred, became less and less evident, for the teacher's ideals soon became those 
of the scholars and were not along the line of the external. Though many a 
kindly suggestion, opportunely given, and many a kindly reproof to the sneering 

critic of externals, reiluced to a miniimim all Lxisting friction The yoinig man 
who could excel in debate, in declaration, in class recitation, soon foimd his popu- 
iarity equal to his ability. The writer recalls a large class of students quite ma- 
ture in age, who had come to school for a term or two, who were induced to take 
a more thorough course of study. He also recalls the despair that was in the 
hearts of these, when the "Old Institute building" was burned, and the teachers 
upon whom they depended to crowd them along their belated pathway, went away, 
their short lived dream of being scholarly scholars, in the true sense of that word 
.so heavily freighted with significance, was over, forever over. Too poor to go 
elsewhere, to old to first earn the means — what hopes had perished with a demons 

The unsolved mystery of that day is still unsolved, not once but persistently, 
the brainless, heartless incendiary, with only one characteristic in his nature that 
suggests mentality, persistence, carried out his purpose to descroy what he alone 
failed to appreciate, the great work, and increasingly greater work this institu- 
tion and its educators were doing for the aspiring youth of that da\-. 

With that act Nunda was forced back towards a degraded past and all alike 
believed — except one — the demon who did the act, in demonology. With one 
accord in the community, it was not deemed prudent to rebuild, contlitions must 
change, and eight years were given to that purpose, before Xunda had its third 


The mystery of w ho set fire to this building at the time of the greatest pros- 
perity of the institution is after half a century still unsolved. It had served a 
purpose, in aiding in the acquirement of knowledge of at least i,ooo students, and 
had sent out hundreds of fairly well equipped teachers to stir up to activity and 
commendable ambition, for useful lives, other thousands. For fifteen years it had 
been a leader of the schools of its class and no mean college feeder to neigh- 
boring colleges throughout the slate and nation. This, too. in a day when onlv 
the sons of the wealthy usually found their way beyond the village academy. 
Who can estimate the good this institution, that passed away nearly half a cen- 
tury ago, has done. 

The writer was only one of a thousand who was fitted for work along edu- 
cational lines, one of 200, perhaps of 500, that became teachers, one of many who 
loved his vocation and caused others to hunger for knowledge, one of those who 
cannot begin to express his obligations of benefits conferred, and who sat as Paul 
did at the feet of Gamalial, and fed on a daily diet of knowledge. Of the teachers 
mentioned A. J- Barrett. Emily J. Barrows. John P. Colby, Clinton Barrett, Alary 
L. Pettit, Thomas Lovell, Asher B. Evans and Alice ^^'emott. fitted me for teach- 
ing, for thinking, for writing, for citizenship. <^n the dead I bestow my com- 
mendations, on the living I bestow my gratitude. 


After the burnuig of the Institute building, the balance of the term was com- 
pleted under the management of two of the former students, Aliss Mary L. Pettit 
and Thomas B. Lovell, both have since that day become famous as teachers. If 
the school lost a large number of its scholars, it had all the hastily filled up school 
room would hold, and those who hoped to go on with their studies remained and 


made (lesiral)le ])rou;ress. Others, especiall\ the young; men from tlie farms, gave 
up school altogether and simply tauglit school the next winter. Aliss I'ettit proved 
her ability to teach and fifty years of almost successive labor has made her one of 
the most efificient and successful teachers the town has ever produced. 

W li(i would have guessc<l even that those two teachers selected for this emer- 
gency would prove the very ones that would make teaching a life long profession. 
Yet it has ]3roved so. Again and again since that time Miss Pettit has been called 
into service in the schools of Nunda, in case of an emergency, and wrought suc- 
cess where ruin seemed imminent. To-day Prof. Thomas B. Lovell, still in the 
field, has the right to write, LL. D., after his name. And so the Nunda Literary 
Institute, though it ceased as an institution of learning at the close of that sum- 
mer term in 1859, did not cease as an educator, for these and others who went 
from her doors have been educators for nearly half a century, and so this form 
of "Phoeni.x" life has risen from the ashes thiit buried the hopes and aspirations 
of many on that saddest of all their school days, in Ala\-, 1S59. 



REW .\A1.\.S.\ 1;L'CK, a. M. came to \unda from Middleburg Academy, 
Wyoming, and assumed the duties of conducting the New Nunda Lit- 
erary Institute. The choice was a good one. He was educated at Berk- 
shire College, Massachusetts, and his scholarship was beyond question. He asso- 
ciated with him Rev. Neheniiah W. Benedict, a ripe scholar who had charge of 
the classical department of the school. He was in Nunda nearly eight years. 
His natural science collection was large and was arranged on shelves on three 
sides of the building. The sciences were his specialty. The Buck and Bene- 
dict school, as it was often spoken of in later days, was so far superior to any 
school the youth of that day had attended, especially those who had only been 
taught in district school, that its fame was everywhere spoken of. The first prin- 
cipal was one long to, be remembered, his government was perfect, and those who 
taught with him had; because of this, a comparatively easy time. 

Principal Buck >voulfl have remained many years, but for an unforeseen event 
that nearly crushed his sjjirit and made life in this vicinity a constant reminder of 
his irretrievable loss. 


A. Judson Bariett, A. B. ; Rev. .\. L. L. Potter, A. M., resigned November 20, 
1854; Miss Camellia Leech: A. B. Ensign (half year); Miss Minerva Waldo 
(half year), 1855; Miss Emily J. Barrows, j)receptress ; Stephen Barrett: Miss 
Louise Cassady, preceptress, one year. 

Last Year. Principal, A. J. Barrett, A. M.; Prece])tress, luuily J. Barrows; 
John P. Colby, A. B., Clinton Barrett. 

Last term after the burning (jf the building. Miss Mary Pettit. Thomas I'. 


Miss Mary .S. Buck. iinl\ daughler of Prof. Buck, who served as the first pre- 
ceptress f)f this academy, was a rare scholar and a person of uiuisual dignit\- and 

serenity. Her mind was stored witli information on all subjects needing educa- 
tion and her interest in those in her classes made her an ideal teacher and friend. 
A small and select party planned a visit to the Lower Falls on this side of 
the river in the park, the special place of attraction being around Hornby Lodge 
in those early days. The company included Principal Cockran and his sister, of the 
other academy, and the pleasure and knowledge gained by having this interesting 
young lady along, especially as the geological attractions at the Lower Falls were 
sure to call out these teachers, and enhance the interest of the day at this wonder 
spot of Nature. The Professor, it is said, did not like to have her go, but yielded 
to the entreaties of the rest of the party. In those days the hills were steeper 
than at present, there were no brakes on carriages, and four horse rigs were more 
common than they are to-day for all excursions. A heavy rain had made the 
roads more dangerous than they ordinarily were. It is said the expert driver, 
William G. Russell, told them there was danger and even suggested that the gen- 
tlemen should walk down the hill, but with four horses, though only two of them 
could hold back the heavy load, the danger was not as apparent to them as to the 
driver. However it was, whether the leading team became unmanageable, as 
some assert, the carriage was overturned, and a broken iron pierced the side of 
Miss Buck, and she lived but a few hours. This great calamity nearly broke the 
hearts of the devoted parents, for this daughter was their all, and the sympathy 
that was heartfelt and so general, could not drive out of their mmds this excursion 
and Portage, and the parents at length fled from it after trying for years to grow 
reconciled to this heart crushing calamity. 


Nebeniiah VVisner Benedict, A. j\I., Madison University, 1848, was made 
D. D. by Rochester LJniversity, 1870. 

He came to Nunda first as a teacher of the classics in 1843. He jjrobab'iy 
remained until 1847. He was called back to Nunda to complete the school year 
of his associate, Prof. Buck, when he resigned in March, 1848. He came, but it 
was his specialty to impart knowledge, rather than to govern incorrigible youth. 
His assistant, called principal of the Female Department, did not assit him verv 
much in keeping the deportment of the school at the high standard that it had 
maintained formerly. 

It is said there was a petition in circulation among certain \oung ladies, ad- 
dressed to the trustees, asking that the lady teacher should be instructed to use a 
greater degree of courtesy toward them. 

This very unpleasant circumstance, for which the Principal was in no way 
responsible, as the young lady claimed full jurisdiction over the lady students, led 
to the resignation of one of the finest instructors the Institute ever had. He went 
to Rochester and conducted, or assisted in making the Rochester Collegiate In- 
stitute one of the best of fitting schools. 1850 to 1853. Principal of Rochester 
Free Academy, 1865 to 1883. Principal Private School, 1883 to 1887. He died 
at Fredonia, N. Y., August 19, 1895. 

His son, Wayland Benedict, lived in Nunda during his boyhood. See college 
lists of Nunda and college club also Cincinnati Liniversity. He has recently been 
retired with a Carnegie pension — the first person that ever lived in Nunda to be so 

Excellent material for "Biological sketches" could be found for Professors 
Benedict, Satterlee and Thacher, who after leaving Nunda met with unbounded 
success in their work. But the sons of these men, Benedict and Satterlee, who 
have achieved great successes along the paths of life they chose, have failed to 
tell the tale, as it might have been told. And so we have but the records of the 
Rochester University and some echoes of commendation from the Satterlee Col- 
legiate Institute, where both these men wrought wondrous well. 

As for Otis Solon Thacher, his fame commenced ni the Xew Yurk .\ssemblv 
and ended as State Senator in Kansas. 


Horatio Clates Winslow . Ilnrn April 3, 1820. Died, September 18, 1893. 

"What doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, and 
to walk humbly with thy God?'" 

Horatio Gates Winslow died at Racine, Wisconsin, his home for nearl}- forty 
years, on the i8th of September, 1893. ^"^^ was in his seventy-fourth year, but, 
though the frosts of age had descended heavily upon him, he retained to the last 
all the characteristics which attended him through his long and useful life and 
which endeared him to multitudes of men, women and children who came to know 
him as a teacher and a friend. While his energies were by no means confined to 
the cause of education, Mr. Winslow was essentially a schoolmaster, and, what- 
ever his immediate occupation may have been, he stood in that relation to numer- 
ous people most of the time for nearly sixty years. It is as a school master and 
an instructor that he will be remembered, for as such it was his privilege to im- 
press himself upon a great host now actively concerned in the affairs of life. 

Of the career of such a man it is fitting that something should be said in 
soberness and in truth, both as a consolation to those who mourn and as an incen- 
tive to those who may come after him. In him were blended many of the quali- 
ties which, in spite of the intense materialism cf this day, are everywhere counted 
as noblest and best. He was the servant of Duty, and not of Duty alone. He 
had a conscience and a heart and a desire to do right for right's sake which no 
consideration of personal gain ever eclipsed. His ideals were lofty, his aims 
noble, and, as was fitting in a born teacher, he had a wonderful ability to awaken 
in the minds of the young the same aspirations. He was appreciative, he was 
resolute, he was patient, he was charitable, he was just. Early in life he seemed 
to have adopted rules of thought, of study, of work, of conduct and of ambition 
which, however severe they may have been at the beginning, came at the last to be 
his solace and his recreation. If they did not comprehend the true philosophy 
of life, it will be admitted by all who knew him that in his case, at least, they 
served to round out and complete a character in all respects admirable. It was 
so ordered that he was able to come into port grandly, but, if another fate iiad 
been vouchsafed to him, he had the steadfast faith and the indomitable courage 
to have sailed with God the seas. 

Mr. Winslow's active connection with educational matters terminated in the 
summer of 1892, when owing to advancing years, he relin((uished the office of su- 
perintendent of the schools of Racine. For one brief year he was permitted to en- 
joy the well earned fruits of his life of toil. No longer in public station, he never 


Horatio Gates Winslow 

Fourth Principal of Nunda Literary Institute ; A. B., Union College; School Commissioner; 

Superintendent of Schools ; Member of Board of Regents of Wisconsin 

lost interest in the scliools nor in the young. An aged man in years, and experi- 
encing the infirmities inseparable from those who have passed the psalmist's span 
of life, he did not grow old in mind or in spirit. He understood and loved youth, 
and youth understood and loved him. The world was as beautiful to him and as 
full of opportunity in his last hours as it was in those far away days when the 
world was all before him and hope and duty beckoned him on. No created thing 
was too small to attract his notice and invite his study. No effort necessary to 
inform and expand a youthful intelligence was too laborious to enlist his atten- 
tion. To struggling boys and young men he was particularly helpful. If the 
memory of his own laborious pursuit of knowledge remained with him, it warmed 
rather than chilled his manner towards youths who, perhaps with better opportuni- 
ties than he had enjoyed, failed to prize as he did the advantages of education. 
Until his eyes closed for the last time upon the scenes of this world, and until his 
kindly voice was forever hushed, he lost no proper opportunity to point out the 
value and the dignity of knowledge. Proceeding thus peacefully to the end of 
his days, he experienced in the attitude of countless acc|uaintances and of manv 
whose names were to him vmknown, all the consideration which age in its best 
estate has been held to deserve. Honor, love, obedience and troops of friends 
were his to the last. 

Air. Winslow always was a schoolmaster. He was as truly a schoolmaster 
when, as a civil engineer, he led in railroad construction, or as a book merchant he 
apparently was absorbed in commercial pursuits, as he was when he presided over 
an academy or superintended the educational work of an important city. Not 
offensively, for no man was freer from pedantr\ , but naturally and with charm- 
ing facility, he imparted knowledge to others and stimulated interest in serious 
affairs which broadened and ennobled many ininds. The struggles of men for 
wealth interested but did not distract him. Never belittling the power for good 
which great worldly possessions conferred upon their owners, he was content with 
mtellectual riches and with moral worth. He did not discourage proper ambi- 
tion for earthly gain. He indicated and presented in their most alluring aspect 
the trophies to be won in fairer fields. He set no task which he himself did not 
perform. The goal which he held up to others was that toward which his own 
footsteps led. As was natural to a character hke his, he was singularly inde- 
pendent and self-reliant. Helpful to others, even those nearest to him found the 
occasions on which assistance could be extended to him very rare indeed. His 
tastes were simple and his wants few. He found happiness in being useful, and 
many a young man whom he helped on the way to position and success will mourn 
for him as a son. 

Of the influence for good of a life such as that which is now closed it is not 
the purpose here to speak in detail. That it was large is known, that it will be 
lasting is confidently believed. Alany a man in prouder station and with appar- 
ently greater opportunities has failed to impress himself upon so wide a circle as 
that to which Mr. Winslow's influence extended. Many a life spent in money- 
getting has not had as its reward at the last such splendid accumulations as those 
rarer gifts of mind and temperament with which his closing years were blest. 
His memorv is enshrined in a thousand hearts as that of one who acted well his 
part, who loved his fellow men and who made the world Ijetter by his life and his 


Only the actions of the just 

Smell sweet and blossom in the dust. 

Mr. Winslow was born in Groton. Tompkins County, N. Y., on April 3, 1820, 
his parents being John and Mary VanDeusen Winslow. His father, a native ot 
Hampshire County, Massachusetts, emigrated to central New York, then a wild- 
erness, when a young man, and followed teaching, farming and other vocations. 
He served on the frontier during the war of 1812, and died March 8, 1828, when 
the subject of this sketch was but eight years of age. 

Thrown thus early upon his own resources, young Winslow determinetl to 
equip himself for life by securing an education, and with this in view he mani- 
fested a perseverance \\hich knew no such word as fail and which, after many 
struggles, was crowned with success. At seventeen, he had worked his way 
through the local academy, and then, preparatory to the wider training that he de • 
sired, he taught school for four years, improving his spare time in study. At the 
age of twenty-one he entered the sophomore class of Union College at Schenec- 
tady. N. Y., from which institution he graduated in 1843. receiving the degree of 
A. B.. at that time, and two years later that ol A. M. 

^Ir. Winslow 's first experience as a schoohnaster on an extensive scale wa; 
had at ^It. ^lorris, Livingston County. X. Y., where he founded what is now 
known as the Union School. In 1849 ^^^ took charge of the academy at Nunda, 
in the same county, and managed it successfully until 1852, when failing health 
compelled him to seek outdoor employment. For two or three years he was en- 
gaged as a civil engineer in the construction of a division of the Alarietta and Cin- 
cinnati railroad. In 1855 he moved to Racine, Wisconsin, and from that time un- 
til 1880 he conducted the leading book and .stationery store in that section of the 

( )n his retirement from mercantile life, which never had wholly withdrawn 
him from interest in and labor for the cause of education, he was chosen sujierin- 
tendent of the citv schools, which position he held until the summer of 1892. when 
advancing years compelled him to resign. During the twelve years that he ad- 
ministered this important trust, lo which the ripest experience and profoundest 
studv of his long life were devoted, he won not only the respect and approval of 
the inhabitants of Racine but the affection of a great host of young people, and his 
reputation as an educator spread far beyond the field of his labors. When he was 
compelled to relinqu'sh the work the board of education adopted resolutions highly 
eulogistic of him and expressive of the wide spread regret of the people that the 
infirmities of age had forced him to abandon labors to which his physical strength 
was no longer equal. 

While a bookseller Mr. Winslow was also for a considerable time a school 
commissioner, and for nearly thirty years he was a trustee of Racine College, to 
the interests of which he devoted much thought and energy. For three years he 
was a regent of the Wisconsin State University, to which position he was ap- 
pointed bv Governor Taylor in 1874, and for a generation he was junior warden 
of St. Luke's Church in Racine. In all of these positions he was faithful, indus- 
trious and methodical, freely assuming burdens from which others shrank and 
pursuing to the end, regardless of consequences to himself, policies which he be- 
lieved would be beneficial to the interests entrusted to him. 

In politics ATr. Winslow was a Democrat of the faith ot Jefterson and Jack- 
son. Always a leader among men, and often serving his party as a delegate to 
conventions and not infrequently taking the stump in behalf of the principles 
which were dear to him, he never held a political office. In 1862 he was the 
candidate of his party for State Superintendent of Public Instruction and in 1876 
he canvassed the first Wisconsin district as the Democratic nominee for Congress, 
but as his party was on both occasions in the minority in State and district he was 
not elected. 

Mr. Winslow was twice married, his second wife surviving him. His first 
wife was Miss Emily Bradley of Genoa, N. Y., who was born July i, 1823, and 
died August 22, 1877, leaving two children, John B. Winslow, one of the Justices 
of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, and Mrs. A. H. Lathrop of Vermillion, South 
Dakota. On September IQ, 1878, Mr. Winslow was married to Mrs. J. N. Mc- 
Whorter, who has two sons living in Chicago, H. W. Seymour, managing editor 
of the Chicago Herald, and Charles G. Sejnnour, also of the Herald, and one 
daughter, Mrs. W. B. Ackerly, of Cuba, Alleghany County, N. Y. 

Mr. Winslow's funeral services were held in St. L.uke's Church, of which he 
was so long an officer, on September 20, and the interment was in the family lot 
in Mound Cemetery. Rev. Dr. Arthur Piper, rector of the church, officiated, and 
the edifice was filled to the doors. The schools and many business houses were 
closed and flags floated at half mast from all of the public buildings. The active 
bearers were the principals of the various schools and the honorary bearers were 
old time friends and associates of the dead. In the congegation and in the long 
cortege that followed the remains to the grave were the board of education and 
the old Settlers' Society and a great many teachers and school children who gave 
evidence of genuine sorrow over the loss of one whom all recognized as a good 
and true man. 

At a meeting of the teachers of the Racine public schools held October 9, 1893, 
the following eulogy was read by Prof. Martin L. Smith, principal of the Sixth 
Ward school. 

Mr. Superintendent and Felloi^' Teachers: 

On this sad occasion, I am permitted the privilege of paying tribute to th; 
memory of the late lion. Horatio G. \\'inslow, ex-superintendent of schools. 

He was my friend, as he was yours. I was proud of his friendship and I 
loved him well. 

I regret that I have not sufficient command of language to express either my 
own feelings or to do him justice. 

What can I say that all do not already know, for his was a frank and open life. 

No w^ord of mine can add to its greatness, and yet it would be a reproach to 
us and a neglect of our duty towards those who will come to fill his place and ours. 
and who should come with the highest incentives, not to leave fit public expres- 
sion and memorial of appreciation of the character and services of the lamented . 

He was a man of remarkable ]iurity of character, and in all my association 
with him during a period of more than fifteen years, I can truly declare that I 
never heard him utter a word that was not fit to be said in any presence and I do 
not think there exists a man who believes that it were possible that IT. G. ^^'■inslow■ 
could do an intentional wrong or omit a known duty. 


1 lionor liiin because lu hiiii honor is tliie. 

How earnestly and how faithhilly he performed evury duty none can fullv 
know save tliose who, like myself, have had the good fortune to be constantly asso- 
ciated with and aided b}' him. 

He carried in his hand the torch of justice lighted from on high, antl he 
walked in the illuniiu;uion of its constant and steady flaine. 

He was uni|uestionalily one of the ablest educators in the state of Wisconsin. 


Bv His D.aichter, Mr,<. W. .A. MoN^Go^lER^ 

riie north-western portion of Ohio, the Western Reserve, was settled in the 
early ])art of this century b\- ])ioneers from Connecticut and Massachusetts, who 
brought with them the t\|>e of life distinctly \e\v England. \Mierever a cluster 
of rude log cabins broke the solitude of the tt)rest, there also might be found the 
plain church, with its small steeple faithfully iniinting upwaril, and the village 
school, with its even o])en door, h'tdl of privations and difficidties. yet withal 
eager, C|uestioniiig, aspiring, and seif-restrained was life in these new communi- 
ties, amid whose influences antl mider whose tr.iiniug weri reared sonu' of the 
noblest sons and daughters of the Republic. 

In one of these pioneer settlements, Kingsville, he w;is born, in whose mem- 
ory this simple sketch is written. Fhe early days of his life were passed under 
conditions so different from those of the present that it is difficult to realize that 
the\- could ha\e existed within such recent times. Wy father remembered well 
when, on the frontier, at least, there were no railroads, no telegraphs, no great 
cities, no daily jiapers: a time when wiml was sheared and prepared, spun at a 
hand wheel, wo\en in a hand loom, coloreil and made into garments in each house; 
a time when flax was raised b\ e;ich family, and from it was made the family sup- 
ply of linen and of clothing; when there were no stoves or m;Uclies. a time when 
cooking w as by the open fire-place and the brick oven, and w hen the only light was 
the pine knot and the tallow dip; when the shoemaker came to the house and the 
school teacher "boarded "round" : w hen money w'as scarce, so that business w-as 
chiefly carried on by barter, and w hen, in fact, all life was keyeil to the brave and 
homely pitch of ]>ioneer times. 

\'et that home which he remembered was a beautiful home; full of the light 
of love and grace of courtesy, and gloritied by a womanly presence that softened 
every bare outline with nameless charm, and, made the log house a very Bethany. 
How he loved to tell of the long winter evenings when the great open fire-place, 
filled with glowing logs, flooded the room with light ; when mother sat at her spin- 
ning wheel, and father, book in hand, gave out to his eager boys the hardest w-ords 
in Webster's Siiclling Hook, or gathered them about him to hear brave stories of 
the Revolution in w liieh his father fought, or to listen reverently to the Book ever 
central in that home. 

These pioneer experiences, .«o diversified, touching life at so many points, 
were a wonderful preparation too, for his after services. It was here that he 
gained that seemingly inexhaustible store of information about everyday trades 
and occupations, and that loving acquaintance with the life of flower and tree 
and bird and beast which made hiiu able to enter into the thoughts and feelings 
of all conditions of men, anil furnished him with a wealth of homely and strik- 


iiiy illustralioiis. Here Itjo the Iree life out-of-door.-;, ilic vigorous exercise, deve- 
loped in him that iron strength of sinew, that magnificent depth of chest which 
rendered him strong for years of anxiety and care, and made those broad shoul- 
ders of his able to carry light!}' many burdens laid upon them. 

When my father was about twelve years old, a joung man who was to exert 
a very great influence upon him, took chai'g'^ of the village school. The young 
collegian, fresh from his eastern Alma Mater, inspired in the bo\s in his charge 
an ambition for an education, and a desire to obtain it at whatever cost. After 
one of the Professor's talks on the subject, my father was walking home along the 
shady forest road with a school friend, and as they walked and talked he sairi, 
"I'll get to college, if it takes till forty.'' From this boyish resolve he never 
swerved, but through several years of most discouraging work and waiting, bided 
his time. For two years before starting to college, he worked in the harvest field 
in the summer, and taught school winters: and during the last year of his life he 
met men and women who spoke with gratitude of the influence upon their lives 
which he had exerted, teaching these country schools. 

At last, when he was eighteen years old, the glad da_\ came, and he set his 
face toward the college just founded at Rochester. And so the old coach run- 
ning from Kingsvilie to Erie rumbled away, bearing the brave young form in 
homespun gray, with mother's kiss warm upon his brow, and within his heart the 
blessings of a noble father, who had little else to give his boy than faith and honor, 
and the strong convicition that there were things of far more worth than houses, 
or lands, or gold. Of the events of that journey to Rochester it is impossible to 
speak at length in this brief sketch ; but that night spent on the streets of Erie, 
that run before day-break to catch the last boat down the lake to Buffalo, the shel- 
terless deck passage through all that bitter Xovember day, the cheerful endurance 
of hunger and cold, if so the sacred hoarrl in the little black wallet might remain 
untouched, every detail of the pathetic, heroic little journey is precious to those 
who love him. 

During liis first year in college. — the second of the course, since he entered 
sophomore — he boauled himself in a little upper room on Prospect Street, deny- 
ing himself everything except the necessities of life, and eking out his meager re- 
sources by any work which ofTered itself. At the opening of the Junior year there 
was an opportunity to teach in Little Falls, of which he availed himself most 
gladly, and spent a happy and successful year teaching, continuing meanwhile his 
own college studies, and saving the money which should take him through his 
.Senior year. On his return he jmssed the examination on the work of the lunior 
year, and was graduated with high rank the following June. 

A summer spent at home, full of the anxious questioning of his own heart 
whether after all his education had fitted him for the work which he desired, and 
of the unkind taunts of those townsmen who all along had regarded the going to 
college as nonsense, was happily concluded by the ofTer of the position of principal 
of the academy in Nunda, X. Y. 

After six years of successful work in .N'unda. in i860 he was married to Miss 
Emily Barrows of Trenton, N. Y., and removed to his old home in Kingsvilie, 
Ohio. He remained here in charge of the academy until 186S, w-hen he went to 
Lowville, N. Y., to give the academy of that place an impetus and position among 
the educational institutions of the State which it has never lost. On coming tf 


Rochester in 1871, lie assumed control of tlie Collegiate Institute, a private school 
preparing boys for college. 

The hope of entering the Christian ministry had never been abandoned (hir- 
ing all his twenty years of successfnl teaching: and when, in 1874. the opportunity 
offered of taking a course of study in the Theological Seminary while continuing 
his work as professor of Greek and Latin, he at once accepted it. On the comple- 
tion of his work in the Seminary, he was called to the pastorate of the Lake Ave- 
nue Church, a position which he held until his death. 

In 1888 he was atHicted with serious trouble of the eyes, and his church gen- 
erously granted him a year's vacation. This year my father and mother spent 
in most delightful travel. They were some time in Ohio and Tennessee, visiting 
friends and relations ; and then after a month in New Orleans, went leisurely on 
to Arizona and Southern California. In the course of their journey they visited 
brothers in Oregon, Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, Michigan and Tennessee, spent 
some time in the National I'ark, Colorado Springs, Salt Lake City and Chicago, 
and started toward home feeling thoroughly strong and ready for work. 

On the arrival of the pastor and his wife, the church gave them a cordial and 
hearty recei)tioii. .\s a pleasant surprise, the walls of the audience room had been 
freshly tinted, the floors re-carpeted, and the pulpit richly drajied. When the two, 
so long absent, entered the church, the entire congregation rose, and remained 
standing, while to the soft strains of "Home, .Sweet Home," they passed up the 
aisle. Deacim ^^'oodl)ur^ then addressed to them these beautiful words of wel- 
come, more than ever beautiful now when read through tears: 
My Dear Pastor and Dear Sister Barrett : 

In behalf of this church and this coniiuunitx' I welcome you most cordially 
back to your accustomed places among us. It is a sore disappointment to us, and 
to me most of all, that one of those who have occupied the place of pastor during 
\our absence is not here to voice so much better than I can do the heartiness of 
our joy, and the sincerity of the welcome we would extend to you. 

^^'e have missed you sadly during this long separation, and in many ways. 
\\'e have missed you from the pulpit, although the supply has beer, from the very 
best in the land. We have missed you from our social iiieetiiigs. W^e have missed 
you. when we have gathered to remember our Lord in partaking of the emblems 
of his broken body and shed blood, which we have for so many years received 
from your hand. And we have misseil you from our homes and firesides. Our joys 
have been incomplete in that you were not here to share them with us. and the 
peals of the marriage bell have been less merry because you could not join the 
hands and ofifer your congratulations and bestow your blessing. We have missed, 
too, the heartv grasp of that hand which you have so often extended to us i.'i 
friendly greeting. Hut we have missed you most when the dark shadows of sor- 
row- and bereavement have fallen across our pathways : for, although guarded so 
carefully and watched over so tenderly, death has forced his way into some of our 
homes, and snatched from us our loved ones, even from our embrace. It is truo 
vour kind and loving words of sympathy and consolation have reached us from 
across the continent, but, in their passage, the cold mountains and the arid plains 
have robbed them of the fragrance of the gentle tones and glance of compassion- 
ate tenderness by which they are wont to be accompanied. 

Rut we are glad }ou went awa\', and rejoice that we sutTered pri\ntion. for 
it was for the benefit c<i tlv sc we lo\-e. It is a sincere pleasure to us tn kllo^^ that 


you liave been enabled to read fron.i the bo(jk of nature in some of its grandest 
lines, of the wisdom and power of the God we worshi]). 

The night of sorrow is now passed, and the joy of the morning has come, 
and we have met together to welcome your return to go in and out before us — "to 
weep with tliose of us who weep and to rejoice with those who do rejoice." We 
welcome you, as we trust, with renewed health and vigor, and pray the Lord of 
the harvest that you may be long spared to labor in his field. We welcome you to 
our homes and our fire-sides and to a participation in all our joys. Yes, and we 
welcome you, too, to a participation in our sorrows; for it is written, "Is it not 
better to go to the house of mourning than to the house of feasting?" 

Each presence in this large assembly speaks a personal welcome. These dec- 
orations and these flowers, in their beauty and fragrance, say welcome, and these 
walls and the ceilings, and even the floors, have put on a more pleasing aspect 
that they too might take part in this universal welcome. Again T sav, welcome, a 
thousand times welcome. 


-My Dear lirotlier W'oodljury 

It gives ]nc especial pleasure to greet _\ou personally on this occasion; for 
during the past winter we were fellow travelers and sojourners together for man_\ 
weeks in a distant southern city, and this is the first time we have met since six 
months ago when we said "good-bye" in New Orleans — you going eastward to the 
land of Flowers, and I westward to the Golden Gate. 

But \ou come to me to-night, not as an individual — not on Vdur own motion 
simply, but as the representative of this church and community. You bring hearty 
communications and kindly greetings ; you come to extend to me and mine an af- 
fectionate welcome to the hearts and homes of this people once more, and so in 
response I say, not to you simply, but to this crowded assembly of friends and 
neighbors, to this entire community, "All hail!" It is not fitting that many words 
be said by me at this time, for if your fingers are tingling as mine are to join in 
friendly grasp with these hundreds gathered here to-night, a long address were 
an impertinence. It would be an unfeeling nature that could remain unmoved on 
such an occasion as tliis ; that did not respond heartily and tenderly to this ?])onta- 
neous welcome home on the part of this church and community. 

.\s we came into this room through the door yonder, and while we were pass- 
ing up the aisle, there broke upon our ears tlie strains of that wonderful hjmn of 
the heart, "Home, Sweet Home" —